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An assessment of LPG tanker operating regulations in the port of Vancouver, B.C. Marston, Joseph Charles 1982

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AN ASSESSMENT OF LPG TANKER OPERATING REGULATIONS IN THE PORT OF VANCOUVER, B.C. by JOSEPH CHARLES MARSTON, JR. B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1973  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1982  (c) Joseph C h a r l e s M a r s t o n , J r . , 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis  British  it  freely available  for  f u l f i l m e n t of the  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  agree t h a t  in partial  Columbia,  I agree that f o r reference  permission  scholarly  the Library  shall  and s t u d y .  I  f o r extensive  p u r p o s e s may  copying  for  that  copying  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  or publication  of this  Date  Community & Regional Planning  19 October 1982  Itis thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  thesis  be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  permission.  Department o f  further  of t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood  make  Columbia  written  ii ABSTRACT  In r e c e n t y e a r s , the P o r t of Vancouver has emerged as a major c e n t r e f o r a broad range growing  of hazardous  materials.  transshipment  T h i s , i n t u r n , has l e d t o  p u b l i c concern over the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the large-volume  p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and movement of dangerous commodities  i n populated  areas.  The  shipment  oceangoing  of l i q u e f i e d  petroleum gas (LPG) by means of r e f r i g e r a t e d  gas t a n k e r s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be one of the p o t e n t i a l l y most  dangerous a s p e c t s of the hazardous  m a t e r i a l s t r a d e i n the P o r t of Vancouver.  In t h i s r e g a r d , the t h e s i s examines the q u a l i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g u l a t o r y standards governing the s a f e movement of LPG c a r r i e r s of Vancouver, (Canvey  and those i n e f f e c t  i n s e l e c t e d urban gas p o r t s i n Europe  I s l a n d , U.K.; E u r o p o o r t , H o l l a n d ; and Le Havre,  U n i t e d S t a t e s (Boston, Massachusetts  By means of comparative  i n the P o r t  assessment,  and Los Angeles,  France) and the  California).  the r e s e a r c h i s o l a t e s a number of  i n s t a n c e s where l o c a l gas tanker o p e r a t i n g standards do not compare f a v o u r a b l y i n terms of substances, scope, or a p p l i c a b i l i t y w i t h the requirements  i n f o r c e i n the f i v e c o n t r o l p o r t s .  the Vancouver r e g u l a t i o n s are d e f i c i e n t to c o n s t i t u t e an unnecessary rationalizes  to the extent that they are deemed  r i s k t o p u b l i c s a f e t y , the r e s e a r c h  the need to upgrade l o c a l requirements  meets, or exceeds  The  In those i n s t a n c e s where  the consensus  to a l e v e l which e i t h e r  standard f o r the c o n t r o l  t h e s i s addresses i n some d e t a i l  such r e l a t e d  ports.  items as the p r o p e r t i e s ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and p o t e n t i a l hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LPG and LNG; the c o m p o s i t i o n and o p e r a t i n g h i s t o r y of the  ii i world  l i q u e f i e d gas tanker  f l e e t , i n c l u d i n g an o v e r v i e w and assessment of  the s a f e t y r e c o r d of t h i s f l e e t ; and the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine t r a d e i n l i q u i d gases.  Moreover, the r e s e a r c h  i d e n t i f i e s a number of a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c s a f e t y i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e production,  storage,  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of hazardous m a t e r i a l s g e n e r a l l y i n  the P o r t o f Vancouver, and suggests a s t r a t e g i c e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s whereby these concerns might r e a s o n a b l y be a d d r e s s e d , and e i t h e r m i t i g a t e d or resolved.  In t h i s l a t t e r regard,  recommendations r a n g i n g  the t h e s i s makes s e v e r a l broad-based  from the need f o r a f e d e r a l i n q u i r y t o address the  o v e r a l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the hazardous m a t e r i a l s q u e s t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o the P o r t of Vancouver, t o a s u g g e s t i o n  t h a t the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board's  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r port s a f e t y should  be t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e Canadian Coast  Guard i n o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s i t u a t i o n a r i s i n g between t h e Board's m a r k e t i n g and s a f e t y concerns.  A l t h o u g h the r e s e a r c h  i s p r i m a r i l y d i r e c t e d to circumstances o c c u r r i n g i n  the P o r t o f Vancouver, much of the i n f o r m a t i o n  contained  i n the t h e s i s i s  l i k e l y t o have v a l i d a p p l i c a t i o n i n o t h e r Canadian p o r t s which are e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y engaged i n the marine t r a n s f e r of hazardous m a t e r i a l s , or a r e a n t i c i p a t i n g the p o s s i b l e establishment future.  of such a t r a d e i n t h e f o r e s e e a b l e  iv TABLE OF•CONTENTS Page Abstract T a b l e of C o n t e n t s  iv  L i s t of Tables  vi  L i s t of F i g u r e s  v i i  Acknowledgement 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.5.1 1.3.5.2 1.3.5.3  Introduction E v o l u t i o n of t h e L o c a l Hazardous M a s t e r i a l s Trade A R e g i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e on the Dangerous Goods I s s u e Purpose o f Study Study Environment Hypothesis R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the R e s e a r c h Test Port S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a Methodology C o m p i l a t i o n of Background M a t e r i a l Field Investigation Analysis  2.0  2.3.1 2.3.1.1 2.3.1.2  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of Hazardous M a t e r i a l s by M a r i n e Mode: L e g i s l a t i v e Structure Marine Terminal S i t i n g Considerations P e r t i n e n t Hazardous M a r i n e T e r m i n a l S i t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n Federal L e g i s l a t i o n N a v i g a b l e Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t Termpol Code E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review P r o c e s s Fisheries Act , N a t i o n a l Harbours B o a r d A c t Provincial Legislation P o l l u t i o n Control Act F i r e Services Act U t i l i t i e s Commission A c t L e g i s l a t i o n P e r t a i n i n g t o the B u l k Shipment of Hazardous M a t e r i a l s by M a r i n e Mode Federal Legislation Canada S h i p p i n g A c t N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t  3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.3.1 3.3.3.2  M a r i n e Shipment o f LPG and R e l a t e d Commodities E v o l u t i o n of the L i q u e f i e d Gas Tanker Trade LPG i n Vancouver The I s s u e s Background LPG Hazard Assessment The Gas Tanker S a f e t y Record Phase I - 1964-1978 Phase I I - 1979-1982  2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.1.1 2.2.1.2 2.2.1.3 2.2.1.4 2.2.1.5 2.2.2 2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.3 2.3  i i  viii 1 1 3 10 10 11 13 17 18 18 19 20 30 30 32 32 32 34 35 37 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 43 45 45 55 58 58 64 71 71 76  V  Page 4.0  4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.4.3.1 4.4.3.2 4.4.4 4.4.4.1 4.4.4.2 4.4.4.3 4.4.5 4.4.5.1 4.4.5.2  The P u b l i c S a f e t y I m p e r a t i v e : A Review o f S p e c i a l Requirements f o r L i q u e f i e d Gas C a r r i e r s O p e r a t i n g I n S e l e c t e d World P o r t s Overview Canada C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n Assessment Vancouver United States C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n Assessment Boston Los A n g e l e s Europe S i t u a t i o n Assessment Planning Considerations Le H a v r e , France P h y s i c a l Considerations Regulatory Considerations Europoort, Holland I n t r o d u c t o r y Note P h y s i c a l Considerations - Shell-BP Proposal Regulatory Considerations - Shell-BP Proposal Canvey I s l a n d , U.K. P h y s i c a l Considerations Regulatory Considerations  91 91 92 92 93 105 105 108 113 117 117 118 122 122 122 124 124 127 127 128 128 131  5.0 5.1  Conclusions Recapitulation  137 145  6.0 6.1  Recommendations P r i m a r y Recommendations - LPG Tanker Operational Safety Supplementary Observations/Recommendations  148  Bibliography  171  6.2  Appendix I  - A P a r t i a l L i s t of V i s i t s by Hazardous M a t e r i a l s C a r r i e r s t o t h e P o r t o f Vancouver Between 1 J a n u a r y 1981 and 31 August 1982.  148 157  182  Appendix I I - C h r o n o l o g i c a l L i s t of Mishaps I n v o l v i n g LPG C a r r i e r s  189  Appendix I I I - C h r o n o l o g i c a l L i s t of Mishaps I n v o l v i n g LNG C a r r i e r s  236  Appendix IV  263  - C a n a d i a n Gas P o r t P r o p o s a l s  LIST OF TABLES  P h y s i c a l / L e g i s l a t i v e Considerations A Comparison of R e s u l t s of Four Models D e s c r i b i n g t h e Dimensions of t h e LFL E x t e n t of a C l o u d F o l l o w i n g a 25 000 m LNG S p i l l 3  S p i l l s on Water (Under Worst Weather C o n d i t i o n s ) LPG I n c i d e n t s of Note  28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982  LNG I n c i d e n t s o f Note  28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982  Very S e r i o u s C a s u a l t i e s : Impact Assessment f o r t h e P e r i o d 28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982 Comparison of S p e c i a l R e g u l a t i o n s i n E f f e c t D u r i n g Harbour Passage o f LPG/LNG Tankers LPG Tanker O p e r a t i n g Y e a r s  28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982  vii LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.1  C h e m i c a l Tanker Hamakaze  14  2.1  Hazardous M a t e r i a l s on Vancouver W a t e r f r o n t  33  3.1  Temperature/Vapour P r e s s u r e R e l a t i o n s h i p o f S e l e c t e d S h i p - b o r n e Gases  50  3.2  W e s t r i d g e LPG T e r m i n a l , Burnaby, B.C.  56  3.3  LNG C a r r i e r Khannur a t Sodegaura, Japan  75  3.4  F i r e b o a t i n Vancouver Harbour  86  4.1  P o r t of Vancouver:  P r i n c i p a l Hazardous Goods S t o r a g e  Points  94  4.2  P o r t of Vancouver:  Land Use P a t t e r n  4.3  P o r t of B o s t o n , MA  109  4.4  P o r t of Los A n g e l e s , CA  113  4.5  Le H a v r e , France  123  4.6  Europoort, Holland  125  4.7  Canvey I s l a n d , U.K.  6.1  LPG C a r r i e r Yamahide Maru a t W e s t r i d g e T e r m i n a l  and E n v i r o n s  95  130  viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s , I have had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet w i t h many people i n Europe and N o r t h America who, from v a r y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s , have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s .  While I cannot mention  them a l l by  name i n the l i m i t e d space a v a i l a b l e , I must express t o these people my g r a t i t u d e for  t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n , and support f o r , t h i s  project.  I would be r e m i s s , however, i f I d i d not a f f o r d s p e c i a l mention  t o s e v e r a l people  whose c o n t r i b u t i o n s were perhaps above and beyond t h e c a l l of d u t y .  Firstly, I  would l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Nemetz of t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  and P r o f e s s o r D a v i d Anderson of the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a f o r encouraging me t o develop t h e r e s e a r c h t o p i c , and f o r s u p p o r t i n g my a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e - a d m i s s i o n t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. of  While I may not have always seen the wisdom  t h e i r ways a t t h e t i m e , I can now say w i t h c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the comments and  s u g g e s t i o n s of my t h e s i s a d v i s o r y committee - comprised of P r o f e s s o r s S e t t y Pendakur (Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) , Frank N a v i n ( E n g i n e e r i n g ) , and P e t e r Nemetz (Commerce) - have made t h i s a much b e t t e r document than i t c o u l d ever have been w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t of t h e i r combined p r a c t i c a l and academic i n s i g h t s -  I a l s o make p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the many f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s who have o f f e r e d t h e i r u n q u a l i f i e d s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r o j e c t f o r so l o n g - e s p e c i a l l y t o Ms. Brenda Z a p p i a , w i t h o u t whose t y p i n g s k i l l s , p a t i e n c e , and sense of humour the t h e s i s may never have been completed, and t o Mr. R i c h a r d F a i r e y , who, f o r more y e a r s than I am s u r e e i t h e r of us care t o remember, has t h r e a t e n e d , badgered, and c a j o l e d me t o complete my M a s t e r ' s Degree program, and who w i l l no doubt be somewhat shocked  t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h i s o b j e c t i v e has, i n d e e d , now been r e a l i z e d .  ix  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of my f a m i l y -  p a r t i c u l a r l y those of my w i f e J e a n e t t e whose commitment t o t h i s p r o j e c t has never faltered.  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any e r r o r s , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , o r o m i s s i o n s r e s t s s o l e l y w i t h the w r i t e r .  Joseph C. M a r s t o n , J r . Vancouver,  B.C.  1 October 1982  1  1.0  INTRODUCTION  1.1  E v o l u t i o n of the L o c a l Hazardous M a t e r i a l s  Trade  The lower mainland a r e a * o f southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, i n i t s c a p a c i t y as a major s e a p o r t and r a i l t e r m i n u s , has had a l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e h a n d l i n g and shipment  of a wide assortment of dangerous commodities.  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e Hooker Chemical c h l o r i n e m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t i n N o r t h Vancouver  d u r i n g the mid-1950s, however, marked an i m p o r t a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t  i n terms o f both the n a t u r e and d i r e c t i o n of the dangerous goods t r a d e locally.  P r i o r t o t h a t t i m e , the movement of e s p e c i a l l y  hazardous  substances through the a r e a had u s u a l l y been l i m i t e d t o f a i r l y s m a l l consignments.  Moreover,  w i t h perhaps the e x c e p t i o n o f the r e s i d u a l  p r o d u c t i o n o f s m a l l amounts o f t o x i c o r e x p l o s i v e substances i n c o n j u n c t i o i w i t h the p e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g p r o c e s s a t any of the s e v e r a l a r e a r e f i n e r i e s , the lower m a i n l a n d was not viewed as a s i g n i f i c a n t manufacturer of dangeroi goods.  The Hooker C h e m i c a l p l a n t s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d t h a t i m p r e s s i o n by  s i g n i f y i n g a permanent, l a r g e s c a l e c h l o r i n e s t o r a g e / p r o d u c t i o n presence w i t h i n the s e t t l e d l i m i t s of the community.  The Hooker o p e r a t i o n a l s o  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the g e n e r a t i o n of many more l o c a l r o a d , r a i l , and marine movements of hazardous m a t e r i a l s ( s u c h as c h l o r i n e and c a u s t i c soda) t h a n had p r e v i o u s l y been the case.  D u r i n g the course of the next two decades (1957-1977),  the r e g i o n  e x p e r i e n c e d a s t e a d y , but u n s p e c t a c u l a r , growth i n the hazardous  materials  *For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , the term "lower m a i n l a n d " s h a l l be viewed as synonomous w i t h t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (G.V.R.D.), a g e o p o l i t i c a l u n i t comprised of 14 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g the C i t y o f Vancouver) and t h r e e e l e c t o r a l a r e a s . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c o v e r s an a r e a of some 2 600 km^, and has an e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.1 m i l l i o n (1976 Census).  2 trade.  I n c r e a s e d demand from i n d u s t r i a l concerns  elsewhere  on Vancouver I s l a n d and  a l o n g the c o a s t f o r commodities such as c h l o r i n e , propane, and  s u l p h u r i c a c i d s e r v e d t o enhance the P o r t of Vancouver's p o s i t i o n as a r a i l / m a r i n e transshipment petrochemical products.  i n t e r f a c e f o r a v a r i e t y of hazardous c h e m i c a l A d d i t i o n a l l y , two new  and  deepwater p e t r o c h e m i c a l  t e r m i n a l s were brought on l i n e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d - Trans M o u n t a i n P i p e l i n e Company's l i q u e f i e d p e t r o l e u m gas (LPG) f a c i l i t y  i n Burnaby i n  1966,  f o l l o w e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Vancouver Wharves L i m i t e d ' s N o r t h Vancouver methanol t e r m i n a l a few years  later.  The p e r i o d 1977-82 has seen a d r a m a t i c s h i f t away from the s p o r a d i c p a t t e r n of growth which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the l o c a l t r a d e i n hazardous commodities throughout  the ' s i x t i e s and much of the ' s e v e n t i e s .  The  r a p i d e v o l u t i o n of  the p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y i n w e s t e r n Canada, combined w i t h the development of new  l a r g e volume markets i n Japan and o t h e r P a c i f i c Rim  generated  c o u n t r i e s , has  c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e t o improve and expand the deepwater  p e t r o c h e m i c a l t e r m i n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e on the west c o a s t . the lower mainland  has e x p e r i e n c e d  p e t r o c h e m i c a l transshipment  S i n c e 1979  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of one major  f a c i l i t y by Dow  w i t n e s s e d s i g n i f i c a n t c a p i t a l investment  Chemical  alone,  new  (Canada) L t d . , and  by Vancouver Wharves and  has  Canadian  O c c i d e n t a l P e t r o l e u m L t d . ( f o r m e r l y Hooker C h e m i c a l ) f o r the purpose of upgrading  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e methanol and c h l o r i n e / c a u s t i c soda t e r m i n a l  operations.  Furthermore,  r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s by B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro to  c o n s t r u c t a l i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l gas (LNG)  peak s h a v i n g p l a n t near the e a s t e r n  end of B u r r a r d I n l e t , and by C a n t e r r a Energy L t d . to b u i l d a w o r l d - s c a l e petrochemical production f a c i l i t y e s t u a r y , suggest  i n the v i c i n i t y of the F r a s e r R i v e r  t h a t the p r o d u c t i o n and movement of dangerous goods w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n the debate over the mid- to  long-term  3 growth a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e to the lower mainland  1.2  area.  A R e g i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e on t h e Dangerous Goods I s s u e  The m a n u f a c t u r e , s t o r a g e , and s a f e c a r r i a g e of dangerous goods has emerged as an i m p o r t a n t  p u b l i c i s s u e w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l  (G.V.R.D.) i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  District  The o r i g i n s of the c u r r e n t h i g h l e v e l of  community i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t o p i c can perhaps best be t r a c e d back t o two s i g n i f i c a n t events which t r a n s p i r e d d u r i n g the summer of 1978.  The f i r s t ,  o c c u r r i n g on 29 August 1978, i n v o l v e d a c o l l i s i o n between a f r e i g h t h a u l i n g 41 t a n k c a r s  train  l o a d e d w i t h h i g h l y inflammable LPG and t h r e e runaway  boxcars i n Vancouver's E a s t End.  Although  s e v e r a l of the gas t a n k e r s were  d e r a i l e d , none was r u p t u r e d and t h e i r cargoes remained  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate  intact.  the extent t o which p u b l i c s a f e t y might have  been j e o p a r d i z e d had t h i s c o l l i s i o n r e s u l t e d i n the escape of a l a r g e volume of g a s . O f f i c i a l s s p e c u l a t e d a t the time t h a t the i g n i t i o n of vented gas from a r u p t u r e d t a n k c a r c o u l d have l e d t o an e x p l o s i o n o r , f o r t h a t  matter,  a c h a i n r e a c t i o n of e x p l o s i o n s i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l o r a l l of t h e LPG u n i t s w h i c h comprised the t r a i n . 1  The a c c i d e n t d i d p r e s e n t  a sufficient  hazard  t o prompt p o l i c e and f i r e a u t h o r i t i e s t o urge r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g w i t h i n a f o u r b l o c k r a d i u s of the c o l l i s i o n s i t e t o t e m p o r a r i l y evacuate the a r e a .  I n o r d e r t o g a i n a sense of p e r s p e c t i v e as t o the d e s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l i n herent  i n t h i s a c c i d e n t , w h i l e b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t b o t h c i r c u m s t a n c e s  and  subsequent e f f e c t s would be l i k e l y t o vary w i d e l y from one LPG i n c i d e n t t o the n e x t , i t i s worthy of note t h a t the e x p l o s i o n of a s i n g l e d e r a i l e d  4  t a n k e r c o n t a i n i n g some 9 000 l i t r e s of LPG k i l l e d Tennessee d u r i n g F e b r u a r y of 1978. Vancouver a c c i d e n t c o n t a i n e d  2  15 people i n Waverly,  By c o n t r a s t , each t a n k c a r  approximately  128 000  l i t r e s of gas, f o r a  t o t a l t r a i n l o a d c a p a c i t y i n excess of 5 m i l l i o n l i t r e s . 3 l a r g e volume of gas derailment  i n v o l v e d , and  indeed  The  c a n i s t e r ruptured  c h l o r i n e gas control.^  cannot escape the  a 450  l i t r e canister  upon i m p a c t , r e l e a s i n g some 300  l i t r e s of t o x i c  the l e a k c o u l d be brought under  I n terms of volume, the amount of gas vented was  complaints respiratory  the  from the r e a r of a t r u c k on M a i n S t r e e t .  i n t o the atmosphere before  Nevertheless,  the  f o r t u n a t e to a v o i d a major d i s a s t e r .  Less than a month l a t e r , on 25 September 1978, containing l i q u i d chlorine f e l l  I n view of  g i v e n the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y of  to suburban r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods, one  c o n c l u s i o n t h a t Vancouver was  i n the  small.  no fewer than 78 persons were h o s p i t a l i z e d w i t h a v a r i e t y of  ranging  from minor s k i n and  eye i r r i t a t i o n s  to more s e r i o u s  complications.  Notwithstanding  the grave nature  of the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d a c c i d e n t s , i t  must a l s o be emphasized t h a t s e v e r a l important from these e x p e r i e n c e s .  The  chlorine s p i l l ,  l e s s o n s have been l e a r n e d  i n p a r t i c u l a r , was  instrumental  i n b r i n g i n g to l i g h t a number of d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n the l o c a l emergency planning/response process. dramatic  Moreover, i t served  f a s h i o n the s e r i o u s n a t u r e  l a r g e l y unregulated s t r e e t s and  rail  to u n d e r s c o r e i n a most  of p o t e n t i a l problems a r i s i n g from the  day-to-day movement of dangerous goods on lower mainland  lines.  I n a p r a c t i c a l sense, the G.V.R.D. and a number of  i t s member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have s i n c e attempted to a d d r e s s many of these s h o r t c o m i n g s , and have made progress  i n terms of b o t h i m p r o v i n g  internal  emergency response c a p a b i l i t i e s and,  perhaps more i m p o r t a n t l y , r e d u c i n g  the  5 l i k e l i h o o d of s e r i o u s road a c c i d e n t s hazardous commodities i n the f u t u r e .  i n v o l v i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n T h i s has  through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of workable new operating  regulations  of  been a c h i e v e d p r i m a r i l y  v e h i c l e s a f e t y standards  and  (such as more f r e q u e n t v e h i c l e i n s p e c t i o n s ,  limiting  t r u c k s c a r r y i n g s p e c i f i e d dangerous cargoes to c e r t a i n r o u t e s and hours of t r a v e l , e t c . ) , and  by i m p r o v i n g the e x i s t i n g channels of  communication between l o c a l government a g e n c i e s and Evacuation planning, past - has  too - an i t e m which r e c e i v e d  emerged as a t o p i c of c o n s i d e r a b l e  p o l i t i c i a n s and  certain  private  industry.  l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n i n the  c o n c e r n t o G.V.R.D.  p l a n n e r s a l i k e , as they endeavour to f o r m u l a t e and  upon comprehensive and  improve  m u t u a l l y c o m p a t i b l e emergency e v a c u a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s  f o r the lower m a i n l a n d .  The  preceding p u b l i c safety i n i t i a t i v e s , while valuable  are n e v e r t h e l e s s  i n t h e i r own  symptomatic of the widespread r e g u l a t o r y  u p g r a d i n g e x i s t i n g d e s i g n or o p e r a t i o n a l serious accident  has  occurred.  t o t a l l y unanticipated,  p r a c t i c e of  safety requirements only a f t e r a  I n most c a s e s , these a c c i d e n t s  nor were they u n a v o i d a b l e .  were n e i t h e r  Unfortunately,  of r e a c t i v e response t o r i s k management i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t where the p r o b a b i l i t y of a major a c c i d e n t  i s v e r y s m a l l , but  e f f e c t s upon p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the event of such an a c c i d e n t extremely severe.  right,  this in  type  instances  the p o t e n t i a l would  be  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , encouraging t o note t h a t s e v e r a l  local  communities have adopted a much more p r o a c t i v e approach to a d d r e s s i n g many p u b l i c s a f e t y problems posed by the v a r i o u s mainland hazardous m a t e r i a l s waged a l e n g t h y s t o r a g e and  trade.  The  a s p e c t s of the  the  lower  C i t y of Vancouver, f o r example,  campaign to remove a l l a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the  large-scale  shipment of dangerous commodities w i t h i n the community.  some t i m e , c i t y c o u n c i l ' s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d  has  has  For  been to  6  c o n v i n c e the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y to d i s c o n t i n u e the p r a c t i c e of s t o r i n g r a i l c a r s l o a d e d w i t h t o x i c and inflammable substances on the p e r i p h e r y of the  downtown commercial c o r e .  Thus f a r , C P .  R a i l has r e f u s e d to comply  w i t h the c i t y ' s r e q u e s t and, i n view of the f a c t t h a t r a i l w a y l a n d s f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the f e d e r a l R a i l w a y A c t , c o u n c i l has been powerless t o f o r c e the i s s u e . r e a l e s t a t e development  D u r i n g the f a l l  of 1981, however, C P .  Rail's  arm, Marathon R e a l t y , r e q u e s t e d a p p r o v a l from the  c i t y t o c o n s t r u c t a $100 m i l l i o n o f f i c e / r e t a i l complex on the w a t e r f r o n t . C i t y c o u n c i l has r e f u s e d t o approve the p r o j e c t u n l e s s C P .  R a i l agrees t o  h a l t the shipment of hazardous m a t e r i a l s through the w a t e r f r o n t precinct.^  The D i s t r i c t  of N o r t h Vancouver, which accommodates a wide v a r i e t y of  hazardous m a t e r i a l s - o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s , r e c e n t l y adopted a s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n on the problem as t h a t e s t a b l i s h e d by the C i t y of Vancouver, a l t h o u g h under somewhat d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  In  r e c e n t y e a r s , the growing p u b l i c debate over the dangerous goods c o n t r o v e r s y has spawned a number of e s s e n t i a l l y s i n g l e purpose community i n t e r e s t groups.  Among the most prominent of these has been the N o r t h Shore-based  C h e m i c a l Hazards A l e r t Committee ( C . H . A . C ) , which was formed i n e a r l y for  1980  the purpose of c o n v e y i n g the p o s i t i o n t h a t the Canadian O c c i d e n t a l  c h l o r i n e p l a n t i n N o r t h Vancouver  c o n s t i t u t e d an u n a c c e p t a b l e s a f e t y r i s k t o  a r e a r e s i d e n t s and, as such, s h o u l d be removed from the community.  Although  C.H.A.C has y e t t o r e a l i z e t h i s fundamental g o a l , the o r g a n i z a t i o n  was  n o n e t h e l e s s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p e r s u a d i n g the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver sponsor a Community Hazards Task F o r c e , the mandate of which was the  to  to address  broad spectrum of c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to the p r o d u c t i o n ,  s t o r a g e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of hazardous m a t e r i a l s on t h e N o r t h Shore, and to  s u b s e q u e n t l y p r e p a r e a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i c responses d e s i g n e d t o e i t h e r  7  m i t i g a t e or e l i m i n a t e s e r i o u s r i s k s .  Due  l a r g e l y to the f i n d i n g s  recommendations of the t a s k f o r c e , the d i s t r i c t placed  a ban  on the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new  i n d u s t r i e s t o the community, and,  and  c o u n c i l , i n October of  h i g h r i s k c h e m i c a l and  i n conjunction with other  1981,  petrochemical  l e v e l s of  government, agreed to examine ways and means of e v e n t u a l l y removing the Canadian O c c i d e n t a l  p l a n t from the N o r t h Shore.6  I n a r e l a t e d v e i n , C a n t e r r a Energy L t d . , i n i t s r e c e n t  ( s p r i n g 1982)  secure a p p r o v a l  p l a n t i n the Lower  to c o n s t r u c t  a l a r g e new  M a i n l a n d , endeavoured to s o l i c i t  petrochemical  b i d to  p u b l i c i n p u t r e l a t i v e to a l l a s p e c t s of  the  proposal.  While a number of l o c a l government and  i n d u s t r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have, i n  c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , chosen to address hazardous m a t e r i a l s - r e l a t e d concerns i n a r e a s o n a b l y open and  f o r t h r i g h t manner, i t would be i n c o r r e c t to assume  t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e has  been u n i v e r s a l l y endorsed.  H i s t o r i c a l l y , there  e x i s t e d a tendency on the p a r t of both i n d u s t r y and  government  regulatory  a g e n c i e s t o downplay the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p o t e n t i a l h e a l t h and concerns a s s o c i a t e d w i t h many hazardous p r o d u c t s .  Many  has  safety  organizations  i n v o l v e d w i t h the r o u t i n e p r o d u c t i o n , movement, or r e g u l a t i o n of dangerous commodities c o n t i n u e  to adhere to the convenient d i c t u m t h a t " i t won't  happen h e r e " as a means of d i s c o u n t i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of a s e r i o u s or p e t r o c h e m i c a l (although  accident.  T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l approach p e r i o d i c a l l y  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than i n the p a s t ) m a n i f e s t s  itself  form t h r o u g h the i n t e n t i o n a l w i t h o l d i n g from the p u b l i c of regarding  chemical  i n an extreme information  e i t h e r the proposed c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p o t e n t i a l l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l  f a c i l i t y c a t e r i n g to the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e or the s u b s t a n t i a l r e v i s i o n of an e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n .  The  purpose i s to a v o i d  damaging  8 c o n f l i c t s w i t h groups or i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g s t r o n g l y d i v e r g e n t a t t i t u d e s to those of the p r o j e c t s p o n s o r s . b e n e f i t of the proponent,  On o c c a s i o n , the manoeuvre works to the  as evidenced by the r e c e n t (1979-80) c o n s t r u c t i o n  of a Dow  C h e m i c a l Company s t o r a g e and t r a n s s h i p m e n t t e r m i n a l on N a t i o n a l  Harbours  Board p r o p e r t y i n the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver.  The  Dow  f a c i l i t y handles t h r e e s e p a r a t e b u l k c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s - e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e (EDC), a source of p o l y v i n y l c h l o r i d e p l a s t i c r e s i n ; e t h y l e n e g l y c o l , i n the manufacture  used  of a n t i - f r e e z e ; and c a u s t i c soda s o l u t i o n , which i s  r e q u i r e d by the pulp/paper and aluminum p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s .  Although a l l  t h r e e s u b s t a n c e s , f o r reasons of t o x i c i t y , c o r r o s i v e n e s s , o r i n f l a m m a b i l i t y , r e q u i r e s p e c i a l h a n d l i n g procedures, ethylene d i c h l o r i d e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o u l d p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the event of a major spill.  I n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g h i g h l y i n f l a m m a b l e , EDC,  d e c o m p o s i t i o n , produces  deadly phosgene gas s i m i l a r to t h a t deployed i n  t r e n c h w a r f a r e d u r i n g the F i r s t World War. c a u s i n g agent  when heated to  I t i s a l s o a known cancer  i n a n i m a l s , and i s suspected of b e i n g c a r c i n o g e n i c t o  humans.^  D e s p i t e the acknowledged hazardous made l i t t l e ,  nature of these m a t e r i a l s , Dow  Chemical  i f any, e f f o r t to i n f o r m the p u b l i c as to the n a t u r e of the  p r o j e c t u n t i l a f t e r a l l of the n e c e s s a r y r e g u l a t o r y p e r m i t s had e i t h e r been i s s u e d or approved  in principle.^  Moreover, the government a g e n c i e s  c l o s e s t t o the p r o p o s a l - t h a t i s , the D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver and N a t i o n a l Harbours approval process.  Board - remained  e q u a l l y s i l e n t throughout  I n t h i s manner, i t was  the  the p r o j e c t  v i r t u a l l y a s s u r e d t h a t any  immediate p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m of the p r o j e c t would be b o t h l i m i t e d i n scope and e a s i l y manageable.  9  An i t e m of e q u a l c o n c e r n was project approval government.  the r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which Dow  from v a r i o u s  secured  r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s at a l l l e v e l s of  For i n s t a n c e , at no time was  ever r e q u e s t e d , or u n d e r t a k e n .  a d e t a i l e d s o c i a l impact a n a l y s i s  Hence, a number of i m p o r t a n t  questions  remain unanswered, i n c l u d i n g :  a)  why d i d Dow Chemical e l e c t to c o n s t r u c t a f a c i l i t y d e s i g n e d to s t o r e l a r g e volumes of h i g h l y i n f l a m m a b l e and t o x i c c h e m i c a l m a t e r i a l s i n the midst of a d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d urban area?  b)  c o u l d a v e s s e l loaded w i t h EDC or o t h e r t o x i c c h e m i c a l compounds e f f e c t a q u i c k , o r d e r l y , and s a f e d e p a r t u r e from the t e r m i n a l d o c k i n g a r e a i n the event of a s e r i o u s s h i p b o a r d or s h o r e s i d e f i r e , g i v e n the l i m i t e d room f o r m a n o e u v r e a b i l i t y at the Dow b e r t h and the dangerous t i d a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y of the Second Narrows? and  c)  i n the event of a d i s a s t e r s c e n a r i o i n v o l v i n g a major u n c o n t r o l l e d EDC p o o l f i r e at the t e r m i n a l and an onshore w i n d f l o w , to what e x t e n t would the g e n e r a t i o n of t o x i c gases p r e s e n t a t h r e a t to l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , and what c o n t i n g e n c i e s have been p r e p a r e d t o m i t i g a t e any r e l a t e d impacts?  I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t Dow  Chemical, while e x e r c i s i n g questionable  ethical  judgement by w i t h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r o j e c t u n t i l the n e c e s s a r y r e g u l a t o r y p e r m i t s had law.  In t h i s regard,  been s e c u r e d , was  by no means o p e r a t i n g  outside  the  p a r t of the problem r e s t s both w i t h the government  r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s f o r f a i l i n g to r e c o g n i z e  the need f o r g r e a t l y improved  p u b l i c d i s c l o s u r e standards,  and w i t h l e g i s l a t o r s f o r not  i n s i s t i n g upon i t .  Thus, the g e n e r a l p u b l i c has  t r a d i t i o n a l l y been i n such a p o s i t i o n as  to  e x e r c i s e , at b e s t , o n l y l i m i t e d i n f l u e n c e over those d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the s i t i n g and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of major hazardous m a t e r i a l s - o r i e n t e d  w i t h i n the community. g o v e r n i n g the o p e r a t i o n  Moreover, the s t a n d a r d s ,  g u i d e l i n e s , and  operations  procedures  of these f a c i l i t i e s tend to have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n  the absence of any m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c i n p u t , d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t i s  10 i n v a r i a b l y l o c a l a r e a r e s i d e n t s who  w i l l i n c u r the most s e r i o u s consequences  i n the event of a severe breakdown or d e f i c i e n c y i n the o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y framework.  1.3  Purpose of  1.3.1 The  Study  Study Environment t r e n d towards i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c i n t e r e s t on m a t t e r s h a v i n g to do w i t h  the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e g e n e r a l l y , and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g emphasis upon both emergency p l a n n i n g and improved  r i s k management and  t e c h n i q u e s , i s by no means a r e g i o n a l phenomenon.  avoidance  Highly publicized  events  such as the Love C a n a l t o x i c c h e m i c a l dump c o n t r o v e r s y i n N i a g a r a F a l l s ,  New  York, the Three M i l e I s l a n d , P e n n s y l v a n i a n u c l e a r r e a c t o r a c c i d e n t , o r , i n Canada, the 1979 d e r a i l m e n t of a f r e i g h t t r a i n c a r r y i n g t o x i c and e x p l o s i v e p r o d u c t s near M i s s i s s a u g a , O n t a r i o have s e r v e d to engender a much s t r o n g e r sense of p u b l i c awareness as to the scope and n a t u r e of the problem previously  One  than  had  existed.  of the more noteworthy  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c u r r e n t p a t t e r n of l o c a l  i n t e r e s t i n the dangerous goods i s s u e , however, i s t h a t p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a has remained f o c u s s e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y upon the land-based  a s p e c t of the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e .  The  marine  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of hazardous s u b s t a n c e s , w i t h fewer i n d i v i d u a l  cargo  movements than i t s road or r a i l c o u n t e r p a r t s , and a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y lower a c c i d e n t p r o b a b i l i t y , has l a r g e l y avoided the mainstream of l o c a l  debate.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t to bear i n mind t h a t the P o r t of Vancouver has, s i n c e the Second World War,  emerged as an important s t o r a g e and marine d i s t r i b u t i o n  11  c e n t r e f o r a broad range of dangerous c h e m i c a l and p e t r o c h e m i c a l p r o d u c t s . I n t h i s r e g a r d , the seaborne movement of t o x i c , c o r r o s i v e , and i n f l a m m a b l e commodities w i t h i n the p o r t p r e c i n c t , by v i r t u e of the g e n e r a l l y l a r g e volumes of m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d , r e p r e s e n t s one of the g r e a t e s t , but g e n e r a l l y l e a s t r e c o g n i z e d , t h r e a t s to p u b l i c s a f e t y l o c a l l y .  Of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n  a r e the f r e q u e n t b u l k movements of c h l o r i n e (by barge from the Canadian O c c i d e n t a l p l a n t i n N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) , methanol (by c h e m i c a l t a n k e r from the Vancouver Wharves t e r m i n a l , N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t ) , e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e (by c h e m i c a l t a n k e r from the Dow  Chemical t e r m i n a l , N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) ,  a s s o r t e d dangerous c h e m i c a l s (by r a i l barge from the C P .  R a i l berth i n  downtown V a n c o u v e r ) , and LPG (by r e f r i g e r a t e d gas t a n k e r from the Trans M o u n t a i n P i p e l i n e Company e x p o r t t e r m i n a l i n B u r n a b y . ) *  An a c c i d e n t a l l a r g e volume d i s c h a r g e of any one of the above-noted commodities r e s u l t i n g from a s e r i o u s s h i p p i n g mishap i n t h e P o r t of Vancouver c o u l d , under v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s , j e o p a r d i z e the l i v e s of many thousands of p e o p l e w o r k i n g or r e s i d i n g w i t h i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the s h o r e s of B u r r a r d  1.3.2  Inlet.  Hypothesis  I n November of 1979, the O f f i c e of the Harbour M a s t e r , P o r t of Vancouver s t a t e d t h a t " . . . ( s h i p p i n g ) s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s i n the P o r t o f Vancouver —  t o the e x t e n t humanly and r e a s o n a b l y p o s s i b l e —  reflect  l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and  n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s , and can be compared f a v o u r a b l y w i t h s i m i l a r  international  *For a p a r t i a l l i s t of hazardous m a t e r i a l s c a r r i e r s w h i c h have v i s i t e d the P o r t of Vancouver s i n c e 1 January 1981, r e f e r t o A p p e n d i x I .  experience."  These remarks were i s s u e d i n d i r e c t response to an  y  l e t t e r t o t h e Harbour M a s t e r e x p r e s s i n g q u a l i t y and  s e r i o u s c o n c e r n over b o t h  earlier the  adequacy of l o c a l o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g  passage of deepsea l i q u e f i e d p e t r o l e u m gas  (LPG)  c a r r i e r s t h r o u g h the  the Port  of Vancouver.1^  The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , t h e n , w i l l be to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of  Harbour M a s t e r ' s statement ( h y p o t h e s i s )  of 22 November 1979  the i m p o s i t i o n of n a v i g a t i o n a l s a f e t y c o n s t r a i n t s f o r LPG i n the P o r t of Vancouver, a g a i n s t  as i t a p p l i e s  to  c a r r i e r s operating  those r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t f o r LPG  LNG* c a r r i e r s i n s e v e r a l comparable European and A m e r i c a n gas  Within t h i s context,  the  and  ports.  the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s of the r e s e a r c h w i l l be t o :  a)  examine and a s s e s s the problems/hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of inflammable l i q u e f i e d gases i n g e n e r a l , and through congested or h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d p o r t p r e c i n c t s i n particular;  b)  conduct a d e t a i l e d r e v i e w of the s a f e t y r e c o r d of b o t h LPG and LNG c a r r i e r s s i n c e 1964, w i t h an emphasis upon the p e r i o d 1979-1982;  c)  r e v i e w and, where p o s s i b l e , r a t i o n a l i z e the r e g u l a t o r y responses to the p o t e n t i a l problems or hazards i d e n t i f i e d i n "a" ( a b o v e ) , as r e f l e c t e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n and s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s / p r o c e d u r e s which are a p p l i c a b l e to deepsea v e s s e l s engaged i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of e i t h e r LPG or LNG w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the s e l e c t e d urban gas p o r t s i n Europe and N o r t h A m e r i c a ;  d)  u n d e r t a k e a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the r e g u l a t i o n s / l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e f o r the above-noted p o r t s , and to i d e n t i f y any a r e a s where the P o r t of Vancouver appears to be c l e a r l y d e f i c i e n t i n m a i n t a i n i n g gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s at a l e v e l e q u i v a l e n t t o , or e s c e e d i n g , those i n e f f e c t i n the m a j o r i t y of the o t h e r gas p o r t s examined; and  * A l t h o u g h LPG and LNG d i s p l a y somewhat d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from one a n o t h e r i n terms of p h y s i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n , t r a n s p o r t a b i l i t y , f l a m m a b i l i t y , e x p l o s i v e n e s s , e t c . , i t i s common p r a c t i s e i n American gas p o r t s to a p p l y s p e c i a l n a v i g a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s e q u a l l y to both LPG and LNG c a r r i e r s .  13 e)  p r o v i d e s p e c i f i c recommendations designed to upgrade r e g u l a t o r y d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the P o r t of Vancouver (as d e f i n e d i n "d" above) t o a l e v e l at l e a s t e q u i v a l e n t to the a c c e p t e d or i d e n t i f i a b l e s t a n d a r d i n p l a c e f o r the o t h e r gas p o r t s examined.  As a p o i n t of c l a r i f i c a t i o n , the above-noted o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t e o n l y to the a c t u a l p h y s i c a l movement of l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s i n the P o r t of Vancouver, not t o such a f f i l i a t e d items as the s i t i n g or s a f e o p e r a t i o n of s h o r e s i d e l i q u e f i e d gas  t e r m i n a l s , o r the r e g u l a t o r y s t a n d a r d s  i n place f o r other  hazardous m a t e r i a l s c a r r i e r s (such as c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s ) o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the port.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , d u r i n g , and subsequent t o , the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  a n a l y s i s phases of the e x e r c i s e , numerous o t h e r hazardous m a t e r i a l s were brought to the a u t h o r ' s a t t e n t i o n . of these i s s u e s throughout f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and examination  and concerns  P a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e i s made to many  the course of the t e x t .  W h i l e a l a c k of  time,  t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e p r e c l u d e d an i n depth  of these i t e m s , S e c t i o n 6.2  of the r e p o r t , e n t i t l e d  "Supplementary Observations/Recommendations", attempts  to summarize some of  the more i m p o r t a n t c o n c e r n s , and t o p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l framework f o r a d d r e s s i n g these i s s u e s i n the near f u t u r e .  1.3.3  R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the  Research  LPG t a n k e r s i n v o l v e d i n the Vancouver-Japan t r a d e have been v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as "...the s i n g l e most hazardous v e s s e l ( s ) t h a t move( ) r e g u l a r l y through  the P o r t of V a n c o u v e r . . . a n d as p r e s e n t i n g "...a r i s k  t o t h a t of Canadian Oxy's c h l o r i n e b a r g e . W h i l e whether or not LPG  equal  the i s s u e as to  c a r r i e r s do, i n d e e d , r e p r e s e n t the most s e r i o u s s h i p p i n g  t h r e a t to p u b l i c s a f e t y ( t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a s t r o n g argument to be made t h a t the r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g p a r c e l c h e m i c a l t a n k e r t r a d e i n Vancouver poses the g r e a t e s t l o c a l s h i p p i n g s a f e t y concern  i n terms of the s i z e and number  of c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s s e r v i n g the p o r t , and by the o f t e n mixed n a t u r e of  their  F i g u r e 1.1  C h e m i c a l Tanker Hamakaze  15 c a r g o e s ) , i t i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d w i t h i n the s h i p p i n g community t h a t LPG, v i r t u e of i t s inflammable  and p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e n a t u r e , i s a  p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous commodity r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l h a n d l i n g and p r e c a u t i o n s i n excess  by  shipment  of those n o r m a l l y a p p l i e d to more c o n v e n t i o n a l  cargoes.  The  problem f a c i n g p o r t o f f i c i a l s i s one of e s t a b l i s h i n g an  appropriate  r e g u l a t o r y balance between the economic and p u b l i c s a f e t y concerns of the community.  I n t h i s r e g a r d , the case s u p p o r t i n g g r e a t e r r e g u l a t o r y  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the deepsea LPG upon the p r e c e p t  t r a d e l o c a l l y i s based  of r e d u c i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t  a gas t a n k e r t o an " a c c e p t a b l e " l e v e l .  The  t a s k of d e t e r m i n i n g a  involving "publicly  a c c e p t a b l e " l e v e l of a c c i d e n t r i s k , however,  i s one which w i l l always be  open t o w i d e s p r e a d i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  In i t s most extreme form,  acceptable  r i s k may  be d e f i n e d as zero r i s k - a c o n d i t i o n which c o u l d be  brought about by e i t h e r banning gas t a n k e r s from the p o r t e n t i r e l y , or by i n t r o d u c i n g such e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o h i b i t i v e r e g u l a t o r y c o n s t r a i n t s as to render the shipment o f LPG t h e r e i s evidence  from Vancouver u n p r o f i t a b l e .  Significantly,  of the "zero r i s k " p h i l o s o p h y h a v i n g had  considerable  impact upon d e c i s i o n s t o e i t h e r p r o h i b i t , or f o r e g o , gas p o r t development i n at  l e a s t two documented i n s t a n c e s .  tank on S t a t e n I s l a n d i n 1973 LNG  The  e x p l o s i o n of an empty LNG  subsequently  l e d to a complete ban on LPG  marine t e r m i n a l development i n the P o r t of New  Europoort,  H o l l a n d , B r i t i s h Petroleum  storage  York.13  In  and S h e l l ( N e t h e r l a n d s ) r e c e n t l y  withdrew t h e i r j o i n t p r o p o s a l to c o n s t r u c t a major new  LPG  import  facility,  c i t i n g the h i g h c o s t of s a f e t y measures as a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to the decision.1^  and  16 On the o t h e r hand, the case f o r l i m i t i n g r e g u l a t o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i s based l a r g e l y upon economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P i p e l i n e Co.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e Trans Mountain  LPG p r o d u c t i o n and overseas  i n d i r e c t l y , p r o v i d e s jobs throughout  export program, e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or  B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n t r i b u t e s to l o c a l  and r e g i o n a l t a x bases, and, a r g u a b l y , s u p p o r t s n a t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s by adding t o Canada's f a v o u r a b l e f o r e i g n t r a d e s u r p l u s w i t h Japan.  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n of e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o h i b i t i v e r e g u l a t i o n s c o u l d  s e r i o u s l y j e o p a r d i z e any or a l l of these p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of t h e Trans Mountain LPG  operation.  G i v e n t h a t Trans Mountain has operated i t s Westridge w i t h o u t s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n c e 1966,  LPG  export t e r m i n a l  and t h a t the company i s l e g a l l y  e n t i t l e d to c o n t i n u e to operate from the Westridge  facility,  i t would seem  t h a t any recommendations emanating from t h i s t h e s i s which would support immediate e x c l u s i o n of l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s from the p o r t would be premature and l a r g e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . it  the  both  In l i g h t of the p r e c e d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n ,  i s assumed f o r the purposes of the r e s e a r c h t h a t :  • l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r movements i n the P o r t of Vancouver can be managed s a f e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h i n a c e r t a i n range of c o n s t r a i n t s ; • i n view of the acknowledged hazardous n a t u r e of LPG, the o p e r a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s c u r r e n t l y i n e f f e c t f o r l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s i n the P o r t of Vancouver s h a l l r e p r e s e n t the minimum a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d s , and w i l l not be d i m i n i s h e d i n terms of scope, a p p l i c a b i l i t y , or enforcement, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the outcome of the r e s e a r c h ; • i n the absence of d e f i n i t i v e standards r e l a t i v e to the c o n s t i t u t i o n of an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of p u b l i c r i s k , the gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t i n Vancouver w i l l be measured a g a i n s t s i m i l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s i n s e v e r a l o t h e r world gas p o r t s , and i n those i n s t a n c e s where i t can be r e a s o n a b l y demonstrated t h a t the q u a l i t y or substance of s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i o n s l o c a l l y do not compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those i n f o r c e i n the m a j o r i t y of o t h e r p o r t s examined, the m a j o r i t y response s h a l l be viewed as the " a c c e p t e d " standard f o r l o c a l implementation.  17 I n t h i s manner, i t i s hoped t h a t the f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s  of the  r e s e a r c h w i l l s e r v e as a r a t i o n a l b a s i s upon which t o implement a program of recommendations d e s i g n e d t o both p r o t e c t and enhance p u b l i c s a f e t y concerns i n t h e p o r t ( a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t  t h a t they might be a f f e c t e d by t h e  marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LPG) w i t h o u t s e r i o u s l y j e o p a r d i z i n g the p r o f i t a b i l i t y of the W e s t r i d g e t e r m i n a l  1.3.4  operation.  Control Port S e l e c t i o n C r i t e r i a  I n a d d i t i o n t o Vancouver, a t o t a l of 10 s e p a r a t e European and A m e r i c a n gas port operations  were examined i n d e t a i l .  The purpose of t h e p o r t s e l e c t i o n  p r o c e s s was to i d e n t i f y gas p o r t s which d i s p l a y many of the b a s i c p h y s i c a l or l e g i s l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e common t o t h e P o r t o f Vancouver i n order  t h a t a m e a n i n g f u l comparative assessment of gas t a n k e r  operating  r e q u i r e m e n t s might be u n d e r t a k e n .  T a b l e 1.1  P h y s i c a l / L e g i s l a t i v e Considerations  Characteristic  Port B o s t o n , MA Cove P o i n t , MD E l b a I s l a n d , GA Los A n g e l e s , CA New Y o r k , NY Canvey I s l a n d , U.K. Europoort, Holland Le Havre, France P o r s g r u n n , Norway Zeebrugge, B e l g i u m Those p o r t s d i s p l a y i n g f o u r o r more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o t h e P o r t of Vancouver - i n c l u d i n g t h e e s s e n t i a l c r i t e r i o n t h a t t h e gas t e r m i n a l must be s i t u a t e d i n an urban s e t t i n g - were s e l e c t e d t o form t h e b a s i s f o r r e g u l a t o r y comparison w i t h Vancouver.  The s i n g l e e x c e p t i o n  was t h e P o r t o f  18 New York which, d e s p i t e the e x i s t e n c e of both the f a c i l i t i e s  t o serve the  deepsea l i q u e f i e d gas t r a d e and an approved Coast Guard o p e r a t i n g p l a n f o r LPG and LNG, has chosen t o exclude gas c a r r i e r s f o r a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l and p u b l i c s a f e t y r e a s o n s .  Thus, the f o r e i g n gas p o r t s which w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l include: B o s t o n , Massachusetts Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a Canvey I s l a n d , U.K. Europoort, Holland Le Havre, France 1.3.5 Methodology 1.3.5.1 C o m p i l a t i o n of Background M a t e r i a l Purpose: To g a t h e r support documentation r e l a t i v e t o : •the p r o p e r t i e s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p o t e n t i a l hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h LPG and LNG; •the c o m p o s i t i o n and o p e r a t i n g h i s t o r y of the w o r l d l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r f l e e t , i n c l u d i n g t h e s a f e t y r e c o r d of t h i s f l e e t ; • l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r d e s i g n and s a f e t y considerations; •the b a s i c market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l marine t r a d e i n l i q u e f i e d gases, and the n a t u r e of i t s a t t e n d a n t s e r v i c e infrastructure; • s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i v e and r e g u l a t o r y p r o v i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o a l l a s p e c t s of t h e LPG and LNG t r a d e s , but emphasizing the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n component; •the a t t i t u d e s , p e r c e p t i o n s , and o p i n i o n s of p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , government r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c as they r e l a t e t o the LPG/LNG s a f e t y q u e s t i o n ; and • i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o any o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of hazardous m a t e r i a l s g e n e r a l l y .  19 Sources:  i ) L i t e r a t u r e Review •government documents •government l e g i s l a t i o n  and r e g u l a t i o n s  • t e c h n i c a l and s h i p p i n g  journals  "newspapers •industry-sponsored brochures  project  information  • p u b l i s h e d l i t e r a r y a c c o u n t s d e a l i n g w i t h the LPG and LNG i n d u s t r i e s •marine s a f e t y manuals g o v e r n i n g of LPG and LNG c a r r i e r s  the  handling  • a c a d e m i c / t e c h n i c a l papers on the t o p i c of r i s k a n a l y s i s / r i s k management t h e o r y ii)  P r o f e s s i o n a l Contacts A d e t a i l e d l i s t of o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n t a c t e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the r e s e a r c h i s i n c l u d e d i n S e c t i o n C of the B i b l i o g r a p h y .  1.3.5.2  Field Investigation  Purpose:  I n order t o g a i n a broader p e r s p e c t i v e on the marine LPG/LNG t r a d e , the p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s t h e r e w i t h , and the n a t u r e  associated  of the l e g i s l a t i v e /  r e g u l a t o r y responses t o those h a z a r d s ,  field  r e s e a r c h was conducted i n s e v e r a l European c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1980.  The f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n  a d d r e s s e d the f o l l o w i n g : a) C o n s i d e r a t i o n : Response:  Review and r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r e g u l a t o r y s t a n d a r d s i n overseas p o r t s . M e e t i n g s were h e l d w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the P o r t s of Rotterdam and Le Havre t o d i s c u s s , i n d e t a i l , the nature and p e r c e i v e d adequacy of the s p e c i a l LPG/LNG s h i p p i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s i n e f f e c t i n these h a r b o u r s .  20  b)  c)  Consideration:  E x a m i n a t i o n of LPG/LNG t a n k e r industry.  Response:  V i s i t s to two of the w o r l d ' s foremost b u i l d e r s of l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s - Kockums S h i p y a r d s of Malmo, Sweden and Moss W e r f t of Moss, Norway were arranged i n o r d e r to o b t a i n g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o both the s p e c i a l t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s , and the economic s t a t e of the LPG/LNG s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y as a whole.  Consideration:  Assessment of r i s k a n a l y s i s and impact f o r e c a s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s as they r e l a t e to the marine shipment of LPG and LNG.  Response:  The Norwegian s h i p c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o c i e t y Det n o r s k e V e r i t a s , and the c o n s u l t a n t engineering f i r m SOGREAH, which o p e r a t e s the P o r t R e v e l M a r i n e R e s e a r c h and T r a i n i n g C e n t r e near G r e n o b l e , F r a n c e p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e background i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o LPG/LNG r i s k a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e s and s h i p handling c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  1.3.5.3  construction  Analysis  C o n c e p t u a l Framework The  establishment  c o n s t r u c t i o n and  of r e g u l a t i o n s designed to govern the s a f e operation  of l a r g e s c a l e l i q u e f i e d gas  t e r m i n a l s has h i s t o r i c a l l y been i n f l u e n c e d by two  p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment, and and  analytical experience,  a l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a v a i l a b l e d a t a ) ;  s t a t i s t i c a l f o r e c a s t i n g techniques i n v o l v i n g accident p r o b a b i l i t y  a n a l y s i s and  The  import/export  general  concepts - q u a l i t a t i v e assessment (based upon p r a c t i c a l  siting,  h a z a r d impact  modelling.  a p p l i c a t i o n of r i s k a n a l y s i s as a means of a s s i s t i n g i n the  determination  of a p p r o p r i a t e  r e g u l a t o r y standards f o r high r i s k  development p r o j e c t s d a t e s back more than two decades.  commercial  I n 1957,  the  Brookhaven N a t i o n a l L a b o r a t o r y  produced a c o n t r o v e r s i a l r e p o r t  entitled  " T h e o r e t i c a l P o s s i b i l i t i e s and  Consequences of M a j o r A c c i d e n t s  i n Large  21 N u c l e a r Power P l a n t s " (more commonly known as the WASH-740 s t u d y ) . represented  something of a breakthrough i n t h a t i t l e g i t i m i z e d t h e use o f  r i s k a n a l y s i s as a v a l i d a c c i d e n t context  WASH-740  and impact f o r e c a s t i n g t o o l w i t h i n t h e  of p u b l i c s e c t o r p r o j e c t s .  I t was not u n t i l t h e mid-1970's t h a t r i s k a n a l y s i s began t o emerge as a recognized  a i d i n determining  development p r o p o s a l s .  the s u i t a b i l i t y of s p e c i f i c gas t e r m i n a l  P r i o r t o t h a t time, r e g u l a t o r y o f f i c i a l s i n most  e s t a b l i s h e d gas p o r t s had tended t o o v e r l o o k or LNG a c c i d e n t such e v e n t s .  t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of a major LPG  o c c u r r i n g , o r t h e l i k e l y e f f e c t s ( i m p a c t ) r e s u l t i n g from  Instead,  the r e g u l a t o r y emphasis remained more o r l e s s i n  accordance w i t h the enforcement of e s t a b l i s h e d c o n s t r u c t i o n and management p r o c e d u r e s , augmented by any s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g  p r o v i s i o n s which may have  been deemed n e c e s s a r y , g i v e n the nature of the cargoes i n q u e s t i o n .  Today, r i s k a n a l y s i s forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e LNG and LPG a p p r o v a l s p r o c e s s i n most, i f not a l l , western n a t i o n s . many t e c h n i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  Nevertheless,  i n s p i t e of the  improvements which have e v o l v e d  since the  days of the WASH-740 r e p o r t , r i s k a n a l y s i s i t s e l f remains t h e o b j e c t of considerable  controversy.  Many of the shortcomings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  risk  a n a l y s i s as i t a p p l i e s t o t h e LNG i n d u s t r y a r e c i t e d i n t h e book " F r o z e n F i r e " by L e e N. D a v i s . problems i n h e r e n t during  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Davis concentrates  on a number of  i n two s e p a r a t e LNG r i s k a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n  the mid-1970's.  The f i r s t , prepared i n 1974,  p r o b a b i l i t y of a major LNG s h i p p i n g a c c i d e n t S t a t e n I s l a n d and P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d . 1 ^  examines t h e  a t proposed t e r m i n a l s a t both The r e p o r t has been  c r i t i c i z e d by W i l l i a m B. F a i r l e y , a former Harvard p r o f e s s o r  of s t a t i s t i c s ,  on the b a s i s t h a t i t makes many unsupported and u n r e a l i s t i c assumptions i n the absence of a d e t a i l e d common d a t a base.17  22 The second study was prepared i n 1976 by Science A p p l i c a t i o n s I n c . ( S A I ) f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g  the p o t e n t i a l r i s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o p e r a t i o n  of a proposed LNG t e r m i n a l i n C a l i f o r n i a .  Davis q u e s t i o n s  the a n a l y s i s , c i t i n g the r a t h e r l i m i t e d l i s t of i d e n t i f i e d events" which could lead to s e r i o u s shipboard  According  the v a l i d i t y of "initiating  or t e r m i n a l a c c i d e n t s .  t o D a v i s , among the p o t e n t i a l i n i t i a t i n g e v e n t s not i n c l u d e d i n  the SAI r i s k assessment were the f o l l o w i n g : I**  •No component r a t e f a i l u r e data ( i c e c l o g g i n g v a l v e s , malfunctions, etc.);  instrument  •High w i n d s , t o r n a d o e s , storm waves, t s u n a m i s , f l o o d i n g ; •Earthquakes •Chance of moored LNG c a r r i e r being s t r u c k by a n o t h e r v e s s e l ; •Ship g r o u n d i n g s , e x p l o s i o n s , s i n k i n g s , e t c . • A c c i d e n t a t nearby hazardous m a t e r i a l s i n s t a l l a t i o n s p r e a d i n g terminal; •LNG road  tanker  t o LNG  accidents;  •Human e r r o r ; •Sabotage; •Emergency cargo j e t t i s o n from LNG c a r r i e r . There i s no doubt t h a t many of the i n i t i a t i n g events i d e n t i f i e d by D a v i s as having  been e i t h e r d i s c o u n t e d  o r overlooked  i n the SAI r e p o r t can l e a d ( a n d ,  i n some i n s t a n c e s , have a l r e a d y l e d ) t o s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g LNG.  I n view o f the f a c t t h a t both the New Y o r k / P r o v i d e n c e and C a l i f o r n i a a n a l y s e s were among the e a r l i e s t such a p p l i c a t i o n s t o  circumstances  i n v o l v i n g LNG t e r m i n a l s and s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , one might a n t i c i p a t e problems of a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  risk  reasonably  or i n t e r p r e t a t i v e nature,  based  23  upon a l a c k of h i s t o r i c a l precedent or s p e c i f i c knowledge of the i s s u e s . However, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t B.C.  Hydro r e c e n t l y commissioned  a  C a l i f o r n i a f i r m , Energy Resources Company (ERCO), to u n d e r t a k e a r i s k a n a l y s i s on Hydro's  proposed Sasamat LNG peak s h a v i n g p l a n t , s i t u a t e d some  20 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t of Vancouver.  The ERCO a n a l y s i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t :  . . . o n l y a number of types of events are p l a u s i b l e which c o u l d cause (a major s p i l l o f LNG). These events a r e a i r c r a f t impact on the tank or an earthquake e x c e e d i n g the tank d e s i g n . Based on the d e s i g n of the proposed f a c i l i t y , events such as m e t e o r i t e i m p a c t , o p e r a t i o n a l f a i l u r e of the tank or a severe windstorm ( t o r n a d o ) a r e of such low p r o b a b i l i t i e s to r e n d e r them i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Only l a r g e j e t a i r c r a f t were found t o p o s s e s s the r e q u i r e d w e i g h t and speed t o cause a p e n e t r a t i o n and c o l l a p s e of the planned t a n k . . . A l t h o u g h a major earthquake has a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y of o c c u r r e n c e , i t i s not c o n s i d e r e d as an i n i t i a t i n g event because the tank would be d e s i g n e d t o w i t h s t a n d the S a f e Shutdown E a r t h q u a k e . The d e s i g n c o n s i d e r s the maximum c r e d i b l e earthquakes f o r the a r e a . l ^ Once a g a i n , such p l a u s i b l e i n i t i a t i n g events as human e r r o r , a c t s of sabotage, o r d e s i g n , e n g i n e e r i n g , and c o n s t r u c t i o n f a u l t s have been completely discounted.  Recent d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f  Hydro's  Gas E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n i n d i c a t e t h a t the company i s c o g n i z a n t of the apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e ERCO s t u d y , and w i l l attempt to e i t h e r the  rectify  s i t u a t i o n or l i m i t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the a n a l y s i s i n terms of the  overall project j u s t i f i c a t i o n  process.20  The second i m p o r t a n t component of r i s k a n a l y s i s , i n a d d i t i o n to d e t e r m i n i n g the  p r o b a b i l i t y of an a c c i d e n t , i s f o r e c a s t i n g the p o t e n t i a l impact of the  event upon the s u r r o u n d i n g community.  The impact i s g e n e r a l l y measured i n  terms of l o s s of l i f e , p h y s i c a l damage, d e p r e c i a t e d p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , or l o s s of  productivity.  As a r u l e , impact m o d e l l i n g tends to be l e s s p r e c i s e than  i s e s t a b l i s h i n g the p r o b a b i l i t y of a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t a l e v e n t .  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e w i t h r e g a r d to f o r e c a s t i n g the n a t u r e and p r o b a b l e e f f e c t s of  a l a r g e volume a c c i d e n t a l d i s c h a r g e of LPG o r LNG  on p u b l i c s a f e t y .  amount of p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h undertaken to date on l i q u e f i e d gas  spill  The  24  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s vapour c l o u d d i s p e r s i o n p a t t e r n s has been l i m i t e d .  Among  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s most a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the study of c o n t r o l l e d discharges  of LNG and LPG have been the U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard (on  various occasions  a t t h e U.S N a v a l Weapons C e n t r e , C h i n a L a k e , C a l i f o r n i a ) ,  S h e l l O i l (aboard  the LNG c a r r i e r G a d i l a i n 1973, and a t M a p l i n Sands, E s s e x  d u r i n g the summer of 1980), and t h e Government of F r a n c e (near Fos-sur-Mer d u r i n g the e a r l y 1970's). to  Two s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s emerge which a r e common  a l l of the above-noted t e s t s .  gas d i s c h a r g e d discharge  F i r s t l y , i n most i n s t a n c e s the volume o f  seldom exceeded 20 c u b i c metres.  The l a r g e s t c o n t r o l l e d  i n v o l v e d the j e t t i s o n i n g of 193 c u b i c metres from t h e B r i t i s h LNG  carrier Gadila. ^ 2  I n r e l a t i v e terms, t h i s amount r e p r e s e n t e d  j u s t over  1% of the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of any one of G a d i l a ' s f i v e 15 000 c u b i c metre cargo t a n k s .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard has i n d i c a t e d  that, i n i t i a l l y ,  the maximum c r e d i b l e a c c i d e n t a l s p i l l aboard a n LNG c a r r i e r  would i n v o l v e the d i s c h a r g e of the c o n t e n t s i n s t a n c e , 15 000 c u b i c m e t r e s .  2 2  of one tank - o r , i n t h i s  I n order t o a p p l y the t e s t r e s u l t s t o  a c r e d i b l e s i t u a t i o n l e v e l , they must be enhanced s u b s t a n t i a l l y - a process w h i c h , i n i t s e l f , i s dependent upon c o n s i d e r a b l e q u a l i t a t i v e judgment and professional conjecture. s p i l l behaviour,  Thus, i n the absence of any hard data on l a r g e  s c i e n t i s t s a r e f o r c e d t o s p e c u l a t e on the v a l i d i t y of t h e i r  own s p i l l d i s p e r s i o n m o d e l l i n g  The  techniques.  second noteworthy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o n t r o l l e d d i s c h a r g e and i g n i t i o n  t e s t s i n v o l v i n g l i q u e f i e d gases i s t h a t the emphasis has always been upon LNG,  r a t h e r than LPG.  I n f a c t , o f the f o u r gas d i s c h a r g e t e s t i n g programs  mentioned i n the p r e c e d i n g Oil  p a r a g r a p h , o n l y t h e U.S. C o a s t Guard and S h e l l  ( a t the M a p l i n Sands t e s t s i t e ) have u n d e r t a k e n c o n t r o l l e d LPG r e l e a s e  experiments.  I n each i n s t a n c e , t h e LPG t e s t s have been secondary t o  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y - conducted LNG d i s c h a r g e m o n i t o r i n g  programs, a f a c t o r which  25 has been acknowledged by the U.S.  Coast Guard.23  The  net r e s u l t i s  t h a t , w h i l e the s p i l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r volumes o f LNG  up t o about 20  c u b i c metres have been f a i r l y w e l l documented, the same i s not t r u e f o r Hence, the l i n k between s m a l l and  l a r g e LPG  spill  LPG.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s even  more dependent upon c o n j e c t u r e than i s the case f o r LNG.  The  problem i s  compounded by the f a c t t h a t few r i s k a n a l y s i s a p p l i c a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LPG have been undertaken t o  date.  C l e a r l y , t h e r e remain a number of s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to the a p p l i c a t i o n of r i s k a n a l y s i s methods to l a r g e - s c a l e l i q u e f i e d gas and s h i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s .  terminal  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n the absence of a w h o l l y  reliable  q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology, the U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard...  ...does not use a f o r m a l i z e d r i s k a n a l y s i s procedure i n which the p r o b a b i l i t i e s of a c c i d e n t and major cargo r e l e a s e f o r each type of a c c i d e n t are q u a n t i f i e d and combined w i t h a damage e s t i m a t e to o b t a i n a n u m e r i c a l v a l u e of r i s k f o r comparison w i t h o t h e r r i s k s encountered by the p u b l i c . The c a p a b i l i t y f o r such a r i g o u r o u s t e c h n i q u e i s under development f o r g e n e r a l use w i t h a l l hazardous m a t e r i a l s and a l l water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems but, at p r e s e n t , a q u a l i t a t i v e approach i s used i n which cargo h a z a r d s and a c c i d e n t r i s k s are c o n s i d e r e d and e x p e r t judgment used to determine proper p r e v e n t i v e measures.24  A n a l y t i c a l Approach The  r a t i o n a l e f o r undertaking  the r e s e a r c h i s based upon the key  underlying  assumptions t h a t : a) l o a d e d or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d gas c a r r i e r s r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r t h r e a t t o p u b l i c s a f e t y than do c o n v e n t i o n a l cargo s h i p s ; b) loaded or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d gas c a r r i e r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of a r e s t r i c t e d h a r b o u r , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the q u a l i t y of the s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s i n f o r c e , cannot be rendered t o t a l l y immune from the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p o t e n t i a l l y c a t a s t r o p h i c a c c i d e n t ; c) the i m p o s i t i o n of new, or upgraded, s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s can serve reduce the l i k e l i h o o d of a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g .  to  26 Each of the p r e c e d i n g  assumptions i s e i t h e r t a c i t l y o r e x p l i c i t l y  i n v i r t u a l l y every l i q u e f i e d gas p o r t i n the w o r l d , common p r a c t i c e of imposing s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g carriers.  as e v i d e n c e d by t h e  c o n s t r a i n t s on l i q u e f i e d gas  The degree t o which gas c a r r i e r s a r e p e r c e i v e d  s a f e t y r i s k t o t h e community i s r e f l e c t e d by the e x t e n t r e g u l a t i o n s have been i n t r o d u c e d .  recognized  to present a  t o which a d d i t i o n a l  I n the m a j o r i t y of w o r l d  gas p o r t s - and  t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r LPG p o r t s - t h e r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the s a f e movement o f gas c a r r i e r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been based more upon sound p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l judgment than upon r i s k a n a l y s i s o r impact assessment s t u d i e s .  The  o v e r r i d i n g o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o ensure t h a t the l e v e l of  r e g u l a t o r y response t o t h e p e r c e i v e d  p u b l i c s a f e t y h a z a r d s posed by t h e  movement of l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s i n the P o r t of Vancouver e i t h e r meets, o r exceeds, the consensus r e g u l a t o r y s t a n d a r d s f o r s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n a l requirements i n place  i n the c o n t r o l p o r t s d e s c r i b e d  safety  i n S e c t i o n 1.3.4.  In  f i v e o f t h e s i x gas p o r t s w h i c h have been examined i n d e t a i l , t h e e x i s t i n g s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s have e v o l v e d  s o l e l y on the s t r e n g t h of q u a l i t a t i v e  assessment t e c h n i q u e s based upon p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment.*  I n the i n t e r e s t s  of e s t a b l i s h i n g a common, comparable i n f o r m a t i o n base, i t i s suggested t h a t the u n d e r t a k i n g serve l i t t l e  of a d e t a i l e d r i s k a n a l y s i s f o r t h e P o r t o f Vancouver would  purpose u n l e s s  s i m i l a r s t u d i e s were conducted f o r B o s t o n , L o s  A n g e l e s , Canvey I s l a n d , and Le Havre.  Severe c o s t and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n  c o n s t r a i n t s render t h i s l a t t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i m p r a c t i c a l w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t  *The e x c e p t i o n was t h e i l l - f a t e d S h e l l / B . P . LPG t e r m i n a l p r o p o s a l f o r E u r o p o o r t , which was s u b j e c t e d t o a r i s k a n a l y s i s and impact assessment program. The r e s u l t s of these s t u d i e s a r e not a v a i l a b l e .  27  of t h i s r e s e a r c h .  Thus, the comparative assessment of l i q u e f i e d gas p o r t  r e g u l a t i o n s conducted h e r e i n w i l l be based upon the " r a t i o n a l  man"  a n a l y t i c a l approach which has l o n g been adhered t o by the U.S.  Coast Guard  and o t h e r p o r t r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s around the w o r l d .  28 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 1.0 1  p. 11.  "Four run f o r l i v e s under t r a i n a c c i d e n t "  The P r o v i n c e , 30 August  1978,  I b i d . ; and Beak C o n s u l t a n t s , C h e m i c a l Hazard E v a l u a t i o n of the Maplewood Chemical I n d u s t r y (Vancouver: 1978), p. 127. 3 "'Damn l u c k y i t d i d n ' t blow,' say crew on propane t r a i n , " Sun, 29 August 1978, p. A l .  The  Vancouver  " V o l r i c h c a l l s f o r s t r i c t curbs as gas f e l l s 78", The Vancouver Sun, 26 September 1978, p. A l ; and " C h l o r i n e gas c l o u d i n c i t y sends 32 t o h o s p i t a l " , The P r o v i n c e , 26 September 1978, p. 1. 4  " C o u n c i l a d v i s e d t o put the whip to CP R a i l g i a n t " , October 1981. 5  6 1981.  "Hazards c l e a n u p g i v e n green l i g h t " ,  The P r o v i n c e , 30  N o r t h Shore News, 21 October  ^ N. I r v i n g Sax, Dangerous P r o p e r t i e s of I n d u s t r i a l M a t e r i a l s (New Y o r k : Van N o s t r a n d R h e i n h o l d Company, 5th ed., 1979), pp. 658-659; and N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of O c c u p a t i o n a l S a f e t y and H e a l t h , R e g i s t r y of T o x i c E f f e c t s of Chemical Substances 1978 (Washington: U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , January 1979), p. 529. 8  p. 1.  "Dow  C h e m i c a l P l a n t ' S a f e ' " , The ( N o r t h Shore) C i t i z e n , 28 March  1979,  ^ L e t t e r from C a p t a i n T. E l w o r t h y , A s s i s t a n t Harbour M a s t e r , P o r t of Vancouver, t o J . M a r s t o n , dated 22 November 1979. 10 L e t t e r from J . Marston t o C a p t a i n H. V o n d e t t e , Harbour M a s t e r , P o r t of Vancouver, dated 16 November 1979. 11 "Payload t u r n s t a n k e r i n t o f l o a t i n g bomb", The Vancouver Sun, November 1979.  14  12 Community Hazards Task F o r c e , N o r t h Vancouver Community Hazards Force - F i n a l Report ( N o r t h Vancouver: November 1980), p. 11.  Task  13 Based upon i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r from Mr. P a u l R o s h k i n d , Manager, M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e s , P o r t of New York and New J e r s e y t o J . M a r s t o n , dated 4 January 1980. 1^ " C o n t r o v e r s i a l LPG p l a n a t E u r o p o o r t wins a p p r o v a l , " L l o y d ' s L i s t , 9 November 1981. 15 U n i t e d S t a t e s (Atomic Energy Commission), T h e o r e t i c a l P o s s i b i l i t i e s and Consequences of Major A c c i d e n t s i n L a r g e N u c l e u r Power P l a n t s " , March 1957. 16 Theodore W. Horner and Ecosystems I n c . , " P r o b a b i l i t y Assessment of LNG Ship A c c i d e n t s i n the New York and P r o v i d e n c e H a r b o r s " , Report t o the F e d e r a l Power Commission, Bureau of N a t u r a l Gas, 1974, as c i t e d i n Lee N. D a v i s , F r o z e n F i r e (San F r a n c i s c o : F r i e n d s of the E a r t h , 1979), pp. 135-138.  29 n W i l l i a m B. F a i r l e y , " E v a l u a t i n g the ' s m a l l ' p r o b a b i l i t y of a c a t a s t r o p h i c a c c i d e n t from the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of l i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l g a s " , S t a t i s t i c s and P u b l i c P o l i c y (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1977), pp. 340-346. 18 I n f o r m a t i o n on SAI r i s k assessment o b t a i n e d from C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e L e g i s l a t u r e , Assembly Subcommittee on Energy, L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas, H e a r i n g s J u l y 1976 (Sacramento, 1977), pp. 43-83, 568-571, as c i t e d i n D a v i s , op. c i t . , pp. 139-140. 19 Energy Resources Co. I n c . , R i s k A n a l y s i s on Sasamat S i t e Gas S t o r a g e P l a n t ( T o r r a n c e : November 1981). I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. C. M i l l e r , B.C. August 1982. 2 0  21  Hydro (Gas E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ) ,  25  D a v i s , op. c i t . , pp. 42-44.  22 U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas and L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas - Views and P r a c t i c e s (Washington, D.C: circa February 1980), p. 13. 23 U.S. Coast Guard, op. c i t . , pp. 30-32; and " S h e l l t o r e l e a s e and LNG at M a p l i n Sands", L l o y d ' s L i s t , 2 May 1980. 24  U.S.  Coast Guard, op. c i t . , p. 8.  ignite  30 2.0  TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS BY MARINE MODE: LEGISLATIVE STRUCTURE  2.1  Marine Terminal S i t i n g  Considerations  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , and somewhat i r o n i c a l l y , g i v e n the h i g h degree of media exposure a f f o r d e d the l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g  the d u a l  q u e s t i o n of o i l t a n k e r s a f e t y and o i l p o r t development on t h e west c o a s t , the g r a d u a l (and c o n t i n u i n g ) e v o l u t i o n of t h e hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e i n the P o r t of Vancouver has gone l a r g e l y u n n o t i c e d and, as such, by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . of the substances  unquestioned  The i r o n y i s complete when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t many  which a r e now r o u t i n e l y t r a n s p o r t e d by c o a s t a l and deepsea  v e s s e l s on the waters of B u r r a r d I n l e t - i n c l u d i n g LPG, l i q u i d c h l o r i n e , methanol, and e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e - would n o r m a l l y r e p r e s e n t a g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l hazard  t o p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the event of a major u n c o n t r o l l e d  d i s c h a r g e than would a l a r g e s p i l l of crude  oil.  There a r e s e v e r a l reasons why t h i s s i t u a t i o n has been a l l o w e d t o d e v e l o p , foremost among w h i c h i s the b a s i c nature of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r the P o r t o f Vancouver.  J u r i s d i c t i o n over the p o r t i s v e s t e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h  a s i n g l e f e d e r a l agency - t h e N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (N.H.B.).  The Board  i s , t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such d i v e r s e f u n c t i o n s as p o r t marketing,  s e c u r i t y , t e r m i n a l management, the p r o m u l g a t i o n  and enforcement  of s h i p and s h o r e s i d e o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s , and harbour p l a n n i n g and development.  I t i s a l s o the l a r g e s t s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r of developed  and r e a d i l y d e v e l o p a b l e  w a t e r f r o n t p r o p e r t y on B u r r a r d I n l e t - p r o p e r t y  which i s l e g a l l y exempt from l o c a l o r p r o v i n c i a l l a n d use r e s t r i c t i o n s due t o i t s f e d e r a l ownership s t a t u s .  Because of t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y span o f  o p e r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l , t h e Board i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o e x e r c i s e a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f ( d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t ) i n f l u e n c e over the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of p u b l i c  31 i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i v e to v i r t u a l l y every a s p e c t of p o r t b u s i n e s s , i n c l u d i n g those h a v i n g to do w i t h the t r a d e of hazardous  materials.  A second i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n has been the h i s t o r i c a l absence of any mandatory p r o v i s i o n i n Canadian  law whereby the proponents  of p o t e n t i a l l y  h i g h impact harbour development p r o j e c t s (such as the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a hazardous  m a t e r i a l s s t o r a g e and t r a n s s h i p m e n t d e p o t ) would a u t o m a t i c a l l y be  r e q u i r e d to i n f o r m the p u b l i c as to the n a t u r e of the scheme, and to s o l i c i t p u b l i c feedback  on the p r o p o s a l p r i o r to r e c e i v i n g f i n a l p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l .  T h i s i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to the American of  e x p e r i e n c e where, under the terms  t h e N a t i o n a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P o l i c y A c t (NEPA, 1969), the p u b l i c r i g h t t o  examine major development p r o p o s a l s i s guaranteed approval process.  from an e a r l y stage i n the  Moreover, s a f e g u a r d s have been b u i l t i n t o t h e  American  l e g i s l a t i o n to ensure t h a t f i n a l p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l w i l l not be f o r t h c o m i n g until  such time as the p r o j e c t sponsor i s judged by government r e g u l a t o r y  a g e n c i e s to have t a k e n s u i t a b l e measures to m i t i g a t e a l l l e g i t i m a t e p u b l i c concerns.  F i n a l l y , i n the absence of s p e c i f i c requirements to the c o n t r a r y , t h e r e has been a g e n e r a l r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of many a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l p o r t development - p a r t i c u l a r l y development r e l a t i n g to the s t o r a g e and h a n d l i n g of dangerous m a t e r i a l s - t o i n f o r m the p u b l i c as t o the n a t u r e of t h e s e activities.  R e g r e t t a b l y , t h i s p r a c t i c e i s not r e s t r i c t e d s o l e l y t o p r i v a t e  o p e r a t i o n s , but i s t a c i t l y  endorsed  by a number of government b o d i e s h a v i n g  a v e s t e d f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the development of the h a r b o u r , i n c l u d i n g the Harbours  Board and, from time to t i m e , v a r i o u s w a t e r f r o n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s .  The r e c e n t Dow underscores  Chemical e x p e r i e n c e , as d e s c r i b e d i n S e c t i o n 1.2,  these  limitations.  graphically  32 N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f a c t remains t h a t government a g e n c i e s  at a l l l e v e l s do,  to  v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , possess the i n h e r e n t l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to c o n t r o l the s i t i n g and o p e r a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n of dangerous goods.  engaged i n the p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e ,  and  The e x t e n t t o which these r e g u l a t o r y  powers can be e f f e c t i v e y a p p l i e d i n terms of both s e r v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g the best i n t e r e s t s of the p u b l i c , however, w i l l be w h o l l y dependent upon a thorough knowledge on the p a r t of the a p p r o p r i a t e r e g u l a t o r y agencies the n a t u r e and  range of the hazards p r e s e n t e d  as to  by the p l a n t / t e r m i n a l  o p e r a t i o n , and upon an uncompromising commitment to e n s u r i n g the h i g h e s t standards  of community s a f e t y .  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w h i l e the  necessary  a u t h o r i t i e s r e q u i r e d to r e g u l a t e a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g dangerous m a t e r i a l s a r e , by and l a r g e , i n p l a c e , due  t o the o f t e n s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e as t o what  c o n s t i t u t e s a "hazard" t o the community, and to what degree, the e x t e n t which r u l e s g o v e r n i n g  to  these o p e r a t i o n s are a p p l i e d and e n f o r c e d w i t h i n the  c o n t e x t of the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s o f t e n open t o broad interpretation.  I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n of the t h e s i s t h a t , as a consequence  of these i n t e r p r e t a t i v e d e f i c i e n c i e s , the q u a l i t y of r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g c e r t a i n hazardous m a t e r i a l s o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n the P o r t o f Vancouver ( i n c l u d i n g those a f f e c t i n g the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LPG chemical/petrochemical insufficient  and  p r o d u c t s ) a r e , e i t h e r u n w i t t i n g l y or by  other design,  to ensure an adequate l e v e l of p u b l i c s a f e t y when compared  w i t h the r e g u l a t o r y s t a n d a r d s  governing  s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n other western  industrialized nations.  2.2 2.2.1  P e r t i n e n t Hazardous Marine T e r m i n a l S i t i n g L e g i s l a t i o n Federal Legislation  2.2.1.1  N a v i g a b l e Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act-*-  The N a v i g a b l e Waters P r o t e c t i o n Act (NWPA) i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the M i n i s t r y of T r a n s p o r t .  One  of the p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s A c t i s to r e g u l a t e  33  Figure  Hazardous Vancouver  Materials Waterfront  on  34  c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n designated S e c t i o n 10(1)  Canadian n a v i g a b l e w a t e r s .  In this  respect,  o f the A c t s t a t e s t h a t :  ...the G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l may make such o r d e r s as he deems e x p e d i e n t f o r n a v i g a t i o n purposes r e s p e c t i n g any work t o which t h i s Part a p p l i e s . . . W h i l e no s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e  i s made i n the A c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n of v e s s e l s  t r a n s p o r t i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s , t h e NWPA i s a k e y element i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n of the Canadian Coast Guard's " v o l u n t a r y " Termpol Code (see S e c t i o n 2.2.1.2).  That i s t o say, w h i l e t h e Termpol Code i s n o t a  mandatory requirement i n the s t r i c t e s t sense of the word, f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t of a gas o r o i l t e r m i n a l proponent t o p r o v i d e requested  the b a s i c  i n the Termpol Code may cause Coast Guard o f f i c i a l s  necessary permits  information to withold  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of marine works a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  p r o p o s a l , as r e q u i r e d under the terms o f the NWPA.  2.2.1.2  Termpol C o d e  2  The Termpol Code e v o l v e d  d u r i n g the mid-1970's i n response t o p u b l i c  c o n c e r n o v e r major o i l p o r t p r o p o s a l s 1979,  on Canada's e a s t and west c o a s t s .  In  the Code was amended t o i n c l u d e LNG and LPG marine t e r m i n a l  proposals.  E s s e n t i a l l y , the Termpol Code i s a v o l u n t a r y p r o c e s s whereby the proponents of marine o i l o r gas t e r m i n a l s are requested d e t a i l e d assessment as t o the n a t u r e  t o submit t o the Coast Guard a  of the p r o j e c t , p a r t i c u l a r s on t h e  c o n s t r u c t i o n and p h y s i c a l l a y - o u t of the f a c i l i t y , an i n d i c a t i o n as t o t h e type and volume of marine t r a f f i c which w i l l be g e n e r a t e d , a r i s k a n a l y s i s , and a statement of major p o t e n t i a l impacts and m i t i g a t i n g measures.  35 The Termpol Code i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Canadian C o a s t Guard.  The  proponent  s u b m i s s i o n s , however, a r e reviewed by an a p p o i n t e d committee of e x p e r t s from v a r i o u s f e d e r a l departments and a g e n c i e s , under the c h a i r m a n s h i p of a Coast Guard  representative.  To d a t e , o n l y one l i q u e f i e d gas p r o p o s a l - the A r c t i c P i l o t P r o j e c t ( f o r d e t a i l s r e f e r t o Appendix I V ) has undergone  the f u l l Termpol  assessment.  The p r o j e c t was deemed a c c e p t a b l e by the Termpol committee, s u b j e c t to compliance w i t h c e r t a i n fundamental recommendations.3  Two o t h e r  p r o p o s a l s , the Rimgas LNG p r o j e c t and the Western LNG p r o j e c t ( f o r d e t a i l s r e f e r t o Appendix IV) a r e c u r r e n t l y b e i n g r e v i e w e d by a Termpol  committee.  I t i s f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e Termpol Code w i l l be extended i n the n e a r f u t u r e t o i n c l u d e proposed c h e m i c a l and p e t r o c h e m i c a l p o r t development, as well.  The Termpol Code cannot be r e t r o a c t i v e l y a p p l i e d t o t e r m i n a l o p e r a t i o n s which a r e a l r e a d y i n p l a c e .  2.2.1.3  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment  and Review P r o c e s s (EARP)^  The E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review P r o c e s s was the  i n t r o d u c e d i n 1973 f o r  purpose of e n s u r i n g t h a t :  a)  e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s a r e taken i n t o account e a r l y i n the p l a n n i n g of new f e d e r a l p r o j e c t s , programs, and a c t i v i t i e s ;  b)  an e n v i r o n m e n t a l assessment i s c a r r i e d out f o r a l l p r o j e c t s which may have an a d v e r s e e f f e c t on the environment b e f o r e commitments o r i r r e v o c a b l e d e c i s i o n s are made; and  c)  the r e s u l t s of these assessments a r e used i n p l a n n i n g , d e c i s i o n making and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  36 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g EARP r e s t s w i t h the F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment Review O f f i c e (FEARO), which i s u l t i m a t e l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o the M i n i s t e r of the  Environment.  There are two key c o n s i d e r a t i o n s to bear i n mind when e x a m i n i n g EARP. F i r s t , i t i s a p p l i c a b l e o n l y to p r o j e c t s t h a t are i n i t i a t e d by departments  or a g e n c i e s , t h a t i n v o l v e f e d e r a l p r o p e r t y , or where f e d e r a l  f u n d i n g a s s i s t a n c e has been s o l i c i t e d .  Second, the p r o c e s s i n p l a c e i s  based on the concept of s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t . departments  federal  In o t h e r words, f e d e r a l  and a g e n c i e s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g the e n v i r o n m e n t a l  consequences of t h e i r own p r o j e c t s , or those which they s p o n s o r , and f o r d e c i d i n g on the a n t i c i p a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r o p o s a l .  In  the event a department/agency d e c i d e s t h a t the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact i s likely  to be i n s i g n i f i c a n t , no f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w i l l be r e q u i r e d .  For the  most p a r t , p r o j e c t s are e i t h e r screened out of the EARP p r o c e s s , or a r e s u b j e c t e d to m i t i g a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s at the d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l .  However,  p r o j e c t s which are deemed to p r e s e n t an e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact p o t e n t i a l t h a t cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y m i t i g a t e d at the d e p a r t m e n t a l l e v e l are s u b m i t t e d to a f o r m a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment P a n e l .  T h i s p a n e l i s n o r m a l l y comprised  between f o u r and s i x e x p e r t s ( f r o m w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the f e d e r a l  of  civil  s e r v i c e ) whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s . . . ...to r e v i e w the e n v i r o n m e n t a l consequences of a s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t and i t s a l t e r n a t i v e s , and to e v a l u a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts t h a t might r e s u l t from i m p l e m e n t i n g the project. Under the d i r e c t i o n of the P a n e l , the proponent to  department w i l l be r e q u i r e d  sponsor a d e t a i l e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Statement  - a document which  s u b s e q u e n t l y form t h e b a s i s f o r the P a n e l r e v i e w , and a c t as a sounding board f o r p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Statement,  Both the terms of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e Impact  and the a c t u a l document i t s e l f , w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to the  will  37 p u b l i c p r i o r to any not  recommendations being s u b m i t t e d r e l a t i v e to whether or  the p r o j e c t should  proceed.  Subsequent to t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n h a v i n g been  d i s t r i b u t e d , the P a n e l w i l l arrange to meet w i t h the p u b l i c i n order r e c e i v e b r i e f s from any opinions  i n d i v i d u a l s or groups who  on the m a t t e r .  their  Based upon the combined r e s u l t s of the Impact  Statement, the p u b l i c i n p u t , and considered  wish to express  appropriate,  any  o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n which may  the P a n e l w i l l prepare and  be  submit i t s f i n a l  recommendations on the p r o j e c t to the M i n i s t e r of t h e Environment. recommendations are not  The  binding.  To d a t e , none of the proposed west coast  l i q u e f i e d gas  or  petrochemical  t e r m i n a l p r o j e c t s have been f o r m a l l y l i n k e d to the EARP p r o c e s s . i n the event f e d e r a l l a n d s are i n v o l v e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one these p r o j e c t s (as may Prince Rupert),  2.2.1.4  However, or more of  be the case w i t h N a t i o n a l Harbours Board l a n d  i t is likely  Fisheries Act  to  t h a t r e v i e w panels w i l l be  at  appointed.  5  S e c t i o n 2 of the F i s h e r i e s Act d e f i n e s  "Canadian f i s h e r i e s w a t e r s " as:  . . . a l l w a t e r s i n the f i s h i n g zones of Canada, a l l w a t e r s i n the t e r r i t o r i a l sea of Canada and a l l i n t e r n a l w a t e r s of Canada. Under the h e a d i n g of " I n j u r y to f i s h i n g grounds and  p o l l u t i o n s of w a t e r s " ,  the A c t e x p r e s s l y f o r b i d s the i n t r o d u c t i o n of " . . . c h e m i c a l s u b s t a n c e s , or d r u g s , poisonous m a t t e r . . . o r any ( i n t o ) any waters f r e q u e n t e d  other d e l e t e r i o u s s u b s t a n c e s or t h i n g . . .  by f i s h . . . "  (Section  33(2)).  F u r t h e r m o r e , the Governor i n C o u n c i l i s , under the p r o v i s i o n s of the v e s t e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g r e g u l a t i o n s r e s p e c t i n g o b s t r u c t i o n and  p o l l u t i o n of waters f r e q u e n t e d  by f i s h  (Section  Act,  the 34(h)).  38  Thus, c h e m i c a l o r p e t r o c h e m i c a l c e r t a i n circumstances,  terminal proposals  which c o u l d , under  r e s u l t i n the ( c o n t r o l l e d o r u n c o n t r o l l e d )  discharge  of substances deemed by the Governor i n C o u n c i l t o be p o t e n t i a l l y d e l e t e r i o u s t o f i s h must f i r s t s e c u r e a p p r o v a l  from t h e Department of  F i s h e r i e s & Oceans.  2.2.1.5  N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t  b  S e c t i o n 14 of t h e N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t d e f i n e s  the b a s i c terms by  which the Board can i n f l u e n c e or c o n t r o l hazardous m a t e r i a l s t e r m i n a l  site  s e l e c t i o n i n NHB p o r t s : 1 4 ( l ) t h e Governor i n C o u n c i l may make b y - l a w s . . . f o r the d i r e c t i o n , conduct and government of t h e Board and i t s employees, and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , management and c o n t r o l of the s e v e r a l h a r b o u r s , works and p r o p e r t y under i t s jurisdiction including: (b) ...the l e a s i n g or a l l o t m e n t of any harbour p r o p e r t y the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e Board...  under  (c)  t h e r e g u l a t i o n s of the c o n s t r u c t i o n and maintenance of wharves, p i e r s , b u i l d i n g s o r any o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the h a r b o u r s , and a n y t h i n g i n c i d e n t a l thereto.  (f)  t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , h a n d l i n g o r s t o r i n g under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e Board o r any p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i t h i n any harbour under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h a t Board of e x p l o s i v e s or other substances t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n of the Board, c o n s t i t u t e o r a r e l i k e l y t o c o n s t i t u t e a danger or h a z a r d t o l i f e or p r o p e r t y .  F a i l u r e on t h e p a r t of a proponent t o comply w i t h such r e g u l a t o r y as may be deemed n e c e s s a r y by the Board w i t h r e s p e c t c o n s t r u c t i o n , or o p e r a t i o n  provisions  t o the s i t i n g ,  of a proposed hazardous m a t e r i a l s f a c i l i t y  an NHB p o r t c o u l d r e s u l t i n the Board's r e f u s a l t o a u t h o r i z e t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the p r o j e c t .  within  39 2.2.2  Provincial Legislation  2.2.2.1  Pollution Control Act  7  Under S e c t i o n 3 of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t * , the D i r e c t o r of the Waste Management B r a n c h , Department of Environment, Is v e s t e d w i t h the power and duty t o : a)  determine what q u a l i t i e s and p r o p e r t i e s of w a t e r , l a n d or a i r constitute a polluted condition;  b)  p r e s c r i b e s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g the q u a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r of the e f f l u e n t or contaminant which may be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o any w a t e r s , l a n d or a i r ;  c)  a p p o i n t a d v i s o r y or t e c h n i c a l committees deemed n e c e s s a r y to i n f o r m the board w i t h r e g a r d to matters r e f e r r e d by the board;  d)  c a r r y out s p e c i f i e d r e f e r e n c e s or i n s t r u c t i o n s made to the under S e c t i o n 2 ( 3 ) .  and  board  The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e of the Act i s to ensure t h a t : ...no person s h a l l . . . d i s c h a r g e or cause to p e r m i t the d i s c h a r g e of e f f l u e n t or o t h e r waste m a t e r i a l on, i n or under l a n d or i n t o w a t e r s w i t h o u t a p e r m i t or a p p r o v a l from the d i r e c t o r ( S e c t i o n 4 ( 1 ) ) . I n t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s once a g a i n Incumbent upon the proponent to ensure t h a t the r e q u i r e m e n t s  of the A c t and i t s r e g u l a t i o n s are met  i n ever r e s p e c t  p r i o r to a permit b e i n g i s s u e d .  F a i l u r e on the p a r t of a proponent to e i t h e r p e r m i t ; or  a) s e c u r e the  necessary  b) comply w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of the p e r m i t once i t has  i s s u e d c o u l d r e s u l t i n a f i n e "...not  been  exceeding $10,000 o r imprisonment f o r  The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t i s scheduled to be r e p l a c e d d u r i n g the f a l l of 1982, s u b j e c t to the p r o c l a m a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l Waste Management A c t . The r e c e n t (1981) i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Environment Management A c t (which i s a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e Department of E n v i r o n m e n t ) assumed some of the f u n c t i o n s f o r m e r l y v e s t e d w i t h the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , i n c l u d i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e a r i n g appeals r e s u l t i n g from d e c i s i o n s made under the Pollution Control Act.  40 a term not e x c e e d i n g one continuing nature,  F i r e Services  a)  i s of a the o f f e n c e  is  25).  Act  8  Under the p r o v i s i o n s of S e c t i o n 59(1) the L i e u t e n a n t  i f the o f f e n c e  t o a f i n e not e x c e e d i n g $500 f o r each day  continued...(Section  2.2.2.2  y e a r , or to b o t h , and  Governor i n C o u n c i l  and  59(2)  of the F i r e S e r v i c e s  Act,  may:  r e g u l a t e m a n u f a c t u r i n g or t r a d e s dangerous i n c a u s i n g promoting f i r e ;  or  b)  r e g u l a t e the manufacture, s t o r a g e , c a r r i a g e , s a l e and c o m b u s t i b l e , e x p l o s i v e or flammable m a t t e r ; and  c)  adopt the whole or p a r t of the s t a n d a r d s f o r the Canadian Gas A s s o c i a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l F i r e Code of Canada, and any o t h e r code, or s t a n d a r d on f i r e s t a n d a r d s and f i r e s a f e t y , and to amend a code o r s t a n d a r d adopted under t h i s p a r a g r a p h .  Thus, the P r o v i n c i a l F i r e Commissioner's c o n c u r r e n c e and to s i t i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n , and  d i s p o s a l of  approval  relative  f i r e f i g h t i n g / p r e v e n t i o n systems must be  s e c u r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of marine f a c i l i t i e s d e s i g n e d to handle c o m b u s t i b l e ,  2.2.2.3  i n f l a m m a b l e , or e x p l o s i v e  materials.  U t i l i t i e s Commission A c t ^  I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the c o n s t r u c t i o n or o p e r a t i o n  of any  regulated  energy  p r o j e c t can o n l y be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h the j o i n t c o n c u r r e n c e of the M i n i s t e r of Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources and ( S e c t i o n 19).  the M i n i s t e r of Environment  I n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an  c e r t i f i c a t e " or a m o d i f i e d  "energy o p e r a t i n g  "energy p r o j e c t  c e r t i f i c a t e " may  be r e f e r r e d to  the U t i l i t i e s Commission f o r r e v i e w p r i o r to the n e c e s s a r y c e r t i f i c a t e authorized  ( S e c t i o n 19(1)  grounds of the c o m p l e x i t y  (a) and  (b)).  The  r e f e r r a l may  be made on  being  the  of the a p p l i c a t i o n , or upon the grounds of p u b l i c  s a f e t y or economic c o n c e r n s .  I n those i n s t a n c e s where an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r an  energy p r o j e c t c e r t i f i c a t e i s r e f e r r e d to the Commission f o r r e v i e w . . .  41 ...the Commission s h a l l hear the a p p l i c a t i o n i n p u b l i c h e a r i n g i n accordance w i t h terms of r e f e r e n c e s p e c i f i e d j o i n t l y by the M i n i s t e r of Energy, Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources and the M i n i s t e r of E n v i r o n m e n t , and on c o n c l u s i o n s h a l l submit a r e p o r t and recommendations t o the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l ( S e c t i o n 2 0 ( 1 ) ) . S e v e r a l west c o a s t LNG marine t e r m i n a l p r o p o s a l s  are p r e s e n t l y before  the  M i n i s t e r of E n e r g y , Mines and P e t r o l e u m Resources a w a i t i n g a d e c i s i o n as t o whether or not t h e y w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o the U t i l i t i e s i t has been s p e c u l a t e d  Commission.  Moreover,  t h a t B.C. Hydro's Sasamat LNG t e r m i n a l p r o p o s a l  could  be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Commission i n the near f u t u r e , l a r g e l y on the s t r e n g t h of the p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y  2.3  2.3.1  g e n e r a t e d by the p r o j e c t .  L e g i s l a t i o n P e r t a i n i n g t o the B u l k Shipment of Hazardous M a t e r i a l s By M a r i n e Mode Federal L e g i s l a t i o n  The r e g u l a t i o n of the b u l k shipment of hazardous m a t e r i a l s by s h i p under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e Government of Canada.  The  falls  organizations  p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o m u l g a t i o n and enforcement of s p e c i a l operating  p r o v i s i o n s f o r hazardous m a t e r i a l s c a r r i e r s a r e the M i n i s t r y o:  T r a n s p o r t (under the terms of the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t ) , the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board (under t h e N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t ) , and the v a r i o u s f e d e r a l l y - a p p o i n t e d Harbours Boards.  T h i s t h e s i s i s p r i m a r i l y concerned  w i t h the Canada S h i p p i n g Act and t h e NHB A c t .  2.3.1.1  Canada S h i p p i n g  kct  lv  S e v e r a l a s p e c t s of the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t r e l a t e e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y t o the r e g u l a t i o n of v e s s e l s t r a n s p o r t i n g hazardous Canadian w a t e r s .  materia  F o r example, i n a broad sense the A c t governs the  42  c i r c u m s t a n c e s whereby Canadian s h i p s ' o f f i c e r s , crews, and c o a s t a l p i l o t s are l i c e n s e d .  The q u a l i t y of these l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i n t u r n , s h o u l d  r e f l e c t upon the q u a l i t y of Canadian marine p e r s o n n e l - a f e a t u r e which c o u l d have an a f f e c t upon the s a f e management and o p e r a t i o n c a r r y i n g dangerous goods i n Canadian w a t e r s .  of v e s s e l s  Similarly, responsibility for  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of n a v i g a t i o n  aids plus  the p r o v i s i o n o f  v e s s e l t r a f f i c management s e r v i c e s enhance the o v e r a l l l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y f o r hazardous m a t e r i a l s  c a r r i e r s , as w e l l as o t h e r  Of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the r e g u l a t i o n of v e s s e l s dangerous goods i s P a r t V I I I of t h e A c t , e n t i t l e d  vessels.  transporting  "Safety".  Part VIII  deals  w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of steamship i n s p e c t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r domestic and f o r e i g n v e s s e l s t r a d i n g i n Canadian w a t e r s .  In this regard,  S e c t i o n 450 of t h e A c t  (under the h e a d i n g "Dangerous Goods"), p r o v i d e s the Governor i n C o u n c i l the a u t h o r i t y t o e s t a b l i s h r e g u l a t i o n s f o r hazardous m a t e r i a l s  with  c a r r i e r s on  such m a t t e r s a s : -  p a c k i n g / s t o w i n g of cargo q u a n t i t i e s t o be c a r r i e d l o c a t i o n s aboard v e s s e l s where dangerous goods may be s t o r e d marking handling procedures powers of steamship i n s p e c t o r s  - o t h e r r e q u i r e m e n t s , as n e c e s s a r y The  a c t u a l p r a c t i c e of i n s p e c t i n g such s p e c i a l i z e d hazardous  c a r r i e r s as p a r c e l c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s and l i q u i f i e d t e c h i q u e s which a r e unique i n the s h i p p i n g w o r l d .  gas t a n k e r s  requires  As a r u l e , t h e s e  t e c h n i q u e s a r e not g e n e r a l l y developed on a n a t i o n by n a t i o n Instead,  materials  basis.  they e v o l v e as a r e u s l t of j o i n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n  the a u s p i c e s of such b o d i e s as the I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e Organization  (IMCO).  through  Consultative  Canada, as a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member o f IMCO, has adapted  43  i n s p e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and s t a n d a r d s f o r v a r i o u s  types of hazardous  c a r r i e r s i n t o the Canadian steamship i n s p e c t i o n p r o c e s s . i n s p e c t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e , i n t u r n , r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n the  materials  These s p e c i a l regulatory  a u t h o r i t i e s vested i n Part V I I I .  The r o l e of the Canada S h i p p i n g  A c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y as i t r e l a t e s to the  movement of hazardous m a t e r i a l s  c a r r i e r s i n the P o r t o f Vancouver i s more  c l e a r l y defined  2.3.1.2  i n Section  4.2.2.  N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t ^ ^  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s a f e n a v i g a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s f o r v e s s e l s operating  w i t h i n NHB  p o r t s r e s t s not w i t h the Canadian C o a s t Guard, but  r a t h e r w i t h the Board i t s e l f .  14(1)  This a u t h o r i t y i s described  The Governor i n C o u n c i l may make b y - l a w s . . . f o r the d i r e c t i o n , conduct and government of the Board and i t s employees, and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , management and c o n t r o l of the s e v e r a l h a r b o u r s , works and p r o p e r t y under i t s jurisdiction including: a)  the r e g u l a t i o n and c o n t r o l of each and e v e r y m a t t e r i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h v e s s e l s and a i r c r a f t n a v i g a t i n g the h a r b o u r s and t h e i r mooring, b e r t h i n g , d i s c h a r g i n g o r l o a d i n g or a n y t h i n g I n c i d e n t a l t h e r e t o ; and  b)  the r e g u l a t i o n of a l l p l a n t , m a c h i n e r y or a p p l i a n c e s , whether f l o a t i n g or n o t , f o r l o a d i n g or u n l o a d i n g v e s s e l s , i n c l u d i n g the power t o p r e s c r i b e t h a t none s h a l l e n t e r any harbour or remain I n i t w i t h o u t the p e r m i s s i o n of the Board...  For a d e t a i l e d account of the s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s materials  as f o l l o w s :  i n e f f e c t f o r hazardous  c a r r i e r s i n the P o r t of Vancouver, r e f e r t o S e c t i o n 4.2.2.  44  FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 2.0 1 Government of Canada, N a v i g a b l e Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada - 1970, Chapter N-19. Government of Canada, Code of Recommended S t a n d a r d s f o r the P r e v e n t i o n of P o l l u t i o n i n M a r i n e T e r m i n a l Systems (Ottawa: Canadian Coast Guard, 22 F e b r u a r y 1977). 2  3  vols.)  Government of Canada, A r c t i c P i l o t P r o j e c t - Termpol Assessment (Ottawa: Coast Guard, 1981).  (4  ^ Government of Canada, A Guide t o the F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review P r o c e s s (Ottawa: F i s h e r i e s & Environment Canada, F e b r u a r y 1977); and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review O f f i c e , Vancouver, B.C. ^ Government of Canada, F i s h e r i e s A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada 1970, Chapter F-14. 6 Government of Canada, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada - 1970, C h a p t e r N-8. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia - 1979, Chapter ; and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p r o v i n c i a l Waste Management B r a n c h , V i c t o r i a . 7  P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, F i r e S e r v i c e s A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia - 1979, Chapter 133. 8  9 P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, U t i l i t i e s Commission A c t , A s s e n t e d t o 22 August 1980. 10 Government of Canada, Canada S h i p p i n g A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada - 1970, C h a p t e r S-9, p l u s amendments. H Government of Canada, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board A c t , R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s of Canada - 1970, C h a p t e r N-8.  45 3.0  MARINE SHIPMENT OF LPG AND RELATED COMMODITIES  3.1  E v o l u t i o n of the L i q u e f i e d Gas Tanker Trade  L i q u e f i e d p e t r o l e u m gas, or LPG, i s the g e n e r i c term commonly a p p l i e d , e i t h e r s i n g l y or i n c o m b i n a t i o n , to members of a s p e c i f i c group of c h e m i c a l compounds f a l l i n g w i t h i n the lower m o l e c u l a r weight range of the hydrocarbon spectrum. or  butane.  The p r i n c i p a l components o f LPG would n o r m a l l y be e i t h e r  propane  However, depending upon the source and n a t u r e of the gas  m i x t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r o t h e r compounds such as p r o p y l e n e or i s o b u t a n e to emerge as dominant c o n s t i t u e n t s w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r gas sample. the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the gas may  Because  vary  c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h the m i x t u r e , LPG i s known under a v a r i e t y of p o p u l a r names, i n c l u d i n g propane, butane, p r o p y l e n e , p y r o f a x , or s i m p l y " b o t t l e d gas".  LPG i s d e r i v e d from two p r i n c i p a l sources - b o t h as a byproduct of the w e l l h e a d s e p a r a t i o n of n a t u r a l gas (methane and e t h a n e ) from  liquid  p e t r o l e u m h y d r o c a r b o n s , and through the r e f i n e r y f r a c t i o n i n g of crude o i l and the f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g of p e t r o l e u m d i s t i l l a t e s .  I n p r a c t i c a l terms, i t  has proven to be a d u r a b l e , c l e a n b u r n i n g f u e l source h a v i n g a wide range of d o m e s t i c , c o m m e r c i a l , and i n d u s t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s w o r l d w i d e .  At ambient temperature (15°  C) and normal a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e , the  i n d i v i d u a l c h e m i c a l components o f LPG would e x i s t i n a gaseous  state.  46  However, one of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of LPG,  and c e r t a i n l y the one which has  s e r v e d most e f f e c t i v e l y to put i t on an e c o n o m i c a l l y c o m p e t i t i v e f o o t i n g w i t h more t r a d i t i o n a l , non-gaseous f u e l s o u r c e s , i s t h a t i t can be reduced  to a l i q u i d s t a t e f o r e a s i e r s t o r a g e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n through  processes  of c o o l i n g and/or p r e s s u r i z a t i o n .  occupies approximately  Although  commercial gas  forms, i t was was  readily  I n i t s l i q u i d c o n d i t i o n LPG  l / 2 5 0 t h of i t s volume as a  not u n t i l a f t e r the F i r s t World War  The  gas.  l i q u e f a c t i o n has l o n g been p r a c t i c e d i n a v a r i e t y of  made to a p p l y the t e c h n o l o g y  tankships.*  that a concerted  to the c o n s t r u c t o n of l i q u i d  e a r l i e s t gas c a r r i e r s were, by and  large, small pressurized  t o serve the growing European i n t e r - c o a s t a l LPG  D u r i n g the 1950's, gas  effort  gas  t a n k e r s h a v i n g a cargo c a p a c i t y of l e s s than 1 500 c u b i c m e t r e s . been designed  Most had  trade.  t a n k e r t e c h n o l o g y became i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d .  A number of v e s s e l s which came on l i n e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d possessed c a p a c i t y f o r both p r e s s u r i z i n g and p a r t i a l l y r e f r i g e r a t i n g t h e i r Moreover, new  the  t a n k e r d e s i g n s were being developed  the d u a l  cargoes.  f o r the purpose of  a d d r e s s i n g the s p e c i a l problems and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c a r r i a g e of b u l k l i q u i d gases o t h e r than LPG - n o t a b l y ammonia, v i n y l c h l o r i d e s , and  l i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l gas  In  e r a of l i q u e f i e d gas t r a n s p o r t was  1959,  a new  (LNG).  s u c c e s s f u l t r a n s - A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g of the w o r l d ' s  c h r i s t e n e d w i t h the first  experimental  c a r r i e r , the Methane P i o n e e r , from Lake C h a r l e s , L o u i s i a n a t o the  LNG  British  *The f i r s t LPG c a r r i e r was the B r i t i s h t a n k e r Megara, which was b u i l t i n 1926 f o r t h e Anglo-Saxon O i l Company. The s h i p s e r v e d the West I n d i e s / E u r o p e t r a d e , c a r r y i n g o i l and propane, the l a t t e r i n r i v e t e d c y l i n d r i c a l p r e s s u r e v e s s e l s . The Megara was scrapped i n 1955, a l t h o u g h her tanks are r e p o r t e d l y s t i l l b e i n g used f o r l a n d s t o r a g e . 1  47  Gas C o r p o r a t i o n t e r m i n a l a t Canvey I s l a n d , near the mouth of the R i v e r Thames.  Ths h i s t o r i c voyage of the Methane P i o n e e r , a c o n v e r t e d dry cargo  v e s s e l , was doubly s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t marked the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the concept of c r y o g e n i c * e n g i n e e r i n g to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a s h i p ' s cargo containment and t r a n s f e r  system.  The importance of t h i s event s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d t o pass w i t h o u t a few b r i e f o b s e r v a t i o n s on the ocean c a r r i a g e of LNG g e n e r a l l y .  L i k e LPG, LNG i s  comprised of lower m o l e c u l a r weight hydrocarbon compounds - p r i m a r i l y methane and ethane. volume as a gas.  I n i t s l i q u i d s t a t e i t o c c u p i e s j u s t l / 6 0 0 t h of i t s  However, u n l i k e LPG, i t does not l e n d i t s e l f w e l l to  l i q u e f a c t i o n s i m p l y through the a p p l i c a t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t p r e s s u r e . c r i t i c a l p o i n t of LNG  i s -83°  any temperature above -83°  The  C, which means t h a t i t cannot be l i q u e f i e d at  C, i r r e s p e c t i v e of p r e s s u r e .  L i q u e f a c t i o n by  d i r e c t r e f r i g e r a t i o n i n v o l v e s c o o l i n g the gas t o i t s b o i l i n g p o i n t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y -162°  C, a c o s t l y and complex p r o c e d u r e .  f a c e d w i t h the p r o s p e c t of d e s i g n i n g a p r a c t i c a l LNG  Thus, e n g i n e e r s  containment  system  s u i t a b l e f o r l o n g - h a u l s h i p b o a r d deployment were l e f t w i t h b a s i c a l l y t h r e e a l t e r n a t i v e s - s p e c i f i c a l l y , to develop e i t h e r : a)  a non-pressurized, active r e f r i g e r a t i o n / r e - l i q u e f a c t i o n  system;  b)  a system combining elements of both a c t i v e r e f r i g e r a t i o n and p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s i m i l a r t o the t e c h n i q u e which had been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s m a l l LPG t a n k e r s ; o r  c)  a p a s s i v e , n o n - p r e s s u r i z e d system of cargo r e f r i g e r a t i o n based upon the p r i n c i p l e of e f f i c i e n t i n s u l a t i o n .  *The term c r y o g e n i c s r e f e r s to the branch of p h y s i c s which d e a l s w i t h the s t u d y of low temperature phenomena g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r i n g a t t e m p e r a t u r e s below -150°C.  48 N e i t h e r A l t e r n a t i v e "a" nor A l t e r n a t i v e "b" has ever proven w h o l l y a c c e p t a b l e from e i t h e r an economic or an o p e r a t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t .  Instead,  the owners of the Methane P i o n e e r (and, f o r t h a t m a t t e r , of v i r t u a l l y LNG  every  c a r r i e r b u i l t s i n c e ) chose t o i n c o r p o r a t e a d e s i g n system based upon  A l t e r n a t i v e " c " - p a s s i v e r e f r i g e r a t i o n through  insulation.  Under t h i s  o p t i o n , gas which has been c o o l e d to i t s l i q u i d s t a t e a t a s h o r e s i d e l i q u e f a c t i o n plant i s subsequently insulated tanks.  2  pumped i n t o the s h i p ' s s p e c i a l l y  Each tank, o p e r a t i n g much i n the manner of a huge  thermos, i s designed  to m a i n t a i n the cargo i n a s u p e r - c o o l e d  f o r extended p e r i o d s of up to s e v e r a l months by e f f e c t i v e l y normal i n t e r n a l heat g a i n . i n the s t o r a g e of LNG,  Due  liquid state restricting  to the e x t r e m e l y c o l d temperatures  s p e c i a l engineering techniques  and m e t a l  involved  fabricating  m a t e r i a l s ( i n c l u d i n g h i g h l y r e s i l i e n t aluminum and n i c k e l s t e e l a l l o y s w h i c h w i l l r e t a i n t h e i r d u c t i l i t y a t low temperatures)  must be employed - b o t h  f a c t o r s of which c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the f i n a l c o s t .  Because LNG  i s , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , c o n s t a n t l y s t r i v i n g to r e t u r n to i t s  gaseous s t a t e , as the cargo g r a d u a l l y (an i n e x o r a b l y ) warms up to beyond i t s vapour p o i n t , the phenomenon of " b o i l - o f f " , o r v a p o u r i z a t i o n , o c c u r s . modern v e s s e l s , b o i l - o f f consumes about 0.2%  of the t o t a l cargo d a i l y - or  r o u g h l y 200-250 c u b i c metres of gas per day f o r a s t a n d a r d 125 000 metre c a p a c i t y LNG  carrier.  3  In  cubic  Cargo b o i l - o f f i s n o r m a l l y r e - d i r e c t e d to  the engine room where i t i s used to augment the v e s s e l ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l f u e l supply.  I n c o n t r a s t to the widespread  i n t e r e s t generated  throughout  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l s h i p p i n g community d u r i n g , and subsequent t o , the i n a u g u r a l voyage of the Methane P i o n e e r , the development of a p r a c t i c a l  cargo  49  containment system whereby LPG c o u l d be e c o n o m i c a l l y t r a n s p o r t e d over l o n g d i s t a n c e s and/or extended p e r i o d s of time c r e a t e d l i t t l e immediate i n d u s t r y .  Even s o , by 1962 the f i r s t  f a n f a r e outside the  ocean-going r e f r i g e r a t e d LPG  c a r r i e r s i n c o r p o r a t i n g a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d cargo r e - l i q u e f a c t i o n  capacity  ( s i m i l a r t o t h a t which had been deemed u n s u i t a b l e f o r LNG t r a n s p o r t ) were i n service.  The new LPG d e s i g n p h i l o s o p h y drew e x t e n s i v e l y from t h e r e c e n t l y c o m p i l e d body of knowledge p e r t a i n i n g t o the marine t r a n s p o r t o f LNG. both t e c h n o l o g i e s d i s p l a y e d many b a s i c s i m i l a r i t i e s . emphasized  Accordingly,  F o r example,  each  t h e fundamental premise t h a t optimum tank e f f i c i e n c y c o u l d o n l y  be r e c o g n i z e d through the e f f e c t i v e i n s u l a t i o n of the cargo containment system.  F u r t h e r m o r e , each system i n c o r p o r a t e d a broad range of s p e c i a l i z e d  s h i p b o a r d s a f e t y f e a t u r e s t o o f f s e t the enormous h a z a r d p o t e n t i a l c r e a t e d by the  v o l a t i l e n a t u r e of t h e i r c a r g o e s .  N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g these and o t h e r common d e s i g n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , from the s t a n d p o i n t of s t o r a g e and t r a n s p o r t a b i l i t y LNG and LPG d i f f e r from each o t h e r i n one v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t .  The p r i n c i p a l p h y s i c a l advantage of  LPG o v e r LNG i s t h a t a l l of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t s w i l l  be reduced t o a  l i q u i d s t a t e a t a temperature of -48° C and one atmosphere of p r e s s u r e . T h i s compares w i t h a l i q u e f a c t i o n temperature f o r LNG o f -162° C a t a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e (see "Temperature/Vapour S e l e c t e d Ship-Borne Gases," p . 5 0 ) .  Pressure Relationship f o r  Hence, the p h y s i c a l  constraints  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h LPG t a n k e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e s u b s t a n t i a l l y more demanding than f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l s h i p b u i l d i n g p r a c t i c e , a r e by no means as r e s t r i c t i v e as those i n v o l v i n g LNG.  Thus, t h e r e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s a v i n g s t o be  r e a l i z e d through the a p p l i c a t i o n of " c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e " , as opposed t o "cryogenic" engineering techniques.  LPG cargo containment systems, f o r  PRESSURE RELATIONSHIP OF SELECTED SHIP-BORNE GASES* 1.1  o  0  U4 K-  =3 -J  o  to ca  to  100 Q: 90  Uj  a: o  8 0  70  to  cc uj ft.  0Q  I  6-0  Uj CC  5-0  to to  io  Q  40  o  3-5  UJ  t a.  30  uj  25  to to  20 18 1-6 1-4  UJ  * a.  1-2 10 0-8  -180  _  1  6  0  -140  -120  -100  -80  - 60 .  -40  -W  TEMPERATURE — DEGREES CELSIUS • Curves constructed by application of Antoine equation, using data from "Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds".  AmSprSLL.l.M.cl. Proiect44. Thermodynamics Research Centre, Texas A . 4 M. University, and from "Advances in Chemistry Ser.es: No. 22" (1959) published by the American Chemical Society.  o  51 example, u t i l i z e s p e c i a l low temperature s t e e l , r a t h e r than the s u b s t a n t i a l l y more e x p e n s i v e aluminum and 9% n i c k e l s t e e l a l l o y s w i d e l y employed i n LNG  construction.  The  n o n - c r y o g e n i c t e c h n i q u e s used i n  LPG  c o n s t r u c t i o n a l s o enable a wider range of m e c h a n i c a l systems a p p l i c a t i o n s than i s e c o n o m i c a l l y cryogenic of gas  ( o r , i n many i n s t a n c e s , t e c h n i c a l l y ) p r a c t i c a l i n  engineering.  I t i s f o r t h i s reason t h a t s h i p b o a r d r e - l i q u e f a c t i o n  b o i l - o f f becomes a v i a b l e o p t i o n f o r LPG  from the s t a n d p o i n t  I n recent  years,  of LNG  the gas  tanker  tanker  m a r k e t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s due, operating gas,  construction.  i n d u s t r y has  p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , and,  terminal f a c i l i t i e s .  e x p e r i e n c e d a number of s e v e r e  i n p a r t , to s p i r a l l i n g s h i p c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o s t s , u n c e r t a i n long-range supply  environmental misgivings  c a r r i e r s , w h i l e i t i s not  and  and  demand r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  i n c r e a s i n g l y , to s e r i o u s s o c i a l  over the s a f e t y of l i q u e f i e d gas  and  c a r r i e r s and  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the LNG  tanker  where the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of growth over the past 10 y e a r s has  trade,  displayed  many of the d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the o i l t a n k e r boom/bust p e r i o d of the 1960's and scale.  e a r l y 1970's, a l t h o u g h on a much s m a l l e r  I n f a c t , as of J a n u a r y 1980,  o n l y 54 v e s s e l s , w i t h 17 o t h e r s  the w o r l d LNG  c u b i c metres In 1980.^  s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t t h a t a l l 17 LNG of 1980  had  f l e e t consisted  scheduled f o r d e l i v e r y by 1982.  the average cargo c a p a c i t y per v e s s e l i n c r e a s e d 1964* t o more than 84 000  tanker  cargo c a p a c i t y r a t i n g s of 125  f r o m 27 400  However,  c u b i c metres i n  Of perhaps even g r e a t e r  c a r r i e r s on o r d e r at the 000  of  beginning  c u b i c metres or more.^  *The average c a p a c i t y f i g u r e s f o r 1964 e x c l u d e the Methane P i o n e e r and the P y t h a g o r e , both of which were used p r i m a r i l y f o r e x p e r i m e n t a l , r a t h e r than c o m m e r c i a l , LNG c a r r i a g e .  52 The  preceding  f u t u r e f o r LNG,  s t a t i s t i c s , w h i l e seemingly p o r t e n d i n g a r e somewhat m i s l e a d i n g .  a b r i g h t economic  U n l i k e crude o i l , the b a s i c  i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r both LNG relatively  u n d e r d e v e l o p e d , and  and LPG i s  i s r e s t r i c t e d to c o m p a r a t i v e l y  w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d overseas trade routes.  few  T h i s can be a t t r i b u t e d to the  l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l i z e d gas l i q u e f a c t i o n ( l o a d i n g ) and r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l s around the w o r l d .  The  historical  tendency w i t h i n the gas  has been to c o n s t r u c t a s p e c i f i c number of v e s s e l s designed i n d i v i d u a l r o u t e on a l o n g - t e r m  basis.  industry  to s e r v e each  Thus, t h e r e i s l i t t l e  room f o r  excess t a n k e r c a p a c i t y .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , by the summer of 1980 t a n k e r c a p a c i t y had  a c o n s i d e r a b l e g l u t of s u r p l u s  begun t o accumulate, thus i l l u s t r a t i n g the  extremely  f r a g i l e n a t u r e of the p r o d u c t i o n / d e l i v e r y c h a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t r o d u c t i o n of new  o v e r s e a s gas t a n k e r t r a d e r o u t e s .  LNG  the  Perhaps the most  v u l n e r a b l e l i n k i n t h i s c h a i n i s t h a t of the s h i p b u i l d i n g component. order t o meet p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s , v e s s e l s must be o r d e r e d advance - o f t e n w h i l e the p r o j e c t i s s t i l l i n the c o n c e p t u a l stages.  However, p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t i n v a r i o u s p r o d u c i n g  I r a n , and an i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d and standards  are now  i n p a r t i c u l a r , has  l e d to s e v e r a l p r o j e c t s carriers  world.  the f u t u r e s of two major LNG  served  c o u n t r i e s such as  As a r e s u l t , a number o f LNG  l a i d up i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of the  Uncertainty surrounding  planning  the s i t i n g of onshore  t e r m i n a l s i n many w e s t e r n consuming n a t i o n s , has or c a n c e l l e d .  s e v e r a l years i n  towards more s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t o r y  f o r both l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s and  being e i t h e r delayed  In  development  proposals,  to upset the d e l i c a t e supply/demand balance  has l o n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d the i n t e r n a t i o n a l LNG  t a k n e r market.  The  much  which  53 discussed Pac-Indonesia  t r a d e , c a l l i n g f o r the d e l i v e r y of I n d o n e s i a n  C a l i f o r n i a , has e x p e r i e n c e d  d i f f i c u l t i e s at the proposed P o i n t C o n c e p t i o n , I t now  to  l e n g t h y d e l a y s as a r e s u l t of both p r i c i n g  d i s p u t e s between the U n i t e d S t a t e s and I n d o n e s i a , and  site.  LNG  California receiving terminal  seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the P a c - I n d o n e s i a  onstream b e f o r e the l a t e 1980's.^  regulatory  p r o j e c t w i l l come  S i m i l a r l y , e x c e s s i v e c o s t s have  the s t a r t - u p of the m a s s i v e Bonny LNG  project i n Nigeria.  The  p r o p o s a l w i l l i n v o l v e the e v e n t u a l shipment of N i g e r i a n gas  delayed  Bonny  to r e c e i v i n g  t e r m i n a l s i n w e s t e r n Europe and  the e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s .  C o l l e c t i v e l y , the P a c - I n d o n e s i a  and Bonny p r o j e c t s c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e  some 23-25 new  LNG  c a r r i e r s , most of which have not yet been  S e v e r a l f i r m s , however, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of a s t r o n g LNG 1980's, proceeded w i t h o r d e r s even i n the absence of any LNG.  The  7  market d u r i n g  to c o n s t r u c t a number of new  f i r m long-term  ordered.  gas  the  carriers,  c h a r t e r commitments to t r a n s p o r t  Swedish s h i p b u i l d i n g g i a n t , Kockums of Malmo, f o r example,  i n v e s t e d h e a v i l y i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of two 133 000 c a r r i e r s d u r i n g the mid-1970's.  Kockums had  c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y  LNG  o r i g i n a l l y expected t o s e l l i t s  i n t e r e s t i n these v e s s e l s l o n g b e f o r e t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n .  Unfortunately, i n  i t s i n i t i a l market demand f o r e c a s t s , the company f a i l e d t o take i n t o account the myriad of economic, e n v i r o n m e n t a l , r e c e n t l y beset  the LNG  industry.  t a n k e r market, Kockums was 1981,  when one  and p o l i t i c a l problems which have  I n the v i r t u a l absence of an open  unable to d i v e s t i t s e l f  of the v e s s e l s was  of e i t h e r t a n k e r  purchased by German i n t e r e s t s .  8  LNG until The  second t a n k e r remains u n s o l d , and would seem d e s t i n e d f o r an o b s c u r e f a t e i n extended  lay-up.  Kockums i s by no means the o n l y company to have e x p e r i e n c e d marketing  difficulties.  The  serious  t w i n 122 000 c u b i c metre t a n k e r s G a s t o r  fleet and  54  N e s t o r , which were p u r p o s e - b u i l t i n 1976 and 1977 r e s p e c t i v e l y to s e r v e the proposed P a c - I n d o n e s i a r u n , have been permanently moored n e a r Dunoon, S c o t l a n d s i n c e they were d e l i v e r e d . ^ o p e r a t o r s , E l Paso N a t u r a l Gas, was  One  of the w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t LNG  f o r c e d to l a y up as many as  fleet  seven  v e s s e l s at a time d u r i n g 1980 and 1981, pending the r e s o l u t i o n of a gas p r i c i n g d i s p u t e between A l g e r i a and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 ^  One  of the few p o s i t i v e notes to emerge from t h i s a s p e c t of the i n d u s t r y i n  r e c e n t y e a r s concerns the 131 500 c u b i c metre B e l g i a n LNG  c a r r i e r Methania.  B u i l t i n i t i a l l y to s e r v e the proposed LNG t r a d e between A l g e r i a and B e l g i u m , she was  t r a n s f e r r e d d i r e c t l y from the b u i l d e r ' s y a r d to a remote f j o r d  Haugesund, Norway when i t became e v i d e n t t h a t the Zeebrugge, r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l would not be completed on t i m e . summer of 1981, i n t e r i m arrangements  near  B e l g i u m gas  However, d u r i n g the  were f i n a l i z e d whereby M e t h a n i a  commence t r a d i n g between A l g e r i a and M o n t o i r e , France i n the f a l l of  will 1982,  pending the s c h e d u l e d c o m p l e t i o n of the Zeebrugge t e r m i n a l i n the mid 1980's.  11  I n c o n t r a s t t o the LNG t a n k e r market, the sea-borne LPG t r a d e has c o m p a r a t i v e l y s t a b l e , i f u n s p e c t a c u l a r , over the y e a r s . i n d u s t r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t components.  The LPG  remained shipping  The c o a s t a l t r a d e i s  comprised p r i m a r i l y of s m a l l p r e s s u r i z e d and s e m i - r e f r i g e r a t e d h a v i n g a cargo c a p a c i t y of l e s s than 5 000 c u b i c metres.  vessels  As of J a n u a r y  1980, the 368 v e s s e l s f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y accounted f o r 72% of the t o t a l number of LPG c a r r i e r s , but o n l y 9% of the worldwide LPG t a n k e r capacity.-'-  2  The deepsea LPG f l e e t , on the o t h e r hand, i s made up almost  e x c l u s i v e l y of f u l l y - r e f r i g e r a t e d v e s s e l s i n excess of 5 000 c u b i c capacity.  metres  The 145 o r so v e s s e l s which c o n s t i t u t e the deepsea f l e e t have a  combined cargo c a p a c i t y of almost 5.4 m i l l i o n c u b i c m e t r e s , o r r o u g h l y  55 600  000 c u b i c metres more than the t o t a l c a p a c i t y f o r the e x i s t i n g  fleet.  1 3  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , ocean-going LPG s m a l l e r than t h e i r LNG  c a r r i e r s have tended to be somewhat  counterparts.  Whereas v e s s e l s i n excess of 100  c u b i c metres account f o r some 71% of a l l LNG of the deepsea LPG  r e f r i g e r a t e d tankers  and  c a p a c i t y , l e s s than  i n v e s s e l s of 100  i s i n the range of 50-75 000  f u t u r e of the l i q u e f i e d gas  both n a t u r a l and  000  4%  cubic  cubic metres.  t r a d e - over the s h o r t term, at l e a s t - i s  W h i l e i t i s acknowledged t h a t the market p o t e n t i a l f o r  p e t r o l e u m gas  f u e l s i s e x c e l l e n t , the p o l i t i c a l  reliability  p u b l i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the marine d e l i v e r y concept remains a s e r i o u s  p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n i n many q u a r t e r s i n I r a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , has export LNG  throughout the w o r l d .  S i m i l a r l y , s o c i a l and  c o n s t r u c t i o n of major gas  to  e n v i r o n m e n t a l concerns over the  safety  to the proposed  r e c e i v i n g terminals at Europoort, Holland  Zeebrugge, B e l g i u m (LNG), and P o i n t C o n c e p t i o n , C a l i f o r n i a  (LPG),  (LNG).  IN VANCOUVER  I n s p i t e of the problems c u r r e n t l y f a c i n g many LPG proposals, tankers  revolution  l e d to the i n d e f i n i t e s u s p e n s i o n of p l a n s  of l i q u e f i e d gases have r e s u l t e d i n l e n g t h y d e l a y s  LPG  The  from the huge P a r s o f f s h o r e gas f i e l d i n the P e r s i a n G u l f to the  United States.  3.2  000  I n s t e a d , the p r e f e r r e d s i z e f o r modern  1  by no means c l e a r .  tanker  cargo c a p a c i t y i s c o n t a i n e d  metres or g r e a t e r . ^  The  LNG  and LNG  development  the m a j o r i t y of e x i s t i n g l i q u e f i e d gas d e l i v e r y systems i n v o l v i n g  have f u n c t i o n e d  mishap o v e r the y e a r s . Vancouver-Japan LPG  s u c c e s s f u l l y and, One  trade.  f o r the most p a r t , w i t h o u t  such o p e r a t i o n has  been the  long-standing  serious  56  Figure 3.2 Westridge Terminal, Burnaby, B.C.  57 Because of a c h r o n i c s h o r t a g e of domestic energy r e s o u r c e s , J a p a n has depended upon o v e r s e a s l i q u e f i e d gas burgeoning f u e l requirements. LPG  over the y e a r s , Japan has  long  i m p o r t a t i o n to supplement i t s  I n order to s a t i s f y i t s growing demand f o r seen f i t to e n t e r i n t o a number of l o n g - t e r m  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements f o r the purpose of s e c u r i n g guaranteed overseas  gas  supplies.  on  Canada, w i t h i t s enormous p o t e n t i a l to produce and  a l a r g e volume b a s i s , became a p a r t n e r to one arrangements, and  i n 1966  e x p o r t LPG  of the e a r l i e s t gas  trade  the f i r s t major l i q u e f i e d gas e x p o r t i n g  terminal  on the west coast - Trans Mountain P i p e l i n e Company's W e s t r i d g e T e r m i n a l Burnaby, B.C.  - went i n t o f u l l commercial o p e r a t i o n .  16 year p e r i o d , W e s t r i d g e has  exported  metres ( o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y  m i l l i o n b a r r e l s ) of LPG  The  44.0  b a s i c d e l i v e r y concept has  began e x p o r t i n g LPG  i n the mid  D u r i n g the i n t e r v e n i n g  on the o r d e r of 7.0 m i l l i o n t o Japan.  from A l b e r t a .  W e s t r i d g e , the propane i s r e f r i g e r a t e d and  Upon a r r i v a l  pumped i n t o two  metre (175  000 b a r r e l ) c a p a c i t y i n s u l a t e d s t o r a g e  maintained  at a temperature of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  27 800  served  the s p r i n g of 1982,  The  Yamahide Maru has  c u b i c metres c a p a c i t y .  of the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n  was  carrier  s i n c e been r e p l a c e d on a permanent gas  t a n k e r of  Whereas the Yamahide Maru was  of r e f r i g e r a t e d ocean-going LPG  N i c h i z a n Maru r e f l e c t s the p r e s e n t  tanker  the W e s t r i d g e t e r m i n a l  b a s i s by the N i c h i z a n Maru, a r e c e n t l y - c o m p l e t e d 40 000  cubic  d e s t i n e d f o r markets i n  almost e x c l u s i v e l y by the 38 000 c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y LPG  Yamahide Maru.  at  -45°C.  a r r i v e s at W e s t r i d g e to take on a consignment of LPG and  to  t a n k s , where i t i s  On an average of once every f i v e to s i x weeks, a r e f r i g e r a t e d gas  Between 1966  facility  L i q u e f i e d propane i s t r a n s p o r t e d  the t e r m i n a l i n p r e s s u r i z e d r a i l t a n k c a r s  Japan.  cubic  changed l i t t l e s i n c e the W e s t r i d g e 1960's.  in  approximately  representative  carriers,  the  s t a t e of the a r t i n terms o f Japanese  gas  58 tanker design technology.  She i s expected  to add a new  s a f e and e f f i c i e n t movement of LPG between Canada and  While  dimension  t o the  Japan.  c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l by p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s , b o t h the Yamahide Maru and  the N i c h i z a n Maru are n e v e r t h e l e s s capable of accommodating the e q u i v a l e n t of some 300 s t a n d a r d s i z e d (127-130 c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y ) r a i l c a r l o a d s of l i q u e f i e d gas, or r o u g h l y 22 200 tonnes of propane ( s p e c i f i c  gravity  0.583).  3.3  The  3.3.1.  Issues Background  Perhaps the g r e a t e s t c o n t r a s t between LPG and LNG  has not so much to do w i t h  t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p h y s i c a l or c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s as i t does w i t h the d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t manner i n which the g e n e r a l p u b l i c r o u t i n e l y p e r c e i v e s each p r o d u c t .  I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the p u b l i c was  v o l a t i l e n a t u r e of LNG  as l o n g ago as 1944,  made aware of the  when a s t o r a g e tank a t a peak  s h a v i n g f a c i l i t y i n C l e v e l a n d , Ohio r u p t u r e d , s p i l l i n g some 4 200 metres of LNG  i n t o the a d j o i n i n g s t r e e t s and sewer system.  The  cubic  subsequent  f i r e and e x p l o s i o n s k i l l e d 130 p e o p l e , i n j u r e d s c o r e s of o t h e r s , and d e v a s t a t e d a 12 h e c t a r e area of the c i t y . ^ 1  approached the $7 m i l l i o n mark. end to f u r t h e r LNG  was  The C l e v e l a n d a c c i d e n t e f f e c t i v e l y put  an  a g a i n b e i n g w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d f o r use i n peak  throughout  populated northeast.  the c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the h e a v i l y  Once more, however, the gas i n d u s t r y e x p e r i e n c e d  a s e r i o u s s e t b a c k when, i n F e b r u a r y tank on new Y o r k ' s  t o t a l damage e s t i m a t e  development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r more than 20 y e a r s .  By the l a t e 1960's LNG shaving f a c i l i t i e s  The  1973,  a supposedly  empty LNG  storage  S t a t e n I s l a n d exploded, k i l l i n g 40 workers who  engaged i n r e p a i r i n g i t s c r y o g e n i c l i n e r . 1 7  Although  the tank  had  had  been  59  a c t u a l l y been d r a i n e d some 10 months e a r l i e r , s u f f i c i e n t pockets undetected  r e s i d u a l gas  of  remained to cause the massive c o n c r e t e dome to be  blown almost 10 metres i n t o the  air.  1 8  U n l i k e the C l e v e l a n d d i s a s t e r , the S t a t e n I s l a n d e x p l o s i o n d i d not r e s u l t i n a reinstatement  of the moratorium on LNG  s i g n i f i c a n t to note t h a t both loaded LNG from e n t e r i n g the P o r t of New the a c c i d e n t has  development, a l t h o u g h and LPG  s h i p s have been p r o h i b i t e d  Y o r k s i n c e the i n c i d e n t . ^  served to b r i n g the LNG  i t is  Furthermore,  i n d u s t r y under f a r more c a r e f u l  s c r u t i n y by both government r e g u l a t o r y bodies and a l i k e than would p r o b a b l y have been the case had  concerned c i t i z e n s groups the e x p l o s i o n not  occurred.  I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a number of e x i s t i n g and proposed gas r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l o p e r a t i o n s i n such major c e n t r e s as Boston, Los A n g e l e s ,  and, of c o u r s e ,  New  York have been s u b j e c t e d t o much c r i t i c i s m over the s e r i o u s p u b l i c s a f e t y problems i n h e r e n t i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and  s t o r a g e o f LNG.  towards i n c r e a s e d c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the LNG yielded several positive results.  The  l a t e s t LNG  The  trend  s a f e t y debate has t e r m i n a l s to become  o p e r a t i o n a l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s - one a t Cove P o i n t , M a r y l a n d and  another  near Savannah, G e o r g i a - are s i t u a t e d i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y underpopulated  areas,  and are surrounded by e x t e n s i v e b u f f e r zones to d i s c o u r a g e p u b l i c encroachment on the f a c i l i t y grounds.  E q u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t has been the  r e c e n t d e c i s i o n on the p a r t of the S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a t o r e s t r i c t t e r m i n a l development t o the i s o l a t e d P o i n t C o n c e p t i o n k i l o m e t r e s n o r t h w e s t of Los  By c o n t r a s t , LPG generated  a r e a , some  controversy.  d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n s of LNG f o l l o w i n g manner:  100  Angeles.  has never evoked the same sense of p u b l i c concern  by the LNG  LNG  as t h a t  P r o f e s s o r James Fay has e x p l a i n e d and LPG  the  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the  60 At both s t a t e and f e d e r a l l e v e l s , LNG i s r e g u l a t e d as a form of n a t u r a l gas whose d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e s f a l l w i t h i n the scope of p u b l i c u t i l i t y l a w . The process of g r a n t i n g p e r m i t s under these laws n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s a s u b s t a n t i a l r e v i e w of s a f e t y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and p r i c i n g i s s u e s . The procedures open up t o p u b l i c s c r u t i n y the e v a l u a t i o n s of p u b l i c s a f e t y impact u n d e r t a k e n by a p p l i c a n t s and r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , and permit i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the r e g u l a t o r y process by c i t i z e n s groups or i n d i v i d u a l s who might be exposed t o r i s k . Because of the d i r e c t involvement of government a g e n c i e s , c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r LNG f a c i l i t i e s f r e q u e n t l y ( i f not i n v a r i a b l y ) become p o l i t i c a l issues. I n c o n t r a s t , LPG d i s t r i b u t i o n i s no more r e g u l a t e d than i s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of any o t h e r p e t r o l e u m product of e q u i v a l e n t f l a m m a b i l i t y . P r o v i d e d the u s u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g s t a n d a r d s f o r v e h i c l e s and s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s a r e observed, no o v e r a l l r e g u l a t o r y e v a l u a t i o n of LPG f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g s a f e t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l e f f e c t s , i s r e q u i r e d by l a w . Because such r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a b s e n t , l i t t l e p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n e x i s t s on LPG r i s k s and p u b l i c c o n t r o v e r s y over f a c i l i t i e s i s almost n o n - e x i s t e n t . 2 0  P r o f e s s o r Fay's o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t the r e c e n t  considers  s t a t e d e c i s i o n t o r e s t r i c t f u t u r e LNG t e r m i n a l developments  to a s i n g l e geographical of LPG t e r m i n a l s . agencies,  are more c l e a r l y u n d e r s c o r e d when one  a r e a w i t h i n C a l i f o r n i a does not a p p l y  t o the s i t i n g  Thus, i n view of the f a c t t h a t many government r e g u l a t o r y  b o t h i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s and e l s e w h e r e , do not appear t o equate  the h a z a r d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h LPG e q u a l l y w i t h those o f LNG, i t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the g e n e r a l  p u b l i c tends to p e r c e i v e  t h e w i d e s p r e a d domestic  use  of such c o n v e n i e n t and r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e p r o d u c t s as l i q u e f i e d propane  and  butane w i t h a sense of both f a m i l i a r i t y and a c c e p t a n c e .  Assuming t h a t the r a t h e r d e t a i l e d and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , extraordinary  precautionary  quite  measures which have been imposed by many  upon companies engaged i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and s t o r a g e j u s t i f i a b l e from the s t a n d p o i n t  of e n s u r i n g  nations  o f LNG a r e w h o l l y  an a p p r o p r i a t e  s t a n d a r d of  p u b l i c s a f e t y , one i s prompted t o q u e s t i o n whether o r n o t LPG does a c t u a l l y present as g r e a t  a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t t o h e a l t h and s a f e t y as LNG.  There i s ,  61 i n f a c t , a s i z e a b l e body of o p i n i o n w i t h i n both academic and government c i r c l e s t o suggest t h a t LPG i s , i n many r e s p e c t s , a t l e a s t as dangerous as LNG.  A r e c e n t study by the Oceanographic Commission of Washington S t a t e  states that: ...under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , LPG can be more hazardous than LNG. For example, u n l i k e LNG, there i s no doubt t h a t u n c o n f i n e d vapor c l o u d s of LPG can explode. When s t o r e d under p r e s s u r e , t h e r e i s some p o s s i b i l i t y of a b o i l i n g l i q u i d expanding vapor e x p l o s i o n (BLEVE). S i n c e LPG vapor i s h e a v i e r than a i r , the vapor c l o u d from an LPG s p i l l w i l l not become buoyant l i k e t h e LNG c l o u d , and a t r a p p e d LPG gas pocket might take l o n g e r t o d i s p e r s e . LPG vapor a l s o has lower flammable l i m i t s . . . , which means t h a t the vapor c l o u d from an LPG s p i l l must be more d i l u t e d than an LNG vapor c l o u d b e f o r e i t i s non-flammable. F i n a l l y , LPG has about 20 percent more energy f o r a g i v e n volume of l i q u i d than does L N G . 21  James Fay, i n a comparative assessment o f LNG and LPG r i s k s , concludes  that:  ...compared t o LNG, LPG r i s k a n a l y s i s f o r l a r g e systems i s l e s s d e v e l o p e d . The few s t u d i e s made to date l e a d t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t LPG systems are a t l e a s t as r i s k y , and p o s s i b l y much more r i s k y , than e q u i v a l e n t LNG s y s t e m s . 2 2  As noted p r e v i o u s l y , t h e l i q u e f i e d gas c o n t r o v e r s y has been equated almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e LNG i s s u e . America.  This has been e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n N o r t h  F u r t h e r m o r e , i n s p i t e of i t s h a v i n g been i n w i d e s p r e a d commercial  use f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l y l o n g e r p e r i o d of time t h a n LNG, the body of l i t e r a t u r e dealing with LPG-related Recognizing  hazards i s s m a l l by comparison.  these h i s t o r i c l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard -  w h i c h , more than any o t h e r government agency, has been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r both l e g i t i m i z i n g the need f o r s t r o n g e r gas t a n k s h i p o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s and for  p r o v i d i n g the fundamental models upon which t o base these r e g u l a t i o n s -  has  r e c e n t l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w i l l p l a c e a g r e a t e r emphasis upon f u t u r e  r e s e a r c h i n t o the s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sea-borne c a r r i a g e o f hazardous m a t e r i a l s other than LNG - n o t a b l y LPG, ammonia, and sulphuric a c i d .  2 3  T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t the Coast Guard h a s , i n  the p a s t , been n e g l i g e n t i n i t s rulemaking  c a p a c i t y f o r these o r o t h e r  62 dangerous commodities.  On the c o n t r a r y , i n the absence of s u f f i c i e n t  background data on the s p i l l or i g n i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f LPG, a t l e a s t , the Coast Guard has chosen t o approach the v e s s e l s a f e t y q u e s t i o n manner which can o n l y be d e s c r i b e d s p e c i a l ( L N G - o r i e n t e d ) gas tanker  ina  as prudent and r e s p o n s i b l e by a p p l y i n g operating  and LPG c a r r i e r s ( s e e Chapter 4.0).  r e g u l a t i o n s e q u a l l y t o both LNG  Other c o u n t r i e s such as Japan (which  has  had a l o n g t r a d i t i o n of l i q u e f i e d gas i m p o r t a t i o n )  has  r e c e n t l y embarked upon an i m p o r t a n t new e r a of i n c r e a s e d LPG i m p o r t a t i o n  and  d i s t r i b u t i o n ) a r e a n x i o u s to ensure t h a t s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s f o r  ocean-going gas c a r r i e r s o p e r a t i n g  and H o l l a n d  (which  I n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l waters are a t l e a s t  as s t r i n g e n t as those which are now i n e f f e c t i n A m e r i c a n p o r t s .  The  LPG i n d u s t r y i t s e l f has been p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l i n m a i n t a i n i n g  low p u b l i c p r o f i l e over the y e a r s .  a  That t h i s has been s o , however, i s  perhaps more of a c r e d i t t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i n d u s t r y ' s  public  r e l a t i o n s programs than t o i t s o v e r a l l s a f e t y r e c o r d , which has been much worse than t h a t of t h e LNG i n d u s t r y .  Lee D a v i s ,  i n h e r account of t h e LNG  s a f e t y i s s u e e n t i t l e d "Frozen F i r e " , c h r o n i c l e s no fewer than 23 c o n f i r m e d (and  s i x u n c o n f i r m e d ) LPG a c c i d e n t s  deaths. accidents  between 1943 and 1978 which r e s u l t e d i n  By c o n t r a s t , Ms. D a v i s i d e n t i f i e s o n l y f o u r s e p a r a t e L N G - r e l a t e d during  t h i s same p e r i o d which r e s u l t e d i n l o s s of l i f e ,  the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned C l e v e l a n d explosion. ^ 2  In total,  f i r e of 1944 and t h e 1973 S t a t e n  Island  a t l e a s t 483 deaths were a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the  above-noted LPG a c c i d e n t s , as opposed to 177 f o r t h e LNG a c c i d e n t s which r e s u l t e d from the C l e v e l a n d  The  including  and S t a t e n I s l a n d d i s a s t e r s  Davis f i g u r e s r e q u i r e f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n .  Firstly,  (170 of  alone).  LPG does have a  broader range of u s e s , and i s more w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d by means of road and  63  r a i l t a n k e r than i s LNG.  A c c o r d i n g l y , one must l o g i c a l l y expect a h i g h e r  i n c i d e n c e o f LPG a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g these p a r t i c u l a r f a c e t s of t h e industry.  F u r t h e r m o r e , by the a u t h o r ' s own a c c o u n t , the a c c i d e n t l i s t s  c o n t a i n e d i n "Frozen F i r e " are by no means a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g .  On the o t h e r hand, c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t Ms. D a v i s ' p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t was w i t h r a t h e r than LPG,  and g i v e n t h a t the LNG  i n d u s t r y i s both more s t r i c t l y  r e g u l a t e d and more l o c a l i z e d i n a g e o g r a p h i c a l sense, i t i s not to  LNG  unreasonable  assume t h a t the a c c i d e n t s t a t i s t i c s compiled i n " F r o z e n F i r e " r e f l e c t a  more a c c u r a t e and comprehensive they do f o r LPG.  p i c t u r e of the LNG  accident s i t u a t i o n  than  I t i s q u i t e c o n c e i v a b l e , then, t h a t many i n c i d e n t s  i n v o l v i n g LPG - p a r t i c u l a r l y those o c c u r r i n g i n c o u n t r i e s where a c c i d e n t r e p o r t i n g procedures a r e , at b e s t , r u d i m e n t a r y - have gone unannounced i n the p a s t .  As a c o n c l u d i n g remark, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t none of the  L N G - r e l a t e d a c c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n "Frozen F i r e " a f t e r t h e S t a t e n I s l a n d d i s a s t e r of 1973 r e s u l t e d i n a s i n g l e death. 1973 t o J u l y 1978  D u r i n g the p e r i o d F e b r u a r y  ( t h e date of the l a s t r e c o r d e d i n c i d e n t i n the b o o k ) ,  however, no fewer than 17 c o n f i r m e d (and 3 u n c o n f i r m e d ) LPG a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g l o s s of l i f e have been d e t a i l e d .  A d m i t t e d l y , the p r e c e d i n g f i g u r e s are i n c o n c l u s i v e , and s h o u l d be  viewed  w i t h some c a u t i o n pending a d e t a i l e d assessment of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g each s e p a r a t e i n c i d e n t .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s u b s t a n t i a l  d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the r e l a t i v e s a f e t y r e c o r d s f o r each p r o d u c t would appear to  i n d i c a t e s e r i o u s d e f i c i e n c i e s i n terms of the q u a l i t y and  of  w o r l d w i d e LPG r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e d u r e s .  effectiveness  64 3.3.2  LPG Hazard  Assessment  L P G - r e l a t e d hazards f a l l i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s - t h o s e h a v i n g t o do w i t h the e f f e c t s of c o l d temperatures on s t e e l or human t i s s u e , and those h a v i n g to do w i t h the h i g h l y i n f l a m m a b l e n a t u r e of the p r o d u c t .  Of the two, c o l d  temperature hazards are g e n e r a l l y f e l t t o p r e s e n t l e s s of a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o p u b l i c h e a l t h or s a f e t y .  I n the event a q u a n t i t y of LPG i s a c c i d e n t a l l y  s p i l l e d onto an u n t r e a t e d " m i l d " s t e e l s u r f a c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the m e t a l c o u l d s u f f e r from the phenomenon known as b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e - or l o s s of d u c t i l i t y due t o exposure to low t e m p e r a t u r e s . b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e would be dependent  The s e v e r i t y of the  not o n l y upon the amount of LPG  spilled  and the e x t e n t t o which i t i s d i s t r i b u t e d over the u n t r e a t e d s u r f a c e , but a l s o upon the c o m p o s i t i o n of the s p i l l e d gas and the temperature a t which i t was b e i n g s t o r e d .  Thus, one would a n t i c i p a t e t h a t the l i k e l i h o o d of s e r i o u s  b r i t t l e f r a c t u r e o c c u r r i n g would be l e s s i n the event of a s p i l l of normal butane s t o r e d a t or near i t s b o i l i n g p o i n t of -1° C t h a n i t would f o r an equivalent  s p i l l i n v o l v i n g propane r e f r i g e r a t e d to -42° C.  Another  p o t e n t i a l c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e - r e l a t e d h a z a r d i s t h a t of f r o s t b i t e , which can r e s u l t from even b r i e f exposure of human t i s s u e to LPG.  The most s e r i o u s problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h LPG, however, a r e r e l a t e d t o i t s inflammability.  I n the absence of oxygen, LPG i s a r e l a t i v e l y s a f e , s t a b l e  p r o d u c t which i s not prone to v i o l e n t c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s . it  For t h i s reason,  i s s t o r e d and t r a n s p o r t e d i n c l o s e d , o x y g e n - f r e e containment  Unfortunately,  systems.  i t i s not always p o s s i b l e t o m a i n t a i n LPG I n a c o n t r o l l e d  s t a t e of oxygen d e p r i v a t i o n .  Thus, i n the event of a l a r g e volume  a c c i d e n t a l d i s c h a r g e i n t o the atmosphere, a t l e a s t two i m p o r t a n t changes i n the make-up of the LPG would take p l a c e . i m m e d i a t e l y endeavour tantamount  F i r s t l y , the e s c a p i n g l i q u i d  would  t o r e t u r n t o i t s n a t u r a l vapour s t a t e i n what would  to a massive, u n c o n t r o l l e d b o i l - o f f .  S e c o n d l y , the r e s u l t a n t  be  65 vapour, upon coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h oxygen i n the atmosphere would q u i c k l y be t r a n s f o r m e d  i n t o an u n s t a b l e , h i g h l y c o m b u s t i b l e  e x p l o s i v e l i m i t s f o r propane range from 2.1% butane, from 1.8% air  t o 8.5%.  a t a r a t i o of 2.1 - 9.5%  gas m i x t u r e .  (by volume) t o 9.5%;  The f o r normal  In o t h e r words, when propane vapour mixes w i t h gas to a i r , i t i s capable of b u r n i n g upon  ignition.  Assuming t h a t the e s c a p i n g LPG i s not i g n i t e d i m m e d i a t e l y ,  a l a r g e vapour  c l o u d ( o r plume) would form, and would d r i f t downwind u n t i l d i s s i p a t i n g , or encountering a s u i t a b l e i g n i t i o n source.  either  Depending upon the  gas t o a i r r a t i o of the vapour c l o u d at the p o i n t of c o n t a c t w i t h a p o t e n t i a l i g n i t i o n s o u r c e , the c l o u d c o u l d be set on f i r e by as l i t t l e b u r n i n g c i g a r e t t e or even an e r r a n t e l e c t r i c s p a r k .  as a  I g n i t i o n of the vapour  c l o u d would n o r m a l l y r e s u l t i n an i n t e n s e , h i g h temperature  flashback f i r e -  p o s s i b l y t o the i n i t i a l source of d i s c h a r g e .  circumstances,  Under c e r t a i n  however, u n c o n f i n e d LPG vapour c l o u d s have been known to explode ignition.25  A c c o r d i n g to the U.S.  upon  Coast Guard:  I f . . . d e t o n a t i o n (a v i o l e n t , f o r c e f u l e x p l o s i o n ) were to o c c u r , the damage would be g r e a t e r than t h a t of a d e f l a g r a t i o n ( s i m p l e b u r n i n g ) . A d e f l a g r a t i n g vapor c l o u d i s p r o b a b l y f a t a l to t h o s e w i t h i n the c l o u d and o u t s i d e b u i l d i n g s but i s not a major t h r e a t to those beyond the c l o u d , though t h e r e w i l l be burns from t h e r m a l r a d i a t i o n . . . . In comparison, a d e t o n a t i o n I s not o n l y f a t a l to those i n s i d e the c l o u d but a l s o due to the o v e r p r e s s u r e s developed, can be h a r m f u l o u t s i d e the c l o u d boundaries.26 The vapour c l o u d problem i s compounded by the f a c t t h a t LPG,  being heavier  than a i r , d i s p e r s e s more s l o w l y than many l i g h t e r gas compounds. because of i t s w e i g h t , LPG vapour tends to c o l l e c t i n low l y i n g  Moreover, pockets  where i t can remain i n e x p l o s i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s f o r extended p e r i o d s of time.  To d a t e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e  i s known about the s p e c i f i c m o b i l i t y o r  f l a s h b a c k c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a m a s s i v e LPG  d i s c h a r g e , such  as  66  might be expected t o occur  i n the event of a major s h i p p i n g a c c i d e n t .  S i m i l a r l y , e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s undertaken i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and elsewhere concerning  the p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n l i m i t s of i n f l a m m a b l e LNG vapour  clouds  have been the t o p i c of much c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n the s c i e n t i f i c community. As r e c e n t l y as 1976, independent e s t i m a t e s  of the d i s t a n c e t o the end o f the  inflammable zone f o r a plume r e s u l t i n g from a h y p o t h e t i c a l 100 000 c u b i c metre LNG s p i l l  ranged from 5.2 k i l o m e t r e s (U.S. F e d e r a l Power Commission  p r o j e c t i o n ) t o 203 k i l o m e t r e s (based upon the c a l c u l a t i o n s of MIT P r o f e s s o r James F a y ) .  2 7  The enormous d i s c r e p a n c y  i n these f i g u r e s r e f l e c t e d the  l i m i t e d amount of r e s e a r c h which had been undertaken t o t h a t time i n t h e area of l i q u e f i e d gas plume b e h a v i o u r , spill  e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e d t o l a r g e gas  situations.  While m o d e l l i n g  techniques  have improved s i n c e 1976, " . . . t h e r e i s no  consensus as t o w h i c h (gas d i s p e r s i o n ) model i s the b e s t , e s p e c i a l l y when used t o s i m u l a t e s p i l l of 25 000 m r e s u l t s are a v a i l a b l e . "  2 8  3  of LNG f o r which no  experimental  T h i s i s borne out by the r e s u l t s of f o u r  r e c e n t models which were used t o f o r e c a s t the p r o b a b l e  d i s p e r s i o n of a  h y p o t h e t i c a l 25 000 c u b i c metre LNG s p i l l under i d e n t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . can be seen i n T a b l e 3.1, the r e s u l t i n g c l o u d dimensions and c l o u d  As  travel  p a t t e r n s d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from one another: T a b l e 3.1 A Comparison of R e s u l t s of Four Models D e s c r i b i n g the Dimensions of t h e LFL E x t e n t of a Cloud F o l l o w i n g a 25 000 m LNG S p i l l Distance (Kilometres) Wind ' Germeles ColenE&E Dimension Stability mls Drake Eidsvik brander (Dome) Maximum DownF 3 6.3 6.5 8.0 21.9 wind T r a v e l D 2 4JL 6^ 7_ 4 13.0 Maximum Cloud F 3 1.0 7.8 12.8 1.0 Width D 2 1J) 6^3 11.8 1.0 Maximum Cloud F 3 0.8 0.6 3.3 2.0 Length D 2 0JS 0^6 1^8 2^ 3  1  Source:  The Termpol C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee's Assessment Report on Dome P e t r o l e u m L i m i t e d ' s P r o p o s a l t o C o n s t r u c t and Operate a L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas M a r i n e T e r m i n a l a t G r a s s y P o i n t . Simpson Bay, B.C. (Vancouver: Canadian Coast Guard, May 1982), as e x t r a c t e d from the E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and R i s k A n a l y s i s Sub-Committee R e p o r t . P  o  r  t  67 D a v i s , however, c i t e s one  p a r t i c u l a r l y noteworthy i n s t a n c e d u r i n g 1973  S h e l l O i l s c i e n t i s t s conducted a s e r i e s of c o n t r o l l e d gas e x p e r i m e n t s from the LNG  c a r r i e r G a d i l a i n the Bay  the l a r g e s t t e s t , some 193 c u b i c metres o f LNG  discharge  of B i s c a y . ^ 2  The  gas plume extended downwind over a d i s t a n c e of 2250 m e t r e s . estimated  Because b o t h LNG  at a p p r o x i m a t e l y  and LPG  During  were j e t t i s o n e d from G a d i l a  over a 10 minute p e r i o d i n winds r a n g i n g from 4 to 11 k n o t s .  zone was  when  The  subsequent inflammable  700 m e t r e s .  vapour c l o u d s share the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  b e i n g a b l e to t r a v e l over c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e s to an i g n i t i o n s o u r c e , i t i s not u n r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t a somewhat s i m i l a r r e s u l t might have been recorded  i f LPG,  experiment. theoretical  r a t h e r than LNG,  had been deployed d u r i n g the G a d i l a  I n f a c t , t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n i s supported  by at l e a s t  study by the U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of Technology Assessment: T a b l e 3.2  S p i l l s on Water (Under Worst Weather C o n d i t i o n s ) LPG  LNG S p i l l Quantity (Tons)  Source:  Max. H a l f Width ( F t . ) 340 860 2020  100 1000 10000  one  Max. Extent (Miles) 1.5 4.5 12.0  Max. H a l f Width ( F t . )  1.4 3.9 11.0  320 800 2000  U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e , L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas: P o l i c y Concerns (Washington: June 1978), p.  Max. E x t e n t (Miles)  Safety, S i t i n g , 45.  I t i s g e n e r a l l y acknowledged t h a t the g r e a t e r the volume of l i q u e f i e d released i n a s p i l l , could t h e o r e t i c a l l y discharged  and  gas  the g r e a t e r the d i s t a n c e the r e s u l t a n t vapour plume t r a v e l to a p o i n t of i g n i t i o n .  d u r i n g the G a d i l a experiment was  3 0  The  comparatively  volume of  gas  s m a l l , amounting  68 r o u g h l y 1\ r a i l c a r l o a d s .  By c o n t r a s t , the unscheduled r u p t u r i n g of even a  s i n g l e tank aboard an ocean-going LPG c a r r i e r c o u l d l e a d t o the p o t e n t i a l d i s c h a r g e of up t o many thousands of c u b i c metres of gas over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e , depending upon the n a t u r e and l o c a t i o n of the h u l l penetration.  Under t h i s type of worst case s i t u a t i o n , and i n the e x t r e m e l y  u n l i k e l y event t h a t the e s c a p i n g LPG does not i g n i t e i m m e d i a t e l y at the p o i n t of the tank r u p t u r e , the p o t e n t i a l f o r m a t i o n of a vapour c l o u d of up t o s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s i n l e n g t h must be viewed as a r e a l  possibility.  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , however, i n the event of a h i g h impact s h i p p i n g a c c i d e n t (such as a c o l l i s i o n w i t h another v e s s e l or s t r u c t u r e , g r o u n d i n g , or a c t of sabotage) r e s u l t i n g i n an u n c o n t r o l l e d l a r g e volume d i s c h a r g e of LPG,  the  debate over vapour c l o u d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would almost c e r t a i n l y be reduced t o a p u r e l y academic l e v e l .  The f r i c t i o n heat and/or s t a t i c  charges  generated d u r i n g such an event would n o r m a l l y be s u f f i c i e n t t o i g n i t e the e s c a p i n g gas vapours  instantaneously.  Based upon numerous s m a l l e r s c a l e LPG e x p l o s i o n s i n v o l v i n g r o a d t a n k e r s , r a i l c a r s , and s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s , and upon l i m i t e d LNG f i r e e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s p e c u l a t e as t o the p r o b a b l e form w h i c h a major s h i p - b a s e d LPG f i r e might t a k e .  T y p i c a l l y , l i q u e f i e d gas would pour out of the  r u p t u r e , much of i t v a p o u r i z i n g upon e n t r y i n t o the atmosphere.  The  rest,  r e m a i n i n g t e m p o r a r i l y i n a c o l d , l i q u i d s t a t e , would q u i c k l y spread o v e r the s u r f a c e of the w a t e r .  Upon i g n i t i o n , a huge v e r t i c a l column of flame would  be produced, and the f i r e would r a p i d l y extend t o the o u t e r e x t r e m i t i e s of the " p o o l " of l i q u e f i e d gas which had formed on the w a t e r .  The  ultimate  outward spread of the f i r e would be d i r e c t l y dependent upon such i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r s as wind speed and d i r e c t i o n , t i d a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the r a t e of volume d i s c h a r g e of gas from the h o l e d tank.  69  The c a r d i n a l r u l e f o r f i g h t i n g l i q u e f i e d gas f i r e s i s t o a v o i d the  extinguishing  b l a z e u n t i l the source of the l e a k has been e f f e c t i v e l y s e a l e d o f f .  F a i l u r e t o f o l l o w t h i s procedure w i l l almost c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t i n r e p e a t e d vapour c l o u d f l a s h b a c k and r e - i g n i t i o n of the p o o l .  To a l l i n t e n t s and  p u r p o s e s , t h e n , the o n l y p r a c t i c a l way t o handle a l a r g e s h i p b o a r d gas f i r e caused by a tank r u p t u r e i s t o a l l o w i t t o burn i t s e l f o u t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w h i l e t h i s might be a t h e o r e t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p r o c e d u r e f o r t a c k l i n g a g a s f u e l l e d f i r e aboard a v e s s e l a t s e a , i t would l e a v e much t o be d e s i r e d when a p p l i e d t o a c o n g e s t e d , p h y s i c a l l y r e s t r i c t e d harbour s i t u a t i o n .  Under  c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t has been e s t i m a t e d t h a t a f i r e aboard an ocean-going LPG c a r r i e r c o u l d burn f o r many days o r , i n t h e o r y , even months. -'3  F u r t h e r m o r e , once the f i r e takes h o l d , the h a z a r d p o t e n t i a l  i n c r e a s e s markedly. temperatures.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , gas f i r e s tend t o burn a t v e r y h i g h  A t the h e i g h t of the 1944 LNG f i r e i n C l e v e l a n d , f o r example,  flame temperatures r e p o r t e d l y reached as much a t 1650° C, and the i n t e n s e r a d i a n t heat g e n e r a t e d by the c o n f l a g r a t i o n i g n i t e d b u i l d i n g s 650 metres d i s t a n t .  3 2  S i g n i f i c a n t l y e x p e r i m e n t a l flame temperatures  r e c o r d e d f o r both butane and propane have been m a r g i n a l l y h i g h e r than f o r methane, t h e p r i n c i p a l component of LNG.  D u r i n g t e s t s conducted by the  U.S. Coast Guard, flame temperatures of up t o 1875° C have been r e c o r d e d for  methane, as oposed t o temperatures of 1895° C and 1925° C f o r butane 33  and propane r e s p e c t i v e l y . harbour such as Vancouver F i r s t Narrows  Thus, a f i r e aboard an LPG c a r r i e r i n a (where the minimum n o r t h - s o u t h w i d t h between t h e  and the Second Narrows  i s o n l y 200 metres and t h e maximum i s  seldom more than 2000 metres) c o u l d l e a d t o e x t e n s i v e i n d i r e c t s h o r e s i d e combustion.  The p r o s p e c t of a massive mid-harbour LPG c o n f l a g r a t i o n t a k e s  on an added d i m e n s i o n when one c o n s i d e r s the wide range of t o x i c and c o m b u s t i b l e m a t e r i a l s which a r e r o u t i n e l y s t o r e d i n r a i l c a r s and tank farms on both s i d e s of B u r r a r d I n l e t , i n c l u d i n g c h l o r i n e , propane, e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e , m e t h a n o l , s u l p h u r i c a c i d , and many o t h e r s .  70  Another i n h e r e n t s h o r t c o m i n g w i t h the " l e t i t burn" approach  to LPG  fire  management i s t h a t the l o n g e r the f i r e burns, the g r e a t e r the r i s k those cargo tanks which d i d not r u p t u r e d u r i n g the i n i t i a l c o l l a p s e from h e a t - i n d u c e d s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e .  impact  I n the o n l y  that may  comparable  m a r i t i m e a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g LPG - t h a t i s , the 1974 c o l l i s i o n between the L i b e r i a n - r e g i s t e r e d f r e i g h t e r P a c i f i c Ares and the Japanese  LPG/naphtha  c a r r i e r Yuyo Maru - t h e Yuyo's naphtha tanks were breached upon impact ignited instantly.  and  I n i t i a l l y , no fewer than 11 f i r e f i g h t i n g v e s s e l s were  d i s p a t c h e d t o d e a l w i t h the f i r e .  However, due to the i n t e n s e heat  generated by the b u r n i n g naphtha, the f i r e b o a t s were unable to get near enough to the Yuyo t o b r i n g the flames under c o n t r o l . ^  Nevertheless,  3  through a c o m b i n a t i o n of sound d e s i g n , good l u c k , and c o n s t a n t water by a t t e n d i n g f i r e b o a t s , the Yuyo's LPG tanks remained throughout. -* 3  intact  N o t h w i t h s t a n d i n g the r a t h e r f o r t u i t o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s  which p r e v e n t e d the Yuyo's LPG tanks from c o l l a p s i n g , the v e r y r e a l of  cooling  threat  h e a t - i n d u c e d tank f a i l u r e s h o u l d by no means be d i s c o u n t e d .  A l l of t h i s l e a d s to an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t of c o n j e c t u r e . c a r r i e r was  I f a l o a d e d LPG  involved i n serious, tank-penetrating c o l l i s i o n i n Burrard  I n l e t , c o u l d s y s t e m a t i c f a i l u r e of those cargo tanks which had not been i n i t i a l l y damaged be avoided? question.  O b v i o u s l y t h e r e i s no c o n c r e t e answer to t h i s  There a r e , however, c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which would tend t o  d i s t i n g u i s h an a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g the N i c h i z a n Maru from the one consumed the Yuyo Maru.  which  F o r i n s t a n c e , a cargo f i r e aboard the N i c h i z a n Maru  would be f u e l e d by propane, which burns a t a h i g h e r temperature t h a n the naphtha which was Vancouver,  i n v o l v e d i n the Yuyo Maru d i s a s t e r .  S e c o n d l y , t h e P o r t of  w i t h o n l y one f i r e b o a t at i t s d i s p o s a l , would almost c e r t a i n l y be  unable to c o n t a i n a major s h i p b o a r d LPG f i r e .  This l a t t e r l i m i t a t i o n  be f u r t h e r compounded s h o u l d the C i t y of Vancouver  would  ever choose to f o l l o w  71 through on i t s p e r i o d i c t h r e a t completely due of other  to withdraw the f i r e b o a t from s e r v i c e  to r a p i d l y e s c a l a t i n g c o s t s and  l o c a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and  f i r e b o a t ' s upkeep and  operating  an u n w i l l i n g n e s s  harbour agencies to c o n t r i b u t e  expenses.^6  The  one  offensive against  an LPG  f u n c t i o n a l u n i t which i s best  emergency.  f i r e , and  t r a i n e d and  any  attempt  to mount a  would e f f e c t i v e l y remove  I r o n i c a l l y , at a time when the trend  might argue that the  the  equipped to d e a l w i t h such  movements of a l l manner of hazardous m a t e r i a l s p o r t , one  to  towards i n c r e a s e d  i s on  the upswing i n  r e a l i s s u e at hand should  not  be  an  the  focussed  whether or not more s p e c i a l l y - d e s i g n e d emergency response v e s s e l s  The  the  shipborne  upon the p o s s i b l e withdrawal of the e x i s t i n g f i r e b o a t from s e r v i c e ,  actually  part  l o s s of the f i r e b o a t  under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s would s e r i o u s l y i n h i b i t co-ordinated  on the  but  are  required.  question  rupturing  of whether undamaged LPG  tanks c o u l d be  i n the event of a s e r i o u s mid-harbour gas  Nevertheless,  the p r e v i o u s l y - d i s c u s s e d  response c a p a b i l i t y and  the use  remains moot.  of propane, i n s t e a d of naphtha, as  the  l i k e l i h o o d of s y s t e m a t i c  f a i l u r e i n the event of a f i r e aboard a loaded than i t was  fire  from  f a c t o r s of l i m i t e d l o c a l emergency  p r i n c i p a l f u e l l i n g agent, suggest that the  would be g r e a t e r  prevented  gas  f o r the Yuyo Maru.  tank  c a r r i e r i n Burrard  The  Inlet  impact of such a tank  f a i l u r e i n a crowded harbour s e t t i n g would be enormous; the e f f e c t s p o s s i b l y catastrophic.  3.3.3  The  3.3.3.1.  Gas  Tanker S a f e t y  Record  Phase I - 1964-1978  In the face of o f t e n severe p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , gas long maintained t h a t LNG  and  LPG  accident-free vessels a f l o a t .  tanker proponents have  c a r r i e r s are among the  P r i o r to the  s a f e s t , most  l a t e 1970's, i n d u s t r y  officials  72  were q u i c k  to p o i n t out t h a t o n l y one " t o t a l l o s s " a c c i d e n t  tanker had ever o c c u r r e d .  i n v o l v i n g a gas  That, of c o u r s e , was the i l l - f a t e d Yuyo Maru,  which burned out of c o n t r o l f o r some 19 days a f t e r c o l l i d i n g w i t h the f r e i g h t e r P a c i f i c Ares i n November of 1974.  The Yuyo Maru was  eventually  sunk by Japanese n a v a l g u n f i r e on 28 November 1974 a f t e r i t had been determined t h a t the v e s s e l ' s cargo o f LPG and naphtha c o u l d c o n t i n u e  to burn  f o r up to s e v e r a l months.  Nevertheless,  i t would be erroneous to presume t h a t , a s i d e from the Yuyo  Maru d i s a s t e r , the gas t a n k e r throughout.  In f a c t , recent  s a f e t y r e c o r d has remained unblemished comments by C a p t a i n A l b e r t o A l l i e v i , gas and  chemical shipping safety co-ordinator the o p p o s i t e 1977,  has been t r u e .  f o r Esso Europe, suggest t h a t  quite  C a p t a i n A l l i e v i i n d i c a t e s t h a t between 1964 and  some 376 gas c a r r i e r s of fewer than 5000 c u b i c metres  capacity  e x p e r i e n c e d a t o t a l o f 394 v e s s e l c a s u a l t i e s - o r 2.34 c a s u a l t i e s p e r month. Large gas c a r r i e r s ( t h a t i s , those i n excess o f 5000 c u b i c m e t r e s ) s u f f e r e d an average of 1.2 c a s u a l t i e s per month d u r i n g  Unfortunately, extracted  this  period.37  the a r t i c l e from which C a p t a i n A l l i e v i ' s comments were  ("Smaller gas c a r r i e r s b i g g e r c a s u a l t y r i s k s , " L l o y d ' s L i s t , 10  A p r i l 1981) i s , f o r the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , d e f i c i e n t i n two v e r y important respects.  F i r s t l y , i t provides  little  n a t u r e or s e v e r i t y of the c a s u a l t i e s i n q u e s t i o n .  i n s i g h t i n t o the s p e c i f i c I n marine  terms, a v e s s e l " c a s u a l t y " c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a n y t h i n g  insurance  from a r e l a t i v e l y minor  i n c i d e n t which would not compromise the s a f e t y of e i t h e r the v e s s e l o r i t s crew, t o a t o t a l l o s s s i t u a t i o n (such as t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e Yuyo M a r u ) . S e c o n d l y , t h e a r t i c l e f a i l s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g LPG c a r r i e r s as opposed to LNG  carriers.  73 A review  of s e v e r a l p u b l i s h e d accounts d e a l i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h the LNG  i s s u e r e v e a l e d 29 s e p a r a t e i n v o l v i n g LPG  i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g LNG  c a r r i e r s , but o n l y s i x  c a r r i e r s , d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1964-1978.*  c h r o n i c l e d f o r t h i s p e r i o d were s e v e r a l e x p e r i e n c e d  Among the mishaps  by the w o r l d ' s f i r s t  c a r r i e r s - the A r i s t o t l e ( f o r m e r l y the Methane P i o n e e r ) , and c u b i c metre s i s t e r s h i p s Methane P r i n c e s s (1964) and Methane (1964).  safety  the 27  LNG  400  Progress  A l l of these v e s s e l s have, from time to t i m e , proven to be  d i s t u r b i n g l y s u s c e p t i b l e to a h o s t of m e c h a n i c a l m a l f u n c t i o n s  and  serious  e r r o r s i n human judgment, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g s e r i e s of events which b e f e l l A r i s t o t l e d u r i n g a s i n g l e 24-month p e r i o d i n the mid-1960*s:  38  November 1966:  Damage to main b e a r i n g r e s u l t s i n mid-ocean breakdown r e q u i r i n g 53 days to r e p a i r .  Date u n s p e c i f i e d , 1967:  C y l i n d e r l i n e r breaks. s u b s e q u e n t l y damaged.  September 1968:  Stranded f o r 61 hours o f f coast of Mexico f o l l o w i n g g r o u n d i n g . S u s t a i n s minor bottom damage and r e q u i r e s tug a s s i s t a n c e to r e f l o a t .  November 1968:  Loses rudder i n storm n o r t h of A z o r e s .  Two  cargo pumps  Towed  to Boston f o r r e p a i r s . Both the Methane P r i n c e s s and Methane P r o g r e s s experienced  have, at v a r i o u s  cargo containment system d i s o r d e r s r a n g i n g  times,  from " c o l d s p o t s "  on  the i n n e r h u l l (caused by c o n s t r u c t i o n d e f e c t s i n the c r y o g e n i c i n s u l a t i o n ) to more s e r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l c r a c k i n g . ^ 1 was  I n 1974,  the Methane  Progress  r e p o r t e d l y l a i d up f o r more than 70 days w h i l e r e p a i r s were made to her  s t e e r i n g gear f o l l o w i n g a grounding episode at Arzew, A l g e r i a . ^ December of the same y e a r , she was c o a s t e r Tower P r i n c e s s . ^ from the cargo tanks and  3  rammed i n the s t e r n by the  F o r t u n a t e l y , the a c c i d e n t was t h e r e was  no s p i l l a g e of  2  i  n  British  w e l l removed  LNG.  *For a more d e t a i l e d c h r o n o l o g y of r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s from 1964 to 1982, r e f e r t o Appendix I I ( f o r LPG t a n k e r c a s u a l t i e s ) and Appendix I I I ( f o r LNG t a n k e r c a s u a l t i e s ) .  74 Another noteworthy i n c i d e n t which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the 1964-1978 p e r i o d i n v o l v e d t h e s m a l l Swedish gas c a r r i e r Claude.  I n the f a l l of 1968, w h i l e  c a r r y i n g some 900 c u b i c metres of l i q u e f i e d butane, C l a u d e c o l l i d e d i n f o g w i t h a B r i t i s h f r e i g h t e r o f f Southampton, E n g l a n d . the a c c i d e n t i s from N o e l M o s t e r t ' s  The f o l l o w i n g account of  Supership:  "Seconds a f t e r t h e c o l l i s i o n , " C a p t a i n B a y l e y w r i t e s ( i n S a f e t y a t Sea I n t e r n a t i o n a l , J.C.M.), "the p i l o t of t h e Claude found h i m s e l f a l o n e on t h e b r i d g e of the s t r i c k e n s h i p , the r e s t of the crew h a v i n g jumped i n t o the fog-shrouded water. The gas t a n k e r ' s engine was l e f t t u r n i n g w i t h a s l i g h t r e v e r s e p i t c h on the p r o p e l l e r ! The p i l o t knew n o t h i n g of the cargo beneath him, but f i g u r i n g t h a t the crew knew what was best f o r t h e i r own s k i n s , he too abandoned s h i p . " The abandoned Claude d r i f t e d back the way she had come, a s s i s t e d by h e r p r o p e l l e r and the t i d e , and went aground. The drama however d i d not end t h e r e . The s h i p was towed t o a r e f i n e r y and a Portuguese gas s h i p was c h a r t e r e d t o take o f f the Claude's c a r g o . During the t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n one of the hoses sprang a l e a k and a "vast c l o u d of gas was c a r r i e d on t h e wind towards the r e f i n e r y and the c i t y of Southampton. " I n a f i n e d i s p l a y of p a n i c . . . t h e Portuguese t a n k e r steamed away, i g n o r i n g t h e r u p t u r i n g of hoses and p i p e l i n e s , i n e s t i m a b l y i n c r e a s i n g the r i s k of e x p l o s i o n . The r a p i d e v a p o r a t i o n of the l i q u i d gas caused i c e t o form and v o l u n t e e r s w o r k i n g w i t h o u t gas masks...had a hard j o b t o c l o s e the v a l v e s l e f t open by the d e p a r t i n g gentlemen o f Portugal."42 The Claude e p i s o d e  was one of the f i r s t t o draw p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o the  hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the marine c a r r i a g e of b u l k l i q u e f i e d g a s e s . a l s o served  t o i l l u s t r a t e , w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis, the e x t e n t  It  t o which  the human f a c t o r can have a s e r i o u s , even d e b i l i t a t i n g , e f f e c t upon the s a f e o p e r a t i o n of any v e s s e l . s m a l l by p r e s e n t  Even s o , the t o t a l volume of gas i n v o l v e d was  s h i p p i n g standards  and, a c c o r d i n g l y , the damage p o t e n t i a l  somewhat l i m i t e d i n terms of p h y s i c a l scope.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the i n c i d e n t s a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , gas c a r r i e r s were i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y of episodes  between 1964 and 1978, i n c l u d i n g  c o l l i s i o n s ( E u c l i d e s - 1974; LNG C h a l l e n g e r - 1977 and 1978; L i n c o l n s h i r e 1977;  and Khannur - 1978), groundings ( E u c l i d e s - 1974), s h i p b o a r d  ( M i l l i - 1974), and, i n a t l e a s t one i n s t a n c e , b r e a k i n g a d r i f t from moorage d u r i n g s t o r m - f o r c e 1978).  fires secure  winds and severe t i d a l c o n d i t i o n s (LNG A r i e s -  75  F i g u r e 3.3  LNG C a r r i e r Khannur at Sodegaura, Japan  76 3.3.3.2  Phase I I - 1979-1982  The p r e c e d i n g f i n d i n g s f o r the p e r i o d 1964-1978 are d i s c o n c e r t i n g i n two respects.  Firstly,  they r e p r e s e n t o n l y a f r a c t i o n of the more than 400  gas  t a n k e r c a s u a l t i e s r e f e r r e d t o by C a p t a i n A l l i e v i of E s s o Europe f o r the corresponding p e r i o d . i n v o l v e d LPG  Furthermore,  carriers.  outnumbered LNG  o n l y s i x of the 35 i n c i d e n t s documented  S m a l l and l a r g e LPG c a r r i e r s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c a r r i e r s by a very wide margin.  LPG c a r r i e r s outnumbered LNG c a r r i e r s t o 5 LNG  c a r r i e r s by a r a t i o of 29 t o 1 (145  c a r r i e r s ) ; by 1977,  that e i t h e r  a c c i d e n t r a t e than LPG  a) LNG  carriers).^  3  LPG 11 t o  T h i s would tend  t a n k e r s have had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  c a r r i e r s , or  operating  the r a t i o stood a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  1 (441 LPG c a r r i e r s , as opposed to 39 LNG t o suggest  In f a c t , i n 1966  b) the r e s e a r c h e r s who  higher  compiled  gas  t a n k e r a c c i d e n t s t a t i s t i c s d u r i n g the 1960's and 1970's were b i a s e d towards i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g LNG the most s e r i o u s LPG  c a r r i e r s and, as such, tended  t a n k e r mishaps.  be the more a p p r o p r i a t e of the two.  The  to o v e r l o o k a l l but  l a t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n would seem t o  However, i n the absence of d e t a i l e d  i n f o r m a t i o n t o support t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , a d a i l y a n a l y s i s was a l l LPG and LNG 1979  conducted  of  a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s f i l e d w i t h L l o y d ' s L i s t between 28 June  and 28 February  1982  - a t o t a l of 32 months.  The  f i n d i n g s of  this  i n v e s t i g a t i o n are e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t they appear to c a s t s e r i o u s doubt upon the l o n g - h e l d c l a i m t h a t l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s a r e i n h e r e n t l y s a f e r and, hence, l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e to s e r i o u s mishaps than o t h e r types of cargo s h i p s .  D u r i n g the course of the r e v i e w p e r i o d , 85 i n c i d e n t s of note i n v o l v i n g c a r r i e r s were i d e n t i f i e d , as opposed t o 23 LNG  casualties.*  the r e v i e w f o r each c a t e g o r y of v e s s e l (LPG and LNG)  *Note:  a r e as  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f the t o t a l number of LPG and LNG i d e n t i f i e d were removed from the a n a l y s i s due t o the i n s i g n i f i c a n t n a t u r e of the event.  LPG  The r e s u l t s of follows:  casualties clearly  77 Table 3.3:  LPG I n c i d e n t s of Note 28 June 1979 - 28 February  1982  C a s u a l t y Type G  C  T  L  W  M  S  F  E  0  0  5  0  0  0  5  1  0  0  11  0  4  7  2  2  3  7  2  2  0  29  •  13  1  2  2  3  8  3  1  0  33  ft  2  0  0  1  0  0  0  4  2  9  ••t  1  0  1  0  1  0  0  0  0  3  20  13  5  5  7  20  6  7  2  85  Casualty Status  Total  Source:  Total  Lloyd's L i s t , various editions  T a b l e 3.4: LNG I n c i d e n t s o f Note 28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982  Casualty Casualty Status  Type  G  C  T  L  w  M  S  F  E  Total  0  1  4  0  0  0  1  0  0  0  6  0  0  1  0  1  2  4  0  0  0  8  •  0  0  1  0  0  0  1  1  0  3  3  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  0  0  3  0  0  0  0  0  0  3  4  5  4  1  2  5  1  1  0  23  ••• Total  Source:  Lloyd's L i s t , various editions  78 E x p l a n a t i o n of Symbols f o r T a b l e s 3.3 and 3.4 ( a b o v e ) : A.  Status of Casualty 0  Minor i n c i d e n t - l i t t l e  8  I n c i d e n t of undetermined s t a t u s  •  S e r i o u s i n c i d e n t , but not c r i t i c a l t o v e s s e l o r crew s a f e t y  #• ••• B.  Symbols or no damage  Very s e r i o u s I n c i d e n t - imminent danger t o s a f e t y of v e s s e l , crew, and/or p u b l i c T o t a l l o s s of v e s s e l  C a s u a l t y Type Symbols G - grounding C - c o l l i s i o n o r c o n t a c t w i t h another v e s s e l o r o b s t a c l e as a p i e r , b r i d g e , e t c . )  (such  T - damage t o cargo containment system L - damage t o cargo h a n d l i n g  system  W - weather damage M - damage t o the v e s s e l s m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l system S - s t e e r i n g / p r o p e l l e r damage F - fire E - explosion P r i o r t o examining the r e s u l t s of T a b l e s 3.3 and 3.4 (above) i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , a few words of e x p l a n a t i o n as to how these t a b l e s were d e r i v e d i s i n order. and,  The " c a s u a l t y t y p e " c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y  as such, r e q u i r e l i t t l e  further elaboration.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , on t h e o t h e r hand, r e p r e s e n t i n c i d e n t s based on t h e p e r c e i v e d mishap.  The " c a s u a l t y s t a t u s "  an attempt t o c a t e g o r i z e  degree of s e v e r i t y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o each  I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e was i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n  the d a i l y L l o y d ' s L i s t c a s u a l t y r e p o r t s t o enable a m e a n i n g f u l judgment as t o the s e v e r i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r mishap.  These i n c i d e n t s of undetermined  s t a t u s a r e noted t h u s l y "e", number o f LPG a c c i d e n t s The  perceived  79 and account f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 34% o f the t o t a l  r e c o r d e d , and 35% of t h e LNG a c c i d e n t s  recorded.  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between minor i n c i d e n t s ( 0 ) and s e r i o u s  i n c i d e n t s (•) i s perhaps open t o the broadest i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e under such " c a s u a l t y  type" categories  c o l l i s i o n s , and m e c h a n i c a l / e l e c t r i c a l system d i s o r d e r s .  This i s  as g r o u n d i n g s , F o r example, under  the heading " g r o u n d i n g s " , the p o s i t i o n has been t a k e n t h a t a s i t u a t i o n i n which a v e s s e l b r i e f l y touches bottom, but does not remain hard aground and does not i n c u r bottom damage as a r e s u l t , s h o u l d be viewed as a minor incident.  On the o t h e r hand, d u r i n g  any i n s t a n c e whereupon a v e s s e l  grounds, and s u b s e q u e n t l y remains s t r a n d e d f o r a p e r i o d of t i m e , the e p i s o d e w i l l be viewed, a t the v e r y l e a s t , as a s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t , even i f the s h i p i s deemed t o have s u f f e r e d no a p p r e c i a b l e  damage as a r e s u l t of t h e  accident.  With r e g a r d  t o i n c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g c o l l i s i o n s between two or more v e s s e l s ,  low speed " c o n t a c t "  c a s u a l t i e s r e s u l t i n g i n s u p e r f i c i a l or c o s m e t i c damage  o n l y ( c l a s s i f i e d as minor i n c i d e n t s ) a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from more s i g n i f i c a n t incidents involving h u l l penetration  or i n t e r n a l damage t o the gas c a r r i e r  or o t h e r v e s s e l ( c l a s s i f i e d as s e r i o u s , a t the v e r y  least).  On the m a t t e r of m e c h a n i c a l or e l e c t r i c a l system d i s o r d e r s , the c r i t e r i o n of m o b i l i t y has been used as the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e between s e r i o u s and minor i n c i d e n t s .  That i s , i f a v e s s e l i s rendered immobile as a r e s u l t of  an engine m a l f u n c t i o n  and r e q u i r e s  towing a s s i s t a n c e  i n c i d e n t would be viewed as s e r i o u s .  t o r e a c h p o r t , the  Conversely, i f a vessel experiences a  m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l d i s o r d e r , but i s s t i l l a b l e own power, the i n c i d e n t would be c o n s i d e r e d  t o proceed under i t s  minor ( u n l e s s , of c o u r s e ,  there  80 are s i g n i f i c a n t and well-documented e x t e n u a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s  t o suggest  otherwise).  The  v e r y s e r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (••), s i m p l y s t a t e d , a p p l i e s t o  circumstances  i n w h i c h , as a r e s u l t of mishap, the s a f e t y of a v e s s e l , i t s  crew, o r , i n some i n s t a n c e s , the g e n e r a l p u b l i c has been p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t j e o p a r d y .  I n most, a l t h o u g h not a l l ,  cases  the presence  of LPG o r LNG aboard a v e s s e l i n d i s t r e s s may be the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c between a s e r i o u s and a very s e r i o u s i n c i d e n t .  In fact, i n  at l e a s t s i x (and p o s s i b l y seven) of n i n e v e r y s e r i o u s LPG a c c i d e n t s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g the 1979-1982 review p e r i o d loaded gas t a n k e r s were involved.  S i m i l a r l y , o f t h r e e v e r y s e r i o u s LNG a c c i d e n t s , two i n v o l v e d  loaded v e s s e l s ( s e e T a b l e 3.5 - Page 8 1 ) .  L a s t l y , f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s , t o t a l l o s s c a s u a l t i e s (•••) r e f e r to those s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e i n a v e s s e l , by reason of m i s a d v e n t u r e or some form of t e c h n i c a l l i m i t a t i o n , i s rendered l i q u e f i e d gases.  permanently unable t o t r a n s p o r t  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , the t o t a l l o s s c a t e g o r y i s somewhat  m i s l e a d i n g i n t h a t i t need not i n v o l v e the a c t u a l s i n k i n g of a v e s s e l .  In  f a c t , of s i x LPG and LNG t o t a l l o s s e s i d e n t i f i e d between 1979 and 1982, o n l y two i n v o l v e d v e s s e l s i n k i n g s . undertaken d e l i b e r a t e l y .  Moreover, i n both i n s t a n c e s the s i n k i n g s were  The LPG c a r r i e r Babounis Costas was s c u t t l e d o f f  the c o a s t of N i g e r i a i n December of 1979, some two months a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g severe l e a k i n g problems near Lagos.  The LPG c a r r i e r Gaz E a s t , w h i c h  c a p s i z e d i n h i g h winds o f f the French R i v i e r a d u r i n g October of 1980, was subsequently  sunk by t h e French navy because i t p r e s e n t e d  r i s k t o s h i p p i n g and p u b l i c s a f e t y .  an  unacceptable  T a b l e 3.5: Very S e r i o u s C a s u a l t i e s : Impact Assessment f o r the P e r i o d 28 June 1979 - 28 F e b r u a r y 1982  Date  Vessel  (Type)  Cargo  (m ) 3  29 June 79  E.P. P a u l Kayser  18 Sept 79  Jatai  28 Dec 79  B u t a s e i s (LPG)  21 Jan 80  R e g i t z e T h o l s t r u p (LPG)  25 Jan 80  Rudi M. (LPG)  17 Aug 80  Cetane  12-14 Sept 80  Mary E l s e T h o l s t r u p (LPG)  12 Dec 80  LNG Taurus  24 Apr 81  P r i n s M a u r i t s (LPG)  16 May 81  Gaz F o u n t a i n (LPG)  31 May 81  Olav Trygvason (LPG)  4 100  17 Dec 81  E.P. Columbia  Empty  (LNG)  (LPG)  (LNG)  (LNG)  Loss Of Life  Injured  Evacuated  99 500  Grounding  Nil  Nil  7  Empty  Explosion  1  4  Nil  1 200  Fire  Nil  Nil  Nil  Grounding  Nil  Nil  Local  1  4  Nil  400 Empty  (LPG)  Nature of Mishap  Fire  ?  Explosion  Nil  ?  Nil  630  Grounding & Explosion  Nil  2  Nil  125 000  Grounding  1  Nil  Nil  Empty  Fire & Explosion  Nil  2  Nil  Fire  Nil  Nil  Nil  Discharge Spill  1  2  Nil  Grounding  Nil  Nil  Nil  4  14  38 500  TOTALS  Source:  Lloyd's L i s t , various  editions.  82 Of the 108 combined LPG and LNG  c a s u a l t i e s recorded i n T a b l e s 3.1  and  3.2,  those f a l l i n g under the very s e r i o u s and t o t a l l o s s c a t e g o r i e s s h o u l d viewed w i t h p a r t i c u l a r concern i n t h a t they r e p r e s e n t , w i t h few the g r e a t e s t t h r e a t to v e s s e l and crew s a f e t y . circumstances  While  be  exceptions,  the b a s i c  s u r r o u n d i n g each of these i n c i d e n t s are d e s c r i b e d i n  Appendices I I and I I I , a b r i e f review of some of the more s i g n i f i c a n t t a n k e r a c c i d e n t s to have o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1978  i s warranted.  t h e r e i s the s p e c t r e of a s e r i o u s f i r e aboard t h e LPG  gas  For example,  c a r r i e r Gaz  Fountain,  loaded w i t h some 38 500 c u b i c metres of propane and butane, o r the c a p s i z i n g and subsequent s i n k i n g by t h e French navy of t h e i l l - f a t e d t a n k e r Gaz  East  and i t s cargo of 2000 c u b i c metres of l i q u e f i e d butane.  one  Furthermore,  s h o u l d not o v e r l o o k the tremendous burden of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y assumed by crews of these v e s s e l s .  The u n i q u e l y hazardous n a t u r e of  l i q u e f i e d gas cargoes must s u r e l y add an e x t r a dimension the most seasoned m a r i n e r s .  the  unconventional of p r e s s u r e on even  C a p t a i n P e t e r W i n k l e r of the A l g e r i a n LNG  c a r r i e r L a r b i Ben M ' h i d i o f f e r e d the f o l l o w i n g comments t o Vancouver r e p o r t e r A l a n D a n i e l s d u r i n g a November 1980  shipboard i n t e r v i e w at  Sun Boston,  Massachusetts: The most dangerous time i s d u r i n g d i s c h a r g e . . . I f a p i p e b r e a k s , i f a v a l v e was suddenly shut o f f ashore and t h e r e was a surge of p r e s s u r e which f r a c t u r e d a p i p e , enough LNG would be s p i l l e d on deck b e f o r e the emergency shut o f f c o u l d be operated t h a t the deck would c r a c k open. The LNG would f a l l onto a tank below and i t would a l s o r u p t u r e . I n such a case a f i r e would be a c e r t a i n t y because t h e r e are enough hot p o i n t s to s e t i t b u r n i n g . A f i r e i n one tank c o u l d not be fought and because of the heat the o t h e r tanks would c e r t a i n l y be melted and a l l would go. The d i s a s t e r , i n a crowded m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , would be unimaginable.^ On the morning of 12 December 1980,  the American l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r  LNG  Taurus, inbound  f o r T o b a t a , Japan ran aground near M o j i , o f f the west c o a s t  of Honshu.  Taurus was  LNG  loaded w i t h some 125 000 c u b i c metres of LNG  the time of the a c c i d e n t , which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g poor weather  at  83 conditions.4  5  On 15 December 1980, the v e s s e l ' s m a s t e r , C a p t a i n C.L.  P e t e r s o n , anguished  over an a c c i d e n t f o r which he a c c e p t e d  full  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , committed s u i c i d e i n h i s stateroom w h i l e h i s v e s s e l was s t i l l aground, a l t h o u g h a p p a r e n t l y i n no immediate d a n g e r . ^  However, t h e one i n c i d e n t which symbolizes both the best and worst  of the  l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s a f e t y argument i n v o l v e d the 29 June 1979 g r o u n d i n g of the 125 000 c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y LNG c a r r i e r E l Paso P a u l K a y s e r .  The  L i b e r i a n - r e g i s t e r e d E.P. P a u l K a y s e r , l o a d e d w i t h some 99 500 c u b i c metres of A l g e r i a n LNG, was outbound i n f o g through  t h e S t r a i t o f G i b r a l t a r when  she r a n aground o f f the S p a n i s h coast w h i l e a p p a r e n t l y a t t e m p t i n g t o a v o i d c o l l i s i o n w i t h another  ship.^  7  The grounding  o c c u r r e d w h i l e the E.P.  P a u l Kayser was t r a v e l l i n g a t s e r v i c e speed (18 k n o t s ) , and r e s u l t e d i n a m a s s i v e 170-metre l o n g p e n e t r a t i o n of h e r o u t e r h u l l . ^  8  Eventually,  some 95 000 c u b i c metres of cargo was removed t o h e r s i s t e r s h i p t h e E l Paso Sonatrach  i n what c o n s t i t u t e d , up u n t i l t h a t t i m e , an unprecedented  s h i p - t o - s h i p gas t r a n s f e r manoeuvre. 4 J u l y 1979, and was s u b s e q u e n t l y  The E.P. P a u l K a y s e r was r e f l o a t e d on  towed t o S t . N a z a i r e , France  e f f e c t r e p a i r s which would take almost  P r i o r t o examining  i n order to  two y e a r s t o complete.  some of the more s i g n i f i c a n t s a f e t y i m p l i c a t i o n s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e E.P. P a u l K a y s e r a c c i d e n t , one must f i r s t draw a t t e n t i o n to  the f a c t t h a t the cargo containment system s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h s t o o d the  enormous impact  of the g r o u n d i n g .  This, i n i t s e l f ,  i s a great t r i b u t e to  the v e s s e l ' s d e s i g n e r s ( G a z / T r a n s p o r t , P a r i s ) and h e r b u i l d e r s ( C h a n t i e r s de F r a n c e , Dunkerque).  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s p i t e of the s u b s t a n t i a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l  advances which have been made over the past decade w i t h r e g a r d t o gas t a n k e r d e s i g n and s a f e t y , the E.P. P a u l Kayser underscore  the c r i t i c a l importance  episode s e r v i c e s t o once a g a i n  of the human f a c t o r .  I n the absence of a  84  d e t a i l e d account of the events l e a d i n g up t o the g r o u n d i n g of the E.P. P a u l K a y s e r , many q u e s t i o n s remain unanswered.  However, i f the l i m i t e d  details  of the a c c i d e n t which have been p r e s e n t e d i n such n o r m a l l y r e l i a b l e p u b l i c a t i o n s as L l o y d ' s L i s t , C l a r k s o n ' s L i q u i d Gas C a r r i e r R e g i s t e r , and Marine E n g i n e e r i n g / L o g a r e c o r r e c t , one might r e a s o n a b l y presume t h a t the E.P. P a u l Kayser was t r a v e l l i n g w e l l i n excess of what would n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d a s a f e speed, g i v e n the p r e v a i l i n g ( f o g g y ) weather  conditions,  the p r o x i m i t y of the v e s s e l t o l a n d , and the g e n e r a l s t a t e of c o n g e s t i o n which e x i s t s i n the S t r a i t of G i b r a l t a r , one of the w o r l d ' s b u s i e s t waterways.  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t would be d i f f i c u l t  to conclude  t h a t the g r o u n d i n g was not a t t r i b u t a b l e , i n l a r g e measure, t o a v e r y s e r i o u s e r r o r i n judgment on the p a r t of the master o f t h e E.P. P a u l K a y s e r .  I n r e t r o s p e c t , had t h e a b o v e - d e s c r i b e d a c c i d e n t i n v o l v e d an o l d e r v e s s e l , o r one o f l e s s e r d e s i g n q u a l i t y than t h e E.P. P a u l K a y s e r , the r e s u l t s may have been much worse.  More i m p o r t a n t l y , i f a s e v e r e g r o u n d i n g such as t h e one  which d i s a b l e d t h e E.P. P a u l Kayser can happen, t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o suggest t h a t , as a r e s u l t of human e r r o r o r m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e , a h i g h speed c o l l i s i o n i n v o l v i n g one, o r p o s s i b l y even two, l a r g e gas c a r r i e r s c o u l d n o t occur.  I n t h e event of such a c o l l i s i o n , the l i k e l i h o o d of deep tank  p e n e t r a t i o n would n o r m a l l y be c o n s i d e r e d much g r e a t e r than I t would i n a grounding a c c i d e n t .  A r e c e n t study by the Norwegian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Det n o r s k e V e r i t a s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a 10 000 deadweight  society,  t o n (dwt) v e s s e l  c o l l i d i n g b r o a d s i d e w i t h a s t a t i o n a r y 125 000 c u b i c metre LNG c a r r i e r employing t h e Kvaerner-Moss  s p h e r i c a l tank containment  d e s i g n (which i s  c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e o r e t i c a l l y one of the most impact r e s i s t a n t of a l l gas containment  systems) c o u l d p e n e t r a t e the cargo tank w a l l a t a speed of  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11 k n o t s , assuming  t h a t the p o i n t of impact o c c u r r e d a t o r  85 near mid-tank - t h a t i s , at the p o i n t where the sphere i s c l o s e s t to hull.^  The  r e p o r t f u r t h e r t h e o r i z e s t h a t a 50 000 dwt  w i t h a Kvaerner-Moss d e s i g n  gas  vessel  colliding  c a r r i e r under i d e n t i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s  p i e r c e the cargo containment w a l l at o n l y 6 k n o t s .  120  000  c u b i c metre LNG  could  Another, l e s s  o p t i m i s t i c , a n a l y s i s p r e p a r e d by the f i r m of A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a 38 000 dwt  the  v e s s e l c o l l i d i n g a t a 90°  Inc.  angle w i t h a berthed  c a r r i e r i n c o r p o r a t i n g the Technigaz/Conch Ocean  membrane containment d e s i g n would have s u f f i c i e n t f o r w a r d momentum to cause a gas  s p i l l at o n l y 3.4  knots.^®  Both the norske V e r i t a s and A r t h u r D. L i t t l e s t u d i e s a p p l y t h a n LPG,  carriers.  to LNG,  rather  There a r e , however, s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which would  suggest t h a t LPG  c a r r i e r s would, i n f a c t , be more s u s c e p t i b l e to low  h u l l penetration  i n the event of a c o l l i s i o n than would t h e i r  counterparts.  For example, whereas the v a s t m a j o r i t y of LNG  double h u l l e d , most LPG  c a r r i e r s are n o t . ^ l  F u r t h e r m o r e , LNG  d e s i g n e d t o accommodate cargoes at c r y o g e n i c are not.  Accordingly,  LNG c a r r i e r s are tanks  tanks.^2  and  the s t r e s s a n a l y s i s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r LPG  e x i s t i n g gas  are  t e m p e r a t u r e s , whereas LPG  tanks  tanks,  e s t a b l i s h e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e C o n s u l t a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n codes f o r new  speed  as  (IMCO)  c a r r i e r s , are l e s s s t r i n g e n t than f o r  LNG  I n the o n l y comparable r e a l - l i f e c o l l i s i o n event i n v o l v i n g a  l i q u e f i e d gas  c a r r i e r , the 16 000  estimated  k n o t s when she p e n e t r a t e d  4-7  Yuyo Maru i n Tokyo Bay.->  dwt  P a c i f i c Ares was  the h u l l of the LPG/naphtha  an tanker  3  That t h e r e have not been more gas  tanker a c c i d e n t s  Maru d i s a s t e r i s , i n i t s e l f , q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e . c a r r i e r s are i n t r o d u c e d ,  t r a v e l l i n g at  and  on the s c a l e of the Yuyo  However, as more l a r g e  gas  as the e x i s t i n g f l e e t becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y  o l d e r , the p r o b a b i l i t y of a major a c c i d e n t  occurring w i l l  increase.  86 Undoubtedly, and  the  technological  development  upcoming  generations  Nevertheless, that  potential  out  the  -  superior  of  manifestations  and  the  of  existence  -  human  marine  accidents  are  El  for  one that  error.  in  has  at  Kayser  itself,  truly  weak  least  will  of  link  in be  estimated  a measure  of  provide  clearly  the  aids,  safety.  completely  cannot  been  navigational  designs  dimension  Paso P a u l  matter,  It  based upon  construction,  an added  cannot,  the  one w h i c h ,  of  the  ship  containment  with  of  innovation  in  cargo  vessels  grounding  technological  chain  of  advances  demonstrates  offset hazard  effectively  the prevention legislated  that  fully  80% o f  human  error  or  negligence.54  Under gas  these  tanker  Richard  rather safety  Simonds  of  foreboding can perhaps the  U.S.  We've  just  been  We're  just  waiting.  plain  3.4  circumstances, best  Coast  lucky It's  be  the  summed up  medium range in  the  words  outlook of  Captain  Guard:  so f a r .  a question  Fireboat  in  A major of  incident  when,  Vancouver  not  Harbour  must  if.^5  for  occur.  all  87 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 3.0 " S p e c i a l Report - Gastech  1  *81", L l o y d ' s L i s t , 20 October 1981.  S i n c e the f i r s t LNG t a n k e r s were i n t r o d u c e d more than two decades ago, more than 20 d i f f e r e n t i n s u l a t e d LNG containment systems have been proposed. B a s i c a l l y , these systems can be grouped i n t o t h r e e main c a t e g o r i e s : 1) f r e e s t a n d i n g tanks ( i . e . s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r a l e n t i t i e s which do not form an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the h u l l s t r u c t u r e , and do not c o n t r i b u t e t o h u l l s t r e n g t h ) ; 2) membrane tanks (which a r e n o n - s e l f s u p p o r t i n g tanks i n the form of compartments bounded by the s h i p ' s h u l l s t r u c t u r e , and l i n e d w i t h i n s u l a t i o n and p r i m a r y and secondary b a r r i e r s ) ; and 3) semi-membrane tanks (which a r e a h y b r i d of both f r e e - s t a n d i n g and membrane tank d e s i g n s ) . F o r an e x c e l l e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the v a r i o u i s LNG cargo containment systems p r e s e n t l y i n use or i n the c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n s t a g e s , r e f e r t o C h a r l e s Z e i e n and W i l l i a m Dubarry Thomas, "Ship Containment Systems," Seminar on N a t u r a l Gas from the A r c t i c by M a r i n e Mode: A P r e l i m i n a r y Assessment (Ottawa: 1977), pp. 91-107. 2  Lee N. D a v i s , F r o z e n F i r e (San F r a n c i s c o : 1979), p. 45.  3  F r i e n d s of the E a r t h ,  4 H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , L i q u i d Gas C a r r i e r R e g i s t e r - 1980 (London: H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , 1980), p. 16. I b i d . , p. 17.  5  6 "More o b s t a c l e s f o r P a c - I n d o n e s i a o r d e r s " , L l o y d ' s E c o n o m i s t , V o l . 3, No. 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1981), p. 36.  Shipping  L l o y d ' s S h i p p i n g E c o n o m i s t , V o l . 3, No. 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1981), pp.  7  34-36. H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , L i q u i d Gas C a r r i e r R e g i s t e r - 1981 (London: H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , 1981), p. 144.  8  9  "Ocean's f i g u r e s might even s u r p r i s e the o p t i m i s t s " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 19  June 1981. "The E l Paso E f f e c t " , L l o y d ' s S h i p p i n g E c o n o m i s t , V o l . 3, No. 2 ( F e b r u a r y 1981), p. 5; and " E l Paso f l e e t i s l a i d up f o r s a l e " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 26 January 1981; and L l o y d ' s L i s t , 9 A p r i l 1981. 1 0  H  "Kockums o r d e r t o r e c o n s t r u c t CMB gas c a r r i e r " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 19 June  1981. I  2  2 3  H. C l a r k s o n & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . (London: I b i d . , p. 16.  1980), p. 16.  88  14 As of 1 J a n u a r y 1980 the w o r l d LNG f l e e t c o n t a i n e d 27 v e s s e l s i n excess of 100 000 m c a p a c i t y , w i t h 17 more s h i p s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y on o r d e r f o r d e l i v e r y by 1982. By c o n t r a s t , o n l y two LPG c a r r i e r s a r e i n t h e 100 000 m c a t e g o r y - the E s s o Westernport (101 000 m ) and the E s s o F u j i (100 200 m ) . The l a r g e s t LPG t a n k e r s c h e d u l e d f o r d e l i v e r y t o the end o f 1982 w i l l have a c a p a c i t y of 83 000 m . I b i d . , p. 22 and p. 28. 3  3  3  3  3  15 Trans Mountain P i p e l i n e Company L t d . , Annual R e p o r t s 1975-1981 (Vancouver: 1976-1982). D a v i s , op. c i t . , p. 269.  1 6  1 R i c h a r d G. Wooler, Marine T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LNG and R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s (Cambridge, MD: C o r n e l l M a r i t i m e P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 88-97. 7  1^ P e t e r van der L i n d e , Time Bomb (Garden C i t y : Inc., 1978), p. 26.  Doubleday & Company,  1^ Based upon i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n a l e t t e r t o t h e a u t h o r from Mr. P a u l R o s h k i n d , Manager, M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e s , P o r t A u t h o r i t y o f New York and New J e r s e y , d a t e d 4 J a n u a r y 1980. James A. Fay, " R i s k s of LNG and LPG", as e x t r a c t e d from A n n u a l Review of Energy - 1980, p. 5:92.  2 0  21 Oceanographic I n s t i t u t e of Washington, LNG and LPG Hazards Management i n Washington S t a t e ( S e a t t l e : December 1978), p. 1-8. 2 2  Fay, op. c i t . , p. 5:101.  U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas and L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas - Views and P r a c t i c e s (Washington, D.C: c i r c a F e b r u a r y 1980), p. 32. 2 3  2  4 D a v i s , op. c i t . , pp. 269-282.  Oceanographic I n s t i t u t e of Washington, op. c i t • , p. V I I - 7; and U.S. Coast Guard, LNG and LPG - Views and P r a c t i c e s , p. 11. 2 5  2 6  U.S. Coast Guard, LNG and LPG - Views and P r a c t i c e s , p. 1 1 .  F.W. Murray e t a l , Hazards A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I m p o r t a t i o n of L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas ( S a n t a Monica: Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 48. 2 7  The Termpol C o - o r d i n a t i n g Committee's Assessment Report on Dome P e t r o l e u m L i m i t e d ' s P r o p o s a l t o C o n s t r u c t and Operate a L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas M a r i n e T e r m i n a l a t G r a s s y P o i n t , P o r t Simpson Bay, B.C. (Vancouver: Canadian C o a s t Guard, May 1982), from t h e E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and R i s k A n a l y s i s Sub-Committee R e p o r t , p. 9. 2 8  D a v i s , op. c i t . , pp. 42-43.  89 U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , P r e d i c t a b i l i t y of LNG Vapor D i s p e r s i o n from C a t a s t r o p h i c S p i l l s onto Water: An Assessment (Washington, D.C: A p r i l 1977), pages 24, 50, and 80. 3 0  31 van der L i n d e , op. c i t . , p. Ibid.,  3 2  33 U.S.  23.  p. 13; and D a v i s , op. c i t . , p.  Coast Guard, LNG  35.  and LPG - Views and P r a c t i c e s , p.  34 "34 f e a r e d l o s t i n f i e r y November 1974, p. 1.  7.  s h i p e x p l o s i o n , " The Vancouver Sun,  9  Based upon an account of the Yuyo Maru d i s a s t e r by the Japanese M a r i t i m e S a f e t y Agency, as r e p o r t e d i n D a v i s , op. c i t . , pp. 79-80; and van der L i n d e , op. c i t . , pp. 17-23. 3 5  36 "Fear of i n f e r n o i n Vancouver haunts e x p e r t s " , The Vancouver Sun, September 1980. " S m a l l e r gas c a r r i e r s b i g g e r c a s u a l t y r i s k s " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 10 1981. 3 7  van der L i n d e , op. c i t . , pp.  3 8  2  April  64-65.  Robert P. Curt et a l , Marine T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas, ( K i n g ' s P o i n t , NY: a r e p o r t produced under the a u s p i c e s of The N a t i o n a l M a r i t i m e R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1973), p. 178; and W o o l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 25-31. 3 9  4° P.L.L. V r a n c k e n and J . McHugh, "Twelve Years O p e r a t i n g E x p e r i e n c e w i t h Methane P r i n c e s s and Methane P r o g r e s s " , LNG-5 ( D u s s e l d o r f : 1977), S e s s i o n V I , Paper 6, P a r t I I , as d e s c r i b e d i n D a v i s , op. c i t . , p. 52 ( f o o t n o t e #11). 41 D a v i s , op. c i t . , p.  70.  42 Based upon an e x t r a c t from an a r t i c l e by a C a p t a i n B a y l e y i n S a f e t y a t Sea I n t e r n a t i o n a l (date undetermined), as r e p o r t e d i n N o e l M o s t e r t , Supership (New Y o r k : Warner Books, I n c . , 1976), pp. 372-373. 4  3  H. C l a r k s o n & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . (London:  1981), p.  25.  44 "Cargo has a c i t y h o l d i n g i t s b r e a t h " , The Vancouver Sun, 1980, p. A10. 45 "LNG 1980.  carrier  "Grounded LNG 1980. 4 6  4 7  15 November  aground w i t h e x p l o s i v e cargo", L l o y d ' s L i s t , 13 December s h i p ' s master k i l l s h i m s e l f " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 16 December  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 29 June  1979.  48 H . C l a r k s o n & Co. L t d . , op. c i t . (London:  1980), p.  4.  90 4 From an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t prepared by Det Norske V e r i t a s , r e p o r t e d i n D a v i s , op. c i t . , p. 74. y  as  50 A r t h u r D. L i t t l e , I n c . , "The C o l l i s i o n R e s i s t a n c e of the Ben F r a n k l i n " , c i t e d i n G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g O f f i c e , L i q u e f i e d Energy Gases S a f e t y , V o l . I l l , p. 519, as r e p o r t e d i n Oceanographic I n s t i t u t e of Washington, op. c i t . , p. I I - I I . 51 C o m p t r o l l e r G e n e r a l of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Report to the Congress L i q u e f i e d Energy Gases S a f e t y (Washington: 31 J u l y 1 9 7 8 ) , V o l . 1, p. 6-6. 5 2  I b i d . , p.  6-6.  53 Based upon an account of the Yuyo Maru d i s a s t e r by the Japanese M a r i t i m e S a f e t y Agency, as c i t e d i n van d e r L i n d e , op. c i t . p. 19. 54 Oceanographic I n s t i t u t e of Washington, op. c i t . , p. I I - 6 . 55 C a p t a i n R i c h a r d s Simonds, USCG, as quoted i n van der L i n d e , op. c i t . , p. 65.  91 4.0  THE PUBLIC SAFETY IMPERATIVE: A REVIEW OF SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR LIQUEFIED GAS CARRIERS OPERATING IN SELECTED WORLD PORTS  4.1  Overview  Due  to the unique n a t u r e of t h e i r c a r g o e s , l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s began to  a t t r a c t s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n among s h i p i n s u r e r s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o c i e t i e s , government r e g u l a t o r y agencies  l o n g b e f o r e the Methane P i o n e e r embarked upon  her h i s t o r i c t r a n s - A t l a n t i c voyage from the U.S. back i n 1959.  and  G u l f Coast t o Canvey I s l a n d  R e c o g n i z i n g the enormous hazard p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n the  sea-borne c a r r i a g e of l i q u e f i e d gases g e n e r a l l y , these and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , through  the a u s p i c e s of the U . N . - a f f i l i a t e d  other Intergovernmental  M a r i t i m e C o n s u l t a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n (IMCO), have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to the g r a d u a l e v o l u t i o n of a sound code of minimum s t a n d a r d s g o v e r n i n g both the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new e x i s t i n g ones.  1  gas t a n k e r s and  the r e t r o f i t t i n g  of  A few n a t i o n s - n o t a b l y the U n i t e d S t a t e s - have seen f i t  to r e - d e f i n e many of these s t a n d a r d s , at l e a s t to the e x t e n t t h a t they r e l a t e to domestic  f l a g v e s s e l s , i n order to f u r t h e r reduce the a s s o c i a t e d  operational risk factor.*  S i m i l a r l y , s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s have endeavoured t o  upgrade e x i s t i n g manning standards f o r l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s through a p p l i c a t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d o f f i c e r and crew t r a i n i n g  *  the  requirements.  R e c e n t l y , the U.S. Coast Guard r e f u s e d to c e r t i f y t h r e e 127 800 c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y LNG c a r r i e r s under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t A v o n d a l e S h i p y a r d s i n New O r l e a n s f o r the E l Paso M a r i n e Company. Coast Guard i n s p e c t o r s d i s c o v e r e d c r a c k s i n the p o l y u r e t h a n e i n s u l a t i o n s u r r o u n d i n g the v e s s e l s ' cargo t a n k s . The b u i l d e r was unable to i s o l a t e the cause of the problem, nor was i t p o s s i b l e t o modify the h u l l s t r u c t u r e t o i n c o r p o r a t e a new cargo containment system. I n October 1980, a group of i n s u r a n c e companies agreed t o pay E l Paso $300 m i l l i o n i n the l a r g e s t marine i n s u r a n c e s e t t l e m e n t i n h i s t o r y . The t h r e e v e s s e l s were e v e n t u a l l y s o l d , and were s c h e d u l e d to be converted i n t o dry b u l k c a r r i e r s . I n December of 1981, one of the s h i p s , E l Paso Columbia , r a n aground o f f the c o a s t of Nova S c o t i a w h i l e under tow f o r H a l i f a x , where she was to be t e m p o r a r i l y l a i d up. The f u t u r e of E l Paso Columbia i s now i n d o u b t . 2  92 The  c r i t i c a l phase i n the o p e r a t i o n a l c y c l e of a gas t a n k e r  i s i n port - that i s , during stages.  the a r r i v a l , l o a d i n g / u n l o a d i n g ,  I t i s at t h i s point - p a r t i c u l a r l y during  i n t e r v a l s - t h a t the v e s s e l i s most v u l n e r a b l e both human e r r o r and m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e . Morrison  o c c u r s when i t and d e p a r t u r e  the a r r i v a l and d e p a r t u r e  t o the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s of  According  t o C a p t a i n W.S.G.  of t h e Canadian Coast Guard, "...about 80% of t h e a c c i d e n t s t o  s h i p s occur i n . . . r e s t r i c t e d waterways and h a r b o u r s . " f a c t o r s as harbour c o n g e s t i o n , port, p i l o t control, t i d a l  3  Such e x t e r n a l  l a c k of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the l a y o u t of the  c o n d i t i o n s , and weather, t o name but a few, may  a l l c o n t r i b u t e , t o a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree, t o t h i s g e n e r a l l y s t a t e of v e s s e l s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o mishap.  I t must a l s o be r e c o g n i z e d  i f the l e v e l of r i s k t o the v e s s e l i s l i k e l y  accident.  community i n  A c c o r d i n g l y , most p o r t and  harbour a u t h o r i t i e s around the w o r l d have chosen t o i n t r o d u c e operating The  that  t o be h e i g h t e n e d i n p o r t , then  so too i s the p o t e n t i a l l e v e l of impact upon the s u r r o u n d i n g the event of a s e r i o u s s h i p b o a r d  increased  extraordinary  r e g u l a t i o n s which a r e s o l e l y a p p l i c a b l e t o l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s .  r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n of t h i s chapter w i l l examine these r e g u l a t i o n s as they  r e l a t e t o s e v e r a l N o r t h American and European p o r t s , and w i l l  briefly  attempt t o a s s e s s some of t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t s and s h o r t c o m i n g s .  4.2  Canada  4.2.1  C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n Assessment  Vancouver i s p r e s e n t l y the o n l y deepwater p o r t i n Canada which i s engaged i n the o v e r s e a s shipment of l i q u e f i e d gases on a r e g u l a r , l a r g e volume b a s i s . However, i t i s w i d e l y  speculated  t h a t f u r t h e r gas p o r t development  will  o c c u r on Canada's e a s t e r n , w e s t e r n , and A r c t i c c o a s t s w i t h i n the coming decade.  F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the major p r o p o s a l s  announced t o d a t e , r e f e r t o Appendix IV.  which have been  93 4.2.2 The  Vancouver  P o r t of Vancouver i s favoured w i t h one of the f i n e s t n a t u r a l deepwater  harbours i n the w o r l d .  Extending  some 25 k i l o m e t r e s eastward from t h e F i r s t  Narrows ( t h e s i n g u l a r p o i n t of ocean a c c e s s ) t o P o r t Moody, B.C., the harbour ranges i n w i d t h from r o u g h l y 200 metres a t Gosse P o i n t t o as much as 2600 metres i n the main p o r t area ( s e e maps, pp. 94-95).  I n s p i t e o f i t s l e n g t h and f j o r d - l i k e c o n f i g u r a t i o n , t h e h a r b o u r i s remarkably f r e e of n a t u r a l o b s t r u c t i o n s to n a v i g a t i o n . exceptions navigable  The p r i n c i p a l  a r e i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e F i r s t and Second Narrows, where the f a i r w a y f o r ocean-going v e s s e l s c o n s t r i c t s a p p r e c i a b l y .  Tidal  c o n d i t i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y more pronounced i n t h e Narrows than e l s e w h e r e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e f o r the Second Narrows, where t i d a l v e l o c i t i e s of up t o 5.5 k n o t s  a r e not uncommon.^  I n terms of f i x e d man-made o b s t r u c t i o n s , the Second Narrows r a i l w a y b r i d g e has been the g r e a t e s t source  of concern t o mariners  over the y e a r s .  On 12  October 1979, the outbound f r e i g h t e r Japan E r i c a c o l l i d e d w i t h t h e b r i d g e i n dense f o g , thereby  d i s r u p t i n g r a i l s e r v i c e t o the n o r t h shore of B u r r a r d  I n l e t f o r almost f i v e months.  T h i s a c t i o n prompted the Harbour M a s t e r ' s  o f f i c e t o i s s u e s t r i c t new s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t h e a r e a , t h e s u b s t a n c e of which w i l l be more f u l l y addressed l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  Perhaps the l e a s t d e s i r a b l e aspect  of the p o r t i n terms of i t s p h y s i c a l  s t r u c t u r e has been the h i s t o r i c a l tendency among many i n d u s t r i e s c a t e r i n g t o the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e t o l o c a t e on the e a s t e r n s i d e of t h e Second Narrows.  I n f a c t , most l o c a l marine shipments of LPG, c h l o r i n e , and  petroleum products  o r i g i n a t e from t e r m i n a l s s i t u a t e d between t h e Second  Narrows and P o r t Moody.  V e s s e l s w i s h i n g t o g a i n access  t o , o r egress  from,  PORT OF VANCOUVER: PRINCIPAL HAZARDOUS GOODS STORAGE POINTS  LEGEND Chemical/Petrochemical 1 VANCOUVER WHARVES 2. DOW  3. C A N A D I A N 4. E R C O 5. T R A N S  Dichloride, Caustic  Barge Facility  Soda,  Glycol)  O C C l D E N T A L - H O O K ER ( C h l o r i n e  INDUSTRIES (Sodium MOUNTAIN  Chlorate)  Deepwater Berth Railcar Holding Area  (Methanol)  C H E M I C A L (Ethylene  Ethylene  Terminals:  and  others)  1 km  PI P E L I N E ( L P G )  F i g u r e A. 1  PORT LAND  OF  VANCOUVER:  USE  PATTERN  Figure  4.2  96 these f a c i l i t i e s have no a l t e r n a t i v e but to pass through the h e a r t of b u s i e s t p o r t on the west c o a s t , as w e l l as the r e s t r i c t e d w a t e r s of  the  the  F i r s t and Second Narrows.  C l e a r l y , t h i s i s a l e s s than i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , as  i t exposes the v e s s e l and,  by e x t e n s i o n , a p o t e n t i a l l y l a r g e segment of  Lower M a i n l a n d  the  p o p u l a t i o n , to among the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of o p e r a t i o n a l r i s k  i n the h a r b o u r .  The  t a s k of r e d u c i n g  the hazards a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the sea-borne c a r r i a g e of  dangerous goods i n the p o r t r e s t s p r i m a r i l y w i t h two Canadian Coast Guard and  the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board.  involvement takes two d i s t i n c t forms - one The  f e d e r a l agencies Coast Guard  r e g u l a t o r y , the o t h e r  advisory.  S h i p S a f e t y Branch of the Coast Guard i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g  c o n s t r u c t i o n , manning, and  o p e r a t i n g standards  - the  that  for vessels functioning i n  Canadian waters are i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s of the Canada S h i p p i n g A c t , as w e l l as any  i n t e r n a t i o n a l conventions  Canada i s a c o n t r a c t i n g member.  on m a r i t i m e s a f e t y t o w h i c h  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due  t o the l a r g e number of  v i s i t s by f o r e i g n - f l a g v e s s e l s t o B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s a n n u a l l y , and  to  l i m i t e d s t a f f r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the Ship S a f e t y B r a n c h , i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r Coast Guard o f f i c i a l s to p e r s o n a l l y examine each incoming v e s s e l . I n s t e a d , a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of a l l s h i p b o a r d Guard marine s u r v e y o r s  a r e , by n e c e s s i t y , conducted on a more or l e s s ad  b a s i s , or at the request who  i n s p e c t i o n s by Coast  of q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( s u c h as c o a s t  pilots)  have r e a s o n to b e l i e v e t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r v e s s e l i s i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n  Canadian s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . *  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  hoc  of  i t is  *The major e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s p r a c t i c e are o i l and, more r e c e n t l y , c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s w h i c h , based upon s p e c i a l p o l l u t i o n p r e v e n t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d under the a u t h o r i t y of S e c t i o n 730 (2) of the Canada S h i p p i n g Act ( C e r t i f i c a t e s e v i d e n c i n g c o m p l i a n c e ) , are r e q u i r e d to undergo mandatory i n s p e c t i o n s a t l e a s t every two y e a r s . L i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s , by v i r t u e of the e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - p o l l u t i n g n a t u r e of t h e i r c a r g o e s , a r e exempt from these r e g u l a t i o n s .  97  conceivable  t h a t a l i q u e f i e d gas  c a r r i e r c o u l d serve the P o r t of Vancouver  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s f o r an extended p e r i o d of years w i t h o u t subjected  The  ever  to a d e t a i l e d i n s p e c t i o n by Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s .  o t h e r means whereby the Coast Guard can e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e a c e r t a i n  degree of i n f l u e n c e over harbour s a f e t y i s through i t s V e s s e l Management (VTM)  service.  primary o b j e c t i v e s :  The  being  Traffic  L o c a l l y , the t r a f f i c management system has  four  5  1)  to e s t a b l i s h v i a b l e t r a f f i c  routes;  2)  to e s t a b l i s h two-way communication w i t h a l l commercial v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n , or at the approaches t o , the harbour i n order p r o v i d e f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n on t r a f f i c and c o n d i t i o n s ;  3)  t o e s t a b l i s h r a d a r s u r v e i l l a n c e of the p o r t ;  4)  t o manage t r a f f i c i n a s a f e and e f f e c t i v e f a s h i o n .  s e r v i c e has  played  to  and  been i n o p e r a t i o n s i n c e the mid-1970's, and has  doubtless  an i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e i n m a i n t a i n i n g Vancouver's r e p u t a t i o n as one  of  the w o r l d ' s s a f e s t p o r t s , i n s p i t e of a c o n t i n u i n g tendency towards growth i n terms of both v e s s e l s i z e and port p r e c i n c t .  I f the system i s to be f a u l t e d f o r any  to be on the b a s i s t h a t i t has potential.  At p r e s e n t ,  voluntary co-operation effective.  the number of v e s s e l movements w i t h i n the  not yet been a l l o w e d  reason,  to reach  i t would have  i t s optimum  the s e r v i c e i s a d v i s o r y o n l y , and must r e l y upon the of a l l p i l o t s and  s h i p s ' crews i n o r d e r to be most  A l t h o u g h the v a s t m a j o r i t y of v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the  sphere of i n f l u e n c e of the VTM  system, b o t h l o c a l l y and  elsewhere on  c o a s t , do c o - o p e r a t e f u l l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e r e are o c c a s i o n a l  the  instances  where v e s s e l s f a i l to e s t a b l i s h proper c o n t a c t w i t h the t r a f f i c management centre.  I n an e r a of i n c r e a s i n g l y regimented marine t r a f f i c r o u t i n g , the  98 presence of non-conforming v e s s e l s i s a major source of  concern,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a crowded harbour a r e a where manoeuvring room i s g e n e r a l l y at a premium.  The  u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e s h i p p i n g i n the P o r t of Vancouver,  however, r e s t s w i t h the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board.  As s t a t e d i n S e c t i o n 59  of  the N.H.B. O p e r a t i n g By-law:  ...every v e s s e l ( i n the P o r t of Vancouver) i s s u b j e c t to the orders of the Board i n r e s p e c t of i t s d r a u g h t , l o c a t i o n , speed and d i r e c t i o n , and i n r e s p e c t of i t s means and methods of movement.  The Harbour M a s t e r , on b e h a l f  of the Board, i s charged w i t h the o v e r a l l  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g both the standard p r e s c r i b e d i n the O p e r a t i n g By-Law, p l u s any measures which he may Accordingly,  w i s h to i n t r o d u c e  shipping regulations  as  further discretionary safety  under the a u t h o r i t y of the By-law.  h i s powers i n the matter of harbour management and  safety  are  substantial.  The  p r o v i s i o n s of the O p e r a t i n g By-law as they r e l a t e t o marine s a f e t y  are,  f o r the most p a r t , r e a s o n a b l y broad i n terms of scope, a p p l i c a t i o n , and interpretation.  Derived  l a r g e l y from accepted i n t e r n a t i o n a l s h i p p i n g  p r a c t i c e s , they e s t a b l i s h the e s s e n t i a l terms under which a l l v e s s e l s must operate i n the h a r b o u r .  Due  to t h e i r almost u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y , many  of the p r o v i s i o n s of the By-law are a c t u a l l y o p e r a t i n g  "guidelines", rather  than hard and  d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t  fast "regulations".  I n t h i s r e g a r d , and  P a r t IV of the By-law d e a l s w i t h e x p l o s i v e s and  o t h e r dangerous c a r g o e s ,  t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n the document r e f l e c t i n g the s p e c i a l needs or  99 c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of such n o n - c o n v e n t i o n a l hazardous commodity c a r r i e r s c h e m i c a l or l i q u e f i e d gas  tankers.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the By-law does p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y upon which t h e Harbour Master may o p e r a t i n g requirements  as  regulatory foundation  i n t r o d u c e f u r t h e r , more s p e c i f i c ,  s h o u l d he deem i t n e c e s s a r y  to do so.  A recent  example of t h i s , and one which, c o i n c i d e n t a l l y , has done more t o reduce the o v e r a l l l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n a l r i s k i n v o l v i n g l i q u e f i e d gas f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the harbour  a r e a , has been the i n s t i t u t i o n of s t r i c t  n a v i g a t i n g r u l e s f o r the Second Narrows. upgrade v e s s e l o p e r a t i n g procedures the October 1979 Japan E r i c a .  The  carriers  The  new  d e c i s i o n to s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n the area came as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of  c o l l i s i o n i n v o l v i n g the r a i l w a y b r i d g e and the cargo s h i p f i r s t deepsea v e s s e l s to pass through t h e Narrows  f o l l o w i n g the a c c i d e n t were s u b j e c t e d to a number of h a s t i l y - a s s e m b l e d operating requirements  governing  such a s p e c t s as t i d a l r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  e s c o r t s , speed l i m i t s , and v i s i b i l i t y s t a n d a r d s .  D u r i n g the course of the  next two y e a r s , t h e Second Narrows r u l e s were reviewed f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s u n t i l , i n December of 1981, permanent S t a n d i n g Orders f o r the a r e a .  The  tug  and upgraded on a  the Harbour M a s t e r  S t a n d i n g Orders are  issued  contained  i n a d e t a i l e d , 19-page document c o v e r i n g a d i v e r s e range of c o n d i t i o n s and operating  procedures.  The h i g h l i g h t s of the r u l e s , at l e a s t to the e x t e n t t h a t they are l i k e l y to a p p l y to gas t a n k e r t r a f f i c , can be summarized as  follows:  7  100  Part I - I n t e r p r e t a t i o n : S e c t i o n 1.  I n these  Orders:  "MRA" means the Second Narrows Movement R e s t r i c t i o n A r e a and comprises t h a t area e n c l o s e d w i t h i n l i n e s drawn 000° from the f i x e d l i g h t on the n o r t h e a s t e r n end of T e r m i n a l Dock t o t h e N o r t h Vancouver S h o r e l i n e at Neptune T e r m i n a l s and a l i n e drawn 000° from B e r r y P o i n t L i g h t ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 m i l e s east of the CN B r i d g e on the South Shore of Vancouver Harbour) t o the N o r t h Shore on the o p p o s i t e s i d e of the channel. P a r t I I I - R e s t r i c t e d P e r i o d s and  Conditions  Periods S e c t i o n 3.(1)  (3)  4.  Deep sea v e s s e l s i n t e n d i n g to t r a n s i t under the Second Narrows B r i d g e s s h a l l do so d u r i n g p e r i o d s of o p e r a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d e i t h e r s i d e of h i g h and low water s l a c k w i t h deepsea v e s s e l s t r a n s i t i n g under the Second Narrows B r i d g e s at s l a c k water or stemming the c u r r e n t . T r a n s i t s at times o t h e r than those s p e c i f i e d i n s u b s e c t i o n (1) s h a l l be made o n l y where the M a s t e r and p i l o t c o n s i d e r i t s a f e and where p e r m i s s i o n of the Harbour M a s t e r i s o b t a i n e d p r i o r to the t r a n s i t . During  the p e r i o d s of o p e r a t i o n r e f e r r e d to i n s e c t i o n 3,  t r a n s i t p r i o r i t y w i l l be g i v e n , i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r , t o : (a)  deep sea v e s s e l s c a r r y i n g dangerous goods;  (b)  a l l o t h e r deep sea v e s s e l s  (c)  s m a l l c r a f t c a r r y i n g dangerous goods;  (d)  a l l o t h e r s m a l l c r a f t , v e s s e l s and  and  tows.  Wind 7.(1)  No v e s s e l s h a l l attempt to t r a n s i t the MRA where wind c o n d i t i o n s are such t h a t d i f f i c u l t y i n manoeuvring may be e x p e r i e n c e d as a r e s u l t of l i g h t v e s s e l draught and/or h i g h freeboard f a c t o r s .  Visibility 8.(1)  No deep sea v e s s e l , or s m a l l c r a f t c a r r y i n g dangerous goods, i n t e n d i n g t o pass under the Second Narrows B r i d g e s , s h a l l t r a n s i t through the MRA u n l e s s t h e r e i s a c l e a r v i s i b i l i t y range at the CN B r i d g e of at l e a s t 1.5 m i l e s to the east and 1 m i l e to the west ( d e f i n e d l i m i t s of the MRA).  101 P a r t IV - C o n t r o l and P r o c e d u r e s Section  9.(1) V e s s e l T r a f f i c Management C e n t r e (VTMC) p r o c e d u r e s , i n c l u d i n g c l a r a n c e and o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , as o u t l i n e d i n the s a i d " N o t i c e s to M a r i n e r s " a r e mandatory f o r a l l the f o l l o w i n g v e s s e l s t h a t a r e i n t e n d i n g t o t r a n s i t t h e MRA i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n or move w i t h i n the MRA: (a)  a v e s s e l of 20 metres (65.6 f e e t ) or more i n l e n g t h ;  (b)  a towing v e s s e l of 8 metres (26.2 f e e t ) o r more i n length;  (c)  a towing v e s s e l of l e s s than 8 m e t r e s . . . i n l e n g t h t h a t i s towing one or more v e s s e l s or f l o a t i n g o b j e c t s t h a t have an aggregate extreme b r e a d t h of 20 metres ... o r more; or an aggregate o v e r a l l l e n g t h , measured from the s t e r n of the towing v e s s e l t o the s t e r n of the l a s t v e s s e l or o b j e c t towed, of 30 metres (98.4 f e e t ) or more;  (d)  an a i r c u s h i o n v e h i c l e of 8 metres ... o r more i n l e n g t h when on or over the w a t e r .  (4) The Harbour M a s t e r s h a l l be a d v i s e d of the proposed t r a n s i t time, as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e , of a l l v e s s e l s r e f e r r e d t o i n paragraphs ( a ) , (b) and ( c ) o f S e c t i o n 4, and a t l e a s t 12 hours p r i o r t o the proposed t r a n s i t , and of any changes thereto. P a r t V - T r a n s i t Speed S e c t i o n 10.  Except f o r reasons of emergency, o r t o a v o i d damage t o the Second Narrows B r i d g e s , no deep sea v e s s e l s h a l l proceed w i t h i n the MRA a t a t r a n s i t speed i n excess of 6 k n o t s .  11.(1) Deep sea v e s s e l s i n t e n d i n g t o t r a n s i t under t h e Second Narrows B r i d g e s which are unable t o m a i n t a i n a t r a n s i t speed of 6 k n o t s or l e s s , or a r e unable t o s a f e l y n a v i g a t e a t 6 k n o t s or l e s s , s h a l l : (a)  remain at b e r t h or anchorage, o r  (b)  proceed t o a remain at a d e s i g n a t e d b e r t h or anchorage, u n t i l the arrangements s p e c i f i e d i n s u b s e c t i o n ( 2 ) a r e made t o a s s i s t such v e s s e l i n i t s movement.  (2) The arrangements r e f e r e d t o i n s u b s e c t i o n  (1) include:  (a)  a minimum of 3 t u g s , each of 1500 B.H.P. o r g r e a t e r ,  (b)  a r e s t r i c t e d t r a n s i t time a t o r near s l a c k w a t e r , and  (c)  p r i o r approval  of the Harbour M a s t e r .  102 P a r t V I - C l e a r Narrows S e c t i o n 13.(1) A C l e a r Narrows i s r e q u i r e d f o r : (a) P a r t V I I - Method of  LPG/LNG t a n k e r s Operation  S e c t i o n 15.(1) No deepsea v e s s e l i n t e n d i n g to t r a n s i t  the MRA  shall:  (a)  commence i t s t r a n s i t u n t i l a deep sea v e s s e l t r a n s i t i n g i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n has completed i t s t r a n s i t ; or  (b)  e n t e r the MRA u n t i l any p r e c e d i n g deep sea v e s s e l s t r a n s i t t i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n have c l e a r e d the Second Narrows B r i d g e s by a minimum d i s t a n c e of 2 c a b l e s (0.2 n a u t i c a l m i l e ) .  P a r t V I I - A t t e n d a n t Tugs S e c t i o n 17.(1) Except as s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted by the Harbour M a s t e r , deep sea v e s s e l s , other than non s e l f - p r o p e l l e d barges of 6,500 tonnes d i s p l a c e m e n t or g r e a t e r , i n t e n d i n g the t r a n s i t under the Second Narrows B r i d g e s s h a l l employ a minimum of 2 t u g s , which tugs s h a l l remain i n c l o s e a t t e n d a n c e from a t l e a s t 5 c a b l e s (0.5 n a u t i c a l m i l e ) b e f o r e t h e Second Narrows B r i d g e u n t i l such v e s s e l s have c l e a r e d the Second Narrows B r i d g e s by a minimum of 2 c a b l e s . . . (2) The t o t a l b o l l a r d p u l l of the tugs r e f e r r e d to i n s u b s e c t i o n (1) s h a l l be e q u i v a l e n t to t h a t set out i n A p p e n d i x B w h i c h p u l l i s determined on the b a s i s of the deadweight tonnage of the v e s s e l being a s s i s t e d . (3) Where the deadweight tonnage of a deep sea v e s s e l exceeds t h a t p r o v i d e d f o r i n Appendix B, the Harbour Master may r e q u i r e tugs i n a d d i t i o n to the minimum number and, i n any e v e n t , a p p r o v a l of the Harbour M a s t e r i s r e q u i r e d p r i o r t o the proposed t r a n s i t . APPENDIX B D e s i g n S h i p Tonnage/Tug H.P. D e s i g n Ship Tonnage (DWT) 6 000 10 000 20 000 30 000 40 000 50 000  Compatibility  No. of Tugs 2 2 2 2 2 2  BHP 400 550 700 900 1200 1650  Bollard Pull Per Tug/Total 7.5 T 15.0 T 8.0 T 16.0 T 10.5 T 21.0 T 15.0 T 30.0 T 18.5 T 37.0 T 22.0 T 44.0 T  103 The Harbour M a s t e r has come under some p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m from the s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y s i n c e f i r s t i n t r o d u c i n g s p e c i a l n a v i g a t i n g measures  f o r t h e Second  Narrows f o l l o w i n g the Japan E r i c a i n c i d e n t i n 1979. I n p a r t i c u l a r ,  industry  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have s t a t e d t h a t the mandatory t u g e s c o r t r e q u i r e m e n t adds s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o the shipowner's round t r i p c o s t s t h r o u g h the p o r t , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g an economic advantage t o t e r m i n a l s s i t u a t e d t o the west of t h e Second N a r r o w s .  8  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t has been suggested t h a t t u g e s c o r t s  would n o t be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n an emergency  s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s they  are s e c u r e d by l i n e s t o the l a r g e r v e s s e l .  I n p a r t i a l response t o these c l a i m s , i t i s suggested t h a t , f o r LPG c a r r i e r s at l e a s t , the p r o v i s i o n of a mandatory t u g e s c o r t , w h i l e a d m i t t e d l y i n c r e a s i n g the c o s t of the t r a n s i t , would not p r o v i d e t e r m i n a l o p e r a t o r s t o the west o f the Second Narrows w i t h any k i n d of economic advantage, as t h e r e are no f a c i l i t i e s t o the west of the b r i d g e c a p a b l e of accommodating LPG carriers.  On the m a t t e r of the second q u e s t i o n , i t i s acknowledged  that  e s c o r t i n g t u g s , whether s e c u r e d or n o t , would be o f l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l v a l u e in certain instances. t o debate.  The e s c o r t q u e s t i o n i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , v e r y much open  On 10 F e b r u a r y 1980, through an apparent mix-up i n i n s t r u c t i o n s ,  both the inbound B r i t i s h s a l t c a r r i e r A r g y l l and t h e outbound  Greek  f r e i g h t e r S t a r Centaurus met u n e x p e c t e d l y i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e Second Narrows.  A l t h o u g h the i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  new r u l e s , i n t e r i m measures which had been brought i n t o e f f e c t i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r the Japan E r i c a e p i s o d e i n October of 1979 d i d p r o v i d e f o r a mandatory tug e s c o r t t h r o u g h t h e Narrows.  I n the words o f P a c i f i c P i l o t a g e A u t h o r i t y  Chairman P e t e r E v a n s , " . . . w i t h the h e l p and g r e a t e f f o r t of ( a s s i s t i n g t u g s ) , the A r g y l l was moved t o the n o r t h s i d e of the c h a n n e l s u f f i c i e n t l y t o  104  c l e a r the way result."  f o r Star Centaurus, although a close-quarters  passing  did  y  I n a r e l a t e d type of i n c i d e n t s e v e r a l y e a r s e a r l i e r , the f u l l y - l a d e n American t a n k e r A r c o Sag R i v e r l o s t i t s s t e e r i n g c a p a b i l i t y i n S t r a i t , near C h e r r y P o i n t , Washington. f o r large o i l tankers operating  Again, attending  h e a d i n g u n t i l s t e e r i n g had  been  required  Angeles,  d i s a b l e d v e s s e l on a proper  restored.^  W h i l e the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of the new bridge  tugs (as  i n c o a s t a l waters east o f P o r t  Washington) managed t o keep the t e m p o r a r i l y  Rosario  regulations  i s to p r o t e c t the  from f u r t h e r mishap, by d e f i n i t i o n they a l s o r e p r e s e n t an  step i n i m p r o v i n g the l e v e l of p u b l i c p r o t e c t i o n from the r i s k s  railway  important associated  w i t h the o p e r a t i o n  of s h i p s t r a n s p o r t i n g h i g h impact hazardous m a t e r i a l s  t h r o u g h the p o r t .  I t i s , i n f a c t , the s t r o n g l y h e l d c o n t e n t i o n  t h e s i s t h a t many of the s p e c i a l s a f e t y measures now  of  this  i n e f f e c t f o r the Second  Narrows a r e a s h o u l d l o g i c a l l y be extended to i n c l u d e the e n t i r e harbour p r e c i n c t , a t l e a s t to the e x t e n t t h a t they would be a p p l i c a b l e to  vessels  t r a n s p o r t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous commodities such as c h l o r i n e , e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e , and,  of c o u r s e , LPG.  At p r e s e n t , the mandatory i m p o s i t i o n  speed l i m i t r e s t r i c t i o n s , tug e s c o r t s , and dropped once a v e s s e l has  c l e a r passage r e q u i r e m e n t s  c l e a r e d the Second Narrows MRA,  of are  i r r e s p e c t i v e of  the n a t u r e of i t s cargo.  I n a d d i t i o n to the s p e c i a l r u l e s c i t e d f o r the Second Narrows, the Harbour Master has  a l s o imposed s e v e r a l d i s c r e t i o n a r y s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s which  r e l a t e d i r e c t l y to l i q u e f i e d gas i s only permitted  carriers.  to t r a n s i t the p o r t d u r i n g  The  N i c h i z a n Maru, f o r example,  d a y l i g h t h o u r s , and w i t h  a  105 c l e a r channel  through both the F i r s t and Second Narrows, u n l e s s  a d v i s e d by the Harbour  4.3  United  4.3.1  otherwise  Master.  States  C u r r e n t S i t u a t i o n Assessment  S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's, the U n i t e d S t a t e s has l i q u e f i e d gases from overseas  emerged as a major i m p o r t e r of  sources - n o t a b l y A l g e r i a .  of the p a s t decade s e v e r a l American p o r t s have, a t one  D u r i n g the  time or  r e c e i v e d t a n k e r shipments of gas, i n c l u d i n g B o s t o n (LNG and  course  another,  LPG),  P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d (LPG), Cove P o i n t , Maryland (LNG), E l b a I s l a n d , Georgia  (LNG), Los A n g e l e s (LPG), and C h e r r y P o i n t , Washington  Houston, Texas (LPG), and P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a  (LPG).*  (LPG), The  sole  American l i q u e f i e d gas e x p o r t i n g f a c i l i t y i s s i t u a t e d a t K e n a i , A l a s k a from whence Cook I n l e t n a t u r a l gas has been r e g u l a r l y shipped t o Japan s i n c e  1969  aboard the L i b e r i a n - r e g i s t e r e d t a n k e r s A r c t i c Tokyo and P o l a r A l a s k a .  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r r e g u l a t i n g marine o p e r a t i o n s i n American  gas p o r t s d i f f e r s from Vancouver i n one  fundamental r e g a r d .  I n Vancouver,  the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r both p o r t m a r k e t i n g marine s a f e t y . upon l o c a l NHB  I n view of the enormous p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l officials  and  pressure  placed  to c o n s t a n t l y improve the economic performance of  the p o r t , the p o s s i b i l i t y of s h i p s a f e t y requirements  being s a c r i f i c e d i n  o r d e r to promote the economic i n t e r e s t s of the p o r t s h o u l d not  be  discounted.  *The P o r t s of P h i l a d e l p h i a LPG t e r m i n a l s are a c t u a l l y l o c a t e d a t P a u l s b o r o , New J e r s e y ( t h e Mantua b u t a d i e n e t e r m i n a l ) and G i r a r d P o i n t , P e n n s y l v a n i a ( t h e G u l f O i l butane t e r m i n a l ) . Both f a c i l i t i e s f a l l under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the C a p t a i n of the P o r t , P h i l a d e l p h i a .  106 I n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , the l i k e l i h o o d of such a p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t of  i n t e r e s t s i t u a t i o n developing vested  i s remote, as t h e U.S. Coast Guard, w i t h no  economic i n t e r e s t i n t h e o p e r a t i o n  of any p o r t , i s t o t a l l y  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing and e n f o r c i n g marine s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s i n a l l c o a s t a l p o r t s and waterways.  The t a s k of m a r k e t i n g and managing the  f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s o f each p o r t w i t h i n the r e g u l a t o r y c o n s t r a i n t s e s t a b l i s h e d by the Coast Guard r e s t s w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l p o r t a u t h o r i t y .  In recent years,  i t has become standard  the Coast Guard t o i n t r o d u c e  operations  p r a c t i c e i n American gas p o r t s f o r plans  govern t h e movement of l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s . p r o v i s i o n s contained  s p e c i f i c a l l y designed t o Many of the r e g u l a t o r y  i n each i n d i v i d u a l LPG/LNG o p e r a t i o n s  p l a n a r e common  t o a l l of t h e American p o r t s examined f o r the purpose of t h i s t h e s i s , i n c l u d i n g the f o l l o w i n g items ; H 1)  t h e master of any v e s s e l c a r r y i n g LNG/LPG as cargo s h a l l n o t i f y t h e C a p t a i n of t h e P o r t (COTP) a t l e a s t 72 hours i n advance of the v e s s e l ' s a r r i v a l i n p o r t ;  2)  p r i o r t o the v e s s e l ' s a r r i v a l i n p o r t , the master o f the gas c a r r i e r must f u r n i s h the Coast Guard w i t h a standard statement s i m i l a r to the f o l l o w i n g : "To the best of my knowledge and b e l i e f t h e r e a r e no c a s u a l t i e s to t h i s v e s s e l , i t s machinery, or n a v i g a t i o n a l equipment which might a f f e c t s i t s s e a w o r t h i n e s s or a b i l i t y t o n a v i g a t e w i t h i n the harbour of . I f u r t h e r s t a t e that a l l cargo h a n d l i n g and gas d e t e c t i o n equipment i s i n proper operating c o n d i t i o n . " I 2  3)  f o r e i g n - f l a g gas c a r r i e r s must L e t t e r o f Compliance i s s u e d by e n t r y i n t o American t e r r i t o r i a l the U n i t e d S t a t e s must c a r r y a  be i n p o s s e s s i o n o f a v a l i d t h e Coast Guard p r i o r t o . i n i t i a l waters. Vessels registered i n v a l i d C e r t i f i c a t e of Inspection;  4)  e v e r y incoming l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s h a l l be s u b j e c t e d t o a d e t a i l e d s h i p b o a r d i n s p e c t i o n by q u a l i f i e d Coast Guard p e r s o n n e l p r i o r t o commencing cargo t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n s . A serious, u n c o r r e c t a b l e d e f i c i e n c y noted by t h e s a f e t y i n s p e c t i o n p a r t y which c o u l d c r e a t e a hazard t o the v e s s e l or the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a would be s u f f i c i e n t cause t o order the v e s s e l t o r e t u r n t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r s , o r t o take o t h e r a c t i o n as d i r e c t e d by the COTP; and  107 5)  Due  a q u a l i f i e d Coast Guard m o n i t o r i n g team must be on hand a t a l l times throughout the cargo t r a n s f e r phase ( e x c e p t i o n - P o r t s of Philadelphia).  t o the unique p h y s i c a l and  s t r u c t u r a l composition  operations plans are e x a c t l y a l i k e .  procedures,  two  Hence, from a n a v i g a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e ,  i n d i v i d u a l plan r e s t r i c t i o n s concerning requirements,  of each p o r t , no  such items as p r e - e n t r y  clearance  v e s s e l speed, weather c o n d i t i o n s , t r a f f i c management  or the p r o v i s i o n of e s c o r t s may  v a r y from one  I n a broad sense, however, o p e r a t i o n s p l a n s tend to f a l l d i s t i n c t categories.  p o r t to the i n t o two  F i r s t l y , t h e r e are those which govern gas  next.  fairly tanker  o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n the v i c i n i t y of t e r m i n a l s such as Cove P o i n t , M a r y l a n d and E l b a I s l a n d , G e o r g i a , b o t h of which are s i t u a t e d i n r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e , yet r e l a t i v e l y underpopulated areas. r e l a t e to i n s t a n c e s where e i t h e r the gas  The  second group of  t e r m i n a l i s l o c a t e d i n the m i d s t of  a m e t r o p o l i t a n p o r t , or where a gas c a r r i e r must t r a v e r s e a busy, populated  s t r e t c h of waterway i n o r d e r t o g a i n access  r e g u l a t i o n s governing  plans  densely  to the t e r m i n a l .  gas t a n k e r movements (as d e f i n e d i n the  The  various  o p e r a t i o n s p l a n s ) a r e g e n e r a l l y l e s s s t r i n g e n t under the former circumstances,  as the gas c a r r i e r does not p r e s e n t  as g r e a t a t h r e a t t o  e i t h e r p u b l i c s a f e t y or s h i p p i n g .  By d e f i n i t i o n , Vancouver has  little  i n common w i t h the i s o l a t e d , s i n g l e  purpose gas p o r t s a t Cove P o i n t o r E l b a I s l a n d .  A c c o r d i n g l y , the  report  w i l l not d w e l l f u r t h e r upon the s p e c i a l s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n f o r c e at either site.  I n s t e a d , the b a s i c problems l i k e l y to be encountered  w i t h r e g a r d to the s a f e management of l i q u e f i e d gas c l o s e l y resemble those which c o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y developed p o r t c i t i e s of Boston and Los  Angeles.  locally  t a n k e r t r a f f i c more  a n t i c i p a t e d i n the h i g h l y  108 4.3.2  Boston  The P o r t of B o s t o n has been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the overseas s i n c e 1970,  when the P a n a m a n i a n - r e g i s t e r e d  LNG  l i q u e f i e d gas  carrier Aristotle  trade  (formerly  the Methane P i o n e e r ) d e l i v e r e d the f i r s t consignment of A l g e r i a n gas to the new  B o s t o n Gas  Company r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l a t Commercial P o i n t . ^  B o s t o n o c c u p i e s a unique p o s i t i o n among the gas p o r t s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s i n t h a t the community accommodates t h r e e s e p a r a t e l i q u e f i e d terminals w i t h i n i t s boundaries. (LNG)  and Exxon (LPG)  I n a d d i t i o n t o B o s t o n Gas,  c o n s t r u c t e d l a r g e import  p.  109.).  Of the t h r e e ,  and Exxon t e r m i n a l s were e x p r e s s l y designed gas c a r r i e r s . *  both D i s t r i g a s  receiving f a c i l i t i e s  E v e r e t t , on the n o r t h bank of the M y s t i c R i v e r , d u r i n g 1971 r e s p e c t i v e l y (See Map.  gas  and  at  1972  however, o n l y the D i s t r i g a s  to accommodate l a r g e ocean-going  The B o s t o n LNG/LPG o p e r a t i o n s p l a n i s p r i m a r i l y concerned  w i t h managing deepsea gas t a n k e r s d e s t i n e d f o r these two  U n l i k e Vancouver, which has r a r e l y been v i s i t e d by gas  facilities.  tankers other  the Yamahide Maru o r , more r e c e n t l y , the N i c h i z a n Maru, Boston has many d i f f e r e n t LNG  and LPG  c a r r i e r s over the y e a r s .  than  hosted  F u r t h e r m o r e , whereas  LPG c a r r i e r s tend t o v i s i t Vancouver on a more or l e s s r e g u l a r b a s i s throughout the y e a r , the B o s t o n gas t a n k e r t r a d e i s of a more s e a s o n a l n a t u r e , a v e r a g i n g perhaps two v i s i t s per month d u r i n g the w i n t e r , and i f any,  throughout the remainder of the y e a r .  Each p o r t w i l l  r e c e i v e on the o r d e r of 10 to 15 gas t a n k e r c a l l s  normally  annually.  *The B o s t o n Gas f a c i l i t y at Commercial P o i n t , because of b e r t h i n g and channel draught l i m i t a t i o n s , i s l a r g e l y r e s t r i c t e d to the h a n d l i n g of c o a s t a l barge t r a f f i c or the o c c a s i o n a l s m a l l LNG t a n k e r .  few,  F i g u r e 4.3  . The  no  sea approach to the Exxon and D i s t r i g a s t e r m i n a l s i s , i n some r e s p e c t s ,  s i m i l a r t o the approach i n t o the W e s t r i d g e LPG i n s t a n c e , access  t e r m i n a l i n Burnaby.  For  to e i t h e r the E v e r e t t , M a s s a c h u s e t t s or Burnaby, B.C.  f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e s a l e n g t h y harbour t r a n s i t by way navigable channel.*  The  gas  of an o f t e n narrow  channel w i d t h problem i s compounded i n B o s t o n by  the f a c t t h a t v e s s e l s d e s t i n e d f o r Exxon o r D i s t r i g a s must make s e v e r a l pronounced course a d j u s t m e n t s ,  i n c l u d i n g one of a p p r o x i m a t e l y  entrance  The  to the M y s t i c R i v e r .  90° a t the  s i n g l e most dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  common t o both p o r t s , however, i s t h a t v e s s e l s w i s h i n g to g a i n access  to  l o c a l deepwater gas t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s must n e g o t i a t e the c e n t r a l harbour p r e c i n c t , w h i l e a t the same time s k i r t i n g the downtown core of each c i t y . I n t h i s r e g a r d , the v e s s e l r o u t i n g system i n t o (and out o f ) the E v e r e t t Burnaby f a c i l i t i e s would l i k e l y p l a c e more people event of a gas  and  a t p o t e n t i a l r i s k i n the  t a n k e r a c c i d e n t than any of the o t h e r p o r t s examined.  I n o r d e r t o o f f s e t the l o c a t i o n a l shortcomings gas t e r m i n a l s , the U.S.  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the E v e r e t t  Coast Guard i n t r o d u c e d i t s i n i t i a l o p e r a t i o n s  f o r the P o r t of B o s t o n as l o n g ago as 1971.  plan  Over the y e a r s , the p l a n has  been c o n s t a n t l y amended and upgraded i n response t o changes i n both p u b l i c a t t i t u d e and gas regarded  tanker technology.  I n so d o i n g , i t has  come to be w i d e l y  as the model upon which many o t h e r p o r t s have based t h e i r  gas  tanker operating r e g u l a t i o n s .  The P o r t of B o s t o n o p e r a t i o n s p l a n i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r segments n o t i f i c a t i o n and a r r i v a l ; harbour t r a n s i t ; cargo d i s c h a r g e ; and  departure.  *The P o r t of Vancouver harbour t r a n s i t f o r l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 k i l o m e t r e s ( f r o m F i r s t Narrows B r i d g e t o W e s t r i d g e ) , opposed to 8 k i l o m e t r e s i n B o s t o n .  as  Ill T h i s t h e s i s , however, w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e - harbour t r a n s i t - and l i q u e f i e d gas  upon the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of Phase I I  o n l y t o the e x t e n t  t h a t the r u l e s apply  to deepsea  c a r r i e r s d e s t i n e d f o r the Exxon and D i s t r i g a s t e r m i n a l s a t  Everett.  Upon c o m p l e t i o n  of a mandatory p r e - e n t r y v e s s e l i n s p e c t i o n , and  t h a t the Coast Guard has  granted  the gas  tanker permission  assuming  to e n t e r  the  p o r t , the f o l l o w i n g r e g u l a t i o n s a u t o m a t i c a l l y come i n t o f o r c e , u n l e s s waived by the C a p t a i n  of the P o r t : 1 4  a)  t r a n s i t must occur d u r i n g d a y l i g h t hours o n l y f o r loaded p a r t i a l l y loaded v e s s e l s ;  or  b)  a v e s s e l s h a l l not commence t r a n s i t u n l e s s the minimum v i s i b i l i t y i s at l e a s t two m i l e s . Should v i s i b i l i t y d e t e r i o r a t e to l e s s than two m i l e s w h i l e the v e s s e l i s underway, the f o l l o w i n g measures s h a l l be t a k e n : i)  if still  i n Broad Sound, the v e s s e l s h a l l not e n t e r  port;  ii)  i f e n t e r i n g the harbour inbound f o r E v e r e t t and not yet past the F o r t P o i n t Channel, n o t i f y Coast Guard and proceed back t o Broad Sound;  iii)  i f e n t e r i n g the harbour inbound f o r E v e r e t t and a l r e a d y the F o r t P o i n t Channel, n o t i f y Coast Guard and c o n t i n u e berth;  iv)  i f outbound from E v e r e t t , n o t i f y Coast Guard and outbound.  past to  continue  c)  no l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s h a l l t r a n s i t the harbour u n l e s s accompanied by a Coast Guard e s c o r t v e s s e l ;  d)  l o a d e d or p a r t i a l l y loaded v e s s e l s i n excess of 60 000 c u b i c metres c a p a c i t y w i l l be attended by a minimum of f i v e tugs, two of which must be of 3000 h.p. or g r e a t e r , and the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e of 1200 h.p. or g r e a t e r . Loaded or p a r t i a l l y loaded v e s s e l s of l e s s than 60 000 c u b i c metres w i l l be attended by a minimum of t h r e e t u g s , i n c l u d i n g two of 3000 h.p. or g r e a t e r , and the t h i r d of 1200 h.p. or g r e a t e r . The tugs w i l l meet the incoming v e s s e l at the e a s t e r n end of P r e s i d e n t Roads and be u t i l i z e d as needed throughout the v e s s e l ' s t r a n s i t of B o s t o n Harbour. D u r i n g the d o c k i n g / u n d o c k i n g o p e r a t i o n the tugs w i l l be s t r a t e g i c a l l y p o s i t i o n e d , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the M a s t e r ' s sound judgment, and based upon c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the d o c k i n g m a s t e r / p i l o t . Tugs w i l l meet outbound v e s s e l s at the b e r t h and a t t e n d to t h e i r needs u n t i l they have c l e a r e d P r e s i d e n t Roads;  112 e)  whenever a loaded or p a r t i a l l y loaded l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r i s i n t r a n s i t of B o s t o n I n n e r Harbour, no o t h e r v e s s e l w i l l be p e r m i t t e d to get underway w i t h o u t the expressed a u t h o r i z a t i o n of the C a p t a i n of the P o r t . P e r m i s s i o n to t r a n s i t w i l l be g r a n t e d on a case by case b a s i s u s i n g the concept of a "moving s a f e t y zone". That i s , the v e s s e l r e q u e s t i n g p e r m i s s i o n to t r a n s i t the harbour must remain a t l e a s t two n a u t i c a l m i l e s ahead, or one n a u t i c a l m i l e a s t e r n , of the gas t a n k e r . T r a f f i c movement w i l l be l i m i t e d to the same d i r e c t i o n as the gas c a r r i e r i n o r d e r to a v o i d p a s s i n g situations. N.B.  The  V e s s e l s under 100 g r o s s tons and towboats w i t h o u t tow may t r a n s i t the harbour w i t h o u t the p r i o r consent of the C a p t a i n of the P o r t , p r o v i d e d they are capable of n a v i g a t i n g s a f e l y o u t s i d e the main s h i p p i n g c h a n n e l .  f)  d u r i n g the t r a n s i t of a l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r , the maximum a l l o w a b l e speed f o r any v e s s e l o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the moving s a f e t y zone w i l l be e i g h t k n o t s ; and  g)  no a i r c r a f t w i l l be p e r m i t t e d to o v e r f l y a l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r w h i l e i n the P o r t of B o s t o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , no a i r c r a f t w i s h i n g t o photograph an LPG or LNG t a n k e r w i l l be p e r m i t t e d t o operate w i t h i n 1000 f e e t of t h a t v e s s e l .  p r e c e d i n g r e g u l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t o n l y a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the t o t a l number  of s p e c i a l requirements Boston.  f o r l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s o p e r a t i n g i n the P o r t of  Even so, they r e v e a l s e v e r a l i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s which c o u l d have  a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g upon the f u t u r e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n requirements substances  of a d d i t i o n a l o p e r a t i n g  f o r v e s s e l s t r a n s p o r t i n g hazardous c h e m i c a l or  w i t h i n the Vancouver harbour p r e c i n c t .  emphasize t h a t the U.S.  The Boston r u l e s c l e a r l y  Coast Guard's p r i m a r y commitment i s t o e n s u r i n g a  h i g h l e v e l of p u b l i c s a f e t y , not to the s p e c i a l m a r k e t i n g l o c a l gas i n d u s t r y .  petrochemical  i n t e r e s t s of  More i m p o r t a n t l y , though, b o t h the Exxon and  the  Distrigas  o p e r a t i o n s a t E v e r e t t have s u c c e s s f u l l y adapted to any a d d i t i o n a l economic c o n s t r a i n t s r e s u l t i n g from the i n t r o d u c t i o n of these e x t r a o r d i n a r y o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y requirements. continues  T h i s i s borne out by the f a c t t h a t B o s t o n  to f u n c t i o n as a major l i q u e f i e d gas i m p o r t i n g c e n t r e .  113 4.3.3. The on  Los  Port the  Angeles  of  Los  scale  Natow  of  of  the  received  Angeles  is  either  Los  fewer  by  no  means  Boston  or  Vancouver.  Angeles  than  Port  half  a  an i m p o r t a n t  Authority,  dozen  deepsea  In  as gas  of  liquefied  fact,  according  November  tankers  gas  in  1979 its  the  terminal  to  Ms.  port  J . had  entire  history.^  Nevertheless, has  elected  the  to  some  The  reasons  with  for  facility  narrow, Channel. the  Main  The  Basin  covers  to  4 at  Harbor  Turning  tanker  must  the  through  the  450  Harbor  Turning of  kilometres. the Basin,  The  SETTLED  Inner  negotiate  port.  be  Main  a distance  approximately  to  can  wide  passage  Inner  Upon a r r i v a l  the  transiting  Channel  wide  turn  Angeles  metre  metre  to  offloading  by  220  plan.  Firstly,  access  Los  only  more  are  twofold.  in  CA  in  Boston  this  LPG  LOS ANGELES,  a  even  the  Boston,  Petrolane  gained  is  than  PORT OF  tanker  which,  instances,  essentially as  LPG  plan  stringent  Guard  introduce  comprehensive operations  Coast  the a  1 km  INDUSTRIAL  90°  Petrolane  AREAS  Figure  4.4  AREAS  114 wharf, designated  as B e r t h 120, P o r t of Los A n g e l e s , i s s i t u a t e d r o u g h l y  k i l o m e t r e t o the northwest of the t u r n i n g b a s i n (See map  The  second i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r g o v e r n i n g the s t r i c t gas  p.  tanker  regulations  which are i n e f f e c t i n Los Angeles i s t h a t the suburban community of Pedro f r o n t s d i r e c t l y onto the M a i n Channel. s o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a r e s i d e n t s were s u b j e c t e d a c c e p t a b i l i t y of c o n s t r u c t i n g an LNG s i t u a t e d i n the h e a r t proposal  l e g i s l a t i o n was  to a l e n g t h y  debate over  the  r e c e i v i n g f a c i l i t y on T e r m i n a l I s l a n d ,  T e r m i n a l Company) was  introduced  San  D u r i n g the mid-1970's,  of Los Angeles h a r b o u r .  (by Western LNG  A f t e r much c o n s i d e r a t i o n , r e j e c t e d , and new  r e s t r i c t i n g f u t u r e LNG  state  In  the  a f t e r m a t h of the c o n t r o v e r s y ,  however, p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n s h i f t e d towards  more immediate problem of LPG  tankers  The  re-named D i s c a r i a ) was  c u b i c metre LPG  carrier Fernvalley  when i t was (subsequently  s c h e d u l e d t o b r i n g a shipment of Venezuelan gas  Los A n g e l e s d u r i n g mid-January of 1979. v i s i t t o the p o r t by the B r i t i s h gas  the  o p e r a t i n g , a l b e i t i n f r e q u e n t l y , i n Los  i s s u e reached a head i n December of 1978  announced t h a t the 22 000  the  t e r m i n a l development i n  C a l i f o r n i a to a remote area n o r t h and west of Los A n g e l e s . *  Angeles h a r b o u r .  one  T h i s f o l l o w e d a 17 November  t a n k e r C a v e n d i s h , and  to 1978  prompted some San  Pedro r e s i d e n t s to demand t h a t the s t a t e adopt a s i m i l a r p o l i c y stance w i t h regard  to LPG  as i t had  for LNG.  16  *0n 16 December 1976 Los Angeles c i t y c o u n c i l voted i n f a v o u r of the Western LNG T e r m i n a l Co. p r o p o s a l . I r o n i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g day, the empty o i l t a n k e r Sansinena exploded w h i l e b e r t h e d a t the U n i o n O i l dock i n San Pedro h a r b o u r . The b l a s t s h a t t e r e d windows up t o 32 k i l o m e t r e s away, and l e f t 9 persons dead and 50 i n j u r e d . The s e v e r i t y of the a c c i d e n t prompted c o u n c i l to r e v e r s e i t s i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n the f o l l o w i n g week, and l e d one member to comment t h a t c o u n c i l had a c t e d "too h a s t i l y " on the 17  matter.  L /  115 The C a v e n d i s h v i s i t was the f i r s t t o the p o r t i n r o u g h l y  two y e a r s , and was  the i n i t i a l t e s t of t h e Coast Guard's new LPG t a n k e r o p e r a t i o n s p l a n which had been i n t r o d u c e d t h e p r e v i o u s month (October  Many of the b a s i c elements c o n t a i n e d  1978).  i n t h e B o s t o n o p e r a t i o n s p l a n have been  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the Los Angeles p l a n .  1 8  For instance, p r e - a r r i v a l  c l e a r a n c e and i n s p e c t i o n procedures a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same a t both p o r t s , as i s the requirement f o r a Coast Guard m o n i t o r i n g  team t o be i n attendance  a t the t e r m i n a l a t a l l times d u r i n g the o f f - l o a d i n g p r o c e s s .  Other  r e g u l a t i o n s d i f f e r m a r g i n a l l y between B o s t o n and Los A n g e l e s . acceptable Angeles,  The minimum  v i s i b i l i t y under which a gas c a r r i e r may e n t e r the p o r t o f Los  f o r example, i s o n l y one m i l e , as opposed t o two m i l e s i n B o s t o n .  The n a t u r e o f the mandatory t u g e s c o r t requirement a l s o v a r i e s between t h e two p o r t s .  I n B o s t o n , b o t h the number of t u g e s c o r t s and t h e i r minimum  horsepower r a t i n g s have been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d , based upon the s i z e of t h e gas c a r r i e r .  I n Los A n g e l e s ,  the p l a n s t a t e s o n l y t h a t a minimum of two  tugs (power u n s p e c i f i e d ) must be i n a t t e n d a n c e of an LPG t a n k e r the h a r b o u r , r e g a r d l e s s i t s s i z e .  An i n t e r e s t i n g p r o v i s i o n of the L o s  Angeles t u g e s c o r t requirement which i s not c o n t a i n e d however, i s t h a t the tugs must be secured bow and one a t the s t e r n .  transiting  i n t h e Boston p l a n ,  t o the gas c a r r i e r - one a t the  F i n a l l y , there are s e v e r a l important  which are unique t o the Los A n g e l e s p l a n .  requirements  I n c l u d e d among t h i s group a r e the  following a)  Los A n g e l e s Main Channel w i l l be c l o s e d t o a l l commercial v e s s e l s ( e x c l u d i n g s m a l l v e s s e l s ) d u r i n g t r a n s i t by the l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r . Under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , one-way t r a f f i c i n the d i r e c t i o n of t h e LPG c a r r i e r may be a u t h o r i z e d by t h e C a p t a i n of the P o r t , p r o v i d e d t h a t a minimum d i s t a n c e of one m i l e i s m a i n t a i n e d between the LPG t a n k e r and o t h e r v e s s e l s a t a l l t i m e s ;  116  In  b)  no v e s s e l s of any k i n d s h a l l be p e r m i t t e d t o occupy B e r t h s 118, 119 o r 121 w h i l e an LPG c a r r i e r i s docked a t B e r t h 120, Los Angeles harbour;  c)  no v e s s e l s o t h e r than those r e p r e s e n t i n g concerned agencies be p e r m i t t e d t o t r a n s i t w i t h i n 100 yards o f a moored LPG carrier;  d)  s e a p l a n e s which use t h e Main Channel and h e l i c o p t e r s which o p e r a t e i n the v i c i n i t y , w i l l be n o t i f i e d i n advance of an LPG t a n k e r t r a n s i t of the h a r b o u r , and w i l l be d i r e c t e d not t o take o f f , l a n d , o r t a x i i n the channel w h i l e t h e gas c a r r i e r i s underway; and  e)  passage out of the harbour by an empty gas c a r r i e r w i l l be made under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s as those s e t f o r t h f o r v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g t h e h a r b o u r , i n c l u d i n g mandatory t u g and Coast Guard escort requirements.  will  a d d i t i o n t o t h e above, S e c t i o n 2 ( b ) o f Phase I I ( V e s s e l T r a n s i t i n P o r t )  of t h e Los Angeles  o p e r a t i o n s p l a n makes s u b t l e r e f e r e n c e t o one aspect o f  gas t a n k e r s a f e t y which, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h e E l b a I s l a n d , G e o r g i a p l a n , i s n o t r e f e r r e d t o d i r e c l y i n o t h e r U.S. p o r t o p e r a t i o n s p l a n s - t h a t i s , t h e q u e s t i o n of s h i p and t e r m i n a l s e c u r i t y a g a i n s t attempted sabotage.  The Los Angeles  a c t s of  plan states that:  ...a s e c u r i t y check w i l l be made of t h e f a c i l i t y grounds and under the dock, a g a i n r e p o r t i n g u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o t h e C a p t a i n of t h e P o r t . P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n s h a l l be p a i d t o u n a u t h o r i z e d v e s s e l s / v e h i c l e s l o i t e r i n g i n t h e area of t h e f a c i l i t y and dock.  Moreover, S e c t i o n 3 ( b ) o f Phase I I I f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t :  ...Coast Guard harbour p a t r o l boats w i l l check on t h e LPG v e s s e l w h i l e b e r t h e d and r e p o r t . . . a n y and a l l u n u s u a l boat a c t i v i t y i n t h e a r e a and any o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s out of t h e o r d i n a r y .  G i v e n t h e i n f r e q u e n c y of gas t a n k e r v i s i t s t o t h e p o r t , t h e Los Angeles r e g u l a t i o n s r e f l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g sense of p u b l i c concern over t h e LPG  i s s u e w h i c h i s perhaps u n r i v a l l e d anywhere e l s e i n t h e w o r l d .  117  4.4  Europe  4.4.1.  S i t u a t i o n Assessment  S i n c e the Canvey I s l a n d , U.K.  l i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l gas r e c e i v i n g f a c i l i t y  went i n t o commercial o p e r a t i o n i n 1964,  s e v e r a l southern  and  western  European n a t i o n s have a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d deepwater p o r t f a c i l i t i e s  f o r the  purpose of a c c e p t i n g l a r g e volumes of l i q u e f i e d gases from o f f s h o r e - n o t a b l y A l g e r i a and  U n t i l r e c e n t l y , LNG  sources  Libya.  had been the f a v o u r e d  import  commodity over LPG  reasons of both c o s t and a c c e s s i b i l i t y to s u p p l i e s . LNG  for  I n a d d i t i o n t o Canvey,  r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l s were e s t a b l i s h e d at L a S p e z i a , I t a l y (1969),  Havre and F o s - s u r - M e r , France (1964 Spain (1969).  During  first  and  1971,  r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and  the l a t t e r h a l f of the 1970's, however, a  Le  Barcelona, combination  of f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n g changing p a t t e r n s of use among gas consumers and  gas  p r i c i n g s t r u c t u r e r e v i s i o n s , l e d to a p a r t i a l demand s h i f t i n Europe away from LNG  t o o f f s h o r e LPG.  T h i s i s perhaps best t y p i f i e d by the  recent  i n a u g u r a t i o n of an LPG marine d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e to the p e t r o c h e m i c a l a t Rafnes and Her0ya, near P o r s g r u n n , Norway. estimated  plants  I n coming y e a r s , i t i s  t h a t l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s of up to 30 000 c u b i c metres c a p a c i t y  w i l l make an average of 240 p o r t c a l l s a n n u a l l y to the P o r s g r u n n a r e a a r r i v a l s at R a f n e s , and  150 at H e r 0 y a ) .  (90  l y  E l s e w h e r e on the c o n t i n e n t , the German Mundogas c o r p o r a t i o n i n a u g u r a t e d l a r g e new 1982.20  LPG  r e c e i v i n g o p e r a t i o n at E u r o p o o r t ,  The Mundogas t e r m i n a l i s capable  throughout of up t o 750 000 r e c e n t l y (summer 1981) import  facility  tanks w i l l to  H o l l a n d d u r i n g the s p r i n g of  of accommodating a maximum  tonnes a n n u a l l y .  Dutch o f f i c i a l s have a l s o  a u t h o r i z e d a major e x p a n s i o n of the Eurogas  at F l u s h i n g , H o l l a n d .  a  Four new  55 000 c u b i c metre  LPG storage  i n c r e a s e e x i s t i n g c a p a c i t y at F l u s h i n g from 20 000 c u b i c metres  240 000 c u b i c metres.21  118  4.4.2.  Planning Considerations  I n a comparative  sense, European p o r t p l a n n e r s have h i s t o r i c a l l y  maintained  a somewhat d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e towards the fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a v i g a t i o n a l s a f e t y and l i q u e f i e d gas t e r m i n a l s i t i n g than t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s .  I n Canada and  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the  approach throughout the 1960's and most of the 1970's was  North  standard  to minimize  the  l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l r i s k t o the gas c a r r i e r d u r i n g the harbour t r a n s i t phase by means of proper access channel d e s i g n and maintenance ( i n terms of w i d t h , depth,  t i d a l e f f e c t s , e t c . ) , v e s s e l t r a f f i c management, and, where  necessary,  through  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l r e g u l a t i o n s .  L i t t l e d i r e c t c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  g i v e n t o the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of a s e r i o u s  mid-harbour a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g a loaded or p a r t i a l l y loaded gas t a n k e r upon the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Consequently,  p o r t s such as B o s t o n , Los A n g e l e s ,  and  l a t t e r l y Vancouver have i n c r e a s i n g l y come under c r i t i c i s m on the grounds t h a t , as a r e s u l t of q u e s t i o n a b l e t e r m i n a l s i t i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the p a s t , a l a r g e segment of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n has been p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of undue r i s k d u r i n g the harbour t r a n s i t phase of an LNG  o r LPG  tanker.  I n E u r o p e , however, i n a d d i t i o n to the r o u t i n e n a v i g a t i o n a l r i s k r e d u c t i o n measures d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g paragraph,  the f o l l o w i n g p o l i c y  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the b a s i c gas terminal s i t i n g  a)  equation:  L i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s s h a l l remain p h y s i c a l l y removed from major c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o p u l a t i o n to as g r e a t an e x t e n t as p o s s i b l e ; or  119 b)  The  where ( a ) i s not always p r a c t i c a l , the t e r m i n a l s h a l l be l o c a t e d a t or near the harbour e n t r a n c e i n order t o m i n i m i z e the l e n g t h of the v e s s e l t r a n s i t through a p o p u l a t e d or h e a v i l y congested p o r t p r e c i n c t . *  B r i t i s h Gas C o r p o r a t i o n LNG t e r m i n a l a t Canvey I s l a n d , f o r example, i s  s i t u a t e d some 25 k i l o m e t r e s upstream from the mouth of the R i v e r Thames i n what was, u n t i l q u i t e r e c e n t l y , a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  underpopulated area.  The  gas p o r t a t Le Havre, F r a n c e , the proposed LNG r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l a t Zeebrugge, B e l g i u m , and a r e c e n t l y - c a n c e l l e d p l a n by B r i t i s h P e t r o l e u m and S h e l l O i l t o c o n s t r u c t a new LPG import f a c i l i t y a t E u r o p o o r t , H o l l a n d , on the o t h e r hand, a r e more c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p l a n n i n g described operations  i n approach "b" (above).  philosophy  The ( a c t u a l or proposed) t e r m i n a l  i n these communities have been s i t u a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o the  r e s p e c t i v e harbour  Nevertheless,  entrances.  European gas p o r t s a r e not w i t h o u t  safety l i m i t a t i o n s . p l u s the d e f u n c t  t h e i r share of o p e r a t i o n a l  F o r i n s t a n c e , the gas t e r m i n a l s a t Canvey and Le Havre,  Shell-BP proposal  f o r E u r o p o o r t , a r e a l l s i t u a t e d i n the  m i d s t of e x t e n s i v e p e t r o l e u m and p e t r o c h e m i c a l  complexes.  This has been  done, presumably, i n o r d e r t o take advantage of the economies of a g g l o m e r a t i o n - p a r t i c u l a r l y as they a r e i n f l u e n c e d by the common usage of s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s . The major s h o r t c o m i n g w i t h  this  arrangement, however, i s t h a t the s e c u r i t y of the l i q u e f i e d gas s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be s e r i o u s l y j e o p a r d i z e d i n the event of an e x p l o s i o n and/or f i r e a t one or more of the n e i g h b o u r i n g  plants.  Conversely,  a  *The r e c e n t d e c i s i o n s t o l o c a t e LNG r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l s i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d communities such as Cove P o i n t , Maryland and E l b a I s l a n d , G e o r g i a , a l o n g w i t h the C a l i f o r n i a r u l i n g w h i c h r e s t r i c t s LNG t e r m i n a l development i n t h a t s t a t e t o s p e c i f i e d remote a r e a s , suggest t h a t t h e European approach towards gas t e r m i n a l s i t i n g i s , o f n e c e s s i t y , g a i n i n g f a v o u r on t h i s continent.  120 c r i t i c a l a c c i d e n t at the LPG/LNG f a c i l i t y  c o u l d touch o f f a c h a i n r e a c t i o n  of f i r e s / e x p l o s i o n s throughout the s u r r o u n d i n g  area.  T h i s concern i s  e s p e c i a l l y acute at Canvey I s l a n d where, w i t h i n a space of f i v e k i l o m e t r e s , t h e r e i s a v i r t u a l l y u n i n t e r r u p t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s engaged i n the p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e , r e f i n i n g , and movement of l a r g e volumes of hazardous m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g l i q u e f i e d gases, crude and p r o d u c t s , l i q u e f i e d ammonia compounds, and e x p l o s i v e s .  r e f i n e d petroleum  The  problem a t  Canvey i s f u r t h e r aggravated by the f a c t t h a t the s u r r o u n d i n g  region  has  become i n c r e a s i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e as a commuter suburb of London i n r e c e n t years. 1978,  The  permanent p o p u l a t i o n of Canvey I s l a n d stood at r o u g h l y 33 000  as opposed to o n l y 11 000  i n 1951.  in  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the w o r s e n i n g  2 2  l a n d use c o n f l i c t between i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l concerns at Canvey I s l a n d c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the s i t u a t i o n a t Burnaby, B.C. homes a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n 150 metres of the LPG  storage  where the  nearest  tanks.  As a f o o t n o t e , i n March of 1981 Environment S e c r e t a r y M i c h a e l H e s e l t i n e ordered  a f u l l i n q u i r y i n t o the s a f e t y of the B r i t i s h Gas LNG  o p e r a t i o n a t Canvey I s l a n d .  2 3  The  i n q u i r y c a l l was  government r e p o r t on the s a f e t y a s p e c t s Canvey by U n i t e d R e f i n e r i e s L t d .  sparked  of a proposed new  According  "...judged t h a t i t would be wrong f o r ...  terminal  by a  o i l r e f i n e r y at  to Mr. H e s e l t i n e , the r e p o r t  the B r i t i s h Gas  terminal to  remain s i t e d so c l o s e t o the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n u n l e s s a f o o l p r o o f d e v i c e for  the p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c c o u l d be  installed. ^  The  i n q u i r y commenced on 20 October 1981,  and  1982, Gas de  2  i s scheduled  to c o n t i n u e  at which time a recommendation on whether or not to c l o s e the  into  British  t e r m i n a l w i l l be passed on t o Mr. H e s e l t i n e by i n q u i r y chairman Robert Piros.  121  N e i t h e r Le Havre nor the i l l - f a t e d S h e l l - B P gas port p r o p o s a l f o r Europoort have been a f f e c t e d by the d i r e c t  i n f l u e n c e s of r e s i d e n t i a l encroachment.  each i n s t a n c e , the t e r m i n a l i s remotely lengthy l a n d f i l l extensions river estuaries.  In  s i t u a t e d near the seaward l i m i t of  i n t o t h e Seine ( L e Havre) and Rhine  (Europoort)  These l a n d f i l l areas have been s e t a s i d e e x c l u s i v e l y f o r  i n d u s t r i a l purposes.  Even so, t h e S h e l l - B P p r o p o s a l d i d generate  a great  d e a l o f l o c a l c o n t r o v e r s y - p a r t i c u l a r l y among the r e s i d e n t s of the nearby community o f Hoek van H o l l a n d , s i t u a t e d  some t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s to the n o r t h  of the t e r m i n a l .  Another problem which, to v a r y i n g degrees,  i s common to a l l gas p o r t s  concerns  gas c a r r i e r s  the exposure of berthed  traffic. collisions has  Although  liquefied  to oncoming marine  there have been s e v e r a l r e p o r t e d i n s t a n c e s of minor  i n v o l v i n g moored gas t a n k e r s , the p o t e n t i a l g r a v i t y of t h i s i s s u e  perhaps been most g r a p h i c a l l y underscored  on t h r e e separate o c c a s i o n s at  Canvey I s l a n d - i n 1974 when the B r i t i s h c o a s t e r Tower P r i n c e s s  collided  w i t h the docked LNG c a r r i e r Methane P r o g r e s s ; a g a i n i n 1976 when the C y p r i o t oil  tanker B r i t t  rammed the B r i t i s h Gas Co. j e t t y a t Canvey, coming to r e s t  a s h o r t d i s t a n c e from a loaded  large-diametre  s h i p - t o - s h o r e LNG d i s c h a r g e  p i p e ; and, most r e c e n t l y , i n May of 1982 when the c o a s t e r Jemrix h i t the methane wharf, f r a c t u r i n g a gas pipe which r e s u l t e d i n t o the R i v e r Thames. ^ 2  i n a minor s p i l l  I n c i d e n t s such as these were  of LNG  largely  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r prompting the d e s i g n e r s of the proposed S h e l l - B P LPG terminal at Europoort  to i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o the p l a n a completely  b e r t h which would have a l l but e l i m i n a t e d the l i k e l i h o o d w h i l e the gas tanker was d o c k e d .  2 6  The f u l l y  spill.  of a c o l l i s i o n  enclosed berth  would have a l s o served to c o n t a i n the immediate spread  enclosed  concept  of any a c c i d e n t a l LP(  122 4.4.3  Le Havre,  4.4.3.1  P h y s i c a l Considerations  Access to the Gaz direct  France  de France LNG  one k i l o m e t r e t r a n s i t  p. 123).  Incoming gas  metres of the n e a r e s t The  t e r m i n a l at Le Havre i n v o l v e s a more or  through the p o r t ' s outer harbour (see  tankers must b r i e f l y commercial and  a c t u a l terminal berth i s s i t u a t e d roughly  non-industrial  4.4.3.2 According  one  of the  300  community.  k i l o m e t r e from the  closest  areas.  Regulatory  Considerations  to i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by o f f i c i a l s  Havre d u r i n g May  of 1980,  liquefied  gas  at the P o r t A u t h o r i t y of Le  tankers  are r e q u i r e d by law  e s t a b l i s h r a d i o c o n t a c t w i t h the v e s s e l t r a f f i c harbour.  map,  pass w i t h i n approximately  residential districts  less  centre p r i o r  T h i s f e a t u r e i s compulsory f o r a l l deepsea v e s s e l s  e i t h e r Le Havre or the nearby petroleum Furthermore, gas  superport  c a r r i e r s must be attended  of Le  to  to e n t e r i n g the approaching  Havre-Antifer.  2 7  by a tug e s c o r t w h i l e underway  i n the harbour.  As  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r gas  f o r i n t r o d u c i n g and  carriers  i n French  enforcing  ports r e s t s with  the f e d e r a l government - i n t h i s i n s t a n c e the M i n i s t r y of Maritime r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l p o r t a u t h o r i t y .  i  Affairs  -  LE HAVRE, FRANCE  Figure  4.5  124 4.4.4  Europoort,  4.4.4.1  Holland  I n t r o d u c t o r y Note  D u r i n g the mid-1970's, S h e l l O i l and B r i t i s h P e t r o l e u m  put f o r t h a j o i n t  p r o p o s a l t o the C i t y of Rotterdam (which a d m i n i s t e r s the Rotterdam-Europoort p o r t complex) t o b u i l d a major LPG  import  accommodating v e s s e l s of up t o 75 000 was  r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l capable  c u b i c metres c a p a c i t y .  The  of  terminal  to have been l o c a t e d on BP p r o p e r t y s i t u a t e d near the entrance  t o the  N o r t h Sea, some t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s south of the community o f Hoek van H o l l a n d (see map,  p.  125).  By the s p r i n g of 1980,  the P o r t of Rotterdam had endorsed the p r o j e c t i n  p r i n c i p l e , but was w i t h o l d i n g f i n a l a p p r o v a l pending the r e s o l u t i o n of s e v e r a l c o n t e n t i o u s p o i n t s , p l u s the c o m p l e t i o n of p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on project.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was  1980,  t a k e n i n t o account,  had  commonly e x p r e s s e d terminals.  the  apparent t h a t the p r o p o s a l , as i t stood i n and had attempted to r e c t i f y , many of the most  p u b l i c concerns r e l a t i v e t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new  For t h i s r e a s o n , the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of the S h e l l - B P  have been addressed  gas  proposal  i n S e c t i o n s 4.4.4.2. ( P h y s i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) and  4.4.4.3. ( R e g u l a t o r y C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) .  In November of 1981, c o n s t r u c t an LPG  S h e l l - B P announced t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to abandon p l a n s to  terminal at Europoort,  officially  c i t i n g the h i g h c o s t of  s a f e t y measures and a g e n e r a l l y s l a c k e n i n g demand f o r L P G . r e v i e w of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s  2 8  A brief  l e a d i n g up to the S h e l l - B P announcement t o  c a n c e l the p r o j e c t , however, would suggest t h a t the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n been somewhat o v e r s i m p l i f i e d .  had  I n f a c t , problems began to s u r f a c e as f a r  back as the e a r l y months of 1981, when the Dutch government approved the l a n d i n g of l a r g e volumes of LPG at both F l u s h i n g and E u r o p o o r t , j u s t Europoort.29  Representatives  i n s t e a d of  from the C i t y of Rotterdam and  the  125  Figure  4.6  126 Province confusing  of Z u i d - H o l l a n d  accused the f e d e r a l government of p u r s u i n g  p o l i c y on the matter.  a  At the same time, S h e l l announced that the  need f o r a major t e r m i n a l a t E u r o p o o r t had been reduced as a r e s u l t of the government's d e c i s i o n , which would enable S h e l l t o supply f a c i l i t i e s w i t h gas landed a t F l u s h i n g .  3 0  Rotterdam a u t h o r i t i e s  expressed concern t h a t LPG would be t r a n s p o r t e d and  BP o p e r a t i o n s  shipping  from F l u s h i n g  a t E u r o p o o r t by means of i n c r e a s e d  rail  feared  terminal's  - t o the extent  that the P o r t  to t h e S h e l l  and c o a s t a l  movements, with a l l of the attendant s a f e t y r i s k s .  civic officials Shell-BP  i t s Europoort  Furthermore,  of Rotterdam would l o s e much of the  proposed annual throughput of 1.5 m i l l i o n tonnes o f LPG  that the c i t y o f f e r e d to pay F l s . 20 m i l l i o n of the  e s t i m a t e d F l s . 60-70 m i l l i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t f o r the p r o j e c t . 3 1  By August of 1981, i n the absence of a f i r m commitment from S h e l l and BP t o proceed w i t h the p r o j e c t , and i n c r e a s i n g l y e x p e r i e n c i n g  the e f f e c t s of a  severe g l o b a l economic downturn, Rotterdam a u t h o r i t i e s agreed to r e l a x a previous separate,  c o n d i t i o n t h a t the o i l companies would have to c o n s t r u c t enclosed  berth  f o r the d i s c h a r g e  of L P G .  Apparently  3 2  a these  c o n c e s s i o n s were not enough, as S h e l l and BP u l t i m a t e l y scrapped the p r o j e c t i n November of 1981. Shell-BP one  proposal,  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , one week a f t e r the c o l l a p s e of the  Rotterdam c i t y c o u n c i l approved another p r o p o s a l ,  by Mundogas, to t r a n s s h i p LPG d i r e c t l y  c o a s t a l and i n l a n d v e s s e l s .  from oceangoing gas c a r r i e r s to  The Mundogas t e r m i n a l ,  proposal,  i s s i t u a t e d i n the Maasvlakte d i s t r i c t  complex.  The f a c i l i t y  i s capable of h a n d l i n g  750 000 tonnes per annum.  this  l i k e the Shell-BP  of the Europoort r e f i n e r y  a throughput c a p a c i t y  D e t a i l s of the s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g  of some  requirements  a p p l i c a b l e t o deepsea LPG c a r r i e r s s e r v i n g the new Mundogas t e r m i n a l a r e unavailable.  However, i t i s u n l i k e l y that they d i f f e r  s u b s t a n t i a l l y from  127 the r e g u l a t i o n s which had been proposed f o r the S h e l l - B P o p e r a t i o n (see S e c t i o n 4.4.4.3 - R e g u l a t o r y C o n s i d e r a t i o n s ) .  4.4.4.2  P h y s i c a l Considerations - Shell-BP  The S h e l l - B P gas r e c e p t i o n f a c i l i t y was  Proposal  to have been s i t u a t e d some s i x  k i l o m e t r e s i n s i d e the harbour p r e c i n c t .  However, d e s p i t e a somewhat l o n g e r  h a r b o u r t r a n s i t than i s r e q u i r e d f o r Le Havre, the E u r o p o o r t  proposal  d i s p l a y e d s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t l o c a t i o n a l advantages over i t s French counterpart.  Foremost among these was  the f a c t t h a t loaded gas  tankers  would, a t no t i m e , have been r e q u i r e d to come w i t h i n 2500 metres of n e a r e s t commercial or r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s .  the  Moreover, as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d ,  the a c t u a l s i t e chosen f o r the t e r m i n a l was  s i t u a t e d approximately  three  k i l o m e t r e s from the c l o s e s t c e n t r e of p o p u l a t i o n , Hoek van H o l l a n d .  While  t h i s p r e c a u t i o n would n o t , i n i t s e l f , have c o n s t i t u t e d an a b s o l u t e guarantee of p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the event of a s e r i o u s mishap, the e x i s t e n c e of a minimum t h r e e - k i l o m e t r e r a d i u s b u f f e r zone, e s p e c i a l l y i n a c o u n t r y where the a v a i l a b i l i t y of open or underpopulated  space i s a t a tremendous premium,  i n d i c a t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t commitment on the p a r t of the p r o j e c t p l a n n e r s the fundamental premise t h a t l i q u e f i e d gas  t e r m i n a l s s h o u l d be  to  kept  p h y s i c a l l y remote from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o as g r e a t an e x t e n t  as  possible.  4.4.4.3 The  Regulatory  Considerations - Shell-BP  Proposal  h i g h l i g h t s of the proposed s p e c i a l gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r  v e s s e l s s e r v i n g the proposed S h e l l - B P t e r m i n a l were as f o l l o w s :  a)  3 3  inbound gas c a r r i e r s would be r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h r a d i o c o n t a c t w i t h the P o r t of Rotterdam w e l l i n advance of a r r i v a l i n o r d e r t o secure c l e a r a n c e t o e n t e r the harbour;  128 b)  f u l l y - o r p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d gas t a n k e r s would not be p e r m i t t e d e n t r y i n t o the harbour d u r i n g p e r i o d s of l i m i t e d v i s i b i l i t y o r i n h i g h wind c o n d i t i o n s ( s t a n d a r d s t o be e s t a b l i s h e d ) ;  c)  p r e s e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , which r e q u i r e loaded o i l and gas t a n k e r s t o assume a compulsory t u g e s c o r t once the v e s s e l has e n t e r e d the h a r b o u r , would be m o d i f i e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t the t u g e s c o r t would be p i c k e d up some two or t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s west of the harbour e n t r a n c e . (N.B. A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t e n t i t l e d LPG i n E u r o p o o r t , produced by t h e p r o j e c t sponsors i n 1978 o r 1979, suggested t h a t i n c o m i n g LPG t a n k e r s would be attended by two tugs - one a t t a c h e d a t the bow, and the o t h e r a t the s t e r n . ) ^ 3  d)  a harbour p a t r o l boat would be a s s i g n e d t o each incoming gas c a r r i e r f o r the purpose of m a i n t a i n i n g a c l e a r n a v i g a b l e channel ahead of the t a n k e r throughout the harbour t r a n s i t phase (N.B. As of May 1980, i t had not been e s t a b l i s h e d whether t h e p o r t would i n t r o d u c e a "moving s a f e t y zone" concept s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n e f f e c t i n B o s t o n , o r the s h i p p i n g channel c l o s u r e t e c h n i q u e p r a c t i c e d a t Los A n g e l e s )  e)  gas t a n k e r s o p e r a t i n g e i t h e r w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f , o r the approaches t o , t h e P o r t of Rotterdam would be r e q u i r e d t o have b o t h a c o a s t a l and a r i v e r p i l o t on board a t a l l t i m e s ;  f)  l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s would be r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n r a d i o c o n t a c t w i t h the v e s s e l t r a f f i c s e r v i c e w h i l e underway i n the port.  4.4.5  Canvey I s l a n d , U.K.  4.4.5.1  P h y s i c a l Considerations  O u t w a r d l y , Canvey I s l a n d would appear t o have t h e most i n common w i t h the P o r t o f Vancouver from a t e r m i n a l s i t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e .  I n both i n s t a n c e s ,  the r e s p e c t i v e gas t e r m i n a l s a r e s i t u a t e d many k i l o m e t r e s from the open sea.  S i m i l a r l y , when c o n s t r u c t e d d u r i n g the e a r l y 1960's t h e r e was l i t t l e  i n the way of c o n c e n t r a t e d  suburban r e s i d e n t i a l development i n the immediate  v i c i n i t y of e i t h e r f a c i l i t y ( a l t h o u g h itself  i n each c a s e ) .  t h i s c o n d i t i o n has s i n c e  reversed  129 There a r e , however, s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which s e t Vancouver and Canvey a p a r t from one a n o t h e r . Burrard  F i r s t l y , whereas the maximum w i d t h of  I n l e t seldom exceed 2500 metres a t any p o i n t , the R i v e r Thames  between t h e B r i t i s h Gas C o r p o r a t i o n  j e t t y a t Canvey and t h e Former Seaward  L i m i t of the P o r t of London, some 22 k i l o m e t r e s t o l e s s than 2500 metres (see map, p. 130).  downstream, never c o n s t r i c t s  I n f a c t , the minimum w i d t h o f  the r i v e r between Canvey P o i n t ( t h e easternmost e x t r e m i t y and  of Canvey  the Former Seaward L i m i t i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x k i l o m e t r e s .  Thames deepsea s h i p p i n g c h a n n e l i s , f o r the most p a r t , s i t u a t e d i n m i d - r i v e r , l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s at l e a s t two k i l o m e t r e s  Island)  Because the  geographically  a r e a s s u r e d a minimum b u f f e r of  on e i t h e r s i d e between the v e s s e l and the c o a s t l i n e  f o r a l l but the l a s t f i v e k i l o m e t r e s  of the j o u r n e y i n t o the Canvey  terminal.  The second s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two p o r t s stems from the f a c t t h a t the harbour t r a n s i t through t h e P o r t o f Vancouver p l a c e s even hundreds, o f thousands of people who l i v e or work a l o n g Burrard I n l e t at r i s k .  The c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n  t e n s , perhaps the shores of  r e s i d i n g along  the River  Thames between Canvey and the Former Seaward L i m i t , on the o t h e r hand, i s n e i t h e r as l a r g e nor as d e n s e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d  as i n Vancouver.  combined w i t h the knowledge t h a t loaded gas t a n k e r s  This  feature,  a p p r o a c h i n g the B r i t i s h  Gas t e r m i n a l a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l e r and, i n a p h y s i c a l sense, f u r t h e r removed from the immediate c o a s t a l p o p u l a t i o n  than i s the case i n Vancouver,  suggests t h a t Canvey-bound gas c a r r i e r s p r e s e n t l e s s of a d i r e c t t h r e a t t o p u b l i c s a f e t y than do l i q u e f i e d propane t a n k e r s  during t h e i r  regular  130  CANVEY  ISLAND, U.K. & ENVIRONS  Figure 4 . 7  131 t r a n s i t s of B u r r a r d  A f i n a l point  Inlet.*  to c o n s i d e r  i s that  l i q u e f i e d gas  lower reaches of the Thames are not hazards as  automobile b r i d g e s ,  to contend w i t h such p o t e n t i a l  t o , the n a v i g a b l e  fairway,  or r a i l w a y  a l l of which are d i s t i n c t n a v i g a t i o n a l concerns i n the  Regulatory  Considerations  L i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l gas  carriers  functioning within  the P o r t  f o r a number of y e a r s , been governed by a s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g However, c o n t r a r y tendency on  London LNG  to recent  the part  e x e r c i s i n g greater  regulatory  of the  "hands on"  by-law has  required  of London have, by-law.  e x p e r i e n c e i n the U n i t e d  c o a s t a l s t a t e has  i n c r e a s i n g l y been one  been d r a f t e d i n such a f a s h i o n as  to leave  Thus, w h i l e inbound gas  to secure Harbour Master's c l e a r a n c e  35  S t a t e s where  c o n t r o l over a c t u a l s h i p o p e r a t i o n s ,  master's a u t h o r i t y more or l e s s i n t a c t . are  and  of Vancouver.  4.4.5.2  the  i n the  c r o s s - h a r b o u r commuter f e r r i e s , deepsea v e s s e l s moored e i t h e r  w i t h i n , or i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  Port  required  tankers o p e r a t i n g  of  the  the  vessel  carriers  to both enter and  move  w i t h i n the p o r t , and w h i l e they are bound to observe a number of s p e c i a l precautions  concerning  t a n k e r s are not  and  cargo o f f l o a d i n g procedures,  gas  a f f e c t e d by such c o n s t r a i n t s as the mandatory p r o v i s i o n of  e s c o r t s , tug a s s i s t a n c e institution  vessel berthing  during  of moving s a f e t y  docking, s h i p p i n g  lane c l o s u r e s , or  the  zones.  *The two v e s s e l s which r e g u l a r l y s e r v i c e the Canvey I s l a n d LNG t e r m i n a l t h a t i s the Methane Progress and the Methane P r i n c e s s - have cargo c a p a c i t i e s on the order of 27 400 m . The cargo c a p a c i t y r a t i n g s f o r the three most r e c e n t LPG c a r r i e r s to v i s i t W e s t r i d g e T e r m i n a l i n Burnaby ( p r i o r to 31 August 1982) were as f o l l o w s : Yamahide Maru 38 160 m Tatsuno Maru 50 670 m 3  3  3  N i c h i z a n Maru  -  40 000  m3  (estimated)  132 The apparent r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t of P o r t of London o f f i c i a l s t o i n t r o d u c e more s t r i n g e n t o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s undoubtedly stems from a c o m b i n a t i o n of f a c t o r s r a n g i n g from a l o n g - s t a n d i n g sense of B r i t i s h m a r i t i m e t r a d i t i o n t o the r a t h e r q u e s t i o n a b l e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t , the  since  p o r t has e x p e r i e n c e d no s e r i o u s gas t a n k e r a c c i d e n t s i n 18 f u l l y e a r s of  o p e r a t i o n , t h e r e i s no p e r c e i v e d need t o upgrade e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s . w i t h Vancouver, P o r t of London o f f i c i a l s ,  As  e i t h e r , u n w i t t i n g l y or o t h e r w i s e ,  appear t o have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s on the assumptions  that:  a)  i n d i v i d u a l gas t a n k e r s w i l l not be p l a c e d i n hazardous c i r c u m s t a n c e s as a r e s u l t of e i t h e r m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e o r human error;  b)  gas t a n k e r s a f e t y w i l l not be j e o p a r d i z e d as a r e s u l t of m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e o r human e r r o r on o t h e r v e s s e l s ; and  c)  i n the u n l i k e l y event a gas t a n k e r i s i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t , t h e s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of the cargo containment system w i l l remain i n t a c t t h r o u g h o u t .  H i s t o r y may, i n f a c t , bear out the p r e c e d i n g a s s u m p t i o n s .  However, as has  been i n d i c a t e d elsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s , r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and on t h e European c o n t i n e n t have w i d e l y r e j e c t e d t h i s approach t o r u l e m a k i n g on the b a s i s t h a t i t f a i l s t o i n c o r p o r a t e s u f f i c i e n t  back-up  s a f e t y measures c a p a b l e of r e s p o n d i n g i n an e f f e c t i v e manner t o any i n i t i a l emergency s i t u a t i o n which may r e s u l t s h o u l d e i t h e r of assumptions " a " o r "b" (above) prove i n c o r r e c t .  F o r example,  the presence of e s c o r t i n g tugs c o u l d  prove i n v a l u a b l e i n the event a l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s u s t a i n s a l o s s of power o r r u d d e r m a l f u n c t i o n i n a c o n s t r i c t e d or congested a r e a .  The  i n t r o d u c t i o n and enforcement of a moving s a f e t y zone, by the same t o k e n , would s e r v e t o v i r t u a l l y e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a major between v e s s e l s , f o r whatever  reason(s).  collision  .133 Another d i s t u r b i n g f e a t u r e on the p a r t of the P o r t of London A u t h o r i t y (PLA) has been i t s tendency t o i n t r o d u c e sometimes l o o s e l y worded o p e r a t i n g g u i d e l i n e s which a r e open t o broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by i n d i v i d u a l masters and p i l o t s and w h i c h , by d e f i n i t i o n , would almost c e r t a i n l y prove d i f f i c u l t t o enforce.  F o r i n s t a n c e , PLA N o t i c e t o M a r i n e r s 8 o f 1980 ( i s s u e d i n J a n u a r y  1980) s t a t e s t h a t a l l v e s s e l s o p e r a t i n g between Sea Reach No. 7 and West B l y t h Buoys ( i . e . i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of Canvey I s l a n d )  "...shall  proceed a t a moderate speed when p a s s i n g b e r t h s where s p e c i f i e d v e s s e l s w i t h cargoes of LNG, LPG, Ammonia or E x p l o s i v e s are p r e s e n t or manoeuvring  i n the  v i c i n i t y . . . " , and f u r t h e r m o r e t h a t s p e c i f i e d v e s s e l s " . . . s h a l l , when above Sea Reach No. 7, a t a l l times proceed a t moderate s p e e d . "  3 6  The  o p e r a t i v e term i n both i n s t a n c e s i s "moderate speed" w h i c h , i n t u r n , has been d e f i n e d by the PLA as b e i n g "...not more than 8 k n o t s through the w a t e r , or minimum speed n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate whichever i s g r e a t e r . "  3 7  c o n t r o l and s a f e n a v i g a t i o n ,  A c c o r d i n g l y , w h i l e 8 k n o t s i s a "suggested"  maximum speed, the wording of the d e f i n i t i o n i s such t h a t any v e s s e l c o u l d be o p e r a t e d a t speeds i n excess of 8 k n o t s s h o u l d t h e master deem i t n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n proper c o n t r o l .  T h i s somewhat i n t e r p r e t i v e  approach  towards n a v i g a t i o n a l r u l e m a k i n g i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the s t r i c t , p r e c i s e l y - d e f i n e d s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s which have become the h a l l m a r k of American gas t a n k e r r e g u l a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e .  134 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 4.0 F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s see I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l M a r i t i m e C o n s u l t a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n , Code f o r the C o n s t r u c t i o n and Equipment of S h i p s C a r r y i n g L i q u e f i e d Gases i n B u l k (London: The O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1976); and I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l M a r i t i m e C o n s u l t a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n , Code f o r E x i s t i n g S h i p s C a r r y i n g L i q u e f i e d Gases i n B u l k (London: The O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1976). 1  2  1981.  L l o y d ' s L i s t , see e d i t i o n s 4 October 1980 and 18 and 19 December  C a p t a i n W.S.G. M o r r i s o n , as quoted i n West Coast - A D i g e s t of E v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d t o the West Coast O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y (Vancouver: p r e p a r e d by Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1977), p. 28. 3  4 F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, S a i l i n g D i r e c t i o n s - B r i t i s h Columbia Coast (South P o r t i o n ) , (Ottawa: F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Canada - S c i e n t i f i c I n f o r m a t i o n and P u b l i c a t i o n s B r a n c h , 1 9 7 9 ) , V o l . 1, e l e v e n t h e d i t i o n , p. 188. 5 T r a n s p o r t Canada, The Modern T a l e of the T i m e l e s s Seas (Vancouver: Canadian Coast Guard, c i r c a 1976), p. 3. Government of Canada, N a t i o n a l Harbours Board O p e r a t i n g By-law (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r f o r Canada, 1978), s e c t i o n 59.  6  P o r t of Vancouver, Second Narrows MRA S t a n d i n g Orders (Vancouver: N a t i o n a l Harbours B o a r d , 1 December 1981), pp. 1-19. 7  "Tug e s c o r t s ' w i l l r a i s e Sun, 25 March 1980. 8  1  c o s t of Narrows  t r a n s i t s " , The  Vancouver  "Near-misses plague Second Narrows", The P r o v i n c e , 11 March  y  10  1980.  "Tanker l o s e s s t e e r i n g " , The Vancouver Sun, 27 November 1977.  11 Based upon i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from U.S. Coast Guard l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i o n s p l a n s f o r B o s t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a ; P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d ; E l b a I s l a n d (Savannah), G e o r g i a ; Cove P o i n t , M a r y l a n d ; and P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a . 12 Q u o t a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , P o r t o f Los Angeles - L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas O p e r a t i o n s / Emergency P l a n (Los A n g e l e s : October 1978), P a r t I I I , S e c t i o n A, S u b s e c t i o n l a , p. 3. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the a c t u a l w o r d i n g of the d i s c l o s u r e may v a r y m a r g i n a l l y from one p o r t t o the n e x t , a l t h o u g h the substance of the t e x t remains e s s e n t i a l l y the same. 1 Background i n f o r m a t i o n on the e v o l u t i o n of Boston as a gas p o r t e x t r a c t e d from a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o the w r i t e r f r o m Mr. R. M o r i c o n i , A s s i s t a n t P o r t D i r e c t o r - T r a f f i c , M a s s a c h u s e t t s P o r t A u t h o r i t y , dated 14 December 1979. 3  135 !4 U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , The P o r t of Boston - LNG-LPG V e s s e l Management P l a n and Emergency P l a n (Boston: U.S. Coast Guard M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , 1 August 1979), pp. 1-2 t o 1-4, p. I - I I - l , and p. I - I I - l . 15 Based upon telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n between w r i t e r and Ms. P o r t o f Los A n g e l e s , 28 November 1979. 16 "Tanker scheduled c i r c a December 1978. 1 7  J . Natow,  to b r i n g second LPG shipment", Los Angeles Times,  D a v i s , op. c i t . , p.  158.  18 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , a l l i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to gas t a n k e r r e g u l a t i o n s i n the P o r t o f Los Angeles has been d e r i v e d from U.S. Coast Guard (Department of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) , P o r t of Los Angeles - L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas Operations/Emergency P l a n (Los A n g e l e s : October 1978). 19 T.K. J e n n s s e n , " R i s k A n a l y s i s of LPG T r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the P o r s g r u n n A r e a " , V e r i t a s ( O s l o : Det n o r s k e V e r i t a s ) , V o l . 24, No. 94, December 1978, p. 9. 2 0  2 1  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 26 A p r i l "Progress  on LPG  1982.  t e r m i n a l " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 10 August  1981.  H e a l t h & S a f e t y E x e c u t i v e , Canvey: Summary of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s from o p e r a t i o n s i n the Canvey I s l a n d / T h u r r o c k area (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n a r y O f f i c e , 1978), p. 2. 2 2  2 3  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 25 March  2 4  I b i d . , 25 March  1981.  1981.  Lee M. D a v i s , F r o z e n F i r e (San F r a n c i s c o : F r i e n d s of the E a r t h , 1979), pp. 275-276; and L l o y d ' s L i s t , 21 May 1982. 2 5  BP R a f f i n a d e r i j N e d e r l a n d N.V. and S h e l l N e d e r l a n d B.V., LPG i n E u r o p o o r t (Rotterdam?: p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n brochure r e l e a s e d c i r c a 1978 1979), p. 9. 2 6  Based upon i n t e r v i e w s between the w r i t e r and P o r t Autonome du Havre, Le Havre, F r a n c e , 26 May 2 7  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of 1980.  the  " C o n t r o v e r s i a l LPG p l a n at E u r o p o o r t wins a p p r o v a l " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 9 November 1981. 2 8  2 9  "Rotterdam row  over l a n d i n g p o l i c y " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 19 March  3 0  I b i d . , 19 March  1981.  3 1  I b i d . , 19 March  1981.  3 2  "Rotterdam anxious  f o r LPG  s t a r t - u p " , L l o y d ' s L i s t , 8 August  1981.  1981.  or  136  J  J  Preliminary  information  Europoort  furnished  Rotterdam  during  otherwise  indicated.  3 Z >  p. 35  BP  a  by  Mr.  on  the  Peter  conversation  Raffinaderij  Nederland  proposed  Noe, with  N.V.  gas  Research the  and  tanker Project  writer,  Shell  30  May  Nederland  regulations Manager, 1980,  B.V.,  for  Port  of  except  as  op. c i t . ,  9. Port  Authority liquid  of  London  with  methane  Authority,  respect in  the  to port  the  By-laws  made  importation,  of  London  Authority,  Notice  by  the  Port  exportation  (London:  P.L.A.,  of and  London handling  circa  of  November  1965). 36 to 3  7  Port be  of  London  Observed  Ibid.  by  Vessels  (London:  to  Mariners  P.L.A.,  30  8  of  January  1980  -  1980).  Precautions  137  5.0  CONCLUSIONS  I t i s apparent t h a t two f a i r l y d i s t i n c t s c h o o l s  of thought have emerged  among the p o r t r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s examined i n t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the m a t t e r of n a v i g a t i o n a l s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s . the one hand, t h e r e a r e those who would advocate s t r o n g  On  regulatory  i n t e r v e n t i o n on the p a r t of the h o s t n a t i o n , as has c l e a r l y been the case i n both t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and, more r e c e n t l y , H o l l a n d . philosophy  i s t o d i m i n i s h the i n h e r e n t  l e v e l s h o r t o f e x c l u d i n g gas t a n k e r s  The essence of t h i s  r i s k f a c t o r t o the lowest p o s s i b l e  from the p o r t  entirely.  By c o n t r a s t , a u t h o r i t i e s at both the P o r t of London and the P o r t of Vancouver have t r a d i t i o n a l l y tended t o a v o i d d i r e c t r e g u l a t o r y i n t e r v e n t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e .  As a r e s u l t , the s p e c i a l gas tanker  operating  r e q u i r e m e n t s i n e f f e c t f o r both the l o w e r Thames r e g i o n and Vancouver h a r b o u r a r e n o t i c e a b l y l a c k i n g i n terms of s u b s t a n c e , scope, and c l a r i t y when c o n t r a s t e d w i t h such communities as B o s t o n , Los A n g e l e s , o r Rotterdam/ Europoort.  I t must t h e r e f o r e be concluded t h a t the h y p o t h e s i s s t a n d a r d s i n t h e P o r t o f Vancouver r e f l e c t — reasonably p o s s i b l e — compared f a v o u r a b l y  tested - that  "...safety  t o the e x t e n t humanly and  l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l concerns and can be  with s i m i l a r i n t e r n a t i o n a l experience..."!  - cannot be  s u p p o r t e d on the s t r e n g t h of the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d , at l e a s t t o the e x t e n t t h a t i t a p p l i e s t o the s a f e passage of l i q u e f i e d p e t r o l e u m gas c a r r i e r s through the p o r t .  I n a c t u a l p o i n t of f a c t , g i v e n such c o n s t r a i n t s as the  s i z e and c o n f i g u r a t i o n of the h a r b o u r , the volume and n a t u r e of s h i p p i n g traffic  i n the p o r t , and the g e o g r a p h i c a l  l o c a t i o n of the W e s t r i d g e  t e r m i n a l , l o c a l LPG s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s i n such areas as t u g e s c o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s , v e s s e l i n s p e c t i o n and c l e a r a n c e  p r o c e d u r e s , speed  limit  1.3.8 r e s t r i c t i o n s , o r the i m p o s i t i o n of mandatory s a f e t y zones around gas c a r r i e r s  bear l i t t l e resemblance t o those i n e f f e c t  the A m e r i c a n or European gas p o r t s  T a b l e 5.1  i n the m a j o r i t y of  examined.  Comparison of S p e c i a l R e g u l a t i o n s i n E f f e c t D u r i n g Harbour Passage of LPG/LNG Tankers  Port: C  % Standard 1. Frequent gas t a n k e r s a f e t y i n s p e c t i o n s by h o s t n a t i o n 2. Mandatory t u g e s c o r t 3. Harbour speed restriction  limit  n j  V k  o u  *  *  ?  ?  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  ?  4. Moorage p r o h i b i t e d i n or near n a v i g a b l e f a i r w a y  *  *  *  5. S a f e t y zone around moving gas c a r r i e r  *  *  *  6. Mandatory p r o v i s i o n of h a r b o u r master e s c o r t  *  *  *  7. A i r c r a f t movement restrictions  *  *  8. D a y l i g h t passage o n l y (loaded v e s s e l s )  *  *  *  ?  *  *  *  1  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  9. V i s i b i l i t y  liquefied  restrictions  10. S p e c i a l bylaw or o p e r a t i o n s plan  Second Narrows Only Second Narrows Only  ?  ?  * *  11. V e s s e l t r a f f i c management system  *  *  I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the A s s i s t a n t Harbour M a s t e r ' s statement of November 1979 was based, e i t h e r i n whole or i n p a r t , upon any of t h r e e assumptions/considerations:  separate  139 A)  A geniune, but mistaken, b e l i e f t h a t gas tanker r u l e s were, indeed, on a par w i t h other World p o r t s .  B)  The assumption t h a t , s i n c e there have been no r e p o r t e d gas tanker a c c i d e n t s to date i n " t h e " P o r t " O f Vancouver, the e x i s t i n g s a f e t y standards must be adequate atid, t h e r e f o r e ; a t " l e a s t e q u i v a l e n t to those i n e f f e c t i n other p o r t s .  There are s e v e r a l flaws i n t h i s argument, which r e f l e c t s a s e r i o u s m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r i c events, both l o c a l l y and F a i r l e y and  o t h e r s have suggested  t h a t r i s k a n a l y s i s based  l i m i t e d , accident free operating h i s t o r i e s caution. and  2  The P o r t of Vancouver has  outbound) LPG  tanker t r a n s i t s  25 t r a n s i t s per y e a r .  That  internationally. upon  should be viewed w i t h  e x p e r i e n c e d perhaps 400  (inbound  d u r i n g the past 16 y e a r s , or r o u g h l y  t h e r e have been no s e r i o u s gas  tanker  a c c i d e n t s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d does not n e c e s s a r i l y e s t a b l i s h a " s i g n i f i c a n t " p r o b a b i l i t y f a c t o r , and indicating  t h a t , based  as  upon p r e v i o u s o p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , there i s a  z e r o p r o b a b i l i t y of an LPG actuality,  should not be c o n s t r u e d  a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g i n the harbour.  i t i s more r e a l i s t i c  In  to assume t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of a  major a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g at some time i n the f u t u r e i s equal to some range of v a l u e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p r e v i o u s o p e r a t i n g r e c o r d . p r e c e d i n g comments should be f u r t h e r tempered by the f a c t s e r i o u s , v e r y s e r i o u s , and June 1979  and  5 February  t o t a l l o s s LPG  1982  The  t h a t , of  tanker c a s u a l t i e s between 28  (as i d e n t i f i e d  i n Appendix I I ) , at  least  18 o c c u r r e d i n , or i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o , populated harbour  areas.  Based upon i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n C l a r k s o n ' s L i q u e f i e d Gas  Carrier  R e g i s t e r - 1981,  i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t the world LPG  this period constituted  some 1400  45  tanker f l e e t  tanker o p e r a t i n g y e a r s :  3  during  140  Table 5.2 Year  a) World LPG Tanker F l e e t  LPG Tanker O p e r a t i n g Years 28 June 1979 - 28 February b) P o r t i o n o f Year Under C o n s i d e r a t i o n  1982 c) Tanker Years (a X b = c )  1979  500  6 months (6/12)  250  1980  528  12 months (12/12)  528  1981  568  12 months (12/12)  568  1982  570  (est.)  1 month  (1/12)  48 Total  1394  Thus, the i n c i d e n c e of s e r i o u s LPG t a n k e r a c c i d e n t s i n or near populated one  harbour areas d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d amounted to  c a s u a l t y f o r e v e r y 78 t a n k e r  approximately  years.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s p r e s e n t l y i n p l a c e thus f a r , have had c a r r i e r s through  may,  l i t t l e b e a r i n g whatsoever on the s a f e passage of  the P o r t of Vancouver.  A combination  gas  of good  seamanship, s t r i c t adherence to the n a v i g a t i o n a l r u l e s of the road, the absence of any e x t r a o r d i n a r y o p e r a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s have p r e c l u d e d  may,  and  i n fact  the l i k e l i h o o d of a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g on any  the 200 or so p r e v i o u s gas t a n k e r v i s i t s  to the p o r t .  The  of  question  r e m a i n s , however, as t o whether or not the e x i s t i n g standards would  be  s u f f i c i e n t to d e t e r a major, p o s s i b l y c a t a s t r o p h i c , a c c i d e n t from o c c u r r i n g i n the event of a s e r i o u s equipment m a l f u n c t i o n or e r r o r i n judgment. adequate.  I t i s the c o n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s t h a t they would not  be  The  12 October 1979  i n c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g the f r e i g h t e r Japan E r i c a more  f u l l y u n d e r s c o r e s the shortcomings a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the "adequacy of  the  e x i s t i n g s t a n d a r d s " argument.  to  P r i o r to that date, i t i s reasonable  assume t h a t s h i p p i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i n f o r c e f o r the Second Narrows might a l s o have been c o n s i d e r e d both a p p r o p r i a t e and e f f e c t i v e , based upon the p r e v i o u s s h i p s a f e t y r e c o r d f o r the a r e a .  However, on the  evening  of 12 O c t o b e r , the outbound Japan E r i c a c o l l i d e d w i t h the Second Narrows R a i l w a y  B r i d g e d u r i n g a p e r i o d of dense f o g and,  i n f l i c t e d heavy damage to the b r i d g e ' s the b a s i c i n a d e q u a c i e s  lift  span.  E r i c a s h o u l d not have been p e r m i t t e d  doing,  I n a b r i e f moment,  of the Second Narrows O p e r a t i n g  exposed i n the w o r s t p o s s i b l e l i g h t .  i n so  r e g u l a t i o n s were  I n s i m p l e s t terms, the Japan to s a i l under the p r e v a i l i n g f o g  c o n d i t i o n s on the n i g h t of 12 October.  C l e a r l y , the  shipping  r e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t at t h a t time were not s u f f i c i e n t l y r i g o u r o u s  to  compensate f o r the poor q u a l i t y of seamanship d i s p l a y e d by the master and p i l o t aboard the Japan E r i c a .  P o r t a u t h o r i t i e s may c o n s c i o u s l y have r e s i s t e d i n t r o d u c i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e o p e r a t i n g standards f o r gas t a n k e r s on the b a s i s t h a t the P o r t of Vancouver i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d u a l , and not e n t i r e l y c o m p a t i b l e , p o r t f o l i o of p o r t m a r k e t i n g and harbour s a f e t y .  Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  t h e r e e x i s t s the v e r y r e a l concern t h a t p o r t  o f f i c i a l s , i n an e f f o r t t o e i t h e r a t t r a c t new e x i s t i n g ones, may  choose to p l a c e m a r k e t i n g  p u b l i c s a f e t y concerns.  businesses  or  retain  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ahead of  The h a s t y manner by which s t r i c t new  shipping  r e g u l a t i o n s were i n t r o d u c e d f o r the Second Narrows area f o l l o w i n g the J a p a n E r i c a a c c i d e n t lends c o n s i d e r a b l e support observation.  I t i s a m a t t e r of p u b l i c r e c o r d  t o the  preceding  t h a t Dr. Hugh H o r n e r ,  -14-2 formerly  of the Canadian Wheat Board made " . . . v e r y  representations..."  strong  to the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board p r i o r to  r e - o p e n i n g of the Second Narrows r a i l w a y b r i d g e  the  i n F e b r u a r y of 1980  in  an attempt to g a i n assurances t h a t s t r i n g e n t measures would be taken t o ensure t h a t the b r i d g e would not be h i t a g a i n . ^ responded t o Mr.  Horner's o v e r t u r e s  comprehensive mandatory o p e r a t i n g h a r b o u r (See  The Harbours Board  by i n t r o d u c i n g the most  r e g u l a t i o n s c u r r e n t l y i n f o r c e i n the  S e c t i o n 4.2.2).  W h i l e the r e c e n t  i n t r o d u c t i o n of s p e c i a l n a v i g a t i o n r u l e s f o r the  Second Narrows - at l e a s t t o the e x t e n t  t h a t they a p p l y t o  vessels  t r a n s p o r t i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s - does, i n a sense, r e f l e c t the of t h i s t h e s i s , i t must not be o v e r l o o k e d the new  goals  t h a t the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of  r e g u l a t i o n s i s not so much to i n c r e a s e  the l e v e l of p u b l i c  i s a f e t y i n the v i c i n i t y of the Second Narrows as i t i s to p r o t e c t the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y of the r a i l w a y b r i d g e and i n t e r e s t s i n serves. to ensuring  That t h e NHB  the economic  appears to p e r c e i v e  i t s commitment  a h i g h l e v e l of p u b l i c s a f e t y as secondary to  p r e s e r v a t i o n of e c o n o m i c a l l y  the  s t r a t e g i c p r o p e r t i e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by  f a c t t h a t once a s h i p t r a n s p o r t i n g dangerous m a t e r i a l s (such as has  both  the  LPG)  c l e a r e d the Second Narrows, the p r i n c i p a l elements of a c t i v e v e s s e l  p r o t e c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g tug e s c o r t s , speed r e s t r i c t i o n s , and c h a n n e l r e q u i r e m e n t s ) are i m m e d i a t e l y d i s m i s s e d . outbound gas  tanker  clear  Significantly,  an  t r a v e r s i n g Vancouver's main harbour ( t h a t i s , the  h a r b o u r a r e a s i t u a t e d to the west of the Second Narrows) would r o u t i n e l y expect to encounter such p o t e n t i a l hazards to n a v i g a t i o n passing  deepsea v e s s e l s , l a r g e cargo s h i p s moored at any  c r i t i c a l l y l o c a t e d mid-harbour anchorages, tug and c o a s t a l and  barge  c r o s s - harbour f e r r y movements, e x t e n s i v e  of the  five  traffic,  seaplane  as  143 a c t i v i t y , and numerous s m a l l commercial and r e c r e a t i o n a l c r a f t . event of a s e r i o u s mid-harbour gas  t a n k e r a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g between  the F i r s t and Second Narrows, i t i s arguable l o c a t i o n and n a t u r e  In the  t h a t , depending upon the  of the mishap, a g r e a t e r number of l i v e s would  almost c e r t a i n l y be p l a c e d ar r i s k than would be the case f o r an i d e n t i c a l a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the s t r i c t l y the Second Narrows. public  of  Thus, w h i l e t h e r e i s a c o m p e l l i n g r a t i o n a l e from a  s a f e t y p e r s p e c t i v e t o upgrade the q u a l i t y of gas  o p e r a t i n g standards  tanker  throughout the remainder of the p o r t , the Harbours  Board has done l i t t l e i n the way  Regardless  controlled limits  of r e s p o n d i n g  to t h i s  of the o f f i c i a l c o r p o r a t e r e a s o n i n g behind  challenge.  the P o r t of  Vancouver's d e c i s i o n t o implement LPG n a v i g a t i o n a l s a f e t y r u l e s which do  not  compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those i n f o r c e i n o t h e r gas p o r t s , c e r t a i n r e c e n t events suggest t h a t p o r t o f f i c i a l s  may  f i n d themselves i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y  compromised p o s i t i o n s h o u l d they c o n t i n u e t o adhere to the regulatory philosophy of dangerous goods.  current  as i t r e l a t e s to the b u l k s t o r a g e and marine t r a n s p o r t I n order t o put t h i s statement i n t o proper c o n t e x t ,  might b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r B.C.  Hydro's r e c e n t p r o p o s a l to c o n s t r u c t an LNG  one peak  s h a v i n g p l a n t near Sasamat L a k e , some 20 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t of Vancouver.  The  Hydro p r o p o s a l c a l l s f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a 70 000 c u b i c metre c a p a c i t y LNG  s t o r a g e f a c i l i t y f o r the purpose of s u p p l y i n g n a t u r a l gas d u r i n g  of peak energy demand.  The  Sasamat s i t e was  periods  s e l e c t e d over s e v e r a l o t h e r s  the s t r e n g t h of p u r p o r t e d l y s u p e r i o r e n g i n e e r i n g , p u b l i c s a f e t y , and environmental  characteristics.  N a t u r a l gas would be p i p e d to the Sasamat  p l a n t , where i t would be l i q u e f i e d and The  subsequently  p l a n would not r e q u i r e the movement of LNG  mode.  stored u n t i l required.  by e i t h e r marine or  rail  on  144-. However, d e s p i t e the c o m p a r a t i v e l y underpopulated  n a t u r e of the a r e a ,  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g Hydro's s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t e the h i g h e s t standards  and  design  i n t o the p r o j e c t , the p u b l i c r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the p r o p o s a l  s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e n s e to cause the company to t h o r o u g h l y r e - a s s e s s p r a c t i c a l i t y of l o c a t i n g at the Sasamat s i t e .  The  was  the  p r o p o s a l i s p r e s e n t l y on  i n d e f i n i t e h o l d , pending an improvement i n the g e n e r a l economic c l i m a t e .  In c o n t r a s t , the W e s t r i d g e LPG a number of severe  t e r m i n a l o p e r a t i o n i n Burnaby i s a f f e c t e d by  l o c a t i o n a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s  i n h e r e n t i n the Hydro p r o p o s a l .  which are  not  For i n s t a n c e , W e s t r i d g e i s u n f a v o u r a b l y  s i t u a t e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods, and i s not separated  from these areas by an e f f e c t i v e n e u t r a l b u f f e r zone.  estimated  t h a t between 1000  of the W e s t r i d g e f a c i l i t y . ^  and 2000 people  I t has  r e s i d e w i t h i n a 600 metre r a d i u s  F u r t h e r m o r e , W e s t r i d g e i s dependent upon r a i l  and marine d e l i v e r y systems, both of which r e q u i r e l e n g t h y t r a n s i t s densely populated  through  a r e a s , and are more s u s c e p t i b l e to the r i s k of s e r i o u s  l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g a c c i d e n t s than are p i p e l i n e s . 3.3.1  been  of t h i s document, LPG  F i n a l l y , as noted  i n Section  i s , i n many r e s p e c t s , c o n s i d e r e d to be a more  dangerous commodity to handle than  I n view of these c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  LNG.  i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to understand  why  port  o f f i c i a l s have been r e l u c t a n t to draw p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n to the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e volume overseas LPG  t r a d e o p e r a t i n g out of Vancouver.  By so  doing,  they would u n d o u b t e d l y run the r i s k of i n c u r r i n g a s e r i o u s p u b l i c b a c k l a s h . Moreover, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s t r i c t new  o p e r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r gas  t a n k e r s a t t h i s time might o n l y serve to emphasize t h a t the requirements standards  are inadequate.  existing  On the o t h e r hand, f a i l u r e to upgrade e x i s t i n g  c o u l d a l s o r e s u l t i n severe r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n the event of e i t h e r  145 a s e r i o u s gas t a n k e r i n c i d e n t i n the p o r t .  I n any event, p u b l i c t r u s t i n  the o p e r a t i n g methods of t h e P o r t o f Vancouver c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l l y , and j u s t i f i a b l y , undermined.  I n t h e wake of events such as the Japan E r i c a e p i s o d e ,  t h e r e can be l i t t l e  doubt t h a t a major, l i f e - t h r e a t e n i n g a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g a l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r c o u l d occur i n the P o r t of Vancouver, g i v e n the a p p r o p r i a t e circumstances.  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t would be wrong t o presume t h a t t h e  l i k e l i h o o d of such an a c c i d e n t o c c u r r i n g c o u l d ever be t o t a l l y e l i m i n a t e d as l o n g as t h e p o r t c o n t i n u e s Nevertheless,  t o s e r v e the deepsea l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r  t h e a c c i d e n t r i s k f a c t o r c o u l d be reduced  trade.  significantly  through t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of more s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , b o t h i n terms of substance and enforcement.  That the Yamahide Maru has now been permanently  r e p l a c e d by t h e N i c h i z a n Maru should be viewed as the i n a u g u r a t i o n of a new e r a i n gas t a n k e r o p e r a t i o n s e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y standards  i n the p o r t , and as  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o upgrade  to a recognized world l e v e l p r i o r t o , r a t h e r  than a f t e r , a s e r i o u s mishap has o c c u r r e d .  5.1  Recapitulation I n summary, i t i s concluded  that:  • i n terms of i n f l a m m a b i l i t y / e x p l o s i v e n e s s , the hazard p o t e n t i a l i n h e r e n t i n the marine t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f LPG by ocean-going gas c a r r i e r s i s as g r e a t a s , i f not g r e a t e r t h a n , t h a t of LNG, and s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d a c c o r d i n g l y i n terms of the a p p l i c a t i o n and enforcement of a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l i n - h a r b o u r o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s ; •the s p e c i a l o p e r a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e s e n t l y i n f o r c e i n the P o r t of Vancouver f o r v e s s e l s t r a n s p o r t i n g LPG do not compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h s i m i l a r r e g u l a t o r y c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n e i t h e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r Western Europe.  146 • l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of Vancouver's B u r r a r d I n l e t are r o u t i n e l y exposed to a wide v a r i e t y of n a v i g a t i o n hazards r a n g i n g from s h i p p i n g c o n g e s t i o n to p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t s w i t h seaplane a c t i v i t y . W i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , the P o r t of Vancouver has f a i l e d to i n t r o d u c e s p e c i a l s a f e t y measures which are both c o g n i z a n t of the dangerous n a t u r e o f LPG and which are designed to m i t i g a t e the i n h e r e n t hazard p o t e n t i a l a s s o c i a t e d t h e r e w i t h ; • i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a loaded or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d l i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r c o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n a s e r i o u s harbour a c c i d e n t due t o m e c h a n i c a l f a i l u r e or human e r r o r ( e i t h e r aboard the gas c a r r i e r or another v e s s e l ) ; • i t would be d i f f i c u l t , i f not i m p o s s i b l e , to c o n t a i n a major s h i p b o a r d LPG f i r e i n the P o r t o f Vancouver due to a c r i t i c a l l o c a l s h o r t a g e of a p p r o p r i a t e marine emergency response equipment. T h i s s i t u a t i o n would be exacerbated i n the event the C i t y of Vancouver chooses to withdraw the o n l y e x i s t i n g f i r e b o a t from s e r v i c e e n t i r e l y ; and •the e f f e c t s of a s e r i o u s mid-harbour LPG f i r e and/or e x p l o s i o n c o u l d be c a t a s t r o p h i c t o both p u b l i c h e a l t h and p r o p e r t y , depending upon such v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s as the time and l o c a t i o n of the a c c i d e n t , and upon p r e v a i l i n g t i d a l and weather c o n d i t i o n s .  147 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 5.0 1 L e t t e r from Capt. T. E l w o r t h y , A s s i s t a n c e Harbour M a s t e r , P o r t of Vancouver, t o J . M a r s t o n , 22 November 1979. W i l l i a m B. F a i r l e y and F r e d e r i c k M o s t e l l e r , S t a t i s t i c s and P u b l i c P o l i c y ( R e a d i n g , Mass.: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1977), pp. 331-353; and F.W. Murray et a l , Hazards A s s o c i a t e d w i t h the I m p o r t a t i o n of N a t u r a l Gas ( S a n t a Monica: The Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1976), pp. 5-6. 2  H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , L i q u i d Gas C a r r i e r R e g i s t e r - 1981 (London: H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , 1981), p. 25.  3  4  " B r i d g e s a f e g u a r d s u r g e d " , The P r o v i n c e , 17 F e b r u a r y 1980.  Canadian T r a n s p o r t Commission, R a i l r o a d T r a n s p o r t of Dangerous Goods i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver Region (Vancouver: May 1982), p. 53.  5  148 6.0  RECOMMENDATIONS  6.1  P r i m a r y Recommendations LPG Tanker O p e r a t i o n a l S a f e t y  I n t h e i n t e r e s t s of improved p u b l i c s a f e t y , i t i s concluded operating standards  that the  f o r b o t h LPG and LNG t a n k s h i p s f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n t h e  c o n f i n e s o f t h e P o r t of Vancouver s h o u l d be upgraded t o a l e v e l more o r l e s s e q u i v a l e n t t o those i n f o r c e i n t h e American and c o n t i n e n t a l European gas p o r t s examined i n t h e r e s e a r c h .  I n order t o a c h i e v e  this objective, i t i s  recommended t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i a l r e g u l a t o r y p r o v i s i o n s f o r deepsea l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s should be brought i n t o e f f e c t f o r t h w i t h :  A.  I n s p e c t i o n Requirements A d e t a i l e d shipboard  i n s p e c t i o n of every incoming l i q u e f i e d gas  c a r r i e r s h o u l d be undertaken by q u a l i f i e d Canadian Coast Guard personnel  p r i o r t o t h e commencement of cargo t r a n s f e r o p e r a t i o n s .  The mandatory i n s p e c t i o n requirement s h o u l d n o t be waived f o r f r e q u e n t v i s i t o r s t o the p o r t .  Loaded o r p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d v e s s e l s  s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d p r i o r t o t h e v e s s e l e n t e r i n g t h e P o r t o f Vancouver, w h i l e empty v e s s e l s t h a t a r e c e r t i f i e d t o be gas f r e e s h o u l d be i n s p e c t e d w h i l e a t b e r t h or l o c a l anchorage.  Rationale: There have been a number of documented i n s t a n c e s where  shipboard  I n s p e c t i o n s by U.S. Coast Guard teams have determined s e r i o u s gas d e t e c t i o n system m a l f u n c t i o n s  on l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s .  the Norwegian LPG t a n k e r Havis was r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n  I n 1973,  t o unload i n  B o s t o n Harbour when i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e v e s s e l ' s gas d e t e c t i o n a l a r m c o u l d n o t be shut o f f . l v a l v e s had been i m p r o p e r l y  The p r e s s u r e  relief  s e t by t h e crew, r a t h e r than by an  149 internationally certified  team, as r e q u i r e d .  I n F e b r u a r y 1977, an unnamed LPG c a r r i e r was ordered p o r t of P r o v i d e n c e ,  to l e a v e t h e  Rhode I s l a n d when t h e gas d e t e c t i o n system  apparently malfunctioned.  According  Safety O f f i c e , Providence,  the v e s s e l spent s e v e r a l days o f f s h o r e  while attempting it  t o t h e Coast Guard M a r i n e  t o remedy t h e problem.  e v e n t u a l l y departed w i t h o u t  The s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t i n g  Apparently  u n a b l e t o do s o ,  discharging i t s cargo.  2  r a t i o n a l e f o r the p r e - c a r g o t r a n s f e r  i n s p e c t i o n p r o c e s s , however, comes from Coast Guard o f f i c i a l s i n B o s t o n and P h i l a d e l p h i a .  Kenneth A. Rock of t h e M a r i n e S a f e t y  O f f i c e , Boston, stated r e c e n t l y that "...experience ( B o s t o n ) . . . h a s shown t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y  at  15-20% of l i q u e f i e d gas  v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g t h i s p o r t on t h e i r i n i t i a l v i s i t a r e delayed o f f p o r t due t o m a l f u n c t i o n i n g  equipment or i n c o m p l e t e documents.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 10% o f l i q u e f i e d gas v e s s e l s e n t e r i n g on a r e g u l a r t r a d e a r e delayed o f f p o r t . "  3  C a p t a i n D.B. C h a r t e r , C a p t a i n of the P o r t , P h i l a d e l p h i a , has added t h a t " . . . i n the past two y e a r s we have n o t denied a n y . . . ( l i q u e f i e d gas) s h i p .  entry to  We have, however, had t o send a s h i p t o  anchorage t o f u r t h e r c o o l cargo b e f o r e a l l o w i n g i t t o t r a n s f e r and refused operations  of two v e s s e l s w i t h o u t  the r e q u i r e d span gas.*  *"Span gas" i s gas c e r t i f i e d t o c o n t a i n 30% o f the e x p l o s i v e l i m i t f o r LPG and LNG, and i s used t o t e s t gas d e t e c t i o n equipment.  150  T h i s . . . i s why we f e e l i t i s important port v i s i t .  t o i n s p e c t these s h i p s  every  The gas d e t e c t i o n system, span gas, alarms and  f i r e f i g h t i n g equipment a r e items t h a t can change d u r i n g  transit.  They a r e a l s o v i t a l t o the s a f e t y of the v e s s e l and p o r t .  We have  had a v e s s e l come i n t o p o r t w i t h an i c i n g problem on t h e i r  quick  c l o s i n g v a l v e s which wasn't d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l t h e Coast Guard... inspection.  B.  A t t e n d i n g Tugs Loaded or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d oceangoing LPG and LNG c a r r i e r s w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of B u r r a r d I n l e t o r i t s contiguous w a t e r s s h o u l d , w h i l e underway, be a t t e n d e d compulsory e s c o r t of a t l e a s t two t u g s .  operating  navigable  a t a l l times by a  The mandatory e s c o r t  area  s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l n a v i g a b l e waters s i t u a t e d t o the east of the F i r s t Narrows B r i d g e .  E s c o r t t u g horsepower and b o l l a r d p u l l standards  should  correspond  w i t h those e s t a b l i s h e d i n A p p e n d i x B of t h e P o r t o f Vancouver's Second Narrows MRA S t a n d i n g O r d e r s , dated S e c t i o n 4.2.2., p. 100 of t h i s  1 December 1981 (See  thesis).  Rationale: Mandatory t u g e s c o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e common t o a l l o f the American and  c o n t i n e n t a l European gas p o r t examined.  adequately  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  powered and h i g h l y manoeuvrable t u g e s c o r t s c o u l d prove  i n v a l u a b l e i n v a r i o u s emergency s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d a r i s e the harbour t r a n s i t of a gas c a r r i e r .  during  Among the most p l a u s i b l e  emergency events i n which t u g a s s i s t a n c e c o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l would  151 be l o s s of s t e e r i n g , l o s s of power o r a gas t a n k e r b e i n g p l a c e d on a collision  C.  course w i t h another v e s s e l or o b s t a c l e .  Speed R e s t r i c t i o n s E x c e p t under emergency c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as determined by the master o r pilot,  loaded o r p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d LPG and LNG c a r r i e r s o p e r a t i n g  w i t h i n the mandatory e s c o r t a r e a ( a s d e s c r i b e d i n Recommendation "B"),  s h o u l d m a i n t a i n a speed not i n excess o f 6 k n o t s , e x c l u s i v e of  those areas i n the p o r t where lower maximum speed l i m i t s a r e i n force.  Rationale; The proposed 6 knot maximum speed r e q u i r e m e n t , l i k e t h e proposed t u g e s c o r t requirement l i s t e d i n Recommendation "B", i s a d i r e c t e x t e n s i o n of the s t a n d a r d s c u r r e n t l y i n p l a c e f o r the Second Narrows MRA.  I n t h i s r e g a r d , the t u g e s c o r t and v e s s e l speed  limit  s t a n d a r d s a r e c o m p a t i b l e w i t h one another i n o r d e r t o ensure optimum escort effectiveness.  I t i s acknowledged  t h a t the maximum s a f e o p e r a t i n g speed f o r a  l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r (under e s c o r t ) i n the open harbour  might  r e a s o n a b l y be h i g h e r than f o r the r e s t r i c t e d Second Narrows a r e a . However, power r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a t t e n d i n g tugs l i s t e d i n Recommendation "B" would have t o be amended a c c o r d i n g l y i n o r d e r f o r the e s c o r t t o remain e f f e c t i v e a t h i g h e r speeds, as i t would  require  g r e a t e r energy t o e i t h e r s t o p o r change the h e a d i n g on a l a r g e t r a v e l l i n g a t a speed o f 8 knots than i t would f o r the same v e s s e l t r a v e l l i n g at 6 knots.  152 I t i s suggested t h a t the i s s u e of e s t a b l i s h i n g a p p r o p r i a t e tug e s c o r t and "C")  speed l i m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s (Recommendations "B"  and  s h o u l d be a f f o r d e d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n by the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l  Committee ( d e s c r i b e d i n Recommendation  D.  long-term  "H").  Inner Anchorage Moorage No v e s s e l s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d to moor at I n n e r Anchorages A through E, P o r t o f Vancouver, d u r i n g e i t h e r the inbound or outbound passage of a loaded  or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d l i q u e f i e d gas  carrier.  Rationale: The  e x i s t e n c e of moored deepsea v e s s e l s i n the m i d s t of the main  harbour a r e a of the P o r t of Vancouver r e p r e s e n t s an u n n e c e s s a r y impediment to the s a f e n a v i g a t i o n of a l a r g e gas  tanker.  p r o p e r s c h e d u l i n g , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o ensure t h a t  Through Inner  Anchorages A t h r o u g h E w i l l remain vacant d u r i n g the main harbour passage of deepsea gas c a r r i e r s , thereby  eliminating a potential  t h r e a t to s h i p s a f e t y .  E.  S a f e t y Zone Loaded or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d l i q u e f i e d gas  carriers transitting  the  p o r t s h o u l d do so w i t h i n a moving s a f e t y zone i n order to a v o i d p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous c r o s s i n g or p a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s w i t h large vessels.  The  other  s a f e t y zone s h o u l d extend t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s ahead  of the gas c a r r i e r , and  two k i l o m e t r e s a s t e r n a t a l l t i m e s .  No  o t h e r v e s s e l s underway i n the p o r t would be p e r m i t t e d t o encroach upon t h i s s a f e t y zone. of 100  Outside  the s a f e t y zone, v e s s e l s i n excess  gross tons would not be a l l o w e d t o t r a n s i t the harbour  153 d u r i n g the passage of a gas c a r r i e r w i t h o u t  the expressed  permission  of the Harbour M a s t e r .  Rationale: The  i m p o s i t i o n of a moving s a f e t y zone would s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduce  the l i k e l i h o o d of a c o l l i s i o n  i n v o l v i n g the gas c a r r i e r and  another  l a r g e v e s s e l w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the h a r b o u r , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i g h speed c r o s s i n g and  (oncoming) p a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n s .  Furthermore, i n  the event of another l a r g e v e s s e l a c c i d e n t a l l y e n c r o a c h i n g s a f e t y zone, the gas c a r r i e r , a l o n g w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t  upon the  tug e s c o r t ,  would l i k e l y be a f f o r d e d s u f f i c i e n t o p p o r t u n i t y to manoeuvre out  of  danger.  The  moving s a f e t y zone has an added economic advantage over a t o t a l  harbour c l o s u r e (such as t h a t which i s imposed f o r the Los M a i n Channel d u r i n g the passage of loaded  gas c a r r i e r s ) i n t h a t i t  w i l l have l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t r a f f i c p r o c e e d i n g d i r e c t i o n as the gas c a r r i e r . disadvantaged  Angeles  i n the same  Oncoming v e s s e l s c o u l d  be  t o a somewhat g r e a t e r degree s h o u l d they w i s h to e n t e r  p o r t d u r i n g the outbound passage of a loaded  gas c a r r i e r .  It is  s u g g e s t e d , however, t h a t such i n c o n v e n i e n c e s  c o u l d be kept to a  minimum, i f not e l i m i n a t e d e n t i r e l y , w i t h proper v e s s e l movement scheduling.  F.  NHB  Escort  The Harbour M a s t e r ' s O f f i c e s h o u l d a s s i g n a p a t r o l v e s s e l to accompany loaded or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s w h i l e underway w i t h i n the mandatory e s c o r t area (as d e s c r i b e d i n Recommendation " B " ) .  The NHB  e s c o r t would be expected to take  normal s t a t i o n s e v e r a l hundred metres ahead of the gas  carrier.  up  154 Rationale; The  NHB  e s c o r t would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n s u r i n g  the moving s a f e t y zone, and  the i n t e g r i t y of  f o r enforcing a l l other v e s s e l  r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the s a f e passage of the gas  traffic  carrier.  I n the event of a s e r i o u s , or p o t e n t i a l l y s e r i o u s , s i t u a t i o n  arising  aboard the gas c a r r i e r , the master of the e s c o r t v e s s e l would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t a c t i n g the Harbour M a s t e r i m m e d i a t e l y , and  for  p r o v i d i n g s t r i c t t r a f f i c c o n t r o l and o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n the v i c i n i t y of the gas c a r r i e r , as  G.  required.  Aircraft Restrictions The Harbour M a s t e r ' s O f f i c e s h o u l d n o t i f y the harbour a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l c e n t r e at l e a s t 24 hours i n advance of any of B u r r a r d I n l e t by a loaded  or p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d gas  seaplane l a n d i n g / t a k e o f f s should  be p e r m i t t e d  i s at l e a s t two k i l o m e t r e s past the d e s i g n a t e d area. 1000  scheduled  until  l i q u e f i e d gas  loaded,  carrier. the gas  No  tanker  a i r c r a f t movement  F u r t h e r m o r e , no a i r c r a f t s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d metre r a d i u s of any  transit  to f l y w i t h i n a  p a r t i a l l y - l o a d e d , or unloaded  c a r r i e r , e i t h e r moving or s t a t i o n a r y .  Rationale: S t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g a i r c r a f t movements w i t h i n the P o r t of Vancouver have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s by s e v e r a l s e r i o u s and  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a s e p a r a t e  the harbour p r e c i n c t .  accidents  a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l centre f o r  Given the e x t e n s i v e amount of  aircraft  a c t i v i t y i n the p o r t a r e a , combined w i t h the f a c t t h a t l i q u e f i e d c a r r i e r s engaged i n the t r a n s i t of the harbour must encroach upon  gas  155  a c t i v e seaplane l a n d i n g / t a k e - o f f zones, the p o s s i b i l i t y of a s e r i o u s a i r p l a n e or h e l i c o p t e r a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g a gas c a r r i e r cannot discounted.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e concluded  be  t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n and  enforcement of more s t r i n g e n t , but r e a d i l y manageable, a i r c r a f t movement r e s t r i c t i o n s as d e s c r i b e d i n Recommendation "G" w i l l  serve  t o enhance the o v e r a l l l e v e l of p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the p o r t p r e c i n c t .  H.  Review and The  Implementation  recommended o p e r a t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s "A"  brought i n t o f o r c e immediately  t h r o u g h "G"  should  be  on an i n t e r i m b a s i s under the  a u t h o r i t y of the Harbour M a s t e r ' s S t a n d i n g  Orders.  Subsequent to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of these proposed i n t e r i m measures, a J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee comprised of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board, the Canadian C o a s t Guard, the P i l o t a g e A u t h o r i t y , the towboat i n d u s t r y , and  Pacific  the marine d i v i s i o n of  the Vancouver F i r e Department s h o u l d be formed f o r the purpose o f :  i)  r e v i e w i n g and, as n e c e s s a r y , "A" through "G";  amending Recommendations  ii)  p r e p a r i n g a d e t a i l e d LPG/LNG t a n k e r o p e r a t i o n s p l a n , based upon the U.S. Coast Guard model; and  iii)  e s t a b l i s h i n g a comprehensive LPG/LNG emergency response p l a n f o r the P o r t of Vancouver.  Rationale: Recommendations "A"  t h r o u g h "G"  represent  a p r e l i m i n a r y attempt to  upgrade gas t a n k e r s a f e t y r e q u i r e m e n t s i n the P o r t of Vancouver to a w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d - and urban gas p o r t s .  g e n e r a l l y accepted  - w o r l d standard  for  N e v e r t h e l e s s , w h i l e the b a s i c concept i n h e r e n t i n  each recommendation i s , from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the  research,  e s s e n t i a l l y i n v i o l a t e , i t i s acknowledged t h a t the s p e c i f i c terms of  156 t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n , as e s t a b l i s h e d i n S e c t i o n 6.1, under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  could,  be open to v a r y i n g degrees of  professional interpretation.  For i n s t a n c e , w h i l e the i m p o s i t i o n of a mandatory tug e s c o r t r e q u i r e m e n t i s common t o a l l of the American and European gas  p o r t s examined, the c o m p o s i t i o n  continental  of the e s c o r t and  minimum power r a t i n g s f o r a t t e n d i n g tugs d i f f e r markedly from p o r t to the next.  capacity,  a p p l y to the 40  tug  000 c u b i c metre  dwt N i c h i z a n Maru i n f o u r N o r t h American  29 800  one  T h i s i s e v i d e n t upon a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n of  e s c o r t requirement as they would  the  gas  ports: # of Port  Tugs  Bollard H.P.  Boston  3  2 @ 3000 1 @ 1200  Los  2  Philadelphia Vancouver*  Angeles  S i m i l a r l y , gas  Pull H.P. H.P.  Tug  Secured  t o LPG  carrier  unspecified unspecified  no  unspecified  unspecified  yes  1  unspecified  unspecified  no  2  2 @ 900  15.0  no  H.P.  T each  c a r r i e r speed r e s t r i c t i o n s at these p o r t s v a r y  follows:  •Assumes a p p l i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g Second Narrows MRA  standards  as  157 Maximum Speed 8 knots  Port Boston Los Angeles Philadelphia Vancouver*  ?  10 k n o t s 6 knots  * Assumes a p p l i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g Second Narrows MRA  G i v e n the t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y  of the debate, i t i s concluded  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e f i n i n g the l o n g - t e r m e s c o r t standards  that the  gas c a r r i e r o p e r a t i n g speed and t u g  f o r t h e P o r t o f Vancouver must r e s t w i t h a competent  committee of marine p r o f e s s i o n a l s who a r e f u l l y The  standards.  i n t e r i m standards,  conversant  w i t h the problem.  as d e s c r i b e d i n Recommendations "B" and "C", would  remain i n f o r c e , s u b j e c t t o the r e v i e w f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s of the J o i n t T e c h n i c a l Committee.  The  p r e p a r a t i o n of a d e t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n s p l a n and emergency response p l a n  would be expected t o e v o l v e l o g i c a l l y from the j u s t - d e s c r i b e d p r e l i m i n a r y standard  6.2  upgrading  process.  Supplementary Observations/Recommendations  L i q u e f i e d gas t a n k e r s a f e t y i s o n l y one of many dangerous c o m m o d i t y - r e l a t e d i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g t h e P o r t o f Vancouver which have y e t t o be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y resolved. frequency  F o r example, the p o r t has e x p e r i e n c e d of v i s i t s  by " p a r c e l " c h e m i c a l  Dow Chemical's new Lynnterm f a c i l i t y  a marked i n c r e a s e i n the  t a n k e r s s i n c e the i n a u g u r a t i o n of  i n N o r t h Vancouver d u r i n g 1980. An  average of between one and two c h e m i c a l  t a n k e r s now c a l l i n t o Vancouver  every  week.  The  term " p a r c e l " t a n k e r a p p l i e s t o v e s s e l s which have been s p e c i f i c a l l y  designed  t o c a r r y s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t chemicals  a t once i n s m a l l consignments,  158 or  parcels.  The 31 000 dwt L i b e r l a n t a n k e r s S t o l t S i n c e r i t y and S t o l t P r i d e ,  both of which a r e o c c a s i o n a l v i s i t o r s t o t h e P o r t o f Vancouver a r e capable o f accommodating upwards o f 40 s e p a r a t e c h e m i c a l s i n b u l k l i q u i d  Under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and depending of  form.^  upon t h e n a t u r e , volume, and a r r a y  c h e m i c a l substances on board, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a s e r i o u s harbour  a c c i d e n t i n v o l v i n g a c h e m i c a l t a n k e r c o u l d p r e s e n t as g r e a t a t h r e a t t o p u b l i c s a f e t y as t h a t posed by a gas t a n k e r f i r e o r e x p l o s i o n .  Furthermore,  s i n c e t h e r e I s no s e t cargo mix o f c h e m i c a l s from one t a n k e r t o the n e x t , emergency response f o r c e s would be h a r d - p r e s s e d t o i d e n t i f y and implement the optimum c o n t i n g e n c y p l a n i n the event o f an a c c i d e n t .  D e s p i t e the p r e c e d i n g c o n c e r n s , l o c a l r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g t h e movement of c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s i n the p o r t tend t o be l e s s s t r i n g e n t than those which p e r t a i n t o l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s .  F o r i n s t a n c e , the " d a y l i g h t  passage"  r e q u i r e m e n t which has been a p p l i e d t o gas t a n k e r s f o r a number of years i s r o u t i n e l y waived f o r c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s .  I t i s not uncommon f o r l o a d e d  c h e m i c a l c a r r i e r s t o depart t h e harbour a f t e r darkness and w i t h o u t the b e n e f i t of a p r o p e r t u g e s c o r t .  Yet another s i g n i f i c a n t area of l o c a l c o n c e r n , and one which has taken on i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l o v e r t o n e s of l a t e , i n v o l v e s the s i t i n g of t e r m i n a l facilities  d e s i g n e d t o handle hazardous m a t e r i a l s .  The t e r m i n a l s i t i n g i s s u e  came t o a head i n February of 1980 f o l l o w i n g t h e p u b l i c r e l e a s e of a c o n f i d e n t i a l study c h r o n i c l i n g many of the p o t e n t i a l dangers  associated with  the Canadian O c c i d e n t a l P e t r o l e u m (Hooker Chemical D i v i s i o n ) c h l o r i n e p l a n t and the nearby E r c o I n d u s t r i e s sodium c h l o r a t e p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t y Vancouver.  6  A subsequent  i n North  r e p o r t prepared f o r N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t  159 c o u n c i l by v o l u n t e e r members of the Community Hazards Task Force i n November of 1980 i s o l a t e d f u r t h e r s a f e t y i n a d e q u a c i e s and  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n  shipment of hazardous m a t e r i a l s on the N o r t h Shore of B u r r a r d I n l e t , and  recommended " . . . t h a t the m u n i c i p a l government, i n c o n c e r t w i t h the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, seek a means by which the Canadian Oxy can be r e l o c a t e d from the N o r t h S h o r e . "  The  facility  7  Canadian O c c i d e n t a l i s s u e , however, i s o n l y p a r t of a much l a r g e r  dilemma.  I n s p i t e of l o c a l e f f o r t s t o have the Canadian O c c i d e n t a l  operation  removed from the community the f a c t remains t h a t the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e w i t h i n the p o r t p r e c i n c t - and e s p e c i a l l y on the N o r t h Shore - has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n r e c e n t months. C h e m i c a l ' s new e t h y l e n e  The 1980 c o m p l e t i o n  d i c h l o r i d e storage  o f Dow  t e r m i n a l l e s s than a k i l o m e t r e t o  the west of the c o n t r o v e r s i a l Canadian O c c i d e n t a l p l a n t i s a t y p i c a l case i n point.  I n a r e l a t e d m a t t e r , on 22 December 1980 N o r t h Vancouver D i s t r i c t c o u n c i l approved the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new 18 m i l l i o n l i t r e c a p a c i t y methanol tank a t the Vancouver Wharves s i t e near the harbour e n t r a n c e . augments Vancouver Wharves' e x i s t i n g 27 m i l l i o n l i t r e methanol c a p a c i t y on the p r o p e r t y .  By c o i n c i d e n c e ,  storage  The new tank storage  the a p p l i c a t i o n was approved by  c o u n c i l t h e same day a r a i l w a y t a n k c a r c o n t a i n i n g methanol - a l i g h t , i n f l a m m a b l e , and t o x i c l i q u i d - caught f i r e  f o l l o w i n g an a c c i d e n t a t B r i t i s h  Columbia R a i l w a y ' s main s w i t c h i n g yard i n N o r t h Vancouver, not f a r from t h e Vancouver Wharves t e r m i n a l .  8  Land use c o n f l i c t s a l s o f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y  i n the t e r m i n a l s i t i n g i s s u e .  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e a t Trans M o u n t a i n P i p e l i n e ' s W e s t r i d g e t e r m i n a l i n  160 Burnaby, where the n e a r e s t homes a r e s i t u a t e d w i t h i n 150 metres of the LPG storage  tanks.  I n the event of a major u n c o n t r o l l e d propane f i r e o r  e x p l o s i o n a t the t e r m i n a l , t h e r e i s every r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the s a f e t y of those persons r e s i d i n g on or near the w e s t e r n and s o u t h e r n p e r i m e t r e s o f the W e s t r i d g e s i t e would be p l a c e d i n s e r i o u s  W e s t r i d g e i s by no means unique i n t h i s r e g a r d .  jeopardy.  I n f a c t , a number of gas  t e r m i n a l s i n o t h e r p a r t s of the w o r l d , i n c l u d i n g B o s t o n (LNG and LPG), Los A n g e l e s (LPG), and Canvey I s l a n d , U.K. (LNG) a r e s i t u a t e d w i t h i n 500 metres of s e t t l e d a r e a s .  However, i n l i g h t of i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c c o n c e r n over the  l i q u e f i e d gas s t o r a g e  i s s u e , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any new t e r m i n a l proponents  would e i t h e r w i s h , o r be p e r m i t t e d , community.  Recent e x p e r i e n c e  t o l o c a t e i n the m i d s t of a  populated  a t both Cove P o i n t , Maryland and E l b a I s l a n d ,  G e o r g i a where the new LNG r e c e i v i n g t e r m i n a l s a r e s i t u a t e d s e v e r a l k i l o m e t r e s from the n e a r e s t  s e t t l e d a r e a s , tends t o support t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n .  Michael  B e l l , p r e s i d e n t of M e l v i l l e s h i p p i n g , the marine component of the A r c t i c P i l o t P r o j e c t , f u r t h e r adds t h a t " . . . i f you had (a gas s p i l l ) here i n Montreal  and i t caught a l i g h t , people would r u n f o r t h e i r l i v e s ;  approach i s t h a t t h e r e i s no bloody way we a r e g o i n g n a t u r a l gas) t e r m i n a l near a major p o p u l a t i o n  b u t our  t o have a ( l i q u e f i e d  centre."  y  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , u n l i k e t h e newer t e r m i n a l s i n Europe and t h e U n i t e d  States,  the l a n d use i n t e r f a c e a t W e s t r i d g e i s w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d and, over the medium term a t l e a s t , l a r g e l y i r r e v e r s i b l e .  P r o h i b i t i v e l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s would almost c e r t a i n l y p r e c l u d e  any attempt on the p a r t of the  government t o e i t h e r c l o s e down t h e W e s t r i d g e o p e r a t i o n p r e m a t u r e l y ,  or t o  impose upon Trans Mountain P i p e l i n e a s p e c i a l requirement c a l l i n g f o r the c r e a t i o n of a p u b l i c s a f e t y zone around the t e r m i n a l - t h a t i s , assuming t h e  161 minimum a c c e p t a b l e dimensions of such a b u f f e r zone c o u l d be  reasonably  established.  I n the meantime, though, Trans Mountain and l a r g e volume p r o d u c t i o n ,  storage,  and  o t h e r l o c a l f i r m s engaged i n the  handling  of hazardous m a t e r i a l s must be  encouraged t o improve upon a l l a s p e c t s ,of emergency response r a n g i n g from the u p g r a d i n g of e x i s t i n g a c c i d e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n of new technologies.  planning,  d e t e c t i o n systems to  and more e f f e c t i v e s p i l l containment and  fire  the  control  F u r t h e r m o r e , companies such as Trans M o u n t a i n , Canadian  O c c i d e n t a l , Dow  C h e m i c a l and  o t h e r s w i l l have t o take a more a c t i v e p o s i t i o n  on the m a t t e r of both i n f o r m i n g p r o d u c t s b e i n g handled and  the community as t o the n a t u r e of  the  to the emergency response procedures which must be  observed by members of the p u b l i c i n the event of a s e r i o u s p l a n t  accident.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , a broad-based p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n program d e s i g n e d to the average c i t i z e n as to h i s / h e r r o l e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of d i f f e r e n t d i s a s t e r scenarios p r e p a r e d by government and on a r e g u l a r  The  i n v o l v i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s  i n d u s t r y , and  advise  several  s h o u l d be  jointly  made a v a i l a b l e to the g e n e r a l  basis.  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of hazardous m a t e r i a l s  by road and  r a i l , t o o , c o n t i n u e s to  p r e s e n t l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h a number of l a r g e l y u n r e s o l v e d p u b l i c concerns.  public  safety  I n s p i t e of attempts on the p a r t of many r e g i o n a l a g e n c i e s to  upgrade the q u a l i t y of r e g u l a t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the movement of v e h i c l e s p o r t i n g s p e c i f i e d dangerous goods - e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the September  trans-  1978  c h l o r i n e s p i l l on M a i n S t r e e t - t h e r e would appear t o e x i s t c o n s i d e r a b l e for  f u r t h e r improvement.  I n r e c e n t months, G r e a t e r Vancouver has  s e v e r a l s e r i o u s motor v e h i c l e a c c i d e n t s and  acetylene,  propane, naphtha, and  i n v o l v i n g such m a t e r i a l s  c a u s t i c soda.-*-  0  room  experienced as oxygen  162 The  circumstances  s u r r o u n d i n g the r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l of r a i l t r a f f i c  markedly from those a f f e c t i n g motor v e h i c l e s .  differ  R a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t i s governed  l a r g e l y by the f e d e r a l R a i l w a y Act and the N a t i o n a l T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , l o c a l l e v e l s of government e x e r c i s e l i t t l e  jurisdication  the r a i l movement of dangerous goods through p o p u l a t e d communities.  over To  b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , the C i t y o f Vancouver has, on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , attempted  to convince the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y to abandon  the p r a c t i c e of s t o r i n g r a i l c a r s l a d e n w i t h hazardous m a t e r i a l s a l o n g the c i t y ' s downtown w a t e r f r o n t . ^  N e v e r t h e l e s s , on any g i v e n day one  can  s t i l l f i n d a wide range of t a n k c a r s c a r r y i n g c o r r o s i v e s , l i q u e f i e d gases,  and  o t h e r t o x i c m a t e r i a l s which are c o m p l e t e l y i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a d j a c e n t h i g h d e n s i t y urban commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s .  A s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s on the n o r t h shore of B u r r a r d I n l e t , a l t h o u g h on a somewhat l e s s d r a m a t i c s c a l e , as the p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n between t h e r a i l y a r d s and  the c l o s e s t h i g h d e n s i t y p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s i s g e n e r a l l y  g r e a t e r than on the s o u t h (downtown) s i d e of t h e I n l e t .  Even so, a t l e a s t  f o u r s e p a r a t e r a i l a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g e t h y l e n e d i c h l o r i d e (26  March),  c a u s t i c soda (25 J u l y ) , anhydrous ammonia (18 September), and methanol December) were r e p o r t e d on the N o r t h Shore d u r i n g 1 9 8 0 . I  The  2  l a s t i n c i d e n t , i n which a t a n k c a r loaded w i t h h i g h l y inflammable  caught f i r e d u r i n g a s w i t c h i n g a c c i d e n t , was  of p a r t i c u l a r concern  emergency crews i n t h a t i t o c c u r r e d i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o another containing LPG.l  3  Although  the LPG  t a n k e r was  (22  subsequently  methanol to  car  removed from  the danger zone, the methanol f i r e d i d spread t o f i v e o t h e r c a r s c o n t a i n i n g p u l p and paper.  I n view of the ever i n c r e a s i n g volumes of hazardous  m a t e r i a l s b e i n g shipped by r a i l t h r o u g h N o r t h Shore communities, t h e r e i s  163 little  r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y of a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g dangerous  chemicals introduced  w i l l d i m i n i s h i n coming y e a r s u n l e s s d r a m a t i c  new measures a r e  to c o n t r o l the s i t u a t i o n .  The N i c h i z a n Maru r e p r e s e n t s production/delivery chain.  but a s i n g l e element i n the o v e r a l l LPG As such, i t i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  simple  task to  i d e n t i f y and implement e f f e c t i v e measures t o improve t h e l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n a l s a f e t y f o r that p a r t i c u l a r v e s s e l w i t h i n the port p r e c i n c t .  The problem of  u p g r a d i n g t h e g e n e r a l l e v e l of s a f e t y w i t h i n the broad c o n t e x t  of t h e e n t i r e  hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e i n the P o r t of Vancouver, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more complex.  L o c a l l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n has been a l l o w e d t o  d e t e r i o r a t e i n t h e f a c e of such v a r i a b l e s as b a d l y  fragmented  legislation,  confused and o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g l i n e s of government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a l a c k of common p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n a t a l l l e v e l s of government and among member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l and  sometimes q u e s t i o n a b l e  the c o n t i n u e d  p r o j e c t e v a l u a t i o n and a p p r o v a l s  District,  processes.  In  absence of a comprehensive s t r a t e g i c p l a n which has been  s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o both i d e n t i f y and r e s o l v e hazardous m a t e r i a l s - r e l a t e d concerns b e f o r e  they have had an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o become  e n t r e n c h e d , t h e community w i l l be f o r c e d i n t o a p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o s e r i o u s events o n l y a f t e r they have o c c u r r e d .  to react  The Japan E r i c a i n c i d e n t ,  w h i l e not i n v o l v i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s , i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e r e a c t i v e philosophy  c u r r e n t l y adhered t o by many l o c a l r e g u l a t o r y  bodies.  W h i l e i t i s beyond t h e scope and t e c h n i c a l c a p a c i t y of t h i s r e p o r t t o address t h e s e and o t h e r dangerous m a t e r i a l s i s s u e s i n d e t a i l , i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , recommended t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g measures s h o u l d be i n s t i t u t e d a t an e a r l y date i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e s s e n t i a l d e c i s i o n making framework f o r t h e purpose  164  of i m p r o v i n g  the r e g u l a t i o n of the hazardous m a t e r i a l s t r a d e i n the P o r t of  Vancouver: a)  A f e d e r a l l y - s p o n s o r e d e n q u i r y commission comprised of r e c o g n i z e d e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d s of managing and r e g u l a t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and t r a n s f e r of hazardous m a t e r i a l s , and v e s t e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y t o subpoena w i t n e s s e s and documents as r e q u i r e d , should be a p p o i n t e d f o r t h e purpose of i n v e s t i g a t i n g a l l a s p e c t s of p u b l i c s a f e t y i n the p o r t as they r e l a t e t o the l o c a l dangerous goods t r a d e . The commission would be r e s p o n s i b l e for: i)  i d e n t i f y i n g areas of immediate c o n c e r n t o p u b l i c s a f e t y , and e s t a b l i s h i n g s u i t a b l e s h o r t - and l o n g - t e r m response s t r a t e g i e s f o r e i t h e r m i t i g a t i n g o r e l i m i n a t i n g the a s s o c i a t e d element of p u b l i c r i s k ;  ii)  i s o l a t i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y s t r u c t u r e , and recommending a p p r o p r i a t e measures designed t o make the r e g u l a t o r y process both more r e s p o n s i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e ; and  iii)  c a t e g o r i z i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s and the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l components a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and t r a n s f e r on t h e b a s i s of the l e v e l of i n h e r e n t r i s k t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and i s o l a t i n g those m a t e r i a l s and/or o p e r a t i o n s w h i c h , i n the o p i n i o n of the committee, are judged t o possess a s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h hazard p o t e n t i a l t o render them both i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h more c o n v e n t i o n a l urban f u n c t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e u n a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e i r e x i s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l s e t t i n g s .  The e n q u i r y process s h o u l d be open t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and s h o u l d i n c l u d e adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p u b l i c a t l a r g e t o v o i c e t h e i r concerns on any r e l e v a n t aspect of the hazardous m a t e r i a l s i s s u e s . b)  A j o i n t l y - s p o n s o r e d f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l t a s k f o r c e comprised of s e n i o r government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , and designed t o work i n c l o s e c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the e n q u i r y commission d e s c r i b e d i n " a " (above), i n d u s t r y o f f i c i a l s , and a p p r o p r i a t e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups should be formed i n order t o e s t a b l i s h a r a t i o n a l , v i a b l e , and m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r e l o c a t i o n s t r a t e g y and time schedule f o r those o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n " a - i i i " ( a b o v e ) as b e i n g i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l urban f u n c t i o n s . I n c l u d e d w i t h i n the t a s k f o r c e terms of r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d be the p r o v i s i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t e l o c a t i o n s on t h e c o a s t w h i c h more a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t such fundamental s i t i n g c r i t e r i a f o r these p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r i a l f u n c t i o n s as p h y s i c a l remoteness from c e n t r e s of p o p u l a t i o n , s e i s m i c s t a b i l i t y , and s a f e , e c o n o m i c a l r o a d , s e a , and r a i l a c c e s s .  165 I n the i n t e r e s t of i m p r o v i n g the l e v e l of m a r i t i m e s a f e t y i n t h e P o r t of Vancouver, the f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of T r a n s p o r t s h o u l d examine the f e a s i b i l i t y / p r a c t i c a l i t y o f : i)  t r a n s f e r r i n g the p o s i t i o n and d u t i e s of t h e O f f i c e of the Harbour M a s t e r , P o r t of Vancouver, from the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board to the Canadian Coast Guard i n o r d e r t o c o n s o l i d a t e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r both c o a s t a l and harbour marine s a f e t y under the a u s p i c e s of a s i n g l e agency, and to t h e r e b y remove any p u b l i c doubt over p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s i t u a t i o n s a r i s i n g between the m a r k e t i n g and s a f e t y concerns of the NHB; and  ii)  i n t r o d u c i n g a compulsory r e p o r t i n g system whereby a l l v e s s e l s i n excess of 20 metres i n l e n g t h , and a l l tugs w i t h tows, would, at v a r i o u s d e s i g n a t e d p o i n t s w i t h i n the h a r b o u r , be r e q u i r e d to a d v i s e the V e s s e l T r a f f i c C e n t r e by r a d i o as to t h e i r p o s i t i o n , speed, d e s t i n a t i o n , or any o t h e r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d by the Coast Guard.  I n view of the f a c t t h a t the P o r t of Vancouver operates on a 24hour per day b a s i s , and g i v e n t h a t the O f f i c e of the Harbour Master i s the f o c a l p o i n t f o r the c o - o r d i n a t i o n of s h i p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s and marine emergency response procedures w i t h i n the h a r b o u r , an o f f i c e r of at l e a s t the rank of A s s i s t a n t Harbour M a s t e r s h o u l d be on duty a t a l l t i m e s . F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p r o j e c t r e v i e w c a p a b i l i t i e s s h o u l d be expanded and s t r e n g t h e n e d to ensure t h a t a l l h i g h impact p o t e n t i a l development p r o p o s a l s i n v o l v i n g hazardous m a t e r i a l s a r e s u b j e c t e d to a d e t a i l e d s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact a n a l y s i s , and t h a t the p u b l i c w i l l be guaranteed an o p p o r t u n i t y to p r o v i d e i n p u t i n t o any of these p r o p o s a l s through the i n s t i t u t i o n of a compulsory h e a r i n g s p r o c e s s p r i o r to government p r o j e c t a p p r o v a l b e i n g awarded. F o r a l l l i q u e f i e d gas c a r r i e r s i n excess of 5000 c u b i c metres c a p a c i t y , and a l l b u l k c h e m i c a l t a n k e r s i n excess of 5000 tons dwt, the O f f i c e of the Harbour M a s t e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d m a n i f e s t of cargo to be l o a d e d or unloaded i n the P o r t o f Vancouver to the f o l l o w i n g a g e n c i e s : i)  Canadian Coast Guard: • R e g i o n a l M a r i n e Emergency O f f i c e • V e s s e l T r a f f i c Management C e n t r e  ii)  C i t y of Vancouver: • F i r e Department •Emergency O f f i c e  iii)  Burnaby F i r e  Department  iv)  North Vancouver D i s t r i c t F i r e  v)  North Vancouver C i t y F i r e  vi)  Port Moody F i r e  vii)  West Vancouver F i r e  Department  Department  Department Department  The r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n should be forwarded to the above-noted agencies at l e a s t 24 hours p r i o r to the a r r i v a l of the gas or chemical c a r r i e r at the Port of Vancouver.  Figure  6.1  LPG C a r r i e r Y a m a h i d e Maru at Westridge T e r m i n a l  167  FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER 1  6.0  van der L i n d e , op. c i t . , , p. 140  Based upon t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h L t . G r e n i e r , USCG M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , P r o v i d e n c e , R l , 5 September 1980. 2  L e t t e r from K.A. Rock, USCG M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , B o s t o n t o J . M a r s t o n , undated ( c i r c a 31 August 1982). 3  4 L e t t e r from Capt. D.B. d/16 August 1982.  C h a r t e r , C a p t a i n of the P o r t , P h i l a d e l p h i a ,  5 H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , The Tanker R e g i s t e r - 1980 H. C l a r k s o n & Company L i m i t e d , 1980).  (London:  " N o r t h Van ends 20-month b l a c k o u t on Beak r e p o r t " , The Vancouver 26 F e b r u a r y 1980, p. A3; and Beak C o n s u l t a n t s , op. c i t . 6  Sun,  Community Hazards Task F o r c e , F i n a l Report ( N o r t h Vancouver: a r e p o r t commissioned by t h e D i s t r i c t o f N o r t h Vancouver, November 1980, p. 30. 7  "Methanol S t o r a g e Okayed", The Vancouver Sun, 23 December 1980; "Chemical f i r e c l o s e s b r i d g e " , The Vancouver Sun, 23 December 1980; and "Methanol: F i r s t the f i r e , next comes b u l k s t o r a g e " , ( N o r t h Shore) Sunday News, 28 December 1980, p. A3. 8  "LNG t a n k e r s to smash through i c e " , 1980, p. A18. y  The Vancouver Sun, 19 November  10 "Deadly tank t r a i l e r c o r r a l l e d " , The Vancouver Sun, 18 November 1981; " E l e v e n C h e m i c a l s p i l l s i n 1980", N o r t h Shore News, 25 March 1981; and "Vancouver F i r e m e n . . . " The Vancouver Sun, photo c a p t i o n , 30 A p r i l 1981, p. 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B a l t i m o r e : C a p t a i n s of the P o r t s , B a l t i m o r e and Hampton Roads, 1980.  and  173 • G e n e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s f o r the T r a n s p o r t and D i s c h a r g e of L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l G a s / L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas. Providence: Captain the P o r t , c i r c a 1976. . L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas and L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas P r a c t i c e s . Washington, D.C: c i r c a F e b r u a r y 1980.  of  - Views and  . P o r t o f Los Angeles - L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas O p e r a t i o n s / Emergency P l a n . Los A n g e l e s : C a p t a i n of the P o r t , October, 1978. . P r o c e d u r e s f o r the Movement o f L i q u e f i e d Flammable Gas P h i l a d e l p h i a : C a p t a i n of the P o r t , 13 March 1982. . P r o c e d u r e s f o r the Movement o f LNG/LPG. of the P o r t , 1 October 1975.  New  York:  (LFG).  Captain  . " S a f e t y Standards f o r S e l f - P r o p e l l e d V e s s e l s C a r r y i n g B u l k L i q u e f i e d Gases; S p e c i a l I n t e r i m R e g u l a t i o n s f o r Issuance o f L e t t e r s of Compliance t o Barges and E x i s t i n g L i q u e f i e d Gas V e s s e l s " , F e d e r a l R e g i s t e r , v o l . 44, no. 87, 3 May 1979, pp. 25986-26047. . The P o r t of Boston - LNG-LPG V e s s e l Management P l a n and Emergency P l a n . Boston: U.S. Coast Guard M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , 1 August 1979. . The P o r t of Savannah - L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas Operation/Contingency P l a n . Savannah: C a p t a i n of the P o r t , 30 January 1980. U.S.  Government ( C o m p t r o l l e r G e n e r a l ) . L i q u e f i e d Energy Gases S a f e t y (3 Volumes). Washington: G e n e r a l A c c o u n t i n g O f f i c e , 31 J u l y 1978.  U.S.  Government ( C o n g r e s s ) . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Washington: O f f i c e of Technology Assessment, 1977.  U.S.  Government (Department of T r a n s p o r t T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study. Washington:  U.S.  Government ( S e n a t e ) . L i q u e f i e d N a t u r a l Gas: S a f e t y , S i t i n g and C o n c e r n s . Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1978.  and E n e r g y ) . J u l y 1980.  Gas.  N a t i o n a l Energy Policy  West Coast - A D i g e s t o f E v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d to the West Coast O i l P o r t s I n q u i r y . Vancouver: prepared by Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e , 1977W i l l i a m s , A l a n F. and W a l t e r L o w e n s t e i n Lom. L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gases; A Guide t o P r o p e r t i e s , A p p l i c a t i o n s and Usage o f Propane and Butane. C h i c h e s t e r , U.K.: E l l i s Horwood, 1974. W o o l c o t t , T.W.V. L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas Tanker P r a c t i c e . Son & Ferguson L t d . , 1977. Wooler, R i c h a r d G. Cambridge, MD:  M a r i n e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of LNG and R e l a t e d C o r n e l l M a r i t i m e P r e s s , 1975.  Glasgow: Products.  Brown,  174 B.  NEWSPAPER ARTICLES B.C. B u s i n e s s Week, "Dangerous cargo r u l e s change ' s u b s t a n t i a l ' , " 5 September 1979.  D a i l y Commercial News, "LNG p r o j e c t would c r e a t e 700 24 F e b r u a r y 1977.  jobs,"  , "U.S. s i t e s under study f o r Tenneco p r o j e c t , " 19 J u l y 1977.  C a l g a r y H e r a l d , "500 f l e e t o x i c t r a i n f i r e , " 1 March 1982.  F i n a n c i a l Times of Canada, " E n v i r o n m e n t a l f e a r s pose b i g g e s t b a r r i e r t o S a i n t John p l a n , " 17 J a n u a r y 1977. , " L i q u e f i e d n a t u r a l gas: 17 J a n u a r y 1977.  Lloyd's L i s t .  London:  U.S. t a k i n g a hard  line,"  numerous e d i t i o n s between 1974 and 1982.  Los A n g e l e s Times, "Tanker s c h e d u l e d to b r i n g second LPG shipment," c i r c a December 1978.  N o r t h Shore News, "Hooker may be here 10 y e a r s - t a s k f o r c e , " 15 October 1980. , "A community s i t t i n g on a time bomb," 19 November 1980. , "Chemical s t o r a g e ban looms,"  17 December 1980.  , "Hooker t o i n v e s t $14 M i n NV p l a n t , " , " E l e v e n c h e m i c a l s p i l l s i n 1980," , " B l a s t c l o s e d down NV p l a n t , "  17 December 1980.  25 March 1981.  17 June 1981.  , "Hazards clean-up g i v e n green l i g h t , " 21 October 1981. , " F i r e C h i e f demands c h l o r i n e answers," 5 May  1982.  _, " B e l l wants a c t i o n on moving Hooker," 6 June 1982. , "Dangerous goods bylaw f i n a l l y adopted", 16 June 1982.  175  N o r t h Shore Sunday News, "Beak Bared," 2 March 1980. , "Methanol: 28 December 1980.  F i r s t the f i r e , next comes b u l k s t o r a g e , '  , "Hooker r e l o c a t i o n - i t ' s d e c i s i o n t i m e , " , "Sea Bus rams minesweeper,"  11 January 1981.  18 J a n u a r y 1981.  The C i t i z e n ( N o r t h S h o r e ) , "Dow c h e m i c a l p l a n t ' s a f e ' , " 28 March 1979.  The C o u r i e r , "Dow's b u i l d i n g a new t e r m i n a l , " 27 March 1979.  The Kamloops News, "5 c a r s s t i l l  l e a k i n g , " 5 March 1982.  , " S a f e t y r e g u l a t i o n s f o r t r a n s p o r t of dangerous goods l a c k i n g , " 5 March 1982.  The P r o v i n c e  "Four r u n f o r l i v e s a f t e r t r a i n a c c i d e n t , " 30 August 1978.  " C h l o r i n e gas c l o u d i n c i t y sends 32 t o h o s p i t a l , " 26 September 1978. "'Gas bomb' s c a r e ends as t a n k e r r i g h t e d , " 26 September 1979. "Ships w i l l d e f e r t o t r a i n s , " 13 F e b r u a r y 1980. "Coastguards  blame s k i p p e r i n CN b r i d g e c r a s h , " 14 F e b r u a r y  1980. "North Shore people ' t r a p p e d ' i f c h l o r i n e s p i l l e d , " 15 F e b r u a r y 1980. " B r i d g e s a f e g u a r d s urged," 17 F e b r u a r y 1980. " C h l o r i n e t h r e a t l e a d s t o r e v i e w of d i s a s t e r p l a n , " 27 F e b r u a r y 1980. " V o l r i c h ' s 'time bomb' p l a n b l a s t e d , " 27 F e b r u a r y 1980. "The c h e m i c a l bombs," 29 F e b r u a r y 1980. "Near-misses  plague Second Narrows," 11 March 1980.  "Last d i t c h b i d t o save f i r e b o a t , " 27 May 1980.  176 ' C i t i z e n s ' group seeks c h l o r i n e p l a n t s h i f t , " 21 J u l y 1980. 'Town d e s e r t e d  a f t e r t r a i n derailment,"  28 J u l y 1980.  'Gas p l a n t s proposed," 4 November 1980. 'New poignance i n Remembrance Day f o r M i s s i s s a u g a , " 10 November 1980. 1981.  'Lesson of M i s s i s s a u g a  l o s t on t h e government,"  25 January  'Seared s h i p reached p o r t o n l y t o h i t bottom," 6 August 1981. 'Rail chemical  s p i l l forces evacuation,"  27 August 1981.  "Death s h i p was 'an i n f e r n o ' , " 27 August 1981. 'Washington wreck c a l l e d  'a p o t e n t i a l bomb'," 7 October 1981.  S p i l l breeds c o n f u s i o n , " 8 October 1981. F r e i g h t e r d r i f t e d out i n t o harbour a f t e r l i n e s b r o k e , " 18 Octobe • 1981. 1981.  Council advised Mega-bids  t o put the whip t o CP R a i l g i a n t , " 30 October  chase gas s u p p l i e s , " 3 December 1981.  Regulations  exempt Kingcombe," 3 December 1981.  Smoke f i l l s  a i r as t r a i n d e r a i l s , "  CPR h i t by two u p s e t s , "  11 January 1982.  1 March 1982.  Proposed f e r t i l i z e r p l a n t ' w i l l produce cancer agent'," 24 March 1982. '400 p r o t e s t gas p l a n t p l a n , " 2 A p r i l 1982. 'LNG p l a n t f o r l o c o on h o l d , " 18 A p r i l 1982. 'Runaway cars s t i l l b u r n i n g , "  28 June 1982.  'Japanese w i n nod f o r Dome," 16 J u l y 1982. _, "Dome d e a l f a c e s NEB s c r u t i n y , " 18 J u l y 1982.  The Vancouver Sun, "34 f e a r e d l o s t i n f i e r y s h i p e x p l o s i o n , 9 November 1974.  " N a t u r a l gas a c c i d e n t  'improbable',"  24 May 1977.  "Tanker l o s e s s t e e r i n g , " 27 November 1977. "'Damn l u c k y i t d i d n ' t blow', say crew on propane t r a i n , " 29 August 1978. "Volrich calls for strict  curbs as gas f e l l s 78," 26 September  1978. "Why was a s h i p wandering i n the f o g , t e r m i n a l men ask," 16 1979. October "Navigation rules tightened i n c r i p p l e d r a i l 1979. October "Payload  b r i d g e a r e a , " 17  t u r n s t a n k e r i n t o f l o a t i n g bomb," 14 November 1979.  "Most dangerous i n Canada," 27 November 1979. "Tanker on t h e r o c k s , " 21 January 1980. "Coast guard r e p o r t blames c a p t a i n f o r b r i d g e damage," 26 January 1980. "Harbor n e a r - c o l l i s i o n i n v e s t i g a t e d , " 12 F e b r u a r y 1980. " D e c i s i o n t o s a i l i n f o g 'not good seamanship'," 13 F e b r u a r y 1980. "Chemical r e p o r t r a i s e s f u r o r e , " 18 F e b r u a r y 1980. "'68  could p e r i s h ' i n c h l o r i n e s p i l l "  26 F e b r u a r y 1980.  "North Van ends 20-month b l a c k o u t on Beak R e p o r t , " 26 F e b r u a r y 1980. "Hooker p l a n t probe urged," 27 F e b r u a r y 1980. "Burnaby r e s i d e n t s f e a r f u l of c h l o r i n e s p i l l , "  1 March 1980.  "Japan E r i c a A f f a i r - I n i t s wake many q u e s t i o n s harbour a c c i d e n t s , " 13 March 1980. 1980.  "Harbor t r a f f i c  1980.  "Tug  s u r f a c e on  f a c e s new r u l e s t o p r o t e c t b r i d g e , " 13 March  e s c o r t s ' w i l l r a i s e ' c o s t of Narrows t r a n s i t s , " 25 March  "Waterfront  evacuated i n gas s c a r e , " 6 May 1980.  " P r a i r i e town emptied t w i c e as gas tank r u p t u r e f e a r e d , " 28 J u l y 1980.  178 "Four c a u s t i c soda t a n k e r s d e r a i l , " 25 J u l y 1980. " L i f e i n New Y o r k . . . , " 8 August 1980 (photo c a p t i o n , p. A 8 ) . 1980.  "Fear of i n f e r n o i n Vancouver haunts e x p e r t s , " 2 September "Warning: Overdue f o r D i s a s t e r , " 23 October 1980.  "Accident October 1980.  t h r e a t , chemicals  "Residents 1980.  draw s c e n a r i o of t e r r o r , " 23  f e a r s i g n s i n shadow o f p l a n t , " 23 October 1980.  "Dome p l a n s $2.8 b i l l i o n LNG p l a n t f o r B.C.," 27 October  "B.C. s h i p y a r d s  'can't b u i l d ' LNG t a n k e r s , " 28 October 1980.  "LNG e x p l o s i o n has k i l l f a c t o r second o n l y t o ' n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t ' , " 29 October 1980. 1980.  "$2 b i l l i o n p e t r o c h e m i c a l  p l a n t s e t f o r B.C.," 3 November  " A r c t i c gas p r o j e c t gets e n v i r o n m e n t a l  nod," 7 November 1980.  "Cargo has a c i t y h o l d i n g i t s b r e a t h , " 15 November 1980. "Plans f o r $2 b i l l i o n gas p l a n t b a r e d , " 17 November 1980. deadly  "Constant h i s s i n g l i k e a d e v i l ' s s i g h aboard tanker c a r r y i n g f u e l , " 17 November 1980. "LNG scheme a t t r a c t s new e n t r a n t , " 18 November 1980.  1980.  "Ignored  - u n t i l 40 men d i e d i n an LNG b l a s t , " 18 November  "LNG t a n k e r s  t o smash through i c e , " 19 November 1980.  "Deadly tank t r a i l e r  c o r r a l l e d , " 18 November 1980.  "Dome s h i p y a r d p l a n sees 2,000 B.C. j o b s , " 17 December 1980. "For t h e r e c o r d , " 29 November 1980. "Methanol s t o r a g e okayed," 23 December 1980. "Chemical f i r e c l o s e s b r i d g e , " 23 December 1980. " C r u i s e l i n e drops p l a n t o sue over s i n k i n g of Prinsendam," 30 December 1980. "Why was navy c r a f t doing t r i a l s i n f o g ? " 19 January 1981.  179 "Dome wants t o use B.C. s i t e t o s h i p B e a u f o r t Sea gas," 21 J a n u a r y 1981. "Power t o t h e p e o p l e : j u s t an i s l a n d dream?" 24 January  1981.  " P o r t A l b e r n i : s o f t l y , s o f t l y , c a t c h a gas p l a n t , " 24 January 1981. "Dome d i s c u s s e s LNG p o r t w i t h P r i n c e Rupert groups," 28 1981. January "24 i n j u r e d as e x p l o s i o n r i p s a p a r t c h e m i c a l p l a n t , " 11 F e b r u a r y 1981. " P o l i c e masks sought," 11 F e b r u a r y "Collision  1981.  ' e r r o r s ' c i t e d , " 16 F e b r u a r y  1981.  "Dome p i c k s p o r t s i t e t o s h i p LNG," 7 March 1981. "Tanker c o n t r a c t s ' w i l l l i k e l y go t o Japan'," 30 March 1981. "Westcoast move h e a t s up LNG r a c e , " 21 A p r i l 1981. "Burning t a n k e r t h r e a t e n s p o r t , " 25 A p r i l 1981. "Huge ' r i s k y ' s h i p s i n p o r t t o buy f u e l , " 29 A p r i l 1981. "New r u l e s on way f o r Second Narrows,"  29 A p r i l 1981.  "Vancouver F i r e m e n . . . " 30 A p r i l 1981 (photo c a p t i o n , p. A l ) . " T i g h t e r c h a r t e r boat r u l e s u r g e d , " 5 May 1981. "Unlucky s h i p saved a g a i n , " 16 October 1981. "Chemical posed t h r e a t , " 5 December 1981. "Gas  t a n k e r s t i l l on t h e r o c k s , " 18 December 1981.  "4 m o t o r i s t s overcome by gas from l o c o r e f i n e r y , " 3 F e b r u a r y 1982. "Track r e l o c a t i o n urged f o r C a l g a r y t o reduce h a z a r d , " 10 F e b r u a r y 1982. "Tank c a r s p i l l s c h e m i c a l i n t o r i v e r , " 4 March 1982. " R a i l chemical s p i l l  ' f a r worse' than r e p o r t e d , " 5 March  1982. "A determined Dome...," 17 March 1982. "A time-bomb i n l o c o ? " , 29 March 1982.  LIST OF AGENCIES CONTACTED . Government of Canada: Canadian Coast Guard Environment Canada F e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment and Review O f f i c e P o r t of Vancouver ( N a t i o n a l Harbours Board) N a t i o n a l Energy Board . Government of B r i t i s h Columbia: B r i t i s h Columbia U t i l i t i e s Commission B.C. Hydro (Gas E n g i n e e r i n g D i v i s i o n ) M i n i s t r y of Environment (Waste Management Branch) . C i t y o f Vancouver: Emergency Program O f f i c e Vancouver F i r e Department . D i s t r i c t of N o r t h Vancouver F i r e  Department  . U n i t e d S t a t e s Coast Guard: Marine Safety O f f i c e , Boston, Massachusetts M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , Cove P o i n t , M a r y l a n d M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , Savannah, G e o r g i a M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , S e a t t l e , Washington C a p t a i n of the P o r t , P h i l a d e l p h i s , P e n n s y l v a n i a C a p t a i n of the P o r t , P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d . P o r t of B o s t o n . P o r t of Los A n g e l e s P o r t o f New York/New J e r s e y . P o r t Autononome du Havre . P o r t o f London A u t h o r i t y . P o r t of Rotterdam . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Vancouver) . U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a ( V i c t o r i a ,  B.C.)  . P a c i f i c Marine T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e  (Vancouver)  . B.C. R e s e a r c h (Vancouver) . Oceanographic I n s t i t u t e of Washington ( S e a t t l e )  . SOGREAH * ( G r e n o b l e , F r a n c e ) . Det n o r s k e V e r i t a s ( O s l o ) . L l o y d ' s of London  (London)  . R i v t o w S t r a i t s L t d . (Vancouver) . Moss Werft (Moss, Norway) . Kockum's S h i p y a r d s (Malmo, Sweden)  * A d m i n i s t r a t o r s of the P o r t R e v e l M a r i n e R e s e a r c h and T r a i n i n g Cent  182  APPENDIX I A P a r t i a l L i s t of V i s i t s by Hazardous M a t e r i a l s C a r r i e r s t o the P o r t of Vancouver between 1 January 1981 and 31 August 1982*  *The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix I was based upon a f r e q u e n t review of l o c a l s h i p p i n g movements as p r e s e n t e d i n The P r o v i n c e and The Vancouver Sun newspapers, Canadian Coast Guard V e s s e l T r a f f i c r e p o r t s , and v i s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . The Appendix does not l a y c l a i m t o b e i n g a complete r e c o r d of hazardous m a t e r i a l s c a r r i e r movements i n the P o r t of Vancouver d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n question.  183 TERMINAL:  Westridge Terminal  PRODUCT:  L i q u e f i e d P e t r o l e u m Gas (Propane)  Duration of V i s i t  Vessel  (Burnaby)  Registry  Year Built  DWT  Cap'y (m  3  )  1981 31 J a n .  Yamahide Maru  Japan  I - 2 Feb.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  6-8 Mar.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  8-10 A p r .  Yamahide Maru  Japan  I I - 12 May  Yamahide Maru  Japan  1-3 J u l y  Yamahide Maru  Japan  *  4-5 Aug.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  *  8-9 S e p t .  Yamahide Maru  Japan  *  19-20 Oct.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  *  3- 5 Mar.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  15-17 Apr.  Yamahide Maru  Japan  8- 9 May  Tatsuno Maru  Japan  1967  38 628  4- 6 June  N i c h i z a n Maru  Japan  1982(?)  29 786  6-7 J u l y  N i c h i z a n Maru  Japan  9- 10 Aug.  N i c h i z a n Maru  Japan  1966  29 059  38 160  * *  1982  *Indicates  t h a t v e s s e l i n f o r m a t i o n has a l r e a d y been  provided.  50 670 App. 40 000  184 TERMINAL:  Lynnterm ( N o r t h  PRODUCTS:  Ethylene Dichloride; Ethylene G l y c o l ; Caustic  Duration of V i s i t  Vancouver)  Vessel  Registry  Soda  Year Built  Solution  DWT  Cargo  1981 2 Jan. 6 Jan. 14 J a n .  Asakaze(?) M a r i n e Chemist Unknown  Japan U.S.  2 Feb. 18-19 Feb. 24-25 Feb. 26-27 Feb.  M a r i n e Chemist* Hamakaze Asakaze M a r i n e Chemist  U.S. Japan Japan U.S.  12-13 Mar.  Risanger  2-3 A p r . 6 Apr. 9-10 A p r . 22-24 A p r .  ?  1980 1970  16 982 35 949  ?  11  ?  1  ?  *  *  *  1980  16 617  Norway  1976  27 582  Hamakaze F u j i h o s h i Maru Osco S t r i p e Matsukaze  Japan Japan Norway Japan  1976 1974  25-26 May 26-27 May  M a r i n e Chemist Hamakaze  U.S. Japan  4-5 June  Matsukaze  5 July 10 J u l y 22-23 J u l y 30-31 J u l y  * *  * *  *  ?  * 42  * 14 435 33 415  21 27  ?  ?  * *  * *  * *  Japan  *  *  *  Hamakaze M a r i n e Chemist Bow S p r i n g Asakaze  Japan U.S. Norway Japan  * *  * *  * *  19-21 Aug. 24-26 Aug.  Bruse J a r l Matsukaze  1-2 S e p t . 9-10 S e p t . 18-20 Sept. 1-2 O c t . 21-22 O c t .  1976  27 616  38  Norway Japan  1974  32 060  34  Osco S i e r r a Asakaze Bow F o r t u n e  Norway Japan Norway  1974  33 415  27  1975  27 511  42  Formosa One Osco S i e r r a  Liberia Norway  ?  1  ?  *  *  *  5-6 J a n . 26-27 J a n .  Hamakaze Asakaze  Japan Japan  *  * *  *Indicates  that vessel information  *  *  -  * *  -  * *  -  1982  *  has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d .  A  185 Duration of V i s i t  •  Vessel  Registry  Year Built  DWT  # ol Cargo '  1-2 Feb. 12-14 Feb. 15 Feb. 23-24 Feb.  Fujinami Hamakaze M a r i n e Chemist • Matsukaze  Japan Japan U.S. Japan  ?  ?  ?  * * *  * * *  * * *  9 Mar. 24-25 Mar. 31 Mar.  Asakaze Osco S i e r r a M a r i n e Chemist  Japan Norway U.S.  * * *  * * *  * * *  1 Apr. 4 Apr. 6 Apr. 17-18 A p r . 26-27 A p r . 30 A p r .  M a r i n e Chemist Hamakaze Matsukaze F u j i h o s h i Maru Hakko M i n e r v a Jo C l i p p e r  U.S. Japan Japan Japan Japan Norway  * * * *  *  * * * *  1 May 8 May 21 May 29-30 May  Jo C l i p p e r Asakaze Matsukaze Hamakaze  Norway Japan Japan Japan  * * * *  * * * *  * * * *  7-8 June 10-11 June 26 June  F u j i h o s h i Maru Osco Stream Matsukaze  Japan Norway Japan  *  *  *  1  ?  *  *  *  10-11 J u l y 13-14 J u l y 15 J u l y  Hamakaze M a r i n e Chemist F u j i h o s h i Maru  Japan U.S. Japan  * * *  * * *  * * *  7 Aug. 8-9 Aug. 15 Aug. 16 Aug. 23 Aug. 26-29 Aug.  Asakaze Golar Petrotrade Tsokaze Botany Troubador Hamakaze Formosa One  Japan Liberia Japan  A  *  *  9  Japan Liberia  1979  * *  6304  1  1975 1980  32 060 16 628  34 ?  ?  ?  ?  * *  * *  * *  186 TERMINAL:  Vancouver Wharves ( N o r t h  PRODUCT:  Methanol  Duration of V i s i t  Vessel  Vancouver)  Registry  Year Built  DWT  # of Cargo Tanks  1981 20 F e b .  Hamakaze  Japan  1980  16 617  16- 17 Mar.  Alberta Glory  Japan  1979  8 858  15  3-5 A p r . 27-29 A p r .  F u j i h o s h i Maru Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Panama  1976  14 435  21 ?  6 May  Alberta Glory  Japan  8-10 June 18-19 June  Ocean V i c t o r i a Alberta Glory  Panama Japan  *  * *  *  3- 4 J u l y 10 J u l y 15-17 J u l y  Hamakaze Matsukaze Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Japan Panama  *  * ? *  *  4- 5 Aug. 17- 20 Aug.  Alberta Glory Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Panama  * *  *  * *  4-6 S e p t . 14-15 S e p t . 20- 21 S e p t . 21- 22 S e p t .  Asakaze Shiokaze Alberta Glory Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Japan Japan Panama  1980  16 982 ? * *  * *  3-4 O c t . 26-27 O c t . 29-30 O c t .  Formosa One Asakaze Ocean V i c t o r i a  Taiwan Japan Panama  *  ? * *  * *  7-8 J a n .  Ocean V i c t o r i a  Panama  14- 16 Feb. 17-18 Feb.  Ocean V i c t o r i a Alberta Glory  Panama Japan  * *  * *  10 Mar. 30-31 Mar.  Asakaze Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Panama  * *  * *  * *  6 Apr. 7 Apr. 15- 16 A p r . 17-18 A p r .  Hamakaze Matsukaze F u j i h o s h i Maru Stolt Pride  Japan Japan Japan Liberia  * * *  * *  * *  *  1 * * 1 *  7 *  1 1  9  1982  1976  30 822  * I n d i c a t e s t h a t v e s s e l i n f o r m a t i o n has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d .  46  187  Duration of V i s i t  Vessel  Registry  Year Built  #  Of  DWT  Cargo Tanks  6-7 May 25-26 May 31 May  Ocean V i c t o r i a Alberta Glory Hamakaze  Panama Japan Japan  * * *  A  A  A  A  A  A  6-7 June 13-14 June 17-20 June 24-26 June 27-29 June  F u j i h o s h i Maru Ocean V i c t o r i a Stolt Sincerity F u j i Nami Matsukaze  Japan Panama Liberia Japan Japan  *  A  A  12 J u l y 12-13 J u l y  Hamakaze F u j i h o s h i Maru  Japan Japan  3-5 Aug. 7-10 Aug. 15-17 Aug. 18 Aug. 19-20 Aug. 24 Aug.  Senyo G l o r y S t o l t Span Bow F l o w e r Isokaze Alberta Glory Ocean V i c t o r i a  Japan Liberia Norwegian Japan Japan Panama  A  1976 1  A  30 822  A  46  ?  ?  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  A  *  1982 1970 1975 1980  ?  23 450 31 500 16 628  ?  36 30 7  A  A  A  A  A  A  188 TERMINAL:  Duration of V i s i t  Miscellaneous  Vessel  Type  Registry  Year Built  DWT  Terminal  1981 2-4 Mar. 17 Mar.  Carlinka Shiokaze  Tanker Chemical  4-5 A p r .  Hamakaze  Chemical  23 June  Shiokaze  Chemical  13 J u l y 31 J u l y  Matsukaze Maaskroon  Chemical Chemical  1 Aug. 29-30 Aug.  Maaskroon Isokaze  7 Jan.  Hamakaze  11-25 Mar.  Hoegh S h i e l d LPG  5 Apr. 5 Apr.  Hamakaze Matsukaze  28-31 May  G u l f O i l Bby. Neptune  ?  Japan 1980  16 617  Neptune  *  *  Neptune  Japan Belgium  ? 1976  ? 32 235  Neptune Vanterm  Chemical Chemical  Belgium Japan  * 1980  * 16 628  Vanterm Neptune  Chemical  Japan  Japan Japan  1982  30-31 May 1-5 June 1 June 27-28 June 14 J u l y 14-15  July  23 Aug. 24 Aug. 25-26 Aug.  Neptune 1969  Chemical Chemical  Japan Japan  *  Mundogas Atlantic Isokaze  LPG Chemical  Liberia Japan  1969 *  Mundogas Atlantic Isokaze Shiokaze  LPG Chemical Chemical  Liberia Japan Japan  * * *  * * *  Chemical  Japan  1976  14 435  Chemical  Panama  ?  ?  Centennial  Chemical Chemical Chemical  Panama Japan Japan  * *  * * *  Centennial Neptune B.C. Sugar  Fujihoshi Maru Ocean Victoria Ocean Victoria Hamakaze Hamakaze  8 700  Burrard-Yarrows  Norway  * * 8 784 *  * I n d i c a t e s t h a t v e s s e l i n f o r m a t i o n has a l r e a d y been p r o v i d e d .  Vanterm Neptune Burrard/Yarrows Vanterm Burrard/Yarrows Vanterm *  Neptune  189  APPENDIX II CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF MISHAPS INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  Status of Casualty  Symbols  0  Minor incident - l i t t l e or no damage  9  Incident of undetermined status  •  Serious incident, but not c r i t i c a l to vessel or crew safety  i#  Very serious incident - imminent danger to safety of vessel, crew, and/or public  •••  Total loss of vessel  APPENDIX I I CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF MISHAPS INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE F a l l 1968  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Claude  Sweden  PARTICULARS:  1 yr.  CAP'Y  LOCATION Nr. Southampton,  1511  U.K.  Claude c o l l i d e s w i t h inbound B r i t i s h f r e i g h t e r . Crew abandons s h i p , which s u b s e q u e n t l y runs aground. A P o r t u g u e s e LPG c a r r i e r i s l a t e r c h a r t e r e d t o remove the butane cargo. However, a d i s c h a r g e hose s p r i n g s a l a c k , s e n d i n g a c l o u d of inflammable vapour towards Southampton. V o l u n t e e r s a r e c a l l e d i n t o board Claude and c l o s e v a l v e s .  STATUS: •  DATE  VESSEL AGE  NAME OF VESSEL  SOURCE:  REGISTRY  N o e l M o s t e r t , S u p e r s h i p , pp. 372-373.  VESSEL AGE  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  Nr. B o s t o n , Mass. 15 285 3 yrs. Norway 1973 Havis (unspecified) PARTICULARS: Norwegian LPG c a r r i e r H a v i s r e f u s e d e n t r y i n t o P o r t of Boston when i t i s determined by U.S. Coast Guard i n s p e c t o r s t h a t t h e v e s s e l ' s gas d e t e c t i o n a l a r m system cannot be shut o f f . The p r e s s u r e r e l i e f v a l v e s had been i m p r o p e r l y s e t by t h e s h i p ' s crew, r a t h e r than by an i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y c e r t i f i e d team, as r e q u i r e d .  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  P. v a n der L i n d e , Time Bomb, p. 65  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  June 1974  Milli  PARTICULARS:  09 Nov. 1974  ?  ?  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Yuyo Maru  Japan  PARTICULARS:  STATUS:  VESSEL AGE  CAP'Y ( M ) J  ?  LOCATION Grangemouth,  Scotland  While i n p o r t , M i l l i begins to leak propane through f a u l t y v a l v e . Vapour catches f i r e , touching o f f minor e x p l o s i o n . A u t h o r i t i e s c l o s e p o r t , f e a r i n g major c o n f l a g r a t i o n . Repair team e v e n t u a l l y s e a l s l e a k i n g v a l v e . One person k i l l e d .  STATUS: •#.  DATE  REGISTRY  Lee Davis,  F r o z e n F i r e , p . 274  VESSEL AGE 8 yrs.  CARGO CAP'Y (M ) 3  80 000  LOCATION Tokyo Bay,  Japan  LPG/naphtha c a r r i e r Yuyo Maru c o l l i d e s w i t h cargo ship P a c i f i c A r e s , r u p t u r i n g naphtha tanks and causing massive shipboard f i r e . S t i l l burning out of c o n t r o l a f t e r two weeks, v e s s e l i s sunk by Japanese navy. T h i r t y - t h r e e persons k i l l e d .  SOURCE:  Davis,  F r o z e n F i r e , p . 275  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  NAME OF VESSEL  DATE Feb. 1977  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  Nr. P r o v i d e n c e , R . I .  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Lincolnshire  Britain  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  LOCATION  Unnamed LPG c a r r i e r r e f u s e d e n t r y i n t o P o r t of P r o v i d e n c e by U.S. Coast Guard, pending r e p a i r s t o f a u l t y gas d e t e c t i o n system. A f t e r s e v e r a l days a t anchorage o f f s h o r e , v e s s e l departs U.S. waters w i t h cargo s t i l l aboard, a p p a r e n t l y unable t o r e p a i r d e t e c t i o n system m a l f u n c t i o n .  STATUS:  07 June 1977  VESSEL AGE  Unnamed  PARTICULARS:  DATE  REGISTRY  L t . G r e n i e r , USCG M a r i n e S a f e t y O f f i c e , P r o v i d e n c e , Rhode I s l a n d , 5 Sept. 1980  VESSEL AGE 5 yrs.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  31 290  LOCATION Bahrain  LPG c a r r i e r L i n c o l n s h i r e i s r e p o r t e d t o have c o l l i d e d w i t h LNG c a r r i e r LNG C h a l l e n g e r w h i l e the l a t t e r i s moored. LNG C h a l l e n g e r s u s t a i n s damage t o s t a r b o a r d q u a r t e r and engine room. No r e p o r t of damage t o L i n c o l n s h i r e .  SOURCE:  D a v i s , F r o z e n F i r e , p. 277  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 28 June 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Gas A l Burgan  Kuwait  PARTICULARS:  10 J u l y 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Garinda  Britain  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  1 yr.  72 100  S u s t a i n s e x t e n s i v e h u l l damage f o l l o w i n g grounding by owners t o J u l y 1980.  STATUS:  DATE  VESSEL AGE  LOCATION Suez Canal  i n Suez C a n a l .  Repairs deferred  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 12 & 30 J u l y 1980  VESSEL AGE 1 yr.  CARGO CAP'Y (M ) 3  54 220  LOCATION Nr. Buenos A i r e s  Inbound f o r Buenos A i r e s i n p a r t l y loaded c o n d i t i o n , Garinda runs aground a t k i l o m e t r e 5 of t h e South Entrance Channel. V e s s e l r e f l o a t e d 0740 hours, 12 J u l y 1979. Surveyor r e p o r t s no s e r i o u s damage t o h u l l of G a r i n d a .  SOURCE:  Lloyd's L i s t ,  12 & 13 J u l y 1979  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE 23 J u l y 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  Faraday  Britain  8 yrs.  PARTICULARS:  V e s s e l r e p o r t s turbo-blower  STATUS: 0  DATE 31 Aug. 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Caribe I  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: •  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  31 215  damage w h i l e docked a t L a C i o t a t ,  LOCATION Unspecified Spain.  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 23 J u l y 1979  VESSEL AGE 18 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  879  LOCATION R i o Haina  D u r i n g h u r r i c a n e 'David', MV K a l l i o p e breaks away from mooring. V e s s e l blows a c r h a r b o u r , coming i n c o n t a c t w i t h LPG c a r r i e r C a r i b e I . C a r i b e I r e p o r t e d t o have s u f f e r e d severe s t r u c t u r a l damage and water i n engine room.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 7 & 12 Sept. 1979  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 06 Sept. 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Lincolnshire  Britain  PARTICULARS:  06 Sept. 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Atlante  France  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  7 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  31 290  LOCATION Buenos A i r e s  L i n c o l n s h i r e r e p o r t e d to have contacted F r e n c h LPG c a r r i e r A t l a n t e . s u s t a i n s u p e r f i c i a l damage.  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  See p r e v i o u s r e f e r e n c e  Lloyd's L i s t ,  VESSEL AGE 6 yrs. to LPG c a r r i e r  SOURCE:  8 Sept. 1979  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  53 400 Lincolnshire.  Lloyd's L i s t ,  Both  8 Sept. 1979  LOCATION Buenos A i r e s  vessels  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  NAME OF VESSEL  DATE  14 Sept. 1979 Ogden B r i d g e s t o n e PARTICULARS:  18 Sept. 1979  Panama  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Jatai  Brazil  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: ••  VESSEL AGE 6 yrs.  S t e r n gland found t o be l e a k i n g . necessary r e p a i r s .  STATUS: 0  DATE  REGISTRY  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  74 580  LOCATION Unspecified  V e s s e l drydocked S a k a i d e , J a p a n i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 15 Sept. 1979  VESSEL AGE 1 yr.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  4 100  LOCATION B i l b a o , Spain  J a t a i , w h i l e under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t Tomas R u i z de V e l a s c o S h i p y a r d , e x p e r i e n c e s e x p l o s i o n aboard v e s s e l . V e s s e l s u s t a i n s s u b s t a n t i a l damage. One workman k i l l e d , and f o u r o t h e r s i n j u r e d .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 21 Sept. 1979 and 15 O c t . 1979  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  30 S e p t . 1979 Babounis Costas PARTICULARS:  REGISTRY Greece  04 O c t . 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  9 de Octubre  Peru  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: •  33 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  670  LOCATION N r . Lagas, N i g e r i a  V e s s e l r e p o r t e d a t anchor o f f Lagos, N i g e r i a when leakage n o t i c e d . Babounis Costas s u b s e q u e n t l y beached, and engine room f l o o d e d . On 6 December 1979, s h i p r e f l o a t e d , t a k e n out t o s e a , and d e l i b e r a t e l y sunk.  STATUS: •••  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 9 O c t . 1979 and 14 Feb. 1980  VESSEL AGE 20 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  318  LOCATION Nr. Macapa, B r a z i l  V e s s e l grounded some 50 k i l o m e t r e s from Macapa; near t h e mouth of the Amazon R i v e r . The 9 de Octubre i s r e f l o a t e d a t 0530 h o u r s , 11 October 1979, only t o ground a g a i n f i v e minutes l a t e r . P o r t i o n of v e s s e l ' s o i l and LPG cargo s u b s e q u e n t l y o f f l o a d e d i n t o barges on 13 October 1979. S h i p r e f l o a t e d f o l l o w i n g day w i t h t u g a s s i s t a n c e . Surveyor r e p o r t s no apparent s e r i o u s h u l l damage.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t ' 12, 13, 1 5 , & 16 O c t . 1979  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE 29 O c t . 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  E m i l i a n o Zapata  Mexico  PARTICULARS:  Nov. 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Hampshire  Britain  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: •  9 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) J  3 380  LOCATION Tuxpan, Mexico  Seawater leakage through h o l e s i n #2 s t a r b o a r d double bottom d i s c o v e r e d . Serious damage t o #2 cargo tank i n s u l a t i o n and i n e r t gas space as a r e s u l t of v e r t i c a l movement by #2 cargo tank ( b y e i t h e r i c e a c t i o n o r f l o t a t i o n ) . V e s s e l r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s t o pumping system, cargo tank, l i q u e f a c t i o n p l a n t , i n s u l a t i o n , etc.  STATUS: •  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 28 Nov. 1979  VESSEL AGE 5 yrs.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  52 650  LOCATION M i s s i s s i p p i River  W h i l e en r o u t e New Orleans to Turkey, w i t h 34 000 tonnes ammonia, Hampshire r e p o r t s s e r i o u s c r a c k i n g and s h e l l p l a t e damage. S p e c u l a t i o n t h a t damage r e l a t e d t o grounding i n c i d e n t i n M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r (date u n s p e c i f i e d ) . V e s s e l unable t o e n t e r V a l l e t t a , M a l t a harbour on 19-20 November 1979 due t o bad weather. Crew f o r c e d t o e f f e c t emergency h u l l r e p a i r s w h i l e v e s s e l a t s e a .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 20, 21, & 24 Nov. 1979  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE Nov. 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Hilli  Liberia  PARTICULARS:  4 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  126 126 227 227  LOCATION Unspecified  LPG/LNG c a r r i e r H i l l i r e q u e s t s survey a t S i n g a p o r e (26 March 1980) c o n c e r n i n g a r e p o r t e d f a i l u r e of cargo tank i n s u l a t i o n t h e p r e v i o u s November. No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s available.  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  NAME OF VESSEL  SOURCE:  REGISTRY  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 27 March 1980  VESSEL AGE  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  Unspecified 826 13 y r s . Panama C i r c a 15 Nov. Rudi M 1979 PARTICULARS: V e s s e l a r r i v e s London a f t e r h a v i n g s u s t a i n e d s e r i o u s damage t o cargo tank i n s u l a t i o n due t o LPG s a t u r a t i o n . E x t e n s i v e r e p a i r s r e q u i r e d . V e s s e l d e c l a r e d compromised constructive total loss.  STATUS: •••  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 18 J a n . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  11-12 Dec. Claude Panama 12 y r s . 1 511 E n g l i s h Channel 1979 PARTICULARS: V e s s e l s u s t a i n s heavy weather damage w h i l e en r o u t e Antwerp t o M i l f o r d Haven, U.K. Two wash bulkheads c o l l a p s e d i n #4 tank. R e p a i r s e f f e c t e d a t L e Havre, March 1980.  STATUS; •  DATE 12 Dec. 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Gay L u s s a c  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 14 March 1980  VESSEL AGE 10 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  40 232  LOCATION Marcus Hook, Penn.  V e s s e l grounded w h i l e on p a r t loaded passage inbound f o r Marcus Hook, P e n n s y l v a n i a . V a r i o u s bottom damage i n c u r r e d . R e p a i r s t o be d e f e r r e d u n t i l r o u t i n e d r y d o c k i n g i n Europe, e a r l y 1980.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 11 J a n . 1980 and 2 May 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE 28 Dec. 1979  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Butaseis  Span  PARTICULARS:  28 Dec. 1979  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Pythagore  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: <*  CAP'Y (M- )  20 y r s .  1 414  3  LOCATION N r . Brixham, U.K.  Crews q u a r t e r s c a t c h f i r e w h i l e v e s s e l o f f Brixham. V e s s e l loaded w i t h butane. Crew of 18 abandons s h i p , which i s subsequently towed t o remote l o c a t i o n . Fire burns f o r two days before b e i n g brought under c o n t r o l . S e r i o u s damage t o wheelhouse, storerooms, crew's accommodation. B u t a s e i s denied e n t r y i n t o Plymouth harbour a f t e r f i r e due t o concern f o r p u b l i c s a f e t y . Cargo remained i n t a c t throughout.  STATUS:  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 29 & 31 Dec. 1979 and 2 & 12 J a n . 1980  VESSEL AGE 12 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  14 258  LOCATION Aegean Sea  V e s s e l r e p o r t e d grounded 28 December 1979 i n Aegean Sea w h i l e en r o u t e ( l o a d e d ) from Odessa t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s e a s t e r n seaboard. Pythagore surveyed a f l o a t a t P h i l a d e l p h i a , 17 January 1980. Minor h u l l damage i d e n t i f i e d . V e s s e l ' s owners' i n t e n t i o n s unknown, but c o n s i d e r i n g l o a d i n g cargo of ammonia i n M e x i c o , d e s t i n e d f o r Europe. Pythagore l i k e l y to be drydocked i n S p a i n t o e f f e c t r e p a i r s .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 17 J a n . 1980 and 1 Feb. 1980  ro o  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 21 J a n . 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Regitze Tholstrup  Denmark  PARTICULARS:  25 J a n . 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Rudi M  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS:  17 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION Lough L a m e ,  388  Eire  R e g i t z e T h o l s t r u p , w i t h cargo of butane, grounds a t entrance t o Lough L a r n e , E i r e . Engine room h o l e d . A u t h o r i t i e s evacuate l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . Cargo p a r t i a l l y o f f l o a d e d i n t o road t a n k e r s . V e s s e l r e f l o a t e d .  STATUS:  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 22 & 23 J a n . 1980  VESSEL AGE 14 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  826  LOCATION London  While r e p a i r s t o i n s u l a t i o n s a t u r a t i o n b e i n g e f f e c t e d ( s e e c a s u a l t y r e f e r e n c e 15 November 1979, t h i s A p p e n d i x ) , f i r e breaks out aboard R u d i M. One f i r e m a n k i l l e d ; f o u r other i n j u r e d .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 26 J a n . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 25 J a n . 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Copernico  Chile  PARTICULARS:  17 y r s .  V e s s e l e x p e r i e n c e s engine breakdown.  STATUS: •  DATE  VESSEL AGE  NAME OF VESSEL  SOURCE:  REGISTRY  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  3 428  LOCATION Nr. C o r r a l , C h i l e  Towed t o T a l c a h u a n o , C h i l e .  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 29 J a n . 1980  VESSEL AGE  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  Unspecified 52 647 8 yrs. Liberia C i r c a 06 Feb. Mundogas America 1980 PARTICULARS: Owners r e q u e s t survey a t New York as a r e s u l t of damage s u s t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h t u g , date and l o c a t i o n u n s p e c i f i e d .  STATUS: ©  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 18 Feb. 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 17 Feb. 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Karama  Dubai  PARTICULARS:  22 Feb. 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Katrisa  Greece  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  15 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  900  LOCATION Dubai  V e s s e l s u s t a i n s minor h u l l damage f o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h b r i d g e f e n d e r .  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 21 Feb. 1980  VESSEL AGE 12 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  18 422  LOCATION Mediterranean  E x p e r i e n c e s main engine damage w h i l e en r o u t e from S k i k d a , A l g e r i a t o L e g h o r n , Italy.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 20 March 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE 29 Feb. 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  Sunny F e l l o w  Singapore  12 y r s .  PARTICULARS:  CAP'Y ( M )  LOCATION  3  1 526  West coast o f S p a i n  E x p e r i e n c e s main engine problems w h i l e en r o u t e f o r V i g o , S p a i n  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 3 March 1980  CARGO DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  04 March 1980 E v a T h o l s t r u p PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  Denmark  22 y r s .  I n c u r s p r o p e l l e r damage w h i l e inbound U.K.  SOURCE:  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  889  f o r M i l f o r d Haven, U.K.  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 5 March 1980  N r . M i l f o r d Haven,  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  C i r c a 17 March Mundogas P a c i f i c Liberia 11 y r s . 11 795 Unspecified 1980 PARTICULARS: Surveyor r e p o r t s #5 and 6 ammonia compressors h e a v i l y damaged due t o seawater contamination.  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 17 March 1980  CARGO DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  20 March 1980 G a z a l a PARTICULARS;  STATUS: 0  REGISTRY Dubai  VESSEL AGE 16 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  646  Gazala r e p o r t s contact w i t h j e t t y catwalk a t Bahrain.  SOURCE:  LOCATION Bahrain  Minor h u l l damage i n c u r r e d .  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 25 March 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  NAME OF VESSEL  DATE  25 March 1980 Garbeta PARTICULARS:  REGISTRY Britain  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  28 March 1980 R a z i PARTICULARS:  15 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  22 765  LOCATION Mediterranean  Garbeta a r r i v e s M a r s e i l l e s 25 March 1980 w i t h heavy weather damage. V e s s e l s a i l s 8 A p r i l 1980 upon c o m p l e t i o n of damage r e p a i r s . V e s s e l f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o M a r s e i l l e s three days l a t e r upon d i s c o v e r y of f u r t h e r damage t o double bottoms.  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  REGISTRY  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 14 A p r i l 1980  VESSEL AGE 13 y r s .  Iran  V e s s e l s u s t a i n s damage t o #3 cargo pump.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  70 900  Ras Tanura, Saudi A r a b i a Permanent r e p a i r s d e f e r r e d u n t i l May  1980.  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 17 A p r i l 1980 o  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS NAME OF VESSEL  DATE  01 A p r i l 1980 U l t r a g a s PARTICULARS:  Chile  VESSEL AGE 21 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  1 460  LOCATION L e Havre, France  U l t r a g a s r e p o r t s damage s u s t a i n e d f o l l o w i n g c o n t a c t w i t h T u r k i s h t a n k e r A m i r a l F a h r i E n g i n . No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s .  STATUS: 0  DATE  REGISTRY  NAME OF VESSEL  SOURCE:  REGISTRY  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 3 A p r i l 1980  VESSEL AGE  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  c i r c a 12 Gambhira Britain 11 y r s . 14 103 Nr. Bombay A p r i l 1980 PARTICULARS: V e s s e l r e p o r t s cracks i n LPG compressor c y l i n d e r b l o c k . Time and date u n s p e c i f i e d .  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 12 A p r i l 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  NAME OF VESSEL  DATE 05 May 1980  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  LOCATION  29 540 Unspecified 12 y r s . Netherlands Antilles A n t i l l a Cape r e p o r t s #2 and 3 g e n e r a t o r f a i l u r e s , b r o k e n p i s t o n , and f a i l u r e of the main engine c o o l i n g water system.  SOURCE:  STATUS: •  19 May 1980  VESSEL AGE  A n t i l l a Cape  PARTICULARS:  DATE  REGISTRY  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Mundogas P a c i f i c  Liberia  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: •  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 07 May 1980  VESSEL AGE 11 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  21 795  LOCATION Caribbean  W h i l e en r o u t e from Panama C a n a l t o M a r a c a i b o , V e n e z u e l a v e s s e l r e p o r t s breakdown of main engine a f t t u r b o - b l o w e r , p l u s p o r t and s t a r b o a r d g e n e r a t o r breakdowns.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 5 June 1980  ro o  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 27 May 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  N o r t h e r n Arrow  Liberia  PARTICULARS:  30 May 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Gaz P i o n e e r  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  75 610  2 yrs.  V e s s e l r e p o r t s f l o o d i n g i n No. 3 v o i d space - r e q u e s t s s u r v e y . loaded c o n d i t i o n .  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  Dubai N o r t h e r n Arrow i n  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 29 May 1980  VESSEL AGE  CARGO CAP'Y ( M )  15 y r s .  Gaz P i o n e e r r e p o r t e d i n c o l l i s i o n w i t h Panamanian s u s t a i n minor c o n t a c t damage.  SOURCE:  LOCATION  3  4 163  LOCATION A l e x a n d r i a , Egypt  f r e i g h t e r Ocean A c e .  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 11 June 1980  Both v e s s e l s  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  C i r c a 05 Ultragas Chile 21 y r s . 1 460 June 1980 PARTICULARS; V e s s e l r e p o r t s p r o p e l l e r damage. No f u r t h e r d e t a i l s .  STATUS: 0  SOURCE:  LOCATION Unspecified  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 5 June 1980  CARGO DATE 10 June 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Sunny G i r l  Singapore  PARTICULARS:  VESSEL AGE 13 y r s .  3  900  LOCATION Nr. Whitby, England  While some 5 k i l o m e t r e s s o u t h e a s t of Whitby, E n g l a n d , v e s s e l r e p o r t s engine room fire. F i r e brought under c o n t r o l q u i c k l y . cargo a t Tees, England.  STATUS: 0  CAP'Y ( M )  SOURCE:  Sunny G i r l empty f o l l o w i n g d i s c h a r g e of  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 12 June 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 24 J u l y 190  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Ogden B r i d g e s t o n e  Panama  PARTICULARS:  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  06 August 1980 Claude PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  7 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  74 560  V e s s e l e x p e r i e n c e s damage t o main engine t u r n i n g gear. Japan.  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  REGISTRY Panama  LOCATION Unspecified  Owner r e q u e s t s s u r v e y , Kobe,  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 25 J u l y 1980  VESSEL AGE 13 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  1 511  LOCATION L e Havre, France  While c o m p l e t i n g d i s c h a r g e a t L e Havre, water hose b r e a k s , s p r a y i n g main s w i t c h b o a r d and s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t o r s . No major damage i d e n t i f i e d .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 9 August 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE 17 Aug 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Cetane  Philippines  PARTICULARS;  26 Aug 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Gaz P r o g r e s s  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  3 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  250  LOCATION M a n i l a Bay  E x p l o s i o n aboard Cetane w h i l e i n M a n i l a Bay, P h i l i p p i n e s . Four out of t e n crew members i n j u r e d . V e s s e l r e p o r t e d abandoned p r i o r t o e x p l o s i o n .  STATUS: ••  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 19 August 1980  VESSEL AGE 14 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  3 038  LOCATION Ravenna,  Italy  While l e a v i n g b e r t h and moving s l o w l y a s t e r n , Gaz P r o g r e s s c o n t a c t e d t a n k e r A s s u n t a Ravenna. Assunta Ravenna pushed back - i n c u r s some bow and s t e e r i n g damage. Gaz Progress s u s t a i n s minor h u l l damage.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 29 Aug. 1980 and 2 Sept. 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  07 Sept. 1980 Mundogas P a c i f i c PARTICULARS:  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  12 Sept. 1980 Mary E l s e T h o l s t r u p PARTICULARS:  STATUS: ••  Liberia  VESSEL AGE 11 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  21 795  LOCATION Coatzacoalcos,  Main engine turbo-blower b a d l y damaged w h i l e v e s s e l e n t e r i n g C o a t z a c o a l c o s harbour. Mundogas P a c i f i c i n b a l l a s t a t time of a c c i d e n t .  STATUS: 0  DATE  REGISTRY  Mexico inner  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 18 Oct. 1980  REGISTRY  VESSEL AGE  Denmark  15 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  629  LOCATION Coast o f I r e l a n d  Mary E l s e T h o l s t r u p , w h i l e en r o u t e from M i l f o r d Haven, Wales t o W h i t e g a t e (near C o r k ) ; E i r e i n loaded c o n d i t i o n grounds on I r i s h c o a s t . V e s s e l towed t o Cork pumped out by a t t e n d i n g t u g . S i s t e r s h i p U l l a T h o l s t r u p a r r i v e s Cork morning of 13 S e p t . 1980 i n order t o o f f - l o a d Mary E l s e T h o l s t r u p . During i n i t i a l hook-up o p e r a t i o n s between the two v e s s e l s , e x p l o s i o n occurs aboard Mary E l s e T h o l s t r u p . Two crew members burned.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 13 & 16 S e p t . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS DATE  NAME OF VESSEL  16 S e p t . 1980 D i s c a r i a PARTICULARS:  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  18 S e p t . 1980 Mundogas P a c i f i c PARTICULARS:  STATUS: O  Liberia  VESSEL AGE 11 y r s .  CAP'Y ( M ) J  22 240  LOCATION Various  Between 16 Sept. 1980 and 23 Oct. 1980, D i s c a r i a e x p e r i e n c e s s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s of engine damage ( e . g . a l t e r n a t o r damage, 16 Sept. and 23 O c t . ; emergency g e n e r a t o r damage, 16 Sept.; and c y l i n d e r damage, 16 O c t . ) . W h i l e a t D u b a i , owners r e q u e s t s u r v e y . More engine damage i d e n t i f i e d . On 3 Nov. 1980, v e s s e l e x p e r i e n c e s complete e l e c t r i c a l system breakdown w h i l e l o a d i n g . V e s s e l towed t o anchorage t o e f f e c t repairs to a l t e r n a t o r s .  STATUS: •  DATE  REGISTRY  REGISTRY Liberia  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 3 & 5 Nov. 1980  VESSEL AGE 11 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  21 759  LOCATION Mexican c o a s t  W h i l e en r o u t e from P a j a r i t o s , Mexico t o R i o Grande, Mexico v e s s e l e x p e r i e n c e s engine room f i r e . Ship s u s t a i n s c y l i n d e r l i n e r and p i s t o n damage.  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 30 S e p t . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  NAME OF VESSEL  DATE  19 S e p t . 1980 M a r i n e E a g l e PARTICULARS:  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  30 S e p t . 1980 P e t r o b r a s Sudoeste PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 9  United States  VESSEL AGE  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  2 600  9 yrs.  V e s s e l i n c u r s e x t e n s i v e b o i l e r damage as a r e s u l t R e p a i r s take e i g h t days t o complete.  STATUS: 0  DATE  REGISTRY  REGISTRY Brazil  LOCATION Beaumont, Texas  of u s i n g contaminated f u e l o i l .  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 30 S e p t . 1980  VESSEL AGE 17 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  4 000  LOCATION Salvador,  Brazil  V e s s e l experiences f i r e i n a u x i l i a r y engine w h i l e a t S a l v a d o r . Understood t h a t v e s s e l ' s carbon d i o x i d e f i r e f i g h t i n g system f a i l e d . F i r e e x t i n g u i s h e d by p o r t a b l e units. No i n j u r i e s r e p o r t e d .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 3 O c t . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 02 O c t . 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Venus Gas  Japan  PARTICULARS:  05 O c t . 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Senho Maru  Japan  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: t  7 yrs.  LOCATION  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  2 500  S u l u Sea  While en r o u t e from I n d o n e s i a t o Inchon, K o r e a w i t h cargo of butane gas, Venus Gas runs aground a t Asna I s l a n d , S u l u Sea. V e s s e l r e f l o a t e d 7 October 1980, and s u b s e q u e n t l y towed t o M a n i l a f o r r e p a i r s .  STATUS: •  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 4, 8, & 16 O c t . 1980  VESSEL AGE 7 yrs.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  1 900  LOCATION Off Philippines  V e s s e l e x p e r i e n c e s engine breakdown w h i l e en r o u t e from Japan t o Merak, New Guinea (?). Towed t o M a n i l a i n b a l l a s t f o r r e p a i r s .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 8 O c t . 1980  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 14 O c t . 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Gaz East  Greece  PARTICULARS:  29 O c t . 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Monomer Venture  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  ?  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  e s t . 2000  LOCATION Nr. H y e r e s , France  Gaz E a s t c a p s i z e s i n h i g h winds o f f French R i v i e r a . Crew of 15 r e s c u e d . F r e n c h navy q u a r a n t i n e s a r e a around v e s s e l i n view of r i s k t o p u b l i c s a f e t y . V e s s e l e v e n t u a l l y towed out t o sea and sunk by navy ( u s i n g mines p l a c e d on h u l l by d i v e r s ) . F i v e n a u t i c a l m i l e s a f e t y zone remained around spot where v e s s e l sunk u n t i l 17 October 1980.  STATUS:  DATE  VESSEL AGE  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 14 & 23 O c t . 1980  VESSEL AGE 35 y r s .  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  5 748  LOCATION C o a t z a c o a l c o s , Mexico  While a t C o a t z a c o a l c o s , Mexico v e s s e l drags anchor i n heavy storm. to tow Monomer Venture i n t o deep water u n t i l storm a b a t e s .  SOURCE:  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 1 Nov. 1980  Tug d i s p a t c h e d  INVOLVING LPG CARRIERS  DATE 30 O c t . 1980  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Melrose  Britain  PARTICULARS:  31 O c t . 1980  SOURCE:  NAME OF VESSEL  REGISTRY  Ogden B r i d g e s t o n e  Panama  PARTICULARS:  STATUS: 0  9 yrs.  CAP'Y ( M ) 3  2 725  M e l r o s e r e p o r t s engine problems. V e s s e l proceeding under own power w i t h f u l l l o a d o f LPG.  STATUS: 0  DATE  VESSEL AGE  S. coast o f England  e i t h e r Plymouth o r Falmouth  L l o y d ' s L i s t , 31 O c t . 1980  VESSEL AGE 7 yrs.  CARGO CAP'Y ( M ) 3  74 580  V e s s e l r e p o r t e d i n c o l l i s i o n w i t h LPG c