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Capability, influence and international collaboration : a case study of the telecommunications satellite Vos, Lynn L 1983

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CAPABILITY, INFLUENCE AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION A CASE STUDY OF THE TELCOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE by LYNN L. VOS B.Comm., University of Alberta, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Political Science) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 Q Lynn L. Vos, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Political Science  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 M a i n M a l l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 14 October 1983 )E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the e v o l u t i o n o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y s i n c e i t s f u n c t i o n a l i n a u g u r a t i o n a q u a r t e r c e n t u r y ago i n o r d e r t o draw some c o n c l u s i o n s about how the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s a f f e c t s c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the use and development o f g l o b a l t e c h n o l o g i e s . C o l l a b o r a t i o n i s examined i n t h r e e s p e c i f i c a r e a s : c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e d e s i g n and development o f s a t e l l i t e systems, f o r the l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s , and f o r the use and a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y s pectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o the r o l e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n s h a p i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e s e t h r e e a r e a s . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e and n a t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by th e d i s t r i i t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s among s t a t e s b u t t h a t an under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n r e q u i r e s a knowledge o f o t h e r f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e t e c h n o l o g y i n q u e s t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i ABBREVIATIONS . V ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i CHAPTER ONE — I n t r o d u c t i o n : A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s .. 1 CHAPTER TWO — The Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e : I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Issue: A r e a 6 An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S a t e l l i t e s : O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y 7 The "Hows and Whys" o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the Use and Development o f S a t e l l i t e s 10 CHAPTER THREE — The Regime f o r the Development and O p e r a t i o n o f S a t e l l i t e Systems 25 M a i n t a i n i n g a S i n g l e G l o b a l System: I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n and American Hegemony i n the S i x t i e s 25 The P r o l i f e r a t i o n o f Systems: The Changing S t r u c t u r e o f C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the S e v e n t i e s and E i g h t i e s ... 39 CHAPTER FOUR — The Regime G o v e r n i n g t h e Frequency Spectrum and G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t 50 C h a l l e n g e s t o t h e C o l l a b o r a t i v e Arrangements f o r t h e A l l o c a t i o n o f the Frequency Spectrum and Geo-s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t : WARC Conference and t h e S t a t u s Quo 53 The A r r o g a n c e o f Power: A P r i v a t e - P u b l i c Handshake R e g u l a t e s T e c h n o l o g i c a l P r o g r e s s 60 CHAPTER FIVE — The Launch Regime 66 The Changing Regime f o r the L a u n c h i n g o f S a t e l l i t e s : From Monopoly t o O l i g o p o l y and the R i s e o f P r i v a t e S e c t o r I n t e r e s t s 68 -iv-Towards a New Era: The Rise and F a l l of U.S. Hegemony i n Launch Systems 72 The Space Shuttle: Back to the Old Regime? 79 CHAPTER SIX — Conclusions 87 Capabilities^Influence i n the Telecommunications g 7 S a t e l l i t e Issue Area Some Hypotheses Regarding International Collaboration in Global High Technology Realms 91 -V-ABBREVIATIONS ATS Applications Test Satellite AT & T, American Telephone and Telegraph COMSAT Commiinications Satellite Corporation COPUOS Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN) CTS Canadian Test Satellite ECS European Communications Sat e l l i t e ELDO European Launch Development Organization ESA European Space Agency FCC Federal Communications Commission IFRB International Frequency Registration Board IGY International Geophysical Year INTELSAT International Telecommunications Satellite Organization IT & T International Telephone and Telegraph ITU International Telcommunications Union NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration OTS Operations Test Satellite WARC World Aoitiinistrative Radio Conference - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to acknowledge my gratitude to c e r t a i n individuals for t h e i r encouragement and advice during the project: Kai H o l s t i , David B. Dewitt, Paul Tennant and Daniel Wong. A special note of gratitude i s extended to Mark W. Zacher who spent more time with t h i s project than I should have requested. He also helped me to develop the patience and fort i t u d e necessary to stay with a long project that often seems to have gone awry. To V i c k i , Joanne, Sue and L o r i , thank you a l l f o r the encouragement support and f a i t h . F i n a l l y to the memory of a dear f r i e n d , James Elbridge Goode, I would l i k e to add that should I have had the benefit of your advice and freindship throughout the duration of t h i s project, perhaps some of the f a i l u r e s and shortcomings could have been avoided. The words of advice you once gave now appear p a i n f u l l y accurate, and the lessons have been w e l l learned. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS I n c o n s t r u c t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements f o r t h e use and development o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s , b o t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s must be accommodated. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f t h i s accommodation r e f e r t o the s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s a t e l l i t e systems w h i c h n e c e s s i t a t e c o o p e r a t i v e agreements between governments b e f o r e the system 2 can become o p e r a t i o n a l . Because r e s e a r c h and development i s c o n t i n u a l l y p r o g r e s s i n g , s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t advances i n t e c h n i c a l and o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y must a l s o be accommodated on an ongoing b a s i s . The p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s are b o t h b e h a v i o r a l and s t r u c t u r a l . A c t o r s have p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c and m u t u a l l y h e l d e x p e c t a t i o n s which t h e y hope t o r e a l i z e t h rough c o l l a b o r a t i o n , and l i k e the t e c h n o l o g y i t s e l f , t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s are dynamic. S t r u c t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e s r e f e r t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e among a c t o r s i n the system. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l i s s u e a r e a s , power and i n f l u e n c e can be c h a r a c t e r -i z e d as ownership o r c o n t r o l o v e r the r e q u i s i t e t e c h n o l o g y and e x p e r t i s e . When t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e l e v a n t c a p a b i l i t i e s changes between the c o o p e r a t i n g s t a t e s , i t w i l l have an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t 3 on i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . I t i s the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y t o examine and d e p i c t t h a t e f f e c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the use and development of t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s . 2. Two l i n e s o f i n q u i r y a re pursue d . F i r s t I s h a l l examine how the i n i t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y and e x p e r t i s e shaped e a r l y c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements i n the i s s u e a r e a . C e n t r a l t o the o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s i s the " s p e c i a l r o l e p l a y e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s " i n s h a p i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the f i f t i e s 4 and s i x t i e s . Ruggie n o t e s t h a t : American t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony d e f i n e d an o r d e r o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n which o t h e r s had t o f i n d t h e i r p l a c e . The U n i t e d S t a t e s was t h e major s t i m u l u s i n l a u n c h i n g i n t e r -n a t i o n a l programs, and i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y s e t the agenda and d e f i n e d the o r d e r o f r e l a t i o n s more o f t e n than n o t . 5 T h i s p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s was not permanent however, and i n the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s American t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony began t o wane as o t h e r n a t i o n s g a i n e d a c c e s s t o r e l e v a n t t e c h -n o l o g i e s . The second l i n e o f i n q u i r y d e p i c t s t h i s c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s among a c t o r s and i t s subsequent e f f e c t on c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements. These two l i n e s o f i n q u i r y a re pursued i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e case s t u d i e s . W i t h i n the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a , t h r e e c o l l a b o r a t i v e regimes are o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t : the regime f o r the d e s i g n , development, and o p e r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e systems; t h e regime f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s ; and t h a t f o r the use and a l l o c a t i o n o f the f r e q u e n c y spectrum  and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . D e v e l o p i n g and o p e r a t i n g a s a t e l l i t e system r e q u i r e s t h a t s t a t e s c o l l a b o r a t e i n a l l t h r e e o f t h e s e a r e a s , but each regime can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by purpose, f u n c t i o n and l e v e l o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s i r u F u r t h e r m o r e , the d i s t r i b u t i o n 3. o f c a p a b i l i t i e s has a f f e c t e d each i n a d i f f e r e n t way. I n o r d e r t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s e v a r i a t i o n s , the case s t u d i e s p r e s e n t a h i s t o r i c a l e v o l u t i o n which comments on the t e c h n o l o g y , the i n t e r e s t s o f r e l e v a n t a c t o r s , t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s , and o t h e r . p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y p e r t i n e n t t o each regime. I n o r d e r t o draw some s p e c i f i c and u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n s , the e f f e c t s o f a cha n g i n g c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n a re examined w i t h r e s p e c t t o two p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n : the l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making control;-and the s t r u c t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements. The l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l r e f e r s t o the number and t y p e o f a c t o r s making t h e m a j o r i t y o f i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n the regime. F o r example, i n the s i x t i e s the American government and i t s p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t COMSAT d e f i n e d and managed the o b j e c t i v e s i n the s a t e l l i t e regime. I n the l a t e s e v e n t i e s however, d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was much more d i f f u s e d . W i t h numerous s t a t e s and t r a n s n a t i o n a l a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n managing the system. The s t r u c t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements i s a more g e n e r a l measure o f the b r e a d t h o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , the case s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t as c a p a b i l i t i e s become more d i f f u s e d , the number and t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements g o v e r n i n g a c t i v i t y i n the regime w i l l p r o l i f e r a t e . A summary o f the s e e f f e c t s i s l e f t t o t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l a l s o s e r v e a n o t h e r purpose. E x t r a -p o l a t i n g from d a t a i n the case s t u d i e s , f i v e hypotheses are f o r m u l a t e d w h i c h make more g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s about the e f f e c t o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s on c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l regimes and i s s u e a r e a s . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the case s t u d i e s , the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l i n t r o d u c e the r e a d e r t o the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a and s e t the e m p i r i c a l b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e paper. 5. CHAPTER ONE FOOTNOTES 1. T h i s i s the theme o f Stephen Levy's work on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e regime. Stephen J . Levy, "INTELSAT: the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n o f a regime", I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 (Summer 1975): 654 2. I b i d . , :656. See a l s o , V i c t o r B a s i u k , Technology P o l i t i c s  and American F o r e i g n P o l i c y . (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977); and, Eugene S k o l n i k o f f The I n t e r - n a t i o n a l I m p e r a t i v e s o f Technology, ( B e r k e l e y , 1971) . 3. S t u d i e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h i s theme and the p o l i t i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l i s s u e a r e a s i n c l u d e D a v i d S. B l a k e and R o b e r t S. W a l t e r s , The P o l i t i c s  o f G l o b a l Economic R e l a t i o n s (Engelwood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1976) C h a p t e r S i x : I n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n , S p e c i a l I s s u e on Technology. 29 (Summer 1975) ; Edward M a l e s , " T r a n s n a t i o n a l i s m i n Space: I n n e r and Outer" I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 25 (Summer 1971); P r i c e de S o l l a and I S p e i g a l R o s i n g , S c i e n c e Technology and S o c i e t y (London: Sage P u b l i s h e r s , 1977); and Joan E. Spero, The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic R e l a t i o n s ( S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1977) . 4. John G. Ruggie, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Responses t o Technology: Concepts.and Trends", I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 2 9 (Summer 1975): 566. 5. I b i d . 6. I w i l l be u s i n g John G. Ruggie's d e f i n i t i o n o f "regime", r e f e r r i n g t o a " s e t o f mutual e x p e c t a t i o n s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , p l a n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e n e r g i e s and f i n a n c i a l commitments w h i c h have been a c c e p t e d by a group o f s t a t e s . " The i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which s e r v e t h e s e regimes are c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e commitments and e x p e c t a t i o n s . CHAPTER TWO The Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e : An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the I s s u e A r e a The purposes o f the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r are t w o f o l d . F i r s t , I w i l l d e p i c t the n a t u r e and development o f the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a , the a c t o r s whose i n t e r e s t s are a f f e c t e d , and what those i n t e r e s t s a r e , i n o r d e r t o s e t the f o u n d a t i o n s and p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the t h r e e case s t u d i e s . S e c o n d l y , I d e s c r i b e the p a r t i c u l a r use and development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y t h a t have made c o l l a b o r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y among governments and t r a n s n a t i o n a l a c t o r s . I t i s t h e s e c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements which are the f o c i of a n a l y s i s i n the subsequent s t u d i e s . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S a t e l l i t e s : O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y 7. The l a u n c h o f the S o v i e t SPUTNIK i n October 1957 and t h e subsequent l a u n c h by the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f the f i r s t communications s a t e l l i t e , ECHO I , saw the h a r n e s s i n g o f o u t e r s p a c e f o r e a r t h a p p l i c a t i o n s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r telecommunications.' 1' From the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d ECHO s a t e l l i t e w hich d i d l i t t l e more than r e f l e c t s i g n a l s from antennae on e a r t h , by the mid-seven s e v e n t i e s communication s a t e l l i t e s had come t o ge n e r a t e over n i n e t y p e r c e n t o f a l l g l o b a l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r a f f i c , i n c l u d i n g such s e r v i c e s as t e l e p h o n e , t e l e g r a p h , r a d i o , d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n , and t e l e v i s i o n . I n few o t h e r a r e a s has the p r o c e s s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change been so a p p a r e n t . Communications v i a s a t e l l i t e have grown t o i n c l u d e s p e c i a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n s such as n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s f o r m a r i t i m e 3 and a e r o n a u t i c a l s e r v i c e s , t r a n s m i s s i o n t o v e r y s m a l l antennae 4 i n i n d i v i d u a l homes and remote r e g i o n s , c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , and r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y communications."* A remarkable i n n o v a t i o n has been the i n t e g r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e s and computer t e c h n o l o g y as p a r t o f the network f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g , s t o r i n g , and r e t r i e v i n g v a s t q u a n t i t i e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a t unprecedented speeds between b u s i n e s s e s and i n d i v i d u a l s w o r l d w i d e . From the e l e v e n members who s i g n e d the o r i g i n a l i n t e r i m agreement i n a u g u r a t i n g the b i r t h of the f i r s t I n t e r n a t i o n a l T elecommunications S a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n (INTELSAT) i n 1965 s t h e INTELSAT system has grown t o i n c l u d e o v e r 150 members o p e r a t i n g hundreds of e a r t h s t a t i o n s and c a r r y i n g t w o - t h i r d s o f the w o r l d ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a n s o c e a n i c communications, F r o m the 8. o r i g i n a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l systems - INTELSAT and the S o v i e t c o u n t e r -p a r t , INTERSPUTNIK - s a t e l l i t e communications have been " d i v i d e d i n t o s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c l u d i n g ... r e g i o n a l p u b l i c t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , domestic n a t i o n a l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s " and o t h e r r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l systems d e s i g n e d f o r the s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. By the mid-1980s over 100 s a t e l l i t e systems w i l l be o p e r a t i n g g l o b a l l y . The commercial and development o p p o r t u n i t i e s made a v a i l a b l e t h r o u g h t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s have a l r e a d y begun t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on g l o b a l economic and s o c i a l p r o g r e s s . C u r r e n t assessments i n d i c a t e a w o r l d market o f t e n t o f i f t e e n b i l l i o n U.S. d o l l a r s f o r communication s a t e l l i t e systems by the m i d - e i g h t i e s ; a market s p u r r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by the development of d omestic b u s i n e s s systems i n the U.S. and Western E u r o p e . 1 ^ W i t h i n the U.S. a l o n e , demand f o r space s a t e l l i t e v i d e o and d a t a communications w i l l grow f i v e t i m e s by the y e a r 2000. I n most of the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , s a t e l l i t e development i s h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d by p u b l i c f u n d s j t h e r e f o r e , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r markets w i l l be g r e a t e s t i n ground systems t e c h n o l o g y : t h e s e i n c l u d e s a t e l l i t e d i s h e s ; s m a l l , p o r t a b l e antennae; r e l a t e d e l e c t r o n i c computer equipment and s w i t c h i n g c o m p o n e n t s . 1 1 S e l l i n g s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e s b o t h n a t i o n a l l y and abroad w i l l a l s o become i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e . C u r r e n t l y the U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t i n u e s t o l e a d i n the p r o d u c t i o n , e x p o r t and s a l e s o f s a t e l l i t e - r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g y and s e r v i c e s , but the Japanese, Europeans and Canadians are 12 a l r e a d y f o r m i d a b l e c o m p e t i t o r s . 9. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t s a t e l l i t e communications p r e s e n t f o r 13 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s are f a r - r e a c h i n g . Numerous T h i r d World n a t i o n s can b e n e f i t from a c c e s s t o s a t e l l i t e systems "to s e r v e 14 s p e c i f i c needs i n a r e a s l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n " S a t e l l i t e s can l i n k d i s p e r s e d p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s i n l a r g e o r s m a l l c o u n t r i e s much more e a s i l y and e f f i c i e n t l y t han t e r r e s t r i a l c ommunications. F u r t h e r m o r e , independent systems a l l o w d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s " t o communicate between themselves w i t h o u t g o i n g 15 t h r o u g h a former m e t r o p o l i t a n c a p i t a l i n Europe" o r e l s e w h e r e . W i t h t h e s e p r o s p e c t s , many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have a l r e a d y g a i n e d a c c e s s t o s a t e l l i t e communication s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h the development of i n d i g e n o u s c a p a b i l i t i e s o r i n j o i n t v e n t u r e s : In 1983, I n d i a w i l l l a u n c h a s a t e l l i t e t h a t w i l l have th e c a p a c i t y t o b r o a d c a s t community t e l e v i s i o n t o e v e r y one o f i t s 560,000 v i l l a g e s ... s i m i l a r l y , the League of Arab S t a t e s p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h a s a t e l l i t e system w i t h s m a l l E a r t h s t a t i o n s c a l l e d A r a b s a t , which w i l l have a c a p a c i t y t o s e r v e 22 Arab s t a t e s w i t h b o t h t e l e p h o n e communications and t e l e v i s i o n . I n L a t i n A m e r i c a , B r a z i l i s w e l l on i t s way w i t h p l a n s f o r a 1984 s a t e l l i t e l a u n c h ; Columbia p l a n s f o r one. I n the P a c i f i c , I n d o n e s i a , w h i c h p i o n e e r e d s a t e l l i t e communications i n i t s a r e a back i n 1976, i s ; g o i n g ahead w i t h a second g e n e r a t i o n t h a t w i l l s e r v e a l l o f the c o u n t r i e s of the Asean. 16 Numerous o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s l e a s e a c c e s s on r e g i o n a l systems or on t h e INTELSAT system, w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own ground s t a t i o n s . The l a c k o f a communications i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has h i n d e r e d i n d i g e n o u s development but O r g a n i z a t i o n s such as UNESCO, ITU and t h e US agency, AID, have c r e a t e d programs t h a t e x t e n d s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e s t o these n a t i o n s . The "Hows and Whys" o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the Use and Development o f S a t e l l i t e s 10. Three g e n e r a l reasons e x i s t f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a : t h e need t o make use o f f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y and a s s e t s J the r e q u i r e m e n t s of c o s t and s c a l e ; and the use o f common r e s o u r c e s . 1• When the use and development o f a t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e s t h e c r o s s i n g o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s , t r a n s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s  and j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n becomes  necessary. Both space and ground segments make-up the s a t e l l i t e system. The space segment c o n s i s t s o f the s p a c e c r a f t and, where n e c e s s a r y , 18 t r a c k i n g , t e l e m e t r y and c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s on e a r t h . The ground segment c o n s i s t s o f the e a r t h s t a t i o n s o r antennae which d i r e c t and r e c e i v e s i g n a l s from the s a t e l l i t e , and the t e r r e s t r i a l communication f a c i l i t i e s w hich d i r e c t the message t o i t s f i n a l u s e r . C r e a t i n g a g l o b a l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f a c i l i t i t y such as INTELSAT r e q u i r e s t h a t m u l t i p l e t r a c k i n g , ground and t r a n s m i s s i o n 19 f a c i l i t i e s be c o n s t r u c t e d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s a c r o s s the g l o b e . Systems o p e r a t i n g p o i n t - t o - p o i n t s e r v i c e s such as t e l e p h o n e , t e l e g r a p h f a c s i m i l e , d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n and e l e c t r o n i c m a i l , among o t h e r s j r e q u i r e t h a t e x t e n s i v e c o o r d i n a t i n g and n e t w o r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s be d e s i g n e d t o make the new system c o m p a t i b l e w i t h o t h e r modes o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (such as the t r a n s o c e a n i c c a b l e and e l e c t r o n i c computers) so t h a t the message can be t r a n s l a t e d and s e n t i n t h e r e q u i r e d mode. G i v e n the e x t e n s i v e c o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p an " e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i n g system ... participants must esta b l i s h basic agreements.: on (location), cost sharing, system operation", standardization and revenue . . 20 sharing. In i t s most basic form, the International S a t e l l i t e Consortium (INTELSAT) was conceived i n 1964 for these purposes. As the f i r s t t r u l y global communications s a t e l l i t e system, i t s mandate was to "carry forward the design, development, construction, establishment, operation and maintenance of the space segment* of the global commercial telecommunications system ... (which was} to be available on a non-discriminatory basis to a l l areas of the 21 world." The o r i g i n a l INTELSAT was renegotiated i n 1969 to r e f l e c t the changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s among i t s membership, but i t maintained i t s unique character as a "functionally s p e c i f i c international organization", structured on 22 what Joseph Pelton terms a "quasi-commercial" basis. Today, i t operates as a f i n a n c i a l cooperative whose members are both users and investors. From the leasing of capacity from s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t (three over the A t l a n t i c , two over the P a c i f i c , and one over the Indian Ocean) the Consortium derives i t s operating revenue and a return on signatories' investment of fourteen percent. Invest-ment shares are based on the amount of capacity (or use) that the 23 member derives from the system. These shares also determine the member's voting percentage i n INTELSAT'S major decision making body, the Board of Governors (formerly the Interim Commun-ications S a t e l l i t e Committee (ICSC) i n the 1964 :arrangements).• The * The ground segments of the INTELSAT system are owned and operated by national governments or t h e i r appointed e n t i t i e s . d e f i n i t i v e arrangements l i m i t e d U.S. v o t i n g power t o "a f o r t y p e r c e n t c e i l i n g r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e use o f the system 24 and i n v e s t m e n t . " Other s i g n a t o r i e s may, on the o t h e r hand, up-grade t h e i r v o t i n g s h a r e s as t h e i r r e l a t i v e use o f the system i n c r e a s e s . G i v e n t h a t more and more n a t i o n s are making use o f s a t e l l i t e s , the need f o r m u l t i l a t e r a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n t o s e c u r e the use o f f o r e i g n f a c i l i t i e s and t e r r i t o r i e s has i n c r e a s e d beyond the s i n g l e g l o b a l framework o f INTELSAT. Many r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l systems a l s o e x i s t . F o r a l l o f t h e s e systems, however, t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n o f t r a n s n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Agreements must a l s o be f o r g e d w i t h the I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e -communications c a r r i e r s such as AT&A and ITT World Communications; m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f t e c h n o l o g y such as RCA: n a t i o n a l communications r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s ; and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l o r governmental a g e n c i e s whose i n t e r e s t s are a f f e c t e d by the development and use o f 25 s a t e l l i t e s . For example, most i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a r r i e r s have h e a v i l y i n v e s t e d i n a l t e r n a t i v e communication t e c h n o l o g i e s such as h i g h f r e q u e n c y r a d i o t e r r e s t r i a l mircowave, t e r r e s t r i a l c a b l e systems, t r o p a s c a t t e r systems and o p t i c f i b r e t e c h n o l o g y . S a t e l l i t e s comprise o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e i r t o t a l communications 2 6 i n v e s t m e n t s and a s s e t s . On t h e one hand, t h e n , "a complex c o l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t i s r e q u i r e d between the ( n a t i o n a l communication e n t i t i e s ) , and o v e r s e a s t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o p r o v i d e , manage, o p e r a t e and m a i n t a i n the w o r l dwide i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n 27 o f the network." On the o t h e r hand, economic and p o l i t i c a l co-o r d i n a t i o n i s a l s o r e q u i r e d between competing i n t e r e s t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s where the e f f e c t s of c o m p e t i t i o n can be d e v a s t a t i n g to new t e c h n o l o g i e s such as s a t e l l i t e s . Joseph P e l t o n notes t h a t : ... s e r i o u s problems r e l a t i n g to the implementation of communication s a t e l l i t e s Chave a r i s e n due to) v a r i o u s forms of com p e t i t i o n a t the domestic and i n t e r -n a t i o n a l l e v e l ... t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n , which i s perhaps most i n t e n s e l y manifested between i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications s a t e l l i t e s and t r a n s o c e a n i c submarine c a b l e s , f r e q u e n t l y f o s t e r s r a p i d techno-l o g i c a l advances as w e l l as r a p i d f a c i l i t y o bsolescence, i n e f f i c i e n t and a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d use of investments, i n t e r -n a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l f r i c t i o n s , and on o c c a s i o n s , c o s t l y and d i s f u n c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. 28 In terms of t e c h n i c a l and economic e f f i c i e n c y , s a t e l l i t e s are the more e f f i c i e n t technology because they have the advantage of a " m u l t i p l e route c a p a c i t y as opposed to the s i n g l e route 29 c a p a b i l i t y of t e r r e s t r i a l systems" ' they can c a r r y a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s e r v i c e s at much g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y ; they make no d i s t i n c t i o n w ith r e s p e c t to d i s t a n c e and t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t i n g r e a t c o s t they savings; and finally,y^have the advantage of p r o v i d i n g communications 3 0 to remote regions u n a c c e s s i b l e by cable or microwave r a d i o . However, because a s a t e l l i t e i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with c a b l e s on v a s t g l o b a l communication networks, they are complementary r a t h e r than competing t e c h n o l o g i e s . C o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r develop-ment and use across the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups i s n e v e r t h e l e s s one of the more c h a l l e n g i n g tasks of g l o b a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . 14. 2. When the c o s t and s c a l e o f a t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i s too  g r e a t f o r most n a t i o n s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o s t s h a r i n g a g r e e - ments w i l l be i n i t i a t e d t o reduce th e i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t m e n t D e v e l o p i n g a t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e system i s a l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t r e q u i r i n g , as we have seen, e x t e n s i v e ground f a c i l i t i e s , communication i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s , n e t w o r k i n g o p e r a t i o n s , m u l t i p l e s p a c e c r a f t , and l a u n c h i n g facilities.^® D e c l i n i n g r e l a t i v e c o s t s i n antennae and ground systems t e c h n o l o g y has made i t p o s s i b l e f o r most s t a t e s and an i n c r e a s i n g number of f i r m s and 31 i n d i v i d u a l s t o own s a t e l l i t e r e c e i v i n g equipment. The r e l a t i v e c o s t t o u s e r s o f s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n and t e l e p h o n e c i r c u i t s have r i s e n d r a m a t i c a l l y , Today, INTELSAT'S s i x t h and s e v e n t h g e n e r a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s w i l l c a r r y 36,000 v o i c e c i r c u i t s (two-way t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n s ) o r 120 TV c h a n n e l s ; ... a network whose c a p a c i t y w i l l be 825 t imes g r e a t e r than t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d by (INTELSAT'S) E a r l y B i r d a t the o u t s e t o f the space communications e r a 18 y e a r s ago ... By 1986 ... as many as 12 o f t h e s e s a t e l l i t e s w i l l be s e n t i n t o o r b i t , and, t o g e t h e r w i t h l a u n c h v e h i c l e c o s t s , w i l l r e p r e s e n t a c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t of perhaps $3 thousand m i l l i o n . 32 These development and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s are s h a r e d amongst INTELSAT'S 107 members. Less s o p h i s t i c a t e d s a t e l l i t e systems are c u r r e n t l y owned and o p e r a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n s , groups of n a t i o n s , o r a c o n s o r t i u m of f i r m s . However, the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f a c t o r s must c o l l a b o r a t e f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s because th e s c a l e and c o s t o f d e v e l o p i n g a l a u n c h f a c i l i t y i s too g r e a t f o r 15. most s t a t e s . F o r the few n a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s , t h e s e p r o j e c t s a re e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y , l a r g e s c a l e v e n t u r e s t h a t have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e governmental s u p p o r t . F o r example, NASA's c o n v e n t i o n a l l a u n c h e r s and l a t e r , the s h u t t l e ^ were h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d by the E x e c u t i v e and m i l i t a r y branches o f the U.S. government, w h i l e the ESA l a u n c h v e h i c l e A r i a n e r e q u i r e d the 33 j o i n t i n v e s t m e n t o f e l e v e n European c o u n t r i e s . W h i l e most n a t i o n s must c o n t r a c t l a u n c h s e r v i c e s ^ m a n y d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s l a c k even t h e r e s e a r c h and development i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and funds n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n an i n d i g e n o u s s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m . U n t i l t h e y can a f f o r d t h e i r own s p a c e c r a f t , t h e s e n a t i o n s choose t o l e a s e c a p a c i t y from i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l systems w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own ground systems. Other forms o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t have emerged out o f f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y are r e g i o n a l o r b i l a t e r i a l j o i n t v e n t u r e s such as ARABSAT and the I n d o n e s i a n P a l a p a system which s e r v e s South E a s t A s i a . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , however, from the e a r l y y e a r s o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e development most s t a t e s and many o t h e r a c t o r s have found i t n e c e s s a r y t o share c o s t s a t one l e v e l o f s a t e l l i t e development or a n o t h e r . An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t when c o s t f a c t o r s a re an i m p o r t a n t b a s i s of c o l l a b o r a t i o n , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements s u b s e q u e n t l y c r e a t e d a re l i k e l y t o have a commerical o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h a d e c i s i o n making system which a l l o c a t e s v o t i n g power on the 34 b a s i s o f i n v e s t m e n t share o r system usage. B o t h COMSAT, t h e American s a t e l l i t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and INTELSAT, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t ^ o p e r a t e on t h i s b a s i s , as do most r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e systems l i k e t he ECS (European S a t e l l i t e C o n s o r t i u m ) , the F r e n c h -German "symphonie", and A r a b s a t . 16. 3• I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g u l a t o r y Arrangements a r e n e c e s s a r y when a  t e c h n o l o g y makes use of common p r o p e r t y f o r i t s development  and o p e r a t i o n The most e c o n o m i c a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t l o c a t i o n f o r communication s a t e l l i t e s i s the geosynchronous o r b i t l o c a t e d 35 33,200 k i l o m e t e r s above the e a r t h ' s e q u a t o r . (See Chapter Four) The o r b i t , w hich can be d e s c r i b e d as a band o r r i n g i n space o f 360°, c u r r e n t l y accommodates s a t e l l i t e s e v e r y t h r e e t o s i x d e g r e e s . r The p o t e n t i a l d e p l e t i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d s a t e l l i t e " p a r k i n g s l o t s " i n t h i s r e g i o n , o f o u t e r s p a c e a r e c r e a t i n g a l l o c a t i o n and s h a r i n g problems w h i c h need t o be r e g u l a t e d a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The problem i s e x a c e r b a t e d by an o t h e r t e c h n i c a l i s s u e : some areas i n the geosynchronous o r b i t a r e more e f f i c i e n t t han o t h e r s depending on where the s a t e l l i t e u s e r wants the beam d i r e c t e d . S a t e l l i t e s a l s o make use o f an o t h e r i m p o r t a n t g l o b a l r e s o u r c e , the e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f r e q u e n c y spectrum. L i k e most communication media, s a t e l l i t e s r e l y on sound waves f o r the 37 t r a n s m i s s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e s a t e l l i t e s use some v e r y h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t a re l e s s c o n g e s t e d by o v e r u s e , they s t i l l r e q u i r e f r e q u e n c y ranges c u r r e n t l y used by t e r r e s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . C o o r d i n a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o a l l o c a t e f r e q u e n c i e s t o t h e d i f f e r e n t usages and u s e r s . B e s i d e s a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l regime must d e a l w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l problems o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . G i l b e r t LeVean n o t e s t h a t "the i n h e r e n t •> c a p a b i l i t y o f a s y n -chronous communication s a t e l l i t e t o p r o v i d e d i r e c t communication t o a t h i r d o f t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e " a l s o a c t s as a " p o t e n t i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e s o u r c e t o the same o n e - t h i r d o f the E a r t h " because the f r e q u e n c i e s under which i t o p e r a t e s may o b s t r u c t and i n t e r r u p t messages b e i n g s e n t on s i m i l a r f r e q u e n c i e s v i a t e r r e s t r i a l f a c i l i t i e s . The i n t e r f e r e n c e dilemma, he c o n t i n u e s , " p r e s e n t s a d i f f i c u l t f r e q u e n c y management p r o b l e m " t h a t can o n l y be d e a l t 3 8 w i t h a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . 3 9 The " p u b l i c good" n a t u r e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t i m p l i e s t h a t a l l n a t i o n s a r e p o t e n t i a l u s e r s o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . W h i l e n e i t h e r can be t r u l y "depleted" 4'"' i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o e nsure t h a t a l l n a t i o n s can e x e r c i s e t h e i r r i g h t o f a c c e s s . C u r r e n t l y , t h e IFMB ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l F r e q u e n c y Management B o a r d ) , a s u p r a n a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making body w i t h i n t h e ITU ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n Union) h o l d s the mandate f o r a l l o c a t i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n s e t r u l e s and s t a n d a r d s so t h a t i n t e r -f e r e n c e w i l l be minimized. 4"'" I t a l s o m a i n t a i n s c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s t o e nsure t h a t a l l s t a t e s have a t l e a s t some a c c e s s t o the s pectrum. The IFRB's j u r i s d i c t i o n and e n f o r c e m e n t powers a r e l i m i t e d , however, and i t has no a u t h o r i t y o v e r th e a l l o c a t i o n o f the o r b i t where i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t o r y arrangements do n o t y e t e x i s t beyond the l a i s s e z - f a i r e s y stem o f f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d . O n l y r e c e n t l y has t h e ITU a t t e m p t e d t o i n s t i t u t e a r e g u l a t o r y regime f o r t h i s a r e a o f o u t e r s p a c e . I t i s t h e s e uses and developments c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s w h i c h have o c c a s i o n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n among s t a t e s a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The f o l l o w i n g case s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e and e v o l u t i o n o f t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n . 18 CHAPTER TWO F o o t n o t e s 1. F r a n c i s X. Kane, "Space Age G e o p o l i t i c s ' O R B I S . 14 (1971): 932. F o r a h i s t o r y of the development o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s and t h e i r uses see R i c h a r d W. P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e  S a t e l l i t e (N.Y.: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977); A Guide t o  S a t e l l i t e Communication, R e p o r t s and Papers on Mass Communication No. 66. UNESCO, P a r i s , 1972, P. B a r g e l l i n i , ed., Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems. P r o g r e s s i n A s t r o n a u t i c s and A e r o n a t u i c s S e r i e s . V o l . 32, (Washington, D.C: C o l o n i a l P r e s s , 1974); R.C D a v i s , e t a l . , "Future Trends i n Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems" i n Trends i n Communication  S a t e l l i t e s , ed. D.J. C u r t i n (N.Y.: Permagon P r e s s , 1979), and 'Servants i n Space: S a t e l l i t e s Become a P a r t of D a i l y L i f e , ' U.S. News and World R e p o r t , 29 J u l y 1974:44-46-46. 2. See B u r t o n J . E d e l s o n , " G l o b a l S a t e l l i t e Communications", S c i e n t i f i c A m erican, 196 (August 1977) :236 . Joseph P e l t o n w r i t e s : I n human h i s t o r y , t h e r e have been no s i m i l a r l o n g t e rm t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments t h a t have a c h i e v e d such a remarkable r a t e of growth ... ( t h a t ) d i g i t a l communications s i n c e the i n v e n t i o n o f the t e l e g r a p h by Samuel Morse i n 1832 ... There has been on the average a d o u b l i n g o f t r a n s m i s s i o n c a p a b i l i t y a t i n t e r v a l s o f l e s s t h a n once e v e r y f o u r y e a r s ... A l o n g w i t h the i m p r e s s i v e g a i n i n t r a n s m i s s i o n c a p a c i t y , t h e r e i s an o n r u s h i n g p a r a l l e l demand f o r new s e r v i c e s . These almost seem t o know no bounds. Joseph N. P e l t o n "The F u t u r e o f S a t e l l i t e Communications" i n Economic Impact, (1983/2):40. 3. F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the development o f m a r i t i m e and a e r o -n a u t i c a l s e r v i c e s see P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e S a t e l l i t e , C h apter 4; "The N a v s t a r G l o b a l P o s i t i o n i n g System", S p a c e f l i g h t . 21 (January 1980):2. 4. F o r the development of D i r e c t B r o a d c a s t i n g S a t e l l i t e s t o i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e r s and remote r e g i o n s see R e p o r t o f t h e  Working Group on D i r e c t B r o a d c a s t i n g S a t e l l i t e s on i t s T h i r d S e s s i o n , U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Assembly Committee on The P e a c e f u l Uses o f O u t e r s p a c e . (DOC No. A/AC, 105/83) May 25, 1970; U.S. Congress, House, Committee on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , Subcommittee on N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e P o l i c y and S c i e n t i f i c Development, H e a r i n g s on S a t e l l i t e B r o a d c a s t i n g : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F o r e i g n P o l i c y 91 Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , (January 1979):29. 19. 5. F o r an o v e r v i e w o f m i l i t a r y communication systems f o r the U.S. and NATO see P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e S a t e l l i t e : 4 8 . L e l a n d L. Johnson New Communications T e c h n o l o g i e s and N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y , A d e l p h i Papers #46, I n s t i t u t e o f S t r a t e g i c S t u d i e s , London, March 1968; and 'NASA/DOD Space Market 1984' S p a c e f l i g h t 22, ( A p r i l 1980) :166. 6. On the m a r r i a g e o f computer and communications t e c h n o l o g i e s see W.T. P r i n c e " S a t e l l i t e T elecommunications i n the C i v i l E nvironment" i n Communication and B r o a d c a s t i n g , 24 (August 1980):13-14 M o i r a Farrow, "The Human F a c t o r " The Vancouver  Sun, August 2, 1982:A10, and "Coming Uses of S a t e l l i t e s . " U.S. News and World R e p o r t , 7 August 1977:62-63. I n d i c a t i n g the c a p a c i t y t h a t t h i s m a r r i a g e w i l l a f f o r d , P e l t o n w r i t e s t h a t : ... Each INTELSAT VI s a t e l l i t e i n t h e g l o b a l network w i l l be a b l e t o send the e q u i v a l e n t o f some 4 thousand m i l l i o n b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r second o r ... the E n c y c l o p a e d i a  B r i t a n n i c a about 25 t i m e s e v e r y minute. P e l t o n , "The F u t u r e ...":40. 7. INTELSAT i s ... I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n , Washington, D.C, 1982. Much has been w r i t t e n on INTELSAT. Among the most u s e f u l a r e : Johnathan G a l l o w a y , "World Wide C o r p o r a t i o n s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : INTELSAT," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 24 (Summer 1970) :503 Johnathan G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and Technology o f S a t e l l i t e  Communications J u d i t h Tegger K i l d o w , INTELSAT: P o l i c y Makers  Dilemma ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1973): Joseph N. P e l t o n , G l o b a l Communications S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y : INTELSAT, P o l i t i c s and F u n c t i o n a l i s m (Mount A i r y , Md: Lomond Systems, 1974); S t e v e n A. Levy, "INTELSAT: Technology, P o l i t i c s and the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a Regime," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 (Summer 1975) : 655-80; and M a r c e l l u s S. Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l  Commercial S a t e l l i t e Communications: Economic and P o l i t i c a l  I s s u e s o f t h e F i r s t Decade o f INTELSAT, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1976). 8v On the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e systems see Joseph N. P e l t o n , "Key Problems i n S a t e l l i t e Communications: P r o l i f e r a t i o n , C o m p e t i t i o n and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n Environment," i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems i n S a t e l l i t e Communications, eds., Joseph N. P e l t o n and M a r c e l l u s Snow, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1977) : 116 . 9:. On the growing economic importance o f s a t e l l i t e systems see R o b e r t J a s t r o w and Homer E. N e w e l l , "The Space Program and the N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , 50 (Winter 1972):532. 10. See "Telecommunications by the y e a r 2000" S p a c e f l i g h t 22 ( J u l y / August 1980) :287, on t h e commercial o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t e l l i t e s i n b u s i n e s s and growing c o m p e t i t i o n see "Sky Wars: C o m p e t i t i o n f o r t h e American Market i n S a t e l l i t e B u s i n e s s Communications" Economist 1979:113-14; R o b e r t Cowen, "Europe's Launch i n t o Space 20 . B u s i n e s s " Technology Review, October 1981:6; " B u s i n e s s Communication Market Eyed", A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology, 21 June 1982:63; and M a r t i n L. E r n s t "The M e c h a n i z a t i o n of Commerce" S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . 246, (September 1982):131-36. For the development o f domesti c arrangements f o r s a t e l l i t e s i n t he U.S. see J a c k Oslund '"Open Shores' t o "Open S k i e s ' : Sources and D i r e c t i o n s o f U.S. S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y " i n Economic  and P o l i c y Problems, ed. P e l t o n and Snow:143-99 and Ken H e c h l e r , The E n d l e s s Space F r o n t i e r : A H i s t o r y o f the House  Committee on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s AAS H i s t o r y S e r i e s , V o l . 4 (San Diego, C a l i f . : U n i v e l t I n c . , 1982) f o r Europe, see Rene C. C o l l e t t e "The European Communication S a t e l l i t e Program" i n Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems, P. B a r g e l l i n i e d . , : 2 l 7-232. 11". T h i s i s the o p i n i o n of Dr. N a d k a r n i , INTELSAT p l a n n i n g c o -o r d i n a t o r , Washington D.C. I n t e r v i e w e d i n Vancouver, B.C. 14 August 1982. 12. On the Japanese programs see: F a r E a s t e r n Economic.Review, 23 October 1981:72 and 18, December 1981,:42-43. A l s o M. Kanabayashi " G e t t i n g i n t o O r b i t : Japan Launches an Independent Space Program." W a l l . S t r e e t J o u r n a l March 29, 1977:44; and Masayas h i Manabayashi, "The Japanese Empire S t r i k e s Back," Technology Review (October 1981):48-49. On the European program see: " C o m p e t i t i o n between ESA/NASA Grows, " A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology, 1 F e b r u a r y 1982:50 and " A r i a n e s p a c e Markets Launch S e r v i c e s , " A v i a t i o n Week and  Space Technology, 11 J a n u a r y 1982:87; " A r i a n e 4 i n F r e n c h 1982 Budget", AWST 11 J a n u a r y 1982:93. C.B. Wooster, "ECS The European Communication S a t e l l i t e System" Communication and  B r o a d c a s t i n g 24 (August 1980):15. On the Canadian Program see "CTS Communication Experiment Ends," S p a c e f l i g h t , 22 (February 1980):41. 13. See P a u l L. J o r d a n , Communication S a t e l l i t e s , Technology  T r a n s f e r s and Economic Development. (Santa M o n i c a , C a l i f : The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , 1970); R i c h a r d R. C o l i n o , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l S a t e l l i t e T e lecommunications and the D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " J o u r n a l o f Law and Economic Development 31 (Winter 1981): 8-14, and Hamid Mowlana, " P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Communication S a t e l l i t e A p p l i c a t i o n s i n Developed and D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems eds., P e l t o n and Snow:124-41. 14. "Economic Development and Communications", and i n t e r v i e w w i t h C l i f f o r d B l a c k . Economic Impact, S p e c i a l E d i t i o n : Communications Toward a New E r a (1983/2):34. 15. I b i d : 3 5 21. 16. I b i d : 3 4 . See a l s o Theo P i r a r d , "Space Systems Operated and P r e p a r e d by D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , " S p a c e f l i g h t , May 1981:137. 17. S i n c e the advent o f s a t e l l i t e s t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f the m i l i t a r y p o t e n t i a l s . Those a c t o r s who are b o t h a b l e and w i l l i n g t o e x p l i t t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , and t h e P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c of C h i n a . The f a c t t h a t o v er 75% o f a l l s a t e l l i t e s l a unched are f o r m i l i t a r y use i s t e l l i n g o f who r e p r e s e n t s the major o v e r a l l u s e r s of and i n v e s t o r s i n the t e c h n o l o g y . Other n a t i o n s have s t r o n g l y opposed t u r n i n g o u t e r space i n t o a m i l i t a r y b a t t l e g r o u n d and have v o i c e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s i n meetings o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Committee on the P e a c e f u l Uses of Outerspace (COPUOS) but t h e r e have been no p r o v i s i o n s y e t e s t a b l i s h e d i n the Outer Space T r e a t y (1967) w h i c h d e a l w i t h communication s a t e l l i t e s used f o r r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , e s p i o n a g e , o r o t h e r m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e i s s u e s have remained p e r i p h e r a l t o the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a . On t h e s e and r e l a t e d p o i n t s see: D e l b e r t D. S m i t h , Communication v i a S a t e l l i t e : A v i s i o n i n R e t r o s p e c t (San Diego, U n i v e l t I n c . , 1978). Anthony Kenden, "U.S. R e c o n n a i s s a n c e S a t e l l i t e Programmes," S p a c e f l i g h t 4 ( A p r i l 1981) :109; " M i l i t a r y Race i n Space," The Defence M o n i t o r , 9 November 1980, :10; "Outer Space — B a t t l e f i e l d o f the F u t u r e , " Stockholm I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ( S I P R I ) , London, 1978; and "Space Race Takes M i l i t a r y Turn," C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e  M o n i t o r , 26 May 1982:1. 17a P e l t o n , "The F u t u r e ...":42. 18. S a t e l l i t e s i n geosynchronous o r b i t do not r e q u i r e t r a c k i n g , t e l e m e t r y and c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s because t h e y are i n c o n t i n o u s s i g h t o f the e a r t h s t a t i o n s t o w h i c h they t r a n s m i t s i g n a l s . Low o r random o r b i t s a t e l l i t e s r e q u i r e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s , however, because t h e y are o n l y i n s i g h t o f the antenna on e a r t h f o r a s h o r t d u r a t i o n (4-12 h o u r s ) . P o w e r f u l t r a c k i n g antenna are n e c e s s a r y t o p i c k up the s i g n a l as the s a t e l l i t e comes i n t o v iew over the h o r i z o n . The m a j o r i t y o f communication s a t e l l i t e s a re i n geosynchronous o r b i t because o n l y t h r e e such s a t e l l i t e s a re r e q u i r e d t o c o n n e c t the e n t i r e g l o b e . Low o r b i t s a t e l l i t e s , however, must e x i s t i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s from t e n t o f o u r t e e n , making the o v e r a l l system much more c o s t l y and not as e f f i c i e n t . N o n e t h e l e s s some e x p e r i m e n t a l and m i l i t a r y systems c o n t i n u e t o use low o r b i t . 19 F o r a good summary of the s a t e l l i t e system see: A Guide t o  S a t e 1 1 i t e Communications. R e p o r t s and Papers on mass communication No. 66 ( P a r i s , UNESCO P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972) : 12 . 20 G i l b e r t E. LaVean, " P o l i t i c a l C o n s t r a i n t s I n f l u e n c i n g Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems," i n Communication S a t e l l i t e s 22. Development: Systems, ed., G i l b e r t E. LaVean and W i l l i a m G. Schmidt, P r o g r e s s i n A e r o n a u t i c s and A s t r o n a u t i c s , Volume 41 (N.Y.: AIAA and MIT P r e s s , 1974) :3 . 21. INTELSAT D e f i n i t i v e Arrangements, "Agreements R e l a t i n g t o the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n , INTELSAT," Document 23 2, 19 May 1971. Washington, D.C.:5. 22. P e l t o n , G l o b a l Communications S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y : 1 6 . 23. M a r c e l l u s Snow notes t h a t "The p r i m a r y v e h i c l e f o r r e c o v e r i n g c o s t s has been ... the space segment u t i l i z a t i o n . " (p.48). Charges f o r t h e use o f s a t e l l i t e c a p a c i t y a r e based on t h e u n i t o f u t i l i z a t i o n w hich i s "the b a s i c u n i t of measurement of communications c a p a c i t y used by INTELSAT f o r t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l p u r p o s e s " and which "measures the amount of power and bandwidth needed t o e s t a b l i s h o n e - h a l f of a v o i c e (telephone) c o n v e r s a t i o n between two " s t a n d a r d " e a r t h s t a t i o n s i n the INTELSAT System, t h a t i s , s t a t i o n s f u r n i s h i n g a g i v e n amount of power t o s a t e l l i t e . The u n i t o f u t i l i z a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a ' v o i c e c h a n n e l ' o r one h a l f o f a v o i c e c i r c u i t w h ich i s a two-way t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n . " ( p . 7 ) . M a r c e l l u s Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commercial S a t e l l i t e Communications, op. c i t . 24. Levy, "INTELSAT: Technology, P o l i t i c s ...,":669. 25. T h i s i s one of the major themes i n P r o f e s s o r G a l l o w a y ' s i m p o r t a n t work on the e a r l y development o f s a t e l l i t e systems. Johnathan G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and Technology o f Communication  S a t e l l i t e s . See a l s o Edward M i l e s , " T r a n s n a t i o n a l i s m i n space I n n e r and O u t e r " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 25 (Summer 1971):610. 26. F o r a consumer-advocates c r i t i q u e o f t h e power and i n f l u e n c e o f such l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s a t AT & T on the d o m e s t i c d i f f u s i o n o f s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y see M i c h a e l E. K i n s l e y , Outerspace and  I n n e r Sanctums: Government, B u s i n e s s and S a t e l l i t e  Communications, (N.Y.: John W i l e y and Sons, 1976). 27. T e l e g l o b e Canada. 3 1 s t Annual R e p o r t f o r the Year Ended March  31, 1981. (Toron t o , O n t a r i o , P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Department, T e l e g l o b e Canada, 1982):9. 28. Joseph N. P e l t o n , "Key Problems i n S a t e l l i t e Communications: P r o l i f e r a t i o n , C o m p e t i t i o n and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n Environment," i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems i n S a t e l l i t e  Communications, eds., P e l t o n and Snow,:94-95. 29. I b i d . 30. A Guide t o S a t e l l i t e Communications, UNESCO:12. See E. L a b l a n e , " F i n a n c i n g the Space Investment", i n Space: New  O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l V e n t u r e s , W i l l i a m C. Hayer J r . ed.: AAS S c i e n c e and Technology S e r i e s , V o l . 49:203. 31. See Kenneth B. S t a n l e y , "Economic I s s u e s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s : A P u b l i c P o l i c y Dilemma", i n Economic  and P o l i c y Problems i n S a t e l l i t e Communications, eds., P e l t o n and Snow:62-65. 32. P e l t o n , "The F u t u r e o f S a t e l l i t e Communications":40. See a l s o R.R. P o p e l e w s k i , "More C a p a c i t y E x p e c t e d from INTELSAT VI S a t e l l i t e " , A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology, 3 May 1982:59-61. 33. See f o r example, Vernon, Van Dyke, P r i d e and Power: The  R a t i o n a l e o f the Space Program (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1964); E n i d S c h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t of NASA 1966) i n Knowledge and Power, ed., S a n f o r d L a k o f f , (N.Y.: The Free P r e s s , 1969):167-270; and "The Space E f f o r t : H i s t o r y U.S. and Abroad", W i l s o n Q u a r t e r l y , 4 (Autumn, 1980):56-95. 34. Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commercial S a t e l l i t e Communications. 35. See Stephen Gorove, " G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t " American J o u r n a l  o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. 73 (1979) :444 and M a r t i n S. Soroos "The Commons i n the Sky: The Radio Spectrum and Geo-synchronous O r b i t as I s s u e s i n G l o b a l S o c i e t y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n . 36 (Summer 1982):665. 36. I n t e r v i e w . John B. T h w a i t e s , L i a i s o n O f f i c e r , Department of Communications Canada, Vancouver, B.C., August 28, 1982. 37. Seyom Brown e t a l . "Frequency and O r b i t " i n Regime f o r the  Ocean, Weather and O u t e r s p a c e . 38. G i l b e r t E. LaVean, " P o l i t i c a l C o n s t r a i n t s " : 3 . 39. Todd S a n d l e r and W i l l i a m S c h o l z e , "The Economics o f Outer Space", N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , A p r i l 1981:371-93. 40. B o t h t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t can be r e u s e d c o n t i n u a l l y i n the l o n g run b u t i n the s h o r t run may be used up t h r o u g h a l l o c a t i o n i f some form o f r e g u l a t i o n o r management i s not i n s t i t u t e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , most a u t h o r s use the term d e p l e t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the p o t e n t i a l overuse o f th e s e two r e s o u r c e s and I w i l l t h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u e t o employ i t i n the subsequent c h a p t e r s . 24. 41. See H a r o l d J a c o b s o n , "The ITU: A P o t p o u r i i o f B u r e a c r a t s i n Anatomy of I n f l u e n c e . CHAPTER THREE THE REGIME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF SATELLITE SYSTEMS M a i n t a i n i n g a S i n g l e G l o b a l System: I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n  and American Hegemony i n the S i x t i e s The t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a was born i n the wake of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c program d e s i g n e d t o promote i n t e r e s t i n o u t e r space. Responding t o the new o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance i n t o t h i s r e a l m would a f f o r d mankind, s c i e n t i f i c communities t h r o u g h o u t the gl o b e c o l l a b o r a t e d i n the I n t e r n a t i o n a l G e o p h y s i c a l Year (IGY) o f 1957-58 . 1 The p r o s p e c t o f l a u n c h i n g a r t i f i c i a l e a r t h s a t e l l i t e s was one a r e a of t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s s c i e n t i f i c and m i l i t a r y r e s e a r c h i n t o s a t e l l i t e s had begun i n the l a t e 1940s. Much o f the e a r l y work i n the a r e a was c a r r i e d o u t w i t h l i m i t e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t o r knowledge as t o the p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of s a t e l l i t e s . W i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c s e c t o r s o f the Army and Navy, however, s a t e l l i t e p r o j e c t s were b e i n g advanced f o r m i l i t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h 2 developments i n m i s s i l e b o o s t e r systems and l a u n c h v e h i c l e s . I t was d u r i n g the IGY t h a t the S o v i e t Union chose t o l a u n c h i t s SPUTNIK s a t e l l i t e . H a i l e d as an i m p o r t a n t s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l achievement, t h i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f i c i e n t p a s s i v e 3 s a t e l l i t e drew w o r l d - w i d e r e a c t i o n and p r a i s e . R e a c t i o n w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was a l s o w i d e s p r e a d . E n i d S h o e t t l e notes t h a t 26. . .. space su d d e n l y grew i n t o a major n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t e m b r o i l i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e s c i e n t i f i c community, Congress and the p u b l i c a t l a r g e i n a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e w hich was t o r a m i f y t h r o u g h many f a c e t s o f American l i f e . The r e a c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l l y known p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s t o S p u t n i k now c r e a t e d a broad arena o f n a t i o n a l debate w h i c h brought i n t o q u e s t i o n America's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h i p , s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ... defence p o l i c y and, i n d e e d , her p o t e n t i a l f o r n a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . 4 At a time when any i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e of the S o v i e t s was viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the C o l d War, i s s u e s of American s e c u r i t y and p r e s t i g e were i m m e d i a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y . The work a l r e a d y underway i n the m i l i t a r y s e c t o r s assumed an overwhelming p r i o r i t y i n the Eisenhower A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ^ New a g e n c i e s were formed and o t h e r s expanded t o ensure t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y would soon be e x p l o i t a b l e by the U . S . / N A S A ( N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , the c i v i l i a n r e s e a r c h agency c r e a t e d by an a c t o f Congress i n 1958. I t became the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of American p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o ensure American preeminence i n the f i e l d . P r o m oting t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , I n o t e d , was v e r y much a m a t t e r o f p r e s t i g e and American g l o b a l i n f l u e n c e d D u r i n g the 1950s an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h a t i n f l u e n c e was i t s growing s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y . D u r i n g and a f t e r World War I I , F e d e r a l s u p p o r t f o r s c i e n c e i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y ; by the 1950s the n a t i o n was a l r e a d y r e a p i n g the p r o f i t s from major advances i n e n g i n e e r i n g , d e f e n c e , and h e a l t h -27. g r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s . To have the S o v i e t s preempt the U.S. i n outerspace - a realm which was i n c r e a s i n g l y viewed as the forthcoming v i s t a f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p l o i t a t i o n - was a matter of c o n s i d e r a b l e n a t i o n a l concern. Another realm of American g l o b a l power t h a t was thrown i n t o q u e s t i o n by the 9 S o v i e t launch was i t s m i l i t a r y and s e c u r i t y i n t e r e s t s . By 1958, p a s t h a r b i n g e r s of a growing S o v i e t c a p a b i l i t y i n ICBM's and n u c l e a r warheads were confirmed w i t h the launching of i t s s a t e l l i t e . That the Russian s c i e n t i f i c s e c t o r c o u l d p l a c e a s a t e l l i t e i n o r b i t implied t h a t g r e a t advances had been made i n the range and power of t h e i r b ooster systems. 1^ With the o b j e c t i v e s of r e g a i n i n g American p r e s t i g e and m i l i t a r y preeminence, the c l o s e E x e c u t i v e - d i r e c t e d c o o p e r a t i v e ventures between the m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s , the s c i e n t i f i c community and the aerospace i n d u s t r y e v e n t u a l l y culminated i n the launch of two American communication s a t e l l i t e s , Echo I and T e l s t a r . 1 1 While the S o v i e t launch r a i s e d p u b l i c and governmental concerns about a new arms race i n s p a c e , . i t was deemed more p o l i t i c a l l y expedient, and more i n l i n e with the goals of r e g a i n i n g n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e to promote the p e a c e f u l uses f o r which outerspace c o u l d be e x p l o i t e d . Consequently, Echo I and T e l s t a r were promoted as advances i n commercial communications technology, something which 12 o f f e r e d p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t f o r every n a t i o n . The A d m i n s t r a t i o n •the concluded t h a t i f A U . S . i n i t i a t e d a s e r i e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e ventures f o r s a t e l l i t e s before the S o v i e t Union proposed a s i m i l a r undertaking, worldwide p u b l i c o p i n i o n would converge i n America's f a v o r . Since few other n a t i o n s were on the t h r e s h o l d of a t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i n s a t e l l i t e s , the 28. U.S. c o u l d d i r e c t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s and main-t a i n i t s c o n t r o l o v e r the p o l i t i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e t e c h n o l o g y . P r e s i d e n t Kennedy's J u l y 1961 speech, c a l l i n g f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a s a t e l l i t e system i n which a l l n a t i o n s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e " i n the i n t e r e s t o f w o r l d peace and a c l o s e b r o t h e r -hood among p e o p l e s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d " , l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r the American d i r e c t e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications s a t e l l i t e 13 system known as INTELSAT. S i n c e the use and development c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s a t e l l i t e s made some form o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y , the key i s s u e was how b e s t t o promote American i n t e r e s t s i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l system w h i l e r e t a i n i n g i t s monopoly o v e r the t e c h n o l o g y and i t s c o n t r o l o v e r the d i r e c t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e development. These c o n f l i c t i n g o b j e c t i v e s were e x a c e r b a t e d by the c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s o f i n d u s t r i e s and a g e n c i e s w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s who were a l l a f f e c t e d i n some manner by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e ^ Among them were p r i v a t e f i r m s l i k e the i n t e r n a t i o n a l and d o m e s t i c communications c a r r i e r s (e,g., AT&T, IT&T and RCA World Communications) and the m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f systems components; governmental a g e n c i e s such as the Departments of S t a t e , Commerce and T r e a s u r y as w e l l as the F e d e r a l Communications Commission (FCC) a l s o had an i n t e r e s t i n the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e s . I n 1961, Congress passed the Communications S a t e l l i t e A c t , c r e a t i n g the O r g a n i z a t i o n known as COMSAT, which would r e p r e s e n t American 14 i n t e r e s t s i n a g l o b a l s a t e l l i t e system. The l e g i s l a t i o n r e -15 p r e s e n t e d a compromise amongst the major i n t e r e s t s , f o r COMSAT was t o be a s e m i - p r i v a t e commercial e n t i t y j o i n t l y owned by the i n t e r n a t i o n a l common c a r r i e r s and a number o f p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s b u t w i t h t h r e e governmental a p p o i n t e e s on i t s f i f t e e n member Board of D i r e c t o r s . Roger Kvam summarizes the l e g i s l a t i o n : As f i n a l l y p a s s e d , the law p r o v i d e d f o r a c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t would be a b l e n d o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e n t e r -p r i s e . On i t s b oard would s i t not o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and s h a r e h o l d e r s but a l s o d i r e c t o r s a p p o i n t e d by the P r e s i d e n t and g u i d e d by the p r o f i t m o t i v e , b u t under the r e g u l a t i o n o f the F e d e r a l Communications Commission, NASA, the S t a t e Department, and the P r e s i d e n t - and w i t h p u b l i c s u b s i d y . 16 COMSAT became the American i n s t r u m e n t o f i n f l u e n c e and the O r g a n i z a t i o n d e s t i n e d t o promote and m a i n t a i n U.S. i n f l u e n c e i n the f i e l d of s a t e l l i t e communications." 1"^ The immediate t a s k o f the new o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o r e p r e s e n t the U.S. a t the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n Washington d u r i n g 1964. E l e v e n d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s from t h r e e c o n t i n e n t s were r e p r e s e n t e d a t the C o n f e r e n c e , b u t the major a x i s of c o n f l i c t d e v e l o p e d between the Americans and Europeans where the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e of c o n t e n t i o n p r o v e d t o be the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s . The t e n s i o n o ver t h i s i s s u e s e t the t e n o r and d i r e c t i o n o f d e b a t e , f o r the Europeans fo u g h t a c o n c e r t e d s t r u g g l e n o t t o a l l o w the c r e a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would 18 be dominated and d i r e c t e d by U.S. i n t e r e s t s . The debate o v e r c a p a b i l i t i e s was not e n t i r e l y a consequence of the s a t e l l i t e b r e a k t h r o u g h ; r a t h e r , i t s o r i g i n s l a y a t the h e a r t o f A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e r e l a t i o n s and p o l i t i c s . Whether i l l u s i o n o r r e a l i t y , t h e r e was a growing s e n t i m e n t i n the r e c e n t l y formed EEC of a 'gap' between t h e i r own s c i e n t i f i c and 30. t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s and those o f t h e i r p a t e r n a l a l l y , t he U n i t e d 19 S t a t e s . The " f e e l i n g s o f acu t e economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y and o u t -r i g h t resentment toward f o r e i g n s o u r c e s o f t e c h n o l o g y " a s s o c i a t e d 20 w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y gaps were p r e v a l e n t i n Western Europe; t o r e d r e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e Europeans sought an economic s t r a t e g y t h a t would reduce t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependence on the U.S. i n ar e a s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g " v i t a l t o t h e i r n a t i o n a l autonomy 21 and i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . " T h e i r chosen s t r a t e g y was " t o p l a c e more emphasis on ... c o m m e r c i a l l y r e l e v a n t s e c t o r s o f t e c h n o l o g y " such as t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e systems.' Because the Europeans chose t o make s a t e l l i t e s t he agent o f t h e i r b r o a d e r g o a l s f o r d e v e l o p i n g an independent t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y , p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g the s t r u c t u r e o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s a t e l l i t e development were o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . The EEC members wanted t o ensure t h e enshrinement o f p r i n c i p l e s t h a t would a l l o c a t e e q u a l s h a r e s i n the d e s i g n c o n t r a c t s f o r s a t e l l i t e s . T h e i r o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d was t o g a i n a c c e s s t o American t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s w i t h 23 American f i r m s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p r o s p e c t o f a w h o l l y - c o m m e r c i a l v e n t u r e dominated by COMSAT was anathema t o the EEC because i n the i n t e r e s t o f p r o f i t s , COMSAT would a s s u r e t h a t development 24 c o n t r a c t s were awarded t o American f i r m s . I n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h i s outcome the Europeans demanded t h a t b o t h the INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s and t h e subsequent arrangements be conducted t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l governments, t h e r e b y r e l e g a t i n g COMSAT t o a l i m i t e d a d v i s o r y r o l e . Second, they r e q u e s t e d t h a t the d r a f t p r i n c i p l e s i n c l u d e a st a t e m e n t t h a t ensured the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n t r a c t s f o r the development o f s a t e l l i t e s i n the g l o b a l system. The r e s u l t would be immediate a c c e s s t o the t e c h n o l o g y n e c e s s a r y f o r n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . But the European b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n was s e v e r e l y weakened by j u s t the f a c t of t h e i r l i m i t e d knowledge and t e c h n i c a l b a s i s f o r development of s a t e l l i t e s . The Americans 7who were i n a much s t r o n g e r p o s i t i o n t o e x p l o i t the t e c h n o l o g y , were not w i l l i n g t o agree t o a p l a n which would amount t o a s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f European t e c h n o l o g i c a l development. Many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h i s p o s i t i o n a t the INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s . W h i l e not f u l l y r e c o n c i l e d t o the i d e a of an O r g a n i z a t i o n dominated by the American p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t COMSAT, they b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e European 25 p r o p o s i t i o n would c o s t them much more i n the l o n g r u n . F i n a l l y , COMSAT, who d i d e v e n t u a l l y dominate the n e g o t i a t i o n s , was i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g American c o n t r o l o v er INTELSAT so t h a t the s a t e l l i t e system and i t s commercial p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l c o u l d be r e a l i z e d as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . The outcome o f the n e g o t i a t i o n s r e f l e c t e d the American hegemonic p o s i t i o n . COMSAT was a b l e t o a c h i e v e most o f i t s g o a l s and the Europeans were f o r c e d t o a c c e p t an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a commercial o r i e n t a t i o n and one w i t h COMSAT as i t s manager and s i x t y p e r c e n t owner. The EEC a c h i e v e d none o f i t s major o b j e c t i v e s e x c e p t t o have governments a t l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n the major organs o f INTELSAT. T h i s was guaranteed by the s i g n i n g o f two s e p a r a t e agreements — one between d e s i g n a t e d communications e n t i t i e s and t h e o t h e r between t h e i r governments, thus making INTELSAT a j o i n t v e n t u r e o f b o t h governments and p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s . ^ ^ 32. Commenting on how the skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s shaped the outcome Levy w r i t e s t h a t : One e s c a p a b l e t r u t h t o which the I n t e r i m Arrangements gave e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n was the overwhelming s u p e r i o r i t y o f American t e c h n o l o g i c a l competence and the l a r g e s c a l e o f i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications a c t i v i t y . The preamble t o the ... Agree-ment echoes almost p r e c i s e l y the aims o f American p o l i c y as expressedfa.Title I o f the 1962 Communications S a t e l l i t e A c t c a l l i n g f o r "a s i n g l e g l o b a l commercial communication s a t e l l i t e system ...» ... Ownership i n t h e system and v o t i n g ... was w e i g h t e d i n i t i a l l y on the b a s i s o f t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s f o r 1968, and t h u s worked o v e r w h e l m i n g l y t o f a v o r the U.S. p o s i t i o n by v i r t u e o f i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e share o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications t r a f f i c . COMSAT r e c e i v e d an i n i t i a l q u o ta o f 60.1 p e r c e n t . On t h i s b a s i s , n e a r l y t w i c e t h a t o f t h e e n t i t i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g European s t a t e s ... i t a l s o had an e f f e c t i v e v e t o power o v e r most p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s . 27 The f a c t t h a t the Americans had t o r e a c h some l e v e l o f compromise w i t h the Europeans stemmed from the i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f s a t e l l i t e s t e c h n o l o g y which r e q u i r e d the use o f f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y , and European t e r r i t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r . The U.S. was f o r c e d t o a c c e p t some of i t s demands l e s t the EEC p u l l o u t o f the p r o j e c t a l t o g e t h e r . The two major compromises agreed t o by t h e U.S. were, f i r s t , t h a t INTELSAT members would have " f r e e a c c e s s t o a l l i n v e n t i o n s , t e c h n i c a l d a t a and i n f o r m a t i o n a r i s i n g from the c o n t r a c t work i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f the hardware 2 8 f o r t h e systemj' and, second, t h a t t h i s would o n l y be an I n t e r i m Agreement which would be r e n e g o t i a t e d i n 1969 t o r e f l e c t the changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s among members. W h i l e the f i r s t o f t h e s e two compromises appeared t o encL U.S. hopes o f guarding technical expertise, COMSAT's si x t y percent share i n i t i a l l y allowed that private organization to d i r e c t the course of cooperative ventures i n such a way that l i t t l e valuable 29 information was actually shared. The Europeans were not about to back down from t h e i r goal of achieving an independent technological c a p a b i l i t y once i t became clear that the "single global system" directed by COMSAT would o f f e r l i t t l e towards these ends. Following the sighing of the Interim Agreement, the EEC began to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of developing a regional s a t e l l i t e system outside the auspices of INTELSAT. As time passed the Europeans came more and more to view INTELSAT as an instrument of American technological dominance and i t became evident that not only COMSAT but other i n s t i t u t i o n a l actors within the U.S. such as the Munitions Control Board and the Department of Commerce were successfully acting to r e s t r i c t the d i f f u s i o n of s a t e l l i t e technology; (see below) A an independent regional system became an increasing p r i o r i t y for Western Europe 3 0 i n general and France i n p a r t i c u l a r . The U.S. was strongly opposed to separate s a t e l l i t e systems because i t would mean a loss of American control and because i t would divert t r a f f i c 31 carr i e d by INTELSAT. Consequently, a new level of tension evolved i n INTELSAT between the U.S./COMSAT monopoly which sought to maintain a single global system and other i n d u s t r i a l i z e d countries which sought the separate systems representative of t h e i r technological independence. The outcome was to be decided by whether or not the U.S. could hold onto i t s monopoly position. 34. I n the e a r l y y e a r s , the American t e c h n o l o g i c a l monopoly a l l o w e d the U.S. t o m a n i p u l a t e events i n i t s f a v o r . Whenever the Europeans argued t h a t American f i r m s were g e t t i n g an o v e r -whelming m a j o r i t y of the s a t e l l i t e procurement c o n t r a c t s , COMSAT would c o u n t e r w i t h the argument t h a t c o s t e f f i c i e n c y had been the s o l e c r i t e r i o n i n i t s d e c i s i o n . The EEC members had l i t t l e b a r g a i n i n g l e v e r a g e a t t h i s p o i n t because t h e i r n a t i o n a l f i r m s were not y e t c a p a b l e of competing a t the same l e v e l o f c o s t and t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y American f i r m s l i k e Hughes or McDonnel Douglas. N o n e t h e l e s s , the EEC sought c o n t i n u o u s l y t o change the I n t e r i m Agreement p r o c e s s t h a t a l l o w e d the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f R&D t o be c a r r i e d on not a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , b ut r a t h e r w i t h i n the COMSAT o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i t s j o i n t v e n t u r e s w i t h American f i r m s . As the s i x t i e s p r o g r e s s e d , however, the Europeans came c l o s e r t o r e a l i z i n g t h e i r g o a l s , because a number of ev e n t s were c o n v e r g i n g t o undermine the U.S. monopoly and i t s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y o f a " s i n g l e g l o b a l system". D e s p i t e measures t a k e n t o r e s t r i c t the d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y , INTELSAT'S i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs d i d a l l o w f o r some t r a n s f e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and 33 e x p e r t i s e r e l e v a n t t o the development of s a t e l l i t e s . F u r t h e r -more the: numerous c o n s o r t i a of f i r m s and s c i e n t i f i c groups in Europe t h a t had made heavy in v e s t m e n t s i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s r e s e a r c h and development in the e a r l y s i x t i e s were now r e a l i z i n g major t e c h n i c a l advances. T e s t s a t e l l i t e s were under c o n s t r u c t i o n by 1968 and a French/German c o n s o r t i u m undertook the p l a n n i n g o f the f i r s t r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e . F u r t h e r a f i e l d , the Japanese were a l s o s e t t i n g the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r a s e p a r a t e A s i a n system u s i n g t h e i r own s a t e l l i t e and ground systems technology. 0'* B u t ' t h e g r e a t e p r e s s u r e t o a l l o w the development o f s e p a r a t e systems was coming from i n d u s t r i a l and o t h e r groups w i t h i n the U.S. who sought e i t h e r the commercial o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e from s a t e l l i t e s o r c o n t r o l o v er the t e c h n o l o g y i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r own communication i n v e s t m e n t s from the p o t e n t i a l c o m p e t i t i o n o f 35 s a t e l l i t e systems. That t h e s e d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups c o u l d a f f e c t the s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n ' r e f l e c t e d the p l u r a l i z e d n a t u r e o f the American system: c e r t a i n i n f l u e n t i a l groups sought t o m a i n t a i n the U.S. monopoly on t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y t h r o u g h a s i n g l e g l o b a l system, w h i l e o t h e r s b e l i e v e d American i n t e r e s t s c o u l d b e s t be s e r v e d t h r o u g h opening up the market t o independent and r e g i o n a l systems. The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e t o whi c h most groups a s p i r e d was the c o n t i n u e d economic growth and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s of the U.S. a t home and abroad .ancLy l i k e t he Europeans, t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s was Uovoever, seen as a key t o t h i s g o a l . ^ i t was i n t h e means t o a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s t h a t the i n t e r e s t s c l a s h e d ^ By 1970, s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y had " e n t e r e d the mainstream of the U.S. economy" w i t h i t s growing a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r m e t e r o l o g y , 3 6 r e s o u r c e s e n s i n g , m o n i t o r i n g , and communications. D u r i n g t h a t y e a r an i m p o r t a n t comprehensive r e p o r t was i s s u e d by the House Subcommittee on Space S c i e n c e and A p p l i c a t i o n s > a r g u i n g t h a t the COMSAT monopoly and government s a t e l l i t e p o l i c y was damaging t o U.S. economic i n t e r e s t s . The r e p o r t e r s n o t e d ~:> t h a t : ... t h e U.S. was f a l l i n g b e h i n d the r e s t o f the w o r l d i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (and t h a t ) o t h e r c o u n t r i e s were moving r a p i d l y t o e s t a b l i s h s a t e l l i t e communications made p o s s i b l e by r e s e a r c h funded by the U.S.... The e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t the Government i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l o r g a n i z e d t o f o r m u l a t e major p o l i c i e s , r e s o l v e i s s u e s and make n e c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d such a d i f f u s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l a c k o f . c l e a r e u t a u t h o r i t y i n any o t h e r major p o l i c y a r e a . I n the f a c e o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, government i n d e c i s i o n appears t o have been the v e h i c l e f o r f r u s t r a t i n g p r o g r e s s . 37 The K a r t h r e p o r t , as i t was known, r e f l e c t e d the d e c l i n i n g U.S. monopoly over b o t h s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y and t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n of systems development. The major f o r c e b e h i n d the comprehensive C o n g r e s s i o n a l r e v i e w was a lobby group made up of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the l a r g e communication i n d u s t r i e s , whose o b j e c t i v e was t o p r e s s u r e the U.S. F e d e r a l Communications Commission (FCC) i n t o a 3 8 d e c i s i o n on a domestic s a t e l l i t e system. C u r r e n t l y , COMSAT s t i l l r e t a i n e d the s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r the c r e a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e systems awarded to i t : ~ by an A c t o f L e g i s l a t i o n i n 1962. I n 1965, AT&T proposed t h a t the FCC g r a n t t h a t company the r i g h t t o d e v e l o p an- American s a t e l l i t e system, but p r e s s u r e s from COMSAT and E x e c u t i v e i n t e r e s t s f o r c e d the commission t o 39 d e l a y i t s d e c i s i o n f o r a n o t h e r s i x y e a r s . D u r i n g t h a t time the l a r g e communication c a r r i e r s j o i n e d AT&T i n t h e i r b i d t o g a i n a measure of c o n t r o l o v er a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h was d i r e c t l y c o m p e t i t i v e t o t h e i r own communication modes. Members from the Department of Commerce were s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i r argument t h a t independent and r e g i o n a l systems would b e n e f i t r a t h e r than damage U.S. i n t e r e s t s . When the K a r t h r e p o r t h i t Washington i n 1970, the S t a t e Department was c u r r e n t l y h a v i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y n e g o t i a t i n g a permanent INTELSAT agreement w i t h the Europeans over the v e r y i s s u e of r e g i o n a l as opposed t o a s i n g l e 40 g l o b a l system (see b e l o w ) . The r e p o r t was i n f l u e n t i a l i n chan g i n g the l o n g h e l d government p o l i c y ^ f o r a f t e r s i x y e a r s o f d e l i b e r a t i o n the FCC d e c l a r e d an "OPEN SKIES" p o l i c y i n the U.S., a l l o w i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r s of s a t e l l i t e s o r domestic communication c a r r i e r s the o p t i o n o f s e t t i n g up a domestic 41 ( s a t e l l i t e system. ( D e s p i t e i t s c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s , however, AT&T was r e s t r i c t e d from o p e r a t i n g i n the domestic market. / As a r e s u l t o f the h i s t o r i c FCC d e c i s i o n , n a t i o n a l systems 43 p r o l i f e r a t e d w i t h i n the U.S. T h i s major s h i f t i n o f f i c i a l U.S. p o l i c y towards the development o f s e p a r a t e systems o u t s i d e t h e INTELSAT framework was l a r g e l y prompted by domesti c i n t e r e s t groups and government o f f i c i a l s who argued t h a t the U.S. c o u l d b e n e f i t from c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o i n c r e a s e 44 i t s c o m p e t i t i v e edge i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . I n e f f e c t , however, the d e c i s i o n was a commentary on the d e c l i n i n g U.S. t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l s e c t o r s . That the U.S. s t i l l h e l d some v e s t i g e s o f a monopoly p o s i t i o n was e v i d e n t i n the l e n g t h of the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a 45 permanent INTELSAT. Debate f o r the d e f i n i t i v e agreements extended over f o u r y e a r s (1969-1972), and d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n c e n t e r e d m a i n l y on the skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and ownership w i t h i n INTELSAT and the r o l e of the O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s manager. The o t h e r major i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n r e l a t e d , as we have seen, t o the i s s u e o f s e p a r a t e systems. W h i l e the FCC had been d e b a t i n g the same i s s u e j u s t down the s t r e e t i n Washington, and a r r i v i n g 3 8 . a t a d i f f e r e n t p r o g n o s i s , the U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s was a s k i n g f o r a commitment from members " t h a t t hey not e s t a b l i s h , o r j o i n i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any space segment to meet i n t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e r e q u i r e -47 - t h a t ments." T h i s meant^no systems which would seek t o c a r r y any g l o b a l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r a f f i c could) be c a r r i e d on the INTELSAT system. But the Europeans, and the F r e n c h i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n s i s t e d t h a t the l a u n c h i n g o f s e p a r a t e s a t e l l i t e systems be made a n o n - n e g o t i a b l e s t a k e i n the new arrangements. Many o f t h e i r A f r i c a n a l l i e s agreed w i t h them. When th e y a l l t h r e a t e n e d t o p u l l o u t o f the O r g a n i z a t i o n and c r e a t e t h e i r own r e g i o n a l system, t h e U.S. c o u l d no l o n g e r doubt t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y , f o r a l t h o u g h i t would prove t o be a c o s t l y p r o p o s i t i o n , the t e c h n o l o g y was now a v a i l a b l e i n Europe. U l t i m a t e l y , the m a t t e r was d e c i d e d by the FCC and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l common c a r r i e r s . The "Open S k i e s " d e c i s i o n came on the h e e l s o f t h e 1 9 7 2 INTELSAT Agreement, and w i t h a promise t o l a u n c h d o m e s t i c systems, the U.S. c o u l d h a r d l y deny r e g i o n a l systems t o the Europeans. The d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y had f i n a l l y b roken the COMSAT monopoly; i t was agreed as l o n g as " ( r e g i o n a l ) f a c i l i t i e s (did) not p r e j u d i c e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i r e c t communication l i n k ( s ) t h r o u g h t h e INTELSAT 48 system", s e p a r a t e systems would be d e v e l o p e d and t h e U.S. would 49 agree t o l a u n c h them. F u r t h e r m o r e , COMSAT's s h a r e i n INTELSAT would now be l i m i t e d t o 4 0 % , r e g a r d l e s s o f the c a p a c i t y u t i l i z e d by the U.S. W h i l e i t would r e t a i n i t s m a n a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n i n the s h o r t r u n , a new a d v i s o r y b oard would e v o l v e t o assume COMSAT's r o l e w i t h i n f i v e y e a r s . INTELSAT would f i n a l l y be t r u l y i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d w i t h development d e c i s i o n s and procurement c o n t r a c t s more e q u a l l y 39. d i s t r i b u t e d among i t s growing membership. The f a c t t h a t the U.S. Government s t i l l c o n t r o l l e d the o n l y l a u n c h f a c i l i t y c a p a b l e of b o o s t i n g t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s i n t o o r b i t was a major r e a s o n why COMSAT agreed t o a l l o w the Europeans t h e i r r e g i o n a l system. T h i s c a p a b i l i t y a f f o r d e d the U.S. c o n t r o l o v e r the t i m i n g and l o c a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e l aunches and a c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o v e r whether the system would i n d e e d compete w i t h INTELSAT f o r g l o b a l communications t r a f f i c . The Europeans r e g r e t t e d t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r v i c t o r y o v e r s e p a r a t e systems the UvS. s t i l l h e l d some key c a r d s . G a i n i n g a c c e s s t o l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y became a major campaign i n the s e v e n t i e s , w h i c h , as i n the case o f s a t e l l i t e systems, the Europeans e v e n t u a l l y won. The P r o l i f e r a t i o n o f Systems: The Changing S t r u c t u r e - o f  I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the S e v e n t i e s and E i g h t i e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the d e s i g n , development and use o f s a t e l l i t e s underwent fundamental s t r u c t u r a l changes f o l l o w i n g the FCC d e c i s i o n and the new INTELSAT agreement. T e c h n i c a l advances were g i v i n g r i s e t o an expanding group of a c t o r s i n the e a r l y 1970s as the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s became an o p e r a t i o n a l r e a l i t y . S a t e l l i t e s would no l o n g e r be under the s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t e l e p h o n e and t e l e g r a p h c a r r i e r s as they had been i n the s i x t i e s . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f e xpanding t h e i r use f o r e l e c t r o n i c d a t a t r a n s -m i s s i o n and as f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s i n c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n networks c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b u s i n e s s and o f f i c e equipment i n d u s t r i e s 50 as w e l l as media m a n u f a c t u r e r s and b r o a d c a s t e r s . By the end o f the decade t h e i r use was no longer an e x t r a b e n e f i t to f i r m s t h a t could a f f o r d the luxury, but a f i n a n c i a l and o p e r a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y to an expanding c a s t of u s e r s , s u p p l i e r s and manufacturers. At the same time, more and more nation s sought access to the s a t e l l i t e c l u b . The e x p l o i t a t i o n of outerspace f o r t e l e -communications and remote-sensing and the numerous s c i e n t i f i c and i n d u s t r i a l s p i l l - o v e r s t h a t r e s e a r c h and development i n these areas o f f e r e d , were becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important to indigenous 51 i n d u s t r i a l development i n most advanced i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s . Promoting s a t e l l i t e technology became a major government o b j e c t i v e i n not on l y Canada, Western Europe, Japan and A u s t r a l i a , but also^many newly i n d u s t r i a l i z i n g c o u n t r i e s such as the P h i l l i p i n e s , Indonesia, B r a z i l , I n d i a , and the f i n a n c i a l l y 52 s t r o n g OPEC n a t i o n s . The development of separate systems was promoted i n a l l of these n a t i o n s while s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t advances i n antenna and s p a c e c r a f t technology were making i t p o s s i b l e f o r those nat i o n s without n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e systems to a f f o r d e x t e n s i v e telecommunications networks u s i n g small inexpensive ground s t a t i o n s w h i l e l e a s i n g c a p a c i t y from INTELSAT or other d i r e c t b r o a d c a s t i n g s a t e l l i t e s . Where i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the use of s a t e l l i t e s was once s t r u c t u r e d around a s i n g l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l system, by the l a t e s e v e n t i e s c o l l a b o r a t i o n had p a t t e r n e d what Thomas Murphy c a l l e d the " p l u r a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e " of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . 5 3 i n general,the technology has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a growing number of a c t o r s who are able t o e x p l o i t i t s o p p o r t u n i t i e s , a n d a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r i t s development. These arrangements>which have 41. a r i s e n r a p i d l y as a r e s u l t o f the d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y , i n c l u d e not o n l y s e p a r a t e r e g i o n a l , o r domestic systems, but a h o s t o f r e g i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s f o r the d e s i g n and development of the r e q u i s i t e t e c h n o l o g y ; and a l a r g e range of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements c o n c e r n i n g the use o f f o r e i g n t e r r i t o r y , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , n e t w o r k i n g arrangements, d i r e c t 54 b r o a d c a s t s a t e l l i t e s , and o t h e r i s s u e s . The c h a n g i n g s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n which can now be d e s c r i b e d as h i g h l y d i f f u s e and d e c e n t r a l i z e d had one i m p o r t a n t consequence and an i m p o r t a n t a s s o c i a t e d r e s p o n s e . The i m p o r t a n t consequence of p r o l i f e r a t i n g systems and the independent p r o m o t i o n of i n d i g e n o u s systems, whether i t i n c l u d e d t h e space-c r a f t o r o n l y the ground segment, has r e s u l t e d i n e x t e n s i v e g l o b a l c o o r d i n a t i o n problems. Mr. S a n t i a g o A s t r a i n , INTELSAT'S c u r r e n t D i r e c t o r General^ has summarized these problems t o i n c l u d e : ... c o p i n g w i t h d e c e n t r a l i z e d e a r t h s t a t i o n ownership and o p e r a t i o n ; r e s p o n d i n g t o s t r o n g t i e s o f r e g i o n -a l i s m ; w o r k i n g around competing n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s ; e f f e c t i v e l y m o n i t o r i n g the manufacture of s a t e l l i t e s under arrangements t h a t are g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d and c o n t r a c t u a l l y complex ' (and) a d o p t i n g new o r compromising among d i v e r s e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and computer s t a n d a r d s ... 55 These c o o r d i n a t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n problems are j o i n e d by the dilemmas of p r o l i f e r a t i n g s a t e l l i t e s i n a crowded geo-s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t and f r e q u e n c y spectrum; i n a l l cases the c u r r e n t system of c o l l a b o r a t i o n appears unequipped t o d e a l w i t h them. 42. The a s s o c i a t e d response t o the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of systems has been the commercial and economic importance t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s have a t t a c h e d t o g a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g a c c e s s t o t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y . Where the s a t e l l i t e was once an o b j e c t i v e t o be o b t a i n e d , i t s r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s have now become s t a k e s t o be p r o t e c t e d . I s s u e s of damaging economic c o m p e t i t i o n and v u l n e r a b i l i t y became a s s o c i a t e d 5 6 w i t h b o t h the s p a c e c r a f t and the ground segments. To many a c t o r s i n the d e v e l o p e d w o r l d ^ p r o t e c t i n g the v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s a r i s i n g from c o m p e t i t i o n i n h i g h t e c h n o l o g i e s has meant main-t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo. F o r AT& T and the l a r g e t e l e p h o n e c a r r i e r s , s a t e l l i t e s have l o n g r e p r e s e n t e d a c h a l l e n g e t o under-sea c a b l e n e t w o r k s . D e s p i t e the t e c h n i c a l and economic s u p e r i o r i t y of s a t e l l i t e s t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s have o f t e n h e l d back t h e i r r a p i d development and c o n t i n u e d t o i n v e s t h e a v i l y i n c a b l e s . Governments have a l s o begun t o p r o t e c t n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e and computer i n d u s t r i e s a t the expense of c r e a t i n g f u r t h e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n problems r e s u l t i n g from the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t components and systems. ( The M u n i t i o n s C o n t r o l Board i n the U.S. i s one such agent whose j u r i s d i c t i o n appears t o have s p i l l e d o v e r from the m i l i t a r y t o the commercial s e c t o r i n p r o t e c t i n g U.S. i n d u s t r i e s from i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n . ) One e f f e c t o f r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s has been t h a t s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s which may h e l p t o overcome the d e t e r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s t h a t o v e r z e a l o u s n a t i o n a l i s m has had on the e f f i c i e n t development o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s systems are 57 not b e i n g made a v a i l a b l e i n the g l o b a l market. These r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s have been most c r i t i c i z e d by d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s who seek access t o s a t e l l i t e technology f o r numerous development-related g o a l s . Since the 1972 d e f i n i t i v e arrange-ments, the m a j o r i t y of the one hundred n a t i o n s t h a t have j o i n e d INTELSAT came from the de v e l o p i n g world. Consequently, i t has become a forum f o r i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o development and the North/ South c o n f r o n t a t i o n . During these forums i t i s the U.S. i n p a r t i c u l a r t h a t continues t o be a s s a i l e d f o r i t s r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s on the t r a n s f e r of technology as- i t once was by the Europeans. From the s i n g l e g l o b a l system to the c u r r e n t nexus of separate systems, the United S t a t e s has pla y e d a key r o l e i n shaping the s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the telecommunications s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r ea. The American response to the o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o o r d i n a t i o n problems t h a t advances i n telecommunications technology have presented over the past twenty years has been l a r g e l y motivated by the d e s i r e to main-t a i n American c o n t r o l over i t s development and d i f f u s i o n . But the broad range of both p o l i c i e s and p o l i c y instruments which have been d i r e c t e d towards these o b j e c t i v e s r e f l e c t s i t s p l u r a l i s t i c domestic s t r u c t u r e and the powerful i n f l u e n c e of many i n t e r e s t groups. In order t o promote s e c u r i t y and economic v a l u e s , the American government has c r e a t e d three i n s t i t u t i o n s -- NASA, COMSAT and INTELSAT. NASA and COMSAT emerged on l y a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e debate amongst the numerous i n t e r e s t s which advances i n technology had spurred. The o r i g i n a l g oal of a s i n g l e i n t e r -n a t i o n a l system which was t o be INTELSAT was e v e n t u a l l y abandoned as a r e s u l t of pr e s s u r e s from these same i n t e r e s t s f o r domestic systems. Once the U.S. government had agreed t o launch s a t e l l i t e s f o r n a t i o n a l g roups, i t was a l s o p r e s s u r e d f o r c o n c e s s i o n s t o l a u n c h independent systems f o r o t h e r n a t i o n s . We can g e n e r a l i z e by s a y i n g t h a t the d e c l i n i n g U.S. hegemony over t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e r e l a t i n g t o s a t e l l i t e systems, i t s d e c l i n i n g o v e r a l l p o s i t i o n i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market f o r h i g h t e c h n o l o g y , and the advances i n t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h were expanding the uses of s a t e l l i t e s ? h a v e a l l i n some manner a f f e c t e d the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e systems t h a t now c h a r a c t e r i z e s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b -o r a t i o n i n the i s s u e a r e a . CHAPTER THREE FOOTNOTES 45. 1. See E.G. Bok S e h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA" i n Knowledge and Power: E s s a y s on S c i e n c e and Government, e d . S a n f o r d A. L a k o f f (N.Y.: The F r e e P r e s s , 1966:165. 2. By l a t e 1956, 2 s e p a r a t e s a t e l l i t e p r o j e c t s were underway; t h e Army's P r o j e c t O r b i t e r t o be l a u n c h e d by a r e d e s i g n e d J u p i t e r I I m i s s i l e and t h e Navy's P r o j e c t V a n g u a r d . I b i d . , :168-73. See a l s o E r i k B e r g a u s t and W i l l i a m B e l l e r , S a t e l l i t e 1 » (Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Hanover House, 1956) . 3. On t h e i m m e d i a t e A m e r i c a n r e a c t i o n t o t h e S o v i e t l a u n c h s e e New Y o r k T i m e s , O c t o b e r 5, 1957. See a l s o R i c h a r d W i t k i n , e d . . The C h a l l e n g e o f The SPUTNIKS, (New Y o r k : 4. S e h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA", :174. 5. I b i d . 6. K a t z e n s t e i n n o t e s t h a t more t h a n any o t h e r W e s t e r n G o v e r n -ment, t h e A m e r i c a n government o f t e n c r e a t e s new p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s w h i c h a r e d e s i g n e d t o a c h i e v e s p e c i f i c d o m e s t i c and f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . P o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t s o f t e n t a k e t h e f o r m o f new i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . NASA and COMSAT a r e two s u c h examples i n t h e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s ; i s s u e a r e a , as i n INTELSAT t o some d e g r e e . P e t e r J . K a t z e n s t e i n , " C o n c l u s i o n : S t r a t e g i e s o f F o r e i g n E c o n o m i c P o l i c y " I n t e r n a t i o n a l . O r g a n i z a t i o n 31, Autumn 197 7. 7. See, f o r example, U.S., C o n g r e s s , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Committee on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce, H e a r i n g s on  C o m m u n i c a t i o n S a t e l l i t e ; P a r t s 1 and 2, 8 7 t h Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , 1961: and U.S., C o n g r e s s , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Committee on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s , Subcommittee on Space S c i e n c e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s , P a n e l on S c i e n t i f i c and T e c h n o l o g  I s s u e s , 8 6 t h Cong., 2nd s e s s . , 1960. 8. A l a n T. Waterman, " F e d e r a l S u p p o r t o f S c i e n c e , " I n Knowledge  and Power, ed . S a n d f o r d A. L a k o f f , :395. 9. See V e r n o n Van Dyke, P r i d e a n d Power: The R a t i o n a l e o f t h e  S pace Program (U r b a n a : U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 64). 10. C e c i l H. U y e h a r a , " S c i e n t i f i c A d v i c e and t h e N u c l e a r T e s t Ban T r e a t y , " i n Knowledge and Power ed . L a k o f f , :113. 11. Van Dyke, P r i d e and Power, :5-15. 12. G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and T e c h n o l o g y o f S a t e l l i t e  C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , :26. 46. 13. L e t t e r from the P r e s i d e n t t o the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , June 15, 1961. R e p r i n t e d i n U.S. Congress Senate, S e l e c t Committee on S m a l l B u s i n e s s , Subcommittee on Monopoly, H e a r i n g s Space  S a t e l l i t e Communications, 86th Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , 1961. P a r t 1,:511. As quoted i n G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and  Technology:2 6. 14. Much has been w r i t t e n on the p o l i t i c s of the COMSAT l e g i s l a t i o n . F o r example, see G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and  Technology o f S a t e l l i t e Communications, Roger A. Kvam, "COMSAT: The I n e v i t a b l e Anomaly" i n Knowledge and Power, ed. L a k o f f : 2 7 1 - 9 2 , Brenda Maddox, "The P o l i t i c s o f INTELSAT," The N a t i o n , 214 (28 F e b r u a r y 1972) : 272-74 . F o r l e g i s l a t i v e a c c o u n t s o f the h e a r i n g s see U.S., Congress, House, S a t e l l i t e s f o r World Communications, H e a r i n g s B e f o r e  the Committee on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s , 86th Cong., 1 s t s e s s . , 1959. U.S., Congress, Senate Committee on A e r o -n a u t i c a l and Space S c i e n c e s , P o l i c y P l a n n i n g f o r Space Communications, S t a f f R e p o r t ; 86th Cong., 2nd S e s s . , 1960; and U.S. C o n g r e s s , Senate, Communications S a t e l l i t e  L e g i s l a t i o n , H e a r i n g s , 87th Cong., 2nd S e s s . , 1962. 15. The major i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n among t h e s e i n t e r e s t s was •whether American o b j e c t i v e s would b e s t be promoted i n a p r i v a t e o r a p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The major proponents o f a p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n i n c l u d e d the d o m e s t i c common c a r r i e r s , the Department o f J u s t i c e and a group o f S e n a t o r s i n Congress headed by S e n a t o r Morse. Those who f a v o u r e d a p r i v a t e l y owned company i n c l u d e d AT & T, the FCC and t h e i r a l l i e s i n Congress headed by the Chairman o f the Senate Committee on A e r o n a u t i a l and Space S c i e n c e s , S e n a t o r R o b e r t S. K e r r Kvam, "COMSAT ..." :280-284 . 16. I b i d . :272-73. 17. See Maddox, "The P o l i t i c s o f INTELSAT" :273. 18. On the r o l e o f t h i s i s s u e i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the I n t e r i m Agreement f o r INTELSAT see G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and  Technology o f S a t e l l i t e Communications, C h a p t e r Two. 19. See Jean Jacques S e r v a n - S c h r e i b e r , The American C h a l l e n g e , (N.Y.: Atheneum House, I n c . , 1969). 20. D a v i d H. B l a k e and R o b e r t S. W a l t e r s , The P o l i t i c s o f G l o b a l  Economic R e l a t i o n s (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1976) : 146 . 21. I b i d . 22. V i c t o r B a s i u k , Technology, World P o l i t i c s and American P o l i c y (N.Y.: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977):91. (Emphasis added). 23. K i l d o w , INTELSAT :62. 47. 24. K i l d o w , INTELSAT :62. 25. I b i d :63-64. 26. Jonathan F. G a l l o w a y , "Worldwide C o r p o r a t i o n s and I n t e r -n a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : The Case o f INTELSAT", I n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . X X I V (Summer 1970):513. 27. Levy, "INTELSAT, Technology P o l i t i c s and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a Regime". :660-661. 28. I b i d . 29. Maddox, Beyond B a b e l . 30. K i l d o w , INTELSAT :63-64. 31. I b i d . 32. See M a r c e l l u s . Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commercial S a t e l l i t e  Communications: Economic and P o l i t i c a l I s s u e s of the F i r s t  Decade of INTELSAT, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1976). 33. On the European e f f o r t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d see P. Langereux " S a t e l l i t e s o f the European C o u n t r i e s from 1962-1968" A i r e t Cosmos 6 June 1981; and L e s l i e R. Shepard, "A Space Program f o r Europe" S p a c e f l i g h t V o l . 8 (January, 1966) :2. 34. M. K a n a b a y a s h i , " G e t t i n g i n t o O r b i t : The Japanese Launch an Independent S a t e l l i t e Program". W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , 29 March 1977:44. 35. See "Coming Uses o f S a t e l l i t e s : Domestic S a t e l l i t e s , "U.S.  News and World R e p o r t , 7 August 1972, :62-63. 36. J a s t r o w and N e w e l l , "The Space Program and the N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t " , :535. 37. U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Space and A s t r o n a u t i c s , Subcommittee on Space S c i e n c e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s , Assessment  of Space Communications Technology: 1970, 9 1 s t Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , March 3, 1970, R e p o r t #91-859 :5. 38. Thomas P. Murphy, " F e d e r a l R e g u l a t o r y P o l i c y and Communication S a t e l l i t e s " The American J o u r n a l o f Economic and S o c i o l o g y 31 (October 1972):338. 39. The major r o a d b l o c k s t o the FCC d e c i s i o n were o v e r the i s s u e s of who would c o n t r o l the system and how i t would be r e g u l a t e d . See "Report and Order on t h e M a t t e r o f E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Domestic C o m m u n i c a t i o n - S a t e l l i t e F a c i l i t i e s by Non-Governmental E n t i t i e s " 22 FCC R e p o r t s , 2nd, 86 1970. See a l s o M.E. K i n s l e y , Outer Space and I n n e r Sanctums: Government, Business,, and S a t e l l i t e Communications (N.Y.: John W i l e y and sons., 1976) Chapter Two. 48. 40. On the American p o s i t i o n i n the INTELSAT r e n e g o t i a t i o n s see S.E. D o y l e , "The Permanent C h a r t e r f o r INTELSAT" Department  o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , 18 October 1971 :415 and D a v i d W i l s o n , "Space B u s i n e s s : The H i s t o r y o f INTELSAT", Year-book o f  World A f f a i r s 1971 :72-76. 41. See R.S. Magnant, Domestic S a t e l l i t e s : An FCC G i a n t Step  Towards C o m p e t i t i v e Telecommunications P o l i c y , ( B o u l d e r : Westview P r e s s , 1977); and J a c k Oslund,"'Open Shores" t o 'Open S k i e s ' : Sources and D i r e c t i o n s o f U.S. S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y " , i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems i n S a t e l l i t e  Communications, eds., Joseph N. P e l t o n and M a r c e l l u s Snow (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1977):172-73. 42. "Coming Uses of S a t e l l i t e s " U.S. News and World R e p o r t :63. COMSAT was a l s o r e s t r i c t e d from o p e r a t i n g d o m e s t i c a l l y . COMSAT G e n e r a l C o r p o r a t i o n was formed as a s u b s i d i a r y o f COMSAT I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n 1973 as the e n t i t y o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d by the FCC t o engage i n domesti c s a t e l l i t e systems development. There i s no f u n c t i o n a l o v e r l a p s between the two companies. New York Times 24, F e b r u a r y 1973, :40. 43. "The 'Domsat 1 Race i s Now Open", B u s i n e s s Week, 2 2 September 1973, :68. 44. J.S. L u b i n , " D o g f i g h t i n Space: C o m p e t i t i o n Heats Up i n Domestic S a t e l l i t e s as Technology G a i n s " W a l l S t r e e t  J o u r n a l 8 September 1978, :1. 45. On the INTELSAT r e n e g o t i a t i o n s see l e v y , "INTELSAT, Technology, P o l i t i c s and the T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a Regime", :660-80, and "INTELSAT: Approaches t o the R e n e g o t i a t i o n , " H a r v a r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law J o u r n a l 9 (Winter 1968) : 290-325. 46. G a l l o w a y , "Worldwide C o r p o r a t i o n s ... INTELSAT" :518. 47. Levy, INTELSAT :671. 48. I b i d . 49. "U.S. O f f e r s Launch A s s i s t a n c e t o Europeans". Department o f  S t a t e B u l l e t i n , 29 November 1971 :624-27 and K i l d o w , INTELSAT :72. 50. P a u l R e c e r , " P r i v a t e F i r m s i n Space". U.S. News and World  R e p o r t 9 November 1981, :57. 51. J a s t r o w and N e w e l l , "The Space Program :534. 52. See U.S. Con g r e s s , House Committee on S c i e n c e and Technology, Subcommittee on Space S c i e n c e and A p p l i c a t i o n s . Worldwide  Space A c t i v i t i e s Other than the U.S./USSR, 95th Cong., 1 s t Se s s . , September,-1977 . 49. 53. Murphy, "Federal Regulatory Policy ..." :338. 54. See: P.O. Davis and W.G. Holder, "Keynote of the Seventies: Joint Ventures into Space" A i r University Review 24 (September/October 1973):16-29. 55. Mr. Santiago Astrain, INTELSAT Director General, "Challenges for the INTELSAT Organization", Speech presented at the International Conference on Doing Business i n Space. Washington, D.C, November 1981. Quoted i n I n t e l l i n k , 1 (Fourth Quarter, 1981/First Quarter, 1982):5 and 8. 56. See E.W. Bassett, "Europe Competes with U.S. Programs", 3 March 1980, :89; Paul Recer, "In Space, U.S. i s #2 but tryi n g harder". U.S. News and World Report 29 December 1980/5 January 1981 :39; and "Buyers and S e l l e r s i n Space: U.S. and European Commercial Communication S a t e l l i t e " , Economist 21 November 1981 :96-97. 57. Interview: Dr. Nadkarni, INTELSAT planning coordinator, Vancouver, B.C., August 14, 1982. 58. Charles Horner, "Outer Space and Earthly P o l i t i c s : How Third World Advocates of a New World Information Order are Seeking Control of S a t e l l i t e Communications". American  Spectator 12 (February 1979) :11-14. 50. CHAPTER FOUR THE REGIME GOVERNING THE FREQUENCY  SPECTRUM AND GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c f r e q u e n c y spectrum has l o n g been a l l o c a t e d f o r t e r r i s t r i a l communication a p p l i c a t i o n s t h r o u g h the 100-year o l d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications Union (ITU). 1 Because t h e r e are v a r i o u s t y p e s o f communication t h a t r e q u i r e the use o f r a d i o waves, i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n has been n e c e s s a r y t o c o -o r d i n a t e t h e s e v a r i o u s uses (eg: m a r i t i m e m o b i l e , b r o a d c a s t i n g , a e r o n a u t i c a l , r a d i o n a v i g a t i o n , etc.) w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r 2 range on the r a d i o spectrum most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n . Frequency bands are a l s o a l l o c a t e d by t h r e e r e g i o n s : the f i r s t c o m p r i s e s Western Europe, A f r i c a , U.S.S.R, and M o n g o l i a ; the second c o m p r i s e s the A m e r i c a s a n d the t h i r d , t he remainder o f A s i a and Oceana. The l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n by f u n c t i o n and r e g i o n would l e a d t o s e r i o u s problems o f i n t e r f e r e n c e and 3 c o n g e s t i o n a l o n g c e r t a i n bands o f the spectrum and the p o t e n t i a l f o r jamming w h i c h would e v e n t u a l l y c u l m i n a t e i n a breakdown o f g l o b a l communication networks. The advent o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s h a s t ened the growth o f c o n g e s t i o n problems because 4 t h e i r o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f r e q u e n c i e s a l r e a d y used on l a n d . Expanding uses o f s a t e l l i t e s f o r d i r e c t - b r o a d c a s t i n g , d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n , remote s e n s i n g , and m e t e r o l o g y , and t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n of independent s a t e l l i t e systems have o n l y i n c r e a s e d the c o n g e s t i o n of t he f r e q u e n c y spectrum. I n the p a s t two decades the I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Frequency R e g i s t r a t i o n Board ( I F R B ) , the body w i t h i n the ITU t h a t a l l o c a t e s f r e q u e n c i e s , has found i t i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o keep up w i t h demands f o r s p e c t r a l space and t o 5 ensure t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e problems are k e p t t o a minimum. Beyond i t s d u t i e s as a r e g u l a t o r and watchdog, the IFRB seeks t o accommodate the growing s a t e l l i t e market by m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t s w i t h independent r e s e a r c h groups who a r e w o r k i n g on methods t o make more i n t e n s i v e use o f the r a d i o spectrum.^ However, n e i t h e r the IFRB nor i t s p a r e n t body, the ITU, has the power t o i n d u c e s t a t e s t o adopt t h e s e new t e c h n i q u e s . I n f a c t i t s power i s so l i m i t e d t h a t the IFRB cannot even ensure t h a t i t s f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s w i l l be adhered t o . Member s t a t e s o f the ITU agree t o l i m i t e d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s because i t i s i n t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t t o a v o i d i n t e r f e r e n c e and overuse o f the spectrum. I t i s them r a t h e r than the IFRB who have the f i r s t o p t i o n t o choose the f r e q u e n c y range most u s e f u l f o r t h e i r n a t i o n a l and commercial p u r p o s e s . The IFRB i n v e s t i g a t e s p r o p o s a l s t o d e termine i f t h e y are c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c u r r e n t a l l o c a t i o n s , and, 7 i f s o, r e g i s t e r s them i n the M a s t e r R e g i s t e r o f F r e q u e n c i e s . T h i s a l l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e o r method which has come t o be known as " f i r s t come - f i r s t s e r v e d " a l s o a l l o w s the u s e r t o keep t h a t f r e q u e n c y as l o n g as the p a r t i c u l a r u s e - r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s . No subsequent r u l e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t would change o r r e a s s e s s a l l o c a t i o n s o v e r t i m e . The p e r i o d i c ITU A d m i n i s t r a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e s (known as World A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R a d i o C o n f e r e n c e s o r WARCS) s e r v e t h e purpose o f p r o v i d i n g a comprehensive r e v i e w of worldwide spectrum a l l o c a t i o n s and usage, and of a l l o c a t i n g t o the t h r e e r e g i o n s r e c e n t l y opened-up ranges o f the spectrum (as 5 2 . t e c h n o l o g y makes them a v a i l a b l e ) b u t , l i k e the IFRB, the WARCs have no j u r i s d i c t i o n a l mandate t o revoke a l l o c a t i o n s i f they are 9 b e i n g u t i l i z e d i n e f f i c i e n t l y . The l i m i t s o f t h e IFRB and WARC mandates i n a l l o c a t i n g and a s s e s s i n g the use o f the f r e q u e n c y spectrum can be t r a c e d t o i n t e r e s t s o f i n f l u e n t i a l ITU members who, f o r r e a s o n s d i s c u s s e d below, are c o n t e n t t o m a i n t a i n t h e l o o s e and f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e o f the Union and i t s p r i n c i p a l b o d i e s . 1 ^ T h e i r i n f l u e n c e d e r i v e s from advanced t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and, more g e n e r a l l y , from p o s i t i o n s o f g l o b a l power and i n f l u e n c e . T h i s h i g h l y skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e has become v e r y p r o -nounced w i t h the a d m i s s i o n o f s i x t y - f i v e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the p a s t decade. R e c o g n i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l s t h a t t e l e -communication c a p a b i l i t i e s o f f e r f o r growth i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and e d u c a t i o n , t h e s e n a t i o n s have sought t o ensure a c c e s s t o t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t by demanding sweeping changes i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n 12 the ITU and i t s a f f i l i a t e b o d i e s . However, many are as y e t unable t o e x p l o i t s a t e l l i t e c a p a b i l i t i e s , and t h i s more than any o t h e r f a c t o r has l i m i t e d t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g power and, u l t i m a t e l y , t h e i r s u c c e s s i n c h a l l e n g i n g the c u r r e n t system o f " f i r s t come -f i r s t s e r v e d " . N o n e t h e l e s s , i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s more and more i n f l u e n t i a l d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g I n d i a , t h e P h i l l i p i n e s , B r a z i l and I n d o n e s i a , have a c q u i r e d t h e n e c e s s a r y knowledge and c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t w i l l h e l p them d e v e l o p a more e f f e c t i v e c h a l l e n g e t o the c u r r e n t regime. I n the n e x t s e c t i o n , I examine the e v o l u t i o n and outcome o f t h e s e o p p o s i n g c h a l l e n g e s t o the ITU - one from the governments and i n d u s t r i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s who seek t o m a i n t a i n the l o o s e p a t t e r n o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a n d the o t h e r from d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y i n t e r e s t s who seek a more p o w e r f u l r e g u l a t o r y system f o r f r e q u e n c i e s and the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The p r i m a r y f o c u s remains the e f f e c t t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony has had on outcomes. C h a l l e n g e s t o the C o l l a b o r a t i v e Arrangements f o r the A l l o c a t i o n  o f the Frequency Spectrum and G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t : WARC  Confe r e n c e s and the S t a t u s Quo. The u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f IFRB a l l o c a t i o n s w h i c h the i n f l u e n t i a l members want t o m a i n t a i n and the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s want t o change i s , as I noted above, the " f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d a l l o c a t i o n system. A l t h o u g h t h i s l a s s s e z - f a i r e system has been i n use s i n c e the c r e a t i o n of the IFRB i n 1947, s t r a i n s became m a n i f e s t o n l y i n the e a r l y s i x t i e s when s a t e l l i t e s began t o r e q u i r e f r e q u e n c i e s a l r e a d y i n use f o r t e r r e s t r i a l communication. I t became a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s t h a t v a s t ranges of the f r e q u e n c y spectrum would have t o be s e c u r e d f o r space communications. A t the i n s i s t e n c e o f the U.S., the ITU agreed t o convene an e x t r a -o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n o f i t s f i v e - y e a r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n f e r e n c e i n 1963 (the l a s t one was h e l d i n 1959), i n o r d e r t o work out a system of c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s f o r s a t e l l i t e s . I n view of how t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e c o u l d a f f e c t the outcome of the c o n f e r e n c e , Jacobson w r i t e s t h a t the U.S. spent two y e a r s p r e p a r i n g i t s p o s i t i o n : B e s i d e s work by the government, major s t u d i e s were u n d e r t a k e n by the RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , Lockheed, G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c and Others ... the U.S. (government) a l s o conducted a number o f b i l a t e r a l and m u l t i l a t e r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . 14 The v i r t u a l monopoly h e l d by the U.S. ov e r knowledge and e x p e r t i s e , e n s u r e d t h a t i t got most of what i t asked f o r a t the 1963 WARC. Maj o r bands o f the spectrum were a l l o c a t e d f o r s a t e l l i t e communications i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s s c h e d u l e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n Washington. The U.S. a l s o e n sured t h a t the " f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d " p r i n c i p l e o f f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n was extended t o t h e new communications t e c h n o l o g y . To b o l s t e r h i s c o u n t r y ' s p o s i t i o n , the American r e p r e s e n t a t i v e used the argument t h a t o u t e r s p a c e , l i k e the f r e q u e n c y spectrum^was the common h e r i t a g e o f a l l man-kind, n o t a p p r o p r i a b l e by any s i n g l e 15 n a t i o n . He argued t h a t a l l n a t i o n s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y b e n e f i t from a system o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t e nsured f r e e and easy a c c e s s t o o u t e r s p a c e , 'and t h a t any o t h e r system would c o n t r a v e n e t h i s 16 common h e r i t a g e p r i n c i p l e . A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the 1963 Conference t h e n , the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r space f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s and c o l l a b o r a t i o n had been s e t , and i t was c l e a r t h a t " i n f l u e n c e (would) go t o those s t a t e s and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s t h a t (were) t e c h n i c a l l y p r e p a r e d and c o n t r o l l e d t h e r e s o u r c e s i m p o r t a n t i n 4- 1 • 4- • " 1 8 t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . Throughout the s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , the U.S. and o t h e r r e c e n t members of the " s a t e l l i t e c l u b " from the i n d u s t r i a l i z e w o r l d were a b l e t o make a p p l i c a t i o n s and o b t a i n d e s i r e d f r e q u e n c i e s f o r space communications w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l ease. I t was not u n t i l the mid s e v e n t i e s t h a t the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s attempted t o c h a l l e n g e the loose l a i s s e z - f a i r e system of a l l o c a t i o n . In 1974 a s p e c i a l conference was c a l l e d at the i n s i s t e n c e of those members who argued t h a t the " ' f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t - s e r v e d " p r i n c i p l e was p a t e n t l y u n f a i r and ... served to perpetuate the imbalance 19 i n g l o b a l communications." These n a t i o n s argued t h a t a p r e -assignment f i x e d a l l o t m e n t p l a n should be i n s t i t u t e d which would assure a developing country access to c e r t a i n ranges of the frequency spectrum d e s p i t e i t s p r e s e n t i n a b i l i t y to make use of them. Such a p l a n would e n t a i l extending broader powers to the IFRB by making i t the guarantor, i f not p r o t e c t o r , of d e v e l o p i n g country i n t e r e s t s . Needless to s a y ? t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e s i s t e d these changes and any "suggestion t h a t the spectrum should be carved up" s i n c e i t would have meant, a severe roadblock to i t s 20 r a p i d advance i n space communications. By the 1974 WARC, a massive i n c r e a s e i n the use of commercial s a t e l l i t e s was a l r e a d y given this prospect p r e d i c t e d f o r the end of the decade andAthe U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e had the i n t e r e s t s of numerous p u b l i c and p r i v a t e groups to p r o t e c t . By r a l l y i n g the support of other i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s he was able to b l o c k any changes t o the c u r r e n t system. While t h i s c h a l l e n g e d i d i n d i c a t e t h a t the o l d regime would no longer stand undaunted, i t was most e v i d e n t t h a t the developing c o u n t r i e s lacked the necessary r e q u i s i t e s of e x p e r t i s e and c a p a b i l i t i e s to make t h e i r p l e a any more than a symbolic g e s t u r e . When a s i m i l a r conference was c a l l e d i n 1977, more e f f e c t i v e l o b b ying and b l o c • v o t i n g by the developing c o u n t r i e s d i d l e a d to some minor v i c t o r i e s when the conference adopted a p l a n d e s i g n a t i n g c e r t a i n frequency bands and p o s i t i o n s i n o r b i t f o r s a t e l l i t e broad-c a s t i n g to two of the three ITU d e s i g n a t e d r e g i o n s . While not e x a c t l y the " f i x e d a l l o t m e n t " scheme, t h i s p l a n would a t l e a s t ensure t h a t when d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s i n Europe and A s i a d i d a c q u i r e s a t e l l i t e c a p a b i l i t i e s , f r e q u e n c i e s would be a v a i l a b l e : ( a l t h o u g h t h e y would s t i l l be competing w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s i n the r e g i o n ) . The U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e argued a g a i n s t t h e s e changes, s a y i n g t h a t i t was e x t r e m e l y i n e f f i c i e n t t o a l l o t f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t would p r o b a b l y go unused f o r y e a r s . The most i m p o r t a n t outcome o f the C o n f e r e n c e , however, was t h e agreement 21 not t o adopt a s i m i l a r p l a n f o r the Americans. A g a i n , i t was the U.S. who shaped the outcome o f WARC-7 7. By the 1979 WARC, the p r e s s u r e t o change t h e e x i s t i n g arrangements reached a c r i t i c a l p o i n t . The C o n f e r e n c e , which was h a i l e d b e f o r e h a n d as an i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l m i l e s t o n e i n 22 r e l a t i o n s between the dev e l o p e d and the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , had as i t s f i r s t purpose the r e v i e w and r e v i s i o n of the Radio R e g u l a t i o n s which d e f i n e f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s and t h e i r use i n a l l a r e a s o f communication and not s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r space communications as a t the 1974 and 1977 s p e c i a l WARCs. A second major purpose o f WARC-79 was t o d i s c u s s o r d r a f t p r i n c i p l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The o r b i t was n o t a c o n c e r n o f the ITU u n t i l the m i d - s e v e n t i e s when the growing number o f independent systems brought p r o s p e c t s o f i t s f u t u r e s a t u r a t i o n . By 1979 i n d u s t r y and government o f f i c i a l s were n o t i n g t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the r e m a i n i n g o r b i t a l " p a r k i n g s l o t s " r e p r e s e n t e d the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e d i s c o r d i n the s a t e l l i t e i s s u e 23 a r e a . B e f o r e the ITU undertook a r e v i e w o f t h i s i s s u e , no i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements e x i s t e d f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of the o r b i t beyond the customary p r i n c i p l e of " f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t s e r v e d " 57. 24 o r , more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , " s q u a t t e r s r i g h t s " . Because o u t e r s p a c e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been c o n s i d e r e d t h e common t e r r i t o r y o f a l l mankind, we saw t h a t "a regime of open a c c e s s and f r e e use" 25 came t o govern human a c t i v i t i e s i n . s p a c e . I n the e a r l y y e a r s o f s a t e l l i t e development, the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s had l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o i n s t i t u t e a more f o r m a l r e g u l a t o r y o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e system g o v e r n i n g the a l l o c a t i o n o f p a r c e l s o f space i n the geo-s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . As t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , remote s e n s i n g , and o t h e r uses o f s a t e l l i t e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t t o the economic v i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e n a t i o n s , t h e r e was f u r t h e r d i s i n c e n t i v e towards i n s t i t u t i n g a regime t h a t would l i m i t t h e i r f r e e use of the o r b i t . On the o t h e r hand, most n a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t s pending s a t u r a t i o n was a problem t o be d e a l t w i t h . But where p r o p o s a l s from i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s p l a c e d much emphasis on t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s ( i . e : d e t e r m i n i n g more e f f i c i e n t uses of the o r b i t ) , the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s p l a c e d emphasis on a s t r o n g e r system of a l l o c a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n s . These d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s were f o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a t WARC-7 9 where tho s e n a t i o n s w i t h the c a p a b i l i t i e s came once a g a i n t o dominate and shape th e C o n f e r e n c e outcomes. How t h e y were a b l e t o use t h i s i n f l u e n c e ' w a s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t o f t h e i r c o n t r o l o ver l a u n c h c a p a b i l i t i e s and t h e i r promise t o implement advanced t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n s a t e l l i t e d e s i g n . U n l i k e the f r e q u e n c y spectrum, the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t d i d not r e p r e s e n t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l " s t a k e " o r r e s o u r c e u n t i l the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e i n c o n c e r t w i t h advanced l a u n c h i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s made i t s use b o t h p o s s i b l e and necessary.- L o c a t e d 58. 33,200 k i l o m e t e r s above the e a r t h ' s e q u a t o r , a s a t e l l i t e p l a c e d i n t h i s o r b i t r o t a t e s about the e a r t h on a 24 hour b a s i s meaning t h a t i t remains r e l a t i v e l y ' s t a t i o n a r y ' o ver the same segment of the e a r t h . As Brown n o t e s , the p r i n c i p a l advantage of t h i s o r b i t i s t h a t each s a t e l l i t e can see o n e - t h i r d o f the g l o b e from t h i s 27 vantage p o i n t . T h i s r e s u l t s i n t e c h n i c a l and economic e f f i c i e n c i e s as i t " a l l o w s f o r coverage of the whole e a r t h by as few as t h r e e s a t e l l i t e s r a t h e r than by the many more r e q u i r e d f o r 28 comparable coverage w i t h s a t e l l i t e s on lower o r b i t s . " O b v i o u s l y a- n a t i o n w i t h b o t h an advanced s a t e l l i t e system and a l a u n c h i n g c a p a b i l i t y i s a b l e t o make use o f the o r b i t more r e a d i l y t h a n the s t a t e t h a t p o s s e s s e s o n l y t h e s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y . The advantage t o n a t i o n s w i t h l a u n c h i n g f a c i l i t i e s i s t h a t t h e y can choose the most e f f i c i e n t o r b i t a l l o c a t i o n f o r t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s . (The p r o p e r c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i s t a n c e and f r e q u e n c y bandwidth) f o r a p a r t i c u l a r use i s met o n l y i n c e r t a i n areas o f the o v e r a l l o r b i t ) . N a t i o n s who must engage i n b i l a t e r a l arrangements f o r the l a u n c h o f t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s are t h e r e f o r e dependent on t h e s e s t a t e s f o r c h o i c e o f o r b i t and subsequent system e f f i c i e n c y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a t WARC-79 t h i s h i e r a r c h i a l arrangement was s e r i o u s l y c r i t i c i z e d by those n a t i o n s who f e a r e d t h a t by the time t h e y had the p o t e n t i a l t o e i t h e r l a u n c h o r b u i l d s a t e l l i t e s , a l l 29 of the " c h o i c e s l o t s " would have been t a k e n . D u r i n g the C o n f e r e n c e , T h i r d W orld l o b b y i s t s sought t o r e d r e s s t h i s i n e q u i t y by e x t e n d i n g t h e i r demands f o r a f i x e d -a l l o t m e n t p l a n f o r f r e q u e n c i e s t o an a l l o t m e n t p l a n f o r the gee-s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . Most of t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s argued f o r g u a ranteed p o s i t i o n s i n c e r t a i n w e l l - d e f i n e d a r e a s of the o r b i t But e i g h t e q u a t o r i a l n a t i o n s went as f a r as t o d e c l a r e t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s o ver t h e o r b i t l y i n g d i r e c t l y above t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . T h i s d e c l a r a t i o n , f i r s t proposed a t Bogata i n 1976, was based on the f a c t t h a t : ... s a t e l l i t e s i n geosynchronous o r b i t remain above the same p l a c e on the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , and, f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t t h e boundary between n a t i o n a l a i r s p a c e and o u t e r s p a c e i s l e g a l l y ambiguous ... Under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the d e c l a r a t i o n , ( t h e n ) , whoever d e s i r e d t o p l a c e s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t would be r e q u i r e d t o seek and r e c e i v e the p e r m i s s i o n o f the e q u a t o r i a l s t a t e o v e r whose t e r r i t o r y i t was p l a c e d . 30 The p r o p o s a l c o n t r a v e n e d the 1967 U.N. Outerspace T r e a t y which has e n s h r i n e d the p r i n c i p l e evoked by the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1963 t h a t o u t e r s p a c e was not a p p r o p r i a b l e by any i n d i v i d u a l o r n a t i o n . F o r more o b v i o u s p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s ^ " s o v e r e i g n c l a i m s would (have) c r e a t e ( d ) an i m p r e c i s e and non-comprehensive regime because the o r b i t extends o v e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l oceans and i n t e r -31 n a t i o n a l t e r r i t o r i e s as w e l l as o v e r t h e s e e q u a t o r i a l s t a t e s . " The i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s r e f u s e d t o concede t o T h i r d World demands f o r pr e e m p t i o n o f s p e c t r a l and o r b i t a l s l o t s o r even f o r 32 a more e q u a l a l l o c a t i o n o f s t a k e s . The U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a g a i n argued t h a t a f i x e d a l l o t m e n t p l a n would a l l o w much c a p a c i t y t o go unused. (Note: I n t a k i n g t h i s p o s i t i o n , the U.S. h e l d most o f the c a r d s , f o r as l o n g as l a u n c h i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s remained under i t s a u s p i c e s i t would be a b l e t o d i c t a t e outcomes). I n the end, t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e a l l o c a t e and r e v i s e e x i s t i n g a r r a n g e -ments was d e f e r r e d t o 1983, and WARC-79 c o n c l u d e d w i t h t h e advanced i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s a s s u r i n g the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t h a t a f i n a l arrangement was pending b u t i t would have t o a w a i t advances not y e t o p e r a t i o n a l . 60. The A r r o g a n c e of Power; A P r i v a t e - P u b l i c Handshake R e g u l a t e s T e c h n o l o g i c a l P r o g r e s s The o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o " t e c h n i c a l advances" which were h a i l e d by the d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s , r e f e r r e d t o t e c h n i q u e s t h a t would m i t i g a t e the problems of overuse by making more e f f i c i e n t use o f the two r e s o u r c e s . But d e s p i t e e v i d e n c e t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y now e x i s t s t h e r e has been l i t t l e e f f e c t i v e a d o p t i o n o f these t e c h n i q u e s . Commenting on how the d e v e l o p e d n a t i o n s have not f o l l o w e d t h r o u g h w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d e s i g n s , C u r t i s White (Communications C o n s u l t a n t t o d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s ) argues t h a t t h e y s h o u l d i n some manner be r e q u i r e d t o implement them: S p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d ... t o make b r o a d c a s t e r s u t i l i z e equipment t h a t would reduce s i g n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , thus i n c r e a s i n g o v e r a l l c a p a c i t y w i t h o u t even expanding the u s a b l e spectrum. S a t e l l i t e t r a n s m i t t e r s c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t h a t can f o c u s t h e i r beams more s h a r p l y , p r e v e n t i n g s p i l l o v e r s i n t o r e g i o n s where the s i g n a l i s unwanted ... S t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t t e c h n i q u e s t o modulate f r e q u e n c i e s more a c c u r a t e l y s h o u l d (be used to) i n c r e a s e c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y ... 33 T e c h n i c a l advances i n s a t e l l i t e d e s i g n w i l l a l s o a l l o w more e f f i c i e n t use of the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . Advances i n s p i n -s t a b i l i z a t i o n keep s a t e l l i t e s i n t h e i r o r b i t a l s l o t s more 34 e f f e c t i v e l y and have h a l v e d the d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d between them. But i m p l e m e n t i n g a p l a n r e q u i r i n g s t a t e s t o adopt measures f o r g r e a t e r t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y would mean s t r e n g t h e n i n g and e x t e n d i n g the powers o f the ITU, and as the outcomes of the 1974, 1977 and 1979 WARC's have shown, the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e s i s t any p r o p o s a l s t o e x t e n d t h a t mandate, p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s becoming the key i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r and a major a r e a o f c o m p e t i t i o n between them. But even i f a more s t r u c t u r e d system o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s u n a c c e p t a b l e , a p o i n t which appears p a r a d o x i c a l i s d e s p i t e the overwhelming b e n e f i t s t o l o n g term i n d u s t r i a l growth why have commercial f i r m s i n the U.S. i n p a r t i c u l a r n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d these new t e c h n i q u e s as q u i c k l y as new i n n o v a t i o n s a r e adopted elsewhere? The e x p l a n a t i o n r e q u i r e s us t o l o o k once a g a i n a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o r d i f f u s i o n o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Most o f the r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h opening up new ranges o f the specturm and n a r r o w i n g t h e r e q u i r e d d i s t a n c e between s a t e l l i t e s i s c a r r i e d on o u t s i d e of the commercial m i l i e u i n h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d n a t i o n a l o r m i l i t a r y e x p e r i m e n t s . OTS ( O p e r a t i o n a l T e s t S a t e l l i t e P r o j e c t ) and ATS ( A p p l i c a t i o n s T e s t S a t e l l i t e P r o j e c t ) a re two examples o f government funded p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d , i n p a r t , f o r g r e a t e r , more 35 e f f i c i e n t use o f the spectrum. Much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r commercial d e v e l o p e r s , but because d e v e l o p -ment d e c i s i o n s a r e based on c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s as much as on advanced system t e c h n i q u e s , t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s have not made s i g n i f i c a n t use o f the new i n f o r m a t i o n . L i k e the ITU a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l no n a t i o n a l agency has the mandate t o f o r c e commercial f i r m s t o adopt c o n s e r v a t i o n o r advanced d e s i g n t e c h n i q u e s , a l t h o u g h t h e s e a g e n c i e s do p r o v i d e i n d u s t r y i n c e n t i v e s 3 6 t o encourage t h e i r development. What i s i m p o r t a n t f o r our p u r p o s e s , however, i s t h a t t h e s e same communication a g e n c i e s w h i c h encourage i n d u s t r y t o adopt b e t t e r t e c h n i q u e s a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l a r e a l s o the f i r s t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r commercial f i r m s a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . A t the WARC Conf e r e n c e s where most n a t i o n s are r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e i r communication m i n i s t r i e s , arguments a r e made t h a t new t e c h n i q u e s are e x p e n s i v e and r e q u i r e time t o be implemented. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e m i n i s t r i e s u s u a l l y have s p e c i f i c and h i g h l y e x c l u s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t s t h a t d e v e l o p out o f t h e i r c l o s e t i e s w i t h n a t i o n a l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s f i r m s . Seyom Brown w r i t e s t h a t m i n i s t r i e s are " u s u a l l y most concerned w i t h t e l e p h o n e and t e l e g r a p h s e r v i c e s r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l b r o a d c a s t s f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , m e t e r o l o g i c a l and e c o l o g i c a l 37 d a t a o r n a v i g a t i o n a l needs." W h i l e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s would b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from s a t e l l i t e s s e r v i n g t h e s e a r e a s , t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n f r e q u e n c i e s i s o f t e n e f f e c t i v e l y s t y m i e d by t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c - p r i v a t e handshake of n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and f i r m s from the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d . I n summary, the c o l l a b o r a t i v e system i s c u r r e n t l y s t r u c t u r e d t o f a v o r n a t i o n s w i t h w e l l d e v e l o p e d t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s and advanced t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e . T h e i r i n f l u e n c e extends t h r o u g h o u t and beyond the ITU. W i t h i n the ITU, the w e l l - i n f o r m e d communication m i n i s t r i e s ensure t h a t t h e i r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f r e q u e n c y spectrum are w e l l s e c u r e d . O u t s i d e the ITU, c o n t r o l o v e r l a u n c h c a p a b i l i t i e s a l l o w s the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s the same advantages o v e r the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s have l i t t l e hope of s e e i n g a more s t r u c t u r e d system e v o l v e u n t i l t h e y t o o have the n e c e s s a r y t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and l a u n c h i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . S y mbolic demands f o r a "New World I n f o r m a t i o n Order" and more c o n c r e t e demands f o r f i x e d a l l o t m e n t s o f the spectrum and o r b i t are l i k e l y t o go unheeded as l o n g as t h e s e n a t i o n s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t knowledge and t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y t o back up t h e i r demands. 63. CHAPTER FOUR FOOTNOTES 1. On the h i s t o r y and p o l i t i c s o f the ITU see H a r o l d K. Ja c o b s o n , "ITU: A P o t p o u r r i o f B u r e a u c r a t s and I n d u s t r i a l i s t s " i n The Anatomy o f I n f l u e n c e , eds., R.W. Cox and H a r o l d K. Jacobson (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973). 2. " A l l e l e c t r o n i c communication uses e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves t h a t pass t h r o u g h space o r a l o n g w i r e s . These waves are i n i t i a t e d by p a s s i n g b u r s t s o f e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t s t h r o u g h an antenna. E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves v a r y i n the number t h a t can be s e n t p e r second -- t h a t i s t h e i r f r e q u e n c y , measured i n c y c l e s p e r second ... The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum extends from z e r o c y c l e s p e r second a l l the way up i n t o x - r a y s (one q u i n t i l l i o n and more c y c l e s / s e c o n d ) and beyond. The r a d i o spectrum c o n s i s t s o f o n l y a p o r t i o n t h a t can be used t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n . (0-100 b i l l i o n c y c l e s ' s e c o n d ) . The spectrum i s d i v i d e d i n t o subgroups, based on the way t h a t waves i n t e r a c t w i t h l a n d and the components of the atmosphere. Because o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n , v a r i o u s s e t s of f r e q u e n c i e s can be used i n d i f f e r e n t ways." Seyom Brown, e t a l . , "Frequency and O r b i t " i n Regimes f o r the Ocean, O u t e r s p a c e , and Weather (Washington, D.C: The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1977): 176-77 . 3. F r e q u e n c i e s a re a l l o c a t e d by "bandwidth" w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s b o t h t h e i n i t i a l f r e q u e n c y t o w h i c h a t r a n s m i t t e r i s tuned and the ranges around t h a t f r e q u e n c y t h a t t h e s a t e l l i t e makes use o f i n a m p l i f y i n g the s i g n a l f o r r e t r a n s m i s s i o n t o e a r t h . Seyom Brown, e t a l . , op. c i t . , :178. 4. The most e f f i c i e n t f r e q u e n c y range f o r communications purposes has been the 4/6 GHz range. New systems a re now making use o f the 12/14 GHz range. 5 The IFRB i s one o f f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s w i t h i n the ITU. (The o t h e r s i n c l u d e the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r i a t , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a d i o C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee (CCIR), and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telephone and T e l e g r a p h C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee (CCITT). I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e have been a t t e m p t s made by the i n d u s t -r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s t o a b o l i s h the independent 11 member IFRB i n f a v o u r o f a more c e n t r a l i z e d organ w i t h i n the ITU. A number o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a re s t r o n g l y opposed t o t h i s m o t i o n because t h e y view the IFRB as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s more now tha n would be p o s s i b l e under o t h e r arrangements. I n g e n e r a l , i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the No r t h / S o u t h C o n f r o n t a t i o n a r e s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l a s p e c t s o f the ITU, i t s mandate, and i t s members b o a r d s . See Edward M i l e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Space E x p l o r a t i o n and  E x p l o i t a t i o n . Monograph S e r i e s i n World A f f a i r s . Volume 8 No. 4 (Denver: U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver, 1971):9-15. 64. 6. Brown, e t a l . , "Frequency and O r b i t " , :178-182. See a l s o D a v i s , e t a l . , " F u ture Trends ..." :279. 7. M i l e s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " :10. 8. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e d p r i n c i p l e see Anne W. Branscomb, "Waves o f the F u t u r e : Making WARC Work", i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 34 ( S p r i n g 1979) : 140-141; M a r t i n S. Soroos O r b i t as I s s u e s i n G l o b a l P o l i c y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n 36 (Summer 1982) :677; and C u r t i s T. Whit e , " U p r o o t i n g the S q u a t t e r s " , i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 34 ( S p r i n g 1979) . 9. See Branscomb,'"Waves o f the F u t u r e " , : 1 4 2 . 10. See P h i l l i p N. W h i t t a k e r , "To Beat the Band", F o r e i g n P o l i c y 34, ( S p r i n g 1979):160. 11. S o r o o s , "The Commons i n the Sky" :165-168. 12. T h i s i s the s u b j e c t o f C u r t i s White's a r t i c l e " U p r o o t i n g the S q u a t t e r s " . 13. S o r o o s , "Commons i n the Sky". 14. J a c o b s o n "ITU: A P o t p o u r r i ..." :73. 15. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of o u t e r s p a c e as a c o l l e c t i v e good see Seyom Brown, e t a l . , "Towards M u t u a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n the Non T e r r e s t r i a l Regimes", I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 (Winter 1975) . 16. Jacobson :73. 17. I b i d . :74. 18. White, " U p r o o t i n g the S q u a t t e r s " :150. 19. I b i d . F o r o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s on the American p o s i t i o n see G l e n O. "The U.S. P o s i t i o n " J o u r n a l o f Communication, 29 (Winter 1979): 157 and; ' T h i r d World S t a t i c ' Newsweek, 8 October 1979 :52. 20. W h i t t a k e r , "To Beat the Band" :160. 21. On WARC-1977 see Sooros, "Commons i n the Sky". 22. Comments from Dr. N a d k a r n i . 23. Comments from John B. T h w a i t e s , L i a i s o n O f f i c e r , Department of Communications Canada; Vancouver, B.C., August 28, 1982. 24. Stephen Grove. "The G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t " . 25. On t h i s t r a d i t i o n see L i n c o l n P. B l o o m f i e l d , ed., Outerspace (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1968). 65. 26. T h i s p o i n t i s deve l o p e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter F o u r . C h a r l e s Horner, "Outer Space and E a r t h l y P o l i t i c s : How T h i r d World Advocates o f a New World I n f o r m a t i o n Order a r e S e e k i n g C o n t r o l o f S a t e l l i t e Communications; American  S p e c t a t o r 12 (February 1979):11-14. 27. Brown, " F r e q u e n c i e s and O r b i t ..." : 178-79. 28. I b i d . 29. Branscomb, "Waves o f the F u t u r e ..." 30. Sooros, "The Commons i n the Sky ..." :671. 31. R i c h a r d R. C o l i n o , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n . AAS s e r i e s , Advances i n A s t r o n a u t i c a l S c i e n c e s , ed., R.S. Johnson e t a l . , Volume 38 P a r t I I , :87. 32. Comments from Dr. N a d k a r n i . 33. White, " U p r o o t i n g the S q u a t t e r s " . :150. 34. Brown e t a l . "Frequency and O r b i t " :178-79. S a t e l l i t e s can now be p l a c e d 2.5 degrees a p a r t , r a t h e r than the e a r l i e r r e q u i r e m e n t o f 5 de g r e e s . 35. See "Communication Experiment Ends Between NASA/Canadian Department o f Communications". S p a c e f l i g h t 22 (February 1980) . 36. A f i v e y e a r development e f f o r t was a l s o i n s t i t u t e d i n o r d e r t o "develop and enhance U.S. commercial l e a d e r s h i p " i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g 'NASA Seeks I n d u s t r i a l P a r t n e r s ' S p a c e f l i g h t . Volume 22, Number 2, F e b r u a r y 1980. See a l s o "New T h r u s t i n Space Communications" S p a c e f l i g h t , 22 (June 1980) :30. 37. Brown e t a l . " F r e q u e n c i e s and O r b i t " . :183. 66. CHAPTER FIVE  THE LAUNCH REGIME C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g of s a t e l l i t e s has never been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l as i n t h e case of s a t e l l i t e development (INTELSAT) o r i n f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s (ITU). R a t h e r , c o l l a b o r a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a l o o s e p a t t e r n of b i l a t e r a l agreements between th o s e who c o n t r o l the t e c h n o l o g y and t h o s e who seek a c c e s s t o i t f o r the l a u n c h o f t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s . S i m i l a r t o the r e s o u r c e i s s u e , however, c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the l a u n c h regime has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a hegemonial s t r u c t u r e w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s Goverment as i t s dominant a c t o r . Because o f the numerous b e n e f i t s t h i s p o s i t i o n a f f o r d e d , i n t e r e s t s i n the U.S. sought t o m a i n t a i n the p r e -eminent monopoly over the t e c h n o l o g y and r e l a t e d e x p e r t i s e , and u n t i l the l a t e s e v e n t i e s ^ w e r e a b l e t o do so. A t t h a t time the d i f f u s i o n o f knowledge i n r o c k e t s and b o o s t e r systems gave r i s e t o an o l i g o p o l i s t i c p a t t e r n o f c o n t r o l o v er the l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s when the Europeans p o o l e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o produce the A r i a n e l a u n c h v e h i c l e , a c o m p e t i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e t o NASA's D e l t a and A t l a s C e n t a u r l a u n c h e r s . By t h e l a t e 1980s, Japan, I n d i a . a n d B r a z i l can be e x p e c t e d t o have l a u n c h f a c i l i t i e s c a p a b l e of p l a c i n g communication s a t e l l i t e s i n g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . 1 There are a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the S o v i e t Union w i l l u n d e r t a k e s a t e l l i t e l aunches f o r a l l i e s a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e i n the f u t u r e . The sudden i n c r e a s e i n the number o f l a u n c h i n g s t a t e s has l a r g e l y been p r o p e l l e d by the economic p a y o f f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an advanced t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a p a b i l i t y and, e x c e p t f o r the S o v i e t U n i o n , w i t h the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e of a c h i e v i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l independence from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e t h e s e developments have i n d e e d l e d t o a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r o l o ver l a u n c h e s , a r e c e n t t e c h n i c a l achievement by the U n i t e d S t a t e s appears t o have e f f e c t i v e l y b i f u r c a t e d the regime. The advent o f the Space S h u t t l e , a r e u s a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e f a r s u p e r i o r i n a l l r e s p e c t s t o the expendable l a u n c h e r , w i l l make 3 the l a t t e r o b s o l e t e i n the near f u t u r e . Whether o r not U.S. c o n t r o l o ver s h u t t l e t e c h n o l o g y has r e g a i n e d f o r t h a t c o u n t r y much of the hegemonial p o s i t i o n i t h e l d i n the s i x t i e s , i s an i s s u e t o be c o n s i d e r e d below. I n t he f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r I w i l l d e p i c t and a n a l y s e the e v o l u t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the l a u n c h i n g of t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s , f o c u s i n g once a g a i n on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s o r , more s p e c i f i c i a l l y , on the e v o l v i n g hegemonial p o s i t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . . I a l s o f o c u s on how and why the U n i t e d S t a t e s sought t o m a i n t a i n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e system where d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and c o n t r o l r e s t e d i n t he hands of a s i n g l e preeminent a c t o r and where the d i f f u s i o n of e x p e r t i s e was j e a l o u s l y guarded by t h a t same a c t o r . An e x a m i n a t i o n of c o l l a b o r a t i o n as i t e x i s t e d i n the ' s i x t i e s and as i t e x i s t s t oday i n t r o d u c e s the d i s c u s s i o n . 68. The Changing Regime f o r the L a u n c h i n g of S a t e l l i t e s ; From Monopoly t o O l i g o p o l y and the R i s e of P r i v a t e  S e c t o r I n t e r e s t s C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the l a u n c h i n g of s a t e l l i t e s can be d e s c r i b e d on two l e v e l s : by the l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r o l and d e c i s i o n making power, and by the n a t u r e of the arrangements g o v e r n i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n . • Changes have o c c u r r e d on b o t h of t h e s e l e v e l s o v e r the p a s t two decades, the o r i g i n s of which are d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s . A t the l e v e l of l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r o l and d e c i s i o n making power,, i n the s i x t i e s , the American Government was the o n l y a c t o r w i t h the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e n e c e s s a r y t o l a u n c h commercial s a t e l l i t e s i n t o o r b i t . N a t i o n s and p r i v a t e communication a g e n c i e s w i t h i n the U.S. were e n t i r e l y dependent on NASA f o r the l a u n c h i n g o f t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s because no o t h e r group came c l o s e 4 t o meeting the v a s t U.S. l e a d i n r o c k e t - r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g y . R e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c t o r s can be d e s c r i b e d as hegemonic, w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power i n one dominant s t a t e -the U n i t e d S t a t e s Government. Today the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s has changed. More th a n one a c t o r i s now c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g l a u n c h s e r v i c e s and hence c o l l a b o r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and c o n t r o l have become somewhat more d i f f u s e d . I n F r e n c h Guiana d u r i n g 1980, a c o n s o r t i u m of i n d u s t r i a l and governmental groups from e l e v e n European c o u n t r i e s succeeded i n b r e a k i n g the U.S. monopoly over launches w i t h the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l t e s t i n g o f t h e i r A r i a n e 5 r o c k e t . S t a t e s w i s h i n g t o l a u n c h t h e i r own communications 69. s a t e l l i t e system now had t h e c h o i c e o f c o n t r a c t i n g s e r v i c e s on e i t h e r the American D e l t a / A t l a s C entaur r o c k e t s o r the European e q u i v a l e n t . F r e n c h and B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s i n the c o n s o r t i u m were a b l e t o c a p t u r e the c u r r e n t and p o t e n t i a l markets i n p a r t s of A f r i c a and A s i a where former c o l o n i a l regimes sought t e c h n o l o g i c a l a i d f o r the development of s a t e l l i t e systems. By o f f e r i n g s p e c i a l packages which i n c l u d e d t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r and f o l l o w - u p s e r v i c i n g , the Europeans r e a d i l y c o n t r a c t e d 30 p e r c e n t of a l l launches s c h e d u l e d f o r the 1980s. From t h e i r new, s t r o n g e r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n , the A r i a n e group was a l s o a b l e t o win c o n t r a c t s f o r the l a u n c h i n g of INTELSAT'S s i x t h and s e v e n t h 6 g e n e r a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e s . C o n t r o l i n the l a u n c h i n g regime was f u r t h e r d i f f u s e d when the S o v i e t Union began t o l a u n c h a s m a l l number o f communication s a t e l l i t e s f o r some E a s t e r n B l o c a l l i e s and f o r I n d i a d u r i n g the l a t e s e v e n t i e s . By 1983 I n d i a had i t s e l f become a l e a d i n g space power i n A s i a w i t h the t e s t i n g of i t s Space Launch V e h i c l e - 3 (SLV-3).7 Not y e t a b l e t o a c h i e v e the h i g h o r b i t r e q u i r e d f o r communication s a t e l l i t e s , w i t h i n a few y e a r s the SLV-3 w i l l a l l o w I n d i a t o o f f e r l a u n c h s e r v i c e s on the same c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s as the Europeans. Japan w i l l a l s o have a c a p a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e g w i t h i n the next few y e a r s , as w i l l . B r a z i l . The n a t u r e o f the arrangements g o v e r n i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n has a l s o s h i f t e d , from a h i g h l y m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y o r i e n t e d system dominated and d i r e c t e d t h r ough a s i n g l e government agency, t o a commercial and s e c u r i t y o r i e n t e d system d i r e c t e d by i n d u s t r i a l as w e l l as governmental i n t e r e s t s . I n the s i x t i e s a l l launches were c o n t r a c t e d t h r o u g h NASA, the U.S. government agency, where j o i n t c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the U.S. Department of Defence ensured t h a t a h i g h m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y p r i o r i t y was a t t a c h e d t o the 9 development and use of b o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y . W h i l e p r i v a t e a i r -c r a f t a g e n c i e s , such as McDonnell Douglas and Lockheed, r e c e i v e d c o n t r a c t s from the Department o f Defence o r worked c l o s e l y w i t h NASA t o de v e l o p r o c k e t components, o n l y NASA h e l d the mandate f o r d e v e l o p i n g and u t i l i z i n g l a u n c h vehicles."*"^ Moreover, the tremendous c o s t r e q u i r e d t o de v e l o p the n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r l a u n c h i n g s a t e l l i t e s f a r outweighed any p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l f o r independent f i r m s . The c o s t f a c t o r c o u p l e d w i t h a r e s t r i c t i o n on i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o r o c k e t t e c h n o l o g y , e f f e c t i v e l y e nsured t h a t a l l p o t e n t i a l s a t e l l i t e u s e r s would have t o c o n t r a c t l a u n c h s e r v i c e s from the U.S. Government. Today the n a t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t as l a u n c h i n g s a t e l l i t e s has t a k e n on a commerical o r i e n t a t i o n as w e l l as the o r i g i n a l m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y one. Set up as a p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h c l o s e a f f i l i a t i o n s t o n a t i o n a l s c i e n c e found-a t i o n s , " A r i a n e s p a c e " was c o n c e i v e d as the m a r k e t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the A r i a n e Launch V e h i c l e . 3 - 1 U n l i k e the U.S. system "where the F e d e r a l Government ha(d) d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n p a y l o a d b o o k i n g s " , the c o n t r a c t i n g and s a l e o f launches by A r i a n e would be und e r t a k e n i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . Government sub-s i d i z a t i o n was and c o n t i n u e s t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e i n the t e c h n i c a l a r e a s , but a l l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s are handl e d e n t i r e l y i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . I n o r d e r t o remain c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h the Euro-peans, and i n k e e p i n g w i t h the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y of h i s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , R o n a l d Reagan announced i n A p r i l 1983 t h a t c o n t r o l o v er launches on the D e l t a and A t l a s Centaur would be t r a n s f e r r e d from NASA t o the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . NASA no l o n g e r has s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r l a u n c h bookings on t h e s e v e h i c l e s , and an o p e r a t i o n s i m i l a r t o the European A r i a n e s p a c e w i l l l i k e l y emerge among p r i v a t e communication and/or a i r c r a f t companies t o market and s e l l s a t e l l i t e l a u n c h s e r v i c e s . G i v e n t h a t the U.S. Government so j e a l o u s l y guarded i t s monopoly i n the s i x t i e s and s e v e n t i e s because o f the m i l i t a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y , the Reagan p l a n would have been a landmark d e c i s i o n had i t not been f o r the U.S. Space S h u t t l e . C olumbia. The S h u t t l e - w i t h i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t i n u a l r e u s e , i t s m a n i p u l a t o r arm f o r d e p l o y i n g r e t r i e v i n g and s e r v i c i n g s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t , and i t s lower o v e r a l l c o s t t o u s e r s - i s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y advance i n m i l i t a r y r o c k e t t e c h n o l o g y t h a t a l s o has s i g n i f i c a n t advantages o v e r expendable l a u n c h v e h i c l e s f o r c a r r y i n g communication and 13 o t h e r s a t e l l i t e s . The S h u t t l e remains under governmental a u s p i c e s , as the o l d e r v e h i c l e s once d i d . I n summary, the n a t u r e of c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements has s h i f t e d as p r i v a t e and n a t i o n a l c o n t r a c t o r s now have d i f f e r e n t o p t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the overwhelming s e c u r i t y - r e l a t e d o r i e n t a t i o n o f the s i x t i e s regime has come a l s o t o have a commercial one, as w e l l . S a t e l l i t e u s e r s can c o n t r a c t w i t h a t l e a s t two commercial e n t i t i e s f o r s e r v i c e s on expendable l a u n c h e r s and w i t h NASA f o r s e r v i c e s on the s h u t t l e . The Japanese w i l l p r o b a b l y o f f e r a l a u n c h s e r v i c e w i t h the commercial o r i e n t a t i o n o f A r i a n e s p a c e by the l a t e 1980s and th e y a r e a l s o 14 a t work on a s h u t t l e of t h e i r own. 72. Towards a New E r a : The R i s e and F a l l o f U.S. Hegemony i n Launch Systems The c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t has a l t e r e d the l a u n c h regime was s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g the f i r s t decade of s a t e l l i t e development. Under-s t a n d i n g how the U.S. was a b l e t o shape the c o l l a b o r a t i v e system i s f a c i l i t a t e d by f i r s t e x a m i n i n g the c o n c e p t i o n and d e s i g n o f the American Space program. F o l l o w i n g the SPUTNIK l a u n c h , and the c r e a t i o n o f NASA, P r e s i d e n t Kennedy i n i t i a t e d a s e r i e s o f c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s i n space r e s e a r c h , the g o a l o f which was t o 15 p u t a man on the moon by the end o f the decade. The.-U.,S. approach t o " i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s " i n space was t o r e g a i n l o s t p r e s t i g e f o r the n a t i o n t h r o u g h an a p parent w i l l -i n g n e s s t o share i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements w h i l e a c t u a l l y k e e p i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o a 16 minimum. These o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d by m a n i p u l a t i n g the c o l l a b o r a t i v e system: i n s t e a d o f s t r u c t u r i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs on the m u l t i l a t e r a l p a t t e r n o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , the "U.S. i n v i t e d o t h e r n a t i o n s t o e n t e r i n t o b i l a t e r a l agreements w i t h the U.S. i n v a r y i n g forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n " t h e r e b y a l l o w i n g NASA c o n t r o l o v e r the t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n each 17 i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t . K i l d o w w r i t e s t h a t the q u a l i t y o f programs a r i s i n g from b i l a t e r a l as opposed t o m u l t i l a t e r a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l arrangements p r o v e d t o be l e s s t h a n i n s p i r i n g f o r the c o o p e r a t i n g n a t i o n s , because th e p r o j e c t s were g e n e r a l l y "of much lower p r i o r i t y i n the U.S. space program" than t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o l a u n c h 18 v e h i c l e s o r the A p o l l o moon program". The d e c i s i o n t o s t r u c t u r e c o o p e r a t i o n i n the hegemonic manner grew from a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s would a c c r u e t o the s t a t e c o n t r o l l i n g t he t e c h n o l o g y . I n use and development, l a u n c h v e h i c l e s touched n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t s c o v e r e d a wide range o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e d p r i v a t e aerospace and communication i n d u s t r i e s , COMSAT, and numerous governmental a g e n c i e s whose o b j e c t i v e s were the p r e s e r v a t i o n of U.S. power and i n f l u e n c e i n the m i l i t a r y and economic s p h e r e s . The m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t s t o be p r o t e c t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o -o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e systems. W h i l e t h e SPUTNIK s a t e l l i t e was an i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l advance, the r e a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l coup as f a r as the U.S. government was concerned was the b o o s t e r system w h i c h had launched the s a t e l l i t e i n t o low o r b i t . The Eisenhower a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t s C o l d War opponent had made s i g n i f i c a n t advances 1 9 i n r o c k e t t e c h n o l o g y and m i s s i l e guidance systems. The d e c i s i o n t o c r e a t e NASA was l a r g e l y based on the p e r c e i v e d need t o augment c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h and development i n the m i l i t a r y s p h ere, the b y p r o d u c t s o f which "would g i v e the U.S. a s i z e a b l e m i s s i l e 2 0 l e a d t h r o u g h advanced l a u n c h e r development." Making NASA a c i v i l i a n agency w i t h t i e s t o n a t i o n a l s c i e n c e f o u n d a t i o n s i n 2 1 NATO c o u n t r i e s was l a r g e l y a q u e s t i o n of e x p e d i e n c y . W i t h the p o o l e d r e s e a r c h and e x p e r t i s e of s c i e n t i s t s a t home and abroad p l u s t h o s e i n the p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s e c t o r s , the U.S. c o u l d hope t o make r a p i d p r o g r e s s i n space and b o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y . The scope of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n would have t o be l i m i t e d , however, because knowledge r e l a t e d t o m i s s i l e systems was c o n s i d e r e d s e n s i t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n by the Department of Defence and by the M u n i t i o n s C o n t r o l Board w i t h i n the Department of S t a t e . The Board m a i n t a i n e d a l i s t of so c a l l e d " c r i t i c a l t e c h n o l o g i e s " w h i c h would not be made a v a i l a b l e t o the 2 2 i n t e r n a t i o n a l " p a r t n e r s " . U l t i m a t e l y , the c o n f l i c t between e x p e d i e n c y and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y produced the type o f c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e d e s c r i b e d above and a system f o r l a u n c h i n g s a t e l l i t e s t h a t l e f t a l l d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l i n the hands of the U.S. Government. As the economic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f advanced t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s systems became apparent i n the mid s i x t i e s w i t h the s u c c e s s o f INTELSAT, g u a r d i n g l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y t o o k on an added d i m e n s i o n . The American p o s i t i o n on o u t e r s p a c e began changing from one t h a t s o l e l y r e f l e c t e d c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the S o v i e t Union f o r m i l i t a r y s u p e r i o r i t y , t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h Western Europe and o t h e r s t a t e s o ver the economic and commercial b e n e f i t s o f telecommunications.. B o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y appeared t o be the key t o m a i n t a i n i n g American hegemony; a hegemony d e f i n e d by i t s c o n t r o l l i n g i n t e r e s t i n * a s i n g l e g l o b a l communications system. W i t h the s o l e c o n t r a c t i n g l a u n c h system, the U.S. c o u l d d e t e r m i n e the r a t e by which systems o u t s i d e INTELSAT would be made a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e b y main-t a i n i n g an economic edge over c o m p e t i t o r s f o r the growing market i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . COMSAT was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the s i n g l e system framework which gave i t so much d e c i s i o n and p r o f i t - m a k i n g power; c o n s e q u e n t l y , m a i n t a i n i n g U.S. hegemony over launches came i n t o i t s sphere of i n t e r e s t s . a n d when the Europeans demanded a c c e s s t o l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y as p a r t of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e s , COMSAT lobbyed a g a i n s t the t r a n s f e r o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The U.S. Government and COMSAT were a b l e t o m a i n t a i n the hegemonic system t h r o u g h the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f i n c e n t i v e s t h a t i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y of methods and p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d t o l i m i t f o r e i g n a c c e s s t o the t e c h n o l o g y ; U n t i l the m i d - s e v e n t i e s , t h e i r methods were s u c c e s s f u l . F o r example, when the EEC formed the European Launch Development O r g a n i z a t i o n (ELDO) i n 1964 t o b u i l d t h e i r own l a u n c h v e h i c l e , the U.S. o f f e r e d i t s J u p i t e r l a u n c h e r 24 as an a l t e r n a t i v e . The key s t i p u l a t i o n , however, was t h a t i t be used o n l y f o r e x p e r i m e n t s and m i s s i o n s i n t o deep space; by d e f a u l t , t h e n , i t c o u l d n o t be used f o r s a t e l l i t e l a u n c h e s . One a u t h o r w r i t e s t h a t t h i s o f f e r was d e s i g n e d " t o t h w a r t the ELDO program" by f o r c i n g t he Europeans t o s h i f t funds i n t o r e s e a r c h 25 w i t h l e s s immediate p a y o f f s . The c r e a t i o n o f ELDO was timed t o c o i n c i d e w i t h the 1964 INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s where i t was hoped- t h a t the Americans would agree t o share launches (and l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y ) as w e l l as s a t e l l i t e development. D u r i n g the n e g o t i a t i o n s COMSAT argued t h a t i t had no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r launches and d i s c o u r a g e d l i n e s o f debate a r g u i n g f o r an accompanying i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r m u l t i -? 6 l a t e r a l l a u n c h system. I t was the F r e n c h who argued most adamantly f o r the t r a n s f e r o f l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y ; t h e i r m o t i v e s stemming from m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t i n an independent " f o r c e de f r a p p e " . I n the end, however, t h e y were f o r c e d t o agree a l o n g w i t h o t h e r members t o the b i l a t e r a l l a u n c h o p t i o n o f f e r e d by the U.S. Government i f INTELSAT .was e v e r t o become an o p e r a t i o n a l r e a l i t y . Another example of the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f b e n e f i t s a r o s e i n 1971 when the EEC was o f f e r e d a 10% s h a r e , o r a b i l l i o n d o l l a r i n v e s t m e n t i n the p a s t - A p o l l o SKYLAB and STS (Space T r a n s p o r t a t i o n System; l a t e r known as the S h u t t l e ) programs. 2" 7 The p r o p o s a l caused s k e p t i c i s m i n Europe because i t - came a t a time when the EEC was i n v e s t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f i t s " s p a c e - d o l l a r s " i n a European l a u n c h v e h i c l e , Europa I I , i n o r d e r t o l a u n c h the r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e system so s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d by COMSAT and the 28 U.S. Governments;. C r i t i c s o f the American o f f e r argued t h a t the scheme was d e s i g n e d t o d e f r a y independent r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s . I n o r d e r t o t e s t the l e g i t i m a c y o f the o f f e r t h e y demanded t h a t the t r a n s f e r o f l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y be made a n o n - n e g o t i a b l e s t a k e i n their agreement t o j o i n the U.S. program. P r e s s u r e from COMSAT and o t h e r groups i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g the U.S. hegemony l e d the S t a t e Department (who was n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n s ) , t o change i t s o f f e r from one t h a t p r o v i d e d " l a u n c h c a p a b i l i t i e s " t o 29 one t h a t extended o n l y " l a u n c h s e r v i c e s " . D e s p i t e the c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l o ver l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y , time i n e v i t a b l y saw the e r o s i o n o f the hege-m o n i s t i c regime. A number of f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the d i f f u s i o n of l a u n c h v e h i c l e e x p e r t i s e and, as i n the case of s a t e l l i t e systems, i t was the U.S. who i n a d v e r t e n t l y o r f o r o t h e r reasons c o n t r i b u t e d most t o i t s d i f f u s i o n . By the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s i t was c l e a r t o the Americans t h a t the A p o l l o moon program had been an e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e v e n t u r e w i t h few economic o r 3 0 p o l i t i c a l p a y o f f s . Launched i n the wake o f d e t e n t e between the Americans and the S o v i e t s , the ends t o which i t had o r i g i n a l l y been d e s i g n e d when c o n c e i v e d i n 1961 no l o n g e r seemed as i m p o r t a n t o r as c r u c i a l , by; 1970 . I n terms of the " s p a c e - r a c e " , the U.S. was c l e a r l y much f u r t h e r advanced t h a n t h e S o v i e t s and i s s u e s of American p r e s t i g e had l o n g ago been f o r g o t t e n . The space program was r a p i d l y l o s i n g s u p p o r t from b o t h the p u b l i c and i n Congress where budget a p p r o p r i a t i o n s f o r NASA had been 31 d e c l i n i n g s i n c e 1966. As we have seen, i n t e r e s t i n space was now d i r e c t e d towards the economic p a y o f f s o f e a r t h a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t remote s e n s i n g , m e t e r o l o g i c a l , and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s c o u l d p r o v i d e so the p o s t - A p o l l o program had t o be o r i e n t e d towards t h e s e ends i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n i t s f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , much o f the r e s e a r c h and development f o r t h i s new emphasis on the commercial r e t u r n s from o u t e r s p a c e would be c a r r i e d out i n the p r i v a t e s e c t o r . W i t h t h e s e new p o t e n t i a l l y p r o f i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r i s i n g out o f j o i n t v e n t u r e s w i t h NASA, commercial f i r m s began p u t t i n g p r e s s u r e on the American Government t o a l l o w the development o f a do m e s t i c s a t e l l i t e system t h a t would a l s o l e a d t o l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e l a u n c h i n g p o l i c i e s . When the FCC made i t s d e c i s i o n on domestic s a t e l l i t e s i n 1972, the r e s u l t was t o make l a u n c h i n g more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e a t home and abroad (see Chapter T h r e e ) . . F o r t h i s and o t h e r r e a s o n s , the U.S. changed i t s d ecade-long p o s i t i o n on l a u n c h i n g a European r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e system, g i v e n the Europeans a t l e a s t a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n , t o j o i n t he SKYLAB 32 v e n t u r e . I n d o i n g so, the Europeans were a b l e t o make use o f even the l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on l a u n c h systems t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s w i t h NASA a f f o r d e d . A n o t h e r way i n which s t a t e s were a b l e t o g a i n a c c e s s t o r e l e v a n t e x p e r t i s e and t e c h n o l o g y was t h r o u g h the v i c i s s i t u d e s 78. of American e x p o r t p o l i c i e s . The same system which a t times imposed a complete moratorium on t h e t r a n s f e r of c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i e s a l s o made them a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g o t h e r s . For example, the C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h e l d a v e r y l i b e r a l p o s i t i o n on h i g h t e c h n o l o g y , a p o s i t i o n t h a t one c o n s e r v a t i v e i n d u s t r i a l i s t t r e n c h a n t l y c a l l e d t h e " p r o l i g a c y o f t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y was made a v a i l a b l e t o c e r t a i n American a l l i e s t h r o u g h c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s and o u t -r i g h t s a l e . Japan was a b l e t o i n i t i a t e t h e development;of- i t s H-I l a u n c h v e h i c l e s as a r e s u l t of h a v i n g purchased D e l t a space l a u n c h e r technology., i n t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r . agreements w i t h the American Government and w i t h the h e l p o f e x p e r t s from the U.S. company, McDonnel Douglas. 3 4 European f i r m s were a l s o a b l e t o b e n e f i t from l i b e r a l U.S. p o l i c i e s f o r the r e c e i p t o f i n f o r m a t i o n c r u c i a l t o the development of the A r i a n e s a t e l l i t e b o o s t e r . W h i l e the Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n put a r a p i d h a l t t o s h a r i n g h i g h t e c h n o l o g y i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h r e s p e c t t o l a u n c h v e h i c l e t e c h n o l o g y , the i n f o r m a t i o n had a l r e a d y become p u b l i c knowledge. 3 5 I n whatever manner o t h e r n a t i o n s were a b l e t o g a i n a c c e s s t o the t e c h n o l o g y , the e f f e c t was t o c o n s i d e r a b l y a l t e r the l o c a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n t r o l o v e r s a t e l l i t e l a u n c h e r s and t h e n a t u r e o f t h a t c o n t r o l . A f i n a l q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s whether the advent of the space s h u t t l e , w i t h i t s overwhelming advantages f o r l a u n c h i n g t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s , has r e g a i n e d f o r the U.S., much of the monopoly i t h e l d o v e r l a u n c h e r s i n the s i x t i e s . . ; ... . . . 79. The Space S h u t t l e ; Back t o the O l d Regime? W i t h o u t a doubt, the S h u t t l e r e p r e s e n t s a r e v o l u t i o n a r y advance i n the system of l a u n c h i n g t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s , and one t h a t was l o n g overdue. By the l a t e s e v e n t i e s , f o r example, t e c h n o l o g y was a v a i l a b l e t o manufacture s a t e l l i t e s f i v e t i m e s the s i z e o f INTELSAT 1s o r i g i n a l E a r l y B i r d and w i t h 1,000 t i m e s g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y . L a g g i n g i n t e c h n i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y , the expendable r o c k e t was not s u f f i c i e n t l y p o w e r f u l t o b o o s t . t h e heavy equipment i n t o o r b i t . L a r g e r r o c k e t s were under c o n s t r u c t i o n , b u t the c o s t o f c o n t r a c t i n g t h e s e l a u n c h e r s promised t o be f a r out o f p r o p o r t i o n t o the c o s t o f the e n t i r e s a t e l l i t e system. The S h u t t l e has removed the r o a d b l o c k s posed by expendable l a u n c h e r s . Because i t was o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d as a c a r r i e r of o v e r s i z e d Department of Defence m i l i t a r y s a t e l l i t e s i t meets the c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f l a r g e r t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s . A second major advantage of the S h u t t l e i s t h a t launches-are twenty p e r c e n t l e s s e x p e n s i v e t o the u s e r t h a n the e q u i v a l e n t l a u n c h on expendable r o c k e t s . T h i s b e n e f i t stems l a r g e l y from t h e f a c t t h a t the s h u t t l e i s r e u s a b l e f o r r e p e a t e d launches whereas the major p a r t y o f o l d e r l a u n c h v e h i c l e s was d e s t r o y e d i n i n d i v i d u a l l a u n c h e s . The l a u n c h used t o r e p r e s e n t the major dead-weight ( n o n - r e c o v e r a b l e ) c o s t o f a s a t e l l i t e system, but the t h i r d advantage of u s i n g the S h u t t l e i s the a b i l i t y t o re-... c o v e r t h a t c o s t . S i n c e the S h u t t l e i s equipped w i t h a remote m a n i p u l a t o r arm, s a t e l l i t e s w hich become d e f e c t i v e once they are i n o r b i t can now be r e t r i e v e d o r r e p a i r e d i n o u t e r s p a c e w i t h o u t 80. the accompanying l o s s of s e r v i c e s and revenue. F i n a l l y , the Space S h u t t l e i s the f i r s t and most important component i n the development of o r b i t i n g space s t a t i o n s t h a t w i l l house numerous communication s a t e l l i t e s i n an environment t h a t would allow f o r continued reuse of the "same f r e q u e n c i e s (perhaps 100 to 200 36 t i m e s ) " i n a very small segment of the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . D e spite these advantages, however, the S h u t t l e has not e n t i r e l y r e p l a c e d expendable launch v e h i c l e s , and by the time i t has, other n a t i o n s w i l l l i k e l y have t h e i r own S h u t t l e systems. Given t h a t f o r t y p ercent of a l l f l i g h t s are booked u n t i l 1990 f o r m i l i t a r y purposes and another l a r g e percentage has been s l a t e d f o r experimental purposes, not many f l i g h t s are a v a i l a b l e f o r telecommunication s a t e l l i t e s . Consequently, both A r i a n e -space and the new U.S. consortium w i l l r e t a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of the launch b u s i n e s s , a t l e a s t throughout the 1980s. Furthermore, while such a c t o r s as the Munitions C o n t r o l Board and the Department of Commerce seek to p r o t e c t S h u t t l e technology (as they once d i d f o r expendable l a u n c h e r s ) , the r a t e a t which t e c h n o l o g i c a l progress i s d i f f u s e d among advanced i n d u s t r i a l s t a t e s i s much more r a p i d than i n the s i x t i e s . Both Japan and the Europeans can be expected to have a c o m p e t i t i v e s h u t t l e system i n the 1990s, o n l y f i v e or s i x years a f t e r the 3 7 American system becomes o p e r a t i o n a l . In comparison w i t h the twenty year time p e r i o d which passed before a c o m p e t i t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e was a v a i l a b l e f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l launchers, t h i s i n d i c a t e s a much more balanced p a t t e r n of c o n t r o l over h i g h technology a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . With S h u t t l e technology 8 1 . becoming a v a i l a b l e i n other n a t i o n a l space programs, and with a d e c l i n i n g U.S. monopoly over the technology, the launching of s a t e l l i t e s promises to be a very c o m p e t i t i v e i s s u e area i n the next decade. In order to seek and maintain launch c o n t r a c t s , those s t a t e s with the technology w i l l o f f e r c o m p e t i t i v e marketing s t r a t e g i e s . Arianespace has a l r e a d y designed a program to a t t r a c t the launch business of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t h a t o f f e r s a number of s e r v i c e s beyond the launch i t s e l f . While the p a t t e r n of c o n t r o l becomes more d i f f u s e d the s t r u c t u r e of c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the l a u n c h i n g of s a t e l l i t e s w i l l Remain l a r g e l y ad hoc and u n s t r u c t u r e d . T h i s i s p a r t l y a r e s u l t of the f a c t t h a t i n comparison to the space segment, the d i f f u s i o n of launch systems e x p e r t i s e has been much slower and not of the same breadth. C o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements which c h a r a c t e r i z e i t s p a t t e r n of use and management today appear on the s u r f a c e to be not very d i f f e r e n t from when the Americans c o n t r o l l e d the technology. Nations seeking to launch communications s a t e l l i t e s o u t s i d e of Europe and the U.S. must s t i l l e n ter i n t o b i l a t e r a l agreements with these c o u n t r i e s , and are t h e r e f o r e dependent on them f o r the t i m i n g , l o c a t i o n , and o v e r a l l c o s t of the system and i t s launch. The INTELSAT s e r i e s of s a t e l l i t e s w i l l continue to be launched by e i t h e r the A t l a s -Centaur or the A r i a n e v e h i c l e s , and i n the near f u t u r e , by the Space S h u t t l e . C o n t r a c t u a l arrangements between s a t e l l i t e d evelopers and n a t i o n s t a t e s p o s s e s s i n g the technology w i l l remain as the b a s i c p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h i s segment of telecommunications i s s u e a rea. 82. W i t h the growing " s a t u r a t i o n " o f o r b i t a l p a r k i n g s l o t s and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n problems t h e r e may be demands f o r a more s t r u c t u r e d and r e g u l a t e d system t o govern the l a u n c h i n g of s a t e l l i t e s t h a t w i l l p l a c e l i m i t s on t h e number of launches made by v a r i o u s s t a t e s . But i f such a system of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s proposed, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i t w i l l be s t r o n g l y opposed by the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s who have a l r e a d y shown t h e i r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o adopt a more r e g u l a t e d regime i n the r e s o u r c e a r e a . 83 CHAPTER FIVE FOOTNOTES " A s i a 1982, I n t o O r b i t " :38-46 . Fa r E a s t e r n Economic Review, 24 December See Hohan Ram and Cheah Cheng Hye, " I n d i a r eaps P r e s t i g e , but C r i t i c s Query, the B e n e f i t " , F a r E a s t e r n Economic Review, 24 December 1982, :44. On the h i s t o r y Space S h u t t l e , of C o n g r e s s , I s s u e of t he U.S. S h u t t l e see B a r b a r a A. Luxenberg, C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , The L i b r a r y B r i e f Number IB 73019, 18 September 1981, p. CRS-2; Edgar Ulsamer, "Space S h u t t l e M i r e d i n B u r e a u c r a t i c F i r e d " , A i r F o r c e Magazine, September 1980, -.12-11; " F i r s t O p e r a t i o n a l S h u t t l e Launch S l i p s " A v i a t i o n  Week and Space Technology. E n i d C u r t i s Bok S e h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA" i n Knowledge and Power: Essays on S c i e n c e and Government, ed, S a n f o r d A. L a k o f f , (New York: The Free P r e s s , 1967) :174. " A r i a n e s p a c e M a rkets Launch S e r v i c e s " , A v i a t i o n Week and  Space Technology* 11 J a n u a r y 1982:87. * H e r e a f t e r AWST " C o m p e t i t i o n Between ESA/NASA Grows" :50 . AWST, 1 F e b r u a r y 1982, See P r a k a s h Chandi " I n d i a Emerges as a Ma j o r Space Power", Overseas Times, 25 J u l y 1983, :15. F o r a s t u d y o f I n d i a ' s s c i e n c e p o l i c y and the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e see Vi k r a m S a r a b h a i , S c i e n c e P o l i c y and N a t i o n a l Development, ed, Kamla Chowdhry ( D e l h i : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f I n d i a L t d . , 1974), :38-64. See M. Kamabayashi " G e t t i n g i n t o O r b i t : Japan Launches" W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , 29 March 1977, :44; and Masayoshi Manabayashi, "The Japanese Empire S t r i k e s Back", Technology  Review (October 1981):48-49. Mike Sharp, "With the P o l i t i c a l W i l l Japan w i l l F i n d the Way", FEER 24 December 1982 :44; and "Japan T e s t s S a t e l l i t e Launches" AWST, 14 September 1981, : 18. 9. See S h a f f e r and S h a f f e r , The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  C o o p e r a t i o n , :9-12. 84. 10. S c h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA". 11. " A r i a n e s p a c e M arkets Launch S e r v i c e " :86. A r i a n e s p a c e was formed i n 1980 as a p r i v a t e company w i t h s h a r e h o l d e r s t h a t i n c l u d e 36 companies and 11 banks i n v a r i o u s ESA member c o u n t r i e s . F r ance has the l a r g e s t share — 59.25% and A r i a n e -space d e r i v e s key b e n e f i t s from i t s c l o s e t i e s w i t h F r e n c h n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y a g e n c i e s and w i t h i t s a erospace i n d u s t r i e s . See A l s o Cowen, "Europes Launch i n t o Space B u s i n e s s " . Technology Review. 12. " A r i a n e s p a c e M arkets Launch S e r v i c e s " , :86. 13. Luxemberg, Space S h u t t l e . 14. Sharp. "With the P o l i t i c a l W i l l , Japan " :44. 15. On NASA's program f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n space see: S h a f f e r and S h a f f e r , The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Co- o p e r a t i o n , :9-12. 16. I b i d . 17. J u d i t h Tegger K i l d o w . INTELSAT, P o l i c y Makers Dilemma. ( L e x i n g t o n : L e x i n g t o n P r e s s , 1974) :24. 18. I b i d . 19. S h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA", :164 20. K i l d o w , INTELSAT, :22. 21. See On NASA an e a r l y U.S. space p o l i c y , see a l s o Ken H e c h l e r , The E n d l e s s Space F r o n t i e r : A H i s t o r y o f the House Committee  on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s . AAS H i s t o r y S e r i e s , Volume 4. (San Diego, C a l i f . : U n i v e l t I n c . 1982). 22. I n t e r v i e w : • Dr. N a d k a r n i . 23. "Changing U.S. Space P o l i c y " E d i t o r i a l R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s , 10 November 1981, :826. 24. K i l d o w , INTELSAT, :76. 25. I b i d . 85. 26. On COMSAT'S interests see Roger A. Kvanr, "COMSAT: The Inevitable Anomaly". 27. Kildow, INTELSAT. 28. Ibid. :76. 29. Ibid. :77-78. 30 "Changing U.S. Space Policy" E d i t o r i a l Research Reports, :826 . 31 On the changing American position on outerspace see Francis X. Kane, "Space Age Geopolitics", ORBIS, 14 (Summer, 1971): and Larry Light, "NASA's Future: One Decade After the Moon Landing Space Program Gets L i t t l e Attention or Interest", Congressional Quarterly Weekly Reports, 28 A p r i l 1979, :780-81. 32. As we have seen, the U.S. decision to launch a European system was also based on the stalemate over the d e f i n i t i v e arrangements for INTELSAT. The Europeans would not sign the agreements unless they were given assurance that other systems could e x i s t outside of the INTELSAT structure. Kildow, INTELSAT, :75-76. 33. William H. Gregory, "The Profligacy of Technology Transfer", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 12 A p r i l 1982, :4. 34. Ibid. See also Manabayashi, "The Japanese Empire Strikes Back", :48. 35. On Reagan's increasingly stringent c l a s s f i c a t i o n requirements on technology related to national security see "Reagan p o l i c y on Classification..Spurs S p l i t Along Party Lines", Aviation  Week and Space Technology, 12 A p r i l 1982, :23. See also "Concern Mounts on Technology" AWST 19 A p r i l , 1982 :12; and Stephen H. Unger, "The Growing Threat of Government Secrecy" Technological Review, 6 (February/March 1982):3l-84. 36. Pelton, "The Future ..." :40. 37. On the Japanese Shuttle see Manabayashi, "The Japanese Empitre ..." :48. On the European Shuttle see "Europeans Develop Space Plans for the 1990's" AWST 1 March 1982 :52. The Soviets have also developed a shuttle system but whether i t w i l l be used as a commercial launcher i s unclear. After the launch of three Indian s a t e l l i t e s i n June of 1982 the idea that the USSR may be entering the commercial launch 86. services market seemed a p o s s i b i l i t y . On closer analysis i t appears to be p o l i t i c a l motivations rather than economic considerations which governed t h e i r decisions. See Carl A. Forluch J r . , "The Soviet Space Shuttle Program" A i r  University Review, May-June 1980 :55-61. 87. CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS C a p a b i l i t i e s and I n f l u e n c e i n the  Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e I s s u e A r e a As the core o f a n a l y s i s , t h i s s t u d y has examined the i n f l u e n c e o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . W h i l e the e f f e c t s o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n have l o n g been s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , few s t u d i e s have a p p l i e d t h i s theme t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n g l o b a l t e c h n o l o g y realms."*" On a g e n e r a l l e v e l , c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a i s n o t s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l and s e c u r i t y regimes. C e r t a i n ' t e c h n i c a l 1 i m p e r a t i v e s must be accomodated i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and agreements w h i c h , i n s e c u r i t y regimes might r e f e r t o g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s , w h i l e i n t e c h n o l o g y regimes u s u a l l y r e f e r t o the use and d e v e l o p -ment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o f the t e c h n o l o g y . C e r t a i n p o l i t i c a l ( i ^ . , b e h a v i o r a l and s t r u c t u r a l ) ' i m p e r a t i v e s must a l s o be accomodated. Whereas b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s v a r y a c r o s s regimes, the s t r u c t u r a l i m p e r a t i v e s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n are common t o the g l o b a l system and are t h e r e f o r e common t o the c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h a t system, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r purpose o r f u n c t i o n . In o t h e r words, the u n d e r l y i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e among a c t o r s i n the system i s a f a c t o r common t o a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i v e v e n t u r e s . That same U.S. dominance i n c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t a l l o w e d i t t o shape i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l and s e c u r i t y v e n t u r e s i n the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , a l s o a l l o w e d i t t o shape 88. c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a . In the t h r e e case s t u d i e s examined from t h i s i s s u e a r e a a c e n t r a l theme has been the U.S. dominance i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and i t s a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e i t s own g o a l s and o b j e c -t i v e s through i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . In the case s t u d i e s where the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s changed o v e r t i m e , the a b i l i t y o f the U.S. t o a c h i e v e " c o o p e r a t i o n on i t s own terms has [ a l s o l d e c l i n e d " , and the e f f e c t s on c o l l a b o r a t i o n are i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e . I n a c c o u n t i n g f o r th e s e e f f e c t s , two a s p e c t s o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n are examined: the l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l and the s t r u c t u r e o r b r e a d t h o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Where the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t e s has changed i n the t h r e e r e gimes, i t has a l s o had some e f f e c t on where i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s are made i n the regime and the number and t y p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l and arrangements i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n making. These e f f e c t s can be b r i e f l y s t a t e d . In the regime f o r the d e s i g n , development and o p e r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e systems, a changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t e s has s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d b o t h the s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and the l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l . Under the hegemonic system i n the s i x t i e s , d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l was c e n t e r e d i n COMSAT — the U.S. p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t , and c o l l a b o r a t i o n was s t r u c t u r e d i n a s i n g l e g l o b a l s a t e l l i t e system. F o l l o w i n g two decades o f c u m u l a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f u s i o n , d e c i s i o n making a t INTELSAT i s now s h a r e d among numerous n a t i o n s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , w i t h the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e systems and net w o r k s , d e c i s i o n making has become h i g h l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d and d i f f u s e , w i t h d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , f i r m s and governments making c h o i c e s 89. i n t h e regime on a wide v a r i e t y o f i s s u e s . The r e g i m e f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s has a l s o been a f f e c t e d by a s h i f t away from t h e hegemonic system o f t h e s i x t i e s , b u t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f e x p e r t i s e has n o t been as w i d e s p r e a d as i n t h e s a t e l l i t e r e g i m e so t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n has not changed m a r k e d l y . The l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making c o n t r o l h a s l s h i f t e d f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n government t o i n c l u d e i n d u s t r i a l and g o v e r n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s i n Europe t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , I n d i a , Japan and B r a z i l . I n terms o f t h e number and t y p e o f i n s t i t u -t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s i n t h e r e g i m e , c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o t h e A m e r i c a n d o m i n a t e d system o f t h e s i x t i e s i n w h i c h a b i l a t e r a l p a t t e r n o f c o n t r a c t s c h a r a c t e r i z e d r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s . N a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y have been r e l u c t a n t t o extend decision making and control over launches to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . F i n a l l y , l i t t l e change has o c c u r e d i n e i t h e r t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r t h e l o c u s o f d e c i s i o n making i n t h e regime g o v e r n i n g t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum  and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The major r e a s o n f o r t h i s outcome i s t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t e s has remaoned h i g h l y skewed between t h e two key a c t o r groups i n t h e r e g i m e , and has perhaps become more pronounced o v e r t i m e . U n l i k e t h e s a t e l l i t e o r l a u n c h r e g i m e where d e c i s i o n making was c e n t e r e d i n a s i n g l e n a t i o n o r group o f n a t i o n s , d e c i s i o n making i n t h e r e s o u r c e regime was fo u n d e d on a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e o f ' f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t s e r v e d ' . T h i s p r i n c i p l e has d e t e r m i n e d how t h e s p e c t r u m would be a l l o c a t e d s i n c e t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e regime were s e t one hundred y e a r s ago. I t came t o g o v e r n d e c i s i o n s i n t h e g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s when s a t e l l i t e u s e r s 9 0 . adopted the pr i n c i p l e s of the outerspace treaty which guaran-teed free and easy access to a l l t e r r i t o r y i n space. Member-ship at the ITU has grown considerably since the s i x t i e s ; the bulk of i t s new membership coming from the developing world. In their attempts to restructure the system, these nations have come up against a group who have recently come to enjoy the benefits and opportunities of s a t e l l i t e technology. Along with the United States, these nations r e s i s t any changes i n the de-c i s i o n making system or the structure of the ITU. Their control over c a p a b i l i t i e s has given them the power to maintain the c o l -laborative arrangements i n a manner which favours their i n t e r e s t s . The conclusions presented above have afforded some broad generalizations about how c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n has affected collaboration i n the telecommunications s a t e l l i t e issue area. Using data gathered i n the case studies, i t i s possible to con-struct more detailed hypotheses about international collabora-tion i n high technology realms which account for the behavioural as well as the s t r u c t u r a l foundations of that collaboration. Following are f i v e highly i n t e r r e l a t e d hypothesis which also t i e together the major themes of the paper. 91. Some Hypotheses Regarding I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n  G l o b a l High Technology Regimes 1. Where t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s i n the hands of a few s t a t e s , those s t a t e s w i l l demand a decision-making system which d i s - t r i b u t e s power on the b a s i s of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y . In both the s a t e l l i t e and the launch regimes, the p a t t e r n of d e c i s i o n making has r e f l e c t e d the skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s among the membership. In INTELSAT, f o r example, the U n i t e d S t a t e s through i t s p o l i c y instrument COMSAT, promoted an i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which would r e f l e c t the American l e a d i n the development of r e l e v a n t t e c h n o l o g i e s . From 1965 to 1972, COMSAT maintained a s i x t y p e r c e n t investment share i n INTELSAT and a f o r t y percent share from 19 7 2 to the pr e s e n t . During the 1964 negotiations, COMSAT achieved this control by pressing for a decision making system that would allocate profits and voting share on the basis of system usage. Since advances i n telecxratiunications within the United States were already accompanied by a large market for these services, the U.S. would inevitably make the greatest use of the INTELSAT system. Moreover, once voting shares were allocated on this basis and COMSAT had received a strong majority, i t would then be i n a position to shape deci-sions regarding the design and development of the s a t e l l i t e system. U l t i -mately, INTELSARs f i r s t generation satellites were American designed, as were the accompanying ground systems technology and other hardware. The l e n g t h o f n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the permanent INTELSAT (5 years) attested to the reluctance of COMSAT to give up i t s control and i t s 60% p r o f i t making potential. However, the diffusion of technology and exper-tise led to a more balanced pattern of bargaining and ^.influence such t h a t i t s share and power w i t h i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n were reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y . The new s t r u c t u r e v e s t e d d e c i s i o n making power i n an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l s t a f f under a D i r e c t o r 2 G e n e r a l whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s were d i c t a t e d by a Board o f Governors. Membership on t h e Board v/as d e t e r m i n e d by geography r a t h e r than by c o n t r o l o v e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the v o t i n g system was r e a d j u s t e d away from the system usage c r i t e r i a so t h a t t h e r e was "no l o n g e r a complete c o r r e l a t i o n between i n v e s t m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n 3 based on s h a r e s o f t r a f f i c , and v o t i n g r i g h t s . " I n a l l o t h e r d e c i s i o n s e x c e p t t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g i n v e s t m e n t , u n i v e r s a l membership was e s t a b l i s h e d g i v i n g each member a s i n g l e v o t e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the p r e v i o u s arrangements were r e p l a c e d by a d e c i s i o n making system w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l y checked the p r e p o n d e r a n t i n f l u e n c e o f any s i n g l e n a t i o n o r group o f n a t i o n s , and the o l d hegemonic s t r u c t u r e was s u b s t i t u t e d f o r one which was coming t o be t r u l y " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d . " I n the l a u n c h regime, the n a t i o n s w i t h the c a p a b i l i t y t o p l a c e s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t have been r e l u c t a n t t o a l t e r the system w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e s t h e i r hegemony. The system i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a b i l a t e r a l r a t h e r than a m u l t i l a t e r a l s e t o f arrangements i n w h i c h t h e c o n t r o l l i n g s t a t e d e t e r m i n e s the t i m i n g , l o c a t i o n , and number o f l a u n c h e s . The most immediate b e n e f i t a c c r u i n g t o t h e s e s t a t e s i s - the measure o f c o n t r o l i t a f f o r d s o v e r the g l o b a l e x p a n s i o n o f s a t e l l i t e system^ a c o n t r o l w h i c h would be e l i m i n a t e d i n a m u l t i -l a t e r a l system where launch, s e r v i c e s were owned and o p e r a t e d on the same b a s i s as~ the INTELSAT system. The ab:i;l£ty o f sta.tes: w i t h a t e c h n o l o g i c a l edge t o m a i n t a i n a d e c i s i o n making system w h i c h d i s t r i b u t e s power on the b a s i s o f 93. c a p a b i l i t y i s perhaps most pronounced w i t h r e s p e c t t o the f r e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t where the p r i n c i p l e s o f 1 f i r s t -come f i r s t - s e r v e d ' govern d e c i s i o n ? i n the regime. D e s p i t e con-t i n u e d p r o t e s t s from the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s w h i c h c o n t r o l s a t e l l i t e and r e l a t e d t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g i e s c o n t i n u e t o r e s i s t any changes t o t h e c u r r e n t system. T h i s i s s u e i s d e v e l o p e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n h y p o t h e s i s f o u r . 2. Where the d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e l e a d s t o a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t e s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t the g l o b a l l e v e l w i l l d e c l i n e and r e g i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and  i ndependent d e c i s i o n making w i l l i n c r e a s e . One o f the major themes o f the s t u d y has been the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e s a t e l l i t e systems o u t s i d e o f the INTELSAT framework. T h i s outcome has l a r g e l y been a t the expense o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e g o a l s o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and economic and t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y t h a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was o s t e n s i b l y d e s i g n e d t o promote. On c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , i t appears t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s have always been p l a c e d above the c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s . However, i t was o n l y when the d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e l e d t o a more b a l a n c e d o f c a p a b i l i t e s t h a t the d i v e r g e n c e between i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s became p a r f i c u a l r y a p parent. Because a c t o r s l i n k a h o s t o f c o n c e r n s and o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and r e s p o n s e s t o s a t -e l l i t e , t e c h n o l o g i e s , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i r n e g o t i a t i n g p o s i t i o n s w i l l be q u i t e p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c . W h i l e the c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s t h a t c o n c e r n system use w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be i m p o r t a n t t o a c t o r s , i n the h e i r a r c h y o f p r i o r i t i e s d e t e r m i n i n g i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y , t h e s e g o a l s may be r a t h e r f a r down the l i s t . Goals o f economic n a t i o n a l i s m and independence from f o r e i g n s o u r c e s o f t e c h n o l o g y w i l l p redominate o v e r g o a l s o f o v e r a l l system e f f i c i e n c y . The s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n telecommun-i c a t i o n s i s almost a m i r r o r image o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e cap-a b i l i t e s among a c t o r s . In the hegemonic system o f the s i x t i e s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n was h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d ; i n the c u r r e n t system, c o l l a b -o r a t i o n i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d and h i g h l y d i f f u s e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g how t h i s outcome o c c u r e d has r e q u i r e d us t o l o o k beyond the e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t i e s o f a c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s t o q u e s t i o n why s t a t e s seek a c c e s s t o o r c o n t r o l o v e r a t e c h n o l o g y and the means by which t h e s e g o a l s are a c h i e v e d . F o r example, t h e Europeans had as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e i n j o i n i n g INTELSAT o b t a i n i n g knowledge and e x p e r t i s e i n s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g i e s and m i s s i l e systems. Once th e s e o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d they were q u i c k t o promote t h e development o f s e p a r a t e systems. F o r many t r a n s n a t i o n a l and governmental i n t e r e s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , s e p a r a t e systems s y m b o l i z e d economic c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , whether a t the i n d i v i d u a l o r , n a t i o n a l l e v e l s : . F i n a l l y many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s such as I n d i a , B r a z i l and I n d o n e s i a have B e n e f i t e d ; from e x p e r t i s e g a i n e d i n j o i n t p r o j e c t s - with. NASA and t h r o u g h programs sponsored by UNESCO i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p independent systems n o t t i e d t o former m e t r o p l o e s . I n general,, c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t the g l o b a l l e v e l has been d e c l i n i n g i n most h i g h t e c h n o l o g y regimes. Indeed, t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s a t e l l i t e c a p a c i t y a t the d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s has meant t h a t more systems are n e c e s s a r y , i f n o t i n e v i t a b l e , b u t the p a t t e r n o f development has n o t o n l y been a t the expense o f j o i n t g o a l s , i t a l s o p o r t e n d s t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . W i t h o u t a r e t u r n t o more j o i n t d e c i s i o n making and c o o r d i n a t i o n a t the g l o b a l l e v e l , such po-t e n t i a l problems as t h e o v e r u s e and d e p l e t i o n o f t h e frequency-spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t as w e l l as i n t e r f e r e n c e and con-j e s t i o n problems may l e a d t o c o s t l y system slow-downs and i n t e r -n a t i o n a l d i s h a r m o n i e s . These i s s u e s a r e t h e theme o f t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s . 3. Where the d i f f u s i o n of technology leads to a system of collaboration  which i s highly di f f u s e and decentralized, problems of technical and  economic e f f i c i e n c y w i l l a r i s e that cannot be handled w i t h i n that system. T h i s - h y p o t h e s i s i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the second. I have shown t h a t some o f t h e outcomes or e x t e r n a l i t i e s o f s e p a r a t e s a -t e l l i t e systems have been t h e s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n t e c h n i c a l and economic problems o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , redundancy, and mismanage-ment o f key r e s o u r c e s . A d e c i s i o n making environment t h a t l a c k s c e n t r a l i z a t i o n coordination undoubtedly contributes to, or heops perpetuate, these problems. The current decentralized:environment i s characterized by "various forms of competition at the domestic and international l e v e l s , stem-ming from" e n t r e n c h e d i n t e r e s t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s and communication modes. P e l t o n and Snow note t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n a t the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l e x i s t s l a r g e l y "between g l o b a l communica-t i o n s a t e l l i t e s and t r a n s o c e a n i c communication f a c i l i t i e s " such as c a b l e s , and between " s a t e l l i t e systems and t e r r e s t r i a l networks 4 r e p r e s e n t e d by c o a x i a l c a b l e and h i g h f r e q u e n c y r a d i o . " I n f u n -c t i o n a l terms, t h i s t r a n s l a t e s i n t o a t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s system which i s wraught w i t h t e c h n i c a l and economic i n e f f i c i e n c i e s be-cause the o p t i m a l " c o m b i n a t i o n " o f t e c h n o l o g i e s n e c e s s a r y t o complete t h e communication l i n k i s not met. C o m p e t i t i o n a t the d o m e s t i c l e v e l between d i f f e r e n t s a t e l l i t e systems e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t o " d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t e s , i n e f f i c i e n t f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n , . . . 5 and unnecessary i n t e r f a c e and c o n n e c t i o n problems." T h i s problem-a t i c environment i s o n l y e x a c e r b a t e d by the c u r r e n t i n t e g r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e s and computer t e c h n o l o g i e s and by the t r e n d towards more s p e c i a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n f o r s a t e l l i t e s . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t n o t a l l t hese problems r e s u l t from d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The r a t e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n the t e l e c o m -m u n i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n s e c t o r s has been so g r e a t as t o outpace the concommitant growth o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements and c o o r -d i n a t i n g mechanisms. F u r t h e r m o r e , g i v e n the c o m p l e x i t y o f the c u r r e n t environment i t i s "not r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t t r u l y comp-r e h e n s i v e p r o c e d u r e s . " However, even i f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e acc o u n t e d f o r , we have seen t h a t most n a t i o n s p l a c e a g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y on an independent t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y than on i n v e s t i n g i n a system t o handle the r a t h e r costly i n e f f i c i e n c e s t h a t can r e s u l t . W i th an e v e r expanding c a s t o f a c t o r s t h a t i n c l u d e s t r a n s n a t i o n a l f i r m s and a g e n c i e s whose i n t e r e s t s b e l i e common o b j e c t i v e s and j o i n t d e c i s i o n making, system i n e f f i c i e n c e s can be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e . 4a. Where a t e c h n o l o g y makes use o f common r e s o u r c e s f o r i t s development and o p e r a t i o n , the r e g u l a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n o f  those r e s o u r c e s w i l l be de t e r m i n e d by the s t a t e s c o n t r o l l i n g  the c a p a b i l i t e s . In i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, the fr e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t are n o n a p p r o b r i a b l e p u b l i c goods whose a l l o c a t i o n cannot be . 7 i n f l u e n c e d o r mono p o l i z e d by any s i n g l e n a t i o n o r group o f n a t i o n s . A l l n a t i o n s have r i g h t s o f acc e s s t o the s e r e s o u r c e s , and an i n t e r -n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t o r y regime has e v o l v e d which a t t e m p t s t o guarantee these r i g h t s . In f u n c t i o n a l terms, t h i s g uarantee has been l e s s 97. than a p e r f e c t p l e d g e . N a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t r o l t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and i t s r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s have been a b l e t o e x c e r c i s e a h i g h degree o f c o n t r o l o v e r d e c i s i o n making and the s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the f r e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The most immediate m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s c o n t r o l i s the ' f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e d ' a l l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e w h i c h a l l o w s n a t i o n s f r e e and easy a c c e s s t o the r e s o u r c e s whenever t h e r e e x i s t s a use r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t can be accomodated on the M a s t e r R e g i s t r a t i o n o f F r e q u e n c i e s . F o r t h e g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t , t h e major g u i d e l i n e o f use has been a v a i l a b l e space. I n b o t h c a s e s , n a t i o n s p o s e s s i n g the c a p a b i l i t e s w i l l g a i n a c c e s s t o and use o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s l o n g b e f o r e those w i t h o u t advanced e x p e r t i s e and c a p a b i l i t e s i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . How t h i s system i s p e r p e t u a t e d i s d e v e l o p e d i n p a r t b o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . 4b. Where a t e c h n o l o g y makes use o f g l o b a l r e s o u r c e s f o r i t s development and o p e r a t i o n , s t a t e s c o n t r o l l i n g the c a p a b i l i t e s  w i l l p r e f e r a c o l l a b o r a t i v e o r r e g u l a t o r y System w i t h a l o o s e ,  l a i s s e z - f a i r e s t r u c t u r e . I n t he r e s o u r c e regime, the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s have an e n t r e n c h e d i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the f l e x i b l e l a i s s e z - f a i r e system o f ' f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e d ' because i t p l a c e s no r o a d b l o c k s i n the p a t h o f r a p i d economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. I n a more s t r u c -t u r e d system, f r e q u e n c i e s and o r b i t a l s l o t s would come t o be a l l o -c a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o more s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i a , f o r c i n g t h e s e n a t i o n s t o dec r e a s e t h e a n n u a l number o f s a t e l l i t e l a u n c hes o r t o adopt the c o s t l y t e c h n i c a l changes they have so l o n g r e s i s t e d . P r o p o s a l s aimed a t a c h e i v i n g t h e s e ends have a l r e a d y been advanced by the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . They i n c l u d e a ' f i x e d - a l l o t m e n t - a l l o c a t i o n scheme and s p e c i a l compensations f o r the l e s s d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n s 98. i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a moratorium on a l l o c a t i o n s t o the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d . J u s t as the d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s have p r e s s e d f o r s t r u c t u r a l changes, however, the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n have sought t o p r e v e n t the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the c u r r e n t system. T h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n t h e s t a t u s - q u o o f ' f i r s t - c o m e , f i r s t - s e r v e d ' i s f a c i l i t a t e d by c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f the ITU and IFRB which e x t e n d a c e n t r a l and i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and t o the members con^ t r o l l i n g t h a t e x p e r t i s e . I n most major d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a l -l o c a t i o n o f the spectrum, the IFRB. draws upon u p - t o - d a t e s c i e n t i f i c knowledge on communications t e c h n o l o g y and f r e q u e n c y reusage tech-, n i q u e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a q u i r e d from s c i e n t i f i c and i n d u s t r i a l groups i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r Europe who work c l o s e l y w i t h the IFRB i n d e t e r m i n i n g f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s . The i n f l u e n c e of t h e s e groups extends t h r o u g h o u t the O r g a n i z a t i o n from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , t o a l l o c a t i o n s and f u t u r e p l a n n i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a system which, would c i r c u m s c r i b e the breadth, and . f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n making powers w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be r e s i s t e d b y t h e s e groups- and t h e i r n a t i o n a l governments. U n t i l t h e i r i s a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g i e s , t h e y w i l l have the power t o do so. 5, v I n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e system where the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s I s h i g h l y skewed, the d i s t r i b u t i o n ' o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s w i l l be. d e t e r m i n e d by those c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s . S a n d l e r and C a u l e y note t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n produces c e r t a i n ' t r a n s a c t i o n . b e n e f i t s ' w h i c h cannot be g a i n e d t h r o u g h independent g action,, and w h i c h go beyond the b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by the t e c h n o l o g y , i n the. t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i p n s s a t e l l i t e i s s u e a r e a , we have seen t h e s e b e n e f i t s i n c l u d e c o s t e f f i c i e n c e s , a c c e s s t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e , and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r s . The case s t u d i e s o f f e r t h r e e main examples o f how t h e ' t e c h n i c a l l y endowed n a t i o n s a re a b l e t o c o n t r o l the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s . I n the s a t e l l i t e regime, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h INTELSAT were d e t e r m i n e d by COMSAT, i t s manager and s i x t y p e r c e n t owner. I have-shown* that.the"•''-•benefits 1 r e f e r r e d t o t h e procurement c o n t r a c t s and s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o s a t e l l i t e systems. I n the l a u n c h regime, n a t i o n s sought a c c e s s t o b o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y so they would n o t be dependent on NASA f o r the t i m i n g , l o c a t i o n , , and c h o i c e o f o r b i t a l s l o t s f o r t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s . Because the U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n t r o l l e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c v e n t u r e s , however, l i t t l e o r no i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o l a u n c h systems was made a v a i l a b l e . (The U.S. has a l s o j e a l o u s l y guarded S h u t t l e t e c h n o l o g y ! . W h i l e othe n a t i o n s e v e n t u a l l y g a i n e d a c c e s s t o the r e l e v a n t t e c h n o l o g i e s , i t was more o f t e n an i n d i r e c t outcome o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r a r e s u l t o f b i l a t e r a l agreements with, t r a n s n a t i o n a l firms., A more s u b t l e manner i n which t h e t e c h n i c a l l y endowed n a t i o n s have c o n t r o l l e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s r e l a t e s t o t h e a d o p t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l improvements f o r i n c r e a s e d system p r o f i c i e n c y and e f f i c i e n c y . I n b o t h t h e s a t e l l i t e and t h e r e s o u r c e r e g i m e s , a g e n c i e s and t r a n s n a t i o n a l f i r m s w i t h i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d have h e l d back c e r t a i n developments which would b e n e f i t o t h e r n a t i o n s i n the system. I n t h e s a t e l l i t e regime, f o r example, t r a d e r e s t r i c -t i o n i s m has l i m i t e d t h e a v a l i a b l i t y o f advanced system t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e g l o b a l market. Dr. N a d k a r n i n o t e s t h a t n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s 100. designed to p r o t e c t domestic hi g h technology i n d u s t r i e s are most o f t e n d i r e c t e d a t j u s t those t e c h n o l o g i e s which would reduce problems of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and redundancy i n g l o b a l telecom-' 9 munication networks. In the resource regime, the r e l u c t a n c e o f l a r g e f i r m s to adopt c o s t l y but a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i c a l improvements i n s p a c e c r a f t and ground systems has meant a l e s s than o p t i m a l use o f the frequency spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The consequences of r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s and c o n t r o l l e d progress are both economic and p o l i t i c a l . The economic consequences have been d i s c u s s e d i n hypothesis t h r e e . The p o l i t i c a l consequences have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n these regimes. The dev e l o p i n g n a t i o n demands f o r s t r u c t u r a l changes i n the c u r r e n t a l l o c a t i o n system, or t h e i r d e s i r e to opt out of the system a l t o g e t h e r have on l y been augmented by the r e l u c t a n c e of the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s to adopt long term p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . One example of t h e i r attempts to opt out of the system i s the Bogota D e c l a r a t i o n o f 1976 i n which e i g h t n a t i o n s claimed j u r i s -d i c t i o n over the o r b i t above t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s . R e s t r i c t i o n i s m tends to f u e l the n a t i o n a l p r o p e n s i t y to i n v e s t i n systems and s e r v i c e s independent of the g l o b a l network. These moves away from g l o b a l d e c i s i o n making and problem s o l v i n g f u r t h e r exacerbate c u r r e n t problems a s s o c i a t e d with d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Seyom Brown i s s u e s a sharp compendium of the f i v e hypotheses i n h i s comments on the c u r r e n t s t a t e of a f f a i r s f o r the management and use of communication t e c h n o l o g i e s : In /the s a t e l l i t e / f i e l d too the quest i o n s of who owns, manufactures, and pr o v i d e s the v a r i o u s 101. t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s a r e s t i l l h a n d l e d on t h e b a s i s .... t h a t c a p a b i l i t y makes r i g h t . I f they c o n t i n u e t o be h a n d l e d u n i l a t e r a l l y , however, o p t i m a l use o f the t e c h n o l o g y i s u n l i k e l y . . . . M u l t i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n making:and management o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y . . . w o u l d r e q u i r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e r e o r i e n t a t i o n toward i n t e r -n a t i o n a l as opposed t o p u r e l y n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l on the p a r t o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 10 Beyond d e p i c t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , t h i s paper has e x p l o r e d t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t consequences f o r t h e e f f i c i e n t use o f s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y o f ' p u r e l y n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . ' These e f f e c t s and consequences a r e f a r r e a c h i n g f o r t h e use and development o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e c h n o l o g y t h a t r i v a l s mans g r e a t e s t s o c i a l and economic i n n o v a t i o n s . I n t h e n e x t decade g l o b a l economic and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s w i l l become e n t i r e l y dependent on h i g h speed i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r s made p o s s i b l e by s o p h i s t i c a t e d computer and s a t e l l i t e n e tworks. I n the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d , t h e market f o r s a t e l l i t e s e r v i c e s w i l l grow d r a m a t i c a l l y and s a t e l l i t e d i s h e s w i l l come t o p o p u l a t e t h e h o r i z o n s o f s u b u r b i a as t h e t e l e v i s i o n antenna once d i d . F i n a l l y , s a t e l l i t e s used f o r communications, r e s o u r c e s e n s i n g , and m e t e r o l o g y w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t i n s t r u m e n t s o f development i n t h e T h i r d W orld. Whether t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be f u l l y r e a l i z e d , however, w i l l depend o n A e f f i c i e n t g l o b a l r e s ponse t o t h e t e c h n o l o g y ' s op-p o r t u n i t i e s and t o t h e e x t e r n a l i t i e s caused by independent p r o g r e s s and poor management. I f t h e l i b e r a l d i c t u m t h a t p r o f f e r s need as t h e m o t i v a t o r o f p o s i t i v e p r o g r e s s i s c o r r e c t , t h e n i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l s e c t o r s w i l l o f f e r s o l u t i o n s t o t h e c u r r e n t problems o f r e s o u r c e o v e r u s e and t e c h n i c a l i n e f f i c i e n c e s 102. l o n g b e f o r e n a t i o n s abandon t h e i r u n i l a t e r a l v i s i o n i n f a v o r o f g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e management and use o f g l o b a l t e c h n o l o g i e s . Whether p o l i t i c a l r o a d b l o c k s w i l l go on a f f e c t i n g the a d o p t i o n o f t h e s e s o l u t i o n s i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o confound many s c h o l a r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y makers. 103. CHAPTER SIX FOOTNOTES S h a f f e r and S h a f f e r , The P o l i t i c s of I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n , P. 4 2. Stephen Levy, "INTELSAT: th e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a regime", p.669 3. I b i d . 4. Joseph P e l t o n and M a r c e l l u s Snow, "Key Problems i n S a t e l l i t e Communications: P r o l i r e r a t i o n , C o m p e t i t i o n , and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n Environment." p. 104 5. I b i d . , p. 114 6. I b i d . , p. 97 7. Todd S a n d l e r and Jon C a u l e y , "The D e s i g n o f S u p r a n a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e s : An Economic P e r s p e c t i v e . " Todd S a n d l e r , ed., The Theory and S t r u c t u r e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Economy • ( B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o : Westview P r e s s , 1980): p. 32 8. I b i d . , pp. 40-41 9. I n t e r v i e w , Dr. N a d k a r n i . Vancouver, B.C. 10. Seyom Brown, New F o r c e s i n World P o l i t i c s (Washington, D.C: The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1974): p. 142 

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