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Colour naming in young children Preuss, Renate Jutta 1981

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COLOUR NAMING IN YOUNG CHILDREN by RENATE JUTTA PREUSS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (LINGUISTICS) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 •© Renate J u t t a P r e u s s , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a llowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ^|ywJiis4f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date c t e , 198/ DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT E i g h t e e n t w o - y e a r - o l d s and twenty f o u r - y e a r - o l d s were s t u d i e d as t o t h e i r knowledge and use o f e l e v e n c o l o u r t e r m s : BLUE,GREEN,RED,YELLOW,BLACK,WHITE,GREY,BROWN,PURPLE, ORANGE, and PINK. L e v e l o f a c q u i s i t i o n was d e t e r m i n e d by a p r o d u c t i o n (naming) t a s k , a c o m p r e h e n s i o n ( s e l e c t i o n ) t a s k , and a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n (matching) t a s k . The o b j e c t i v e s were t o examine v a r i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i g h t o f p o s s i b l e e v o l u t i o n a r y , p e r c e p t u a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and a s p e c t s o f g e n e r a l l e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . P e r f o r m a n c e a c c u r a c y was f o u n d t o have no c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r p r o p o s e d by B e r l i n & Kay, n o r d i d i t r e v e a l t h e s t r o n g c o n c e p t u a l g r o u p s o f p r i m a r y , n o n - p r i m a r y and a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s w h i c h have been p r o p o s e d by o t h e r s t u d i e s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e n o n - p r i m a r y c o l o u r s d i d n o t behave as a group i n any o f t h e a n a l y s e s . Measures o f i n p u t and p r a c t i c e o b t a i n e d from p a r e n t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l s o showed few c o r r e l a t i o n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . F o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d u n r e l i a b l e and no c l a i m s a b o u t e n v i r o n m e n t as a d e t e r m i n a n t i n naming b e h a v i o r c o u l d be made. P e r f o r m a n c e was n o t a b l y more a c c u r a t e i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s t h a n i n t h e t w o - y e a r - o l d s . More terms had been a c q u i r e d by t h e o l d e r group t h a n by t h e younger, t h e a v e r a g e b e i n g e i g h t terms and two terms r e s p e c t i v e l y , and s i x o f t h e o l d e r group had a c q u i r e d a l l e l e v e n c o l o u r t e r m s . i i i . Comprehension was more advanced for both ages than, production, although more terms were produced than were comprehended. No sex differences were found at a l l . Further analyses concentrated on production performance. As expected, the number of colour terms used increased with age and the i r use became more stable with age. There was no one colour term that appeared in a l l of the subjects' lexicons, but the colour terms most l i k e l y to appear were the primaries and the non-primary ORANGE. BLUE showed a marked, though not s i g n i f i c a n t , preference at both ages and several possible reasons are suggested for t h i s . GREY, as expected, appeared least frequently, followed by the achromatics. Colour terms used most accurately were ORANGE and PINK. These appear to be the f i r s t colour categories to emerge with separate labels, followed by the primary colours and GREY again ranking lowest. There were no terms which had been acquired by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large number of two-year-olds and none by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y small number of four-year-olds. Primary terms as a group were also those most l i k e l y to be used inco r r e c t l y . Those terms most l i k e l y to be over-extended by the younger subjects were also those without a stable referent, while for the older ones i t was those terms which the subject already knew the correct use of. The actual errors did not seem to be based on any of the proposed perceptual properties of colour. It i s suggested that the c h i l d at these stages does not organize his l e x i c a l or conceptual colour categories i n terms of the adult d i s t i n c t i o n s of primary/non-primary/achromatic or of hue/saturation/brightness. Further in-depth examination might reveal a base of associative or contextual c r i t e r i a instead of the random, ad-hoc guesses they appear to be in this study. It i s further suggested that such organizational c r i t e r i a are very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and there-fore w i l l not f i t the generalizations made by previous studies about colour-term acquisition. V . Table of Contents page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables ix L i s t of Figures x i L i s t of Appendices x i i 1.0 Information on Colour-Naming Behavior 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Properties of Colour Perception 3 1.2.1 Physical Properties of Colour 3 1.2.2 Colour Discrimination by Infants 4 1.3 Determinants of Colour-Naming Behavior 4 1.3.1 Evolutionary Development of Colour Categories 5 1.3.2 A Second Evolutionary Order 11 1.3.3 Development Via Perceptual Categories 13 1.3.4 Environment as a Determinant i n Naming Behavior 17 1.3.5 Sex Differences i n Colour Naming 21 1.4 Theories of Lexical Development 22 1. 4 .1. Direction of Development 22 1.4.2 Development of Semantic/Lexical Categories 1.4.3 The Nature of Lexical Categories 1.4.4 Categorization C r i t e r i a 31 . 1.5 Applications of Error Analysis 38 1.5.1 Using Errors to Determine Lexical Strategies 38 1.5.2 Predicting Types of Perceptual Overextensions 39 1.5.3 Status of Overextensions 1.5.'4 Labelling Strategies 1.6 Acquiring Comprehension and Production S k i l l s 1.6.1 Order of Acquiring Task S k i l l s 1.6.2 Cognitive Requirements of Each Task 1.6.3 Support from Colour-Naming Studies 1.6.4 Overextensions i n the Two Tasks 24 27 40 43 44 44 44 46 46 v i . page 1.7 O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s e s 4 8 2.0 M e t h o d o l o g y and D e s i g n 51 2.1 S u b j e c t s 51 2.2 E x p e r i m e n t a l M a t e r i a l s 52 2.2.1 S t i m u l u s C o l o u r s 52 2.2.2 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C o l o u r s 53 2.3 E x p e r i m e n t a l Methods 5 3 2.3.1 T a s k s and I n s t r u c t i o n s 54 2.3.2 O r d e r s o f P r e s e n t a t i o n 56 2.4 P o t e n t i a l E x p e r i m e n t a l P r o b l e m s 58 2.4.1 C h o i c e o f C o l o u r Sample 58 2.4.2 C o l o u r B a c k g r o u n d and L i g h t i n g 58:; 2.4.3 S i z e o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n T ask 59 2.5 S c o r i n g Method and P r e - t e s t s 60 2.5.1 S c o r i n g Method 6 0 2.5.2 T e s t i n g f o r P a r e n t a l I n p u t and C h i l d P r a c t i c e 61 3.0 G e n e r a l P e r f o r m a n c e R e s u l t s 63 3.1 O r d e r s o f P e r f o r m a n c e A c c u r a c y and A c q u i s i t i o n 6 3 3.1.1 O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y 63 3.1.2 O r d e r s o f P e r c e n t a g e H a v i n g A c q u i r e d Each Term 68 3.1.3 C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Comparable S t u d i e s 73 3.1.4 C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r s 74 3.2 P e r f o r m a n c e V a r i a b l e s 74 3.2.1 Age V a r i a b l e 7 5 3.2.2 Task V a r i a b l e . 76 3.2.3 Sex V a r i a b l e 77 3.2.4 C o l o u r V a r i a b l e 77 3.3 C o l o u r Terms A c q u i r e d 79 3.3.1 Terms A c q u i r e d by Two-Year-Olds 80 3.3.2 Terms A c q u i r e d by F o u r - Y e a r - O l d s 8 0 3.3.3 A c q u i s i t i o n o f P r i m a r y , A c h r o m a t i c and N on-Primary C o l o u r s 8 0 page 3.4 Colour Terms Used 8 2 3.4.1 Terms Used by Two-Year-Olds 8 5 3.4.2 Terms Used by Four-Year-Olds 8 7 3.5 Measures of S t a b i l i t y 87 3.5.1 Overall Levels of S t a b i l i t y 88 3.5.2 S t a b i l i t y Levels of Production and Comprehension 93 3.6 Types of Colour Labelling 99 3.6.1 Label-Types , 100 3.6.2 Frequencies of Label-Types 100 3.7 Matching Errors of Discrimination 110 3.8 Types of Errors 115 3.8.1 Rank Order Correlations 116 3.8.2. Performance Variables i n Error-Types 119 3.8.3 Distribution of Errors 120 3.8.4 Distribution of "No Responses" 124 3.9 Overextensions - Incorrect Uses of Terms and Samples 126 3.9.1 Distribution of Incorrect Uses 126 3.9.2 A Closer Look at Production Overextensions 130 3.9.3 S t a b i l i t y Levels of Overextended Terms 132 3.10 Application of Overextensions 134 3.10.1 Existence of Correct Terms in Vocabulary 134 3.10.2 Analysis of Error Pairs to Determine Lexical Categories 135 4.0 Discussion of Performance Results 14 0 4.1 Correlations of Rank Orders with Comparable Studiesl40 4.2 Correlations with Evolutionary Order 14 0 4.2.1 In Relation to Previous Studies 141 4.2.2 Differences in Data 142 page 4.3 P e r f o r m a n c e V a r i a b l e s i n C o l o u r - N a m i n g 142 4.3.1 Age D i f f e r e n c e s 143 4.3.2 Task D i f f e r e n c e s 143 4.3.3 C o l o u r D i f f e r e n c e s 14 3 4.3.4 I n R e l a t i o n t o C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t s 144 4.3.5 Sub-Group V a r i a b l e s 144 4.4 C o l o u r Terms A c q u i r e d . 145 4.5 C o l o u r Terms Used 14 6 4.5.1 C o l o u r as a L e x i c a l Domain 148 4.5.2 I n d i v i d u a l Naming P r e f e r e n c e s 14 8 4.6 L e v e l s o f S t a b i l i t y 152 4.6.1 Age D i f f e r e n c e s i n O v e r a l l S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s 15 3 4.6.2 P r e d o m i n a n t C o l o u r s i n O v e r a l l S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s 153 4.6.3 L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n and Comprehension 154 4.7 L a b e l l i n g S t r a t e g i e s 156 4.7.1 Age D i f f e r e n c e s 156 4.7.2 O r d e r o f A c q u i r i n g S e p a r a t e L a b e l s 156 4.8 P e r f o r m a n c e V a r i a b l e s f o r E r r o r - T y p e s 159 4.8.1 O r d e r C o r r e l a t i o n s / A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e R e s u l t s 159 4.8.2 Task D i f f e r e n c e s 160 4.9 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f E r r o r - T y p e s 161 4.9.1 I n d i v i d u a l C o l o u r s 161 4.9.2 C o l o u r Groups 161 4.10 O v e r e x t e n s i o n s : I n c o r r e c t Uses o f Terms and Samples 162 4.10.1 P r e d o m i n a n t C o l o u r and C o l o u r Groups 162 4.10.2 S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f O v e r e x t e n d e d Terms 16 3 4.10.3 E x i s t e n c e o f C o r r e c t Terms i n V o c a b u l a r y 165 4.10.4 L e x i c a l / C o n c e p t u a l C a t e g o r i e s R e v e a l e d by E r r o r s 165 4.11 The V a l i d i t y o f P r o p o s e d C o l o u r Groups 166 5.0 Summary o f R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n 171 F o o t n o t e s 175 B i b l i o g r a p h y 178 A p p e n d i c e s 182-228 XX. L i s t o f T a b l e s page 1. Rank O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y f o r B o t h Ages and B o t h T a s k s 65 2. O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y f o r Sub-Groups 2A and 2B i n B o t h T a s k s 66 3. C o m p a r i s o n o f Rank O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y f o r AGE 2 and Sub-Groups 2A and 2B 6 7 4. P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E a c h C o l o u r Term i n B o t h Ages and T a s k s 69 5. P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d Each C o l o u r Term i n O v e r a l l P e r f o r m a n c e Both Ages 70 6. A v e r a g e P e r f o r m a n c e S c o r e s i n Each Age and Task 75 7. A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r Each C o l o u r and Age i n T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e 76 8. A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r Each C o l o u r and Task f o r Combined Ages . 7 7 9. A v e r a g e Number o f Terms A c q u i r e d 79 10. Number o f S u b j e c t s i n E a c h Age H a v i n g A c q u i r e d t h e P r i m a r y , A c h r o m a t i c and Non-Primary C o l o u r s . 81 11. F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f C o l o u r Terms Used by Two-Year-Olds 8 3 12. F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f C o l o u r Terms Used by F o u r - Y e a r - O l d s 84 13. T o t a l Number o f Terms i n S t a b i l i t y .Levels 88 14. C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s and C r i t e r i a i n Each S t a b i l i t y L e v e l f o r B o t h Ages 90 15. T o t a l Number o f Terms i n Task S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s 94 16. C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 2 96 17. C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 4 9 7 18. C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f Comprehension f o r AGE 2 and AGE 4 9 8 page 19. Frequencies of Label-Types for Each Colour and Age 101 20. Confusion Matrix for Production at AGE 2 111 21. Confusion Matrix for Production at AGE 4 112 22. Confusion Matrix for Comprehension at AGE 2 113 23. Confusion Matrix for Comprehension at AGE 4 114 24. Rank Orders of Errors -Incorrect Responses -and Frequencies of Errors for Both Ages and Tasks 117 25. Rank Orders of "No Responses" and Frequencies for Each Colour at Both Ages and Tasks 118 26. Average Frequencies of Correct, Incorrect and No Responses ( _ 120 27. Possible Colour Groups and Expected Proportions 122 28. Rank Orders of Incorrect Uses for Both Ages i n Both Tasks 127 29. Frequencies for Overextended Terms 131 30. S t a b i l i t y Levels of Overextended Terms 133 31. Possible Error Pairs in Perceptual Categories 136 L i s t of Figures page 1. B e r l i n & Kay's Proposed Order of Colour Emergence 5 2. Percentage of Subjects Having Acquired Each Colour Term i n Production Both Ages 71 3. Percentage of Subjects Having Acquired Each Colour Term i n Comprehension Both Ages 71 4. Percentage of Subjects Having Acquired Each Term i n Total Performance Both Ages • 72 5. Proportions of Subjects Using Each Term i n AGE 2 and AGE 4 8 6 6. Proportions of Subjects Using Each Term in AGE 2A and AGE 2B 8 6 7. Colour Term S t a b i l i t y by Proportion of Subjects - STABLE Terms at Both Ages 91 8. Colour Term S t a b i l i t y by Proportion of Subjects - UNSTABLE Terms at Both Ages 92 9. Colour Term S t a b i l i t y by Proportion of Subjects - UNKNOWN Terms at Both Ages 92 10. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 2 102 11. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 2A 103 12. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 2B 104 13. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 4 105 14. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 4A 106 15. Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 4B 107 16. Proposed Order of Emergence of Separate Labels 158 x i i . L i s t o f A p p e n d i c e s page 1. Tau V a l u e s f o r Between- and W i t h i n - G r o u p C o m p a r i s o n s o f P e r f o r m a n c e 18 2 2. Tau V a l u e s f o r Comp a r i s o n s o f P e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t h e E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r s 183 3. Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e #1 184,185 4. P r o p o r t i o n s o f S t a b l e / U n s t a b l e / U n k n o w n L e v e l s o f S t a b i l i t y 186 5. C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s & C r i t e r i o n i n E a c h S t a b i l i t y L e v e l - AGE 2 187 C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s & C r i t e r i o n i n E a c h S t a b i l i t y L e v e l - AGE 4 188 7. P r o p o r t i o n s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 2 and AGE 4 18 9 8. P r o p o r t i o n s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f Comprehension f o r AGE 2 and AGE 4 190 9. C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 191 10. C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 192 11. C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f Comprehension f o r AGE 2 193 12. C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f Comprehension f o r AGE 4 194 13. K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r Comparisons o f Rank O r d e r s o f E r r o r Types 195 14. Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e #2 196 15. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 19 7 16. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 2 198 17. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 199 X l l l page 18. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r C o m p r e h e n s i o n AGE 4 200 19. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r s i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks f o r AGE 2 201 20. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r s i n D e c r e a s i n g . Ranks f o r AGE 4 202 21. P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No R e s p o n s e s " i n Groups of. P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 203 22. P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No R e s p o n s e s " i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r C o m p r e h e n s i o n AGE 2 204 23. P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No R e s p o n s e s " i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 205 24. P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No R e s p o n s e s " i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks f o r B o t h Ages 2 06 25. K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r C o m p a r i s o n s o f Rank O r d e r s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses 207 26.... P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t . Uses i n G r o u p s ' o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 208 27. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r C o m p r ehension AGE 2 209 28. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 210 29. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r C o mprehension AGE 4 211 30. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks o f P r o d u c t i o n 212 31. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks o f C o m prehension 213 32. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 214 33. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n Comprehension ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 215 x i v . page. 34. T o t a l P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 216 35. E r r o r - P a i r s Made More Than Once ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 217 36. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r - P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 218 37. E r r o r - P a i r s Made More Than Once ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 219 38. P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r - P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g l e b e l s , i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 22 0 39. E r r o r - P a i r s Made More Than Once ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) 221 40. Measurements o f C o l o u r Samples Used by Nethuen N o t a t i o n 222 41. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 223, 224,225 42. Rank O r d e r s o f O v e r a l l F r e q u e n c y and E x t e n t - o f - U s e w i t h Tau V a l u e s f o r C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h P e r f o r m a n c e and E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r s 226 43. K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r C o m p a r i s o n s o f I n d i v i d u a l AGE 2 P e r f o r m a n c e w i t h P a r e n t a l I n p u t and C h i l d P r a c t i c e Measures 227 44. F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s C o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h L e v e l s o f F r e q u e n c y and E x t e n t - o f - U s e 228 Acknowledgements My thanks must go to my three committee members—Dr.David Ingram, Dr. Ken Reeder and Dr. Dale Kinkade—for a l l their help in producing t h i s thesis, and to Dr. Seong-Soo Lee and his assistant Jupien for advising me on the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses involved. And, of course, grateful thanks to a l l the children in the study, their parents and the various daycare centres that participated--Summer of '73, L i l l i p u t , Canada Goose, Tillicum, Unit 1 and Unit 2 — f o r their w i l l i n g and often eager cooperation. 1. 1.0 I n f o r m a t i o n on C o l o u r - N a m i n g B e h a v i o r 1.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n A s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f l e a r n i n g a n a t i v e l a n g u a g e i n v o l v e s a c q u i r i n g i t s l e x i c o n and e s p e c i a l l y i t s u n d e r -l y i n g s e m a n t i c system. S t u d i e s have l o o k e d a t t h i s b o t h i n terms o f d e v e l o p i n g g e n e r a l t h e o r i e s o f l e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t and o f e x a m i n i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s p e c i f i c l e x i c a l a r e a s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s on t h e de v e l o p m e n t and e a r l y use o f e l e v e n E n g l i s h c o l o u r t e r m s — BLUE,GREEN,RED,YELLOW, BLACK,WHITE,GREY,BROWN,PURPLE,ORANGE,PINK— a t two age-p o i n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g (at l e a s t ) two d i f f e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l p o i n t s . P e r f o r m a n c e i n p r o d u c t i o n and c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k s i s a n a l y z e d and compared t o t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on what g o v e r n s and a f f e c t s t h e c o l o u r - n a m i n g b e h a v i o r o f a d u l t s and c h i l d r e n and t o p r o v i d e f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on l e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t i n g e n e r a l . Such a s t u d y n e c e s s a r i l y t o u c h e s on s e v e r a l a r e a s f o r r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e a r e s t u d i e s w h i c h have d e a l t d i r e c t l y and sometimes e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h i s t o p i c , b u t t o g e t an o v e r a l l v i e w o f t h e a s p e c t s o f c o l o u r - n a m i n g b e h a v i o r — w h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r a c q u i s i t i o n , w h a t a f f e c t s i t , e t c . — t h e . s c o p e o f r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l widens c o n s i d e r a b l y . I t i n v o l v e s f i r s t o f a l l an o u t l i n e o f what c o l o u r s i n v o l v e p h y s i c a l l y , s i n c e t h i s has been s u g g e s t e d as a major 2. determinant i n both the developing of and the adult use of colour words (Section 1.2). Does a two-year-old have the physical prerequisites he needs to be able to name colours the way adults do? This section also provides some technical terms to be used throughout the study. The second major area (Section 1.3) examines the possible determinants of colour-naming behavior. As such, i t mentions cross-cultural studies of adult colour-usage, proposed evolutionary development of colour terms within a language, neurophysiological aspects of colour perception and possible environmental influences. Various predictions about ontological development are made on the basis of this information, for example, the order of acquisition and the types of colour categories, as well as the types of errors that might be expected. Since this study examines a part of general l e x i c a l development, the l a s t major area (Section 1.4) examines various aspects of l e x i c a l theories as they might relate to or be supported by the development of the colour lexicon. 3. 1.2 Properties of Colour Perception 1.2.1 Physical Properties of Colour Colour terms can be grouped for description in several ways. This study focuses on the eleven basic colour terms, basic i n that they can be used to describe any colour. These can be further d i f f e r e n t i a t e d as primary colours (blue,red, green,yellow), achromatics (black,white), and non-primary colours (pink,purple,orange,brown,grey). Grey can also be considered an achromatic colour and some studies have put brown in this category as well. Because these categories may vary, l a t e r analyses w i l l consider d i f f e r e n t achromatic and non-primary groups as well. * The physical characteristics of colour have usually been explained in terms of three parameters: hue, saturation and brightness. In very simplified language, "hue" i s the actual colour, such as red versus green: i n the present study, there are eleven d i f f e r e n t hues. Each hue i n turn can have various degrees of saturation and brightness. "Saturation" refers to the density or deepness of a colour: pink, for example, can be c a l l e d a desaturated red. The "brightness" of a colour i s just that, white being the highest l e v e l of brightness with black at the other end of the scale.^ * The convention followed i n t h i s report and in tables and appendices, with the exception of the discussion on Berlin & Kay's theory, i s that block l e t t e r s refer to the term while regular print refers to the referent i t s e l f , in this case, the colour NAME versus the colour i t s e l f . 4 . These a r e t h e p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f c o l o u r s b u t t h e y c o r r e s p o n d a l s o t o c o l o u r - n a m i n g p r a c t i c e s i n E n g l i s h , i f n o t i n a l l l a n g u a g e s . D i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e hues a r e g i v e n s e p a r a t e l a b e l s , s u c h as RED v e r s u s GREEN, w h i l e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s a t u r a t i o n and b r i g h t n e s s a r e d e s c r i b e d by 2 m o d i f i e r s s u c h a s DARK/LIGHT and VIVID/PALE r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1.2.2 C o l o u r D i s c r i m i n a t i o n by I n f a n t s The c h i l d a t a v e r y e a r l y age has t h e p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between c o l o u r s t h e way a d u l t s do. S i m p l e p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between c o l o u r s a p p e a r s a t l e a s t as e a r l y as 15 days o f age."^ Fagan (1974) f o u n d t h a t i n f a n t s o f f o u r t o s i x months age c o u l d d i s c r i m i n a t e between d i f f e r e n t 4 hues , and C r u i s e (1977) f o u n d an a b i l i t y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e hue and b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l s a t age 1;3. S i n c e t h e c o l o u r r e a l m t h a t t h e c h i l d s e e s a p p e a r s t o be t h e same as t h e one t h e a d u l t s e e s , t h e r e i s a g r e a t p o t e n t i a l o f him d i v i d i n g t h i s r e a l m i n t o t h e same l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t t h e a d u l t u s e s . M o r e o v e r , i f we c a n p i n p o i n t what g o v e r n s t h e de v e l o p m e n t o f , o r a t l e a s t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f , t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s we c a n make p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t how a c h i l d w i l l c a t e g o r i z e c o l o u r s a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f l e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 1.3 D e t e r m i n a n t s o f C o l o u r - N a m i n g B e h a v i o r What a r e t h e f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n d e c i d i n g how a g i v e n l a n g u a g e d i v i d e s t h e c o l o u r r e a l m ? I f t h e r e i s a r e a s o n f o r c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s b e i n g t h e way t h e y a r e , t h e n one m i g h t p r e d i c t o r d e r s o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s by c h i l d r e n . 5 . There are at least three such possible determinants of naming behavior: evolutionary (Section 1.3.1), perceptual (Section 1.3.3) and environmental (Section 1.3.4). 1.3.1 Evolutionary Development of Colour Categories If a c h i l d learning his native language can be compared to a language i n i t s early stages of development, then the same factors or categorization strategies might be involved in both cases. Studies i n ethnology and anthropology have examined which divisions of the conceptual domain of colour w i l l tend to become divisions in the l e x i c a l domain, and find f a i r l y consistent tendencies across languages. Berl i n & Kay (1969), afte r examining some 98 diff e r e n t languages, derived a scaling of colour terms based on which occurred most to least frequently. This was interpreted as a universal evolutionary order of the development of colour terms, indicated below in Figure 1. Figure 1:Berlin & Kay's Proposed Order of Colour Emergence Stage: I II I l i a I l l b IV V VI VII BLACK BLACK BLACK BLACK BLACK black black black WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE WHITE white white white RED RED RED RED RED RED red GREEN YELLOW GREEN green green green YELLOW blue blue blue YELLOW YELLOW yellow brown brown purple orange grey 6. The t h e o r y c l a i m s t h a t i f a l a n g u a g e has two c o l o u r terms o n l y , i t w i l l have d i v i d e d t h e c o l o u r domain i n t o t h e two c a t e g o r i e s o f LIGHT-WARM and DARK-COOL c o l o u r s , o r as B e r l i n & Kay r e f e r t o them, WHITE and BLACK (Stage I ) . Languages w i t h t h r e e terms w i l l have a b s t r a c t e d a l l warm c o l o u r s ( r e d s , y e l l o w s ) from t h e WHITE c a t e g o r y , l e a v i n g t h e BLACK c a t e g o r y i n t a c t (Stage I I ) . T h i s t h i r d c a t e g o r y i s o f t e n c a l l e d ROW, w h i l e B e r l i n & Kay c a l l i t RED. Languages w i t h f o u r c o l o u r terms w i l l have done one o f two t h i n g s : S t a g e I l i a i n d i c a t e s a s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e BLACK c a t e g o r y i n t o a l l c o o l c o l o u r s ( g r e e n s , b l u e s ) , o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as GRUE, and r e m a i n i n g d a r k c o l o u r s . S t a g e I l l b has ROW b e i n g f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o y e l l o w and r e d c a t e g o r i e s . W i t h f i v e c o l o u r t e r m s , a l a n g u a g e w i l l have a c c o m p l i s h e d b o t h o f t h e s e , i n e i t h e r o r d e r (Stage I V ) . GRUE i s t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o b l u e s and g r e e n s (Stage V ) , and a l l d e s a t u r a t e d r e d s and y e l l o w s become t h e brown c a t e g o r y (Stage V I ) . The l a s t s t a g e i n v o l v e s , a p p a r e n t l y s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , an a b s t r a c t i o n o f o r a n g e from t h e r e d and y e l l o w c a t e g o r i e s , and o f p i n k and p u r p l e from t h e r e d c a t e g o r y (Stage V I I ) . 5 Brown (1976) q u o t e s L e n n e b e r g & R o b e r t s 1956 as c l a i m i n g t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g o r a n g e f r o m y e l l o w i s one o f t h e l a s t s t a g e s . Kay & M c D a n i e l (1978), r e f e r r i n g t o Kay 1975, c l a i m t h a t g r e y seems t o become d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a t any s t a g e once t h e r e are. f i v e l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , and p o s s i b l y even e a r l i e r . 7. A less r i g i d proposal, s t i l l based on Ber l i n & Kay's evolutionary order, i s that languages w i l l categorize primary colours and achromatics before non-primaries. The theory suggests a universality to the primacy of certain colours over others within a language, but i t would be wrong to read notions of innateness into t h i s . The universality exists through the common physical apparatus by which these colours are perceived. 1.3.1(a) Perceptual Salience of Evolutionary Categories Rosch Heider (1971,19 72,19 73) and others, for example, suggest that the proposed evolutionary order and various recognition and r e c a l l phenomena are due to the r e l a t i v e perceptual salience of the colours themselves. Those colours which are most salient are going to be encoded sooner and more frequently than others. Moreover, other studies have shown that languages tend to choose those examples which are maximally distinguishable from each other, as best examples of various l e x i c a l categories. Since those colours which are most different are also the most salient, both views support Berlin & Kay's order. The recognition of this feature i n certain colours i s what causes colours grouped around these focal points to become categories, so the categories w i l l also be maximally distinguishable. This i s also highly desirable in organizing 6 l e x i c a l categories. It suggests some cognitive mechanism , which strives to maximize r e c a l l and recognition accuracy by finding the best way to categorize information. 8. 1.3.1 (b) Neurophysiological Support What makes certain colours more salient than others? It appears that the neurophysiological mechanisms involved in colour perception have various levels of complexity. Theories of colour perception suggest that the most basic outputs from the perceptual apparatus i n the eye to the interpretive component i n the brain are the sets of red-green and yellow-blue to specify hue and that of black-white to specify brightness and saturation levels'. ^  Kay & McDaniel also note the six fundamental neural response categories as being the frequencies for green,red, yellow,blue and for black,white.. The intersections of these categories give the non-primary colours, and being inter-sections they may require a more complex neurological mechanism, which would p a r t i a l l y explain their l a t e r occurrence. Similarly, the early emergence of categories such as DARK-COOL, LIGHT-WARM, ROW and GRUE, can be explained as these colours being unions of primary categories. They are thus even less s t r i c t l y defined i n terms of neural response, making them somehow "easier" than primary or intersection (non-primary) colour categories. 1.3.1 (c) Supporting Studies for Evolutionary Determinants As noted e a r l i e r , a c h i l d has a l l the necessary physical apparatus for perceiving colour by the time he begins acquiring language. So the o r e t i c a l l y , we can expect acquisition and development of colour names to follow the same course as that 9. proposed by Be r l i n & Kay and supported by perceptual and neurophysiological studies noted above. Several studies do i n fact support t h i s . Bateman (1915) found naming accuracy i n f i v e - and six-year-olds to be in the order: WHITE,BLACK,RED,BLUE,YELLOW, ORANGE,GREEN,PURPLE. Accuracy i n the primary colours was, however, s t i l l low at these ages, roughly 50 to 80% of the subjects having acquired these terms. Hopmann (1972) looked at a younger age group (3;3 to 4;3) and found a substantially d i f f e r e n t order in recognition and naming accuracy: WHITE,RED+GREEN,BLACK,BROWN+PINK,YELLOW+ORANGE, BLUE+PURPLE+GREY.8 * A study by Karpf, Goss & Small (1974) focused on naming, selection and ordering of twelve colours: the four primaries and eight intermediate colours including pink, purple and orange. Accurate naming of the primaries here was 70, 88 and 95% for the three-, four- and five-year-olds respectively. Performance for the intermediate colours was low, with purple apparently well-established at age f i v e , but pink and orange s t i l l unstable. Unfortunately, the terms PINK, ORANGE and PURPLE were not used by the experimenter i n the selection tasks, rather RED-BLUE, YELLOW-RED and BLUE-RED respectively, so the resulting data i s rather inappropriate for our comparative purposes. * The convention adopted in rela t i n g rank orders i s as follows: dif f e r e n t ranks are separated simply by commas, while colours which have equal standing and a tie d rank are indicated as in A+B+C. 10. Johnson (1977) further tested naming accuracy of ten colours by a t o t a l of 669 preschoolers aged 2;6 to 4;5. The rank order of correctly-named colours was: RED,GREEN, BLACK,WHITE,ORANGE,YELLOW,BLUE,PINK,BROWN,PURPLE. This correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with Ber l i n & Kay's order, and even more so when data for ORANGE was deleted. Johnson suggests that this p a r t i c u l a r colour term had an especially high l e v e l of accuracy because i t also refers to the f r u i t and might therefore be more memorable. Ba r t l e t t (1978) studied 33 two- and three-year-olds over an eight-month period, and found again that the primaries and achromatics were as a whole more accurately named and recognized than the non-primaries. PINK was an exception, being f i f t h i n rank and preceding BLACK and WHITE. The achromatics did not, however, precede the primaries, contrary to Ber l i n & Kay's proposal. B a r t l e t t suggests, moreover, that t h i s grouped order dist o r t s the actual picture. A look at individual development found only two out of f i f t e e n subjects acquiring the primaries before other colour terms, and even then these were not in the order predicted. There were examples of a l l the non-primary terms except GREY occurring as one of the f i r s t six correctly-used terms. We expect then that the present study w i l l r e f l e c t the evolutionary order i n grouped measures of performance accuracy. In p a r t i c u l a r , more children in both ages should have acquired the achromatic and primary colour terms than the non-primaries. 11. 1.3.2 A Second Evolutionary Order There are further implications of the evolutionary order to ontological development. Berlin & Kay actually imply two orders within the one shown in Figure 1; these can be di f f e r e n t i a t e d by noticing which terms are written 9 in block-print and i n regular-print. In the theory,^ the block-print terms indicate colour categories which include a larger range of colours than the same-name category indicated i n regular-print. That i s , "BLACK" includes a l l non-bright colours, while "black" includes only r e a l l y black colours. GREEN appears at Stage III but includes a l l blue colours u n t i l Stage V. Looking at only the block-print terms, the development i s one of f i r s t distinguishing between bright and non-bright colours (WHITE and BLACK), and a l l ensuing abstractions involve various hues being d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from f i r s t the achromatics and then from other hues. Looking at only the regular-print terms indicates when the terms actually refer to only the "correct" colours. 1.3.2 (a) Predicting Order of Category Acquisition Studies which have t r i e d to establish a correlation between evolutionary and developmental orders have compared Berlin & Kay's ov e r a l l category sequence to the sequence in which children acquire colour terms. But acquisition orders have always been determined by when the use of a term i s l i k e , the adult's, and this i s exactly what the second sequence represented by regular-print indicates., not the f i r s t , The 12. i present study hypothesizes that i t i s this sequence which w i l l be the more l i k e l y to correlate with orders of accuracy, while the f i r s t w i l l correlate more with the development of the colour categories, i f these can be determined. Both sequencies w i l l be used to determine the v a l i d i t y of evolutionary orders i n language development I would suggest further that both interpretations actually involve the acquisition of colour categories, not necessarily colour names. Certainly the former i s revealed by the l a t t e r , but the names a c h i l d uses to label his categories are not always going to be the correct adult ones. A c h i l d may have, for instance, a category grouping a l l green colours together under one name X, but that name X i s incorrect. If the c h i l d does not use this X to refer to any non-green colours , then we must admit that he has the adult "green" category although not yet the la b e l . Comparison i s therefore to the l e x i c a l categories the c h i l d demonstrates, not the actual labels used. The suggestion i s , then, that a child's naming behavior w i l l r e f l e c t underlying categories of primary, achromatic and non-primary colours. It i s also expected that the importance of each of these groups w i l l vary with age or with developmental stage, and that this w i l l r e f l e c t a precedence of primaries and achromatics over non-primaries. 13. 1.3.3 Development V i a P e r c e p t u a l C a t e g o r i e s We have d i s c u s s e d t h e s t a t u s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f p r i m a r y , a c h r o m a t i c and n o n - p r i m a r y c o l o u r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v o l u t i o n a r y d e v e l o p m e n t , n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t and l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . An a l t e r n a t i v e way o f c l a s s i f y i n g c o l o u r s i s by t h e p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s t h a t were m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r : hue, s a t u r a t i o n and b r i g h t n e s s . 1.3.3 (a) P e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d A d u l t L e x i c a l C a t e g o r i e s T h ese p a r a m e t e r s a r e us e d by a d u l t s t o some e x t e n t t o g i v e some l e x i c a l h i e r a r c h y t o c o l o u r s , s e p a r a t e hues, f o r example, h a v i n g a s t a t u s o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s w h i l e c o l o u r s d i f f e r i n g o n l y i n b r i g h t n e s s w i l l be d e s c r i b e d by a d j e c t i v a l m o d i f i e r s (see S e c t i o n 1.2.1). A l o n g B e r l i n & Kay's l i n e s , a l a n g u a g e w i l l f i r s t u se b r i g h t n e s s as a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i a b l e , t h e n hue. The number o f hues w h i c h a r e g i v e n d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e names v a r i e s w i t h t h e l a n g u a g e , r a n g i n g from two t o e l e v e n . ^ S a t u r a t i o n i s a p p a r e n t l y n e v e r i n t r o d u c e d as a d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e o f b a s i c c a t e g o r i e s i n a d u l t l a n g u a g e s . ^ 1.3.3 (b) E v i d e n c e f o r P e r c e p t u a l C a t e g o r i z a t i o n S t r a t e g i e s E v i d e n c e f o r t h i s h i e r a r c h y has been i m p l i e d by s t u d i e s on naming, r e c o g n i t i o n and m a t c h i n g a b i l i t i e s . Rosch, f o r example, has f o u n d t h a t c o l o u r s e t s v a r y i n g i n b r i g h t n e s s a r e e a s i e r t o remember t h e names o f t h a n s e t s v a r y i n g i n hue. T h a t i s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n b r i g h t n e s s a r e more d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t o a d u l t s w i t h a l i m i t e d c o l o u r l e x i c o n t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s i n hue. Furthermore, colours chosen by adults of various cultures and by children as best examples of the eleven basic colour terms vary from each other i n brightness and 12 hue but are equal i n saturation. A study by Indow & Ohsumi (19 71) found adults unable to judge the s i m i l a r i t y between colours of equal saturation but of markedly diff e r e n t hues—"a saturated red and a saturated green are 13 simply 'extremely d i f f e r e n t 1 " . Does the c h i l d also, recognize these parameters for use in creating his colour lexicon? We have already noted the early a b i l i t y to discriminate various levels of hue and brightness. There seems no evidence to suggest that perception of saturation differences i s not also intact at t h i s stage. The p o s s i b i l i t y of using these as colour l e x i c a l categories thus exists and there are some studies that seem to support this suggestion. 1.3.3 (c). Supporting Studies for Perceptual Determinants Cruise notes that in her one subject, the f i r s t name used for a colour was applied to any bright colour around age 1;4. The terms BLACK and WHITE when f i r s t used were overextended, but by 1;11 correctly referred only to the achromatics. Terms for actual hue differences did not seem to appear non-randomly before 2;0. Dougherty (1978) also found the early colour categories i n West Futana children to be based on the predicted BLACK/WHITE or bright/nonbright d i s t i n c t i o n , and l a t e r development also showed strong c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h i s p r o p o s e d o r d e r o f c a t e g o r y d e v e l o p m e n t . O t h e r s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t by t h e t i m e t h e c h i l d has t h e use o f some c o l o u r names, he a l r e a d y r e a l i z e s t h a t b r i g h t n e s s i s n o t t h e c r i t i c a l d i m e n s i o n upon w h i c h naming i s b a s e d . M e r v i s , C a t l i n & Rosch (1975) f o u n d t h a t judgment o f c a t e g o r y i n c l u s i o n was b e t t e r when b r i g h t n e s s a l o n e v a r i e d t h a n when e i t h e r hue o r s a t u r a t i o n a l o n e v a r i e d . B a r t l e t t f o u n d few naming e r r o r s by age.2;6 t h a t c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as t h e c h i l d b a s i n g h i s l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s on a b r i g h t / n o n b r i g h t d i s t i n c t i o n . R a t h e r , a l a r g e number o f e r r o r s were b a s e d on s a t u r a t i o n , s u g g e s t i n g a g r o u p i n g o f d e s a t u r a t e d c o l o u r s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e t o t o t a l e r r o r s i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y , u n t i l a t age f o u r some 84% c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d as an e r r o r i n j u d g i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n o f s a t u r a t i o n . E r r o r s i n hue ( a d j a c e n c y ) a l s o a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t number, d e c r e a s i n g w i t h age. 1.3.3 (d) O r d e r o f R e c o g n i z i n g P e r c e p t u a l V a r i a b l e s T h i s t r e n d i s s u p p o r t e d by m a t c h i n g t a s k s . Cook (1931) f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n c o u l d match c o l o u r s o f s i m i l a r hue by age 2;6 and c o l o u r s o f a s i m i l a r l e v e l o f s a t u r a t i o n by age 3;6. M a t c h i n g by b r i g h t n e s s was, however, l e s s a c c u r a t e a t 14 t h i s age, and s u p p o s e d l y even l e s s so a t age 2;6. The s t u d i e s s u g g e s t , t h e n , t h a t hue and s a t u r a t i o n a r e r e c o g n i z e d i n t h a t o r d e r as b e i n g d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i a b l e s , w h i l e t h e r a n k i n g o f b r i g h t n e s s i s n o t c l e a r . Recognizing that a particular dimension i s used in determining name application may apparently lead to an excessive use of i t — h e n c e the large number of errors due to saturation between ages three and four, when the c h i l d also shows this recognition of saturation in matching tasks. The present study hypothesizes that errors w i l l r e f l e c t categories of saturation and hue (adjacency) and that the proportions of these errors w i l l vary with age, the former increasing as the l a t t e r decreases. The explanation for the apparent lack of information on recognition of the brightness dimension might also be used to explain the adult's performance in the study mentioned e a r l i e r by Indow & Ohsumi. I would suggest that learning and using l e x i c a l categories w i l l undoubtedly influence which dimensions are considered to be more c r i t e r i a l in judging s i m i l a r i t y of colours, and thus in naming behavior. Adults, who have long not used the saturation dimension as a l e x i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n , seem to have l o s t the a b i l i t y to use i t i n discrimination tasks. Sorting or matching by colour has been suggested as a means of determining which of these dimensions are recognized at di f f e r e n t ages. However, this a b i l i t y does not seem to occur before the colour-naming process begins and sometimes not even then"^, so we cannot determine by this means what the e a r l i e s t d i s t i n c t i o n s are. Lexical d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n can certainly begin before the f i r s t colour terms are even u t t e r e d , i n w h i c h c a s e i t becomes v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e when a c h i l d f i r s t d i v i d e s t h e c o l o u r r e a l m i n t o l a b e l l e d p a r t s . By age 2;6 most c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y have a number o f c o l o u r terms i n t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y and have c e r t a i n l y had a l o t o f l a n g u a g e e x p o s u r e . They m i g h t a l r e a d y r e a l i z e t h a t a d u l t naming i s b a s e d l a r g e l y on d i f f e r e n c e s i n hue, n o t b r i g h t n e s s o r s a t u r a t i o n . By age 3;6 a l o s t o f c h i l d r e n a r e a l r e a d y q u a l i f y i n g t h e i r c o l o u r -names w i t h a d j e c t i v e s l i k e DARK, LIGHT o r BRIGHT, s u g g e s t i n g a r e - r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r e m a i n i n g d i m e n s i o n s as v a l i d naming c r i t e r i a , a l t h o u g h n o t as i m p o r t a n t as hue. 1.3.3 (e) N e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l S u p p o r t f o r H i e r a r c h y T h e r e i s a l s o some p o s s i b l e n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s p r i m a c y o f hue o v e r t h e o t h e r two d i m e n s i o n s i n naming p r a c t i c e s , and o f t h e s u s p e c t e d p r e l i n g u i s t i c use o f b r i g h t n e s s . S i n c e b r i g h t n e s s i s p e r c e i v e d by r o d s i n t h e e y e ' s r e t i n a , w h i l e hue and s a t u r a t i o n a r e p e r c e i v e d 16 by c o n e s , one o f t h e s e m i g h t be s t r o n g e r o r more d e v e l o p e d a t t h e age when c h i l d r e n a r e t r y i n g t o form t h e i r c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i s , however, f a r beyond t h e s c o p e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y and must r e m a i n a c o n j e c t u r e . 1.3.4 E n v i r o n m e n t as a D e t e r m i n a n t i n Naming B e h a v i o r B e r l i n & Kay, H e i d e r and D o u g h e r t y have s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t i s t h e r e l a t i v e p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e o f c o l o u r s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e c a t e g o r y and o f t h e t e r m. We have a l s o d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o l o u r -naming b e h a v i o r b e i n g b a s e d on t h e p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f c o l o u r s t h e m s e l v e s . A n o t h e r f a c t o r w h i c h i s j u s t as v i a b l e , and maybe more so, i s t h e a c t u a l amount and t y p e o f e x p o s u r e a c h i l d has t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r term. B a r t l e t t n o t e s t h a t w h i l e t h e o v e r a l l o r d e r o f a c c u r a c y o r a c q u i s i t i o n o r d e r c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r , t h i s d i d n o t e x p l a i n t h e l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e . She s u g g e s t s t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n and d e v elopment r e l a t e more t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p o s u r e t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r and i t s name, t h a n t o any p r o p e r t y o f t h e c o l o u r i t s e l f . 1.3.4 (a) Changes i n E n v i r o n m e n t I f o u n d i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i n c o m p a r i n g o r d e r s o f naming a c c u r a c i e s a t c o m p a r a b l e ages done i n v a r i o u s s t u d i e s . Bateman's o r d e r i n 1915, f o r example, i s a l m o s t e x a c t l y l i k e B e r l i n & Kay's, w h i l e more r e c e n t o r d e r s s u c h as t h o s e o f Hopmann 1972, J o h n s o n 1977 and B a r t l e t t 1978 show some marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e o r d e r i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e y do s t i l l c o r r e l a t e . The n e u r o p h y s i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f c o l o u r have n o t changed i n t h i s t i m e , b u t w i t h i n c r e a s e d use o f t e l e v i s i o n and d a y c a r e programs t h e r e has been a d r a m a t i c change i n t h e t y p e and amount o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l a t i o n , b o t h v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l , t h a t a c h i l d a t t h e s e age l e v e l s i s e x p o s e d t o . I f i t c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s naming b e h a v i o r has c hanged t h r o u g h t i m e , i t would i m p l y e i t h e r t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t has a l w a y s been t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r and as i t has changed so has a c q u i s i t i o n , or that the influence of environment is.much greater now than i t was at some e a r l i e r time. This again i s beyond the scope of the present study. 1.3.4 (b) Parental Input Previous studies on the correlation of input with acquisition have shown mixed results and pointed out some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s in drawing any d e f i n i t e conclusions either way (Newport,Gleitman & Gleitman 1975, Brown 1973, Cazden 1972, Moerk 1980 to name a few). It appears that no such study has been done in r e l a t i o n to colour terms. A thorough analysis must examine the frequency of these eleven colour terms in the language input that each c h i l d receives. Also involved i s the number of objects a term i s applied to. One would expect that a term which i s applied to several d i f f e r e n t objects by adults w i l l be recognized by the c h i l d as separate from those objects sooner than a term which i s used only i n connection with one pa r t i c u l a r object. 1.3.4 (c) Child Practice Anglin (197 7) suggests that a more dire c t correlation exists between the child's own frequency of use and his acquisition of certain terms. This might s t i l l show an indir e c t r e l a t i o n to parental input: the more frequently he hears a term, the more he himself uses i t , the more feedback and correction he gets and the faster he acquires i t . 2 0 . 1.3.4 (d) Acquisition with Limited Exposure Even i f frequency of input has some direct or indirect r e l a t i o n to acquisition, there is.also evidence that a c h i l d can learn a term after very limited exposure. Carey (1978) found that children rearranged their colour category system when provided with a hitherto unknown term—CHROMIUM-- as applied to the colour o l i v e . Although the children were only exposed to this term twice and then only i n d i r e c t l y , as in "Give me the CHROMIUM one", almost a l l of them had some-how incorporated this knowledge into their use of colour terms when tested three months l a t e r . This suggests to me that input i t s e l f i s not so important as the context i t occurs i n . It i s quite probable that a c h i l d w i l l have better r e c a l l of a term that he has encountered in an interesting and relevant situation, than of a term he has experienced many more times but which has no importance to him. 1.3.4 (e) Environment Versus Perceptual Salience If frequency of colour terms i n adult usage i s , however, based on the physical properties of colour, then one could s t i l l argue for perceptual salience as being the major determinant i n order of acquisition of these colour terms. There i s some evidence that this is. at least p a r t i a l l y true. Thorndike & Lorge (1944) found the most frequent colour terms i n English to be: RED,ORANGE,YELLOW,GREEN,BLUE, 17 PURPLE,PINK,BROWN i n decreasing frequency. Battig. & Montague (1969) asked university students to l i s t as many c o l o u r ' t e r m s as t h e y c o u l d i n a g i v e n t i m e p e r i o d , t h e n examined w h i c h terms were g i v e n most f r e q u e n t l y . T h i s o r d e r was: BLUE ,.RED, GREEN, YELLOW, ORANGE , BLACK, PURPLE , WHITE , PINK,BROWN,VIOLET,GREY. A l s o , RED was t h e f i r s t c o l o u r 18 t e r m l i s t e d by 319 o f t h e 442 s t u d e n t s . One c a n see t h e c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y t o B e r l i n & Kay's o r d e r i n t h e s e o b t a i n e d o r d e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms o f p r i m a r i e s and a c h r o m a t i c s p r e c e d i n g n o n - p r i m a r i e s . 1.3.5 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n C o l o u r Naming Some s t u d i e s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c c u r a c y and i n r a t e o f a c q u i s i t i o n a r e s e x - r e l a t e d . S t u d i e s o f t h i s v a r i a b l e as i t r e l a t e s t o l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t have had c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s u l t s and t h i s a p p e a r s t r u e o f c o l o u r t e r m a c q u i s i t i o n as w e l l . Bateman's s t u d y a p p a r e n t l y f o u n d g i r l s b e t t e r a t naming c o l o u r s t h a n b o y s . J o h n s o n ' s s t u d y f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e i n f a v o u r o f g i r l s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r t h e c o l o u r PINK, s u g g e s t i n g a s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e . T h i s s e x . d i f f e r e n c e seemed t o have b a l a n c e d o u t by age 4;2. A s t u d y f o c u s i n g on t h e c o l o u r s RED, YELLOW and BLUE by Anyan & Q u i l l i a n (1971) f o u n d a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t e n d e n c y . G i r l s d i d e q u a l l y w e l l on a l l c o l o u r s , w h i l e boys d i d b e t t e r on BLUE and RED t h a n YELLOW. A t age f o u r - f i v e g i r l s were b e t t e r t h a n boys o n l y a t YELLOW, thou g h by age f i v e - s i x t h e y were b e t t e r on a l l c o l o u r s . I t a p p e a r s a l s o t h a t a t age t w o - t h r e e boys were s c o r i n g h i g h e r on a l l t h e c o l o u r s t h a n t h e g i r l s . Mervis, C a t l i n & Rosch found no sex differences at a l l i n ages 5;6 or 8;6. None of the remaining studies which examined colour development looked at sex as a possible factor. Because of these c o n f l i c t i n g results, only the nu l l hypothesis w i l l be forwarded here, namely that there w i l l be no s i g n i f i c a n t performance difference between male and female subjects. 1.4 Theories of Lexical Development Given this background of perceptual, evolutionary and environmental information, several predictions have been made as to the development of conceptual and l i n g u i s t i c colour categories. In particular, we have suggested a certain order of acquisition of colour categories and of actual colour terms. Examining current theories of l e x i c a l development now w i l l lead to predictions on the character of these categories and how these terms are actually used. There are some major differences in such theories: direction of development, the nature of the lexical/conceptual categories, and the type of categorization c r i t e r i a , to name a few. Studies i n colour-naming behavior have provided support for some views and counter-evidence for others. 1.4.1 Direction of Development  1.4.1 (a) General to Specific In the theories presented by Clark (1971,72,77) and Nelson (1974), the direction of development i n acquiring words i s from a general idea of the meaning of a term to a narrowed-down, s p e c i f i c and adult-like l e x i c a l entry. Much of the support for this view comes from examples of overextensions, where the c h i l d uses a term for a larger group of objects than the adult would. This phenomenon i s well-documented, but i t i s only one of the ways i n which the child's referent category can d i f f e r from the adult's. Underextension i s perhaps the second most described phenomenon next to overextension. This involves a r e s t r i c t i o n of the application of a term, often only to the f i r s t referent noted and recognized as such by the c h i l d . There i s evidence that underextensions occur at the same developmental stage as overextensions, approximately ages 1;0 to 2;6, and probably even e a r l i e r (Bowerman 19 74,77,78; Huttenlocher 19 74; Bruendal 1977; Rice 1980). 1.4.1 (b) Specific to General On this basis, Barrett (1978), Thomson & Chapman (1977) and Anglin (1980) suggest that development proceeds i n the other d i r e c t i o n : from s p e c i f i c to general use of referents. A c h i l d f i r s t uses a term only i n the s p e c i f i c context in which he f i r s t noticed i t (underextension), then by the child's own increasing powers of l i n g u i s t i c observation and by adult intervention, the application i s extended and sometimes overextended before i t equals the adult's. 1.4.1 (c) Support from Colour-Naming Behavior Which direction i s supported by colour-name acquisition? Apparently, both are. There are numerous examples of 24 . i children using their f i r s t colour word for any colour, although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine i f this i s actually their f i r s t use, since the knowledge of the term may well have been underextended before production even started. But there are also d e f i n i t e examples of underextension occurring at the same early stage. Cruise, for example, found that her son r e s t r i c t e d early use of some colour terms to par t i c u l a r objects, although at the same time he used GREEN for a l l bright colours. It appears, then, that direction of development i s not one or the other, but can be one or the other. The extent of underextension and overextension occurring i n 19 early word use may depend on the concept being learned. Both types occur i n the early use of colour words and Cruise's example suggests that both types may be exhibited by the same subject at the same stage. 1.4.2 Development of Semantic/Lexical Categories As we are- also interested i n the development of colour categories, another relevant theoretical issue i s the rela t i o n between semantic and l e x i c a l category development. In p a r t i c u l a r , which comes f i r s t : the colour-word/colour correspondences or the broader concept of colour i t s e l f as a separate entity? Is one necessary for the other to be acquired? 25. 1.4.2 (a) Order of Referent-Mapping/Category Acquisition Bowerman & Kuczaj (19 78) suggest that a referent i s mapped out f i r s t , and then as use of the term improves and as more terms within a category are acquired, the c h i l d can organize the category and recognize the relations between l e x i c a l entries, thereby acquiring the actual adult 20 semantic category. This order seems to occur i n acquisition of polar adjectives and s p a t i a l terms and various other l e x i c a l 21 categories. However, i t appears that the c h i l d already operates on a number of semantic categories when he f i r s t begins using words; overextensions are not just random. Gruendel (1977) found that one-year-olds based word use on object categories l i k e + human, + animal, and + vehicle. Overextensions of words never went outside of these broad 'natural' categories. Clark suggests that these might be 22 the "universal semantic primitives" proposed by Bierwisch. 1.4.2 (b) Support from Colour-Naming Behavior Which of these orders of category/ referent-mapping does colour-name acquisition, follow? Nelson, Rice and Bar t l e t t suggest that the semantic f i e l d of colour i s acquired before the actual l e x i c a l terms in that f i e l d are f u l l y charted out. Ba r t l e t t found that almost a l l her subjects responded with some colour name(s), and no other type of name, when asked to name some colours even with no colour samples present. This included subjects with fewer t h a n f o u r c o l o u r terms i n t h e i r v o c a b u l a r y . C h i l d r e n a t age 2;6 a p p a r e n t l y a l r e a d y knew w h i c h were c o l o u r words and w h i c h w e r e n ' t , i . e . t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e COLOUR and t h e v a r i o u s c o l o u r t e r m s , and t h e r e l a t i o n between COLOUR and o t h e r l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . R i c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s may be b e c a u s e "what c o l o u r i s t h i s ? " o c c u r s more f r e q u e n t l y as a prompt t h a n "what shape i s t h i s ? " o r "what l e n g t h i s t h i s ? " , e t c . Thus t h e c o n n e c t i o n between t h e word COLOUR and t h e a c t u a l c o l o u r terms i s c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g r e i n f o r c e d and t h e c o n c e p t o f c o l o u r i s r e a d i l y a c q u i r e d . But does t h i s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a knowledge o f t h e c o l o u r c a t e g o r y ? 1.4.2 (c) C a t e g o r i e s V i a Temporal P r o x i m i t y H u t t e n l o c h e r (1974) p r e s e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e . E r r o r s made by t h r e e o n e - y e a r - o l d s r e m a i n e d w i t h i n c e r t a i n s e m a n t i c c a t e g o r i e s , s u g g e s t i n g , as R i c e d i d , t h a t t h e s e words and t h e i r " o b j e c t - s c h e m a s " (memory o f what t h e o b j e c t l o o k s l i k e ) were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r r a n g e d i n memory. But t h i s i s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y s h a r e p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , b u t ' b e c a u s e t h e i r naming o f t e n o c c u r s i n t e m p o r a l n e a r n e s s . P a r e n t s o f t e n f o l l o w a p a t t e r n o f : " t h i s i s a NOSE and t h i s 23 i s an EYE, e t c . " , o r i n t h i s c a s e : " t h i s i s RED and t h i s i s BLUE, e t c . " Thus t h e l e x i c a l e n t r i e s m ight n o t be s t o r e d under a s u p e r o r d i n a t e t e r m l i k e BODY-PARTS o r COLOUR a t a l l . H u t t e n l o c h e r ' s view i s s u p p o r t e d by D o u g h e r t y ' s s t u d y o f West F u t a n a c h i l d r e n . T h i s c u l t u r e does n o t p l a c e a s much importance on colour as an abstract quality and does not even have a superordinate term to cover this domain, as in English the term COLOUR does. While acquisition of colour terms i s very late here, sometimes 12 to 14 terms already exist by age three, and these were always applied within the correct semantic domain, even though t o t a l l y random. 1.4.2 (d) Development of Conceptual Colour Category While the c h i l d does have some concept of what colour i s , this i s apparently not recognized as a viable conceptual dimension u n t i l a la t e r stage in colour-term acquisition has been reached. Children in Bartlett's study who had fewer than four referents could not sort by colour even when that was the only dimension that differed from one object to the next, and even when the name used as a prompt was one in 24 thei r own vocabulary. At present, we can only suggest that i t i s the l i n g u i s t i c use of colour terms as a descriptive and distinguishing feature that leads to the c h i l d abstracting the colour variable as a relevant conceptual category. 1.4.3 The Nature of Lexical Categories Related to these questions i s the one. of what these l e x i c a l categories look l i k e as they are being acquired. The di f f e r e n t views here r e f l e c t the different opinions noted e a r l i e r about how word-referent combinations are actually learned. What kind of a l e x i c a l entry might be expected for early colour words? 28 . i 1.4.3 (a) As a L i s t of Features In missing feature theories, such as Clark's, a l e x i c a l entry consists of a l i s t of features which r e f l e c t the c r i t e r i a the c h i l d uses at that particular stage for when to use a word and when not to. These features may be spe c i f i c or general, but more important, this view assumes 25 them to be d i s t i n c t and is o l a b l e . That i s , i t assumes that features such as size, shape or function can be abstracted from an object. This may be quite d i f f i c u l t for the c h i l d . In fact i t requires some degree of cognitive s k i l l to be able to abstract colour from objects and compare colours themselves to each other, devoid of any of the other features of an object. 1.4.3 (b) As a Prototype Heider, Anglin and (to some extent) Nelson claim that the l e x i c a l entry i s not some l i s t of features but an actual prototype, a master image of the type of object a term normally applies to. When a new object i s encountered, comparison i s to the prototype, but rather than one feature being compared across objects, i t i s a c o l l e c t i o n of features 2 g —what Rice has cal l e d "a multi-attribute processing" . A c h i l d learns a prototype by noting s p e c i f i c instances of a word's use and subtracting n o n - c r i t e r i a l features u n t i l 27 the prototype resembles the adult's. When a c h i l d or adult encounters a new object or colour, he w i l l compare i t to already-existing memory-images with labels to see i f any of these labels can apply to the new object. So when we c a l l something X, we mean i t i s closer to our idea of 2 8 what X i s than to our idea of Y or Z. 1.4.3 (c) Universal Prototypes Since such categories and prototypes are based on exposures and experiences, they are i n e f f e c t created by the c h i l d . If t h i s model i s correct, there should be individual differences even when these categories are the adult ones. Adult concepts should vary from one individual to the next and quite probably from culture to culture for the same reason. In the case of colour, however, there i s a large amount of agreement across individuals, across age levels and across cultures, as to which colours constitute best examples of a term or which colours w i l l be c l a s s i f i e d together. Several of these studies were mentioned e a r l i e r . Heider and her colleagues suggest that a self-created-prototype model i s inadequate i n explaining colour category 29 development and use. Based on cross-cultural studies, they propose that these semantic categories represent real-world categories, based on the perceptual salience of the colours. One example here should suffice to show the difference between these two views. If a c h i l d i s asked to pick the best red out of a number of red shades, he w i l l pick that which i s closest to his prototype. Under the f i r s t view, the c h i l d has created his own RED category and the best 3D. example would p r o b a b l y be t h e c o l o u r most f r e q u e n t l y l a b e l l e d RED i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , s i n c e t h i s i s t h e one most f i r m l y e n g r a v e d i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y . S i n c e e v e r y c h i l d has had d i f f e r e n t r e d s i n h i s e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t even t h e m a j o r i t y would have t h e same r e s p o n s e . Under t h e s e c o n d view, e a c h c h i l d ' s RED c a t e g o r y i s o r g a n i z e d i n t h e same way, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f d i f f e r e n t r e d s t h e c h i l d has been e x p o s e d t o , p r o v i d e d t h e r e has been a t l e a s t some m i n i m a l e x p e r i e n c e . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n s h o u l d p i c k t h e same shade as t h e b e s t example. 1.4.3 (d) S u p p o r t from C o l o u r - S e l e c t i o n B e h a v i o r E x p e r i m e n t s by M e r v i s , C a t l i n & Rosch p r o v e t h e l a t t e r p r e d i c t i o n t o be c o r r e c t . When t h e s u b j e c t knew which, c o l o u r a r e a was r e f e r r e d t o by X, t h e n he a l s o c o n s i s t e n t l y c h o s e a p a r t i c u l a r sample ( t h e f o c a l X) as t h e b e s t example. H e i d e r n o t e s t h a t w h i l e t h i s m i g h t n o t p r o v e t h e p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e o f t h e s e f o c a l c o l o u r s and t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as u n i v e r s a l c a t e g o r i e s , o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as f r e q u e n c y i n a d u l t i n p u t and p o s s i b l e t r a i n i n g o f n a m e / f o c a l - c o l o u r r e l a t i o n s a r e n o t as l i k e l y . T h i s r e a l - o b j e c t c a t e g o r y o r p r o t o t y p e does a p p a r e n t l y need t o be l e a r n e d and t h e r e f o r e n o t i n n a t e . The f a c t t h a t a d u l t s c a n f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y name i s o l a t e d c o l o u r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e c o m p a r i n g them t o some remembered c o l o u r o r t o some p r o t o t y p e . C h i l d r e n , whoever, a p p e a r t o have a marked, d e c r e a s e i n naming a b i l i t y o f s i n g l e c o l o u r s when no o t h e r c o l o u r s a r e p r e s e n t . M i l l e r & J o h n s o n - L a i r d c i t e a study-by B r y a n t (1974) w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n s u c h s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r e s some i n t e r n a l i z e d code w h i c h t h e 31 c h i l d r e n have y e t t o a c q u i r e . 1.4.4 C a t e g o r i z a t i o n C r i t e r i a We have s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r y COLOUR i s l e a r n e d b e f o r e mapping o f c o l o u r s t o t h e i r names i s even h a l f c o m p l e t e , t h a t c h i l d r e n may show s p e c i f i c and/or g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f e a r l y c o l o u r words, and t h a t t h e l e x i c a l / c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r y f o r e a c h c o l o u r c o n s i s t s o f some k i n d o f p r o t o t y p e , p o s s i b l y b a s e d on p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e and t h e r e f o r e u n i v e r s a l . T h i s c a n o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d v e r y i n d i r e c t l y by l o o k i n g a t p e r f o r m a n c e i n c o l o u r - n a m i n g and c o l o u r - s e l e c t i o n t a s k s . I t i s e a s i e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s e d i n f o r m i n g t h e s e e a r l y c a t e g o r i e s . What p r o p e r t i e s o f o b j e c t s w i l l a c h i l d t e n d t o a b s t r a c t and use t o p l a c e o b j e c t s and p e r c e p t i o n s i n t h e same c o n c e p t u a l and l e x i c a l c a t e g o r i e s ? I n p a r t i c u l a r , what t y p e s o f f e a t u r e s a r e u s e d t o form e a r l y c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s ? 1.4.4 (a) Types o f F e a t u r e s The k i n d s o f f e a t u r e s t h a t a r e b e i n g u s e d i n t h e c h i l d ' s l e x i c a l s y s t e m s h o u l d be r e v e a l e d by l o o k i n g a t e r r o r s made i n naming, i . e . o v e r e x t e n s i o n s . These f e a t u r e s c a n be p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d , where o b j e c t s o f s i m i l a r p e r c e p t u a l 32 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e g i v e n t h e same name, o r f u n c t i o n a l l y -b a s e d , where o b j e c t s w i t h s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n s a r e g r o u p e d 33 t o g e t h e r l e x i c a l l y . They might1 also be features based on association or contingency. Anglin notes that a c h i l d may always observe a particular object in the presence of some other object(s), and through association give both objects the same name. Vygotsky (1962) and Inhelder & Piaget (1964) suggest that th i s type of grouping i s prevalent i n two- to five-year-olds. 1.4.4 (b) Overextensions of Colour Terms Perceptually-Based Overextensions on the basis of perceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s between colours seem the most l i k e l y i n colour term use, since i t i s the perceptual, physical features that.are the most inherent and the most consistent across time and space. The only study which has dealt with children's overextension of colour terms i n any d e t a i l i s B a r t l e t t ' s . B a r t l e t t categorized naming errors produced by 2% to four-year-olds to determine i f children's naming practices were based on underlying perceptual concepts of saturation, brightness or adjacency (hue). That i s , do children show any evidence of recognition of the perceptual dimensions that adults encode l e x i c a l l y ? Naming errors were sorted into pairs of colours given the same name by the c h i l d and approximately half of these could be explained as being perceptually-based. This i s well above chance expectation. A further analysis indicated that the incidence of such perceptually-based pairs was greater and more stable across time i n children who had seven or more colour terms in their vocabulary. None of the children with fewer than 33. four c o l o u r terms produced a s i g n i f i c a n t number of these a d u l t - l i k e p a i r s . What kinds of f e a t u r e s could t h e i r p a i r s have been based on? Function-Based Overextensions While p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d f e a t u r e s c e r t a i n l y seem the most l i k e l y , other types o f f e a t u r e s f o r c o l o u r c a t e g o r i e s are not t o t a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e . J u s t because a c h i l d does not s o r t by c o l o u r does not mean he does not n o t i c e c o l o u r as being p a r t of an o b j e c t . Naming of t h a t o b j e c t ' s c o l o u r by an a d u l t may e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d by the c h i l d as naming the o b j e c t i t s e l f or the a c t i o n being engaged i n . Hence the colour, word i s a p p l i e d to other such o b j e c t s or a c t i o n s , of a d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r , and there appears to be overextension on f u n c t i o n a l grounds. However, t h i s i s not r e a l l y a v a l i d example, s i n c e the c h i l d i s overextending what he b e l i e v e s to be the object-name, not i t s colour-name. A s i m i l a r argument can be r a i s e d a g a i n s t c o l o u r term over-extension based on a s s o c i a t i o n . Association-Based Overextensions In these cases, as i n others, the c h i l d might w e l l be conscious of h i s i n c o r r e c t use, but uses the i n c o r r e c t term because he does not have the c o r r e c t term i n h i s r e p e r t o i r e or has f o r g o t t e n i t . But he knows t h a t the term X i s somehow a s s o c i a t e d with the c o l o u r being t e s t e d , perhaps o f t e n o c c u r r i n g i n i t s v i c i n i t y , and uses X as i f to say," I don't know what i t ' s c a l l e d but i t has some connection to X." These examples can s t i l l be examined i n terms of which word i s chosen, since this "closeness" can be just as revealing as 'real' overextensions are. Overextension by Function of Colour-Word One other interpretation of overextensions on the basis of function i s i n looking at the function of the word i t s e l f , rather than the object. Colour terms are often used to distinguish a number of otherwise i d e n t i c a l objects. Thus a colour term might be used as a means of distinguishing objects which d i f f e r i n some dimension other than colour. This would involve a cross-over into another (adult) l e x i c a l category, or perhaps an overlap of two separate adult l e x i c a l categories. However, while i t i s certainly plausible that a child's categories are not those of an adult, i t does seem that the broad categories, such as colour, are the same. So we would not expect this type of extended use for colour terms. Colour as a Basis of Overextensions It i s interesting to note that colour i t s e l f never seems to be used as a c r i t e r i a l feature i n perceptually-based overextensions. Examples of shape, size, sound, texture, movement and taste s i m i l a r i t i e s as a basis for overextensions have been noted i n previous studies, but none of colour . That i s , two objects of the same colour are not given the same object-name i f they only resemble 35 each other i n this one dimension. This might be explained by t h e a p p a r e n t f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t s o r t by c o l o u r even a f t e r t h e y have a c q u i r e d some c o l o u r t e r m s , as was , •] . . 36 n o t e d e a r l i e r . 1 .4 .4 (c) E x p e r i e n t i a l F e a t u r e s Carey (1978) sugges t s some a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t need t o be a b s t r a c t e d i n l e a r n i n g c e r t a i n t e r m s . She no te s t h a t p a r t o f our knowledge o f word a p p l i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s knowing w h i c h o b j e c t s a t e rm n o r m a l l y a p p l i e s t o . T h i s r e q u i r e s a l s o an o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e x t s o f a t e r m ' s u s e . T h i s t h e o r y c o u l d e x p l a i n why c e r t a i n e r r o r s , such as ones o c c u r r i n g o u t s i d e a s e m a n t i c domain , r a r e l y o c c u r . M o r e o v e r , i t m i g h t e x p l a i n how terms can be a p p l i e d w i t h i n t h e c o r r e c t domain even b e f o r e t h a t domain i s f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , as i n the case o f c o l o u r . S i m i l a r l y , knowledge o f word a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s knowing w h i c h terms a r e n o r m a l l y used f o r c e r t a i n o b j e c t s o r e n t i t i e s . W h i l e t h e s e a s p e c t s a re no t d i r e c t l y c a p t u r e d by the l e x i c a l 37 . domain , t h e y w i l l a t t i m e s i n f l u e n c e naming b e h a v i o r . The same c o l o u r may be g i v e n d i f f e r e n t names i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s ; t h e c o l o u r o f a c a r , f o r example , wou ld n e v e r be c a l l e d BLONDE a l t h o u g h t h e same shade i n h a i r would b e . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e c o l o u r i t s e l f i s t h e r e f o r e n o t enough t o g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e naming b e h a v i o r . T h i s m i g h t i n c i d e n t a l l y cause a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n f u s i o n t o t h e c h i l d when he i s j u s t t r y i n g t o a b s t r a c t c o l o u r s and match them t o names, especially since hair, eye and skin colour are so often referred to by parents and are also those which seem to vary most from the expected colour names. Experiential features thus seem an important part of the l e x i c a l entry of a colour term. 1.4.4 (d) Contrastive Features Barrett (1978) suggests that a c r u c i a l aspect of learning words involves the c h i l d noting the contrast between a word-and-referent set and other word-and-referent sets. He learns the meaning of a word as much by noting which referents are not A as by noting which ones are. This applies to learning the actual concepts behind the words too. Schlesinger (1977) notes that "a concept has been acquired only to the extent that one knows what belongs to i t and 38 what does not." The notion of learning by contrasts i s very important 39 i n learning r e l a t i o n a l terms, spatial and polar adjectives, and colour terms. There i s no sense talking about round objects unless there are also square ones, long objects unless there are also short ones, or colour X objects unless there are also colour Y objects. A language's vocabulary only has terms for these because the contrast i s needed. The Dani studied by Rosch Heider have only two colour terms because only the one contrast i s necessary to them. Learning by contrasts i s r e l a t i v e l y straightforward i n the case of spatial and polar adjectives. Although these do 37. i l i e along a continuum, i t i s f a i r l y safe for the c h i l d to assume that i f something i s not X, i t i s Y, or at least closer to Y than to X. Given a situation where the c h i l d must verbalize the d i s t i n c t i o n between two objects, and given that he has some active use of the relevant terms, a negative adult response to his use of X can be interpreted as meaning that Y i s the more appropriate word to use. Colour terms, however, are arranged on a much vaguer and broader continuum. If the adult responds with "no, i t ' s not red", the c h i l d s t i l l has no idea which colour term does 40 apply. Moreover, the colour contxnuum actually consists of a number of smaller continuums both physically and l i n g u i s t i c -a l l y . The RED part of the colour realm, for example, runs from what we would c a l l a near-PINK to a near-PURPLE; each hue includes a scale of varying saturation and brightness l e v e l s . What i s accepted as a correct use of RED i n one situation i s not in another situation, as was noted in the above section. When a c h i l d learns that an object i s calle d RED, he must recognize that i t i s call e d that because i t i s not call e d PINK or PURPLE or GREEN or BLUE in that particular situation. This requires some knowledge of which terms and referents can be compared to.each other, of the r e l a t i o n between these terms or the recognition of the superordinate 42 category COLOUR i n this case. This has already been noted as being present at this stage, so the use of a comparative/ contrastive technique i s certainly viable for a c h i l d l e a r n i n g c o l o u r t e r m s . W h i l e i t would seem t o be a d i f f i c u l t a p p r o a c h f o r a c h i l d t o use, i t a p p e a r s t o be a v e r y i m p o r t a n t one. B r y a n t ' s s t u d y , f o r example, shows t h a t c o l o u r - n a m i n g p e r f o r m a n c e i s m a r k e d l y p o o r e r when s u c h a c o m p a r i s o n between samples c a n n o t be made. 1.5 A p p l i c a t i o n s o f E r r o r A n a l y s i s 1.5.1 U s i n g E r r o r s t o D e t e r m i n e L e x i c a l S t r a t e g i e s I n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h t y p e s o f f e a t u r e s and s t r a t e g i e s a r e u s e d i n naming, we a r e i n e f f e c t u s i n g e r r o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between the c h i l d ' s l e x i c a l and c o n c e p t u a l domains, i . e . h i s s e m a n t i c domain. I t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t t h i s t y p e o f c o n n e c t i o n w i l l v a r y w i t h t h e c a t e g o r y o r c o n c e p t b e i n g a c q u i r e d . I t may v a r y w i t h i n a c a t e g o r y w i t h time- and w i t h s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and i t may v a r y w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l , some c h i l d r e n p r e f e r r i n g c e r t a i n s t r a t e g i e s o r f e a t u r e s o v e r o t h e r s . When a c h i l d makes an e r r o r i n naming ( o v e r e x t e n s i o n ) , i t i m p l i e s one o f f o u r t h i n g s : a t o t a l l y random and u n c o n s c i o u s e r r o r , an u n c o n s c i o u s e r r o r w h i c h n o n e t h e l e s s i s c o r r e c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c h i l d ' s own system, a c o n s c i o u s a t t e m p t by t h e c h i l d t o t e s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t t h a t t e r m and t h a t o b j e c t , o r a c o n s c i o u s e r r o r where t h e c h i l d u s e s an a v a i l a b l e l a b e l . w h i c h i n h i s s y s t e m i s t h e n e x t c l o s e s t . I n l o o k i n g a t e r r o r s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s e m a n t i c s t r u c t u r e s and u n d e r l y i n g c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s , we assume t h a t a c h i l d i s n o t making e r r o r s o f t h e f i r s t k i n d . A l l o t h e r o p t i o n s allow this kind of insight. Of course i t i s often hard to t e l l which of these i s happening. The existence of some connection between the child's incorrect and the adult's correct referent does not eliminate the p o s s i b i l i t y of this being purely chance, and the absence of a connection might just mean we are not looking hard enough or are looking for the wrong sorts of connections. 1.5.2 Predicting Types of Perceptual Overextensions We have already suggested that naming errors w i l l r e f l e c t perceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s between colours. Bartlett's study allows for a more de f i n i t e prediction as to the actual character of colour-name overextensions. Table 31, page 136 shows the possible error pairs which the analysis was based on. In this case a saturation error pair indicates that the ch i l d i s grouping desaturated colours together; a brightness error that bright and nonbright colours are separate categories adjacency errors are colours of adjacent or similar hues being grouped together. Pairs based on saturation and adjacency each accounted for a well above chance number of error pairs, while pairs of brightness did not. Moreover, BROWN appeared to be treated as a desaturated colour; BLACK/BROWN errors (brown i s named BLACK or vice versa) accounted for a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large number of errors on their own. Developmentally, the incidence of pairs based on adjacency decreased with age (i. e . with increasing number of colour terms), and that of saturation showed the opposite trend. Those children with ten colour terms showed 84% of their error pairs to be based on saturation dimension.''"' We would expect then that errors in naming colours w i l l be perceptually-based and that a majority of them w i l l r e f l e c t the parameters of hue (adjacency), saturation and brightness. The f i r s t two of these should be most prevalent, and should show diff e r e n t proportions of t o t a l errors in the two ages being tested. In parti c u l a r , we expect the number of saturation errors to increase with age and the number of errors based on hue s i m i l a r i t i e s to decrease. 1.5.3 Status of Overextensions 1.5.3 (a) Existence of Correct Label i n Vocabulary Another question here i s which terms w i l l a c h i l d use in overextensions to unlabeled objects or colours, and which objects or colours w i l l be those incorrectly grouped under another term? The answer to the second part appears obvious: those objects which the c h i l d does not know the name for or whose name he has forgotten. Barrett predicts that over-extension w i l l not be applied to an object that the c h i l d already has a name for. Thomson & Chapman found that some 16% of the overextended examples found in five children aged 1;8 to 2;3 did have the correct word in the child's vocabulary. Having the correct word, however, does not mean i t i s being used for the correct referent or that i t i s "known". If word use i s consistently correct In production and in comprehension, there would- seem to be no reason to extend some other word to become i t s label as well. The present experiment does not allow for more than one response to a given sample, so we can only determine i f the correct label occurs i n reference to some other sample. This i s not expected to exceed a chance l e v e l . 1.5.3 (b) Choice of Overextended Terms-Stability Levels There i s some disagreement in predicting which terms w i l l be overextended and on the l e x i c a l status of these same terms. When a c h i l d encounters an unlabelled object or colour he w i l l search his lexicon for a concept or prototype which appears the closest and choose that word as a l a b e l . If he has several such close prototypes, Carey suggests that he may choose a word which i s not yet stably connected with i t s concept. Since the c h i l d does not know for sure what this available term can be applied to, and does not know the name of the object being shown, he tests a hypothesis about the two being related. Fremgen & Fay (1980), on the other hand, found that a l l of their 16 subjects aged 1;2 to 2;2 knew the correct referents for words they overextended. Thomson & Chapman suggest that i t i s these more stable terms which w i l l be used in over- . extensions; terms more recently acquired w i l l show the least amount of overextensions. This study w i l l attempt to measure the s t a b i l i t y of a l l terms used, and i n particular those which are misused. While this can only be a p a r t i a l indication based on the task performance, i t may indicate the re l a t i v e status of these overextended terms. 42. I 1.5.3 (c) Acquisition and S t a b i l i t y C r i t e r i a Is i t possible that the disagreement about the status of overextended terms i s due to di f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a for acquisition? If a term i s produced correctly and understood correctly when i t s corresponding concept (colour) i s present, that term i s generally considered acquired. I find this l e x i c a l status questionable i f the same term i s overextended to other objects. Even i f the subject i s just guessing and does not r e a l l y believe the object to be called by that name, this behavior does, I think, indicate a less-than-stable relationship between word and referent. Anglin, on the other hand, implies that such terms should s t i l l be considered acquired. The only remaining p o s s i b i l i t y , suggested by both Clark and Nelson, i s that the c h i l d just gives a response to get the correct answer. Rather than saying "I don't know", he gives what he knows to be an 44 incorrect response, hoping to keep the interaction going. In this case, Anglin's view would seem to be j u s t i f i e d . With the c r i t e r i a being used i n this study, these terms could not be considered acquired, and thus i t i s hypothesized that only f a i r l y unstable terms are overextended. This question of when a term i s considered acquired has also been incorporated into the experimental design as a pre-test. Dif f e r i n g c r i t e r i a of when acquisition has occurred w i l l lead to diff e r e n t results, and the present study suggests that we must f i r s t establish what c r i t e r i a we are using and be consistent in our comparisons and claims. 1.5.4 Labelling Strategies There i s another question that arises from examining the types of conceptual groupings that might be reflected by naming errors. Are there certain colours which children by age two recognize as having isolate names and w i l l therefore not group with some other colour under one name? In other words, are there some colours which w i l l be grouped with other colours under a l a b e l , while at the'same stage, other colours w i l l always be kept under a separate label? This does not seem to be d i r e c t l y addressed anywhere i n the l i t e r a t u r e , although i t i s hinted at and seems the next l o g i c a l step i n examining naming strategies... The hypothesis would be that children w i l l f i r s t recognize those colours which are maximally d i s t i n c t from each other as also having d i f f e r e n t labels. In the present study, the eleven colour samples chosen do not d i f f e r from each other in the same degree. Just in terms of the physical parameters, red and purple, for example, appear much "closer" to each other than black and yellow-..-- It i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to determine what a c h i l d w i l l consider to be of maximal d i s t i n c t i o n i n this particular array. I suspect that these w i l l not be ent i r e l y based on hue, saturation or brightness contours, but rather on personal experiences with objects of each par t i c u l a r colour. If so, then i t w i l l be a very individual matter as to which kind of l a b e l l i n g strategy i s used and there should be few group tendencies. We would expect an age difference, however. The older children would be expected to show more colours as having separate labels and fewer with shared labels than the younger children. 1.6 Acquiring Comprehension and Production S k i l l s 1.6.1 Order of Acquiring Task S k i l l s Another aspect i n examining l e x i c a l development and use of colour terms i s in the two areas of comprehension and production and their r e l a t i o n to each other. These two do not always proceed at the same rate or exist at the same l e v e l of accuracy at a given time. In early word development, i t i s generally comprehension that exceeds production; children just 45 understand a l o t more than they can themselves a r t i c u l a t e . At l a t e r stages of development, however, i t appears that 4 6 production can precede comprehension i n several cases. 1.6.2 Cognitive Requirements of Each Task These discrepancies suggest that different things are happening as the c h i l d i s acquiring comprehension versus production s k i l l s . Comprehension involves the recognition of words and the a b i l i t y to r e c a l l the objects, actions or e n t i t i e s that they symbolize. Demonstrating comprehension does not require great verbal s k i l l s in early stages of language development; pointing, reaching or some such A 7 sensory-motor action often w i l l . s u f f i c e . Production s k i l l s , on the other hand, require an a b i l i t y to recognize an object, action or relation and r e c a l l the word which symbolizes i t , and then produce that word verbally. The difference, then, i s that di f f e r e n t processes are involved. Bas i c a l l y production involves r e c a l l (a r e t r i e v a l of words) and comprehension involves recognition (a r e t r i e v a l of experiences). In other words, differences in performance i n the two modes relate to differences between words and perceptions, the l a t t e r being at a much more basic cognitive l e v e l than the former. One would expect that comprehension s k i l l s are the more eas i l y acquired, and therefore appear before production s k i l l s and improve or develop faster. This i s what our hypothesis for colour term production and comprehension accuracy w i l l be. But there are arguments that seem to support the opposite precedence. In some cases, a word might be easier 4 9 to r e c a l l than a concept and this might be true for colour terms. As noted e a r l i e r , the recognition of colour as a c r i t e r i a l attribute seems to appear r e l a t i v e l y late in the acquisition process. As performance in comprehension tasks requires t h i s knowledge while production does not, i t would seem that colour-term production w i l l exceed comprehension accuracy at the early stages of acquisition,, that i s , before children can recognize colour as a separate dimension (about age three). 46. 1.6.3 Support from- Colour-Naming Studies This precedence of production i s supported by e a r l i e r studies on colour-naming behavior. B a r t l e t t found that children at ages 2; 4 to 4; 0 produced' more colour terms than they comprehended. Karpf, Goss & Small found naming of red, green and blue samples to be more consistent than selection by three, four and five-year-olds; the other colour tested, yellow, showed equal accuracies i n both tasks at a l l ages. Moreover, in the l a s t study these two tasks showed an inter-r e l a t i o n i n only a quarter of the youngest age group, while almost half of the four- and five-year-olds showed comparable s k i l l s in both. However, none of these results make any statements about the accuracy i n these two tasks. What about the incidence of errors, i . e . overextensions, i n each mode? 1.6.4 Overextensions i n the Two Tasks Huttenlocher, Gruendel, Rice, Thomson & Chapman a l l found a larger number of overextensions i n production than in comprehension. Fremgen & Fay (1980) found no examples in comprehension at a l l . In these cases, i t was also true that comprehension exceeded production s k i l l . Assuming that the opposite sequence of accuracy occurs i n colour terms, as the studies noted above seem to indicate, a greater number of overextensions should occur i n the comprehension mode. However, there are other factors which would probably override t h i s . When children begin seriously learning colour names, they are already quite adept at language and have a f a i r - s i z e d 4 7 . vocabulary. They have undoubtedly long realized that d i f f e r e n t objects can have different names, and probably that di f f e r e n t colours can have dif f e r e n t names. In a comprehension task a variety of colours are v i s i b l e ; the c h i l d can compare them a l l and notice that they are diffe r e n t and hence might have dif f e r e n t names. A production task which presents only one colour at a time does not allow this comparison. The c h i l d who has not yet established his prototype (or whatever allows him to label a colour correctly) could e a s i l y forget either the colour he just saw and named A, or whether he has already used the term A to name a colour. Thus the like l i h o o d of using one name for diff e r e n t colour samples (overextension i n production) i s greater than that of using one colour sample as an example of diff e r e n t colour names (overextension i n comprehension). The hypothesis, then, remains of comprehension performance for colour terms being more accurate than colour-term production, although the number of colour terms used (regardless of accuracy) w i l l probably exceed those understood. 4 8 . 1.7 Operational Hypotheses The preceding discussion has led to a number of operational research hypotheses about colour term usage at two age le v e l s . These are now summarized and itemized below. 1. There w i l l be d e f i n i t e age differences in.performance, four-year-olds showing fewer errors i n both tasks, more terms used and understood correctly, and overall better performance than two-year-olds. 2. Order of accuracy i n producing and comprehending the eleven colour terms w i l l r e f l e c t the perceptual salience of the colours and correlate with Berl i n & Kay's proposed evolutionary order. Accuracy w i l l be better for the primaries and achromatics as a group than for non-primaries, and the difference w i l l be greater in the younger age group. 3. Furthermore, i t i s expected that naming behavior w i l l reveal conceptual categories based on these groupings of primary, non-primary and achromatic colours. These should vary i n re l a t i v e importance with age, primary and achromatic groups appearing more than non-primary. Categories might also be based on the parameters of hue, saturation and brightness. These are expected to be based on B e r l i n & Kay's proposed order of brightness, then hue, then saturation being recognized as l e x i c a l colour dimensions. The proportion of these w i l l vary with the age of the subjects,.reflecting this proposed order. P e r f o r m a n c e w i l l a l s o c o r r e l a t e w i t h c h i l d ' s f r e q u e n c y and e x t e n t o f u s e , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , w i t h mother's f r e q u e n c y and e x t e n t o f u s e . The l a t t e r v a r i a b l e s a r e a l s o e x p e c t e d t o c o r r e l a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t a t l e a s t t h e members o f t h e younger age g r o u p w i l l have a l a r g e r number o f l e x i c a l terms t h a n t h e y c a n comprehend, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p r o d u c t i o n e x c e e d s c o m p r e h e n s i o n . However, a c c u r a c y i s e x p e c t e d t o be g r e a t e r i n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k t h a n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k a t b o t h a g e s . The d i f f e r e n c e between a c c u r a c y i n e a c h o f t h e s e t a s k s s h o u l d be g r e a t e r f o r t h e y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . No sex d i f f e r e n c e i s e x p e c t e d i n a c c u r a c i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r s o r i n t h e d i f f e r e n t t a s k s o r i n c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h p r a c t i c e and i n p u t m e asures. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f l a b e l types' w i l l r e v e a l age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f c o l o u r s w h i c h a r e r e c o g n i z e d as d i s t i n c t f r o m e a c h o t h e r and hence g i v e n t h e i r own l a b e l s , and c o l o u r s w h i c h a r e g r o u p e d w i t h o t h e r c o l o u r s under one l a b e l . T hese may a l s o r e f l e c t l e v e l s o f p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c e o r p e r c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , n o t e d i n h y p o t h e s i s 3. An e r r o r a n a l y s i s s h o u l d r e v e a l c e r t a i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n names u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e s e w i l l be o v e r e x t e n s i o n s w h i c h w i l l be p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d on the-p h y s i c a l p a r a m e t e r s o f hue, s a t u r a t i o n a nd/or b r i g h t n e s s . The f i r s t two o f t h e s e a r e e x p e c t e d t o be more f r e q u e n t , w i t h t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e a c h v a r y i n g w i t h t h e age g r o u p : saturation increasing while adjacency errors decrease. Saturation errors should be the most frequent in both groups. Children w i l l not name incorrectly ( i . e . overextend to) a colour for which they already have the l a b e l . Those terms which are overextended w i l l be those least stable i n the child's colour vocabulary or most recently acquired, and this may override the e a r l i e r hypothesis 8 that overextensions w i l l be based on.perceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s . 2.0 M e t h o d o l o g y and D e s i g n 2.1 S u b j e c t s Two age g r o u p s were t e s t e d : t h e f i r s t c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t e e n t w o - y e a r - o l d s (range 1;11 t o 2;8) and t h e s e c o n d c o n s i s t i n g o f twenty f o u r - y e a r - o l d s (range 3;2 t o 4;7). D i s t r i b u t i o n o f s e x e s was o r i g i n a l l y e q u a l i n b o t h g r o u p s , b u t b e c a u s e o f c o o p e r a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s two t w o - y e a r - o l d g i r l s were d r o p p e d , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e uneven b a l a n c e o f t h e yo u n g e r g r o u p h a v i n g o n l y 18 s u b j e c t s . A l l s u b j e c t s were f r o m d a y c a r e s l o c a t e d on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campus' and as su c h were c h i l d r e n o f f a c u l t y , s t u d e n t s o r s t a f f o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y . P a r e n t a l c o n s e n t forms were g i v e n o r s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s b e f o r e any t e s t i n g o c c u r r e d , o u t l i n i n g t h e s t u d y and i t s r e q u i r e m e n t s ; i n some c a s e s , t h i s was pre-empted by v e r b a l c o n s e n t o f t h e d a y c a r e s . I n i t i a l l y o n l y n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s were c h o s e n , b u t when a c c i d e n t a l t e s t i n g o f some n o n - n a t i v e s showed no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e , t h i s c r i t e r i o n was s l a c k e n e d . T h e r e were two c h i l d r e n i n t h e t e s t g r o u p s whose p a r e n t ( s ) s p e a k ( s ) a n o n - E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e a t home, and who use t h e i r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e a t home, a l t h o u g h one o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n a p p a r e n t l y o n l y u s e s E n g l i s h c o l o u r terms i n e i t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t . From what c o u l d be o b s e r v e d o f t h e i r v e r b a l b e h a v i o r a p a r t from t h e t a s k s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y seemed no d i f f e r e n t from t h e n a t i v e E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , nor d i d t h e y have any p r o b l e m s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . Subjects were not pre-screened for colour-blindness for two reasons. There are apparently no short, simple and r e l i a b l e tests for children at this young age, and i t was f e l t that any relevant discrimination problems would be caught by a matching task. None of the daycare s t a f f or parents had observed any such problems in the children being tested. 2.2 Experimental Materials  2.2.1 Stimulus Colours The eleven stimulus colours were: blue,green,red,yellow, black, white, grey,brown,purple,orange,pink. Most of the colour studies use the Farnsworth-Munsell stimulus colours and measurements of focal colours a l l use this notation. As this material was not readily available for use or for comparative purposes, attempts were made to convert to the available Methuen notation. This, however, showed some discrepancies in measurements of the focal colours. It was therefore decided that the best approach was for the Experimenter (E) to choose what she considered to be good examples of these colours, even i f these were not the exact focal colours. The corresponding Methuen notation for these i s shown in Appendix 40. A l l colours were " f l a t " and of a similar texture. These were pre-tested with three adults under essentially the same conditions to v e r i f y their choice as good examples-. The only colour which received some ambiguous response was red; this was replaced by another shade and re-testing found th i s to be acceptable. 2.2.2 Presentation of Colours The colour samples were arranged i n a predetermined random order on a wooden display board designed to look l i k e a house with windows. Each of the twelve windows had a door which could open and close without covering up any adjacent colours. Each window contained one colour, with one being a blank hole to give a symmetrical appearance and provide some diversion when necessary. Additional i d e n t i c a l colour samples were placed on eleven small f l a t discs for the matching task. Lighting was kept as consistent as possible under the given conditions. A regular 100-150watt bulb shone d i r e c t l y on the presentation board at .a distance of about 4 to 6 feet with some daylight present as well. 2.3 Experimental Methods A l l testing was done i n the six daycares that the children attended, with the exception of one subject being tested i n the child's home. At times, one of the daycare supervisors or the mother was present and interacted minimally with the subject and E during the testing. Actual testing was usually accomplished during one s i t t i n g l a s t i n g twenty minutes each for two-year-olds and about five minutes each for four-year-olds. For those few two-year-olds who needed more than this one s i t t i n g , there was never more than a two-day gap. 1 2.3.1 Tasks and Instructions The experiment i t s e l f consisted of three tasks: naming, selection and matching to test production,comprehension and discrimination s k i l l s respectively. 2.3.1 (a) Production Task In the f i r s t task, the subject was shown one colour on the board at a time, i n random order, and asked to t e l l the E what colour i t was. The s p e c i f i c instructions were "what colour i s this one?" or "what's this?" or "what's this colour called?" 2.3.1 (b) Comprehension Task The second task displayed a l l the colours on the board at once and the E asked the c h i l d to show her the X one, l i s t i n g colour terms in random order again one at a time. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the instructions were "show me the X one" or "where's the X one?" Instructions in both tasks, varied s l i g h t l y depending on whether the subject seemed to understand the o r i g i n a l instructions and on the child's receptiveness and responsive-ness; some children just needed more coaxing than others. In either task, when the subject gave no response or a negative response, E went on to the next colour sample or colour term. Subjects were not told whether their responses were correct or not but a l l types of encouragement were used, often including praise even i f the response was incorrect. Whenever a c h i l d did not respond at a l l to the f i r s t example of either task, and appeared not to know what was expected of him, the correct answer was provided and this seemed enough for him to do the task. This only happened in two cases and the colour term or colour sample used in this way as a demonstration was re-tested l a t e r i n the task. 2.3.1 (c) Discrimination Task The t h i r d task asked the subject to match a given colour chip to the sample of the same colour on the board. This involved the c h i l d a ctively placing the chip on the sample, or indicating to the E which sample i t should be placed on. The eleven colour chips were presented in three sets of six colours each. Each set involved giving the c h i l d these six chips and E opening the appropriate six windows on the colour board. The sets were (1) black, brown, purple, red, blue, green: (2) pink, white, yellow, orange, grey, green; and (3) pink, purple, orange, red, brown, grey. Instructions here were much more variable than i n the previous two tasks. The younger children did not appear to understand the words "match" or "same", so along with 56. c o n t i n u i n g v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e E o r mother d e m o n s t r a t e d by m a t c h i n g up a c o l o u r sample and c h i p f r o m a n o t h e r s e t . I n m a t c h i n g t a s k s f o l l o w i n g the•naming t a s k , t h e samples were sometimes named and t h e c h i l d a s k e d t o f i n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g " c o l o u r on t h e b o a r d . N o t i c e t h a t t h i s i s now s i m i l a r t o t h e s e l e c t i o n t a s k , e x c e p t t h a t a v i s u a l c l u e t o c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i s b e i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y p r o v i d e d . A f t e r t h e f i r s t one o r two s u c h h i n t s , a l l t h e c h i l d r e n g o t t h e i d e a and c o m p l e t e d t h e t a s k on t h e i r own. Whenever p l a c e m e n t was i n c o r r e c t and a p p e a r e d t o be random, t h e c h i p was removed and c h i l d a s k e d t o t r y a g a i n . O n l y i n a c o u p l e o f cases, was t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e shown t o t h e c h i l d ; t h i s was t h e n t r e a t e d as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n and t h e c h i l d l a t e r a s k e d t o match t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r c h i p a g a i n . I t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e i n t h e s e c o n d t r i a l was b a s e d on memory s i n c e e i t h e r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o r s e l e c t i o n t a s k s e p a r a t e d i t and t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n . 2.3.2 O r d e r s o f P r e s e n t a t i o n 2.3.2 (a) O r d e r o f C o l o u r s W i t h i n T a s k s W i t h i n t h e t a s k s o f p r o d u c t i o n and c o m p r e h e n s i o n , t h e o r d e r s o f p r e s e n t i n g c o l o u r samples and c o l o u r terms were c o u n t e r - b a l a n c e d t o p r e v e n t any o r d e r e f f e c t s . In e a c h o f t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k s , a l l s i x samples were g i v e n t o t h e c h i l d a t once and t h e c h i l d a l l o w e d t o p r o c e e d i n w h a t e v e r o r d e r he c h o s e . The s e t s t h e m s e l v e s were al w a y s in the order (1) , (2) ,. (3) but the chance of an order effect here i s very low given that the c h i l d understood the instructions; the sets were interspersed with other tasks and none of the children l o s t interest or grew t i r e d with this p a r t i c u l a r task. 2.3.2 (b) Order of Tasks The order of tasks given was to" some extent determined by the child's ongoing behavior. Since two-year-olds have a limited area of interest and a low attention span and tolerance for things outside of their interest, the tasks were presented in the context of a game being played by the subject and the E, and sometimes also by the mother. This approach was not necessary for.the four-year-olds who were quite used to part i c i p a t i n g in "tests". Any diversions i n i t i a t e d by the c h i l d were encouraged.when they served to maintain interest and did not appear to interfere with results. In some cases, t h i s involved abandoning an ongoing task i f the c h i l d was losing interest, and beginning the next one, completing the f i r s t at a l a t e r time. Only the naming task remained in a s t r i c t position with r e l a t i o n to the other tasks and a l l attempts were made to avoid exposing the subject to the colour name before he had himself been asked to provide i t . Once the naming task had been completed this was not necessary because the name was being provided by E anyway. Those subjects who cooperated f u l l y were given the tasks i n the order: matching task (1), naming task, matching task (2), selection task, and matching task (3). 58. 2.4 P o t e n t i a l E x p e r i m e n t a l P roblems 2.4.1 C h o i c e o f C o l o u r Sample T h e r e a r e some a s p e c t s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n j u s t d e s c r i b e d w h i c h m i g h t have a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u l t s . The m a j o r o f t h e s e i s t h e a c t u a l c o l o u r s u s e d . H e i d e r (1971) f o u n d t h a t i f c h i d r e n knew t h e c o l o u r t e r m t h e y were more l i k e l y t o use i t c o r r e c t l y f o r t h e f o c a l p o i n t t h a n f o r l e s s d e f i n i t e members o f t h a t c a t e g o r y . Even though t h r e e a d u l t s d i d g i v e t h e e x p e c t e d b a s i c c o l o u r s names when t e s t e d , t h e r e i s s t i l l t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t u s i n g d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r samples would have g i v e n ' d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e younger age g r o u p . 2.4.2 C o l o u r B a c k g r o u n d and L i g h t i n g P e r c e p t i o n o f c o l o u r v a r i e s w i t h t h e b a c k g r o u n d t h e c o l o u r i s p r e s e n t e d a g a i n s t and w i t h d i f f e r e n t l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . A l i g h t wooden base was c h o s e n as a more n e u t r a l " c o l o u r " t h a n t h e w h i t e , b l a c k and g r e y b a c k g r o u n d s t h a t have been u s e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y as i n t h i s c a s e t h e s e t h r e e c o l o u r s were, t h e m s e l v e s b e i n g t e s t e d . H e i d e r (1972), J o h n s o n (1977) and M e r v i s , C a t l i n & Rosch (1975) a r e t h e o n l y r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s t h a t a p p e a r t o c o n t r o l f o r l i g h t i n g , t h e f i r s t two u s i n g d a y l i g h t and t h e l a t t e r u s i n g h i g h i n t e n s i t y lamps i n Lo p o s i t i o n . B e a r e (1961), i n c o m p a r i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f r e d , o r a n g e , y e l l o w , g r e e n , b l u e and v i o l e t , f o u n d no d i f f e r e n c e s between two l e v e l s o f l u m i n a n c e - - h i g h and low i n t e n s i t y . What i s p r o b a b l y more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e t y p e o f l i g h t . T h i s was h a r d t o r e g u l a t e u nder t h e p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s b u t p e r f o r m a n c e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o v a r y from one d a y c a r e g r o u p o f s u b j e c t s t o a n o t h e r . 2.4.3 S i z e o f D i s c r i m i n a t i o n Task The p u r p o s e o f t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k was t o d e t e r m i n e whether naming e r r o r s were due t o p e r c e p t u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s . I d e a l l y s u c h a t a s k would be g e a r e d i n d i v i d u a l l y t o wards t h e a c t u a l e r r o r s made and would r e q u i r e s u c h e r r o r s t o have been a n a l y z e d p r e v i o u s l y . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e , t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k must t h u s be d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r a l l t h e p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t e d naming e r r o r s t h a t m ight be made. B a r t l e t t (1978) d i v i d e d t h e e l e v e n c o l o u r s i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s o f u n e q u a l s i z e , b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e r r o r s would be a l o n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f hue, s a t u r a t i o n and b r i g h t n e s s . She n o t e s t h a t some m a t c h i n g e r r o r s c o u l d n o t be made i n t h i s s e t - u p , i n p a r t i c u l a r b l a c k / p u r p l e and b r o w n / b l u e . Of t h e 28/55 p o s s i b l e p a i r s w h i c h a r e n o t a c c o u n t e d f o r i n h e r s e t - u p , many would be h a r d t o e x p l a i n as d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r o b l e m s anyway ( f o r example, b l u e / w h i t e o r o r a n g e / b l a c k ) . But f o r o t h e r s , we would have no e v i d e n c e f o r o r a g a i n s t a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n problem:,being t h e c a u s e i f any s u c h naming e r r o r d i d o c c u r . F o r t h a t r e a s o n , t h e c o l o u r s were s p l i t i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s o f s i x c o l o u r s e a c h , a c c o u n t i n g f o r more p o s s i b l e m a t c h i n g e r r o r s ( 4 0 /55). Now a l s o s e v e r a l c o l o u r s were i n more t h a n one s e t . I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e i m p r o v e s t h e s m a l l e r the number-of choices i s ; having equal sets eliminates part of this factor. However i t might have been better to have chosen equal groups of a smaller number. Bar t l e t t found i n pre-tests that 2%-year-olds could not scan an array of more than six items, and even six appeared hard for some of the youngest subjects. Also,because the board array of colours was random, one set involved fiv e colours near the bottom ( i . e . nearest to the child) and the l a s t by i t s e l f at the top of the board. Consequently subjects had to be continually told to look at a l l the open colours before making a choice. This was not a problem with the other two sets. 2.5 Scoring Method and Pre-tests 2.5.1 Scoring Method Scoring was o r i g i n a l l y done i n two ways within each task. The f i r s t method merely scored right or wrong on each colour term or colour sample requested. The second method did this as well, but in addition, account was taken of the incorrect use of each term or sample. Pre-testing showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between rank orders obtained by either method, but the second produced consist-ently lower scores than the f i r s t , r e f l e c t i n g a s t r i c t e r acquisition and performance c r i t e r i o n . This second method was used throughout the rest of the study. Subject A would score, for example, 0.6 in the production task of BLUE, having named the blue sample BLUE but also the green and grey samples ( i . e . two-thirds or 0.6 of his responses of BLUE were wrong). In the comprehension task, his score was 0.5 because he picked the blue sample for GREY as well as for BLUE (i.e. half or 0.5 of his responses of indicating the blue sample were incorrect). The lower the score, the more accurate the performance, a perfect score being zero. 2.5.2 Testing for Parental Input and Child Practice To measure the importance of environment in the subject's colour-naming behavior, questionnaires were given to the mothers of a l l the two-year-olds and to the mothers of half of the four-year-olds. As Appendix 41 shows, these asked questions about the1 mother's frequency of using each of the eleven colour terms and the number of objects each term was generally applied to (extent of use). The same questions were asked of the child's colour-naming in the home. 2.5.2 (a) U n r e l i a b i l i t y of Information Unfortunately, this collected information was considered unreliable for several reasons. It assumed f i r s t of a l l that the parents were being f a i r l y accurate and objective in their responses, and i t was especially d i f f i c u l t for the mothers of four-year-olds to accurately monitor their child's speech for one week. Secondly, i t assumed that parents were basing their responses on the general performance of one week, not just a couple of hours or one day. This presented a more technical problem; some mothers took much longer than the prescribed one week to complete the questionnaire. That i s , some of the questionnaire data does not correspond to the same time period as the tasks and may i n fact relate to a different and more advanced stage i n the child's colour-term performance. Lastly, no matter how r e l i a b l e such information might have been (given better controls or checks), i t s t i l l only measures parental input. This i s only a portion of the l i n g u i s t i c exposure any of the present subjects would have had, even by age two; te l e v i s i o n , daycare programs, other adults might also have contributed. 2.5.2 (b) Analyses Done The results of analyses that were done—correlations between rank orders of frequency of parent and c h i l d , correlations with evolutionary order and with task performance, and correspondences of the levels of frequency and extent-of-use with s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s — are indicated in Appendices 2^ to 44f respectively. The results were largely non-significant and contradicted the hypotheses that quantity and quality of input are d i r e c t l y related to performance accuracy. But, for the reasons noted above, we can draw no conclusions either way from these particular results. 3.0 General Performance Results 3.1 Orders of Performance Accuracy and Acquisition One way of examining performance i n the tasks i s to rank each- colour term and colour sample by i t s performance socres. Such rank orders allow a comparison of each term's performance with those remaining, showing, for example, which terms are used most often correctly or which samples are incorrectly named least frequently. Compiling rank orders also allows a comparison with results found by other studies. To determine whether any of these rank orders correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with each other, the s t a t i s t i c of Kendall's tau for t i e d ranks was used. Any tau value greater than the c r i t i c a l value of IS =.45 (an 0.05 significance level) would indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between the rank orders. That i s , they do not d i f f e r from each other above a chance l e v e l . To confirm the hypothesized age differences i n performance, the rank orders of each task's performance and overall performance for the two ages should not correlate with each other. Similarly, to confirm a task difference, rank orders for the two tasks by each age should not correlate with each other. 3.1.1 Orders of Accuracy 3.1.1 (a) Age-Group Rank Orders Scores for each colour term and colour sample were averaged within each task and age-group, and then arranged i n rank o r d e r s from h i g h t o low a c c u r a c y ( i . e . i n c r e a s i n g s c o r e ) . T hese o r d e r s o f a c c u r a c y a r e i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1; c i r c l e d c o l o u r terms i n d i c a t e t i e d r a n k s . C o m p a r i s o n s were done between t h e s e r a n k o r d e r s . W i t h i n e a c h age, o r d e r s o f a c c u r a c y f o r t h e two t a s k s d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r ( i n d i c a t e d i n Row A i n A p p e n d i x 1 ) . Nor d i d o r d e r s o f a c c u r a c y f o r t h e two ages c o r r e l a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r , w i t h i n e a c h t a s k (as i n Row B i n A p p e n d i x 1 ) . In b o t h t h e s e c a s e s , t h i s means t h e r a n k o r d e r s a r e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t due t o chance o r t o a s a m p l i n g e r r o r . 3.1.1 (b) Sub-Group Rank O r d e r s The t o t a l number o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o u r terms u s e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f a c c u r a c y , v a r i e d between t h e two a g e - g r o u p s . T w o - y e a r - o l d s u s e d an a v e r a g e o f 3.78 terms w i t h a r a n g e o f 0 t o 9, w h i l e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s a v e r a g e d 8.7 terms w i t h a r a n g e o f 4 t o 11 t e r m s . Because o f t h i s l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a n c e , i t was f e l t t h a t a more t h o r o u g h a n a l y s i s c o u l d - be made by s p l i t t i n g e a c h a g e - g r o u p i n t o two s u b - g r o u p s b a s e d on t h e o b s e r v e d c o l o u r - t e r m v o c a b u l a r y s i z e o f e a c h s u b j e c t . Age 2A t h e n i n c l u d e s t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h fewer t h a n f o u r c o l o u r terms (n=7), w h i l e Age 2B i s t h o s e w i t h f o u r o r more c o l o u r terms ( n = l l ) . S i m i l a r l y , Age 4A i n c l u d e s t h o s e s u b j e c t s w i t h fewer t h a n n i n e c o l o u r t e r m s (n=6) and Age 4B t h o s e w i t h n i n e o r more c o l o u r terms (n=14). Rank o r d e r s were o b t a i n e d f o r p e r f o r m a n c e i n b o t h t a s k s i n t h e s e s u b - g r o u p s , i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 2. T a b l e 3 a l l o w s a 65. TABLE 1 Rank O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y f o r B o t h Ages and B o t h Tasks Comprehens ion AGE 2 AGE 4 P r o d u c t i o n p i n k orange green p u r p l e brown w h i t e b l a c k b l u e y e l l o w r e d g r e y b l a c k r e d brown p u r p l e p ink__y y e l l o w g r e y AGE 2 orange p i n k w h i t e y e l l o w b l u e r e d p u r p l e brown g reen g r e y b l a c k AGE 4 r e d y e l l o w green p i n k b l a c k orange b l u e brown w h i t e p u r p l e g r e y T o t a l Per formance AGE 2 orange p i n k w h i t e p u r p l e g reen b l u e y e l l o w brown r e d b l a c k grey AGE 4 r e d b l a c k y e l l o w green p i n k orange brown b l u e w h i t e p u r p l e g rey TABLE 2: Orders of Accuracy for Sub-Groups 2A and 2B i n Both Tasks code: AGE 2A: two-year-olds with <4 colour terms; n= 7 AGE 2B: two-year-olds with =^ 4 colour terms: n=ll Comprehension AGE 2A AGE 2B pink orange brown green blue) black) Production white [yellow1 grey_ purple red AGE 2A AGE 2B purple blue orange green pink ' pink orange orange white pink (yellow'" yellow white black red black white purple brown green blue yellow - grey brown blue purple green red |brown__y grey grey red black Total Performance AGE 2A AGE 2B pink orange orange pink blue purple brown white white yellow green green black red [yellow) brown Urey J blue . purple black red grey TABLE 3: C o m p a r i s o n o f .Rank O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y f o r AGE 2 and Sub-Groups 2A and 2B T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e AGE 2 AGE 2A AGE 2B o r a n g e p i n k o r a n g e p i n k o r a n g e p i n k w h i t e b l u e p u r p l e p u r p l e brown w h i t e g r e e n w h i t e y e l l o w b l u e g r e e n g r e e n y e l l o w b l a c k r e d brown f y e l l o w ) brown r e d Iqrey J b l u e b l a c k p u r p l e b l a c k g r e y r e d g r e y comparison of the rank orders of Age 2 as a whole to i t s sub-groups of 2A and 2B. Rank order correlations done between these orders revealed some s i g n i f i c a n t differences. Again comparisons between sub-groups i n each task in d i v i d u a l l y and i n overall performance showed no s i g n i f i c a n t correlations (as indicated in Row E in Appendix 1). This supports the d i v i s i o n of two-year-olds into two sub-groups, performance varying s i g n i f i -cantly depending on vocabulary size. The orders shown i n Table 3 would be expected to correlate s i g n i f i c a n t l y with each other since those of the sub-groups are r e a l l y only part of the larger group of two-year-olds. Appendix 1 Rows C and D show this to be true, with the exception of some of the comparisons of Age 2 to 2A This again supports our d i v i s i o n of Age 2, and especially the i s o l a t i o n of those subjects with fewer than the average number of colour terms--sub-group 2A. 3.1.2 Orders of Percentage Having Acquired Each Term Another view of performance i s given by tabulating the percentage of subjects having acquired each term. The rank orders are indicated in Tables 4 and 5, and graphs i l l u s t r a t ing age-group, colour and task differences are in Figures 2, 3 and 4. The orders are i d e n t i c a l to those orders of accuracy noted i n Table 1, except for the t o t a l performance measures' for both ages. These orders give different information from those noted above in Table 1, however. The percentage-acquired 69. TABLE * 4: P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E a c h C o l o u r - T e r m i n B o t h Ages and T a s k s Comprehension AGE 2 AGE 4 o r a n g e 55 % b l a c k * TOO p i n k 55 r e d * 95 p u r p l e 50 b l u e * 85 g r e e n 38 . 9 g r e e n * . 85 brown 38.9 brown * 85 w h i t e 33 o r a n g e * 85 b l u e 27.8 w h i t e * 80 y e l l o w 27.8 p u r p l e * 80 b l a c k 27.8 p i n k * 80 r e d 22 y e l l o w 75 g r e y * 16.6 g r e y 65 P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 AGE 4 o r a n g e 50 % y e l l o w * 85 p i n k 33 r e d * 8 5 y e l l o w 27.8 g r e e n * 85 w h i t e 27.8 b l a c k * 80 p u r p l e 22 p i n k * 80 r e d * 16. 6 o r a n g e * 80 b l u e * 16.6 w h i t e 75 g r e e n * 5 brown 70 g r e y * 5 p u r p l e 65 b l a c k * 0 b l u e 55 brown * 0 g r e y 40 * = s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n a t .05 l e v e l 70. TABLE 5: P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E a c h C o l o u r - T e r m i n O v e r a l l P e r f o r m a n c e B o t h Ages AGE 2 AGE 4 o r a n g e 33 % g r e e n * 85 y e l l o w 27.8 r e d * 85 p i n k 22 b l a c k * 80 p u r p l e 22 o r a n g e 75 w h i t e 22 p i n k 75 b l u e * 16. 6 y e l l o w 75 r e d * 11 w h i t e 70 g r e e n * 5 brown 60 b l a c k * 0 b l u e 55 brown * 0 p u r p l e 55 g r e y * 0 g r e y 30 % * = s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n a t .05 l e v e l 71. FIGURE 2 : P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E ach C o l o u r Term i n P r o d u c t i o n B o t h Ages AGE 2 : I///////J AGE 4 : 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK v/im MMMM a/Mi W 7 M M M M M M 0 10 20 30 40 500 60 70 80 90 100 % FIGURE 3 : P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E a c h C o l o u r Term i n Comprehension B o t h Ages AGE 1-.Y7777/, AGE 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK '///////A W/////////M, 7/////////////////////////\ ^///////////////////m t 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % FIGURE P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b j e c t s H a v i n g A c q u i r e d E a c h Term i n T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e B o t h Ages AGE 2 : W M AGE 4 : 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK W////////////B W//////A /////A 7, ///7//7///// ' / / / / / 7//7/7777/A 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 o r d e r s i n d i c a t e whether c o l o u r A i s known by more c h i l d r e n t h a n c o l o u r B i s , w h i l e t h e a c c u r a c y o r d e r s i n d i c a t e w h i c h terms a r e u s e d more c o r r e c t l y t h a n o t h e r s w i t h i n e a c h age as a w h ole. F o r example, t h e p e r c e n t a g e - a c q u i r e d o r d e r o f Age 2's t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t YELLOW.is known by more s u b j e c t s t h a n BLUE i s . The o r d e r o f a c c u r a c y , on t h e o t h e r hand, i n d i c a t e s t h a t s u b j e c t s who do n o t know e i t h e r o f t h e s e , make more e r r o r s i n naming and u n d e r s t a n d i n g YELLOW t h a n t h e y do w i t h BLUE, t h u s d e c r e a s i n g t h e s t a n d i n g o f t h e f o r m e r t e r m . 3.1.3 C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Comparable S t u d i e s C o m p a r i s o n s were t h e n made between t h e r a n k o r d e r s n o t e d above and t h o s e o b t a i n e d f o r c o m p a r a b l e t a s k s and ages i n r e l a t e d s t u d i e s . J o h n s o n 1 s o r d e r o f naming a c c u r a c y o f t e n c o l o u r s a t ages 2;6 t o 4;5 (see page i o ) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t i o n w i t h t h e p r e s e n t Age 4's p r o d u c t i o n a c c u r a c y o r d e r . T h e r e was no c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h a t o f Age 2. H e i d e r ' s o r d e r o f s e l e c t i o n a c c u r a c y , u s i n g e i g h t c o l o u r s a t ages 3;0 and 4 ; 0 , d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e p r e s e n t c o m p r e h e n s i o n a c c u r a c y o r d e r s f o r e i t h e r Age 2 o r Age 4 g r o u p s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e - a c q u i r e d o r d e r s w i t h t h a t o b t a i n e d by B a r t l e t t f o r ages 2;6 t o 4;0 showed s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f Age 4. No s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were f o u n d w i t h t h e younger a g e - g r o u p . 74 . 3.1.4 Correlations with Evolutionary Orders A l l these rank orders were also correlated with Berl i n & Kay's evolutionary orders to determine i f performance accuracy and order of acquisition r e f l e c t the order in which languages incorporate colour-terms into their lexicon. There were very few s i g n i f i c a n t correlations, as shown in Appendix 2. For the f i r s t evolutionary rank order, none of the orders of accuracy i n either age showed any s i g n i f i c a n t correlation. Of the percentage-acquired orders, only that of Age 4 1s comprehension correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y and none of Age 2's orders did. For the second evolutionary order, which predicted the order in which colour names are correctly used for categories, there were no correlations with any of the rank orders, obtained. The more general prediction that primaries and achromatics should precede the non-primaries was also not supported in either type of rank order. Some sl i g h t tendency towards this might be seen in the accuracy orders for Age 4 production and t o t a l performance, and the percentage-acquired order for Age 2. Note, however, the low scores for WHITE and BLUE i n these. The v i a b i l i t y of these colour groups w i l l come up i n l a t e r analyses as well. 3.2 Performance Variables Correlations done between the various rank orders of accuracy have already indicated the importance of age and task as performance variables. The experimental design allowed for two more variables: sex and colour. That i s , does performance accuracy d i f f e r between boys and g i r l s , and does i t depend on which colour i s being tested? A f i f t h variable of measure or scoring method was also included. This has already been discussed in an e a r l i e r section as a pre-test to determine which scoring method was more accurate. None of the results involving this measure w i l l be mentioned here. A repeated measures design analysis of variance (ANOVAR) with variables of age, sex, task, measure and colour (2x2x2x2x11),revealed several highly s i g n i f i c a n t effects in orders of accuracy. The summary table i s shown i n Appendix 3 A l l variables except sex showed a s i g n i f i c a n t main effect and several interaction e f f e c t s . 3.2.1 Age Variable Four-year-olds performed s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than two-year-olds i n overa l l performance. Table 6 shows the average performance scores for each age. Recall that the lower the Table 6: Average Performance Scores i n Each Age and Task Comp. Prod. Total Age 2: Age 4 : 0.835 1.106 0.971 0.173 0.303 0.238 TOTAL: 0.504 0.704 s c o r e , t h e b e t t e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . Age a l s o showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t w i t h c o l o u r (age x c o l o u r ) , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between c o l o u r s c o r e s b e i n g g r e a t e r f o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s t h a n f o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . T h i s c a n be seen by l o o k i n g a t T a b l e 7 w h i c h g i v e s t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r e a c h c o l o u r and age. T a b l e 7: A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r E a c h C o l o u r and Age i n T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e Age 2 a v e r a g e Age 4 a v e r a g e T o t a l a v e r a g e BLUE .951 .204 .558 GREEN .953 .162 .537 RED 1.137 .094 .588 YELLOW 1.028 .144 .563 BLACK 1.188 . 089 .609 WHITE .907 .275 .574 GREY 1.313 .712 . 997 BROWN 1.024 .212 .597 PURPLE .972 .350 .645 ORANGE .551 .200 .366 PINK .654 .175 .402 3.2.2 Task V a r i a b l e A l l ages showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h a n i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k s . T a b l e 6 a g a i n shows t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s i n e a c h t a s k . T h i s , however d i d n o t v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t h e a g e - g r o u p s . T h a t i s t h e supremacy o f one t a s k o v e r t h e o t h e r was n o t g r e a t e r f o t w o - y e a r - o l d s t h a n f o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s (age x t a s k ) . Task d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t w i t h c o l o u r ( t a s k x c o l o u r ) , p r o d u c t i o n p r o d u c i n g d i f f e r e n t s c o r e s t h a n c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The a v e r a g e d s c o r e s f o r e a c h c o l o u r and t a s k a r e shown i n T a b l e 8. T a b l e 8: A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r E a c h C o l o u r and T a s k f o r Combined Ages  Comp. P r o d . T o t a l a v e r a g e a v e r a g e a v e r a g e BLUE .528 .588 .558 GREEN .386 .688 .537 RED .605 .571 .588 YELLOW .579 .546 .563 BLACK .414 .804 .609 WHITE .468 . 680 .574 GREY .849 1.145 .997 BROWN .422 .771 .597 PURPLE .447 .842 .645 ORANGE .349 .384 .366 PINK .304 .500 .402 3.2.3 Sex V a r i a b l e T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t o f sex n o r d i d t h i s v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h any o f t h e r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s . 3.2.4 C o l o u r V a r i a b l e C o l o u r showed s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s , some o f w h i c h have a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . O v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e was s i g n i f i -c a n t l y b e t t e r i n some c o l o u r s t h a n i n o t h e r s . The f i n a l columns of Tables 7 and 8 both show the average scores of to t a l performance for each colour. A Scheffe test series of orthogonal comparisons was applied to determine which sets of colours were contributing to this s i g n i f i c a n t colour eff e c t . The predicted groupings of primaries and achromatics being better than non-primaries did not show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y contribution to the variance. Nor did a comparison of primaries to achromatics+non-primaries, or of just primaries to achromatics, or of achromatics to non-primaries . Orthogonal comparisons of the various groupings of actual observed orders did reveal at least some of the • causes of the overall colour e f f e c t . Performance on ORANGE+ PINK as a group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than the remaining colours as a group. When these two colours were excluded from the comparisons, the primaries did show s i g n i f i c a n t l y better performance than the achromatics and remaining non-primaries as a group. A comparison of GREY+PURPLE as a group to BLACK+BROWN+WHITE as a group also proved to be si g n i f i c a n t , as did GREY+PURPLE as a group to a l l the remaining colours. In both cases, this involved a performance s i g n i f i c a n t l y poorer on these colours than on other colours. This was true regardless of whether ORANGE+ PINK scores were included. Moreover, GREY by i t s e l f showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y different (lower) performance score than a l l the other colours combined. As noted above, the colour variable also had si g n i f i c a n t interaction effects with age and task variables. 3.3 Colour Terms Acquired Table 9 indicates the average number of colour terms acquired by each age-group within each task and i n overall performance. Four-year-olds had acquired s i g n i f i c a n t l y more terms than two-year-olds i n a l l cases, and six four-year-olds showed perfect performance for a l l eleven colours. What were these terms and did any one term or group of terms show acquisition by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high or s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion of subjects? The percentage of subjects who have acquired s p e c i f i c terms i n both tasks has already been tabulated in Tables 4 and 5. While certain terms appear to be somewhat higher or lower i n rank than might be expected as compared to the other terms, a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff analysis must be done to determine whether this difference i s i n fact s i g n i f i c a n t l y above that which might occur by chance alone. The s i g n i f i c a n t proportions ( at 0.05 significance level) have been marked by asterisks. Chance would expect half of the subjects to have acquired each term. Table 9: Average Number of Terms Acquired Comp. Prod. Total Age 2: 3.9 2.0 1.6 Age 4: 9.1 8.0 7.5 80. 3.3.1 Terms Acquired by Two-Year-Olds In comprehension, there were no colours known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large proportion of two-year-olds, while GREY was known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion. In production, six colour terms: RED,BLUE,GREEN,BLACK,BROWN and GREY were known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion of subjects. These six colour terms were also s i g n i f i c a n t l y low i n comparing t o t a l performance scores i n this age. 3.3.2 Terms Acquired by Four-Year-Olds In comprehension by four-year-olds, a l l except YELLOW and GREY were s i g n i f i c a n t l y high. In production, a l l except WHITE,BROWN,BLUE,PURPLE and GREY were known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of subjects. For t o t a l performance GREEN, RED and BLACK were 'significantly high. Notice that i n a l l of the two-year-olds' figures, there were no colour terms known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large proportion of subjects, while in the four-year-olds there were none with s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportions. 3.3.3 Acquisition of Primary, Achromatic and Non-Primary Colours A further analysis asked whether a si g n i f i c a n t proportion of subjects had acquired terms for the primary or achromatic or non-primary colours as separate groups. Because definiti o n s of these groups may vary, analyses were done with three possible achromatic groups: (i) black + white + grey, (i i ) black + white + grey + brown, and ( i i i ) black + white. TABLE 10: Number of Subjects, i n Each Age Having Acquired the Primary, Achromatic and Non-Primary Colours AGE 2, N=18 comprehension production t o t a l performance AGE 4, N= 2 0 comprehension production t o t a l performance primary 2 0 13 11 10 achromatic (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ] 3 0 12 7 1 0 12 7 16 * 13 12 non-primary (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 2 0 10 9 12 10 10 1 0 * = s i g n i f i c a n t at .05 l e v e l T h i s o f c o u r s e c r e a t e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e non-p r i m a r y g r o u p s as w e l l , i n o r d e r t o c o v e r a l l e l e v e n c o l o u r s and have no o v e r l a p . These t h e n a r e : ( i ) p u r p l e + o r a n g e + p i n k + brown, ( i i ) p u r p l e + o r a n g e + p i n k , and ( i i i ) p u r p l e + o r a n g e + p i n k + brown + g r e y . The p r i m a r y g r o u p r e m a i n s t h e same f o r a l l c o m p a r i s o n s . None o f t h e g r o u p s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f a c q u i s i t i o n by t w o - y e a r - o l d s , a l t h o u g h many showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n , w i t h s e v e r a l o f z e r o f r e q u e n c y . F o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , o n l y c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) g r o u p ( b l a c k + w h i t e ) showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n , and t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s . T a b l e 10 i n d i c a t e s t h e f r e q u e n c i e s w i t h i n e a c h age and t a s k ; o n l y t h o s e p r o p o r t i o n s w h i c h a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h have been a s t e r i s k e d . 3.4 C o l o u r Terms Used Now t h a t we have examined w h i c h terms show a c e r t a i n l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y and a c q u i s i t i o n , t h e f o c u s s w i t c h e s t o t h e a c t u a l c o l o u r terms u s e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f a c c u r a c y . I t was a l r e a d y n o t e d t h a t t h e number o f c o l o u r terms u s e d v a r i e d f r o m t w o - y e a r - o l d s t o f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , as w e l l as w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s u b - g r o u p s . The n e x t a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e were any group t e n d e n c i e s i n what t h e s e terms were. T a b l e s 11 and 12 and F i g u r e 5 and 6 show t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e a c h c o l o u r term w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s g r o u p s and s u b - g r o u p s , by t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s 83. TABLE 11: F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f C o l o u r Terms Used by Two-Year-Olds AGE 2 AGE 2A AGE 2B f p r o p . f p r o p . f p r o p BLUE 13 . 7220 3 .4285 10 . 9000 GREEN 9 .5000 1 .1428 8 . 7270 RED 9 . 5000 2 . 2850 7 .6366 YELLOW 9 .5000 0 . 0000 9 .8180 BLACK 2 .1111 * 0 . 0000 2 .1822 WHITE 7 .3888 0 .0000 7 .6366 GREY 1 .0555 * 0 . 0000 1 .0911 BROWN 6 . 3333 0 . 0000 6 .5455 PURPLE 6 .3333 0 . 0000 6 .54 55 ORANGE 12 .6666 1 .1428 11 1.0000 PINK 8 .4466 2 .2855 6 .5455 * = s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l TABLE 12: F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f C o l o u r Terms Used by F o u r - Y e a r - O l d s AGE 4 AGE 4A AGE 4B f p r o p . f p r o p . f p r o p BLUE 17 .8500 * 3 . 5000 14 1. . 0000 GREEN 17 .8500 * 3 . 5000 14 1. . 0000 RED 17 .8500 * 3 . 5000 14 1. . 0000 YELLOW 18 . 9000 * 4 . 6666 14 1. . 0000 BLACK 18 . 9000 * 5 .8333 13 . 9285 WHITE 15 . 7500 3 . 5000 12 .8571 GREY 9 .4500 0 .0000 9 .6428 BROWN 15 . 7500 2 . 3333 13 . 9285 PURPLE 13 . 6500 0 . 0000 13 . 9285 ORANGE 17 . 8500 * 4 . 6666 13 . 9285 PINK 17 .8500 * 3 .5000 14 1 . 0000 * = s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l using each term regardless of accuracy. For example, 72% of the two-year-olds had the term BLUE in their vocabulary. Note that these figures have no r e l a t i o n to how frequently a particular subject used any given term, just the number of subjects who used i t at least once. While there appear to be some d i s t i n c t differences in proportions, especially developmentally, a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff analysis showed very few of these to be s i g n i f i c a n t . In some cases, the age/sample group was too small to reach any significance l e v e l . 3.4.1 Terms Used by Two-Year-Gids Two-year-olds showed some large v a r i a b i l i t y between proportions for the eleven colour terms. Some five terms appeared i n at least half of the subjects and the range of proportions was anywhere from 72% for BLUE to 5% for GREY. Only BLACK and GREY were used by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion of two-year-olds and a l l other terms were non-s i g n i f i c a n t . Figure 6 shows that in Age 2A there was no one term that a l l or even half of the subjects used. None of them displayed any of the achromatic terms, nor the primary YELLOW nor the non-primaries BROWN or PURPLE. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of Age 2B subjects used ORANGE and BLUE, while the proportion using GREY was s i g n i f i c a n t l y low. FIGURE 5 : P r o p o r t i o n s , o f S u b j e c t s U s i n g Each Term i n AGE 2 and AGE 4 AGE 2 : Y7777M BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK AGE 4: .5 V//////, Y////////////. / / / / / / / / /•//////. / / ///I V / / / / / / / / / / A//. V77777 1.0 '/AAAA/AAA//////////M A/AAAAAAAAAAAA/. 1.0 FIGURE P r o p o r t i o n s o f S u b j e c t s U s i n g E a c h Term i n AGE 2A and AGE 2B AGE 2A: V////// AGE 2B: 1.0 BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK A/AAA • W//A/M 1.0 87. 3.4.2 Terms Used by Four-Year-Olds Four-year-olds showed f a i r l y high proportions for a l l terms except GREY, this occurring i n only 45% of the subjects. The terms GREEN,YELLOW,BLACK,PINK,ORANGE,BLUE and RED were used by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of subjects, the other terms being non-significants In Age 4B, a l l terms except GREY and WHITE showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of users. A comparison of two-year-olds to four-year-olds i n Figure 5 revealed a lower overal l proportion for a l l terms i n the younger age-group. It i s interesting to note also that i n neither age i s there a term which a l l the subjects showed a use of. 3.5 Measures of S t a b i l i t y Now that we have examined which colour terms were used, we must look at the way in which they were used. In par t i c u l a r , how many of these terms, and which of these terms, show an unstable status in the subjects' lexicons? For each term, how stable w i l l the connection of name to sample, of label to referent, tend to be? And are there age differences involved i n the answers to these questions? The colour terms were c l a s s i f i e d in two ways. F i r s t , o v e r a l l performance scores were c l a s s i f i e d into three basic l e v e l s : STABLE, where use of a part i c u l a r term was correct and never incorrect in both production and comprehension; UNKNOWN, where there was no production or comprehension at a l l ; and the intermediate UNSTABLE l e v e l . This approach should show the overall s t a b i l i t y of certain terms, and perhaps suggest a supremacy of some terms over others. Since the e a r l i e r analyses showed that individual colour performance varied with the task being performed, looking only at the overall performance might not give an accurate picture. The second approach then was to look at performance in production and comprehension tasks separately, again with the three s t a b i l i t y levels noted above. 3.5.1 Overall Levels of S t a b i l i t y 3.5.1 (a) Age Differences Table 13 indicates the t o t a l number of terms i n each of the three s t a b i l i t y levels for each age-group. The t o t a l scores i n each age i s always number of subjects X number of colour terms (11), thus 198 for two-year-olds and 220 for four-year-olds. Table 13: Total Number of Terms in Stability. Levels Age 2 Age 4 STABLE 31 155 UNSTABLE 95 5 3 UNKNOWN 72 12 TOTAL 198 220 A K o l m o g o r o v - S m i r n o f f t e s t would e x p e c t one t h i r d o f th e t o t a l s c o r e s i n ea c h a g e - g r o u p t o o c c u r i n e a c h o f t h e s e l e v e l s p u r e l y by c h a n c e . A p p e n d i x 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s c o r e s were i n t h e UNSTABLE l e v e l , w h i l e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n were i n t h e STABLE l e v e l . The number o f s c o r e s i n t h e UNKNOWN l e v e l was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . I n o t h e r words, a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h number o f c o l o u r terms were UNSTABLE w h i l e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low number were STABLE. F o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s were f o u n d i n b o t h t h e UNSTABLE and t h e UNKNOWN l e v e l s , w h i l e a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n was i n t h e STABLE l e v e l . 3.5.1 (b) P r e d o m i n a n t C o l o u r s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s The n e x t a n a l y s e s go t h r o u g h e a c h s t a b i l i t y l e v e l and examine t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o p o r t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d by ea c h o f t h e e l e v e n c o l o u r s and by v a r i o u s c o l o u r g r o u p s . T a b l e 14 shows t h e f r e q u e n c i e s , w h i l e F i g u r e s 7,8 and 9 i n d i c a t e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s f o r w h i c h e a c h c o l o u r t e r m i s STABLE, UNSTABLE o r UNKNOWN, r e s p e c t i v e l y . F u r t h e r Kolmogorov-S m i r n o f f ( K S ) - a n a l y s e s w i l l i n d i c a t e whether t h e s e a r e s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l C o l o u r Terms None o f t h e c o l o u r s by t h e m s e l v e s c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f s c o r e s i n any o f t h e t h r e e l e v e l s o f STABLE, UNSTABLE, o r UNKNOWN. T h i s was t r u e f o r b o t h ages TABLE 14 : C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s and C r i t e r i a i n E a c h S t a b i l i t y L e v e l f o r B o t h Ages .BLU .GRE . RED . YEL . BLA .WHI .GRY . BRO • PUR .ORA .PIN . TOTAL . CRITERION . AGE 2 S t a b l e 3 1 2 5 0 4 0 0 4 7 5 31 ^ 1 0 / 3 1 U n s t a b l e 11 14 8 4 10 8 5 12 5 8 10 95 ^ 2 2 / 9 5 Unknown 4 3 8 9 8 6 13 6 9 3 3 72 =^18/72 198 AGE 4 S t a b l e 11 17 17 16 16 15 6 13 12 16 16 155 ^ 3 1 / 1 5 5 U n s t a b l e 8 2 3 4 4 3 10 7 7 3 2 53 ^ 1 5 / 5 3 Unknown 1 1 0 0 0 2 4 0 1 1 2 12 ^ 6/12 220 V O O 91. FIGURE C o l o u r Term S t a b i l i t y by P r o p o r t i o n o f S u b j e c t s - STABLE Terms a t B o t h Ages  AGE 2: AGE 4 : W////M, '////////A I I I I 1 I — I — I — I — I — 1 0 .5 . 1.0 FIGURE 8 : Colour Term S t a b i l i t y by Proportion of Subjects - UNSTABLE Terms at Both Ages  AGE 2 AGE 4 l'.O Note: AGE 4 Proportions, for GREY,PURPLE are more : than AGE 2 Proportions. FIGURE 9 : Colour Term S t a b i l i t y by Proportion of Subjects - UNKNOWN Terms at Both Ages  AGE 2. AGE 4: W 7 Z That i s , i n each of the leve l s , there was no one colour which showed a proportion s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the expected 9.09% or one-eleventh. Because this expected frequency i s so low, none of the observed frequencies can be considered s i g n i f i c a n t l y low, even those which were actually zero. Colour Groups The colours were then grouped into the categories of primary, non-primary and achromatic colours which were used in e a r l i e r analyses. Appendices 5 and 6 indicate the number of scores occurring for each of these colour groups in each s t a b i l i t y l e v e l , as well as the expected proportion and the frequency required to reach c r i t e r i o n . None of these groups showed any s i g n i f i c a n t l y high or low proportions i n four-year-olds and only one did i n two-year-olds, that of the non-primary group of purple, orange + pink giving a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of the STABLE scores. 3.5.2 S t a b i l i t y Levels of Production and Comprehension An alternative set of s t a b i l i t y levels i s a d i v i s i o n into levels of production and levels of comprehension. This in effect allows a further exploration of the UNSTABLE le v e l used above. Levels of production performance are CORRECT production (only used c o r r e c t l y ) , MIXED production (both correct and incorrect use), INCORRECT production (only incorrect use) and NONE production (no use at a l l ) . Comprehension levels would be CORRECT comprehension and NONE comprehension. Table 15 shows the t o t a l number of terms i n each of these levels for each task, while Appendices 7 and 8 indicate the results of a KS-analysis to determine which of these proportions are s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 15: Total Number of Terms in Task S t a b i l i t y Levels PRODUCTION: COMPREHENSION: Age 2 Age 4 CORRECT 38 160 MIXED 22 18 INCORRECT 19 5 NONE 119 37 TOTAL: 198 220 CORRECT 95 197 NONE 103 23 TOTAL: 198 220 3.5.2 (a) Production S t a b i l i t y Levels Two-year-olds showed a d i s t r i b u t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from chance for s t a b i l i t y levels of production. Further analysis indicated this to be due to a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of scores in the NONE production l e v e l and also s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportions in both the MIXED and INCORRECT production l e v e l s . The proportion of CORRECT use was non-significant. A s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n was also found for four-year-olds. This involved s i g n i f i c a n t l y low pro-portions of MIXED and INCORRECT production, as with the two-year-olds, and also a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of CORRECT use. In this age-group, the proportion of NONE use was non-significant. 3.5.2 (b) Comprehension S t a b i l i t y Levels Two-year-olds showed no s i g n i f i c a n t differences in the proportions of CORRECT as opposed to NONE comprehension. Four-year-olds, on the other hand, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion i n the CORRECT comprehension category and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion in the NONE l e v e l . 3.5.2 (c) Predominant Colours i n Task S t a b i l i t y Levels Again we can determine i f any particular colours or colour groups contributed s i g n i f i c a n t proportions to each of the s t a b i l i t y levels of production and comprehension. Individual Colours No individual colour contributed a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of scores' to any of the production levels or to the comprehension le v e l s . This was true for both ages, as shown in Tables 16 to 18. Colour Groups For production s t a b i l i t y levels, two-year-olds showed two s i g n i f i c a n t proportions, that of the primary group contributing a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of INCORRECT TABLE 16: C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 2 _ _ _ _ CORRECT MIXED INCORRECT NONE BLUE 3 6 4 5 GREEN 1 3 4 10 RED 3 3 3 9 YELLOW 5 1 2 10 BLACK 0 0 2 16 WHITE 5 1 1 11 GREY 1 0 0 17 BROWN 1 3 1 13 PURPLE 4 0 2 12 ORANGE 9 3 0 6 PINK 6 2 0 10 TOTAL 38 22 19 119 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 .2206 .2899 .3120 .1247 CRITERION ^ 1 2 o r — =^ 8 o r — ^ 8 o r — =^25 o r — TABLE 17: C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 4 CORRECT MIXED INCORRECT NONE BLUE 11 7 0 2 GREEN 17 1 0 2 RED 17 1 2 0 YELLOW 17 2 0 1 BLACK 16 2 0 2 WHITE 15 0 1 4 GREY 8 0 . 1 11 BROWN 14 2 0 4 PURPLE 13 0 0 7 ORANGE 16 1 1 2 PINK 16 2 0 2 TOTAL • 160 18 5 37 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 .1075 .3205 .6080 .223 CRITERION ^32 o r -- ^ 7 o r — -^3 o r — =>12 o 98 TABLE 18: C o l o u r F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f C omprehension f o r AGE 2 and AGE 4 AGE 2 AGE 4 CORRECT NONE CORRECT NONE B l u e 8 10 18 2 Green 12 6 18 2 Red 4 14 19 1 Y e l l o w 6 12 18 2. B l a c k 8 10 20 0 White 9 9 18 2 Grey 4 14 13 7 Brown 9 9 19 1 P u r p l e 9 9 18 2 Orange 12 6 18 2 P i n k 14 4 18 2 TOTAL 95 103 197 23 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t . 05 .1395 1340 0712 . 2857 CRITERION ^22 o r — ^ 2 3 o r -- ^32 o r 44 ^9 o r — scores, and of the non-primary ( i i i ) group showing a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion of the INCORRECT scores. In addition, the non-primary group of purple, orange +pink showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of the CORRECT production scores. Four-year-olds showed only one s i g n i f i c a n t proportion, that of the primary colour group contributing a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportion of the NONE production level scores. In the comprehension s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , none of these colour groups showed a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion in either age. Appendices 9 to 12 show a l l of these results. 3.6 Types of Colour Labelling The previous analyses have focused on the uses of particular colour terms, whether to question how frequently a s p e c i f i c term was used or how stable that use was. The sections to follow also deal with term-usage, asking, for example, what kinds of errors were made with a particular term. This might be a useful point to focus on the colour sample i t s e l f . Are there certain colours which w i l l never I be grouped with some other colour(s) under one colour-label Are there at the same time, colours which never seem to be recognized as deserving a separate label from other colours This may suggest which.colours emerge e a r l i e s t as separate lexical/conceptual categories — separate in that they have one label and that label i s not used for other colours. 100. 3.6.1 L a b e l - T y p e s To' d e t e r m i n e l a b e l - t y p e s , e a c h c o l o u r sample shown i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k was examined i n terms o f t h e r e s p o n s e i t e l i c i t e d f r o m e a c h s u b j e c t . The r e s t o f t h e d a t a f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t was t h e n examined t o see i f t h a t r e s p o n s e was a l s o u s e d f o r o t h e r c o l o u r s a m p l e s . T h e r e a r e t h r e e p o s s i b l e l a b e l - t y p e s t h a t c o u l d have been g i v e n f o r any o f t h e c o l o u r s shown. F i r s t t h e l a b e l m i g h t be one w h i c h was n o t g i v e n t o any o f t h e o t h e r c o l o u r s d u r i n g t h e t a s k s : a " s e p a r a t e " l a b e l . The s e c o n d c a s e , w h i c h a p p e a r s t o be t h e most common, i s where t h e l a b e l was u s e d f o r a t l e a s t one o t h e r c o l o u r as w e l l , known as a " s h a r e d " l a b e l . N e i t h e r c a s e i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a c c u r a c y o r even t h e a c t u a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e l a b e l i t s e l f ; t h i s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s . The t h i r d p o s s i b l e l a b e l a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e s h a v i n g g i v e n t h e c o l o u r no name a t a l l , i . e . a "no r e s p o n s e " , what w i l l be c a l l e d h e r e a "non" l a b e l . 3.6.2 F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s The f r e q u e n c i e s o f e a c h o f t h e s e l a b e l - t y p e s f o r e a c h c o l o u r i n e a c h age a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e s 10 t o 15 i n g r a p h f o r m t o g i v e some n o t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t o t a l r e s p o n s e t h a t e a c h e n t a i l s . T a b l e 19 i n d i c a t e s a g a i n t h e f r e q u e n c i e s and n o t e s w h i c h p r o p o r t i o n s were found, s i g n i f i c a n t i n a KS-a n a l y s i s . F o r any g i v e n c o l o u r , c h a n c e would p r e d i c t a t h i r d o f t h e s u b j e c t s t o g i v e i t a " h o n " - l a b e l , a t h i r d t o g i v e i t a " s h a r e d " - l a b e l , and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h i r d a " s e p a r a t e " - l a b e l . 101 TABLE 19: F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s f o r Each C o l o u r & Age AGE AGE l a b e l - t y p e 2 2A 2B 4 4A 4B b l u e g r e e n r e d y e l l o w b l a c k w h i t e g r e y brown p u r p l e o r a n g e p i n k s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non s e p a r a t e s h a r e d non 4 10 4 2 10 6 5 7 6 6 6 6 0* 14* 4 6 6 6 3 6 9 2 10 6 4 7 7 9 4 5 8 7 3 2 2 3 1 2 4 0 3 4 0 2 5* 0 3 4 1 2 4 0 1 6 * 0 2 5* 0 2 5* 0 2 5* 1 3 3 5 4 2 6 4 1 0 11* 0 5 4 2 3 5 3 4 5 2 9* 2 0 7 4 0 11 8 1 17* 2* 1* 17* 3* 0* 18* 2* 0* 16* 4 0* 16* 3* 1* 11 5 4 . 1 4 * 5 1* 14* 3* 3* 16* 3* 1* 17* 3* 0* 0 5* 1 3 2 1 3 3 0 4 2 0 4 2 0 3 2 1 0 2 4 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 2 1 5* 1 0 11* 3 0 14* 0* 0* 14* 0* 0* 14* 0* 0* 12* 2 0* 13* 1 0* 11* 3 0* 12* 2 0* 13* 1 0* 13* 1 0* 12* 2 0* CRITERION:high s i g . ^ 1 2 low s i g . ^ 0 ^ 5 ^8 M 3 ^ 3 -- ^ 0 Number o f s u b j e c t s 18 11 20 14 FIGURE 10 : F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s a t AGE 2 102, III! mm s e p a r a t e l a b e l s s h a r e d l a b e l s non l a b e l N = 18 0 5 1 i i i i > 10 - 15 18 i i i i i i i i i i i i' b l u e g r e e n r e d Y e l l o w W//////////////////M^ b l a c k w h i t e rn///////////////, g r e y ]//// / /// / / | ^ > ^ X C ^ V C - ^1 brown p u r p l e 'V'////////////, ••. \ \ - N - - \ \ \ \ o r a n g e y/////////////////////////////> mm-I I I I I i 10 15 18 FIGURE 11.: F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s a t AGE 2A N = 7 ^ -s e p a r a t e l a b e l s h a r e d l a b e l non l a b e l b l u e g r e e n r e d y e l l o w b l a c k w h i t e g r e y brown p u r p l e o r a n g e p i n k 7 V — r T T T T \ * v '/l\N I 0 7 FIGURE 12 : F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s a t AGE 2B I HI/Iy/j = s e p a r a t e l a b e l s |\\\\\\\ = s h a r e d l a b e l s = non l a b e l N = 11 11 i i i i i i i i i i 104. b l u e g r e e n r e d y e l l o w b l a c k . w h i t e g r e y brown V//} W77777 \ / / / / / / / A PZ^'A\\\\\\^S:^\NV\-p u r p l e K/'//jz o r a n g e p i n k ^ \ W \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ V / \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ V-5 11 T a b l e 13 : F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s a t AGE 4 ]jl I Ilk = s e p a r a t e l a b e l s = s h a r e d l a b e l s = non l a b e l s N = 20 5 10 15 20 i i i t b l u e g r e e n r e d WiiiiiiLliiiiiiiiiiUliiiiiir mmmmmsM Viiiiiilliii-liiilliliiiiiii:>iri:iiini muin/imM iiiiiiiinuiiiniiiiiiiiiMii mm a •mmiiiiih vw\\\\\ ^ellow Vi ml HU iii HI Milan 'in > una v/vV/'uh!/MML b l a c k •'///////////////////////.• Ill Mi ii 1 llllH.::ll iimi, ^>>\\ w h i t e i II III/III III ill! H III :li I Ml Hi :'/' •:%'•///// •im g r e y UIIIIIIIHIIIHIHIIili!; •'HUM brown Will III III///l//l/n% 'HUH-I! '11 IIIllll. 1 / ; 1 i I f I 1 1 f < 1 I > ' • ' 1 1 ' p u r p l e wnaaanMrMamu Mil Mi '/', ilium o r a n g e MllllllMIMIMMIM Willi.' III iiiiiiiiin 'Will is •  p i n k MMIMIMIMMIMI! aiaa III. 'WHIM!! au'.ii / N\\\\\ ( i t l i t I I 5 10 15 20 Table 14 : Frequencies of Label-Types at AGE 4A N = 6 = separate labels | | = shared labels ! I= non labels blue green red yellow black white grey brown purple orange pink 0 6 1 i i i • i i IMS/MM. Wit 7MMI 777777/ MIlMM. mm mm \nrnTTiwi nil VI1 li II III IIII iii i I I I I I I 1 0 6 T a b l e 15 : F r e q u e n c i e s o f L a b e l - T y p e s a t AGE 4B mm - s e p a r a t e l a b e l s = s h a r e d l a b e l s = non l a b e l s N = 14 107 b l u e g reen r e d y e l l o w b l a c k w h i t e g rey brown p u r p l e orange p i n k 9 , 5 10 14 ( ( I | f I I 1 1 1 1 { 'WllllIlllllllllh'HillHil huh in ! Hi ii ///7/7//I/////I///II7' i II!!'.'III!-: HIM I Mill U HUH /•• IHiiillllllillh illlllllllllllllll IlillllHIIIIIIIIIIIlll. 'iiiiiiiHiiii/iHiiiiiii/Hinn/imm. iiiiHiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim yiHiiiMniiiiHHniiiHiiiimmm HUM -MllllllllllllllilMIHIi Vlllili-'IIIIIUIIilllllilHIIilH1 \ \ \ 'IlllHllllllUlllllllllilllilli! :!illM viiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiim :iiimm. i i i i i i \ i i i i i 0 5 10 i i 14 108 . 3.6.2 (a) L a b e l - T y p e s i n Two-Year-Olds In t w o - y e a r - o l d s , t h e o n l y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a b e l - t y p e s w h i c h showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e from c h a n c e was f o u n d i n b l a c k , t h i s h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s h a r e d l a b e l s . D i v i d i n g t h i s a g e - g r o u p i n t o i t s su b - g r o u p s 2A and 2B shows some more d i f f e r e n c e s . I n Age 2A, y e l l o w , b r o w n , p u r p l e , o r a n g e , and g r e y showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f l a b e l - t y p e s , a l l h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f no l a b e l s . None o f t h e o t h e r p r o p o r t i o n s f o r t h e s e c o l o u r s were s i g n i f i c a n t and none o f t h e r e m a i n i n g c o l o u r s showed any s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . I n Age 2B, none o f t h e c o l o u r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f no l a b e l s . Of t h e c o l o u r s m e n t i o n e d i n Age 2A, y e l l o w , g r e y and p u r p l e now have no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s , w h i l e brown has a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s h a r e d l a b e l s . B l u e , g r e e n and b l a c k a l s o showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n ' s o f t h i s l a b e l - t y p e . Orange was t h e o n l y c o l o u r w i t h a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s . 3.6.2 (b) L a b e l - T y p e s i n F o u r - Y e a r - O l d s F o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed a l a r g e number o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s , o f l a b e l - t y p e s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m c h a n c e f o r a l l c o l o u r s e x c e p t b l u e and g r e y . Of t h e s e , b l u e d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n 109. o f s u b j e c t s g i v i n g i t no l a b e l , but g r e y showed no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s a t a l l . Seven c o l o u r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s , t o g e t h e r w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s o f b o t h s h a r e d l a b e l s and o f no l a b e l p r o p o r t i o n s ( g r e e n , r e d , y e l l o w , w h i t e , p u r p l e , o r a n g e , p i n k ) . The r e m a i n i n g c o l o u r s — b l a c k and b r o w n - - a l s o showed h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s and s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s o f no l a b e l s , bu t t h a t o f shared l a b e l s was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . The sub-groups showed g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s when compared t o each o t h e r . Age 4A showed o n l y two s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s , a l t h o u g h a g a i n we c a n n o t d e t e r m i n e whether any s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s e x i s t . B l u e showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s h a r e d l a b e l s w h i l e p i n k showed a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s . None o f t h e o t h e r p r o p o r t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t . Age 4B, however , showed a l l c o l o u r s t o have s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s . A l l e x c e p t g r e e n , r e d and y e l l o w had h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s o f no l a b e l s , w h i l e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s h a r e d l a b e l s was n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . G r e e n , r e d and y e l l o w gave the r e s u l t s one would e x p e c t f rom a d u l t s : s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s and s i g n i -f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s o f s h a r e d and no l a b e l t y p e s . 110. We have now looked at several aspects of general colour-naming behavior, as determined by performance i n the comprehension and production tasks. We might now focus i n p a r t i c u l a r on the errors made, hoping for some insights into the l e x i c a l categories and/or strategies used at these ages. For example, do the types of errors and the- d i s t r i b u t i o n of such errors vary between two-year-olds and four-year-olds, or between the tasks? Further, are there certain colours or colour terms which tend to produce errors more often than others? A close look at production errors or overextensions i s also i n order, asking whether these reveal any naming strategies or patterns of colour-naming behavior. Tables 20 to 23 indicate Confusion Matrices for both ages and both tasks of comprehension and production. These w i l l be referred to i n the following analyses and allow a more complete picture of the types of responses made for each colour stimulus, this being a colour term in the comprehension task and a colour sample in the production. The columns and rows of totals of certain types of response w i l l be discussed i n the appropriate sections. 3.7 Matching Errors of Discrimination Before beginning an analysis of errors made, however, i t i s necessary to ensure that these were not perceptual or matching errors. The purpose of the matching task was to catch any such problems i n discrimination between these eleven stimulus colours. TABLE 20 : C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x f o r P r o d u c t i o n a t AGE 2 s t i m u l u s r e s p o n s e BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK t o t a l e r r o r s made number o f no r e s p o n s e s number t i m e s i n c o r r e c t l y b l u : g r e : r e d : y e l : b l a : w h i : g r y : b r o : p u r : o r a : p i n : c h o s e n 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 12 3 1 10 8 7 4 2 4 0 6 3 2 2 TABLE 21 : C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x f o r P r o d u c t i o n a t AGE 4 s t i m u l u s r e s p o n s e BLUE GREEN RED YELLOW BLACK WHITE GREY BROWN PURPLE ORANGE PINK number t i m e s i n c o r r e c t l y b l u : g r e : r e d : y e l : b l a : w h i : g r y : b r o : p u r : o r a : p i n : c h o s e n 18 18 18 19 18 15 16 1 1 13 17 18 6 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 0 2 2 t o t a l ' e r r o r s 1 0 2 1 2 3 *7 2 3 2 1 made  number o f 1 1 0 0 0 1 4 1 4 1 0 no r e s p o n s e s * o t h e r r e s p o n s e s were PEACH, GOLD, SILVER (1 each) TABLE 22 : C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x f o r Comprehension a t AGE 2 s t i m u l u s r e s p o n s e b l u e g r e e n r e d y e l l o w b l a c k w h i t e g r e y brown p u r p l e orange p i n k t o t a l e r r o r s made BLU : GRE: RED : YEL: BLArWHI: GRY :BRO: PUR :ORA :PIN: 8 2 2 3 1 2 12 4 2 1 4 1 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 6 1 2 8 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 9 2 2 1 2 4 1 1 1 3 2 9 1 1 1 9 1 1 2 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 14 12 11 number t i m e s i n c o r r e c t l y c h o s e n 10 12 7 4 6 7 7 1 5 8 number o f no r e s p o n s e s TABLE 2 3 : C o n f u s i o n M a t r i x f o r Comprehension a t AGE 4 s t i m u l u s r e s p o n s e b l u e g r e e n r e d y e l l o w b l a c k w h i t e g r e y brown p u r p l e orange p i n k t o t a l e r r o r s made number o f no r e s p o n s e s : BLU:GRE:RED:YEL:BLA:WHI:GRY:BRO:PUR:ORA:PIN: number t i m e s i n c o r r e c t l y c h o s e n 18 18 19 18 20 18 13 19 1 1 18 2 1 18 18 1 1 0 4 0 3 0 3 3 1 2 115. T h e r e was a t o t a l o f 22 mismatches i n a l l i n t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k , 18 o f w h i c h were d i f f e r e n t . F o u r o f t h e t w o - y e a r - o l d s made no e r r o r s and t e n made o n l y one e r r o r ; none o f t h e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s made any m a t c h i n g e r r o r s . Many o f t h e e r r o r s made by t w o - y e a r - o l d s were t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t a t m a t c h i n g t h e samples t o g e t h e r . When i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e p e a t e d o r v a r i e d and a n o t h e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n g i v e n , t h e n e x t a t t e m p t s and t h e r e m a i n i n g matches were a l l c o r r e c t . From t h e p o i n t o f view o f w h i c h naming e r r o r s were a l s o r e f l e c t e d as an e r r o r i n t h e m a t c h i n g t a s k , f i v e o r t h e 4 8 p r o d u c t i o n e r r o r s i n Age 2 m i g h t have been p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d . We would e x p e c t , h o w e v e r , t h a t i f t h i s i s a p e r c e p t u a l p r o b l e m , t h e same l a b e l w ould be u s e d f o r t h e two c o l o u r s w h i c h a r e n o t b e i n g p e r c e p t u a l l y d i s t i n -g u i s h e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r . T h i s o n l y o c c u r r e d i n one o f t h e s e c a s e s . T h i s one s u b j e c t mismatched t h e b l a c k and p u r p l e samples and a l s o named b o t h o f them BLUE; however, she named s e v e n o t h e r samples BLUE as w e l l and t h e s e were, d e f i n i t e l y n o t p e r c e p t u a l l y - b a s e d e r r o r s . T h e r e f o r e none o f t h e m a t c h i n g e r r o r s were c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p e r c e p t u a l p r o b l e m . 3.8 Types o f E r r o r s The. p r e v i o u s r e s u l t s were b a s e d on a sys t e m o f s c o r i n g r e s p o n s e s i n b o t h p r o d u c t i o n and c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k s as s i m p l y r i g h t o r wrong. Wrong answers i n c l u d e d b o t h i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s and t h e l a c k o f any r e s p o n s e a t a l l . W h i l e t h i s 116. was adequate for determining orders of accuracy, the comparison of these two types of errors might also prove enlightening. We have already found, for example, that two-year-olds produced more errors than four-year-olds. Does this s t i l l apply when we divide these errors into "incorrect" responses and "no responses"? Rank orders were obtained for the colour terms and colour samples which had the most incorrect response and the most "no response" reaction. These are indicated in Tables 24 and 25 respectively. In the rank orders of "incorrect" responses i n comprehension, for example, RED was the colour term stimulus which most often resulted i n an incorrect sample being chosen by two-year-olds, while i n production the black colour sample was the one most often named incorr e c t l y . In the rank orders of "no response" grey was the colour sample which received the most blank stares and head-shaking i n both age-groups. 3.8.1 Rank Order Correlations These rank orders were then correlated with each other, using the Kendall's tau correlation c o e f f i c i e n t ; Appendix 13 indicates the tau values obtained. For orders of number of incorrect response, no correlation existed between the two ages i n either task or between the two tasks i n either age. For orders of number of "no response", no s i g n i f i c a n t correlation was found between the two groups. A s i g n i f i c a n t correlation existed 117. TABLE 24: Rank Orders of Errors - Incorrect Responses -and Frequencies of Errors for Both Ages & Tasks Comprehension: number of times incorrect sample chosen Production: number of times sample named incorrectly Comprehension AGE 2 AGE 4 red 12 grey 6 yellow 11 blue 2 blue 8 yellow 2 white 8 purple 2 brown 7 orange 2 purple 7 green 1 black 6 white 1 grey 6 brown 1 orange 4 pink 1 pink 4 red 0 green 2 black 0 Production AGE 2 AGE 4 black 11 grey 7 grey 6 purple 3 pink 5 white 3 purple 5 black 2 green 5 red 2 brown 4 brown 2 blue 4 orange 2 red 3 blue 1 yellow 2 yellow 1 white 2 pink 1 orange 1 green 0 118 . TABLE 25: Rank O r d e r s o f "no r e s p o n s e s " and F r e q u e n c i e s f o r E a c h C o l o u r a t B o t h Ages and T a s k s  B o t h t a s k s : number o f t i m e s no r e s p o n s e g i v e n Comprehens i o n AGE 2 AGE 4 g r e y 8 g r e e n 1 b l a c k 4 r e d 1 g r e e n 4 w h i t e 1 b l u e 2 g r e y 1 r e d 2 p i n k 1 brown 2 b l u e 0 p u r p l e 2 b l a c k 0 o r a n g e 2 brown 0 y e l l o w 1 p u r p l e 0 w h i t e 1 o r a n g e 0 p i n k 0 y e l l o w 0 P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 AGE 4 g r e y 9 g r e y 4 p u r p l e 7 p u r p l e 4 g r e e n 6 b l u e 1 r e d 6 g r e e n 1 y e l l o w 6 w h i t e 1 w h i t e 6 brown 1 brown 6 o r a n g e 1 b l u e 4 r e d 0 o r a n g e 4 y e l l o w 0 b l a c k 4 b l a c k 0 p i n k 3 p i n k 0 119 . i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k however: t h i s c a n be seen by-l o o k i n g a t t h e r a n k o r d e r s t h e m s e l v e s . Grey and p u r p l e a r e dominant i n b o t h and t h e l a r g e number o f t i e s i n ra n k w o u l d w e i g h o u t any o t h e r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two o r d e r s . A f u r t h e r c o m p a r i s o n i n i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e r a n k o r d e r s t o number 'of "no r e s p o n s e " o r d e r s w i t h i n e a c h g r o u p and w i t h i n e a c h t a s k r e v e a l e d o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . T h i s was i n t h e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n o r d e r s , as shown i n A p p e n d i x 13. T h a t i s , t h e c o l o u r sample w h i c h most o f t e n r e c e i v e d an i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e was a l s o t h e one r e c e i v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t number o f "no r e s p o n s e s " , i n t h i s c a s e g r e y . A l l o t h e r o r d e r s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . 3.8.2 P e r f o r m a n c e V a r i a b l e s i n E r r o r - T y p e T a b l e 2 6 shows t h e a v e r a g e number o f t h e s e two t y p e s o f e r r o r s , as w e l l as t h e number o f c o r r e c t and t o t a l r e s p o n s e s f o r b o t h age g r o u p s . An a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h v a r i a b l e s o f age and t a s k (2x2) showed s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s i n b o t h t y p e s , t w o - y e a r - o l d s p r o d u c i n g more o f each' t y p e o f r e s p o n s e t h a n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . T h e r e was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t t a s k d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e number o f "no r e s p o n s e s " , t h e p r o d u c t i o n t a s k p r o d u c i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y more such r e s p o n s e s t h a n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The summary t a b l e i s i n Ap p e n d i x 14. 120. Table 26: Average Frequencies of Correct, Incorrect and No Responses  AGE 2 AGE 4 Comp. Prod. Comp. Prod. Correct 5 .34 3 .33 9.85 8 .95 Incorrect 4 .16 4.28 0.90 1.4 5 Total 9.50 7.61 10.75 10.40 No response 1.55 3.39 0.25 0.65 3.8.3 Distribution of Errors Kolmogorov-Smirnoff analyses were done to determine i f the number of incorrect responses are distributed randomly amongst the eleven colours and i f not, do some colours or colour terms tend to produce more, incorrect responses than others? The expected number of errors for each colour (term) would- be one-eleventh of the t o t a l number of incorrect responses i n that task, or a proportion of .091. In production, two-year-olds produced a t o t a l of 4 8 errors while four-year-olds showed 24, errors here being a sample named incor r e c t l y . The di s t r i b u t i o n of these errors was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from what chance would predict for two-year-olds, but not for four-year-olds. Comprehension errors (an incorrect sample chosen) also showed a s i g n i f i -cantly d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n for the two-year-olds 75 errors, but not for the 18 errors produced by four-year-olds. To determine which colours or colour terms contributed to these differences i n two-year-olds, further. KS-analyses 1 were done. 3.8.3 (a) E r r o r P r o p o r t i o n s f o r I n d i v i d u a l C o l o u r s The f i r s t a n a l y s e s u s e d i n p i n p o i n t i n g t h e c a u s e f o r t h e uneven e r r o r d i s t r i b u t i o n compared t h e number o f e r r o r s made on t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o l o u r s w i t h t h e t o t a l number o f e r r o r s . A r e more e r r o r s made i n naming c o l o u r A, f o r exampl< t h a n one would e x p e c t by c h a n c e ? I n s t e a d o f g o i n g t h r o u g h e a c h c o l o u r (term) f o r e a c h t a s k and g r o u p and c o m p a r i n g i t s p r o p o r t i o n o f e r r o r s t o t h e r e m a i n d e r , o n l y t h o s e c o l o u r s w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o have a v e r y l a r g e o r a v e r y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f e r r o r s were examined. These c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by l o o k i n g a t t h e " T o t a l E r r o r s Made columns i n t h e C o n f u s i o n M a t r i c e s shown i n T a b l e s 20 t o 23, o r t h e "Rank O r d e r o f E r r o r s " shown i n T a b l e 24. The a c t u a l K S - a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s a p p e a r i n t h e t o p rows marked " t o p r a n k " i n A p p e n d i c e s 19 and 20. In t w o - y e a r - o l d s p r o d u c t i o n , b l a c k c a r r i e d e l e v e n o f t h e t o t a l 48 e r r o r s made, a l m o s t t w i c e as much as t h e s e c o n d r a n k i n g c o l o u r ( g r e y ) , and a l m o s t t h r e e t i m e s t h e e x p e c t e d number o f e r r o r s . But t h e K S - a n a l y s i s f o u n d t h i s t o be n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g e r r o r s were f a i r l y e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d . C o m p r e hension e r r o r s by t w o - y e a r - o l d s showed a f a i r l y e v en d i s t r i b u t i o n . A l t h o u g h o u r e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d i t t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t e x p e c t e d by c h a n c e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e between any two r a n k s was n e v e r more t h a n t h r e e , so i t i s h a r d t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s i n g l e c o l o u r may 122 . have contributed this difference. A comparison of the top ranking colour RED versus the balance of errors confirmed RED to have no s i g n i f i c a n t number of errors. Four-year-olds seemed to show grey as having a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large number of errors i n both production (7/24) and comprehension (6/18). But again KS-analyses found these proportions to be non-significant. 3.8.3 (b) Error Proportions for Colour Groups Primary, Non-primary and Achromatic Groups The second analysis compared the proportions of errors found i n various groups of colours, f i r s t focusing on groups of primary, non-primary and achromatic colours. Are s i g n i -f i c a n t l y more errors made among, say, achromatics than i n the remaining colour samples or terms? Table 2 7 shows the various groups that were examined; these are the same as those used in the e a r l i e r Section 3.3.3. Table 27: Possible Colour Groups and Expected Proportions Achromatic: (i) (i i ) ( i i i ) Non-primary: (i) (i i ) ( i i i ) Primary: Table 27 also indicates the proportion of errors that would be expected i n each of these colour groups on the basis of chance. For example, i f errors are distributed randomly among the eleven colours, we expect .3636 or black,white,grey .2727 black,white,grey,brown .3636 black,white .1818 purple,orange,pink,brown .3636 purple,orange,pink .2121 purple,orange,pink,brown,grey.4545 blue,green,red,yellow .3636 123. f o u r - e l e v e n t h s o f them t o o c c u r on any f o u r c h o s e n c o l o u r s , say t h e p r i m a r y c o l o u r s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f e r r o r s i n e a c h c o l o u r - g r o u p was f i r s t compared t o e a c h o t h e r g r o u p t o d e t e r m i n e i f any o f t h e s e g r o u p s p r o d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o r fewer e r r o r s t h a n t h e o t h e r s . E a c h c o l o u r - g r o u p was t h e n compared t o t h e number o f r e m a i n i n g e r r o r s t o s e e w h i c h o f t h e s e t h r e e g r o u p s was c o n t r i b u t i n g t o any d i f f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e r r o r s . A p p e n d i c e s 15 t o 18 show t h a t none o f t h e s e g r o u p s had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e o r s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l e r r o r s . O t h e r C o l o u r Groups C o l o u r g r o u p i n g s as i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c t u a l r a n k o r d e r s were t h e n t e s t e d i n t h e same way. K S - a n a l y s e s were done on g r o u p s o f t h e t o p two, t o p t h r e e , t o p f o u r , e t c . i n e a c h o f t h e r a n k o r d e r s , i n c r e a s i n g t h e group s i z e u n t i l t h e f i r s t n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p i n g was r e a c h e d . Because o f t i e d r a n k s , t h i s u s u a l l y i n c l u d e d more t h a n t w o , t h r e e o r f o u r c o l o u r s . The r e s u l t s a p p e a r i n A p p e n d i c e s 19 and 20. T w o - y e a r - o l d ' s p r o d u c t i o n showed s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f e r r o r s i n two g r o u p s : b l a c k + g r e y + p i n k + p u r p l e + g r e e n ( t o p t h r e e r a n k s ) and bla c k + g r e y + p i n k + p u r p l e + g r e e n + b r o w n + b l u e (t o p f o u r r a n k s ) . C o m p rehension showed o n l y one s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p : RED+YELLOW+BLUE+WHITE+BROWN+PURPLE (top f o u r r a n k s ) . F o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n showed no s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s a t a l l , a l t h o u g h t h e g r o u p g r e y + p u r p l e + w h i t e a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . C omprehension i n t h i s a g e - g r o u p d i d show a 124 . s i g n i f i c a n t grouping of GREY+BLUE+YELLOW+PURPLE+ORANGE (top two ranks). 3.8.4 Distribution of "No Responses" The same series of analyses were then applied to the number of "no responses", again to determine i f their d i s t r i b u t i o n was random across the eleven colours and i f not, where the s i g n i f i c a n t l y large or small proportions occurred. The expected number of "no response" for each colour or colour term would be one-eleventh of the t o t a l number of "no responses" for that age-group and task. The production task showed a random d i s t r i b u t i o n of the 61 "no responses" of two-year-olds, but a non-random d i s t r i b u t i o n of the four-year-olds' 13. Comprehension showed the opposite results, with d i s t r i b u t i o n of the two-year-olds 28 d i f f e r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y from chance, while that of the four-year-olds' 5 did not. 3.8.4 (a) Proportions for Individual Colours The highest ranking colour (term) for each order was compared to the remaining colours to see i f i t s proportion of "no responses" was s i g n i f i c a n t . In two-year-olds' production, grey produced nine of the t o t a l 61 such responses. Comprehension showed GREY also as the highest ranking at eight out of 28, this being twice the amount shown by the next ranking colour term (BLACK+GREEN), and almost a t h i r d of the t o t a l (28) "no responses". However, neither of these proportions proved to be si g n i f i c a n t in a KS-analysis, shown 125. i n A p p e n d i x 24. F o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n , g r e y + p u r p l e e a c h showed f o u r o f t h e t o t a l 13 "no responses'" . When compared t o t h e r e m a i n i n g number, t h i s p r o v e d t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n . 3.8.4 (b) P r o p o r t i o n s f o r C o l o u r Groups P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c Groups The c o l o u r s were t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h e t h r e e g r o u p s o f a c h r o m a t i c , n o n - p r i m a r y and p r i m a r y c o l o u r s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s i n e i t h e r o f t h e s e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e o r s m a l l . A c o m p a r i s o n o f e a c h o f t h e s e c o l o u r - g r o u p s w i t h e a c h o t h e r showed no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , an a n a l y s i s c o m p a r i n g e a c h g r o u p t o t h e r e m a i n i n g c o l o u r s f o u n d none o f t h e s e t o be s i g n i f i c a n t i n e i t h e r age o r e i t h e r t a s k . The r e s u l t s a r e i n A p p e n d i c e s 21 t o 23. O t h e r C o l o u r Groups The r a n k o r d e r s were f u r t h e r t e s t e d i n terms o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e t o p two, t o p t h r e e , e t c . r a n k s o f e a c h o r d e r , as was done w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e r r o r s i n S e c t i o n 3.8.3. P r o d u c t i o n f o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n any o f t h e r a n k g r o u p i n g s o f c o l o u r s . C o mprehension d i d , however, show GREY+BLACK+GREEN (top two r a n k s ) t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e c o l o u r s i n t h e t o p t h r e e r a n k s no l o n g e r showed s u c h a s i g n i f i c a n c e . A n a l y z i n g t h e t o p two r a n k s f o r f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n would i n c l u d e a l l t h e "no r e s p o n s e s " made, s i n c e 126. there were only two ranks. Similarly with the comprehension results for this age-group, there are not enough scores or ranks to warrant an analysis. 3.9 Overextensions - Incorrect Uses of Terms and Samples We have examined now two diff e r e n t kinds of errors—-an incorrect response and a lack of response to a colour term or sample. The focus now switches to examine those terms or samples that were used incorrectly. Table 28 indicates the rank orders i n production of the terms most often used incorrectly and in comprehension of the samples indicated most often i n c o r r e c t l y . Thus, for two-year-olds BLUE was the term used most often to name a sample incor r e c t l y . These figures can also be seen by looking at the "number times incorrectly chosen" columns i n the Confusion Matrices i n Tables 20 to 23. A rank order comparison using Kendall's tau indicated that none of these orders correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with each other, either when comparing the two tasks within each age or when comparing the two ages within each task. These value are indicated i n Appendix 25. 3.9.1 Distribution of Incorrect Uses A Kolmogorov-Smirnoff analysis found that the di s t r i b u t i o n of terms and colours used incorrectly by two-year-olds differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that expected by chance i n production, but not i n comprehension. For four-year-olds the reverse occurred; d i s t r i b u t i o n was random i n TABLE 28: Rank O r d e r s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses f o r B o t h Ages i n B o t h T a s k s ' . Co m p r e h e n s i o n : number o f t i m e s sample i n d i c a t e d i n c o r r e c t l y P r o d u c t i o n : number o f t i m e s name u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y C o m p r e hension AGE 2 AGE 4 g r e e n 12 y e l l o w 4 b l u e 10 w h i t e 3 brown 8 brown 3 p i n k 8 p u r p l e 3 w h i t e 7 p i n k 2 g r e y 7 o r a n g e 1 r e d 7 b l u e 1 b l a c k 6 g r e e n 1 o r a n g e 5 r e d 0 y e l l o w 4 b l a c k 0 p u r p l e 1 g r e y 0 P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 AGE 4 b l u e 10 b l u e 6 g r e e n 8 b l a c k 3 r e d 7 y e l l o w 2 brown 6 brown 2 y e l l o w 4 o r a n g e 2 w h i t e 4 p i n k 2 p u r p l e 3 g r e e n 1 b l a c k 2 r e d 1 o r a n g e 2 w h i t e 1 p i n k 2 g r e y 1 g r e y 0 p u r p l e 0 128. p r o d u c t i o n b u t d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n . S e v e r a l f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s were done t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h c o l o u r s o r c o l o u r g r o u p s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s i s t h e same a p p r o a c h as u s e d i n S e c t i o n s 3.8.3 and 3.8.4. 3.9.1 (a) P r o p o r t i o n s f o r I n d i v i d u a l C o l o u r s The p r o p o r t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t u s e s i n t h e h i g h e s t r a n k i n g c o l o u r o r c o l o u r t e r m was compared t o t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e r e m a i n i n g c o l o u r s . None showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n , as c a n be seen i n t h e " t o p r a n k " c a l c u l a t i o n s shown i n A p p e n d i c e s 30 and 31. 3.9.1 (b) P r o p o r t i o n s f o r C o l o u r Groups P r i m a r y , N o n - P r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c Groups The g r o u p s o f a c h r o m a t i c , n o n - p r i m a r y and p r i m a r y c o l o u r s were i s o l a t e d and t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n s o f i n c o r r e c t u s e s were compared t o e a c h o t h e r . The same e x p e c t e d p r o p o r t i o n s as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 27 a r e a p p l i c a b l e h e r e , and A p p e n d i c e s 26 t o 29 show t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e K S - a n a l y s e s . F o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m c h a n c e e x p e c t a t i o n . As t h e t o p s e c t i o n o f A p p e n d i x 26 i n d i c a t e s , t h i s was t r u e r e g a r d l e s s o f w h i c h g r o u p s o f a c h r o m a t i c and n o n - p r i m a r i e s were u s e d . Comparing t h e p r o p o r t i o n i n e a c h age t o t h e r e m a i n i n g number o f i n c o r r e c t u s e s showed t h a t t h e p r o p o r -t i o n s i n any o f t h e a c h r o m a t i c and n o n - p r i m a r y g r o u p s was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . But t h a t i n t h e gro u p o f p r i m a r y c o l o u r s 129. was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l . None o f t h e a n a l y s e s f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g s e t s - - f o u r - y e a r -o l d s 1 p r o d u c t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n b o t h a g e s — s h o w e d any s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e s e c o l o u r . g r o u p s . O t h e r C o l o u r Groups F u r t h e r t e s t i n g examined g r o u p s o f t h e t o p two r a n k s , t h e n t o p t h r e e r a n k s , e t c . and down t o t h e p e n u l t i m a t e r a n k , t o see i f any o f t h e s e g r o u p s were s i g n i f i c a n t . A l l o f t h e s e a r e t a b u l a t e d i n A p p e n d i c e s 30 and 31. T w o - y e a r - o l d s ' p r o d u c t i o n showed f o u r such s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p s : t h e g r o u p s o f BLUE+GREEN+RED (top t h r e e r a n k s ) , BLUE+GREEN+RED+BROWN ( t o p f o u r r a n k s ) , and t h o s e f o r t h e t o p f i v e and t o p s i x r a n k s . O n l y t h e t o p two r a n k s (BLUE+GREEN) and t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d t o p r a n k i n g BLUE d i d n o t show s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s . P r o d u c t i o n i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s and c o m p r e h e n s i o n i n two-y e a r - o l d s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n any o f t h e r a n k s . F o r t h e l a t t e r , even t h e l o w e s t r a n k i n g p u r p l e d i d n o t show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f i n c o r r e c t u s e s , even t h o u g h i t o n l y c o n t r i b u t e d one o f t h e t o t a l 75. Comprehension i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed two s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s — t h a t f o r yel l o w + w h i t e + b r o w n + p u r p l e (top two r a n k s ) w i t h 13 o f t h e t o t a l 18, and t h a t f o r y e l l o w + w h i t e + +brown+purple+pink (top t h r e e r a n k s ) w i t h 15 o f t h e t o t a l 18 i n c o r r e c t u s e s . 130. 3.9.2 A Closer Look at Production Overextensions The previous analysis determined whether any individual colours or colour groups showed a high or low tendency to be overextended i n use. This was done with group scores and thus only shows which terms were misused the most by each -age-group as a whole. This hides the p o s s i b i l i t y that a high rank may be due to excessive use by a very small number of subjects and i s therefore not tr u l y representative. Table 29 thus indicates the number of subjects who overextended a term at least once ( f i r s t column i n each age-group) . Also shown i s the range of colour samples that each term was overextended to. In two-year-olds, for example, BLUE was used for a l l the eleven colour samples, while GREY was overextended to none. 3.9.2 (a) Individual Colour Terms The differences between the number of overextensions for each term i n the two-year-olds were not enough to claim any one colour as producing s i g n i f i c a n t l y more or fewer than the others. However, BLUE did have the largest number of both subjects who overextended i t and of colours extended to, even i f neither was s i g n i f i c a n t . BLUE also ranked highest in the four-year-olds, but this was s i g n i f i c a n t only i n the number of samples i t was extended to. 3.9.2 (b) Colour Groups Examining each of these columns i n terms of the categories of primary, non-primary and achromatic colours, the group of 131. TAB LE 2 9: Frequencies for Overextended Terms AGE 2 AGE 4 number of subjects number of colours extended to number of subjects number of colours extended to BLUE 10 11 7 8 GREEN 7 7 1 1 RED 6 7 1 1 YELLOW 3 4 2 2 BLACK 2 2 2 2 WHITE 2 3 1 1 GREY 0 0 1 1 BROWN 4 4 2 1 PURPLE 2 3 0 0 ORANGE 3 4 2 2 PINK 2 2 1 1 132. primary colours BLUE, GREEN and RED certainly ranked at the top of both in the two-year-olds. The achromatics WHITE, BLACK and GREY, on the other hand, ranked at the bottom for both aspects. The four-year-olds showed none of these groups to be a s i g n i f i c a n t contributor to the ranking orders. 3.9.3 S t a b i l i t y Levels of Overextended Terms Overextended terms were further graded as to their r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y , to determine, for example, whether a subject w i l l tend to overextend a term that he also does , not understand correctly. Such terms automatically f a l l into the UNSTABLE category used i n Section 3.5. This category i s now further divided into four l e v e l s : (l)some correct use and correct comprehension, (2) some correct use and no comprehension, (3) only incorrect use and correct comprehension, and (4) only incorrect use and no comprehension. Table 30 indicates the number and proportions of over-extended terms in each' of the UNSTABLE levels for the two age-groups. For example, of the 7.7 overextensions by two-year-olds, 13 of them (16.8%) were produced by subjects who showed correct comprehension and both correct and incorrect usage of the terms i n question. KS-analyses showed that for the two-year-olds, a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large proportion of examples occurred i n the second l e v e l , then followed by the l a s t l e v e l ; these are those levels indicating no comprehension. The frequencies 133 TABLE 30: S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f O v e r e x t e n d e d Terms c o d e : l e v e l s o f s t a b i l i t y (1) some c o r r e c t u se, c o r r e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n (2) some c o r r e c t u se, no c o m p r e h e n s i o n (3) o n l y i n c o r r e c t u se, c o r r e c t c o m p r e h e n s i o n (4) o n l y i n c o r r e c t u se, no c o m p r e h e n s i o n AGE 2: N= 77, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .1549 f p r o p . d (1) : 13 .1688 -.0812 (2) : 35 .4545 .2045 (3) : 12 .1558 -.0942 (4) : 17 .2207 -.0293 AGE 4: N= 26, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .2667 f p r o p . d (1) : 20 . 7699 .5199 (2) : 3 .1155 -.1345 (3) : 1 . .0388 -.2112 (4) : 2 . 0777 -.1723 134. occurring i n the f i r s t and t h i r d levels, where comprehension i s correct, were almost equal to each other and lower than the 25% expected by chance, although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The four-year-olds showed a somewhat diff e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . Here 77% of the overextended examples appeared in the f i r s t l e v e l — a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large proportion. The number of examples i n the remaining levels was far lower than that expected by chance, but not quite s i g n i f i c a n t l y so. 3.10 Application of Overextensions Now that we have examined overextended terms, we can focus on the colour samples that those terms were over-extended to. E a r l i e r analyses determined which colours or colour groups, i f any, were named more often incorrectly than others (Section 3.8.3). Are they so named because the subject does not have the correct name in his voca-bulary? And i f so, are there consistencies in which name i s chosen for a pa r t i c u l a r colour? This analysis w i l l also elaborate on the character of those colours with SHARED labels noted in the Section 3.6. 3.10.1 Existence of Correct Terms in Vocabulary Two-year-olds showed only 12 of the t o t a l 77 overextended terms to have the correct term available. For the remaining 85% the subject did not show any use of the correct term for 135. that sample. When this group was s p l i t into the sub-groups 2A and 2B, the former showed only one case where the correct term was known out of 23 overextensions, while the l a t t e r sub-group showed eleven out of 54 overextensions. In the four-year-olds, only 7% or two of the 27 cases showed the existence of the correct term i n their vocabulary. 3.10.2 Analysis of Error Pairs to Determine Lexical Categories In looking for consistencies i n which colour terms are (incorrectly) applied to certain colour samples, we are hoping also for an indication of what strategy, i f any, i s being used i n this naming process. Does a c h i l d , for example, pick a term which i s phonologically, perceptually or contextually close to the target? An analysis of errors would also reveal the l e x i c a l and possibly the conceptual categories he i s working with at this stage i n colour-term development; are these the same as an adult's? There are several possible ways of examining this and only one i s attempted here. This involves treating errors as "pairs", then c l a s s i f y i n g them i n terms of perceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s to see i f the categories of saturation, hue (adjacency) and brightness are viable i n the child's l e x i c a l system. 3.10.2 (a) Analysis of Label/Sample Pairs Bartle t t ' s approach to analyzing errors was to consider the incorrect label and the sample as a grouping or a pair. Naming the red sample BLUE, for example, constitutes 136. a r e d + b l u e p a i r ; u s i n g BLUE t o name g r e e n , r e d and g r e y samples shows t h e p a i r s b l u e + g r e e n , b l u e + r e d and b l u e + g r e y . W i t h e l e v e n c o l o u r samples and p o s s i b l e c o l o u r t e r m s , 55 such d i f f e r e n t p a i r s a r e p o s s i b l e . Note t h a t naming r e d BLUE and naming b l u e RED i s i n t e r p r e t e d h e r e as two examples o f t h e p a i r r e d + b l u e . The p o s s i b l e p a i r s i n e a c h o f t h e s e p e r c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e shown i n T a b l e 31. S e v e r a l p a i r s have been added t o t h e l i s t u s e d by B a r t l e t t (above t h e d o t t e d l i n e ) b e c a u s e t h e y were f e l t t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e same p h y s i c a l o r p e r c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h i s ' p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r a r r a y . T h i s i n c r e a s e d t h e number o f p a i r s w h i c h c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r f r o m 20 t o 26. T a b l e 31: P o s s i b l e E r r o r P a i r s i n P e r c e p t u a l C a t e g o r i e s S a t u r a t i o n Adj a c e n c y B r i g h t n e s s w h i t e + g r e y p i n k + r e d y e l l o w + p i n k w h i t e + b l a c k p i n k + o r a n g e y e l l o w + w h i t e g r e y + b l a c k p i n k + p u r p l e w h i t e + p i n k white+brown red+orange purple+brown grey+brown r e d + p u r p l e p u r p l e + b l a c k black+brown • o r a n g e + y e l l o w brown+black y e l l o w + g r e e n g r e e n + b l u e p i n k + g r e y b l u e + p u r p l e p u r p l e + g r e y pink+brown orange+brown yellow+brown p i n k + g r e y g r e y + b l u e The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o u n d 4 8 such e r r o r p a i r s i n two-y e a r - o l d s , t h i s i n c l u d i n g s e v e n i n Age 2A and 41 i n Age 2B. F o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed 21 e r r o r p a i r s . Data f r o m s u b j e c t s 137. showing a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r t e r m (as d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 4.5.2) was o m i t t e d f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s . • The p a i r s were c l a s s i f i e d as t o h a v i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s o f a d j a c e n c y , s a t u r a t i o n o r b r i g h t n e s s , u s i n g T a b l e 31 as a g u i d e . A p p e n d i c e s 32 t o 34 i n d i c a t e t h e f r e q u e n c i e s and p r o p o r t i o n s f o u n d i n e a c h g r o u p . P r o p o r t i o n s w i l l n o t a l w a y s e q u a l 1.0 b e c a u s e some p a i r s s u c h as black+brown c a n be c l a s s i f i e d u nder two d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , as T a b l e 31 shows. None o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s i n p r o d u c t i o n , c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e were fo u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t u s i n g K S - a n a l y s e s . W i t h i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n d a t a , e r r o r s where two c o l o u r s were g i v e n t h e same name were a n a l y z e d as a s e p a r a t e g r o u p . T h i s i n v o l v e d 36 o f t h e t o t a l 48 p a i r s i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s and none o f t h e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . The f i g u r e s a r e shown a t t h e b o t t o m o f A p p e n d i x 32,-none were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . A p p e n d i x 35 i n d i c a t e s p r o p o r t i o n s f o r p a i r s w h i c h o c c u r r e d more t h a n once, t h a t i s , w h i c h more t h a n one s u b j e c t d e m o n s t r a t e d . None o f t h e s e were s i g n i f i c a n t e i t h e r . 3.10.2 (b) A n a l y s i s o f E r r o r P a i r s E x c l u d i n g L a b e l s An a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h i s t o l o o k o n l y a t t h e g r o u p i n g s d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e naming p r a c t i c e s , w h i l e t h e a c t u a l l a b e l i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h i s g r o u p o r p a i r . Thus a s u b j e c t naming g r e e n and r e d BLUE d e m o n s t r a t e s o n l y t h e p a i r g r e e n + r e d . A g a i n t h e r e a r e 55 p o s s i b l e p a i r s . T w o - y e a r - o l d s showed a t o t a l o f 38 such p a i r s , w i t h t h r e e i n Age 2A and 35 i n Age 2B. F o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed o n l y 19 p a i r s , w i t h Age 4A c o n t r i b u t i n g t e n and Age 4B n i n e p a i r s . 138. A p p e n d i x 36 shows t h a t t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n was t h e c l a s s o f " o t h e r " , w h i c h had s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . None o f t h e c l a s s e s o f a d j a c e n c y , s a t u r a t i o n o r b r i g h t n e s s showed any s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n e i t h e r age. Those g r o u p i n g s w h i c h o c c u r r e d more t h a n once came e n t i r e l y f r o m Age 2B i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s (n=10), and t h e r e were o n l y two i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . I n t h e l a t t e r , Age 4A showed o n l y one p a i r — b r o w n + b l a c k — a n d 4B showed t h i s same p a i r as w e l l as b l u e + g r e y . These low f i g u r e s c r e a t e a v e r y h i g h c r i t i c a l l e v e l and hence none o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s i n t h e c l a s s e s were e v e n c l o s e t o s i g n i f i c a n c e , a s A p p e n d i x 37 i n d i c a t e s . 3.10.2 (c) E r r o r A n a l y s i s I n c l u d i n g I n d i v i d u a l T e n d e n c i e s I n a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e same a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t when i n c l u d i n g e r r o r s made by s u b j e c t s showing a marked p r e f e r e n c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r term. T h i s r a i s e d t h e number o f e r r o r p a i r s i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s f r o m 38 t o 123, w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n 2A o f t h r e e e r r o r p a i r s t o 57, and i n 2B from 35 t o 66 e r r o r p a i r s . F o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed l e s s o f "a d i f f e r e n c e s i n c e o n l y one s u b j e c t ' s s c o r e s had been o m i t t e d e a r l i e r . Age 4A moved from t e n t o 25 e r r o r p a i r s w h i l e 4B r e m a i n e d t h e same; t h e o v e r a l l f o u r -y e a r - o l d t o t a l changed from 19 t o 34 e r r o r p a i r s . However, K S - a n a l y s e s a g a i n f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s i n any o f t h e a d j a c e n c y , b r i g h t n e s s o r s a t u r a t i o n c l a s s e s , o r even t h e " o t h e r " c l a s s . A p p e n d i x 38 shows f i g u r e s f o r p r o p o r t i o n s o f e r r o r p a i r s , w h i l e A p p e n d i x i n d i c a t e s t h o s e f o r e r r o r s made more t h a n o n c e . 140. 4.0 D i s c u s s i o n o f P e r f o r m a n c e R e s u l t s The f i r s t m ajor f i n d i n g became o b v i o u s d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t a g e , and was l a t e r i n d i r e c t l y c o n f i r m e d i n t h e v a r i o u s a n a l y s e s . T h i s was t h e l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e o f b o t h t a s k s , b o t h i n a c c u r a c y and i n t y p e o f respons'e as w e l l as i n t y p e o f e r r o r . T h i s was a l s o f o u n d by B a r t l e t t , and as she s u g g e s t e d , i t i s t h u s a l i t t l e r i s k y t o g r o u p t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e s t o make c l a i m s a b o u t t w o - y e a r - o l d s and even f o u r - y e a r - o l d s as a g r o u p . T h i s f a c t i n i t s e l f may be used t o e x p l a i n many o f t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g s and t h e a c t u a l r e s u l t s . 4.1 C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Rank O r d e r s w i t h Comparable S t u d i e s T h e r e were s e v e r a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e r a n k o r d e r s o b t a i n e d and t h o s e f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n sample s i z e and c o n d i t i o n s may q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f any c o m p a r i s o n s between s t u d i e s . Such f a c t o r s c a n be b a l a n c e d o u t t o some e x t e n t by i n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s u b j e c t s . Of most v a l u e , t h e n , i i s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h J o h n s o n ' s d a t a . S i n c e she t e s t e d t h e l a r g e s t number o f s u b j e c t s (669), h e r r e s u l t s would seem t o be t h e most r e l i a b l e . 4.2 C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r The l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n s , w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r c a n n o t be e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d . W h i l e one would e x p e c t some 141. e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p r e d i c t e d norm, a t l e a s t h a l f o f a m o d e r a t e l y - s i z e d g r o u p s h o u l d show s u c h a s e quence. But n o t a s i n g l e one o f t h e s u b j e c t s showed e i t h e r B e r l i n & Kay's o r d e r o r even t h e a c c u r a c y o r d e r o f a c h r o m a t i c s + p r i m a r i e s b e f o r e n o n - p r i m a r i e s . 4.2.1 In R e l a t i o n t o P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s Of t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s w h i c h compared ra n k o r d e r s w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r , o n l y one s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d w h i c h s t a t i s t i c was u s e d . On t h i s b a s i s a l o n e i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make t r u e c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . J o h n s o n ' s use o f a Spearman's Rho c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i s , however, a l s o q u e s t i o n a b l e . T h i s s t a t i s t i c assumes t h a t t h e two r a n k o r d e r s b e i n g compared a r e c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e same group o f s u b j e c t s . I t m i g h t t h e r e -f o r e be u s e d t o compare, say, c o m p r e h e n s i o n and p r o d u c t i o n r a n k o r d e r s w i t h i n e a c h a ge-group, b u t n o t f o r c o m p a r i n g any o f t h e o b t a i n e d o r d e r s w i t h t h a t o f B e r l i n & Kay. I n any c a s e , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ' s o b t a i n e d o r d e r o f p r o p o r t i o n o f s u b j e c t s c o r r e c t l y naming e a c h c o l o u r ( T a b l e i ) w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r , u s i n g t h e same a n a l y s i s t h a t J o h n s o n a p p e a r s t o have u s e d , a g a i n f o u n d no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r e i t h e r a g e - g r o u p . A r e - a n a l y s i s o f J o h n s o n ' s d a t a u s i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y ( K e n d a l l ' s tau) c o n f i r m e d a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r . So b o t h h e r r e s u l t s and o u r r e s u l t s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r have been c o n f i r m e d by u s i n g two d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s e s . 142. 4.2.2 Differences i n Data Another explanation for this lack of correlation might be in the type of data we are using. In comparing Orders of Accuracy to Berlin & Kay's evolutionary order, we are assuming that performance accuracy r e f l e c t s l e v e l of acquisition. Only longitudinal studies can r e a l l y determine actual order of acquisition, and then we are s t i l l faced with the question of what c r i t e r i a to use to determine whether a term has been acquired or not. The c r i t e r i o n used here was very s t r i c t ; only those terms with perfect performance were considered acquired. We should note here, however, that orders obtained using an e a r l i e r , less-stringent scoring method, where incorrect uses of terms were ignored, also did not correlate with the evolutionary order. While the particular order proposed by Ber l i n & Kay was not found in our data, that of the primaries, non-primaries and achromatics showing a particular order of accuracy and acquisition as separate groups was partly supported. This w i l l be discussed below i n the section headed "V a l i d i t y of Proposed Colour Groups" (Section 4 .11) . 4.3 Performance Variables in Colour-Naming  4.3.1 Age Differences As expected, four-year-olds performed much better i n overal l performance and i n each separate task than did the two-year-olds. The analysis of variance results supported 143 . t h e l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between rank o r d e r s o f t h e t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f e i t h e r age. T h a t i s , t h e two ages showed a d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t use o f c o l o u r t e r m s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e (age x c o l o u r ) i n t e r a c t i o n a l s o s u p p o r t e d t h i s g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e i n t h e y o u n g e r s u b j e c t s . As we w i l l d i s c u s s l a t e r , t w o - y e a r - o l d s a l s o made more i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s t h a n d i d t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s . 4.3.2 Task D i f f e r e n c e s The main e f f e c t o f t a s k s u g g e s t s t h a t more e r r o r s were made i n p r o d u c t i o n t h a n i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n , as was p r e d i c t e d . As we w i l l n o t e l a t e r , p r o d u c t i o n a l s o showed more l a c k o f r e s p o n s e t h a n d i d t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k . 4.3.3 C o l o u r D i f f e r e n c e s The c o l o u r v a r i a b l e showed s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . T h ese s u g g e s t t h a t more e r r o r s were made w i t h some c o l o u r terms t h a n w i t h o t h e r s . F u r t h e r a n a l y s e s showed ORANGE and PINK t o have s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r p e r f o r m a n c e s c o r e s t h a n t h e r e m a i n i n g c o l o u r s , w h i l e GREY and PURPLE, e s p e c i a l l y t h e f o r m e r , showed o v e r a l l low p e r f o r m a n c e s . These p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n S e c t i o n 4.4 C o l o u r Terms A c q u i r e d . The i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t a s k s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t e r m depends on t h e t a s k , as does t h e t y p e o f e r r o r w i t h t h a t t e r m o r sample. T h a t i s , a term w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d a c q u i r e d i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a c q u i r e d i n p r o d u c t i o n . Comparing t h e r a n k s f o r any c o l o u r i n T a b l e s 4 and 5 c o n f i r m s t h i s . 144 . 4.3.4 In R e l a t i o n t o C o r r e l a t i o n R e s u l t s T hese a n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e r e s u l t s were a l l s u p p o r t e d by t h e l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e v a r i o u s r a n k o r d e r s o f t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e and a g e - g r o u p p e r f o r m a n c e . We m i g h t a l s o have e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e (age x t a s k x c o l o u r ) i n t e r a c t i o n would be s i g n i f i c a n t , s i n c e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between r a n k o r d e r s o f c o l o u r s i n t h e two ages f o r t h e two t a s k s ( T a b l e 1 and A p p e n d i x 1 Row B ) . T h i s may r e f l e c t a g a i n t h a t i n t h e r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s we a r e l o o k i n g a t o r d e r s , w h i l e i n t h e a n a l y s i s - o f - v a r i a n c e we a r e l o o k i n g a t f r e q u e n c i e s . 4.3.5 Sub-Group V a r i a b l e s A f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n o f t w o - y e a r - o l d s and f o u r - y e a r - o l d s i n t o s u b - g r o u p s showed s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s . I n t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e and i n b o t h t a s k s i n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n k o r d e r s o b t a i n e d . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h fewer t h a n f o u r c o l o u r terms (Age 2A) were making d i f f e r e n t e r r o r s w i t h t h e terms t h e y knew t h a n were t h e more a d v a n c e d c h i l d r e n o f Age 2B. However, t h e number o f terms i n v o c a b u l a r y was o n l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t a s k s and t h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y n o t a t r u l y r e a l i s t i c i n d i c a t i o n . What i t m i g h t r e f l e c t i s t h e s u b j e c t ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e s p o n d . I f so, t h e n we c a n s t i l l make t h e g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s about w h i c h terms a r e most l i k e l y t o o c c u r o r most l i k e l y t o be m i s u s e d , e t c . I n any c a s e , t h e s u b - g r o u p i n g by v o c a b u l a r y s i z e s t i l l p r o v e d t o be v a l u a b l e i n t h a t i t showed t h a t age i t s e l f i s n o t a v a l i d g r o u p i n g measure, a l t h o u g h i t was t h e 145. t h e most c o n v e n i e n t one a t t h e t i m e . 4.4 C o l o u r Terms A c q u i r e d We have a l r e a d y n o t e d t h e h i g h p e r f o r m a n c e a c c u r a c y f o r t h e c o l o u r t e r m s ORANGE and PINK i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s , and t h e p o o r p e r f o r m a n c e f o r GREY i n b o t h a g e s . We would e x p e c t t h e s e r e s u l t s t o a p p e a r a l s o i n e x a m i n i n g w h i c h c o l o u r terms have been a c q u i r e d by t h e most o r f e w e s t s u b j e c t s , s i n c e a c q u i s i t i o n i s b e i n g j u d g e d h e r e by p e r f o r m a n c e a c c u r a c y . T a b l e s 4 and 5 c o n f i r m t h i s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , GREY showed t h e l o w e s t r a n k i n g i n f i v e o f t h e s i x o r d e r s l o o k e d a t , and was among t h e t h r e e l o w e s t i n t h e r e m a i n i n g o r d e r . A l s o , ORANGE and PINK were c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h i n rank i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s , even t h o u g h t h i s n e v e r c o n s t i t u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n . ORANGE was a l s o n o t e d by J o h n s o n as h a v i n g an u n e x p e c t -e d l y h i g h a c c u r a c y ; h e r s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t t h i s t e r m may have been more f i x e d i n t h e s u b j e c t s ' v o c a b u l a r i e s b e c a u s e i t a l s o r e f e r r e d t o t h e f r u i t . L o o k i n g a t t h e i n p u t t h e s e c h i l d r e n g o t from t h e i r p a r e n t s ( a l i m i t e d and u n r e l i a b l e s o u r c e ) d i d n o t show ORANGE t o be n o t a b l y h i g h i n f r e q u e n c y , so i t may be more a q u e s t i o n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f i n p u t and how much r e l e v a n c e i t has t o t h e c h i l d . A s i m i l a r argument c o u l d be made t o e x p l a i n t h e h i g h r a n k s o f PINK i n t h e t w o - y e a r - o l d s . GREY d i d g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r i n t h e low r a n k s o f i n p u t , as would be e x p e c t e d . 146. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember a l s o t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e was v e r y h i g h i n t h e s e c a s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e low number o f s u b j e c t s . T h i s e x p l a i n s p a r t l y why t h e r e were i n f a c t no examples o f s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s . As i t i s , t h e r e was no c o l o u r t e r m w h i c h a l l t h e t w o - y e a r - o l d s had a c q u i r e d , e i t h e r i n t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e o r i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l t a s k . On t h e o t h e r hand, none o f t h e c o l o u r terms was known by a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . The l o w e s t p r o p o r t i o n was 30% h a v i n g a c q u i r e d GREY i n t o t a l p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s r e f l e c t s a g a i n t h e h i g h e r o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s o l d e r a g e - g r o u p i n .each c o l o u r . B a s e d on t h e s e a n a l y s e s and on T a b l e 5, we c a n make no c l a i m s a b o u t w h i c h terms one c a n e x p e c t a t w o - y e a r - o l d t o have a c q u i r e d . But t h e r e i s a g r e a t c h a n c e he w i l l n o t have a c q u i r e d RED,BLUE,GREEN,BLACK o r BROWN, and a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y n o t GREY. F o u r - y e a r - o l d s w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y have a c q u i r e d GREEN,RED, and BLACK, and most s h o u l d have some knowledge o f t h e r e m a i n i n g t e r m s . From t h i s , , we m ight h a z a r d a s u g g e s t i o n a t o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n — G R E E N , R E D and BLACK b e i n g t h e e a r l i e s t terms a c q u i r e d and GREY b e i n g l a s t . 4.5 C o l o u r Terms Used We a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h c o l o u r terms a r e u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y by t w o - y e a r - o l d s and f o u r -y e a r - o l d s , r e g a r d l e s s o f a c c u r a c y o f t h i s u s e . Here a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e emerges. As T a b l e 11 showed, t h e c o l o u r terms most l i k e l y t o 147. appear i n the vocabulary of two-year-olds seemed to be the primaries, especially BLUE, and the non-primary term ORANGE. Those least l i k e l y were the achromatics BLACK and GREY. None of the Age 2A subjects showed any achromatic terms or BROWN or PURPLE or YELLOW, and again BLUE would seem the most l i k e l y term to appear i n those subjects with fewer than four colour terms. Table 11 also showed that a child's f i r s t colour term can be of the non-primaries, as Bar t l e t t also found. So many colours were used correctly by four-year-olds that we can only predict which terms are most l i k e l y to be used incorrectly at this stage. These would appear to be WHITE and. GREY especially, and then BROWN and PURPLE. These results seem to support the claim that colour terms w i l l emerge i n the order of primaries f i r s t , followed by the other colour groups. Here the achromatics certainly appear to be among the l a s t to appear, but the non-primaries appeared at various points amongst these other colours and did not emerge as a group. It i s also interesting to note here that no subjects i n either age-group ever responded with a phrasal colour-name, such as 0RANGY-RED , or used q u a l i f i e r s as in LIGHT RED or BRIGHT GREEN. Only three subjects replied with a colour-name other than one of the eleven target terms; these were a l l four-year-olds. This strongly supports the appropriate-ness of the samples used and suggests support for the l e x i c a l primacy of these eleven terms over other colour-terms. 148 . 4.5.1 C o l o u r as a L e x i c a l Domain None o f t h e r e s p o n s e s were a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n c o l o u r t e r m s . T h e r e was o n l y one s u b j e c t who r a t h e r c r e a t i v e l y p r o v i d e d t h e names o f a p p r o p r i a t e f r u i t s a f t e r " s m e l l i n g " t h e sample c o l o u r s , b u t t h i s was q u i t e o b v i o u s l y a game. T h i s c e r t a i n l y s u p p o r t s t h e c l a i m s made by N e l s o n , R i c e and B a r t l e t t t h a t even c h i l d r e n w i t h a l i m i t e d c o l o u r v o c a b u l a r y know w h i c h a r e c o l o u r terms and w h i c h a r e n o t . Even o u r y o u n g e s t s u b j e c t s , t h e n , had some i d e a o f t h e l e x i c a l domain o f c o l o u r . To d e t e r m i n e whether t h i s a l s o r e f l e c t s a w o r k i n g c o n c e p t u a l domain would r e q u i r e more t e s t s , s u c h as a s o r t i n g - b y - c o l o u r t a s k . 4.5.2 I n d i v i d u a l Naming P r e f e r e n c e s S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n seemed t o show a p r e f e r e n c e f o r u s i n g c e r t a i n c o l o u r t e r m s . T h i s was q u i t e marked i n some c a s e s and t h e a n a l y s e s f o r e r r o r s made on t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r s were a d j u s t e d t o e x c l u d e t h e s e s u b j e c t s . In a l l , t h e r e were s i x t w o - y e a r - o l d s and one f o u r - y e a r - o l d who used a p a r t i c u l a r t e r m f o r more t h a n h a l f o f t h e samples named. The terms GREEN, ORANGE and RED were f a v o u r e d by one c h i l d e a c h . But f o u r c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g t h e one f o u r - y e a r -o l d , f a v o u r e d t h e t e r m BLUE. Moreover, t h e c h i l d w i t h GREEN p r e f e r e n c e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s group, s i n c e h e r mother c l a i m e d t h a t a t home t h e c h i l d c a l l e d e v e r y -t h i n g BLUE r a t h e r t h a n GREEN as t h e t a s k s had i n d i c a t e d . T a b l e s 11 and 12 a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t BLUE was t h e t e r m u s e d 149. most often by two-year-olds and second most often by four-year-olds, and this i s excluding data from the above subjects. Results from the questionnaire also indicate that BLUE was the favourite colour term for six of the thirteen two-year-olds; the next ranking term was RED for only two subjects. BLUE was also the term that mothers most often l i s t e d as the f i r s t colour term used by their c h i l d . What could be the reason for this apparent primacy of the colour term BLUE i n two-year-olds? Some possible explanations are provided below ( a to e). 4.5.2 (a) Primacy of Use F i r s t , the suggestion i s that terms used most often, correctly and/or incorrectly, are those colour terms which were learned f i r s t , or at least used f i r s t . The data seems to support t h i s ; only one of the subjects with BLUE preference labelled the actual blue sample incorrectly although this might have been attributable to chance. But how can we prove that this was actually the f i r s t term used? Why do only some children show a preference, and why do those children who used some other term X f i r s t not show a preference for term X i n the tasks? 4.5.2 (b) Term Exposure The second p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the subject has been exposed to this term more than to others. Information from the questionnaire seems to support t h i s . The three mothers of BLUE preferences showed BLUE to be among the top three 150. in both their frequency and extent-of-use. Questionnaire information for the four-year-old was not available. Mothers of the other term preferences, however, did not show those terms to be very high in their frequency or extent-of-use orders. Again, information from this source i s not especially r e l i a b l e . 4.5.2 (c) Learning Stage Another p o s s i b i l i t y i s that the subject i s just learning this name and thus overextends i t to many other colours. This i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to determine on the basis of the task results alone. Although the three two-year-olds with BLUE preference did show correct application of BLUE, this might just have been due to chance. This, moreover, implies that a c h i l d only learns one term at a time and that the task caught some subjects at the point where they were learning BLUE, others at ORANGE, RED or GREEN. Having these terms as the f i r s t ones used, as the questionnaires indicate, does not mean that they might not be just being learned at this l a t e r stage, but this questions the whole concept of when learning does begin and f i n i s h . Perhaps these children are at a d i f f e r e n t stage than those who showed no preference, or employ a d i f f e r e n t learning strategy, where they pick one name at a time and experiment with i t u n t i l they get i t right. M i l l e r & Johnson-Laird note that Istomina found that two-year-olds tended to pick a certain term out of their vocabulary (in her case RED) and use i t to answer a l l task questions. 5 0 151. 4.5.2 (d) Limited Vocabulary A fourth p o s s i b i l i t y i s that this i s the only colour term in the child's repertoire and therefore i s used for any colour. This can be quickly repudiated. A l l of the subjects involved used other colour terms as well, although not many and seldom correctly. S t i l l , none of these children have a very large colour-term vocabulary; with three o£ four terms, they are a l l i n sub-group 2A. BLUE may be the most firmly established of these, as well as being more frequent i n each child's input than the other terms they used (these were RED, ORANGE,GREEN,PINK,YELLOW). 4.5.2 (e) Phonological Preference It i s also possible that these subjects simply prefer a p a r t i c u l a r colour name, focusing on the character of that word i t s e l f as opposed to what colour i t represents. This could be a preference for the actual sound of the name or a pleasant association that the term beings to mind. The fact that BLUE was the favourite colour term for two of the four subjects with this preference supports this explanation. One of the subjects' mothers in fact noted that her c h i l d liked pronouncing the word BLUE and used i t often because she enjoyed saying i t . Furthermore, this might r e f l e c t the r e l a t i v e phonological simplicity of colour terms. Children at the age of two are s t i l l acquiring the English phonological system and might just find BLUE easier to pronounce than other terms such as, say, ORANGE or PURPLE. It might also be that the child's 152. p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h i s t e r m i s c l o s e r t o t h e a d u l t - f o r m t h a n h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n , o f o t h e r c o l o u r names. So he may g e t much more p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e f rom a d u l t s when he u s e s t h i s term, r e g a r d l e s s o f a c c u r a c y , and t h e r e f o r e u s e s i t more f r e q u e n t l y . A t e r m t h a t i s a t l e a s t i n t h e c o r r e c t l e x i c a l f i e l d i s more l i k e l y t o g e t a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e t h a n one w h i c h c a n n o t be u n d e r s t o o d a t a l l by t h e a d u l t . I n c i d e n t a l l y , t h e p h o n e t i c o r p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f a c o l o u r - t e r m was n o t m e n t i o n e d by any o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s as a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i n c o l o u r - t e r m a c q u i s i t i o n o r d e r o r a c c u r a c y . I t may w e l l be as v a l i d f o r p r e d i c t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s as t h e p e r c e p t u a l a nd/or e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . 4.6 L e v e l s o f S t a b i l i t y We have now s u g g e s t e d some t e n d e n c i e s o f w h i c h c o l o u r terms w i l l o r w i l l n o t have been a c q u i r e d by a c e r t a i n age (see pages 145-6 ) and w h i c h terms we c a n e x p e c t t o f i n d i n t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s o f t w o - y e a r - o l d s and f o u r - y e a r - o l d s (see pages 146-7 ). The a n a l y s e s o f S e c t i o n 3.5 were done i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g t h e s e two p i e c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . t o g e t h e r . F i n d i n g t h e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s o f e ach t e r m p a r t l y d u p l i c a t e s t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f c o l o u r terms a c q u i r e d , s i n c e o u r d e f i n i t i o n s f o r " a c q u i r e d " and "STABLE" a r e t h e same. But i t a l l o w s a l s o a c l o s e r l o o k a t n o n - a c q u i r e d terms by b r e a k i n g them down i n t o UNSTABLE and UNKNOWN l e v e l s , w h i c h i n t u r n b r i n g s i n i n f o r m a t i o n 153. derived from examining incorrect responses and "no responses" in each task (Sections 3.8.3 and 3.8.4). Further, i t allows a breakdown into the two s k i l l s of comprehension and production which we know from the e a r l i e r analysis of variance to vary from one colour to another. 4.6.1 Age Differences i n Overall S t a b i l i t y Levels As expected, there were de f i n i t e age differences in the proportions of certain s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s . Two-year-olds showed a low overall proportion of STABLE terms compared to a high proportion in four-year-olds. Terms which were UNKNOWN were of a non-significant proportion i n two-year-olds while those UNSTABLE constituted the largest number of terms. Both of these levels were s i g n i f i c a n t l y low in the older age-group. This supports the finding that the older children showed a more stable knowledge and use of these terms. Examining the proportions of these s t a b i l i t y levels for each colour term indiv i d u a l l y also shows this age difference. Looking at Figures 7 to 9, four-year-olds always showed a higher number of subjects for which a term was STABLE (Figure 7) and a lower number for UNKNOWN (Figure 9) than two-year-olds. Only for GREY and PURPLE did four-year-olds show more subjects with UNSTABLE labels than two-year-olds (Figure 8). 4.6.2 Predominant Colours in Overall S t a b i l i t y Levels No individual colour contributed a si g n i f i c a n t proportion to any of these s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s . This again 154 . i n d i c a t e s t h e l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r term. We c a n t h e r e f o r e make no s t a t e -ments o r p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t w h i c h terms a r e e x p e c t e d t o be STABLE, UNSTABLE, o r UNKNOWN f o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s o r f o u r -y e a r - o l d s . T h e r e were a l s o v e r y few c a s e s where a c o l o u r g r o u p c o n t r i b u t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n t o any o f t h e s e l e v e l s . I n t w o - y e a r - o l d s , t h e n o n - p r i m a r y g r o u p o f p u r p l e + o r a n g e + p i n k c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e group o f STABLE t e r m s . T h i s i s probably'' m a i n l y due t o t h e h i g h a c c u r a c y o f ORANGE and PINK (see T a b l e 1, f o r e x a m p l e ) . None o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s o f p r i m a r y , a c h r o m a t i c o r n o n - p r i m a r y c o l o u r s showed any r e l e v a n c e t o t h e l e v e l s o f STABLE, UNSTABLE o r UNKNOWN i n e i t h e r age. 4.6.3 L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n and Comprehension 4.6.3 (a) Age D i f f e r e n c e s The d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o u n d i n l e v e l s o f p r o d u c t i o n and co m p r e h e n s i o n p e r f o r m a n c e c a n be e x p l a i n e d s i m p l y as t h e e x p e c t e d age d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e a c c u r a c y . Two-year-o l d s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s o f MIXED and o f INCORRECT p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l s , a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t CORRECT p r o p o r t i o n and a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f NONE p r o d u c t i o n . The o l d e r a g e - g r o u p showed a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f CORRECT p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h low o r n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e o t h e r l e v e l s . W h i l e t w o - y e a r - o l d s showed no d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , f o u r - y e a r - o l d s showed a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f 155. CORRECT and a low p r o p o r t i o n o f NONE c o m p r e h e n s i o n . 4.6.3 (b) P r e d o m i n a n t C o l o u r s A g a i n , no i n d i v i d u a l c o l o u r s c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o any o f t h e s e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , b u t some c o l o u r g r o u p s d i d f o r p r o d u c t i o n by t w o - y e a r - o l d s . The n o n - p r i m a r y group o f PURPLE+ORANGE+PINK+BROWN+GREY gave a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e INCORRECT p r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s . Here t h e u n e x p e c t e d l y h i g h s c o r e s o f ORANGE and PINK may have o f f -s e t t h e f r e q u e n t i n c o r r e c t u s e s o f PURPLE and BROWN.. The h i g h a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e c o l o u r terms would a l s o e x p l a i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d to CORRECT p r o d u c t i o n by t h e n o n - p r i m a r y group o f PURPLE+PINK+ORANGE. The p r i m a r y c o l o u r g r o u p showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e INCORRECT p r o d u c t i o n s c o r e s i n t w o - y e a r -o l d s , and a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n o f NONE p r o d u c t i o n i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . I t seems t h a t t h e p r i m a r y terms a r e n o t o n l y t h e most l i k e l y t o be us e d , as S e c t i o n 4.5 showed, b u t t h e y a r e j u s t as l i k e l y t o be u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y as c o r r e c t l y . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e a c t u a l terms i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , t h e s m a l l sample s i z e p r o d u c e d v e r y s t r i c t c r i t e r i a f o r r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t l y low p r o p o r t i o n s , p r e v e n t i n g any c l a i m s a b o u t w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l c o l o u r s a r e n o t l i k e l y t o be STABLE o r UNSTABLE o r UNKNOWN. I n o t h e r c a s e s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n needed t o r e a c h t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e was v e r y h i g h , l i m i t i n g c l a i m s about w h i c h c o l o u r s o r c o l o u r g r o u p s a r e l i k e l y t o show c e r t a i n s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s . 156. 4.7 Labelling Strategies At this point, a series of analyses were done with the emphasis on the colour sample i t s e l f , as opposed to the term. This was to determine i f there were any trends or tendencies in which colours w i l l be grouped with other colours under a single label or which colours w i l l always be given a label d i s t i n c t from the others. Can we predict from these results found i n Section 3.6 an order i n which colours are recognized as separate lexical/conceptual categories? 4.7.1 Age Differences Results of the analysis of label-types do seem to support the hypothesis that proportions of separate, shared and no-label types wil l , vary with age or (in this case) with the size of colour-term vocabulary. It i s a l i t t l e risky to claim that these show a progressive change i n status for each colour, since the small sample size of some of the sub-groups prevented us from determining s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportions. Moreover, these are different subjects and so we cannot claim any developmental trends. Nonetheless, Table 19 does indicate that for any given colour, labels seemed to progress from predominantly "no l a b e l " to random use of the three label types to a high use of shared labels, and f i n a l l y to predominantly separate labels. 4.7.2 Order of Acquiring Separate Labels Can we predict an order of emergence of these separate labels for colours? Looking at the s i g n i f i c a n t proportions i n each of these label-types for each sub-group may do so. 157. Age 2A showed no colours having a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of separate labels; i f anything they appeared to be close to s i g n i f i c a n t l y low proportions. The next sub-group showed only orange to have reached this status, a big jump from the 2A group where th i s colour showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high proportion of no labels. By age four, a l l except blue and grey showed a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of subjects giving them separate labels. Black and brown appeared to be at an intermediate stage, since their proportions of shared labels were at the non-significant l e v e l , not yet at the s i g n i f i c a n t l y low le v e l of the other colours. Blue then followed with a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low propor-tion of no labels while i t had not yet reached a s i g n i f i c a n t high i n separate labels or l o s t i t s non-significant proportion of shared labels. Grey was s t i l l far behind with none of i t s proportions being what we would expect from adult use. A closer look at the sub-groups of four-year-olds indicated that pink was the only colour with a high proportion of separate labels i n 4A. Orange had no s i g n i f i c a n t propor-tions. But AGE 2B and 4A overlap i n the number of colour terms shown so i t i s possible to combine these sub-groups. This would lead us to conclude that pink and/or orange are the f i r s t colours to emerge with separate labels. This i s supported by the rank orders of accuracy in Table 1, and the rank orders of subjects having acquired each term in Table 5 for two-year-olds. In other words, not only are ORANGE and PINK the f i r s t terms to be used consistently 158 . correctly, but the colours orange and pink are also the f i r s t to be distinguished as categories separate from other colours. This leads us to propose an order of emergence of separate labels for colours, indicated i n Figure 16. Figure 16: Proposed Order of Emergence of Separate Labels pink green purple black r red i_ • 1 blue grey orange ,. whxte brown 3 2 3 yellow We are beginning to see some trends appearing i n lexical/conceptual groupings, i n particular the early emergence of ORANGE and PINK. For a further examination into the possible categorization strategies and l e x i c a l groupings that children at these ages might be using, the types of errors were analyzed. Sections 3.8 to 3.10 asked several questions: are there age and task differences in the types of errors and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of such errors among the eleven colour terms, are certain terms or'samples more prone to error or misuse than others, what are these errors based on? 159. 4.8 Performance Variables for Error-Types 4.8.1 Order Correlations/Analysis of Variance Results There were some discrepancies between results found by the rank order correlations and those found by the analysis of variance. The lack of correlation between the various orders of errors shown in Tables 24 and 25 suggests a task difference, as well as the expected age difference. The only task difference shown by the analysis of variance, however, was i n the number of "no responses", the production task producing more such responses than the comprehension. Do these results r e a l l y contradict each other or are they answers to two d i f f e r e n t questions? The discrepancy i s explained by noting that rank order correlations depend on the order of terms, and only the r e l a t i v e frequencies are important. The analysis of variance, on the other hand, compares the actual frequencies of each term i n one rank order to the other. The correlation of the production orders of "no response" for the two ages implies there i s no age difference, contrary to the analysis of variance. But again this i s because the orders are very similar, while the actual frequencies are not. Grey, for example, i s at the top of both l i s t s but scores 9 for two-year-olds and only 4 for four-year-olds. Table 25 shows the vast differences i n frequencies between the two ages. These results again support the claims that with increasing age there are fewer errors and that more errors are made in production than in comprehension. The greater 160. number of "no responses" i n production suggests that children are more hesitant to name a colour than to point to a p a r t i c u l a r sample. 4.8.2 Task Differences This l a s t comment deserves further discussion, since i t may explain why performance accuracy d i f f e r e d between the two tasks of production and comprehension. Why, for example, were there no cases of subjects showing a marked preference for a particular colour sample? Overextensions i n comprehension were possible, since several children were given the chance to indicate more than one sample for a given name, but they did not occur. The results of the comprehension task seem to indicate that most of the children knew that there was only one colour for any colour term asked for. When the subject had made a choice for a p a r t i c u l a r colour name, he seldom looked for another sample when prompted, even i f the f i r s t choice was incorrect. The factor involved here may be the difference i n the experimental set-up for each task, and i n d i r e c t l y in the demands each task makes on the subject's memory. As Huttenlocher noted, production makes more demands on the c h i l d ; he must r e c a l l and produce a word rather than the non-verbal colour image required by the comprehension task. Moreover, the l a t t e r provides a whole array of colours so the c h i l d can remember which samples he has already pointed to and can compare the colours to each other. l n production 161. only one colour i s provided at a time and the c h i l d must remember a l l the verbal responses he has already given i f he doesn't want to repeat himself. It i s a question of whether i t i s easier to remember something you said (production response) or something you did (comprehension response). The results seem to support the l a t t e r being easier for two-year-olds. 4.9 Distribution of Error-Types 4.9.1 Individual Colours Tables 24 and 25 indicated that certain colours appeared to be more prone to error than others while some appeared to be more often correct than others. Yet none of the analyses showed these to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Although we did fi n d the d i s t r i b u t i o n to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that expected by chance, we could not pinpoint where these differences were. 4.9.2 Colour Groups There were, however, some colour groups which showed si g n i f i c a n t contributions. These were not the predicted primary, achromatic or non-primary groups, rather they were groups based on their ranking i n the actual orders. For incorrect responses by two-year-olds, for example, the top three and top four ranks of production and the top four ranks of comprehension were s i g n i f i c a n t groups of colours. These, however, involved some fi v e , six and seven colours respectively and i t i s quite l i k e l y that any random 162. g r o u p o f s u c h s i z e would c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y . S i m i l a r l y , i n f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h e t o p two r a n k s p r o v e d a s i g n i f i c a n t g r o up, t h i s i n c l u d i n g f i v e c o l o u r s . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o l o u r g r o u p s o f d e c r e a s i n g r a n k s w h i c h c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s way a r e t h e h i g h s c o r e s o f g r e y + p u r p l e i n f o u r - j e a r - o l d s ' "no r e s p o n s e " p r o d u c t i o n o r d e r , and t h e h i g h r a n k o f g r e y + b l a c k + g r e e n i n t h e two-y e a r - o l d s ' "no r e s p o n s e " c o m p r e h e n s i o n o r d e r . A l l o f t h e s e r a n k g r o u p i n g s o f e r r o r - t y p e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y i n terms o f common p r o p e r t i e s . They c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d , i n terms o f p r i m a r y , n o n - p r i m a r y o r a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r g r o u p s . Nor do t h e y c o n s i s t e n t l y show common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f hue o r o f b r i g h t n e s s o r s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s . The o n l y s u c h s i m i l a r i t y i s w i t h g r e y + p u r p l e b o t h b e i n g non-b r i g h t c o l o u r s (see T a b l e 31); t h e o t h e r g r o u p s can o n l y be e x p l a i n e d by t h e i r l a r g e s i z e . T h i s a n a l y s i s has t h e r e f o r e n o t r e v e a l e d any o f t h e l e x i c a l o r c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s t h a t were e x p e c t e d . 4.10 O v e r e x t e n s i o n s : I n c o r r e c t Uses o f Terms and Samples 4.10.1 P r e d o m i n a n t C o l o u r s and C o l o u r Groups S l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t and more e n c o u r a g i n g r e s u l t s were f o u n d when s i m i l a r a n a l y s e s were done w i t h t h e d a t a on i n c o r r e c t u s e s o f e a c h term. T h e r e were a g a i n no i n d i v i d u a l c o l o u r s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s , n o t even s i g n i f i c a n t l y low o n e s . But t h e group o f p r i m a r y c o l o u r s showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more incorrect uses by two-year-olds in production than any of the remaining colours. This finding showed up e a r l i e r i n the s i g n i f i c a n t contribution of this group to the INCORRECT production level of s t a b i l i t y . Table 29 also shows the primary colours to rank high i n both number of subjects who overextended them and the number of di f f e r e n t colour samples they were overextended to. The other colour groups with s i g n i f i c a n t proportions of the incorrect uses, shown i n Table 28, again involved groups of large numbers, from four to five terms in four-year-olds': comprehension, for example. Moreover, these colour groups could not be explained i n terms of common properties, again suggesting that any random group of this size would have proved s i g n i f i c a n t . 4.10.2 S t a b i l i t y Levels of Overextended Terms Comparisons with s t a b i l i t y levels gave further informa-tion about which terms would be used incorrectly. It seemed that for two-year-olds, terms which were overextended were those for which the subjects did not yet have a stable referent. Where comprehension was intact, there was much less of a tendency for the term to be used incorrectly. Four-year-olds, on the other hand,' apparently over-extended those terms which were f a i r l y stable i n their r e l a t i o n to a par t i c u l a r colour sample, terms which they apparently had no problems in comprehending or using correctly. The results therefore seem to support both proposals made as to the status of overextended terms. Carey suggested that those terms not yet stably mapped onto a referent would be those overextended; results from two-year-olds support t h i s . The opposite proposal by Thomson & Chapman, that the more stable terms would be those most overextended, i s supported by results from four-year-olds. One would expect the opposite age correspondences, however. The subjects i n the l a t t e r study, as well as i n Fremgen & Fay's which supported their claim, were of the same age range as our two-year-olds, while subjects i n Carey's study were closer to the age l e v e l of our four-year-olds. Perhaps the types of terms used as overextensions are as much based on the individual as are the number of overextensions, as i s the whole issue of whether a subject would rather guess or not respond at a l l . The two ages do seem to show di f f e r e n t naming strategies. Four-year-olds seemed to be consciously using the colour terms they knew to get feedback for the colour samples they didn't yet know the name of, or couldn't r e c a l l the name of, as Carey suggested. On the other hand, two-year-olds used terms much more randomly. Overextensions by this age were more d i f f i c u l t to relate to perceptual s i m i l a r i t i e s or to term-s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s . The significance that was found for two-year-olds was not nearly as well-defined as that for four-year-olds . 165. 4.10.3 E x i s t e n c e o f C o r r e c t Terms i n V o c a b u l a r y T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n naming s t r a t e g i e s , o r p e r h a p s i n m o t i v a t i o n f o r g i v i n g a r e s p o n s e , i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f what c o l o u r s t h e s e terms were i n c o r r e c t l y u s e d f o r . I n b o t h a g e s , a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low number o f s u b j e c t s a l s o showed some use o f t h e c o r r e c t term f o r t h a t sample w h i c h was i n c o r r e c t l y named. In t w o - y e a r - o l d s , t h i s was a l m o s t t h e e x a c t p r o p o r t i o n f o u n d by Thomson & Chapman (16%) a t t h e same age. The p r o p o r t i o n d e c r e a s e d r a p i d l y t o a low 7% i n t h e o l d e r s u b j e c t s . T h i s c o n f i r m s o u r h y p o t h e s i s t h a t a c h i l d w i l l t e n d n o t t o name i n c o r r e c t l y a sample f o r w h i c h he has t h e c o r r e c t l a b e l . Can we a l s o p r e d i c t w h i c h c o l o u r / i n c o r r e c t - l a b e l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s w i l l o c c u r ? 4.10.4 L e x i c a l / C o n c e p t u a l C a t e g o r i e s R e v e a l e d by E r r o r s The e r r o r s made d i d n o t a p p e a r t o have any c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s t o t h e p h y s i c a l / p e r c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s b a s e d on hue, b r i g h t n e s s o r s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s . T h i s was t r u e b o t h f o r c o l o u r s g i v e n t h e same l a b e l ( r e g a r d l e s s o f l a b e l ) and f o r c o m p a r i n g a c o l o u r sample w i t h i t s i n c o r r e c t l a b e l as i n B a r t l e t t ' s a n a l y s i s . W h i l e B a r t l e t t f o u n d age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e r r o r s due t o t h e s e t h r e e p a r a m e t e r s , none o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o p o r t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o d i s c u s s s u c h t r e n d s w i t h any c o n f i d e n c e . B a r t l e t t , i n c i d e n t a l l y , d i d n o t c h e c k t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h e r p r o p o r -t i o n s a l t h o u g h most seem t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus t h e s u b j e c t s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y do n o t a p p e a r t o be u s i n g 166. these properties as a basis for their l e x i c a l groupings. Other possible major bases of overextensions were of functional s i m i l a r i t i e s and of association. While the study did not examine overextensions of colour terms into other l e x i c a l f i e l d s , one mother volunteered some information which suggests that overextensions of function could have occurred. This subject frequently used a colour term to distinguish lined paper from unlined paper. She i n effect recognized that colour words can function to distinguish objects from each other. It i s possible that more of the errors we found could be explained in this way. Many of the errors may be through associations with other objects and experiences, as Vygotsky and Inhelder & Piaget suggested for this very age group. These, of course, could only be determined through a very thorough analysis. I suspect, however, that many of the present errors were just random, especially i n the two-year-olds, and cannot be expected to r e f l e c t the l e x i c a l and/or conceptual categories of a c h i l d at these ages. 4.11 The V a l i d i t y of Proposed Colour Groups One issue that has surfaced i n several of the analyses i s the relevance of the categories of primary, achromatic and non-primary colours to colour learning. Several attempts were made to see i f these groups are the conceptual and/or l e x i c a l categories being used by two-year-olds and four-year-olds. The results have been mentioned throughout Sections 3.0 and 167. 4.0 but are summarized again i n (a) to ( f ) . (a) Order of Accuracy The rank orders obtained for accuracy of performance did not r e f l e c t any precedence of one of these groups being more or less accurate than another. Nor were these found to contribute s i g n i f i c a n t proportions to the.overall main effe c t of colour found i n the analysis of variance. However, when ORANGE and PINK were omitted, the primary colours did show s i g n i f i c a n t l y better performance as a group than did the remaining groups of achromatics and non-primaries. (b) Order of Acquisition The section on Colour Terms Acquired (3.3 and 4.4) determined how many subjects had acquired a l l the members of each of these groups. Two-year-olds showed no s i g n i -f i c a n t l y large proportions of subjects having acquired a l l of either the primaries or of the various achromatic and non-primary groups. There were s i g n i f i c a n t l y small pro-portions, but no more in one colour group than in the other. Four-year-olds showed one s i g n i f i c a n t l y large pro-portion, that of the achromatic group black+white. This appears to contradict the rank orders for four-year-olds i n Table 5; black ranks near the top but white certainly does not. The apparent disagreement i s because here we are combining scores of the members of each of these groups. In any case, this result only p a r t i a l l y supports the proposed precedence of the achromatic colours as a group. 168. (c) Q'olour -Terms Used : The p r i m a r y c o l o u r s d i d t e n d t o be t h o s e most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f t w o - y e a r - o l d s , w h i l e t h e a c h r o m a t i c s were t h e l e a s t l i k e l y . However, t h e non-p r i m a r i e s a l s o o c c u r r e d as e a r l y terms and t h e m a j o r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s d i d n o t show s u c h a c l e a r - c u t d i s t r i b u t i o n . (d) L a b e l - T y p e s F i g u r e 16 shows t h e s u g g e s t e d o r d e r o f emergence o f s e p a r a t e l a b e l s b a s e d on a n a l y s e s o f t h e l a b e l - t y p e s i n e a c h age. As w i t h t h e r a n k o r d e r s m e n t i o n e d i n (a) above, t h i s does n o t r e f l e c t a s t r i c t g r o u p i n g o f t h e p r i m a r y , n o n - p r i m a r y and a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s . R a t h e r , t h e p r i m a r i e s have been s p l i t i n t o g r e e n , r e d and y e l l o w o f s e c o n d a r y r a n k and b l u e o f a v e r y l a t e emergence. The a c h r o m a t i c s a p p e a r a l i t t l e more c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r , g r e y a g a i n e m e r g i n g l a s t . And a s i n t h e r a n k o r d e r , t h e n o n - p r i m a r i e s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t , o r a n g e and p i n k a g a i n e m e r g i n g f i r s t . (e) S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s The g r o u p o f n o n - p r i m a r i e s ( i i i ) c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i -c a n t l y t o s e v e r a l o f t h e s t a b i l i t y l e v e l s , as d i d t h e p r i m a r y g r o u p . These, however, were t h e o n l y ones w h i c h a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . M o r e over, t h i s n o n - p r i m a r y group i n c l u d e s f i v e o f t h e e l e v e n c o l o u r s and i t may be t h a t any random gro u p o f t h i s s i z e would have made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . 169. (f) Errors Made These colour groups did not contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to any of the orders found for number of errors made or number of "no responses". However, the primary group d e f i n i t e l y showed more incorrect uses, i . e . overextensions, than did the other colours. That i s , the primary terms were used more often incorrectly than were the other terms. These results a l l suggest that the only group of any relevance i n discussing the children's use of colour terms i s the primary group.. Some argument might be made for the achromatics white+black+grey, but too few of the analyses showed this group to be v a l i d as a grouping. The low standing of the non-primary groups i s probably due to the consistently high scores of two of i t s members—orange and pink. Why thi s apparent use of the primary group and not of the others? The primary colours are those which provide the most basic neural responses, so physiologically we would expect them to be important. They also cover a large range of a l l possible colours; i t could be argued that with these terms alone we can name any colour we can perceive. Similar arguments can be made for black and white though, so why do these not appear as a si g n i f i c a n t grouping more often? Nor does this argument explain the high accuracy of ORANGE and PINK in two-year-olds. The proven l e x i c a l and neurophysiological aspects of 170. colour terms are obviously not enough to explain either order of acquisition or any of the aspects of performance. Some element of choice i s involved; a c h i l d w i l l learn those terms which are both most relevant to him and which are most interesting to him. This w i l l partly involve the frequency and the type of input received for each particular term, as well as the type of exposure to that term r e l a t i v e to others. But a c h i l d has to want to take i n that input; he must think i t relevant and valuable to his own circumstances. BLACK and WHITE are understandably less interesting and possibly less relevant i n the child's experience than ORANGE and PINK. This brings again a very i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c character to the acquisition and use of colour terms, since d i f f e r e n t children w i l l undoubtedly find d i f f e r e n t colours to be valuable at di f f e r e n t times. / 171. 5.0 Summary o f R e s u l t s and C o n c l u s i o n T h i s s t u d y examined s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f c o l o u r - n a m i n g b e h a v i o r i n t w o - y e a r - o l d s and f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . I t has p o i n t e d o u t some s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , b o t h e x p e r i m e n t a l and t h e o r e t i c a l , and c h a l l e n g e d some o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s and c l a i m s made i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o c o l o u r development and g e n e r a l l e x i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . A t t h i s p o i n t , we c a n l o o k a g a i n a t t h e o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s l i s t e d i n S e c t i o n 1.7 (pages 48 t o 50) and d i s c u s s them i n l i g h t o f o u r r e s u l t s . 1. H y p o t h e s i s 1 was c o n f i r m e d beyond a l l d o u b t . F o u r - y e a r -o l d s were c o n s i s t e n t l y b e t t e r a t p e r f o r m a n c e i n b o t h t a s k s and i n o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e t h a n t w o - y e a r - o l d s , showing fewer i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s , "no r e s p o n s e s " and i n c o r r e c t u s e s and more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s and c o r r e c t u s e s o f t e r m s . F u r t h e r , t h e i r c o l o u r - t e r m v o c a b u l a r y was l a r g e r and error.s were e a s i e r t o e x p l a i n (see H y p o t h e s i s 8) t h a n t h o s e made by t w o - y e a r - o l d s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t , as we m i g h t e x p e c t , t w o - y e a r - o l d s ' knowledge and use o f c o l o u r terms was n o t as w e l l - o r g a n i z e d as i n t h e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s . 2. O r d e r s o f a c c u r a c y d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e e x p e c t e d e v o l u t i o n a r y o r d e r p r o p o s e d by B e r l i n & Kay. Nor d i d p e r f o r m a n c e show a p r e c e d e n c e o f a c h r o m a t i c and p r i m a r y c o l o u r s o v e r n o n - p r i m a r i e s , t h e weaker v e r s i o n o f B e r l i n & Kay's p r o p o s a l . A t most we c o u l d say t h a t t h e non-p r i m a r y group was somehow l o w e r i n s t a t u s t h a n t h e o t h e r 172. ~_ -:• two g r o u p s i n t h a t n o n - p r i m a r y terms g e n e r a l l y a p p e a r e d i n t e r s p e r s e d among t h e o t h e r terms and d i d n o t f u n c t i o n as a g r o u p . 3. S e c t i o n 4.11 d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l whether g r o u p i n g s o f p r i m a r y , n o n - p r i m a r y and a c h r o m a t i c c o l o u r s were u s e d by c h i l d r e n i n c o l o u r - n a m i n g b e h a v i o r . O n l y t h e p r i m a r y g r o u p a p p e a r e d i n t h i s way i n some c a s e s . No c l a i m s a b o u t d i f f e r e n c e s i n age c o u l d be made, so t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y c o n f i r m e d . The a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s o f hue, s a t u r a t i o n and b r i g h t -n e s s b e i n g t h e l e x i c a l / c o n c e p t u a l c a t e g o r i e s was n o t c o n f i r m e d e i t h e r . The a n a l y s i s o f e r r o r - p a i r s i n S e c t i o n s 3.10.2 showed g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s and few o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p i n g s o f c o l o u r terms u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y o r r e s p o n d e d t o i n c o r r e c t l y c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d u s i n g t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s . 4. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t i n g a r e l a t i o n between p e r f o r -mance and measures o f p a r e n t a l i n p u t and c h i l d p r a c t i c e ( i . e . e n v i r o n m e n t ) c o u l d n o t be t e s t e d o r c o n f i r m e d b e c a u s e o f d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o l l e c t i n g t h e d a t a (see S e c t i o n 2.5.2). 5. A c c u r a c y was g r e a t e r i n c o m p r e h e n s i o n t h a n i n p r o d u c t i o n f o r b o t h t w o - y e a r - o l d s and f o u r - y e a r - o l d s , c o n f i r m i n g o u r h y p o t h e s i s . However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a c c u r a c y i n t h e two t a s k s was n o t g r e a t e r f o r t h e y o u n g e r a g e - g r o u p . 173. 6. The a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e showed no sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e , as we e x p e c t e d . 7. A l t h o u g h i t was d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c l a b e l - t y p e s , i t d i d a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e were age d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e amounts o f e a c h t y p e . F o r any p a r t i c u l a r c o l o u r , l a b e l s would t e n d t o go from p r e d o m i n a n t l y no l a b e l t o a random use o f a l l t h r e e t y p e s , t h e n t o a h i g h u s e o f s h a r e d l a b e l s and f i n a l l y t o a s e p a r a t e l a b e l . An o r d e r o f c o l o u r s e m e r g i n g w i t h s e p a r a t e l a b e l s was p r o p o s e d i n F i g u r e 16 (page 158 ) . However, t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e l a b e l - t y p e s d i d n o t r e f l e c t t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f hue, s a t u r a t i o n and b r i g h t n e s s n o r t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f p r i m a r y , n o n - p r i m a r y and a c h r o m a t i c . 8. The e r r o r a n a l y s i s o f S e c t i o n 3.10.2 d i d n o t r e v e a l any c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n w h i c h names wo u l d be u s e d t o i n c o r r e c t l y name c e r t a i n c o l o u r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y c o u l d n o t be e x p l a i n e d as b e i n g b a s e d on p e r c e p t u a l s i m i l a r i t i e s o f hue, s a t u r a t i o n o r b r i g h t n e s s . Nor d i d t h e r e a p p e a r t o be any d e v e l o p m e n t a l c h a n ges i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f e r r o r s o c c u r r i n g i n e a c h o f t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s , a l t h o u g h more o f t h e f o u r - y e a r - o l d s ' e r r o r s c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d i n t h i s way t h a n t h e t w o - y e a r - o l d s . 9. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was p a r t i a l l y c o n f i r m e d . I t was t r u e f o r t w o - y e a r - o l d s t h a t terms t h a t were o v e r e x t e n d e d were t h o s e t h a t were l e a s t s t a b l e i n t h e c h i l d ' s v o c a b u l a r y , and samples t h a t were o v e r e x t e n d e d t o were t h o s e f o r 174 . which the c h i l d did not have the correct term in his vocabulary. Four-year-olds, however, showed the opposite results, suggesting, that these different ages are using d i f f e r e n t strategies in responding and possibly i n learning colour-names. One major conclusion i s that performance cannot be predicted i n terms of such adult categories as the groups of primary, non-primary and achromatic colours, nor apparently i n terms of the perceptual/physical categories of saturation, hue and brightness. The fact that these do exist as such i n the adult l e x i c a l organization of colours, and that they do represent d e f i n i t e physical differences, does not mean that the c h i l d w i l l incorporate them as his own l e x i c a l groupings. The results have e f f e c t i v e l y contradicted the prediction that these are acquired i n a particular order, and could not show any consistent relations between these categories and the quality of performance. This brings up the f i r s t point made in the discussion and stressed by B a r t l e t t i n her study: that i s the large individual v a r i a t i o n in performance. It i s suggested that this i s because a major determinant in colour-naming behavior ( at least) i s what the c h i l d himself brings to the t a s k — his experiences, his feelings, his interests, his responsive-ness—things that w i l l be very hard to test. Learning colour terms does turn out to be more complicated than i t at f i r s t seems, or at least more complicated to the adult trying to explain i t . FOOTNOTES 175. 1. Haber,R.N. and Hershenson,M. The P s y c h o l o g y o f V i s u a l  P e r c e p t i o n (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t & Winston,Inc.1973) pg.67-69, and F i l l e n b a u m , S . and R a p o p o r t , A . S t r u c t u r e s i n t h e S u b j e c t -i v e L e x i c o n (New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s 19 71) C h a p t e r 3. 2. M i l l e r , G . A . and J o h n s o n - L a i r d , P . N . Language and P e r c e p t i o n (Cambridge:The B e l k n a p P r e s s o f H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 1976) pg. 338, and C a r e y , S . "The c h i l d as word l e a r n e r " i n M . H a l l e , J . B r e s n a n & G . A . M i l l e r (Eds) L i n g u i s t i c T h e o r y and P s y c h o l o g i c a l  R e a l i t y (Cambridge:The MIT P r e s s 1978) pg.269. 3. Chase 1937 i n M i l l e r & J o h n s o n - L a i r d , pg.351. 4. J o h n s o n , E . "The d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o l o r knowledge i n p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n " i n C h i l d Development, V o l . 4 8 No.1 (1977) pg.311. 5. Dougherty,J.W.D. "On t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a sequence i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f b a s i c c o l o u r t e r m s " i n R.Campbell & P.Smith (Eds) R e c e n t Advances i n t h e P s y c h o l o g y o f Language (New Y o r k r P l e n u m P r e s s 1978) pg.134-135. 6. Rosch,E.H. "On t h e i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f p e r c e p t u a l and s e m a n t i c c a t e g o r i e s " i n T.E.Moore (Ed) C o g n i t i v e D e v e l o p -ment and t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f Language (New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s 1973) pg. 114 + 143. 7. Haber & H e r s h e n s o n , pg.70-80. 8. M i l l e r & J o h n s o n - L a i r d , pg.354, and K a r p f , R . , G o s s , A . , and Small,M. " N a m i n g , s e l e c t i o n and o r d e r i n g o f c o l o r ("hue") by young c h i l d r e n " i n J o u r n a l o f  G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 9 0 (1974) pg.297. 9. Kay,P. and M c D a n i e l , C . K . "The l i n g u i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e meanings o f b a s i c c o l o r t e r m s " i n Language, V o l . 5 4 No.3 (1978) pg.616. 10. Brown,R. " R e f e r e n c e : i n m e m o r i a l t r i b u t e t o E r i c L e n n e b e r g " i n C o g n i t i o n , V o l . 4 (1976) pg.151. 11. B e r l i n , B . and Kay,P. 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"Who i s daddy r e v i s i t e d : t h e s t a t u s o f 2 y e a r o l d s o v e r - e x t e n d e d words i n use and c o m p r e h e n s i o n " i n J o u r n a l o f C h i l d Language, Vol.4- No. 3 (1977). APPENDIX 1: Tau V a l u e s f o r Between- and W i t h i n - G r o u p C o m p a r i s o n s o f P e r f o r m a n c e COMPREHENSION v s . PRODUCTION AGE 2 v s . AGE 4 AGE 2 v s . AGE 2 A AGE 2 v s . AGE 2B AGE :2A vs . AGE 2B AGE 2A AGE 2B AGE 2 AGE 4 .588* .236 .273 .289 T O T A L COMPREHENSION PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE 058 .127 -.164 611* .324 .440 673* .927* .782* 278 .231 .220 * = s i g n i f i c a n t r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n a t .05 s i g n i f i c a n c e 183 . APPENDIX 2: Tau V a l u e s f o r Comp a r i s o n s o f P e r f o r m a n c e w i t h t h e E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r s  Rank O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y : TOTAL PERFORMANCE COMPREHENSION PRODUCTION AGE 2 AGE 4 AGE 2 AGE 4 AGE 2 AGE 4 B & K #1 -.255 .413 -.295 .375 .137 .334 B & K #2 -.046 .000 .000 .343 -.277 -.046 P e r c e n t a g e - A c q u i r e d O r d e r s : B & K #1 -.124 .387 -.271 . .482 * -.146 .326 B & K #2 -.318 .097 -.121 .379 -.384 -.049 *= s i g n i f i c a n t r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n a t .05 s i g n i f i c a n c e APPENDIX 3: Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e # 1 Between s u b j e c t f a c t o r s a r e : A -B -W i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r s a r e : C -P " E -2 - y e a r - o l d s ; 4 - y e a r - o l d s Sex f e m a l e ; sex male Ta s k s c o m p r e h e n s i o n ; p r o d u c t i o n Measures 1 and 2 C o l o u r s 1 t o 11 Sum o f Degrees o f S o u r c e A B AB S - w i t h i n C AC BC ABC C S - w i t h i n D AD BD ABD D S - w i t h i n CD ACD BCD ABCD C D S - w i t h i n S q u a r e s 220.220 0.665 0.224 161.312 16.195 1.876 0.074 0. 731 33.364 84 . 293 30.348 0.117 0.008 20.544 1.895 0.230 0.056 0.128 5. 556 Freedom 1. 1. 1. 34 . 1. 1. 1. 1. 34 . 1. 1. 1. 1. 34 . 1. 1. I. 1. 34 . Mean Squares 220.220 0.665 0.224 4 . 744 16.195 1.876 0.074 0.731 0.981 84 .293 30.348 0.117 0.008 0.604 1.895 0.230 0.056 0.128 0.163 F R a t i o 46.416 0.140 0.047 16.504 1. 912 0.076 0.745 139.503 50.225 0.193 0.014 11.596 1.406 0.345 0.785 P r o b a b i l i t y 0.001* 0. 710 0.829 0.001* 0.176 0.785 0. 394 0.001* 0.001* 0.663 0.908 0.002* 0.244 0.561 0.382 c o n t . APPENDIX 3: con t . Source Sum o f Squares Degrees o f Freedom Mean Squares F R a t i o P r o b a b i l i t y E AE BE ABE E S - w i t h i n CE ACE BCE ABCE C E S - w i t h i n DE ADE BDE ABDE DES-within CDE ACDE BCDE ABCDE CDES-within 39.964 18.476 6.738 7 .080 194.098 10.924 6.905 3.642 4.750 154.078 3.962 2.419 0.933 0.731 27.158 1.173 0.587 0.505 0.456 21.383 10. 10. 10. 10 . 340. 10. 10. 10. 10. 340. 10. 10 . 10 . 10. 340. 10 . 10. 10. 10. 340. 3.996 1.848 0.674 0.708 0. 571 1.092 0.690 0.364 0.475 0.453 0.396 0.242 0.093 0.073 0.080 0.117 0.059 0. 050 0.046 0.063 7.000 3.236 1.180 1.240 2.410 1. 524 0. 804 1. 048 960 029 168 0.915 1.866 0.934 0.803 0.725 0.001* 0.001* 0.303 0.264 0.009* 0 .129 0.625 0.402 0 . 001* 0 . 001* 0.311 0 . 519 0.049* 0.502 0.626 0.701 186. APPENDIX 4 P r o p o r t i o n s o f S t a b l e / U n s t a b l e / U n k n o w n L e v e l s o f S t a b i l i t y " AGE 2 N=19 8 S t a b l e U n s t a b l e Unknown S t a b l e o t h e r U n s t a b l e o t h e r Unknown o t h e r 31 95 72 31 167 95 103 72 126 p r o p . .1565 .4798 .3636 .1565 .8435 .4798 .5202 .3636 .63 64 .1768* . 0303 0 .1768* .1465* .0303 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0966 AGE 4 N=220 S t a b l e U n s t a b l e Unknown S t a b l e o t h e r U n s t a b l e o t h e r Unknown o t h e r 155 53 12 155 65 53 167 12 208 p r o p . . 7045 . 2409 .0545 . 7045 .2955 . 2409 . 7591 .0545 . 9455 .3712* . 2788* 0 .3712* -.0924* -.2788* c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0917 APPENDIX 5: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s & C r i t e r i o n i n E a c h S t a b i l i t y L e v e l - AGE 2 STABLE UNSTABLE UNKNOWN A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) N o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) P r i m a r y f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n 4 ^16 o r 61 23 ^39 o r 412 27 ^31 o r £8 4 =£19 o r £4 35 ^48 o r £ 2 1 33 =^ 38 o r £ 1 4 4 ^13 o r -- 18 -^30 o r £4 14 ^25 o r £ 2 16 ^19 o r £4 35 * M 8 o r £21 21 ^38 o r £ 1 4 16 ^16 o r 61 23 ^39 o r £12 15 ^31 o r £8 16 ^21 o r 66 40 ^56 o r £30 34 >44 o r £ 2 1 11 Stl9 o r -4 37 ^48 o r £ 2 1 24 ^38 o r £14 TOTAL 31 95 72 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .2440 .1395 .1603 CO APPENDIX 6: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s & C r i t e r i o n i n Each S t a b i l i t y L e v e l - AGE 4 A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) Non-primary (i) ( i i ) ( i i i ) Primary STABLE UNSTABLE UNKNOWN f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n 37 ^59 o r £25 17 ^24 o r £4 6 ^8 o r 50 ^73 o r £39 24 ^29 o r £9 6 ^ 9 o r 31 ^45 o r £11 7 ^19 o r 2 >1 o r 57 ^73 o r £39 19 ^29 o r 4 <^ 9 o r 44 ^59 o r £25 12 ^24 o r £4 4 ^ 8 o r 63 ^87 o r £ 5 3 29 ^34 o r £14 8 ^ 1 0 o r £-1 61 ^73 o r £39 17 ^29 o r £9 2 ^9 o r TOTAL 155 53 12 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .109 .1868 .3926 CO CO APPENDIX 7: P r o p o r t i o n s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n f o r AGE 2 and AGE 4 AGE 2 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0966 N=19 8 f p r o p . d C o r r e c t 38 .1919 -.0581 M i x e d 22 .1111 -.1970* I n c o r r e c t 19 . 0959 -.3511* None 119 .6010 0 C o r r e c t 38 .1919 -.0581 o t h e r 160 .8081 Mixed 22 .1111 -.1389* o t h e r 176 .8889 I n c o r r e c t 19 . 0959 -.1541* O t h e r 179 .9041 None 119 .6010' .3 511* o t h e r 79 .3990 AGE 4 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0917 N=220 f p r o p . d C o r r e c t 160 . 7273 .4773* Mixed 18 . 0818 .3091* I n c o r r e c t 5 .0227 .0818 None 37 .1682 0 C o r r e c t 160 . 7273 .4773* o t h e r 60 .2727 M i x e d 18 . 0818 -.1682* o t h e r 202 .9182 I n c o r r e c t 5 .0227 -.2273* o t h e r 215 .9773 None 37 .1682 -.0818 o t h e r 183 .8318 APPENDIX ' 8: P r o p o r t i o n s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f C o mprehension f o r AGE.2 and AGE 4 AGE 2 N=19 8 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0966 f p r o p . d C o r r e c t 95 .4798 None 103 5202 0202 0202 AGE 4 N=220 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .0917 f p r o p . d C o r r e c t None 197 23 8954 1046 .3954*. -.3954* APPENDIX 9: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) N o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i . ) P r i m a r y CORRECT f c r i t e r i o n MIXED f c r i t e r i o n INCORRECT f c r i t e r i o n NONE f c r i t e r i o n 6 •>18 o r ^2 1 ^12 o r 0 3 <>11 o r 44 ^47 o r ^18 7 ^22 o r ^5 4 ^14 o r ^2 4 ^13 o r ^1 57 ^ 58 o r ^28 5 ^15 o r 1 a i o o r 3 ^9 o r 27 =5:36 o r ^7 20 ^22 o r ^5 8 >14 o r 3 ^13 o r 41 ^58 o r ^28 19* ^18 o r 4,2 5 ^12 o r 0 2 ^11 o r 28 ^ 47 o r £ 18 21 >25 o r •^9 8 ^16 o r ^4 3* ^13 o r =>3 58 > 69 o r 4* 39 12 ^22 o r =»5 13 <>14 o r ^2 13 ^13 o r £1 34 ^58 o r ^28 TOTAL 38 22 19 119 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 2206 2899 3120 1247 APPENDIX 10: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 CORRECT MIXED INCORRECT NONE f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n f c r i t e r i o n A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 39 53 31 >61 >75 ^46 o r o r o r £ 2 6 £=41 £ 1 2 2 4 2 ^10 o r --->12 o r 41 >9 o r 2 2 1 •^4 o r >5 o r > 4 o r 17 21 6 =^18 ^ 22 ^ 1 5 o r £ 2 o r £ 5 o r --No n - p r i m a r y ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) 59 45 67 >75 ^61 ^ 9 0 o r o r o r £41 £ 2 6 £ 5 5 5 3 5 >12 o r £ 1 ^10 o r =>14 o r £ 2 1 1 2 ^ 5 o r •^4 o r 15 11 26 ^ 22 ^ 1 8 > 25 o r £ 5 o r £ 2 o r £ 8 P r i m a r y 62 ^75 o r £ 4 1 11 ^12 o r £ 1 2 £ 5 o r 5 > 22 o r £ 5 TOTAL 160 18 5 37 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 .1075 . 3205 . 6080 . 2236 r - 1 <X> APPENDIX 11: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f C omprehension f o r AGE 2 A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) N o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) P r i m a r y CORRECT f c r i t e r i o n 21 ^39 o r ^12 30 ^48 o r £ 2 1 17 ^30 o r £ 4 44 ^48 o r £ 2 1 35 ^ 3 9 o r £ 1 2 48 ^56 o r £ 3 0 30 ^48 o r £-21 NONE f c r i t e r i o n 33 ^42 o r £ 1 4 42 ^ 5 1 o r £.24 19 ^32 o r £ 5 28 ^ 5 1 o r £ 2 4 19 ^ 4 2 o r £ 1 4 52 ^60 o r £ 3 3 42 >51 o r £ 2 4 TOTAL 95 103 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 .1395 .1340 APPENDIX 12: C o l o u r Group F r e q u e n c i e s i n S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s o f Comprehension f o r AGE .4 A c h r o m a t i c ( i ) ( i i ) ( i i i ) CORRECT f c r i t e r i o n 51 >68 o r £ 4 0 70 ^85 o r ^57 38 ^50 o r £ 2 2 NONE f c r i t e r i o n 9 ^13 o r 10 ^15 o r £ 2 2 ^10 o r o r £ 2 o r o r £ 4 o r £ 2 N o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 73 ^85 o r £ 5 7 7 ±15 ( i i ) 54 ^68 o r £ 4 0 6 ^ 1 3 ( i i i ) 86 M.03 o r £ 7 5 14 ^ 1 7 P r i m a r y 73 >85 o r £ 5 7 7 £ 1 5 TOTAL 197 23 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 .0712 .2857 APPENDIX 13: K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r Comp a r i s o n s o f Rank O r d e r s o f E r r o r Types i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e "no r e s p o n s e " C o m p r ehension AGE 2 -.3 56 .30 6 v e r s u s P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 .184 -.029 AGE 2 Comprehension -.04 3 .000 v e r s u s P r o d u c t i o n .04 2 .551 AGE 4 c o m p r e h e n s i o n p r o d u c t i o n i n c o r r e c t AGE 2 -.298 .131 v e r s u s "no r e s p o n s e " AGE 4 -.225 .459 *= s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n a t .05 s i g n i f i c a n c e APPENDIX 14: Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e #2 Between s u b j e c t f a c t o r s a r e : A -W i t h i n s u b j e c t f a c t o r s a r e : B -Sum o f Degrees o f S o u r c e Squares Freedom (1) No. o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s 2 - y e a r - o l d s ; 4 - y e a r - o l d s P r o d u c t i o n t a s k ; c o m p r e h e n s i o n t a s k A S - w i t h i n B AB B S - w i t h i n 491.748 372.742 38.325 5.167 68.371 1. 36. 1. 1. 36. Mean Squares 491.748 110.354 38.325 5.167 1.899 F R a t i o 47.494 20.180 2.721 P r o b a b i l i t y 0.001 * 0.001 * 0.108 (2) No. o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s A S - w i t h i n B AB B S - w i t h i n 175.937 226 .498 2.070 0.912 118.364 1. 36. 1. 1. 36. 175.937 6 . 292 2. 070 0.912 3.288 27.964 0.630 0.278 0.001 * 0.433 0.602 (3) No. o f "no r e s p o n s e ' A S - w i t h i n B AB B S - w i t h i n 77.483 231.372 23.626 9.732 125.650 1. 36. 1. 1. 36. 77.483 6.427 23.626 9.732" 3.490 12.056 6.769 2.788 0.001 * 0.013 0.104 197. APPENDIX' 15: P r o p o r t i o n s o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 f prop.. d a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 19 . 3958 .1231 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 15 .3125 .072 p r i m a r y 14 .2917 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 23 .4792 .1156 n o n - p r i m a r y . ( i i ) 11 .2292 .0721 p r i m a r y 14 .2916 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 13 .2708 .089 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 21 .4375 .072 p r i m a r y 14 .2917 0 AGE 2: N= 4 8 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .1963 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 19 .3958 .1231 o t h e r 29 . 6042 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 23 .4792 .1156 o t h e r 25 .5208 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 13 .2708 .089 o t h e r 35 .7292 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 15 .3125 -.0511 o t h e r 33 .6875 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 11 .2292 -.0435 o t h e r 37 .7708 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 21 .4375 -.017 o t h e r 27 .5625 p r i m a r y 14 .2917 -.0719 o t h e r 34 . 7083 198 . APPENDIX 16: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 2 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 2 0 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 22 p r i m a r y 3 3 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 27 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 15 p r i m a r y 33 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 14 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 28 p r i m a r y 33 p r o p . . 2667 .2933 .4400 .3600 .2000 .4400 .1867 .3733 .4400 006 0763 0 ,0036 0763 0 , 0049 ,0763 0 AGE 2: N= 75 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .1570 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) o t h e r a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) o t h e r a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) o t h e r 20 55 27 48 14 61 2667 7333 3600 6400 1867 8133 0060 0036 0049 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) o t h e r n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) o t h e r non-prxmary ( i i i ) o t h e r 22 53 15 60 28 47 2933 7067 2000 8000 3733 6267 0703 0727 0812 prxmary o t h e r 33 42 4400 5600 0764 199. APPENDIX- 17: P r o p o r t i o n s o f i n c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 f p r o p . d a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 12 .5000 .2273 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 8 . 3333 .197 p r i m a r y 4 .1667 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 14 .5833 . 2197 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 6 .2500 .197 p r i m a r y 4 .1667 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 5 .2083 .0265 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 15 .6250 .197 p r i m a r y 4 .1667 0 AGE 4: N= 24 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .2776 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 12 .5000 . 2273 o t h e r 12 .5000 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 14 .5833 .2197 o t h e r 10 .4167 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 5 . 2083 . 0265 o t h e r 19 . 7917 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 8 .3333 -.0303 o t h e r 16 . 6666 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 6 . 2500 -.0227 o t h e r 18 .7500 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 15 . 6250 .1705 o t h e r 9 .3750 p r i m a r y . 4 .1667 -.1969 o t h e r 20 .8333 200. APPENDIX 18: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Responses ( e r r o r s ) i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 4 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) p r i m a r y a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) p r i m a r y a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) p r i m a r y a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) o t h e r a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) o t h e r a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) o t h e r n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) o t h e r n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) o t h e r n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) o t h e r p r i m a r y o t h e r f p r o p . 7 .3889 6 .3333 5 .2778 8 .4444 5 .2778 5 .2778 1 .0556 12 .6666 5 .2778 7 .3889 11 .6111 8 .4444 10 .5556 1 .0556 17 .9444 6 .3333 12 .6666 5 .2778 13 .7222 12 .6666 6 .3333 5 .2778 13 .7222 d .1162 .0859 0 .0808 .0859 0 -.1262 .0859 0 AGE 4: N= 18 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .321 .1162 . 0808 -.1262 -.0303 . 0051 .2121 -.0858 201 APPENDIX 19: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r s i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks f o r AGE 2 P r o d u c t i o n : N=48, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .1963 t o p r a n k : b l a c k o t h e r t o p 2 r a n k s : g r e y + b l a c k o t h e r p i n k t o p 3 r a n k s : p u r p l e + g r e y + b l a c k • 9 r e e n o t h e r , p i n k t o p 4: P f f w n + p u r p l e + g r e y + b l a c k g r e e n o t h e r t o p 5: (as above t o p 4) +red o t h e r f p r o p . d 11 37 .229 .771 .138 17 31 .354 .646 .172 32 16 .666 .334 .211 * 40 8 .833 .167 .196 * 43 5 .8958 .1042 .1678 Co m p r e h e n s i o n : N=75, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .1570 t o p r a n k : r e d o t h e r t o p 2 r a n k s : y e l l o w + r e d o t h e r t o p 3 r a n k s : ^ £ | e + y e l l o w + r e d o t h e r t o p 4: p S ? p i e + S h i t e + y e H ° w + r e d o t h e r t o p 5: (as above t o p 4) + b l a c k ^ * ' g r e y o t h e r f p r o p . d 12 .190 .099 63 .810 23 .3066 .1246 52 .6134 39 .520 .156 36 .480 53 .7066 .1606 22 .2934 65 .8666 .1386 10 .1334 APPENDIX 20: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r s i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks f o r AGE 4 P r o d u c t i o n : N= 24, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .2776 f p r o p . d t o p r a n k : g r e y o t h e r 7 17 .2917 . 7083 . 2007 t o p 2 r a n k s o t h e r 13 11 .5416 .4584 . 2686 t o p 3 r a n k s b l a c k . : o r a n g e + p u r p l e + g r e y r e d w h i t e o t h e r Brown 21 3 .875 .125 .238 Co m p r e h e n s i o n : N= 18, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .321 f p r o p . d t o p r a n k : 9 r e Y * .333 .2423 ^ o t h e r 12 .667 t o p 2 r a n k s : Purple b l u e y e l l o w + g r e y 1 6 . 8 8 8 . 4 3 3 * o t h e r 2 .112 APPENDIX 21: P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No Res p o n s e s " i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 19 .3115 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 20 . 3279 p r i m a r y 22 .3600 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 25 .4098 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 14 .2295 p r i m a r y 22 .3600 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 10 .1639 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 29 .4754 p r i m a r y 22 . 3600 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 19 . 3115 o t h e r 42 .6885 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 25 .4098 o t h e r 36 . 5902 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 10 .1639 o t h e r 51 .8361 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 20 .3279 o t h e r 41 . 6721 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 14 . 2295 o t h e r 47 . 7705 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 29 .4754 o t h e r 32 .5246 p r i m a r y 22 .3606 o t h e r 39 . 6393 d .0388 .0031 0 . 0462 .0030 0 . 0179 . 0030 0 AGE 2: N= 61 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .174 . 0388 .0462 .0179 . 0357 . 0432 . 0209 . 0036 APPENDIX. 22: P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No Res p o n s e s " i n Groups o f P r i m a r y ,Non-primary and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 2 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 13 .4643 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .2143 p r i m a r y 9 .3214 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 15 . 5357 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 4 .1429 p r i m a r y 9 . 3214 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 5 .1786 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 14 . .5000 p r i m a r y 9 . 3214 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 13 .4643 o t h e r 15 .5357 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 15 .5357 o t h e r 13 .4643 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 5 .1786 o t h e r 23 .8214 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .2143 o t h e r 22 .7857 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 4 .1429 o t h e r 24 .8571 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 14 .5000 o t h e r 14 .5000 p r i m a r y 9 .3 214 o t h e r 19 .6786 d .1916 . 0423 0 .1721 .0423 0 . 0032 .0423 0 AGE 2: N= 28 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .257 .1916 .1721 .0032 .1493 .1298 .0455 . 0422 APPENDIX 23: P r o p o r t i o n s o f "No R e s p o n s e s " i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 5 .3846 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .4 615 p r i m a r y 2 .1538 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 6 .4615 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 5 .3846 p r i m a r y 2 .1538 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 1 .0769 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 10 .7692 p r i m a r y 2 . .1538 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 5 .3846 o t h e r 8 .6154 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 6 .4615 o t h e r 7 .5385 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 1 .0769 o t h e r 12 ' .9231 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .4615 o t h e r 7 .5385 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 5 .3846 o t h e r 8 .6154 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) . 10 • .7692 o t h e r 3 .2308 p r i m a r y 2 .1538 o t h e r 11 .8462 d .1119 .2098 0 .0979 .2098 0 .1049 .2098 0 AGE 4: N= 13 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05= .377 .1119 . 0979 .1049 .0979 .1119 .3147 .20 98 APPENDIX 24: Proportions of "No Responses" i n Decreasing Ranks for Both Ages Age 2 Production: N=61, c r i t i c a l value of d at .05=.174 top rank: 9 r eY other top 2 ranks: purple+grey other red top 3 ranks: yellow+purple+grey . green other white brown t o p r a n k : g r e y o t h e r b l a c k , t o p 2 r a n k s : g r e e n 9 r e y o t h e r brown t o p 3 r a n k s : p i r p l e + g r l e S + g r e y o r a n g e r e d . o t h e r top rank: purple. other f prop. d 9 .1475 . 0565 52 .8525 16 .262 .080 45 .738 46 . 754 .117 15 .246 value of d at . 0. f prop. d 8 . 2857 .1947 20 .7143 16 .5714 .2984 12 .4286 26 .9285 .2005 2 .0714 ilue of d at .05=. f prop. d 8 . 615 .433 5 . 385 APPENDIX 25: K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r Comp a r i s o n s o f Rank O r d e r s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses AGE 2 v e r s u s AGE 4: c o m p r e h e n s i o n -.186 p r o d u c t i o n .04 3 Com p r e h e n s i o n v e r s u s P r o d u c t i o n : AGE 2 .37 2 AGE 4 -.067 APPENDIX 26: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 2 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 6 .1250 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 13 .2708 p r i m a r y 29 .6042 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 12 .2500 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 7 .1458 p r i m a r y 29 .604 2 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 6 .1250 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 13 .2708 p r i m a r y 29 .604 2 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 6 .1250 o t h e r 42 .8750 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 12 .2500 o t h e r 36 .7500 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 6 .1250 o t h e r 42 .8750 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 13 .2708 o t h e r 35 .7292 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 7 .14 58 o t h e r 41 .8542 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 13 .2708 o t h e r 35 .7292 p r i m a r y 29 .604 2 o t h e r 19 .3958 d .14 77 .2405 * 0 .1136 .2405 * 0 .1477 .2405 * 0 AGE 2: N= 4 8 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05=.1963 .1477 .1136 .1477 . 0928 .1269 . 0928 .2406 * 209. APPENDIX 2.7: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and • A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 2 f p r o p . d a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 20 .2667 -.0060 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 22 .2933 -.0763 p r i m a r y 33 .4400 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 28 .3733 . 0097 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 14 .1866 -.0764 p r i m a r y 33 .4400 0 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 13 .1733 -.0085 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 29 .3866 -.0764 p r i m a r y 33 .4400 0 AGE 2 : N« 7 5 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05=.1570 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 20 .2667 -.0060 o t h e r 55 . 7333 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 28 . 3733 . 0097 o t h e r 47 .6267 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 13 .1733 -.0085 o t h e r 62 .8267 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 22 . 2933 - .0703 o t h e r 53 . 7067 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 14 .1866 - . 0861 o t h e r 61 .8134 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 29 .3866 -.0679 o t h e r 46 . 6134 p r i m a r y 33 .4400 .0764 o t h e r 42 .5600 APPENDIX 28: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N on-primary and • A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r P r o d u c t i o n AGE 4 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 5 .2381 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .2857 p r i m a r y 10 .4 762 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 7 .3333 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 4 .1905 p r i m a r y 10 .4762 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 4 .1905 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 7 .3333 p r i m a r y 10 .4 762 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 5 .2381 o t h e r 16 .7619 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 7 .3333 o t h e r 14 .6666 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 4 .1905 o t h e r 17 .8095 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 6 .2857 o t h e r 15 .7143 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 4 .1905 o t h e r 17 .8095 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 7 .3333 o t h e r 14 .6666 p r i m a r y 10 .4 762 o t h e r 11 .5238 d . 0346 .1125 0 . 0303 .1125 0 . 0087 .1125 0 AGE 4: N= 21. c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05=.2967 .0346 .0202 .0087 .0779 . 0822 .1212 .1126 APPENDIX 29: P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n Groups o f P r i m a r y , N o n - p r i m a r y and A c h r o m a t i c C o l o u r s f o r Comprehension AGE 4 f p r o p . a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 3 .1667 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 9 .5000 p r i m a r y 6 .3 333 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 6 .3333 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 6 .3333 p r i m a r y 6 .3333 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 3 .1667 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 9 .5000 p r i m a r y 6 .33 33 a c h r o m a t i c ( i ) 3 .1667 o t h e r 15 .8333 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i ) 6 .3333 o t h e r 12 .6666 a c h r o m a t i c ( i i i ) 3 .1667 o t h e r 15 .8333 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i ) 9 .50 00 o t h e r 9 .5000 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i ) 6 .3333 o t h e r 12 .6666 n o n - p r i m a r y ( i i i ) 9 .5000 o t h e r 9 .5000 p r i m a r y 6 .3333 o t h e r 12 .6666 d .1060 .0304 0 . 0303 .0303 0 .0151 . 0304 0 AGE 4: N= 18 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05=.3205 .1060 .0303 .0151 .1364 . 0603 .0455 .0303 APPENDIX 30:. P r o p o r t i o n s o f I n c o r r e c t Uses i n D e c r e a s i n g Ranks o f P r o d u c t i o n Age 2: N=48, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .1963 t o p t o p t o p t o p t o p f p r o p . r a n k : b l u e 10 . 2083 o t h e r 38 .7917 2 r a n k s : g r e e n + b l u e 18 .3750 o t h e r 30 .6250 3 r a n k s : r e d + g r e e n + b l u e 25 . .5208 o t h e r 23 .4712 4. brown+red+green+blue 31 .6458 o t h e r 17 .3542 5: (as above t o p 4) +Yuhite 39 .8125 o t h e r 9 .1875 6:(as above t o p 5) + p u r p l e 42 .8750 o t h e r 6 .12 50 d 1173 ,1930 ,2478 , 2818 .2665 . 2380 Age 4: N=21, c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .2967 t o p f p r o p . r a n k : b l u e 6 .2857 o t h e r 15 . 7143 2 r a n k s : b l a c k + b l u e 9 .4286 o t h e r 12 .5714 brown 3 r a n k s : y e l l o w + b l a c k + b l u e 17 .8095 o r a n g e p i n k o t h e r 4 .1905 d ,1947 ,2466 .2635 APPENDIX 31: Proportions of Incorrect Uses in Decreasing Ranks of Comprehension top rank: green 12 .1600 .0690 other n " n n top 2 ranks: blue+green 22 .2933 .1113 other brown top 3 ranks: pink +blue+green 38 .5067 .1427 other ~~ grey u,^.,.-. top 4: white+5[°£n+blue+green 59 .7867 .1497-r e d other " bottom rank: ( a l l except purple) 74 .9867 .0777 purple .05 = .1570 f prop. 63 .8400 9 53 .7067 38 .5067 37 .4933 59 . 7867 16 2133 1 . 0133 Age 4: N=18, c r i t i c a l value of d at .05 = .3205 top rank: yellow 4 .2222 .1313 other " top 2 ranks: purpfe+yellow 13 .7222 .3582 brown _ .,-,_„ other c i - > - » o white top 3 ranks: pink+purple+yellow 15 .8333 .3783 brown . , other .f prop. 14 . 7778  5 .277815 .8333 3 .1667 d 214 . APPENDIX 32: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 0 .0000 -.1091 AGE 2A b r i g h t n e s s 0 . 0000 - .1818 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 7 a d j a c e n c y 3 .4285 .1922 a t .05 = .5140 o t h e r 4 .5715 .0988 s a t u r a t i o n 8 .1950 .0859 AGE 2B b r i g h t n e s s 12 . 2930 .1112 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 41 a d j a c e n c y 8. .1950 -.0413 a t .05 = .2124 o t h e r 17 .4146 -.0581 s a t u r a t i o n 8 .1666 .0750 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 12 .2500 .0864 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 4 8 a d j a c e n c y 11 .2970 . 0610 a t .05 = .1960 o t h e r 21 .4375 -.0534 s a t u r a t i o n 6 .2857 .1767 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 7 .3333 .1697 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 21 a d j a c e n c y 10 .4760 .2400 a t .05 = . 2968 o t h e r 5 . 2380 -.2529 P r o d u c t i o n E r r o r s U s i n g a Common L a b e l : f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 7 .1944 .0846 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 8 .2222 .0586 n= 36 a d j a c e n c y 7 .1944 -.0419 o t h e r 17 .4722 -.0187 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d a t .05 = .2260 215. APPENDIX 33: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n Comprehension ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f • p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 3 . 0789 -.0302 AGE 2A b r i g h t n e s s 8 .2105 .0287 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f n= 38 a d j a c e n c y 11 . 2894 .0531 a t .05 = .2207 o t h e r 18 .4736 .0009 s a t u r a t i o n 7 .1892 .0801 AGE 2B b r i g h t n e s s 5 .1351 -.0467 c r i t i c a l . v a l u e o f n= 37 a d j a c e n c y 7 .1892 -.04 71 a t .05 = .2235 o t h e r 22 .5946 .1219 s a t u r a t i o n 10 .1333 .0240 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 12 .1600 -.0036 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f n= 75 a d j a c e n c y 17 . 2267 -.0093 a t .05 = .1570 o t h e r 48 . 6400 .1500 s a t u r a t i o n 4 . 2222 .1130 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 5 .2778 .1142 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f n= 18 a d j a c e n c y 5 . 2778 . 0418 a t .05 = .3207 o t h e r 4 .2222 - .2689 APPENDIX 34: • T o t a l P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 18 .1463 .0372 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 25 .2033 .0215 c r i t i c a l v a l u e n= 123 a d j a c e n c y 28 .2276 -.0087 a t .05 = .1226 o t h e r 52 .4227 -.0500 s a t u r a t i o n 10 .2564 .1473 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 13 .3333 .1515 c r i t i c a l v a l u e n= 39 a d j a c e n c y 15 .3846 .1483 a t .05 = .2176 o t h e r 5 .1282 -.3445 * APPENDIX 35: E r r o r - P a i r s Made More Than Once ( i n c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) P r o d u c t i o n : f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 1 .1250 .0160 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 2 .2500 .1864 n= 8 a d j a c e n c y 2 .2500 .0140 o t h e r 4 .5000 .0100 s a t u r a t i o n 2 .6666 .5575 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 2 .6666 .4848 n= 3 a d j a c e n c y 0 . 0000 .2363 o t h e r 1 .3333 -.1394 Co m p r e h e n s i o n : f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 3 .1428 .0338 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 3 .1428 .0208 n= 21 a d j a c e n c y 7 .3333 .0970 o t h e r 9 .4285 . 0624 s a t u r a t i o n 1 . 3333 .2242 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 1 . 3333 .1515 n= 3 a d j a c e n c y 1 .3333 .0970 o t h e r 0 . 0000 -.4727 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f a t .05 = .4809 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f a t .05 = .7852 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f a t .05 = .2968 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f a t .05 = .7852 218 . APPENDIX 36: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 0 . 0000 - .1091 AGE 2A b r i g h t n e s s 0 . 0000 -.1818 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 3 a d j a c e n c y 1 .3333 . 0970 a t .05 = .7852 o t h e r 2 .6666 .1939 s a t u r a t i o n 7 .2000 .0909 AGE 2B b r i g h t n e s s 8 .2285 .04 67 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 35 adj a c e n c y 6 .1714 -.0649 a t .05 = .2298 o t h e r 17 • .4857 .0130 s a t u r a t i o n 7 .1842 .0751 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 8 .2105 .0287 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 38 a d j a c e n c y 7 .1842 -.0521 a t .05 = .2207 o t h e r 19 .5000 . 0273 s a t u r a t i o n 2 .2000 .0909 AGE 4 A b r i g h t n e s s 3 . 3000 .1182 c r i t i c a l . v a l u e o f d n= 10 a d j a c e n c y 6 .6000 .3637 a t .05 = .4303 o t h e r 1 .1000 -.3727 s a t u r a t i o n 4 .4444 .3309 AGE 4B b r i g h t n e s s 3 .3333 .1482 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 9 a d j a c e n c y 3 . 3333 . 0937 a t .05 = .4533 o t h e r 1 .1111 -.3627 s a t u r a t i o n 6 .3157 . 2066 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 6 .3157 .1339 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 19 a d j a c e n c y 9 .4736 .2373 a t .05 = . 3120 o t h e r 2 .1053 -.3674 * 219 . APPENDIX 37: E r r o r - P a i r s Made More Than Once ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , e x c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 0 AGE 2A b r i g h t n e s s 0 n= 0 adjacency- 0 o t h e r • 0 s a t u r a t i o n 2 .2000 .0909 AGE 2B b r i g h t n e s s 3 .3000 .1182 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 10 a d j a c e n c y 2 .2000 -.0363 a t .05 = .4304 o t h e r 4 .4000 -.0727 AGE 2 = AGE 2B AGE 4A= one e r r o r : S a t u r a t i o n 1 B r i g h t n e s s 1 f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 1 . 5000 .3909 AGE 4B b r i g h t n e s s 1 .5000 . 3182 c r i t i c a l v a l u e n= 2 a d j a c e n c y 1 . 5000 .2637 a t .05 = .9618 o t h e r 0 . 0000 -.4727 s a t u r a t i o n 1 .5000 . 3909 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 1 . 5000 .3182 c r i t i c a l v a l u e n= 2 a d j a c e n c y 1 . 5000 .2637 a t .05 = .9618 o t h e r 0 . 0000 -.4727 220 . APPENDIX 38: P r o p o r t i o n s o f E r r o r P a i r s i n P r o d u c t i o n ( e x c l u d i n g l a b e l s , i n c l u d i n g i n d i v i d u a l t r e n d s ) f p r o p . d s a t u r a t i o n 7 .1228 .0137 AGE 2A b r i g h t n e s s 9 .1578 -.0240 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 57 a d j a c e n c y 12 .2105 -.0258 a t .05 = .1801 o t h e r 30 .5263 .0536 s a t u r a t i o n 10 .1515 .0424 AGE 2B b r i g h t n e s s 10 .1515 -.0303 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 66 a d j a c e n c y 11 .1666 -.0697 a t .05 = .1675 o t h e r 38 .5757 .1030 s a t u r a t i o n 17 .1382 .0291 AGE 2 b r i g h t n e s s 19 .1545 -.0273 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 12 3 a d j a c e n c y 23 .1869 -.0494 a t .05 = .1226 o t h e r 68 .5528 .0801 s a t u r a t i o n 5 . 2000 .0909 AGE 4 A b r i g h t n e s s 6 .2400 .0582 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 25 a d j a c e n c y 9 .3600 .1237 • a t .05 = .2720 o t h e r 8 .3200 -.1527 s a t u r a t i o n 4 .4444 .3309 AGE 4B b r i g h t n e s s 3 .3333 .1482 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n — O, .3333 . 0937 a t .05 = .4533 n— ? a d j a c e n c y 3 o t h e r 1 .1111 -.3627 s a t u r a t i o n 9 .2600 .1509 AGE 4 b r i g h t n e s s 9 .2600 .0782 c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f d n= 34 a d j a c e n c y 12 .3500 .1137 a t .05 = . 2332 o t h e r 9 .2600 -.2127 221. APPENDIX 39: Error-Pairs Made More Than Once (excluding labels, including individual trends) f prop. d saturation 1 .1111 .0020 AGE 2A brightness 1 .1111 -.0707 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 9 adjacency 2 .2222 -.0141 at .05 = .4533 other 5 .5555 . 0828 saturation 3 .1500 .0409 AGE 2B brightness 4 .2000 . 0182 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 20 adjacency 4 .2000 . 0363 at .05 = .3042 other 10 . 5000 .0273 saturation 5 .1389 .0298 AGE 2 brightness 4 .1111 -.0707 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 36 adjacency 6 .1666 -. 0697: . at .05 = .2266 other 22 .6111 .1384 saturation 1 .3333 .2242 AGE 4 A brightness 1 .3333 .1515 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 3 adjacency 2 .6666 .4303 at .05 = .7850 other 0 . 0000 -.4727 saturation 1 . 5000 .3909 AGE 4B brightness 1 .5000 .3182 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 2 adjacency 1 .5000 .2637 at .05 = . 9618 other 0 . 0000 -.4727 saturation 2 .4000 .2909 AGE 4 brightness 2 .4000 .2182 c r i t i c a l value of d n= 5 adjacency 2 .4000 .1637 at .05 = .6080 other 0 .0000 -.4727 APPENDIX 40: ' Measurements of Colour Samples Used by Methuen Notation  Proposed Actual Focal Colour Sample Sample Used blue 21A8 21A8 green 2 7A8 2 7D8 red . 10A8 11B8 yellow 2A8 4A7 purple 16A8 18B6 orange 6A8 7A8 pink 11A4 9A3 grey Dl Dl Methuen notation: hue/brightness/saturation hue l e v e l s : 1 to 30 brightness l e v e l s : A to F saturation l e v e l s : 1 to 8 223. APPENDIX 41: Questionnaire (Page 1 of 3) A. In your opinion, how good i s your child's knowledge of colours for his/her age level? B. Have you actively taught him/her any colours? If so, please indicate which colours, roughly how long ago training began or occurred, how much success you had, etc. C. What was the f i r s t colour term your c h i l d used (correctly O r incorrectly)? Was this use widespread, or r e s t r i c t e d to one pa r t i c u l a r item/object? D. Does your c h i l d appear to have any favourite colours? Does he/she have any favourite colour terms, regardless of whether use i s correct or not? Please indicate.. E. Is there any colour term to which your c h i l d has more than usual exposure than other colour terms? Please explain, (for example, your cat's name i s GREY, or child's favourite cup i s BLUE). F. Does your c h i l d show any preference for using the right or the l e f t hand? exceptional; good ; average; below average. NO YES : right hand l e f t hand APPENDIX 41: c o n t . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Page 2 o f 3 224 . G. Amount o f Use: P l e a s e l i s t t h e f o l l o w i n g c o l o u r s f r o m t h o s e u s e d most f r e q u e n t l y t o t h o s e u s e d l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y . Do s e p a r a t e l y f o r y o u r own use and f o r y o u r c h i l d ' s u s e . In c a s e s where 2 o r more terms a p p e a r t o be u s e d w i t h e q u a l f r e q u e n c y , i n d i c a t e by c i r c l i n g t h e g u i l t y p a r t i e s . eg y e l l o w w h i t e r e d b l a c k e t c . The c o l o u r terms t o be l i s t e d a r e : BLACK,BLUE,RED,PURPLE,BROWN,WHITE,GREY,PINK,GREEN,YELLOW,ORANGE. Your own use C h i l d ' s use c o r r e c t l y i n c o r r e c t l y most f r e q u e n t •  l e a s t f r e q u e n t F o r t h o s e c o l o u r terms u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y by t h e c h i l d , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e below what c o l o u r s t h e y were c o n f u s e d w i t h , ( f o r example, GREEN u s e d t o r e f e r t o a l l y e l l o w and g r e e n o b j e c t s . ) APPENDIX 41: c o n t . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Page 3 o f 3 225. H. E x t e n t o f Use: I n d i c a t e a p p r o x i m a t e l y how many d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t s e a c h c o l o u r t e r m i s u s e d f o r by you and by y o u r c h i l d . ( f o r example, t h e name PURPLE may be u s e d o n l y t o r e f e r t o y o u r s o c k s o r t h e c h i l d ' s cup, t h u s : 2 i t e m s : s o c k s , h e r cup. Any terms u s e d f o r more t h a n 5 o b j e c t s may be i n d i c a t e d s i m p l y a s : 5 i t e m s , and no l i s t i n g o f o b j e c t s i s n e c e s s a r y . Your u s e : ( i n s p e e c h t o y o u r c h i l d ) PINK: GREEN BLACK WHITE BROWN ORANGE i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : PURPLE GREY BLUE RED YELLOW i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : C h i l d ' s Use C o r r e c t l y I n c o r r e c t l y BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE BROWN WHITE GREY PINK GREEN YELLOW i t e m s ; i t e m s : i t e m s : ORANGE: i t e m s : i t e m s : _ i t e m s : _ i t e m s : _ i t e m s : _ i t e m s : _ i t e m s : _ i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : i t e m s : / 226 . APPENDIX 42: Rank O r d e r s o f O v e r a l l F r e q u e n c y and E x t e n t - o f - U s e , w i t h Tau V a l u e s f o r C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h P e r f o r m a n c e and E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r s C h i l d Mother C h i l d F r e q u e n c y F r e q u e n c y E x t e n t b l u e r e d g r e e n y e l l o w o r a n g e p i n k brown b l a c k w h i t e p u r p l e g r e y b l u e r e d y e l l o w g r e e n o r a n g e brown p i n k w h i t e b l a c k p u r p l e g r e y r e d b l u e g r e e n y e l l o w brown p i n k o r a n g e w h i t e b l a c k p u r p l e g r e y Mother E x t e n t b l u e r e d o r a n g e p i n k g r e e n y e l l o w brown b l a c k w h i t e p u r p l e g r e y E v o l u t i o n a r y O r d e r : .177 .216 .019 .295 O r d e r s o f A c c u r a c y : P r o d u c t i o n : .200 .236 .330 .091 Comprehension:-.018 -.054 .146 -.054 T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e : .127 .091 .257 .018 APPENDIX 43: K e n d a l l ' s Tau V a l u e s f o r Comp a r i s o n s o f I n d i v i d u a l AGE 2 P e r f o r m a n c e w i t h P a r e n t a l I n p u t and C h i l d P r a c t i c e Measures _ cod e : S - s u b j e c t number A - c h i l d f r e q u e n c y B - mother f r e q u e n c y C - c h i l d e x t e n t - o f - u s e D - mother e x t e n t - o f - u s e E - c o r r e l a t i o n o f c h i l d e x t e n t t o mother e x t e n t F - c o r r e l a t i o n o f c h i l d t o mother f r e q u e n c y Comprehension P r o d u c t i o n T o t a l P e r f o r m a n c e s A B C D A B C D A B C D E F 1 .68* .68* .49* .34 .36 .36 .35 . 31 .45* .45* .49* .30 .67* 1.00* 2 -.25 -.22 .07 .16 — — — — -.25 - .22 .07 .16 .59* .61* 3 . -.06 -.06 - .19 .27 -.19 - .19 -.36 .24 -.23 - .23 - .41 .23 .18 1.00* 4 -.37 -.25 - .27 -.39 -.23 .14 -.27 .18 -.32 .06 - . 28 .09 .69* .59* 5 — -.37 .18 -.15 __ _ . 37 .18 - .39 — . 58* .25 - .44 .29 — 6 .44 -.08 — -.18 .04 - .17 — .57* .18 - .14 — .38 -- .42 7 .35 -.57* .46 -.05 .39 .13 -.06 - .18 .43 - .35 .36 - . 21 .05 -.16 8 -.23 -.18 - .12 -.17 .14 .13 .25 .08 -.12 - .08 - .05 - .07 .82* .90* 9 .02 .12 .30 .30 .37 .41 . 26 .26 .25 .34 . 31 .31 1.00* .87* 12 -.04 -.28 .03 .00 -.37 - .08 -.30 - .16 -.33 - .28 - .25 - . 20 .69* .54* 13 -.32 -.47*- .17 .00 .30 .28 .38 .00 .10 - .02 .25 . 00 .00 .89* 14 .31 .06 .29 .15 .69* .15 .69* .20 .47* .09 .51* .13 . 53* .43 15 .05 .23 .35 .06 .05 . 23 .35 .06 .58* .78* 16 -.35 -.53 — — — — — — -.35 - . 53 — — — .78* 18 .11 .05 .19 -.08 .48* .17 .61* -.09 .15 .07 .22 - .05 . 1 6 .28 APPENDIX 44: F r e q u e n c i e s and P r o p o r t i o n s o f S t a b i l i t y L e v e l s C o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h L e v e l s o f F r e q u e n c y and E x t e n t - o f - U s e c o d e : B - l e v e l s o f f r e q u e n c y and e x t e n t - o f - u s e f - f r e q u e n c y p r o - p r o p o r t i o n c h i l d mother c h i l d mother f r e q u e n c y f r e q u e n c y e x t e n t e x t e n t B f p r o f p r o f p r o f p r o STABLE h i g h 8 .36 9 .41 7 .37 7 . 32 mid 9 . .41 9 .41* 0 .00 3 .14 low 4 .18 4 .18 11 .58 9 .41 none 1 .04 0 .00 1 . 05 3 .14 t o t a l 22 22 19 22 • UNSTABLE h i g h 22 .26 44 .43* 21 . 24 41 .41* mid 28 .34 33 . 33* 8 . 09* 15 .15 low 21 . 25 24 .24* 33 .37 32 .32 none 12 .14 0 .00 27 . 30 13 .13 t o t a l 83 101 89 101 UNKNOWN h i g h 6 .09 14 .22 4 . 07 16 . 29 mid 13 .20* 23 .36 4 .07* 4 .07 low 13 . 20* 27 .42* 16 .30* 19 . 35 none 64 64 53 54 t o t a l 

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