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A cent a pound or on the ground : Okanagan fruit growers and marketing, 1920-1935 Dendy, David 1981

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A CENT A POUND OR ON THE GROUND: OKANAGAN FRUIT GROWERS AND MARKETING, 1920-1935  DAVID DENDY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1981 ©  David Dendy, 1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  study.  I  further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be  department or by h i s o r her  granted by  the head of  representatives.  my  It is  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not  be  allowed without my  permission.  Department of  History  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date  DR-fi  (2/79}  September  28,  1981  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT Between 1920 in  almost  an  ever-expanding  and  continual c r i s i s fruit  m a r k e t s w h i c h were no when t h e  1935  orchards  because o f the  crop  longer  were  "the Okanagan f r u i t  on  industry  problems of  C a n a d i a n and  selling  especially  growing as f a s t  as  s h i p p e r s r e f u s e d to cooperate devised  thus  prices.  stabilize  A s s o c i a t e d G r o w e r s , and shippers f a i l e d crop  i n various  to r e g u l a t e supply  c o n t r o l prevented  selling  including  o b j e c t s because  of  schemes  to the market  Both a cooperative  several cartels  i n their  outside their  been  planted.  of market c o n t r o l to  Prairie  t h e y had  D i f f i c u l t i e s were i n c r e a s e d b e c a u s e a m i n o r i t y g r o w e r s and  was  agency,  independent  the p o r t i o n o f  successful  and  the  marketing  strategies. The a t the  p r o v i n c i a l Produce Marketing  growers' request,  i n v a l i d a t e d by After received The  less  the the  courts i n 1932  than  and  intimidation  the V a l l e y t o c o o p e r a t e  i t was  sold  they  direct  in a stabilization  their be  growers  took  actually  u n l e s s a minimum p r i c e was  shippers i n  scheme b a s e d on  control  sold,  action.  vigilante  t o f o r c e a l l g r o w e r s and  t h a t growers should  until  was  when most  u s e d mass m e e t i n g s ,  novel p r i n c i p l e s : fruit  but  passed  1931*  sales disaster,  o f 1933  o f 1927,  some s t a b i l i t y  cost of production,  Growers' S t r i k e  squads,  provided  Act  and  achieved.  distribution  that i t should  two of not  The  growers' economic r a d i c a l i s m  seated p o l i t i c a l economic behest  of  conversion,  frustration.  but  only  was  not  a  deep-  their reaction  to  When the  federal  government, a t  their representative,  i n 193^  passed  Products Marketing Act growers r e a d i l y  setting  up  abandoned d i r e c t  iii  the  and  direct  the  Natural  a marketing control action  • o--  board,  control.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  i i  INTRODUCTORY QUOTATION  'v  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION  2.  "THE UMBRELLA OF THE INDUSTRY": THE BACKGROUND  3.  AND FORMATION OF ASSOCIATED GROWERS THE POLITICS OF 'STABILIZATION*: THE PRODUCE MARKETING ACT  2k  THE DECLINE AND FALL OF STABILIZATION: THE OPERATION OF THE COMMITTEE OF DIRECTION AND AFTER  3k  5.  "GROWER CONTROL—MINIMUM STRIKE OF 1933  53  6.  STABILIZATION AT LAST: THE NATURAL PRODUCTS MARKETING ACT AND FINAL CONCLUSIONS  k.  1  PRICE": THE GROWERS'  11  75 ' 85  NOTES  112  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX THE GOVERNMENT AND PRODUCE MARKETING ACT APPEALS .  iv  .118  INTRODUCTORY QUOTATION "But  p o l i t i c a l freedom i s l a r g e l y n u l l i f i e d  unless  we have our economic freedom. . . . Free c o m p e t i t i o n i s a l l very w e l l when the competitors have something l i k e economic r e s o u r c e s .  equal  Otherwise, the b i g i n t e r e s t s have an  overwhelming advantage and c o m p e t i t i o n has i n e f f e c t ceased to  exist. One B r i t i s h Columbia f r u i t grower summed up the  s i t u a t i o n when, d i s c u s s i n g the M a r k e t i n g A c t under which he was f o r c e d to s e l l  through one agency, he exclaimed, 'I am  not w o r r y i n g about the l o s s o f my l i b e r t y .  What I''ve been J  worrying about i s the l o s s o f my a p p l e s ! ' That i s the r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e answer to the scores o f pages of Hansard and the lengthy speeches i n which Mr. K i n g d i l a t e s on the g l o r i e s of L i b e r a l i s m dangers o f what he c a l l s  and warns us a g a i n s t the  'regimentation'."  — f r o m a Radio Speech by J.S. Woodsworth, 1935 E l e c t i o n  Campaign.  v  Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The it  i s , has  growing.  historiography concentrated  of Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e , such as  almost e n t i r e l y on P r a i r i e  H i s t o r i a n s apparently  assume e i t h e r t h a t farm  methods, movements, and problems are the of Canada, or t h a t they do not m e r i t That a g r i c u l t u r e i n other  same i n the r e s t  consideration.  crops and r e g i o n s d i f f e r e d  g r e a t l y from P r a i r i e g r a i n growing i s e a s i l y one  grain  established;  need only c i t e the f a c t t h a t the Canadian C o u n c i l  A g r i c u l t u r e was  never able to draw the farmers'  organiz-  a t i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o the f o l d because of strong stand  those farmers took a g a i n s t  the f r e e  of  the  trade  p o l i c y f o r which the wheat i n t e r e s t s l o n g campaigned.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i v e r s e a g r i c u l t u r a l segments i s harder to e s t a b l i s h .  Although the other  s e c t i o n s never produced  a massive export s t a p l e such as wheat, they were s t i l l important p a r t of the Canadian economy, and played i n g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l and  economic p o l i c y .  a s e c t o r of a g r i c u l t u r e , i f organized  and  a part  In some s i t u a t i o n s , c e r t a i n of what  i t wanted, could i n f l u e n c e government p o l i c y to an f a r beyond i t s numerical  an  extent  strength.  As an example, developments w i t h i n one a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y can be shown to have i n f l u e n c e d p r o v i n c i a l and 1  2 federal  policy.  The  producers of the  Okanagan V a l l e y  e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l of t h e i r f r u i t . control  by  the  competitive i n f e r i o r i t y of the  to t h e i r own  meant the  intervention  growers f e l t was  the  policy  to overcome t h e i r  be  farmer r a t h e r than of the  movement from government to the  a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y was described federal  Thus governmental point  of  p o l i t i c i a n ; that i s , people to  p o l i t i c i a n s , r a t h e r than, as i t i s u s u a l l y  only d e t a i l e d  competitive  seen d e v e l o p i n g from the  considered as a movement from the  The  marketing  pressure to achieve  i n f e r i o r i t y — b y a r t i f i c i a l l y removing i t .  view of the  their  of government power, which many  only way  a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y may  f a i l u r e of  s a t i s f a c t i o n the  T h i s l e d to demands and  fruit  the  d i s c u s s e d , as  a  governed.  h i s t o r i c a l study of  Canadian  w r i t t e n by Vernon C. Fowke,  a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y p r i o r to 1930  who as  part  i  of a  'National P o l i c y ' .  This policy  a g r i c u l t u r a l development and the  P r a i r i e s where the  of Crown land--'but not settlement i t s e l f profitable and  encouraged  settlement, p a r t i c u l a r l y  federal  government had  so much f o r the  the  railway t r a f f i c ,  expected to do  of  occupation,  markets f o r p r o t e c t e d manufactures,  f i e l d s f o r investment of development c a p i t a l  channelled  "Government a s s i s t a n c e has  been extended to a g r i c u l t u r e  on  disposal  i n h e r e n t value  as r a t h e r to p r o v i d e e f f e c t i v e  through e a s t e r n Canada.  was  greatly  because of what  typically  agriculture  f o r other dominant economic i n t e r e s t s  in  r e t u r n f o r a s s i s t a n c e , r a t h e r than f o r what such a s s i s t a n c e 2 might do f o r a g r i c u l t u r e . " T h i s t h e s i s has been put, perhaps more s u c c i n c t l y  than Fowke ever s t a t e d i t ,  by a r e c e n t w r i t e r :  The e x i s t e n c e of a n a t i o n a l farm p o l i c y p r i o r to 1930 was based on the importance of a g r i c u l t u r a l development to n a t i o n a l economic p r i o r i t i e s of trade, investment, and r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n . I t had n o t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y to do with the w e l f a r e of farmers and t h e i r commodities. Fowke p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s phase of the P o l i c y ' was  'National  n e a r i n g the end of i t s u s e f u l n e s s by 1920,  r a i l w a y s and  settlement of the P r a i r i e s  with  substantially  complete, at a time when the a t t i t u d e s and demands of the a g r i c u l t u r a l community were changing r a d i c a l l y . F i r s t World War support  the government was  Before  the  so c o n f i d e n t of a g r a r i a n  f o r i t s development p o l i c i e s t h a t i t was  willing  enough to concede minor p o i n t s and r e g u l a r l y appointed farmers "The  to r o y a l commissions i n v e s t i g a t i n g the g r a i n t r a d e .  s i t u a t i o n a f t e r 1920 was  i n sharp  contrast.  There  was  no l o n g e r any p o s s i b i l i t y of harmony between the views u n d e r l y i n g a g r a r i a n p r o t e s t and s e c t i o n of f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p . " The  breach  those of any s u b s t a n t i a l bi-  came as wheat growers became aware of  what Fowke c a l l e d t h e i r  'competitive  i n f e r i o r i t y ' i n the  system of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e , which he e x p l a i n e d thus: i n a competitive  system the g r e a t e s t p r o f i t s go, p a r a d o x i c a l l y ,  to those m o n o p o l i s t i c elements which are most able to escape competition.  Competition  i s most e a s i l y l e s s e n e d where  there are few  competing i n t e r e s t s i n a f i e l d ,  i s most f i e r c e where there are many. the a t o m i s t i c and  conversel  Farmers, because of  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c nature  can never reduce competition  and,  of t h e i r i n d u s t r y ,  s u f f i c i e n t l y to d e a l on  equal  terms w i t h the much s m a l l e r number of buyers f o r t h e i r  4  produce.^ The i n e q u a l i t y o f the b a r g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h o f a g r i c u l t u r a l producers as compared w i t h t h a t o f the groups to whom the farmers s e l l and from whom they buy i s the i n e v i t a b l e complement o f freedom o f e n t e r p r i s e which accords equal t o l e r a n c e to freedom g of combination and freedom o f c o m p e t i t i o n . The  f e d e r a l government r e f u s e d to acknowledge the  growing demands d u r i n g the 1920s f o r a c t i o n to o f f s e t competitive  this  inferiority.  The economic p h i l o s o p h y which underlay the n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , a t l e a s t u n t i l the end o f the f i r s t major p e r i o d o f achievement i n 1930, r a t i o n a l i z e d governmental e n t e r p r i s e and a s s i s t a n c e o f a developmental nature, government a c t i v i t y o f a r e g u l a t o r y nature, and s t a t e - f i n a n c e d r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f p r o d u c t i o n , but l i t t l e more. P r o d u c t i o n and marketing, i t was taken f o r granted, ought normally to be guided by the „ search f o r p r o f i t w i t h i n the system o f f r e e e n t e r p r i s e . The Depression, i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y as i n so many other t h i n g s , was a t u r b u l e n t time.  The year 1930 saw  the formal acknowledgement o f the end o f the  agricultural  phase o f the ' N a t i o n a l P o l i c y ' with the conveyance o f c o n t r o l of  Crown lands i n Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and A l b e r t a from  the f e d e r a l government to the provinces;. still  remained were no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d f o r the n a t i o n a l  purpose, saw  Such lands as  which had moved to other f i e l d s .  The 1930s a l s o  the beginnings o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n and p r i c e  support which Fowke a t f i r s t  saw as evidence  o f a changed  f e d e r a l a t t i t u d e towards the • d i s a b i l i t i e s o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l producer.  He l a t e r p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y concluded,  however,  that governmental i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the competitive system has e i t h e r been f o r purposes c o n d i t i o n o f farmers  other than improving the  (such as wartime Wheat Boards to  5 prevent shortages) or e l s e has c o n s i s t e d o f unplanned and temporary expedients i n p e r i o d s of c r i s i s .  These were  acceptable because a g r i c u l t u r e had l o s t i t s p l a c e i n the 'National P o l i c y ' to other economic developments, and t h e r e f o r e c o u l d s a f e l y be governed by immediate r a t h e r than l o n g term c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  A g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y had become an  unstable t h i n g , l a c k i n g t h e o r e t i c a l or conceptual content: ". . . the reasons [for  a c t i o n s ] have been of such d i v e r s i t y  and remoteness t h a t c o n s i s t e n c y of p o l i c y has been o impossible." 7  A g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have been t i e d i n to a program of development s i m i l a r t o , but separate from, the f e d e r a l  'National P o l i c y ' .  B r i t i s h Columbia,  alone of the western t e r r i t o r i e s and p r o v i n c e s ,  retained  c o n t r o l of i t s Crown lands on e n t e r i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and consequently was not p a r t of the f e d e r a l scheme of develop-, - ' ; :  !  ;  10 ment.  Although the Dominion government, and i t s c o l l a b -  o r a t o r the.Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, i s s u e d enormous q u a n t i t i e s of p u b l i c i t y and a d v e r t i s i n g seeking for  Western Canada, t h e i r  settlers  'Western Canada' stopped at the  Rocky Mountains where t h e i r c o n t r o l of lands ended. The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia was.therefore to  encourage the a g r i c u l t u r a l development of i t s t e r r i t o r y  and to p r o v i d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , the  particularly  CPR p r o v i d e d a b a s i c access to the I n t e r i o r .  p r o v i n c e was r e s t r i c t e d i n promoting a g r i c u l t u r a l by i t s . c o n t i n u a l f i s c a l for  left  after  But the development  d e f i c i t from 1872 u n t i l 1905, when 11 the f i r s t time i t had a genuine s u r p l u s . Therefore  i t s p o l i c y was  of n e c e s s i t y l i m i t e d to o f f e r i n g l a n d on easy  terms to genuine s e t t l e r s  (160  acre pre-emptions a v a i l a b l e 12  a t one  d o l l a r per acre, payments d e f e r r a b l e 13  bonuses of lands to r a i l w a y promoters.  ) and  liberal  Success of  J  this  p o l i c y i s shown i n the 800$ i n c r e a s e between l 8 8 l and  1911  of  employment i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a r a t e much g r e a t e r than i n mining or f i s h i n g and c u l t u r e was  i n 1911  surpassed  only by lumbering.  Agri-  the l a r g e s t employer among primary  i n d u s t r i e s , employing n e a r l y ten thousand more people than 1^ any  other. Only a f t e r 190^,  with  the coming of f a v o u r a b l e  world  economic c o n d i t i o n s , could the p r o v i n c i a l government of Premier R i c h a r d McBride embark on an a g g r e s s i v e development l i k e -that of the Dominion.  program of  Running short of good  Crown l a n d f o r s u b s i d i e s , the government switched grants and  to cash  guarantees of bonds to s u b s i d i z e a very  r a i l w a y expansion.  Three trunk l i n e s and  r e c e i v e d p r o v i n c i a l support between 1903 government took t h i r t y - f i v e years transcontinental.  a host of and  1912;  ambitious feeders the f e d e r a l  to promote i t s three  B r i t i s h Columbia clamoured f o r s e t t l e r s ,  -Prom  p a r t i c u l a r l y -fom B r i t a i n ;  the government trumpeted a f a r the  p r a i s e s of i t s remaining Crown lands and of the v a r i o u s promoters and  developers  of the l a n d schemes who  c o n t r o l l e d much  of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . By 1913 "the government had r e a l i z e d f i n a l l y t h a t good farm l a n d i n B r i t i s h Columbia was not i n e x h a u s t i b l e . . . . Thus the problem c o n f r o n t i n g the government by the end of 1913 was not the i n c r e a s e d a l i e n a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l land, but the development of the lands a l r e a d y granted.  7 Yet the a t t r a c t i v e p o l i c y of promoting settlement d i e d hard.  McBride's generous  hand had burdened  B.C.  with  the P a c i f i c Great E a s t e r n Railway which had to be taken over by the p r o v i n c e , and the c o l l a p s e of the Okanagan l a n d boom compelled the government to give s u b s t a n t i a l l o a n s and f i n a l l y o u t r i g h t g i f t s to prevent the f i n a n c i a l and  functional  c o l l a p s e of the i r r i g a t i o n systems, which would have put out of b u s i n e s s thousands  of the farmers l u r e d i n by the expansive  promises of the McBride  era.  But succeeding a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s ,  e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of the farmer-premier John O l i v e r ,  still  c l u n g to the idea, of l a n d s e t t l e m e n t as the b a s i s of p r o s p e r i t y and as a s o l u t i o n f o r problems of unemployment. O l i v e r " l o v e d to sponsor every p r o j e c t t h a t would i n c r e a s e 16 r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n s and p r o d u c t i o n "  and h i s c a r e e r as  M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , and then Premier, saw  the e s t a b l i s h -  ment of a Land Settlement Board, numerous S o l d i e r Settlements, and p r o j e c t s f o r the drainage of Sumas Lake and the  irrigation  of the southern Okanagan V a l l e y to p r o v i d e more l a n d s a v a i l a b l e f o r settlement.  Few  of these p r o j e c t s worked out  as planned and a l l of them ended up c o s t i n g more than estimated.  There  could be l i t t l e  doubt l e f t  was  that land  settlement schemes no l o n g e r worked, but p o l i t i c i a n s c l u n g t e n a c i o u s l y to the outdated concept.  As l a t e as 1932  farmers' and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s b l a s t e d Premier  several Tolmie's  p r o p o s a l to s e t t l e unemployed on the l a n d , when even w e l l 17 e s t a b l i s h e d farmers were i n d i f f i c u l t y . ' The p r o v i n c i a l government i n i t i a l l y opposed ference i n the c o m p e t i t i v e system  inter-  j u s t as d i d the f e d e r a l  government.  John O l i v e r expressed  the p o l i c y c l e a r l y : " ' I t  i s not the business of the Government to m a i n t a i n he t o l d one d e l e g a t i o n s h a r p l y .  the people,  ' I t i s the b u s i n e s s o f the 18  people  to m a i n t a i n  the Government.'"  Voluntary  cooperative 1 9  might be t o l e r a t e d or even encouraged by the government, ' as p a r t o f the freedom to combine, b u t any c o e r c i v e a c t i o n to make  'cooperation' compulsory was unacceptable  to the  90  politicians. obvious  But by the l a t t e r h a l f o f the 1920s the  f a i l u r e of l a n d settlement as an a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y ,  the weakness o f the government, and p r e s s i n g problems i n some s e c t o r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e l e d the government to a w i l l i n g ness to p l a c a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s . observed  The Provinee  i n 1929 t h a t With doubts and m i s g i v i n g s , perhaps w i t h a s o r t of d e s p a i r , c e r t a i n l y w i t h an almost p a t h e t i c r e a d i n e s s to give the farmers p r e t t y n e a r l y anything they''-could agree upon among themselves, the L e g i s l a t u r e has swelled the s t a t u t e book with enactments f o r the r e l i e f of the farmer. 2 1  The  f r u i t growers o f the Okanagan V a l l e y have  c o n s i s t e n t l y been among the most v o c a l of a g r i c u l t u r i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the r e a d i e s t to adopt r a d i c a l and f a r r e a c h i n g new methods to get a f a i r r e t u r n f o r t h e i r produce. Margaret Ormsby, the only h i s t o r i a n who has d e a l t - g e n e r a l l y with a g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, e x p l a i n s t h e i r  will-  ingness to experiment with c o o p e r a t i v e marketing as a r e s u l t of t h e i r having a g r e a t e r s u r p l u s p r o d u c t i o n of one commodity than other farmers,  and t h e r e f o r e a g r e a t e r  s e n s i t i v i t y to market v a r i a t i o n s i n the r e t u r n s f o r t h e i r 22 cash  crop.  9 Other f a c t o r s i n c r e a s e d  the demand of Okanagan f r u i t  growers f o r changes i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s . growers had  unusually  i n the Okanagan was  Most  heavy c a p i t a l investments: f r u i t  very h i g h p r i c e d because of the  i r r i g a t i o n systems needed to make i t s u i t a b l e f o r more than c a t t l e g r a z i n g .  In 1912  expensive anything  i r r i g a t e d bench l a n d  averaged $ 2 5 0 or more per a c r e , ^  Kelowna had  land  at a time when  selling for $17.^0  prime Saskatchewan wheat l a n d was  at  per 24  acre, and The  high  there were s t i l l expectations  f r e e homesteads a v a i l a b l e .  of the purchasers f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e ,  p a r t l y because the promoters had  been o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c .  Moreover, the d e p r e s s i o n  and  up  of 1913  the Great War,  immigration to the Canadian P r a i r i e s , had  stopped  r a p i d expansion of the Okanagan's c h i e f market, production  from the new  orchards slowly  Orchardists,  caught i n a d i f f i c u l t  w i l l i n g to t r y almost any  drying  the  but  coming i n t o  expanded, thus c r e a t i n g an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  by  bearing  surplus.  squeeze, were o f t e n  o p t i o n to prevent the l o s s of  t h e i r c a p i t a l investment.  Problems common to a l l a g r i -  c u l t u r e a l s o s t r u c k them w i t h p a r t i c u l a r f o r c e . c u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t y described  by J.K.  The  Gal'braith and  agriJ.D.  27  Black,  'that of  ' i n e l a s t i c ' supply  i n terms of p r i c e , where  d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s do not have the expected r e s u l t of  reduction  of p r o d u c t i o n  such as  because of the farmer's f i x e d a s s e t s ,  land, f a m i l y - l a b o u r ,  and  so on, which must be maintained,  h i t o r c h a r d i s t s p a r t i c u l a r l y hard; i t i s impossible an orchard  f a l l o w i n a bad  year,  to  f o r i f the t r e e s are  leave not  maintained the whole investment i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g them  to f r u i t i n g age w i l l be  lost.  These v a r i o u s p e c u l i a r i t i e s of f r u i t growing meant t h a t , together w i t h the m i l k producers of the F r a s e r V a l l e y who  f a c e d s i m i l a r problems,  o r c h a r d i s t s i n the Okanagan have  ever been i n the f o r e f r o n t of moves to r e v i s e procedures.  Whether the p l a n was  ' o r d e r l y marketing',  called  marketing  'stabilization',  or 'market c o n t r o l ' , the growers wanted  to e l i m i n a t e t h e i r competitive i n f e r i o r i t y and d e a l w i t h purchasers on equal terms.  Such economic  out of the o r c h a r d i s t s ' own  indigenous problems;  b a s i c a l l y independent  ' r a d i c a l i s m ' grew i t was  of the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l movements  of the time, both i n i n s p i r a t i o n and i n a p p l i c a t i o n to the other f a c e t s of t h e i r  lives.  Chapter 2 "THE UMBRELLA OF THE INDUSTRY": THE BACKGROUND AND FORMATION OF ASSOCIATED GROWERS Commercial p r o d u c t i o n of f r u i t  i n the Okanagan began  i n the 1890s, w i t h growers s e l l i n g f r u i t customers. not  d i r e c t l y to l o c a l  The f i r s t c o o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s were formed  to compete w i t h e s t a b l i s h e d s h i p p e r s and d e a l e r s , but  because o f the l a c k o f them. formed i n 1893,  The Kelowna S h i p p e r s ' Union,  cooperated i n s e l l i n g f r u i t and other farm  produce to the new mining d i s t r i c t s of the Kootenays. B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Exchange,  The  intended to serve both  Coast and I n t e r i o r growers, was formed i n l a t e I895, but f a i l e d a f t e r two y e a r s .  As the q u a n t i t y of f r u i t produced  grew, however, commercial s h i p p e r s came i n t o the b u s i n e s s , and s m a l l - s c a l e d i r e c t s a l e s dwindled away as s h i p p e r s began to  e x p l o i t d i s t a n t markets, such as the P r a i r i e s , which were  only economically f e a s i b l e w i t h b u l k shipments a t lower freight rates. to  The f i r s t f u l l c a r l o a d of f r u i t was shipped  the P r a i r i e s i n 1901 by the p r i v a t e company of S t i r l i n g  and P i t c a i r n , and i n 1903 "the same company sent a t r i a l l o t of  two c a r l o a d s to B r i t a i n .  Okanagan f r u i t  G r a d u a l l y the marketing of  became i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the complex North  American system of produce  distribution.  That system had the v e r t i c a l appearance of a f u n n e l  12 wide a t top and bottom but narrow i n the middle, the d i f f i c u l t y  typifying "  of the l a r g e numbers of growers i n d e a l i n g  on equal terms w i t h much s m a l l e r number of s h i p p e r s , brokers, and  jobbers who  consumers.  i n t e r v e n e d between them and the u l t i m a t e  In theory, the system as i t operated on the  Canadian P r a i r i e s ,  the c h i e f and most p r o f i t a b l e market f o r  Okanagan f r u i t , worked thus: the f r u i t grower consigned, less frequently sold, was  h i s f r u i t to the l o c a l shipper,  a l s o u s u a l l y the packer.  The  s h i p p e r put t h i s  or who  fruit  i n t o the hands of a broker, u s u a l l y i n the market area, arranged  who  to s e l l the f r u i t a t the best p o s s i b l e p r i c e to the  jobber or w h o l e s a l e r , and then r e m i t t e d the r e t u r n s , l e s s his  c o s t s and p r o f i t , to the shipper, who  made a s i m i l a r  deduction and f i n a l l y  p a i d the grower.  The  jobber, mean-  w h i l e , s o l d the f r u i t  to the r e t a i l o u t l e t s who  s u p p l i e d the  e v e n t u a l consumer. The neatness  of the scheme was  disrupted i n r e a l i t y  by f a c t o r s such as the i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of one d i s t r i b u t i o n by another.  l e v e l of  Many of the s h i p p e r s owned l a r g e  orchards, and as grower-shippers  r e s i s t e d cooperative e f f o r t s .  The major jobbers were connected w i t h , were owned by, owned, grocery chains.-^  Most s e r i o u s l y , by 1922  or  the major  b r o k e r s were owned by or were p a r t of jobber combines, attempt  to j o i n i n the one  o r g a n i z a t i o n two  opposing  "an  factors--  the brokery whose i n t e r e s t should be s o l e l y t h a t of the grower; and the jobber, whose i n t e r e s t i s opposed to t h a t of the grower." of  Furthermore,  there was  i n c r e a s i n g monopoly  the d i s t r i b u t i o n system on the P r a i r i e s a t the  jobber  13 l e v e l by two massive o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the  ever-expanding  American-owned Nash combine and an a s s o c i a t i o n o f the remaining  independent jobbers combined f o r s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n .  The  i d e a o f c o o p e r a t i o n among the f r u i t  7  growers had  continued to simmer since the t u r n of the century.  The  Okanagan F r u i t Union was formed i n 1908 and s u r v i v e d f o r several years.  I t was f o r c e d i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n by the s a l e s  d i s a s t e r of 1912, the f i r s t o f the p e r i o d i c g l u t s on the market, when l a r g e crops i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the western U n i t e d S t a t e s c o i n c i d e d , and s h i p p e r s f o r c e d p r i c e s to  d i s a s t r o u s lows i n t h e i r c o m p e t i t i o n to dispose of t h e i r g  supplies.  The poor r e t u r n s a f f e c t e d a l l growers and r e s u l t e d  i n widespread support f o r the i d e a o f a c o o p e r a t i v e able to s t a b i l i z e the market.  The Okanagan U n i t e d Growers, made up  of nine l o c a l p a c k i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and a c e n t r a l s a l e s o f f i c e , was formed i n May of 1913 w i t h the b l e s s i n g o f the p r o v i n c i a l government, which l e n t e i g h t y percent of the r e q u i r e d capital.  Q  In a campaign organized by a Vancouver broker, 10  R.R. Robertson,  about 1100 growers were signed up, and f o r  s e v e r a l years the c o o p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y .  A  T r a f f i c and C r e d i t A s s o c i a t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of the OUG and the other p r i n c i p a l s h i p p e r s , was developed 11 agree on p r i c e s and s e l l i n g p o l i c y .  to d i s c u s s and  The g r a d u a l  expansion  i n Okanagan f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n was taken up by an i n c r e a s i n g p e n e t r a t i o n of the P r a i r i e market, w i t h B r i t i s h  Columbia's  share o f the apple consumption there r i s i n g from 39^ i n 1915 12 to  82% i n 1923.  remained p l a c i d ,  During t h i s p e r i o d the Okanagan growers t h e i r demands on government l i m i t e d to  reiteration  of the t r a d i t i o n a l c a l l f o r h i g h e r t a r i f f s  on  13 imported  fruit  and f o r the r e s t r i c t i o n of O r i e n t a l owner-  J  14 ship of l a n d .  The  conscious P r a i r i e  contemporary a g i t a t i o n s by  politically  farmers were p o l i t e l y l i s t e n e d  to,  and  ignored. ^ T h i s p l e a s a n t s t a t e of a f f a i r s ended i n 1921, enormous number of apple of 1910  to 1913  t r e e s p l a n t e d i n the  came i n t o  unable to r e a d i l y  f u l l bearing, and  •'boom' y e a r s  the market proved  absorb the sudden jump i n supply.  Okanagan apple crop of 1920  as the  The  was  1,317,000 boxes; t h a t of 1921 16 i n c r e a s e d by over a m i l l i o n boxes to 2,769,000. Fortunately the U n i t e d S t a t e s crop of 1921 was very s m a l l , and so gave 17  no c o m p e t i t i o n on the P r a i r i e s . of reduced  '  Even so the  combination  p u b l i c buying power from the r e c e s s i o n of  1921  and the l a r g e crop caused the breakdown of the T r a f f i c C r e d i t A s s o c i a t i o n as v a r i o u s s h i p p e r s reneged on  and  their 18  agreements and  f l o o d e d the market with f r u i t  i n their  Okanagan U n i t e d Growers, h o l d i n g about a t h i r d of the crop, attempted to maintain market; as a r e s u l t 324  of i t s 1287  the agreements and  the c o o p e r a t i v e was  to send the r e s t  total  stabilize  the  able to s e l l only  c a r l o a d s of w i n t e r apples on the  P r a i r i e market, and had  panic.  best-paying  to e a s t e r n Canada,  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and Great B r i t a i n f o r c o n s i d e r a b l y lower 19 returns.  y  In 1922 was  missing.  the saving grace  of a small American crop  P r o d u c t i o n there was  almost h a l f again more  than t h a t of the p r e v i o u s year, and l e f t a l a r g e s u r p l u s to 20 be disposed of by export. The Okanagan crop i t s e l f was  15 a l s o somewhat i n c r e a s e d . of  The r e s u l t was a d r a s t i c o v e r l o a d  fruit. With t h e i r experience of the p r e v i o u s  marketing fruit  difficulties,  season's  the s h i p p e r s r e f u s e d to purchase  o u t r i g h t from the growers, and would only accept i t on  consignment.  With no l i m i t i n g agreements among themselves,  and no f i n a n c i a l stake of t h e i r own i n the f r u i t ,  the c h i e f  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the s h i p p e r s was to dispose of stocks on hand.  P r i c e s plunged  on P r a i r i e markets as agents t r i e d to  match each other's o f f e r s ; f i r m purchases,  jobbers were r e l u c t a n t to make  f o r f e a r t h a t p r i c e s would drop f u r t h e r and  leave them unable  to s e l l a t a p r o f i t .  and c o o p e r a t i v e ' r o l l e d '  Both  independents  (that i s , shipped without an order  from a jobber) l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f apples to the P r a i r i e s , hoping to f i n d a buyer once there, and t h i s f l o o d  served  only to f u r t h e r lower p r i c e s and demoralize the market.'' T h i s tended to make jobbers and even r e t a i l e r s on the P r a i r i e s a f r a i d to buy and w i l l i n g to accept s h i p ments only f o r s a l e on consignment. In overloaded markets much o f the f r u i t was f i n a l l y disposed of only at very low p r i c e s or remained unsold and was l o s t . Aggregate r e t u r n s were o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t to meet packing, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and agency c o s t s . ? 1  One  r e s u l t of the crop of 1922 was an enduring  b i t t e r n e s s towards the s h i p p e r s by many growers who had r e c e i v e d f o r t h e i r apples only 'red i n k ' - - t h a t i s , b i l l s from t h e i r s h i p p e r s f o r l o s s e s on p a c k i n g and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s which r e t u r n s from the f r u i t had n o t even covered. Another was a c o n t i n u i n g f e a r among growers of s h i p p e r s s e l l i n g on consignment r a t h e r than by f i r m s a l e ; f o r many years  'consignment* was a d i r t y word i n the Okanagan.  The s a l e s d i s a s t e r was e v i d e n t by November, and made it  c l e a r to most growers t h a t a new marketing arrangement 22  was needed.  A 'Growers' Committee' had been formed i n the 23  s p r i n g of 1922 to c o n s i d e r marketing problems, ^ and the impetus of f i n a n c i a l l o s s a c c e l e r a t e d the push f o r change. Growers* meetings d u r i n g the w i n t e r of 1922-23 over-whelmingly decided that some powerful form of c o o p e r a t i o n was needed to 'save the i n d u s t r y ' .  Outside experts were c a l l e d i n to  address the growers on s u c c e s s f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  These  i n c l u d e d Boyd O l i v e r and Dr. Theodore M a c k l i n , p r o f e s s o r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l economics a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, b u t the  most i n f l u e n t i a l of them was the ' r e v i v a l i s t of co-  o p e r a t i o n *, ..Aaron S a p i r o , a San F r a n c i s c o lawyer "known throughout North America as one of the most b r i l l i a n t and s u c c e s s f u l o r g a n i z e r s of c o - o p e r a t i v e marketing agencies f o r 24farm products." Sapiro's v i s i t  to B r i t i s h Columbia was arranged by OK  the  Vancouver farm magazine Farm and Home.  J  Sapiro  spoke  i n the f o u r major towns of the Okanagan, and aroused a wave of  enthusiasm which l e d to the eventual o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g  along the l i n e s he proposed.  The newspaper  S a p i r o ' s speech a t Vernon on January k,  r e p o r t of  1 9 2 3 , which was  r e p r i n t e d and c i r c u l a t e d to -growers, e x p l a i n e d h i s program. "We i n C a l i f o r n i a b e l i e v e that c o - o p e r a t i v e marketing i s the only hope of the man who t i l l s the s o i l or c a r e s f o r the orchard . . . " Co-operative marketing, he s a i d , was now beyond the experimental stage; i t was a proved „g success. Using the example  of C a l i f o r n i a , he rebuked the Okanagan 27  growers f o r the f a i l u r e of t h e i r s a l e s methods:  17 . . . c o - o p e r a t i v e m a r k e t i n g means t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f m e r c h a n d i s i n g f o r dumping. H e r e a p p l e g r o w e r s j u s t dumped t h e i r a p p l e s on c o n s i g n m e n t . In 1922 f o r e x a m p l e t h e y g o t s c a r e d b e c a u s e t h e y had so many a p p l e s , r u s h e d them t o s h i p p e r s , who i n t u r n b e s i e g e d j o b b e r s w i t h o f f e r s o f Okanagan a p p l e s . . . . The Okanagan g r o w e r s were t h e m s e l v e s t o blame f o r d i s a s t r o u s p r i c e s l a s t season; they themselves broke the market. S a p i r o recommended s e v e r a l s t e p s t o w a r d s b e t t e r merchandising:  q u a l i t y c o n t r o l and  and  packaging,  convenient  and p l a c e and  extension of markets both  by i n c r e a s e d use  of the product,  s u p p l i e s on t h e m a r k e t t o p r e v e n t and  a final  standardization, attractive  d e p e n d e n t on t h e  r e g u l a t i o n of  e i t h e r g l u t s or  step f o l l o w i n g from t h i s , s u p p l y of the p r o d u c t  i n time  shortages,  of making the  price  a t the p o i n t of 28  consumption r a t h e r than a t the p o i n t of p r o d u c t i o n . Sapiro l e f t  the promise of a r o s y f u t u r e to h i s  "Once t h e f a r m e r his  progress  l e a r n e d t o h e l p h i m s e l f no  in California,  and  one  listeners. could  stop  i f they l e a r n e d i t here  no 2 9  one  c o u l d s t o p t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e Okanagan V a l l e y e i t h e r . " S a p i r o ' s v i e w s and  in was  the a d o p t i o n regarded  o f the  the a d v i c e of o t h e r e x p e r t s  resulted  ' C a l i f o r n i a p l a n ' of p o o l i n g , which  a t the time  a s ""the embodiment o f t r u e  co-  30 operation",  r a t h e r than p r o p o s a l s f o r a Board of C o n t r o l  a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f t h e w a r t i m e Wheat B o a r d o r a C e n t r a l S e l l i n g Agency i n which the but a l l would s e l l The Co-operative arranged the  through  s h i p p e r s w o u l d s t a y as t h e y were 31 one  office.  p r o p o s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o be  known a s  'The  Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia, L i m i t e d ' ,  i n a f e d e r a t i v e form, w i t h a s i n g l e  ' C e n t r a l ' , b u t w i t h p a c k i n g and  selling  s h i p p i n g by  was office,  separate  member c o o p e r a t i v e s , or '"Locals', i n each f r u i t growing area Most p r i v a t e s h i p p e r s were to be bought out and t i e s taken over by the L o c a l s .  -Prominence was  their  facili  g i v e n to the  r o l e of a w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d C e n t r a l i n r e g u l a t i n g q u a l i t y • and supply, to e f f i c i e n c y , and to the n e c e s s i t y f o r a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the crop to be i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s hands. I f a c o - o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g concern i s s t a r t e d w i t h c o n t r o l over an i n s u f f i c i e n t p r o p o r t i o n of the tonnage, the balance of the tonnage o u t s i d e the Co-operative, and t h e r e f o r e i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h i t , may prove too great a handicap. The Co-operative Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia, L t d . , have decided t h a t the c o n t r o l of 80 per cent of the f r u i t and vegetable tonnage of the t e r r i t o r y to be covered by i t s a c t i v i t i e s i s the o minimum t h a t must be secured. ?  To secure t h i s c o n t r o l , a campaign, c o s t i n g i n t o t a l over $30,000,-^ was  mounted through January  persuade growers to s i g n up.  The  and February  c o n t r a c t was  agreement, between grower, L o c a l , and the  a three p a r t y  Co-operative  Growers, f o r the s a l e of f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s through  to  exclusively  the C e n t r a l f o r a p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s .  I t was  a  c o n d i t i o n a l c o n t r a c t , to come i n t o e f f e c t only i f 80 p e r c e n t of the f r u i t tonnage i n the Okanagan, Kootenay, and M a i n l i n e d i s t r i c t s was  signed up by March 30, 1923-  At the same  time, Okanagan U n i t e d Growers, the e x i s t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e s e l l i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , agreed percent was  to go i n t o l i q u i d a t i o n i f 80  reached.  As i t happened, the time r e q u i r e d was s h o r t e r than a n t i c i p a t e d .  By February  campaign had the necessary quota,  considerably  23 "the membership  and e v e n t u a l l y about 2700  growers, r e p r e s e n t i n g f u l l y 85 p e r c e n t of the p o t e n t i a l of 1923,  were signed up. ^  The  Co-operative Growers of  crop  British  C o l u m b i a was t h e n l e g a l l y  as w e l l a s a h o l d i n g Houses L i m i t e d ,  incorporated  company, C o - o p e r a t i v e  formed t o purchase  on M a r c h 8,  Growers-'  the independent  Packing, packing  h o u s e s a n d t r a n s f e r them t o t h e L o c a l s . The  name o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o u n d  unsuitable  f o r t e c h n i c a l reasons;  t h e word * C o - o p e r a t i v e '  c o u l d be u s e d o n l y b y o r g a n i z a t i o n s  1  and a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r m e d  under the p r o v i s i o n s o f the C o - o p e r a t i v e s g r o w e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d Act. the  Therefore  a special  name t o A s s o c i a t e d  on May 1 0 , and t h i s The was  Act,  while the  u n d e r t h e Companies  r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d  Growers o f B r i t i s h  change was l e g a l l y  Associated,  t o be  t o change  Columbia,  Limited,  r e g i s t e r e d on"June 2 8 .  a s i t was g e n e r a l l y known t h e r e a f t e r ,  a l m o s t f r o m i t s i n c e p t i o n on t h e d e f e n s i v e .  The h i g h -  powered membership and o r g a n i z a t i o n campaign h a d p r o m i s e d great  results,  'natural  and many g r o w e r s s i g n e d  cooperators',  conviction  that  n o t men e n l i s t e d  cooperation  form o f o r g a n i z a t i o n — b u t were i n t e r e s t e d o n l y men l o o k e d  with  philosophy,  apple  opposed  crop  returns.  who These  eye a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and were independent  who, f o r r e a s o n s o f p o l i t i c a l  Therefore the  and i n e v i t a b l e  were r a t h e r i n d i v i d u a l i s t s  i n the promised high  a critical  by a l l those  by t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l  was t h e p r o p e r  e n c o u r a g e d i n t h i s b y t h e few r e m a i n i n g and  up who were n o t  shippers  o r economic  cooperation.  i t was u n f o r t u n a t e  f o r the A s s o c i a t e d  o f 1 9 2 3 was two h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d  that  boxes l a r g e r  37 than t h a t o f 1922, size  and c o i n c i d e d wxth one o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d  throughout North America.  Associated  G r o w e r s managed  to a v o i d the dreaded r e c o u r s e t o consignment, b u t was unable to c o n t r o l s u p p l y t o the market because o f t h e c o m p e t i t i o n from t h e p o r t i o n o f the l o c a l crop o u t s i d e i t s c o n t r o l and from s u p p l i e s o f o t h e r p r o d u c i n g a r e a s , and t h e e v e n t u a l r e s u l t s were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . B e t t e r r e s u l t s c o u l d have been o b t a i n e d had the c o n t r o l o f the crop been more complete. The percentage offered„ i n c o m p e t i t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o t h r e a t e n the s t a b i l i t y o f p r i c e s and a t t i m e s made i t most d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n our p r i n c i p l e o f f.o.b. s a l e s . P r i c e c o m p e t i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n many r e d u c t i o n s w i t h consequent l o s s e s t o the growers, and t h i s s h o u l d ~g have been unnecessary, i  I t was c o l d comfort t o the growers who had r e c e i v e d l e s s  than  t h e i r c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n t o be t o l d t h a t t h i n g s would have 39  been even worse w i t h o u t A s s o c i a t e d Growers. Some growers then d e c i d e d a g a i n s t the c o o p e r a t i v e experiment  and l e f t through l o o p h o l e s i n t h e i r c o n t r a c t s .  I n the n e x t crop y e a r , 192k, the tonnage handled d e c l i n e d ko  from 85 p e r c e n t t o 75 p e r c e n t .  P r i c e s f o r t h e 1924 crop  were b e t t e r , and t h e d e c l i n e i n membership slowed, b u t was never t o t a l l y a r r e s t e d .  Each y e a r the p o r t i o n o f the crop  c o n t r o l l e d by A s s o c i a t e d Growers was s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r , s l i p p i n g t o 70 p e r c e n t i n 1928,  and f a l l i n g o f f more r a p i d l y  a f t e r t h e end o f t h e f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t i n t h a t y e a r and t h e commencement o f s i n g l e - y e a r c o n t r a c t s . the 1929  Only 65 p e r c e n t o f  crop was handled by A s s o c i a t e d Growers, and by kl  o n l y kO p e r c e n t . The  'escape' o f tonnage from the c o o p e r a t i v e was  speeded by a d e c i s i o n o f the Supreme Court o f Canada i n January  o f 1926  a g a i n s t A s s o c i a t e d Growers.  A Winfield  1933  grower named Edmunds, to get out of h i s c o n t r a c t , t r a n s f e r r e d his  property  to a company of which he and h i s wife were the  chief shareholders.  A s s o c i a t e d Growers took him  but both the o r i g i n a l d e c i s i o n and the c o o p e r a t i v e . who  two  to c o u r t ,  appeals went a g a i n s t  T h i s s e t a precedent f o r other growers  wished to a v o i d honouring t h e i r c o n t r a c t s .  B u l l e t i n , house organ of the c o o p e r a t i v e ,  J  The  O.K.  observed t h a t  The temptation to break away i s , of course, constantly^ b e f o r e a l l growers, knowing w e l l t h a t - - j u s t as l o n g as the great m a j o r i t y h o l d together and p r o t e c t the market--just so l o n g can some l i t t l e e x t r a p r o f i t s be made by r e f u s i n g to share i n the c o s t s of p r o t e c t i o n - but what i f enough break away to make the l o a d too heavy f o r those who remain, or i f those who remain uu r e f u s e to ' c a r r y the umbrella* any longer? T h i s , i n a n u t s h e l l , put the dilemma of the Growers.  A s s o c i a t e d Growers, with the avowed aim  Associated  of  ' s t a b i l i z i n g ' the market, found i t s e l f i n a squeeze.  By-  s e l l i n g h e a v i l y on the l e s s p r o f i t a b l e export market, and h o l d i n g back from P r a i r i e markets at the b e g i n n i n g  of the  s e l l i n g season, i t p r o t e c t e d the market from b e i n g  flooded  and  by  thus kept p r i c e s g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r and more s t a b l e than  i f i t had  entered  i n t o competition  independent s h i p p e r s .  on even terms with  the  T h i s p o l i c y meant t h a t the r e t u r n s to  a l l growers were h i g h e r than they otherwise  would.have been.  I t a l s o meant, however, t h a t A s s o c i a t e d Growers i t s e l f l e s s than i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e  share  of the most l u c r a t i v e  P r a i r i e markets, and more than i t s share expenses and  of the c o s t of storage  s a l e s at lower p r i c e s .  got  of the export  of f r u i t f o r l a t e  T h e r e f o r e , while  i n absolute  trade season  terms  the whole i n d u s t r y b e n e f i t t e d , the growers s e l l i n g through  the independent s h i p p e r s o f t e n appeared to be g e t t i n g b e t t e r returns.  They were s h e l t e r e d under the 'Associated  but were not p u t t i n g up any p a r t of the c o s t s . a t i v e advantage l e d many growers to leave the and each d e f e c t i o n l e f t  umbrella'  T h i s comparcooperative,  i t i n a l e s s advantageous p o s i t i o n .  These circumstances engendered a b i t t e r feud between the supporters  of c o o p e r a t i o n  and those of f r e e e n t e r p r i s e ,  which d i s r u p t e d attempts to improve arrangements and prevented g e n e r a l agreement  among the growers on any s u b j e c t .  The a c t u a l f i g u r e s to compare r e t u r n s f o r the independent s h i p p e r s and f o r A s s o c i a t e d Growers are not a v a i l a b l e , f o r while  the A s s o c i a t e d p u b l i s h e d i t s p o o l  r e t u r n s , few i f any of the independents d i d .  As the  B u l l e t i n never ceased to p o i n t out, the independent  O.K. operators  only p u b l i c i z e d t h e i r f i g u r e s f o r p a r t i c u l a r grades and v a r i e t i e s where t h e i r p r i c e s were h i g h e s t , and d i d n ' t mention t h e i r f a i l u r e s .  I t may  even have., been a f a i r  state-  ment f o r A s s o c i a t e d Growers to say t h a t i f i t were p o s s i b l e to get accurate f i g u r e s showing p r o p o r t i o n s of each grade packed by each shipper, i t would be found t h a t the A s s o c i a t e d averaged c o n s i d e r a b l y ^ more than the average independent shipper. But, j u s t l y or not, the i n f o r m a t i o n seen by the growers was  the h i g h e s t r e t u r n s of the b e s t independents.  there was  d r i f t i n g away of growers, p a r t i c u l a r l y those  producing  choice f r u i t  So  and v a r i e t i e s most i n demand, again  l e a v i n g the l e s s d e s i r a b l e product to the c o o p e r a t i v e ,  which  felt  This  o b l i g e d to t r y to s e l l e v e r y t h i n g o f f e r e d to i t .  problem was noted by Dean F.M.  Clement when he r e p o r t e d  on  the c o n d i t i o n of A s s o c i a t e d Growers i n 1 9 3 3 = The tonnage, dregs of a 'save tonnage s e l e c t e d i s a tonnage the  while good mainly, i s a l s o i n p a r t the the i n d u s t r y ' campaign. I t i s not a to meet the demands of the market. I t growers want s o l d .  A s s o c i a t e d Growers r e a l i z e d t h a t , with i t s d e c l i n i n g p o r t i o n of the crop, i t was impossible  to s t a b i l i z e and  c o n t r o l the market as e n v i s i o n e d when i t was O r d e r l y Marketing r e q u i r e d concerted all  e f f o r t on the p a r t of  s h i p p e r s , something which proved very d i f f i c u l t to  arrange. Ltd.  organized.  Attempts to get A s s o c i a t e d Growers, S a l e s S e r v i c e  ( s a l e s agent f o r most o f the l a r g e r independents),  the other independent s h i p p e r s together  and  to s e t minimum p r i c e s  and a p p o r t i o n markets f a i l e d because of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f p u n i s h i n g v i o l a t i o n s of any p o s s i b l e 'gentleman's agreement'. Cooperation, growers. marketing.  because of i t s v o l u n t a r y nature,  had f a i l e d the  Some o u t s i d e f o r c e was needed to compel o r d e r l y  Chapter 3 THE  By  POLITICS OF 'STABILIZATION': THE PRODUCE MARKETING ACT  the end of 1926 the confidence  the competitive  of growers that  marketing system would get them an acceptable  r e t u r n f o r t h e i r f r u i t had been g r e a t l y undermined.  The  i d e a of governmental c o n t r o l , as a method of a v o i d i n g t h r o a t competition  and r e s u l t i n g low p r i c e s , seemed the only  s o l u t i o n to marketing problems. Columbia r e p o r t e d  cut-  Country L i f e  i n British  that such l e g i s l a t i o n had become a common  s u b j e c t of d i s c u s s i o n i n the Okanagan.  That debate was  quickened by the r e s o l u t i o n of the Board of D i r e c t o r s o f Associated  Growers on November 2, 1926,  t h a t only through compulsory c o - o p e r a t i o n could s a t i s f a c t o r y and e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f r u i t products be e f f e c t e d and that every p o s s i b l e e f f o r t should be made towards o b t a i n i n g the necessary legislation. 0  The  debate had become s u f f i c i e n t l y loud to be heard  i n V i c t o r i a , b u t Premier John O l i v e r avoided t a k i n g a stand by p r o m i s i n g "that the whole s i t u a t i o n would be thrashed out by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee of the L e g i s l a t u r e before any d e f i n i t e move was made to l e g i s l a t e . " - ^ By January 11, 1927, a t the annual convention o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , cooperation  compulsory  was "the c h i e f t o p i c of d i s c u s s i o n throughout 2k  25  the f r u i t growing d i s t r i c t s . "  Most of the r e s o l u t i o n s sent  i n by the v a r i o u s l o c a l s were on the marketing  question.^  Under pressure from growers, o f f i c i a l s from A s s o c i a t e d Growers and the l a r g e r independent--'shippers  had met and  devised a r e s o l u t i o n upon which both s i d e s c o u l d  agree.  A f t e r a great d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n , the convention  finally  passed  i t i n the f o l l o w i n g form:  Whereas, we r e a l i z e t h a t u n l e s s some system o f s t a b i l i z a t i o n , which w i l l ensure complete r e g u l a t i o n o f marketing i s adopted f o r the f r u i t and vegetable i n d u s t r y of B.C., t h a t many growers w i l l be f o r c e d out o f the industry, And whereas, we b e l i e v e t h a t such s t a b i l i z a t i o n , i n the i n t e r e s t o f a l l growers, can b e s t be accomplished through a 'Committee of D i r e c t i o n * which w i l l r e g u l a t e the grading, packing, s h i p p i n g , and marketing of the e n t i r e crop, Therefore be i t r e s o l v e d : That we, the members of the B.C.F.G.A. ask the Government, to i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n a t the present s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e to p r o v i d e f o r the s e t t i n g up of a Committee of D i r e c t i o n , which w i l l be brought i n t o b e i n g i n time to have c o n t r o l o f the movement o f 1 0 0 % of the 1927 t r e e f r u i t and vegetable crop. Further: That we ask the Government to make f u l l enquiry i n t o a l l the circumstances surrounding the marketing of B.C. f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s w i t h a view to recommending, a t the end o f the year, any method under which the suggested p l a n may be improved upon. The r e s o l u t i o n was q u a l i f i e d by twenty-two supplementary p r o p o s a l s d e t a i l i n g the p l a n .  The more  important  a r t i c l e s i n c l u d e d p r o v i s i o n s t h a t a l l s h i p p e r s should be members of a B r i t i s h Columbia Growers* and S h i p p e r s ' iation;  Assoc-  t h a t the Committee of D i r e c t i o n should c o n s i s t of  three members, one to r e p r e s e n t the A s s o c i a t e d Growers, one f o r the independent s h i p p e r s , and the t h i r d to be appointed by the government; t h a t the Committee should have  jurisdiction  over d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r e e f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s produced i n  B r i t i s h Columbia east of the F r a s e r V a l l e y ; t h a t the Committee should have powers to r e g u l a t e f.o.b. p r i c e s and the prop o r t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n which s h i p p e r s might p l a c e on v a r i o u s markets i n s p e c i f i c time p e r i o d s ; and t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n should  i n c l u d e s t i f f p e n a l t i e s f o r those  s h i p p e r s who i n f r i n g e d  the Committee's r u l i n g s . Even a t the convention,  o p p o s i t i o n came from small  grower-shippers who had no p a r t i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the p l a n , and from growers who objected  s t r e n u o u s l y to anything  which l i m i t e d t h e i r freedom of a c t i o n . R.H. McDonald, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t of A s s o c i a t e d Growers, l a t e r observed t h a t Looking back on what has taken p l a c e s i n c e the Kelowna convention i t would appear t h a t the s i l e n c e of the opponents a t t h a t g a t h e r i n g was a very s i n i s t e r and a very ominous peace. A t the time of the Convention i t appeared to some o f us t h a t the r e a d i n e s s with which the independents agreed with the main r e s o l u t i o n without a d i s s e n t i e n t v o i c e , was r e a l l y more than was to be „ expected. Such m i s g i v i n g s were f u l l y  justified.  The agreement  between the v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t groups--B.C.F.G.A., A s s o c i a t e d Growers, independent s h i p p e r s , and l o n g enough to present  grower-shippers—lasted  the convention  r e s o l u t i o n to the  A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee of the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e on January 24, 1927,  but w i t h i n two days second thoughts  had become e v i d e n t , and some independents v o i c e d  objections  to the makeup o f the proposed board of c o n t r o l and to the Q  degree of compulsion i n the proposed The  legislation.  i s s u e was clouded by a r e s o l u t i o n of the B.C.  Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n on January 21 c a l l i n g f o r c o n t r o l  10 l e g i s l a t i o n f o r m i l k s i m i l a r to t h a t proposed  for f r u i t .  E.D.  a dairy  Barrow, the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , was  farmer  11 from C h i l l i w a c k and he proposed bill of  who  s t r o n g l y supported t h i s l a t t e r demand,  to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee t h a t the c o n t r o l  should be expanded to allow the i n c l u s i o n of a l l s o r t s 12  produce,  i n c l u d i n g dairy products.  T h i s expansion immediately the marketing b i l l ,  caused p u b l i c debate  on  and the Vancouver c i t y c o u n c i l vowed to  f i g h t by every means a v a i l a b l e any c o n t r o l of the m i l k supply. Mayor L.D. T a y l o r e m o t i o n a l l y d e c l a r e d that I c o n s i d e r i t my bounden duty to p r o t e s t . . . as v i g o r o u s l y as I can, a g a i n s t a n y t h i n g t h a t even suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y of a combine that w i l l r a i s e the p r i c e of d a i r y p r o d u c t s to the detriment of the b a b i e s and ~ poor people of the c i t y . One b u s i n e s s j o u r n a l remarked with s a t i s f a c t i o n : " I t s t r i k e s 1  us t h a t the broadening of the scope of the proposed control B i l l  marketing  i s a l l that i s necessary to prevent i t s enact-  14 ment." E.D.  Barrow pushed his-measure  r i s i n g clamour,  forward a g a i n s t the  and the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee submitted a  d r a f t Produce Marketing A c t which was on February 14 by Dr. H.C.  Wrinch,  i n t r o d u c e d to the House  L i b e r a l member f o r Skeena.  Barrow wanted i t to be a government measure, but because  of  o p p o s i t i o n to the p l a n by Premier John O l i v e r , had to accept its  p r e s e n t a t i o n as a p r i v a t e member's b i l l . 'Honest John' O l i v e r was  century l a i s s e z - f a i r e  school.  J  a L i b e r a l of the n i n e t e e n t h  "A s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i s t ,  he  had fought h i s own way to the top i n a world of c o m p e t i t i o n , 16 and he thought what he had done o t h e r s c o u l d i f they t r i e d . "  28 While he moderated from the extreme i n d i v i d u a l i s m of h i s e a r l i e r years, and had indeed helped to organize the F r a s e r 17 V a l l e y M i l k Producers* this s t i l l  A s s o c i a t i o n cooperative,  he saw  i n terms of s e l f - h e l p - and competition, and s t e a d i l y  r e s i s t e d the i d e a of government e n f o r c i n g c o o p e r a t i o n or s u b s i d i z i n g farmers.  O l i v e r enunciated h i s stand i n h i s  r e p l y to a L i b e r a l farmer from Rosedale  (near A g a s s i z i n the 18 F r a s e r V a l l e y ) who c r i t i c i z e d the Premier's stand: Let me say to you i n a l l earnestness and s i n c e r i t y t h a t the p r e s e n t Marketing B i l l which i s b e f o r e the L e g i s l a t u r e and which you f a v o r , c o n t a i n s p r i n c i p l e s t h a t are the very opposite of any p r i n c i p l e s o f L i b e r a l i s m w i t h which I have ever become acquainted. F i r s t o f a l l , there i s c o e r c i o n i n the B i l l ; second, there i s power without r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; t h i r d , there i s power to i n f l i c t very l a r g e damage upon an element o f the p o p u l a t i o n without any p r o v i s i o n b e i n g made f o r compensation t h e r e f o r . I f these t h i n g s are i n accord w i t h L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s , then I am no l o n g e r a L i b e r a l . Despite O l i v e r ' s e f f o r t s to d i s a s s o c i a t e h i s government from the Produce Marketing B i l l by d e s c r i b i n g i t as n e i t h e r a government measure nor a p r i v a t e member's b i l l sponsored  by Barrow, but r a t h e r the c r e a t i o n of the A g r i c u l t -  u r a l Committee of the L e g i s l a t u r e a t the behest  of the  19 producers, of  ' the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e under the d i r e c t i o n  i t s M i n i s t e r , Barrow, had i n f a c t been p r e p a r i n g d r a f t  p l a n s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n f o r compulsory c o o p e r a t i o n i n 1926, w e l l b e f o r e e i t h e r the B.C.F.G.A". convention  or the L e g i s -  20 l a t u r e met. If  O l i v e r had l e d a s t r o n g government, with a powerful  m a j o r i t y , he c o u l d c e r t a i n l y have imposed h i s . - w i l l on those of  h i s c a b i n e t and seated members who championed  control.  B.ut, i n s t e a d , he had been s i n c e the l a s t e l e c t i o n i n a weak  29  and v u l n e r a b l e p o s i t i o n where the p o s s i b i l i t y o f open d i s s e n s i o n o r r e v o l t w i t h i n the c a b i n e t and p a r t y must be 21  avoided a t a l l costs. One t h i n g was v e r y c l e a r a f t e r the n e a r d e f e a t o f the O l i v e r government i n 1924, and t h i s was t h a t weakness of an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n v i t e s a t t a c k , n o t m e r e l y from the immediate o p p o s i t i o n , b u t a d i f f e r e n t form o f a t t a c k - t h a t o f demands f o r t h i s c o n c e s s i o n and t h a t f a v o r . Such r e q u e s t s would n o t be made o f a s t r o n g government „ because t h e r e wouldn't be much chance o f s u c c e s s . ?  The  supporters  o f the Produce M a r k e t i n g A c t backed  down from the c o n t r o v e r s i a l m i l k c l a u s e .  T h i s does n o t mean  t h a t i t was a c t u a l l y the w e i g h t o f genuine p u b l i c  opinion  which d i s s u a d e d them; a l t h o u g h a g r e a t d e a l o f l i g h t was emitted  i n the Vancouver p r e s s by e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r s and by 23  the a t t a c k s o f Mayor T a y l o r and the c i t y c o u n c i l ,  J  no r e a l  h e a t o f p u b l i c response was g e n e r a t e d - - P r e m i e r O l i v e r ' s f i l e of correspondence r e c e i v e d a g a i n s t the b i l l c o n t a i n s  only  f i v e l e t t e r s from consumers, b u t over a hundred from f a r m e r s or shippers opposing i t s p r o v i s i o n s .  The L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  however, was i n a p r e c a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n i n Vancouver, which d e s p i t e i t s s e v e r a l L i b e r a l - h e l d s e a t s , had s i n c e 1922 24 l a c k e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the C a b i n e t . Mayor T a y l o r was a C o n s e r v a t i v e whose p o l i t i c a l m o t i v e s i n the a f f a i r were under2S l i n e d by the L a b o r Statesman.  J  I f milk prices d i d r i s e i n  the monopoly s i t u a t i o n , o p p o s i t i o n p o l i t i c i a n s c o u l d make p o l i t i c a l hay o f t h e a c t i o n , i g n o r i n g the ' p r i v a t e b i l l ' evasion. and  I t would then be as d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y t o defend i t s e l f as i f i t had passed a  law a g a i n s t motherhood.  To p r e v e n t t h i s , the L i b e r a l members  from Vancouver a r e s a i d t o have p r e s e n t e d an u l t i m a t u m t o  30  the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e " t h a t i f he i n s i s t e d upon the measure being i n t r o d u c e d as a Government B i l l , members would vote a g a i n s t the B i l l  these Vancouver  and, i f necessary,  defeat  26 the Government on the i s s u e . " finally  T h e i r continued o p p o s i t i o n  f o r c e d Barrow to drop h i s demand f o r the i n c l u s i o n  of m i l k i n the B i l l ,  although h i s i n t e n t i o n to e v e n t u a l l y 27  b r i n g about m i l k c o n t r o l remained. The p o l i t i c a l dealing with f r u i t .  dangers were not n e a r l y so g r e a t i n Almost t w o - t h i r d s o f the f r u i t  crop was  s o l d on the e x t e r n a l market, e i t h e r i n other p r o v i n c e s or 28 other c o u n t r i e s , and the B r i t i s h Columbia producer was never i n the same p o s i t i o n of e f f e c t i v e monopoly of the 29 domestic  market as the m i l k producers  y  —indeed,  the compet-  ition  of Washington apples was one o f the c h r o n i c complaints 30 of the f r u i t growers. As f o r p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , most of the f r u i t d i s t r i c t s were, as developments of the 31 McBride e r a , s o l i d l y Conservative anyhow;^  i f the Produce  Marketing A c t worked w e l l , there might be some improvement for  the L i b e r a l cause--and there was n o t h i n g to l o s e . That does not mean t h a t the c o n t r o l o f f r u i t  went unopposed.  V o c i f e r o u s o p p o s i t i o n was heard from the  small grower-shippers independents thoughts,  marketing  who had not been c o n s u l t e d , from  larger  who had a t f i r s t agreed b u t l a t e r had second  and from growers c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y opposed to  c o o p e r a t i o n i n any form.  Much of the o p p o s i t i o n was expressed  i n i n c o h e r e n t o u t b u r s t s of outrage; H.H. I r v i n e o f Oyama, for  example, b l a t h e r e d about B o l s h e v i k a t t a c k s on B r i t i s h  liberties,  backed h i m s e l f up with a quote from K i p l i n g , and  ended by c a l l i n g on "the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver and to  Victoria  stand back of the great body of f r u i t growers and  resist  t h i s u n - B r i t i s h p r i n c i p l e t h a t a c e r t a i n element i s t r y i n g to introduce  i n our p r o v i n c e " ; ^  vitriolic  a t t a c k s at A s s o c i a t e d Growers, which they blamed  for  various i n d i v i d u a l s directed  almost e v e r y t h i n g except the c o d d l i n g moth; and a  more t h o u g h t f u l growers t r i e d to e x p l a i n why  few  they f e l t  the  b i l l would not succeed i n i t s o b j e c t s , or o f f e r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s Walter M a r s h a l l , who Kelowna, f e l t  operated  about f i f t y a c r e s of orchard  at  that  The f r u i t growers of the Okanagan have the remedy i n t h e i r own hands without a l l t h i s government i n t e r ference with t h e i r business, and t h a t i s by stopping the f o o l i s h b u s i n e s s of c o n s i g n i n g t h e i r f r u i t to the packers or the a s s o c i a t i o n and a l l o w i n g them to throw the f r u i t on the market at any p r i c e they see f i t as l o n g as they get packing charges out of i t . T h i s i s a p r a c t i s e t h a t has been the cause of a l l the f r u i t grower's t r o u b l e s and n o t h i n g w i l l help him u n t i l he holds the packers to a minimum p r i c e f.o.'b. p o i n t of production. ->  The  primary, and  the organized,  came from the independent s h i p p e r s and "The  p r i n c i p a l - o p p o s i t i o n to the b i l l  >  o p p o s i t i o n , however, the  grower-shippers.  i s prompted  by the d e s i r e of the Independent Shippers  entirely  to withdraw from  3k  the bargain they made."-^  T h e i r o p p o s i t i o n was  three main grounds: the c o e r c i v e and  voiced  compulsory f e a t u r e s of  the p l a n , the makeup of the board of c o n t r o l , and of whether the board of c o n t r o l or the Shippers' should be  on  supreme i n matters ..of p o l i c y .  J  the  question  Federation  They fought  a  f u r t h e r d e l a y i n g a c t i o n by c a l l i n g f o r a p l e b i s c i t e  of  growers before  The  any Act should come i n t o o p e r a t i o n .  primary t a c t i c of t h i s o p p o s i t i o n seems to have been c o n f u s i o n  by c o n t i n u a l i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the terms of the b i l l were r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from those they had agreed to at the Kelowna convention, by n i t - p i c k i n g on minor d e t a i l s such the makeup of the proposed board of  as  c o n t r o l , by the n a t u r a l  d i s o r i e n t a t i o n c r e a t e d i n l e g i s l a t o r s by the m u l t i p l i c i t y a r g u i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s and names, e n t a t i o n s of f a c t ,  of  by d e l i b e r a t e m i s r e p r e s -  such as the i n s t a n c e of t h e i r  solicitor  w r i t i n g a l e t t e r to the newspapers i n which he p u r p o r t e d to 37 speak as an unbiased f r u i t grower, p r e j u d i c e s of a n t i - O r i e n t a l i s m - ^  and by appeals to the  and the f e a r of b o l s h e v i s m  39 and Jews.  y  But t h i s o p p o s i t i o n was Produce Marketing B i l l ,  not s u f f i c i e n t to stop the  although i t ,  along w i t h the m i l k  clause c o n t r o v e r s y , served to make the b i l l  "the most  c o n t e n t i o u s p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l 40 Legislature i n recent years." the MLAs appears  g e n e r a l f e e l i n g among  to have been that the f r u i t growers had  asked f o r the b i l l , experiment  The  and should be allowed to see i f the  would w o r k — a l t h o u g h  some expressed doubt.  Dugald  McPherson, L i b e r a l member f o r Grand Forks-Greenwood, s a i d "that he thought to become e f f e c t i v e ,  the proposed board  of  c o n t r o l would have to be composed of M u s s o l i n i , Jack Dempsey 4l and Aimee Semple McPherson." encouraged  by J.W.  The  Conservative opposition,  Jones, member f o r South Okanagan, supported  the b i l l ; most C o n s e r v a t i v e s might not be e n t h u s i a s t i c the concept of marketing to  about  c o n t r o l , but they were very happy  h e l p the L i b e r a l government t e a r i t s e l f a p a r t . In  the debate  on the second r e a d i n g , February 24  and  33 25,  and on f i n a l passage on March 3 , "the only votes  cast  a g a i n s t the b i l l were Premier O l i v e r and seven other members from the government s i d e .  They argued v i g o r o u s l y a g a i n s t the  m e a s u r e — O l i v e r gave a reasoned argument a g a i n s t both i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y and i t s l i k e l y b e n e f i t s ,  while  Captain  Ian Mackenzie, L i b e r a l member f o r Vancouver, threw out a v i o l e n t t i r a d e i n which, i n defiance  of c o n v e n t i o n a l  political  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , he s a i d b o t h t h a t i t was "the most r e a c t i o n a r y p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n presented  to the House i n the seven  he had been a member" and a l s o t h a t " i t was p u r e l y  years  communistic,  and meant that S o v i e t s would be s e t up i n the Okanagan and 43 Fraser Valley."  J  But t h e i r e f f o r t s were  fruitless—finally  on March 3 , "a t i r e d and l i s t l e s s House agreed to the customary r e s o l u t i o n to r e p o r t the b i l l  to the House, p r i o r  to o r d i n a r y r o u t i n e o f t h i r d r e a d i n g and assent by the 44 Lieutenant-Governor.V  Chapter k  THE  THE DECLINE AND FALL OF STABILIZATION: OPERATION OF THE COMMITTEE OF DIRECTION AND  AFTER  The p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l l e d marketing won  w i t h the passage  I t remained  of the Produce  was  Marketing A c t i n 1 9 2 7 .  to be seen, however, i f implementation would be  s u c c e s s f u l i n the face of o p p o s i t i o n from s h i p p e r s and t h a t m i n o r i t y of growers who  independent had fought the  p l a n a l l a l o n g — p a r t i c u l a r l y as the l e g i s l a t i o n d i d not take the u l t i m a t e step of g i v i n g the growers c o n t r o l of the agency, but l e f t  that power i n the hands of the s h i p p e r s . The A c t , as f i n a l l y passed by the L e g i s l a t u r e ,  was  e s s e n t i a l l y the measure requested by the convention of the B.C.  F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n .  I t set.up immediately  an  ' I n t e r i o r Tree F r u i t and Vegetable Committee of D i r e c t i o n * , with e x c l u s i v e power to c o n t r o l and r e g u l a t e the marketing of a l l t r e e f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s i n an area b a s i c a l l y comprising the Thompson, Okanagan, and Kootenay r e g i o n s ; other areas and c a t e g o r i e s of produce  c o u l d be s i m i l a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d by a  f a v o u r a b l e vote by 75f° of t h e i r producers.  The  Interior  Committee of D i r e c t i o n c o n s i s t e d of three members, two them appointed by the B r i t i s h Columbia  Growers' and S h i p p e r s '  F e d e r a t i o n (one to r e p r e s e n t A s s o c i a t e d Growers and one independent  s h i p p e r s ) , w i t h the t h i r d , appointed by the  3^  of  the  Government, as chairman of the Committee. l e g a l power to c o n t r o l marketing  The Committee had  of I n t e r i o r f r u i t w i t h i n  Canada (exports were not under i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n ) , and to f i x q u a n t i f i e s , p r i c e s , and times a t which f r u i t might be marketed by the s h i p p e r s .  I n p r a c t i c e , however, i t was  found t h a t the Committee c o u l d not s e t p r i c e s or even c o n t r o l shipments,  but o n l y a p p o r t i o n orders to s h i p p e r s on a pro  rata basis.  Even so, i t stopped a t l e a s t some of the c u t -  t h r o a t c o m p e t i t i o n and thus s t e a d i e d p r i c e s , which remained r e l a t i v e l y stable during i t s period of operation.  ir-  The Chairman appointed by the Government was F r a n c i s Molison Black, a former member of the Manitoba l e g i s l a t u r e who had experience on both s i d e s of the marketing  fence,  having worked as T r e a s u r e r both f o r P. Burns and Company i n Calgary and f o r the U n i t e d G r a i n Growers. The Committee of D i r e c t i o n was to f i n a n c e i t s o p e r a t i o n s by a nominal on growers through  l i c e n s i n g f e e , and by a l e v y , assessed  t h e i r p a c k i n g houses, of 1 j/k  cents a  box on apples and pears, one cent a c r a t e on other and f i f t y  fruit,  cents a ton on b u l k f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s .  the s t a r t the Committee met r e s i s t a n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  From from  Doukhobors i n the Kootenays and Chinese potato growers i n the M a i n l i n e area, over l i c e n s i n g , deductions of l e v i e s , and the c o n d i t i o n s and p r i c e s of s a l e s e t by the Committee. difficulties  These  were accentuated by the r e l u c t a n c e of the  P r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department to i n s t r u c t the 7 P r o v i n c i a l P o l i c e to enforce the Act.' However, the f i r s t  season of o p e r a t i o n , t h a t of the  crop of 1 9 2 7 , was f a i r l y Direction.  f a v o u r a b l e to the Committee o f  In t h i s "year of experimentation under the new  o r g a n i z a t i o n i t might be s a i d t h a t not s i n c e 1 9 2 0 was the f e e l i n g so o p t i m i s t i c and the outlook so b r i g h t f o r the o  o r c h a r d i s t s of the I n t e r i o r . "  The Committee was m a t e r i a l l y  aided by the s m a l l e r crop of 1 9 2 7 , n e a r l y a q u a r t e r l e s s in 1926,  so t h a t the average  than  p r i c e of a box o f apples, f.o.'b.  the p a c k i n g house, rose t h i r t y - t w o cents over the p r e v i o u s year's p r i c e , to $ 1 . 5 2 . ^  A major problem of the Committee  was some s h i p p e r s who t r i e d to get a s e l l i n g edge by r e b a t e s of  brokerage  for  to the jobbers, b u t abuses were l i m i t e d because  the f i r s t time the c o o r d i n a t i n g agency had the l e g a l 10  power to punish o f f e n d e r s .  Most s h i p p e r s were w i l l i n g ,  once the f u r o r over the passage of the A c t had passed, to give the system a t r i a l , were f a v o u r a b l e .  and the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f growers  11  The r e s u l t s of expanded p l a n t i n g s b e f o r e and a f t e r the Great War were s t i l l p u t t i n g new s t r a i n s on the i n d u s t r y , however, and the crop of 1 9 2 8 was the l a r g e s t on r e c o r d . Average r e t u r n s on apples dropped by over twenty cents a 12  box.  The Committee had some e f f e c t on the market, b u t i t  c e r t a i n l y d i d not l i v e up to the e x p e c t a t i o n s of those who had a g i t a t e d f o r i t two years b e f o r e ; i n t e r n a l  competition  had n o t been e l i m i n a t e d and the Committee d i d n o t even t r y to a p p o r t i o n markets f a i r l y  among the s h i p p e r s .  A s s o c i a t e d Growers found i t s e l f  As u s u a l ,  saddled with s e l l i n g a d i s -  p r o p o r t i o n a t e share of i t s crop on l e s s p r o f i t a b l e 13  markets to s t a b i l i z e p r i c e s .  J  export  37 The  1929 convention of the B.C.F.G.A. showed t h a t the  honeymoon was over, with c r i t i c i s m of Committee o p e r a t i o n s and Committee members t r y i n g to exculpate themselves of blame.  A r e s o l u t i o n , e v e n t u a l l y withdrawn, was put t h a t a  p l e b i s c i t e of growers determine i f they wanted the Committee of  D i r e c t i o n to continue;  suggested  another,  on the opposite  the Marketing A c t should be 'crowned  C e n t r a l S e l l i n g , through  1  tack,  by i n s t i t u t i n g  one o r g a n i z a t i o n , thereby e l i m i n a t i n g  problems which had a r i s e n i n an only p a r t i a l l y  controlled  1S s e l l i n g system. ^ Growers a l s o expressed  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with being  shut out of any d i r e c t v o i c e i n s e l e c t i n g members of the Committee of D i r e c t i o n . appointed  Under the A c t , the Government  the chairman o f the Committee, and the B.C. Growers'  and S h i p p e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n appointed  the other two members.  But  the Growers' and S h i p p e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , d e s p i t e i t s name, d i d not i n any way r e p r e s e n t the growers; indeed, under i t s bylaws 16 only s h i p p e r s c o u l d be members.  Many growers f e l t  t h a t the  i n t e r e s t s of the s h i p p e r had been p l a c e d above those o f the grower.  The 1929 B.C.F.G.A. convention  t h e r e f o r e passed a  r e s o l u t i o n p r o p o s i n g t h a t the B.C.F.G.A. executive  committee  should have f i f t y percent of the vote i n s e l e c t i n g members 17 of  the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n .  The Growers' and S h i p p e r s '  F e d e r a t i o n , however, r e j e c t e d the p r o p o s a l ; they would only agree to two grower r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , one f r u i t  and one  v e g e t a b l e , a c t i n g , without v o t i n g powers, i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y on the Board of the F e d e r a t i o n . executive f e l t  The B.C.F.G.A.  t h a t such l i m i t e d powers were no b e t t e r than  38 those of a "Ward of the N a t i o n " and r e j e c t e d the o f f e r . 1930  18  The  convention of the B.C.F.G.A. again c a l l e d f o r grower  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n but the F e d e r a t i o n s t i l l r e s i s t e d . Returns  from the 1929  19 '  crop were s l i g h t l y b e t t e r f o r 20  apples and much b e t t e r f o r other f r u i t s than f o r 1028,  but  confidence i n the Committee of D i r e c t i o n had been broken,  and  while growers g e n e r a l l y d i d not wish to go back to the p r e v i o u s s t a t e of a f f a i r s , to new  they were again f a b r i c a t i n g and  p r o p o s a l s f o r marketing  systems.  convention, Committee chairman F.M.  listening  At the 1930 B.C.F.G.A.  B l a c k h i m s e l f spoke i n  favour of c e n t r a l s e l l i n g , and suggested  t h a t a committee of  the B.C.F.G.A. draw up a p l a n to p r e s e n t a t the next convention.  In the meantime he o f f e r e d as an immediate  improvement, a scheme of p o o l i n g r e t u r n s proposed  by the  B.C.  Growers* and S h i p p e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , to e q u a l i z e the c o s t s of s t o r i n g and marketing 21 domestic market.  s u r p l u s s e s not s a l e a b l e on the  direct  A s s o c i a t e d Growers and S a l e s S e r v i c e L t d , ,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n s which c a r r i e d most of the s u r p l u s , supported the r e s o l u t i o n , while the other, s m a l l e r , independent opposed i t ;  the Convention passed  the motion and  shippers  requested  that the L e g i s l a t u r e make the necessary amendments to the 22 Produce Marketing A c t . The  s m a l l independent  s h i p p e r s continued to oppose  these p o o l i n g amendments to the Produce Marketing Act, even the l a r g e r independents through  who  had helped sponsor  and  the move  t h e i r s e l l i n g agency, S a l e s S e r v i c e L t d . , became l e s s 23  f a v o u r a b l e as the time came f o r implementing t h e i r r e a l o p p o s i t i o n was  the p l a n . ^  But  d i r e c t e d at a f a r g r e a t e r t h r e a t to  t h e i r way of doing business, F.M. B l a c k ' s p l a n f o r c e n t r a l selling.  Presented  i n the f a l l of 1930, B l a c k ' s p l a n  generated  c o n t r o v e r s y and h i g h f e e l i n g s equal t o , i f n o t i n excess o f , those aroused  by the 1927 Produce Marketing A c t .  b a s i c a l l y t h i s : A c e n t r a l marketing  I t was  board e l e c t e d by the  growers should have complete c o n t r o l of the crop, with power to s e t minimum p r i c e s and t i m i n g and d e s t i n a t i o n o f shipments. A s s o c i a t e d Growers would be taken over to create the s e l l i n g agency, and the p r i v a t e concerns would become packers The Supporters  debate on t h i s p l a n was much l i k e  only.  t h a t o f 1927. -  claimed t h a t the scheme would r e s u l t i n savings i n  overhead and s e l l i n g c o s t s , i n r e a d i e r f i n a n c i a l support  from  the banks, i n b e t t e r c o n t r o l over grades and e l i m i n a t i o n o f waste, and i n a s t a b i l i z e d market by c o n t r o l l i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s u r p l u s to new and d i s t a n t markets. The  o p p o s i t i o n , as i n 1927, came from p r i v a t e s e l l e r s  of f r u i t and from those who r e j e c t e d any r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r freedom to dispose o f t h e i r f r u i t .  I t i n c l u d e d the  u s u a l p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s on B l a c k and the o f f i c i a l s o f the B.C.F.G.A. and the c o o p e r a t i v e s , w r i t t e n to the Premier i n illiterate  scrawls by people who on the same page.said  had l o n g been good P a r t y men and asked  they  for p o l i t i c a l  26 patronage;  e l e g a n t e x p o s i t i o n s o f the p h i l o s o p h y o f f r e e  e n t e r p r i s e ; and testimony  from prominent c a p i t a l i s t s i n  other i n d u s t r i e s to the dangerous precedent i n v o l v e d , i n 27  central selling. ' Since the executive o f the B.C.F.G.A. supported the B l a c k c e n t r a l s e l l i n g p l a n , and p r o v i d e d a forum f o r i t s  ko promotion at meetings of the l o c a l s , resolved  to promote t h e i r  own  the independent  shippers  growers' o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n was  This  set up i n December of  28 1930,  but  from the  o r g a n i z a t i o n was  start  i t s p l a u s i b i l i t y as a growers'  compromised by  the number of shippers  in  29 organizational positions; industry  considered  A s s o c i a t i o n was  7  newspapers and  o t h e r s outside 30  i t a mouthpiece of the  openly and  "absolutely  shippers.  The  opposed to a l l forms  of marketing by l e g i s l a t i v e  enactment"; i t not  against  also against  c e n t r a l s e l l i n g but  the  only  stood  the Produce Marketing  Act, p r o p o s i n g t h a t the only governmental involvement should be  a Bureau of A g r i c u l t u r a l Information to c i r c u l a t e market 31  reports.  J  The of over 800 1931,  Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n claimed attendance at i t s f i r s t  convention at Kelowna on February  which e l e c t e d General A.R.  5,  Harman, a Kelowna t u l i p  bulb grower, as P r e s i d e n t ,  and  passed r e s o l u t i o n s condemning  the  But  changed p o l i t i c a l  c e n t r a l s e l l i n g plan.  were making c e n t r a l s e l l i n g a dead i s s u e , and by  conditions the end  of  the year the o r g a n i z a t i o n withered away, i t s members e i t h e r r e t u r n i n g to the B.C.F.G.A., where c e n t r a l s e l l i n g was  no 32  longer  a matter a d i s c u s s i o n , or l a p s i n g i n t o quiescence. Meanwhile, B l a c k ' s c e n t r a l s e l l i n g p l a n had  been  presented to growers' meetings throughout the V a l l e y , and the B.C.F.G.A. convention on January 22,  1931,  by an overwhelming m a j o r i t y  A draft  bill,  known as the  introduced  of members.  "Growers' Sales A c t " , was  i t was  at  endorsed  legislative  drawn up  i n the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e i n March of  and 1931»  but i t was k i l l e d  on a t e c h n i c a l i t y .  f o r the B.C.F.G.A., a n g r i l y complained  T.G. N o r r i s ,  solicitor  that  The b i l l was k i l l e d — n o t because the members voted a g a i n s t i t , n o t f o t the reason t h a t because o f i t s nature i t was not acceptable to the House, but because p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s outweighed e v e r y t h i n g e l s e and the d e s i r e o f c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s to a v o i d a vote on the q u e s t i o n had more i n f l u e n c e w i t h those i n a u t h o r i t y than a sense o f p u b l i c duty or any c o n s i d e r a t i o n as to o ~ the wishes or the w e l f a r e o f the growers. ^ C e n t r a l s e l l i n g had i n f a c t been made p o l i t i c a l l y  inexpedient  f o r the government by two r e c e n t events: the r e p o r t of a Royal Commission and the judgement i n a Supreme, Court Although  case.  a request f o r a government enquiry i n t o  marketing had been p a r t o f the B.C.F.G.A. r e s o l u t i o n which l e d to the Produce Marketing A c t i n 1927, no a c t i o n was then taken by the government.  A t the convention of January 1929,  the B.C.F.G.A., a t t h a t time d i v i d e d over c e n t r a l  selling,  had c a l l e d on^-the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r a commission o f enquiry, s i m i l a r t o one c u r r e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g the m i l k 34 mdustry,  "to examine i n t o a l l phases of the Marketing 3^  problem of f r u i t s and v e g e t a b l e s . " ^  But c o n d i t i o n s had  changed from those which spawned the Produce Marketing A c t and the M i l k E n q u i r y Commission.  The f e e b l e and d i s u n i t e d  L i b e r a l s had l o s t the 1928 e l e c t i o n to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s , l e d by the v e t e r i n a r i a n Dr. Simon F r a s e r Tolmie.  The new premier  appointed as M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e W i l l i a m A t k i n s o n , who had defeated Barrow i n h i s home ground of C h i l l i w a c k . ' B i l l y ' A t k i n s o n , an a u c t i o n e e r by t r a d e , l a c k e d Barrow's sympathy f o r c o o p e r a t i o n , and was d e f i n i t e l y not i n c l i n e d to support the i d e a of compulsion.  And h i s c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s  were no l i k e l i e r to be f r i e n d l y - - i t was  a  'millionaire'  c a b i n e t "who  r u l e d more or l e s s by the d i v i n e r i g h t of  Capital','.  J.W.  was  still  Jones,  Conservative MLA  f o r South Okanagan,  "very much i n t e r e s t e d i n the Produce Marketing A c t ,  f e e l i n g t h a t i t was  very necessary f o r us to have p r o t e c t i o n  of t h i s k i n d i n order to put the f r u i t d i s t r i c t s upon a s t a b l e b a s i s " and he was  "most anxious t h a t every p r o v i s i o n  of the A c t should be c a r r i e d out without  the s l i g h t e s t  delay"  but Jones had been l e f t out of the Cabinet, d e s p i t e h i s l o n g p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r , ^ and the a t t i t u d e of those w i t h i n i t may be deduced from Jones' p l e a d i n g s with them to enforce the Act.  Premier Tolmie h i m s e l f was  going man,  a well-meaning and  easy-  but l i k e O l i v e r l a c k e d the p e r s o n a l i t y to dominate  h i s Cabinet m i n i s t e r s .  He v a c i l l a t e d on the  q u e s t i o n , attempting to a v o i d the  issue:  marketing  ho  T h i s c l a s s of l e g i s l a t i o n was very s t r o n g l y r o o t e d before we came i n t o power and we have watched i t v e r y c a r e f u l l y w i t h the hope of f i n d i n g something t h a t would be b e t t e r than present c o n d i t i o n s , but the r e s u l t s have not been e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y by any means. F i n a l l y , a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e delay, the Premier bowed  hi to the p u b l i c demand  and appointed a Royal  Commission  charged w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i n g , d e s p i t e the o b j e c t i o n s of the e x e c u t i v e of the B.C.F.G.A.,  not only the marketing  f r u i t , but a l s o the f i n a n c i a l problems of the districts.  A s i n g l e Commissioner was  e x t e n s i v e task; the choice of man  irrigation  charged w i t h  f o r the p o s t was  by the p h i l o s o p h i c a l stance of the government. the combines i n v e s t i g a t o r , and Dean F.M.  of  this governed  Lewis Duncan,  Clement of the  U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia were among the names suggested  as experienced i n s i m i l a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ; but as one p a r t y supporter commented, "I t h i n k Dean Clement i s a very capable man,  but the i m p r e s s i o n he gave me was  to compulsive  t h a t he r a t h e r i n c l i n e d  measures, which i s the one t h i n g we wish to keep  43 away from".  Instead, Tolmie went out of the p r o v i n c e w i t h  J  a p o l i t i c a l appointment and gave the plum to W. a Winnipeg investment Manitoba  Sanford Evans,  d e a l e r and Conservative member of the  L e g i s l a t u r e , who  had served on s e v e r a l e n q u i r i e s  and government boards, and w i t h whom Tolmie was  undoubtedly  f a m i l i a r from h i s years as F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e . There was  no doubt of Evans' p r i n c i p l e s : he was  a staunch  b e l i e v e r i n f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and i n 'business p r i n c i p l e s ' . The  f r u i t growers d i d not get what they had hoped f o r ,  a speedy study w i t h r e s u l t s a v a i l a b l e to help formulate p o l i c y a t the next B.C.F.G.A. convention i n January Instead, Evans took u n t i l ' January  15, 1931,  to f i n i s h h i s  Report/ although he d i d i s s u e the s e c t i o n on the contentious i r r i g a t i o n issue e a r l i e r . of the Commission while i t operated may i n which F.G.  1930-  less  The b i a s e d a t t i t u d e be seen i n l e t t e r s  deWolf, the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r of the  Commission, and J.G.  Thomson, i t s S e c r e t a r y , a t t a c k e d the  Committee of D i r e c t i o n and the managers of A s s o c i a t e d Growers as  'over-paid o f f i c i a l s '  i n t e r e s t e d only i n p r o t e c t i n g  p o s i t i o n s , and threw i n p e r s o n a l smears a g a i n s t F.M.  their  Black  f o r good measure. Sanford Evans' Report was growers expected.  not what the b u l k of  He r a i s e d some v a l i d p o i n t s , n o t i n g t h a t  the i n d u s t r y had not given proper a t t e n t i o n to the export  trade which consumed over a q u a r t e r of the crop,"* '' t h a t  fruit  -  p r o d u c t i o n per acre was much lower than i n comparable  areas  48 of Washington,  t h a t the o p t i o n s of s e l l i n g agencies,  e r a t i v e or independent, were d r a s t i c a l l y reduced  coop-  by the l a c k  of c o l d - s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s to allow the crop to be s o l d e i g h t months r a t h e r than over three,  over  and t h a t growers'  o p t i o n s were l e s s e n e d because there were no s h i p p e r s i n the V a l l e y who would buy f r u i t f o r cash, r a t h e r than a c c e p t i n g i t on a consignment f o r s a l e b a s i s . ^  C o n s i d e r i n g the man  chosen as Commissioner, i t was a r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l r e p o r t ; Evans did. not a t t a c k the c o o p e r a t i v e s , and indeed i n d i c a t e d t h a t he considered them i n t e g r a l to a system of f r e e competition.  But what r a i s e d the uproar was h i s comments on the  q u e s t i o n of l e g i s l a t e d c o n t r o l of marketing. admitted  Evans h i m s e l f  t h a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s were based-on h i s " g e n e r a l  p r i n c i p l e s of economic o r g a n i z a t i o n and h i s p o l i t i c a l - e c o n o m i c c o n v i c t i o n s , r a t h e r than on any c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the a c t u a l performance of any of the c o l l e c t i v e schemes t r i e d s i n c e 51 1922.  He concluded  t h a t the system under the Produce  Marketing A c t , of p a r t i a l c o n t r o l , n e i t h e r f u l l y  centralized  nor f u l l y c o m p e t i t i v e , could not p o s s i b l y work.  "Control  may o r may not be a good t h i n g , but p a r t i a l c o n t r o l i n matters t h a t are so i n t e r - r e l a t e d t h a t they are b u t phases of one problem i s perhaps the most d o u b t f u l form of control."-^ The  a l t e r n a t i v e s , as he saw them, were e i t h e r  establishment  of compulsory c e n t r a l s e l l i n g , where a c e n t r a l i z e d monopoly should i n e f f e c t e x p r o p r i a t e the produce of the orchards, s e l l i t as i t saw f i t ,  and d i v i d e the r e t u r n s among the  growers; or e l s e r e v e r s i o n to f r e e competition, by l e g i s l a t i v e  controls.  The  f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e he  a b s o l u t e l y unacceptable both economically political-economic principle,  uninhibited  and  since i t would i n e f f e c t be  any  i n t e r e s t group which could not be  a l t e r n a t i v e was  a monopoly  j u s t l y denied to  other, whether c l o t h i n g , c o a l , or eggs.  only acceptable  Therefore  a r e t u r n to open  so as to i n c r e a s e  the range of competitive  open to the grower; and  s e t t i n g up a shippers*  to exchange i n f o r m a t i o n  on s a l e s p r i c e s and  a s s i s t i n g shippers  i n making d e c i s i o n s .  t h a t , i f the Produce Marketing A c t was Committee should who  between  by choices  organization  terms, thus a l s o recommended  to "be r e t a i n e d ,  the  be reduced to a s i n g l e government appointee  would no l o n g e r  or s a l e of the  He  the  competition.  Evans suggested encouraging d i r e c t purchase of f r u i t dealers,  a  i n t e n t of  c o n s t i t u t i o n of the c o u n t r y - - i t would grant  to one  as  f o r reasons of  form of s o c i a l i s m , q u i t e i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to the the  saw  take any  crop,  a c t i v e p a r t i n the management  but only act as an a r b i t r a t o r i n  disputes  shippers. The  r e a c t i o n to the Evans Report o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d  mis-interpreted  h i s conclusions,  concentrating  on only a  and few  Kb,  pronouncements taken out of context, whatever n e u t r a l i t y and and  other  thereby  o b j e c t i v i t y i t had.  destroying  The  independents  opponents of c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , many of whom  used the Report as cooperation,  j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a t t a c k s on any  were j u b i l a n t . T h e  convention of  s o r t of  the  Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n on February 5 passed a unanimous r e s o l u t i o n thanking Evans, and  s t a t i n g that i t  goes on r e c o r d as endorsing h i s r e p o r t and a s s u r i n g him t h a t while i t may be considered a Counsel of D e s p a i r by those whose ideas of marketing are l i m i t e d to one hundred per cent, c o n t r o l , i n v e r y t r u t h i t suggests a C o u n c i l of Co-operation to maintain those p r i n c i p l e s which we as Canadian c i t i z e n s i n t e n d to p r o t e c t and preserve as the most sacred h e r i t a g e of our race and constitution. ?  Growers who  supported  c o o p e r a t i o n were stunned by  Evans' a t t a c k on the marketing p r i n c i p l e s they supported, they r e a c t e d e m p h a t i c a l l y . time and  but  Evans, they s a i d , d e s p i t e the  expense of h i s enquiry, f a i l e d to give any  detailed  a n a l y s i s of the v a r i o u s o p t i o n s which had been t r i e d  or  proposed. No p u b l i c h e a r i n g was h e l d d u r i n g a l l of t h i s time at which growers and other i n t e r e s t e d could give evidence. B e s i d e s t h a t o f f e r s from such a u t h o r i t i e s as the A s s o c i a t e d and the Committee to supply the Commission w i t h a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . Many s p e c i f i c  statements and assumptions of Evans were r e f u t e d  or c h a l l e n g e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y where he d e n i g r a t e d the  efficiency 57  of  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and Despite  sang the p r a i s e s of open  the w i s h f u l estimate by F.G.  deWolf, Admin-  i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r of the Commission, t h a t "The the V a l l e y ] i s f a i r l y  n o r t h end  s o l i d f o r Evans' r e p o r t except  few u l t r a B r i t i s h people--the  [of  for a  south, Kaleden and P e n t i c t o n ,  are s t r o n g f o r B l a c k and Kelowna probably the convention  competition.^'  evenly  split",^  of the B.C.F.G.A. on January 22, a f t e r a  stormy debate, voted by an overwhelming m a j o r i t y to r e j e c t 59 the Evans Report.  y  Hard on the h e e l s of the Sanford Evans Report came another  blow to the p r o s p e c t s of organized marketing,  l e g a l i n v a l i d a t i o n of the Produce Marketing  the  A c t , which C h i e f  47 J u s t i c e Lyman D u f f of the Supreme Court of Canada on February 16, 1931  r u l e d to be u l t r a v i r e s of the p r o v i n c i a l  legislature.  Both the Report and the c o u r t d e c i s i o n were i n p a r t products of the time, a p e r i o d when the d e t e r i o r a t i n g economic s t a t e f o s t e r e d d e s p a i r i n g i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n e f f o r t s to save the  self  from the g e n e r a l r u i n , and " i n c r e a s i n g l y competitive c o n d i t i o n s made r e g u l a t o r y l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o l e r a b l e to a growing number -1 60 of-P people.  The h i s t o r y of the l i t i g a t i o n was  as f o l l o w s :  l e g a l c h a l l e n g e s had been made of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  several ability  of the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e to pass such measures as the Produce  Marketing A c t .  an attempt  One  case suggested i t was  as  to r e g u l a t e trade and commerce, a f e d e r a l p r e r o g -  a t i v e , but the d e c i s i o n of* the B r i t i s h Columbia Appeal on January 8, 1929 it  invalid  Court of  h e l d the A c t to be v a l i d  because  concerned p r o p e r t y and c i v i l r i g h t s , a matter of p r o v i n c i a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n , and kept t h a t c h a r a c t e r whether or not p a r t of 61  the produce was the A c t was A.C.  s o l d out of the p r o v i n c e .  again a f f i r m e d i n 1930  The v a l i d i t y of  i n the case brought  Lawson, a s h i p p e r a t Grand F o r k s .  by  H i s c h a l l e n g e was  t h a t the l e v i e s imposed by the I n t e r i o r Tree F r u i t and Veget a b l e Committee were i n d i r e c t taxes, which c o u l d only be imposed by the Dominion.  But on March 11, 1930,  Mr.  Justice  Denis Murphy upheld the A c t , s t a t i n g t h a t the l e v i e s were not taxes f o r p u b l i c or governmental  purposes, but were to  defray the cost of o p e r a t i o n and to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s . Lawson, however, appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada, adding to h i s case the e a r l i e r q u e s t i o n about trade  and commerce.  The Supreme Court r e v e r s e d the lower c o u r t  d e c i s i o n s on both p o i n t s ; the d e c i s i o n handed down by Duff s a i d t h a t the A c t was u l t r a v i r e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e because i t s purpose, i n c o n f e r r i n g powers upon the Committee to d i c t a t e r o u t e s of s h i p p i n g , t e r m i n i to which shipment may be made, q u a n t i t i e s which may be shipped to each p o i n t , r e f e r r i n g to shipments beyond the P r o v i n c e , i s to assume c o n t r o l over trade and r e g u l a t e the producers as t r a d e r s and s h i p p e r s . The  d e c i s i o n a l s o s a i d t h a t as the l e v i e s imposed "by-the  Committee i n c r e a s e d the p r i c e o f the product s o l d o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e imposing  them, the l e v i e s were indeed  indirect  taxes, beyond p r o v i n c i a l power to enact. Appeal  to the B r i t i s h P r i v y C o u n c i l was p o s s i b l e ,  but was not made because the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n  alone  c o u l d n o t support the c o s t and the P r o v i n c i a l Government r e f u s e d to support any appeal, even though i t was p r o v i n c i a l legislation-.  Indeed, the government by t h i s p o i n t  to have been a c t i v e l y h o s t i l e to any appeal.  appears  I t apparently  f e a r e d t h a t i f the case w a s " l o s t the government might be liable  to repay l e v i e s and p o o l e q u a l i z a t i o n funds  deducted  64 by s h i p p e r s while the case was being heard. The  Committee of D i r e c t i o n , unsupported,  could c a r r y  t h i n g s no f a r t h e r : i t terminated i t s o p e r a t i o n s on March 6, 1931•^ state,  F r u i t marketing  r e t u r n e d to i t s p r e v i o u s  unorganized  j u s t a t a time when the t r a d i t i o n a l p r a i r i e market  was r a p i d l y l o s i n g i t s a b i l i t y to pay. Marketing  c o n d i t i o n s were once again those which had  p r e v a i l e d before 1 9 2 7 — w i t h  the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t h a t  49 the independent s h i p p e r s had meanwhile grown g r e a t l y i n importance.  A s s o c i a t e d Growers now  marketed only  slightly  over h a l f of the crop, as compared with over seventy in 1927.^  Of the r e s t , S a l e s S e r v i c e L t d . had  f i v e percent, B.C.  Shippers,  percent  about twenty-  O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Company,  and  K i d s t o n s L i m i t e d d i v i d e d about twenty percent between thems e l v e s , and  the remaining  f i v e percent was  d i s t r i b u t e d among  v a r i o u s small s h i p p e r s . ^7 . All  t h a t could be organized  f o r the crop of 1931  was  a v o l u n t a r y S h i p p e r s ' C o u n c i l , r e p r e s e n t i n g between e i g h t y and n i n e t y percent  of the s h i p p i n g tonnage, which  collected  i n f o r m a t i o n and made r e p o r t s of s a l e s , as w e l l as  agreeing 68  on recommendations as to p r i c e s and From the s t a r t the market was 'wild*  the t i m i n g of shipments.  demoralized  s h i p p e r s o u t s i d e the C o u n c i l , who  by shipments from threw t h e i r  entire 69  product  d i r e c t l y onto the P r a i r i e s as soon as i t was  picked.  In October A s s o c i a t e d Growers took a s i g n i f i c a n t step  by  withdrawing from the S h i p p e r s ' C o u n c i l " i n order to be i n a p o s i t i o n to meet the competition  of the outlaw and w i l d  70 s h i p p e r s on the p r a i r i e markets."' away from the A s s o c i a t e d ' s  T h i s was  the f i r s t  step  former p o l i c y of supporting,  even  when not d i r e c t l y p r o f i t a b l e , a l l e f f o r t s to s t a b i l i z e supply of f r u i t  to the market.  h o l d i n g back f r u i t  the  Even so, the o l d p o l i c y  to a v o i d o v e r l o a d i n g the market  of  still  meant t h a t on November 15 A s s o c i a t e d Growers had between 30 and  35 percent  of i t s crop y e t to s e l l , while  the  independ-  71  ents averaged only 20 to 25 percent. The d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the 1931  crop was  apparent i n  the r e t u r n s : apples brought  an average  a box l e s s than the year b e f o r e — a n d  of t w e n t y - f i v e cents  t h i s on a crop  almost  72 twenty percent  lighter.  A s s o c i a t e d Growers' hew i n i t s r e s o l u t i o n of 1932  p o l i c y was  fully  enunciated  to cooperate with other s h i p p e r s  only i f a b i n d i n g agreement was p r i c e were c o n t r o l l e d through  made under which s a l e s and  one o f f i c e , and markets p r o p e r l y  apportioned a c c o r d i n g to tonnage h e l d ; and  "Failing  any  arrangement as above d e s c r i b e d to so operate t h a t no ent s h a l l o b t a i n a marketing  independ-  advantage t h a t w i l l enable  him 73  to pay h i g h e r r e t u r n s than those p a i d by the A s s o c i a t e d . ' ^ The  c o o p e r a t i v e ' s c o n t i n u i n g l o s s of members had  caused i t  to decide that " i f the A s s o c i a t e d i s to s u r v i v e ,  comparative  p r i c e s have to be obtained a t any c o s t to h o l d membership another year", but one d i r e c t o r warned t h a t i t would be a c o s t l y o p e r a t i o n and a P y r r h i c v i c t o r y , only a c h i e v a b l e by throwing A s s o c i a t e d f r u i t i n t o the e a r l y p r e f e r r e d markets i n c o m p e t i t i o n with the independents,  and thus d e p r e s s i n g p r i c e s  74 f o r both. As Dean Clement l a t e r put i t , "the s t a b i l i z a t i o n umbrella f o l d e d up completely and the r a i n of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n 7^ dripped down the necks of a l l the growers.' ^ The t h r e a t of the crop of 1932, w i t h a l i k e l y 76 thousand  c a r l o a d s more of apples to s e l l than i n  r e s u l t e d i n the f o r m a t i o n of a v o l u n t a r y Apple  1931,  C a r t e l , made  up of s h i p p e r s c o n t r o l l i n g about,ninety p e r c e n t of the The  crop.  C a r t e l agreement allowed members to s e l l f o r t y p e r c e n t  of t h e i r apples on the immediate domestic market, and to export the r e s t or h o l d them u n t i l the domestic  either  market  had completely  absorbed  the f i r s t p o r t i o n .  The  Cartel  was  a l s o to recommend s h i p p i n g dates and minimum p r i c e s . " ^  But  once again the s h i p p e r s o u t s i d e the C a r t e l threw a l l t h e i r f r u i t on the market as soon as i t was  harvested;  this,  combined  w i t h the amount allowed f o r immediate r e l e a s e by the members, was  too much f o r the market to absorb without  Moreover, i n meeting the competition of the  demoralization.  'wild' shippers,  those w i t h i n the C a r t e l ignored i t s r u l i n g s .  "The  cartel,  . . . as an i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , had no power to f i x • p e n a l t i e s f o r the v i o l a t i o n of r u l e s , and there was d i s r e g a r d of s h i p p i n g dates, p l a c e s , and marketing  a complete regul-"'.;"  3  +• -.78 ations. The r e s u l t s were d e v a s t a t i n g .  The  average p r i c e  per  box of apples, f.o.'b. Okanagan, dropped twenty cents from the year before, from $ 1 . 0 5 to $ 0 . 8 5 . ^  F o r some v a r i e t i e s  and a t some times, r e t u r n s were c o n s i d e r a b l y lower.  At  one  p o i n t apples were s o l d i n Vancouver a t t w e n t y - f i v e cents a 80 box.  Many growers r e c e i v e d only  'red i n k * , b i l l s  from  s h i p p e r s f o r l o s s e s on f r u i t s o l d a t l e s s than the approximately f i f t y  cents a box  s o r t i n g and packing c o s t s ;  r e c e i v e d enough to pay t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n expenses.  few  Since  the  grower.Vs cost of p r o d u c t i o n v a r i e d between 33 and 70 cents a 82 box,  any f.o.'b. p r i c e below an average of n i n e t y - f i v e  meant a net l o s s to the grower. year was,  Yet the average p r i c e t h a t  as a l r e a d y s t a t e d , e i g h t y - f i v e cents.  the experience  of W.E.  Haskins  cents  Typical  of P e n t i c t o n , who  received  from h i s shipper an average of only twenty cents a making a net l o s s of $ 2 0 0 0 on h i s y e a r ' s crop.  J  box,  was  52 In t h i s gloomy s i t u a t i o n , the f r u i t growers faced crop of 1933•  The  f a i l u r e of a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s  been brought about by the stubborn cooperate.  The  O.K.  m i n o r i t y who  B u l l e t i n summed up the  the had  r e f u s e d to  situation:  84  One t h i n g i s q u i t e evident: t h a t i t i s a p p a r e n t l y impossible f o r 100 per cent to j o i n i n any p r o p o s i t i o n by v o l u n t a r y e f f o r t and i t i s abundantly apparent t h a t as l o n g as there i s a m i n o r i t y o u t s i d e any arrangement, the e f f o r t s of the m a j o r i t y w i l l to a g r e a t extent be nullified. C o n d i t i o n s were r i p e f o r more r a d i c a l a c t i o n - - f o r the first  time i n many years, most f r u i t growers were a c t u a l l y  out of pocket on the crop of 1932.  As s e v e r a l a n a l y s t s of  a g r a r i a n p r o t e s t have noted, the best times f o r such movements are when farmers, failure. ago  f o r m e r l y prosperous,  " I t ' s where the farmers had  and have had  f i n d a responsive  are f a c e d with something a few  economic years  i t suddenly taken away, t h a t the a g i t a t o r s audience." ^  Chapter 5 "GROWER CONTROL--MINIMUM PRICE": THE GROWERS' STRIKE OF 1933 By the' summer of 1933,  with p r e v i o u s e f f o r t s to  s t a b i l i z e marketing e i t h e r f a i l e d , or stalemated, the growers, desperate f o r s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r problems,  were w i l l i n g to  t u r n from e s t a b l i s h e d methods which seemed to have no more to  o f f e r and to l i s t e n to new  p l a n s which, r a d i c a l as they  might be, o f f e r e d hope of breaking the tyranny of the m i n o r i t y . Little  a c t i o n had been taken as the 1933  h a r v e s t approached.  T h i s was  apple  i n p a r t the r e s u l t of the  f i n a n c i a l c o l l a p s e of the B r i t i s h Columbia  F r u i t Growers'  A s s o c i a t i o n , the only o r g a n i z a t i o n which claimed to r e p r e s e n t a l l growers.  The p r o v i n c i a l government, i n i t s e f f o r t s to  c u r t a i l expenses,  had suspended i t s annual grant to the body,  and the B.C.F.G.A., which had f o r many years depended on grant, simply ran out of funds i n March 1933-  This, came as  a great shock to the growers, and the summer was r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e " A s s o c i a t i o n on a new l e a d e r s h i p of D. Godfrey  this  spent i n  f o u n d a t i o n , under the  Isaacs of Vernon and W.E.  a P e n t i c t o n lawyer and f r u i t grower, who  Haskins,  became the  new  1  president. was  Although i t was  thus continued, the B.C.F.G.A.  i n no c o n d i t i o n to take any a c t i o n more d e c i s i v e  c a l l i n g on the f e d e r a l government to pass l e g i s l a t i o n 53  than similar  54 to the recent B r i t i s h A g r i c u l t u r a l Marketing  Act, which  p r o v i d e d f o r s t a t e - r u n marketing boards f o r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l produce.  2  Even the minimal c o n t r o l the C a r t e l had p r o v i d e d seemed l i k e l y to be absent  f o r the 1933 crop.  As l a t e as  August 24, the s h i p p e r s were unable to come to any agreement 3  on a c a r t e l p r o p o s a l . i n the a i r .  But c e r t a i n vague i d e a s were a l r e a d y  The same newspaper a r t i c l e which r e p o r t e d the  c a r t e l f a i l u r e a l s o commented e d i t o r i a l l y t h a t "A movement to leave the apples on the t r e e s might make i t i n t e r e s t i n g f o r s h i p p e r s who have made f i r m s a l e s on Old Country markets." S h o r t l y a f t e r , W.J. Coe o f W i n f i e l d wrote an open l e t t e r to Okanagan f r u i t growers c a l l i n g on them to "Sink a l l d i f f e r e n c e s , never mind whether you ship through the co-op, o r the independents, get f r i e n d l y w i t h your neighbours,  and so get  together and f i g h t t h i s t h i n g " a c c o r d i n g to h i s p l a n : ^ What we want to do i s to get together i n some growers' o r g a n i z a t i o n , I don't care what they c a l l i t . Leave the s e l l i n g end alone. Leave the f r e i g h t r a t e s , e t c . alone, b u t say, we w i l l not p i c k our produce u n l e s s we get the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n . But a c t i o n , r a t h e r than words, was i n i t i a t e d by F.R.E. DeHart of Kelowna.  P r i c e s f o r even the f i r s t  shipped were s l i p p i n g dangerously.  apples  being  On about the f i r s t of  September, DeHart was t o l d o f a telegram  r e c e i v e d i n Kelowna  which s t a t e d t h a t f i v e c a r l o a d s of apples were s i t t i n g  unsold  at Calgary, unable to f i n d a buyer even a t 4-5 to 50 cents a b o x - - l e s s than the cost of packing and h a n d l i n g . i g a t i o n t h i s r e p o r t was found  On i n v e s t -  to be a hoax, sent by some  ' i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l ' i n order to f o r c e the depressed  prices  even l o w e r .  Disturbed, and angry, DeHart arranged  w  a meeting  on September 4 of growers r e p r e s e n t i n g Kelowna and the rounding  c e n t r a l Okanagan f r u i t T h i s meeting prepared  districts.  a r e s o l u t i o n f o r a g e n e r a l mass  meeting of growers c a l l e d f o r the next day, the Empress Theatre:  sur-  September 5, i n  7  The growers* present p o s i t i o n i s due to the consignment of f r u i t to the packing houses: Therefore be i t r e s o l v e d : That the growers organize and r e f u s e to d e l i v e r f r u i t to the packing houses u n l e s s the s h i p p e r s guarantee not to pack or s h i p such f r u i t u n l e s s i t b r i n g s a minimum of one cent a pound. More s u c c i n c t was J.H.  the f i g h t i n g slogan adopted, coined by  Aberdeen of W i n f i e l d : "A Cent a Pound or On the Ground". The Okanagan f r u i t growers' s t r i k e d i d not s p r i n g out  of  empty a i r , although at f i r s t glance i t may  done so.  That a i r was  appear to have  charged with i n f l u e n c e s and  previous  events which p r e c i p i t a t e d a t the beginning of September. The  growers a l l had heard the c o n f l i c t i n g arguments  about c o o p e r a t i o n as a g a i n s t independent marketing.  Ever  since the establishment of A s s o c i a t e d Growers i n 1 9 2 3 .  there  had been constant r e i t e r a t i o n of the need f o r a l l growers to u n i t e i n order to c o n t r o l the market and thus p r o t e c t t h e i r returns.  Furthermore, some f r u i t growers had  f o r m e r l y been  g r a i n growers on the P r a i r i e s , "where the c o o p e r a t i v e  and  Q  wheat p o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had l o n g been s t r o n g . A more d i s t a n t though more d i r e c t l y p e r t i n e n t i n f l u e n c e was  the Farmers' H o l i d a y Movement i n the U n i t e d  S t a t e s d u r i n g 1932  and 1 9 3 3 ,  which was  centred i n the  Western s t a t e s and which attempted, by w i t h h o l d i n g  Middle  farm  p r o d u c t s from the market, both to f o r c e up p r i c e s and  to  10 pressure  government to support a g r i c u l t u r e .  B u l l e t i n of September 1932  O.K.  drew a t t e n t i o n to t h i s new  of d i r e c t a c t i o n as "A q u i t e new the f a i l u r e of our present  The  form  development a r i s i n g out  economic system to f u n c t i o n "  commented e d i t o r i a l l y that "While i t may  calculated  at l e a s t arouse p u b l i c  to the n e c e s s i t y of something being  done i n the  opinion  d i r e c t i o n of 11  s t a b i l i z i n g the p r i c e s p a i d f o r farm commodities." to home, unrest  of 1933,  from u n d e r c u t t i n g a crowd of two being  to go  provided  There,  during  groups of s e v e r a l hundred dairymen marched  the homes of three  milk  Closer  i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y d a i r y i n d u s t r y  examples of the power of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n . May  and  be true t h a t these  farrrr s t r i k e s are i n the main f u t i l e a f f a i r s not to achieve much, they should  of  on  independent farmers, to i n t i m i d a t e them milk p r i c e s set by  the c o o p e r a t i v e .  Later  to three hundred i n t e r c e p t e d a t r u c k l o a d  sent to an independent d i s t r i b u t o r , and  to an organized  dairy.  of  forced i t  Frequent minor a c t s of i n t i m -  i d a t i o n , such as the emptying or d e s t r u c t i o n of independents milk  cans w a i t i n g  to be c o l l e c t e d , spread throughout  the  12 Fraser Valley. These v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s meant that the determined mass a c t i o n was  not f o r e i g n to the minds of  Okanagan f r u i t growers i n the autumn of 1933' needed was should  i d e a of  A l l that  was  f o r a l e a d e r s h i p to i n d i c a t e the course such a c t s  follow.  mass meeting at Kelowna on September 5 was l o n g 13 and m i l i t a n t , l a s t i n g from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. I t was The  J  57  opened by DeHart, who the Hon.  J.W.  Jones,  and proposed T.G.  noted the presence l o c a l MLA  as an observer of  and p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r ,  N o r r i s , a prominent l o c a l lawyer,  as  14 secretary.  The  meeting decided on a two p a r t p l a n i n v o l v i n g  a growers' s t r i k e f o r the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n and t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the s h i p p e r s i n a new The  f i r s t p r o p o s a l was  cartel.  o u t l i n e d by W.E.  Haskins,  emerged as l e a d e r of the campaign, more i n h i s own  who  person  than as p r e s i d e n t of the B.C.F.G.A.  He  c a l l e d on the growers  not to d e l i v e r f r u i t to s h i p p e r s who  would not guarantee  f o r t y cents net to the grower f o r each box  they shipped.  r e a l i z e d t h i s might mean some f r u i t might not be s o l d ,  He  but  s a i d t h a t " I f apples are to be dumped, . . . l e t ' s dump them now  before the s h i p p e r s have any chance to add c o s t of p a c k i n g  and  s h i p p i n g to be deducted  t h a t are  from the r e t u r n s of those  apples  second p a r t of the p l a n , which helped the  strike  sold." The  1 5  become more than j u s t a vent f o r i n d i g n a t i o n , was  provided  by Robert Cheyne of Glenmora. He put amendments to the o r i g i n a l r e s o l u t i o n , arguing t h a t the growers must f o r c e a l l the s h i p p e r s i n t o a c a r t e l to c o n t r o l  sales.  Without a c o n t r o l l e d deal i t i s impossible to get a cent a pound, s a i d R. Cheyne. "How are you going to c o n t r o l 2000 growers? I f the s h i p p e r s r e f u s e to guarantee a p r i c e , the growers w i l l weaken and take what they are o f f e r e d . " There was  a g r e a t d e a l of d i s c u s s i o n of the  and  considerable opposition.  was  too s h o r t to organize f o r the 1933  s h i p p e r s would not agree,  Some opponents f e l t  resolution,  that  time  crop, some t h a t the  o t h e r s opposed the p r o p o s a l because  of t h e i r continued  r e s i s t a n c e to any p l a n of c e n t r a l s e l l i n g ' .  E . J . Chambers, p r e s i d e n t of A s s o c i a t e d Growers, warned t h a t i t was  easy to create enthusiasm, but  t h a t enthusiasm would  17  not solve the growers' problems. ' heated, W.J.  Coe  stood up and  As the d i s c u s s i o n grew  threw a w i l d l y applauded t h r e a t 18  at any  o r c h a r d i s t who  r e f u s e d to j o i n the growers' s t r i k e :  I f they do not come i n t o the agreement, . . . we w i l l see t h a t they have no apples to s h i p . I myself w i l l be w i l l i n g to go and smash h i s t r e e s . I f they put me i n j a i l they w i l l at l e a s t keep me, and I am h a r d l y able to do t h a t under present c o n d i t i o n s . . . . We need strong-arm s t u f f now, and not any more k i d g l o v e s . F i n a l l y , however, the meeting passed by a l a r g e IQ  m a j o r i t y a c o n s i d e r a b l y amended r e s o l u t i o n :  7  Whereas there i s a grave danger of d i s a s t r o u s d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the marketing of the apple crop t h i s year, l e t i t be r e s o l v e d t h a t growers immediately organize and r e f u s e to p i c k t h e i r f r u i t u n l e s s the s h i p p e r s formulate a marketing p l a n which i n c l u d e s the p r i n c i p l e of p o o l i n g a l l r e t u r n s on an e q u i t a b l e b a s i s by v a r i e t i e s , s i z e and grades over one desk; and t h a t growers r e f u s e to d e l i v e r t h e i r f r u i t to s h i p p e r s who do not agree to such a p l a n , and the s h i p p e r s forming such a p l a n guarantee not to s e l l any f r u i t , u n l e s s assured t h a t i t w i l l r e t u r n a minimum of one cent per pound f o r apples and \\ cents per pound tovthe grower f o r pears, and not to pack and s t o r e apples u n l e s s reasonably assured t h a t they w i l l r e t u r n a minimum of one cent per pound f o r apples and \\ cents per pound f o r pears to the grower. Haskins and DeHart were s e l e c t e d as l e a d e r s of campaign, and  committees were nominated f o r each r u r a l  around Kelowna.  A s e l e c t committee made up of Haskins,  Loyd of the Belgo,  Cheyne, and DeHart, was  mediary between growers and  shippers.  to a c t as  the area A.K.  inter-  Haskins took on  the  f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g s i m i l a r meetings at Vernon and P e n t i c t o n to present A f t e r these  the  'cent a pound' campaign.  growers' moves, the s h i p p e r s met  at  2  59 Kelowna on September 6 and the m a j o r i t y decided to j o i n i n a new  o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board.  Board was fruit  to be managed by Major M.V.  shipper who  This  McGuire, an independent  had a l s o managed the p r e v i o u s year's  Apple  21 Cartel.  Indeed the Board was  i n e f f e c t the o l d C a r t e l  with the a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e of the p o o l i n g system demanded by the growers' r e s o l u t i o n . "The success of the e n t i r e p l a n , however, r e s t s w i t h the growers," d e c l a r e s Major McGuire. "They must l e n d t h e i r f u l l e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n to the scheme, by a s s i s t i n g those s h i p p e r s who have j o i n e d the p o o l , and by a v o i d i n g those f i r m s which remain o u t s i d e i t . " While meetings were b e i n g scheduled  f o r other p o i n t s  i n the Okanagan and M a i n l i n e r e g i o n s , the temperature of the movement a t Kelowna r o s e . of how  The  many p r e v i o u s marketing  they were unable  organized growers, w e l l aware schemes had f a i l e d because  to c o n t r o l the e n t i r e crop, p r e s s e d  forward  w i t h a campaign - to s i g n up a l l growers i n the d i s t r i c t ,  and  began e f f o r t s to stop the flow of f r u i t to s h i p p e r s not i n the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board.  Oh September 11 the  strike  came out i n t o the open w i t h p i c k e t s p l a c e d on three b r i d g e s on. the.main roads l e a d i n g i n t o town from the orchard  areas.  They stopped a l l t r u c k s c a r r y i n g f r u i t and demanded to see a w r i t t e n statement  from the shipper to whom the f r u i t was  taken t h a t he accepted was  not forthcoming,  the cent a pound demand.  being  Where t h i s  the t r u c k s were turned back and unloaded.  E f f o r t s were a l s o made to get the c o o p e r a t i o n of organized labour, by c a l l i n g on t r u c k e r s to d e c l i n e to h a u l unguaranteed apples as  'scab'  fruit.^  At the P e n t i c t o n mass meeting on September 9 Haskins  6o  suggested a f u r t h e r weapon of p e r s u a s i o n - - a boycott by merchants and p r o f e s s i o n a l men who  of any s e l f i s h  individuals  r e f u s e d to j o i n a movement which meant so much to the  community.  J  One p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e of such o r g a n i z a t i o n  o c c u r r e d a t Penticton-, where a l l the lawyers pledged not to appear i n any case a g a i n s t a f r u i t grower f o r a c t i o n s taken ?6  to s t a b i l i z e the market. Meanwhile,  i n what proved the most important step  of the campaign, an agreement was  signed on September  11  between the Kelowna growers' committee and the Okanagan Stabi l i z a t i o n Board.  T h i s agreement,  contingent on one hundred  p e r c e n t s t a b i l i z a t i o n , p r o v i d e d f o r a committee  of s i x , three  from the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board and three from the growers, w i t h Major McGuire as chairman, " f o r the purpose of s e t t l i n g p r i c e s and d e a l i n g w i t h a l l  other matters which may  a r i s e as a r e s u l t  of the v a l l e y - w i d e e f f o r t to s t a b i l i z e p r i c e s on the 1933 27 apple d e a l . "  P r i c e s were to be s e t to r e t u r n a cent a  pound minimum to the growers, the s h i p p e r s were to make p a r t i a l payments w i t h i n a month a f t e r s a l e , and W.E.  Haskins was to  s i t as growers' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board committee.  F o r i t s p a r t , the growers' committee  agreed to  urge a l l growers to r e f u s e to d e l i v e r f r u i t to any s h i p p e r not a member of the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board. i f i c a n t development, f o r now  T h i s was a s i g n -  the urgency s h i f t e d from e n l i s t i n g  growers to s i g n i n g s h i p p e r s up f o r the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board. The r e f u s a l of a few growers to j o i n , as a t R u t l a n d , d i d not 28  matter, i f t h e i r s h i p p e r s were themselves i n the agreement. The g r e a t e s t r e s i s t a n c e was met at Kelowna, where  61 s e v e r a l s h i p p e r s and grower-shippers  r e f u s e d to s i g n .  But on  September 12 Okanagan F r u i t Shippers L t d . , the O c c i d e n t a l F r u i t Company, and R o w c l i f f e B r o t h e r s were induced to s i g n , and the f o l l o w i n g day the l a s t holdout, Joseph  Casorso  Belgo Co-operative Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , was a l s o by means of what was l a t e r termed i l l e g a l Finally a l l fifty-two f r u i t  of the  persuaded, ^ 2  intimidation.  s h i p p e r s i n the V a l l e y were p a r t 31  of the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board.  The j o i n t s h i p p e r -  grower p r i c e - f i x i n g committee designated September 18 as the date on which a l l apple shipments came under i t s c o n t r o l . The  committee s e t r e g u l a t i o n s to be f o l l o w e d by the  Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board, c o v e r i n g minimum p r i c e s f o r v a r i o u s grades and v a r i e t i e s , ' p o o l i n g groups, and wholesale trouble.  arrangements.  and brokerage  Two of the r u l i n g s were to cause  The f i r s t was a l e v y on f r u i t  shipped, f o r the  e q u a l i z a t i o n o f p o o l s , t h a t was e v e n t u a l l y the d o w n f a l l of the Board. bulk  The other was a ban on shipments o f orchard-run  (unsorted and loose packed) Mcintosh  to P r a i r i e markets.-^  Some s h i p p e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the s m a l l e r ones, were very much upset by t h i s r u l i n g , as i t meant they would have to make much g r e a t e r cash investments The  first  i n sorting:;and .packing.  challenge came almost immediately,  September 2 0 , from Joe Casorso  on  of the Belgo C o - o p e r a t i v e .  A  • f l y i n g squad' o f two hundred growers, l e d by R.F. B o r r e t t , descended on two packing houses and found boxcars being loaded with bulk Mcintosh  f o r him.  They threatened to dump the  c a r l o a d s , but f i n a l l y were s a t i s f i e d w i t h s e a l i n g them up and p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r shipment.  F o r the moment Casorso, who had  62 been 'out of town', toed the l i n e . were unloaded  The next day the c a r s  and the apples graded and packed,  33 y  but Casorso  d i d n o t give i n e a s i l y . A week l a t e r , on September 2 8 , he made h i s second c h a l l e n g e , t o g e t h e r with the R o w c l i f f e b r o t h e r s of Hollywood Orchards.  They s t a r t e d l o a d i n g two c a r s of bulk Macs, l a t e r  i n c r e a s e d to a t o t a l of seven.  When news of t h i s came to  Haskins, he c a l l e d a mass r a l l y o f l o c a l growers, a t which he spoke o f n o n - v i o l e n c e , but s a i d t h a t shipment o f those c a r s must be prevented a t any c o s t .  "Gandhi-like passive  r e s i s t a n c e has been very s u c c e s s f u l i n I n d i a , Mr. Haskins added, and urged a l l p r e s e n t to go down to the t r a c k s . " The  b e l l i g e r e n t crowd surrounded  l o a d i n g was s t i l l  the packing houses,  going on, and d e s p i t e the presence  3/4.  where of f i v e  35  policemen,  J  stopped the l o a d i n g by stonethrowing and c u t the  power l i n e s to the b u i l d i n g s . engine  A t about 11:30  p.m. the f r e i g h t  came from the yards to make up the t r a i n .  The crowd,  of f o u r hundred f r u i t growers and t h e i r wives and c h i l d r e n stood between the boxcars and the locomotive.  They d e f i e d  the engineer to t r y to l i n k up with those c a r s , s h o u t i n g "Only over our dead and m u t i l a t e d bodies w i l l those c a r s move out on the t r a c k s " .  The t r a i n crew, however, was q u i t e w i l l i n g  to back down, and went away to d e a l w i t h other undisputed freight. The  g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e and the i n g r a i n e d d i s t r u s t o f  s h i p p e r s was expressed t h a t n i g h t to a r e p o r t e r by one o f 37  the growers:-^ We must have success today or we are out f o r good.  . . . We have l o s t h e a v i l y i n the past few y e a r s . We have loans from banks and from some of the s h i p p e r s . We cannot repay these l o a n s the way t h i n g s have been going. F u r t h e r l o s s e s t h i s year w i l l p l a c e us i n bankr u p t c y . Wholesale f o r e c l o s u r e s w i l l be i n order and we s h a l l be out--out of house and home and orchard, and probably f o r c e d to get out of the V a l l e y - - a n d the packers and the banks w i l l come i n t o ownership of the ranches. Then you may expect to see those packers, being i n charge of l a r g e orchard areas, r a i s e the p r i c e s to the consumer, who w i l l have to pay whatever p r i c e i s demanded. To see t h a t the boxcars grouped around b o n f i r e s and morning.  stayed put, the crowd stayed,  s i n g i n g , u n t i l 2:30  i n the  next  News then came from Vernon t h a t t h e i r l e g a l r e p r e s -  e n t a t i v e , T.G.  N o r r i s , had  obtained an i n j u n c t i o n ,  to the R o w c l i f f e s and the Casorsos,  addressed  r e s t r a i n i n g them and  t h e i r agents from d i s p o s i n g of f r u i t except as the terms of the agreement r e q u i r e d .  F u r t h e r i n j u n c t i o n s addressed  to  the Canadian N a t i o n a l and Canadian P a c i f i c r a i l w a y companies p r o h i b i t e d them moving the f r u i t i n q u e s t i o n , pending h e a r i n g on the i n j u n c t i o n s . growers' headquarters  A f t e r t h i s news reached  the the  i n Kelowna, "a motor c a r swept down 3  C  the Kelowna s t r e e t s , horn b l a r i n g , to p r o c l a i m the v i c t o r y . " - " The  tenor of g e n e r a l f e e l i n g a t t h i s time, both among  growers and the townspeople, may  be  seen i n t h e i r boycott of  Casorso Bothers L i m i t e d , a f i r m of butchershops Okanagan towns and at Kamloops. Joe and F e l i x Casorso  had  i n several  T h i s occurred even though  s o l d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the company 40  years b e f o r e , and only the name had  been r e t a i n e d .  Before the h e a r i n g on the i n j u n c t i o n s , scheduled f o r October 7 a t Kamloops before Judge Swanson, the r e b e l s backed down, and agreed i z a t i o n Board.  to abide by the r e g u l a t i o n s of the The  Stabil-  growers considered t h i s a g r e a t v i c t o r y ,  but  the Vernon News p r o p h e t i c a l l y noted that i t l e f t  unsettled  4l  the  q u e s t i o n of the l e g a l i t y o f those r e g u l a t i o n s . The C a s o r s o - R o w c l i f f e e f f o r t to break the deal  sparked renewed support f o r the s t a b i l i z a t i o n campaign by the growers, among whom i n t e r e s t had f l a g g e d when a l l seemed secure.  The o r g a n i z a t i o n was f o r m a l i z e d i n t o a Growers'  S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee,  comprised of a l l the l o c a l  chairmen, and Haskins was e l e c t e d l e a d e r .  campaign  The Committee  decided to pay Haskins a s a l a r y and to keep the temporary o f f i c e a t Kelowna open i n d e f i n i t e l y .  These t h i n g s were to be  p a i d f o r by a l e v y on the growers, which before the l a t e s t i n c i d e n t had met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n from those who considered 42  s a l a r y and o f f i c e as unnecessary expenses. The d i f f i c u l t  s a l e s s i t u a t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n the  d e c i s i o n on October 19 by the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board and the Growers' S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee s e l l i n g agency, U n i t e d Apple S a l e s . over one desk a l l the f r u i t the  to s e t up a c e n t r a l  T h i s agency was to s e l l  of those s h i p p e r s who agreed to  method, thus c o n t r o l l i n g over t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the t o t a l  tonnage. The major opponents of the s t a b i l i z a t i o n  campaign  had been d e a l t with, but constant" v i g i l a n c e was kept up. f i n a l open challenge came a t Vernon on October 2 0 . D.W.  The Henry,  a Coldstream grower who u n t i l then had s o l d h i s f r u i t through a l o c a l shipper, decided to ship i t h i m s e l f .  Not having  been a shipper when the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board was formed, he had not signed the c o n t r a c t .  Through J.P. D e l f o f Calgary,  who had j u s t s e t up a brokerage house i n Vernon, Henry  sold  s e v e r a l c a r l o a d s of apples a t p r i c e s w e l l below the i z a t i o n Board minimum.  Stabil-  Three c a r s had a l r e a d y l e f t the V a l l e y ,  and another three were being loaded, when a ' f l y i n g squad' of  44 a hundred growers a r r i v e d . his  The grower was  dissuaded  from  course of a c t i o n by pressure of 'moral o b l i g a t i o n ' ,  but  the v i g i l a n t e s were incensed at the s t r i k e - b r e a k i n g e f f o r t s of  the broker.  to  the s t a t i o n immediately.  u n t i l we  "We  have o f f e r e d to c a r r y a l l t h e i r baggage . . .We're not going to r e s t  see the end of them", d e c l a r e d H.P.Coombes, l e a d e r  45  of the Vernon v i g i l a n t e committee. Three days l a t e r D e l f r e t u r n e d to C a l g a r y whence he had come, and peace again r e i g n e d J  46 i n the Okanagan.  A c e r t a i n number of grower-shippers-who,  l i k e Henry, had not signed the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board c o n t r a c t continued to s e l l at p r i c e s below those set by the Board, but  47 there appears  to have been no p u b l i c a c t i o n a g a i n s t them. '  The a c t i v i t i e s of W.E.  Haskins  and the Growers'  S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee continued, however, as they to for  sought  maintain grower support f o r the campaign, to make p l a n s permanent grower c o n t r o l of marketing,  g e o g r a p h i c a l sway of s t a b i l i z a t i o n .  48  Haskins  December c a l l i n g on f r u i t  the  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the  need f o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n were made to f r u i t a c r o s s the country.  and to extend  growers' a s s o c i a t i o n s  toured the Kootenays i n  growers there to j o i n i n organize...-;';  49 ation,  ' and then "Bearing the banner of the B i g Red  Apple,  i n s c r i b e d , with the mystic words 'Grower Control—Minimum P r i c e ' , w i t h the war  slogan,  'A Cent a Pound or on the Ground',  l e t t e r e d f a i n t l y i n the background,"^ through  0  he l e d a campaign  the Okanagan and M a i n l i n e areas i n support of a  66  grower-controlled  'New  'Enthusiasm*  P l a n ' of c e n t r a l  was  selling.  the keynote of the Okanagan c e n t - a -  pound movement, and a l l prophets of doom or appeals to calm reason were brushed a s i d e .  Indeed,  the word  'enthusiastic'  i s one of those most commonly used to d e s c r i b e the meetings. T h i s emotional r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l emphasis may of the reasons why  be  one  t h i s campaign managed to organize the  growers when so many p a s t appeals to reason had f a l l e n a p a r t through s e c t i o n a l i s m , s e l f - i n t e r e s t , and b l i n d The whole growers' revival.  Reeve W.R.  antipathies.  campaign had much of the tone of a r e l i g i o u s Powell, c h a i r i n g a meeting at Summerland  on September 14, put i t w e l l when he " s a i d he would l i k e t e s t i m o n i e s before p u t t i n g the r e s o l u t i o n to a vote, as the meeting was  i n the nature of an e v a n g e l i c a l one."  7  Even a t  the f i r s t mass meeting i n Kelowna, the e x h o r t a t i o n s and r e p l i e s seem r e m i n i s c e n t of a camp meeting. asked every grower i n the t h e a t r e who  "Mr.  Haskins  would pledge h i m s e l f  not to p i c k h i s f r u i t u n l e s s he got one cent a pound from the s h i p p e r s to stand up, and the whole audience seemed to r i s e as one man."  7  And  the impression i s f u r t h e r e d by the w r i t t e n  pledge which growers were to 'sign on the d o t t e d l i n e ' a t the meetings  to i n d i c a t e t h e i r s u p p o r t .  7 7  The tendency towards f a i t h and emotion, f o r a b s o l u t e answers to the problems  and the search  of the time, are w e l l  i l l u s t r a t e d by the e n t h u s i a s t i c response of the people of the Okanagan V a l l e y to the Oxford Group movement. C h r i s t i a n e v a n g e l i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , new  on the  scene, e x e r c i s e d i t s t h r u s t p a r t i c u l a r l y toward  This  Canadian "the upper-  middle  c l a s s business e l i t e who  suffered considerable anxiety  i n the decade of economic d e p r e s s i o n . "  7  Based on the Four  A b s o l u t e s : Absolute Love, Absolute P u r i t y , Absolute Honesty, and Absolute U n s e l f i s h n e s s , i t d i v i d e d a l l mankind between the  'unchanged' and the  'changed'; which l a t t e r group c o u l d  l i s t e n p e r s o n a l l y to God and r e c e i v e s p e c i a l Guidance Him,  on matters r i g h t down to minor d a i l y d e c i s i o n s .  from  7 7  A  sweep through the Okanagan by Oxford Group members from Vancouver culminated i n a 'House P a r t y ' a t the Royal Anne H o t e l i n Kelowna on November 18 and 19, 1933, hundreds from throughout  the V a l l e y .  attended by  The P e n t i c t o n H e r a l d  commented: ^ 7  Indeterminable w o r r i e s have entered i n t o the l i v e s of the Okanagan people f o r so l o n g that they have begun to look on t h i s as a n a t u r a l s t a t e . The whole e x i s t e n c e of the Okanagan people depends on the f r u i t d e a l from year to year, and every year they have a crop worry or a marketing worry, and now, many of them b e i n g almost on t h e i r l a s t l e g s , they seem eager to reach out f o r something t h a t w i l l r e s t o r e to them the i d e a l s f o r which they have worked so l o n g but which they seldom have been able to g a i n . D. Godfrey-Isaacs found time, between meetings of the Growers' S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee attempting to d e a l w i t h the C r e s t l a n d s i t u a t i o n , to 'surrender' and make 'witness' a t of the  one  ^7  meetings:  7  The more I t h i n k of the f o u r a b s o l u t e s the more I r e a l i z e the f u t i l i t y of my p e t t y p h i l o s o p h i e s . . . . I have devoted the l a s t three y e a r s of my l i f e to t r y i n g to do something f o r our i n d u s t r y , but I was l o o k i n g f o r the c r e d i t . I want t h i s movement to b r i n g to our i n d u s t r y that v i s i o n t h a t the chairman has spoken of and to have i t u n i t e d as C h r i s t would have i t — u n i t e d without any more s u s p i c i o u s p r e j u d i c e s and without the d e s i r e f o r g e t t i n g the b e t t e r of one another. There i s no need f o r a l l these committees--Guidance would do i t a l l f o r us.  68 In such an atmosphere of f e r v o u r , W.E. Haskins was an eminently s u i t a b l e l e a d e r .  The Vernon News d e s c r i b e d him as  " b e t t e r known as a cheer l e a d e r and f o r h i s a b i l i t y t o sway people a t meetings than as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r .  He i s a master  p o l i t i c i a n and i n h i s t h i n k i n g i s g e n e r a l l y about three ahead."-  jumps  One r e p o r t e r s a i d that  5  A t f i r s t s i g h t Mr. Haskins does not give the impression o f s t r e n g t h . But i f you stay with him, g r a d u a l l y you come to an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the tremendous s t a y i n g power, t e n a c i t y and determination behind h i s q u i e t demeanor. -" q  Perhaps e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t l y ,  Haskins, and the campaign  he l e d , were n o t i d e n t i f i e d i n the- growers' minds with e i t h e r camp i n the cooperative-independent feud.  Although he was  p r e s i d e n t of the B.C.F.G.A., the cent a pound campaign arose e n t i r e l y independently  o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the Growers'  Stabilization.Committee  voted  a g a i n s t any takeover by the  60 B.C.F.G.A.  As a spontaneous growth out o f i n d i g n a t i o n  meetings, the campaign was the c h i l d o f n e i t h e r  Associated  Growers nor of the independent s h i p p e r s , and indeed  inits  e a r l y stages was c r i t i c i z e d by both the p r e s i d e n t and v i c e p r e s i d e n t o f A s s o c i a t e d Growers, r e c a l c i t r a n t independents. It  seems strange  61  at f i r s t  as w e l l as by the v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t no  a c t i o n was taken by the government a u t h o r i t i e s about what was c l e a r l y i n t i m i d a t i o n , v i o l e n c e , and t h r e a t s o f v i o l e n c e , 6?  i l l e g a l under s e c t i o n 98 o f the C r i m i n a l Code. circumstances ensured t h a t nothing was done.  But p o l i t i c a l H.H. Stevens,  the M i n i s t e r of Trade and Commerce, d e f t l y sidestepped b e h a l f o f the f e d e r a l government: "The q u e s t i o n  on  of p r e s e r v i n g  order and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the law l o c a l l y i s e n t i r e l y i n the hands of the p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . " government was  provincial  i n no shape to do anything, f o r the r u l i n g  Conservative P a r t y was called.  The  f a l l i n g a p a r t and an e l e c t i o n had been  No p o l i t i c i a n was  w i l l i n g to r i s k the d i s p l e a s u r e of  so l a r g e a p o r t i o n of h i s e l e c t o r a t e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r a r e s o l u t i o n such as that passed at Vernon that every grower . . . does hereby pledge h i m s e l f , to give no support whatever, to any candidate of any p a r t y , p r o v i n c i a l or F e d e r a l , u n l e s s such candidate s h a l l have d e f i n i t e l y committed h i m s e l f , to f u r t h e r to h i s utmost, our e f f o r t s to secure l e g i s l a t i o n , a l o n g ^ the l i n e s of the B r i t i s h marketing a c t . Indeed,  J.W.  5  Jones, the M i n i s t e r of Finance,  a s s i s t e d the growers* committee i n the Casorso George Heggie,  MLA,  i z a t i o n a l meeting.  case, ^ and  p r e s i d e d a t the Vernon d i s t r i c t 66  actively  organ-  Otherwise, most candidates avoided the  s u n j e c t of the s t r i k e but promised  to p r e s s f o r marketing  67  l e g i s l a t i o n i f e l e c t e d . .'  Stephen Freeman, the CCF  candidate  i n North Okanagan, prophesied that compulsory l e g i s l a t i o n r e g u l a t i n g c o - o p e r a t i v e marketing w i l l be brought i n t o being, "no matter what government gets i n . " The C.C.F., however, w i l l see that middlemen's p r o f i t s w i l l be reduced or ^g eliminated. The CCF  approved  of growers t a k i n g a c t i o n , but s a i d the  growers' problems would not be s o l v e d u n t i l c o o p e r a t i o n  fruit was  69 extended  to the e n t i r e economic f a b r i c of the n a t i o n .  7  The Okanagan growers' movement, as w e l l as h a v i n g antecedents, a l s o had o f f s p r i n g - - t h a t i s , i t i n s p i r e d moves by other B.C.  farmers.  Okanagan onion growers met  similar  In the f i r s t of these, the  a t Kelowna on September 20 to  unanimously support a 'cent a pound' r e s o l u t i o n t h a t c a l l e d for  onions to s e l l f o r a minimum of twenty d o l l a r s a t o n  r a t h e r than the twelve  d o l l a r p r i c e then o b t a i n i n g . ' "The  meeting was attended by O r i e n t a l s as w e l l as white growers and f o r the O r i e n t a l s e c t i o n a boss man of each n a t i o n a l i t y , Japanese, Chinese  and Hindu, signed up one hundred per cent."^  F u r t h e r meetings were h e l d a t Vernon, and a t Kamloops, where there was a l s o a hundred percent response  reported.^  1  The  campaign must have had some e f f e c t on the onion market, f o r 72 the p r i c e rose to s i x t e e n d o l l a r s a ton w i t h i n a week,  but  i t f a i l e d because c o o p e r a t i o n from the s h i p p e r s was not 73 forthcoming.' 7  The F r a s e r V a l l e y dairymens' proposed s t r i k e was o f c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r impact.  There the i d e a of a producers'  union to f o r c e a c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n p r i c e from d i s t r i b u t o r s was proposed a t the beginning of October,  and the F r a s e r  V a l l e y Cooperative A s s o c i a t i o n was formed to e n l i s t a hundred percent of the m i l k producers  behind  the e f f o r t .  T h i s move-  ment, too, had i t s slogan: " F i f t y - f i v e to Keep Us A l i v e " , meaning f i f t y - f i v e  cents p e r pound of b u t t e r f a t f o r f l u i d 74  m i l k s o l d to d e a l e r s .  The union movement grew r a p i d l y and  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y f o r s e v e r a l months, but faded away i n January  and February  Producers*  of 1934 when the F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k  A s s o c i a t i o n , the l a r g e s t c o o p e r a t i v e i n the area,  d e c l i n e d to support the s t r i k e , and the r e c e n t l y - e l e c t e d Premier  T.D. P a t t u l l o warned t h a t a milk s t r i k e would not be 7 5  t o l e r a t e d by the government.' The Okanagan growers' campaign e s t a b l i s h e d complete 7  c o n t r o l of the apple supply i n the V a l l e y f o r the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board.  A l l the Board had to do was to s e l l the  crop, b u t the p o s s i b i l i t y q u i c k l y arose that i t might not be able to do so without abandoning  the p r i c e guarantee.  Sales  were s l u g g i s h from the s t a r t , and by October 14 only k2.7% of  the Mcintosh crop had been s o l d , compared w i t h 62.$% on  the same date the year b e f o r e . ^ S a l e s slumped f o r three reasons. new p r i c e s c a l e which,  The f i r s t was the  combined w i t h the c e s s a t i o n of bulk  shipments, had g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d consumer p r i c e s , as much as  77 d o u b l i n g those o f the p r e v i o u s year i n some cases.''  This  combined with i n c r e a s e d f r e i g h t r a t e s to make an o v e r a l l in  rise  the consumer p r i c e of Mcintosh to P r a i r i e r e s i d e n t s o f  about f i f t y p e r c e n t .  The impoverished people there d i d  not look f a v o u r a b l y upon such i n c r e a s e s . Kelowna businessman,  W.A.C. Bennett, a  r e p o r t e d on h i s r e t u r n from a t r i p to  Alberta  that The P r a i r i e s are being l e d to b e l i e v e t h a t the growers i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , t a k i n g them by the t h r o a t , are endeavouring under cover of the very f i n e t a r i f f p r o t e c t i o n g i v e n , to get p r i c e s w h o l l y out o f l i n e with those which wheat growers and a g r i c u l t u r a l rp i n t e r e s t s g e n e r a l l y are r e c e i v i n g . '  q 7  The  second f a c t o r slowing s a l e s was the jobbers on  the P r a i r i e s .  Most of them expressed sympathy f o r the cause,  80 but a few were openly h o s t i l e S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board's  and attempted  to break the  stand by expedients such as the encour-  agement o f r e b e l s h i p p e r s and the s t r i k e - b r e a k i n g jobber, and by v a r i o u s ' d i r t y t r i c k s ' such as f a l s e l y r e p o r t i n g r u i n o u s l y low p r i c e s as p r e v a l e n t and s p r e a d i n g rumours o f l a r g e  ship-  ments a r r i v i n g from Nova S c o t i a and O n t a r i o , i n the hope of  i n d u c i n g the Board  to lower i t s p r i c e s .  d e a l e r s h e s i t a t e d to buy u n t i l i t was i z a t i o n was  going to l a s t .  And,  Even  0 1  sympathetic  c l e a r whether  stabil-  although some r a d i c a l s  r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e i t and p r e f e r r e d to see c o n s p i r a c i e s 82 a g a i n s t the f r u i t growers, "He  the jobber was  a businessman.  i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n o b t a i n i n g s u p p l i e s from day to  day  which w i l l keep him competitive w i t h h i s o p p o s i t i o n , and i n order to accomplish other  t h i s , he has been doing h i s buying  from  sources."^ The  other sources i n q u e s t i o n were the Kootenay,  Creston, and Grand Forks f r u i t growers. brought  i n t o the whirlwind crusade  They had not been  f o r s t a b i l i z a t i o n because  of l a c k of time and the d i v e r s i o n of energy  into b a t t l e s with  s h i p p e r s ; the Okanagan p a i d f o r the omission.  As l o n g as the  Kootenay s u p p l i e s h e l d out they commanded t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the P r a i r i e market, s e l l i n g a t about f i f t e e n cents l e s s per box than the p r i c e  set by the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board.  Not u n t i l mid-December, when the f o u r hundred c a r l o a d s of 84 Kootenay apples had been s o l d , s t a r t moving f r e e l y .  One  c o u l d the Okanagan f r u i t  r e s u l t was  export and low p r i c e s i n England.  a r a t h e r o v e r l y heavy  But e v e n t u a l l y a l l the  apples were s o l d , w i t h no dumping r e q u i r e d , and  "The  net  r e s u l t of the growers* campaign has been to t r a n s f e r a r o u t i n p r i c e s to more or l e s s s t a b i l i t y . "  D  The  overall  average  f.o.b. p r i c e f o r packed apples from the 1933 Okanagan crop 86 was $ 1 . 0 0 per box,  r e t u r n i n g more than the  called-for  minimum of f o r t y cents a box to the grower. The d o w n f a l l of the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board  came  with the t r i a l of the case of McGuire vs. C r e s t l a n d F r u i t Company, i n which Major McGuire, as p o o l agent of the  Stabil-  i z a t i o n Board, sued t h a t company (which.had been set up p r e v i o u s year by a E r a i r i e  the  jobber to get an entry i n t o the  Okanagan) f o r $10,157 of e q u a l i z a t i o n l e v i e s which i t r e f u s e d Or?  to  pay.  '  The  crime seemed the more heinous i n t h a t Harvey  H a r r i s o n , the manager of the C r e s t l a n d F r u i t Company, had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the formation  of the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board  and  had h i m s e l f i n t r o d u c e d the motion to'."impose the very l e v y he l a t e r r e f u s e d to p a y . ^ The  s u i t was  s t a r t e d i n December 1 9 3 3 . but i t was  heard u n t i l February 193^,  i n a seven-day t r i a l before  J u s t i c e Denis Murphy i n the Supreme Court of B r i t i s h  not  Mr.  Columbia.  In h i s d e c i s i o n on March 15, Murphy r u l e d a g a i n s t McGuire, s a y i n g t h a t the agreements, made under i n t i m i d a t i o n and duress, were i l l e g a l and unenforcable-as of trade and  contravening  being i n r e s t r a i n t  the C r i m i n a l Code.  sympathetic w i t h the growers' motives,  The  Judge  was  saying  I t i s only f a i r to the growers' cent-a-pound organi z a t i o n to say t h a t I am convinced they acted as they d i d i n no s p i r i t of wanton l a w l e s s n e s s . ... . T h e i r a c t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e i r f i r m c o n v i c t i o n t h a t market c o n t r o l i s i n a f i n a n c i a l sense a matter of l i f e and death w i t h them. 89 But he d i d not l e t h i s sympathy d u l l h i s l e g a l sense: My c o n c l u s i o n on a l l t h i s i s t h a t the a c t i o n s of the p o o l members are so t a i n t e d with i l l e g a l i t y > t h a t the Court must r e f u s e to d e a l with t h a t c o n t r a c t i n any way at the s u i t of any p a r t y t h e r e t o . Thus the cloud of i l l e g a l i t y , which had hung over from the s t a r t of the campaign, f i n a l l y  proceedings  burst.  Although Haskins and h i s Growers' S t a b i l i z a t i o n  74 Committee fought on, r e f u s i n g to admit d e f e a t , ^  0  and put  forward a new p l a n f o r t o t a l grower c o n t r o l o f marketing through the 'United F r u i t Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C.', headed by Haskins, George B a r r a t o f Kelowna, and O.W.  Hembling  91 of Oyama,  most growers now looked  f o r s o l u t i o n s to the  marketing l e g i s l a t i o n promised by the f e d e r a l government. The Growers' S t r i k e v i v i d l y demonstrated the d e s p a i r of o r c h a r d i s t s i n 1933*  They abandoned t h e i r  previously  predominant p o l i c i e s o f cooperation  and l e g i s l a t e d c o n t r o l —  and  the B.C.F.G.A.--in  their t r a d i t i o n a l organization,  of an extreme p l a n o f d i r e c t a c t i o n .  favour  Chapter 6 STABILIZATION AT LAST: THE NATURAL PRODUCTS MARKETING ACT AND FINAL CONCLUSIONS The  1934  f e d e r a l N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t o f  was the c u l m i n a t i o n and the answer to a decade of a g i t a t i o n i n the Okanagan f o r a b e t t e r system of marketing f r u i t .  The  Act i s u s u a l l y d i s m i s s e d by h i s t o r i a n s and other a n a l y s t s as being j u s t one of the v a r i o u s p i e c e s of R.B. Bennett's D e a l ' package, elections.  'New  a p a n i c move by a government a f r a i d of impending  As such i t has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  a t t e n t i o n , apart  from that of a g r i c u l t u r a l economists more i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i s t r i b u t i v e machinery  i t s e t up than i n the reasons why i t  was d r a f t e d and passed i n the f i r s t p l a c e . u n f o r t u n a t e , f o r i t s genesis and impetus  Such n e g l e c t i s  came from  different  sources than the Bennett New Deal, and preceded the i n c e p t i o n of t h a t program by many months. The atmosphere i n Canada had since 1929  become more  f a v o u r a b l e to government r e g u l a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l marketing, as even t r a d i t i o n a l opponents were unable i n D e p r e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s to operate p r o f i t a b l y .  Thus marketing  legislation  had as u n l i k e l y a supporter as J.S. Roger, p r e s i d e n t o f the Canadian F r u i t and Vegetable Jobbers A s s o c i a t i o n , who  called  f o r l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r to the B r i t i s h Marketing A c t (which allowed the government to s e t p r i c e s and p r o d u c t i o n quotas  75  when a m a j o r i t y o f b o t h p r o d u c e r s and p r o c e s s o r s a g r e e d ) he  spoke  to the annual  convention o f the Canadian  when  Chamber o f  i  Commerce i n O c t o b e r The  o f 1933-  c h a n g e d atmosphere was r e f l e c t e d  pronouncements o f p o l i t i c i a n s . Conference the  o f August  federal Minister  i n the changing  A t the N a t i o n a l  29 t o September 1, 1932, R o b e r t of Agriculture,  g i v e n t o o much a t t e n t i o n  summer o f 1933 m e e t i n g s  Tolmie, Prime  t o some o f t h e q u e s t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  within  a t Regina  o f the f o u r western  D u r i n g the  of a g r i c u l t u r a l  l e a d e r s and  provinces, including  d i s c u s s e d p r o p o s a l s f o r Dominion m a r k e t i n g  M i n i s t e r Bennett the l i m i t s  Weir,  s u g g e s t e d t h a t "we'have  and n o t enough t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f m a r k e t i n g . "  politicians  Agricultural  indicated h i swillingness  .  legislation.  to a c t ,  o f f e d e r a l powers, and p r o m i s e d  k  Premier  .  to invest-  .  i g a t e those l i m i t s . One r e s u l t o f h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n the N a t u r a l P r o d u c t s M a r k e t i n g A c t . Although,  i n i t s finished  p r o v i n c i a l marketing and  boards  form,  the A c t allowed f o r  o f a l l farm p r o d u c t s except  grain,  f o r o t h e r n a t u r a l p r o d u c t s s u c h a s l u m b e r and f i s h , i t s  original  i n t e n t i o n s were h u m b l e r .  I t was a t f i r s t  to a p p l y o n l y t o d a i r y p r o d u c t s and f r u i t , difficulty drafters bill  was  of defining  the e x a c t range  of the schemes. The especially  the d e t a i l e d  b u t because  of the  o f products, the  a v o i d e d the problem by i n c l u d i n g  and l e a v i n g  intended  definitions  e v e r y t h i n g i n the to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  7  initiative the f r u i t  f o r t h e A c t came f r o m  farmers of B r i t i s h  p r e s s u r e was e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h  t h e d a i r y and  Columbia.  This  t h e Hon. G r o t e S t i r l i n g ,  MP  7  for  the c o n s t i t u e n c y  of Yale  (which i n c l u d e d the Okanagan),  who was g e n e r a l l y acknowledged as t h e f a t h e r o f t h e b i l l . He d e s c r i b e d h i s p r i n c i p l e as " t h a t t h e p r o d u c e r s h o u l d have in  h i s own hand the power o f c o n d u c t i n g  the marketing of h i s  produce i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n and t h i s cannot be done u n t i l 7  t h e r e i s a m a j o r i t y r u l e o f the m i n o r i t y . " ' S t i r l i n g was a v e t e r a n member o f P a r l i a m e n t , h e l d h i s seat f o r the Conservative  having  Party since 1924.  He was  p e r s o n a l l y r e s p e c t e d by members o f a l l p a r t i e s as r e p r e s e n t i n g his  c o n s t i t u e n t s as much as h i s p a r t y , and as a member who o  spoke seldom b u t was l i s t e n e d t o when he d i d .  L a t e r i n 1934,  he was c a l l e d t o the C a b i n e t t o serve as M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Defence.  B e n n e t t was t h e r e f o r e w i l l i n g t o make a  concession  t o p l a c a t e S t i r l i n g and h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s on what appeared t o him a m a t t e r o f o n l y l o c a l The  import.^  Natural Products Marketing  A c t had a slow passage  through t h e Commons, s t r o n g l y opposed by L i b e r a l s who  claimed  t h a t i t was n o t r e a l l y a government b i l l a t a l l , b u t an e l e c t i o n e e r i n g t r i c k , a c h i l d "born o f the f a r m e r s and producers,  o f w e s t e r n Canada p a r t i c u l a r l y , and e s p e c i a l l y o f 10  the P a c i f i c c o a s t . "  The l e a d e r o f the o p p o s i t i o n , W.L.  Mackenzie K i n g , s t r o n g l y denounced the p r i n c i p l e " o f c r e a t i n g monopolies o f p r o d u c e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , groups c o n t r o l l i n g p r o d u c t i o n  special  and s a l e o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s 11  o f p r o d u c t s and commodities."  B u t the b i l l was f i n a l l y  passed i n t o l a w on J u l y 3, 1934; the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e had a l r e a d y passed e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n so t h a t i t 12  c o u l d come i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o o p e r a t i o n .  The urgency o f the  78 Okanagan f r u i t growers may was  the f i r s t  be seen i n the f a c t t h a t  theirs  commodity scheme to be approved, coming i n t o  e f f e c t on August 28,  193*1-.  The L o c a l Board i s empowered to r e g u l a t e the time and p l a c e at which the t r e e f r u i t s grown i n the I n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e may be marketed; to determine the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of the f r u i t marketed; to assess and c o l l e c t t o l l s to defray expenses; to p o o l the proceeds from the s a l e s among the s h i p p e r s . 7  The  growers showed that t h e i r confidence  in their  l e a d e r s d u r i n g the s t a b i l i z a t i o n campaign s t i l l h e l d , even though t h a t campaign had for  three years  of Haskins,  f a i l e d i n the c o u r t s , by  electing  i n s u c c e s s i o n a L o c a l F r u i t Board c o n s i s t i n g  B a r r a t , and Hembling, f o r m e r l y the three  executives  14 of the United F r u i t Producers' The  Association.  f e d e r a l N a t u r a l Products  d i s a l l o w e d by the c o u r t s i n 1936, l a t u r e had permitted  Marketing Act  was  but the p r o v i n c i a l  already passed amendments to i t s own  legis-  A c t which  i t to remain i n o p e r a t i o n f o r " r e g u l a t i o n and  c o n t r o l i n any r e s p e c t or i n a l l r e s p e c t s of the marketing of n a t u r a l products  w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e ,  i n c l u d i n g the 15  h i b i t i n g of such marketing i n whole or i n p a r t . " whose main power was  7  The  proBoard,  i n m a i n t a i n i n g p r i c e s by r e g u l a t i n g the  r a t e of r e l e a s e of f r u i t by the s h i p p e r s , continued  in  o p e r a t i o n ; but the growers s t i l l pushed f o r a r e t u r n to centralized selling.  An  the l a t t e r p a r t of 1938 B.C.F.G.A. convention  experiment with one-desk s e l l i n g i n was  of January 1939  cover a l l shipments i n 1939F r u i t s L i m i t e d was  s u c c e s s f u l enough t h a t the voted  ,  f o r a scheme to  Under t h i s p l a n , B.C.  Tree  e s t a b l i s h e d as the s o l e s e l l i n g agency  79 for  Interior fruit.  The h e r i t a g e O o f the growers'  campaigns  governed i t s form as a one-desk s e l l i n g agency w i t h pooled r e t u r n s which was  e n t i r e l y c o n t r o l l e d by the B.C.F.G.A.; the  s h i p p e r s , independent or c o o p e r a t i v e , had no hand i n i t s governance  and became p u r e l y p a c k i n g and h a n d l i n g concerns  without any p a r t i n merchandising the f r u i t .  P r i c e s d i d not  r i s e to the l e v e l s of the 1920s u n t i l the midyears of the Second World War,  but they h e l d steady and w e l l above the 1 7  rock-bottom of 1932.  At l a s t the marketing of f r u i t  had  been s t a b i l i z e d . The Growers' the  S t r i k e of 1933 was  a pivotal point i n  h i s t o r y of Okanagan f r u i t marketing.  Control—Minimum  The slogan, 'Grower  P r i c e ' , h i g h l i g h t e d what might be  r a d i c a l about the growers' p l a n .  Demands f o r one  p e r c e n t s t a b i l i z a t i o n among s h i p p e r s were not new;  termed hundred neither  were c a l l s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n too'crea'te,.marketing boards. for  the f i r s t  i n how  But  time producers demanded 'Grower C o n t r o l ' - - a say  t h e i r f r u i t was  distributed,  so l o n g as they had an  undischarged monetary i n t e r e s t i n i t .  In p a s t they had been  w i l l i n g to hand t h e i r fruit., to a s h i p p e r and accept whatever it  brought.  Price'.  The second phrase, too, was  a  departure--'Minimum  B e f o r e , the s h i p p e r s were begged to get the b e s t  p r i c e p o s s i b l e on the market.  Now  they were d i r e c t e d to get  a minimum p r i c e , based on the c o s t of p r o d u c t i o n . . . to  s e l l at a l l .  of  d i s t r i b u t i o n as i t stood, w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l producer,  whatever  The growers thus r e j e c t e d the e n t i r e  or not pattern  the marketing system, t a k i n g a l l the r i s k of l o s s i n  d i s t r i b u t i o n but r e c e i v i n g only what r e t u r n remained  after  80 a l l the o t h e r f a c t o r s had taken t h e i r c u t .  I n s t e a d , an  ' i n t e r e s t group' should c o n t r o l d i s t r i b u t i o n of f r u i t up to the p o i n t where i t was  a c t u a l l y exchanged f o r cash, and  ensure  r e t u r n s based on p r o d u c t i o n value r a t h e r than on market prices.  The  'competitive i n f e r i o r i t y ' of the producer would  thus be e l i m i n a t e d . But the growers'  s t r i k e was not r e a l l y  radicalism,",  not r e a l l y a movement convinced t h a t the e x i s t i n g economic order was  o b s o l e t e and must be r e p l a c e d .  Bather i t was i n  f a c t no more than an expedient of people f r i g h t e n e d by economic c o n d i t i o n s which seemed to j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d .  The  s t r u g g l e might be one between f r e e e n t e r p r i s e and monopoly or even s o c i a l i s t c o n t r o l , but i t was the context of the marketing of f r u i t ; were concerned i t bore l i t t l e towards the r e s t of the world. the  a struggle wholly w i t h i n so f a r as the  growers  or no r e l a t i o n to t h e i r  attitudes  The l a c k of c o n n e c t i o n between  ' r a d i c a l i s m ' of the s t r i k e and g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l  economic p r i n c i p l e s i s demonstrated  and  by the l a c k of support  f o r r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l movements i n the Okanagan i n the p e r i o d , by the absence  of p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c from the  l e a d e r s , and by the r e a d i n e s s of the growers  growers' to r e v e r t to  t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l concerns when the government was to step i n .  The growers'  persuaded  s t r i k e took the methods and  of r a d i c a l a c t i o n without a b s o r b i n g the p o l i t i c a l  style  principles  18  associated with i t . A low degree of 'theory' was v i s i b l e throughout the debates about marketing; few of the p a r t i c i p a n t s understood how  the system worked, and arguments tended to be on emotional  81 r a t h e r than i n t e l l e c t u a l grounds.  As W.E. Haskins i s r e p o r t e d  to have complained, when he spoke about marketing systems and economics no one p a i d much a t t e n t i o n , but when he a t t a c k e d the  shippers with t h e i r b i g houses on Water S t r e e t the growers  would stand up and cheer.  IQ 7  T h i s l a c k of understanding  of how the d i s t r i b u t i o n  system f u n c t i o n e d had d e f i n i t e r e s u l t s f o r growers' organization.  The producers c o n c e n t r a t e d ^ t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the  shipper, the only l i n k of the d i s t r i b u t i v e they had c o n t a c t .  c h a i n with which  Growers a t t r i b u t e d much g r e a t e r powers to  the s h i p p e r s than they a c t u a l l y had, and b e l i e v e d t h a t , i f only a l l of the s h i p p e r s and one hundred percent  of t h e i r  tonnage was c o n t r o l l e d , every problem would be solved, as i f there was no o u t s i d e competition. l e a d e r s were l i t t l e  The growers and t h e i r  concerned about the brokers and jobbers,  even though two combines i n v e s t i g a t i o n s showed t h a t the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of ownership i n a few conglomerates l e d to p r a c t i c e s d i s t i n c t l y harmful to the i n t e r e s t s of the producer. These companies were too f a r away from home--it' was the shipper, the man who made the payments which determined the grower's wealth o r poverty the grower most The  f o r the next year, who seemed t o  powerful.  l a c k of understanding  of economic and p o l i t i c a l  theory was p a r t of a d e f i n i t e a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l c u r r e n t among the growers.  T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y marked among independents,  as i s shown by the o p p o s i t i o n of the Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n to u n i v e r s i t y experts and by the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the l e t t e r s to the Premier a t t a c k i n g c e n t r a l s e l l i n g and  82 c o n t r o l plans  as n o t h i n g  more than schemes by 'experts' to  draw f a t s a l a r i e s . In p a r t the l a c k o f r e s p e c t f o r government and u n i v e r s i t y experts experts  was l i k e l y due to the f a i l u r e o f those  to come to g r i p s w i t h the problem o f marketing.  as i s s t i l l  Then,  to a l a r g e degree true today, government a g r i c u l t -  u r i s t s concerned themselves almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h matters o f t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y and the economics o f p r o d u c t i o n . f r u i t growers' o r g a n i z e r s  The  and l e a d e r s , on the other hand,  tended to r e s i s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the e f f i c i e n c y o f p r o d u c t i o n and h a n d l i n g  as p a r t o f t h e i r problems, and i n s t e a d  relied  almost e n t i r e l y on m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s a l e s o r g a n i z a t i o n to f i n d solutions.  There was no common meeting ground.  Therefore  d i s c u s s i o n s o f marketing i n the Okanagan  tended to come down to a few d r a s t i c a l l y s i m p l i f i e d arguments-b a s i c a l l y an emotional and p e r s o n a l  d e c i s i o n between the  freedom o f the i n d i v i d u a l to use and dispose  of h i s  as he saw f i t ,  to prevent the  minority interest.  and the r i g h t o f the m a j o r i t y  from behaving i n a f a s h i o n d e t r i m e n t a l  property  to m a j o r i t y  E.D. Barrow t o l d the B.C.F.G.A. convention i n 1928  I t sounds v e r y f i n e f o r those who have the education and command o f the King's E n g l i s h to w r i t e l e t t e r s on a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s as they might apply to l e g i s l a t i o n , but t h a t does not s e t t l e our d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t we are faced w i t h i n the c a r r y i n g on o f our ownlbusiness. (Applause) We cannot a f f o r d to be c o n t r o l l e d by a b s t r a c t p r i n c i p l e s when we have to d e a l w i t h concrete f a c t s . . . . the i n t e r e s t o f the State a t l a r g e i s o f g r e a t e r importance than t h a t o f the i n d i v i d u a l , and what we are t r y i n g to c a r r y out i n connection w i t h the marketing o f our food i s a system t h a t w i l l be to the advantage o f the people as a whole, and we deny the r i g h t o f any one i n d i v i d u a l or any i n s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y to conduct t h e i r a f f a i r s so t h a t they w i l l - n u l l i f y the e f f o r t s t h a t are b e i n g p u t f o r t h by the m a j o r i t y f o r the b e n e f i t o f the people as a whole. 2  Q  83 The Okanagan f r u i t i n d u s t r y e x i s t e d i n an almost c o n t i n u a l c r i s i s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , brought about by a c o n t i n ^ . u a l l y expanding crop which r e q u i r e d the s e l l i n g o f everl a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s o f f r u i t i n a r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c market. New expedients  to d e a l s u c c e s s f u l l y with one season's crop  were i n v a r i a b l y swamped by the f o l l o w i n g season's r e c o r d breaking production.  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a f a i t h grew, based  on the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t u n c o n t r o l l e d open c o m p e t i t i o n was sure d i s a s t e r , t h a t the only p o s s i b l e answer was complete c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l o f the Okanagan c r o p — c a l l i t one hundred percent s t a b i l i z a t i o n ,  compulsory c o o p e r a t i o n , or c e n t r a l  s e l l i n g , or whatever you w i s h — t o without p r i c e - c u t t i n g .  allow o r d e r l y marketing  I t i s not c e r t a i n t h a t t h i s i d e a was  e n t i r e l y r i g h t ; even had every apple produced i n the p r o v i n c e gone through  the c o n t r o l l i n g agency, t h a t agency c o u l d not  have dominated the market, f o r much o f the supply,  especially  to the P r a i r i e s , came from e a s t e r n Canada and the U n i t e d States.  As l o n g as those r e g i o n s were i n c o m p e t i t i o n , even  one hundred percent c o n t r o l o f the B r i t i s h Columbia crop c o u l d not guarantee The  stabilization.  s i g n i f i c a n t t h i n g i s t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y o f  growers came to favour a system o f ' c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g ' to overcome t h e i r  'competitive i n f e r i o r i t y *  i n the d i s t r i b u t i v e  system, and t h a t they were a b l e , by the weight o f t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n and mass o p i n i o n , to prod government i n t o g i v i n g l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to t h e i r e f f o r t s to f o r c e the m i n o r i t y t o submit t o the w i l l o f the m a j o r i t y , thus s p u r r i n g the formation o f our c u r r e n t State-sponsored  marketing  84  monopolies  for agricultural  marketing.  The Growers' S t r i k e of 1 9 3 3 brought an end to one  era  i n the h i s t o r y of the development of marketing o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the Okanagan f r u i t i n d u s t r y .  When f i n a l l y  the growers  became desperate enough to take matters i n t o t h e i r own they sparked government a c t i o n which took the matter more out of t h e i r hands. or  once  Ever s i n c e then government has more  l e s s accepted a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b r i n g i n g i n t o b e i n g  and e n f o r c i n g c e n t r a l i z e d marketing.  And  p a r t i c u l a r l y , there has even been a t a c i t of  hands,  i n recent years, government  a minimum p r i c e through such expedients as  S t a b i l i z a t i o n ' and  'Farm Income Assurance'.  guarantee  'Agricultural Growers have  o f t e n major or even c o n t r o l l i n g v o i c e s i n the v a r i o u s marketing boards and agencies, but they have the c o m f o r t i n g reassurance that, i f d i f f i c u l t i e s  a r i s e , not o n l y w i l l they be able to  c a l l on government, but t h a t some a c t i o n w i l l be Thus, although i n f a s h i o n other than o r i g i n a l l y the movement f o r 'Grower Control—Minimum P r i c e '  forthcoming. envisaged, succeeded—  but by government f i a t r a t h e r than by the r a d i c a l i s m of the producers.  NOTES Chapter 1 i  See, i n p a r t i c u l a r , Vernon C. Fowke, Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y : The H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1 9 4 6 ) , and Vernon C. Fowke, The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1957). F o r an a n a l y s i s o f Fowke's i d e a s , see Paul P h i l l i p s , "The H i n t e r l a n d P e r s p e c t i v e : The P o l i t i c a l Economy of Vernon C. Fowke", Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Theory, 11:2 (Spring-Summer, 1 9 7 8 ) , pp. 7 3 - 9 6 .  2 Fowke, Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y , p. 272. Don M i t c h e l l . T h e P o l i t i c s o f Food (Toronto: James Lorimer and Co., 1975)» p. 147• 3  4 Fowke, N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy, p. 191. T h i s c o n d i t i o n o f buyer c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s known i n economic jargon as 'oligopsony', and i s common i n some areas of a g r i c u l t u r a l production. McGraw-Hill D i c t i o n a r y o f Modern Economics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965), pp. 358-359. 7  Fowke, N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy, p. 290. 7  I b i d . , p. 289.  8 Phillips,  "The H i n t e r l a n d P e r s p e c t i v e " , p. 89.  ^Fowke, N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy, p. 296.  10 The f e d e r a l government d i d r e c e i v e , i n t r u s t f o r r a i l w a y purposes, a band f o r t y m i l e s wide across the p r o v i n c e . But i t proved i n no hurry to dispose o f these lands, which indeed appeared a p o s i t i v e hindrance to the settlement o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Robert E. C a i l , Land, Man, and the Law: The D i s p o s a l o f Crown Lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1913 (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 146.  11  F.W. Howay, "The Settlement and Progress o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1914", H i s t o r i c a l . Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia, J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n , ed. (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1 9 7 6 ) , pp. 3 4 - 3 5 , 3 8 .  12  C a i l , Land, Man, and the Law, p. 56. B y 1913 8,233,410 a c r e s had been granted f o r provi n c i a l l y c h a r t e r e d r a i l w a y s , and 14,526,000 acres more conveyed to the Dominion f o r r a i l w a y purposes. These grants t o t a l l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y more than h a l f as much as the e n t i r e grants by l v  85  86  the Dominion i t s e l f f o r r a i l w a y s .  I b i d . , pp. 1 6 2 , 1 6 7 .  14 t R.E. Caves and R.H. H o l t o n , "An O u t l i n e o f the Economic H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 5 1 " , H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s , pp. 1 5 3 - 1 5 5 . 15 C a i l , Land, Man, and the Law, p. 5 8 . l6  R u s s e l l R. Walker, P o l i t i c i a n s o f a P i o n e e r i n g (Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p. 5 1 ' 17 'Folder No. 7-21, " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - P r o v i n c i a l - L a n d s Land Settlements", Simon F r a s e r Tolmie Papers ( i n S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) i n c l u d e s l e t t e r s from the L a n g l e y Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the Matsqui A g r i c u l t u r a l and H o r t i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the Maple Grove C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , and s e v e r a l s c h o o l boards. 18 James Morton, Honest John O l i v e r : The L i f e S t o r y of the Honourable John O l i v e r , Premier of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1918-1927 (London, Toronto, and Vancouver: J.M. Dent and Sons. Province  1933),  p.  1^3.  19 P r e m i e r McBride, f o r example, spoke i n favour o f c o o p e r a t i o n , and h i s government l e n t money to c o o p e r a t i v e organizations. T w e n t y - F i f t h Annual Report o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t - G r o w e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Year E n d i n g December 31st, 1914 ( V i c t o r i a : K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1915). PP. 20, 4 4 . N . b . : a l l f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s to the annual r e p o r t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be i n the f o l l o w i n g form: B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1914. I t should a l s o be noted t h a t the annual conventions whose p r o c e e d i n g s are d e t a i l e d i n the r e p o r t s , were g e n e r a l l y h e l d i n the January o f the year f o l l o w i n g the date o f the r e p o r t . Thus, the above r e f e r e n c e i s to speeches a t the c o n v e n t i o n a t V i c t o r i a , January 2 6 and 27, 1 9 1 5 « 7  on  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1924, p. 42. 21  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Aug. 31, 1929, p. 6 .  "Roughly 60% o f the p r o d u c t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities today [1939] i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s from; mixed farms m a i n l y i n the Duncan and Courtenay d i s t r i c t s o f Vancouver I s l a n d and the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , the Shuswap and Okanagan d i s t r i c t s o f the mainland. These farms produce l i v e stock, hay, g r a i n , fodder and v e g e t a b l e s . The men who own them f i n d t h a t t h e i r income i s l e s s a f f e c t e d by economic d e p r e s s i o n s and t h a t even i n 'bad' y e a r s , they have a cash b a l a n c e . To them, the marketing problem i s l e s s s e r i o u s than to the farmer who depends e n t i r e l y on f r u i t or on v e g e t a b l e s or on d a i r y i n g f o r h i s income. T h i s group, then, i s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t e d i n c o - o p e r a t i v e marketing arrangements. To the farmer who l i v e s on p a r t of the 15% o f the l a n d devoted to f r u i t - r a i s i n g , and to the farmer who depends on p a r t of the 15% o f the l a n d used  87 f o r d a i r y i n g , i t i s a d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n . " Margaret A. Orms'by, "The H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia", S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , XX:1 (Sept. 1939), p. 70. ^ C a n a d a : An I l l u s t r a t e d Weekly J o u r n a l , June 8, P.  1912,  373. 24  The c a p i t a l -required to e s t a b l i s h a man on a t e n acre orchard was estimated i n 1909 a t a minimum o f L 500, w i t h L 1000 desirea'ble. J.S. Redmayne, F r u i t Farming on the "Dry B e l t " o f B r i t i s h Columbia: The Why and Wherefore (London: Times Book Club, [1909] ), pp. 48-50, 8.0. I n 1 9 0 4 o n l y $ 1 0 0 0 ( t 250) was estimated as n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h a s e t t l e r on 160 a c r e s on the P r a i r i e s and maintainhhim u n t i l the farm was p r o d u c i n g . {Canadian P a c i f i c Railway/ , Western Canada: Manitoba, A l b e r t a , A s s i n i b o i a , Saskatchewan and New O n t a r i o : How to Reach I t , How to O b t a i n Lands, How t o Make a Home ( [CPRJ , 1 9 0 4 ) , pp. 87-88. OK  ^For a d i s c u s s i o n o f Okanagan development and the orchard i n d u s t r y , see my a r t i c l e "The Development o f the Orchard I n d u s t r y i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 1 4 " , T h i r t y E i g h t h Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1974 pp. 6 8 - 7 3 , and my "One Huge Orchard: Okanagan Land and D e v e l opment Companies B e f o r e the Great War" (unpublished BA g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1 9 7 6 ) . ?6 S e c u r i t y was a l o n g time coming; l a n d v a l u e s d i d not r e t u r n to t h e i r 1913 l e v e l s u n t i l the m i d - 1 9 4 0 s . See Margaret A. Orms'by, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y (Vancouver: Macmillan Company o f Canada, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 4 8 2 , and B r i t i s h Columbia, R o y a l Commission on the T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y , Report of the R o y a l Commission on the T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, October 1958 [Dean E.D. MacPhee, commissioner] , ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 8 8 . Further references are as MacPhee, Report. 27 '"The Maintenance o f A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n During Depression: the E x p l a n a t i o n s Reviewed", J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l Economy (June 1 9 3 8 ) , c i t e d i n Leo J o c e l y n F r e d e r i c k s , "Competition i n A g r i c u l t u r e : A Case Study o f a Marketing Board" (unpublished MSA ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics) t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 27-  NOTES Chapter 2 i  Dendy, "Development  o f the Orchard I n d u s t r y " , p. 70.  o  " B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , Twenty-Eighth Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y  1964, p p . 157-158. 7  Dendy, "Development  o f the Orchard I n d u s t r y " , p. 7 0 .  4 D i r e c t cash buying by s h i p p e r s or jobbers tended to d e c l i n e , and ceased e n t i r e l y a f t e r 1922. Canada, Dept. of Labour, Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o an A l l e g e d Combine of Wholesalers and S h i p p e r s of F r u i t s and V e g e t a b l e s i n Western Canada: Report o f Commissioner, October 31, 1939 'fF.A. McGregor, commissioner] (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1939), p. 9. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s are as McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939. 7  I b i d . , p. 28.  Canada, Dept. of Labour, Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t , I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into A l l e g e d Combine i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r u i t and V e g e t a b l e s : I n t e r i m Report of the Commissioner, February 18, 1925 [Lewis Duncan, commissioner!; (Ottawa: K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1925), p. 120. F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s are as Duncan, A l l e g e d Combine 1925. I _ b i d . , p, 13. Q Dendy, "Development 7  o f the Orchard I n d u s t r y " , p. 72.  o  Margaret-A. Ormsby, " F r u i t M a r k e t i n g i n the Okanagan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia", A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , IX:2 ( A p r i l 1935), P. 85. 10 " B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers* A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. l 6 2 . 7  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1922, p. 48; and B r i t i s h Columbia, R o y a l Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y , Report o f the Royal"'Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y . . .: P a r t I I '[W.Sanford Evans, commissioner] ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1931), P» 7- F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s are as Evans, Report. 1:L  12  0 r m s b y , " F r u i t Marketing", p. 85.  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1914, p. 51; B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1915, p. 9; and B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1922, 13  pT 6~.  88  89 B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1918, p. 11.  15i'In 1917 Roderick Mackenzie of the Canadian C o u n c i l  of A g r i c u l t u r e addressed the f r u i t growers' convention, c a l l i n g on them to e l e c t f a r m e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to P a r l i a m e n t and to promote c l a s s l e g i s l a t i o n . "In the U n i t e d S t a t e s a nigger can never h o l d a p u b l i c p o s i t i o n ; i n Canada i t i s a farmer." B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 19l6. p. 30. 1 6 McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939. p. 6. 17 'Evans, Report, p. 12. B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1921, p. 64; and B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1922, p. 48. l8  0 r m s b y , " F r u i t Marketing", p. ?0 Evans, Report, p. W12. 19  2 1  86.  I b i d . , p. W 8 .  The mental and f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n of the Okanagan f r u i t growers a t t h i s time i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an e x t r a c t of a l e t t e r from B. McDonald of the B r i t i s h Columbia Growers L t d . to a broker i n Winnipeg, dated January 29, 1923= "Reorganiza t i o n s t i l l goes on i n the V a l l e y . Growers by the dozen are camping on a l l the s h i p p e r s ' doorsteps l o o k i n g f o r money. I t has become so strenuous t h a t our C r e d i t Manager has been p r a c t i c a l l y o b l i g e d to take a week's leave of absence i n an endeavour to r e c u p e r a t e . N e a r l y every grower i n the v a l l e y i s broke, even a p p e a l i n g to the p e r s o n n e l of the company f o r s m a l l temporary l o a n s o f $ 5 and $10. This i s certainly a n i c e s t a t e of a f f a i r s . You people on the o u t s i d e may t h i n k from the tone of our l e t t e r s t h a t we are a r b i t r a r y and cantankerous, but we r e a l l y b e l i e v e we have reason to be; i f you were here i n the v a l l e y and had to d e a l w i t h these matters f o r a couple of weeks, the n o v e l t y would soon wear o f f and i t would become a genuine t a s k . " Duncan, A l l e g e d Combine 1925, p. 8. 23B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1922, 23  p.  13.  24  Co-operation: A Report of Mr. Aaron S a p i r o ' s Address a t Vernon, B.C., on Thurs., Jan. 4th., 1923, (Vernon: B.C. Growers' O r g a n i z a t i o n Committee, 1923), p. 3. 27  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1922,  p.  64.  26 Co-operation, p. 4. 2 7  I b i d . , p. 5.  2 8  I b i d . , pp.  4-5.  90 30  "Around 1 9 2 0 there was a tremendous expansion o f o r g a n i z e d a g r i c u l t u r a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . . The American p o o l movement i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l stages preceded the Canadian movement by the v e r y few y e a r s which were s u f f i c i e n t to impress Canadian farm l e a d e r s with the l o n g - r u n p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f the p o o l i n g system, but not s u f f i c i e n t to demonstrate i t s more s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s . . . . The American a s s o c i a t i o n s were l a r g e - s c a l e , c e n t r a l i z e d , and farmer-owned o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s p e c i a l i z i n g i n s i n g l e commodities; they were o r g a n i z e d on a non-stock, n o n - p r o f i t system o f f i n a n c e and ownership; they r e l i e d f o r patronage on r i g i d d e l i v e r y c o n t r a c t s , v o l u n t a r i l y entered i n t o by the grower but b i n d i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f y e a r s , commonly f i v e or seven; and . . . they marketed farm produce on a p o o l i n g b a s i s w i t h t o t a l payments made up o f i n i t i a l , i n t e r i m , and f i n a l disbursements f o r the e n t i r e p o o l p e r i o d . " Fowke, N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and Wheat Economy, pp. 213-214. 31 y  •• Evans, Report, p.  W7.  -^The Co-operative Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia: An O u t l i n e o f i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n and Aims (n.p., n.d.), p. T~. 3 3  " C o n t r a c t s " , O.K.  B u l l e t i n , IV:2  (Feb. 1928), p.  1.  34 ^ Membership Agreement and Marketing Agreement between Mrs. I.G. Pooley, Kelowna Growers Exchange, and Co-operative Growers o f B r i t i s h Columbia, dated February 19, 1 9 2 3 -^F.M. Clement, Report on the E n q u i r y Conducted on B e h a l f o f the S i x L o c a l s o f the A s s o c i a t e d Growers o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d ( P e n t i c t o n : Southern Okanagan Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n s , 1 9 3 3 ) , P» 2; and Orms'by, " F r u i t Marketing", p. 8 7 . -^Vernon News, Mar. 29, 1923, p. 1; and A s s o c i a t e d Growers o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d , D i r e c t o r s ' r e p o r t , balance sheet, revenue & expenditure account, a u d i t o r s ' r e p o r t , f o r year ending March 31, 1924. -^McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939,  p.  6.  - ^ A s s o c i a t e d Growers, D i r e c t o r s ' r e p o r t ending March 31, 19.24. 39  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1923,  p.  . . . f o r year  7-  40 Clement, E n q u i r y , p.  2.  Ibid. ^ "The Edmunds D e c i s i o n " , O.K. B u l l e t i n , 11:1 (Jan. 1 9 2 6 ) , pp. 4 - 5 . 43 ^ A s s o c i a t e d Growers, D i r e c t o r s ' r e p o r t . . . f o r year ending March 3 1 , 1926. k l  2  91 ^ " T h e Edmunds D e c i s i o n " , O.K.  1926), pp. 4 - 5 . ^..  P o o l  Analysis",  B u l l e t i n , 11:1  OJC. B u l l e t i n ,  ^ C l e m e n t , Enquiry, p.  11.  (Jan.  II:?.(Aug. 1926), p . ? .  NOTES Chapter 3 XIV:11 (Nov. 1926), p. 4.  1  O.K,  2  B u l l e t i n . 11:11  (Dec. 1926), p. 2.  -^Statement o f December 28, 1926. Canadian Annual Review o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , .1926-27 (Toronto: Canadian Review Co., 1927), p. 487. ^O.K. 7  B u l l e t i n , 11:12  (Jan. 1927), p. 1.  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1926, p. 17.  6  I b i d . , pp. 43-44.  ^ P r o v i n c e . Feb. 23, 1927, p. 4. I b i d . , Jan. 24, 1927, p. 1, and Jan. 26, 1927, p. 1. 9  I b i d . , Jan. 26, 1927, p. 4.  1 0  Ibid.,  Jan. 22, 1927, p. 16.  Morag E l i z a b e t h Maclachlan, "The F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers* A s s o c i a t i o n : S u c c e s s f u l Cooperative" (unpublished MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972), p. 262. 1:L  1 2  P r o v i n c e , Jan. 26, 1927, p. 1.  1 3  I b i d . , Feb. 8, 1927, pp. 1, 3.  14 B r i t i s h Columbia F i n a n c i a l Times, IV:4 (Feb. 19, 1927), p. 7. ^ P r o v i n c e , Feb. 14, 1927, p. 1. 1  ^Morton, Honest John O l i v e r , p.  238.  17 'Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers* Assoc^-/; i a t i o n " , pp. 229-230. 1 8  L e t t e r from John O l i v e r to A.H. Mercer, Mar. 1, 1927, Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927 ( i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia), Box 270, F i l e ' L e g i s l a t i o n I I - 2 ; Produce Marketing B i l l ; correspondence i n f a v o r ' . 19 L e t t e r from O l i v e r to Joseph Casorso, Feb. 9, 1927, Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927, Box 270, f i l e ' L e g i s l a t i o n I I - l ; Produce M a r k e t i n g B i l l ; Correspondence A g a i n s t ' . 1  7  92  93 20  "Western Canada F r u i t and Produce Exchange—Memorandum re L e g i s l a t i o n " , Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927, Box 270, F i l e ' L e g i s l a t i o n S e c t i o n I I - l ; Produce Marketing B i l l ; Correspondence A g a i n s t ' ; and Canadian Annual Review, 1926-27, p. 487. Barrow was by 1927 convinced t h a t "Voluntary c o - o p e r a t i o n would never be a permanent success e i t h e r i n the Okanagan or F r a s e r V a l l e y , so some measure of c o n t r o l was a b s o l u t e l y necessary." P r o v i n c e , Jan. 22, 1927, p. 16. See Barrow's biography i n Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , pp. 262-267. 21 The standings a f t e r the 1924 e l e c t i o n were, i n a House of 48: L i b e r a l s , 24 c o u n t i n g speaker; C o n s e r v a t i v e s , 17; P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y , 3; Labour, 3. M a r t i n Robin, The Rush f o r S p o i l s : The Company P r o v i n c e , 1871-1933 (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972), p. 209. I n f a c t , as the Nelson D a i l y News complained, the government even used the p r i v a t e member's b i l l as a convenient out, r e f u s i n g any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b i l l s of f a r - r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e as a s c r i b a b l e o n l y to the p r i v a t e members who sponsored them. • 'X- P r o v i n c e , Jan. 26, 1927, p. 6. . Pp  Walker, P o l i t i c i a n s of a P i o n e e r i n g P r o v i n c e , p.  164.  23  ^Some of whom, at l e a s t , were i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s . Alderman H.E. Almond was the owner of an independent, C i t y D a i r y . Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 72. 24 Robin, Company P r o v i n c e , p. 226. 2 5  F e b . 18,  1927,  p.  4.  26  S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 20, f i l e 26 " A g r i c u l t u r e Speech M a t e r i a l " , item "Memorandum re 'Dairy Products S a l e s Adjustment a c t ' " (stamped r e c e i v e d Premier's O f f i c e , Nov. 17, 1932). 2 7  P r o v i n c e , Mar.  4, 1927,  p.  1.  .•'•62% of the B.C. apple crop of 1926 was exported from the p r o v i n c e . C a l c u l a t e d from f i g u r e s i n : B.C. Dept. of A g r i c u l t u r e , S t a t i s t i c s Branch, A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s 1927 ( B u l l e t i n no. 104) ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1928), pp. 10, 38. I n 1927, only .05% of the f r e s h m i l k supply of was imported from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e . C a l c u l a t e d from f i g u r e s i n I b i d . , pp. 10, 332 9  B.C.  -^Imports made up only 3% of the t o t a l B.C. consumption of apples i n 1926 ( c a l c u l a t e d from f i g u r e s i n : I b i d . , pp. 10, 33, 38), but they were more h i g h l y v i s i b l e than the percentage would i n d i c a t e , s i n c e they were g e n e r a l l y concentrated on the Vancouver market.  94 M a r t i n Robin has noted the tendency o f I n t e r i o r d i s t r i c t s to continue support of the p a r t y which had been i n power d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f t h e i r development. See Company P r o v i n c e , p. 2307  L e t t e r to e d i t o r o f H.H. I r v i n e , dated Feb. 11, P r o v i n c e , Feb. 15, 1927, p. 10. 3 2  33 ^Letter  to e d i t o r of Walter M a r s h a l l , dated Feb. 11,  Ibid. 34 L e t t e r to e d i t o r o f C E . E d g e t t A s s o c i a t e d Growers), I b i d . J  (a d i r e c t o r o f  I b i d . , J a n . 26, 1927, p. 4; Feb. 16, 1927, p. 21; 17, 1927, p. 1. ?6 The newspapers, and q u i t e l i k e l y the l e g i s l a t o r s , c o n s t a n t l y got the names o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s c r o s s e d up. For example, i n what was o b v i o u s l y a r e f e r e n c e to the S h i p p e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n i t was c a l l e d the F e d e r a t i o n o f B.C. F r u i t Growers, and mangled r e f e r e n c e s were made to the A s s o c i a t e d F r u i t Growers ( A s s o c i a t e d Growers) and the S a l e s Surplus L t d . ( S a l e s S e r v i c e L t d . ) . P r o v i n c e , Feb. l 6 , 1927, p. 21; and Jan. 26, 1927, p. 4. 3 5  and Feb.  7  L e t t e r to e d i t o r o f C E . Edgett, P r o v i n c e , Feb. 15, 1927, pp. 7, 10. "A l o t o f i n f l u e n c e was brought to bear i n V i c t o r i a by means o f l e t t e r s and telegrams signed by people p o s i n g as growers, t h a t had c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e on members of the House. These members r e p r e s e n t i n g the urban c o n s t i t uencies c o u l d not c l a s s i f y the senders o f these w i r e s or the l e t t e r s , and i t took c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n to t r y to convince these men that those o b j e c t o r s were p a s s i n g , so to speak, under f a l s e c o l o u r s . In a good many i n s t a n c e s , these i n d i v i d u a l s were p o s s i b l y f i v e percent growers and n i n e t y - f i v e p e r c e n t i n t e r e s t e d i n the h a n d l i n g o f the growers' product. T h e i r communications were w r i t t e n with a view to not coming under t h i s system o f c o n t r o l . " E.D. Barrow, "Marketing L e g i s l a t i o n " , B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1927. p. 36. 3 7  -^The widespread a n t i - O r i e n t a l f e e l i n g , s t i l l s t r o n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1920s, was used by both s i d e s i n t r y i n g to forward t h e i r causes. The r a t i o n a l e used by MLAs F r e d L i s t e r and C F . Davie to oppose a proposed amendment e x c l u d i n g the A s h c r o f t and L y t t o n d i s t r i c t s from the b i l l was t h a t " i t would r e s u l t b e n e f i c i a l l y to the O r i e n t a l farmers o f those d i s t r i c t s - - - a n outcome they f e l t was to be opposed a t any c o s t . P r o v i n c e , Mar. 4, 1927, p. 1. On the other hand, some anonymous supporter o f the marketing b i l l used t h i s prejudice i n a 'dirty t r i c k s ' letterv C F . Davie, the Cons e r v a t i v e MLA f o r Cowichan-Newcastle (who i n t r o d u c e d an O r i e n t a l e x c l u s i o n b i l l i n the 1927 s e s s i o n o f the L e g i s l a t u r e : I b i d . , Mar. 3, 1927, p. 7), r e c e i v e d the f o l l o w i n g telegram, i n s u i t a b l y broken E n g l i s h , from Nishamura Togo i n Kelowna:  95 "M.P.P. Davie, P a r l i a m e n t a r y D i e t , V i c t o r i a : Honorable s i r , I am t o l d you are k i n d l y help Japanese i n our g r e a t country,"B'..C. Please h e l p poor Japanese i n t r y i n g to stop Honorable Barrow's bad market chapter 43. Honorable s i r , t h i s chapter going to stop a l l Japanese s e l l f r u i t more cheaper than honorable Englishman. P l e a s e k i l l Honorable Barrow's chapter." Davie, the staunch a n t i - O r i e n t a l i s t , s a i d "I need no f u r t h e r r e a s o n f o r my d e c i s i o n to support t h i s b i l l . " I b i d . , Feb. 26, 1927, p. 20. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the telegram was a fake, as v a r i o u s people hastened to p o i n t out. There was no such person as Nishamura Togo--the name was two t y p i c a l Japanese surnames put together, which had been used as the pseudonym o f an American w r i t e r named Irwin f o r a s h o r t s t o r y c a l l e d ' L e t t e r s o f a Japanese School Boy'. A c c o r d i n g to those opposed to the b i l l , "This shows methods being adopted by those t r y i n g to f o r c e l e g i s l a t i o n through c o n t r a r y to wishes o f m a j o r i t y of growers without a vote b e i n g taken", w h i l e K. I w a s h i t a i n d i g n a n t l y p r o t e s t e d t h a t " L o c a l Japanese are s t r o n g c o o p e r a t o r s and s o l i d l y behind the b i l l and t h e r e f o r e r e s e n t such underhand a c t i o n o b v i o u s l y aiming to make c a p i t a l out o f a n t i - o r i e n t a l a t t i t u d e o f c e r t a i n members o f the house . . . No r a c i a l q u e s t i o n should e n t e r i n t o the d e l i b e r a t i o n o f the b i l l which i s economics q u e s t i o n pure and simple." Telegrams to John O l i v e r from, r e s p e c t i v e l y , F.R.E. DeHart, Kelowna, and K. Iwashita, Kelowna, both dated Feb. 28, 1927, i n Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927, Box 270, F i l e " L e g i s l a t i o n S e c t i o n I I - l ; Produce Marketing B i l l ; Correspondence A g a i n s t " . 39  B o t h John O l i v e r and the Hon. R. Bruce, L i e u t e n a n t Governor o f B r i t i s h Columbia, r e c e i v e d c o p i e s o f a telegram signed ' F r u i t R a i s e r s ' sent from Kelowna March 1: " I t i s apparent i n many minds t h a t the McNeery Haughen Farm B i l l which appeared b e f o r e Congress s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h the two marketing b i l l s b e f o r e your House now were a l l hatched i n New York C i t y by the wealthy Jews i n t h e i r p l a n s to c o n t r o l the products o f North America or the whole E a r t h . The c o u n t r i e s were cautioned some time ago to watch t h i s movement. You are b e i n g t r u s t e d to k i l l those b i l l s as d i d P r e s i d e n t Coolidge i n h i s g r e a t f o r e s i g h t wisdom." O l i v e r commented w i t h the understatement " t h a t t h i s p r o b a b l y from some person s l i g h t l y deranged." Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927, Box 270, F i l e " L e g i s l a t i o n S e c t i o n I I - l ; Produce Marketing B i l l ; C o r r espondence A g a i n s t " . But such sentiments arose from o t h e r s than the o b v i o u s l y deranged--a s u c c e s s f u l independent s h i p p e r from Kelowna wrote to O l i v e r s u g g e s t i n g that the Convention r e s o l u t i o n was p a r t of a p l o t by jobbers to get t o t a l c o n t r o l of f r u i t . " I t may be f r e s h i n your mind what Henry F o r d related- not very l o n g ago, and that was, that i n h i s o p i n i o n the Jews were t r y i n g to get c o n t r o l o f , the Products of the E a r t h , and i n our o p i n i o n i n f o l l o w i n g up t h i s matter we conclude that there i s enough i n i t to make i t w e l l worth watching." L e t t e r from George R o w c l i f f e , Kelowna, Jan. 19, 192'7, to John O l i v e r , _ i n I b i d . T h i s b e l i e f was based on a r t i c l e s i n Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent i n 1924, i n which the a s s e r t i o n was made, based l a r g e l y on the bogus 7 7  96 ' P r o t o c o l s of Z i o n ' , that Aaron Sapiro was the p r i n c i p a l i n a Jewish p l o t to c o n t r o l a g r i c u l t u r e . S a p i r o sued f o r a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s damages, and i n J u l y 1927 F o r d backed down, s e t t l i n g out o f c o u r t and making a p u b l i c apology. W i l l i s Thornton, F a b l e , F a c t and H i s t o r y (New York: Greenberg P u b l i s h e r s , 1957)> pp. 4-3-44. 40  V i c t o r i a Times, Feb. 25, 1927, quoted i n Canadian Annual Review, 1926-27, p. 477. P r o v i n c e , Jan. 25, 1927, p. 16. 4? I b i d . , Feb. 26, 1927, p. 20; see a l s o Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927, Box 272, F i l e " g e n e r a l memoranda-m i s c e l l a n e o u s " , where i s a memorandum on a p o i n t o f order O l i v e r r a i s e d a s s e r t i n g t h a t the b i l l was u l t r a v i r e s of the Provincial Legislature. ^ P r o v i n c e , Feb. 25, 1927, p. 3^ I b i d . , Mar. 4, 1927, p. 1.  NOTES Chapter 4 T e x t o f A c t , i n O.K. B u l l e t i n , 111:3 (Mar. 1927), p. 2. 2 A.E. R i c h a r d s , "Marketing o f F r u i t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Under the I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " ( p a r t 2 ) , The Economic A n n a l i s t , 1:3 (Mar. 1931), p. 1. 1  -^MacPhee, Report, p. 32. 4 McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939, p. 9. ^Donald M. B l a c k , "F.M. B l a c k and the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , T h i r t y - f i r s t Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1967, p. 10~T. F.M. B l a c k (1870-1941) was a U n i t e d Farmers o f Manitoba member o f the Manitoba l e g i s l a t u r e from 1922 to 1926, P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r e r from 1922 to 1924. He a l s o served on the War Time Food C o n t r o l Committee i n Ottawa. C o n s i d e r i n g h i s l a t e r a t t i t u d e s , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that he had had some c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the i d e a s o f 'group i n t e r e s t s ' o f the A l b e r t a farmers* movement, s i n c e i n 1916 he served w i t h H.W. Wood o f the U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a on a m e d i a t i o n committee between the farmers and the C.P.R. W i l l i a m K i r b y Rolph, Henry Wise Wood o f A l b e r t a (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1950), p. T6~! —  6 R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , pp. 1-2. 'See, f o r example, a memorandum o f Sept. 29, 1928, from O.C. Bass, Departmental S o l i c i t o r , to the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , and other c o p i e s o f correspondence i n S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 11, F i l e 58, "Correspondence-General-Legislature-Produce Marketing A c t " .  g  R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , p. 2.  ^McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939. p. 9. 10 J.A. Grant, " P r a c t i c a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f the M a r k e t i n g A c t " , B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1927, p. 29 11 E.D. Barrow, "Marketing L e g i s l a t i o n " , I b i d . , p. 38. 12 R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , p. 2; and McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939, p. 9. B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1928, pp. 72-73; and R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , p. 2. 13  97  98  ^B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1928, 1 5  I b i d . , pp. 68-69.  l 6  p. 57.  I b i d . , p. 65.  17  ' I b i d . , p. 62; see a l s o l e t t e r o f J.W. Jones, MLA, to Premier Tolmie, J u l y 3, 1929, i n which he says that "In many q u a r t e r s I am f i n d i n g h o s t i l i t y to the Board o f C o n t r o l which the growers c l a i m has become the agent f o r the S h i p p e r s ..." S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 3, F i l e 23, "South Okanagan" Correspondence.  1R  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1929, pp. 9, 1 5 - l 6 .  19 I b i d . , pp. 73-74. The continued resentment a g a i n s t the F e d e r a t i o n i s shown by r e s o l u t i o n s passed by the Creston Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and the Boswell F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n which c a l l e d on the government to r e p l a c e the B.C. Growers' and S h i p p e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n with a growers' f e d e r a t i o n o f which a l l farmers whose produce was c o n t r o l l e d by the Produce Marketing A c t should be members. The c o v e r i n g l e t t e r put t h i s statement i n q u i t e r a d i c a l form; "We agree t h a t the Produce Marketing Act, as a measure o f s o c i a l i z e d c o n t r o l , can be o f great b e n e f i t to the i n d u s t r y , and t h a t t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d p r o g r e s s to a p o i n t a t which a l l our problems would be adequa t e l y d e a l t w i t h : but we do not c o n s i d e r our i n t e r e s t s w i l l be p r o p e r l y taken care o f u n t i l the Farmers have c o n t r o l o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n and a l l t h a t i s i n v o l v e d t h e r e i n . " R e s o l u t i o n s of the Boswell F r u i t Growers, Mar. 12, 1930, and o f the C r e s t o n Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , Jan. 22, 193°, i n S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 11, F i l e 18, "Correspondence-General-Legislation-Produce Marketing A c t " . (Boswell i s near Nelson) McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939, p. 9. 7  F.M. B l a c k , "The Work o f the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n D u r i n g 1929", B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1929, p. 46. 21  22  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1929, pp. 66-73.  23  -"Tascha S. K a b a l k i n , "The Trend o f Co-operative Thought i n B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Marketing" (unpublished BSc i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1932), pp. 49-51.  ?4  p. 5,  * See Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Nov. 1930, and K a b a l k i n , "Trend o f Co-operative Thought", p. 52. 2  ^ R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , p. 4.  ?6 A f i n e example b e i n g a l e t t e r o f Feb. 16, 1931 from J.F. Stevenson o f Creston, which commenced (please take s i c f o r granted) "Honerabel Dr Tolmie" and says " a l l Mr B l a c k does i s to p u l l the l e g o f the growers and get the b i g money have known Mr B l a c k f o r over 40 years and easy p i c k i n g s i s h i s game, and always p l a y s on the Government to accomplish  99 h i s ends . . . Cooperation cant be done s a t i s f a c t e r l y and i s a fake and we w i l l r e b e l i f you a l l o w such onwanted l e g i s l a t i o n to pass . . . " and f i n i s h e s w i t h the note "PS now I have served the C o n s e r v i t i v e p a r t y f a i t h f u l l y f o r 49 y e a r s and am unable to g e t a b i t o f work through t h i s man Davies to h e l p p u l l through and i f we cant g e t r i d o f t h i s booze a r t i s t we w i l l k i c k C o l o n e l L out so i t i s one or the o t h e r and the sooner the b e t t e r . " Premier's Correspondence 1930-1933 ( i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia), Box 294, f i l e A-5a-D. Other s i m i l a r specimens are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n Premier Tolmie's f i l e s . 27  'Premier Tolmie r e c e i v e d l e t t e r s a g a i n s t the new marketing b i l l from, among o t h e r s , P a t Burns o f Calgary, and J . J . Warren, the p r e s i d e n t o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d M i n i n g and Smelting Co. o f Canada. Premier's Correspondence 1930-1933, Box 294, f i l e A-5-D. L e t t e r from H.M. Walker to Tolmie, Feb. 6, 1931, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 2, F i l e 39, "North Okanagan" C o r r e s pondence . 29  L.W. Makovski o f the Western Canada F r u i t & Produce Exchange wrote on the l e t t e r h e a d o f the Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n to Premier Tolmie, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 6, F i l e 5, " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - P r o v i n c i a l - A g r i c u l t u r e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y I n q u i r y " ; A.T. Howe, a Vernon independent s h i p p e r , was on i t s P r o v i s i o n a l Board,, and a l l o f i t s p r o p o s a l s were made i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Independent S h i p p e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n . 7  30  See complaints on t h i s treatment i n l e t t e r s from F.E.R. W o l l a s t o n o f the Coldstream Ranch, Jan. 28, 1931, and from L.W. Makovski, Feb. 1, 1931S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 6, F i l e 6, " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - P r o v i n c i a l - A g r i c u l t u r e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y I n q u i r y " ; and Box 6, F i l e 5, " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r e - F r u i t Industry Inquiry". J  - ^ " O u t l i n e o f the Independent Growers' Marketing P l a n . . . " and the ' P r i v a t e and C o n f i d e n t i a l ' comments w i t h i t by L.W. Makovski, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 6, F i l e 5» "Correspondence-Provincial-Agriculture-Fruit Industry Inquiry". The a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l bent o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n may be seen i n the demand "That the appointee jjL.e. to head the Bureau of A g r i c u l t u r a l Information} s h a l l n o t be a u n i v e r s i t y prof e s s o r o f h o r t i c u l t u r e , a g r i c u l t u r e or economics . . . " 32  - ^ L e t t e r from G. Heggie, MLA f o r Vernon, to Premier Tolmie, Feb. 1, 1932, r e p o r t i n g on the r e c e n t B.C.F.G.A. convention, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 2, F i l e 39, "North Okanagan" Correspondence. The A s s o c i a t i o n was e v i d e n t l y s t i l l i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1934, since i t i s mentioned i n "Minutes o f the Meeting o f D i r e c t o r s o f the Crown F r u i t Co. L t d . " , Jan. 29, 1934 ( i n Kelowna C e n t e n n i a l Museum). -^0n  the Convention: R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee  100 of D i r e c t i o n " , p. 3- A copy o f the d r a f t B i l l i s i n the J.W. Jones Papers ( i n P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia), v o l . 5, f o l d e r 8. T.G. N o r r i s ' comment i s quoted i n K a b a l k i n , "Trend o f Co-operative Thought", pp. 67-68. 34 Commissioner F.M. Clement.I t was appointed i n 1928 and r e p o r t e d t o the L e g i s l a t u r e on Jan. 22, 1929- I t was f a v o u r a b l e to c o o p e r a t i o n and recommended t h a t f l u i d m i l k be t r e a t e d as a p u b l i c u t i l i t y . B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1928, pp. 76-78; Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 79; and Frederick Moore Clement, My Thoughts Were On the Land: Autobiography o f F r e d Clement (White Rock; B.C.: n. pub., 1969), p. 33. J  ^B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1928, p. 79. 36 He f a i l e d to g a i n the r e s p e c t o f e i t h e r s h i p p e r s or growers, and a t one S h i p p e r s ' C o u n c i l meeting i t was suggested t h a t he should "be kept on l e a s h " . L e t t e r from George Heggie, MLA f o r North Okanagan, to Premier Tolmie, Oct. 9, 1931, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 2, F i l e 39, "North Okanagan" Correspondence. 37 -"Walker, P o l i t i c i a n s o f a P i o n e e r i n g P r o v i n c e , p. 203. - ^ L e t t e r from J.W. Jones to R.H. Pooley, A t t o r n e y General, dated Kelowna, Aug. 25, 1928, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department Correspondence ( L e t t e r s Inward, 1918-1937) (Prov4 i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia m i c r o f i l m r o l l 278), f i l e no. P-302-1 (1928), Produce Marketing A c t cases. -^Walker, P o l i t i c i a n s o f a P i o n e e r i n g P r o v i n c e , p. 204. ^ L e t t e r from Tolmie to Mat Hassen (a C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y worker) o f Armstrong, Dec. 30, 1930, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 2, F i l e 39, "North Okanagan" Correspondence. 41 J.W. Jones r e p o r t e d i n J u l y t h a t " I have been g o i n g to and f r o over my R i d i n g s i n c e r e t u r n i n g from the Coast and f i n d on every hand a d e s i r e to have a thorough l o o k i n on the whole i n d u s t r y . " L e t t e r from Jones to Tolmie, J u l y 3, 1929, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 3, F i l e 23, "South Okanagan" C o r r e s pondence. :  42  B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1929, p. 10. 43 -^Letter from W.M. Dryden ( s e c r e t a r y o f the Summerland Co-operative F r u i t Assn) to J.W. Jones, June 25, 1929, e n c l o s e d w i t h l e t t e r from Jones to Tolmie, J u l y 3, 1929, S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 3» F i l e 23, "South Okanagan".Correspondence. During W:vW. I, Evans had served as Chairman o f the 1916 P a c i f i c Coast F i s h e r y Commission, and l a t e r as S e c r e t a r y of the M i l l e r s ' Committee o f the Food Board. "From the m i l l e r s ' p o i n t o f view, they a p p r e c i a t e d h i s services as they r e t a i n e d him i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y f o r some y e a r s a f t e r the war."  101 L e t t e r from Henry B. Thomson (on paper o f L a d y s m i t h T i d e w a t e r S m e l t e r s L t d . ) t o T o l m i e , J u l y 8, 1929, S.F. Tolmie P a p e r s , Box 6, F i l e 6, " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - P r o v i n c i a l - A g r i c u l t u r e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y I n q u i r y " ; see b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a i n W. S t e w a r t W a l l a c e , ed., The M a c m i l l a n D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian B i o g r a p h y ( 4 t h ed., r e v i s e d e t c . by W.A. McKay) (Toronto: M a c m i l l a n o f Canada, 1978), p. 247.  ^B.C.F.G.A. Annual R e p o r t 1928,  pp. 79-80.-  46  Memo from J.G. Thomson, dated ' r e c e i v e d P r e m i e r ' s o f f i c e , J a n . 29, 1931', e n t i t l e d "The Reverse A t t i t u d e o f F.M. B l a c k " , S.F. Tolmie P a p e r s , Box 5, F i l e 25, "CorrespondenceP r o v i n c i a l - D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e " ; and copy o f l e t t e r from F.G. deWolf t o J.G. Thomson, Feb. 9, 1931, J.W. Jones P a p e r s , V o l . 1, F o l d e r 3. pp. 33-34. 47 'Evans, R o y a l Commision 1931, p. W12. 48 I b i d . , p. W13- The average y i e l d o f a p p l e s i n B.C. was e s t i m a t e d a t between 240 and 250 boxes p e r a c r e , w h i l e t h a t o f the Wenatchee-Okanogan d i s t r i c t i n Washington was over 400 boxes p e r a c r e . ^ I b i d . , pp. W14-W15. By comparison, as e a r l y as 1922 the Wehatchee d i s t r i c t i n Washington had c o l d - s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s to h o l d h a l f i t s crop. 5°rbid., p. W6.  ^ I b i d . , p. W17-  5 I b i d . , p. W21.  ^Ibid.  2  1  >  passim.  ^4 As, f o r example, a broadsheet e n t i t l e d " S a n f o r d Evans S p e a k i n g ! " , e v i d e n t l y i s s u e d by the Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , i n P r e m i e r ' s Correspondence 1930-1933, Box 294, f i l e A-5a-D. -^Joseph Casorso wrote on the l e t t e r h e a d o f h i s tame B e l g o C o - o p e r a t i v e Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n t o c o n g r a t u l a t e Evans and Thomson. "You can r e s t a s s u r e d t h a t 99% o f the p e o p l e i n the Okanagan t h a t we c a l l p r a c t i c a l f a r m e r s f e e l s a t i s f i e d t h a t you & Mr Evans has been a g r e a t M e s s i a h t o the b e a u t i f u l Okanagan. . . . You can r e s t a s s u r e d t h a t i t i s a g r e a t r e l i e f to f e e l t h a t we c a n c a r r y on b u s i n e s s a g a i n on o r d i n a r y b u s i n e s s l i n e s w h i c h w i l l i m m e d i a t e l y r e s t o r e c r e d i t amongst p r a c t i c a l f a r m e r s . " Casorso t o J.G. Thomson, J a n . 26, 1931, P r e m i e r ' s Correspondence 1930-1933, Box 294, f i l e A-5-D. ^ C o p y o f l e t t e r from F.R.E. DeHart ( S e c r e t a r y o f Independent Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n ) t o S t a n f o r d Evans, Feb. 8, 1931, S.F. Tolmie P a p e r s , Box 6, F i l e 6, "CorrespondenceP r o v i n c i a l - A g r i c u l t u r e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y I n q u i r y " ; and b r o a d s h e e t headed "Compulsory P o o l s Are I l l e g a l ! " which i n c l u d e s t e x t of r e s o l u t i o n , P r e m i e r ' s Correspondence 1930-1933, Box 294, f i l e A-5-D.  102 ^Kabalkin,  "Trend o f Co-operative Thought",  pp. 64-67.  5 Copy o f l e t t e r from F.G. deWolf to J.G. Thomson, Feb. 9, 1931, i n J.W. Jones Papers, v o l . 1, f o l d e r 3, PP- 33-34. 8  " B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 170; and R i c h a r d s , " I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , p. 3« 7 7  ^ M a c l a c h l a n , " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' Associ a t i o n " , p. 91. 6 l  " I b i d . " , pp. 79-80.  62  " I b i d . ' ; , p. 84.  ^ D o m i n i o n Law Reports, 1931, v o l . 2, p. 193; quoted i n Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , p. 90.  64 Memorandum from J.G. Thomson, e n t i t l e d "The Produce Marketing A c t : ( u l t r a v i r e s o f the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e ) and the p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s o f the Government becoming i n v o l v e d i n an appeal to the P r i v y C o u n c i l " (stamped 'received-Premier's O f f i c e - F e b . 27, 1931'), i n S.F. Tolmie Papers, f i l e 11-18 "Correspondence-General-Legislation-Produce Marketing A c t " . See Appendix f o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s . 105.  6  ^ B l a c k , "F.M. B l a c k and the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " ,  66 Clement, E n q u i r y , p. 2. 6 7  p. 1.  " F i n i s 1930 Crop", O.K. B u l l e t i n , VII:5  6ft 69  (May 1931),  Ormsby, " F r u i t Marketing", p. 91.  " M a r k e t s " , O.K. B u l l e t i n , VII:9 (Sept. 1931), p. 2.  70  ' S.W. Dafoe, "Looking Through the Co-operative Window"', O.K. B u l l e t i n , VII:10 (Oct. 1931), p. 371  " M a r k e t s " , O.K. B u l l e t i n , VII:11  (Nov. 1931), p. 1.  72  M c G r e g o r , A l l e g e d Combine 1939, pp. 6, 9.  " M a r k e t s " , O.K. B u l l e t i n , V I I I : 4 (Apr. 1932), p. 1. ^ " R e p o r t by P.V. LeGuen . . .", O.K. B u l l e t i n , V I I I : 4 (Apr. 1932), p. 10. 73  7 5  ^Clement, E n q u i r y , p. 3« 76 ' A s s o c i a t e d Growers, D i r e c t o r s ' r e p o r t . . . f o r year ending March 31, 1932. J. Coke, "The 1932 Apple C a r t e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia", 77  103 The Economic A n n a l i s t , 111:6 (June 1933), p. 64. "^MacPhee, Report, p. 33. 79McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1939, p.9. ] MacPhee, Report, p. 33.  81. "Province, Sept. 11, 1933, p. 1. 82  8  p. 3.  McGregor,  ^Province,  A l l e g e d Combine 1939, p. 9Sept. 11, 1933, p. 3«  ^ " A p p l e C a r t e l " , O.K. B u l l e t i n , VIII:12 (Dec. 1932),  -'Bruce B l i v e n , "Milo Reno and H i s Farmers", New R e p u b l i c , LXXVII (Nov. 29, 1933), p. 64, quoted i n John L. Shover, C o r n b e l t R e b e l l i o n : The Farmers' H o l i d a y A s s o c i a t i o n (Urbana and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1965), p. 7See a l s o S.M. L i p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m : The Cooperative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i n Saskatchewan (Berkeley and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950), pp. 175-177. 8  \  NOTES Chapter 5  1  " B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , pp. 174-175• H a s k i n s was a l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t o f the V a l l e y . He a t t e n d e d Summerland C o l l e g e b e f o r e g o i n g t o the Coast t o study l a w . A f t e r b e i n g a d m i t t e d t o the b a r he opened a p r a c t i c e a t P e n t i c t o n i n 1916. I n 1920 he bought a f o r t y acre o r c h a r d a t P e n t i c t o n , b u t i n 1922 he l e f t t h i s i n the care o f a foreman and went t o take up a l e g a l p r a c t i c e i n Vancouver. He r e t u r n e d t o a c t i v e o r c h a r d i n g a t P e n t i c t o n i n 1930. Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, X V I I : 6 ( J u l y 1933), p. 5S e e "Minutes o f E x e c u t i v e M e e t i n g s o f t h e B.C.F.G.A.", e s p e c i a l l y Nov. 6, 1933 and Dec. 6, 1933 ( f i l e d i n B.C.F.G.A. head o f f i c e , Kelowna, B.C.). 2  ^Vernon News, Aug. 24, 1933, P- 1. The Crown F r u i t Company o f Kelowna, f o r example, w a s ' . w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e • i n a one-desk d e a l o f a l l s h i p p e r s , b u t n o t i n a c a r t e l l i k e t h a t o f 1932 because " t h e r e was n o t enough tonnage f a v o u r a b l e to the p o o l t o have the d e s i r e d s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e " . "Minutes o f a M e e t i n g o f D i r e c t o r s o f the Crown F r u i t Co. L t d . " , Aug. 30", 1933. 4  Vernon News,. Aug,  24, 1933, p. 1.  I b i d . , Aug. 31, 1933, P- 2.  5  P r o v i n c e , Sept. 23, 1933, Sunday magazine, p. 1. ^Vernon News, Sept. 7, 1933, P-4. 8  I b i d . , Sept. 14, 1933, p. 2.  Q  A s e a r l y as 1902, the S o c i e t y o f E q u i t y , an o f f s h o o t i n A l b e r t a o f an American o r g a n i z a t i o n , c a l l e d f o r farmers t o c o n t r o l t h e i r market by r e f u s i n g t o s e l l below an agreed ' f a i r ' p r i c e . A farmers' non-delivery s t r i k e to p r o t e s t f e d e r a l customs d u t i e s on farm machinery was proposed a t the 1919 c o n v e n t i o n o f the U n i t e d Farmers o f A l b e r t a , b u t the f i r s t a c t u a l s t r i k e on t h e P r a i r i e s d i d n o t occur u n t i l the w i n t e r o f 1933-34. Norman F. P r i e s t l e y and Edward B. S w i n d l e h u r s t , F u r r o w s , F a i t h and F e l l o w s h i p (Edmonton: A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l C e n t e n n i a l Committee, 1967), pp. 17, 21, 62, and 158. 7  10  See Shover, C o r n b e l t R e b e l l i o n , and Theodore S a l o u t o s and John D. H i c k s , A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s c o n t e n t i n the M i d d l e West, 1900-1939 (Madison: U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 195D. 104  105 ll S.W. Dafoe, "Looking Through the Co-operative Window", O.K.. B u l l e t i n , V I I I : 9 (Sept. 1 9 3 2 ) , p. 4 . 12 Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' Associ a t i o n " , pp. 9 8 - 9 9 P r o v i n c e , Sept. 6, 1933, p. 1. 1 3  14  Vernon News, Sept. 7 , 1 9 3 3 , pp. 1,  P r o v i n c e , Sept. 6, 16 1 5  4.  1 9 3 3 , p. 1 4 .  Vernon News, Sept. 7 , 1933,.p. 4 .  1  1 7  Ibid.  1 9  Ibid.,  Of)  21  1  " P r o v i n c e , Sept. 5 , 1 9 3 3 , p. 1.  Sept. 6, 1933, P- 1 4 .  Vernon News, Sept. 7 , 1 9 3 3 , pp. 1,  4.  McGuire had been i n v o l v e d i n the f r u i t p a c k i n g and s h i p p i n g business s i n c e 1 9 2 0 , o r i g i n a l l y working f o r h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w , J.K. H i d s t o n . J.R. K i d s t o n , "Michael V i n c e n t McGuire", T h i r t y - n i n t h Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1 9 7 5 , P. l4~i He had been opposed to the Produce Marketing Act, i n t r o d u c i n g a motion i n 1929 t h a t i t should be r e c o n s i d e r e d by a p l e b i s c i t e o f growers. B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1 9 2 8 , p. 5 7 . As P r e s i d e n t o f the Independent S h i p p e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n he l e d the o p p o s i t i o n to p o o l i n g i n 1930. =B.C.F.G.A. Annual Report 1 9 2 9 . p. 6 8 . 22 Vernon News, Sept. 7 , 1933, p . l . P r o v i n c e , Sept. 1 2 , 1933, p. 3 . 24 2 3  I b i d . , Sept. 1 1 , 1933, p. I.  c  25  1  Vernon' News, Sept. 1 4 , 1933, p. 9 . :  I b i d . , Sept. 2 1 , 1933, p. 1 1 . I b i d . , Sept. 1 4 , 1 9 3 3 , p. 1. A copy o f the agreement i s bound w i t h the C i r c u l a r s o f the Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board, 1933 Crop Year ( i n p o s s e s s i o n o f Okanagan Federated Shippers L t d . , Kelowna). 2 6  2 ?  * Vernon News, Sept. 2 1 , 1933, p. 52 9  3  Ibid.,  Sept. 1 4 , 1933, p. 1.  °Ibid., March 2 2 , 1 9 3 4 , p. 1.  3 1  0rmsby,  32  Vernon  " F r u i t Marketing", p. 9 2 . News, Sept. 2 1 , 1 9 3 3 , pp. 1, 1 1 .  106 3 3  V e r n o n News, Sept. 21, 1933, p. 1.  3 4  I b i d . , Oct. 5, 1933, pp. 1-2.  ^ P r o v i n c e , Sept. 29, 1933, p. 1. Ibid.  3 6  3 7  I b i d . , pp. 1-2.  3 8  V e r n o n News, Oct. 5, 1933, p. 2.  3 9  Ibid.  ^°Ibid., p. 6.  ^ I b i d . , Oct. 12, 1933, pp. 1, 6. 4? I b i d . , Oct. 5, 1933, p. 9. p. 7.  ^ C o u n t r y L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, XVII»9 44 Vernon News, Oct. 26, 1933, pp. 1, 5.  (Oct. 1933),  ^ P r o v i n c e , Oct. 21, 1933, p. 1 8 . 46 I b i d . , O c t . 24, 1933, p. 4. 47 'Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board, " I n t e r i m Report o f the P o o l Sub-Committee . . . to December 31st, 1933" (bound w i t h Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board C i r c u l a r s ) . 48 Vernon News, Oct. 5, 1933, P- 7-  p. 7.  ^ T h e Commonwealth, J a n . 3, 1934, p. 3. 5°Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, XVIII:1 (Mar. 1934), ^ V e r n o n News, Sept. 21, 1933, p. 3. 5 P r o v i n c e , Sept. 6, 1933, p. 1 4 . 2  53 - ^ f b i d . , Sept. 23, 1933, Sunday magazine, p. 6. 54 Robert G. Stewart, "Radiant Smiles i n the D i r t y T h i r t i e s : H i s t o r y and Ideology o f the Oxford Group Movement i n Canada, 1932-1936" (unpublished Master o f D i v i n i t y t h e s i s , Vancouver School o f Theology, 1974), p. 43. ^ " I b i d . " , pp. 4 7 - 4 8 . 56 P e n t i c t o n Herald, Nov. 23, 1933, p. 1. T  5 7  I b i d . , p. 9.  5 Vernon News. Mar. 22, 1934, p. 6. 8  107 ^ P r o v i n c e , Sept. 2 3 ,  1933,  Sunday magazine, p.  1.  °Vernon News,' Oct. 5 , 1 9 3 3 , p. 9 . The B.C.F.G.A. , while w i l l i n g to amalgamate, l a c k e d the a b i l i t y to p r e s s f o r such a c t i o n . Indeed, while i t expressed i t s r e a d i n e s s to cooperate with the S t a b i l i z a t i o n Committee, i t a l s o r e v e a l e d i t s impotence when i t asked t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a l o a n to t i d e over u n t i l year-end. "Minutes of E x e c u t i v e Meetings o f B.C.F.G.A.", Oct. 5 , 1 9 3 3 ; Dec. 6, 1 9 3 3 ; and A p r i l 4 , 1 9 3 4 . 6  61  1933,  p.  Vernon News, Sept. 7, 6.  1933,  P« 4 ;  and Sept.  6?  ^The Commonwealth, Oct. 18, 1 9 3 3 , 63 'Province, Sept. 2 9 , 1 9 3 3 , P- 1.  p.  14,  2.  T  6  \  \ e r n o n News, Sept. 14, 1 9 3 3 ,  65, 'Ibid., Oct. 5 ,  1933,  I b i d . , Sept. 14,  1.  p.  1933,  p. 4.  1.  p.  67 Premier Tolmie, campaigning on w i t h h i s new 'Unionist* p a r t y a f t e r h i s d e s e r t i o n by h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e c o l l e a g u e s , promised to p r e s s f o r f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n s i m i l a r to the B r i t i s h Marketing A c t . " U n i o n i s t P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Speakers' Handbook, P r o v i n c i a l E l e c t i o n 1 9 3 3 " i n J.W. Jones Papers, V o l . 4 , f o l d e r 8 , p. 1 0 7 . Jones, r u n n i n g as an i n d e pendent, promised "an e n t i r e l y new system o f marketing a g r i c u l t u r a l products on an o r d e r l y b a s i s , so t h a t - a m a j o r i t y o f producers i n any i n d u s t r y , such as f r u i t or m i l k p r o d u c t i o n , may not have t h e i r e f f o r t s n u l l i f i e d and t h e i r markets d i s rupted by-a s e l f i s h m i n o r i t y . " I b i d . , V o l . 6, f o l d e r 1, p. 1 3 8 . T  Vernon News, Oct. 1 2 , 9  7  P r o v i n c e , Sept. 2 6 ,  1933,  1933,  ? V e r n o n News, Sept. 2 8 , 2  p.  1.  T h e Commonwealth, Oct. 18, 1 9 3 3 ,  °Vernon News, Sept. 2 1 ,  7 1  1933,  p.  1933,  p.  p.  1.  1.  18. p.  1.  73 '•^"Minutes o f Meeting o f D i r e c t o r s of the Crown F r u i t Co. L t d . " , Jan. 3 , 1 9 3 4 . "^Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, XVII:9 p.  (Oct. 1 9 3 3 ) ,  14.  '-^Maclachlan, " F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers' Associ a t i o n " , pp. 9 9 - 1 0 1 .  108 76  Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board C i r c u l a r No. 22/33 (Oct. 16, 1933). The Board C i r c u l a r s f o r the 1933 Crop Year give weekly r e p o r t s o f s a l e s . 7 7  Country Life  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. XVII-.9  7 8  Vernon  News, Sept. 28, 1933, p. 5.  7 9  Ibid.,  Oct. 12, 1933, p. 1 .  (Oct. 1933),  P- 5.  8 0  Ibid.  P r o v i n c e , Sept. 23, 1933, Sunday magazine, p. 1; and The Commonwealth, Jan. 3, 1934, p. 3. 82  p. 5.  Country L i f e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, XVII:9 (Oct. 1 9 3 3 ) ,  8 3 -'Province, , Oct. 19, 1933, p . 1.  84  p. 4.  Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, XVII:11  (Dec. 1 9 3 3 ) ,  Q£  • ^ B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Twentye i g h t h Annual Report, 1 9 3 3 ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1 9 3 4 ) , pp.  18-19.  McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1 9 3 9 , p. 9C o u n t r y L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, X V I I I s i (Mar. 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 7. "The c o - o p e r a t i v e movement and the p r e v a i l i n g grower o p p o s i t i o n to d i r e c t jobber r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the V a l l e y had discouraged the p u r c h a s i n g o f f r u i t f o r cash d i r e c t l y from the producer, and a f t e r 1 9 2 3 there was l i t t l e cash buying. C o n s o l i d a t e d F r u i t Company L i m i t e d sent a cash buyer to the V a l l e y to purchase on i t s b e h a l f i n the 1 9 3 2 - 3 3 season, b u t growers g e n e r a l l y f e l t so s t r o n g l y about the venture t h a t the buyer was compelled to leave the Okanagan. A t the same time C o n s o l i d a t e d F r u i t had f i n a n c e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s h i p p i n g house i n Vernon, C r e s t l a n d F r u i t Company, L i m i t e d , and was s u p e r v i s i n g i t through a former C o n s o l i d a t e d F r u i t employee, Harvey H a r r i s o n . " McGregor, A l l e g e d Combine 1 9 3 9 , p. 4 4 . C r e s t l a n d had been engaged i n other forms o f s n i p i n g a t s t a b i l i z a t i o n before the l e v y q u e s t i o n came up. See, f o r example, Vernon News, Oct. 1 9 , 1 9 3 3 , p. 9 , f o r an account o f H a r r i s o n ' s u n d e r c u t t i n g by d e a l i n g i n Kootenay f r u i t a t lower than Stabi l i z a t i o n Board p r i c e s . 8 7  QO  Vernon News, Mar. 2 2 , 1 9 3 4 , p. 6. 8 9  9  p. 7 .  I b i d . , p. 1 .  °Country L i f e  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, X V I I I : 1  (Mar. 1 9 3 4 ) ,  109  V e r n o n News, Mar. 22, 193^, p. 1. The preamble to the " O u t l i n e o f O b j e c t s and P o l i c y o f the United F r u i t Producers o f B.C." c l e a r l y s t a t e s i t s i n t e n t i o n to rearrange the s e l l i n g system: " T h i s A s s o c i a t i o n . . . r e c o g n i z e s the grower as the p r i n c i p a l i n a l l t r a n s a c t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e ' • t between the d e l i v e r y o f f r u i t s to the p a c k i n g house and the r e t u r n o f the proceeds to the grower. A l l other f a c t o r s i n these t r a n s a c t i o n s are considered as b e i n g agents who should be under the c o n t r o l o f the p r i n c i p a l . I t b e i n g impossible f o r the i n d i v i d u a l grower to e x e r c i s e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over s h i p p i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a n d l i n g the crops of many producers, the grower here j o i n s with h i s f e l l o w growers i n an A s s o c i a t i o n , through which b e n e f i t s to the whole body w i l l be obtained." (bound with Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board C i r c u l a r s ) 9 1  NOTES Chapter 6 """Alvin F i n k e l , B u s i n e s s and S o c i a l Reform i n the T h i r t i e s (Toronto: James Lorimer, 1979), p. 46.  2  N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Conference: C a l l e d by the Honourable Robert Weir, M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa: H e l d at Royal York H o t e l , Toronto, August 29 to September 1, 1932 (Ottawa: Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1932), p. 19. P a u l W. Clement, "The Operation o f the N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y " (unpublished BSA [Horticulture] g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936), p. 11; and " U n i o n i s t P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Speakers* Handbook", p. 107. See a l s o l e t t e r from Tolmie to R.H. McDonald ( p r e s i d e n t o f the B.C.F.G.A.), Aug. 7, 1933, i n which the Premier promises " t o render every p o s s i b l e a s s i s t a n c e i n b r i n g i n g about F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n which w i l l adequately cover our requirements and prevent d i s a s t e r to t h i s important industry." S.F. Tolmie Papers, Box 20, f i l e 26, "Speech Material-Agriculture". 3  Vernon News, Oct. 19, 1933, p. 4. •^Canada, House o f Commons, Debates, June 4, 1934, p. 3664, c i t e d i n H. B l a i r Neatby, W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie King: 1932-1939: The Prism o f U n i t y (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1976) , p.. 58. .. J.R.H. Wilbur, "R.B. Bennett as a Reformer", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers 1969, p. 107; and " S t e r l i n g S t i r l i n g " , P r o v i n c e , Nov. 30, 1934, Sunday magazine, p. 2. ^Canada, House o f Commons, Debates 1934, V o l . I I , pp. 2254-2256, c i t e d i n J.R.H. Wilbur (ed.), The Bennett New D e a l : Fraud or P o r t e n t ? (Toronto: Copp C l a r k Pub. Co., 1968), p. 41. E.C. Weddell, "The Honourable Grote S t i r l i n g , P.C.", Seventeenth Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1953, pp. 10-11. 8  ^Neatby, Mackenzie  King, p. 58.  10 Hon. W.R. Motherwell, i n Canada, House o f Commons, Debates 1934, V o l . I l l , p. 2903; V o l . IV, p. 3666. 11 Quoted i n F i n k e l , B u s i n e s s and S o c i a l Reform i n the T h i r t i e s , pp. 51-52. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t K i n g l a t e r changed h i s a t t i t u d e and hoped that the l e g a l v a l i d i t y o f the A c t 110  Ill would be upheld 12  by the c o u r t s .  I b i d . , p.  0 r m s ' b y , " F r u i t Marketing",  pp.  56. 95-96.  W.C. Hopper, "The N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t , 1 9 3 4 - - I I : Notes on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t " , Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , 1: 3 (Aug"! 1 9 3 5 ) , p. 4 7 6 . 13  1 4  F,M. Clement, "How the N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t Operates i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Proceedings o f the F o u r t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economists (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 3 4 8 . l5  Q u o t e d i n I b i d . , p. 3*4-2.  16  MacPhee, Report, p. 3 5 ; and see A.K. Loyd, "Marketing F r u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia", T w e l f t h Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1 9 4 8 , pp. 180-185 f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of the o p e r a t i o n of B.C. Tree F r u i t s L t d . 17  MacPhee, Report,  p.  104.  18  S.M. L i p s e t wrote i n r e l a t i o n to the CCF a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n Saskatchewan: "Most CCF l e a d e r s assume t h a t i f farmers are g i v e n economic s e c u r i t y and i n c r e a s e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s they w i l l continue to support the movement i n i t s e f f o r t s to s o c i a l i z e the r e s t of the economy. . . . In f a c t , the c o n t r a r y seems to be t r u e - - f a r m e r s tend to become conserva t i v e when they achieve t h e i r economic g o a l s . The farmer i s r a d i c a l v i s - a - v i s the l a r g e r s o c i e t y when h i s economic s e c u r i t y and l a n d tenure are threatened. . . . However, once the farmer a c h i e v e s these immediate g o a l s and becomes a members o f the secure p r o p e r t y h o l d e r s of s o c i e t y , he r e s e n t s government c o n t r o l s and l a b o r or tax l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t i n t e r f e r e with the expansion of h i s b u s i n e s s . " A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , p. 276. 19 ^Statement by W.R. " B i l l " Carruthers, r e t i r e d r e a l t o r , i n a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , Kelowna, August 2 , 1978. * E.D. Barrow, "Marketing L e g i s l a t i o n " , Annual Report 1 9 2 7 , p. 3 7 .  B.C.F.G.A.  BIBLIOGRAPHY I. A.  MANUSCRIPT, SOURCES  Archival Materials  B r i t i s h Columbia. A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department. Correspondence ( L e t t e r s Inward, 1918-192?). M i c r o f i l m r o l l 278. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n . Minutes o f E x e c u t i v e Meetings. 1933, 193^. H e l d a t B.C.F.G.A. head o f f i c e , Kelowna, B.C. Crown F r u i t Company L i m i t e d . Minute Book, 1928-I936. at Kelowna C e n t e n n i a l Museum, Kelowna, B.C. Jones, J.W.  Papers.  P r o v i n c i a l Archives of B r i t i s h  Held Columbia.  Membership Agreement and Marketing Agreement between Mrs. I.G. Pooley, Kelowna Growers Exchange, and Co-operative Growers o f B r i t i s h Columbia, dated February 19, 1923- In author's p o s s e s s i o n . Okanagan S t a b i l i z a t i o n Board. C i r c u l a r s , 1933 Crop Year. Held a t o f f i c e o f Okanagan F e d e r a t e d S h i p p e r s L t d . , Kelowna, B.C. Premier's Correspondence Inward 1927. B r i t i s h Columbia. Premier's Correspondence 1930-1933B r i t i s h Columbia. Tolmie, Simon F r a s e r . Papers. of B r i t i s h Columbia. B.  Theses and Academic  P r o v i n c i a l Archives of  P r o v i n c i a l Archives of  Special Collections,  University  Papers  Clement, P a u l W. "The O p e r a t i o n o f the N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y . " Unpublished BSA ( H o r t i c u l t u r e ) g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1936. 112  113 Dendy, David. "One Huge Orchard: Okanagan Land and Development Companies B e f o r e the Great War." Unpublished BA gradu a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976. K a b a l k i n , Yascha S. "The Trend of Co-operative Thought i n B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Marketing." Unpublished BSc ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics) g r a d u a t i n g essay, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1932. Maclachlan, Morag E l i z a b e t h . "The F r a s e r V a l l e y M i l k Producers* A s s o c i a t i o n : S u c c e s s f u l C o o p e r a t i v e . " Unpublished MA t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972. Stewart, Robert G. "Radiant Smiles i n the D i r t y T h i r t i e s : H i s t o r y and Ideology of the Oxford Group Movement i n Canada, 1932-1936." Unpublished Master o f D i v i n i t y t h e s i s , Vancouver School of Theology, 1974. II.  PRINTED SOURCES  A. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s B r i t i s h Columbia. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Twenty-eighth Annual Report, 1933. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1934. • i s t i c s 1927. 1928.  , S t a t i s t i c s Branch. A g r i c u l t u r a l StatB u l l e t i n no. 104. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r ,  . Royal Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y . Report of the Royal Commission I n v e s t i g a t i n g the F r u i t I n d u s t r y . . .: P a r t I I . W. Sanford Evans, commissioner. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1931. . Royal Commission on the T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y . Report of the Royal Commision on the T r e e - F r u i t I n d u s t r y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 1958. Dean E.D. MacPhee, commissioner. V i c t o r i a : -Queen's Printer.,: 1958.-. Canada. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . N a t i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Conference: C a l l e d by the Honourable Robert Weir, M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , Ottawa: Held at Royal York H o t e l , Toronto, August 29 to September 1, 1932. Ottawa: Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1932. . Department of Labour. Combines I n v e s t i g a t i o n A c t . I n v e s t i g a t i o n Into A l l e g e d Combine i n the D i s t r i b u t i o n of F r u i t and Vegetables: I n t e r i m Report of the Commissioner, February 18, 1925Lewis Duncan, commissioner. Ottawa: King's P r i n t e r , 1925. . . . I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o an A l l e g e d Combine o f Wholesalers and Shippers of F r u i t s and Veget a b l e s i n Western Canada: Report o f Commissioner, October  114 31, 1939. F.A. McGregor, commissioner. P r i n t e r , 1939. . B.  House o f Commons.  P u b l i c a t i o n s o f Growers'  Debates.  Ottawa: King's  1934.  Organizations  A s s o c i a t e d Growers o f B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d . Directors' r e p o r t , balance sheet, revenue & expenditure account, a u d i t o r s ' r e p o r t , f o r the year ending March 31, 1924; . . . 1926; . . . 1932. Annual Reports o f the B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers ' Associ a t i o n . . . V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r . ( f o r the-years ending December 31st, 1914', 1915, 1 9 1 6 , 1918, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, and 1929.) 1  Clement, F r e d e r i c k Moore. Report on the E n q u i r y Conducted on -'Behalf of the S i x L o c a l s o f the A s s o c i a t e d Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia L i m i t e d . P e n t i c t o n : Southern Okanagan Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n s , 1933. Co-operation: A Report o f Mr. Aaron S a p i r o ' s Address a t Vernon, B.C., on Thurs., Jan. 4th., 1923. Vernon: B.C. Growers' O r g a n i z a t i o n Committee, 1923The Co-operative Growers of B r i t i s h Columbia: An O u t l i n e o f i t s C o n s t i t u t i o n and Aims. n.p., n.d. C.  Books and  Pamphlets  C a i l , Robert E. Land, Man, and the Law: The D i s p o s a l o f Crown Lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1913• Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1974. Canadian Annual Review o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , Canadian Review Co., 1927.  1926-27.  Toronto:  [Canadian P a c i f i c Railway}. Western Canada: Manitoba, A l b e r t a , A s s i n i b o i a , Saskatchewan and New O n t a r i o : How to Reach I t , How to Obtain Lands, How to Make a Home. [pPR]; 1904. Clement, F r e d e r i c k Moore. My Thoughts Were On the Land: Autobiography of F r e d Clement. White Rock, B.C.: n. 1969:  pub.,  F i n k e l , A l v i n . B u s i n e s s and S o c i a l Reform i n the T h i r t i e s . Toronto: James Lorimer, 1979Fowke, Vernon C. Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l P o l i c y : The H i s t o r i c a l P a t t e r n . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1946. • The N a t i o n a l P o l i c y and the Wheat Economy. U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1957-  Toronto:  115 L i p s e t , S.M. A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m : The Cooperative Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n i n Saskatchewan. B e r k e l e y and Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1950. The McGraw-Hill D i c t i o n a r y o f Modern Economics: A Handbook o f Terms and O r g a n i z a t i o n s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. M i t c h e l l , Don. 1975.  The P o l i t i c s o f Food.  Toronto: James Lorimer,  Morton, James. Honest John O l i v e r : The L i f e S t o r y o f the Honourable John O l i v e r , Premier o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1918-1927. London, Toronto, and Vancouver: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1933. Neatby, H. B l a i r . W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie K i n g : 1932-1939? The Prism of U n i t y . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1976. Orms'by, Margaret A. B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y . Macmillan o f Canada* 1958.  Vancouver:  P r i e s t l e y , Norman F., and Edward B. S w i n d l e h u r s t . Furrows, F a i t h and F e l l o w s h i p . Edmonton: A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l C e n t e n n i a l Committee, 19^7. Redmayne, J.S. F r u i t Farming on the "Dry B e l t " o f B r i t i s h Columbia: The Why and Wherefore. London: Times Book Club, £1909]. Robin, M a r t i n . The Rush F o r S p o i l s : The Company P r o v i n c e, 1871-1933. Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972. Rolph, W i l l i a m K i r b y . Henry Wise Wood o f A l b e r t a . U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1950.  Toronto:  Saloutos, Theodore, and John,D..Hicks. A g r i c u l t u r a l D i s content i n the Middle West, 1900-1939. Madison: U n i v e r s i of W i s c o n s i n Press, 1951. Shover, John L. C o r n b e l t R e b e l l i o n : The Farmers' H o l i d a y Association. Urbana and London: U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s Press, 1965. Thornton, W i l l i s . F a b l e , F a c t and H i s t o r y . Greenberg P u b l i s h e r , 1957.  New  York:  Walker, R u s s e l l R. P o l i t i c i a n s of a Pioneering Province. Vancouver: M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1969• Wallace, W. Stewart. The Macmillan D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian Biography. 4th ed., r e v i s e d e t c . by W.A. McKay. Toronto Macmillan of Canada, 1978.  116 Wilbur, J.R.H., ed. The Bennett New Deal; Fraud or P o r t e n t ? Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 1968. D.  Articles  B l a c k , Donald M. "F.M. B l a c k and the Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " , T h i r t y - f i r s t Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1967, 100-106. :  Caves, R.E., and R.H. H o l t o n . "An O u t l i n e o f the Economic H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1881-1951", H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1976, 152-166. Clement, F.M. "How the N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t Operates i n B r i t i s h Columbia", Proceedings o f the F o u r t h I n t e r N a t i o n a l Conference of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economists. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1937, 342-355.. Coke, J . "The 1932 Apple C a r t e l i n B r i t i s h Columbia", The Economic A n n a l i s t , ;_III -. 6 (June 1933), 63-64. Dendy, David. "The Development o f the Orchard I n d u s t r y i n the Okanagan V a l l e y , 1890-1914", T h i r t y - e i g h t h Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1974, 68-73. Hopper, W.C. "The N a t u r a l Products Marketing A c t , 1 9 3 4 — I I : Notes on the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the A c t " , Canadian J o u r n a l of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, 1:3 (Aug. 1935), 475-  4~8~n  Howay, F.W. "The Settlement and P r o g r e s s o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1914", H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. J . F r i e s e n and H.K. R a l s t o n . Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1976, 23-43. K i d s t o n , J.R. "Michael V i n c e n t McGuire", T h i r t y - n i n t h Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1975, 13-15Loyd, A.K. "Marketing F r u i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia", T w e l f t h Report of the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1948, 180-185. Ormsby, Margaret A. " F r u i t Marketing i n the Okanagan V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia", A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y , IX:2 (Apr. 1935), 80-97. . "The H i s t o r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia", S c i e n t i f i c A g r i c u l t u r e , XX:1 (Sept. 1939), 6l-72. P h i l l i p s , Paul. "The H i n t e r l a n d P e r s p e c t i v e : The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Vernon C. Fowke", Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l Theory, 11:2 (Spring-Summer 1978), 73-96.  117 ^Ramsey, Bruce^J. " B r i t i s h Columbia F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n " , Twenty-eighth Annual Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1964, 149-191. Richards, A.E. "Marketing o f F r u i t i n the Okanagan V a l l e y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Under the I n t e r i o r Committee o f D i r e c t i o n " p a r t 2, The Economic A n n a l i s t , 1:3 (Mar. 1931), 1-4. Skogstad, Grace. "Farmers and Farm Unions i n the S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s of A l b e r t a " , S o c i e t y and P o l i t i c s i n A l b e r t a , ed. Carlo C a l d a r o l a . Toronto: Methuen, 1979, 223-255. Weddell, E.C. "The Honourable Grote S t i r l i n g , P.C.", Seventeenth Report o f the Okanagan H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y 1953, 9-12. Wilbur, J.R.H. "R.B. Bennett as a Reformer", Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n H i s t o r i c a l Papers 1969, 103-111. E.  Periodicals  B r i t i s h Columbia F i n a n c i a l Times.  1927.  Canada: An I l l u s t r a t e d Weekly J o u r n a l . The Commonwealth.  1933,  1934.  Country L i f e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Labor Statesman. O.K.  Bulletin.  1926,  1930,  1933,  1934.  1927. 1926,  Penticton Herald. Vancouver P r o v i n c e . Vernon News.  1912.  1923,  B o r r e t t , Roger F. February 23,  1927,  1928,  1931,  1932.  1933. 1927,  1929,  1933,  1933,  1934.  III.  ORAL SOURCES  Personal 1980.  interview.  C a r r u t h e r s , W.R. " B i l l " . August 2, 1978.  1934.  Personal  E a s t Kelowna,  interview.  B.C.  Kelowna,  B.C.  Woodsworth, J.S. Radio speech. August-October, 1935Record i n Sound D i v i s i o n , P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada, Ottawa.  APPENDIX The Government and Produce Marketing A c t  Appeals  O r i g i n a l l y the Tolmie government, while not i a s t i c , had been i n a v a c i l l a t i n g way  enthus-  w i l l i n g to support the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y of the Produce Marketing A c t , but as more cases arose the A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department developed  a  case of c o l d f e e t f o r f e a r of the c o s t s , and by J u l y of 1929 the Deputy A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , O.C.  Bass, was  t a k i n g the stand  t h a t the Committee of D i r e c t i o n should bear a l l c o s t s i n cases r e l a t i n g to the A c t .  He a s s e r t e d t h a t the A c t was u n c o n s t i -  t u t i o n a l and r e p u d i a t e d any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or c o n n e c t i o n o f the Department w i t h counsel i n an appeal then b e i n g heard, even though the lawyer had been engaged by R.H. Attorney-General.  Pooley,  Thus the matter stood even w h i l e  Tolmie p u b l i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t "The the law of the l a n d and we  the  Premier  Produce Marketing A c t i s  are determined  t h a t everyone  must  obey the law" and t h a t "the Government i s s o l i d l y behind 2  the  Committee of D i r e c t i o n " . Before the year was  out the v o l t e face was  complete.  The A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s Department p u b l i c a l l y announced " t h a t the onus of f u r t h e r l i t i g a t i o n must f a l l  e n t i r e l y on the  I n t e r i o r Committee of Direction"-^ and r e f u s e d to be even n o m i n a l l y connected with any defence 118  of the A c t .  The  just^  i c a t i o n was at  the o l d c l a i m t h a t "the A c t was  e s p e c i a l l y drawn  the i n s t i g a t i o n of, and by" Counsel f o r , the persons  who  were m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t e d " and t h a t t h e r e f o r e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  e n f o r c i n g i t l a y w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f those people,  the  Committee o f D i r e c t i o n ; once again r e f u s i n g to acknowledge  that the measure had been produced by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Committee o f the House a t the primary impetus o f the M i n i s t e r of  A g r i c u l t u r e o f the time. 1  Copy o f l e t t e r from-T.G. N o r r i s to H.B. J u l y 9, 1929, i n S.F. Tolmie Papers, f i l e 11-18 G e n e r a l - L e g i s l a t i o n - P r o d u c e Marketing A c t " . 2 Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Oct. 24, 1929. 3  I b i d . , Nov.  27,  Robertson, "Correspondence-  1929.  Copy o f l e t t e r from R.H. Pooley, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l of B r i t i s h Columbia, to T.G. N o r r i s , Jan. 16, 1930, i n S.F. Tolmie Papers, f i l e 11-18 " C o r r e s p o n d e n c e - G e n e r a l - L e g i s l a t i o n Produce Marketing A c t " . T h i s f i l e c o n t a i n s correspondence showing the government's r e v e r s a l o f i t s stand between 1928 and 1930, c o p i e s o f which T.G. N o r r i s sent to the Premier.  

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