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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Creativity and communication in the recent works of Nathalie Sarraute 1982

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CREATIVITY AND COMMUNICATION IN THE RECENT WORKS OF NATHALIE SARRAUTE by TANIS KATHLEEN CLARKE M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1982 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES D e p a r t m e n t o f F r e n c h We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d -THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A B S T R A C T By 1963, N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e had w r i t t e n f i v e n o v e l s . That same y e a r she was commissioned t o w r i t e a r a d i o p l a y . She has s i n c e t h e n w r i t t e n f o u r more n o v e l s and f i v e r a d i o p l a y s . In t h e s e new works t h e r e a d e r cannot but r e c o g n i z e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of two o f S a r r a u t e ' s major p r e o c c u p a t i o n s w hich u n d e r l i e her l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , t h a t i s her concern w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s and t h e problem of communication. These two c o n c e r n s are o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d s i n c e communication i s a lower form of t h e more c o n c e n t r a t e d a r t i s t i c p r o d u c - t i o n . T h i s e s s a y w i l l s t u d y t h e two themes i n her f i v e r a d i o p l a y s and two o f her l a t e r n o v e l s . In t h e c o u r s e of w r i t i n g n o v e l s , S a r r a u t e became more : and more i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . W h i l e s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y a r t i s t s have been c h a l l e n g e d and i n t r i g u e d by t h i s t o p i c , i t has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t theme i n S a r r a u t e ' s works. T h i s essay examines t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o and t h e problems r a i s e d by t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f each n o v e l and r a d i o p l a y w i l l h e l p determine t o what e x t e n t each of them p a r t i c i - p a t e s i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . As f o r t h e . . a l l i e d t o p i c , communication, i t i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o c r e a t i v i t y , as t h e a r t i s t must e x p r e s s h i s ' v i s i o n ' i n o r d e r t o c o n f i r m h i s c r e a t i v i t y . T h i s e s s a y , t h e r e f o r e , b o t h examines how t h e s e p r o t a g o n i s t s communicate w i t h each o t h e r and a n a l y s e s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t o mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c h a p t e r s , each one composed o f two s e c t i o n s . Chapter I s t u d i e s Sarrautel'.s f i r s t t h r e e r a d i o p l a y s , Le S i l e n c e , Le Mensonge and Isma. The f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e components of c r e a t i v i t y and w i t h t h e way i n which t h e c h a r a c t e r s p a r t i - - c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The second h a l f i s a s t u d y of t h e p r o c e s s e s o f communication and examines as w e l l how l a n g u a g e . t h e most common medium of communication, a c t u a l l y l i m i t s m u tual u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Chapter I I f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n as C h a p t e r I , except t h a t t h e t e x t s a n a l y z e d here w i l l be E n t r e l a v i e et l a mort and Vous l e s entendez? . The former n o v e l c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e c r e a t i v e a c t and t h e l i f e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e a r t i s t , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s m a i n l y concerned w i t h a r t i s t i c m e r i t i n t h e form of a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . The main f o c u s i s on t h e components of c r e a - t i v i t y as w e l l as t h e two p e o p l e n e c e s s a r y t o t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , t h e a r t i s t and t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e ' c r e a t i o n ' . The second h a l f of t h e c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t h e p r o c e s s e s o f communication as o u t l i n e d above, but t h e medium i n t h i s s e c t i o n d i f f e r s from a r a d i o p l a y t o a n o v e l . The l a s t c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h S a r r a u t e ' s two l a t e s t r a d i o p l a y s , C|est beau and E l l e e s t l a . The format i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c h a p t e r s I and I I . However, h e r e , t h e l e v e l of c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l and t h e a b i l i t y t o communicate have d i m i n i s h e d t o t h e p o i n t where t h e s e two themes, c r e a t i v i t y and communication seem t o have been exhausted. i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Pages 1. A b s t r a c t : _ i i 2. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 3• Chapter I - C r e a t i v i t y and Communication i n Le S i l e n c e , Le Mensonge and Isma 11 4. C h a p t e r I I - C r e a t i v i t y and Communication i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort and Vous l e s entendez? 3 4 5. C h a p t e r I I I - C r e a t i v i t y and Communication i n C 'est beau and E l l e e s t l a 55 6. C o n c l u s i o n 77 7. B i b l i o g r a p h y 87 V Acknowledgement I would l i k e to thank my a d v i s o r , Dominique Baudou in , f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments, h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m and h i s u n f l o g g i n g encouragement. My thanks a l s o go to my mother , who took a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to acknowledge F r a n c e s G r i f f i t h s , Nancy Mac- d o n a l d , Vesna K a n j e r and R o s e - M a r i e Tremblay , f e l l o w g r a d - uate s t u d e n t s and f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r warm s u p p o r t and sense of humour. TKC v i R e f e r e n c e s t o N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s works In t h i s t h e s i s are numerous q u o t a t i o n s from th e n o v e l s and p l a y s s t u d i e d . To cut down on u n n e c e s s a r y r e p e t i t i o n , t h e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e works w i l l be g i v e n as f o l l o w s : - by t h e page number o n l y , i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e q u o t a t i o n , when t h e t i t l e o f t h e work i s c l e a r from t h e p r e c e d i n g c o n t e x t . - by t h e t i t l e and t h e page number i n c a s e s of p o s s i b l e doubt o r a m b i g u i t y . The e d i t i o n s of N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s works used f o r r e f e r e n c e a r e l i s t e d below. The f i r s t one i s t h e e d i t i o n n o r m a l l y used here f o r t h e t h r e e p l a y s i n c l u d e d . A l l o t h e r q u o t a t i o n s from S a r r a u t e ' s c r i t i c a l works o r from secondary s o u r c e s are f o o t n o t e d at t h e end o f each c h a p t e r . S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e , 'isma* s u i v i de *Le S i l e n c e ' e t ' L e Mensonge* P a r i s : ' G a l l i m a r d , 1967, pour Le S i l e n c e et Le Mensohge; 1970, pour Isma. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . T h e a t r e : E l l e e s t l a . C'est beau. Isma. Le Mensohge. Le S i l e n c e : P a r i s , G a l l i m a r d , 1978. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . Vous l e s entendez? P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1968. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . E n t r e l a v i e et l a mort. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1968. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . Le P l a n e t a r i u m . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1959. I N T R O D U C T I O N At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , her m a t e r i a l was o r i g i n a l enough t o be met w i t h g e n e r a l i n - comprehension, and even l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s were prompted t o c r i t i c i z e her c r e a t i o n s a l o n g w i t h t h e works of o t h e r New N o v e l i s t s . S a r r a u t e ' s f i r s t n o v e l , T r o p i s m e s , a c o l l e c t i o n of t w e n t y - f o u r s k e t c h e s t h a t date back t o 1939, was not known u n t i l 1957. Her second n o v e l , P o r t r a i t d'un i n c o n n u , was not w e l l a c c e p t e d even w i t h a p r e f a c e by J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , i n which he d e s c r i b e s S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l as an 'anti-roman'. Les a n t i - r o m a n s c o n s e r v e n t 1'apparence et l e s c o n t o u r s du roman; ce sont des ouvrages d ' i m a g i n a t i o n q u i nous p r e s e n t e n t des personnages f i c t i f s et nous r a c o n t e n t l e u r h i s t o i r e . Mais c ' e s t pour mieux d e c e v o i r : i l s ' a g i t de c o n t e s t e r l e roman p a r lui-meme, de l e d e t r u i r e sous nos yeux dans l e temps qu'on semble l ' e ' d i f i e r , d ' e c r i r e l e roman d'un roman q u i ne se f a i t pas, q u i ne peut pas se f a i r e [. . .J. Ces oeuvres e t r a n g e s e t d i f f i c i l e m e n t c l a s s a b l e s ne temoignent pas de l a f a i b l e s s e du genre romanesque, e l l e s marquent seulement que nous v i v o n s a "~ une epoque de r e f l e x i o n et que l e roman e s t en t r a i n de r e f l e c h i r s u r lui-m&me. T e l e s t l e l i v r e de N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e : un anti-roman q u i se l i t comme un roman p o l i - c i e r . . . 1 In t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l , unique c h a r a c t e r s are i n v o l v e d i n a ' s t o r y ' w h i c h has a b e g i n n i n g and an end. In c o n t r a s t , S a r - r a u t e ' s n o v e l s do not t e l l a s t o r y . She l e a d s t h e r e a d e r t o "... l e mur de 1 ' i n a u t h e n t i q u e . . . " 2 and b e h i n d i t , where l i e s " L ' A u t h e n t i c i t e - vr'ai r a p p o r t avec l e s a u t r e s , avec soi-meme, avec l a m o r t . . . S a r r a u t e i n v i t e s t h e r e a d e r , o r i n t h e case of her r a d i o p l a y s and t h e a t r e , t h e l i s t e n e r and t h e s p e c t a t o r , i n t o t h e u n i v e r s e which l i e s b e h i n d speech and e v e n t s . Her 2 work d e f i n e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l depths beneath the o b j e c t i v e s u r f a c e o f s i t u a t i o n and c h a r a c t e r . She d e s c r i b e s , not an e v e n t , but a p e r s o n ' s r e a c t i o n to the e v e n t ; not a r e l a t i o n s h i p , but an i n d i v i d u a l ' s deepest f e e l i n g s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Of c o u r s e , S a r r a u t e was c r i t i c i z e d f o r abandoning the form and c o n t e n t o f the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l f o r the new n o v e l . Robbe- G r i l l e t , another New N o v e l i s t , sums up these c r i t i c i s m s i n Pour un Nouveau Roman, a c o l l e c t i o n o f essays i n which he d e f i n e s the e v o l u t i o n and s t r u c t u r e o f the new n o v e l . Vous ne campez pas de p e r s o n n a g e . . . V o u s ne r a c o n t e z pas d 1 h i s t o i r e . . . V o u s n ' e t u d i e z pas un c a r a c t e r e , n i un m i l i e u . Vous n ' a n a l y s e z pas l e s p a s s i o n s , done vous n ' e c r i v e z pas de v r a i s romans.^ U n l i k e the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l s , S a r r a u t e ' s works do not f o l l o w a l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n , but r a t h e r focus on responses and r e a c - t i o n s to an e v e n t , a word o r even a g e s t u r e . She has i n t e r n a l - i z e d c h a r a c t e r , p l o t and d e s c r i p t i o n and d i s c a r d e d from her form a l l the a n t i q u a t e d c o n v e n t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l which impede the f low o f movements beneath and around the l e v e l s of spoken d i a l o g u e . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e has summed up her t h e o r i e s of the n o v e l i n a c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s , L ' E r e du Soupgon, p u b l i s h e d i n 1956. L i f e , she s a y s , has changed d r a s t i c a l l y s i n c e the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and so s h o u l d a r t fo rms . . . . l ' i n t e r e t e s s e n t i e l du roman? II ne se t rouve p l u s dans l e denombrement de s i t u a t i o n s ou de c a r a c t e r e s ou dans l a p e i n t u r e des moeurs mais dans l a mise er jour d 'une m a t i e r e p s y c h o l o g i q u e n o u v e l l e . . . ^ She condemns authors who copy the g r e a t works of the p a s t : R e t r a v a i l l e r d e r r i e r e eux l a meme m a t i e r e e t se s e r v i r 3 p a r c o n s e q u e n t , sans l e s m o d i f i e r en r i e n , de l e u r s p r o c e d e s , s e r a i t a peu p r e s a b s u r d e que, p o u r l e s p a r t i s a n s du roman t r a d i t i o n n e l , de r e f a i r e a v e c l e s memes p e r s o n n a g e s , l e s memes i n t r i g u e s e t dans l e ^ meme s t y l e que Le Rouge e t l e N o i r ou G u e r r e e t P a i x . The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s works i s t h e t r o p i s m . T r o p i s m , a b i o l o g i c a l t e r m , d e s c r i b e s t h e i n s t i n c t i v e movement o f an o r g a n i s m t o w a f d s : - ; s t i m u l i . I l n t t h e l l i t e r a r y c c o n - t e x t , t h e t r o p i s m r e p r e s e n t s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e human o r - ga n i s m t o a s t i m u l u s , w h i c h f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f S a r r a u t e ' s s t y l e . She d e s c r i b e s t h e i n t e r i o r movements o r t r o p i s m s t h a t l i e b e- h i n d t h e i n t e r i o r monologue i n L ' E r e du Soupgon. ...ce q u i se d i s s i m u l e d e r r i e r e l e monologue i n t e r i e u r : un f o i s o n n e m e n t i n n o m b r a b l e de s e n s a t i o n s , d'images de s e n t i m e n t s , de s o u v e n i r s , d ' i m p u l s i o n s , de p e t i t s a c t e s l a r v e s qu'aucun l a n g a g e i n t e r i e u r n ' e x p r i m e , q u i se bou- s c u l e n t aux p o r t e s de l a c o n s c i e n c e , s ' a s s e m b l e n t en g r o u p e s compacts e t s u r g i s s e n t t o u t a coup, se d e f o n t a u s s i t o t , s e c o m b i n e n t a u t r e m e n t e t r e a p p a r a i s s e n t sous une n o u v e l l e f o rme, t a n d i s que c o n t i n u e a se d e r o u l e r en n o u s . . . l e f l o t i n i n t e r r o m p u des mots.. T r o p i s m s , t h e n , a r e g r o u p s composed o f s e n s a t i o n s , i mages, s e n t i m e n t s and memories. The medium t h r o u g h w h i c h t r o p i s m s a r e e x p r e s s e d i s t h e s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e h a l f - f o r m e d t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s t h a t accompany t h e words we speak a l o u d . I t i s i m p o r - t a n t t o make t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n and ' i n - t e r i o r monologue,' a f o r m t h a t V i r g i n i a WooIf and James J o y c e made p o p u l a r . M i m i c a C r a n a k i and Yvon B e l a v a l , i n N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , e x p l a i n t h e d i f f e r e n c e between ' i n t e r i o r monologue' and s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . L a meme m o d i f i c a t i o n du p e r s o n n a g e - ou, s i l ' o n aime mieux, de l a vue s u r l e p e r s o n n a g e - empeche de c o n - : o f o n d r e l a s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n a v e c l e monologue i n t e r - i e u r : c e d e r n i e r n ' e t a i t t o u j o u r s que du d i a l o g u e a v e c s o i , un d i a l o g u e r e n t r e , m a i s r e n t r e du d e h o r s , a peu 4 p r e s dans l a forme q u ' i l a u r a i t gardee a u - d e h o r s ; l a s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n v i e n t du dedans , de l a r e g i o n o b - s c u r e d ' a v a n t l e l angage , e l l e n ' e s t pas encore un d i a l o g u e , e l l e n ' e s t pas encore s t r u c t u r e , e l l e n ' e s t pas r e n t r e e , e l l e e s t re tenue du dedans . T e l l e e s t 1 ' o r i g i n a l i t e de N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . 8 S a r r a u t e ' s works are composed o f an i n t e r p l a y between s u b - c o n v e r s a t i o n and s p e e c h . The spoken w o r d , a c c o r d i n g to S a r r a u t e , i s a ' t rompe l ' o e i l , ' r i d d e n w i t h mean ing less c l i c h e s . An ex - ample from S a r r a u t e ' s t h i r d n o v e l , Le P l a n e t a r i u m , shows the d i s c r e p a n c y between the spoken word and the s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . A l a i n , o n e i o f the c h a r a c t e r s , i s e n t e r t a i n i n g Germaine L e m a i r e , h i s l i t e r a r y i d o l , i n h i s apar tment . He f e e l s embarrassed and u n c o m f o r t a b l e showing her where he s t u d i e s . H is u n e a s i n e s s i s d e p i c t e d by a t r o p i s m - a metaphor d e p i c t i n g A l a i n w a l k i n g on a t i g h t r o p e . " O u i , j ' a i m e mieux g a , t r a v a i l l e r l e nez au m u r . . . C ' e s t p l u s . . . " II a t o u t a coup l a s e n s a t i o n de marcher s u r quelque chose q u i se b a l a n c e sous ses p i e d s , c ' e s t comme une p a s s e r e l l e e t r o i t e j e t e e a u - d e s s u s d ' u n t o r r e n t , im- petueux e t sur l a q u e l l e , t a n d i s que t o u s , masses s u r l ' a u t r e r i v e se t a i s e n t e t l e r e g a r d e n t , i l avance . Un faux mouvement e t i l va tomber. II t a t e du p i e d devant • l u i avec p r e c a u t i o n . . . " O u i , l e dos a l a f e n e t r e - c ' e s t p l u s commode . . . " ( p . 1 6 9 ) A l a i n ' s words are n o n c h a l a n t but S a r r a u t e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s f e e l i n g s i n the s i t u a t i o n r e v e a l s the d i f f e r e n c e between the spoken word and the t r o p i s m , and demonstrates the i n e f f i c i e n c y of language to express t r o p i s m s . S a r r a u t e ' s i n n o v a t i v e s t y l e i s her v e r y c r e a t i o n . P e r h a p s , because S a r r a u t e ' s f i r s t n o v e l s were not w e l l a c - c e p t e d , she f o c u s e s on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a u t h o r - r e a d e r - c r i t i c . Her f i f t h n o v e l , Les F r u i t s d ' o r , s a t i r i z e s contempor- ary F r e n c h l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s , d e p i c t i n g t h e i r o p i n i o n s , t a s t e s 5 and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The hero of Les F r u i t s d'or i s a novel, a l s o c a l l e d Les F r u i t s d'or and the s t r u c t u r e i s a s e r i e s of c o n f l i c t i n g opinions about the novel. Anonymous voices express a t t i t u d e s about the book through tropisms and speech, however the dialogue form predominates. In other words, she begins to i n t e g r a t e the tropism and the subconversation i n t o spoken words. In 1963, a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of Les F r u i t s d'or, Sarraute was commissioned to w r i t e a r a d i o p l a y . She was i n t r i g u e d by the challenge although she could not conceive how she would ex- press tropisms given the 'spoken' nature of a r a d i o p l a y . True, unspoken dialogue goes hand i n hand wi t h dialogue and, i n f a c t , the spoken word i s simply the end product of the.tropism and/or subconversation. But how could she i n t e g r a t e tropisms i n t o the spoken word? How could she r e v e a l i n t e r n a l movements e x t e r n a l l y ? ly? She would have to e l i m i n a t e n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n , imag- ery and metaphors and r e l y e n t i r e l y on the spoken word. That Les F r u i t s d'or i s almost e n t i r e l y w r i t t e n i n the dialogue form helped to ease the t r a n s i t i o n from novels to r a d i o p l a y s . Sarraute's f i r s t r a d i o p l a y , Le S i l e n c e , was produced i n 1964. The subject of the p l a y - the tropisms aroused by Jean- P i e r r e ' s - one of the c h a r a c t e r s - withdrawal i n t o s i l e n c e , i s borrowed from .scene i n Les F r u i t s d'or where a c r i t i c has been asked to read a few pages from the novel, a l s o c a l l e d Les F r u i t s d'or. He turns the page and f i n d s nothing s u i t a b l e . The f o l l o w i n g passage describes h i s r e a c t i o n to the s i l e n c e i n the room while he i s f l i p p i n g the pages. The subconversation of the 6 c r i t i c predominates i n thi s passage u n t i l he t e l l s the others who are waiting for him to read, that he has found a good part. Mais c'est d'eux que cela provient, de c e l u i - c i qui l'a provoque et qui 1'observe maintenant, qui se t a i t . . . II y a quelque chose dans sa presence silencieuse, dans leur silence a tous, assis en cercle autour de l u i , dans leur attente lourde de mefiance, qui comme par un ef f e t de succion, t i r e de ces mots q u ' i l l i t toute leur seve, pompe leur sang, i l s sont vides...des petites choses dessechees... II tourne une autre page...Tous les mots maintenant sont comme durcis, vernis, trop b r i l l a n t s . . . o n d i r a i t que de ce silence, de ces regards un courant;sort,unessubstance coule, se repand...Comme sous 1'effet de l a galvanoplas- t i e , tout se recouvre d'une couche de metal clinquant. II faut rompre le charme, d_>etourner le mauvais o e i l , i l faut s a i s i r n'importe quoi et le leur je t e r , ne plus h e s i t e r . . . " I c i , par exemple...ce passage-ci, moi je le trouve admirable ... (p.161) Le Silence recapitulates the theme of thi s passage- the reac- tions to a heavy silence. The form, though, i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r - ent. Sarraute emphasizes i n an interview with Gretchen R. Bes- ser i n 1976 the d i f f i c u l t y she encounters i n introducing troph- isms or subconversation i n 'la conversation vocalisee': D'habitude dans mes romans je montre les mouvements in t e r i e u r s des images, le dialogue n'en est que 1'aboutissement. I c i , tout doit etre exprime dans le dialogue lui-meme...^ Sarraute was therefore faced with a d i f f i c u l t task when she accepted to write radio plays i n which the dialogue alone must sustain the f u l l weight of the drama and where she must integ- rate subconversation into conversation. This thesis w i l l examine creation and communication i n Sar- raute's works. Many writers have written about c r e a t i v i t y , but in Sarraute's works, i t becomes a major theme, even an obses- sion a f t e r the publication of Les Fr u i t s d'or. The discussion of c r e a t i v i t y w i l l focus on the protagonists of each of. the 7 s e v e n works s t u d i e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . A c l o s e a n a l y s i s w i l l de- t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e - a t i v e p r o c e s s . The d i s c u s s i o n w i l l i n c l u d e t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o and t h e p r o b l e m s r a i s e d by t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The a l l i e d t o p i c , commumication, w i l l a l s o be examined i n t h e s e v e n w o r k s . The d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s t o p i c w i l l c o m p r i s e t h e l i m i t s o f t r u e c o m m u n i c a t i o n as w e l l as t h e e x c h a n g e s o f d i a l o g u e among t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s . Language, t h e most common medium f o r communica- t i n g , i s most i n e f f i c i e n t , f o r i t l i m i t s t r u e m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n - d i n g and b e t r a y s a u t h e n t i c f e e l i n g s . O t h e r f a c t o r s as w e l l l i m i t t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g among p e o p l e . E a c h p e r s o n has h i s own v i e w o r v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y w h i c h c a n n o t be communicated t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , e v e r y o n e i s i n a c o n s t a n t s t a t e o f f l u x , c h a n g i n g l i t e r a l l y f r o m m i n u t e t o m i n u t e . So, t o know a n o t h e r p e r s o n f u l l y i s i m p o s s i b l e . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r I i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f S a r r a u t e ' s f i r s t t h r e e r a d i o p l a y s - Le S i l e n c e , p r o d u c e d i n 1964, Le Mensonge, i n 1966 and Isma i n 1970. The f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l examine t h e components o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i n c l u d i n g t h e n eed f o r t h e a r t i s t t o e x p r e s s h i s c r e a t i v i t y f r e e l y and o p e n l y and t o d e v e l o p new, o r - i g i n a l m a t e r i a l . C e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s , I . e . s i l e n c e and a s e n - s i t i v i t y t o l a n g u a g e a r e n e e d e d t o s t i m u l a t e t h e c r e a t i v e p r o - c e s s . The r o l e o f t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y ^ t h e a r t - l o v e r , w i l l a l s o be e x a m i n e d . The s e c o n d h a l f o f t h e c h a p - t e r w i l l s t u d y t h e way i n w h i c h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h e r a d i o p l a y s communicate w i t h e a c h o t h e r . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e l a n g u a g e 8 t h e y u s e w i l l d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e c h a r a c t e r s e x p r e s s t r o p i s m s a n d how t h e t r o p i s m s h a v e e x t e r n a l i z e d t h e m s e l v e s . I t w i l l a l s o d i s c u s s t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F i r s t o f a l l , l a n g u a g e d o e s n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e v e a l deep f e e l - i n g s . S e c o n d l y , e a c h p e r s o n h a s a u n i q u e v i e w o f r e a l i t y , m a k i n g m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e r e f o r e , i m p o s s i b l e . C h a p t e r I I f o l l o w s t h e same p a t t e r n as c h a p t e r I . The f i r s t p a r t w i l l a n a l y s e t h e theme o f c r e a t i v i t y i n two n o v e l s , E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t , p u b l i s h e d i n 1968 and Vous l e s e n t e n d e z ? , i n 1972. The c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t i s t h e w r i t e r h i m s e l f a n d i t d e s c f c i b e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e s he i s l i k e l y t o h a ve as he f u l f i l l s h i s v o c a t i o n . The s t u d y w i l l e x a m i n e n o t o n l y how he c r e a t e s b u t a l s o t h e d i l e m n a he f a c e s o f t r a n s m u t i n g h i s c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e i n t o a c o n c r e t e f o r m i . e . t h e w r i t t e n w o r d . Vous l e s e n t e n d e z ? f o c u s e s on t h e a r t - l o v e r a n d t h e r o l e he f u l f i l l s i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h how t h e w r i t e r p u t s h i s ' v i s i o n ' i n c o n c r e t e f o r m and how t h e a r t - l o v e r e x p r e s s e s h i s a p p r e c i a - t i o n o f a work o f a r t . F o l l o w i n g t h e same f o r m a t as c h a p t e r s I and I I , 'the t h i r d and f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l a n a l y s e t h e themes o f c r e a t i v i t y a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n S a r r a u t e ' s two l a t e s t p l a y s , C ' e s t b e a u , p r o - d u c e d i n 1973 and E l l e e s t l a , i n 1978. The p r o t a g o n i s t s o f b o t h p l a y s do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . N e i t h e r do t h e y f u l f i l l t h e r o l e o f t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e - a t i o n . C o u p l e d w i t h t h e i r l a c k o f c r e a t i v i t y i s t h e a b s e n c e o f m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e e n g a g e d i n 9 dialogue, the level of communication has been reduced to a minimum. Although the main focus of th i s thesis i s on Sarraute's f i v e plays, i t would have been a r t i f i c i a l to have discussed them without mentionuing her novels, which account for most of her writing. In fact, there i s a strong link between her novels and plays, as Sarraute c l e a r l y indicates. Chaque f o i s que j ' a i f i n i un roman, j'essaie d'ecrire une piece.10 If t h i s thesis had examined the structural differences between the novels and the plays and the way Sarraute handles tropisms in her plays as opposed to her novels, i t would have followed a chronological order and discussed Entre l a vie et l a mort before the play Isma. This thesis, however, w i l l analyse the creative process and communication throughout her works. I t would be impossible, i f Sarraute writes more radio plays, to continue the themes analysed i n th i s thesis. The characters of C'est beau and E l l e est l a neither communicate nor do they have any creative potential c r e a t i v i t y . Therefore, two of Sarraute's themes have been exhausted. F o o t n o t e s N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , P o r t r a i t d'un I n c o n n u . P r e f a c e de J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e . . ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 8. 2 i. I b i d , p. 11. 3 . I b i d , p . 1 1 . 4 A l a i n R o b b e - G r i l l e t , "Nouveau roman homme n o u v e a u ( 1 9 6 1 ) , " i n P o u r un N o u v e a u Roman ( P a r i s : l i e s E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 4 5 . 5 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , " C o n v e r s a t i o n e t s o u s - c o n v e r s a - t i o n , " i n L ' E r e du Soupgon: E s s a i s s u r l e roman ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 1 2 . . ^ I b i d , p . 1 1 2 . 7 I b i d , p . 1 1 5 . g M i m i c a C r a n a k i e t Yvon B e l a v a l , N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 4 6 , as q u o t e d i n G r e t c h e n Rous B e s s e r , N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ( B o s t o n : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 4.6. 9 G r e t c h e n R. B e s s e r , " C o l l o q u e a v e c N a t h a l i e S a r - r a u t e - 2 2 1 a v r i l 1 1 9 7 6 , " i n The F r e n c h R e v i e w , V o l . L , No.2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 2 8 8 . 1 0 I b i d , p . 2 8 9 . 11 CHAPTER I : CREATIVITY AND COMMUNICATION IN LE SILENCE, LE MENSONGE AND ISMA . S a r r a u t e h a s b e e n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e w o r k o f a r t , i t s e n v i r o n m e n t and i t s f a t e i n g e n e r a l . The t h r e e p l a y s , L e S i l e n c e , L e Mensonge a n d I sma a l l c o n t a i n e l e m e n t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y . W h i l e Ĥ _ and L u i and E l l e , t h e m a i n p r o t a g o n i s t s o f L e S i l e n c e and I sma r e p r e s e n t t h e a u t h o r o r t h e c r e a t o r , P i e r r e , t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r o f L e Mensonge r e p r e s e n t s t h e r e a d e r o f f i c t i o n o r t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y . W h i l e t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s o n c r e a t i v i t y a nd how t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n e a c h p l a y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , t h e s e c o n d h a l f d e a l s w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S a r r a u t e , when f a c e d w i t h t h e c h a l l e n g e o f w r i t i n g r a d i o p l a y s , w o n d e r e d how s he w o u l d e x p r e s s a n d c o m m u n i c a t e u n s p o k e n t r o p i s m s t h r o u g h a med ium w h e r e d i a l o g u e a l o n e m u s t s u s t a i n t h e f u l l w e i g h t o f t h e d r a m a . The c h a r a c t e r s i n a l l t h r e e p l a y s , b y t h e i r v e r y i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r , a r e e n g a g e d i n t h e same p r o c e s s . The d i s c u s s i o n o f c o m m u n i - c a t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f l a n g u a g e t o r e v e a l d e e p e r t h o u g h t s a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h l i m i t t r u e c o m m u n i - c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , a nd t h u s , m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g a m o n g s t t h e c h a r a c t e r s . A s L e S i l e n c e o p e n s , h a s i n t e r r u p t e d h i m s e l f i n t h e m i d s t o f d e s c r i b i n g and e x o t i c , u n s p e c i f i e d p l a c e . H i s f r i e n d s , r e p r e s e n t e d b y H_̂ , H_̂ , F_̂ _, a n d F_̂ , u r g e h i m t o c o n t i n u e h i s ' m o n o l o g u e ' , b u t H_̂_ r e f u s e s . He seems t o d e t e c t a s l i g h t s n i - c k e r w h i c h , he s u r m i s e s , i s J e a n - P i e r r e l a u g h i n g a t h i m . J e a n - 12 P i e r r e h a s s a i d n o t h i n g a n d c o n t i n u e s t o s a y n o t h i n g , w h i l e t h e p r e s s u r e o f h i s s i l e n c e b u i l d s u p u n b e a r a b l y . H_j_ i s , a t f i r s t , t h e o n l y o n e who i s s e n s i t i v e t o h i s s i l e n c e , b u t , g r a d u a l l y , t h e o t h e r s b e g i n t o r e f l e c t 's p e r t u r b a t i o n . T h e y r a l l y t o g e t h e r i n a n e f f o r t t o m ake J e a n - P i e r r e s p e a k . When r e s u m e s h i s l y r i c a l m o n o l o g u e a t t h e e n d o f t h e p l a y , J e a n - P i e r < r e b r e a k s t h e s i l e n c e . H,, v o i x f e r m e : . . . C ' e s t u n a r t b y z a n t i n l i b e r e , q u i e x p l o s e . . . ( a v e c a s s u r a n c e ) i l y a l a - d e s s u s , d ' a i l l e u r s , u n l i v r e r e m a r - q u a b l e m e n t d o c u m e n t e a v e c d e s r e p r o d u c t i o n s s u p e r b e s . . . d e L a b o v i c . . . J e a n - P i e r r e : De L a b o v i c ? . . . ( p . 7 3 ) T h e o t h e r s h a i l t h e e v e n t b u t H_̂_ d i s c l a i m s a n y a w a r e n e s s o f h i s s i l e n c e . T o u s j o y e u x , e m e r v e i l l e s : -Oh, i l p a r l e . . . - I I q u e s t i o n n e . . . - c a 1 ' i n t e r e s s e . . . H^: M a i s p o u r q u o i 1 1 a r t b y z a n t i n n e 1 ' i n t e r e s s e r a i t - i l p a s ? F ^ : M a i s p a r c e q u e t o u t a 1 1 h e u r e . . . H^: Q u o i , t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e ? . . . F^: E n f i n v o u s - m e m e . . . H^: Moi-meme q u o i ? F ^ : S o n s i l e n c e . . . H^: M a i s q u e l s i l e n c e ? F ^ , g e n e e : C ' e t a i t u n p e u . . . I I m'a s e m b l e . . . ( H e s i t e u n i n s t a n t e t p u i s : ) Oh n o n , r i e n . . . J e n e s a i s p a s . . . H : E h b i e n , j e n e s a i s p a s n o n p l u s . J e n 1 a i r i e n r e m a r q u e . ( p . 7 4 ) P e r h a p s t h e s i t u a t i o n h a s b e e n e n a c t e d o n a p r e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o r p e r h a p s t h e d r a m a h a s b e e n p r e s e n t e d i n s l o w m o t i o n a n d i t a l l t o o k p l a c e o v e r a f e w s e c o n d s . T h e p l a y p r e s e n t s t h e t r o p i s m s t h a t a n u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i l e n c e i n d u c e s . H^, t h e p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i n L e S i l e n c e i s a p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r . A s t h e p l a y o p e n s , h e h a s i n t e r r u p t e d h i m s e l f i n t h e m i d d l e o f a n e l o q u e n t , l y r i c a l m o n o l o g u e . H i s f r i e n d s b e g h i m 13 t o c o n t i n u e . F^: S i , r a c o n t e z . . . C 1 e t a i t s i j o l i . . . V o u s r a c o n t e z s i b i e n . . . H^: Non, j e v o u s en p r i e . . . ( p . 5 1 ) By i n t e r r u p t i n g h i s m o n o l o g u e , he s t i f l e s h i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i - n a t i o n . A c r e a t o r m u s t be w i l l i n g t o e x p r e s s h i s v i e w s , t o a l l o w t h e i m p u l s e t o f l o w e r w i t h o u t r e s t r a i n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e a c t i o n o f h i s a u d i e n c e o r o f h i s r e a d e r . H n i r o n i c a l l y — r a c c u s e s J e a n - P i e r r e o f b e i n g a f r a i d o f v o i c i n g h i s o p i n i o n s when he h i m s e l f w i s h e s t h a t he h a d n o t l e t h i m s e l f g e t c a r r i e d a l o n g by h i s own i m p e t u s . H^: N o t r e o p i n i o n v o u s f a i t p e u r . E t s i v o u s d i s i e z une b e t i s e ? C ' e s t que ga p o u r r a i t a r r i v e r , h e i n ? . . . ( p . 5 9 ) M o r e o v e r , t h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n i s r e c i p r o c a l . A c r e a t o r d e f i n e s h i m s e l f by t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e r e c i p i e n t o f h i s c r e a t i v i t y . m e n t i o n s i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t t h e a u t h o r , G e o r g e S a n d , t h a t i e v e n i f s h e n e v e r s p o k e . . . e i l e a v a i t s o n o e u v r e p o u r l a p o r t e r . Ca m e u b l a i t l e s i l e n c e , (p.64) However, t h e i n i t i a l s t e p m u s t be t a k e n by t h e a r t i s t , who e x p o - s e s h i s c r e a t i v i t y , a f t e r w h i c h t h e r e c i p i e n t r e s p o n d s . H^'s c r e a t i v e i m p u l s e f a l t e r s b e c a u s e o f t h e r e l u c t a n c e o f t h e r e c i p - i e n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e , a s m a n i f e s t e d by J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e . I f H_̂_ i s t h e c r e a t o r , J e a n - P i e r r e i s t h e r e a d e r who m u s t r e - s p o n d t o H., ' s c r e a t i v i t y . H, p l e a d s h i m t o j o i n i n t h e r e c i p - — I —T r o c a l c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . H^: B i e n s u r , v o u s d e v e z b i e n v o u s s e r v i r de mots de temps en t e m p s . I I l e f a u t b i e n . P o u r v i v r e . . . ( p . 5 8 ) A s ' a n t a r t i s t n e e d s t h e a p p r o v a l a n d a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f an a u d - i e n c e o r a r e a d e r , so H, t r i e s t o a l i g n h i m s e l f w i t h J e a n - P i e r r e 14 a g a i n s t t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o u p . H,: P a r d o n n e z - l e u r , i l s ne s a v e n t pas ce q u i i l s f o n t , ne f a i t e s pas a t t e n t i o n , a y e z p i t i e . . . J e n ' a u r a i s j a m a i s du, c ' e s t e v i d e n t . . . J e s u i s l e p r e m i e r a m'en r e n d r e compte. M a i s vous devez c o m p r e n d r e . . . ( p . 5 4 ) So, J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e r e p r e s e n t s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f c r e a t i v i - t y , a n e c e s s a r y component. A t t h e end o f t h e p l a y , H, c l a i m s x n e v e r t o have n o t i c e d J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c o n t e m p l a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t i m u l a t e t h e c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n - s i l e n c e i s p r o v o c a t i v e t o t h e p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r . m e n t i o n s t o Vous n ' a v e z j a m a i s a u t a n t p a r l e . . . ( p . 6 8 ) The s i l e n c e s t i m u l a t e s H,'s c r e a t i v i t y . F.. t e l l s H, —±— —± —± V o i l a . Ce s i l e n c e e t a i t d ' o r . I I v a vous o b l i g e r a nous e c r i r e un j o l i poeme...(p.66) I m p l i c i t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y i s an image o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l v e r s u s t h e new n o v e l . The r e a d e r o f t h e t r a - d i t i o n a l n o v e l e x p e c t s a p l o t , n a r r a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n and w e l l - d e f i n e d c h a r a c t e r s . 's f r i e n d s u r g e him t o c o n t i n u e h i s l y r - i c a l m onologue. F^: . . . P a r l e z - n o u s e n c o r e de ga. C ' e t a i t s i beau, c e s p e t i t e s m a i s o n s . . . i l me semble que j e l e s v o i s . . . a v e c l e u r s f e n e t r e s s u r m o n t e e s de p e t i t s a u v e n t s de b o i s d e c o u p e . . . ( p . 5 1 ) 's l y r i c a l monologue c o u l d r e p r e s e n t a n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t y p e o f l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h w i l l be. r e p l a c e d by t h e new n o v e l . However, t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a new s t y l e c a l l s f o r a s i l e n c e , w h i c h p r o v o k e s t h o u g h t . Ĥ _ e x p r e s s e s t h e need f o r a change o f f o r m , as do t h e new n o v e l i s t s . He s t a t e s t h a t f o r m and c o n t e n t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e - t h a t , i n o r d e r t o t a l k a b o u t 'ces p e t i t s a u v e n t s ' , a c e r t a i n f o r m i s r e q u i r e d . 15 H : C ' e s t une q u e s t i o n de f o r m e . J e vous l e d i s a i s t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e . . . M a i s j e v i e n s de c o m p r e n d r e . . . C ' e s t l a f o r m e . I I a u r a i t f a l l u p o u r que vous l e s a c c e p t i e z , c e s p e t i t s a u v e n t s , que j e vous l e s p r e s e n t e a v e c p o l i t e s s e , comme i l se d o i t , s u r un p l a t e a u d ' a r g e n t , e t g a n t e de b l a n c . Dans un l i v r e . A b e l l e c o u v e r t u r e . J o l i m e n t i m p r i m e . Dans un s t y l e b i e n t r a v a i l l e . ( p . 6 6 ) H_£ e x p r e s s e s t h e need f o r a change i n c o n t e n t , as do t h e new n o v e l i s t s . The c o n t e n t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o v e l i s o u t - o f - d a t e and H_£ p o i n t s o u t t h a t i t i s u s e l e s s t o c o n t i n u e t o r e p r o d u c e ' m a t i e r e e p u i s e e . . . . . . . b a n a l e a m o u r i r . ' ( p . 6 7 ) A c r e a t o r must i n v e n t s o m e t h i n g new. Not o n l y i s H_̂_ a c r e a - t o r b u t so a r e t h e o t h e r s , f o r t h e y a l l r e a r r a n g e and r e v i s e a p e r s o n a l i t y f o r J e a n - P i e r r e , d e p e n d i n g n o t on f a c t s b u t on t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e v i s i o n . F_ a t t r i b u t e s J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e — - j . t o h i s t i m i d i t y . : I I e s t t r e s t i m i d e , c ' e s t t o u t . ( p . 5 5 ) H, o b s e r v e s t h a t J e a n - P i e r r e i s s i l e n t b e c a u s e he does n o t l i k e t o w a s t e words when t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o s a y . H : . . . l e s mots p o u r v o u s . . . V o u s n'avez j a m a i s d i t q u e l q u e c n o s e de p l a t . . . ( p . 5 8 ) H_£ e x p r e s s e s t h i s same v i e w . J e a n - P i e r r e a p p r e c i a t e s t h e m o t t o ' S i l e n c e i s g o l d e n : ! E^: S i q u e l q u ' u n s a i t que l e s i l e n c e e s t d ' o r , c ' e s t b i e n l u i . . . ( p . 5 8 ) H-, t h e n d e c i d e s t h a t J e a n - P i e r r e i s s i l e n t b e c a u s e he d e s p i s e s H_j_ and t h e g r o u p . H^: ...Repondra p a s . M o n s i e u r nous- m e p r i s e . . . (p. 59 ) Then he d e c i d e s t h a t J e a n - P i e r r e i s a s nob. H^: M o n s i e u r e s t snob...(p.67) As J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e becomes more and more a g o n i z i n g , 's 16 a c c u s a t i o n s a g a i n s t him become more and more e x t r e m e . even c a l l s J e a n - P i e r r e an i m p o s t e r . H : . . . i l n ' e s t pas des n o t r e s , c ' e s t uh i m p o s t e u r . I I a r r e t e . . . ( p . 6 8 ) S e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f J e a n - P i e r r e ' s c h a r a c t e r c o n f i r m t h e s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s r e a c t i o n s . E a c h i n d i v - i d u a l u s e s h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and c r e a t e s h i s own v e r s i o n o f r e a - i l i t y , w h i c h a c r e a t o r must do. A c r e a t o r a l s o needs s i l e n c e t o s t i m u l a t e h i s c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n as w e l l as an a u d i e n c e t o c o n f i r m h i s c r e a t i v i t y . Le Mensonge, S a r r a u t e ' s s e c o n d r a d i o p l a y , d e a l s as w e l l w i t h c r e a t i o n . Whereas Le S i l e n c e f o c u s e s on t h e r o l e and exp- e c t a t i o n s o f t h e a r t i s t , t h e emphasis s h i f t s i n Le Mensonge t o t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t - i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y - t h a t i s , t h e r e a d e r o f f i c t i o n . P i e r r e , t h e main p r o t a g o n i s t , u n a b l e t o condone a w h i t e l i e , has e x p l o d e d and c a s t i g a t e s an h e i r e s s who p r e t e n d s t o be a p a u p e r . The o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o a c c e p t i n g t h e p o l i t e l i e s s o c i e t y i s b u i l t on, b u t P i e r r e p r o t e s t s t h a t t r u t h i s n e c e s s - a r y f o r him and w i l l n o t be d e n i e d u t t e r a n c e . The o t h e r s a r e s u d d e n l y c o m p e l l e d t o q u e s t i o n t h e i r h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o r . O n l y J a c q u e s p l e a d s f o r wisdom and good w i l l - i n o t h e r words, t o l - e r a t i n g a d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e t r u t h . To h e l p overcome P i e r r e ' s ^ v e r s i o n t o l y i n g , t h e o t h e r s s u g g e s t p l a y - a c t i n g : one o f them, V i n c e n t , w i l l t a k e t h e p a r t o f as a c q u a i n t a n c e , E d g a r , who has a h a b i t o f m a k i n g f a l s e s t a t e m e n t s and t h e o t h e r s w i l l p r a c t i s e t o l e r a t i n g h i s w h i t e l i e s . B u t , t h e game becomes p a i n f u l when Simone b e g i n s t o p l a y i n e a r n e s t . She t e l l s a s t o r y a b o u t an 17 i n c i d e n t which took p l a c e d u r i n g the war when she was i n P a r i s . P i e r r e , c o n v i n c e d t h a t she was i n Geneva d u r i n g the war, begs her to admit t h a t she i s p l a y i n g the game i . e . l y i n g . She i n - s i s t s t h a t she i s not p l a y i n g . Her s t o r y i s t r u e . P i e r r e : . . . M a i s e l l e s. 'amuse, e l l e veu t c o n t i n u e r a j o u e r . E l l e vous l e d i r a . Mais Simone, d i t e s - l e . D i t e s que vous j o u e z . Simone: J e , n e joue p a s , je vous d i s : c ' e s t v r a i . (p.90) F i n a l l y , a f t e r the group has begged her to admit t h a t she was ' p l a y i n g the game, ' she y i e l d s and r e s t o r e s a c c e p t e d c o n v e n t i o n . Simone r i t : B o n , b o n , b i e n s u r , je j o u a i s . . . V o i l a . Vous e tes Conten ts? B r u i t s de r i r e s heureux , de b a i s e r s , g l o u s s e m e n t s . (p.98) E v e r y o n e , except P i e r r e , i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t Simone was p l a y i n g the game. He c o n t i n u e s to wonder i f Simone s a i d she was p l a y i n g the game j u s t to r e s o l v e the c r i s i s . The p l a y r a i s e s the whole q u e s t i o n o f t r u t h and i t s r o l e i n s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . White l i e s are a c c e p t a b l e i n s o c i e t y . L u c i e s t a t e s t h a t Tout l e monde f a i t . c a p l u s ou m o i n s . Des p e t i t s m e n s o n g e s . . . (p.83) The game they p l a y , the p r e t e n s e o f l y i n g , makes a mockery of the concept o f t r u t h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s e a r c h f o r a b s o l u t e t r u t h can l e a d to e x c e s s i v e abuses of power. L u c i e a l l u d e s to ' f o r c e d c o n f e s s i o n s . ' L u c i e : Simone, je vous s u p p l i e . Ne cedez p a s . I l s v e u l e n t vous d e t r u i r e , vous v i d e r . I l s von t vous s a i s i r , vous p a s s e r l a corde au c o u , vous r a s e r l a t e t e . (p.97) S o , the p l a y sugges ts t h a t the s e a r c h f o r t r u t h i s u s e l e s s f o r the u l t i m a t e q u e s t i o n s t i l l looms a t the e n d . Where i s the game? Where i s the t r u t h ? No one knows.anymore. 18 A p a r a l l e l c a n b e d r a w n b e t w e e n t h e d r a m a p r e s e n t e d i n L e M e n s o n g e a n d t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . P i e r r e r e p r e s e n t s , i n t h e d o m a i n o f l i t e r a t u r e , t h e m o d e r n r e a d e r . T h e d o m a i n o f t h e n o v e l h a s a l w a y s b e e n t h e s h a d o w y a r e a w h e r e ' r e a l i t y ' i s I n t h e a u t h o r ' s e x p r e s s i o n o r s t y l e . S a r r a u t e a n d o t h e r New N o v e l i s t s f e e l t h a t f a c t a n d f i c t i o n s h o u l d b e k e p t s e p a r a t e a n d a p a r t . A w r i t e r p r e s e n t s f i c t i o n ; a j o u r n a l i s t p r e s e n t s f a c t s . S a r r a u t e f e e l s t h a t i f f a c t a n d f i c t i o n m e r g e , t h e r e a d e r w i l l q u e s t i o n t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f w h a t h e i s r e a d i n g . I n P o u r u n N o u v e a u R o m a n , A l a i n R o b b e - G r i 1 l e t sums u p t h i s t h e o r y : . . . d e s q u ' a p p a r a i t l e s o u c i d e s i g n i f i e r q u e l q u e c h o s e ( q u e l q u e c h o s e d ' e x t e r i e u r a l ' a r t ) l a l i t t e r a t u r e comm- e n c e a d i s p a r a i t r e . R e d o n n o n s d o n e a l a n o t i o n d ' e n g a g e m e n t l e s e u l s e n s q u ' e l l e p e u t a v o i r p o u r n o u s . A u l i e u d ' e t r e d e n a t u r e p o l i t i q u e , 1 ' e n g a g e m e n t c ' e s t , p o u r l ' e c r i v a i n , l a p l e i n e c o n s c i e n c e d e s p r o b l e m e s a c t u e l s d e s o n p r o p r e l a n g a g e , l a c o n v i c t i o n d e l e u r e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e , l a v o l o n t e d e l e s r e s o u d r e d e l ' i n t e r i e u r . C ' e s t l a , p o u r l u i , l a s e u l e c h a n c e d e d e m e u r e r u n a r t i s t e . . . - * - P i e r r e , t h e n , u n a b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t r u t h a n d t h e game e c h o e s t h e m o d e r n r e a d e r ' s v i e w s t h a t t r u t h s h o u l d n o t m a s q u e r a d e a s f i c t i o n . T h e p r o v o c a t i o n o f t h e d r a m a i n S a r r a u t e ' s t h i r d p l a y , I s m a i s m o r e i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l t h a n i n L e S i l e n c e a n d L e M e n s o n g e ; i t i s m e r e l y a d i s a g r e e a b l e s o u n d . ' I s m e ' r e f e r s t o t h e a c c e n t u a - t i o n o f s u c h w o r d s a s ' c a p i t a l i s m e 1 , ' s t r u c t u r a l i s m e ' a n d ' s o c i a l i s m e . ' S u c h w o r d s s e r v e t o d e f i n e a n d t h e r e f o r e a r e t h e c a u s e o f c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s . H o w e v e r , i t i s , i r o n i c a l l y , n o t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e c r u x o f t h e d r a m a - t i c s i t u a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r t h e i r p r o n o u n c i a t i o n . The p l a y opens i n t h e m i d s t o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n . The g r o u p has been g o s s i p i n g a b o u t t h e i r a b s e n t f r i e n d s , t h e D u b u i t s . When a c c u s e s them o f d i s c r e d i t i n g t h e c o u p l e , t h e y t r y t o f i n d ano- t h e r t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , b u t a r e u n a b l e . They exchange ban- a l i t i e s t o keep t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n f r o m f a d i n g . F i n a l l y , H, i s —T f o r c e d t o l e a v e as t h e o t h e r s l a b e l him ' i m p o t e n t ' and ' i n d i f - f e r e n t . ' The g r o u p t h e n b e g i n s t o a n a l y z e t h e v i o l e n t a v e r s i o n t h a t L u i and E l l e have f o r t h e D u b u i t s . E l l e f i n a l l y d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e y d i s l i k e t h e D u b u i t s b e c a u s e o f t h e way t h e y p r o n o u n c e ' i s m e . 1 E l l e , e x c i t e e : Isma. Isma. Ma. Ma. . . C a p i t a l isma*..- S y n d i c a l i s m - ma. S t r u c t u r a l i s m a . C e t t e f a g o n q u ' i l a de p r o n o n c e r Isma... l e b o u t se r e l e v e . . . c a s ' i n s i n u e . . . P l u s l o i n . T o u j o u r s p l u s l o i n . J u s q u ' a u coeur...Comme un v e n i n . . . I s m a . . . I s m a . . . ( p . 3 3 ) The o t h e r s c o n t i n u e s u g g e s t i n g ways t o overcome t h e i r a c u t e d i s l i k e f o r t h e D u b u i t s . F ^ s u g g e s t s t o j u s t p r e t e n d t h a t t h e y do n o t e x i s t , w h i l e H_̂  m a i n t a i n s t h a t a l t h o u g h he does n o t l i k e t h e D u b u i t s e i t h e r , h i s d i s l i k e i s b a s e d on n o t h i n g . He c l a i m s t h a t he has no n e e d f o r ' f r i l l s . ' However, w h i l e 'isma' may be an e m b e l l i s h m e n t f o r H^, i t i s , f o r L u i and E l l e t h e v e r y c r u x o f t h e o b s e s s i o n . L u i s t a t e s t h a t C ' e s t i s m a 1 ' i m p o r t a n t . Le c r i m e n ' e s t qu'un e n j o l i v e m e n t . . . une s u r c h a r g e . . . i n u t i l e . Isma a s o i s e u l e . . . (p.36) Language i s t h e t r o p i s t i c c a t a l y s t i n Isma. I t has been s t r i p p e d o f i t s meaning and r e d u c e d t o i t s p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . E l s e w h e r e i n S a r r a u t e ' s works a r e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s e n s i t i v e t o c e r t a i n e x p r e s s i o n s , e v e n t o t h e p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n w o rds. T h i s s e n s i t i v i t y i s a s i g n o f t h e c h i l d ' s p r e d e s t i n a t i o n t o become a w r i t e r i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mo r t . The c h i l d i s r e - 20 p u l s e d b y e l o n g a t e d v o w e l s i n s u c h w o r d s a s ' v a a l i s e ' o r ' v a a a - c a t i o n . 1 L u i a n d E l l e , t h e n , a r e p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t s , a s t h e y a r e a l s o o b s e s s e d b y a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l p r o n o u n c i a t i o n . I f t h e y c a n e v e r t r a n s f e r t h e i r h y p e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o a r t i s t i c u s e , t h e y w i l l b e c o m e c r e a t o r s . L u i a n d E l l e n o t o n l y p o s e s s a n a r t i s t ' s s e n s i t i v i t y s h o w n b y t h e i r r e a c t i o n , t o t h e p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n w o r d s , b u t t h e y a r e a l s o a w a r e o f t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t s w h i c h s w i r l b e n e a t h c - t h e p l a t i t u d e s o f o r d i n a r y , e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n . L u i a n d E l l e p o i n t o u t t o t h e o t h e r s who s p o u t c l i c h e s t h a t t h e i r c o n v e r s a - t i o n i s s t e r i l e a n d i m i t a t i v e . L u i : . . . C a s u f f i t m a i n t e n a n t , c ' e s t l a s s a n t , a l a f i n . . . V o u s n e s e n t e z p a s comme g a f a i s a i t d e m o d e , t o u t g a , h e i n ? t o u t a l ' h e u r e ? C_a f a i s a i t c o p i e d e c o p i e , v o u s n e t r o u v e z p a s ? H : C o p i e d e c o p i e ? E l l e : O u i , c e q u ' i l v e u t d i r e , c ' e s t q u e t o u t a l ' h e u r e , q u a n d n o u s p a r l i o n s , g a l u i f a i s a i t 1 ' e f f e t d ' e t r e d e 1 ' i m i t a t i o n . . . c ' e s t g a , n ' e s t - c e p a s ? ( p , 1 5 ) L u i a n d E l l e e c h o S a r r a u t e ' s v i e w o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l beij.-,. i n g w r i t t e n t o d a y . D u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e t r a d i t i o n - a l n o v e l w a s a 'new n o v e l , ' b u t w h o e v e r w r i t e s s u c h a n o v e l t o - d a y , i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i s s i m p l y p h o t o c o p y i n g a n o r i g - i n a l w o r k o f t h e p a s t . A c r e a t o r m u s t p r o d u c e new m a t e r i a l . He m u s t p r e s e n t t h e p r o d u c t o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n a s ' r e a l i t y . ' J u s t a s P i e r r e i n L e M e n s o n g e , f r o m a r e a d e r ' s s t a n d p o i n t , i s c o n - c e r n e d w i t h t r u t h p o s i n g a s f i c t i o n , L u i a n d E l l e , a s c r e a t o r s , a r e r e p e l l e d t o s e e l i f e i m i t a t i n g a r t , a n d ? m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , l i f e i m i t a t i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o v e l . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n I s m a , e x c e p t L u i a n d E l l e , . d w e l l o n t h e s u r f a c e o f l i f e , t h e y a r e a l l p o t e n t i a l e r e - 21 a t o r s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y u s e t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n . F,, F n , , and t r y t o e x p l a i n a phenomenon w h i c h s u r p a s s e s t h e u s u a l way o f t h i n k i n g and r e a s o n i n g . They a l l o f f e r t h e i r o p i n i o n as t o why L u i and E l l e d i s l i k e t h e D u b u i t s . s u g g e s t s L e s D u b u i t vous s o n t a n t i p a t h i q u e s . Un p o i n t , c ' e s t t o u t . Ce que vous s e n t e z c h e z l e s D u b u i t . . . d e vague, d ' i n d i c i b l e . . . c e q u i vo u s t i r e , ce q u i f l u c t u e . . . g a e v e i l l e ce qu'on nomme 1 ' a n t i p a t h i e . ( p . 2 2 ) F_ s u g g e s t s t o E l l e and L u i t h a t t h e y s h o u l d s i m p l y i g n o r e t h e D u b u i t s , p r e t e n d t h a t t h e y d o n ' t e x i s t . F_: . . . j e ne l e v o i s p a s . C ' e s t comme s ' i l c e s s a i t d " * e x i s t e r . P o u r q u o i l e s u p p o r t e r , s i ga m'est p e n i b l e ? (p.37) E l l e a l s o o f f e r s an e x p l a n a t i o n . Q u e l q u e c h o s e q u i f i l t r e d'eux, q u i s ' i n s i n u e . . . g a v o u s a t t e i n t . . . g a f a i t se s o u l e v e r en v o u s . . . g a t r a v e r s e t o u s l e s a s p e c t s . . . g a v i e n t de r i e n . . . ( p . 2 6 ) None o f t h e s o l u t i o n s o r s u g g e s t i o n s s u f f i c e . To c o v e r up t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t t o s o l v e i t . The t r u t h i s , s a y s L u i , t h a t . . . I l s s o n t l a . I n d e s t r u c t i b l e s . I r r e d u c t i b l e s . ( p . 2 5 ) A l t h o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r s use t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n t o t r y t o s o l v e E l l e and L u i ' s m y s t e r i o u s , i n e x p l i c a b l e a v e r s i o n t o t h e D u b u i t s , t h e p r o b l e m i s n e v e r s o l v e d . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n has examined t h e p r o b l e m s and components o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y i n Le S i l e n c e , Le Mensonge and Isma. An a r t i s t must be w i l l i n g t o v o i c e h i s ' v i s i o n , ' t o e x p r e s s h i s ' r e a l i t y : ' A n e c e s s a r y component i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s s i l e n c e . A c r e a t o r must a l s o be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h he e x p r e s s e s h i s c r e a t i v i t y . The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s r e - c i p r o c a l . The c r e a t o r needs an a u d i e n c e , a s p e c t a t o r o r a r e a - d e r t o c o n f i r m h i s c r e a t i v i t y . I f a l l o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e 22 met, a p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r may become an a c t u a l c r e a t o r . The second h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r on communication w i l l be i n t r o - duced by a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f t r o p i s m s and language b e f o r e a n a l y s i n g communication among the p r o t a g o n i s t s , o f the t h r e e p l a y s . 23 A t r o p i s m i s a s e r i e s o f s e n s a t i o n s , f e e l i n g s , : . m e t a p h o r s , t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s on t h e o u t e r m o s t ^ f f i n g e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t l i e s b e l o w t h e l e v e l s o f s p o k e n d i a l o g u e . I n o t h e r words, a t r o p i s m i s n e v e r ' s a i d . ' The 'spoken' n a t u r e o f a r a d i o p l a y i s t h e r e f o r e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t r o p i s m s . How was S a r r a u t e t o communicate t r o p i s m s i n a r a d i o p l a y where t h e o n l y means o f e x p r e s s i o n i s d i a l o g u e ? I n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h G r e t c h e n R.. B e s s e r i n 1976, S a r r a u t e d e s - c r i b e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n m a k i n g d i a l o g u e do t h e work o f s u b - c o n v e r s a t i o n . . . . D ' h a b i t u d e dans mes romans j e m o n t r e l e s mouvements i n t e r i e u r s des i m a g e s , l e d i a l o g u e n'en e s t que 1'abou- t i s s e m e n t . I c i , t o u t d o i t e t r e e x p r i m e dans l e d i a l o g u e lui-meme. A l o r s l e s gens p a r - l e n t d'une m a n i e r e q u i p a r a i t t o u t a f a i t n a t u r e l l e , m a i s en r e a i i t e i l s d i s e n t des c h o s e s qu'on ne d i t j a m a i s , i l s e x p r i m e n t ce q u i se p a s s e en eux.2 The c h a r a c t e r s s a y t h i n g s t h e y w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y u t t e r i n e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n a n o v e l , t h e d i a l o g u e i s p r e c e d e d by a p r e - d i a l o g u e . An example f r o m Le P l a n e t a r i u m shows G i s e l e f u r i o u s w i t h h e r f a t h e r b e c a u s e he r e f e r s t o Germaine L e m a i r e , t h e l i t e r a r y i d o l o f A l a i n and G i s e l e , as ' l a i d e comme un pou. Her s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n r e v e a l s h e r a n g e r . She i s ' p r e t e a l e b a t ^ t r e , a l e b r u l e r , a:': 1' e c a r t e l e r . * (p. 103) The s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n i s t o o c r u e l and u n a c c e p t a b l e t o be u t t e r e d o u t l o u d . What G i s e l e s a y s r e v e a l s o n l y a m i l d f r u s t r a t i o n t o w a r d s h e r f a t h e r . Eh b i e n , o u i , e l l e a t o n age, o u i , e l l e a t o n age. E t q u ' e s t - c e que ga f a i t ? T a n t p i s p o u r t o i . . E l l e a t o n age e t e l l e e s t p l u s j e u n e que n o u s . C ' e s t e l l e q u i nous m o n t r e l ' a v e n i r . T a n d i s que t o i . . . ( p . 1 0 3 ) B u t , i n t h e r a d i o p l a y s , t h e d i a l o g u e i s u n r e a l i s t i c as i t 24 c o n t a i n s t h e p r e - d i a l o g u e . A n o t h e r example f r o m Le P l a n e t a r i u m p r e s e n t s a s i t u a t i o n where A l a i n has been d e c e i v e d by h i s l i t - e r a r y i d o l , G ermaine L e m a i r e . H i s i n a r t i c u l a t e u n e a s i n e s s i s m a n i f e s t e d by a t r o p i s m - a m e t a p h o r compares h i s ' v e r t i g e ' t o t h e s k y w h i r l i n g above h i s h e a d . . . . l e c i e l t o u r n e a u - d e s s u s de l u i , l e s a s t r e s b o u g e n t , i l v o i t se d e p l a c e r l e s p l a n e t e s , un v e r t i g e , une a n g o i s s e , un s e n t i m e n t de p a n i q u e l e p r e n d . . . ( p . 2 4 9 ) H^, one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n Le S i l e n c e , e x p e r i e n c e s t h e same f e e l i n g s o f ' v e r t i g e ' b e c a u s e he i s so u p s e t by J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e . ...Au s e c o u r s . . . j e p e r d s p i e d , j e s u i s d e p o r t e , s e u l e n t r e c i e l e t t e r r e . . . o h . . . ( p . 6 8 ) E l l e , i n Isma, a l s o r e v e a l s i n t e r n a l movements e x t e r n a l l y . She and h e r p a r t n e r , L u i , have an a v e r s i o n t o t h e way t h e i r f r i e n d s , L e s D u b u i t , p r o n o u n c e 'isme' when i t comes a t t h e end o f a word. T h i s o b s e s s i o n f e s t e r s i n h e r mind u n t i l , l i k e a b o i l , i t s v i r - r u l e n c e b u r s t s . She w o u l d l i k e t o e x t e r m i n a t e t h e D u b u i t s . . . . p a r moments, moi j e p o u r r a i s , r i e n que p o u r c a , a l i g n e r d e v a n t l e mur. D r e s s e r l e s g i b e t s . . . D e t r u i r e . E x t e r m i n e r . . . Sans r e m i s s i o n . Sans p i t i e . ( p . 3 6 ) T h u s , t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' s p e e c h i n t h e r a d i o p l a y s i s a m i x t u r e o f o u t w a r d c o n f o r m i t y and i n n e r commentary. B u t , d e s p i t e i t s p l u n g e s i n t o t h e deep z o n e s , S a r r a u t e ' s d i a l o g u e r e m a i n s b a n a l and commonplace. B e c a u s e h e r c h a r a c t e r s a r e t r y i n g t o communicate t h e s e i n t e r i o r movements whose o r a l e x p r e s s i o n i s u n n a t u r a l , t h e y must us e l a n g u a g e t h a t ' o t h e r s ' a r e l i a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d . S i m i l a r l y , S a r r a u t e wants t h e r e a d e r o r s p e c t a t o r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e same e x p e r i e n c e as t h e c h a r - a c t e r s w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e b a r r i e r o f d i f f i c u l t 25 language. The c h a r a c t e r s a l s o , as a r u l e , l a c k s p e c i f i c i d e n t i t y o r p e r s o n a l i t y . Only one c h a r a c t e r i n Le S i l e n c e has a name. He i s J e a n - P i e r r e , the one who i s s i l e n t t h r o u g h o u t the p l a y . A l - though he has a name, he f u n c t i o n s anonymously, as do the r e s t of the c h a r a c t e r s who are l a b e l e d EL, H_, F,, F_ and F_. F u r t h - ~T —Z" 1 —27 —ZT ermore, the o n l y r e ason t h a t S a r r a u t e d i s t r i b u t e s r o l e s i n her r a d i o p l a y s i s t o f o r e s t a l l monotony. S a r r a u t e e x p l a i n s t h i s c h o i c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t he r o l e s . Je l e f a i s presque au h a s a r d , pour q u ' i l y a i t un change- ment de v o i x . . . M a i s ce ne s o n t pas des personnages que j ' a i c herche a c r e e r . En t r a v a i l l a n t , j e ne l e s d i s t i n g u e guere l e s uns des a u t r e s . 3 Why d i d S a r r a u t e choose t o w r i t e about a s i l e n c e , a l i e o r 'ce q u i s ' a p p e l l e r i e n ' ? Her aim was t o make the a c t u a l s u b j e c t of the p l a y as i n s i g n i f i c a n t as p o s s i b l e so t h a t the ' i n v i s i b l e ' would occupy the p l a c e o f honour, and t o p r e v e n t the r e a d e r from becoming d i s t r a c t e d by what was g o i n g on on the s u r f a c e . S a r r a u t e s t a t e s t h a t Ce q u i m ' i n t e r e s s e , c ' e s t de d e c o u v r i r des t r o p i s m e s dans ce q u i a p p a r a i t comme i n s i g n i f i a n t , i n i n t e r e s s a n t , dans l e s s i t u a t i o n s ou l ' o n peut c r o i r e q u ' i l ne se passe r i e n . C ' est quand i l ne se passe r i e n que c e l a m ' i n t e r e s s e de v o i r ce q u i se passe en r e a i i t e . . . ^ F o r example, i f M a d e l e i n e , i n Le Mensonge had l i e d and consequ- e n t l y had h u r t someone's f e e l i n g s o r i f the l i e had g e n e r a t e d s e r i o u s r e p u r c u s s i o n s , the drama would never have l e f t the s u r - f a c e . L i k e w i s e i n Le S i l e n c e , under the s t r e s s o f J e a n - P i e r r e ' s s i l e n c e , the c h a r a c t e r s g e t / a g i t a t e d , r e s t l e s s and even s u f f e r . But when, i n t h e end, t h e y come back up t o the s u r f a c e , what has t a k e n p l a c e ? En •••••remarks —T 26 . . . J e n ' a i r i e n r e m a r q u e . ( p .74) The s i l e n c e was, t h e r e f o r e , s c a r c e l y n o t i c e a b l e . In Isma, the c a t a l y s t i s even l e s s n o t i c e a b l e - the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n of the f i n a l s y l l a b l e ' i s m e i ! N o t h i n g ' h a p p e n s ' - the a l t e r n a t e t i t l e of Isma i s "ce q u i s ' a p p e l l e r i e n " ; t h e r e f o r e the t h r u s t o f the p l a y s i s what goes on below the s u r f a c e of e v e n t s , i n the o b s c u r e r e g i o n s of t r o p i s m s . Language i t s e l f forms the h e a r t o f S a r r a u t e ' s p l a y s . The c a t a l y s t t h a t a c t i v a t e s t r o p i s m s i s an element o f s p e e c h - a s i l e n c e - d e l i b e r a t e s u p p r e s s i o n s o f l a n g u a g e - , a l i e , o r the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n words . These e lements a f f e c t the p r o - c e s s o f communica t ion . A s i l e n c e , the n e g a t i o n o f s p e e c h , des%- tr-oys c o n v e r s a t i o n by e r e c t i n g a b lank w a l l t h a t s tops communi- c a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a l i e a n n i h i l a t e s speech by c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n the good f a i t h t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s , s h a r e . However, the t r i v i a l l i e and the u n o b t r u s i v e s i l e n c e become the s p r i n g - board f o r emot iona l r e s p o n s e s . In o t h e r words, these s u b v e r s i v e e lements s t i m u l a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n and thus communica t ion . The most p o p u l a r medium f o r communicat ion i s , o f c o u r s e , the spoken o r w r i t t e n word. Peop le need words i n o r d e r to communi- ca te i n our s o c i a l w o r l d . However, the impor tance o f words i s m undermined by the power o f a l a u g h , an i n t o n a t i o n o r a s i l e n c e . The sudden s i l e n c e and subsequent laugh o f J e a n - P i e r r e i n Le S i l e n c e caused to r e a c t . H is r e a c t i o n s e t s the c o n v e r s a t i o n i n m o t i o n . H • -j « m • • On entend un f a i b l e r i r e . Vous avez entendu? 27 Vous l ' e n t e n d e z ? I I n'a pas pu l e c o n t e n i r . Ca a d e b o r d e . F^, t r e s d i g n e : C ' e s t J e a n - P i e r r e q u i v i e n t de r i r e . A vou- ez qu'on r i r a i t a moins.' C ' e s t v r a i m e n t t o r d a n t . C ' e s t l u i q u i d e b o r d e , i l p a r a i t . F^: J e a n - P i e r r e . . . M a i s ce n ' e s t pas p o s s i b l e , ce n ' e s t pas de l u i que vous p a r l e z ? F^: J e a n - P i e r r e , s i p a i s i b l e , s i g e n t i l . . . H : De q u i v o u l e z - v o u s que ce s o i t ? De q u i d ' a u t r e , j e vous l e demande...Mais v o u s . v o u l e z e n c o r e me p r o v o q u e r . . . (p.53) I n Le Mensonge, t h e drama has been s e t i n m o t i o n b e c a u s e of M a d e l e i n e ' s ' l i e ' . P i e r r e c a n n o t b e a r someone l y i n g , so t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s engage i n a 'game' t o h e l p P i e r r e overcome h i s i n t o l e r a n t o b s e s s i o n . I n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e game, when Simone s t a r t s t e l l i n g a s t o r y w h i c h she c l a i m s i s a t r u e one, P i e r r e t h i n k s she i s l y i n g . Simone c l a i m s t h a t d u r i n g t h e Oc- c u p a t i o n , she was l i v i n g i n S e i n e - e t - O i s e . However, P i e r r e t h i n k s t h a t she was l i v i n g i n S w i t z e r l a n d d u r i n g t h e war, and begs h e r t o a d m i t t h a t she has been l y i n g . F i n a l l y , Simone g i v e s i n . Simone r i t : Bon, bon, b i e n s u r , j e j o u a i s . . . V o i l a . Vous e t e s c o n t e n t s ? (p.98) P i e r r e , however, i s n o t c o n v i n c e d by h e r c o n f e s s i o n . Her l a u g h d i s t o r t s t h e v a l u e o f h e r words. P i e r r e : . . . C ' e t a i t t o u t a f a i t i m p r e v u , ce bond en a r r i e r e , au d e r n i e r moment...En l a i s s a n t c e l a p l a n t e en m o i : ce p e t i t r i re...comme un d a r d . . . ( p . 9 9 ) He keeps on r e p e a t i n g Simone's words, t e s t i n g them w i t h v a r - i o u s i n t o n a t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r she was t e l l i n g t h e t r u t h when she s a i d she was l y i n g . P i e r r e : O u i . Bon, j e veux b i e n . . . ( T o n f r a n c ) . Bon, bon... b i e n s u r , j e j o u a i s . ( I I r i t d oucement)...Bon, bon, b i e n s u r . . . ( T o n h y p o c r i t e ) . J e j o u a i s . . . ( p . 1 0 1 ) I n much t h e same way, L u i and E l l e i n Isma a r e o b s e s s e d w i t h 28 t h e D u b u i t s and t h e i r p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f 'isme'- a t i n y a c c e n t - u a t i o n o f words e n d i n g i n 'isme.' I t i s n o t t h e meaning o f t h e words t h a t m a t t e r s , o n l y t h e i r p r o n o u n c i a t i o n . T h a t a s l i g h t i n t o n a t i o n , o r a s i l e n c e o r a s l i g h t l a u g h c a n t r i g g e r c o n v e r - s a t i o n and a whole s e r i e s o f e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s e m p h a s i z e s t h e r e l a t i v e u n i m p o r t a n c e o f words t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i n a d e - q u a c y o f words t o e x p r e s s o u r t r u e f e e l i n g s and r e a c t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i f words a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o communicate, t h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : t o what e x t e n t do p e o p l e a c t u a l l y communicate and u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r ? Words a r e n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s . I n Le S i l e n c e , s i l e n c e i s a l i v i n g t h i n g s e t i n m o t i o n by one u t t e r a n c e and r e s o l v e d by a n o t h e r , w h i c h shows t h e power o f t h e word, t h e power o f l a n g u a g e . 's l y r i c a l monologue c a u s e d J e a n - P i e r r e ' s u n n e r v i n g and a f f e c t i v e s i l e n c e . H_̂_ im- p l o r e s J e a n - P i e r r e t o t a l k . J u s t e un mot. Un p e t i t mot de v o u s e t on se s e n t i r a i t d e l i v r e s . (p.55) H_j_ begs him- M a i s p a r l e z e n f i n , d i t e s q u e l q u e c h o s e , (p.59) The same phenomenon o c c u r s i n Le Mensonge when P i e r r e b e s e e c h e s Simone t o a d m i t t h a t she was l y i n g . . . . j u s t e un s e u l mot.(p.96) When J e a n - P i e r r e i n Le S i l e n c e f i n a l l y does speak, what he s a y s i s a b s o l u t e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . J e a n - P i e r r e : De L a b o v i c ? ( p . 7 3 ) B u t t h e s e two s i m p l e words r e e s t a b l i s h o r d e r and r e s o l v e t h e c r i s i s . However, m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t w i t h p e o p l e does n o t n e c - 29 e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the communicat ion p r o c e s s i s f u n c t i o n i n g m e a n i n g f u l l y . The c h a r a c t e r s r e s o r t to c l i c h e s , key words i n a s o c i e t y t h a t seeks s e c u r i t y i n c o n f o r m i t y . The c h a r a c t e r s i n Le S i l e n c e beg J e a n - P i e r r e to speak . They spout mean ing less c l i c h e s one a f t e r a n o t h e r . F^: C ' e s t v r a i J e a n - P i e r r e , d i t e s quelque c h o s e . . . F^: Dec idement , J e a n - P i e r r e nous m e p r i s e . . . F^ : J e a n - P i e r r e , vous m 1 a n g o i s s e z . . . H^: A l l o n s , J e a n - P i e r r e , t a i s e z - v o u s . . . ( p . 6 4 ) L i k e w i s e , the c h a r a c t e r s i n Le Mensonge, who a l l f e e l embarras- sed when P i e r r e accuses Made le ine o f l y i n g , respond i n c l i c h e s - Yvonne: J ' a u r a i s v o u l u r e n t r e r sous t e r r e . L u c i e : Moi a u s s i . Je ne s a v a i s pas ou me m e t t r e . Simone: Oh. On m o u r a i t . J a c q u e s : J e n ' e n c r o y a i s pas mes o r e i l l e s . . . ( p . 7 9 ) C l i c h e s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , are redundant and do not engen- der any f low o f i d e a s . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h the c h a r a c t e r s e n - gage i n d i a l o g u e , mean ing less c l i c h e s seldom promote mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The d i a l o g u e f o l l o w s n e i t h e r a t ime sequence nor a l o g i c a l sequence . I t i s an i n s t a n t a n e o u s exchange i n which t h e r e are no arguments , no d i s c u s s i o n s o r no p e r s u a s i o n . No one c o n v i n c e s anyone o f a n y t h i n g , a t l e a s t , not by l o g i c a l means. When t h i n g s happen- i . e . when L u i and E l l e i n Isma d i s c o v e r the cause o f t h e i r d i s l i k e o f the D u b u i t s , i t i s s i m p l y because c e r t a i n words are spoken which c r e a t e a f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e . F̂ _ sugges ts t h a t what b o t h e r s L u i and E l l e i s t h e i r ' r i r e g l a c e . ' H_£ o b s e r v e s t h a t "On a 1' i m p r e s s i o n § q u 1 i l vous c l a q u e au n e z . " (p.32) A t t h i s moment, E l l e has a r e v e l a t i o n . Isma, Isma. Ma. M a . . . ( p . 3 3 ) U n t i l t h i s f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e i s e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e r e i s o n l y 30 m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , w h i c h no.: amount o f e x p l a n a t i o n c a n c l e a r up. The c h a r a c t e r s c a n o n l y s t a r t a g a i n , e n t e r i n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a g a i n , p u t t h e m s e l v e s i n s i d e by t h e power o f v e r b a l m agic i n t h e hope o f c r e a t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t m o s p h e r e . When L u i i n - s i s t s on t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e D u b u i t s , H_̂_ a s k s him: Vous n ' a l l e z pas recommencer?(p.15) P i e r r e , i n Le Mensonge, by h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o make Simone a d m i t t h a t she was l y i n g , s i m p l y e x a s p e r a t e s h e r . Simone: Q u ' e s t - c e q u ' i l y a? Ah. Ca vous r e p r e n d ? Vous recommencez?(p.95) S i n c e t h e i r c l i c h e - r i d d e n , m e a n i n g l e s s d i a l o g u e does n o t f o l l o w any l o g i c a l p a t t e r n , t h e c h a r a c t e r s must c o n s t a n t l y 'recommence . c e r ' . So, l a n g u a g e , w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t a c t , becomes i m p o v e r s i s h e d and i n e f f e c t u a l a t t h e l e v e l o f s p e e c h . C o m m u n i c a t i o n , \;:;: t h e r e f o r e , between p e o p l e i s l i m i t e d . C o m m u n i c a t i o n i s l i m i t e d a l s o , o f c o u r s e , by t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h p e r s o n p e r c e i v e s r e a l i t y f r o m h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w and, t h e r e f o r e , o n l y f o r h i m s e l f . P i e r r e , i n Le Mensonge, when t r y - i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e t h e r Simone i s l y i n g o r p l a y i n g t h e game, a d m i t s M a i s , moi, moi j e vous v o i s . V o t r e o e i l pas d e r r i e r e . . . ( p . 9 5 ) Of c o u r s e , b e c a u s e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o e n t e r i n t o t h e mind o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n , P i e r r e w i l l n e v e r know Simone f u l l y . L u c i e , an o b s e r v e r i n t h i s same s c e n e , f e e l s s o r r y f o r Simone as she s e e s t h e o t h e r s b a c k i n g h e r i n t o a c o r n e r . L u c i e : V o i l a , c ' e s t ce que j e c r a i g n a i s , c ' e s t d e c l e n c h e . . . l e u r c o n v o i t i s e , l e u r a v i d i t e . . . i l s v o n t l u i a r r a c h e r c a , i l s l a t r a q u e n t , i l s l a p r e s s e n t , l e u r s t i g e s de f e r fou-r-.le . i l l e n t , e l l e se t e r r e . . . un p e t i t a n i m a l t r a q u e . . . s e s yeux e f f r a y e s . l e s o b s e r v e n t , e l l e p a l p i t e , t o u t e c h a u d e . . . e t moi, 31 comme e l l e . . . ( p . 9 7 ) Yvonne, who sees her own r e a l i t y , i n t e r p r e t s the same scene d i f f e r e n t l y . She t e l l s L u c i e Mais vous r e v e z . E l l e l e s regarde d ' u n o e i l g l a c i a l . ( p . 9 7 ) In Le S i l e n c e , i s embarrassed t h a t he got c a r r i e d away w i t h h i s l y r i c a l monologue. S o , when the o t h e r s beg h i s to c o n t i n u e , f e e l s t h a t they are making fun of h im. S o , he judges from h i s p o i n t o f v iew one d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e from the o t h e r s . Who i s ' s e e i n g ' r e a l i t y ? H , : Non, a r r e t e z , je vous en s u p p l i e . Oh non , ne vous moquez pas de m o i . . . PI^: Nous moquer? Mais q u i se moque, v o y o n s . . . (p. 52) Not o n l y can anyone not r e a l l y know anyone e l s e , but a c h a r a c - t e r may not even know h i m s e l f because he p e r c e i v e s t h i n g s d i f - f e r e n t l y a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . H^_, i n Le S i l e n c e , b e l i e v e s t h a t h i s own words were p i c k e d up i n advance and he imagines h im- s e l f , i n advance , i m i t a t e d , a t t a c k e d . He p l a y s two r o l e s , a c - cused and a c c u s o r . H n vows t h a t he w i l l f o r c e J e a n - P i e r r e to r e a c t . H 1 : Je v a i s l e s d e c r i r e , m o i , ces a u v e n t s , e t on vous o B l i g e r a , que vous l e v o u l i e z ou non . Vous se rez f o r c e . . . II a r e p e t e f o r c e ? Vous avez d i t f o r c e , en r i a n t . F : Non, c ' e s t moi q u i l ' a i d i t . Comme un e c h o . H : Non, i l l ' a d i t a u s s i : Je l ' a i en tendu . II l ' a d i t . F o r c e ? en r i a n t . F o r c e , moi? V o i l a ce q u ' i l a d i t . F o r c e ? Qui peut l e f o r c e r ? (p.67) Two major f a c t o r s impede s a t i s f a c t o r y communicat ion: the i n e f - f i c i e n c y o f v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n and the f a c t t h a t each person has a un ique and f l u c t u a t i n g v e r s i o n .of r e a l i t y w h i c h , o b v i o u s l y , no one e l s e can f u l l y share and a p p r e c i a t e . S a r r a u t e ' s r a d i o p l a y s c o n t i n u e the t rea tment and d i s c o u r s e 32 - u n d e r l y i n g i n h e r n o v e l s , b u t t h e m e d i u m i s m o r e r e f i n e d . T h e t r o p i s m s m u s t b e a u d i b l e . P i e r r e , i n L e M e n s o n g e , w i s h i n g t o p o i n t o u t t h e f o r c e f u l n e s s o f a s t a t e m e n t u s e s t h e f a m i l i a r e x p r e s s i o n , C a c r e v a i t l e s y e u x . b u t h e c o r r e c t s h i m s e l f : . . . o u p l u t o t l e s t y m p a n s . ( p . 9 9 ) B y g i v i n g p r e - e m i n e n c e t o t h e a u d i t o r y o v e r t h e v i s u a l a n d t h e d i a l e c t i c a l , S a r r a u t e m a k e s h e r a u d i e n c e r e c e p t i v e t o a p u r e l y v e r b a l i m p a c t . 33 F o o t n o t e s x A l a i n R o b b e - G r i l l e t , "Na ture , humanisme, t r a g e d i e (1958) ," i n Pour un Nouveau Roman ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1963). p . 4 7 . 2 G r e t c h e n R. B e s s e r , " C o l l o q u e avec N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e 22 a v r i l 1976," i n The F r e n c h Review, V o l . L , No.2 (1976), p .288 . 3 I b i d , p .288 . 4 I b i d , p .287 . CHAPTER I I : CREATIVITY AND COMMUNICATION IN ENTRE LA VIE ET LA MORT AND VOUS LES ENTENDEZ ? The s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s - s i o n o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . C h a p t e r I dealt" w i t h t h e components o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s - t h e need f o r an a r t i s t t o f r e e l y e x p r e s s h i s ' v i s i o n ' and t o p r e s e n t new and o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l . To p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e a r t i s t r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . S i l e n c e i s sometimes n e c e s s a r y t o p r o d him i n t o a c r e a t i v e e f f o r t . He must, as w e l l , be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h he e x p r e s s e s h i s c r e a t i v i t y - i . e . t h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t must be s e n s i t i v e t o words. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f S a r r - a u t e ' s f i r s t t h r e e r a d i o p l a y s , Le S i l e n c e , L e Mensonge and Isma. The s e c o n d p a r t o f C h a p t e r I i s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c - t o r s t h a t impede m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g among t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s i n t h e t h r e e p l a y s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s l i m i t c o m m u n i c a t i o n . F i r s t , l a n g u a g e does n o t a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s deep f e e l i n g s . S e c o n d l y , e a c h p e r s o n has a u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h , due t o t h e c h a n g - i n g n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d , i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g d i s t u r b e d and m o d i f i e d . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p o s s i b l e f o r anyone t o r e a l l y know one's s e l f o r anyone e l s e . Thus, m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n l i m i t e d . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i v e r g e f r o m t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f r a d i o p l a y s t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort and Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? . The p r o t a g o n i s t o f E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort i s t h e a u t h o r , t h e c r e a t o r , w h i l e t h e main c h a r a c t e r o f Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? i s t h e a r t - l o v e r , t h e r e c i p - i e n t o f t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e a u t h o r ' s i m a g i n a t i v e c r e a t i o n . W h i l e t h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t and t h e a r t - l o v e r f u l f i l l v e r y d i f f - 35 e r e n t f u n c t i o n s i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , b o t h v i b r a t e t h r o u g h t h e a r t o b j e c t w h i c h l i n k s them. E n t r e l a . v i e e t l a m o r t examines t h e w r i t e r as he i s p a r t i - c i p a t i n g i n t h e a c t u a l c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s some- t i m e s m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m o f a s e n s a t i o n t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o w ords. A t o t h e r t i m e s , words g i v e r i s e t o s e n s a t i o n s . The w r i t e r has two h a l v e s w h i c h a r g u e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . So, t h e c r i t i c a l h a l f o f t e n d e s t r o y s t h e c r e a t i v e h a l f i . e . t h e c r i t i - c a l h a l f , upon r e r e a d i n g t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e c r e a t i v e h a l f , d e c i d e s i t i s 'dead', b e c a u s e z t h e i i n i t i a l s e n s a t i o n has n o t been c a p t u r e d . To c a p t u r e t h e i n i t i a l f e e l i n g and t o c o n c r e - t i z e i t i n t o words w i t h o u t d e s t r o y i n g i t i s t o s u c c e e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . The a r t - l o v e r , by r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y , i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . Thus Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? e x a m i n e s , t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f t h e a r t - l o v e r , t h e n a t u r e o f a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and t h e c o n f l i c t i n a t - t i t u d e s between t r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s t o a r t . The s e c o n d h a l f o f C h a p t e r I I w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e p r o - c e s s e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n C h a p t e r I , i t was f i r s t o f a l l n e c e s s a r y t o d i s c u s s t h e l a n g u a g e u s e d and how S a r r a u t e e x t e r - n a l i z e s t r o p i s m s , g i v e n t h e s p o k e n n a t u r e o f t h e r a d i o p l a y s . S i n c e E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t and Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? a r e n o v e l s , t h e y w i l l a l l o w us t o c a r r y o u t a s t u d y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n be- yond t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e s p o k e n word. I n f a c t , t h e s e two no-- v e l s a r e w r i t t e n a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e l e v e l o f ' s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n ' . An a c t i o n t h a t t a k e s p l a c e on t h i s l e v e l e l i m i - n a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s c o m m u n i c a t i n g w i t h 36 e a c h o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , t h e o n l y means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n among t h e d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r s i s by a s o r t o f o s m o s i s . They ' f e e l ' and u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r . So i n t e r t w i n e d a r e t h e y i n an i n t - e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t t h e y a r e a b l e t o e x c h a n g e ' r o l e s ' and 'become' t h e o t h e r . W h i l e t h i s e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f ' s o u s - c o n - v e r s a t i o n ' does n o t d i r e c t l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s p o k e n word t o communicate deep f e e l i n g s , i t u n d e r l i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e u n s p o k e n , i n a r t i c u l a t e l a n g u a g e w h i c h l i e s b e l o w t h e s p o k e n word. C h a p t e r I a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e a l l y know- i n g a n o t h e r p e r s o n b e c a u s e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t w i l l be s e e n h e r e t h a t a p e r s o n does n o t f u l l y know h i m s e l f e i t h e r , b e c a u s e ; d i f f e r e n t i n f l u e - n c e s t r a n s f o r m h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e w o r l d . The s u b c o n v e r s a t - i o n o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t and i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? shows how t h i s phenomenon i s compounded: a p e r s o n t e n d s t o d i s t o r t h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n t o f i t h i s own e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t i s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s o r d i r e c t i o n s t h a t C h a p t e r I I w i l l c o n t i n u e and e l a b o r a t e on t h e s u b j e c t o f c r e a - t i v i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t t r a c e s t h e s t e p s o f a w r i t e r ' s c a r - e e r - t h e i n f a t u a t i o n w i t h words, t h e * s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e m anuscr- i p t , t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e f a m i l y , t h e a c c l a i m o f h i s work and h i s fame. Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? c e n t r e s on t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e t r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s c t o a a r t a a h d a a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s p e r s o n i f i e d by t h e c o n t r a r y i d e a s o f a f a t h e r and h i s c h i l d r e n , w h i l e t h e f o r u m f o r t h e 37 d r a m a i s t h e f a m i l y e n c l a v e . T h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s m a n i f e s t e d n o t a s a t o p i c f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e b u t i n t h e f o r m o f e m o t - i o n - p a c k e d t r o p i s m s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t o p e n s w i t h t h e m a t u r e a u t h o r t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n h i s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . S u r l a p a g e b l a n c h e , l e s m o t s , l e s p h r a s e s , s e f o r m e n t . M i r a c l e . C omment p e u t - o n ? C ' e s t u n g r a n d m y s t e r e . ( p . 8 ) T h i s a t t e m p t t o t r a c e t h e r o o t s o f h i s w r i t i n g l e a d s t o a c o n t - e m p l a t i o n o f h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . H i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o l a n g u a g e s e e m s t o f o r e s h a d o w h i s p r e d e s t i n a t i o n f o r a l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , f o r w o r d s a r e t h e v e r y t o o l s w i t h w h i c h a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t m u s t w o r k . F r o m a n e a r l y a g e , h e p l a y e d w i t h w o r d s a s i f t h e y w e r e t o y s . H e r a u l t , h e r a u t , h e r o s , a i r e h a u t , e r r e h a u t , R.O. . . .. l e b r u i t d u t r a i n a a c c r o c h e c e l a , l e b r u i t c a d e n c e d e s r o u e s v a t r a i n e r g a p e n d a n t d e s h e u r e s , l e s i m a g e s s e s u c c e d e n t d e p l u s e n p l u s v i t e . . . a u s s i t o t l e m o t p r o n o n c e , 1 ' i m a g e a p p a r a i t . . . l e s m o t s t o u r a t o u r l e s s o u l e v e n t , l e s s o r t e n t , o n p e u t l e s i n t e r v e t i r s a n s r a l e n t i r l e u r m o u v e m e n t r y t h m e s u r l e b r u i t d e s r o u e s . . . ( p . 3 2 ) A l i t e r a r y a r t i s t m u s t b e a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e w o r d s s o t h a t , l a t e r o n , t h e y c a n f o r m o f t h e i r own v o l i t i o n . I t i s t h e n t h a t t h e w r i t e r k n o w s h i s own c r e a t i v e p o w e r s . T h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n i s c o m p l e x , d e m a n d i n g r e f l e x i o n a n d c o n - c e n t r a t i o n . S o m e t i m e s w o r d s p r o d u c e a new s e n s a t i o n a n d o t h e r t i m e s , a s e n s a t i o n g i v e r i s e t o w o r d s . T h e w r i t e r i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t e x p l o r e s t h e c r e a t i v e a c t t w i c e . B o t h t i m e s h e i s f o r c e d t o w i t h d r a w i n t o h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o c a p t u r e . . v t h e w r i t e r ' s s e n s a t i o n a t t h e i n s t a n t o f c r e a t i o n , t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e i c r e a t i v e i i m p u l s e i t s e l f , l i k e a t r o p i s m a t i t s i n c i p i e n t s t a g e . ^ 38 I t i s then t h a t he i s a b l e to watch words forming on the page i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f h i s w i l l . Words are l i k e a f o u n t a i n , e r u p t i n g and forming b e a u t i f u l a r a b e s q u e s . L a , i l l u i semble q u ' i l p e r c o i t . . . O n d i r a i t q u ' i l y a l a comme un bat tement , une p u l s a t i o n . . . C e l a s ' a r r e t e , r ep rend p l u s f o r t , s ' a r r e t e de nouveau e t recommence . . . C ' e s t comme l e p e t i t b r u i t i n t e r m i t t e n t , o b s t i n e , l e g r a t t e m e n t , l e gr ignotement l e g e r q u i • r e v e j e a c e l u i q u i 1 ' ecoute t o u t tendu dans l e s i l e n c e de l a n u i t une p r e s e n c e v i v a n t e . . . ( p . 6 4 ) And , f u r t h e r o n , s p e a k i n g of the words a g a i n : I l s se d e p l o i e n t , l e f i l q u i l e s t r a v e r s e se t e n d , i l s v i b r e n t . . . i l ecoute comme s ' e p a n d e n t l e u r s : r e s o n a n c e s . . . Seu l avec eux , lui-meme completement r e d r e s s e , hors de l a subs tance m o l l e e t fade ou i l e t a i t p l o n g e , i l s ' e n - chante de l e u r s mouvements, l e s p l a c e e t l e s d e p l a c e pour q u ' i l s forment des arabesques p l u s savamment c o n - t o u r n e e s . . . i l s u i t f a s c i n e , l e u r s mouvements, i l s montent , d e s c e n d e n t , s ' e l a n c e n t encore e t re tombent . II l e s gu ide avec p r e c a u t i o n . . . (p.93) However, a f t e r r e r e a d i n g the c r e a t i o n , the c r i t i c a l h a l f o f the a r t i s t overpowers the c r e a t i v e h a l f . Then the a r t i s t r e a l i z e s t h a t he got c a r r i e d away w i th the language as s u c h , thereby l o s i n g touch w i t h the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g . Je s u i s a l l e j u s q u ' a mes l i m i t e s ex t remes , j u s q u ' a u bout de mes f o r c e s . . . - B e a u r e s u l t a t . C ' e s t mor t . Pas un s o u f f l e de v i e . . . ( p . 9 8 ) S o , the w r i t e r h i m s e l f d i e s when the impulse i s s t i f l e d . L u i s e u l ne s a i t p a s , i n s t a l l e i c i , r e v e t u de ses beaux h a b i t s , r a s e de p r e s , f a r d e , v i d e , e t embaume, p r e s i d a n t a l a r e c e p t i o n donnee en son honneur dans l e s a l o n d ' u n F u n e r a l Home. (p.223) When the w r i t e r renews the c r e a t i v e a c t , he must break the h a - b i t o f p l a y i n g w i t h words and d e l v e down/to r e d i s c o v e r the s o u r - ces of i n s p i r a t i o n . He must r e c a p t u r e the i n i t i a l f e e l i n g t h a t p r o p e l s the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . H is c r e a t i v e h a l f takes over as he r e a l i z e s t h a t he must f o l l o w ' t h i s untouched l i v i n g t h i n g ' 39 wherever i t l eads h im. La s u i v r e ou e l l e v o u d r a . . . E l l e q u i ne se l a i s s e pas n o m m e r . . . c e que je sens . . . (p. 252) The d i f f i c u l t y i s , o f c o u r s e , t h a t a l i t e r a r y a r t i s t needs c words to express h i s ' v i s i o n ' , y e t words tend to k i l l the f r e s h n e s s and s p o n t a n e i t y o f the o r i g i n a l s e n s a t i o n . The work of a r t must r a d i a t e l i f e . . . . e n s e m b l e r e g a r d o n s . . . e s t - c e que c e l a se degage, se depose . . . comme s u r l e s m i r o i r s q u ' o n approche de l a bouche des m o u r a n t s . . . u n e f i n e buee?(p.254) The t i t l e E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort r e f l e c t s the f r a g i l i t y o f c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n , which t h r e a t e n s to d i e a t any minute.Words tend to c o n c r e t i z e f e e l i n g , y e t s e n s a t i o n escapes the boundar ies o f l anguage . The r o l e o f the c r e a t i v e a r t i s t i s to c a p t u r e the s e n s a t i o n and t r a n s p o s e i t i n t o words w i thou t d e s t r o y i n g i t , a n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e t a s k , as the n o v e l s i r o n i c a l l y demonst ra te . Vous l e s Entendez? opens w i th the f a t h e r and h i s f r i e n d s i t - t i n g q u i e t l y a f t e r d i n n e r , when the sound of r i n g i n g l a u g h t e r i s heard from the c h i l d r e n ' s room u p s t a i r s . E a r l i e r , w h i l e the c h i l d r e n were s t i l l w i t h them, the guest had taken a p r e - c o l u m - b i a n s t a t u e of a m y t h i c a l b e a s t o f f the m a n t e l - p i e c e , p l a c e d i t on the t a b l e and admired i t . Now, the f a t h e r surmises t h a t the c h i l d r e n are l a u g h i n g a t h i s a e s t h e t i c t a s t e and h i s i d e a of a r t . F o r the f a t h e r , a r t i s c a t a l o g u e d , c l a s s i f i e d . The s t a t u e t t e i s a s a c r e d o b j e c t t h a t has been handed down f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . A r t , f o r h im, i s Quelque chose de f i x e , d ' i m m u a b l e . . . U n o b s t a c l e p l a c e s u r l e c o u r s du temps, un c e n t r e immobile au tour duquel 40 l e temps, r e t e n u , t o u r n e , forme des c e r c l e s . . . (p.. 73) C o n t r a r y t o t h e f a t h e r ' s t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t i s t h e c h i l d - r e n ' s i d e a w h i c h i n c a r n a t e s t h e t h e o r i e s o f t h e new n o v e l i s t s . F o r them, a r t i s f r e e and s p o n t a n e o u s . Nous, m e s s i e u r s , v o u s s a v e z , on n'a pas d ' a m o u r - p r o p r e d ' a u t e u r , on ne c h e r c h e pas a f a b r i q u e r l ' o b j e t r a r e , l a p i e c e de c o l l e c t i o n . . . a u c u n e v i s e e de r i c h e s s e , de g l o i r e p r o c h e ou l o i n t a i n e . . . N o u s sommes d e t a c h e s , t r e s p u r s . Tous egaux... (p.176) The c h i l d r e n b e l i e v e , as do t h e new n o v e l i s t s , t h a t a r t s h o u l d change as does s o c i e t y . Ca ne p o r t e pas de nom, c o m p r e n d s - t u . . . P l u s de noms, p l u s d ' e t i q u e t t e s , de d e f i n i t i o n s . . . ( p . 1 7 9 ) The f a t h e r has t r i e d t o i n s t i l l h i s i d e a o f good t a s t e i n t o h i s c h i l d r e n by t a k i n g them t o A r t g a l l e r i e s and museums, t o no a v a i l . T h i s n eed t o s h a r e h i s a e s t h e t i c e n j o y m e n t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e c r e a t o r , who i s e a g e r t o s h a r e h i s c r e a t i v e e n t h u s i a s m w i t h o t h e r s . The f a t h e r makes t h e c h i l d r e n bow r e p e a t e d l y b e- f o r e t h i s ' r e l i g i o u s ' o b j e c t . N ' a - t - o n m o n t r e , comme i l se d e v a i t , du r e s p e c t ? Ne s ' e s t - o n pas a p p r o c h e , comme s i on l e r e g a r d a i t p o u r l a p r e m i e r e f o i s , de l ' o b j e t s a c r e ? N ' a i - j e pas e t e j u s q u ' a p o s e r , moi a u s s i - Vous m'avez vu? - ma main p i e u s e m e n t . . . ( p . 1 7 ) The f a t h e r , i n o r d e r t o c o n f i r m h i s b e l i e f and i n s u r e i t s s u r - v i v a l , n eeds t h e a p p r o v a l o f o t h e r s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e l i t e r a r y a r t i s t depends on t h e r e a d e r f o r t h e s u r v i v a l o f h i s work o f a r t . The f r a g i l i t y o f a r t i s t i c c r e a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e compounded. Not o n l y i s t h e a r t i s t c o n f o u n d e d by t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s ' v i s i o n ' and i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n t h r o u g h a medium, b u t t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y on whom t h e a r t i s t d epends, i s c o n t i n u a l l y c h a n g i n g as he c o n f o r m s t o t h e t a s t e o f t h o s e 41 a r o u n d him. To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e f a t h e r i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t v a c i l l a t e s between h i s a e s t h e t i c t a s t e and w i n n i n g t h e a p p r o v a l o f h i s c h i l d r e n , so t h e s t a t u e t t e c r u m b l e s and l o s e s i t s v i b r a t i o n s . R i e n ne v i b r e , n ' i r r a d i e , n'emane, ne c o u l e , ne s ' e p a n d . . . I l n'y a r i e n l a . . . r i e n ne v a i l l e . . . U n e p i e r r e g r u m u l e u s e , d'un g r i s s a l e , g r o s s i e r e m e n t t a i l l e e . Une b e t e p a t a u d e , c o u r t a u d e , a s s e z i n f o r m e . . . (p.46) A e s t h e t i c t a s t e s a r e m o d e l l e d and s h a p e d by t h e m a j o r i t y whose a p p r o v a l b o t h t h e c r e a t o r and t h e a r t - l o v e r s o l i c i t . C r e a t i v i t y , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e and d e f i n i t i o n , demands t h a t an a r t i s t p r o d u c e s o m e t h i n g o r i g i n a l . He must p r e s e n t as f i c - t i o n h i s own v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y . I n Le S i l e n c e , e a c h c h a r a c t e r who r e c o n s t r u c t s a p e r s o n a l i t y f o r J e a n - P i e r r e , t h e c h a r a c t e r who r e m a i n s s i l e n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y , i s a p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e young a d o l e s c e n t i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t and t h e f a t h e r i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? a r e b o t h p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r s , f o r t h e y b o t h r e c o n s t r u c t c h a r a c t e r s o r s c e n a r i o s o r a l l y . The w r i t e r as a s m a l l boy r e c r e a t e s t h e l i v e s o f h i s a n c e s t o r s - Mon p e r e e t a i t b r e t o n . Meltine de normand. Son p e r e a l u i . . . O n d i t dans l a f a m i l l e que j e l u i r e s s e m b l e . . . dans s a j e u n e s s e , i l a v a i t e t e m a r b i e r . On r a c o n t e que p a r f o i s i l l u i a r r i v a i t de m o d i f i e r l e s f o r m u l e s que son p a t r o n l u i f a i s a i t g r a v e r s u r l e s monuments, s u r l e s s t e l e s f u n e r a i r e s . I I e t a i t t r e s g a i , i l a i m a i t l e s f a c e t i e s . I I c r o y a i t aux r e v e n a n t s , i l r a c o n t a i t des h i s t o i r e s de f a n t o m e s . . . ( p . 1 3 ) I n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? , t h e f a t h e r i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t h i s c h i l d - r e n a r e l a u g h i n g a t h i s a e s t h e t i c t a s t e and he f e e l s g u i l t y f o r t r y i n g t o f o r c e h i s t a s t e on h i s c h i l d r e n . As he b r o o d s o v e r t h e i r s u s p e c t e d m o c k e r y and h i s own g u i l t , he i m a g i n e s what 42 c o u l d o n l y be f i c t i t i o u s s c e n e s . The f i r s t s c e n e t a k e s t h e form o f a m e e t i n g between t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r and t h e f a m i l y , i n s t i g - a t e d by c o m p l a i n t s o f t h e f a t h e r ' s a b u s e . One l i t t l e g i r l a c c - u s e s him o f b i t i n g h e r b e c a u s e she c o m m i t t e d ' h e r e s y ' by s a y - i n g t h a t h i s b e l o v e d s c u l p t u r e r e m i n d e d h e r o f C r e t a n s c u l p t u r e . - O u i , c ' e s t v r a i . . . q u e l q u e f o i s j e p e r d s l a t e t e , j e d i s n ' i m p o r t e q u o i , j u s t e p o u r d i r e . q u e l q u e c h o s e . . . A l o r s i l s ' e s t j e t e s u r moi, i l a a b o y e . . . L a q u o i ? en p r e n a n t un h o r r i b l e a c c e n t . . . l a h a i n e q u i t o r d a i t l a b o u c h e . . . L a q u o i ? . . . i l m'a mordue... (p.105) The n e x t i m a g i n a r y s c e n e i s a c o u r t room t r i a l , b a s e d on t h e f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d r e f e r r i n g t o t h e c h i l d r e n as 'mean n a t u r e s ' . The f r i e n d t e s t i f i e s t h a t he s a i d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w o u l d be and n o t a r e 'mean n a t u r e s ' , a l t h o u g h he w i s h e s he had s a i d a r e , j u s t , t o t e a c h t h e f a t h e r a l e s s o n , f o r he i s t i r e d o f h e a r i n g t h e f a t h e r speak b a d l y o f h i s c h i l d r e n . The f a t h e r ' s f r i e n d ' s m o t t o ' V i v r e e t l a i s s e r v i v r e 1 tempor- a r i l y c o m f o r t s t h e f a t h e r , f o r he r e a l i z e s t h a t he s h o u l d t o l e r - a t e h i s c h i l d r e n ' s v a l u e s and v i c e v e r s a . He d i s c o v e r s , as does . t h e a r t i s t , t h a t a work o f a r t c a n be b o t h 'dead' and ' a l i v e ' , t h a t h i s s t a t u e t t e i s 'dead' f o r someepeople and ' a l i v e ' f o r o t h e r s . F o r a moment, he immerses h i m s e l f i n a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e w i t h o u t w o r r y i n g a b o u t t h e r e a c t i o n s o f h i s c h i l d r e n . L i k e t h e w r i t e r i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t who, f a c e t o f a c e w i t h c r e a - t i o n , f e e l s t h e j o y f u l s e n s a t i o n e q u a t e d w i t h ' l ' e u p h o r i e des mo u r a n t s ' ( p 1 0 7 ) ) so t h e a r t - l o v e r e x p e r i e n c e s a j o y w h i c h e s - c a p e s t h e c o n s t r i c t u r e s o f t i m e . I I e s t un i n s t a n t i m m o b i l e , s a n s l i m i t e s . Un i n s t a n t f i x e , p o u r l ' e t e r n i t e . Un s e u l i n s t a n t i n f i n i , i n f i n - i m n e n t p a i s i b l e . . . ( p . 1 3 0 ) A l t h o u g h b o t h n o v e l s d e a l w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t comes c l o s e r t o e s p o u s i n g t h e a c t u a l a c t o f c r e a t i o n , t h e c e n t r a l c o n s c i e n c e b e i n g t h e c r e a t i v e a r t i s t him- s e l f . A l t h o u g h Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? f o c u s e s on t h e a r t - l o v e r , b o t h t h e a r t i s t and t h e r e c i p i e n t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y p a r t i c - i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . They depend on e a c h o t h e r t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s . E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t p r o b e s t h e m y s t e r y o f t h e c r e a t i v e a c t , f r o m t h e a r t i s t ' s s e n s a t i o n s a t t h e i n s t a n t o f c r e a t i o n , t o t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h o s e s e n - s a t i o n s i n a c o n c r e t e f o r m . The a r t i s t ' s c r i t i c a l h a l f t h e n d e t e r m i n e s i f t h e work i s 'dead' o r ' a l i v e . ' I f i t i s i n d e e d 'dead,' t h e a r t i s t must s t a r t a g a i n . The c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s , as I have s a i d , f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by t h e a r t - l o v e r , whose r e s p o n s e t o t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d o f t e n by t h e a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s o f o t h e r p e o p l e . I t i s o n l y a t t h e moment when b o t h t h e a r t i s t and t h e a r t - l o v e r c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e work o f a r t , c a s t i n g o f f a l l o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s , t h a t t h e y immerse them s e l v e s i n t h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n , f o r what t h e y have done i s t o . . . c r e e r , d o n n e r v i e une s e c o n d e f o i s . P o u r # a r r a c h e r ; * a l a m o r t, au d e p e r i s s e m e n t . . . ( p . 2 1 ) So, b o t h t h e a r t i s t and t h e a r t - l o v e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i n s e p - e r a b l e d u a l i t y o f t h e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e , t h e one c r e a t i n g and t h e o t h e r r e s p o n d i n g t o c r e a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f C h a p t e r I , w h i c h d i s c u s s e d t h e c r e - a t i v e p r o c e s s and t h e n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e s e c o n d h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n S a r r a u t e ' r a d i o p l a y s , where t h e medium f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s l i m i t e d t o 44 d i a l o g u e , t h e l i s t e n e r c a n h e a r t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among t h e c h a - r a c t e r s . However, b e c a u s e E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort and Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? a r e w r i t t e n a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e l e v e l o f s u b - c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e r e a d e r o r s p e c t a t o r c a n n o t w a t c h o r h e a r t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n t e r a c t i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r d i a l o g u e . The r e a d e r i s c o n s t a n t l y i n s i d e t h e mind o f one c h a r a c t e r a t a t i m e . So, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e n o v e l c a n e x p l a i n more, i t s s t r u c t u r e r e s t r i c t s a s t u d y o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e r e c an be no i n t e r a c t i o n between p e o p l e on t h e l e v e l o f s u b c o n v e r s a t - i o n . C o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , between c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e s e two n o v e l s must m a n i f e s t i t s e l f by a k i n d o f o s m o s i s among t h e v a r - i o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s . E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort i s t h e s t o r y o f a w r i t e r . N o t h i n g i n d i c a t e s w h e t h e r t h e w r i t e r i s one and t h e same a t t h e b e g i n - n i n g as a t t h e end. B e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r p a r t i c i p a t e s o n l y on t h e l e v e l o f t h e w r i t e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s a r e un- r e c o g n i z a b l e . E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort t r a c e s t h e s t e p s o f a c a r e e r and n o t h i s c a r e e r . S a r r a u t e s t a t e s i n an i n t e r v i e w i n 1972 c o n d u c t e d by Germain'e B r e e t h a t b e c a u s e she d i d n o t i n t e n d t o p o r t r a y a s p e c i f i c w r i t e r , t h e c e n t r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o u l d r e p r e s e n t one o r s e v e r a l w r i t e r s . . . . I t h o u g h t i t wo u l d be i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e w r i t e r as s u c h , n o t on a w r i t e r . I d i d n o t p o r t r a y an i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r and anyone c a n see t h a t t h e a t t i - t u d e s I d e s c r i b e d c o u l d h a r d l y b e l o n g t o t h e same p e r - son ... 2 A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l , t h e mature w r i t e r i s d e p i c t e d as a p u p p e t who m e c a n i c a l l y p e r f o r m s t h e t a s k o f t e a r i n g o u t t h e page and t h r o w i n g i t away. 45 I I e t e n d l e b r a s , i l l e r e p l i e . . . " J ' a r r a c h e l a page." (p.7) As a young w r i t e r , he i s a s c a r e d c h i l d who f e a r s o t h e r s . " E t v o u s , au f a i t . . . V o u s s a v e z , j ' a i l u v o t r e l i v r e . . . " I I l e v e l a main comme p o u r se p r o t e g e r . . . i l s ' e c a r t e comme p o u r ne pas e t r e e b l a b o u s s e . . . " Oh non, j e vous en p r i e . . . " i l se s e n t a i t s i b i e n , h o r s de l e u r p o r t e e , o u b l i e de t o u s e t de lui-meme...Qu'on l e l a i s s e t r a n - q u i l l e , c ' e s t t o u t ce q u ' i l demande...(p.136) L a t e r on i n h i s c a r e e r , fame and s u c c e s s have made him l o s e a l l s e n s e o f p r o p o r t i o n . He s e e s h i m s e l f as 'Un p r o p h e t e . U n s p h i n x . ' D ebout l e s m o r t s . ou n ' i m p o r t e q u o i . T o u t c e q u i v i e n t de moi sous t o u t e s s e s f o r m e s , t o u t e s t a p r e n d r e . Q u i se d e t o u r n e ? Q u i r e f u s e ? C ' e s t a p r e n d r e ou a l a i s s e r . E t q u i o s e r a i t l a i s s e r ? Q u i i c i a u r a i t l e c o u r a g e de c o u r i r l e r i s q u e ? , P e r s o n n e . I l s s o n t m a t e s . D r e s s e s . ( p . 2 0 8 ) However, i r o n i c a l l y , fame and s u c c e s s have d r i e d up a l l h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . . . . i l a e t e amene p e t i t a p e t i t , e n t r a i n e a son i n s u . . . i l s ' e s t p e r m i s de p r e n d r e , i l ne s 1 en e s t pas r e n d u compte, t o u j o u r s p l u s de l i b e r t e s , i l a o s e f o r c e r , a s s e r v i r ce d o n t a u t r e f o i s i l ne s ' a p p r o c h a i t q u ' a v e c t a n t de p r e c a u t i o n s , t a n t de r e s p e c t . . . (p.224) The v i s i o n o f t h e p u p p e t r e a p p e a r i n g a t t h e end g i v e s t h e n o v e l a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e , and m e t a p h o r i c a l l y s u g g e s t s t h e c o n t i n u - i t y o f t h e a r t ; i n o t h e r words, a r t i s t s a r e s i m i l a r t o a l a r g e d e g r e e . A l t h o u g h one a r t i s t ' d r i e s up', a n o t h e r a r t i s t b e g i n s t o c r e a t e . Y e t , i n t h e n o v e l , t h e y c o u l d be t h e same a r t i s t . P r e n d r e c e l u i - c i p o u r commencer, ce f r a g m e n t m i n u s c u l e . . . t o u t ce q u i d o i t r e s t e r de 1'image, m o r c e l e e . . . c e b r a s comme, c e l u i d'un p a n t i n a r t i c t c l e , q u i s ' e t e n d , se r e p l i e , s ' a b a i s s e . . . ( p . 1 7 7 ) I t i s ambiguous w h e t h e r t h e n o v e l p r e s e n t s many d i f f e r e n t w r i - t e r s o r w h e t h e r i t t r a c e s t h e v a r i o u s p h a s e s i n t h e c a r e e r o f one a r t i s t . 4 6 A s i m i l a r a m b i g u i t y o f o p t i c o c c u r s i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? . I t i s p r o b a b l e , b u t n o t c e r t a i n , t h a t e v e r y t h i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n t h e f a t h e r ' s mind and what a p p e a r t o be t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e g u e s t o r t h e c h i l d r e n a r e s i m p l y p r o j e c t i o n s o f h i s own. The r e a d e r assumes t h a t he i s i n t h e mind o f t h e f a t h e r as t h e nov- e l i s w r i t t e n m o s t l y i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n s i n g u l a r . The f a t h e r r e f e r s t o h i m s e l f J e n ' e m - a i ; p a s , vous me l ' a c c o r d e z , d e temperament. Pas 1'ame...(p.22) However, t h e f a t h e r i s sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as ' i l ' . E i t h e r t h e r e a d e r i s now i n t h e mind o f one o f h i s c h i l d r e n o r t h e f a - t h e r i m a g i n e s what h i s c h i l d r e n a r e t h i n k i n g a b o u t him. M a i s c ' e s t v r a i , i^L n'en e s t pas un. Non, ce n ' e s t pas s a p l a c e , pas du t o u t . . . (p.22) I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e a d e r t o t e l l how many d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort o r i n s i d e whose c o n s c i o u s n e s s he i s i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? a t any one t i m e . The a m b i g u i t y o f o p t i c i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i t y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . S a r r a u t e m a i n t a i n s t h a t human b e i n g s a r e b a s i c a l l y a l l a l i k e - r e a c t i o n s on t h e l e v e l o f s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n a r e u n i v e r s a l . The r e a d e r c a n n o t hope t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between Ithe ' e t r e s - c r e a t e u r s ' i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort as e a c h w r i t e r 'becomes b l u r r e d i n a s o r t o f k a l e i d o s c o p e c o n f l i c t i n w h i c h e a c h w r i t e r c o u l d become a n o t h e r a t any g i v e n moment. P a r e i l . Meme s u b s t a n c e . J a m a i s aucune s e p a r a t i o n . Ou a l o r s l e s c l o i s o n s communes a t r a v e r s l e s q u e l l e s se p r o d u i t comme une osmose c o n s t a n t e . . . ( p . 8 0 ) To c a r r y t h e i d e a o f i n t e r c h a n g e a b i l i t y one s t e p f u r t h e r , S a r r - 47 aute p r e s e n t s , i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? , peop le b e l o n g i n g to the same f a m i l y o r who are so c l o s e t h a t they communicate by a c o n - t i n u a l o s m o s i s , the reby becoming r e c e p t i v e to each o t h e r ' s t r o - p i s t i c r e a c t i o n s . The c h i l d r e n f e e l h i s p resence even from a f a r and wonder how he c o u l d have heard them l a u g h i n g . Comment a - t - i l entendu? On r i a i t s i d q u c e m e n t . . . M a i s i l e s t t o u j o u r s l a a s u r v e i l l e r chaque g e s t e , a r e - p r i m e r l e moindre e l a n , l e p l u s l e g e r s i g n e d ' i n s o u - c i a n c e , de l i b e r t e , t o u j o u r s a s c r u t e r , a d o s e r , a j u g e r . . . ( p . 1 7 ) Because the p o i n t o f v iew i s ambiguous, the f a t h e r i s p o s s i b l y i m a g i n i n g what h i s c h i l d r e n are wonder ing . The f a t h e r i s as re-i- c e p t i v e to h i s c h i l d r e n as they are to h im. ...II n ' y a pas en l u i un f remissement s i i n f i m e s o i t - i l q u ' i l s ne p e r g o i v e n t a u s s i t o t , i n s t r u i t s , e x e r c e s par l u i comme i l s l e s o n t , p o s s e d a n t , o f f e r t e s par l u i , t o u t e s l e s c a r t e s l e s p l u s d e t a i l l e e s . . . ( p . 1 8 ) So c l o s e are the f a t h e r and h i s c h i l d r e n t h a t what one o f them f e e l s can be a t t r i b u t e d to anyone of the o t h e r s . The f a t h e r a c t u a l l y becomes the c h i l d r e n and' v i c e v e r s a . He i s Comme l ' e n f a n t q u i e s t venu pres de sa mere r e c e v o i r un b a i s e r , p u i s r e t o u r n e , r a s s u r e , j o u e r avec ses camarades, i l va r e d e s c e n d r e . . . ( p . 1 6 0 ) Does the f a t h e r f e e l l i k e a c h i l d o r do the c h i l d r e n t r e a t him l i k e one? He t u r n s i n t o a c h i l d i n t h e i r p r e s e n c e . On:, marche s u r l a p o i n t e des p i e d s , on se f a i t t o u t p e t i t . . . (p.165) He even looks so f o r l o r n when he at tempts to j o i n i n t h e i r games t h a t they g i v e him back h i s t o y . Mais ne prends pas c e t a i r d e s e s p e r e , t i e n s , on te l a r e n d , on te rend ton h o c h e t , tu v o i s . . . ( p . 1 7 6 ) These f r e q u e n t t r a n s p o s i t i o n s show the c l o s e i n t e r a c t i o n between 48 c o n s c i o u s n e s s e s d e s p i t e t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a g e s , v i e w s o r ' r o l e s , 1 and how t h e f a t h e r and h i s c h i l d r e n communicate. As C h a p t e r I d i s c u s s e d , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s l i m i t e d by e a c h i n d i v i d u a l h a v i n g h i s own v i e w o f r e a l i t y w h i c h i s , o f c o u r s e , d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone e l s e t o u n d e r s t a n d . I n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o rt, t h e a r t i s t i s p e r h a p s o f a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a w a r e n e s s t h a n t h e c r i t i c s o r h i s f a m i l y . . . . i l s s a v e n t ce q u i l e s a p r o v o q u e s s a n s r i e n se d i r e ou p e u t - e t r e y a - t - i l e n t r e eux un l a n g a g e qu'eux s e u l s p e r c o i v e n t , des s i g n e s e n t r e eux, q u ' i l ne c o n n a i t p a s . . . (p.46) As w e l l , h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o words f o r e s h a d o w s h i s p o t e n t i a l as a c r e a t i v e a r t i s t and s e t s him a p a r t . I I e s t d'une m a t i e r e p l u s p o r e u s e , a b s o r b a n t e . . . C h a q u e g o u t t e l e t t e s e c r e t e e p a r eux, un s i m p l e mot s a n s imp- o r t a n c e , un a c c e n t , n ' i m p o r t e q u o i , p e n e t r e en l u i , p r o v o q u e des t r o u b l e s , l u i f a i t p e r d r e l e s e n s des p r o p o r t i o n s . . . ( p . 8 0 ) The w r i t e r and t h e c r i t i c p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . The c r i t i c s , u s e d t o w r i t e r s t r y i n g t o c o p y B a u d e l a i r e o r B a l z a c , f e e l t h a t t h e y c a n n o t f a i l as l o n g as t h e y s t i c k t o g e n e r a l i t i e s . I I n'y a r i e n a c r a i n d r e . L e s c h a n c e s de se t r o m p e r s o n t i n s i g n i f i a n t e s . N u l l e s , p o u r t o u t d i r e . I I s u f f i t d'ap- p l i q u e r a s o n c a s l e c a l c u l de p r o b a b i l i t e s - s i e f f i c a c e : Combien y a - t - i l , j e vous l e demande, de F l a u b e r t s s u r m i l l e h a b i t a n t s ? Combien, s u r c e n t m i l l e , de B a u d e l a i r e s ? . . . ( p . 8 3 ) . . . . On s a i t b i e n qu'on t r o u v e p a r t o u t ce qu'on y a p p o r t e , e t que t o u t e s t dans t o u t . . . o n p e u t m o n t r e r n ' i m p o r t e ou n ' i m p o r t e q u o i . . . ( p . 1 4 4 ) The c r i t i c s , e a g e r t o stamp l a b e l s on t h e a r t i s t ' s work, do n o t communicate d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e work o f a r t , n o r , i n d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e w r i t e r . B e c a u s e t h e c r i t i c makes l i t t l e a t t e m p t t t o a u n d e r s t a n d t h e a r t i s t ' s work, t h e a r t i s t and t h e c r i t i c c a n - 49 n o t u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r . However, t h e c r i t i c p r e t e n d s t o un- d e r s t a n d t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i v i t y . "Eh b i e n o u i . J ' a i aime v o t r e l i v r e . Beaucoup." I I se pe n c h e , i l s s e t e n d , i l s ' o u v r e p o u r a b s o r b e r l e s mots q u i s u i v r o n t . . . d e s mots s a n s l i e n v i s i b l e e n t r e eux... i l s tombent d u r s e t d r u s , i l s t a m b o u r i n e n t c o n t r e l u i s a n s p e n e t r e r . De temps a a u t r e i l p a r v i e n t a en a t - t r a p e r q u e l q u e s - u n s au p a s s a g e : Symbolisme. S u r r e a l i s m e . I m p r e s s i o n i s m e . G r o s p l a n s ... (p.140) He even t r i e s t o d i s c e r n i n f l u e n c e where none e x i s t , by men- t i o n i n g a r a i l w a y s t a t i o n w h i c h i s n o n - e x i s t e n t . I I c h e r c h e , i l p a r c o u r t en h a t e l e c h e m i n . . . M a i n t e n a n t i l r e f a i t l e t r a j e t t r e s v i t e , i l l e s u r v o l e , i l s c r u t e . . . r i e n . . . n u l l e p a r t . . . p a s t r a c e d'une g a r e . . . r i e n q u i l u i r e s s e m b l e . . . ( p . 1 4 2 ) W h i l e t h i s i n c i d e n t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e r a t h e r m i n d l e s s p r e t e n - t i o u s n e s s o f c r i t i c s , t h e u n d e r l y i n g theme i s t h a t two i n d i v i - d u a l s c a n n o t hope t o u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r and communicate, f o r e a c h p e r s o n has a u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e o f r e a l i t y . M u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g between t h e f a t h e r and h i s g u e s t and between t h e f a t h e r and h i s c h i l d r e n i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? i s l i m i t e d , as w e l l , as t h e y a l l s ee r e a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y . We see t h e wide chasm between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e i r d i f f e r i n g v i e w s o f a r t and 'good t a s t e . ' The f a t h e r and h i s g u e s t f e e l t h a t a r t i s a s a c r e d c u l t t h a t has been p a s s e d down t h r o u g h t h e g e n e r a t i o n s and so s h o u l d n e v e r be t o u c h e d . V i t e . . . l a p r e n d r e , 1 ' e n v e l o p p e r , l ' e m p o r t e r , l a m e t t r e a 1 ' a b r i . B i e n g a r d e e . P r o t e g e e . D e r r i e r e une v i t r i n e . Aux p a r o i s i n c a s s a b l e s . ( p . 4 0 ) The c h i l d r e n , however, f e e l t h a t t h e power o f t h e s t a t u e i s t h a t o f a dead p a s t h o l d i n g t h e p r e s e n t i n s h a c k l e s . T h e i r a r t i n c a r - n a t e s t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n . . . . r e v u e s de mode, bandes d e s s i n e e s . . . f e r m e r l e s p o s t e s 50 de r a d i o , de t e l e v i s i o n , a r r a c h e r l e s p a n n e a u x - r e c l a m e s , l e s a f f i c h e s . . . (p.95) The f a t h e r s a d l y acknowledges t h a t h i s c h i l d r e n do not share h i s p o i n t o f view.. Vous avez beau vous y prendre t o t , quand i l s p a r a i s s e n t encore m a l l e a b l e s , i m p r e g n a b l e s , e t l e s mener l a , l e s f o r c e r a r e g a r d e r . . . I n u t i l e de r i e n f o r c e r . . . ( p . 4 0 ) F u r t h e r m o r e , even the f a t h e r and the g u e s t , who share the t r a d - i t i o n a l a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n , d i f f e r i n t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s l a u g h t e r . The guest b e l i e v e s t h a t the laughs t e r mere ly emanates from the c h i l d r e n ' s innocence w h i l e the f a t h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t the c h i l d r e n are l a u g h i n g a t h im. H is guest t e l l s him t h a t : Ces r i r e s sont ce que vous en f a i t e s . I l s s e r o n t ce que vous v o u d r e z . Je vous a s s u r e , je ne vous comprends p a s . . . (p.167) Not o n l y do the f a t h e r and h i s guest h o l d v e r y d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v iew which cannot be m u t u a l l y u n d e r s t o o d , but the f a t h e r re-' , a l i z e s t h a t , to j u s t i f y i t s e l f , an a t t i t u d e must condemn the o t h e r ' s p o i n t o f v iew. In o t h e r words, the f a t h e r must d isc r ee . d i t the a t t i t u d e of h i s c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r to prove the s u p e r - i o r i t y o f h i s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y , the c h i l d r e n must break away from the f a t h e r ' s t y ranny i f they want to a s s e r t t h e i r e f r e e d o m . The f a t h e r makes excuses f o r h i s c h i l d r e n ' s b e - h a v i o r because he sees i n them what he wants to see and not what might be c l o s e to r e a l i t y . When they d o n ' t crowd around the s t a t u e t t e a d o r i n g l y s teeped i n r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n as he would w i s h , he surmises t h a t ; I l s se sont l e v e s , i l s ont p r i s conge p o l i m e n t , i l s e t a i e n t s i f a t i g u e s . . . ( p . 1 5 ) 51 The c h i l d r e n e s c a p e f r o m h i s 1 t y r a n n y 1 by r e t r a c t i n g i n t o them- s e l v e s l i k e s n a i l s . L e s t e n d r e s c h a i r s v i s q u e u s e s e t m o l l e s , t o u t e s f r i s s c w - n a n t e s se s o n t r e t r a c t e e s , i l s se s o n t e n f e r m e s , impos- s i b l e de l e s a t t e i n d r e . . . ( p . 4 2 ) No compromise o r m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n e v e r be a t t a i n e d , as e a c h s e e k s h i s i d e n t i t y i n a c o n t i n u a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r . The p r o b l e m s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r e f u r t h e r compounded by t h e f a c t t h a t e a c h p e r s o n ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f r e a l i t y f l u c t u a t e s and c h a n g e s . The c r i t i c s i n E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort t r a n s f o r m t h e image o f t h e w r i t e r t o match t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The l i t e r a r y g r o u p i e s swarm a r o u n d t h e i r l a t e s t l i t e r a r y i d o l , e x a l t i n g him so t h a t t h e mere a c t o f h i s d r i n k i n g t e a becomes a s a c r e d r i t - u a l . "...II f a l l a i t l e v o i r . . . i l a v a i t l ' a i r d ' o f f i c i e r quand i l v e r s a i t dans l a t h e i e r e l ' e a u d'une s o r t e de r e c i p i e n t . . . (p.193) N a t u r a l l y , t h i s s h i f t i n g o f p e r s p e c t i v e makes a f i x e d r e a l i t y i m p o s s i b l e . The f a t h e r i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? i s t o r n between a s s e r t i n g h i s a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and a d e s i r e t o communicate what he deems most p r e c i o u s . He r e e x a m i n e s and r e i n t e r p r e t s t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l a u g h t e r . He p r e t e n d s a t f i r s t t h a t t h e i r l a u g h t e r i s n a t u r a l and h a r m l e s s . Des r i r e s i n s o u c i a n t s . Des r i r e s a r g e n t i n s . C l o c h e t t e s . G o u t t e l e t t e s . J e t s d'eau. C a s c a d e s l e g e r e s . G a z o u i l l i s d ' o i s e l e t s . . . ( p . 7 ) T h e i r l a u g h t e r i s as g e n t l e as ...eaux v i v e s , s o u r c e s , r u i s s e l e t s a t r a v e r s l e s p r a i r i e s f l e u r i e s . . . ( p . 2 7 ) E a c h t i m e he r e p e a t s t h e i n c i d e n t i n h i s mind, h i s mood changes 52 As h i s s u s p i c i o n s f e s t e r , the more s i n i s t e r the l a u g h t e r becomes. Ces r i r e s comme des gou t tes d ' e a u q u ' o n f a i t tomber sur l e c rane des s u p p l i c i e s . . . c ' e s t sur nous , c ' e s t pour nous f a i r e s o u f f r i r , c ' e s t pour nous d e t r u i r e . . . ( p . 1 0 0 ) F i n a l l y , t h e i r l a u g h t e r conquers him and he ends up s i n k i n g i n t o a morass o f t r o p i s m s . . . . c e t i n d i v i d u camouf le sous 1 'apparence du brave pere de fami 1 l e . . . r e u s s i s a i t a f a b r i q u e r a p a r t i r de ces r i r e s des miasmes, des gaz a s p h y x i a n t s , des microbes m o r t e l s , un f l e u v e de p o u r r i t u r e , une mer de boue q u i se s e r a i t repandue s u r t o u t e l a t e r r e . . . ( p . 1 9 4 ) These v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the l a u g h t e r i n d i c a t e t h a t the mind i s i n c o n s t a n t f l u x , which changecmakes communicat ion w i th another i n d i v i d u a l i m p o s s i b l e . In summary, t h i s c h a p t e r has c o n t i n u e d the d i s c u s s i o n of the c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s and communica t ion . The main c h a r a c t e r o f E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mor t , the a r t i s t , i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the v e r y a c t o f c r e a t i o n . C r e a t i v i t y i s f r a g i l e as the a r t i s t may k i l l h i s c r e a t i v i t y i n the p r o c e s s o f e x p r e s s i n g i t i n words . Words tend to harden the a r t i s t ' s i n i t i a l s e n s a t i o n . The a r t i s t i s l o c k e d i n t o an i n s e p a r a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the a r t - l o v e r , the p r o t a - g o n i s t o f Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? , f o r he c o n f i r m s the e x i s t e n c e of the a u t h o r ' s c r e a t i v i t y . J u s t as the a r t i s t cannot express i n words h i s . c r e a t i v i t y , so the a r t - l o v e r cannot a d e q u a t e l y d e s - c r i b e i n words what he f e e l s towards the work of a r t . Ce q u i s o r t de l a , ce q u i emane, i r r a d i e , c o u l e , l e s p e n e t r e , s ' i n f i l t r e en eux p a r t o u t , ce q u i l e s e m p l i t , l e s g o n f l e , l e s s o u l e v e . . . f a i t au tour d 'eux une s o r t e de v i d e ou i l s f l o t t e n t , ou i l s se l a i s s e n t p o r t e r . . . aucun mot ne peut l e s d e c r i r e . . . M a i s i l s n ' o n t pas b e s o i n de mots , i l s n 'en v e u l e n t p a s , i l s savent q u 1 i l f a u t s u r t o u t ne l a i s s e r aucun mot s ' e n a p p r o c h e r . . . (p.10) Words, t h e n , do not p r o v i d e an adequate medium of e x p r e s s i o n 53 f o r the a r t i s t o r the a r t - l o v e r , f o r t h e y cannot convey t h e i r f e e l i n g s t o o t h e r s . The a c t i o n , t h e n , o f E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort and o f Vous l e s Entendez? c e n t r e s around t r o p i s m s t r y i n g t o v e r b a l i z e t h e m s e l v e s . The c h a r a c t e r s o p e r a t e on the l e v e l o f s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n , and a l t h o u g h t h e y communicate by a s o r t o f os m o s i s , any v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the c h a r a c t e r s w i l l have t o t a k e p l a c e a f t e r t h e n o v e l has been w r i t t e n . However, the c h a r a c t e r s w i l l never f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d each o t h e r even i f th e y do speak t o each o t h e r a t a l a t e r d a t e . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , each p e r s o n ' s v i e w o f r e a l i t y i s unique but not immutable because p e o p l e and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a re i n c o n s t a n t f l u x . S e c o n d l y , the w r i t t e n o r spoken word i s an i n a d e q u a t e medium f o r e x p r e s - s i n g deep t h o u g h t s . T h e r e f o r e , mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g and commun- i c a t i o n among pe o p l e i s l i m i t e d . F o o t n o t e s x G r e t c h e n R. B e s s e r , N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e (Boston: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p . 9 9 . 2 Germaine Br e e , " N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h two F r e n c h N o v e l i s t s . " f P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , J a n u a r y 1 9 7 2 J Contemporary L i t e r a t u r e , XIV, .2 (Winter 1 9 7 3 ) , p . 1 4 3 . 55 CHAPTER II I : CREATIVITY AND COMMUNICATION IN C'EST BEAU AND ELLE EST LA The t h i r d and f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c r e a t i v i t y and c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s S a r r a u t e ' s two l a t e s t p l a y s , C ' e s t beau, p r o d u c e d i n 1973 and E l l e e s t l a , i n 1978. C h a p t e r s 1 and 11 d i s c u s s e d t h e components o f c r e a t i v i t y and t h e a c t o f c r e a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e p l a y s and n o v e l s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s t o some d e g r e e as t h e y meet t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s f o r c r e a t i v i t y . The c h i l d o f E n t r e l a v i e e t l a m o r t and L u i and E l l e o f Isma show c r e a - t i v e p o t e n t i a l by b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o s i l e n c e , a n o t h e r p r e r e q u - i s i t e f o r t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . 's f r i e n d s and t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n Isma iare a l l p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r s f o r t h e y v o i c e t h e i r o p i n i e ons, t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e i m a g i n i n g s , j u s t as an a r t i s t must e x p r - e s s h i s c r e a t i v i t y . The o t h e r h a l f o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t h e a r t - l o v e r , t h e r e c i p i e n t o f c r e a t i o n . P i e r r e i n Le Menson- ge and t h e f a t h e r i n Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? b o t h p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s by c o n f i r m i n g t h e a r t i s t ' s c r e a t i o n . Un- l i k e t h e c h a r a c t e r s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r s 1 and 11, none o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a have any c r e a - t i v e p o t e n t i a l . The f a t h e r and m other i n C ' e s t beau as w e l l as H_£ i n E l l e e s t l a a r e a f r a i d t o v o i c e t h e i r i d e a s f o r f e a r o f b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d . F i n E l l e e s t l a a l s o k e e ps h e r i d e a t o h e r - s e l f , t h e r e b y s t i f l i n g any c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . F u t h e r m o r e , a c r e a t o r needs t o e x p r e s s h i s p e r c e p t i o n i n an o r i g i n a l s t y l e . None o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s c o u l d e v e r d e v e l o p any c r e a t i v e p o t - e n t i a l f o r t h e y s t i f l e e a c h o t h e r ' s m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s by s p o u t - i n g c l i c h e s w h i c h c a n n o t p o s s i b l y s t i m u l a t e t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . I n t h i s l i g h t , t h e c r e a t i v e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a r e 56 i n t e r t w i n e d . I n S a r r a u t e ' s e a r l i e r p l a y s , Le S i l e n c e , Le Men- songe and Isma and i n t h e n o v e l s , E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort and Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? , many f a c t o r s r e s t r i c t m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . E a c h i n d i v i d u a l ' s f l u c t u a t i n g v i s i o n o f r e a l i t y makes i t impos- s i b l e t o know a n o t h e r p e r s o n o r even one's s e l f . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s p o k e n o r w r i t t e n word i s an i n e f f i c i e n t medium f o r t h e ex- p r e s s i o n o f a u t h e n t i c f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Le S i l e n c e , Le Mensonge and Isma do communicate w i t h e a c h o t h e r t o a c e r t a i n d e g r e e and t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f Vous l e s E n t e n d e z ? communicate w i t h e a c h o t h e r by a s o r t o f o s - m o s i s . B u t , i n t h e s e l a t e r p l a y s , C ' e s t beau'and E l l e e s t l a , t h e c h a r a c t e r s speak i n o v e r u s e d , m e a n i n g l e s s c l i c h e s . F u r t h e r - more, t h e f a t h e r i n C ' e s t beau and i n E l l e e s t l a t r y t o im- pose t h e i r v a l u e s on t h e o t h e r , t h u s a n n i h i l a t i n g t h e i n d i v i d - u a l ' s c a p a c i t y t o r e a s o n . Language, a l t h o u g h i t k e e p s t h e l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n open t o some d e g r e e , i s a r e p r e s s i v e t o o l , w h i c h s t i f l e s t h e c r e a t i v e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The p e o p l e i n C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a do n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s as t h e y do n o t communicate t h e i r ' c r e a t i o n . ' T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f o l l o w t h e same p a t t e r n (as C h a p t e r s I and I I : an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n f o l l o w e d by an a n a l y s i s o f t h e c r e a t i v e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s . C ' e s t beau i n t r o d u c e s a f a m i l y n u c l e u s o f f a t h e r , m other and s o n . The p a r e n t s r e p r e s e n t t h e mores o f a d i s i n t e g r a t i n g s o c i e t y w h i c h i s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n , i n c a r n a t e d i n t h e s o n . The f a t h e r w o u l d l i k e h i s son t o s h a r e h i s a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f museums and l i b r a i r i e s , b u t t h e 57 son r e j e c t s these o u t - o f - d a t e v a l u e s f o r new ones - t e l e v i s i o n and comic b o o k s . The d ramat ic c o n f l i c t r e v o l v e s around a c l i c h e , ' c ' e s t b e a u , ' which the p a r e n t s use as a b l a n k e t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a p a i n t i n g , music o r any form o f a r t . ' C ' e s t beau ' i s a v a l u e judgment t h a t encompasses not o n l y a r t but the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t govern the p a r e n t s ' g e n e r a t i o n . By l a b e l l i n g something ' b e a u , ' the p a r e n t s are impos ing t h e i r v a l u e s on t h e i r s o n , the reby p r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s p r i n c i p l e s and s t i f l i n g h i s f a c u l t i e s o f j u d g - ment, which i s a k i n d o f c r e a t i v i t y . The son c o n s i d e r s the words ' c ' e s t beau ' m e a n i n g l e s s , t r i t e and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f an a t t i - tude t h a t i s not l o n g e r v a l i d . As he grows up and beg ins to a s s e r t s e r t h i s i d e n t i t y , he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e towards h i s f a t h e r and has no r e s p e c t f o r h i s mother . He r e s e n t s h i s p a r e n t s and t h e i r o l d - f a s h i o n e d i d e a s . The p a r e n t s become a f r a i d o f h i s p o s i t i v e c o n v i c t i o n s and o f a l i e n a t i n g t h e i r s o n . They do not dare even pronounce ' c ' e s t beau ' anymore i n h i s p r e s e n c e . I r o n i c a l l y , as the p l a y o p e n s , the son i s d a r i n g h i s p a r e n t s to pronounce the phrase ' c ' e s t b e a u . ' F r u s t r a t e d t h a t the son i s s t i f l i n g them, the f a t h e r , i n a r a g e , a t t a c k s h i s son f o r r e f e r r i n g to h i s mother as ' s h e ' and sends him to h i s room. The mother makes s e v e r a l a t tempts to b r i d g e the s p l i t i n the f a m i l y t h a t i s w iden ing because of the husband 's a t t a c k s on the s o n . At the end o f the p l a y , the mother f i n a l l y c a l l s the son from h i s bedroom and the same c o n v e r s a t i o n s t a r t s a g a i n . The son r e f e r s a g a i n to h i s mother as ' s h e ' and the f a t h e r r e - e s t a b l i s h e s h i s p a r e n t a l supremacy by s h o u t i n g "Qui " e l l e " ? " (p.62) 58 E l l e e s t l a c o n t i n u e s S a r r a u t e ' s r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t e x t e r n a l - l y i m p o s e d c r i t e r i a . Whereas C ' e s t beau f o c u s e s on t h e condem- n a t i o n o f p r i n c i p l e s and v a l u e s , E l l e e s t l a d r a m a t i z e s t h e way an ' i d e a ' c a n be condemned o r s t i f l e d . , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p e r s o n who h o l d s i t . E l l e e s t l a r e c a p i t u l a t e s t h e theme o f D i s e n t l e s I m b e c i l e s , one o f S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s w h i c h was p u b l i s h e d i n 1976. I t s theme i s t h a t i d e a s must be l i b e r a t e d and f l o w f r e e l y . An i d e a may be l a b e l l e d as s o m e t h i n g o n l y ' f o o l s s a y ' , b u t t h e m e a ning o f t h i s l a b e l n o t o n l y depends on t h e i d e a b u t a l s o on i t s p r o p o n e n t . B e c a u s e t h e o t h e r s l a b e l 'He' s t u p i d , he a c t u a l T l y c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f s t u p i d . The o n l y way t o g e t r e v e n g e i s t o c a l l o t h e r s ' l i t t l e f o o l s ' . B u t , b y a t t a c k i n g t h e p r o p o n e n t s i n s t e a d o f t h e i d e a s , he l o w e r s h i m s e l f t o t h e l e v e l o f p e r s o n - a l combat where he abandons a l l r a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s . By u s i n g a c l i c h e h i m s e l f he s t o p s h i s own f l o w o f i d e a s . So, S a r r a u t e i s s u g g e s t i n g t h a t l a b e l s i . e . s i m p l e words l i k e ' f o o l s s a y ' o r ' c ' e s t b eau' c a n be a c o n s t r a i n i n g f o r m u l a t h a t impedes t h e f r e e - f l o w i n g p o t e n t i a l o f t h e mind. E l l e e s t l a opens i n t h e m i d d l e o f a b u s i n e s s d i s c u s s i o n between H_̂_ and H_g_. B u t H_̂  i s t h i n k i n g a b o u t a i p r e v i o u s c o n v e r - s a t i o n when F, H^'s s e c r e t a r y o r c o l l e a g u e , was w i t h them. H_ — — z * — z r remembers t h a t F d i s a g r e e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g t h a t H_̂_ and H_g_ were t a l k i n g a b o u t . F d i d n o t a c t u a l l y v o i c e h e r d i s a g r e e m e n t b u t r a t h e r g e s t u r e d d i s a p p r o v i n g l y . T h i s u p s e t s , b o t h e r s and o b s - e s s e s H~. He wants F t o s u r r e n d e r h e r i d e a t o him s o t h a t he — z f — c a n d e s t r o y i t , as he c a n n o t t o l e r a t e anyone e l s e h a v i n g an i d e a c o n t r a r y t o h i s own. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h a t F d i d n o t v o i c e 59 h e r own i d e a , b u t m e r e l y g e s t u r e d , r e a l l y u p s e t s H^, f o r he c a n n o t combat an u n s p o k e n i d e a . One i d e a c a n o n l y be d i s a r m e d by a n o t h e r . In o t h e r words, i f F w o u l d v o i c e h e r i d e a , H,, c o u l d s e i z e i t and d e s t r o y i t w i t h a n o t h e r i d e a . H o w e v e r , " E l l e e s t l a " - F's i d e a r e m a i n s i n s i d e h e r mind, i n a c c e s s i b l e t o H„ o r anyone e l s e . H_ t r i e s t o f o r c e h e r i d e a o u t i n t h e open by —2T a t t e m p t i n g t o p o s s e s s h e r , n e u t r a l i z e h e r . The s t r u c t u r e i s c i r c u l a r as i n C ' e s t b e a u . H^ c a l l s F i n t o h i s o f f i c e where he t r i e s t o t a l k h e r i n t o s u r r e n d e r i n g h e r i d e a t o him. L a t e r , F w a l k s i n and t h e same c o n v e r s a t i o n s t a r t s a g a i n . The t h i r d t i m e , H_j_ and H_̂  go i n t o h e r o f f i c e . E a c h t i m e H^ s e e s F, h i s r e a c t i o n becomes more and more e x t r e m e . He even p l o t s t o k i l l h e r b u t he r e a l i z e s t h a t even i f she i s no l o n g e r t h e r e , t h e i d e a w i l l s t i l l be t h e r e , i m p l a n t e d i n h e r h e a d . A t t h e end o f t h e p l a y , he d e c i d e s t o l e t F keep h e r i d e a and he r e s o l v e s t o keep h i s t o h i m s e l f a l s o . One o f t h e p r e r e q u i s i t e s o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s t h e n e c - e s s i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t t o e x p r e s s h i s i d e a s f r e e l y a n d o p e n l y . He must be w i l l i n g t o t a k e t h e r i s k o f b e i n g a d m i r - ed a n d / o r c r i t i c i z e d . The f a t h e r i n C ' e s t beau i s a f r a i d o f v o i c i n g h i s c o n v i c t i o n s i n f r o n t o f h i s s o n , who t h i n k s e n t i r - e l y d i f f e r e n t l y . So, t h e f a t h e r j u s t i f i e s h i m s e l f by a d m i t t i n g t h a t when he was h i s s o n ' s age, he, t o o , was ' b e h i n d t h e t i m e s . ' Moi a c e t a g e - l a , j ' e t a i s i d i o t . . . U n peu a r r i e r e . . . T o u j o u r s dans l e s l i v r e s . . . D a n s l e s musees...Mais l u i , oh o u i , p o u r c a o u i , l u i , c e s c h o s e s - l a , ga l ' e n n u i e . . . i l n'aime pas g a . . . l u i c ' e s t l e s bandes d e s s i n e e s . . . l a t e l e . . . ( p . 5 2 ) The f a t h e r ' s i n s e c u r i t y a b o u t h i s own i d e a s r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f 60 H_2 i n E l l e e s t l a , who needs t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t s u p p o r t s h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . E^' T o u t a l ' h e u r e , quand nous d i s c u t i o n s . . . e n f i n , on ne p e u t pas a p p e l e r ga d i s c u t e r , nous e t i o n s du meme a v i s . . . (p.14) Hi c a n n o t t o l e r a t e F's d i f f e r i n g v i e w s . H_ a s k s H, —± 27 ± Vous n'avez pas remarque? Vous ne l ' a v e z pas s e n t i ? E l l e n ' e t a i t pas de n o t r e a v i s . M a i s pas du t o u t . . . ( p . 1 4 ) And, a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y , H^ p r o v e s t o have no c r e a t i v e po- t e n t i a l , f o r he d e c i d e s t o keep h i s i d e a f o r h i m s e l f , p u r e and o u t o f r e a c h . C ' e s t a mon i d e e a moi, a e l l e s e u l e , que j e p e n s e . . . J e ne veux pas q u ' e l l e s ' a v i l i s s e . . . p l u s de c o n t a c t s ... P l u s b e s o i n de s o u t i e n de p e r s o n n e . . . N o u s n'avons b e s o i n que de ga; e t r e s e u l s , t o u t - s e u l s , mon i d e e a m oi...(p.36) F i n E l l e e s t l a , as w e l l , d e s t r o y s any p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i v i t y by n o t e x p r e s s i n g h e r i d e a s . She t e l l s H„ t h a t Vous avez v o t r e i d e e . Moi j ' a i l a mienne. On n'a pas l e d r o i t ? (p.17) So, we s e e t h a t t h e f a t h e r , H_̂  and F a l l deny t h e m s e l v e s a r o l e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s by s t i f l i n g t h e i r i d e a s . As H_, s t a t e s L e s i d e e s , vous l e s a v e z b i e n , o n t b e s o i n de p o r t e u r s p o u r c i r c u l e r . . . ( p . 3 1 ) How does a c r e a t o r g e n e r a t e i d e a s ? How does he d e v e l o p a new and o r i g i n a l ' v i s i o n ' ? S u r e l y , t h e a r t i s t must be i n v o l v e d i n d i s c u s s i o n s o r s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h h i s mind i s s t i m u l a t e d . The p e o p l e i n C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a c a n n o t d e v e l o p t h e i r own i d e a s i . e . t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y , b e c a u s e t h e y s t i f l e e a c h o t h e r ' s r a t i o n a l , m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s . The p h r a s e , ' c ' e s t b eau' i s b u t one example o f t h e p l a t i t u d e s t h a t l a r d o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e r e b y r e d u c e r e a l i t y t o s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r m u l a e . The f a t h e r i n 61 C ' e s t beau c a l l s h i s son . . . e s p e c e de p e t i t v a u r i e n . . . a l I o n s , o u s t e , d e g u e r p i s , t u nous d e r a n g e s ... (p.44) and t h e son c r i t i c i z e s h i s f a t h e r f o r h i d i n g b e h i n d c l i c h e s . F o u . . . M o i ? T o u j o u r s l e s memes r e f l e x e s de d e f e n s e , l e s memes e c h a p p a t o i r e s , l e s memes c a m o u f l a g e s . . . ( p . 4 3 ) H_ c r u s h e s F's u n e x p r e s s e d o p i n i o n s by s l a p p i n g on a n e p i t h e t , —zr — — w h i c h i s i n f l e x i b l e and p r o n o u n c e d w i t h no a p p e a l t o r e a s o n . E^: A l o r s v o u s avez t o r t . F: T i e n s , v o u s c r o y e z ? E^i S i j e l e c r o i s ? M a i s j ' en s u i s s u r . A r c h i t o r t . . . ga ne t i e n d r a p a s , ce que vo u s p e n s e z . . . g a ne p e u t pas t e n i r . C ' e s t f a u x . . . t o u t f a u x . . . ( p.16) F s p e a k s t o E^ i n p l a t i t u d e s as w e l l . F: M a i s d i t e s d o n e . . . q u ' e s t - c e q u i vo u s p r e n d ? m a i s q u ' e s t - c e que vo u s a v e z ? Vous p e r d e z l a t e t e . . . ( p . 1 8 ) C l i c h e s n o t o n l y s t i f l e t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r s b u t a l s o l i m i t t h e s p e a k e r ' s own c r e a t i v e f a c u l t i e s . P e o p l e t e n d t o s t i f l e n o t o n l y i d e a s , b u t t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f t h o s e i d e a s . E_^_ p r e j u d g e s F ' s i d e a b e c a u s e F d o e s n ' t seem v e r y b r i g h t . H^: . . . ^ a compte a ce p o i n t , ce q u ' e l l e p e u t p e n s e r ? E^: N o n . . . O u i . . . E n f i n . . . H^: T i e n s . . . c ' e s t c u r i e u x . C ' e s t s u r e m e n t une bonne p e r s o n n e . . . M a i s a v r a i d i r e , e l l e ne p a r a i t p a s . . . : Oh j e s a i s . . . C e n ' e s t p a s un f o u d r e . . . M a i s ce que nous d i s c u t i o n s , c 1 e t a i t v r a i m e n t a l a p o r t e e . . . i l ne f a u t p a s e t r e g r a n d c l e r c . . . ( p . 1 4 ) One i d e a s h o u l d be c o m b a t t e d by a n o t h e r i d e a , n o t d e s t r o y e d by c l i c h e s o r b e c a u s e "a c e r t a i n p e r s o n " u t t e r s i t . A c r e a t o r must r e g e n e r a t e o r r e a c t i v a t e what has become c a l c i f i e d t h r o u g h i m i t a t i o n and o v e r u s e . He must f a m i l i a r i z e h i m s e l f w i t h t h e g r e a t works o f t h e p a s t , a p p r e c i a t e them, b u t d i s c a r d them. I n o t h e r words, a c r e a t o r must be s e n s i t i v e and r e c e p t i v e t o t h e c r e a t i v i t y o f o t h e r s , t o o t h e r forms and i d e a s 62 and a l l o w and encourage these i d e a s , w h i l e , a t the same t i m e , b e l i e v e i n h i s own ' t r u t h ' . o f E l l e e s t l a b e l i e v e s i n h i s own i n d i s p u t a b l e , a b s o l u t e t r u t h ; however, he does not a l l o w o t h e r s to h o l d t h e i r own ' t r u t h s ' . He begs F to a c c e p t h i s t r u t h . H „ , doux: D i t e s - m o i p o u r q u o i vous r e f u s e z d ' a c c e p t e r . . . quand c ' e s t c r i a n t de v e r i t e ? ( p . 2 5 ) He wants to take F ' s i d e a , d e s t r o y i t and i n s t i l l h i s own i n i t s p l a c e . H „ : Ce n ' e s t pas l a t e t e q u ' i l f a u t d e t r u i r e , c ' e s t l * i d e e . . . P a s l e p o r t e u r . . . m a i s 1 ' i d e e q u ' i l p o r t e . . . 1 ' i d e e s e u l e . . . l a t r a q u e r . . . 1 ' e c r a s e r . . . H^: O u i , a s s a i n i r . B i e n n e t t o y e r . F a i r e p l a c e n e t t e . . . H^: E t a l o r s on p o u r r a i t a c e t t e p l a c e , dans c e t t e meme t e t e , i n s t a l l e r . . . S e repandant d ' e l l e . . . S e p r o - p a g e a n t . . . H^: e c l a i r a n t t o u t a u t o u r . . . H^ e t H ^ i dans un meme s o u f f l e : l a v e r i t e . . . ( p . 3 0 ) S o , he d e s t r o y s c r e a t i v i t y . The son i n C ' e s t beau , u n l i k e H^,, i s r e c e p t i v e to the c o n v i c t i o n s and v a l u e s o f o t h e r s . He t r i e s to e x p l a i n to h i s p a r e n t s how the phrase ' c ' e s t beau ' a f f e c t s h im. Le f i l s , h e s i t a n t : Eh b i e n , c ' e s t c e t t e e x p r e s s i o n ' c ' e s t b e a u ' . . . c a me d e m o l i t t o u t . . . i l s u f f i t q u ' o n p laque ga s u r n ' i m p o r t e q u o i e t a u s s i t o t . . . t o u t prend un a i r . . . (p.59) He r e j e c t s h i s p a r e n t ' s language i n f a v o u r of a new mode o f e x p r e s s i o n t h a t w i l l g i v e v o i c e to h i s own view o f r e a l i t y . I r o n i c a l l y , he s i m p l y r e p l a c e s ' c ' e s t beau ' w i t h ' c ' e s t c h o u - e t t e ' . D e s p i t e h i s independence of mind , he proves h i m s e l f to be mere ly r e p l a c i n g one c o n v e n t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r , w h i c h , i n h i s g e n e r a t i o n , w i l l become as s t e r i l e as t h a t o f h i s p a r e n t s . C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n which i n - d i v i d u a l s impose t h e i r v a l u e s , o r t r y t o , on o t h e r p e o p l e . Such 63 an a t t i t u d e l e a d s t o t h e a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s i n n a t e c a p a c i t y t o r e a s o n . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , w h i c h c a l l s f o r t h e f r e e f l o w o f i d e a s . The p r o t a g o n i s t s o f C ' e s t b eau and E l l e e s t l a do n o t have any c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . A c r e a t o r must e x p r e s s h i s v i s i o n and t h e y a r e a f r a i d t o v o i c e t h e i r i d e a s l e s t t h e y be c o n t r a d - i c t e d o r c r i t i c i z e d o r s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y w a n t a t o keep t h e i r i d e a s t o t h e m s e l v e s . A c r e a t o r must a l s o be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e works o f o t h e r c r e a t o r s o r s u r r o u n d e d by p e o p l e w i t h i d e a s i n o r d e r f o r him t o c r e a t e new o n e s . The c h a r a c t e r s o f C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a , however, do n o t c r e a t e t h e m s e l v e s o r e a c h o t h - e r , as t h e y s u r r o u n d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h c l i c h e s w h i c h o n l y s t i f l e c r e a t i v i t y . F i n a l l y , a c r e a t o r must be s e n s i t i v e t o o t h e r peop- l e ' s i d e a s . B u t t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e s e two p l a y s t r y t o e n f o r - ce t h e i r own i d e a s as t h e t r u t h and d i s r e g a r d o t h e r s ' i d e a s . As w e l l , t h e y j u d g e an i d e a n o t on i t s m e r i t s , b u t a c c o r d i n g t o who h o l d s t h e i d e a , an e x t r e m e l y l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . S i n c e t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a do n o t have any c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s l i m - i t e d . F o r , as shown i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e c h a r - a c t e r s c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d e a c h o t h e r b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t exchange i d e a s . Y e t , t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e engaged i n d i a l o g u e . I t i s , a f t e r a l l , a p l a y . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e c - ause t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n i s r i d d e n ; w i t h t r i t e , b a n a l c l i c h e s w h i c h l i m i t m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The d i a l o g u e s i m p l y m a i n t a i n s c o n t a c t between t h e c h a r a c t e r s . Language i s an i n e f f i c i e n t med-e ium t o e x p r e s s deep t h o u g h t s o r s e n t i m e n t s . The s e c o n d h a l f o f 64 C h a p t e r 111 w i l l e x a m i n e how l a n g u a g e l i m i t s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . O t h e r f a c t o r s i m p e d e m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . F i r s t o f a l l , e v e r y - o n e h a s a u n i q u e v i e w o f r e a l i t y . S e c o n d l y , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o k n o w a n y o n e e l s e o r e v e n o n e ' s s e l f d u e t o t h e f l u c t u a t i n g n a - t u r e o f p e o p l e a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h a t i m p e d e s m u t u a l u n d e r s t - a n d i n g e v e n m o r e , w h i c h w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c o n d ! . h a l f o f t h i s c h a p t e r , i s t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o k n o w a n y o n e e l s e f u l l y a s o n e t e n d s t o b a s e h i s k n o w l e d g e o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n o n g e s t u r e s , d o c u m e n t s a n d a p p e a r a n c e s . C h a p t e r 1 d i s c u s s e d how t h e r a d i o p l a y s e x p r e s s s u b c o n v e r s a - t i o n , w h i c h , b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e i s i n a r t i c u l a t e a t t h e l e v e l o f s p e e c h . T h e d i a l o g u e i n t h e r a d i o p l a y s i s u n r e a l i s t i c a s i t c o n t a i n s t h e p r e - d i a l o g u e . Y e t , i t i s s i m p l e d e s p i t e i t s p l u n - g e s i n t o t h e d e p t h s o f i n t e r n a l m o v e m e n t s a n d f l u c t u a t i o n s . T h e a u d i e n c e o r r e a d e r m u s t n o t b e c o n s t r a i n e d b y d i f f i c u l t s p e e c h , a s S a r r a u t e w a n t s h e r a u d i e n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e same e x p e r i e n c e a s h e r c h a r a c t e r s . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e t h e d i a l o g u e c o n t a i n s t h e ' p r e - d i a l o g u e ' , t h e c h a r a c t e r s s a y t h i n g s o n e w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y s a y . T h e s o n i n C ' e s t b e a u , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o n v e y s h i s t y r a n n y a n d t h e f e a r h e i n s t i l l s i n h i s f a t h e r b y s e c r e t i n g b l a c k i n k , l i k e a n o c t o p u s . L e f i l s : E h b i e n , i l n ' y a r i e n a f a i r e . . . C ' e s t p l u s f o r t q u e m o i , j e me r e t r a c t e . D a n s u n i n s t a n t ( v o i x t e r r i b l e p o u r r i r e ) j e v a i s , comme l a p i e u v r e , s e c r - e t e r . . . u n e e n c r e n o i r e v a s e r e p a n d r e . . . R e g a r d e p a p a , i l e s t t o u t r e c r o q u e v i l l e . . . ( p . 5 9 ) T r o p i s m s , t h e n , i n r a d i o p l a y s , a r e v o i c e d . I n S a r r a u t e ' s e a r l i e r p l a y s , L e S i l e n c e , L e M e n s o n g e a n d I s m a , m a n y f a c t o r s r e s t r i c t m u t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , y e t commun- 65 i c a t i o n takes p l a c e on a c e r t a i n l e v e l . The f a t h e r and h i s c h i l d r e n i n Vous l e s Entendez? communicate by a form of osmo- s i s . S i m i l a r l y , the f a t h e r i n C ' e s t beau appears to unders tand and to be r e c e p t i v e to the m o t h e r ' s f e e l i n g s . L u i : Mais s i . D i s - l e . II y a longtemps que je sens que tu me caches quelque c h o s e . Avoue. Ca te f e r a du b i e n . E t a moi a u s s i . . . But he d o e s n ' t r e a l l y unders tand her m o t i v a t i o n a t a l l . . . . j e p o u r r a i mieux comprendre ton i n d u l g e n c e . . . E l l e m ' e x a s p e r e r a m o i n s . . . ( p . 4 6 ) From S a r r a u t e ' s assumpt ion t h a t we are a l l b a s i c a l l y a l i k e , and so c l o s e l y k n i t are members o f the same f a m i l y , stems the obv ious c o n c l u s i o n t h a t peop le are even i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . The mother admits to her son t h a t t h e i r r o l e s have been r e v e r s e d . E l l e : Mais mon c h e r i , tu s a i s b i e n . . . j e v o u d r a i s que tu r e d e v i e n n e s comme t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e . . . q u a n d tu com- p r e n a i s t o u t mieux que n o u s , quand tu s e n t a i s t o u t s i b i e n . . . C ' e s t nous q u i e t i o n s comme des e n f a n t s . . . ( p . 5 8 ) Y e t , d e s p i t e the f a m i l y ' s c l o s e n e s s , the mother admits t h a t she d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d her son at a l l . E l l e , au p e r e : A h , tu v o i s comme nous nous sommes t rompes. Comme nous c o n a i s s i o n s mal n o t r e p r o p r e e n f a n t . . . C ' e s t v r a i , c ' e s t ceux q u ' o n c o n n a i t l e moins b i e n . . . ( p . 6 0 ) What impedes mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e n , between peop le who are i n such c l o s e c o n t a c t ? S a r r a u t e f e e l s t h a t i t i s language i t - s e l f which o p e r a t e s as a h i n d r a n c e to d i s c o v e r i n g the ' t r u t h ' ; i f we c o n c e a l the ' t r u t h ' from o u r s e l v e s and o t h e r s , the re can never be much ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g ' . Language, the most common means of communicat ion , does not a d e q u a t e l y uncover o r d i s c o v e r the t r u t h . The b e g i n n i n g l i n e s of C ' e s t beau emphasize the i n e f f i c i e n c y o f langua'ge. 66 L u i : C ' e s t beau, t u ne t r o u v e s p a s ? E l l e , h e s i t a n t e : O u i . . . L u i : Tu ne t r o u v e s pas que c ' e s t b e a u ? ( p . 4 3 ) L u i does n o t a c c e p t h e r answer as s u c h , b u t r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e way she p r o n o u n c e s ' O u i 1 i s much more i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e t r u t h t h a n s i m p l y t h e f a c e v a l u e o f t h e word ' O u i ' . I t i s i r o n i c t h a t , w h i l e l a n g u a g e i s t h e t r o p i s t i c c a t a l y s t , i t i s n o t l a n g u a g e b u t r a t h e r t h e h e s i t a t i o n s i n t h e v o i c e , g e s t u r e s and s i l e n c e s t h a t communicate " r e a l i t y " and s e t t h e d i a l o g u e i n m o t i o n . So, h e r e , as t h r o u g h o u t h e r work, S a r r a u t e e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n a d e - q u a c y o f words t o e x p r e s s o u r d e e p e r , more s u b t l e and 'more r e a l ' f e e l i n g s . To make t h i n g s worse, l a n g u a g e i s o f t e n u s e d t o h i d e one's f e e l i n g s , t o m a i n t a i n a b a r r i e r between two p e o p l e . i n E l l e e s t l a d e n i e s t h a t he i s b o t h e r e d by F's a i r , when, i n f a c t , h e r r e a c t i o n o b s e s s e s him. H^: ...vous n ' e t e s p a s dans v o t r e a s s i e t t e . . . J e vous d e r a n g e . . . . E^: M a i s pas du t o u t , m a i s au c o n t r a i r e . . . ( p . 1 4 ) H, t h e n t e l l s H„ t h a t he u n d e r s t a n d s q u i t e w e l l what i s b o t h - " T : —zr e r i n g him, a l t h o u g h he i s w o n d e r i n g what i s u p s e t t i n g H_̂_ so much. H^: D i t e s - l e f r a h c h e m e n t , j e comprends t r e s b i e n . . . ( p . 1 4 ) L a n g u a g e ' s m a i n f u n c t i o n i s p r o b a b l y t o keep t h e l i n e s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n o p e n . Y e t , i r o n i c a l l y , i t i s t h i s v e r y q u a l i t y t h a t o f t e n makes i t a r e p r e s s i v e t o o l . We have t o r e s o r t t o c l i c h e s s i n c e no l a n g u a g e c a n a d e q u a t e l y e x p r e s s t r o p i s m s . C l i c h e s s t o p p e o p l e f r o m t h i n k i n g and t h e r e f o r e a s t p p t t h e m S i f ' E o m c o m m u n i c a t i n g . F o r example, t h e p a r e n t s i n C ' e s t beau l a b e l any 67 f o r m o f a r t as 'beau'. A l s o , t h e f a t h e r c a l l s h i s son ' f o u ' , ' e s p e ce de p e t i t v a u r i e n ' , 'ce p e t i t i d i o t ' , and r e m i n d s h i s w i f e t h a t 'Tu d e v i e n s f o l l e a u s s i ' , w h i l e l a t e r on he a d m i t s t h a t 'Nous sommes f o u s . . . ' i n E l l e e s t l a a d m i t s t h a t 'Je s u i s f o u . . . ' and F, who a g r e e s , e x c l a i m s ...mais q u ' e s t - c e que vous a v e z ? Vous p e r d e z l a t e t e . . . (p.18) C l i c h e s , by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e , a r e o v e r u s e d and t h e r e f o r e l o s e any meaning, so a r e p r o n o u n c e d w i t h no a p p e a l t o man's r a t i o n a l f a c u l t i e s . The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n shows how l a n g u a g e s t i - f l e s t h o u g h t p r o c e s s e s . T h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n does n o t f o l l o w any l o g i c a l argument o r e v o l u t i o n . T h e r e a r e no s u s t a i n e d s p e e c h e s and no one c o n v i n c e s anyone o f a n y t h i n g , a t l e a s t n o t by l o - g i c a l means. I n an a r t i c l e on Isma, D e n i s e G o i t e i n d i s c u s s e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s d i a l o g u e . Le d i a l o g u e de N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ne f a i t pas en lui-meme p r o g r e s s e r l a p i e c e , c a r aucun echange r e e l n'a l i e u . L e s r e p l i q u e s , au s e n s c l a s s i q u e du terme, s o n t a b s e n t e s . Le d i a l o g u e se compose p l u t o t de s e r i e s d ' e n o n c e s , s o u v e n t i n a c h e v e s , q u i s u r g i s s e n t s p o n t a n e m e n t , l ' u n s u g g e r a n t l ' a u t r e , s a n s que 1'en c h a i n e m e n t o b e i s s e a l a l o g i q u e n o r m a l e . 1 When, a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C ' e s t beau, t h e son a c c u s e s t h e f a t h - e r o f n o t b e i n g a b l e t o p r o n o u n c e ' c ' e s t b eau' i n f r o n t o f him, t h e f a t h e r r e a c t s a n g r i l y and p r o t e s t s . So, t h e s o n wants t o r e i n a c t t h e s c e n e i n t h e hope o f p r o v i n g t o h i s f a t h e r t h a t he i s r i g h t . S i n c e no amount o f e x p l a n a t i o n c a n c l e a r up t h e m i s - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e y c a n o n l y ' s t a r t a g a i n ' , e n t e r i n t o t h e s i t u a t i o n a g a i n , p u t t h e m s e l v e s i n s i d e by t h e power o f i m a g i n - 68 ation and the verbal magic, i n the hope of creating the ideal atmosphere. Thus, the son suggests Tiens, recommencons...Pour voir...Je vais a l l e r dans ma chambre...Et t o i , tu vas repeter, tu vas dire comme tout a l'heure: "C'est beau, hein? Tu ne trouves pas?" (p.44) Later, when the father, angry and frustrated that, as parents, they f a i l to stand up to t h e i r convictions, suggests that there i s only one possible solution, the mother reminds him . . .C_a ne s e r v i r a i t a r i e n . Tu sais bien qu'on n'y a r r i v e r a i t pas...C'est t o i qui courrait le rappeler... Et ca recommencerait comme avant...(p.48) When the son reappears at the end of the play from his bedroom, the mother t r i e s to recapture the conversation, as she i s sure that the three of them were headed for a compromise, a common understanding. E l l e : ...On a l l a i t toucher enfin a quelque chose... entre nous...(p.58) She begs her son to become as he was e a r l i e r . Mais, mon che r i , tu sais bien...je voudrais que tu redeviennes comme tout a 1'heure...(p.58) The same phenomenon occurs i n E l l e est l a when H„ has c a l l e d — z r F into his o f f i c e for the second time i n an e f f o r t to create the appropriate atmosphere to clear up t h e i r misunderstanding. F i s aware of H 's motives. — — z — F: Bon, bon. Tres bien. Mais ce n'est pas pour re- commencer, hein? Pas maintenant...(p.23) This type of dialogue doesn't pretend to be an exchange of ideas or a means of any progress i n understanding; a l l i t does i s show how language f a i l s to lead t h e i r discussions to any l o g i c a l conclusion. This movement towards 'starting again' 69 l e n d s a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e t o t h e p l a y s o t h a t a t t h e e n d , t t h e y a r e b a c k a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , h a v i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d n o t h i n g . A n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e t h a t shows t h e u s e l e s s n e s s o f t h e i r f e e b l e a t t e m p t s a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g e a c h o t h e r i s t h a t , a t t i m e s , t h e i r d i a l o g u e comes t o a s t a n d s t i l l a n d t h e y f o r g e t w h e r e t h e y a r e F: . . . D ' a i l l e u r s , c ' e s t c e que j ' a i f a i t . . . j e n ' a i p a s b r o n c h e . . . M a i s c e n ' e s t p a s e n c o r e a s s e z . . . M a i s ou e s t - o n ? r ^ : O u i , o u e s t - o n ? . . . ( p . 17) The p a t t e r n o f t h e i r d i a l o g u e i n d i c a t e s a t o t a l l a c k o f comm- u n i c a t i o n . To e v e r y s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e f a t h e r u t t e r s , t h e m o t h e r r e p l i e s w i t h e i t h e r a q u e s t i o n o r a s t a t e m e n t indicant t i n g t h a t s h e d o e s n o t u n d e r s t a n d h i m . L u i ; t o n f e r m e : C ' e s t f i n i . T e r m i n e . P o u c e . J e ne v e u x p l u s j o u e r . E l l e : Q u ' e s t - c e que t u a s ? L u i : J ' a i q ue t u a s commis une e r r e u r . Une e r r e u r f a t a l e . E l l e : Q u e l l e e r r e u r ? E n c o r e a v e c l u i ? E n c o r e l e s l a n g e s ? l e s b i b e r o n s ? L u i : N o n . Une e r r e u r , l a , m a i n t e n a n t a v e c m o i . O u i . Tu a s c h a n g e de j e u . En d o u c e . M a i s m o i , j ' a i v u . Tu a v a i s b e s o i n du p e r e J a n e t . E t d e s f i l s A u b r y . Eh b i e n , m o i j e t e d e m a n d e . m a i n t e n a n t de me d o n n e r l a me re D u r a n t o n . . . l e p e r e D u r a n t o n . . . P a r f a i t e m e n t , l e p e r e e t l a m e r e . . . E l l e : Q u o i ? L u i : O u i . D o n n e - l e s - m o i . A l l o n s , d o n n e . E t m a i n t e n a n t l a f i l l e e t l e f i l s . O u i , D u r a n t o n . T o u t e l a f a m i l l e . E l l e : Q u ' e s t - c e que t u en f e r a s ? L u i : Tu v a s v o i r . I I me l e s f a u t . E t a u s s i l e s H e r b a r t . . . E l l e : J e ne c o m p r e n d s r i e n . . . ( p . 5.3 ) The same p a t t e r n a p p e a r s i n E l l e e s t l a b e t w e e n F a n d . H 2 : I I f a u t que j e v o u s p a r l e . . . F: O u i ? De q u o i ? r ^ : C ' e s t i d i o t . . . c ' e s t t r e s d i f f i c i l e . . . J e ne s a i s p a s c o m m e n t . . . P a r ou c o m m e n c e r . . . F: A l l e z - y t o u j o u r s . Q u ' e s t - c e que j ' a i e n c o r e f a i t ? H^i Oh r i e n . R i e n . R i e n j u s t e m e n t , v o u s n ' a v e z r i e n f a i t . R x e n d i t . V o u s v o u s t a i s i e z . . . F: I I f a l l a i t que j e p a r l e ? H^i O u i , 9 a a u r a i t m i e u x v a l u . . . F: Que j e p a r l e q u a n d ? Que j e p a r l e de q u o i ? j e ne c o m - 70 prends rien.(p.16) H, also expresses a lack of understanding between him and . — r zr E L : PouquOi? Je ne comprends pas...Ca compte a ce point, ce qu'elle peut penser?(p.14) Another speech pattern that destroys3.any?.attempt;.at-commun- i c a t i n g i s exemplified by the mother who s t i f l e s communication by ordering the father to be quiet. L u i : Ca va continuer longtemps? Assez...Je n'ne peux plus. Arretez... E l l e , tout bas: Attention, qu'est-ce que tu f a i s ? T a i s - t o i . . . L u i : Je ne peux pas, c'est au-dessus de mes forces. £a me dcnne le tournis, ca me f a i t mal au coeur,.. E l l e , bas: Mais t a i s - t o i done...(p. 50) So, people won't l i s t e n when the ideas being suggested are disturbing. Of course,here, neither the father or the mother are l i s t e n i n g . The father pays no attention to her ' t a i s - t o i ' . A related pattern of speech, that of echoing each other's statements does imply a certain amount of communication, a l - though in Sarraute's plays, there i s no development of ideas. In E l l e est l a , Ĥ , gives the impetus to continue his idea and vice versa, but this type of dialogue, with no sustained speeches, no arguments or discussions does not engender any development. I t i s a kind of mechanical reaction by convention, devoid of any serious attention or attempt at at real discuss- ion. H^: Notre idee s e r a i t happee, trainee, enfermee, la-bas, engluee de bave, apl a t i e , ecrasee...On d i r a i t que la-bas, un boa c o n s t r i c t o r . . . : Moi, je vois plutot comme une petite machine, une mecanique broyeuse qui automatiquement... H2: C'est ga: automatiquement. Une force aveugle: On peut predire, prevoir d'avance.... : Un mecanisme est l a , dans cette c e r v e l l e . . . e t au-to- 71 ma- t ique-ment i l va s a i s i r , b r o y e r , r e d u i r e en p o u s s i e r e , en b o u i l l i e . . . H_: ce q u i r e s p i r e . . . c e q u i v e u t v i v r e . . . e t on ne peut r i e n c o n t r e c a . : Pas moyen de b o u g e r . ( p . 2 7 ) As H_£ and suggest above, the c h a r a c t e r s are t r a p p e d i n a v i c i o u s c i r c l e , i . e . 'pas moyen de b o u g e r ' . They are f o r c e d to use language which does not express t h e i r innermost thoughts and t h e i r d i a l o g u e , composed p r i m a r i l y o f c l i c h e s , s t i f l e s thought , the reby l i m i t i n g communica t ion . The d i a l o g u e o f f e r s the b e s t medium f o r s t a t i n g the problem o f communicat ion by showing both the^ inadequacy and the power o f words. The way the mother i n C ' e s t beau pronounces the word ' f e i g n a n t ' i n d i c a t e s t h a t she i s t r y i n g to be a p a r t o f , o r a t l e a s t sympathet ic w i t h her s o n ' s g e n e r a t i o n . Her use of t h i s word causes the f a t h e r to q u e s t i o n t h e i r v a l u e s . E l l e , avec d e f i : S i . Je l ' a i d i t , " F e i g n a n t . " Pourquo i pas? L u i : Oh, mon pauvre c h e r i . . . F a u t - i l que tu s o u f f r e s . . . V o i l a a q u o i tu en es a r r i v e e . . . V o i l a a q u o i ce p e t i t v a u r i e n t ' a p o u s s e e . . . A a l l e r te c o m m e t t r e . . . t ' e n e n - c a n a i l l e r . . . A te d e g r a d e r . . . t e g a l v a u d e r . . . ( p . 4 9 ) Not o n l y the p r o n o u n c i a t i o n o f a word, but the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a synonym f o r a word can r e p r e s e n t a d i f f e r e n t way of t h i n k i n g . The son d i s c a r d s the v a l u e s of h i s p a r e n t s ' g e n e r a t i o n , r e p r e - sen ted by ' c ' e s t b e a u ' , by s u b s t i t u t i n g the s y n o n y m , ' c ' e s t c h o u e t t e ' . L u i , r a v i : . . . C h o u e t t e . . . 11 peut s u f f i r e d ' u n m o t . . . (p.60) Here , the c o n f l i c t i s e x a c e r b a t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r u t t e r a n c e . The power of the word c o u l d not be u n d e r l i n e d more c l e a r l y . B e s i d e s l anguage , communicat ion i s f u r t h e r impeded because 72 e a c h p e r s o n has h i s own, s e p a r a t e v i e w o f r e a l i t y . The mother and f a t h e r i n t e r p r e t d i f f e r e n t l y t h e s c e n e where t h e f a t h e r p r o n o u n c e s 'beau' i n f r o n t o f t h e i r s o n . E l l e : N'empeche q u 1 a un moment, t u ' a s f l a n c h e , t u as eu p e u r a u s s i , a v o u e - l e . . . L u i : P e u r ? M o i ? Tu r e v e s . . . (p.45) The mother, who i s more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t s t h a t l i e b elow t h e l e v e l o f d i a l o g u e , d w e l l s i n t h e p a s t , remembering when she was p r e g n a n t and w i s h i n g t h a t she w a s n ' t . E l l e : J e ne me l e p a r d o n n e r a i j a m a i s . C a m'a p r i s e t o u t a c o u p . Une a f f r e u s e p e n s e e . . . T o u t a coup. Oh, c ' e s t t e r r i b l e : j e n'en v o u l a i s p a s . ( p . 4 7 ) The f a t h e r , on t h e o t h e r hand, l i v e s i n t h e p r e s e n t . L u i , f r o i d : De t o u t e m a n i e r e , a q u o i bon? I I v a u t mieux l ' o u b l i e r . Ce q u i e s t f a i t e s t f a i t . M a i n t e n a n t t u ne l e c h a n g e r a s p a s . . . ( p . 4 8 ) He l i v e s on t h e s u r f a c e o f l i f e , p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h h i s b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s . Le f i l s , t r e s c alme e t un peu c o n d e s c e n d a n t : ...mais t o u t a l ' h e u r e , M . B e r t r a n d a a p p e l e . C ' e s t moi q u i a i r e p o n d u . . . i l v a r a p p e l e r . . . L u i , s o u l a g e : A q u e l l e heure...(p.62) S i m i l a r l y , H_ i n E l l e e s t l a i s s e n s i t i v e and o b s e s s e d w i t h F' s d i f f e r i n g i d e a , whereas Ĥ _ i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h day t o day a f f a i r s . H „ : ...Mais j u s t e un i n s t a n t . . . p e r m e t t e z - m o i . . . e x c u s e z - m o i . . . j e d o i s . . . j e r e v i e n s t o u t de s u i t e ( S o r t . R e v i e n t . ) T r o p t a r d , e l l e n ' e s t p l u s l a . H : Q u i done? H2: Ce n ' e s t r i e n . . . j ' a u r a i s v o u l u . . . M a i s e l l e e s t d e j a p a r t i e . . . O u i , l a p e r s o n n e q u i . . . H^: I I y a q u e l q u e c h o s e que vous d e v i e z l u i d i r e ? H^: O u i , j u s t e m e n t . . . H,: Vous ne pouvez pas l a i s s e r un message?... L a j o i n d r e c n e z e l l e , t e l e p h o n e r ? YL^'. Non, v o u s s a v e z ... comme g a . . . c ' e s t d i f f i c i l e . . .Mais c e n ' e s t r i e n . . . N ' y p e n s o n s p l u s . . . A l o r s , vous me d i s i e z ? H., : Eh b i e n , j e c o n s t a t a i s s e u l e m e n t que dans l a c o n j o n c - 73 t u r e a c t u e l l e . . . e t a n t donne l e t o u r que p r e n n e n t . . . (p.13) H_ sees the wor ld i n b l a c k and whi te as opposed to H„ who sees —^3" — z r the shadows. H_: J ' a i vu sa nuque e c l a i r e e par l a l a m p e . . . C a m'a r a p p e l e de nos p r o j e t s . . . B^: Pas m o i , ca m'a a t t e n d r i . . . Q u e l q u e chose d ' i n n o - c e n t . . . s a n s d e f e n s e . . . EU: J ' a i vu comme e l l e a s u r s a u t e , r i e n d ' e t o n n a n t , e l l e ne s ' y a t t e n d a i t p a s , e l l e s ' e s t r e t o u r n e e , e l l e a mis l a main s u r son c o e u r , e l l e a d i t : "Oh, vous m'avez f a i t p e u r . . . " H „ : E t c ' e s t t o u t ? Vous n 'avez vu r i e n d ' a u t r e ? : Non, r i e n . . . ( p . 3 2 ) What l i m i t s communicat ion even more than the b a r r i e r s e r e c t e d by each p e r s o n h a v i n g a unique p e r s p e c t i v e , i s the tendency o f most p e o p l e to reduce a p e r s o n ' s c o m p l e x i t y to s t e r e o t y p e s , and r e c o n s t r u c t p e r s o n a l i t y on the b a s i s o f l e t t e r s , documents and even g e s t u r e s . T h i s " s u b j e c t i v e " view of r e a l i t y l i m i t s and d i s t o r t s our knowledge o f another p e r s o n . F o r example, a r r i v e s a t assumpt ions based on a s i n g l e g e s t u r e o r f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n . H „ : Vous n 'avez pas remarque? Vous ne l ' a v e z pas s e n t i ? E l l e n ' e t a i t pas de n o t r e a v i s . Mais pas du t o u t . . . (p.14) Perhaps the above a n a l y s i s about the l i m i t a t i o n s of communica- t i o n c o n t r a d i c t s what was p o s t u l a t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on communica t ion - i . e . t h a t i t i s not the spoken word which r e a l l y s e t s the d i a l o g u e i n m o t i o n , but r a t h e r the u n - spoken means o f communicat ion such as s i l e n c e s , g e s t u r e s , f a - c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and i n t o n a t i o n s . However, the p o i n t i s t h a t any medium by which we communicate i s l i m i t i n g . Whereas the spoken word o f t e n b e t r a y s t r o p i s t i c r e a c t i o n s , so unspoken language can a l s o o f t e n be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d and fu r thermore does 74 not a d e q u a t e l y express our f e e l i n g s . As r i g h t l y says ...II ne f a u t pas se f i e r aux a p p a r e n c e s . L 1 h a b i t ne f a i t pas l e m o i n e . . . ( p . 2 0 ) T h e r e f o r e , i f n e i t h e r d i a l o g u e nor unspoken language are s u f - f i c i e n t mediums o f communica t ion , then any s i g n i f i c a n t mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i m p o s s i b l e . Not o n l y can we never f u l l y know anyone e l s e , but n e i t h e r can we know o u r s e l v e s . Human b e i n g s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i n c o n s t a n t f l u x . In C ' e s t beau , the mother t r i e s i n v a i n to e x a c t l y c r e a t e a p r e v i o u s i n c i d e n t . L u i : . . . I I f a u t s a v o i r ce que tu veux . Q u ' i l r e c o m m e n c e ? . . . Le f i l s , l ' a i r n a i f : Que je recommence q u o i ? E l l e : Mais mon c h e r i , tu s a i s b i e n . . . j e v o u d r a i s que tu r e d e v i e n n e s comme t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e . . . ( p . 5 8 ) E v e r y o n e , i n f l u e n c e d by e v e n t s , f e e l i n g s , o t h e r p e o p l e , i s c o n s t a n t l y u n d e r g o i n g m u t a t i o n s ; so i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to know o n e ' s s e l f o r anyone e l s e w e l l . Language, the most common means by which we communicate, i s inadequate f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g our deep f e e l i n g s . A message may be m i s c o n s t r u e d as we have the tendency to jump to c o n c l u s i o n s from the s t i m u l u s o n l y o f a g e s t u r e o r a w r i t t e n document. Spoken language i s a l s o l i m i t e d as i t i s r i d d e n r.with c l i c h e s , w h i c h , f a r from engender ing communica t ion , r a t h e r s t i f l e thought p r o c e s s e s . Even i f language c o u l d express t r o p i s t i c r e a c t i o n s , communicat ion would s t i l l be l i m i t e d . F o r each p e r - s o n ' s r e a l i t y i s unique and we can never be i n s i d e someone e l s e ' s m ind . T h u s , no one can f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d anyone e l s e o r o n e ' s s e l f . S o , S a r r a u t e , i n her l a s t two p l a y s , plaints a q u i t e n i h i l i - 75 s t i c c a n v a s o f m a n ' s e n d e a v o u r s t o e n g a g e i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s . 76 E o o t n o t e s Denise G o i t e i n , "A Propos d'Isma: R e f l e x i o n s s u r l e t h e a t r e de N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . " F r e n c h S t u d i e s : A Q u a r t e r l y Review, 30, 1976, p.53. 77 C O N C L U S I O N , Perhaps because Sarraute's e a r l i e r novels were i n i t i a l l y un- popular, she became preoccupied i n her l a t e r works with the c r e a t i v e process. Many of the characters i n her three r a d i o p l a y s , Le S i l e n c e , Le Mensonge and Isma as w e l l as i n the novels, Entre l a v i e et l a mort and Vous l e s Entendez? are p o t e n t i a l c r e a t o r s . C e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , however, must be met f o r the c r e - a t i v e process to take place. As was demonstrated i n Le S i l e n c e , s i l e n c e i s necessary to prod the a r t i s t i n a c r e a t i v e mood. H_̂_ and, consequently, the r e s t of the characters react to Jean- P i e r r e 's s i l e n c e . They shape a p e r s o n a l i t y f o r him based, not on f a c t s , but on t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e imaginings, thereby c r e a t i n g . F^ supposes that Jean-Pierre i s t i m i d , while l a b e l s him an impostOT. On the other hand, the characters i n C'est beau and E l l e est l a lack c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l as they are a f r a i d to voice t h e i r opinions. i n E l l e est l a i s a f r a i d of exposing an o r i - g i n a l idea l e s t i t be c o n t r a d i c t e d and unpopular. He points out to H_̂  that " E l l e n ' e t a i t pas de notre a v i s . Mais pas du tout ..."(p.14) A c r e a t o r must a l s o be s e n s i t i v e to the medium through which he i s expressing himself. J u s t as L u i and E l l e i n Isma are s e n s i t i v e to words ending i n 'isme', so the c h i l d i n Entre l a v i e et l a mort shows signs of c r e a t i v i t y by being repulsed by elongated vowels i n such words as ' v a a l i s e ' or 'vaaacation'. The parents i n C'est beau, however, spout c l i c h e s . They l a b e l any form of a r t as beau and the son f a i l s i n h i s e f f o r t to be ' d i f f e r e n t ' by simply r e p l a c i n g 'beau' with a synonym 'chouette'. H„ i n E l l e est l a even t r i e s to destroy F' s 78 i d e a , the reby s u p r e s s i n g any c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . S o , s i l e n c e , i m a g i n a t i o n , s e n s i t i v i t y and a w i l l i n g n e s s to express o n e ' s s e l f are a l l p r e r e q u i s i t e s to c r e a t i v i t y . However, the a c t u a l c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i s p a i n f u l and f r u s t r a t i n g as every a r t i s t has a c r i t i c a l h a l f and a c r e a t i v e h a l f which are o f t e n i n c o n f l i c t . In o t h e r words , the c r i t i c a l mind , upon r e r e a d i n g the p r o d u c t o f the c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , d e c i d e s t h a t the work i s d e a d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to c o n c r e t i z e c r e a t i v i t y w i thou t d e s t r o y i n g the i n i t i a l s e n s a t i o n . Words tend to harden and k i l l the s p o n t a n - e i t y and f r e s h n e s s o f the c r e a t i v e s p i r i t . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , .. not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the o t h e r theme of t h i s t h e s i s i s communi- c a t i o n , f o r S a r r a u t e , i n her l i t e r a r y c a r e e r , was f a c e d w i t h the task of e x p r e s s i n g on paper her c r e a t i v i t y . The v e r y c o r e of S a r r a u t e ' s works are t r o p i s m s , the i n a r t i - c u l a t e s e n s a t i o n s o r f e e l i n g s which s k i r t around the s u b c o n - s c i o u s . Her t ask i s to t r a n s f o r m t r o p i s m s i n t o words. She i s f a c e d w i t h two o p p o s i n g f o r c e s as language at tempts to c o n c r e - t i z e f e e l i n g , and f e e l i n g t h r e a t e n s to escape the s t r i c t u r e s of l anguage . I t t h e r e f o r e seems n a t u r a l t h a t one of her themes i s the i n e f f i c i e n c y o f v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n . Spoken words are s i m p l y a ' t rompe l ' o e i l ' and do not a d e q u a t e l y express our d e e p e r , a u t h e n t i c r e a c t i o n s to our env i ronment . Speech i s f u l l o f u s e - l e s s , mean ing less c l i c h e s which do not engender communicat ion . She even sugges ts t h a t our speech p a t t e r n s a c t u a l l y s t i f l e t h o u g h t . We have seen t h a t the c h a r a c t e r s i n S a r r a u t e ' s r a d i o p l a y s do not communicate w i t h each o t h e r , a l t h o u g h they are e n - gaged i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . Yvonne, L u c i e and Simone i n Le Mensonge 79 a l l respond to an e m b a r r a s s i n g s i t u a t i o n by s p o u t i n g c l i c h e s . Yvonne: J ' a u r a i s v o u l u r e n t r e r sous t e r r e . L u c i e : Moi a u s s i . Je ne s a v a i s pas ou me m e t t r e . Simone: Oh! On m o u r a i t . ( p . 6 4 ) Compounded by the use of c l i c h e s , which do not engender any mutual . u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s the f a c t t h a t each person has h i s own s u b j e c t i v e v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y , - w h i c h cannot be u n d e r s t o o d by anyone e l s e . H_ and H_ i n E l l e e s t l a r e a c t v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y to t h e i r v i s i t to F ' s o f f i c e . : J ' a i vu sa nuque e c l a i r e e par l a l a m p e . . . g a m'a r a p p e l e de nos p r o j e t s . . . K^: Pas m o i , c a m'a a t t e n d r i . . . ( p . 3 2 ) N e v e r t h e l e s s , and i n s p i t e o f our c l i c h e - r i d d e n language , the re e x i s t s underneath speech a l e v e l o f s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n which i s i n a r t i c u l a t e but which c o u l d express our a u t h e n t i c t h o u g h t s . S a r r a u t e has succeeded i n c a p t u r i n g and e x p r e s s i n g through the use o f images and metaphors these h a l f - f o r m e d thoughts and f e e l i n g s which accompany o r precede the words we speak a l o u d . In f a c t , her n o v e l s c o n s i s t o f an i n t e r p l a y of c o n v e r s a t i o n and s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . An example from E n t r e l a v i e e t l a mort demon- s t r a t e s the d i s c r e p a n c y between speech and s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . A c r i t i c , eager to p l e a s e the a u t h o r , t e l l s him "Eh b i e n o u i . J ' a i aime v o t r e l i v r e . Beaucoup ." H is s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n , however, r e - v e a l s h i s n e r v o u s n e s s , showing t h a t he has not a t tempted to unders tand the a r t i s t ' s work a t a l l . II se penche , i l se t e n d , i l s ' o u v r e pour a b s o r b e r l e s mots q u i s u i v r o n t . . . d e s mots sans l i e n v i s i b l e e n t r e e u x . . . i l s tombent durs e t d r u s . . . ( p . 1 4 0 ) T h i s example p o i n t s out how i n e f f e c t u a l speech r e a l l y i s and t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to express o n e ' s t r u e f e e l i n g s and thus 80 communicate w i t h each o t h e r . S a r r a u t e was f a c e d w i t h a d i f f i c u l t t ask when she was com- m i s s i o n e d to w r i t e r a d i o p l a y s . No l o n g e r c o u l d she show the i n t e r p l a y o f s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n and a c t u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n which i s the b a s i s of her n o v e l s . She had to weave s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t o d i a l o g u e i . e . express t r o p i s m s out l o u d . S i n c e t r o p i s m s do not e x i s t a t the l e v e l o f s p e e c h , S a r r a u t e had to c r e a t e an u n r e a l s i t u a t i o n where the c h a r a c t e r s say t h i n g s they n o r m a l l y would not s a y . To show how she overcame the seeming ly i m p o s s i b l e t a s k , l e t ' s examine and compare two passages s i m i l a r i n theme, one from the n o v e l Vous l e s Entendez? and the o t h e r from a r a d i o p l a y , C ' e s t beau . The n o v e l a l t e r n a t e s between s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n and c o n v e r - s a t i o n w h i l e the r a d i o p l a y pr .esents. .an o r d i n a r y , everyday s i t u a t i o n where s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d a l o u d . The s e t t i n g of d ramat ic a c t i o n of bo th the n o v e l and the p l a y i s the f a m i l y n u c l e u s . In b o t h , the a c t i o n takes the form of a c o n f l i c t b e - tween t r a d i t i o n a l and i n n o v a t i v e approaches to a r t . The f a t h e r i n Vous l e s Entendez? as w e l l as the p a r e n t s i n C ' e s t beau h o l d t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s and a e s t h e t i c t a s t e s . They l i k e museums and e x h i b i t s ; they are champions o f t r a d i t i o n , r e v e r e n t l y tu rned toward the p a s t . In the n o v e l , t h i s a t t i t u d e i s s y m b o l i z e d by the f a t h e r ' s a d o r a t i o n o f a s t a t u e t t e t h a t has been handed down f o r g e n e r a t i o n s ; w h i l e i n C ' e s t beau the c l i c h e ' c ' e s t beau ' s y m b o l i z e s a l l the i d e a s , v a l u e s , p r i n c i p l e s , m u s i c , a r t and l i t e r a t u r e t h a t govern the p a r e n t s ' l i v e s . The c h i l d r e n i n both works f i n d t h e i r p a r e n t s ' i d e a s o l d - f a s h i o n e d and r e s t r i c t i v e , 81 f a v o u r i n g i n s t e a d an u n r e s t r a i n e d freedom of c r e a t i v e e x p r e s - s i o n . They are the r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n n o v a t o r s , r e s o l u t e l y f a c i n g the f u t u r e . The f o l l o w i n g passages show the v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n on the p a r t o f the c h i l d r e n to t h e i r p a r e n t s ' use of the c l i c h e ' b e a u ' and ' c ' e s t b e a u ' . The f a t h e r i n Vous l e s Entendez? i s t h i n k i n g about the t ime he took h i s c h i l d r e n to the museum i n the hope o f c o n v e r t i n g them to h i s love o f a r t . In h i s i m a g i n a t i o n he r e l i v e s the .. a scene where they were s t a n d i n g i n f r o n t o f some p a i n t i n g s and s c u l p t u r e s : . . . l u i , j e t a n t a p e i n e un coup d ' o e i l , pour s ' a s s u r e r que l e s rayons b i e n f a i s a n t s q u i emanent de ces p i e r r e s s c u l p t e e s , de ces t o i l e s p e i n t e s , tombent b i e n s u r eux, q u ' i l s son t pour c e l a a bonne d i s t a n c e , au .bon e n d r o i t . . . T i e n s , m e t s - t o i l a , ou je s u i s , i c i , s u r l e c o t e . . . a c o n t r e - j o u r tu v e r r a s m i e u x . . . l e s poussant devant l u i doucement, se p l a c a n t n ' i m p o r t e o u , ne r e g a r d a n t r i e n . . . r i e n q u 1 e u x pour s u i v r e en eux l e c h e m i n e m e n t . . . n e p o u - van t par moments s ' e m p e c h e r , sachant combien c ' e s t d a n - gereux , d ' a i d e r , de h a t e r un p e u . . . E s t - c e b e a u , h e i n , ga? n ' e s t - c e pas beau , h e i n ? . . . E t eux, comme des e s c a r - g o t s , comme l e s h e r i s s o n s , a u s s i t o t se r e c r o q u e v i l l a n t , r e n t r e n t l e u r s c o r n e s , s o r t e n t l e u r s p i q u a n t s , i l s ne sont .p lus qu 'une c o q u i l l e , une bou le au tour de l a q u e l l e i l t o u r n e . . . C 1 e s t sa f a u t e , i l l e s a i t , i l a e te m a l a - c d r o i t , i l a f a i t un mouvement t r o p o s e , t r o p f o r t . . . i l s sont s i s e n s i b l e s , s i d e l i c a t s . . . ( p . 4 2 ) A l t h o u g h t h i s scene takes p l a c e i n the f a t h e r ' s m ind , the re i s a d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s spoken words and h i s s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . He t e l l s one of h i s c h i l d r e n " T i e n s , m e t s - t o i l a , ou je s u i s , i c i , s u r l e c o t e . . . a c o n t r e - j o u r tu v e r r a s mieux" and f u r t h e r down, he a l s o says " E s t - c e beau , h e i n , ga? n ' e s t - c e pas beau , h e i n ? " The r e s t o f the passage i s s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . As soon as he u t t e r s the word ' b e a u ' , he f e e l s the c h i l d r e n ' s sudden w i t h - d r a w a l . T h e i r r e j e c t i o n i s m a n i f e s t e d by a t r o p i s m - a metaphor 82 compares t h e c h i l d r e n t o s ; n a i l s who r e t r a c t i n t o t h e i r s h e l l s . T h e s e movements back and f o r t h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l r e l a - t i o n s h i p s , b u t a r e i n a r t i c u l a t e a t t h e l e v e l o f s p e e c h . The s o n i n C ' e s t beau i s e q u a l l y r e p u l s e d by t h e p r o n o u n c i a - t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n ' c ' e s t b e a u ' . The p a r e n t s are. a f r a i d o f p r o n o u n c i n g ' c ' e s t b eau' i n f r o n t o f t h e i r s o n as t h e y f e a r h i s m o c k ery. They a r e e v e n a f r a i d o f s a y i n g i t t o e a c h o t h e r l e s t i t f i l t e r t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s and r e a c h t h e s o n ' s e a r s . The s o n , however, aware o f h i s own power, d e l i g h t s i n d a r i n g h i s p a r e n t s t o s a y ' c ' e s t b e a u ' . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e , t h e s o n e x p l a i n s h i s a v e r s i o n t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n ' c ' e s t b e a u ' . He v e r b a l i z e s t h e t e r r o r t h a t he a r o u s e s i n h i s f a t h e r b u t n o t i n n o r m a l , n a t u r - a l s p e e c h . He compares h i m s e l f t o an o c t o p u s t h a t s e c r e t e s b l a c k i n k and compares h i s f a t h e r t o a s n a i l who, when a f r a i d , r e t r a c t s i n t o i t s s h e l l . « Le f i l s : Eh b i e n , i l n'y.a r i e n a f a i r e . . . c ' e s t p l u s f o r t que m o i , j e me r e t r a c t e . Dans un i n s t a n t ( v o i x t e r r i b l e p o u r r i r e ) j e v a i s comme l a p i e u v r e , s e c r e - t e r . . . u n e e n c r e n o i r e v a se r e p a n d r e . . . R e g a r d e , papa, i l e s t d e j a t o u t r e c r o q u e v i l l e . . . E l l e e t L u i , v o i x b l a n c h e s : Tu ne t r o u v e s pas ga beau? Tu d e t e s t e s c a . . . t o u t ga... Le f i l s , c o n d e s c e n d a n t : M a i s , non, v o y o n s . . . i l ne s ' a g i t pas de c a . . . Eux, a v e c e s p o i r : Pas de ga. . .Oh mon c h e r i . . . d e q u o i a l o r s ? Le f i l s : C ' e s t . . . m a i s ga me gene de v o u s l e d i r e . . . j e v a i s vous c h o q u e r . . . E l l e : Non, non, j e t ' e n p r i e , d i s - l e . . . Le f i l s , h e s i t a n t : Eh b i e n , c ' e s t c e t t e e x p r e s s i o n " c ' e s t beau"...ga me d e m o l i t . . . i l s u f f i t qu'on p l a q u e ga s u r n ' i m p o r t e q u o i e t a u s s i t o t . . . t o u t p r e n d un a i r . . . E l l e : O u i . . . j e c r o i s que j e v o i s . . . Le f i l s : O u i , t u v o i s . E l l e : J e comprends...;ga d e v i e n t c o n v e n u . . . n ' e s t - c e p a s ? Le f i l s : O u i , s i t u v e u x . . . C e s s o r t e s de b a n a l i t e s des qu'on l e s a p p l i q u e . . . (C'est beau , i n Theatre,p. ) Whereas t h e n o v e l shows t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between c o n v e r s a t i o n 83 and s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n , the r a d i o p l a y p r e s e n t s v o i c e d t r o p i s m s and c l i c h e s . I t i s not normal i n c o n v e r s a t i o n to compare o n e ' s s e l f , as the son d o e s , to an oc topus who i s g o i n g to s e c r e t e b l a c k ink on i t s v i c t i m , h i s f a t h e r . The t r o p i s m i s e x p r e s s e d out l o u d . However, the r e s t o f the d i a l o g u e i s n o r m a l , r e a l i - s t i c and f u l l o f c l i c h e s . The d i s c r e p a n c y between c o n v e r s a t i o n and s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n a n d / o r a spoken t r o p i s m and everyday l a n - guage not o n l y demonstrates the i n e f f i c i e n c y of language to communicate but a l s o how s h a l l o w and mean ing less our e v e r y - day c o n v e r s a t i o n s a r e . S o , S a r r a u t e e x t e r n a l i z e s t r o p i s m s i n the r a d i o p l a y s . How- e v e r , not a l l the c h a r a c t e r s i n the p l a y s are drawn to the mur- ky r e g i o n s where t r o p i s m s f l o u r i s h . There are those who p r e f e r to s t a y on the s u r f a c e o f t h i n g s , on the n e u t r a l ground w i t h which they are f a m i l i a r . In o t h e r words , the re are those who express t r o p i s m s and those who spout c l i c h e s . Those who express t r o p i s m s are the h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s who, l i k e S a r r a u t e , are p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t s . These i n d i v i d u a l s resemble the a u t h o r , p o i n t i n g out t r o p i s m s to the r e a d e r , who, by h i m s e l f , may never have s u s p e c t e d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . F o r example, H_̂  i n Le S i l e n c e i s s e n s i t i v e to J e a n - P i e r r e ' s i n t i m i d a t i n g s i l e n c e , but u l t i - mate ly he communicates h i s d i s c o m f o r t to the o t h e r s , who are l e s s s e n s i t i v e . By the v i o l e n c e of h i s a g i t a t i o n , he awakens a c o r r e s p o n d i n g unease . F \ , F_ and F . e x c l a i m towards the end o f the p l a y t h a t they f e e l v e r y u n c o m f o r t a b l e . F : . . . O h ! j ' a i e n v i e de p a r t i r , a l a f i n . Je v o u d r a i s m en a l l e r . L ' a n g o i s s e me g a g n e . . . F „ : Une s e n s a t i o n . . . m o i a u s s i . . . 84 : J e me s e n t i r a i s p l u s e n s e c u r i t e , m o i n s . a b a n d o n n e e , meme s u r u n e l i e d e s e r t e . . . (Le Silence,p.72) A n o t h e r e x a m p l e f r o m I s m a s h o w s L u i . a n d E l l e , t h e h y p e r - s e n s i - t i v e c h a r a c t e r s who a r e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e u n d e r c u r r e n t s t h a t s w i r l b e n e a t h t h e p l a t i t u d e s o f o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . W h e r e a s t h e o t h e r s p r e f e r t o r e m a i n o n t h e s u r f a c e , L u i a n d E l l e t r y t o s t e e r t h e m a w a y f r o m c l i c h e s , t e l l i n g t h e m t h a t t h e i r c o n - v e r s a t i o n i s o n l y a s t e r i l e i m i t a t i o n , t h e ' c o p y o f a c o p y ' . L u i : . . . V o u s n e s e n t e z p a s comme g a f a i s a i t d e m o d e , t o u t g a , h e i n , t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e ? C a f a i s a i t c o p i e d e c o p i e , v o u s n e t r o u v e z p a s ? H 1 : C o p i e d e c o p i e ? E l l e : O u i , c e q u ' i l v e u t d i r e , c ' e s t q u e t o u t a 1 ' h e u r e , q u a n d n o u s p a r l i o n s , g a l u i f a i s a i t l ' e f f e t d ' e t r e d e 1 ' i m i t a t i o n . . . c ' e s t g a , n ' e s t - c e p a s ? . . . (Isma,p,15) T h e s e s e n s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e n , h a v e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . W h e r e a s H_^ i n L e S i l e n c e s u c c e e d s i n t r a n s m i t t i n g h i s i d e a s t o t h e o t h e r s , L u i a n d E l l e i n I s m a r e a l i z e , a s d o e s t h e a r t i s t , t h a t t h e y m u s t d i s c a r d u s e d i d e a s a n d c r e a t e s o m e t h i n g n e w. I t s e e m s t o me, t h e r e f o r e , - t h a t S a r r a u t e d o e s i n d e e d comm- u n i c a t e h e r i d e a s , h e r t h e o r i e s i n h e r n o v e l s a n d i n h e r f i r s t t h r e e r a d i o p l a y s . B u t , a s s h e b e c o m e s m o r e a n d m o r e a b s t r a c t , s h e , t o o , r e m o v e s h e r s e l f f r o m i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r s . C ' e s t b e a u a n d E l l e e s t l a , h e r l a t e s t p l a y s , p r e s e n t c h a r a c t e r s who e x h i b i t n o c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l . A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e e n g a g e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e y d o n o t s u c c e e d i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g a n y t h i n g m e a n i n g f u l o r p o s i t i v e t o e a c h o t h e r . T h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n i s o b s c u r e , a b s t r a c t a n d s t e r i l e , b e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r c a n n o t b e c o m e i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . A n d a s t h e a c t o f c r e - a t i o n f a l t e r s , o r b e c o m e s s t e r i l e , t h e p e o p l e i n t h e p l a y s b e - come l e s s a n d l e s s r e a l , s o t h e r e a d e r o r l i s t e n e r b e c o m e s l e s s 85 and l e s s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y w i t h o r s y m p a t h i z e w i t h them. So, t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e r e d u c e d t o c i p h e r s as t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s has been s t i f l e d by t h e l a c k o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The r e a d e r o r a u d i e n c e c a n n o t f e e l i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s as t h e y a r e s i m p l y v o i c e s who n e i t h e r p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s n o r communicate t o any d e p t h w i t h e a c h o t h e r . I t i s t r u e t h a t S a r r a u t e ' s p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e n o t engaged i n an o r d i n a r y , r e a l - i s t i c d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n . However, t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e e a r l y p l a y s , w h e t h e r i t be t h e t r o p i s t i c r e a c t i o n s t h a t a r i s e f r o m a p r o l o n g e d s i l e n c e , as i n Le S i l e n c e , o r someone's o b s e s s i o n w i t h ' w h i t e l i e s ' as i n Le Mensonge, o r someone's a v e r s i o n t o t h e way p e o p l e p r o n o u n c e c e r t a i n words, as i n Isma, o f f e r s an a u t h e n t i c d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e r e a d e r c a n i d e n - t i f y and t h u s c r e a t e h i m s e l f . B u t , t h e l a t e r p l a y s , C ' e s t beau and E l l e e s t l a n o t o n l y p r e s e n t an u n r e a l i s t i c s i t u a t i o n , b u t t h e d i a l o g u e i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l y a b s t r a c t . I n d e e d , S a r r a u t e ends E l l e e s t l a on a t r a g i c n o t e . She seems t o d o u b t t h a t t h e r e i s any f r e e f l o w o f i d e a s . And e v e n i f an i d e a i s v o i c e d , i t w i l l o n l y be d e s t r o y e d by a n o t h e r one. I n s t e a d o f a d e v e l - opment o f t h o u g h t , we see a s i t u a t i o n i n S a r r a u t e ' s works whereby t h o u g h t i s s t i f l e d . T h i s phenomenon r e a c h e s a p o i n t i n h e r l a s t r a d i o p l a y where i d e a s a r e t o t a l l y and a c t u a l l y w i p e d o u t , t h e r e b y s t i f l i n g f o r e v e r c r e a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . Bu t p e r h a p s t h i s r a t h e r g r o t e s q u e way o f p a i n t i n g t h e s e r a t h e r m e c h a n i z e d c o n s c i e n c e s , t h e s e b e i n g s who.have l o s t b o t h t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s and c o m m u n i c a t i v e t a c t i c s , i s b u t S a r r a u t e ' s way o f p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t t h e d e b i l i t a t i n g s t a t e o f human i n - 86 t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a s t a t e i n d u c e d by man's l a z i n e s s , weakness o f s p i r i t and i m p r e c i s i o n o f language; t h a t i s , a g a i n s t c o n f o r - mism. I t i s a r a t h e r n i h i l i s t i c r e a c t i o n o f a u n i q u e , c r e a t i v e s p i r i t t h a t c l e a r l y b e l o ngs t o N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . On the o t h e r hand, i t i s , p e r h a p s , h o p e f u l and p r o b a b l e t h a t h er c r e a t i v e f o r c e w i l l renew i t s e l f and once a g a i n be i n s p i r e d t o c r e a t e more p o s i t i v e and s u g g e s t i v e works i n the f u t u r e . B I B L I O G R A P H Y 87 .WORKS BY NATHALIE SARRAUTE. (Works s t u d i e d o r r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e t h e s i s ) , N O V E L S : Tropismes. P a r i s : D e n o e l , 1939. Ed. de M i n u i t , 1957. P o r t r a i t d'un inconnu. P r e f a c e de J e a n - P a u l S a r t r e , P a r i s : M a r i n , 1948. G a l l i m a r d , 1956. Le P l a n e t a r i u m . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1959. Les F r u i t s d'or. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1963, E n t r e l a v i e et l a mort. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1968, Vous l e s entendez? P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1972, P L A Y S: Le S i l e n c e . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1967. ( F i r s t b r o a d c a s t , i n German t r a n s l A p r i l 1 s t , 1964). Le Mensonge. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1967. ( F i r s t b r o a d c a s t : March 2, 1966) (Bo t h p l a y s f i r s t produced on s t a g D i r . by J e a n - L o u i s B a r r a u l t . T h e a t r e de F r a n c e - P e t i t Odeon , . P a r i s , 14 J a n v i e r 1967), 88 Isma, ou Ce q u i s ! a p p e l l e r i e n . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1970. ( F i r s t staged:^ Espace C a r d i n , P a r i s , Febr. 1973). C'est beau. P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1973. ( F i r s t s t a g e d : T h e a t r e d'Orsay, P a r i s , Oct. 1975). E l l e est : l a . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1978. ( F i r s t s t a g e d : C e n t r e Pompidou, P a r i s , Nov. 1978). # E d i t i o n s used f o r r e f e r e n c e i n t h e t h e s i s : 'Isma', s u i v i de ' Le S i l e n c e ' e t ' Le Mensonge.1 P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1970. T h e a t r e : E l l e e s t l a . C!est beau. Isma. Le Mensonge, Le S i l e n c e . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1978. 89;; B i b l i o g r a p h y I I . C R I T I C A L S O U R C E S Books B e s s e r , G r e t c h e n Rous. N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . B o s t o n : Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1979. C r a n a k i , M i m i c a e t Yvon B e l a v a l . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1965. R o b b e - G r i l l e t , A l a i n . P o u r un nouveau roman. P a r i s : L e s E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1963. S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . L ' E r e du Soupcon: E s s a i s s u r l e roman. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s G a l l i m a r d , 1956. T i s o n - B r a u n , M i c h e l i n e . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ou l a r e c h e r c h e de 1 ' a u t h e n t i c i t y . P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1971. A r t i c l e s B e s s e r , G r e t c h e n R. " C o l l o q u e a v e c N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e 22 a v r i l 1976." The F r e n c h Review, L, No.2 (December 1976), pp.284-289. B e s s e r , G r e t c h e n R. " N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e and t h e P r o b l e m o f A r t i s t i c C r e a t i o n . " The C e n t e n n i a l Review, V o l . X X l l l , No.4 ( F a l l 1979), pp.70-78. £ B e s s e r , G r e t c h e n R. " N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s f o o l s . " S t a n f o r d F r e n c h Review 11 ( S p r i n g 1978), pp. 451-455. B o u r a o u i , H.A. " S i l e n c e ou mensonge: l e dilemme du nouveau r o m a n c i e r dans l e t h e a t r e de N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . " The F r e n c h Review, XLV, S p e c i a l I s s u e , No.4 ( S p r i n g 1 972), pp.106-115. B r e e , G e r m a i n e . " N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h two F r e n c h N o v e l i s t s . " P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , J a n u a r y 1972. C o n t e m p o r a r y L i t e r a t u r e , X I V , 2 ( W i n t e r 1973), pp.137-146. 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" Forum f o r modern l a n g u a g e S t u d i e s X I I , I , p p . 3 7 - 4 9 . P i e l l e r , E v e l y n e . " T r o i s p e r s o n n a g e s e t l a f e m m e - c o n t r e . Ma c e r v e l l e d a n s t a c e r v e l l e . " L a N o u v e l l e C r i t i q u e , N o v . 1 9 7 8 , p p . 3 1 - 3 4 . R a c e v s k i s , K a r l i s . " I r o n y as a C r e a t i v e and C r i t i c a l F o r c e i n T h r e e N o v e l s o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . " The F r e n c h R e v i e w , L I , No.I ( O c t o b e r 1 9 7 7 ) , p p . 3 7 - 4 4 . S a r r a u t e , N a t h a l i e . "Le G a n t R e t o u r n e " , C o n f e r e n c e p r o n o n c e e a 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e de M a d i s o n d a n s l e c a d r e du s e m i n a i r e s u r 1 1 a v a n t - g a r d e au t h e a t r e e t au c i n e m a , 1974. C a h i e r s de l a C ompagnie M a d e l e i n e R e n a u d - J e a n L o u i s B a r r a u l t , 89, p p . 7 0 - 7 9 . W h i t i n g , C h a r l e s G. " N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e : M o r a l i s t e . " The F r e n c h R e v i e w , X L I I I , S p e c i a l I s s u e , No.I ( W i n t e r 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 6 8 - 7 4 .

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