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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A comparison of the NDP and Social Credit Agricultural Land Commission policy Cocking, Florence Irene 1982

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A COMPARISON OF THE NDP AND SOCIAL CREDIT AGRICULTURAL LAND COMMISSION POLICY by FLORENCE IRENE COCKING B.A. , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P o l i t i c a l Science We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA c ) Florence Irene Cocking, 1982 MASTER OF ARTS i n October 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of P n i i t i r a i S M P T H - P The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date O c t o b e r 19, 1982. DE-6 n/R-n i i i A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s c o n s i d e r s two q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , why i n s p i t e o f i t s i d e o l o g i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t o the Land Commission A c t d i d t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t government formed i n 1975 not a b o l i s h the P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission c r e a t e d by the NDP? S e c o n d l y , i n what ways, i f any, has the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t d i f f e r e d from t h e NDP a p p o i n t e d commission and the NDP c a b i n e t ? A f t e r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l e g i s l a t i o n , t he Canada Land I n v e n t o r y s ystem and b o t h t h e NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n s , I argue t h a t the c o m p l e x i t y o f i s s u e s a t s t a k e and t h e c o a l i t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s s u p p o r t i n g t he l a n d commission, made i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r the government t o a b o l i s h the l a n d commission. These i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e t h o s e of f a r m e r s , who as i n d i v i d u a l s may w i s h t o d e v e l o p t h e i r l a n d , b u t , c o l l e c t i v e l y have a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the r e s e r v e s ; d e v e l o p e r s who want ,to r e a l i z e the l a r g e c a p i t a l g a i n s from c o n v e r t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l or r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , b u t , who r e p r e s e n t a n u m e r i c a l l y s m a l l group; m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , who a r e caught between t h e need f o r expanded t a x revenues and the i n c r e a s e d c o s t s f o r s e r v i c e s t h a t accompanies d e v e l o p -ment; and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s who have t o b a l a n c e the competing i n t e r e s t s o f the member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the government t o government e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s made under s e c t i o n 11(1) o f the p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land  Commission Act,, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t he S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t he l a n d r e s e r v e system, has a l l o w e d more e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s i n e v e r y c a t e g o r y o f l a n d than had the NDP a p p o i n t e d . c o m m i s s i o n and the NDP c a b i n e t , and t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two was s t r o n g e s t f o r prime l a n d , the most c r i t i c a l c a t e g o r y . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s was not an a c c i d e n t a l e f f e c t o f e i t h e r an i n c r e a s e i n h o u s i n g demands d u r i n g the S o c i a l C r e d i t p e r i o d o r o f a m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s by wh i c h the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s u b m i t t e d more s o p h i s t i c a t e d e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s and s u g g e s t s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e the NDP and the S o c i a l C r e d i t a r e the p r o d u c t o f d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o development and p l a n n i n g . ' i v . ^ T a b l e of C o n t e n t s T i t l e A b s t r a c t T a b l e of C o n t e n t s L i s t of. T a b l e s Acknowledgement I n t r o d u c t i o n Chapter I The Land F r e e z e B i l l 42 The Land Commission A c t The 19.77 Amendments t o the Land Commission A c t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the A c t and the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y System F i n e T u n i n g The NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Commissions Ch a p t e r I I The Land Farmers as I n d i v i d u a l s Farmers as a C o l l e c t i v i t y B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y Land D e v e l o p e r s \ M u n i c i p a l i t i e s R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s Lower M a i n l a n d M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e Other I n t e r e s t Groups Ch a p t e r I I I C o n c l u s i o n s B i b l i o g r a p h y L i s t o f T a b l e s T i t l e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. C u r r e n t ALR A r e a by R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t as o f A p r i l 1, 1981 ( I n H e c t a r e s ) . Comparison of NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Land Commission E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) . Comparison of NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) . Comparison o f the NDP A p p o i n t e d Land Commission and the NDP C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r Prime and C l a s s 4 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 11(1) J u l y 1, 1974, t o December 11, 1975. Comparison of the S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Land Commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r Prime and C l a s s 4 A g r i -c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) , O c t o b e r 8, 1976, t o J a n u a r y 15, 1981. Comparison of the NDP A p p o i n t e d Land Commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n R a t e s f o r Prime and C l a s s 4 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 11(1) December 12, 1975, t o October 7, 1976. v i . Acknowledgement I would l i k e t o thank A l a n C a i r n s , Don B l a k e and Gary Munro of t h e P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Department and e s p e c i a l l y R i c h a r d J o h n s t o n whose i n v a l u a b l e s u g g e s t i o n s and encouragement were e s s e n t i a l t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . J i m B r u t o n a s s i s t e d me w i t h the m y s t e r i e s o f the computer, f o r w h i c h I am g r a t e f u l . I would a l s o l i k e t o thank J a n O ' B r i e n f o r h e r a s s i s t -ance and s u p p o r t . Karen J a c k s o n was v e r y h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , f o r . w h i c h I am v e r y a p p r e c i a t i v e . The s t a f f a t the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission o f f i c e were u n f a i l i n g l y h e l p f u l and my s p e c i a l t h a n k s . a r e due t o Rose L a n g s t o n and E v e r e t t Lew f o r t h e i r generous a s s i s t a n c e and p a t i e n c e . INTRODUCTION The Land Commission A c t was one of the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o l i c i e s i n -t r o d u c e d by the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP) d u r i n g i t s b r i e f , f r a n t i c r e i g n i n B r i t i s h Columbia between 1972 and 1 975. 1 Perhaps more than any o t h e r NDP l e g i s l a t i o n , the f a r m l a n d f r e e z e and the subsequent Land Commission A c t sym-b o l i z e d the i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s d e c l a i m e d i n t h e e x a g g e r a t e d r h e t o r i c o f 2 the S o c i a l C r e d i t and New D e m o c r a t i c p a r t i e s . W h i l e S o c i a l C r e d i t House Leader Frank R i c h t e r charged t h a t " t h e day of the p r i v a t e ownership o f l a n d i n B.C. was d e s t r o y e d i n the House...by the i n -3 t r o d u c t i o n of the s o c i a l i s t l a n d t a k e - o v e r b i l l , " n o t h i n g c o u l d have been f u r -t h e r from the mind o f the NDP. As e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n s e r v a t i o n measure u t i l i z i n g a f orm of z o n i n g , the Land Commission A c t cannot be c o n s i d e r e d t o be the s o c i a l i s m so f e a r e d by the S o c i a l C r e d i t . S t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l i n g the number o f a c r e s o f prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d b e i n g l o s t t o urban encroachment each y e a r had been s u f f i c i e n t l y a l a r m i n g f o r t h r e e of t h e f o u r p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o u n i t e i n s t a t i n g t h e i r i n -t e n t i o n s t o p r e s e r v e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d d u r i n g the August 1972 e l e c t i o n cam-p a i g n . The f o u r t h p a r t y , S o c i a l C r e d i t , campaigned on the b a s i s of p a s t p e r -formance w h i c h i n c l u d e d the c r e a t i o n of a G r e e n b e l t P r o t e c t i o n Fund of $25 m i l l i o n i n March o f 1972. The L i b e r a l P a r t y proposed the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an " A g r i c u l t u r a l Lands T r u s t " w h i c h would p u r c h a s e the development r i g h t s f o r f a r m l a n d t o " p r e s e r v e farm l a n d s from i l l c o n s i d e r e d l a n d s p e c u l a t i o n and 5 ' • development." The C o n s e r v a t i v e p r o p o s a l c a l l e d f o r " l o n g range and system-a t i c p l a n n i n g . . . s o t h a t the b e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s i n f a c t used for. a g r i -c u l t u r e , and i s not wasted on o t h e r purposes t h r o u g h the l a c k of p l a n n i n g . " * ' To an e x t e n t , t h e n , the A c t r e p r e s e n t e d a p o l i c y whose time had come. - 2 -N e v e r t h e l e s s , the NDP a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p o l i c y went f a r beyond a n y t h i n g the p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e p a r t i e s would have i n i t i a t e d . A l t h o u g h the A c t b a s i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a form o f z o n i n g , i t does have s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t s . F i r s t , t h e Land Commission A c t c r e a t e d a p r o v i n c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d , q u a s i - i n d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a t o r y agency w h i c h c e n t r a l i z e d some a s p e c t s o f z o n i n g i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e o f d e l e g a t i n g the z o n i n g f u n c t i o n s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . I t r e f l e c t e d the NDP p e r c e p t i o n t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c o u l d n o t be p r o t e c t e d by t h e z o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s i n c e t h e s e l o c a l governments were t o o s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e b l a n d i s h m e n t s o f d e v e l o p e r s . S e c o n d l y , i t c r e a t e d a s t a t u t o r y p r i o r i t y o f l a n d use i n f a v o u r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . ^ T h i r d l y , i t r e p r e s e n t e d a s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g o f l a n d as a commodity t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l a n d as a s c a r c e n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e r e q u i r i n g c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g i n s t e a d o f the i n c r e m e n t a l d e c i s i o n s o f the market w h i c h have not always r e s u l t e d i n the optimum use o f the l a n d . I t was hoped the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s would reduce the s p e c u l a t i v e p r e s s u r e o n , f a r m l a n d by e l i m i n a t i n g u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d t o l a n d use and t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e s p e c u l a t i v e p r o f i t s so d i s t a s t e -f u l t o the s o c i a l d e m o c r a t i c e t h i c . Many i n t e r e s t s i n the p r o v i n c e were con-s e q u e n t l y d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n . The NDP emphasis on a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and r e l a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s i s c u r i o u s i n v i e w o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e NDP i n B.C. w i t h 8 l a b o u r . To an e x t e n t t h i s may be seen as a s t r a t e g y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e NDP from the r e s o u r c e e x p l o i t a t i o n p o l i c i e s o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . However, the p o l i c y - w a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f a North A m erica wide s h i f t o v e r the l a s t t e n t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s t o a g r a d u a l , p e r v a s i v e and d u r a b l e growth o f c o n c e r n over e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s . In B.C., the NDP was the n a t u r a l v e h i c l e f o r the e x p r e s s i o n o f these c o n c e r n s and t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t the NDP now r e p r e s e n t s a c o a l i t i o n o f l a b o u r and m i d d l e - c l a s s v o t e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n e n v i r o n -- 3 -9 merit and n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i s s u e s . As the q u o t a t i o n by R i c h t e r above i n d i c a t e s , t o the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y , the Land Commission A c t r e p r e s e n t e d n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n the a r r i v a l o f the t o t a l i t a r i a n s t a t e . A l a r g e measure of t h i s h y p e r b o l e was d o u b t l e s s f o r p a r t i -san e f f e c t . The S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y was not a g a i n s t the p r i n c i p l e o f the p r e -s e r v a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , ^ not o n l y because t h i s would be tantamount t o r e j e c t i n g "motherhood," but a l s o because the Land Commission A c t p r e s e n t e d ^ a dilemma f o r S o c i a l C r e d i t . By 1975, the l a n d commission was w i d e l y p o p u l a r . Farmers, who r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t v o t e , have c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s w i t h r e g a r d t o the l a n d c o m m i s s i o n . ^ A f t e r i t s i n i t i a l h o s t i l i t y t o the A c t , the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e moved t o v i g o r o u s s u p p o r t of the l a n d commission. F u r t h e r m o r e , the l a n d commission was p o p u l a r i n t he l a r g e urban a r e a s because of c o n c e r n w i t h r i s i n g f o o d p r i c e s and the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l g r e e n b e l t s u r r o u n d i n g the c i t i e s . By t h e 1975 e l e c t i o n . S o c i a l C r e d i t would have t o a p p e a l t o those f a r m e r s and u r b a n i t e s s u p p o r t i n g the l a n d commission, and a t the same t i m e , i n i t s c l a i m t o be the s o l e r e p o s i t o r y o f p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e s e n t i m e n t i n the p r o v i n c e , would have t o defen d the i n t e r e s t s o f the d e v e l o p e r s , l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s and t h o s e f a r m e r s whose e n t e r p r i s e was c o n s t r a i n e d by the A c t . When, i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f the 1975 e l e c t i o n campaign, B i l l B e nnett 12 promised t o " s t r i p the powers of the B.C. l a n d commission," S o c i a l C r e d i t was i n danger of a l i e n a t i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l Socred farm v o t e as w e l l as tho s e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e urban v o t e r s t h a t the Socreds hoped t o a t t r a c t i n i t s c l a i m t o be the o n l y p a r t y t h a t c o u l d d e f e a t the NDP. Bennett q u i c k l y m o d i f i e d h i s s t a n d d e c l a r i n g "What we w i l l do i s put i n a dece n t a p p e a l . p r o -c e d u r e , " ^ and d e v o l v e some of the powers of the l a n d commission on t o the 14 r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . How then has the l a n d commission and the A c t f a r e d under S o c i a l C r e d i t w h i c h was so a n x i o u s t o remove a l l t r a c e s o f t h e NDP i n t e r r e g n u m ? How has S o c i a l C r e d i t responded t o the c o n f l i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s from i t s s u p p o r t base? The l a n d commission i s s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e . Has t h e r e been a change i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f the commission under S o c i a l C r e d i t ? Or has the co m m i s s i o n , as a q u a s i - i n d e p e n d e n t r e g u l a t o r y agency, c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e on the same b a s i s as the NDP commission? Chap t e r I o u t l i n e s the l e g i s l a t i o n passed by the NDP and the amendments made by S o c i a l C r e d i t , d e s c r i b e s the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n s , e x p l a i n s the Canada Land I n v e n t o r y system and examines the c r i t e r i a used f o r e v a l u a t i n g r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n s from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s (ALRs). C h a p t e r I I a n a l y z e s the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s a f f e c t e d by t h e A c t i n c l u d i n g f a r m e r s , i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , d e v e l o p e r s , the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . C h a p t e r I I I r e p o r t s a s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y o f r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n s from the ALR made by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and a n a l y z e s the res p o n s e of the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission and the NDP c a b i n e t i n co m p a r i s o n w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t . - 5 -F o o t n o t e s - I n t r o d u c t i o n For a f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the h y s t e r i a and c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the Land Commission A c t see B a r r y S m i t h , "The B r i t i s h C o lumbia Land Commission A c t : 1973" (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975) and D a v i d B a x t e r , The B.C. Land Commission A c t - A Review, w i t h commentary by S t a n l e y H a m i l t o n , George Atamanenko and Ron R a v i s , Report No. 8 (Vancouver: Urban Land Economics, F a c u l t y of Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A p r i l , 1974). • 2 The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia was a l s o h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l . 3 "Land b i l l h i t s f i e r c e o p p o s i t i o n , " The P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 23, 1973. 4 Mary Rawson, 111 F a r e s the Land: Land-Use Management a t the Urban/  R u r a l / R e s o u r c e Edges: The B.C. Land Commission ( p u b l i s h e d by M a c m i l l a n Company of Canada L i m i t e d f o r the M i n i s t r y o f S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 21. "Vs quoted i n B a x t e r , p. 8. 6 [ b i d . ' ' p r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, "Memorandum t o a l l R e g i o n a l Boards and a l l M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s , " J u l y 11, 1973. (Mimeographed.) 8 Thomas M i c h a e l S a n f o r d , "The P o l i t i c s o f P r o t e s t : The C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n and S o c i a l C r e d i t i n B.C." (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1961), pp. 102, 107. Even as e a r l y as 1933, the C o o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n (CCF), t h e p r e d e c e s s o r t o t h e NDP, had s u p p o r t from urban m i d d l e - c l a s s r e f o r m i s t s . 9 . • ' - • Donald E. B l a k e , R i c h a r d J o h n s t o n , and D a v i d J . E l k i n s , " S o u r c e s o f Change i n t h e B.C. P a r t y System," B.C. S t u d i e s 50 (Summer, 1981):25. 1 0 P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Hansard, March 9, 1973, p. 1202. S o c i a l C r e d i t s u p p o r t f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s not u n e q u i v o c a l . P r e m i e r B i l l B e nnett has s a i d t h a t " . . . a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia w i l l n e v e r s t a n d oh i t s own f e e t — i t ' s a b i t l i k e a w e l f a r e i n d u s t r y . " As quoted i n Don, K n o e r r , "Address t o the 1981 A n n u a l C o n v e n t i o n o f the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e , " (Cranbrook: November, 1981), p. 6. ^'See pages L2 "Bennett vows t o o u s t B.C. Land Commission," The Vancouver Sun, November 15, 1975. 1 3 " F a r m l a n d f o r f a r m s , B e n n e t t d e f e n d s p o l i c y , " The P r o v i n c e , November 21, 1975..: "But Bennett c l a i m s power would go t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , " The Vancouver Sun, November 18, 1975. None o f the changes S o c i a l C r e d i t made t o the A c t - 6 -a f f e c t e d the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s o r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . However, t h e proposed Land Use A c t would have c e n t r a l i z e d a l l l a n d use p l a n n i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and r e f l e c t e d S o c i a l C r e d i t c o n c e r n that, the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i s t o o r e s t r i c t i v e f o r d e v e l o p e r s . S o l J a c k s o n , "Land use i n l i m b o , " The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 29, 1982, p. 5. - 7 -CHAPTER I The Land Commission A c t of 1973 was one of the most d r a m a t i c and compre-h e n s i v e l e g i s l a t i v e a t t e m p t s t o c o n t r o l the use o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n t r o d u c e d anywhere i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . ^ The A c t a u t h o r i z e d the c r e a t i o n o f a commission of not l e s s than f i v e members w i t h powers t o d e s i g n a t e l a n d as a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d ( w i t h the a p p r o v a l of the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l ) and r e s t r i c t e d t he use of s u c h d e s i g n a t e d l a n d t o f a r m use e x c e p t as p e r m i t t e d by t h e A c t o r the commission. R e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , such as the l a n d commission, a r e c r e a t e d t o implement government p o l i c y i n s e c t o r s o f the economy t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r p r i v a t e 2 economic d e c i s i o n makers. Such r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s a l l o w t h e government t o impose s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , p u b l i c o b j e c t i v e s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f s e c t o r s o f the c o m p e t i t i v e market. Independent a g e n c i e s a r e c r e a t e d f o r t h e s e purposes p r i -m a r i l y because of the need f o r \ i m p a r t i a l i t y i n d e c i s i o n making w h i c h a f f e c t s 3 the i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l s i n the m a r k e t p l a c e . The requirement, f o r i m p a r t i a l i t y on the p a r t on the r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , however, c o n f l i c t s w i t h the fundamental p r i n c i p l e of the p a r l i a m e n t a r y system t h a t c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s a r e a c c o u n t a b l e t o the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly f o r a l l government a c t i o n s . A system of a p p e a l s t o the c a b i n e t from the r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s i s a compromise i n the c o n f l i c t between a c c o u n t a b i l i t y and i m p a r t i a l i t y s i n c e i t o f f e r s a check on the a g e n c i e s w h i c h a r e not a c c o u n t a b l e t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e f o r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . Such a p p e a l s , however, i n t r o d u c e a g a i n the p o t e n t i a l f o r d e c i s i o n s t o be made on the b a s i s o f p a r t i s a n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The purpose of the l a n d commission was to r e s t r i c t the c o n v e r s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o urban s p r a w l which by 1972 had reached a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4,000 h e c t a r e s per y e a r , w i t h over 1,000 of t h e s e i n the Lower Mainland.** - 8 -I t s o b j e c t was t o impose an element of p l a n n i n g on i n d i v i d u a l l a n d use d e c i s i o n s and t o reduce the s p e c u l a t i v e p r e s s u r e on f a r m l a n d . The Land F r e e z e At l e a s t p a r t of the c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d i n g the Land Commission A c t was due t o t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was i n t r o d u c e d . O r d e r s i n C o u n c i l 4483 and 157 were the p r e c u r s o r s t o the A c t and were made n e c e s s a r y because a comment by D a v i d S t u p i c h , the NDP M i n i s t e r f o r A g r i c u l t u r e , t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e government would soon i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r e v e n t the r e - z o n i n g of farm-l a n d t o urban u s e s , r e s u l t e d i n a r u s h of r e - z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . ^ These h a s t y o r d e r s c r e a t e d u n c e r t a i n t y and f e a r s as t o the i n t e n -t i o n s of the government. Under Order i n C o u n c i l 4483 of December 21, 1972, the s u b d i v i s i o n of farm l a n d was p r o h i b i t e d . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the s a l e of a f a r m f o r f a r m i n g purposes was not p r o h i b i t e d . Farm l a n d was d e f i n e d as t h a t d e s c r i b e d as such i n s e c t i o n 2 of the T a x a t i o n A c t and " i n c l u d i n g a l l l a n d s deemed by the Committee (the Environment and Land Use Committee) t o be s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p s . " The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n would have r e s t r i c t e d the f r e e z e , t o l a n d p r e s e n t l y under c u l t i v a t i o n , o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty p e r -c e n t of the t o t a l a r a b l e l a n d i n the province.** The second c r i t e r i o n was too vague. • Order i n C o u n c i l 157 of J a n u a r y 18, 1973, c l a r i f i e d and expanded the l a n d f r e e z e . A l l n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l development of farm l a n d was p r o h i b i t e d and farm l a n d i n c l u d e d any l a n d of two a c r e s or more (.8 h e c t a r e s ) ^ c l a s s i f i e d as farm l a n d by the T a x a t i o n A c t ; or c l a s s i f i e d as farm l a n d under the M u n i c i p a l  A c t ; o r l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as c l a s s 1, 2, 3 o r 4 o f t h e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ystem d e v e l o p e d under the A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l Development A c t (ARDA). 8 B i l l 42 B i l l 42 was introduced February 23, 1973. The proposed Land Commission  Act c a l l e d for the formation of a commission consisting of not less than f i v e members to be appointed by the cabinet and to hold o f f i c e "during pleasure," one of whom was to be designated the chairman and another as vice-chairman. Section 7 outlined the objectives of the Act. These were to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land for farm use; encourage the establishment and maintenance of family farms; preserve greenbelt land i n and around urban areas; preserve land bank land for urban or i n d u s t r i a l development; and to preserve park land for rec r e a t i o n a l use. Section 7(i) authorized the commission to "purchase or otherwise acquire land" to achieve the above objectives. Section 10(1) r e s t r i c t e d the use of designated a g r i c u l t u r a l land: No person s h a l l occupy or use a g r i c u l t u r a l land designated as an a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve pursuant to section 8 for any purpose other than farm use, except as permitted by t h i s Act or the regu-la t i o n s or by order of the commission upon such terms and condi-tions as the commission may impose. "Farm use" was defined as "an occupation or use of land for bona f i d e farm purposes, including,.without l i m i t i n g the generality of the foregoing, husbandry of the land and the plants, and animals thereon, and any other s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y designated as farm use by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council." Under section 8, the commission was empowered to designate land as a g r i c u l t u r a l land, green be l t land, land bank land or park land. Only with respect to the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves was.the p r i o r approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council required. There were no appeal procedures provided for i n B i l l 42. Only the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council could exclude any land from the established land reserves (section 9). Under section 11(5) an aggrieved owner could appeal only on a question of law or excess of j u r i s d i c t i o n . Section 12(c) allowed the commission to withdraw from an a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land - 10 -owned by the commission and, w i t h the p r i o r a p p r o v a l o f t h e L i e u t e n a n t -Governor i n C o u n c i l , t o d i s p o s e of such l a n d . S e c t i o n 11(1) e x c l u d e d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s any l a n d l e s s than t w o . a c r e s i n a r e a . S e c t i o n 11(2) made p r o v i s i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d which was i n a non-farm use f o r a t l e a s t s i x months p r i o r t o the 2 1 s t of December, 1972. Such use was p e r m i t t e d , b u t , any f u r t h e r changes i n use would r e q u i r e the p e r m i s s i o n o f the commission. S e c t i o n 11(4) empowered the commission to allow n o n - c o n f o r m i n g uses on d e s i g n a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d and t o impose any c o n d i t i o n s i t c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e on such a p p r o v a l . I n t he h i e r a r c h y o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the Land Commission A c t was t o . r a n k v e r y h i g h l y and was s u b j e c t o n l y t o the Environment and Land Use 9 A c t , the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967, and the E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A c t . Under s e c t i o n 20, s u b s e c t i o n s ( 4 ) , (5) and ( 6 ) , the Land Commission A c t s u p e r -seded any by-law o r r e g u l a t i o n o f a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t w h i c h was i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the. A c t , e x c e p t f o r t h o s e p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h were more s t r i n g e n t t h a n , b u t , not repugnant t o the A c t . The b i l l d i d not p r o v i d e f o r any compensation f o r any l a n d w h i c h was d e s i g n a t e d as a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , green b e l t l a n d , l a n d bank l a n d o r p a r k l a n d , a w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e i n z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . The Land Commission A c t Under p r e s s u r e from such groups as the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the Union of B.C. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the R e a l E s t a t e Board o f Vancouver, the NDP made a number of amendments t o B i l l 42. The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were g i v e n a r o l e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e b o u n d a r i e s . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , e i t h e r a l o n e o r i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t he member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , were r e q u i r e d , a f t e r h o l d i n g a p u b l i c h e a r i n g , t o adopt a l a n d r e s e r v e p l a n . However, i f the commission con-- 11 -s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n d i d n o t c a r r y o u t t h e i n t e n t i o n o f the A c t , t h e commission c o u l d recommend t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l amendments t o the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t p l a n . Then, a f t e r a p p r o v a l o f t h e p l a n by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , t h e commission was empowered t o d e s i g n a t e t h e l a n d t h e r e i n as an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e . The A c t now e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t the commission c o u l d not a c q u i r e any l a n d by e x p r o p r i a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , green b e l t l a n d , l a n d bank l a n d , and par k l a n d r e s e r v e s c o u l d now be a c q u i r e d o n l y by p u r c h a s e . The m o s t . s i g n i f i c a n t amendments t o the A c t were th o s e w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r an a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e . A p p e a l s f o r e x c l u s i o n s from an a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e were d i v i d i e d i n t o two b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s o r t h e commission i t s e l f ( t h e government t o government a p p e a l s ) and t h o s e f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s . Under s e c t i o n 9 ( 1 ) ^ r e q u e s t s f o r ex-c l u s i o n s by a m u n i c i p a l i t y , r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o r t h e commission i t s e l f would be d e c i d e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . The terms o f the A c t p r o -v i d e d f o r no r o l e f o r the l a n d commission w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x c l u s i o n s r e q u e s t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n . B.C. Reg. 60/74 (Order i n C o u n c i l 353/74) r e q u i r e d o n l y t h a t i n s u b m i t t i n g a r e q u e s t f o r an e x c l u s i o n , t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t n o t i f y t h e l a n d commission by s e n d i n g a copy o f . t h e a p p l i c a t i o n and the s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l , and t h a t the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , p r i o r t o c o n s i d e r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n , would a l l o w each p a r t y t o make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n r e s p e c t t o the a p p l i c a t i o n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o a p p e a l s from i n d i v i d u a l s , the commission had a l a r g e r r o l e . Under s e c t i o n 9(2) an owner a g g r i e v e d by a d e s i g n a t i o n o f the commission c o u l d make an a p p l i c a t i o n t o the commission t o have h i s l a n d e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e ALR. A p u b l i c h e a r i n g i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e the commission makes i t s d e c i s i o n . Where l a n d was zoned f o r a g r i c u l t u r e o r farm use p r i o r t o December 21, 1972, the owner must f i r s t o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n from the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s -- 12 -t r i c t where the l a n d i s s i t u a t e d . Under s e c t i o n 9(7) an i n d i v i d u a l who i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n of the commission, w i t h the a p p r o v a l o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , and upon b e i n g g r a n t e d l e a v e t o a p p e a l by any two members o f the commission, may a p p e a l t o the Environment and Land Use Committee of the c a b i n e t . The p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t i s thus the f i n a l a r b i t e r of l a n d t o be d e s i g n a t e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e l a n d and i s the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y i n a p p e a l s f o r e x c l u s i o n s r e q u e s t e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and t h e c ommission. The Environment and Land Use Committee of the c a b i n e t i s the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y , i n a p p e a l s f o r e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s e x c e p t i n c a s e s where two members of the l a n d - c o m m i s s i o n f a i l t o g r a n t l e a v e t o a p p e a l . These amendments improved the p o l i t i c a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the A c t . However, w h i l e i t would s t i l l be r e l a t i v e l y d i f f i c u l t t o e x c l u d e l a n d from an ALR, an a p p e a l p r o c e s s i n e v i t a b l y a l l o w s a degree of u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e permanance of the zoned b o u n d a r i e s hence r e - a d m i t t i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r s p e c u -l a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the major r e a s o n f o r a p p o i n t i n g an i ndependent r e g u l a t o r y agency t o make d e c i s i o n s where government i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t o t h e market economy has been deemed e s s e n t i a l , i s t o e nsure the p o l i t i c a l i m p a r t i a l i t y of t h o s e d e c i s i o n s . Whereas t h e r e g u l a t o r y agency makes i t d e c i s i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a , the c a b i n e t can make i t s d e c i s i o n s on any b a s i s i t sees f i t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a t b e s t an element of a r b i t r a r i n e s s i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , and a t w o r s t , d e c i s i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s , „ 11 o f p a t r o n a g e . The 1977 Amendments to the Land Commission A c t As noted i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y was vehemently opposed to the l a n d commission and d u r i n g the 1975 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign B i l l B ennett promised to r e t u r n the power t o d e s i g n a t e f a r m l a n d use t o the - 13 -r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . However, by 1975, the land commission was no longer c o n t r o v e r s i a l . A l -though there was wide d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the o v e r a l l NDP performance, the land commission was widely supported. A Province e d i t o r i a l claimed that "Though there was always the p o t e n t i a l f o r t r o u b l e , the land commission has 12 i n p r a c t i c e turned out to be one of the NDP's b e t t e r i d e a s . " A 1978 Lands D i r e c t o r a t e of Environment Canada study of 800 randomly s e l e c t e d landholders revealed that 80 percent were favour of the land reserves to some degree and 13 only nine percent were against or very against. A study by Mark G i l l i s found that there was a very weak a s s o c i a t i o n between p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n and support f o r the ALR. In f a c t , the percentage of landowners i n "Strong Socred Regions." i n d i c a t i n g " h i g h l y favourable" a t t i t u d e s to the ALR was seven percent higher than i n the corresponding category of those i n regions d i s p l a y -14 i n g firm.NDP a f f i l i a t i o n . These f a c t o r s worked to introduce a degree of ambivalence i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t p o s i t i o n on the land commission. A f t e r winning the e l e c t i o n , Bennett moved slowly on the land commission.^ Don P h i l l i p s was named M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , the m i n i s t r y responsible f o r the commission. Since P h i l l i p s had le d the o p p o s i t i o n f i l i b u s t e r i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the land commission was t r a n s f e r r e d to the M i n i s t r y of the Environment under Jim N i e l s e n , a s i g n a l that the government was at l e a s t moderately s e r i o u s about the land reserves. I t was hot u n t i l October 7, 1976, that the government f i r e d a l l of the NDP appointed commissioners except f o r Gary Runka who was r e t a i n e d as Chairman. I t was not u n t i l September, 1977, that the government amended the Act. The amendments to the Act r e f l e c t e d the S o c i a l C r e d i t ambivalence about the land commission since some of the changes reduced the power of the commission, but, others increased i t s power. The commission's j u r i s d i c t i o n - 14 -over greenbelt land, land bank land and park land was eliminated from the Act. The commission's sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land and en-courage the establishment and maintenance of f a r m s . ^ Accordingly, the name of the Act was changed to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission Act and the commission changed to the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission. In i t s 1978 Annual  Report, the commission chairman argued that i n p r a c t i c e , this reduction i n the commission's powers would not have much sig n i f i c a n c e i n commission p o l i c y and d i r e c t i o n since preservation of a g r i c u l t u r a l land had always received f i r s t 17 p r i o r i t y . , Nevertheless, t h i s was c l e a r l y a major reduction i n the scope of the commission. The term of the commission members was now not to exceed four years, although the appointment of the chairman was to remain "during pleasure." Section 3(3) allowed for the appointment.of regional advisers to a s s i s t the commission " i n respect of a matter pertaining to a resource management region established by the Environment and Land Use Committee." To date none have been appointed. A section was added to the Act (section 10(3) to (5) i n the 1980 c o n s o l i -dation) to allow the commission to make inclusions to the ALRs a f t e r a public hearing and the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council. This r e c t i f i e d an ommission i n the o r i g i n a l Act although inclusions had been provided for i n B.C. Reg. 494/74 (Order i n Council 2412, July 19, 1974). In the case of requests for exclusion by a municipality * a regional d i s t r i c t or the commission i t s e l f , section 9(1), section 11(1) i n the 1980 consolidation, now required that a public hearing be held p r i o r to the a p p l i -cation being made. Section 9(1) (b), section 11(2) in the 1980 consolidation, now allowed a municipality, a regional d i s t r i c t or the commission to request permission for a riort-conforming use within an a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve. A public hearing must be held before the ap p l i c a t i o n i s made. - 15 -The most s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n v o l v e d the a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . A f t e r r e t r e a t i n g from h i s i n i t i a l s t a n d d u r i n g the campaign t h a t the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y would r e t u r n the l a n d commission's powers o v e r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , B e n n e t t p r o m i s e d t h a t a S o c i a l C r e d i t government would improve the. a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e , t h e r e b y making the commission more demo-c r a t i c . However, i n the case of r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n from a. m u n i c i p a l i t y o r a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t , t he c a b i n e t had a l w a y s been the f i n a l a u t h o r i t y , and i n the case of i n d i v i d u a l a p p e a l s , the l a n d commission had n o t been e x c e s s i v e l y a r b i t r a r y . Of the 45 r e q u e s t s f o r l e a v e t o a p p e a l from i n d i v i d u a l s as of A p r i l 1, .1978, the commission had a l l o w e d 11 i n d i v i d u a l s , o r n e a r l y 25 p e r c e n t , 18 l e a v e t o a p p e a l t o t h e Environment and Land Use Committee. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the A c t was amended t o a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l t o a p p l y t o the m i n i s t e r f o r l e a v e t o a p p e a l t o the Environment and Land Use Committee where l e a v e t o a p p e a l had not been g r a n t e d by two members of t h e commission. I f approved by the m i n i s t e r , the a p p e a l w i l l be heard by the committee, a t w h i c h time the a p p l i c a n t and the l a n d commission may make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , and, the committee may t h e n approve the a p p l i c a t i o n , w i t h o r w i t h o u t terms and con-d i t i o n s , o r may r e f u s e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n . I f t h e a p p e a l i s a l l o w e d , . t h e committee may o r d e r t h a t r e a s o n a b l e c o s t s i n c u r r e d by the a p p e l l a n t , as d e t e r m i n e d by the committee, b e - p a i d by the commission. Other amendments added t o the powers of the commission. Under s e c t i o n 34, the commission was g i v e n enforcement powers t o i s s u e an o r d e r t o s t o p or r e s t r a i n l a n d use t h a t would l i k e l y i m p a i r the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d . Where an i n f r a c t i o n of the A c t has t a k e n p l a c e , under s e c t i o n 35, the commission may o r d e r r e s t o r a t i o n work t o be c a r r i e d out and may r e q u i r e a bond to e n s u r e c o m p l i a n c e . I n the case of d e f a u l t , the commission may c a r r y out such r e s t o r a t i o n i t s e l f and charge the owner w i t h any c o s t s . An i m p o r t a n t new r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n f o r . t he l a n d commission was c r e a t e d - 16 -under.the new S o i l Conservation Act, 1977. Under t h i s Act, commission approval i s required for the removal of s o i l from, and the placement of f i l l , on ALR land. Ove r a l l , the amendments have reduced the power of the commission to pre-serve farmland since opportunities for appeal create uncertainties as to the permanence of the ALR boundaries. Furthermore, as noted above, appeals to the cabinet introduce an element of a r b i t r a r i n e s s into the decision making process. Exclusions granted on other than the technical c r i t e r i a established by the commission can fundamentally a l t e r the land use patterns i n any area thereby making j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r keeping adjacent lands i n the ALR more d i f f i c u l t . Interpretation of the Act and the Canada Land Inventory System The object of the commission was to "preserve a g r i c u l t u r a l land for farm use." Given t h i s broad intent of the Act, what i s a g r i c u l t u r a l land? Under the Act, a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s land that i s "suitable for farm use," and "farm use" means "an occupation or use of land for farm purposes, including husbandry of land, plants and animals and any other s i m i l a r a c t i v i t y designated as farm use by regulation." The NDP land commission interpreted the s p i r i t of the Act to mean the 20 preservation of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the long term. Hence a g r i c u l t u r a l land was not limited to land currently used i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production but included a l l the p o t e n t i a l l y arable land in the province. Nor were short term economic fact o r s , based on current market prices for s p e c i f i c crops, considered because of the high degree of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the economic factors over the long term. Nor were current technological l i m i t a t i o n s considered. Nor was ownership of 21 land a factor—Crown land and,Indian reserves were included. The commission, as a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l body, needed some standard by which to base i t s ' d e c i s i o n s as, to which lands should be i n the ALRs, not only to f a c i l i t a t e the designation of the ALR boundaries, but, also to achieve an e l e -ment of fairness and consistency i n the decision making process. The B.C. Land - 17 -TABLE I Canada Land I n v e n t o r y A g r i c u l t u r a l C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 C l a s s 1 - the v e r y w i d e s t range o f v e g e t a b l e s , c e r e a l g r a i n s , f o r a g e s , b e r r y f r u i t s and numerous s p e c i a l t y c r o p s . S o i l and c l i m a t e c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e optimum. C l a s s 2 - wide range of r e g i o n a l c r o p s as above w i t h some d i f f e r -ences i n v a r i e t y due t o minor r e s t r i c t i o n s of s o i l or c l i m a t e . C l a s s 3 - a f a i r l y wide range of r e g i o n a l c r o p s under good manage-ment p r a c t i c e s . S o i l and/or c l i m a t e l i m i t a t i o n s a r e somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e . C l a s s 4 - r e s t r i c t e d range of r e g i o n a l c r o p s s u c h as h a r d y c e r e a l g r a i n s , hardy v e g e t a b l e s and f o r a g e s . S o i l and c l i m a t e l i m i t a t i o n s demand s p e c i a l management c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C l a s s 5 - p r o d u c t i o n of p e r e n n i a l f o r a g e c r o p s o n l y . S o i l and/or c l i m a t e r e s t r i c t i o n s s e v e r e l y l i m i t t h e l a n d ' s c a p a b i l i t y . C l a s s 6 - n a t u r a l r a n g e l a n d . S o i l and/or c l i m a t e l i m i t a t i o n s p r e -c l u d e c u l t i v a t i o n but the l a n d may be i m p o r t a n t i n i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e as g r a z i n g l a n d . C l a s s 7 - no a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y w hatsoever. Land I n v e n t o r y (CLI) system was i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e as a s t a n d a r d by w h i c h the p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d on a s c i e n t i f i c b a s i s . I t w i l l be remembered t h a t under Order i n C o u n c i l 157 o f J a n u a r y , 1973, l a n d d e s i g n a t e d as c l a s s 1, 2, 3, o r 4 of the CLI system was i n c l u d e d i n the l a n d f r e e z e The CLI r a t e s l a n d from one t o s e v e n a c c o r d i n g t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s o i l and c l i m a t e f a c t o r s as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e I . C l a s s 1 l a n d i s the v e r y b e s t l a n d . w i t h the b e s t c l i m a t e on which' the w i d e s t range of c r o p s can be grown. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the CLI i s based on the range of c r o p s w h i c h can be grown and not on the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the l a n d . C e r t a i n c r o p s may be more p r o -d u c t i v e on the l o w e r c l a s s e s of l a n d . A p r o g r e s s i v e l y n a r r o wer range of c r o p s can be grown on the o t h e r c l a s s e s of l a n d , down t o c l a s s 7 w h i c h i s not c a p a b l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l use at a l l . The land rating i s dependent on the climate J r a t i n g — t h e CLI land r a t i n g can be no higher than the climate r a t i n g . For example, where the s o i l i s c l a s s 1, but, the climate i s c l a s s 3, the CLI 23 rating would be class 3. The CLI system i s far from perfect. Fred Reid, a s o i l s p e c i a l i s t f o r -merly with the Ministry of Agriculture has pointed out "The Paradox of Special-24 i t y Uses on Class 4 and 5 S o i l s . " The lower classes of land, that i s classes 4 and 5 are not necessarily marginal a g r i c u l t u r a l land since many crops re-quire s p e c i f i c s o i l types and for these crops may have higher productivity than better classes of s o i l . For example, the class 4 and 5 s o i l s i n the Lower Mainland with i t s class 1 and 2 climate allows for high p r o d u c t i v i t y of a v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l t y crops including raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, apples, pears and f i l b e r t s . ^ The ranching industry in the i n t e r i o r depends on the class 5 forage lands and the class 6 spring and f a l l grazing lands. Reid argues that "where an area has class 5 c a p a b i l i t y i t may have as high or higher productivity for forage 26 crop production as a class 4 or 3 s o i l . " " . The CLI system i s l i m i t e d to s o i l bound a g r i c u l t u r e . There are, however, many types of a g r i c u l t u r e which do not need s o i l for production, including greenhouse products, mushrooms, container nurseries, poultry, hogs, beef feed-l o t s and to some extent dairy farms. Reid points out that "when these operations are b u i l t on high c a p a b i l i t y s o i l the loss of good agriculture land to b u i l d -ings and farmyard can be compared to that of i n d u s t r i a l use, however, the need for these operations to be located in an a g r i c u l t u r a l community must s t i l l be 27 recognized." In 1978, the land commission recommended the exclusion of 2467 hectares of. these class 5 and 6 lands i n the Dewdney Alouette regional d i s t r i c t over the protests of o f f i c i a l s within the Ministry of Agriculture and the B . C . Institute of Agrologists. The cabinet subsequently excluded 2604.8 - 19 -28 hectares of c l a s s 5 and 6 lands . Nor does the CLI system take i n t o cons i de ra t i on the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of growing any p a r t i c u l a r crop on a g iven s o i l . Furthermore, pedology, the sc ience of s o i l s , i s not an exact s c i ence . There i s a judgment f a c t o r i n -29 vo lved i n determin ing the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Over a l a rge area of the prov ince two CLI r a t i n g s are g i ven . One i s the unimproved r a t i n g which r e f l e c t s the l a nd ' s c a p a b i l i t y i n the absence of i r r i g a t i o n and/or land drainage improvements. The second r a t i n g i n d i c a t e s the improved c a p a b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r e i f the needed i r r i g a t i o n or dra inage improvements were made to the l and . The improved r a t i ng s do not take i n t o c on s i de r a t i on the cur rent t e c h n i c a l or economic f e a s i b i l i t y of making the 30 necessary improvements. In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s of the CL I , d e c i s i on s as to which land would be p laced i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves could be based on t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a e s t ab l i s hed by s o i l exper t s . The de c i s i o n of the o r i g i n a l commission was to i n c l ude a l l c l a s s 1 to 4 land and c e r t a i n c l a s s 5 and 6 lands where i t was reasonable to b e l i e v e that such land cou ld be e f f e c t i v e l y used i n conjunc-t i o n w i th c l a s s 1 to 4 l a n d — t y p i c a l l y i n the ranch ing areas where the c l a s s 5 and 6 land i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the beef i ndus t r y . To e l im ina t e unce r t a i n t y i t was e s s e n t i a l that the boundar ies of the land reserves be e s t ab l i s hed as q u i c k l y as poss ib le . . O f f i c i a l s i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e were g iven e ight weeks to prepare d r a f t ALR p lans f o r each of the 28 r e g i o na l d i s t r i c t s i n the p rov ince . I t was on ly the ex i s t ence of the B.C. Land Inventory, based on the CLI c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , that made i t p o s s i b l e to undertake a task of t h i s magnitude w i t h i n the g iven time l i m i t s . ^ , The d r a f t ALR plans provided by the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r each r eg i ona l d i s t r i c t were on a s ca l e of 1:50,000, or lh inches to one m i l e . The commission would supply to the r e g i ona l d i s t r i c t maps at 1:25,000 f o r s p e c i f i c - 20 sections where requested. Larger scale maps would have to be provided by the 33 regional d i s t r i c t . whereas the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y maps followed the nat u r a l contours of the land, the l e g a l descriptions are based on a surveyed system of grids not necessarily related to the natural topography. The d i f f i c u l t i e s of ad-ministering a zoning regulation that had no reference to the l e g a l descriptions persuaded the commission to use the e x i s t i n g l e g a l boundaries i n the determin-ation of the ALR boundaries. Consequently, the second dra f t ALR maps supplied 34 to the regional d i s t r i c t s were drawn with reference to the l e g a l boundaries. The commission made an administrative decision to exclude the higher c a p a b i l i t y land (classes 1 to 4) to allow f o r approximately f i v e years of growth for communities where non-agricultural land was not immediately a v a i l -able for urban expansion. This would allow m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and regional d i s -35 t r i c t s time to set the protection of a g r i c u l t u r a l land as a p r i o r i t y concern. By July, 1974, a f t e r approval by the Lieutenant-Governor i n Council, the land commission had designated the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves of one-half of the regional d i s t r i c t s . By February, 1975, a l l but two of the regional d i s -t r i c t s had designated a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserves. Fine Tuning The f i r s t reference to "f i n e tuning" was made i n the 1975 Annual Report of the commission: "For a year or two following designation a process of " f i n e tuning" w i l l be necessary to correct oversights and to sort out anomalies inherent i n a scheme of this magnitude." By the 1977 Annual Report, f i n e tuning was "regarded by the land commission as an on-going p r o c e s s . " ^ In 1978, Environment Minister Jim Nielsen claimed that "There are probably a m i l l i o n acres of B.C. land protected by the a g r i c u l t u r a l land reserve which should not be and a m i l l i o n acres not included which should b e . " 3 8 - 21 -There i s a r e a s o n a b l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e need t o f i n e tune the ALRs. The o r i g i n a l ALR b o u n d a r i e s were based on a e r i a l p h otographs and l a r g e s c a l e mapping and not on o n - s i t e s o i l a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r m o r e , some o f the maps were o u t d a t e d and c o n s e q u e n t l y some l a n d w h i c h c o n t a i n e d i r r e v e r s i b l e development was i n c l u d e d i n the ALR a l t h o u g h the r e v i e w p r o c e s s by the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s h o u l d have e l i m i n a t e d much of t h i s . However, because of a l a c k o f s t a f f , t h e commission had t o r e l y upon o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l a g e n c i e s t o p r o v i d e the d a t a n e c e s s a r y f o r f i n e t u n i n g r e -v i e w s u n t i l 1980 when s p e c i f i c f u n d i n g was a l l o t t e d f o r o f f i c i a l f i n e t u n i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , the commission was o b l i g e d t o use a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f i t s time p r o c e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s from i n d i v i d u a l s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f o r e x c l u s i o n s and i n c l u s i o n s w h i c h has amounted t o an ad hoc and 39 , l e s s d e s i r a b l e form of f i n e t u n i n g . As noted above, the A c t p r o v i d e d f o r no r o l e f o r the l a n d commission w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x c l u s i o n s r e q u e s t e d by o t h e r l e v e l s o f government j the 9(1) a p p l i c a t i o n s ( s e c t i o n 11(1) under the 1980 c o n s o l i d a t i o n ) . B.C. Reg. 60/74, approved J a n u a r y 31, 1974, r e q u i r e d o n l y t h a t where a m u n i c i p a l i t y , a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t o r the l a n d commission makes an a p p l i c a t i o n t o the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , t h a t the o t h e r two p a r t i e s be n o t i f i e d by s e n d i n g a copy o f the a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l . Under Sch e d u l e A a p p l i c a n t s were r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o p e r t y , a map of t h e p r o p e r t y , a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e e x i s t i n g use of b o t h t h e p r o p e r t y and "the b u i l d i n g s , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a d j a c e n t and s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t i e s and t h e i r use and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the proposed use o f the s u b j e c t p r o p e r t y . S i n c e the NDP c a b i n e t r e f e r r e d a l l government t o government e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s t o the l a n d commission, i t became a s t a n d a r d o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r • • . ' ' ' / m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o f o r w a r d t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e l a n d commission f o r r e v i e w . 4 0 The l a n d commission would then make a recommend-- 22 -ation to the cabinet. This procedure was regularized i n B.C. Reg. 313/78 which replaced B.C. Reg. 60/74. The amendments to the Act i n 1977 required a public hearing, the d e t a i l s of which were outlined i n the new regulations. A new Schedule A required information on the extent of the fl o o d p l a i n , i f applicable, services available or scheduled, O f f i c i a l Regional Plan designa-tion, zoning, comments and recommendations of the Regional Board, Municipal Council, Advisory Planning Committee and the Technical Planning Committee and a report of the public hearing. No formal, written procedures have been developed for the processing of the government to government appeals by the land commission. The planning and technical s t a f f of the commission investigate and review a l l the information supplied i n the ap p l i c a t i o n . It i s routine for the s t a f f to view the a p p l i -cation i n l i g h t of a l l the other exclusions which have been made i n the area. Where necessary, a d d i t i o n a l information such as a s o i l analysis by the Minis t r y of Agriculture or an evaluation by the d i s t r i c t h o r t i c u l t u r i s t may be requested. Af t e r this review, the s t a f f makes an o r a l presentation, based on the facts of the case, to the commission members, most of whom w i l l be seeing the request for the f i r s t time. The prime c r i t e r i o n i n judging requests for exclusion i s the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y of the subject parcel and the surrounding lands, based on the Canada 41 Land,Inventory a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y maps. However, the commission has never based i t s decisions s o l e l y on the technical c r i t e r i a . The commission also considers related a g r i c u l t u r a l concerns such as the e x i s t i n g and proposed parcel sizes i n r e l a t i o n to the kinds of a g r i c u l t u r a l enterprises conducted i n or suited to the area, the e f f e c t on e x i s t i n g or p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l uses on surrounding lands, and the impact of the proposed change on the farm community, for example, the demand for urban-type services by a r e s i d e n t i a l population which usually raises the o v e r a l l tax l e v e l . - 23 -S i n c e one o f the g o a l s o f the commission i s t o a c h i e v e r a t i o n a l l a n d use t h r o u g h p l a n n i n g , the commission a l s o c o n s i d e r s b r o a d e r a r e a c o n c e r n s when A 2 r e v i e w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n . F o r example, t h e commission c o n s i d e r s t h e r e g i o n a l and community o b j e c t i v e s f o r the a r e a , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r -n a t i v e s i t e s f o r the proposed use where t h e r e has been shown t o be a documented need f o r the proposed use. I n p a r t i c u l a r w i t h the government t o government a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e s e p l a n n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s cannot be a v o i d e d . As n o t e d , n e i t h e r the NDP nor the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions has e v e r based i t s d e c i s i o n s s o l e l y on the t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a . A l l the commissions have c o n s i d e r e d the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s o f each e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t . There h a s i however, been a tendency f o r the most r e c e n t commission members to make p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s t o the e f f e c t t h a t the l a n d commission bases i t s d e c i s i o n s on the " t e c h n i c a l " c r i t e r i a w h i l e the p r o v i n c i a l government con-s i d e r s the " p o l i t i c a l " f a c t o r s . I n c a s e s o f c o n f l i c t between the commission and the government, the c a b i n e t i s thus a b l e t o c l a i m t h a t the commission's "mandate i s t o d e t e r m i n e the a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the l a n d , " w h i l e the c a b i n e t "must a d d r e s s a l l a s p e c t s o f the c a s e , the e n v i r o n m e n t , a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y , economic a c t i v i t y , j o b c r e a t i o n and the c o n c e r n s o f the l o c a l muni-c i p a l i t y , " 4 4 t h e r e b y a t t e m p t i n g t o m i n i m i z e t h e a d v e r s e p u b l i c i t y i n c a s e s where the c a b i n e t has r e j e c t e d the recommendation of the l a n d commission. I n f a c t , the l a n d commission would have c o n s i d e r e d t h e s e " p o l i t i c a l " f a c t o r s i n i t s i n i t i a l recommendation. The NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Land Commissions When the Land Commission A c t was i n t r o d u c e d a f r e q u e n t c r i t i c i s m was t h a t the members o f t h e " a l l - p o w e r f u l b o a r d " would be p o l i t i c a l a p p o i n t e e s . * 5 S i n c e o n l y a f a i r and i m p a r t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t c o u l d a s s u r e t h e , s u c c e s s of the commission, the NDP was c a r e f u l t o a p p o i n t a n o n - p o l i t i c a l - 2 4 -c o m m i s s i o n — o n l y one member, Ted B a r s b y , had any t i e s t o the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y . The NDP a p p o i n t e d commission was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the wide range o f e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r t i s e o f i t s members. Mr. W i l l i a m Lane, who was the muni-c i p a l s o l i c i t o r f o r Richmond w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l a n d use, was a p p o i n t e d c h a i r m a n . Mary Rawson i s a town and r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r and a s p e c i a l i s t i n l a n d economics. She has had e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e 1960 as an a d v i s e r to v a r i o u s c i v i c , r e g i o n a l and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as w e l l as the p r o v i n c e s o f Quebec and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d . Dr. V.C. B r i n k i s an academic and p r o f e s s o r o f p l a n s c i e n c e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Ted B a r s b y , a Nanaimo businessman, was a former Nanaimo alderman and f o r m e r P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n . The f a r m e r i n f l u e n c e was p r o v i d e d by A r t h u r G a r r i s h , an O l i v e r o r c h a r d i s t and f o r m e r P r e s i d e n t of the B.C. F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n . R a n c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e was added w i t h the appointment of Don K n o e r r on O c tober 5, 1975. Gary Runka, a p e d o l o g i s t w i t h an M.A. i n n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s management and l a n d use p l a n n i n g was a p p o i n t e d G e n e r a l Manager o f the commission and l a t e r c h a i r m a n when Lane r e s i g n e d . On October 7, 1976, the government f i r e d the. NDP a p p o i n t e d c o m m i s s i o n e r s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f Gary Runka who was r e t a i n e d as the chairman. A l l the 46 new c o m m i s s i o n e r s had t i e s w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . Both S a r g i t Mac S i n g h , a C l o v e r d a l e v e g e t a b l e f a r m e r , and Raymond K e r r , a r a n c h e r , were members of 47 t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . l e d C o r n w a l l , a p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r o l o g i s t and former D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . , i s a f r i e n d of former S o c i a l C r e d i t A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r 48 F r a n k R i c h t e r . A l l a n C l a r i d g e , an Oyama o r c h a r d i s t and f o r m e r P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B.C. F r u i t Growers A s s o c i a t i o n , had been a v o c a l opponent o f t h e Land  Commission A c t when i t was f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d c a l l i n g i t "pure r o b b e r y " and " p i r a c y . ' V ^ 9 . W.S. R i t c h i e , a f e e d businessman i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y , was a p p o i n t e d t o r e p l a c e S i n g h who d i e d i n A p r i l o f 1978. R i t c h i e r e s i g n e d - 25 -F e b r u a r y 1, 1979, t o r u n as a Socred i n C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y and was sub-s e q u e n t l y a c c u sed of h a v i n g o f f e r e d t o have the l a n d of Henry F r i e s e n removed from the ALR i f F r i e s e n would s u p p o r t him. ^ The new c o m m i s s i o n e r s were p r i m a r i l y f a r m e r s w i t h no p l a n n i n g or l a n d use e x p e r t i s e . I t s h o u l d not be assumed t h a t a l l S o c i a l C r e d i t s u p p o r t e r s w i l l f u l l y s h a r e t h e i r l e a d e r ' s a n t i p a t h y t o the l a n d commission. S i n g h s a i d he was s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e work o f t h e p r e v i o u s commission and would l i k e t o c o n t i n u e on s i m i l a r l i n e s . ^ C o r n w a l l and K e r r s a i d they a r e " d e d i c a t e d t o f a r m l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n . " I n December, 1978, Rafe M a i r r e p l a c e d N i e l s e n as the M i n i s t e r o f t h e Environment. I n J a n u a r y of 1979, Gary Runka r e s i g n e d as c h a i r m a n , b u t , s t a y e d on as c o m m i s s i o n e r . A.C. K i n n e a r , f o r m e r head o f the P r o p e r t y Management Branch of the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , was named an i n t e r i m c h a i r m a n , an appointment which was to l a s t o v er a y e a r as Rafe M a i r n e g l e c t e d the l a n d commission. John E. Rogers, a Kamloops law c l e r k i n v o l v e d i n s u b d i v i s i o n s and l a n d r e g i s t r y and l a t t e r l y the manager of the White Rock and D i s t r i c t Chamber o f Commerce, was a p p o i n t e d a commissioner September 21, 1978. A f t e r the r e s i g n a t i o n of K e r r i n A g u u s t , 1979, and Gary Runka i n O c t o b e r , 1979, the l a n d commission had a b r i e f p e r i o d w i t h o u t a quorum and w i t h o n l y a temporary c h a i r m a n . On November 1, 1979, J.P. P l o t n i k o f f , D i r e c t o r o f the P l a n n i n g , P r o c e s s i n g and T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n o f the l a n d commission, was named an i n t e r i m commissioner t o make a f u l l c ommission. In November, 1979, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l a n d commission was r e t u r n e d t o the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and James H e w i t t was named M i n i s t e r . On March 7, 1980, H e w i t t expanded the membership o f t h e commission t o seven i n -c l u d i n g a new c h a i r m a n , Dr. M i l l s C l a r k e . Dr. C l a r k e was f o r m e r l y d i r e c t o r o f the A g a s s i z R e s e a r c h S t a t i o n and more r e c e n t l y was the c o o r d i n a t o r of f o r a g e c r o p r e s e a r c h f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada. The t h r e e new c o m m i s s i o n e r s . - 26 -were C. E. Framst, a g r a i n and f o r a g e seed farmer and member and chairman o f the Peace R i v e r - L i a r d R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t B o ard; J o s e p h A. Rog e r s , p r e s i d e n t o f a l i v e s t o c k management c o o p e r a t i v e and former p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B.C. L i v e -s t o c k P r o d u c e r s C o o p e r a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n ; and W a l t e r R e d e l , f o r m e r D i r e c t o r o f Lands and l a t t e r l y an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r i n the B.C. M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s and Housing. When Re d e l r e s i g n e d i n 1980, he was r e p l a c e d by R.P. Murdock, form e r ad-m i n i s t r a t o r o f the U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands. When the f o u r y e a r terms o f C l a r i d g e and C o r n w a l l e x p i r e d i n December of 1980, th e y were r e p l a c e d by I a n P a t o n , p r e s i d e n t o f t h e B.C. I n s t i t u t e o f A g r o l o g i s t s , and A r t S u t c l i f f e , a fa r m e r f r o m C r e s t o n . I n F e b r u a r y o f 1981, John Rogers was named V i c e Chairman. The S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions have been p r i m a r i l y f a r m e r s w i t h l i t t l e l a n d use p l a n n i n g e x p e r t i s e . - 27 -Footnotes - Chapter I •*The Act has since been copied elsewhere, notably in Quebec and the state of Oregon. Richard Shultz, "Regulatory Agencies and the Canadian Political System," in Public Administration in Canada, 3rd ed., ed. W. Kernaghan (Toronto: Methuen, 1977) , p. 335. 3 Ibid., p. 336. ^British Columbia, Ministry of Agriculture, " B i l l 42 Background Papers," as reported in Baxter, The B.C. Land Commission Act - A Review. 5"Farm freeze sparks vote," The Vancouver Sun, February 5, 1973. ^British Columbia, Ministry of Agriculture and Food, 1981 Farm and Food  Statistics (Victoria: Ministry of Agriculture and Food, March, 1981), p. 1. A^ hectare is approximately two and one-half times larger than an acre. The formula used for metric conversion in this thesis is the same as that used by the land commission: number of. hectares equals the number of acres divided by 2.47. 8 The Canada Land Inventory system is described on pages 17 to 19. 9 Mention of the Environmental Protection Act was removed from the Land  Commission Act as passed. ' ^When the Act was consolidated in 1980, section 9(1) became section 11(1). Section 9(2) referred to below became section 12(1). 11 . - . For an argument that "the cabinet is no more 'accountable' than a truly independent regulatory board might be..." in part because of the tradition of cabinet secrecy see Peter Gall, John Grant, Murray Rankin, "The Cabinet and the Agencies: Toward Accountability in British Columbia, (Report to the Canadian Bar Association, B.C. Branch, August, 1981), pp. 28-35. ""What's in Mr. Bennett's poke?" The Province, November 22, 1975. 13 Edward W. Manning and Sandra S. Eddy, The Agricultural Land Reserves  of B.C.: An Impact Analysis (Ottawa: Lands Directorate, Environment Canada, 1978) , p. 67. . 14 Mark Gi l l i s , "An Analysis of Landowners' Attitudes Towards the British Columbia Agricultural Land Reserve" (M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1980), p. 70. 1 5By contrast, the new Conservative Agriculture Minister in Saskatchewan announced that one of his "first priorities" would be to dismantle the land bank commission, which was not as powerful as the B.C. commission. Under the Saskatchewan program, the government purchased farms and leased them,back to the farmer. "Land bank system will be dismantled," The Vancouver Sun, May 10, 1982, p. A13. ~ ' — ~ ~ - 28 -The r e f e r e n c e t o the f a m i l y f a r m i n t h e NDP A c t was a l s o removed a l t h o u g h the e a r l y S o c i a l C r e d i t movement i n A l b e r t a had a l s o emphasized t h e f a m i l y farm and S o c i a l C r e d i t i n B.C. has a l s o p r e f e r r e d t h e s m a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e r . 17 B I b i d . , T a b l e E 2 P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1978, p. 5. 18. 19 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , g i v e n i n s e c t i o n 1 o f t h e 1980 c o n s o l i d a t i o n , i s l e s s v e r b o s e than t h a t o f the o r i g i n a l A c t . 20 P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, "Memorandum t o a l l R e g i o n a l Boards and a l l M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s , " J u l y , 1973, p. 3. (Mimeographed.) 21 Rawson, 111 F a r e s the Land, p. 24. The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f i n c l u d i n g I n d i a n r e s e r v e s i n the ALRs i s u n c l e a r . Under the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t s e c t i o n 91(24) " I n d i a n s , and Lands r e s e r v e d f o r the I n d i a n s , " a r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l government. 22 P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, Keeping the O p t i o n s Open, n.d., p. 7. 23 C a n a d a - B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l Development S u b s i d i a r y Agreement P r o j e c t No. 271031, B.C. Land I n v e n t o r y R e p o r t , v o l . 1: A g r i c u l t u r e  R e g i o n Summaries, 1979, pp. 40-41. 2 A Fr e d R e i d , "The Paradox of S p e c i a l i t y Uses on C l a s s 4 and 5 S o i l s , " i n The Urban F r i n g e i n t h e Western P r o v i n c e s , ICURR O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r , September, 1979, pp. 21-25. Because of t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , w h o l e s a l e ex-c l u s i o n s o f c l a s s e s 4, 5 and 6 l a n d a r e not w a r r a n t e d . 2 ~ " l b i d . , p. 22. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 23. 2 7 l b i d . , p. 24. 28 P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission F i l e Number 6660. I n i t s " P o i n t s f o r A p p l i c a n t s t o C o n s i d e r , " the l a n d commission m e n t i o n s t h e s e f a c t o r s i n i t s c r i t e r i a f o r e x c l u s i o n s . 29 I n t e r v i e w w i t h J.P. P l o t n i k o f f , D i r e c t o r o f t h e P l a n n i n g , P r o c e s s i n g and T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, J u l y 16, 1982. ~^B.C. Land I n v e n t o r y R e p o r t , pp. 38-40. 31 Rawson, 111 F a r e s t h e Land, pp. 24-25. 32 ' Gary Runka was i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s and a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e was no r e a l a l t e r n a t i v e - t o u s i n g the C L I . However, t h e r e s h o u l d have been immediate f i n e t u n i n g t o e l i m i n a t e the a n o m a l i e s . I n t e r v i e w w i t h Gary Runka, A p r i l 8, 1982. • 33 Memo to the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s , J u l y 11, 1973, p. 2. - 29 -34 T, ., I b i d . 35 Rawson, 111 F a r e s the Land, p. 27. P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1975, p. 3. The p h r a s e " f i n e t u n i n g " i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the l a n d r e s e r v e s was c o i n e d by W i l l i a m Lane, the f i r s t c h a i r m a n of the commission. 37 P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission,. A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1977, u n p a g i n a t e d . 38 "Mixup i n l a n d r e s e r v e blamed on o l d maps," The Vancouver Sun, June 1, 1978. 39 John T. P i e r c e , "The B.C. A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission: a Review and E v a l u a t i o n , " P l a n Canada 21:2 (June, 1981), p. 49. 40 An e x c e p t i o n o c c u r r e d i n 1976 when Richmond went d i r e c t l y t o t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . ^ P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, " P o i n t s f o r A p p l i c a n t s t o C o n s i d e r , " December 18, 1980, r e v i s e d J u l y 27, 1981. (Mimeographed.) 4 9 Both the NDP and the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions have s h a r e d t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . See speech by Dr. M i l l s C l a r k e , t h e c u r r e n t c h a i r m a n , "The R o l e o f the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission," ( P r i n c e George, Novem-be r 22, 1980), p. 8. (Mimeographed.) 43 C a r o l V o l k e r t , "Land Commission put i n d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n , " The Vancouver  Sun, October 4, 1979. 44 B r i a n K i e r a n , " L a n g l e y s i t e k e p t out of l a n d r e s e r v e , " The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 24, 1982, p. A9. 45 ' " "Don't p l a n t y o u r c r o p s , f a r m e r s ' l e a d e r u r g e s , " The P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 24, 1973. . 46 " P a i r aim t o save f a r m l a n d , " The P r o v i n c e , O c tober 8, 1976. 47 " D e v e l o p e r ' s no problem: l a n d men 'won't bow,'" The P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 9, 1976. " 49 I b i d . " ^ " I n f l u e n c e a l l e g a t i o n \ c a m e from p o l i t i c a l f o e , " The Vancouver Sun, Oc t o b e r 13, 1979. 51 " P a i r aim t o save f a r m l a n d . " 52 " D e v e l o p e r ' s no problem." 53 . ' D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i t h o u t a f u l l c o mmission, the l a n d commission s u g g e s t e d t o D e l t a t h a t i t p l a c e i t s r e q u e s t f o r e x c l u s i o n of 212 h e c t a r e s d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the c a b i n e t . - 30-CHAPTER I I The p r e s s u r e s f o r e x c l u s i o n from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s a r e the p r o d u c t of a complex of f a c t o r s i n v o l v i n g competing and c o n f l i c t i n g i n -t e r e s t s . Many o f t h e s e i n t e r e s t s can have an e q u i v o c a l a t t i t u d e toward t h e e x c l u s i o n of any p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e r t y from the ALR. These i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e t h o s e of f a r m e r s , who as i n d i v i d u a l s may w i s h t o d e v e l o p t h e i r l a n d , b u t , c o l l e c t i v e l y have a s u b s t a n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n m a i n t a i n i n g the r e s e r v e s ; d e v e l o p e r s who want to r e a l i z e the l a r g e c a p i t a l g a i n s from c o n v e r t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l o r r e s i d e n t i a l u s e s , b u t , who a l s o have an i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g the s u p p l y of l a n d t o keep t h e p r i c e up; m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , who a r e caught between the need f o r expanded t a x revenues and the i n c r e a s e d c o s t s f o r s e r v i c e s t h a t accompanies the development; and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s who have to b a l a n c e the competing i n t e r e s t s of t h e member m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The Land Of t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90,000,000 h e c t a r e s c o m p r i s i n g t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C olumbia o n l y 3,600,000 h e c t a r e s , o r f o u r p e r c e n t , a r e p o t e n t i a l l y a r a b l e . Only one and one h a l f m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s , o r one and one h a l f p e r c e n t of the t o t a l l a n d , c o n s i s t s of Canada Land I n v e n t o r y c l a s s e s one t o t h r e e : 2 l a n d . These a r a b l e l a n d s a r e s c a t t e r e d o v e r t h e p r o v i n c e i n t h e narrow f e r -t i l e v a l l e y f l o o r s , the c o a s t a l p l a i n s and t h e r i v e r f l o o d p l a i n s . At the c o m p l e t i o n of the p r o c e s s of d e s i g n a t i o n 4,721,295.3 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d were p l a c e d i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . Each o f t h e t w e n t y - e i g h t r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s o f the p r o v i n c e have a t l e a s t some l a n d i n an ALR. Three r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , C a r i b o o , Peace R i v e r - L i a r d and Thompson-Nicola account f o r 2,993,198 h e c t a r e s o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 63 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d i n the ALR. Sub-s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s of the C a r i b o o and Thompson-Nicola a r e a s i n the r e s e r v e a r e - 31 -3 classes 5 and 6 range land. Sixty-seven percent of the ALR is north of 51 degrees latitude. Seventy-six percent of the ALR in this area consists of classes 4 and 5 land which is suitable for the production of forages and early maturing feed grains. This is the fastest growing agricultural region in the province'—between 1972 and 4 1979, 12,340 hectares were cleared for farming. The best farmland in the province is found on Vancouver Island, the Lower Mainland and the Okanagan. The favourable climate conditions and good soils in these regions combine to produce some of the best agricultural land in a l l of Canada. The Lower Mainland area comprising Central Fraser, Dewdney-Alouette, Fraser Cheam and Greater Vancouver regional districts have 148,421 hectares (or only three percent of the total) in the ALR yet produce one-third of the provincial cash income from agricultural crops.5 Only l/100th of one percent of the province is suitable for tree fruit production a l l of which is located in the Okanagan.** The Okanagan, including Central Okanagan, North Okanagan and Okanagan-Similkameen regional districts, accounted for 189,838 hectares at designation or four percent of the total ALR. It is in these prime agricultural regions where the major conflict^ over the ALR occurs since these are also the regions that have been historically the most attractive for settlement and industry. Over fifty percent of the 8 provincial population lives in the Lower Mainland. Most of the seven percent of the land in the province held by private tenue is located within municipalities 9 on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Farmers as Individuals The interests of farmers, as individuals, at times diverge from the interests of farmers collectively, who have an interest in maintaining the ALRs. The pressure of urban encroachment on rural areas makes farming more difficult - 32 -and d r i v e s up t h e p r i c e o f l a n d t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r ' s i n -c e n t i v e t o s e l l . ^ Freeways, h y d r o , t e l e p h o n e and c a b l e easements c u t t h r o u g h farms making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r far m e r s t o t r a n s p o r t s l o w and awkward fa r m machinery from one p a r t o f the farm t o a n o t h e r . U r b a n - o r i e n t e d n e i g h b o u r s o b j e c t t o the odour o f a n i m a l waste and f e r t i l i z e r , t he h a z a r d s o f p e s t i c i d e s and the n o i s e o f fa r m machinery i n the e a r l y morning h o u r s . They v a n d a l i z e the c r o p s , break down t h e f e n c e s and use the l a n d as a garbage dump.''"''" They c o m p l a i n t o an urban-dominated c o u n c i l w h i c h responds by p l a c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on the farmer and i n some ca s e s even z o n i n g out c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l uses 12 w i t h i n the ALR. C o n f r o n t e d by t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s some far m e r s s t o p t h i n k i n g o f f a r m i n g as a l o n g term i n v e s t m e n t , f a i l t o make the n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l improvements and cease t o m a i n t a i n the l a n d . Meanwhile the demand f o r l a n d by commuters, hobby f a r m e r s and d e v e l o p e r s d r i v e s up the p r i c e o f l a n d r e s u l t i n g i n s p e c u l a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e i n l a n d p r i c e s i n c r e a s e s the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f f a r m i n g . A fa r m e r may then w a i t f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s u b d i v i d e and r e f u s e t o s e l l o r r e n t to f a r m e r s who do want to\expand s i n c e the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e n t s a r e o n l y a f r a c t i o n o f the r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l or, i n d u s t r i a l r e n t s . The Richmond " b l u e b e r r y p a t c h " i s a case i n p o i n t . Here one hundred owners of 12.1 h e c t a r e s have o r g a n i z e d t o p r e s s f o r the r e l e a s e of 364 h e c t a r e s from_the ALR. These l a n d h o l d e r s argue t h a t f a r m i n g i n the b l u e b e r r y p a t c h amounts to s u b s i d i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r e s i n c e the r e t u r n on a c r o p o f b l u e b e r r i e s i s o n l y $1500 p e r y e a r p e r h e c t a r e whereas i f the l a n d were s o l d f o r h o u s i n g t h e y e a r l y i n t e r e s t on the pro c e e d s would e q u a l $25,000 t o $37,000 per h e c t a r e ' 13 v p e r y e a r . • I n any c a s e , they argue t h a t much o f l a n d i s n o t s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . ^ s i r i c e . i t " c o n s i s t s o f bush and b l u e b e r r y w a s t e l a n d , abandoned w i t h bushes n e g l e c t e d , d i s e a s e d and u n h a r v e s t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , f o r the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r , s e l f - e m p l o y e d w i t h no company - 33 -r e t i r e m e n t b e n e f i t s , t h e f a r m r e p r e s e n t s h i s p e n s i o n f u n d . George S p e t i f o r e , a D e l t a f a r m e r , c r i t i c i z i n g the Land Commission A c t i n 1973, commented t h a t " I t d o e s n ' t p r o v i d e much r e t i r e m e n t hope f o r p e o p l e who have been w o r k i n g 14 t o 16 hours a day seven days a week f o r most o f t h e i r l i v e s . " " ' " 5 The A c t d i d not remove the f a r m e r ' s r i g h t t o s e l l h i s f a r m as a f a r m , w h i c h would s t i l l amount t o a p e n s i o n . I t d i d a f f e c t a f a r m e r ' s a b i l i t y t o g a i n t h e c a p i t a l a p p r e c i a t i o n on c o n v e r t i n g h i s l a n d t o urban u s e s . As f a r m l a n d , t h e 212 hec-t a r e s o f D e l t a l a n d owned o f c o n t r o l l e d by S p e t i f o r e were a s s e s s e d a t approx-i m a t e l y $800,000."''*' A f t e r the r e l e a s e of the l a n d from the ALR by t h e c a b i n e t a t t h e r e q u e s t of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of D e l t a , S p e t i f o r e s o l d t h e l a n d f o r $ 4 8,575,000. 1 7 Farmers as a C o l l e c t i v i t y The i n t e r e s t o f a g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l farmer i n h a v i n g h i s l a n d e x c l u d e d from t h e ALR c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e \ i n t e r e s t s o f f a r m e r s as c o l l e c t i v i t y . There i s the danger f o r f a r m e r s who w i s h t o c o n t i n u e f a r m i n g t h a t t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the farm community by urban i n t r u s i o n w i l l l e a d t o the c o l l a p s e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e j e o p a r d i z i n g the economics o f f a r m i n g i n t h e a r e a . As Mary Rawson, member of the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission has o b s e r v e d : At a c e r t a i n p o i n t , though we don't y e t know what i t i s , i n t r u s i o n o f non-farm uses must l e a d t o the c o l l a p s e of the b a l a n c e o f t h e f a r m i n g community. I f a c e r t a i n number o f a c r e s i n d a i r y farms i s needed t o s u p p o r t a l o c a l d a i r y s u p p l y f i r m , o r a c e r t a i n number of a c r e s i n o r c h a r d s i s needed t o s u p p o r t a l o c a l p a c k i n g house, t h e n when enough a c r e s a r e removed, the s u p p o r t s e r v i c e s d i e t o o , o r move away, and the c o s t s and d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the r e m a i n i n g f a r m e r s a r e i n c r e a s e d . 1 8 Gary Runka, f o r m e r chairman o f the l a n d commission, c r e d i t s t h e l a n d . . . . . . T O r e s e r v e s w i t h s a v i n g the t r e e f r u i t i n d u s t r y i n the Okanagan. S i n c e the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e s , the Okanagan t r e e f r u i t i n d u s t r y has become a 20 100 m i l l i o n d o l l a r a y e a r b u s i n e s s . S u b s t a n t i a l i n v e s t m e n t s i n the a g r i -c u l t u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e were a l s o e s s e n t i a l f o r t h i s s u c c e s s . Funds from the - 34 -f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r e and Rural Development Subsidiary Agreement (ARDSA) were invested i n c o n t r o l l e d atmosphere storage f a c i l i t i e s and pro-c e s s i n g p l a n t s . Between Aguust 1, 1977, and December 31, 1980, over 84 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s were invested i n p r o j e c t s throughout B.C. ranging from market pro-motion, range enhancement, drainage and i r r i g a t i o n to r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n programs and upgrading of t r e e - f r u i t packing houses. The ARDSA c o n t r i b u t i o n 21 to these p r o j e c t s amounted to over 36 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . When r u r a l land i s converted to urban purposes many of these investments are l o s t . One of the reasons c i t e d by the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n support of the Land Commission Act was that programs, such as i r r i g a t i o n and drainage, 22 designed to improve farm income, were being l o s t to urban development. One study i n the United States found that such investments i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e increased the rate of conversion to urban uses since they 23 lowered a developer's costs. The B.C. Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e i s the i n s t i t u t i o n a l embodiment of the c o l l e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s of farmers. The Federation represents 76 farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the B.C. Blueberry Co-op A s s o c i a t i o n , the B.C. Cattlemen's A s s o c i a t i o n , the B.C. F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n and the Fraser V a l l e y M i l k Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Of the 11,000 commercial farmers i n the province, 8,000 are mem-bers i n the B.C. Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e . A m a j o r i t y of the remainder belong to the National Farmer's Union which predominates i n the Peace River area. I n i t i a l l y the B.C. Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e was vehemently opposed to the Land Commission Act and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the ALRs. The Federation argued that the best way to save the farmland was by f i r s t saving the farmer. With an adequate income, farmers would not be tempted to s e l i out to developers. Where a farm was to be s o l d f o r other than a g r i c u l t u r a l use, the f e d e r a t i o n b e l i e v e d that the government should have the r i g h t of f i r s t r e f u s a l at f a i r 24 market value. - A f t e r the f i r s t reading of the Act, the president of the - 35 -F e d e r a t i o n c a l l e d upon i t s members t o r e f r a i n f rom p l a n t i n g t h e i r c r o p s and 25 l a t e r the F e d e r a t i o n o r g a n i z e d a p r o t e s t march on V i c t o r i a . By 1975, the B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e had moved t o f u l l s u p p o r t of the ALRs as p a r t of a comprehensive a g r i c u l t u r e program. I n an a d d r e s s t o the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s i n 1979, B.C.F.A. p r e s i d e n t P a t H i b b e r t argued t h a t "The i m p o r t a n c e of the l e g i s l a t i o n t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r i n 26 B.C. cannot be emphasized enough." The F e d e r a t i o n now v i g o r o u s l y l o b b i e s t h e government t o p r o t e c t the l a n d r e s e r v e s . The F e d e r a t i o n opposed t h e amend-ments t o the Land Commission A c t i n 1977 w h i c h a l l o w e d an i n d i v i d u a l t o a p p e a l to the c a b i n e t w i t h o u t f i r s t o b t a i n i n g l e a v e f r o m two members o f the commission. The F e d e r a t i o n has d e v e l o p e d i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n i t s l o b b y i n g 27 e f f o r t s w i t h the government. I t responds t o a l l c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n s t o r e j e c t the recommendation of the l a n d commission and a l l comments by t h e government on the l a n d commission. I n r e s p o n s e t o the r e moval o f the G l o u c e s t e r p r o p e r t i e s by t h e c a b i n e t i n 1979, the F e d e r a t i o n formed a c o a l i t i o n w i t h s u c h d i v e r s e groups as the B.C. Consumer A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e B.C. I n s t i t u t e o f A g r o l o g i s t s , t h e B.C. Women's I n s t i t u t e , the. U n i t e d - C h u r c h , the . F e d e r a t i o n of Bi-C. N a t u r a l i s t s , the P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e of B.C. and the B.C. Chamber o f Commerce, a f a i r l y f o r m i d a b l e l o b b y . I n a j o i n t s t a t e m e n t the c o a l t i o n e x p r e s s e d a l a r m a t the t r e n d of r e c e n t e v e n t s i n v o l v i n g t h e c a b i n e t committee a p p e a l p r o c e s s 28 w h i c h i n d i c a t e d " t h e demise of f a r m l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . " The c o a l t i o n c a l l e d upon P r e m i e r Bennett t o demonstrate h i s government's s t a t e d commitment t o a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n by a p p o i n t i n g a permanent chairman of w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d c a p a b i l i t y , s t a t u r e and o b j e c t i v i t y t o the l a n d commission and amending the a p p e a l p r o c e s s to remove from the p o l i t i c a l a r e n a the d e c i s i o n t o a l l o w or d i s a l l o w a p p e a l s t o go f o r w a r d t o the Environment and Land Use 29 Committee of c a b i n e t . . The F e d e r a t i o n has a c h i e v e d mixed r e s u l t s f o r i t s e f f o r t s . The c a b i n e t t o o k "a second l o o k " a t t h e G l o u c e s t e r d e c i s i o n and d i d a p p o i n t a r e s p e c t e d permanent c h a i r m a n , Dr. M i l l s C l a r k e , t o the l a n d commission. However, t o date the government has n o t changed the a p p e a l p r o c e d u r e , c o n t i n u e s t o r e j e c t the recommendation of the l a n d commission and more r e c e n t l y , J i m H e w i t t , the m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l a n d commission, has t h r e a t e n e d t o change t h e 30 l e g i s l a t i o n t o l i m i t t he a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y B u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y compete w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g the l a r g e urban c e n t r e s . B u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y .-l o o k f o r low r e n t s and p r o x i m i t y t o the o t h e r f a c t o r s o f p r o d u c t i o n : d i s t r i -b u t i o n c e n t r e s , s k i l l e d l a b o u r f o r c e , m a r k e t s , e t c . These r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y met i n f a r m l a n d a r e a s such, as Richmond. M a n u f a c t u r e r s such as Ebco, whose f a c t o r y i n Richmond o c c u p i e s t h r e e and one h a l f h e c t a r e s , c o u l d not " f i n d a p l a c e cheap enough on a r a i l w a y l i n e i n Vancouver where t h e r e was 31 room f o r e x p a n s i o n . " B e a u f o r t Canada l o c a t e d i n Richmond because o f p r o x i m i t y t o main highways, the low r e n t s and "because the i n d u s t r y i s v e r y new, t h e r e 32 was no p o o l o f e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s anywhere e l s e t o draw on." B.C. Fancy Sausage r e q u i r e s o v e r one h e c t a r e o f l a n d f o r i t s Richmond p l a n t . P r o x i m i t y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and l o c a l markets i s a " n e c e s s i t y f o r speedy d e l i v e r y o f 33 p e r i s h a b l e goods such as sausage." Land D e v e l o p e r s The major o b j e c t i v e o f t h e d e v e l o p e r i s t o make a p r o f i t and the l a r g e s t p r o f i t can be made by c o n v e r t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d t o r e s i d e n t i a l o r i n d u s t r i a l uses.. Land development companies a r e th u s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n t e r e s t s s i n c e the r e t u r n s on r e s i d e n t i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and i n -d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t y f a r . e x c e e d s the t y p i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l r e t u r n . A l s o , the q u a l i t i e s t h a t makes l a n d a t t r a c t i v e t o a farmer a l s o a p p e a l t o the d e v e l o p e r : f l a t land f r e e o f t r e e s and r o c k s w i t h ease o f d r a i n a g e mean lo w e r c o s t s t o - 37 -34 1 d e v e l o p . However, any g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r may be tempted by the c a p i t a l g a i n s t o be r e a l i z e d by c o n v e r s i o n t o n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l uses and h i s immediate i n t e r e s t s may c o i n c i d e w i t h the d e v e l o p e r ' s i n t e r e s t . The d e v e l o p e r a l s o l o o k s f o r p r o x i m i t y t o urban c e n t r e s t o s a t i s f y t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the ALRs had a d i r e c t impact on d e v e l o p e r s who had p u r c h a s e d f a r m l a n d on s p e c u l a t i o n b e f o r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h e Land Commission  A c t . Of c o u r s e , by d e f i n i t i o n , s p e c u l a t i o n i n v o l v e s the r i s k o f l o s s , b u t , the p r o s p e c t of l a r g e c a p i t a l g a i n s makes i t w o r t h t h e d e v e l o p e r ' s t i m e t o a t t e m p t t o have l a n d e x c l u d e d from the ALR. A i n s l i e L o r e t t o of G l o u c e s t e r P r o p e r t i e s had spent two y e a r s t r y i n g t o amalgamate l a n d f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s i n P o r t C o q u i t l a m " o n l y t o be f a c e d 35 w i t h the e x o r b i t a n t purchase p r i c e of $70,000 an a c r e ($172,000 p e r h e c t a r e . ) " B e f o r e the l a n d f r e e z e , G l o u c e s t e r p urchased 810 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d i n S u r r e y 36 f o r $3.2 m i l l i o n o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y $4,000 p e r h e c t a r e . W i t h the passage of the Land Commission A c t , 253 h e c t a r e s of the p r o p e r t y were p l a c e d i n the ALR. G l o u c e s t e r a p p l i e d t w i c e t o the l a n d commission f o r e x c l u s i o n under s e c t i o n 1 2 ( 1 ) , the i n d i v i d u a l a p p e a l s , and was t w i c e t u r n e d down. Under the amendments t o the A c t i n 1977, G l o u c e s t e r s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d f o r l e a v e ~ t o r a p p e a l . , The Environment and Land Use Committee a l l o w e d the e x c l u s i o n O c t o b e r 3, 1979, a f t e r H e a l t h M i n i s t e r Bob M c C l e l l a n d made a p l e a t o the committee f o r the 37 e x c l u s i o n of the l a n d . Amid the r e s u l t i n g c o n t r o v e r s y , i n c l u d i n g the r e s i g n a t i o n o f Gary Runka from, the commission and the f o r m a t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n headed by t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e r e f e r r e d t o above, P r e m i e r Bennett o r d e r e d the Environment and Land Use Committee t o take a "second l o o k " a t the d e c i s i o n and p r o h i b i t e d the development of the p r o p e r t y i n t h e i n t e r i m . 3 8 The l a n d commission took s t e p s under s e c t i o n 8 of the A c t t o have the l a n d - 38 -a g a i n i n c l u d e d i n t h e ALR. However, the c a b i n e t r e j e c t e d the l a n d commission's 39 recommendation and f r e e d the l a n d f o r development. The c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n meant t h a t G l o u c e s t e r c o u l d p r o c e e d w i t h i t s p l a n s t o s e l l the l a n d f o r be-tween $148,000 and $185,000 p e r h e c t a r e o r a t o t a l o f $37,444,000 t o $46,805,000 o r a p r o f i t o f a minimum o f $34,244,000 minus the development c o s t s o f a p p r o x i -m a t e l y $12,350 p e r h e c t a r e ( p r o v i d e d r e z o n i n g i s a l l o w e d by t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y 40 and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t ) . There i s a modest d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s between i n d i v i d u a l d e v e l o p e r s and d e v e l o p e r s as a group w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t h e d i v e r g e n c e o f i n t e r e s t s between f a r m e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y and f a r m e r s c o l l e c t i v e l y . Excess i n d u s t r i a l l a n d can d r i v e down the p r i c e o f e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l p r o p e r t i e s and s e v e r a l development companies p r o t e s t e d the G l o u c e s t e r p l a n s . A t the t i m e , s e r v i c e d l a n d i n Dominion C o n s t r u c t i o n ' s L a n g l e y i n d u s t r i a l p a r k was s e l l i n g f o r between $197,000 and $222,300 per h e c t a r e ' w h i l e Marathon R e a l t y i n C o q u i t l a m ' s M a y f a i r I n d u s t r i a l 41 P a r k was s e l l i n g s e r v i c e d l a n d s f o r $432,250 per h e c t a r e . C o n s e q u e n t l y on any g i v e n e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t , the i n t e r e s t s o f some d e v e l o p e r s w i l l c o n f l i c t w i t h the development p r o c e s s . However, the l o n g r u n i n t e r e s t o f the d e v e l o p e r s i s t o open up the. development p r o c e s s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e s u b j e c t t o a t l e a s t two c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the development p r o c e s s . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s must p r o v i d e l o c a l s e r v i c e s : s c h o o l s , r o a d s , s t r e e t l i g h t i n g , l i b r a r i e s , e t c . , and a t the same ti m e keep the m i l l r a t e down. Because the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s depend f o r a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e i r revenue on the p r o p e r t y t a x and because t h e r e i s no i n d u s t r i a l revenue s h a r i n g between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have an i n c e n t i v e t o a l l o w development, s i n c e i n d u s t r i a l , c o m m e r c i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s p r o v i d e a much h i g h e r t a x revenue than a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o p e r t y . The need f o r expanded t a x revenues i s . a f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d r e a s o n f o r e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s . - 39 -On the t a x revenue s i d e of the b a l a n c e s h e e t , the i n t e r e s t s o f the m u n i c i p a l i t y and the d e v e l o p e r c o i n c i d e s i n c e the d e v e l o p e r ' s p r o p o s a l s r e p r e -s e n t a means f o r the m u n i c i p a l i t y t o expand the t a x base. Richmond r e q u e s t e d the e x c l u s i o n o f the Crestwood e x p a n s i o n a r e a because i t would p r o v i d e a n n u a l 42 t a x revenues of $1.5 m i l l i o n and up t o 2,000 j o b s . L a n g l e y s u p p o r t e d the e x c l u s i o n of the G l o u c e s t e r p r o p e r t y because L a n g l e y needed t h e development t o h e l p f i n a n c e m u n i c i p a l programs and t o r e s c u e L a n g l e y ' s m u n i c i p a l t a x base 43 from "the b r i n k o f r e s i d e n t i a l o v e r b a l a n c e . " However, development a l s o i n c r e a s e s the c o s t s t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y as the demand f o r s e r v i c e s g e n e r a t e d by development a l s o i n c r e a s e s , and f r e q u e n t l y i n c l u d e s u n a n t i c i p a t e d " s o f t " c o s t s . I n 1976, S u r r e y m u n i c i p a l i t y s u b m i t t e d an 1 1 ( 1 ) , a government t o government e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t t o the l a n d commission, w h i c h i n c l u d e d a p r o p o s a l by C a p t a i n H a r r y T e r r y f o r a r a c e t r a c k a t Meadow 44 Creek Farms i n S u r r e y ' s Hazelmere V a l l e y . R e s i d e n t s o f t h e v a l l e y opposed the a p p l i c a t i o n because they wanted t o r e t a i n the q u i e t a g r i c u l t u r a l n a t u r e • o f . t h e v a l l e y and were concerned about the ground w a t e r s u p p l i e s i n the a r e a s i n c e most farms use a r t e s i a n w e l l s and the proposed h o r s e f a c i l i t i e s would r e q u i r e 14,500 g a l l o n s of water a day. The r e s i d e n t s a l s o argued t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d $30,000 revenue i n t a x e s would be o f f s e t by the p o s s i b l e $2.5 m i l l i o n r e q u i r e d f o r r o a d improvements, s e r v i c i n g and e x t r a p o l i c i n g the r a c e -, . 4 5 t r a c k would r e q u i r e . The m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l i s i t s e l f a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s e competing i n t e r e s t s and the c o m p o s i t i o n of the c o u n c i l s h i f t s as v a r y i n g i n t e r e s t s dominate the c o u n c i l o ver t i m e . In the Meadow Creek Farms r a c e t r a c k p r o p o s a l , the l a n d commission e a r l y i n 1976 recommended t h a t the l a n d remain i n the ALR because of the p o t e n t i a l impact on a g r i c u l t u r e i n the a r e a and the c a b i n e t a c c e p t e d 46 t h i s recommendation. However, e a r l y i n 1977, the new S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d . commission gave C a p t a i n T e r r y p e r m i s s i o n t o o p e r a t e the r a c e t r a c k w i t h o u t - 40 -t a k i n g the l a n d out of the r e s e r v e on the c o n d i t i o n t h a t the p a r k i n g l o t n o t 47 be paved. However, a new m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l had been e l e c t e d and the b a l a n c e o f membership had s h i f t e d to a more p l a n n i n g o r i e n t a t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y r e f u s e d t o i s s u e C a p t a i n T e r r y a b u i l d i n g p e r m i t f o r the r a c e -, , 48 t r a c k . R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t s Many of the m u n i c i p a l development p r o j e c t s r e s u l t i n i n t r a - r e g i o n a l con-f l i c t . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s compete w i t h each o t h e r t o a t t r a c t development and w h i l e a g i v e n m u n i c i p a l i t y b e n e f i t s from i t s improved t a x b a s e , t h e development f r e -q u e n t l y r e s u l t s i n h i g h e r r e g i o n a l c o s t s i n t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s e r v i c e s , e t c . The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s were c r e a t e d as an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and a u t h o r i t a t i v e forum f o r the e x p r e s s i o n and r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t s between m u n i c i p a l i t i e s 49 w i t h i n the d i s t r i c t . The i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l members o f the r e g i o n a l b o a r d have an i n c e n t i v e ( a l b e i t a t t i m e s an e q u i v o c a l i n c e n t i v e ) t o encourage development, b u t , as members of the c o l l e c t i v i t y of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o a r d s , they have an i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l l i n g the development p r o c e s s where r e g i o n a l c o s t s w i l l exceed the immediate b e n e f i t s t o any i n d i v i d u a l member. I n many ways, t h i s c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t boards p a r a l l e l s the c o n f l i c t between f a r m e r s , who as i n d i v i d u a l s may have a n . i n c e n t i v e t o s e l l f o r d e v e l o p -ment, and f a r m e r s as a c o l l e c t i v i t y whose i n t e r e s t s a r e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by development. ,. I n a d d i t i o n t o the g e n e r a l r e g i o n a l c o s t s imposed by the development p r o j e c t s of a m u n i c i p a l i t y , f r e q u e n t l y , s p e c f i c c o s t s a r e imposed on a d j a c e n t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I n 1979, D e l t a a p p l i e d t o the c a b i n e t t o have 212 h e c t a r e s of l a n d owned o r c o n t r o l l e d by George S p e t i f o r e , e x c l u d e d from the ALR because s o u t h D e l t a had l e s s than two y e a r s s u p p l y of l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use and the S p e t i f o r e l a n d would be r e q u i r e d f o r the p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . 5 0 The - 4 1 -p l a n n i n g s t a f f o f the GVRD was opposed t o the a p p l i c a t i o n because the proposed development would i n c r e a s e t r a f f i c beyond the r a t e d c a p a c i t y o f the Massey t u n n e l and a major r e g i o n a l highway would have t o be extended from Boundary Bay Road t o Highway 99. Richmond opposed t h e a p p l i c a t i o n because the new r e s i d e n t s would put a d r a i n on Richmond s e r v i c e s and use Richmond as a commuter l i n k t o j o b s and b u s i n e s s e s i n Vancouver, t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c problems w i t h i n Richmond. The l o n g e r commuting t i m e s f o r Richmond r e s i d e n t s r e p r e s e n t s one o f the " s o f t " c o s t s t h a t would be borne by Richmond. An e x p a n s i o n o f the highway would t a k e up v a l u a b l e Richmond l a n d f o r w h i c h Richmond would r e c e i v e 52 no b e n e f i t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the l a n d i s i n the f l o o d p l a i n and would have t o be f l o o d p r o o f e d t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f the environment m i n i s t r y i f t he h o u s i n g 53 development proceeded. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the GVRD board s u p p o r t e d the a p p l i c a t i o n because S p e t i f o r e had o f f e r e d 93 h e c t a r e s o f l a n d e l s e w h e r e i n D e l t a f o r a 54 r e g i o n a l p a r k i n r e t u r n f o r development p e r m i s s i o n . As i n the case o f s h i f t s i n the membership o f m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s , o ver r time d i f f e r e n t f a c e t s o f the i n t r a - r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s g a i n p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n on the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t b o a r d s . The S p e t i f o r e case i s an example. I n 1981, the c a b i n e t r e j e c t e d the l a n d commission's recommendation t h a t t h e S p e t i f o r e p r o p e r t y remain i n the ALR. Because of a t e c h n i c a l i t y — t h e d i s t r i c t ' s o f f i c i a l r e g i o n a l p l a n was r e v i s e d d u r i n g t he i n t e r v a l between S p e t i f o r e ' s a p p l i c a t i o n f o r r e z o n i n g and the c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n — S p e t i f o r e was r e q u i r e d t o r e a p p l y t o the GVRD f o r a z o n i n g change b e f o r e he c o u l d s u b d i v i d e . 5 5 D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the GVRD board had a l s o changed, and i n March, 1981,, the GVRD, i n a 33 t o 32 v o t e r e j e c t e d S p e t i f o r e ' s r e q u e s t f o r a change i n i t s r e g i o n a l p l a n . 5 * * The r e g i o n a l board d e s i g n a t i o n would p r e v a i l and the l a n d cannot be d e v e l o p e d , u n t i l t he r e g i o n a l board changes t h e O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n . - 42 -Lower M a i n l a n d I n t e r - and i n t r a - r e g i o n a l c o n f l i c t i s most pronounced i n the Lower Main-l a n d . The Lower M a i n l a n d has had a l o n g e r h i s t o r y w i t h z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a n the h i n t e r l a n d r e g i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e . -The urban p o p u l a t i o n has more a p p r e c i a t i o n of the need f o r z o n i n g and z o n i n g c o n f l i c t s c a p t u r e t he a t t e n t i o n of the media. And, u n l i k e o t h e r a r e a s o f the p r o v i n c e , the Lower M a i n l a n d has an O f f i c i a l Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n , a n o t h e r . l e v e l o f p l a n n i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . 5 7 Because o f the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n the Lower M a i n l a n d , the impact o f developments w i t h i n r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s f r e q u e n t l y s p i l l o v er t o o t h e r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d . An example i s the G l o u c e s t e r i n d u s t r i a l p a r k scheme i n the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The B.C. Development C o r p o r a t i o n a d v i s e d r e j e c t i o n o f G l o u c e s t e r ' s scheme because t h e r e w a s . s u f f i c i e n t l a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l purposes w i t h o u t e x c l u d i n g t h e 253 h e c t a r e s f r o m 58 the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . There was a t h i r t y y e a r s u p p l y o f i n d u s t r i a l l y 59 zoned l a n d i n the a d j a c e n t G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . The G l o u c e s t e r i n d u s t r i a l p a r k would have an impact on the a b i l i t y o f t h e GVRD to a t t r a c t development t o i t s i n d u s t r i a l l y zoned l a n d t h e r e b y a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e GVRD r e g i o n a l p l a n . . , M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e O f f i c i a l s w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s from the b e g i n n i n g . T h e a n n u a l l o s s o f n e a r l y 4,000 h e c t a r e s o f prime a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p r i o r t o the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the l a n d r e s e r v e s and the c o n c o m i t a n t d e c l i n e i n the number of f a r m e r s , c o u l d o n l y have a n e g a t i v e impact on the m i n i s t r y as i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e v a n i s h e d . The l e g i s l a t i o n has had a m o r a l e - b u i l d i n g e f f e c t on the m i n i s t r y * ' * and the m i n i s t r y i s f r e q u e n t l y a spokesman f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s i n the r e s e r v e s . O f f i c i a l s w i t h i n the m i n i s t r y p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t a l a n d commission d e c i s i o n - 43 -of May, 1978, to exclude 2,467 hectares of class 5 and 6 land i n the Dewdney-Alouette regional d i s t r i c t on the grounds that the land commission was mis-62 i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s mandate by r e s t r i c t i n g ALR lands to s o i l bound a g r i c u l t u r e . The minister has been urged by ministry o f f i c i a l s to repeal the 1977 amend-ments which allowed an i n d i v i d u a l to appeal to the Environment and Land Use 63 Committee without f i r s t obtaining leave to appeal from the land commission. Other Interest Groups Other groups, i n addition to the B.C. Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e , also vigorously lobby for the land reserves. These include the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of Agrologists and the S c i e n t i f i c P o l l u t i o n and Environmental Control Society (SPEC). SPEC, has consistently supported the land reserves because of concern over the destruction of food-producing land i n B r i t i s h Columbia and has opposed a l l cases where the cabinet has rejected the recommendation of the 64 land commission: A d d i t i o n a l l y , various ad hoc groups have formed to protest s p e c i f i c exclusions. An example i s the non-partisan Save the Farmland Committee which organized to oppose Chilliwack municipal council's request for the exclusion of 700 hectares of farmland in 1976. 6 5 In the ranching areas of the province, the i n t e r e s t s of the B.C. C a t t l e -men's Association i n long term crown land grazing permits c o n f l i c t s with the i n t e r e s t s of recreation groups such as the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. and the B.C. W i l d l i f e Federation i n having access to crown land. The cattlemen need long term leases to j u s t i f y t h e i r large c a p i t a l investment made i n c a t t l e and equipment. 6 6 The new long term leases granted to ranchers by the Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing r e s t r i c t e d public access to roads and t r a i l s on Crown land thereby l i m i t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l use of the land. Ranchers also compete with logging companies for land. In June, 1982, the Prince George Cattlemen's Association blocked an auction of Crown l a n d . 6 7 - 44 -The l o g g i n g companies e a s i l y o u t b i d the r a n c h e r s who wanted t h e l a n d t o grow f o r a g e c r o p s . When the M i n i s t r y of Lands, P a r k s and H o u s i n g d i d n o t l i s t e n t o the c o m p l a i n t s of the r a n c h e r s , the r a n c h e r s f o r c e d the c a n c e l l a t i o n o f the 68 a u c t i o n . - 45 -F o o t n o t e s - Chap t e r I I "'"Ministry o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, 1981 Farm and Food S t a t i s t i c s ' ( V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, March, 1982), p. 1. 2 P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, K e e p i n g the O p t i o n s Open, n.d., p. 5. 3 P r o v i n c i a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1975, Schedu l e B. 4 Speech by Dr. M i l l s C l a r k e , "The R o l e o f the P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission," ( P r i n c e George: November 22, 1980), p. 3. (Mimeographed.) ^ P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1978, p. 15. ^Keep i n g the O p t i o n s Open, p. 5. 7However, the degree of c o n f l i c t o ver the l a n d r e s e r v e s i n the h i n t e r l a n d s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r a n c h i n g a r e a s t h e r e i s con -f l i c t between r a n c h e r s , f o r e s t e r s and n a t u r a l i s t s o v e r the r a n g e l a n d s . 8 -Canada, 1981 Census o f Canada F i n a l P o p u l a t i o n Counts. 9 Crook, Raymond L. w i t h C h r i s t i a n n a K.S. Crook, Towards a Land Use Management P h i l o s o p h y i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( d i s t r i b u t e d by the Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t , 1976), p. 4. ."^Lee, E., R e g i o n a l Farmland Study ( A b b o t s f o r d : C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , 1972), pp. 33-34. 11 J u l i e G l o v e r , " R e s i d e n t i a l / F a r m C o n f l i c t s : The Work o f t h e Green Zone Committee," i n The Urban F r i n g e i n the Western P r o v i n c e s ( T o r o n t o : I n t e r g o v e r n -m e n t a l Committee on Urban and R e g i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1979), pp. 2-3. 12 G l o v e r , " R e s i d e n t i a l / F a r m C o n f l i c t s , " p. 3. 13 ~Jes Odara, "Land Richmond's new c a s h c r o p , " The Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y 14, 1981, p. A l , and "Owners want out of r e s e r v e , " The Vancouver Sun, June 23, 1981, p. A15. There a re o t h e r o p i n i o n s on the v a l u e o f a b l u e b e r r y c r o p . One farmer c l a i m s t h a t " B l u e b e r r i e s a r e a h i g h y i e l d c r o p . A good farm w i l l g e t 8,000 pounds t o the a c r e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,000 pounds p e r h e c t a r e ) and the b l u e b e r r y co-op has been p a y i n g 50 c e n t s a pound. That g i v e s you $4,000 per a c r e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y $10,000 per h e c t a r e ) . My c o s t s a r e about $1,000 an a c r e ($2,500 per h e c t a r e ) f o r p r u n i n g , p i c k i n g and so on." These c a l c u l a t i o n s do not i n c l u d e the o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f the l a n d . J e s Odam, "Down by the b l u e -b e r r i e s they w a i t f o r the r i c h e s t c r o p , " The Vancouver Sun, F e b r u a r y 14, 1981, p. A6. • • "Owners want out of r e s e r v e . " 24 5"Don't p l a n t your c r o p s , f a r m e r s ' l e a d e r u r g e s , " The P r o v i n c e . F e b r u a r y > 1973. • - 46 -1 6 R i c k Ouston and Peter Trask, "Delta farmland value increased a hundred-f o l d by cabi n e t , " The Vancouver Sun, January 22, 1981, p. A24. 1 7"Farm s o l d f o r $48 m i l l i o n , " The Vancouver Sun, J u l y 29, 1981, p. A l . The Sun obtained t h i s f i g u r e from the land r e g i s t r y o f f i c e i n New Westminster. 18 Rawson, 111 Fares the Land, p. 20. 19 Interview with Gary Runka, A p r i l 8, 1982. 20 A.C. Kinnear, "Address to the F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Con-ve n t i o n , " January 23, 1980, p. 9. (Mimeographed.) '^''"Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, Annual Report, 1980, p. 64. 22 As quoted i n Barry Smith, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act: 1973", p. 127. 23 Tom Jacobsen, "How Farmers Home Encourages Urban Sprawl," Planning 44 (October, 1978), pp. 21-23. 9 / Smith, "The B r i t i s h Columbia Land Commission Act: 1973," p. 113. 25 "Don't plant your crops." 26 Pat Hibbert, "Address to the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s , " February 23, 1979, p. 5. (Mimeographed.) 27 Don Knoerr, "Address to the 1981 Annual Convention," November 24, 1981. (Mimeographed). Over the decade the BCFA s t a f f increased from three to eight and now inclu d e s a c l e a r l y defined p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s program. 28 J o i n t statement from the B.C. Federation of A g r i c u l t u r e , the B.C. Consumers' A s s o c i a t i o n , the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s , the United Church, the B.C. Women's I n s t i t u t e , the Federation of B.C. N a t u r a l i s t s , the Planning I n s t i t u t e of B.C., and the B.C. Chamber of Commerce (Vancouver, October 22, 1979), p. 2. ; 29 I b i d . , pp. 3-4. 30 Brian K i e r a n , "Harassed Hewitt to a l t e r land reserve l e g i s l a t i o n , " The Vancouver Sun, May 29, 1982, p. A16. . 31 Peter Walton, "Small goes down b i g i n Richmond," The Vancouver Sun, June 27, 1981, p. S l . 32 I b i d . 33 ' . I b i d . . 34 There i s some suggestion that n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l land i s not n e c e s s a r i l y more expensive to develop f o r housing and indu s t r y than a g r i c u l t u r a l land. See CR. Bryant and L.H. Russwurm, "The Impact of Non-Farm Development on A g r i -c u l t u r e : A Synthesis," Plan Canada 19/2 (June, 1979), p. 128. - 47 -L i n d a D i e b e l , " D e v e l o p e r ' s a p p e a l on L a n g l e y l a n d c o n t r a d i c t s l e t t e r s , " The Vancouver Sun, November 13, 1979. "Key f i g u r e i n L a n g l e y l a n d d e a l worked f o r M c C l e l l a n d , " The Vancouver  Sun, O c tober 5, 1979. / • L i n d a D i e b e l , " M c C l e l l a n d p l e a d e d t o f r e e L a n g l e y l a n d f r o m r e s e r v e , " The Vancouver Sun, November 7, 1979. A i n s l e y L o r e t t o o f G l o u c e s t e r P r o p e r t i e s had worked on M c C l e l l a n d ' s e l e c t i o n campaign. 38 "'Second l o o k ' s e t f o r l a n d r u l i n g : C a b i n e t o r d e r s r e v i e w on L a n g l e y f a r m l a n d , " The Vancouver Sun, October 24, 1979. G l o u c e s t e r P r o p e r t i e s sub-s e q u e n t l y l a u n c h e d a s u i t a g a i n s t the p r o v i n c i a l government c l a i m i n g i t s d e c i s i o n t o p r o h i b i t the development of the l a n d a f t e r r e l e a s i n g the l a n d from the ALR was "a sham and an abuse of p r o c e s s . " "Gov't sued on L a n g l e y l a n d f r e e z e , " The P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 6, 1980. 39 C a r o l V o l k a r t , "Land Commission put i n d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n , The  Vancouver Sun, O c t o b e r 4, 1979. .^°"Key f i g u r e i n L a n g l e y l a n d d e a l . . . " 4 1 , ., I b i d . 42 Jan O ' B r i e n , "Space f o r urban growth s p a r k s Richmond dilemma," The  P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 24, 1980. 43 . " L a n g l e y move w i n s p r a i s e , " The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 27, 1982, p. A3. 44 C a p t a i n T e r r y was a c l o s e f r i e n d o f former P r e m i e r W.A.C. B e n n e t t . "Capt. T e r r y f i n d s a way t o get S u r r e y r a c e t r a c k , " The P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 2, 1977. 45 M a l c o l m T u r n b u l l , " R a c e t r a c k p r o t e s t s mount," The P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 3, 1977. I b i d . 4 7 I b i d . 48' Andrew Ross, " S u r r e y o r e d e r e d t o g i v e r a c e p e r m i t t o T e r r y , " The P r o v i n c e , September 8, 1977. 49 A 1948 amendment t o the Town P l a n n i n g A c t of 1925 p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s f o r p l a n n i n g p u r p o s e s . The r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g boards had m e r e l y an a d v i s o r y r o l e u n t i l the M u n i c i p a l A c t o f 1957 p r o v i d e d t h a t p l a n n i n g r e s o l u t i o n s o f a r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g b o a r d c o u l d become b i n d i n g on a l l l o c a l government a u t h o r i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i s t w o - t h i r d s of the board members s u p p o r t e d t h e r e s o l u t i o n s . I n 1978, t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t was amended t o a l l o w p l a n n i n g r e s o l u t i o n s o f a r e g i o n a l board t o become b i n d i n g on a l l l o c a l governments i f approved by a m a j o r i t y o f the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . R o d e r i c k M. MacKenzie, "Land Use C o n t r o l G e n e r a l l y , " i n Land Use C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , May, 1979), p. 13. - 48 -" D e l t a wants l a n d t a k e n out of r e s e r v e , " The Vancouver Sun, October 30, 1979. D e l t a a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o the c a b i n e t , b y - p a s s i n g t h e l a n d commission because the commission, w i t h o u t a quorum o r a permanent c h a i r m a n , s u g g e s t e d D e l t a do so. 51 I I J e s Odam, " C a b i n e t i g n o r e d l a n d e x p e r t s : D e c i s i o n on D e l t a opposed, 1 The Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 21, 1981, pp. A1-A2. 52 ° R i c k Ouston, "Richmond backs o f f f r o m l a n d a p p e a l , " The Vancouver Sun, Ja n u a r y 27, 1981. 53 I f adequate f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n i s not p r o v i d e d , a l l the t a x p a y e r s i n the p r o v i n c e w i l l l i k e l y have t o s u b s i d i z e t h e owners o f p r o p e r t i e s t h r o u g h d i s a s t e r c o m p e n s a t i o n f u n d s , s h o u l d a f l o o d o c c u r . 5 40dam, " C a b i n e t i g n o r e d l a n d e x p e r t s . . . , " p. A2. 5 5 M i c h a e l B o c k i n g , " T e c h n i c a l i t y p u t s l a n d d e a l up i n a i r , " The Vancouver  Sun, J a n u a r y 28, 1981, p. A3. 5 6"GVRD v o t e r e v e r s e s l a n d d e c i s i o n , " The Vancouver Sun, March 25, 1981, p. A2. 5 7 T h e O f f i c i a l R e g i o n a l P l a n o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d was approved i n 1966. I n 1968 the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g Board was r e p l a c e d by t h e r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, Dewdney-Alouette, C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y and F r a s e r Cheam. However, the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l P l a n o f 1966 remained i n e f f e c t . 58 D i e b e l , " D e v e l o p e r ' s a p p e a l on L a n g l e y l a n d . . . " 59 D r a f t P l a n f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A Summary, F e b r u a r y , 1980. I n 1980 t h e r e were 2988 h e c t a r e s a v a i l a b l e f o r i n d u s t r i a l development i n t h e GVRD. The t h i r t y y e a r s u p p l y assumes a t a k e up r a t e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 101 h e c t a r e s p e r y e a r . ^ I n t e r v i e w w i t h M ike O s w e l l , E x c e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r P r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e s , M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , A p r i l 5, 1982. 61 W i l l i a m T. Lane, The Land Commission and i t s S i g n i f i c a n c e t o B r i t i s h C o lumbia A g r i c u l t u r e " (mimeograph, n . d . ) , p. 4. ^ L e t t e r from S.B. P e t e r s o n , Deputy M i n i s t e r , M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, t o the Environment and Land Use Committee, September 12, 1978. 63 • . . . I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mike O s w e l l . However, o t h e r government departments and crown a g e n c i e s a r e l e s s s u p p o r t i v e o f the ALRs. F o r example, i f Hydro p r o c e e d s w i t h i t s S i t e C dam p r o j e c t , thousands o f a c r e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n t h e Peace R i v e r a r e a w i l l be l o s t . The M i n i s t r y o f Lands, P a r k s and Housing i s s u b j e c t t o m u l t i p l e and c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s f o r Crown l a n d . 64 - „ M o i r a Farrow, SPEC ch a r g e s good B.C. f a r m l a n d b e i n g l o s t because commission b e i n g o v e r r u l e d by a p p e a l s , " The Vancouver Sun, September 17, 1979. - 49 -"""John G r i f f i t h , " C h i l l i w h a c k ( s i c ) p o l l f a v o r s f a r m p r e s e r v a t i o n , " The P r o v i n c e , O c tober 18, 1976. 66 M o i r a Farrow, "Rancher c o n t r o l of crown l a n d f e a r e d , " The Vancouver Sun, J a n u a r y 8, 1981, p. A10. 6 7 ' C a r o l V o l k a r t , " A u c t i o n f a v o r s l o g g e r s , f a r m e r s c h a r g e , " The Vancouver  Sun, June 18, 1982, p. A8. 68 T. . . I b i d . CHAPTER I I I The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t has once a g a i n become c o n t r o v e r s i a l as the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t has r e j e c t e d t h e recommendation o f t h e l a n d com-m i s s i o n i n a number of w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d c a s e s . I n J a n u a r y , 1981, the c a b i n e t e x c l u d e d 212 h e c t a r e s i n D e l t a b e l o n g i n g t o l o n g t i m e Socred s u p p o r t e r ' G e o r g e S p e t i f o r e . 1 I n May, 1981, the c a b i n e t e x c l u d e d 65 h e c t a r e s owned i n p a r t by 2 Reg N o r b e r g , a Socred s u p p o r t e r and f r i e n d o f Highways M i n i s t e r A l e x F r a s e r . \ I n A p r i l , 1982, t h e , c a b i n e t r e j e c t e d a r e q u e s t by the l a n d commission t o i n -3 e l u d e 253 h e c t a r e s i n L a n g l e y b e l o n g i n g t o G l o u c e s t e r P r o p e r t i e s . A i n s l e y L o r e t t o , the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r G l o u c e s t e r P r o p e r t i e s , had worked on Energy M i n i s t e r M c C l e l l a n d ' s 1979 r e - e l e c t i o n campaign. I n May, 1982, t h e c a b i n e t ex-c l u d e d 53 h e c t a r e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e M o f f a t f a m i l y , l o n g t i m e p r o m inent S o c i a l 4 C r e d i t s u p p o r t e r s , o v e r the p r o t e s t s of the c i t y o f P r i n c e George. I n May, 1982, the c a b i n e t e x c l u d e d 3500 h e c t a r e s near Golden a t the r e q u e s t of t h e Columbia-Shuswap r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t . There were no immediate p l a n s f o r t h e l a n d . Duane C r a n d a l l , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t c h a i r m a n , wanted the l a n d out " j u s t f o r the sake of g e t t i n g i t o u t . " 5 The NDP has charged t h a t t h e s e d e c i s i o n s r e p r e s e n t "a c r u d e abuse o f government power,"*' and were " a n o t h e r n a i l i n the c o f f i n of the c o m m i s s i o n . " 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , the l a n d commission r e m a i n s , a l b e i t r e duced i n s c o p e , and by A p r i l 1, 1981, 54,773.6 h e c t a r e s of l a n d had been e x c l u d e d from the a g r i -c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s . That r e p r e s e n t s o n l y 1.16 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l 4,721,295.3 h e c t a r e s i n the r e s e r v e s a t d e s i g n a t i o n . By A p r i l 1, 1981, 33,642.9 h e c t a r e s had been i n c l u d e d f o r a n e t l o s s of 21,130.7 h e c t a r e s . T a b l e I I i n d i c a t e s the a r e a a t d e s i g n a t i o n , the p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t i n the AIR, the i n c l u s i o n s and e x c l u s i o n s , and the a p p r o x i m a t e a r e a as of A p r i l 1, 1981. ' - 51 -TABLE I I C u r r e n t ALR Area by R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t as of A p r i l 1, 1981 In H e c t a r e s Approximate A r e a a t Date Approximate of A r e a of o f R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t D e s i g n a t i o n I n c l u s i o n s E x c l u s i o n s A p r i l 1, 1981 A l b e r n i - C l a y o q u o t 7,935.2 (1.1) - 56.7 7,878.5 B u l k l e y - N e c h a n k o 297,611.3 (3.8) — 320.0 297,291.3 C a p i t a l 19,595.1 (8.1) 130.0 1,203.6 18,521.5 C a r i b o o 925,506.1 (11.2) 4,318.7 14,779.1 915,045.2 C e n t r a l Coast 4,453.4 (0.2) - 27.8 4,425.6 C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y 55,344.1 (75.6) 2.9 2,305.7 53,041.3 C e n t r a l Kootenay ' 71,538.5 (3.0) 445.5 4,649.2 67,3 r34.8 C e n t r a l Okanagan 33,076.9 (11.1) 91.5 665.1 32,503.3 Columbia-Shuswap 67,408.8 (2.2) 199.5 7,033.5 60,574.9 Comox-Strathcona 43,724.7 (2.1) 3,572.9 5,868.9 41,431.7 Cowichan V a l l e y 21,983.8 (6.2) 6.6 908.6 21,081.8 Dewdney-Alouette 23,765.2 (8.2) . 480.2 2,829.7 21,415.7 East Kootenay 272,510.1 (9.8) - • 1,818.6 270,691.5 Fraser-Cheam 36,761.1 (3.3) 0.8 544.3 36,217.6 F r a s e r - F t . George 349,635.6 (6.7) 21,642.1 809.2 370,468.5 G r e a t e r Vancouver 32,550.6 (12.5) 1.2 529.1 32,022.7 K i t i m a t - S t i k i n e 64,170.0 (0.6) 2,072.9 249.7 65,993.2 Kootenay Boundary 55,060.7 (6.6) - 293.8 54,766.9 Mount Waddington 1,740.9 (0.1) - - 1,740.9 Nanaimo ' 21,052.6 (10.2) 171.3 374.5 20,849.4 N o r t h Okanagan 70,283.4 (8.9) 10.1 555.5 69,738.0 Okanagan-Similkameen 86,477.7 (7.8) 104.5 471.9 86,110.3 Peace R i v e r - L i a r d 1,498,987.9 (7.1) 14.2 799.3 1,498,202.8 P o w e l l R i v e r 14,129.6 (2.6) - . 3,307.0 10,822.6 Skeena-Queen C h a r l o t t e 43,886.6 (2.7) . - 166.6 43,719.9 S q u a m i s h - L i l l o o e t 27,125.5 (1.6) - 257.3 26,868.2 Sunshine Coast 6,275.3 (1.6) - 2,035.7 4,239.6 Thompson-Nicola 568,704.5 (12.4) 378.5 1,916.1 567,166.9 T o t a l s 4,721,295.3 33,642.9 54,773.6 4,700,164.6 *The f i g u r e i n b r a c k e t s i s the p e r c e n t a g e of the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t a r e a i n t h e ALR. Do t h e s e e x c l u s i o n s r e p r e s e n t t h e e x c e p t i o n o r the r u l e i n the a d m i n i -s t r a t i o n of the A c t ? The NDP a p p o i n t e d commission and c a b i n e t a l s o made sub-s t a n t i a l e x c l u s i o n s . Has t h e r e , t h e n , been any d i f f e r e n c e between the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t I n a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p o l i c y ? Or has the p a r t y r h e t o r i c and enmity c o n c e a l e d a convergence of p o l i c y a t the p r a c t i c a l l e v e l i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? - 52 -Do these e x c l u s i o n s r e p r e s e n t t he needed " f i n e t u n i n g " o r has " f i n e t u n i n g " o f f e r e d the Socreds an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the i n c r e m e n t a l e r o s i o n o f t h e NDP f a r m l a n d p o l i c y ? Has t h e r e been any d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance o f the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commissions? Or, has the co m m i s s i o n , as a q u a s i - i n d e p e n -dent body, making i t s d e c i s i o n s on the b a s i s o f t e c h n i c a l c r i t e r i a , remained a t arm's l e n g t h from the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s as the commission c l a i m s ? The c o n f l i c t between the l a n d commission and the c a b i n e t n o t e d i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h would seem t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . To d e t e r m i n e the answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , the s t a t i s t i c s f o r ex-c l u s i o n s o f l a n d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s were s t u d i e d . Under the A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission A c t l a n d may be e x c l u d e d from an ALR a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f s e c t i o n s 11(1) and 12(1) and under the c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n B.C. Reg. 313/78. Under s e c t i o n 12(1) an i n d i v i d u a l may a p p l y t o the l a n d commission to have h i s l a n d e x c l u d e d from a l a n d r e s e r v e , and s h o u l d the commission r e f u s e h i s r e q u e s t f o r e x c l u s i o n , under s e c t i o n 1 3 ( 1 ) , may a p p e a l to the Environment and Land Use Committee o f the c a b i n e t on b e i n g g r a n t e d l e a v e t o a p p e a l by any two members o f the commission. S h o u l d l e a v e t o a p p e a l be r e f u s e d , the amendments t o the A c t made i n 1977, a l l o w an i n d i v i d u a l t o a p p l y t o t h e m i n i s t e r f o r l e a v e t o a p p e a l t o ELUC under s e c t i o n 1 3 ( 2 ) . By A p r i l 1, 1981, 10,778.2 h e c t a r e s o r 0.2 p e r c e n t had been removed from the ALR under the p r o v i s i o n s of s e c t i o n 1 2 ( 1 ) . An a d d i t i o n a l 1,142.9 h e c t a r e s had been 9 e x c l u d e d by the c a b i n e t under s e c t i o n s 13(1) and 1 3 ( 2 ) . The government t o government e x c l u s i o n s made i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h s e c t i o n 11(1) a r e the s u b j e c t o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission has never been as p o w e r f u l as has been g e n e r a l l y assumed. For r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n s from m u n c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s , t h e commission a c t s i n a recommending c a p a c i t y o n l y ; the f i n a l d e c i s i o n r e s t s w i t h t he c a b i n e t . - 53 -F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e commission has a p o l i c y o f c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e l o c a l g o v e r n -ments and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t r e l i e s on them f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a p p l i -\ c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a l t h o u g h the l a n d commission recommend-a t i o n i s an i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n , an assessment o f the f a t e o f the NDP a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d p o l i c y must i n c l u d e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n s as w e l l as the l a n d commission recommendations r e g a r d i n g the ex-c l u s i o n o f l a n d . The government t o government a p p l i c a t i o n s under s e c t i o n 11(1) were s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y because the impact on the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d r e s e r v e s was much g r e a t e r under t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a n under the i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n s under s e c t i o n 1 2 ( 1 ) . Only 11,921.1 h e c t a r e s were removed under s e c t i o n s 1 2 ( 1 ) , 13(1) and 13(2) whereas 42,852.5 h e c t a r e s , i n v o l v i n g 127 a p p l i c a t i o n s , were e x c l u d e d under s e c t i o n 11(1) by A p r i l 1, 1981. Time c o n s t r a i n t s p r e v e n t e d even a p r e -l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s o f the 2,257 i n d i v i d u a l r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n made up t o A p r i l 1, 1981. In any e a s e , o f the 127 government to government a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r ex-c l u s i o n , 24, or n e a r l y 20 p e r c e n t , were made on b e h a l f o f an i n d i v i d u a l o r i n d i v i d u a l s and/or a company. The l a n d commission m a i n t a i n s . t h a t t h e government t o government e x c l u s i o n s r e p r e s e n t the " f i n e t u n i n g " o f the ALRs, made n e c e s s a r y because o f a n o m a l i e s i n t he h a s t i l y made d e s i g n a t i o n s and t h e r e i s a good argument t o s u p p o r t t h i s c l a i m , as d i s c u s s e d above (page 21). I f the l a n d t h a t has been e x c l u d e d i s the lower c l a s s e s o f l a n d then the l a n d commission c l a i m i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d . The l a n d c o m m i s s i o n d i d not p u b l i s h s t a t i s t i c s on the q u a l i t y o f l a n d ex-c l u d e d u n t i l 1980. . The p e r i o d under s t u d y i s from 1974, when a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x c l u s i o n a f t e r the p r o c e s s o f d e s i g n a t i o n were f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d , t o October 7, 1980. A l l 127 c a s e s i n t h i s p e r i o d w h i c h had been d e c i d e d by b o t h the commission _ 54 -and the c a b i n e t were i n v e s t i g a t e d . Because of the i n e v i t a b l e time d i f f e r e n c e between the commission d e c i s i o n and the c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n , the d a t e o f the l a s t c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n i s J a n u a r y 15, 1981. The d a t e s f o r the NDP commission a r e from J u l y 1, 1974, t o October 7, 1976. The d a t e s f o r the NDP c a b i n e t a r e from J u l y 1, 1974, t o December 11, 1975, e x c e p t f o r two c a s e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w h i c h were u l t i m a t e l y d e c i d e d by the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t . a f t e r the NDP d e f e a t . The S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t d a t e s from December 12, 1975, t o J a n u a r y 15, 1981, and i n c l u d e s the two c a s e s r e f e r r e d t o above. The S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission d e c i d e d the c a s e s between October 8, 1976, and October 7, 1980. The s t a t i s t i c s f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t commission do not d i s t i n g u i s h be-tween the commissions headed by Runka, K i n n e a r and Dr. C l a r k e . The C l a r k e commission made recommendations on the t e n c a s e s between March 7, 1980, and O c t o b e r 15, 1980. T h i s i s t o o s h o r t a p e r i o d f o r any d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions t o appear. For the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e q u a l i t y of l a n d was coded i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : . 1. P r i m e : 60 p e r c e n t o r more c l a s s e s 1 t o 3; 2. Prime s e c o n d a r y : 40 p e r c e n t c l a s s e s 1 t o 3; 3. C l a s s 4; 4. C l a s s e s 5 and 6; 5. C l a s s 7. T h i s c o d i n g system i s not comparable w i t h the c o d i n g s y s t e m used by the l a n d commission s i n c e i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s between the NDP and the S o c i a l C r e d i t would be found i n the prime secondary and c l a s s 4 l a n d and ^ t h e l a n d commission c o d i n g system does not d i s t i n g u i s h between c l a s s e s 4, 5, 6, and 7 l a n d . The l a n d commission c a t e g o r i e s a r e : 1. P r i m e : t o t a l l y c l a s s 1 t h r o u g h 3 l a n d ; 2. Prirne dominant complex: major p o r t i o n of t h e u n i t i s prime l a n d ; 3. Prime s u b o r d i n a t e complex: l e s s e r p o r t i o n of the u n i t i s prime l a n d : 4. Secondary: t o t a l u n i t i s c l a s s 4 o r l o w e r a g r i c u l t u r a l c a p a b i l i t y . 1 ^ -The d e f e c t s noted i n the CLI system (pages 17-19) w i l l not a f f e c t the r e s u l t s of t h i s s t u d y s i n c e the same CLI system was used t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y - 55 -p e r i o d . As n o t e d above, pages 22-23, b o t h t h e commissions have used the same c r i t e r i a i n e v a l u a t i n g e x c l u s i o n r e q u e s t s . Hence any d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two w i l l be the r e s u l t o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t a n d a r d s by w h i c h the c r i t e r i a w e r e . e v a l u a t e d . In s p i t e o f t h e problems w i t h t he improved CLI r a t i n g s , n o t e d on page 19, the improved CLI r a t i n g was used s i n c e i t has been t h e s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s o f bo t h l a n d commissions t o p r o t e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the l o n g term. The l a n d commission a l s o uses the improved r a t i n g s i n i t s s t a t i s t i c s r e g a r d i n g t he q u a l i t y o f the l a n d . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two commissions and the two c a b i n e t s would be found i n the prime s e c o n d a r y and the c l a s s 4 l a n d s i n c e i t would be on t h e s e l a n d s t h a t the most c r e d i b l e arguments c o u l d be ad-vanced t h a t they were too m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l y t o be v i a b l e f a r m u n i t s . Both the NDP and t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t would c o n s i d e r t he prime l a n d t o be s a c r o -s a n c t and l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two would be fo u n d . Of the 127 ca s e s i n the s t u d y , 16 were o f f i c i a l f i n e t u n i n g e x c l u s i o n s made a t the r e q u e s t o f the l a n d commission. T h i r t y - s i x r e q u e s t s were made by a r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t e i t h e r a l o n e o r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a member m u n i c i p a l i t y . M u n i c i p a l i t i e s made s e v e n t y - f i v e r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n , o r 59 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l number of r e q u e s t s . A comparison o f the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions f o r t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i s shown i n T a b l e I I I . I t s h o u l d be no t e d t h a t s i n c e t h i s i s not a sample, because a l l o f the ca s e s i n v o l v i n g r e -q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n under s e c t i o n 11(1) were s t u d i e d , t h e r e s u l t s do not depend on any s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e . The e x c l u s i o n r a t e i s the number o f h e c t a r e s recommended f o r e x c l u s i o n as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the number o f h e c t a r e s r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n . - 56 -TABLE I I I Comparison o f NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Land Commission E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under. S e c t i o n 11(1) No. o f H e c t a r e s No. o f H e c t a r e s Requested f o r • Recommended E x c l u s Q u a l i t y of Land E x c l u s i o n Number F o r E x c l u s i o n Rate P r i m e : . NDP 4,575.4 36 680.7. 14.8% S o c i a l C r e d i t 3,850.2 54 1,089.5 28.3 Prime Secondary: NDP 284.6 3 78.3 27.5 S o c i a l C r e d i t 723.5 12 529.6 73.2 C l a s s 4: NDP 1,514.4 15 789.3 52.1 S o c i a l C r e d i t 5,164.4 33 3,235.2 62.6 C l a s s e s 5 and 6: NDP 1,981.5 19 1,751.8 88.4 S o c i a l C r e d i t 33,211.9 43 32,120.5 .96.7 C l a s s 7 NDP 70.0 1 70.0 100.0 S o c i a l C r e d i t 1,701.2 7 1,678.0 98.6 ''"N's do not e q u a l 127 because i n many of t h e c a s e s more t h a n one c l a s s o f l a n d was i n v o l v e d . 2 NDP a p p o i n t e d commission d a t e s from J u l y 1, 1974, t o Oc t o b e r 7, 1976. 3 S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission d a t e s from O c t o b e r 8, 1976, t o October 7, 1980. Some o f t h e c a s e s i n v o l v e d l a r g e b l o c k s o f l a n d . However, t h e s e were alw a y s broken down i n t o s e p a r a t e p a r c e l s and each p a r c e l was t r e a t e d i n v i d u a l l y The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n e v e r y c a t e g o r y o f l a n d , e x c e p t f o r c l a s s 7, the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission recommended e x c l u s i o n o f a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f the l a n d r e q u e s t e d than d i d the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission. F o r the prime l a n d , the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission recommended e x c l u s i o n o f 28.3 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d r e q u e s t e d , compared w i t h 14.8 p e r c e n t f o r the NDP a p p o i n t e d c ommission, 47.7 p e r c e n t more. The l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n c e between the - 57 -two commissions is in the prime secondary category where the Social Credit appointed commission recommended exclusion of 73.2 percent of the land requested compared with 27.5 percent for the NDP appointed commission or 62.4 percent more. The small number of cases In this category should be noted. For the class 4 land, the NDP appointed commission recommended exclusion of 52.1 percent of the land requested whereas the Social Credit appointed commission recommended exclusion of 62.6 percent or 16.7 percent more than the NDP appointed commission. Both commissions^  tended to recommended exclusion of almost a l l the classes 5, 6 and 7 land requested, although the NDP appointed commission recommended exclusion of 88.4 percent of the classes 5 and 6 land requested whereas the Social Credit appointed commission recommended exclusion of 96.7 percent or 8.5 percent more. With the exception of the prime secondary category where the number of cases was very small, the greatest difference between the two commissions was found in the prime category. Of the ten.cases which involved a new application on a request which had been previously turned down by the NDP appointed commission, the Social Credit ' appointed'commission again refused exclusion on eight of them, allowed exclusion on one, and allowed a partial exclusion oh the other. Table IV compares the NDP and Social Credit cabinets oh the exclusion of the various categories of land under section 11(1). The difference between the number of requests made to the NDP cabinet and to the NDP appointed commission is accounted for by the fact that the NDP appointed commission was retained by the Social Credit government for nine months after the defeat of the NDP in December of 1975. The pattern here is similar to that between the NDP and Social Credit appointed commissions: the Social Credit cabinet released more land in every category except class 7. Again, the greatest difference between the two, aside from the prime secondary, is in the prime category where the Social Credit - 58 -TABLE IV Comparison of NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 11(1) Q u a l i t y o f Land Prime:. NDP S o c i a l C r e d i t ' P r i m e Secondary: NDP S o c i a l C r e d i t C l a s s 4: NDP ' . • ' S o c i a l C r e d i t C l a s s e s 5 and 6: NDP , S o c i a l C r e d i t C l a s s 7: NDP S o c i a l C r e d i t No. of H e c t a r e s Requested f o r E x c l u s i o n 2928.5 5497.1 Number 22 68 No. o f H e c t a r e s E x c l u d e d 585.0 1606.0 284.6 783.5 1189.1 5489.7 991.9 34201.5 70.0 1701.2 3 12 8 40 9 53 1 7 78.3 590.3 629.3 3543.2 770.7 33305.8 70.0 1701.2 E x c l u s i o n Rate 19.9% 29.2 27.5 81.5 52.9 64.5 77.7 97.4 100.0 100.0 "NDP c a b i n e t from J u l y 1, 1974, t o December 11, 1975. 2 S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t from December 12, 1975, t o J a n u a r y 15, 1981. r e l e a s e d 29.2 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d r e q u e s t e d compared w i t h 19.9 p e r c e n t f o r the NDP or 31.8 p e r c e n t more. T a b l e s I I I and IV compare a l l the d e c i s i o n s made by the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commissions and c a b i n e t s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d under s t u d y . T a b l e s V and VI compare the NDP a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h the NDP c a b i n e t and the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t f o r the prime and c l a s s 4 c a t e g o r i e s . The T a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t both c a b i n e t s r e l e a s e d more l a n d t h a n the commissions. The NDP c a b i n e t e x c l u d e d 17.6 p e r c e n t more prime l a n d thari t h e NDP a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission recommended. The S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t e x c l u d e d - 59 -TABLE V Comparison of the NDP A p p o i n t e d Land Commission and the NDP C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r Prime and C l a s s 4 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land : Under S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) , J u l y 1, 1974, t o December 11, 1975.  Land Commission C a b i n e t No. o f H e c t a r e s No. of H e c t a r e s No. o f Requested f o r Recommended f o r E x c l u s i o n H e c t a r e s E x c l u s i o n . Q u a l i t y of Land E x c l u s i o n E x c l u s i o n Rate E x c l u d e d Rate P r i m e 2928.5 480.8 16.4%. 585.0 C l a s s 4 1189.1 629.3 52.9 629.3 19.9% 52.9 TABLE VI Comparison, of the S o c i a l C r e d i t A p p o i n t e d Land Commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t C a b i n e t E x c l u s i o n Rates f o r Prime and C l a s s 4 A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Under S e c t i o n 1 1 ( 1 ) , October 8, 1976, t o J a n u a r y 15, 1981.  Land Commission C a b i n e t No. of H e c t a r e s No. of H e c t a r e s No. o f Requested f o r Recommended f o r E x c l u s i o n H e c t a r e s E x c l u s i o n Q u a l i t y o f Land E x c l u s i o n . E x c l u s i o n Rate E x c l u d e d Rate . P r i m e 3850.2 . 1089.5 28.3% 1274.6' 33.1% C l a s s 4 5164.4 3235.2 62.6 3316.0 64.2 14.5 p e r c e n t more prime l a n d t h a n the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission recommended. The NDP a p p o i n t e d commission w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h the NDP c a b i n e t recommended the e x c l u s i o n o f 16.4 p e r c e n t o f a l l the prime l a n d r e q u e s t e d whereas the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t recommended the e x c l u s i o n of 28.3 p e r c e n t of a l l prime l a n d r e q u e s t e d o r 42 p e r c e n t more than t h e NDP a p p o i n t e d commission. The NDP c a b i n e t w o r k i n g w i t h the NDP a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission e x c l u d e d 19.9 p e r c e n t of a l l prime l a n d r e q u e s t e d w h i l e the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t work-i n g o n l y w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission e x c l u d e d 33.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l prime l a n d r e q u e s t e d , o r 39.9 p e r c e n t more than the NDP c a b i n e t . What of t h e NDP a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission w o r k i n g w i t h . t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t - 60 -TABLE VII Comparison of the NDP Appointed Land Commission and the Social Credit Cabinet Exclusion Rates for Prime and Class 4 Agricultural Land Under Section 11(1) December 12, 1975, to October 7, 1976  Land Commission Cabinet No. of Hectares No. of Hectares No. of Requested for Recommended for Exclusion Hectares Exclusion Quality of Land Exclusion Exclusion Rate Excluded Rate Prime 1646.9 199.2 12.1% 331.4 20.1% Class 4 325.3 160.0 49.2 325.3 69.8 cabinet during the nine months in 1976 before they were fired? Table VII in-dicates that during this period, the NDP appointed land commission recommended the exclusion of 12.1 percent of a l l prime land requested whereas the Social * Credit cabinet excluded 20.1 percent or 39.8 percent more, a difference which is comparable to the difference between the NDP and Social Credit appointed commissions and cabinets. Of particular interest is the cabinet exclusion rate for prime land during this period. At 20.1 percent i t is scarcely different from the NDP cabinet exclusion rate of 19.9 percent. These differences suggest a relative degree of harmony between like commissions and cabinets and the influential role of the commission recommendation in the cabinet decision. The cabinet would be reluctant to invite more bad publicity from rejecting the recommendation of the land commission than necessary. The fact that the major difference between the Social Credit and the NDP is in the prime land category suggests that the exclusions have been more than just "fine tuning" the reserves. That the difference also exists between the NDP and Social Credit appointed land commissions suggests that the Social Credit appointed land commission is in closer sympathy with the Social Credit cabinet that the controversy would suggest. It indicates the power of the appointment mechanism on independent regulatory agencies. - 61 -Because t h i s i s not a c o n t r o l l e d s t u d y , the d i f f e r e n c e s o b s e r v e d c o u l d be due t o exogenous v a r i b l e s u n r e l a t e d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a r t y i d e o l o g y . F o r example, an a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s might be t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s were caused by d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e o f the l a n d under r e q u e s t . Or, i t might have been t h e case t h a t had the NDP rem a i n i n o f f i c e , i t s e n t h u s i a s m f o r the p r i n c i p l e s o f the l a n d commission would have eroded under the p r e s s u r e s of the h o u s i n g s h o r t a g e which d e v e l o p e d i n the l a t e 1970s and w h i c h would have encouraged the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s t o make more r e q u e s t s f o r h o u s i n g . By and l a r g e , t h e s e a r e unknowable. I n the case o f the n a t u r e o f the l a n d , however, the r e c o r d o f the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission i n r e -v i e w i n g c a s e s t h a t had been p r e v i o u s l y d e c i d e d by the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission, i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n d e e d the d i f f e r e n c e s a r e due t o changes i n p o l i c y between the NDP and S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commissions. In the case o f the h o u s i n g demand, s t a t i s t i c s were c o l l e c t e d on the p r o -12 posed use f o r l a n d r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n . D u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y , a t o t a l of 8179.3 h e c t a r e s were r e q u e s t e d f o r e x c l u s i o n f o r the purpose o f h o u s i n g development. Of t h e s e , the NDP c a b i n e t r e c e i v e d r e q u e s t s f o r 2735.2 h e c t a r e s and the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t r e c e i v e d r e q u e s t s f o r 5444.1 h e c t a r e s o r n e a r l y t w i c e as many r e q u e s t s f o r h o u s i n g . However, g i v e n g i v e n t h e l o n g e r t i m e p e r i o d t h a t the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t has made d e c i s i o n s (61 months v e r s u s 18 months f o r the NDP), the average number of r e q u e s t s p er month was sub-s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r f o r the S o c i a l C r e d i t . The NDP c a b i n e t a v e raged 151.9 h e c t a r e s p e r month w h i l e the S o c i a l C r e d i t a v e raged o n l y 89.2 h e c t a r e s p er month. C o n s e q u e n t l y , d i f f e r e n c e s between the NDP and the S o c i a l C r e d i t cannot be a t t r i b u t e d t o a h i g h e r l e v e l of demand f o r h o u s i n g d u r i n g the S o c i a l C r e d i t p e r i o d . A n o t h e r p o t e n t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t o v e r t i m e , the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s and the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and have d e v e l o p e d b e t t e r - 62 -planning departments. In so far as requests from regional districts indicate more comprehensive planning, this would appear to be the case. During the period of the NDP appointed commission 83.6 percent of the requests for prime land were from the municipalities. During the period of the Social Credit appointed commission only 48.5 percent of the requests for prime land were from municipalities with the remaining from the regional districts. A striking difference between the NDP and Social Credit appointed commissions emerges from an analysis of the success rate of these requests. Whereas the NDP appointed commission recommended exclusion of 11.7 percent of the requests for prime land from the municipalities and .29.5 percent of the requests for prime land from the regional districts, the Social Credit appointed commission recommended exclusion of 31.9 percent of the requests for prime l a n d from the municipalities and 13.8 percent of the requests for prime l a n d from the regional districts. This reversal between the commissions occurred despite the far lower percentage of requests for prime land coming from the municipalities during the Social Credit appointed commission period. This reversal would appear to indicate that the differences between the NDP and Social Credit appointed commissions are not due to the lack of planning expertise of the Social Credit appointed commission, 'but, is rather the con-sequence of a philosophical difference between the two commissions towards development and planning. - 63 -F o o t n o t e s - Chap t e r I I I 1 R o s O b e r l y n , " C a b i n e t f r e e s D e l t a f a r m l a n d , " The Vancouver Sun, Janua r y 16, 1981, p. A l . 2 . " I n f l u e n c e d e n i e d by m i n i s t e r ' s f r i e n d , " The Vancouver Sun, May 20, 1981, p. A19. 3 Ted Townsend, "Land r u l i n g r a i s e s s t o r m , " The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 27, 1982, p. A3. 4 Ros O b e r l y n , "132 a c r e s o f P.G. f a r m l a n d thawed by S o c r e d s , " The  Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 28, 1982, p. A l l . 5 " L a n d r e s e r v e f o e on move," The Vancouver Sun, June 9, 1982, p. A3. 6 " I n f l u e n c e d e n i e d . . . " ^ " C a b i n e t f r e e s more l a n d from a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e r v e , " The Vancouver Sun, May 28, 1982, p. A l l . 8 P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1981, p. 21. , 9 I b i d . *°For an argument t h a t the l a n d commission has been " c a p t u r e d " by the l o c a l governments see A l i c e G r a e s s e r , " R e g u l a t i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l Land i n B.C.," (M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1981). ^ P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Land Commission, A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1980, p. 14. 12 These s t a t i s t i c s were not r e l a t e d t o the c l a s s o f l a n d r e q u e s t e d . That i s , a l l c l a s s e s o f l a n d a r e p o o l e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e s t a t i s t i c s f o r r e q u e s t s f o r e x c l u s i o n f o r h o u s i n g and the e x t e n t t o wh i c h prime l a n d was r e q u e s t e d f o r h o u s i n g cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . - 64 -CONCLUSIONS The NDP Land Commission A c t p r e s e n t e d a f u n d a m e n t a l dilemma t o the S o c i a l C r e d i t p a r t y . They, had v i g o r o u s l y opposed i t on i d e o l o g i c a l grounds and then d i s c o v e r e d t h a t by 1975 the l a n d commission was w i d e l y s u p p o r t e d by a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l S o c i a l C r e d i t v o t e r s . The l a n d r e s e r v e s were p o p u l a r w i t h rank and f i l e S o c r e d s , w i t h o r g a n i z e d f a r m e r s and w e l l as w i t h many o f the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e v o t e r s t h a t the S o c i a l C r e d i t had t o a t t r a c t i n i t s c l a i m to be the o n l y p a r t y t h a t c o u l d keep the NDP out of o f f i c e . G i v e n the c o a l i t i o n o f i n t e r e s t s s u p p o r t i n g the commission, no government c o u l d a f f o r d t o a b o l i s h the l a n d commission. I t i s a c l a s s example of the way governments a r e c a p t u r e d b y"the l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e i r opponents. As the h i s t o r y of the A c t and the d a t a i n d i c a t e , S o c i a l C r e d i t responded to i t s dilemma by r e t a i n i n g the l a n d commission and the A c t ( a l t h o u g h r e d u c i n g i t i n scope) and by e x c l u d i n g more l a n d i n e v e r y c a t e g o r y i and i n p a r t i c u l a r the prime i a n d , t h a n had the NDP. The S o c i a l C r e d i t has a l s o r e j e c t e d , t h e recommendation o f the l a n d commission i n a s m a l l number o f c a s e s where the i n t e r e s t s of l o n g term S o c i a l C r e d i t s u p p o r t e r s were a f f e c t e d . T y p i c a l l y , t h e s e were r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l l a n d h o l d e r s and the s m a l l e r development companies w h i c h r e f l e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l S o c i a l C r e d i t p r e f e r e n c e f o r the s m a l l p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e r . " * " In d o i n g s o , the Socreds. have made themselves s u s c e p t i b l e t o a d v e r s e p u b l i c i t y and c h arges o f p o l i t i c a l p a t r o n a g e . I n the f a c e of such c r i t i c i s m , A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r J i m H e w i t t r e c e n t l y announced " i t i s time I f o r g e t about f i n e t u n i n g of the r e s e r v e s and d e a l w i t h i t i n a c l e a r and c o n c i s e manner." As an i n d i c a t i o n of the S o c i a l C r e d i t p o l i t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y on t h e i s s u e , H e w i t t was moved t o Consumer and C o r p o r a t e A f f a i r s i n t h e r e c e n t c a b i n e t 3 s h u f f l e . The new A g r i c u l t u r e M i n i s t e r i s Harvey S c h r o e d e r , who as the former - 65 -Speaker, would not have been i n v o l v e d i n any of the r e c e n t l a n d e x c l u s i o n c o n t r o v e r s i e s . . As the d a t a i n d i c a t e , the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission a l s o e x c l u d e d more l a n d i n e v e r y c a t e g o r y t h a n d i d the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission. T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of the prime and prime s e c o n d a r y c a t e g o r i e s . Con-s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e has been l e s s c o n f l i c t between the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d l a n d commission and the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t than the c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the r e c e n t e x c l u s i o n s would i n d i c a t e . There was, i n f a c t a s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r d i f f e r e n c e i n the e x c l u s i o n r a t e s f o r prime l a n d between t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t w o r k i n g o n l y w i t h the S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission t h a n between the NDP c a b i n e t w o r k i n g w i t h t h e NDP a p p o i n t e d commission. T h i s 'suggests t h a t the c a b i n e t can e x e r c i s e a degree o f c o n t r o l o ver i t s r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s t h r o u g h the appointment mechanism. There i s a l s o a r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e of t h e commission on the c a b i n e t as i n d i c a t e d i n the S o c i a l C r e d i t c a b i n e t e x c l u s i o n r a t e d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the NDP a p p o i n t e d commission. To r e j e c t the recommendation of the l a n d too o f t e n i n v i t e s p o l i t i c a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e u n f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c i t y . The f a c t t h a t the major d i f f e r e n c e between t h e NDP and t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t o c c u r r e d i n t h e prime l a n d c a t e g o r y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between the two i s the r e s u l t of d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s toward development and p l a n n i n g . The S o c i a l C r e d i t a p p o i n t e d commission p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e q u e s t s from the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o v e r the r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . - 66 -F o o t n o t e s - C o n c l u s i o n s i E d w i n R. B l a c k , " B r i t i s h C o l u mbia: The P o l i t i c s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n , " i n P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, 3rd ed., ed. by Hugh C. T h o r b u r n ( S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1972), p. 234. 2 B r i a n K i e r a n , " H a r assed H e w i t t t o a l t e r l a n d r e s e r v e l e g i s l a t i o n , " The Vancouver Sun, May 29, 1982. H e w i t t s a i d he w i l l be s t u d y i n g the Quebec farm p r e s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h he c l a i m s i s f a r l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h a n the B.C. A c t . I n many r e s p e c t s , however, the Quebec l e g i s l a t i o n i s more s t r i n g e n t than the B.C. A c t . F o r example, i n Quebec an owner o f t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l and s e p a r a t e p a r c e l s of l a n d cannot s e l l one w i t h o u t the a p p r o v a l o f the c o m m ission, w h i c h i s n o t t h e c a s e i n B.C. W h i l e s e c t i o n 12 s t a t e s t h a t i n r e n d e r i n g a d e c i s i o n the commission s h a l l " p a r t i c u l a r l y t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the b i o -p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s of the s o i l and of the e n v i r o n m e n t , the p o s s i b l e uses o f the l o t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r p o s e s and the economic consequences t h e r e o f . . . " (emphasis added) w h i c h would appear t o be l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h a n t h e B.C. A c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the t e n o r of the s e c t i o n i s t h a t i t i s the economic consequence o f the p r o v i n c e and n o t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h a t i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d . Hence, t h e r e s u l t would be s i m i l a r t o the case i n B.C. (.7 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Baxter, David. The B.C. Land Commission Act - A Review. With commentary by Stanley Hamilton, George Atamanenko and Ron Ravis. Report No. 8. Vancouver: Urban Land Economics, Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, University of British Columbia, April, 1974. "Bennett vows to oust B.C. land commission." Vancouver Sun, November 15, 1975 Black, Edwin R. "British Columbia: The Politics of Exploitation." In Party  Politics in Canada, 3rd ed. Edited by Hugh C. Thorburn. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1972. Blake, Donald E.; Johnston, Richard; and Elkins, David J. "Sources of Change in the B.C. Party System." B.C. Studies 50 (Summer, 1981):3-28 Booking, Michael. "Technicality puts land deal up in air." Vancouver Sun, January 28, 1981, p. A3. Boyle, Geraldine Catherine. "Local Government Decision Making and Community Planning: A Study Based on ALR Exclusion Applications." 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Burnaby: December 18, 1980, revised July 27, 1981. (Mimeographed.) Provincial Land Commission. Annual Report. Burnaby, 1975. •• Keeping the Options Open. Burnaby, n.d. "Memorandum to a l l Regional Boards and a l l Municipal Councils." Burnaby, July 11, 1973. (Mimeographed.) Rawson, Mary. I l l Fares the Land: Land-Use Management at the Urban/Rural/  Resource Edges: The B.C. Land Commission. Published by Macmillan Co. of Canada Limited for the Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, 1976. Reid, Fred. "The Paradox of Speciality Uses on Class 4 and 5 Soils." In The Urban Fringe in the Western Provinces. Toronto: Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research, 1979. Ross, Andrew. "Surrey ordered to give race permit to Terry." Province, September 8, 1977. Runka, Gary. Burnaby. Interview, April 8, 1982. Schultz, Richard. "Regulatory Agencies and the Canadian Political System." In Public Administration in Canada, 3rd ed. Edited by W. Kernaghan. Toronto: Methuen, 1977. '"Second look' set for land ruling: Cabinet orders review on Langley farmland." Vancouver Sun, October 24, 1979. Smith, Barry Edward. "The British Columbia Land Commission Act: 1973." M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1975. Townsend, Ted. "Land ruling raises storm." Vancouver Sun, April 27, 1982, p. A3. Turnbu.ll, Malcolm. "Racetrack Protests mount." Province, February 3, 1977. Volkert, Carol. "Auction favors loggers, farmers charge." Vancouver Sun, June 18, 1982, p. A8. "Land commission put in difficult position." Vancouver Sun, October 7Q 4, 19 9 - 71 -W a l t o n , P e t e r . " S m a l l goes down b i g i n Richmond." Vancouver Sun, June 27, 1981, p. S l . \ 

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