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Images of charity, conflict, and kingship : the iconography of a pair of Crusader ivories Anderson, Patricia 1981

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IMAGES OF CHARITY, CONFLICT, AND KINGSHIP: THE ICONOGRAPHY OF A PAIR OF CRUSADER IVORIES by PATRICIA ANDERSON B.Ed.J, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Fine A r t s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 © P a t r i c i a Anderson, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Fine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Pl a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October , 1981  ABSTRACT A p a i r of m i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y i v o r y plaques, carved i n Jerusalem, and now i n the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , are important both as the o n l y known t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Crusader i v o r i e s , and as the one-time covers of Queen Melisende's P s a l t e r (London, B.L. Egerton MS 1139; 1131-1143) — the most complete and l a v i s h l y i l l u m i n a t e d manuscript to have s u r v i v e d frcm the f i r s t L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1187). I c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y , the i v o r i e s are unique. On the f r o n t cover are two main sequences: scenes from the l i f e of David, and images of the major V i r t u e s and V i c e s -- c y c l e s which are not u s u a l l y p o r t r a y e d i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n . On the back cover, a t h i r d major c y c l e , i n which a king performs the s i x Acts of Mercy, i s a l s o noteworthy -- both f o r i t s unique a s s o c i a t i o n with the other two c y c l e s , and f o r the number of i t s i n d i v i d u a l scenes, which makes i t u n r i v a l l e d among e a r l i e r or contemporary mercy c y c l e s , i n the completeness of i t s adherence to i t s t e x t u a l source. T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned with the t e x t u a l and p i c t o r i a l o r i g i n s of these d i s t i n c t i v e groups of images. Chapter II i d e n t i f i e s the major and subordinate t e x t u a l sources of the i v o r i e s ' iconography, thus demonstrating the p r i m a r i l y n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n of the images. The covers are a l s o p i c t o r i a l l y e x p r e s s i v e of three themes — c h a r i t y , c o n f l i c t , and i i k i n g s h i p — w h i c h , t o g e t h e r , a r e c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a l a n d a c t u a l i t y o f D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p i n t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m . C h a p t e r I I I c o n s i d e r s t h e s p e c i f i c a r t i s t i c s o u r c e s o f t h e i m a g e r y , c i t i n g i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y - c o m p a r a b l e e x a m p l e s f r o m J e r u s a l e m a n d e l s e w h e r e . T h e i v o r i e s a r e f o u n d t o h a v e p i c t o r i a l a f f i n i t i e s w i t h s o m e c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n u s c r i p t s f r o m B y z a n t i u m a n d W e s t e r n E u r o p e , a n d i n t h i s , t h e y t y p i f y t h e d u a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i -t i o n t h a t w a s t h e h a l l m a r k o f t h e J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m i n t h e m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . T h e i v o r i e s a l s o d e p i c t s e v e r a l d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e l o c a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . T h e p r e s e n c e o f s u c h m o t i f s n o t o n l y c o n f i r m s t h e p r e v i o u s l y -e s t a b l i s h e d J e r u s a l e m , p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e i v o r i e s , b u t a l s o b e c o m e s a m e a n s o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r t i s t s w h o c a r v e d t h e m . C h a p t e r I V b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r s p r o b l e m s , m e n t i o n e d i n , o r r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f , t h e t w o p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s . Q u e s -t i o n s o f s t y l e , d a t i n g , a n d p a t r o n a g e a r e s o m e w h a t e l a b o r a t e d , a n d s u g g e s t i o n s a r e m a d e f o r f o l l o w - u p r e s e a r c h . I n e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e a n d t h e m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y , a n d i n d e t a i l i n g t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o B y z a n t i n e , W e s t e r n , a n d l o c a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s , t h i s s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e i v o r y c o v e r s o f t h e M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r a r e b o t h c o n c e p t u a l l y a n d p i c t o r i a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i r t i m e a n d p l a c e o f o r i g i n . i i i CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 The g e n e r a l a r t h i s t o r i c a l importance of the i v o r i e s ; a b r i e f survey of s c h o l a r -s h i p on the i v o r i e s ; the purposes and scope of t h i s study. CHAPTER I I . THE NARRATIVE AND HISTORICAL MEANING OF THE IVORIES 1 ICONOGRAPHY 10 D e s c r i p t i o n of the i v o r i e s ; the David c y c l e ; the V i r t u e s and V i c e s c y c l e ; the Acts of Mercy c y c l e ; the minor c y c l e s ; unusual aspects of the iconography; the major t e x t u a l source of the icon o g r a p h i c programme; the secondary t e x t u a l source; the themes of the ic o n o g r a p h i c pro-gramme; the contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e of the themes and images CHAPTER I I I . THE IVORIES AND THE JERUSALEM SCRIPTORIUM IN THE MID-TWELFTH CENTURY 4 5 The Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150; the i v o r i e s and the P s a l t e r ; the i v o r i e s and the twofold a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n of the Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m ; the twofold t r a d i t i o n and the problem of the i v o r i e s ' models; the Byzantine models; the Western models; the E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e in the Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150; the i v o r i e s ' l o c a l m o t i f s ; the i v o r i e s ' a r t i s t s CHAPTER IV. RELATED CONCERNS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE STUDY 83 Conclusion i v NOTES TO THE TEXT 92 Notes to Chapter I; notes to Chapter I I ; notes to Chapter I I I ; notes to Chapter IV SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 119 ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS . 122 APPENDIX 1 124 APPENDIX 2 125 ILLUSTRATIONS 126 v L I S T OF I L L U S T R A T I O N S F i g u r e 1. Ivory covers of the Melisende P s a l t e r (London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Egerton MS 1139). Made in Jerusalem, mid-12th c e n t u r y . Shown with former b i n d i n g . ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 2. Front cover. ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 3. Back cover. ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 4 a. Diagram showing major measurements of the f r o n t cover, b. Diagram showing major measurements of the back cover. 5 a. Front cover. Diagram of c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l s with the back cover. b. Back cover. Diagram of c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l s with the f r o n t cover. 6. The Tree of V i r t u e s . De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s et S p i ' r i t u s . Second q u a r t e r , 12th ce n t u r y . S a l z b u r g , S t u d i e n b i b l i o -thek, MS S i g n . V.I.H. 162, f o l i o 76r. (From K a t z e n e l l e n -bogen, A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s in Medieval  A r t , P I. XLI-67) 7, a. Rosette m o t i f . Melisende P s a l t e r . Jerusalem, 1131-43. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Egerton MS 1139, f o l i o 23v. ( D e t a i l of F i g . 14a, a f t e r Buchthal, M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g  i n the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, P I . 13a) b. Rosette m o t i f . F r o n t cover. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) 8„a. Beadwork m o t i f . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 23v. ( D e t a i l of F i g . 14a, a f t e r B u c h t h a l , P i . 13a) b. Beadwork m o t i f . F r o n t cover, lower l e f t c o r n e r . , ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) 9 a. B i r d . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 23v. (After B u c h t h a l , PI. 13a) b. B i r d . Front cover, lower frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) v i F i g u r e c. B i r d . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 89v. (Aft e r B u c h t h a l , PI. 15b) d. B i r d . Back cover, l o w e r - r i g h t i n t e r s t i c e . ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) 10 a. Knotwork. D e t a i l of an i n i t i a l E. Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 106v. (Aft e r B u c h t h a l , PI. 16a) b. Knotwork. Fr o n t cover, r i g h t frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) 11 a. "Rope" m o t i f . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 46v. (From Buchthal, PI. 14a) b. "Rope" m o t i f . Back cover, l o w e r - r i g h t c o r n e r . ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) 12 a. T r e f o i l m o t i f . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 74v. (From Bu c h t h a l , PI. 15a) b. T r e f o i l m o t i f . Back cover, r i g h t frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) e-j T r e f o i l motifs.. Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o s l r , 2v, 3v, 7v, 9r, and 9v. (After B u c h t h a l , P i s . l a , 2b, 3b, 7b, 9a, 9b) 13 a. L e t t e r s . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 89v. (Aft e r B u c h t h a l , PI. 15b) b. L e t t e r s . F r o n t cover, t o p - l e f t , b o t t o m - l e f t , and top-r i g h t m e d a l l i o n s . 14 a. David as M u s i c i a n . Beatus I n i t i a l . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 23v. (Aft e r B u c h t h a l , P i . 13a) b. David as M u s i c i a n . F r o n t cover, bottom-right m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 15. David as M u s i c i a n . Augustinus. Canterbury, ca 1070-1100. Cambridge, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , MS B 5 26, f o l i o 1. (From Dodwell, The Canterbury School of I l l u m i n a t i o n , PI. 10b) 16 a. I n i t i a l B. Commentary on the Psalms. France, l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . Oxford, B o d l e i a n MS Canon. Pat. L a t . 217, f o l i o 3. (From Pacht and Alexander, I l l u m i n a t e d Manu- s c r i p t s i n the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y Oxford, v o l . 1, P i . XXXIX-494) v i i F i g u r e b. David as M u s i c i a n . Enlarged d e t a i l from F i g . 16a. 17 a. V i r t u e s vanquish P r i d e . Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . Germany, 1159-80. Munich, S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 13002, f o l i o 199v. (From Cames, A l l e g o r i e s e t Symboles dans  l'Hortus D e l i c i a r u m , P i . XXXII-50.) b. F o r t i t u d o d e f e a t s A v a r i t i a . Front cover, lower-centre i n t e r s t i c e . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 18 a. I n i t i a l E. B i b l e . England, ca 1170. Durham, C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y , A . I I . l , V o l . I l l , f o l i o 131v. (From Kauffmann, Romanesque.- Manuscripts, F i g . 282) b. David and G o l i a t h . F r o n t cover, c e n t r e - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 19 a. A n o i n t i n g of David. I n i t i a l D. P s a l t e r . England, ca 1170. Durham, C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y , A.II.9, f o l i o 63. (From Kauffmann, F i g . 283) b. A n o i n t i n g of David. Front cover, u p p e r - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) c. A n o i n t i n g of David. H o m i l i e s of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th century. P a r i s , B i b l i o t n e q u e N a t i o n a l e , gr. 510, f o l i o 174v. (From B i b . Nat., Byzance e t l a  France Me*die*vale, PI. V) 20 a. Ornamental border. D e t a i l of the Tree of Jesse Window, Ch a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l . Ca 1154. ( A f t e r Watson, E a r l y  Iconography of the Tree of J e s s e , PI. 26) b. Ornamental border. Front cover, r i g h t and l e f t frame. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) c. D e c o r a t i v e m o t i f . D e t a i l of the i n i t i a l to I Kings. Winchester B i b l e . Winchester, t h i r d q u a r t e r , 12th c e n t u r y . Winchester C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y unnumbered MS, f o l i o 88r. ( A f t e r , Oakeshott, Sigena, p. 84) 21 a. Western v e r s i o n of the t r e f o i l m o t i f . S t . Albans P s a l t e r . S t . Albans, ca 1120. H i l d e s h e i m , _ S t . Godehard Treasury, unnumbered MS, page 56. (Aft e r Pacht, e_t a l . , The S t . Albans P s a l t e r , p i . 34) b. T r e f o i l m o t i f . Back cover, l e f t frame. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) v i i i F i g u r e 22 a. Corner ornament. Genesis i n i t i a l . Winchester B i b l e . Winchester, t h i r d q u a r t e r , 12th c e n t u r y . Winchester C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y . (After Oakeshott, A r t i s t s of the  Winchester B i b l e , P i . XVII) b. Corner ornament. Back cover, t o p - l e f t , t o p - r i g h t , and bottom-right c o r n e r s . ( D e t a i l s from F i g . 3) c. M a r g i n a l ornament. I n i t i a l I. Gospels. Canterbury, ca 1140-50. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , Royal MS I.B.XI, f o l i o 114. (From Kauffmann, F i g . 172) 23. I n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . Mosaic. Monreale, S i c i l y . S i c u l o - B y z a n t i n e , l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . (From Demus, The  Mosaics of Norman S i c i l y , PI. 94b) 24. Diagram of i n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . Germany, 1159-80. Munich, S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 13002, F o l i o 31a. (After Straub and K e l l e r , Hortus  D e l i c i a r u m , PI. XI) 25. I n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . Ivory c a s k e t . Cordoba, e a r l y 11th century. London, V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum. (From Beckwith, Caskets from Cordoba) 26. I n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . Ivory d i p t y c h . Northern France, 9th-10th c e n t u r y . P a r i s , Muse*e de Cluny. (After Debidour, Le B e s t i a i r e Sculpte* du Moyen Age en France, PI. 4.) 27. Inhabited s c r o l l w o r k . Arm from a s t o o l . I v o r y . Winchester, mid-12th c e n t u r y . F l o r e n c e , Museo N a z i o n a l e . (From Beckwith, Ivory Carvings i n E a r l y Medieval  England, F i g . 168) 28 a-., C r o z i e r . Enamel-work. England, ca 1175. F l o r e n c e , B a r g e l l o , Carrand C o l l e c t i o n . (From C a h i e r , Nouveaux  Melanges d ' Arche'ologie, d ' H i s t o i r e , e t de L i t t e * r a t u r e , v o l . 4, F i g . 84) b. V i r t u e s overcoming V i c e s . David r e s c u i n g a Lamb. D e t a i l of C r o z i e r shown in F i g . 28a. (From Swarzenski, Monuments of Romanesque A r t , P i . 196) 29 a. The M i r a c l e of the Loaves. Gospels. B y z a n t i n e , 13th c e n t u r y . Mt. Athos, Iveron, Cod. 5, f o l i o 63v. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , The Treasures of Mount Athos, v o l . 2, p i . 13) ix Figure b. Feeding the Hungry. Back cover, t o p - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 30 a. Love of the Poor. Ho m i l i e s of Gregory of Nazianzen. B y z a n t i n e , 12th c e n t u r y . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS g r . 550, f o l i o 251. (From Omont, M i n i a t u r e s - d e s Plus  Anciens Manuscrits Grecs de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , PI. CXIV) b. G i v i n g Drink to the T h i r s t y . Back cover, t o p - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) c. C h r i s t P reaching. Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th century. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS g r. 510, f o l i o 170. (From B i b . Nat., Byzance e t l a France Me"dieVale, P i . IV, d e t a i l of c e n t r e r e g i s t e r ) 31 a. C h r i s t and the Samaritan Woman. Gospels. B y z a n t i n e , 13th c e n t u r y . Mt. Athos, Iveron, Cod. 5, f o l i o 371. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 2, PI. 34) b. Love of the Poor. Ho m i l i e s of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 14th ce n t u r y , from"a 10th century model. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS g r . 543, f o l i o 310v. (From Omont, PI. CXXV) c. G i v i n g S h e l t e r t o the Homeless. Back cover, c e n t r e -l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photo-graph) 32 a. C h r i s t Appears to the D i s c i p l e s . L e c t i o n a r y . Byzantine, 11th century. Mt. Athos, D i o n y s i o u , Cod. 587, f o l i o 14v. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 1, PI. 199) b. C l o t h i n g the Naked. Back cover, c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 33 a. C h r i s t h e a l i n g . Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th c e n t u r y . P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS g r . 510, f o l i o 170. (From Omont, PI. XXXVI, d e t a i l from the centre r e g i s t e r ) b. Comforting the S i c k . Back cover, b o t t o m - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph), 34 a. C h r i s t H e a l i n g the Impotent Man. Gospels. B y z a n t i n e , 13th c e n t u r y . Mt. Athos, Iveron, Cod. 5, f o l i o 377. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 2, P I . 35). x F i g u r e b. V i s i t i n g the Imprisoned. Back cover, bottom-right m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 35 a. Penitence of David. Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th century. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS gr. 510, f o l i o 143 v. (From Omont, P i . XXXIII) b. Penitence of David. F r o n t c o v e r , b o t t o m - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 3 6 a. P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n the Temple. Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o 3r. (From Buchth a l , PI. 3a) b. David and Ahimelech. F r o n t cover, c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 37 a. P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t in the Temple. Sermons. By z a n t i n e - C a s s i n e s e , 11th c e n t u r y . Monte C a s s i n o , MS 98, f o l i o l l l v . (From Salmi, I t a l i a n M i n i a t u r e s , F i g . 3) b. David and Ahimelech. Back cover, c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 38 a. Diagram of C a r i t a s . S t . Albans P r u d e n t i u s . England, 1119-1146. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Cotton MS T i t u s D. XVI, f o l i o 30r. b. L a r g i t a s . F r o n t cover, bottom-centre i n t e r s t i c e . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) c. F i d e s s l a y s D i s c o r d i a . S t . Albans P r u d e n t i u s , f o l i o 28v. (Af t e r Saunders, E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , P I . 34a) 3 9 a. David as M u s i c i a n . The S t . Albans P s a l t e r . England, ca 1120. Hildesheim, S t . Godehard's Treasury, unnumbered MS, page 72. (From The S t . Albans P s a l t e r , p i . 34) b. David as M u s i c i a n . F r o n t cover, bottom-right m e d a l l i o n . ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) 40. David W r i t i n g . Upper h a l f , Beatus i n i t i a l . Winchester P s a l t e r . England, ca 1140. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y Cotton MS Nero C. IV, f o l i o 26. (From Wormald, The  Winchester P s a l t e r , P i . 98) 41. David as Musician;, seated under a t r i p l e a rch. P s a l t e r y . England, ca 1060. Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , Cod. F f . 1, 23, f o l i o l v (4v). (From Steger, David Rex e t  Propheta, PI. 12) x i F i g u r e 42 a. E n g l i s h harp. 12th or 13th c e n t u r y . ( A f t e r G a l p i n , Old E n g l i s h Instruments of Music, F i g . 1) b. Front cover. D e t a i l of bottom-right m e d a l l i o n showing E n g l i s h harp. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) 43 a. Knotwork m o t i f . Fragment of a r o y a l tomb. Jerusalem, l a t e 12th century. (From Jacoby, " T h e Tomb of Baldwin V," Gesta 18 (1979):3-14, F i g . 6a) b. Knotwork m o t i f . Front cover, r i g h t frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) c. Knotwork m o t i f . Back cover, l e f t frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) 44 a. Grape m o t i f . S c u l p t e d ornament on a r o y a l tomb fragment. Jerusalem, l a t e 12th century. (From Jacoby, F i g . 4) b. Grape m o t i f . Front cover, upper frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) c. Grape m o t i f . Back cover, upper frame. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) 45 a. Rosette f r i e z e . Southern facade, Holy Sepulchre Church. Jerusalem, ca 1150. (From Kenaan, " L o c a l C h r i s t i a n A r t in T w e l f t h Century Jerusalem," I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n  J o u r n a l 23 (1973):221-9, PI. 59b) b. S p i r a l r o s e t t e s . Back cover, m e d a l l i o n j o i n i n g s . . ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3) c. S p i r a l r o s e t t e s . S c u l p ted ornament on a r o y a l tomb fragment. Jerusalem, l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . (From Jacoby, F i g . 11) 46 a. Diamond and bead m o t i f . Western p o r t a l , southern facade, Holy Sepulchre Church. Jerusalem, ca 1150. (From Kenaan, P i . 58d) b. Diamond and bead m o t i f . Front cover, lower t h i r d , l e f t s i d e . ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) x i i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S I am g r a t e f u l t o my a d v i s o r , D r . M a r y M o r e h a r t , w h o s e h e l p f u l a d v i c e , c o n s i s t e n t e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d i n e x h a u s t i b l e p a t i e n c e w e r e i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . I am i n d e b t e d a s w e l l t o M r . M a r c P e s s i n f o r t h e p r o m p t n e s s a n d e n t h u s i a s m w i t h w h i c h h e u n d e r t o o k t h e d u t i e s o f s e c o n d r e a d e r . A n d f i n a l l y , i t i s a l s o a p l e a s u r e t o a c k n o w l e d g e M i s s M e l v a D w y e r a n d t h e s t a f f o f t h e F i n e A r t s D i v i s i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , w h o s e a s s i s t a n c e i n v a r i o u s w a y s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d my r e s e a r c h . x i i i C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e B r i t i s h L i b r a r y h a s a p a i r o f c a r v e d i v o r y p l a q u e s , m a d e i n J e r u s a l e m d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t L a t i n K i n g d o m (1099-1187) . 1 T h e i v o r i e s d a t e t o t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , a n d w e r e d e s i g n e d f o r t h e c o v e r o f a P s a l t e r ( L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , E g e r t o n MS 1139), m a d e f o r M e l i s e n d e , q u e e n o f J e r u s a l e m b e t w e e n 1131 a n d 1152. T h e m o r e r e c e n t h i s t o r y o f t h e 2 i v o r i e s i s l a r g e l y u n k n o w n . T h e r e i s n o r e c o r d o f t h e i r l o c a -t i o n o r u s a g e u n t i l t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , b y w h i c h t i m e t h e y 3 w e r e i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e G r a n d e C h a r t r e u s e a t G r e n o b l e . I n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e y w e r e o w n e d b y a D r . C o m m e r m o n t o f L y o n s , w h o , i n 1845, s o l d t h e m , a l o n g w i t h t h e P s a l t e r , t o t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m . T o d a y , i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c o n -s e r v a t i o n a n d e f f e c t i v e d i s p l a y , m a n u s c r i p t a n d c o v e r s a r e n o l o n g e r b o u n d t o g e t h e r : t h e P s a l t e r i s c o n t a i n e d i n a b r o w n l e a t h e r b i n d i n g , w h i l e t h e i v o r i e s , e x h i b i t e d n e a r b y , a r e p r e -4 s e r v e d i n s e p a r a t e p l e x i g l a s s c a s i n g s ( F i g . 1). 1 2 T h e G e n e r a l A r t H i s t o r i c a l I m p o r t a n c e  o f t h e I v o r i e s B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t h e i v o r i e s ' a r t h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s d o u b l e - b a s e d : I t r e s t s u p o n t h e i r s i n g u l a r p o s i t i o n a m o n g s t k n o w n e x a m p l e s o f C r u s a d e r a r t , a n d , a s w e l l , u p o n c e r t a i n u n i q u e f e a t u r e s o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h y . F i r s t o f a l l , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f C r u s a d e r a r t , t h e i v o r i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t a s t h e c o v e r s o f t h e M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r — t h e m o s t c o m p l e t e a n d l a v i s h l y i l l u m i n a t e d m a n u s c r i p t t o h a v e s u r v i v e d f r o m t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y L a t i n J e r u s a l e m . A s m a n u s c r i p t c o v e r s , t h e y a r e a l s o among t h e r e l a t i v e l y f e w e x a m p l e s o f C r u s a d e r d e c o r a t i v e a r t . ^ M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r e t h e o n l y known t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y C r u s a d e r i v o r i e s , a n d a s s u c h , c o m -p r i s e t h e w h o l e o f e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e w h i c h s h o w s t h a t i v o r y c a r v i n g w a s among t h e a r t s p r a c t i c e d i n J e r u s a l e m d u r i n g t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t L a t i n K i n g d o m . O f i n t e r e s t f o r t h i s r e a s o n a l o n e , t h e i v o r i e s a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , n o t e w o r t h y a l s o f o r a p i c t o r i a l r i c h n e s s a n d v a r i e t y t h a t i s u n s u r p a s s e d a m o n g s t c o n t e m p o r a r y i v o r i e s f r o m b o t h B y z a n t i u m a n d t h e W e s t . E a c h p l a q u e d e p i c t s s e v e r a l f i g u r e s i n v a r i o u s p o s e s , a s w e l l a s a n i m a l s , b i r d s , f r u i t , f l o w e r s , a n d a r a n g e o f n o n - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s . F i n a l l y , t h e p a i r o f c o v e r s i s a l s o u n i q u e w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s i c o n o g r a p h i c c y c l e s . On t h e f r o n t c o v e r ( F i g . 2) a r e t w o s e q u e n c e s : s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f D a v i d , a n d i m a g e s o f t h e m a j o r V i r t u e s a n d V i c e s — c y c l e s w h i c h a r e n o t u s u a l l y p o r -t r a y e d i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n . T h e t h i r d m a j o r c y c l e , p o r t r a y e d o n t h e b a c k c o v e r ( F i g . 3 ) , i s c o m p r i s e d o f s i x s c e n e s , i n e a c h o f 3 which, a king performs a m e r c i f u l deed. T h i s c y c l e too i s note-worthy, f or ,• in the number of i t s scenes, and hence, i n the completeness of i t s adherence t o i t s t e x t u a l source, i t i s g u n r i v a l l e d among other e a r l i e r or contemporary mercy c y c l e s . In view of the i v o r i e s ' s i n g u l a r p o s i t i o n with r e s p e c t to both t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Crusader a r t and medieval iconography in g e n e r a l , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , i n the years s i n c e t h e i r 1845 a c q u i s i t i o n by the B r i t i s h Museum, they have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of a number of a r t h i s t o r i a n s . A B r i e f Survey of S c h o l a r s h i p on the I v o r i e s A s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of the p a i r of covers was f i r s t pub-l i s h e d i n 1846, by A. du Sommerard, in a g e n e r a l survey of medieval a r t . Some years l a t e r , m the monumental Nouveaux  Melanges d ' A r c h e o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e , e t de L i t t e r a t u r e , Father C. Cahier provided a l e n g t h i e r d i s c u s s i o n of the i v o r i e s , one i n which he thoroughly d e s c r i b e d t h e i r iconography, and i d e n t i f i e d some of i t s a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s . ^ Although o c c a s i o n a l l y i n a c -c u r a t e , and i n some r e s p e c t s dated, C a h i e r ' s 1874 work remains amongst the most thorough p i e c e s of s c h o l a r s h i p on the i v o r i e s to date."'""'' S e v e r a l other n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a r c h e o l o g i s t s and a r t h i s t o r i a n s a l s o s t u d i e d the i v o r i e s , but, f o r the most p a r t , t h e i r f i n d i n g s only d u p l i c a t e d , r a t h e r than augmented, those of C a h i e r . 1 2 Widespread s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n the i v o r i e s continued i n t o the f i r s t p a r t of the twen t i e t h c e n t u r y , and they are mentioned, 4 13 o r d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y , i n a n u m b e r o f s u r v e y s a n d c a t a l o g u e s . O f t h e w o r k d o n e o n t h e i v o r i e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e d e c a d e s o f t h i s c e n t u r y , t h a t o f O . M . D a l t o n w a s t h e m o s t p r o l i f i c . B e t w e e n 1909 a n d 1925, h e p u b l i s h e d t h e i v o r i e s t h r e e t i m e s : o n c e a s p a r t o f a c a t a l o g u e , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y , i n t w o l a r g e s u r v e y 14 w o r k s . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , D a l t o n o n l y r e i t e r a t e d e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t h e i s n o t e w o r t h y f o r h a v i n g s u g g e s t e d a n a d d i -t i o n a l s o u r c e o f s t y l i s t i c i n f l u e n c e , o n e t h a t w a s p r e v i o u s l y u n s u s p e c t e d , a n d w h i c h i s s t i l l p l a u s i b l e t o d a y . 1 5 I n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s , r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i v o r i e s b e g a n t o a p p e a r i n a w i d e r v a r i e t y o f w r i t i n g s . I n 1934, A d o l p h G o l d s c h m i d t a n d K u r t W e i t z m a n n i n c l u d e d t h e c o v e r s i n t h e i r l a r g e s t u d y o f B y z a n t i n e i v o r i e s , w h i l e t w o y e a r s l a t e r , J . S t r z y g o w s k i n o t e d t h e r e s e m b l a n c e b e t w e e n o n e o f t h e i v o r i e s ' d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s a n d t h a t o f s o m e r o y a l t o m b s i n J e r u s a l e m . T h e i v o r i e s w e r e a l s o p a r t o f T . S . R . B o a s e ' s 1938 a r t i c l e o n t h e a r t s i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m , a n d t h e y w e r e m e n t i o n e d a s w e l l , i n 1939, b y A d o l p h K a t z e n e l l e n -b o g e n , i n h i s A l l e g o r i e s o f . t h e V i r t u e s a n d V i c e s i n M e d i e v a l A r t . 1 7 S i n c e 1939, t h e i v o r i e s h a v e r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e a d d i -t i o n a l s c h o l a r l y a t t e n t i o n . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e 1940 ' s r e p r e s e n t a c o m p l e t e h i a t u s , w h i l e i n t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s , t h e y w e r e a c c o r d e d o n l y 18 b r i e f m e n t i o n i n a f e w d i v e r s e w o r k s . I n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , h o w e v e r , t h e i v o r i e s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t w o i m p o r t a n t G e r m a n w o r k s : F r a u k e S t e e n b o c k ' s s u r v e y o f m e d i e v a l b o o k b i n d i n g , a n d H u g o S t e g e r ' s c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f K i n g D a v i d a s 5 19 M u s i c i a n . Neither Steenbock nor Steger p r o v i d e s an exhaustive treatment of the i v o r i e s , but t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e works are the most s i g n i f i c a n t recent c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the s u b j e c t . The past decade has y i e l d e d no new i n f o r m a t i o n on the i v o r i e s : There are o n l y summaries of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , contained in a few g e n e r a l h i s -t o r i e s of the kingdom, while the l a t e s t work to i n c l u d e the i v o r i e s , a 1977 survey of Crusader a r t , does not d i s c u s s them at l e n g t h . I t w i l l have been noted t h a t , to date, s c h o l a r s h i p r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the i v o r y covers has only been i n c i d e n t a l to work on other l a r g e r t o p i c s : Crusader a r t in g e n e r a l , i v o r i e s , iconog-raphy, bookbinding, and manuscripts. That i s , u n t i l now, the i v o r i e s have never been the s u b j e c t of an a r t i c l e or other type of monographical study. Thus, to compensate, at l e a s t i n p a r t , for what has been a d e f i c i e n c y i n the l i t e r a t u r e on these impor-tant i v o r i e s , i s the g e n e r a l aim of t h i s paper. I t s more s p e c i -f i c aims, as w e l l as i t s main f o c u s , are d e s c r i b e d below. The Purposes and Scope of t h i s Study At the beginning of t h i s c hapter, mention was made of the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c v a r i e t y and uniqueness, two q u a l i t i e s which seem to m e r i t a d e t a i l e d study. For the most p a r t , i c o n o -graphic r e s e a r c h - t o - d a t e has not progressed beyond b a s i c i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the c o v e r s ' main scenes and b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s to t h e i r more apparent t e x t u a l sources. Thus, the major task of t h i s study w i l l be to provide a more in-depth i c o n o g r a p h i c 6 a n a l y s i s o f t h e i v o r i e s . T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p , b u t w i l l a l s o , m o r e c o m p l e t e l y t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , e x a m i n e t h e p i c t o r i a l c y c l e s , b o t h s e p a r a t e l y a n d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o n e a n o t h e r ; r e l a t e t h e s e c y c l e s t o t h e i v o r i e s ' m a j o r , a s w e l l a s t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e , t e x t u a l s o u r c e s ; i d e n t i f y e x a m p l e s o f c o m p a r a b l e i m a g e r y ; a n d m a k e s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p o s s i b l e m o d e l s . C h a p t e r I I w i l l b e g i n b y d e s c r i b i n g t h e a p p e a r a n c e a n d g e n e r a l v i s u a l e f f e c t o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o g r a m m e a s a w h o l e . N e x t w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d t h e a c c u m u l a t e d f i n d i n g s o f p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s w i l l e n t a i l i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i m a g e s , t r a n s c r i b i n g t h e i r L a t i n l a b e l s , a n d q u o t i n g , o r r e f e r r i n g t o , t h e i r m o s t o b v i o u s t e x t u a l s o u r c e s — t h e P s a l m s , t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t , a n d t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a . I n t h e c o u r s e o f p r e -s e n t i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e u n u s u a l a n d / o r p r o b l e m a t i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h y w i l l b e n o t e d , a n d a n y e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d c o n s i d e r e d . H a v i n g t h u s s u p p l i e d t h e n e c e s s a r y b a c k -g r o u n d d a t a , C h a p t e r I I w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f i t s m a i n a i m — t h e e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o m b i n e d n a r r a t i v e , t h e m a t i c , a n d h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o -g r a m m e . T h r o u g h t h e m a t c h i n g o f i m a g e r y a n d t e x t s , i t w i l l b e c o m e c l e a r t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e b o r d e r m o t i f s , e a c h i m a g e o n b o t h i v o r i e s i s p a r t o f a s i n g l e p i c t o r i a l n a r r a t i v e . A s w i l l b e d e m o n s t r a t e d , t h e s t o r y — t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n f i g h t b e t w e e n g o o d a n d e v i l - - b e g i n s a t t h e t o p o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r , p r o g r e s s e s a c r o s s a n d d o w n w a r d , a n d , t h r o u g h 7 c e r t a i n i c o n o g r a p h i c l i n k i n g d e v i c e s , continues and concludes on the back cover. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i v o r i e s as con-tinuous n a r r a t i v e i s o r i g i n a l to t h i s study, and can be shown to e x p l a i n most of the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c i d i o s y n c r a c i e s , which have p u z z l e d s c h o l a r s i n the p a s t . Those remaining unusual images and p i c t u r e - t e x t d i s c r e p a n c i e s , f o r which the n a r r a t i v e does not account, can be l a r g e l y e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e to another t e x t , one not p r e v i o u s l y recognized as having any bearing on the i v o r i e s ' imagery: T h i s t e x t i s an e a r l y t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y t r e a t i s e on the c o n f l i c t between s p i r i t u a l i t y and c a r n a l p l e a s u r e s -- a s u b j e c t having c l e a r thematic a f f i n i t i e s with the 21 Psychomachian o p p o s i t i o n of V i r t u e s and V i c e s . In c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e i r s t o r y - t e l l i n g f u n c t i o n , the i v o r i e s are a l s o p i c t o r i a l l y e x p r e s s i v e of three i n t e r r e l a t e d themes: c h a r i t y , c o n f l i c t , and k i n g s h i p . The f i r s t two of these themes are emphasized in the Psychomachia, and a l l three are r e c u r r i n g m o t i f s throughout the Psalms. However, as w i l l be shown, these themes had a broader b a s i s , and arose a l s o out of a s e t of con-temporary concerns, whose focus was the idea of the regnum  Davidicum — D a v i d i c monarchy. In d e l i m i t i n g t h i s c o n c e p t u a l and h i s t o r i c a l framework f o r the i v o r i e s , a v a r i e t y of sources w i l l be used. In t h i s regard, p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e can be made here to an important contemporary h i s t o r y — t h a t of W i l l i a m , a t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y bishop of Tyre. A f t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g a g e n e r a l n a r r a t i v e , c o n c e p t u a l , and h i s t o r i c a l c ontext f o r the i v o r i e s , t h i s study w i l l next 8 c o n s i d e r t h e i r more s p e c i f i c i c o n o g r a p h i c o r i g i n s . Chapter I I I , a c c o r d i n g l y , w i l l c i t e works, from Jerusalem and elsewhere, which are i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y comparable to the i v o r i e s ; i n a d d i -t i o n , i t w i l l make suggestions r e g a r d i n g p o s s i b l e models, and w i l l i d e n t i f y the more important a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s that helped to determine the c h a r a c t e r of the icon o g r a p h i c programme. S e v e r a l ideas and hypotheses r e l a t i n g to these concerns w i l l be presented f o r the f i r s t time. In c o n s i d e r i n g the i v o r i e s ' spe-c i f i c i c o n o g r a p h i c o r i g i n s , Chapter I I I w i l l have an a d d i t i o n a l purpose: the h i g h l i g h t i n g of the p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c m i l i e u t h a t produced the i v o r i e s — Jerusalem's Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the s c r i p t o r i u m w i l l devote some a t t e n t i o n to Crusader i l l u m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as to other a r t forms which, l i k e manuscripts and the i v o r i e s , were made i n the s c r i p t o r i u m , o r , which were locally-made nearby, and hence, were s u b j e c t to s i m i l a r a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s . Chapter IV, the f i n a l chapter of t h i s paper, w i l l make refe r e n c e to c e r t a i n problems which are r e l a t e d to the key iconographic f i n d i n g s to be presented i n Chapters II and I I I . These problems i n c l u d e the s t y l i s t i c o r i g i n s and a f f i n i t i e s of the i v o r i e s , t h e i r exact date, and the i d e n t i t y of t h e i r p a t r o n . Chapter IV's d i s c u s s i o n of these concerns w i l l not be lengthy, s i n c e s t y l e , d a t i n g , and patronage are t o p i c s which are only on the p e r i p h e r y of t h i s paper's main f o c u s . However, where neces-sary and a p p r o p r i a t e , these problems w i l l be somewhat e l a b o r a t e d , and i f warranted, suggestions w i l l be made with regard to p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 9 Despite these s i d e i s s u e s , the o v e r r i d i n g concern of t h i s study i s i c o n o g r a p h i c , and w i t h i n t h i s area of c o n c e n t r a t i o n , the i n t e n t i o n i s t h r e e f o l d : to e x p l a i n the n a r r a t i v e and thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i v o r i e s ' imagery; to i d e n t i f y i t s sources, f i r s t t e x t u a l , then p i c t o r i a l ; and l a s t l y , t o p l a c e the i v o r i e s i n t o t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r geographic, temporal, and a r t i s t i c con-t e x t . T h i s , i n b r i e f , d e f i n e s the scope of the f o l l o w i n g d i s -c u s s i o n . C H A P T E R I I T H E N A R R A T I V E AND H I S T O R I C A L M E A N I N G O F T H E I V O R I E S ' I C O N O G R A P H Y T h e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o g r a m m e o f t h e i v o r i e s h a s a t w o f o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s f i r s t o f a l l n a r r a t i v e : i t s s e p a r a t e c y c l e s a n d t h e i r c o m p o n e n t i m a g e s a r e j u x t a p o s e d i n s u c h a w a y t h a t t h e y i l l u s t r a t e a s i n g l e t e x t f r o m b e g i n n i n g t o e n d . T h e n a r r a t i v e e v o k e s c e r t a i n t h e m e s w h i c h h a v e p a r a l l e l s i n c o n -t e m p o r a r y t h o u g h t a n d c o n c e r n s . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e i c o n o g r a p h y i s a l s o h i s t o r i c a l : t h r o u g h i t s i m a g e r y a n d a s s o c i a t e d t h e m e s , i t r e f l e c t s f a c e t s o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n o f t w e l f t h -c e n t u r y L a t i n J e r u s a l e m - - t h e m o n a r c h y . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , g i v e n t h e i r d u a l n a r r a t i v e / h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e i v o r i e s a r e v i s u a l l y c o m p l e x . A s s u c h , t h e y w a r r a n t a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e I v o r i e s B o t h i v o r i e s a r e r i c h i n f i g u r a l a n d a n i m a l i m a g e r y , w h i c h i s , i n e a c h c a s e , c o n t a i n e d i n a n e l a b o r a t e o r n a m e n t a l b o r d e r . " * " O f t h e t w o , t h e f r o n t c o v e r ( F i g . 2) i s p i c t o r i a l l y t h e m o r e c o m p l e x , i l l u s t r a t i n g t w o m a j o r c y c l e s — t h e l i f e o f D a v i d i n t h e m e d a l l i o n s , a n d t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a o f P r u d e n t i u s i n t h e 10 11 i n t e r s t i c e s — and one minor c y c l e , c o n s i s t i n g of the female p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of four v i r t u e s , each of which occupies one of the inner c o r n e r s of the i v o r y . The back cover ( F i g . 3) d e p i c t s only two c y c l e s : the major one, the Acts of Mercy, i s c o n t a i n e d in the m e d a l l i o n s , while a minor one, comprised of animals and b i r d s , occupies the i n t e r s t i c e s and inner c o r n e r s . On both i v o r i e s , L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s help to i d e n t i f y the t e x t u a l source of each c y c l e . Despite t h e i r p i c t o r i a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the i v o r i e s d i s p l a y a marked c o n s i s t e n c y i n dimensions and composition. The f r o n t cover measures 5 5/8 x 8 1/2 i n c h e s , while the dimensions of the back are 5 5/8 x 8 5/8 i n c h e s . The l / 8 t h inch d i s c r e p a n c y i n the lengthwise measurement i s accounted f o r by the dimensions of the d e c o r a t i v e borders, which measure l/16th inch wider at the top and bottom of the back cover ( F i g s . 4a and 4b). Apart from t h i s e x c e p t i o n , the i v o r i e s ' measurements are remarkably uniform. For example, the diameters of the m e d a l l i o n s on both covers are, for the most p a r t , i d e n t i c a l , and in no i n s t a n c e , are they at v a r i a n c e more than a f r a c t i o n of an inch ( F i g s . 4a and 4b). On each i v o r y , the s i x m e d a l l i o n s i n t e r l o c k with one another to form three h o r i z o n t a l rows of two m e d a l l i o n s each. Every one of the twelve m e d a l l i o n s c o n t a i n s two or more f i g u r e s , and i n so f a r as d i f f e r i n g s u b j e c t matter p e r m i t s , there i s a degree of c o m p o s i t i o n a l u n i f o r m i t y w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l m e d a l l i o n s . Most n o t i c e a b l e in t h i s r e g a r d , are the two c e n t r e medallions^ of each i v o r y ( F i g s . 5a and 5b). On both i v o r i e s , the i n t e r s t i c e s 12 formed by the medallions are s i m i l a r l y uniform i n s i z e with regard to t h e i r counterparts on the other i v o r y . In a l l cases, the measurements of corresponding long axes show only minor v a r i a t i o n s (Figs. 4a and 4 b ) . Although the scenes portrayed i n the i n t e r s t i c e s are d i f f e r e n t on each cover -- one showing f i g u r e s , the other, animals and b i r d s — the two sets of imagery are e x p r e s s i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t with one another. The two p a i r s of s t r u g g l i n g animals i n the centre i n t e r s t i c e s of the back cover are s i m i l a r , i n mood and degree of a c t i o n , to the b a t t l i n g f i g u r e s i n the corresponding spaces of the f r o n t cover. In terms of expressive c o n s i s t e n c y , the remaining i n t e r s t i c e s are l e s s d i r e c t l y comparable. However, i t can be noted that they are s i m i l a r i n evidencing an impulse to a l t e r shapes to conform to a v a i l a b l e space. As a r e s u l t , the images i n the i n t e r s t i c e s , d espite t h e i r e s s e n t i a l d i s s i m i l a r i t y , acquire a c e r t a i n con-gruence of shape that adds to the o v e r a l l compositional uniform-i t y of the i v o r i e s . In t h i s regard, the most s t r i k i n g example i s that of the corner i n t e r s t i c e s of each i v o r y . On the back cover, note how the general shape of the c o r n e r - b i r d s , and t h e i r head-positions r e l a t i v e to the surrounding space, resemble the corresponding forms and head-positions of the human f i g u r e s portrayed i n the corners of the f r o n t cover ( F i g s . 5a and 5 b ) . S i m i l a r , although l e s s obvious, correspondences can a l s o be noted among the b i r d s and the f i g u r e s i n the outer-side i n t e r -s t i c e s of both i v o r i e s ( F i g s . 5a and 5 b ) . The animal and f i g u r a l imagery i s complemented by more purely ornamental elements which, with respect to usage and 1 3 arrangement, are, for the most part, consistent on both i v o r i e s . Each cover i s bordered by a wide decorative frame, the main motif of which i s a scrollwork design of grapes and f o l i a g e . On the back cover, a single instance of i n t e r l a c e , in the middle of the l e f t frame, is the only interruption in the otherwise con-tinuous and largely consistent pattern. The design of the front cover frame i s somewhat more elaborate. Here, on the top and bottom, the dominant motif i s inhabited by birds and f i s h e s , while the scrollwork on the sides has been interwoven with sets of i n t e r l a c e , two in the l e f t frame, and three in the r i g h t . Both covers have subordinate decoration — a diamond-and-bead pattern on the front, and a rope-like motif on the back — which is conceived as a continuum that simultaneously frames the medal-lions and acts as an inner border. On each cover, four evenly-spaced rosettes complete the decorative programme, and, as with the main and subordinate frames, there i s a s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n between front and back, indicating a conscious and consistent a r t i s t i c impulse to achieve unity without monotony. The only element that does not have a counterpart i s the narrow beadwork border around the main frame of the front cover. The absence of this motif on the other ivory i s apparently due to the fact that the back cover was never quite f i n i s h e d . Clear evidence of i t s incomplete state can be seen in the ornamental border, where i t can be noted that, in the lower-middle and top-right segments, a beadwork motif, subordinate to the main s c r o l l , abruptly terminates. Its unfinished condition does not seriously detract 14 f r o m t h e g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f t h e b a c k c o v e r , n o r d o e s t h i s d i s -c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e t w o i v o r i e s m a r t h e i r o v e r a l l c o m p o s i t i o n a l a n d d e c o r a t i v e u n i t y . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o v e r s a r e r e m a r k a b l e f o r t h e s k i l l o f t h e i r c a r v i n g , t h e i r w e a l t h o f d e t a i l , a n d f o r t h e w a y i n w h i c h b o t h o r n a m e n t a l a n d f i g u r a l d e s i g n - e l e m e n t s c o m p l e -2 m e n t , b u t d o n o t o v e r w h e l m , o n e a n o t h e r . E x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e i v o r i e s h a s n o t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e i r v i s u a l u n i f o r m i t y r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r n a r r a t i v e a n d t h e m a t i c c o n t i n u i t y . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e t a i l t h e m e a n s a n d s o u r c e s o f t h i s c o n t i n u i t y . T h e h y p o t h e s i s t o b e p r e s e n t e d i s t h a t t h e f i v e d i s t i n c t c y c l e s w h i c h c o m p r i s e t h e i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o g r a m m e a r e t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , a n d t h u s , f u n c t i o n a s c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f o n e c o m p l e t e n a r r a t i v e , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n o n e t e x t u a l s o u r c e . T h i s s o u r c e , t h e f i f t h - c e n t u r y P s y c h o m a c h i a o f P r u d e n t i u s , h a s n e v e r b e f o r e b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d a s t h e t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r t h e i v o r i e s ' e n t i r e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o -g r a m m e . B e f o r e e x p l a i n i n g p r e c i s e l y h o w s e e m i n g l y u n r e l a t e d s e t s o f i m a g e r y i n t e r w o r k t o t e l l t h e s t o r y o f t h e f i g h t f o r m a n ' s s o u l , c l a r i t y r e q u i r e s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f , a n d i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n o f t e x t u a l s o u r c e s f o r , e a c h o f t h e t h r e e m a j o r 4 c o m p o n e n t c y c l e s . T h e D a v i d C y c l e T h e m a i n c y c l e o n t h e f r o n t c o v e r i s , a s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d o n a P s a l t e r , c o m p o s e d o f s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f D a v i d . P r o -c e e d i n g f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t , a n d t o p t o b o t t o m , t h e m e d a l l i o n s 15 i l l u s t r a t e the f o l l o w i n g episodes recorded i n the books of Samuel: David rescues a lamb from a l i o n and bear (I Samuel 17:34-36) . Samuel annoints David at Bethlehem (I Samuel 16:4 and 13). David meets G o l i a t h (I Samuel 18:48-50). David r e c e i v e s the sword of G o l i a t h from the p r i e s t , Ahimelech, while Doeg, Saul's s e r v a n t , looks on (I Samuel 21:3-9). In accordance with the i n s t r u c t i o n s of the prophet, Gad, David repents, b u i l d s an a l t a r , and makes o f f e r i n g s of peace-to God, while an angel looks on (II Samuel 24:17-18 and 25). David, accompanied by four other musicians, makes music i n p r a i s e of God. Previous w r i t e r s on the i v o r i e s have not e x p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d the t e x t u a l source f o r the l a s t m e d a l l i o n , in which are p o r t r a y e d David and h i s musicians. Thus, i t can be noted f o r the f i r s t time here that the scene i s seemingly a composite of three d i f f e r e n t t e x t s : II Samuel 22:50, which r e f e r s t o David's s i n g -ing of p r a i s e s to God, I C h r o n i c l e s 13:8, 15:19, and 16:42, which together d e s c r i b e the instruments and name the musicians; and f i n a l l y , the t e x t t h a t most f o r c i b l y r e c a l l s the i v o r i e s ' f u n c t i o n as P s a l t e r c o v e r s , Psalm 150:1, 3 and 4: P r a i s e ye the L o r d . . . . / with the sound of the trumpet:... with the p s a l t e r y and harp./ P r a i s e him with the t i m b r e l . . . with s t r i n g e d instruments and organs. The above i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of persons, events and t e x t u a l sources was f a c i l i t a t e d by L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s naming the main f i g u r e s , animals, and o b j e c t s contained i n each m e d a l l i o n . Again 16 proceeding from l e f t to r i g h t , top to bottom, the i n s c r i p t i o n s i n the f r o n t cover m e d a l l i o n s are as f o l l o w s : DAVID LEO URS 1 AGN* SAMUEL UNGITUR DAVID BETHLEEM DAVID GOLIAS DAVID ABIMEL'C DOEG DAVID EGO PECCAVI ALTARE PPH GD (Propheta Gad) CONSTRUE ALTARE DNO ( i n s c r i b e d on Gad's s c r o l l ) ETAN IDITUN ASAPH EMAN.7 S i m i l a r kinds of i n s c r i p t i o n a l c l u e s a l s o a i d i n the i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the scenes and t e x t u a l sources of the i v o r i e s ' other c y c l e s . The V i r t u e s and V i c e s C y c l e T h i s second c y c l e occupies the i n t e r s t i c e s of the f r o n t -cover m e d a l l i o n s , and i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u g g l e between v i r t u e and v i c e , both of which are d e p i c t e d i n the form of female per-s o n i f i c a t i o n s . On the b a s i s of the i n s c r i p t i o n s , the combatants can be i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : F a i t h (FIDES) - I d o l a t r y (IDOLAT [Rl]A) C h a s t i t y (PUDICITIA) - Lust (LIBIDO) H u m i l i t y (HUMILITAS) and Hope (SPES) - P r i d e (SUP [ER]B [ i ] A) P a t i e n c e (PATIENCIA) - Anger (IRA) Moderation (SOBRIETAS) - Extravagance (LUXURIA) Courage, Strength (FORTITUDO) - Greed (AVARITIA) Concord (CO [N] CORDIA) - D i s c o r d (DISCORDIA) ; and alone at the bottom, i s Largesse (LARGITAS). 17 T h i s c y c l e d e r i v e s d i r e c t l y , a n d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y , f r o m o t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a . S e q u e n t i a l l y , f r o m c e n t r e - t o p t o c e n t r e -b o t t o m , a n d f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t , t h e f r o n t c o v e r u n f o l d s t h e s t o r y o f t h e f i g h t f o r m a n ' s s o u l , i n m u c h t h e s a m e w a y a s i t w a s c o n c e i v e d b y P r u d e n t i u s h i m s e l f : F a i t h f i r s t t a k e s t h e f i e l d t o f a c e . . . W o r s h i p - o f - t h e - O l d -G o d s . . . [ a n d ] s m i t e s h e r f o e ' s h e a d d o w n . . . . N e x t t o s t e p f o r t h . . . i s t h e m a i d e n C h a s t i t y [ w h o ] . . . w i t h a s w o r d - t h r u s t . . . p i e r c e s t h e . . . t h r o a t [of~| . • • t n a t . . . f i l t h y L u s t . . . . L o , m i l d L o n g - S u f f e r i n g was s t a n d i n g w i t h s t a i d c o u n t e n a n c e . . . [ w h i l e ] w i l d p a s s i o n f i r e s [WratlT] t o s l a y h e r s e l f . . . . L o w l i n e s s h a d g a t h e r e d f o r w a r . . . £fco m e e t ] P r i d e i n h e r m a d n e s s . . . . A s s h e [ L o w l i n e s s ] h e s i t a t e s , " h e r f a i t h f u l c o m -r a d e H o p e c o m e s t o h e r s i d e , " h o l d s o u t t o h e r t h e s w o r d o f v e n g e a n c e . . . . [ L o w l i n e s s ] . . . b e n d s t h e n e c k , s e v e r s t h e h e a d . . . . S o b e r n e s s o p e n s u p a w a y . . . w h e r e b y t h e t e m p t r e s s I n d u l g e n c e , f o r a l l h e r g r e a t t r a i n , s h a l l p a y t h e p e n a l t y . . . S o b e r n e s s . . . d r i v e s t h e s t o n e t o s m a s h t h e b r e a t h p a s s a g e i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e f a c e . . . . G o o d W o r k s d a s h e s i n . . . . L i k e a t h u n d e r b o l t t o A v a r i c e w a s t h e s i g h t o f t h e i n v i n c i b l e V i r t u e . . . . T h e v i c t o r p r e s s e s h a r d o n h e r w i t h k n e e a n d f o o t , s t a b s h e r t h r o u g h t h e r i b s . . . . T h e n k i n d l y P e a c e . . . b a n i s h e s w a r . . . . s t o p p e d h e r s p e e c h a n d b l o c k e d t h e p a s s a g e o f h e r v o i c e w i t h a j a v e l i n , d r i v i n g i t s h a r d p o i n t t h r o u g h t h e f o u l t o n g u e . I t c a n b e n o t e d t h a t , i n t h e i r p o r t r a y a l o f t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , t h e s c e n e s o n t h e i v o r y o c c a s i o n a l l y d i v e r g e f r o m t h e t e x t . T h e r e s u l t a n t p i c t u r e - t e x t d i s c r e p a n c i e s — t h e r e v e r s e d p o s i t i o n s o f P a t i e n c i a - I r a a n d H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a , t h e i s o l a t i o n o f L a r g i t a s , a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f F o r t i t u d o — w i l l b e f u r t h e r d e t a i l e d a n d e x p l a i n e d s u b s e q u e n t t o d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g c y c l e s . 18 The Acts of Mercy Cycle" 1"" The t h i r d major c y c l e of the i v o r i e s i s contained i n the med a l l i o n s on the back cover. T h i s group of images i l l u s t r a t e s a New Testament t e x t , Matthew 25:35 and 36: For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was t h i r s t y , and ye gave me d r i n k : I was a s t r a n g e r , and ye took me i n : Naked, and ye c l o t h e d me: I was s i c k , and ye v i s i t e d me: I was i n p r i s o n , and ye came unto me. The i v o r i e s images occur i n the same sequence, and thus, from top to bottom, l e f t to r i g h t , the m e d a l l i o n s d e p i c t : Feeding the hungry (ESURIVI ET DEDISTIS M [ l H ] l MANDUCARE) G i v i n g d r i n k to the t h i r s t y (SITIVI ET DEDISTIS MICHI BIBERE) P r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r f o r the homeless (HOSPES ET COLLEGISTIS ME) C l o t h i n g the naked (NUDUS ET COOPERVISTIS ME) Comforting the s i c k (INFIRMUS ET VISITASTIS ME) V i s i t i n g the imprisoned (IN CARCERE ET VENISTIS AD M E ) . 1 1 From the j e w e l l e d costume, the crown, and the throne i n the upper m e d a l l i o n s , i t can be noted that the f i g u r e t hat performs these acts i s a k i n g . Katzenellenbogen i d e n t i f i e s t h i s king as 12 David. In support of t h i s view, i t can be noted t h a t the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s of the f i g u r e are l i k e those of David, as por-trayed in the l a s t two me d a l l i o n s on the f r o n t c o v e r . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t i v e evidence i s provided by the costume, which i s that of a contemporary Byzantine emperor: In Byzantine manuscripts of 19 the e l e v e n t h century and l a t e r , David i s represented as a type 13 of the emperor, and i s shown i n i m p e r i a l d r e s s . F i n a l l y , I have found t h a t there i s a l s o a t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the m e r c i f u l king with David: I C h r o n i c l e s 16:3 says: And he [pavicT] d e a l t to every one of I s r a e l , ooth man and woman, to every one a l o a f of bread, and a good p i e c e of f l e s h , and a f l a g o n of wine. Thus, the Acts of Mercy c y c l e f u l f i l l s two f u n c t i o n s : F i r s t , as noted by other s c h o l a r s , i t i l l u s t r a t e s the t e x t from Matthew; secondly, i t i s my b e l i e f t h a t i t a l s o continues the s t o r y o f 14 David. A s i m i l a r use of one c y c l e to i l l u s t r a t e two t e x t s a l s o occurs with regard to the David c y c l e on the f r o n t c over. As w i l l be shown, t h i s kind of "double-duty" imagery i s a key, and p r e v i o u s l y unrecognized, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i v o r i e s , and as such, must be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r i n a subsequent s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . At t h i s p o i n t , there are y e t to be d e s c r i b e d the two remaining groups of images. The Minor C y c l e s The f i r s t of these c y c l e s c o n s i s t s of four female f i g u r e s , one i n each of the inner c o r n e r s of the f r o n t cover. As with the other c y c l e s , i n s c r i p t i o n s make b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r o c e s s : G e n e r o s i t y (BONITAS) ( t o p - l e f t ) Kindness (BENIGNITAS) ( t o p - r i g h t ) Happiness (BEATITUDO) (bottom-left) Joy (LETICIA) ( b o t t o m - r i g h t ) . 1 5 20 The t e x t u a l source f o r the i n c l u s i o n of these f i g u r e s i s l e s s obvious. The four V i r t u e s are not mentioned i n the Psychomachia, nor are they ever a s s o c i a t e d with D a v i d i c imagery. The t e x t u a l source f o r the a n i m a l / b i r d c y c l e on the back cover i s a l s o obscure. An a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y i s the lack of p a l e o g r a p h i c c l u e s . Only the b i r d at the top, Herodius, i s named by i n s c r i p t i o n (HERODIUS). Even so, p r e c i s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s not p o s s i b l e , f o r , in the medieval b e s t i a r i e s , the term i s v a r i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d with the c o o t , the heron, and the s t o r k . An added source of c o n f u s i o n i s the f a c t t h a t herodius i s synonomous, and was often used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , with another 17 L a t i n term, f u l i c a ( a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g : f u l c i a ) . On the b a s i s of the f u l i c a synonym, Ca h i e r suggested t h a t Herodius was a rebus f o r F u l k , the t h i r d king of L a t i n Jerusalem (1131-1143), and t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , the Acts of Mercy me d a l l i o n s c o n t a i n p o r t r a y a l s 18 of t h i s contemporary k i n g . C a h i e r ' s theory has proved very popular, and has been repeated f r e q u e n t l y by l a t e r w r i t e r s on 19 the i v o r i e s . The accuracy or i n a c c u r a c y of the theory cannot be d e f i n i t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . However, i n e i t h e r case, i t has proven a d i s t r a c t i o n from the c e n t r a l problem -- the t e x t u a l source of Herodius, and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the o v e r a l l i c o n o -graphic programme. For t h i s reason, I would now l i k e to make two suggestions regarding the t e x t u a l d e r i v a t i o n of Herodius: F i r s t , there i s a t e x t , which uses the term, f u l i c a , r a t h e r than h e r o d i u s , but which otherwise seems t h e m a t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e to both the David c y c l e and the Acts of Mercy. P h i l i p p e de Thaun, 21 in a poem w r i t t e n ca 1120, uses f u l i c a as a symbol of the s a i n t l y man, who, l i k e King David, leads an honourable l i f e : F u l i c a . . . / S a i n t horn s i g n e f i e Ki onestement v i t , 20 I s s i cum David d i t . . . . Although the poet d i d not s p e c i f i c a l l y mention Acts of Mercy, presumably, he and h i s contemporaries understood such deeds as inherent aspects of " l i v i n g honourably." In any case, the con-cept of honour i s not incongruent with t h a t of mercy. Another p o s s i b l e t e x t u a l source, one which a c t u a l l y uses the word, h e r o d i u s , i s a t r a c t by Hugh of S t . V i c t o r (1096-1141), i n which he a s s o c i a t e s herodius with those s p e c i a l people who l i v e a v i r t u o u s l i f e through the performance of good works: Bene ergo i n h e r o d i o . . . electorum persona s i g n i f i c a t u r , q u i . . . multa v i r t u s bonae a c t i o n i s s u p p e t i t , quae i l l o s i n superna s u s t o l l i t . 2 1 Although both t e x t s are t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d to the Acts of Mercy, the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s more e x p l i c i t l y expressed i n the l a t t e r t e x t . T h i s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the a c t u a l use of the word, h e r o d i u s , p o i n t s to Hugh of S t . V i c t o r as the more l i k e l y source f o r the i n c l u s i o n of Herodius in the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c programme. Other f i n d i n g s , to be presented at a f u r t h e r p o i n t i n t h i s c h a p t e r , tend to support t h i s view. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the other b i r d s and animals i n t h i s c y c l e i s not p o s s i b l e . Medieval d e p i c t i o n s of animals bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to modern p e r c e p t i o n s of these images. In t h e i r p o r t r a y a l s of b i r d s and animals, medieval a r t i s t s found i t 22 22 d i f f i c u l t to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among s p e c i e s . For example, what looks l i k e a dog to the modern eye, might have been intended to represent a wolf, a l i o n , or a bear. Moreover, modern percep-t i o n s of images are not uniform. For i n s t a n c e , Cahier i d e n t i f i e s the animal i n the centre-bottom i n t e r s t i c e as an antelope; 23 Dalton c a l l s i t a hare. Such a d i s c r e p a n c y i n d i c a t e s t h a t 24 f u r t h e r t h e o r i z i n g i n t h i s regard i s best avoided. Thus, with the e x c e p t i o n of Herodius, the animals must remain u n i d e n t i f i e d . Nonetheless, i t w i l l become c l e a r t h a t these images r e l a t e t h e m a t i c a l l y to the other c y c l e s , and that they are c r u c i a l to the completion of the i v o r i e s ' o v e r a l l i c o n o g r a p h i c programme. Unusual Aspects of the Iconography Each of the three major c y c l e s d e s c r i b e d above has at l e a s t one unique or e x c e p t i o n a l f e a t u r e which cannot be r e a d i l y e x p l a i n e d through t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s , or by comparisons with e a r l i e r or contemporary a r t . In the David c y c l e , f i v e of the s i x scenes can be t r a c e d to e a r l i e r B i b l e or P s a l t e r i l l u s - t r a -25 t i o n s . One scene, however, appears to be unprecedented, and there i s no obvious reason f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n on the i v o r i e s . T h i s i s the scene contained i n the m i d d l e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n , i n which Ahimelech p r e s e n t s David with the sword of G o l i a t h . As f a r as I can determine, there i s no s i m i l a r scene to be found i n any i l l u s t r a t e d medieval B i b l e or P s a l t e r from e i t h e r Byzantium or the West. The scene may, t h e r e f o r e , be unique to t h i s one 23 David c y c l e , and, s i n c e there i s no evidence t o c o n t r a d i c t t h i s view, the reason f o r the scene's i n c l u s i o n w i l l be co n s i d e r e d 2 6 f u r t h e r i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . S i m i l a r l y , as noted p r e v i o u s l y , the V i r t u e s and V i c e s c y c l e i s not without unusual f e a t u r e s . F i r s t of all,,., the group com-p r i s e d o f H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a , and the P a t i e n c i a - I r a p a i r , are out of sequence. In the Psychomachia, P a t i e n c i a and I r a appear before H u m i l i t a s , Spes, and Sup e r b i a . No other complete Psychomachian c y c l e shows such a d i s c r e p a n c y . A l s o unique are both the s e p a r a t i o n of L a r g i t a s and A v a r i t i a , i n v a r i a b l y p a i r e d i n other examples of Psychomachian iconography, and the a s s o c i a t e d 27 i n s e r t i o n of F o r t i t u d e Beyond the unusual aspects s e p a r a t e l y evidenced by t h i s and the David c y c l e , the f a c t t h a t the two s e r i e s are juxtaposed i s , in i t s e l f , noteworthy. As f a r as I know, there i s no ico n o g r a p h i c p a r a l l e l i n any work of a r t pro-duced before 1175, and a f t e r t h i s date, there i s only one com-* - i , 28 para b l e example. F i n a l l y , with regard to the A c t s of Mercy c y c l e , the unusual f e a t u r e — the resemblance of the m e r c i f u l king to David — has a l r e a d y been noted. The t e x t u a l source c i t e d at that p o i n t (I Chron. 16:3) i s evidence t h a t the resemblance was i n t e n t i o n a l , and was, I b e l i e v e , meant to show the t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Old Testament l a r g e s s e and New Testament 29 mercy. However, i t should be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r Acts of Mercy c y c l e i s one which, in terms of completeness, was 30 never, before or subsequently, p a r a l l e l l e d . T o t a l l y 24 e x c e p t i o n a l a s w e l l , i s t h e c y c l e ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e D a v i d a n d P s y c h o m a c h i a n c y c l e s o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r : t h e r e i s n o e x t a n t e x a m p l e i n w h i c h a n y k i n d o f A c t s o f M e r c y i m a g e r y o c c u r s i n 3 1 c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e i t h e r a D a v i d i c o r a P s y c h o m a c h i a n c y c l e . T h e d r a w i n g o f a n O l d T e s t a m e n t - N e w T e s t a m e n t p a r a l l e l d o e s n o t , i n i t s e l f , s e e m s u f f i c i e n t r e a s o n t o c r e a t e a n u n u s u a l l y e x t e n -s i v e c y c l e c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l n e w i m a g e s , w h e n o t h e r m o r e t r a d i -t i o n a l i c o n o g r a p h y ( s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f C h r i s t , f o r e x a m p l e ) w o u l d h a v e s e r v e d . W h y , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s u n i q u e c y c l e w a s d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y t o t h e o v e r a l l i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o g r a m m e o f t h e i v o r i e s , i s , a s y e t , a n u n a n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n . B o t h t h e a n s w e r t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , a n d t h e m e a n s o f r e s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e u n u s u a l i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r , a r e t o b e f o u n d t h r o u g h a c l o s e r e a d i n g o f P r u d e n t i u s ' P s y c h o m a c h i a . T h e M a j o r T e x t u a l S o u r c e o f t h e  I c o n o g r a p h i c P r o g r a m m e I t h a s b e e n n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , i n t h i s s t u d y a n d e l s e w h e r e , t h a t t h e V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e o n t h e f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y c l o s e l y 3 2 f o l l o w s t h e t e x t o f t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a . W h a t h a s n e v e r b e e n r e c o g n i z e d i s t h e d e p e n d e n c y o f t h e e n t i r e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o -g r a m m e - - a l l c y c l e s , b o t h c o v e r s — o n t h i s s a m e t e x t . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s t h e m a j o r h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s -c u s s i o n t h a t t h e i v o r i e s ' i m a g e r y e v i d e n c e s a c l o s e p i c t u r e -t e x t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , a n d t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s a t t h e r o o t o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c v a r i a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d 25 a b o v e . I t w i l l b e a r g u e d t h a t , e x p l i c i t l y a n d i m p l i c i t l y , D a v i d i s a r e c u r r i n g m o t i f i n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a a n d t h u s , c a n b e v i e w e d a s a m e t a p h o r f o r t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n b a t t l e . I t w i l l b e f u r t h e r c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e t w o m a i n c y c l e s o n t h e f r o n t c o v e r w e r e s p e c i -f i c a l l y c o n c e i v e d t o d e p i c t t h i s m e t a p h o r , a n d t h a t b o t h , t h e r e -f o r e , a r e , i n e f f e c t , i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e s a m e n a r r a t i v e . T h e c r e a t i o n o f t h i s v i s u a l m e t a p h o r n e c e s s i t a t e d n o t o n l y t h e u n u - . s u a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e t w o c y c l e s , b u t a l s o t h e p r e v i o u s l y -n o t e d c h a n g e s i n , o r a d d i t i o n s t o , s t a n d a r d D a v i d i c a n d P s y c h o -m a c h i a n i c o n o g r a p h y . T h i s m e t a p h o r d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h e i s o l a t e d f i g u r e o f L a r g i t a s , n o r d o e s i t a p p l y t o t h e A c t s o f M e r c y c y c l e . T h e s e i m a g e s a r e , h o w e v e r , p a r t o f t h e n a r r a t i v e , a n d e s s e n t i a l a s t h e m e a n s o f b r i n g i n g i t t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n . I n t h e c o u r s e o f i t s s t o r y - a c t i o n , t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a m a k e s 33 t w o e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e s t o D a v i d . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e o c c u r s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e v i c t o r y o f H u m i l i t a s o v e r S u p e r b i a . I n h e r m o r a l i z i n g e p i l o g u e t o t h i s e v e n t , S p e s s a y s : We h a v e s e e n h o w G o l i a t h , t e r r i b l e a s h e w a s . . . f e l l . . . b y a w e a k h a n d . . . . 3 4 C l e a r l y , t h e l i t e r a r y m e t a p h o r a s s o c i a t e s D a v i d w i t h h u m i l i t y , a n d G o l i a t h w i t h p r i d e . I n o r d e r f o r t h e v i s u a l m e t a p h o r t o d o , t h e s a m e , t h e H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a g r o u p h a d t o b e p l a c e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e D a v i d a n d G o l i a t h m e d a l l i o n . T h i s p o s i t i o n i n g w a s e f f e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e m o v i n g o f t h e P a t i e n c i a - I r a p a i r , a n d r e s u l t e d i n t h e m i n o r p i c t u r e - t e x t d i s j u n c t i o n n o t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . T h e s e c o n d r e f e r e n c e t o D a v i d o c c u r s a t a 26 l a t e r p o i n t i n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n a c t i o n . I m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o h e r d e f e a t o f L u x u r i a , S o b r i e t a s i n v o k e s t h e n a m e o f " t h e r e n o w n e d D a v i d , " a n d , a f e w l i n e s f u r t h e r o n , c r i e s : 35 R e p e n t , I b e s e e c h y o u b y t h e f e a r o f t h e h i g h G o d . . . . T h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v i s u a l m e t a p h o r i s c l e a r : S o b r i e t a s h a s a d v o -c a t e d r e p e n t a n c e , a n d i n t h e a d j a c e n t m e d a l l i o n , D a v i d r e p e n t s . T h e a b o v e i n s t a n c e s o f a D a v i d i c - P s y c h o m a c h i a n t h e m a t i c c o r r e l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t t h e e x t e n t o f e x p l i c i t t e x t u a l p a r a l l e l s i n t h i s r e g a r d . H o w e v e r , t h e r e s e e m s l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e l i t e r a r y m e t a p h o r h a s b e e n e x t e n d e d o n t h e i v o r i e s , a n d t h a t e a c h o f t h e D a v i d m e d a l l i o n s h a s b e e n i n c l u d e d , a n d p o s i t i o n e d , i n o r d e r t o c o m p l e m e n t a n a d j a c e n t P s y c h o m a c h i a n s c e n e . C o n s i d e r , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e F i d e s - I d o l a t r i a p a i r , i n t h e c e n t r e - t o p i n t e r -s t i c e , a n d i t s t w o f l a n k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . I n t h e t o p - l e f t m e d a l -l i o n , a r e a l i o n , a b e a r , a n d a l a m b , t h e l a t t e r t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s y m b o l o f s a c r i f i c e . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e i m a g e s r e l a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y t o P r u d e n t i u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f I d o l a t r i a , t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f p a g a n r e l i g i o n s a n d t h e i r r i t e s o f s a c r i f i c e : 3 6 . . . t h a t m o u t h t h a t w a s s a t e d w i t h t h e b l o o d o f b e a s t s . . . . T h u s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n o n t h e i v o r i e s , t h e l i o n a n d b e a r b e c a m e s y m b o l s o f I d o l a t r i a , w h i l e t h e l a m b r e p r e s e n t s t h e s a c r i -f i c i a l o f f e r i n g . T h e t o p - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n i s a l s o t h e m a t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n a c c o u n t o f t h e e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n F i d e s a n d I d o l a t r i a . I n t h i s s c e n e , D a v i d i s s h o w n b e i n g a n o i n t e d , a n i m a g e w h i c h , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i v o r i e s ' 3 7 c a r v i n g , h a d l o n g b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h k i n g s h i p . T h e r o y a l 27 c o n n a t i o n s o f t h i s i m a g e m a k e i t a n a p p r o p r i a t e c o m p l e m e n t t o t h e a d j a c e n t P s y c h o m a c h i a n s c e n e , f o r , u p o n d e f e a t i n g I d o l a t r i a , F i d e s . . . c r o w n s h e r b r a v e c o m r a d e s . . . a n d b i d s t h e m c l o t h e t h e m -s e l v e s i n f l a m i n g p u r p i e . 3 8 T h u s , b y v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n , D a v i d b e c o m e s o n e o f F i d e s ' " b r a v e c o m r a d e s : " I n t h e l i o n a n d b e a r m e d a l l i o n , h e a s s i s t s i n t h e v a n q u i s h i n g o f I d o l a t r i a , a n d i n t h e A n o i n t m e n t s c e n e , h e r e c e i v e s h i s a p p r o p r i a t e r e w a r d . T h e m e t a p h o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e D a v i d a n d G o l i a t h m e d a l l i o n a n d t h e H u m i l i t a s - S u p e r b i a s c e n e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n d e s c r i b e d . H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d b e a d d e d t h a t , i n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , P u d i c i t i a p l a y s a p e r i p h e r a l r o l e i n t h e e n c o u n t e r b e t w e e n H u m i l i t a s a n d S u p e r b i a : S h e i s t a u n t e d b y 39 S u p e r b i a , j u s t a s D a v i d w a s " d i s d a i n e d " b y G o l i a t h . H e n c e , t h e p l a c e m e n t o f P u d i c i t i a - L i b i d o o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e D a v i d -G o l i a t h m e d a l l i o n i s b o t h c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e s t o r y - l i n e o f t h e t e x t , a n d c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e v i s u a l m e t a p h o r . C o n c e r n f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e m e t a p h o r a l s o s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f t h e u n u s u a l D a v i d -A h i m e l e c h s c e n e . T h e P a t i e n c i a - I r a p a i r d o e s n o t h a v e a n y t h e m a t i c a f f i n i t i e s w i t h a n o i n t i n g — i t s o n l y o t h e r a d j a c e n t D a v i d i c i m a g e . T h u s , t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e m e t a p h o r i s d e p e n -d e n t o n t h e p i c t o r i a l c o n t e n t o f t h e c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n m u s t h a v e p o s e d s o m e t h i n g o f a p r o b l e m f o r t h e i n v e n t o r o f t h e v i s u a l m e t a p h o r , f o r , i n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , t h e 40 P a t l e n c i a - I r a p a i r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J o b a n d h i s s u f f e r i n g s . 28 Moreover, there i s no c l e a r t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Job and David which might have suggested the p a r t i c u l a r Davidic episode to portray i n t h i s medallion. The scene f i n a l l y chosen was an e f f e c t i v e compromise, f o r , an image of David r e c e i v i n g the sword of G o l i a t h i s not only the n a t u r a l c o n t i n u a t i o n of the David and G o l i a t h scene, i t i s a l s o t h e m a t i c a l l y congruent with P a t i e n c i a ' s words upon her v i c t o r y over I r a : 41 We have overcome a proud Vice with our wonted v i r t u e . . . . Through a s s o c i a t i o n of ideas and images, "proud V i c e " can be con-strued as a reference to G o l i a t h , and "wonted v i r t u e " associated with the h u m i l i t y of David. Progressing downward on the i v o r y , the next set of i n t e r s t i c e s continues and concludes the b a t t l e , while a c c o r d i n g l y , the remaining medallions complete the D a v i d i c -Psychomachian metaphor. The thematic congruence between the S o b r i e t a s - L u x u r i a p a i r and the scene of David's repentance has already been d e t a i l e d . Only the metaphorical f u n c t i o n of the l a s t medallion-scene remains to be d e s c r i b e d . The image of David and h i s musicians i s juxtaposed to the p o r t r a y a l of Concordia's defeat of D i s c o r d i a . This v i s u a l r e l a t i n g of musical harmony to the harmony of concord has a f i r m t e x t u a l b a s i s , f o r , as described in the Psychomachia, ... when the race of Vices was subdued, the V i r t u e ' s holy songs rang out in sweet melodious psalms. The F o r t i t u d o - A v a r i t i a p a i r does not seem to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the v i s u a l metaphor j u s t d escribed. However, i t can be noted that there are numerous precedents for a s s o c i a t i n g F o r t i t u d o with 29 David, 4" 3 and t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n , they share the l i o n as an a t t r i -4 4 bute. Although the c r e a t o r o f the i c o n o g r a p h i c programme may have had these a s s o c i a t i o n s i n mind, they are not the main b a s i s f o r the i n c l u s i o n of F o r t i t u d o on the f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y . Thus, a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n i n t h i s regard w i l l be given i n an ensuing s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a pter. S i n c e , at t h i s p o i n t , the c h i e f aim i s to d e t a i l the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between the i v o r i e s ' images and the t e x t of the Psycho- machia, the c r u c i a l problem i s not the i n t r o d u c t i o n of F o r t i t u d o , who does not appear i n the poem. Rather, i t i s the i s o l a t i o n of L a r g i t a s , to whom there are s e v e r a l t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s , which must now be c o n s i d e r e d . In t h i s regard, i t should be noted t h a t , in the Middle Ages, L a r g i t a s , both as word and image, was c l o s e l y 45 a s s o c i a t e d , and used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , with C a r i t a s ( c h a r i t y ) . Thus, i t appears that the i s o l a t i n g of L a r g i t a s , in the c e n t r e -bottom i n t e r s t i c e , was e f f e c t e d as a means of c o n t i n u i n g the Psychomachian n a r r a t i v e , f o r , the s t o r y does not end with the c o n c l u s i o n of the b a t t l e . Rather, i t continues f o r s e v e r a l more l i n e s to d e s c r i b e the newly-won s t a t e of peace. A great d e a l of emphasis i s placed on the maintenance of t h a t peace, and that maintenance depends on c h a r i t y : But the n a t i o n ' s peace depends on good w i l l between i t s c i t i z e n s i n f i e l d and town.^6 As the poem progresses, peace i s not only dependent on c h a r i t y , but i t a c t u a l l y becomes c h a r i t y : I t (peace) i s not p u f f e d up with p r i d e , i t f e e l s no j e a l o u s envy of a brother; i t endures a l l things with l o n g -s u f f e r i n g , b e l i e v e s a l l t h i n g s . 7 30 In a d d i t i o n t o a d v a n c i n g the Psychomachian s t o r y - l i n e , the i s o -l a t e d f i g u r e o f L a r g i t a s a l s o p r o v i d e s the n a r r a t i v e l i n k between the f r o n t cover and the back. That i s , the image o f L a r g i t a s i s the p i c t o r i a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the Psychomachian theme of c h a r i t y , a theme which i s developed f u r t h e r by the images on the back 48 c o v e r . In t h i s r e g a r d , r e f e r e n c e may be made a g a i n t o the b i r d , H e r o d i u s . When t h i s image was f i r s t d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, two p o s s i b l e t e x t u a l s o u r c e s were n o t e d . One i n p a r t i c u -l a r , t h a t o f Hugh of S t . V i c t o r , l i n k s the b i r d w i t h good works. In l i g h t o f the c l o s e w o r d - p i c t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Psychomachia and i v o r i e s , i t seems c l e a r t h a t the image was indeed i n t e n d e d t o be u n d e r s t o o d as a symbol of c h a r i t y . As s u c h , H e r o d i u s becomes p a r t o f the Psychomachian n a r r a t i v e , and p r o v i d e s the c o n c e p t u a l nexus between L a r g i t a s , on the f r o n t c o v e r , and the A c t s o f Mercy, on the back. In the M i d d l e Ages, mercy, or M i s e r i c o r d i a , both as image and i d e a , was, l i k e L a r g i t a s , 49 synonomous w i t h C a r i t a s . Thus, the s i x scenes of the A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e t o g e t h e r comprise the p i c t o r i a l c u l m i n a t i o n o f the Psychomachian theme of c h a r i t y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a k i n g as the d i s p e n s e r o f t h i s c h a r i t y i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e t o Psycho-machian n a r r a t i v e , f o r , towards the end of the poem, the l i t e r a r y imagery a c q u i r e s r o y a l c o n n a t i o n s : Here mighty Wisdom s i t s enthroned and from her h i g h c o u r t s e t s i n o r d e r a l l the government o f her r e a l m , m e d i t a t i n g i n her h e a r t ways t o s a f e g u a r d mankind.50 The k i n g on the i v o r i e s i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e Wisdom's a c t i v e c o u n t e r -p a r t : He has r i s e n from h i s t h r o n e , and i s s a f e g u a r d i n g h i s s u b j e c t s through the performance of c h a r i t a b l e deeds. 31 The Psychomachia i s a l s o the t e x t u a l source f o r the remain-ing b i r d and animal imagery on the back cover. Although they have never before been recognized as such, the s t r u g g l i n g a n i -mals and the s t a t i c b i r d s are not only e x p r e s s i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t with the idea of Psychomachian b a t t l e and i t s p e a c e f u l aftermath, they are a l s o , more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the p i c t o r i a l v e r s i o n of 51 P r u d e n t i u s ' own words: ... the snow-white doves.... know... when.... the wolf with h i s gory jaws... c a r r i e s on h i s bloody murders by devouring the lambs. Prudentius used t h i s kind of imagery as a metaphor .for the d u a l nature of man, and i t i s on t h i s theme, that the poem ends. Thus, on the i v o r y , the b i r d and animal imagery i s the v i s u a l i means by which the n a r r a t i v e i s brought to i t s c o n c l u s i o n . In t h i s regard, the f i g h t i n g animals, p l a c e d as they are to con-t r a s t v i s u a l l y , e x p r e s s i v e l y , and c o n c e p t u a l l y with the Acts of Mercy, are p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of P r u d e n t i u s ' f i n a l thoughts: Savage war rages h o t l y , rages w i t h i n our bones, and man's two-sided nature i s in an uproar of r e b e l l i o n . . . . L i g h t and darkness with t h e i r opposing s p i r i t s are at war, and our two-fold being i n s p i r e s powers at v a r i a n c e with each o t h e r , u n t i l C h r i s t our God comes to our aid....53 Although the Psychomachia i s c l e a r l y the t e x t u a l source of the major components of the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, i t does not c o n t a i n even a vague r e f e r e n c e to F o r t i t u d o , the armoured f i g u r e i n troduced as L a r g i t a s ' s u b s t i t u t e i n the b a t t l e with A v a r i t i a . S i m i l a r l y , the presence of the four s i n g l e V i r t u e s — B o n i t a s , B e n i g n i t a s , B e a t i t u d o , and L e t i c i a — i n the 32 c o r n e r s of the f r o n t cover, i s a l s o i n e x p l i c a b l e by r e f e r e n c e to the Psychomachia. T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t another t e x t must have been used in the p l a n n i n g of the i conographic programme. The Secondary T e x t u a l Source I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that the Herodius-image on the back-cover i v o r y was a p p a r e n t l y based on a t r a c t by Hugh of S t . V i c t o r (1097-1141). I have a l s o found t h a t , to a much grea t e r e x t e n t , another work by the same t h e o l o g i a n and w r i t e r , was used 54 as a complement f o r the main t e x t , the Psychomachia. T h i s other t e x t u a l source, Hugh's t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s e t S p i r i t u s , makes use of the image of two opposing armies as a means of c h a r a c t e r i s i n g the d u a l i t y of human 55 nature. However, u n l i k e P r u d e n t i u s 1 poem, i t does not sus-t a i n the metaphor. Instead, i t schematizes the components of man's s o u l through the use of two main images: the Tree of V i c e and the Tree of V i r t u e . I t i s the l a t t e r image, with i t s a s s o c i a t e d concepts, t h a t bears on the f r o n t cover's iconography. At the r o o t s of Hugh's t r e e , i s H u m i l i t a s , at i t s top, C a r i t a s . Since the i v o r y ' s main aim was the p o r t r a y i n g of the Psycho- machia , i t s imagery, with L a r g i t a s ( C a r i t a s ) at the bottom, and H u m i l i t a s near the top, i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p i c t o r i a l i n v e r s i o n of Hugh's system. Because of t h i s i n v e r s i o n , the i v o r i e s ' r e l a -t i o n s h i p to Hugh's t e x t i s not immediately obvious, and t h i s i s perhaps the reason why, u n t i l now, i t has not been recognized as 33 the t e x t u a l source of some of the i v o r i e s ' seemingly i d i o s y n -c r a t i c i c o n o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . Although, v i s u a l l y , n e i t h e r of the i v o r i e s resembles the u s u a l d e p i c t i o n s of Hugh's system of v i r t u e s ( F i g . 6), the f r o n t cover r e p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l of h i s major concepts in one form or another. As alre a d y noted, Hugh's system i s founded upon H u m i l i t a s , d e p i c t e d on the i v o r y i n the centre i n t e r s t i c e , second from the top. Next i n importance, according t o h i s ranking, are the three t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s , a l l of which are a l s o represented on the i v o r i e s : F i d e s , at the top, Spes with H u m i l i t a s , and L a r g i t a s ( C a r i t a s ) at the bottom. The four c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s a l s o f i g u r e prominently i n Hugh's t r e a t i s e — hence, the o t h e r -wise-unexplained presence of F o r t i t u d o on the i v o r i e s . The remaining c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s -- Temperantia (Temperance) , J u s t i t i a ( J u s t i c e ) , and Pr u d e n t i a (Prudence) are not s p e c i f i c a l l y d e p i c t e d . However, given the medieval tendency toward i n t e r -changing c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d ideas and images, I suggest t h a t some of the Psychomachian v i r t u e s were understood as conceptu-a l l y r e l a t e d to the c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s . For example, i n Hugh's t r e a t i s e , S o b r i e t a s d e r i v e s from, and i s , t h e r e f o r e , an aspect 56 . . of Temperantia. Elsewhere, he equates J u s t i t i a and Con-57 . . c o r d i a . The remaining c a r d i n a l v i r t u e , P r u d e n t i a , i s seem-i n g l y not p a r t of the iconography of the f r o n t cover. I t s absence does not i n v a l i d a t e Hugh of S t . V i c t o r ' s t r e a t i s e as a secondary t e x t u a l source of the i v o r y ' s images, for medieval a r t i s t s were not normally r i g i d i n t h e i r adherence to t e x t u a l 34 sources. They i n v a r i a b l y a l t e r e d the word-picture r e l a t i o n s h i p to s u i t the c o m p o s i t i o n a l and thematic demands of t h e i r a r t . For example, in compiling and i l l u s t r a t i n g the Hortus D e l i c i a r u m (Munich, S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 13002; ca 1159-1180), Herrad of Landsberg used both the Psychomachia and De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s e t S p i r i t u s , but i n so doing, regrouped the V i r t u e s and V i c e s , omitted some, and added o t h e r s , to conform to her par-5 8 t i c u l a r a r t i s t i c purposes. T h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n toward i c o n o -g r a p h i c m o d i f i c a t i o n on the p a r t of medieval a r t i s t s may e x p l a i n the presence of L e t i c i a and B e a t i t u d o i n the lower c o r n e r s of the i v o r y . The inventor of the icon o g r a p h i c programme perhaps simply deemed them a p p r o p r i a t e thematic complements to the nearby f i g u r e of L a r g i t a s . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that they are l o o s e l y based on Hugh of S t . V i c t o r ' s t r e a t i s e , f o r , among h i s d e s i g -nated aspects of P r u d e n t i a , i s A l a c r i t a s (Joy), a concept roughly synonymous with both L e t i c i a (Joy) and B e a t i t u d o (Happi-5 9 n e s s ) . I f so, then the "missing" c a r d i n a l v i r t u e , P r u d e n t i a i s accounted f o r -- represented on the i v o r y through a concep-t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n with L e t i c i a and B e a t i t u d o . The remaining two s i n g l e V i r t u e s , i n the top c o r n e r s , have a more secure t e x t u a l b a s i s . Hugh of S t . V i c t o r s p e c i f i c a l l y mentions 6 0 B e n i g n i t a s (Kindness) as an aspect of C a r i t a s . B o n i t a s ( G e n e r o s i t y ) , although not e x p l i c i t l y named, r e p r e s e n t s a n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l concept, and can be presumed to have d e r i v e d from the same source. 35 U n d e n i a b l y , t h e r e a r e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e i v o r y ' s i m a g e s a n d H u g h o f S t . V i c t o r ' s t e x t . N o n t h e l e s s , h i s t r e a t i s e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e p r e s e n c e o f F o r t i t u d o . I f i t d o e s s o t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f o u r c o r n e r V i r -t u e s , i t d o e s a t l e a s t p r o v i d e a p a r t i a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n , a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , r e p r e s e n t s a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e o l d t h e o r y t h a t t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e p u r e l y o r n a m e n t a l — c o n c e i v e d o n l y t o f i l l e x t r a n e o u s s p a c e . ^ F i n a l l y , i t c a n a l s o b e n o t e d t h a t , s i n c e t h e m a i n t h e m e o f De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s e t S p i r i t u s i s t h e c o n f l i c t i n g a s p e c t s o f h u m a n n a t u r e , t h e t r e a t i s e i s a w h o l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t e x t u a l c o m p l e m e n t t o t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a . I t i s a l s o , t h r o u g h i t s p l a c e m e n t o f C a r i t a s a t t h e v i s u a l a n d c o n c e p t u a l a p e x o f t h e s y s t e m o f v i r t u e s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o n e o f t h e i v o r i e s ' t h r e e m a i n t h e m e s . . T h e T h e m e s o f t h e I c o n o g r a p h i c P r o g r a m m e T h e i v o r i e s ' p r o g r a m m e o f i m a g e s w a s a p p a r e n t l y p l a n n e d w i t h t w o a i m s i n v i e w . T h e f i r s t , a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , w a s t h e c l o s e s t - p o s s i b l e c o n f o r m a n c e t o i t s t w o t e x t u a l s o u r c e s . T h e s e c o n d w a s t h e e m p h a s i s o f t h r e e d o m i n a n t t h e m e s — c h a r i t y , w a r , a n d k i n g s h i p . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e t h e m e s , c h a r i t y , i s e x p r e s s e d b y s e v e r a l o f t h e i v o r i e s ' i m a g e s . On t h e f r o n t c o v e r , B e n i g n i t a s a n d B o n i t a s a r e a s p e c t s o f , a n d c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d t o , c h a r i t y . L a r g i t a s , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d e m a n d s o f t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n n a r r a t i v e , s t a n d s a l o n e , t h u s h e l p i n g t o e m p h a s i z e 3 6 the cognate concept, charity. On the second ivory, the p i c -t o r i a l emphasis of the theme i s carried further: Herodius, the bird of good works, overlooks the performance of six charitable acts. On both i v o r i e s , a second theme, that of war or c o n f l i c t , acts as a counterpoint to the charity motif. On the front cover, the ba t t l i n g Virtues and Vices contrast with the s t a t i c , i s o -lated figure of Largitas, while on the other ivory, the violent animal scenes of the i n t e r s t i c e s provide a similar contrast to the benevolent imagery of the medallions. The two ivories also show a third theme, that of kingship. The medallions on the front cover portray King David, while those on the back portray another figure who i s also c l e a r l y a king. Previously in this chapter, there was cited evidence which suggests that t h i s figure was intended to portray David: His f a c i a l resemblance to the mature David of the two lower front-cover medallions, his imperial costume, similar to that worn by David in some Byzantine Psalters, and the text of I Chronicles 16:3, which associates David with merciful acts, together indicate that the king on the back cover must be i d e n t i f i e d with the B i b l i c a l king. However, as w i l l be shown, in twelfth-century Latin Jerusalem, the con-cept of Davidic kingship was a central aspect of contemporary kingship. Thus, i t is possible that the merciful king was, to some degree, meant to be a p i c t o r i a l reference to an ideal of contemporary kingship. This p o s s i b i l i t y i n v i t e s some reconsider-ation of the problem of the figure's i d e n t i t y : Perhaps, in addition to being a portrayal of David, the merciful king was 37 a l s o meant to be a s s o c i a t e d with an a c t u a l king of Jerusalem. In pursuing t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , r e f e r e n c e must be made to c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l d a t a , and thus, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the a d d i -t i o n a l , t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y i d e n t i t y of the d e p i c t e d f i g u r e w i l l be explored in the f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r , i n which, an attempt w i l l be made to determine the contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i v o r i e s . With regard t o the present d i s c u s s i o n , i t remains to be noted that the main themes of the i v o r i e s are a l s o to be found as r e c u r r i n g m o t i f s throughout the Psalms. In her study of the iconography of c h a r i t y , Maria von Thadden has c i t e d f i v e Psalms that i n c o r p o r a t e the no t i o n of c h a r i t y : Psalms 25:16 and 18; 33:19; 41:1 and 2; 72:12 and 13; and 112:5 and 9. To t h i s l i s t should be added Psalms 37:21 and 26; 40:17; and 132:15 i n which David says: 6 3 ... I w i l l s a t i s f y her [zi o n ' s ] poor with bread. The theme of s t r u g g l e i s i m p l i c i t i n a m a j o r i t y of the Psalms, i n which there are numerous r e f e r e n c e s to the P s a l m i s t ' s enemies. In t h i s r e g a r d , Psalms 2, 4, 7, 14, 31, 45, 69, etc..can be 64 c i t e d . Other Psalms — 3, 18, 27, 35, and 54 to 59 — are more s p e c i f i c a l l y e v o c a t i v e of armed combat, and i n one Psalm belonging to t h i s group, Psalm 41:1 and 2, the themes of c h a r i t y and c o n f l i c t become l i n k e d through the idea of d e l i v e r a n c e from the enemy, a thematic c o n n e c t i o n , not i n c o n s i s t e n t with the c o n t r a s t i n g images of c h a r i t y and s t r u g g l e on the back-cover i v o r y : 38 Blessed i s he that c o n s i d e r e t h the poor: the Lord w i l l d e l i v e r him i n time of t r o u b l e . . . / W i l l preserve him and keep him a l i v e ; and... thou w i l t not d e l i v e r him unto the w i l l of h i s enemies. The i v o r i e s ' t h i r d theme, k i n g s h i p , i s a l s o an important m o t i f of the Psalms. J.H. Eaton has i d e n t i f i e d t h i r t y - t w o r o y a l Psalms, e x p r e s s i v e of the d u t i e s , p r i v i l e g e s , and r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n s of k i n g s h i p ; he c i t e s as w e l l twenty-one other Psalms which a l s o have r o y a l connotations in c o n j u n c t i o n with 6 5 other themes. S e v e r a l of the r o y a l Psalms — 3, 4, 7, 27, 35, 57, and 59, f o r example — combine the theme of k i n g s h i p with images of war, thus i n d i c a t i n g the king's r o l e as m i l i t a r y l e a d e r , and p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r the j u x t a -p o s i t i o n i n g on the i v o r i e s of the b a t t l e of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s , with scenes from the l i f e of King David. F i n a l l y , there i s one Psalm, 72, not c i t e d by Eaton as r o y a l , but which must be c o n s i d e r e d as such, for i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to the k i n g , and to h i s c h a r i t a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s : Give the King thy judgements, 0 God, ..../ He s h a l l judge the poor of the people, He s h a l l save the c h i l d r e n of the needy, and s h a l l break i n p i e c e s the o p r e s s o r . . . / He s h a l l d e l i v e r the needy... the poor a l s o , and him that hath no h e l p e r . T h i s a d d i t i o n a l r o y a l Psalm, embodying as i t does the two themes of k i n g s h i p and c h a r i t y , f o r c i b l y r e c a l l s the i v o r i e s : King David adjacent to L a r g i t a s on one, a king doing c h a r i t a b l e a c t s on the o t h e r . With t h e i r shared themes of c h a r i t y , c o n f l i c t and k i n g s h i p , the p a i r of i v o r i e s and the Book of Psalms 39 together comprise an a l m o s t - u n p a r a l l e l l e d example of the thema-t i c c o r r e l a t i o n of m a n u s c r i p t - t e x t and c o v e r - d e c o r a t i o n . U n t i l now, because of p r e v i o u s i n a t t e n t i o n to image-text r e l a t i o n s h i p s , 6 7 t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n has gone unremarked. I t has a l s o not been noted before t h a t the i v o r i e s ' three themes/are, to some degree, h i s t o r i c a l l y , as w e l l as t e x t u a l l y , based. The Contemporary S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Themes and Images In a p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h i s c h apter, note was taken of the Byzantine i m p e r i a l d r e s s of the king on the back-cover 68 m e d a l l i o n s . At that p o i n t in the d i s c u s s i o n , i t was a l s o noted t h a t some Byzantine manuscripts of the l a t e e l e v e n t h cen-tury c o n t a i n p o r t r a y a l s of David i n s i m i l a r a t t i r e . Thus, by reason of h i s dress and h i s f a c i a l resemblance to the f r o n t - c o v e r David, the m e r c i f u l king must in p a r t be understood as a v e r s i o n of Byzantine D a v i d i c iconography. However, I b e l i e v e that t h i s borrowed image of an i m p e r i a l type of David a l s o had a more s p e c i f i c a l l y l o c a l and contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e , and that the Byzantine costume can be construed as a l i t e r a l p o r t r a y a l of the a c t u a l mode of dress of the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y kings of L a t i n Jerusalem. I t i s well-documented t h a t the F r a n k i s h r u l e r s o f 69 Jerusalem adopted Byzantine customs and modes of d r e s s . However, more than t h i s p r a c t i c e , the i v o r y ' s d e p i c t i o n s of r o y a l Byzantine a t t i r e are, as Joshua Prawer n o t e s , "an expres-s i o n of the... i n c l i n a t i o n on the p a r t of Jerusalem r o y a l t y to 40 i m i t a t e t h e g r e a t e s t C h r i s t i a n r u l e r . " / u I n t h i s p r e d i l e c t i o n , t h e k i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m w e r e n o t a l o n e . W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n r u l e r s , b o t h t h o s e b e f o r e , a n d t h o s e c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h , t h e k i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m , h a d u s e d B y z a n t i n e - s t y l e c o s t u m i n g a s o n e m e a n s o f e m u l a t i n g t h e p o w e r f u l r u l e r s o f E a s t e r n C h r i s t e n d o m . T h e e x a m p l e m o s t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e J e r u s a l e m k i n g s a r e t h e N o r m a n r u l e r s o f S i c i l y , f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d i n e l a b o r a t e B y z a n t i n e r e g a l d r e s s . T h u s , d e s p i t e i t s d e r i v a t i o n f r o m B y z a n t i n e D a v i d i c i c o n o -g r a p h y , t h e m e r c i f u l k i n g ' s c o n t e m p o r a r y c o s t u m e d o e s n o t c o n -c l u s i v e l y e s t a b l i s h t h e f i g u r e a s a s i m p l e p o r t r a y a l o f D a v i d . I t r e m a i n s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e A c t s o f M e r c y m e d a l l i o n s w e r e p a r t l y i n s p i r e d b y t h e d e e d s a n d p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e o f a n a c t u a l k i n g o f J e r u s a l e m . A s s u m i n g f o r t h e m o m e n t t h a t s u c h i s t h e c a s e , C a h i e r ' s t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g t h e m e a n i n g o f H e r o d i u s m a y n o w b e r e c a l l e d . A s n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , h e p o s t u l a t e d t h a t H e r o d i u s , a s a s y n o n y m f o r F u l i c a , w a s a r e b u s f o r F u l k , k i n g o f J e r u s a l e m 71 b e t w e e n 1131 a n d 1143. T h e t r a c i n g o f t h e p r o b a b l e t e x t u a l s o u r c e o f H e r o d i u s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r u l e o u t t h i s t h e o r y , a n d i n t h i s r e g a r d , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e h i s t o r i a n W i l l i a m o f T y r e d e s c r i b e s F u l k a s " a r u d d y m a n , l i k e D a v i d , " a d d i n g t o o t h a t h e w a s a l s o " m o s t g e n e r o u s " i n " w o r k s o f p i e t y 72 a n d t h e g i v i n g o f a l m s . " T h e d a t i n g r a n g e o f t h e i v o r i e s a l s o a l l o w s f o r a n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y a s s u b j e c t o f t h e A c t s o f M e r c y m e d a l l i o n s : F u l k ' s s o n , B a l d w i n I I I , r u l e r b e t w e e n 1143 73 a n d 1162. A s r e c o r d e d b y W i l l i a m o f T y r e , B a l d w i n ' s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h a t o f t h e f i g u r e o n t h e i v o r y : 41 He had s t r a i g h t . . . h a i r and wore a r a t h e r f u l l beard on cheeks and c h i n . He was of somewhat f u l l h a b i t , although he c o u l d not be c a l l e d f l e s h y . . . . h i s whole appearance ^ was so s u p e r i o r by reason o f . . . h i s innate k i n g l y majesty. In a d d i t i o n , l i k e h i s f a t h e r , Baldwin was known for h i s p i e t y 75 and g e n e r o s i t y . However, u n l i k e F u l k , Baldwin had i n f a c t performed at l e a s t one notable a c t of mercy — the r e l e a s e of 7 6 the imprisoned P a t r i a r c h of A n t i o c h i n 1160. F i n a l l y , there was a l s o a s p e c i f i c reason to a s s o c i a t e Baldwin with David: he was the f i r s t L a t i n king of Jerusalem able to c l a i m the d i s -t i n c t i o n of being born, l i k e the B i b l i c a l king h i m s e l f , i n the 77 Holy Land. The weight of the evidence perhaps i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s u b j e c t of the Acts of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s , i f an a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , was Baldwin I I I . However, t h i s cannot be c o n c l u s i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d and King Fulk must a l s o be regarded as an e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . In e i t h e r case, the s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of the m e r c i f u l king i s p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r any attempt to do so must i n e v i t a b l y be weakened by the v i s u a l and t e x t u a l e v i -dence supporting the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f i g u r e as King 78 David. Since no one has y e t c o n s i d e r e d these two t h e o r i e s about the king's i d e n t i t y i n c o n j u n c t i o n with one another, a t h i r d , compromise theory has, up to now, been overlooked. I t seems very probable that the f i g u r e i s an i n t e n t i o n a l p a s t i c h e . His face i d e n t i f i e s him as David, h i s d r e s s as a king of more recent date. He i s , thus, both B i b l i c a l and contemporary, and as such, embodies the L a t i n Kingdom's concept of k i n g s h i p . The 42 f i r s t L a t i n k i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m w e r e F r a n k s , ' ^ a n d , a t t h e c e n -t r e o f t h e F r a n k i s h m o n a r c h i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n , w a s t h e n o t i o n o f 8 0 D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p . S i n c e t h e t i m e o f P e p i n , F r a n k i s h m o n a r c h s h a d t h o u g h t o f t h e m s e l v e s a s s e c o n d D a v i d s , a n d w i t h t h e c o n -q u e s t o f J e r u s a l e m , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n h a d b e c o m e m o r e t h a n j u s t s y m b o l i c . N o w , i n a c t u a l i t y , t h e F r a n k i s h k i n g s r u l e d t h e l a n d o f D a v i d i n t h e C i t y o f D a v i d , a s h a d t h e i r B i b l i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r . T h u s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d p o r t r a y a l s o f D a v i d o n o n e i v o r y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p i c t o r i a l l i t e r a l i s a t i o n o f m e d i e v a l D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p o n t h e o t h e r . T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a p r e c e d e n t f o r s u c h a d u a l d e p i c t i o n i n F r a n k i s h a r t o f t h e C a r o l i n g i a n e r a . On f . 2 1 5 v , o f t h e m i d - 9 t h - c e n t u r y B i b l e o f C o u n t V i v i a n ( P a r i s , B i b . N a t . MS l a t . 1 ) , K i n g D a v i d i s g i v e n t h e c r o w n a n d f a c i a l f e a t u r e s o f C h a r l e s t h e B a l d , t h u s d r a w i n g a v i s u a l p a r a l l e l 8 1 b e t w e e n D a v i d a n d h i s C a r o l i n g i a n c o u n t e r p a r t . T h i s e x a m p l e p o i n t s t o a n i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i v o r i e s : P e r h a p s , t h e m e r c i f u l k i n g o f t h e b a c k c o v e r i s n o t a c o m p o s i t e f i g u r e , a s s u g g e s t e d a b o v e . R a t h e r , a s i n t h e V i v i a n B i b l e , t h e r e v e r s e m a y b e t r u e , a n d , K i n g D a v i d w a s a s s i g n e d t h e f a c i a l f e a t u r e s o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y r u l e r o f t h e n e w F r a n k i s h S t a t e . T h e r e i s n o a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t a l l o w s f o r a d e f i n i t i v e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o p o s s i b i l i t i e s , a n d u l t i m a t e l y , i t m a k e s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e , f o r , i n e i t h e r c a s e , t h e i n t e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e s a m e : t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e r e g n u m D a v i d i c u m o f t h e L a t i n k i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i v o r i e s ' c r e a t i o n , F r a n k i s h D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p h a d l o n g b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c h a r i t y : A m o n g t h e 43 a r t i c l e s o f C h a r l e m a g n e ' s i m p e r i a l c o u r t , w a s o n e w h i c h s t r e s s e d t h e k i n g ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o p r a c t i s e c h a r i t y a n d h o s p i t a l i t y , w h i l e a l a t e r d o c u m e n t , t h e V i a R e g i a ( c a 830) d e s c r i b e d c h a r i t y a s 8 2 t h e k i n g l y v i r t u e . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n w a s s e e m -i n g l y p e r p e t u a t e d i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m , f o r , i n h i s b i o g r a p h i c a l s k e t c h e s o f t h e J e r u s a l e m m o n a r c h s o f t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , W i l l i a m o f T y r e n o t e s t h e " b e n e v o l e n t w o r k s " o f B a l d w i n I I , t h e a l m s - g i v i n g o f F u l k , t h e g e n e r o s i t y o f 8 3 M e l i s e n d e , a n d t h e " t e n d e r - h e a r t e d l i b e r a l i t y " o f B a l d w i n I I I . T h i s r o y a l l a r g e s s e , a n o b l i g a t i o n d i c t a t e d b y t h e s e m i - r e l i -g i o u s c h a r a c t e r o f D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p i s r e f l e c t e d b y t h e i v o r i e s ' a d j a c e n t i m a g e s o f L a r g i t a s a n d K i n g D a v i d , a n d b y t h e m e d a l -l i o n s i n w h i c h a D a v i d i c k i n g p e r f o r m s m e r c i f u l a c t s . T h e c o n c e p t o f D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p , a s i t w a s u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m , i s a l s o c l o s e l y b o u n d u p w i t h t h e i v o r i e s ' t h i r d t h e m e , c o n f l i c t . T h e i m a g e s o f c o m b a t o r s t r u g g l e i n t h e i n t e r s t i c e s o f b o t h i v o r i e s a r e r e m i n d e r s t h a t t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y 8 4 J e r u s a l e m e x i s t e d i n a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t m i l i t a r y c o n f l i c t . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e k i n g d o m ' s s u r v i v a l w a s l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t u p o n e f f e c t i v e w a r f a r e a n d d e f e n c e , a n d t h u s , t h e f i r s t d u t y o f a 8 5 k i n g w a s t h a t o f m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p . I n c a r r y i n g o u t t h i s d u t y , t h e J e r u s a l e m k i n g s h a d a n e x a m p l e i n t h e i r B i b l i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t , f o r D a v i d w a s n o t o n l y a p r i e s t - k i n g w i t h s p i r i -t u a l o b l i g a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e d i s p e n s i n g o f c h a r i t y — h e w a s a l s o a w a r r i o r - k i n g . A s s u c h , h e m u s t h a v e b e e n v i e w e d a s t h e a r c h e t y p a l m o d e l u p o n w h i c h t h e D a v i d i c k i n g s p a t t e r n e d 44 themselves. Thus, d e s p i t e h i s n o n - m i l i t a r y c h a r i t a b l e a c t i -v i t i e s , the king in the Acts of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s through h i s v i s u a l and conceptual a s s o c i a t i o n with David, must have been a d d i t i o n a l l y understood as r e p r e s e n t i n g a w a r r i o r - k i n g , one who c o u l d , l i k e David, subdue the kind of h o s t i l e f o r c e s symbolised 8 6 by the adjacent images of the f i g h t i n g animals. From the st a n d p o i n t of t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem, the i v o r i e s had three broad f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t of a l l , they served to i l l u s t r a t e four separate t e x t s : the Book of Samuel, Hugh of S t . V i c t o r ' s t r e a t i s e , the Psychomachia, and a p o r t i o n of the Gospels of Matthew; secondly and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , they t o l d the complete s t o r y of one of these t e x t s , the Psychomachia; and l a s t l y , they expressed p i c t o r i a l l y three r e c u r r i n g themes of the Psalms — c h a r i t y , c o n f l i c t , and k i n g s h i p . These themes were not o n l y t e x t u a l l y - b a s e d , but were r e l a t e d a l s o to the a c t u a l r e l i g i o u s - m i l i t a r y r o l e of the c u r r e n t k i n g . Because of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , the i v o r i e s can be s a i d to have a f o u r t h , s t r i c t l y modern f u n c t i o n : From a t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y perspec-t i v e , they are a means by which can be h i g h l i g h t e d s i g n i f i c a n t aspects of the concept of k i n g s h i p in t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem. C H A P T E R I I I T H E I V O R I E S AND T H E J E R U S A L E M S C R I P T O R I U M I N T H E M I D - T W E L F T H C E N T U R Y I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h e x p l a i n i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o g r a m m e , t h i s s t u d y h a s , t h u s f a r , e s t a b l i s h e d a b r o a d c o n c e p t u a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e i v o r i e s . I t n o w r e m a i n s t o r e l a t e t h e m t o t h e i r m o r e s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t — t h e J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m i n t h e m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . I n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s a i m , a n e c e s s a r y f i r s t s t e p i s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s c r i p t o r i u m , i t s h i s t o r y , a n d t h e k i n d s o f a r t t h a t i t p r o d u c e d . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t , s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d b y H u g o B u c h t h a l ' s 1 9 5 7 s t u d y o f C r u s a d e r i l l u m i n a -t i o n . 1 T h i s s t u d y , . w h i c h i s t h e d e f i n i t i v e w o r k o n t h e s c r i p -t o r i u m , c o n c e n t r a t e s o n m a n u s c r i p t p a i n t i n g , a n d t h u s d o e s n o t 2 m e n t i o n t h e i v o r i e s . S i m i l a r l y , t h o s e w h o h a v e w r i t t e n o n t h e i v o r i e s h a v e n o t e x t e n s i v e l y c o n s i d e r e d g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s c r i p t o r i u m a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s w e r e c a r v e d . T h u s , i n e x a m i n i n g t h e i v o r i e s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e g a r d t o t h e s c r i p -t o r i u m i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e m a d e , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l b e f i l l i n g a g a p i n e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s -c u s s i o n w i l l i n c l u d e a n i c o n o g r a p h i c c o m p a r i s o n o f i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r , a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i v o r i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e 4 5 4 6 a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s of the s c r i p t o r i u m , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o s s i b l e i c o n o g r a p h i c models, and i n t h i s regard, the presen-t a t i o n of a new h y p o t h e s i s . F i n a l l y , the p u r e l y l o c a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the i v o r i e s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d , and the i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e d to the task of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the i v o r i e s ' two c r e a t o r s . An i n c i d e n t a l r e s u l t of t h i s new c o n t e x t u a l approach to the i v o r i e s w i l l be a temporally-focused view of the s c r i p -torium, one which should, in a small way, complement Buchthal's 3 study: While the l a t t e r scans the e n t i r e nine-decade h i s t o r y of the s c r i p t o r i u m , t h i s chapter w i l l h i g h l i g h t two of those decades -- the years between 1130 and 1150, the p e r i o d when the i v o r i e s were produced. The Jerusalem S c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150 Using h i s t o r i c a l and l i t u r g i c a l d ata, Buchthal determined t h a t , from approximately 1125 to the f a l l of the kingdom i n 1187, an a c t i v e s c r i p t o r i u m was p a r t of the A u g u s t i n i a n monas-4 t e r y attached to the Holy Sepulchre Church. This s c r i p t o r i u m , Buchthal f e e l s , was c e r t a i n l y the l a r g e s t , and i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , 5 the only one in Jerusalem. By the 1130's, i t was f u n c t i o n i n g l a r g e l y under r o y a l patronage, and thus, Buchthal d e s c r i b e s i t s major output -- i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts — as " f i r s t and f o r e -most an e x c l u s i v e c o u r t a r t . " He was able, on l i t u r g i c a l and/ or s t y l i s t i c grounds to i d e n t i f y seven extant examples of t h i s c o u r t a r t : the Melisende P s a l t e r , a Sacramentary, two M i s s a l s , 47 a Gospel of S t . John, and two complete Gospel-books.' Of these, t h r e e , besides the P s a l t e r (1131-1143), belong to the twenty-year p e r i o d in q u e s t i o n : the Gospel of S t . John (1130-1135), the Sacramentary (ca 1140), and one of the M i s s a l s ( P a r i s , Q B i b . Nat., l a t . 12056; ca 1140). In a d d i t i o n , in a 1966 study, Kurt Weitzmann assigned a group of t w e l f t h - and t h i r t e e n t h -. . . 9 century Mount S i n a i icons to the Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m . According to Weitzmann's d a t i n g , two of these icons belong to the p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n h e r e . 1 ^ Thus, through Weitzmann's, and to a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t , Buchthal's work, an o v e r a l l p i c -ture of the e a r l y - m i d d l e years of the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m has emerged: Between 1130 and 1150, the s c r i p t o r i u m enjoyed r o y a l patronage and was, t h e r e f o r e , an a c t i v e and important a r t i s t i c c e n t r e . In terms of completeness, i c o n o g r a p h i c r i c h n e s s , and a r t i s t i c q u a l i t y , the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s outstanding product from the mid-1100's, in f a c t , from the e n t i r e t w e l f t h century, i s the Melisende P s a l t e r ( F i g s . 7a-14a, and 3 6 a ) . 1 1 The manuscript takes i t s name from Queen Melisende, wife of Ful k , mother of Baldwin I I I , and j o i n t - r u l e r of the kingdom from 1131 to 12 1152. In h i s appendices to Buchthal's study, F r a n c i s Wormald d i s c u s s e s the p a l e o g r a p h i c and l i t u r g i c a l evidence that p o i n t s to Melisende as the most l i k e l y patron of the P s a l t e r : I t s calendar c o n t a i n s the names of her parents; the prayers were 13 w r i t t e n f o r the use of a noble woman of high rank. Melisende was perhaps the most important patron of the s c r i p t o r i u m i n the 4 8 years between 1 1 3 0 and 1 1 5 0 , f o r there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the P s a l t e r was not the only work of a r t th a t she commissioned d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . W i l l i a m of Tyre w r i t e s of the many g i f t s t h a t the queen presented to the Church. Among them, he notes, were: sacred v e s s e l s of gold and s i l v e r [as w e l l as~] many a d d i -t i o n a l g i f t s such as c h a l i c e s , books, and other ornaments. Perhaps these g i f t s were Western European imports. However, Weitzmann's study of Jerusalem-made icons has made i t c l e a r t h a t , in Melisende's time, manuscripts were not the only products of the s c r i p t o r i u m . Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e that some of the unspe-c i f i e d "other ornaments," mentioned by W i l l i a m , were of l o c a l manufacture, made in the a t e l i e r that enjoyed the queen's patronage — the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m . I t i s p o s s i b l e . too t h a t , among these "other ornaments," were the i v o r y covers 1 5 of the Melisende P s a l t e r . The I v o r i e s and the P s a l t e r Through t h e i r f u n c t i o n as i t s cover, the i v o r i e s are l i n k e d to the 1 1 3 1 - 1 1 4 3 d a t i n g of the Melisende P s a l t e r , and, with c e r t a i n t y , to i t s p l a c e of o r i g i n — the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p -torium. Although t h i s connection has been made throughout the 16 l i t e r a t u r e on the i v o r i e s , no one has, up to now, recognized that there i s - a n a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r a s s i g n i n g i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r both to the same s c r i p t o r i u m . 1 7 Thus, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n w i l l d e t a i l a number of iconographic 49 c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s w h i c h , c o n s i d e r e d t o g e t h e r , l e a v e n o d o u b t t h a t t h e i v o r i e s w e r e m a d e i n t h e s a m e s p e c i f i c a r t i s t i c m i l i e u t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e m a n u s c r i p t t h e y o n c e c o v e r e d . T h e m a j o r i t y o f i c o n o g r a p h i c p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r a r e i n t h e f o r m o f c e r t a i n d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s c o m m o n t o b o t h m a n u s c r i p t a n d c o v e r s . I n t h e P s a l t e r , t h e s e m o t i f s o c c u r p r i m a r i l y i n t h e o r n a m e n t a l i n i t i a l s t o t h e P s a l m s . . A m o n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t ' s o t h e r t h r e e p i c t o r i a l c y c l e s , o n l y t h e f r a m e s o f t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t s e r i e s c o n t a i n a f e w a d d i t i o n a l c o r r e s p o n -18 d e n c e s . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n i t s u s e o f a r o s e t t e m e d a l l i o n , b e a d i n g , a n d o r n a m e n t a l b i r d s , t h e P s a l t e r B e a t u s i n i t i a l h a s p a r a l l e l s i n a s p e c t s o f t h e i v o r i e s ' d e c o r a t i v e p r o g r a m e ( F i g s . 7-9). A s e c o n d i n i t i a l , a n o r n a m e n t a l E h a s a k n o t w o r k m o t i f i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e i n t h e m a i n b o r d e r o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r ( F i g s . 10a a n d 10b); a n o t h e r a l a r g e D , i s f r a m e d w i t h t h e s a m e r o p e -l i k e m o t i f t h a t d e f i n e s t h e b a c k - c o v e r m e d a l l i o n s ( F i g s . 11a a n d l i b ) ; y e t a n o t h e r o r n a m e n t a l D c o n t a i n s a t r e f o i l m o t i f r e m i n i s c e n t o f t h e t h r e e - p o i n t a c a n t h u s t h a t r e p e a t s a r o u n d t h e b a c k - c o v e r ' s m a i n f r a m e ( F i g s . 12a a n d 12b). F i n a l l y , v e r s i o n s o f t h i s l a s t m o t i f a r e o f t e n f o u n d i n t h e f r a m e s o f s e v e r a l o f t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t m i n i a t u r e s ( F i g s . 12c-12j). I n a d d i t i o n t o o v e r l o o k i n g t h e a b o v e - n o t e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r , p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h a v e a l s o n o t r e m a r k e d u p o n t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e l e t t e r i n g . On b o t h i v o r i e s , t h e L a t i n u n c i a l s c o m p r i s i n g t h e i n s c r i p t i o n s c o r r e s p o n d a l m o s t e x a c t l y t o t h e 50 f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s m a l l e r d e c o r a t i v e c a p i t a l s o n t h e i n i t i a l p a g e s o f t h e P s a l t e r . T h i s p a l e o g r a p h i c s i m i l a r i t y i s m o s t a p p a r e n t i n t h e A ' s , R ' s , T ' s , V s , a n d i n t h e i m p a r t i a l u s e o f b o t h t h e v e r t i c a l R o m a n E a n d a c u r s i v e v e r s i o n o f t h e s a m e l e t t e r ( F i g s . 1 3 a a n d 1 3 b ) . P r e s u m a b l y , o t h e r , m o r e s u b t l e , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s o f t h e k i n d e x i s t a m o n g t h e l e t t e r s o f t h e i v o r i e s a n d t h e P s a l t e r . T h e d e t a i l i n g o f t h e s e , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e s t h e e x p e r t i s e o f a p a l e o g r a p h e r , a n d h e r e , t h e r e f o r e , n o m o r e c a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y be s a i d on t h i s s u b j e c t . H o w e v e r , t h e b r o a d p a l e o g r a p h i c c o m p a r i s o n s t h a t h a v e b e e n m a d e l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e o v e r a l l p r e m i s e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r c o n t a i n v i s u a l p a r a l l e l s , a m o n g l e t t e r s a s w e l l a s i m a g e s , i n a n u m b e r t h a t p r e c l u d e s c o i n c i d e n c e , . F i n a l l y , t h e r e r e m a i n s t o b e m e n t i o n e d w h a t i s p e r h a p s t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n i v o r i e s a n d P s a l t e r , a n d o n e w h i c h h a s n e v e r b e e n p o i n t e d o u t i n a n y p r e v i o u s s t u d y o f c o v e r s o r m a n u s c r i p t . T h i s c o r r e s -p o n d e n c e i s b e t w e e n t w o s i m i l a r p o r t r a y a l s o f K i n g D a v i d a s M u s i c i a n : o n e i n t h e l o w e r h a l f o f t h e B e a t u s i n i t i a l o f t h e P s a l t e r a n d t h e o t h e r i n t h e l o w e r - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n o f t h e f r o n t -19 c o v e r i v o r y ( F i g s . 1 4 a a n d 1 4 b ) . I n e a c h i n s t a n c e , K i n g D a v i d ' s s e a t e d f i g u r e i s t u r n e d s i d e w a y s , t h e b o d y i n n e a r -p r o f i l e a n d o n l y t h e h e a d p r e s e n t e d i n t h r e e - q u a r t e r v i e w . My r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a n d e a r l i e r , D a v i d a n d o t h e r r o y a l o r h o l y p e r s o n a g e s w e r e u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d i n f r o n t a l o r t h r e e - q u a r t e r p o s i t i o n s . T h e n e a r - p r o f i l e D a v i d 51 as Musician i s unknown in Byzantine a r t and almost u n p a r a l -l e l l e d i n the a r t of the West, as both Byzantine and Western a r t i s t s tended to use the f u l l t h r e e - q u a r t e r or f r o n t a l view 20 f o r these p o r t r a y a l s . Apart from those of the P s a l t e r and the i v o r i e s , there are only two other known i n s t a n c e s of the near-pro-f i l e David m o t i f . One, which occurs i n an e a r l y t w e l f t h -century manuscript from Canterbury (Cambridge, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , MS B 5 26, f . 1; F i g . 15), was noted by Buchthal as an analogy 21 to the David of the Beatus i n i t i a l ; the o t h e r , p r e v i o u s l y unrecognized, i s found i n a l a t e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y French manu-s c r i p t (Oxford, B o d l e i a n , MS Canon. Pat. L a t . 217, f . 3; F i g s . 16a and 16b). The unusual p o r t r a y a l s of David, on the i v o r i e s and i n the P s a l t e r , suggest that these two Davids were the work of one hand. Such a suggestion i s supported by s t y l i s t i c d e t a i l s : a round c i r c l e i n the beard of each f i g u r e , t h e i r almost i d e n t i c a l ears and crowns, and the s i m i l a r treatment of h a i r and d r a p e r i e s . However, a d i s s i m i l a r treatment of the eyes, mouth, and hands argues a g a i n s t one a r t i s t having done both p o r t r a y a l s . What seems more l i k e l y i s that two a r t i s t s — one an i l l u m i n a t o r , one a carver -- worked from a common model. The s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and provenance of t h i s model w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d in an ensuing s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. For p r e -sent purposes, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o note that the P s a l t e r and the i v o r i e s are not only l i n k e d f u n c t i o n a l l y , through t h e i r r e l a -t i o n s h i p as book and cover, but a l s o v i s u a l l y , through c e r t a i n shared iconographic f e a t u r e s . Of g r e a t e s t importance to t h i s 52 s t u d y , i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s d u a l f u n c t i o n a l - v i s u a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p p r o v i d e s n e a r l y - c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s , l i k e t h e P s a l t e r , w e r e m a d e i n t h e J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m a r o u n d t h e m i d d l e o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , a n d t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , t h e y , l i k e t h e P s a l t e r , r e f l e c t t h e k i n d s o f a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s c u r r e n t t h e r e b e t w e e n 1130 a n d 1150. T h e I v o r i e s a n d t h e T w o f o l d A r t i s t i c T r a d i t i o n  o f t h e J e r u s a l e m S c r i p t o r i u m I n t h e i r 1934 s u r v e y o f B y z a n t i n e i v o r y c a r v i n g s , A d o l p h G o l d s c h m i d t a n d K u r t W e i t z m a n n n o t e d t h a t t h e i v o r i e s ' i m a g e r y d e r i v e d p a r t l y f r o m t h e a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s o f B y z a n t i u m a n d p a r t l y f r o m t h o s e o f t h e W e s t — a d u a l i t y t h a t c o u l d o n l y o c c u r o u t s i d e o f B y z a n t i u m i n a p l a c e w h e r e E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n i n f l u -e n c e s c o n v e r g e d . S u c h a p l a c e , t h e y s u g g e s t e d , w a s t w e l f t h -2 2 c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m . B u c h t h a l s h o w e d f u r t h e r t h a t , w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l a r t i s t i c s p h e r e o f t h e f i r s t L a t i n k i n g d o m , a m a j o r n u c l e u s f o r t h e m i n g l i n g o f W e s t e r n a n d B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s w a s t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e s c r i p t o r i u m i n t h e m i d d l e y e a r s o f t h e 23 t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . T h e r e s u l t o f t h i s m i n g l i n g w a s a n e w " s y n t h e t i c " t r a d i t i o n , o n e t h a t d e r i v e d f r o m p r i o r t r a d i t i o n s o f b o t h E a s t a n d W e s t , y e t w a s d i s t i n c t f r o m e i t h e r . W i t h i t s B y z a n t i n i z i n g N e w T e s t a m e n t m i n i a t u r e s a n d s a i n t s ' p o r t r a i t s , a n d i t s W e s t e r n - s t y l e c a l e n d a r a n d i n i t i a l s , t h e M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s n e w s c r i p t o r i u m t r a d i t i o n . 24 S o t o o d o i t s i v o r y c o v e r s . T h e c o n c e n s u s v i e w e x p r e s s e d i n 53 the most recent (post-1920) l i t e r a t u r e on the i v o r i e s i s t h a t , w i t h i n the d u a l i t y of a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n t h a t the imagery d i s -25 p l a y s , the Western element predominates. Without, f o r the moment, c o n f r o n t i n g the problem of i d e n t i f y i n g the i v o r i e s ' s p e c i f i c models, the dominance of the Western t r a d i t i o n can be demonstrated by r e f e r e n c e to a v a r i e t y of icon o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s , t h e i r g e n e r a l o r i g i n s , and t h e i r usage, p r i o r t o and du r i n g the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . Apart from the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s on both i v o r i e s , the most apparent "westernisms" occur on the f r o n t cover. F i r s t , most s c h o l a r s w r i t i n g on the i v o r i e s have n o t i c e d the d e p i c t i o n s of 2 6 Western armour and weaponry. In the David and G o l i a t h medal-l i o n , and i n the two centre i n t e r s t i c e s a d j o i n i n g i t , G o l i a t h , Superbia, and F o r t i t u d o wear armour and .helmets , and use weapons and s h i e l d s , which are a l l e s s e n t i a l l y contemporary Western European in appearance. Of those who have noted t h i s Western armour, only Dalton has c i t e d comparable armoured f i g u r e s in a contemporary Western example: the S t . Alban's 27 Prudentius (London, B.L., Cotton MS T i t u s D.XVI; ca 1120). However, numerous other Western manuscripts of the t w e l f t h cen-tury c o n t a i n por t r a y a Is :o:f armour and weaponry c l o s e to those of the i v o r y . P a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g are the resemblances between F o r t i t u d o and the armed V i r t u e s of the Hortus D e l i c i a r u m in Munich ( F i g s . 17a and 17b) and between G o l i a t h ' s s h i e l d and those shown i n an E i n i t i a l from a l a t e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y manu-s c r i p t from Durham ( F i g s . 18a and 18b). The second, . ; 54 s p e c i f i c a l l y Western c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f r o n t cover occurs in the t o p - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n . In t h i s scene, Samuel anoin t s a k n e e l i n g f i g u r e of David. I t has not been p r e v i o u s l y noted, with regard to the i v o r i e s , that the k n e e l i n g David i s an e x c l u s i v e l y Western convention, whereas, i n Byzantine Anointment 28 scenes, David i n v a r i a b l y stands. Also.Western, i s the p o s i -t i o n of the horn of anointment, h e l d with the wide end down-ward — Byzantine p o r t r a y a l s show the horn i n the reverse 29 p o s i t i o n , wide end upward. F i g u r e s 19a and 19c show a t y p i c a l Western scene of Anointment and a c o n t r a s t i n g Byzantine d e p i c -3 0 t i o n of the same episode. Like the k n e e l i n g Anointment, a t h i r d , d i s t i n c t i v e l y Western aspect of the f r o n t cover has a l s o , u n t i l now, gone unremarked: the a l t e r n a t i n g knotwork and acanthus m o t i f that comprises the v e r t i c a l s i d e s of the main frame. E a r l i e r s c h o l a r s regarded t h i s ornament as B y z a n t i n e , while l a t e r s c h o l a r s have simply ignored i t to concentrate on 31 the f i g u r a l m o t i f s . However, the markedly Western c h a r a c t e r of t h i s ornament becomes c l e a r when i t i s compared with the ornamental border around the Tree of Jesse window in C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l (ca 1150; F i g s . 20a and 20b). In a d d i t i o n , a second, perhaps c l o s e r , p a r a l l e l comes from England i n the form of an ornamental i n i t i a l in the Winchester B i b l e ( t h i r d quarter of the t w e l f t h century; F i g . 20c). Less c l e a r , are the o r i g i n s and geographic a f f i n i t i e s of the ornament contained i n the main frame of the back cover. Nonetheless, I b e l i e v e that the back cover's major bo r d e r - m o t i f s 55 c o u l d have been of Western d e r i v a t i o n . For example, although t r e f o i l b o r d e r-motifs are most f r e q u e n t l y seem as p a r t of Byzantine ornament, there are a l s o Western v e r s i o n s by the t w e l f t h century ( F i g . 21a). In a d d i t i o n , the beading of the outer t r e f o i l s i s a d e c o r a t i v e device that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y asso-c i a t e d with E n g l i s h i v o r i e s of the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e l f t h 3 2 century. The corner ornament of the back-cover frame i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t to p l a c e , but as f i g u r e s 22a to 22c show, i t appears to have marked Western a f f i n i t i e s . Of e q u a l l y mixed l i n e a g e and usage, i s the main composi-t i o n a l d e v i c e of each i v o r y — the i n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . The motif o r i g i n a t e d i n the E a s t , was i n common use i n Byzantine a r t by the s i x t h c e n t u r y , and continued to be used d u r i n g the 3 3 t w e l f t h . However, I have observed that t h i s same motif was used e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l a t e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Norman S i c i l i a n mosaics of Monreale ( F i g . 23), and that i t had a l s o reached the West by the t w e l f t h century, and can be found i n the a r t of England and the Continent ( F i g . 24). Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say whether the use of the i n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s on the i v o r i e s i s a d i r e c t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l Byzantine t r a d i t i o n , or whether i t d e r i v e d from a Western or S i c u l o -Byzantine v e r s i o n of the same m o t i f . Although no d e f i n i t e pro-nouncements can be made in t h i s r e g a r d , there i s some a d d i t i o n a l evidence that suggests that the i v o r i e s ' i n t e r l o c k i n g medallions should be regarded as a Western f e a t u r e . On the back cover, the medallions occur in c o n j u n c t i o n with a s e t of b i r d and 56 animal imagery. S i m i l a r examples of the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of these two kinds of images occur f r e q u e n t l y i n the n o n - C h r i s t i a n a r t of the West, s p e c i f i c a l l y in the i v o r y c a r v i n g s of t e n t h - and e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y Moorish Spain ( F i g . 25). T h i s s i m i l a r i t y between the covers and Moorish i v o r i e s was f i r s t noted by 34 D a l t o n . He d i d not, however, mention any comparable examples from the C h r i s t i a n West. Thus, i t can be noted here that such examples d i d e x i s t and may have been the source of the animals and the m e d a l l i o n s on the back cover. F i g u r e 26, f o r i n s t a n c e , shows a tenth-century i v o r y from Northern France which combines i n t e r l o c k i n g m e dallions with i n t e r s t i t i a l animal imagery. F i n a l l y , the b i r d imagery on the back cover may have an a d d i -t i o n a l l i n k with the West, f o r , i n the d e t a i l s of i t s c a r v i n g , and in i t s placement among twining acanthus, i t i s not u n l i k e a carved i v o r y arm of a m i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y c h a i r from Winchester ( F i g . 2 7 ) . 3 5 Having p i n p o i n t e d the more obvious Western aspects of the i v o r i e s , as w e l l as such probable "westernisms" as the combina-t i o n of animal imagery and m e d a l l i o n s , i t now remains to note the p u r e l y Byzantine f e a t u r e s . In t h i s regard, the medallions of the back cover c o n t a i n the major example: the Byzantine r o y a l costume of the k i n g , which has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d in 3 6 the previous chapter of t h i s paper. In a d d i t i o n , Dalton has noted t h a t , i n the upper two m e d a l l i o n s , the throne from which 3 7 the king has r i s e n i s l i k e those p o r t r a y e d i n Byzantine a r t . S i m i l a r l y , the e s s e n t i a l l y Western iconography of the f r o n t 57 cover i s not without i t s Byzantine elements. In c o n t r a s t to the back cover, however, these elements are minor and not r e a d i l y apparent. Only Steenbock- has thus f a r noted t h a t the s c a l e d p l a t e armour of F o r t i t u d o and Superbia i s u l t i m a t e l y of Byzan-t i n e o r i g i n . However s i n c e the helmets worn by these f i g u r e s are Western, and s i n c e t h e i r o v e r a l l appearance i s a l s o markedly Western, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h i s f e a t u r e of the i v o r i e s ' imagery can be p r o p e r l y termed, "Byzantine." At most, what i t seems to be i s a Western " h y b r i d " of the Byzantine t r a d i t i o n of d e p i c t i n g armoured w a r r i o r s . These " h y b r i d s " occur f r e q u e n t l y in t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Western European a r t , and the g r e a t e s t proba-b i l i t y i s that the i v o r i e s were patterned a f t e r one such 3 9 example. Thus, with r e s p e c t to the r e a d i l y observable icono-graphic f e a t u r e s mentioned in t h i s segment of the d i s c u s s i o n , the Byzantine aspect of the twofold s c r i p t o r i u m t r a d i t i o n i s subordinate to the Western elements. However, as w i l l next be demonstrated, i t i s by no means a n e g l i g i b l e f a c t o r i n d e t e r -mining the kinds of models upon which the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c c y c l e s were based. The Twofold T r a d i t i o n and the Problem  of the I v o r i e s ' Models In c o n s i d e r i n g the q u e s t i o n of the exact p i c t o r i a l source for the i v o r i e s ' three major ic o n o g r a p h i c c y c l e s — the David sequence, the Psychomachia, and the Acts of Mercy — a number of works having some icon o g r a p h i c a f f i n i t i e s with the i v o r i e s has 58 b e e n d i s c o v e r e d . * * u P r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h a v e s e e n t h a t , o f t h i s g r o u p , t h e e x a m p l e w h o s e i m a g e r y m o s t r e s e m b l e s t h a t o f t h e i v o r i e s i s a n E n g l i s h c r o z i e r , n o w i n t h e B a r g e l l o i n t h e 41 F l o r e n c e ( F i g s . 2 8 a a n d 2 8 b ) . T h i s e x a m p l e o f l a t e t w e l f t h -c e n t u r y W i n c h e s t e r e n a m e l - w o r k p o r t r a y s t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e s f r o m t h e l i f e o f D a v i d : D a v i d r e s c u i n g a l a m b f r o m a l i o n D a v i d ' s a n o i n t m e n t D a v i d ' s m e e t i n g w i t h G o l i a t h D a v i d b e - h e a d i n g G o l i a t h A b o v e t h i s c y c l e , o n t h e u p p e r s h a f t o f t h e c r o z i e r , t h e f o l l o w -i n g p a i r s o f V i r t u e s a n d V i c e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d : F i d e s - I d o l a t r i a P u d i c i t i a - L i b i d o C a r i t a s - I n v i d i a S o b r i e t a s - L u x u r i a L a r g i t a s - A v a r i t i a 4 2 C o n c o r d l a - R a n c o r B e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t h L a r g i t a s a n d C a r i t a s . i n t h e a b o v e g r o u p , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e c r o z i e r , l i k e t h a t o f t h e i v o r i e s , s t r e s s e s t h e t h e m e o f c h a r i t y . H o w e v e r , t h e c r o z i e r d i f f e r s f r o m t h e i v o r i e s i n t h a t i t d o e s n o t s h o w a s i n g l e c o n t i n u o u s n a r r a t i v e , n o r d o e s i t c o n t a i n i m a g e s c o m -p a r a b l e t o t h o s e i n t h e b a c k c o v e r ' s A c t s o f M e r c y c y c l e . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , a n d b e c a u s e n e i t h e r i t s D a v i d n o r i t s P s y c h o -m a c h i a n s c e n e s , a r e c o m p l e t e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g 59 c y c l e s on the i v o r i e s , the c r o z i e r cannot be considered as a p o s s i b l e model f o r the i v o r i e s . As f a r as I can determine, among works of a r t that do c o n t a i n Acts of Mercy c y c l e s , or m e r c y - r e l a t e d imagery, a converse s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s : none of these examples p o r t r a y s such scenes i n c o n j u n c t i o n with e i t h e r 43 Psychomachian or D a v i d i c imagery. Thus, i t seems that there can be no s i n g l e source f o r the i v o r i e s ' imagery, and t h a t i t s iconographic programme was com-p i l e d from at l e a s t three (one f o r each c y c l e ) , and p o s s i b l y more, models. T h i s assumption i s borne out by Buchthal's study of the Melisende P s a l t e r , in which he determined that the manu-s c r i p t ' s p i c t o r i a l c y c l e s were based on a v a r i e t y of models 4 4 used s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . In l i n e with the d u a l t r a d i t i o n of the Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m , Buchthal f u r t h e r a s c e r t a i n e d that some of these models were Byzantine and others were from the L a t i n 45 West. On the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s , and given the presence of both Byzantine and Western elements i n the i v o r i e s ' iconog-raphy, there can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the i v o r i e s ' imagery too i s the r e s u l t of a simultaneous use of both Byzantine and Western models. In t h i s , the i v o r i e s , l i k e the P s a l t e r t y p i f y the twofold t r a d i t i o n t h a t was c u r r e n t i n the s c r i p t o r i u m during the middle years of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . 60 The Byzantine Models On the back-cover i v o r y , the king's Byzantine d r e s s , the Byzantine throne i n the two upper m e d a l l i o n s , and the Byzantine a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the l e f t - c e n t r e medallion c l e a r l y p o i n t to the 46 use of a Byzantine model f o r the Acts of Mercy c y c l e . T h i s model was not, I b e l i e v e , copied e x a c t l y , f o r , as f a r as I can determine, the i v o r y has the e a r l i e s t d e p i c t i o n s of a r o y a l 4 7 f i g u r e performing Acts of Mercy. There a r e , however, con-temporary Byzantine manuscripts i n which i s d e p i c t e d a m e r c i f u l s a i n t . For example, two t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Gregory of Nazianzen manuscripts c o n t a i n some scenes in which the S a i n t performs Acts 48 of Mercy. A few of these c y c l e s correspond c l o s e l y to the i v o r y ' s iconography, but of these, none compares i n terms of number of images p o r t r a y e d . Thus, while i t i s p o s s i b l e , as f i g u r e s 30a and 31b show, t h a t a Gregory o f Nazianzen manuscript was the model f o r one or two of the i v o r i e s ' mercy scenes, the remainder of images in these m e d a l l i o n s must have been adapted from another kind of c y c l e . In a footnote to h i s a r t i c l e on a t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Gregory manuscript (Cod. S i n a i Gr. 339), J e f f r e y Anderson s a i d t h a t the u l t i m a t e source of the mercy scenes in t h i s manuscript was l i k e l y one of C h r i s t ' s h e a l i n g scenes. With regard to p o s s i b l e models f o r the i v o r i e s , t h i s comment led to f u r t h e r research i n t o Byzantine p o r t r a y a l s of C h r i s t ' s m i r a c l e s . The r e s u l t of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the f o l l o w i n g hypo-t h e s i s : The Acts of Mercy images on the back cover were adapted 61' d i r e c t l y from one e x t e n s i v e , or p o s s i b l y two s m a l l e r , Byzantine 49 C h r i s t o l o g i c a l c y c l e s . Standard New Testament imagery c o u l d have been adapted to s u i t the s p e c i f i c p i c t o r i a l requirements of the iconographic programme of the back-cover i v o r y . As f i g u r e s 29 to 34 show, in most i n s t a n c e s , the o n l y a l t e r a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y were the removal of extraneous f i g u r e s and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of C h r i s t ' s costume i n t o Byzantine i m p e r i a l d r e s s . Thus, the M i r a c l e of the Loaves became the Feeding of the Hungry ( F i g . 29); the a d d i t i o n of a p i t c h e r and bowl transformed a scene of C h r i s t preaching i n t o G i v i n g Drink to the T h i r s t y ( F i g . 30); with c e r t a i n omissions, C h r i s t t e a c h i n g , or some comparable scene, became S h e l t e r i n g the Homeless ( F i g . 31); a miraculous appearance of C h r i s t , by the simple a d d i t i o n of some f o l d s of drapery, became C l o t h i n g the Naked ( F i g . 32); and f i n a l l y , any number of h e a l i n g scenes converted r e a d i l y to both Comforting the Sick ( F i g . 33) and V i s t i n g the Imprisoned ( F i g . 34). To i l l u s t r a t e these p o i n t s , the f i g u r e s j u s t c i t e d compare the i v o r i e s to a v a r i e t y of manuscripts: a t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Gospels (Mt. Athos, Iveron, Cod. 5; F i g s . 29a, 31a, and 34a), a t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Gregory manuscript ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat. MS gr 550; F i g . 30a), a n i n t h - c e n t u r y Gregory manuscript ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat. MS g r . 510; F i g s . 30c and 33a), and an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y Lec-50 t i o n a r y (Mt. Athos, D i o n y s i o u , Cod. 587; F i g . 32a). However, on the b a s i s of Buchthal's f i n d i n g s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to make a more s p e c i f i c suggestion r e g a r d i n g the models f o r the Acts of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s . Buchthal found that the New Testament c y c l e 62 in the Melisende P s a l t e r corresponds most c l o s e l y to i l l u s t r a -t i o n s i n e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y Gospels and G o s p e l - l e c t i o n a r i e s from 51 C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . He concluded, t h e r e f o r e , that such a manu-52 s c r i p t was the model f o r t h i s s e c t i o n of the P s a l t e r . As the c l o s e s t extant example of the type of the now-lost model f o r the P s a l t e r , Buchthal c i t e d an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y L e c t i o n a r y from Mount Athos (Dionysiou cod.. 587). T h i s same manuscript a l s o has iconographic p a r a l l e l s with the Acts of Mercy me d a l l i o n s ( F i g s . 32a and 32b). Thus, i n view of Buchthal's f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the models f o r the P s a l t e r ' s New Testament c y c l e , and g i v e n , t h e r e f o r e , the presence of t h i s model in the Jerusalem s c r i p -torium a t the time of the i v o r i e s ' c r e a t i o n , i t i s the c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s paper t h a t the A c t s of Mercy on the back cover i v o r y were adapted from the M i r a c l e s of C h r i s t c y c l e i n an e l e v e n t h -century Byzantine Gospel-book or L e c t i o n a r y , p o s s i b l y the same manuscript used by one of the i l l u m i n a t o r s of the Melisende P s a l t e r . In a d d i t i o n t o one or more Gospel-books, the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s c o l l e c t i o n of i l l u s t r a t e d Byzantine manuscripts must a l s o have in c l u d e d e i t h e r a Gregory manuscript or a P s a l t e r . That such was the case i s i n d i c a t e d by the presence in.the David c y c l e of a Repentance scene ( F i g . 2, l o w e r - l e f t m e d a l l i o n ) . In Byzantine P s a l t e r s and Gregory Manuscripts of the n i n t h t o the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , images of David r e p e n t i n g are not uncommon. One such image from a n i n t h - c e n t u r y Gregory manuscript ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat., MS g r . 510, f . 143v) i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s paper ( F i g . 63 53 35a). One other of the David m e d a l l i o n s i s a l s o , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , based on a Byzantine model. T h i s i s the scene i n which David r e c e i v e s the sword of G o l i a t h from the p r i e s t Ahimelech ( F i g . 2, c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n ) . Although there does not seem to be an exact p i c t o r i a l p a r a l l e l in any extant Byzantine P s a l t e r s , t h i s should occasion no p a r t i c u l a r s u r p r i s e s i n c e , as Chapter II of t h i s study demonstrated, t h i s unusual scene was, i n a sense, a " l a s t - m i n u t e " i n s e r t i o n , n ecessary f o r 54 the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the Psychomachian-Davidic metaphor. T h i s i n t e r e s t in me t a p h o r i c a l i n t e g r i t y , in c o n j u n c t i o n with the lack of an exact iconographic p r o t o t y p e , suggests that the Ahimelech m e d a l l i o n , l i k e the Acts of Mercy images was adapted from some common t r a d i t i o n a l image. In t h i s regard, I b e l i e v e t h a t the most l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y i s a P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t scene. As the comparison i n f i g u r e 36 shows, the only major a l t e r a t i o n s needed to e f f e c t the tr a n s f o r m a t i o n are the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a sword f o r the C h r i s t - C h i l d , and the e l i m i n a t i o n of any extraneous 55 f i g u r e s . Since the Melisende P s a l t e r New Testament c y c l e con-t a i n s a P r e s e n t a t i o n m i n i a t u r e , modelled, a c c o r d i n g to Buchthal (see note 51), on a comparable Byzantine image, there i s no doubt t h a t the s c r i p t o r i u m had i n i t s p o s s e s s i o n a t l e a s t one Byzantine P r e s e n t a t i o n scene. In f a c t , there i s s u f f i c i e n t v i s u a l congruence between the Ahimelech me d a l l i o n and the P s a l t e r ' s P r e s e n t a t i o n scene ( F i g s . 36a and 36b) to warrant suggesting t h a t the two images had a common model — the same el e v e n t h - c e n t u r y Gospels manuscript d e s c r i b e d above: The poses 6 4 o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e f a i r l y c l o s e , a n d t h e t w o a l t a r s a r e s i m i -l a r . I n t e r e s t i n g t o o , i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m e d a l l i o n i s a l s o i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e t o a n o t h e r B y z a n t i n i z i n g P r e s e n t a t i o n s c e n e , o n e w h i c h c o m e s f r o m s o u t h e r n I t a l y ( F i g . 37a). T h i s r e s e m b l a n c e a d m i t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e c o m m o n m o d e l f o r t h e P s a l t e r P r e s e n t a t i o n a n d t h e m e d a l l i o n w a s a s i m i l a r e x a m p l e , p e r h a p s a l s o f r o m I t a l y . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s n o m i n a l l y s u p p o r t e d b y t h e f a c t ^ t h a t B u c h t h a l ' s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e m o d e l f o r t h e f r a m e s o f t h e i n i t i a l p a g e s , a n d f o r t h e i r b l a c k a n d g o l d l e t t e r i n g , w a s a l s o I t a l i a n . 5 ^ T h u s , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c m o d e l s , t h e B y z a n t i n e f a c e t o f t h e s c r i p t o r i u m ' s t w o - f o l d t r a d i t i o n i s a k e y f a c t o r , a c c o u n t i n g f o r t h e A c t s o f M e r c y c y c l e i n i t s e n t i r e t y , a n d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e D a v i d s e q u e n c e . T h e o t h e r D a v i d m e d a l l i o n s , a s w e l l a s t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n c y c l e , d e r i v e f r o m t h e s e c o n d a s p e c t o f t h e s c r i p t o r i u m t r a d i t i o n , a n d t h u s , i t i s a m o n g W e s t e r n e x a m p l e s t h a t t h e i v o r i e s ' r e m a i n i n g p i c -t o r i a l s o u r c e s a r e f o u n d . T h e W e s t e r n M o d e l s T h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n i m a g e r y o f t h e f r o n t c o v e r h a s l o n g b e e n 57 k n o w n t o b e e x c l u s i v e l y W e s t e r n . T h e r e a r e n o k n o w n B y z a n -t i n e P s y c h o m a c h i a n c y c l e s , a n d w h e r e V i r t u e s a n d V i c e s a r e u s e d t o i l l u s t r a t e o t h e r k i n d s o f B y z a n t i n e t e x t s , t h e s e i l l u s t r a -t i o n s u s u a l l y s h o w m a l e f i g u r e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e f e m a l e 65 p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of Psychomachian c y c l e s . In the Medieval West, by c o n t r a s t , Psychomachian imagery of the type seen on the i v o r i e s was p r e v a l e n t i n both monumental a r t and manu-5 8 s c r i p t s . Of the l a t t e r , Helen Woodruff has l i s t e d twenty extant examples, done between the n i n t h and the t h i r t e e n t h cen-t u r i e s , and c o n t a i n i n g as l i t t l e as two, and as many as n i n e t y , 59 . . i l l u s t r a t i o n s . These s u r v i v i n g manuscripts must r e p r e s e n t on l y a small f r a c t i o n of the o r i g i n a l number of i l l u s t r a t e d Psychomachian manuscripts, f o r , according to Woodruff, 6 0 P r u d e n t i u s ' poem was f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f i f t h c e n t u r y . Thus, by the t w e l f t h century, i l l u s t r a t e d Psychomachias both of e a r l i e r and contemporary date, must have p r o l i f e r a t e d i n the L a t i n West, and presumably, at l e a s t one such manuscript was a standard item i n most moderate-to-large s c r i p t o r i a . One i l l u s -t r a t e d Psychomachian manuscript i s known to have been in J e r u -salem by the mid-1030's. T h i s i s an e a r l y e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y French copy, brought to Jerusalem between 10 28 and 1034 by the 61 h i s t o r i a n Ademar of Chabanais. Although i t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s manuscript was i n the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m when the i v o r i e s were carved, i t i s not i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e enough to 6 2 the i v o r i e s to be c o n s i d e r e d a p o s s i b l e model. However, i t s documented presence in Jerusalem p r i o r to the t w e l f t h century i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d t h at there were other such manuscripts in the c i t y , and in i t s s c r i p t o r i u m , by the mid-1100's. One of these manuscripts must have been the model f o r the V i r t u e and V i c e c y c l e on the f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y . Beyond t h i s , no:;more 66 s p e c i f i c pronouncement can be made. However, i t can be noted t h a t the e x t a n t Psychomachian m a n u s c r i p t t h a t i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y the c l o s e s t t o the i v o r i e s i s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , a l s o i c o n o - • g r a p h i c a l l y the c l o s e s t . T h i s m a n u s c r i p t , the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s (London, B.L., C o t t o n MS T i t u s D.XVI), was i l l u m i -6 3 n a t e d ca 1120 by the master of the S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r . The most s t r i k i n g i c o n o g r a p h i c a f f i n i t y between t h i s m a n u s c r i p t and the f r o n t c o v e r ' s V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e i s the o c c u r r e n c e i n both of an i s o l a t e d f r o n t a l f i g u r e o f L a r g i t a s / C a r i t a s , shown w i t h arms o u t s t r e t c h e d ( F i g s . 38a and 38b). S i n c e the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s i s the o n l y known m a n u s c r i p t t o c o n t a i n an i s o l a t e d 64 C a r i t a s f i g u r e , and s i n c e i t i s a l s o the o n l y known p o s t -Conquest E n g l i s h P s y c h o m a c h i a , ^ 5 i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t h i s image was a s p e c i f i c a l l y E n g l i s h f e a t u r e . I f s o , then the most l i k e l y model f o r the f r o n t c o v e r ' s Psycho-machian c y c l e was an i l l u s t r a t e d E n g l i s h Psychomachia, not u n l i k e the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s . In f u r t h e r s u p p o r t of t h i s v i e w , i t can be n o t e d t h a t the i v o r y ' s V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e and the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s show s i m i l a r i d i o s y n c r a c i e s i n the costuming o f the f i g u r e s . In more t y p i c a l examples, the d r e s s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i s e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y a n t i q u e gowns, 6 6 or c o n s i s t e n t l y , contemporary armour. In the S t . A l b a n s m a n u s c r i p t , some V i r t u e s are i n a n t i q u e d r e s s (as seen i n F i g . 67 3 8 c ) , w h i l e o t h e r s wear contemporary c h a i n m a i l and helmets.. As the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e t a i l s , the V i r t u e s and V i c e s on the 68 i v o r i e s a l s o show, an i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f c o s t u m i n g : 67 V i r t u e Costume Vi c e Costume Fi d e s Gown, no headwear I d o l a t r i a Gown , helmet P u d i c i t i a Gown, helmet L i b i d o Gown , helmet Spes Gown, no headwear I r a Gown , helmet P a t e n c i a Gown, helmet Luxur i a Gown , helmet Sobr i e t a s Gown, helmet A v a r i t i a Gown , no headwear F o r t i t u d o Armour, helmet D i s c o r d i a Gown , helmet Concordia Gown, helmet L a r g i t a s Gown, no headwear F i n a l l y , with regard to the question of the provenance of the i v o r y ' s Psychomachian model, i t can be noted that there i s e v i -dence, to be d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t l y , which i n d i c a t e s t h a t , amongst the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s manuscript c o l l e c t i o n , there was a preponder-ance of E n g l i s h examples. Beyond t h i s evidence, the p e c u l i a r i -t i e s of costuming, and the unusual i s o l a t i o n of L a r g i t a s , there are no other i n d i c a t i o n s of the s p e c i f i c geographic o r i g i n — E n g l i s h or otherwise — o f the f r o n t cover's Psychomachian model. Although the exact provenance of the Psychomachian p r o t o -type must remain l a r g e l y a matter f o r s p e c u l a t i o n , there can be l i t t l e doubt about i t s mode of a d a p t a t i o n . Because of the small s i z e of the i v o r y cover, the a r t i s t who carved the V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e worked under d i s t i n c t s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , he had to f i n d a means of a b b r e v i a t i n g the u s u a l l y e x t e n s i v e Psychomachian p i c t o r i a l c y c l e without, at the same time, d e s t r o y i n g the n a r r a t i v e sense. He sol v e d t h i s problem by 68 i l l u s t r a t i n g o n l y t h e c l i m a x o f a n y g i v e n e p i s o d e . T h e r e s u l -t a n t r e d u c t i o n i n i m a g e r y c o n f o r m e d t o t h e s p a t i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h e i v o r y , w h i l e t h e c h o i c e o f m a i n e v e n t s f o r p o r t r a y a l k e p t t h e n a r r a t i v e s e q u e n c e i n t a c t . A s t h e c l o s e s t s u r v i v i n g p a r a l l e l t o t h e i v o r y ' s V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e , t h e S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s i s u s e f u l f o r t h e p u r p o s e : o f d e f c a i l i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f i c o n o g r a p h i c r e d u c t i o n . T h e t a b l e o n p a g e 69 p r o v i d e s a 69 c o m p a r a t i v e s u m m a r y o f t h e t w o c y c l e s . B y a s e l e c t i v e u s e . o f t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e i m a g e s , t h e a r t i s t o f t h e i v o r y ' s V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e r e d u c e d a m o r e t y p i c a l c y c l e o f t h i r t y t o f o r t y s c e n e s t o a m e r e e i g h t , w i t h o u t , i n t h e p r o c e s s , s a c r i f i c i n g a n y o f t h e o r i g i n a l n a r r a t i v e o r t h e m a t i c c o n t e n t . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e i s o l a t i o n o f L a r g i t a s w a s a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e , f o r , b y s t a n d i n g a l o n e , t h e f i g u r e n o t o n l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e n a r r a t i v e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e b a t t l e - p r o p e r , b u t a l s o , b y p r o v i d i n g a v i s u a l t r a n s i t i o n t o t h e b a c k c o v e r , e m p h a s i z e s t h e u l t i m a t e c l i m a x o f t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a — t h e t r i u m p h o f C h a r i t y . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f r o n t c o v e r ' s P s y c h o m a c h i a n m o d e l , t w o q u e s t i o n s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d : W h a t w a s t h e m o d e l ? a n d , How p r e -c i s e l y w a s i t u s e d ? T h e l a t t e r q u e s t i o n w a s n e c e s s i t a t e d b y t h e e x a c t i n g n a r r a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e c y c l e a n d b y t h e o b v i o u s s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i v o r y ' s i n t e r s t i c e s . I n c o n t r a s t , n e i t h e r o f t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i -c a b l e t o t h e D a v i d m e d a l l i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l , r e l a t i v e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l P s y c h o m a c h i a n s c e n e s , t h e D a v i d i c s c e n e s — p o s s i b l y Episode as Descr ibed i n the Text The meeting and b a t t l e of F a i t h and I d o l a t r y . The d e f e a t of I d o l a t r y . The encounter of C h a s t i t y and L u s t . The e x t i n g u i s h i n g of L u s t . P a t i e n c e ' s meeting with Wrath. Wrath's s u i c i d e . H u m i l i t y , with the help of Hope , de f e a t s P r i d e . S o b r i e t y contends with, and overcomes, Indulgence. Greed attempts to take over man's s o u l . Gen-r e r o s i t y f i g h t s w i t h , and k i l l s Greed. F a i t h and Concord c o n f r o n t , and d e f e a t , D i s c o r d . Peace and C h a r i t y u n i t e and triumph. Corresponding Image on the Ivory F i d e s chokes I d o l a t r i a Number of I l l u s t r a t i o n s per Episode i n the S t . Albans Prudentius Numerical P o s i t i o n s and D e s c r i p t i o n s of the S t . Albans Scenes C l o s e s t to Those on the Ivory Scene 3: Fides conquers I d o l a t r i a . P u d i c i t i a stabs 5 Scene 3: P u d i c i t i a spears L i b i d o . L i b i d o through the t h r o a t . P a t i e n c i a watches as I r a stabs herself„ H u m i l i t a s and Spes behead Superbia S o b r i e t a s smashes the face of L u x u r i a . F o r t i t u d o spears Avar i t i a C oncordia stabs D i s c o r d i a , L a r g i t a s stands alone„ 5 Scene 6 Scene 5 Scene 4 Scene 4 Scene 6 Scene 5: I r a f a l l s on her own sword. 5: H u m i l i t a s beheads Superbia. 5: S o b r i e t a s throws a stone at Lu x u r i a . 3: L a r g i t a s stabs A v a r i t i a in the t h r o a t . 3: Humi l i t a s spears D i s c o r d i a ( F i g . 38c) . 3: C a r i t a s i s seated alone on a t r i -bunal ( F i g . 38a) . 70 b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t e r f a m i l i a r i t y o f t h e i r i m a g e s a n d t e x t u a l s o u r c e — a r e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s e m a n t i c u n i t s . T h a t i s , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c o m p r e h e n s i b i l i t y i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e i r c o n f o r m a n c e t o a l a r g e r n a r r a -t i v e f r a m e w o r k . T h u s , i n c h o o s i n g f r o m t h e D a v i d i c i m a g e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l , t h e a r t i s t ' s m a i n r e s t r i c t i o n w a s t h e P s y c h o -m a c h i a n - D a v i d i c m e t a p h o r . W i t h i n t h i s r e s t r a i n t , h e h a d f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e c h o i c e o f s c e n e s , s i n c e t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a i s s p e c i f i c o n l y i n i t s m e n t i o n , o f t h e D a v i d a n d G o l i a t h e p i s o d e ; i n a d d i t i o n , h e c o u l d , b u t d i d n o t h a v e t o , p r e s e n t t h e s c e n e s i n a n a r r a t i v e c h r o n o l o g y . I n f a c t , h e d i d n o t d o s o : I n t h e s t o r y o f D a v i d , ' t h e a n o i n t m e n t o c c u r s b e f o r e t h e r e s c u e o f t h e l a m b . S e c o n d l y , a s w o r k i n g s p a c e s , t h e m e d a l l i o n s a r e l a r g e r a n d l e s s a w k w a r d l y - s h a p e d t h a n t h e i n t e r s t i c e s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e r e w a s l e s s n e e d f o r t h e k i n d o f d r a s t i c i c o n o g r a p h i c r e d u c t i o n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s e d t h e a r t i s t ' s u s e o f h i s P s y c h o -m a c h i a n m o d e l . T h u s , a s a l e s s c o m p l e x a r t i s t i c p r o b l e m t h a n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n c y c l e , t h e D a v i d s e q u e n c e d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h o w t h e m o d e l w a s u s e d . I t s e e m s c l e a r t h a t , o n c e c h o s e n , t h e D a v i d i c s c e n e s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e u n u s u a l A h i m e l e c h m e d a l l i o n , d i s c u s s e d a b o v e ) w e r e m a i n l y c o p i e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e m o d e l s w i t h l i t t l e o r n o a l t e r -a t i o n . T h u s , i n a d d r e s s i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e p i c t o r i a l s o u r c e o f t h e r e m a i n i n g m e d a l l i o n s , t h e m a j o r q u e s t i o n t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i s t h a t r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p e a n d p r o v e n a n c e o f t h e m o d e l . A s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h t h e V i r t u e a n d V i c e c y c l e , t h e r e i s n o k n o w n m a n u s c r i p t t h a t i s a l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t y a s t h e s p e c i f i c 71 model f o r even one of the David m e d a l l i o n s . Manuscripts with iconographic p a r a l l e l s to one or more of the med a l l i o n s do e x i s t , but these p a r a l l e l s a re, f o r the most p a r t , f a i r l y g e n e r a l , and only i n d i c a t e the type of model used, r a t h e r than i t s p r e c i s e i d e n t i t y . As an example, r e f e r e n c e can be made to the bottom-right m e d a l l i o n ( F i g . 39b), i n which are d e p i c t e d David and h i s M u s i c i a n s . In the West, s i n c e at l e a s t as e a r l y as the e i g h t h century, such scenes had been most f r e q u e n t l y used 70 as the f r o n t i s p i e c e s to i l l u s t r a t e d P s a l t e r s . Thus, as Dalton observed, the presence of t h i s image i n the David sequence suggests that the model f o r the four m e d a l l i o n s i n 71 question here was an i l l u s t r a t e d P s a l t e r from Western Europe. But, beyond t h i s , c e r t a i n of t h i s m e d a l l i o n ' s i c o n o g r a p h i c d e t a i l s , when considered t o g e t h e r , give support to a more spe-c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s : the model f o r four of the s i x D a v i d i c scenes — the Rescue of the Lamb, David's A n o i n t i n g , David and G o l i a t h , David and h i s Musi c i a n s — was an i l l u s t r a t e d P s a l t e r , c r e a t e d i n England, p o s s i b l y i n the l a t e e l e v e n t h , but more probably, i n the e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . T h i s hypothesis of mine owes a g r e a t d e a l to the resea r c h of Hugo Steger, f o r i t was he who f i r s t compiled much of the necessary s u p p o r t i v e 72 dat a . Steger's study, David Rex e t Propheta, focuses on Western European r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of David and h i s M u s i c i a n s , in manuscripts p r i m a r i l y , but a l s o in other a r t forms. In a n a l y s -ing the i v o r y ' s v e r s i o n of t h i s scene, he noted the presence of a dove (perched on David's shoulder) as an unusual i c o n o g r a p h i c 72 d e t a i l . 1 5 He a l s o noted that t h i s same f e a t u r e f i g u r e d i n com-parable scenes in two e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h P s a l t e r s , one made in Winchester, now i n London (B.L., Cotton MS T i b e r i u s C VI, f . 30v, 1041-1066) and the other now at Cambridge (U. L i b . , Cod. F f . I, 23, f . 4v). To Steger's l i s t , I can add three other examples of p o r t r a y a l s of the dove mot i f with King David as M u s i c i a n . The f i r s t of these examples occurs i n a Canterbury manuscript, ca 1100 (Cambridge, T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , MS B 5 26, f . 1; F i g . 15), while the other two are both found in the S t . Albans P s a l t e r (Hildesheim, S t . Godehard's Treasury, unnumbered MS, pp. 56 and 72; F i g . 39a). F i g u r e 40 , showing the Beatus I n i t i a l of the Winchester P s a l t e r , does not p r o p e r l y belong to t h i s l i s t , s i n c e the p o r t r a y a l i s of David w r i t i n g . However, the image i s s t r i k i n g i n i t s c l o s e n e s s to the f r o n t cover medal-l i o n with r e s p e c t to both David's pose and the p o s i t i o n of the dove near h i s r i g h t shoulder. As f a r as I know, there are no comparable examples from o u t s i d e of England, and thus, i t can be concluded that the dove-motif, as seen i n the f r o n t - c o v e r m e d a l l i o n , was a t y p i c a l l y , i f not e x c l u s i v e l y , E n g l i s h f e a t u r e . To a somewhat l e s s e r degree, the same can be s a i d of the t r i p l e - a r c h - m o t i f t h a t p r o v i d e s the s e t t i n g f o r David and the other musicians ( F i g . 39b). Steger noted the presence of t h i s m o t i f on the i v o r y and i n s e v e r a l E n g l i s h manuscripts: the above-mentioned e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y P s a l t e r at Cambridge (U. L i b . , Cod. F f . I, 23, f . 4v; ca 1060; F i g . 41); the Shaftesbury P s a l t e r , m i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y (London, B.L., 73 Lansdowne MS 383 f . 15v); and the Westminster P s a l t e r , l a t e 74 t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y (London, B.L., Royal MS 2 A x x n ) . Steger a l s o c i t e s a few a d d i t i o n a l examples from other Western European l o c a l e s , but s i n c e the g r e a t e s t preponderance of examples i s from England, i t i s not unreasonable to assume that the t r i p l e -arch-motif i n p o r t r a y a l s of David as Musician i s another par-t i c u l a r l y E n g l i s h i c o n o g r a p h i c t r a i t . A d d i t i o n a l evidence f a v o u r i n g the E n g l i s h provenance of the model i s provided by one of the m u s i c a l instruments p o r t r a y e d i n the medallion ( F i g . 42b) . Steger has noted t h a t the f i g u r e j u s t t o the r i g h t of 75 David p l a y s an E n g l i s h harp. A comparison of f i g u r e s 42a and 42b bear out Steger's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the harp, and show the s t r i k i n g degree of accuracy with which the i v o r y c a r v e r d e p i c t e d t h i s E n g l i s h instrument. F i n a l l y , the probable E n g l i s h p r o v e -nance o f . t h e model f o r t h i s , and by e x t e n s i o n , f o r the other three m e d a l l i o n s i n q u e s t i o n , i s given f u r t h e r credence by the f a c t t h at there i s evidence which i n d i c a t e s t h a t , w i t h i n the t o t a l Western c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d u a l s c r i p t o r i u m t r a d i t i o n , the dominant f a c t o r was E n g l i s h . The E n g l i s h I n f l u e n c e i n the Jerusalem S c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150 In h i s study of Crusader i l l u m i n a t i o n , Buchthal remarked upon the s t r o n g E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e s c u r r e n t i n the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m d u r i n g the middle 1100's. Because of the predomi-nance of such i n f l u e n c e s , the f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y was not the 74 o n l y product of the s c r i p t o r i u m to e x h i b i t d i s t i n c t i v e l y E n g l i s h f e a t u r e s . Further evidence of the presence and importance of E n g l i s h a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s i n the s c r i p t o r i u m at t h i s time i s provided by the Melisende P s a l t e r . Buchthal has noted t h a t t h i s key work of the p e r i o d c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y of t y p i c a l l y E n g l i s h elements. Among these are: the e x t e n s i v e c y c l e of f u l l - p a g e f r o n t i s p i e c e m i n i a t u r e s , a Western f e a t u r e popular mainly in England; the i n h a b i t e d s c r o l l s of the l a r g e i n i t i a l l e t t e r s , a l s o seen in E n g l i s h i v o r i e s and manuscripts of the e a r l y t w e l f t h century; and the mask-head j o i n i n g of the bows of the Beatus i n i t i a l , a favoured c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o r r e s p o n d i n g 7 6 i n i t i a l s i n post-Conquest E n g l i s h manuscripts. In a d d i t i o n , although Buchthal does not so note, the Zodiac m e d a l l i o n s of the P s a l t e r ' s calendar a l s o appear E n g l i s h : The f i g u r e s con-t a i n e d i n them are markedly s i m i l a r to f i g u r e s i n the medallions that decorate a comparable f u l l - p a g e i n i t i a l S i n the ca 1135 77 Bury B i b l e (Cambridge, Corpus C h r i s t i MS 2, f . I v ) . F i n a l l y , Buchthal and Wormald have shown t h a t the P s a l t e r ' s calendar c l e a r l y p o i n t s to Winchester as the s p e c i f i c l o c a l e where the calendar was o r i g i n a l l y composed. (Among the l i s t i n g of p r e -d o m i n a n t l y - E n g l i s h s a i n t s , i s S a i n t Edburga who i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d with Winchester. The calendar a l s o r e f e r s to the l o c a l Winchester f e a s t t h a t c e l e b r a t e d the t r a n s l a t i o n o f the 78 S a i n t ' s r e l i c s . ) V a rious other contemporary products of the s c r i p t o r i u m a l s o give evidence of the prevalence of the E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e 75 i n t h a t a r t i s t i c m i l i e u . For example, Buchthal observed that the Holy Sepulchre's Sacramentary (Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A n g e l i c a , D.7.3.) and M i s s a l ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat., Cod. l a t . 12056), both i l l u m i n a t e d a few years p r i o r to the P s a l t e r , c o n t a i n examples 79 of E n g l i s h - s t y l e i n h a b i t e d s c r o l l w o r k . In a d d i t i o n , Weitzmann p u b l i s h e d an i c o n p a i n t e d i n the s c r i p t o r i u m i n the f i r s t h a l f of the t w e l f t h century, which d e p i c t s an image of C h r i s t t h a t i s s t r i k i n g i n i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o the C h r i s t - f i g u r e shown i n the Tree of Jesse f o l i o of the Shaftesbury P s a l t e r (London, B.L. 8 0 Lansdowne MS 38 3, f . 1 5 r ) . The s c r i p t o r i u m d i d not long remain a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d nucleus of E n g l i s h a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e , but became, as w e l l , the means of spreading t h a t i n f l u e n c e over the wider a r t i s t i c sphere of L a t i n Jerusalem. As an example, ref e r e n c e can be made to the e a s t e r n l i n t e l of the Holy Sepulchre Church, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to i t s E n g l i s h - s t y l e s c r i p -tures, f o r which, as L.Y. Rahmani b e l i e v e s , the p a t t e r n books were the e a r l y t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y E n g l i s h i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts 8 0 i n the p o s s e s s i o n of the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m . Buchthal and others have s p e c u l a t e d on the exact reason f o r the apparent presence of so many E n g l i s h manuscripts in the s c r i p t o r i u m at t h i s time, and there i s g e n e r a l concurrence on t h i s p o i n t : two Englishmen, W i l l i a m , p r i o r of the s c r i p t o r i u m to 1133, and Ralph, c h a n c e l l o r , i n the 40's, to Melisende and Baldwin I I I , most l i k e l y imported E n g l i s h models, and encouraged t h e i r use 8 2 in the Holy Sepulchre's workshop. However, these models were not always used e x c l u s i v e l y . T h i s i s true f o r the i v o r i e s , 76 which, as I have shown, were a l s o based on Byzantine models. I t now remains to p o i n t out t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r E n g l i s h and Byzantine elements, they a l s o c o n t a i n a number of other i c o n o g r a p h i c d e t a i l s s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with t w e l f t h -century L a t i n Jerusalem. The I v o r i e s ' L o c a l M o t i f s Since at l e a s t as e a r l y as the 1930's, when Goldschmidt and Weitzmann p u b l i s h e d t h e i r b r i e f a n a l y s i s of the i v o r i e s , the d u a l i t y o f a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n i n L a t i n Jerusalem has been reco g n i z e d , and accepted as the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of 8 3 t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Crusader a r t . Without d i s p u t i n g t h i s essen-t i a l l y accurate view of the L a t i n Kingdom and i t s a r t , a small body of recent s c h o l a r s h i p has shown that there i s another f a c -84 tor t o be c o n s i d e r e d — Jerusalem's l o c a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . T h i s l a r g e l y n o n - f i g u r a l t r a d i t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the frequent use of a s e t of m o t i f s — r o s e t t e s , s p i r a l s , beading, e t c . — most of which were known in both the East and the West by the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y , but which came:.;to be p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured i n , and hence, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f , L a t i n Jerusalem. T h i s new l i n e of r e s e a r c h has, thus f a r , been c o n f i n e d to s t u d i e s of church and tomb s c u l p t u r e , and has not touched on 8 5 such s m a l l e r - s c a l e a r t forms as manuscripts and i v o r i e s . However, an examination of the i v o r y covers r e v e a l s the presence of these l o c a l m o t i f s , most of which are simply m i n i a t u r e 77 v e r s i o n s of the s c u l p t u r a l ornament on contemporary tombs and churches. Among those of the i v o r i e s ' d e c o r a t i v e elements that can be p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d with t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y L a t i n Jerusalem, i s the knotwork motif that occurs in both main frames: on the r i g h t s i d e of the f r o n t cover, and a t the l e f t on the back ( F i g s . 43b and 4 3 c ) . ^ As noted p r e v i o u s l y , the same m o t i f occurs a l s o i n the i n i t i a l pages of the Melisende P s a l t e r ( F i g . 10a), and was p a r t i c u l a r l y favoured f o r the d e c o r a t i o n of the 8 7 r o y a l tombs of t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem ( F i g . 43a). Both i v o r i e s a l s o show a second type of ornament used on tombs of the L a t i n Kings — the g r a p e - l i k e m o t i f ( F i g . 44a), seen i n the upper p o r t i o n of each main frame ( F i g s . 44b and 44c). Rosettes were a l s o a popular form of ornamentation i n Jerusalem at t h i s time and no l e s s than four d i f f e r e n t types can be found amongst the d e c o r a t i o n of the i v o r i e s . The kind of r o s e t t e shown in Fi g u r e 7b i s repeated four times on the f r o n t cover and occurs a l s o i n the Melisende P s a l t e r ( F i g . 7a). The lower frame of the same i v o r y ( F i g . 2) c o n t a i n s a second v a r i e t y o f r o s e t t e : T h i s m u l t i - l e a v e d square-shaped type, of which another v e r s i o n appears in the c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n of the back cover ( F i g . 3) i s an e l a b o r a t e d form of the f o u r - s i d e d square r o s e t t e which Weitzmann 8 8 has noted on a Jerusalem-made i c o n . The back cover a l s o d e p i c t s two other r o s e t t e - t y p e s : the f i v e - or s i x - p o i n t e d s t a r r o s e t t e ( F i g . 3, lower frame), and the s p i r a l ( F i g . 45b). A v a r i a t i o n of the former type can be seen on another Jerusalem 78 i c o n , while s p i r a l r o s e t t e s i d e n t i c a l to those of the i v o r y , comprise the f r i e z e of Holy Sepulchre's southern facade, and 89 occur a l s o as ornament f o r the r o y a l tombs ( F i g s . 45a and 45c). Even more t y p i c a l of L a t i n Jerusalem i s the diamond and bead p a t t e r n t h a t forms the inner frame and d e f i n e s the m e d a l l i o n s of the f r o n t cover ( F i g . 46b). I t appears not o n l y on the i v o r y and numerous i c o n s , but can be seen as w e l l , on a l a r g e r s c a l e , amongst the s c u l p t e d ornaments of the Holy Sepulchre ( F i g . 46a). I t i s , as Weitzmann p o i n t s out, "one of the trade marks" of 90 Crusader a r t . I have observed that a p l a i n bead p a t t e r n was used l a v i s h l y on s e v e r a l of the icons p u b l i s h e d by Weitzmann. From t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , I t e n t a t i v e l y conclude t h a t beadwork may a l s o have been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c motif of the a r t of L a t i n 91 . . . Jerusalem. C e r t a i n l y i t i s abundant on the i v o r i e s , o c c u r r i n g i n the frames of both i v o r i e s ( F i g s . 8b and 12b), and i n most of the Acts of Mercy me d a l l i o n s on the back cover ( F i g . 3 ) . In a d d i t i o n , the three arches i n the l e f t David medallion are a l s o decorated with a bead p a t t e r n ( F i g . 39b). T h i s use of beadwork as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f appears to be an i n n o v a t i o n of the a r t i s t s of Jerusalem, f o r i t i s without precedent i n Byzantine 9 2 a r t , and occurs r a r e l y , i f a t a l l , i n the a r t of the West. The abundance of i d e n t i f i a b l e l o c a l Jerusalem m o t i f s d e p i c t e d on the i v o r i e s not o n l y confirms t h e i r provenance — i t a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to a more complete view of the m i d - t w e l f t h -century Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m . I t now seems c l e a r t h a t , at that time, a s p e c i f i c a l l y l o c a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n ran, l i k e a 79 kind of connecting t h r e a d , through both the Byzantine and the Western f a c e t s of the d u a l s c r i p t o r i u m t r a d i t i o n . Moreover, the presence of these m o t i f s on the i v o r i e s i n d i c a t e s the work of a l o c a l hand, which i n d i c a t i o n i s , i n t u r n , an a i d to d i f f e r e n -t i a t i n g between the a r t i s t s who carved the i v o r i e s . The I v o r i e s ' A r t i s t s There have been two main t h e o r i e s . about the c r e a t o r of the 93 i v o r y c o v e r s . The e a r l i e s t was t h a t the a r t i s t was B y z a n t i n e . One such view took i n t o account the Western f e a t u r e s of the i v o r i e s , and i n c l u d e d the suggestion t h a t , because he was work-ing f o r a L a t i n c o u r t , the Byzantine a r t i s t a l t e r e d h i s s t y l e 94 to s u i t the Western t a s t e of h i s p a t r o n s . The second, and c u r -r e n t l y , w i d e l y - h e l d theory i s t h a t the a r t i s t was an " o r i e n -9 5 t a l i s c h b e e i n f l u s s t e r Abendlander." Although not e s s e n t i a l l y i n a c c u r a t e , t h i s theory i s incomplete, i f i t assumes t h a t only one a r t i s t worked on the i v o r i e s , an assumption which the v i s u a l evidence tends to c o n t r a d i c t . When pl a c e d s i d e by s i d e , the two i v o r i e s do not need a very c l o s e s c r u t i n y to show that they are the work of two d i f f e r e n t hands, one more s k i l l e d 96 than the other. On examining the covers at the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , i t became c l e a r to me t h a t the more ex p e r t a r t i s t , t o be here designated by the l e t t e r "A," carved the e n t i r e f r o n t cover and perhaps p a r t of the back — the two upper m e d a l l i o n s . The second a r t i s t , "B," was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the remaining four 80 m e d a l l i o n s , the r o p e - l i k e border and the main frame of the back cover. I could not determine which hand carved the i n t e r s t i t i a l animals: They are s k i l l f u l l y done, which c o u l d i n d i c a t e the hand of A r t i s t A. However, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that A r t i s t B was p r a c t i s e d i n the p o r t r a y a l of animal and b i r d m o t i f s , and t h a t , as a " s p e c i a l i s t " of t h i s s o r t , he was l e s s p r o f i c i e n t i n h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of f i g u r a l and v e g e t a l imagery. Aside from the animals, f a i r l y c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n s can be made with regard to the r e s t of the imagery: On the f r o n t cover, the d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s i n the main frames, and i n the border around the medal-l i o n s , show r e l a t i v e complexity, c l e a r a r t i c u l a t i o n , and o v e r a l l d e l i c a c y of treatment. The corresponding back-cover ornament i s a l s o rendered with c l a r i t y , but i t l a c k s the f i n e d e t a i l of the f r o n t cover, and e v i n c e s a s l i g h t heavy-handedness i n the t h i c k -ness of the vine s c r o l l , the largeness of the grape-bunches, and the s p o r a d i c awkwardnesses in the m e d a l l i o n s ' borders. (See, f o r example, the segments near the top- and b o t t o m - l e f t c o r n e r s , as w e l l as those at most of the j o i n i n g s . ) A r t i s t B a l s o experienced some d i f f i c u l t i e s in the p o r t r a y a l of human f i g u r e s . In the lower four m e d a l l i o n s , the f i g u r e s are somewhat mono-tonously posed, have a s t i f f , b l o c k - l i k e appearance, and, in most c a s e s , coarse f a c i a l f e a t u r e s . By c o n t r a s t , the f r o n t -cover f i g u r e s , done by A r t i s t A, d i s p l a y a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of f l u i d i t y i n the treatment of drapery, while at the same time, t h e i r poses are v a r i e d , t h e i r faces e x p r e s s i v e . A r t i s t A a l s o appears to have carved the upper two m e d a l l i o n s of the back 81 cover: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s hand are the d e l i c a t e ornamental d e t a i l of the thrones i n both m e d a l l i o n s , and of the king's robe i n the l e f t m e d a l l i o n . (Note e s p e c i a l l y , the minute s c r o l l w o r k on the hem.) A l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A are the f l u i d complexity of the king's drapery i n the r i g h t m edallion and the f a c i a l v a r i e t y seen i n a l l of the f i g u r e s in both m e d a l l i o n s . Apart from showing these g e n e r a l q u a l i t a t i v e d i s t i n c t i o n s , the work of the two a r t i s t s a l s o d i f f e r s i n the use of l o c a l m o t i f s . As noted i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n of t h i s c hapter, d e c o r a t i v e elements t h a t can be s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with L a t i n Jerusalem occur on both c o v e r s . However, on the f r o n t cover, they are l e s s apparent and more f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d with other elements. For example, the Jerusalem knotwork on the m i d d l e - r i g h t frame i s placed i n such a way t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s as p a r t of the E n g l i s h - or F r e n c h - s t y l e a c a n t h u s - i n t e r l a c e m o t i f . The other l o c a l f e a t u r e s — the r o s e t t e s , the diamond and bead p a t t e r n , the grapes — are a l s o s u b t l y complementary to the other d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s and the f i g u r a l imagery. On the back cover, the l o c a l m o t i f s are more in evidence as separate elements which stand out from among the other m o t i f s : In p a r t i c u l a r , I n o t i c e d the l a r g e n e s s of the g r a p e - p a t t e r n , the prominence of the s p i r a l r o s e t t e s at the m e d a l l i o n j o i n i n g s , the c a p r i c i o u s p r e -sence of a square r o s e t t e in the c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n , and the use of a Jerusalem knotwork motif that bears l i t t l e v i s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to the r e s t of the frame's ornament. The d i f f e r -ences in usage of Jerusalem m o t i f s between f r o n t and back covers 82 i s s uggestive with regard to the g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i g i n s of the a r t i s t s . On the f r o n t cover, the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of l o c a l e l e -ments to the remaining predominantly Western images i n d i c a t e s t h at A r t i s t A was t h a t " o r i e n t a l i s c h b e e i n f l u s s t e r Abendlander," r e f e r r e d to above. The prominence t h a t A r t i s t B accords t o l o c a l m o t i f s , and h i s apparent lack of ease i n the p o r t r a y a l of f i g u r e s , suggests that he was n a t i v e to Jerusalem, and t r a i n e d in the p r i m a r i l y d e c o r a t i v e , n o n - f i g u r a l t r a d i t i o n of that l o c a l e . The above d i s c u s s i o n o f the i v o r i e s ' a r t i s t s i s the f i n a l t o p i c of concern to t h i s c h a p ter. As i n d i c a t e d a t i t s b e g i n -n i n g , the chapter's c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o n d i t i o n s , charac-t e r i s t i c s , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with the Jerusalem s c r i p t o r i u m was d o u b l y - i n t e n t i o n e d : On the one hand, the aim was to focus on the s c r i p t o r i u m in a given time p e r i o d , while on the ot h e r , the i n t e n t was to d i s c o v e r more about the o r i g i n s of the i v o r i e s ' iconography. What can be s a i d now i s t h a t these two aims are not onl y r e l a t e d , they are v i r t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e . For, as the combined c r e a t i o n of both a n a t i v e and a Western European a r t i s t , and above a l l , as a p i c t o r i a l compendium of Byzantine, Western, and l o c a l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s , the p a i r of i v o r y covers i s nothing i f not a microcosm of the cosmopolitan s c r i p t o r i u m of m i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem. C H A P T E R I V R E L A T E D C O N C E R N S A N D P O S S I B I L I T I E S F O R F U T U R E S T U D Y A l t h o u g h c o n c e n t r a t i n g o n i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e i v o r i e s ' i m a g e s , a n d - t h e t e x t u a l a n d p i c -t o r i a l o r i g i n s o f t h i s i m a g e r y , C h a p t e r s I I a n d I I I o f t h i s s t u d y a t t i m e s s k i r t e d o t h e r r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n C h a p t e r I I t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e M e r c i f u l K i n g w a s r a i s e d , b u t , i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f c h a p t e r c o n t i n u i t y a n d c o h e r e n c e , o n l y b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d . I t w a s s p e c u l a t e d t h e r e t h a t t h e f i g u r e m a y h a v e b e e n m e a n t t o b e , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y , i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c k i n g , a n d t w o p o s s i b i l i t i e s w e r e m e n t i o n e d : F u l k o f A n j o u (1131-1143) a n d B a l d w i n I I I (1143-1163). I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e d a t e s o f r e i g n c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e 1131-1143 d a t i n g o f t h e i v o r i e s , a n d t h e r e i s , a s w e l l , a p o s -s i b l e t e x t u a l b a s i s ( W i l l i a m o f T y r e ' s h i s t o r y ) f o r a s s o c i a t i n g e i t h e r w i t h t h e f i g u r e o n t h e i v o r y . A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o c o n -c l u s i v e p r o o f , t h e w e i g h t o f h i s t o r i c a l a n d t e x t u a l e v i d e n c e s e e m s t o me t o s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s B a l d w i n I I I w h o i s p o r t r a y e d o n t h e i v o r y . T o t h e p o i n t s a l r e a d y m a d e i n C h a p t e r I I I - -B a l d w i n ' s p h y s i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e d e p i c t e d f i g u r e , h i s m e r c i f u l r e s c u e o f t h e P a t r i a r c h o f A n t i o c h , h i s b i r t h i n t h e H o l y L a n d — i t c a n b e a d d e d t h a t h e , m o r e t h a n a n y o n e e l s e , 83 84 e a r n e d c o n t e m p o r a r y p r a i s e , a s t h e e m b o d i m e n t o f a v a r i e t y o f v i r t u e s , s e v e r a l o f w h i c h a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o n t h e i v o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l i a m o f T y r e , B a l d w i n I I I w a s c o m p a s s i o n a t e , g e n e r o u s , s p i r i t u a l , p a t i e n t , c o u r t e o u s , t e m p e r a t e a n d s o b e r . 1 A m o r e r e c e n t , a n d o b j e c t i v e , h i s t o r i a n , T . S . R . B o a s e , n o t e d t h a t B a l d w i n h a d s o m e c l a i m t o b e i n g t h e m o s t s u c c e s s f u l o f t h e J e r u s a l e m k i n g s , m e n t i o n i n g t h e f a c t t h a t h e c a p t u r e d A s c a l o n , a m i l i t a r y s u c c e s s w h i c h l e d t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e P l a i n o f S h a r o n , a n d w h i c h , i n t u r n , l e d t o a p e r i o d o f 2 u n p r e c e d e n t e d a b u n d a n c e i n t h e k i n g d o m . T h u s , i n p r o v i d i n g f o o d f o r h i s s u b j e c t s , B a l d w i n ' s m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y w a s , i n a s e n s e , a n a c t o f c h a r i t y c o m p a r a b l e t o , a n d p e r h a p s s y m b o l i s e d b y , t h e m e r c i f u l d e e d s s h o w n o n t h e i v o r y . W i l l i a m o f T y r e a l s o e x p l i c i t l y a s s o c i a t e s B a l d w i n w i t h c h a r i t y , n o t i n g t h a t , u p o n r e a c h i n g m a t u r i t y , h e " l a i d a s i d e l i g h t c o n d u c t : " T h e n c e f o r w a r d h e [ B a l d w i n ] m i g h t s a y w i t h t h e a p o s t l e , ~ ' . . . . w h e n I b e c a m e a m a n , I p u t a w a y c h i l d i s h t h i n g s . ' B a l d w i n w a s a l s o k n o w n t o h a v e b e e n " c h a r i t a b l e " i n h i s m e t h o d s o f w a r f a r e a n d w o u l d a t t i m e s r e p a i r d a m a g e s a n d s u p p l y f o o d a n d 4 p r o t e c t i o n t o f o r t r e s s e s t h a t h a d b e e n u n d e r s i e g e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a l s o o n e k n o w n i n s t a n c e w h e r e h e m a d e w h a t o n e m o d e r n h i s t o r i a n d e s c r i b e s a s : a n " u n f o r g i v a b l e a t t a c k " o n s o m e T u r c o m a n s h e p h e r d s t o whom h e h a d p r e v i o u s l y g u a r a n t e e d r o y a l s a f e -5 c o n d u c t . T h u s , l i k e h i s B i b l i c a l p r e d e c e s s o r , B a l d w i n , t h e n e w D a v i d , w a s a l s o a " r o y a l s i n n e r - s a i n t , " o n e w h o w a s a s m u c h c a p a b l e o f b l o o d s h e d a s m e r c y . A l t h o u g h i t t e n d s t o a s s o c i a t e 85 B a l d w i n w i t h t h e m e r c i f u l k i n g o n t h e i v o r y , t h i s h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e i s s u g g e s t i v e o n l y , a n d n o t c o n c l u s i v e , n o r d o e s i t , i n a n y w a y , p r e c l u d e F u l k a s t h e k i n g p o r t r a y e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t e x h a u s t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o c o n t e m p o r a r y d o c u m e n t s a n d e v e n t s w o u l d y i e l d a s u f f i c i e n t f a c t u a l b a s i s f o r a s s o c i a t -i n g B a l d w i n m o r e d e f i n i t e l y w i t h t h e k i n g o n t h e i v o r y . T h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s m i g h t p r o v e t o b e t h e c a s e . N o n e t h e l e s s , a d o c u m e n t - s e a r c h o f t h i s e x t e n t i s b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s p a p e r , a n d t h u s , c a n o n l y b e p r o p o s e d a t t h i s t i m e a s o n e p o t e n t i a l l y - p r o d u c t i v e l i n e o f f o l l o w - u p r e s e a r c h . R e l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e m e r c i f u l k i n g ' s i d e n t i t y , i s t h e p r o b l e m o f n a m i n g t h e i v o r i e s ' p a t r o n . O n c e c o n c l u s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d , t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e A c t s o f M e r c y m e d a l l i o n s w o u l d b e i n d i c a t e d a s t h e p a t r o n a s w e l l — i n d i c a t e d , b u t n o t p r o v e n , f o r t h e r e i s n o l o g i c a l r e a s o n w h y s u b j e c t a n d p a t r o n s h o u l d b e o n e a n d t h e s a m e . T h u s , a p a r t f r o m e a c h o f t h e t w o m o s t l i k e l y s u b j e c t s o f t h e m e d a l l i o n s — F u l k a n d B a l d w i n — t h e r e a r e , a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y , o t h e r p o s s i b l e p a t r o n s . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s r e a l l y o n l y o n e . T h i s i s Q u e e n M e l i s e n d e , w h o s e d a t e s o f r e i g n (1131-1152), l i k e t h o s e o f F u l k a n d B a l d w i n , a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i v o r i e s ' d a t e s (1131-1143). A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n t h e i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h y t h a t w o u l d s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e t h e m w i t h a p a t r o n e s s , r a t h e r t h a n a p a t r o n , i t i s n o t i m p r o b a b l e t h a t i t w a s t h e q u e e n w h o c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e w o r k . O f t h e t h r e e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , s h e i s t h e o n l y o n e w h o i s d o c u -m e n t e d a s h a v i n g a n y i n t e r e s t i n t h e a r t s . A s n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y , 86 t h e r e i s a p a s s a g e f r o m W i l l i a m o f T y r e ' s h i s t o r y t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e m a n y g i f t s t h a t t h e q u e e n m a d e t o t h e C h u r c h — g i f t s w h i c h , 7 p r e s u m a b l y , s h e h a d h a d m a d e i n t h e J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m . S e c o n d l y , a s B u c h t h a l ' s a n d W o r m a l d ' s f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e , M e l i s e n d e w a s t h e o n e w h o c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e P s a l t e r w h i c h n o w b e a r s h e r n a m e . T h u s , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n n a t u r a l f o r h e r t o c o m m i s s i o n a s e t o f c o v e r s a s w e l l . T h e f a c t t h a t b o t h i v o r i e s s h o w a k i n g , r a t h e r t h a n a q u e e n , i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r , a s t h e w i f e o f F u l k a n d m o t h e r o f B a l d w i n , s h e m i g h t , o u t o f w i f e l y , o r m o t h e r l y , l o v e , o r o b l i g a t i o n , h a v e c h o s e n t o c o m m e m o r a t e h e r h u s b a n d ' s , o r s o n ' s r e i g n , r a t h e r t h a n h e r o w n . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e s p e c u l a t i o n s a r e n o t m a d e w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a r g u i n g t h a t M e l i s e n d e w a s t h e o n e w h o m o s t l i k e l y c o m m i s s i o n e d t h e c o v e r s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s c a n t e x i s t i n g e v i d e n c e , s h e , F u l k , a n d B a l d w i n a r e e q u a l l y p l a u s i b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d . T h u s , l i k e t h e u n c e r t a i n i d e n t i t y o f t h e f i g u r e o n t h e b a c k c o v e r , t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i v o r i e s ' p a t r o n r e m a i n s u n r e s o l v e d . T h e r e i s , a t l e a s t , l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t t h e p e r s o n w h o c o m -m i s s i o n e d t h e i v o r i e s w a s "one o f J e r u s a l e m ' s m o n a r c h s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e i v o r i e s a r e p r o d u c t s o f a s c r i p t o r i u m w h o s e p a t r o n -9 a g e w a s , a c c o r d i n g t o B u c h t h a l a n d o t h e r s , p r e d o m i n a n t l y r o y a l . O t h e r , o b s e r v a b l e , d e t a i l s a r e a l s o i n d i c a t i v e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s ' p a t r o n w a s r o y a l . T h e r e a r e , f o r e x a m p l e , s m a l l c i r c u l a r d e p r e s s i o n s i n t h e o r n a m e n t a l f r a m e s o f t h e c o v e r s , a n d i n t h e e y e s o f t h e f i g u r e s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s w e r e , o r 8 7 were intended to be, encrusted with jewels. I a l s o n o t i c e d t r a c e s of red p a i n t i n the i n c i s e d i n s c r i p t i o n s which suggests that^they, and perhaps, some of the imagery on the i v o r i e s , were at one time gilded. 1"'" In a d d i t i o n , the r i c h d e t a i l and l a v i s h ornament of the i v o r i e s , as w e l l as the c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y -high l e v e l of a r t i s t i c s k i l l and e f f o r t r e q u i r e d to produce such an e f f e c t , a l s o argue i n favour of a r o y a l p a t r o n . Together, such profuse expenditure of time and t a l e n t , and the use of va l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s — i v o r y , g o l d , gems -- p o i n t c l e a r l y to the covers having been o r i g i n a l l y a p r o j e c t commissioned by a r o y a l personage. In f a c t , apart from the Church, there was probably no one other than the monarch who co u l d a f f o r d a r t of the q u a l i t y of the i v o r i e s , f o r the n o b i l i t y and upper c l a s s e s of Jerusalem 12 were comfortable, but not immensely wealthy. U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s perhaps the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c programme that p r o v i d e s the c l e a r e s t i n d i c a t i o n t h at t h e i r patron was r o y a l . Not only does i t in c l u d e p o r t r a y a l s of both the B i b l i c a l k i n g , David, and another, p o s s i b l y t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y monarch, but c o n t a i n s , as w e l l , numerous images of c h a r i t y and c o n f l i c t , v i s u a l scenes that were, both c o n c e p t u a l l y and a c t u a l l y , r e l a t e d to the i n s t i -13 t u t i o n and p r a c t i c e of k i n g s h i p in t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem. In the same way that Chapter II touched p e r i p h e r a l l y on the question of patronage through i t s s p e c u l a t i o n s regarding the m e r c i f u l k i n g , Chapter I I I at times verged on areas r e l a t e d to the problem of the s t y l e of the i v o r i e s . Comparisons of the i v o r i e s ' s p e c i f i c d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s to those found i n the a r t of 88 W e s t e r n E u r o p e , B y z a n t i u m , a n d J e r u s a l e m , a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s c u r r e n t i n t h e s c r i p t o r i u m , w e r e u n d e r -t a k e n f r o m a p u r e l y i c o n o g r a p h i c p o i n t o f v i e w . H o w e v e r , s u c h c o n c e r n s a r e a l s o r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s t y l e o f t h e i v o r i e s . A l t h o u g h i t h a s l o n g b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a n d a c c e p t e d t h a t t h e i v o r i e s ' s t y l e , l i k e i t s i c o n o g r a p h y , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a m i n g l i n g o f E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n e l e m e n t s , n o o n e h a s y e t a t t e m p t e d a n i n - d e p t h s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s , o r u n d e r t a k e n t o c o m -p i l e a s e t o f e x a m p l e s o f s t y l i s t i c a l l y - c o m p a r a b l e w o r k s o f 14 a r t . I n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e l a t t e r t a s k , s h o u l d a n y o n e w i s h t o d o s o , t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y m i g h t p r o v e h e l p f u l a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e A n g l i c i z i n g i c o n o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e , a n d o f t h e D a v i d a s M u s i c i a n m e d a l l i o n , s u g g e s t t h a t W e s t e r n s t y l i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n s , m i g h t f i r s t b e p r o f i t a b l y s o u g h t a m o n g s t e x a m p l e s o f E n g l i s h a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y m a n u s c r i p t s a n d i v o r i e s . T h e i c o n o g r a p h i c p a r a l l e l s n o t e d b e t w e e n t h e i v o r i e s a n d M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r , a n d t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , b e t w e e n t h e i v o r i e s a n d c e r t a i n l o c a l l y -m a d e i c o n s , i n d i c a t e t h a t o t h e r u s e f u l s t y l i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n s m i g h t a r i s e f r o m a m o n g o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f B y z a n t i n i z i n g a r t . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e a r t o f N o r m a n S i c i l y , S o u t h e r n I t a l y , a n d e v e n S y r i a a n d A r m e n i a m i g h t b e a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f s p e c i f i c J e r u s a l e m m o t i f s o n t h e i v o r i e s i s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n e e d t o c o n s i d e r l o c a l t r a d i t i o n a s a f a c t o r i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r s t y l e , a n d t h u s , a n y f u t u r e s t y l i s t i c s t u d y o f t h e i v o r i e s w o u l d h a v e t o e n t a i l 89 d e t a i l e d comparisons with other extant examples of Jerusalem a r t . F r e q u e n t l y , i n examining works of a r t f o r which i s l a c k i n g any kind of w r i t t e n documentation, qu e s t i o n s of s t y l e i n e v i -t a b l y become bound up with the problem of d a t i n g . Such might a l s o prove true with regard to the i v o r i e s , f o r , thus f a r , they have only been dated by l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n . That i s , the date of the Melisende P s a l t e r i s 1131-1143; t h e r e f o r e , i t s covers pre-sumably a l s o date ca 1131-1143. C e r t a i n l y , nothing i n the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e the accuracy of t h i s d a t i n g , which has the concensus acceptance of s c h o l a r s who have p r e v i o u s l y s t u d i e d the i v o r i e s . 1 5 However, i t can be noted t h a t , i n the case of some of the i c o n o g r a p h i c comparisons made between the i v o r i e s and other a r t , some examples of the l a t t e r dated from ca 1150-1180. In t h i s regard might be mentioned the Hortus D e l i c i a r u m (1159-1180) , the Winchester B i b l e ornament (ca 1150-1170) , the C h a r t r e s window border (ca 1155) , and the B a r g e l l o c r o z i e r (ca 1175) ( F i g s . 17a, 20c, 20a, and 28). Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e that d e t a i l e d s t y l i s t i c comparisons of the i v o r i e s to other works of a r t might suggest a s l i g h t r e - d a t i n g of the i v o r i e s to e i t h e r the l a t t e r end of the c u r r e n t d a t i n g range — ca 1140-1150, i n s t e a d of 1131-1143 — or even, to the twenty years immediately f o l l o w i n g : ca 1145-1165. I f a l a t e r d a t i n g could be s t y l i s t i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s would, of course, mean that i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r were not made c o n c u r r e n t l y — a not unreasonable p o s s i b i l i t y . A new 1145-1165 d a t i n g range would 90 a l s o bear on the q u e s t i o n of patronage, i n d i c a t i n g t h at Baldwin I I I was both the patron of the i v o r i e s and the s u b j e c t of the Acts of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s . At present, t h i s idea i s no more than s p e c u l a t i o n , i t s v e r i f i c a t i o n or c o n t r a -d i c t i o n dependent on the r e s u l t s of f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . S i m i l a r l y , a d e t a i l e d s t y l i s t i c study of the i v o r i e s , and the a s s o c i a t e d p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r r e - d a t i n g , are both problems fo r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n The immediate focus of t h i s study has been, and remains, i c o n o g r a p h i c . For t h i s reason, i t has been p o s s i b l e to i l l u m i -nate the most important, and in some i n s t a n c e s , p r e v i o u s l y unnoticed aspects of the i v o r i e s ' programme of images. I t has become c l e a r t h at each c y c l e has i t s own t e x t u a l source or sources, but that each a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s to the t e l l i n g of one main s t o r y — that of the f i g h t f o r man's s o u l . The simultaneous Byzantine-Western d e r i v a t i o n of the iconography, as w e l l as i t s debt to l o c a l t r a d i t i o n are a l s o now apparent — as i s the f a c t that both together are a r e f l e c t i o n of the a r t i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s c u r r e n t in the s c r i p t o r i u m at the time of the i v o r i e s ' c r e a t i o n . And, f i n a l l y , i t i s c l e a r too that the i v o r y covers of the Melisende P s a l t e r , with t h e i r images of c h a r i t y , c o n f l i c t , and k i n g s h i p , belong s e c u r e l y to t h e i r temporal and geographic context: M i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem was a time and p l a c e 91 in which the i v o r i e s ' three themes were concepts and carved images — they were more than l i t e r a r y l i v i n g concerns. NOTES TO THE TEXT Notes to Chapter I The standard work on the Crusades and the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem i s Steven Runciman, A H i s t o r y of the  Crusades, 3 v o l s . (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952). Other u s e f u l works on the s u b j e c t are T.S.R. Boase, Kingdoms  and Strongholds of the Crusaders (New York: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 19 71); Rene Grousset, The E p i c of the Crusades, t r a n s . Noel Lindsay (New York: Orion P r e s s , 1970); J.L. La Monte, Feudal  Monarchy in the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100-1291 (Cambridge, Mass., 1932; r e p r i n t ed. , New York: Kraus R e p r i n t , 1970); D.C. Munro, The Kingdom of the Crusaders (New York and London: D. Appleton-Century, 1935); J . Prawer, The Crusaders'  Kingdom: European C o l o n i a l i s m in the Middle Ages (New York: Praeger , 1972); and Jean R i c h a r d , The L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, 2 v o l s , t r a n s . Janet S h i r l e y (New York: North-Holland P u b l i s h -i n g , 1979), v o l . A: The Kingdom of Jerusalem under the House of  Ardennes-Anj ou. 2 For the b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n about to be d e t a i l e d here, see, among o t h e r s , C. C a h i e r , Nouveaux Melanges d ' A r c h e o l o g i e ,  d ' H i s t o i r e et de L i t t e r a t u r e , 4 v o l s . ( P a r i s , 1874), 2:1; and Frauke Steenbock, Der K i r c h l i c h e Prachteinband in Friihen  M i t t e l a l t e r ( B e r l i n ! Deutscher V e r l a g f u r Kunstwissenschaft, 1965) , p. 186. 3 I d i s c o v e r e d that t h i s French monastery had an e a r l y connection with a Jerusalem orde r , the Knights Templar. For d e t a i l s , see Appendix 1. Presumably, i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r were brought to Grenoble by a Templar who loaned, or gave, or en t r u s t e d them to the monks of the Grande C h a r t r e u s e . They were probably s t o l e n from the monastery d u r i n g , or s h o r t l y a f t e r , the French R e v o l u t i o n (see Appendix 1 ) . How they came i n t o the po s s e s s i o n of Dr. Commermont i s not known. 4 For d e t a i l s r egarding the s e p a r a t i o n of ivories,.and b i n d i n g , and f o r some in f o r m a t i o n on c o n s e r v a t i o n procedures, see Appendix 2. 5 Since i t was a predominantly m i l i t a r y s t a t e , the L a t i n Kingdom's main achievement i n the a r t s was m i l i t a r y a r c h i t e c -t u r e . For g e n e r a l overviews of Crusader a r t , see Boase, op.  c i t . , pp. 96-124; idem, "The A r t s i n the L a t i n Kingdom of 92 93 J e r u s a l e m , " Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 2 (1938-39): 1:21; and Prawer, op. c i t . , pp. 416-68. The l a t e s t and most comprehensive work on the s u b j e c t i s Kenneth M. S e t t o n , gen. ed., A H i s t o r y o f the C r u s a d e s , 4 v o l s . (Madison, W i s c o n s i n : The U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1977), v o l . 4: The A r t and  A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Crusader S t a t e s , ed. H a r r y W. Hazard, Chaps. 1-4, and 7. For s p e c i f i c comments on c a s t l e s and f o r -t r e s s e s , see Boase, Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p. 120; idem, "The A r t s i n the L a t i n Kingdom," p. 15; Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 417; and S e t t o n , op. c i t . , 4:140-69. For i n f o r m a t i o n on e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , as w e l l as i t s mosaic and s c u l p -t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , see Boase, op. c i t . , pp. 1-15; idem, Kingdoms  and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , pp. 96, 101, and 120-22; and Prawer, op.  c i t . , 417-19 , 430-35, and 454. Prawer a l s o d i s c u s s e s s m a l l e r a r t forms, op. c i t . , p. 443f. and 461f. See a l s o Boase, op.  c i t . , p. 9 7 f . , and S e t t o n , op. c i t . , p. 139, f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f s p e c i f i c examples i n t h i s r e g a r d . For i n f o r m a t i o n on Crusader m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n , see Hugo B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g  i n the L a t i n Kingdom of J e r u s a l e m (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1957). C y c l e s and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l images are i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s . For a d d i t i o n a l , and more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , see Chap. I I of t h i s paper. 7 See Chap. I l l , p. 58f„ t h i s paper. For a b r i e f com-ment, and a" l i s t i n g of the few comparable examples i n t h i s r e g a r d , see S teen bock,- op. c i t . , p. 187. See a l s o n. 44, Chap. I l l , f o r more - de'tai l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A s i m i l a r remark was made by Steenbock, l o c . c i t . She a l s o c i t e d the i v o r i e s as the e a r l i e s t known example of an A c t s of Mercy c y c l e . In t h i s she was m i s t a k e n : In the course of t h i s s t u d y I came a c r o s s an e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h l e s s complete example — an 1 1 t h - c e n t u r y p a n e l from I t a l y , on which are d e p i c t e d images of a s a i n t p e r f o r m i n g A c t s o f Mercy: f e e d i n g the hungry, v i s i t i n g the i m p r i s o n e d , and c l o t h i n g the naked. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see D. Redig de Campos, "Eine bekannte D a r s t e l l u n g des j u n g s t e n G e r i c h t s a u s d e m E l f t e n J a h r h u n d e r t , " Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e 5 (1936): 127. A. du Sommerard, Les A r t s au Moyen Age ( P a r i s , 1838-4 6 ) , Album, s e r . 8, p i s . 12-16. Amongst w h i c h , are the meaning of the b i r d , H e r o d i u s , on the top of the back c o v e r , and the u n u s u a l sequence c f the V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e . ( C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:2-14.) C a h i e r ' s t h e o r i e s w i l l be d e t a i l e d a t a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s i n the second c h a p t e r o f t h i s paper. 94 11 C a h i e r made a key e r r o r i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of the V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e when he d e s c r i b e d the s t r u g g l e between A v a r i t i a and L a r g i t a s , op. c i t . , 2:9. He f a i l e d t o note t h a t the i v o r i e s a c t u a l l y d e p i c t A v a r i t i a and F o r t i t u d o t o g e t h e r , w h i l e L a r g i t a s i s p o r t r a y e d s i n g l y . T h i s i s no s m a l l o v e r s i g h t s i n c e the s e p a r a t e p o r t r a y a l of L a r g i t a s i s the l i n k between a l l of the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c c y c l e s , and hence, i s a major c l u e t o t h e i r meaning. See Chap. I I of t h i s s t u d y . 12 W.Y. F l e t c h e r , F o r e i g n B o o k b i n d i n g s i n the B r i t i s h  Museum (London, 18 9 6 ) , no. 2] A r t h u r H a s e l o f f , E i n e T h u r i n g i s c h - S a c h s i s c h e M a l e r s c h u l e des 13. J a h r h u n d e r t s ( S t r a s s b u r g : H e i t z , 189 7 ) , p. 343; F.X. K r a u s , G e s c h i c h t e der C h r i s t l i c h e n Kunst (n.p., 18 9 6 ) , l : 5 7 8 f . , and p i . 4 58 ; Dr. Waagen (no i n i t i a l s g i v e n ) , T r e a s u r e s of A r t i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n (n.p., n . d . ) , v o l . 1, c i t e d by J.O. Westwood,,as p a r t o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the i v o r i e s i n A D e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g u e of the F i c t i l e I v o r i e s i n the South  K e n s i n g t o n Museum (London, 1876), pp. 72-3. 13 B r i t i s h Museum, Guide t o the M a n u s c r i p t s , A u t o g r a p h s ,  C h a r t e r s , S e a l s , I l l u m i n a t i o n s , and B i n d i n g s E x h i b i t e d i n the Department of M a n u s c r i p t s and i n the G r e n v i l l e L i b r a r y (London: The Museum T r u s t e e s , 1906), p. 146; P. Clemen, Die Romanische  Monumentalmalerei i n den R h e i n l a n d e n ( D i i s s e l d o r f , 1916), p. 166f. and F i g . 134; Comte A. de Laborde, Etude sur l a B i b l e  M o r a l i s e e ( P a r i s , 1927), 5:21f.; C. E n l a r t , Les Monuments des  C r o i s e s dans l e Royaume de J e r u s a l e m , 4 v o l s . ( P a r i s , 1925), 1:199-200; J.A. H e r b e r t , I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s (London: Methuen, 1911), p. 58; and A l f r e d M a s k e l l , I v o r i e s (London: Methuen, 1905), pp. 118-19. 14 O.M. D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e o f the I v o r y C a r v i n g s o f the  C h r i s t i a n E r a i n the B r i t i s h Museum (London, 1909), nos. 28 and 29, p. 2 3 f . , and p i s . 15 and 16; idem, B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e - o l o g y (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1911), pp. 231 and 233; and idem, E a s t C h r i s t i a n A r t ( O x f o r d , 1925), p. 218. 15 . . That o f M o o r i s h S p a i n . See B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e - o l o g y , p. 233; Chap. I l l of t h i s paper 7^ s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , "The I v o r i e s and the Twofold A r t i s t i c T r a d i t i o n of the J e r u s a l e m S c r i p t o r i u m ; " and f i g . 25, t h i s s t u d y . 16 A. G o l d s c h m i d t and K u r t Weitzmann, Die B y z a n t i n i s c h e n  E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n ( B e r l i n , 1934), 2:79-80; J . S t r z y g o w s k i , "Ruins of the Tombs o f the L a t i n K i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m , " S p e c u l u m 11 (1936): 507. The m o t i f i n q u e s t i o n i s a knotwork p a t t e r n . See f i g s . 43a, 43b, and 43c, t h i s s t u d y . 17 Boase, "The A r t s i n the L a t i n Kingdom...," p. 14; Adolph K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n  M e d i e v a l A r t (London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1939; r e p r i n t 95 e d . W . W . N o r t o n , 1964), p p . 9 a n d 60. T h e i v o r i e s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n a c o m p a r a t i v e t a b l e i n H u g o B u c h t h a l , T h e M i n i a t u r e s  o f t h e P a r i s P s a l t e r ( L o n d o n : T h e W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , 1938), p . 28 . 18 B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m o f  J e r u s a l e m , c a t a l o g u e e n t r y , p . 139; i n a r e v i e w o f t h i s w o r k i n A r t B u l l e t i n 43 ( M a r c h 1961): 67-8, H a r r y B o b e r r e g r e t s t h a t B u c h t h a l d i d n o t s t u d y t h e i v o r i e s s i n c e t h e y " h a v e s m a l l s c e n e s c o m p o s e d i n a m a n n e r t h a t i n v i t e s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e m i n i a -t u r e s . . . . " ; G e r v a s e M a t h e w , B y z a n t i n e P a i n t i n g ( L o n d o n : P i t m a n P u b l i s h i n g , 1950), p . 16; R e a l l e x i k o n d e r D e u t s c h e n K u n s t g e -s c h i c h t e , 1954 e d . , s . v . " D a v i d , " b y R o b e r t L . W y s s , 3: c o l . 1107 ; P v U n c i m a n , o p . c i t . , v o l . 3: T h e K i n g d o m o f A c r e a n d t h e  L a t e r C r u s a d e s , p . 38 5; a n d M a r i a v o n T h a d d e n , D i e I k o n o g r a p h i e  d e r C a r i t a s i n d e r K u n s t d e s M i t t e l a l t e r s ( U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , B o n n , 1951), p . 47. 19 S t e e n b o c k , o p . c i t . , p p . 186-88 , a n d p i s . 124 a n d 125; a n d H u g o S t e g e r , D a v i d R e x e t P r o p h e t a ( N u r n b e r g : V e r l a g H a n s C a r l , 1961), p . 216 a n d p i . 22. 20 F o r s u m m a r i e s o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , s e e B o a s e , K i n g d o m s  a n d S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p . 103; P r a w e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 462-66; a n d R . C . S m a i l , T h e C r u s a d e r s i n S y r i a a n d t h e H o l y L a n d ( L o n d o n : T h a m e s a n d H u d s o n , 1973), p p . 165-66, a n d p i . 62. T h e 1977 s u r v e y o f C r u s a d e r a r t , r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e t e x t , i s v o l u m e 4 o f S e t t o n , o p . c i t . : T h e A r t a n d A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e C r u s a d e r  S t a t e s , p p . 128, 139 , a n d 288 . F o r t h e c o m p l e t e c i t a t i o n , s e e n . 5, t h i s c h a p t e r . ) 21 T h e a u t h o r o f t h e t r e a t i s e i s H u g h o f S t . V i c t o r . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , s e e C h a p t e r I I o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , " T h e S e c o n d a r y T e x t u a l S o u r c e . " K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , o p . c i t . , p . 10, b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d t h e t r e a t i s e i n q u e s t i o n , a n d f r o m h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , I r e c o g n i z e d p o s s i b l e p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e t w o i v o r i e s , w h i c h p r o m p t e d me t o e x a m i n e t h e o r i g i n a l L a t i n t e x t . T o a s o m e w h a t l e s s e r e x t e n t , V o n T h a d d e n ' s s t u d y w a s a l s o h e l p f u l i n t h i s r e g a r d . ( S e e n . 55, C h a p . I I . ) 22 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , A H i s t o r y o f D e e d s D o n e B e y o n d t h e  S e a , 2 v o l s , , t r a n s . E . A . B a b c o c k a n d A . C . K r e y (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1943). 96 Notes to Chapter II The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s based e n t i r e l y on my own o b s e r v a t i o n s and measurements, made in the Manuscript Depart-ment of the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , June 1980. For other d e s c r i p t i o n s of the i v o r i e s , see Dalton, Catalogue, pp. 23-24; Goldschmidt, Die B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:79-8 0; Prawer, The  Crusaders' Kingdom, pp. 4 63-65; and Steenbock, K i r c h l i c h e  Prachteinband , pp. 186-88 . 2 The d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t of the i v o r i e s may owe something to the r u b i e s and t u r q u o i s e s with which they are studded. However, the gems were added i n the n i n e t e e n t h century (Maskell, I v o r i e s , p. 119), and thus, cannot p r o p e r l y be considered as p a r t of the d e c o r a t i v e programme. 3 Despite the f a c t t h a t a f a i r amount of work has been done on the Psychomachia in medieval a r t . See Woodruff's a r t i c l e i n A r t S t u d i e s 7:33-79 ; and Katzenellenbogen, A l l e g o r i e s  of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s , passim. See a l s o P.H. M i c h e l , "La Psychomachie, Theme L i t t e r a i r e e t P l a s t i q u e , " Gazette des Beaux  A r t s 40 (1952): 319-28; and R. Tuve, "Notes on the V i r t u e s and V i c e s , " P a r t s 1 and 2, Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 26 (1963): 264-303, and 27 (1964): 42-72. Woodruff, op. c i t . , pp. 33-34, a l s o g i v e s some g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Prudentius and h i s work. 4 For b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t e x t u a l sources, and f o r b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e . i v o r i e s ' iconography, see C a h i e r , Nouveaux Melanges d ' A r c h e o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e e t de L i t t e r a t u r e , 2:2f; Clemen, Die Romanische Monumentalmalerei in den Rhein-landen, pp. 166-7; Dalton, op. c i t . , pp. 22-4; Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 463f.; and Steenbock , op. c i t . , pp. 186-7. 5 The t e x t u a l sources c i t e d f o r t h i s and the other c y c l e s r e p r e s e n t my own attempt to i d e n t i f y the c l o s e s t - p o s s i b l e p i c t u r e - t e x t correspondences. Unless otherwise s p e c i f i e d , my own f i n d i n g s do not d i f f e r g r e a t l y from p r e v i o u s t e x t u a l i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n s . See, f o r example, D a l t o n , bp. c i t . , pp. 22-4; Steenbock, op. c i t . , pp. 18 6-7; and Westwood, A D e s c r i p t i v e  Catalogue of the F i c t i l e I v o r i e s . . . , pp. 72-3. Dalton, op. c i t . , p. 23, suggests the source by r e f e r r i n g to the apocryphal Psalm 151. 7 The most complete i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i n s c r i p -t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with t h i s and the other c y c l e s p o r t r a y e d on the i v o r i e s i s to be found i n Dalton, op. c i t . , pp. 22-4; and Westwood, op. c i t . , pp. 72-3. 97 Cahier, op. c i t . , 2:6-9; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 18 7, have noted that the V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e c l o s e l y f o l l o w s P r u d e n t i u s 1 t e x t . However, ne i t h e r they, nor anyone e l s e , u n t i l now, has demonstrated t h i s f a c t by quoting the r e l e v a n t sections of t e x t . Q This l a s t scene on the i v o r i e s i s a c t u a l l y a composite of two episodes. In the t e x t , Peace banishes war, but i t i s a c t u a l l y F a i t h who deals the death-blow to Discord. See the "Psychomachia," i n Prudentius, 2 v o l s . , t r a n s . H.J. Thomson (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1949), 1:323, l i n e s 634-635; and 1:329, l i n e s 714-716. For the preceding l i n e s of t e x t quoted, see i b i d . , 1:281, l i n e s 22, 28 and 30; 283-85, l i n e s 40, 41, 50, 51 and 86; 287-89, l i n e s 110, 111 and 150; 293 and 299, l i n e s 200 and 205, and l i n e s 279-281 and 283; 307-09, l i n e s 405-408 and 423-424; and 319-21, l i n e s 574, 585-586, and 600-601. The l i n e numbers j u s t c i t e d are references to Thomson's E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , which c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y to the L a t i n t e x t on f a c i n g pages. Other l i n e numbers, to be c i t e d in subsequent notes, w i l l a l s o r e f e r to Thomson's t r a n s l a t i o n , which has been used c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout t h i s chapter. For general comments on, and d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s c y c l e , see Cahier, op. c i t . 2:12-13; Dalton, op. c i t . , p. 24; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187. 1 1 In the t h i r t e e n t h century, a seventh Act of Mercy, the B u r i a l of the Dead, was conceived. See R. Freyhan, "Evolu-t i o n of the C a r i t a s Figure i n the T h i r t e e n t h and Fourteenth Century," Warburg and Courtauld I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 11 (1948): 70, n. 2. 12 Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 60. 13 See, for example, two eleventh-century Byzantine manuscripts: the Theodore Psa l t e r , ca 1066 (London, B.L., Addi-t i o n a l MS 19352, f f . 19 and 97v), and a Psalter, dated 1059 (Rome, Vatican, gr. 752 , f 82); both manuscripts are c i t e d by Christopher Walter, Studies in Byzantine Iconography (London: Variorum Reprints, 1977), "Raising on a Shield in Byzantine Iconography" (XII), p. 172, and "The Significance of Unction in Byzantine Iconography" (XIII), pp. 62-65. With regard to describing the costume as contemporary Byzantine, see n. 68, this chapter. 14 To my knowledge, this i s the f i r s t time that the Chronicles passage has been cited with regard to the i v o r i e s ' iconography. 98 15 . . . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s are based on i n f o r m a t i o n contained in R.E. Latham, D i c t i o n a r y of  Medieval L a t i n from B r i t i s h Sources (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, f o r the B r i t i s h Academy, 1975); and idem, Revised  Medieval L a t i n Word L i s t (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , f o r the B r i t i s h Academy, 1965). These d i c t i o n a r i e s were used here because, as w i l l become c l e a r as the d i s c u s s i o n p r o g r e s s e s , i t i s important to know the medieval (as opposed to the c l a s s i c a l ) meaning of these corner i n s c r i p t i o n s . See the s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter e n t i t l e d , "The Secondary T e x t u a l Source." 1 6 F l o r e n c e McCulloch, Medieval L a t i n and French  B e s t i a r i e s (Chapel H i l l , N.C.: U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , 1960), p. 125 and p. 125, n. 74. A few e a r l y works t h a t d i s -cuss the i v o r i e s completely overlook the b e s t i a r y connection of the word, and suggest that Herodius was the name of the a r t i s t . See, f o r example, the B r i t i s h Museum's Guide to the  M a n u s c r i p t s . . . , of 19 06, p. 14 6; and Clemen, op. c i t . , p. 166, n. 105. 125. 17 18 19 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 1:313; and McCulloch, op. c i t , C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:10-13. Among them, are Boase, "The A r t s i n the L a t i n King-dom," p. 14; idem, Kingdoms and Strongholds of the Crusaders, p. 103; D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 26; Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 465; Smail, The Crusaders i n S y r i a and the Holy Land, pp. 165-66; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187, who notes t h a t the theory does not exclude other p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the i d e n t i t y of the k i n g . 20 Quoted in another context by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 1:312. 21 "De S t r u t h i o n e e t E j u s p e n n i s , quibus Notantur Hypo-c r i t a e , e t A c c i p i t r i s a e H e r o d i i , quibus S i g n i f i c a n t u r E l e c t i , " from De B e s t i i s e t A l l i i s Rebus-Liber Primus, i n J.-P. Migne, P a t r o l o g i a e L a t i n a ( P a r i s , 1879), 177: c o l . 36. 22 V.-H. Debidour, Le B e s t i a i r e S c u l p t e du Moyen Age en  France ( [ P a r i s ] : Arthaud, 1961), p. 211. 23 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:14; and D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 24. 2 ^ An examination of contemporary b e s t i a r i e s , i n which the animals are named, f a i l e d to shed any l i g h t with regard to the animals on the i v o r i e s . I found no c o n v i n c i n g comparisons. 25 R e a l l e x i k o n der Deutschen K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , s.v. "David," c o l . 1107; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 186. See a l s o Chap. I l l of t h i s paper, the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , "The Western Models." 99 2 6 As yet, no art historian has confronted this problem. With regard to the David cycle as a whole, Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187 , notes that, as a rule in medieval a r t , the David ic scenes chosen were those which could be p a r a l l e l l e d with events from the l i f e of Chris t . However, I have found no evidence, textual or p i c t o r i a l , that would suggest that a s p e c i f i c David-Christ typology was intended to be represented in t h i s instance. 27 For examples of the usual pairing of A v a r l t i a - L a r g i t a s , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , pp. 9 , n. 1; 1 1 , n. 1; 18 ; 2 0 , n. 5 ; 77 ; and passim. Only one other instance of an isolated Largitas figure has come to l i g h t in the course of t h i s study: London, B.L. MS Cotton Titus D. XVI. (This was also noted by Von Thadden, Die Ikonographie der Carita s . . . , p. 4 2 . However, this manuscript also shows the standard Ava r i t i a - L a r g i t a s p a i r -ing and does not contain any portrayal of Fortitudo. 28 An English enamel crozier (ca 1175) , now in the Bargello, Florence. See F i g . 28 , and Chap. I l l , p. 5 8 , of -. this study. In this example, however, neither of the two cycles are as complete as those depicted on the i v o r i e s . 29 . . . I have no further evidence in support of t h i s view, and thus, I make this suggestion somewhat te n t a t i v e l y . 30 Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187 , and Chap. I, p. 3 , of this paper. 3 ] The closest example m this regard i s in a ca 1165 manuscript from Ratisbon (Munich, Staatsbibliothek Cod. l a t . 13002) . F o l i o 4r shows David in the same scene as a personi-f i c a t i o n of Caritas. For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p i . XXXIII -55 . 32 P. 17 , this paper; Cahier, op. c i t . , 2 : 8 ; and Steen-bock, op. c i t . , p. 18 7. 3 3 Prudentius, 1 : 2 9 9 , l i n e s 2 9 0 - 2 9 1 ; and 3 0 7 , l i n e s 3 8 5 -3 8 6 , and 3 9 4 - 3 9 5 . These references were also noted by Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 9 . He did not, however, per-ceive the extent of their application to the i v o r i e s . 34 35 36 37 Prudentius , 1:299 , l i n e s 2 9 0 - 2 9 1 . I b i d . , 1 : 3 0 7 , l i n e s 3 8 5 - 3 8 6 , and 394 -395 . Ibid., 1 : 2 8 1 , l i n e 3 2 . For information in this regard, see Meyer Schapiro, "An Illuminated English Psalter of the Thirteenth Century," Warburg and Courtauld Institutes Journal 23 (July I960.) : 179-89 ; and Ernst H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957), passim. 100' 3 8 P r u d e n t i u s , 1:281, l i n e s 37-39. 3 9 I b i d . , 1:295, l i n e 239; I Samuel 17:42-3. 4fi P r u d e n t i u s , 1:291, l i n e s 162-167. 41 Loc. c i t . , l i n e s 154-155. 4 2 I b i d . , 1:325 , l i n e 665. C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:9, a l s o noted the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of j u x t a p o s i n g Concordia.with a scene of m u s i c a l harmony. He d i d not, however, acknowledge the Psychomachian t e x t u a l source. 43 For example, i n the V i v i a n B i b l e f r o n t i s p i e c e to Psalms ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat., Cod. l a t . I, f . 215). However, i t should be noted t h a t here, as i n other comparable examples, t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s u s u a l l y made i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the i n c l u -s ion of the three other c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s : P r u d e n t i a , Temperan-t i a , and J u s t i t i a . Where David i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with only one v i r t u e , t h a t v i r t u e i s u s u a l l y h u m i l i t y . (See, f o r example, the manuscript c i t e d i n n. 31: i n another scene on the same f o l i o , David i s p o r t r a y e d with H u m i l i t a s . ) 44 Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 60, n. 1; and p. 78, n. 1. 45 I b i d . , p. 17, n. 2 and p. 83, n. 1; Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 4 7 and passim. 46 47 P r u d e n t i u s , 1:333, l i n e s 755-756. Loc. c i t . , l i n e s 779-780. P r u d e n t i u s 1 paraphrase of verses from the " c h a r i t y chapter" of the B i b l e (I C o r i n t h i a n s 13:4 and 7) i s l i t e r a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the S t . Albans Pruden-t i u s (B.L., Cotton MS T i t u s D. XVI), i n which, on f . 29v, Concordia metamorphosizes i n t o C a r i t a s . T h i s was noted by myself upon examination of the manuscript at the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , June 1980. I know of no p u b l i s h e d photograph of t h i s image. 48 • . At the time of i t s c r e a t i o n , the David-as-Musician m e d a l l i o n may a l s o have been understood as an a d d i t i o n a l nar-r a t i v e l i n k between f r o n t and back cover s : There i s a t e x t by S t . Ambrose i n which he speaks of the " f i n e melody of good works," and f u r t h e r on, of "a symphony of good works." (See "The Prayer of Job and David," i n The Fathers of the Church, v o l . 44: S t . Ambrose: Seven E x e g e t i c a l Works (Washington, D.C: The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America P r e s s , 1972), pp. 419-20.) I f t h i s connection between m u s i c a l harmony and c h a r i t y was known to the inventor of the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, then L a r g i t a s may a l s o be p a r t of the Davidic-Psychomachian metaphor d e s c r i b e d above. 101 49 Freyhan, op. c i t . , pp. 69-70; and Von Thadden, op.  c i t . , p. 93. 5 0 P r u d e n t i u s , 1:341, l i n e s 874-877. 51 Both Cahier (op. c i t . , 2:14) and Dalton (op. c i t . , p. 26) regarded the b i r d s and animals as mainly d e c o r a t i v e . Other w r i t e r s on the i v o r i e s have not c o n s i d e r e d the problem. 52 P r u d e n t i u s , 1:335, l i n e s 789-796. 5 3 I b i d . , 1:343, l i n e s 903-905, and 910-913. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , the animals and b i r d s o r i g i n a l l y had some a d d i t i o n a l symbolic pur-p o r t . In the 1159-1180 Hortus D e l i c i a r u m (Munich, S t a a t s b i b l i o -thek, Cod. l a t . 13002), f o r example, the bear and wolf are the symbols of v i o l e n c e and r a p a c i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . (See A. Straub and G. K e l l e r , Hortus D e l i c i a r u m (Strasbourg, 1879-99; Eng. t r a n s . , ed. and t r a n s . A r i s t i d e D. C a r a t z a s , New R o c h e l l e , N.Y.: Caratzas B r o t h e r s , 1977), p. 178. For a d d i t i o n a l , g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on animal symbolism, see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 61; and McCulloch, op. c i t . , passim. C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:14, i d e n t i f i e s the animal i n the centre-bottom i n t e r s t i c e as an antelope, symbol of C h r i s t . However, i t has been noted elsewhere in t h i s paper (p. 21f,) t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of u n l a b e l l e d medieval animal imagery i s a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e e x e r c i s e . Thus, although C a h i e r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and symbolic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the animal d e p i c t e d in what i s , on the i v o r y , the l a s t n a r r a t i v e p o s i t i o n , would work w e l l as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the l i n e i n the c o n c l u s i o n of the Psychomachia — " u n t i l C h r i s t our God comes to our a i d . . . . " (Prudentius, 1:343, l i n e s 912^914, quoted p. 31, t h i s paper) — h i s (Cahier's) hypothesis must be r e j e c t e d f o r i t s l a c k of a secure e v i d e n t i a l b a s i s . 54 For g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Hugh of S t . V i c t o r , I c o n s u l t e d The New Schatt-Herzog E n c y c l o p e d i a of R e l i g i o u s  Knowledge, 1968 ed., s.v. "Hugo of S t . V i c t o r , " by O. Z o c k l e r ; and Nomenclator L i t e r a r i u s Theologiae C a t h o l i c a e , 1906 ed., 2: c o l . 81. Both of these sources note the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g a chronology f o r Hugh's w r i t i n g s . A l l that i s known f o r c e r t a i n i s that he began w r i t i n g before 1115, and continued to do so u n t i l h i s death i n 1141. Z5ckler and others are g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t , i n terms of the development of Western theology, Hugh of S t . V i c t o r was the most i n f l u e n t i a l t h e o l o g i a n of the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y . 55 For g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the content of t h i s t r e a t i s e , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , pp. 10, and 66-7; and Von Thadden, op. c i t . , pp. 22-3. For the L a t i n t e x t , see Migne, op. c i t . , 176: c o l s . 997-1010. 102 5 6 I b i d . , 176: c o l . 1003. 57 . . In a s h o r t t r a c t c i t e d i n another context by K a t z e n e l -lenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 41. (See a l s o Migne, op. c i t . , 177: c o l . 623.) A c t u a l l y , Hugh uses the word, Pax. However, as noted p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s paper, congruent concepts were o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n the Middle Ages. For a d d i t i o n a l com-ments i n t h i s regard, see Von Thadden, op. c i t . , pp. 42, 47. C O See Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , pp. 10-11, and passim, fo r other s i m i l a r examples i n t h i s r e g a r d . S i m i l a r l y , i n the iconography of the ambulatory c a p i t a l s at Cluny, J u s t i t i a i s added to the F i d e s - S p e s - C a r i t a s group. There i s no apparent t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r t h i s a d d i t i o n . See Kenneth J . Conant, "The Iconography and the Sequence of the Ambulatory C a p i t a l s of Cluny," Speculum 5 (1930).: 282. 59 Migne, op. c i t . , 176: c o l . 1002. For sources of the word meanings, see n. 15, t h i s c h a p ter. 6 fl I b i d . , 176:1004 ; see a l s o Von Thadden, op. c i t . , pp. 22-3. 61 T h i s suggestion was made by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:9. No one e l s e has, u n t i l now, addressed themselves to the problem. 6 2 Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 45. I query her i n c l u s i o n of Psalm 25:16 and 18 i n t h i s r e g ard. These v e r s e s bear more on f o r g i v e n e s s than c h a r i t y — undoubtedly, though, the two are r e l a t e d . 6 3 T h i s and the other a d d i t i o n s to Von Thadden's l i s t are the r e s u l t of my own reading of the Psalms. 64 For the source of t h i s l i s t , and f o r d e t a i l e d com-ments on the t e x t s , see J.H. Eaton, K i n g s h i p and the Psalms (London: SCM Press, 1976), p. 140f, and passim. 65 The f i r s t group c o n s i s t s of Psalms 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 17, 22, 23, 27, 28, 35, 40, 41, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75, 89, 91, 92, 94, 108, 118, 138, 140, and 143. For above l i s t i n g and e x p l a n a t o r y comments, see Eaton, op. c i t . , pp. 27-64. Psalms more p e r i p h e r a l l y r e l a t e d to the theme of k i n g s h i p are l i s t e d and d i s c u s s e d i b i d . , pp. 64-85. 6 6 Psalm 72:1, 4, and 12. 6 7 Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 188, however, p e r c e i v e d an aspect of t h i s i c onographic u n i t y when she d e s c r i b e d the manu-s c r i p t and covers as interdependent in the sense t h a t the former c o n t a i n s the t e x t of the Psalms, the l a t t e r , images of the P s a l m i s t . 103 6 8 The Byzantine costume of the king i s f r e q u e n t l y men-tio n e d by w r i t e r s on the i v o r i e s . See, f o r example, D a l t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 23-24; Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 465; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187. For g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n regarding Byzantine i m p e r i a l costume and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a r t , and on c o i n s , see Iohannis S p a t h a r a k i s , The P o r t r a i t i n Byzantine I l l u m i n a t e d  Manuscripts (Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1976). The costumes shown on Byzantine coinage p a r t i c u l a r l y resemble those p o r t r a y e d on the i v o r y . See, f o r example, i b i d . , p i . 118. 69 By F u l c h e r of C h a r t r e s in the e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . See F u l c h e r of C h a r t r e s , A H i s t o r y of the E x p e d i t i o n to  Jerusalem, 1095-1127, ed. H.S. F i n k , t r a n s . F.R. Ryan (Knox-v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y of Tennessee P r e s s , 1969), p. 271. See a l s o James A. Brundage, t r a n s . , The Crusades: A Documentary  Survey (Milwaukee: Marquette U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962), pp. 74-5. The p r a c t i c e of wearing E a s t e r n c l o t h i n g was condemned l a t e r i n the century by Jacques de V i t r y , Bishop of Acre and P a t r i a r c h of Jerusalem. For the q u o t a t i o n , see J.L. La Monte, "The S i g -n i f i c a n c e of the Crusaders' S t a t e s i n Medieval H i s t o r y , " Byzantion 15 (1940-41): 311. For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the Crusaders* adoption of E a s t e r n - s t y l e d r e s s , see R i c h a r d , The L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, A:142; Runciman, A H i s t o r y of the Crusades, 2:317; and Setton, A H i s t o r y of the  Crusades, 4:21-3. 70 Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 466. 71 P. 20, and n. 18, t h i s chapter. 72 W i l l i a m of Tyre, A H i s t o r y of Deeds Done Beyond the  Sea, 2:47. For other i n f o r m a t i o n on F u l k , see i b i d . , 2:47f passim; and Grousset, The E p i c of the Crusades, p. 9 I f . 73 - . . . . . T h i s , of course, i s a l l o w i n g f o r some f l e x i b i l i t y i n the 1131-1143 d a t i n g of the i v o r i e s . 74 W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:137. W i l l i a m ' s d e s c r i p -t i o n of F u l k ' s p h y s i c a l appearance i s l e s s d e t a i l e d ( i b i d . , 2:47). However, as a comparatively recent a r r i v a l from Western Europe, Fulk probably observed the F r a n k i s h custom of shaving. (See S e t t o n , op. c i t . , 4:22f f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d -ing Western, as opposed to O r i e n t a l , customs of c l o t h i n g and h a i r s t y l e s . For other i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g Baldwin I I I , see i b i d . , 2:136f, 235f, and passim; see a l s o Boase, Kingdoms and  Strongholds..., p. l O l f ; Grousset, op. c i t . , p. 121f; and Runciman, op. c i t . , 2:233f. 75 W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , l o c . c i t . 104 7 6 I b i d . , 2:235-6. The date of t h i s i n c i d e n t i s a p p r o x i -mate. The t r o u b l e between the p r i n c e and the P a t r i a r c h of A n t i o c h began as e a r l y as 1143, and culminated i n the imprison-ment of the l a t t e r ca 1158-70. See i b i d . , 2:235, n. 1. 77 Grousset, op. c i t . , p. 121. See p . l 8 f , t h i s paper. La Monte, op. c i t . , pp. 303-04; Prawer, op. c i t . , 78 79 p. 503. 8 0 For g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p , see Kantorowicz, Laudes Regiae, The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i - c a t i o n s i n H i s t o r y , v o l . 33 (Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1946), pp. 56-7 and 103-05; and idem, The  King's Two Bodies, pp. 77 and 81. For more s p e c i f i c informa-t i o n r e g a r d i n g k i n g s h i p i n L a t i n Jerusalem, see La Monte, Feudal Monarchy i n the L a t i n Kingdom..., p. 209; Prawer, op.  c i t . , pp. 95 and 475; and R i c h a r d , op. c i t . , A:62-4. 81 Herbert K e s s l e r , The I l l u s t r a t e d B i b l e s from Tours ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977), p. 109. 8 2 F.L. Ganshof. The C a r o l i n g i a n s and the F r a n k i s h  Monarchy, t r a n s . Janet Sondheimer (Ithaca, N.Y.: C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p. 61. The V i a Regia i s c i t e d by Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 21. 8 3 W i l l i a m of T y r e , op. c i t . , 1:522, 2:47, 133, and 137. 84 . For d e t a i l s , see passim, in any of the sources c i t e d in n. 1, Chap. I. 8 5 Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 104. W i l l i a m of Tyre's H i s t o r y makes i t c l e a r that m i l i t a r y prowess was regarded as the most important a s s e t of an e f f e c t i v e k i n g . See i b i d . , 1:522; 2:47; 2:138; and passim. 8 6 In t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Jerusalem, a d u a l r o l e , s i m i l a r to that of the k i n g , was a l s o f i l l e d by the two m i l i t a r y o r d e r s , the H o s p i t a l l e r s and the Templars (founded 1070 and 1120, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . These nobly-born warrior-monks f u l f i l l e d two f u n c t i o n s : the m i l i t a r y defense of the kingdom, and the care of i t s poor and a i l i n g . Jacques de V i t r y ( a c t i v e , l a t e t w e l f t h e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ) r e f e r r e d to these o r d e r s as " l i o n s at war, and g e n t l e as lambs at home." (Quoted by La Monte in h i s a r t i c l e i n Byzantion 15, p. 219.) A s i m i l a r d e s c r i p -t i o n could a l s o be a p p l i e d to the i d e a l of a contemporary k i n g . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the Knights H o s p i t a l l e r and Templar, and on t h e i r r o l e i n the L a t i n Kingdom, see La Monte, 105 Feudal Monarchy..., Chap. 2; Munro, The Kingdom of the Crusad- er s , pp. 98-101; Prawer, op. c i t . , Chap. 14; Richard, op. c i t 7 , A:112f; and Runciman, op. c i t . , 2:156-9, 248-9, 312-17, 338-41, and passim. For a more d e t a i l e d account of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the Knights H o s p i t a l l e r , see E . J . King, The Knights H o s p i t a l l e r s  i n the Holy Land (London: Methuen, 1931), Chaps. 1-3. 106 Notes to Chapter I I I 1 Buchthal, M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom of  Jerusalem. (See n. 5, Chap. I f o r complete c i t a t i o n . ) 2 Except in the catalogue e n t r y f o r the P s a l t e r ( i b i d . , p. 139), where Buchthal notes the i v o r i e s ' e x i s t e n c e and pro-vides a b r i e f b i b l i o g r a p h y . 3 1125-1187 and 1225-1250. 4 Buchth a l , op. c i t . , pp. xxix-xxx. 5 I b i d . , p. xxx. ^ Ib i c l . , p. 35. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the s c r i p -torium and i t s r o y a l patronage, see i b i d . , p. 36f. Prawer, The  Crusaders' Kingdom, p. 449, summarizes Buchthal's comments in t h i s regard. 7 Buchthal, op. c i t . , p. 23f. The three manuscripts t h a t are s e c u r e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s c r i p t o r i u m on l i t u r g i c a l grounds are the Melisende P s a l t e r (London, B.L., Egerton MS 1139), the Sacramentary (Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A n g e l i c a , D. 7. 3.), and one of the M i s s a l s ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat., Cod. l a t . 12056). Buchthal has assigned the four other manuscripts to the s c r i p -torium on s t y l i s t i c evidence only. These manuscripts are: the Gospel of St. John ( P a r i s , B i b . Nat., Cod. l a t . 9396), the P a r i s Gospels (Bib. Nat., Cod. l a t . 276), the Rome Gospels ( B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a , Vat. l a t . 5974), and the second M i s s a l (Naples, B i b l i o t e c a N a z i o n a l e , V i t t o r i o Emanuele I I I VI G 11) . g Buchthal's d a t i n g , op. c i t . , pp. 1, 14, and 24. The two Gospel-books are from the t h i r d quarter of the t w e l f t h century; the Naples M i s s a l dates ca 1190-1200. ( I b i d . , pp. 25 and 35.) The d a t i n g of the P s a l t e r to the years between 1131 and 1143 depends on the manuscript's c a l e n d a r , which records the death of Baldwin II i n 1131, but does not r e c o r d the next r o y a l death, that of F u l k , in 1143. General p a l e o g r a p h i c e v i -dence, s u p p l i e d by F r a n c i s Wormald in an appendix to Buchthal's study, supports t h i s d a t i n g . See i b i d . , pp. 1 and 135f. 9 Weitzmann, "Icon P a i n t i n g i n the Crusader Kingdom," Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 49-83. These a t t r i b u t i o n s are made on s t y l i s t i c grounds, b u i l d i n g , to some ex t e n t , upon Buch-t h a l ' s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the s t y l e of the s c r i p t o r i u m . On t h i s b a s i s , Weitzmann has found three t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y icons that he c o n s i d e r s products of the Holy Sepulchre s c r i p t o r i u m . (Op. 107 c i t . , pp. 52-56.) The remaining icons that he d i s c u s s e s a l l belong to the t h i r t e e n t h century, and are not, t h e r e f o r e , of immediate concern to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . In t h i s r egard, i t can be noted i n p a s s i n g that only some icons of t h i s l a t e r group were made in Jerusalem, as, by the t h i r t e e n t h century, the major centre of a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n was Acre. ( I b i d . , p. 56f.) I b i d . , pp. 52-4; and f i g s . 1 and 5. 1 1 For Buchthal's d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s manuscript, see i b i d . , pp. 1-14. See a l s o Wormald's comments in the Appendices, i b i d . , pp. 122-128, and 132-135. 12 She r u l e d with Fulk from 1131-1143, and with Baldwin u n t i l 1152. For h i s t o r i c a l background on these three r u l e r s , see Boase, Kingdoms and Strongholds..., p. l O l f ; Grousset, The  E p i c of the Crusades, p. 91f; and for the main contemporary source of i n f o r m a t i o n on Melisende, see W i l l i a m of Tyre, H i s t o r y , 2:132f and passim. 13 Buchthal, op. c i t . , p. 1; and Wormald, i b i d . , pp. 122, 127, and 133. 14 15 W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:133-4. A r t i s t s of the m i d - t w e l f t h century were not n e c e s s a r i l y " s p e c i a l i s t s . " Hugo of Bury S t . Edmunds, for example, was a s c u l p t o r and metal-worker, as w e l l as an i l l u m i n a t o r . (David M. Robb, The A r t of the I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscript (New York: A.S. Barnes, 1973), p. 197.) Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the i v o r i e s were commissioned at the same time as the P s a l t e r , and were worked on by one of the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s i l l u m i n a t o r s . In any case, i t would not have been unusual f o r a s c r i p t o r i u m of t h i s p e r i o d to produce such ornamental work as the i v o r y c o v e r s . 16 For a sampling, see passim in C a h i e r , Nouveaux  Melanges..., 2:1-14; Dalton, Catalogue..., pp. 22-26; Gold-schmidt and Weitzmann, B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n 2:79f; and Steenbock, K i r c h l i c h e Prachteinband, pp. 186-88. See a l s o Steger, David Rex et Propheta, p. 216. 17 Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 188, i s the only one of those c i t e d in n. 16 who even begins to address the problem of com-par i n g i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r : She notes that there i s no d i r e c t s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the manuscript and i t s c o v e r s . 18 The four c y c l e s of the P s a l t e r are: scenes from the Gospels, s a i n t s ' p o r t r a i t s , s i g n s of the Zodiac (in the c a l e n d a r - s e c t i o n of the m a n u s c r i p t ) , and the decorated i n i -t i a l s . Buchthal shows that each c y c l e was the work of a d i f -f e r e n t hand, and d e r i v e d from a d i f f e r e n t set of models. See op. c i t . , pp. x x x i i i , 14, and passim. 108 19 Buchthal, op. c i t . , p. 12, noted the m o t i f i n the P s a l t e r , but not on the f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y . 2 0 For example, David as Musician i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h r e e -quarter view in the P a r i s P s a l t e r (Bib. Nat., MS gr. 139, f l v ) . For a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see B u c h t h a l , The M i n i a t u r e s of the P a r i s  P s a l t e r , p i . I. (Complete c i t a t i o n i n n. 17, Chap. T7) For a t y p i c a l Western example of the f r o n t a l David, see f i g . 39a, t h i s paper. 21 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 12 and p. 12, n. 4. -. " 22 • B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:80. Goldschmidt and Weitzmann were not the f i r s t to recognize the two a r t i s t i c s t r a i n s i n the i v o r i e s . T h i s had been known, and expressed with v a r y i n g degrees of emphasis, s i n c e the c o v e r s ' i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n by Du Sommerard. Goldschmidt and Weitzmann were, however, the f i r s t to r e l a t e t h i s phenomenon in the i v o r i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the comparable d u a l i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d Jerusalem a r t i s t i c endeavour in g e n e r a l . 23 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , p. x x x n and passim. 24 For s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on the P s a l t e r , see i b i d . , pp. 1-14. Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 188, d e s c r i b e s the i v o r i e s as an almost u n p a r a l l e l l e d b l ending of Eastern and Western elements. 25 See, f o r example, E n l a r t , Les Monuments des C r o i s e s , p. 200; Goldschmidt and Weitzmann, op. c i t . , p. 80; Prawer, op. c i t . , pp. 465-66; R e a l l e x i c o n der Deutschen Kun s t g e s c h i c h t e , s.v. "David," c o l . 1107; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 188. 2 6 See, f o r example, Da l t o n , Byzantine A r t and Arche- ology , pp. 231-33; idem, Catalogue..., p. 25; and Prawer, op.  c i t . , p. 466. 27 Dalton, Catalogue..., p. 25. My own o b s e r v a t i o n s , made upon examining t h i s manuscript at the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , confirmed that Dalton's comparison was apt, and t h a t , i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s , t h i s e a r l y t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y manuscript showed armoured f i g u r e s s i m i l a r t o those on the i v o r i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , I found p a r a l l e l s on f o l i o s 2v, 3r, 5v, 6r, 6v, 7r, 7v, and 26v. To my knowledge, no photographs of these p a r t i c u l a r f o l i o s have been p u b l i s h e d . 2 8 The k n e e l i n g David as a Western motif was recognized and noted by Meyer Schapiro i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . See p. 181 of h i s a r t i c l e , c i t e d in n. 37, Chap. I I , of t h i s paper. 109 29 • • T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between Western and Byzantine A n o i n t -ment iconography was p o i n t e d out by C h r i s t o p h e r Walter i n S t u d i e s i n Byzantine Iconography (XIIT), pp. 59-60; see a l s o i b i d . , ( X I I I ) , f i g s . 1 and 2. I am g r a t e f u l t o my t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. Mary Morehart, fo r b r i n g i n g Walter's remarks to my a t t e n t i o n . 3 0 In a d d i t i o n to the examples i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s paper, f . 3v of the P a r i s P s a l t e r (Bib. Nat., MS gr. 139) can a l s o be c i t e d as an example of the t y p i c a l Byzantine Annointment scene. (See Buchthal, The M i n i a t u r e s of the P a r i s P s a l t e r , p i . I l l , f o r a r e production.) One of the e a r l i e s t images of t h i s type occurs on a s i l v e r p l a t e from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , ca 630. (For a photograph, see Weitzmann, Age of S p i r i t u a l i t y (New York: The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum of A r t and P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979), p. 476.) An a d d i t i o n a l example of the Western k n e e l i n g annointment can be seen on the r e c t o of a l e a f from the Winches-ter B i b l e (New York, P i e r p o i n t Morgan L i b r a r y 619). (See C M . Kauffmann, Romanesque Manus c r i p t s , 1066-1190 (London: Harvey M i l l e r , 1975), i l l . 240, f o r a photograph.) I t should a l s o be noted in passing t h a t , due to the i n f l u x of Byzantine models i n t o the West by the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , standing Annointment scenes are not unknown in Western a r t of t h i s p e r i o d . In t h i s regard, the standing David of the Morgan l e a f v erso, can be c i t e d . (See Kauffmann, op. c i t . , i l l . 241, f o r a reproduction.) 31 In I v o r i e s , p. 119, M a s k e l l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the orna-ment as " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Byzantine work" t y p i f i e s the e a r l i e r view, while Steenbock's b r i e f , non-committal comments (op.  c i t . , p. 186) exemplify the modern avoidance of the q u e s t i o n of the ornament's d e r i v a t i o n . 3 2 B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , p. 19. 33 The e a r l i e s t example, that I have found, of i n t e r -l o c k i n g medallions , i:used in c o n j u n c t i o n with any imagery com-parable to that of the i v o r i e s , i s a f i f t h - c e n t u r y A.D. f r e s c o from Bawit. In t h i s work, three m e d a l l i o n s i n t e r l o c k h o r i z o n -t a l l y , and a bust of Hope i s contained i n the c e n t r e m e d a l l i o n . For a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see Katzenellenbogen, A l l e g o r i e s of the  V i r t u e s and V i c e s . . . , p i . XV-30. For a s i x t h - c e n t u r y example of the m e d a l l i o n m o t i f , see the d i p t y c h of Philoxenus, ca 525, p i c t u r e d i n Tardy (no i n i t i a l s g i v e n ) , Les I v o i r e s ( P a r i s , n.d.), p i . 8. (U.B.C. l i b r a r y c a l l no. f o r t h i s book: NK 5825 T3.) A t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y i v o r y shows four m e d a l l i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g s a i n t s ' p o r t r a i t s , j o i n e d to a l a r g e r c e n t r a l m e d a l l i o n d e p i c t -ing S t . John. See Dalton, Byzantine A r t and Archeolqgy, f i g . 142. 34 Idem , Catalogue..., p. 25. 110 3 5 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:10, r e l a t e s the b i r d s and animals to the imagery in t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Western European b e s t i a r i e s . My own comparisons i n t h i s regard have f a i l e d to produce any c o n v i n c i n g p a r a l l e l s . 3 6 See p.39f. See a l s o n. 68, Chap. I I . 3 7 Catalogue..., p. 24. 3 R Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187. She i n a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s G o l i a t h ' s s h i e l d a s a n t i q u e ( i b i d . , l o c . c i t . ) . ( A n t i q u e - s t y l e s h i e l d s are commonly round. See next note.) 3 9 An instance of a d e p i c t i o n of a " h y b r i d " w a r r i o r occurs in the Hortus D e l i c i a r u m , f . 54v: G o l i a t h wears contemporary ch a i n m a i l and c a r r i e s a round s h i e l d of the type seen i n such f i f t h - and s i x t h - c e n t u r y manuscripts as the Ambrosian I l i a d (Milan, Cod. F. 205, i n f . ) , the V a t i c a n V e r g i l (Cod. Vat. L a t . 3225), and the Roman V e r g i l (Cod. Vat. L a t . 3867). For a r e p r o -d u c t i o n , see Straub and K e l l e r , Hortus D e l i c i a r u m , p i . 16. (Complete c i t a t i o n : n. 53, Chap. II.) 4 0 In t h i s regard, i t can be noted that the e a r l i e s t i n s t a n c e , that I have found, of the j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g of David with V i r t u e s occurs in the U t r e c h t P s a l t e r (ca 830)., On f 26r, the i l l u s t r a t i o n to Psalm 44 d e p i c t s King David in the company of the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of three u n i d e n t i f i e d v i r t u e s . (For a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see K e s s l e r , The I l l u s t r a t e d B i b l e s from Tours, f i g . 172.) C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the next comparable example i s an image in the ca 1000 Bamberg Apocalypse ( S t a a t s b i b . , Cod. A. I I . 42). F o l i o 60r shows female p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s of v i r t u e s p a i r e d with B i b l i c a l examples. In the lower l e f t c o r n e r , Penitence leads David by the arm. (For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p i . VI-14.) Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187, mistakenly c i t e s t h i s as the e a r l i e s t j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g of David with a V i r t u e . (As noted above, the U t r e c h t P s a l t e r c o n t a i n s an e a r l i e r example.) In another manuscript, the Hortus D e l i c i a r u m (Munich, S t a a t s b i b . , Cod. l a t . 13002, ca 1165), David i s placed near C h a r i t y i n the upper r e g i s t e r of f . 4r, and p a i r e d with H u m i l i t y in a lower r e g i s t e r of the same f o l i o . (See K a t z e n e l -lenbogen, op. c i t . , p i . XXXIII-55.) Because of i t s d e p i c t i o n of C a r i t a s , t h i s f o l i o corresponds i n a g e n e r a l thematic way to the i v o r i e s , whose imagery, as noted i n Chap. I I , empha-s i z e s the theme of c h a r i t y . V i s u a l l y , however, there i s no p a r t i c u l a r resemblance between the two works of a r t . 41 This comparison has been made p r e v i o u s l y by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:6; Clemen, Die Romanische Monumentalmalerei..., p. 166; Dalton, Catalogue..., p. 25; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187. I l l 42 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the David scenes by Clemen, op. c i t . , l o c . c i t . ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the V i r t u e - V i c e scenes by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , l o c . c i t . 43 44 45 46 For d e t a i l s , see n. 46, below. M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , p. x x x i i i . I b i d . , p. 2. A lack of a p p r o p r i a t e Western p o s s i b i l i t i e s a l s o sup-p o r t s t h i s view: In r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s paper, I found only two Western examples of mercy-related c y c l e s : an ele v e n t h - c e n t u r y wood panel from Rome and the ca 1160 F l o r e f f e B i b l e (London, B.L., A d d i t i o n a l MS 17738). D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 25, and Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 47, have noted that the F l o r e f f e B i b l e c o n t a i n s images of a woman feedi n g the hungry, of another woman comforting the imprisoned, and of a man c l o t h i n g naked beggars. (I know of no re p r o d u c t i o n of these images.) The other example, c i t e d above with the F l o r e f f e B i b l e , i s one which p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s have overlooked as an iconographic comparison f o r the i v o r i e s . T h i s i s the wood panel from Rome, painted i n the second h a l f of the el e v e n t h c e n t u r y . I t s main theme i s the Last Judgement, but p a r t of one of the r e g i s t e r s . ; shows S t . Stephen feeding the hungry, v i s i t i n g the imprisoned, and c l o t h i n g the naked. For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i l l u s -t r a t i o n s , see the a r t i c l e by R. de Campos, c i t e d in n. 8, Chap. I. A c y c l e of s a i n t s ' missions and h e a l i n g scenes -- S t . Peter's R a i s i n g of T a b i t h a , S t . Bartholomew's M i s s i o n to the In d i e s , and S t . Matthew's M i s s i o n to E t h i o p i a (described by Prawer, op. c i t . , pp. 440-2) — appear on the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y c a p i t a l s of the Church of the Annunciation i n Nazareth. V i s u a l l y , these s c u l p t u r e s do not resemble any of the i v o r y ' s imagery, but I mention them here as the only l o c a l i nstance of the p o r t r a y a l of mercy-related themes. 4 7 T h i s i s ra t h e r s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e a r e l a t e d t r a d i t i o n , r o y a l d i s p e n s a t i o n of l a r g e s s e , goes back to Roman Imp e r i a l times, and was f r e q u e n t l y portrayed on the c o i n s of t h i s p e r i o d . For these e a r l y images on coinage, see Per Gustaf Hamberg, S t u d i e s in Roman Imperial A r t (Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard, 1945), p. 16f. 48 The two t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y manuscripts of the Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen c o n t a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the s a i n t ' s Ora-t i o n 54, "On Love of the Poor" (Cod. S i n a i . Gr. 339, c i t e d by J e f f r e y C. Anderson, "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Cod. S i n a i . Gr. 339," A r t B u l l e t i n 61 (June 1979): 175f; and P a r i s , B i b . Nat. MS gr. 550, f . 251, reproduced i n f i g . 30a, t h i s paper.) 112 (The e a r l i e s t known inst a n c e of mercy-related iconography in Byzantine a r t i s found in the C h l u d o f f P s a l t e r (Moscow, MS 129D; second h a l f , n i n t h c e n t u r y ) . Von Thadden, Die Ikonographie  der C a r i t a s . . . , p. 46, noted that Psalm 37 of t h i s manuscript i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e of Mercy.) 49 For the comment that led me i n t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h , see Anderson "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Cod. S i n a i Gr. 339," A r t B u l l e t i n 61' (June 1979): 183, n. 69a. (I a l s o looked at Western New Testament c y c l e s , but t h e i r scenes of h e a l i n g and other m i r a c l e s were not numerous enough to make a Western model for the Acts of Mercy a l i k e l y p o s s i -b i l i t y . ) 50 The use of a t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Gospels f o r three comparisons ( F i g s . 29a, 31a, and 34a) does not i n v a l i d a t e the b a s i c h y p o t h e s i s . While Byzantine s t y l e , of no concern to t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , changed over the c e n t u r i e s , i t s iconography, the concern here, remained c o n s t a n t . See Henri Omont,, M i n i a t u r e s  des P l u s Anciens Manuscrits Grecs de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e ( P a r i s , 1929); S.M. P e l e k a n i d i s , The Treasures of Mount Athos, 2 v o l s . , t r a n s . P h i l i p Sherrard (Athens, 1974); or.any other standard c o m p i l a t i o n of Byzantine a r t . 51 . . . . M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp. 4 and 7. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 7. 53 See a l s o f 136v of the tenth-century P a r i s P s a l t e r (Bib. Nat., MS gr. 139). A l a r g e r e p r o d u c t i o n can be found in Buchthal's:, The M i n i a t u r e s of the P a r i s P s a l t e r , p i . V I I I . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see i b i d . , p. 28, on which i s a t a b l e l i s t -ing the Byzantine manuscripts which c o n t a i n an image of the repentant David. There are n i n e t e e n such examples. Buchthal a l s o i n c l u d e s the i v o r y i n t h i s t a b l e . 54 As f a r as I am able to t e l l , there i s no other extant example of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r scene. No p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r has con-f r o n t e d the problem of the p i c t o r i a l source of t h i s scene, and thus, I have to r e l y on my own o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s r e g ard. 55 I t should a l s o be noted that the same changes to a comparable Western image would produce the same r e s u l t . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e that the model might have been a Western P r e s e n t a t i o n scene. However, although there i s no evidence that s p e c i f i c a l l y negates t h i s other p o s s i b i l i t y , the sheer numerical preponderance of Byzantine P r e s e n t a t i o n scenes makes one such scene the most probable model f o r the Ahimelech m e d a l l i o n . 5 ^ M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp. 12 and 13. 113 57 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:6; Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 47. For d e t a i l s , see Helen Woodruff, "The I l l u s t r a t e d Manuscripts of P r u d e n t i u s , " A r t Stud i e s 7 (1929): 36f. 58 For examples of Byzantine V i r t u e - V i c e imagery, see an el e v e n t h - c e n t u r y manuscript of the Heavenly Ladder of John  Climacus (Princeton U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , G a r r e t t MS 16), i l l u s -t r a t e d i n J.R, M a r t i n , The I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Heavenly Ladder  of John Climacus ( P r i n c e t o n : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954) , p i s . 39-56. For i n f o r m a t i o n on Psychomachian imagery i n Western Euro-pean f r e s c o e s and s c u l p t u r e , see Jacques Houlet, Les Combats des  Vertus e t des V i c e s : Les Psychomachies dans l ' A r t ( P a r i s : Nouvelles E d i t i o n s L a t i n e s , 1969); M i c h e l , op. c i t . , n. 3, Chap. I I ; and Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , passim. Woodruff's a r t i c l e , c i t e d in n. 62 above, i s the most recent and complete source of i n f o r m a t i o n on i l l u s t r a t e d Psychomachian manuscripts. Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , passim, takes a broader approach, but i s a l s o very i n f o r m a t i v e . 59 Woodruff, op. c i t . , P- 34. 60 I b i d . , p. 48. 61 I b i d . , p. 38. 62 I b i d . , p i s . 12, 40, 41 , 82, 93, 104, 109, and 127 63 Kauffmann, op. c i t . f P . 70. For f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , Woodruff, op. c i t . , pp. 47 and 66. 64 65 66 67 Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p. 42. Woodruff, op. c i t . , diagram, p. 48. I b i d . , p. 35 . See n. 27, t h i s chapter, f o r a l i s t i n g of s p e c i f i c f o l i o s on which are d e p i c t e d these armoured f i g u r e s . 68 On the i v o r y , the costuming i n c o n s i s t e n c y goes beyond that seen i n the S t . Albans P r u d e n t i u s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , as the t a b l e i n s e r t e d i n the t e x t shows, the i v o r y has p o r t r a y a l s of three costume types: antique gowns, contemporary armour, and a h y b r i d of the f i r s t two, c o n s i s t i n g of antique gowns worn with helmets. The S t . Albans Prudentius c o n t a i n s d e p i c t i o n s of two of the three costume types seen on the i v o r y : the f i g u r e s i n t h i s manuscript wear e i t h e r antique gowns or contemporary armour. As f a r as I can remember, the two types are never com-bined i n t o one costume. 114 69 For d e s c r i p t i o n s of each scene i n the S t . Albans P r u d e n t i u s , see Kauffmann, op. c i t . , p. 70. 70 K e s s l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 96 and 101. 71 T h i s view was a l s o held by Clemen, op. c i t . , pp. 166-7; and Dalton, Catalogue..., p. 25. 72 Steger's i c o n o g r a p h i c summary t a b l e s were e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n t h i s regard. See David Rex e t Propheta, p. 254f. 7 3 I b i d . , Table 14, p. 259. 74 Steger, op. c i t . , Table 15, p. 260. 75 I b i d . , p. 216. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the E n g l i s h harp and other e a r l y m u s i c a l instruments, see F.W. G a l p i n , Old E n g l i s h Instruments of Music (London: Methuen, 1910; r e v i s e d ed. , 1965) . 7 6 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp. 2 and 12. 77 For a re p r o d u c t i o n of the B i b l e f o l i o , see Kauffmann, op. c i t . , i l l . 148. The P s a l t e r ' s zodiac m e d a l l i o n s are i l l u s t r a t e d in Buchthal, op. c i t . , p i s . 14c-h, and 15c-h. 78 See i b i d . , pp. 122-23, and 124-26; and Set t o n , op.  c i t . , 4:128. 79 B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , pp. 15 and 19. 8 0 Weitzmann, "Icon P a i n t i n g . . . , " pp. 52, 53, and f i g s . 1 and 3. See a l s o Setton, op. c i t . , 4:254. 81 L.Y. Rahmani, "The Eastern L i n t e l of the Holy Sepulchre," I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 26 (1976): 123 and 128. 8 2 Boase, Kingdoms and Strongholds..., p. 100; Buc h t h a l , op. c i t . , pp. 21 and 123; and Set t o n , op. c i t . , 4:128 and 254. 8 3 B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:80; Buc h t h a l , op. c i t . , passim; Prawer, op. c i t . , pp. 416-68; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , pp. 18 6-88 . 84 See such a r t i c l e s as Zehava Jacoby, "The Tomb of Baldwin V (1185-86), and the Workshop of the Temple Area," Gesta 18 (1979): 3-14; N u r i t h Kenaan, " L o c a l C h r i s t i a n A r t in Twelfth Century Jerusalem," I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 (1973): 167-75 and 221-29; Rahmani, op. c i t . , pp. 120-29; and Weitz-mann , "Icon P a i n t i n g . p p . 49-83 . 115 8 5 Bucht h a l , op. c i t . , p. x x x i i i , o n l y b r i e f l y notes the ex i s t e n c e of a "na t i v e t r a d i t i o n , " but i s not s p e c i f i c about the p a r t i c u l a r m o t i f s , e t c . t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t . H is focus i s the Byzantine-Western d u a l i t y . 8 6 They would have been e x a c t l y s i d e - b y - s i d e when the manuscript was opened f u l l y . 8 7 See Jacoby, op. c i t . , and the a r t i c l e by Strzygowski, c i t e d i n n. 16, Chap. I . 88 Weitzmann, "Icon P a i n t i n g . . . , " p. 69, and f i g . 41. 89 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s t a r r o s e t t e on a t h i r -t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i c o n , see i b i d . , f i g . 34. 9 0 I b i d . , p. 81. For i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the use of the motif on Jerusalem i c o n s , see i b i d . , f i g s . 22, 23, 30, 67, and ot h e r s . 91 For i l l u s t r a t i o n of i t s abundant use on i c o n s , see i b i d . , f i g s . 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 30, 61, and o t h e r s . 9 2 In a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , Weitzmann, i b i d . , p. 71, notes the lack of precedent in Byzantine a r t . My own researches have l e d to a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n with regard to Western a r t . I could f i n d no example comparable to the i v o r y ' s studded arch motif i n any e a r l i e r or contemporary Western European manu-s c r i p t . For examples of i t s use i n Crusader a r t , see i b i d . , f i g . 2, showing a s c u l p t e d arch, p a r t of a decorated c a p i t a l i n the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Church of the Annunciation at Nazareth; and i b i d . , f i g . 45, showing a beaded arch on a t h i r t e e n t h century icon . 93 M a s k e l l , Ivor i e s , pp. 118-19; and the B r i t i s h Museum's 1906 Guide to the Ma n u s c r i p t s . . . , p. 146. 94 D a l t o n , Byzantine A r t and Archeology, p. 233; idem, Catalogue..., p. 25; and idem, East C h r i s t i a n A r t , p. 218. 95 • This often-quoted phrase was f i r s t used by Goldschmidt and Weitzmann (By z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:80). The same idea has been repeated by Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 465; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 188; see a l s o R e a l l e x i k o n der Deutschen Kunstgeschichte, s.v. "David," c o l . 1107. 9 6 S u r p r i s i n g l y , the r e a d i l y - o b s e r v a b l e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f -f e r e n c e s between the two covers has not been widely noted. They were f i r s t p o i n t e d out to me by my ad v i s o r f o r t h i s paper, Dr. Mary Morehart. To my knowledge, the o n l y p r e v i o u s a r t h i s t o r i a n 116 to have p o s t u l a t e d two a r t i s t s f o r the i v o r i e s was C a h i e r , op.  c i t . , 2:10. C a h i e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the v i s u a l evidence i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t than my own. He a t t r i b u t e d the f r o n t cover to the more s k i l l f u l hand, and the back, i n i t s e n t i r e t y to the other hand. As i s d e t a i l e d i n the t e x t of t h i s c hapter, I b e l i e v e that the f i r s t a r t i s t a l s o d i d a p o r t i o n of the back cover. 117 Notes to Chapter IV 1 W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:137-9. 2 Boase, Kingdoms and Strongholds..., p. 110. W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:275. W i l l i a m quoted the e n t i r e passage: Verse 11 of I C o r i n t h i a n s 13 — the " c h a r i t y chapter" of the B i b l e . Elsewhere, i b i d . , 2:139, but i n a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t , W i l l i a m says that Baldwin "'put away c h i l d i s h t h i n g s . ' Thus, by the p r a c t i c e of the v i r t u e s he atoned f o r the f a u l t s of e a r l i e r y e a r s . " T h i s a s s o c i a t i n g of atonement or repentance with Baldwin p r o v i d e s another l i n k between him and David, f o r the l a t t e r was o f t e n known and p i c t u r e d as the repentant k i n g . See note 6 , below. 4 W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:273. T h i s , of course, only a p p l i e d t o the f o r t r e s s e s belonging to the Franks. 5 R i c h a r d , The L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, A:75. 6 In another c o n t e x t , .the phrase, " r o y a l s i n n e r - s a i n t , " was used by F.P. P i c k e r i n g to d e s c r i b e David. See L i t e r a t u r e  and A r t i n the Middle Ages (Co r a l Gables, F l a . : The U n i v e r s i t y of Miami P r e s s , 1970), p. 103. 7 8 9 10 See p. 48, t h i s paper. See n. 13, Chap. I I I . See n. 6, Chap. I I I . Not, of course, the same jewels c u r r e n t l y adorning the i v o r i e s . See n. 2, Chap. I I . 1 1 The use of a r e d - p a i n t base coat on areas to be g i l d e d was a Byzantine i l l u m i n a t i o n technique, but one which was known in the West by the t w e l f t h century. (For example, i n the Winchester B i b l e , m i d - l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , the g o l d was a p p l i e d Over a red base coat.) 1 2 In f a c t , from 1099 u n t i l 1163, the c o l l e c t i v e wealth of a l l the s e i g n i e u r s was s m a l l in comparison to the wealth of the Crown. (Prawer, op. c i t . , p. 105.) 13 In a d d i t i o n , i t can be mentioned t h a t any of the three p o s s i b l e r o y a l patrons — F u l k , Baldwin, Melisende — would presumably have been capable of c o n c e i v i n g the i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, f o r C h a r l e s H. Haskins, in The Renaissance of the 118 Twelfth Century (New York: M e r i d i a n , 1976; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d 1927), p. 260, notes that the r u l e r s of Jerusalem were among the more educated monarchs of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . Baldwin I I I , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s d e s c r i b e d as such by W i l l i a m of Tyre, op. c i t . , 2:1-38: "Whatever l e i s u r e he (Baldwin) could snatch from h i s p u b l i c d u t i e s he d e l i g h t e d to devote to r e a d i n g . He p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoyed l i s t e n i n g to the reading of h i s t o r y and i n q u i r e d with great d i l i g e n c e i n t o the deeds and h a b i t s of the n o b l e s t kings and p r i n c e s of former times. With men of l e t t e r s and wise laymen he loved above a l l to converse." Baldwin's i n t e r e s t i n past kings i s a sug g e s t i v e p o i n t with regard to the i v o r i e s , f o r the inventor of t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c programme was c l e a r l y well-educated and i n t e r e s t e d i n k i n g s . 14 Of a l l the w r i t e r s on the i v o r i e s , Goldschmidt and Weitzmann, B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:79f; and Steenbock, K i r c h l i c h e Prachteinband..., pp. 18 6-88, are the ones who have addressed themselves most d i r e c t l y to ques t i o n s of s t y l e . 15 See, among o t h e r s , the B r i t i s h Museum's 1906 Guide  to the Man u s c r i p t s . . . , p. 146; Dal t o n , Catalogue..., p. 23; Katzenellenbogen, A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s . . . , p. 9; Prawer, Op. c i t . , p. 463; Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 186; Steger, David Rex e t Propheta, p. 216; and Von Thadden, Die Ikonographie der C a r i t a s . . . , p. 4 7. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, J e f f r e y C. "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Cod. S i n a i Gr. 339." A r t B u l l e t i n 61 (June 1979): 167-85. Boase, T.S.R. "The A r t s in the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem." Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 2 (1938/39): 1-21. . Kingdoms and Strongholds of the Crusaders. New York: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1971. B u c h t h a l , Hugo. M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom of  Jerusalem. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1957. C a h i e r , C. Nouveaux Melanges d ' Arche^ologie, d ' H i s t o i r e e t de  L i t e r a t u r e . 4 v o l s . P a r i s , 1874 . V o l s . 1 and 2. Clemen, P. Die Romanische Monumentalmalerei i n den Rheinlanden. DCisseldorf, 1916. Dalton, O.M. Catalogue of the Ivory Carvings of the C h r i s t i a n  E ra i n the B r i t i s h Museum. London, 19 09. Eaton, J.H. K i n g s h i p and the Psalms., London: SCM P r e s s , 1976. Goldschmidt, A., and Weitzmann, K. Die B y z a n t i n i s c h e n  E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n . B e r l i n , 1934. V o l . 2. Grousset, Rene. The E p i c of the Crusades. T r a n s l a t e d by Noel Lindsay. New York: Orion P r e s s , 1970. O r i g i n a l l y pub-l i s h e d , 1939 . Hugh of S t . V i c t o r . De B e s t i i s e t A l l i i s Rebus L i b e r Primus. Migne, J.-P. P a t r o l o g i a e L a t i n a . P a r i s , 1879. V o l . 177. -. De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s e t S p i r i t u s . Migne, J.-P. P a t r o l o g i a e L a t i n a . P a r i s , 1844-64. V o l . 176. Jacoby, Zehava. "The Tomb of Baldwin V, King of Jerusalem (1185-86), and the Workshop of the Temple Area." Gesta 18 (1979): 3-14. Katzenellenbogen, Adolph. A l l e g o r i e s of the V i r t u e s and V i c e s  in Medieval A r t . London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1939; r e p r i n t ed., New York: W.W. Norton, 1964. Kauffmann, C M . Romanesque Manuscripts, 1066-1190. London: Harvey M i l l e r , 1975. 119 120 Kenaan, N u r i t h . " L o c a l C h r i s t i a n A r t i n T w e l f t h Century Jerusalem." I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 (1973) 167-75, and 221-29. Prawer, Joshua. The Crusaders' Kingdom: European C o l o n i a l i s m  in the Middle Ages. New York: Praeger, 1972. P r u d e n t i u s . Psychomachia. Thomson, H.J., t r a n s . P r u d e n t i u s . 2 v o l s . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. V o l . 1. Rahmani, L.Y. "The E a s t e r n L i n t e l of the Holy Sepulchre." I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 26 (1976): 120-29. R e a l l e x i c o n der Deutschen Kunstgeschichte, 1954 ed. S.v. VDavid," by Robert L. Wyss. R i c h a r d , Jean. The L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem. 2 v o l s . Trans-l a t e d by Janet S h i r l e y . New York: North-Holland P u b l i s h i n g , 19 79. V o l . A: The Kingdom of Jerusalem under the House of  Ardennes-Anjou. Se t t o n , Kenneth M., gen. ed. A H i s t o r y of the Crusades. 4 v o l s . Madison: The U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1977. V o l . 4: The A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e o f the Crusader S t a t e s . Steenbock, Frauke. Per K i r c h l i c h e Prachteinband im Friihen M i t t e l a l t e r . B e r l i n : Deutscher V e r l a g f u r Kunstwissen-s c h a f t , 1965. Steger, Hugo. David Rex et Propheta. Nurnberg: V e r l a g Hans C a r l , 1961. Straub, A., and K e l l e r , G. Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . S t r a s b o u r g , 1879-99. T r a n s l a t e d by A.D. C a r a t z a s . New R o c h e l l e , N.Y.: C a r a t z a s B r o t h e r s , 1977. Von Thadden, Maria. Die Ikonographie der C a r i t a s in der Kunst des M i t t e l a l t e r s . Bonn: Unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1951. Walter, C h r i s t o p h e r . S t u d i e s i n Byzantine Iconography. London: Variorum R e p r i n t s , 1977. Weitzmann, K u r t . "Icon P a i n t i n g i n the Crusader Kingdom." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 49-83. Westwood, J.O. A D e s c r i p t i v e Catalogue of the F i c t i l e I v o r i e s  i n the South Kensington Museum. London, 18 76. 121 W i l l i a m of T y r e . A H i s t o r y of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea. 2 v o l s . T r a n s l a t e d by E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1943. Woodruff, Helen. "The I l l u s t r a t e d Manuscripts of P r u d e n t i u s . " A r t S t u d i e s 7 (1929): 33-79. 122 ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS Beckwith, John. Caskets from Cordoba. London: V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum, 19 60. • Ivory Carvings i n E a r l y Medieval England. London: Harvey M i l l e r Medcalfe, 1972. B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e . Byzance e t l a France Medievale. P a r i s , 1958 . Cames, Gerard. A l l e g o r i e s et Symboles dans l'Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1971. De Campos, D. Redig. "Eine Bekannte D a r s t e l l u n g des Jungsten G e r i c h t s aus dem E l f t e n Jahrhundert." Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r  Kunstgeschichte 5 (1936): 124-33. Debidour, V.-H. Le B e s t i a i r e S c u l p t e du Moyen Age en France. P a r i s : Arthaud, 1961. Demus, Otto. The Mosaics of Norman S i c i l y . London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1949. Dodwell, C.R. The Canterbury School of I l l u m i n a t i o n , 1066-1200. Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1954. G a l p i n , F.W. Old E n g l i s h Instruments of Music. London: Methuen, 1910; r e v i s e d ed., 1965. Oakeshott, W. A r t i s t s of the Winchester B i b l e . London: Faber and Faber, 19 45. Sigena. London: Harvey M i l l e r Medcalfe, 1972. Omont, H e n r i . M i n i a t u r e s des Plus Anciens Manuscrits Grecs de  l a B i b l i o t h i q u e N a t i o n a l e . P a r i s , 1929. Pacht, Otto ,. and Alexander, J.J.G. I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscripts  in the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , Oxford. 3 v o l s . Oxford: The Clarendon P r e s s , 1973. V o l . 1. , Dodwell, C.R., and Wormald, F. The S t . Albans  P s a l t e r . London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1960. P e l e k a n i d i s , S.M. The Treasures of Mount Athos. 2 v o l s . T r a n s l a t e d by P h i l i p S h e r r a r d . Athens: Ekdotike Athenon, 1974 . 122 123 Salmi, Mario. I t a l i a n M i n i a t u r e s . London: C o l l i n s , 1957. Saunders, O.E. E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n . New York: Hacker A r t Books, 1969. Swarzenski, H. Monuments of Romanesque A r t . Chicago: Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. Watson, A r t h u r . The E a r l y Iconography of the Tree of J e s s e . London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press and Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1934. Wormald, F r a n c i s . The Winchester P s a l t e r . London: Harvey M i l l e r Medcalfe, 1973. APPENDIX 2 copy , . .; RESEARCH LABORATORY, BRITISH MUSEUM, London, W.C.I. 25th September 1933• IBS. Egerton 1139 Conservation cf Ivory Binding 1. 2. The carved irory plaques had been mounted on jnetal platee by sealing wax and those in turn were fitted into the leather binding and held in position by wax. The warping of the binding and ivories, not always in the same sense* had loosened things so that the ivory projected from the cover and was liable to damage by being scratched. Repairsi The ivories were easily removed with their metal beok plates from the binding and the plates themselves came away easily from the ivory showing i t to be of a frame-like structure cede in two laminations, the decorated upper surface being fretted and held on the frame-work backing by ivory pegs, , This ensemble had warped considerably and the f i r s t step i was to f i t the pieces back into their original positions wherej^key were fixed by wax. One cavity in the binding was cleaned out and a piece of ' relining canvas of suitable size laid in i t by a relining wax mixture. The back of one ivory was covered by fine muslin using the same relining mixture and the two waxed surfaces, muslin and canvas were pressed into position whilst s t i l l tacky, the wax joint being perfected by the use of an electric iron applied to the inside of the cover* In two places where the gap between the edge of the ivory and the leather binding was unduly great this was f i l l e d with a hard ivory-coloured wax. I oonsider that the removal of the metal plates is to the advantage of the ivories. r (sgd.) H.J. Plenderleith. 125 128 F i g . 3 129 F i g . 4 130 F i g . 5 131 F i g . 6 132 F i g . 7 a b F i g . 8 F i g . 9 133 F i g . 10 13 4 1 3 5 F i g . 1 3 4of \e-H7 ^orft o>v*r E n a # » u b F i g . 1 4 136 F i g . 137 138 F i g . 17 139 F i g . 19 14 0 F i g . 20 141 143 F i g . 23 14 4 Fi g . 24 14 5 146 147 F i g . 27 148 149 F i g . 29 151 F i g . 31 b c 15 3 Fi g . 33 b 154 F i g . 34 b 15 5 F i g . 35 153 F i g . 36 b 157 F i g . 37 b 158 F i g . 38 159 F i g . 39 16 0 F i g . 40 161 162 F i g . 42 b 163 F i g . 43 F i g . 44 164 F i g . 45 b c 165 F i g . 46 

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