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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the prologues to Rabelais’ works Kanjer, Vesna Marijana 1982

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A STUDY OF THE PROLOGUES TO RABELAIS' WORKS by VESNA MARIJANA KANJER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 .'A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL. FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF FRENCH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1982 Vesna M a r i j a n a Kanjer, 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of FRENCH  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date September 16, 1932 i i ABSTRACT In t h i s t h e s i s we propose to do an in-depth study of the prologues to the works of R a b e l a i s , l e a v i n g a s i d e the prologue to Le Cinquie^ne L i v r e . We w i l l study the prologues f o r t h e i r own m e r i t without embarking on an a n a l y s i s of how they r e l a t e to the books they precede. Each of the f o u r chapters has a two-fold purpose. The f i r s t i s to examine the content, tone, and l i t e r a r y s t y l e of each prologue. The second i s to examine the author/reader r e -l a t i o n s h i p t h at e x i s t s i n the prologues. The f i r s t c hapter i l l u s t r a t e s how the o r a l a s p e c t of the marketplace i s the trademark of the prologue to P a n t a g r u e l . The second chapter examines the prologue to Gargantua where the author d e a l s with the problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The t h i r d chapter s t u d i e s the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e . We see how t h i s prologue i s even more s e r i o u s than the second, f o c u s s i n g on the problems of a c t i v i t y versus i d l e n e s s and the acceptance of new i d e a s . The f o u r t h chapter d e a l s with Le Quart L i v r e , the l o n g e s t of the four prologues. I t shows how t h i s prologue d i f f e r s from the preceding t h r e e . Here the author i s a t ease w i t h h i m s e l f and h i s p u b l i c which i s r e f l e c t e d i n the content and tone. J u s t as the content becomes more s e r i o u s with each suc-c e e d i n g prologue the s t r u c t u r e a l s o becomeSmore complex. T h i s becomes c l e a r i n the second h a l f of each chapter where we analyse the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e by Gerard Genette's method. i i i In l o o k i n g a t the a u t h o r / r e a d e r r e l a t i o n s h i p we examine the f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r and then look a t the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . Throughout the f o u r prologues the f u n c t i o n of com--munication i s always p r e s e n t and t h i s i s v i t a l s i n c e the primary purpose of the prologues i s to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t between author and r e a d e r . The r o l e of the n a r r a t e e i s f o l l o w e d from prologue to prologue and we see i t take on a more a c t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e c a p a c i t y w i t h each succeeding p r o l o g u e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter O n e — P r o l o g u e to Pantagruel 13 Chapter Two—Prologue t o Gargantua. '. 39 Chapter T h r e e — P r o l o g u e to Le T i e r s L i v r e 67 Chapter Four--Prologue to Le Quart L i v r e 99 C o n c l u s i o n 133 B i b l i o g r a p h y . 138 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I thank Dr. A l i s t a i r MacKay for introducing me to the world of Rabelais that inspired me to write this thesis. Dr. MacKay has been an encouraging and patient supervisor. I thank Dr. Anne Scott for her moral support and time spent on the revisions of t h i s paper. Last but not least I thank my husband Slav for his understanding and for undertaking the painstaking task of typing t h i s manuscript. MARINA AND STEVEN 1 INTRODUCTION The work of Frangois Rabelais, a f t e r more than four hundred years of study and a n a l y s i s by c r i t i c s , both favourable and unfavourable, s t i l l provides f o r today's reader, a r i c h source of m a t e r i a l to be examined w i t h more modern techniques and methods. Leaving aside the main body of Rabelais' work, we w i l l " i n t h i s present study focus our a t t e n t i o n on the prologues to h i s books beginning w i t h the Prologue to Pantagruel, the f i r s t of Rabelais' major works to be published, and then studying i n order the prologue to each succeeding work.''" One of the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspects of the prologues to analyse i s the manner i n which Rabelais deals w i t h the author/ reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . As Giraud p o i n t s out i n h i s book L i t t e r a t u r e f r a n c a i s e : La Renaissance, I , 1480-1548: c e t t e oeuvre n'est pas un tout accompli et ferme, d e r r i e r e l e q u e l s ' e f f a c e r a i t l'auteur e t devant l e q u e l se t r o u v e r a i t l e l e c t e u r , s e u l . L'oeuvre r a b e l a i s i e n n e a c e c i de p a r t i c u l i e r q u ' e l l e est e c r i t e a l a premiere e t a l a t r o i s i e m e personne et que l e l e c t e u r ne cesse d'etre s o l l i c i t e . Le p o i n t de vue du conteur e s t un p o i n t de vue ambigu; qui sont, en e f f e t , ces i l , j e , nous? Est-ce j e qui s'addresse au l e c t e u r , est-ce l e je-personnagi ou l e je-auteur? Entre l ' a u t e u r , ses personnages e t l e l e c t e u r s ' e t a b l i s s e n t a i n s i des rapports t r e s p a r t i c u l i e r s q u i d'une part r a p p e l l e n t constamment au l e c t e u r q u ' i l se trouve devant une f i c t i o n , avec l'auteur a l ' i n t e r i e u r de c e t t e f i c t i o n . Puisque chaque l e c t e u r r e a g i t differemment a c e t t e double i n -v i t a t i o n , l'oeuvre de Rabelais demeure une oeuvre i n f i e r i . ^ I t i s i n the prologues that the "author/reader" contact i s most prevalent. The t r a d i t i o n of the prologue i s one that emerges out of the Middle Ages where i t i s a p a r t of the "chansons de 2 g e s t e s " , b e ing used by the authors to t e l l t h e i r p u b l i c of the u t i l i t y and t r u t h f u l n e s s of t h e i r w r i t i n g s . Although R a b e l a i s a l s o uses the prologue f o r t h i s purpose, e s p e c i a l l y the prologue to Pantagr.uel, i t i s a l s o a means by which he e s t a b l i s h e s a pact between author and reader. The prologues belong to the s t o r y t e l l i n g r i t u a l , a p r o t o c o l t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s the proper circumstances f o r the t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r . Among the v a s t c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s on R a b e l a i s ' works, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e has been done i n the way of a systematic commentary on the prologues. A few c r i t i c s have w r i t t e n a r t i c l e s o r d e d i c a t e d chapters o f books to a study o f the contents and the form of the prologues i n general or of c e r t a i n ones i n p a r t i c u l a r . One c r i t i c who views the prologues as an important p a r t o f R a b e l a i s ' work i s Dorothy Coleman. In her 3 book R a b e l a i s ; A C r i t i c a l Study i n Prose F i c t i o n she devotes a chapter to the Prologues, e x p l o r i n g the author/reader r e l a t i o n ^ - s h i p . She concerns h e r s e l f mainly with the presence o f R a b e l a i s 4 i n h i s " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r o l e of l i t e r a r y c r e a t o r " and t r a c e s the " c o m p l i c i t y between author and readers and the "persona" of the author throughout the prologues ". ~* Her chapter "The Olympian Author" a l s o d e a l s w i t h the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . What her study l a c k s and t h i s t h e s i s c o n c e ntrates on i s a systematic examination o f content and tone i n each o f the prologues as w e l l as a d i s c u s s i o n of the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . The prologues are a l s o o f t e n viewed as keys to the thematic and s t r u c t u r a l elements o f the books they precede. In the a r t i c l e "The F u n c t i o n of the Prologues i n the Works of Rabelais",' 3 Margaret Spanos d i v i d e s the prologues to Gargantua, Le T i e r s L i v r e , and Le Quart L i v r e i n t o "devis - d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e be--tween author and reader, who i s t r e a t e d as p h y s i c a l l y present audience", and "narre" the s h o r t dramatic a c t i o n t h a t , a c c o r d i n g 7 to her, "contains i n m i n i a t u r e the s t r u c t u r e of the book", a concept she adopts from P l a t t a r d . In the a r t i c l e "Ambiguity and P o i n t of View i n the Prologue to Gargantua" F l o y d Gray s t a t e s t h a t R a b e l a i s uses ambiguity as a means of e x p r e s s i o n and "a d e s i r e to confuse and appear i n t o x i c a t e d " . He a l s o d i s c u s s e s the use of the " I " and how i t serves to confuse author and n a r r a t o r . A second a r t i c l e by the same author, " S t r u c t u r e and Meaning i n the Prologue to the T i e r s Livre""*"^ opposes the two t r a d i t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Le T i e r s L i v r e as r e a l m i l i t a r y o r r e l i g i o u s s t r u g g l e s with a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n . For Gray the theme of the prologue i s the importance of l i t e r a r y e f f o r t p l u s n a t u r a l endowment of an author versus t e c h n i c a l s k i l l . He p o i n t s out t h a t the c i r c u l a r s t r u c -f t u r e o f the prologue r e f l e c t s the c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of the book i t precedes. In a d d i t i o n to the above mentioned a r t i c l e s , Gray has a l s o w r i t t e n a book e n t i t l e d R a b e l a i s et 1'Ecriture"""^ i n which the f i r s t chapter e n t i t l e d " A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r " i s devoted to the prologues. In i t Gray shows how R a b e l a i s ' w r i t i n g matures with each s u c c e s s i v e prologue. He sees the prologues as p a r t of the language of the t h e a t r e . He maintains t h a t R a b e l a i s ' i n t e n t i o n , i n the prologues, was to transform the reader's outlook from a c l o s e d v i s i o n to a c e r t a i n freedom of v i s i o n and thought. 4 M i k h a i l Bakhtin, i n h i s book Ra b e l a i s and h i s World, the chapter on "Language of the Marketplace"^also d e a l s mainly with the prologues once he has e s t a b l i s h e d R a b e l a i s ' p h y s i c a l connection with the marketplace. He shows how each prologue embodies the language of the marketplace and how the "author" t r i e s to persuade the l i s t e n e r with p r a i s e and abuse, exaggerated s t o r i e s , and with the accumulation of words f o r the sheer p l e a s u r e of c r e a t i n g them. The prologues are a r e f l e c t i o n of "Renaissance j o u r n a l i s m " , a parody of e v e r y t h i n g that was p a r t of the i n -s t i t u t i o n s of the times. A l f r e d Glauser d i s c u s s e s the prologues i n the f i r s t chapter '13 of h i s book R a b e l a i s Createur. The chapter which i s e n t i t l e d "Presence de R a b e l a i s " p o i n t s out that the prologues are detach--able from the books they i n t r o d u c e . They are a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the "moi s o c i a l " and " l a c r i t i q u e avant l a c r i t i q u e et apres 14 l a c r i t i q u e " . By t h i s Glauser means that R a b e l a i s a n t i c i p a t e d h i s c r i t i c s and so gave a r e b u t t l e to t h e i r comments before they even had a chance to formulate them. 15 In h i s book R a b e l a i s au Futur , Jean P a r i s devotes the f i r s t s e c t i o n to the prologues. He d e a l s w i t h the a m b i g u i t i e s of " p a r o l e " et " e c r i t u r e " , c o n c l u d i n g that n e i t h e r i s complete by i t s e l f nor can stand on i t s own. A g l o b a l view of the four prologues i s presented by F r a n c o i s R i g o l o t i n Les Langages de R a b e l a i s , "langage du P r e s e n t a t e u r " : " l e s signes l i n g u i s t i q u e s seront express&nent c h o i s i s pour 16 b r o u i l l e r l e sens des choses s i g n i f i e e s " . A c c o r d i n g to him the f i r s t three prologues a l l propose a s e r i o u s / n o n - s e r i o u s 5 r e a d i n g of the books. The f o u r t h prologue t e l l s us to accept the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . Each of the above mentioned c r i t i c a l w r i t i n g s focuses on one s p e c i f i c aspect of one or of. a l l four prologues. The b a s i c aim of the present study i s to do an i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s of the content and tone of the prologues and to examine the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be s t u d i e d by a p p l y i n g Gerard Genette's method of a n a l y s i n g the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , "the g e n e r a t i v e i n s t a n c e of n a r r a t i v e ^ d i s c o u r s e " as 17 presented i n N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method . While Genette a p p l i e s h i s t h e o r i e s to Proust we s h a l l adopt them and apply them to R a b e l a i s ' prologues. In ord er to study the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , "that u t t e r i n g 18 that produces the d i s c o u r s e " , Genette examines how the n a r r a t i n g i t s e l f i s i m p l i c a t e d i n the n a r r a t i v e . He d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the act of w r i t i n g and the a c t of n a r r a t i n g , which should not be confused because the " r o l e of n a r r a t o r i s i t s e l f f i c t i v e 19 even i f assumed d i r e c t l y by the author". I t i s not R a b e l a i s who t e l l s us the s t o r y of Pantagruel but the n a r r a t o r A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r . The " I " of the f i r s t two prologues only designates the the n a r r a t o r , A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r , j u s t as the " I " of the t h i r d and f o u r t h prologues d e s i g n a t e s R a b e l a i s n a r r a t o r and not R a b e l a i s author. In R a b e l a i s ' Prologues i t i s important to examine the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the t r a c e s i t has l e f t i n the n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e , to see i f the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e changes or s t a y s the same from prologue to prologue. Because of the complexity of 6 the n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e , i t i s necessary to analyse s y s t e m a t i c a l l y the d i f f e r e n t elements of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , l o o k i n g at the c a t e g o r i e s Genette l a b e l s as "time of n a r r a t i n g , n a r r a t i v e 20 l e v e l and person". The time of n a r r a t i n g i s an important element of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e s i n c e a s t o r y must be t o l d i n e i t h e r the present, past, -or fu.tureLtenses. Time of n a r r a t i n g i s d e t e r --mined w i t h r e l a t i o n to the s t o r y . I t i s l e g i t i m a t e to assume t h a t a l l n a r r a t i n g must be "subsequent" to what i t t e l l s . How--ever, t h i s i s not always so. There are " p r i o r " , "simultaneous", and " i n t e r p o l a t e d " n a r r a t i v e s where the n a r r a t i n g does not f o l l o w the s t o r y but comes bef o r e i t , occurs at the same time as the s t o r y or f i t s i n between the a c t i o n o f the s t o r y . In the f i r s t f o u r books o f h i s n o v e l , R a b e l a i s makes use of a l l f o u r types of n a r r a t i v e s a t some p o i n t or other. The n a r r a t o r addresses the n a r r a t e e i n the present or f u t u r e tense but t e l l s the s t o r y i n the past tense. At times, however, the time of n a r r a t i n g and the time of the s t o r y are one and the same. The prologues themselves stand a p a r t from the books they precede because they are d i r e c t e d a t the n a r r a t e e and have seemingly l i t t l e to do with the t a l e s t h a t f o l l o w . The d i s t i n c t impression i s given t h a t the prologues were w r i t t e n a f t e r each of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e books, and t h a t they thus pre s e n t a f i n i s h e d product to the p u b l i c . In s p i t e of t h i s , the prologue can be l a b e l e d as a " p r i o r " n a r r a t i v e because the time of n a r r a t i n g i n the prologues i s before the ; time of the a c t i o n i n the book. We w i l l examine the time of n a r r a t i n g w i t h i n each of the prologues' 7 i n the c h a p t e r s t h a t f o l l o w i n order to see how R a b e l a i s d e a l s w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f the n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e . The second element of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e i s the n a r r a t i v e l e v e l , i . e . , the d i s t a n c e between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the s t o r y . Genette d e f i n e s t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n l e v e l by saying t h a t "any event a n a r r a t i v e recounts i s at a d i e g e t i c l e v e l immedi-- a t e l y higher than the l e v e l at which the n a r r a t i n g act producing 21 t h i s n a r r a t i v e i s p l a c e d " . The n a r r a t i n g a c t which produces the n a r r a t i v e i s c a l l e d e x t r a d i e g e t i c , i n the f i r s t degree, and the events i t recounts are " d i e g e t i c " o r " i n t r a d i e g e t i c " , i n the 22 second degree. The n a r r a t i o n of the s t o r y of Pantagruel i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c w h i l e the events themselves, the giants' adventures, a r e : " d i e g e t i c " . When a s t o r y w i t h i n a s t o r y occurs i t i s c a l l e d a "metanarrative" and the events t h a t occur w i t h i n are c a l l e d "metadiegetic". These d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s w i l l be s t u d i e d l a t e r i n chapters three and f o u r with r e f e r e n c e to the s t o r i e s about Diogenes and C o u i l l a t r i s . T h i s concept of n a r r a t i v e l e v e l i s very u s e f u l because i t l e t s us e x p l o r e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between author and t e x t , which lead s d i r e c t l y to an examination of the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . "Person" i s the t h i r d element of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e . Genette p o i n t s out that the l a b e l s " f i r s t person" and " t h i r d person" n a r r a t i v e s are inadequate because: the presence of f i r s t person verbs i n a n a r r a t i v e t e x t can r e f e r to two very d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s which grammar renders i d e n t i c a l but which n a r r a t i v e a n a l y s i s must d i s t i n g u i s h . J A n a r r a t i v e can be e i t h e r " h e t e r o d i e g e t i c " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t 8 t h e n a r r a t o r i s a b s e n t f r o m t h e s t o r y he t e l l s o r " h o m o d i e g e t i c " , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s p r e s e n t a s a c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y he t e l l s . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t a b s e n c e i s a b s o l u t e b u t t h a t p r e s e n c e h a s i t s d e g r e e s . The h o m o d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e c a n h a v e a n a r r a t o r who c a n be e i t h e r t h e h e r o o f t h e s t o r y o r s i m p l y be p r e s e n t a s a c h a r a c t e r , u s u a l l y a n o b s e r v e r . When t h e n a r r a t o r i s p r e s e n t a s t h e h e r o o f t h e s t o r y he t e l l s , t h e n a r r a t i v e i s c a l l e d " a u t o d i e g e t i c " . I n e v e r y n a r r a t i v e t h e n a r r a t o r c a n h a v e one o f f o u r t y p e s o f s t a t u s d e p e n d i n g f i r s t l y , o n t h e n a r r a t i v e l e v e l - e x t r a o r i n t r a d i e g e t i c and s e c o n d l y , on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e s t o r y -h e t e r o - o r h o m o d i e g e t i c . T h e s e f o u r t y p e s o f s t a t u s a r e : 1) e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h e t e r o d i e g e t i c - a n a r r a t o r i n t h e f i r s t d e g r e e who t e l l s a s t o r y he i s a b s e n t f r o m . 2) e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c - a n a r r a t i v e i n t h e f i r s t d e g r e e who t e l l s h i s own s t o r y . 3 ) i n t r a d i e g e t i c - h e t e r o d i e g e t i c - a n a r r a t o r i n t h e s e c o n d d e g r e e who t e l l s s t o r i e s he i s on t h e w h o l e a b s e n t f r o m . 4) i n t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c - a n a r r a t o r i n t h e s e c o n d d e g r e e who t e l l s h i s own s t o r y . ^ One f i n d s a m i x t u r e o f a l l f o u r t y p e s o f n a r r a t i n g i n R a b e l a i s ' n o v e l b u t i n t h e p r o l o g u e s o n l y t h e f i r s t t y p e o f n a r r a t i n g i s p r e s e n t . A s i d e f r o m t h e o b v i o u s f u n c t i o n o f n a r r a t i n g t h e s t o r y , t h e n a r r a t o r , a c c o r d i n g t o G e n e t t e , f u l f i l l s o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o r r o l e s . The f u n c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s t o r y i s c a l l e d t h e n a r r a t i n g f u n c t i o n - . - - T n e f u n c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e t e x t i s c a l l e d t h e d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n . T h i s o c c u r s w h e n e v e r t h e n a r r a t o r r e f e r s t o t h e t e x t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e . T h e r e a r e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s 9 t h a t concern the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n : "the f u n c t i o n of communi-- c a t i o n " , "the t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " , and "the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " . Only the n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l and the other four f u n c t i o n s are present i n v a r y i n g degrees depending on the author, as we s h a l l see i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s . The f i n a l dimension of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e that Genette d i s c u s s e s i s the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . He maintains that the r e c e i v e r of the message does not have a p u r e l y p a s s i v e r o l e . Genette puts the n a r r a t e e on the same l e v e l as the n a r r a t o r w i t h r e s p e c t to the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e . An i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y e l i c i t s an i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t e e , f o r example, the sender and r e c e i v e r of l e t t e r s i n a "roman e p i s t o l a i r e " . The second person marks " t u " and "vous" can never designate us, the r e a l r e a d e r s . On the other hand a n a r r a t o r t h a t i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c , as i s the case with R a b e l a i s ' prologues, can o n l y envisage a n a r r a t e e t h a t i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c . The e x t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t e e merges with the i m p l i e d reader w i t h whom each of us, the r e a l reader, can i d e n t i f y . The absence of an i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t e e g i v e s the impression t h a t no d i s t a n c e e x i s t s between the r e a l reader. and n a r r a t o r . I t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t i n the prologues. The n a r r a t e e i s important because as Genette puts i t : "the r e a l author of the n a r r a t i v e i s not o n l y he who t e l l s i t , but a l s o , and a t times even more, he who hears 25 i t " . Each of the four chapters i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine one of R a b e l a i s ' prologues. We w i l l examine the content, tone, 10 s t y l e of each prologue, and f o l l o w t h a t with an i n - d e p t h .study of the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p by u s i n g the Genette type a n a l y s i s as o u t l i n e d i n t h i s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " . Any p r o g r e s s i o n or change i n content, tone, s t y l e , or the author/reader r e -l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be summarized i n the "Conclusion". 11 NOTES INTRODUCTION We w i l l omit the study of the prologue t o Le Cinquieme  L i v r e due t o the problems of a u t h e n t i c i t y concerning tha.t book. 2 Yves Giraud, and Marc-Rene Jung. L i t t e r a t u r e f r a n g a i s e : La Renaissance, I, 1480-1548. . ( P a r i s : Arthaud, 1972) p. 245. 3 . . . Dorothy Coleman, R a b e l a i s , A C r i t i c a l Study i n Prose F i c t i o n . (Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971). 4 Coleman, p. 40 9. 5 Coleman, p. 419. Margaret Spanos, "Functions of the Prologues i n the Works of R a b e l a i s " . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s 9, (Geneve: L i b r a i r i e E. Droz. 1971), pp. 29-48.; 7 Spanos, p. 29. g F l o y d Gray, "Ambiguity and P o i n t of View i n the Prologue to Gargantua". Romanic Review (Feb. 1965), pp. 12-21. 9 Gray, p. 15. ^ F l o y d Gray, " S t r u c t u r e and Meaning i n the Prologue t o the T i e r s L i v r e " . L ' E s p r i t c r g a t e u r , I I I , 2 (Summer, 1963) pp. 57-62. F l o y d Gray, R a b e l a i s e t l ' E c r i t u r e . ( P a r i s : N i z e t , 1974). p. 20. 12 M i k h a i l Bakhtin, R a b e l a i s and h i s World, t r a n s . by.; Helena Iswolsky. (Cambridge, Mas.: The M.i.T. Press, 1968). p. 162. 13 A l f r e d Glauser, R a b e l a i s Createur. ( P a r i s : A.G. N i z e t , 1966). 14 Glauser, p. 39. 15 Jean P a r i s , R a b e l a i s au f u t u r . ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1970). 16 F r a n g o i s R i g o l o t , Les Langages de R a b e l a i s , i n Etudes  R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 10. (Geneve: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1972). p. 10. 12 17 Gerard Genette, N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method. T r a n s l a t e d by Jane E. Lewin. (N.Y. C o r n e l l U. Press 1980). 18 Genette, p. 212. 19 Genette, p. 213. 20 Genette, p. 215. 21 Genette, p. 228. 22 Genette uses the terms " d i e g e t i c " and " m t r a d i e g e t i c " i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 2 3 Genette, p. 244. 24 Genette, p. 248. 25 Genette, p. 262. 13 CHAPTER ONE  PROLOGUE TO PANTAGRUEL When Pantagruel Roy des Dipsodes, Restitue' a. son n a t u r e l , Avec ses f a i c t s e t prouesses espovehtables, Composez par feu M. A l c o f r i b a s , A b s t r a c t e u r de Quinte Essence, was pub-- l i s h e d i n 1532 i n Lyon, R a b e l a i s had j u s t embarked on a ca-,' -reer i n medicine. T h i s was h i s f i r s t l i t e r a r y p u b l i c a t i o n . He chose not to p u b l i s h under h i s own name but r a t h e r under the pseudonym M a i s t r e A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r , an anagram f o r F r a n c o i s R a b e l a i s . I t was a type of s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n y R a b e l a i s , the humanist, would have perhaps h e s i t a t e d i n a s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h the "chap" books t h a t Pantagruel i s f o l l o w i n g up. On the o t h e r hand adopting a pseudonym l i k e A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r c o u l d be a d e s i r e to c r e a t e the anonymity of a barker and would con-- t r i b u t e to c r e a t i n g the marketplace atmosphere of the pro-r o g u e . The c h o i c e of pseudonym and l a t e r i t s abandonment, as we w i l l see, a f f e c t s the r o l e of author i n the prologue. R a b e l a i s based Pantagruel on the Grandes et i n e s t i m a b l e s  Chronicques de 1'enorme geant Gargantua, a s h o r t anonymous p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t was a g r e a t success a t h i s time. The Chron--i c q u e s were s t r i c t l y aimed at the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . In Pan-- t a g r u e l , however, R a b e l a i s seems to have had i n mind a more educated c l a s s , an e l i t i s t p u b l i c as w e l l . Humanists would a p p r e c i a t e h i s work f u l l y w i t h i t s many a l l u s i o n s to the s t a t e ^ of the i n t e l l e c t u a l , p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e i n France a t t h a t ' t i m e and i t s many r e f e r e n c e s to a n t i q u i t y . The under-14 - l y i n g comic v e i n of the work might be reason enough to suppose that h i s book i s a simple burlesque work w r i t t e n s t r i c t l y f o r amusement. C e r t a i n l y , a t the l e v e l of language, most people c o u l d a p p r e c i a t e h i s book. Some chapters, however, were ob-v i o u s l y above the l e v e l of the common reader. The episode w i t h the Limousin:'scholar, Pantagruel's meeting w i t h Panurge, and Gargantua's l e t t e r to Pantagruel, f o r example, are episodes which c o u l d be a p p r e c i a t e d on a general l e v e l , but c e r t a i n l y not i n d e t a i l , by the common reader. The simple person prob-a b l y could not understand the s a t i r e of the empty-headed snob i n the episode with the Limousin s c h o l a r even though he co u l d c e r t a i n l y laugh a t the mechanics of the s i t u a t i o n . The prologue which i s the s u b j e c t o f our a n a l y s i s f o l l o w s the d e d i c a t o r y " d i z a i n " by Hugues S a l e l and precedes the t e x t . I t i s w r i t t e n by the author as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s work, somewhat l i k e an advertisement. T h i s prologue i s the s h o r t -e s t '-.of a l l of R a b e l a i s ' prologues and i s not o f t e n a s u b j e c t f o r c r i t i c a l examinations. Most c r i t i c s f e e l t h a t R a b e l a i s ' l i t e r a r y technique improved c o n s i d e r a b l y i n h i s l a t e r books and they t h e r e f o r e o f t e n concentrate on them, u n f o r t u n a t e l y n e g l e c t i n g to study the prologue to Pan t a g r u e l . R a b e l a i s wrote d u r i n g a p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n between the o r a l and w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n s and the prologue to Pantagruel, more than any of the o t h e r s , r e f l e c t s t h i s f a c t . Although h i s work i s a p r i n t e d book, i t i s oral, i n many r e s p e c t s , as we s h a l l see l a t e r . Indeed, i n order f o r the reader to appre-c i a t e a l l i t s a s p e c t s , i t should be read aloud. 15 R a b e l a i s p r e s e n t s h i m s e l f as a vendor o f a market pro--duct. T h i s e x p l a i n s the f l a t t e r y o f the -reader t h a t i s found i n the f i r s t paragraph o f the prologue. F l a t t e r y of the buyer has been a p a r t of the a d v e r t i s i n g business of any age and has always been a main f e a t u r e of the marketplace and the f a i r g r o u n d . There the vendor c a l l s out to h i s p o t e n t i a l cus--tomers a t t r a c t s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n by making them f e e l important and then goes on to p r o f e s s the a t t r i b u t e s of h i s merchandise, i n t h i s case a book. The prologue opens wi t h the words "Tres i l l u s t r e s et t r e s chevaleureux champions, g e n t i l z hommes et aultres"."*" T h i s over f l a t t e r i n g s a l u t a t i o n can be read e i t h e r as an address to the upper echelon of s o c i e t y because i t i s they who read books, or as f l a t t e r y of more o r d i n a r y people to whom the i n v e n t i o n of the p r i n t i n g press has made books more a c c e s s i b l e . The ad-.. -ditLon o f " a u l t r e s " makes us wonder who the p r o s p e c t i v e read--ers are, i n t r o d u c i n g an idea o f u n c e r t a i n t y and doubt, open-- i n g up an abyss thus h i n t i n g a t the ambiguity i n the author/ reader r e l a t i o n s h i p which R a b e l a i s w i l l e x p l o i t to a g r e a t e r degree l a t e r . R a b e l a i s c o n t i n u e s to b u i l d up h i s readers r e f e r r i n g to them as good k n i g h t s who have d e d i c a t e d themselves "a t o u t e s g e n t i l l e s s e s e t honnestetez"(P. p. 215) to a book c a l l e d the Grandes et i n e s t i m a b l e s Chronicques de 1'enorme geant Gargan-- t u a . He r e f e r s to i t as the book which they had r e c e n t l y seen, read, and known, "veu, l e u , e t sceu" (P. p. 215), im-'-' -plying experience, l e a r n i n g , and knowledge. 16 One of R a b e l a i s ' main concerns i s t h a t the book achieve c r e d i b i l i t y . The f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s i s the quote: "comme vrays fideles l e s avez creues gualantement" (P. p. 215). L a t e r on i t w i l l be compared to r e l i g i o u s books. The reader's f i r s t i mpression i s t h a t h i s t r u l y f i n e book "dignes de grande louange et memoire s e m p i t e r n e l l e " (P. p. 215) was w r i t t e n f o r the gentlemen'of s o c i e t y . However, the f a c t t h a t they d i s c u s s e d i t o n l y when they ran out of oth e r t o p i c s to t a l k about i n -t r o d u c e s a measure of doubt concerning the gre a t v a l u e o f t h i s book: y avez maintesfoys passe v o s t r e temps avecques l e s honorables dames e t damoyselles, l e u r en f a i s a n s beaulx et longs narrez a l o r s que e s t i e z hors de propos. (P. ,p. 215); We see here an example of a R a b e l a i s who does not l i k e to le a v e h i s readers w i t h impressions t h a t are u n a l t e r a b l e , w i t h r e s p e c t to the va l u e o f h i s book, a f e a t u r e we s h a l l see a t every t u r n of the t e x t . R a b e l a i s next attempts to g i v e a c o n v i n c i n g argument f o r the v a l i d i t y and worthiness of the book. He t e l l s the l i s t e n e r t h a t i f i t were up to him he would propose t h a t everyone f o r --get what he or she was doing and, i n s t e a d , commit t h i s marve'l--lous book to memory. A re a d i n g of t h i s book can thus be compared to the C h r i s t i a n v o c a t i o n , where the i n d i v i d u a l aban--dons e v e r y t h i n g i n order to f o l l o w the Saviour. One reason f o r memorizing the book would be the p o s s i b i l i t y of the p r i n t i n g p r esses d i s a p p e a r i n g or being destroyed, something which i n R a b e l a i s ' time was perhaps a l u r k i n g f e a r due to the n o v e l t y of the i n v e n t i o n . Once the book was committed to memory i t would be up to every i n d i v i d u a l to t r a n s m i t the contents of t h i s p r e c i o u s book o r a l l y to h i s descendants. I t should be 2 passed on l i k e a " r e l i g i e u s e C a b a l l e " . In a d d i t i o n to be-- i n g a form o f amusement the book i s thus a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e c r e t r e l i g i o u s works which might have mysterious v i r t u e about them: c a r i l y a p l u s de f r u i c t que par adventure ne pensent un tas de gros t a l v a s s i e r s tous c r o u s -- t e l e v e z , q u i entendent beaucoup moins en ces p e t i t e s j oyeusetes que ne f a i c t R a c l e t en 1 ' I n s t i t u t e . (P. p. 216) The e f f e c t the book produces becomes something of g r e a t im--portance because i t cannot be e n t r u s t e d merely to paper. I t i s a l s o important to note how the tone has changed from the l o f t i n e s s of the beginning, where R a b e l a i s seeks to seduce h i s reader, to a coarseness i n the second para--graph: "un t a s de gros t a l v a s s i e r s tous c r o u s t e l e v e z " . " C r o u s t e l e v e z " was a usual i n s u l t i n a century when there was no known cure f o r v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e . He i s l a s h i n g out a g a i n s t one of h i s f a v o u r i t e t a r g e t s : i g n o r a n t p r o f e s s o r s 3 of law. The prologues o f f e r many, ^ examples of sudden s h i f t s o f l e v e l from a l o f t y to a v u l g a r tone, something which i s t y p i c a l of R a b e l a i s ' work i n g e n e r a l . I t i s a means of i n -- c o r p o r a t i n g opposing i d e a s , a d d r e s s i n g everyone and keeping h i s readers a l e r t by the shock of the change of the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . To prove the v e r a c i t y of h i s statement the n a r r a t o r uses the "eye-witness technique", "J'en ay congneu" (P. p. 216), 18 a d e v i c e w i d e l y used i n the o r a l t r a d i t i o n , as w e l l as i n the marketplace. Another example of these a s i d e s used to per-s u a d e and convince h i s audience can be found i n the f o l l o w -i n g paragraph. Here again, the author r e i n f o r c e s the t r u t h -- f u l v a l u e of h i s statements. U n s u c c e s s f u l hunters found comfort i n r e a d i n g the Chronicques, a c c o r d i n g to R a b e l a i s , J'en ay congneu de h a u l t z e t puiss a n s seigneurs en bon nombre, q u i a l l a n t a chasse de grosses bestes (...), voyant l a proye gaigner a t i r e d ' e s l e , i l z e s t o i e n t b i e n marrys, comme entendez assez; mais l e u r refuge de r e c o n f o r t , et a f f i n de ne soy morfondre, e s t o i t a r e c o l e r l e s ines- ;. -timables f a i c t z d u d i c t Gargantua. (P. p. 216) Which hunter o f "grosses b e s t e s " c o u l d p o s s i b l y f i n d com-- f o r t i n read i n g the Chronicques as a c o n s o l a t i o n f o r having l o s t h i s prey? These u n b e l i e v a b l y exaggerated c l a i m s con-- t r i b u t e to the humorous c h a r a c t e r of the whole paragraph. Having made the c l a i m t h a t the Chronicques have the power of c o n s o l i n g the d i s a p p o i n t e d , R a b e l a i s moves on to f u r t h e r c l a i m s . L i k e a quack s e l l i n g h i s medicine at the country f a i r , he p u r p o r t s t h a t h i s product cures a l l t h a t a i l s , The book has a h e a l i n g e f f e c t even i n cases when d o c t o r s are h e l p l e s s : A u l t r e s sont par l e Monde (ce ne sont f a r i b o l e s ) q u i , estans grandement a f f l i g e z du mal des dentz, apres a v o i r tous l e u r s b i e n s despenduz en medicins sans en r i e n p r o f i t e r , ne ont trouve remede-plus" ex-p e d i e n t . (P. p. 216) Here we have a good example of one of R a b e l a i s ' f a v o u r i t e themes: a t t a c k s on d o c t o r s . Many had been accused of r e a d i -- l y a c c e p t i n g payment eyen when they were o f no he l p . In the r e s t of the above sentence R a b e l a i s combines two opposing 19 s t y l e s u s i n g a m i x t u r e o f q u a s i - m e d i c a l and v u l g a r v o c a b u l a r y t o produce a v e r y comic e f f e c t . R a b e l a i s s t a t e s t h e y found no b e t t e r t h a n t o p u t : l e s d i c t e s C h r o n i c q u e s e n t r e deux b e a u l x l i n g e s b i e n c h a u l x e t l e s a p p l i q u e r au l i e u de l a dou-- l e u r , l e s s i n a p i z a n d avecques un' peu de p o u l d r e d ' o r i b u s . (P. p. 216) The a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s t h i s c h a r l a t a n ' s c u r e , ( a p p l y i n g powder from excrement t o wounds), i n such a way t h a t : t h e ^ a c t i o n t a k e s on a v e r y s e r i o u s and i m p o r t a n t tone. I t sounds e x a c t l y l i k e t h e r e c i p e f o r a p r o p e r m e d i c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n . The pseudo-myst e r y t h a t m e d i c i n e h i d e s b e h i n d i s evoked here by the med-- i c a l j a r g o n w h i c h o f t e n c o m p l i c a t e s the v e r y s i m p l e . The ad-j e c t i v e " b e a u l x " and t h e adverb " b i e n " u n d e r l i n e t h e pseudo-- s e r i o u s t o n e . The e x a g g e r a t e d c l a i m s do not end w i t h t h i s example; t h e y become i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e p o s t e r o u s . The f i f t h p a r a g r a p h t a k e s on t h e tone o f the f l e s h , d a i l y l i f e , and music. I t b e g i n s w i t h images of t h o s e s u f f e r i n g from v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e and gout: "Mais que d i r a y j e des pauvres v e r o l e z e t g o u t t e u x ? 0, quantes f o y s nous l e s avons veu, (P. p. 216) The tone r e v e a l s a s o r t o f f a l s e p i t y , w i t h the a d j e c t i v e " pauvres", and t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e "Mais que d i r a y j e " , and a l s o t h e e x c l a m a t i o n "0". As f a r as R a b e l a i s i s concerned, i l l -n e s s e s caused by b o d i l y e x c e s s a r e not as m o r a l l y serious;; c o r r u p t i o n o f the s o u l i s a worse s i c k n e s s . The images do not make a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n o f u g l i n e s s o r s u f f e r i n g , nor i n -s p i r e e x c e s s i v e pity,, » s i n c e t h o s e a f f l i c t e d w i t h the d i s e a s e s 20 are c o m i c a l l y compared to p a r t s of m u s i c a l instruments and to animals: nous l e s avons veu, a 1'heure que i l z estoyent b i e n o i n g t z et engressez a p o i n c t , e t l e v i s a i g e l e u r r e l u y s o i t comme l a c l a v e u r e d'un c h a r n i e r , e t l e s dentz l e u r t r e s s a i l l o y e n t comme f o n t l e s marchettes d'un c l a v i e r d'orgues ou d ' e s p i n e t t e quand on joue dessus, e t que l e g o s i e r l e u r es--cumoit comme a un v e r r a t que l e s v a u l t r e s ont a c u l e entre l e s t o i l l e s . (P. pp. 216, 217) The readers become detached from the s u f f e r i n g as a r e s u l t of t h i s type of v i v i d and unusual imagery. Because the a f f l i c --ted are compared to inanimate o b j e c t s or to a hunted beast, the reader's sympathy i s not aroused to the same extent as i f the comparison was made on a more human l e v e l , evoking t h e i r s u f f e r i n g or d i s c o m f o r t . We are a b l e to laugh because the n a r r a t o r i s t e l l i n g us t h a t s y p h i l i t i c s and those s u f f e r i n g from gout found a l l t h e i r c o n s o l a t i o n i n r e a d i n g the Chron.4 - i c q u e s , a c l a i m as dubious as the previous one made about the hunters. T h i s c l a i m of a l l e v i a t i o n of p a i n i s l i n k e d to a r e l i g i o u s s u p e r s t i t i o n of the time ;,to which R a b e l a i s makes a r e f e r e n c e i n a r a t h e r s a t i r i c manner. Some b e l i e v e d , a t the time, t h a t being read an account of the l i f e o f S a i n t Mar---guerite^ would l e s s e n the p a i n of women, i n c h i l d b i r t h . A comparison of the two books i n t h i s way i s R a b e l a i s ' way of a t t a c k i n g , i n g e n e r a l , r e l i g i o u s s u p e r s t i t i o n which was very p r e v a l e n t a t the time. At the same time he p l a y f u l l y i n -d i c a t e s the v a l u e of what he i s e x t o l l i n g . A f t e r having expounded a l l the v i r t u e s of h i s book, the s t r e e t vendor asks h i s audience and p r o s p e c t i v e buyers: "Est ce r i e n c e l a ? " (P. p. 217) as i f to say " I s n ' t t h a t enough?". 21 He then dares them to show him something b e t t e r ; a t a c t i c s t i l l used i n modern a d v e r t i s i n g : "Trouvez moy l i v r e , en quelque langue, en quelque f a c u l t e et s c i e n c e que ce s o i t , q u i a y t t e l l e s v e r t u s , p r o p r i e t e s e t p r e r o g a t i v e s " . (P. p. 217) R a b e l a i s uses three words, (vertus, p r o p r i e t e s , p r e r o g a t i v e s ) , e s s e n t i a l l y meaning the same t h i n g to r e i n f o r c e h i s thoughts and to g i v e rhythm to the sentence. T h i s i s a technique used by poets and " r h e t o r i q u e u r s " . So far, the tone of t h i s p ara-g r a p h has been s i t u a t e d on a high plane but the second h a l f of the sentence n u l l i f i e s t h i s with the phrase "et je p o i e r a y chopine de t r i p p e s " . (P. p. 217) T r i p e s , being the stomach and i n t e s t i n e s of animals, were eaten mainly on s l a u g h t e r i n g days because they c o u l d not be preserved. T h i s very unre-- f i n e d source of food was c o n s i d e r e d to be unclean by many, 4 f o r the t r x p e s s t i l l c o n t a i n e d some excrement. Then, once again, the tone i s r a i s e d i n the h a b i t u a l s e r i e s of three ad-j e c t i v e s , each meaning the same t h i n g : "II e s t sans p a i r , incomparable et sans parragon". (P. p. 217) Once again the barker's technique g i v e s s t r e n g t h to R a b e l a i s ' argument not on l y through words but through rhythm. S t r e e t vendors, char-l a t a n s , and hucksters are a l l known f o r t h e i r eloquent speech but not n e c e s s a r i l y f o r t e l l i n g the t r u t h . The f o l l o w i n g sentence "Je l e maintiens jusques au feu e x c l u s i v e " (P. p. 217) t e l l s us t h a t R a b e l a i s i s w i l l i n g to stand behind h i s word but not to the extreme of being w i l l i n g to d i e f o r i t . However, the obvious a l l u s i o n to h e r e t i c s g i v e s a more s e r i o u s tone to the passage. The sentence was added i n l a t e r e d i t i o n s arid 22 we may assume t h i s was because R a b e l a i s h i m s e l f had been accused of heresy and h e r e t i c s were burned a t the stake. T h e r e f o r e a t the o u t s e t of h i s l i t e r a r y attempt he had to make sure h i s book was c o n s i d e r e d a comedy and not an open a t t a c k on the i n s t i t u t i o n s . R a b e l a i s was s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s r e s p e c t because he maintained the tone of a s t r e e t vendor who was p e r m i t t e d to say anything, as long as i t was s a i d i n c l o w n l i k e f a s h i o n . No tone remains i n t a c t very long with R a b e l a i s and the reader i s almost immediately brought down to a more i n s u l t i n g language on the author's p a r t , when he c a l l s those who remain d i s b e l i e v e r s of h i s c l a i m s "abuseurs, 5 p r e s t i n a t e u r s , emposteurs e t seducteurs". These e p i t h e t s r e c a l l -the bitterness'of r e l i g i o u s c o n t r o v e r s y . They were a c c u s a t i o n s used by the Sorbonne a g a i n s t h e r e t i c s and are t h e r e f o r e dangerous as they o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n death. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note that three of them are synonymous with l i a r and, by a s s o c i a t i o n , t h i s meaning i s t r a n s f e r r e d to " p r e s t i n a t e u r s " . ^ Throughout the prologue the author has been showing us the g r e a t v a l u e of the Chronicques. Here the reader i s g i v e n supposedly c o n c r e t e proof of the p o p u l a r i t y , and t h e r e f o r e , the u t i l i t y of the book by comparison with other books. Once again a r e f e r e n c e i s made to some mysterious content of the Chronicques and i t i s compared to the o c c u l t p r o p e r t i e s found i n c e r t a i n books. Whereas a t the beginning, the book was compared wi t h r e l i g i o u s books, here the w o r l d l y q u a l i t y i s emphasized: 23 Bien v r a y e s t i l . que l ' o n trouve en aulcuns l i v r e s dignes de h a u l t e f u s t a y e c e r t a i n e s p r o p r i e t e s o c c u l t e s , au nombre desquelz l ' o n t i e n t F e s s e p i n t e , Orlando f u r i o s o , Robert l e D i a b l e , F i e r a b r a s , Guillaume  sans paour, Huon de Bourdeaulx, M o n t e v i e i l l e et Matabrune; mais i l z ne sont comparables a c e l l u y duquel p a r l o n s . (P. pp. 217, 218) Some t i t l e s R a b e l a i s g i v e s are r e a l (Orlando f u r i o s o , Robert  l e D i a b l e , F i e r a b r a s , Guillaume sans paour, Huon de Bour--de a u l x ) , o t h e r s are imaginary (Fessepinte, M o n t e v i e i l l e , Matabrune). The a u t h e n t i c i t y of the r e f e r e n c e s i s not of great importance t o R a b e l a i s . He i s showing h i s e r u d i t i o n as w e l l as i n v e n t i v e n e s s and at the same time g i v i n g a sense of a u t h o r i t y to h i s c l a i m s . H i s purpose i s to hoodwink h i s l i s t e n e r and t h i s he does by any means, d i s h o n e s t or o t h e r --wise. To top a l l c l a i m s of p o p u l a r i t y and u t i l i t y , the n a r r a t o r t e l l s us t h a t : " . . . i l en a este p l u s vendu par l e s imprimeurs en deux moys q u ' i l ne sera achete de B i b l e s en neuf ans". (P. p. 218) T h i s i s the u l t i m a t e comparison be-c a u s e the B i b l e i s not o n l y a s p i r i t u a l book, but the o n l y book. The statement R a b e l a i s makes might appear s a c r i l e g i o u s but because i t i s o n l y another of a long l i s t o f exagger-a t i o n s and because i t i s p a r t of the marketplace-type c l a i m s , i t i s o n l y c o n s i d e r e d comic and not an a t t a c k on the B i b l e or the r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s . The statement i s a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n of the F r a n c i s c a n monks who were known f o r t h e i r r e l i g i o u s jokes which r e a d i l y mocked sacred t h i n g s . In the second to l a s t paragraph, we come f i n a l l y to Pantagruel i t s e l f as w e l l as to the s t o r y t e l l e r . The reader i s i n t r o d u c e d to the n a r r a t o r who c a l l s h i m s e l f " j e , v o s t r e humble e s c l a v e " . (P. p. 218) The book he g i v e s us i s "de 24 mesme b i l l o n " (P. p. 218) as i t s predecessor but "un peu plu s e q u i t a b l e e t digne de foy" (P. p. 218). The "un peu p l u s " t i e s i n w e l l w i t h "humble e s c l a v e " . Our n a r r a t o r i s being very modest a t t h i s p o i n t when he i s no longer p r a i s -- i n g the Chronicques but a c t u a l l y i n t r o d u c i n g h i s own book. I t i s a f a l s e s o r t of h u m i l i t y because he was so extreme i n p r a i s i n g the Chronicques t h a t saying h i s book w i l l be even a l i t t l e b e t t e r , i s r e a l l y not a humble a c t . He, u n l i k e o t h e r s , o n l y speaks of the t r u t h and thi n g s he has witnessed. "Je ne s u i s nay en t e l l e p i a n e t t e e t ne m'advint oncques de mentir, ou asseurer chose que ne f e u s t v e r i t a b l e " . (P. p. 218) In the middle o f the paragraph he breaks t h i s quasi-humble and s e r i o u s tone with the f o l l o w i n g sentence: J'en p a r l e comme un g a i l l a r d Onocrotale, voyre dy je , c r o t e n o t a i r e des martyrs amans, e t c r o c q u e n o t a i r e de amours. (P. p. 218) Th i s i s a p l a y on words around " p r o t o n o t a i r e " . "Onocrotale", " c r o t e n o t a i r e " , and "c r o c q u e n o t a i r e " are a l l s u b s t i t u t e s f o r " p r o t o n o t a i r e " . "Onocrotale" means p e l i c a n and " c r o t t e " means animal droppings. These s u b s t i t u t i o n s convey how Rab-- e l a i s r e a l l y f e l t about the " p r o t o n o t a i r e s " who were pre-- l a t e s of the church, known f o r t h e i r love of the good l i f e . The paragraph concludes with the n a r r a t o r announcing h i s sub-j e c t matter, "des h o r r i b l e s f a i c t z e t prouesses de Parita-- g r u e l " (£• PP- 218, 219) and how he came to be an a u t h o r i t y on t h a t ; l e q u e l j 1 ay servy a gaiges des ce que je fuz hors de page jusques a present, que par son congie j e 25 m'en s u i s venu v i s i t e r mon p a i s de vache, e t s c a v o i r s i en v i e e s t o y t p a r e n t mien a u l c u n . (P. p. 219) By t h e s e d e t a i l s about the n a r r a t o r ' s l i f e R a b e l a i s s t i l l a d d s . v e r i s i m i l i t u d e t o t h e work but i n a d i f f e r e n t way t h i s t i m e . A l c o f r i b a s here makes the r e a d e r f e e l as i f he had known him s i n c e he was a s m a l l boy. A strong-empathy be--tween r e a d e r and t e l l e r i s thus c r e a t e d . The l a t t e r i s o b v i o u s l y a c a r i n g p e r s o n who has not f o r g o t t e n h i s home-- l a n d nor h i s r e l a t i v e s . Here R a b e l a i s shows a n o t h e r de--mand put on t h e a u t h o r by the r e a d e r f o r whom anonymity i s always u n s e t t l i n g . Even though the a u t h o r may be c a l l e d A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r , he does e x i s t , does l i v e somewhere, does have a f a m i l y . T h e r e f o r e i f the a u t h o r i s r e a l t h e n th e t e x t i t s e l f must a l s o be r e a l and t r u e . The e n d i n g of t h e p r o l o g u e i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e b e g i n n i n g . The f i r s t p a r a g r a p h d e a l s w i t h the theme of "champions" and " c h e v a l e r i e " . The l a s t p a ragraph on the o t h e r hand i s f u l l o f o a t h s and c u r s e s : o a t h s e v o k i n g the d e v i l upon h i m s e l f , t h e s t o r y t e l l e r , s h o u l d he be l y i n g and c u r s e s on t h o s e who do not b e l i e v e a l l t h a t he t e l l s . The tone o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h once more g i v e s the f e e l i n g t h a t we a r e p r e s e n t a t a f a i r and a h u c k s t e r i s s e l l i n g h i s wares. We see a p r o g r e s s i o n where the vendor i s c a r r i e d by h i s own d i s c o u r s e as i n a t r a n c e o f p e r s u a s i o n . The h u c k s t e r wants us t o b e l i e v e t h a t a l l h i s c l a i m s a r e t r u e and t h a t i s why he s a y s : j e me donne a c e n t m i l l e panerees de b e a u l x d i a b l e s , 26 corps e t ame, t r i p p e s e t boyaulx, en cas que j 1 en mente en toute l ' h y s t o i r e d'un s e u l mot. (P. p. 219) Here agai n we have a< c o m i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e method of measur-i n g d e v i l s , by the b a s k e t f u l l , and an exaggerated number, one hundred thousand. So our s t o r y t e l l e r g i v e s h i m s e l f up "body and soul", .even . the > i n t e s t i n e s and bowels, to t h i s throng of d e v i l s i f one word of what he u t t e r s i s a l i e . The l a s t sentence c o n t a i n s as many as seven c u r s e s , f i v e of which evoke d i s e a s e s on those who do not b e l i e v e h i s c l a i m s : P a r e i l l e m e n t l e feu s a i n c t Antoine vous arde, mau de t e r r e vous v i r e , l e l a n c y , l e maulubec vous t r o u s s e , l a caquesangue vous viengne, l e mau f i n feu de r i c q u -racque, a u s s i menu que p o i l de vache, t o u t r e n f o r c e de v i f argent, vous p u i s s e e n t r e r au fondement; e t comme Sodome e t Gomorre p u i s s i e z tomber en soulphre, en feu e t en abysme, en cas que vous ne croyez fermement t o u t ce que je vous racompteray en c e s t e presente Chronicque! (P. p. 219) The o r d i n a r y p u b l i c i s :not excluded and would probably understand and a p p r e c i a t e h i s p l a y on words as w e l l as the l u s t y remarks and jokes. The use of popular c u r s e s and oaths at the end of the prologue was a d e v i c e used to s u r p r i s e h i s r e a d e r s . He r e a l l y wants to prevent them from s l i p p i n g i n t o any easy , secure approach by h i s t h r e a t s of d r e a d f u l con--sequences should the reader not b e l i e v e him. In h i s a r t i c l e "Le prologue de Pantagruel, l e prologue 7 de Gargantua, examen comparatif", Andre Gendre comes to some very i n t e r e s t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the syntax and use of comparison i n the two t e x t s . He maintains t h a t the f i r s t pro-r o g u e does not r e f l e c t popular speech even though i t r e f l e c t s popular images because the complex weaving of subordinate 27 c l a u s e s evokes the syntax of a c u l t u r e d i n d i v i d u a l - . However, t h i s does not mean th a t the prologue to Pantagruel does not have a tone o f i m p r o v i s a t i o n . Evidence of s p o n t a n e i t y can be found i n the f i r s t paragraph with the many " e t " c o n j u n c t i o n s : t h r e e t h a t connect the t h r e e p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e s and seven w i t h i n the c l a u s e s themselves. The l a c k of grammatical sequence i n the t h i r d and f i f t h paragraphs a l s o g i v e s an a i r of i m p r o v i s a t i o n as does the impression l e f t w i t h the reader when o n l y 2/9ths of the t e x t i s devoted to p r i n c i p a l c l a u s e s and the r e s t to de--pendent c l a u s e s . I n s e r t e d c l a u s e s r e f l e c t the a s i d e s of the -thought p r o c e s s . The span of subordinate c l a u s e s i s q u i t e v a s t but i t i s r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g to note the absence of c a u s a l and c o n s e c u t i v e c l a u s e s , which belong to the realm of l o g i — - c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d thought c o n s t r u c t i o n s . Comparison i s one element t h a t i s common to both pro--logues. Gendre i l l u s t r a t e s , v i a examples from the prologue, how they serve d i f f e r e n t purposes. In the prologue to Pant-- a g r u e l , the comparative i s used twenty times. For the most p a r t R a b e l a i s i s concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g the t r u t h f u l --ness of h i s work (or the Chronicques). To prove t h i s , he uses a comparative e v a l u a t i o n on the b a s i s of c r e d i b i l i t y , cure, d i v e r s i o n , and commercial v a l u e . R a b e l a i s ' e n t i r e argu--me.nt.; i n the prologue hinges on a comparison. In paragraph e i g h t when he f i n a l l y i n t r o d u c e s h i s own book as the su b j e c t , he s t a t e s t h a t i t i s "un a u l t r e l i v r e de mesme b i l l o n " (P. p. 218) comparing i t to the Chronicques he has a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l . 28 Gendre's study i l l u s t r a t e s , with c o n c r e t e examples, t h a t t h i s prologue was w r i t t e n i n a very spontaneous manner and. as a r e s u l t , perhaps,, a t times,,lacks proof of l o g i c a l l y e l a b o r a t e d thought. I t r e f l e c t s popular images even though R a b e l a i s does not l i m i t h i m s e l f to popular speech. In the second p a r t of the chapter we w i l l d e a l with what may be the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the prologues:- the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . The nature of the prologue, i n which the author i s speaking to h i s p u b l i c , makes t h i s i t s f o c a l p o i n t . To examine t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p demands a c e r t a i n approach w i t h s p e c i f i c g o a ls and l i m i t a t i o n s and t h a t i s why Genette's method, as o u t l i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , w i l l be a p p l i e d as the second p a r t of t h i s a n a l y s i s . I f we are to examine the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , "the g e n e r a 1 g - t i v e i n s t a n c e of n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e " i t has to be done by way of an a n a l y s i s of the "time of n a r r a t i n g " , " n a r r a t i v e l e v e l " , and "person". A c r u c i a l element of the g e n e r a t i v e i n s t a n c e of n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e i s the time of n a r r a t i n g . How are the events t o l d i n r e l a t i o n to time? The prologue i s w r i t t e n i n the p r e s e n t tense because i t i s presented as an a c t u a l encounter between s t o r y t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e s to the p a s t and the f u t u r e . The verb "adonnez" which i s i n the p r e s e n t and i m p l i e s an audience p r e s e n t a t the time of n a r r a t i n g i n the f i r s t p a ra--graph, i s an example of d i r e c t c o i n c i d e n c e between n a r r a t i v e time and r e a d i n g time. A d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e i s made to time i n the e i g h t h p a r a -29 -graph of the prologue. I t s t a r t s o f f i n the present, " j e ...vous o f f r e de p r e s e n t un a u l t r e l i v r e de mesme b i l l o n " , (P. p. 218) and then a more p r e c i s e r e f e r e n c e l a t e r i n the same paragraph: CVest des h o r r i b l e s f a i c t z et prouesses de Panta-- g r u e l , l e q u e l j 1 ay servy a gaiges des ce que j e fuz hors de page jusques a present. '(P. pp. 218, 219) The imperfect s u b j u n c t i v e i n the f o l l o w i n g example, " l a i s s a t " , " s o u c i a s t " , and "mist", imply the f u t u r e . Narra-t i v e time i s " p r i o r " , p r e ceding the a c t u a l events to be n a r r a t e d i n the book i t s e l f : E t a l a mienne volunte que chascun l a i s s a t sa propre besoigne ne se s o u c i a s t de son mestier e t m i s t ses a f f a i r e s propres en oubly, pour y vacquer e n t i e r e --ment. (P. p. 215) The past tense i s used throughout to draw on the readers' past experiences, a t the beginning, to e s t a b l i s h a l i n k be--tween the author's own book and the one he i s b a s i n g i t on: vous avez n'a gueres veu, l e u et sceu, l e s Grandes  et i n e s t i m a b l e s Chronicques de 1'enorme geant Gar--gantua. (P. p. 215) L a t e r , the past tense i s used when the author g i v e s proof of h i s c l a i m s . They begin w i t h "J'en ay cogneu...".(P. p. 216) The prologue c l o s e s with a paragraph w r i t t e n i n the present, p r e s e n t s u b j u n c t i v e , and f u t u r e tenses, c u r s i n g those who do not b e l i e v e the s t o r y : et comme Sodome et Gomorre p u i s s i e z tomber en soulphre, en f e u e t en abysme, en cas que vous ne croyez ferme--ment t o u t ce que j e vous racompteray en c e s t e presente Chronicque! (P. p. 219) 1 From:, what we have seen i t i s c l e a r t h a t R a b e l a i s mani-- p u l a t e s n a r r a t i v e time as i s q u i t e common i n t h i s type of harangue. There i s a c e r t a i n p l a y f u l n e s s i n the way the 30 readers are taken from present, to past, to f u t u r e . Once again R a b e l a i s wants h i s readers to be a l e r t and r e c e p t i v e to change because h i s book i s c o n s t a n t l y changing. In a d d i t i o n to the time of n a r r a t i n g , the n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s of the prologue are a l s o e s s e n t i a l to an understand-i n g o f the g e n e r a t i v e i n s t a n c e of n a r r a t i n g . The prologue i s e s s e n t i a l l y on a completely d i f f e r e n t n a r r a t i v e l e v e l from the book. I t i s p r e s e n t i n g a book, a s t o r y t h a t we w i l l en-c o u n t e r i n the coming pages. Using Genette's terminology, we can say t h a t the prologue i s on an e x t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l , d e f i n e d as the d i s t a n c e between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , pro--ducing the n a r r a t i v e , and t e l l i n g the s t o r y . T h e r e f o r e , the n a r r a t i n g a c t i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c and the events i t recounts are d i e g e t i c . The a c t of producing the s t o r y of Pantagruel i s an event recounted i n the prologue: Voulant doncques, j e , v o s t r e humble e s c l a v e , a c c r o i s t r e vos passetemps dadvantaige, vous o f f r e de present un a u l t r e l i v r e de mesme b i l l o n , ( . . . ) C'est des h o r r i b l e s f a i c t z e t prouesses de P a n t a g r u e l . (P. pp. 218, 219) The f a c t t h a t we have a prologue i n which the n a r r a t o r removes h i m s e l f from the s t o r y to t e l l us i n advance about i t i s an e x t r a d i e g e t i c a c t . I t c r e a t e s a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the s t o r y . The long d i s -c u s s i o n about the Chronicques does not r e v e a l anything about the s t o r y of Pantagruel but i t g i v e s us the frame of r e f e r -e n c e i n which to judge the v a l u e of P a n t a g r u e l . T h i s pro--logue i s simple with regards to n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s s i n c e o n l y one e x i s t s . There i s no s t o r y w i t h i n a s t o r y i n t h i s f i r s t prologue. The t h i r d phase of our a n a l y s i s c e n t e r s on "person". Genette maintains t h a t the terms " f i r s t person" or " t h i r d person" n a r r a t i v e are inadequate. However, i t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h between the use of the " j e " by a n a r r a t o r who i s j u s t t e l l i n g the s t o r y and a n a r r a t o r who i s a c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . The u n i n v o l v e d t h i r d person n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d h e t e r o d i e g e t i c and the i n v o l v e d f i r s t person n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d homodiegetic. The prologue i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s d i s t i n c -t i o n . I t i s a good example of a homodiegetic n a r r a t i v e . T h i s i s evidenced by R a b e l a i s ' r e f e r e n c e s to h i m s e l f (he uses " j e " and the p o s s e s s i v e pronouns and a d j e c t i v e s twenty-one times) p l u s o t h e r more e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s such as " j e v o s t r e humble e s c l a v e " . There are a l s o twenty-two r e f e r e n c e s to "vous" and each evokes the f i r s t person. We are made aware of the f a c t t h a t the n a r r a t o r w i l l not be the hero of h i s t a l e but t h a t he w i l l be p r e s e n t as a c h a r a c t e r w i t h perhaps a r o l e t h a t i s a c t i v e or j u s t as an observer f o r he has been with the hero f o r many y e a r s : " l e q u e l j'ay servy a gaiges des ce que j e fuz hors de page jusques a p r e s e n t " . (P. p. 219) The s t a t u s of the n a r r a t o r does change i n the book but i n t h i s prologue i t i s one of e x t r a d i e g e t i c homodiegetic. We ask o u r s e l v e s a l s o , "What purpose does a n a r r a t o r serve?" A s i d e from t e l l i n g the story, there are s e v e r a l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s he f u l f i l l s . Other than the n a r r a t i n g f u n c t i o n , t h e r e i s a " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " which i s l i k e stage d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i v e when the n a r r a t o r makes a r e f e r e n c e 32 to the t e x t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e . In t h i s prologue the f i r s t seven paragraphs are devoted to the Chronicques and comparison makes them r e f e r e n c e s to Pantagruel as w e l l . F i n a l l y , some r e f e r e n c e e x p l i c i t l y to Pantagruel i s made i n the l a s t two paragraphs. The author r e f e r s to i t as: "un a u l t r e l i v r e de mesme b i l l o n , sinon q u ' i l e s t un peu p l u s e q u i t a b l e e t digne de f oy que n ' e s t o i t 1 ' a u l t r e . " (P. p. 218) A l l the q u a l i t i e s possessed by the Chronicques are present i n Pantagruel but to an even g r e a t e r extent. The author g i v e s us the s u b j e c t matter o f h i s book: "C'est des h o r r i b l e s f a i c t z e t prouesses de P a n t a g r u e l " . (P. pp. 218, 219) He wants to make a str o n g p o i n t b e f o r e f i n i s h i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n and beginning the s t o r y i t s e l f . The author p u r p o r t s to be not o n l y the master of h i s t e l l i n g but of the r e a d i n g t h a t w i l l be gi v e n to i t : " a f f i n - que je face f i n a ce prologue (...) en cas que vous ne croyez fermement t o u t ce que j e vous racompteray en c e s t e presented Chronicque I " (P. p. 219) The d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n t e l l s us the va l u e of the book and how we should accept i t . Three f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t i s the " f u n c t i o n of communication" when the n a r r a t o r focuses on keeping the c o n t a c t between h i m s e l f and the na r r a t e e open without having to t r a n s m i t any r e a l message. In t h i s prologue the n a r r a t o r addresses the p u b l i c many times. There are s i x imp e r a t i v e s and the v o c a t i v e i s used s i x t e e n times. Contact i s e s t a b l i s h e d with the f i r s t sentence: "Tres i l l u s t r e s e t t r e s chevaleureux champions, g e n t i l z hommes e t a u l t r e s , q u i v o l u n t i e r s vous adonnez...". (P. p. 215) The n a r r a t o r i s 33 addressing the present p u b l i c i n very f l a t t e r i n g terms ensuring himself that they w i l l l i s t e n to what he has to t e l l them. The question,"Est ce r i e n c e l a ? " (P. p. 217) e s t a b l i s h e s a s o r t of dialogue between n a r r a t o r and narratee. The imperative "Trouvez moy l i v r e . . . " (P. p. 217) als o r e i n f o r c e s the im--pre s s i o n that the n a r r a t o r i s speaking to someone, e x a c t l y the e f f e c t Rabelais i s s t r i v i n g f o r . The i n s u l t s he h u r l s upon h i s reader i n the l a s t paragraph show a downward move--ment i n h i s p a t t e r n of communication. He moves from respect to abuse i n a very short space even though he was concerned about e s t a b l i s h i n g and maintaining communication between n a r r a t o r and reader. The second f u n c t i o n that a f f e c t s the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n i s c a l l e d the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " or the " f u n c t i o n of a t t e s t a t i o n " . I t r e v e a l s the nature of the speaker's a t t i t u d e towards h i s subject matter. The na r r a t o r goes to great lengths to t e l l us that he i s t e l l i n g us the t r u t h : Car ne croyez ( s i ne voulez e r r e r a vos t r e e s c i e n t ) , que j'en p a r l e comme l e s J u i f z de l a Loy. Je ne su i s nay en t e l l e p i a n e t t e et ne m'advint oncques de mentir, ou asseurer chose que ne fe u s t v e r i t a b l e . J!en p a r l e comme un g a i l l a r d Onocrotale, voyre dy je , c r o t e n o t a i r e des martyrs amans, et crocquenotaire de amours: Quod vidimus testamur. (P. p. 218) Here the na r r a t o r swears th a t he i s t e l l i n g the t r u t h but the second to l a s t sentence of the quotation lets the reader know that i t i s a l l a joke. The play on words around " p r o t o n o t a i r e " exposes h i s claims f o r what they r e a l l y are: preposterous. The B i b l i c a l phrase i n L a t i n a t the end of the above quotation has a d i s q u i e t i n g e f f e c t on the reader because of the abrupt change i n s t y l e . I t does however f i t ' w i t h the author's c l a i m s of v e r a c i t y s i n c e he i s drawing a p a r a l l e l between h i m s e l f and S a i n t John of the Apocalypse. T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the r e l i g i o u s and the s e c u l a r was a common f e a t u r e of F r a n c i s c a n humor wit h which R a b e l a i s was most f a m i l i a r s i n c e h i s days as a monk. The second vow of t r u t h f u l n e s s comes i n the l a s t paragraph: j e me donne a cent m i l l e panerees de beaulx d i a b l e s , corps e t ame, t r i p p e s e t boyaulx, en cas que j'en mente en toute l ' h y s t o i r e d'un s e u l mot. (P. p. 219) T h i s oath i s so exaggerated t h a t the reader takes i t a l --together l i g h t l y . The e f f e c t of these claims to v e r a c i t y i s : f u l l of parody f o r the author knows we cannot take him -s e r i o u s l y . The t h i r d f u n c t i o n concerning the n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n i s the " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " , very much l i k e the p r eceding f u n c t i o n where the n a r r a t o r comments on the s t o r y . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s the most d i f f i c u l t to p i n p o i n t because any i d e o l o g i c a l commentary i s i n s e r t e d very d i s c r e e t l y . The whole prologue i s f o r the l a r g e p a r t a commentary i n i t s e l f on the o r a l and l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s . We know th a t super-s t i t i o n i s a t t a c k e d through s u p e r s t i t i o n . For example, the c u r a t i v e powers of the Chronicques are compared to the c u r a t i v e powers of The L i f e of S a i n t Marguerite. No i n s t i t d -- t i ' o n x i s s a f e from R a b e l a i s ' a t t a c k s ; the church, lawyers, and d o c t o r s a r e ' a l l 'assaulted. From' the f u n c t i o n s mentioned above, we can conclude t h a t the predominant ones are the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " and the 35 " f u n c t i o n o f communication". The " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " focuses on the t e x t and the " f u n c t i o n of communication" ensures t h a t an atmosphere of d i a l o g u e predominates. F i n a l l y , we must c o n s i d e r the r o l e of the na r r a t e e i n the prologue. We have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c and t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g to Genette, the nar r a t e e must a l s o be e x t r a d i e g e t i c . T h i s type of na r r a t e e merges with the i m p l i e d reader with whom each r e a l reader can i d e n t i f y . The absence of an i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t e e l e s s e n s the gap between n a r r a t o r and na r r a t e e because we do not sense the presence of an in t e r m e d i a r y between us and the n a r r a t o r . He i s not w r i t i n g f o r a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l . R a b e l a i s s t r e n g t h --ens the pact between n a r r a t o r and na r r a t e e by h i s e x t e n s i v e use of the v o c a t i v e , f o r example: "qui v o l u n t i e r s vous adonnez a (. . .) et, comme vrays fideles, l e s avez creues gualantement, e t y avez maintesfoys passe v o s t r e temps", (P. p. 215) "Trouvez moy l i v r e " , (P. p. 217) "Voulant doncques, j e , v o s t r e humble e s c l a v e , a c c r o i s t r e vos passetemps dadvantaige, vous o f f r e de p r e s e n t un a u l t r e l i v r e de mesme b i l l o n " . (P. p. 218) In the f i r s t paragraph the na r r a t e e i s designated i n c e r -- t a i n e l e v a t e d terms, " i l l u s t r e s ' , chevaleureux " champions, g e n t i l z hommes" and one ambiguous term, " a u l t r e s " . Then agai n i n paragraph s i x of the prologue the na r r a t e e i s addressed, t h i s time i n the imperative "Trouvez moy l i v r e . . . " . The tone i s s t i l l e l e v a t e d but changed s l i g h t l y i n t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s g i v i n g an order to the n a r r a t e e . In the e i g h t h paragraph the n a r r a t o r becomes the na r r a t e e ' s 36 "humble esclave". The narratee i s elevated once again but t h i s does not l a s t . With the c l o s i n g paragraph the tone towards the narratee changes d r a s t i c a l l y . The narratee i s threatened w i t h v i o l e n t curses should he not f i r m l y b e l i e v e 9 what the n a r r a t o r i s about to recount. The r o l e of the narratee i s an ambiguous one because the message i t s e l f i s open to more than one i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The essence of any l i t e r a r y work l i e s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n each reader has of i t . In the case of the prologue, the narratee i s at the mercy of the n a r r a t o r , accepting h i s f l a t t e r y at the beginning but d i s t u r b e d by h i s curses a t the end. This concludes the a n a l y s i s of the " n a r r a t i v e instance" i n the prologue to Pantagruel. A f t e r examining the "time of n a r r a t i o n " we have seen that the prologue was w r i t t e n i n the present tense, f o r a p a r t i c i p a t i n g audience, w i t h references to the past and f u t u r e experiences of the readers. This pro--logue i s simple as f a r as n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s are concerned since there i s only one, the e x t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l . A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r i n the t e x t i t became evident that the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " and the " f u n c t i o n of communication" were the two predominant ones i n t h i s pro--logue. With regards to the r o l e of the narratee there r e --mains a sense of manipulation on the p a r t of the n a r r a t o r . Ignored by many c r i t i c s , the prologue to Pantagruel, even though i t was the author's f i r s t l i t e r a r y attempt, proves to have been worthy of examination. The study r e v e a l s a 37 r e f r e s h i n g s p o n t a n e i t y t h a t i n l a t e r prologues w i l l d isappear i n favour of a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d technique. 38 NOTES CHAPTER ONE Frangois Rabelais, Pantagruel, Oeuvres Completes, Tome I. (Paris: Editions Garnier Freres, 1962) . p~. 215. A l l future references to t h i s text w i l l be designated as P. followed by the page number. 2 Cabbala refers to the o r a l t r a d i t i o n handed down from Moses to the Rabbis of the Mishah and the Talmud. This l a t e r referred to the supposed t r a d i t i o n of the mystical interpreta--tion of the Old Testament. 3 Raimbert Raclet was a professor of law at Dole. Rabelais i s implying that Raclet does not understand the Justinian Institutes which he i s teaching and commenting. Cf. Pantagruel, Ch. 10, where Rabelais indicates his high opinion of Justinian I n s t i t u t e s . pp. 273, 274. 4 Mikhail Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World, trans, by, Helene Iswolsky. (Cambridge, Mas.: The M.I.T. Press, 1968). p. 162. 5 "Prestmateurs" and "seducteurs" were added i n 1542. "Prestinateur" refers to a C a l v i n i s t , one who believes in predestination. 7 Andre Gendre, "Le prologue de Pantagruel, l e prologue de Gargantua: examen comparatif", Revue d'Histoire l i t t e r a i r e  de l a France, No. 1 (1974), pp. 3-19. 8 Gerard Genette, Narrative Discourse, An Essay i n Method, trans, by Jane E. Lewin. (New York: Cornell University Press, 1980) . p. 213. Cf. page 26 of the above text. CHAPTER TWO  PROLOGUE TO GARGANTUA La V i e t r e s h o r r i f i c q u e du grand Gargantua pere de Pan-- t a g r u e l was p u b l i s h e d i n 1534, two years a f t e r P a n t a g r u e l . L i k e the f i r s t book, t h i s one a l s o appeared under the pseudonym of A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r . Although p u b l i s h e d a f t e r , Gargantua i s g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d ahead o f P a n t a g r u e l . Both s t o r i e s d e al w i t h the c h i l d h o o d , education, and e x p l o i t s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e heroes and Gargantua being Pantagruel's f a t h e r , i t thus seemed l o g i c a l to rearrange.the o r d e r , i f not to conform to the chronology o f composition, at l e a s t to r e s p e c t t h a t of the genealogy of the p r o t a g o n i s t s . However, we have f o l l o w e d here the chronology of p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c e our purpose i s to examine the e v o l u t i o n o f the author's thought and s t y l e . The prologue to Gargantua i s of the same l e n g t h as the prologue to P a n t a g r u e l . I t i s however, as we s h a l l see, more complex and l e s s spontaneous than the f i r s t . L i k e the f i r s t , the second prologue c o n t a i n s long d i g r e s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t o p i c s seemingly i r r e l e v a n t to the book i t s e l f . They do serve as p o i n t s of comparison to the book the author i s p r e s e n t i n g to the p u b l i c , comparing the i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r of apothecary boxes to the apparent and hidden meanings o f the book he i s w r i t i n g . In the f i r s t prologue the author presented h i s book as a magical medicine. Here, R a b e l a i s i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n the q u e s t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the content. In the f i r s t f i v e para--graphs the author encourages a s e r i o u s r e a d i n g of h i s book, 40 an a t t i t u d e which he then proceeds to de s t r o y i n the l a s t p a r t o f the prologue, i n a d i a l e c t i c a l movement which i s now f a m i l i a r to us. R a b e l a i s launches i n t o h i s argument f o r a s e r i o u s r e a d i n g with the precept that appearances are d e c e i v i n g . To i l l u s t r a t e h i s reasoning he draws on an example from a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e showing how Socrates was l i k e S i l e n e s : A l c i b i a d e s , ou d i a l o g e de P l a t o n i n t i t u l e Le Bancquet, l o u a n t son precepteur Socrates, sans c o n t r o v e r s e p r i n c e des phil o s o p h e s , entre a u l t r e s p a r o l l e s l e d i e t e s t r e semblable es Silenes.' As R a b e l a i s e x p l a i n s , S i l e n e s were apothecary boxes with d e c o r a t i v e amusing p i c t u r e s p a i n t e d on the o u t s i d e , and which contained p r i c e l e s s l i f e - g i v i n g drugs i n s i d e . These boxes d e r i v e d t h e i r name from S i l e n e , a teacher o f the god o f wine, Bacchus,in Greek mythology. He /was u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d as being ugly and drunk' but i n r e a l i t y he was a wise man w i t h a b e a u t i f u l s o u l . A p a r a l l e l i s drawn between the S i l e n e s and S o c r a t e s who appeared r e p u l s i v e but was t r u l y a sage and knowledgeable i n a l l t h i n g s . L i k e the boxes, Socrates' e x t e r i o r concealed marvellous v i r t u e s . R a b e l a i s then takes the l i b e r t y o f exposing h i s ideas on the o p p o s i t i o n between the e x t e r i o r and the i n t e r i o r i n order t h a t anyone read i n g t h i s a p p a r e n t l y humorous .book should not judge i t too q u i c k l y . He reminds the reader o f the well-known sa y i n g : 1'habit ne f a i c t p o i n c t l e moyne, e t t e l e s t v e s t u d ' h a b i t monachal, q u i au dedans n'est rien'moins que moyne, et t e l e s t v e s t u de cappe Hespanole, q u i en son cou r a i g e nullement a f f i e r t a Hespane. (G. pp. 6, 7) 41 R a b e l a i s i s t r y i n g to prove that i n the same way as a man should not be judged a monk from h i s cowl or a s o l d i e r because he wears a Spanish m i l i t a r y a t t i r e , h i s book i s to be read s e r i o u s l y , even though the su b j e c t matter may appear f r i v o l o u s on the s u r f a c e . To do so he compares the book to the apothecary boxes as i f there should be some n a t u r a l resemblance between the two: C'est pourquoy f a u l t o u v r i r l e l i v r e e t soigneusement peser ce que y e s t d e d u i c t . Lors c o n g n o i s t r e z que l a drogue dedans contenue e s t b i e n d ' a u l t r e v a l e u r que ne p r o m e t t o i t l a b o i t e , c ' e s t - a - d i r e que l e s matieres i c y t r a i c t e e s ne sont t a n t f o l a s t r e s comme l e t i t r e au-dessus p r e t e n d o i t . (G. p. 7) In drawing such a comparison, the author i s presuming that h i s book w i l l get the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n as the S i l e n e s . Having e s t a b l i s h e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t h i s book has c e r t a i n hidden meanings which one would be unable to p e r c e i v e by j u s t l o o k i n g at the cover, R a b e l a i s contends a l s o t h a t i t i s necessary: "a pl u s h a u l t sens i n t e r p r e t e r ce que par adventure c u i d i e z d i e t en gayete de cueur". (G. p. 7) The author i s t e l l i n g us t h a t what may appear p l e a s u r a b l e may o f t e n a l s o be u s e f u l and profound. He g i v e s the example of the "chant de S i r e n e s " which l u r e d s a i l o r s to t h e i r deaths. The b e a u t i f u l melodies concealed an unexpected danger. T h i s i s another example o f the i n c o n g r u i t y between e x t e r i o r and i n t e r i o r . R a b e l a i s next r e v e r t s to the image of the c o n t a i n e r and the c o n t a i n e d : "Crochetastes vous oncques b o u t e i l l e s ? " . (G. p. 7) The b o t t l e s he r e f e r s to are presumably f u l l o f wine, which f o r R a b e l a i s i s almost always a p o s i t i v e f o r c e . The paragraph 42 c o n t i n u e s w i t h the author t e l l i n g us to remember the look of e x p e c t a t i o n on our f a c e s when we open a b o t t l e : "Caisgne! Reduisez a memoire l a contenence qu'aviez". (G. p. 7 ) We then come to one of the most famous images i n a l l of R a b e l a i s ' work and c e r t a i n l y a c r u c i a l concept o f t h i s prologue: *: Mais -veistes vous oncques c h i e n r e n c o n t r a n t quelque os medulare? C'est, comme d i e t P l a t o n , l i b . i j de Rep., l a beste du monde plus p h i l o s o p h e . S i veu 1'avez, vous avez peu noter de q u e l l e d e v o t i o n i l l e guette, de quel s o i n g i l l e guarde, de q u e l f e r v e u r i l l e t i e n t , de q u e l l e prudence i l l'entomme, de q u e l l e a f f e c t i o n i l l e b r i s e , et de q u e l l e d i l i g e n c e i l l e sugce. Qui l e i n d u i c t a ce f a i r e ? Quel e s t l ' e s p o i r de son estude? Quel b i e n pretend i l ? Rien p l u s qu'un peu de mouelle. (G. p. 7 ) The author d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l how the dog f e r v e n t l y and c a r e f u l l y e x t r a c t s the p r e c i o u s and s c a r c e marrow from the bone. The dog's a c t i o n s are u l t i m a t e l y j u s t i f i e d because of the b e n e f i t he gets from such a p a i n s t a k i n g o p e r a t i o n : Vray e s t que ce peu p l u s e s t d e l i c i e u x que l e beau--coup de t o u t e s a u l t r e s , pour ce que l a mouelle e s t a l i m e n t elaboure a p e r f e c t i o n de nature. (G. p. 7 ) The marrow i s a f o r c e - g i v i n g nourishment f o r the dog. The reader, l i k e the dog, should work r e l e n t l e s s l y u n t i l he has absorbed the essence of the work he i s r e a d i n g . R a b e l a i s i s i m p l y i n g that i t o f t e n takes hard work and d e v o t i o n to e x t r a c t what i s t r u l y o f importance i n a work of a r t , i n t h i s case h i s book. One i s unable to capture the essence o f the author's l a b o u r s at a mere glance of the c o n t a i n e r , one must study the contents i n d e t a i l . The l a s t paragraph of R a b e l a i s ' argument f o r a s e r i o u s r e a d i n g continues i n the same v e i n . R e f e r r i n g to the dog 43 as a wise animal the author w r i t e s : A l'exemple d ' i c e l l u y vous c o n v i e n t e s t r e s a i g e s , (...) rompre l ' o s e t sugcer l a s u s t a n t i f i c q u e mouelle. (G. p. 7) Reading a book should i n v o l v e the same process as sucking the marrow from a bone. The reader must be p a t i e n t ; h i s reward may seem small but i n f a c t the q u a n t i t y does not r e f l e c t the q u a l i t y . The author thus i m p l i e s that h i s work hides a deep p h i l o s o p h i c a l meaning. The end of the f i f t h paragraph d i r e c t l y s t a t e s t h a t a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g of the book w i l l r e v e a l a myster-- i o u s and sacred content. One should read i t avecques e s p o i r c e r t a i n d ' e t r e f a i c t z e s c o r s et preux a l a d i c te l e c t u r e ; c a r en i c e l l e b i e n a u l t r e goust t r o u v e r e z e t d o c t r i n e plus absconce, l a q u e l l e vous r e v e l e r a de t r e s h a u l t z sacremens e t mysteres h o r r i f i c q u e s , t a n t en ce que concerne n o s t r e r e l i g i o n que a u s s i l ' e s t a t p o l i t i c q et v i e oeconomicque. (G. p. 8) The reader, i t : - i s to be hoped, w i l l become a wiser and more courageous person a b l e to t a s t e the hidden v a l u e s (the book has to o f f e r . At the c l o s e of t h i s argument Ra b e l a i s s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y t h a t h i s book w i l l r e v e a l a g r e a t d e a l "tant en ce que concerne n o s t r e r e l i g i o n que a u s s i l ' e s t a t p o l i t i c q et v i e oeconomicque" (G. p. 8 ) . A f t e r having made an e x c e l l e n t case f o r a s e r i o u s r e a d i n g of h i s book, Rabelais, now takes pleasure; i n doing just the-opposite by s t a t i n g t h a t the book should be accepted a t f a c e value and t h a t no deeper meaning should be attached to i t . R a b e l a i s begins to r e f u t e what he s t a t e d i n the f i r s t h a l f of the prologue by denying that an author g i v e s h i s work s p e c i a l hidden meaning on purpose. He uses Homer as an example 44 to i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t : C r o i e z vous en v o s t r e foy qu'oncques Homere, e s c r i v e n t l ' l l i a d e e t Odyssee, pensast es a l l e g o r i e s l e s q u e l l e s de'! l u y ont c a l f r e t e P l u t a r c h e , H e r a c l i d e s P o n t i c q , E u s t a t i e , Phornute, e t ce que d ' i c e u l x P o l i t i a n a desrobe? S i ,le c r o i e z , vous n'approchez ne de pieds ne de mains a mon o p i n i o n . (G. p. 8) The author's use of the word " c a l f r e t e " r e v e a l s h i s d i s d a i n f o r c r i t i c s who make i t t h e i r job to f i n d more than meets the eye i n a - t e x t . In h i s o p i n i o n those who, l i k e r e l i g i o u s p r o f e s s o r s , f i n d C h r i s t i a n imagery i n e v e r y t h i n g they read, are very f o o l i s h . R a b e l a i s then focuses on the composition of h i s own book s t a t i n g t h at he, l i k e Homer, was not t h i n k i n g o f any a l l e g o r i e s when he wrote i t : Car a l a composition de ce l i v r e s e i g n e u r i a l , je ne p e r d i z ne emploiay oncques p l u s , ny a u l t r e temps que c e l l u y q u i e s t o i t e s t a b l y a prendre ma r e f e c t i o n c o r p o r e l l e , s g a v o i r e s t beuvant e t mangeant. (G. p. 9) He wants to d i s p e l any impression that h i s book i s the r e s u l t o f l ong hours of thought and labour, wanting us to b e l i e v e t h a t he wrote i t spontaneously w i t h l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n , giving an example o f the Roman poet Ennius whose work i s s a i d to smell more o f wine than of o i l . T h i s , f o r R a b e l a i s , i s more a compliment than an i n s u l t because wine i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d with a p o s i t i v e source of i n s p i r a t i o n . R a b e l a i s ' books have come under the same m a l i c i o u s a t t a c k s as those of Ennius but he manages to shrug these o f f : Autant en d i e t un t i r e l u p i n de mes l i v r e s ; mais bren pour l u y ! L'odeur du v i n , 6 combien p l u s e s t f r i a n t , r i a n t , p r i a n t , p l u s c e l e s t e e t d e l i c i e u x que d ' h u i l l e ! (G. p. 9) The author takes p r i d e t h a t h i s book, l i k e some d i g e s t i b l e 45 substance i s agreeable to the t a s t e buds as w e l l as sweet s m e l l i n g . W r i t i n g , w hile under the i n f l u e n c e of the heavenly aroma of wine, conveys a sense of l i g h t h e a r t e d ' c o n v i v i a l i t y , suggesting t h a t the product w i l l be l i g h t h e a r t e d - a l s o . E a t i n g and d r i n k i n g being two very important themes throughout R a b e l a i s ' work, both i n t h e i r c o n c r e t e and s p i r i t u a l sense, then i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t he should s t a t e : A moy n'est que honneur et\ g l o i r e d ' e s t r e d i e t e t repute bon g a u l t i e r e t bon compaignon, et en ce nom s u i s b i e n venu en toutes bonnes compaignies de P a n t a g r u e l i s t e s . (G. p. 9) The P a n t a g r u e l i s t i c s p i r i t , which c o n s i s t s of a " c e r t a i n e ^ 2 gayete d ' e s p r i t en mespris des choses f o r t u i t e s " , i s a budding t r a d i t i o n t h a t R a b e l a i s i s c o n t i n u i n g from the previous book. R a b e l a i s can a l s o be very severe when re p r o a c h i n g others f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . For example, h i s remarks about Demosthenes are q u i t e s c a t h i n g . He a t t a c k s Demosthenes' work f o r l a c k i n g s p o n t a n e i t y , i m p l y i n g t h a t i f one spends t h a t much e f f o r t i n producing a work of a r t i t cannot p o s s i b l y be n a t u r a l , "ses Oraisons s e n t o i e n t comme l a s e r p i l l i e r e d'un o r d et s a l e h u i l l i e r " (G. p. 9 ) . The same to and f r o motion that we found i n the prologue to Pantagruel e x i s t s i n the present one. The reader i s manip-- u l a t e d by the author between s e r i o u s and non-serious p o l e s . R a b e l a i s l o v e s to p l a y the d e v i l ' s advocate, one minute presen t -i n g an argument f o r the s e r i o u s s i d e of w r i t i n g and the next making fun of that same argument. In o r d e r to a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y what Ra b e l a i s s t a t e s i n the prologue i t i s necessary to examine the author's s t y l e more c l o s e l y . How one says something becomes almost as important as what one says. The f i r s t sentence d e s c r i b i n g Socrates i s extremely l o n g but i n s p i t e of i t s l e n g t h i t remains very p l e a s u r a b l e to read because of the rhythm c r e a t e d by R a b e l a i s ' accumulation t e c h --nique: t a n t l a i d i l e s t o i t de corps e t r e d i c u l e en son maintien, l e nez p o i n t u , l e reguard d'un taureau, l e v i s a i g e d'un f o l , simple en meurs, r u s t i q en vestimens, pauvre de f o r t u n e , i n f o r t u n e en femmes, i n e p t e a tous o f f i c e s de l a r e p u b l i q u e . (G. pp. 5, 6) As a p a i n t e r uses the s t r o k e s of h i s p a i n t brush to p a i n t an u n f l a t t e r i n g p o r t r a i t , the author uses t h i s accumulation of words. In the same sentence R a b e l a i s a l s o d e s c r i b e s Socrates as : t o u s j o u r s r i a n t , t o u j o u r s beuvant d'autant a un chascun, t o u s j o u r s se gaubelant, t o u s j o u r s d i s s i m u l a n t son d i v i n s c a v o i r . (G. p. 6) T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n has an u n s e t t l i n g e f f e c t on the reader and R a b e l a i s uses i t as a transitional - gesture b e f o r e accumulating a l l the p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to d e s c r i b e the s o u l of the sage: entendement plus que humain, v e r t u s m e r v e i l l e u s e , c o u r a i g e i n v i n c i b l e , sobresse non p a r e i l l e , contentement c e r t a i n , asseurance p a r f a i c t e , d e p r i s e m e n t ' i n c r o y a b l e de t o u t ce pourquoy l e s humains t a n t v e i g l e n t , courent, t r a v a i l l e n t , navigent et b a t a i l l e n t . (G. p. 6) T h i s c o l l e c t i o n of negative and p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s serves to overwhelm the reader, showing the i n f l u e n c e of the language of the marketplace on R a b e l a i s ' w r i t i n g . Eloquent speakers abounded i n the marketplace environment and were never a t a l o s s f o r words e i t h e r when p r a i s i n g or c h a s t i s i n g someone or 47 s o m e t h i n g . The s t y l e h e r e d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t s t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o l o g u e w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t a p p e a r a n c e s a r e d e c e i v i n g . P r e s e n t i n g two o p p o s i n g s i d e s o f a n a r g u m e n t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f R a b e l a i s and i n o r d e r t o i m p o s e t h i s i d e a he h a s c h o s e n a t r a d i t i o n a l m e t a p h o r o f e x t e r i o r v e r s u s i n t e r i o r . When R a b e l a i s a d v i s e s t h e r e a d e r t h a t he s h o u l d work d i l -i g e n t l y t o a b s o r b t h e e s s e n c e o f h i s b o ok he u s e s t h e a c c u -- m u l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s m e s s a g e , t e l l i n g h i m t o f o l l o w t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e dog who d e v o t e d l y e x t r a c t s t h e marrow f r o m t h e b o n e : A 1 'exemple d ' i c e l l u y v o u s c o n v i e n t e s t r e s a i g e s , p o u r f l e u r e r , s e n t i r e t e s t i m e r c e s c e a u l x l i v r e s de h a u l t e g r e s s e , l e g i e r s a u p r o c h a z e t h a r d i z a l a r e n c o n t r e ; p u i s , p a r c u r i e u s e l e g o n e t m e d i t a t i o n f r e q u e n t e , r o m p r e l ' o s e t s u g c e r l a s u s t a n t i f i c q u e m o u e l l e . (G. p. 7) He i s t o l d t o " f l e u r e r , s e n t i r e t e s t i m e r c e s b e a u l x l i v r e s de h a u l t e g r e s s e " . The f i r s t two v e r b s s i g n i f y t o s m e l l o r t o s n i f f o u t . They i m p l y a n a c t u a l s a v o u r i n g o f t h e b o o k s b u t " e s t i m e r " o n t h e o t h e r hand i m p l i e s an a b s t r a c t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f them. The b o o k s t h e m s e l v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n b o t h a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e t e r m s : " c e s b e a u l x l i v r e s de h a u l t e g r e s s e " . R a b e l a i s d e l i b e r a t e l y m i x e s t h e image o f t h e " b e a u l x l i v r e s " w i t h t h e "de h a u l t e g r e s s e " w h i c h makes them r e a l a n d d i g e s t i b l e l i k e t h e s t r e n g t h - g i v i n g marrow f r o m t h e b one. The q u a l i f y i n g ' p h r a s e "de h a u l t e g r e s s e " j u s t i f i e s t h e u s e o f t h e v e r b s " f l e u r e r " a n d " s e n t i r " . I n t h e p r o l o g u e t o P a n t a g r u e l R a b e l a i s o f t e n u s e d t h r e e w o r d s , h a v i n g e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same m e a n i n g , t o s t r e n g t h e n h i s a r g u m e n t b u t a l s o t o c o n v e y t h e m a r k e t p l a c e e l o q u e n c e o f t h e 48 barker s i n c e the words were s i m i l a r i n sound as w e l l as mean-i n g . He uses the same technique i n t h i s prologue when e x a l t -i n g the q u a l i t i e s of wine i n c o n t r a s t w i t h those of o i l : "L'odeur du v i n , 6 combien p l u s e s t f r i a n t , r i a n t , p r i a n t , p l u s c e l e s t e e t d e l i c i e u x que d ' h u i l l e l " 'OG. p. 9). " F r i a n t , r i a n t , p r i a n t " not o n l y end w i t h the same sound, but_ a l s o t r a n s m i t the same meaning. They imply t h a t the wine i s appe-t i z i n g , • a l l u r i n g , and e n t i c i n g , q u a l i t i e s t h a t can be e i t h e r c o n c r e t e , r e f e r r i n g t o the wine as a beverage, or a b s t r a c t , r e f e r r i n g to i t s i n s p i r a t i o n a l e f f e c t s . A study of the syntax i n the second prologue shows, 3 a c c o r d i n g to Gendre , t h a t R a b e l a i s has a b e t t e r mastery of h i s m a t e r i a l than when he wrote Pa n t a g r u e l . He i s more aware of what he wants to say and how he wants to say i t . The coor-d i n a t i n g c o n j u n c t i o n " e t " i s no longer used i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y showing l e s s i m p r o v i s a t i o n on the author's p a r t . Conversely, i n the prologue to Gargantua, s t r o n g c o n j u n c t i o n s l i k e "mais" are used i n important p l a c e s where Ra b e l a i s defends h i s reason-4 - i n g . A marked d i f f e r e n c e between the two prologues i s found i n the use of the main c l a u s e which i s found f r e q u e n t l y i n the prologue to Gargantua as i n the f i r s t prologue, i n d i c a t i n g more c o n t r o l . R a b e l a i s i s not c o n s t a n t l y s l i p p i n g i n t o an i n o r d i n a t e use o f the subordinate c l a u s e , another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he has abandoned i m p r o v i s a t i o n and s p o n t a n e i t y i n favour of a more r i g o r o u s s t y l e . However, even though he uses l e s s s u b o r d i n a t i o n , there i s more v a r i e t y i n the type of s u b o r d i n a t i o n -used. I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t the prologue to Gargantua has a number of c a u s a l , 49 c o n s e c u t i v e , i n d i r e c t i n t e r r o g a t i v e c l a u s e s and L a t i n i n f i n i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , none of which e x i s t e d i n the prologue to Panta-- g r u e l . ' A l s o to be noted i s the frequent use of the c l a u s e i n p a r e n t h e s i s . On the s y n t a c t i c l e v e l the second prologue has thus a much more r i g i d and e l a b o r a t e c o n s t r u c t i o n than the f i r s t . The comparisons used are d i f f e r e n t from those i n the f i r s t p r ologue. They have a much more important r o l e . Even the l o g i c of the prologue's s t r u c t u r e i s comparative. With comparisons: " s i l e n e e x t e r i e u r / s i l e n e i n t e r i e u r ; Socrate e x t e r i e u r / S o c r a t e i n t e r i e u r ; Gargantua i n t e r i e u r / G a r g a n t u a e x t e r i e u r " ^ Gendre sees R a b e l a i s abandoning i m p r o v i s a t i o n i n favour of a more s t r u c t u r e d approach to h i s new work. The second h a l f of the prologue seems to be a r e f u t a t i o n of the f i r s t h a l f and has been i n t e r p r e t e d as such by most c r i t i c s . R a b e l a i s appears to be denying the e x i s t e n c e of any hidden s e r i o u s n e s s i n h i s book, something which he so s t r o n g l y i m p l i e d i n the f i r s t h a l f . He does t h i s by s a y i n g i t was w r i t t e n spontaneously, i n a s h o r t time and under the i n f l u e n c e of wine. A c c o r d i n g to Gendre, however, i t should not be viewed as a negation of the f i r s t h a l f - but as a corrective. He wants the : reader to be aware t h a t there i s not one a b s o l u t e way of r e a d i n g a book. Ra b e l a i s p l a c e s h i s book i n the same realm as those o f Homer and Ennius, and s t a t e s that these authors intended no a l l e g o r -- i c a l meanings to t h e i r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , these works do have great v a l u e . The second comparison he makes has to do with wine and o i l . The reader's f i r s t impression leads him to be-- l i e v e t h a t wine has a negative v a l u e but comparison soon 50 negates t h i s n o t i o n : quoy qu'un malautru a i t d i e t que ses carmes sentoyent plus l e v i n que l ' h u i l l e . Autant en d i e t un t i r e l u p i n de mes l i v r e s ; mais bren pour l u y ! L'odeur du v i n , 6 combien plus e s t f r i a n t , r i a n t , p r i a n t , plus c e l e s t e et d e l i c i e u x que d ' h u i l l e ! Et prendray autant a g l o i r e qu'on d i e de moy que plus en v i n aye despendu que en huyle, que f i s t Demosthenes, quand de l u y on d i s o i t que plus en huyle que en v i n despendoit. (G. p. 9) Wine f o r Rabelais i s d e f i n i t e l y a p o s i t i v e f o r c e . One of Rabelais' most widely used and h i g h l y favored w r i t i n g techniques i s the c o n t i n u a l change i n h i s spheres of reference, an up., and down motion from l o f t y to common language that s u r p r i s e s and i n t r i g u e s the reader at every turn of the t e x t . The prologue begins w i t h a reference to P l a t o ' s Banquet and i n the f o l l o w i n g paragraph continues w i t h references to Pantagruel, Gargantua, the author's own books, and humorous imaginary books l i k e Fessepinte, La D i g n i t e des Braguettes, Des Poys au l a r d cum commento. This i s c l e a r l y a move " from 'a l o f t y sphere of reference to P l a t o i n a common d i r e c t i o n border-i n g on the vulgar w i t h reference to the l a s t three imaginary books. In the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs the language i s elevated once again when references are made to P l a t o , Galen, and Pythagorus-. The s i x t h paragraph i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g because i t opens w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n about Homer on a note t h a t i n d i c a t e s some h i n t of what i s to f o l l o w by the use of the word " c a l f r e t e " which has more to do w i t h the c a u l k i n g cracks i n w a l l s than w i t h a n a l y s i n g a t e x t . The paragraph ends on a common tone through the use of a proverb: 51 ...un Frere Lubin, vray croque lardon s'est efforce demonstrer, s i d'adventure i l rencontroit gens aussi f o l z que luy, et (comme diet l e proverbe) couvercle digne du chaudron. (G. p. 8) Rabelais then states that he wrote while drinking, i n -d i c a t i n g a lack of seriousness about his work, but i n the next b r e a t h ' t e l l s the reader that i s the time to write "ces haultes matieres et sciences profundes, comme bien f a i r e sgavoit Homere". (G. p. 9 ) Such apparent contradictions i n -- v i t e the reader to examine the text from d i f f e r e n t angles, keeping i n mind various possible interpretations. In discussing the author/reader rel a t i o n s h i p i n the pro--logue i t i s necessary to look c l o s e l y at the f i r s t sentence of the prologue: "Beuveurs tres i l l u s t r e s et vous, verolez tres precieux, - car a vous non a aultres, sont dediez mes esc r i p t z " . (G. p. 5) From the st a r t t h i s prologue i s dealing with contradiction which w i l l become i t s central theme. I t i s unusual that drunkards be addressed as i l l u s t r i o u s and s y p h i l i t i c s as esteemed members of society. This i s quite unlike the envisaged public of the f i r s t prologue who were "Tres i l l u s t r e s et tres chevaleureux champions, g e n t i l z hommes et aultres". ( P . p. 2 1 5 ) " I l l u s t r e s " and "precieux" are unlike-- l y adjectives for beuveurs and verolez, two nouns normally used i n the pejorative sense. However, we have already seen that Rabelais does not abhor the d i s c i p l e s of the gods Bacchus and Eros. This form of address i s once again an example of the language of the marketplace that dominated the f i r s t pro--logue. It was t o t a l l y acceptable for a barker to use quasi-- i n s u l t s when speaking to his public and when worded c l e v e r l y the remarks were not p e r c e i v e d as derogatory. The author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p develops on a note of s e l f assurance on the author's p a r t . A f t e r he speaks of Socrates, R a b e l a i s addresses a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n to h i s r e a d e r s : A quel propos, en v o u s t r e a d v i s , tend ce prelude et coup d'essay? (G. p. 6) which he answers w i t h : Par autant que vous, mes bons d i s c i p l e s , e t quelques f o u l z de s e j o u r , . . . (G. p. 6) The readers have become h i s "bons d i s c i p l e s " ; they have read Pantagruel and are now a p a r t of the "bonnes compaignies de P a n t a g r u e l i s t e s " , (G. p. 9) But not f o r g e t t i n g the double message of t h i s prologue the readers are a l s o addressed as "quelques f o u l z de s e j o u r " . Near the end of the prologue a sentence strengthens t h i s i d e a of a s t r o n g t i e between author and reader: Pour t a n t , i n t e r p r e t e z tous mes f a i c t z e t mes d i c t z en l a p e r f e c t i s s i m e p a r t i e ; ayez en reverence l e cerveau caseiforme q u i vous p a i s t de ces b e l l e s b i l l e s vezees, e t , a v o s t r e p o v o i r , tenez moy t o u s j o u r s joyeux. (G. p. 9) The sentence i n d i c a t e s a c o n s p i r a c y between author and reader, one t h a t w i l l ensure t h a t the reader i n t e r p r e t s what the author says as the l a t t e r intended i t . R a b e l a i s seems to be g i v i n g the reader a more d e f i n e d and important r o l e i n t h i s prologue than i n the p r e c e d i n g one. Here, the reader i s being e n t r u s t e d w i t h the r o l e of i n t e r p r e t e r but i s reminded always to keep i n mind th a t which i s joyous. R a b e l a i s undercuts h i s own statements i n h i s mock-serious s t y l e , "ayez en reverence l e cerveau caseiforme". "Caseiforme"-in the form of a c h e e s e - s i g n i f i e s a n o t - t o o - i n t e l l i g e n t , n o t - t o o - s e r i o u s person as author. By 53 undercutting h i s own statements, he encourages a l i g h t h e a r t e d approach to the reading of h i s book. The l a s t short paragraph of the prologue both f l a t t e r s and i n s u l t s the readers. The author c a l l s them "mes amours" (G. p. 9) and t e l l s them to enjoy themselves reading the r e s t of the book, "a l ' a i s e du corps et au p r o f i t des r e i n s " . (G. p. 9) Rabelais then becomes i n s u l t i n g : "Escoutez, v i e t z d'azes" (G. p. 9) and repeats a curse already used i n the f i r s t prologue: "que l e maulubec vous trousque!". (G. p. 9) Such abuses and i n s u l t s are fewer and l e s s harsh than those i n the prologue to Pantagruel and one tends not to be offended because a l l seems to be s a i d i n good-natured fun under the i n f l u e n c e of the wine. In h i s a r t i c l e , Gendre concludes that the r o l e of the comparison i n the two prologues serves a dual purpose. In pres e n t i n g Pantagruel the author was concerned about the accept-a n c e of h i s book as a work of a r t . The r o l e of the reader i s f u l f i l l e d i f he accepts the book as t r u t h s . P o i n t s of comparison f o r Pantagruel were other novels from the realm of popular l i t e r a t u r e . As f o r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of Gargantua, comparison takes on another set of values as Homer and other great ancient w r i t e r s are used as p o i n t s of reference. The author gives the reader a much more important r o l e i n t h i s prologue because he i s e n t r u s t i n g him w i t h the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the message of the book. The a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e of the author at the end of the f i r s t prologue i s abandoned i n favor of an a t t i t u d e that gives the reader a c e r t a i n sense of autonomy and freedom. 54 The prologue . toi Gargantua i s much more homogeneous than Pantagruel. To be sure some of the same elements are there/ a mixture of f l a t t e r y and i n s u l t s ^ Rabelais' has m o d i f i e d h i s approach i n t h i s r e s p e c t . He proposes a s e r i o u s and non-s e r i o u s approach to h i s book and then l e t s the reader choose. Because he i s not that, e x p l i c i t how he wishes h i s book to be read, h i s reader must choose e i t h e r to read between the l i n e s , a c c e p t the book at face v a l u e , or do a l i t t l e o f both. In the second p a r t of t h i s chapter we w i l l d e a l more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p , perhaps the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect; o f the prologues. The nature of the prologue, i n which the author speaks to h i s p u b l i c , makes t h i s r a p p o r t i t s f o c a l p o i n t . To f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e the complex-- i t i e s o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p demands an approach w i t h s p e c i f i c goals and l i m i t a t i o n s and t h a t i s why Genette's method of a n a l y s i s w i l l be a p p l i e d to the prologue 6 f Gargantua as i t was to the prologue of P a n t a g r u e l . The f i r s t element o f "the g e n e r a t i v e i n s t a n c e of n a r r a t i v e 6 d i s c o u r s e " to be examined i s " the time o f n a r r a t i n g " . The focus here i s on the way i n which the events are t o l d i n r e l a t i o n to time. Since the prologue i s presented as an a c t u a l encounter between author and reader, i t begins i n the present tense, "car a vous, non a a u l t r e s , sont dediez mes e s c r i p t z " . (G: p. 5) Here the marketplace vendor i s t r y i n g to seduce the audience i n t o buying h i s book. There i s a d i r e c t i n t e r -- a c t i o n between author and reader when R a b e l a i s addresses the reader i n the present tense. 55 The a u t h o r u s e s t h e p a s t t e n s e when he e x p l a i n s c e r t a i n e v e n t s t o t h e r e a d e r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n S i l e n e s a n d S o c r a t e s : " S i l e n e s e s t o i e n t j a d i s . . . " (G. p. 5) i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p a s t t e n s e as a r e h i s r e m a r k s a b o u t D e m o s t h e n e s : "quand de l u y o n d i s o i t que p l u s en h u y l e que en v i n d e s p e n d o i t " . (G. p. 9) R a b e l a i s a l s o h a s r e c o u r s e t o t h e f u t u r e t e n s e w h i c h he d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o u s e and a t t i m e s t h e f u t u r e i s i m p l i e d t h r o u g h t h e i m p e r a t i v e and i n f i n i t i v e . The a u t h o r u s e s t h e f u t u r e when i m p l y i n g a d e e p e r m e a n i n g t o h i s b o o k : " L o r s c o n g n o i s t r e z que l a d r o g u e d e d a n s c o n t e n u e e s t b i e n d ' a u l t r e v a l e u r que ne p r o m e t t o i t l a b o i t e " (G. p. 7 ) , " c a r en i c e l l e b i e n a u l t r e g o u s t t r o u v e r e z e t d o c t r i n e p l u s a b s c o n c e , l a q u e l l e v o u s r e v e l e r a . . . " . (G. p. 8) He u s e s t h e i n f i n i t i v e when e n c o u r a g i n g t h e r e a d e r t o r e a d b e t w e e n t h e l i n e s : "A 1'exemple d ' i c e l l u y v o u s c o n v i e n t e s t r e s a i g e s p o u r f l e u r e r , s e n t i r e t e s t i m e r c e s b e a u l x l i v r e s de h a u l t e g r e s s e " . The i m p e r a t i v e i s u s e d i n t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e p r o l o g u e when R a b e l a i s t e l l s t h e r e a d e r n o t t o t a k e h i s book s e r i o u s l y : P o u r t a n t , i n t e r p r e t e z t o u s mes f a i c t z e t mes d i c t z e n l a p e r f e c t i s s i m e p a r t i e ; a y e z en r e v e r e n c e l e c e r v e a u c a s e i f o r m e q u i v o u s p a i s t de c e s b e l l e s b i l l e s v e z e e s , e t , a v o s t r e p o v o i r , t e n e z moy t o u s j o u r s j o y e u x . Or e s b a u d i s s e z v o u s , mes amours, e t guayement l i s e z l e r e s t e , . t o u t a l ' a i s e du c o r p s e t a u p r o f i t d e s r e i n s ' . (G. p. 9) The p r o l o g u e ends w i t h t h e f u t u r e t e n s e " e t j e v o u s p l e g e r a y t o u t a r e s r n e t y s " . (G. p. 9) E n d i n g t h e p r o l o g u e i n t h i s manner i s a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e t h e f u t u r e s e r v e s a s an i n v i t a t i o n a n d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e b o o k . 56 R a b e l a i s manipulates n a r r a t i v e time very s k i l l f u l l y . T r a n s i t i o n s from p r e s e n t to p a s t to f u t u r e are performed very s u b t l y and t h e r e f o r e the reader must be a l e r t and a t t e n t i v e to the e f f e c t R a b e l a i s always s t r i v e s to a c h i e v e . The prologue, not being a p a r t o f the n a r r a t i v e i n the book but r a t h e r a separate s t o r y about the s t o r y and i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i s on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l from that of the l i f e and e x p l o i t s of Gargantua. I t i s on what Genette d e f i n e s as the e x t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l , t h a t i s to say, the d i s t a n c e between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e , which produces the n a r r a t i v e and t e l l s the s t o r y , and the prologue i s then by d e f i n i t i o n an e x t r a d i e -- g e t i c a c t . The events recounted i n i t are c a l l e d d i e g e t i c : they are w i t h i n i t s own framework. The prologue d e a l s with the manner of the p r o d u c t i o n of the book and the book t e l l s the s t o r y . The prologue does not mention, even once, Gargantua and h i s adventurous l i f e but r a t h e r vaguely t a l k s about "mes e s c r i p t z " (G. p. 5) i n the f i r s t sentence. Then i n the second paragraph the book i s r e f e r r e d to as "ce prelude et coup d 1 e s s a y . . . l i s a n s l e s j o y e u l x t i l t r e s d'aulcuns l i v r e s de n o s t r e i n -v e n t i o n . .. C 1 e s t pourquoy f a u l t o u v r i r l e l i v r e e t soigneuse--ment peser ce que y e s t d e d u i c t " . (G. pp. 6, 7) The next r e f e r e n c e i s to be found i n paragraph f i v e : "Ces beaulx l i v r e s de h a u l t e g r e s s e . . . " . (G. pp. 7, 8) F u r t h e r on the author mentions: "ces joyeuses et n o u v e l l e s chronicques... ce l i v r e s e i g n e u r i a l " . (G. pp. 8, 9) Paragraph e i g h t c o n t a i n s two r e f e r e n c e s : "mes f a i c t z et mes d i c t z . . . c e s b e l l e s b i l l e s vezees". (G. p. 9) In paragraph nine he says s i m p l y : " l i s e z 57 l e r e s t e " . (G. p. 9) These a l l u s i o n s to the s t o r y , from which the n a r r a t o r i s removed, are an e x t r a d i e g e t i c a c t . A c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e has been c r e a t e d between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the s t o r y . T h i s prologue, l i k e the f i r s t , i s simple with regards to n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s . Only one e x i s t s s i n c e t h e r e i s no s t o r y w i t h i n a s t o r y . The t h i r d phase of our a n a l y s i s c e n t e r s on "person". Genette maintains t h a t the terms " f i r s t person" or " t h i r d person n a r r a t i v e " a re inadequate. He p r e f e r s to use "homo-- d i e g e t i c " n a r r a t i v e i n order to designate the f i r s t person n a r r a t i v e and " h e t e r o d i e g e t i c " n a r r a t i v e to desi g n a t e the t h i r d person n a r r a t i v e . I t i s a l s o important to d i s t i n g u i s h between the use of the " j e " by a n a r r a t o r who i s j u s t t e l l i n g the s t o r y as a witness and a n a r r a t o r who i s a c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . In the prologue to Pantagruel,• "the reader i s being convinced t h a t the book i s one of t r u t h recounted by an eye-witness: C'est des h o r r i b l e s f a i c t z et prouesses de Pantagruel l e q u e l j'ay servy a gaiges des ce que j e fuz hors de page jusques a present, que par son congie j e m'en s u i s venu v i s i t e r mon p a i s de vache, e t s g a v o i r s i en v i e e s t o y t parent mien aulcun". (P. pp. 218, 219) No such pretense i s made i n the prologue to Gargantua. The reader i s l e f t to assume that t h i s book i s a l l e g o r i c a l or p u r e l y i m a g i n a t i v e . We.do not know t h i s time i f the n a r r a t o r w i l l be a c h a r a c t e r i n the book. His presence or absence i n the s t o r y i s not made c l e a r . The n a r r a t o r i s , however, present i n the prologue and t h i s i s a good example of a homodiegetic n a r r a t i v e . T h i s technique f o s t e r s a f e e l i n g of c l o s e n e s s between author and reader s i n c e the former i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f 58 with the t e x t . Evidence of t h i s can be found i n the many-r e f e r e n c e s the n a r r a t o r makes to hi m s e l f through the use o f " j e " as w e l l as p o s s e s s i v e pronouns and a d j e c t i v e s . In a l l there are f o u r t e e n r e f e r e n c e s to the n a r r a t o r . I t a l s o must be r e c a l l e d t h a t a l l r e f e r e n c e s to the second person p l u r a l evoke the f i r s t person. J u s t as i n the f i r s t prologue the r o l e o f n a r r a t o r i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c , t h a t i s , he i s o u t s i d e the events, but r e l a t e s them i n the f i r s t person. F o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y Genette's l i n e o f a n a l y s i s of "the person", we must study the r o l e of the n a r r a t o r and h i s f u n c t i o n s . Other than the " n a r r a t i n g f u n c t i o n " , where he t e l l s the s t o r y , he f u l f i l l s o ther f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t l y , there i s the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " , which i s o p e r a t i v e when the n a r r a t o r makes r e f e r e n c e s to the t e x t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e . In a l l there are at l e a s t a dozen r e f e r e n c e s to the t e x t . These are d i v i d e d i n t o two oppos-i n g s i d e s : one t h a t t e l l s us to read the book s e r i o u s l y : c a r en i c e l l e ,bien a u l t r e goust trouverez e t d o c t r i n e p l u s absconce, l a q u e l l e vous r e v e l e r a de t r e s h a u l t z sacremens et mysteres h o r r i f i c q u e s , t a n t en ce que concerne n o s t r e r e l i g i o n que a u s s i l ' e s t a t p o l i t i c q e t v i e oeconomicque. (G. p. 8) the o t h e r encourages us to enjoy the book a t face v a l u e : Or esbaudissez vous, mes amours, e t guayement l i s e z l e r e s t e , t o u t a l ' a i s e du corps et au p r o f i t des r e i n s ! Mais escoutez, v i e t z d'azes, - que l e maulubec vous trousque'. - vous soubvienne de boyre a my pour l a p a r e i l l e , et je vous plegeray t o u t ares metys. (G. p. 9) The reader i s l e f t to a n t i c i p a t e what w i l l be s a i d i n the book t h a t i s to f o l l o w . In s p i t e of the str o n g " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " the reader cannot be sure o f R a b e l a i s ' i n t e n t i o n s . The f i r s t o f the three f u n c t i o n s t h a t a f f e c t the n a r r a t i n g 59 s i t u a t i o n i s the " f u n c t i o n of communication" the purpose of which i s to keep the c o n t a c t between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e open without n e c e s s a r i l y having to t r a n s m i t any r e a l message. R a b e l a i s e s t a b l i s h e s a l i n e of communication between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e from the very f i r s t sentence by u s i n g the v o c a t i v e t w i c e : "Beuveurs t r e s i l l u s t r e s , e t vous, V e r o l e z t r e s p r e c i e u x , - c a r a vous, non a a u l t r e s , sont dediez mes e s c r i p t z " . (G. p. 5) The n a r r a t o r makes i t c l e a r t h a t he i s speaking to h i s audience and he immediately makes t h a t c o n t a c t and then goes on to strengthen i t through the use of the i n t e r r o g a t i v e : A quel propos, en v o u s t r e a d v i s , tend ce prelude et coup d 1 e s s a y ? (G. p. 6) Mais v e i s t e s vous oncques c h i e n r e n c o n t r a n t quelque os medulare? (G. p. 7) C r o i e z vous en v o s t r e foy qu 1oncques Homere, e s c r i v e n t 1 ' I l i a d e et Odyssee, pensast es a l l e g o r i e s . . . ? (G. p. 8) Because of the use of i n t e r r o g a t i v e sentences, the t e x t reads l i k e a d i a l o g u e , the b e s t form to d e p i c t communication. A k i n d of unspoken c o n t r a c t i s e s t a b l i s h e d between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e w i t h regards to how the book should be read: Pour t a n t , i n t e r p r e t e z tous mes f a i c t z et mes d i c t z en l a p e r f e c t i s s i m e p a r t i e ; ayez en reverence l e cerveau caseiforme q u i vous p a i s t de ces b e l l e s b i l l e s vezees, e t , a v o s t r e p o v o i r , tenez moy t o u s j o u r s joyeux. (G. p. 9) The author i s a s k i n g t h a t h i s t e x t be read i n what i s a con-- t r a d i c t o r y manner: s e r i o u s l y and l i g h t h e a r t e d l y . The q u e s t i o n remains whether or not to choose between the two or accept them at the same time. "Ayez en reverence" would sedm to i n -d i c a t e s e r i o u s n e s s , but when i t i s juxtaposed to the comic image "cerveau caseiforme", the request can h a r d l y be .taken i n e a r n e s t . I t i s d i f f i c u l t .to r e s p e c t a c h e e s e l i k e b r a i n . 60 The e x t e r i o r versus i n t e r i o r image i s a l s o e v i d e n t here be-c a u s e the appearance of a cheese can o f t e n be very d e c e i v i n g as to i t s r e a l t a s t e . The many v o c a t i v e s , i n t e r r o g a t i v e s , and imperatives i n t h i s prologue show t h a t R a b e l a i s was genuinely concerned about e s t a b l i s h i n g a channel of communication between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e . The nature o f the prologue, whose purpose i s to e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t l i n k between author and reader, i s proof enough t h a t communication i s a major g o a l . I t i s not R a b e l a i s ' aim, however, to make communication simple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . As always, R a b e l a i s wants h i s readers to par-t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the work and come to t h e i r own c o n c l u s i o n s once he has presented them with both s i d e s of the c o i n i n any argument. The " t e s t i m o n i a l f u nction".which i s the second of the three f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n r e v e a l s to us the nature of the speaker's a t t i t u d e towards h i s s u b j e c t matter. In the f i r s t prologue the nature o f the speaker's a t t i t u d e towards h i s s u b j e c t matter was q u i t e c l e a r , but such i s not the case i n the second prologue. In the prologue to Pantagruel the speaker's r o l e was to convince the l i s t e n e r / reader t h a t the s t o r y being t o l d was the t r u t h given to them by an eye-witness. Here,,paragraphs one to f i v e are a c o n v i n c i n g argument f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the t e x t i n such a way as to f i n d s e r i o u s n e s s where th e r e i s o n l y apparent comedy: Par autant que vous, mes bons d i s c i p l e s , ( . . . . ) jugez t r o p f a c i l l e m e n t ne e s t r e au dedans t r a i c t e que mocqueries, f o l a t e r i e s et menteries joyeuses, veu 61 que l ' e n s i g n e e x t e r i o r e ( c ' e s t l e t i l t r e ) sans p l u s avant e n q u e r i r e s t communement receu a d e r i s i o n et g a u d i s s e r i e . (G. p. 6) R a b e l a i s i s even more e x p l i c i t i n paragraph f i v e : Car en i c e l l e b i e n a u l t r e goust trouverez et d o c t r i n e p l u s absconce, l a q u e l l e vous r e v e l e r a de t r e s h a u l t z sacremens e t mysteres h o r r i f i c q u e s , t a n t en ce que r' concerne n o s t r e r e l i g i o n que a u s s i l ' e s t a t p o l i t i c q et v i e oeconomicque. (G. p. 8) These seem c l e a r and i r r e f u t a b l e arguments f o r not being s a t i s f i e d w i t h merely a l i t e r a l r e a d i n g of the t e x t . However, no sooner has he s a i d t h i s than R a b e l a i s takes the o p p o s i t e stance. He t e l l s us t h a t we are wrong to assume th a t a w r i t e r l i k e Homer had anything a l l e g o r i c a l i n mind when he wrote h i s works. He goes on to say that when he h i m s e l f wrote h i s book: j e ne p e r d i z ne emploiay oncques p l u s , ny a u l t r e temps que c e l l u y q u i e s t o i t e s t a b l y a prendre ma r e f e c t i o n c o r p o r e l l e , s c a v o i r e s t beuvant et mangeant. (G> p. 9) He concludes h i s argument f o r a c c e p t i n g what i s w r i t t e n a t face v a l u e by s a y i n g : Or esbaudissez vous, mes amours, et guayement l i s e z l e r e s t e , t o u t a l ' a i s e du corps e t au p r o f i t des reins'. (G. p. 9) T h i s i s not the same l i n e of defence as i n paragraphs•one to f i v e , but i t i s not an easy c h o i c e . We are l e f t d i s q u i e t e d , u n c e r t a i n , and i n doubt as to how the book should be read. The t h i r d f u n c t i o n concerning the n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n i s the " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " . I t i s s i m i l a r to the t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n where the n a r r a t o r comments on the s t o r y , l e t t i n g us thus p e r c e i v e how he f e e l s about c e r t a i n i s s u e s . I t i s very 62; d i f f i c u l t to separate t h i s f u n c t i o n from the p r eceding t e s -t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n . Any commentary R a b e l a i s makes t h a t would r e v e a l h i s i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view i s i n s e r t e d d i s c r e e t l y . His comments l i k e : 1'habit ne f a i c t p o i n c t l e moyne. (G. p. 6) a p l u s h a u l t sens i n t e r p r e t e r ce que par adventure c u i d i e z d i e t en gayete de cueur. (G. p. 7) c ' e s t a d i r e ce que j'entends par ces symboles Pythagoricques. (G. pp. 7, 8) r e v e a l a c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e , one t h a t p o i n t s to l o o k i n g f o r a deeper meaning i n l i t e r a t u r e . However, i n the second h a l f of the prologue the opposing view i s presented and i t too can be a r e f l e c t i o n of the " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " . R a b e l a i s ' comment about "un F r e r e Lubin" r e f e r r i n g to a c e r t a i n monk who claimed to have d i s c o v e r e d images of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n i n Ovid, p l u s the debate concerning wine and o i l , show a d i f f e r e n t type of i d e o l o g y . The whole prologue c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a commentary on approaches to r e a d i n g a l i t e r a r y work. Of the f i v e f u n c t i o n s mentioned above, the predominant ones are the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " and the " f u n c t i o n of communication". These two f u n c t i o n s were a l s o predominant i n the f i r s t prologue ,7 as we showed i n our a n a l y s i s . The " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " focuses on the t e x t w h ile the " f u n c t i o n of communication" ensures t h a t an atmosphere of d i a l o g u e p r e v a i l s throughout the prologue. The l a s t phase of our a n a l y s i s , f o l l o w i n g Genette's p r i n c i p l e s , c o n c e n t r a t e s on the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . Here again, as i n the p r e v i o u s prologue, we have seen t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c and t h e r e f o r e the n a r r a t e e must a l s o be e x t r a d i e g e t i c . I t i s very easy to confuse t h i s type 63 of n a r r a t e e with the i m p l i e d reader with whom each r e a l reader can i n t u r n i d e n t i f y . Because of the absence of an i n t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t e e , the presence o f an in t e r m e d i a r y between us and the n a r r a t o r seems di m i n i s h e d and t h e r e f o r e the gap between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e i s le s s e n e d . The s t o r y i s not being t o l d to any p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l as i n a "roman e p i s t o l a i r e " f o r example, but i n gen e r a l t o "Beuveurs t r e s i l l u s t r e s , et vous, V e r o l e z t r e s p r e c i e u x " (G. p. 5), and "mes bons d i s c i p l e s , et quelques a u l t r e s f o u l z de s e j p u r " . (G. p. 6) In oth e r words i t i s f o r those who read what he w r i t e s t h a t R a b e l a i s strenghthens the pact between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e by h i s e x t e n s i v e use of the v o c a t i v e . In each paragraph the v o c a t i v e i s used a t l e a s t twice ( u s u a l l y a t the beginning) except f o r paragraph e i g h t where i t occ u r s f o u r times i n the l a s t sentence. The l a s t and s h o r t e s t paragraph c o n t a i n s s i x v o c a t i v e s and so the n a r r a t o r / n a r r a t e e r e l a t i o n s h i p gets s t r o n g e r and s t r o n g e r t o -w a r d the end of the prologue. R a b e l a i s wishes to assure the support o f h i s readers b e f o r e he begins h i s t a l e . The tone R a b e l a i s adopts toward the n a r r a t e e \ i;s' much c l e a r e r i n the prologue t o Pantagruel than i t i s i n the prologue t o Gargantua. In the former .there i s a c l e a r down-w a r d movement from e l e v a t e d to p e j o r a t i v e terms. In the prologue to the l a t t e r , however, t h i s sharp s h i f t i n tone i s not m a n i f e s t . From the beginning there i s a c e r t a i n ambiguity surrounding the n a r r a t e e , due to the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of "beuveurs" to V i l l u s t r e s " , and " v e r o l e z " to "precieux". The ambiguity continues i n the second paragraph where "mes bons d i s c i p l e s , 6 4 et quelques a u l t r e s f o u l z de s e j o u r " are placed s i d e by s i d e . These are the o n l y two d e s c r i p t i o n s we have of the n a r r a t e e . The n a r r a t e e has a much more r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n the prologue to Gargantua. He i s not being asked simply to accept something but to i n t e r p r e t i t : Pour t a n t , i n t e r p r e t e z tous mes f a i c t z et mes d i c t z en l a p e r f e c t i s s i m e p a r t i e ; ayez en reverence l e cerveau caseiforme q u i vous p a i s t de ces b e l l e s b i l l e s vezees, e t , a v o s t r e p o v o i r , tenez moy t o u s j o u r s joyeux. (G. p. 9) The prologue to Gargantua ends on a vaguely s i m i l a r note to t h a t o f the prologue to Pantagruel, t h a t i s , w i t h a c u r s e . However, R a b e l a i s r e s t r i c t s h i m s e l f to u t t e r i n g one curse i n t h i s compared to seven i n the p r e v i o u s prologue. The curse coupled w i t h "mes amours" and " v i e t z d'azes" does not have such a powerful e f f e c t of i n t i m i d a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r c a j o l e s the n a r r a t e e . We have the d i s t i n c t impression t h a t R a b e l a i s has mellowed because h i s i n s u l t s , as w e l l as h i s p r a i s e and flattering of the reader, are g r e a t l y subdued showing more s o p h i s t i c a t i o n on h i s p a r t . One must a l s o keep i n mind that the s u b j e c t matter of t h i s prologue i s more s e r i o u s because of the nature of the argument presented by R a b e l a i s . The r o l e of the n a r r a t e e remains an important but ambiguous one. The n a r r a t e e i n the prologue has c h o i c e s ; f i r s t l y , to accept the argument of always l o o k i n g f o r a hidden meaning; secondly, to b e l i e v e the argument t h a t t e l l s us to take t h i n g s at face value/' o r , t h i r d l y , to adopt the p o s i t i o n of doubt and q u e s t i o n -i n g . R a b e l a i s wants to make c e r t a i n t h a t h i s work i s p e r c e i v e d i n an open-minded manner. 6 5 T h i s concludes the a n a l y s i s of the " n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e " i n the prologue to Gargantua. As the prologue to Pantagruel, the presen t one was w r i t t e n i n the present tense f o r an audience whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n R a b e l a i s s o l i c i t s . References are a l s o made to the past and f u t u r e i n both prologues. In the prologue to P a n t a g r u e l , however, R a b e l a i s r e f e r s to the immediate past, whereas i n the prologue t o Gargantua he turns to r e f e r e n c e s of a n t i q u i t y i n order t o j u s t i f y h i s arguments, g i v i n g h i s argument i n the a i r of s e r i o u s n e s s . Both prologues are w r i t t e n on o n l y the e x t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l o f n a r r a t i o n and both have an e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r . We can thus conclude t h a t the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " and the " f u n c t i o n of communication" are the two predominant f u n c t i o n s o f the n a r r a t o r i n both prologues. There i s a noted change i n the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e from the f i r s t to the second prologue. In the prologue to Pantagruel the n a r r a t e e was s u b j e c t to e x c e s s i v e f l a t t e r y o r e x c e s s i v e abuse. In the prologue t o Gargantua the n a r r a t e e i s t r e a t e d more o b j e c t i v e l y and gi v e n a more r e s p o n s i b l e and a c t i v e r o l e , he i s asked to i n t e r p r e t what he reads, r e v e a l i n g an e v o l u t i o n i n the author's a t t i t u d e towards h i s readers and h i s a u t h o r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 66 NOTES CHAPTER TWO F r a n c o i s R a b e l a i s , Gargantua, Oeuvres Completes/ Tome I ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a r n i e r F r e r e s , 1962)', p. 5. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s t e x t w i l l be desig n a t e d as G. fo l l o w e d by the page number. 2 Fr a n g o i s R a b e l a i s , Le Quart L i v r e , Oeuvres Completes, Tome II ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a r n i e r F r e r e s , 1962), pp. 11, 12. 3 Andre Gendre. "Le prologue de Pantagruel, l e prologue de Gargantua: examen comparatif". Revue d ' H i s t o i r e l i t t e r a i r e  de l a France, No. 1 (1974), pp. 3-19. 4 Li n e s 14, 26, 44, and 58 gi v e the reader the impression of a w e l l thought out argument and of more s e l f - a s s u r a n c e on the author's p a r t . 5 Gendre, p. 11. Gerard Genette, N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method, Trans. Jane E. Lewin (Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1980), p. 213. 7 Cf. pp. 34, 35 above. 67 CHAPTER THREE  PROLOGUE TO LE TIERS LIVRE Le T i e r s L i v r e des f a i c t s e t d i e t s heroiques du bon Pantagruel was p u b l i s h e d i n 154 6, twelve years a f t e r R a b e l a i s ' second book, Gargantua. U n l i k e the f i r s t two books, t h i s one appeared under h i s own name. For a time h i s p r e v i o u s two books were banned by the Sorbonne but he r e c e i v e d a " P r i v i l e g e " from the k i n g to p u b l i s h Le T i e r s L i v r e a n d • r e p u b l i s h the p r e v i o u s two, i n d i c a t i n g that he was favoured and p r o t e c t e d by r o y a l t y . Le T i e r s L i v r e d i f f e r s markedly from Pantagruel and Gargantua. The theme of the g i a n t s , t h e i r c h i l d h o o d , education, and e x p l o i t s i s abandoned i n favour of a theme on a more human s c a l e . I t d e a l s with the problem of d e c i s i o n -making, i n Panurge 1s case, t h a t of marriage. The present prologue i s much longer than the f i r s t two and i t i s much more complex. Where the f i r s t two prologues contained long d i g r e s s i o n s seemingly i r r e l e v a n t to the book i t s e l f , the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e i s comprised of two complete s t o r i e s , the f i r s t c oncerning the p h i l o s o p h e r Diogenes and the second Ptolomy. The two s t o r i e s , as we s h a l l see, serve to i l l u s t r a t e two of R a b e l a i s ' main ideas i n the prologue. In the prologue to Pantagruel the author presents h i s book as a magical medicine, and i n the prologue.to Gargantua he shows h i s concern f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s book, p r e s e n t i n g a s e r i o u s and non-serious reading of the t e x t . The prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e shows the author's concerns 6 8 about the qu e s t i o n s of a c t i v i t y versus i d l e n e s s and the accept-a n c e of new i d e a s . The prologue a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s the author's doubts about h i m s e l f as a w r i t e r and about h i s l i t e r a r y c r e a -t i o n . At the beginning of the prologue, R a b e l a i s addresses h i s p u b l i c j u s t as he d i d i n the previous two, i n t r o d u c i n g the s u b j e c t , i n t h i s case "Diogenes, l e philosophe c y n i c " . A c c o r d i n g to the Rabelaisian s c h o l a r Screech,"'' R a b e l a i s probably borrowed the s t o r y of Diogenes e i t h e r from L u c i e n o r Bude, f a m i l i a r as he was with the works of both authors. The s t o r y of Diogenes i t s e l f i s d e f i n e d as a "narre", a ;"short dramatic a c t i o n " i n Margaret Spanos' a r t i c l e "Functions of the 2 Prologues i n the Works of R a b e l a i s " . T h i s s h o r t dramatic a c t i o n r e v e a l s R a b e l a i s ' concern r e g a r d i n g i d l e n e s s . I t begins with the announcement of P h i l i p of Macedonia's plans of a t t a c k a g a i n s t C o r i n t h and a d e s c r i p t i o n of how the c i t i z e n s of t h i s c i t y prepared to defend themselves a g a i n s t the i n v a d i n g f o r c e s : tous f e u r e n t non a t o r t espoventez, et ne f e u r e n t n e g l i g e n s soy soigneusement mettre chascun en o f f i c e et d e b v o i r pour^a son h o s t i l e venue r e s i s t e r e t l e u r v i l l e defendre. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the defence and the enumeration of the armaments of C o r i n t h i s , a c c o r d i n g to Bakhtin, the l a r g e s t l i s t i n g of i t s k i n d i n world l i t e r a t u r e . R a b e l a i s , f o r i n -4 -stance, uses t h i r t e e n terms f o r swords and e i g h t f o r l a n c e s . T h i s accumulation of weaponry lends an e p i c q u a l i t y £o the prologue' and a t the same time t i e s i t i n with the marketplace 69 form of the two previous prologues where the vendor t r i e s to pass o f f h i s product by way of extreme exaggerations. As Bakhtin p o i n t s out, "the accumulation of weaponry i s a l l p a r t of the "loud s t r e e t .ordinance"^ so common i n Rabelais' time. The preparations f o r war. are a serious matter and the long l i s t i n g of weaponry, by i t s p i l i n g up e f f e c t , serves to convey a tone of urgency to the act i o n s of the C o r i n t h i a n s . In ending the long d e s c r i p t i o n , Rabelais cannot r e s i s t the temptation to i n s e r t a t r a d i t i o n a l joke regarding the women of C o r i n t h . He s t a t e s : Femme n ' e s t o i t , t a n t preude ou v i e i l l e f e u s t , qui ne f e i s t f o u r b i r son harnoys: comme vous sgavez que l e s antiques Corinthiennes e s t o i e n t au combat couraigeuses. (T.L. p. 396) The C o r i n t h i a n women were known f o r t h e i r courage i n amatory combat and so Rabelais t r a n s f e r s t h i s to mean their courage i n f i e l d combat as w e l l . When the reader f i n a l l y encounters Diogenes, he i s presented i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t with the other c i t i z e n s of C o r i n t h . He i s not employed i n any of the preparations f o r war. A f t e r observing h i s compatriots f o r a few days, he decides to abandon h i s i d l e n e s s and undertakes some personal e f f o r t . This switch i s made r a t h e r suddenly and then f e v e r i s h l y he begins to push h i s b a r r e l . The reader of course a n t i c i p a t e s that Diogenes i s undertaking an a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to the preparation f o r war, fo r Rabelais d e s c r i b e s him: "comme e x c i t e d ' e s p r i t M a r t i a l " . (T.L. p. 396) However, the " e s p r i t M a r t i a l " does not i n s t i l l a f e e l i n g f o r war i n Diogenes. Once on top of the h i l l Diogenes "y r o u l l a l e tonneau f i c t i l " . (T.L. p. 396) Rabelais 70 compares these a c t i o n s to those of Sisyphus t h a t suggest the long, seemingly never-ending, t o i l of Diogenes. T h i s comparison a l s o g i v e s the s t o r y somewhat of a m y t h i c a l dimension. When asked what motivates him to r o l l h i s b a r r e l so, Diogenes r e p l i e s t h a t : a a u l t r e o f f i c e n ' e stant pour l a r e p u b l i c q u e employe i l en c e s t e facon son tonneau tempestoit pour, e n t r e ce peuple t a n t f e r v e n t e t occupe, n ' e s t r e veu s e u l c e s s a t e u r e t ocieux. (T.L. p. 397) Diogenes' ai m l e s s a c t i v i t y i s as f e v e r i s h as the a c t i v i t y of the other c i t i z e n s p r e p a r i n g f o r war. I t i s i n f a c t a parody of the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war. But even though Diogenes does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s he f e e l s s t r o n g l y t h a t he should not be i d l e . T h i s i s perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t R a b e l a i s does not i n t e n d to negate completely what the C o r i n t h -- i a n s are doing. B a k h t i n s t a t e s : But here a g a i n there i s no bare negation of h i s p a t r i o t i c work; the accent i s p l a c e d on the f a c t t h a t Diogenes' f l i p p a n t parody i s a l s o u s e f u l , t h a t he a l s o serves i n h i s way the defense of C o r i n t h . No one should be i d l e , but l a u g h t e r i s not an i d l e o c c u p a t i o n . The r i g h t t o l a u g h t e r and gay parody i s here opposed not t o the h e r o i c c i t i z e n s of C o r i n t h but to the c a l u m i n i a t o r s , to the enemies of f r e e humour. Once the episode of Diogenes i s completed, the reader's a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on the world of the author and the p r e --occupation of h i s e r a , which happen to be e x a c t l y the same as t h a t of C o r i n t h where everyone i s seen: soy instantement exercer e t t r a v a i l l e r , p a r t a. l a f o r t i f i c a t i o n de sa p a t r i e , e t l a defendre, p a r t au repoulsement des ennemis, e t l e s o f f e n d r e . (T.L. p. 397) Since he was not chosen to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the o f f e n s i v e seg-71 -ment of h i s country's army the author f i n d s himself i n a s t a t e of i n a c t i v i t y s i m i l a r to t h a t of Diogenes. However, t h i s i d l e n e s s does not s u i t Rabelais any more than i t s u i t e d Diogenes, he st a t e s t h a t : ay impute a honte plus que mediocre e s t r e veu spectateur ocieux de t a n t v a i l l a n s , d i s e r s et chevalereux per--•sonnaiges, q u i en veue et spectacle de toute Europe jouent ceste i n s i g n e f a b l e et tragicque comedie, ne me esvertuer de moy mesmes et non y consommer ce r i e n , mon tou t , q u i me r e s t o i t . Car peu de g l o i r e me semble a c c r o i s t r e a ceulx qui seulement y emploictent l e u r s o e i l z , au demeurant y espargnent l e u r s f o r c e s , c e l e n t l e u r s escuz, cachent l e u r argent.. .(T.L. p. 3 9 8 ) I n a c t i v i t y during war time i s t o t a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e and one should do what one can. Rabelais conveys t h i s idea by the example of Diogenes who decides to r o l l a b a r r e l back and f o r t h . L i k e Diogenes, he does not take an a c t i v e p a r t i n the m i l i t a r y e f f o r t s but ins t e a d decides to r o l l h i s own b a r r e l : P r i n s ce choys et e l e c t i o n , ay pense ne f a i r e e x e r c i c e i n u t i l e et importun, s i je remuois mon tonneau Diogenic q u i seul m'est r e s t e du naufrage f a i c t par l e passe on f a r de Mai'encontre. (T.L. p. 3 9 8 ) The above quotation i s the beginning of an a s s o c i a t i o n between the Diogenic b a r r e l and the author's work t h a t w i l l become a l l the more e x p l i c i t throughout the prologue. In the f o l l o w i n g quotation we see the importance the b a r r e l holds f o r Rabel a i s : Attendez un peu que j e hume quelque t r a i c t de ceste b o u t e i l l e : c'est mon vray et se u l H e l i c o n , c'est ma fonta i n e c a b a l l i n e , c'est mon unicque enthusiasme. Icy beuvant j e d e l i b e r e , je d i s c o u r s , j e resou l z et concluds. Apres l ' e p i l o g u e j e r i x , j ' e s c r i p z , je compose, j e boy. (T.L. pp. 3 9 8 , 3 9 9 ) The wine contained i n the b a r r e l gives him the necessary i n s p i r a t i o n and strength he needs to w r i t e h i s book. As i n 72 the prologue to Gargantua, R a b e l a i s g i v e s examples of a n c i e n t w r i t e r s (Ennius, AEschylus, Homer, and Caton) a l l of whom drank while they wrote and wrote while they drank. R a b e l a i s h i m s e l f i s merely f o l l o w i n g t h e i r example. The reader should not f e e l excluded from t h i s . 1 He i s i n v i t e d to take a d r i n k provided he p r a i s e s God f o r i t : S i de mesmes vous a u t r e s beuvez uh grand ou deux p e t i t z coups en robbe, j e n'y trouve i n c o n v e n i e n t aulcun, pourveu que du to u t louez Dieu un t a n t i n e t . (T.L. p. 399) In speaking about h i m s e l f i t a l s o becomes e v i d e n t that the author b e l i e v e s i n p r e d e s t i n a t i o n , but not i n the C a l v i n -- i s t i c sense: Puys doncques que t e l l e e s t ou ma s o r t ou ma d e s t i n e e (car a chascun n'est o u l t r o y e e n t r e r e t h a b i t e r Corinthe) ma d e l i b e r a t i o n e s t s e r v i r et es uns et es a u t r e s : t a n t s'en f a u l t que j e r e s t e c e s s a t e u r e t i n u t i l e . (T.L. p. 399) Ra b e l a i s b e l i e v e s t h a t each person w i l l f u l f i l l h i s unique and i n e v i t a b l e d e s t i n y , no matter how unpleasant the road. R a b e l a i s ' d e s t i n y was o b v i o u s l y not to make war but to w r i t e books: Envers l e s guerroyans j e voys de nouveau p e r c e r mon tonneau. Et de l a t r a i c t e , ( l a q u e l l e par deux praecedens volumes ( s i par 1'imposture des imprimeurs n'eussent este p e r v e r t i z e t b r o u i l l e z ) vous f e u s t assez congneue) l e u r t i r e r du creu de nos passetemps e p i c e n a i r e s un g a u l l a n t t i e r c i n e t consecutivement un jo y e u l x q u a r t de sentences P a n t a g r u e l i c q u e s ; par- moy l i c i t e vous sera l e s appeler Diogenicques. (T.L. pp. 399, 400) Diogenes' b a r r e l and R a b e l a i s ' l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n have been equated i m p l i c i t l y throughout the prologue but i n the above quote the i d e a becomes e x p l i c i t when the author r e f e r s to h i s two pre v i o u s books, Pantagruel and Gargantua, p u b l i s h e d under a pseudonym. Now w r i t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g under h i s own 73 name, R a b e l a i s a c c e p t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the p r e v i o u s books as w e l l , and p r o m i s e s an imminent f o u r t h book. Even though, l i k e Diogenes, R a b e l a i s does not t a k e p a r t i n t h e war as a s o l d i e r , he i s c o n s c i o u s o f i t s importance and e x p r e s s e s h i s c o n c e r n by p l u n g i n g i n t o h i s work r a t h e r than i d l y s t a n d i n g by. The second major c o n c e r n R a b e l a i s d e a l s w i t h i n the p r o l o g u e i s the q u e s t i o n o f the a c c e p t a n c e of n o v e l i d e a s . He d e a l s w i t h t h i s q u e s t i o n by means o f a n o t h e r " n a r r e " . I t c o n s i s t s o f a s h o r t d r a m a t i c a c t i o n almost u n r e l a t e d t o the d i a l o g u e between a u t h o r and r e a d e r . The a u t h o r r e c o u n t s a s t o r y , he s u p p o s e d l y once r e a d , about Ptolemy who t r i e d to i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f w i t h the E g y p t i a n s by o f f e r i n g them two r a r e g i f t s . The f i r s t g i f t was a B a c t r i a n camel, a l l b l a c k , and the second was a s l a v e whose body was h a l f b l a c k and h a l f w h i t e . Ptolemy hoped t h a t t h e s e g i f t s would augment the people's l o v e f o r him b u t they produced the r e v e r s e e f f e c t : he was p u t to d e a t h . . ' I n s t e a d o f b e i n g ^rewarded for. h i s i n g e n u i t y , he i s p u n i s h e d . R a b e l a i s r e c o u n t s t h i s t a l e t o show t h e danger one f a c e s i n p r e s e n t i n g new i d e a s . I t was not always b e n e f i c i a l t o be i n n o v a t i v e and i t . w a s c e r t a i n l y always s a f e r t o remain w i t h i n the s t a t u s quo. The s t o r y o f t h e camel and t h e s l a v e i s c e r t a i n l y a l l e g o r -i c a l as was the s t o r y o f Diogenes f o r R a b e l a i s s c a r c e l y ever w r i t e s o n l y on one l e v e l . The a u t h o r ' s books can be equated w i t h Ptolemy's g i f t s . T h e i r unique c h a r a c t e r endangered t h e i r g i v e r . J u s t as the E g y p t i a n s p u t Ptolemy to d e a t h f o r b e i n g a n o n - c o n f o r m i s t , so t h e .Sorbonne e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o u l d have 74 t r i e d Rabelais f o r heresy. However, Rabelais i s more concerned about the reading p u b l i c which might not accept the novelty of h i s book. This f e a r of not being accepted by the p u b l i c i s c r y s t a l -- l i z e d when Rabelais c l e a r l y s t a t e s : Cestuy exemple me f a i c t entre e s p o i r et c r a i n c t e v a r i e r , doubtant que pour contentement propense j e rencontre ce que j e abhorre, mon thesaur s o i t charbons, pour Venus advieigne Barbet l e chien, en l i e u de l e s s e r v i r je l e s fasche, en l i e u de l e s esbaudir, je l e s offense, en l i e u de l e u r s complaire, je d e s p l a i s e et s o i t mon adventure t e l l e que du coq de E u c l i o n . (T.L. p. 401) He f e a r s t h a t he w i l l meet the same f a t e as E u c l i o n 1 s r o o s t e r : " l e q u e l , pour en g r a t t a n t a v o i r descouvert l e thesaur, eut l a couppe guorgee". (T.L. p. 4 01) He asks "Would i t not be d i s t r e s s i n g i f that were to happen to me?". According to him i t i s not an i m p o s s i b i l i t y : "Autresfoys est i l advenu: advenir encores p o u r r o i t " . (T.L. p. 401) Suddenly, Rabelais' f e a r s disappear and a new confidence i n the p u b l i c emerges. He b e l i e v e s t h a t they w i l l accept the new l i t e r a r y form he has to o f f e r because they are a l s o f i l l e d w i t h the Pantagruelian -s p i r i t and would not condemn h i s work f o r they are aware of the author's good i n t e n t i o n s . Having expressed h i s ideas on i n a c t i v i t y during a time of war and the u n c e r t a i n t y of presenting the p u b l i c w i t h new ideas, Rabelais once again turns our a t t e n t i o n to h i s b a r r e l , i n v i t i n g us to d r i n k : "Enfans, beuvez a p l e i n s guodetz". (T.L. p. 4 01) He c l a r i f i e s the i n v i t a t i o n saying t h a t he i s not?one to t w i s t a person's arm: he leaves the d e c i s i o n 75 up t o the i n d i v i d u a l . However, to .those who want to d r i n k he guarantees that the wine w i l l be good and p l e n t i f u l . He says t h i s w i t h great a u t h o r i t y : T e l e s t mon d e c r e t . Et. paour ne ayez que l e v i n f a i l l e , comme f e i s t es nopces de Cana en G a l i l e e . Autant que vous en t i r e r a y par l a d i l l e , autant en entonneray par l e bondon. A i n s i demeurera l e tonneau i n e x p u i s i b l e . I I a source v i v e et.: vene p e r p e t u e l l e . (T.L. p. 402) The author assures h i s readers that h i s b a r r e l w i l l be i n -- e x h a u s t i b l e . They need not f e a r t h a t there w i l l not be enough wine as at the wedding f e a s t a t Cana. As C h r i s t turned water i n t o wine, he w i l l make sure t h a t h i s casks remain a l i v i n g s p r i n g w i t h a p e r p e t u a l flow as w e l l . R a b e l a i s i s e q u a t e - i n g u h i s work wi t h a m y s t i c a l power saying t h a t i t i s l i f e g i v i n g . He g i v e s o t h e r i n e x h a u s t i b l e sources of joy i n order to v a l i d a t e h i s c l a i m and a t the same time to show h i s knowledge of a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e : Attendez un peu que j e hume quelque t r a i c t de c e s t e b o u t e i l l e : c ' e s t mon v r a y et s e u l H e l i c o n , c ' e s t ma f o n t a i n e i b a b a l l i n e , c ' e s t mon unicque enthusiasme. (T.L. p. 398) He equates the b a r r e l with Pandora's box: "Bon e s p o i r y g i s t au fond, comme en l a b o u t e i l l e de Pandora". (T.L. p. 402) When Pandora's box was opened, a l l the good and e v i l escaped from i t , l e a v i n g o n l y hope, and by comparison we can deduce t h a t R a b e l a i s ' book holds a l o t of hope. The a l l u s i o n s the author makes here f o r t i f y h i s argument by showing the a u t h o r i t y of time and of w r i t e r s of a l l eras. The penultimate paragraph continues on the same note of a u t h o r i t y . R a b e l a i s s t a t e s : "Notez b i e n ce que j'ay d i e t , et q u e l l e maniere de gens je i n v i t e " , (T.L. p. 402) and i n 76 r a t h e r u n f l a t t e r i n g terms he r e f e r s to those he excludes from h i s g a t h e r i n g . T h i s aspect w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l when we d e a l w i t h the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . How a w r i t e r expresses h i s ideas i s important i n any l i t e r a r y work but wit h R a b e l a i s , s t y l e i s an element that needs to be examined i n d e t a i l . The most impressive s t y l i s t i c f e a -t u r e of t h i s prologue i s the accumulation of expressions t h a t have e s s e n t i a l l y the same meaning. T h i s becomes e v i d e n t when R a b e l a i s d e s c r i b e s the a c t i v i t i e s o f the C o r i n t h i a n s p r e p a r i n g to defend themselves a g a i n s t the i n v a d i n g army of P h i l i p o f Macedonia. His d e s c r i p t i o n i s org a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to a w e l l -d e f i n e d p a t t e r n . The paragraphs begin with "Les uns...", "Les a u l t r e s . . . " , and "chascun...". This p a t t e r n i s repeated twice. The type of verb phrases and nouns R a b e l a i s l i k e s to compile can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : Les a u t r e s remparoient m u r a i l l e s , d r e s s o i e n t bas-- t i o n s , e s q u a r r o i e n t r e v e l i n s , c a v o i e n t f o s s e z , escu-- r o i e n t contremines, gabionnoient defenses, ordon-- n o i e n t p l a t e s formes, v u i d o i e n t chasmates, rembar-- r o i e n t f a u l s e s brayes, e r i g e o i e n t c a v a l l i e r s , r e s s a p o i e n t c o n t r e s c a r p e s , e n d u i s o i e n t c o u r t i n e s , p r o d u i s o i e n t moyneaux, t a l u o i e n t parapetes, e n c l a v o i e n t barba--canes, a s s e r o i e n t m a c h i c o u l i s , renouoient herses Sarrazinesques e t C a t a r a c t e s , a s s o y o i e n t s e n t i n e l l e s , f o r i s s o i e n t p a t r o u i l l e s . (T.L. p. 395) A l l these a c t i v i t i e s are a s s o c i a t e d with r e i n f o r c i n g t h e i r c i t y a g a i n s t the onslaught of the i n v a d i n g army. The l i s t of weaponry i s a l s o very i m p r e s s i v e . The author p r i d e s h i m s e l f on the r i c h v o cabulary he has a t h i s command d e s i g n a t i n g e s s e n t i a l l y the same o b j e c t s by many d i f f e r e n t words e i t h e r from the Middle Ages or the s i x t e e n t h century: 77 A f f i l o i e n t c i m e t e r r e s , brands d ' a c i e r , b a d e l a i r e s , p a f f u z , espees, verduns, e s t o c z , p i s t o l e t z , v i r o l e t z , dagues, mandousianes, poignars, cousteaulx, a l l u m e l l e s , r a i l l o n s . (T.L. p. 396) Apart from the sheer j oy of expending the v e r b a l energy of d i s c o u r s e , R a b e l a i s uses t h i s accumulation of weaponry not o n l y to overwhelm the reader with h i s own l i t e r a r y a b i l i t i e s but a l s o t o convey the v a s t dimensions of war. When d e s c r i b i n g Diogenes, pushing the b a r r e l up and down the h i l l , the author uses s i x t y - f o u r verbs, a l l ending i n " o i t " and most of them c o n t a i n i n g the "R" sound: " t o u r n o i t , v i r o i t , b r o u i l l o i t , b a r b o u i l l o i t > j h e r s o i t , v e r s o i t , r e n v e r s o i t , (T.L. p. 396) The r e p e t i t i o u s monotonous rhythm of the above quotation almost conveys the movement of the b a r r e l and the sounds of the contents of the b a r r e l swooshing from s i d e to s i d e w i t h the r o l l i n g motion. R a b e l a i s i s a l s o very s k i l l f u l a t m a n i p u l a t i n g words i n order t o s u r p r i s e h i s read e r s . He enjoys the p l a y f u l n e s s t h i s s k i l l a f f o r d s him. An example of t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n occurs a t the beginning of the prologue w i t h the sentence: "C'est b e l l e chose v e o i r l a c l a i r t e du ( v i n e t escuz) S o l e i l " . (T.L. p. 393) While the reader expects to see the word " s o l e i l " i n p r i n t , t h e r e i s a s h o r t d e l a y . The words i n parentheses j u s t happen to be two of R a b e l a i s f a v o u r i t e t o p i c s : wine and money... In the second paragraph of the prologue we have an example of how the author d e a l s with one of these f a v o u r i t e t o p i c s : Vous item n'estez jeunes, q u i e s t q u a l i t e competente pour en v i n , non en v a i n , a i n s i p l u s que physicalement -7 78 p h i l o s o p h e r et desormais e s t r e du c o n s e i l Bacchicque, pour en l o p i n a n t o p i n e r des substances, c o u l e u r , odeur, e x c e l l e n c e , eminence, p r o p f i e t e , f a c u l t e , v e r t u s , e f f e c t et d i g n i t e du b e n o i s t et d e s i r e p i o t . (T.L. p. 393) F i r s t , R a b e l a i s p l a y s on the words w i t h "en v i n non en v a i n " , the two nouns have the same sound but a d i f f e r e n t meaning. Then he ends the sentence w i t h a long l i s t of the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s of wine. R a b e l a i s ' p o e t i c t a l e n t i s e v i d e n t i n h i s h a n d l i n g o f language as i n the f o l l o w i n g sentence: j e s e r v i r a y l e s massons, j e mettray b o u i l l i r pour l e s massons, e t , l e past terming, au son de ma musette mesureray l a musarderie des musars. (T.L. p. 399) Here again, the author c a r e f u l l y and t u n e f u l l y chooses a l l i t -- e r a t i v e words, t h i s time beginning with "m,", to produce a r h y t h m i c a l e f f e c t . He a v a i l s h i m s e l f o f p o e t i c l i c e n s e changing the n a t u r a l word or d e r . When r e f e r r i n g to E u c l i o n ' s r o o s t e r , he w r i t e s : " l e q u e l , pour en g r a t t a n t a v o i r descouvert l e thesaur, eut l a couppe guorgee". (T.L. p. 401) The reader i s caught by s u r p r i s e when he sees the l a s t two words. Everyone i s aware t h a t the phrase should read "guorge couppee" but R a b e l a i s r e l i s h e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h the unexpected and so permits h i m s e l f not o n l y to r e v e r s e word order but a l s o to change an a d j e c t i v e i n t o a noun and a noun i n t o an a d j e c t i v e . He does not hes-^ - i t a t e to i n t e g r a t e p u r e l y o r a l language i n t o w r i t t e n form. A t the end of the prologue he makes t h r e a t e n i n g n o i s e s l i k e "Gzz,gzzz,gzzzz" (T.L. p. 403), sounds r a r e l y seen i n p r i n t . As i n the pre v i o u s two prologues one of the aspects of R a b e l a i s ' s t y l e i s a tendency to s h i f t from a l o f t y to a common l e v e l of language or sphere of r e f e r e n c e . The beginning 79 of the prologue i s i t s e l f a good example of t h i s . The author, i n a d d r e s s i n g the good people, as w e l l as the boozers and the gouty, t a l k s to them about the ambiguous f i g u r e of the c y n i c p h i l o s o p h e r Diogenes. T h i s mention i s fo l l o w e d by a B i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e to one of Jesus' m i r a c l e s , namely g r a n t i n g the g i f t of s i g h t to a b l i n d man. Ra b e l a i s ' d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war end on an unexpected note, a pun about the amatory and m i l i t a r y prowesses of C o r i n t h i a n women: Femme n ' e s t o i t , t a n t preude ou v i e i l l e f e u s t , q u i ne f e i s t f o u r b i r son harnoys: comme vous sgavez que l e s a n t i q u e s C o r i n t h i e n n e s e s t o i e n t au combat couraigeuses. (T.L. p. 396) L a t e r , i n a paragraph devoted to d i s c u s s i n g the importance o f the b a r r e l and mentioning a n c i e n t authors, R a b e l a i s i n s e r t s a l i t t l e comedy: "Par l a v i e r g e q u i se reb r a s s e , j e ne scay encores". (T.L.p. 398) The humour, prevents the reader from becoming s e r i o u s enough to f o r g e t the o r a l and marketplace c h a r a c t e r of t h i s prologue. Making fun of the V i r g i n would c e r t a i n l y be s a c r i l e g i o u s i n any other context, but on the stand o f the marketplace the comic i m a g i n a t i o n can have f r e e r e i n . R a b e l a i s a s s e r t s t h a t although he w i l l not f i g h t the war as a s o l d i e r , he w i l l n e v e r t h e l e s s s i n g the p r a i s e s of the v i c t o r i e s . But t h i s paragraph, l i k e many o t h e r s , ends on an unexpected note of f a m i l i a r i t y i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the el e v a t e d tone t h a t p r e v a i l s up t o t h a t p o i n t : "Je n'y f a u l d r a y par Lapathium acutum de Dieu, s i Mars ne f a i l l o i t a Quaresme; mais i l s'en donnera b i e n guarde, l e p a i l l a r d " . (T.L. p. 400) 80 "Lapathium" was pronounced as " l a p a s s i o n " . T h i s s u b t l y allows R a b e l a i s to swear by the p a s s i o n of C h r i s t . That i s a l s o a way of s a y i n g that something i s i n e v i t a b l e because the month of March i s always d u r i n g Lent. The l a s t p a r t of the sentence r e f e r s to "Mars" the god of war. "Mars" was known f o r h i s amorous e x p l o i t s w i t h Venus, hence the e p i t h e t " p a i l l a r d " and, by a s s o c i a t i o n , R a b e l a i s i s r e v e a l i n g h i s a f f e c t i o n f o r those who g i v e i n to the f l e s h . T h i s one sentence shows a mixture of r e l i g i o u s , common, and a n c i e n t spheres of r e f e r e n c e s , s k i l l -- f u l l y brought together to keep the reader a l e r t and i n t e r e s t e d and to touch on.every a s p e c t of l i f e . The change i n l e v e l s of language lea d s us to an examina-- t i o n of the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p because there :is a d e f i n i t e s h i f t i n the author's a t t i t u d e towards h i s reader throughout t h i s prologue. The r a p p o r t between author and reader can b e s t be s t u d i e d i n that p a r t of the prologue t h a t Margaret Spanos c a l l s " d e v i s " i n her a r t i c l e "Functions of the Prologues i n the Works o f R a b e l a i s " . T h i s prologue, l i k e the o t h e r s , s t a r t s with the author's address to the p u b l i c . Here he t r e a t s them as "Bonnes gens, Beuveurs' t r e s i l l u s t r e s , e t vous Goutteux t r e s p r e c i e u x " . (T.L. p. 393) R a b e l a i s i s f l a t t e r i n g ;the'm i n a j o c u l a r manner as he d i d i n the prologue- .to Gargantua. Throughout the " d e v i s " , the author manipulates h i s audience by a s k i n g them q u e s t i o n s about Diogenes, who w i l l be the s u b j e c t of the "narre". T h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n takes p l a c e i n the form of q u e s t i o n s that the reader of course never has a chance to answer: " v e i s t e z vous 81 oncques Diogenes, l e philosophe c y n i c ? S i l'avez veu, vous n'aviez perdu l a veue". (T.L. p. 393) L a t e r he i n q u i r e s : " S i veu ne l'avez (comme f a c i l e m e n t j e s u i s i n d u i c t a c r o i r e ) , pour l e moins avez vous ouy de l u y p a r l e r " . (T.L. p. 393) The p u b l i c o f course c o u l d not p o s s i b l y have seen Diogenes, and the s t o r y t e l l e r i s w e l l aware of i t but he i s l e a d i n g them on so t h a t he can t a l k about what he wants t o : S i n 1 e n avez ouy p a r l e r , de l u y vous veulx presentement une h i s t o i r e n a r r e r , pour e n t r e r en v i n (beuvez doncques) e t propous (escoutez doncques), vous a d v e r t i s s a n t ( a f f i n que ne s o i e z en simplesse pippez comme gens mescreans) qu'en son temps i l f e u t philosophe r a r e e t joyeux e n t r e m i l l e . S ' i l a v o i t quelques i m p e r f e c t i o n s , a u s s i avez vous, a u s s i avons nous. (T.L. p. 394) Whether the l i s t e n e r s had heard o f Diogenes or not, R a b e l a i s w i l l t e l l h i s t a l e anyhow. A l l of the r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s to the reader, as w e l l as the remarks i n parentheses "(beuvez doncques)", "(escoutez doncques)" help to c r e a t e an atmosphere of c o n v i v i a l i t y . These are the-types of comments one would expect ;to hear from a s t o r y t e l l e r r a t h e r .-trhan read i n a book. Although- t h i s prologue was w r i t t e n years a f t e r Pantagruel, the o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s s t i l l maintained. We have.the impression t h a t R a b e l a i s i s g a t h e r i n g the people around him i n the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s manner. One o f the author's main concerns i s th a t h i s book be accepted by the p u b l i c but he does not, as a r e s u l t , put the readers on a p e d e s t a l . T h i s i s evi d e n t from the way he addresses them a t the beginning o f the prologue and again i n the f o l l o w i n g quotation: •" (afin que ne s o i e z en simplesse pippez comme gens mescreans)". R a b e l a i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y l a y i n g t h a t they are 82 simple and that they can be deceived l i k e so many i n f i d e l s . A f t e r r e c o u n t i n g the s t o r y of Diogenes the author i s c a r e f u l to m a i n t a i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g atmosphere he s t r i v e d to e s t a b l i s h ' i h \ t h e f i r s t ' h a l f o f the " d e v i s " . The s t o r y of Ptolomy i s i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h comments d i r e c t e d a t the l i s t e n e r : "Me s o u v i e n t t o u t e s f o y s a v o i r l e u ( . . . ) , Qu'en a d v i e n t - i l ? (...), "Somme". (T.L. p. 400) A f t e r the s t o r y of the camel and the s l a v e the o r a l c h a r a c t e r of the prologue i s maintained with sentences l i k e : "Cestuy exemple me f a i c t e ntre e s p o i r et c r a i n c t e v a r i e r , " ' ( . . . ) , "De ce p o i n c t expedie, a mon tonneau je r e t o u r n e " (T.L. p. 401) and "Notez b i e n ce que j 1 ay d i e t " . (T.L. p. 402) 'These comments are s t r i c t l y f o r the b e n e f i t of an audience. R a b e l a i s wants to keep t h e i r a t t e n t i o n by i n v o l v i n g them i n the s t o r y t e l l i n g p r o c e s s v Even though the o p i n i o n of the p u b l i c i s u l t i m a t e l y important f o r any author, we saw t h a t R a b e l a i s does not t r y to win i t over by t a c t or by being o v e r l y complimentary. He does, however, a t one p o i n t show some co n f i d e n c e i n i t s judgement concerning h i s book. A f t e r e x p r e s s i n g h i s f e a r s of condemnation the author shows some s e l f assurance: Non f e r a , H e r c u l e s ! Je recongnois en eulx tous une forme s p e c i f i c q u e et p r o p r i e t e i n d i v i d u a l e , l a q u e l l e nos majeurs nommoient Pantagruelisme, moienant l a q u e l l e jamais en maulvaise p a r t i e ne prendront choses quelconques i l z c o n g n o i s t r o n t sourdre de bon,, f r a n c , e t l o y a l c o u r a i g e . Je l e s ay o r d i n a i r e m e n t veuz bon v o u l o i r en payement prendre e t en i c e l l u y a c q u i e s c e r , quand d e b i l i t e de puissance y a este a s s o c i e e . (T.L. p. 401) He i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t h i s p u b l i c w i l l not m i s i n t e r p r e t him, and w i t h t h i s i n mind he i n v i t e s h i s f r i e n d l y audience to d r i n k from h i s b a r r e l : "Sus a ce v i n , compaingsl Enfans, 83 beuvez a pleins guodetz" (T.L. p. 4 01) (...) Tout Beuveur de bien, tout Goutteux de bien, alterez, venens a ce mien tonneau"... (Tw-L. p. 402) : This i n v i t a t i o n has a r i n g of f r i e n d l y f a m i l i a r i t y but the tone does not l a s t . The l a s t two paragraphs sound fa m i l i a r only i n so far as they remind the reader of the prologue to Pantagruel. In them Rabelais adopts an authoritative tone sta r t i n g with: Notez bien ce que j'ay diet, et quelle maniere de gens je i n v i t e (...) je ne 1'ay perse que pour vous, Gens de bien, Beuveurs de l a prime cuvee, et Goutteux de franc a l l e u . (T.L. p. 402) The rest of the prologue i s then devoted to t e l l i n g the public who i s not i n v i t e d to be a part of Rabelais' audience. He uses a very pejorative language to indicate that lawyers and doctors are not welcome, neither are the avaricious and ugly: Des caphars encores moins, quoy que tous soient beuveurs oultrez tous v e r o l l e z croustelevez, guarniz de a l t e r a t i o n inextinguible et manducation i n s a t i a b l e . Pourquoy? Pource q u ' i l z ne sont de bien, ains de mal... (T.L. p. 403) Rabelais becomes very abusive i n the second half of the l a s t paragraph. He does not use exactly the same curses as he did i n the preceding two prologues but he i s very adamant about chasing the u n i n i t i a t e d from his presence: Pourtant a r r i e r e , cagotz'. Aux o u a i l l e s , mastins! Hors d'icy, caphars, de par l e Diable hayl Estez vous encores la? Je renonce ma part de Papimanie, s i je vous happe. Gzz. gzzz. gzzzz. Davant davantl Iront i l z ? Jamais ne puissiez vous fi a n t e r que a sanglades d ' e s t r i v i e r e s , jamais pisser que a l'estrapade, jamais eschauffer que a coups de baston'. (T.L. p. 403) Crudely, Rabelais alludes not only to usually unmentioned bodily functions but also to s a d i s t i c sexual pleasure. He uses such body language because everyone i s most vulnerable 84 a t the p h y s i c a l l e v e l . The prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e , l i k e the f i r s t two pro:- •• -logues, has many of the same o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , with the i n i t i a l address to the p u b l i c , the r h e t o r i c a l q uestions through--out and the curses a t the end. But t h i s prologue d i f f e r s from the p r e v i o u s two i n l e n g t h and s t r u c t u r e . We f i n d the u s u a l d i a l o g u e between- author/reader or s t o r y t e l l e r / l i s t e n e r but i n a d d i t i o n i t c o n t a i n s two complete s h o r t t a l e s . The prologue to Pantagruel focuses on the problem of e s t a b l i s h i n g a l i t e r a r y work of art taut the prologue to Gargantua d e a l s w i t h the problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s prologue focuses on the author and h i s concerns about reader acceptance. In the second p a r t of the chapter we examine more th o r --oughly a t o p i c we have a l r e a d y touched upon and which may be the most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of the prologues, the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . The nature of the prologue i n which the author i s speaking to h i s p u b l i c makes t h i s s p e c i a l r a p p o r t i t s f o c a l p o i n t . As i n the previous two chapters we w i l l f o l l o w the p r i n c i p l e s o u t l i n e d by Genette i n order to examine the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e by a n a l y s i n g the "time of n a r r a t i n g " , " n a r r a t i v e l e v e l " , and ' "person". One of the elements of "the g e n e r a t i v e i n s t a n c e of 7 n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e " to be examined i s the time of n a r r a t i n g . We w i l l focus on the way i n which the events are t o l d i n r e l a t i o n to time. Since the prologue i s presented as an a c t u a l encounter between s t o r y t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r i t i s w r i t t e n f o r the most p a r t i n the present with r e f e r e n c e s to the past and 85 future. The use of the present tense establishes a close author/ reader r e l a t i o n s h i p and shows the presence of an immediate audience that must be dealt with. In the f i r s t half of the "devis" the s t o r y t e l l e r addresses the l i s t e n e r i n the present tense: ."je suis vrayement f o r i s s u (...) Vous item n'estez jeunes (...) je suis induict a c r o i r e (...) vous estes tous du sang de Phrygie extraictz (ou je me abuse)". (T.L. pp. 393, 394) Just before launching into his story of Diogenes, Rabelais addresses his readers once again i n the present:' de luy vous veulx presentement une h i s t o i r e narrer, pour entrer en vin (beuvez doncques) et propous (escoutez doncques), vous advertissant (...). S ' i l avoit quelques imperfections, aussi avez vous, aussi avons nous. (T.L. p. 394) Half way through the "narre" Rabelais i n t e r j e c t s a comment to the reader which i l l u s t r a t e s how the present tense brings together s t o r y t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r : "comme vous sgavez que les antiques Corinthiennes estoient au combat couraigeuses". (T.L. p. 396) After he f i n i s h e s the story of Diogenes the author.wants the reader to consider his own case and he presents this i n the present tense as well: Je pareillement, quoy que soys hors d'effroy, ne suis toutesfoys hors d'esmoy, de moy voyant n'estre f a i c t aulcun p r i s digne d'oeuvre, et consyderant par tout ce tresnoble royaulme de France, dega, dela les mons, un chascun aujourd'huy soy instantement exercer et t r a v a i l l e r . . . (T.L. p. 397) With the second "narre" about the camel and the slave, the author involves the reader d i r e c t l y by the use of the present tense at the beginning of the anecdote: "Me souvient toutesfoys" 86 and then once again i n the middle of the s t o r y he i n t e r j e c t s a r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n "Qu'en a d v i e n t - i l ? " . (T.L. p. 400) The past tense i s used when R a b e l a i s draws on the reader's past experiences or on h i s own as s t o r y t e l l e r . For example, bef o r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y of Diogenes he asks h i s audience: " S i l ' a v e z veu (...) S i veu ne l'avez (...) pour l e moins avez vous ouy de l u y p a r l e r " . (T.L. p. 393) The s t o r i e s he t e l l s about Diogenes and Ptolemy are both t o l d i n the past tense as i s the s h o r t d i g r e s s i o n about E u c l i o n ' s r o o s t e r and how he meets h i s end. The use of the f u t u r e tense i s l i m i t e d . R a b e l a i s uses i t when t a l k i n g about h i s d e s t i n y : j e f e r a y ce que f e i r e n t Neptune e t Appolo en T r o i e soubs Laomedon, ce que f e i t Renaud de Montaulban sus ses d e r n i e r s j o u r s : j e s e r v i r a y l e s massons, je mettray b o u i l l i r pour l e s massons, e t , l e past termine au son de ma musette mesureray l a musarderie des musars. A i n s i fonda, b a s t i t e t e d i f i a Amphion, sonnant de sa l y r e , l a grande e t c e l e b r e c i t e de Thebes. Envers l e s guerroyans je voys de nouveau percer mon tonneau. (T.L. p. 399) The i m p e r a t i v e arid f u t u r e tenses are used when he speaks of the d e s t i n y of h i s book which he equates with a b a r r e l of wine: Et paour ne ayez que l e v i n f a i l l e , comme f e i s t es nopces de Cana en G a l i l e e . Autant que vous en t i r e r a y par l a d i l l e autant en entonneray par l e bondon. A i n s i demeurera l e tonneau i n e x p u i s i b l e . (T.L. p. 4 02) The prologue a l s o c l o s e s with the imperative and f u t u r e tenses. R a b e l a i s i s c h a s i n g the u n i n i t i a t e d reader from h i s presence, throwing i n a curse at the end j u s t f o r good measure. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the ending i s w r i t t e n i n the f u t u r e tense be--cause i t shows the author's p r e o c c u p a t i o n with reader acceptance. 87 I t a l s o s e r v e s as an i n v i t a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e book, ope n i n g i t t o an o u t s i d e t i m e - s p a c e . From the p r e v i o u s two c h a p t e r s , we have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the p r o l o g u e s a r e s e p a r a t e from t h e books they precede and t h a t the n a r r a t i n g of the p r o l o g u e i s an e x t r a d i e g e t i c a c t . The p r o l o g u e i s not p a r t o f the n a r r a t i v e t h a t makes up the book, i n t h i s c a s e , Panurge's q u e s t f o r an answer t o whether o r not he s h o u l d marry. T h i s p r o l o g u e d e a l s w i t h a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n and t h e r e a r e c r i t i c s who see i t as a key t o i n t e r -- p r e t i n g the book. B u t t h e p r o l o g u e i t s e l f never e x p l o r e s any o f the d e t a i l s t h a t a r e found i n the book. T h i s p r o l o g u e i s vaguer s i n c e i t makes fewer r e f e r e n c e s t h a n the o t h e r two to t h e f o l l o w i n g book. There i s o n l y one e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e book i t s e l f , made i n the m i d d l e o f the p r o l o g u e : j e voys de nouveau p e r c e r mon tonneau. E t de l a t r a i c t e , ( l a q u e l l e par deux praecedens volumes ( s i par 1'imposture des imprimeurs n'eussent e s t e p e r v e r t i z e t b r o u i l l e z ) vous ' f e u s t a s s e z congneue) leu-r t i r e r du c r e u de nos passetemps e p i c e n a i r e s un guallant t i e r c i n e t c o n s e c u t i v e m e n t un j o y e u l x q u a r t de sentences P a n t a g r u e l i c q u e s . (T.L. PP. 399, 400) The r e m a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s a r e i m p l i c i t when R a b e l a i s t a l k s o f "tonneau". T h i s word i s used as a symbol o f w r i t i n g and i n s p i -r a t i o n . The above q u o t a t i o n a l s o a l l u d e s to the p r e v i o u s two books and to a planned f o u r t h book. A c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e has been c r e a t e d between the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the s t o r y by t h i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c ac t. I n the t h i r d p r o l o g u e however, not a l l t h e r e c o u n t e d e v e n t s a r e d i e g e t i c . There a r e two i n s t a n c e s o f a s t o r y w i t h i n a s t o r y , w h i c h Genette c a l l s "second-degree n a r r a t i v e " o r 8 8 " m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e " . T h i s t e c h n i q u e i s as o l d as s t o r y -- t e l l i n g i t s e l f b u t Ge n e t t e e x p l o r e s a new d i m e n s i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o i t . He examines the d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s con-- n e c t i n g the m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e t o the f i r s t n a r r a t i v e i n t o which t h e former i s i n s e r t e d . G e n e t t e d e f i n e s the f i r s t t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p as one o f " d i r e c t c a u s a l i t y " , where t h e m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e has an " e x p l a n a t o r y f u n c t i o n " . T h e r e f o r e t h e e x p l i c i t o r i m p l i c i t "raison d'etre" f o r the second-degree n a r r a t i v e i s to answer the q u e s t i o n : "What ev e n t s have l e d to the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n ? " T h i s f i r s t t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w hich i s d i r e c t and not a c h i e v e d by way o f the n a r r a t i v e i s not found i n the t h i r d p r o l o g u e . I n f a c t t h e o n l y type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p c o n n e c t i n g the m e t a d i e g e t i c t o t h e d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e i n t h e t h i r d p r o l o g u e i s " t h e m a t i c " . T h i s i m p l i e s a c o n t r a s t and ana l o g y w i t h no s p e c i a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y , the aim b e i n g e s s e n t i a l l y one o f " p e r s u a s i o n " I n t h e t h i r d type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p the m e t a d i e g e t i c c o n t e n t i s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e t o the u n f o l d i n g o f the main d i e g e s i s . What does m a t t e r i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r r a t i n g a c t and t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The a c t o f n a r r a t i n g i t s e l f f u l f i l l s the " f u n c t i o n o f d i s t r a c t i o n o r o b s t r u c t i o n " i n the d i e g e s i s . A c l a s s i c example o f t h i s type o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i s found i n Thousand and One N i g h t s where n a r r a t i v e f o l l o w s n a r r a t i v e w i t h no r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x c e p t t o p r o l o n g t h e l i f e o f Scheherazade. T h i s d e v i c e does not seem t o be used by R a b e l a i s i n the t h i r d p r o l o g u e a l t h o u g h i t i s sometimes 89 d i f f i c u l t to see the thematic l i n k between the main body of the n a r r a t i v e and some of the d i g r e s s i o n s . In the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e the two i n s t a n c e s of m e t a d i e g e t i c narrativel , ' V the s t o r y o f Diogenes' b a r r e l and the s t o r y o f Ptolemy's camel and s l a v e , both have the f u n c t i o n of persuading. They i l l u s t r a t e the author's own ideas and the t e a c h i n g f u n c t i o n to determine the readi n g of the present prologue. There i s no spatio-tempor a l c o n t i n u i t y between the d i e g e s i s and the metadiegesis. These s t o r i e s are l i k e f a b l e s ; they t r y to ex e r t an i n f l u e n c e on the d i e g e t i c s i t u a t i o n . I t i s the author's way of persuading the l i s t e n e r s to agree wi t h him. The t r a n s i t i o n from one n a r r a t i v e l e v e l to another i s u s u a l l y achieved by the n a r r a t i n g . For example, t h i s occurs when the n a r r a t o r says: "de l u y vous veux presentement une h i s t o i r e n a r r e r . . . " (T.L. p. 394) or "Me sou v i e n t t o u t e s f o y s a v o i r l e u que Ptolemg..." (T.L. p. 400) to i n t r o d u c e the second-degree n a r r a t i v e . Another example of t r a n s i t i o n between two n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s i s when the n a r r a t o r wants to r e t u r n to the f i r s t l e v e l of n a r r a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r says: "Je p a r e i l l e m e n t ..." (T.L. p. 397) or "Cestuy exemple me f a i c t e ntre e s p o i r e t c r a i n c t e v a r i e r . . . " (T.L. p. 401), when he has l e f t the realm o f the metadiegesis and i s once agai n on the area of the d i e g e s i s . Genette c l a s s i f i e s • as " t r a n s g r e s s i v e " "any i n t r u s i o n by the e x t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r o r na r r a t e e i n t o the d i e g e t i c u n i v e r s e (or by the d i e g e t i c c h a r a c t e r s i n t o a me t a d i e g e t i c 90 u n i v e r s e e t c . ) " . * These d i g r e s s i o n s are c a l l e d "metalepses". Although mainly a f e a t u r e of the modern n o v e l , they do occur i n R a b e l a i s ' work. In t h i s prologue a metalepse occurs when, i n the middle of the Diogenes' s t o r y , R a belais addresses h i s rea d e r s : "comme vous sgavez que l e s antiques C o r i n t h i e n n e s e s t o i e n t au combat couraigeuses" (T.L. p. 396) and i n the middle of the camel and s l a v e s t o r y the author i n t e r j e c t s "Qu'en a d v i e n t - i l ? " . ( T . L . p. 400) From our d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e l e v e l i n Le T i e r s L i v r e we can see t h a t t h i s aspect i s developed and r e f i n e d to a g r e a t e r degree here than i n the preceding two p r o l o g u e s . The prologues to Pantagruel and Gargantua were w r i t t e n on one l e v e l of n a r r a t i o n without any m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e s . The t h i r d phase of our a n a l y s i s c e n t r e s on "person". Genette•maintains t h a t the terms " f i r s t person" and " t h i r d person" n a r r a t i v e are inadequate. I t i s important however, to d i s t i n g u i s h between the use of the " j e " by a n a r r a t o r who-i s j u s t t e l l i n g the s t o r y and a n a r r a t o r who i s a c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . The uninvolved n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d h e t e r o d i e g e t i c and the i n v o l v e d n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d homodiegetic. Whether or not the n a r r a t o r i s present or absent from the s t o r y l i n e of Le T i e r s L i v r e i s not c r u c i a l to t h i s a n a l y s i s . We do know from the many r e f e r e n c e s to " j e " and "moi" t h a t the n a r r a t o r i s p r e s e n t i n the prologue and we can t h e r e f o r e l a b e l i t as a homodiegetic n a r r a t i v e . In a l l , " j e " and i t s p o s s e s s i v e pronoun and a d j e c t i v e are used s i x t y times, c o n s i d e r a b l y more o f t e n than i n e i t h e r of the f i r s t two prologues."^ In the 91 t h i r d prologue, as i n the preceding two, the r o l e of n a r r a t o r i s e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c . Apart from the " n a r r a t i n g f u n c t i o n " , the n a r r a t o r has c e r t a i n other r o l e s to f u l f i l l . We w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e f i r s t o f a l l on the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i v e when the n a r r a t o r r e f e r s to the t e x t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e . In t h i s prologue the n a r r a t o r r a r e l y and then o n l y vaguely r e f e r s to h i s book. The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e comes half-way through the prologue: " s i je remuois mon tonneau D i o g e n i c " (T.L. p. 398) and the "tonneau" as we showed i n the f i r s t h a l f of the p r e s e n t chapter i s a symbol f o r h i s book. Almost a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s made to R a b e l a i s ' book are to "tonneau". The d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n was very important i n the f i r s t two prologues but here i t seems q u i t e secondary. The author i s l e s s concerned about how h i s book should be read- than' how i t should be r e c e i v e d . Three f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n . The purpose of the f i r s t , " f u n c t i o n of communication", i s to keep open the c o n t a c t between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e . R a b e l a i s i s very conscious of e s t a b l i s h i n g a base f o r t h i s type of communication. The prologues p a r t i a l l y serve t h i s purpose. As i n Prologues One and Two, the f i r s t sentence here s e t s the scene f o r communication between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e : "Bonnes gens, Beuveurs t r e s i l l u s t r e s , e t vous Goutteux t r e s p r e c i e u x , v e i s t e z vous oncques Diogenes, l e philosophe c y n i c ? " . ( T . L . p. 393) The v o c a t i v e i s used twice and, i n a d d i t i o n , the sentence i s i n t e r r o g a t i v e . Asking the reader q u e s t i o n s lends an a i r of d i a l o g u e to the t e x t and i n t u r n d e p i c t s communication very 92 w e l l . Questions and comments l i k e "Que f e r a y - j e en v o s t r e a d v i s ? " (T.L. p. 398) "Comme vous scavez..." (T.L. 396) "Comme vous d i r i e z sus l e commencement du second degre. (...) ( l a q u e l l e par deux praecedens volumes (...) vous f e u s t assez congneue)" (T.L. p. 399) " S i bon ne vous semble, l a i s s e z - l e " (T.L. p. 401) a l l r e i n f o r c e the channel of communication be--tween n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e . The imperative and the many v o c a t i v e s ( t w e n t y - f i v e i n a l l ) a l s o serve the same purpose. The o n l y ambiguity i n t h i s f u n c t i o n o f communication remains i n the "vous". The "vous" at the beginning and end of the prologue do desig n a t e d i f f e r e n t people. The "vous" i n the f i r s t sentence r e f e r s to an audience t h a t R a b e l a i s l i k e s . T h i s audience i s addressed throughout the prologue. Near the end however, "vous" i s used to desig n a t e a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t group o f l i s t e n e r s . In the l a s t paragraph "vous" s p e c i f i e s those R a b e l a i s i s not i n v i t i n g to d r i n k from . h i s ' b a r r e l : A r r i e r e , m a s t i n s l (...) Venez vous i c y c u l l e t a n s a r t i c u l e r mon v i n e t compisser mon tonneau? (...) Estez vous encores l a ? (.'..) s i j e vous happe. (T.L. p. 403) Here he i s mainly concerned about chasing the u n i n v i t e d from h i s presence. The second f u n c t i o n , the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " , r e v e a l s the speaker's a t t i t u d e towards h i s s u b j e c t matter. R a b e l a i s ' a t t i t u d e to his books becomes l e s s and l e s s obvious with each prologue. Prologue One t r i e s to convince the p u b l i c of the t r u t h f u l n e s s of Pantag r u e l . Prologue Two t e l l s the readers t h a t there are many ways to read a book. Prologue Three shows the author's concern w i t h p r e s e n t i n g the p u b l i c w i t h the 93 n o v e l t y h i s book a f f o r d s . The author h i n t s a t t h i s through the s t o r y of Diogenes and then becomes more e x p l i c i t : " P r i n s ce choys e t e l e c t i o n , ay pense ne f a i r e e x e r c i c e i n u t i l e et importun, s i j e remuois mon tonneau D i o g e n i c . . . " . (T.L. p. 398) L i k e Diogenes, the author chooses not to f o l l o w the herd, but i n s t e a d to carve h i s own path: j e voys de nouveau pe r c e r mon tonneau. Et de l a t r a i c t e , ( l a q u e l l e par deux praecedens volumes ( s i par 1'imposture des imprimeurs n'eussent este p e r v e r t i z e t b r o u i l l e z ) vous f e u s t assez congneue) l e u r t i r e r du creu de nos passe temps e p i c e n a i r e s un g u a l l a n t t i e r c i n e t consecutivement un j o y e u l x quart de sentences P a n t a g r u e l i c q u e s ; par moy l i c i t e vous sera l e s a ppeler Diogenicques. (T.L. pp. 399, 400) The author once agai n d i g r e s s e s with the s t o r y of Ptolemy who i s put to death when h i s o n l y i n t e n t i o n was to p l e a s e . His f a u l t was i n being too i n n o v a t i v e . R a b e l a i s , too, i s o r i g i n a l and h i s work might be c o n s i d e r e d too d a r i n g : The r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h i n g about h i s way of t h i n k i n g i s not h i s o p p o s i t i o n to C h r i s t i a n i t y , but the freedom of v i s i o n , f e e l i n g , and thought which h i s p e r p e t u a l p l a y i n g w i t h t h i n g s produces, and which i n v i t e s the reader to d e a l d i r e c t l y with the world and i t s wealth of phe— -nomena.H Dorothy Coleman i n her book, R a b e l a i s ; A C r i t i c a l Study i n  Prose F i c t i o n , d e s c r i b e s R a b e l a i s ' book as a Menippian S a t i r e . R a b e l a i s a l s o f e a r s l o s i n g h i s r i g h t to p u b l i s h and maybe even h i s l i f e : Cestuy exemple me f a i c t e ntre e s p o i r et c r a i n c t e v a r i e r , (...) en l i e u de l e s s e r v i r j e l e s fasche, en l i e u de l e s esbaudir, j e l e s o f f e n s e , en l i e u de l e u r complaire, j e d e s p l a i s e et s o i t mon adventure t e l l e que du coq de E u c l i o n (...) l e q u e l , pour en g r a t t a n t a v o i r descouvert l e thesaur, eut l a couppe guorgee. (T.L. p. 4 01) But then he r e a s s u r e s h i m s e l f t h a t , s i n c e h i s readers are f i l l e d w i t h a s p i r i t o f Pantagruelism, he and h i s books w i l l s u r v i v e . 94 R a b e l a i s r e t u r n s once mere to the s u b j e c t of h i s "tonneau", i . e . , h i s book, and i n v i t e s the p u b l i c to d r i n k h e a r t i l y from i t , f o r the wine w i l l never run out: Autant que vous en t i r e r a y par l a d i l l e , autant en entonneray par l e bondon. A i n s i demeurera l e tonneau i n e x p u i s i b l e . I l a source v i v e et vene p e r p e t u e l l e . (T.L. p. 402) On the whole, R a b e l a i s seems very o p t i m i s t i c about h i s w r i t i n g . Through the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " the author's work can be p e r c e i v e d l i k e the work of Sisyphus; as R i g o l o t s t a t e s i n h i s book, Les Languages de R a b e l a i s : R a b e l a i s Sisyphus de prologue, nous prepare, v i a Diogenes, a accepter Panurge, Sisyphus du l i v r e , e t d e r r i e r e ce d e r n i e r un a u l t r e R a b e l a i s , Sisyphus . du t e x t e t o t a l . 1 2 P r e s e n t i n g new i d e a s i s worth any r i s k . But the p r o g r e s s i o n i s one of optimism t h a t the work w i l l be accepted and become a never-ending source of p l e a s u r e and wisdom f o r i t s r e a d e r s . His work becomes the "tonneau" f o r the reader. The " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " , the l a s t of the t h r e e f u n c t i o n s concerning the n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n , i s very d i f f i c u l t to d i s -t i n g u i s h from the preceding one. R a b e l a i s ' i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view i s always ambiguous. He i s o f t e n c a r e f u l to camouflage h i s o p i n i o n s i n o rder to p r o t e c t h i m s e l f . I n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n , a l l e g o r i e s , and a l l u s i o n s are some of the d e v i c e s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c o f t h i s f u n c t i o n . The p a r a l l e l s R a b e l a i s makes here between h i m s e l f , Diogenes, Ptolemy, and " l e coq de E u c l i o n " , are a l l the d i f f e r e n t ways he expresses h i s thoughts on war, l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n , and o r i g i n a l i t y , not to mention r e l i g i o n and the j u d i c i a l system. 95 Of the f i v e f u n c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above, the predominant ones are the " f u n c t i o n of communication" and the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " . There i s a p a r t i a l change here from the previous two prologues where the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " r e p l a c e s the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n t h i s prologue both predominant f u n c t i o n s p e r t a i n to the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s prologue i t becomes more important to know how the reader f e e l s about h i s s u b j e c t than simply knowing how to read h i s books. Having d i s c u s s e d the f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r , we s h a l l now t u r n to the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . As i n the previous two prologues, we f i n d here an e x t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r and t h e r e -- f o r e the n a r r a t e e must a l s o be e x t r a d i e g e t i c . T h i s type of n a r r a t e e i s e a s i l y confused w i t h the i m p l i e d reader w i t h whom each r e a l reader i n t u r n i d e n t i f i e s . Whereas the v o c a t i v e was e x t e n s i v e l y used i n the f i r s t two prologues, i t i s l i m i t e d i n 13 the t h i r d . T h i s i s e x p l a i n e d by the presence of two s h o r t s t o r i e s t o l d i n the " t h i r d person" w i t h i n the prologue i t s e l f . The use of the v o c a t i v e i s most p r e v a l e n t a t the beginning of the prologue because R a b e l a i s wants to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t between author and r e a d e r . The tone R a b e l a i s adopts to d e a l with the n a r r a t e e i s much more l i k e that' which he used i n the prologue' to - Gargantua than i n the prologue to P a n t a g r u e l . The reader i s addressed i n mock-e l e v a t e d terms a t the beginning of the t h i r d prologue: "Bonnes gens, Beuveurs t r e s i l l u s t r e s e t vous Goutteux t r e s p r e c i e u x " . (T.L. p. 393) The "good" reader .is never abused i n the r e s t 96 of the prologue. The narrator asks for the narratee's opinion and i n v i t e s him to drink from his b a r r e l . In the l a s t paragraph however, there i s a downward s h i f t i n language just as i n the prologue to Pantagruel. The uninvited readers are c a l l e d a l l manner of derogatory names, cursed, and chased from Rabelais.' presence: Pourtant a r r i e r e , cagotz! Aux o u a i l l e s , mastins! Hors d'icy, caphars, de par l e Diable hay! Estez vous encores la? Je renonce ma part de Papimanie, s i je vous happe. Gzz. gzzz. gzzzz. Davant davant!, Iront i l z ? Jamais ne puissiez vous f i a n t e r que a sanglades d ' e s t r i v i e r e s , jamais pisser que a l'estrapade, jamais eschauffer que a coups de baston! (T.L. p. 403) Even though the curses i n t h i s l a s t sentence are unlike those i n the f i r s t prologue and less extensive, they remain of the scatological nature, concrete body attacks being much more threatening than psychological mental attacks. Rabelais uses body language i n each of the prologues and through his books. Constant references to the f l e s h are not unusual for the l i t e r a t u r e of the author's period. Rabelais i s es p e c i a l l y fond of them because they add a very human dimension to his work. The role of the narratee remains important i n this prologue as i n the previous two. It i s not however a well-defined role i n t h i s case. The narratee i s not told what to accept as truth, nor how to interpret what he hears. However, i t i s important that the author confides i n him his doubts and hesitations about his new work and appeals to his good nature to understand the work properly. This concludes the analysis of the "narrative instance" i n the prologue to Le Tiers L i v r e . We have discussed Rabelais' use of time of narrating and have concluded that i t does not 97 d i f f e r from Prologues One and Two. The prologue i s w r i t t e n i n the present tense with r e f e r e n c e s to the past and the f u t u r e . We have seen t h a t the l e v e l s - of n a r r a t i o n are more complex and complete i n t h i s prologue, where more than one l e v e l of n a r r a t i o n e x i s t s , than i n the preceding two. We d i s c u s s e d the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r and concluded t h a t the " f u n c t i o n of communication" and the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " were the two predominant ones. F i n a l l y , the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e was examined and we saw t h a t , although impor-- t a n t , h i s r o l e i s more s u b t l e i n the t h i r d prologue, and t h a t he i s not c a l l e d upon as openly as b e f o r e . The n a r r a t e e ' s r o l e shows t h a t the author's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s reader has changed and t h a t the author's sense of s e c u r i t y has d i m i n i s h e d . R a b e l a i s has taken on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a u t h o r s h i p f o r Le  T i e r s L i v r e as w e l l as Pantagruel and Gargantua. No longer h i d i n g behind a pseudonym, he shows more r e s p e c t f o r h i s reader by being l e s s "cocky" about h i s own l i t e r a r y prowess. The twelve years of s i l e n c e between Gargantua and Le T i e r s L i v r e have r e s u l t e d i n a more complex prologue showing a d i s t i n c t e v o l u t i o n of the author's s t y l e and i d e a s . T h i s prologue shows R a b e l a i s ' concern f o r reader acceptance i n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s 14 new form o f novel which has been c a l l e d a Menippean S a t i r e . N ovelty has an u n s e t t l i n g e f f e c t on a l l and may not always be embraced w i t h enthusiasm. 98 NOTES CHAPTER THREE ^ M.A. Screech, R a b e l a i s . (New York:' C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979). p. 216. 2 Margaret Spanos, "Functions o f the Prologues i n the Works o f R a b e l a i s " , Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 9. (Geneve: Droz, 1971), pp. 29-48. 3 Frangois R a b e l a i s , Le T i e r s L i v r e , Oeuvres Completes, Tome I. ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a r n i e r F r e r e s , 1962). p. 394. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s t e x t w i l l be de s i g n a t e d as T.L. f o l l o w e d by a page number. 4 M i k h a i l Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World, Trans, by Helene Iswolsky. (Cambridge, Mas.: The M.I.T. Press, 1968). ^ Bakhtin, p. 176. ^ Bakhtin, p. 177. 7 Gerard Genette, N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method, Trans, by Jane E. Lewin. (New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980). p. 213. 8 • The u n d e r l i n i n g i s our own. 9 Genette, pp. 234, 235. "Jc"' and i t s p o s s e s s i v e pronouns and a d j e c t i v e s are used 21 times i n the prologue to Pantagruel and 14 times i n the prologue t o Gargantua. E r i c h Auerbach, Mimesis: The Repr e s e n t a t i o n of R e a l i t y  i n Western L i t e r a t u r e . Trans, by W i l l a r d R. Trask. (N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953). p. 276. 12 F r a n c o i s R i g o l o t . Les Langages de R a b e l a i s i n Etudes  R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 10 (Geneve: Droz, 1972), p. 23. 13 The v o c a t i v e i s used 25 times i n Le T i e r s L i v r e , 22 times i n P a n t a g r u e l , and 4 0 times i n Gargantua. 14 Dorothy Coleman, R a b e l a i s : A C r i t i c a l Study i n Prose  F i c t i o n (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971). 99 CHAPTER FOUR  PROLOGUE TO LE QUART LIVRE Rabelais f i r s t promised a book on voyages i n the l a s t chapter of Pantagruel but the public had to wait 2 0 years for i t s publication. Following the appearance of Le Tiers Livre i n 1544, Rabelais was forced to leave France for a short time. He l e f t for fear of persecution because of his books even though he had received a " p r i v i l e g e " from the king for t h e i r publica-- t i o n . In 1548, when the f i r s t version of Le Quart Livre was published, the Sorbonne remained a dangerous and real threat to him i n spite of his special status. The work was comprised of an E p i s t l e to Rabelais' new patron, Cardinal Odet de Ch a t i l l o n , followed by what i s now c a l l e d the "Ancien Prologue", and by ten chapters. The book was subsequently revised and rewritten so that the f i n a l edition, as we know i t today, of Le Quart  Livre de f a i c t s et diets hgroiques du bon Pantagruel, published i n 1552, consists of a new prologue and 67 chapters. Let us simply say, at thi s point, that i n comparison to the "Ancien prologue", the prologue to the 1552 edition of Le Quart Livre i s r e l a t i v e l y free of bitterness. This prologue i s the longest and most complex i n structure of the four i n our study. As i n the t h i r d prologue, Rabelais uses his own name and t i t l e "Docteur en Medicine" instead of a pseudonym. The prologue has three d i v i s i o n s . The f i r s t i s "devis", defined i n Margaret Spanos a r t i c l e , "Functions of the Prologues i n the Works of Rabelais""'', as "the dire c t discourse between author and reader (who i s treated as a physically 100 present audience". The second d i v i s i o n i s "narre", d e f i n e d i n the same a r t i c l e as a " s h o r t dramatic a c t i o n " . The t h i r d d i v i s i o n takes us back to " d e v i s " . The purpose of the " d e v i s " , the author/reader d i a l o g u e which i s p a r t of a l l R a b e l a i s ' prologues, i s to i n f o r m the reader of the author's a t t i t u d e towards h i s book. The b a s i c theme of t h i s d i a l o g u e between the author and the reader i s that of h e a l t h and what R a b e l a i s c a l l s " m e d i o c r i t e " . R a b e l a i s i s no longer concerned with the manner i n which h i s book should be read. His goal i s to t r a n s m i t a message to h i s r e a d e r s . " M e d i o c r i t e " f o r R a b e l a i s was a p o s i t i v e q u a l i t y or v i r t u e . One tends to t r a n s l a t e " m e d i o c r i t e " by the words "moderation" or "golden mean" which can o n l y r e f e r to the Greek i d e a l of a sound body and mind. T h i s theme i s embodied i n the "narre". The t r a n s i t i o n from " d e v i s " w i t h i t s p r i n c i p a l theme of h e a l t h , to "narre" w i t h i t s p r i n c i p a l theme of "mediocrite." i s achieved smoothly s i n c e the second theme evolves d i r e c t l y from the f i r s t : J'ay c e s t u y e s p o i r en Dieu q u ' i l oyra nos p r i e r e s , veue l a ferme foy en l a q u e l l y nous l e s f a i s o n s ; et a c c o m p l i r a c e s t u y n o s t r e sdubhayt, attendu q u ' i l e s t mediocre. (Q.L. p. 1 4 ) 2 R a b e l a i s i s t r y i n g to impress upon h i s readers that good h e a l t h cannot be ensured through human e f f o r t s but r a t h e r through s i n c e r e and humble prayers that God chooses to answer. He d e f i n e s the term and g i v e s a B i b l i c a l example of " m e d i o c r i t e " : M e d i o c r i t e a este par l e s s a i g e s anciens d i e t e auree c ' e s t a d i r e p r e c i e u s e , de tous louee, en tous e n d r o i c t z a g r e a b l e . D i s c o u r e z par l e s sacres B i b l e s , vous trouverez que de c e u l x l e s p r i e r e s n'ont jamais este esconduites q u i ont m e d i o c r i t e r e q u i s . (Q.L. p. 14) 101 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the word "auree", golden, thus r e -- f e r r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to the Greek i d e a l . S t i l l , as p a r t of the t r a n s i t i o n , R a b e l a i s g i v e s two examples of how God grants those wishes that"-are-made in'moderation., The f i r s t i s Zacchaeus 1 wish to see Jesus i n Jerusalem (Luke 19) and the second i s of the g u i l d prophet who l o s t an axehead i n the r i v e r Jordan and prayed to r e t r i e v e i t (2 Kings 6). The young prophet's wish was f u l f i l l e d because, as R a b e l a i s s t a t e s , h i s prayer was reasonable, moderate. I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e whether God would have granted ,a d i f f e r e n t type o f wish: S ' i l eust soubhaite monter es c i e u l x dedans un c h a r r i o t f l a mboiant comme H e l i e , m u l t i p l i e r en l i g n e e comme Abraham, e s t r e autant r i c h e que Job, autant f o r t que Sanson, a u s s i beau que Absalon, l ' e u s t i l impetre? C'est une q u e s t i o n . (Q.L. p. 15) Such h y p e r b o l i c wishes which a re anything but "mediocre" are Ra b e l a i s ' way of showing the a b s u r d i t y o f wi s h i n g the i m p o s s i b l e . The use of t h i s B i b l i c a l example as the t r a n s i t i o n between " d e v i s " and "narre" i s very a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e the s u b j e c t o f the "narre" i s the woodcutter, C o u i l l a t r i s , who l o s t h i s axe. Based on Aesop's f a b l e about the woodcutter and the axe, the main s t o r y o f the "narre" a l s o serves as a framework f o r a second complete s t o r y about the c o u n c i l o f the gods. In f a c t the d i g r e s s i o n i s twice as long as the s t o r y i t s e l f . R a b e l a i s s t a t e s C o u i l l a t r i s ' problem i n one page then goes on to t e l l us about the c o u n c i l o f the gods f o r e i g h t more pages and concludes C o u i l l a t r i s ' s t o r y i n another t h r e e . The s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s and h i s l o s t axe moves a t a r e l a t i v e l y s peedier pace than the d i g r e s s i o n on the c o u n c i l of the gods. The reader 102 i s i n t r o d u c e d to the woodcutter and sees him i n a c t i o n almost immediately as he t r i e s to s o l v e h i s problem: "En cestuy e s t r i f commenga c r i e r , p r i e r , i m p l o r e r , invocquer J u p p i t e r , par o r a i s o n s moult d i s e r t e s " . (Q.L. p. 16) R a b e l a i s ' c h o i c e and accumulation of verbs helps t o gi v e a sense of urgency to the a c t i o n . A very d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of C o u i l l a t r i s ' stance i s g i v e n by the author: l e v a n t l a face v e r s l e s c i e u l x , l e s g e n o i l z en t e r r e , l a t e s t e nue, l e s bras haulx en l ' a i r , l e s d o i g t s des mains e s q u a r q u i l l e z , d i s a n t a chascun r e f r a i n de ses s u f f r a g e s , a h a u l t e v o i x i n f a t i g u a b l e m e n t : "Ma coingnee, J u p p i t e r , ma coingnee, ma coingn§e; r i e n p l u s , 6 J u p p i t e r , que ma coingnee ou d e n i e r s pour en achapter une aultre'. H e l a s l ma paouvre coingnee'. (Q.L. p. 16) The d e s c r i p t i o n evokes an image-.of an desperate man who does not ask f o r great wealth or what he does not deserve. He wants o n l y to be able to pro v i d e an honest e x i s t e n c e f o r him-- s e l f . The s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s ' l o s t axe i s i n t e r r u p t e d a t t h i s p o i n t as R a b e l a i s launches i n t o a d e s c r i p t i o n of how the c o u n c i l of the gods r e a c t s to C o u i l l a t r i s ' c r i e s . The s t o r y about the gods i s i n t r u t h of secondary importance but i s twice as long as the p r i n c i p a l s t o r y of the l o s t axe. T h i s i s i n p a r t based on Homeric t r a d i t i o n , d e t a i l i n g c a r e f u l l y what goes on i n the heavens among the gods. R a b e l a i s a l s o wants h i s readers to be aware of the f o r c e s of d e s t i n y and how man i s merely a j e s t of gods. J u p i t e r s t a r t s o f f the d i a l o g u e among the gods. He i s q u i t e d i s t u r b e d by the n o i s e C o u i l l a t r i s i s making: "Quel d i a b l e , demanda J u p p i t e r , e s t l a bas q u i h u r l e s i h o r r i f i q u e m e n t ? " . 103 (Q.L. p. 16) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t R a b e l a i s chooses the word " b e l l o w " t o d e s c r i b e p r a y e r to t h e gods. I t i s u n u s u a l because o f the B i b l i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t where p r a y e r i s humble, b u t t r a d i t i o n a l i n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e where p r a y e r i s o f t e n l o u d . J u p i t e r t h e n , :'• i n t r u e j u d i c i a l manner, goes on t o enumerate cases o f i m p o r t a n c e the gods have been h a n d l i n g and have been asked to h a n d l e . These a r e a l l p o l i t i c a l e v e n ts w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n Europe and A s i a d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f R a b e l a i s ' l i f e . The l a s t o f t h e s e e v e n t s d e a l s w i t h a squabble between two p r o f e s s o r s o f " l e C o l l e g e r o y a l " " / G a l l a n d and Ramus whom R a b e l a i s must have known. J u p i t e r f i n a l l y a s k s one o f the gods, P r i a p u s , how he would s e t t l e the argument between the two a d v e r s a r i e s . J u p i t e r s t a t e s : "J'ay m a i n t e s f o i s t r o u v e t o n c o n s e i l e t a d v i s e q u i t a b l e e t p e r t i n e n t : e t habet t u a mentula mentem". (Q.L. p. 18) I n mock-heroic s t y l e , t h e L a t i n quotation i s a means by which R a b e l a i s can e l e v a t e the v u l g a r ^ making the i r o n y more s c a t h i n g . R a b e l a i s does not see t h e human body as shameful and so never h e s i t a t e s t o d i s c u s s any p a r t o f the human anatomy. H i s work i s f u l l o f comments about b o t h male and female sex organs and he uses t h i s as a so u r c e o f comedy, as was u s u a l a t the t i m e . I n g i v i n g h i s o p i n i o n on the Galland/Ramus c o n f l i c t , P r i a p u s t e l l s a complete s t o r y o f h i s own about the f e u d i n g 3 dog and f o x , a l e g e n d R a b e l a i s borrows from J . P o l l u x . He reminds J u p i t e r how he d i d not want t o i n t e r v e n e i n the dog and f o x c o n f l i c t . The f o x ' s d e s t i n y was never t o be caught and the dog's d e s t i n y was t o c a t c h the f o x . The two f a t e s were 104 c o n t r a d i c t o r y . Priapus reminds J u p i t e r : Vous p r o t e s t a t e s non c o n t r e v e n i r aux d e s t i n s . Les d e s t i n s e s t o i e n t c o n t r a d i c t o i r e s . La v e r i t e , l a f i n , 1 * e f f e c t de deux c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ensemble f e u t d e c l a i r e i m p o s s i b l e en nature. (Q.L. pp. 18, 19) J u p i t e r ' s h e s i t a t i o n to i n t e r v e n e i n the d e s t i n y of the two animals c r e a t e d a great t h i r s t i n Olympia: "Tout ce noble c o n s i s t o i r e , par d e f a u l t de r e s o l u t i o n c a t e g o r i q u e , encourut a l t e r a t i o n m i r i f i q u e " . (Q.L. p. 19) The word " a l t e r a t i o n " throughout the f o u r t h book i n d i c a t e s a s t a t e of imbalance, a s t a t e which i s o f t e n d e p i c t e d as cau s i n g a drought i n the land or a t h i r s t among the p o p u l a t i o n . One s o l u t i o n i s to b r i n g on the wine: "et f e u t en i c e l l u y c o n s e i l beu plus de so i x a n t e e t d i x h u i c t bussars de n e c t a r " . (Q.L. p. 19) For R a b e l a i s wine has the power to cure and the power to c o r r e c t an imbalance. Priapus ends h i s s t o r y by reminding J u p i t e r t h a t the t h i r s t d i d not subside u n t i l he turned the fox and dog i n t o stone, something he proposes f o r G a l l a n d and Ramus: "soubdain f e u r e n t t r e s v e s de s o i f c r i e e s par to u t ce grand Olympe". . (Q.L. p. 19) The paragraph ends on a note of v u l g a r i t y mixed with e r u d i t i o n , a technique dear to R a b e l a i s : "Ce f e u t 1'ann^e des c o u i l l e s m o l l e s , pres Teumesse, en t r e Thebes et C h a l c i d e " . (Q.L. p. 19) Pri a p u s ' f i n a l advice concerns the use of the p e t r i f i e d dog and fox. He suggests t h a t they be pl a c e d i n Notre Dame al o n g s i d e a statue of P i e r r e du Coingnet t h a t was used f o r e x t i n g u i s h i n g c a n d l e s : Et seront, en f i g u r e t r i g o n e e q u i l a t e r a l e , on grand temple de P a r i s , ou on mylieu du p e r v i s , posees ces t r o i s p i e r r e s mortes, en o f f i c e de e x t a i n d r e avecques l e nez, 105 comme au jeu de Fouquet, l e s c h a n d e l l e s , t o r c h e s , c i e r g e s , bougies e t flambeaux allumez: l e s q u e l l e s , v i v e n t e s , a l l u m o i e n t c o u i l l o n n i q u e m e n t l e feu de f a c t i o n , s i m u l t e , s e c t e s c o u i l l o n n i q u e s , et p a r t i a l t e entre l e s ocieux e s c h o l i e r s . A pe r p e t u e l e memoire que ces p e t i t e s p h i l a u t i e s c o u i l l o n n i f o r m e s p l u s t o s t davant vous contempnees f e u r e n t que condamnees. (Q.L. pp. 19, 20) These comments serve as a s u b t l e c r i t i c i s m of the Sorbonne, R a b e l a i s being on the s i d e of the r o y a l t y i n the long s t a n d i n g r i v a l r y between the church and the monarchy. The Sorbonnites gave the name P i e r r e du Coingnet "(du c o i n ) " to a grotesque s t a t u e p l a c e d i n a corner of the Notre Dame c a t h e d r a l used f o r e x t i n g u i s h i n g c a n d l e s . T h i s i s a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to P i e r r e de Cugnieres, a r o y a l i s t who was an adversary o f those who based t h e i r arguments on the infamous D e c r e t a l e s . With the p l a y on words f o r " c o u i l l e " R a b e l a i s avoids being openly c r i t i c a l of the church but shows h i s i n g e n u i t y a t f i n d -i n g some means o f r i d i c u l i n g p r a c t i c e s he c o n s i d e r s u n e t h i c a l . J u p i t e r s h i f t s h i s a t t e n t i o n from Priapus to other more p r e s s i n g matters, a b a t t l e s t i r r e d up by Pastophores around the T y r r h e n i a n Sea near the Apennines, and he looks forward to the amusement the gods w i l l get from t h i s . C o u i l l a t r i s 1 c r i e s ' are too much f o r J u p i t e r and so he orde r s Mercury to see what he wants. At one p o i n t J u p i t e r orders the r e t u r n of C o u i l l a t r i s ' axe: S i f a u l t i l l u y rendre. C e l a e s t e s c r i p t es d e s t i n s , entendez vous? A u s s i b i e n comme s i e l l e v a l u s t l a duche de M i l a n . A l a v e r i t e , sa coingnee l u y e s t en t e l p r i s e t e s t i m a t i o n que s e r o i t a un Roy son Royaulme. (Q.L. p. 21) However, bef o r e t h i s can be accomplished Priapus i n t e r r u p t s with y e t another s t o r y . T h i s anecdote concerns the meaning of the word "coingnee". 106 The f i r s t meaning, s t a t e s P r i a p u s , i s a t t r i b u t e d to a t o o l f o r chopping wood, but the second i s completely d i f f e r e n t . "Coingnee" i n the second sense r e f e r s to a loo s e woman. The word i s thus fraught w i t h sexual c o n n o t a t i o n s . The d i g r e s s i o n s and anecdotes serve to prolong the a n t i c i p a t i o n to the con-c l u s i o n o f the main s t o r y . T h i s i s t y p i c a l o f the o r a l s t o r y t e l l i n g t r a d i t i o n . They are a l s o a means by which R a b e l a i s can i n c o r p o r a t e word games which he loves d e a r l y . R a b e l a i s enjoys the process o f n a r r a t i o n as much as r e a c h i n g the g o a l of h i s n a r r a t i o n . The remainder of the s t o r y which i n c l u d e s two s h o r t poems i s quite v u l g a r but a l s o c o m i c a l , i n the sense t h a t t h i s i s a supposed c o n v e r s a t i o n among the gods and not a group of "macho-lumberjacks", bragging about t h e i r m a s c u l i n i t y . R a b e l a i s uses the v u l g a r to b r i n g the gods down to a human l e v e l , sex-- u a l i t y being a normal and h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n . Before t a k i n g the reader back to the s t o r y o f C o u i l l a t r i s , R a b e l a i s concludes the s t o r y of the assembly of the gods. J u p i t e r renders a judgement r e g a r d i n g the l o s t axe based on "m e d i o c r i t e " . By having Mercury o f f e r C o u i l l a t r i s a choice of axe s - - h i s own, a s i l v e r one and a gold o n e — J u p i t e r i s t e s t i n g the woodcutter to see i f he i s t r u l y a man of "mediocre" wishes. J u p i t e r o r d e r s Mercury to g i v e C o u i l l a t r i s the s i l v e r and g o l d axes i f the man chooses h i s own axe, but ord e r s Mercury to behead him i f he should l a y c l a i m to an axe t h a t i s not h i s own. The woodcutter r e f u s e s the s i l v e r and go l d axes and takes h i s own, promising a s a c r i f i c e to J u p i t e r i f he l e t s 107 him keep the axe. Mercury's answer i s as f o l l o w s : E t , pour ce que as opte e t soubhaite m e d i o c r i t e en matiere de coingnee, par l e v u e i l de J u p p i t e r j e t e donne ces deux a u l t r e s . (Q.L. p. 24) The phraseology "en matiere de..." makes the whole i n c i d e n t sound l i k e a v e r y important q u e s t i o n of law or theology. The author next shows us how C o u i l l a t r i s uses h i s new-found wealth. C o u i l l a t r i s ' s t o r y i s s i t u a t e d at Chinon, R a b e l a i s ' b i r t h p l a c e , where the woodcutter i n v e s t s the money from the s a l e of the s i l v e r and gold axes. We are given a d e t a i l e d account of C o u i l l a t r i s ' purchases: I I en achapte f o r c e m e s t a i r i e s , f o r c e granges, f o r c e censes, f o r c e mas, f o r c e bordes et bordieus, f o r c e c a s s i n e s , prez, v i g n e s , boys, t e r r e s l a b o u r a b l e s , p a s t i s , estangs, moulins, j a r d i n s , s a u l s a y e s ; beufz, vaches b r e b i s , moutons, chevres, t r u y e s , pourceaulx, asnes, chevaulx, p o u l l e s , cocqs, chappons, p o u l l e t z , oyes, j a r s , canes, canars, et du menu. (Q.L. p. 25) A l l of the purchases are l a n d , r e a l e s t a t e or animals. C o u i l l a t r i s does not spend h i s new—found wealth f o o l i s h l y on l u x u r y goods,but stays c l o s e to a n a t u r a l l i f e , remaining b a s i c a l l y the same person he always was: a moderate man. He r e p r e s e n t s v a l u e s t h a t R a b e l a i s b e l i e v e s i n : a f r e e w i l l to choose between good and e v i l , each c a r r y i n g i t s j u s t reward. R a b e l a i s embraces the C o u i l l a t r i s i n c i d e n t as the p e r f e c t o p p o r t u n i t y to d i s c u s s human nature. He shows how C o u i l l a t r i s ' countrymen q u i c k l y become j e a l o u s of h i s . p r o s p e r i t y : e t f e u t , en l e u r s e s p r i t z , l a p i t i e . e t commiseration, que au paravant a v o i e n t du paouvre C o u i l l a t r i s , en envie changee de ses. r i c h e s ses tant. grandes e t inopinees.- (Q.L. p. 25) T h e i r main concern becomes f i n d i n g out how they too can f i n d 108 g r e a t e r wealth. In t h i s case they t h i n k that the answer l i e s i n l o s i n g t h e i r h a t c h e t s . Even the lower n o b i l i t y f o l l o w s u i t w i t h the peasants., s e l l i n g t h e i r swords i n order to pur-c h a s e axes simply to l o s e them. They are l i k e p i l g r i m s who t r a v e l l e d to Rome to buy a b l e s s i n g from a new Pope: Vous e u s s i e z proprement d i e t que f u s s e n t p e t i t z Romipetes, vendens l e l e u r , empruntans l ' a u l t r u y , pour achapter mandatz a t a s d'un pape nouvellement c r e e . (Q.L. p. 26) R a b e l a i s disapproved g r e a t l y of the p h i l o s o p h y that condoned the p r a c t i c e s t h a t enabled the buying of God's b l e s s i n g . As f a r as he was concerned God's l o v e and grace c o u l d not be purchased w i t h money and t h e r e f o r e anyone who p r o f i t t e d from such commerce was not a c t i n g a c c o r d i n g to the s p i r i t o f the Lord. For h i s time p e r i o d , R a b e l a i s was t r e a d i n g on very dangerous ground i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n on f r e e - w i l l and grace. The "narre" concludes w i t h Mercury o f f e r i n g a c h o i c e of three hatchets to every man who l o s t one. Each g r e e d i l y chooses the g o l d one and i n so doing i s beheaded. R a b e l a i s wants to impress upon h i s readers t h a t greed i s punished while moderation i s rewarded. The c o n c l u d i n g sentence of the "narre" i s l i k e the moral of Aesop's f a b l e "Voyla qu'advient a c e u l x q u i en s i m p l i c i t y soubhaitent et optent choses mediocres". (Q.L. p. 27) A r e t u r n to the " d e v i s " occurs with the l a s t four para-g r a p h s o f the prologue and the d i a l o g u e between author and reader resumes. We s h a l l examine t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i n d e t a i l l a t e r . L e t us now t u r n to the s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e s of the pro--logue which a l s o need to be examined i n d e t a i l i n order to a p p r e c i a t e f u l l y the r i c h R a b e l a i s i a n language. 109 A t y p i c a l f e a t u r e of R a b e l a i s ' work i s word-accumulation, sometimes to show h i s v a s t knowledge of a c e r t a i n s u b j e c t , but mostly f o r the s o n o r i t y and the sheer joy of expending v e r b a l energy. An example of t h i s can be found near the be-- g i n n i n g of the prologue, when R a b e l a i s d e a l s w i t h the theme of h e a l t h . As the most important element of l i f e i t should be c h e r i s h e d and i f lost searched for: "dessoubz, davant, d a r r i e r e , a d extre, a s e n e s t r e , dedans, dehors, l o i n g ou p r e s " . (Q.L. p. 13) T h i s accumulation of adverbs shows R a b e l a i s ' enthusiasm which he t r a n s f e r s to the reader i n p a r t due to the: r e p e t i t i o n of "d". Almost a l l the words are made from two s y l l a b l e s i n -d i c a t i n g p l a c e and almost a l l p l a c e s are imaginable. Accumulation i s a l s o used to d e s c r i b e what C o u i l l a t r i s buys w i t h the money he r e c e i v e s f o r the gold and s i l v e r axes. I t has an overwhelming e f f e c t l i k e h i s new-found wealth. L i k e a poet R a b e l a i s o f t e n uses a l l i t e r a t i o n to g i v e h i s w r i t i n g a rhythmic q u a l i t y : a s i s e v i d e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : Sans sante n'est l a v i e que langueur; l a v i e n'est que simulachre de mort. A i n s i doncques vous, estans de sante p r i v e z , c ' e s t a d i r e mors, s a i s i s s e z vous du v i f , s a i s i s s e z vous de v i e , c ' e s t sante. (Q.L. p. 14) The r e p e t i t i o n of the "v" and "s" sounds a l s o draws the reader's a t t e n t i o n to the content as w e l l as form. R a b e l a i s does not h e s i t a t e to i n c o r p o r a t e a l i t t l e rhyme i n h i s prose near the end of the prologue: Au s o i r un chascun d'eulx eut l e s mules au t a l o n , l e p e t i t cancre au menton, l a male toux au poulmon, 110 l a c a t a r r h e au gavion, l e gros f r o n c l e au c r o p i o n ; e t au d i a b l e l e boussin de pa i n pour s'escur.er l e s dents. (Q.L. p. 28) The author makes l i g h t o f a grave s i t u a t i o n by w r i t i n g about i t i n such a f a s h i o n . R a b e l a i s a l s o enjoys a p l a y on words and uses i t to pro--duce a comic e f f e c t whenever p o s s i b l e , both i n L a t i n and i n French. An example of t h i s i s when J u p i t e r says to Priapus i n L a t i n : "et habet tua mentula mentem". (Q.L. p. 18) L a t e r Priapus s u b s t i t u t e s "mentule" f o r "memoire" on two d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s : "Et me soubvient (car j'ay mentule, voyre d i z j e memoire b i e n b e l l e ) " (Q.L. p. 22) and then l a t e r "(6 b e l l e mentule, v o i r e , d i z j e , memoireI j e s o l o e c i s e souvent en l a s y m b o l i s a t i o n e t c o l l i g u a n c e de ces deux motz)". (Q.L. p. 22) A v a r i a t i o n on the word " s a v i o u r " i s present a t the beginning o f the prologue when Rab e l a i s s u b s t i t u t e s the word "Servateur" 4 f o r "Salvateur" , which would make God our p r e s e r v e r i n s t e a d of our s a v i o u r . In the same quote there i s a l s o a m a n i p u l a t i o n of the word "emancipee". At the begin n i n g o f the q u o t a t i o n he uses i t ; to s i g n i f y t h a t h e a l t h has been l o s t o r f r e e d from the " s e i g n e u r i e " l i k e a s l a v e and then at the end of the q u o t a t i o n he simply drops the f i r s t l e t t e r and uses "mancipee" to i n d i c a t e t h a t h e a l t h has been found or s e i z e d , the o p p o s i t e o f f r e e d . A t times a word may have a double meaning as i n the case of "coingnee" which a c c o r d i n g to Priapus s i g n i f i e s a t o o l and a lo o s e woman. Ra b e l a i s a l s o i n v e n t s words. He does t h i s when he i s unable to f i n d j u s t the c o r r e c t word i n h i s v a s t vocabulary I l l or f o r the sheer p l e a s u r e of i n v e n t i n g and c r e a t i n g a c e r t a i n sound. An example of t h i s i s the a d j e c t i v e " g i m b r e t i l e -t o l l e t e e " which he i n v e n t s to d e s c r i b e the l o o s e woman. Th i s word i s perhaps d e r i v e d from "gimbreteux" meaning l a s c i v i o u s and " t o l l e r " meaning to take away. The tone of c o n v i v i a l i t y of t h i s prologue i s p a r t i a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d by way o f an o r a l s t y l e of w r i t i n g . R a b e l a i s uses language not normally seen i n p r i n t , at the beginning of the prologue: Ha, ha! Bien et beau s'en va Ouaresme! (Q.L. p. 11) and again near the end: Hay, hay, hay. Et de q u i estez vous a p p r i n s a i n s i d i s c o u r i r e i p a r l e r de l a puissance et p r a e d e s t i n a t i o n de- Dieu ' paouvres" gens? i P a i x i s t , st,. ;st;-~ h u m i l i e z Lvous davant sa sacree f a c e e t recongnoissez vos i m p e r f e c t i o n s . (Q.L. p. 28) Words l i k e "Ha", "hay", and " s t " are more o f t e n heard than seen i n w r i t i n g . In t e l l i n g the s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s , R a b elais s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s an u n l i k e l y mixture of f a b l e , mythology, the imaginary, and the r e a l . He s k i l f u l l y weaves together v u l g a r i t y w i t h e r u d i t i o n , f o r example, u s i n g L a t i n to say t h a t a penis has a mind of i t s own. He juxtaposes e l e v a t e d and v u l g a r s t y l e s with no qualms. Priapus i s d e s c r i b e d i n a s t a t e l y s t a h c e:"Priapus r e s t o i t debout au c o i n g de l a cheminee" (Q.L. p. 21), a s u f f i c i e n t l y d i g n i f i e d p o s i t i o n f o r a god, but then l a t e r i n the same paragraph he i s d e s c r i b e d as "exhibant son c o i n g n o u o i r d o d r e n t a l " (Q.L.p. 21), a p o s i t i o n l a c k i n g somewhat i n decorum. 112 R a b e l a i s a l s o mixes the a b s t r a c t w i t h the c o n c r e t e . He speaks o f h e a l t h a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the p r o l o g u e and t e l l s h i s l i s t e n e r s t h a t they s h o u l d l o o k f o r i t h i g h and low. He c o n t r a s t s an a b s t r a c t . i d e a , h e a l t h , w i t h c o n c r e t e p l a c e s where i t might be found. He uses the c o n c r e t e words " s e i g n e u r i e s " and " v o s ' t e r r i t o i r e s " to s i g n i f y the body. B r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r those two i n c o n g r u o u s a s p e c t s i s a l l p a r t o f R a b e l a i s i a n comedy and R a b e l a i s i a n s t y l e . The r a p p o r t between a u t h o r and r e a d e r remains to be s t u d i e d and t h i s can b e s t be done by t a k i n g a c l o s e r l o o k a t the " d e v i s " . The b e g i n n i n g o f the a u t h o r / r e a d e r d i a l o g u e shows a change i n the a u t h o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s a u d i e n c e . Here he a d d r e s s e s them s i m p l y as "Gens de b i e n , D i e u vous s a u l v e e t guard!" (Q.L. p. 11); h i s f e e l i n g s a r e unambiguous. T h i s t i m e t h e r e i s no i n t e r m e d i a r y between the r e a d e r s and God. T h i s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t change from the form o f address used i n t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e p r o l o g u e s . I n the f i r s t p a ragraph R a b e l a i s c a l l s o u t "Ou e s t e z vous? Je ne vous peuz v e o i r " . (Q.L. p. 11) T h i s l i g h t h e a r t e d tone c o n t i n u e s i n the second p a r a g r a p h where t h e a u t h o r i s q u i t e j o v i a l , and, h a v i n g put on h i s g l a s s e s e x c l a i m s : "Ha, Ha! B i e n e t beau s'en va Quaresmel Je vous voy" (Q.L. p. 1 1 ) — a l l p a r t o f the here and now o f a p r i v a t e f r i e n d l y c o n v e r s a t i o n . The p r i o r quote "Ou e s t e z vous? J e ne vous peuz v e o i r . A t t e n d e z que j e chausse mes l u n e t t e s ! " (Q.L. p. 11), was. a common j o k e b u t a l s o hints t h a t R a b e l a i s ' p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n 113 might be d e t e r i o r a t i n g ^ Poor eye-sight i s one of the signs of o l d age. Rabelais would now be between 58 and 70 years of age (depending on which date of b i r t h one accepts, 1494 or 1482). His preoccupation w i t h h e a l t h i s thus understandable. I t i s perhaps t h i s f a c t that i n s p i r e d him to w r i t e on h e a l t h and moderation, two aspects of l i f e he was f a m i l i a r w i t h and the t r u e value of which he knew w e l l , being both a doctor and a p r i e s t . The tone of the f r i e n d l y l i t t l e chat between author and reader continues w i t h Rabelais showing an i n t e r e s t i n the grape harvest, common i n h i s part of France: "et doncques? Vous avez eu bonne vinee, a ce que l'on m'a d i e t " . (Q.L. p. 11) He i s concerned about t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g . A good harvest means pros-p e r i t y and p l e n t y f o r h i s l i s t e n e r s . The h e a l t h theme which predomina tes i n the f o u r t h prologue becomes more e x p l i c i t i n the second paragraph. As i f he were an'old f r i e n d , the author continues to express h i s concern f o r h i s l i s t e n e r s , e n q uiring a f t e r the h e a l t h of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . "Vous, vos femmes, enfans, parens et f a m i l i e s , estez en sante desiree? Cela va b i e n , c e l a e s t bon, c e l a me p l a i s t " . (Q.L. p. 11) The tone here i s one of warmth and kindness. Rabelais now turns more s p e c i f i c a l l y to h i s own h e a l t h : Quant e s t de moy, par sa s a i n c t e b e n i g n i t e , j'en suys l a , et me recommande. Je suys, moiennant un peu de Pantagruelisme (vous entendez que c'est c e r t a i n e gayete d ' e s p r i t c o n f i c t e en mespris des choses f o r t u i t e s ) , s a i n et degourt; p r e s t a b o i r e , s i voulez. (Q.L. pp. 11, 12) Being i n good h e a l t h , as i s h i s p u b l i c , the author presents h i s g r e e t i n g s , recommending himself and h i s book at the same time. 114 Rabelais i s being quite modest here and does not display any of the forcefulness which was at times prevalent i n the previous prologues. The second sentence: "Je suys, moiennant un peu de Pantagruelisme (...) sain et degourt;" indicates an acceptance for what cannot be avoided. Rabelais seems to have made peace with what l i f e has handed him. The l a s t part of that sentence "prest a boire, s i voulez" shows a willingness to get on with l i f e and enjoy what he can along with others. S t i l l developing the health theme, Rabelais quotes from the Bible:"Medecin, o, gueriz toymesmes".(Luc, IV, 23) (Q.L. p. 12) This, i s an i n v i t a t i o n to moderation," not(:'- to be overly arrogant but to be more humble and to practice what one preaches. In this way Rabelais i s able to introduce his sub-theme: doctors, a favorite subject of r i d i c u l e and c r i t i c i s m . This theme i s 5 further developed with a reference to C l . Galen , a famous doctor who died i n 201 A.D. at the age of 70. Rabelais shows that Galen feared a fate that Euripides wrote about: Medicin est des aultres en e f f e c t ; ^ Toutesfois est d'ulceres tout i n f e c t . (Q.L. p. 12) To impart an a i r of authority to his statement Rabelais gives a l i s t of references, a l b e i t f a l s e , when r e f e r r i n g to Galen, for example, " l i b . 2, De usu partium, l i b . 2, De d i f f e r e n t i i s pulsuum, cap. 3, et ibidem, l i b . 3, cap. 2, et l i b . De rerum aff e c t i b u s " . (Q.L. p. 12) A doctor cannot, Rabelais believes, be entrusted with someone else's health unless his own i s good. Quoting from Galen, he states: Car (diet i l l i b . 5. De sanit. tuenda) d i f f i c i l e m e n t sera creu l e medicin avoir soing de l a sante d'aultruy, 115 q u i de l a sienne propre e s t n e g l i g e n t . (Q.L. p. 12) R a b e l a i s a l s o r e f e r s to A s c l e p i a d e s who f i n a l l y d i e d i n h i s o l d age, not as a r e s u l t of any p a r t i c u l a r i l l n e s s but because he f e l l o f f a p o o r l y maintained s t a i r c a s e . A c c o r d i n g to R a b e l a i s , h e a l t h i s the most important element of l i f e . I f h i s readers should be so u n f o r t u n a t e as to l o s e t h e i r good h e a l t h , R a b e l a i s prays t h a t they come ac r o s s i t and h o l d on to i t : S i , par quelque d e s a s t r e , s ' e s t sante de vos seigneu-- r i e s emancipee, quelque p a r t , dessus, dessoubz, davant d a r r i e r e , a dextre, a senestre, dedans, dehors, l o i n g ou pres vos t e r r i t o i r e s q u ' e l l e s o i t , l a p u i s s i e z vous i n c o n t i n e n t avecques 1'ayde du b e n o i s t Servateur r e n c o n t r e r ! En bonne heure de vous rencontree, sus 1 ' i n s t a n t s o i t par vous asseree, s o i t par vous v e n d i --quee, s o i t par vous s a i s i e et mancipee. Les l o i g s vous l e permettent, l e Roy 1'entend, j e l e vous c o n s e i l l e . (Q.L. p. 13) This, quotation s t i l l f i t s into- the realm of k i n d l y concern expressed by R a b e l a i s f o r h i s l i s t e n e r s . R a b e l a i s ' statements about the value of good h e a l t h are very s t r o n g indeed. He i s preoccupied w i t h the i d e a : Sans sante n'est l a v i e , n'est l a v i e v i v a b l e : (...) Sans sante n'est l a v i e que langueur; l a v i e n'est que simulachre de mort. A i n s i doncques vous, estans de sante p r i v e z , c ' e s t a d i r e mors, s a i s i s s e z vous du v i f , s a i s i s s e z vous de v i e , c ' e s t sante. (Q.L. p. 14) I t i s as i f he were speaking from experience and wanting to share i t w i t h o t h e r s . Age i s o f t e n equated w i t h wisdom and R a b e l a i s wants h i s l i s t e n e r s to p r o f i t i n some way from what he has experienced. In the f i r s t h a l f of the " d e v i s " , the p a r t which precedes the "narre", R a b e l a i s i s not at a l l a g g r e s s i v e towards h i s p u b l i c . This changes somewhat as we 1 1 6 s h a l l see l a t e r i n the second h a l f of the " d e v i s " which f o l l o w s the "narrg". In the t r a n s i t i o n from " d e v i s " to "narre" the s t y l e of w r i t i n g d e p i c t s a d i a l o g u e between s t o r y t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r . The paragraph i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n i s very o r a l i n c h a r a c t e r : A propos de soubhaictz mediocres en matiere de coingnee (advisez quand sera temps de b o i r e ) , j e vous r a c o n t e r a y ce qu'est e s c r i p t parmy l e s apologues du sage Aesope l e F r a n c o i s . (Q.L. p. 15) The tone R a b e l a i s adopts here i s ve r y f a m i l i a r , e s p e c i a l l y with the a s i d e i n p a r e n t h e s i s to the l i s t e n e r s g i v i n g them p e r m i s s i o n t o i n t e r r u p t him, sa y i n g t h a t i f he goes on too long, they can take a d r i n k . The second h a l f of t h a t sentence i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t with the f i r s t . I t d e a l s with the genealogy of Aesop: ... j':entends - Phrygien et T r o i a n , comme afferme Max. Planudesy duquel peuple, s e l o n l e s p l u s v e r i d i q u e s chroniqueurs, sont l e s nobles F r a n c o i s descenduz. A e l i a n e s c r i p t q u ' i l f e u t T h r a c i a n ; Agathias, apres Herodote, q u ' i l e s t o i t Samien: ce m'est t o u t un. (Q.L. p. 15) R a b e l a i s ' memory perhaps f a i l s him i n g i v i n g these d e t a i l s but f o r him the impression of e r u d i t i o n i s as important a t times as i t s accuracy. The paragraph ends on a f a m i l i a r note however, wit h the author s a y i n g : "ce iii-1 e s t t o u t un" (Q.L. p. 15), imp l y i n g t h a t the o r i g i n s of the French or of Aesop are of l i t t l e importance to him, c r e a t i n g an e f f e c t o f double i r o n y . R a b e l a i s a l s o i n t e r r u p t s the "narre" w i t h a l i t t l e a s i d e i n p a r e n t h e s i s made to h i s readers "(comme vous sgavez que N e c e s s i t y f e u t i n v e n t r i c e d'Eloquence)". (Q.L. p. 16) An i n t e r j e c t i o n o f t h i s type s u s t a i n s the c o n t a c t between author 117 and reader e s t a b l i s h e d i n the " d e v i s " and u n d e r l i n e s the s t o r y -- t e l l e r ' s presence i n the "narre". With the l a s t four paragraphs of the prologue, R a b e l a i s r e t u r n s to the realm of the " d e v i s " : the d i a l o g u e between author and reader. He begins i t w i t h an imperative sentence "Prenez y tous exemple. (0.L. p. 27) L i s t e n e r s should l e a r n something from the t a l e of C o u i l l a t r i s he has recounted, namely to be moderate i n t h e i r prayers to God. Prayers made to God i n h u m i l i t y are answered but arrogant ones are not. R a b e l a i s g i v e s an example of what happens to those who do not wish w i t h " m e d i o c r i t e " : Au s o i r un chascun d'eulx eut l e s mules au t a l o n , l e p e t i t cancre au menton, l a male toux au poulmon, l e c a t a r r h e au.gavion, l e gros f r o n c l e au c r o p i o n ; e t au d i a b l e l e b oussin de p a i n pour s'escurer l e s dents. (Q.L. -p. 28) These u n s i g h t l y and p a i n f u l a f f l i c t i o n s c ould await those l i s t e n e r s who do not take R a b e l a i s a d v i c e and l e a r n from h i s example. The f r i e n d l y tone of the f i r s t h a l f of the author/ reader d i a l o g u e i s tempered here with what c o u l d e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a t h r e a t . The second to l a s t paragraph d e a l s with the major theme of the "narre", namely moderation or " m e d i o c r i t e " . R a b e l a i s t e l l s h i s l i s t e n e r s : "Soubhaitez doncques m e d i o c r i t e : e l l e vous adviendra; e t encores mieulx, deument ce pendent labourans et t r a v a i l l a n s " . (Q.L. p. 28) I t i s not enough to pray simply f o r what one wants i n l i f e . God wants to see us put i n an honest day's work f o r our g a i n s . In the same paragraph R a b e l a i s scolds those who question the w i l l and power of God: Hay, hay, hay. Et de qui estez vous apprins a i n s i d i s c o u r i r et parler de l a puissance et praedestination de Dieu, paouvres gens? Paix: st, st, s t ; humiliez vous davant sa sacree face et recongnoissez vos imper--fections. (Q.L. p. 28) Once again the f r i e n d l y tone that dominated the f i r s t half of the "devis" i s replaced by warnings not aimed d i r e c t l y at his l i s t e n e r s but at those who are not humble before God. The cl o s i n g paragraph of the prologue takes the reader back to the beginning and one of the p r i n c i p a l themes, health je fonde mon esperance, et croy fermement que, s ' i l p l a i s t au bon Dieu, vous obtiendrez sante, veu que r i e n plus que sante pour l e present ne demandez. (Q.L. p. 28) This statement shows Rabelais' firm b e l i e f that our health i s i n God's hands. Praying for health, not being an extravagant wish but one made i n moderation, i s sure to be answered. Rabelais digresses at this point by telling a l i t t l e story to i l l u s t r a t e his point according to B i b l i c a l t r a d i t i o n . He t e l l s of two thieves from Genoa who greeted potential victims with the salutation: "Health and wealth, s i r " . Because the thieves were not s a t i s f i e d with health, but sought after wealth, j u s t i c e would have i t that they were often l e f t with neither. The l a s t sentence of the prologue however, seems to have l i t t l e connection with the rest of the paragraph. It i s an i n v i t a t i o n to drink and l i s t e n to the story of Pantagruel: Or, en bonne sante toussez un bon coup, beuvez en t r o i s , secouez dehait vos a u r e i l l e s , et vous oyrez dire merveilles du noble et bon Pantagruel. (Q.L. p. 29) 119 But the words "en bonne sante" maintain a l i n k w i t h R a b e l a i s ' p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h e a l t h i n t h i s prologue. T h i s ending i s very d i f f e r e n t .irom the preceding prologues where the reader i s c o n f r o nted w i t h a l l s o r t s of abuses, harsh and m i l d , and t o l d to l i s t e n to what was about to f o l l o w . T h i s ending, however, resembles the l a s t sentence of the prologue to Gargantua because o f the i n v i t a t i o n to d r i n k and l i s t e n : "vous soubvienne de boyre a my pour l a p a r e i l l e e t je vous plegeray t o u t ares metys". (G. p. 9), the p e r f e c t s i t u a t i o n f o r l i s t e n i n g to a s t o r y . The prologue to Le Quart L i v r e i s most l i k e the t h i r d prologue. Each i s comprised of t h r e e p a r t s : " d e v i s " , "narre", " d e v i s " . I t i s however even longer and more complex i n s t r u c t u r e than the t h i r d as we s h a l l see l a t e r . The f o u r t h prologue d i f f e r s from the f i r s t two because of i t s complexity and be--cause i t does not e x h i b i t the same tone of the marketplace. The tone here i s one of f r i e n d l y c o n v i v i a l i t y one might f i n d i n a room where an o l d man i s t e l l i n g s t o r i e s to h i s d r i n k i n g companions. In t h i s prologue, R a b e l a i s does not have to e s t a b l i s h h i s c r e d i b i l i t y as a w r i t e r . He has proved h i m s e l f through the three books t h a t precede t h i s one. The f o u r t h prologue i s a means by which the author can impart some of the wisdom t h a t comes with age to h i s r e a d e r s . Having d i s c u s s e d the n a r r a t i v e techniques of " d e v i s " and "narre" we w i l l now t u r n our a t t e n t i o n to a study of the time of n a r r a t i o n , of the n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s , and of person. Focusing on" the time of n a r r a t i o n we can see t h a t the " d e v i s " i s w r i t t e n i n the present tense. "Gens de b i e n , Dieu 120 vous saulve et guard'. Ou estez vous? Je ne vous peuz v e o i r . Attendez que je chausse mes lunettes'.". (Q.L. p. 11) R a b e l a i s i s speaking to an audience whose presence he can f e e l but which he pretends to be unable to see due to h i s f a i l i n g e y e s i g h t . T h i s i s c o n c r e t e s y m b o l i z a t i o n of a r e a l s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e the w r i t e r of a book cannot have d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s r e a d e r s . R a b e l a i s t r i e d to c o u n t e r a c t t h i s f a c t i n the p r e v i o u s three prologues but as Screech points out: "the new spacious prologue to the Quart L i v r e a l l sense of d i s t a n c e between R a b e l a i s the 7 man and R a b e l a i s the masked author i s dropped". The second h a l f of the " d e v i s " i s a l s o w r i t t e n i n the p r e s e n t tense. A f t e r t e l l i n g the s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s , R a b e l a i s s t a t e s : "Prenez y tous exemple..." (Q.L. p. 27) and " A u s s i , voyez vous par experience que...". (Q.L. p. 27) The "narre" i t s e l f i s w r i t t e n i n the past tense as i s , of course, u s u a l : "De son temps e s t o i t un pauvre...". (Q.L. p. 15) T h i s prologue, l i k e the other three i s thus w r i t t e n e s s e n t i a l l y i n the present tense. The p r e s e n t . c r e a t e s the f i c t i o n of a l i s t e n e r who i s p r e s e n t " i n f r o n t of the author, l i s t e n i n g to him. I t makes the t e x t more immediate and strengthens the author/reader r e l a t i o n s h i p . The secondary s t o r i e s are t o l d i n the p a s t tense but even they use the p r e s e n t tense to a g r e a t extent because the c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n use d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e . In the p r e v i o u s three chapters we e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the prologues are separate from the books they precede and t h a t the n a r r a t i n g of the prologues i s an e x t r a d i e g e t i c a c t . The : 121 prologues are not p a r t of the s t o r y l i n e t h a t makes up the book, • i n the case of Quart L i v r e , the voyages to the d i f f e r e n t i s l a n d s . Yet some c r i t i c s see the prologue as a key to i n t e r p r e t i n g the meaning and s t r u c t u r e of the book t h a t f o l l o w s . The prologue, however, never touches upon any of the d e t a i l s of the book. T h i s prologue makes o n l y two r e f e r e n c e s to the book that f o l l o w s i t . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e occurs a t the beginning of the prologue and i t i s q u i t e vague: "Quant e s t de moy, par sa s a i n c t e b e n i g n i t e , j 1 en suys l a , e t me recommande. Je suys, moiennant un peu de Pantagruelisme". (Q.L. p. 11) The author recommends h i m s e l f as a v e s s e l of p a n t a g r u e l i c s p i r i t probably r e f e r r i n g to h i s p r e v i o u s books. The second r e f e r e n c e i s a t the very end of the prologue: "secouez d e h a i t vos a u r e i l l e s , et vous oyrez d i r e m e r v e i l l e s du noble e t bon P a n t a g r u e l " . (Q.L. p. 29) The prologue serves the same o v e r a l l purpose as i n the p r e v i o u s three books: i t c r e a t e s a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e between n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e and the s t o r y by i t s e x t r a d i e g e t i c a c t . The events recounted i n the prologue are d i e g e t i c , t h a t i s , p a r t of the u n i v e r s e of the s t o r y , recounted by the n a r r a t i v e . In the f o u r t h prologue as i n the t h i r d , not a l l recounted events are d i e g e t i c . There are i n s t a n c e s i n the prologue where the r e i s a s t o r y w i t h i n a s t o r y . Genette c a l l s t h i s phenomenon, second degree n a r r a t i v e or m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e . Although .-t h i s technique i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y p a r t of s t o r y t e l l i n g , Genette e x p l o r e s a new dimension d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to i t . T h i s new dimension examines the d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s connecting the 122 m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e to the f i r s t n a r r a t i v e i n t o which the former i s i n s e r t e d . The f i r s t type of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one of d i r e c t c a u s a l i t y where the m e t a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t i v e has an explanatory f u n c t i o n - . T h e r e f o r e the e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t r a i s o n d ' e t r e f o r the second degree n a r r a t i v e i s to answer the q u e s t i o n : "What events have l e a d to the present s i t u a t i o n ? " . The second type of r e l a t i o n s h i p i s thematic . I t i m p l i e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p of c o n t r a s t or analogy where there i s no s p e c i a l o r temporal c o n t i n u i t y between meta d i e g e s i s and d i e g e s i s . T h i s type of n a r r a t i v e has the " f u n c t i o n of persuading". The t h i r d type of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s t o r y l e v e l s has no e x p l i c i t causes. Here the a c t of n a r r a t i n g i t s e l f f u l f i l l s the " f u n c t i o n of d i s t r a c t i o n or o b s t r u c t i o n i n the d i e g e s i s " . I t postpones the u n f o l d i n g of events i n the d i e g e s i s . Through the t h r e e types of r e l a t i o n s h i p s mentioned above t h a t connect the two n a r r a t i v e s , the importance of the n a r r a t i n g i n s t a n c e grows with each one. In the f i r s t type of r e l a t i o n s h i p the l i n k i n g of the two l e v e l s i s d i r e c t and not achieved by way of the n a r r a t i v e . In the.rsecond type of r e l a t i o n s h i p the c o n n e c t i o n i s i n d i r e c t . I t i s achieved through the n a r r a t i v e which becomes i n d i s p e n s i b l e to the l i n k i n g of the two l e v e l s . In the t h i r d type of r e l a t i o n s h i p the m e t a d i e g e t i c content i s o f l i t t l e importance; what matters i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a r r a t i n g a c t and the present s i t u a t i o n . 123 In the prologue to Le Quart L i v r e there are s e v e r a l degrees of . n a r r a t i v e . There i s o f course the f i r s t degree n a r r a t i v e : the d i a l o g u e between the s t o r y t e l l e r and h i s l i s t e n e r s . The second degree n a r r a t i v e , the s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s , has the " f u n c t i o n of persuading", of e x e r t i n g an i n f l u e n c e on the d i e g e s i s or f i r s t degree n a r r a t i v e . R a b e l a i s t e l l s t h i s s t o r y i n o r d e r to convince h i s readers t h a t what he i s s a y i n g about " m e d i o c r i t e " i s t r u e . I t i s a l s o i n t e r r u p t e d by a t h i r d degree n a r r a t i v e : a d e s c r i p t i o n of the assembly of the gods. T h i s i n t e r r u p t i o n i s q u i t e lengthy and f u l f i l l s the " f u n c t i o n of d i s t r a c t i o n or o b s t r u c t i o n " . I t postpones the c o n c l u s i o n to the s t o r y about C o u i l l a t r i s . R a b e l a i s goes even f u r t h e r and i n s e r t s a f o u r t h degree n a r r a t i v e : P r i a p u s ' two s t o r i e s . T h i s n a r r a t i v e a l s o f u l f i l l s the " f u n c t i o n of d i s t r a c t i o n or o b s t r u c t i o n " because i t postpones J u p i t e r ' s judgement and the c o n c l u s i o n of the n a r r a t i v e about the assembly of the gods. The t r a n s i t i o n from one n a r r a t i v e l e v e l to another i s u s u a l l y achieved by the a c t of n a r r a t i n g . The second degree n a r r a t i v e i s i n t r o d u c e d by a comment l i k e : A propos de soubhaictz mediocres en matiere de coingnee (advisez quand sera temps de b o i r e ) , j e vous r a c o n t e r a y ce qu'est e s c r i p t parmy l e s apologues du sage AEsope l e F r a n c o i s . (Q.L. p. 16) The t h i r d degree n a r r a t i v e evolves from the ^story of C o u i l l a t r i s : Mais t a n t grande f e u t 1 1 exclamation de C o u i l l a t r i s q u ' e l l e f e u t en grand e f f r o y ouye on p l e i n c o n s e i l et c o n s i s t o i r e des Dieux. (Q.L. p. 16) T h i s type of comment serves as a p e r f e c t i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r another s t o r y . The f o u r t h degree n a r r a t i v e comes j u s t i n time to postpone 124 J u p i t e r ' s judgement on C o u i l l a t r i s ' axe and i n so doing end the t h i r d degree n a r r a t i v e . The t r a n s i t i o n i s not smooth but comes as a r a t h e r b l u n t i n t e r r u p t i o n , q u i t e out of p l a c e : Priapus r e s t o i t debout au c o i n g de l a cheminee. I I , entendent l e r a p p o r t de Mercure, d i s t en toute cour-- t o y s i e e t j o v i a l e honestete: "Roy J u p p i t e r , on temps que, par v o s t r e ordonnance et p a r t i c u l i e r b e n e f i c e , j ' e s t o i s guardian des j a r d i n s en t e r r e , j e notay que c e s t e d i c t i o n , coingnee, e s t equivocque a p l u s i e u r s choses. (Q.L. p. 21) With t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n Priapus s t a r t s to t e l l h i s s t o r y which i s n othing more than a comic i n t e r l u d e . A r e t u r n to the d i e g e s i s i s achieved by the f o l l o w i n g comment: "Voyla que c ' e s t . Voyla qu'advient a c e u l x q u i en s i m p l i c i t e s o ubhaitent et optent choses mediocres". (Q.L. p. 27) Other ""types of t r a n s i t i o n s Genette d e f i n e s as " t r a n s g r e s s i v e " : any i n t r u s i o n by the e x t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r or n a r r a t e e i n t o the d i e g e t i c u n i v e r s e (or by the d i e g e t i c c h a r a c t e r s i n t o a m e t a d i e g e t i c u n i v e r s e e t c . ) . ^ These "transitions . are c a l l e d "metalepses" . Although mainly a f e a t u r e of the modern n o v e l , they a l s o occur i n R a b e l a i s ' work. An example o f a metalepse i n t h i s prologue i s when R a b e l a i s addresses h i s readers w h i l e i n the midst of t e l l i n g the s t o r y of C o u i l l a t r i s : "(comme vous scavez que N e c e s s i t e f e u t . i n v e n t r i c e d'Eloquence)" (Q.L. p. 16) or near the end of the s t o r y when he i n t e r r u p t s with a r e f e r e n c e to Aesop: "Encore, d i e t l'apologue AEsopicque...".(Q.L. p. 26) Comments l i k e "Que vous en semble?" (Q.L. p. 28) addressed to the reader from the f i r s t degree n a r r a t i v e are a l s o metalepses. Yet they are not very d i s r u p t i v e . I n t e r r u p t i o n s of t h i s type can be a l s o found 125 i n B a l z a c . From our d i s c u s s i o n of n a r r a t i v e l e v e l i n Le Quart L i v r e we can see t h a t t h i s aspect i s developed and r e f i n e d to a f a r g r e a t e r degree than i n the previous t h r e e prologues. In the prologues to Pantagruel and Gargantua there was simply the f i r s t degree n a r r a t i v e and i n the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e there are two n a r r a t i v e l e v e l s . As R a b e l a i s becomes a more exper-i e n c e d w r i t e r , h i s books have a more complex n a r r a t i v e s t y l e . The t h i r d phase of our a n a l y s i s c e n t e r s on "person". Genette maintains t h a t the terms " f i r s t person" or " t h i r d person" n a r r a t i v e are inadequate. I t i s more important to d i s t i n g u i s h between the use of the " j e " by a n a r r a t o r who i s absent from the s t o r y he i s t e l l i n g or by a n a r r a t o r who i s pre s e n t as a c h a r a c t e r i n the s t o r y . The absent n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d h e t e r o d i e g e t i c and the pr e s e n t n a r r a t o r i s c a l l e d homo-- d i e g e t i c . Whether o r not the n a r r a t o r i s prese n t or absent from . the s t o r y l i n e o f the Quart L i v r e i s not c r u c i a l to our a n a l y s i s . We do know t h a t the many r e f e r e n c e s to " j e " and "moi", as w e l l as the r e f e r e n c e s to "vous" which i n t u r n imply the presence of " j e " , prove that the n a r r a t o r i s prese n t i n the prologue and we can t h e r e f o r e l a b e l i t as a homodiegetic n a r r a t i v e . In a l l , " j e " and i t s pronoun and a d j e c t i v e are used t w e n t y - f i v e times, c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s o f t e n , c o n s i d e r i n g the l e n g t h o f t h i s prologue, than i n the pre v i o u s prologues."*"^ T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , to a g r e a t e r expansion of the "narre" and to a l e s s e r preoccupa-t i o n , on the p a r t o f the author, w i t h h i s own r o l e i n the 126 prologue. The r o l e of the n a r r a t o r remains e x t r a d i e g e t i c -homodiegetic as i n the preceding three prologues. As o u t l i n e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapters, the n a r r a t o r a l s o has c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s to f u l f i l l , a p a r t from the " n a r r a t i n g f u n c t i o n " which c o n s i s t s of the n a r r a t o r t e l l i n g the s t o r y and which i s p r e s e n t i n a l l n a r r a t i v e s . We w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e f i r s t o f a l l on the " d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n " . T h i s f u n c t i o n i s o p e r a t i v e when the n a r r a t o r r e f e r s to the t e x t i n h i s d i s c o u r s e . In t h i s prologue the n a r r a t o r r e f e r s to h i s book o n l y once.. T h i s r e f e r e n c e i s a t the end of the prologue: "secouez d e h a i t vos a u r e i l l e s , e t vous oyrez d i r e m e r v e i l l e s du noble et bon P a n t a g r u e l " . (Q.L. p. 29) The d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n which was very important i n the f i r s t two prologues p l a y s a secondary r o l e i n the l a s t two. The author seems no longer concerned t h a t h i s book be accepted or read i n a s p e c i f i c f a s h i o n . The f a c t t h a t i t i s there seems to be enough f o r the mature author. Three f u n c t i o n s a f f e c t the n a r r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the Prologue. The purpose of the f i r s t , "the f u n c t i o n of communi-- c a t i o n " , i s to keep the c o n t a c t between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e open. R a b e l a i s i s very conscious of the importance of e s t a b l i s h -i n g a base f o r t h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p . The prologue i t s e l f p a r t i a l l y serves t h i s purpose.. As i n the preceding prologues, the b e g i n n i n g s e t s the scene f o r communication between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e : Gens de b i e n , Dieu vous saulve et guard 1 Ou estez vous? Je ne vous peuz v e o i r . Attendez que j e chausse mes l u n e t t e s I 127 Ha, ha! Bien et beau s'en va Quaresme! Je vous voy. Et doncques? Vous avez eu bonne vinee, a ce que l'on m'a d i e t . (Q.L. p. 11) The use of the vocative and interrogative, as well as i n t e r --jections l i k e "ha, ha" a l l lend an a i r of dialogue to the text. Rhetorical questions l i k e : "Me demandez vous pourquoy, gens de bien?" (Q.L. p. 12) also reinforce the impression that a channel of communication between narrator and narratee r e a l l y e x i s t s . Other comments the narrator makes in parentheses as asides to the narratee also strengthen the function of commun--i c a t i o n . A few examples of these types of comments are: (advisez quand sera temps de boire), . (Q.L. p. 15) (comme vous sgavez que Necessite feut inventrice d'Eloquence). (Q.L. p. 16) Cestuy en vostre advis e s t o i t i l desgouste? (Q.L. p. 27) Que vous en semble. (Q.L. p. 28) attendez encores un peu avecques demie once de patience (Q.L. p. 28) The imperative and the many vocatives ( f i f t y i n a l l ) serve the same purpose. We notice that the vocative i s used twice as often i n this prologue as i n the prologue to Le Tiers Livre. This prologue would seem therefore to focus on the narratee, whereas the t h i r d prologue focused on the narrator. In the previous three prologues there i s always some degree of.ambiguity regarding how Rabelais feels about his audience. He could be f l a t t e r i n g at one moment and abusive and i n s u l t i n g the next. These excesses seem to have disappeared altogether by the time the author writes Le Quart L i v r e . The second function "testimonial function", reveals the speaker's attitude toward his subject matter. Rabelais' attitude towards his books becomes less and less obvious with 128 each prologue. In the f i r s t prologue he t r i e s to convince the p u b l i c of the t r u t h f u l n e s s of P a n t a g r u e l . In the second prologue he t r i e s to t e l l h i s readers t h a t there i s more than one way to read a book, suggesting a profound meaning. In the t h i r d prologue he d e s c r i b e s the process of w r i t i n g a work of a r t and t r i e s to j u s t i f y i t s e x i s t e n c e . The f o u r t h prologue d e a l s with the themes of h e a l t h and moderation. The author, now e s t a b l i s h e d but aging, i s preoccupied w i t h d i f f e r e n t w o r r i e s . R a b e l a i s makes one vague r e f e r e n c e to h i s f o u r t h book t h a t shows how he f e e l s about i t . T h i s r e f e r e n c e comes i n the form of a recommendation of h i m s e l f : Quant e s t de moy, par sa s a i n c t e b e n i g n i t e , j'en suys l a , et me recommande. Je suys, moiennant un peu deyPantagruelisme (vous entendez que c ' e s t c e r t a i n e gayete d 1 e s p r i t c o n f i c t e en mespris des choses f o r -- t u i t e s ) . . . (Q.L. pp. 11, 12) The t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n i s not t h a t p r e v a l e n t i n t h i s prologue. I t was of much g r e a t e r importance i n the preceding three. The " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " , the l a s t of the three f u n c t i o n s concerning the n a r r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n i s u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from the " t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n " but i t seems more c l e a r l y d e f i n e d i n t h i s prologue. R a b e l a i s ' i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view r e g a r d i n g h e a l t h and moderation i s not so revo-- l u t i o n a r y t h a t he has to camouflage h i s o p i n i o n s . He makes r e f e r e n c e s to the medical p r o f e s s i o n but s i n c e he i s a d o c t o r h i m s e l f comments l i k e "Medecin, o, g u e r i z toymesmes" (Q.L. p. 12) are n e i t h e r too c r i t i c a l nor t h r e a t e n i n g . C r i t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g the church does not escape R a b e l a i s ' s k i l l f u l pen a l t o g e t h e r . 129 He makes a p o i n t of defending P i e r r e de Coingnet and a t t a c k i n g the p r a c t i c e of buying b l e s s i n g s (from a newly e s t a b l i s h e d r. Pope) . Of the f i v e f u n c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above, the predominant f u n c t i o n i n a l l f o u r prologues remains the f u n c t i o n of communi-- c a t i o n . In the f o u r t h prologue the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n p r e --dominates. We have seen a s u b t l e change i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i t h each prologue. In the f i r s t two prologues i t i s the f u n c t i o n of communication and the d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n that are most important. In the t h i r d prologue the t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n r e p l a c e s the d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n and i n the f o u r t h prologue the i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n r e p l a c e s the t e s t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n . Having d i s c u s s e d the f u n c t i o n s "of the n a r r a t o r , l e t us now study the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e . As w i t h a l l t h r e e p r e v i o u s p r ologues, t h i s prologue has an e x t r a d i e g e t i c n a r r a t o r and t h e r e f o r e the n a r r a t e e must a l s o be e x t r a d i e g e t i c . T h i s type o f n a r r a t e e i s e a s i l y confused w i t h the i m p l i e d reader with whom each r e a l reader i n t u r n i d e n t i f i e s . In the f o u r t h prologue the v o c a t i v e i s , once again, used e x t e n s i v e l y , approximately t w e n t y - f i v e - times at the beginning of the prologue and twenty-f i v e times at the end. R a b e l a i s uses the v o c a t i v e a t the b eginning i n order to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t between n a r r a t o r and n a r r a t e e and to capture h i s a t t e n t i o n f o r the d u r a t i o n of the second, t h i r d , and f o u t t h degree n a r r a t i v e s . The use of the v o c a t i v e a t the end of the prologue i s a form o f insurance t h a t the n a r r a t e e s t a y s under h i s s t o r y t e l l e r ' s s p e l l f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the book. 130 The tone Rabelais adopts to deal with the narratee i s u n l i k e any used i n the previous three prologues. He n e i t h e r elevates nor debases the narratee. His form of address i s "Gens de b i e n " i n the opening sentence and again i n the middle of the t h i r d paragraph. The narratee of paragraphs twenty-seven and twenty-eight does not seem to be the same type of person as at the beginning of the prologue. Here, Rabelais seems to be addressing a group that i s not e x e r c i s i n g modera-- t i o n : Prenez y tous exemple, vous a u l t r e s g u a l l i e r s de p l a t pays, q u i d i c t e z que, pour d i x m i l l e francs d ' i n --trade, ne q u i t t e r i e z vos soubhaitz; et desormais ne p a r l e z a i n s i impudentement, comme quelque foys je vous ay ouy soubhaitans. (Q.L. p. 27) This i s the c l o s e s t Rabelais gets to being abusive w i t h h i s readers. This i s c e r t a i n l y a departure from h i s previous prologues. The ending however, improves, once again, the s t a t u s of the narratee: Or, en bonne sante toussez un bon coup, beuvez en t r o i s , secouez dehait vos a u r e i l l e s , et vous oyrez d i r e m e r v e i l l e s du noble et bon Pantagruel. (Q.L. p. 29) The r o l e of the narratee remains an important one i n t h i s prologue as i t was i n the previous three. I t i s not a w e l l defined r o l e i n t h i s case. There are no d e s c r i p t i o n s of the narratee except f o r "gens de b i e n " (Q.L. p. 11) and "vous a u l t r e s g u a l l i e r s de p l a t pays" (Q.L. p. 27). The narratee i s simply i n v i t e d to l i s t e n and l e a r n from the s t o r i e s i n the prologue and to enjoy those i n the book to f o l l o w . This concludes the a n a l y s i s of the prologue to Le Quart 131 L i v r e based on Genette's method of studying " n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e " . We have d i s c u s s e d R a b e l a i s ' use of the time of n a r r a t i o n and have concluded that the predominant use of the p r e s e n t tense d i f f e r s l i t t l e from the p r e v i o u s prologues. We have seen t h a t the l e v e l s of n a r r a t i o n are more complex i n t h i s prologue than i n the p r e c e d i n g three. We have d i s c u s s e d the d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s of the n a r r a t o r and concluded t h a t the " f u n c t i o n of communication" and the " i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n " were the two predominant ones. F i n a l l y the r o l e of the n a r r a t e e was examined and we saw.that i t remains an important aspect of t h i s and the p r e v i o u s three prologues. The tone with which the author d e a l s w i t h the n a r r a t e e shows t h a t h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the reader has changed s u b s t a n t i a l l y . T h i s prologue, even more than the t h i r d , would seem to i n d i c a t e t h a t the author's experiences have helped produce the most complex of a l l the prologues and a s p e c i a l r e s p e c t f o r h i s p u b l i c . 132 NOTES CHAPTER FOUR 1 Margaret Spanos, "Functions of the Prologues i n the Works o f R a b e l a i s " Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 9 (Geneve: Droz, 197l),s pp. 29-48. 2 F r a n c o i s R a b e l a i s , Le Quart L i v r e , Oeuvres Completes, Tome I I . ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a r n i e r F r e r e s , 1962), p. 14. A l l f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s t e x t w i l l be designated as Q.L. f o l l o w e d by a page number. 3 "Legende ancienne rapportee par Ovide (Metamorphoses, V I I , v. 763 et suiv.) e t Pausanias (IX, 19), que Rab e l a i s emprunte a 1'Onomastication de J . P o l l u x (V,5)!'. (Q.L. p. 19, note 2) . 4 M.A. Screech, R a b e l a i s (Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r -s i t y P r e s s , 1979), p. 343. The term t h a t R a b e l a i s uses f o r Sav i o r God - "Dieu Servateur" - i s based on the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n term "Se r v a t o r " r a t h e r than on the C h r i s t i a n L a t i n " S a l v a t o r " . Renaissance s c h o l a r s o f t e n p r e f e r r e d the word "Servator", s i n c e i t kept the idea o f s a l v a t i o n but a l s o added the id e a of p r o t e c t i o n , dominant i n the c l a s s i c a l world. 5 R a b e l a i s was, no doubt, f a m i l i a r w i t h Galen's w r i t i n g s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t he would g i v e f a l s e r e f e r e n c e s to them. T h i s i s a ver s e w r i t t e n by E u r i p i d e s and quoted by Erasmus i n Adages IV, 4, 32. 7 Screech, p. 322. 8 Gerard Genette, N a r r a t i v e Discourse 1:' An Essay i n Method, Trans, by Jane E. Lewin (New York: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980). 9 Genette, pp. -234,235:. "•"^  "Je" i s used 21 times i n the prologue to Pantagruel, 14 times i n the prologue to Gargantua, and 60 times i n the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e . 133 CONCLUSION , Having examined each of the four prologues on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , ' weLmust; .nowS. ; c^ : draw some c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e i r development and p r o g r e s s i o n . With r e s p e c t t o content, the prologues become p r o g r e s s i v e l y more and more s e r i o u s . In the prologue to Pantagruel the o r a l a s pect of the marketplace t h a t R a b e l a i s was so f a m i l i a r w i t h , predominates. The author uses exaggeration and hyperbole to take .the reader in, j u s t as a marketplace vendor does with h i s p r o s p e c t i v e buyers. Here the novice author i s a c t u a l l y t r y i n g t o s e l l h i s book u s i n g every means of p e r s u a s i o n a v a i l a b l e t o • him. The'prologue to Gargantua is- twice as long and a l r e a d y shows a more s e r i o u s content. The author d e a l s with the problem of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : e x t e r i o r versus i n t e r i o r , appearances versus r e a l i t y . The atmosphere of the marketplace i s p a r t i a l l y aban-d o n e d f o r a d i s c u s s i o n t h a t focuses on Socr a t e s . R a b e l a i s uses the example o f the p h i l o s o p h e r to show how appearances can be d e c e i v i n g . In the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e the format of the pro-r o g u e changes. Instead ; of a simple d i s c o u r s e between author and reader, or t e l l e r and l i s t e n e r , R a b elais a l s o i n c l u d e s a s h o r t s t o r y about Diogenes to i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t . The author de a l s with the problem o f a c t i v i t y versus i d l e n e s s and the acceptance of new i d e a s . T h i s prologue s t i l l shows t h a t R a b e l a i s i s not completely a t ease with h i s readers i n s p i t e of the v a s t 134 p o p u l a r i t y o f h i s f i r s t two books. The theme of h e a l t h and moderation takes over the prologue to Le Quart L i v r e . T h i s i s the l o n g e s t of the fou r prologues we have s t u d i e d . I t i s a l s o the one t h a t shows us an author who i s a t ease with h i m s e l f and h i s audience. U n l i k e the preceding t h r e e , t h i s prologue conveys an atmosphere of con-v i v i a l i t y not y e t achieved by the o t h e r s . Each of the prologues i s w r i t t e n i n the present tense, s i n c e the prologues are seen as a c t u a l encounters between a s t o r y t e l l e r and h i s l i s t e n e r s . The past tense, however, i s used i n r e c o u n t i n g events t h a t have oc c u r r e d p r e v i o u s l y . As the content becomes more s e r i o u s , the s t r u c t u r e of the prologues a l s o becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y more e l a b o r a t e . The f i r s t two prologues are simple i n s t r u c t u r e . They are both w r i t t e n s t r i c t l y on the e x t r a d i e g e t i c l e v e l . The second and t h i r d p rologues are more complex, with second degree n a r r a t i v e s . The second degree n a r r a t i v e i n both Le T i e r s L i v r e and Le Quart L i v r e prologues serves the f u n c t i o n of p e r s u a s i o n , making use of a c o n v i n c i n g anecdote t o i l l u s t r a t e the author's p o i n t o f view. In the f o u r t h prologue there i s even a t h i r d degree n a r r a t i v e , the s t o r y about the c o u n c i l o f the gods, t h a t serves to postpone the c o n c l u s i o n o f the s t o r y about C o u i l l a t r i s , the second degree n a r r a t i v e . The r o l e o f the n a r r a t o r i s the same i n a l l f o u r prologues: e x t r a d i e g e t i c - h o m o d i e g e t i c . The presence of the n a r r a t o r i s s t r o n g l y f e l t throughout the prologues because " j e , vous" and t h e i r p o s s e s s i v e pronouns and a d j e c t i v e s are used f r e q u e n t l y , 135 as i s shown i n the t a b l e below: Pantagruel Gargantua Le T i e r s L i v r e Le Quart L i v r e j e 21 14 60 25 vous 22 40 25 50 A study of the n a r r a t o r ' s f u n c t i o n s showed t h a t communication was one of the two f u n c t i o n s always pre s e n t . T h i s c o r r o b o r a t e s our b e l i e f that the primary purpose of the prologues i s to e s t a b l i s h a r a p p o r t between author and reader. The other f u n c t i o n s were the d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n i n the f i r s t two prologues which supports the c o n c l u s i o n we a r r i v e d a t concerning the content o f the prologues: t h a t t h e i r main concern was with having the book accepted and how i t should be read. In the t h i r d prologue the second f u n c t i o n of the n a r r a t o r i s the t e s -t i m o n i a l f u n c t i o n , once again s u p p o r t i n g the c l a i m s o f the content. I t shows the author's s e r i o u s n e s s about what he i s saying r e g a r d i n g the acceptance o f new ideas and h i s r o l e as author. The i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i s the second most predominant f u n c t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r i n the prologue to Le Quart L i v r e and once again t h i s i s congruous with the content o f the prologue: the theme of h e a l t h and moderation. R a b e l a i s uses t h i s oppor-t u n i t y to w r i t e about h i s own b e l i e f s on the s u b j e c t . I t i s important a l s o to note the q u e s t i o n of a u t h o r s h i p of the prologues. In the f i r s t two books R a b e l a i s uses the pseudonym A l c o f r i b a s N a s i e r . Subsequently he uses h i s own name. In the prologue to Le T i e r s L i v r e he a l s o assumes the respon-s i b i l i t y f o r having w r i t t e n Pantagruel and Gargantua. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note how, 'Once'• the author has put h i s r e a l name 136 to h i s books, the d i r e c t i n g f u n c t i o n of the n a r r a t o r i s r e p l a c e d by the more p e r s o n a l t e s t i m o n i a l and i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t l e t the reader p e r c e i v e the author's ideas about h i s s u b j e c t s . The r o l e ' of the n a r r a t e e changes d r a s t i c a l l y from the prologue to Pantagruel to the prologue to Le Quart L i v r e . In the f i r s t prologue the n a r r a t e e i s s u b j e c t to e x c e s s i v e f l a t t e r y a t the opening and to e q u a l l y e x c e s s i v e abuse a t the c l o s e of the prologue. The prologue to Gargantua p r e s e n t s a n a r r a t e e with a more r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e . He i s given a c e r t a i n c h o i c e as to how to read and i n t e r p r e t the book the author i s i n t r o d u c i n g . From the t a b l e shown on the p r e c e d i n g page we can see t h a t the pronouns d e s i g n a t i n g the n a r r a t e e outnumber the pronouns des-i g n a t i n g the n a r r a t o r , almost three to one. The n a r r a t e e i n Le T i e r s L i v r e takes on a more s u b t l e r o l e . The i n i t i a t e d n a r r a t e e i s i n v i t e d t o d r i n k from the b a r r e l but the u n i n v i t e d One i s c u r s e d . In t h i s prologue the emphasis i s more on the n a r r a t o r s i n c e h e ' i s c o n c e r n e d with h i s w r i t i n g and f e e l i n g s of s e l f - d o u b t even more than he i s concerned with reader accept-a n c e . The l a s t prologue we looked a t shows us a n a r r a t e e t h a t i s not abused but i n v i t e d t o l i s t e n and l e a r n from a wise and aging n a r r a t o r . Once again the t a b l e on the preceding page p o i n t s out how the emphasis i s more on the n a r r a t e e than the n a r r a t o r i n t h i s prologue. Thus, t h i s study i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the n a r r a t e e p r o g r e s s i v e l y a c q u i r e s a more a c t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e r o l e i n the n a r r a t i v e , making him an equal p a r t n e r with the n a r r a t o r i n the pact of communication e s t a b l i s h e d i n the p r o l o g u e s . As the author gains 137 confidence i n himself he allows the l i s t e n e r a larger role i n his prologues. He no longer f e e l s the need to keep the narratee at a distance by use of abuse but can es t a b l i s h with him a f r i e n d l y and somewhat intimate r e l a t i o n s h i p . 138 BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Sources Genette, Gerard. F i g u r e s I I I . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1972. . N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e : An Essay i n Method. Trans. Jane E. Lewin. Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1980. R a b e l a i s , F r a n c o i s . Oeuvres Completes. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a r n i e r F r e r e s , 1962. 2 v o l s . Secondary Sources Books Auerbach, E r i c h . Mimesis: The Representation of R e a l i t y i n Western L i t e r a t u r e . Trans. W i l l a r d R. Trask. N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953. Bakhtin, M i k h a i l . R a b e l a i s and His World. Trans. Helene Iswolsky. Cambridge, Mass., and London: M.I.T. Press, 1968. Coleman, Dorothy. R a b e l a i s : A C r i t i c a l Study i n Prose F i c t i o n : Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1971. De Dieguez, Manuel. R a b e l a i s par lui-mem'e. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1960. De Greve, M a r c e l . L' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n de R a b e l a i s au XVI S i e c l e . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 3. Geneve: Droz, 1961. 139> G i r a u d , Yves, and Marc-Rene Jung. L i t t e r a t u r e f r a n g a i s e : La Renaissance, I, 1480-1548. C o l . d i r i g e e par Claude P i c h o i s 3. P a r i s : Arthaud, 1972. Glauser, A l f r e d . R a b e l a i s c r e a t e u r . P a r i s : N i z e t , 1966. Gray, F l o y d . R a b e l a i s e t l ' E c r i t u r e . P a r i s : N i z e t , 1974. Greene, Thomas, M. R a b e l a i s : A Study i n Comic Courage. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1970. e Huguet, Edmond. D i c t i o n n a i r e de l a langue f r a n g a i s e du 16 s i e c l e . . P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Ancienne Edouard Champion, 1925-1967. 7 v o l s . McLuhan, M a r s h a l l . The Guttenberg Galaxy: The making of typographic man. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962. P l a t t a r d , Jean. The L i f e of F r a n g o i s R a b e l a i s . Trans. L o u i s P. Roche. 1930| r p t . London: Frank Cass, 1968. P a r i s , Jean. R a b e l a i s au f u t u r . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l . C o l . Change, 1970. R i g o l o t , F r a n g o i s . Les Langages de R a b e l a i s . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 10. Geneve: Droz, 1972. Screech, M.A. R a b e l a i s . Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979. Vachon, G. - Andre. R a b e l a i s t e l q u e l . Montreal: Les Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e de Montreal, 1977. A r t i c l e s Coleman, Dorothy. "The Prologues of R a b e l a i s . The Modern 140 Language Review, LXII (1967), pp. 407-419. Gendre, Andre.. "Le prologue de Pantagruel, l e prologue de Gargantua: examen comparatif". Revue d ' H i s t o i r e L i t t e r a i r e de l a France, 1 (1974), pp. 3-19. Gray, F l o y d . "Ambiguity and P o i n t of View i n the Prologue to Gargantua". Romanic Review, (Feb. 1965), pp. 12-21. . " S t r u c t u r e and Meaning i n the Prologue to the T i e r s L i v r e " . L ' E s p r i t c r e a t e u r , I I I , 2 (Summer, 1963), pp. 57-62. K i t t a y , J e f f r y , S. "From T e l l i n g to T a l k i n g : A Study of S t y l e and Sequence i n R a b e l a i s " . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 14. Geneve: Droz, 1977, pp. 109-218. R i g o l o t , F r a n g o i s . "Cratylisme e t Panta g r u e l : R a b e l a i s e t l e s t a t u t du s i g n e " . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 13. Geneve: Droz, 1976. pp. 115-132. . "Semiotique de l a Sentence e t du Proverbe chez R a b e l a i s " . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s 14. Geneve: Droz, 1977, pp. 277-286. Spanos, Margaret. "Functions o f the Prologues i n the Works of R a b e l a i s " . Etudes R a b e l a i s i e n n e s , 9. Geneve: Droz, pp. 29-48. 

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