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Workers participation : a survey of employees attitudes 1982

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WORKERS PARTICIPATIONi A SURVEY OF EMPLOYEES ATTITUDES by PATRICK TIMOTHY BROWN E.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE INf> BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1982 (c) P a t r i c k Timothy Brown, 1982 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Cor^f^rcx- ^ B\ASi*\HST The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Workers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n (WP) i s any p r o c e s s whereby w o r k e r s have a share i n t h e r e a c h i n g of m a n a g e r i a l d e c i - s i o n s i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e . The major o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e i t o c l a r i f y t h e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s and con- c e p t s i n v o l v e d w i t h WP; t o r e v i e w and c r i t i q u e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on w o r k e r s ' p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? and t o s u r v e y t h e a t t i t u d e s o f a group o f w h i t e - c o l l a r employees towards p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . D e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n among employees was measured by t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move t o a n o t h e r n e arby company which would a l l o w them more i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , e v e r y - t h i n g e l s e b e i n g h e l d t h e same ( i . e . , pay, w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , s e c u r i t y , e t c . ) . I t was found t h a t c l e r i c a l employees and t h o s e w i l l i n g t o r u n f o r shop s t e w a r d were more w i l l i n g t o move t h a n were e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l employees o r th o s e l e s s w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r u n i o n . There i s s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t f o r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e c i - s i o n s and f a r l e s s f o r medium and d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s . L a s t l y , when a c o s t f a c t o r f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d ( i . e . , t i m e , s e c u r i t y , pay) f o r tho s e who d e s i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e s u p p o r t f a l l s s u b s t a n t i a l l y . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and age, e d u c a t i o n o r s e x . - i i - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank t h e f o l l o w i n g u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and l a b o u r e d u c a t o r s : Anne Harvey f o r h e r e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t and a c c e s s t o t h e membership o f h e r union? C l i v e L y t l e f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments and p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s ; and F r a n k W a l l f o r h i s i n t e r e s t , encouragement and down-to-earth view- p o i n t . Dr. D a v i d Cray c r i t i q u e d my o r i g i n a l s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t and made some v e r y h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s . Dr. Vance M i t c h e l l and Dr. Mark Thompson a l s o r e a d my r e v i s i o n s and o f f e r e d c r i t i c i s m and s u p p o r t . L a s t l y , I w i s h t o p a r t i c u l a r l y thank my t h e s i s s u p e r - v i s o r , Dr. Ro b e r t D a v i e s , f o r h i s c o n s i s t e n t l y con- s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and encouragement. - i i i - TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i i i INTRODUCTION 1 I . P r oponents f o r WP . . . . 5 I I . C r i t i c s o f WP 8 I I I . An O r g a n i z a t i o n - T h e o r e t i c Framework 16 I V . Worker's A t t i t u d e s Towards P a r t i c i p a t i o n s A Review 25 V. Hypotheses 35 V I . The S u r v e y I n s t r u m e n t 39 Sample and Methodology kQ $YII. R e s u l t s 2̂ V I I I . D i s c u s s i o n 6k I X . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s . . . . . . . 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY 69 APPENDICES ?3 Appendix 1 73 Appe n d i x 2 81 Appendix 3 8*4- - i v - LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1. Sample C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s k2 2. Rewards and O p p o r t u n i t i e s O f f e r e d a t Work . . k$ 3. E f f e c t s o f Cost F a c t o r s on D e s i r e f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n k& Forms o f Workers P a r t i c i p a t i o n D e s i r e d . . . . 51 5. D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g a t Work 5̂ 6. Hypotheses: P r e d i c t i o n s and R e s u l t s 57 7» Rewards and O p p o r t u n i t i e s O f f e r e d a t Work by Job C a t e g o r y 60 8 . M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n on t h e D e s i r e f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n (MOVSAM) 61 9. M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n on O v e r a l l Job S a t i s f a c t i o n (0VERSAT) 63 - v - LIST. OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. The Spectrum o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . . . . . . 17 2. An O r g a n i z a t i o n - T h e o r e t i c Framework f o r A n a l y s i s o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n 24 3. H i s t o g r a m o f S a t i s f a c t i o n D e r i v e d from Work by Job C a t e g o r y 50 k. H i s t o g r a m s o f Amount o f I n f l u e n c e by Job C a t e g o r y 52 5. Workers' D e s i r e d Amount o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g . . . . 56 - v i - INTRODUCTION Worker's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n management i s an o l d , r e - c u r r i n g i d e a which has been d e f i n e d i n many ways and a t t e m p t e d f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s . Recent i n t e r e s t i n C a nada 1 and a n o t i c e a b l e t r e n d i n Europe towards worker's p a r t i c i p a - 2 t i o n make i t t i m e l y t o t a k e a t h o r o u g h l o o k a t t h i s t o p i c . The b a s i c i d e a i s t h a t p e o p l e who a r e managed s h o u l d have some i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l o v er d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t them. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Labour S t u d i e s , which has done by f a r t h e most comprehensive s e r i e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s on t h i s t o p i c , d e s c r i b e s w o r k e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as "any p r o c e s s whereby workers have a s h a r e i n t h e r e a c h i n g o f m a n a g e r i a l d e c i s i o n s i n the e n t e r p r i s e " ( W a l l and L i s c h e r o n , 1977. P. 36). Much c o n f u s i o n i n the a r e a o f w o r k e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n (WP) a r i s e s from th e f a c t t h a t n e i t h e r p r o p o n e n t s f o r n o r c r i t i c s x F o r example, see "The G r e a t P a r t i c i p a t i o n Debate," The L abour G a z e t t e . V o l . 76, No. 8, August 1976. The Honourable G e r a l d A. Regan, a r e c e n t f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f L a b our, has s t a t e d a s t r o n g government s u p p o r t f o r " q u a l i t y - o f - w o r k i n g - l i f e " ^QWL) i s s u e s such as w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He s t a t e d t h a t t h e 1980s w i l l see a v i g o r o u s push f o r more p a r t i c i p a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and m e a n i n g f u l work." (The C a n a d i a n P e r s o n n e l and I.R. J o u r n a l , J a n . 1981, p. 3̂ )« Kenneth F. W alker, "Towards the P a r t i c i p a t o r y E n t e r p r i s e * A European Trend," A n n a l s . AAPSS. 431, May 1977, pp. 1-11. 2 o f WP have been v e r y p r e c i s e about t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r o - p o s a l s or c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r use o f c o n c e p t s o r t e r m i n o l o g y . A f u r t h e r h i n d r a n c e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h a t any scheme of WP must be viewed w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the h i s t o r i c a l , economic, and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e c o u n t r y c o n cerned, i t s v a l u e s and t r a d i t i o n s . F o r the purpose o f c l a r i t y , a framework w i l l be d e s c r i b e d f o r a n a l y s i s o f WP w i t h the m a j o r ' i s s u e s , d e f i n i t i o n s , and c o n c e p t s w h i c h have emerged from th e l i t e r a t u r e . A b r oad a r r a y o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic and demographic f a c t o r s have produced f o r c e s towards g r e a t e r WP. The Canadian economy i s b e s e t by problems of i n f l a t i o n , unemployment, l a g g i n g growth r a t e s and i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . I n d i v i d u a l e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h d e c l i n i n g r a t e s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y g rowth, h i g h t u r n o v e r , a b s e n t e e i s m and s t r i k e s a r e q u i c k t o g r a s p a t any method which p r o m i s e s i n c r e a s e d worker m o t i v a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n , h i g h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y , and a more c o o p e r a t i v e i n - d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s c l i m a t e , The a p p a r e n t r e l a t i v e economic s u c c e s s o f a number o f European c o u n t r i e s , where forms o f WP a r e w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , has c o n v i n c e d many o f t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g WP i n t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n e n t e r p r i s e i n hope o f a c h i e v i n g s i m i l a r s u c c e s s . However, t h e t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e systems t o Canada i s i n g r e a t doubt ( D a v i e s 1979; Donahue, 1976) due t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n such f a c t o r s as b a r g a i n i n g s t r u c t u r e and the h i s t o r i c a l de- velopment o f t h e d i f f e r e n t labour-management r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 W i t h r a p i d changes i n economic s t r u c t u r e and t e c h n o l o g y , a s t r o n g e r emphasis on d e m o c r a t i c s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s , r i s i n g l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , and w i t h the a u t h o r i t a r i a n remnants o f the l a s t war f a d i n g i n t o t h e p a s t , t h e r e i s a s h i f t i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y and morphology o f many work o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r example, i t has been proposed t h a t we have e n t e r e d t h e " t h i r d m a n a g e r i a l r e v o l u t i o n " which i s based on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i - c i p a t i v e n e s s ( P r e s t o n and P o s t , 197*4-). The f i r s t m a n a g e r i a l r e - v o l u t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f t h e appearance o f management i t s e l f as a s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n w i t h i n h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The second was t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f ownership, and c o n t r o l which accom- p a n i e d the growth i n s c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y o f m a n a g e r i a l t a s k s and which l e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f management f u n c t i o n s . Today, p a r t i c i p a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e viewed by many as a panacea f o r the a l i e n a t i o n c r e a t e d by a u t o m a t i o n and l a r g e complex h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( C h i l d , 1976). A k i n d o f e v o l u t i o n a r y l o g i c i s i m p l i e d as the p r o c e s s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n u n f o l d s and y i e l d s t h e " p a r t i c i p a t i o n im- p e r a t i v e " o f p o s t - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . Kenneth A l e x a n d e r (1975. P» ^5) p o i n t s out t h e apparent paradox between the v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d s espoused i n s o c i e t y a t l a r g e and t h o s e which a r e f i r m l y embedded i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f work: We l i v e i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h pays massive i n f o r m a l homage t o i n d i v i d u a l i s m . We have s t r u c t u r e d our e d u c a t i o n a l system which f o r m a l l y imbues our y o u t h , y e a r a f t e r y e a r , w i t h the s o c i a l v a l u e s o f freedom, l i b e r t y , and i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n . Then t h e y l e a r n t h a t t h e y a r e expected t o spend a l i f e t i m e on a j o b w h i l e e x p l i c i t l y s u b m i t t i n g t o a u t h o r i t y . . . and the r i s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f the l a b o u r f o r c e makes the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t e a d i l y more s e v e r e . The f o r c e o f moral p e r s u a s i o n has been added t o t h e t r e n d towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n as more p e o p l e a c c e p t t h e moral d i c t u m o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Labour O f f i c e t h a t " l a b o u r i s n o t a commodity," and t h e P a p a l E n c y c l i c a l which s t a t e s t h a t " t h e n a t u r e o f man demands t h a t i n h i s p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s he s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s and f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h i s work" (Pope John XXIII, 1976) (Quoted from Newton,1977t P. 8). I n a d d i t i o n , government s u p p o r t f o r WP has been gr o w i n g t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a . The U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , i n a much debated s t u d y e n t i t l e d "Work i n America" (1973« P» 13) s t a t e d : "What t h e workers want most, as more t h a n 100 s t u d i e s i n the p a s t 20 y e a r s show, i s t o become masters o f t h e i r immediate environments and t o f e e l t h a t t h e i r work and t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e i m p o r t a n t — t h e t w i n i n g r e d i e n t s o f s e l f - e s t e e m . " I n Canada, t h e f e d e r a l government's " q u a l i t y - o f - w o r k i n g - l i f e " (QWL) i n i t i a t i v e s s u p p o r t and emphasize WP i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on t h e shop f l o o r w hich s h i f t s a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y down the management h i e r a r c h y . - ^ U s i n g census d a t a i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , one e s t i m a t e showed t h a t o n l y 55 p e r c e n t o f wo r k e r s e n j o y d i s c r e t i o n on t h e job (Brown,1975)• T h i s l e a v e s a l m o s t h a l f the wo r k e r s i n Am e r i c a -'John Munro, "The q u a l i t y o f w o r k i n g l i f e : a government view," The L a b o u r G a z e t t e , " A d a p t i n g t o a Changing World," 1978. 5 w i t h l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e over an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e i r l i v e s . I . P roponents f o r WP Those who s u p p o r t WP have been c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o f o u r d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f thought by Edward Greenberg (1975). F i r s t l y , t he Management S c h o o l i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n c e r n f o r the a l i e n a t i o n o f the w o r k - f o r c e as m a n i f e s t e d i n h i g h t u r n o v e r , a b s e n t e e i s m , low p r o d u c t i v i t y , w i l d c a t s t r i k e s , a l c o h o l and drug abuse, p s y c h o s o m a t i c i l l n e s s and i n d u s t r i a l s a b o t a g e . Most p r o f e s s i o n a l management today has been b c i e f l y exposed t o t h e i d e a s of. t h o s e who have been c a l l e d t h e f o u n d i n g f a t h e r s o f p a r t i c i p a t i v e management and h u m a n i s t i c p s y c h o l o g y : t h e emphasis on groups by E l t o n Mayoj the h i e r a r c h y o f needs by Abraham Maslow; t h e t r u s t , j o b enrichment and autonomy empha- s i z e d by C h r i s A r g y r i s ; F r e d e r i c k H e r t z b e r g ' s " s a t i s f i e r s " o r m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s and " d i s s a t i s f i e r s " o r "h y g i e n e " f a c t o r s ; t h e famous Theory X and Theory Y o f Douglas McGregor; the c o r - p o r a t e c u l t u r e o f c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n which was t h e f o r e r u n n e r o f m a t r i x management by R e n s i s L i k e r t ; and t h e Theory Z o r g a n i z a t i o n s t y l e - based on J a p a n e s e - s t y l e c o n c e p t s o f l o n g - t e r m employment and p a r t i c i p a t o r y d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g proposed by W i l l i a m O u c h i . T h e i r e d u c a t i o n t e l l s managers t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y a n environment o f a u t o c r a t i c s u p e r v i s i o n and r e p e t i t i v e u n f u l - f i l l i n g t a s k s t h a t l e a d s t o a l i e n a t i o n . T h i s has l e d t o t h e 6 n o t i o n o f r e s t r u c t u r i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f work t h r o u g h v a r i o u s forms o f j o b enlargement, j o b en r i c h m e n t , and WP i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . S e c o n d l y , t h e H u m a n i s t i c P s y c h o l o g i s t ' s S c h o o l , con- s i s t i n g o f those a l r e a d y l i s t e d above and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s , p o i n t s out a fundamental i n c o n g r u i t y between t h e p s y c h o l o - g i c a l needs o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f modern work o r g a n i z a t i o n s . F o r example, Maslow p o i n t s t o t h e b a s i c i n c o n g r u i t y between worker's needs f o r p r i d e o f achievement and d e v e l o p - ment o f c a p a c i t i e s w i t h t h e r e p e t i t i v e , s i m p l e t a s k s p e r formed by so many members o f t h e w o r k - f o r c e . Greenberg c a l l s a t h i r d s c h o o l t h e P a r t i c i p a t o r y Demo- c r a t s . E l e c t i o n s and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by g o v e r n i n g e l i t e i s t h e most common form o f democracy i n Western s o c i e t i e s t o d a y . However, t h e P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democrats s t r e s s an o l d e r f o r m o f democracy which emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s and i s based upon t h e b e l i e f t h a t p e o p l e have a c a p a c i t y f o r r e s p o n s i b l e and moral d e l i b e r a - t i o n w hich can be improved by e d u c a t i o n and by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e p r e s e n t r e j e c t i o n o f the o l d e r form by modern r e v i s i o n i s t s , who argue f o r an e l i t i s t group v e r s e d i n t h e a r t o f governance, i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e v e r y essence o f democracy and c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e apathy and i g n o r a n c e o f t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n which 7 has been w e l l n o t e d i n p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e s t u d i e s . As John W i t t e (1980, p. 25) p u t s it» The g e n e r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d academic p o s i t i o n i s t h a t the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n knows l i t t l e about c u r r e n t a f f a i r s , e x p r e s s e s a l m o s t random a t t i t u d e s o v e r t i m e , and r a r e l y o r g a n i z e s i t s p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s a l o n g any l o g i c a l continuum. . . .There e x i s t s g e n e r a l mass ap a t h y and p o l i t i c a l incompetence. However, t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy have been he a r d more i n r e c e n t y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n c i v i l r i g h t s g r o u p s , the s t u d e n t movement, and v a r i o u s forms o f community a c t i o n g r o u p s . The P a r t i c i p a t o r y Democrats c o n t i n u e t o argue t h a t the p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t u i o n o f workers i n t h e d e c i s i o n - making p r o c e s s w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l t o w o r k e r s , b u s i n e s s , and t h e s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . L a s t l y , Greenberg c a t e g o r i z e s one s c h o o l as t h e P a r t i c i - p a t o r y L e f t which a t t e m p t s t o use p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means t o r a i s e worker c o n s c i o u s n e s s and t o educate them away from a c c e p t a n c e o f t r a d i t i o n a l c a p i t a l i s t v a l u e s . Marx had contended t h a t under c a p i t a l i s m t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n had d e n i e d t h e worker t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - development and c r e a t i v i t y by removing h i s c o n t r o l o v e r what he produced and how he produced i t . Wage l a b o u r , i n d u s t r i a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , p o w e r l e s s n e s s and p a s s i v i t y a r e viewed as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c a p i t a l i s m w hich l e a d t o a l i e n a t i o n . M a r x i s t s d e c l a r e t h a t t h e s e s u p p r e s s i v e mechanisms must be removed a l o n g w i t h p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y t h r o u g h s o c i a l i s t r e v o - l u t i o n . The p h i l o s o p h y o f Gramsci and Gorz, s e t out i n Greenberg*s a r t i c l e , argues f o r t h e need o f r a i s i n g i s s u e s 8 and o r g a n i z i n g l a b o u r t h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g worker's c o u n c i l s . With t h e e n t r e n c h e d , i n t e r l o c k i n g power o f t h e s t a t e and c a p i t a l i s t c o r p o r a t i o n s (Clement^ 1975)* w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s o f a f f l u e n t workers i n Western c o u n t r i e s ( G o l d t h o r p e , 1968) who do n o t w i t n e s s t h e s t a r k h o r r o r o f p o v e r t y and mass unemployment i n t h e e x p l o i t e d c o u n t r i e s o f the w o r l d , and w i t h c o r p o r a t i s t o r b u s i n e s s l a b o u r u n i o n s , i t has become more d i f f i c u l t t o engender s o c i a l i s t a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y argue t h a t workers* c o u n c i l s a r e the mediae t h r o u g h w h i c h workers may d e v e l o p s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , c o n f i d e n c e i n self-management, and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f what can be a c h i e v e d by c o o p e r a t i v e and c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s . Thus, th e P a r t i c i p a t o r y L e f t views w o r k e r s ' c o u n c i l s as a means t o an end; t h e y a r e an educa- t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a p r o c e s s o f i n c r e a s i n g w o rker's c o n t r o l o ver t h e economic o r d e r . I I . C r i t i c s o f WP The c r i t i c s o f WP i n management a r e a l m o s t as numerous as i t s p r o p o n e n t s . Hugh C l e g g (i960), a s y m p a t h e t i c c r i t i c o f i n d u s t r i a l democracy f o r n e a r l y t h r e e decades, argues t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i l l l e a d t o worker c o - o p t a t i o n w i t h a r e s u l t i n g anemia i n the p u r s u i t o f wage and g r i e v a n c e demands. S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have c r i t i z e d WP from a M a r x i s t p e r s - p e c t i v e . H a r v i e Ramsay (1977) argues t h a t WP has not e v o l v e d out o f t h e h u m a n i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m but o c c u r s i n c y c l e s 9 w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o p e r i o d s when m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y i s seen t o be c h a l l e n g e d . Thus, Ramsay views p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means o f a t t e m p t i n g t o s e c u r e l a b o u r ' s c o m p l i a n c e . He d e s c r i b e s t h e p a s t a t t e m p t s by management t o i n t r o d u c e WP s i n c e t h e l a t e 1800s and c o n c l u d e s t h a t any r e a l , sub- s t a n t i a l change i n the power r e l a t i o n s h i p between l a b o u r and management would n o t be t o l e r a t e d by t h e owners o f c a p i t a l . Somewhat s k e p t i c a l l y , he c o n c l u d e s ( p. ^95)* P a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e n , was, and f o r t h e moment remains t h e l a t e s t vogue t e r m f o r t h e o l d i d e o - l o g y o f common i n t e r e s t s , a i m i n g t o c r e a t e ' a forum f o r the communication o f management's v e r s i o n o f r e a l i t y and t h e problems o f b u s i n e s s which would cause employees t o temper t h e i r demands and a c c e p t m a n a g e r i a l l e a d e r s h i p . M i c h a e l Rose (1975) views p a r t i c i p a t i v e management as me r e l y the l a t e s t p r o g r e s s i o n o f management t h e o r y s i n c e T a y l o r ' s s c h o o l o f " s c i e n t i f i c management." The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e i s viewed l a r g e l y as an i t e m o f th e i d e o l o g i c a l a p p a r a t u s o f c a p i t a l i s m . The f o c u s o f such r e s e a r c h e r s as Maslow, McGregor, L i k e r t , and A r g y r i s on i s s u e s o f human e f f i c i e n c y and p r o f i t a b i l i t y demonstrates t h a t s c i e n c e i s once more t h e " s e r v a n t o f power." The v e r y q u e s t i o n s a s k e d and t h e r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h a r e a l l framed w i t h i n the sem a n t i c s t r u c t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s m . S c i e n t i s t s a r e always tempted t o p r e s e n t t h e i r work i n a way t h a t a p p e a l s t o p o s s i b l e s p o n s o r s ; t h u s , the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f i n d u s t r i a l s t u d e n t s have a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s p r i m a r i l y t o m a n a g e r i a l p r o b l e m s . As t h e n a t u r e o f t h o s e problems changed, so d i d 10 t h e o r i e s . Hence, p a r t i c i p a t i v e management may be viewed as the l a t e s t t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d t o s e r v e c a p i t a l i s m . Rose con- c l u d e s t h a t any g e n u i n e l y new approach t o i n d u s t r i a l t h e o r y o r b e h a v i o r would i m p l y "a s t u d y of the cha n g i n g forms and consequences o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c e x p l o i t a t i o n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a l l goods and s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y o f tho s e consequences w h i c h g e n e r a t e c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n i t s e l f " ( p . 2771}. H a r r y Braverman (197*0 views WP i n management and t h e whole " q u a l i t y - o f - w o r k i n g - l i f e " (QWL) t o p i c -iais: a d u p l i c i t o u s campaign" w h i c h i s s h e e r d e c e p t i o n and p r e t e n c e . S o c i a l s c i e n c e a c c e p t s the c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and a t t e m p t s , on o c c a s i o n , t o assuage t h e c o n s c i e n c e by merely c r i t i c i z i n g t h e mode o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . Braverman; would view t h e H u m a n i s t i c P s y c h o l o g i s t s as s o l e l y f o c u s i n g on t h e degree o f t h e a d j u s t - ment o f t h e worker r a t h e r t h a n l e v e l i n g t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s on th e n a t u r e o f the work and the mode o f p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f . A l a n Fox (197*0» though n o t c l a s s i f i e d as a M a r x i s t , t a k e s a r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e towards WP which views i t as an attempt t o w i n employee c o m p l i a n c e and moral i n v o l v e m e n t . The u n i t a r y p e r s p e c t i v e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s assumes t h a t w o r kers and management s t r i v e t o g e t h e r towards common o b j e c t i v e s . C r i t i c s o f WP s c o f f a t proponents who t a k e t h i s "team" o u t l o o k and deny the i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t s o f labour-management r e l a t i o n s . The p l u r a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e acknowledges t h e e x i s t e n c e o f d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s but assumes t h a t t h e s e c o n f l i c t s a r e 11 reconcilable through cooperation, s t r u c t u r a l adaptation of work places, and mediating i n s t i t u t i o n s . The r a d i c a l per- spective, however, views c o n f l i c t not only as a fundamental, but as an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e feature of industry as i t i s now structured. Thus, from the r a d i c a l viewpoint, WP w i l l only be meaningful and succeed i f i t includes a s h i f t i n the power i n society and a r a d i c a l change i n the nature of the work i t s e l f . Radicals do not believe that management w i l l w i l l i n g l y y i e l d t h i s power. Indeed, an opinion widely held i s that Canadian employers believe that companies cannot be managed e f f i c i e n t l y by applying democratic p r i n c i p l e s , that important decisions can not be a matter of compromise among opposing interests.-* Fox argues that unlike,the p l u r a l i s t , the r a d i c a l does not see the trade unions as restoring a balance of power between the propertied and the propertyless. The r a d i c a l believes that most trade unions do not seriously challenge the status quo. There are many types of management decisions in'•.which em- ployees might aspire to p a r t i c i p a t e were they conscious of having the power to do so. However, most rank-and-file workers shun d i s c r e t i o n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because of t h e i r s o c i a l conditioning and adaptation to what they view as the "•"The unitary, p l u r a l i s t , and r a d i c a l perspectives were adapted from an e a r l i e r a r t i c l e by Robert Davies, "The role and relevance of theory i n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s ; a c r i t i c a l review," The Labour Gazette. October 1977, pp. ^36-^5. ^G. Dufour, "Canada Cannot Import German Style Codeter- mination," The Labour Gazette. June 1977, pp. 9-1*4-. 12 i n e v i t a b l e , l e g i t i m a t e power r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the s t a t u s quo. Fox b e l i e v e s t h a t "would be" r e f o r m e r s , who a r e t r y i n g t o g a i n th e commitment o f the w o r k e r s , a r e m e r e l y t r y i n g t o impose on o t h e r s t h e i r own v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . ^ The w i d e s p r e a d f a i l u r e o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e t o evoke the f u l l m o r a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e has been e x p l a i n e d by b l a m i n g the w orkers r a t h e r t h a n t h e n a t u r e o f the work o r the s t r u c t u r e of t h e e n t e r p r i s e . Management has f a i l e d because t h e y a s p i r e t o g e n e r a t e a h i g h - t r u s t r e s p o n s e f r o m employees i n a l o w - t r u s t s i t u a t i o n . I n our s o c i e t y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree o f moral commitment, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and i n v o l v e m e n t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e degree o f c o n t r o l and d i s c r e t i o n h i s j o b a f f o r d s hims o t h e r forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n have o n l y m a r g i n a l e f f e c t s . Thus, Fox c o n c l u d e s t h a t " o n l y a l o n g - t e r m r a d i c a l programme o f s o c i a l e q u a l i t y s t a n d s any chance o f g e n e r a t i n g a s u f f i c i e n t l y w i de- s p r e a d sense o f commitment t o our common l i f e " ( p . 173) • The n e x t group of c r i t i c s a t t a c k s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e - s e a r c h upon w h i c h much m o r a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r WP i s b a s e d . P e r h a p s , t h e most s t a r t l i n g s t a t e m e n t comes from Abraham Maslow h i m s e l f ( E u p s y c h i a n Management, 1965, p. 55)t A good d e a l o f t h e e v i d e n c e upon which he (McGregor) bases h i s c o n c l u s i o n s comes f r o m my r e s e a r c h e s and my p a p e r s on m o t i v a t i o n , s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , e t c But I o f a l l p e o p l e T h i s phenomenon o f p r o j e c t i o n has been n o t e d i n s e v e r a l forums ( e . g . , Steimetz-1970; Sorcher-1971; Davies-1977). 13 s h o u l d know, j u s t how shaky t h i s f o u n d a t i o n i s as a f i n a l f o u n d a t i o n . My work on m o t i v a - t i o n comes from the c l i n i c , f r o m a s t u d y o f n e u r o t i c p e o p l e . The c a r r y - o v e r o f t h i s t h e o r y t o the i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n has some s u p p o r t from i n d u s t r i a l s t u d i e s , but c e r t a i n l y I would l i k e t o see a l o t more s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d b e f o r e f e e l i n g f i n a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s c a r r y - over f r o m t n e s t u d y o f n e u r o s i s t o t h e s t u d y o f l a b o u r i n f a c t o r i e s i s l e g i t i m a t e . Two f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h Maslow's h i e r a r c h y , which a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s tudy o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a r e t h e r o l e o f money and t h e c l o s e d system approach adopted by many w r i t e r s which assumes t h a t a l l but t h e b a s i c needs may most u s e f u l l y be s a t i s f i e d i n t h e w o r k - c o n t e x t . Money i s u s u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d a l o n g s i d e p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs a t t h e bottom o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . Y e t t h i s a ppears t o be t o t a l l y m i s l e a d i n g s i n c e money can be p e r c e i v e d as a g e n e r a l r e i n f o r c e r w h i c h can s a t i s f y a wide v a r i e t y o f needs a t a l l l e v e l s o f t h e h i e r a r c h y . The c l o s e d system approach, which i g n o r e s t h e compensation e f f e c t s o f l e i s u r e and non-work t i m e , f a i l s t o c o n f r o n t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e s o f many employees towards work and t h e r e a l i t i e s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n v o l v e d i n a market economy. P e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y and a t t i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e i n d i - v i d u a l s i n terms o f t r a i t s o r c l u s t e r s o f b e h a v i o u r and would p r e d i c t t h a t o n l y c e r t a i n t y p e s o f employees would r e a c t p o s i t i v e l y t o WP. Many workers would have t o undergo sub- s t a n t i a l a t t i t u d i n a l change i n o r d e r t o be p r e d i s p o s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . F o r example, S t e i m e t z and Greenidge (1970) s t a t e 14 t h a t employees may be c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h o s e w i t h an "ascendant" v i e w p o i n t such as the t y p i c a l manager who welcomes t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e whereas t h e y con- t e n d t h a t most r a n k - a n d - f i l e have an " i n d i f f e r e n t " o u t l o o k or a t t i t u d e which r e j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as an e x t r a burden. Between t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s a r e t h o s e who p o s s e s s "ambi- v a l e n t " a t t i t u d e s such as the low l e v e l managers and a s p i r i n g w o r k e r s . S i n c e the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f i n i t i a t i v e s i n WP have come from management i n N o r t h A m e r i c a i t does not r e q u i r e an o v e r l y s k e p t i c a l mind t o view p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a n o t h e r management t e c h n i q u e t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r worker commitment t o o r g a n i z a - t i o n a l g o a l s and i n c r e a s e d p r o f i t s — i n o t h e r words, j u s t a n o t h e r form o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . Unions a r e s u s p i c i o u s (Donahue, 1976) and f e a r t h e " c o - o p t i n g " o f workers to the management team. More e l i t i s t , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , o r p a t e r n a l i s t i c managers may t a k e the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n c e t h a t workers q u i t e s i m p l y l a c k the e x p e r t i s e t o make u s e f u l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , . t o ?the manage- ment o f the e n t e r p r i s e . I ndeed, t h i s gap i n knowledge must be b r i d g e d by i n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o be e f f e c t i v e ( J a i n , 1978). F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y a r g u e , an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f good management i s the a b i l i t y t o make f a s t d e c i - s i o n s on c r u c i a l m a t t e r s and t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i v e d e c i s i o n - making a p p a r a t u s i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e and cumbersome ( M a r c h i n g t o n and L o v e r i d g e , 1979). Many managers do not r e a d i l y a c c e p t 15 what t h e y p e r c e i v e t o he an e r o s i o n of management r i g h t s and p r e r o g a t i v e s w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n may e n t a i l . They view h u m a n i s t i c p s y c h o l o g y as t o o " s o f t " o r i d e a l i s t i c , unfounded, o r i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e f a s t c h a n g i n g , com- p l e x , c o m p e t i t i v e c a p i t a l i s t m a r k e t p l a c e . A paradox becomes ap p a r e n t when t h e v e r y r e a s o n s t h a t management might be e x p e c t e d t o r e s i s t WP a r e a l s o t h o s e which may e x p l a i n t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f u n i o n s . Trade u n i o n s have emerged as a c o u n t e r v a i l i n g f o r c e a g a i n s t t h e abuse o f mana- g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e u n i o n ' s f u n c t i o n i s g u a r d i n g a g a i n s t t h e i n t r u s i o n o f m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t such a u t h o r i t y i s eroded o r s h a r e d w i t h em- p l o y e e s , t h e purpose o f t h o s e u n i o n s whose major f o c u s i s ad- v e r s a r i a l w i l l d i m i n i s h . L a s t l y , t h e worker, the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n v o l v e d and the f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , may r e j e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n due t o a g e n e r a l r e s i s t a n c e t o change, a genuine p r e f e r e n c e f o r a more p a s s i v e r o l e , o r an i n s t r u m e n t a l o u t l o o k towards work as some- t h i n g t o be t o l e r a t e d i n o r d e r t o meet b a s i c needs and t o e n j o y t h e consumption o f goods and l e i s u r e . To c o n c l u d e , an attempt has been made t o draw t h e b a t t l e - l i n e between th e p r o p o n e n t s f o r and c r i t i c s o f WP. I t remains t o e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o suggest which view i s most c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a l i t y . The p r o p o n e n t s would a n t i c i - p a t e a s u b s t a n t i a l d e s i r e among employees f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n 16 i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i r h i g h e r o r d e r needs, whereas the c r i t i c s would a n t i c i p a t e worker s k e p t i c i s m o r i n d i f f e r e n c e , and o n l y m i n i m a l s u p p o r t . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l d e v e l o p a framework w i t h i n which one may g e n e r a t e hypotheses and w i l l f u r t h e r r e f i n e t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f WP i n management. 7 I I I . An O r g a n i z a t i o n - T h e o r e t i c Framework' Walker (197*0 d i s t i n g u i s h e s two ways i n which p a r t i c i - p a t i o n may be a c h i e v e d . When workers e x e r t i n f l u e n c e on m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s i n l e v e l s h i g h e r i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e t h e n o t i o n i s termed " a s c e n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " When m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s a r e d e l e g a t e d t o l o w e r l e v e l s t h e n o t i o n i s termed " d e s c e n d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A d i s t i n c t i o n may a l s o be made between t h e f o r m o f p a r t i - c i p a t i o n which i s s t r u c t u r e d by d e s i g n and t h e e x t e n t t o which the i n s t i t u t e d d e s i g n i s a c t i v e l y t a k e n up and u t i l i z e d . ^ S t r u c t u r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i s used t o d e s c r i b e t h e i n s t i t u - t i o n a l f o r m which i s i n t r o d u c e d , whereas " l i v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i s used t o d e s c r i b e the a c t u a l p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . N e x t , t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f WP may be l e g i s l a t e d and f o r m a l , such as works c o u n c i l s , s a f e t y committees, o r r u l e s f o r r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n on company bo a r d s , o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s may be Drawn and adapted from K e i t h Newton, "The Theory and P r a c t i c e o f I n d u s t r i a l Democracy* A Cana d i a n P e r s p e c t i v e , " ? * v v U S s i o n P a p e r N o » Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, August 17 v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l , such as committees f o r j o i n t con- s u l t a t i o n and n o n - b i n d i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , c o n t r o l over d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may s t r e t c h f r o m u n i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n s by management, a t one extreme, t h r o u g h i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g , c o n s u l t a t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n , t o v e t o power o v e r management's d e c i s i o n s and t o u n i l a t e r a l w o r k e r c o n t r o l . F i g u r e 1 (drawn f r o m D a v i e s , 1979. P« 8) o f f e r s a h e l p f u l o u t l i n e o f t h e spe c t r u m o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d e l i n e a t e s s e v e r a l terms w h i c h a r e o f t e n c o n f u s e d and used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n deb a t e s on WP. FIGURE 1 - THE SPECTRUM OF PARTICIPATION Degree of control by workers Nature of worker involvement General name Greatest control or full industrial democracy Lower limit of industrial democracy Least control, lower limit of participation Ultimate authority rests with the workers themselves to whom management is responsible. The enterprise is also collectively owned by workers. Decisions made jointly by management or shareholder representatives and Workers' representatives (i.e., indirect participation) at board level or on works' councils. Workers initiate criticisms and make suggestions that are discussed with manage- ment. Management reserves the right to take the final decision but undertakes to provide workers with rele- vant information before such decisions are taken. Workers are informed of management decisions as well as the reasons for them. Workers' control or self- management Co-determination Consultation or co-infiuence Information/communication 18 P a r t i c i p a t i o n may a l s o t a k e p l a c e a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s r a n g i n g from t h o s e c l o s e s t t o the i n d i v i d u a l worker a t t h e t a s k l e v e l , t h r o u g h work group o r s e c t i o n , department or f a c t o r y , f i r m , i n d u s t r y , t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e economy. I n a d d i t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be d i r e c t , such as schemes of j o b e n l a r g m e n t , r o t a t i o n , and enrichment w h e r e i n the i n d i v i d u a l worker p a r t i c i p a t e s , o r i n d i r e c t , as i n r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n a l schemes l i k e works c o u n c i l s , company bo a r d s , o r c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . Q L a s t l y , one may speak of the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n i n terms o f the f u r t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f scope, degree, and e x t e n t . The scope o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f e r s t o the range o f m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s i n which workers t a k e p a r t . By degree i s meant the e x t e n t t o which workers i n f l u e n c e m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s . By e x t e n t i s meant how w i d e l y s p r e a d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s among the members of t h e w o r k f o r c e . Walker goes on t o d e f i n e two s e t s o f i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a - t i o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e the l i k e l i h o o d o f WP. The f i r s t s e t o f f a c t o r s i s known as the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l " See a l s o Kwoka J . , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Works A C o n c e p t u a l Framework," S o c i a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y . Vol.57, No. 3, 1976, pp. 632-6^3, f o r a method o f c a l c u l a t i n g the amount o f p a r t i - c i p a t i o n i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 19 o f the f i r m o r t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the w o r k p l a c e i t s e l f * t he autonomy o f the e n t e r p r i s e ; i t s s i z e ; i t s t e c h n o l o g y ; and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and c l i m a t e . A second s e t o f f a c t o r s a r e the "human f a c t o r s " which i n c l u d e the w o r ker's " p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e " and which d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o which th e p o t e n t i a l f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e a - l i z e d . F i r s t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e autonomy o f the f i r m , i n c o u n t r i e s w i t h a l a r g e degree of c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g , d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the d e s i r e d degree of WP a r e o f t e n t a k e n above the l e v e l o f t h e f i r m . L e g i s l a t i v e p r o v i s i o n s l i k e w i s e l i m i t freedom of a c t i o n a t t h e company l e v e l . I n a c o u n t r y l i k e Canada w i t h a " b r a n c h - p l a n t economy," the f o r m u l a t i o n o f company p o l i c y may t a k e p l a c e i n m u l t i n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o u t s i d e the c o u n t r y . Thus, the l e s s autonomy a f i r m p o s s e s s e s , t h e n the l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s f o r WP. T echnology i s a second i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s f u n c t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and t h e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t o f the w o r k p l a c e which, i n t u r n , a f f e c t s t h e degree, scope, e x t e n t , and f orm o f WP. F o r example, i n a h i g h l y automated p l a n t w i t h massive c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , t h e r e may be v e r y l i t t l e leeway f o r worker i n v o l v e m e n t i n d e c i s i o n - making. A number o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have c o n f i r m e d t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s t a s k s and the t e c h n o l o g i e s n e c e s s a r y t o a c c o m p l i s h them a r e major d e t e r m i n a n t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 20 s t r u c t u r e . F o r example, Joan Woodward (1965) d i v i d e d f i r m s i n t o t h r e e b a s i c groups based on t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o - l o g y : u n i t and s m a l l b a t c h p r o d u c t i o n , l a r g e b a t c h and mass p r o d u c t i o n , and p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n . I t was found t h a t t h e more complex t h e t e c h n o l o g y , g o i n g from u n i t up t o p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f managers and manage- ment l e v e l s . The span o f management was a l s o found t o i n - c r e a s e from u n i t t o mass p r o d u c t i o n and t h e n d e c r e a s e t o p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n . The l a s t major r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s c o v e r e d was t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y o f the f i r m , the l a r g e r was t h e c l e r i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f s . Though t h e l i n k between t e c h n o l o g y and s o c i a l o r o r g a n i - z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e has been demonstrated, t h e proponents f o r WP argue t h a t t h i s l i n k does not n e c e s s a r i l y d e t e r m i n e s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o r the most a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . A s o c i o - t e c h n i c a l systems approach has been proposed which s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t e c h n o l o g y i t s e l f must be adapted t o s o c i a l systems f o r t r u e p r o f i t m a x i m i z a t i o n ( T r i s t and Bamfo r t h , 1951). C r i t i c s , such as Rose (1975)t c o u n t e r t h a t i n s o f a r as a t e c h n o l o g y demands a t y p i c a l p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i f a p r o f i t i s t o be made) t h e n i t c r e a t e s r o l e d e t e r m i n e d be- h a v i o r . The demands o f the t e c h n o l o g y p e r m i t o n l y m a r g i n a l a d j u s t m e n t s t o the e n t a i l e d system o f w o r k - r o l e s t h r o u g h j o b enlargement, r o t a t i o n , e t c . Such c o n c l u s i o n s a r e gloomy f o x managers eager t o reduce i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t and f o r 21 h u m a n i t a r i a n s committed e q u a l l y t o the d i g n i t y o f man and t h e p r o f i t m o t i v e . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t t e c h n o l o g y i s i d e o l o g i c a l l y based; t h a t i s , i f one views w o r k e r s as t y p i c a l l y l a z y and i n d i f f e r e n t , t h e n one would d e s i g n a t e c h n o l o g y w h i c h r e - moves as much d i s c r e t i o n as p o s s i b l e f r om t h e worker and c o u p l e t h i s w i t h c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . On the o t h e r hand, i f one views workers as s e e k i n g t o s a t i s f y needs f o r a c h i e v e - ment and d i s c r e t i o n , t h e n one would o p t f o r more f l e x i b l e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e s i g n and work group autonomy. I t may be t h a t w i d e r c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o f d i f f e r i n g s o c i e t i e s a r e s t r o n g e r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n t h e n a t u r e o f the t e c h n o l o g y i t s e l f ( G a l l i e , 1978). T h i r d , the s i z e o f the f i r m can a f f e c t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i n t h a t t h e more p e r s o n a l , l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d , and l e s s complex atmosphere i n s m a l l f i r m s may be more c o n d u c i v e t o communication and c o o p e r a t i o n t h a n l a r g e f i r m s w i t h g r e a t e r f o r m a l i z a t i o n , s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i m p e r s o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n ( C h i l d , 1976). As an o r g a n i z a t i o n grows i n s i z e , i t s problems and approaches t o t h e s e problems change markedly. Problems o f c o o r d i n a t i o n and communication i n c r e a s e , new l e v e l s o f management a r e l i k e l y t o emerge, and t a s k s can become more i n t e r r e l a t e d ( G r e i n e r , 1972). Hence, w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p l e x i t y and problems o f c o n t r o l i n l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t management w i l l be p r e d i s p o s e d t o WP»9 22 i f i t i s viewed as r e l i n q u i s h i n g c o n t r o l i n a zero-sura game. However, managers who a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t s h a r i n g d e c i s i o n s w i l l augment c o n t r o l w i l l c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t WP. F o u r t h , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , which i s i n t e r d e - pendent w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s v a r i a b l e s o f s i z e , t e c h n o l o g y , and autonomy, may h i n d e r or enhance t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s f o r WP. A " f l a t " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e would appear t o be more c o n d u c i v e t o WP t h a n a " t a l l " s t r u c t u r e ( W a l k e r , 1974). A company o r g a n i z e d i n t o s t r i c t l y d i v i d e d f u n c t i o n a l d e p a r t - ments w i t h an emphasis on s t a t u s , r a n k i n g , and t i t l e s may d e v e l o p a c l i m a t e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d i t y , t r a d i t i o n a l i s m , and an emphasis on r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , a t a l l s t r u c t u r e may a l s o be c o n d u c i v e t o WP i f t h e r e i s s t r o n g s u p p o r t a t t h e t o p . C o n v e r s e l y , l e s s m e c h a n i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s may r e s u l t i n f l e x i b l e , i n n o v a t i v e , and i n f o r m a l c l i m a t e s . Such f a c t o r s , as the i n v o l v e m e n t o f ownership i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e , and the s h a r i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a u t h o r i t y , and power, a l l have d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l (Cummings and B e r g e r , 1976) (Gowler and Legge, 1978). The i n t e r a c t i o n between the w o rker's p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i - c i p a t e , which i s d etermined by the e x p e c t a t i o n o f reward and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and c o n d i t i o n i n g , and t h e manager's w i l l i n g - n ess o r a b i l i t y t o share d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a r e t h e human f a c t o r s which w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o which the p a r t i c i - p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s a c t u a l l y r e a l i z e d . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n s f o r t h e workers t o c o n s i d e r , and t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s , a r e : To what e x t e n t and i n what d e c i s i o n s do t h e y r e a l l y want t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? How s t r o n g i s t h i s d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e and what i s t h e a c t u a l v a l u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o the worker; t h a t i s , what a r e workers w i l l i n g t o t r a d e o f f , i f n e c e s s a r y , t o a c h i e v e more j o b d i s c r e t i o n ? These a r e d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n s t o answer f o r a number of r e a s o n s : ( l ) even when w o r k e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e s u r v e y e d , t h e r e may be a d i f f e r e n c e between d e c l a r e d o p i n i o n s and t h e e x t e n t t o w hich they would o r c o u l d be a c t e d out i n r e a l i t y ; ( 2 ) t h e e f f o r t t h a t workers a r e w i l l i n g t o p u t i n t o a c t i v e o r l i v i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be a f f e c t e d by t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m and p e r - c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r own c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e p e r c e i v e d c o s t s ba- l a n c e d a g a i n s t the p e r c e i v e d r ewards, and t h e amount o f t r u s t a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d between themselves and management based upon p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f managers founded]upon v a r i o u s p h i l o s o p h i e s w i l l a f f e c t the degree t o which managers a r e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t c o n c e p t s o f WP. I f s u p e r v i s o r s o r l o w e r l e v e l managers p e r c e i v e a t h r e a t t o t h e i r j o b s o r a u t h o r i t y , one would expect any scheme of WP t o be met w i t h r e s i s t a n c e and s a b o t a g e . The i n t e r a c t i o n between the manager's a t t i t u d e s and t h e worker's p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i l l d e t e r m i n e , i n p a r t i c u - l a r s i t u a t i o n s , the amount and form o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , g i v e n t h e p o t e n t i a l s e t by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e not amenable to change. 2k To summarize and c o n c l u d e t h i s s e c t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g model i s a g e n e r a l framework f o r WP w i t h i n w h i c h a n a l y s i s and e v a l u a - t i v e r e s e a r c n may be u n d e r t a k e n . With t h i s summary o f t h e con- t e x t o f WP e s t a b l i s h e d , we. c a n now x u r n t o t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n o f what e x a c t l y a r e w o r k e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? FIGURE 2 AN ORGANIZATION-THEORETIC FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPATION 1 EXTERNAL FACTORS Economic, p o l i t i c a l , and social climate, legislation. INTERNAL FACTORS The Participation Potential Human Factors Technology, size, autonomy, organiz- ation structure. Cognitive/attitudinal characteristics of managers and workers. FORMS AND DIMENSIONS Legislated/voluntary, ascending/descending, representative/participative, formal/informalj structural/living. Degree, scope, extent, amount. INTERNAL EFFECTS Changes in productivity, absenteeism, turnover, conflict, motivation, satisfaction, work attitudes, health and safety, s e l f - actualization. EXTERNAL EFFECTS Impact on public opinion; democratization of society at large; pressure for further legislation. DETERMINANTS MORPHOLOGY > CONSEQUF.NCES (NEWTON,1977) 25 V. Workers' A t t i t u d e s T.owards P a r t i c i p a t i o n : A Review T h i s t h e s i s i s f o c u s i n g on one s i n g l e element o f the framework f o r WP, t h a t i s , t h e w o r k e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . The r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h i s c h o i c e was f o r c i b l y s t a t e d by Walker ( 1972 , p. I I 8 3 ) : The c r i t i c a l f a c t o r appears t o be w o r k e r s ' a t t i t u d e s towards WP i n management s i n c e i f t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t and p r e s s u r e among w o r k e r s , l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i s made by t h e i r h a v i n g h i g h c a p a c i t y and h i g h r e l a t i v e power, o r by a h i g h a c c e p t a n c e o f WP on the p a r t o f management. T h i s p o i n t i s r e i t e r a t e d by C l a r k e e t a l . ( 1 9 7 2 , pp.18- 1 9 ) : The p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge does not g i v e a d e f i n i t i v e answer t o t h e fundamental q u e s t i o n o f t o what e x t e n t workers want to, p a r t i c i p a t e . . . . Indeed some commentators have gone so f a r as t o s u g g e s t t h a t l i t t l e o r no i n t e r e s t e x i s t s among employees. W a l l and L i s c h e r o n ( 1977 , P« 13) p o i n t t o a more s p e c i f i c l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n : There i s s c a n t e v i d e n c e o f the s t r e n g t h , as opposed t o p r e v a l e n c e , o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n immediate p a r t i c i p a t i o n , nor i s t h e r e much c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d e s i r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e - r e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o p i c s . More r e c e n t l y , W i t t e ( 1980 , p. 2k) i n a s t u d y o f WP i n an A m e rican m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o r p o r a t i o n d e c l a r e s t h a t the s t a t e o f knowledge i s s t i l l w o e f u l l y l a c k i n g : " V e r y l i t t l e i s known about how much i n f l u e n c e workers f e e l t h e y s h o u l d have i n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o r p o r a t e d e c i s i o n s . " 26 The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t o h e l p t h e e f f o r t s t o f i l l t h a t gap i n knowledge so t h a t we may d e a l i n t e l l i - g e n t l y w i t h WP, t o a v o i d i t s p i t f a l l s and f a l s e p r o m i s e s , and t o reap i t s p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s . F i r s t , a r e v i e w of t h e more r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n accumulated t h u s f a r p r o v e s u s e f u l . P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t workers d e s i r e more i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a n i s a l l o w e d by t h e i r c u r r e n t j o b s has been s u p p o r t e d by a number of s t u d i e s o r i g i n a t i n g a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n . D a n i e l K a t z (1951) found t h a t , o f 580 c l e r i c a l w orkers i n the home o f f i c e o f a l a r g e e a s t e r n i n s u r a n c e company, o n l y 2k p e r c e n t were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e amount of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n t h e i r j o b s . K a t z f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t , o f 5»7°0 employees i n a heavy- i n d u s t r y p l a n t , 51 p e r c e n t wanted t o "have more say" about the way t h e i r work was done. Moreover, 65 p e r c e n t thought t h e work would be b e t t e r done i f t h e men had more oppor- t u n i t i e s t o make s u g g e s t i o n s about such t h i n g s as t h e d e s i g n , s e t u p s , and t h e l a y o u t o f the work. However, the m a j o r i t y o f workers (68 p e r c e n t ) f e l t t h a t t h e y had l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o say about how t h e i r job s h o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . Nancy Morse (1953) r e p o r t e d t h a t , o f 7̂ 2 c l e r i c a l w orkers i n a l a r g e i n s u r a n c e company, 73 p e r c e n t would l i k e t o have more d e c i s i o n s t o make t h a n were p o s s i b l e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t j o b s . 27 A r n o l d Tannenbaum (1956) used g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s t o measure p e r c e i v e d c o n t r o l , i n f l u e n c e , o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and demonstrated t h a t d e s i r e d c o n t r o l i s c o n s i s t e n t l y - h i g h e r t h a n a c t u a l c o n t r o l a t most l e v e l s i n t h e o r g a n i z a - t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between a c t u a l and i d e a l c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s as one moves from t h e top downward i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Thus, workers b e l i e v e t h a t , r e l a t i v e t o the c u r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d be i n - c r e a s e d . However, i n a n o t h e r s t u d y (Tannenbaum and Kahn, 1958, pp. 88-9*4-1 96-97) when workers were asked t o r a n k the g o a l s they f e l t t h e i r u n i o n s h o u l d p u r s u e , " i n c r e a s e d say i n r u n n i n g t h e p l a n t " r a n k e d f o u r t e e n t h out o f f i f t e e n g o a l s , w i t h o n l y 22 p e r c e n t c h e c k i n g i t as "something t h e l o c a l s h o u l d do." R e p o r t i n g on a s t u d y done i n Norway, H a r r i e t H o l t e r (1965) found t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s i n b o t h b l u e - and w h i t e - c o l l a r companies wanted i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t concerned t h e i r own work and w o r k i n g c o n d i - t i o n s (56 and 67 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , but o n l y a s m a l l m i n o r i t y (16 and 11 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) wanted more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the management of t h e e n t i r e company. H o l t e r a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e employees who wanted p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r the m s e l v e s were i n more h i g h l y s k i l l e d j o b s , were more i n t e r e s t e d i n advance- ment i n the company, i d e n t i f i e d s t r o n g l y w i t h company g o a l s , and were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more e f f i c i e n c y - m i n d e d t h a n those 28 who were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These f i n d i n g s c o r r e s p o n d w e l l w i t h Tannenbaum's f i n d i n g s o v er the l a s t twenty y e a r s and bode w e l l f o r managers who a r e a b l e t o u t i l i z e t h e s e w o r k e r s ' a m b i t i o n s . The c h a l l e n g e t o t h e u n i o n s i s t o i n d o c t r i n a t e t h e s e more a m b i t i o u s members and reward them so as t o ensure t h a t any c o n f l i c t s between company g o a l s and t h o s e o f t h e u n i o n w i l l be r e s o l v e d i n f a v o r o f t h e r u n i o n . Any p e r c e i v e d l o s s o f c o n t r o l o r i n f l u e n c e o ver the membership, which may be i n v o l v e d i n some schemes o f WP, would c e r t a i n l y be met by s t a u n c h r e s i s t a n c e by u n i o n l e a d e r s . Tabb and G o l d f a r b (1970) examined the a t t i t u d e s o f 861 employees i n 16 I s r a e l i o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l l the e n t e r - p r i s e s were d e s i g n e d t o encourage WP t h r o u g h v a r i o u s r e p r e - s e n t a t i o n a l systems. Among a sample o f 646 w o r k e r s , t h e y found 54 p e r c e n t t o be c l e a r l y i n f a v o r o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 16 p e r c e n t opposed to t h e i d e a , and t h e r e m a i n d e r b e l i e v i n g i t t o be i m p r a c t i c a l (20 p e r c e n t ) , o r b e i n g undecided (10 p e r c e n t ) . H i i l g e n d o r f and I r v i n g (1970) s t u d i e d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f over 2,000 B r i t i s h r a i l w o r k e r s . They c l a s s i f i e d the answers t o an open-ended q u e s t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the a r e a s , i f any, i n which workers would l i k e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . They found t h a t 58 p e r c e n t o f the r e s p o n s e s concerned t h e way i n w hich work was c a r r i e d o u t . 29 Hespe and Warr (1971) a s k e d 2̂ 3 i n d i v i d u a l s i n a sample o f B r i t i s h , male b l u e - c o l l a r w o r kers i f t h e y would l i k e t o have more i n f l u e n c e i n the r u n n i n g o f t h e i r d e p a r t - ments t h a n t h e y c u r r e n t l y had, and 61 p e r c e n t responded i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . Based on t h e same sample, Hespe and L i t t l e (1971) have a l s o shown t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r i n d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g method o f pay- ment, hours o f work, work methods, and the use o f work s t u d y t e c h n i q u e s . H e r e , th e model view was t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be n e g o t i a t i o n on p r o posed changes and "no a c t i o n u n t i l a g r e e - ment i s reached." Very few f e l t t h a t t h e s e were d e c i s i o n s w h i c h management had a r i g h t t o make e n t i r e l y on i t s own. I t i s u s e f u l t o pause here and a s s e s s the e s s e n t i a l weakness i n t h e e v i d e n c e r e c o u n t e d t h u s f a r . The A m e rican s t u d i e s a r e now a l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s o l d and w i t h i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and changes i n w o r k e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y among the younger w o r k e r s , one may wonder whether a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n have changed. More- o v e r , i n many o f the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( e . g . , H o l t e r , H i l d e n - d o r f and I r v i n g , K a t z , and M o r s e ) , th e e x a m i n a t i o n of i n d i - v i d u a l d e s i r e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been of a secondary n a t u r e . I n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s , t h e r e was no u n i o n i n f l u e n c e . L a s t l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n these s t u d i e s on the s t r e n g t h o f the i n t e r e s t i n d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , nor i s t h e r e much c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d e s i r e s i n r e l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o p i c s . 30 Many of t h e s e weaknesses were overcome i n a number o f s t u d i e s conducted by W a l l and L i s c h e r o n (1977). They grouped d e c i s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l a t which t h e y o c c u r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . " L o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n v o l v e s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , such as how the work i s t o be c a r r i e d o u t , how t a s k s a r e t o be s c h e d u l e d , and how d u t i e s a r e a l l o c a t e d amongst a v a i l a b l e w o r k e r s . "Medium p a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n v o l v e s a c t i v i t i e s w hich t r a d i t i o n a l l y have f a l l e n w i t h i n t h e autho- r i t y of m i d d l e managers, such as t h e c h o i c e of new p e r s o n n e l , recommendations f o r p r o m o t i o n s , t r a i n i n g , and t h e purchase o f equipment and new m a t e r i a l s . L a s t l y , " d i s t a n t p a r t i c i - p a t i o n " r e l a t e s t o t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y dominated by s e n i o r managers and d e a l i n g w i t h d e c i s i o n s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e the growth and e x p a n s i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t s o v e r a l l p o l i c i e s , and major f i n a n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . Comparing t h r e e s e p a r a t e s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g answers from 131 n u r s e s , l i b f a c t o r y w o r k e r s , and 94 o u t d o o r workers o f a p u b l i c l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , t h e y found t h a t b l u e - c o l l a r w o r k ers wanted t o e x e r t an e q u a l amount of i n f l u e n c e as management i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t a l l l e v e l s , whereas n u r s e s showed a much weaker d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x c e p t f o r the h i g h l y t r a i n e d n u r s e s who wanted more medium p a r t i - c i p a t i o n . F o r the most p a r t , t h e y found t h a t workers opted f o r d i r e c t r a t h e r t h a n i n d i r e c t forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 31 I n t h e t h i r d s u r v e y by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n (1977) on the q u a l i t y o f employment i n A m e r i c a , S t a i n e s and Quinn (1979) used a n a t i o n a l p r o b a b i l i t y h o u s e h o l d sample o f over 2,300 i n d i v i d u a l s drawn from t h e g e n e r a l w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e " U n i t e d S t a t e s . They found f r e q u e n t mention o f problems c o n c e r n i n g work c o n t e n t w i t h 36 p e r c e n t of workers r e p o r t i n g they had s k i l l s t h a t they would l i k e t o use b u t c o u l d n o t , and 32 p e r c e n t who s a i d t h e y were " o v e r - e d u c a t e d " f o r t h e i r j o b s . On a q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g how much say workers s h o u l d have about work- r e l a t e d d e c i s i o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s p o n s e s i n c l u d e those who s a i d e i t h e r "a l o t o f say" o r "complete say"« s a f e t y equipment and p r a c t i c e s (76 p e r c e n t ) , how work i s done (kl p e r c e n t ) , wages and s a l a r i e s (30 p e r c e n t ) , days and hours of work (19 p e r c e n t ) , and h i r i n g and l a y o f f s (16 p e r c e n t ) . S t a i n e s and Quinn a l s o f o u n d t h a t u n i o n i z e d workers e x p r e s s e d f a i r l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards l a b o r u n i o n s , w i t h 77 p e r c e n t o f t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r kers and 71 p e r c e n t o f the b l u e - c o l l a r w o r kers r e p o r t i n g t h a t t h e y were "some- what" o r " v e r y s a t i s f i e d . " However, members were l e s s p o s i t i v e about t h e i r u n i o n s h a n d l i n g o f n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l i s s u e s such as h e l p i n g t o make j o b s more i n t e r e s t i n g , g e t t i n g w o r kers a say i n how t h e i r employers r u n t h e b u s i - n e s s , and g e t t i n g t h e workers a say i n how t h e y do t h e i r own j o b s . 32 More r e c e n t l y i n a s t u d y o f an American m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o r p o r a t i o n , J o h n W i t t e (1980) sampled 145 n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y employees and found v e r y s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n d i r e c t , l o c a l forms o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i t h 83 p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s w a n t i n g e i t h e r "some say" o r "a l o t o f say" on work p r o - c e d u r e s , whereas i n t e r e s t i n d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s such as s e t t i n g management s a l a r i e s was weak (17 p e r c e n t ) . When asked i f t h e y s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e board o f d i r e c t o r s , 74 p e r c e n t answered y e s , 14 p e r c e n t no, and 12 p e r c e n t d i d n o t know. When a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n u t i l i z i n g t w e l v e independent v a r i a b l e s was used t o p r e d i c t t h e s t r e n g t h o f b e l i e f i n WP, 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d . I t was found t h a t y o u t h and h i g h e r l e v e l j o b c a t e g o r i e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . J b b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the degree o f i n f l u e n c e a re s p o n d e n t c u r r e n t l y has i n h i s j o b , and h i s e v a l u a t i o n of i t s p h y s i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ( e . g . , enough h e l p , t i m e , and equipment a v a i l a b l e ) , and enjoyment i n h e r e n t i n the j o b were a l l v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r e d i c t i n g a w o r k e r ' s b e l i e f i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t i s easy t o imagine a wor k e r r e s p o n d i n g t h a t he would l i k e more s a y , i n f l u e n c e , o r c o n t r o l a t h i s w o r k p l a c e , espe- c i a l l y when t h e r e i s no d i r e c t c o s t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l worker as i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l schemes o r over i s s u e s t h a t d i r e c t l y i mpinged on h i s day-to-day w o r k l i f e where t h e rewards a r e r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . Many o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on WP may be c r i t i c i z e d from t h i s v i e w p o i n t . However, W i t t e 33 demonstrates t h a t when any c o s t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e i n t r o d u c e d , e n t h u s i a s m f o r i t s b e n e f i t s seems t o drop s h a r p l y . Out o f a t o t a l sample of 145, he found t h a t 45 p e r c e n t were w i l l i n g t o move t o a n o t h e r company ( e v e r y - t h i n g e l s e b e i n g e q u a l ) j u s t f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 32 p e r c e n t would be w i l l i n g t o work 2 e x t r a hours p e r week, and o n l y 17 p e r c e n t would be w i l l i n g t o move t o a p a r t i c i - p a t i v e j o b f o r 10 p e r c e n t l e s s pay. W i t t e s p e c u l a t e s t h a t two f a c t o r s may e x p l a i n many w o r k e r s ' r e l u c t a n c e : t h e n a t u r a l a c c e p t a n c e of h i e r a r c h i c a l a u t h o r i t y ( j o b c o n t r a c t r a t i o n a l e ) , and t h e f a c t t h a t most p e o p l e have n e v e r c o n c e i v e d o f , much l e s s had e x p e r i e n c e w i t h , any form o f d i r e c t democracy. He c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e p r o f i t motive may be i n i m i c a l t o democracy i n the w o r k p l a c e i n t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f i n d i v i d u a l a m b i t i o n and c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s , m e r i t o c r a c y , and i n d i v i d u a l s t a t u s i n c e n t i v e s t e n d t o erode d e m o c r a t i c v a l u e s w h i c h assume g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a b i l i t i e s and w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c t r e s p o n s i b l y , and which empha- s i z e communal rewards and c o o p e r a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t s . I n summary, t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s sub- s t a n t i a l worker s u p p o r t f o r d i r e c t forms o f WP a t t h e l o c a l , t a s k l e v e l , b u t v e r y l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n medium o r d i s t a n t o l e v e l s . However, t h e r e i s some evidencev t h a t when the c o s t s T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s f a i r l y w e l l s u p p o r t e d . See Ramsay, H., " P a r t i c i p a t i o n : The Shop F l o o r View," B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f I.R. V o l . Ik, No. 2, 1976, p. 130; and W a l l T. and L i s c h e r o n , J . Worker P a r t i c i p a t i o n ; ( L o n d o n : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1977, p. 3̂ .) ' 3̂ o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e i n t r o d u c e d ( e . g . , e x t r a t i me o r drop i n p a y ) , t h e n i n t e r e s t drops s h a r p l y . S u p p o r t f o r i n - d i r e c t , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l forms appears t o be f a i r l y s t r o n g though t h e r e i s no s t u d y t h a t t h i s w r i t e r i s aware o f t h a t i n t r o d u c e s a c o s t f a c t o r , such as t h e p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t o f c o - o p t a t i o n o r c o l l u s i o n . T h i s s u r v e y w i l l a t t e m pt t o overcome t h e weaknesses o f the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s such as t h e l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on the s t r e n g t h o f i n t e r e s t i n the v a r i o u s forms o f WP, on the s p e c i - f i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o p i c s , and on the s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n when a s p e c i f i c c o s t f a c t o r i s i n t r o d u c e d . L a s t l y , much o f t h e r e s e a r c h has-been c a r r i e d out i n Europe o r d u r i n g t h e 1950s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n - f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d h e r e i n Canada w i l l be more r e l e v a n t t o f u t u r e debates on WP w h i c h w i l l no doubt c o n t i n u e t o be he a t e d and f r e q u e n t i n the f i e l d o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y a t l a r g e . W i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l - t h e o r e t i c framework f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( F i g u r e 2 ) , t h i s s t u d y has l i m i t e d i t s e l f t o l o o k i n g s o l e l y a t an i n t e r n a l human f a c t o r which d e t e r m i n e s w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h a t i s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s o f employees which a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , i t would make l i t t l e sense f o r management o r the u n i o n t o push f o r a scheme o f w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n u n l e s s the scheme has w i d e s p r e a d and s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t among t h e employees t h e m s e l v e s . With t h i s 35 g o a l i n mind, we can now move on t o t h e h y p o t h e s e s , methods, and r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . V". Hypotheses H I i Age w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n a r e c e n t case s t u d y o f an American c o r p o r a t i o n , W i t t e (1980) found a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between age and b e l i e f i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( r = - .37 ) . W a l l and L i s c h e r o n (1977) argue t h a t younger p e o p l e w i l l demand a g r e a t e r say because t h e y a r e b e t t e r educated and p o s s e s s a more p e r v a s i v e b e l i e f i n demo- c r a t i c v a l u e s t h a n o l d e r p e o p l e who were exposed t o h a r d e r t i m e s . On the o t h e r hand, Walker (197^) has n o t e d t h a t i n Yugo^ s l a v i a , where forms o f worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e w e l l e s t a b - l i s h e d , o l d e r workers t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e more. Walker r e a s o n s t h a t o l d e r w o r kers may want t o p a r t i c i p a t e more be- cause o f t h e i r g r e a t e r s k i l l and e x p e r i e n c e . S i n c e W i t t e ' s e v i d e n c e i s more r e c e n t , and s i n c e ex- p e r i e n c e s i n Can a d i a n s o c i e t y a r e more s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f th e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t s t h a t younger workers w i l l be more i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n o l d e r w o r k e r s . H2« J.ob s k i l l l e v e l w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As H o l t e r (1965) i m p l i e s , h i g h e r l e v e l j o b s , w h i c h a l l o w more autonomy and i n t r i n s i c s a t i s f a c t i o n , may s t i m u l a t e the i n d i v i d u a l t o s u p p o r t - w o r k e r i n f l u e n c e i n a w i d e r range o f 36 d e c i s i o n s . On the o t h e r hand, a r e p o r t by t h e Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e on Work i n Ameri c a (1973) argues t h a t l o w e r - l e v e l j o b s , h i e r a r c h i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and i n h e r e n t l y u n e n j o y a b l e , may s t i m u l a t e a r e a c t i o n from workers i n t he form o f demands f o r more say i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be t o a degree a l e a r n e d p r o c e s s : t h e r e f o r e , p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n may l e a d t o a d e s i r e f o r i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e . Workers a t l o w e r - l e v e l j o b s t e n d t o have o n l y an i n s t r u - mental i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h t h e company, based on monetary and s e c u r i t y needs ( A n d r i s a n i , 1977)* Those workers who a r e i n low s k i l l l e v e l p o s i t i o n s which do not i n c l u d e a s i g n i f i c a n t degree o f i n t r i n s i c reward may f i n d l i t t l e sense i n v i e w i n g t h e i r work as a n y t h i n g e l s e but a s o u r c e o f economic s e c u r i t y . F o r many employees, work i s not a c e n t r a l l i f e i n t e r e s t . H3: E d u c a t i o n w i l l be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Due t o e d u c a t i o n ' s s o c i a l i z i n g f u n c t i o n , l e v e l o f educa- t i o n i s expected t o be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o p r e f e r e n c e s f o r i n t r i n s i c rewards and a d e s i r e t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ( S t r a u s s , 1974). I t i s easy t o s u p p o r t the n o t i o n t h a t more educated workers would f e e l more c o n f i d e n t i n b e i n g a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and would be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r v i e w p o i n t s t o management more e f f e c t i v e l y . 37 Kb: Men w i l l be more l i k e l y t o d e s i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a n women. Ev i d e n c e from Europe (Walker, 197^) seems t o s u p p o r t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . Women may p o s s e s s a weaker attachment t o t h e w o r k f o r c e due t o t r a d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a l sex r o l e s o c i a l i z a t i o n which p l a c e s t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d - c a r e and homemaking more on women i n our s o c i e t y , and whic h engenders women w i t h a more p a s s i v e , n u r t u r a n t r o l e t h a n men. Men may draw more o f t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m from t h e r o l e o f t h e " p r o v i d e r " and hence, may be more l i k e l y t o v a l u e work i n t r i n s i c a l l y i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e as a means t o e a r n a l i v i n g . However, the c u r r e n t e m a n c i p a t i o n o f women i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , as w e l l as changes i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , may r e n d e r t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n s i g - n i f i c a n t . H5* There w i l l be more s u p p o r t f o r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l t h a n a t medium o r d i s t a n t l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s drawn from the work o f W a l l and L i s c h e r o n (1977) and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s as w e l l as t h o s e of M a r c h i n g t o n (1980). I t would seem r e a s o n - a b l e t h a t w o r kers would want t o p a r t i c i p a t e more i n thos e a r e a s i n whi c h they p o s s e s s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e t o make competent d e c i s i o n s and which a r e more immediate t o t h e i r e v eryday l i v e s . 38 H6: S u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l drop s h a r p l y when a c o s t f a c t o r ( i . e . , t i m e , s e c u r i t y , pay) i s i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s f i n d s s u p p o r t i n the work of W i t t e (1980) and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e v i d e n c e f rom s t u d i e s w h i c h p o i n t t o a major group o f employees, e s p e c i a l l y i n l e s s i n t e r e s t i n g work, who p o s s e s s a n l i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e towards work, e.g. ( G o l d t h o r p e e t a l . , 1968)j t h a t i s , t h o s e w i t h an i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e may v a l u e i n c r e a s e d pay much more t h a n an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . H7s There e x i s t s a " g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n syndrome," t h a t i s , t h o s e who d e s i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e more i n o t h e r a r e a s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a t t i t u d i n a l r e s e a r c h and p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y which would p r e d i c t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a " p a r t i c i p a t i v e t y p e . " I n t h i s c a s e , d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i - p a t i o n s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o the r e s p o n d e n t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r u n f o r shop s t e w a r d . I n a s t u d y on l o c a l u n i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Anderson, 1977), a " g e n e r a l p a r t i c i p a - t i o n syndrome" was r e f e r r e d t o as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g t h a t b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a g r e a t e r number o f o u t s i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n s was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g w i t h i n t h e u n i o n . 39 Y I i The S u r v e y I n s t r u m e n t The s u r v e y was adapted from two p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on a t t i t u d e s towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n by M a r c h i n g t o n (1980) and W i t t e (1980). I n these two s t u d i e s , the d e s i r e f o r p a r t i - c i p a t i o n was measured by a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s d i r e c t l y how much say d i d t h e y want i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . I n t h i s s t u d y , the d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was measured by the w i l l i n g - n e s s o f a r e s p o n d e n t t o move t o a n o t h e r nearby"^ 0 company whi c h would a l l o w more say i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g h e l d the same ( i . e . , pay, job s e c u r i t y , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . ) . U s i n g w i l l i n g n e s s t o move as a p r o x y f o r d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t i l l has some weaknesses s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s p o t e n t i a l " p s y c h i c c o s t s " which may v a r y among i n d i v i d u a l s , s uch as l e a v i n g workmates o r t h e a n x i e t y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any change. However, i t may be argued t h a t s i m p l y a s k i n g an i n d i v i d u a l i f he wants more say i n h i s j o b may be a k i n t o a s k i n g him i f he wants more moneyV w i t h o u t a t t a c h i n g any c o s t , such as an i n c r e a s e i n accoun- t a b i l i t y o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f a respondent answers t h a t he i s w i l l i n g t o move, one may i n f e r t h a t h i s d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s more genuine t h a n i f he m e r e l y r e p l i e d t h a t he wanted more say i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , detached from any consequences t o t h a t r e p l y . The i n t e n t o f s t i p u l a t i n g a nearby company was t o remove any r e s i s t a n c e t o moving due t o such f a c t o r s as moving expenses, c h a n g i n g s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n , o r b e i n g u p r o o t e d from a commu- n i t y . The s u r v e y was improved f u r t h e r by i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n s of s e v e r a l l a b o u r e d u c a t o r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s u r v e y d e s i g n and the w o r d i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s . Care was t a k e n t o pose q u e s t i o n s so as n o t t o be a t a l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y which would have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e meaning f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r work s e t t i n g , y e t n o t so c o n t e x t s p e c i f i c as t o deny c r o s s - s e t t i n g c o m p a r i s o n s . F o r example, employees were asked how s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made, such as when t h e work day b e g i n s and ends? who i s a s s i g n e d t o a job o r t a s k ; and how much i n f l u e n c e s h o u l d t h e y have i n r e d e s i g n i n g o r r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e w o r k p l a c e . The f i n a l d r a f t (Appendix 1) was composed o f t h i r t y q u e s t i o n s which attempt t o measures j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ; the form, e x t e n t , degree and scope o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s i r e d ; t h e importance o f i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g as compared t o more t r a d i t i o n a l i s s u e s ; t h e v a l u e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n terms o f what t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o t r a d e i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n more i n f l u e n c e ; and l a s t l y , t h e d e s i r e and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r u n i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Sample and Methodology The sample was t a k e n from a major w h i t e - c o l l a r o f f i c e and t e c h n i c a l employees' u n i o n o p e r a t i n g l a r g e l y i n the p u b l i c s e c t o r . The s u r v e y s were d i s t r i b u t e d i n October, 1981, a t a shop s t e w a r d s ' m e e t i n g , f o r t y stewards r e c e i v i n g 41 t e n s u r v e y s each. The stewards were asked t o d i s t r i b u t e t h e s u r v e y s on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s and t o r e t u r n t h e s u r v e y s t o a c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n . A p o s s i b l e b i a s e x i s t s i n t h i s t e c h n i q u e i n t h a t t h o s e employees who would v o l u n t e e r t o f i l l i n the s u r v e y may be more p r e d i s p o s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n t h o s e who r e f u s e d . I n a d d i t i o n , the shop stewards may a l s o t e n d t o ask o n l y those employees who, t h e y b e l i e v e , would be most l i k e l y t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h a u n i o n - a d m i n i s t e r e d s u r v e y . A randomly d i s t r i b u t e d m a i l s u r v e y may have e l i m i - n a t e d the l a t t e r b i a s , but the former b i a s would r e m a i n u n l e s s t h e employees were s t r o n g l y encouraged o r rewarded t o complete the s u r v e y on company t i m e . Due t o t h i s d e s i g n f l a w , a c e r t a i n b i a s i s i n e v i t a b l e and must be r e f l e c t e d i n t he i n f e r e n c e s w h i c h we may draw from the r e s u l t s . A f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r was s e n t out t o t h e stewards two weeks l a t e r r e m i n d i n g them t o p i c k up the completed s u r v e y s , t o remind members t o f i l l - i n t h e s u r v e y , and t o p o i n t out t h a t p o s t a g e would be p a i d . Complete anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y were gu a r a n t e e d i n o r d e r t o e l i c i t t h e most ho n e s t r e s p o n s e s and t o assuage u n i o n f e a r s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n might be used t o t h e i r d i s - advantage . A t o t a l o f 400 s u r v e y s were s e n t out and 237 u s a b l e r e t u r n s were r e c e i v e d f o r a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 60 p e r c e n t . A p o s s i b l e b i a s may e x i s t i n t h a t t h e 40 p e r c e n t who chose n o t t o f i l l - i n the s u r v e y may have d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n kz c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s than those who chose to complete the survey. For example, i t has often been found that the less educated, those i n lower occupational categories, and those unin- terested i n the subject of the survey have higher than average rates of non-response (Moser, 1972). However, a response rate of 60 percent i s considered adequate f o r t h i s type of survey as long as one remains aware of the nature and p o s s i b i l i t y of the non-response bias. The following sample c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were also noted 1 TABLE 1 SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS Job Category 1 1 - c l e r i c a l : 59% - technical-professional; kl% Demographics - median age: 32 (range: 18-62) - married: 59$ - female: kk% - mean number of children: 1..0 - median tenure: 6 years - completed or have some college: 55% Union Membership - rank-and-file: 83% - shop steward: 15% - union o f f i c e r : 2% VII.. Results The survey included a question which broadly followed the d i s t i n c t i o n advanced by Hertzberg (1959) between "hygiene" and "motivator" factors. Before presenting the r e s u l t s of the Job category was determined using an objective measure. Respondents were asked to give a b r i e f job description. 43 h y p o t h e s e s , i t i s u s e f u l t o draw a d i s t i n c t i o n between such f a c t o r s as pay and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - making. Based on h i s s t u d i e s , H e r t z b e r g c o n c l u d e d t h a t j o b s a t i s - f a c t i o n and j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n do not come from t h e pr e s e n c e o r absence o f one s e t o f f a c t o r s . I n s t e a d , t hey come from two s e p a r a t e s e t s o f f a c t o r s , which H e r t z b e r g c a l l e d " s a t i s - f i e r s " ( m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s ) and " d i s s a t i s f i e r s " ( h y g i e n e f a c t o r s ) . The s a t i s f i e r s , o r f a c t o r s t h a t m o t i v a t e p e o p l e t o p e r f o r m w e l l and l e a d t o f e e l i n g s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , i n c l u d e achievement, r e c o g n i t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and advancement. H e r t z b e r g b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e absence o f t h e s e f a c t o r s had l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e employee's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The d i s s a t i s f i e r s i n c l u d e d such f a c t o r s as s a l a r y , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and j o b s e c u r i t y . P o s i t i v e r a t i n g s f o r t h e s e f a c t o r s d i d not l e a d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n b u t merely t o t h e absence o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Hence, a c c o r d i n g t o H e r t z b e r g * s t h e o r y , the s a t i s f i e r s a r e r e l a t e d t o the n a t u r e o f t h e work o r j o b c o n t e n t and t h e p s y c h i c rewards t h a t r e s u l t d i r e c t l y f r o m performance o f t h e work t a s k s . On the o t h e r hand, the d i s s a t i s f i e r s o r hygi e n e f a c t o r s come from t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e o r g a n i - z a t i o n ' s environment o r the j o b c o n t e x t i n which t h e work i s b e i n g done, such as t h e degree o f p h y s i c a l s a f e t y and f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d . 1*1+ Though "subsequent r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s t w o - f a c t o r t h e o r y o v e r s i m p l i f i e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n ( e . g . , House, 1967) i n t h a t i t was found t h a t j o b c o n t e x t f a c t o r s , such as s a l a r y , c o u l d l e a d t o j ob s a t i s f a c t i o n , and t h a t the absence o f j o b con- t e n t f a c t o r s , such as achievement and r e c o g n i t i o n , c o u l d l e a d t o j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the d i s t i n c t i o n s t i l l m a i n t a i n s a h i g h degree o f v a l i d i t y and i s u s e f u l f o r the comparison t h a t has been made i n t h i s s t u d y . T a b l e 2 l i s t s t w e l v e q u e s t i o n s which were posed con- c e r n i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s rewards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n h i s c u r r e n t j o b , and t h e respondent was r e q u i r e d t o answer i n two p a r t s as f o l l o w s : 1) To what e x t e n t does y o u r j o b o f f e r you t h e f o l l o w i n g rewards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? ( L i s t s u p p l i e d ) 2 ) How i m p o r t a n t i s each o f t h e s e rewards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o you? These q u e s t i o n s a t t e m p t e d t o a s s e s s the r e s p o n d e n t ' s a t t i - t u d e s towards work and the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f m o t i v a - t i o n a l f a c t o r s ( s a t i s f i e r s ) i n r e l a t i o n t o hyg i e n e f a c t o r s ( d i s s a t i s f i e r s ) . Respondents were asked t o answer from " v e r y l i t t l e " (1) t o " v e r y much" (5) on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e . T h e i r r e s p o n s e s r e p r e s e n t an e s t i m a t e and a r e no more t h a n an a t t e m p t t o rank t h e s e f a c t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : 45 TABLE 2 REWARDS AND OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED AT WORK: Mean Responses ( B ) - ( A ) leasure • i s s a t i s Now Ranked and Rank f a c t i o n C A N n J - * - * * Measure o f (A) C o n d i t i o n s (B) Importance D i s s i s - S e c u r i t y o f employment 3.94 (1) C o n v e n i e n t hours a t work 3.8? (2) F r i e n d l y work r e l a t i o n s h i p s 3.86 (3) Good f r i n g e b e n e f i t s 3.62 (4) Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s 3.41 (5) Good pay 3.26 (6) Hygiene F a c t o r s ( D i s s a t i s f i e r s ) 4.30 (4) O.36 4.19 (6) O.32 4.37 (2) 0.51 4.18 (7) O.56 4.37 (2) O.96 4.35 (3) 1.09 M o t i v a t i o n a l F a c t o r s ( S a t i s f i e r s ) C o n t r o l over own work 3.11 (7) 4.18 (7) I.07 Good s u p e r v i s i o n 2.98 (8) 4.00 (9) 1.02 I n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g work 2.83 (9) 4.42 (1) 1.59 O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use my a b i l i t i e s 2.71 (10) 4.27 (5) 1.56 R e c o g n i t i o n f o r work w e l l done 2.54 (11) 4.18 (7) 1.64 O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u p g r a d i n g and p r o m o t i o n 2.26 (12) 4.05 (8) I.79 (N = 237. F o r s c o r i n g t h i s T a b l e : ( l = v e r y l i t t l e ) t h r o u g h t o (5=very much)) L o o k i n g a t t h e h y g i e n e f a c t o r s , we see t h a t employees a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s e b a s i c s o f t h e j o b . S e c u r i t y o f employment, c o n v e n i e n t hours o f work, f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and good f r i n g e b e n e f i t s a r e a l l s u f f i c i e n t , though good pay i s j u s t seen t o be adequate ( i . e Measure o f D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n = 1..09). I n s t a r k c o n t r a s t , a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e emerges when we examine the p o s i t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . These appear t o be p o o r s o u r c e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y o p p o r t u - n i t i e s f o r u p g r a d i n g and p r o m o t i o n . R e c o g n i t i o n f o r work w e l l done, o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use one's a b i l i t i e s , and i n - t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g work a r e ^ a l l seen t o be l a c k i n g . Only moderate c o n t r o l o v er one's work i s p e r c e i v e d . The f i v e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s were ranked i n t h e f o l l o w i n g o r d e r * i n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g work? f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; pay; j o b s e c u r i t y ; and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use one's a b i l i t i e s . Maslow (1970) p o s t u l a t e d a t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n based upon a h i e r a r c h y o f needs r a n g i n g from p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs t h r o u g h t o t h e need f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Each need must be a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e f o r e he o r she moves up the h i e r a r c h y t o the n e x t s t a g e . I n t h i s c a s e , H e r t z b e r g ' s h y g i e n e f a c t o r s c o r r e s p o n d t o Maslow's p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s e c u r i t y needs, whereas h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s may be compared t o Maslow's needs f o r s e l f - e s t e e m and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . L o o k i n g a t t h e f i v e most i m p o r t a n t 47 job factors to these respondents, we see that the minimum l e v e l of pay and security has been reached and thus, the motivational factors are viewed to be at le a s t as important as the more basic hygiene f a c t o r s . Desire for p a r t i c i p a t i o n may be viewed within t h i s framework as being a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the need for esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Consistent with this viewpoint and Hertzberg's d i s t i n c - t i o n , a survey of over 20,000 employees i n the United States (Andrisani, 1978) yielded the following supportive findings! While students of labor-management r e l a t i o n s would expect bread and butter factors to play a prominent role i n shaping job s a t i s f a c t i o n of workers, the National Longitudinal Surveys'1 data c l e a r l y do not support such a r o l e . . . .Within v i r t u a l l y a l l the eight age-sex-race groups, workers highly s a t i s f i e d with th e i r jobs reported that the factors they l i k e d best about t h e i r work were i n t r i n s i c i n character, that i s , inherent i n the job content rather than job context. . . .(p. 246) As a further test of the importance of motivational fac t o r s , we may look at the s e n s i t i v i t y of the desire f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n when a s p e c i f i c cost factor i s introduced; that i s , what i s the perceived r e l a t i v e importance of the desire f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n to a hygiene fac t o r , such as pay or job security? (Hypothesis #6). Four questions were posed which asked respondents i f they were w i l l i n g to move to another nearby company which would of f e r them more say i n decisions that affected them at work. The f i r s t question asked i f they were w i l l i n g to move to another nearby company where everything was the same ( i . e . , pay, security, conditions, etc.) except for the extra 48 o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The o n l y c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s move would be t h e p s y c h i c c o s t s o f change and l e a v i n g workmates. I f t h e y answered i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e t o q u e s t i o n one, t h e n t h e y were r e q u e s t e d t o answer t h e nex t t h r e e q u e s t i o n s . The second q u e s t i o n added a c o s t f a c t o r o f two e x t r a hours p e r week w i t h o u t pay. The t h i r d asked i f t h ey were w i l l i n g t o g i v e up t h e i r s e n i o r i t y . L a s t l y , t h e f o u r t h asked i f t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o t a k e a 10 p e r - c e n t pay r e d u c t i o n f o r t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The r e s u l t s ^ a r e shown i n T a b l e 3 below t TABLE 3 EFFECTS OF COST FACTORS ON DESIRE FOR PARTICIPATION (N = 23?) Cost Move? Same C o n d i t i o n s ( Move? 2 Hours S e n i o r i t y 10$ Pay Yes 48$ No 20$ U n c e r t a i n _3&$ Yes 30$ 16$ 10$ ..." • ' $ * • ' No 9$ 23$ 23$ U n c e r t a i n 2$ 2$ 15$ 100> 48$ 48$ _48$ As can be seen, about h a l f (48$) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h a t t h e y would be w i l l i n g t o move, e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g e q u a l . ( T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h W i t t e ' s (1980) r e s u l t s o f 45$ f o r a group o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g employees.) W i t h i n t h i s 48 p e r c e n t , 30 p e r c e n t would be w i l l i n g t o work two e x t r a hours p e r week, 16 p e r c e n t would be w i l l i n g t o g i v e up t h e i r s e n i o r i t y , and o n l y 10 p e r c e n t would be 49 w i l l i n g t o t a k e a 10 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n pay f o r t h e e x t r a i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t e d them a t work. Hence, we see t h a t though p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s v a l u e d by a t l e a s t h a l f of the employees, the d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i m i n i s h e s s h a r p l y when a c o s t f a c t o r i s i n t r o d u c e d . A g a i n , t h i s would s u p p o r t the v i e w p o i n t t h a t o n l y a moderate l e v e l o f i n t e r e s t e x i s t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t employees w i s h t o i n c r e a s e t h e m o t i v a t o r f a c t o r s , but n o t a t t h e expense o f th e h y g i e n e f a c t o r s . Though employees' needs o f esteem and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n may be p a r t i a l l y met by p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e i r l o w e r o r more b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l and s e c u r i t y needs a r e n o t so w e l l met t h a t t h e y a r e w i l l i n g t o t r a d e t h e l a t t e r f o r t h e f o r m e r . These f i n d i n g s a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e v e r a l p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( e . g . , M a r c h i n g t o n 1980, W i t t e 1980, W a l l and L i s c h e r o n 1977). The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was posed i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d from w o r k i 28) How much s a t i s f a c t i o n do you g e t out of work as compared t o o t h e r s o u r c e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n such as l e i s u r e t i m e ? (Coded LIEWRK) A g a i n , a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e v a r y i n g from " v e r y l i t t l e " (1) t h r o u g h t o " v e r y much" (5) was a p p l i e d . On t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l work might be more s a t i s f y i n g t h a n c l e r i c a l work, s e p a r a t e r esponse means f o r t h e job c a t e - g o r i e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g h i s t o g r a m p o r t r a y s t h e s e r e s u l t s : 50 FIGURE 3i H i s t o g r a m of S a t i s f a c t i o n D e r i v e d from Work by Job C a t e g o r y T-VALUE = -3.46, p = 0.001 v e r y much' 5 s a t i s f a c t i o n 4 f r o m work 3 2.6 2.4 2 v e r y l i t t l e " 1 (N: = 2.37) Both ^ - ; C l e r i - . • " c a l Tech.- P r o f . T h i s c o n f i r m s t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group o f employees d e r i v e s o n l y a moderate degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r work when compared t o a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s of s a t i s f a c t i o n . As ex- p e c t e d , the t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l -employees draw s i g n i f i - c a n t l y more s a t i s f a c t i o n f r om t h e i r work t h a n t h e c l e r i c a l group (T-VALUE = -3»k6, p = 0.001). However, even t h e y draw o n l y a moderate degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n . Hence, we might i n f e r t h a t employees w i l l o n l y be m o d e r a t e l y p r e d i s p o s e d towards p a r t i c i p a t i o n s i n c e work i s n o t viewed as t h e major s o u r c e o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f these employees. We can now t u r n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r t i - c i p a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s paper w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i - z a t i o n - t h e o r e t i c framework or model (p. 24 h e r e o f ) . F i r s t l y , l e t us l o o k a t t h e s t r e n g t h o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e v a r i o u s forms o f w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , l e t us i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e g r e e , e x t e n t , and scope o f t h e d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n } 51 t h a t i s : I n what s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n s do workers want t o p a r t i c i p a t e ? L o o k i n g f i r s t a t t h e d e s i r e d form o f w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i - p a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : TABLE k FORMS OF WORKERS PARTICIPATION DESIRED (Agree o r S t r o n g l y Agree) 12) J o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on how the work i s done 92$ C o n s u l t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g how the work i s done 90$ Workers' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on the Board o f D i r e c t o r s 6l$ Employees s h o u l d share i n company pss%£i1^f 60$ Management s h o u l d s h a r e a l l company i n f o r m a t i o n 52$ A l l workers s h o u l d own and r u n t h e company 12% (N = 237) We f i n d a h i g h degree o f s u p p o r t f o r j o i n t d e c i s i o n - making on how t h e work s h o u l d be done (92$) and f o r c o n s u l - t a t i o n (90$); moderate s u p p o r t f o r worker d i r e c t o r s (6l$), p r o f i t - s h a r i n g (60$), and s h a r i n g o f a l l company i n f o r m a - t i o n (52$): and o n l y weak s u p p o r t f o r complete w o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l o r ownership (12$). Hence, we f i n d no r a d i c a l c h a l l e n g e t o m a n a g e r i a l a u t h o r i t y o r l e g i t i m a c y , but r a t h e r 52 an i n t e r e s t i n c o n s u l t a t i o n and e n s u r i n g t h a t one's view- p o i n t has an i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Respondents were a l s o asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e amount o f p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e t h e y had over t h e i r j o b s : 14) I n g e n e r a l , how much say do you p e r s o n a l l y have over d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t you a t work? (Coded GENSAY) 15) How much say ought you t o have over t h e s e d e c i s i o n s ? (Coded OTSAY) P e r c e i v e d l a c k o f say: WHATSAY = OTSAY - GENSAY' A g a i n , a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e was a p p l i e d v a r y i n g from " v e r y l i t t l e " (1) t h r o u g h t o " v e r y much" (5) and t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : FIGURE 4: H i s t o g r a m s o f Amount o f I n f l u e n c e by Job C a t e g o r y Amount o f I n f l u e n c e 5 4 3 2 1 0 C l e r i c a l 1 1 ^"?* 5 4 3 2 1 T e c h . - P r o f . 3.6 2.4 1.2 GENSAY OTSAY WHATSAY GENSAY ^ S A Y ^ ^ A T S A Y Both t h e c l e r i c a l employees and the t e c h n i c a l - p r o - f e s s i o n a l group t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d have t h e same amount o f i n f l u e n c e o v e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (3*6). However, t h e c l e r i c a l employees p e r c e i v e d t hemselves as h a v i n g l e s s 53 p r e s e n t i n f l u e n c e (1.9 compared t o 2.4, T-VALUE = 3.11, p = 0.002) and a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p e r - c e i v e d l a c k o f say t h a n t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group (1.7 compared t o 1.2, T-VALUE = 2.73, p = 0.007). Hence, we might e x p e c t a g r e a t e r d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n among c l e r i c a l employees. To shed more l i g h t i n t h i s a r e a , s i x t e e n q u e s t i o n s were asked which d e a l t w i t h the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f d e c i - s i o n s commonly f a c e d i n t h e work environment. F o l l o w i n g W a l l and L i s c h e r o n ' s (1977) d i s t i n c t i o n , t h e s e q u e s t i o n s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : " l o c a l " d e c i s i o n s , w hich are t h o s e t h a t most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the worker i n h i s immediate environment, such as how much work s h o u l d be done i n a day, o r how t h i s work i s t o be done: "medium" d e c i s i o n s , w h i c h are u s u a l l y made a t t h e l e v e l o f m i d d l e management, such as h i r i n g , f i r i n g , and p r o m o t i o n ; and l a s t l y , " d i s t a n t " d e c i s i o n s , w h i c h d e a l w i t h c o r p o r a t e p o l i c y , such as i n v e s t m e n t o r p r i c i n g , and a r e u s u a l l y h a n d l e d by t o p management. The r e s p o n s e s were noted on a t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e v a r y i n g from management d e c i s i o n (1), j o i n t d e c i s i o n (2), t o w o r k e r s ' d e c i s i o n (3). The f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : 13) DECISION L o c a l D e c i s i o n s - When t h e work day b e g i n s and ends - Q u a n t i t y o f work f o r the day - Q u a l i t y o f t h e work - The way t h e work i s done - Who i s a s s i g n e d t o a t a s k - R e d e s i g n i n g o r r e o r g a n i z i n g w o r k p l a c e - S e t t i n g o f wages o r pay s c a l e s Medium D e c i s i o n s - S e l e c t i o n o f foremen o r s u p e r v i s o r s - Who s h o u l d be f i r e d - Who g e t s promoted - Who s h o u l d be h i r e d - Who s h o u l d be l a i d - o f f - D e s i g n i n g a new p l a n t o r o f f i c e D i s t a n t D e c i s i o n s - S e t t i n g o f managements' s a l a r i e s - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s o r p r o f i t s - S e t t i n g p o l i c y on p r i c i n g , new p r o d u c t s o r s e r v i c e s TABLE 5 MAKING AT WORK (N = 23?) A c t u a l l y Made S h o u l d be Made Management J o i n t Workers' Manag. J o i n t Workers D e c i s i o n D e c i s i o n D e c i s i o n Dec'n. Dec'n. Dec'n. ~~wr ~~wi— w — - m — ~ m — m — 41. 5 10 82 8 63 30 7 16 78 6 66 23 11 21 71 8 51 44 26 5 7 88 5 71 3 22 72 6 61 .35 4 6 80 14 51 49 0 16 80 4 94 5 1 41 54 5 84 15 1 41 57 2 88 12 0 37 62 1" 90 9 1 f? 44 3 88 11 1 44 53 3 90 10 0 26 72 2 96 4 0 51 46 3 98 2 0 53 46 1 95 5 0 52 ^5 3 55 A l l employees i n t h i s s u r v e y were c o v e r e d by a number o f c o l l e c t i v e agreements, and i t i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d them r e s p o n d i n g t h a t d e c i s i o n s j o i n t l y made a t the b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e a r e a c t u a l l y made by management ( e . g . , s e t t i n g o f wages o r pay s c a l e s ) . However, management t y p i - c a l l y a d m i n i s t e r s t h e c o l l e c t i v e agreement, whereas t h e u n i o n i s s u e s g r i e v a n c e s whan v i o l a t i o n s o c c u r . F o r example, though t h e b a s i c pay l e v e l s a r e s e t a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g t a b l e , t h e pay s t r u c t u r e i s u s u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by management th r o u g h j o b e v a l u a t i o n . Hence, management appears t o many employees t o be making d e c i s i o n s because the c o n s t r a i n t s s e t down i n the c o l l e c t i v e agreement a r e n o t as v i s i b l e on a day-to-day b a s i s . Thus, t h e i l l u s i o n o f g r e a t e r management i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - making i s c r e a t e d . From T a b l e 5i one sees a c o n s i s t e n t l y p o s i t i v e s h i f t i n a l l r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s f r o m management d e c i s i o n towards j o i n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . There i s o n l y one d e c i s i o n t h a t employees would s e e m i n g l y want more say i n t h a n management, and t h a t i s r e d e s i g n i n g o r r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own w o r k p l a c e (2.08 on t h e t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e ) . I t i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s t r o n g e s t d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x i s t s a t the l o c a l l e v e l where employees f e e l t h ey have the„competency and i n f o r m a t i o n t o make the b e s t d e c i s i o n s . When as k e d how d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made on t h e s c a l e f rom (1) t o ( 3 ) , t h e f o l l o w i n g means f o r l o c a l , medium, and d i s t a n t 56 l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g were o b t a i n e d ! ( H y p o t h e s i s #5) FIGURE 5t Workers' D e s i r e d Amount o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g D e c i s i o n s Workers 3 J o i n t Manage- ment 2 \- 1.93 1.62 1.50 A l l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the means a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a t p < 0 . 0 0 1 L o c a l Medium D i s t a n t (N = 237) As e x p e c t e d , we see t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e i s more i n t e r e s t i n d e c i s i o n s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l (1 .93), l e s s i n medium d e c i - s i o n s (1.62), and the l e a s t i n t h o s e d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s i n whi c h employees have t h e l e a s t knowledge o r e x p e r i e n c e (1 .50). C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e form o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g chosen, t h e r e i s no r a d i c a l movement t o remove t h e m a j o r i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f r o m management, b u t r a t h e r a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r j o i n t d e c i s i o n - making, e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . To c o n c l u d e , we see t h a t t h e scope o f m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s i n w hich workers want t o p a r t i c i p a t e i s g e n e r a l l y l i m i t e d t o l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g f o r d i r e c t p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and medium o r d i s t a n t l e v e l s f o r , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The degree t h a t workers want t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s i s sub- s t a n t i a l f o r l o c a l d e c i s i o n s , but o n l y moderate f o r medium and d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s , f a l l i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t o f w o r k e r s ' c o n t r o l . L a s t l y ^ t h e e x t e n t o f t h e d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e 57 among employees appears t o be moderate a l s o , w i t h s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e w o r k e r s w i l l i n g t o change companies, e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g e q u a l , i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o have some i n c r e a s e d say i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t them a t work. These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l a t t i t u d e towards work h e l d by many o f t h e s e employees. From the p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n , we see t h a t hypotheses H5 (more s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the l o c a l t h a n a t medium o r d i s t a n t l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ) and H6 ( s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l d rop s h a r p l y when a c o s t f a c t o r i s i n t r o d u c e d ) have been a c c e p t e d and we can r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i n t h e s e c a s e s . The o t h e r key v a r i a b l e s and t h e i r c o d i n g may be found i n Appendix 2, a l o n g w i t h a computer m a t r i x o f the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . As can be r e a d d i r e c t l y from t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x i n Appendix 2, t h e r e s u l t s f o r the o t h e r hypotheses a r e as f o l l o w s i (Note t h a t the s i g n f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e (MOVSAM) must be r e v e r s e d due t o c o d i n g . ) TABLE 6 HYPOTHESESi PREDICTIONS AND RESULTS Independent H y p o t h e s i z e d R e l ' n w i t h R e s u l t s V a r i a b l e D e s i r e f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n (Dependent V a r i a b l e MOVSAM) ( P e a r s o n r ) , ( S i g n i - • f i c a n c e ) HI Age N e g a t i v e r = - O i l O p = 0.10 H2 Job S k i l l L e v e l P o s i t i v e r = -0.23, P = 0.002 H3 E d u c a t i o n P o s i t i v e r = -0.04, p = 0.31 H4 Sex (l=male,2=female) N e g a t i v e r = -0.05, P = 0.25 *H7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o t h e r a r e a s P o s i t i v e r = 0.13, p = 0.05 * ( A s measured by w i l l i n g n e s s t o r u n f o r s t e w a r d - RUNSTEW) 5 8 Hence, s e t t i n g our l e v e l o f a c c e p t a n c e a t 0 . 0 5 , we f i n d t h a t o n l y h y p o t h e s i s H 7 can he a c c e p t e d . As noted p r e v i o u s l y , h y p o theses H5 and H 6 may a l s o be a c c e p t e d $ t h a t i s , t h e r e i s more s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the l o c a l l e v e l t h a n a t medium o r d i s t a n t l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g (H5), and s u p p o r t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n drops s h a r p l y when a c o s t f a c t o r i s i n t r o - duced ( H 6 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n (MOVSAM) was found f o r age, e d u c a t i o n , o r s e x . A t odds w i t h our h y p o t h e s i s , c l e r i c a l employees were more w i l l i n g t o move f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n were t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l g roup. I n o r d e r t o check f o r p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s and t o c o n t r o l f o r c o v a r i a t e s , such as e d u c a t i o n and age, a number o f two-way a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were r u n on the f a c t o r s which c o u l d p o s s i b l y i n t e r a c t . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between s e x and job s k i l l l e v e l . F o r example, male c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s were no more i n c l i n e d t o d e s i r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n female c l e r i c a l w orkers (F = 0 . 6 1 , p = n . s . ) . When e d u c a t i o n was c o n t r o l l e d f o r , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n between those l e s s t h a n 3 5 y e a r s o f age and t h o s e o v e r 3 5 (F: = 0 . 0 1 , p = n . s . ) . Nor were t h e r e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between men and women on t h e dependent v a r i a b l e when the e f f e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n and age 59 were removed from th e e r r o r v a r i a n c e . I n sum, no s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s were d i s - c o v e r e d and the e f f e c t s o f i n t r o d u c i n g c o n t r o l s on t h e major r e l a t i o n s h i p s were i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Though age, e d u c a t i o n , and sex d i d not have the p r e - d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n (MOVSAM), we do f i n d o l d e r , more h i g h l y educated males i n t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group. (See JOB:, column 2, Appendix 2.) A c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e d a t a shows t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l employees d i f f e r f r o m th e c l e r i c a l employees on s e v e r a l c h a r a c - t e r i s t i c s . I n o r d e r t o t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e s e d i f f e - r e n c e s , T a b l e 2 (Rewards and O p p o r t u n i t i e s O f f e r e d a t Work) was d i s a g g r e g a t e d by j o b c a t e g o r y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l employees d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e c l e r i c a l employees on how they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r p r e s e n t w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Hence, we f i n d t h a t the t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e c l e r i c a l group on a l l the m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s o r t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e job which l e a d t o s a t i s f a c t i o n . There a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the h y g i e n e f a c t o r s e x c e p t f o r the g l o b a l measure s t a t e d as "good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . " C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the h i g h e r s c o r e s on the m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group a l s o d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y draw more s a t i s f a c t i o n f r om t h e i r work t h a n do t h e c l e r i c a l employees. (T-VALUE « -3 .46, p = 0 . 0 0 1 ) . 60 TABLE 7 REWARDS AND OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED AT WORK BY JOB. CATEGORY C o n d i t i o n s Now (Mean Response) (A) ( B ) - T-VALUE, S i g n i - C l e r i ca1 T . l e h i k T P r o f f (B) - (A) f i e a n c e Hygiene F a c t o r s ( D i s s a t i s f i e r s ) S e c u r i t y o f employment 3-9 4.0 0.1 0.84, n.s. C o n v e n i e n t hours of work 3.8 3.9 0.1 0.54, n.s. F r i e n d l y work r e l a t i o n s h i p s 3.8 4.0 0.2 1.53. n.s. Good F r i n g e b e n e f i t s 3.6 3.7 0.1 0.74, n.s. Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s 3.2 3.8 0.6 3.76, 0.000 Good pay 3.2 3.3 0.1 0.39, n.s. M o t i v a t i o n a l F a c t o r s ( S a t i s f i e r s ) C o n t r o l over my own work 2.9 3.̂  0.5 2.51. 0.013 Good s u p e r v i s i o n 2.8 3.3 0.5 2.34, 0.020 I n t e r e s t i n g and s a t i s f y i n g work 2.5 3.3 0.8 4.21, 0.000 O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o use my a b i l i t i e s 2.5 3.1 0.6 3.93. 0.000 R e c o g n i t i o n f o r work w e l l done 2.3 2.8 0.5 3.07. 0.002 O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u p g r a d i n g and p r o m o t i o n 2.0 2.6 0,6 3.94. 0.000 (N: =237- F o r s c o r i n g t h i s ©able: (1 = v e r y l i t t l e ) t h r o u g h t o (5 v e r y much)). 61 P e r h a p s most s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as h a v i n g more co n - t r o l o v e r t h e i r own work t h a n d i d t h e c l e r i c a l employees. T h i s g r e a t e r p e r c e p t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e and g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d f r om t h e i r work c o u l d e x p l a i n t h e g r e a t e r r e t i c e n c e about moving t o a more p a r t i c i p a t i v e w>o/rk e n v i r o n m e n t among the t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group. F o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n , a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was r u n on the d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n (MOVSAM), and 2 2 . p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d . The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 8 as follows» TABLE 8 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ON THE DESIRE FOR PARTICIPATION (MOVSAM) MULTIPLE R 0.47425 R SQUARE O.22492 ADJUSTED R SQUARE 0.17247 STANDARD ERROR O.41861 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DF REGRESSION 9 . RESIDUAL 133. SUM OF SQUARES 6.76323 23.30670 MEAN SQUARE 0.75147 0.17524 4 . 2 8 8 2 7 P 0.0001 SUMMARY TABLE VARIABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE SIMPLE R WHATSAY 0 33258 0 1 1061 0 1 1061 -0 33258 JOB 0 38962 0 15180 0 04 1 19 0 26694 LIEWRK o 42653 0 18192 0 03012 0 29422 RUNSTEW 0 46089 0 21242 0 03050 0 14289 EDUC 0 46617 0 21731 0 00489 0 02068 SEX 0 47047 0 22135 0 00403 0 01738 YRSEMP O 47244 O 22320 O 00186 O 16008 AGE 0 47344 0 22414 0 00094 0 06685 MEMBER - 0 47425 0 22492 0 00077 -0 06070 (CONSTANT) VARIABLE B BETA STD ERROR B WHATSAY JOB LIEWRK RUNSTEW EDUC SEX YRSEMP AGE MEMBER (CONSTANT) -0. O. 0. O. -O. 0. O. 0. O. 7394986E-01 222 1887 7569486E-01 1793041 2678895E-01 7364425E-01 2988680E-02 1356471E-02 3173985E-01 -0.21708 0.23964 0. 18607 O. 19377 -0.05723 0.07885 .0.03720 0.03299 0.03344 0.5195575 0 . 0 2 8 4 6 0 . 0 8 4 0 1 0 . 0 3 3 3 9 0 . 0 8 6 7 8 0 . 0 3 8 9 4 * 0 . 0 7 6 0 8 * 0 . 0 0 6 9 7 * 0 . 0 0 3 4 4 * 0 . 0 8 7 1 3 * ( # N o n - s i g n i f i c a n t a t p=s. 05) 62 The v a r i a b l e w hich a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e most v a r i a t i o n i n d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n (MOVSAM) was p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e (WHATSAY) which a c c o u n t e d f o r I I p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e . The n e x t t h r e e v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e a r e : j o b s k i l l l e v e l (JOB, 4. p e r c e n t ) , s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m work (LIEWRK, p e r c e n t ) , and w i l l i n g n e s s t o r u n f o r shop s t e w a r d (RUNSTEW, 3; p e r c e n t ) . Hence, we f i n d t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e i s f a r more p r e - d i c t i v e o f t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o move to a more p a r t i c i p a t i v e work s e t t i n g t h a n any o t h e r v a r i a b l e . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t o what degree p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e (WHATSAY) a f f e c t e d the o v e r a l l measure o f job s a t i s f a c t i o n (OVERSAT.: see q u e s t i o n s 10 and 11 i n A ppendix 1- S u r v e y ) , a r e g r e s s i o n was r u n w i t h good pay (GPN), i n t e - r e s t i n g work (INTWKN), and p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e (WHATSAY) as the independent v a r i a b l e s . Due t o m u l t i c o l l i - n e a r i t y among the rewards and o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d a t work w h i c h might a f f e c t o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n g work and good pay were chosen because o f t h e weak c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r ( r = 0.07;'). The r e s u l t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 9> , I n t e r e s t i n g work was by f a r t h e most p o w e r f u l v a r i a b l e e x p l a i n i n g 4-8 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e , f o l l o w e d by p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e (4 p e r c e n t ) , and good pay (2 p e r c e n t ) . Hence, th o s e employees i n t h e more i n t e r e s t i n g t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b s a r e more s a t i s f i e d t h a n t h o s e i n c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s . 63 TABLE 9 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ON OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION (OVERSAT) MULTIPLE R 0.73422 R SQUARE 0.53908 ADJUSTED R SQUARE 0.53294 STANDARD ERROR 0.75642 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE DF REGRESSION 3. RESIDUAL 225. SUM OF SQUARES 150.57072 128.73932 MEAN SQUARE 50.19024 0.57217 87.71838 P O.OOOO VARIABLE INTWKN WHATSAY GPN (CONSTANT) SUMMARY TABLE MULTIPLE R R SQUARE RSQ CHANGE SIMPLE R 0.69295 0.71969 O. 73422 0.48018 O. 51795 0. 53908 0.48018 0.03778 0 . 02 1 13 0.69295 -0.36479 0. 21O06 VARIABLE INTWKN WHATSAY GPN • (CONSTANT) B 0.5341298 -0.1561208 0/1591932 1.433625 BETA O. 63984 -0.17753 0. 14732 ( • ' S i g n i f i c a n t a t p=^.01) STD ERROR B 0.03908 V 0.O4167 0.04957 >/ M o r e o v e r , p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e does n o t app e a r t o have a v e r y s t r o n g e f f e c t on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' d e c l a r e d l e v e l o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s l a s t p o i n t b e a r s r e p e a t i n g . Though t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e i s a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r o f d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h a n any o t h e r v a r i a b l e , the magnitude o f i t s i n f l u e n c e on o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s f a i r l y s m a l l ( i . e . , h p e r c e n t ) . E i t h e r p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e i s n o t a 64 s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e f o r most o f t h e s e employees compared t o t h e i r o t h e r c o n c e r n s , o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e measure i t s e l f may be so g e n e r a l and ^ r e l a t i v e as t o r e n d e r i t a weak c o r r e l a t e o f job s a t i s f a c t i o n . To c o n c l u d e , f o r t h i s sample o f employees, c l e r i c a l w o r k e rs and t h o s e w i l l i n g t o r u n f o r the p o s i t i o n o f shop s t e w a r d are s i g n i f i c a n t l y more w i l l i n g t o move t o a n o t h e r n e a rby company which would a l l o w them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a t a f f e c t s them t h a n a r e e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l employees o r t h o s e l e s s w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r u n i o n . There i s s u b s t a n t i a l s u p p o r t f o r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e c i s i o n s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s f o r medium and d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s . L a s t l y , when a c o s t f a c t o r f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h o s e who d e s i r e more p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the s u p p o r t f a l l s s i g n i f i c a n t l y and s u b s t a n t i a l l y . V I I I . D i s c u s s i o n Age, e d u c a t i o n , and sex appear t o be p oor p r e d i c t o r s o f the d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as measured by t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f a r e s p o n d e n t t o move t o a n e a r by company w i t h a more p a r t i - c i p a t i v e environment, e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b e i n g h e l d t h e same (pay, b e n e f i t s , c o n d i t i o n s , e t c . ) . S e v e r a l p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t t h e e f f e c t of age on the p r o p e n s i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e , and what emerges i s a t o t a l l y c o n f u s i n g p i c t u r e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between age and d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , as was the case i n 65 t h i s s t u d y . A younger employee's i n i t i a l z e a l and d e s i r e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may soon be e x t i n g u i s h e d i n a work environment t h a t o f f e r s no such o p p o r t u n i t y . O l d e r em- p l o y e e s , who are more l i k e l y t o p o s s e s s the knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , may r e f r a i n f r o m d o i n g so due t o e s t a b l i s h e d norms or a t t i t u d e s , o r a l t e r - n a t i v e l y , may a l r e a d y have a s u f f i c i e n t degree o f i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and be f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s , as appears t o be the case f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l group i n t h i s s t u d y . N i n e t y - o n e p e r c e n t (91$) o f t h i s sample has a t l e a s t completed h i g h s c h o o l . A l o w e r l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n may o n l y i n h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i f i t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h e l e v e l f o r t h i s group o f employees, such as t h e l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t e x i s t s i n the " underdeveloped" c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d . I n t h i s sample, women and t h o s e l e s s educated want t o i n f l u e n c e t h o s e l o c a l d e c i s i o n s w i t h which t h e y a r e most f a m i l i a r . They a l s o have the o p p o r t u n i t y and d e s i r e t o i n f l u e n c e the more d i f f i c u l t medium and d i s t a n t l e v e l d e c i - s i o n s t h r o u g h t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s s t u d y d i d not ask t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i r e c t l y whether t h e y d e s i r e d d i r e c t p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r i n d i r e c t r e p r e s e n - t a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the v a r i o u s d e c i s i o n s . However, one may r e a s o n a b l y i n f e r t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s would p r e f e r d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e c i s i o n s and, meist l i k e l y , r e p r e s e n - t a t i o n i n medium and d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . 66 Only 20 p e r c e n t o f our sample d e f i n i t e l y r e f u s e d t o move f o r i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e . The o t h e r 80 p e r c e n t e i t h e r a greed t o move (48 p e r c e n t ) o r were u n c e r t a i n (32 p e r c e n t ) about moving f o r more i n f l u e n c e . T h i s would l e a d one t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e i s a f a i r l y w i d e s p r e a d s u p p o r t and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i d e a o f w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n among em- p l o y e e s . The low r a n k i n g o f t h e m o t i v a t o r f a c t o r s as p r e s e n t s o u r c e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s t r o n g l y i n d i c a t e s an under- u t i l i z e d human r e s o u r c e . However, the p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f i n f l u e n c e among r e s p o n d e n t s had o n l y a m i n i m a l i n f l u e n c e i n e x p l a i n i n g o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( i . e . , 4 P e r c e n t ) . I n a d d i t i o n , o n l y a m i n o r i t y of employees (10 p e r c e n t ) were w i l l i n g t o a c t u a l l y t a k e a 10 p e r c e n t r e d u c t i o n i n pay f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . These l a s t two p o i n t s would l e a d one t o b e l i e v e e i t h e r t h a t worker p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s not a b u r n i n g i s s u e f o r most em- p l o y e e s ("Having a l o t o f say o v e r how my work i s done",was r a n k e d 8 t h out of 12 b a r g a i n i n g i s s u e s ) , o r t h a t t h e y see i n d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r u n i o n combined w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t l i m i t e d amount o f d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n as adequate f o r t h e i r p u r p o s e s . I X . Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s To a g a i n put WP i n a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s u s e f u l t o l o o k a t t h e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f a l l p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . As o r g a n i z a t i o n s , u n i o n s l o o k upon WP as a means t o change the b a l a n c e o f power by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e o ver medium and 67 d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , whereas management views WP as a means t o boost company e f f i c i e n c y and employee e f f o r t w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t a t u s quo as f a r as p o s s i b l e . From t h i s s t u d y , we see t h a t employees t h e m s e l v e s , f o r the most p a r t , d e s i r e i n c r e a s e d d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l o c a l d e c i - s i o n s w h i c h have an immediate impact on t h e i r day-to-day l i v e s and i n which t h e y f e e l most competent t o make d e c i - s i o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f employees r e s p e c t s management's e x p e r t i s e i n making t h e more complex medium and d i s t a n t d e c i s i o n s as l o n g as t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are r e p r e s e n t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r u n i o n . Hence, when d i s c u s s i n g WP, i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o be c l e a r w i t h which v i e w p o i n t one i s d e a l i n g . I n t h e case o f t h i s s t u d y , we have been l o o k i n g a t t h e employees' p e r s p e c t i v e . S i n c e t h e c l e r i c a l workers have l e s s i n f l u e n c e o v e r l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t h a n th e t e c h n i c a l - p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p , t h e y a r e more w i l l i n g t o move f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n . How- e v e r , though t h i s d e s i r e f o r i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e i s wide- s p r e a d among employees, i t i s n o t a v e r y h i g h l y r a n k e d c o n c e r n . A scheme o f job e nrichment or r e d e s i g n which i n c r e a s e s employees/*!; d i s c r e t i o n might be w e l l r e c e i v e d by t h i s p a r t i - c u l a r group o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s . A r e c e n t s u r v e y of u n i o n a c t i v i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has shown t h a t the p r e f e r r e d method o f d e a l i n g w i t h i s s u e s such as w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , i s t h r o u g h j o i n t programs r a t h e r t h a n 68 c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g (Ponak and F r a s e r , 1979)• I n t e r e s t i n j o b d e s i g n w h i c h i n c r e a s e s t h e employees' d i s c r e t i o n has been r e c e n t l y demonstrated by t h e B.C. F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r i n t h e i r newly e s t a b l i s h e d c o u r s e on j o b d e s i g n . Hence, b o t h management and l a b o u r a r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y aware o f the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s i n g w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a - t i o n i n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . The n e x t s t e p i n a thorough s t u d y would be t o e v a l u a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e s e employees work, i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e o r g a n i z a - ' t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h might h i n d e r o r a s s i s t i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a scheme o f w o r k e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 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London, Oxford Uni-v e r s i t y Press, 1965# 72 B APPENDICES 73 APPENDIX l i WORKER'S ATTITUDES TOWARDS PARTICIPATION: A SURVEY - Please do not put your name on this survey. Please be frank and honest in your replies. 1 . What i s your job? (Please give a br i e f description. ) 2 . Year born. 3. Marital status I |single I Imarried CZ! widowed • divorced/separated 4. Sex I I male Qfemale 5. Number of dependents. 6- Fathers primary worklife occupation. Mothers primary worklife occupation. 7. Number of years with this employer. 8 . Education I I elementary • some highschool • c ompleted highschool some college • completed college 9. Rank-and-file • Shop steward Union o f f i c e r 7 4 -2- 1 0 . To what extent does your job offer you the following rewards and opportunities? Please put a tick (/) for each statement in the space nearest the answer which you believe best describes your rewards and opportunities. In addition, put a tick (vO for each statement showing how important each reward or opportunity i s to you. Conditions now Importance -good pay Very Very L i t t l e Much 1 1 1 1 Very L i t t l e 1 1 1 -security of employment 1 I I 1 -good working conditions l 1 1 1 J ... I 1 .. J 1 1 . ! i . .1 .. ,_L ._] L__ -friendly relationships at work 1 1 1 1 -recognition for work well done -opportunities for upgrading and promotion 1 I L 1 I i 1 I -control over my own work i i 1 1 -opportunities to use my a b i l i t i e s i i i • i i -convenient hours of work i i 1 i ! 1 1 -good supervision | | [ -good fringe benefits 1 ! I 1 I i i ' ] 1 1 1 -interesting and ! i j satisfying work i 1 1 | '! I l l Very | Much 1 1 . As an overall measure, how satisfied are you with your job? Very L i t t l e Very Much. 75 - 3 - 1 2 . Below are some statements connected with the idea of participation by workers in industry. Could you say whether you agree, disagree, or are unsure about each of the statements.'Please tick (•) the appropriate column for each statement. -employees should share in company profits Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Agree -management should not share with workers a l l the company information -management should consult workers about how the work i s to be done -workers' representatives should not s i t on the Board of Directors -management and workers' representatives should make decisions together about~ how the work i s done -workers should never question management's decisions —--'— - a l l workers should jointly own the company and run i t for themselves | i i ' i 1 1 3 . Many decisions are made which affect you in your workplace every day. The following question asks both how you think these decisions are actually made and how they should be made. Please go through the l i s t below and place a tick (•) against the method which best describes your view for each decision. -when the work day begins and ends Actually made [Management Joint Workers) [Decision Decision Descis -selection of foremen or supervisors -who should be firejd -who gets promoted Should be made Management Joint Workers Decision Decision Decision 76 Actually made Management Joint Decision Decision -how much work people should do in a day I Should be made Workers Management Joint Workers Decision!|Decision Decision Decision -the quality of the work -who should be hired -the way the work is| done(methods & procedures) -who i s assigned to job or task -who should be laid-bff -setting of pay scales or wages -setting of managements salaries I -redesigning or reorg- anizing your workplace -how the company distributes i t s resources or invests profits j -designing a new plant or office j -setting policies on- pricing, new products, or services 14. In general, how much say do you personally have over decisions that affect you at work? Very L i t t l e Very Much 1 5 - How much say ought you to have over these decisions? Very L i t t l e Very Much 77 -5- 16. Below are a l i s t of issues which you may be concerned about. What issues would you like your union to push for in bargaining? Put a tic k (v/) i n the space depending upon how important the issue i s to you. -safe working conditions Not very Important Important 1 1 J 1 -job security 1 1 | 1 -pay 1 1 1 1 -opportunities for upgrading or promotion 1 1 1 1 -having a l o t of say over how the company i s run 1 1 1 ! -convenient hours or shorter work week ! 1 1 I -opportunities to use my a b i l i t i e s I 1 1 1 -having a l o t of say over how my work i s done 1 1 I I -fringe benefits -interesting and satisfying work -having a l o t of say over how my work group i s run " J 1 ' ' " j -training or education ' I I I . : 1 7 . If there was another company somewhere-nearby that would allow you to make more decisions than at your present workplace, and i f the pay, benefits, conditions, etc...were a l l the same, the only d i f f - erence being a chance for you to have more say in decisions that affect you, do you think that you would try to get a job there rather than your present job? • Yes • No J jUncertain (If the answer to the above question was'yes', then please answer questions 18, 1 9 , & 20. I f your answer was 'no' or 'uncertain* then you may skip these questions.) 78 - 6 - 18. As you can imagine, making decisions l i k e those already mentioned takes time. If this other company asked you to spend some extra time without pay, say two hours a week, in order to get these decisions made, would you s t i l l change companies? D Yes - L Z l N o | j Uncertain 1 9 . Would you be willing to increase the risk of being la i d - o f f by moving to this other company and loosing your seniority? • Yes • No | jUncertain 2 0 . What i f the pay at this other job or company were less...say 1 0 $ less? Would you s t i l l take the job? • Yes D N o [ [Uncertain 2 1 . How important to you i s i t who i s elected or appointed to the following offices? (Please tick (•) the appropriate column.) -Canadian Labour Congress Not Very Important Important 1 I I I •_. 1 -Workers" representative on joint committee(e.g. safety) i 1 1 1 . • J -shop steward 1 1 1 1 J -Union of f i c e r (local) 1 1 1 1..- - j -Union o f f i c e r (national or international) 1 1 1 1 j -B.C. Federation of Labour I I 1 I I 22. Have you yourself ever considered standing for the position of union officer? • Y e s •No 2 3 . Would you stand for the position of union o f f i c e r i f asked to by your fellow workers? 2k. How much opportunity i s there for membership participation in your union? 25. What percentage of the time do you spend working on a machine? • 0-20* • 20-40* • 40-60* • 60-80* Q80-100* 26. How much i s the speed at which you work set by a machine? 2 7 . What percentage of time do you usually spend working alone? • 0-20* •20-40* •40-60* •60-80* • 80-100* • Yes • No Very L i t t l e Very Much Very L i t t l e Very Much 80 - 8 - 2 8 . How much satisfaction do you get out of work as compared to other sources of satisfaction such as leisure time? Very L i t t l e Very Much 2 9 . What i s your annual income? • Less than $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 O $ 1 0 , 0 0 1 - 1 5 , 0 0 0 • $ 1 5 , 0 0 1 - 2 0 , 0 0 0 • $ 2 0 , 0 0 1 - 2 5 , 0 0 0 • $ 2 5 , 0 0 1 - 3 0 , 0 0 0 • $ 3 0 , 0 0 1 - 3 5 , 0 0 0 lZi$35,ooi-40,ooo • $ 4 0 , 0 0 1 - 4 5 , 0 0 0 • $ 4 5 , 0 0 1 - 5 0 , 0 0 0 • More than $ 5 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 . We would appreciate any comments or opinions you would like to express concerning workers" participation. Please feel free to do so in the space below. Thank you very much for your co-operation. 81 APPENDIX 2 : Key V a r i a b l e s . Cod ing , and C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x V a r i a b l e Coding AGE 18 to 64 JOB 1 C l e r i c a l 2 T e c h n i c a l - P r o f e s s i o n a l EDUC 1 E lementary 2 Some H i g h s c h o o l 3 Completed H ighschoo l 4 Some C o l l e g e 5 Completed C o l l e g e SEX 1 Male 2 Female RUNSTEW:"Have you ever cons ide r ed s t and ing f o r the p o s i t i o n of shop steward o r un ion o f f i c e r ? " 1 Yes 2 No LIEWRK:"How much s a t i s f a c t i o n do you get out of your work as compared to o t h e r sources of s a t i s f a c t i o n such as l e i s u r e t ime ? " 1 (Very L i t t l e ) through to 5 (Very Much) MEMBER 1 Rank-and-Fi le 2 Shop Steward 3 Union O f f i c e r YRSEMP(Tenure) 1 t o 45 Variable Coding MOVSAM:"If there was another company somewhere nearby that would allow you to make more decisions than at your present workplace, and i f the pay, benefits, conditions, etc... were a l l the same, the only difference being a chance for you to have more say in decisions that affect you, do you think that you would try to get a job there rather than your present job?" 1 Yes 2 No 3 Uncertain GENSAY:"In general, how much say do you personally have over decisions that affect jreu at work?" 1 (Very L i t t l e ) through to 5 (Very Much) OTSAY:"How much say ought you to have over these decisions?" 1 (Very L i t t l e ) through to 5 (Very Much) WHATSAY:(OTSAY - GENSAY) (Perceived lack of influence) SPSS BA^CH SYSTEM 01/22/82 PAGE 2 F ILE " WORKPART (CREATION DATE = 11/13/81) - P E A R S O N C O R R E L A T I 0 N C 0 E F F I C I E N T S AGE JOB EDUC SEX RUNSTEW LIEWRK MEMBER YRSEMP MOVSAM WHATSAY AGE 1 .0000 ( 0) P = * * * * * 0 .1877 ( 233) P=0.002 -0 .0762 ( 236) P=0.122 -0.1642 ( 237) P=0.006 -0.0992 ( 236) P=0.064 0.1125 ( 237) P=0.042 0 .0660 ( 217) P=0.167 0.4497 ( 237) P=0.000 0.1014 ( 159) P=0.102 -0 .0390 ( 237) P=0.275 JOB 0 .1877 ( 233) P=0.002 1.0000 ( 0) P = * * * * # 0 .2795 ( 232) P=0.000 -0 .2989 ( 233) P=0.000 -0.1981 ( 232) P=0.001 0 .2220 ( 233) P=0.000 0.1287 ( 213) P=0.030 0.2988 ( 233) P=0.000 0.2323 ( 156) P=0.002 -0.17G9 ( 233) P=0.003 EDUC -0 .0762 ( 236) P=0.122 0. 2795 ( 232) P=0.000 1.0000 ( 0) p = * * * * * -0.0712 ( 236) P=0.138 -0.0149 ( 235) P=0.410 0 .1058 ( 236) P=0.052 0.0176 ( 216) P=0.399 -0.0864 ( 236) P=0.093 0.0402 ( 159) P=0.307 -0 .0589 ( 236) P=0.184 SEX -0 .1642 ( 237) P=0.006 -0 .2989 ( 233) P=0.000 -0 .0712 ( 236) P=0.138 1.0000 ( 0) P * 0.1864 ( 236) P=0.002 -0.0283 ( 237) P=0.332 -0.1360 ( 217) P=0.023 -0.1493 ( 237) P=0.011 0.0536 ( 159) P=0.251 0 .0746 ( 237) P=0.126 RUNSTEW -0.0992 ( 236) P=0.064 -0.1981 ( 232) P=0.001 -0 .0149 ( 235) P=0.410 0.1864 ( 236) P=0.002 1.0000 ( 0) P = * * * * * -0 .0589 ( 236) P=0.184 -0.5152 ( 216) P=0.000 -0.0489 ( 236) P=0.227 0.1277 ( 159) P=0.054 -0.1362 ( 236) P=0.018 LIEWRK 0 .1125 ( 237) P=0.042 0 .2220 ( 233) P=0.000 0 .1058 ( 236) P=0.052 -0.0283 ( 237) P=0.332 -0 .0589 ( 236) P=0.184 1.0000 ( 0) p = * * * * * -0.0125 ( 217) P=0.427 0 .0710 ( 237) P=0.138 0.2981 ( 159) P=0.000 -0.2171 ( 237) P=0.000 MEMBER 0 . 0 6 6 0 ( 217) P=0.167 0 .1287 ( 213) P=0.030 0 .0176 ( 216) P=0.399 -0 .1360 ( 217) P=0.023 -0.5152 ( 216) P=0.000 -0.0125 ( 217) P=0.427 1.0000 ( 0) p = + -0 .0080 ( 217) P=0.453 -0.0539 ( 146) P=0.259 0. 1225 ( 217) P=0.036 YRSEMP 0 .4497 ( 237) P=0.000 0 .2988 ( 233) P=0.000 -0 .0864 ( 236) P=0.093 -0.1493 ( 237) P=0.011 -0.0489 ( 236) P=0.227 0 .0710 ( 237) P=0.138 -0.0080 ( 217) P=0.453 1.0000 ( 0) P — * * * * * 0. 1527 ( 159) P=0.027 -0.1373 ( 237) P=0.017 MOVSAM 0 .1014 ( 159) P=0.102 0 .2323 ( 156) P=0.002 0 .0402 ( 159) P=0.307 0 .0536 ( 159) P=0.251 0. 1277 ( 159) P=0.054 0.2981 ( 159) P=0.000 -0.0539 ( 146) P=0.259 0.1527 ( 159) P=0.027 1.0000 ( 0) P = * * * * * -0.3452 ( 159) P=0.000 WHATSAY -0 .0390 ( 237) P=0.275 -0 .1769 ( 233) P=0.003 -0 .0589 ( 236) P=0.184 0 .0746 ( 237) P=0.126 -0.1362 ( 236) P=0.018 -0.2171 ( 237) P=0.000 0.1225 ( 217) P=0.036 -0.1373 ( 237) P=0.017 -0.3452 ( 159) P=0.000 1.0000 ( 0) P = * * + * * (COEFFICIENT / (CASES) / SIGNIFICANCE) (A VALUE OF 99 .0000 IS PRINTED IF A COEFFICIENT CANNOT BE COMPUTED) APPENDIX 3« Table o f P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s Morse ( 1 9 5 3 ) Katz ( 1 9 5 M Tannenbaum ( 1 9 5 6 ) Holter ( 1 9 6 5 ) Tabb and Goldfarb ( 1 9 7 0 ) Measure o f D e s i r e for Participation Sample Size and Composition H = 3 0 0 (Interview)"Would you l i k e to make more dec- isions in your work?" 1 . Same as above. 2. "Would you l i k e to have more or less to say about the way your work i s done?" Asked for •actual' & •desired' amount of control on a 5 point scale from 'no say(l) through to 'great deal of say' ( 5 ) (Questionnaire)"Would I N=l,128 you like to participate 5 2 * Female more in decisions that 48* Male directly concern your own work and working 225£i5*2022" "Would you like to par- ticipate more in decis- ions that concern the management of the whole enterprise?" (Questionnaire and Int- N=86l erviews)"Are you in favour of participation?" N=742,84* Fem. 1 6 * Male Job Category White-collar (W.C.) (Clerical) N= 5 8 0 I W.C. (Fem. majorityf (Clerical) N = 5 . 7 0 0 (Male majority) Blue-collar (B.C.) B.C. 628 W.C. 5 0 0 B.C. 557 B.C. 304 W.C. Ownership Desire for W.P. Private | 73*(Yes) (Insurance Co. ) Private (Insur.Co) 76*(Yes) Private (Heavy Industry 51* (More) Country and Unionization U.S. (non-union) U.S.(East) (non-union) U.S.(union) Private I Mean A c t u a l= 1 . 9 U.S.(union) (Industrial) Mean Desired=2.5 Private I 56*Yes,B.C. Norway(Oslo) ( 1 0 factories, 67*Yes,W.C. 7 large insur. co.,& 1 large scale indus.) (mixed union- ization) Public (Histadruth) Heavy industry and manufact- uring I l6*Yes,B.C. ll*Yes,W.C. 5^*(Yes) Israel (union) Measure of Desire for Participation Sample Size and Composition Hilgendorf & Open-ended question- I N=2000 Irving ( 1 9 7 0 ) naire dealing with the areas,if any,in whichI workers would like to| participate. Hespe & Warr (197D Hespe & Little(197D "Would you like to have more influence in the running of your department than you currently have?" Subjects were asked for th»4r views on the way management should deal with various decisions. N=243 (Male) N(Same sample as above) Wall and (Questionnaire)Subjects N=131(Fem. Lischeron were asked the desir- ( 1 9 7 7 ) a b i l i t y and practicality of being involved in various decisions.' Job Category lOwnership B.C. B.C. W.C. (Nurses) Various questions r e l - N=118(91 male) B.C. ating to different levels ( 2 7 fem.) of decision-making were asked. Subjects were asked: i N-94(Male) 'How much say should you and your workmates have" over various decisions. Public Desire for W.P. Country and Unionization Highest response England (British Rail) S ^ S g S ^ <-i0n> Private (Eight different industrial enter- prises) 6l*(Yes) England (union) Modal view was negotiations over loca l decisions. Public I Local & distant England (Two hospitals) d e c i s i o n s C 5 0 * Medium=55* Private | Local,medium, North (Steel products) & distant England decisions>50* B.C. I Public (Gromj4skeepers) Local,med.,dist- England ant>50* (About \ Representative at unionized) distant lev e l & direct at local& medium Staines and Quinn(1979) Witte(1980) Marchington (1980) Measure of Desire for Participation Asked workers how much say they should have about various work related decisions. Sample Size and Composition! Job Category N=2300 (Randomly drawn from general population) Asked:"How much say should you have in the following areas?" (Questionnaire)"Do you feel that you personally have enough say in decisions made at your place of work? N=145 ( 5 0 * Fem.) (45* Spanish) N=141 ( 2 0 * Female) A l l job categories Ownership IDesire f o r W. Country and Unionization Public and Private 4 l * ( A l o t of say over how the work is.done) U.S. B , C * 1 Subsidiary 83*(A l o t of ti c K e f SauT^ ° f P , U b l i * l y ^ - e f l o c a l ^ o n -stereo equip.,) owned parent decisions) union) company 17*(A l o t of say in distant decisions) (B-C I Private (Manufacturing ikitchen furniture) Enough say(43*) England More say own job(35*) More say Dept. level(9*) More say Comp. level(13*) (union) co

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