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Capability, influence and international collaboration : a case study of the telecommunications satellite Vos, Lynn L 1983

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CAPABILITY, INFLUENCE AND INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION A CASE STUDY OF THE TELCOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE by LYNN L. VOS B.Comm., University of Alberta, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Political Science)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1983 Q  Lynn L. Vos, 1983  )E-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department o r by h i s o r her  granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be  allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Political Science  The  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  1956  Main  Mall  Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  (3/81)  14 October 1983  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  T h i s t h e s i s examines t h e e v o l u t i o n satellite  technology since  of telecommunications  i t s functional inauguration  c e n t u r y ago i n o r d e r t o d r a w some c o n c l u s i o n s  a  quarter  a b o u t how t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s a f f e c t s c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e use and  development o f g l o b a l  technologies.  examined i n t h r e e s p e c i f i c a r e a s : and  development o f s a t e l l i t e  satellites,  systems, f o r the launching o f  orbit.  r o l e of the United States  three areas.  collaboration f o r the design  and f o r t h e u s e a n d a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y  spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y the  Collaboration i s  The f i n d i n g s  Special  attention  i n shaping c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n these  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e and  nature of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s strongly the  i s given to  a f f e c t e d by  d i s t r i i t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s among s t a t e s b u t t h a t an u n d e r -  standing  of the s p e c i f i c character  of that collaboration  requires  a knowledge o f o t h e r f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r t o t h e t e c h n o l o g y i n question.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  i  ABBREVIATIONS  .  Introduction:  CHAPTER TWO —  The T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e : I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Issue: A r e a  A Framework f o r A n a l y s i s  i  ..  An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S a t e l l i t e s : Opportunities f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y The "Hows a n d Whys" o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e Use and Development o f S a t e l l i t e s The Regime f o r t h e D e v e l o p m e n t a n d O p e r a t i o n o f S a t e l l i t e Systems  M a i n t a i n i n g a S i n g l e G l o b a l System: International C o l l a b o r a t i o n a n d A m e r i c a n Hegemony i n t h e S i x t i e s The P r o l i f e r a t i o n o f S y s t e m s : The C h a n g i n g S t r u c t u r e o f C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e S e v e n t i e s a n d E i g h t i e s ... The Regime G o v e r n i n g t h e F r e q u e n c y Spectrum and G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t  C h a l l e n g e s t o t h e C o l l a b o r a t i v e Arrangements f o r t h e A l l o c a t i o n o f t h e F r e q u e n c y S p e c t r u m a n d Geostationary Orbit: WARC C o n f e r e n c e a n d t h e S t a t u s Quo The A r r o g a n c e o f Power: A P r i v a t e - P u b l i c H a n d s h a k e Regulates Technological Progress CHAPTER F I V E —  i  v i i  CHAPTER ONE —  CHAPTER FOUR —  i  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  CHAPTER THREE —  i  The L a u n c h Regime  The C h a n g i n g Regime f o r t h e L a u n c h i n g o f S a t e l l i t e s : From M o n o p o l y t o O l i g o p o l y a n d t h e R i s e o f Private Sector Interests  1  6 7 10  25 25 39  50  53 60 66  68  -ivTowards a New E r a : The R i s e and F a l l o f U.S. Hegemony i n Launch Systems The Space S h u t t l e : Back t o the O l d Regime? CHAPTER SIX —  Conclusions  C a p a b i l i t i e s ^ I n f l u e n c e i n the Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e Issue Area Some Hypotheses Regarding I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n G l o b a l High Technology Realms  72 79 87 g  7  91  -V-  ABBREVIATIONS  ATS  Applications Test S a t e l l i t e  AT & T,  American Telephone and Telegraph  COMSAT  Commiinications  COPUOS  Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN)  CTS  Canadian Test S a t e l l i t e  ECS  European Communications  ELDO  European Launch Development  ESA  European Space Agency  FCC  Federal Communications  IFRB  International Frequency Registration Board  IGY  International Geophysical Year  INTELSAT  International Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e Organization  IT & T  International Telephone and Telegraph  ITU  International Telcommunications Union  NASA  National Aeronautics and Space Administration  OTS  Operations Test S a t e l l i t e  WARC  World Aoitiinistrative Radio Conference  S a t e l l i t e Corporation  Satellite Organization  Commission  - v i-  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o acknowledge my g r a t i t u d e t o c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r encouragement and advice during the p r o j e c t : K a i H o l s t i , David B. Dewitt, Paul Tennant and D a n i e l Wong. A s p e c i a l note o f g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o Mark W. Zacher who spent more time w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t than I should have requested. He a l s o helped me t o develop the patience and f o r t i t u d e necessary t o stay w i t h a long p r o j e c t that o f t e n seems t o have gone awry. To V i c k i , Joanne, Sue and L o r i , thank you a l l f o r the encouragement support and f a i t h .  F i n a l l y t o the memory o f a dear f r i e n d , James  E l b r i d g e Goode, I would l i k e t o add t h a t should I have had the b e n e f i t of your advice and f r e i n d s h i p throughout the d u r a t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t , perhaps some o f the f a i l u r e s and shortcomings could have been avoided. The words o f advice you once gave now appear p a i n f u l l y accurate, and the lessons have been w e l l learned.  CHAPTER  INTRODUCTION:  ONE  A FRAMEWORK FOR  In c o n s t r u c t i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l f o r the use both The  and  ANALYSIS  c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements  development of telecommunication  t e c h n o l o g i c a l and  political  satellites,  i m p e r a t i v e s must be  t e c h n o l o g i c a l imperatives of t h i s  accommodation r e f e r t o  s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s a t e l l i t e  the  systems which n e c e s s i t a t e  c o o p e r a t i v e agreements between governments b e f o r e 2 c a n become o p e r a t i o n a l .  accommodated.  B e c a u s e r e s e a r c h and  the  system  development i s  c o n t i n u a l l y p r o g r e s s i n g , s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t advances i n t e c h n i c a l and  o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y m u s t a l s o be  basis.  The  political  structural.  imperatives  accommodated on  are both b e h a v i o r a l  A c t o r s have p a r t i c u l a r i s t i c  e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y hope t o r e a l i z e and  like  the technology  Structural  imperatives  itself,  these  held  collaboration, dynamic.  r e f e r t o t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power  i s s u e a r e a s , power and  i z e d as o w n e r s h i p o r c o n t r o l o v e r expertise.  and m u t u a l l y through  ongoing  and  e x p e c t a t i o n s are  i n f l u e n c e among a c t o r s i n t h e s y s t e m . technological  an  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n f l u e n c e c a n be  and in  character-  the r e q u i s i t e technology  and  When t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e l e v a n t c a p a b i l i t i e s  between the c o o p e r a t i n g  states, i t will  h a v e an  important  changes effect  3  on  international  study  collaboration.  t o e x a m i n e and  depict that effect with respect  c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e use satellites.  I t i s the purpose of  and  development of  this  to  telecommunication  2. Two l i n e s o f i n q u i r y a r e p u r s u e d . how t h e i n i t i a l  First I shall  d i s t r i b u t i o n of technology  and e x p e r t i s e s h a p e d  e a r l y c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements i n the i s s u e area. the o v e r a l l States"  analysis i s the "special  i n shaping  international  examine  Central to  r o l e p l a y e d by t h e U n i t e d  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the f i f t i e s  4  and  sixties.  Ruggie notes  that:  A m e r i c a n t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony d e f i n e d an o r d e r o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n which o t h e r s had to f i n d t h e i r place. The U n i t e d S t a t e s was t h e m a j o r s t i m u l u s i n l a u n c h i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l programs, and i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u p e r i o r i t y s e t t h e agenda and d e f i n e d t h e o r d e r o f r e l a t i o n s more o f t e n t h a n n o t . 5 T h i s p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s was n o t p e r m a n e n t h o w e v e r , and i n t h e late sixties  a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s A m e r i c a n t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony  b e g a n t o wane as o t h e r n a t i o n s g a i n e d nologies.  access  to relevant tech-  The s e c o n d l i n e o f i n q u i r y d e p i c t s t h i s  distribution of capabilities  changing  among a c t o r s a n d i t s s u b s e q u e n t  e f f e c t on c o l l a b o r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s . T h e s e two l i n e s o f i n q u i r y a r e p u r s u e d i n t h r e e case s t u d i e s .  Within the telecommunications  separate  satellite  area, three c o l l a b o r a t i v e regimes are o f p a r t i c u l a r  issue  interest:  the regime f o r t h e d e s i g n , development, and o p e r a t i o n o f satellite  systems; t h e regime f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s ;  and  t h a t f o r t h e use and a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y  and  geostationary orbit.  Developing  spectrum  and o p e r a t i n g a s a t e l l i t e  system r e q u i r e s t h a t s t a t e s c o l l a b o r a t e i n a l l three o f these a r e a s , b u t e a c h r e g i m e c a n be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y p u r p o s e , f u n c t i o n and  level of institutionalisiru  Furthermore, the d i s t r i b u t i o n  3.  o f c a p a b i l i t i e s h a s a f f e c t e d e a c h i n a d i f f e r e n t way. to account f o r these v a r i a t i o n s , the case s t u d i e s historical  other.political  actors, the negotiations  activity pertinent  and c o n f e r e n c e s ,  t o each  I n o r d e r t o draw some s p e c i f i c a n d u s e f u l the  present a  e v o l u t i o n w h i c h comments on t h e t e c h n o l o g y , t h e  interests of relevant and  In order  regime. conclusions,  e f f e c t s o f a changing c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e examined  with  respect  t o two p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n :  l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n making control;-and institutional  arrangements.  the  the structure of  The l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n  making  c o n t r o l r e f e r s t o t h e number a n d t y p e o f a c t o r s m a k i n g t h e majority the  of important decisions  sixties  a n d managed t h e o b j e c t i v e s  In the l a t e seventies  more d i f f u s e d . involved  F o r example, i n  t h e A m e r i c a n government and i t s p o l i c y  COMSAT d e f i n e d regime.  i n the regime.  instrument  i n the s a t e l l i t e  h o w e v e r , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was much  W i t h numerous s t a t e s a n d t r a n s n a t i o n a l  i n managing t h e system.  a r r a n g e m e n t s i s a more g e n e r a l collaboration.  Generally  actors  The s t r u c t u r e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  measure o f t h e b r e a d t h o f  speaking, the case s t u d i e s  indicate  t h a t a s c a p a b i l i t i e s become more d i f f u s e d , t h e number and t y p e s of  institutional  arrangements governing a c t i v i t y  i n the regime  will proliferate. A summary o f t h e s e e f f e c t s i s l e f t chapter.  This  chapter w i l l  to the  concluding  a l s o serve another purpose.  p o l a t i n g from data i n t h e case s t u d i e s , f o r m u l a t e d w h i c h make more g e n e r a l  Extra-  f i v e hypotheses are  statements about the e f f e c t  o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s on c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l  r e g i m e s and  issue  areas.  Before proceeding w i t h the case chapter w i l l satellite paper.  studies,  i n t r o d u c e the reader t o the  issue  a r e a and  s e t the e m p i r i c a l  the  following  telecommunications boundaries  of  the  5. CHAPTER ONE  FOOTNOTES  1.  T h i s i s t h e theme o f S t e p h e n L e v y ' s work on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e regime. S t e p h e n J . L e v y , "INTELSAT: t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a r e g i m e " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 (Summer 1 9 7 5 ) : 654  2.  I b i d . , :656. See a l s o , V i c t o r B a s i u k , T e c h n o l o g y P o l i t i c s and A m e r i c a n F o r e i g n P o l i c y . (New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) ; a n d , Eugene S k o l n i k o f f The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Imperatives of Technology, ( B e r k e l e y , 1971) .  3.  S t u d i e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h i s theme and t h e p o l i t i c a l imperatives of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l issue areas i n c l u d e D a v i d S. B l a k e and R o b e r t S. W a l t e r s , The P o l i t i c s o f G l o b a l E c o n o m i c R e l a t i o n s ( E n g e l w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1976) C h a p t e r S i x : I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , S p e c i a l I s s u e on T e c h n o l o g y . 29 (Summer 1975) ; Edward M a l e s , " T r a n s n a t i o n a l i s m i n Space: I n n e r and O u t e r " I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 25 (Summer 1 9 7 1 ) ; P r i c e de S o l l a and I S p e i g a l R o s i n g , S c i e n c e T e c h n o l o g y and S o c i e t y ( L o n d o n : Sage P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 7 ) ; and J o a n E. S p e r o , The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic R e l a t i o n s (St. Martin's Press, 1977) .  4.  J o h n G. R u g g i e , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e s p o n s e s t o T e c h n o l o g y : C o n c e p t s . a n d T r e n d s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 2 9 (Summer 1 9 7 5 ) : 566.  5.  Ibid.  6.  I w i l l be u s i n g J o h n G. R u g g i e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f " r e g i m e " , r e f e r r i n g t o a " s e t o f m u t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s , p l a n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e n e r g i e s and f i n a n c i a l c o m m i t m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a c c e p t e d by a g r o u p o f s t a t e s . " The i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e t h e s e r e g i m e s a r e c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e commitments and expectations.  CHAPTER  The An  The First,  TWO  Telecommunications Introduction  Satellite:  t o the Issue Area  purposes of the f o l l o w i n g chapter are twofold.  I will  depict  t h e n a t u r e and development o f t h e  telecommunications s a t e l l i t e  issue  area,  the actors  whose  i n t e r e s t s a r e a f f e c t e d , and what t h o s e i n t e r e s t s a r e , i n o r d e r t o s e t t h e f o u n d a t i o n s and p r o v i d e  background  information  Secondly, I  describe of  f o r the three  case s t u d i e s .  t h e p a r t i c u l a r u s e and d e v e l o p m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  satellite  t e c h n o l o g y t h a t have made c o l l a b o r a t i o n  n e c e s s a r y among g o v e r n m e n t s a n d t r a n s n a t i o n a l is  actors.  It  these c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements which are t h e f o c i of  analysis  i n the subsequent  studies.  7.  An  Introduction to Satellites:  Opportunities  The  launch  subsequent launch satellite,  f o r Growth and S e c u r i t y  o f t h e S o v i e t SPUTNIK i n O c t o b e r 1957 a n d t h e by t h e U n i t e d  States  ECHO I , saw t h e h a r n e s s i n g  a p p l i c a t i o n s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  of the f i r s t  communications  of outerspace f o r  earth  f o r t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . ' ' From 1  t h e u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d ECHO s a t e l l i t e w h i c h d i d l i t t l e more t h a n reflect  s i g n a l s from antennae on e a r t h , by t h e mid-seven  communication s a t e l l i t e s  h a d come t o g e n e r a t e o v e r n i n e t y  of a l l g l o b a l telecommunications t r a f f i c , as t e l e p h o n e , I n few o t h e r so a p p a r e n t .  telegraph,  seventies  r a d i o , data  percent  i n c l u d i n g such s e r v i c e s  t r a n s m i s s i o n , and t e l e v i s i o n .  a r e a s has t h e p r o c e s s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l change been Communications v i a s a t e l l i t e  have grown t o i n c l u d e  s p e c i a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n s such as n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d s f o r m a r i t i m e 3  and  aeronautical services,  transmission  t o very  small  antennae  4  in  i n d i v i d u a l homes a n d r e m o t e r e g i o n s ,  cable  t e l e v i s i o n , and  r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y communications."* i n n o v a t i o n has been t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e s technology  and computer  as p a r t o f t h e network f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g , s t o r i n g , and  r e t r i e v i n g vast quantities of information speeds between b u s i n e s s e s From t h e e l e v e n agreement i n a u g u r a t i n g  a t unprecedented  and i n d i v i d u a l s w o r l d w i d e .  members who s i g n e d  the o r i g i n a l  interim  the b i r t h of the f i r s t International  Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e Organization the  A remarkable  (INTELSAT) i n  1965  s  INTELSAT s y s t e m h a s g r o w n t o i n c l u d e o v e r 150 members  operating  hundreds o f e a r t h s t a t i o n s and c a r r y i n g t w o - t h i r d s o f  the w o r l d ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a n s o c e a n i c  communications,  From  the  8.  original  international  s y s t e m s - INTELSAT and t h e S o v i e t  p a r t , INTERSPUTNIK - s a t e l l i t e  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s have b e e n  i n t o s m a l l e r and s m a l l e r s u b d i v i s i o n s i n c l u d i n g  ...  counter"divided  regional  p u b l i c telecommunications, domestic n a t i o n a l telecommunications" and o t h e r r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l  systems d e s i g n e d f o r the  a p p l i c a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. s y s t e m s w i l l be o p e r a t i n g  By t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 s  special  o v e r 100  satellite  globally.  The c o m m e r c i a l and d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s made a v a i l a b l e through telecommunications s a t e l l i t e s  have a l r e a d y b e g u n t o have  c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p a c t on g l o b a l e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  progress.  C u r r e n t assessments i n d i c a t e a w o r l d market of t e n t o b i l l i o n U.S.  dollars  f o r communication s a t e l l i t e  s y s t e m s by t h e  m i d - e i g h t i e s ; a m a r k e t s p u r r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e of  d o m e s t i c b u s i n e s s s y s t e m s i n t h e U.S.  W i t h i n t h e U.S.  fifteen  development  and W e s t e r n  a l o n e , demand f o r s p a c e s a t e l l i t e  Europe. ^ 1  v i d e o and d a t a  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i l l grow f i v e t i m e s by t h e y e a r 2000. the  industrialized nations, s a t e l l i t e  development  I n most o f  i s heavily  s u b s i d i z e d by p u b l i c f u n d s j t h e r e f o r e , c o m p e t i t i o n f o r m a r k e t s will  be g r e a t e s t i n g r o u n d s y s t e m s t e c h n o l o g y : t h e s e i n c l u d e  satellite computer  d i s h e s ; s m a l l , p o r t a b l e antennae; r e l a t e d equipment  and s w i t c h i n g c o m p o n e n t s .  1 1  Selling  s e r v i c e s b o t h n a t i o n a l l y and a b r o a d w i l l a l s o become competitive. the  electronic satellite  increasingly  C u r r e n t l y the United States continues t o lead i n  p r o d u c t i o n , e x p o r t and s a l e s o f s a t e l l i t e - r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g y  and s e r v i c e s , b u t t h e J a p a n e s e , E u r o p e a n s already formidable  competitors.  12  and C a n a d i a n s a r e  9. The  opportunities that s a t e l l i t e  communications present f o r 13  developing c o u n t r i e s are f a r - r e a c h i n g . n a t i o n s can b e n e f i t from  access  Numerous T h i r d  to s a t e l l i t e  World  systems "to serve 14  s p e c i f i c needs i n a r e a s Satellites  can  link  l i k e a g r i c u l t u r e , h e a l t h and  dispersed population centers i n large or small  c o u n t r i e s much more e a s i l y and communications. countries  education"  Furthermore,  efficiently independent  than  terrestrial  systems a l l o w d e v e l o p i n g  " t o communicate between themselves  without  going 15  through With  a former m e t r o p o l i t a n c a p i t a l  i n Europe" or  elsewhere.  t h e s e p r o s p e c t s , many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s h a v e a l r e a d y  gained access  to s a t e l l i t e  communication s e r v i c e s through  the  development of indigenous c a p a b i l i t i e s or i n j o i n t v e n t u r e s : I n 1983, I n d i a w i l l l a u n c h a s a t e l l i t e t h a t w i l l have t h e c a p a c i t y t o b r o a d c a s t community t e l e v i s i o n t o e v e r y one o f i t s 560,000 v i l l a g e s ... s i m i l a r l y , the League of Arab S t a t e s p l a n s t o e s t a b l i s h a s a t e l l i t e system w i t h s m a l l E a r t h s t a t i o n s c a l l e d A r a b s a t , w h i c h w i l l have a c a p a c i t y t o s e r v e 22 A r a b s t a t e s w i t h b o t h t e l e p h o n e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and television. I n L a t i n A m e r i c a , B r a z i l i s w e l l on i t s way w i t h p l a n s f o r a 1984 s a t e l l i t e l a u n c h ; C o l u m b i a p l a n s f o r one. In the P a c i f i c , I n d o n e s i a , which pioneered s a t e l l i t e communications i n i t s a r e a b a c k i n 1976, i s g o i n g a h e a d w i t h a s e c o n d g e n e r a t i o n t h a t w i l l serve a l l of the c o u n t r i e s of the Asean. 16 ;  Numerous o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s l e a s e a c c e s s on r e g i o n a l o r on t h e INTELSAT s y s t e m , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own stations.  The  ITU  and  t h e US  satellite  ground  l a c k of a communications i n f r a s t r u c t u r e  hindered indigenous development  systems  has  b u t O r g a n i z a t i o n s s u c h as UNESCO,  a g e n c y , AID, h a v e c r e a t e d p r o g r a m s t h a t  s e r v i c e s to these n a t i o n s .  extend  10.  The  "Hows a n d Whys" o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n for  t h e Use a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f  Three g e n e r a l in  reasons e x i s t f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n  the telecommunications s a t e l l i t e  use  of foreign t e r r i t o r y  issue area:  and a s s e t s J  s c a l e ; a n d t h e u s e o f common  1•  Satellites  t h e n e e d t o make  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c o s t and  resources.  When t h e u s e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t e c h n o l o g y r e q u i r e s t h e crossing of i n t e r n a t i o n a l boundaries, transnational i n t e r e s t s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n becomes necessary. B o t h s p a c e a n d g r o u n d s e g m e n t s make-up t h e s a t e l l i t e  The  s p a c e segment c o n s i s t s o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t  system.  a n d , where n e c e s s a r y , 18  tracking,  telemetry  and c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s on e a r t h .  The  g r o u n d segment c o n s i s t s o f t h e e a r t h s t a t i o n s o r a n t e n n a e w h i c h d i r e c t and r e c e i v e  s i g n a l s from the s a t e l l i t e ,  and t h e t e r r e s t r i a l  c o m m u n i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h d i r e c t t h e message t o i t s f i n a l user.  Creating  a g l o b a l telecommunications f a c i l i t i t y  INTELSAT r e q u i r e s t h a t m u l t i p l e t r a c k i n g , g r o u n d a n d facilities  be c o n s t r u c t e d  Systems o p e r a t i n g telegraph  at various  across  p o i n t - t o - p o i n t s e r v i c e s s u c h as  f a c s i m i l e , data  transmission  othersjrequire that extensive facilities  points  such as transmission 19  the globe. telephone,  and e l e c t r o n i c m a i l ,  coordinating  and n e t w o r k i n g  be d e s i g n e d t o make t h e new s y s t e m c o m p a t i b l e  with  other  modes o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  cable  a n d e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s ) s o t h a t t h e message c a n be  t r a n s l a t e d and s e n t coordination  (such  among  as t h e t r a n s o c e a n i c  i n t h e r e q u i r e d mode.  Given the extensive  r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p an " e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i n g  system  ... p a r t i c i p a n t s must e s t a b l i s h b a s i c agreements.: on  (location),  c o s t s h a r i n g , system o p e r a t i o n " , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and revenue s. h a r i.n g . 20 In i t s most b a s i c form, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Consortium  (INTELSAT) was  c o n c e i v e d i n 1964  As the f i r s t t r u l y g l o b a l communications mandate was  Satellite  f o r these purposes.  s a t e l l i t e system, i t s  t o " c a r r y forward the design, development,  e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o p e r a t i o n and maintenance  construction,  of the space segment* of  the g l o b a l commercial telecommunications system  ... (which  was}  to be a v a i l a b l e on a n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y b a s i s to a l l areas of the 21 world."  The o r i g i n a l INTELSAT was  r e n e g o t i a t e d i n 1969 to  r e f l e c t the changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s among i t s membership, but i t maintained i t s unique c h a r a c t e r as a " f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " , s t r u c t u r e d on 22 what Joseph P e l t o n terms a "quasi-commercial" b a s i s .  Today, i t  operates as a f i n a n c i a l c o o p e r a t i v e whose members are both users and i n v e s t o r s . orbit  From the l e a s i n g of c a p a c i t y from s a t e l l i t e s i n  (three over the A t l a n t i c ,  two over the P a c i f i c ,  and one over  the Indian Ocean) the Consortium d e r i v e s i t s o p e r a t i n g revenue and a r e t u r n on s i g n a t o r i e s ' investment of f o u r t e e n p e r c e n t . ment shares are based on the amount of c a p a c i t y 23 member d e r i v e s from the system.  (or use) t h a t the  These shares a l s o determine  the member's v o t i n g percentage i n INTELSAT'S major making body, the Board of Governors  Invest-  decision  (formerly the I n t e r i m Commun-  i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e Committee (ICSC) i n the 1964 arrangements).• The * The ground segments o f the INTELSAT system are owned and operated by n a t i o n a l governments o r t h e i r appointed e n t i t i e s . :  definitive  a r r a n g e m e n t s l i m i t e d U.S.  percent c e i l i n g  regardless  of  v o t i n g power t o  i t s proportionate  use  "a  forty  of the  system  24 and  investment."  O t h e r s i g n a t o r i e s may,  grade t h e i r v o t i n g  s h a r e s as  on  the  t h e i r r e l a t i v e use  o t h e r hand, of  the  up-  system  increases. G i v e n t h a t more and satellites,  the  more n a t i o n s  of  the  s i n g l e g l o b a l f r a m e w o r k o f INTELSAT.  there  foreign f a c i l i t i e s  and  systems a l s o e x i s t .  i s the  of  need f o r m u l t i l a t e r a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n to s e c u r e  use  national  a r e m a k i n g use  question  t e r r i t o r i e s has  For  a l l of  of t r a n s n a t i o n a l  A g r e e m e n t s must a l s o be  forged  with  increased  beyond  Many r e g i o n a l  and  these systems, however,  i n t e r e s t s and  the  the  jurisdictions.  International  Tele-  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a r r i e r s s u c h as AT&A and  ITT World C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ;  manufacturers of  national  regulatory  t e c h n o l o g y s u c h as RCA:  b o d i e s ; and  whose i n t e r e s t s a r e  other i n d u s t r i a l  a f f e c t e d by  the  communications  or governmental  d e v e l o p m e n t and  agencies  use  of  25 satellites.  For  heavily invested as h i g h  example, most i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a r r i e r s have  i n a l t e r n a t i v e communication technologies  frequency radio  systems, t r o p a s c a t t e r Satellites  terrestrial  s y s t e m s and  assets.  On  the  collaborative e f f o r t i s required entities),  and  network."  ordination  optic fibre  one  hand, t h e n ,  between the  communications "a  complex  (national  communication  m a i n t a i n the worldwide i n t e r n a t i o n a l On  the  o t h e r h a n d , e c o n o m i c and  i s also required  cable  technology.  overseas telecommunication administrators  manage, o p e r a t e and 27 of the  mircowave, t e r r e s t r i a l  comprise only a p o r t i o n of t h e i r t o t a l 26  i n v e s t m e n t s and  such  to  provide,  extension  political  co-  between competing i n t e r e s t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e  t e c h n o l o g i e s where t h e e f f e c t s to  new  technologies  of competition  s u c h as s a t e l l i t e s .  c a n be  devastating  Joseph Pelton  notes  that:  ... s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o t h e implementation of communication s a t e l l i t e s Chave a r i s e n due to) v a r i o u s f o r m s o f c o m p e t i t i o n a t t h e d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l ... t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i c h i s p e r h a p s most i n t e n s e l y m a n i f e s t e d between i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s and t r a n s o c e a n i c s u b m a r i n e cables, frequently f o s t e r s r a p i d technol o g i c a l a d v a n c e s as w e l l as r a p i d f a c i l i t y o b s o l e s c e n c e , i n e f f i c i e n t and a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r a i n e d use o f i n v e s t m e n t s , intern a t i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l f r i c t i o n s , and on o c c a s i o n s , c o s t l y and d i s f u n c t i o n a l d e c i s i o n making. 28  I n t e r m s o f t e c h n i c a l and e c o n o m i c are of  t h e more e f f i c i e n t a "multiple route  technology  efficiency,  because they  c a p a c i t y as o p p o s e d  have  satellites the  t o the s i n g l e  advantage route  29 capability of  of t e r r e s t r i a l  systems"  ' they  can c a r r y a  s e r v i c e s a t much g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y ; t h e y make no  with  r e s p e c t t o d i s t a n c e and t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t  multiplicity  distinction  i n great  cost  they savings; to  remote  and f i n a l l y , y ^ h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e o f p r o v i d i n g regions  u n a c c e s s i b l e by c a b l e o r microwave  communications 30 radio.  However, b e c a u s e a s a t e l l i t e  i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  on v a s t g l o b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n  networks,  rather  than  competing t e c h n o l o g i e s .  ment and u s e a c r o s s  the d i f f e r e n t  one o f t h e more c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k s  they  are  Coordinating  interest  cables  complementary their  develop-  groups i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  of g l o b a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  14. 2.  When t h e c o s t and s c a l e o f a t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i s t o o g r e a t f o r most n a t i o n s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o s t s h a r i n g a g r e e m e n t s w i l l be i n i t i a t e d t o r e d u c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n v e s t m e n t  Developing a telecommunications s a t e l l i t e s c a l e p r o j e c t r e q u i r i n g , as we facilities,  have s e e n , e x t e n s i v e  r e l a t i v e costs  launching  i n a n t e n n a e and  facilities.^®  operations,  Declining  ground systems technology  p o s s i b l e f o r m o s t s t a t e s and  an  large  ground  communication i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s , networking  m u l t i p l e s p a c e c r a f t , and  it  system i s a  has  made  i n c r e a s i n g number o f f i r m s  and  31 i n d i v i d u a l s t o own cost to users  satellite  of s a t e l l i t e  r e c e i v i n g equipment.  t e l e v i s i o n and  conversations)  c a r r y 36,000 v o i c e c i r c u i t s or  120  TV  relative  telephone c i r c u i t s  r i s e n d r a m a t i c a l l y , Today, INTELSAT'S s i x t h and satellites will  The  seventh  (two-way  have  generation  telephone  channels;  ... a n e t w o r k whose c a p a c i t y w i l l be 825 t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d by (INTELSAT'S) E a r l y B i r d a t t h e o u t s e t o f t h e s p a c e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e r a 18 y e a r s ago ... By 1986 ... as many as 12 o f t h e s e s a t e l l i t e s w i l l be s e n t i n t o o r b i t , and, t o g e t h e r w i t h l a u n c h v e h i c l e c o s t s , w i l l represent a c a p i t a l investment of p e r h a p s $3 t h o u s a n d m i l l i o n . 32  T h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t and 107  operating  c o s t s are  members. Less s o p h i s t i c a t e d s a t e l l i t e  and  s h a r e d amongst INTELSAT'S  operated  consortium  by  c u r r e n t l y owned  i n d i v i d u a l n a t i o n s , groups of n a t i o n s , or  of f i r m s .  c o l l a b o r a t e f o r the s c a l e and  systems are  a  However, t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f a c t o r s launching  cost of developing  of t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s because a launch  facility  must the  i s too g r e a t  for  15.  most s t a t e s .  F o r t h e few n a t i o n s o p e r a t i n g l a u n c h  these p r o j e c t s are extremely c o s t l y ,  facilities,  large scale ventures  have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e governmental  support.  NASA's c o n v e n t i o n a l l a u n c h e r s a n d l a t e r ,  t h e s h u t t l e ^ were  s u b s i d i z e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e and m i l i t a r y branches  that  F o r example, heavily  o f t h e U.S.  g o v e r n m e n t , w h i l e t h e ESA l a u n c h v e h i c l e A r i a n e r e q u i r e d t h e j o i n t investment o f e l e v e n European  countries.  33  W h i l e most n a t i o n s must c o n t r a c t l a u n c h s e r v i c e s ^ m a n y c o u n t r i e s l a c k even t h e r e s e a r c h and development and  developing  infrastructure  f u n d s n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a n d m a i n t a i n an i n d i g e n o u s  satellite  s y s t e m . U n t i l t h e y c a n a f f o r d t h e i r own s p a c e c r a f t , t h e s e n a t i o n s choose t o l e a s e c a p a c i t y from i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r r e g i o n a l w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r own g r o u n d  systems.  Other  systems  forms o f i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t h a v e emerged o u t o f f i n a n c i a l n e c e s s i t y are r e g i o n a l o r b i l a t e r i a l  j o i n t v e n t u r e s s u c h a s ARABSAT a n d t h e  Indonesian Palapa system which  serves South East A s i a .  Generally  s p e a k i n g , however, from t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n satellite  d e v e l o p m e n t m o s t s t a t e s a n d many o t h e r a c t o r s h a v e  it  n e c e s s a r y t o s h a r e c o s t s a t one l e v e l o f s a t e l l i t e  or  another.  found  development  An i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i s t h a t when c o s t f a c t o r s a r e an  important basis of c o l l a b o r a t i o n , the i n s t i t u t i o n a l subsequently created are l i k e l y  arrangements  t o have a c o m m e r i c a l  w i t h a d e c i s i o n making system which  orientation  a l l o c a t e s v o t i n g power on t h e 34  basis of investment American  satellite  share o r system usage.  B o t h COMSAT, t h e  o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d INTELSAT, t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  e q u i v a l e n t ^ o p e r a t e o n t h i s b a s i s , as do most r e g i o n a l systems l i k e  t h e ECS ( E u r o p e a n  S a t e l l i t e Consortium),  German " s y m p h o n i e " , a n d A r a b s a t .  satellite the French-  16. 3•  I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e g u l a t o r y A r r a n g e m e n t s a r e n e c e s s a r y when a t e c h n o l o g y makes u s e o f common p r o p e r t y f o r i t s d e v e l o p m e n t and o p e r a t i o n  The for  most e c o n o m i c a l l y  and t e c h n i c a l l y e f f i c i e n t  communication s a t e l l i t e s  location  i s the geosynchronous o r b i t  located 35  33,200 k i l o m e t e r s a b o v e t h e e a r t h ' s The  equator.  o r b i t , w h i c h c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s a b a n d o r r i n g i n s p a c e o f  360°, c u r r e n t l y accommodates s a t e l l i t e s r  (See C h a p t e r F o u r )  every  three t o s i x degrees.  The p o t e n t i a l d e p l e t i o n o f t h e l i m i t e d s a t e l l i t e in  t h i s region, of outerspace  "parking  slots"  a r e c r e a t i n g a l l o c a t i o n and s h a r i n g  p r o b l e m s w h i c h n e e d t o be r e g u l a t e d a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . The in  problem i s exacerbated  by another t e c h n i c a l i s s u e :  t h e g e o s y n c h r o n o u s o r b i t a r e more e f f i c i e n t  than  some a r e a s  others  d e p e n d i n g o n where t h e s a t e l l i t e u s e r w a n t s t h e beam d i r e c t e d . Satellites resource,  a l s o make u s e o f a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t  the electromagnetic  frequency  spectrum.  global L i k e most  communication media, s a t e l l i t e s 37  r e l y on s o u n d waves f o r t h e  transmission of information.  While s a t e l l i t e s  high frequencies  t h a t a r e l e s s c o n g e s t e d by o v e r u s e , t h e y  require frequency Coordination  u s e some v e r y  r a n g e s c u r r e n t l y u s e d by t e r r e s t r i a l  i s required to a l l o c a t e frequencies  usages and u s e r s .  Besides  still  facilities.  to the different  a l l o c a t i o n i s s u e s , an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  regime must d e a l w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m s o f i n t e r f e r e n c e . G i l b e r t L e V e a n n o t e s t h a t " t h e i n h e r e n t •> c a p a b i l i t y o f a s y n chronous communication s a t e l l i t e t o provide to  a third  of the Earth's  i n t e r f e r e n c e source the f r e q u e n c i e s  direct  communication  s u r f a c e " a l s o a c t s as a " p o t e n t i a l  t o t h e same o n e - t h i r d o f t h e E a r t h "  under which i t operates  because  may o b s t r u c t a n d i n t e r r u p t  messages b e i n g facilities. difficult with  s e n t on  The  s i m i l a r frequencies  i n t e r f e r e n c e d i l e m m a , he  f r e q u e n c y management p r o b l e m  at the  via  international level.  terrestrial  continues,  " t h a t can  "presents  only  be  a  dealt  3 8  3 9  The  " p u b l i c good"  geostationary  orbit implies  of these resources. international can  exercise  nature of  the  frequency spectrum  that a l l nations  W h i l e n e i t h e r can  be  collaboration i s required t h e i r r i g h t of  access.  are  truly  ITU  Currently,  ference  t o c e r t a i n s e t r u l e s and  will  principles to the  be m i n i m i z e d . " ' "  powers are  limited,  a l l o c a t i o n of  the  a r r a n g e m e n t s do of  first-come  the  IFMB  supranational  frequency  s t a n d a r d s so  t o ensure t h a t a l l s t a t e s have a t The  4  that  spectrum inter-  I t also maintains certain  4  spectrum.  "depleted" '"'  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunication  Union) h o l d s the mandate f o r a l l o c a t i n g the according  p o t e n t i a l users  to ensure that a l l nations  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l F r e q u e n c y Management B o a r d ) , a d e c i s i o n making body w i t h i n the  and  IFRB's j u r i s d i c t i o n  h o w e v e r , and  i t has  l e a s t some a c c e s s  and  no  enforcement  a u t h o r i t y over  the  o r b i t where i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t o r y  not  yet  e x i s t beyond the  first-served.  attempted to i n s t i t u t e  laissez-faire  O n l y r e c e n t l y has  a regulatory  the  regime f o r t h i s  system  ITU area  of  outerspace. It  i s t h e s e uses and  developments c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s w h i c h have o c c a s i o n e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n among s t a t e s a t t h e studies  describe  the  international level. n a t u r e and  The  e v o l u t i o n of  following  case  that collaboration.  18 CHAPTER TWO  Footnotes  1.  F r a n c i s X. Kane, "Space Age G e o p o l i t i c s ' O R B I S . 14 ( 1 9 7 1 ) : 932. F o r a h i s t o r y of the development of t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e s and t h e i r u s e s s e e R i c h a r d W. P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e S a t e l l i t e (N.Y.: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977); A Guide t o S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n , R e p o r t s and P a p e r s on Mass C o m m u n i c a t i o n No. 66. UNESCO, P a r i s , 1972, P. B a r g e l l i n i , e d . , Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems. Progress i n Astronautics and A e r o n a t u i c s S e r i e s . V o l . 32, (Washington, D.C: Colonial P r e s s , 1974); R.C D a v i s , e t a l . , "Future Trends i n Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems" i n Trends i n Communication S a t e l l i t e s , e d . D.J. C u r t i n (N.Y.: Permagon P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , and ' S e r v a n t s i n S p a c e : S a t e l l i t e s Become a P a r t o f D a i l y L i f e , ' U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t , 29 J u l y 1974:44-46-46.  2.  See B u r t o n J . E d e l s o n , " G l o b a l S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s " , S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n , 196 ( A u g u s t 1977) :236 . Joseph P e l t o n w r i t e s : I n human h i s t o r y , t h e r e have b e e n no s i m i l a r l o n g t e r m t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments t h a t have a c h i e v e d s u c h a r e m a r k a b l e r a t e o f g r o w t h ... ( t h a t ) d i g i t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s i n c e t h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e t e l e g r a p h by Samuel M o r s e i n 1832 ... T h e r e has b e e n on t h e a v e r a g e a doubling of transmission c a p a b i l i t y at i n t e r v a l s of less than o n c e e v e r y f o u r y e a r s ... A l o n g w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i v e g a i n i n t r a n s m i s s i o n c a p a c i t y , t h e r e i s an o n r u s h i n g p a r a l l e l demand f o r new s e r v i c e s . T h e s e a l m o s t seem t o know no b o u n d s . J o s e p h N. P e l t o n "The F u t u r e o f S a t e l l i t e i n Economic Impact, (1983/2):40.  Communications"  3.  F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m a r i t i m e and a e r o n a u t i c a l s e r v i c e s see P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e S a t e l l i t e , C h a p t e r 4; "The N a v s t a r G l o b a l P o s i t i o n i n g S y s t e m " , S p a c e f l i g h t . 21 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 8 0 ) : 2 .  4.  For the development of D i r e c t B r o a d c a s t i n g S a t e l l i t e s t o i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e r s and r e m o t e r e g i o n s s e e R e p o r t o f t h e W o r k i n g G r o u p on D i r e c t B r o a d c a s t i n g S a t e l l i t e s on i t s T h i r d S e s s i o n , U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Assembly Committee on The P e a c e f u l U s e s o f O u t e r s p a c e . (DOC No. A/AC, 105/83) May 2 5 , 1970; U.S. C o n g r e s s , House, C o m m i t t e e on F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , S u b c o m m i t t e e on N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e P o l i c y and S c i e n t i f i c D e v e l o p m e n t , H e a r i n g s on S a t e l l i t e B r o a d c a s t i n g : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F o r e i g n P o l i c y 91 Cong., 1 s t S e s s . , (January 1979):29.  19. 5.  F o r an o v e r v i e w o f m i l i t a r y c o m m u n i c a t i o n s y s t e m s f o r t h e U.S. and NATO s e e P o r t e r , The V e r s a t i l e S a t e l l i t e : 4 8 . L e l a n d L. J o h n s o n New C o m m u n i c a t i o n s T e c h n o l o g i e s and N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y , A d e l p h i P a p e r s #46, I n s t i t u t e o f S t r a t e g i c S t u d i e s , L o n d o n , M a r c h 1968; and 'NASA/DOD S p a c e M a r k e t 1984' S p a c e f l i g h t 22, ( A p r i l 1980) :166.  6.  On t h e m a r r i a g e o f c o m p u t e r and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g i e s s e e W.T. P r i n c e " S a t e l l i t e Telecommunications i n the C i v i l E n v i r o n m e n t " i n C o m m u n i c a t i o n and B r o a d c a s t i n g , 24 ( A u g u s t 1 9 8 0 ) : 1 3 - 1 4 M o i r a F a r r o w , "The Human F a c t o r " The V a n c o u v e r Sun, A u g u s t 2, 1982:A10, and "Coming U s e s o f S a t e l l i t e s . " U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t , 7 A u g u s t 1 9 7 7 : 6 2 - 6 3 . I n d i c a t i n g the c a p a c i t y t h a t t h i s marriage w i l l a f f o r d , P e l t o n writes that: ... E a c h INTELSAT V I s a t e l l i t e i n t h e g l o b a l n e t w o r k w i l l be a b l e t o s e n d t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f some 4 t h o u s a n d m i l l i o n b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p e r s e c o n d o r ... t h e E n c y c l o p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a a b o u t 25 t i m e s e v e r y m i n u t e . Pelton,  "The  Future  ...":40.  7.  INTELSAT i s ... I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e O r g a n i z a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C, 1982. Much has b e e n w r i t t e n o n INTELSAT. Among t h e m o s t u s e f u l a r e : J o h n a t h a n G a l l o w a y , " W o r l d Wide C o r p o r a t i o n s and I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n t e g r a t i o n : INTELSAT," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 24 (Summer 1970) :503 J o h n a t h a n G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and T e c h n o l o g y o f S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s J u d i t h T e g g e r K i l d o w , INTELSAT: P o l i c y M a k e r s Dilemma ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: L e x i n g t o n Books, 1973): J o s e p h N. P e l t o n , G l o b a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y : INTELSAT, P o l i t i c s and F u n c t i o n a l i s m (Mount A i r y , Md: Lomond S y s t e m s , 1 9 7 4 ) ; S t e v e n A. L e v y , "INTELSAT: T e c h n o l o g y , P o l i t i c s and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a Regime," I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 (Summer 1975) : 6 5 5 - 8 0 ; and M a r c e l l u s S. Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commercial S a t e l l i t e Communications: E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l I s s u e s o f t h e F i r s t D e c a d e o f INTELSAT, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 6 ) .  8v  On t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s see J o s e p h N. P e l t o n , "Key P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s : Proliferation, C o m p e t i t i o n and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n E n v i r o n m e n t , " i n E c o n o m i c and P o l i c y P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e d s . , J o s e p h N. P e l t o n and M a r c e l l u s Snow, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1977) : 116 .  9:.  On t h e g r o w i n g e c o n o m i c i m p o r t a n c e o f s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m s s e e R o b e r t J a s t r o w and Homer E. N e w e l l , "The S p a c e P r o g r a m and t h e N a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , 50 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 2 ) : 5 3 2 .  10.  See " T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s by t h e y e a r 2000" S p a c e f l i g h t 22 ( J u l y / A u g u s t 1980) :287, o n t h e c o m m e r c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s a t e l l i t e s i n b u s i n e s s and g r o w i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s e e "Sky Wars: C o m p e t i t i o n f o r the American Market i n S a t e l l i t e Business Communications" E c o n o m i s t 1979:113-14; R o b e r t Cowen, " E u r o p e ' s L a u n c h i n t o S p a c e  20 . B u s i n e s s " T e c h n o l o g y R e v i e w , O c t o b e r 1981:6; " B u s i n e s s C o m m u n i c a t i o n M a r k e t E y e d " , A v i a t i o n Week a n d S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y , 21 J u n e 1982:63; a n d M a r t i n L . E r n s t "The M e c h a n i z a t i o n o f Commerce" S c i e n t i f i c A m e r i c a n . 2 4 6 , ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 2 ) : 1 3 1 - 3 6 . For t h e development o f domestic arrangements f o r s a t e l l i t e s i n t h e U.S. s e e J a c k O s l u n d '"Open S h o r e s ' t o "Open S k i e s ' : S o u r c e s a n d D i r e c t i o n s o f U.S. S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y " i n E c o n o m i c and P o l i c y P r o b l e m s , e d . P e l t o n a n d Snow:143-99 a n d K e n H e c h l e r , The E n d l e s s S p a c e F r o n t i e r : A H i s t o r y o f t h e House C o m m i t t e e o n S c i e n c e a n d A s t r o n a u t i c s AAS H i s t o r y S e r i e s , V o l . 4 (San D i e g o , C a l i f . : U n i v e l t I n c . , 1982) f o r E u r o p e , s e e Rene C. C o l l e t t e "The E u r o p e a n C o m m u n i c a t i o n S a t e l l i t e P r o g r a m " i n C o m m u n i c a t i o n S a t e l l i t e S y s t e m s , P. B a r g e l l i n i ed.,:2l7-232. 11".  T h i s i s t h e o p i n i o n o f D r . N a d k a r n i , INTELSAT p l a n n i n g c o o r d i n a t o r , W a s h i n g t o n D.C. I n t e r v i e w e d i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C. 14 A u g u s t 1 9 8 2 .  12.  On t h e J a p a n e s e p r o g r a m s s e e : F a r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c . R e v i e w , 23 O c t o b e r 1981:72 a n d 18, December 1981,:42-43. A l s o M. K a n a b a y a s h i " G e t t i n g i n t o O r b i t : J a p a n Launches an Independent S p a c e P r o g r a m . " W a l l . S t r e e t J o u r n a l M a r c h 2 9 , 1977:44; a n d M a s a y a s h i M a n a b a y a s h i , "The J a p a n e s e E m p i r e S t r i k e s B a c k , " Technology Review (October 1981):48-49. On t h e E u r o p e a n p r o g r a m s e e : " C o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n ESA/NASA G r o w s , " A v i a t i o n Week a n d S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y , 1 F e b r u a r y 1982:50 and " A r i a n e s p a c e M a r k e t s L a u n c h S e r v i c e s , " A v i a t i o n Week a n d S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y , 11 J a n u a r y 1982:87; " A r i a n e 4 i n F r e n c h 1982 B u d g e t " , AWST 11 J a n u a r y 1982:93. C.B. W o o s t e r , "ECS The European Communication S a t e l l i t e System" Communication and B r o a d c a s t i n g 24 ( A u g u s t 1 9 8 0 ) : 1 5 . On t h e C a n a d i a n P r o g r a m s e e "CTS C o m m u n i c a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t E n d s , " S p a c e f l i g h t , 22 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 0 ) : 4 1 .  13.  See P a u l L . J o r d a n , C o m m u n i c a t i o n S a t e l l i t e s , T e c h n o l o g y T r a n s f e r s and Economic Development. (Santa Monica, C a l i f : The RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 0 ) ; R i c h a r d R. C o l i n o , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l S a t e l l i t e T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and t h e D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " J o u r n a l o f Law a n d E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t 31 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 1 ) : 8-14, a n d Hamid M o w l a n a , " P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of Communication S a t e l l i t e A p p l i c a t i o n s i n D e v e l o p e d and D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s " i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems e d s . , P e l t o n a n d Snow:124-41.  14.  "Economic Development and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s " , and i n t e r v i e w C l i f f o r d B l a c k . Economic Impact, S p e c i a l E d i t i o n : C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Toward a New E r a ( 1 9 8 3 / 2 ) : 3 4 .  15.  Ibid:35  with  21. 16. I b i d : 3 4 . See a l s o Theo P i r a r d , "Space S y s t e m s O p e r a t e d and P r e p a r e d by D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s , " S p a c e f l i g h t , May 1 9 8 1 : 1 3 7 . 17. S i n c e t h e a d v e n t o f s a t e l l i t e s t h e r e has b e e n an i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n of the m i l i t a r y p o t e n t i a l s . T h o s e a c t o r s who a r e b o t h a b l e and w i l l i n g t o e x p l i t t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , and t h e P e o p l e s R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a . The f a c t t h a t o v e r 75% o f a l l s a t e l l i t e s l a u n c h e d a r e f o r m i l i t a r y u s e i s t e l l i n g o f who r e p r e s e n t s t h e m a j o r o v e r a l l u s e r s o f and i n v e s t o r s i n t h e t e c h n o l o g y . O t h e r n a t i o n s have s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t u r n i n g o u t e r s p a c e i n t o a m i l i t a r y b a t t l e g r o u n d and h a v e v o i c e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s i n m e e t i n g s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s C o m m i t t e e on t h e P e a c e f u l U s e s o f O u t e r s p a c e (COPUOS) b u t t h e r e have b e e n no p r o v i s i o n s y e t e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e O u t e r S p a c e T r e a t y (1967) w h i c h d e a l w i t h communication s a t e l l i t e s used f o r r e c o n n a i s s a n c e , espionage, or other m i l i t a r y purposes. I n g e n e r a l , t h e s e i s s u e s have remained p e r i p h e r a l to the telecommunications s a t e l l i t e i s s u e area. On t h e s e and r e l a t e d p o i n t s s e e : D e l b e r t D. S m i t h , C o m m u n i c a t i o n v i a S a t e l l i t e : A v i s i o n i n R e t r o s p e c t (San D i e g o , U n i v e l t I n c . , 1 9 7 8 ) . A n t h o n y K e n d e n , "U.S. R e c o n n a i s s a n c e S a t e l l i t e Programmes," S p a c e f l i g h t 4 ( A p r i l 1981) :109; " M i l i t a r y R a c e i n S p a c e , " The D e f e n c e M o n i t o r , 9 November 1980, :10; " O u t e r S p a c e — B a t t l e f i e l d o f t h e F u t u r e , " S t o c k h o l m I n t e r n a t i o n a l P e a c e R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e ( S I P R I ) , L o n d o n , 1978; and "Space R a c e T a k e s M i l i t a r y T u r n , " C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r , 26 May 1982:1. 17a  Pelton,  "The  Future  ...":42.  18. S a t e l l i t e s i n g e o s y n c h r o n o u s o r b i t do n o t r e q u i r e t r a c k i n g , t e l e m e t r y and c o n t r o l f a c i l i t i e s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n c o n t i n o u s s i g h t of the e a r t h s t a t i o n s to which they t r a n s m i t s i g n a l s . Low o r random o r b i t s a t e l l i t e s r e q u i r e t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o n l y i n s i g h t o f t h e a n t e n n a on e a r t h f o r a s h o r t d u r a t i o n (4-12 h o u r s ) . P o w e r f u l t r a c k i n g a n t e n n a a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p i c k up t h e s i g n a l as t h e s a t e l l i t e comes i n t o v i e w o v e r t h e h o r i z o n . The m a j o r i t y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s are i n geosynchronous o r b i t because o n l y t h r e e such s a t e l l i t e s are r e q u i r e d to connect the e n t i r e globe. Low o r b i t s a t e l l i t e s , however, must e x i s t i n c o n f i g u r a t i o n s from t e n t o f o u r t e e n , m a k i n g t h e o v e r a l l s y s t e m much more c o s t l y and n o t as e f f i c i e n t . N o n e t h e l e s s some e x p e r i m e n t a l and m i l i t a r y systems c o n t i n u e t o use low o r b i t . 19  F o r a g o o d summary o f t h e s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m s e e : A G u i d e t o S a t e 1 1 i t e Communications. R e p o r t s and P a p e r s on mass c o m m u n i c a t i o n No. 66 ( P a r i s , UNESCO P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1972) : 12 .  20  G i l b e r t E. L a V e a n , " P o l i t i c a l C o n s t r a i n t s I n f l u e n c i n g Communication S a t e l l i t e Systems," i n Communication Satellites  22. Development: S y s t e m s , e d . , G i l b e r t E. L a V e a n and W i l l i a m G. S c h m i d t , P r o g r e s s i n A e r o n a u t i c s and A s t r o n a u t i c s , Volume 41 (N.Y.: A I A A and MIT P r e s s , 1974) :3 . 21.  INTELSAT D e f i n i t i v e A r r a n g e m e n t s , "Agreements R e l a t i n g t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e Organization, INTELSAT," Document 23 2, 19 May 1971. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.:5.  22.  P e l t o n , G l o b a l Communications  23.  M a r c e l l u s Snow n o t e s t h a t "The p r i m a r y v e h i c l e f o r r e c o v e r i n g c o s t s h a s b e e n ... t h e s p a c e segment u t i l i z a t i o n . " (p.48). Charges f o r t h e use o f s a t e l l i t e c a p a c i t y a r e b a s e d on t h e u n i t o f u t i l i z a t i o n w h i c h i s "the b a s i c u n i t o f measurement o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c a p a c i t y u s e d b y INTELSAT f o r t e c h n i c a l and f i n a n c i a l p u r p o s e s " and w h i c h "measures t h e amount o f power and b a n d w i d t h n e e d e d t o e s t a b l i s h o n e - h a l f o f a v o i c e ( t e l e p h o n e ) c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n two " s t a n d a r d " e a r t h s t a t i o n s i n t h e INTELSAT S y s t e m , t h a t i s , s t a t i o n s f u r n i s h i n g a g i v e n amount o f power t o s a t e l l i t e . The u n i t o f u t i l i z a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o a ' v o i c e c h a n n e l ' o r one h a l f o f a v o i c e c i r c u i t w h i c h i s a two-way t e l e p h o n e c o n v e r s a t i o n . " ( p . 7 ) . Marcellus Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m e r c i a l S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , o p . cit.  24.  L e v y , "INTELSAT:  25.  T h i s i s one o f t h e m a j o r themes i n P r o f e s s o r G a l l o w a y ' s i m p o r t a n t work on t h e e a r l y d e v e l o p m e n t o f s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m s . J o h n a t h a n G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and T e c h n o l o g y o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n Satellites. See a l s o Edward M i l e s , " T r a n s n a t i o n a l i s m i n s p a c e I n n e r and O u t e r " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 25 (Summer 1 9 7 1 ) : 6 1 0 .  26.  F o r a c o n s u m e r - a d v o c a t e s c r i t i q u e o f t h e power and i n f l u e n c e o f s u c h l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s a t AT & T on t h e d o m e s t i c d i f f u s i o n o f s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y s e e M i c h a e l E. K i n s l e y , O u t e r s p a c e and I n n e r Sanctums: G o v e r n m e n t , B u s i n e s s and S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , (N.Y.: J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 7 6 ) .  27.  T e l e g l o b e Canada. 3 1 s t A n n u a l R e p o r t f o r t h e Y e a r Ended M a r c h 3 1 , 1981. (Toronto, O n t a r i o , P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Department, T e l e g l o b e Canada, 1982):9.  28.  J o s e p h N. P e l t o n , "Key P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s : P r o l i f e r a t i o n , C o m p e t i t i o n and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n E n v i r o n m e n t , " i n E c o n o m i c and P o l i c y P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e d s . , P e l t o n and Snow,:94-95.  29.  Ibid.  Satellite  Technology, P o l i t i c s  Policy:16.  ...,":669.  30.  A G u i d e t o S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , UNESCO:12. See E. L a b l a n e , " F i n a n c i n g t h e S p a c e I n v e s t m e n t " , i n S p a c e : New O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l V e n t u r e s , W i l l i a m C. H a y e r J r . e d . : AAS S c i e n c e and T e c h n o l o g y S e r i e s , V o l . 4 9 : 2 0 3 .  31.  See K e n n e t h B. S t a n l e y , "Economic I s s u e s i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s : A P u b l i c P o l i c y Dilemma", i n Economic and P o l i c y P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e d s . , P e l t o n and Snow:62-65.  32.  P e l t o n , "The F u t u r e o f S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s " : 4 0 . See a l s o R.R. P o p e l e w s k i , "More C a p a c i t y E x p e c t e d f r o m INTELSAT VI S a t e l l i t e " , A v i a t i o n Week and S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y , 3 May 1982:59-61.  33.  See f o r e x a m p l e , V e r n o n , Van D y k e , P r i d e and P o w e r : The R a t i o n a l e o f t h e Space Program (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) ; E n i d S c h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA 1966) i n K n o w l e d g e and P o w e r , e d . , S a n f o r d L a k o f f , (N.Y.: The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) : 1 6 7 - 2 7 0 ; and "The S p a c e Effort: H i s t o r y U.S. and A b r o a d " , W i l s o n Q u a r t e r l y , 4 (Autumn, 1 9 8 0 ) : 5 6 - 9 5 .  34.  Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m e r c i a l S a t e l l i t e  35.  See S t e p h e n G o r o v e , "Geostationary Orbit" American Journal o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law. 73 (1979) :444 a n d M a r t i n S. S o r o o s "The Commons i n t h e S k y : The R a d i o S p e c t r u m and Geos y n c h r o n o u s O r b i t as I s s u e s i n G l o b a l S o c i e t y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . 36 (Summer 1 9 8 2 ) : 6 6 5 .  36.  Interview. J o h n B. T h w a i t e s , L i a i s o n O f f i c e r , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., A u g u s t 28, 1982.  37.  Seyom Brown e t a l . " F r e q u e n c y and O r b i t " O c e a n , W e a t h e r and O u t e r s p a c e .  38.  G i l b e r t E. L a V e a n ,  39.  Todd S a n d l e r and W i l l i a m S c h o l z e , "The E c o n o m i c s o f O u t e r Space", N a t u r a l Resources, A p r i l 1981:371-93.  40.  B o t h t h e f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t c a n be r e u s e d c o n t i n u a l l y i n t h e l o n g r u n b u t i n t h e s h o r t r u n may be u s e d up t h r o u g h a l l o c a t i o n i f some f o r m o f r e g u l a t i o n o r management i s n o t i n s t i t u t e d . N o n e t h e l e s s , most a u t h o r s use the t e r m d e p l e t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e p o t e n t i a l o v e r u s e o f t h e s e two r e s o u r c e s and I w i l l t h e r e f o r e c o n t i n u e t o e m p l o y i t i n the subsequent chapters.  "Political  Communications.  i n Regime f o r t h e  Constraints":3.  24.  41.  See i n  H a r o l d J a c o b s o n , "The Anatomy o f I n f l u e n c e .  ITU:  A P o t p o u r i i of  Bureacrats  CHAPTER  THREE  THE REGIME FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF S A T E L L I T E  SYSTEMS  M a i n t a i n i n g a S i n g l e G l o b a l System: International and A m e r i c a n Hegemony i n t h e S i x t i e s The  telecommunications s a t e l l i t e  i s s u e a r e a was b o r n i n  t h e wake o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c i e n t i f i c promote i n t e r e s t i n o u t e r space. opportunities  that  collaborated 1957-58 .  program designed t o  R e s p o n d i n g t o t h e new  technological  a f f o r d mankind, s c i e n t i f i c  advance i n t o t h i s r e a l m would  communities throughout the globe  i n the International  Geophysical Year  The p r o s p e c t o f l a u n c h i n g a r t i f i c i a l  1  was one a r e a o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t . scientific the  carried out with the  satellites  In the United  States  h a d begun i n  Much o f t h e e a r l y w o r k i n t h e a r e a was limited public  potential applications  sectors  (IGY) o f  earth  and m i l i t a r y r e s e a r c h i n t o s a t e l l i t e s  l a t e 1940s.  Collaboration  i n t e r e s t o r knowledge as t o  of s a t e l l i t e s .  Within the s c i e n t i f i c  o f t h e Army and N a v y , h o w e v e r , s a t e l l i t e p r o j e c t s  b e i n g advanced f o r m i l i t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s  i n conjunction  were with 2  d e v e l o p m e n t s i n m i s s i l e b o o s t e r s y s t e m s and l a u n c h I t was d u r i n g  t h e IGY t h a t  l a u n c h i t s SPUTNIK s a t e l l i t e . and  the Soviet  Hailed  the  United States  Union chose t o  a s an i m p o r t a n t  t e c h n i c a l achievement, t h i s r e l a t i v e l y  s a t e l l i t e drew w o r l d - w i d e r e a c t i o n  inefficient 3  and p r a i s e .  was a l s o w i d e s p r e a d .  vehicles.  Enid  scientific passive  Reaction  Shoettle  within  notes  that  26. . .. s p a c e s u d d e n l y grew i n t o a m a j o r national c o n f l i c t embroiling the administration, the s c i e n t i f i c c o m m u n i t y , C o n g r e s s and t h e p u b l i c at large i n a p o l i t i c a l issue w h i c h was t o r a m i f y t h r o u g h many f a c e t s of American l i f e . The r e a c t i o n s o f n a t i o n a l l y known p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s t o S p u t n i k now created a broad arena of n a t i o n a l debate which brought i n t o question America's p o l i t i c a l leadership, s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s ... d e f e n c e p o l i c y and, i n d e e d , h e r p o t e n t i a l f o r national survival. 4 At  a t i m e when any i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e o f t h e S o v i e t s  viewed i n r e l a t i o n t o the Cold and  War, i s s u e s  of American  p r e s t i g e were i m m e d i a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h g a i n i n g  satellite sectors  technology.  The w o r k a l r e a d y  assumed an o v e r w h e l m i n g p r i o r i t y  Administration.^  was security  access t o  underway i n t h e m i l i t a r y i n the Eisenhower  New a g e n c i e s w e r e f o r m e d a n d o t h e r s  expanded  t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g y w o u l d s o o n be e x p l o i t a b l e b y t h e U . S . / N A S A  civilian  ( N a t i o n a l A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) , t h e research  became t h e f i r s t  agency c r e a t e d  by an a c t o f C o n g r e s s i n 1958. I t  i n a s e r i e s of American p o l i c y  instruments  designed t o ensure American preeminence i n the f i e l d . Promoting these o b j e c t i v e s ,  I n o t e d , was v e r y much a  m a t t e r o f p r e s t i g e and American g l o b a l i n f l u e n c e d 1950s an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h a t i t s growing s c i e n t i f i c and  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  a f t e r W o r l d War I I , F e d e r a l  influence  superiority.  support f o r science  s t e a d i l y ; b y t h e 1950s t h e n a t i o n was a l r e a d y profits  During the  from major advances i n e n g i n e e r i n g ,  reaping  was  During  increased the  d e f e n c e , and h e a l t h -  27. g  related technologies. To have t h e S o v i e t s preempt t h e U.S. outerspace - a r e a l m w h i c h was i n c r e a s i n g l y v i e w e d as t h e forthcoming v i s t a matter of American  for technological  considerable  national  g l o b a l power t h a t was  exploitation  concern.  - was  a  Another realm  thrown i n t o q u e s t i o n  in  of  by  the 9  Soviet 1958, and  launch past  nuclear  in orbit  r a n g e and With the  of  the two  While  a growing S o v i e t  Russian  implied  power o f  preeminence, the  aerospace  Soviet  a b o u t a new  of  expedient, prestige  and  be  exploited.  as  advances  regaining  peaceful  the  community  i n the  E c h o I and  and  deemed more  launch  Telstar.  governmental  of  and  cooperative  scientific  culminated  goals  uses  a  b e e n made i n  American p r e s t i g e  satellites,  with  place  1  eventually  more i n l i n e  of i t s  systems. ^  raised public  communications  1 1  concerns  politically  regaining  national  f o r which outerspace  C o n s e q u e n t l y , Echo I and  i n commercial  could  a d v a n c e s had  i n s p a c e , . i t was  t o promote t h e  launching  sector  m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e s , the  launch  By  c a p a b i l i t y i n ICBM's  close Executive-directed  industry  arms r a c e  great  booster  American communication the  scientific  that  their  objectives  v e n t u r e s between t h e and  of  security interests.  warheads were c o n f i r m e d w i t h t h e That the  satellite  military  i t s m i l i t a r y and  harbingers  satellite.  the  was  T e l s t a r were technology,  could  promoted something  which  12 offered  potential benefit •the  concluded  that  cooperative  f o r every nation.  ifAU.S. initiated  ventures  The  Adminstration  a s e r i e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  for satellites  before  the  Soviet  Union  proposed  a s i m i l a r undertaking, worldwide p u b l i c o p i n i o n  converge  i n America's  the  threshold  of  favor.  Since  a technological  few  other  nations  would  were  capability in satellites,  on the  28. U.S.  c o u l d d i r e c t the  tain i t s control  course of  o v e r the  of  a satellite  participate  " i n the  1961  sensitive  for  system i n which a l l n a t i o n s  i n t e r e s t o f w o r l d p e a c e and  American d i r e c t e d  world",  international  laid  main-  technology.  speech, c a l l i n g  hood among p e o p l e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r the  c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s and  politically  P r e s i d e n t Kennedy's J u l y creation  the  the  could  a close the  brother-  foundations  communications  satellite  13 s y s t e m known as  INTELSAT.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of collaboration  i n an  i t s monopoly o v e r the  key  issue  t e c h n o l o g y and  agencies within  U n i t e d S t a t e s who  private  firms  carriers  (e,g.,  the  the  the  like  the  i t s control  structure  international  State,  of  retaining  over  the  RCA  objectives  industries  were a l l a f f e c t e d  and  domestic  Commerce and  i n some  Among them w e r e communications  T r e a s u r y as w e l l  (FCC)  also  had  ventures.  Communications S a t e l l i t e Act,  i n a global  the  In  an  such as  interest 1961,  creating  the  COMSAT, w h i c h w o u l d r e p r e s e n t A m e r i c a n 14 s a t e l l i t e system. The l e g i s l a t i o n r e 15  p r e s e n t e d a c o m p r o m i s e amongst t h e  major i n t e r e s t s ,  f o r COMSAT  a s e m i - p r i v a t e c o m m e r c i a l e n t i t y j o i n t l y owned by  international  and  W o r l d C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ) and  these i n t e r n a t i o n a l  O r g a n i z a t i o n known as  t o be  promote  systems components; governmental a g e n c i e s  Congress passed the  was  b e s t to  cooperative venture^  AT&T, IT&T and  Departments of  interests  how  international  system w h i l e  F e d e r a l Communications Commission  i n the  development  c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s of  international  manufacturers of as  and  s a t e l l i t e development. These c o n f l i c t i n g the  the  was  international  w e r e e x a c e r b a t e d by  manner by  use  s a t e l l i t e s made some f o r m o f  n e c e s s a r y , the  American i n t e r e s t s  d i r e c t i o n of  S i n c e the  common c a r r i e r s and  the  a number o f p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s  but  w i t h three governmental appointees Directors.  on i t s f i f t e e n member B o a r d o f  R o g e r Kvam s u m m a r i z e s t h e l e g i s l a t i o n : As f i n a l l y p a s s e d , t h e l a w p r o v i d e d f o r a c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t w o u l d be a b l e n d o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e e n t e r prise. On i t s b o a r d w o u l d s i t n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and s h a r e h o l d e r s b u t a l s o d i r e c t o r s a p p o i n t e d by t h e P r e s i d e n t and g u i d e d by t h e p r o f i t motive, b u t under t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f the F e d e r a l Communications Commission, NASA, t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t , a n d t h e P r e s i d e n t - and w i t h p u b l i c s u b s i d y . 16  COMSAT became t h e A m e r i c a n i n s t r u m e n t Organization the  d e s t i n e d t o promote and m a i n t a i n  f i e l d of s a t e l l i t e The  o f i n f l u e n c e and t h e U.S. i n f l u e n c e i n  communications." "^ 1  i m m e d i a t e t a s k o f t h e new o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o r e p r e s e n t  t h e U.S. a t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e Organization Eleven  taking place  d i f f e r e n t nations  from three  i n W a s h i n g t o n d u r i n g 1964. c o n t i n e n t s were  at the Conference, b u t the major axis  of c o n f l i c t  represented developed  b e t w e e n t h e A m e r i c a n s a n d E u r o p e a n s where t h e u n d e r l y i n g  issue  o f c o n t e n t i o n p r o v e d t o be t h e u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f capabilities. direction  The t e n s i o n o v e r t h i s  of debate,for  i s s u e s e t t h e t e n o r and  t h e Europeans fought  a  concerted  s t r u g g l e n o t t o a l l o w t h e c r e a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t w o u l d 18 be  d o m i n a t e d a n d d i r e c t e d b y U.S. The  interests.  d e b a t e o v e r c a p a b i l i t i e s was n o t e n t i r e l y a c o n s e q u e n c e  of the s a t e l l i t e breakthrough;  rather, i t s o r i g i n s l a y a t the  h e a r t o f A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e r e l a t i o n s and p o l i t i c s . illusion or r e a l i t y ,  Whether  t h e r e was a g r o w i n g s e n t i m e n t i n t h e  r e c e n t l y f o r m e d EEC o f a 'gap' b e t w e e n t h e i r own s c i e n t i f i c a n d  technical capabilities  30. the United  and those o f t h e i r p a t e r n a l a l l y ,  19  States.  The " f e e l i n g s o f a c u t e e c o n o m i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y a n d o u t -  r i g h t resentment  toward  f o r e i g n sources o f technology" a s s o c i a t e d 20  w i t h p e r c e p t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y gaps Europe;  to redress the situation,  s t r a t e g y t h a t would reduce U.S. and  were p r e v a l e n t i n W e s t e r n  t h e Europeans sought  t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l dependence on t h e  i n a r e a s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g " v i t a l international  an economic  to their national 21  economic c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s . "  autonomy  T h e i r chosen  s t r a t e g y was " t o p l a c e more e m p h a s i s on ... c o m m e r c i a l l y r e l e v a n t s e c t o r s o f t e c h n o l o g y " s u c h as t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  satellite  B e c a u s e t h e E u r o p e a n s c h o s e t o make s a t e l l i t e s t h e i r b r o a d e r g o a l s f o r d e v e l o p i n g an independent  systems.'  t h e agent o f  technological  c a p a b i l i t y , p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t r u c t u r e o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l organization for satellite The  development were o f c r i t i c a l  EEC members w a n t e d t o e n s u r e  t h e enshrinement  importance.  of principles  that would a l l o c a t e equal shares i n the design c o n t r a c t s f o r satellites.  Their objective i n this  r e g a r d was t o g a i n a c c e s s t o  American  t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e through cooperative ventures w i t h 23  American  firms.  Consequently,  v e n t u r e dominated  the prospect of a wholly-commercial  b y COMSAT was anathema t o t h e EEC b e c a u s e i n t h e  interest of profits,  COMSAT w o u l d a s s u r e t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t 24  c o n t r a c t s were awarded t o A m e r i c a n  firms.  In order t o prevent  t h i s outcome t h e E u r o p e a n s demanded t h a t b o t h t h e INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s and t h e subsequent  a r r a n g e m e n t s be c o n d u c t e d  through  n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e r e b y r e l e g a t i n g COMSAT t o a l i m i t e d advisory role.  Second, they r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e d r a f t  include a statement  t h a t ensured  principles  the equitable d i s t r i b u t i o n of  contracts  f o r t h e development o f s a t e l l i t e s  i n the global  The r e s u l t w o u l d be i m m e d i a t e a c c e s s t o t h e t e c h n o l o g y f o r n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l  necessary  objectives.  But t h e European b a r g a i n i n g  p o s i t i o n was s e v e r e l y  by j u s t t h e f a c t o f t h e i r l i m i t e d k n o w l e d g e f o r development o f s a t e l l i t e s . stronger  system.  weakened  and t e c h n i c a l  The A m e r i c a n s w h o 7  basis  w e r e i n a much  p o s i t i o n t o e x p l o i t t h e t e c h n o l o g y , were n o t w i l l i n g t o  a g r e e t o a p l a n w h i c h w o u l d amount t o a s u b s i d i z a t i o n o f E u r o p e a n technological  development.  Many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s  also  s u p p o r t e d t h i s p o s i t i o n a t t h e INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s . fully  r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e i d e a o f an O r g a n i z a t i o n  While not  dominated by t h e  A m e r i c a n p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t COMSAT, t h e y b e l i e v e d  t h a t t h e European 25  p r o p o s i t i o n would cost  them much more i n t h e l o n g  COMSAT, who d i d e v e n t u a l l y interested i n maintaining the  satellite  run.  Finally,  d o m i n a t e t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s , was A m e r i c a n c o n t r o l o v e r INTELSAT s o t h a t  system and i t s commercial p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l  could  be r e a l i z e d a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e . The hegemonic  outcome o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s position.  COMSAT was a b l e  and t h e E u r o p e a n s w e r e f o r c e d  objectives  t o a c h i e v e most o f i t s g o a l s  t o a c c e p t an o r g a n i z a t i o n  c o m m e r c i a l o r i e n t a t i o n a n d one w i t h s i x t y p e r c e n t owner.  r e f l e c t e d the American  with a  COMSAT a s i t s manager a n d  The EEC a c h i e v e d none o f i t s m a j o r  e x c e p t t o have g o v e r n m e n t s  at least ostensibly  r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m a j o r o r g a n s o f INTELSAT. by t h e s i g n i n g o f two s e p a r a t e a g r e e m e n t s  —  T h i s was g u a r a n t e e d one b e t w e e n  d e s i g n a t e d communications e n t i t i e s and t h e o t h e r between g o v e r n m e n t s , t h u s m a k i n g INTELSAT a j o i n t v e n t u r e o f b o t h governments  and p r i v a t e  corporations.^^  their  32. Commenting on how the  t h e skewed  outcome L e v y w r i t e s  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s  shaped  that:  One e s c a p a b l e t r u t h t o w h i c h t h e I n t e r i m A r r a n g e m e n t s gave e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n was the overwhelming s u p e r i o r i t y of American t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p e t e n c e and t h e l a r g e s c a l e of i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications activity. The p r e a m b l e t o t h e ... A g r e e ment e c h o e s a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y t h e a i m s o f A m e r i c a n p o l i c y as expressedfa.Title I o f t h e 1962 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e A c t c a l l i n g f o r "a s i n g l e g l o b a l c o m m e r c i a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m ...» ... O w n e r s h i p i n t h e s y s t e m and v o t i n g ... was w e i g h t e d i n i t i a l l y on t h e b a s i s o f t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s f o r 1968, and t h u s w o r k e d o v e r w h e l m i n g l y t o f a v o r t h e U.S. p o s i t i o n by v i r t u e o f i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e share of i n t e r n a t i o n a l communications traffic. COMSAT r e c e i v e d an i n i t i a l q u o t a o f 60.1 p e r c e n t . On t h i s b a s i s , nearly twice that of the e n t i t i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g E u r o p e a n s t a t e s ... i t a l s o had an e f f e c t i v e v e t o power o v e r m o s t policy questions. 27 The  f a c t t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s had t o r e a c h some l e v e l  compromise imperatives  with  t h e E u r o p e a n s stemmed f r o m t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  of s a t e l l i t e s  foreign territory, U.S. out  was  forced  technology which required  the use o f  and E u r o p e a n t e r r i t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The  t o a c c e p t some o f i t s demands l e s t t h e EEC  of the p r o j e c t a l t o g e t h e r .  t o by t h e U.S.  of  were, f i r s t ,  The two m a j o r c o m p r o m i s e s  t h a t INTELSAT members w o u l d  " f r e e a c c e s s t o a l l i n v e n t i o n s , t e c h n i c a l d a t a and a r i s i n g f r o m t h e c o n t r a c t work i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n  pull agreed  have  information  of the hardware  28 for  t h e systemj'  and, s e c o n d , t h a t t h i s w o u l d o n l y be an  A g r e e m e n t w h i c h w o u l d be r e n e g o t i a t e d  i n 1969 t o r e f l e c t  changing d i s t r i b u t i o n  among members.  of c a p a b i l i t i e s  f i r s t o f t h e s e two c o m p r o m i s e s  appeared t o  encL  Interim the  While the  U.S.  hopes o f  guarding t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , COMSAT's s i x t y percent share i n i t i a l l y allowed t h a t p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n to d i r e c t the course of  c o o p e r a t i v e ventures i n such a way  that l i t t l e  valuable  29 i n f o r m a t i o n was  a c t u a l l y shared.  The Europeans were not about to back down from t h e i r goal of  a c h i e v i n g an independent t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y once i t  became c l e a r t h a t the " s i n g l e g l o b a l system" d i r e c t e d by COMSAT would o f f e r l i t t l e the  towards these ends.  F o l l o w i n g the s i g h i n g of  I n t e r i m Agreement, the EEC began to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y  of  d e v e l o p i n g a r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e system o u t s i d e the auspices  of  INTELSAT.  As time passed the Europeans came more and more to  view INTELSAT as an instrument of American t e c h n o l o g i c a l and i t became e v i d e n t t h a t not o n l y COMSAT but o t h e r a c t o r s w i t h i n the U.S.  dominance  institutional  such as the Munitions C o n t r o l Board and  the  Department  of Commerce were s u c c e s s f u l l y a c t i n g to r e s t r i c t  the  d i f f u s i o n o f s a t e l l i t e technology; (see below) an independent A  r e g i o n a l system became an i n c r e a s i n g p r i o r i t y f o r Western  Europe  3 0 in  g e n e r a l and France i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The U.S. was  strongly  opposed to separate s a t e l l i t e systems because i t would mean a l o s s of American c o n t r o l and because i t would d i v e r t 31 c a r r i e d by INTELSAT.  Consequently, a new  traffic  l e v e l of t e n s i o n  evolved i n INTELSAT between the U.S./COMSAT monopoly which sought to  m a i n t a i n a s i n g l e g l o b a l system and o t h e r  industrialized  c o u n t r i e s which sought the separate systems r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l independence.  The outcome was  decided by whether or not the U.S.  c o u l d h o l d onto i t s monopoly  position.  to be  34.  In the e a r l y years, allowed the  t h e American t e c h n o l o g i c a l monopoly  t h e U.S. t o m a n i p u l a t e e v e n t s i n i t s f a v o r .  Whenever  E u r o p e a n s a r g u e d t h a t A m e r i c a n f i r m s w e r e g e t t i n g an o v e r -  whelming m a j o r i t y  of the s a t e l l i t e  would counter w i t h sole c r i t e r i o n bargaining  t h e argument t h a t c o s t e f f i c i e n c y had been t h e  i n i t s decision.  leverage  p r o c u r e m e n t c o n t r a c t s , COMSAT  The EEC members h a d  little  a t t h i s p o i n t because t h e i r n a t i o n a l  firms  w e r e n o t y e t c a p a b l e o f c o m p e t i n g a t t h e same l e v e l o f c o s t and technical efficiency Douglas.  American firms  l i k e Hughes o r M c D o n n e l  N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e EEC s o u g h t c o n t i n u o u s l y  I n t e r i m Agreement p r o c e s s t h a t a l l o w e d  t o change t h e  the great majority  o f R&D  t o be c a r r i e d o n n o t a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l , b u t r a t h e r w i t h i n t h e COMSAT o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n i t s j o i n t ventures  with  American f i r m s . As  t h e s i x t i e s p r o g r e s s e d , h o w e v e r , t h e E u r o p e a n s came  closer to realizing  t h e i r g o a l s , b e c a u s e a number o f e v e n t s w e r e  c o n v e r g i n g t o u n d e r m i n e t h e U.S. m o n o p o l y a n d i t s o f f i c i a l p o l i c y of a " s i n g l e g l o b a l system".  Despite  measures t a k e n t o  r e s t r i c t t h e d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y , INTELSAT'S i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s d i d a l l o w f o r some t r a n s f e r s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d 33  e x p e r t i s e r e l e v a n t t o t h e development of s a t e l l i t e s . more the: numerous c o n s o r t i a o f f i r m s and s c i e n t i f i c  Furthergroups i n  E u r o p e t h a t h a d made h e a v y i n v e s t m e n t s i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s research  and development  i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s w e r e now  major t e c h n i c a l advances. by the  T e s t s a t e l l i t e s were under  realizing construction  1968 a n d a F r e n c h / G e r m a n c o n s o r t i u m u n d e r t o o k t h e p l a n n i n g o f first  regional s a t e l l i t e .  also s e t t i n g the foundations  Further  afield,  t h e J a p a n e s e were  f o r a separate Asian  system  using  t h e i r own s a t e l l i t e  and ground  systems  p r e s s u r e t o a l l o w t h e development from i n d u s t r i a l  technology. '* But'the greate 0  o f s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s was c o m i n g  a n d o t h e r g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e U.S. who s o u g h t  e i t h e r the commercial o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e or  from  satellites  c o n t r o l o v e r t h e t e c h n o l o g y i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e i r own  communication  investments from t h e p o t e n t i a l  competitionof  35  satellite  systems.  That these d i f f e r e n t i n t e r e s t groups  could  affect the structure of international collaboration ' r e f l e c t e d the  p l u r a l i z e d nature o f the American  influential  system:  certain  g r o u p s s o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n t h e U.S. m o n o p o l y on  telecommunications technology through a s i n g l e global w h i l e others b e l i e v e d American t h r o u g h o p e n i n g up t h e m a r k e t systems. the at  system,  i n t e r e s t s c o u l d b e s t be s e r v e d t o i n d e p e n d e n t and r e g i o n a l  The g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e t o w h i c h most g r o u p s a s p i r e d was  c o n t i n u e d economic  g r o w t h a n d c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s o f t h e U.S.  home a n d a b r o a d .ancLy l i k e  t h e E u r o p e a n s , t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s was  Uovoever, seen as a key t o t h i s g o a l . ^ the of  i t was i n t h e means t o a c h i e v i n g  objectives that the interests clashed^ By 1 9 7 0 , s a t e l l i t e t e c h n o l o g y h a d " e n t e r e d t h e m a i n s t r e a m t h e U.S. economy" w i t h i t s g r o w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r m e t e r o l o g y , 36  r e s o u r c e s e n s i n g , m o n i t o r i n g , and communications. y e a r an i m p o r t a n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e  During that  r e p o r t was i s s u e d b y t h e House  S u b c o m m i t t e e on S p a c e S c i e n c e a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s > a r g u i n g t h a t t h e COMSAT m o n o p o l y a n d g o v e r n m e n t s a t e l l i t e U.S. e c o n o m i c  interests.  p o l i c y was d a m a g i n g t o  The r e p o r t e r s n o t e d ~ t h a t : :>  ... t h e U.S. was f a l l i n g b e h i n d t h e r e s t o f the w o r l d i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s (and t h a t ) o t h e r c o u n t r i e s were moving r a p i d l y t o e s t a b l i s h s a t e l l i t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s made  p o s s i b l e by r e s e a r c h f u n d e d by t h e U.S.... The e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Government i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l organized to formulate major p o l i c i e s , r e s o l v e i s s u e s and make n e c e s s a r y d e c i s i o n s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d such a d i f f u s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l a c k o f . c l e a r e u t a u t h o r i t y i n any o t h e r m a j o r p o l i c y a r e a . In the face of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, government i n d e c i s i o n appears to have been the v e h i c l e f o r f r u s t r a t i n g progress. 37 The  Karth  report,  as  i t was  known, r e f l e c t e d t h e  monopoly o v e r b o t h s a t e l l i t e  t e c h n o l o g y and  of systems development.  The  major f o r c e behind the  Congressional  a l o b b y g r o u p made up  from the  r e v i e w was  the  declining  U.S.  future d i r e c t i o n  of  comprehensive representatives  l a r g e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s , whose o b j e c t i v e was  p r e s s u r e t h e U.S.  Federal  Communications Commission  (FCC)  to  into a  38 d e c i s i o n on  a domestic s a t e l l i t e  system.  Currently,  s t i l l r e t a i n e d the s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n over the c r e a t i o n of systems 1962.  awarded In  1965,  to  delay the gain  by  AT&T p r o p o s e d t h a t  r i g h t t o d e v e l o p anf r o m COMSAT and  it:~  an A c t t h e FCC  American s a t e l l i t e  Executive  COMSAT satellite  of L e g i s l a t i o n i n g r a n t t h a t company  system, but  i n t e r e s t s f o r c e d the 39  i t s d e c i s i o n f o r another s i x years.  pressures  commission  During that  to time  l a r g e c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a r r i e r s j o i n e d AT&T i n t h e i r b i d a m e a s u r e o f c o n t r o l o v e r a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h was  competitive  t o t h e i r own  c o m m u n i c a t i o n modes.  damage U.S. 1970,  the  difficulty  regional  interests.  Members f r o m  State  systems would b e n e f i t r a t h e r When t h e K a r t h  D e p a r t m e n t was  report  to  directly  D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce w e r e s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e i r a r g u m e n t i n d e p e n d e n t and  the  that  than  h i t Washington  currently having  the  considerable  n e g o t i a t i n g a p e r m a n e n t INTELSAT a g r e e m e n t w i t h  the  in  Europeans over t h e very  i s s u e o f r e g i o n a l as opposed t o a s i n g l e 40  g l o b a l system  (see below).  The r e p o r t was i n f l u e n t i a l i n  changing t h e long h e l d government p o l i c y ^ f o r a f t e r s i x years o f d e l i b e r a t i o n t h e FCC d e c l a r e d an "OPEN S K I E S " p o l i c y i n t h e U.S., a l l o w i n g m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f s a t e l l i t e s o r d o m e s t i c communication c a r r i e r s  t h e o p t i o n o f s e t t i n g up a d o m e s t i c  41 (  satellite  system.  (Despite  i t s concerted  e f f o r t s , h o w e v e r , AT&T  was r e s t r i c t e d f r o m o p e r a t i n g i n t h e d o m e s t i c m a r k e t . / As a r e s u l t o f t h e h i s t o r i c FCC d e c i s i o n , n a t i o n a l s y s t e m s 43  p r o l i f e r a t e d w i t h i n t h e U.S.  This major s h i f t  p o l i c y towards the development o f separate  in official  U.S.  systems o u t s i d e t h e  INTELSAT f r a m e w o r k was l a r g e l y p r o m p t e d by d o m e s t i c  interest  g r o u p s a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s who a r g u e d t h a t t h e U.S.  could  b e n e f i t from c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r t o i n c r e a s e 44  its  competitive  edge i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .  In effect,  h o w e v e r , t h e d e c i s i o n was a commentary o n t h e d e c l i n i n g U.S. t e c h n o l o g i c a l hegemony i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d o t h e r t e c h n i c a l sectors. T h a t t h e U.S. s t i l l h e l d some v e s t i g e s o f a m o n o p o l y p o s i t i o n was e v i d e n t i n t h e l e n g t h o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a 45  p e r m a n e n t INTELSAT.  Debate f o r t h e d e f i n i t i v e  extended over four years centered  mainly  agreements  (1969-1972), and d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n  on t h e skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power a n d o w n e r s h i p  w i t h i n INTELSAT a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n ' s The  other major i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n  the  issue of separate  systems.  manager.  r e l a t e d , as we h a v e s e e n , t o  W h i l e t h e FCC h a d b e e n  debating  t h e same i s s u e j u s t down t h e s t r e e t i n W a s h i n g t o n , a n d a r r i v i n g  38.  a t a d i f f e r e n t p r o g n o s i s , t h e U.S.  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e INTELSAT  n e g o t i a t i o n s was a s k i n g f o r a commitment f r o m members " t h a t t h e y n o t e s t a b l i s h , o r j o i n i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f any space segment t o meet i n t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s e r v i c e ments." global  47  -that  T h i s meant^no s y s t e m s w h i c h w o u l d  telecommunications t r a f f i c  INTELSAT s y s t e m . insisted  s e e k t o c a r r y any  c o u l d ) be c a r r i e d o n t h e  But the Europeans,  and t h e F r e n c h i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  that the launching of separate s a t e l l i t e  a n o n - n e g o t i a b l e s t a k e i n t h e new a r r a n g e m e n t s . African allies  a g r e e d w i t h them.  require-  s y s t e m s be made Many o f t h e i r  When t h e y a l l t h r e a t e n e d t o p u l l  o u t o f t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c r e a t e t h e i r own r e g i o n a l s y s t e m , t h e U.S. c o u l d no l o n g e r d o u b t t h e i r c r e d i b i l i t y , f o r  although i t  w o u l d p r o v e t o be a c o s t l y p r o p o s i t i o n , t h e t e c h n o l o g y was a v a i l a b l e i n Europe.  now  U l t i m a t e l y , t h e m a t t e r was d e c i d e d b y t h e  FCC a n d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  common c a r r i e r s .  The "Open  Skies"  d e c i s i o n came on t h e h e e l s o f t h e 1 9 7 2 INTELSAT A g r e e m e n t , a n d w i t h a p r o m i s e t o l a u n c h d o m e s t i c s y s t e m s , t h e U.S. deny r e g i o n a l systems  t o the Europeans.  could  The d i f f u s i o n o f  t e c h n o l o g y h a d f i n a l l y b r o k e n t h e COMSAT m o n o p o l y ; i t was as l o n g as " ( r e g i o n a l )  facilities  hardly  agreed  (did) not p r e j u d i c e the  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i r e c t communication  link(s)  t h r o u g h t h e INTELSAT  48  system",  s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s w o u l d be d e v e l o p e d a n d t h e U.S.  would  49  a g r e e t o l a u n c h them.  F u r t h e r m o r e , COMSAT's s h a r e i n INTELSAT w o u l d  now be l i m i t e d t o 4 0 % , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e c a p a c i t y u t i l i z e d b y t h e U.S.  While i t would r e t a i n  i t s managerial p o s i t i o n i n the short  r u n , a new a d v i s o r y b o a r d w o u l d e v o l v e t o assume COMSAT's r o l e within five years. w i t h development  INTELSAT w o u l d  f i n a l l y be t r u l y  d e c i s i o n s and p r o c u r e m e n t  internationalized  c o n t r a c t s more  equally  39. d i s t r i b u t e d among i t s g r o w i n g m e m b e r s h i p . The launch  f a c t t h a t t h e U.S.  facility  i n t o o r b i t was  Government s t i l l  capable of b o o s t i n g a m a j o r r e a s o n why  and  c o n t r o l over the  t i m i n g and  telecommunication  the  This c a p a b i l i t y afforded l o c a t i o n of s a t e l l i t e  a c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n over whether the  system would  s y s t e m s t h e UvS. launch as  still  technology  i n the  t h e i r v i c t o r y over  h e l d some k e y  cards.  indeed  case of s a t e l l i t e  The  separate  Gaining  became a m a j o r c a m p a i g n i n t h e  the  launches  c o m p e t e w i t h INTELSAT f o r g l o b a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t r a f f i c . Europeans r e g r e t t e d t h a t d e s p i t e  only  satellites  COMSAT a g r e e d t o a l l o w  Europeans t h e i r r e g i o n a l system. U.S.  c o n t r o l l e d the  access  seventies,  to which,  systems, the Europeans e v e n t u a l l y  won.  The P r o l i f e r a t i o n o f S y s t e m s : The C h a n g i n g S t r u c t u r e - o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e S e v e n t i e s and E i g h t i e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the  design,  d e v e l o p m e n t and  s a t e l l i t e s underwent fundamental s t r u c t u r a l FCC  d e c i s i o n and  were g i v i n g r i s e  t h e new  use  of  changes f o l l o w i n g  INTELSAT a g r e e m e n t .  Technical  advances  t o an e x p a n d i n g g r o u p o f a c t o r s i n t h e  early  1970s as t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e g r a t i n g t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s information w o u l d no  technologies  longer  telegraph  be  carriers  became an o p e r a t i o n a l r e a l i t y .  under the as  been i n the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p a n d i n g t h e i r use as  and  Satellites  s o l e j u r i s d i c t i o n of telephone  t h e y had  mission  and  further extensions  created  opportunities f o r business  as w e l l as m e d i a m a n u f a c t u r e r s and  sixties.  and  and  The  f o r e l e c t r o n i c data i n cable  the  television  transnetworks  o f f i c e equipment i n d u s t r i e s  broadcasters.  50  By  t h e end  of  the decade could  their  afford  use was  no  l o n g e r an e x t r a b e n e f i t  the luxury, but a f i n a n c i a l  t o an e x p a n d i n g c a s t o f u s e r s , At  and o p e r a t i o n a l  suppliers  club.  The e x p l o i t a t i o n  of outerspace  and r e m o t e - s e n s i n g and t h e numerous  and i n d u s t r i a l  spill-overs  a r e a s o f f e r e d , were becoming  necessity  sought access to  communications  that  that  and m a n u f a c t u r e r s .  t h e same t i m e , more and more n a t i o n s  the s a t e l l i t e  to firms  for telescientific  r e s e a r c h and d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e s e  increasingly  important  to indigenous 51  industrial  development  Promoting s a t e l l i t e objective  i n most a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l  t e c h n o l o g y became a m a j o r  i n n o t o n l y Canada,  but also^many Phillipines,  newly  government  W e s t e r n E u r o p e , J a p a n and  industrializing  Indonesia,  states.  Brazil,  countries  India,  Australia,  s u c h as t h e  and t h e  financially  52  s t r o n g OPEC n a t i o n s . promoted in  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s  i n a l l of these nations while  a n t e n n a and s p a c e c r a f t  t e c h n o l o g y were making  those nations without n a t i o n a l extensive  broadcasting  leasing capacity  late  once s t r u c t u r e d seventies  called  inexpensive  around a s i n g l e  the " p l u r a l i z i n g 5 3  n  institutional  s y s t e m , by t h e  of technological  general,the  i t s opportunities,and  satellites  had p a t t e r n e d what Thomas Murphy  influence" i  f o r t h e use o f  t e c h n o l o g y has  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r o w i n g number o f a c t o r s who exploit  afford  f r o m INTELSAT o r o t h e r  collaboration  collaboration  telecommunications.  i t possible for  systems t o small  advances  satellites.  Where i n t e r n a t i o n a l was  satellite  t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s networks u s i n g  ground s t a t i o n s w h i l e direct  state-of-the-art  was  a proliferation  arrangements f o r i t s development.  advance i n been  are able to of  institutional  These arrangements>which  have  41. a r i s e n r a p i d l y as  a r e s u l t of the  not  r e g i o n a l , or domestic systems, but  only  separate  r e g i o n a l and and  d i f f u s i o n of technology,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l cooperative  development of the  ventures  r e q u i s i t e technology;  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements c o n c e r n i n g territory,  t h e use  a host  f o r the  and  of  design  a large  of  include  range  foreign  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , networking arrangements,  direct  54 broadcast The can  now  be  satellites,  and  other  issues.  changing s t r u c t u r e of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n which described  as h i g h l y d i f f u s e and  important  c o n s e q u e n c e and  important  consequence of p r o l i f e r a t i n g  promotion of indigenous  an  important  d e c e n t r a l i z e d had  associated response. s y s t e m s and  the  g l o b a l c o o r d i n a t i o n problems. c u r r e n t D i r e c t o r G e n e r a l ^ has  Mr.  resulted in  Santiago  The  independent  systems, whether i t i n c l u d e d the  c r a f t o r o n l y t h e g r o u n d s e g m e n t , has  one  space-  extensive  A s t r a i n , INTELSAT'S  summarized these problems  to  include: ... c o p i n g w i t h d e c e n t r a l i z e d e a r t h s t a t i o n o w n e r s h i p and o p e r a t i o n ; responding to strong t i e s of r e g i o n a l i s m ; working around competing national industrial interests; e f f e c t i v e l y m o n i t o r i n g the manufacture of s a t e l l i t e s under arrangements t h a t a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l l y d i s p e r s e d and c o n t r a c t u a l l y c o m p l e x ' (and) adopting new o r c o m p r o m i s i n g among d i v e r s e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and c o m p u t e r s t a n d a r d s ... 55 T h e s e c o o r d i n a t i o n and  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n problems are  the dilemmas of p r o l i f e r a t i n g s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t and  satellites  joined  by  i n a crowded geo-  frequency spectrum; i n a l l cases the  system of c o l l a b o r a t i o n appears unequipped to d e a l w i t h  current  them.  42. has  The a s s o c i a t e d r e s p o n s e t o t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s y s t e m s been t h e c o m m e r c i a l and economic i m p o r t a n c e t h a t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  and  developing  nations  have a t t a c h e d  t o g a i n i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g  access t o telecommunications s a t e l l i t e  technology.  s a t e l l i t e was o n c e a n o b j e c t i v e t o be o b t a i n e d , technologies  h a v e now become s t a k e s  damaging economic c o m p e t i t i o n  Where t h e  i t s related  t o be p r o t e c t e d .  Issues of  a n d v u l n e r a b i l i t y became  associated  56  with both the spacecraft  and t h e ground segments.  actors i n the developed world^protecting  the v u l n e r a b i l i t i e s  a r i s i n g from c o m p e t i t i o n  i n high technologies  t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo.  F o r AT&T  s a t e l l i t e s have l o n g r e p r e s e n t e d  sea  networks.  Despite  s u p e r i o r i t y of s a t e l l i t e s  h a s meant m a i n -  and t h e l a r g e  carriers, cable  To many  telephone  a challenge  t o under-  t h e t e c h n i c a l and e c o n o m i c  t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s have o f t e n h e l d  t h e i r r a p i d development and c o n t i n u e d  back  to invest heavily i n cables.  Governments have a l s o begun t o p r o t e c t n a t i o n a l s a t e l l i t e and computer i n d u s t r i e s a t t h e expense o f c r e a t i n g f u r t h e r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n problems r e s u l t i n g from t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t components and s y s t e m s . ( T h e M u n i t i o n s C o n t r o l B o a r d i n t h e U.S. i s one s u c h a g e n t whose  jurisdiction  a p p e a r s t o have s p i l l e d o v e r from t h e m i l i t a r y t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l s e c t o r i n p r o t e c t i n g U.S. i n d u s t r i e s f r o m i n t e r n a t i o n a l competition.)  One e f f e c t o f r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s h a s b e e n  that sophisticated technologies deterimental  w h i c h may h e l p  e f f e c t s that overzealous  t o overcome t h e  n a t i o n a l i s m has had on t h e  e f f i c i e n t development o f telecommunication s a t e l l i t e s  systems a r e  57  not b e i n g  made a v a i l a b l e i n t h e g l o b a l m a r k e t .  r e s t r i c t i o n i s t p o l i c i e s have b e e n most c r i t i c i z e d  These by  developing  n a t i o n s who s e e k a c c e s s t o s a t e l l i t e development-related  goals.  technology  f o r numerous  S i n c e t h e 1972 d e f i n i t i v e  arrange-  ments, t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e one h u n d r e d n a t i o n s t h a t have INTELSAT came f r o m  the developing world.  Consequently,  joined i t has  become a f o r u m f o r i s s u e s r e l a t i n g  t o development and t h e N o r t h /  South  forums i t i s t h e U.S. i n  confrontation.  particular policies  During  these  t h a t c o n t i n u e s t o be a s s a i l e d  on t h e t r a n s f e r o f t e c h n o l o g y  forits restrictionist as- i t o n c e was by t h e  Europeans. From t h e s i n g l e separate shaping  systems,  system  t o t h e c u r r e n t nexus o f  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s has p l a y e d a k e y r o l e i n  the s t r u c t u r e  telecommunications  global  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  satellite  issue  collaboration  area.  The A m e r i c a n  t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s t h a t telecommunications  technology  twenty y e a r s has been  largely  t a i n American c o n t r o l  over  broad  range  over  response  advances i n  the past  by t h e d e s i r e  t o main-  i t s d e v e l o p m e n t and d i f f u s i o n .  of both p o l i c i e s  been d i r e c t e d  have p r e s e n t e d motivated  i n the  and p o l i c y  towards these o b j e c t i v e s  domestic  structure  and t h e p o w e r f u l  groups.  I n o r d e r t o promote s e c u r i t y  instruments which reflects  influence  But the have  its pluralistic  o f many  interest  and economic v a l u e s , t h e  American government has c r e a t e d t h r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s  -- NASA,  COMSAT a n d INTELSAT.  after  c o n s i d e r a b l e debate in  technology  national  NASA and COMSAT emerged o n l y  amongst t h e numerous i n t e r e s t s w h i c h  had s p u r r e d .  system  The o r i g i n a l  goal of a single  inter-  w h i c h was t o be INTELSAT was e v e n t u a l l y abandoned  as a r e s u l t o f p r e s s u r e s f r o m systems.  advances  these  same i n t e r e s t s  Once t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t h a d a g r e e d  f o r domestic  t o launch  satellites  for  n a t i o n a l g r o u p s , i t was a l s o p r e s s u r e d  launch independent systems f o r other by  saying  expertise  f o r concessions to  nations.  t h a t t h e d e c l i n i n g U.S. hegemony o v e r t e c h n i c a l relating to s a t e l l i t e  systems, i t s d e c l i n i n g o v e r a l l  p o s i t i o n i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l market f o r high the  We c a n g e n e r a l i z e  t e c h n o l o g y , and  advances i n t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h were e x p a n d i n g t h e uses o f  s a t e l l i t e s h a v e a l l i n some manner a f f e c t e d t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f ?  satellite  s y s t e m s t h a t now c h a r a c t e r i z e s  oration i n the issue  area.  international collab-  CHAPTER THREE  45.  FOOTNOTES  1.  See E.G. B o k S e h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA" i n K n o w l e d g e and Power: E s s a y s on S c i e n c e and G o v e r n m e n t, e d . S a n f o r d A. L a k o f f ( N . Y . : T h e F r e e P r e s s , 1966:165.  2.  By l a t e 1956, 2 s e p a r a t e s a t e l l i t e p r o j e c t s were underway; t h e Army's P r o j e c t O r b i t e r t o be l a u n c h e d by a redesigned J u p i t e r I I m i s s i l e and the Navy's P r o j e c t V a n g u a r d . Ibid., :168-73. See a l s o E r i k B e r g a u s t and W i l l i a m B e l l e r , S a t e l l i t e 1 » ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : H a n o v e r H o u s e , 1956) .  3.  On t h e i m m e d i a t e A m e r i c a n r e a c t i o n t o t h e S o v i e t launch s e e New Y o r k T i m e s , O c t o b e r 5, 1 9 5 7 . See a l s o R i c h a r d W i t k i n , e d . . The C h a l l e n g e o f The SPUTNIKS, (New York:  4.  Sehoettle,  5.  Ibid.  6.  "The  Establishment  of  NASA",  :174.  K a t z e n s t e i n n o t e s t h a t more t h a n any o t h e r W e s t e r n G o v e r n m e n t , t h e A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t o f t e n c r e a t e s new policy instruments which are designed to achieve s p e c i f i c domestic and f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . P o l i c y instruments often t a k e t h e f o r m o f new institutional structures. NASA a n d COMSAT a r e two s u c h e x a m p l e s i n t h e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s s u e a r e a , a s i n I N T E L S A T t o some d e g r e e . Peter J. Katzenstein, "Conclusion: S t r a t e g i e s of F o r e i g n Economic Policy" International.Organization 3 1 , A u t u m n 197 7. ;  7.  S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , U.S., C o n g r e s s , House o f Representatives, C o m m i t t e e on I n t e r s t a t e and F o r e i g n Commerce, H e a r i n g s on C o m m u n i c a t i o n S a t e l l i t e ; P a r t s 1 a n d 2, 8 7 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , 1961: a n d U.S., C o n g r e s s , House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Committee on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s , S u b c o m m i t t e e on S p a c e S c i e n c e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s , P a n e l on S c i e n t i f i c and Technolog I s s u e s , 8 6 t h C o n g . , 2nd s e s s . , 1960.  8.  A l a n T. W a t e r m a n , " F e d e r a l a n d P o w e r , e d . S a n d f o r d A.  9.  See V e r n o n Van Dyke, P r i d e and Power: The R a t i o n a l e o f t h e Space Program (Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1964).  Support Lakoff,  10.  C e c i l H. U y e h a r a , " S c i e n t i f i c Ban T r e a t y , " i n K n o w l e d g e and  11.  Van  12.  Galloway, The P o l i t i c s Communications, :26.  Dyke,  Pride  and  Power, and  of Science," :395.  In  Knowledge  A d v i c e and t h e N u c l e a r Test Power ed. L a k o f f , :113.  :5-15. Technology  of  Satellite  46. 13.  L e t t e r f r o m t h e P r e s i d e n t t o t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t , J u n e 15, 1961. R e p r i n t e d i n U.S. C o n g r e s s S e n a t e , S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e on S m a l l B u s i n e s s , S u b c o m m i t t e e on M o n o p o l y , H e a r i n g s S p a c e S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , 8 6 t h C o n g . , 1 s t S e s s . , 1961. P a r t 1,:511. As q u o t e d i n G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and T e c h n o l o g y : 2 6.  14.  Much has b e e n w r i t t e n on t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e COMSAT legislation. F o r e x a m p l e , s e e G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s and T e c h n o l o g y o f S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , R o g e r A. Kvam, "COMSAT: The I n e v i t a b l e A n o m a l y " i n K n o w l e d g e and P o w e r, ed. L a k o f f : 2 7 1 - 9 2 , B r e n d a Maddox, "The P o l i t i c s o f INTELSAT," The N a t i o n , 214 (28 F e b r u a r y 1972) : 272-74 . F o r l e g i s l a t i v e a c c o u n t s o f t h e h e a r i n g s s e e U.S., C o n g r e s s , House, S a t e l l i t e s f o r W o r l d Communications, H e a r i n g s B e f o r e t h e C o m m i t t e e on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s , 8 6 t h C o n g . , 1 s t s e s s . , 1959. U.S., C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on A e r o n a u t i c a l and S p a c e S c i e n c e s , P o l i c y P l a n n i n g f o r Space C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , S t a f f R e p o r t ; 8 6 t h C o n g . , 2nd S e s s . , 1960; and U.S. C o n g r e s s , S e n a t e , C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S a t e l l i t e L e g i s l a t i o n , H e a r i n g s , 8 7 t h C o n g . , 2nd S e s s . , 1962.  15.  The m a j o r i s s u e o f c o n t e n t i o n among t h e s e i n t e r e s t s was • w h e t h e r A m e r i c a n o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d b e s t be p r o m o t e d i n a private or a public i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure. The m a j o r proponents of a p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n included the domestic common c a r r i e r s , t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f J u s t i c e and a g r o u p of S e n a t o r s i n C o n g r e s s h e a d e d by S e n a t o r M o r s e . Those who f a v o u r e d a p r i v a t e l y owned company i n c l u d e d AT & T, t h e FCC and t h e i r a l l i e s i n C o n g r e s s h e a d e d by t h e C h a i r m a n o f t h e S e n a t e C o m m i t t e e on A e r o n a u t i a l and S p a c e S c i e n c e s , S e n a t o r R o b e r t S. K e r r Kvam, "COMSAT ..." :280-284 .  16.  Ibid.  :272-73.  17.  See Maddox, "The  18.  On t h e r o l e o f t h i s i s s u e i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r t h e I n t e r i m A g r e e m e n t f o r INTELSAT s e e G a l l o w a y , The P o l i t i c s T e c h n o l o g y o f S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , C h a p t e r Two.  19.  See J e a n J a c q u e s S e r v a n - S c h r e i b e r , The A m e r i c a n C h a l l e n g e , (N.Y.: Atheneum H o u s e , I n c . , 1 9 6 9 ) .  20.  D a v i d H. B l a k e and R o b e r t S. W a l t e r s , The P o l i t i c s o f G l o b a l E c o n o m i c R e l a t i o n s (New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1976) : 146 .  21.  Ibid.  P o l i t i c s o f INTELSAT"  :273. and  22.  V i c t o r B a s i u k , T e c h n o l o g y , W o r l d P o l i t i c s and A m e r i c a n P o l i c y (N.Y.: C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) : 9 1 . ( E m p h a s i s a d d e d ) .  23.  K i l d o w , INTELSAT  :62.  47. 24.  K i l d o w , INTELSAT  :62.  25.  Ibid  26.  J o n a t h a n F. G a l l o w a y , " W o r l d w i d e C o r p o r a t i o n s and I n t e r national Integration: The C a s e o f INTELSAT", I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . X X I V (Summer 1 9 7 0 ) : 5 1 3 .  27.  L e v y , "INTELSAT, T e c h n o l o g y P o l i t i c s and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a Regime". :660-661.  28.  Ibid.  :63-64.  29.  Maddox, B e y o n d  Babel.  30.  K i l d o w , INTELSAT  31.  Ibid.  32.  See M a r c e l l u s . Snow, I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m e r c i a l S a t e l l i t e Communications: E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l I s s u e s o f t h e F i r s t Decade o f INTELSAT, (N.Y.: P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 6 ) .  33.  On t h e E u r o p e a n e f f o r t s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d s e e P. L a n g e r e u x " S a t e l l i t e s o f t h e E u r o p e a n C o u n t r i e s f r o m 1962-1968" A i r e t Cosmos 6 J u n e 1 9 8 1 ; and L e s l i e R. S h e p a r d , "A S p a c e Program f o r Europe" Spaceflight V o l . 8 ( J a n u a r y , 1966) :2.  34.  M. K a n a b a y a s h i , " G e t t i n g i n t o O r b i t : The J a p a n e s e L a u n c h Independent S a t e l l i t e Program". W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , 29 M a r c h 1977:44.  35.  See "Coming U s e s o f S a t e l l i t e s : Domestic S a t e l l i t e s , News and W o r l d R e p o r t , 7 A u g u s t 1972, :62-63.  36.  J a s t r o w and N e w e l l , I n t e r e s t " , :535.  37.  U.S. C o n g r e s s , House, C o m m i t t e e on S p a c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s , S u b c o m m i t t e e on Space S c i e n c e s and A p p l i c a t i o n s , A s s e s s m e n t o f S p a c e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s T e c h n o l o g y : 1970, 9 1 s t C o n g . , 1 s t S e s s . , M a r c h 3, 1970, R e p o r t #91-859 :5.  38.  Thomas P. M u r p h y , " F e d e r a l R e g u l a t o r y P o l i c y and C o m m u n i c a t i o n Satellites" The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f E c o n o m i c and S o c i o l o g y 31 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 2 ) : 3 3 8 .  39.  The m a j o r r o a d b l o c k s t o t h e FCC d e c i s i o n w e r e o v e r t h e i s s u e s o f who w o u l d c o n t r o l t h e s y s t e m and how i t w o u l d be r e g u l a t e d . See " R e p o r t a n d O r d e r on t h e M a t t e r o f E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f D o m e s t i c C o m m u n i c a t i o n - S a t e l l i t e F a c i l i t i e s by N o n - G o v e r n m e n t a l E n t i t i e s " 22 FCC R e p o r t s , 2nd, 86 1970. See a l s o M.E. K i n s l e y , O u t e r S p a c e and I n n e r S a n c t u m s : Government, B u s i n e s s , , and S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s (N.Y.: J o h n W i l e y and s o n s . , 1976) C h a p t e r Two.  :63-64.  "The  an  "U.S.  Space P r o g r a m and t h e N a t i o n a l  48.  40.  On t h e A m e r i c a n p o s i t i o n i n t h e INTELSAT r e n e g o t i a t i o n s s e e S.E. D o y l e , "The P e r m a n e n t C h a r t e r f o r INTELSAT" D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , 18 O c t o b e r 1971 :415 a n d D a v i d W i l s o n , "Space B u s i n e s s : The H i s t o r y o f INTELSAT", Y e a r - b o o k o f W o r l d A f f a i r s 1971 :72-76.  41.  See R.S. M a g n a n t , D o m e s t i c S a t e l l i t e s : An FCC G i a n t S t e p Towards C o m p e t i t i v e T e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s P o l i c y , ( B o u l d e r : Westview P r e s s , 1977); and J a c k Oslund,"'Open S h o r e s " t o 'Open S k i e s ' : S o u r c e s a n d D i r e c t i o n s o f U.S. S a t e l l i t e P o l i c y " , i n Economic and P o l i c y Problems i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e d s . , J o s e p h N. P e l t o n a n d M a r c e l l u s Snow (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 7 ) : 1 7 2 - 7 3 .  42.  "Coming U s e s o f S a t e l l i t e s " U.S. News a n d W o r l d R e p o r t :63. COMSAT was a l s o r e s t r i c t e d f r o m o p e r a t i n g d o m e s t i c a l l y . COMSAT G e n e r a l C o r p o r a t i o n was f o r m e d a s a s u b s i d i a r y o f COMSAT I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n 1973 a s t h e e n t i t y o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d b y t h e FCC t o engage i n d o m e s t i c s a t e l l i t e systems development. T h e r e i s no f u n c t i o n a l o v e r l a p s b e t w e e n t h e two c o m p a n i e s . New Y o r k T i m e s 24, F e b r u a r y 1973, :40.  43.  "The 'Domsat 1973, :68.  44.  J . S . L u b i n , " D o g f i g h t i n Space: C o m p e t i t i o n H e a t s Up i n Domestic S a t e l l i t e s as Technology G a i n s " W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l 8 September 1978, : 1 .  45.  On t h e INTELSAT r e n e g o t i a t i o n s s e e l e v y , "INTELSAT, T e c h n o l o g y , P o l i t i c s and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a Regime", :660-80, a n d "INTELSAT: A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e R e n e g o t i a t i o n , " H a r v a r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law J o u r n a l 9 ( W i n t e r 1968) : 2 9 0 - 3 2 5 .  46.  G a l l o w a y , "Worldwide  47.  L e v y , INTELSAT : 6 7 1 .  48.  Ibid.  49.  "U.S. O f f e r s L a u n c h A s s i s t a n c e t o E u r o p e a n s " . Department o f S t a t e B u l l e t i n , 29 November 1971 :624-27 a n d K i l d o w , INTELSAT :72.  50.  P a u l R e c e r , " P r i v a t e Firms i n Space". R e p o r t 9 November 1 9 8 1 , :57.  51.  J a s t r o w and N e w e l l ,  52.  See U.S. C o n g r e s s , House C o m m i t t e e on S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y , S u b c o m m i t t e e o n Space S c i e n c e a n d A p p l i c a t i o n s . Worldwide Space A c t i v i t i e s O t h e r t h a n t h e U.S./USSR, 9 5 t h C o n g . , 1 s t S e s s . , September,-1977 .  1  R a c e i s Now Open", B u s i n e s s Week, 2 2  September  C o r p o r a t i o n s ... INTELSAT" :518.  "The Space P r o g r a m  U.S. News a n d W o r l d :534.  49. 53.  Murphy, "Federal R e g u l a t o r y P o l i c y  ..."  :338.  54.  See: P.O. Davis and W.G. Holder, "Keynote of the S e v e n t i e s : J o i n t Ventures i n t o Space" A i r U n i v e r s i t y Review 24 (September/October 1973):16-29.  55.  Mr. Santiago A s t r a i n , INTELSAT D i r e c t o r General, "Challenges f o r the INTELSAT O r g a n i z a t i o n " , Speech presented a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Doing Business i n Space. Washington, D.C, November 1981. Quoted i n I n t e l l i n k , 1 (Fourth Quarter, 1 9 8 1 / F i r s t Quarter, 1982):5 and 8.  56.  See E.W. B a s s e t t , "Europe Competes w i t h U.S. Programs", 3 March 1980, :89; Paul Recer, "In Space, U.S. i s #2 but t r y i n g h a r d e r " . U.S. News and World Report 29 December 1980/5 January 1981 :39; and "Buyers and S e l l e r s i n Space: U.S. and European Commercial Communication S a t e l l i t e " , Economist 21 November 1981 :96-97.  57.  Interview: Vancouver,  58.  C h a r l e s Horner, "Outer Space and E a r t h l y P o l i t i c s : How T h i r d World Advocates of a New World Information Order are Seeking C o n t r o l of S a t e l l i t e Communications". American S p e c t a t o r 12 (February 1979) :11-14.  Dr. Nadkarni, INTELSAT p l a n n i n g c o o r d i n a t o r , B.C., August 14, 1982.  50. CHAPTER FOUR  THE REGIME GOVERNING THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM AND GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT  The  electromagnetic  f r e q u e n c y s p e c t r u m has l o n g been  communication a p p l i c a t i o n s  allocated  for  terristrial  old  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telecommunications Union  are  v a r i o u s types o f communication t h a t r e q u i r e the use o f r a d i o  waves, i n t e r n a t i o n a l  t h r o u g h t h e 100-year (ITU).  1  Because  there  c o l l a b o r a t i o n has been n e c e s s a r y t o c o -  o r d i n a t e these v a r i o u s uses  (eg:maritime m o b i l e , b r o a d c a s t i n g ,  aeronautical, radio navigation,  etc.)  with the p a r t i c u l a r 2  range on t h e r a d i o s p e c t r u m most a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i r F r e q u e n c y bands a r e a l s o a l l o c a t e d by t h r e e r e g i o n s :  operation. the f i r s t  c o m p r i s e s W e s t e r n E u r o p e , A f r i c a , U.S.S.R, a n d M o n g o l i a ; t h e second comprises t h e A m e r i c a s a n d A s i a and Oceana. r e g i o n would  the t h i r d ,  the remainder of  The l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n b y f u n c t i o n a n d  l e a d t o s e r i o u s problems o f i n t e r f e r e n c e and 3  c o n g e s t i o n a l o n g c e r t a i n bands o f t h e s p e c t r u m for  and t h e p o t e n t i a l  jamming w h i c h w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y c u l m i n a t e i n a b r e a k d o w n  global  communication networks.  satellites  of  The a d v e n t o f t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  hastened the growth o f c o n g e s t i o n problems  because 4  t h e i r o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d f r e q u e n c i e s a l r e a d y u s e d on l a n d . Expanding uses o f s a t e l l i t e s t r a n s m i s s i o n , remote  f o r direct-broadcasting, data  s e n s i n g , and m e t e r o l o g y , and t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n  of  independent s a t e l l i t e  s y s t e m s have o n l y i n c r e a s e d t h e c o n g e s t i o n  of  the frequency spectrum.  I n t h e p a s t two d e c a d e s  the Inter-  n a t i o n a l Frequency R e g i s t r a t i o n Board the  ( I F R B ) , t h e body w i t h i n  ITU t h a t a l l o c a t e s f r e q u e n c i e s , has f o u n d i t i n c r e a s i n g l y  difficult  t o k e e p up w i t h demands f o r s p e c t r a l  s p a c e and t o 5  ensure t h a t i n t e r f e r e n c e problems  a r e k e p t t o a minimum.  B e y o n d i t s d u t i e s as a r e g u l a t o r and w a t c h d o g , s e e k s t o accommodate t h e g r o w i n g s a t e l l i t e m a r k e t c o n t a c t s w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t r e s e a r c h g r o u p s who  by  t h e IFRB maintaining  are working  m e t h o d s t o make more i n t e n s i v e u s e o f t h e r a d i o  on  spectrum.^  However, n e i t h e r t h e I F R B n o r i t s p a r e n t b o d y , t h e I T U , has power t o i n d u c e s t a t e s t o a d o p t t h e s e new its  techniques.  In  be a d h e r e d t o .  Member s t a t e s o f t h e  ITU a g r e e t o l i m i t e d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f f r e q u e n c i e s b e c a u s e  i tis  t h e i r b e s t i n t e r e s t t o a v o i d i n t e r f e r e n c e and o v e r u s e o f t h e  spectrum.  I t i s them r a t h e r t h a n t h e IFRB who  o p t i o n t o choose national to  fact  power i s s o l i m i t e d t h a t t h e I F R B c a n n o t e v e n e n s u r e t h a t i t s  frequency a l l o c a t i o n s w i l l  in  the  have t h e  t h e f r e q u e n c y range most u s e f u l  and c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s .  The  first  for their  IFRB i n v e s t i g a t e s p r o p o s a l s  determine i f they are compatible w i t h current a l l o c a t i o n s ,  and,  7  if  s o , r e g i s t e r s them i n t h e M a s t e r R e g i s t e r o f F r e q u e n c i e s .  T h i s a l l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e o r method w h i c h has come t o be known as " f i r s t  come - f i r s t  s e r v e d " a l s o a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o keep  that  f r e q u e n c y as l o n g as t h e p a r t i c u l a r u s e - r e q u i r e m e n t e x i s t s .  No  subsequent  r u l e s have been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t would change o r  reassess a l l o c a t i o n s over time. Conferences  The  p e r i o d i c ITU  Administration  (known as W o r l d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R a d i o C o n f e r e n c e s o r  WARCS) s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g a c o m p r e h e n s i v e worldwide spectrum a l l o c a t i o n s the  review of  and u s a g e , and o f a l l o c a t i n g  t h r e e r e g i o n s r e c e n t l y opened-up r a n g e s o f t h e s p e c t r u m  to (as  t e c h n o l o g y makes them a v a i l a b l e ) b u t , h a v e no  52.  l i k e t h e I F R B , t h e WARCs  j u r i s d i c t i o n a l mandate t o r e v o k e  i f they  are  l i m i t s o f t h e I F R B and WARC m a n d a t e s i n a l l o c a t i n g  and  being u t i l i z e d The  inefficiently.  a s s e s s i n g the use  below, are content o f t h e U n i o n and  9  of the frequency  i n t e r e s t s of i n f l u e n t i a l  allocations  s p e c t r u m c a n be  ITU members who,  to maintain the  traced to  f o r reasons  l o o s e and  discussed  flexible structure  i t s principal bodies. ^ Their influence derives 1  from advanced t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n telecommunications g e n e r a l l y , f r o m p o s i t i o n s o f g l o b a l power and h i g h l y s k e w e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e has nounced w i t h the a d m i s s i o n d u r i n g the p a s t decade.  and,  influence.  become v e r y  more  This pro-  of s i x t y - f i v e developing c o u n t r i e s  Recognizing  the p o t e n t i a l s t h a t  tele-  communication c a p a b i l i t i e s o f f e r f o r growth i n a g r i c u l t u r e , i n d u s t r y , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and to ensure access  e d u c a t i o n , t h e s e n a t i o n s have s o u g h t  to the frequency  s p e c t r u m and  geostationary  orbit  by d e m a n d i n g s w e e p i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n 12  t h e ITU unable  and  its affiliate  to e x p l o i t s a t e l l i t e  o t h e r f a c t o r has t h e i r success first  bodies.  any  ultimately,  "first  come and  developing c o u n t r i e s , i n c l u d i n g I n d i a , the  Brazil  and  I n d o n e s i a , have a c q u i r e d t h e  capabilities  I e x a m i n e t h e e v o l u t i o n and - one  yet  t h i s more t h a n  i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s more  that w i l l  necessary  h e l p them d e v e l o p  e f f e c t i v e c h a l l e n g e to the c u r r e n t regime.  t o t h e ITU  and  l i m i t e d t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g power a n d ,  Nonetheless,  more i n f l u e n t i a l  k n o w l e d g e and  capabilities,  i n c h a l l e n g i n g the c u r r e n t system of  served".  Phillipines,  However, many a r e as  I n the next  outcome o f t h e s e o p p o s i n g  f r o m t h e g o v e r n m e n t s and  a more  industrial  section,  challenges interests  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and to maintain  the  from developing  o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s who  loose p a t t e r n of c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a n d the country  i n t e r e s t s who  r e g u l a t o r y s y s t e m f o r f r e q u e n c i e s and The  primary  focus  hegemony has  had  s e e k a more  seek  other  powerful  the g e o s t a t i o n a r y  orbit.  remains the e f f e c t t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l  on  outcomes.  Challenges to the C o l l a b o r a t i v e Arrangements f o r the A l l o c a t i o n o f t h e F r e q u e n c y S p e c t r u m and G e o s t a t i o n a r y O r b i t : WARC C o n f e r e n c e s and t h e S t a t u s Quo.  The  u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f IFRB a l l o c a t i o n s w h i c h  i n f l u e n t i a l members w a n t t o m a i n t a i n w a n t t o c h a n g e i s , as I n o t e d allocation i n use  system.  Although  and  above, the this  the d e v e l o p i n g "first-come  nations  first-served  l a s s s e z - f a i r e s y s t e m has  s i n c e t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e I F R B i n 1947,  manifest  the  strains  been  became  o n l y i n t h e e a r l y s i x t i e s when s a t e l l i t e s b e g a n t o  r e q u i r e f r e q u e n c i e s a l r e a d y i n use I t became a b u n d a n t l y  for terrestrial  communication.  c l e a r t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s t h a t v a s t ranges of the s p e c t r u m w o u l d h a v e t o be t h e i n s i s t e n c e o f t h e U.S.,  secured  other  frequency  f o r space communications.  t h e ITU  At  a g r e e d t o c o n v e n e an e x t r a -  o r d i n a r y s e s s i o n of i t s f i v e - y e a r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e conference 1963  ( t h e l a s t one  was  h e l d i n 1959), i n order  s y s t e m o f c o o r d i n a t i o n , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and for s a t e l l i t e s .  I n v i e w o f how  t h e outcome o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , s p e n t two  years  preparing  t o work o u t  frequency  a  allocations  technical expertise could Jacobson w r i t e s t h a t the  i t s position:  in  affect U.S.  B e s i d e s work b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , m a j o r s t u d i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n b y t h e RAND C o r p o r a t i o n , L o c k h e e d , G e n e r a l E l e c t r i c a n d O t h e r s ... t h e U.S. ( g o v e r n m e n t ) a l s o c o n d u c t e d a number o f b i l a t e r a l and m u l t i l a t e r a l n e g o t i a t i o n s . 14 The  v i r t u a l m o n o p o l y h e l d b y t h e U.S. o v e r k n o w l e d g e a n d e x p e r t i s e ,  e n s u r e d t h a t i t g o t m o s t o f w h a t i t a s k e d f o r a t t h e 1963 WARC. M a j o r bands o f t h e s p e c t r u m were a l l o c a t e d f o r  satellite  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e INTELSAT  negotiations  scheduled f o r the f o l l o w i n g year i n Washington. ensured that the "first-come  The U.S. a l s o  f i r s t - s e r v e d " p r i n c i p l e of frequency  a l l o c a t i o n was e x t e n d e d t o t h e new c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t e c h n o l o g y . b o l s t e r h i s country's the  p o s i t i o n , the American r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  argument t h a t o u t e r s p a c e , l i k e  To used  t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum^was t h e  common h e r i t a g e o f a l l m a n - k i n d , n o t a p p r o p r i a b l e  by any s i n g l e  15 nation.  He a r g u e d t h a t a l l n a t i o n s  could p o t e n t i a l l y  benefit  from a system o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t e n s u r e d f r e e and easy to outerspace,  'and t h a t a n y o t h e r 16  common h e r i t a g e p r i n c i p l e . Conference then, and  system would contravene  At the conclusion  the foundations  f o r space frequency a l l o c a t i o n s  c o l l a b o r a t i o n h a d b e e n s e t , a n d i t was c l e a r t h a t  t e c h n i c a l l y p r e p a r e d and c o n t r o l l e d t h e r e s o u r c e s 1  •  4- •  "  1  this  o f t h e 1963  (would) go t o t h o s e s t a t e s a n d p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s t h a t 4-  access  "influence (were)  important i n  8  telecommunications. Throughout t h e s i x t i e s other  a n d e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , t h e U.S. a n d  r e c e n t members o f t h e " s a t e l l i t e  w o r l d were a b l e  c l u b " from t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e  t o make a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d o b t a i n d e s i r e d  f o r space communications w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l ease. the mid s e v e n t i e s  that the developing  frequencies  I t was n o t u n t i l  c o u n t r i e s attempted t o  challenge  the  a special  conference  members who was  loose  argued  laissez-faire was  called  t h a t the  patently unfair  and  system of a l l o c a t i o n .  at the  insistence  of  served  to perpetuate  the  1974  those  "'first-come first-served"  ...  In  principle  imbalance  19 in  g l o b a l communications."  assignment f i x e d assure  a l l o t m e n t p l a n s h o u l d be  a developing  frequency them.  These n a t i o n s  country  access  these  interests.  c h a n g e s and  carved  Needless any  ?  of  powers t o  the  broader  "suggestion  United  t h a t the  the  t o make use  i f not p r o t e c t o r , of  to say the  pre-  which would  ranges of  inability  extending  IFRB by m a k i n g i t t h e g u a r a n t o r , country  instituted  to c e r t a i n  spectrum d e s p i t e i t s present  Such a p l a n would e n t a i l  argued t h a t a  developing  States  resisted  spectrum should  be  up"  s i n c e i t w o u l d have meant, a s e v e r e r o a d b l o c k t o i t s 20 r a p i d advance i n space communications. By t h e 1974 WARC, a m a s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n t h e use o f c o m m e r c i a l s a t e l l i t e s was a l r e a d y  given this prospect predicted had By  the  f o r t h e end  interests  rallying  the  able to block While no  o f t h e d e c a d e a n d A t h e U.S.  o f numerous p u b l i c and  support  of other  and  nations  he  was  system.  this  challenge did indicate  t h a t the o l d regime would  i t was  necessary  t o make t h e i r  When a s i m i l a r lobbying  industrialized  changes t o the c u r r e n t  l a c k e d the  capabilities  p r i v a t e groups to p r o t e c t .  any  l o n g e r stand undaunted,  countries  representative  conference  certain  frequency  casting  t o two  was  three  called the  when t h e  bands and  of the  requisites  p l e a any  b l o c • v o t i n g by  some m i n o r v i c t o r i e s  most e v i d e n t t h a t t h e of e x p e r t i s e  more t h a n i n 1977,  developing  conference  more  and gesture.  effective  countries d i d lead to  adopted a p l a n d e s i g n a t i n g  positions in orbit ITU  a symbolic  developing  designated  for satellite  regions.  While  broad-  not  e x a c t l y t h e " f i x e d a l l o t m e n t " scheme, t h i s p l a n w o u l d a t l e a s t e n s u r e t h a t when d e v e l o p i n g  n a t i o n s i n Europe and A s i a d i d  acquire s a t e l l i t e c a p a b i l i t i e s , (although they would s t i l l the r e g i o n ) .  f r e q u e n c i e s w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e :  be c o m p e t i n g w i t h o t h e r n a t i o n s i n  The U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a r g u e d a g a i n s t  c h a n g e s , s a y i n g t h a t i t was e x t r e m e l y f r e q u e n c i e s t h a t would probably important  these  inefficient to allot  go u n u s e d f o r y e a r s .  The most  outcome o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , was t h e a g r e e m e n t 21  not t o adopt a s i m i l a r p l a n f o r t h e Americans.  Again,  i t was  t h e U.S. who s h a p e d t h e outcome o f WARC-7 7. By  t h e 1979 WARC, t h e p r e s s u r e  arrangements reached was  a critical  t o change t h e e x i s t i n g  point.  h a i l e d b e f o r e h a n d as an i m p o r t a n t  The C o n f e r e n c e , w h i c h political  milestone i n 22  r e l a t i o n s between t h e developed had  as i t s f i r s t  Regulations all  areas  and t h e d e v e l o p i n g  purpose the review  which define frequency  countries,  and r e v i s i o n o f t h e R a d i o a l l o c a t i o n s and t h e i r use i n  o f communication and n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  f o r space  c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a s a t t h e 1974 a n d 1977 s p e c i a l WARCs. m a j o r p u r p o s e o f WARC-79 was t o d i s c u s s o r d r a f t concerning  principles  t h e g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . The o r b i t was n o t a  o f t h e ITU u n t i l  the mid-seventies  of i t s future saturation.  1979 i n d u s t r y a n d g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s w e r e n o t i n g  competition f o r the remaining the g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l 23 area.  Before  institutional  concern  when t h e g r o w i n g number o f  independent systems brought p r o s p e c t s By  A second  orbital  "parking s l o t s "  that represented  for future discord i n the s a t e l l i t e  t h e ITU u n d e r t o o k a r e v i e w  of this  issue  i s s u e , no  arrangements e x i s t e d f o r t h e a l l o c a t i o n of t h e  o r b i t beyond t h e customary p r i n c i p l e o f " f i r s t - c o m e f i r s t  served"  57.  24 o r , more a p p r o p r i a t e l y , " s q u a t t e r s r i g h t s " . Because outerspace has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e common t e r r i t o r y o f a l l m a n k i n d , we  saw  t h a t "a r e g i m e o f o p e n a c c e s s  and  free  use"  25  came t o g o v e r n human a c t i v i t i e s of s a t e l l i t e  development, the  incentive to i n s t i t u t e system governing  in.space.  In the e a r l y  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s had  a more f o r m a l r e g u l a t o r y o r  As  telecommunications,  collaborative  remote s e n s i n g ,  o t h e r u s e s o f s a t e l l i t e s became i n c r e a s i n g l y economic v i a b i l i t y  of these  towards i n s t i t u t i n g On  little  the a l l o c a t i o n of p a r c e l s of space i n the  stationary orbit.  the o r b i t .  years  important  n a t i o n s , t h e r e was  a regime t h a t would l i m i t  and the  further disincentive their  f r e e use  the o t h e r hand, most n a t i o n s r e c o g n i z e d  p e n d i n g s a t u r a t i o n was  to  geo-  a p r o b l e m t o be d e a l t w i t h .  But  of  that i t s where  proposals  f r o m i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s p l a c e d much e m p h a s i s  on  technical  solutions ( i . e : determining  the  orbit),  the d e v e l o p i n g  more e f f i c i e n t u s e s o f  n a t i o n s p l a c e d e m p h a s i s on a  s y s t e m o f a l l o c a t i o n and  regulations.  were f o r m a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  a t WARC-7 9 w h e r e t h o s e  These d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s  c a p a b i l i t i e s came o n c e a g a i n t o d o m i n a t e and outcomes.  How  t h e y w e r e a b l e t o use  r e s u l t of t h e i r c o n t r o l over  d i d not  r e p r e s e n t an  telecommunication  c a p a b i l i t i e s made i t s use  influence'was and  spectrum, the g e o s t a t i o n a r y "stake" or resource  i n c o n c e r t w i t h advanced  b o t h p o s s i b l e and  the  Conference largely  their  expertise i n satellite  international  satellite  nations with  shape t h e  launch c a p a b i l i t i e s  to implement advanced t e c h n i c a l  U n l i k e the frequency  this  stronger  promise  design.  orbit until  the  launching  necessary.-  a  Located  58. 33,200 k i l o m e t e r s a b o v e t h e e a r t h ' s  equator,  i n t h i s o r b i t r o t a t e s a b o u t t h e e a r t h on t h a t i t remains r e l a t i v e l y t h e e a r t h . As  a 24  hour b a s i s meaning  ' s t a t i o n a r y ' over the  Brown n o t e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l  i s t h a t each s a t e l l i t e can  a s a t e l l i t e placed  see  same segment o f  advantage of t h i s  o n e - t h i r d of the globe  orbit  from  this  27 vantage p o i n t .  This results  e f f i c i e n c i e s as few  as t h r e e  i n t e c h n i c a l and  economic  i t " a l l o w s f o r c o v e r a g e o f t h e w h o l e e a r t h by  s a t e l l i t e s r a t h e r t h a n by  c o m p a r a b l e c o v e r a g e w i t h s a t e l l i t e s on  t h e many more r e q u i r e d f o r 28 lower  orbits."  a- n a t i o n w i t h b o t h an a d v a n c e d s a t e l l i t e s y s t e m and capability  i s a b l e t o make use  a  launching  facilities  choose the most e f f i c i e n t o r b i t a l l o c a t i o n (The  proper combination  a particular orbit). the  use  Nations  launch  i s met who  Obviously launching  o f t h e o r b i t more r e a d i l y  s t a t e t h a t possesses only the s a t e l l i t e technology. advantage to n a t i o n s w i t h  bandwidth) f o r  only i n certain  areas of the  overall  must engage i n b i l a t e r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r  and  t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d e n t on  subsequent system  seriously  f e a r e d t h a t by  c r i t i c i z e d by the p o t e n t i a l  redress  those  n a t i o n s who  to either  launch or b u i l d 29 s l o t s " w o u l d have been t a k e n .  these  efficiency.  arrangement  During  can  for their satellites.  frequency  of t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s are  "choice  the  The  C o n s e q u e n t l y , a t WARC-79 t h i s h i e r a r c h i a l  of the  than  i s t h a t they  o f d i s t a n c e and  s t a t e s f o r choice of o r b i t  t h e y had  as  was the  time  s a t e l l i t e s ,a l l  the Conference, T h i r d World l o b b y i s t s sought to  t h i s i n e q u i t y by e x t e n d i n g  allotment plan for frequencies stationary orbit.  fixed-  t o an a l l o t m e n t p l a n f o r t h e  Most of these  guaranteed p o s i t i o n s i n c e r t a i n  t h e i r demands f o r a  gee-  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s argued f o r w e l l - d e f i n e d areas of the  orbit  But e i g h t e q u a t o r i a l n a t i o n s went as f a r as t o d e c l a r e r i g h t s over  the o r b i t  declaration,  territorial  l y i n g d i r e c t l y above t h e i r t e r r i t o r y .  This  f i r s t p r o p o s e d a t B o g a t a i n 1976, was b a s e d on t h e  fact that: ... s a t e l l i t e s i n g e o s y n c h r o n o u s o r b i t r e m a i n a b o v e t h e same p l a c e on t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , and, f u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l a i r s p a c e and o u t e r s p a c e i s l e g a l l y a m b i g u o u s ... U n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e d e c l a r a t i o n , ( t h e n ) , whoever d e s i r e d t o p l a c e s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o s e e k and r e c e i v e t h e p e r m i s s i o n o f t h e e q u a t o r i a l s t a t e o v e r whose t e r r i t o r y i t was p l a c e d . 30 The  proposal  has  enshrined  contravened  t h e 1967 U.N. O u t e r s p a c e T r e a t y  which  t h e p r i n c i p l e e v o k e d b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 1963  that outerspace  was n o t a p p r o p r i a b l e b y any i n d i v i d u a l o r n a t i o n .  F o r more o b v i o u s  practical  reasons^  (have) c r e a t e ( d )  an i m p r e c i s e  because the o r b i t extends over  "sovereign claims  and n o n - c o m p r e h e n s i v e  would  regime  i n t e r n a t i o n a l oceans and i n t e r 31  national The  territories  a s w e l l as o v e r  these  equatorial states."  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s r e f u s e d t o concede t o T h i r d World  demands f o r p r e e m p t i o n o f s p e c t r a l a n d o r b i t a l 32 a more e q u a l  a l l o c a t i o n of stakes.  s l o t s o r even f o r  The U.S. r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  a g a i n a r g u e d t h a t a f i x e d a l l o t m e n t p l a n w o u l d a l l o w much c a p a c i t y t o go u n u s e d .  (Note:  In taking this position,  t h e U.S.  held  m o s t o f t h e c a r d s , f o r a s l o n g as l a u n c h i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s under i t s auspices  i t w o u l d be a b l e t o d i c t a t e o u t c o m e s ) .  the end, t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e a l l o c a t e and r e v i s e e x i s t i n g m e n t s was d e f e r r e d t o 1 9 8 3 , a n d WARC-79 c o n c l u d e d advanced i n d u s t r i a l that a f i n a l  remained  states assuring the developing  In  arrange-  with the countries  a r r a n g e m e n t was p e n d i n g b u t i t w o u l d h a v e t o a w a i t  advances n o t y e t o p e r a t i o n a l .  60.  The A r r o g a n c e o f P o w e r ; Technological Progress  The  A P r i v a t e - P u b l i c Handshake  o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o " t e c h n i c a l advances" w h i c h were  h a i l e d by t h e d e v e l o p e d  c o u n t r i e s , r e f e r r e d to techniques  would m i t i g a t e the problems of overuse use  o f t h e two  technology these  resources.  now  techniques.  by m a k i n g more  But d e s p i t e e v i d e n c e  e x i s t s t h e r e has  been l i t t l e  Commenting on how  not f o l l o w e d through White  Regulates  that  efficient the  e f f e c t i v e adoption  the developed  with their problem-solving  of  n a t i o n s have  designs,  (Communications C o n s u l t a n t t o d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s )  t h a t t h e y s h o u l d i n some manner be  that  Curtis argues  r e q u i r e d t o i m p l e m e n t them:  S p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n s s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d ... t o make b r o a d c a s t e r s u t i l i z e e q u i p m e n t t h a t would reduce s i g n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e , thus i n c r e a s i n g o v e r a l l c a p a c i t y w i t h o u t even expanding the usable spectrum. Satellite t r a n s m i t t e r s c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t h a t c a n f o c u s t h e i r beams more s h a r p l y , p r e v e n t i n g s p i l l o v e r s i n t o r e g i o n s where t h e s i g n a l i s u n w a n t e d ... S t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t t e c h n i q u e s t o m o d u l a t e f r e q u e n c i e s more a c c u r a t e l y s h o u l d (be u s e d t o ) i n c r e a s e c h a n n e l c a p a c i t y ... 33 T e c h n i c a l advances i n s a t e l l i t e d e s i g n w i l l e f f i c i e n t use  of the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t .  s t a b i l i z a t i o n keep s a t e l l i t e s  a l s o a l l o w more Advances i n s p i n -  in their orbital  s l o t s more 34  e f f e c t i v e l y and But  implementing  h a v e h a l v e d t h e d i s t a n c e r e q u i r e d b e t w e e n them. a p l a n r e q u i r i n g s t a t e s t o adopt measures f o r  g r e a t e r t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y w o u l d mean s t r e n g t h e n i n g extending 1974,  1977  the powers o f the ITU, and  1979  and  as t h e o u t c o m e s o f  WARC's h a v e shown, t h e  nations consistently r e s i s t  any  and the  industrialized  proposals to extend  t h a t mandate,  particularly industrial But  s i n c e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i s becoming t h e key  s e c t o r and a m a j o r a r e a o f c o m p e t i t i o n  e v e n i f a more s t r u c t u r e d s y s t e m o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s  unacceptable, a p o i n t which appears p a r a d o x i c a l overwhelming b e n e f i t s t o long term i n d u s t r i a l commercial firms  explanation  i n t h e U.S. i n p a r t i c u l a r n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d  requires  and on  narrowing the required distance outside  ATS  these  elsewhere?  a t the d i s t r i b u t i o n  States.  Most o f t h e  c o n c e r n e d w i t h o p e n i n g up new r a n g e s o f t h e s p e c t u r m between s a t e l l i t e s  i s carried  of the commercial m i l i e u i n h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d  or m i l i t a r y experiments. and  a r e adopted  us t o l o o k o n c e a g a i n  or d i f f u s i o n o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the United research  i s despite the  g r o w t h why h a v e  new t e c h n i q u e s a s q u i c k l y a s new i n n o v a t i o n s The  b e t w e e n them.  OTS  (Operational  national  Test S a t e l l i t e  (Applications Test S a t e l l i t e Project)  Project)  a r e two e x a m p l e s o f  government funded p r o j e c t s d e s i g n e d , i n p a r t , f o r g r e a t e r ,  more  35 e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e spectrum.  Much o f t h i s  r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r commercial developers, ment d e c i s i o n s  develop-  t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s have n o t made  s i g n i f i c a n t u s e o f t h e new i n f o r m a t i o n .  L i k e t h e ITU a t t h e  l e v e l no n a t i o n a l a g e n c y h a s t h e m a n d a t e t o f o r c e  commercial f i r m s t o adopt conservation techniques,  b u t because  a r e b a s e d on c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s much a s on  advanced system t e c h n i q u e s ,  international  information i s  o r advanced  a l t h o u g h t h e s e a g e n c i e s do p r o v i d e 36  to encourage t h e i r development.  design  industry  incentives  What i s i m p o r t a n t f o r o u r  p u r p o s e s , h o w e v e r , i s t h a t t h e s e same c o m m u n i c a t i o n  agencies  which encourage i n d u s t r y t o adopt b e t t e r techniques a t t h e national  l e v e l are also the f i r s t  firms at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  to protect  their  commercial  A t t h e WARC C o n f e r e n c e s where  most n a t i o n s  are  represented  a r g u m e n t s a r e made t h a t new t i m e t o be  implemented.  h a v e s p e c i f i c and  by  t h e i r communication m i n i s t r i e s ,  techniques  a r e e x p e n s i v e and  Furthermore, these m i n i s t r i e s u s u a l l y  highly exclusionary  i n t e r e s t s that develop  of t h e i r c l o s e t i e s w i t h n a t i o n a l telecommunications Seyom Brown w r i t e s t h a t m i n i s t r i e s a r e w i t h t e l e p h o n e and broadcasts  require  telegraph  f o r developing  out  firms.  " u s u a l l y most c o n c e r n e d  s e r v i c e s rather than  educational  countries, meterological  and  ecological  37 data  or n a v i g a t i o n a l needs."  While developing  b e n e f i t g r e a t l y from s a t e l l i t e s ability this and  to obtain frequencies  f i r m s from the  i s often effectively  industrialized  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s and  their  stymied  national  allows  the  seeing  beyond the  Outside the  ITU,  to the  orbit.  The  developing  n e c e s s a r y t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s and S y m b o l i c demands f o r a "New  t o go  k n o w l e d g e and  u n h e e d e d as  nations until  ITU,  their are  capabilities  same a d v a n t a g e s o v e r have l i t t l e  the  hope o f  t h e y too have  the  capabilities.  World Information  l o n g as  the  frequency spectrum  launching  demands f o r f i x e d a l l o t m e n t s  likely  Within  c o n t r o l over launch  a more s t r u c t u r e d s y s t e m e v o l v e  concrete  ITU.  Their  communication m i n i s t r i e s ensure t h a t  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s the  geostationary  agencies  telecommunications  advanced t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e .  i n t e r e s t s with respect  secured.  by  world.  w i t h w e l l developed  i n f l u e n c e e x t e n d s t h r o u g h o u t and the w e l l - i n f o r m e d  would  c o l l a b o r a t i v e system i s c u r r e n t l y  structured to favor nations  are  s e r v i n g these areas,  i n t e r n a t i o n a l p u b l i c - p r i v a t e handshake of n a t i o n a l  I n summary, t h e  well  countries  of the  O r d e r " and s p e c t r u m and  these nations  t e c h n i c a l c a p a b i l i t y t o b a c k up  their  lack  more orbit sufficient  demands.  63. CHAPTER FOUR  FOOTNOTES  1.  On t h e h i s t o r y a n d p o l i t i c s o f t h e I T U s e e H a r o l d K. J a c o b s o n , "ITU: A P o t p o u r r i o f B u r e a u c r a t s and I n d u s t r i a l i s t s " i n The Anatomy o f I n f l u e n c e , e d s . , R.W. Cox a n d H a r o l d K. J a c o b s o n (New H a v e n : Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) .  2.  " A l l e l e c t r o n i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n u s e s e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves t h a t pass through space o r along w i r e s . T h e s e waves a r e i n i t i a t e d by p a s s i n g b u r s t s o f e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t s t h r o u g h an a n t e n n a . E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c waves v a r y i n t h e number t h a t c a n be s e n t p e r s e c o n d -- t h a t i s t h e i r f r e q u e n c y , m e a s u r e d i n c y c l e s p e r s e c o n d ... The e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c spectrum e x t e n d s f r o m z e r o c y c l e s p e r s e c o n d a l l t h e way up i n t o x - r a y s (one q u i n t i l l i o n a n d more c y c l e s / s e c o n d ) a n d b e y o n d . The r a d i o s p e c t r u m c o n s i s t s o f o n l y a p o r t i o n t h a t c a n be used t o t r a n s m i t i n f o r m a t i o n . (0-100 b i l l i o n c y c l e s ' second). The s p e c t r u m i s d i v i d e d i n t o s u b g r o u p s , b a s e d o n t h e way t h a t waves i n t e r a c t w i t h l a n d a n d t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f the atmosphere. Because o f these d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , v a r i o u s s e t s o f f r e q u e n c i e s c a n be u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways." Seyom B r o w n , e t a l . , " F r e q u e n c y a n d O r b i t " i n Regimes f o r t h e Ocean, O u t e r s p a c e , and Weather (Washington, D.C: The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 7 7 ) : 176-77 .  3.  F r e q u e n c i e s a r e a l l o c a t e d by "bandwidth" w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s both t h e i n i t i a l frequency t o which a t r a n s m i t t e r i s tuned and t h e r a n g e s a r o u n d t h a t f r e q u e n c y t h a t t h e s a t e l l i t e makes u s e o f i n a m p l i f y i n g t h e s i g n a l f o r r e t r a n s m i s s i o n t o earth. Seyom B r o w n , e t a l . , o p . c i t . , :178.  4.  The m o s t e f f i c i e n t f r e q u e n c y r a n g e f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s p u r p o s e s h a s b e e n t h e 4/6 GHz r a n g e . New s y s t e m s a r e now m a k i n g u s e o f t h e 12/14 GHz r a n g e .  5  The IFRB i s one o f f o u r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s w i t h i n t h e I T U . (The o t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r i a t , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l R a d i o C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee (CCIR), and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Telephone and T e l e g r a p h C o n s u l t a t i v e Committee (CCITT). I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e have b e e n a t t e m p t s made b y t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s t o a b o l i s h t h e i n d e p e n d e n t 11 member IFRB i n f a v o u r o f a more c e n t r a l i z e d o r g a n w i t h i n t h e I T U . A number o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s a r e s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o t h i s m o t i o n b e c a u s e t h e y v i e w t h e IFRB a s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s more now t h a n w o u l d be p o s s i b l e u n d e r o t h e r arrangements. I n general, issues concerning the North/South Confrontation are strongly associated with a l l aspects of t h e I T U , i t s m a n d a t e , a n d i t s members b o a r d s . See E d w a r d M i l e s , I n t e r n a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Space E x p l o r a t i o n and Exploitation. Monograph S e r i e s i n W o r l d A f f a i r s . Volume 8 No. 4 ( D e n v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f D e n v e r , 1 9 7 1 ) : 9 - 1 5 .  64. 6.  Brown, e t a l . , Davis, e t a l . ,  " F r e q u e n c y a n d O r b i t " , :178-182. " F u t u r e T r e n d s ..." :279.  See a l s o  7.  Miles,  8.  For a discussion of the first-come, f i r s t - s e r v e d p r i n c i p l e s e e Anne W. B r a n s c o m b , "Waves o f t h e F u t u r e : M a k i n g WARC Work", i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 34 ( S p r i n g 1979) : 140-141; M a r t i n S. S o r o o s O r b i t a s I s s u e s i n G l o b a l P o l i c y " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 36 (Summer 1982) :677; a n d C u r t i s T. W h i t e , " U p r o o t i n g t h e S q u a t t e r s " , i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 34 ( S p r i n g 1979) .  9.  See Branscomb,'"Waves o f t h e F u t u r e " , : 1 4 2 .  " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " :10.  10.  See P h i l l i p N. W h i t t a k e r , "To B e a t t h e B a n d " , F o r e i g n 34, ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 9 ) : 1 6 0 .  11.  S o r o o s , "The Commons i n t h e S k y " :165-168.  12.  This i s the subject o f C u r t i s White's a r t i c l e "Uprooting the S q u a t t e r s " .  13.  S o r o o s , "Commons i n t h e S k y " .  14.  J a c o b s o n "ITU:  15.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f o u t e r s p a c e a s a c o l l e c t i v e good s e e Seyom B r o w n , e t a l . , "Towards M u t u a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n t h e Non T e r r e s t r i a l R e g i m e s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , 29 ( W i n t e r 1975) .  16.  J a c o b s o n :73.  17.  I b i d . :74.  18.  White,  19.  Ibid. F o r o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s on t h e A m e r i c a n p o s i t i o n see G l e n O. "The U.S. P o s i t i o n " J o u r n a l o f Communication, 29 ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 9 ) : 157 a n d ; ' T h i r d W o r l d S t a t i c ' Newsweek, 8 O c t o b e r 1979 :52.  20.  Whittaker,  21.  On WARC-1977 s e e S o o r o s , "Commons i n t h e S k y " .  22.  Comments f r o m D r . N a d k a r n i .  23.  Comments f r o m J o h n B. T h w a i t e s , L i a i s o n O f f i c e r , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C a n a d a ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C., A u g u s t 2 8 , 1 9 8 2 .  24.  Stephen Grove.  25.  On t h i s t r a d i t i o n s e e L i n c o l n P. B l o o m f i e l d , e d . , O u t e r s p a c e (N.Y.: P r a e g e r , 1 9 6 8 ) .  A Potpourri  ..."  Policy  :73.  " U p r o o t i n g t h e S q u a t t e r s " :150.  "To B e a t t h e B a n d " :160.  "The G e o s t a t i o n a r y  Orbit".  65. 26.  This p o i n t i s developed i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter Four. C h a r l e s H o r n e r , " O u t e r S p a c e and E a r t h l y P o l i t i c s : How T h i r d W o r l d A d v o c a t e s o f a New W o r l d I n f o r m a t i o n O r d e r a r e Seeking C o n t r o l o f S a t e l l i t e Communications; American S p e c t a t o r 12 ( F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 9 ) : 1 1 - 1 4 .  27.  B r o w n , " F r e q u e n c i e s and O r b i t  28.  ..." : 178-79.  Ibid.  29.  Branscomb,  "Waves o f t h e F u t u r e  ..."  30.  Sooros,  31.  R i c h a r d R. C o l i n o , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o o p e r a t i o n . AAS s e r i e s , A d v a n c e s i n A s t r o n a u t i c a l S c i e n c e s , e d . , R.S. J o h n s o n e t a l . , Volume 38 P a r t I I , :87.  32.  Comments f r o m D r . N a d k a r n i .  33.  White,  34.  Brown e t a l . " F r e q u e n c y a n d O r b i t " :178-79. Satellites c a n now be p l a c e d 2.5 d e g r e e s a p a r t , r a t h e r t h a n t h e e a r l i e r requirement of 5 degrees.  35.  See " C o m m u n i c a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t Ends B e t w e e n N A S A / C a n a d i a n Department o f Communications". S p a c e f l i g h t 22 ( F e b r u a r y 1980) .  36.  A f i v e y e a r d e v e l o p m e n t e f f o r t was a l s o i n s t i t u t e d i n o r d e r t o " d e v e l o p a n d e n h a n c e U.S. c o m m e r c i a l l e a d e r s h i p " i n t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a n d m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g 'NASA S e e k s Industrial Partners' Spaceflight. Volume 2 2 , Number 2, F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 0 . See a l s o "New T h r u s t i n S p a c e Communications" S p a c e f l i g h t , 22 (June 1980) :30.  37.  Brown e t a l .  "The Commons i n t h e S k y ..." :671.  " U p r o o t i n g t h e S q u a t t e r s " . :150.  " F r e q u e n c i e s a n d O r b i t " . :183.  66. CHAPTER F I V E  THE LAUNCH REGIME  Collaboration  f o rthe launching  of s a t e l l i t e s has never  been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l of  s a t e l l i t e development  (ITU).  and  (INTELSAT) o r i n f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s  Rather, c o l l a b o r a t i o n consists of a loose  bilateral  as i n t h e case  pattern of  a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h o s e who c o n t r o l t h e t e c h n o l o g y  t h o s e who s e e k a c c e s s t o i t f o r t h e l a u n c h o f t h e i r  satellites.  S i m i l a r to the resource issue,  collaboration  i n t h e l a u n c h regime has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d  hegemonial s t r u c t u r e w i t h dominant a c t o r . afforded,  however,  the United  States  by a  Goverment as i t s  B e c a u s e o f t h e numerous b e n e f i t s  this  position  i n t e r e s t s i n t h e U.S. s o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r e -  e m i n e n t m o n o p o l y o v e r t h e t e c h n o l o g y and r e l a t e d e x p e r t i s e , a n d until  the l a t e seventies^were able  d i f f u s i o n o f knowledge i n r o c k e t s t o an o l i g o p o l i s t i c p a t t e r n  t o do s o .  A t t h a t time the  and b o o s t e r systems gave  of c o n t r o l over the launching  rise of  s a t e l l i t e s when t h e E u r o p e a n s p o o l e d t h e i r r e s o u r c e s t o p r o d u c e the A r i a n e Delta  launch v e h i c l e , a competitive  and A t l a s Centaur launchers.  India.and B r a z i l  a l t e r n a t i v e t o NASA's  By t h e l a t e 1 9 8 0 s , J a p a n ,  c a n be e x p e c t e d t o have l a u n c h  capable of p l a c i n g communication s a t e l l i t e s orbit.  1  There a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t  undertake s a t e l l i t e the  future.  launches f o r a l l i e s  facilities  i n geostationary  the Soviet  Union  will  a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e i n  The  s u d d e n i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f l a u n c h i n g s t a t e s h a s  l a r g e l y been p r o p e l l e d by t h e economic p a y o f f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an a d v a n c e d t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s  c a p a b i l i t y and, except  f o r the  Soviet Union, w i t h the general o b j e c t i v e of achieving technological  independence from the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  d e v e l o p m e n t s have i n d e e d c o n t r o l over  launches,  l e d t o a more b a l a n c e d  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  b i f u r c a t e d the regime.  advent o f t h e Space S h u t t l e , a r e u s a b l e  launch v e h i c l e f a r  s u p e r i o r i n a l l respects t o the expendable launcher, w i l l 3 the  l a t t e r obsolete i n the near f u t u r e .  c o n t r o l over  s h u t t l e technology  In  make  W h e t h e r o r n o t U.S.  has r e g a i n e d  f o r that  country  much o f t h e h e g e m o n i a l p o s i t i o n i t h e l d i n t h e s i x t i e s , i s s u e t o be c o n s i d e r e d  these  a r e c e n t t e c h n i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t by t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s a p p e a r s t o have e f f e c t i v e l y The  While  i s an  below.  the f o l l o w i n g chapter  I will  d e p i c t and a n a l y s e t h e  evolution of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the launching of telecommunication  satellites,  f o c u s i n g o n c e a g a i n on t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s o r , more s p e c i f i c i a l l y ,  on t h e  e v o l v i n g hegemonial p o s i t i o n of the United S t a t e s . . I a l s o f o c u s on how and why t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n c o l l a b o r a t i v e s y s t e m where d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g in  and c o n t r o l r e s t e d  t h e hands o f a s i n g l e p r e e m i n e n t a c t o r a n d where t h e d i f f u s i o n  o f e x p e r t i s e was j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d by t h a t same a c t o r . examination it  a  An  o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n as i t e x i s t e d i n t h e ' s i x t i e s and as  e x i s t s today  introduces the discussion.  68. The C h a n g i n g Regime f o r t h e L a u n c h i n g o f S a t e l l i t e s ; From M o n o p o l y t o O l i g o p o l y and t h e R i s e o f P r i v a t e Sector Interests  Collaboration described  on  c o n t r o l and  two  f o r the  levels:  launching by  the  of  s a t e l l i t e s can  l o c a t i o n and  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o w e r , and  by  be  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  the  nature of  the  a r r a n g e m e n t s g o v e r n i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n . • Changes have o c c u r r e d b o t h of t h e s e l e v e l s o v e r the of which are  d i r e c t l y or  p a s t two  decades, the  i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s .  At  the  l e v e l of  on  origins  changing  location  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o n t r o l and  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g power,,  i n the  the  the  technical  A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t was  expertise satellites  and  actor with  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e necessary to launch  into orbit.  agencies w i t h i n the launching  only  U.S.  N a t i o n s and  private  the  sixties,  commercial  communication  w e r e e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t on NASA f o r  of t h e i r s a t e l l i t e s  b e c a u s e no  o t h e r g r o u p came  the  close 4  to meeting the v a s t Relationships  More t h a n one and  can  be  described  s t r u c t u r e of actor  dominant s t a t e  i s now  t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s has capable of p r o v i d i n g  In French Guiana during  c o n s o r t i u m of  and  industrial  European c o u n t r i e s  launch  1980,  governmental groups from  succeeded i n breaking first  changed.  successful  the  services  c o n t r o l h a v e become  somewhat more d i f f u s e d .  the  U.S.  a eleven  monopoly over  t e s t i n g of t h e i r Ariane  5 rocket.  States  with  Government.  h e n c e c o l l a b o r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and  launches with  technology.  as h e g e m o n i c ,  o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power i n one  States  Today t h e  lead i n rocket-related  between a c t o r s  a concentration the U n i t e d  U.S.  wishing  t o l a u n c h t h e i r own  communications  -  69. satellite  s y s t e m now  had t h e c h o i c e o f c o n t r a c t i n g s e r v i c e s  e i t h e r the American D e l t a / A t l a s Centaur rockets or the equivalent.  F r e n c h and B r i t i s h  interests  aid  f o r the development  of s a t e l l i t e  i n p a r t s of  regimes sought systems.  By  technological  offering  s p e c i a l p a c k a g e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r and s e r v i c i n g , the Europeans  follow-up  r e a d i l y c o n t r a c t e d 30 p e r c e n t o f a l l  l a u n c h e s s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e 1980s. bargaining position,  European  i n t h e c o n s o r t i u m were  a b l e t o c a p t u r e t h e c u r r e n t and p o t e n t i a l m a r k e t s A f r i c a and A s i a w h e r e f o r m e r c o l o n i a l  on  From t h e i r new,  t h e A r i a n e g r o u p was  stronger  a l s o able to win  c o n t r a c t s f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f INTELSAT'S s i x t h and s e v e n t h generation of Control the  satellites.  6  i n t h e l a u n c h i n g r e g i m e was  S o v i e t U n i o n b e g a n t o l a u n c h a s m a l l number o f  satellites  f o r some E a s t e r n B l o c a l l i e s  late seventies.  By 1983  (SLV-3).7  communication  and f o r I n d i a d u r i n g  I n d i a had i t s e l f  power i n A s i a w i t h t h e t e s t i n g o f  become a l e a d i n g  the  space  i t s Space L a u n c h V e h i c l e - 3  Not y e t a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e h i g h o r b i t r e q u i r e d f o r  communication s a t e l l i t e s , India to offer the  f u r t h e r d i f f u s e d when  Europeans.  w i t h i n a few y e a r s t h e SLV-3 w i l l  allow  l a u n c h s e r v i c e s on t h e same c o m p e t i t i v e b a s i s Japan w i l l  as  a l s o have a c a p a b l e l a u n c h v e h i c l e g  w i t h i n t h e n e x t few y e a r s ,  as  will.Brazil.  The n a t u r e o f t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s also shifted,  governing collaboration  from a h i g h l y m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y o r i e n t e d  d o m i n a t e d and d i r e c t e d t h r o u g h a s i n g l e g o v e r n m e n t  In the s i x t i e s  were c o n t r a c t e d t h r o u g h NASA, t h e U.S.  government  system  agency, t o a  c o m m e r c i a l and s e c u r i t y o r i e n t e d s y s t e m d i r e c t e d by a s w e l l as g o v e r n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s .  has  industrial a l l launches  agency, where  j o i n t c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f D e f e n c e t h a t a h i g h m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y p r i o r i t y was a t t a c h e d  ensured  t o the  9  development and use o f b o o s t e r c r a f t agencies,  technology.  While p r i v a t e  such as M c D o n n e l l Douglas and L o c k h e e d ,  air-  received  c o n t r a c t s from t h e Department o f Defence o r worked c l o s e l y  with  NASA t o d e v e l o p r o c k e t c o m p o n e n t s , o n l y NASA h e l d t h e mandate for developing  and u t i l i z i n g  launch vehicles."*"^  Moreover, the  tremendous c o s t r e q u i r e d t o d e v e l o p t h e n e c e s s a r y i n f r a s t r u c t u r e for  launching  satellites  independent f i r m s . on  f a r outweighed any p r o f i t p o t e n t i a l f o r  The c o s t f a c t o r c o u p l e d  with a r e s t r i c t i o n  information p e r t i n e n t t o rocket technology,  effectively  e n s u r e d t h a t a l l p o t e n t i a l s a t e l l i t e u s e r s w o u l d have t o c o n t r a c t launch  s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e U.S. G o v e r n m e n t . Today t h e n a t u r e  as  launching  of collaboration i s considerably  satellites  has t a k e n  on a c o m m e r i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n a s  w e l l as t h e o r i g i n a l m i l i t a r y / s e c u r i t y one.  S e t up as a p r i v a t e  corporation with close a f f i l i a t i o n s  to national science  ations,  as t h e m a r k e t i n g  "Arianespace"  of the Ariane  was c o n c e i v e d  Launch V e h i c l e . 3  t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t ha(d) bookings",  1  different  found-  representative  U n l i k e t h e U.S. s y s t e m  "where  d i r e c t involvement i n payload  t h e c o n t r a c t i n g a n d s a l e o f l a u n c h e s by A r i a n e  w o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r . s i d i z a t i o n was a n d c o n t i n u e s areas, but a l l other private sector.  t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n the technical  functions are handled e n t i r e l y  In order  p e a n s , and i n k e e p i n g  Government sub-  t o remain competitive  with the basic philosophy  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , R o n a l d Reagan a n n o u n c e d i n A p r i l  i n the  with the Euroof h i s 1983 t h a t c o n t r o l  o v e r l a u n c h e s on t h e D e l t a a n d A t l a s C e n t a u r w o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d  f r o m NASA t o t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r .  NASA no l o n g e r  has s o l e  j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r l a u n c h b o o k i n g s on t h e s e v e h i c l e s , and an operation  s i m i l a r t o t h e European A r i a n e s p a c e w i l l  likely  emerge  among p r i v a t e c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d / o r a i r c r a f t c o m p a n i e s t o m a r k e t and  sell  satellite  launch s e r v i c e s .  G i v e n t h a t t h e U.S.  Government so j e a l o u s l y guarded i t s monopoly i n t h e s i x t i e s and seventies  because o f t h e m i l i t a r y i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b o o s t e r  t e c h n o l o g y , t h e Reagan p l a n w o u l d have been a landmark had  i t n o t b e e n f o r t h e U.S. S p a c e S h u t t l e . C o l u m b i a .  - with  i t s potential f o rcontinual  for deploying its  m i l i t a r y rocket  The S h u t t l e  r e u s e , i t s m a n i p u l a t o r arm  r e t r i e v i n g and s e r v i c i n g s a t e l l i t e s  lower o v e r a l l cost  decision  i n o r b i t , and  t o users - i s a revolutionary  advance i n  t e c h n o l o g y t h a t a l s o has s i g n i f i c a n t advantages  over expendable launch v e h i c l e s  f o r c a r r y i n g communication and  13  other s a t e l l i t e s . as  The S h u t t l e  remains under governmental  auspices,  t h e o l d e r v e h i c l e s once d i d . I n summary, t h e n a t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t s  has  s h i f t e d as p r i v a t e a n d n a t i o n a l c o n t r a c t o r s  options.  now h a v e d i f f e r e n t  Furthermore, the overwhelming s e c u r i t y - r e l a t e d  o r i e n t a t i o n of the s i x t i e s  r e g i m e h a s come a l s o t o h a v e a  c o m m e r c i a l one, a s w e l l . S a t e l l i t e u s e r s c a n c o n t r a c t w i t h a t l e a s t two c o m m e r c i a l e n t i t i e s  f o r s e r v i c e s on e x p e n d a b l e  l a u n c h e r s a n d w i t h NASA f o r s e r v i c e s Japanese w i l l  on t h e s h u t t l e .  probably o f f e r a launch s e r v i c e with  The  the commercial  o r i e n t a t i o n o f A r i a n e s p a c e b y t h e l a t e 1980s a n d t h e y a r e a l s o 14  a t work on a s h u t t l e o f t h e i r own.  72. T o w a r d s a New E r a : Launch Systems  The  R i s e and  Fall  o f U.S.  Hegemony i n  changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t  a l t e r e d the  launch  S t a t e s d u r i n g the s t a n d i n g how is  The  r e g i m e was first  t h e U.S.  facilitated  by  s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d by t h e  examining the conception  on  t h e moon by t h e end  ingness  to share  keeping  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and 16  c o l l a b o r a t i v e system:  i n s p a c e was  an a p p a r e n t  the  agreements  thereby  the t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s i n each  Kildow w r i t e s t h a t the q u a l i t y of as o p p o s e d t o m u l t i l a t e r a l o r l e s s than  inspiring  f o r the  n a t i o n s , b e c a u s e t h e p r o j e c t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y " o f much i n t h e U.S.  the  p a t t e r n of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ,  i n v a r y i n g forms of p a r t i c i p a t i o n "  a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o v e d t o be  priority  actually  international  i n v i t e d other nations to enter into b i l a t e r a l  a r i s i n g from b i l a t e r a l  to  will-  by m a n i p u l a t i n g  i n s t e a d of s t r u c t u r i n g  a l l o w i n g NASA c o n t r o l o v e r 17  to  the s h a r i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n to a  p r o g r a m s on t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l  individual project.  and  The.-U.,S.  i t s t e c h n o l o g i c a l achievements w h i l e  These o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d  w i t h t h e U.S.  of  a s e r i e s of  of the decade.  r e g a i n l o s t p r e s t i g e f o r the n a t i o n through  "U.S.  design  i n s p a c e r e s e a r c h , t h e g o a l o f w h i c h was 15  approach to " i n t e r n a t i o n a l cooperative ventures"  minimum.  and  F o l l o w i n g t h e SPUTNIK l a u n c h ,  t h e c r e a t i o n o f NASA, P r e s i d e n t K e n n e d y i n i t i a t e d  p u t a man  Under-  a b l e t o shape the c o l l a b o r a t i v e s y s t e m  the A m e r i c a n Space program.  cooperative ventures  United  decade of s a t e l l i t e development.  was  first  has  space program" than 18 v e h i c l e s o r t h e A p o l l o moon p r o g r a m " .  those  programs  international cooperating lower  r e l a t i n g to  launch  The d e c i s i o n t o s t r u c t u r e c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h e h e g e m o n i c manner grew f r o m a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s w o u l d a c c r u e to the state c o n t r o l l i n g the technology.  I n use and development,  launch v e h i c l e s touched n a t i o n a l m i l i t a r y , political  and economic  interests.  technological,  The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s e  i n t e r e s t s covered a wide range o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t  included  p r i v a t e a e r o s p a c e a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s , COMSAT, a n d numerous g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s whose o b j e c t i v e s w e r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f U.S. power a n d i n f l u e n c e i n t h e m i l i t a r y a n d e c o n o m i c s p h e r e s . The m i l i t a r y  i n t e r e s t s t o be p r o t e c t e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o -  operative ventures related d i r e c t l y to b a l l i s t i c m i s s i l e W h i l e t h e SPUTNIK s a t e l l i t e was a n i m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l the r e a l  systems.  advance,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l coup a s f a r as t h e U.S. g o v e r n m e n t  was  c o n c e r n e d was t h e b o o s t e r s y s t e m w h i c h h a d l a u n c h e d t h e s a t e l l i t e into  low o r b i t .  The E i s e n h o w e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y  c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t s C o l d War o p p o n e n t h a d made s i g n i f i c a n t  advances  19  i n r o c k e t t e c h n o l o g y and m i s s i l e guidance systems.  The d e c i s i o n  t o c r e a t e NASA was l a r g e l y b a s e d o n t h e p e r c e i v e d need t o augment c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h and development  i n the m i l i t a r y  sphere, the  b y p r o d u c t s o f w h i c h " w o u l d g i v e t h e U.S. a s i z e a b l e  missile  20  l e a d t h r o u g h advanced launcher development." M a k i n g NASA a c i v i l i a n agency w i t h t i e s t o n a t i o n a l s c i e n c e f o u n d a t i o n s i n 21  NATO c o u n t r i e s was l a r g e l y a q u e s t i o n o f e x p e d i e n c y . p o o l e d r e s e a r c h and e x p e r t i s e o f s c i e n t i s t s  With the  a t home a n d a b r o a d  p l u s t h o s e i n t h e p r i v a t e a n d p u b l i c s e c t o r s , t h e U.S. c o u l d hope t o make r a p i d p r o g r e s s i n s p a c e a n d b o o s t e r t e c h n o l o g y . The  s c o p e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o be  l i m i t e d , however,  because knowledge  related to missile  systems  was  considered sensitive  i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f D e f e n c e  and by t h e M u n i t i o n s C o n t r o l B o a r d w i t h i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f State.  The  Board maintained a l i s t  t e c h n o l o g i e s " which would  o f so c a l l e d  "critical  n o t be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e 22  international expediency  "partners".  U l t i m a t e l y , the c o n f l i c t  and n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y p r o d u c e d  v e n t u r e d e s c r i b e d above and a s y s t e m left a l l decision  making c o n t r o l  between  the type of c o o p e r a t i v e  for launching s a t e l l i t e s  i n t h e hands o f t h e  that  U.S.  Government. As systems  the economic i m p l i c a t i o n s of advanced became a p p a r e n t  i n the mid  telecommunications  s i x t i e s w i t h the success of  INTELSAT, g u a r d i n g l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y t o o k on an a d d e d The  American  p o s i t i o n on o u t e r s p a c e b e g a n c h a n g i n g  f r o m one  s o l e l y r e f l e c t e d c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h the S o v i e t Union superiority,  B o o s t e r technology appeared  other  b e n e f i t s of telecommunications..  t o be t h e k e y t o m a i n t a i n i n g A m e r i c a n  hegemony; a hegemony d e f i n e d by i t s c o n t r o l l i n g s i n g l e g l o b a l communications t h e U.S.  interest in* a  system.  With the sole  could determine  t h e r a t e by  launch  system,  systems  o u t s i d e INTELSAT w o u l d  be made a v a i l a b l e ,  contracting which  thereby main-  t a i n i n g an e c o n o m i c edge o v e r c o m p e t i t o r s f o r t h e g r o w i n g i n telecommunications.  COMSAT was  m a i n t a i n i n g the s i n g l e system  particularly  market  interested in  f r a m e w o r k w h i c h g a v e i t so much  d e c i s i o n and p r o f i t - m a k i n g p o w e r ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , m a i n t a i n i n g hegemony o v e r  that  for military  t o c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h W e s t e r n E u r o p e and  s t a t e s o v e r t h e e c o n o m i c and c o m m e r c i a l  dimension.  l a u n c h e s came i n t o i t s s p h e r e o f  U.S.  interests.and  when t h e E u r o p e a n s demanded a c c e s s t o l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y as p a r t of t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to cooperate i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e s ,  COMSAT l o b b y e d The  against the transfer of information.  U.S. G o v e r n m e n t a n d COMSAT w e r e a b l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e  hegemonic system  through  the manipulation of incentives that  i n c l u d e d a v a r i e t y o f methods a n d p o l i c i e s d e s i g n e d f o r e i g n access  t o the technology;  methods were s u c c e s s f u l .  to limit  Until the mid-seventies,  their  F o r e x a m p l e , when t h e EEC f o r m e d t h e  E u r o p e a n L a u n c h D e v e l o p m e n t O r g a n i z a t i o n (ELDO) i n 1964 t o b u i l d t h e i r own l a u n c h v e h i c l e , t h e U.S. o f f e r e d i t s J u p i t e r 24 as a n a l t e r n a t i v e .  The k e y s t i p u l a t i o n ,  be u s e d o n l y f o r e x p e r i m e n t s  launcher  h o w e v e r , was t h a t i t  and m i s s i o n s i n t o deep s p a c e ; by  d e f a u l t , t h e n , i t c o u l d n o t be u s e d f o r s a t e l l i t e  launches.  One  a u t h o r w r i t e s t h a t t h i s o f f e r was d e s i g n e d  " t o t h w a r t t h e ELDO  program" by f o r c i n g t h e Europeans t o s h i f t 25 w i t h l e s s immediate p a y o f f s .  funds  The  into  research  c r e a t i o n o f ELDO was t i m e d t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e 1964  INTELSAT n e g o t i a t i o n s where i t was hoped- t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n s would agree  t o share  launches  s a t e l l i t e development.  (and l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y )  as w e l l as  D u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s COMSAT  t h a t i t h a d no j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r  launches  argued  and d i s c o u r a g e d  lines  o f d e b a t e a r g u i n g f o r an a c c o m p a n y i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r m u l t i ?6 lateral  launch system.  I t was t h e F r e n c h who a r g u e d  adamantly f o r t h e t r a n s f e r o f launch technology; stemming from m i l i t a r y frappe".  I n t h e end,  i n t e r e s t i n an i n d e p e n d e n t  their  motives  " f o r c e de  however, t h e y were f o r c e d t o agree  w i t h o t h e r members t o t h e b i l a t e r a l U.S.  most  along  l a u n c h o p t i o n o f f e r e d by t h e  G o v e r n m e n t i f INTELSAT .was e v e r t o become a n o p e r a t i o n a l  reality.  Another 1971  example o f t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f b e n e f i t s arose i n  when t h e EEC was o f f e r e d a 10% s h a r e , o r a b i l l i o n  investment  i n t h e p a s t - A p o l l o SKYLAB a n d STS  (Space T r a n s p o r t a t i o n  S y s t e m ; l a t e r known a s t h e S h u t t l e ) p r o g r a m s . " 2  caused  dollar  7  The p r o p o s a l  s k e p t i c i s m i n E u r o p e b e c a u s e i t - came a t a t i m e when t h e  EEC was i n v e s t i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f i t s " s p a c e - d o l l a r s " i n a European launch v e h i c l e , Europa I I , i n order t o launch the regional  s a t e l l i t e system 28  U.S. Governments;.  s o s t r o n g l y r e s i s t e d by COMSAT a n d t h e  Critics  t h e scheme was d e s i g n e d  o f the American o f f e r argued  t o d e f r a y independent  research  that  efforts.  I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e o f f e r t h e y demanded t h a t t h e t r a n s f e r o f l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y be made a n o n - n e g o t i a b l e i n their a g r e e m e n t t o j o i n t h e U.S. p r o g r a m . and  o t h e r groups i n t e r e s t e d  the S t a t e Department  stake  P r e s s u r e f r o m COMSAT  i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e U.S. hegemony l e d  (who was n e g o t i a t i n g w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n s ) ,  to  c h a n g e i t s o f f e r f r o m one t h a t p r o v i d e d " l a u n c h c a p a b i l i t i e s " t o 29 one t h a t e x t e n d e d o n l y " l a u n c h s e r v i c e s " . Despite the concerted e f f o r t s to maintain control launch technology, m o n i s t i c regime.  time  over  i n e v i t a b l y saw t h e e r o s i o n o f t h e h e g e -  A number o f f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e  d i f f u s i o n o f l a u n c h v e h i c l e e x p e r t i s e and, as i n t h e case o f satellite reasons  systems,  i t was t h e U.S. who i n a d v e r t e n t l y o r f o r o t h e r  c o n t r i b u t e d most t o i t s d i f f u s i o n .  By t h e e a r l y s e v e n t i e s  i t was c l e a r t o t h e A m e r i c a n s t h a t t h e A p o l l o moon p r o g r a m h a d b e e n an e x t r e m e l y e x p e n s i v e 30 political  payoffs.  v e n t u r e w i t h few e c o n o m i c o r  L a u n c h e d i n t h e wake o f d e t e n t e  the A m e r i c a n s and t h e S o v i e t s , t h e ends t o w h i c h b e e n d e s i g n e d when c o n c e i v e d  between  i t had o r i g i n a l l y  i n 1961 no l o n g e r seemed a s  i m p o r t a n t o r as c r u c i a l , by; 1970 .  I n terms o f t h e " s p a c e - r a c e " ,  t h e U.S. was c l e a r l y much f u r t h e r a d v a n c e d t h a n t h e S o v i e t s a n d i s s u e s o f A m e r i c a n p r e s t i g e h a d l o n g ago b e e n f o r g o t t e n .  The  s p a c e p r o g r a m was r a p i d l y l o s i n g s u p p o r t f r o m b o t h t h e p u b l i c a n d i n C o n g r e s s where b u d g e t a p p r o p r i a t i o n s 31 declining since  1966.  f o r NASA h a d b e e n  As we have s e e n , i n t e r e s t i n s p a c e was  now d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s t h e e c o n o m i c p a y o f f s t h a t remote s e n s i n g ,  meterological,  s a t e l l i t e s could provide  applications  and t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n  so t h e p o s t - A p o l l o  o r i e n t e d towards t h e s e ends i n o r d e r viability.  of earth  p r o g r a m h a d t o be  to maintain  F u r t h e r m o r e , much o f t h e r e s e a r c h  i t s financial  and development f o r  t h i s new e m p h a s i s o n t h e c o m m e r c i a l r e t u r n s  from outerspace  w o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e p r i v a t e s e c t o r .  W i t h t h e s e new  potentially profitable opportunities  a r i s i n g out of j o i n t  v e n t u r e s w i t h NASA, c o m m e r c i a l f i r m s b e g a n p u t t i n g p r e s s u r e  on  the A m e r i c a n Government t o a l l o w t h e development o f a d o m e s t i c satellite  system t h a t would a l s o lead t o l e s s  launching  policies.  satellites  When t h e FCC made i t s d e c i s i o n on d o m e s t i c  i n 1 9 7 2 , t h e r e s u l t was t o make l a u n c h i n g  a v a i l a b l e a t home a n d a b r o a d other  restrictive  more r e a d i l y  (see C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . . F o r t h i s and  r e a s o n s , t h e U.S. c h a n g e d i t s d e c a d e - l o n g p o s i t i o n o n  launching  a European r e g i o n a l s a t e l l i t e  system, given the  E u r o p e a n s a t l e a s t a s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n , t o j o i n t h e SKYLAB 32 venture.  I n d o i n g s o , t h e Europeans were a b l e  even t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n v e n t u r e s w i t h NASA  on l a u n c h systems t h a t  cooperative  afforded.  A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h s t a t e s w e r e a b l e relevant expertise  t o make u s e o f  t o gain access t o  a n d t e c h n o l o g y was t h r o u g h t h e v i c i s s i t u d e s  78.  of American export  policies.  The  same s y s t e m w h i c h a t  i m p o s e d a c o m p l e t e m o r a t o r i u m on t h e technologies  t r a n s f e r of c e r t a i n  a l s o made them a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g o t h e r s .  the C a r t e r A d m i n i s t r a t i o n h e l d a very technology,  a p o s i t i o n t h a t one  t r e n c h a n t l y c a l l e d the was to  J a p a n was  technology., i n t e c h n o l o g y  A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t and  b e n e f i t f r o m l i b e r a l U.S.  3 4  transfer.  was  made a v a i l a b l e and  purchased Delta  space the  from the  f o r the  r e c e i p t of  U.S.  s a t e l l i t e booster.  a rapid h a l t to sharing  a l r e a d y become p u b l i c k n o w l e d g e .  the  technology,  l o c a t i o n and and  t h e e f f e c t was  technology,  3 5  the nature  of t h a t c o n t r o l .  whether the advent of the advantages f o r launching regained  to considerably a l t e r  d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o n t r o l over s a t e l l i t e  f o r t h e U.S.,  i n the s i x t i e s . .  access  the  launchers  A f i n a l question of i n t e r e s t i s  space s h u t t l e , w i t h i t s overwhelming telecommunication  satellites,  has  much o f t h e m o n o p o l y i t h e l d o v e r ;  While  high  I n w h a t e v e r manner o t h e r n a t i o n s w e r e a b l e t o g a i n to  to  information  i n f o r m a t i o n , w i t h respect to launch v e h i c l e  i n f o r m a t i o n had  out-  European f i r m s were a l s o a b l e  to the development of the A r i a n e  technology  It  t r a n s f e r . agreements w i t h  policies  the Reagan A d m i n i s t r a t i o n put  the  industrialist  w i t h the help of experts  company, M c D o n n e l D o u g l a s .  crucial  high  able t o i n i t i a t e the development;of- i t s  l a u n c h v e h i c l e s as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g  launcher  example,  p o s i t i o n on  " p r o l i g a c y of t e c h n o l o g y technology  For  c e r t a i n American a l l i e s through cooperative ventures  right sale. H-I  liberal  conservative  during t h i s p e r i o d that launch  times  ...  launchers ...  79. The  Space S h u t t l e ;  Without  Back t o t h e O l d Regime?  a doubt,  advance i n the system and  one  t h a t was  the S h u t t l e represents a  of l a u n c h i n g telecommunication  long overdue.  e x a m p l e , t e c h n o l o g y was  a v a i l a b l e to manufacture 1  times g r e a t e r c a p a c i t y . r o c k e t was  Lagging  E a r l y B i r d and w i t h  i n technical  satellite  by e x p e n d a b l e  The  S h u t t l e has  launchers.  1,000  L a r g e r r o c k e t s were under launchers  f a r out of p r o p o r t i o n to the c o s t of the  system.  five  compatibility,  c o n s t r u c t i o n , but the c o s t of c o n t r a c t i n g these t o be  satellites  not s u f f i c i e n t l y powerful to boost.the  heavy equipment i n t o o r b i t .  promised  satellites,  By t h e l a t e s e v e n t i e s , f o r  times the s i z e of INTELSAT s o r i g i n a l  the expendable  revolutionary  removed t h e r o a d b l o c k s p o s e d  B e c a u s e i t was  o r i g i n a l l y conceived  a c a r r i e r of o v e r s i z e d Department of Defence m i l i t a r y i t meets the c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s  entire  of l a r g e r  as  satellites  telecommunication  satellites. A second  major advantage of the S h u t t l e i s t h a t launches-  are twenty percent  less expensive  l a u n c h on e x p e n d a b l e  rockets.  the f a c t t h a t the s h u t t l e  to the user than the e q u i v a l e n t  T h i s b e n e f i t stems l a r g e l y  i s reusable f o r repeated  launches  w h e r e a s t h e m a j o r p a r t y o f o l d e r l a u n c h v e h i c l e s was in individual dead-weight the t h i r d  launches.  The  launch used  destroyed  to r e p r e s e n t the major  (non-recoverable) c o s t of a s a t e l l i t e  system,  advantage of u s i n g the S h u t t l e i s the a b i l i t y  cover t h a t cost.  from  Since the S h u t t l e i s equipped  but  t o re-...  w i t h a remote  m a n i p u l a t o r arm,  s a t e l l i t e s w h i c h become d e f e c t i v e o n c e t h e y  i n o r b i t c a n now  be r e t r i e v e d o r r e p a i r e d i n o u t e r s p a c e  are  without  80. the accompanying  loss of services  Space S h u t t l e i s t h e  first  development of o r b i t i n g communication continued  reuse of the  revenue.  and most i m p o r t a n t  space  satellites  and  stations  Finally,  component i n t h e  that w i l l  i n an e n v i r o n m e n t  "same f r e q u e n c i e s  the  house numerous  t h a t would a l l o w f o r (perhaps  100  to  200  36 times)"  i n a v e r y s m a l l segment o f t h e g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t .  Despite entirely has,  r e p l a c e d expendable  that  slated  purposes  f o r experimental  and  t h e new  proportion 1980s. Board  of the  own  and  by  not  the time i t  Shuttle  systems.  are booked u n t i l  1990  another  large percentage  has  been  purposes,  n o t many f l i g h t s  are  available  Consequently,  consortium w i l l  retain  launch business, at l e a s t while  such  a c t o r s as  both  Ariane-  a considerable  throughout  the  the M u n i t i o n s C o n t r o l  t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce s e e k t o p r o t e c t S h u t t l e  technology  (as t h e y once d i d f o r e x p e n d a b l e  a t which t e c h n o l o g i c a l  industrial J a p a n and shuttle  have t h e i r  satellites.  U.S.  Furthermore, and  launch v e h i c l e s ,  likely  and  telecommunication  space  however, t h e S h u t t l e has  f o r t y percent of a l l f l i g h t s  for military  rate  advantages,  other nations w i l l  Given  for  these  states  progress  i s much more r a p i d  t h e E u r o p e a n s c a n be  system  i n the  l a u n c h e r s ) , the  i s diffused  among a d v a n c e d  than  sixties.  expected  1990s, o n l y f i v e  i n the  Both  t o have a c o m p e t i t i v e or s i x years  after  the  37 American  system  twenty year  time  a l t e r n a t i v e was indicates technology  becomes o p e r a t i o n a l . p e r i o d which passed available  In comparison  f o r conventional launchers,  international  the  before a competitive  a much more b a l a n c e d p a t t e r n o f c o n t r o l a t the  with  level.  over  this high  With S h u t t l e technology  81.  becoming a v a i l a b l e declining  U.S.  satellites next  monopoly o v e r  promises  decade.  those  t o be  strategies.  maintain  has  of c o l l a b o r a t i o n  Remain l a r g e l y the  fact  diffusion  ad hoc  that  of  and  characterize  f o r the  i n comparison  marketing  a program  to  to the  communications  and  not very d i f f e r e n t  the t e c h n o l o g y . satellites  This i s partly space  Nations  segment,  a  result  the  arrangements  management t o d a y f r o m when t h e seeking to  appear  launch t h e U.S.  must  agreements w i t h these c o u n t r i e s ,  overall  and  satellites  Centaur  developers  and  i t s launch.  c o n t i n u e t o be  or the Ariane v e h i c l e s ,  Space S h u t t l e .  remain  will  system  launched  and  The by  INTELSAT  either  i n the near  C o n t r a c t u a l a r r a n g e m e n t s between  the  future,  telecommunications  issue  area.  and  and series Atlas-  by  the  satellite  n a t i o n s t a t e s p o s s e s s i n g the technology  as t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s  on  Americans  them f o r t h e t i m i n g , l o c a t i o n ,  of  and  which  a r e t h e r e f o r e d e p e n d e n t on c o s t of the  will  b e e n much s l o w e r  o u t s i d e o f E u r o p e and  enter into b i l a t e r a l  the  launching of s a t e l l i t e s  Collaborative  i t s p a t t e r n o f use  offers  becomes more d i f f u s e d  l a u n c h s y s t e m s e x p e r t i s e has  t h e s u r f a c e t o be  still  i n the  itself.  unstructured.  n o t o f t h e same b r e a d t h .  controlled  area  competitive  already designed  the p a t t e r n of c o n t r o l  a  l a u n c h i n g of  launch b u s i n e s s of d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s t h a t  While  of  the  with  launch c o n t r a c t s ,  offer  a number o f s e r v i c e s b e y o n d t h e l a u n c h  structure  p r o g r a m s , and  a very competitive issue  the t e c h n o l o g y w i l l  Arianespace  the  space  the technology,  I n o r d e r t o seek and  states with  attract  i n other national  in this  will  segment o f  82. With the growing  "saturation" of o r b i t a l parking  and o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s for  a more s t r u c t u r e d a n d r e g u l a t e d  launching of  of s a t e l l i t e s  that w i l l  l a u n c h e s made by v a r i o u s  place  states.  o p p o s e d by t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s  resource  area.  t h e r e may be demands  system t o govern the limits  on t h e number  But i f such a system of  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s proposed, i t i s l i k e l y  their unwillingness  slots  that i t w i l l  be s t r o n g l y  who h a v e a l r e a d y  t o a d o p t a more r e g u l a t e d  regime  shown  i n the  83 CHAPTER F I V E  "Asia Into Orbit" 1982, :38-46 .  FOOTNOTES  Far  E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 24 December  See Hohan Ram a n d Cheah Cheng H y e , " I n d i a r e a p s P r e s t i g e , b u t C r i t i c s Query, t h e B e n e f i t " , F a r E a s t e r n Economic Review, 24 December 1982, :44. On t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e U.S. S h u t t l e s e e B a r b a r a A. L u x e n b e r g , S p a c e S h u t t l e , C o n g r e s s i o n a l R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e , The L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , I s s u e B r i e f Number I B 73019, 18 S e p t e m b e r 1981, p . CRS-2; E d g a r U l s a m e r , "Space S h u t t l e M i r e d i n B u r e a u c r a t i c F i r e d " , A i r F o r c e M a g a z i n e , September 1980, -.12-11; " F i r s t O p e r a t i o n a l S h u t t l e Launch S l i p s " Aviation Week a n d S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y . E n i d C u r t i s Bok S e h o e t t l e , "The E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f NASA" i n K n o w l e d g e a n d Power: E s s a y s on S c i e n c e and Government, ed, S a n f o r d A. L a k o f f , (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1967) :174. "Arianespace Markets Launch S e r v i c e s " , S p a c e T e c h n o l o g y * 11 J a n u a r y 1982:87.  A v i a t i o n Week a n d  * H e r e a f t e r AWST " C o m p e t i t i o n B e t w e e n ESA/NASA :50 .  Grows"  AWST, 1 F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 ,  See P r a k a s h C h a n d i " I n d i a Emerges a s a M a j o r S p a c e P o w e r " , O v e r s e a s T i m e s , 25 J u l y 1983, :15. F o r a s t u d y o f I n d i a ' s s c i e n c e p o l i c y and t h e t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l l i t e see V i k r a m S a r a b h a i , S c i e n c e P o l i c y a n d N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t , ed, K a m l a Chowdhry ( D e l h i : The M a c m i l l a n Company o f I n d i a L t d . , 1 9 7 4 ) , :38-64. See M. K a m a b a y a s h i "Getting into Orbit: Japan Launches" W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , 29 M a r c h 1977, :44; a n d M a s a y o s h i Manabayashi, "The J a p a n e s e E m p i r e S t r i k e s B a c k " , T e c h n o l o g y Review (October 1981):48-49. Mike Sharp, "With t h e P o l i t i c a l W i l l J a p a n w i l l F i n d t h e Way", FEER 24 December 1982 :44; and " J a p a n T e s t s S a t e l l i t e L a u n c h e s " AWST, 14 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 1 , : 18. 9.  See S h a f f e r a n d S h a f f e r , C o o p e r a t i o n , :9-12.  The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l  84. 10.  Schoettle,  11.  " A r i a n e s p a c e M a r k e t s L a u n c h S e r v i c e " :86. A r i a n e s p a c e was f o r m e d i n 1980 as a p r i v a t e company w i t h s h a r e h o l d e r s that i n c l u d e 36 c o m p a n i e s and 11 b a n k s i n v a r i o u s ESA member countries. F r a n c e has t h e l a r g e s t s h a r e — 5 9 . 2 5 % and A r i a n e space d e r i v e s key b e n e f i t s from i t s c l o s e t i e s w i t h F r e n c h n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and t e c h n o l o g y a g e n c i e s and w i t h i t s a e r o s p a c e i n d u s t r i e s . See A l s o Cowen, " E u r o p e s L a u n c h i n t o Space B u s i n e s s " . Technology Review.  12.  "Arianespace Markets Launch S e r v i c e s " ,  13.  Luxemberg, Space S h u t t l e .  14.  Sharp.  15.  On NASA's p r o g r a m f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n s p a c e S h a f f e r and S h a f f e r , The P o l i t i c s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Coo p e r a t i o n , :9-12.  16.  Ibid.  17.  J u d i t h Tegger K i l d o w . (Lexington: Lexington  18.  Ibid.  19.  Shoettle,  20.  Kildow,  21.  See On NASA an e a r l y U.S. s p a c e p o l i c y , see a l s o Ken Hechler, The E n d l e s s S p a c e F r o n t i e r : A H i s t o r y o f t h e House C o m m i t t e e on S c i e n c e and A s t r o n a u t i c s . AAS H i s t o r y S e r i e s , Volume 4. (San D i e g o , C a l i f . : U n i v e l t I n c . 1982).  22.  Interview:•  23.  " C h a n g i n g U.S. S p a c e P o l i c y " E d i t o r i a l R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s , 10 November 1981, :826.  24.  Kildow,  25.  Ibid.  "The  Establishment  "With the  "The  P o l i t i c a l W i l l , Japan  :86.  "  :44.  o f NASA",  :164  :22.  Nadkarni.  INTELSAT,  see:  INTELSAT, P o l i c y M a k e r s D i l e m m a . P r e s s , 1974) :24.  Establishment  INTELSAT,  Dr.  o f NASA".  :76.  85. 26.  On COMSAT'S i n t e r e s t s see Roger A. Kvanr, I n e v i t a b l e Anomaly".  "COMSAT: The  27.  Kildow,  28.  Ibid.  29.  I b i d . :77-78.  30  "Changing U.S. Space P o l i c y " E d i t o r i a l Research Reports, :826 .  31  On the changing American p o s i t i o n on outerspace see F r a n c i s X. Kane, "Space Age G e o p o l i t i c s " , ORBIS, 14 (Summer, 1971): and L a r r y L i g h t , "NASA's F u t u r e : One Decade A f t e r the Moon Landing Space Program Gets L i t t l e A t t e n t i o n o r I n t e r e s t " , C o n g r e s s i o n a l Q u a r t e r l y Weekly Reports, 28 A p r i l 1979, :780-81.  32.  As we have seen, the U.S. d e c i s i o n t o launch a European system was a l s o based on the stalemate over the d e f i n i t i v e arrangements f o r INTELSAT. The Europeans would not s i g n the agreements u n l e s s they were g i v e n assurance t h a t other systems c o u l d e x i s t o u t s i d e o f the INTELSAT s t r u c t u r e . Kildow, INTELSAT, :75-76.  33.  W i l l i a m H. Gregory, "The P r o f l i g a c y o f Technology T r a n s f e r " , A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology, 12 A p r i l 1982, :4.  34.  Ibid. See a l s o Manabayashi, Back", :48.  35.  On Reagan's i n c r e a s i n g l y s t r i n g e n t c l a s s f i c a t i o n requirements on technology r e l a t e d t o n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y see "Reagan p o l i c y on C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . S p u r s S p l i t Along Party L i n e s " , A v i a t i o n Week and Space Technology, 12 A p r i l 1982, :23. See a l s o "Concern Mounts on Technology" AWST 19 A p r i l , 1982 :12; and Stephen H. Unger, "The Growing Threat o f Government Secrecy" T e c h n o l o g i c a l Review, 6 (February/March 1982):3l-84.  36.  Pelton,  37.  On the Japanese S h u t t l e see Manabayashi, "The Japanese Empitre ..." :48. On the European S h u t t l e see "Europeans Develop Space Plans f o r the 1990's" AWST 1 March 1982 :52. The S o v i e t s have a l s o developed a s h u t t l e system but whether i t w i l l be used as a commercial launcher i s u n c l e a r . After the launch of three Indian s a t e l l i t e s i n June o f 1982 the idea t h a t the USSR may be e n t e r i n g the commercial launch  INTELSAT.  :76.  "The Future  ..."  "The Japanese Empire S t r i k e s  :40.  86.  s e r v i c e s market seemed a p o s s i b i l i t y . On c l o s e r a n a l y s i s i t appears to be p o l i t i c a l motivations r a t h e r than economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which governed t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . See C a r l A. F o r l u c h J r . , "The S o v i e t Space S h u t t l e Program" A i r U n i v e r s i t y Review, May-June 1980 :55-61.  87.  CHAPTER  SIX  CONCLUSIONS C a p a b i l i t i e s and I n f l u e n c e i n t h e Telecommunications S a t e l l i t e  As  the core o f a n a l y s i s ,  influence  Issue  Area  t h i s study has examined t h e  o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l  collaboration.  While t h e e f f e c t s o f c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n have l o n g been s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , few s t u d i e s applied  t h i s theme t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n  On a g e n e r a l l e v e l , icantly  collaboration  i n global  regimes.  Certain  i n t h i s area i s not s i g n i f -  'technical  accomodated i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n which, i n security  i m p e r a t i v e s must be  1  o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and agreements  regimes might r e f e r t o geographic  w h i l e i n technology regimes u s u a l l y  behavioral  factors,  r e f e r t o t h e use and d e v e l o p -  ment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y .  Certain  political  (i^.,  and s t r u c t u r a l ) ' i m p e r a t i v e s must a l s o be accomodated.  Whereas b e h a v i o r a l  f a c t o r s vary across regimes, the s t r u c t u r a l  imperatives of collaboration are therefore  constructed i n that  among a c t o r s collaborative  a r e common t o t h e g l o b a l  common t o t h e c o l l a b o r a t i v e system, regardless  In o t h e r words, t h e u n d e r l y i n g  that  t e c h n o l o g y realms."*"  d i f f e r e n t from i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l and  security  and  have  system  arrangements  o f t h e i r purpose o r f u n c t i o n .  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e  i n t h e s y s t e m i s a f a c t o r common t o a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l v e n t u r e s . T h a t same U.S. d o m i n a n c e i n c a p a b i l i t i e s  a l l o w e d i t t o shape i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l  ventures i n the f i f t i e s  and s i x t i e s ,  also  and s e c u r i t y  a l l o w e d i t t o shape  88.  collaboration  i n the telecommunications s a t e l l i t e  In the t h r e e case s t u d i e s  tives  area.  examined from t h i s i s s u e  a c e n t r a l theme has b e e n t h e U.S. d e v e l o p m e n t and i t s a b i l i t y  issue  dominance  in  t o a c h i e v e i t s own  through i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  area  technological g o a l s and o b j e c -  In the case  studies  where the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s changed o v e r t i m e , t h e ability  o f t h e U.S.  [alsol declined", to note. national  to achieve  " c o o p e r a t i o n on i t s own  and t h e e f f e c t s on c o l l a b o r a t i o n  t e r m s has  are i n t e r e s t i n g  I n a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e s e e f f e c t s , two a s p e c t s o f i n t e r collaboration  making c o n t r o l  are examined: the l o c a t i o n o f  and t h e s t r u c t u r e  or breadth of  decision  collaboration.  Where t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t e s has c h a n g e d i n t h e t h r e e r e g i m e s , i t has a l s o h a d some e f f e c t on w h e r e i m p o r t a n t are  made i n t h e r e g i m e and t h e number and t y p e s o f  and a r r a n g e m e n t s i n v o l v e d be b r i e f l y  i n decision  making.  both the s t r u c t u r e  and t h e l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n system i n the s i x t i e s ,  structured  t h e U.S.  decision  with  Under the hegemonic  m a k i n g c o n t r o l was  satellite  system.  centered i n  More  t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e s y s t e m s and n e t w o r k s , decentralized  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s , f i r m s  was  Following  diffusion, decision  s h a r e d among numerous n a t i o n s .  m a k i n g h a s become h i g h l y  has  collaboration  p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t , and c o l l a b o r a t i o n  i n a single global  INTELSAT i s now  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  making c o n t r o l .  decades o f c u m u l a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l at  operation  s y s t e m s , a c h a n g i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t e s  affected  COMSAT —  can  stated.  satellite  strongly  institutional  These e f f e c t s  I n t h e r e g i m e f o r t h e d e s i g n , d e v e l o p m e n t and of  decisions  and d i f f u s e , w i t h  and g o v e r n m e n t s m a k i n g  two  making importantly, decision domestic choices  89. i n t h e regime on a wide v a r i e t y o f The  regime f o r t h e l a u n c h i n g o f s a t e l l i t e s has  been a f f e c t e d sixties,  b y a s h i f t away f r o m t h e h e g e m o n i c  but the d i f f u s i o n of expertise  as i n t h e s a t e l l i t e not  issues.  and g o v e r n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s Japan and B r a z i l . t i o n a l arrangements  making  to include  states.  pattern  of contracts  characterized  India, institu-  i s similar i n which  relations  N a t i o n s c o n t r o l l i n g l a u n c h t e c h n o l o g y have  reluctant  industrial  I n t e r m s o f t h e number a n d t y p e o f i n the regime, c o l l a b o r a t i o n  has  control  i n Europe t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  to the American dominated system o f the s i x t i e s a bilateral  as w i d e s p r e a d  of collaboration  The l o c a t i o n o f d e c i s i o n  h a s l s h i f t e d f r o m t h e American government  system of the  has n o t been  regime so the s t r u c t u r e  changed m a r k e d l y .  also  between  been  t o extend d e c i s i o n making and c o n t r o l over launches t o  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l . Finally, of  little  change  has o c c u r e d i n e i t h e r  international collaboration  the structure  or the locus of decision  making  i n the regime governing the a l l o c a t i o n o f the frequency spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t . that  The m a j o r r e a s o n f o r t h i s o u t c o m e i s  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t e s has remaoned h i g h l y  between  t h e two k e y a c t o r  groups i n t h e r e g i m e , and has perhaps  become m o r e p r o n o u n c e d o v e r t i m e . l a u n c h regime where d e c i s i o n nation  o r group o f n a t i o n s ,  Unlike  the s a t e l l i t e or  m a k i n g was c e n t e r e d decision  making  in a  single  i n the resource  r e g i m e was f o u n d e d o n a s i n g l e p r i n c i p l e o f ' f i r s t - c o m e served'.  skewed  first  T h i s p r i n c i p l e h a s d e t e r m i n e d how t h e s p e c t r u m w o u l d  be a l l o c a t e d  since  t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e regime were s e t  one h u n d r e d y e a r s a g o .  I t came t o g o v e r n d e c i s i o n s  geostationary orbit i n the early  i n the  s i x t i e s when s a t e l l i t e u s e r s  90.  adopted  the p r i n c i p l e s o f the outerspace t r e a t y which  teed f r e e and easy access to a l l t e r r i t o r y i n space.  guaranMember-  s h i p a t the ITU has grown c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e the s i x t i e s ; the bulk of i t s new membership coming from the developing world. In t h e i r attempts  to r e s t r u c t u r e the system,  these n a t i o n s have  come up a g a i n s t a group who have r e c e n t l y come to enjoy the b e n e f i t s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of s a t e l l i t e technology.  Along with  the United S t a t e s , these n a t i o n s r e s i s t any changes i n the dec i s i o n making system or the s t r u c t u r e of the ITU.  Their control  over c a p a b i l i t i e s has g i v e n them the power to m a i n t a i n the c o l l a b o r a t i v e arrangements i n a manner which favours t h e i r interests. The c o n c l u s i o n s presented above have a f f o r d e d some broad g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about how c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n has a f f e c t e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n the telecommunications  s a t e l l i t e issue area.  Using data gathered i n the case s t u d i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to cons t r u c t more d e t a i l e d hypotheses  about i n t e r n a t i o n a l  collabora-  t i o n i n high technology realms which account f o r the b e h a v i o u r a l as w e l l as the s t r u c t u r a l foundations of t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g a r e f i v e h i g h l y i n t e r r e l a t e d hypothesis which a l s o t i e together the major themes o f the paper.  91.  Some H y p o t h e s e s R e g a r d i n g Global 1.  High Technology  International Collaboration i n  Regimes  Where t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s i n t h e hands o f a few s t a t e s , t h o s e s t a t e s w i l l demand a d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s y s t e m w h i c h d i s t r i b u t e s power on t h e b a s i s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y . In both t h e s a t e l l i t e  of  the pattern  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g h a s r e f l e c t e d t h e skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  capabilities the an  and t h e l a u n c h r e g i m e s ,  United  among t h e membership.  States  through  i t s p o l i c y i n s t r u m e n t COMSAT, p r o m o t e d  international organization  lead 1972,  which would r e f l e c t  i n the development o f r e l e v a n t COMSAT m a i n t a i n e d  I n INTELSAT, f o r example,  technologies.  a s i x t y percent  INTELSAT and a f o r t y p e r c e n t  share from  the American From 1965 t o  investment share i n 19 7 2 t o t h e p r e s e n t .  During the 1964 negotiations, COMSAT achieved t h i s c o n t r o l by pressing f o r a decision making system that would a l l o c a t e p r o f i t s and voting share on the basis o f system usage.  Since advances i n telecxratiunications within the  United States were already accompanied by a large market f o r these services, the U.S. would i n e v i t a b l y make the greatest use o f the INTELSAT system. Moreover, once voting shares were allocated on t h i s basis and COMSAT had received a strong majority, i t would then be i n a p o s i t i o n to shape d e c i sions regarding the design and development o f the s a t e l l i t e system.  Ulti-  mately, INTELSARs f i r s t generation s a t e l l i t e s were American designed, as were the accompanying ground systems technology and other hardware. The (5 y e a r s )  length  of negotiations  f o r the permanent  INTELSAT  attested to the reluctance o f COMSAT to give up i t s control and i t s  60% p r o f i t making p o t e n t i a l .  However, the d i f f u s i o n o f technology and exper-  t i s e l e d to a more balanced pattern o f bargaining and ^ . i n f l u e n c e  s u c h t h a t i t s s h a r e and power w i t h i n t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n considerably.  The new  were  s t r u c t u r e v e s t e d d e c i s i o n making  international administrative  reduced  power  and t e c h n i c a l s t a f f u n d e r a  i n an  Director  G e n e r a l whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t e s w e r e d i c t a t e d by a B o a r d o f G o v e r n o r s . M e m b e r s h i p on t h e B o a r d v/as d e t e r m i n e d by g e o g r a p h y c o n t r o l over technological expertise. was  readjusted  was  "no  r a t h e r t h a n by  Furthermore, the v o t i n g  away f r o m t h e s y s t e m u s a g e  2  system  c r i t e r i a so t h a t t h e r e  l o n g e r a complete c o r r e l a t i o n between i n v e s t m e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n 3  b a s e d on s h a r e s o f t r a f f i c , decisions was  and v o t i n g  rights."  In a l l other  e x c e p t t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g i n v e s t m e n t , u n i v e r s a l membership  established  g i v i n g e a c h member a s i n g l e v o t e .  p r e v i o u s arrangements effectively  were r e p l a c e d  Consequently, the  by a d e c i s i o n making  system which  c h e c k e d t h e p r e p o n d e r a n t i n f l u e n c e o f any s i n g l e  or group o f n a t i o n s , f o r one w h i c h was  and t h e o l d h e g e m o n i c s t r u c t u r e was  coming  with  rather  system  system i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  than a m u l t i l a t e r a l s e t o f arrangements  the c o n t r o l l i n g s t a t e determines the t i m i n g , of launches.  the c a p a b i l i t y t o  i n o r b i t have been r e l u c t a n t t o a l t e r the  w h i c h p e r p e t u a t e s t h e i r hegemony. The a bilateral  substituted  t o be t r u l y " i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d . "  In the launch regime, the nations place s a t e l l i t e s  nation  by  i n which  l o c a t i o n , and number  The m o s t i m m e d i a t e b e n e f i t a c c r u i n g  to these  states  is- the measure o f c o n t r o l i t a f f o r d s o v e r the g l o b a l e x p a n s i o n o f satellite  system^  a c o n t r o l w h i c h w o u l d be e l i m i n a t e d  i n a multi-  l a t e r a l s y s t e m w h e r e l a u n c h , s e r v i c e s w e r e owned and o p e r a t e d on same b a s i s The  the  as~ t h e INTELSAT s y s t e m . ab:i;l£ty o f sta.tes: w i t h  a d e c i s i o n making  a t e c h n o l o g i c a l edge t o m a i n t a i n  s y s t e m w h i c h d i s t r i b u t e s p o w e r on t h e b a s i s  of  93.  c a p a b i l i t y i s perhaps most pronounced w i t h s p e c t r u m and  geostationary  from the  developing  countries which c o n t r o l s a t e l l i t e technologies This 2.  continue  and  the  frequency 1  first-  Despite  con-  industrialized  r e l a t e d telecommunications  changes t o the  current  d e t a i l i n hypothesis  system.  four.  Where t h e d i f f u s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e l e a d s t o a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t e s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t the g l o b a l l e v e l w i l l d e c l i n e and r e g i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n and independent d e c i s i o n making w i l l i n c r e a s e . o f t h e m a j o r themes o f t h e  of separate s a t e l l i t e This  outcome has  goals the  s t u d y has  systems o u t s i d e  of the  been the  proliferation  INTELSAT f r a m e w o r k .  l a r g e l y been a t the expense o f c o l l a b o r a t i v e  of coordination  and  e c o n o m i c and  i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was  technical e f f i c i e n c y that  o s t e n s i b l y d e s i g n e d t o promote.  c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , i t appears t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s have  been p l a c e d the  above the  goals  t h a t the  c o n c e r n s y s t e m use  be  i t is likely  quite particularistic.  heirarchy  will  of p r i o r i t i e s  rather  Because a c t o r s  n e c e s s a r i l y be determining  f a r down t h e  list.  when  of  collective  link  a host  responses to  that their negotiating  W h i l e the  always  only  l e d t o a more b a l a n c e d  o b j e c t i v e s t o t h e i r d e c i s i o n s and  e l l i t e , technologies, be  H o w e v e r , i t was  d i v e r g e n c e b e t w e e n i n d i v i d u a l and  became p a r f i c u a l r y a p p a r e n t .  c o n c e r n s and  will  c o l l e c t i v e goals.  d i f f u s i o n of t e c h n i c a l expertise  capabilites  may  regime.  nations,  t o r e s i s t any  issue i s developed i n greater  One  On  to the  o r b i t where the p r i n c i p l e s o f  come f i r s t - s e r v e d ' g o v e r n d e c i s i o n ? i n t h e tinued protests  respect  of  sat-  positions  c o l l e c t i v e goals  that  important to actors, i n  i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c y , these  the  goals  Goals of economic n a t i o n a l i s m  independence from f o r e i g n sources of technology w i l l  predominate  and  over g o a l s o f o v e r a l l system The  efficiency.  s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n telecommun-  i c a t i o n s i s a l m o s t a m i r r o r image o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e c a p abilites  among a c t o r s .  c o l l a b o r a t i o n was  In the hegemonic system o f the  highly centralized;  sixties,  i n the c u r r e n t system,  o r a t i o n i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d and h i g h l y d i f f u s e .  Understanding  t h i s outcome o c c u r e d has r e q u i r e d us t o l o o k b e y o n d  the  collabhow  empirical  r e a l i t i e s of a changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a p a b i l i t i e s to q u e s t i o n why  s t a t e s s e e k a c c e s s t o o r c o n t r o l o v e r a t e c h n o l o g y and t h e means  by w h i c h t h e s e g o a l s a r e a c h i e v e d .  the  Europeans  h a d as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e i n j o i n i n g INTELSAT o b t a i n i n g  knowledge  and e x p e r t i s e i n s a t e l l i t e  F o r example,  t e c h n o l o g i e s and m i s s i l e s y s t e m s .  Once  t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s were a c h i e v e d t h e y were q u i c k t o promote t h e development  of separate systems.  F o r many t r a n s n a t i o n a l  and  governmental i n t e r e s t s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , s e p a r a t e systems s y m b o l i z e d economic n a t i o n a l levels:.  c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , whether  a t the i n d i v i d u a l or ,  F i n a l l y many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s s u c h as  India,  B r a z i l and I n d o n e s i a h a v e B e n e f i t e d ; f r o m e x p e r t i s e g a i n e d i n j o i n t p r o j e c t s - w i t h . NASA a n d t h r o u g h p r o g r a m s s p o n s o r e d by UNESCO i n o r d e r t o develop independent systems n o t t i e d In general,, c o l l a b o r a t i o n has been d e c l i n i n g  to former metroploes. a t the g l o b a l  level  i n most h i g h t e c h n o l o g y regimes.  I n d e e d , t h e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r s a t e l l i t e  capacity  a t t h e d o m e s t i c and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s has meant t h a t more are necessary, i f not i n e v i t a b l e , but the p a t t e r n of has n o t o n l y b e e n a t t h e e x p e n s e  systems  development  of j o i n t goals, i t also portends to  be i n c r e a s i n g l y c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e .  W i t h o u t a r e t u r n t o more  joint  d e c i s i o n making  and c o o r d i n a t i o n a t t h e g l o b a l l e v e l ,  t e n t i a l problems  such  po-  as t h e o v e r u s e and d e p l e t i o n o f t h e f r e q u e n c y -  s p e c t r u m and g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t as w e l l as i n t e r f e r e n c e and j e s t i o n p r o b l e m s may  lead to c o s t l y  national disharmonies.  s y s t e m s l o w - d o w n s and  con-  inter-  T h e s e i s s u e s a r e t h e theme o f t h e  following  hypothesis. 3.  Where the d i f f u s i o n of technology leads t o a system o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n which i s h i g h l y d i f f u s e and d e c e n t r a l i z e d , problems o f t e c h n i c a l and economic e f f i c i e n c y w i l l a r i s e t h a t cannot be handled w i t h i n t h a t system. This-hypothesis i s closely related  to the second.  I have  shown t h a t some o f t h e o u t c o m e s o r e x t e r n a l i t i e s o f s e p a r a t e s a t e l l i t e systems have been the s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n t e c h n i c a l economic  problems of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , redundancy,  ment o f k e y r e s o u r c e s .  A d e c i s i o n making  and  and m i s m a n a g e -  environment t h a t  lacks  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n c o o r d i n a t i o n undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e s t o , o r heops perpetuate, these problems.  The current decentralized:environment i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  "various forms o f competition a t the domestic and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , stemming from" e n t r e n c h e d i n t e r e s t s i n a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n o l o g i e s communication the  modes.  international  tion satellites  and  P e l t o n and Snow n o t e t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n a t  level exists  largely  "between g l o b a l  and t r a n s o c e a n i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n  as c a b l e s , and b e t w e e n " s a t e l l i t e  systems  communica-  facilities"  and t e r r e s t r i a l  such networks  4  r e p r e s e n t e d by c o a x i a l c a b l e and h i g h f r e q u e n c y r a d i o . " ctional  terms, t h i s  which i s wraught  translates  In fun-  i n t o a telecommunications system  w i t h t e c h n i c a l and e c o n o m i c  inefficiencies  be-  cause the o p t i m a l "combination" of t e c h n o l o g i e s necessary to complete the communication  link  i s n o t met.  d o m e s t i c l e v e l between d i f f e r e n t s a t e l l i t e  C o m p e t i t i o n a t the systems  eventually leads  to " d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t e s ,  inefficient  frequency  allocation,... 5  and u n n e c e s s a r y i n t e r f a c e a n d c o n n e c t i o n p r o b l e m s . "  This  problem-  a t i c environment i s o n l y e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e c u r r e n t i n t e g r a t i o n o f s a t e l l i t e s a n d c o m p u t e r t e c h n o l o g i e s a n d b y t h e t r e n d t o w a r d s more specialized application  for satellites.  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t n o t a l l decentralization.  these problems  result  from  The r a t e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e i n t h e t e l e c o m -  m u n i c a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n s e c t o r s has been so g r e a t as t o o u t p a c e the concommitant  growth o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements  d i n a t i n g mechanisms.  Furthermore, given the complexity o fthe  c u r r e n t environment i t i s "not r e a l i s t i c rehensive procedures."  and c o o r -  t o expect t r u l y  comp-  However, e v e n i f t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e a c c o u n t e d  f o r , we have s e e n t h a t m o s t n a t i o n s p l a c e a g r e a t e r p r i o r i t y on an i n d e p e n d e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y t h a n on i n v e s t i n g system t o handle the r a t h e r  costly i n e f f i c i e n c e s  W i t h an e v e r e x p a n d i n g c a s t o f a c t o r s t h a t  ina  t h a t can r e s u l t .  includes  transnational  f i r m s a n d a g e n c i e s whose i n t e r e s t s b e l i e common o b j e c t i v e s a n d j o i n t d e c i s i o n making, 4a.  system i n e f f i c i e n c e s  c a n be e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e .  Where a t e c h n o l o g y makes u s e o f common r e s o u r c e s f o r i t s development and o p e r a t i o n , t h e r e g u l a t i o n and a l l o c a t i o n o f t h o s e r e s o u r c e s w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t a t e s c o n t r o l l i n g the c a p a b i l i t e s . In i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, t h e f r e q u e n c y spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y  o r b i t a r e n o n a p p r o b r i a b l e p u b l i c g o o d s whose a l l o c a t i o n c a n n o t be . 7 i n f l u e n c e d o r m o n o p o l i z e d by any s i n g l e n a t i o n o r group o f n a t i o n s . A l l n a t i o n s have r i g h t s o f a c c e s s t o t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , a n d an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e g u l a t o r y regime has e v o l v e d which attempts t o guarantee these r i g h t s .  I n f u n c t i o n a l terms, t h i s g u a r a n t e e has been  less  97.  than and  a p e r f e c t pledge.  Nations which c o n t r o l  telecommunications  i t s r e l a t e d t e c h n o l o g i e s have been a b l e t o e x c e r c i s e a h i g h  degree o f c o n t r o l o v e r d e c i s i o n making and t h e s t r u c t u r e o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r the frequency The  spectrum and g e o s t a t i o n a r y  most immediate m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h i s c o n t r o l i s the ' f i r s t - c o m e ,  first-served' easy access  a l l o c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e w h i c h a l l o w s n a t i o n s f r e e and  t o the resources  whenever t h e r e e x i s t s a use  t h a t c a n be a c c o m o d a t e d on t h e M a s t e r R e g i s t r a t i o n o f For the g e o s t a t i o n a r y o r b i t , available will  space.  gain access  without  In both  Frequencies.  cases, nations posessing  t o and use o f t h e s e  resources  advanced e x p e r t i s e and c a p a b i l i t e s i s developed  in  the c a p a b i l i t e s  long before  those  telecommunications.  i n part b of the hypothesis.  Where a t e c h n o l o g y makes u s e o f g l o b a l r e s o u r c e s f o r i t s development and o p e r a t i o n , s t a t e s c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t e s w i l l p r e f e r a c o l l a b o r a t i v e o r r e g u l a t o r y System w i t h a l o o s e , laissez-faire structure. In  the resource  entrenched of  requirement  t h e m a j o r g u i d e l i n e o f use has been  How t h i s s y s t e m i s p e r p e t u a t e d 4b.  orbit.  r e g i m e , t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s have an  i n t e r e s t i n maintaining the f l e x i b l e  'first-come, first-served'  laissez-faire  system  b e c a u s e i t p l a c e s no r o a d b l o c k s  i n the  p a t h o f r a p i d economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance. t u r e d s y s t e m , f r e q u e n c i e s and o r b i t a l cated according  s l o t s w o u l d come t o be  t o more s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i a ,  decrease the annual  number o f s a t e l l i t e  c o s t l y t e c h n i c a l changes they  I n a more  strucallo-  f o r c i n g these nations t o  launches  o r t o adopt the  have s o l o n g r e s i s t e d .  Proposals  a i m e d a t a c h e i v i n g t h e s e e n d s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n a d v a n c e d by t h e developing  nations.  They i n c l u d e a ' f i x e d - a l l o t m e n t - a l l o c a t i o n  scheme a n d s p e c i a l c o m p e n s a t i o n s f o r t h e l e s s d e v e l o p e d  regions  98.  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a moratorium  on a l l o c a t i o n s  to the  industrialized  world. J u s t as t h e d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s h a v e p r e s s e d f o r s t r u c t u r a l changes,  however, t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n have s o u g h t  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the c u r r e n t system. the status-quo of 'first-come, certain structural  Their a b i l i t y  first-served'  f e a t u r e s o f t h e ITU and  to prevent to maintain  is facilitated  by  IFRB w h i c h e x t e n d a  central  and i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and t o t h e members c o n ^ trolling  that expertise.  I n most major  l o c a t i o n of the spectrum,  t h e IFRB. draws upon u p - t o - d a t e  k n o w l e d g e on c o m m u n i c a t i o n s niques.  d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the a l -  t e c h n o l o g y and  frequency reusage tech-,  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a q u i r e d from s c i e n t i f i c  i n d u s t r i a l groups  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r E u r o p e who  w i t h t h e IFRB i n d e t e r m i n i n g f r e q u e n c y a l l o c a t i o n s . of  these groups  extends  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and planning.  scientific  throughout  work The  the O r g a n i z a t i o n  closely influence  from  t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , t o a l l o c a t i o n s and  Consequently,  a system which, w o u l d  the future  c i r c u m s c r i b e the  b r e a d t h , and . f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e s e d e c i s i o n m a k i n g p o w e r s w i l l t o be r e s i s t e d b y t h e s e groups- and Until  their national  v  continue  governments.  t h e i r i s a more b a l a n c e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s i n  telecommunications technologies, they w i l l 5,  and  h a v e t h e p o w e r t o do  so.  I n a c o l l a b o r a t i v e system where the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a p a b i l i t i e s I h i g h l y skewed, t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n ' o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l b e n e f i t s w i l l be. d e t e r m i n e d by t h o s e c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s . s  S a n d l e r and C a u l e y n o t e t h a t c o l l a b o r a t i o n p r o d u c e s ' t r a n s a c t i o n . b e n e f i t s ' w h i c h c a n n o t be g a i n e d t h r o u g h  certain  independent g  a c t i o n , , and w h i c h  go b e y o n d t h e b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by t h e t e c h n o l o g y ,  i n the. t e l e c o m m u n i c a t i p n s  satellite  i s s u e a r e a , we  have seen  these  benefits and  include  cost e f f i c i e n c e s , access t o technological  other information  transfers.  The c a s e s t u d i e s  e x a m p l e s o f how t h e ' t e c h n i c a l l y endowed n a t i o n s the  expertise,  o f f e r three  are able  to control  distribution of benefits. In the s a t e l l i t e regime, the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s  with  main  associated  INTELSAT w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y COMSAT, i t s m a n a g e r a n d s i x t y  p e r c e n t owner.  I h a v e - s h o w n * that.the"•''-•benefits  procurement c o n t r a c t s systems.  and s c i e n t i f i c  1  information  I n the launch regime, nations  referred tothe related to satellite  sought access t o b o o s t e r  t e c h n o l o g y s o t h e y w o u l d n o t be d e p e n d e n t on NASA f o r t h e t i m i n g , l o c a t i o n , , and c h o i c e Because t h e U n i t e d  of orbital  States  v e n t u r e s , however, l i t t l e was  made a v a i l a b l e .  satellites.  c o n t r o l l e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r no i n f o r m a t i o n  scientific  r e l a t i n g t o launch  (The U.S. h a s a l s o j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d  technology!. While othe nations relevant  slots for their  technologies,  eventually  i t was more o f t e n  Shuttle  gained access t o the  an i n d i r e c t outcome  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r a r e s u l t o f b i l a t e r a l with, t r a n s n a t i o n a l  systems  agreements  firms.,  A more s u b t l e manner i n w h i c h t h e t e c h n i c a l l y endowed  nations  have c o n t r o l l e d t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s r e l a t e s t o t h e a d o p t i o n of t e c h n i c a l improvements f o r i n c r e a s e d efficiency.  system p r o f i c i e n c y and  I n b o t h t h e s a t e l l i t e and t h e r e s o u r c e  a g e n c i e s and t r a n s n a t i o n a l  regimes,  firms within the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d world  have  h e l d back c e r t a i n developments which would b e n e f i t o t h e r n a t i o n s i n the  system.  I n t h e s a t e l l i t e regime, f o r example, t r a d e  t i o n i s m has l i m i t e d t h e a v a l i a b l i t y o f advanced system i n t h e g l o b a l market.  restric-  techniques  Dr. N a d k a r n i notes t h a t n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s  100.  designed  to p r o t e c t domestic high  most o f t e n d i r e c t e d a t j u s t  technology  industries are  those technologies  which would  p r o b l e m s o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n and r e d u n d a n c y i n g l o b a l  reduce  telecom-'  9  munication networks. large in use  firms  and g r o u n d s y s t e m s h a s meant a l e s s t h a n  o f the frequency  progress  s p e c t r u m and g e o s t a t i o n a r y  consequences o f r e s t r i c t i o n i s t  have i m p o r t a n t these regimes. the current  three.  and c o n t r o l l e d  The e c o n o m i c  consequences  The p o l i t i c a l  consequences  implications for international collaboration i n The d e v e l o p i n g allocation  system a l t o g e t h e r industrialized  i n hypothesis  nations  nation  demands f o r s t r u c t u r a l c h a n g e s  system, o r t h e i r  have o n l y  One example o f t h e i r  desire to opt out of the  b e e n augmented by t h e r e l u c t a n c e  t o adopt l o n g  term p l a n n i n g  of the  strategies.  attempts t o o p t o u t o f the system i s the  B o g o t a D e c l a r a t i o n o f 1976 i n w h i c h e i g h t n a t i o n s diction  over the o r b i t  to  the n a t i o n a l propensity  fuel  optimal  orbit.  policies  a r e b o t h e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l .  have b e e n d i s c u s s e d  in  regime, the r e l u c t a n c e o f  t o a d o p t c o s t l y b u t a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i c a l improvements  spacecraft  The  In the resource  above t h e i r  territories.  claimed  juris-  R e s t r i c t i o n i s m tends  t o i n v e s t i n s y s t e m s and s e r v i c e s  independent o f t h e g l o b a l network.  T h e s e moves away f r o m  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and p r o b l e m s o l v i n g f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e  global  current  problems a s s o c i a t e d with d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . Seyom Brown i s s u e s  a sharp  i n h i s comments on t h e c u r r e n t and  use o f communication  compendium o f t h e f i v e h y p o t h e s e s  state of a f f a i r s  f o r t h e management  technologies:  In / t h e s a t e l l i t e / f i e l d t o o t h e q u e s t i o n s o f who owns, m a n u f a c t u r e s , and p r o v i d e s t h e v a r i o u s  101.  t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s a r e s t i l l h a n d l e d o n t h e b a s i s .... t h a t c a p a b i l i t y makes r i g h t . I f t h e y c o n t i n u e t o be h a n d l e d u n i l a t e r a l l y , h o w e v e r , o p t i m a l u s e o f the technology i s u n l i k e l y . . . . M u l t i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n m a k i n g : a n d management o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y . . . w o u l d r e q u i r e a considerable r e o r i e n t a t i o n toward i n t e r n a t i o n a l a s o p p o s e d t o p u r e l y n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l on the p a r t o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced n a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the United States. 10 Beyond d e p i c t i n g and  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a p a b i l i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , t h i s paper has e x p l o r e d t h e  d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t consequences for  t h e e f f i c i e n t use o f s a t e l l i t e technology  control.' use  mans g r e a t e s t  economic and i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r s  sophisticated  will  s a t e l l i t e dishes w i l l  rivals  t h e n e x t decade  become e n t i r e l y  t r a n s f e r s made p o s s i b l e  computer and s a t e l l i t e n e t w o r k s .  w o r l d , t h e market f o r s a t e l l i t e  as  technology that  s o c i a l and economic i n n o v a t i o n s . I n  dependent on h i g h speed i n f o r m a t i o n  and  national  These e f f e c t s and consequences a r e f a r r e a c h i n g f o r t h e  and development o f a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  global  o f 'purely  services w i l l  by  In the i n d u s t r i a l i z e d grow  dramatically  come t o p o p u l a t e t h e h o r i z o n s o f s u b u r b i a  t h e t e l e v i s i o n antenna once d i d .  communications, resource sensing,  Finally,  s a t e l l i t e s used f o r  and m e t e r o l o g y w i l l  become  i n c r e a s i n g l y important i n s t r u m e n t s o f development i n t h e T h i r d Whether t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s will  depend o n e f f i c i e n t g l o b a l A  will  be f u l l y  World.  r e a l i z e d , however,  response t o t h e technology's op-  p o r t u n i t i e s and t o t h e e x t e r n a l i t i e s c a u s e d by i n d e p e n d e n t p r o g r e s s and as  p o o r management. I f t h e l i b e r a l  dictum that p r o f f e r s  need  the motivator o f p o s i t i v e progress i s c o r r e c t , then i t i s l i k e l y  that  the s c i e n t i f i c  current  and t e c h n i c a l s e c t o r s  will  offer solutions  to the  problems o f r e s o u r c e o v e r u s e and t e c h n i c a l i n e f f i c i e n c e s  102.  long before of greater  nations  c o l l a b o r a t i o n f o r t h e management and u s e o f g l o b a l  technologies. the  abandon t h e i r u n i l a t e r a l v i s i o n i n f a v o r  adoption  Whether p o l i t i c a l  roadblocks  will  of these s o l u t i o n s i s a question  go o n a f f e c t i n g  that w i l l  continue  t o c o n f o u n d many s c h o l a r s , i n d u s t r i a l i s t s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c y makers.  103.  CHAPTER S I X  Shaffer P.  FOOTNOTES  and  Shaffer,  The  Politics  of  International  Cooperation,  4  2.  S t e p h e n L e v y , "INTELSAT: t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f a r e g i m e " , p.669  3.  Ibid.  4.  J o s e p h P e l t o n and M a r c e l l u s Snow, "Key P r o b l e m s i n S a t e l l i t e C o m m u n i c a t i o n s : P r o l i r e r a t i o n , C o m p e t i t i o n , and P l a n n i n g i n an U n c e r t a i n E n v i r o n m e n t . " p. 104  5.  I b i d . , p.  114  6.  I b i d . , p.  97  7.  Todd S a n d l e r and J o n C a u l e y , "The D e s i g n o f S u p r a n a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e s : An E c o n o m i c P e r s p e c t i v e . " Todd S a n d l e r , e d . , The T h e o r y and S t r u c t u r e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l Economy • ( B o u l d e r , C o l o r a d o : W e s t v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) : p. 32  8.  I b i d . , pp.  9.  I n t e r v i e w , Dr. N a d k a r n i .  10.  40-41 Vancouver,  B.C.  Seyom B r o w n , New F o r c e s i n W o r l d P o l i t i c s The B r o o k i n g s I n s t i t u t i o n , 1 9 7 4 ) : p. 142  (Washington,  D.C:  

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