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Implementation of British Columbia’s Pollution Control Act, 1967, in the lower Fraser River Kolankiewicz, Leon John 1981

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IMPLEMENTATION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S POLLUTION CONTROL ACT, 1967, IN THE LOWER FRASER RIVER by LEON JOHN KOLANKIEWICZ B . S c . , - V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c I n s t i t u t e & S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Sc h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1981 (c) Leon John K o l a n k i e w i c z , 1 981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 n F - f i ( 2/79) i i ABSTRACT Over the p a s t two decades, p o l l u t i o n i n the lower F r a s e r R i v e r of B r i t i s h Columbia has become an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n of Lower M a i n l a n d r e s i d e n t s . The F r a s e r i s B.C.'s l a r g e s t and most h i s t o r i c r i v e r , and s u p p o r t s P a c i f i c salmon runs of some i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and much l o c a l i n t e r e s t . The p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e s t h a t the r i v e r i s a l r e a d y or soon w i l l be b a d l y p o l l u t e d , and t h e r e i s widesp r e a d s u s p i c i o n t h a t the government's l a c k of enforcement of i t s own a n t i - p o l l u t i o n laws i s t o blame. B.C.'s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967, forms the b a s i s of the p r o v i n c e ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r r e g u l a t i n g the d i s c h a r g e of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r s . The A c t and r e g u l a t i o n s p u r s u a n t t o i t o u t l i n e a p e r m i t system and a s e t of r e l a t e d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t t o g e t h e r a re the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e framework of B.C.'s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s . The A c t a l s o a p p o i n t s a c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r — t h e D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l — a n d a semi-autonomous p o l i c y - s e t t i n g and a p p e a l body--the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board. The Board, the D i r e c t o r , and the D i r e c t o r ' s s t a f f ( the Waste Management Branch) have l a r g e l y been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the p r o v i s i o n s of the A c t and C a b i n e t d i r e c t i v e s r e l a t i n g t o i t . The purpose of t h i s s tudy was t o conduct an indepenent e v a l u a t i o n of how the p r o v i n c e ' s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s has o p e r a t e d i n the Lower F r a s e r . The e v a l u a t i o n has s e v e r a l i i i s t a g e s : 1) O u t l i n i n g what I have termed B.C.'s " o f f i c i a l " o r " f o r m a l " p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s ; t h a t i s , the one f o r m a l l y s e t up by the A c t and f u r t h e r f a s h i o n e d by h i g h - l e v e l o f f i c i a l s . Three s t a g e s were i d e n t i f i e d : s e t t i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s , i s s u i n g p o l l u -t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s , and m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement. 2) S k e t c h i n g the b a s i c s t e p s of a model f o r c o n t r o l l i n g p o i n t - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r . B.C.'s f o r m a l p r o c e s s i s then compared w i t h t h i s model p r o c e s s . 3) D e s c r i b i n g how B.C.'s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s a c t -u a l l y has worked i n the case of the Lower F r a s e r . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y by r e f e r r i n g t o 13 ex-amples t h a t were chosen from Waste Management Branch f i l e s and t o i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n a number of F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s . 4) E v a l u a t i o n of the a c t u a l p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o t h r e e c r i t e r i a . The f i r s t measures how c l o s e l y p r a c t i c e i s a d h e r i n g t o f o r m a l p o l i c y . The second a s s e s s e s the g e n e r a t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s , w h i l e the t h i r d e v a l u a t e s how w e l l i t has accomodated a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . O b j e c t i v e s f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l were s e t by the Board on the b a s i s of " t e c h n i c a l " i n f o r m a t i o n assembled d u r i n g p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s . The O b j e c t i v e s s e r v e as t a r g e t s , not b i n d i n g s t a n d a r d s , and h e a v i l y emphasize the c o n t r o l of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y over the maintenance of r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y . I n q u i r i e s o n l y p a r t i a l l y g e n e r a t e d the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o f u l l y u n d e r s t a n d the consequences of a l t e r n a t i v e l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . The i n t e n d e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n a p p l y i n g the O b j e c t i v e s t o s p e c i f i c c a s e s and the s t a t e d i n t e n t t o re v i e w them a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n t h i s i g n o r a n c e . The narrow terms of r e f e r e n c e of i n q u i r i e s and t h e i r f o r m a l s e t t i n g s d i s c o u r a g e d e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c . S e v e r a l p o s s i b l e means of i m p r o v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a re s u g g e s t e d . i v A l l waste d i s c h a r g e r s i n B.C. r e q u i r e p e r m i t s s i g n e d by the D i r e c t o r . The p e r m i t s t i p u l a t e s a number of c o n d i t i o n s t o which the d i s c h a r g e r must conform. O b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be used as "minimum o b j e c t i v e s " i n s e t t i n g p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s , and t h i s was i n p a r t t r u e . The A c t ' s s t i p u l a t i o n s f o r c i r c u l a t i n g a p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r comment and a d v e r t i s i n g i t p u b l i c l y were w e l l f o l l o w e d . In c a s e s where another agency o b j e c t e d t o an a p p l i c a t i o n , more o f t e n than not the o b j e c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d " u n r e a s o n a b l e " by the Branch. The a p p l i c a n t and the Branch engaged i n sometimes p r o t r a c t e d n e g o t i a t i o n i n the s e t t i n g of p e r m i t terms. Some but not a l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o m e a n i n g f u l l y a s s e s s an a p p l i c a t i o n came t o l i g h t i n the c o u r s e of i t s e v a l u a t i o n by the Branch. The i n f o r m a t i o n t y p i c a l l y made a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c was poor i n t h i s r e g a r d . M o n i t o r i n g i s t o be c a r r i e d on both by the Branch and p e r m i t t e e s . Roughly h a l f of the e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e d of p e r m i t t e e s i s a c t u a l l y b e i n g c o n d u c t e d , and some p e r m i t t e e s need t o c o n s t a n t l y be "reminded" of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . N e i t h e r zone of i n f l u e n c e m o n i t o r i n g conducted i n the v i c i n i t y of o u t f a l l s , or g e n e r a l water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g conducted at s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s i n the r i v e r , b o th of which a r e the Branch's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d out as f r e q u e n t l y as they s h o u l d be, p r o b a b l y because of f u n d i n g l i m i t a t i o n s . The Branch's p h i l o s o p h y towards enforcement over the p a s t decade has been t o n e g o t i a t e c o m p l i a n c e i s as c o o p e r a t i v e a manner as p o s s i b l e r a t h e r than t o t h r e a t e n or use p r o s e c u t i o n f r e q u e n t l y . V T h i s approach i s regarded as more r e a l i s t i c and even u l t i m a t e l y more s u c c e s s f u l a t r e d u c i n g p o l l u t i o n over the l o n g term by e x p e r i e n c e d Branch e n g i n e e r s . On one hand, the wi d e s p r e a d p resence of v i o l a t i o n s tends t o d i s c r e d i t t h i s v i e w , but on the o t h e r , r e c o g n i z a b l e p r o g r e s s has been made i n r e d u c i n g some d i s c h a r g e s w i t h the c o o p e r a t i v e a pproach. Two p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r o b a b l y a l s o account f o r the mini m a l use of p r o s e c u t i o n : a d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n t o l e r a b l e w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Branch p e r s o n n e l and p e r m i t t e e s , and the f a c t t h a t l i g i t a t i o n i s so time-consuming and u n c e r t a i n . The r e c o r d of p r o s e c u t i o n s t h a t have been brought under the A c t i s not an i m p r e s s i v e one, but e x p e r i e n c e from the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s not a t y p i c a l . The f a c t t h a t r e c e n t p o l i c y changes w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Environment have l e d t o a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the use of p r o s e c u t i o n as a d e t e r r e n t makes t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t i m e l y . A number of recommendations a r e made t h a t would s t r e n g t h e n the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i n B.C. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of T a b l e s v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s i x Acknowledgements x Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Study Background and R a t i o n a l e 4 1.2 Study O b j e c t i v e s 14 1 .3 Study Methods 17 Notes t o Chapter One 22 2 B.C.'S POLLUTION CONTROL PROCESS AND A MODEL 2 4 2.1 An I l l u s t r a t i v e Model 25 2.2 B.C.'s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P r o c e s s 26 2.2.1 The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act 27 2.2.2 S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s 29 2.2.3 G r a n t i n g P e r m i t s 37 2.2.4 M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement 43 2.3 A C r i t i q u e of B.C.'s O f f i c i a l P r o c e s s 47 2.3.1 E s t a b l i s h m e n t of Ambient S t a n d a r d s 47 2.3.2 E s t i m a t i o n of T o t a l P e r m i s s i b l e L o a d i n g s 49 2.3.3 G r a n t i n g of P e r m i t s 50 2.3.4 I n f o r m a t i o n G e n e r a t i o n and Feedback.... 52 2.3.5 Enforcement 53 Notes t o Chapter Two 54 3 EVALUATION CRITERIA 56 3.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s 57 3.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 57 3.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s 60 4 SETTING OBJECTIVES—THE REAL WORLD 67 4 . 1 F i n d i n g s 67 4.1.1 Nature of the P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s 67 4.1.2 C o m p o s i t i o n of A d v i s o r y P a n e l s and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board 72 4.1.3 O u t s i d e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s 75 4.1.4 B a s i s of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s . . 78 4.2 A C r i t i q u e 84 4.2.1 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 84 4.2.2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 87 Notes t o Chapter Four 89 v i i C h apter 5 ISSUING PERMITS—THE REAL WORLD 90 5.1 F i n d i n g s 91 5.1.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s R e q u i r i n g P e r m i t s 91 5.1.2 I n i t i a t i o n of A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s . . . 94 5.1.3 Numbers of P e r m i t s P r o c e s s e d and I s s u e d 95 5.1.4 P r o c e s s i n g of Pe r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s 95 5.2 A C r i t i q u e 122 5.2.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s . . 122 5.2.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 123 5.2.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 127 Notes t o Chapter F i v e 129 6 MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT--THE REAL WORLD 130 6.1 F i n d i n g s 130 6.1.1 Who M o n i t o r s 130 6.1.2 Water Q u a l i t y M o n i t o r i n g 131 6.1.3 Compliance w i t h P r o c e d u r a l Requirements 132 6.1.4 Compliance w i t h S u b s t a n t i v e Requirements 139 6.1.5 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Compliance 147 6.1.6 Use of P r o s e c u t i o n 151 6.1.7 Involvement of A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s 156 6.2 A C r i t i q u e 159 6.2.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s . . 159 6.2.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 163 6.2.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 165 Notes t o Chapter S i x 167 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 168 7.1 R e s u l t s of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l E f f o r t s 168 7.2 S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s 173 7.2.1 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 173 7.2.2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 180 7.3 I s s u i n g P e r m i t s 183 7.3.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s . . 183 7.3.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 185 7.3.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 191 7.4 M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement 194 7.4.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s . . 194 7.4.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 197 7.4.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s . . . . 197 7.5 Government Commitment t o P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l . . . 199 Notes t o Chapter Seven 202 REFERENCES 204 v i i i LIST OF TABLES I P e r m i t F i l e s Examined 19 I I G u i d e l i n e s f o r the Q u a l i t y of R e c e i v i n g Waters.. 36 I I I P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s . . . 76 IV P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t s P r o v i n c e - w i d e , 1970-79 96 V E f f l u e n t and Refuse P e r m i t s , Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n , 1970-74, 1977-80 97 VI Compliance and Non-Compliance w i t h P e r m i t s by Category of D i s c h a r g e and Parameter 146 i x LIST OF FIGURES 1 Water P o l l u t a n t Pathways, showing which segments a r e c o n t r o l l e d under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967 5 2 L o c a t i o n of P e r m i t t e e s Whose F i l e s Were Reviewed 20 3 P o s i t i o n of Waste Management Branch i n P r o v i n c i a l B u r e aucracy 30 4 Waste Management Branch P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n C i r c u l a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 41 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There a r e t h r e e t h i n g s ( e s p e c i a l l y ) f o r which I s h o u l d e x p r e s s thanks t o the f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e i n p a r t i c u l a r : -That I F i n i s h e d At A l l -my p a r e n t s , f o r t h e i r e n d u r i n g support and a b i l i t y t o mix ad m o n i t i o n w i t h t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e i r son's w i l d ways; Brahm Wiesman, f o r a c c e p t i n g my e c c e n t r i c i t i e s w i t h good humour and g i v i n g me the nudge w i t h o u t the boot; -For The C o n c e p t u a l B a s i s Of The Pro d u c t W i t h i n -B i l l Rees, whose t r e n c h a n t c r i t i c i s m and c o u n s e l was not c o n f i n e d t o p u r e l y s c h o l a s t i c s u b j e c t s ; I r v i n g Fox, f o r h i s many h e l p f u l o b s e r v a t i o n s and j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , h i s f i n e example; -That Grad S c h o o l Became "The Best Years Of My L i f e " -J a n e t R o b i n s o n , f o r her h i g h s t a n d a r d s , i n i t i a t i v e , and adventuresomeness; V i c k i Seraphim, f o r her h e a r t of g o l d ; C h a r l e s B u n g i , f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o B e a u t i f u l B.C. Thanks a r e due the many i n d i v i d u a l s who took an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t or h e l p e d me complete i t . I am s o r r y t h a t the outcome c o u l d not p o s s i b l y p l e a s e them a l l ! Chapter One 1 INTRODUCTION The o b j e c t of t h i s s tudy i s t o examine and e v a l u a t e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's 1967 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t (R.S.B.C. 1979, c.332) i n the lower F r a s e r R i v e r . 1 Concern f o r the E r a s e r has h e i g h t e n e d i n the l a s t decade as a p p r e c i a t i o n of i t s r e s o u r c e v a l u e s has grown and as the p e r c e i v e d and r e a l t h r e a t t o i t s water q u a l i t y has i n c r e a s e d . Water i s , of c o u r s e , v i t a l t o a l l l i f e on e a r t h . Modern man p l a c e s g r e a t e r demands on i t than e v e r , c o n t r a r y t o the myth t h a t we have s e v e r e d t i e s w i t h our environment. Only i t s apparent abundance and a v a i l a b i l i t y "at the t u r n of a f a u c e t " obscure t h e s e f a c t s , a l l o w i n g most Canadians t o t a k e f o r g r a n t e d the c o n t i n u e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of the s e r v i c e s d e l i v e r e d by water of d e s i r a b l e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y , s e r v i c e s t h a t range from s u p p o r t i n g a q u a t i c l i f e t o a s s i m i l a t i n g waste. As economic and p o p u l a t i o n growth have proceeded i n Canada however, c o n f l i c t i n g demands on water have i n t e n s i f i e d . I n c r e a s i n g l y , a c t i v e measures — n o t always s u c c e s s f u l — h a v e been r e q u i r e d t o p r o t e c t i t s q u a l i t y , manage i t s f l o w s , and mediate between competing demands on the water r e s o u r c e . The p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o c u s e s s o l e l y on one a s p e c t of the water r e s o u r c e problem i n one s e t t i n g : c o n t r o l l i n g p o i n t s o u r c e s of water p o l l u t i o n i n the F r a s e r E s t u a r y . P o l l u t i o n i s a problem t h a t , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , c a l l s f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n of government i n t o p r i v a t e a f f a i r s . Thus, 2 e x p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n f o r p o l l u t i o n of the F r a s e r i s n e a r l y tantamount t o q u e s t i o n i n g how w e l l c e r t a i n arrangements d e v i s e d and run by government have i n f a c t f u n c t i o n e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g the s o u r c e s of p o l l u t i o n t h a t t h r e a t e n the r i v e r ' s water q u a l i t y and a s s o c i a t e d v a l u e s . Indeed, t h i s v e r y q u e s t i o n has become the f o c u s of a r e g i o n a l debate: Are p r o v i n i c a l and f e d e r a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a g e n c i e s "doing t h e i r j o b ? " Do governments p o s s e s s the " w i l l t o e n f o r c e " t h e i r own a n t i - p o l l u t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n ? In p a r t , t h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . In t h e o r y , at both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s , numerous laws c o u l d be used i n c h e c k i n g p o l l u t i o n and managing water q u a l i t y . In p r a c t i c e , two are p r i m a r y — t h e p r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n  C o n t r o l Ac t and the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Act (R.S.C. 1970, c. 14). Without downplaying the importance of the l a t t e r , I have chosen the former as the s u b j e c t of t h i s s tudy f o r two r e a s o n s : because of i t s wider scope and because i n the Lower F r a s e r , the p r o v i n c e has assumed the l e a d r o l e i n p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l (as a u t h o r i z e d by the B r i t i s h N o r t h America Act of 1867) and t h e r e f o r e drawn the most c r i t i c i s m . The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act e s t a b l i s h e s the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, the D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l (the A c t ' s c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t o r ) , and a l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e f o r r e g u l a t i n g waste d i s c h a r g e i n t o p r o v i n i c a l w a t e r s . The Board c o n s i s t s of up t o a dozen c i v i l s e r v a n t s and p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . I t ' s two main f u n c t i o n s a r e to. s e t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s and t o hear f o r m a l A p p e a l s of Orders i s s u e d under the A c t . The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch 2 (which i s never a c t u a l l y named as such i n the A c t ) i s the D i r e c t o r ' s s t a f f and i n c l u d e s p r o f e s s i o n a l 3 e n g i n e e r s , b i o l o g i s t s , and t e c h n i c i a n s , a l l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , as w e l l as the L i t t e r  A c t , on a day-to-day b a s i s . Branch p e r s o n n e l a r e d i v i d e d between the c e n t r a l V i c t o r i a o f f i c e and the p r o v i n c e ' s s i x r e s o u r c e management r e g i o n s . One f e a t u r e of the A c t and the p r o c e s s i t has engendered i s t h a t they b o t h c o n c e n t r a t e on r e g u l a t i n g i n d e n t i f i a b l e p o i n t s o u r c e s of p o l l u t i o n . The l a r g e r , more complex problem of ambient water q u a l i t y management has l a r g e l y been n e g l e c t e d . The d i s t i n c t i o n between water q u a l i t y management and p o i n t s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s g r e a t e r than may appear a t f i r s t g l a n c e . C o n t r o l l i n g p o i n t s o u r c e s of p o l l u t i o n as th e y occur i s r e a l l y o n l y a p a r t of managing water q u a l i t y ( a l b e i t an im p o r t a n t o n e ) . I t does not encompass the problem posed by non-p o i n t s o u r c e s of p o l l u t i o n 3 and i t does not i n c l u d e a hos t of management t o o l s r a n g i n g from f l o w m a n i p u l a t i o n t o r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g and l o c a l z o n i n g . In t h e o r y , perhaps the g r e a t e s t fundamental s h o r t c o m i n g of the p r o c e d u r e s developed under the A c t ( i f they a re re g a r d e d as the b a s i s of a water q u a l i t y management system f o r B.C.) i s t h a t t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c o n t r o l l i n g ef f l u e n t q u a l i t y from i n d i v i d u a l d i s c h a r g e r s i s not c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a l a r g e r framework f o r managing r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y . I n u r b a n i z i n g r e g i o n s l i k e the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of d i s c h a r g e r s a r e d e a l t w i t h l a r g e l y on an i n d i v i d u a l , ad hoc b a s i s. Wh i l e n o t i n g here the g e n e r a l n e g l e c t of n o n - p o i n t s o u r c e s of water p o l l u t i o n , i t would be u n f a i r t o c r i t i c i z e t h e c o n t r o l 4 a p p a r a t u s s e t up under the A c t f o r f a i l i n g t o stem a type of p o l l u t i o n the A c t i t s e l f does not c o v e r . Thus, I have r e s t r i c t e d t h i s a n a l y s i s t o what the A c t does c o v e r — r e g u l a t i o n of p o i n t - s o u r c e d i s c h a r g e s (from b o t h e f f l u e n t o u t f a l l s and l e a c h a t e - p r o d u c i n g l a n d f i l l s ) — b u t i t s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n t h a t these a r e not the e n t i r e t h r e a t t o water q u a l i t y i n the Lower F r a s e r . " F i g u r e 1 d e p i c t s the major pathways t r a v e l l e d by p o l l u t a n t s of water,' and emphasizes those f l o w s which are r e g u l a t e d under the A c t . What i s noteworthy i s the number which a r e n o t . The p r e s e n t study t h e n , has f o u r p r i n c i p a l r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s : (1) t o d e s c r i b e how B.C.'s o f f i c i a l or f o r m a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i s i d e a l l y supposed t o f u n c t i o n ; (2) t o r e v e a l how the p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y has f u n c -t i o n e d i n the Lower F r a s e r ; (3) t o a n a l y z e B.C.'s p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o a model p r o c e s s and c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a ; (4) t o recommend improvements i n the p r o c e s s as sug-g e s t e d by t h e above a n a l y s i s . S e c t i o n 1.2 d i s c u s s e s t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . 1 .1 Study Background and R a t i o n a l e The F r a s e r E s t u a r y i s v a l u a b l e i n i t s undeveloped s t a t e . I t s u p p o r t s a r i c h r e s i d e n t a q u a t i c f a u n a , the l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n of m i g r a t o r y b i r d s i n w e s t e r n Canada, and r e l a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and n a t u r e a p p r e c i a t i o n . Anadromous f i s h , most n o t a b l y the c o m m e r c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t (and FIGURE 1 — Water P o l l u t a n t Pathways, showing which segments are c o n t r o l l e d under the P o l l u t i o n Control Act, 1967 LAND USES I n d u s t r i a l tttftttftttttttttttttUt Vttttttttitntitttttmi 111 t / . t t t n t t t u i in tttnttti tini t un t m ittt it at Commercial Urban R e s i d e n t i a l s a n i t a r y sewers Urban Transportation ^ P r i v a t e Treatment F a c i l i t y ttn ttt nt it 11 tt t iimtttitttttttttttittttt A i r ttttlt tit f a l l o u t a s o i l P u b l i c l y Owned \ Sewage Treat- Jr-tttttfHtttt t i i t t i t t t t t t t t i t l t t t i i i i i i t t t i l t t t ment Plant / storm sewers Re c r e a t i o n a l L a n d f i l l Septicj- -^soTTL-t i t t i t t t f t t t t t t t f t t f i t t t i t i t t \ 11tfttf tttttt 11111 ttt tttttttut11itt tt111 tttttt ftttt -»|Soil Rural Transportation -»|Soil[— Rural R e s i d e n t i a l -frjSeptd A g r i c u l t u r a l & Forest f a l l o u t a s o i l l — S o i l } — WATER USES Log Transport & Storage Boats & Barges routine discharge a c c i d e n t a l s p i l l s Flows regulated under 1967 Act designated by hatched l i n e s 6 p u b l i c l y a c c l a i m e d ) salmon, u t i l i z e i t i n t h e i r j o u r n e y s from i n l a n d spawning c h a n n e l s t o the sea and back a g a i n . The F r a s e r i s the most i m p o r t a n t r i v e r t o B.C.'s a i l i n g f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y and i s w i d e l y r e g a r d e d as the g r e a t e s t , or one of the g r e a t e s t , salmon r i v e r s i n the w o r l d . These r e s o u r c e v a l u e s of the r i v e r and i t s e s t u a r y , t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e a l i k e , a r e undoubtedly s i g n i f i c a n t t o V a n c o u v e r i t e s and B r i t i s h Columbians and have o n l y begun t o be measured. 5 However, the lower s t r e t c h e s of "The M i g h t y F r a s e r " a r e a l s o e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o the r e g i o n f o r development-r e l a t e d uses. The r i v e r ' s s l o u g h s , i t s f o r e s h o r e , and i t s a d j o i n i n g f l o o d p l a i n p o s s e s s h i g h v a l u e f o r development i n a r e g i o n w i t h a n o t o r i o u s l y l i m i t e d l a n d base. The r i v e r i t s e l f i s used f o r f i s h i n g , t r a n s p o r t and s t o r a g e of l o g s , sand e x t r a c t i o n , s h i p p i n g (which n e c e s s i t a t e s p e r i o d i c d r e d g i n g ) , some p l e a s u r e b o a t i n g , i r r i g a t i o n , i n d u s t r i a l water i n t a k e , a n d — w a s t e d i s p o s a l . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , each of these uses a f f e c t s the n a t u r a l environment d e t r i m e n t a l l y t o some e x t e n t . Waste d i s c h a r g e s i n t o the Lower F r a s e r have i n c r e a s e d i n the l a s t t h r e e decades because of the r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l growth as w e l l as because of past d e c i s i o n s both t o d i v e r t Vancouver's sewage from i t s harbour (and beaches) i n t o the F r a s e r and t o r e l o c a t e i n d u s t r y from the c i t y c o r e out i n t o the V a l l e y . B e f o r e the s e v e n t i e s , l i t t l e was a c t u a l l y known about the e f f e c t of p o l l u t a n t s o r i g i n a t i n g from Lower M a i n l a n d s o u r c e s on the water q u a l i t y of the F r a s e r . A c c o r d i n g t o G o l d i e (1967), the e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s d a t e back t o the f i f t i e s , when the B.C. 7 Research C o u n c i l 6 and the Canada Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s 7 both sampled v a r i o u s c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of the r i v e r water a t s e v e r a l s t a t i o n s . In the s i x t i e s , the G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage and Drain a g e D i s t r i c t (GVSDD) c a r r i e d out p e r i o d i c s a m p l i n g of d i s s o l v e d oxygen (DO). The B.C. H e a l t h Department o c c a s i o n a l l y supplemented t h i s programme w i t h DO sampling of t h e i r own ( G o l d i e , 1967). In 1967, C.A. G o l d i e , a s t a f f e n g i n e e r w i t h the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch i n t e r p r e t e d the e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h and summarized i t as f o l l o w s . . . ... i n i t s n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n or t h a t p e r t a i n i n g i n 1950-1951, the Lower F r a s e r water e x h i b i t s a h i g h t u r b i d i t y , suspended s o l i d s and i r o n c o n t e n t t h r o u g h most of the year and p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the r u n - o f f p e r i o d . (p. 26) and: The g e n e r a l statement may be made t h a t the main stem of the F r a s e r i s re g a r d e d as a " c l e a n stream" i n terms of B.O.D. c o n t e n t . However, the r a p i d development of the P r o v i n c e c o u l d r e s u l t i n d e g r a d a t i o n of water q u a l i t y so t h a t p l a n n e d p r e v e n t a t i v e measures s h o u l d be i n i t i a t e d t o f o r e s t a l l any q u a l i t y impairment a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no cause f o r immediate a l a r m . (p. 49) The water q u a l i t y of the Lower F r a s e r has r e a l l y o n l y been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d t h i s p a s t decade. 1972 marked the b e g i n n i n g of a f o u r y e a r , $600,000 i n v e s t i g a t i o n by UBC's newly c r e a t e d Westwater R e s e a r c h C e n t r e t h a t c u l m i n a t e d i n 1976 w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n of The U n c e r t a i n F u t u r e of the Lower F r a s e r (Dorcey, 1976). DO was found t o be "very good" i n the r i v e r ' s mainstem (about 90% of s a t u r a t i o n l e v e l s ) w h i l e the N o r t h and Main Arms of the F r a s e r both showed some d e p l e t i o n of oxygen, down t o about 85% s a t u r a t i o n (9 t o 10 mg/L DO). 8 T h i s was s t i l l w e l l above the 7.8 mg/L t h a t the U.S. F e d e r a l Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l 8 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n recommended would p r o v i d e a h i g h l e v e l of p r o t e c t i o n f o r salmon ( H a l l , 1976). The n u t r i e n t s t a t u s of the F r a s e r was a l s o found t o l o o k "very good". 9 However, s e r i o u s b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by the f e c a l c o l i f o r m c o u n t , and as r e p o r t e d by G o l d i e n e a r l y a decade e a r l i e r , was c o n f i r m e d . L e v e l s of c o l i f o r m b a c t e r i a i n d i c a t e the presence of human and a n i m a l excrement and the p o s s i b l e p r e s e n c e of a s s o c i a t e d pathogens. The c o l i f o r m count of each of the c h a n n e l s f l o w i n g t h r o u g h the GVRD exceeded l e v e l s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r " s a f e " c o n t a c t r e c r e a t i o n , w h i l e the f e c a l c o l i f o r m count on the N o r t h Arm i n p a r t i c u l a r was h i g h e r than even the recommended l e v e l s f o r n o n - c o n t a c t r e c r e a t i o n (eg. b o a t i n g ) . 1 0 The l o w l a n d t r i b u t a r i e s of the F r a s e r were d i s c o v e r e d t o have s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o o r e r water q u a l i t y than the F r a s e r i t s e l f ( H a l l and Wiens, 1976). N e v e r t h e l e s s , Westwater's main c o n c l u s i o n was summarized t h u s : Compared w i t h o t h e r h e a v i l y - u s e d r i v e r s of the w o r l d the Lower F r a s e r i s s t i l l i n r e l a t i v e l y good' h e a l t h . However, i t s f u t u r e i s c l o u d e d w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y . There i s u n m i s t a k e a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t o x i c m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g l e a d , mercury, p e r s t i c i d e s and PCB's a r e b e g i n n i n g t o a c c umulate i n the sediments and f i s h of the r i v e r , (back c o v e r ) Westwater's , h i g h l i g h t i n g of the p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t r e p r e s e n t e d by l o n g - l i v e d t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s c o r r e s p o n d e d t o a dawning world-wide p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s problem. In r e c o g n i t i o n of the i n t e n s i f y i n g problems f a c i n g the F r a s e r E s t u a r y , and the j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y t h a t e n t a n g l e s the r e g i o n (numerous a g e n c i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g f o u r l e v e l s of government), i n 1977 the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments 9 i n i t i a t e d Phase I of the F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study (FRES). The g o a l of the Study, i n b r i e f , i s t o d e v i s e a management p l a n f o r the e s t u a r y , as w e l l as t o c r e a t e a p r o c e d u r e by which major d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g the e s t u a r y a r e t o be made (FRES S t e e r i n g Committee, 1978). Phase I was an i n v e n t o r y of the s t a t u s quo of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and l a n d use w i t h i n the d e s i g n a t e d e s t u a r y study a r e a . Phase I I of the Study, p l a n development, i s now underway, and Phase I I I , p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t , i s supposed t o commence i n 1982. FRES has put c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n t o documenting both the e x i s t i n g water c h e m i s t r y of the Lower F r a s e r and the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e d i n t o i t . An a n a l y s i s of some 35,000 e f f l u e n t and 55,000 water c h e m i s t r y measurements c o l l e c t e d from 1970 t o 1978 by a number of government and non-government r e s e a r c h e r s were p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES Water Q u a l i t y Summary R e p o r t , e l e v e n background r e p o r t s , and f i v e a n c i l l a r y r e p o r t s (FRES Water Q u a l i t y Work Group, 1979). T h i s c o m p i l a t i o n u n d o u b l e d l y r e p r e s e n t s the most d e t a i l e d account y e t of Lower F r a s e r water c h e m i s t r y p a r a m e t e r s , s i g n i f i c a n t s o u r c e s of e f f l u e n t , and p r o b a b l e impact of s p e c i f i c p o i n t source d i s c h a r g e s and o v e r a l l p o l l u t a n t l o a d i n g s on w a t e r - q u a l i t y . In g e n e r a l , the f i n d i n g s c o r r o b o r a t e those of Westwater: Most water q u a l i t y parameters i n the r i v e r a r e not measureably changed by the major d i s c h a r g e s t o the r i v e r , e x c ept near e f f l u e n t plumes. There i s some a c c u m u l a t i o n of heavy m e t a l s and t o x i c o r g a n i c c o n t a m i n a n t s i n a q u a t i c b i o t a , i n c l u d i n g f i s h , (p. i i of Summary Re p o r t ) The Summary Report conveys the g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the t h r e a t t o F r a s e r water q u a l i t y i s not so urgent t h a t c o s t l y 10 i n v e s t m e n t s i n upgraded t r e a t m e n t need be made i m m e d i a t e l y . I t does admit t o numerous a r e a s of c oncern and u n c e r t a i n t y , but argues t h a t f u r t h e r study would be prudent b e f o r e commitments t o such schemes as secondary t r e a t m e n t of sewage and stormwater s e t t l i n g ponds a r e made. The Water C h e m i s t r y background r e p o r t ( D r i n n a n and C l a r k , 1980), i n e x a m i n i n g the a v a i l a b l e d a t a from 1970 t o 1978 f o r such major p h y s i c a l water q u a l i t y parameters as pH, DO, suspended s o l i d s ( S S ) , d i s s o l v e d m a t e r i a l s , n u t r i e n t s , and t r a c e m e t a l s , was unable t o d e t e c t a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d over t h i s p e r i o d f o r any of them. ( I t was not measuring a c c u m u l a t i o n of c o n t a m i n a n t s l i k e heavy m e t a l s i n sediments or a q u a t i c b i o t a . ) Data l i m i t a t i o n s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s f i n d i n g ( C l a r k , 1980a). N e v e r t h e l e s s , the absence of any s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s p r o b a b l y means t h a t — c o n t r a r y t o p o p u l a r b e l i e f — t h e r i v e r as a whole i s not r a p i d l y "going down the d r a i n . " 1 1 (However, t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s are s u c c e s s f u l e i t h e r . ) The FRES water q u a l i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have not gone u n c r i t i c i z e d . The summary r e p o r t i t s e l f has been c a l l e d a compromise, r e f l e c t i n g t h e u n r e c o n c i l e d b i a s e s of the d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s i t s t e n a u t h o r s r e p r e s e n t . Some b e l i e v e t h a t i t downplays the e x t e n t of cummulative " l o c a l i z e d d e g r a d a t i o n . " The f a c t t h a t the summary r e p o r t was r e l e a s e d b e f o r e most of i t s c o n s t i t u e n t t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s has i n v i t e d s u s p i c i o n t h a t i t s c o n c l u s i o n s were fo r e g o n e . C o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s were unhappy w i t h what they p e r c e i v e d as an o v e r l y r e a s s u r i n g tone t o the summary r e p o r t , w h i l e the p o p u l a r p r e s s went so f a r as t o say t h a t some of the r e p o r t ' s a u t h o r s a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t o a d e l i b e r a t e attempt of o t h e r a u t h o r s t o obscure the s e r i o u s n e s s of the r i v e r ' s c o n d i t i o n : { I t } seems t o suggest t h a t the r i v e r i s b a s i c a l l y h e a l t h y , and can absorb the p r e s e n t r a t e of d i s c h a r g e of e f f l u e n t s . But a c l o s e r r e a d i n g of the r e p o r t t e l l s a d i f f e r e n t s t o r y . I t shows t h a t i n f a c t many k i l o m e t e r s of the r i v e r , s l o u g h s and r i v e r i n e marshes, i n c l u d i n g v i t a l h a b i t a t of young salmon, a r e b a d l y p o l l u t e d . . . . the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the r e p o r t g i v e s the r i v e r a c l e a n b i l l of h e a l t h , t h e r e f o r e , i s m i s l e a d i n g . . . . Members of the committee a r e q u i t e f r a n k p r i v a t e l y about th e reasons f o r t h i s k i n d of d o u b l e - t a l k . They say the c o n c l u s i o n s were made d e l i b e r a t e l y obscure a t the i n s i s t e n c e of those committee members who d i d not want t o a l a r m the p u b l i c . And y e t the a l a r m i n g f a c t s a r e t h e r e i f you d i g f o r them. — The P r o v i n c e , J a n . 14,1980, e d i t o r i a l T h i s quote e x e m p l i f i e s a w i d e s p r e a d s u s p i c i o n on the p a r t of c o n cerned c i t i z e n s about the government's r e a l i n t e n t i o n s towards the Lower F r a s e r . F e a r s a r e e x p r e s s e d t h a t b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s of government, by a l l e g e d l y not e n f o r c i n g t h e i r own laws and r e g u l a t i o n s a d e q u a t e l y , a r e a l l o w i n g a p r e c i o u s r e s o u r c e t o d e t e r i o r a t e l i t t l e by l i t t l e : ... i n a c t i o n by c i v i l s e r v a n t s , the p r e s e n t i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l r e f e r r a l system, the p r e s e n t P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch p e r m i t system, and i n e p t enforcement on most v i o l a t i o n s a r e r e s u l t i n g i n the f a i l u r e t o p r o t e c t h a b i t a t and water q u a l i t y a l o n g the F r a s e r and i t s e s t u a r y . . . t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no e v i d e n c e t h a t would i n d i c a t e t h a t the F r a s e r E s t u a r y Study w i l l s o l v e the p i e c e - m e a l l o s s e s o u t l i n e d above. - - F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l i t i o n , Nov. 1979 There appears t o be one unspoken reason why governments ar e not f o l l o w i n g t h rough on t h e i r p l e d g e s t o p r o t e c t the e s t u a r y w h i l e they e v o l v e a system of p l a n n i n g and r e s e a r c h and r e s o u r c e p r i o r i t i e s . The w i l l t o e n f o r c e has a p p a r e n t l y been sapped.... -- The P r o v i n c e , Dec. 3, 1979, e d i t o r i a l The r e a s o n i n g here i s t h a t i f e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s supposed t o p r o t e c t the r i v e r ' s water q u a l i t y a r e r e n d e r e d n e a r l y m e a n i n g l e s s because of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and enforcement, t o b e l i e v e t h a t y e t another s e t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements w i l l c u r e the e s t u a r y ' s r e a l problems i s t o i g n o r e r e a l i t y . Yet t h i s phenomenon—that of d i v e r g e n c e s between p o l i c y g o a l s (eg. laws, water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s , p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s ) and r e s u l t s — i s n e i t h e r new nor unique t o the lower F r a s e r R i v e r . In a study of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n the U.S., Holden (1966) contended t h a t i t i s a p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s , or i n h i s terms, one "of c o n f l i c t l e a d i n g t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n of advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s . " C o n c e r n i n g p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t o r y a g e n c i e s , he not e d : W h i l e t h e s e a g e n c i e s c e r t a i n l y do d i s t r i b u t e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s , the d i s t r i b u t i o n s which occur a r e seldom c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n s which one would have e x p e c t e d i f one took the p o l i c y norms i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n of the a g e n c i e s as c l u e s t o the a g e n c i e s ' most l i k e l y b e h a v i o r . Yet i t i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r t h a t p e o p l e expect t h a t the p o l i c y norms w i l l be c o n c l u s i v e g u i d e s . When the d i v e r g e n c e of a c t u a l outcomes from p r e s u m p t i v e p o l i c y norms becomes c l e a r i n any p a r t i c u l a r case or s e t of c a s e s , t h e r e i s a tendency t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o the e t h i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h e r e g u l a t o r s , sometimes t o t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , and o f t e n t o what the c r i t i c b e l i e v e s an i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f o r m a t . (pp. 9-10) In o t h e r words, on the b a s i s of how human b e i n g s i n r e g u l a t o r y b o d i e s v e r y n a t u r a l l y behave i n c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r mandates, i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c t o expect the outcome of p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t o be i d e n t i c a l w i t h the a p r i o r i g o a l s b e h i n d such p o l i c i e s . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n c o n c u r s w e l l w i t h a c u r s o r y g l i m p s e of p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r . I do not mean t o s u g g e s t , nor d i d H olden, t h a t i n e f f e c t u a l r e g u l a t i o n must be an a c c e p t e d f a c t 13 of l i f e , but t h a t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l as a b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s and outcomes t h a t w i l l d i v e r g e somewhat from what "The Law" d i c t a t e s , a r e p r o b a b l e f a c t s of l i f e . I n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements t h a t i n v i t e p u b l i c s c r u t i n y can h e l p reduce s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n s of outcome from p o l i c y . The p r o v i n c i a l approach t o p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n the Lower F r a s e r i s an e v o l v i n g one, and any assessment of i t must ta k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t . H e i g h t e n e d p u b l i c c o n c e r n , r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Environment, and a December, 1979 m i n i s t e r i a l d i r e c t i v e have a l l r e s u l t e d i n an i n t e n s i f i e d e f f o r t t o c r a c k down on u n a u t h o r i z e d waste d i s c h a r g e r s (Hehn, 1980). W h i l e t h i s marks a s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y change, i t cannot be assumed t o r e p r e s e n t a permanent one. When the NDP government took power i n 1972, they t o o i n i t i a t e d a v i g o u r o u s enforcement programme (Franson and L u c a s , 1974), and y e t e i g h t y e a r s l a t e r , the p o p u l a r i m p r e s s i o n of most of the p u b l i c and many p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s t h a t non-compliance i s as rampant as e v e r . The p r e s e n t i n i t i a t i v e i s c o s t l i e r i n a time of a g e n e r a l economic slowdown ( a l t h o u g h B.C.'s economy i s h e a l t h i e r than most). A l s o , a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s of b e h a v i o r a l p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e , i t c o u l d p o s s i b l y provoke a r e a c t i o n by r e g u l a t e d p a r t i e s (waste d i s c h a r g e r s ) , who may not w i l l i n g l y s u r r e n d e r the advantage (of f o i s t i n g the s o c i a l c o s t s of t h e i r p o l l u t i o n on o t h e r segments of s o c i e t y ) they have presumably e n j o y e d f o r so l o n g . W i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of Environment (MOE), the proponents of t h i s "crackdown" are c o n f i d e n t t h a t t h e r e i s broad p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t s e r i o u s enforcement i s l o n g overdue (Ackerman, 1980; Hehn, 1980). For 14 the time b e i n g , i t e n j o y s c a b i n e t - l e v e l s u p p o r t . 1 2 Whether the c u r r e n t v i g i l a n c e endures i n the l o n g run however, depends on the r e a l economic c o s t s of implementing measures t o c u r t a i l e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s as w e l l as the broader economic and s o c i a l c l i m a t e . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s s t i l l s t r o n g b e l i e f on the p a r t of some Waste Management Branch o f f i c i a l s t h a t too tough an enforcement p o s t u r e , i f a t the expense of f r i e n d l y c o o p e r a t i o n , w i l l be c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e i n the l o n g run ( K l a s s e n , 1980). In any c a s e , the F r a s e r ' s f u t u r e i s by no means a s s u r e d . At a time when the r i v e r s t i l l "has some l i f e l e f t , " i t may be advantageous t o s c r u t i n i z e c l o s e l y some of thos e arrangements on which i t s f u t u r e depends. 1 . 2 Study O b j e c t i v e s The g e n e r a l g o a l of t h i s e x e r c i s e i s t o i l l u s t r a t e a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i n a c t i o n — h o w i t i s supposed t o f u n c t i o n v e r s u s how i t a c t u a l l y does f u n c t i o n , what i t a c c o m p l i s h e s , what i t f a i l s t o , and what the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r improvement a r e . These can be r e s t a t e d as more s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s : I . O u t l i n e how the p r o c e s s i s o f f i c i a l l y supposed t o work ( a c c o r d i n g t o the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act and o t h e r o f f i c i a l s o u r c e s ) . In Chapter Two, I w i l l r e v iew t h e major p r o v i s i o n s of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and d i s c u s s how t h e s e have been i n t e r p r e t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the major s t a g e s of a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s by the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board and the D i r e c t o r of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch. I have d i v i d e d the p r o c e s s i n t o t h r e e major p a r t s : s e t t i n g of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s ( f o r r e c e i v i n g water and e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y ) , i s s u a n c e of d i s c h a r g e p e r m i t s , and the m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement of 15 p e r m i t "terms and c o n d i t i o n s . " I I . O u t l i n e how the p r o c e s s does work. There w i l l , of c o u r s e , be some v a r i a n c e between the o f f i c i a l v e r s i o n and the r e a l one. These d i v e r g e n c e s w i l l be p o i n t e d out as b e s t as they can be a s c e r t a i n e d . My s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s a re t o : A. (With r e g a r d t o ) s e t t i n g of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s . . . 1. t o d e s c r i b e the p u b l i c i n q u i r y p r o c e s s by which o b j e c t i v e s are e s t a b l i s h e d . 2. t o a s c e r t a i n type and o r i g i n of i n f o r m a t i o n used i n s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s . 3. t o note degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t groups. 4. t o e s t a b l i s h o r i g i n of o p e r a t i n g g u i d e l i n e s and e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . (On what t e c h n i c a l grounds are they based? Acute t o x i c e f f e c t s ? Gen-e r a l e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ? Economic f e a s i b i l -i t y ? A v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y ? ) 5. t o compare a c t u a l r e v i s i o n of o b j e c t i v e s w i t h s t a t e d p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r r e v i s i o n . B. Is s u a n c e of P e r m i t s . . . 1. t o i n v e s t i g a t e means of i d e n t i f y i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r -i n g p e r m i t s . 2. t o gauge numbers of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s approved and r e f u s e d . 3. t o i d e n t i f y who i n i t i a t e s c o n t a c t and n e g o t i a t i o n s . 4. t o t r a c e t h rough r e f e r r a l p r o c e d u r e as a means of c o n s u l t i n g a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . 5. t o e s t a b l i s h l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d f o r p r o c e d u r e s . 6. t o compare p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s w i t h o b j e c t i v e s . 7. t o document the e f f e c t of n e g o t i a t i o n s between the Branch, p e r m i t a p p l i c a n t s , and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s on pe r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s e v e n t u a l l y s e t . 8. t o det e r m i n e the t y p e s of i n f o r m a t i o n used t o a s s e s s a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s . C. M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement... 1. t o e s t a b l i s h r a t i o of s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g t o government m o n i t o r i n g of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y . 2. t q e s t a b l i s h who co n d u c t s r e c e i v i n g water m o n i t o r i n g and how much i s done. 3. t o a s c e r t a i n how r e a s o n a b l e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the law i s i n t e r p r e t e d . 4. t o compare e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y r e q u i r e d by p e r m i t w i t h e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y a c t u a l l y a t t a i n e d . 5. t o i n d i c a t e the outcome of attem p t e d p r o s e c u t i o n s of v i o l a t o r s . 16 I I I . E v a l u a t e the above two ( o f f i c i a l and a c t u a l ) p r o c e s s e s i n t h r e e ways: 1. Compare the o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s w i t h a model f o r c o n t r o l l i n g p o i n t - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r Cchapter 2 ) . The model r e p r e s e n t s an " i d e a l " approach and p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l s t a n d a r d a g a i n s t which t o h i g h l i g h t some fundamental f e a t u r e s of B.C.'s approach t o p o i n t - s o u r c e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . The reason f o r t h i s comparison i s t h a t i t i s not enough t o s i m p l y e v a l u a t e how c l o s e l y B.C.'s a c t u a l p r o c e s s f o l l o w s i t s o f f i c i a l one, f o r the o f f i c i a l one i t s e l f may be f l a w e d . 2. Compare the a c t u a l p r o c e s s w i t h the o f f i c i a l one t o see how the government i s c a r r y i n g out i t s own mandate ( C h a p t e r s 4-6 ) . (Not a l l d e v i a t i o n s of p r a c t i c e from p o l i c y are c o n s e q u e n t i a l — I w i l l attempt t o a v o i d " n i t p i c k i n g " . ) 3. F o r m u l a t e and a p p l y e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a t o the a c t u a l p r o c e s s ( C h a p t e r s 3-6). The c r i t e r i a a r e n o r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s ( i m p l y i n g what " s h o u l d " be done) and they f o l l o w from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r a i s e d i n Chapter 2 i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e "model" p r o c e s s j u s t d i s c u s s e d . They r e l a t e t o the g e n e r a t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n and p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n of a s u c c e s s f u l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i s whether i t l e a d s t o the l e v e l of water q u a l i t y s o c i e t y d e s i r e s and i s w i l l i n g t o pay f o r ( i n terms of h i g h e r t a x e s , c o s t l i e r p r o d u c t s , or foregone economic a d v a n t a g e s ) . However, making such a fundamental assessment i s not as easy as i t may seem. The way i s c l o g g e d w i t h c o m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n t e n t i o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i s s u e s , w h i l e the r e s u l t hangs on key (and d e b a t a b l e ) a s s u m p t i o n s . Hence, my e v a l u a t i o n s t e e r s toward more r e a d i l y e v a l u a t e d c r i t e r i a p e r t a i n i n g more t o the p r o c e s s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l than the r e s u l t , the i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t a good p r o c e s s s h o u l d l e a d t o a p p r o p r i a t e r e s u l t s . IV. To the e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , recommend p r o c e d u r a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes t h a t would improve the p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o my c r i t e r i a . The s uggested changes a r e i n t e n d e d t o s t r e n g t h e n the e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s ; I w i l l not s e r i o u s l y e x p l o r e more r a d i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the p r e s e n t r e g u l a t o r y system such as e f f l u e n t c h a r g e s , m a r k e t a b l e " p o l l u t i o n r i g h t s " , and so f o r t h . Nor w i l l I propose any changes i n the p r e s e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . From a " p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e " i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o examine the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s as a whole, r a t h e r t h a n , say, one 17 of the s t a g e s d i s c u s s e d above. One consequence of a broader p e r s p e c t i v e however, i s t h a t many t h i n g s w i l l not be examined c l o s e l y and some w i l l not be a t a l l . The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act and R e g u l a t i o n s c o n t a i n numerous p r o v i s i o n s t h a t I w i l l o n l y t o u c h on or i g n o r e a l t o g e t h e r . I have s e l e c t e d t h o s e most d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the r o u t i n e c o n t r o l of waste d i s c h a r g e s . Thus, f o r example, I have l a r g e l y o m i t t e d the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board's main r o l e as an a p p e a l body. I t s h o u l d a l s o be remembered t h a t I am o n l y s t u d y i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the Act i t s e l f . Other government e f f o r t s a r e a l s o p a r t of the complete "water q u a l i t y p r o v i s i o n system", such as the E s t u a r y Study and v a r i o u s programmes of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l environment departments and o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I am i g n o r i n g t h e s e or o n l y t o u c h i n g them i n d i r e c t l y . 1.3 Study Methods My background and t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h c o n s i s t e d of r e v i e w i n g g e n e r a l l i t e r a t u r e on e n g i n e e r i n g , e c o l o g i c a l , economic, and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s p e c t s of water p o l l u t i o n and i t s abatement, as w e l l as many r e p o r t s , documents, and papers on the s p e c i f i c p o l l u t i o n problems of the Lower F r a s e r . In a d d i t i o n , I examined w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l on B.C.'s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s — the 1967 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t i t s e l f (and amended v e r s i o n s ) , a n n u a l r e p o r t s , and p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d papers d e s c r i b i n g and a s s e s s i n g the p r o c e s s . To e v a l u a t e the s e t t i n g of p r o v i n i c a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l 18 o b j e c t i v e s , I read the e n t i r e t r a n s c r i p t of the p r o c e e d i n g s of the p u b l i c i n q u i r y i n t o e s t a b l i s h i n g o b j e c t i v e s f o r the "Food p r o c e s s i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d , and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n d u s t r i e s " of B.C. I a l s o s t u d i e d p o r t i o n s of the same r e c o r d f o r the i n q u i r y i n t o " m u n i c i p a l - t y p e d i s c h a r g e s . " I s e l e c t e d t h e s e two i n q u i r i e s because both t y p e s of d i s c h a r g e s a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Lower F r a s e r . For a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t , I t a l k e d w i t h s i x p r o f e s s i o n a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these i n q u i r i e s as members of a d v i s o r y p a n e l s 1 3 , w i t h two non-governmental i n q u i r y a t t e n d e e s , and w i t h the Chairman of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s t o promulgate o b j e c t i v e s and g u i d e l i n e s . L a s t l y , I s t u d i e d s e v e r a l papers on the s u b j e c t w r i t t e n by o t h e r o b s e r v e r s . My p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s of d a t a i n s t u d y i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i n d i v i d u a l d i s c h a r g e r s were 13 p e r m i t f i l e s s u p p l i e d by the c e n t r a l WMB o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a and the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e i n S u r r e y . These a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I , and the l o c a t i o n s of the d i s c h a r g e s t h e m s e l v e s shown i n F i g u r e 2. In a d d i t i o n t o the 13 f i l e s , I i n s p e c t e d over 50 o t h e r p e r m i t s ( w i t h o u t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i l e s ) on view i n the Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c e . The D e l t a E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l O f f i c e p r o v i d e d me w i t h t h e i r f i l e m a t e r i a l i n one c a s e . On o c c a s i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s p e r m i t t e d me t o peruse r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l . FRES water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s c o m p i l e d much e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g d a t a t h a t were u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g m o n i t o r i n g performance. To add t o my i n s i g h t , I i n t e r v i e w e d and t a l k e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n the WMB, M i n i s t r y of Environment, Westwater Research C e n t r e , f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s and 19 TABLE I PERMIT FILES EXAMINED 1. PE-2 St. George Holdings Ltd. 2. PE-14 Corp. of the Village of Mission City 3. PE-77 Corp. of the D i s t r i c t of Maple Ridge 4. PE-108 MacMillan Bloedel Packaging Ltd. 5. PE-161 Titan Steel and Wire Co. Ltd. 6. PE-1830 B.C. Packers Ltd. (Imperial Plant) 7. PE-2756 B.C. Forest Products Ltd. (Hammond Division) 8. PE-4125 Regional D i s t r i c t of Fraser-Cheam (Town of Hope) 9. PR-4468 Vito Steel Boat & Barge C^struction Ltd. 10. AE-4461 Varta Batteries Ltd. 11. PR-4745 VenDev Enterprises Ltd. 12. PR-5443 Corp. of the Di s t r i c t of Burnaby 13. PE-5729 S.M. Products Ltd. & S.M. Properties Ltd. 0 FIGURE 2 -- LOCATIONS OF PERMITTEES WHOSE FILES WERE REVIEWED (Numbers c o r r e s p o n d t o l i s t on p r e v i o u s page) Map r e p r o d u c e d from F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study A q u a t i c B i o t a and Sediments Report 21 E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l government, p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups, and news media. I a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d one p r i v a t e c o n s u l t a n t and one p e r m i t - h o l d e r . A t o u r of the Iona sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t gave me a f i r s t - h a n d g l i m p s e of waste t r e a t m e n t t e c h n o l o g y . In s e l e c t i n g WMB f i l e s f o r r e v i e w , I a t t e m p t e d t o c o v e r a range of o p e r a t i o n s : e a r l y and r e c e n t , e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s and l a n d f i l l l e a c h a t e s , p r i v a t e and m u n i c i p a l , l a r g e and s m a l l s i z e , and v a r y i n g t y p e s of e f f l u e n t . I was f o r t u n a t e i n not b e i n g c o n f i n e d t o c a s e s t h a t e i t h e r d e f e n d e r s or c r i t i c s of B.C.'s system a s s u r e d me were " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " . However, two of 11 p e r m i t f i l e s I o r i g i n a l l y r e q u e s t e d were d e n i e d me on the grounds t h a t l e g a l a c t i o n was under c o n d i d e r a t i o n , and so i t c o u l d be argued t h a t I was m i s s i n g an i m p o r t a n t f r a c t i o n of p e r m i t t e e s — t h o s e w i t h the worst r e c o r d s of c o m p l i a n c e . S t i l l , of the 13 c a s e s I f i n a l l y d i d r e v i e w , two are n o t o r i o u s among a r e a e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and a r e f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d as d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of the Waste Management Branch's a l l e g e d a n t i -e n v i r o n m e n t a l b i a s . With the v a s t m a j o r i t y of my c a s e s (11 of 13) however, I knew n o t h i n g of t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n s or r e c o r d s of co m p l i a n c e b e f o r e h a n d , so t h a t t h e s e d i d not p r e d i s p o s e the outcome of my a n a l y s i s one way or the o t h e r . 22 Notes t o Chapter One 1 For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y i t i s not ne c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the "Lower F r a s e r " and the " F r a s e r E s t u a r y " , a l t h o u g h i n e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s such a t e c h n i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n might w e l l be drawn. 2 In 1979, the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch (PCB) was s p l i t i n t o the Waste Management Branch and the A i r Management Branch. For a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s , i n t h i s t h e s i s I w i l l use the terms P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch (PCB) and Waste Management Branch (WMB) i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . 3 T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t n o n - p o i n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o p o l l u t i o n have been a l t o g e t h e r i g n o r e d by the p r o v i n c e . In the Lower F r a s e r f o r example, the problem of urban r u n o f f has been r e c o g n i z e d and r e s e a r c h e d ( i n a p r e l i m i n a r y way) by Ferguson and H a l l (1979). I t i s s a f e t o say however, t h a t n o n - p o i n t s o u r c e s have not been c o n t r o l l e d t o date under the A c t . 4 A c c o r d i n g t o the F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study Water Q u a l i t y Work Group (1979), f u l l y h a l f of the d i s c h a r g e s t o the Lower F r a s e r a r e from u n t r e a t e d stormwater r u n o f f . The t o t a l contaminant l o a d i n g s from the n e a r l y 200 stormwater o u t f a l l s t o the r i v e r were e s t i m a t e d t o v a r y from between o n e - h a l f t o t w i c e the l o a d i n g s from the second l a r g e s t sewage, t r e a t m e n t p l a n t i n the GVRD ( A n n a c i s ) , depending on the p o l l u t a n t i n q u e s t i o n . 5 For example, p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s by Meyer i n 1974 and 1978 on the r e c r e a t i o n a l and p r e s e r v a t i o n v a l u e s of the F r a s e r s a l m o n i d s t o c k showed mean annual " p r e s e r v a t i o n v a l u e s " ("value over and above t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l or a e s t h e t i c use of a r e s o u r c e " ) of $526 and $225 per P r i n c e George and Vancouver h o u s e h o l d , and median household v a l u e s of $100 and $50, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Meyer c o n c l u d e d : "... i t i s c l e a r t h a t the r e s i d e n t s of the F r a s e r R i v e r do not wi s h t o l o s e any f u r t h e r salmon and s t e e l h e a d from t h e i r r i v e r . R a t h e r , they have a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o see s t o c k s b u i l t up t o g r e a t e r l e v e l s of abundance. When c o n s i d e r i n g the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h i s s e n t i m e n t i n t e n s i f i e s , " (Meyer, 1978: p. 19). 6 B.C. Re s e a r c h C o u n c i l . 1952. "Water q u a l i t y i n the F r a s e r -Thompson R i v e r System of B r i t i s h C o l umbia". 7 Thomas, J . F . J . 1954. " I n d u s t r i a l Water Resources of Canada, Water Survey Report No. 6, F r a s e r R i v e r D r a i n a g e B a s i n , 1950-1951." Canada Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l S u r v e y s , Pub.#842, Ottawa. 8 See B e n e d i c t e t a l . (1973) f o r more d e t a i l , B.C. Research C o u n c i l (1972) f o r a c o r r o b o r a t i n g s t u d y , and Hoos and Packman 23 (1974) f o r a c o m p i l a t i o n of s t u d i e s t o t h a t d a t e . 9 Even i f e x c e s s i v e amounts of n i t r o g e n and phosphorus d i d e x i s t , the F r a s e r ' s n a t u r a l t u r b i d i t y would p r o b a b l y p r e v e n t s e r i o u s a l g a l blooms from o c c u r r i n g . There i s p r e s e n t l y , however, a debate as t o whether i n c r e a s e d n u t r i e n t l o a d i n g s from the Lower M a i n l a n d a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o a c c e l e r a t e d e u t r o p h i c a t i o n of the S t r a i t of G e o r g i a ( S t o c k n e r e t a l . , 1980; S t o c k n e r e t a l . , 1979; C l a r k and D r i n n a n , 1980; D r i n n a n and C l a r k , 1 9 8 0 1 T 1 0 The a c t u a l c o s t of t h e s e l o s t r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the p e o p l e of the r e g i o n i s not e a s i l y d e t e r m i n e d . On one hand, the r i v e r ' s t e m p e r a t u r e , c u r r e n t s , and s i l t i n e s s d e t r a c t from i t s swimming p o t e n t i a l anyway. (The F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study R e c r e a t i o n Work Group (1978) n o t e s , " i t i s not s a f e t o swim i n the F r a s e r . " ) On the o t h e r hand, the F r a s e r ' s sandbars i n v i t e wading, beachcombing, and s u n b a t h i n g , and the e x t e n t t o which b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n d e t e r s p o t e n t i a l e n t h u s i a s t s i s unknown. As w e l l , nearby Wreck Beach, Tsawwassen, and Boundary Bay are p o p u l a r swimming a r e a s , the f i r s t of which o c c a s i o n a l l y approaches b o r d e r l i n e c o n t a m i n a t i o n l e v e l s ( F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study Water Q u a l i t y Work Group, 1979). Two a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s of b a c t e r i a l p o l l u t i o n a r e the p r o h i b i t i o n on s h e l l f i s h h a r v e s t i n g and the added p r e c a u t i o n s t h a t commercial f i s h e r m e n and o t h e r workers on the r i v e r must ta k e t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w i t h the water. 1 1 But a t the same time i t i s not w h o l l y i n a c c u r a t e t o r e f e r t o the r i v e r as a "sewer", because i t i s h e a v i l y p o l l u t e d w i t h human and a n i m a l waste. (See Vancouver Sun , Feb. 22, 1980, "The F r a s e r R i v e r a Sewer, I n d i a n s Say".) T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n i s m i s l e a d i n g l y ambiguous however, f o r a l o n g w i t h t h e F r a s e r ' s n a t u r a l muddy appearance, i t tends t o make the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t h i n k the r i v e r i s much " d i r t i e r " or more p o l l u t e d than i t r e a l l y i s . 1 2 In 1980, a c c o r d i n g t o a r e a newspapers, Environment M i n i s t e r C.S. Rogers Rogers s u p p o r t e d i n p r i n c i p l e the i d e a of a "permanent" enforcement s t a f f f o r the Lower F r a s e r . In 1981, the M i n i s t r y announced the f o r m a t i o n of a f u l l - t i m e s t a f f of 10. 1 3 These were: J.E. Dew-Jones (WMB), M.W.H Krueger (WMB), W.K. Oldham (UBC), R.J. R o c c h i n i (WMB), J.R. S t e i n (UBC), C C . Walden (B.C. R e s e a r c h ) . Chapter Two 24 B.C.'S POLLUTION CONTROL PROCESS AND A MODEL Water p o l l u t i o n i s a c l a s s i c , o f t - c i t e d example of a " n e g a t i v e e x t e r n a l i t y , " t h a t i s , an u n i n t e n d e d s i d e - e f f e c t of c e r t a i n economic a c t i v i t i e s which imposes a c o s t on o t h e r members of s o c i e t y . The u n i v e r s a l response t o t h i s w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d problem has been government r e g u l a t i o n of p r i v a t e a c t i v i t i e s . S i n c e the o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o the a p p l i e d , I w i l l not r e p e a t here any of the economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of p o l l u t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n Seneca and T a u s s i g (1974) and Kneese and Bower (1968), among many o t h e r s . N e i t h e r w i l l I c o n s i d e r the wider range of v a r i o u s approaches t o water q u a l i t y management t h a t have been proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o compare B.C.'s o f f i c i a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s t o a model d e v e l o p e d i n the next s e c t i o n . The model, which w i l l o n l y be s k e t c h e d , i s an " i d e a l , " i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e b a s i c elements and s t a g e s t h a t I contend any s e r i o u s water q u a l i t y d e c i s i o n system must have i f i t i s t o be s u c c e s s f u l by d e s i g n and not a c c i d e n t . The model s e r v e s as a framework a g a i n s t which t o e v a l u a t e B.C.'s f o r m a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s . W h i l e i t might be argued t h a t comparing a " p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s " t o a "water q u a l i t y management system" i s u n f a i r and w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y show the former t o be d e f i c i e n t — f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s o n l y p a r t of water q u a l i t y management--! would respond t h a t the p r o c e s s s e t up under B.C.'s 25 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act i s f o r a l l i n t e n t s i t s water q u a l i t y management programme. A comparison i s thus a p p r o p r i a t e . 2.1 An I l l u s t r a t i v e Model A r e g u l a t o r y approach t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o the Lower F r a s e r would seem t o i n v o l v e : 1. The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of ambient s t a n d a r d s f o r s e c t i o n s or reaches of the r i v e r and e s t u a r y i n l i g h t of crude ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) e s t i m a t e s of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . S t a n d a r d s s h o u l d be s e t f o r key water q u a l i t y p a rameters; f o r tho s e non-degradable p o l l u t a n t s w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r a c c u m u l a t i o n , l i m i t s s h o u l d a l s o be s e t f o r l e v e l s i n sediments and or g a n i s m s . 2. The e s t i m a t i o n of t o t a l p e r m i s s i b l e l o a d i n g s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the ambient s t a n d a r d s f o r each s e c t i o n , r e a c h , or t r i b u t a r y of the F r a s e r E s t u a r y . 3. The g r a n t i n g of p e r m i t s t o the e x t e n t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l o a d i n g s a l l o w a n c e and the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a method of a l l o c a t i n g d i s c h a r g e r i g h t s between e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e p e r m i t t e e s once the l o a d i n g s a l l o w a n c e i s approached. 4. An ongoing programme of i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n and feedback r e l a t i n g t o : a. c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p e r m i t s and the e f f e c t s of d i s c h a r g e s on water q u a l i t y ; b. an i n p r o v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the Lower F r a s e r ' s b i o p h y s i c a l environment; c. changes i n p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s ; so as t o p e r m i t a d a p t a t i o n t o changes i n p u b l i c p r i o r i t i e s and changes i n the e s t u a r y ' s water q u a l i t y towards or away from g o a l s . 5. Enforcement. The f i v e s t a g e s of the p r o c e s s a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y s e q u e n t i a l , as shown h e r e . Once the system i s o p e r a t i o n a l , each 26 may be happening c o n c u r r e n t l y . The i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t e d i n stage 4 i s f e d back i n t o each of the o t h e r s t a g e s , keeping the e n t i r e p r o c e s s i n a c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e of r e a d j u s t m e n t . B.C.'s o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s i s now d e s c r i b e d i n much more d e t a i l , and then measured a g a i n s t t h i s b a s i c model i n S e c t i o n 2.3. .2.2 B.C.'s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P r o c e s s T h i s s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s how B.C.'s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a p p a r a t u s i s supposed to f u n c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i t s own d e s i g n e r s ' and p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' c l a i m s . I t r e v i e w s the major p r o v i s i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n 1 ( t h e P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act ) and the ways i n which t h e s e have been i n t e r p r e t e d and implemented. I make no e f f o r t an comprehensiveness; o n l y a s p e c t s r e l a t i n g t o the purpose of t h i s p r e s e n t study a re co v e r e d h e r e . A c c o r d i n g l y , a f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y remarks on the A c t a t l a r g e , the m a j o r i t y of t h i s review i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s : (the p r o v i n c e ' s p r o v i s i o n s f o r ) s e t t i n g of o b j e c t i v e s ; i s s u a n c e of p e r m i t s ; and m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement of p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s . I f e e l t h a t t h i s breakdown emphasizes the s t a g e s e x h i b i t e d by B.C.'s water p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t o r y system. (Note t h a t i t does not q u i t e c o r r e s p o n d t o the model j u s t o u t l i n e d . ) G o a l s , t a r g e t s , s t a n d a r d s , or o b j e c t i v e s (by whatever name) f o r e f f l u e n t and/or r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y must e x i s t s i n any system, w h e t h e r . f o r m a l or de f a c t o . I n d i v i d u a l d i s c h a r g e r s 27 must each be d e a l t w i t h t h r o u g h some form of p e r m i t t i n g or l i c e n s i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a t a u t h o r i z e s the type and q u a n t i t y of d i s c h a r g e a l l o w e d . M o n i t o r i n g of e f f l u e n t , r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y , and p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment, even i f o n l y by v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n , i s n e c e s s a r y t o ensure c o m p l i a n c e w i t h c o n d i t i o n s of the agreement between d i s c h a r g e r and agency. F i n a l l y , r e g u l a t o r s w i l l have t o d e a l w i t h a c e r t a i n amount of non-c o m p l i a n c e , e i t h e r by n e g o t i a t i n g improvement or u s i n g economic or l e g a l s a n c t i o n s t o combat tho s e v i o l a t i o n s judged as s e r i o u s . H a l t i n g major v i o l a t i o n s i s i m p o r t a n t not o n l y t o e l i m i n a t e the p o l l u t i o n they r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s , but a l s o , as D r ayton (1980) has p o i n t e d o u t , t o s e t examples t h a t w i l l h e l p p r e v e n t the e n t i r e system of v o l u n t a r y c o m p l i a n c e (upon which s u c c e s s depends) from u n r a v e l i n g . 2.2.1 The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t The p r e s e n t P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t was passed by the l e g i s l a t i v e assembly i n 1967, and has been amended s e v e r a l t i m e s s i n c e . I t i s not B.C.'s f i r s t such s t a t u t e . A n o t h e r , c a l l e d the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , d a t e s t o 1956. T h i s p r e d e c e s s o r aimed m a i n l y a t c o n t r o l l i n g m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s c h a r g e s . The l a t t e r and p r e s e n t Act d e a l s w i t h the p o l l u t i o n problem more g e n e r a l l y , a l t h o u g h s. 5 s t i l l exempts a number of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c o u l d w e l l be c o n s i d e r e d " p o l l u t i o n " 2 (such as v e h i c l e e m i s s i o n s , d o m e s t i c b u r n i n g of l e a v e s , and v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s ) . " P o l l u t i o n " i s d e f i n e d a s : the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o a body of w a t e r, or s t o r i n g on, i n or under l a n d or d i s c h a r g i n g or e m i t t i n g i n t o the a i r s u b s t a n c e s or c o n t a m i n a n t s of a c h a r a c t e r t o 28 s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r or i m p a i r the u s e f u l n e s s of the l a n d , water or a i r ; w h i l e a "contaminant" i s : a s u b s t a n c e whether gaseous, l i q u i d , s o l i d , odorous or any c o m b i n a t i o n of any of them, (a) t h a t i s f o r e i g n t o or i n exce s s of the n a t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s of the a i r ; or (b) t h a t a f f e c t s the n a t u r a l , p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l or b i o l o g i c a l q u a l i t y of the a i r , and t h a t i s or may be i n j u r i o u s t o h e a l t h , s a f e t y or com f o r t of a pers o n or i n j u r i o u s or damaging t o p r o p e r t y or t o p l a n t and a n i m a l l i f e , or t h a t may i n t e r f e r e w i t h v i s i b i l i t y or the normal conduct of t r a n s p o r t or b u s i n e s s or i s obnoxious t o the p u b l i c ; " P o l l u t i o n " i s such an ambiguous, s u b j e c t i v e term t h a t one can see the need f o r p r e c i s e (and u n g a i n l y ) l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n s . 3 The A c t ch a r g e s two a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h the power and duty t o implement p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l : the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board ( c o n t i n u e d from the 1956 A c t ) and a new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n , the D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l . The Board, d e f i n e d and empowered i n s e c t i o n s 2 and 3, c o n s i s t s of a chairman and o t h e r members ( t h e r e a r e p r e s e n t l y 12) a p p o i n t e d by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . I t i s a u t h o r i z e d t o a p p o i n t t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r y committees and conduct i n q u i r i e s t h a t w i l l e n a b le i t t o p r e s c r i b e e f f l u e n t (and a i r e m i s s i o n ) s t a n d a r d s as w e l l as dete r m i n e what p r o p e r t i e s c o n s t i t u t e a p o l l u t e d environment. In a d d i t i o n , i t s e r v e s as an a p p e a l t r i b u n a l when f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n s or a p p e a l s a r e f i l e d under the A c t ( s e c t i o n s 15 and 16). The D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i s the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r e s t a b l i s h e d by the Act . He p o s s e s s e s many of the same powers as the Board and o t h e r s r e l a t i n g t o a d m i n i s t e r i n g the Act on a day-by-day, case - b y - c a s e b a s i s . He i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a s u p p o r t s t a f f ( t h e Branch) t o a s s i s t him i n 29 d i s c h a r g i n g h i s d u t i e s . S. 12 s t a t e s : "A d i r e c t o r , a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r and e n g i n e e r s , o f f i c e r s , c l e r k s and o t h e r employees n e c e s s a r y f o r the purpose of t h i s A c t may be a p p o i n t e d i n a ccordance w i t h the P u b l i c S e r v i c e A c t ." The Branch now numbers n e a r l y 200 and i n c l u d e s b i o l o g i s t s and c h e m i s t s as w e l l as e n g i n e e r s . I t used t o be a department of the Water Resources S e r v i c e of the now-defunct Department of Lands, F o r e s t s , and Water R e s o u r c e s . R e o r g a n i z a t i o n has p l a c e d i t w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Environment, d e p i c t e d i n F i g u r e 3. 2.2.2 S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s "The purpose b e h i n d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and use of t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i s t o m a i n t a i n and p r e s e r v e the l a n d , w a t e r , and a i r environment of B r i t i s h Columbia at the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l e v e l . " --B.E. Marr, P. Eng., Chairman, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, Report on P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s f o r M u n i c i p a l Type Waste D i s c h a r g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 The A c t i t s e l f does not d e f i n e l e v e l s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y the maintenance of which a r e c o n s i d e r e d the p r o v i n c i a l government's e x p l i c i t p o l i c y . That i s , i t does not s p e c i f y t h a t d i s s o l v e d oxygen, f o r i n s t a n c e , s h o u l d drop no lower than (say) 7 mg/1, t h a t i t s h o u l d be kept a t l e v e l s h i g h enough f o r the s u r v i v a l of a l l f i s h s p e c i e s , or t h a t suspended s o l i d s can be r a i s e d no h i g h e r than ten p e r c e n t above n a t u r a l background l e v e l s . Nor does i t s p e c i f y - s t a n d a r d s f o r the c h a r a c t e r or q u a l i t y of e f f l u e n t t h a t must be met by d i s c h a r g e r s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . I n s t e a d , t h i s t a s k i s d e l e g a t e d t o b o t h the Board and the D i r e c t o r . S e c t i o n s 3 and 13 r e s p e c t i v e l y , g i v e them e x p l i c i t a u t h o r i t y , " t o d e t e r m i n e what q u a l i t i e s and p r o p e r t i e s of w a t e r , l a n d , or a i r c o n s t i t u t e a p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n , " and " t o FIGURE 3 — P o s i t i o n of Waste Management Branch i n P r o v i n c i a l Bureaucracy Ministry of Environment Decembers, 1979 ^ MINISTER ^ DEPUTY MINISTER MINISTRY COORDINATOR MINISTRY ECONOMIST { ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER PROVINCIAL EMERGENCY PROGRAM ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER CONSERVATION DIVISION RLil'ONilM.LI UK: FISH it WILDLIFE MARINE RESOURCES RESOURCE ANALYSIS SURVEYS it MA1TING ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DIVISION KiS/ 'LWS/BU TDK. W A W MANAGEMENT AIR MANAGEMENT PESTICIDE CONTROL ENVIRONMENTAL LAB ASSISTANT DEPUTY MINISTER ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT DIVISION KLSI'ONS/MJ: I'UK.' BASIN,PLANNING INVENTORY it ENGINEERING WATER MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ASSISTANT DEPUTY 1 MINISTER REGIONAL OPERATIONS DIVISION CONSERVATION OFFICER SERVICES REGIONAL OPERATIONS ADMINISTRATION DIVISION KLSI'ONSIBLL FOR. PERSONNEL SERVICES FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPUTING SERVICES INFORMATION AND EDUCATION (From B.C. M i n i s t r y of Environment, Annual Report, 1979) 31 p r e s c r i b e s t a n d a r d s r e g a r d i n g the q u a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r of the e f f l u e n t or contaminant which may be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o any w a t e r s . . . " In 1968 the Board i s s u e d i t s f i r s t s e t of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s under the 1967 Act f o r the Lower F r a s e r — " T h e P o l i c y of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board of B r i t i s h Columbia R e g a r d i n g P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l on the F r a s e r R i v e r Below the Town of Hope" (B.C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, 1968). The " g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e " , or p o l i c y , was "the maintenance of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r as a m u l t i - p u r p o s e water r e s o u r c e f o r the p e o p l e of the p r o v i n c e f o r a l l t i m e " . Two " s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s " were put f o r t h t o pursue the g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e . These were, f i r s t , t o p r o t e c t from " h a r m f u l p o l l u t i o n and t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s " a r e a s of the r i v e r t h a t were s t i l l c l e a n , and second, t o improve those p a r t s of the r i v e r i n which some d e g r a d a t i o n of water q u a l i t y had a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d . W h i l e the above two " s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s " a r e h a r d l y s p e c i f i c enough t o use i n r e g u l a t i n g the d i s c h a r g e s of i n d i v i d u a l r i v e r u s e r s , they do p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l p o l i c y around which t o s t r u c t u r e more d e t a i l e d measures. A l o n g w i t h c a l l i n g f o r a comprehensive r i v e r m o n i t o r i n g progrmamme, the Board l i s t e d s i x p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s . Among t h e s e were t h a t a l l new m u n i c i p a l and i n d u s t r i a l works d i s c h a r g i n g i n t o the r i v e r r e q u i r e d .primary t r e a t m e n t r i g h t from the s t a r t , and t h a t a l l e x i s t i n g works r e q u i r e d p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t by 1975. In the N o r t h Arm, secondary t r e a t m e n t was r e q u i r e d . The f i n a l statement of the 1968 P o l i c y was: "Any d e v i a t i o n from the above p r e s c r i b e d p o l i c y s h a l l be a t the d i s c r e t i o n of 32 the Board." A c c o r d i n g t o a n o t h e r document by the B.C. Water Resources S e r v i c e (1970), a study and p u b l i c h e a r i n g s preceded the s e t t i n g of the above p o l i c y . In the s e v e n t i e s , e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on water p o l l u t i o n began i n e a r n e s t . In 1971 the Board i s s u e d two p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s on p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l : "Minimum Requirements f o r D i s p o s a l of M u n i c i p a l and Domestic Wastewaters t o S u r f a c e Waters" and "Minimum Requirements f o r Refuse D i s p o s a l t o Land". The former s p e c i f i e d t h a t a l l m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s c h a r g e s t o f r e s h w a t e r e x c e e d i n g 10,000 g a l l o n s per day (GPD)--an amount c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the waste d i s c h a r g e from a v e r y s m a l l v i l l a g e — w o u l d need secondary t r e a t m e n t . From 1970 t o 1973, a s e r i e s of f i v e p u b l i c i n q u i r e s were h e l d t o s e t " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s " f o r f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of waste d i s c h a r g e r s : f o r e s t p r o d u c t s , m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g , " m u n i c i p a l -t y p e " (sewage and r e f u s e ) , c h e m i c a l and p e t r o l e u m , and " a g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d , f o o d p r o c e s s i n g and m i s c e l l a n e o u s " . ( " M i s c e l l a n e o u s " d i s c h a r g e r s i n c l u d e e v e r y t h i n g from m e t a l f i n i s h i n g p l a n t s t o dog k e n n e l s . ) " O b j e c t i v e s " take b a s i c a l l y t h r e e f o r m s — t h o s e r e l a t i n g t o o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y , and r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y . The f i r s t of t h e s e a r e recommendations and r e q u i r e m e n t s on the o p e r a t i o n of waste f a c i l i t i e s c o v e r e d under the A c t . L a n d f i l l s , f o r example, a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o v e r t h e i r r e f u s e a t s t a t e d f r e q u e n c i e s and may o n l y a c c e p t d e s i g n a t e d waste m a t e r i a l s . The e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s r e s u l t i n g from the f i r s t 33 round of i n q u i r i e s m a n i f e s t a b e l i e f i n the d e s i r a b i l i t y of f l e x i b i l i t y i n a p p l y i n g s t a n d a r d s over wide a r e a s . I n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s d i f f e r from p l a n t t o p l a n t . L o c a l r e c e i v i n g environments d i f f e r i n t h e i r " a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y " . Regions d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards water q u a l i t y . P l a n t s d i f f e r i n t h e i r p r o f i t a b i l i t y and i n t h e i r economic importance t o n e i g h b o r i n g communities. R e t r o f i t t i n g o l d e r o p e r a t i o n s w i t h p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment i s more e x p e n s i v e than i n s t a l l i n g d e v i c e s and p r o c e s s e s a t the v e r y s t a r t i n new p l a n t s , The O b j e c t i v e s e x h i b i t t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y i n two ways . F i r s t , they a r e not " s t a n d a r d s " , as t h i s word i s commonly used to denote u n i f o r m , i n f l e x i b l e r u l e s t o which adherence i s mandatory f o r a l l . The O b j e c t i v e s a r e more l i k e t a r g e t s : l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y f o r which waste d i s c h a r g e r s s h o u l d be s t r i v i n g . As p o i n t e d out by the West Coast E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law Research F o u n d a t i o n (1980), they have been t e s t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t and a r e not l e g a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e . They a r e t o guide Branch p e r s o n n e l and the D i r e c t o r i n p r e s c r i b i n g terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r waste d i s c h a r g e p e r m i t s (which do have l e g a l f o r c e ) . The second manner i n which the O b j e c t i v e s p r e s e r v e f l e x i b i l i t y i s t h a t a l l o w a n c e i s made f o r the g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y of o l d and e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n meeting h i g h e r l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y . I n most c a s e s , t h r e e l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y - - A , B , and C — h a v e been adopted. L e v e l A i s the most s t r i n g e n t O b j e c t i v e . I t i s the l e v e l recommended as the u l t i m a t e g o a l f o r the type of d i s c h a r g e i n q u e s t i o n . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , a l l new o p e r a t i o n s s h o u l d conform t o L e v e l A p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s . L e v e l 34 B, an i n t e r m e d i a t e grade of e f f l u e n t , i s an i n t e r i m o b j e c t i v e f o r e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e r s . L e v e l C i s the recommended o b j e c t i v e a l l e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e r s are e x p e c t e d t o meet i m m e d i a t e l y or v e r y soon." These o b j e c t i v e s a r e recommended by the Board as "minimum r e q u i r e m e n t s " f o r the v a r i o u s t y p e s of waste d i s c h a r g e r s . I t i s s t i l l the d i s c r e t i o n of Branch p e r s o n n e l as t o how they s h o u l d be a p p l i e d i n i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The O b j e c t i v e s f o r e f f l u e n t a r e f l e x i b l e i n y e t another way. The i n t e n t has been t o s u b j e c t them t o r e v i e w and r e v i s i o n ( u p g r a d i n g or downgrading, as the case may be) perhaps every f i v e y e a r s , i n o r d e r t o i n c o r p o r a t e changes i n t e c h n o l o g y , economics, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s as w e l l as the e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o implement them ( V e n a b l e s , 1970). A key f e a t u r e of the O b j e c t i v e s i s the c u r s o r y a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y i n comparison t o e f f l u e n t p r o p e r t i e s . In i t s e a r l i e r 1968 p o l i c y statement on the Lower F r a s e r , the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board s t a t e d : "The Board's c h i e f c o n c e r n i s the q u a l i t y of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r . . . . however, the Board f e e l s t h a t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o s e t s t a n d a r d s f o r the r e c e i v i n g waters of the r i v e r , but i n s t e a d , has d e c i d e d t o c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l e f f l u e n t s i n t o the r i v e r and i n t h i s way, m a i n t a i n or improve the q u a l i t y of the r i v e r i t s e l f " . Thus r e c o g n i t i o n e x i s t e d t h a t the u l t i m a t e s o c i a l g o a l i s the s e t of s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of water q u a l i t y , not s u c c e s s f u l r e g u l a t i o n of e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s per se R e g u l a t i o n of waste d i s c h a r g e would, however, be the c h i e f means by which the end of water q u a l i t y p r e s e r v a t i o n would be sought. Three of the f i v e r e p o r t s l i s t O b j e c t i v e s f o r r e c e i v i n g 35 water q u l a l i t y ; the o t h e r two l i s t " g u i d e l i n e s " . The terms a r e e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l . 5 T a b l e I I shows the g u i d e l i n e s f o r the q u a l i t y of r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s f o r the "food p r o c e s s i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d and m i s c e l l a n e o u s " i n d u s t r i e s . These c r i t e r i a a r e t o be met o u t s i d e of the i n i t i a l d i l u t i o n zone (IDZ) of each waste o u t f a l l ( a l t h o u g h i f they a r e n o t , t h e r e i s no v i o l a t i o n , s i n c e r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y g u i d e l i n e s and o b j e c t i v e s a r e not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o P e r m i t s ) . For r i v e r s and streams, a c c o r d i n g t o the R e p o r t , t h i s zone i s "waters c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n an a r e a e x t e n d i n g 300 f e e t down c u r r e n t from a p o i n t of d i s c h a r g e , and w i t h i n a l a t e r a l d i s t a n c e not e x c e e d i n g o n e - h a l f the w i d t h of a r i v e r or stream a t the p o i n t of d i s c h a r g e " . For m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e s , i t extends t o o n l y 25% of the r i v e r w i d t h . The IDZ concept r e c o g n i z e s t h a t w i t h i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of a major o u t f a l l , water q u a l i t y w i l l be somewhere between pure e f f l u e n t and pure r i v e r w a t e r , and. perhaps u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n q u a l i t y . The premise i s t h a t l o c a l i z e d a r e a s of some d e g r a d a t i o n i n a body of water a r e u n a v o i d a b l e , u n l e s s e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y a c t u a l l y e q u a l s water q u a l i t y , which i s p o s s i b l e but e x c e e d i n g l y e x p e n s i v e . T h i s p o i n t i s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l one, f o r i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t IDZ's w i l l b e g i n t o o v e r l a p as the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of d i s c h a r g e r s i n c r e a s e s . The s t u d i e s t h a t l e d t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of each s e t of O b j e c t i v e s were a l l p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s , as suggested i n s. 17 of the A c t , and each i n c l u d e d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s a t which a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s - - i n d i v i d u a l s c oncerned about p o l l u t i o n and a f f e c t e d i n d u s t r i e s a l i k e — c o u l d p r e s e n t b r i e f s a d d r e s s i n g the " t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " r e l a t i n g t o the type of p o l l u t i o n b e i n g TABLE I I GtTIDELTNES FOR THE QUALITY OF RECEIVING WATERS' Parameter Guideline Dissolved oxygen (percent saturation) Temperature (°C) Turbidity (APHA units) Floatable s o l i d s and scum Settleable s o l i d s PH T o x i c i t y Aesthetics Colour Coliforms (mpn/100 ml) Chlorine residual (mg/1) Not l e s s than 90 percent of the seasonal natural value.3 To be w i t h i n 1°C o f the natural l e v e l . Not more than 5 APHA units above the natural l e v e l . Negligible increase. Negligible increase. No change. Below detectable l i m i t . No decrease. 4 No appreciable change. (5) Below detectable l i m i t s . From " P o l l u t i o n Control Objectives f o r Food-processing, A g r i c u l t u r a l l y Oriented, and Other Miscellaneous Industries of B r i t i s h Columbia." These guidelines are not applicable w i t h i n the i n i t i a l d i l u t i o n zone. Not applicable to lakes or natural impoundments, these w i l l be assessed on an i n d i v i d u a l basis. To be reviewed. Most Probable Number Index per 100 ml, not to exceed established B.C. Health Branch Reccnrnended Water Quality Standards. 37 a s s e s s e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s c o u l d c r o s s - e x a m i n e one a n o t h e r . These i n q u i r i e s a r e c a l l e d by the C a b i n e t or the Board and c h a i r e d by the D i r e c t o r , the Board Chairman, or t h e i r a p p o i n t e e . A t e c h n i c a l a d v i s o r y p a n e l , chosen e i t h e r by the D i r e c t o r or the Board f o r t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n the e n g i n e e r i n g , s o c i a l , economic, and e c o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , g a t h e r s i n f o r m a t i o n from the h e a r i n g and t h e i r own r e s e a r c h , and a s s i s t s the Board i n drawing up recommended o b j e c t i v e s . P a r t i c i p a n t s a r e g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y of commenting on d r a f t O b j e c t i v e s b e f o r e they a r e f i n a l i z e d . In the l o n g e r r u n , however, no s e t of O b j e c t i v e s a r i s i n g from any one I n q u i r y i s " f i n a l . " T h e i r v e r y b a s i s i s a d a p t a b i l i t y i n response t o feedback. A c c o r d i n g t o a former A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r : "the p u b l i c knows t h a t w i t h i n 5 y e a r s , i t w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o re-examine the o b j e c t i v e s and thus be a s s u r e d of c o n t i n u e d i n v o l v e m e n t . " (Chmelauskas, 1972: p. 485). 2.2.3 G r a n t i n g P e r m i t s A f t e r J a n u a r y 1, 1970, i t became i l l e g a l t o " d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , d i s c h a r g e or cause or pe r m i t the d i s c h a r g e of e f f l u e n t or o t h e r waste m a t e r i a l on, or i n or under l a n d or i n t o water w i t h o u t a p e r m i t or a p p r o v a l from the d i r e c t o r , " ( s . 4 ) . I t i s the waste d i s c h a r g e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a p p l y f o r and r e c e i v e a p e r m i t b e f o r e d i s c h a r g e has a c t u a l l y commenced. To f a i l t h i s i s a c l e a r v i o l a t i o n of the A c t . The D i r e c t o r i s not t o i s s u e a p e r m i t u n t i l an a p p l i c a n t has s u p p l i e d the n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , which i n c l u d e s proposed p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works and 38 p r o c e d u r e s as w e l l as the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of e f f l u e n t t o be d i s c h a r g e d . ( A p p l i c a n t s f o r a r e f u s e d i s p o s a l p e r m i t need o n l y f u r n i s h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the t y pe and q u a n t i t y of r e f u s e , not an a n a l y s i s of the p o t e n t i a l l e a c h a t e . ) There i s no r e q u i r e m e n t f o r an a p p r a i s a l of i t s p o s s i b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact. T h i s i s a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Branch and the r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s t o which the a p p l i c a t i o n i s r e f e r r e d f o r comment. Upon r e c e i p t of an a p p l i c a t i o n , the D i r e c t o r f o r w a r d s a copy t o the M i n i s t r i e s of H e a l t h , A g r i c u l t u r e , and Environment f o r t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n over a t h i r t y day p e r i o d or a l o n g e r time s e t by the D i r e c t o r ( s . 4 ) . The a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s may then f i l e recommendations w i t h the D i r e c t o r , who i s o r d e r e d t o c o n s i d e r , but not n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w them i n making h i s d e c i s i o n as t o whether and under what c o n d i t i o n s t o g r a n t the p e r m i t . " I f any of t h e s e Departments d e c i d e t o t a k e a p o s i t i o n which can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d we w i l l honour t h i s p o s i t i o n and i f n e c e s s a r y r e j e c t the a p p l i c a t i o n . " ( V e n a b l e s , 1970: pp. 7-8). I n d i v i d u a l s or o t h e r a g e n c i e s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the D i r e c t o r ' s d e c i s i o n s do have l e g a l r e c o u r s e under the A c t . S e c t i o n s 15 and 16 o u t l i n e the b a s i c p r o c e d u r e f o r a p p e a l s and o b j e c t i o n s . Formal o b j e c t i o n s a r e made t o the D i r e c t o r a t the time a p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n or amendment a p p l i c a t i o n i s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A former D i r e c t o r has s t a t e d t h a t when an o b j e c t i o n i s made, the Branch's p r o c e d u r e i s one, "of meeting i n f o r m a l l y w i t h i n v o l v e d p a r t i e s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i s s u e s and t o attempt t o s e c u r e r e s o l u t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s , " ( V e n a b l e s , 1977: p. 9 9 ) . A p p e a l s l i e from any 39 Order under the A c t , and u s u a l l y stem from p e r m i t a p p r o v a l s or r e j e c t i o n s by the D i r e c t o r . The a p p e l l a n t may c a r r y h i s case t o the Board, C a b i n e t , or the B.C. Supreme Court f o r a d j u d i c a t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s f o r new p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s a l s o e x t e n d t o a p p l y i n g f o r those amendments t o e x i s t i n g p e r m i t s t h a t would a l l o w a l a r g e r d i s c h a r g e . In a d d i t i o n , the D i r e c t o r i s empowered by s. 8 t o amend any p e r m i t h i m s e l f f o r a number of re a s o n s . These a r e the major p r o v i s i o n s i n the A c t f o r i s s u i n g and amending p e r m i t s . The A c t ' s R e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y s t i l l more, and o t h e r p r a c t i c e s have emerged as the s e p r o v i s i o n s have been implemented. The R e g u l a t i o n s s t a t e t h a t the a p p l i c a n t must post a s i g n e d copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n o n - s i t e as w e l l as p u b l i s h o t h e r c o p i e s i n The B r i t i s h Columbia G a z e t t e and i n l o c a l newspapers, as s p e c i f i e d by the D i r e c t o r ( 2 . 0 1 ( g ) ) . Both deeds a r e i n t e n d e d t o i n f o r m the p u b l i c of the proposed waste d i s c h a r g e . The R e g u l a t i o n s have been amended by O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l a number of t i m e s , most r e c e n t l y i n 1978. The 1978 R e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e an updated l i s t of r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s t h a t r e f l e c t s government r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o p i e s of the a p p l i c a t i o n a r e t o be forwarded t o the C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s , the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e the Deputy M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h , and the Deputy M i n i s t e r of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n . (Subsequent r e -o r g a n i z a t i o n has moved the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch from the M i n i s t r y of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n t o the Environment M i n i s t r y , a l s o home of the WMB.) S i n c e the e a r l y 1970's, an u n w r i t t e n covenant between the 40 PCB and the f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e (EPS) on m a t t e r s of j o i n t j u r i s d i c t i o n has l e d the Branch t o r e f e r a l l p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n n s t o EPS as w e l l . 6 EPS then c i r c u l a t e s them among o t h e r f e d e r a l departments, p a r t i c u l a r l y the H a b i t a t P r o t e c t i o n D i r e c t o r a t e and the F i s h e r i e s and M a r i n e S e r v i c e of the Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans, c o m p i l e s and summarizes the comments, and r e t u r n s them t o WMB p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f . The Branch a l s o makes a p r a c t i c e of f o r w a r d i n g a copy of the a p p l i c a t i o n t o the R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t o f f i c e i n which the d i s c h a r g e w i l l o c c u r . F i g u r e 4 d i s p l a y s t h e s e r e f e r r a l p r o c e d u r e s . In a c t u a l i t y , a t t h i s time the D i r e c t o r h i m s e l f does not conduct the r o u t i n e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n . The head V i c t o r i a o f f i c e c o n t a i n s a number of s t a f f e n g i n e e r s , d i v i d e d i n t o the I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n and the M u n i c i p a l D i v i s i o n , who assemble and a s s e s s the p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e , i n t h i s case the Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c e (LMO), p r e p a r e s i t s own assesment ( i n c l u d i n g a s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e p o r t ) which i s sent t o V i c t o r i a . The V i c t o r i a s t a f f e n g i n e e r a s s i g n e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n p r e p a r e s a " t e c h n i c a l assessment" of the a p p l i c a t i o n , as w e l l as a "resume". The l a t t e r i n c o r p o r a t e s t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , r e sponses from o t h e r a g e n c i e s , o b j e c t o r s , the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , and a recommendation t o the D i r e c t o r . Each a p p l i c a t i o n resume i s r e viewed i n a meeting of the p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f b e f o r e g o i n g t o the D i r e c t o r or A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r (who may a l s o s i g n p e r m i t s ) f o r a f i n a l v e r d i c t . A p e r m i t i t s e l f s p e c i f i e s the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of FIGURE 4 — Waste Management Branch Permit A p p l i c a t i o n C i r c u l a t i o n Procedures Federal EPS F i s h e r i e s & Marine Ser. Habitat P r o t e c t i o n EPS Consulting Engineer (optional) a p p l i e s to Waste Management Branch Headquarters r e f e r r a l s o p t i o n a l Canadian W i l d l i f e S e rvice ^ o p t i o n a l Other Federal Agencies (e.g. Fraser River Harbour Commission, North Fraser Harbour Comm.) In t e r n a t i o n a l P a c i f i c Salmon F i s h e r i e s Com. B.C. F i s h & W i l d l i f e Branch H.Q. (Regional) O f f i c e Applicant grants or refuses permit D i r e c t o r WMB make recommentation S t a f f Meeting Other prov. resource agencies (e.g. Health Br., Mines Br., Water Rights Br., A g r i c u l t u r e ) Regional WMB O f f i c e ! prepares resume WMB H.Q. Processing Engineer ^Decision may be appealed by appl "'other appellant to P o l l u t i o n Con i c a n t or -Co trol Board 42 e f f l u e n t t h a t may be d i s c h a r g e d by i t s h o l d e r . One way of d o i n g t h i s i s by s p e c i f y i n g average and maximum d a i l y f l o w r a t e s of e f f l u e n t a l o n g w i t h p e r m i s s a b l e l e v e l s of c o n t a m i n a t i o n s p e c i f i e d on a mg/1 b a s i s . A t y p i c a l example f o r a s m a l l f a c t o r y d i s c h a r g i n g s a n i t a r y sewage d i r e c t l y i n t o the r i v e r ( i n s t e a d of- b e i n g c o n n e c t e d t o a m u n i c i p a l sewer) would perhaps be a maximum d a i l y f l o w r a t e of 3 m3, and a BOD (5 day b i o c h e m i c a l oxygen demand) of 45 mg/1 and s.s. (suspended s o l i d s ) of 60 mg/1. Another way of e x p r e s s i n g l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s t o the r i v e r i s i n l b s or kg/day, which i s o f t e n used i n d e s c r i b i n g heavy m e t a l s and t o x i c o r g a n i c compounds. S t i l l a t h i r d way i s t o l i n k l o a d i n g s w i t h f a c t o r y i n p u t s or o u t p u t s , or so many u n i t s of p o l l u t a n t per u n i t of p r o d u c t . F i s h p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s a r e supposed t o e x p r e s s t h e i r d i s c h a r g e s i n these terms. The f o u r t h and f i n a l approach sometimes used i n B.C. i s t o s p e c i f y p e r m i s s i b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of a sub s t a n c e over and above background l e v e l s found i n the r e c e i v i n g w a t e r . One might assume t h a t l e v e l s of d i s c h a r g e c o n s i d e r e d p e r m i s s i b l e do not cause p o l l u t i o n as i t i s d e f i n e d i n the Act ( " s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r the u s e f u l n e s s of the . . . w a t e r " ) , but t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the Act or i t s R e g u l a t i o n s t h a t would p r e v e n t a r e g u l a t o r from knowingly or unknowingly s e t t i n g too l i b e r a l a d i s c h a r g e t h a t c o u l d indeed damage l o c a l w a t e r s . H y p o t h e t i c a l l y , a p e r m i t t e e c o u l d b a d l y p o l l u t e a s t r e t c h of water and never break the l a w . 7 In c o n c l u s i o n , B.C. approaches the problem of r e g u l a t i n g the b e h a v i o u r of numerous i n d i v i d u a l waste d i s c h a r g e r s by r e q u i r i n g each t o h o l d a p e r m i t s p e c i f y i n g p r e c i s e l y the 43 q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of e f f l u e n t t h a t may be d i s c h a r g e d . The onus i s on p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n t e m p l a t i n g an e n t e r p r i s e t h a t e n t a i l s waste d i s c h a r g e t o approach the Branch f o r a p e r m i t . The a p p l i c a t i o n i s a d v e r t i s e d t o some degree. A p e r m i t r e f e r r a l system e x i s t s t o i n f o r m and c o n s u l t p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . Most of the work i n p r o c e s s i n g p e r m i t s i s s t i l l c a r r i e d out from the c e n t r a l o f f i c e , a l t h o u g h the government's p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z i n g i t s a c t i v i t i e s may see the w o r k l o a d s h i f t i n g towards r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . Chapter F i v e w i l l probe t h i s s tage of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s more d e e p l y by i n v e s t i g a t i n g a c t u a l examples of how i t has worked i n the Lower F r a s e r . 2.2.4 M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement Once a p e r m i t has been i s s u e d and d i s c h a r g e commences, the j o b of c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n has r e a l l y o n l y begun. D e v i c e s , equipment, p r o c e s s e s , p r a c t i c e s , and t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s ( a l l r e f e r r e d t o as " p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works" i n the A c t and on p e r m i t s ) t h a t have been added t o the o p e r a t i o n t o c u r t a i l d i s c h a r g e must be p r o p e r l y i n s t a l l e d and m a i n t a i n e d or they w i l l f u n c t i o n i n e f f i c i e n t l y or not a t a l l . To see how w e l l the works a r e c o n t r o l l i n g d i s c h a r g e s , and whether p e r m i t terms a r e b e i n g met, a m o n i t o r i n g programme i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of any abatement programme. I f i t i s t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , any p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l system must r e l y on v o l u n t a r y c o m p l i a n c e . I f a l l i n d u s t r i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e f u s e d t o c o o p e r a t e , t h e r e would be l i t t l e the t y p i c a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l agency c o u l d do t o s t o p them i t s e l f . 44 R e g u l a t o r s make the p o i n t t h a t the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of p o l l u t e r s a r e c o o p e r a t i v e (U.S. EPA, 1980a; M i l l e r , 1980), but t h e r e w i l l a lways be f o o t d r a g g e r s w i t h which t o cont e n d , and some means f o r d e a l i n g w i t h them must be a v a i l a b l e . Drayton (1980) observes t h a t most problems of e n f o r c i n g a n t i - p o l l u t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s a r i s e because the r e g u l a t i o n s t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e b e h a v i o u r of people t h a t i s not i n t h e i r economic s e l f - i n t e r e s t : " . . . f o r example, a company must make a l a r g e i nvestment i n equipment which produces no revenue; the company does not recoup i t s c o s t s , l e t a l o n e make a p r o f i t on t h i s i n v e s t m e n t . N e a r l y any o t h e r investment would be more p r o f i t a b l e , so the i n c e n t i v e t o d e l a y or a v o i d c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s i s g r e a t , " (p. 5 ) . T h e r e f o r e , the r e g u l a t o r y agency must devote a measure of i t s own r e s o u r c e s t o enforcement. In B r i t i s h Columbia enforcement would c o n s i s t of e n s u r i n g t h a t a l l waste d i s c h a r g e r s have p e r m i t s as r e q u i r e d by the A c t , t h a t p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s ( b o t h p r o c e d u r a l and s u b s t a n t i v e ) a r e adhered t o , and t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t v i o l a t i o n s , d e l i b e r a t e or n o t , a r e t e r m i n a t e d , e i t h e r by n e g o t i a t i o n or r e c o u r s e t o l e g a l a c t i o n . U n l e s s the agency i s p e r c e i v e d by would-be p o l l u t e r s as something more than a "paper t i g e r " , the performance of many i s apt t o be l e s s than d e s i r a b l e , and the e f f i c a c y of the e n t i r e system may e v e n t u a l l y be undermined. The A c t p r o v i d e s p e n a l t i e s f o r c o n v i c t e d o f f e n c e s . S. 25 s t a t e s t h a t e v e r y person c o n v i c t e d of an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t the A c t i s l i a b l e t o a f i n e not e x c e e d i n g $10,000 or t o imprisonment f o r one year or t o bo t h . I f the o f f e n c e i s of a c o n t i n u i n g n a t u r e , a f i n e of $500 may be l e v i e d f o r each day i t c o n t i n u e s . 8 I t 45 s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d t h a t o f f e n c e s a r e not c o n s t r u e d o n l y as dumping w i t h o u t a p e r m i t or d i s c h a r g i n g o u t s i d e the terms of a p e r m i t ( s u b s t a n t i v e v i o l a t i o n s ) but a l s o as r e f u s a l t o comply w i t h o r d e r s i s s u e d under the A c t , such as t o s u p p l y diagrams of c e r t a i n p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works or t o i n i t i a t e and r e p o r t e f f l u e n t s a m p l i n g ( p r o c e d u r a l v i o l a t i o n s ) . S. 1 4 of the Act empowers o f f i c e r s , who i n c l u d e R e g i o n a l Managers and A s s i s t a n t R e g i o n a l Managers, t o " e n t e r a t any time i n and on any l a n d and p r e m i s e s t o i n s p e c t , r e g u l a t e , c l o s e or l o c k any works or p r e m i s e s . . . " R e g i o n a l o f f i c e r s can a l s o i n i t i a t e p r o s e c u t i o n s by r e c o r d i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e e v i d e n c e and p a s s i n g i t onto Crown C o u n s e l who, upon c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t i t w i l l l e a d t o a c o n v i c t i o n , may d e c i d e t o l a y an i n f o r m a t i o n , or p r e s s c h a r g e s . More r e c e n t l y , r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Environment has g i v e n C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s , t h a t i s , agents of the C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r S e r v i c e , a s e p a r a t e department w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y , the a u t h o r i t y t o p o l i c e the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r s they a l r e a d y e n f o r c e . In the s e v e n t i e s a t l e a s t , i t has been the u n w r i t t e n p o l i c y of the Branch t o n e g o t i a t e r a t h e r than l i t i g a t e c o m p l i a n c e ( S p r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n , 1976). The d i f f i c u l t y of w i n n i n g c o u r t c a s e s and the c o s t and time r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e them might be p a r t of the reason f o r t h i s . Another c o u l d be a " p e r i o d of g r a c e " i n which d i s c h a r g e r s a r e g i v e n the chance t o comply v o l u n t a r i l y . As mentioned i n Chapter One, some Branch o f f i c i a l s b e l i e v e t h a t a c o o p e r a t i v e approach u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s not o n l y t o b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s but t o b e t t e r r e s u l t s as w e l l . Some 46 p r o s e c u t i o n s have been made under the A c t however. The Act i t s e l f s t i p u l a t e s no r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r m o n i t o r i n g the performance of the p e r m i t t e d d i s c h a r g e r s or the c o n d i t i o n of the water r e s o u r c e i t s e l f . A c c o r d i n g t o one r e g i o n a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r w i t h whom I spoke, the Branch u n d e r t a k e s i t s own water q u a l i t y s a m p l i n g of the F r a s e r t o mon i t o r the background c o n d i t i o n of the r i v e r . E f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the r i v e r must a l s o be sampled t o ensure c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the d i s c h a r g e r ' s p e r m i t . My i n s p e c t i o n of over 50 p e r m i t s r e v e a l e d t h a t v i r t u a l l y e very p e r m i t - h o l d e r i s o r d e r e d t o conduct h i s own sa m p l i n g and submit the r e s u l t s t o the Lower M a i n l a n d o f f i c e , u s u a l l y s e m i - a n u a l l y or a n u a l l y . M o n i t o r i n g has been a requir e m e n t of p e r m i t s s i n c e about 1971. Data r e c e i v e d from p e r m i t t e e s a r e e n t e r e d i n t o the Branch's c o m p u t e r i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l system EQUIS ( E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n System), where i t i s a v a i l a b l e f o r review by Branch p e r s o n n e l , o t h e r a g e n c i e s , or members of the p u b l i c ( V e n a b l e s , 1973). I f the f i r m i s not i n compl i a n c e w i t h the s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s of i t s p e r m i t , r e g i o n a l e n g i n e e r s and o f f i c e r s endeavor t o work w i t h them i n an e f f o r t t o improve performance and b r i n g them i n t o l i n e 9 ( M i l l e r , 1980; Wong, 1980). A c c o r d i n g t o the former D i r e c t o r of the Branch: Where the p e r m i t t e e i s co m p l y i n g w i t h h i s p e r m i t but the d i s c h a r g e , or the c o m b i n a t i o n of o t h e r d i s c h a r g e s , a re c a u s i n g p o l l u t i o n , t he D i r e c t o r w i l l use h i s powers...and amend the pe r m i t - or p e r m i t s - t o r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l works or improved o p e r a t i o n t h a t would r e s u l t i n abatement of the p o l l u t i o n . ( V e n a b l e s , I973:pp. 3-4) In the words of S p r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n (1976: p. 160): 47 " U n i n t e n t i o n a l v i o l a t i o n s , f o r example where the t r e a t m e n t p r o c e s s m a l f u n c t i o n s , a r e , i n the o p i n i o n of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch, d e a l t w i t h much more e f f e c t i v e l y by d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the o f f e n d i n g p l a n t r a t h e r than t h r o u g h the c o u r t s . " Chapter S i x t e s t s t h i s c l a i m . 2.3 A C r i t i q u e of B.C.'s O f f i c i a l P r o c e s s 2.3.1 E s t a b l i s h m e n t of Ambient Stan d a r d s In 1968 the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r " p o l i c y " f o r the Lower F r a s e r ( t h e o n l y s e c t i o n of waterway i n the p r o v i n c e t o r e c e i v e such t r e a t m e n t ) , which might be c o n s t r u e d as a r u d i m e n t a r y form of s t a n d a r d . The ' p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , was "the maintenance of the Lower F r a s e r R i v e r as a m u l t i - p u r p o s e r e s o u r c e f o r the peopl e of the p r o v i n c e f o r a l l t i m e . " One such purpose the Board undoubtedly had i n mind was t h e F r a s e r ' s r o l e as a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r f o r the c o m m e r c i a l l y and r e c r e a t i o n a l l y i m p o r t a n t salmon and s t e e l h e a d . D e c i d i n g t o p r e s e r v e t h e s e f i s h c o r r e s p o n d s t o e s t a b l i s h i n g "ambient s t a n d a r d s . . . in- l i g h t of crude ( q u a l i t a t i v e ) e s t i m a t e s of c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , " ( Step 1 of the model). Based on a s t u d y and p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h a t the B.C. Water Resources S e r v i c e (1970) says were h e l d , the Board a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t h a t the v a l u e ( b e n e f i t ) of p r e s e r v i n g the salmon run (and o t h e r e x i s t i n g uses of the r i v e r ) outweighed the c o s t . One such c o s t would be t h a t of c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t a n t s t h a t o t h e r w i s e might f r e e l y be d i s c h a r g e d t o the r i v e r , a c o n v e n i e n t form of d i s p o s a l . ( I t i s 48 perhaps worth n o t i n g t h a t the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e i s ve r y v a g u e — i t does not e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s between competing uses of the r i v e r . I t would be u s e l e s s i n a d j u d i c a t i n g s p e c i f i c c o n f l i c t s over p o l l u t i o n , because no one sou r c e of p o l l u t i o n i s l i k e l y t o e l i m i n a t e the e n t i r e f i s h e r y , i . e . t h r e a t e n the r i v e r ' s s t a t u s as a " m u l t i - p u r p o s e r e s o u r c e , " and t h e r e f o r e i t would not v i o l a t e the p o l i c y . ) Once a d e c i s i o n has been made t o m a i n t a i n the f i s h e r y , the next s t e p i s t o p r e s c r i b e — a s w e l l as knowledge p e r m i t s — t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r i t s maintenance. Ambient water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s a re an attempt t o e x p l i c i t l y a r t i c u l a t e t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . In Chapter One I mentioned t h a t the U. S. Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e l i e v e d 7.8 mg/L of d i s s o l v e d oxygen p r o v i d e d a h i g h degree of p r o t e c t i o n f o r salmon ( H a l l , 1976). As a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p , a v a l u e l i k e t h i s might be s e t as the minimum l e v e l a c c e p t a b l e f o r each r e a c h of the Lower F r a s e r . M. C l a r k (1980b), of B.C.'s WMB, has c o m p i l e d a number of c r i t e r i a f o r i m p o r t a n t water q u a l i t y parameters r e p o r t e d i n European, Canadian and American l i t e r a t u r e t h a t would be u s e f u l i n such a programme. Once s e t , s t a n d a r d s c o u l d l a t e r be a d j u s t e d i n l i g h t of new i n f o r m a t i o n on the degree of p r o t e c t i o n they a f f o r d or the c o s t of p u r s u i n g them. B.C. has e l e c t e d not t o e s t a b l i s h g e n e r a l ambient s t a n d a r d s , c r i t e r i a , g u i d e l i n e s , or o b j e c t i v e s . The " r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y g u i d e l i n e s " i n e x i s t e n c e p e r t a i n o n l y t o the impacts of s p e c i f i c d i s c h a r g e s ; they do not ad d r e s s o v e r a l l c o n d i t i o n s . The absence of f o r m a l ambient s t a n d a r d s does not mean t h a t ambient c o n d i t i o n s a r e not c o n s i d e r e d t a c i t l y i n 49 d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . They have t o be, f o r no p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t makes sense except i n r e f e r e n c e t o water q u a l i t y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t are c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e (or a t l e a s t a c c e p t a b l e ) . Not making such c o n d i t i o n s e x p l i c i t , i n the form of s t a n d a r d s (o r whatever name they go by) s e r v e s o n l y t o obscure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s i n p u r s u i n g d e s i r a b l e ends. 2.3.2 E s t i m a t i o n of T o t a l P e r m i s s i b l e L o a d i n g s S i n c e n e i t h e r the WMB nor any o t h e r agency have e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s from which the e s t i m a t e s of p e r m i s s i b l e l o a d i n g s a r e d e r i v e d , t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s have not been c a r r i e d o u t . In the FRES water q u a l i t y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the impact of the sewage d i s c h a r g e a t A n n a c i s I s l a n d on water q u a l i t y i n the Main Arm was e s t i m a t e d f o r the p r e s e n t and f o r f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s . The f i n d i n g was t h a t one a p p r o x i m a t i o n of a c u t e t o x i c i t y would be approached by 2020 (based on the 1970 p r o j e c t e d growth r a t e ) d u r i n g p e r i o d s of low f l o w and assuming no u p g r a d i n g of t r e a t m e n t . The f a c t o r s i n t h i s c a l c u l a t i o n — p o l l u t a n t l o a d i n g s , r i v e r volume and v e l o c i t y , m i x i n g r a t e s , t i d a l i n f l u e n c e - - a r e those t h a t would be used i n computing rough t o t a l l o a d i n g s e s t i m a t e s based on ambient c r i t e r i a . T h i s e x e r c i s e r e p r e s e n t s a modest s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n t h a t s h o u l d be taken i f the r i v e r ' s a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y i s t o be t a x e d more h e a v i l y . The Waste Management Branch need not n e c e s s a r i l y d e v e l o p i t s own e x p e r t i s e i n m o d e l l i n g and e s t u a r i n e h y d r o l o g y , but might encourage, c o o r d i n a t e , and use r e s e a r c h by o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t a l r e a d y have some e x p e r i e n c e , f o r 50 example the I n s t i t u t e of Ocean S t u d i e s , Western Canada H y d r a u l i c s L a b o r a t o r y , G e o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, and the UBC Dept. Of C i v i l E n g i n e e r i n g , Dept. of Geology and Oceanography, and Westwater Research C e n t r e . An example of a m a t h e m a t i c a l model p r e d i c t i n g d i s s o l v e d oxygen c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i s found i n Koch (1976), "Lower F r a s e r R i v e r / E s t u a r y D i s s o l v e d Oxygen Dynamics," w h i l e Joy (1974) has m o d e l l e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of p o l l u t a n t s i n the F r a s e r E s t u a r y r e s u l t i n g from assumed e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s . 2.3.3 G r a n t i n g of P e r m i t s In e v a l u a t i n g each a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p e r m i t , the Branch c o n s i d e r s the a b i l i t y of the r i v e r a t the s i t e of d i s c h a r g e t o d i l u t e the e f f l u e n t , but s i n c e they do not p o s s e s s o v e r a l l l o a d i n g s e s t i m a t e s , t h e r e i s no e x p l i c i t e f f o r t t o r e l a t e the proposed d i s c h a r g e volume t o some o v e r a l l l i m i t or c e i l i n g . The f o c u s of B.C.'s c u r r e n t p e r m i t t i n g p r o c e d u r e has been on c u r b i n g i n d i v i d u a l e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s so as t o reduce the p o l l u t i o n each causes by i t s e l f . A c c o r d i n g t o the s t u d i e s c i t e d i n Chapter One, o v e r a l l the r i v e r s t i l l appears i n more or l e s s good shape r e l a t i v e t o the minimum c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o support f i s h . S i n c e p h y s i c a l water q u a l i t y parameters remain h i g h and showed no downward t r e n d from 1970 t o 1978 (Drinnan and C l a r k , 1980), i t might a c t u a l l y be argued t h a t the placement of any c o n t r o l measures on d i r e c t d i s c h a r g e s t o the r i v e r has imposed unnecessary or a t l e a s t premature c o s t s , s i n c e o v e r a l l water q u a l i t y i s "at l e a s t as h i g h as n e c e s s a r y . " ( T h i s argument does not r e f e r t o s m a l l e r t r i b u t a r i e s of the F r a s e r . ) 51 I n o t h e r words, the p r o v i n c e has a c t u a l l y been to o s t r i c t i n a p p l y i n g any c o n t r o l s a t a l l . A c o r o l l a r y i s t h a t s e r i o u s e f f o r t s t o c u r t a i l waste d i s c h a r g e s s h o u l d be made o n l y when the c a p a c i t y c o n s t r a i n t s of the r i v e r a r e a c t u a l l y b e i n g approached. Such an argument has s e v e r a l s e r i o u s f l a w s , a l l r e l a t i n g t o a t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r c a u t i o n . F i r s t , i t assumes p e r f e c t knowledge both of the r i v e r ' s h y p o t h e t i c a l " a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y " and of what s u b s t a n c e s of c o n c e r n a c t u a l l y a r e b e i n g dumped i n t o i t . U n c e r t a i n t y i s assumed away. Second, c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of d i s s o l v e d and and suspended n o n - b i o d e g r a d a b l e s u b s t a n c e s t h a t appear t o be s a f e a c c o r d i n g t o water q u a l i t y c r i t e r i a may s t i l l l e a d t o u n a c c e p t a b l e a c c u m u l a t i o n i n sediments and b i o m a g n i f i c a t i o n i n a q u a t i c organisms. T h i r d , t o suggest t h a t c o n t r o l s h o u l d b e g i n o n l y when l i m i t s a r e a c t u a l l y approached i s t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e the time needed t o overcome s o c i a l i n e r t i a and t o a c h i e v e r e s u l t s . A f t e r more than a decade of e x i s t e n c e , B.C.'s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l programme i s s t i l l b r i n g i n g l o n g - t e r m d i s c h a r g e r s under c o n t r o l f o r the f i r s t t i m e . F o u r t h , b a s i n g e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l d i s c h a r g e s s o l e l y on r i v e r or r e a c h ambient c o n d i t i o n s i g n o r e s p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t l o c a l i z e d d e g r a d a t i o n t h a t may be r e p e a t e d f r e q u e n t l y . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t a r e a c h c o u l d show s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n s o v e r a l l i f water q u a l i t y samples a r e averaged t o g e t h e r , when i n r e a l i t y i t has been s e r i o u s l y compromised through a number of zones of s e v e r e d e g r a d a t i o n . F o r a l l of t h e s e reasons i t i s prudent t o have a c o n t r o l system i n p l a c e w e l l b e f o r e c o n s p i c u o u s d e g r a d a t i o n a c t u a l l y a ppears. 52 2.3.4 I n f o r m a t i o n G e n e r a t i o n and Feedback The o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s a l l o w s f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of com p l i a n c e by r e q u i r i n g p e r m i t t e e s t o sample t h e i r own e f f l u e n t r e g u l a r l y and r e p o r t the r e s u l t s a t p e r i o d i c i n t e r v a l s . R e c e i v i n g water m o n i t o r i n g i s conducted by the Branch t o determine the e f f e c t s of d i s c h a r g e s on water q u a l i t y . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t o r e d i n a c e n t r a l d a t a bank. The Branch i t s e l f does not i n v e s t h e a v i l y i n b a s i c r e s e a r c h t o improve u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the F r a s e r E s t u a r y , but t h i s would not be a s h o r t c o m i n g i f o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s or u n i v e r s i t i e s d i d i n s t e a d . T h i s does not appear t o be the case however. A c c o r d i n g t o S r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n (1976), the r e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d i n the Lower F r a s e r i s not w e l l - c o o r d i n a t e d . The Westwater Research C e n t r e (1979) o b s e r v e d : " I t i s our i m p r e s s i o n t h a t r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s i n the F r a s e r a r e d e c l i n i n g . " The recommendations f o r m o n i t o r i n g and s p e c i a l s t u d i e s made by the E s t u a r y Study (FRES Water Q u a l i t y Work Group, 1979) a r e a s t e p i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , but i t remains t o be seen j u s t how c o m p l e t e l y t h a t w i l l a c t u a l l y be implemented. B.C.'s approach would seem t o be a b l e t o r e f l e c t changes i n p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Board's p e r i o d i c i n q u i r i e s , by O b j e c t i o n s t o p e r m i t s and A p p e a l s of O r d e r s , and more i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h the normal c h a n n e l s a v a i l a b l e t o c i t i z e n s i n a democracy: i n f l u e n c i n g the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who c o n t r o l t h e Waste Management Branch. The Branch does not appear t o a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t t he wider p u b l i c ' s p r e f e r e n c e s t h r o u g h any of the t e c h n i q u e s mentioned by H e b e r l e i n (1976). I n s t e a d , i t c a r r i e s Out d i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d from a t o p by the 53 government p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d by the v o t i n g p u b l i c . 2.3.5 Enforcement B.C.'s p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s f o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the A c t . The D i r e c t o r can suspend or c a n c e l a p e r m i t f o r f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h p e r m i t terms. The R e g i o n a l Manager or h i s a s s i s t a n t and C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s a r e a b l e t o l a y charges a g a i n s t o f f e n d e r s . I t has not been the p o l i c y of the Branch t o p r o s e c u t e or t h r e a t e n p r o s e c u t i o n where they b e l i e v e a genuine e f f o r t t o comply has been made or where r e a l c o s t problems impede c o m p l i a n c e . The maximum f i n e f o r c o n v i c t e d v i o l a t o r s i s $10,000. T h i s amount i n i t s e l f would not seem t o d e t e r l a r g e o p e r a t o r s from v i o l a t i n g the A c t . The o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s , t h u s , r e l i e s on c o o p e r a t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n , not s t i f f enforcement p o l i c i e s , t o pursue i t s g o a l s . I f c l o s e r s c r u t i n y of the p r o c e s s shows t h a t t h i s works, then i t can h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i c i e n c y . 54 Notes t o Chapter Two 1 A l t h o u g h Ince (1976) and S p r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n (1976) between them l i s t seven o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s t h a t c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o c o n t r o l l i n g water p o l l u t i o n i n the F r a s e r — a m o n g them the H e a l t h A c t , Water Act , M u n i c i p a l A c t , L i t t e r A c t , F i s h e r i e s A c t , Land A c t , and Environment and Land  Use Act — i n f a c t o n l y the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and the H e a l t h  Act have been u t i l i z e d t o any e x t e n t i n r e g u l a t i n g water p o l l u t i o n . A p p a r e n t l y , t h i s i s due a t l e a s t p a r t l y t o an u n w r i t t e n c o n v e n t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y of d e f e r r i n g a l l water p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l m a t t e r s t o the Waste Management Branch, whose p r i m a r y mandate i s p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , t o a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t . H e a l t h Branch o f f i c i a l s seem t o l a r g e l y c a r r y out t h e i r water p o l l u t i o n - r e l a t e d mandate t h r o u g h the WMB's p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n r e f e r r a l system. 2 Some of t h e s e a r e o m i t t e d because o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n a l r e a d y c o v e r s them, o t h e r s because they a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t , i m p r a c t i c a l t o e n f o r c e , or s i m p l y do not f i t common c o n c e p t i o n s of " p o l l u t i o n " . N o i s e and r a d i o a c t i v e wastes a r e c e r t a i n l y r e g a r d e d as p o l l u t i o n by most p e o p l e , y e t a r e n e i t h e r r e g u l a t e d by the A c t nor s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted from i t i n s. 5. (The former i s g e n e r a l l y c o n t r o l l e d by m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s , the l a t t e r f e d e r a l l y . ) Many o t h e r f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r i n g , p o t e n t i a l l y damaging a c t i v i t i e s or t h e i r s i d e - e f f e c t s , l i k e s l o p p y d i s p o s a l of engine o i l , c o n s t r u c t i o n - r e l a t e d e r o s i o n , i n d i s c r i m i n a t e garbage dumping, l i t t e r i n g , o i l s p i l l s , d i s c h a r g e of domestic wastes from b o a t s , and many more, a r e not i n p r a c t i c e c o n t r o l l e d under the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , a l t h o u g h they a r e not s p e c i f i c a l l y exempted from i t . Some are c o v e r e d by o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n , some ar e n o t . 3 Yet as p r e c i s e as t h i s d e f i n i t i o n seems t o be, i n i t s e l f i t i s s t i l l i m p e r f e c t i n c o n v e y i n g what the Act i n t e n d s t o c o n t r o l . Many a c t i v i t i e s d i s c h a r g i n g wastes or c o n t a m i n a n t s i n t o l a r g e waterways do not by themselves " s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r or i m p a i r " the waterways' u s e f u l n e s s , a l t h o u g h the wastes would commonly be c o n s i d e r e d " p o l l u t i o n " and are i n d e e d r e g u l a t e d by the 1967 A c t . 4 I t s h o u l d be borne i n mind t h a t " i m m e d i a t e l y " or "soon" r e f e r t o d a t e s t h a t by now s h o u l d be p a s t . The o r i g i n a l O b j e c t i v e s were i s s u e d i n Sept. 1971 f o r the f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y , Nov. 1973 f o r the m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g i n d u s t r i e s , March 1974 f o r the c h e m i c a l and p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r i e s , J a n . 1975 f o r food p r o c e s s i n g , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d and m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n d u s t r i e s , and Sept. 1975 f o r m u n i c i p a l - t y p e d i s c h a r g e s . Presumably by t h i s t i m e , a t l e a s t L e v e l C and perhaps L e v e l B s h o u l d have been met by a l l d i s c h a r g e r s i f the recommended o b j e c t i v e s and schedule have been f o l l o w e d . 55 5 O r i g i n a l l y , the word " g u i d e l i n e " was p r e f e r r e d so as t o d i s t i n g u i s h i t from an e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e , which would be used i n d e v e l o p i n g the e f f l u e n t l i m i t s of a p e r m i t . 6 A c t u a l l y , t h i s " c o u r t e s y arrangement" d a t e s back t o about 1960, when s t a f f e n g i n e e r s of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board would d i r e c t l y n o t i f y the F e d e r a l Dept. of F i s h e r i e s about p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s . EPS d i d not e x i s t t h e n . 7 A l t h o u g h some would argue t h a t i n p r a c t i c a l terms , t h i s c o u l d never happen because t h e r e g u l a t o r would f e a r an i n f u r i a t e d p u b l i c , they o v e r l o o k the ease w i t h which unsavory p r a c t i c e s can be p e r p e t r a t e d i n remoter a r e a s w i t h few or no watchdogs. 8 I t i s u n c l e a r j u s t how t h i s c l a u s e would be i n v o k e d i n a p r o s e c u t i o n . To the knowledge of the R e g i o n a l Manager of the WMB f o r the Lower M a i n l a n d , i t never has been. 9 S p r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n (1976) p r o v i d e an example of t h i s s o r t of i n t e r a c t i v e approach i n a c h a p t e r of The U n c e r t a i n  F u t u r e of the Lower F r a s e r . The B.C. P a c k e r s I m p e r i a l P l a n t , a f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n on Cannery Channel of the Main Arm of the F r a s e r , i n s t a l l e d a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d e v i c e t e s t e d by the F i s h e r i e s R e s e a r c h Board of Canada and the PCB l a t e r g r a n t e d a p e r m i t based on the demonstrated c a p a b i l i t y of t h i s d e v i c e t o reduce BOD and s o l i d s . In a c t u a l use, i t f a i l e d t o f u n c t i o n as w e l l as i t had e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , so t h a t B.C. P a c k e r s was c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v i o l a t i o n of i t s p e r m i t . The Branch d i d not con t e m p l a t e l e g a l a c t i o n , but o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e . 56 Chapter Three EVALUATION CRITERIA D e s c r i b i n g how B.C.'s P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t r e a l l y has been implemented i n the Lower F r a s e r i n not enough. We a l s o want t o know how w e l l i t has been implemented. T h i s i m p l i e s e v a l u a t i o n as w e l l as d e s c r i p t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n i m p l i e s comparison w i t h some i m p l i c i t or e x p l i c i t norms, s t a n d a r d s , c r i t e r i a , or framework. In t h i s c h a p t e r I d e v e l o p t h r e e c r i t e r i a and a number of s u b - c r i t e r i a around which t o s t r u c t u r e my e v a l u a t i o n of B.C.'s a c t u a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i n the next t h r e e c h a p t e r s . The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n i s s i m p l y t h a t the p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y found i n the Lower F r a s e r s h o u l d conform h i g h l y w i t h the o f f i c i a l p r o c e s s o u t l i n e d by the Act and R e g u l a t i o n s . The second and t h i r d c r i t e r i a — r e l a t i n g t o g e n e r a t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s — s t e m from g e n e r a l l o g i c and broad d e m o c r a t i c p r e c e p t s w i d e l y espoused i n modern Western thought (and e q u a l l y w i d e l y f l o u t e d i n Western p r a c t i c e ) . They are v e r y s i m i l a r t o those used by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n a s s e s s i n g v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r managing n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , f o r i n s t a n c e Fox (1970), Fox and W i b l e (1973), Swainson (1.976), S p r o u l e - J o n e s and P e t e r s o n (1976), and Franson et a l . (1976). The c l o s e r B.C.'s p r o c e s s comes t o s a t i s f y i n g t h e s e c r i t e r i a , the c l o s e r i t comes t o d o i n g a "good" j o b , a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o one s e t of measures. 57 3.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s T h i s c r i t e r i o n f o c u s e s on a q u e s t i o n of much i n t e r e s t t o the news media and g e n e r a l p u b l i c : I s the law b e i n g f o l l o w e d ? More p r e c i s e l y , ARE BOTH THE BRANCH AND DISCHARGERS COVERED UNDER THE ACT CONFORMING WITH STIPULATIONS OF THE ACT, ITS REGULATIONS AND STATED POLICY ? In a s s e s s i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , I w i l l compare a c t u a l performance w i t h p r e s c r i b e d r e q u i r e m e n t s on f o u r p o i n t s : 1) . I s the Branch f a i t h f u l l y e x e c u t i n g the terms of the Act and R e g u l a t i o n s i n p r o c e s s i n g of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s ? 2) . I s e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g b e i n g c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g t o P e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s ? 3) . Are p r e s c r i b e d e f f l u e n t l i m i t s ( s t a n d a r d s ) b e i n g met? 4) . Are a l l d i s c h a r g e r s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by P e r m i t ? T h i s c r i t e r i o n b est l e n d s i t s e l f t o e v a l u a t i n g the second and t h i r d s t a g e s of B.C.'s p r o c e s s — i s s u i n g p e r m i t s and m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement. (The f i r s t s t a g e , e s t a b l i s h i n g o b j e c t i v e s , does not i n v o l v e c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p r e - o r d a i n e d p r o c e d u r e s so much.) The f i r s t q u e s t i o n above p e r t a i n s t o i s s u a n c e of p e r m i t s , w h i l e the next t h r e e p e r t a i n t o m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement. 3.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n In the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l f i e l d a number of d e c i s i o n s a r e made c o n t i n u a l l y t h a t depend on i n f o r m a t i o n such as the a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o s t of abatement t e c h n o l o g i e s , e f f e c t of d i s c h a r g e s on r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s , and so on. S e t t i n g s p e c i f i c t a r g e t s f o r e f f l u e n t or stream q u a l i t y i s one such d e c i s i o n , w h i l e w r i t i n g the terms under which a d i s c h a r g e r may d i s p o s e of 58 h i s or her waste i s a n o t h e r . (These c o r r e s p o n d t o o b j e c t i v e -s e t t i n g and p e r m i t g r a n t i n g i n B.C.) I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e i t h e r complete nor f r e e . In an i d e a l w o r l d p u b l i c p o l i c y - m a k e r s s would have p e r f e c t knowledge of both the v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s of the p u b l i c whose i n t e r e s t s t hey s e r v e , and of the consequences of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . In r e a l i t y they have n e i t h e r . V a l u e s a r e r e l a t i v e , d i f f i c u l t t o r a n k , and c o n t i n u o u s l y i n a s t a t e of f l u x i n any one i n d i v i d u a l , not t o mention a s o c i e t y of m i l l i o n s of d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g of the environment's complex b e h a v i o u r i s too l i m i t e d t o e n a b l e p r e c i s e , r e l i a b l e p r e d i c t i o n of i t s response t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of wastes d i s c h a r g e d i n v a r i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s and c o m b i n a t i o n s . The consequence of t h e s e two s o u r c e s of u n c e r t a i n t y i s t h a t those making d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the t y p e s and q u a n t i t y of waste d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the Lower F r a s e r must t a k e r i s k s . I f they approve too h i g h a l e v e l of d i s c h a r g e , they r i s k damaging the r i v e r . I f they demand to o low a l e v e l ( h i g h e r t r e a t m e n t ) , they have f o r c e d i n d u s t r y or r a t e - p a y e r s t o bear an unnecessary expense. M i n i m i z i n g the r i s k of damaging the r i v e r o f t e n i n c r e a s e s the r i s k of c o s t l y o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h can y i e l d u s e f u l new i n f o r m a t i o n , i t may be c o s t l y , unable t o produce r e s u l t s soon enough t o i l l u m i n a t e i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n s , and w i l l always l e a v e gaps t h a t cannnot be f i l l e d . As the Westwater Research C e n t r e noted i n t h e i r i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The U n c e r t a i n F u t u r e of the Lower  F r a s e r j u s t a f t e r spending $600,000 t o s t u d y water q u a l i t y i n the r i v e r : 59 ... even i f a much l a r g e r investment were made, f u l l and complete answers a r e u n l i k e l y t o be found f o r two re a s o n s . One i s t h a t both the p h y s i c a l - b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of p o l l u t i o n and the d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s of a s o c i e t y — i t s l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s — a r e so i n t r i c a t e t h a t an enormous investment would be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e and comprehensive p i c t u r e of the problem a t a g i v e n moment.... The o t h e r i s t h a t p o l l u t i o n problems a r e i n a c o n t i n u o u s s t a t e of change because new p r o d u c t s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d each year (and some of the s e a r e d e s t i n e d t o become p o l l u t a n t s ) , water use and a s s o c i a t e d l a n d uses do not remain the same, and s o c i a l p r e f e r e n c e s (or v a l u e s ) keep e v o l v i n g . (Dorcey, 1976: p.2) In view of these dynamics, an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a s u c c e s s f u l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s t r a g e g y i s an ongoing r e s e a r c h and m o n i t o r i n g programme t o deepen our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a q u a t i c ecosystem and p o l l u t i o n - g e n e r a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s and keep a b r e a s t of changes i n them. I t might i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : - c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s on the acu t e and c h r o n i c e f f e c t s of key p o l l u t a n t s i n d i f f e r e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , c o m b i n a t i o n s , and c o n d i t i o n s on the sediment, f l o r a , and fauna of the F r a s e r e s t u a r y , s t u d i e s of the pathways, b e h a v i o u r , and d e s t i n a t i o n s of key p o l l u t a n t s , - a water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g system t h a t would feedback t o managers changes i n water q u a l i t y r e s u l t i n g from p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s , - an e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g system t o measure changes i n d i s c h a r g e s from each p e r m i t t e e , - an e f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e and r e t r i e v a l system. The o b j e c t s h o u l d be t o reduce those a r e a s of u n c e r t a i n t y hampering i n f o r m e d d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g on key i s s u e s t h a t a c t u a l l y can be reduced a t a c c e p t a b l e c o s t . In d e a l i n g w i t h u n a v o i d a b l e 60 u n c e r t a i n t y , c a u t i o n s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d so as t o m i n i m i z e the sum t o t a l of r i s k s t o the environment and t o the pocketbook. The second c r i t e r i o n t h e n , can be posed as the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n : DOES THE SYSTEM PRODUCE DECISIONS APPROPRIATE TO THE BEST INFORMATION THAT CAN BE GENERATED PRACTICALLY ? In a p p l y i n g t h i s t o each of the t h r e e s t a g e s d e l i n e a t e d i n B.C.'s p r o c e s s , more p r e c i s e q u e s t i o n need t o be asked: S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s 1) Do the p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s s e t o b j e c t i v e s on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o un d e r s t a n d the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of g i v e n c o n t r o l l e v e l s ? 2) Are o b j e c t i v e s updated p e r i o d i c a l l y on the b a s i s of new i n f o r m a t i o n ? I s s u i n g P e r m i t s 1) I s the d e c i s i o n t o gra n t a p e r m i t made on the b a s i s of t h e bes t knowledge p r a c t i c a l l y o b t a i n a b l e on the p r o b a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact of the proposed d i s c h a r g e as w e l l as the impact of abatement c o s t s on the d i s c h a r g e r ? 2) When the impact of a proposed d i s c h a r g e i s u n c e r t a i n , do d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t an attempt t o m i n i m i z e the r i s k of both unnecessary or c o s t l y abatement e x p e n d i t u r e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage? 3) I s the e v a l u a t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n made i n the c o n t e x t of the c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t of a l l d i s c h a r g e r s on water q u a l i t y ? M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement 1) Are e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s and t h e i r impact on r e c e i v i n g waters b e i n g m o n i t o r e d a d e q u a t e l y and the da t a s t o r e d i n r e t r i e v a b l e form? 2) I s b a s i c r e s e a r c h b e i n g conducted t o improve our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Lower F r a s e r e c o l o g y so as t o b e t t e r p r e d i c t b i o p h y s i c a l impacts of waste d i s c h a r g e ? 3.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s In the 1970's the i d e a of " p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n " seems t o have come t o the f o r e . That p e o p l e who are p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by a p r o s p e c t i v e p o l i c y or development deserve the r i g h t t o 61 p a r t i c i p a t e i n and i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i s now a w i d e l y h e l d b e l i e f ( a l t h o u g h many m a t t e r s , i n s i s t some b u r e a u c r a t s and s p e c i a l i s t s , remain " t e c h n i c a l " ones, meaning e i t h e r t h a t they a r e not r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e by laymen or t h a t they i n v o l v e no v a l u e judgements or p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n s ) . The " r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e " p h r a s e o l o g y however, i s so vague t h a t i t has l i t t l e u t i l i t y i n p r e s c r i b i n g a norm towards which governments s h o u l d s t r i v e and a c c o r d i n g t o which t h e i r e f f o r t s might be e v a l u a t e d . I w i l l attempt t o d e f i n e the s t a n d a r d more p r e c i s e l y . Two j u s t i f i c a t i o n s e x i s t f o r e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n m a t t e r s of p u b l i c p o l i c y such as p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . The f i r s t i s t h a t i t w i l l l e a d t o " b e t t e r " d e c i s i o n s , t h a t i s , ones t h a t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s or advance the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t f u r t h e r than o t h e r p o s s i b l e o p t i o n s . (I n many i n s t a n c e s a d e c i s i o n t h a t advances the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ' s w e l f a r e may s t i l l h u r t some and b e n e f i t o t h e r members of t h a t p u b l i c d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . ) The second j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t whether or not the outcome i s s u p e r i o r , the mere r i g h t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e c i s i o n s t h a t a f f e c t one's l i f e i s s i m p l y one of the most c h e r i s h e d p r e c e p t s of democracy. As t h i s i s a s e l f -e v i d e n t v a l u e , i t needs no f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n : e i t h e r one a c c e p t s i t or one does n o t . There a r e two major reasons why i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d forms of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l encourage b u r e a u c r a t i c d e c i s i o n s more i n a c c o r d w i t h the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . One i s t h a t the a f f e c t e d p u b l i c can c o n t r i b u t e t o the a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a l s c oncerned enough t o p a r t i c i p a t e can o f t e n share new i n f o r m a t i o n 62 or p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h o f f i c i a l s , who, w h i l e they may c l a i m s u p e r i o r knowledge of i n s t i t u t i o n a l mechanisms or s c i e n t i f i c or e n g i n e e r i n g p r i n c i p l e s , may w e l l be unaware of i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s p a r t i c u l a r t o any one c a s e . An example of t h i s i n the r e c e n t p a s t i s the Berger I n q u i r y i n t o the proposed MacKenzie V a l l e y n a t u r a l gas p i p e l i n e ( B e r g e r , 1977), which would s u r e l y have produced d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations had Mr. J u s t i c e Berger not v i s i t e d the N o r t h and spoken p e r s o n a l l y w i t h the n a t i v e p e o p l e s i n the a f f e c t e d r e g i o n . The second reason i s t h a t an open p r o c e s s can b e t t e r i n f o r m the p u b l i c so t h a t i t can d e c i d e on a c o u r s e t h a t r e f l e c t s i t s t r u e p r e f e r e n c e s , and not m i s c o n c e p t i o n s or i g n o r a n c e . As Fox (1970) s t a t e s : ... t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and a n a l y s e s t h a t i n d i c a t e the p h y s i c a l , b i o l o g i c a l , and economic consequences ( i n c l u d i n g the n a t u r e of the u n c e r t a i n t i e s ) , i f communicated w i t h f i d e l i t y t o those who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e c i s i o n , s h o u l d improve the q u a l i t y of the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s i s an e x p r e s s i o n of f a i t h i n the u t i l i t y and i n f l u e n c e of i n f o r m a t i o n . (p. 881) An i n f o r m e d p u b l i c i s l e s s l i k e l y t o t o l e r a t e "runaway b u r e a u c r a c i e s " , which have become more of a t h r e a t t o p u b l i c s o v e r e i g n t y i n r e c e n t t i m e s . As s o c i e t y has become more complex and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t as a r e s u l t of t e c h o l o g i c a l change and accompanying economic and p o p u l a t i o n growth, r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s of government have a l s o m u l t i p l i e d and become f a r more complex. I t i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e (and has not been f o r some time) f o r a l l e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t a n d and a d m i n i s t e r a l l of t h e thousands of government programmes t h a t have a r i s e n , thus the c i v i l s e r v i c e has grown t o implement 63 and a d m i n i s t e r l e g i s l a t i v e mandates. C o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y has been d e l e g a t e d from p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d b o d i e s t o b u r e a u c r a c i e s , a move n e c e s s i t a t e d t o a l a r g e e x t e n t by the c r u s h i n g number of t a s k s governments are now c a l l e d on t o p e r f o r m . The problem i s one of m a i n t a i n i n g p o p u l a r c o n t r o l over c i v i l s e r v a n t s i n s u l a t e d from the p u b l i c w i l l by the f a c t t h a t they a r e not themselves e l e c t e d , and are t h u s not d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t a b l e t o the v e r y p u b l i c they s e r v e . I f we a r e t o p r e s e r v e democracy, the answer, a c c o r d i n g t o someone l i k e Mayo ( i 9 6 0 ) , i s t h a t f i n a l d e c i s i o n s on c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e s must r e s t w i t h p o p u l a r l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , w i t h the m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n p r e v a i l i n g . " P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n " does not mean d o i n g what the l o u d e s t v o i c e s a t a p u b l i c meeting a r e demanding s h o u l d be done. A f r e q u e n t c o m p l a i n t of the e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s or l o c a l p e o p l e who o f t e n pack rooms f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i s t h a t the whole e x e r c i s e i s a mere f o r m a l i t y and t h a t a u t h o r i t i e s a r e not r e a l l y l i s t e n i n g t o "the p u b l i c " ( d e f i n e d as those who a r e p a c k i n g the room); the " r e a l d e c i s i o n s " have been made a l r e a d y and the t r u e purpose of the h e a r i n g i s t o p l a c a t e a c t i v i s t s by p r e s e n t i n g the appearance t h a t they were g i v e n t h e i r f a i r say. W h i l e such s e n t i m e n t s a r e undoubtedly w e l l - f o u n d e d i n many s i t u a t i o n s , t h i s s h o u l d not obscure the f a c t t h a t i t would not be d e m o c r a t i c t o a l l o w , say, s o l e l y those p r e s e n t a t p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t o d e c i d e among themselves what the. f a t e of the p r o p o s a l a t i s s u e i s t o be. I t i s w e l l known t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h e a r i n g s or members of p o l i t i c a l l y a c t i v e groups a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e n t w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c 64 ( H e b e r l e i n , 1976). In The L o g i c of C o l l e c t i v e A c t i o n , Mancur Olso n (1965) o u t l i n e s the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r the d i f f i c u l t y w i d e l y d i f f u s e i n t e r e s t s have i n o r g a n i z i n g t o p r o t e c t or advance t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e w e l f a r e . The " t r a n s a c t i o n c o s t s " of a r o u s i n g a l a r g e group l o o s e l y a f f i l i a t e d by some common i n t e r e s t a r e u s u a l l y h i g h enough t o d i s c o u r a g e c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ; i t i s s i m p l y not i n the r a t i o n a l s e l f - i n t e r e s t of any one member of such groups t o make l a r g e p e r s o n a l s a c r i f i c e s i n a t t e m p t i n g t o e x h o r t h i s or her f e l l o w s t o a c t i o n . S m a l l groups or w e l l - d e f i n e d , l o c a l i z e d i n t e r e s t s a r e m o b i l i z e d more e a s i l y , r a i s i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of a z e a l o u s m i n o r i t y p r e v a i l i n g over an u n w i e l d y m a j o r i t y . T h i s l e a d s t o another r a t i o n a l e f o r the u l t i m a t e r e p o s i t o r y of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g power on m a t t e r s of p u b l i c p o l i c y r e s t i n g w i t h e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s . They can choose as they w i l l , i n f l u e n c e d by th o s e who shout l o u d e s t , or t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of g e n e r a l p u b l i c o p i n i o n , or t h e i r own p r e f e r e n c e s , but they must then be s u b j e c t e d t o a p p r o v a l or r e j e c t i o n by v o t e r s a t the next e l e c t i o n . S t i l l a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a p u b l i c i nvolvement e f f o r t s h o u l d take i n t o account i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t groups may have q u i t e unequal r e s o u r c e s a v a i l i a b l e f o r promoting t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the p u b l i c p o l i c y - s e t t i n g a r e n a . The more c a p a b l e , w e a l t h y , or p o w e r f u l i n t e r e s t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y l i e c l o s e r t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Waste d i s c h a r g e r s , f o r example, o f t e n p o s s e s s f a r more t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , money, and manpower t o p r e s e n t t h e i r view a t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l h e a r i n g s than do e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups. Fox and W i b l e (1973) noted t h a t a t a h e a r i n g i n t o 65 s e t t i n g water q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r the W i s c o n s i n R i v e r i n the l a t e 1960's, 19 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were p r e s e n t from waste d i s c h a r g i n g i n d u s t r i e s as opposed t o t h r e e from c o n s e r v a t i o n groups. Twelve p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made, of which seven were by major d i s c h a r g e r s , t h r e e by unions whose members were employed by major d i s c h a r g e r s , and none by c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t e r e s t s . No one spoke i n f a v o u r of h i g h e r s t a n d a r d s than proposed by the S t a t e Department of Resource Development. The p o i n t t h e n , i s t h a t i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e o t h e r measures t o o b t a i n wider r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; a t the v e r y l e a s t i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n p u t r e c e i v e d through c h a n n e l s such as f o r m a l h e a r i n g s i s not l i k e l y t o be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . To r e c a p i t u l a t e , broad r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s i n the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s can c o n c e i v a b l y , (a) b r i n g t o the f o r e d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of problems and t h e i r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , (b) improve the l i k e l i h o o d of w e l l - g r o u n d e d p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s , and (c) e n r i c h t h e ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of d e c i s i o n - makers of t h e s e p r e f e r e n c e s . Thus, p u b l i c involvement i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t the f i n a l d e c i s i o n w i l l a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s . P u b l i c involvement i s i n h i b i t e d by "the l o g i c of c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n " . " T r a n s a c t i o n " c o s t s and the c o s t s of i n f o r m a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n and a n a l y s e s r e f l e c t i n g the v iews of a f f e c t e d groups may p r e c l u d e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s e r i o u s attempt t o i n v o l v e the p u b l i c may r e q u i r e more i n i t i a t i v e and i m a g i n a t i o n than needed s i m p l y t o h o l d f o r m a l h e a r i n g s a t which b r i e f s may be p r e s e n t e d . The t h i r d c r i t e r i o n can be posed i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: ARE THE OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARTICIPATION BY AFFECTED INTERESTS 66 LIKELY TO PRODUCE DECISIONS THAT ACCURATELY REFLECT PUBLIC PREFERENCES ? S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s 1) Do the p r o c e d u r e s encourage e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s ? I s s u i n g P e r m i t s 1) Are a l l i n t e r e s t s c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g e v a l u a t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s ? M o n i t o r i n g and Enforcement o p p o r t u n i t y t o openly p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s ? 1) I s the s c r u t i n i z e p u b l i c f u r n i s h e d ample the performance of the 67 C hapter Four SETTING OBJECTIVES-~THE REAL WORLD 4.1 F i n d i n g s The f i r s t h a l f of t h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s i n d e t a i l my f i n d i n g s on how the p r o c e s s of e s t a b l i s h i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s has worked i n r e a l i t y . The second h a l f i s a c r i t i q u e of the p r o c e s s a c c o r d i n g t o the e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d i n the l a s t c h a p t e r . 4.1.1 Nature of the P u b l i c I n q u i r i e s Chapter Two mentions t h a t the Board and the D i r e c t o r have e x e r c i s e d t h e i r powers t o d e t e r m i n e water q u a l i t y and e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s by h o l d i n g p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s out of which p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l " o b j e c t i v e s " have emerged. The g e n e r a l purpose of each of the seven such i n q u i r i e s h e l d t o date has been t o d e t e r m i n e what " t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and measures" f o r waste c o n t r o l must be o b s e r v e d by the d i s c h a r g e r s i n q u e s t i o n . The D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l seems t o have i n s t i g a t e d each of the f i r s t f i v e i n q u i r i e s . The l a t e s t two i n q u i r i e s however, which are r e v i e w s of the o r i g i n a l O b j e c t i v e s s e t f o r the f o r e s t p r o d u c t s and m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g i n d u s t r i e s , have been c a l l e d f o r by C a b i n e t O r d e r s - i n - C o u n c i l . McPhee (1978) s t a t e s t h a t a 1976 a r t i c l e i n The P r o v i n c e newspaper r e p o r t e d t h a t the second f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n q u i r y was c a l l e d f o r a f t e r a r e q u e s t t o C a b i n e t by the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y f o r a r e v i e w of the 68 o r i g i n a l O b j e c t i v e s . The i n q u i r i e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s : p u b l i c h e a r i n g s (and meetings) and a d d i t i o n a l background i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s . (The word " i n q u i r y " has o f t e n been used t o d e s i g n a t e o n l y the p u b l i c h e a r i n g stage of an i n q u i r y . ) The o v e r a l l i n q u i r i e s have u s u a l l y extended over a p e r i o d of s e v e r a l months t o more than a y e a r . Formal p u b l i c h e a r i n g s themselves l a s t e d anywhere from t h r e e t o e i g h t days, depending on the volume of s u b m i s s i o n s . P a n e l members d i d meet a number of times on t h e i r own however, t o re v i e w d a t a and d i s c u s s recommendations. A c c o r d i n g t o st a t e m e n t s made by Branch spokesmen i n the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s , the D i r e c t o r would announce d r a f t o b j e c t i v e s . Then, a f t e r a " s u i t a b l e p e r i o d of time i n which the p u b l i c and i n d u s t r y may r e a c t , the o b j e c t i v e s a re a c c e p t e d or ammended and a c c e p t e d by the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board," (p. 484, T r a n s c r i p t of I n q u i r y i n t o F o o d - p r o c e s s i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d and M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n d u s t r i e s ) . In no case were the f i n a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s p r i n t e d w i t h i n a year of the date of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s ample time f o r concerned p a r t i e s t o e x p r e s s t h e i r views f o l l o w i n g the h e a r i n g s (were they not a i r e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e n ) . However, I have no i n f o r m a t i o n as t o whether p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y were s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s f o r commenting on and r e v i s i n g d r a f t O b j e c t i v e s . O u t s i d e p a r t i c i p a t i o n (by i n d u s t r y , p u b l i c , and o t h e r government a g e n c i e s ) i n the o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g i n q u i r i e s has taken two f o r m s — f o r m a l h e a r i n g s , a l l of which have been h e l d i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a , and Kamloops, and more i n f o r m a l meetings 69 h e l d i n s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s throughout B.C. The meetings a r e a new f e a t u r e , h a v i n g been h e l d i n o n l y the two most r e c e n t i n q u i r i e s — t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d second f o r e s t p r o d u c t s (1976) and m i n i n g and s m e l t i n g (1978) i n q u i r i e s . In the l a t t e r , s i x meetings were h e l d i n Kamloops, N e l s o n , New W e s t m i n s t e r , Vernon, P r i n c e George, and Courtenay. The meetings were a d v e r t i s e d i n advance, c o p i e s of the O b j e c t i v e s under review'and the f o r m a l s u b m i s s i o n s t o the I n q u i r y were on f i l e a t the d i s t r i c t PCB o f f i c e s , and members of the a d v i s o r y p a n e l a t t e n d e d each mee t i n g . T h i s e f f o r t t o c o n s u l t and i n f o r m the l e s s o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c met w i t h mixed s u c c e s s : no i n p u t a t a l l was r e c e i v e d a t t h r e e of the s i x meetings (B.C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board, 1979). C o n c e r n i n g the 1976 F o r e s t P r o d u c t s I n q u i r y , McPhee (1980) observed t h a t a l t h o u g h the Branch attem p t e d t o h o l d i n f o r m a l meetings throughout the p r o v i n c e , the programme was c u r t a i l e d s h o r t l y a f t e r i t had begun f o r l a c k of funds. P u b l i c n o t i c e s a d v e r t i s i n g the main f o r m a l h e a r i n g s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each i n q u i r y appeared i n The B.C. G a z e t t e and p r o v i n c i a l newspapers t h r e e months t o a year b e f o r e they were t o commence 1 (B.C. Water Resources S e r v i c e , 1972) i n o r d e r t o a l l o w time f o r p r e p a r a t i o n of b r i e f s . B r i e f s on " t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s " were i n v i t e d from anyone p r o p o s i n g t o a t t e n d the h e a r i n g s . The A c t l e a v e s the s t r u c t u r e of any h e a r i n g s the D i r e c t o r or the Board h o l d t o t h e i r own d i s c r e t i o n . S i x of the seven i n q u i r i e s were c h a i r e d by the former D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l , W.N. V e n a b l e s , or h i s A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r . Mr. V e n a b l e s chose t o conduct the h e a r i n g s i n a v e r y f o r m a l manner, 70 e x e r c i s i n g the powers of a j u s t i c e under the O f f e n c e A c t , as empowered by the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t . Each h e a r i n g began w i t h a r e c i t a l of a l i s t of r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s t o be f o l l o w e d . A summary of the major ones r e v e a l s the degree of f o r m a l i t y : o n l y one person c o u l d speak t o a b r i e f , which was a c c e p t e d and numbered as an " e x h i b i t " ( a d v i s o r s c o u l d be summoned d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ) ; f o l l o w i n g a p r e s e n t a t i o n on the b r i e f , the speaker would be c r o s s - e x a m i n e d under o a t h , f i r s t by o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ( t h o s e s u b m i t t i n g b r i e f s ) and then by p a n e l members; n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i n g members of the a u d i e n c e c o u l d ask q u e s t i o n s ( i f deemed p e r t i n e n t ) o n l y i n d i r e c t l y by s u b m i t t i n g them t o the a d v i s o r y p a n e l d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n ; p a r t i c i p a n t s on the s t a n d c o u l d n e i t h e r ask q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , nor were they p e r m i t t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f o r m a l r e b u t t a l a t the c l o s e of the s u b m i s s i o n . The s p e c i f i e d purpose of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s was t o c o n s i d e r s t r i c t l y " t e c h n i c a l " m a t t e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t i n g t o the r a t h e r narrow j u r i s d i c t i o n of the A c t . The D i r e c t o r a t t e m p t e d a c t i v e l y t o adhere t o t h e s e terms of r e f e r e n c e . When one c o n s i d e r s t h e grade of i n f o r m a t i o n exhange i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g example from the v e r y f i r s t i n q u i r y (August, 1970), i t i s apparent t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r g u i d e l i n e s i f the v e r y r e a l t e c h n i c a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l q u e s t i o n s are t o be answered i n a p u b l i c i n q u i r y . Q. " . . . t h e f i r s t s e ntence a t the t o p of page t h r e e of your b r i e f reads as f o l l o w s : 'The e x c e l l e n c e of the Vancouver water s u p p l y i s due t o the f a c t the l o g g i n g has not been a l l o w e d i n t h e i r watershed.' " P l e a s e i n d i c a t e where t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d , t h i s f a c t . " 71 A. " W e l l , f r a n k l y , from a b u s d r i v e r on a t r i p a c r o s s S t a n l e y P a r k . He s t o o d t h e r e and l o o k e d a c r o s s the water and he s a i d , 'See, t h e r e has been no l o g g i n g i n t h i s watershed.' And then I have read t h i n g s , t o o . But he e x p r e s s l y spoke of the f a c t t h a t l o g g i n g had not been a l l o w e d and t h a t Vancouver had good water. I might be wrong." THE CHAIRMAN: "You answered the q u e s t i o n . Next q u e s t i o n , p l e a s e . " ( T r a n s c r i p t of the P u b l i c I n q u i r y i n t o Waste Management and E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l i n the F o r e s t P r o d u c t s I n d u s t r y , August, 1970, V o l . 8, pp. 360-361) The i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s g e n e r a t e d by t h i s i n q u i r y s t a t e s t h a t : of the s u b m i s s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s i n the f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y , o n l y a few c o n t a i n e d t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and s u g g e s t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n q u i r y terms of r e f e r e n c e , whereas the remainder p r o v i d e d d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s . The b r i e f s c o n t a i n i n g t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n have been d e a l t w i t h i n those c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t i n e n t t o the s e c t i o n s on d i s c h a r g e s t o a i r , l a n d , and water which f o l l o w . The n o n t e c h n i c a l b r i e f s d e a l t m o s t l y w i t h a s p e c t s of p o l l u t i o n which a r e of a s e n s o r y n a t u r e , and which c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l or a e s t h e t i c n u i s a n c e . A number of s u b m i s s i o n s d e a l t w i t h m a t t e r s p e r i p h e r a l t o the terms of r e f e r e n c e of the p u b l i c i n q u i r y , and were o u t s i d e of the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch as p r o v i d e d i n the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t . (p. 8) Yet a t the same t i m e , i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y remarks t o the p r o c e e d i n g s of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g , Mr. V e n a b l e s s t a t e d : "An i n q u i r y i s a s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o m a t t e r s of p u b l i c c o n c e r n and a t t h i s i n q u i r y we i n t e n d t o e x p l o r e the t r u t h and v a l u e judgments i n an attempt t o r e s o l v e the many problems c r e a t e d by the d i s c h a r g e s and e m i s s i o n s from the f o r e s t i n d u s t r i e s , " ( m y emphasis, p. 5 i n t r a n s c r i p t of p r o c e e d i n g s ) . T h i s v e r y i n q u i r y , the f i r s t of the seven, a t t r a c t e d f a r more n o n - t e c h n i c a l i n p u t from a w i d e r v a r i e t y of p a r t i c i p a n t s than any of the subsequent ones have. McPhee (1980) b e l i e v e s 72 t h a t by l i m i t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s o l e l y t o arcane t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , t o t h e e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r a s p e c t s (e.g. s o c i a l , s e n s o r y ) , the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s i s d i s c o u r a g i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of many c i t i z e n s w i t h something t o say about p o l l u t i o n . He t h i n k s t h a t the d e c l i n e i n the number of s u b m i s s i o n s from 39 i n the 1970 f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n q u i r y t o o n l y 8 i n the 1976 f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n q u i r y i s i n p a r t due t o the s e r e s t r i c t i v e terms of r e f e r e n c e . W. Parchomchuk of the Okanagan B a s i n Water Board noted s i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s i n h i s c l o s i n g remarks t o the 1972 I n q u i r y i n t o F o o d - p r o c e s s i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l l y O r i e n t e d , and M i c e l l a n e o u s I n d u s t r i e s : . . . I n o t i c e a l a c k of members p r e s e n t i n g b r i e f s from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , and I s u s p e c t t h a t t h i s i s l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y of d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the g e n e r a l members of the p u b l i c , and t h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . But perhaps maybe f u t u r e I n q u i r i e s c o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o the p u b l i c , a s k i n g them what l e v e l s of water q u a l i t y they would l i k e t o see p r o t e c t e d , and then maybe we can go i n t o the t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o t e c t t h o s e l e v e l s of water q u a l i t y . We have not e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s y e t . We a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , but t o what l e v e l do we want t o implement t h e s e t o p r o t e c t the q u a l i t y t h a t the p u b l i c d e s i r e s , (p. 397 i n t r a n s c r i p t ) 4.1.2 C o m p o s i t i o n of A d i v i s o r y P a n e l s and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board I n d i v i d u a l s and d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s each have t h e i r own p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s and b i a s e s t h a t can o f t e n be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h such f a c t o r s as p e r s o n a l background, e d u c a t i o n , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , and j o b t i e s . For example, we would q u i t e n a t u r a l l y be more s u s p i c i o u s of an i n d i v i d u a l s e t t i n g a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s t a n d a r d f o r an i n d u s t r y t o which he be l o n g e d . 73 Thus, i t i s i l l u m i n a t i n g t o document the c o m p o s i t i o n of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board and the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s t o the Board. As i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter Two, the Board a c t u a l l y s e t s o b j e c t i v e s , w h i l e the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s a s s i s t Board members i n t h i s by f u r n i s h i n g t h e i r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and making recommendations based on the p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s . The P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board used t o c o n s i s t e n t i r e l y of government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , but over the decade more members from the p r i v a t e s e c t o r (or g e n e r a l p u b l i c ) have appeared on i t . A c c o r d i n g t o the l a t e s t a n n u a l r e p o r t of t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y of the Environment (1980), i n June, 1979 C a b i n e t c o n s t i t u t e d a new Board by O r d e r - i n - C o u n c i l . I t i n c l u d e s f i v e government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from " F o r e s t r y , A g r i c u l t u r e , Mines, P u b l i c H e a l t h , and F i s h e r i e s " r e s p e c t i v e l y , and seven members from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c " r e p r e s e n t i n g d i v e r s e backgrounds and i n t e r e s t s i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s . " (B.C. MOE,1980: p. 6 4 ) . The Board c h a i r m a n , Dr. C.J.C. McKenzie, i s a p r o f e s s o r i n the Department of H e a l t h Care and E p i d e m i o l o g y a t UBC. He i s on r e c o r d as s a y i n g : In the f u t u r e i t seems t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l f o l l o w the p a t h of the r e s t of the c o n t i n e n t and a l t e r i t s water systems t o meet s h o r t term commercial needs w i t h o n l y a c u r s o r y nod t o the p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s . . . . T h e F r a s e r D e l t a i s under s y s t e m a t i c d e s t r u c t i o n w i t h o u t any r e a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p o s s i b l e consequences.... W i t h i n a g e n e r a t i o n major w i l d r i v e r s w i l l be gone and B r i t i s h Columbia's w a t e r s w i l l be tame. I t i s t o be hoped t h a t the p r o c e s s can be a c h i e v e d w i t h as much wisdom as i s a v a i l a b l e . There i s not much e v i d e n c e at p r e s e n t t o back t h i s hope.... (Mackenzie, 1980: p. 76) I have broken down the c o m p o s i t i o n of the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s i n s e v e r a l ways t o i n d i c a t e t h e p o s s i b l e range of p e r c e p t i o n s 74 r e p r e s e n t e d by those who make recommendations on p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s . Of 49 a d v i s o r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the seven i n q u i r i e s h e l d so f a r (an average of seven a d v i s o r s per i n q u i r y ) , 16 belonged e i t h e r t o the Branch or Board, w h i l e 33 came from o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y a 1:2 r a t i o . T h i s would i n d i c a t e (though not ensure) a h e a l t h y i n f u s i o n of wider p e r c e p t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s i n t o the p r o c e s s . ( I f a l l of those who s e t o b j e c t i v e s belonged t o the b u r e a u c r a c y t h a t implemented them, we c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y e n t e r t a i n doubts as t o t h e i r o b j e c t i v i t y . ) The 33 p a n e l members who d i d not b e l o n g t o the Branch or the Board u s u a l l y came from o t h e r government a g e n c i e s ( m o s t l y p r o v i n c i a l ) or u n i v e r s i t i e s , and somewhat l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , from the c o n s u l t i n g f i e l d . In no case was an a d v i s o r y p a n e l member from the i n d u s t r y or i n t e r e s t s whose d i s c h a r g e s were under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S e w e l l (1971) has shown t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of an i s s u e or problem can be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i s or her p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e i t i s worth b r e a k i n g down the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s a c c o r d i n g t o p r o f e s s i o n . The wider the range r e p r e s e n t e d , the more c e r t a i n we can be t h a t a h e a l t h y range of v i e w s have been c o n s i d e r e d i n s e t t i n g the o b j e c t i v e s . R e v i e w i n g the seven i n q u i r i e s showed t h a t a d v i s o r y p a n e l s were composed as f o l l o w s : Number Background 25 E n g i n e e r i n g , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , c h e m i c a l 9 B i o l o g i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l 6 Economics 5 H e a l t h 4 o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s 49 75 In each of the seven i n q u i r i e s t h e r e was a t l e a s t one p a n e l member w i t h a b i o l o g i c a l or e c o l o g i c a l background. H e a l t h , economics, and " o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s " backgrounds were somewhat l e s s r e p r e s e n t e d . An overwhelming p r o p o r t i o n ( h a l f ) of the p a n e l members were e n g i n e e r s . 2 Because waste t r e a t m e n t i s a t e c h n i c a l p r o c e s s u s u a l l y demanding an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s and equipment, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t e n g i n e e r s p l a y so i m p o r t a n t a p a r t i n p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . But p o l l u t i o n a l s o i n v o l v e s i m p a c t s , damages, e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , and a c c o r d i n g l y , e c o l o g i s t s , e c o n o m i s t s , and h e a l t h s p e c i a l i s t s can c o n t r i b u t e t o d i s c u s s i o n s on the l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t and water q u a l i t y t h a t a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . The f a c t t h a t e n g i n e e r s , who have the c l e a r e s t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l measures can a c c o m p l i s h , a r e a d e c i s i v e m a j o r i t y , o f f e r s a c l u e as t o the major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s upon which l e v e l s of p o l l u t i o n abatement a r e a c t u a l l y based. 4.1.3 O u t s i d e P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s T a b l e I I I summarizes p a r t i c i p a t i o n by i n q u i r y and f o u r t y p e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the f i r s t f o r e s t s p r o d u c t s i n q u i r y i n 1970 a t t r a c t e d the g r e a t e s t o u t s i d e i n v o l v e m e n t . In p a r t i c u l a r , i t drew the g r e a t e s t number of b r i e f s from concerned groups and i n d i v i d u a l members of the p u b l i c . Whether t h i s i s due t o the a u s p i c i o u s debut of the " e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement" a t the time (and a chance t o p u b l i c l y q u e s t i o n the p r o v i n c e ' s most c o n s p i c u o u s i n d u s t r y ) or t o subsequent d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t w i t h the 76 TABLE I I I PARTICIPATION IN PUBLIC INQUIRIES FP I (1970) MINE I (1972) CHEM (1972) FOOD (1972) MUN (1973) FP I I (1976) MINE I I (1978) Affected Agencies & Dischargers* Consultants Organized Individuals Groups** 8 12 2*** 6 46 1 19 3 21 17 4 33 FP I = 1970 Forest Products MINE I = 1972 Mine, Mine-milling, and Smelting CHEM = 1972 Chemical and Petroleum POOD = 1972 Food-processing, A g r i c u l t u r a l l y Oriented, and Other Miscellaneous•Industries MUN = 1973 Municipal-type Discharges FP I I = 1976 Forest Products MINE I I = 1978 Mining, Smelting and Related Industries •including private firms, i n d u s t r i a l associations, municipal dischargers, and a f f i l i a t e d unions * * c i v i c and environmental groups, unions u n a f f i l i a t e d with dischargers ***one of which was the 500 page Council of Forest Industries b r i e f which "dominated" the Inguiry (McPhee, 1980) 77 i n q u i r y p r o c e s s i s u n c e r t a i n . I have a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d a s p e c t s of the h e a r i n g p r o c e d u r e t h a t may account f o r such a t t r i t i o n . McPhee (1978,1980) and Franson and Lucas (1974) p r o v i d e o t h e r c r i t i c i s m of the p r o c e d u r e s t h a t may l i m i t p u b l i c i n v o l v e m e n t : — The f o r m a l conduct of the h e a r i n g s and the p o l i s h e d s k i l l s of some p r o f e s s i o n a l s can be v e r y i n t i m i d a t i n g t o " o r d i n a r y p e o p l e . " One p a r t i c i p a n t t o whom I spoke remembered v e r y v i v i d l y how " f o r m i d a b l e " the s e t t i n g was. As McPhee (1978) remarks: "The n a t u r e of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board h e a r i n g s r e q u i r e s t h a t a group of i n d i v i d u a l s be knowledgeable of t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , be a b l e t o a r t i c u l a t e o p i n i o n s , and be a b l e t o handle c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . " (p. 241) -- U n t i l the two most r e c e n t i n q u i r i e s , no i n f o r m a t i o n was made a v a i l a b l e b e forehand (except f o r the t e r s e l y worded p u b l i c n o t i c e s ) t o a l l o w members of the p u b l i c t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d have more p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d the range of p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d by the i n q u i r y or have d e s c r i b e d the Branch's or Board's own t h i n k i n g on the matter (Franson and L u c a s , 1974). I n s t e a d , p a r t i c i p a n t s went i n " c o l d " . No f u n d i n g has been made a v a i l a b l e t o a s s i s t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of b r i e f s (McPhee, 1980). I n d u s t r i e s , on the o t h e r hand, have f u n d i n g , t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e , and d a t a . T h i s mismatch between those a r g u i n g f o r t i g h t e r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and t h o s e presumably a r g u i n g f o r l i g h t e r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s r e f l e c t e d i n the q u a l i t y of b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d . I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the p a n e l would pay as much a t t e n t i o n t o a b r i e f demanding s t r i c t e r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n p r i n c i p l e than t o one packed w i t h hard i n f o r m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l measures. On t h e o t h e r hand, the O b j e c t i v e s do not s i m p l y p l a c e an o f f i c i a l stamp of a p p r o v a l on performance s t a n d a r d s suggested i n the b r i e f s of d i s c h a r g e r s , s i m p l y because they seem more a u t h o r i t a t i v e . F i n a l i z e d O b j e c t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y d i v e r g e d from recommendations by d i s c h a r g e r s t o the I n q u i r y p a n e l . The chairman of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s on the I n q u i r y i n t o Food-p r o c e s s i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l l y O r i e n t e d , and M i s c e l l a n e o u s Indus-t r i e s was u n d i s t u r b e d t h a t not a s i n g l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t e d : . . . I have noted t h a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s and a s s o c i a t i o n s from the p u b l i c s e c t o r have not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s I n q u i r y . However, h a v i n g r e g a r d f o r the complex and t e c h n i c a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r s d e a l t w i t h by the I n q u i r i e s , we a r r a n g e d f o r a p a n e l of h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d and competent 78 p e r s o n s who a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p u b l i c i n the t r u e sense, i n t h a t they a r e remunerated from the p u b l i c p u r s e , and thus r e s p o n s i b l e t o the p u b l i c . (p.482) I t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t i n some of the i n q u i r i e s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the a f f e c t e d d i s c h a r g e r s themselves was poor. T h i s i s somewhat s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e the O b j e c t i v e s emerging from an i n q u i r y c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y have a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on an i n d u s t r y ' s c o s t s . To c o n c l u d e , p r o c e d u r e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s have h e a v i l y f a v o u r e d the t e c h n i c a l l y i n f o r m e d , when the q u e s t i o n i s r e a l l y one t h a t depends a t l e a s t as much on p u b l i c v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s as on t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . To d a t e , s u b m i s s i o n s by those o u t s i d e government e x p r e s s i n g " e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a l u e s " have p r o b a b l y not i n f l u e n c e d d e c i s i o n -making t o any e x t e n t . T h i s i s not t o suggest t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s a r e i g n o r e d a l t o g e t h e r , but t h a t p a n e l , D i r e c t o r , and Board a r e p r o b a b l y g u i d e d much more by what might be c a l l e d i m p l i c i t v a l u e s . 4.1.4 The B a s i s of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s Two f a c t o r s deserve e x a m i n a t i o n h e r e . The f i r s t i s the s e t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s upon which a c t u a l e f f l u e n t and r e c e i v i n g water o b j e c t i v e s a r e based. I f a BOD l i m i t f o r an i n d u s t r y i s 100 mg/1, why i s i t not 50 mg/1 or 200 mg/1? I s 100 mg/1 the l e v e l a t which d i s c h a r g e s of a g i v e n volume w i l l not a p p r e c i a b l y harm a q u a t i c l i f e i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of an o u t f a l l , r e g a r d l e s s of the c o s t t o d i s c h a r g e r ? I s i t what "best a v a i l a b l e t e c h n o l o g y " i s c a p a b l e of d e l i v e r i n g ? I s i t what a f f o r d a b l y p r i c e d (not n e c e s s a r i l y most e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g oxygen 79 demand) equipment w i l l r e s u l t i n ? The q u e s t i o n of co n c e r n here i s which of these t a k e s precedence i n s e t t i n g down s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s . The second f a c t o r i s the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o l l e c t e d and e v a l u a t e d i n making d e c i s i o n s on the above c r i t e r i a . What a r e the s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and how are they tapped? How adequate i s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n i l l u s t r a t i n g the consequences of d e c i s i o n s based on i t ? T h i s s u b - s e c t i o n b r i e f l y examines t h i s f a c t o r and the f i r s t one, i n s o f a r as t r a n s c r i p t s of h e a r i n g s and the memories of p a n e l members w i l l p e r m i t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s — A s mentioned i n Chapter Two, the Board and D i r e c t o r have r e g a r d e d knowledge as too l i m i t e d t o warrant a s e r i o u s attempt a t s e t t i n g ambient water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . " D e t a i l e d o b j e c t i v e s cannot be p r e p a r e d a t t h i s time due t o the c o m p l e x i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n s among the parameters which d e f i n e a body of r e c e i v i n g w a t e r . Parameters may a l s o be dependent on s i t e l o c a t i o n s , " (B.C. Water Resources S e r v i c e , 1975: p.25). The g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e h i n d the s i m p l e g u i d e l i n e s s e t i s v e r y s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d : "Minimum change from background or n a t u r a l v a l u e s i s d e s i r a b l e . . . " Each p a n e l i s t i n t e r v i e w e d would o n l y say t h a t a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u n d e r l i e the e f f l u e n t O b j e c t i v e s : a b i l i t y of d i s c h a r g e r s t o ab s o r b c o s t s and s t i l l m a i n t a i n p r o f i t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of t e c h n o l o g y , l e v e l s shown by e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o be a c u t e l y t o x i c t o f i s h , h e a l t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , a e s t h e t i c s . They c o u l d not or would not say t h a t any of t h e s e or o t h e r s had o v e r r i d i n g v a l u e . I t can be s a i d t h a t "best a v a i l a b l e 80 t e c h n o l o g y " , r e g a r d l e s s of c o s t , i s not g e n e r a l l y the c h i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i n c o n t r a s t t o c e r t a i n e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s i n the U.S. Only measures e n t a i l i n g what were r e g a r d e d as r e a s o n a b l e expenses were c o n s i d e r e d . There seem t o be a p r i o r i , u n s t a t e d , i n v i o l a b l e v a l u e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e , perhaps, the "bottom l i n e " i n s e t t i n g a c c e p t a b l e e f f l u e n t c r i t e r i a . They would a v o i d b e i n g s e t so h i g h as t o s e r i o u s l y t a x an i n d u s t r y ' s p r o f i t a b i l i t y . They would a v o i d so low a l e v e l as t o p e r m i t s e r i o u s , l o n g - t e r m d e g r a d a t i o n of water q u a l i t y over wide a r e a s . A key assumption i s t h a t "adequate" l e v e l s of c o n t r o l can be a c h i e v e d a t " r e a s o n a b l e " c o s t s . (To my knowledge, t h e r e has never been a permanent p l a n t c l o s u r e because of r e q u i r e m e n t s i t h o n e s t l y c o u l d not meet. I f t h e r e a r e g e n u i n e l y s e r i o u s problems i n meeting a p e r m i t , the Branch has always backed o f f , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the f e a r of economic d i s r u p t i o n exceeds the f e a r of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s r u p t i o n . ) W i t h i n t h i s range, judgement, guesswork , and n e g o t i a t i o n come i n t o p l a y . N e i t h e r p a n e l s nor the Board e x p l i c i t l y c o n s t r u e the t a s k of o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g as one of f i n d i n g the p o i n t where the c u r v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s of c o n t r o l and m a r g i n a l c o s t s of c o n t r o l a c t u a l l y c r o s s . I n f o r m a t i o n A c q u i s i t o n -- R e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s of s e v e r a l s o r t s : p l a n t o p e r a t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s , a v a i l a b i l i t y of abatement t e c h n o l o g y and i t s c o s t s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n s and p r o c e s s a l t e r a t i o n s t o reduce waste (as opposed t o t r e a t i n g i t ) , e f f l u e n t p r o p e r t i e s u n t r e a t e d and under a l l t r e a t m e n t o p t i o n s , e f f e c t s of e f f l u e n t parameters on water q u a l i t y p a r a m e t e r s , 81 e f f e c t s of changes i n water q u a l i t y parameters on a q u a t i c l i f e , v i s u a l a e s t h e t i c s , odours, c o n t a c t r e c r e a t i o n , e t c . The two ways of a c q u i r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a r e t h r ough the s u b m i s s i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n h e a r i n g s and t h r o u g h the p a n e l members' own e x p e r t i s e and l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h . No o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h i s c onducted t o f i l l i n f o r m a t i o n gaps i d e n t i f i e d i n the c o u r s e of an i n q u i r y ( a l t h o u g h the Branch i s always c o l l e c t i n g and s t o r i n g background e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n ) . In the p r o c e e d i n g s of the I n q u i r y i n t o the F o o d - p r o c e s s i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l y - o r i e n t e d , and M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n d u s t r i e s , t h e r e were s u r p r i s i n g l y s m a l l amounts of u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n " t e c h n i c a l " b r i e f s s u b m i t t e d by i n d u s t r i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . Such b r i e f s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n s and p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s , p o l l u t i o n - g e n e r a t i n g p r o c e s s e s , e x i s t i n g p o l l u t i o n abatement p r a c t i c e s , e s t i m a t e d volumes of d i s c h a r g e , and sometimes, e f f l u e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, i t i s a v a i l a b l e abatement t e c h n o l o g y and p r a c t i c e s , t h e i r c o s t s , and the e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y they d e l i v e r t h a t a r e most u s e f u l t o the p a n e l i n s e t t i n g g e n e r a l e f f l u e n t o b j e c t i v e s . The economic f e a s i b i l i t y of c o n t r o l measures, a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r , was d i s c u s s e d o n l y v a g u e l y . Beyond c l a i m s of " l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s " , i n d u s t r i e s ( u n d e r s t a n d a b l y ) never d i s c l o s e d any f i n a n c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n d e t a i l e d enough t o a l l o w independent, s e r i o u s e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a bsorb p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e x p e n d i t u r e s . The l i m i t e d v a l u e of much of the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the f o l l o w i n g example: Q: ...you s t a t e t h a t r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y i s not 82 c o n s i d e r e d i m p a i r e d a t p r e s e n t , i n terms of metal f i n i s h i n g wastes. How do you a r r i v e a t t h i s statement? Have you been m o n i t o r i n g l o c a l water c o u r s e s , t o see, i n f a c t , t h a t water q u a l i t y has not been i m p a i r e d by metal f i n i s h i n g wastes? A: T h i s statement i s based on the l i m i t e d amount of d a t a a v a i l a b l e , t h a t we were a b l e t o o b t a i n , and i s g i v e n e l s e w h e r e i n the { s u b m i s s i o n } . Q: I s t h a t the d a t a r e f e r r e d t o on page 52? A: No, i t i s g i v e n e l s e w h e r e . I t i s g i v e n on page 34, where d a t a had been a v a i l a b l e f o r l e v e l s of copper, chromium, and n i c k e l a t two p o i n t s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r . Q: So then your water q u a l i t y d a t a i s l i m i t e d t o t h r e e m e t a l s a t two s t a t i o n s on one water c o u r s e ? A: That i s c o r r e c t . Q: Do you f e e l t h a t t h i s amount of d a t a j u s t i f i e s your statement t h a t r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s have not been im p a i r e d ? A: I t j u s t i f i e s the statement on the b a s i s of the d a t a a v a i l a b l e , t h a t we were a b l e t o o b t a i n a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . Q: Are t h e r e heavy m e t a l s o t h e r than c o p p e r , chromium and n i c k e l i n your e f f l u e n t s ? A: Yes t h e r e a r e . Q: And do you have any r e c e i v i n g water d a t a r e l a t i v e t o the s e o t h e r heavy m e t a l s ? A: No. (pp. 196-197) As w e l l as i l l u s t r a t i n g the v a l u e of c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , t h i s example shows, by the t y p e s of q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , how l i t t l e p a n e l i s t s a c t u a l l y know about the d e t a i l s of the o p e r a t i o n s whose d i s c h a r g e s they a r e e v a l u a t i n g . I t appears t h a t the h e a r i n g s a r e u s e f u l i n f a m i l i a r i z i n g p a n e l i s t s w i t h t h e i r s u b j e c t , but t h a t a c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e d i s c h a r g e l e v e l s o c c u r s a f t e r w a r d . One group of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s , a c t i n g on t h e i r own 83 b e h a l f , s t u d i e d a number of i n d u s t r i e s under r e v i e w by t h i s I n q u i r y and p r e p a r e d a l e n g t h y b r i e f which was c o n s i d e r e d and c r i t i c i z e d a t l e n g t h i n c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n . As the group's d i r e c t o r p o i n t e d out however, they c o u l d spend o n l y l i m i t e d time and money on t h e i r r e s e a r c h , f o r i t was s t r i c t l y v o l u n t e e r . In a d d i t i o n , they were hampered i n t h e i r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n : ... since-we were not a c t i n g on b e h a l f of any i n d u s t r y , when we were' c o l l e c t i n g the d a t a , we, i n q u i t e a few c a s e s , weren't r e c e i v e d a l l t h a t w e l l . In f a c t , we were t o l d by some t o go away and s t a y away. But on the o t h e r hand, we d i d , i n a l l c a s e s , r e c e i v e v e r y good r e c e p t i o n from some members of every one of the groups, (p. 442) S i n c e the h e a r i n g s i n t h i s i n q u i r y p r o v i d e d l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n d i r e c t l y p e r t i n e n t t o e s t a b l i s h i n g s p e c i f i c n u m e r i c a l v a l u e s f o r e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y f o r each type of o p e r a t i o n (of which t h e r e were more than a dozen v e r y d i v e r s e ones, from t a n n e r i e s t o l a u n d r o m a t s ) , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t such i n f o r m a t i o n had t o be sought i n the p a n e l ' s own l i t e r a t u r e r e s e a r c h . As I was i n f o r m e d by one p a n e l i s t from the v e r y f i r s t i n q u i r y , s i n c e t hey a r e a l l " e x p e r t s " i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s , they are a l r e a d y supposed t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e . Each p a n e l i s t i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t they used the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s done elsewhere i n Canada and the w o r l d , and t h a t they knew what e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s i n o t h e r a r e a s were. 4.2 A C r i t i q u e 4.2.1 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n The f i r s t s u b - c r i t e r i o n i s posed by the q u e s t i o n : Do the p u b l i c i n q u r i e s s e t o b j e c t i v e s on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n 84 n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d the b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of g i v e n c o n t r o l l e v e l s ? A s i m p l e "yes" or "no" answer w i l l not s u f f i c e . I t i s a l o g i c a l approach t o employ an a d v i s o r y p a n e l of s p e c i a l i s t s t o study the s i t u a t i o n and recommend o b j e c t i v e s , as was done. I t i s a l s o d e s i r a b l e t o i n c l u d e s p e c i a l i s t s from d i f f e r e n t d i s c i p l i n e s when c o n s i d e r i n g i s s u e s as m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y as those r a i s e d by c o n t r o l of p o l l u t i o n , and the p r o c e s s a l s o endeavored t o do t h i s . In view of the emphasis of the i n q u i r i e s on c o n t r o l l i n g e f f l u e n t , the preponderance of e n g i n e e r s was not i n a p p r o p r i a t e . ( C r i t i c i s m of the v i r t u a l n e g l e c t of ambient water q u a l i t y g o a l s i s made els e w h e r e . ) I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t s i n c e p a n e l i s t s were e x p e r t s i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s , they were a l s o c o g n i z a n t of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e elsewhere t h a t would be i m p o r t a n t i n s e t t i n g l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t c o n t r o l , but I cannot a f f i r m t h i s r i g o u r o u s l y . The i n f o r m a t i o n s u b m i t t e d by B.C. d i s c h a r g e r s themselves o f t e n was not such as t o p e r m i t s e t t i n g s p e c i f i c n u m e r i c a l l e v e l s of waste removal on the b a s i s of e s t i m a t e s of b e n e f i t s and c o s t s . The sometimes e l e m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s asked by p a n e l i s t s of i n d u s t r y spokesmen d u r i n g c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n i n d i c a t e d an u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r s of the o p e r a t i o n s under r e v i e w . T h i s f u r t h e r f u e l s the s u s p i c i o n t h a t o u t s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s and e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s from o t h e r a r e a s must have s u p p l i e d most of the b a s i s f o r the l e v e l s chosen. (These o p i n i o n s a r e based on the p r o c e e d i n g s of the F o o d - p r o c e s s i n g , A g r i c u l t u r a l l y o r i e n t e d , and o t h e r M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n d u s t r i e s I n q u i r y . I t may be t h a t the g r e a t e r s i z e of i n d u s t r i e s c o v e r e d by o t h e r i n q u i r i e s p e r m i t t e d them t o 85 submit more u s e f u l d a t a . I t may be t h a t the g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y or prominence of t h e s e same i n d u s t r i e s — i f t h i s i s the c a s e -made p o s s i b l e a g r e a t e r degree of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s by p a n e l i s t s . ) In t h e o r y , we say t h a t an e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s h o u l d be s e t a t a l e v e l where m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s and c o s t s of abatement a r e j u s t e q u a l . Cost can u s u a l l y be computed i n d o l l a r s as the c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g expenses of the c o n t r o l measures used. The b e n e f i t s however, of s e r v i c e s o b t a i n e d by some h i g h e r degree of water q u a l i t y r e s u l t i n g from, say, r e d u c i n g a BOD e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d from 200 t o 50 mg/1 p r e s e n t s a much more complex problem. Yet any one i n q u i r y must p e r f o r m l i t e r a l l y dozens or hundreds of such m i n i b e n e f i t / c o s t a n a l y s e s . To get around the i n s u p e r a b l e problems of c a l c u l a t i n g b e n e f i t s p r e c i s e l y , i t seems t h a t p a n e l s have p r o b a b l y used the l e v e l s of waste r e d u c t i o n t h emselves as p r o x i e s of the b e n e f i t s t o be o b t a i n e d by a type of waste c o n t r o l . That i s , the BOD of 50 mg/1 i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more d e s i r a b l e than (though not n e c e s s a r i l y f o u r times as) a BOD of 200 mg/1. I f i t i s a c h e i v a b l e a t some " r e a s o n a b l e " or a f f o r d a b l e p r i c e , then i t might be s e t as a l e v e l . T h i s s u b s t i t u t e f o r s e r i o u s b e n e f i t / c o s t a n a l y s i s i s p r o b a b l y u n a v o i d a b l e g i v e n the r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o the e f f o r t t o s e t o b j e c t i v e s . What i_s wrong i s t h a t nowhere i s t h e r e an e x p l i c i t d i s c u s s i o n of what the o b j e c t i v e s a r e a c t u a l l y based on. "These o b j e c t i v e s have been f o r m u l a t e d on the b a s i s of e c o l o g i c a l , h e a l t h , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s from i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o the a d v i s o r y p a n e l as w e l l as from the i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d at the i n q u i r y , " ( V e n a b l e s , 1975). 86 T h i s i s t o t a l l y inadequate f o r those who w i s h t o know, f o r example, i f c o s t s a c t u a l l y t a k e f i r s t p r i o r i t y , or why many B.C. e f f l u e n t o b j e c t i v e s a r e not as s t r i n g e n t as t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s . These a r e r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s f o r which no answers a r e p r o v i d e d . There i s a f u r t h e r problem i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n . Knowing the c o s t of c o n t r o l measures a l o n e i s not enough, because what i s r e a l l y i m p o r t a n t i s the e f f e c t of t h i s c o s t on the d i s c h a r g e r who must bear i t . I t i s a well-known f a c t t h a t f i r m s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o r e v e a l t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s t a t u s and y e t t h i s must be known t o e s t i m a t e the impact of g i v e n c o n t r o l measures on t h e i r p r o f i t a b i l i t y . No i n d u s t r i a l b r i e f s u p p l i e d any such i n f o r m a t i o n t o the " F o o d - p r o c e s s i n g . . . " I n q u i r y . No p r o p e r assessment of i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i s i t i o n i n B.C.'s p r o c e s s f o r s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s can examine o n l y one i n q u i r y , f o r the p r o c e s s as a whole i s i n t e n d e d as an ongoing s e r i e s of i n q u i r i e s , each of which b u i l d s upon the i n f o r m a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e accumulated s i n c e the p r e v i o u s one. T h i s e x p r e s s l y a d a p t i v e a pproach, i f f o l l o w e d , i s a good one, as i t encourages r e a d j u s t m e n t i n the f a c e of u n c e r t a i n t y and changes i n t e c h n o l o g y , c o s t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , and p u b l i c p r i o r i t i e s . I d e a l l y , p o l i t i c i a n s and c i v i l s e r v a n t s a r e a b l e t o gauge ( a l b e i t r o u g h l y ) from the response of i n d u s t r y and p u b l i c and from s c i e n t i f i c s t u d i e s how c l o s e l y the o b j e c t i v e s come t o a p p r o x i m a t i n g o p t i m a l or a p p r o p r i a t e water q u a l i t y l e v e l s . Whether we have the t i m e , and the F r a s e r R i v e r the r e s i l i e n c e , t o meander towards a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l l e v e l s i s a moot p o i n t . 87 FRES water q u a l i t y s t u d i e s p r e s s f o r a c t i o n on some f r o n t s but suggest c a u t i o n on o t h e r s i n v o l v i n g c o s t l y i n v e s t m e n t s . In answer t o the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n of whether the i n f o r m a t i o n needed i s a c t u a l l y p r o c u r e d , the answer i s " o n l y p a r t i a l l y " . In answer t o the c o r o l l a r y of whether improvement i s p o s s i b l e , the answer i s a q u a l i f i e d " y e s " , t o be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Seven. The second s u b - c r i t e r i o n a s k s whether o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g updated. As the o r i g i n a l round of f i v e i n q u i r i e s was h e l d between 1970 and 1973, by now a l l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s s h o u l d have r e c e i v e d t h e i r f i r s t r e v i e w s , i f the suggested f i v e year i n t e r v a l were adopted. In f a c t , o n l y two have: f o r e s t p r o d u c t s and m i n i n g - s m e l t i n g . One hopes t h i s r e p r e s e n t s o n l y a d i s c o v e r y t h a t f i v e y e a r s i s not enough time t o t e s t the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of promulgated O b j e c t i v e s , and not l e s s of a commitment t o the p r i n c i p l e of feedback and r e v i s i o n . 4.2.2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s Do the p r o c e d u r e s encourage e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s ? No, f o r a t l e a s t the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1) a h i g h l y f o r m a l s e t t i n g t h a t a l l but e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s would f i n d i n t i m i d a t i n g , 2) terms of r e f e r e n c e t h a t l i m i t d i s c u s s i o n t o " t e c h n i c a l " m a t t e r s , 3) the l a c k of m a t e r i a l s d i s t r i b u t e d b e f o r e h a n d t h a t c o u l d have b r i e f e d p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s and e l i m i n a t e d some c o n f u s i o n as t o the purpose of the h e a r i n g s , 4) the apparent l a c k of an e f f o r t t o a c t i v e l y s o l i c i t b r i e f s from p u b l i c groups and some i n d u s t r i e s , 5) the l a c k of f u n d i n g or compensation f o r i n t e r e s t groups, who are f a r out-competed by i n d u s t r y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r e p a r e and p r e s e n t b r i e f s . Few v o l u n t e e r s can a f f o r d a week's l e a v e of 88 absence t o even a t t e n d the h e a r i n g s , no l e s s p r e p a r e f o r and t r a v e l t o them. In h o l d i n g l e s s f o r m a l meetings i n s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s around the p r o v i n c e , the two most r e c e n t i n q u i r i e s have shown some s i g n of improvement. In one i n q u i r y , however, f u n d i n g s h o r t a g e s c u r t a i l e d the programme soon a f t e r i t s t a r t e d and i n the o t h e r t u r n o u t appears t o have been poor. In sum, i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the " p u b l i c " i n q u i r i e s t o date have e x i s t e d f a r more f o r the purpose of exchanging t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n than f o r e n c o u r a g i n g the p u b l i c t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p o l i c y - s e t t i n g . The i n q u i r i e s made no e x p l i c i t attempt t o connect the v a l u e p r e f e r e n c e s of the p u b l i c t o e i t h e r e f f l u e n t or water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . Nor, I am t o l d by a d v i s o r y p a n e l i s t s , d i d C a b i n e t ever o u t l i n e t o i n q u i r i e s p r e c i s e l y what water q u a l i t y g o a l s i t wanted e f f l u e n t c o n t r o l s t o pursue. Beyond l o f t y motherhood g o a l s l i k e , " p r e s e r v i n g water q u a l i t y a t the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e l e v e l s , " t h e r e i s no p o l i t i c a l mandate. Without one, and w i t h o u t h a v i n g reached d i r e c t l y t o the p u b l i c f o r an e x p r e s s i o n of p r e f e r e n c e s , we might say t h e r e i s a " m i s s i n g l i n k " i n the way B.C.'s o b j e c t i v e s f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a r e s e t . O b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g s e t a c c o r d i n g t o what c i v i l s e r v a n t s , s c i e n t i s t s , and e n g i n e e r s t h i n k they s h o u l d be, or what they b e l i e v e the p u b l i c would t h i n k they s h o u l d be i f asked. We can o n l y hope they a r e r i g h t . 89 Notes t o Chapter Four 1 Such n o t i c e s a r e p l a c e d i n the c l a s s i f i e d l e g a l ads s e c t i o n , however, where they do not r e c e i v e any prominence. 2 Two p a n e l members who were b i o l o g i s t s b o th s a i d the presence of a m a j o r i t y of e n g i n e e r s , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s , d i d not c o l o u r group i n t e r a c t i o n s , or d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n away from e c o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s . Chapter F i v e 90 ISSUING PERMITS—THE REAL WORLD Most but not a l l of the m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s c h a p t e r and the next was g a t h e r e d from WMB p e r m i t f i l e s over a f o u r or f i v e week p e r i o d i n the f a l l of 1980. My reason f o r s t r e s s i n g r e l i a n c e on t h i s s ource i s t h a t i t might have i n f l u e n c e d the b a s i c i m p r e s s i o n s I have o b t a i n e d . As Downs (1967) has s t a t e d , f o r m a l communication i s not n e a r l y as c a n d i d or r e v e a l i n g as i n f o r m a l communication. (None of us speaks as h o n e s t l y t o s t r a n g e r s or bosses as t o f r i e n d s . ) Government f i l e s , which as permanent r e c o r d s a r e a form of s e m i - f o r m a l communication, may not t e l l t he f u l l s t o r y . For example, one former PCB t e c h n i c i a n ( i n a r e g i o n o u t s i d e the Lower M a i n l a n d ) , t o l d me t h a t he s i m p l y had t o " f a k e i t " e v e r y so o f t e n d u r i n g i n s p e c t i o n s of f a c i l i t i e s . Yet the r e p o r t s he p r e p a r e d t h a t a r e p r o b a b l y s t i l l on f i l e do not r e f l e c t t h i s i n a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n s p e c t a p e r m i t t e e ' s r e a l performance, at l e a s t not t o a c a s u a l o b s e r v e r . The f i n a l r e p o r t of the F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e , a p p o i n t e d by the M i n i s t r y of Environment i n 1980 t o p a t r o l the r i v e r f o r s i x months and e n f o r c e the A c t , commented t h a t : "The teams would encounter major v i o l a t i o n s which were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e y e t would observe no r e c o r d of the non-compliances....Three days a f t e r the team v i s i t e d one s i t e , two Waste Management Branch s t a f f members v i s i t e d the same s i t e and r e p o r t e d no v i o l a t i o n s , " (Ackerman and C l a p p , 1980). 91 5.1 F i n d i n g s P e r m i t i s s u i n g p r o c e d u r e s and the m o n i t o r i n g and enforcement of c o n t r o l measures cannot be d e l i n e a t e d i n p r a c t i s e as n e a t l y as my o u t l i n e might s u g g e s t . Enforcement does not always f o l l o w p e r m i t i s s u a n c e , as i n c a s e s , f o r example, where a d i s c h a r g e u n a u t h o r i z e d by p e r m i t i s d e t e c t e d . T h i s c h a p t e r and the next t h u s c o v e r o v e r l a p p i n g t e r r i t o r y . 5.1.1 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of A c t i v i t i e s R e q u i r i n g P e r m i t s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Act over a p e r i o d of y e a r s has c l a r i f i e d which a c t i o n s or d i s c h a r g e s f a l l w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o r , i n o t h e r words, what q u a l i f y as " c o n t a m i n a n t s " , the d i s p o s a l of which r e q u i r e p e r m i t s from the D i r e c t o r . My own i n v e s t i g a t i o n d i d not r e v e a l a l a r g e "gray a r e a " of a c t i v i t i e s whose s t a t u s as p o l l u t i o n - g e n e r a t i n g i s u n c e r t a i n or d i s p u t e d . 1 S i n c e the 1967 A c t c o n t r o l s many more a c t i v i t i e s than the 1956 A c t d i d , i t was n e c e s s a r y a t f i r s t t o d e v i s e a procedure by which a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s as w e l l as new ones would be brought under p e r m i t . The f i r s t v e r s i o n s of the A c t c a l l e d f o r a l l d i s c h a r g e s e x i s t i n g b e f o r e J a n u a r y , 1970 t o r e g i s t e r w i t h the D i r e c t o r by December 31, 1970. The Branch c o u l d then proceed t o i s s u e p e r m i t s t o a p r i o r i z e d l i s t of r e g i s t e r e d d i s c h a r g e r s . Branch o f f i c i a l s had e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 8,000 and 10,000 d i s c h a r g e r s would be r e q u i r e d t o r e g i s t e r . (Another survey i n d i c a t e d about 2100 e f f l u e n t and s o l i d waste d i s c h a r g e r s , and a c c o r d i n g t o Franson et a l . (1976), the reason f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y was never c l a r i f i e d . ) However, by O c t o b e r , 1970, the Branch had r e c e i v e d o n l y 125 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r 92 r e g i s t r a t i o n . 2 The A c t was not amended i n 1971 t o e x t e n d the r e g i s t r a t i o n d e a d l i n e , so t h a t i n 1971 thousands of waste d i s c h a r g e r s were not i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the law. (No p r o s e c u t i o n s were ever u ndertaken (Good, 1971). In 1972 the l e g i s l a t u r e extended the d e a d l i n e f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n t o March, 1972 (Franson e t a l . , 1976).) I t seems f a i r t o say t h a t by 1980, v i r t u a l l y no l a r g e d i s c h a r g e r s a r e unaware of the need f o r a p e r m i t b e f o r e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s commence. However, problems remain w i t h numerous s m a l l o p e r a t i o n s c l a i m i n g no knowledge of the need f o r a p e r m i t (Wong, 1980), p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e d i s p o s i n g of hog f u e l (or woodwaste) from the many s a w m i l l s i n the v a l l e y , or o t h e r s o l i d w a stes. A r e f u s e p e r m i t from the Branch i s r e q u i r e d even when u s i n g s o l i d waste as f i l l m a t e r i a l i n p r e p a r i n g a s i t e f o r development. In a t h r e e month s u r v e y , Gough and Moore (1980) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t u n a u t h o r i z e d ( i l l e g a l ) hog f u e l f i l l s c o v e r e d 6-8 h e c t a r e s (15-20 a c r e s ) i n the South Westminster a r e a of S u r r e y a l o n e . (When exposed t o water, hog f u e l g e n e r a t e s a l e a c h a t e h i g h l y t o x i c t o a q u a t i c l i f e . ) In 1980, a f t e r a good d e a l of c r i t i c i s m from the p r e s s and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s , the Branch's Lower M a i n l a n d Region r e t a i n e d a t e c h n i c i a n whose f u l l - t i m e duty e v e n t u a l l y became the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of u n p e r m i t t e d hog f u e l f i l l and d i s p o s a l s i t e s . 3 M o n i t o r i n g a busy r e g i o n ' s m a n i f o l d a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l p o t e n t i a l p o l l u t e r s i s an i m p o s s i b l y l a r g e j o b w i t h o u t o u t s i d e a s s i s t a n c e . The Branch i s f r e q u e n t l y a l e r t e d t o problems by c i t i z e n s or o t h e r a g e n c i e s . In l a t e 1975, the D e l t a E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l O f f i c e began r e c e i v i n g t e l e p h o n e c o m p l a i n t s about an odour emanating from a 93 f i l l on the p r o p e r t y of V i t o S t e e l Boat & Barge C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . (Subsequent i n v e s t i g a t i o n showed a t o x i c l e a c h a t e a c c u m u l a t i n g i n a d i t c h d r a i n i n g d i r e c t l y t o the F r a s e r . The sou r c e of the problem was gyproc waste o b t a i n e d from Domtar C o n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l s and used as a f i l l m a t e r i a l . ) A l e t t e r from the owner t o E. Adams of D e l t a E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l d a t e d March 12, 1976 s t a t e d i n p a r t : "We d i d not r e a l i z e the f i l l we were d e p o s i t i n g , which c o n s i s t e d s o l e l y of d r y w a l l , sand and r e d cedar bark, would pose a problem such as t h i s , and we a r e v e r y s o r r y i t has happened." They had no p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t . Adams informed the PCB of the problem e a r l y i n 1976. T h e i r i n i t i a l response was t w o - f o l d . F i r s t , a c c o r d i n g t o a summary document of D e l t a ' s f i l e on the s u b j e c t , "EPS and D e l t a a d v i s e d by t e l e p h o n e t h a t PCB w i l l h a n d l e the l e a c h a t e problem." Second, i n a l e t t e r t o V i t o S t e e l , d a t e d March 11, 1976, the Branch s t a t e d : " D i s p o s a l of r e f u s e w i t h o u t a P e r m i t or A p p r o v a l i s c o n t r a r y t o the terms of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967 ... we a d v i s e you t o i m m e d i a t e l y cease d i s c h a r g i n g r e f u s e w i t h o u t a P e r m i t . . . P l e a s e a d v i s e our o f f i c e by March 17, 1976 on what a c t i o n you i n t e n d t o ta k e on removing the accumulated r e f u s e or c o n t r o l l i n g the l e a c h a t e problem now p r e s e n t . " T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s what i s perhaps a t y p i c a l i n i t i a l r esponse t o the d i s c o v e r y of an u n a u t h o r i z e d d i s c h a r g e . The v i o l a t o r i s c o n t a c t e d and p o l i t e l y but f i r m l y asked (though not "ordered") t o conform t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of the A c t . Another a c t i v i t y sometimes b e l i e v e d t o el u d e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s i s the i l l i c i t d i s p o s a l of p o r t a b l e l i q u i d w astes. I found no consensus as t o the s e r i o u s n e s s of t h i s so-94 c a l l e d " midnight dumping" problem, whereby some tank t r u n k s a l l e g e d l y d i s p o s e of t h e i r l o a d s (sometimes c o n t a i n i n g v e r y hazardous m a t e r i a l s ) i n t o storm, or s a n i t a r y sewers, or d i r e c t l y i n t o waterways. The f i l e on Maple Ridge (PE-77) c o n t a i n e d r e p o r t s of i n c i d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g i l l e g a l d i s p o s a l of s e p t i c tank wastes. In t h i s c a s e , and presumably i n o t h e r s , o u t s i d e i n f o r m a n t s a l e r t e d the R e g i o n a l O f f i c e t o the problem. T h i s and the p r e v i o u s examples document the importance of an i n f o r m a t i o n network e x t e n d i n g w e l l beyond the Branch's own s t a f f i n d e t e c t i n g p o l l u t i o n . 5.1.2 I n i t i a t i o n of A p p l i c a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s By d e f a u l t , the Act and R e g u l a t i o n s l e a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e p e r m i t up t o the p r o s p e c t i v e d i s c h a r g e r . The d i s c h a r g e r can c o n t a c t the n e a r e s t r e g i o n a l o f f i c e f o r the n e c e s s a r y a p p l i c a t i o n forms and r e t u r n them completed t o the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e or V i c t o r i a head o f f i c e . In p r a c t i c e , t h i s p r o c e s s does not always work a c c o r d i n g t o the above sequence. On o c c a s i o n , as the l a s t s u b - s e c t i o n n o t e d , Branch o f f i c i a l s d i s c o v e r e x i s t i n g u n a u t h o r i z e d d i s c h a r g e s . R a t h e r - t h a n p r o s e c u t i n g , they attempt t o e n l i s t the d i s c h a r g e r ' s c o o p e r a t i o n i n c o m p l y i n g w i t h the A c t . I t i s p r o b a b l y f a i r t o say t h a t l a r g e o p e r a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l , have a b e t t e r r e c o r d than s m a l l ones i n a d h e r i n g t o f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e i n the p r o c e s s of a p p l y i n g f o r a p e r m i t . 95 5.1.3 Numbers of P e r m i t s P r o c e s s e d and I s s u e d The Annual R e p o r t s of the p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of Environment and the former B.C. Water Resources S e r v i c e p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on changes i n the number of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s i s s u e d p r o v i n c e - w i d e , shown i n T a b l e IV. F i g u r e s f o r r e c e n t y e a r s p r o v i d e d by the - Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e V and show an e x p e c t e d i n c r e a s e i n the numbers of a u t h o r i z e d d i s c h a r g e s as the F r a s e r V a l l e y grows. The growth i n d i c a t e d here i s p r o b a b l y h i g h e r than the a c t u a l i n c r e a s e of d i s c h a r g i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g p e r m i t s , because the Branch i s s t i l l t r y i n g t o b r i n g c e r t a i n e x i s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s under p e r m i t ( n o t a b l y hog f u e l dumps). 5.1.4 P r o c e s s i n g of P e r m i t A p p l i c a t i o n s a) P a r t i c i p a t i o n by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s The Act and R e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by d i s c h a r g e s f o r which p e r m i t s a r e sought by r e f e r r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r comment, by r e q u i r i n g t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n The B.C. G a z e t t e and l o c a l newspapers, and p o s t i n g of them on the s i t e of d i s c h a r g e . The Act o r d e r s the D i r e c t o r t o " c o n s i d e r the recommendations" of the a g e n c i e s t o which p e r m i t s a r e r e f e r r e d , and empowers him t o d e c i d e whether any f o r m a l w r i t t e n o b j e c t i o n s from the p u b l i c a r e such as t o w a r r a n t a h e a r i n g . Agency r e f e r r a l system In the 13 c a s e s I s t u d i e d , i n g e n e r a l the Branch c o m p l i e d c l o s e l y w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s t o c i r c u l a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s f o r t h e i r r e v iew and comment. The Water R i g h t s Branch g e n e r a l l y responded TABLE I V — POLLUTION CONTROL PERMITS PROVINCE-WIDE, 1970-79* 1970- '71 '72 '73 '74 '75 '76 '77 '78 '79 Applications f o r permits... (effluent, refuse & a i r ) ...made - - - - - - - 306 ...refused - - - - - - 1 0 .. .withdrawn - - - - - - - 126 ...granted 59 99 166 398 582 305 295 240 288 283 Cumulative t o t a l permits... - 470 - 1034 - 1921 - 2456 - 3036 (Cumulative t o t a l points of discharge under permit... - 470 - 1425 - 3226 - 4278 - 4927 Annual amendments made to e x i s t i n g permits.........- 28 41 61 83 95 115 162 186 202 223 (Note: Figures do not always add up because of discontinued discharges, combined discharges, multiple applications, etc.) * Compiled from Annual Reports of the B.C. Water Resources Service (1970-76) and Ministry of Environment (1977-79). TABLE V — EFFLUENT AND REFUSE PERMITS, LOWER MAINLAND REGION* 1970-74, 1977-80 1970 •71 •72 '73 •74 •77 •78 •79 '80 Annual effluent permits issued - 9 16 58 76 - 22 25 26 Annual refuse permits + + + + + + + issued — 3 9 25 20 - 6 12 25 Annual effluent and refuse permits issued =12 =25 =83 =96 =28 =37 =51 Total effluent permits 112 121 137 195 271 333 355 380 406 + + + + + + + + + Total refuse permits 1 4 13 38 58 81 87 99 124 Total effluent and refuse =113 =125 =150 =233 =329 =414 =442 =479 =530 permits Rate of increase (%) 10.6 20.0 55.3 41.2 6.8 8.4 10.6 * Encompassing an area much larger than the Lower Fraser Valley: northwest to Powell River, north to Lillooet, east to Manning Park. * Sources: for 1970-74, Annual Reports of the B.C. Water Resources Service; for 1977-80, Lower Mainland Regional Office files. 98 w i t h a l i s t of water l i c e n s e h o l d e r s downstream. The o t h e r a g e n c i e s who o f t e n responded w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t comments were the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, B.C. H e a l t h Branch, and the f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e f e d e r a l f i s h e r i e s i n t e r e s t s were r e p r e s e n t e d through EPS. I d i s c o v e r e d o n l y one c o m p l a i n t by another agency t h a t the Branch had f a i l e d t o c o n t a c t them. E a r l y i n 1969, Maple Ridge (PE-77) a p p l i e d f o r an amendment t o almost double t h e i r d i s c h a r g e of raw, comminuted sewage t o the F r a s e r . " (The i n c r e a s e however, was not r e q u e s t e d e n t i r e l y t o accomodate new l o a d s t o t h e i r sewers from new development, but i n p a r t t o i n c l u d e an o l d e r a r e a then d i s c h a r g i n g u n t r e a t e d , uncomminuted sewage d i r e c t l y t o the F r a s e r v i a a n o t h e r o u t f a l l not even under p e r m i t . ) The R e g u l a t i o n s i n e f f e c t a t the t i m e , w h i l e not s p e c i f i c a l l y m e n t i o n i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r amendments t o p e r m i t s , d i d s t i p u l a t e t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e a g e n c i e s s h o u l d be n o t i f i e d upon r e c e i p t of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r p e r m i t s . On A p r i l 10, 1969 t h e n , the resume p r e p a r e d by the p r o c e s s i n g e n g i n e e r i n V i c t o r i a noted t h a t : "No o b j e c t i o n s t o the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n {of h a l f a y ear e a r l i e r } a r e r e c o r d e d and i t has not been thought n e c e s s a r y t o n o t i f y o t h e r s of the amendment." The H e a l t h Branch d i s c o v e r e d the r e v i s e d a p p l i c a t i o n on t h e i r own, and r e p l i e d i n p a r t : "... inasmuch as t h i s Branch has a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n , and i n some ca s e s has p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n and/or made recommendations p e r t i n e n t t o the a p p l i c a t i o n , we suggest you r e c o n s i d e r your p o l i c y of not k e e p i n g the H e a l t h Branch i n f o r m e d of proposed p e r m i t r e v i s i o n s . " 99 As noted above, t h i s was the o n l y example of e x p r e s s e d d i s c o n t e n t w i t h r e f e r r a l p r o c e d u r e s , and i t o c c u r e d i n an e a r l i e r s t a g e , perhaps b e f o r e such p r o c e d u r e s had become r o u t i n i z e d . S e c t i o n 5.1.4.3 d i s c u s s e s the i n f l u e n c e of i n p u t r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h the r e f e r r a l system. Input by a f f e c t e d p u b l i c In a l l 13 c a s e s , c o m p l i a n c e by the WMB w i t h the terms of the A c t and R e g u l a t i o n s was good. In each c a s e , the a p p l i c a t i o n appeared i n The B.C. G a z e t t e and a t l e a s t one l o c a l newspaper. In each c a s e , as r e q u i r e d by d i v i s i o n 2.06 of the R e g u l a t i o n s , the a p p l i c a n t f i l e d p r o o f of p u b l i c a t i o n ( c o p i e s of the r e l e v a n t pages) which was p r e s e r v e d i n the Branch's p e r m i t t e e f i l e . In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s where t h i s p r o o f was l a t e i n a r r i v i n g , the Branch c o n t a c t e d a p p l i c a n t s by l e t t e r a d v i s i n g them of t h i s commitment. At l e a s t two member groups of the F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l i t i o n (SPEC and t h e B.C. W i l d l i f e F e d e r a t i o n ) have a t t i m e s m o n i t o r e d the G a z e t t e t o keep a b r e a s t of developments of p o s s i b l e c o n c e r n , a l t h o u g h i t appears t h e r e have been gaps i n t h e i r e f f o r t s . The n o t i c e s p r i n t e d i n l o c a l papers always appeared i n the c l a s s i f i e d l e g a l ads s e c t i o n near the r e a r of the paper, were i n s m a l l t y p e , and t o t h i s o b s e r v e r ' s mind, were u n l i k e l y t o a t t r a c t the average r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n . My own a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l i t i o n and o t h e r p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups l e a d s me t o b e l i e v e t h a t c o n t a c t s w i t h s y m p a t h e t i c p e r s o n n e l i n the r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s a r e p r o b a b l y a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t as any o f f i c i a l means of n o t i f y i n g i n t e r e s t groups of a p p l i c a t i o n s r a i s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o n c e r n s . 100 P o s t i n g of the a p p l i c a t i o n on s i t e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o m o n i t o r , but t h e r e was never any mention i n any f i l e t h a t t h i s r e quirement had been i g n o r e d , w h i l e i n a t l e a s t one i n s t a n c e , p o s t i n g was c o n f i r m e d and r e p o r t e d t o the WMB by an i n d i v i d u a l i n a n o ther agency. W h i l e these p o s t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s (8 1/2" by 14"), i n c o n s p i c u o u s as they a r e , may be observed by p a s s e r s b y on the grounds, they would c e r t a i n l y not convey t o the average reader much sense of the s i g n i f i c a n c e (or i n s i g n i f i c a n c e ) of the proposed d i s c h a r g e . T h e i r v a l u e was p r o b a b l y h i g h e s t i n the case of e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s f i r s t b e i n g brought under p e r m i t , where o n l o o k e r s might p o s s e s s a more t a n g i b l e i d e a of what i s i n v o l v e d . In the 13 p e r m i t f i l e s s t u d i e d t h e r e were a t o t a l of f o u r p u b l i c o b j e c t i o n s t o a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s , one a g a i n s t T i t a n S t e e l (PE-161) and B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s (PR-2756), and two a g a i n s t the Hope sewage t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t y (PE-4125). One o b j e c t o r ( t o T i t a n S t e e l ' s 1966 a p p l i c a t i o n ) was the U n i t e d Fisherman and A l l i e d Worker's Union (UFAWU), and the t h r e e o t h e r s i n the o t h e r two cases were nearby r e s i d e n t s or p r o p e r t y owners. The o b j e c t o r t o BCFP's 1973 a p p l i c a t i o n v o i c e d c o n c e r n over the f l y ash t h a t had been " f a l l i n g on us, our home, our c a r s , my washing, our f r u i t t r e e s and our garden f o r as l o n g as I can remember," as w e l l as over the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of i t s e f f l u e n t on the F r a s e r ' s f i s h . The two o b j e c t o r s t o the proposed Hope sewage t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t y both o b j e c t e d t o the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of odours on t h e i r p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . ( I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t i n t h i s case i t was not a proposed d i s c h a r g e t h a t e l i c i t e d o b j e c t i o n s , but the a c t u a l 101 e f f o r t i t s e l f t o t r e a t the d i s c h a r g e . ) In none of the 13 c a s e s were any f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n s r a i s e d by groups c l a i m i n g t o a c t s o l e l y on b e h a l f of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e appear t o have been few f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n s or a p p e a l s i n the Lower F r a s e r by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t g roups. With t h e i r s c ant r e s o u r c e s , they have tended t o f o c u s t h e i r e f f o r t s on the l a r g e s t or most o b j e c t i o n a b l e d i s c h a r g e s . The A n n a c i s I s l a n d Sewage Treatment P l a n t (STP), f o r example, has been a c e n t r e of c o n t r o v e r s y f o r n e a r l y a decade. R e c e n t l y , p r o p o s a l s i n v o l v i n g the Iona I s l a n d STP and the Richmond L a n d f i l l , b o th of which have l o n g concerned e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , have met f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n s by SPEC, the Richmond A n t i - P o l l u t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , and the UFAWU. b) S e t t i n g p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s Some of the more i m p o r t a n t "terms and c o n d i t i o n s " f o r e f f l u e n t p e r m i t s a r e the p e r m i s s i b l e l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s ( o f t e n c a l l e d " s t a n d a r d s " ) , the a u t h o r i z e d p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works, the s c h e d u l e by which works a r e t o be i n s t a l l e d or s t a n d a r d s met, and a m o n i t o r i n g programme. In r e f u s e p e r m i t s , some i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e the waste m a t e r i a l s a u t h o r i z e d i n the f i l l , t he t o t a l volume, r a t e , and method of a p p l i c a t i o n , and the d i s t a n c e t o w a t e r c o u r s e s and water t a b l e . S e t t i n g t h e terms t h a t a p e r m i t t e e i s bound t o by law i s . an i n t e r a c t i v e p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g n e g o t i a t i o n p r i n c i p a l l y by the WMB and the p e r m i t a p p l i c a n t . Other r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s are f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r o c e s s , w h i l e the p u b l i c r a r e l y seems t o be an a c t i v e p a r t y . S e t t i n g the terms i s not u s u a l l y a s i m p l e 102 matter of a p p l y i n g the p e r t i n e n t O b j e c t i v e s v e r b a t i m . (The whole p o i n t b e h i n d o b j e c t i v e s , v e r s u s s t a n d a r d s , i s t o p r e s e r v e f l e x i b i l i t y . They are t o p r o v i d e "guidance" t o " e x p e d i t e " the pe r m i t i s s u i n g p r o c e s s . ) Many of the c a s e s I s t u d i e d began even b e f o r e O b j e c t i v e s were pr o m u l g a t e d , w h i l e each of the o t h e r s i n v o l v e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t p e r m i t t e d ample room f o r b a r g a i n i n g . In t h e i r assessment of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n , p r o c e s s i n g e n g i n e e r s were c o g n i z a n t of both the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board's 1968 p o l i c y on p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n the F r a s e r below Hope, t h e i r 1971 "Minimum Requirements f o r D i s p o s a l of M u n i c i p a l and Domestic Wastewaters t o S u r f a c e Waters", and l a t e r , the O b j e c t i v e s c o v e r i n g the type of d i s c h a r g e i n q u e s t i o n . The resume p r e p a r e d f o r each a p p l i c a t i o n had a s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " P o l i c y " or " O b j e c t i v e s " t h a t r e l a t e s the proposed d i s c h a r g e t o the r e l e v a n t p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Any d e v i a t i o n from these p o l i c i e s by the proposed d i s c h a r g e was noted and d i s c u s s e d . Some i n d i c a t i o n of the degree t o which p r o v i n c i a l O b j e c t i v e s have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p e r m i t terms f o r one type of p o l l u t i o n ( m u n i c i p a l sewage d i s c h a r g e ) i s g a i n e d from an i n t e r n a l memo of the Branch's M u n i c i p a l D i v i s i o n w r i t t e n i n A p r i l , 1977, which r e v i e w e d a l l 16 m u n i c i p a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n t d i s c h a r g e s t o the F r a s e r below L i l l o o e t . I t c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l p e r m i t s i s s u e d subsequent t o the Board's c a l l f o r secondary treatment i n 1971 d i d inde e d r e q u i r e secondary t r e a t m e n t , except f o r the GVS & DD's A n n a c i s I s l a n d STP (a l a r g e e x c e p t i o n ) . I t a l s o noted however, t h a t i n s e v e r a l c a s e s , a t t e m p t s were b e i n g made t o o b t a i n l e s s s t r i n g e n t p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s , under the newer M u n i c i p a l O b j e c t i v e s . 1 03 M u n i c i p a l sewage t r e a t m e n t g e n e r a l l y employs w e l l -d e v e l o p e d , w i d e l y used t e c h n o l o g y , so t h a t t h e r e i s a f a i r l e v e l of c e r t a i n t y about the type of e f f l u e n t d e l i v e r a b l e by g i v e n systems of p r a c t i c a b l e ( a f f o r d a b l e ) i n v e s t m e n t . Other i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s , however, and t h e i r waste t r e a t m e n t schemes, a r e l e s s f a m i l i a r , and t h u s , more u n c e r t a i n . The case of B.C. P a c k e r s Ltd.-'s (PE-1830) I m p e r i a l P l a n t on S t e v e s t o n ' s Cannery Row i l l u s t r a t e s how O b j e c t i v e s have i n f a c t been a p p l i e d as h e u r i s t i c g u i d e s and not h a r d - a n d - f a s t r u l e s . B.C. P a c k e r s r e c e i v e d a p e r m i t i n 1973 ( t h e y had been o p e r a t i n g many y e a r s ) t h a t c a l l e d f o r a c h i e v i n g b e t t e r than L e v e l A e f f l u e n t , q u a l i t y f o r two of i t s p r o c e s s l i n e s by 1975. L e v e l 'A', as d e f i n e d i n the O b j e c t i v e s , c o r r e s p o n d e d t o the BOD , SS, and o i l removal h y p o t h e t i c a l l y o b t a i n a b l e when f i n e s c r e e n i n g and a newer t e c h n o l o g y - - a i r f l o t a t i o n — w e r e b oth used t o t r e a t the waste. (One can see i n t h i s case t h e n , t h a t e f f l u e n t o b j e c t i v e s were based on l e v e l s d e l i v e r a b l e by a v a i l a b l e t r e a t m e n t t e c h n o l o g y not deemed p r o h i b i t i v e l y e x p e n s i v e . L e v e l B c o r r e s p o n d e d t o e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y o b t a i n a b l e w i t h f i n e s c r e e n i n g , L e v e l A t o a q u a l i t y o b t a i n a b l e w i t h t h i s p l u s a i r f l o t a t i o n . ) D u r i n g the 1974 season B.C. P a c k e r ' s c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s conducted t e s t s on a p i l o t a i r f l o t a t i o n c e l l t o determine the e f f i c i e n c y of BOD and SS removal. C l a i m i n g t h a t e x p e r i m e n t a l l e v e l s of e f f i c i e n c y were not a c h e i v a b l e i n p r a c t i c e because of a v a r i a b l e wastewater stream, and t h a t more time was needed t o a s s e s s the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a i r f l o t a t i o n , e a r l y i n 1975 104 B.C. P a c k e r s a p p l i e d t o e x t e n d the d e a d l i n e by which they were t o have i n s t a l l e d i t . A c c o r d i n g t o the Environment Canada e n g i n e e r who conducted the o r i g i n a l e f f i c i e n c y e x p eriments upon which p e r m i t l e v e l s were based, b e t t e r system maintenance s h o u l d have e l i m i n a t e d the problem. The p e r m i t t e e d i s p u t e d t h i s . The d e c i s i o n t o amend the p e r m i t t o a l l o w a d d i t i o n a l time was d e f e r r e d u n t i l more i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be g a t h e r e d , i n e f f e c t a c c e d i n g t o the p e r m i t t e e ' s r e q u e s t . In the meantime, a r u n n i n g d i a l o g u e commenced between a B.C. P a c k e r s manager and the PCB p r o c e s s i n g e n g i n e e r i n charge of t h i s c a s e . An e x c e r p t from a l e t t e r of the manager t o t h i s e n g i n e e r i l l u s t r a t e s many of the i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n s e t t i n g and meeting e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n s : R e g a r d i n g your comments on a i r f l o t a t i o n , I f e e l I must comment. F i r s t l y , t o put i n a f l o t a t i o n u n i t t o handle the waste from the f i s h d r e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n , t o my way of t h i n k i n g , i s j u s t a f l a g r a n t waste of money. Can $100,000.00 p l u s be j u s t i f i e d f o r the i n s t a l l a t i o n of equipment p l u s the y e a r l y c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n of $30,000.00 be j u s t i f i e d f o r the improvement gained? C o s t s , now i n t h i s o p e r a t i o n a r e h i g h e r than the r e t u r n s t o the company. Maybe t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t w i l l be the f i n a l s t raw t o c l o s e the door!! As f a r as i n salmon and h e r r i n g , the b e n e f i t s do not j u s t i f y the c o s t s of i n s t a l l a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n and no l o g i c a l argument can be made on the b a s i s of p l a n t l o c a t i o n . Why s h o u l d t h i s p l a n t be put i n an u n f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when no harm i s b e i n g caused t o the environment? In 1976, the PCB conducted i t s own t e s t s a t the p l a n t , and i n 1977, some two and a h a l f y e a r s a f t e r the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n the Branch i s s u e d an amended p e r m i t w i t h somewhat l e s s s t r i n g e n t s t a n d a r d s t h a t seem t o have been based on the r e s u l t s of t h e s e t e s t s . Then a problem d e v e l o p e d w i t h the d i s p o s a l of s l u d g e g e n e r a t e d by the a i r f l o t a t i o n u n i t . B.C. P a c k e r s had i n t e n d e d t o o f f s e t , i f not recoup, the c o s t s of 105 p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l by a d d i n g the s l u d g e t o t h e i r f i s h meal. A c c o r d i n g t o the manager however, buyers of t h i s meal informed them t h a t they were l i a b l e f o r any m o r t a l i t i e s from f e e d c o n t a i n i n g the alum-contaminated s l u d g e . (Alum i s used i n the a i r f l o t a t i o n p r o c e s s . ) Under t h i s c o n d i t i o n , and a f t e r the company e x p l o r e d s e v e r a l o t h e r methods of s l u d g e d i s p o s a l , none of which s a t i s f i e d t h e i r own c r i t e r i o n of c o s t a c c e p t a b i l i t y , t h e ' p l a n t ceased o p e r a t i n g the u n i t and a p p l i e d f o r a n o t h e r p e r m i t amendment t o drop the a i r f l o t a t i o n r e quirement a l t o g e t h e r . The amendment was g r a n t e d w i t h the c o n d i t i o n t h a t B.C. P a c k e r s c o n t i n u e the s e a r c h f o r a s o l u t i o n t o s l u d g e d i s p o s a l . E f f l u e n t l i m i t s were downgraded from almost L e v e l A t o L e v e l B, and remain t h e r e today. T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s the e x p e r i m e n t a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of one s e t of O b j e c t i v e s and how an i n i t i a l l y p r o m i s i n g improvement i n a d i s c h a r g e was withdrawn because of u n f o r e s e e n t e c h n i c a l i t i e s and c o s t s c l a i m e d by the p e r m i t t e e t o be p r o h i b i t i v e . From the m a t e r i a l on f i l e , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the Branch's e m p a t h e t i c s t a n c e a l s o r e f l e c t e d u n c e r t a i n t y as t o e x a c t l y what damages, i f any, d e p r e s s e d DO l e v e l s i n Cannery Channel from f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g wastes were a c t u a l l y p r o d u c i n g . The o f f i c i a l L e v e l A O b j e c t i v e f o r salmon and h e r r i n g p r o c e s s wastes i s no l o n g e r b e i n g used as the o b j e c t i v e w i t h which a l l new f i s h - p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s a r e e x p e c t e d to. comply. In F e b r u a r y , 1980, another a p p l i c a n t , S.M. P r o d u c t s L t d . And S.M. P r o p e r t i e s L t d . (AE-5729), r e c e i v e d a p e r m i t s p e c i f y i n g o n l y L e v e l B e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y . 106 The A c t empowers the D i r e c t o r t o amend an a p p l i c a t i o n b e f o r e i s s u i n g a p e r m i t , and t h i s r i g h t was sometimes e x e r c i s e d . In the case j u s t mentioned, the p e r m i t p r o c e s s o r s amended the t e r m s — r e q u i r i n g s t i f f e r e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s - - b e f o r e i s s u i n g the p e r m i t , prompting a s t r o n g p r o t e s t by B.C. P a c k e r s over the " a r b i t r a r y performance s t a n d a r d " s e t . A meeting i n V i c t o r i a between the PCB, the F i s h e r i e s A s s o c i a t i o n of B.C. (an i n d u s t r i a l a s s o c i a t i o n ) , B.C. P a c k e r s L t d . , and t h e i r c o n s u l t a n t s a p p a r e n t l y a l l a y e d t h i s c o n c e r n and o t h e r s , as a f o r m a l a p p e a l was never l o d g e d . T i t a n S t e e l and Wire Co. (PE-161) a p p l i e d i n 1973 f o r a p e r m i t t o d i s c h a r g e i r o n , z i n c , and l e a d a t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of 70 mg/L, 2 mg/L, and .7 mg/L r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n comparison w i t h L e v e l C O b j e c t i v e s of 1.0 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, and .5 mg/L f o r i r o n , z i n c , and l e a d . 5 A p e r m i t was e v e n t u a l l y i s s u e d s p e c i f y i n g the L e v e l C O b j e c t i v e s , a recommendation of the PCB's p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f , not T i t a n . The case of T i t a n S t e e l a l s o e x e m p l i f i e s a n o t h e r a s p e c t of s e t t i n g p e r m i t terms and c o n d i t i o n s : the somestimes p r o t r a c t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t o c c u r between a p p l i c a n t and Branch. E x c e r p t s from a December, 1974, memo by the PCB head o f f i c e i l l u s t r a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n : P e r m i t No. PE-161 was i s s u e d August 23, 1966 f o r a p e r i o d of f i v e y e a r s . . . . In June, 1971, the P e r m i t t e e was a d v i s e d t h a t the P e r m i t r e q u i r e d admentment t o i n c l u d e two a d d i t i o n a l d i s c h a r g e s not c o v e r e d by the P e r m i t . A sample of the e f f l u e n t taken by P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch p e r s o n n e l i n d i c a t e d t h a t the P e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s were not b e i n g adhered t o . In June, 1972, the P e r m i t t e e was a g a i n a d v i s e d t o a p p l y f o r a p e r m i t amendment. An a p p l i c a t i o n was f i n a l l y r e c e i v e d d a t e d August 10, 1973. The d i s c h a r g e has been 107 i n c r e a s e d t o an average of 525,000 g a l s . Per day. A f t e r a p r e l i m i n a r y assessment of the a p p l i c a t i o n , the Company was a d v i s e d t h a t the proposed e f f l u e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were not s a t i s f a c t o r y and a p r o p o s a l t o improve the t r e a t m e n t would be r e q u i r e d . The p r e s e n t s t a t u s i s t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the P e r m i t t e e have not been r e s o l v e d t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch. A p e r m i t was f i n a l l y i s s u e d t o T i t a n i n September, 1975, some f o u r y e a r s a f t e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l p e r m i t had e x p i r e d . In most of the o t h e r c a s e s I r e v i e w e d , the a p p l i c a n t and the Branch came t o terms more e a s i l y . Once a p e r m i t i s i s s u e d , d i s c u s s i o n s can and u s u a l l y do c o n t i n u e . In c o n c l u s i o n , p e r m i t terms were s e t by a p r o c e s s of b a r g a i n i n g between the WMB and the a p p l i c a n t ( p r i m a r i l y ) i n which the O b j e c t i v e s s e r v e d as g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s f o r p e rformance, any d e v i a t i o n from which was r a t i o n a l i z e d by p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s of the case a t hand. In the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s , which c o u l d c o n t i n u e f o r months or y e a r s , s e v e r a l t h i n g s a r e e v i d e n t . One i s t h a t the Branch at l e a s t a t t e m p t e d t o be " f i r m but f a i r " i n d e a l i n g w i t h a p p l i c a n t s . W h i l e the i m p r e s s i o n conveyed by l e t t e r s sent t o a p p l i c a n t s i s one of p o l i t e f i r m n e s s and a u t h o r i t y , d i r e c t i v e s and u r g i n g f r e q u e n t l y d i d not g e n e r a t e prompt, s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s p o n s e s . D i s c h a r g e r s o f t e n seemed t o " h o l d o u t " f o r the best d e a l they c o u l d g e t , a p p a r e n t l y not f e e l i n g i t was n e c e s s a r y or t o t h e i r advantage t o s e t t l e q u i c k l y w i t h the Branch. In 1980, the presence of a s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e and enforcement squad (the F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e ) w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r "toughness" prompted hastened s o l u t i o n s t o n e g o t i a t i o n s t h a t had been d r a g g i n g on i n some ca s e s f o r y e a r s , a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o i t s l e a d e r (Ackerman, 108 1980). A b a r g a i n i n g t a c t i c commonly used by a p p l i c a n t s was t o i n s i s t or i n t i m a t e t h a t the c o s t meeting a l e v e l of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y proposed by the Branch might make i t u n p r o f i t a b l e t o s t a y i n b u s i n e s s , or was s i m p l y t o o e x p e n s i v e t o c o n s i d e r . The r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s t h a t the l e g i t i m a c y of such c l a i m s was not r i g o u r o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d or pursued by Branch p e r s o n n e l , d e s p i t e the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n of c o s t q u e s t i o n s i n any t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n on a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l l e v e l s . Such c l a i m s e v i d e n t l y l e d t o some e r o s i o n of p e r m i t t e d e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y i n i n s t a n c e s where the e f f e c t on water q u a l i t y was thought t o be m i n i m a l . In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , the Branch remained adamant i n i n s i s t i n g on c e r t a i n c o n t r o l s . c) I n f l u e n c e of i n p u t by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s The mere e x i s t e n c e of avenues f o r t h i r d p a r t y i n p u t i n the e v a l u a t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s , and the use of t h e s e avenues by a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s , do not a l o n e guarantee t h a t such i n p u t w i l l a c t u a l l y i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n -making. In t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n I a s s e s s the e x t e n t of t h i s i n f l u e n c e i n those cases I r e v i e w e d , l o o k i n g s e p a r a t e l y a t the i n p u t of o t h e r a g e n c i e s t h r o u g h the p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n r e f e r r a l mechanism, and i n p u t from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . R e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s There i s much d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n on the p a r t of some p e r s o n n e l i n some of the s e a g e n c i e s w i t h the outcome of t h e i r e f f o r t s t o i n f l u e n c e p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h the r e f e r r a l system. For example, one e s t i m a t e i s t h a t of tho s e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s f o r wood waste d i s p o s a l ( p r i o r t o 1979) 1 09 on which EPS i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n c e r n s t o PCB, n e a r l y a l l were i s s u e d , and 80% w i t h c o n d i t i o n s t h a t o f f e r e d i nadequate or t o t a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n (Langer, 1980). Ackerman and C l a p p (1980), who r e v i e w e d WMB f i l e s d u r i n g t h e i r enforcement e f f o r t s of 1980, o bserved t h a t i n "most i n s t a n c e s " the recommendations s u b m i t t e d by r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s were i g n o r e d . The case of VenDev E n t e r p r i s e s L t d . (PR-4745) i s worth examining t o show the i n f l u e n c e of d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s i n s e t t i n g the terms of one p a r t i c u l a r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l ( r e f u s e ) P e r m i t . Rather than d i s c u s s each and e v e r y c o n d i t i o n , I s h a l l f o c u s on one of the more i m p o r t a n t and c o n t e n t i o u s o n e s — t h e w i d t h of the " l e a v e s t r i p " , or t h a t u n d i s t u r b e d s t r i p of l a n d between a f i l l and a w a t e r c o u r s e . VenDev's o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n of Feb. 16, 1977, s t a t e d i n p a r t : "No f i l l w i l l be p l a c e d w i t h i n 50 f t . of any e x i s t i n g w a t e r c o u r s e . . . " N o t i n g t h i s , the p l a n n i n g d i r e c t o r of C o q u i t l a m remarked: "...we would expect the 50 f o o t l e a v e s t r i p t o be p r o t e c t e d . " The B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch v o i c e d c o n c e r n t h a t the o p e r a t i o n would " a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t p r e s e n t i n Schoolhouse Creek t h r o u g h d i r e c t • e n c r o a c h m e n t of the dump and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of hog f u e l l e a c h a t e i n t o the w a t e r ." They a l s o r e q u e s t e d t h a t the proponent c l e a n up m a t e r i a l t h a t had a l r e a d y been d e p o s i t e d w i t h i n the 50 f t . l e a v e s t r i p . EPS r e p o r t e d t h a t Schoolhouse Creek s u p p o r t e d spawning runs of up t o 50 coho salmon a y e a r , i n a d d i t i o n t o c u t t h r o a t t r o u t . They recommended t h a t a p e r m i t not be i s s u e d a t a l l ("the Department of F i s h e r i e s and the Environment s t r o n g l y o b j e c t t o t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n " ) , and t h a t 110 VenDev s h o u l d c l e a n up the e x i s t i n g f i l l . As a r e s u l t of these p r o t e s t s , i n J u l y , 1977, a meeting was h e l d , a t t e n d e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of EPS, F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s , VenDev, F i s h and W i l d l i f e , and the PCB. Whether or not the p e r m i t s h o u l d even be i s s u e d a t a l l never came i n t o q u e s t i o n . I n s t e a d , the s u b j e c t was what would c o n s t i t u t e a c c e p t a b l e o p e r a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s . The outcome was t h a t EPS and F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s would study the s i t u a t i o n i n more d e t a i l and submit t h e i r f i n d i n g s and recommendations "as soon as p o s s i b l e " . In e a r l y September, EPS r e t u r n e d the j o i n t recommendations. C o n c e r n i n g the l e a v e s t r i p , t h e s e s t a t e d : "The p h y s i c a l i n t e g r i t y of L a u r e n t i a n and Schoolhouse Creeks...must be m a i n t a i n e d . To m a i n t a i n t h e s e streams, no f i l l s h o u l d be p l a c e d w i t h i n 50 f e e t of each stream c h a n n e l " . In l a t e September, PCB and VenDev met i n V i c t o r i a t o d i s c u s s the g u i d e l i n e s recommended by EPS. In a t t e n d a n c e was the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t & G e n e r a l Manager of VenDev. A c c o r d i n g t o PCB notes of the m e e t i n g , he: " p r e s e n t e d a p r o p o s a l o u t l i n i n g the company's g u i d e l i n e s f o r the s i t e development...." He a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t Schoolhouse Creek was a c t u a l l y a man-made waterway c o n s t r u c t e d by Crown Z e l l e r b a c h (owner of VenDev) i n the 1960's t o d r a i n the marshy a r e a under a p p l i c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g note was a l s o r e c o r d e d : "VenDev would l i k e t o be p e r m i t t e d t o f i l l . . . t o w i t h i n 5 f e e t {my emphasis} of the waterways but c o u l d l i v e w i t h a wider l e a v e s t r i p , i f such i s r e q u i r e d " . The notes c o n c l u d e d w i t h the s t a t e m e n t : "We a s s u r e d {the two VenDev reps} t h a t we would e x p e d i t e the p r o c e s s i n g of the company's a p p l i c a t i o n as much as p o s s i b l e " . A week a f t e r t h i s m e e t i n g , PCB i n f o r m e d EPS: "We 111 f e e l . . . t h a t the second g u i d e l i n e , wherein you i n d i c a t e d t h a t no f i l l ( i n e r t or o t h e r w i s e ) s h o u l d be p l a c e d w i t h i n 50 f e e t of each stream c h a n n e l , i s too r e s t r i c t i v e . I t i s our o p i n i o n t h a t i n e r t f i l l , p r o p e r l y d i k e d , can be used t o w i t h i n f i v e f e e t . . . p r o v i d e d t h a t the waterways themselves a r e not d i s t u r b e d " . The l e t t e r r e p e a t e d the a s s e r t i o n t h a t Schoolhouse Creek was i n f a c t a man-made w a t e r c o u r s e . (The i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t s i n c e the f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t was " a r t i f i c i a l l y c r e a t e d " anyway, t h a t t o l o s e i t would r e p r e s e n t no r e a l l o s s of h a b i t a t , was never debated openly i n t h i s e n t i r e i s s u e . I am unable t o say whether i t was the Branch's a c t u a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a l l o w i n g f i l l t o w i t h i n f i v e f e e t , or s i m p l y a s u b t e r f u g e i n t e n d e d t o mute o p p o s i t i o n by the o t h e r a g e n c i e s . ) The l e t t e r c o n c l u d e d : "We f e e l t h a t by t a k i n g p r o p e r p r e c a u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g most of your g u i d e l i n e s , and a l s o a l l o w i n g the u s i n g of i n e r t f i l l m a t e r i a l , p r o p e r l y d i k e d , near th e waterways the i n t e g r i t y of the waterways s h o u l d be m o s t l y m a i n t a i n e d " . Two and a h a l f weeks l a t e r , on October 13, 1977, PCB g r a n t e d VenDev a p e r m i t w i t h the f i v e f t . L e a v e s t r i p . W i t h i n t h r e e weeks, the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r of the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch r e a c t e d i n w r i t i n g : " P l a c i n g f i l l w i t h i n 5-10 f e e t of the stream bank over the l e n g t h of the s i t e w i l l d e s t r o y the n a t u r a l f l o w regime of the creek....The s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s s e c t i o n of stream f o r f i s h p r o d u c t i o n would...be g r e a t l y reduced. We recommend t h a t the {permit} be r e v i s e d t o p r o h i b i t the dumping of f i l l m a t e r i a l w i t h i n 50 f e e t . . . " On November 24, PCB and EPS o f f i c i a l s met t o c o n s i d e r a number of mutual t o p i c s , i n c l u d i n g VenDev's new p e r m i t . PCB's 1 12 n o t e s of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n a r e r e v e a l i n g : Mr. Langer {EPS}noted t h a t the a r e a i n q u e s t i o n i s a marshy beaver dam a r e a , and he f e l t a f i f t y f o o t b u f f e r s t r i p , as agreed t o by the p e r m i t t e e , would m a i n t a i n the p h y s i c a l h a b i t a t and the f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e . Mr. K l a s s e n {PCB} s t a t e d t h a t the P e r m i t d i d not i n c l u d e t h i s requirement as i t was not c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t o r i g i n a l l y the c r e e k was j u s t a d i t c h and much of i t i s man made. Mr. Langer saw no reason why a stream w i t h a f i f t y f o o t s t r i p cannot be m a i n t a i n e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l or i n d u s t r i a l a r e a . He f e l t t h a t a development p l a n s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d from the company so t h a t a c l e a n s t r i p can be d e s i g n e d . Mr. 'Klassen r e f e r r e d t o a meeting h e l d i n New Wes t m i n s t e r , between the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the company and the Branch, on June 29, 1977. The r e s u l t s of t h i s meeting i n d i c a t e d t h a t the company would p r o v i d e the b u f f e r s t r i p . Mr. K l a s s e n f u r t h e r s t a t e d t h a t he would have the R e g i o n a l Manager c o n t a c t F i s h and W i l d l i f e and, i f they c o n c l u d e t h a t a b u f f e r s t r i p i s r e q u i r e d , the f i l e c o u l d be re-opened. On December 6, 1977, a f t e r a s i t e i n s p e c t i o n , the PCB Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l Manager wrote i n a memo t o V i c t o r i a : " In view of t h e degree of co n c e r n e x p r e s s e d by...the F i s h and W i l d l i f e B r a n c h , and i n v i e w i n g the o n - s i t e o p e r a t i o n s , i t i s recommended the D i r e c t o r amend the p e r m i t i n a manner t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e g r e a t e r p r o t e c t i o n f o r any f i s h e r i e s i n Schoolhouse and L a u r e n t i a n Creeks and t o modify encroachment of f i l l a r e a s on t h e s e w a t e r c o u r s e s " . The R e g i o n a l Manager recommended i n c r e a s i n g the l e a v e s t r i p t o an average 30 f e e t , minimum 25 f e e t w i d t h . The f i n a l w i d t h , t h u s , was about midway between what the c o n s e r v a t i o n a g e n c i e s and the proponent each p r e f e r r e d . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t however, i s t h a t t h i s compromise was reached o n l y by a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t on the p a r t of the c o n s e r v a t i o n a g e n c i e s . The o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n s e t by the PCB f a v o u r e d the a p p l i c a n t a g a i n s t the c l e a r recommenations of a t l e a s t f o u r o t h e r government o f f i c e s . 1 1 3 In the 13 p e r m i t f i l e s I r e v i e w e d , t h e r e were two o t h e r i n s t a n c e s i n which o t h e r a g e n c i e s o b j e c t e d t o the v e r y i s s u a n c e of a p e r m i t and were o v e r r u l e d by the Branch. One was the case of B.C. P a c k e r s mentioned e a r l i e r . EPS recommended t h a t an amendment t o remove or d e f e r the a i r f l o t a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t not be g r a n t e d . T h i s p o s i t i o n appears t o have been based s o l e y on water q u a l i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , a s u rvey t h a t showed low d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l s i n the bottom of Cannery C h a n n e l ) . Comments made i n the EPS l e t t e r of o b j e c t i o n i n d i c a t e no awareness of the problems c l a i m e d by the p e r m i t t e e w i t h r e g a r d t o s l u d g e d i s p o s a l . The o t h e r i n s t a n c e was an o b j e c t i o n by the H e a l t h Branch t o an a p p l i c a t i o n t o d i s c h a r g e f i s h p r o c e s s i n g wastes t r e a t e d by f i n e s c r e e n i n g and not a i r f l o t a t i o n (PE-5729). T h e i r reason was: " I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t s c r e e n i n g of e f f l u e n t wastes from a f i s h p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t w i l l not p r o v i d e a waste t h a t meets . your or any a c c e p t a b l e B.O.D. Or suspended s o l i d c h a r a c t e r t i c s f o r d i s c h a r g e t o a r e c e i v i n g body of water". To t h i s the Branch r e p l i e d : W i th r e g a r d t o the p r o c e s s e f f l u e n t , f i n e (minimum 25 mesh) s c r e e n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be the b e s t p r a c t i c a b l e t e c h n o l o g y a t the p r e s e n t t i m e , and the F r a s e r R i v e r s h o u l d e a s i l y a s s i m i l a t e the b i o l o g i c a l l o a d e x e r t e d by the d i s c h a r g e . On the above b a s i s , we a r e p r e p a r e d t o recommend t o the D i r e c t o r i s s u a n c e of a P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t f o r the s u b j e c t a p p l i c a t i o n . Thank you f o r e x p r e s s i n g your c o n c e r n s i n t h i s m a t t e r . In o t h e r c a s e s r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s recommended p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s t h a t were not always f o l l o w e d . A p e r m i t f o r a l a n d f i l l i n c l u d i n g hog f u e l was i s s u e d t o Burnaby (PR-5443) i n 1979 f o r which EPS had suggested i n s t a l l a t i o n of l e a c h a t e 1 1 4 containment and d i s p o s a l works. I n s t e a d of making t h i s an a u t o m a t i c p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t , the Branch e l e c t e d t o r e q u i r e i t o n l y i n the event t h a t l e a c h a t e a c t u a l l y began t o appear. (In the l o n e i n s p e c t i o n of t h i s o p e r a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n the Lower M a i n l a n d f i l e f o r 1980, on June 19, the f o l l o w i n g comments were made: "very h i g h l e a c h a t e p r o d u c t i o n i n p e r i m e t e r d i t c h e s which empty i n t o S t i l l Creek;" "berms inadequate a l o n g d i t c h p e r i m e t e r " . " A c t i o n recommended" was t o " i n s t a l l l e a c h a t e c o l l e c t i n system". S i x months l a t e r , i n December, 1980, t h e r e were no new f i l e e n t r i e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a c t i o n had been taken.) In most of the o t h e r c a s e s examined, the WMB r e c e i v e d no comments at a l l from o t h e r a g e n c i e s , r e c e i v e d r e p l i e s i n d i c a t i n g no s t r o n g c o n c e r n s , or r e c e i v e d s u g g e s t i o n s which were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s . The Branch never adopted a p o s i t i o n ' o f f e r i n g more p r o t e c t i o n f o r the environment t h a t the p o s i t i o n t a k e n by EPS c o n f e r r e d . In g e n e r a l , the recommendations of EPS i n p u r s u i n g t h e i r mandate i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o impose c o s t s of waste t r e a t m e n t on d i s c h a r g e r s t o a v o i d any r i s k of s i g n i f i c a n t harm t o a l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t — a v e r y c a u t i o u s approach. The WMB, on the o t h e r hand, g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r r e d more c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r a d a t i o n (or the r i s k of i t ) b e f o r e i n s i s t i n g on s t r i c t e r abatement measures ( l e a d i n g t o c r i t i c i s m t h a t they have a c a v a l i e r a t t i t u d e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n , r e a c t i n g o n l y when the damage has a l r e a d y been done). D i s i n f e c t i o n of e f f l u e n t t h rough c h l o r i n a t i o n i s an i s s u e t h a t i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r e n t approaches of the two c h i e f p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l a g e n c i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l 115 governments. The EPS p o s i t i o n i s s t a t e d i n a 1977 l e t t e r t o the PCB: I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t some f r e s h water streams have b e t t e r a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y f o r t o x i c c o n s t i t u e n t s p r e s e n t i n waste d i s c h a r g e s , b u t , the t h r e s h o l d l e v e l t o l e r a n c e of the b i o l o g i c a l communities cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h any r e l i a n c e ; nor i s i t d e s i r a b l e t o r e a c h the danger p o i n t p r i o r t o i n i t i a t i n g p r e v e n t i v e a c t i o n . The i n c r e a s e d t o x i c i t y of c h l o r i n a t e d e f f l u e n t s t o a q u a t i c organisms has been w e l l documented. The PCB p o s i t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d i n a 1977 l e t t e r t o the EPS: We have e v i d e n c e t h a t c h l o r i n e r e s i d u a l s have not been w e l l c o n t r o l l e d but l i t t l e e v i d e n c e or i n d i c a t i o n of damage t o the f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e . . . . "{You r e f e r t o t h e } . . . d o c u m e n t a t i o n . . o f t h e . . . e f f e c t of c h l o r i n e . . . . " T h i s i s perhaps the c r u x of our d i f f e r e n c e s . We have no documentation t o demonstrate t h a t where massive d i l u t i o n i s a f f o r d e d t o a c h l o r i n a t e d d i s c h a r g e t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the f i s h r e s o u r c e . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the above, t h i s Branch has a l r e a d y made s u b s t a n t i a l compromises i n s u p p o r t of your p o s i t i o n and we a r e concerned t h a t t h i s i s not r e c o g n i z e d from the c o p i e s of the p e r m i t s and amendments we have sent t o you. In p a r t i c u l a r , not o n l y has d e c h l o r i n a t i o n been imposed i n a number of c a s e s where d i l u t i o n i s s e v e r a l hundred t o one, but many p e r m i t s have been amended t o d e l e t e c h l o r i n a t i o n r e s i d u a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and some new p e r m i t s w hich would p r e v i o u s l y have c o n t a i n e d t h i s r e quiremnt now omit i t . (A 1977 i n t e r n a l PCB memo shows t h a t a t t h a t time s i x of 16 sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s on the F r a s e r below L i l l o o e t were ind e e d i n s t a l l i n g f a c i l i t i e s t o d e c h l o r i n a t e e f f l u e n t b e f o r e d i s c h a r g e . ) Even a f t e r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I am not a b l e t o say whether the d i f f e r e n c e s i n p h i l o s o p h y between the f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e and the p r o v i n c i a l Waste Management Branch stem from a h i g h e r f e d e r a l r e g a r d f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n 1 16 v i s - a - v i s economic p r o g r e s s , or s i m p l y from the f a c t t h a t the p r o v i n c e always d e a l s d i r e c t l y w i t h d i s c h a r g e r s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y as o p e r a t o r s of the p e r m i t system, and has d e v e l o p e d more sympathy f o r t h e i r problems, r e a l and c l a i m e d , i n o b e y i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . P u b l i c Members of the p u b l i c became i n v o l v e d i n the p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g s t a g e i n t h r e e of the 13 c ases r e v i e w e d . The o b j e c t o r t o B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ' 1973 a p p l i c a t i o n (AE-2756) was a nearby r e s i d e n t who c o m p l a i n e d of f l y ash and e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about the e f f e c t of p o l l u t i o n on the F r a s e r ' s f i s h . The Branch c o n t a c t e d her t w i c e by l e t t e r d u r i n g the p r o c e s s i n g of AE-2756. The f i r s t l e t t e r read i n p a r t : I w i s h t o a d v i s e t h a t the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch has c a r r i e d on d e t a i l e d n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the a p p l i c a n t t o p r o v i d e such p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment as i s c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s and p r o v i d e an e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t t e c h n o l o g y and does not c r e a t e a c o n d i t i o n of P o l l u t i o n . The l e t t e r went on t o b r i e f l y d e c r i b e the c o n t r o l equipment and the l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y t o be r e q u i r e d " s h o u l d a P e r m i t be i s s u e d " i n terms t h a t p r o b a b l y d i d not mean much t o the o b j e c t o r . Three months l a t e r (December, 1974), the Branch a g a i n wrote the o b j e c t o r , s t a t i n g t h a t : The above a p p l i c a t i o n t o which you have o b j e c t e d has r e c e i v e d f i n a l r e v i e w , and a f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i t has been d e c i d e d t h a t your o b j e c t i o n i s not such t o w a r r a n t a h e a r i n g . T h i s w i l l a l s o a d v i s e you t h a t P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t No. PR-2756, dated December 31, 1974 has been i s s u e d . In a d j u d i c a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n the c o n t e n t s of your c o r r e s p o n d e n c e were c o n s i d e r e d , but i n view of the 1 17 measures proposed t o c o n t r o l p o l l u t i o n , a p e r m i t has been g r a n t e d i n accordance w i t h the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , 1967. There i s not r e c o r d of any o t h e r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h i s o b j e c t o r and the Branch on f i l e . There i s a l s o no r e c o r d of any i n f o r m a l f a c e - t o - f a c e meetings between the Branch and the o b j e c t o r , c o n t r a r y t o what has been c l a i m e d t o be s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e ( V e n a b l e s , 1977: p. 9 9 ) . Two o b j e c t i o n s were made i n 1977 t o a proposed amendment t o the Town of Hope's newly i s s u e d p e r m i t r e q u i r i n g secondary sewage t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s (PE-4125). Both were from nearby p r o p e r t y owners concerned about the impact of p o s s i b l e downwind odours on l i v a b i l i t y and p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . A g a i n , the Branch c o n t a c t e d the o b j e c t o r s t w i c e i n w r i t i n g d u r i n g the p r o c e s s i n g of the a p p l i c a t i o n . In the f i r s t l e t t e r , i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from the a p p l i c a n t ' s c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s was passed on: "...any p r o p e r l y o p e r a t e d a e r a t e d system has m i n i m a l o f f e n s i v e odours". The second l e t t e r , s i m i l a r i n c o n t e n t t o the one quoted above i n BCFP's p e r m i t , informed the o b j e c t o r s t h a t t h e i r c o n c e r n s were not such t o warrant a h e a r i n g and t h a t the amendment r e q u e s t e d had been approved. Once a g a i n , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e of a c t u a l meetings w i t h the o b j e c t o r s . The t h i r d case i n v o l v e d a p r o t e s t by the UFAWU of T i t a n S t e e l ' s 1966 a p p l i c a t i o n (AE-161) t o d i s c h a r g e 50,000 g a l l o n s of t r e a t e d a c i d waste d a i l y i n t o Gunderson Slough a l o n g the F r a s e r . The f i s h e r m e n were concerned both w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o r r o s i o n of underwater m e t a l f i t t i n g s on the over 300 boats moored t h e r e , as w e l l as the e f f e c t on salmon f i n g e r l i n g s , which 118 they contended used the p o o r l y f l u s h e d s l o u g h as a r e s t i n g p l a c e . They proposed p i p i n g the e f f l u e n t t o the F r a s e r i t s e l f , "where the volume of water and c u r r e n t would h e l p t o d i s s i p a t e the e f f e c t " . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , PCB wrote t o T i t a n ' s c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s : In view of the g r e a t l e n g t h of the S l o u g h r e l a t i v e t o i t s o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s w i t h consequent l a c k of f l u s h i n g and t o i t s i n t e n s i v e use as a d o c k i n g a r e a f o r f i s h b o a t s , we cannot c o n s i d e r the p r e s e n t d i s p o s a l a r e a as s a t i s f a c t o r y , and a d v i s e t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s f o r d i s c h a r g e t o the r i v e r t h r ough a s u i t a b l e o u t f a l l be s u b m i t t e d . The p e r m i t e v e n t u a l l y i s s u e d d i d r e q u i r e an o u t f a l l d i r e c t l y t o the F r a s e r . The Fisherman ( b i w e e k l y newspaper of the UFAWU) h a i l e d t h i s as a v i c t o r y w i t h the h e a d l i n e : "Union P r o t e s t s Stop P o l l u t i o n " , (June 17, 1966). In summary, p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e v a l u a t i o n of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s was modest. A l l o b j e c t i o n s made were on the b a s i s of t h r e a t e n e d s e l f - i n t e r e s t ; none were put f o r w a r d s p e c i f i c a l l y on b e h a l f of the p u b l i c w e a l . N o n - t e c h n i c a l o b j e c t i o n s by u n o r g a n i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o the v e r y e x i s t e n c e of an o f f e n s i v e (or p o t e n t i a l l y o f f e n s i v e ) o p e r a t i o n appeared t o have l i t t l e impact on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g beyond e n c o u r a g i n g the Branch t h a t some form of waste c o n t r o l was d e s i r a b l e . The one o b j e c t i o n by an o r g a n i z e d i n t e r e s t ( f i s h e r m e n ) , f o r which a r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n e x i s t e d ( l a y i n g a d d i t i o n a l p i p e ) s h o r t of i mposing h i g h c o s t s on the d i s c h a r g e r d i d i n f l u e n c e the c o n d i t i o n s of the p e r m i t i s s u e d . d) I n f o r m a t i o n used i n e v a l u a t i o n of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s Branch p r o c e s s i n g p e r s o n n e l commonly r e c e i v e d i n f o r m a t i o n 1 19 from the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s i n e v a l u a t i n g the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of a proposed d i s c h a r g e : the proponent — i n d i c a t e d the l o c a t i o n and number of proposed d i s c h a r g e s , i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d , means of waste r e d u c t i o n and t r e a t m e n t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e f f l u e n t , e f f e c t s of t r e a t m e n t c o s t s on p r o f i t a b i l i t y ; r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s - - p r o v i d e d c o n c e r n s and i n f o r m a t i o n about p o t e n t i a l impacts on o t h e r water uses and r e s o u r c e s ; r e g i o n a l o f f i c e - - g e n e r a l l y conducted s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s and r e p o r t e d on the l o c a l r e c e i v i n g environment; head o f f i c e — c o n f o r m i t y of p r o s p o s a l w i t h broad p o l i c i e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s was never p e r f e c t , so t h a t d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s c o u l d choose w i t h f u l l knowledge of the consequences of each c h o i c e b e f o r e them. For example, when the Branch r e q u i r e d T i t a n S t e e l t o i n c u r the e x t r a c o s t of b u i l d i n g 'a l o n g e r p i p e t o d i s c h a r g e t o the F r a s e r i t s e l f i n s t e a d of Gunderson S l o u g h , they d i d not know whether f i s h i n g b o a t s i n the s l o u g h would c o r r o d e or n o t , but the r i s k and i t s p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s would have made a d e c i s i o n t o p e r m i t d i s c h a r g e t o the s l o u g h unwise. The f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s hampered informed d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g : 1) In a new d i s c h a r g e ( v e r s u s e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s j u s t coming under p e r m i t ) , proponents appeared f r e q u e n t l y t o not know e x a c t l y or even r o u g h l y how much and what type of e f f l u e n t they would be d i s c h a r g i n g , or what means of abatement they would employ. In my 13 c a s e s , Branch e n g i n e e r s o f t e n wrote a p p l i c a n t s t o i n s i s t t h a t they needed more i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s 1 20 i n o r d e r t o p r o c e s s the a p p l i c a t i o n . They d i d not n e c e s s a r i y r e c e i v e a u s e f u l r e p l y . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n by McPhee (1978) i n h i s e v a l u a t i o n of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n B.C.'s p u l p and paper i n d u s t r y f i t s h e r e : "The f a c t t h a t the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch was unable t o g e n e r a t e i t s own i n f o r a m t i o n , c l e a r l y demonstrates t h a t i t i s handicapped when a s s e s s i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p e r m i t s . D e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s are o f t e n based on i n f o r m a t i o n produced by the p e r m i t a p p l i c a n t " . A p p l i c a n t s and p e r m i t t e e s f r e q u e n t l y d i s m i s s e d t r e a t m e n t o p t i o n s on the b a s i s of t h e i r c o s t l i n e s s , and the Branch, a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o the r e c o r d I o b s e r v e d , never s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d such c l a i m s . They were g e n e r a l l y taken as g i v e n s , as c o n s t r a i n t s . Even when p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the c o s t of a c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e x i s t e d , i g n o r a n c e of the p a r t i c u l a r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of an o p e r a t i o n ( p r o b a b l y one of i t s more c l o s e l y guarded s e c r e t s ) seemed t o impede p u r s u i t of t h i s i s s u e . 2) R e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s , i n t h e i r comments, c o u l d g e n e r a l l y o n l y suggest a vauge r i s k of d e l e t e r i o u s i m p a c t s . For example, the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch's response t o an a p p l i c a t i o n by Burnaby f o r a l a n d f i l l (Ar-5619) s t a t e d : T h i s o f f i c e i s concerned about the p r o x i m i t y of the proposed l a n d f i l l t o S t i l l Creek which d r a i n s i n t o Burnaby Lake and e v e n t u a l l y t o the B r u n e t t e R i v e r . L e a c h a t e s from d e p o s i t e d h o g f u e l c o u l d have the p o t e n t i a l t o f u r t h e r compromise water q u a l i t y i n t h e s e systems. {My emphasis.} We a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned about the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of l e a c h a t e s and degraded water q u a l i t y on the l a r g e numbers of w a t e r f o w l which a r e found on Burnaby Lake. In a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r d e g r a d a t i o n of water q u a l i t y may a f f e c t 121 our c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e enhancement of B r u n e t t e . R i v e r f i s h s t o c k s . Adverse impacts on t h e s e r e s o u r c e s may have a pronounced a f f e c t { s i c } on p r e s e n t and f u t u r e urban r e c r e a t i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e a r e a . {My emphasis.} Statements t h i s vague, though honest i n t h e i r a d m i s s i o n of u n c e r t a i n t y , and n e c e s s i t a t e d by the i n a b i l i t y t o a c c u r a t e l y p r e d i c t f u t u r e i m p a c t s , a l l o w g r e a t room f o r i n c r e m e n t a l compromising of water q u a l i t y . 3) W holesale i g n o r a n c e o f t e n e x i s t s as t o not o n l y the e f f e c t but even the v e r y presence of c e r t a i n t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s i n e f f l u e n t . Heavy m e t a l s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o n l y began t o be r e g i s t e r e d and c o n t r o l l e d on p e r m i t s i n the 1970's, though they have always e x i s t e d i n d i s c h a r g e s . The same i g n o r a n c e e x i s t s w i t h r e g a r d t o the u l t i m a t e c h r o n i c e f f e c t s of the combined l o a d i n g s of hundreds of s u b s t a n c e s d i s c h a r g e d i n thousands of l o c a t i o n s throughout the b a s i n . e) Time taken t o p r o c e s s a p p l i c a t i o n s My i n s p e c t i o n of over 50 p e r m i t s i n the Lower M a i n l a n d O f f i c e i n d i c a t e d t h a t most a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t do l e a d t o p e r m i t s b e i n g i s s u e d (the v a s t m a j o r i t y of them) ta k e on the o r d e r of s e v e r a l months t o h a l f a y e ar from date of a p p l i c a t i o n t o d a t e of i s s u a n c e , a l t h o u g h p r o t r a c t e d n e g o t i a t i o n s can i n c r e a s e t h i s p e r i o d c o n s i d e r a b l y . In s e v e r a l of my 13 c a s e s , n e g o t i a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d over a p e r i o d of two or more y e a r s , w h i l e o p e r a t i o n s (and waste d i s c h a r g e s ) c o n t i n u e d unabated. T h i s a c c o r d s w i t h what o t h e r s have t o l d me happens i n v a r i o u s "problem" c a s e s ( f o r 122 i n s t a n c e , Ackerman, 1980). I i n t e r v i e w e d one c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r whose f i r m had d e a l t w i t h the Branch on b e h a l f of a p e r m i t a p p l i c a n t . He i n f o r m e d me t h a t w h i l e h i s f i r m had e n j o y e d good w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h Branch p e r s o n n e l , f o r a time he and h i s c l i e n t s became f r u s t r a t e d a t seemingly i n e x p l i c a b l e d e l a y s (on the o r d e r of two months) i n p r o c e s s i n g of the p e r m i t , when they were a n x i o u s t o p r o c e e d . 5 . 2 A C r i t i q u e 5.2.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s I s the Branch f a i t h f u l l y e x e c u t i n g the terms of the Act and R e g u l a t i o n s i n p r o c e s s i n g of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s ? In g e n e r a l I found t h a t c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p r o c e d u r e s from the R e g u l a t i o n s and s. 4 of t h e A c t c o n c e r n i n g r e f e r r a l of a p p l i c a t i o n s t o o t h e r a g e n c i e s , t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the B.C.  G a z e t t e and l o c a l newspapers, and t r e a t m e n t of o b j e c t o r s was commendable and i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the l e t t e r of the law. On some p o i n t s , as w i t h adherence t o the p r e c i s e t i m e s l i m i t s p r e s c r i b e d , t h e r e was f r e q u e n t non-compliance, but t h i s i s a minor m a t t e r , and more o f t e n than not due t o slow responses from o t h e r a g e n c i e s . In two c a s e s i n e x p l i c a b l e d e l a y s i n p r o c e s s i n g vexed, i n one, the a p p l i c a n t , and i n the o t h e r , an o b j e c t i n g m u n i c i p a l i t y , but t h e r e i s no requirement i n the Act or R e g u l a t i o n s on how l o n g the Branch may t a k e t o d e c i d e on an a p p l i c a t i o n . In my c a s e s t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e t h a t the Branch was 123 d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s f a c e - t o - f a c e w i t h o b j e c t o r s , as i t has been c l a i m e d they do. C o n s i d e r i n g the exchanges t h a t o c c u r r e d i n w r i t i n g , a meeting may have proven u s e f u l t o the o b j e c t o r , a l t h o u g h I cannot be c e r t a i n they would even have wanted t o meet w i t h the Branch. 5.2.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n a) I s the d e c i s i o n t o g r a n t a p e r m i t made on the b a s i s of the b e s t knowledge p r a c t i c a l l y o b t a i n a b l e on the p r o b a b l e impact of the proposed d i s c h a r g e and the impact of abatement c o s t s on the d i s c h a r g e r ? I f the l a c k of a comprehensive, ongoing r e s e a r c h programme to p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n i s i g n o r e d f o r a moment, the answer would be a q u a l i f i e d " y e s " . By c o n d u c t i n g s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s , s o l i c i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and co n c e r n s from o t h e r a g e n c i e s , demanding more i n f o r m a t i o n from a p p l i c a n t s when gaps a r e d e t e c t e d , and making crude e s t i m a t e s on the a b i l i t y of the l o c a l r e c e i v i n g water t o absorb the d i s c h a r g e , a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t of much of the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e q u i r e d . I c o u l d not a s s e s s the degree t o which the l i t e r a t u r e was sea r c h e d t o l e a r n from e x p e r i e n c e e l s e w h e r e . Major u n c e r t a i n t i e s s t i l l c o m p l i c a t e d e c i s i o n s , but many of them s i m p l y c o u l d not be e l i m i n a t e d by any amount of r e s e a r c h p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the l i m i t e d time frame. The F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch's c o n c e r n s f o r S t i l l Creek and Burnaby Lake a r e an example. At l e a s t two weak a r e a s do seem e v i d e n t . F i r s t , t h e r e a r e p r o b a b l y s t i l l many i n s t a n c e s i n which t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s p r e s e n t 124 i n d i s c h a r g e s are not d e t e c t e d or c o n t r o l l e d , a l t h o u g h the p a s t decade has seen a g r e a t improvement i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n t r o l . F u r t h e r improvement i s p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y i f we a r e t o a v o i d r i s k s of c h r o n i c i m p a c t s . Second, as McPhee (1978) has a l s o p o i n t e d o u t , the Branch i s handicapped i n a s s e s s i n g an a p p l i c a n t ' s p r o f e s s e d a b i l i t y t o pay f o r c o n t r o l s . The P o r t A l i c e c o n t r o v e r s y c i t e d by McPhee i s a case i n p o i n t . In 1973, when the Branch o r d e r e d R a y o n i e r Canada L t d . To i n s t a l l $10 m i l l i o n of equipment t o p r o t e c t the waters of Q u a t s i n o Sound, R a y o n i e r r e t a l i a t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i o n c u t b a c k s and l a y o f f s , i n s i s t i n g t h i s was the o n l y way i t c o u l d comply. I t a l s o r a i s e d the s p e c t r e of a complete shutdown, w i t h d r a s t i c consequences f o r the s m a l l community of P o r t A l i c e . Community r e a c t i o n was s h a r p . Even the p r e s s , n o r m a l l y c r u s a d e r s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y , saw t h i s c o n f l i c t i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . : "Most newspapers r e p o r t e d the i s s u e as one of e n v i r o n m e n t a l q u a l i t y v e r s u s community s u r v i v a l and came out h e a v i l y on the s i d e of the community," (McPhee, 1978: p. 283). The Branch was i n a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d t o a s s e s s R a y o n i e r ' s r e a l c o n s t r a i n t s . A f t e r h o l d i n g f u l l - s c a l e h e a r i n g s , the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board e v e n t u a l l y s t r u c k what was w i d e l y r e g a r d e d as a major compromise. T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s a p o s s i b l e consequence of the Branch l i m i t i n g i t s review t o " t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i n s " : the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c / e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a d e - o f f s of r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i f they a r e ever t o be c l a r i f i e d , weighed, and d e b a t e l y o p e n l y , must be dragged t h r o u g h f u l l - f l e d g e d Board h e a r i n g s , something t h a t happens i n l i t t l e more than a h a n d f u l of c a s e s y e a r l y . I t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of 125 c a s e s , the i s s u e s of g r e a t e s t p r i o r i t y a r e never r e a l l y exposed d i r e c t l y . They w i l l o f t e n s u r f a c e i n debates over seemingly a r c a n e , t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s . b) When the impact of a proposed d i s c h a r g e i s u n c e r t a i n , do d e c i s i o n s r e f l e c t an attempt t o m i n i m i z e the r i s k of both unnecessary or c o s t l y abatement e x p e n d i t u r e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage? The r e c o r d shows f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h a t the Branch had tended t o opt f o r t h o s e c h o i c e s which produce g r e a t e r r i s k t o the environment i n o r d e r t o ease c o s t s of co m p l i a n c e f o r p e r m i t t e e s . Sometimes t h e s e d e c i s i o n s have a l s o l e d c l e a r l y t o severe l o c a l p o l l u t i o n problems. In a l l t h r e e r e f u s e p e r m i t f i l e s I examined, the Branch r e f r a i n e d from r e q u i r i n g h i g h e r s a f e g u a r d s , the r e s u l t of which was e v e n t u a l l y h i g h l e a c h a t e g e n e r a t i o n w i t h consequent impact on nearby w a t e r c o u r s e s . The same approach i s adopted on broader p o l i c y i s s u e s a l o n g the r i v e r , the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d c h l o r i n a t i o n debate between WMB and EPS b e i n g o n l y one example. As an o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r of t h i s d e b a t e , on the b a s i s of the few arguments I saw p r e s e n t e d , I was n e i t h e r c o n v i n c e d t h a t p r e s e n t c h l o r i n a t i o n p r a c t i c e s c o n s t i t u t e d a t h r e a t o r t h a t t h e y d i d n o t . In d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e r r i n one of two ways. EPS would p r e f e r t o e r r w e l l on the s i d e of o v e r - p r o t e c t i o n even though i t means c o s t l i e r t r e a t m e n t . WMB l e a n s i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , p r e f e r i n g e v i d e n c e of damage b e f o r e t a k i n g d e c i s i v e a c t i o n t h a t w i l l c o s t money. In f a i r n e s s , however, i n t h i s case they a l r e a d y had r e q u i r e d d e c h l o r i n a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n s e v e r a l 1 26 i n s t a n c e s , d e s p i t e r e m a i n i n g u n c o n v i n c e d t h a t c h l o r i n e r e s i d u a l s were a s e r i o u s problem. Once a g a i n , an o b s e r v a t i o n from Holden (1966) seems a p p r o p r i a t e i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s b e h a v i o u r : "The more complex the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n , the more d i f f i c u l t y the r e g u l a t o r has i n l a y i n g down r u l e s which he f e e l s c o n f i d e n t i n e n f o r c i n g or which are a c t u a l l y e n f o r c e a b l e no m a t t e r how c o n f i d e n t he f e e l s , " (p. 3 1 ) . c) I s t h e e v a l u a t i o n of each i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a t i o n made i n the c o n t e x t of the c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t of a l l d i s c h a r g e r s on water q u a l i t y ? The p r i m a r y f o c u s i s s t i l l on l e v e l of p o l l u t a n t removal a c h i e v a b l e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s c h a r g e w i t h the r e c e i v i n g environment a secondary c o n c e r n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e appears t o be a modest attempt t o take c u m u l a t i v e impacts i n t o a c c o u n t . To date however, any such e f f o r t s have been i s o l a t e d and r a t h e r c r u d e . FRES water q u a l i t y s t u d i e s have produced rough e s t i m a t e s of t o t a l l o a d i n g s of d i f f e r e n t p o l l u t a n t s t o d i f f e r e n t reaches of the r i v e r as w e l l as l e v e l s of water q u a l i t y a t d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s . Such e s t i m a t e s a r e e s s e n t i a l t o form the b a s i s of any s e r i o u s e f f o r t t o c o n t r o l a g g r e g a t e l o a d i n g s , but they a r e not enough. What i s s t i l l needed a r e p r e d i c t i v e water q u a l i t y models t h a t w i l l e nable the c a l c u l a t i o n of a c c e p t a b l e l o a d i n g s by r e a c h . As the F r a s e r V a l l e y , lower and upper, c o n t i n u e t o grow, p r o t e c t i o n of water q u a l i t y w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y demand a more s y s t e m a t i c , s o p h i s t i c a t e d approach t o the c o n t r o l of d i s c h a r g e s than the ad hoc approach used t o d a t e . 127 5.2.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s Are a l l i n t e r e s t s c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g e v a l u a t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p e r m i t s ? I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t o f f i c i a l and u n o f f i c i a l c h a n n e l s of communication would i n f o r m e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s of a p p l i c a t i o n s r a i s i n g s i g n i f i c a n t c o n e r n s . I t i s l e s s l i k e l y t h a t a l l p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d l a n d owners a r e r eached by the e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . P o s t i n g an i n c o n s p i c u o u s sheet o n - s i t e and a d v e r t i s i n g i n obscure l e g a l ad s e c t i o n s i s not a way t o a t t r a c t a t t e n t i o n . Once c o n s u l t e d , i n g e n e r a l i t appears t h a t the i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i e s p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d by a d i s c h a r g e were accomodated o n l y t o a f a i r l y modest degree i n the d e c i s i o n s a c t u a l l y made. The Branch has i n s i s t e d t h a t i t g i v e s g r e a t weight t o " p r o p e r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d " o b j e c t i o n s . I t would seem t h a t g r e a t e r weight i s a t t a c h e d t o the economic r a t i o n a l e s put f o r w a r d by development or b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . Even assuming an o b j e c t i o n t o a proposed d i s c h a r g e i s p r o p e r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d — t h a t the o b j e c t o r has demonstrated u n e q u i v o c a b l y t h a t he, she, or the environment w i l l be damaged--there i s s t i l l the h a r d q u e s t i o n of whether t h i s damage exceeds the c o s t of a v e r t i n g i t t h rough h i g h e r c o n t r o l measures or p r o h i b i t i n g the d i s c h a r g e a l t o g e t h e r , and the h ard f a c t i s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y t h e r e w i l l be a l o s e r . In most c a s e s so f a r where i n t e r e s t s hve c l a s h e d , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s have been the l o s e r s . W h i l e the immediate i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i s not b e i n g s e r v e d , such a c o n c l u s i o n assumes t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h i s stream f o r f i s h or t h a t l a k e f o r w a t e r f o w l i s always more i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t than b e i n g a b l e 1 28 t o d e v e l o p t h i s e x t r a u n i t of l a n d or spend t h a t sum of money on goods o t h e r than p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l equipment. E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s t y p i c a l l y assume (a t l e a s t i n t h e i r p u b l i c p o s t u r i n g ) t h a t o n l y n e g l e c t , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and g reed a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p o l l u t i o n ; t hey downplay whatever the r e a l c o s t s of p r e v e n t i n g i t a r e . But u n l e s s these c o s t s a r e p u b l i c i z e d , which no one i n the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l game i s now d o i n g (FRES r e p o r t s d i s c u s s i n g the c o s t of a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c sewage t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s a re an e x c e p t i o n ) , we w i l l c o n t i n u e t o see some p o l l u t e r s b l u f f t h e i r way t o l i g h t e r c o n t r o l s as w e l l as a good d e a l of m i s p l a c e d o u t c r y about "what the p o l l u t e r s a r e g e t t i n g away w i t h " . One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the a p p l i c a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s t h a t tends t o f a v o u r proponents over o t h e r i n t e r e s t s i s t h a t the b a r g a i n i n g t h a t o c c u r s i s p r i m a r i l y a t w o - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e g u l a t o r s and the r e g u l a t e d . O b j e c t o r s (a t h i r d p a r t y ) d i d n o t , i n my c a s e s , even speak p e r s o n a l l y t o e i t h e r the Branch e n g i n e e r conductng the e v a l u a t i o n or t o the proponent h i m s e l f . The Branch and the proponent meanwhile, i n t e r a c t much more c l o s e l y w h i l e n e g o t i a t i n g d e t a i l s and, a t l e a s t from the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e I viewed, e n j o y e d a c o o p e r a t i v e , i f u s u a l l y f o r m a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e r e i s some compromise i n f a v o u r of the p roponent. 129 Notes t o Chapter F i v e 1 There have been, however, numerous d i s p u t e s between the WMB, the B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e , and m u n i c i p a l a g e n c i e s over the s e r i o u s n e s s of c e r t a i n p o l l u t i o n problems. Of the ca s e s I examined, V i t o S t e e l (PR-4468) and Ven-Dev Corp. (PR-4745) f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . 2 " P o l l u t e r s Heed Warning", Vancouver P r o v i n c e , Oct-. 30, 1970, p. 6. R e p o r t e d i n Franson e t a l . (1976). 3 A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s t e c h n i c i a n , many o f f e n d i n g p r o p e r t y owners and hog f u e l c a r r i e r s c l a i m e d t o be unaware of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l r e q u i r e m e n t s . The Branch's p o l i c y was t o warn f i r s t - t i m e o f f e n d e r s . u At the time of t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n , they were not a c t u a l l y under p e r m i t , as t h e i r o r i g i n a l one had e x p i r e d i n December, 1967. 5 W h i l e t h i s o p e r a t i o n and numerous o t h e r s had l o n g been d i s c h a r g i n g heavy m e t a l s i n t o the F r a s e r , o n l y i n the 1970's ( i n B.C. As elsewhere) have e f f o r t s been made t o monitor and c o n t r o l t h e s e . 130 Chapter S i x MONITORING AND ENFORCEMENT - THE REAL WORLD 6.1 F i n d i n g s The a c t i v i t i e s d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g two c h a p t e r s — s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s — a r e p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s i o n s of p o l i c y i n t e n t i o n s , and must s t i l l be implemented. U s i n g my case s t u d i e s and o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , I now d i s c u s s m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o the outcome of thes e i n t e n t i o n s . 6.1.1 Who M o n i t o r s I found t h a t p e r m i t - h o l d e r s sample t h e i r own waste d i s c h a r g e s . P e r m i t s r e q u i r e them t o sample t h o s e parameters f o r which l i m i t s a r e s e t and t o r e p o r t the r e s u l t s q u a r t e r l y , semi-a n n u a l l y , or a n n u a l l y t o the Branch. S i n c e most o p e r a t i o n s do not have t h e i r own l a b o r a t o r y f a c i l i t i e s , samples a r e most o f t e n sent f o r a n a l y s i s t o commercial l a b s . In the t a k i n g of samples, t h e r e i s s t i l l ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e l i b e r a t e or i n a d v e r t e n t t a m p e r i n g , so t h a t the Branch i t s e l f t a k e s o c c a s i o n a l samples t o v e r i f y the i n t e g r i t y of the p e r m i t t e e ' s sample r e s u l t s . I have p o i n t e d out p r e v i o u s l y t h a t t h e s e p r e s c r i b e d e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g programmes f r e q u e n t l y omit t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s from measurement, and a l s o i n a d e q u a t e l y sample a c u t e t o x i c i t y . In o t h e r r e s p e c t s , such as coverage of c o n v e n t i o n a l p o l l u t a n t s (BOD, SS, pH, c o l i f o r m s , o i l and g r e a s e ) , m o n i t o r i n g programmes ar e more com p l e t e . They are a l s o more e x t e n s i v e f o r l a r g e r d i s c h a r g e r s , which i s a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r these a r e most l i k e l y t o 131 i m p a i r water q u a l i t y . R e c e i v i n g water s a m p l i n g i n the v i c i n i t y of the o u t f a l l was not r e q u i r e d of any p e r m i t t e e by any of over 60 p e r m i t s t h a t I i n s p e c t e d . R a t h e r , many p e r m i t s s t a t e t h a t : " R e c e i v i n g water m o n i t o r i n g may be implemented by the Branch". Both r e c e i v i n g water and e f f l u e n t s a m p l i n g d a t a a r e e n t e r e d i n t o EQUIS. 6.1.2 Water Q u a l i t y M o n i t o r i n g The WMB c o n d u c t s two g e n e r a l t y p e s of water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g i n the F r a s e r : ongoing s u r v e i l l a n c e m o n i t o r i n g , i n t e n d e d t o document water c h e m i s t r y and changes over time i n d i f f e r e n t r eaches of the r i v e r , and zone of i n f l u e n c e m o n i t o r i n g , t o a s s e s s the impact of s p e c i f i c o u t f a l l s on nearby water q u a l i t y . S y s t e m a t i c s u r v e i l l a n c e m o n i t o r i n g by the WMB d a t e s back o n l y a few y e a r s , but as i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter One, has been conducted u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y by d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s s i n c e the 1950's. That good i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n making i n t e l l i g e n t d e c i s i o n s on m a t t e r s t h a t can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the environment i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . The FRES Water Q u a l i t y Summary Report recommends a stepped-up programme of m o n i t o r i n g the F r a s e r ' s water a t r e g u l a r s i t e s and i n t e r v a l s , as w e l l as a number of o t h e r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s t o i l l u m i n a t e v a r i o u s unknowns. Yet a c c o r d i n g t o M. C l a r k (1980) and G. Gough (1980), two of the WMB s c i e n t i s t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of an ongoing e f f o r t t o g a t h e r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f o r m a t i o n , funds a v a i l a b l e f o r such background r e s e a r c h have d w i n d l e d s i n c e the a c t i v e r e s e a r c h phase of the E s t u a r y Study. A number of s a m p l i n g p o i n t s have 132 had t o be dropped, and the whole programme i s now " b a r e l y adequate". Zone of i n f l u e n c e m o n i t o r i n g appears even l e s s than b a r e l y adequate. A 1979 i n t e r n a l LMO review of seven m u n i c i p a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h r e e of the seven p e r m i t s r e q u i r e d no r e c e i v i n g m o n i t o r i n g whatsoever. In those f o u r c a s e s where i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Branch would implement a m o n i t o r i n g programme, i n f a c t no water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g had been conducted a t a l l . ( I n one case two b i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s were made.) In none of my own 13 p e r m i t r e v i e w s was any r e g u l a r r e c e i v i n g water programme implemented. In one (B.C. P a c k e r s ) the Branch d i d conduct a b i o l o g i c a l impact s t u d y , w h i l e i n two (B.C. P a c k e r s and T i t a n S t e e l ) EPS d i d some s t u d i e s of t h e i r own. In two of the r e f u s e p e r m i t s , VenDev and V i t o , the Branch made i n s p e c t i o n s i n an e f f o r t t o a s s e s s the impact of the l e a c h a t e g e n e r a t e d on the s m a l l d i t c h e s and streams i n t o which i t f i r s t f l o w e d . No samples were ever taken t o a s s e s s the l o c a l impact on the F r a s e r i t s e l f . In summary, my r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s t h a t zone of i n f l u e n c e m o n i t o r i n g has been n o n - e x i s t e n t t o s p o t t y a t b e s t . 6.1.3 Compliance w i t h P r o c e d u r a l Requirements P e r m i t t e e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o f o l l o w c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s such as p r o p e r l y m a i n t a i n i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works, r e c o r d i n g c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n , s a m p l i n g e f f l u e n t and r e p o r t i n g the r e s u l t s a t s p e c i f i e d i n t e r v a l s , and s u b m i t t i n g p l a n s f o r a p p r o v a l . These " p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " a r e an i m p o r t a n t source of 133 n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , and a l t h o u g h c o m p l i a n c e or non-compliance w i t h them has no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on p o l l u t i o n , the b e h a v i o u r shown i s an e x p r e s s i o n of g o o d w i l l , or the l a c k of i t . " S u b s t a n t i v e " r e q u i r e m e n t s , or t h o s e connected w i t h p e r m i s s i b l e d i s c h a r g e s , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . F o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the r e c o r d of c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e q u i r e d p r o c e d u r e s f o r each p e r m i t t e e I s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l , as w e l l as a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of the Branch's r e l a t e d s u p e r v i s o r y e f f o r t s . PE-2 S t . George H o l d i n g s L t d . 10,000 G a l l o n s Per Day (GPD) of domestic sewage; e q u i v a l e n t of secondary t r e a t m e n t ; p e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1957, o r i g i n a l l y no m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . Amended p e r m i t i s s u e d J u l y , 1973. E x c e r p t s from F i l e PE-2; Feb. 1975 - L e t t e r t o p e r m i t t e e from R e g i o n a l Manager a d v i s i n g t h a t f i r s t m o n i t o r i n g r e p o r t was due h a l f a y ear e a r l i e r . Report then s u b m i t t e d i n March, 1975. Nov. 1975 - Branch memo no t e s t h a t whereas most r e c e n t a n n u a l m o n i t o r i n g r e p o r t s h o u l d have had 12 s e t s of d a t a (one per month), i n f a c t o n l y one was s u p p l i e d . Aug. 1978 - I n s p e c t i o n Report says the p e r m i t t e e i s up-t o - d a t e on m o n i t o r i n g . May, 1980 - L e t t e r t o p e r m i t t e e a d v i s e s : " R e g i o n a l O f f i c e f i l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Company has f a i l e d t o submit the e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g r e s u l t s as s t i p u l a t e d . . . . N o n - c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of your P e r m i t c o n s t i t u t e s a v i o l a t i o n of the A c t " . " R e g i o n a l O f f i c e would a p p r e c i a t e r e c e i v i n g a l l m o n i t o r i n g d a t a f o r 1979 by June 2, 1980 and on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t h e r e a f t e r " . June, 1980 - T e c h n i c a l S u p e r v i s o r meets w i t h p e r m i t t e e t o d i s c u s s l a c k of d a t a s u b m i s s i o n and l a c k of response t o May l e t t e r . P e r m i t t e e a d v i s e s t h a t samples were then a t a l a b , which was l a t e r v e r i f i e d . P e r m i t t e e p r o m i s e s t o comply i n the f u t u r e . Aug. 1980 - I n s p e c t i o n Report s a y s : "Housekeeping v e r y p o o r . . . . L i q u o r b o t t l e s seen f l o a t i n g i n c l a r i f i e r 1 34 t a n k " . Comments; P e r m i t t e e ' s m o n i t o r i n g performance g e n e r a l l y v e r y p o o r . I t seems e v i d e n t t h a t l i t t l e i f a n y t h i n g would be s u b m i t t e d w i t h o u t c o n t i n u a l p r e s s u r e from the LMO. The Branch i n s p e c t e d t h i s o p e r a t i o n an average of 2 t i m e s a y e a r . 17 BOD and SS samples were c o l l e c t e d by the Branch between 1972 and 1975. (Branch s a m p l i n g a f t e r 1975 was u n s p e c i f i e d . ) PE-14 M i s s i o n C i t y 1,150,000 GPD of u n t r e a t e d sewage i n t o the F r a s e r ; i s s u e d i n 1957, f i l e c l o s e d i n e a r l y 1976; no m o n i t o r i n g ever r e q u i r e d . E x c e r p t s from F i l e PE-14; Dec. 1975 - Branch memo re a d s : " c o n t a c t e d . . . C i t y E n g i n e e r , r e g a r d i n g r e f e r e n c e d p e r m i t . {He} s t a t e d t h a t t h i s o u t f a l l had l o n g been d i s c o n n e c t e d and t h a t a l l m u n i c i p a l wastewater was d i r e c t e d i n t o the main sewage tr e a t m e n t p l a n t c o v e r e d by PR-313. He promised t o c o n f i r m the same by l e t t e r " . The l a s t p r e v i o u s e n t r y i n e i t h e r V i c t o r i a or Lower M a i n l a n d f i l e s was s i x y e a r s e a r l i e r , i n 1969. PE-77 Maple Ridge 1,670,000 GPD t r e a t e d sewage i n t o the F r a s e r ; p e r m i t o r i g i n a l l y i s s u e d i n 1963 and amended f o u r t i m e s ; e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g f i r s t r e q u i r e d i n 1972; samples t o be taken monthly and r e p o r t e d s e m i - a n n u a l l y to the Branch. E x c e r p t s from F i l e PE-77: 1976-78 - P e r m i t t e e c o n t a c t e d f i v e t i m e s by LMO over l a c k of d a t a s u b m i s s i o n . In t h i s p e r i o d f o u r r e p o r t s were r e q u i r e d w h i l e two were a c t u a l l y s u b m i t t e d . June, 1979 - I n s p e c t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s by t e c h n i c i a n . L a t e s t m o n i t o r i n g r e p o r t due t h r e e months e a r l i e r . " I n d i c a t e d t o p e r m i t t e e t h a t we would be needing t h a t d a t a soon he s a i d he would send i t i n s h o r t l y " . Sent i n September. Comments: Branch i n s p e c t i o n s averaged 2 per y e a r , though none i n d i c a t e d f o r . 1980. P l a n t house-keeping g e n e r a l l y good. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t p e r m i t t e e would not be s u b m i t t i n g d a t a w i t h o u t c o n t i n u a l p r e s s u r e from LMO. PE-108 M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l P a c k a g i n g L t d . P e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1964 t o d i s c h a r g e 25,000 GPD u n t r e a t e d i n d u s t r i a l e f f l u e n t t o the N o r t h Arm. In 1974, i n - p l a n t r e c y c l i n g was t o have reduced d i s c h a r g e t o uncontaminated c o o l a n t 135 and p r o c e s s e f f l u e n t o v e r f l o w s o n l y . E x c e r p t s from F i l e PE-108: 1977 - I n s p e c t i o n Report s a y s : " t h e r e i s no l o n g e r any e f f l u e n t . The p i p e l i n e s t i l l e x i s t s but i s d i s c o n n e c t e d . When they get t o o much t o handle they c a l l i n a sewage company t o d r a i n out t h e i r s e p t i c t a n k s (so not even used f o r o v e r f l o w ) " . 1978 - I n s p e c t i o n Report s a y s : "good house-keeping"; " c l e a r e f f l u e n t ( s h o u l d be j u s t c o o l a n t ) " ; "no d a t a on f i l e " ; "no d a t a s u b m i t t e d ( s h o u l d o n l y be s u b m i t t i n g temp. d a t a " . A LMO s u p e r v i s o r p e n c i l l e d i n : "The p e r m i t i s f o r o v e r f l o w s o n l y " . 1979 - I n s p e c t i o n Report s a y s : " c l e a r e f f l u e n t " ; "In c o m p l i a n c e " . Comments: Three LMO i n s p e c t i o n s were r e c o r d e d between 1975 and 1980. There has been some c o n f u s i o n as t o what the p e r m i t i s f o r . Temperature v a l u e s s h o u l d be s u b m i t t e d f o r c o o l i n g water, but t h i s has not been done. The absence of r e p o r t s on c o n t a m i n a t e d e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r t h a t they have not o c c u r r e d or have not been r e p o r t e d . PE-161 T i t a n S t e e l & Wire Co. L t d . 100,000 GPD of t r e a t e d i n d u s t r i a l e f f l u e n t i n t o the Main Arm; i s s u e d i n 1966, amended i n 1975. Comments: The r e c o r d i n d i c a t e s g e n e r a l l y good co m p l i a n c e by T i t a n w i t h i t s m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . There i s n o t h i n g on f i l e i n d i c a t i n g a c o n t i n u a l need t o remind them of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o p i o u s d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s r e p o r t (Swain, 1981). I n s p e c t e d 2-4 t i m e s a year by LMO. PE-1830 B.C. P a c k e r s I m p e r i a l P l a n t P e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1973 t o d i s c h a r g e 1,500,000 GPD of f i s h p r o c e s s i n g wastes ( s e a s o n a l l y ) i n t o Cannery Channel. Amended t w i c e . Comments: P e r m i t t e e appears t o have c o m p l i e d w i t h a d i r e c t i v e t o s e a r c h f o r a means of s l u d g e d i s p o s a l , a l t h o u g h I cannot t e l l how c o n c e r t e d an e f f o r t was a c t u a l l y made. A l s o appears t o have been s u b m i t t i n g d a t a r e g u l a r l y , f o r t h e r e i s no r e c o r d of p r e s s u r i n g ever used by the Branch and Swain (1981) i n d i c a t e s p l e n t i f u l r e c o r d s . However, "Compliance of BOD, suspended s o l i d s , and o i l and grease w i t h the p e r m i t l i m i t s cannot be d e t e r m i n e d s i n c e p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s have not been r e c o r d e d , " (Swain, 1981). 136 PE-2756 B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . 9,315,000 GPD of t r e a t e d i n d u s t r i a l e f f l u e n t i n t o the F r a s e r mainstem; p e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1974, amended i n 1977. Comments: F i r s t m o n i t o r i n g one year overdue, "...due t o d e l a y s i n the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e i r e f f l u e n t t r e atment f a c i l i t i e s . They were of the o p i n i o n t h a t any d a t a c o l l e c t e d p r i o r t o the s t a r t - u p of t h e i r new tre a t m e n t system would not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r f i n a l e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e of l i t t l e v a l u e " . The f i r s t d a t a s e t s s u b m i t t e d c o v e r e d o n l y pH and te m p e r a t u r e , o m i t t i n g f i v e o t h e r r e q u i r e d p arameters. Compliance appears t o have been g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y a f t e r t h i s . I n s p e c t e d 1-2 tim e s a n n u a l l y by LMO. House-keeping g e n e r a l l y f a i r . PE-4125 Fraser-Cheam R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t (Hope) 1,500,000 GPD of domestic sewage t r e a t e d w i t h an a e r a t e d lagoon and d i s c h a r g e d a t Hope i n t o the F r a s e r ; p e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1975 and amended i n 1978. Comments: A e r a t e d lagoon began o p e r a t i n g i n l a t e 1979. Two i n s p e c t i o n s made i n 1980. A p r i l 1-80 I n s p e c t i o n R eport i n d i c a t e d t h a t s a m p l i n g f a c i l i t i e s were adequate and d a t a r e p o r t i n g u p - t o - d a t e . PR-4468 V i t o S t e e l Boat & Barge C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . P e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1977 t o f i l l a s i t e near R i v e r Road i n D e l t a . No l e a c h a t e m o n i t o r i n g but o t h e r o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s r e q u i r e d . Comments: D i s c u s s e d i n next s e c t i o n under c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s . AE-4661 V a r t a B a t t e r i e s L t d . A p p l i c a t i o n made i n 1976 but p e r m i t never i s s u e d because p r o c e s s e f f l u e n t , c o o l i n g w a t e r , and s a n i t a r y wastes d i v e r t e d t o m u n i c i p a l s a n i t a r y and storm sewers. PR-4745 VenDev E n t e r p r i s e s L t d . P e r m i t i s u e d i n 1977 t o f i l l s i t e i n C o q u i t l a m . No l e a c h a t e m o n i t o r i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e d . Comments: D i s c u s s e d i n the next s e c t i o n . PR-5443 D i s t r i c t of Burnaby P e r m i t i s s u e d i n 1979 t o f i l l s i t e w i t h hog f u e l and i n e r t m a t e r i a l near S t i l l Creek. L e a c h a t e m o n i t o r i n g not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e d . 1 37 Comments: Complied w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t t o submit f o r a p p r o v a l the d e s i g n of a berm t o be used i n p r o h i b i t i n g d i r e c t l e a c h a t e a c c e s s t o a d i t c h l e a d i n g t o S t i l l Creek. (However, 1980 I n s p e c t i o n Report noted: "berms inadequate a l o n g d i t c h p e r i m e t e r " and "very h i g h l e a c h a t e p r o d u c t i o n i n p e r i m e t e r d i t c h e s which empty i n t o S t i l l Creek".) PE-5729 S.M. P r o d u c t s L t d . & S.M. P r o d u c t s L t d . P e r m i t i s s u e d i n March, 1980 t o d i s c h a r g e 45,000 GPD (max.) f i s h p r o c e s s i n g wastes i n t o the F r a s e r Main Arm. M o n i t o r i n g r e p o r t s s e m i - a n n u a l l y . Comments: F i r s t m o n i t o r i n g r e p o r t due Dec. 31, 1980. Not i n f i l e as of Dec. 15, 1980. To summarize, i n the s e c a s e s c o m p l i a n c e w i t h m o n i t o r i n g and o t h e r p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s was i n c o n s i s t e n t , w i t h some p e r m i t t e e s c o m p l y i n g r e a s o n a b l y w e l l ( r e g u l a r l y s u b m i t t i n g the r e q u i r e d s a m p l i n g r e s u l t s on time and u n s o l i c i t e d ) w h i l e o t h e r s were u n r e l i a b l e : not s u b m i t t i n g a n a l y s e s u n l e s s o r d e r e d t o , and o f t e n not c o l l e c t i n g a l l parameters r e q u i r e d by p e r m i t or sa m p l i n g as f r e q u e n t l y as s t i p u l a t e d . The Branch's (LMO's) response t o non-compliance was t o c o n t a c t the p e r m i t t e e by l e t t e r anytime from s e v e r a l months t o a y e a r a f t e r a m i s s e d d e a d l i n e and a d v i s e them t h a t n e g l e c t e d m o n i t o r i n g c o n t r a v e n e d the law. When t h i s f a i l e d , i t appears t h a t LMO p e r s o n n e l would v i s i t the o p e r a t i o n and speak t o the p e r m i t t e e i n p e r s o n . On more than one o c c a s i o n the response was t h a t the samples were j u s t then a t the l a b or i n the m a i l , l e a d i n g one t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t o n l y the~ Branch's f e l t p r e s e nce l e d t o any m o n i t o r i n g a t a l l i n t h e s e c a s e s . Though l e g a l a c t i o n was mentioned i n s e v e r a l l e t t e r s t o 138 r e c a l c i t r a n t d i s c h a r g e r s , the Branch does not seem t o have ever s e r i o u s l y pursued t h i s o p t i o n i n any of my c a s e s as a means of e n f o r c i n g c o m p l i a n c e w i t h p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . I t i s v e r y s p e c u l a t i v e t o g e n e r a l i z e from such a s m a l l sample, but i t appears t h a t l a r g e r o p e r a t i o n s may comply b e t t e r . W i t h l a r g e r s t a f f s and o p e r a t i n g budgets, m o n i t o r i n g would be l e s s burdensome. (The l a r g e r sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s such as A n n a c i s and Iona a c t u a l l y employ t h e i r own l a b f a c i l t i e s and t e c h n i c i a n s . The volume of d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES M u n i c i p a l E f f l u e n t s r e p o r t ( C a i n and Swain, 1980) i n d i c a t e s good co m p l i a n c e on t h e i r p a r t w i t h t h e i r m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . ) In the FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s s t u d y , Swain (1981) noted the m o n i t o r i n g r e c o r d s of the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of i n d u s t r y i n the Lower F r a s e r : F o r e s t - 16 of 17 o p e r a t i o n s "comply w i t h the i n t e n t of t h e i r m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s " f o r BOD and SS (p. 9 4 ) . "A g e n e r a l l a c k of r e c e n t wastewater m o n i t o r i n g f o r a c u t e t o x i c i t y i s e v i d e n t . F r e q u e n c i e s of m o n i t o r i n g f o r a c u t e t o x i c i t y , as o u t l i n e d i n the o b j e c t i v e s , a r e not b e i n g f o l l o w e d , " (p. 9 4 ) . - Food - There i s "a g e n e r a l l a c k of m o n i t o r i n g d a t a on numerous o p e r a t i o n s , " (p. 4 1 ) . F i v e of the 17 o p e r a t i o n s were e x t r e m e l y poor i n t h e i r m o n i t o r i n g ; f o r two, no d a t a a t a l l were ava i I a b l e . - M e t a l F i n i s h i n g and F a b r i c a t i n g - "The o p e r a t i o n s which c o n t i n u e t o d i s c h a r g e t o the r i v e r meet the i n t e n t of the m o n i t o r i n g programmes , r e q u i r e d by p e r m i t , " (p. 9 9 ) . - Cement - "The o p e r a t i o n s which c o n t i n u e t o d i s c h a r g e wastewater t o the r i v e r meet the i n t e n t of t h e i r r e q u i r e d 1 39 m o n i t o r i n g programs," (p. 100). M i s c e l l a n e o u s - "The o p e r a t i o n s c l a s s i f i e d as m i s c e l l a n e o u s appear t o meet the i n t e n t of p e r m i t m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , " (p. 101). 6.1.4 Compliance w i t h S u b s t a n t i v e Requirements The two c h i e f s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n B.C. P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t s a r e the maximum a l l o w a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s or l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s (the s t a n d a r d s or l i m i t s ) and the a u t h o r i z e d p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works which are supposed t o y i e l d an e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y a t l e a s t as good as the s t a n d a r d when p r o p e r l y c a r e d f o r . (On r e f u s e p e r m i t s , s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s c o n s i s t of a s e t of o p e r a t i n g r u l e s and p r o c e d u r e s . ) A p a r t i c u l a r q u a l i t y of e f f l u e n t i s i n s e p a r a b l e from the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works t h a t d e l i v e r i t . PE-2 S t . George H o l d i n g s L t d . P e r m i t t e d P e r i o d of No. of Parameter L e v e l Record V a l u e s Max. Median Min. SS (mg/L) 60 1965-77 25 66 32 13 BOD (mg/L) 45 1965-77 25 116 36 12 (From FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s , Swain, 1981) A summary of the PCB's own s a m p l i n g from 1972 t o 1975 showed v i o l a t i o n s i n 6 of 17 BOD measurements and 1 of 17 SS measurements. The p e r m i t t e e has a s m a l l secondary a e r a t i o n t r e a t m e n t p l a n t . S i n c e the p e r m i t l i m i t s a r e based on the performance r a t i n g of t h i s p l a n t , any non-compliance i s p r o b a b l y due t o m a l f u n c t i o n s or poor maintenance, e i t h e r of which i s p o s s i b l e w i t h the poor house-keeping WMB i n s p e c t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d . PE-1 4 M i s s i o n C i t y P e r m i t was f o r an o u t f a l l d i s c h a r g i n g u n t r e a t e d sewage 1 40 i n t o the F r a s e r . I t was d i s c o n t i n u e d i n 1974. No m o n i t o r i n g ever c o n d u c t e d . PE-77 Maple Ridge P r o l o n g e d s t a r t - u p problems o r i g i n a l l y l e d t o poor e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y , n o i s e , and odours (and a s u i t brought a g a i n s t the m u n i c i p a l i t y , c o n s u l t i n g e n g i n e e r s , and p l a n t m a n u f a c t u r e r s t h a t was s e t t l e d out of c o u r t f o r $10,000). Lack of sludge d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s r e s u l t s i n the d i g e s t e d sludge b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d t o the r i v e r w i t h the e f f l u e n t . A 1978 r e q u e s t t o ext e n d the d e a d l i n e f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s t o June, 1979 was g r a n t e d . Memo note d : " A p p l i c a n t i s e n d e a v o r i n g t o meet h i s Pe r m i t commitments w i t h due d i s p a t c h and re q u e s t appears t o be r e a s o n a b l e " . In Oct. 1979 i t was noted t h a t the f a c i l i t i e s had not y e t been c o n s t r u c t e d . There i s no mention of the i s s u e i n the f i l e a t a l l i n 1980. Presumably the f a c i l i t i e s a r e s t i l l not c o n s t r u c t e d , w i t h no e x t e n s i o n ever h a v i n g been g r a n t e d . M o n i t o r i n g d a t a summary from the FRES M u n i c i p a l E f f l u e n t s Report ( C a i n and Swain, 1979): BOD P e r i o d of No. of Record V a l u e s Max Mean 1974 1 51 -1975 6 59 41 1976 3 67 63 1977 6 52 33 1978 14 56 26 Suspended S o l i d s No. of Min V a l u e s Max Mean Min - 1 70 - -1 7 6 76 46 22 58 2 37 - 20 14 6 34 25 9 14 14 34 20 10 S t a n d a r d t o J u l y , 1979 = 130 BOD/130 SS St a n d a r d a f t e r J u l y , 1979 = 45 BOD/60 SS PE-108 M a c M i l l a n - B l o e d e l P a c k a g i n g L t d . Under Branch u r g i n g , the p e r m i t t e e i n s t a l l e d an e x t e n s i v e i n t e r n a l r e c y c l i n g and t r e a t m e n t system t h a t i s supposed t o have n e a r l y e l i m i n a t e d a l l d i s c h a r g e of p r o c e s s e f f l u e n t (from a p r e v i o u s f l o w of 4000 GPD). By J u l y , 1974, any p r o c e s s wastewater was t o meet the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shown: 141 Parameter SS BOD O i l & Grease 1974 P e r m i t t e d L e v e l 60 45 15 Oct. 1974 Sample 715 607 63.6 Pre-1974 P e r m i t t e d L e v e l 1 40 40 Pre-1974 Sampling Median 933 800 551 ( A l l v a l u e s a r e mg/L; Median v a l u e s from Swain, 1981) A l t h o u g h the sample shows improved e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y , t h e r e i s s t i l l g r o s s non-compliance f o r BOD, SS, and O i l & Grease. D e s p i t e these v i o l a t i o n s however, s i n c e the r e n o v a t i o n s a r e supposed t o have c u t back s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the volume of e f f l u e n t , t h e r e would s t i l l seem t o be a s u b s t a n t i a l drop i n t o t a l l o a d i n g s , even w i t h the h i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s shown. PE-161 T i t a n S t e e l & Wire Co. L t d . A J a n . 1976 i n s p e c t i o n by Environment Canada r e v e a l e d : "At the o u t f a l l i t was noted t h a t the F r a s e r R i v e r water i s v i s i b l y d i s c o l o u r e d . The c o l o u r of the water was a deep green as compared t o the n a t u r a l muddy c o l o u r of the F r a s e r . I t was a l s o noted t h a t the r i v e r bed i n the v i c i n i t y of the o u t f a l l i s c o v e r e d w i t h s e t t l e d suspended m a t e r i a l from the p l a n t e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e and t h a t the a r e a around the o u t f a l l i s d e v o i d of v i s i b l e a q u a t i c l i f e " . A 1975 memo: "...EPS t e l e p h o n e d t o say t h a t the N a t i o n a l Harbours Board S u r r e y F r a s e r Docks a r e showing s i g n s of c o r r o s i o n which may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the c o r r o s i v e e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e from T i t a n " . M o n i t o r i n g Summary from FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s Report (Swain, 1981): P e r m i t t e d P e r i o d of No. of Parameter L e v e l Record V a l u e s Max Median Min pH 6-9 1965-77 44 12 7.1 1 .6 SS 50 1965-77 1 1 5 7449 64.2 2.7 S u l p h a t e 250 1965-77 99 11100 1 640 470 D i s s . I r o n 1 .0 1974-77 106 4050 0.115 <0.01 D i s s . Lead 0.5 1974-77 105 18.4 0.05 <0.01 D i s s . Z i n c 1 .0 1974-77 105 42.4 0.04 <0.01 (Except f o r pH, a l l v a l u e s e x p r e s s e d as mg/L) T i t a n completed i n s t a l l a t i o n of abatement f a c i l i t i e s i n 1976. In 1977 e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Median v a l u e s f o r SS and the t h r e e m e t a l s were w e l l w i t h i n l i m i t s , though s u l p h a t e v a l u e s were s t i l l 142 s i g n i f i c a n t l y out of c o m p l i a n c e . The f i l e i n d i c a t e s no enforcement a c t i o n by the WMB c o n c e r n i n g t h i s p e r s i s t e n t c o m p l i a n c e . PE-1830 B.C. P a c k e r s I m p e r i a l P l a n t W i t h f i n e s c r e e n i n g i n p l a c e B.C. P a c k e r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o meet L e v e l B O b j e c t i v e s (on which t h e i r amended p e r m i t i s b a s e d ) . P e r m i t t e e has been s u p p l y i n g a n a l y s e s r e g u l a r l y . However, a c c o r d i n g t o Swain (1981), c o m p l i a n c e cannot be a s c e r t a i n e d because p l a n t p r o d u c t i o n f i g u r e s have not been f u r n i s h e d as r e q u i r e d . T h i s i s s u e was never r a i s e d i n the f i l e . PE-2756 B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s L t d . From an O c t . 1978 l e t t e r from LMO t o BCFP: " F u r t h e r t o your l e t t e r of May 3, 1978, we note t h a t the e f f l u e n t t e s t r e s u l t s . . . a r e s t i l l not i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t No. PE-2756. At t h i s t i m e , we would l i k e t o know what a c t i o n i s b e i n g taken i n o r d e r t o b r i n g the e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y i n t o c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the terms and c o n d i t i o n s of the above mentioned P e r m i t " . From an Aug. 1979 l e t t e r from LMO t o BCFP: "We have r e c e i v e d and r e v i e w e d your m o n i t o r i n g r e s u l t s . They i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the e f f l u e n t a r e not i n c o m p l i a n c e . . . . F o r example, T o t a l Suspended S o l i d s s h o u l d be e q u i v a l e n t t o or b e t t e r than 125 l b . / d a y above background l e v e l . The t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t . . . . T h e T o t a l Suspended S o l i d s above background = 3,260 l b . / d a y " . In May, 1980, the p e r m i t t e e i n f o r m e d the LMO by l e t t e r : "...we have now i n s t a l l e d the a d d i t i o n a l s c r e e n and the system i s now r u n n i n g c l o s e d c i r c u i t " . "We have n o t i c e d a s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n the r e l i a b i l i t y of the system and i n the c l a r i t y of the m i l l e f f l u e n t " . PE-4125 R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t of Fraser-Cheam (Hope) Two i n s p e c t i o n s i n 1980 say t h a t the o p e r a t i o n was i n c o m p l i a n c e . I d i d not p e r s o n a l l y examine m o n i t o r i n g d a t a . 1 43 PR-4468 V i t o S t e e l Boat & Barge C o n s t r u c t i o n L t d . From a J u l y 12, 1977 l e t t e r from the LMO t o V i t o : V i t o : " . . . V i t o S t e e l . . . { i s } hereby o r d e r e d , under S e c t i o n 11 of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , t o . . . c o m p l e t e c o v e r i n g of the gypsum waste w i t h i n e r t sand or s o i l s t o the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the R e g i o n a l Manager...by September 1, 1977". August 22, 1977 s i t e i n s p e c t i o n by LMO t e c h n i c i a n c o n c l u d e d : "Order of J u l y 12/77 c o m p l i e d w i t h " . From a Feb. 1978 l e t t e r from the LMO t o V i t o : " I n s p e c t i o n of the s u b j e c t p r o p e r t y b y . . . t h i s o f f i c e on F e b r u a r y 1st and 3rd c o n f i r m e d : a. The o r d e r of J u l y 12, 1977...has not been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y c o m p l i e d w i t h . b. T o x i c l e a c h a t e i s emerging from the w e s t e r n boundary of the s u b j e c t s i t e . In view of the above you a r e r e q u e s t e d t o complete c o v e r i n g of the s i t e as r e q u i r e d . F a i l u r e t o do so may r e s u l t i n p r o s e c u t i o n " . S u b s e q u e n t l y , a May, 1978 s i t e i n s p e c t i o n showed: " I t was r e v e a l e d t h a t the P e r m i t t e e had done some work...however the work had not been completed as r e q u i r e d " . Sampling by the LMO i n May, 1979 r e v e a l e d e x t r e m e l y t o x i c l e v e l s of hydrogen s u l p h i d e p r e s e n t i n a d i t c h system e v e n t u a l l y l e a d i n g t o the F r a s e r . (Flow r a t e was not mentioned, so we have no i d e a of the volume r e a c h i n g the F r a s e r . ) By 1980, the problem had s t i l l not been s o l v e d t o anyone's s a t i s f a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h l e a c h a t e l e v e l s appeared t o be s u b s i d i n g on t h e i r own. I t i s e v i d e n t by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a c t i o n s and p o s i t i o n s t h a t the D e l t a E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n t r o l O f f i c e c o n s i d e r e d the problem p r e s e n t e d by V i t o t o be much more s e r i o u s than d i d the Branch. S i g n i f i c a n t p a r t s of the s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p e r m i t do not appear t o have been c o m p l i e d w i t h . A c t i o n taken by the Branch c o n s i s t e d of f o r c e f u l l y worded l e t t e r s of the s o r t shown. W h i l e complete c o r r e c t i o n of the problem (such as t o t a l removal of the gyproc) would have c o s t hundreds of thousands of d o l l a r s , o t h e r p a r t i a l remedies o r d e r e d by the LMO t h a t would have p a r t i a l l y s o l v e d i t , such as complete c o v e r i n g of the m a t e r i a l , were not obeyed by the p e r m i t t e e . 144 AE-4661 V a r t a B a t t e r i e s L t d . Pe r m i t never i s s u e d ; d a t a never c o l l e c t e d . PR-4745 VenDev E n t e r p r i s e s L t d . A d i s p u t e d e v e l o p e d between WMB and EPS over whether t h i s l a n d f i l l c o m p l i e d w i t h the i n t e n t of i t s p e r m i t . Because of the v a l u e t h i s case has i n i l l u s t r a t i n g 1) the opposing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the same e v e n t s by th e s e two a g e n c i e s , and 2) how the Branch d e f i n e s c o m p l i a n c e , i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l under the next s e c t i o n , " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Compliance". PE-5729 S.M. P r o d u c t s L t d . and S.M. P r o p e r t i e s L t d . No d a t a r e c e i v e d as of Dec. 15, 1980. How do the s e f i n d i n g s , i n d i c a t i n g o n l y p a r t i a l c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e p e r m i t terms, compare w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n on l e v e l s of c o m p l i a n c e i n the e s t u a r y ? The F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e , o r g a n i z e d e x p l i c i t l y t o i n v e s t i g a t e s u s p e c t e d v i o l a t i o n s , s t a t e s i n i t s f i n a l r e p o r t : 1 "Many s o u r c e s of i l l e g a l e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e were i d e n t i f i e d and i n c l u d e d c h e m i c a l m a n u f a c t u r i n g , s t e e l m a n u f a c t u r i n g , paper r e c y c l i n g , wood t r e a t i n g , sewage treatment p l a n t s , and l a n d f i l l l e a c h a t e s . Many of t h e s e e f f l u e n t s were e x t r e m e l y t o x i c and e i t h e r had no p e r m i t or were out of c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e i r p e r m i t s , " (Ackerman and C l a p p , 1980: p. 10). "Many s o u r c e s , " however, does not t e l l us whether 10% or 90% of a l l o p e r a t i o n s a r e i n v i o l a t i o n . R e f e r r i n g t o the E s t u a r y Study w i l l b e t t e r e n able us t o q u a n t i f y PR-5443 D i s t r i c t of Burnaby Seems t o be i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h terms of p e r m i t , but some p o l l u t i o n i s s t i l l o c c u r r i n g , as noted i n June, 1980 i n s p e c t i o n . As of Dec. 1980, no c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n had been taken by the Branch. 145 t h i s . C o n c e r n i n g d i s c h a r g e s from the t h r e e major m u n i c i p a l sewage tr e a t m e n t p l a n t s (the combined f l o w of which exceeds a l l d i r e c t i n d u s t r i a l d i s c h a r g e s t o the e s t u a r y ) , the Summary Water Q u a l i t y Report n o t e s : - f o r suspended s o l i d s -a t Iona: "The p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l i m i t of 70 mg/L was exceeded about 8 p e r c e n t of the time from 1975 t o 1977". (p. 14) a t A n n a c i s : "The p e r m i t l i m i t of 100 mg/L was exceeded l e s s than 2.5 p e r c e n t of the t i m e " . (p. 14) a t L u l u : "The p e r m i t l i m i t (128 mg/L) was not exceeded". (p. 14) - f o r BOD -a t a l l t h r e e p l a n t s : "Measurements show t h a t the p e r m i t l i m i t s were exceeded, about 50 p e r c e n t of the t i m e , " (p. 15). The Report n o t e s , somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l l y t h a t , "The r e d u c t i o n i n BOD, a c h i e v e d a t the t h r e e main p l a n t s , was w i t h i n l i m i t s e x p e c t e d f o r p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t , " (p. 15). (One wonders why the p e r m i t terms do not then t a k e these l i m i t s i n t o a c c o u n t . ) -' f o r t r a c e m e t a l s -A n n a c i s I s l a n d i s the o n l y p l a n t w i t h l i m i t s f o r t h e s e i n i t s p e r m i t . S i n c e d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES Summary Water Q u a l i t y Report a r e g i v e n as t o t a l i n s t e a d of d i s s o l v e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , o n l y two parameters f o r which v a l u e s were shown, t o t a l chromium and t o t a l l e a d , can be compared t o p e r -m i t l i m i t s . Means of t h e s e were w e l l w i t h i n com-p l i a n c e . A v e r y rough g u i d e t o the . r a t e of c o m p l i a n c e f o r a l l parameters and a l l i n d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h o u t the e s t u a r y i s p o s s i b l e by comparing s t a n d a r d s w i t h a c t u a l performances based on d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s Report (Swain, 1981). T a b l e VI i s such a c o m p a r i s o n . U s i n g each p e r m i t t e e ' s l o n g - t e r m mean or median v a l u e s f o r each parameter p r o v i d e s a c o n s e r v a t i v e TABLE VI — COMPLIANCE AND NON-COMPLIANCE WITH PERMITS BY CATEGORY OF DISCHARGE AND PARAMETER F o r e s t Food M e t a l s Parameter C N-C C N-C C N-C O i l & Grease 2 1 1 _ 4 PH 6 5 1 1 4 1 Sus. S o l i d s 3 4 1 1 1 2 Temperature 7 - - — - -BOD 4 2 - 2 — — T o x i c i t y 2 3 - - - -S u l p h i d e / S u l p h a t e — 1 — — — 1 T o t . O r g a n i c Carbon - - - - - — Cyanide - - - - - -D i s s . I r o n - - — — 2 2 T o t a l I r o n - - - 1 -D i s s . Copper - - - - 1 1 T o t . Copper - - - — — — D i s s . Chrom. - - - - 1 -T o t . Chrom. - - - - - -• D i s s . Z i n c - - - - 2 1 T o t a l Z i n c - - - - - -D i s s . Lead - - - - 2 1 T o t a l Lead - - - - . - -D i s s . N i c k e l - - - - - 1 D i s s . Mn - - - - - 1 • D i s s . C o b a l t - - - — — 1 T o t a l s by I n d u s t r y 24 16 3 4 18 13 C o n c r e t e M i s c e l l a n e o u s . T o t a l s by parameter c N-C c N-C C N-C _ 1 8 2 1 2 2 - 14 9 4 2 1 2 10 10 - - 2 1 9 1 - 1 - - 4 5 — wm 2 3 1 1 z 1 - - - 1 -- - - - 2 T 2 _ 1 1 1 1 - - - 1 1 — 1 _ _ _ J. 1 — - - - - 2 1 1 - - - 1 -- - - - 2 1 1 — _ 1 1 — 1 1 9 6 7 2 61 41 C=compliance N-C=non-compliance As measured by mean and median v a l u e s compared w i t h p e r m i t l i m i t s f o r t a b u l a t e d d a t a i n FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s Report (Swain, 1981). 147 e s t i m a t e of the e x t e n t of non-compliance. ( I t w i l l be noted t h a t v e r y few means/medians a r e a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e , t e s t i f y i n g t o the p a u c i t y of data.) 61 means/medians were i n c o m p l i a n c e w h i l e 41 were n o t . A l l t h i s i n d i c a t e s i s t h a t non-compliance i s w i d e s p r e a d , but not u n i v e r s a l . I f i t r e f l e c t s u n f a v o u r a b l y on p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s , i t s h o u l d be borne i n mind t h a t non-c o m p l i a n c e w i t h s p e c i f i c p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s can c o n c e i v a b l y be w i d e s p r e a d even as l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s a r e a c t u a l l y d r o p p i n g . I t seems t h a t two g e n e r a l forms of non-compliance w i t h a p e r m i t a r e p o s s i b l e . One i s where the p e r m i t t e e s i m p l y has not i n s t a l l e d the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works n e c e s s a r y t o meet an upgraded s t a n d a r d . The second o c c u r s when the investment i n b e t t e r t r e a t m e n t and c o n t r o l has been made, but t h r o u g h poor maintenance, m a l f u n c t i o n , or o v e r l o a d i n g , the works a r e unable t o d e l i v e r the e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y t h a t they a r e a b l e t o , and on which p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s t e n d t o be based. Swain (1981) p o i n t s out t h a t , f o r the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y a t l e a s t , "The p r o c e s s w a s t e w a t e r s . . . u s u a l l y a r e t r e a t e d by proven t r e a t m e n t methods. At o p e r a t i o n s where l i m i t s a r e not met, t h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the wastewater t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s a r e u n d e r s i z e d f o r the l o a d i n g s a p p l i e d , " (pp. 24-25). 6.1.5 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Compliance There a r e two forms of c o m p l i a n c e . The f i r s t i s a c t u a l c o n f o r m i t y w i t h l i t e r a l p e r m i t s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , or "the l e t t e r of the law". The second i s what passes f o r t o l e r a b l e performance or " r e a s o n a b l e c o m p l i a n c e " t o the r e g u l a t o r y agency. The A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the Branch p r o v i d e d a s u c c i n c t statement 148 of the Branch's approach t o d e t e r m i n i n g the second form d u r i n g a 1974 meeting w i t h a p e r m i t t e e (as r e c o r d e d i n the m i n u t e s ) : (a) the p a s t h i s t o r y of the v i o l a t i o n s i s r e v i e w e d and the p e r m i t t e e a d v i s e d t h a t he i s i n v i o l a -t i o n . (b) the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch c a r r i e s out t e s t s a t the p l a n t . (c) the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch r e q u i r e s t o know c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n t o be taken and how l o n g the p e r m i t t e e has been i n v i o l a t i o n of the P e r m i t . (d) i f t h e r e were no c o - o p e r a t i o n from the d i s -c h a r g e r , then the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch c o u l d i n i t i a t e c o u r t a c t i o n . (e) the most d r a s t i c a c t i o n would be f o r the p l a n t t o be shut down. In response t o a q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i n a b i l i t y t o meet the parameters g i v e n i n the P e r m i t u s i n g the t e c h n o l o g y s p e c i f i e d i n the P e r m i t , Mr. K l a s s e n s t a t e d t h a t i f i t c o u l d be shown t h a t the t e c h n o l o g y would not meet the parameters and i f the p e r m i t t e e was a c t i n g i n good f a i t h , then the p e r m i t t e e c o u l d a p p l y f o r an amendment t o the P e r m i t t o change the v a l u e of these p a r a m e t e r s . T h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n a c c o r d s r e a s o n a b l y w e l l w i t h my own f i n d i n g s , a l t h o u g h two p o i n t s need e l a b o r a t i o n . F i r s t , the Branch d i d not g e n e r a l l y p r o m p t l y n o t i f y p e r m i t t e e s r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d t o be i n v i o l a t i o n . There were numerous i n s t a n c e s i n which l o n g - s t a n d i n g v i o l a t i o n s were on r e c o r d w i t h no c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n i t i a t i v e t o c o r r e c t them ( e i t h e r by i m p r o v i n g t r e a t m e n t or by e a s i n g p e r m i t t e r m s ) , presumably because the d e v i a t i o n s were not c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t or the p o s s i b i l i t y of improvement remote. Second, t o my knowledge no p l a n t i n B.C. Has ever been permanently c l o s e d because of. an i n a b i l i t y t o meet mandated p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s . I d i d observe a number of i n s t a n c e s i n which the Branch response t o non-compliance w i t h e i t h e r p r o c e d u r a l or s u b s t a n t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s a p p r o x i m a t e s the A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r ' s v e r s i o n 1 49 above. C o n t i n u o u s p r e s s u r e by the Branch i n s e v e r a l of my c a s e s d i d r e s u l t i n improved performance. What c o n s t i t u t e s " r e a s o n a b l e c o m p l i a n c e " i s s t i l l above a l l a matter of judgement and b a s i c o u t l o o k . An example of how the e x a c t same performance can be i n t e r p r e t e d d i f f e r e n t l y i s f u r n i s h e d by VenDev E n t e r p r i s e s l a n d f i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n d i s c u s s e d c h r o n o l o g y of WMB and EPS remarks notes and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . L t d . (PR-4745), a C o q u i t l a m e a r l i e r . What f o l l o w s i s a and o b s e r v a t i o n s from f i l e 1 978 Feb. 23 -WMB- "The l e a c h a t e from VenDev i s g e t t i n g worse, p o s s i b l y due t o a h i g h groundwater l e v e l a t the p r e s e n t " . Feb., Mar., Apr. -EPS- " . . . p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s were b e i n g v i o l a t e d and the problem of l e a c h a t e g e n e r a t i o n was g e t t i n g worse". Mar. 23 -WMB- "Work on t h e hog f u e l p i l e near Schoolhouse Creek i s now p r o g r e s s i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y " . "Weekly v i s i t s w i l l be c a r r i e d out t o ensure t h a t the work i s c a r r i e d out as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e " . Apr. 26 -WMB- "The d i s s o l v e d oxygen l e v e l of the l e a c h a t e j u s t b e f o r e i t e n t e r s L a u r e n t i a n Creek was measured a t 1.7 ppm (12.5°C). At t h i s p o i n t the d i s c h a r g e was about 1 m wide by .3 m deep and f l o w i n g a t a r a t e of about 3 dm/sec. Once the l e a c h a t e e n t e r s the c r e e k i t i s drawn... towards the c e n t e r . . . c o m p l e t e l y b l a c k e n i n g the water o n e - t h i r d of the way across....The water i s b l a c k enough downstream from the d i s c h a r g e t h a t the bottom cannot be seen from e i t h e r bank....The e f f e c t s of t h i s c o n d i t i o n a r e unknown but i t may be d i s r u p t i n g the v i a b i l i t y of f r y o b s e r v e d i n the c r e e k . Two f r y were observed swimming a l o n g the s u r f a c e i n a d i s o r i e n t e d c i r c u l a r f a s h i o n i n the b l a c k e n e d zone. T h i s seemingly u n u s u a l b e h a v i o r may be making them more s u s c e p t i b l e t o p r e d a t i o n from below". May 25 -WMB- l e t t e r t o VenDev a d v i s i n g them of " . . . s e v e r e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n o p e r a t i o n and v a r i a t i o n s from the i n t e n t of the P e r m i t " . L i s t s s i x c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s r e q u i r i n g "immediate a c t i o n " . 150 June 8 -EPS-memo t o WMB: "...we do not c o n s i d e r the above s i t e t o be managed i n accordance w i t h the PCB p e r m i t . F u r t h e r m o r e , l e a c h a t e from t h i s s i t e c o l l e c t e d i n Schoolhouse Creek has k i l l e d f i s h under l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s i n f i f t e e n minutes d e m o n s t r a t i n g a c l e a r v i o l a t i o n of s e c t i o n 33(2) of the F i s h e r i e s A c t " . June 8 -WMB- " I n s p e c t i o n of the s i t e showed i t t o be e s s e n t i a l l y a w e l l o p e r a t e d d e m o l i t i o n d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t y . Work had been done a l o n g the Schoolhouse Creek which showed v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of l e a c h a t e , the t y p e s of m a t e r i a l s b e i n g dumped has been r e s t r i c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , i . e . the g e n e r a l garbage type waste...were no l o n g e r e v i d e n t . . . . " June 20 -WMB- "The P e r m i t t e e has a t a l l t i m e s been most c o - o p e r a t i v e i n implementing d i r e c t i v e s from t h i s o f f i c e " . " During the c o u r s e of the above e v e n t s , the v a r i o u s newspapers i n the ar e a have r e p o r t e d on c o n d i t i o n s a t the f i l l s i t e however I've noted no f o l l o w - u p by these same r e p o r t e r s now t h a t t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s have been improved". Sept. J_ -EPS- l e t t e r t o WMB: "Your l e t t e r . . . o u t l i n e s the p r e c a u t i o n s t h a t VenDev E n t e r p r i s e s must ta k e t o meet the i n t e n t of the p e r m i t which was i s s u e d t o them l a s t f a l l . The c o n d i t i o n s . . . I n c l u d e recommendations my s t a f f made....We a c c o r d i n g l y a re w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h e s e m i t i g a t i o n works r e a l i z i n g t h ey w i l l reduce e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage, not e l i m i n a t e i t " . Oct. 11 -EPS- "VenDev... s t i l l v i o l a t i n g p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s and...not b u i l d i n g the r e q u i r e d dykes". 1979 Apr. 9 -EPS- " S i t e i n s p e c t e d . . . . L e a c h a t e from dump i s e n t e r i n g s t r e a m . . . t o x i c t o f i s h i n 57 mi n u t e s " . June 21 -WMB- "The c o n d i t i o n s of the P e r m i t and L e t t e r of T r a n s m i t t a l have not a l l been met a t a l l t i m e s , however f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes the i n t e n t of the P e r m i t has e s s e n t i a l l y been s a t i s f i e d . T h i s has taken c o n s t a n t s u r v e i l l a n c e and, as i s documented, d i r e c t i v e s from t h i s o f f i c e t o a t t a i n " . "We do hot deny t h a t the waters i n Schoolhouse Creek and L a u r e n t i a n Creek have s u f f e r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y from l e a c h a t e and r e p o r t s by our b i o l o g i s t i n t h i s r e g a r d a r e on f i l e . We have taken s t e p s t o c o r r e c t problems as they appeared". "At the p r e s e n t t i m e , the f i l l i s b e i n g conducted i n an a c c e p t a b l e manner and r e q u i r e m e n t s of the L e t t e r of T r a n s m i t t a l and P e r m i t are b e i n g 151 s a t i s f i e d . Some l e a c h a t e i s n e c e s s a r i l y e n t e r i n g the d r a i n a g e works however the e f f e c t on the waters would not seem t o be s e r i o u s " . J u l y 4 -WMB- " S i d e s l o p e s appear w e l l c o v e r e d and are c o n s i d e r e d t o r e a s o n a b l y meet P e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s " . "A p o i n t of f r e s h l e a c h a t e d i s c h a r g e i n t o the Lougheed Highway d i t c h was not e d . T h i s was a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of water i n Schoolhouse Creek v i s i b l y . The o p e r a t o r was a g a i n a d v i s e d t o c o r r e c t t h i s s i t u a t i o n " . "Some of the f r e s h f i l l was noted t o c o n t a i n r e f u s e not amenable t o the type d e f i n e d i n the P e r m i t " . Dec. 8_ -EPS- "A v e r y t o x i c l e a c h a t e ( s u l p h i d e s over 5 mg/L) e n t e r i n g Schoolhouse and L a u r e n t i a n c r e e k s a t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s . Much f r e s h dumping of gy p r o c , o f f i c e garbage and c r e o s o t e d t i m b e r s and woodwastes". 1980 Mar. 19 -WMB- l e t t e r t o p e r m i t t e e c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o s i x d e f i c i e n c i e s i n the o p e r a t i o n . A g a i n , t h i s comparison i l l u s t r a t e s how d i f f e r e n t l y EPS and WMB ten d t o i n t e r p r e t e v e n t s . The Branch, though a d m i t t i n g i t took c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r p a r t , seemed f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h both e f f o r t s by the p e r m i t t e e and the r e s u l t , a t l e a s t t o the e x t e n t of never t h r e a t e n i n g l e g a l a c t i o n . EPS was d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h both e f f o r t s and r e s u l t . The example a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t perhaps the p r i n c i p l e c r i t e r i o n of the Branch i n d e c i d i n g " r e a s o n a b l e c o m p l i a n c e " i s the r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of a p e r m i t t e e . The a c t u a l amount of p o l l u t i o n caused may be of secondary i m p o r t a n c e . 2 6.1.6 Use of P r o s e c u t i o n In A p r i l , 1980, the O p p o s i t i o n ' s Environment C r i t i c , Mr. S k e l l y , asked the M i n i s t e r of Environment Mr. Rogers: 152 "Between J a n u a r y 1, 1976, and March 31, 1980, how many charges have been l a i d under s e c t i o n 25, P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , R.S.B.C. 1979, c h a p t e r 332, a g a i n s t whom were charges l a i d , f o r what o f f e n c e s , i n which c a s e s were c o n v i c t i o n s o b t a i n e d , and what was the p e n a l t y i n each c a s e ? " ( Hansard, A p r i l 29, 1980). The M i n i s t e r t h a t between tho s e d a t e s 63 ch a r g e s had been l a i d a g a i n s t 35 companies and i n d i v i d u a l s f o r a l l e g e d o f f e n c e s under the 1967 A c t . I t i s u s e f u l t o break these f i g u r e s down i n s e v e r a l ways i n or d e r t o b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t e them. - S l i g h t l y more than h a l f of the ch a r g e s i n v o l v e d u n l a w f u l l a n d / w a t e r r e l a t e d d i s c h a r g e s ( v e r s u s a i r e m i s s i o n s ) . Seven of the 35 companies and i n d i v i d u a l s charged were i n the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n . S i x of thes e seven were f o r la n d / w a t e r r e l a t e d d i s c h a r g e s . Three of thes e s i x o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the Lower F r a s e r watershed i t s e l f . None of these t h r e e was a g a i n s t companies or i n d i v i d u a l s d i s c h a r g i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o the F r a s e r or a t r i b u t a r y w a t e r c o u r s e . - Of those c o u r t c a s e s c o m p l e t e d , c o n v i c t i o n s were o b t a i n e d i n 20 i n s t a n c e s , w h i l e a c q u i t t a l s or p e n a l t y d e f e r r a l s were awarded i n 7 c a s e s . - For those 29 coun t s on which c o n v i c t i o n s were o b t a i n e d , the range of p e n a l t i e s was $10 t o $2,500, the median f i n e was $250, and the mean was $492. One can see t h a t the enforcement p r o v i s i o n s of the Act have a c t u a l l y been u t i l i z e d v e r y r a r e l y (except as a t h r e a t e n i n g d e v i c e ) , and when used, w i t h what appears t o be mixed s u c c e s s a t b e s t . The p e n a l t i e s i s s u e d a r e a s e r i o u s d e t e r r e n t by themselves t o most would-be p o l l u t e r s . The median p e n a l t y was o n l y 1/40 of the $10,000 maximum f i n e p r o v i d e d f o r i n the A c t , the maximum f i n e a c t u a l l y i s s u e d but 1/4. S u r e l y the s o c i a l s t i g m a , expense, and time-consuming n u i s a n c e of • a c o u r t 153 appearance e x e r t f a r g r e a t e r d e t e r r e n c e , i f not an e s p e c i a l l y i n t i m i d a t i n g amount. D. M i l l e r , the A s s i s t a n t Manager of the Lower M a i n l a n d R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , i n s i s t s t h a t f o r most companies, t h i s i s enough. A sense of c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y may m o t i v a t e obedience i n o t h e r s . M i l l e r a l s o c i t e s the tremendous time commitment and o f t e n f r u s t r a t i n g r e s u l t s of p r o s e c u t i o n as d e t e r r e n t s t o the Branch's more f r e q u e n t use of i t as an enforcement t o o l . D r a yton (1980) c o n c u r s . R e f e r r i n g t o r e g u l a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e i n the U.S., he m e n t i o n s : "the f r u s t r a t i n g r o l e of i s s u i n g i n e f f e c t u a l t h r e a t s t h a t a r e o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y backed up by bouts of slow, u n c e r t a i n , and p r o b a b l y i n e f f e c t u a l l i t i g a t i o n , " (p. 31-32). In the r e c e n t case of Regina vs Vancouver Wharves L t d . , 3 f i v e s e p a r a t e charges were l a i d a g a i n s t the company f o r a l l e g e d o f f e n c e s d a t i n g as f a r back as 1975. In her d e c i s i o n , Judge Nancy M o r r i s o n c i t e d " . . . l e g i s l a t i o n and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t l e a v e s ( s i c ) some gaping h o l e s " . She added: G e n e r a l l y , I found the e v i d e n c e t o be c o n f u s i n g , d i s j o i n t e d and i n c o m p l e t e . Perhaps i t i s u n f a i r t o c r i t i c i z e the l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n o b t a i n i n g , t r a n s f e r r i n g , a n a l y s i s , s t o r i n g and p r o d u c i n g of samples f o r c o u r t e x h i b i t s , but the same s t a n d a r d s t h a t a p p l y t o a n a r c o t i c s case t o such e x h i b i t s s h o u l d and do a p p l y i n a p o l l u t i o n c a s e . A l l f i v e c o u n t s were d i s m i s s e d . " In t h i s r e g a r d , once a g a i n i t i s worth n o t i n g the U.S. e x p e r i e n c e . A c c o r d i n g t o Drayton (1980) : E s p e c i a l l y w i t h c r i m i n a l p e n a l t i e s , i t i s o f t e n hard f o r the agency t o p r e s e n t an a d e q u a t e l y r i g o r o u s c a s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , over t h e l a s t s e v e r a l decades, the government's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s have i n c r e a s i n g l y tended t o s u b s t i t u t e c i v i l f o r c r i m i n a l p e n a l t i e s . By s w i t c h i n g t o 1 54 c i v i l p e n a l t i e s , they a r e f a c e d w i t h a lower burden of p r o o f and l e s s s t r i n g e n t e v i d e n t i a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Most judges have not f e l t t h a t imposing c r i m i n a l s a n c t i o n s , w i t h the r e s u l t a n t c r i m i n a l s t i g m a , on a company or i t s managers f o r f a i l i n g t o comply w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n s i s a p p r o p r i a t e u n l e s s t h e r e a r e s e v e r e l y a g g r a v a t e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e y — a n d many A t t o r n e y s G e n e r a l -have f e l t t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e g u l a t i o n i s a form of economic r e g u l a t i o n t h a t does not i n v o l v e i s s u e s of moral g u i l t as c l e a r l y as c o n v e n t i o n a l c r i m i n a l c a s e s do. (p. 1) In November, 1979, the F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l t i o n , an a l l i a n c e of a number of c i v i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l groups and the Fishermen's Union (UFAWU), r e l e a s e d a n a r r a t e d s l i d e show e n t i t l e d "The F r a s e r D e l t a : An E s t u a r y i n C r i s i s " t h a t p u r p o r t e d t o demonstrate i n f o r c e f u l terms how government mismanagement was dooming the Lower F r a s e r and i t s e s t u a r y . ( I t " f i n g e r e d " a number of s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s t h a t were c l a i m e d t o be " j u s t a few of the many developments d e s t r o y i n g the r i v e r " . ) The p r e s e n t a t i o n r e c e i v e d w i d e s p r e a d p u b l i c i t y and e d i t o r i a l support i n Vancouver's two major newspapers ( Vancouver Sun, Dec. 3, 1979; The P r o v i n c e , Dec. 3, 1979). In l a t e J a n u a r y , 1980, Environment M i n i s t e r Rogers a p p o i n t e d a seven man team " t o s a t i s f y o u r s e l v e s t h a t we are d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o p r o t e c t the q u a l i t y of the r i v e r . I f we do not e n f o r c e s t a n d a r d s and i n v e s t i g a t e s e r i o u s a l l e g a t i o n s we a r e not c a r r y i n g out our r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as we s h o u l d , " ( The P r o v i n c e , Feb. 1, 1980). Known as the F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e (or more g l a m o r o u s l y as the "Swat Squad"), the group c o n s i s t e d of f o u r of the M i n i s t r y of Environment's C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s and t h r e e t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n t s . On c ases 155 approved by D. Hehn, the newly a p p o i n t e d R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r of MOE, and G. H a l e s , r e g i o n a l Crown C o u n s e l , the team would c o l l e c t l e g a l samples and l a y an i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s o f f i c e . By the end of the summer, 1980, over a hundred i n v e s t i g a t i o n s had been made, and over 20 companies and i n d i v i d u a l s had been charged. A l t h o u g h the Task F o r c e was d i s s o l v e d i n J u l y , 1980, one C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r remained t o f i n i s h the work a l r e a d y s t a r t e d and both the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r and Environment M i n i s t e r suggested t h a t permanent arrangements f o r a " s t a n d i n g f o r c e " t o c o n t i n u e stepped-up enforcement would p r o b a b l y be made ( The Fisherman, J u l y 11, 1980; Burnaby Today, J u l y 8, 1980). Indeed, i n 1981 the M i n i s t r y announced the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f u l l - t i m e enforcement team of t e n . The outcome of the 1980 i n i t i a t i v e i s s t i l l i n the making, as many of the c a s e s a r e s t i l l b e f o r e the c o u r t s . In a May, 1981 t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h the Crown's c h i e f p r o s e c u t o r , Mr. H a l e s , I was not a b l e t o e x t r a c t enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o render even a rough a p p r a i s a l of the p r o v i n c e ' s e f f o r t . Mr. H a l e s c o u l d not or would not r e v e a l t o me over the phone j u s t how many c a s e s were completed and w i t h what r e s u l t s . He d i d mention t h a t from a p r o s e c u t o r ' s p o i n t of view, the P o l l u t i o n  C o n t r o l A c t was a d i f f i c u l t p i e c e of l e g i s l a t i o n t o work w i t h . The f i n a l r e p o r t of the Task F o r c e i t s e l f n o t e d the same problem, and a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t : "many of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t s were w r i t t e n i n ambiguous or vague terms and l a c k i n g ( s i c ) s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s o f t e n made enforcement of these documents d i f f i c u l t , " (Ackerman and C l a p p , 1980: p. 13). I t i s l i k e l y , however, t h a t even the mere presence of 1 56 an eager p o l i c e f o r c e has had an e f f e c t . As the l e a d e r of the team commented: "We took a no-nonsense a t t i t u d e and the m i n i s t e r gave us the mandate we needed. There has been a n o t i c e a b l e change on the r i v e r , and we have t u r n e d o f f a l o t of t a p s , " ( Burnaby Today, J u l y 8, 1980). A LMO t e c h n i c a n w i t h whom I spoke c o n c u r r e d t h a t t h e r e had been a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t . 6.1.7 Involvement of A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s Many of the c a s e s r e c o u n t e d e a r l i e r show t h a t EPS and t o a s m a l l e r e x t e n t the F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch, H e a l t h Branch, and F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s m a i n t a i n s c r u t i n y and n e g o t i a t i o n s a f t e r p e r m i t s have been i s s u e d . Manpower l i m i t a t i o n s and p r o b a b l y the need f o r t o l e r a b l e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Branch r e s t r i c t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o o n l y the more s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n s however. P a r t i c i p a t i o n by the p u b l i c d u r i n g p e r m i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o c c u r r e d i n s e v e r a l of my 13 c a s e s . In l a t e 1974, a l o c a l of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Woodworkers of America (IWA) wrote t o the Branch e x p r e s s i n g concern about B.C. F o r e s t P r o d u c t s and two o t h e r companies who were, they a l l e g e d : " i n v a r y i n g degrees a l l o w i n g sawdust, p u l p c h i p s and d e b r i s t o f l o w v i r t u a l l y unchecked i n t o the F r a s e r R i v e r " . The l e t t e r s uggested enforcement a c t i o n . The Ridge Meadows c h a p t e r of SPEC f o l l o w e d w i t h a l e t t e r of endorsement, c i t i n g : " . . . t h e companies r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c a r e l e s s and p o l l u t i n g o p e r a t i o n of t h e i r m i l l s a l o n g the F r a s e r , " and c o n c l u d i n g t h a t , "These m a t t e r s a r e of g r e a t c o n c e r n and they s h o u l d be t o you". A month a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t l e t t e r , the IWA wrote a g a i n , s a y i n g i n p a r t : 157 Our L o c a l Union has g i v e n f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the m a t t e r and would suggest the f o l l o w i n g , t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from your department when i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s s i t u a t i o n a s s u r e t h a t t e c h n i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g a d v i c e i n d e t a i l be g i v e n t o the s a i d companies t o a s s i s t them t o c o r r e c t any problems which a r e found. A l s o t h a t adequate time be g r a n t e d t o f a z e ( s i c ) i n any new p o l l u t i o n d e v i c e s which a r e deemed n e c e s s a r y t o c o r r e c t the s i t u a t i o n . Our L o c a l f e e l s t h a t t h e s e a r e most i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h i s time when the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i s i n a d e p r e s s i o n s i t u a t i o n . We would not w i s h t o see any companies shut down or our members out of a j o b because the company not g i v e n adequate time t o implement new methods or c o u l d not a f f o r d them a t t h i s t i m e . The D i r e c t o r of the Branch a t the t i m e , W. V e n a b l e s , i n a memo t o the A s s o c i a t e Deputy M i n i s t e r of Water R e s o u r c e s , c i t e d t h e s e l e t t e r s as an example of the " f l e x i b i l i t y " i n the a t t i t u d e s of some towards p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , and a l l u d e d t o " . . . t h e v e r y d i f f i c u l t road t h a t we must f o l l o w i n o r d e r t o make d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e r e a s o n a b l e a t a l l t i m e s " . The most s t r i k i n g example of p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t the p e r m i t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n stage i n my c a s e s c o n c e r n s the Hope sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t . In 1976, a f t e r v o t e r s had a l r e a d y approved i n s t a l l a t i o n of secondary t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s and a p e r m i t r e q u i r i n g the same had been i s s u e d , g r e a t e r awareness of i t s c o s t prompted the l o c a l newspaper and v a r i o u s Hope r e s i d e n t s t o mount a campaign t o e l i m i n a t e the r equirement f o r sewage tr e a t m e n t a l t o g e t h e r , on the b a s i s t h a t t h i s l a r g e e x p e n d i t u r e of money would r e s u l t i n no a p p r e c i a b l e improvement i n the F r a e r ' s c o n d i t i o n . The Branch's response t o t h i s sudden t u r n a b o u t was t o d e s c r i b e t o l o c a l and r e g i o n a l o f f i c i a l s the p r o c e s s by which 158 P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s f o r m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e s had been s e t , a d v i s i n g them t h a t : " ...the m a t t e r has been c o n s i d e r e d on as broad and u n b i a s e d a b a s i s as i t was p o s s i b l e t o d e v i s e . The o b j e c t i v e s d e r i v e d from t h i s I n q u i r y show t r e a t m e n t t o be. n e c e s s a r y f o r your i n t e n d e d d i s c h a r g e " . However, s i n c e secondary t r e a t m e n t f o r a d i s c h a r g e of Hope's modest s i z e was more s t r i n g e n t than t h e s e O b j e c t i v e s r e q u i r e d , i t was suggested t h a t an amendment s i g n i f y i n g a lower degree of t r e a t m e n t be a p p l i e d f o r . T h i s was done, and today Hope has a e r a t e d lagoon f a c i l i t i e s and a p e r m i t s p e c i f y i n g BOD and SS of 100 mg/L, compared t o the 45 mg/L BOD and 60 mg/L SS of a t y p i c a l secondary p l a n t . In F e b r u a r y , 1980, the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d h e l d p u b l i c h e a r i n g s i n Vancouver t o a s s e s s the adequacy of m u n i c i p a l sewage tr e a t m e n t e f f o r t s i n the Lower F r a s e r . The h e a r i n g s s e r v e d t o convey i n f o r m a t i o n t o the p u b l i c as w e l l as t o f o c u s a c r i t i c a l eye on the j o b b e i n g done by m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s . In December, 1980, the Board p u b l i s h e d recommendations based on t h i s i n q u i r y , among them the a d o p t i o n of " source c o n t r o l , " the immediate u p g r a d i n g of the Iona I s l a n d p l a n t t o secondary t r e a t m e n t , u p g r a d i n g f o r A n n a c i s and L u l u p l a n t s by 1990, the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a hazardous waste d i s p o s a l system f o r the r e g i o n , and a study of stormwater d i s c h a r g e s (FRES Water Q u a l i t y Work Group, 1981). In g e n e r a l however, once a p e r m i t i s i s s u e d , t h e r e i s even l e s s p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and s c r u t i n y of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s than i n the o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g and p e r m i t -g r a n t i n g s t a g e s . A l t h o u g h the Branch c l a i m s m o n i t o r i n g 159 i n f o r m a t i o n i s open t o the p u b l i c ( V e n a b l e s , 1972), t h e r e i s p r o b a b l y l i t t l e a c t u a l use made of t h i s , because except i n the case of prominent dumps, t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o draw the p u b l i c ' s a t t e n t i o n t o what any one p e r m i t t e e may be d i s c h a r g i n g . (For a e s t h e t i c r e a s o n s , P e r m i t s s p e c i f y t h a t o u t f a l l s must extend t o below low t i d e l e v e l s . But t h i s a l s o p r o t e c t s the d i s c h a r g e from p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . ) Most p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r has taken the form of g e n e r a l p r o t e s t s , such as the F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l i t i o n ' s s l i d e show, the UFAWU's 1972 s a i l - i n p r o t e s t i n g the A n n a c i s Sewage Treatment P l a n t , and l e t t e r s t o the e d i t o r . There has been v e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s of c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n from s p e c i f i c P e r m i t t e d d i s c h a r g e r s . T h i s l e a v e s the p r o c e s s v u l n e r a b l e t o the s o r t s of m a n i p u l a t i o n t o be e x p e c t e d i n a c l o s e d t w o - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s h i p . 6.2 A C r i t i q u e 6.2.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s 1) I s e f f l u e n t m o n i t o r i n g b e i n g c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g t o pe r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s ? Compliance w i t h p r e s c r i b e d m o n i t o r i n g programmes i s s p o r a d i c . In my 13 c a s e s , of the seven f o r . which m o n i t o r i n g e f f o r t s c o u l d be compared t o m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , 5 i n two com p l i a n c e was good, where the p e r m i t t e e s sampled t h e i r e f f l u e n t and s u b m i t t e d r e s u l t s a c c o r d i n g t o pr o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d , i n two i t was poor, where the p e r m i t t e e s s u b m i t t e d i n c o m p l e t e d a t a and then o n l y when demanded by the Branch, and i n t h r e e o t h e r s i t 1 60 was mixed or u n c e r t a i n . There was some e v i d e n c e t h a t performance i s i m p r o v i n g . J u d g i n g by the d a t a i n FRES r e p o r t s , m o n i t o r i n g a t the t h r e e l a r g e s t sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s c o m p l i e s w i t h r e q u i r e m e n t s . M o n i t o r i n g of i n d u s t r i a l e f f l u e n t s appears t o v a r y by i n d u s t r y , w i t h f o r e s t , m e t a l , c o n c r e t e , and m i s c e l l a n e o u s i n d u s t r i e s g e n e r a l l y showing good c o m p l i a n c e and the food i n d u s t r y showing poor c o m p l i a n c e , a c c o r d i n g t o Swain (1981). I s u s p e c t t h a t Swain's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what q u a l i f i e s as g e n e r a l c o m p l i a n c e w i t h the i n t e n t of m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s v a r i e s somewhat from my own, f o r i n the cases of a t l e a s t one p e r m i t t h a t I have l a b e l l e d "poor" (because of i n f r e q u e n t c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a and the c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s r e q u i r e d by the Branch t o o b t a i n i t ) , t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n a t a l l of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y performance f o r t h i s p e r m i t t e e i n the I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s R e p o r t . The approach used t o d e a l w i t h non-compliance was t o w r i t e a l e t t e r f o l l o w e d by a v i s i t i f the l e t t e r d i d not produce a response. T h i s seemed t o produce r e s u l t s , but the same r o u t i n e was sometimes r e p e a t e d a g a i n and a g a i n , the p e r m i t t e e not u n d e r t a k i n g r e g u l a r m o n i t o r i n g and r e p o r t i n g w i t h o u t c o n t i n u o u s p r o d d i n g . In none of the c a s e s I re v i e w e d i n d e t a i l was s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o l i t i g a t i o n as a means of f o r c i n g c o m p l i a n c e , though i t was o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d up as a t h r e a t t o the f l a g r a n t l y r e c a l c i t r a n t . In g e n e r a l t h e n , m o n i t o r i n g i s not b e i n g c a r r i e d out a c c o r d i n g t o the law i n a s i g n i f i c a n t number of c a s e s , even u s i n g a l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of " c o m p l i a n c e " . I t appears as 161 i f the l a r g e s t d i s c h a r g e r s a t l e a s t , a r e b e t t e r f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s . The response of the Branch t o p e r s i s t e n t v i o l a t i o n s has produced d a t a where none would be o b t a i n e d o t h e r w i s e , but has not l e d t o s w i f t improvement i n c o n d u c t . 2) Are p r e s c r i b e d e f f l u e n t l i m i t s ( s t a n d a r d s ) b e i n g met? Compliance w i t h e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s i s a g a i n mixed. In my case s t u d i e s , of the s i x e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s t h a t can be a p p r a i s e d , one was i n p e r f e c t c o m p l i a n c e , one was i n g e n e r a l c o m p l i a n c e , and two were c o n s i s t e n t l y out of c o m p l i a n c e on more than one parameter. For two o t h e r s no d e t e r m i n a t i o n of c o m p l i a n c e can be made. On the whole, i n my c a s e s i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t improved e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y has r e s u l t e d from the Branch's endeavors, though more s l o w l y than i t i s supposed t o have taken and g e n e r a l l y not up t o p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r one or more parameters i n each c a s e . Compliance i n the t h r e e r e f u s e p e r m i t s I examined was g e n e r a l l y poor, but i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t two of these were examined p r e c i s e l y because of a c e r t a i n n o t o r i e t y I knew they had b e f o r e h a n d . Be t h a t as i t may, i n a l l t h r e e cases noteworthy amounts of l e a c h a t e were g e n e r a t e d i n s p i t e of p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l r e g u l a t o r y e f f o r t s , and i n a t l e a s t one of t h e s e f i s h e r i e s h a b i t a t was damaged or d e s t r o y e d . My i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a i n FRES r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t 40% of a l l measured parameters i n d i r e c t i n d u s t r i a l , d i s c h a r g e s where r e g u l a r l y out of c o m p l i a n c e . T h i s i s a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e of the e x t e n t of non-compliance; a much h i g h e r e s t i m a t e would be o b t a i n e d by u s i n g a t i g h t e r d e f i n i t i o n of the term. I f we d e f i n e d c o m p l i a n c e as b e i n g a c h i e v e d f o r o n l y those 162 parameters i n which a p e r m i t l i m i t was never exceeded, i n excess of 90% of a l l parameters would be "out of c o m p l i a n c e " . T h i s s h o u l d not be c o n s t r u e d t o mean t h a t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s have f a i l e d , f o r i n f a c t , Branch e f f o r t s d i d l e a d t o some r e d u c t i o n i n p o l l u t i o n i n most of my 13 c a s e s . In sum, i t can be s t a t e d u n e q u i v o c a b l y t h a t v i o l a t i o n of p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s i s widespread but not u n i v e r s a l . Two q u e s t i o n s a r i s e : How c o n s e q u e n t i a l are t h e s e v i o l a t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l l y and i n t o t a l , i n terms of damage t o a q u a t i c r e s o u r c e s ? Should we be a l l t h a t c o n cerned w i t h v i o l a t i o n s on numerous s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i f o v e r a l l , e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y i s i m p r o v i n g or water q u a l i t y i s not n o t i c e a b l y d e t e r i o r a t i n g , as i s the case i n the r i v e r as a whole? L i t t l e can be s a i d on the b a s i s t h e s e a g g r e g a t e d c o n c l u s i o n s a l o n e . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e a r e numerous i n d i v i d u a l p o l l u t e r s t h a t , because of t h e i r impact on s m a l l e r t r i b u t a r y w a t e r c o u r s e s (some of which may p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e s t u a r i n e e c o l o g y ) or because of s e v e r e d e g r a d a t i o n of segments of the F r a s e r i t s e l f , do warrant c o n c e r n and a c t i o n . The Branch's response t o non-compliance was t o attempt t o b r i n g the p e r m i t t e e i n t o c o m p l i a n c e e i t h e r by p r e s s u r i n g f o r upgraded t r e a t m e n t / r e c y c l i n g or by r e l a x i n g p e r m i t terms i f the p e r m i t t e e appeared t o be unable t o meet the s t a n d a r d a t " r e a s o n a b l e " c o s t . In c a s e s where the Branch has r e f u s e d t o r e l a x p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s and the d i s c h a r g e r has r e f u s e d t o budge, s t a n d o f f s have r e s u l t e d i n which d i s c h a r e s c o n t i n u e d unabated f o r y e a r s . The Branch d i d not v i g o u r o u s l y demand improvement or c o m p l i a n c e . P r o s e c u t i o n , when a c t u a l l y used, has g e n e r a l l y brought 163 d i s a p p o i n t i n g r e s u l t s , a t l e a s t i n terms of the p e n a l t i e s a c h i e v e d . I t i s hard t o a s s e s s how p o w e r f u l l y the f e a r of p r o s e c u t i o n would m o t i v a t e p o t e n t i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c d i s c h a r g e r s t o conform even i f p r o s e c u t i o n were a s e r i o u s l i k e l i h o o d i n the event of p e r s i s t e n t v i o l a t i o n . Members of the enforcement-minded F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e and c e r t a i n Branch t e c h n i c i a n s b e l i e v e t h a t i f p e r m i t t e e s do see o t h e r s b e i n g p r o s e c u t e d t h a t i t s t h r e a t i s i s taken s e r i o u s l y and t h a t t h i s a i d s the Branch i n n e g o t i a t i o n . 3) Are a l l d i s c h a r g e r s b e i n g c o n t r o l l e d by P e r m i t ? V i r t u a l l y a l l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e r s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by p e r m i t . However, the f a c t t h a t i n my case s t u d i e s t h e r e were one or two i n s t a n c e s of p e r m i t t e e s w i t h u n a u t h o r i z e d o u t f a l l s (many d i s c h a r g e r s have more than one e f f l u e n t o u t f a l l ) u n d i s c o v e r e d by the Branch f o r y e a r s s u g g e s t s the p r o b a b i l i t y of s i m i l a r l y u n i d e n t i f i e d d i s c h a r g e s e x t a n t t o d a y . ( T h i s i s i m p l i e d as w e l l by the f a c t t h a t s c i e n t i s t s do not know the s o u r c e s of c e r t a i n t r a c e c o n t a m i n a n t s found i n the r i v e r and t r i b u t a r i e s . ) Refuse d i s p o s a l , p r i m a r i l y of hog f u e l , i s f r e q u e n t l y u n a u t h o r i z e d . Many of the F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n 1980 were i n t o hog f u e l d i s p o s a l v i o l a t i o n s . The LMO a p p o i n t e d a t e c h n i c i a n i n 1980 t o t a c k l e the problem f u l l - t i m e . Thus the Branch appears t o be r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s p roblem, perhaps b e l a t e d l y , and p r i m a r i l y i n response t o s c a t h i n g c r i t i c i s m . 6.2.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n 1) Are e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s and t h e i r impact on r e c e i v i n g 164 w a t e r s b e i n g m o n i t o r e d a d e q u a t e l y and the d a t a b e i n g s t o r e d i n r e t r i e v a b l e form? Both e f f l u e n t and r e c e i v i n g water m o n i t o r i n g a r e b e i n g c a r r i e d out but not as f r e q u e n t l y ' a s they s h o u l d be. FRES water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s were o f t e n f o r c e d t o e x t r a p o l a t e h e a v i l y t o a r r i v e a t l o a d i n g s e s t i m a t e s , which a r e i m p o r t a n t d a t a f o r water q u a l i t y management pu r p o s e s . R e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g i n the zones of i n f l u e n c e of d i s c h a r g e s seems t o be n e a r l y non-e x i s t e n t . A g e n e r a l background r i v e r water c h e m i s t r y m o n i t o r i n g programme i s i n p l a c e , but i t i s " b a r e l y adequate". S p e c i a l s t u d i e s a r e b e i n g conducted on a modest s c a l e . O v e r a l l , t h e r e i s room f o r s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n . Data can be s t o r e d i n l a r g e volumes i n the WMB's co m p u t e r i z e d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Q u a l i t y I n f o r m a t i o n System (EQUIS) and r e t r i e v e d q u i c k l y and i n d i f f e r e n t forms depending on the needs of the u s e r . T h i s system of d a t a management appears t o be q u i t e - u s e f u l , a l t h o u g h I d i d not examine i t c l o s e l y enough t o determine whether i t s p o t e n t i a l i s b e i n g u t i l i z e d or how i t might be improved. At any r a t e , i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l w i l l not be e x p l o i t e d u n l e s s m o n i t o r i n g improves. 2) I s b a s i c r e s e a r c h b e i n g conducted t o improve our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of Lower F r a s e r e c o l o g y so as t o b e t t e r p r e d i c t b i o p h y s i c a l impacts of waste d i s c h a r g e ? The E s t u a r y Study r e p r e s e n t s the most comprehensive, c o o r d i n a t e d r e s e a r c h programme ever undertaken i n the F r a s e r , but most of i t was merely c o m p i l a t i o n of p a s t o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h , and i t may be a one-shot e f f o r t . The Water Q u a l i t y Work Group (1979) recommended a number of m o n i t o r i n g programmes and s p e c i a l s t u d i e s , s e v e r a l of which a r e now g o i n g ahead, i f i n scaled-down 165 form. For example, i t was recommended t h a t stormwater from "at l e a s t t h r e e catchment a r e a s . . . t y p i c a l of i n d u s t r i a l , commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s " be m o n i t o r e d t o e s t i m a t e i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o contaminant l o a d i n g s , something t h a t has never been done i n the r e g i o n . The s t u d y i s g o i n g ahead, but w i t h o n l y one s t a t i o n i n a Vancouver r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a (FRES Water Q u a l i t y Work Group, 1981). The Westwater Research C e n t r e noted t e n t a t i v e l y i n 1979 t h a t b a s i c r e s e a r c h i n the Lower F r a s e r was a c t u a l l y d e c l i n i n g . I t may w e l l be t h a t government commitment t o b a s i c l e a r n i n g , because i t does not always promise a q u i c k or o b v i o u s r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t , i s on the wane. 6.2.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s I s the p u b l i c f u r n i s h e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o o p e n l y s c r u t i n i z e the performance of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s ? M o n i t o r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c , but beyond t h i s the system has o f f e r e d l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c l o s e s c r u t i n y . A P u b l i c I n q u i r y h e l d by the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board e a r l y i n 1980 t o a s s e s s the performance of m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e r s i n the Lower F r a s e r i s a h e a l t h y e x c e p t i o n . A l s o i n 1980 the p u b l i c was i n v i t e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on s u s p e c t e d p o l l u t e r s to the Task F o r c e . S c r u t i n y of the r o u t i n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P e r m i t s i s made d i f f i c u l t or i m p o s s i b l e f o r anyone w i s h i n g t o a s s e s s f o r themselves how the p r o c e s s i s w o r k i n g i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s . In my own e x p e r i e n c e , even a r e q u e s t t o review p e r m i t f i l e s f o r academic purposes was i n i t i a l l y d e f e r r e d . I g a i n e d 1 66 a c c e s s t o the Branch's f i l e s o n l y t h r o u g h c o n t a c t s p r o b a b l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o one w i t h o u t academic c r e d e n t i a l s . Most p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s phase of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s o c c u r s o u t s i d e of f o r m a l c h a n n e l s e s t a b l i s h e d under the A c t and i n an atmosphere of m i s t r u s t and some antagonism. 167 Notes t o Chapter S i x 1 T h i s r e p o r t was l a b e l l e d " c o n f i d e n t i a l " and remained unseen f o r n i n e months by the p u b l i c u n t i l i t was l e a k e d t o a l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l group, SPEC ( S o c i e t y f o r the Promotion of E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n ) , and s u b s e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d i n the p r e s s . 2 I t i s worth o b s e r v i n g t h a t a member of the F r a s e r R i v e r C o a l t i o n brought charges a g a i n s t VenDev under the F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t i n 1980 because he f e l t t h a t n e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l governments would a c t t o e n f o r c e t h e i r own laws. In 1981 a c o n v i c t i o n was o b t a i n e d . 3 P r o v i n c i a l Court of B.C., No. 4023, N o r t h Vancouver, May 27, 1980. * I t may be s a i d , c o l l o q u i a l l y , t h a t t e c h n i c a l i t i e s a r e what l o s t the Crown the c a s e . The judge a v e r r e d t h a t w h i l e the A c t empowers the " D i r e c t o r of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l " t o i s s u e p e r m i t s , i t says n o t h i n g of a " D i r e c t o r of the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Branch," whose t i t l e a c t u a l l y adorned the documents adduced as e v i d e n c e . She added t h a t i t was her o p i n i o n , from r e a d i n g the A c t , t h a t " o n l y the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board can make a v a l i d o r d e r , i s s u e a v a l i d p e r m i t . . . " I f a p o i n t so v e r y b a s i c was ever an i s s u e i n any of the o t h e r dozens of c a s e s brought t o c o u r t , one wonders how any c o n v i c t i o n c o u l d ever have been o b t a i n e d . I t i s as though t h i s was the f i r s t time the law was ever t e s t e d . 5 Of those s i x cases where t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , t h r e e were r e f u s e p e r m i t s t h a t d i d not r e q u i r e m o n i t o r i n g , a f o u r t h t e r m i n a t e d b e f o r e the g e n e r a l advent of m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s , a f i f t h never l e d t o the i s s u a n c e of a p e r m i t , and the s i x t h was a new d i s c h a r g e f o r which no d a t a had y e t been s u b m i t t e d a t the time of my r e s e a r c h . 168 Chapter Seven CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.1 R e s u l t s of P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l E f f o r t s T h i s t h e s i s has l a r g e l y f o c u s e d on d e s c r i b i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s , not the outcome of t h a t p r o c e s s . S i n c e u l t i m a t e l y i t i s t h i s outcome t h a t c o n c e r n s us however, I w i l l d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y what i s p r e s e n t l y known about i t . How have o v e r a l l l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s d i s c h a r g e d i n t o the Lower F r a s e r changed s i n c e c o n t r o l e f f o r t s began? I t does not lo o k as i f even t h i s b a s i c q u e s t i o n can be answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The FRES Summary Water Q u a l i t y Report p r o v i d e s e s t i m a t e s of c u r r e n t (1978) l o a d i n g s from the v a r i o u s s o u r c e s i n t o the F r a s e r E s t u a r y but does not attempt t o q u a n t i f y how th e s e l o a d i n g s have changed i n , say, the l a s t decade, even f o r the most w i d e l y measured p a r a m e t e r s — f l o w volumes, BOD, and SS. Data a r e s i m p l y too f r a g m e n t a r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n the e a r l y p a r t of the decade when so many o p e r a t i o n s were j u s t coming under p e r m i t . Even i n a r r i v i n g a t the c u r r e n t e s t i m a t e s , the I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s Report c a u t i o n s : " I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e s e l o a d i n g s have been d e t e r m i n e d i n some c a s e s on the b a s i s of one or two measurements. E x t r a p o l a t i o n s u s i n g t h e s e v a l u e s are t h e r e f o r e h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e and s u b j e c t t o e r r o r , " (Swain, 1981: p. 104). S i n c e s o u r c e s of m u n i c i p a l e f f l u e n t a r e fewer and g e n e r a l l y 169 b e t t e r m o n i t o r e d than the numerous s c a t t e r e d i n d u s t r i a l d i s c h a r g e s and l a n d f i l l s , one might t h i n k t h a t l o a d i n g t r e n d s over the l a s t decade c o u l d have by now been p l o t t e d , but n e i t h e r the Summary Report nor the M u n i c i p a l E f f l u e n t s Report does so. (Such t r e n d s a l o n e however, would a c t u a l l y be v e r y poor i n d i c e s of how t o t a l l o a d i n g s from a l l s o u r c e s t o the F r a s e r have changed. L o a d i n g s from m u n i c i p a l sewage t r e a t m e n t p l a n t s have r i s e n , but i n p a r t because i n d u s t r i e s and new l o c a l i t i e s c o n t i n u e t o d i v e r t t h e i r e f f l u e n t t o the p l a n t s , w i t h r e s u l t a n t d e c l i n e s i n d i r e c t l o a d i n g s e l s e w h e r e . Thus i t would be wrong t o c o n c l u d e t h a t because m u n i c i p a l l o a d i n g s have grown, o t h e r s have as w e l l . ) T h i s does not mean t h a t e v i d e n c e of the i n f l u e n c e of r e g u l a t o r y e f f o r t s on p o l l u t i o n i n the Lower F r a s e r i s e n t i r e l y l a c k i n g . The M u n i c i p a l E f f l u e n t s Report ( C a i n and Swain, 1980) f o r example, s t a t e s t h a t by the end of 1980 a l l d i s c h a r g e s of raw sewage w i l l have been e l i m i n a t e d from the E s t u a r y Study a r e a . A l l sewage s h o u l d by t h i s time be r e c e i v i n g a t l e a s t p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t (except d u r i n g p e r i o d s of h i g h r a i n f a l l i n th o s e a r e a s w i t h combined sewers , when raw sewage d i l u t e d w i t h r a i n w a t e r can s t i l l o v e r f l o w d i r e c t l y i n t o the r i v e r ) . T h i s s u r e l y can be t r a c e d back t o the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board's 1968 d i r e c t i v e c a l l i n g f o r a l l d i s c h a r g e s t o have a minimum of p r i m a r y t r e a t m e n t by 1975. I t does not mean t h a t t o t a l l o a d i n g s from domestic sewage s o u r c e s have d e c l i n e d however, f o r the number of hou s e h o l d s has r i s e n . In the I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s R e p o r t , Swain (1981) graphed combined f l o w , BOD, and SS d a t a from 1972-1981 f o r the f o r e s t 170 p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y and from 1971-1978 f o r the food p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r y . For the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , t h e s e show a t o t a l r e d u c t i o n i n the e f f l u e n t f l o w s d i s c h a r g e d t o the r i v e r of 37%, of suspended s o l i d s 70%, and of BOD over 30%. These d e c l i n e s have g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t e d from the replacement of h y d r a u l i c d e b a r k e r s w i t h m e c h a n i c a l d e b a r k e r s a t s i x o p e r a t i o n s . What e f f e c t has t h i s had on water q u a l i t y ? T h i s i s not d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , though Swain c a l c u l a t e s t h a t the r e d u c t i o n i n l o a d i n g s of suspended s o l i d s c o u l d have lowered SS c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the N o r t h Arm a t low flo w by 3 mg/L. I t i s open t o q u e s t i o n j u s t how much b e n e f i t the pe o p l e of B.C. d e r i v e from these improvements. In the food i n d u s t r y , the 1971-1978 d a t a show about a d o u b l i n g i n the t o t a l e f f l u e n t f l o w , over a d o u b l i n g i n SS l o a d i n g s , and over a s i x - f o l d i n c r e a s e i n BOD l o a d i n g s . T h i s does not mean t h a t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s have a c t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n the d i s c h a r g e s from t h i s i n d u s t r y . In the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , s e v e r a l f i s h p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s opened or re-opened. One i n p a r t i c u l a r — t h e Canadian F i s h Company G u l f of G e o r g i a P l a n t ( P E - 1 8 1 4 ) - - d i s c h a r g e s 80% of the e n t i r e food i n d u s t r y ' s o r g a n i c l o a d i n g t o the r i v e r ( a l t h o u g h t h i s e s t i m a t e i s based on e x t r a p o l a t i o n s from o n l y two BOD measurements a t the p l a n t ) . S i n c e 1974, SS and BOD l o a d i n g s from the food i n d u s t r y have not changed. What does t h i s knowledge i m p l y f o r the w e l f a r e of B r i t i s h C olumbians?. These a r e the o n l y d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n FRES water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s documenting changes i n l o a d i n g s of p o l l u t a n t s t h a t may i n p a r t be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o government endeavors. I have a l r e a d y 171 s t a t e d i n Chapter One t h a t D r i n n a n and C l a r k ' s (1980) overview of p h y s i c a l water c h e m i s t r y parameters from 1970-78 showed no s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s , e i t h e r i n main c h a n n e l or s l o u g h measurements. (While s l o u g h s had lower DO l e v e l s than main c h a n n e l s , t h e r e was no documented d e t e r i o r a t i o n or improvement from 1970-78.) The A q u a t i c Sediments and B i o t a Report by S t a n c i l (1980) d i d not or c o u l d not demonstrate t h a t e i t h e r sediments or b i o t a were more h i g h l y c o n t a m i n a t e d w i t h heavy m e t a l s or p e r s i s t e n t o r g a n i c s a t the end of the decade than a t the b e g i n n i n g . In c o n c l u s i o n , w h i l e r e g u l a t o r y e f f o r t s t o date have d o u b t l e s s l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o some d e c r e a s e of some p o l l u t a n t s f o r some t y p e s of d i s c h a r g e , i n f o r m a t i o n s h o r t a g e s p r e v e n t complete q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e s e changes i n the a g g r e g a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t has been a n a l y z e d , i t would appear t h a t t h e s e abatement measures have r e a l l y o n l y l e d t o m a r g i n a l improvements i n even t h o s e water q u a l i t y parameters towards which they have m o s t l y been d i r e c t e d (BOD and SS). The F r a s e r i t s e l f remains f o r the most p a r t an o x y g e n - r i c h , muddy r i v e r d e s p i t e our i n a d v e r t e n t a t t e m p t s f i r s t t o p o l l u t e i t and now our d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t s t o c l e a n i t up. What i s so s t r i k i n g i s how uninformed the p u b l i c a t l a r g e i s about p o l l u t i o n i n the F r a s e r and e f f o r t s a t i t s c o n t r o l . The g e n e r a l consensus, propogated by the news media w i t h a l l the seeming p u r p o s e f u l n e s s of waging a h o l y war, i s t h a t , i n the r e c e n t words of one f e d e r a l MP, "the F r a s e r i s nothing, more than a sewer c h a n n e l t h r o u g h which f i s h must m i g r a t e . " 1 T h i s , d e s p i t e numerous s t u d i e s over the y e a r s by B.C. R e s e a r c h , Westwater, 172 and p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s t h a t have i n d i c a t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a t f o r f i s h , a t l e a s t , the r i v e r ' s c h a n n e l s a r e s t i l l r e a s o n a b l y h e a l t h y . Even the e c o l o g i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t s l o u g h s and bac k w a t e r s , w h i l e c e r t a i n l y degraded ( p a r t l y from " n a t u r a l " c auses) t o some e x t e n t , a r e f a r from b e i n g c e s s p o o l s . What some e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s and the media have tended t o do i s p i c k on the most b l a t a n t f a i l i n g s of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s and ' p o r t r a y them as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (which they a r e o n l y sometimes) s i m p l y by i g n o r i n g those c a s e s i n which e f f o r t s have l e d t o some s u c c e s s . Then, a l e a p i s t y p i c a l l y made t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the r i v e r i t s e l f i s "a f i l t h y mess," 2 which i s s i m p l y not so. I t does not f o l l o w t h a t because . p e r m i t v i o l a t i o n s a re r i f e t h a t water q u a l i t y must t h e r e f o r e be poor. The Waste Management Branch's e n g i n e e r s , on the o t h e r hand, u n d e r s t a n d a b l y tend t o view t h e i r own e f f o r t s i n terms of the p r o g r e s s they have made i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s or t h a t d i s c h a r g e , and thus may a l s o l o s e s i g h t of the l a r g e r p i c t u r e ' . Both the Branch and i t s c r i t i c s , i n r e a c h i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s about the s t a t e of a f f a i r s , tend t o " l o o s e s i g h t of the f o r e s t f o r the t r e e s . " What emerges f a i r l y c l e a r l y from my r e s e a r c h i s t h a t the p r o v i n c e ' s i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements are not u n r e s p o n s i v e t o c a l l s f o r stepped-up c o n t r o l or enforcement. But n e i t h e r do they i n i t i a t e t hose c a l l s . "We have taken s t e p s t o c o r r e c t problems as they appeared," i s the p h i l o s o p h y : one of r i s k i n g some e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage r a t h e r than t a k i n g the r i s k of imposing measures a t some c o s t t o a v o i d t h a t damage, measures t h a t may t u r n out t o be u n n e c e s s a r y . T h i s approach does not 173 n e c e s s a r i l y "doom the F r a s e r , " but i t does d i s p l a y a g r e a t e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o gamble w i t h i t s f u t u r e . The problem of heavy m e t a l p o l l u t i o n f i r s t h i g h l i g h t e d by Westwater i n the mid-s e v e n t i e s (Dorcey, 1976) f o r example, w i l l r e q u i r e c o r r e c t i v e measures w e l l b e f o r e u n s a f e l e v e l s i n f i s h become o b s e r v a b l e and wid e s p r e a d i f we are t o a v e r t major l o n g - t e r m damage. 7.2 S e t t i n g O b j e c t i v e s — C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 7.2.1 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n The p u b l i c i n q u i r y p r o c e s s g e n e r a t e d some but not a l l of the i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o s e t o b j e c t i v e s f o r e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y i n f u l l l i g h t of a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s and b e n e f i t s . However, we cannot and do not ex p e c t o m n i s c i e n c e — t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n any one i n q u i r y a f t e r a l l , a r e many and a r e beset w i t h c e r t a i n u n a v o i d a b l e unknowns. What we want t o know i s whether t h e r e i s r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might be a c q u i r e d by the i n q u i r i e s but i s n o t . There appears t o have been a t the v e r y l e a s t a r u d i m e n t a r y t e c h n i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w a s t e - g e n e r a t i n g p r o c e s s e s under e v a l u a t i o n , and p r o b a b l y a s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l awareness of the r e l e v a n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l o p t i o n s f o r abatement, the c o s t s of these o p t i o n s , and the l e v e l of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y they a r e c a p a b l e of d e l i v e r i n g . The i n c l u s i o n of a t l e a s t one b i o l o g i s t or e c o l o g i s t on each a d v i s o r y p a n e l s u g g e s t s t h a t c u r r e n t knowledge on the a c u t e t o x i c i t y of p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l s of c o n t a m i n a t i o n would a t l e a s t be a v a i l a b l e t o p a n e l i s t s i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s 174 as t o a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l s of c o n t r o l . How h e a v i l y such e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were weighted r e l a t i v e t o economic ones i s u n c e r t a i n , but t h e r e i s i n d i r e c t e v i d e n c e t o suggest t h a t the O b j e c t i v e s a r e based p r i m a r i l y on " a f f o r d a b l e t e c h n o l o g y . " One major, e a s i l y c o r r e c t i b l e d e f i c i e n c y of the o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g p r o c e s s i s t h a t nowhere i s a r a t i o n a l e , methodology, or s e t of assumptions ever e x p l i c i t l y l a i d o u t . F i r s t Recommendation: The R e p o r t s t h a t c o n t a i n the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s which a r i s e from p u b l i c i n q u i r i e s s h o u l d s p e l l out e x p l i c i t l y the methodology and assumptions used t o s e t them. The t h e o r e t i c a l o b j e c t i o n t o l e v e l s of e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y t h a t a re based on c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e , a f f o r d a b l e t e c h n o l o g y i s q u i t e s i m p l e : they may not be enough, or they may be more than enough, t o l e a d t o s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l s of water q u a l i t y . In the absence of h a r d i n f o r m a t i o n on what c l e a n water i s worth t o s o c i e t y v i s - a - v i s o t h e r goods and s e r v i c e s , t h o s e who s e t p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s ( p a n e l i s t s , D i r e c t o r , Board members) r e s o r t t o more s i m p l i s t i c n o t i o n s , i . e . "best a f f o r d a b l e t e c h n o l o g y " or whatever, of what l e v e l s of c o n t r o l a r e r e a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e . To the be s t of my knowledge, no s t a n d a r d t e s t s or c r i t e r i a of j u s t what i s " a f f o r d a b l e " a r e a p p l i e d a t the o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g s t a g e . A s i d e from i g n o r a n c e of p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s , a t l e a s t t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n gaps h i n d e r informed d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , one p e r t a i n i n g t o the economic impact and the o t h e r s t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l impact of a l t e r n a t i v e c o n t r o l l e v e l s . F i r s t , a l t h o u g h the " r e t a i l " p r i c e s of v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d e n d - o f - p i p e 1 75 tr e a t m e n t o p t i o n s a re f a i r l y well-known, and the c o s t s of i n -p l a n t r e c y c l i n g and p r o c e s s a d j u s t m e n t s can be e s t i m a t e d r o u g h l y , the a c t u a l e f f e c t s of some c o m b i n a t i o n of these on a c l a s s of p r i v a t e f i r m s can o n l y be guessed a t because of the f i r m s ' u n d i s c l o s e d economic v i a b i l i t y . C l e a r l y whether a f i r m or an e n t i r e i n d u s t r y can s u r v i v e the i m p o s i t i o n of g i v e n p o l l u t i o n abatement c o s t s i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n t o p o l i c y -makers. The f a c t t h a t , t o t h i s w r i t e r ' s knowledge, t h e r e has never been a s i g n f i c i c a n t , permanent shutdown of an i n d u s t r i a l o p e r a t i o n i n B.C. S i g n i f i e s t h a t e i t h e r a t the o b j e c t i v e -s e t t i n g or p e r m i t - g r a n t i n g and e n f o r c i n g stage the r e g u l a t o r s have t r e a d e d v e r y c a u t i o u s l y . Many d i s c h a r g e r s have d o u b t l e s s l y taken advantage of the Branch's i g n o r a n c e of t h e i r margins of p r o f i t t o b l u f f t h e i r way t o l i g h t e r c o n t r o l s . In p r o m u l g a t i n g e f f l u e n t l i m i t a t i o n g u i d e l i n e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n Agency (EPA) has conducted i n d u s t r y - w i d e s u r v e y s , q u e s t i o n i n g i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s on such economic f a c t o r s as a s s e t s and c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t , revenue, expenses, a n n u a l p r o d u c t i o n , and o t h e r s i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e the economic and community impacts of proposed measures. P r o c e d u r e s a r e employed t o p r o t e c t the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of s e n s i t i v e f i n a n c i a l d a t a (U.S. EPA, 1980b). Second Recommentation: In s e t t i n g and r e v i e w i n g p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o b j e c t i v e s f o r both e f f l u e n t and r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y , the Board s h o u l d u ndertake a more r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of d i s c h a r g e r s ' a b i l i t i e s t o ab s o r b the economic c o s t s of p o l l u t i o n abatement. A second gap i s t h a t the a d v i s o r y p a n e l s a r e a l s o unable t o 176 p r e d i c t ( o t h e r than v e r y c r u d e l y ) the impact of d i s c h a r g e s on r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s both because of our e c o l o g i c a l i g n o r a n c e and s i m p l y the v a s t number of d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s . The same l o a d i n g t h a t i s t o l e r a b l e a t one time and p l a c e may be ten t i m e s what i s t o l e r a b l e i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s a problem t h a t b e s e t s a l l a t t e m p t s a t d e f i n i n g e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s or o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e t o be a p p l i e d over a wide r e g i o n . I t s p o t e n t i a l t o produce i n e f f i c i e n t r e s u l t s (more, or l e s s , i n v e s t e d i n p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l than i s needed t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d water q u a l i t y ) can be reduced by i n t r o d u c i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n t o how the O b j e c t i v e s ar e a p p l i e d i n s p e c i f i c c a s e s , as i s done a l r e a d y i n B.C., and by a c o o r d i n a t e d programme of r e s e a r c h a i m i n g t o improve our knowledge of the e s t u a r i n e ecosystem, t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g the i g n o r a n c e t h a t hampers impact assessment. The p r e s e n t such programme i s s m a l l . C o n s e q u e n t l y , c u r r e n t O b j e c t i v e s a r e based on no more than crude guesswork as t o the e f f e c t of t o x i c p o l l u t a n t s on the a q u a t i c environment. In a d d i t i o n , we are not a d e q u a t e l y m o n i t o r i n g e i t h e r d i s c h a r g e s or r e c e i v i n g environment ( w a t e r , s e d i m e n t s , b i o t a ) t o u n d e r s t a n d the f u l l e f f e c t of e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s on the r i v e r . Slow p r o g r e s s i s v i s i b l e . In 1980, the F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study commissioned the Westwater Research C e n t r e t o study e c o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s i n the e s t u a r y (Dorcey and H a l l , 1981). The a u t h o r s recommend p r i o r i t i e s f o r water q u a l i t y r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h and suggest some p o s s i b l e means and c o s t s of c o n d u c t i n g i t . T h i r d Recommendation: One government agency w i t h i n the M i n i s t r y of Environment s h o u l d be a p p o i n t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e , encourage, and fund water 177 q u a l i t y r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h t h a t , among o t h e r t h i n g s , can be used by the Board i n s e t t i n g b oth e f f l u e n t and r e c e i v i n g water o b j e c t i v e s . R e s e a r c h e f f o r t s would be c o n t i n o u s and not l i n k e d t o any one o b j e c t i v e - s e t t i n g i n q u i r y . G r e a t e s t emphasis s h o u l d be g i v e n t o i n v e s t i g a t i n g p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of t o x i c m a t e r i a l s i n the environment through l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , f i e l d s t u d i e s , and e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . A t h i r d gap t h a t i s p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t i b l e o c c u r s when the i n q u i r i e s downplay or omit i m p o r t a n t parameters a l t o g e t h e r . P o l y - c h l o r i n a t e d b i p h e n y l s (PCB's), f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e not even c o v e r e d under the l a s t F o r e s t P r o d u c t s I n d u s t r y O b j e c t i v e s , y e t t h e s e c o n t a m i n a n t s a r e a d e f i n i t e s o u r c e of c o n c e r n and a r e b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d by the i n d u s t r y i n t o the F r a s e r . For some ty p e s of d i s c h a r g e s , the i n q u i r i e s seem t o have r e l i e d e n t i r e l y upon the d i s c h a r g e r s themselves f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on what c o n t a m i n a n t s a r e p r e s e n t i n the e f f l u e n t . The combined burden of t h e s e p e r v a s i v e u n c e r t a i n t i e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h r e e key f e a t u r e s of the O b j e c t i v e s : t h e i r use as g u i d e s and not r i g i d r u l e s , the p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e i r r e a d j u s t m e n t , and the s h o r t s h r i f t g i v e n r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y (ambient) o b j e c t i v e s . The f i r s t two f e a t u r e s a r e good; the t h i r d i s n o t . The O b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d f o r those parameters of r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s t h a t a r e c o v e r e d a t a l l appear t o be n o t h i n g more than a r b i t r a r y g o a l s ; they do not r e p r e s e n t an attempt a t even a crude assessment of the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of p u r s u i n g the s t a t e d l e v e l s . W h i l e t h i s r u d i m e n t a r y approach may be a c c e p t a b l e i n undeveloped r e g i o n s of the p r o v i n c e or where water q u a l i t y i s not a c o n c e r n , c e r t a i n l y i t i s no l o n g e r s u i t e d t o r e g i o n s l i k e the Lower F r a s e r , where growing c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of waste d i s c h a r g e s e v e n t u a l l y l e a d t o o v e r l a p p i n g I n i t i a l D i l u t i o n 178 Zones and c u m u l a t i v e d e g r a d a t i o n . The concept of the IDZ as i t now s t a n d s does not even l i m i t the degree of d e g r a d a t i o n p e r m i s s i b l e w i t h i n the zone, which i n some cases may s t r e t c h h a l f - w a y a c r o s s a w a t e r c o u r s e and 100 y a r d s downstream from the o u t f a l l . F o u r t h Recommendation: The Board s h o u l d revamp the I n i t i a l D i l u t i o n Zone concept as p a r t of a l a r g e r e f f o r t t o s e t ambient o b j e c t i v e s i n dev e l o p e d a r e a s of the p r o v i n c e . I n s i d e the IDZ (not o u t s i d e i t as p r e s e n t l y ) l i m i t s s h o u l d be s e t f o r key parameters s i g n i f y i n g maximum t o l e r a b l e d e g r a d a t i o n . O u t s i d e of the zone, water q u a l i t y s h o u l d be a t l e a s t e q u a l t o the ambient o b j e c t i v e f o r the r e a c h i n q u e s t i o n . The Board has h e r e t o f o r e m a i n t a i n e d t h a t i t i s " i m p r a c t i c a l " t o s e t s t a n d a r d s or o b j e c t i v e s f o r r e c e i v i n g water q u a l i t y t h a t s e r i o u s l y attempt t o approximate m a r g i n a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of s t a t e d l e v e l s . Our p e r v a s i v e i g n o r a n c e and the d i v e r s i t y of environments throughout the p r o v i n c e , i t i s i n t i m a t e d , would l e a d t o c o s t l y , complex, and maybe f l a w e d a n a l y s i s . But the whole p o i n t of r e g u l a t i n g e f f l u e n t d i s c h a r g e s i n the f i r s t p l a c e i s not t o m i n i m i z e them as an end unto i t s e l f , but as a means of p u r s u i n g some o p t i m a l l e v e l of water q u a l i t y , s t a t e d or u n s t a t e d . H o l d i n g a p u b l i c i n q u i r y t o f o r m a l l y a d d r e s s the matter a l l o w s the p u b l i c t o openly c o n s i d e r and debate the v a r i o u s t r a d e - o f f s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s . These t r a d e - o f f s might not o t h e r w i s e come t o the f o r e . To be sound, ambient o b j e c t i v e s would have .to be s e t s e p a r a t e l y f o r each b a s i n or r i v e r r e a c h , which c o u l d be a f o r m i d a b l e u n d e r t a k i n g f o r the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . T h e r e f o r e , as a f i r s t s t e p , the p r o v i n c e s h o u l d c o n s i d e r o n l y those b a s i n s 179 a p p r e c i a b l y t h r e a t e n e d by p o l l u t i o n . The F r a s e r R i v e r below Hope or i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a i s one such segment. F i f t h Recommendation: The Board s h o u l d commence a p r o c e s s of h o l d i n g i n q u i r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h and p e r i o d i c a l l y r e view ( e v e r y f i v e or ten y e a r s ) a s e t of ambient water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Lower F r a s e r . L i m i t s would be s e t f o r a l l r e l e v a n t parameters and i n a d d i t i o n , f o r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of non-degradable p o l l u t a n t s i n sediments and b i o t a . The p r o v i s i o n f o r u p d a t i n g the O b j e c t i v e s has been invoked i n two of the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of waste d i s c h a r g e s w i t h i n the suggest f i v e y e a r p e r i o d — F o r e s t P r o d u c t s ; and M i n i n g , M i l l i n g , and S m e l t i n g . In the o t h e r t h r e e - - A g r i c u l t u r a l l y - o r i e n t e d , Food p r o c e s s i n g , and M i s c e l l a n e o u s ; C h e m i c a l and P e t r o l e u m ; and M u n i c i p a l - t y p e d i s c h a r g e s — b e t w e e n f i v e and t e n y e a r s have e l a p s e d s i n c e the f i r s t and o n l y i n q u i r i e s and no new ones have been h e l d or c a l l e d f o r . T h i s may mean g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g O b j e c t i v e s , l a c k of commitment t o the v e r y p r i n c i p l e of feedback and r e v i s i o n , or perhaps j u s t h e s i t a t i o n u n t i l the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d f o r by the r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d Environment Management A c t i s more c e r t a i n . V a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s I i n t e r v i e w e d had no d e f i n i t e answer. S i x t h Recommendation: Pending the a d v i c e of s c i e n t i s t s and p e r m i t p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f i n the c e n t r a l o f f i c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f i n the r e g i o n s as t o whether e x i s t i n g O b j e c t i v e s a r e s t i l l adequate, they s h o u l d be reviewed and updated as a p p r o p r i a t e i n a l l f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of waste d i s c h a r g e . In t h i s round of i n q u i r i e s g r e a t e r emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on s e t t i n g p r o v i n c e - w i d e O b j e c t i v e s f o r the c o n t r o l of 180 t o x i c and non-degradable p o l l u t a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those t h a t were n e g l e c t e d i n p r e v i o u s i n q u i r i e s . For d e g r a d a b l e p o l l u t a n t s - -those f o r which d i l u t i o n i s an a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n (BOD, SS, pH, pathogens, n i t r o g e n , phosphorus, and c e r t a i n o t h e r s ) — p r o v i n c e -wide o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d be downplayed and u l t i m a t e l y abandoned a l t o g e t h e r , f o r the g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n the a s s i m i l a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the p r o v i n c e ' s d i f f e r e n t waterways r e n d e r s the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n of u n i f o r m e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s p o i n t l e s s , i f p r e s e r v i n g water q u a l i t y i s our o n l y g o a l . ( I n f a c t , such a move might encounter p o l i t i c a l r e s i s t a n c e . R e g u l a t o r s need t o appear " e q u i t a b l e " by r e q u i r i n g the same measures of everybody ( V e n a b l e s , 1972)). 7.2.2 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s I t i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r from the r e c o r d t h a t e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s do not encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a l l a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s . In f a c t , the t e c h n i c a l and f o r m a l n a t u r e of the p u b l i c h e a r i n g s h e l d t o date d i s c r i m i n a t e s i n f a v o u r of the t e c h n i c a l l y i n f o r m e d , the w e l l - f i n a n c e d , and the v e r b a l l y a d r o i t . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e l i k e l y t o be p o s s e s s e d by the a f f e c t e d d i s c h a r g e r s t h e m s e l v e s ; e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s or o t h e r concerned members of the g e n e r a l p u b l i c seem a t a d i s t i n c t d i s a d v a n t a g e . That t h i s i s the case i s i n d i c a t e d as w e l l by s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p u b l i c i n t e r e s t groups f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t i n q u i r y h e l d i n 1970, and the g e n e r a l l y n o n - t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e of the b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d by t h e s e groups. 181 I t seems l i k e l y t h a t the most i n f l u e n t i a l t e s t i m o n y — t h a t p r e s e n t e d by a f f e c t e d d i s c h a r g e r s — i s s l a n t e d i n f a v o u r of l e s s s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s than the p u b l i c a t l a r g e p r o b a b l y s u p p o r t s . I was not a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n the e x t e n t t o which d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s were c o g n i z a n t of t h i s and compensated f o r i t i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s . S h o r t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l p a n e l i s t s i n d i c a t e d what seemed t o ge a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the s e t t i n g of e f f l u e n t o b j e c t i v e s i s l a r g e l y a t e c h n i c a l e x e r c i s e anyway. In the absence of e f f e c t i v e p u b l i c i n p u t or s c r u t i n y , the s c i e n t i s t s , b u r e a u c r a t s , and e n g i n e e r s c h a r g e d w i t h s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s presumably a c t e d on b e h a l f of what they p e r c e i v e d the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t o be. I f however, the t h e o r i e s of v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b e h a v i o u r such as Simon et a l . (1950) a p p l y h e r e , i t may be t h a t p a n e l i s t s and the Board have a c t e d more on b e h a l f of t h e i r " c l i e n t e l e " ( a f f e c t e d d i s c h a r g e r s — t h o s e whose p a r t i c p a t i o n was g r e a t e s t ) than on the b a s i s of a n y vague n o t i o n s of the p o p u l a r w i l l . As one's own p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l b i a s e s i n e v i t a b l y c o l o u r v a l u e - l a d e n d e c i s i o n s , perhaps i t i s of note t h a t about h a l f of the C a b i n e t -a p p o i n t e d P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Board members a r e c a r e e r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , the o t h e r h a l f b e i n g p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s w i t h some knowledge of or concern about p o l l u t i o n . Of the a d v i s o r y p a n e l members who study and recommend O b j e c t i v e s t o the Board, about h a l f have been p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s w i t h the o t h e r h a l f d i v i d e d between the b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s , h e a l t h f i e l d , c h e m i s t r y , economics, and o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . However w e l l -t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t s may be, they a r e no more q u a l i f i e d t o decree 182 p o l i c y on m a t t e r s as v a l u e - l a d e n as p o l l u t i o n than any common c i t i z e n i s . Three recommendations suggest themselves on the b a s i s of t h i s a n a l y s i s : Seventh Recommendation: The Board s h o u l d conduct p e r i o d i c , s t a n d a r d i z e d s u r v e y s ( e v e r y f i v e or t e n y e a r s ) t o r e g i s t e r p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s on the r e l a t i v e importance of water q u a l i t y as a s o c i a l good. Does the p u b l i c v a l u e i t h i g h l y enough t o (say) spend an e x t r a $30 per c a p i t a per annum f o r secondary sewage t r e a t m e n t ? Q u e s t i o n a i r r e d e s i g n s h o u l d be undertaken by a competent p r o f e s s i o n a l t o a v o i d m e t h o d o l o g i c a l f l a w s . The response would s e r v e as a b a s i s f o r the l e v e l of p u b l i c spending on p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , as w e l l as b e i n g used i n s e t t i n g ambient water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s . The s u r v e y s would b e s t be conducted r e g i o n a l l y , not p r o v i n c e - w i d e , f o r p r e f e r e n c e s may d i f f e r from r e g i o n t o r e g i o n . E i g h t h Recommendation: i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who p r e s e n t b r i e f s a t i n q u i r i e s and who can demonstrate a need s h o u l d be r e i m b u r s e d a t the v e r y l e a s t f o r t h e i r t r a v e l expenses and l o s t wages or s a l a r y . S e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o f u n d i n g of advocacy groups, who a r e a t such a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n m a r s h a l l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t t h e i r c a s e s . (The p r e c e d e n t f o r t h i s has a l r e a d y been s e t by the R o y a l Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o Uranium M i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia.) Formal h e a r i n g s on t e c h n i c a l p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures a r e u s e f u l i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and s h o u l d c o n t i n u e , but they s h o u l d not be c o n s t r u e d as p r o v i d i n g f o r p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 183 N i n t h Recommenation: As i n the two most r e c e n t i n q u i r i e s , the Board s h o u l d h o l d w e l l - a d v e r t i s e d , i n f o r m a l meetings throughout the p r o v i n c e a t which the p u b l i c i s encouraged e x p r e s s views and r e q u e s t i n f o r m a t i o n . 7.3 I s s u i n g P e r m i t s - - C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 7.3.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s In the p r o c e s s i n g of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s , p r o c e d u r e s o u t l i n e d i n the Act and pur s u a n t R e g u l a t i o n s as t o c i r c u l a t i o n and a d v e r t i s e m e n t were f o r the most p a r t f o l l o w e d q u i t e c l o s e l y by the Branch. As t o the use of the O b j e c t i v e s i n s e t t i n g p e r m i t e f f l u e n t s t a n d a r d s , I found t h a t they were always c o n s u l t e d e x p l i c i t l y and seemed t o be a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, they have not always s e r v e d as the "minimum s t a n d a r d s " they have been c l a i m e d t o be. W h i l e new m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e s l a r g e l y d i s p l a y p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s i d e n t i c a l or s u p e r i o r t o L e v e l AA O b j e c t i v e s (except f o r A n n a c i s I s l a n d - - l a r g e r than a l l o t h e r m u n i c i p a l d i s c h a r g e s t o the r i v e r combined), and the FRES I n d u s t r i a l E f f l u e n t s Report notes t h a t many,permits f o r the f o r e s t p r o d u c t s i n d u s t r y i n the Lower F r a s e r a r e s t r i c t e r than L e v e l A, the same r e p o r t a l s o comments t h a t some me t a l p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s have l i m i t s f o r some parameters t h a t do not y e t even meet L e v e l C, which they were supposed t o have done " i m m e d i a t e l y " or "soon" when the O b j e c t i v e s were f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1975. F i s h - p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t e f f l u e n t parameters a r e s e t p r e d o m i n a n t l y a t L e v e l B. One a c c o u n t i n g problem t h a t can confound a t t e m p t s t o compare p e r m i t 184 l i m i t s w i t h O b j e c t i v e s i s t h a t they a re f r e q u e n t l y w r i t t e n i n d i f f e r e n t terms. O b j e c t i v e s f o r the c o n c r e t e i n d u s t r y , f o r example, measure waste a c c o r d i n g t o kgs. of contaminant d i s c h a r g e d per tonne of p r o d u c t . Yet p e r m i t l i m i t s appear as mg/L of waste c o n c e n t r a t i o n s . S i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s e x i s t i n much of the f o r e s t and me t a l p r o c e s s i n g i n d u s t r i e s . ( I n a d d i t i o n , p e r m i t t e e m o n i t o r i n g d a t a o f t e n appears i n d i f f e r e n t terms or u n i t s than the the p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s , making a s w i f t d e t e r m i n a t i o n of co m p l i a n c e a l l but i m p o s s i b l e . ) F i r s t Recommendation: O b j e c t i v e s , p e r m i t s t a n d a r d s and m o n i t o r i n g d a t a s h o u l d a l l employ common t e r m i n o l o g y so as t o f a c i l i t a t e r a t h e r than d i s c o u r a g e c o m p a r i s o n . A t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t the g e n e r a l p o l i c y of up g r a d i n g e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y from L e v e l s B and C t o L e v e l A i s b e i n g pursued, but w i t h more i n c o n s i s t e n t and slowe r r e s u l t s than o r i g i n a l l y p r o m i s e d . One o t h e r t e s t of c o m p l i a n c e of p r a c t i c e t o p o l i c y i n t h i s s t age of the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i s whether a l l waste d i s c h a r g e r s a r e c o v e r e d by p e r m i t . I t does appear t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t - s o u r c e s of e f f l u e n t a re now under p e r m i t a f t e r an e f f o r t c a r r i e d out i n the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s t o r e g i s t e r and then l i c e n s e a l l d i s c h a r g e s . However, the f a c t t h a t s c i e n t i s t s a r e d e t e c t i n g t r a c e s of heavy m e t a l s and t o x i c o r g a n i c s t h a t cannot be acc o u n t e d f o r by known d i s c h a r g e s means t h a t p o l l u t a n t s of con c e r n a r e e s c a p i n g r e g u l a t i o n by p e r m i t . A l s o , a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of u n a u t h o r i z e d dumping of r e f u s e , p r i n c i p a l l y wood waste, i s o c c u r r i n g i n the F r a s e r d e l t a . 185 A l t h o u g h the FRES Summary Water Q u a l i t y Report i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e f f e c t of t h i s dumping on main c h a n n e l water- q u a l i t y i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t numerous d i t c h e s and s m a l l f i s h - b e a r i n g streams a r e b e i n g damaged t h r o u g h a c o m b i n a t i o n of p o l l u t i o n and h a b i t a t d e s t r u c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t N o r t h c o t e (1974) s t a t e s u n e q u i v o c a b l y t h a t t r i b u t a r i e s and s l o u g h s a re i m p o r t a n t t o much of the Lower F r a s e r ' s a q u a t i c l i f e 3 should' make i n d i s c r i m i n a t e dumping and f i l l i n g w i t h wood waste a s o u r c e of c o n c e r n , however m i n i m a l i t s impact on main c h a n n e l water q u a l i t y . 7.3.2 G e n e r a t i o n and Use of I n f o r m a t i o n Many of the remarks under t h i s h e a ding r e i t e r a t e themes t r a c e d e a r l i e r about g e n e r a t i o n and use of i n f o r m a t i o n i n the s e t t i n g of p r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l O b j e c t i v e s . S e t t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s under which any one waste-producer may d i s c h a r g e , a f t e r a l l , i s o n l y a more s p e c i f i c v e r s i o n of the same t a s k : a s s e s s i n g the magnitude and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s and benef i t s . In r e v i e w i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s , the Branch a s s e s s e d a l l a s p e c t s : e n g i n e e r i n g , economic, and e n v i r o n m e n t a l , though not e q u a l l y . W h i l e most emphasis was p l a c e d on the e c o n o m i c a l l y p a l a t a b l e t e c h n i c a l means of o b t a i n i n g an e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y i n a c c o r d w i t h the r e l e v a n t s e t of O b j e c t i v e s , the p r o c e s s i n g s t a f f ( a l l e n g i n e e r s ) d i d not i g n o r e l o c a l r e c e i v i n g water c o n d i t i o n s . The volume of stream f l o w and hence the d i l u t i o n c a p a c i t y was used sometimes as a r a t i o n a l e f o r p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s more or l e s s s t r i n g e n t than the O b j e c t i v e s . In a c q u i r i n g i t s i n f o r m a t i o n , 186 the Branch--— h e l d meetings w i t h a p p l i c a n t s and i n s p e c t e d t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s or p l a n s w i t h a view t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o s t - e f f e c t i v e r e d u c t i o n s i n e f f l u e n t g e n e r a t e d ; — c o n d u c t e d s i t e i n s p e c t i o n s and o c c a s i o n a l l y supplemented them w i t h water samples; — r e v i e w e d i t s own f i l e s f o r p e r t i n e n t m a t e r i a l ; --and, when w a r r a n t e d , c o n s u l t e d o t h e r a g e n c i e s not a l r e a d y on the r e f e r r a l l i s t about s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s . The Branch's a p p l i c a t i o n r e f e r r a l mechanism succeeded i n b r i n g i n g ' t o l i g h t c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n c e r n s from o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l r e s o u r c e a g e n c i e s . However, i n many of the c a s e s I s t u d i e d , f i r m p r e d i c t i o n s of impacts wee s i m p l y not p o s s i b l e , so t h a t the dominant response ( i n those c ases where c o n c e r n s e x i s t e d ) was an e x p r e s s i o n of c o n c e r n about a p o t e n t i a l r i s k of impact, not a d e t a i l e d or q u a n t i t a t i v e e s t i m a t e of j u s t what the impact would be. EPS f r e q u e n t l y responded w i t h s u g g e sted e n g i n e e r i n g works t h a t would o f f e r a h i g h e r l e v e l of p r o t e c t i o n than t h a t proposed, though a t a h i g h e r c o s t , the magnitude of which was never d i s c u s s e d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , though i t would seem t h a t the d o l l a r c o s t of proposed t r e a t m e n t works or p r o t e c t i v e measures i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t never e n t e r e d d i s c u s s i o n s , a t l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o the w r i t t e n r e c o r d . Many of the c o n f l i c t s among a g e n c i e s , and between a g e n c i e s and the d i s c h a r g e r , t h a t sometimes emerged can be l i n k e d d i r e c t l y t o the ingenuous p r e t e n s e t h a t the q u e s t i o n a t hand i s s o l e l y a " t e c h n i c a l " one of p r e v e n t i n g p o l l u t i o n , i n which the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of the d o l l a r c o s t s of p r e v e n t i v e measures i s not r e l e v a n t . In g e n e r a l , the major i n f o r m a t i o n - r e l a t e d s h o r t c o m i n g s of the p r o v i n c e ' s p r o c e d u r e s f o r a s s e s s i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s 187 of i n d i v i d u a l proposed d i s c h a r g e s would seem t o be: (1) D e c i s i o n - m a k e r s a r e unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h between u n w i l l i n g n e s s and i n a b i l i t y t o pay f o r abatement measures on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the a p p l i c a n t . ( T h e i r o n l y gauge i s r e a l l y how f o r c e f u l l y the a p p l i c a n t r e s i s t s measures proposed by the Branch.) T h i s p r e c i p i t a t e s a b a r g a i n i n g game t h a t rewards s u c c e s s f u l use of such t a c t i c s as b l u f f and p r o c r a s t i n a t i o n by the a p p l i c a n t . H y p o t h e t i c a l l y , the n e g o t i a t e d compromise i n such a s i t u a t i o n would be the maximum which the d i s c h a r g e r c o u l d a f f o r d and s t i l l s t a y i n b u s i n e s s - - a n " o p t i m a l " s o l u t i o n . In r e a l i t y , by not p o s s e s s i n g key f a c t s and b e i n g r e l u c t a n t t o p r o s e c u t e , the Branch i s b a r g a i n i n g a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . My o p i n i o n i s t h a t too o f t e n they gave d i s c h a r g e r s the b e n e f i t of the doubt. (2) V i r t u a l l y a l l s t u d i e s have shown h i g h l e v e l s of d i s s o l v e d oxygen (except near the bottoms of c e r t a i n s l o u g h s ) and h i g h n a t u r a l l e v e l s of suspended s o l i d s i n the F r a s e r . T h i s l e a d s one t o b e l i e v e t h a t two parameters of r e l a t i v e l y minor s i g n i f i c a n c e i n e f f l u e n t a r e BOD and SS. Yet what we a c t u a l l y f i n d i s j u s t the o p p o s i t e : o v e r a l l , the Branch has tended t o p l a c e much g r e a t e r emphasis on them than on any o t h e r parameters (except perhaps pH). T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n the FRES water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s : by f a r the most complete d a t a a r e f o r BOD, SS, and pH. In c o n t r a s t , d a t a on such t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s as ammonia, p h e n o l i c s , c y a n i d e , and heavy m e t a l s a r e s c a n t y , and i t i s t h e s e , because of t h e i r t o x i c i t y and/or p e r s i s t e n c e , t h a t p r e s e n t the Lower F r a s e r w i t h i t s most s e r i o u s l o n g - t e r m t h r e a t . 188 Presumably t h i s m i s d i r e c t e d emphasis i s because BOD and SS a r e r e a d i l y measurable, they a r e the most w i d e l y used c o n v e n t i o n a l i n d i c e s of water and e f f l u e n t q u a l i t y , and e n g i n e e r s a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e c h n i c a l means f o r t h e i r c o n t r o l . But the p o i n t of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l s h o u l d not s i m p l y be t o reduce l o a d i n g s of t h i s or t h a t f o r i t s own sake; the p o i n t i s t o pursue some l e v e l of water q u a l i t y t h a t y i e l d s b e n e f i t s — t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e - - t o s o c i e t y . (3) E v a l u a t i o n of any one proposed d i s c h a r g e tends t o occ u r i n i s o l a t i o n from a r e g i o n a l c o n t e x t . That i s , the emphasis i s on c o n t r o l l i n g the proposed a c t i v i t y t o the e x t e n t the Branch can persuade the proponent t o go a l o n g w i t h , i n s t e a d of f i r s t d e c i d i n g what the r e c e i v i n g environment can accomodate and then l i m i t i n g the d i s c h a r g e t o the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l , which might c o n c e i v a b l y mean no c o n t r o l s on the d i s c h a r g e a t a l l . In some c a s e s however, and an i n c r e a s i n g number i f the F r a s e r V a l l e y c o n t i n u e s t o grow and i f water q u a l i t y i s t o be p r e s e r v e d , l i m i t i n g d i s c h a r g e s t o some h y p o t h e t i c a l l e v e l may n e c e s s i t a t e r e f u s i n g the p e r m i t a l t o g e t h e r . P r e s e n t l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s happening. The major t e c h n i c a l reason f o r not a d o p t i n g a s o - c a l l e d c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y approach (U.S. EPA, 1973) t o water q u a l i t y management i n the F r a s e r i s the s c a n t knowledge of what happens t o p o l l u t a n t s once they a re d i s c h a r g e d . P r e s e n t l y the Branch uses an e x t r e m e l y crude e s t i m a t e of the d i l u t i o n c a p a c i t y a v a i l a b l e based on the e n t i r e c h a n n e l ' s extreme low f l o w a t the s i t e of d i s c h a r g e . That i s , i t i s assumed t h a t the e f f l u e n t i s 189 i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y d i l u t e d by a f a c t o r e q u a l t o the e n t i r e r i v e r f l o w , which i s a b s u r d . In a d d i t i o n , d i l u t i o n i s no s o l u t i o n t o those t o x i c , l o n g - l i v e d elements and compounds t h a t may accumulate i n sediments and b i o t a a t the same time t h e i r c o n c e n t r a t i o n s i n the water are below d e t e c t a b l e l i m i t s or w i t h i n what a r e c o n s i d e r e d s a f e l e v e l s . (4) The i n f o r m a t i o n made a v a i l a b l e t o the p u b l i c a t the time of a p p l i c a t i o n g i v e s v i r t u a l l y no " f e e l " f o r the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t of the proposed d i s c h a r g e . A l l t h a t i s p r i n t e d i n the l e g a l ads t h a t announce the a p p l i c a t i o n i s the e f f l u e n t f l o w r a t e , the s i t e of d i s c h a r g e , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e f f l u e n t . These f i g u r e s a re s c i e n t i f i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s and u n i n t e l l i g i b l e t o most of the p u b l i c . The above o b s e r v a t i o n s suggest the f o l l o w i n g recommendations: Second Recommendation: The Branch s h o u l d be g i v e n the a u t h o r i t y t o p r o c u r e p e r t i n e n t f i n a n c i a l d a t a whenever an a p p l i c a n t c l a i m s t h a t the c o s t of proposed measures i s " p r o h i b i t i v e " and the Branch has reason t o doubt the c l a i m . T h i r d Recommendation: G r e a t e r p r i o r i t y must be g i v e n by the Branch t o the c o n t r o l of t o x i c and e c o l o c i a l l y p e r s i s t e n t p o l l u t a n t s , which even now a r e n e g l e c t e d on many p e r m i t s , d e s p i t e the l o n g -term t h r e a t they pose. O r i g i n a l l y , p e r m i t c o n d i t i o n s were based on da t a the a p p l i c a n t h i m s e l f s u p p l i e d , and t h i s may s t i l l be o c c u r r i n g t o some e x t e n t . For a l l but f o o d - p r o c e s s i n g and s m a l l domestic sewage d i s c h a r g e s , the Branch s h o u l d c a r r y out t e s t s of i t s own t o i n s u r e t h e r e a re no s i g n i f i c a n t o m i s s i o n s . 190 F o u r t h Recommendation: In e v a l u a t i n g a proposed d i s c h a r g e , the Branch s h o u l d p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on a s s e s s i n g i t s p o t e n t i a l impacts on the r e c e i v i n g environment i n r e l a t i o n t o the impacts of o t h e r d i s c h a r g e s — a " r e g i o n a l framework" i s needed. The M i n i s t r y of Environment s h o u l d commission or d e v e l o p i t s e l f h y d r a u l i c and/or mass t r a n s p o r t models t h a t can p r e d i c t p o l l u t a n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s , t e m p o r a l l y and s p a t i a l l y , from one or more d i s c h a r g e s . In t h i s way l o a d i n g l i m i t s can be computed t h a t a r e commensurate w i t h water q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s f o r some r e a c h , and an i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a n t ' s proposed l o a d i n g s can be e v a l u a t e d i n the l i g h t of t h e i r r e g i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I f s t u d i e s show t h a t r e a c h l o a d i n g l i m i t s a r e b e i n g approached or exceeded, the Branch w i l l have t o d e v e l o p mechanisms f o r a l l o c a t i n g " d i s c h a r g e r i g h t s " among competing d i s c h a r g e r s . There i s ample l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s s u b j e c t and even a degree of l o c a l e x p e r t i s e . F i f t h Recommendation: Ways of p u b l i c i z i n g the p r e d i c t e d impact of the proposed d i s c h a r g e on a r o u t i n e b a s i s s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d by the Branch. A l t h o u g h i t would l e n g t h e n the time taken t o p r o c e s s a p p l i c a t i o n s by a month (about 20% l o n g e r than i t now r e q u i r e s ) , an a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of the resume now p r e p a r e d f o r each a p p l i c a t i o n c o u l d be c i r c u l a t e d among the p u b l i c p r i o r t o the D i r e c t o r making a f i n a l d e c i s i o n . T h i s might come i n the form of a p r e s s r e l e a s e sent t o l o c a l p apers or an announcement sent t o p o t e n t i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d groups and the n e i g h b o r i n g community. 191 7.3.3 P a r t i c i p a t i o n by A f f e c t e d I n t e r e s t s S e t t i n g p e r m i t terms i s not u s u a l l y a s i m p l e m a t t e r of s l a p p i n g down the c o r r e c t O b j e c t i v e s . R a t h e r , i t i s p r i m a r i l y a t w o - p a r t y b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s between the r e g u l a t o r ( t h e Branch) and the r e g u l a t e d p a r t y (the a p p l i c a n t ) , w i t h f r e q u e n t i n p u t by a f f e c t e d t h i r d p a r t y i n t e r e s t s , i n the form of o t h e r a g e n c i e s or the p u b l i c . The two r e f e r r a l a g e n c i e s most l i k e l y t o r a i s e c o n c e r n s i n r e c e n t y e a r s a r e the f e d e r a l E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e and the p r o v i n c i a l F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch. Both responded more f r e q u e n t l y i n the case of r e f u s e d i s p o s a l p e r m i t s f o r wood waste than w i t h e f f l u e n t p e r m i t s f o r d i s c h a r g e t o the F r a s e r i t s e l f ( p r o b a b l y because of the more i d e n t i f i a b l e impact of dumps on l o c a l h a b i t a t ) . C e r t a i n members of both EPS and F i s h and W i l d l i f e a r e v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h the Branch's accomodation of t h e i r c o n c e r n s , which u s u a l l y r e l a t e t o the d e g r a d a t i o n of f i s h - b e a r i n g w a t e r s . Indeed, I found t h a t these c o n c e r n s went unheeded much more o f t e n than they were heeded. The C o n s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r s who headed the 1980 F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e noted l i k e w i s e : In most i n s t a n c e s , we o b s e r v e d t h a t the recommendations s u b m i t t e d by the R e g i o n a l B i o l o g i s t and t e c h n i c i a n s of Waste Management Branch, B.C. F i s h and W i l d l i f e Branch and F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s s t a f f which i d e n t i f i e d p r e s e n t and f u t u r e problems, such as l e a c h a t e , were i g n o r e d . T h i s u l t i m a t e l y , i n many cases r e s u l t e d i n e i t h e r i l l e g a l p o l l u t i o n s ( s i c ) or severe e n v i r o n m e n t a l damage from p e r m i t t e d s i t e s . (Ackerman and C l a p p , 1980: p. 13) My view i s t h a t t h i s account p r o b a b l y e x a g g e r a t e s the s i t u a t i o n somewhat: i n my own study c a s e s , a d v i c e was sometimes f o l l o w e d . F r e q u e n t l y , what was " i d e n t i f i e d " was not impact per 1 92 se , but concerns t h a t impact might m a t e r i a l i z e . When the s u g g e s t i o n s of o t h e r a g e n c i e s were not heeded, a c c o r d i n g t o the Branch i t was u s u a l l y f o r one or bo t h of two r e a s o n s . E i t h e r the c o n c e r n s over p o s s i b l e impact were not " p r o p e r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d " , or the proposed m i t i g a t i v e measures were not c o n s i d e r e d " r e a s o n a b l e " ( i . e . would i n v o l v e h i g h e r c o s t s f o r the p e r m i t t e e than c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y or f a i r ) . S i n c e such c o s t s were never o p e n l y q u a n t i f i e d , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o know how unr e a s o n a b l e they r e a l l y a r e . The " s u b s t a n t i a l " p r o f i t s t h a t Ackerman and C l a p p (1980) d e c l a r e d were won by some h a u l e r s and d e v e l o p e r s from i l l e g a l l y d e p o s i t e d wood waste would suggest t h a t i n some cases, a t l e a s t , the c o s t s of p r e v e n t i v e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures t o the proponent or p e r m i t t e e a re not p r o h i b i t i v e . ' What of the c l a i m c i t e d i n Chapter Two t h a t " p r o p e r l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d " p o s i t i o n s w i l l be honoured by the Branch? Based on the record', e i t h e r t h e s e a g e n c i e s a re not p r o p e r l y s u b s t a n t i a t i n g t h e i r c a s e s , or the c l a i m i s s i m p l y not t r u e . The answer, i t seems t o me, i s some of b o t h . A c t u a l l y , as s t a t e d , the c l a i m d i s p l a y s g r e a t e r p o l i t i c a l acumen than i n t e l l e c t u a l h o n e s t y , because whether or not a p o s i t i o n can be s u b s t a n t i a t e d , t h e r e i s s t i l l the q u e s t i o n of whether the s u b s t a n t i a t e d impacts r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t damage. I f a c o n s e r v a t i o n agency can document u n e q u i v o c a b l y t o everyone's s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t a p r o p o s a l w i l l d e s t r o y a stream t r i b u t a r y t o the F r a s e r w i t h a run of 50 salmon, does t h i s mean, laws a s i d e f o r a moment, t h a t the a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d o u t r i g h t ? What i f the o n l y f i s h p r e s e n t a re s u c k e r s and c a r p ? 193 The answer i s t h a t i t depends on what the f i s h - - w h a t e v e r k i n d — a r e worth r e l a t i v e t o the v a l u e of foregone o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t may w e l l be t h a t i f we a r e t o pe r m i t f u r t h e r growth and development i n t h i s r e g i o n t h a t d e l e t e r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s on water q u a l i t y a r e i n e v i t a b l e (assuming, t h a t i s , t h a t per c a p i t a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l e x p e n d i t u r e s w i l l have t o r i s e , and t h a t a t some p o i n t , they w i l l c l i m b h i g h e r than what most of us a r e w i l l i n g t o pay. I t seems more l i k e l y t h a t now and i n the immediate f u t u r e however, t h a t a r e a s o n a b l e degree of c o n t r o l can be p r o v i d e d a t a " r e a s o n a b l e " c o s t . 5 P u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e v a l u a t i o n of p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s was meager, l i m i t e d t o a t o t a l of f o u r f o r m a l o b j e c t i o n s i n t h r e e of my 13 c a s e s . Each of the s e o b j e c t i o n s was made t o s a f e g u a r d a t h r e a t e n e d p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t ; no o b j e c t i o n was laun c h e d e x p r e s s l y on b e h a l f 0 of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a l t h o u g h c l a s s a c t i o n s a r e not p r o h i b i t e d by the A c t . One of the f o u r o b j e c t i o n s was s u c c e s s f u l , but i t was made by a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d group (the U n i t e d Fishermen and A l l i e d Workers' U n i o n ; the o t h e r o b j e c t o r s were i n d i v i d u a l s ) and o f f e r e d an i n e x p e n s i v e s o l u t i o n . The o t h e r t h r e e were o b j e c t i o n s i n p r i n c i p l e t o an e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n . No h e a r i n g s were c a l l e d , as i t i s the D i r e c t o r ' s p r e r o g a t i v e t o do, and the e f f e c t on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g was p r o b a b l y s l i g h t , beyond b o l s t e r i n g the r e g u l a t o r ' s sense of purpose. In my judgement the D i r e c t o r ' s d e c i s i o n i n the s e cases was not u n f a i r . On the o t h e r hand, i t appeared t h a t the Branch's e f f o r t s a t communicating w i t h the o b j e c t o r were p e r f u n c t o r y and not a l l t h a t h e l p f u l . I cannot 194 p r e d i c t how the Branch would have d e c i d e d i n the case of m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i o n s t o an a p p l i c a t i o n , as t h i s s i t u a t i o n d i d not a r i s e . S i x t h Recommendation: The M i n i s t r y of Environment s h o u l d c o n d u c t , or p r e f e r a b l y , fund t hrough a u n i v e r s i t y ( t o h e l p i n s u r e i m p a r t i a l i t y ) , an e v a l u a t i o n of the Branch's r e c o r d i n the a d j u d i c a t i o n of d i s p u t e s t h a t emerge i n response t o proposal's advanced i n p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s . The study s h o u l d be made p u b l i c and s h o u l d a d d r e s s i t s e l f t o u n s e t t l i n g a l l e g a t i o n s , not put t o r e s t by t h i s t h e s i s , of a "pro-i n d u s t r y " b i a s i n the Branch's d e c i s i o n s . I w i l l r e f r a i n from recommending t h a t f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s more s p i r i t e d l y o v ersee t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n (beyond s u b m i t t i n g r a t h e r p a s s i v e l y t o the Branch's dominant r o l e as o p e r a t o r of the p e r m i t system) o n l y because i t s t r a y s from my t o p i c and e n t e r s the d e l i c a t e r e alm of h i g h e r - l e v e l f e d e r a l / p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 7.4 M o n i t o r i n g and E n f o r c e m e n t — C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendations 7.4.1 Compliance w i t h P r e s c r i b e d P r o c e d u r e s Non-compliance by p e r m i t t e e s w i t h t h e i r m o n i t o r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s was a s i g n i f i c a n t problem. My f i l e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t perhaps o n l y on the o r d e r of o n e - t h i r d t o one-h a l f of a l l p e r m i t t e e s comply p r e c i s e l y as t hey a r e r e q u i r e d t o . F r a s e r R i v e r E s t u a r y Study water q u a l i t y r e p o r t s suggest a somewhat h i g h e r r a t e of c o m p l i a n c e t h a t v a r i e s by i n d u s t r y , the food i n d u s t r y h a v i n g by f a r the worst r e c o r d . The WMB's reponse t o non-compliance has been t o w r i t e l e t t e r s t o the p e r m i t t e e r e m i n d i n g them of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t o v i s i t the o p e r a t i o n i n person i f t h i s does not produce a s a t i s f a c t o r y 195 response. T h i s approach appears t o have had mixed s u c c e s s a t bes t i n i n d u c i n g prompt v o l u n t a r y c o m p l i a n c e . There i s a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of non-compliance w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e p e r m i t r e q u i r e m e n t s ( d i s c h a r g e s e x c e e d i n g a l l o w a b l e l i m i t s ) . Here the WMB's response depended on how c o o p e r a t i v e they p e r c e i v e d the p e r m i t t e e t o be. W h i l e p r o s e c u t i o n was t h r e a t e n e d a number of t i m e s , i t was o n l y v e r y r a r e l y i n v o k e d . In some c a s e s the p e r m i t t e e s responded a t l e a s t enough t o reduce p r e s s u r e from the WMB. In o t h e r s , the WMB was not a b l e t o r e s o l v e the i s s u e t o t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n by r e s o r t i n g t o t h r e a t e n i n g t a c t i c s , and so v i o l a t i o n s have s i m p l y c o n t i n u e d . The p r o s e c u t i o n of v i o l a t o r s under the A c t has t o date by an i n e f f e c t i v e means of e n f o r c i n g g e n e r a l c o m p l i a n c e . The time r e q u i r e d t o p r e p a r e cases i s s u b s t a n t i a l , judges tend towards l e n i e n c y , e v i d e n c i a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e v e r y s t r i n g e n t i n a c r i m i n a l c o u r t , and p e n a l t i e s , even when they a r e o b t a i n e d , a r e puny. A l t h o u g h c o n v i c t i o n s a r e o b t a i n e d i n a m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , the mean p e n a l t y was $492. The p a l t r y f i n e s t y p i c a l l y handed out can o n l y s i g n i f y t o p o t e n t i a l v i o l a t o r s t h a t the p r o v i n c e does not t a k e o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t the P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act v e r y s e r i o u s l y . F i r s t Recommendation: In view of the above problems, s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h c i v i l assessments as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c r i m i n a l s a n c t i o n s as an enforcement t o o l . 6 In a 1980 a r t i c l e i n the H a r v a r d E n v i r o n m e n t a l Law Review, Drayton d e s c r i b e s the a t t r a c t i v e f e a t u r e s of t h i s a p p roach, o u t l i n e s i t i n some d e t a i l , and d i s c u s s e s i t a p p l i c a t i o n i n the s t a t e of C o n n e c t i c u t , where enforcement by c o n v e n t i o n a l c o u r t p r o s e c u t i o n s has produced r e s u l t s as 1 96 d i s a p p o i n t i n g as B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s . 7 The approach s h o u l d be implemented i n the Lower F r a s e r on a t r i a l b a s i s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t a n d a r d approach ( l i t i g a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c i a l c o u r t s ) now b e i n g used. The seven man F r a s e r R i v e r Task F o r c e ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n 1980, which i n c l u d e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of p o s s i b l e v i o l a t o r s and the l a y i n g of c h a r g e s , a l l w i t h wide media c o v e r a g e , appears t o have had the e f f e c t of f r i g h t e n i n g some problem v i o l a t o r s i n t o more c o m p l i a n t conduct (which demonstrates t h a t the r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o s e c u t i o n does have some d e t e r r e n c e v a l u e ) . A l t h o u g h t h o s e i n the Branch who d e a l d a i l y w i t h p e r m i t t e e s have u n d e r s t a n d a b l y f e l t t h a t a c o n f i d e n c e or t r u s t has been v i o l a t e d by t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n from o u t s i d e i n t o t h e i r a f f a i r s , and t h a t i t may have damaged c o n s t r u c t i v e w o r k i n g r