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Images of charity, conflict, and kingship : the iconography of a pair of Crusader ivories Anderson, Patricia 1981

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IMAGES OF CHARITY, CONFLICT, AND THE  KINGSHIP:  ICONOGRAPHY OF A PAIR OF CRUSADER IVORIES by PATRICIA ANDERSON  B.Ed. , The U n i v e r s i t y J  A THESIS SUBMITTED  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F i n e  We  accept this  Arts  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October ©  Patricia  1973  1981  Anderson,  1981  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis  f o r an a d v a n c e d  of  British  it  freely available  agree for  that  in partial  Columbia,  scholarly  degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  I agree that f o r reference  permission  the L i b r a r y  shall  and s t u d y .  I  f o r extensive  p u r p o s e s may  f u l f i l m e n t of the  for  that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  Department o f  Fine Arts  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  October  , 1981  of this  Itis thesis  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Columbia  thesis  by t h e h e a d o f my  d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood  further  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d  make  written  ABSTRACT  A pair  of mid-twelfth-century  Jerusalem, as  and  now  i n the B r i t i s h  ivory  plaques,  Library,  are  the o n l y known t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y C r u s a d e r  one-time Egerton  covers MS  1139;  illuminated  o f Queen M e l i s e n d e ' s 1131-1143) —  manuscript  Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m  are  two  and  images o f  not  usually  third  main  Mercy,  scenes,  two  textual  scenes and  i n which  noteworthy  a king  --  and  both  i n the completeness  source.  as  the  B.L. lavishly  first  the  On  performs  Latin  of  iconography, the  of  David,  which  six Acts  with  a  of  association  or  with  the  contemporary to i t s textual  textual  thus demonstrating The  and  images.  subordinate  images.  are  i t s individual  groups of  e x p r e s s i v e o f t h r e e themes —  i i  the  i t s adherence  and  front  the back c o v e r ,  among e a r l i e r  i s concerned  of  the  life  f o r i t s unique  the m a j o r  function  On  V i c e s -- c y c l e s  these d i s t i n c t i v e  ivories'  narrative  pictorially  thesis  II i d e n t i f i e s  o f the  primarily  This  o r i g i n s of  Chapter  from  f o r the number o f  w h i c h makes i t u n r i v a l l e d  pictorial  sources  sequences:  cycles,  mercy c y c l e s ,  the  i v o r i e s are unique.  portrayed in juxtaposition.  is also  the o t h e r  the  the m a j o r V i r t u e s  major c y c l e ,  and  both  (1099-1187).  Iconographically, cover  and  (London,  the most c o m p l e t e frcm  in  important  ivories,  Psalter  t o have s u r v i v e d  carved  the  c o v e r s are  charity, conflict,  also and  kingship ideal  —  and  which,  actuality  of  Chapter  III  Jerusalem. of  the  imagery,  Jerusalem  and  affinities Western tion  Europe, was  mid-twelfth motifs,  of  such  means  them.  of  related  and  to  of  their  the  The of  motifs  concerns dating,  the  only  of  two  follow-up and  detailing  local  that  the  ivory  covers  conceptually  and  p i c t o r i a l l y  origin.  i i i  but  artists  somewhat  their  of  in  the  The  also  who  becomes  carved in,  or  Ques-  elaborated,  research.  thematic  artistic  tradi-  previously-  chapters.  are  and  decorative  preceding  patronage  in  artistic  several  ivories, two  p i c t o r i a l  tradition.  the  from  Byzantium  mentioned  and  and  from  problems,  the  iconography,  of  the  sources  have  scriptorium  depict  the  the  examples  to  dual  artistic  of,  for  the  confirms  between  narrative  and  also  local  the  place  a r t i s t i c  found  Jerusalem  considers  made  Western,  typify  ivories the  are  to  twelfth-century  manuscripts  they  of  not  briefly  are  in  specific  ivories  explaining  demonstrates  and  this,  hallmark  IV  style,  Byzantine,  both  in  differentiating  suggestions In  The  Jerusalem, provenance  Chapter  the  contemporary  century.  established  tions  the  kingship  related  iconographically-comparable  characteristic  presence  a  and  conceptually  considers  elsewhere. some  are  Davidic  citing  with  that  together,  significance  relationship  traditions, the  characteristic  to  this  Melisende of  of  study  Psalter their  are time  CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I .  xiii  INTRODUCTION  1  The g e n e r a l a r t h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f the i v o r i e s ; a b r i e f s u r v e y o f s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e i v o r i e s ; t h e p u r p o s e s and scope o f t h i s s t u d y . CHAPTER I I .  THE NARRATIVE AND HISTORICAL MEANING OF THE IVORIES ICONOGRAPHY 1  10  D e s c r i p t i o n of the i v o r i e s ; the David c y c l e ; t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s c y c l e ; t h e A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e ; t h e m i n o r c y c l e s ; unusual aspects of the iconography; the major t e x t u a l s o u r c e o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c programme; t h e s e c o n d a r y t e x t u a l s o u r c e ; the themes o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c p r o gramme; t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e themes and images CHAPTER  III.  THE IVORIES AND THE JERUSALEM SCRIPTORIUM IN THE MID-TWELFTH CENTURY  45  The J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150; the i v o r i e s and t h e P s a l t e r ; t h e i v o r i e s and t h e t w o f o l d a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n o f the J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m ; t h e t w o f o l d t r a d i t i o n and t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i v o r i e s ' models; the B y z a n t i n e models; the Western models; the E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e i n t h e J e r u s a l e m s c r i p t o r i u m , 11301150; the i v o r i e s ' l o c a l m o t i f s ; t h e ivories' artists CHAPTER  IV.  RELATED CONCERNS AND FUTURE STUDY Conclusion iv  POSSIBILITIES  FOR 83  NOTES TO THE TEXT Notes notes  92 to Chapter to Chapter  I; notes to Chapter I I ; I I I ; n o t e s t o C h a p t e r IV  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ADDITIONAL  119  SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS  .  122  APPENDIX  1  124  APPENDIX  2  125  ILLUSTRATIONS  126  v  LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  I v o r y c o v e r s o f t h e M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r (London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , E g e r t o n MS 1 1 3 9 ) . Made i n J e r u s a l e m , m i d - 1 2 t h century. Shown w i t h f o r m e r b i n d i n g . (British Library photograph)  2.  Front cover.  3.  Back c o v e r .  4 a.  Diagram  s h o w i n g major measurements o f t h e f r o n t  Diagram  showing major measurements o f t h e back  b. 5 a. b.  (British (British  Library Library  photograph) photograph) cover, cover.  Front cover. Diagram o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e back c o v e r . Back c o v e r . Diagram o f c o m p o s i t i o n a l p a r a l l e l s w i t h the f r o n t c o v e r .  6.  The T r e e o f V i r t u e s . De F r u c t i b u s C a r n i s e t S p i ' r i t u s . Second q u a r t e r , 1 2 t h c e n t u r y . Salzburg, Studienbibliot h e k , MS S i g n . V . I . H . 162, f o l i o 7 6 r . (From K a t z e n e l l e n bogen, A l l e g o r i e s o f the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n M e d i e v a l A r t , P I . XLI-67)  7, a.  Rosette motif. Melisende P s a l t e r . J e r u s a l e m , 1131-43. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , E g e r t o n MS 1139, f o l i o 23v. ( D e t a i l o f F i g . 14a, a f t e r B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n t h e L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m , P I . 13a)  b. 8„a. b. 9 a. b.  Rosette  motif.  Front cover.  ( D e t a i l from  Beadwork m o t i f . Melisende P s a l t e r , f o l i o o f F i g . 14a, a f t e r B u c h t h a l , P i . 13a) Beadwork m o t i f . Front cover, ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2) Bird. Melisende P I . 13a) Bird.  Psalter,  Front cover,  lower  vi  lower  folio frame.  left  23v.  F i g . 2) 23v.  (Detail  corner. ,  (After  Buchthal,  ( D e t a i l from  F i g . 2)  Figure c.  Bird. Melisende P I . 15b)  d.  Bird. Back c o v e r , from F i g . 3)  a.  Knotwork. D e t a i l of an i n i t i a l E . M e l i s e n d e f o l i o 106v. ( A f t e r B u c h t h a l , P I . 16a)  b.  Knotwork. Fig. 2)  a.  "Rope" m o t i f . Buchthal, PI.  Melisende 14a)  b.  "Rope" m o t i f . from F i g . 3)  Back c o v e r ,  a.  T r e f o i l motif. Melisende B u c h t h a l , P I . 15a)  b.  T r e f o i l motif. F i g . 3)  10  11  12  e-j  13  14  89v.  (After  lower-right i n t e r s t i c e .  Front cover,  T r e f o i l motifs.. 7v, 9 r , and 9v. 9a, 9b)  folio  Back  right  frame.  Psalter,  Buchthal, (Detail Psalter,  (Detail  folio  46v.  from (From  lower-right corner. Psalter,  cover,  right  folio frame.  (Detail  74v.  (From  (Detail  M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r , f o l i o s l r , 2v, ( A f t e r B u c h t h a l , P i s . l a , 2b, 3b,  a.  Letters. P I . 15b)  b.  Letters. Front cover, right medallions.  a.  David folio  b.  D a v i d as M u s i c i a n . Front cover, bottom-right ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  15.  16  Psalter,  Melisende  Psalter,  folio  89v.  (After  3v, 7b,  Buchthal,  t o p - l e f t , b o t t o m - l e f t , and  as M u s i c i a n . Beatus I n i t i a l . Melisende 23v. ( A f t e r B u c h t h a l , P i . 13a)  from  top-  Psalter, medallion.  D a v i d as M u s i c i a n . Augustinus. Canterbury, ca 10701100. C a m b r i d g e , T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , MS B 5 26, f o l i o 1. (From D o d w e l l , The C a n t e r b u r y S c h o o l o f I l l u m i n a t i o n , P I . 10b) a.  I n i t i a l B. Commentary on t h e P s a l m s . F r a n c e , l a t e 12th century. O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n MS Canon. P a t . L a t . 217, f o l i o 3. (From P a c h t and A l e x a n d e r , I l l u m i n a t e d Manus c r i p t s i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y O x f o r d , v o l . 1, P i . XXXIX-494) vi i  Figure  17  18  19  20  b.  David  a.  V i r t u e s vanquish P r i d e . Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . Germany, 1159-80. M u n i c h , S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 13002, f o l i o 199v. (From Cames, A l l e g o r i e s e t Symboles dans l ' H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m , P i . XXXII-50.)  b.  Fortitudo defeats A v a r i t i a . Front cover, lower-centre interstice. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  a.  I n i t i a l E. Bible. E n g l a n d , c a 1170. L i b r a r y , A . I I . l , V o l . I l l , f o l i o 131v. Romanesque.- M a n u s c r i p t s , F i g . 282)  b.  D a v i d and G o l i a t h . Front cover, c e n t r e - l e f t ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  a.  A n o i n t i n g of D a v i d . I n i t i a l D. Psalter. 1170. Durham, C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y , A . I I . 9 , (From K a u f f m a n n , F i g . 283)  b.  A n o i n t i n g of David. Front cover, upper-right medallion. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  c.  A n o i n t i n g of David. Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen. B y z a n t i n e , 9th c e n t u r y . Paris, Bibliotneque Nationale, g r . 510, f o l i o 174v. (From B i b . N a t . , B y z a n c e e t l a F r a n c e Me*die*vale, P I . V)  a.  Ornamental border. D e t a i l o f t h e T r e e o f J e s s e Window, C h a r t r e s C a t h e d r a l . Ca 1154. ( A f t e r Watson, E a r l y I c o n o g r a p h y of the T r e e o f J e s s e , P I . 26)  b.  Ornamental border. F r o n t c o v e r , r i g h t and l e f t ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  c.  Decorative motif. D e t a i l o f the i n i t i a l t o I K i n g s . Winchester B i b l e . W i n c h e s t e r , t h i r d q u a r t e r , 12th century. W i n c h e s t e r C a t h e d r a l L i b r a r y unnumbered MS, f o l i o 88r. ( A f t e r , O a k e s h o t t , S i g e n a , p. 84)  21 a .  b.  as M u s i c i a n .  Enlarged  detail  from  Fig.  16a.  Durham, C a t h e d r a l (From K a u f f m a n n , medallion.  England, ca f o l i o 63.  frame.  W e s t e r n v e r s i o n o f the t r e f o i l m o t i f . St. Albans Psalter. S t . A l b a n s , c a 1120. H i l d e s h e i m , _ S t . Godehard T r e a s u r y , unnumbered MS, page 56. ( A f t e r P a c h t , e_t a l . , The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r , p i . 34) T r e f o i l motif. Back c o v e r , l e f t B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph) viii  frame.  (Detail  from  a  Figure 22  a.  Corner ornament. Genesis i n i t i a l . Winchester B i b l e . W i n c h e s t e r , t h i r d q u a r t e r , 12th c e n t u r y . Winchester Cathedral Library. ( A f t e r O a k e s h o t t , A r t i s t s o f the W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e , P i . XVII)  b.  C o r n e r ornament. Back c o v e r , t o p - l e f t , t o p - r i g h t , bottom-right corners. ( D e t a i l s from F i g . 3)  c.  M a r g i n a l ornament. I n i t i a l I. Gospels. Canterbury, ca 1140-50. L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , R o y a l MS I . B . X I , f o l i o 114. (From K a u f f m a n n , F i g . 172)  and  23.  I n t e r l o c k i n g medallions. Mosaic. Monreale, S i c i l y . S i c u l o - B y z a n t i n e , l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . (From Demus, The M o s a i c s o f Norman S i c i l y , P I . 94b)  24.  Diagram o f i n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m . Germany, 1159-80. M u n i c h , S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 13002, F o l i o 31a. ( A f t e r S t r a u b and K e l l e r , H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m , P I . XI)  25.  I n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s . Ivory c a s k e t . Cordoba, e a r l y 11th c e n t u r y . L o n d o n , V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum. (From B e c k w i t h , C a s k e t s from C o r d o b a )  26.  Interlocking medallions. Ivory diptych. Northern France, 9th-10th century. P a r i s , Muse*e de C l u n y . (After D e b i d o u r , Le B e s t i a i r e S c u l p t e * du Moyen Age en F r a n c e , PI. 4.)  27.  Inhabited scrollwork. Arm from a s t o o l . Ivory. W i n c h e s t e r , m i d - 1 2 t h c e n t u r y . F l o r e n c e , Museo N a z i o n a l e . (From B e c k w i t h , I v o r y C a r v i n g s i n E a r l y M e d i e v a l E n g l a n d , F i g . 168)  28  29  a-., C r o z i e r . Bargello,  Enamel-work. E n g l a n d , c a 1175. Florence, Carrand C o l l e c t i o n . (From C a h i e r , Nouveaux Melanges d ' Arche'ologie, d ' H i s t o i r e , e t de L i t t e * r a t u r e , v o l . 4, F i g . 84)  b.  V i r t u e s overcoming V i c e s . D a v i d r e s c u i n g a Lamb. D e t a i l o f C r o z i e r shown i n F i g . 28a. (From S w a r z e n s k i , Monuments o f Romanesque A r t , P i . 196)  a.  The M i r a c l e o f t h e L o a v e s . Gospels. B y z a n t i n e , 13th century. Mt. A t h o s , I v e r o n , Cod. 5, f o l i o 63v. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , The T r e a s u r e s o f Mount A t h o s , v o l . 2, p i . 13)  ix  Figure  30  b.  Feeding (Detail  a.  Love o f t h e P o o r . H o m i l i e s of Gregory o f Nazianzen. B y z a n t i n e , 12th c e n t u r y . Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS g r . 550, f o l i o 251. (From Omont, M i n i a t u r e s - d e s P l u s A n c i e n s M a n u s c r i t s G r e c s de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , P I . CXIV)  b.  G i v i n g Drink to the T h i r s t y . Back c o v e r , t o p - r i g h t medallion. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  c.  Christ Preaching. H o m i l i e s of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th century. Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS g r . 510, f o l i o 170. (From B i b . N a t . , B y z a n c e e t l a F r a n c e Me"dieVale, P i . IV, d e t a i l o f c e n t r e r e g i s t e r )  31 a .  C h r i s t and t h e S a m a r i t a n Woman. G o s p e l s . Byzantine, 13th c e n t u r y . Mt. A t h o s , I v e r o n , C o d . 5, f o l i o 371. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 2, P I . 34)  b.  Love o f t h e P o o r . H o m i l i e s of Gregory o f Nazianzen. B y z a n t i n e , 14th c e n t u r y , from"a 10th c e n t u r y model. P a r i s , B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e , MS g r . 543, f o l i o 310v. (From Omont, P I . CXXV)  c.  G i v i n g S h e l t e r t o the Homeless. Back c o v e r , c e n t r e l e f t medallion. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o graph)  32 a .  33  the Hungry. Back c o v e r , t o p - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  C h r i s t Appears t o the D i s c i p l e s . Lectionary. Byzantine, 11th c e n t u r y . Mt. A t h o s , D i o n y s i o u , C o d . 587, f o l i o 14v. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 1, P I . 199)  b.  C l o t h i n g t h e Naked. Back c o v e r , c e n t r e - r i g h t ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  a.  C h r i s t h e a l i n g . Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzen. Byzantine, 9th century. Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS g r . 510, f o l i o 170. (From Omont, P I . XXXVI, d e t a i l from t h e c e n t r e r e g i s t e r )  b.  C o m f o r t i n g t h e S i c k . Back c o v e r , b o t t o m - l e f t m e d a l l i o n . ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h ) ,  34 a .  medallion.  C h r i s t H e a l i n g t h e I m p o t e n t Man. Gospels. Byzantine, 13th c e n t u r y . Mt. A t h o s , I v e r o n , C o d . 5, f o l i o 377. (From P e l e k a n i d i s , v o l . 2, P I . 35).  x  Figure  35  36  b.  V i s i t i n g the Imprisoned. medallion. ( D e t a i l from  a.  Penitence of David. H o m i l i e s of Gregory of Nazianzen. B y z a n t i n e , 9th c e n t u r y . Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS g r . 510, f o l i o 143 v . (From Omont, P i . X X X I I I )  b.  P e n i t e n c e of D a v i d . Front cover, bottom-left medallion. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  a.  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f C h r i s t i n t h e Temple. f o l i o 3r. (From B u c h t h a l , P I . 3a)  b.  D a v i d and A h i m e l e c h . Front cover, medallion. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h  a.  P r e s e n t a t i o n of C h r i s t i n the Temple. Sermons. B y z a n t i n e - C a s s i n e s e , 11th c e n t u r y . Monte C a s s i n o , MS 98, f o l i o l l l v . (From S a l m i , I t a l i a n M i n i a t u r e s , F i g . 3)  b.  D a v i d and A h i m e l e c h . Back c o v e r , c e n t r e - r i g h t ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  a.  Diagram o f C a r i t a s . S t . Albans Prudentius. England, 1119-1146. L o n d o n , B r i t i s h L i b r a r y C o t t o n MS T i t u s D. XVI, f o l i o 3 0 r .  b.  Largitas. Front cover, bottom-centre interstice. ( D e t a i l from a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y p h o t o g r a p h )  c.  Fides slays Discordia. St. Albans Prudentius, f o l i o 28v. ( A f t e r S a u n d e r s , E n g l i s h I l l u m i n a t i o n , P I . 34a)  a.  D a v i d as M u s i c i a n . The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r . England, c a 1120. H i l d e s h e i m , S t . G o d e h a r d ' s T r e a s u r y , unnumbered MS, page 72. (From The S t . A l b a n s P s a l t e r , p i . 34)  b.  D a v i d as M u s i c i a n . Front cover, ( B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph)  37  38  39  Back c o v e r , b o t t o m - r i g h t a B r i t i s h L i b r a r y photograph)  Melisende  Psalter,  centre-right L i b r a r y photograph)  bottom-right  medallion.  medallion.  40.  David W r i t i n g . Upper h a l f , B e a t u s i n i t i a l . Winchester Psalter. E n g l a n d , c a 1140. London, B r i t i s h L i b r a r y C o t t o n MS Nero C. IV, f o l i o 26. (From Wormald, The W i n c h e s t e r P s a l t e r , P i . 98)  41.  D a v i d as Musician;, s e a t e d under a t r i p l e a r c h . Psaltery. E n g l a n d , c a 1060. C a m b r i d g e , U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , Cod. F f . 1, 23, f o l i o l v ( 4 v ) . (From S t e g e r , D a v i d Rex e t P r o p h e t a , P I . 12) xi  Figure 42 a . b. 43 a .  showing  Knotwork m o t i f . Fragment o f a r o y a l tomb. Jerusalem, l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . (From J a c o b y , " T h e Tomb o f B a l d w i n V," G e s t a 18 (1979):3-14, F i g . 6a) Knotwork m o t i f . from F i g . 2)  Front cover, right  c.  Knotwork m o t i f . F i g . 3)  Back c o v e r , l e f t  frame.  frame.  (Detail (Detail  from  Grape m o t i f . S c u l p t e d ornament on a r o y a l tomb f r a g m e n t . J e r u s a l e m , l a t e 12th c e n t u r y . (From J a c o b y , F i g . 4)  b.  Grape m o t i f . F i g . 2)  F r o n t c o v e r , upper  c.  Grape m o t i f . F i g . 3)  Back c o v e r , upper  45 a .  Galpin,  Front cover. D e t a i l of bottom-right medallion E n g l i s h harp. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2)  b.  44 a .  46  E n g l i s h harp. 12th or 13th c e n t u r y . (After O l d E n g l i s h I n s t r u m e n t s o f M u s i c , F i g . 1)  frame. frame.  (Detail (Detail  from from  Rosette f r i e z e . Southern facade, Holy Sepulchre Church. J e r u s a l e m , c a 1150. (From Kenaan, " L o c a l C h r i s t i a n A r t in T w e l f t h Century Jerusalem," I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 (1973):221-9, P I . 59b)  b.  Spiral rosettes. Back c o v e r , m e d a l l i o n ( D e t a i l from F i g . 3)  c.  Spiral rosettes. Sculpted fragment. Jerusalem, late F i g . 11)  a.  Diamond and bead m o t i f . W e s t e r n p o r t a l , s o u t h e r n f a c a d e , Holy Sepulchre Church. J e r u s a l e m , c a 1150. (From Kenaan, P i . 58d)  b.  Diamond and bead m o t i f . F r o n t c o v e r , l o w e r side. ( D e t a i l from F i g . 2)  xii  joinings..  ornament on a r o y a l tomb 12th c e n t u r y . (From J a c o b y ,  third,  left  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I  am g r a t e f u l  helpful patience I  am  and  the  were  indebted enthusiasm  reader. Miss  advice,  And  Melva  my  advisor,  consistent in  as  Mr.  well  with  to  which  Dwyer  and  it  Library,  facilitated  my  the  Mary  also  whose  of  ii  and  a  pleasure the  Fine in  whose  inexhaustible  of  for  the  assistance  research.  xi  Pessin  undertook  staff  Morehart,  preparation  Marc  he is  the  Dr.  encouragement,  invaluable  finally,  University  greatly  to  this  the  promptness  duties to Arts  thesis.  of  second  acknowledge Division  various  ways  of  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  The made  in  British  Library  has  a pair  Jerusalem during  the  time  (1099-1187). century,  and  British  The  1  were  Library,  Jerusalem  ivories  date  designed Egerton  between  1131  of  to  for  of  carved  the  the  the  and  cover  The  1152.  f i r s t  middle  MS 1139), m a d e  ivory  of for  more  plaques,  Latin of  Kingdom  the  twelfth  a Psalter  (London,  Melisende,  queen  recent  history  of  of  the  2 ivories  is  tion  usage  or  largely  unknown.  until  the  There  eighteenth  is  no  record  century,  by  of  their  which  loca-  time  they  3 were In  in  the  the early  Commermont Psalter,  leather  nineteenth  of  to  servation longer  possession  the  and  bound  Lyons,  British  together: while  the  Grande  century,  who,  effective  binding,  of  in  Chartreuse  they  1845,  were  sold  Today,  display,  manuscript  the the  Psalter ivories,  is  owned  them,  Museum.  in  at  along  the  in  separate  plexiglass  casings  contained  1  (Fig.  Dr.  with  covers in  a  nearby,  4 served  a  interests  and  exhibited  by  Grenoble.  1).  the of  con-  are  no  brown are  pre-  2  The  Broadly is  examples  features  of  only  known  prise  the  carving of the  of  the  and  the  several  figures  trayed  that  a  the  pair  and  from Vices  cover  (Fig. 3),  the —  of of  the  which  interest  the  they as  also  West.  as  Each  well  as  such,  the  the com-  ivory  during  the  reason  alone,  for a  amongst  of  few  are  that  this  context  Jerusalem.  relatively  and  unique  illuminated  Latin  shows  for  the  covers  in Jerusalem  time  p i c t o r i a l  contemporary plaque  animals,  depicts birds,  non-representational decorative covers  On  the  l i f e  i s also front  of  cycles The  the  lavishly  ivories,  evidence  and  as  amongst  certain  within  Moreover,  i s unsurpassed  range  in juxtaposition.  back  a r t . ^  practiced  Byzantium  and  scenes  Virtues  among  Crusader  i t s iconographic cycles.  major  also  Of  upon  a l l ,  and  significance  position  twelfth-century  in various poses,  Finally,  sequences:  of  important  from  Kingdom.  well,  nevertheless, noteworthy  both  flowers,  as  complete  are  arts  singular  F i r s t  decorative  variety  from  the  they  existing  Latin are,  their  are  most  survived  of  among  ivories  to  the  covers,  whole  ivories  motifs.  —  twelfth-century  f i r s t  f r u i t ,  a r t , and,  ivories  Importance  art historical  Crusader  Crusader  was  richness  ivories' upon  have  manuscript  the  I t rests  a r t , the  to  Art Historical of the Ivories  iconography.  Psalter  manuscript  examples  of  their  Crusader  Melisende  As  speaking,  double-based:  known  of  General  cover  David, which  third  i s comprised  and  are  major of  unique  with  ( F i g . 2) images  not  cycle,  of  usually  regard are the por-  portrayed  s i x scenes,  two  i n each  on of  3  which, a king performs  a m e r c i f u l deed.  This cycle  w o r t h y , f or ,• i n t h e number o f i t s s c e n e s , completeness  of i t s adherence  too i s note-  and h e n c e , i n the  to i t s textual  source,  i tis g  unrivalled In both  among o t h e r  earlier  view o f the i v o r i e s '  singular  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Crusader  general, 1845  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  acquisition  attention  a r t and m e d i e v a l  with  Museum, t h e y  respect to  iconography  t h a t , i n the years  by t h e B r i t i s h  Survey  o f S c h o l a r s h i p on the  A short description  o f the p a i r  since  their  art.  C. C a h i e r  Some y e a r s  provided  w h i c h he t h o r o u g h l y  later,  a lengthier  Ivories first  pub-  m  t h e monumental  Nouveaux  e t de L i t t e r a t u r e ,  Father  d i s c u s s i o n of the i v o r i e s ,  described their  iconography,  and  Although  occasionally  c u r a t e , and i n some r e s p e c t s d a t e d ,  Cahier's  1874 work  t h e most t h o r o u g h  their  a l s o s t u d i e d the i v o r i e s ,  findings  Cahier.  remains to  a r c h e o l o g i s t s and a r t  b u t , f o r t h e most p a r t ,  o n l y d u p l i c a t e d , r a t h e r than  augmented,  those o f  1 2  Widespread the  inac-  p i e c e s o f s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e i v o r i e s  S e v e r a l other nineteenth-century  historians  one i n  identified  some o f i t s a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s . ^  date."'""''  the  in a general survey of  Melanges d ' A r c h e o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e ,  amongst  in  have a t t r a c t e d  o f c o v e r s was  i n 1846, by A. du Sommerard,  medieval  position  cycles.  o f a number o f a r t h i s t o r i a n s .  A Brief  lished  o r c o n t e m p o r a r y mercy  first  scholarly  interest  i n the i v o r i e s  p a r t o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y ,  and t h e y  continued  into  are mentioned,  4  or  described  Of  the work  briefly, done  this  century,  1909  a n d 1925,  part  of  on  that  in the  of  a number ivories  surveys  during  O.M. Dalton  he p u b l i s h e d  a catalogue,  of  the  the  and  f i r s t  was the most  ivories  three  and s u b s e q u e n t l y ,  in  catalogues. three  decades  p r o l i f i c . times:  of  Between  once  two large  13  as  survey  14 works.  For the most  information, tional  but  source  unsuspected,  he  of  the  writings.  In  1934,  two y e a r s  between royal  tombs  T.S.R. and  1  were  in  the  one t h a t  to  in  Goldschmidt large  article  on  the  as w e l l , of.the  arts  in  in  Virtues  also  the  1930's,  variety  of  ivories,  resemblance  Latin  and V i c e s  of  part  by A d o l p h  1939,  the  and t h a t  were  addi-  Weitzmann  the  motifs  The i v o r i e s  In  5  Byzantine  noted  decorative  Jerusalem.  of  1  an  previously  a wider  and Kurt  study  J . Strzygowski  mentioned  was  began  appear  existing  suggested  today.  ivories'  1938  having  plausible  their  later,  for  reiterated  s t i l l  Adolph  his Allegories  in  some  of  Kingdom, KatzenellenMedieval  7  Since tional a  in  Boase's  they  bogen, A r t .  one o f  is  in  only  influence,  ivories  the covers  Dalton  noteworthy  and which  to  while  is  s t y l i s t i c  references  included  part,  1939,  scholarly  complete  the  ivories  attention.  hiatus,  while  have In  in  the  received  this  very  regard,  1950's,  they  l i t t l e  the  addi-  1940's  were  represent  accorded  only  18 brief the  mention  ivories  Steenbock's  in  were  a few d i v e r s e included  survey  comprehensive  study  of of  in  In  two important  medieval the  works.  of  1960's,  German  bookbinding,  iconography  the  works:  and Hugo  King  David  however, Frauke  Steger's as  5  M u s i c i a n . 19  Neither  treatment  the  of  significant has  Steenbock  ivories,  new  ivories,  their  i n f o r m a t i o n on  summaries o f p r e v i o u s of  Steger  the  survey  the  an  the  subject.  ivories:  research, contained  kingdom, w h i l e  a 1977  provides  exhaustive  r e s p e c t i v e works a r e  r e c e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the  y i e l d e d no  tories  but  nor  latest  of Crusader  The  work  past  There  i n a few  the  are  decade only  general  to i n c l u d e  most  his-  the  a r t , d o e s n o t d i s c u s s them  at  length. It directly other  will  have been n o t e d  t o the  larger  ivory  bookbinding,  ivories  have n e v e r  of  covers  topics:  raphy,  what has  tant fic  and  been  i s the  The  ivories' which  fication their this  aim  of  of  the  study  will  be  article  and  study.  not  For  progressed  scenes  and  now,  the type  in part,  these  impor-  I t s more  speci-  below.  Study  uniqueness,  textual sources. to provide  on  on  iconog-  or o t h e r  c h a p t e r , m e n t i o n was  a detailed has  paper.  Scope o f t h i s  this  c o v e r s ' main  more a p p a r e n t  i s , until  f o c u s , are d e s c r i b e d  iconographic variety  research-to-date  ivories,  literature  of t h i s  relating  t o work  Thus, to compensate, at l e a s t  i t s main  beginning  incidental  That  s u b j e c t o f an  P u r p o s e s and  seem t o m e r i t  graphic  the  scholarship  a r t in general,  manuscripts.  general  a i m s , as w e l l as  the  o n l y been  been a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e  ivories,  At  has  Crusader  monographical study.  for  t h a t , to date,  two  made o f qualities  the most p a r t , beyond b a s i c  brief  references  T h u s , the m a j o r  a more i n - d e p t h  the  iconoidentito  task  iconographic  of  6  analysis  of  results than  of  ever  and  in  the  ivories.  previous before,  ivories'  major,  identify  examples  general Next  be  the  this  ground its  thematic, gramme.  aim  —  and  most and  border  motifs,  w i l l  the  the  that,  II  completely  cycles,  both  separately  these  subordinate,  cycles  textual  to  the  sources;  and  make  describing  the  appearance  fight  iconographic  this  suggestions  findings entail  obvious  textual  sources  the  be  unusual  noted,  Having  thus  any  of  the  significance  the  image  of  both  w i l l  be  between  progresses  good  —  the  the  or  the  Psalms,  course  of  problematic  existing  on  whole.  features  theories  the  the  pre-  in  necessary  achievement  combined  backof  narrative,  of  the  iconographic  imagery  and  texts,  it  the  purely  decorative  exception  on  In  supplied  concentrate  a  previous  quoting,  and/or  and  and  identifying  and  Psychomachia.  as  of  labels,  matching  As  w i l l  programme  Latin  w i l l  with  each  cover,  the  more  imagery;  explication  narrative.  Psychomachian  incorporate  also,  relate  accumulated  the  historical  clear  front  the  their  Chapter  become  the  by  the  considered.  Through  p i c t o r i a l  of  information,  data,  main  their  begin  their  iconography  regard  another;  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  this  w i l l  p i c t o r i a l  comparable  presented  to,  but  w i l l  models.  New T e s t a m e n t ,  senting of  of  transcribing  referring the  as  effect  scholarship. images,  well  w i l l  visual  w i l l  one  as  II  the  with  possible  Chapter  analysis  scholarship,  examine  conjunction  regarding  This  of  ivories  is  part  demonstrated, and  across  e v i l  and  --  of  the  begins  downward,  w i l l  a  single  story at  and,  pro-  —  the  the top  through  of  7  certain on  the  iconographic  linking  back c o v e r .  This  devices, continues  interpretation  tinuous  narrative is original  explain  most o f  have p u z z l e d images and does not another on  the  the  study,  iconographic past.  the  one  ivories' on  largely  and  can  not  previously recognized  the c o n f l i c t  explained  t e x t i s an  between  -- a s u b j e c t h a v i n g  be  Those r e m a i n i n g  be  This  by  con-  shown  thematic  which  the n a r r a t i v e  as h a v i n g  early  to  unusual  reference  spirituality  clear  as  idiosyncracies,  can  imagery:  concludes  ivories  p i c t u r e - t e x t d i s c r e p a n c i e s , f o r which  text,  pleasures  ivories'  s c h o l a r s i n the  account,  treatise  to t h i s  of  and  to  any  bearing  twelfth-century  and  carnal  affinities  with  the  21 P s y c h o m a c h i a n o p p o s i t i o n o f V i r t u e s and In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h are  also pictorially  charity,  conflict,  are emphasized motifs  and  be  used.  here  t o an  b a s i s , and  After historical  framework In  this  establishing context  f o r the  of  a l l three  a l s o out  the  shown,  the  this  con-  regnum conceptual of  sources  be  made  that of W i l l i a m ,  Tyre.  a general n a r r a t i v e , conceptual,  f o r the  these  a set of  a variety  —  themes  are r e c u r r i n g  r e f e r e n c e can  history  ivories  themes:  these  be of  i d e a of  ivories,  regard, passing  of  two  In d e l i m i t i n g  contemporary  bishop  interrelated  first  arose  whose f o c u s was  important  twelfth-century  The  f u n c t i o n , the  However, as w i l l  D a v i d i c monarchy.  historical  will  kingship.  the Psalms.  a broader  —  e x p r e s s i v e of three  and  temporary c o n c e r n s , Davidicum  story-telling  i n the P s y c h o m a c h i a , and  throughout  themes had  their  Vices.  ivories,  this  study  will  next  and  a  8  consider III,  their  more  specific  accordingly, w i l l  cite  iconographic  w o r k s , from J e r u s a l e m  which a r e i c o n o g r a p h i c a l l y comparable tion,  i twill  will to  identify  determine  Several  cific  f o r the f i r s t  iconographic  purpose:  origins,  the h i g h l i g h t i n g  produced  the i v o r i e s  —  to these  illumination,  manuscripts  Chapter  IIIwill  Jerusalem's Holy  similar  artistic  Chapter reference  the  ivories,  Chapter since  the p e r i p h e r y  that  scriptorium.  d e v o t e some a t t e n t i o n t o  of this  problems which  a r t forms which,  their  exact  date,  like  origins  these  will  directions for further  of their n o t be  are t o p i c s which  problems w i l l  suggestions  I I and I I I .  and a f f i n i t i e s o f  concerns w i l l  p a p e r ' s main f o c u s .  patron.  lengthy,  a r e o n l y on  However, where be somewhat  be made w i t h  research.  make  t o t h e key  i n Chapters  and t h e i d e n t i t y  d a t i n g , and p a t r o n a g e of this  paper, w i l l  are related  i n c l u d e the s t y l i s t i c  i f warranted,  possible  chapter  f i n d i n g s t o be p r e s e n t e d  s a r y and a p p r o p r i a t e , and  milieu  were made i n t h e s c r i p t o r i u m , o r ,  IV's d i s c u s s i o n o f these  style,  artistic  n e a r b y , and h e n c e , were s u b j e c t t o  IV, the f i n a l  These p r o b l e m s  spe-  influences.  to certain  iconographic  c o n c e r n s w i l l be  Sepulchre  as w e l l as t o o t h e r  w h i c h were l o c a l l y - m a d e  programme.  have an a d d i t i o n a l  o f the p a r t i c u l a r  and t h e i v o r i e s ,  helped  In c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i v o r i e s '  T h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the s c r i p t o r i u m w i l l Crusader  i n addi-  influences that  of the i c o n o g r a p h i c  time.  and e l s e w h e r e ,  p o s s i b l e m o d e l s , and  artistic  and h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t i n g  Chapter  t o the i v o r i e s ;  regarding  important  the c h a r a c t e r  ideas  presented  make s u g g e s t i o n s t h e more  origins.  neces-  elaborated,  regard to  9  Despite study the  these  i s iconographic,  intention  significance first into text.  side  issues, and  within  i s threefold: of  textual,  the  the  ivories'  overriding  t h i s area of  to e x p l a i n imagery;  then p i c t o r i a l ;  and  to  the  cussion .  in b r i e f ,  defines  the  of  this  concentration,  narrative  and  thematic  i d e n t i f y i t s sources,  lastly,  to place  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c , t e m p o r a l , and This,  concern  scope of  the  the  ivories  artistic following  condis-  CHAPTER  THE  NARRATIVE OF  The  cycles that  and  they  It  f i r s t  evokes  temporary  thought  is  also  it  reflects  a  and  Latin  Not  warrant  Jerusalem  surprisingly,  significance,  the  text  themes  the --  ivories  a detailed  is, Of  in  each  case,  the  two,  the  complex, the  ivories  its  separate in  such  to  and  the  a  way  end.  parallels  sense,  imagery  twofold  The  in  con-  iconography  associated  institution  themes,  of  twelfth-  monarchy.  are  dual  visually  narrative/historical complex.  As  such,  they  description.  are  rich  front  and  cover two  the  of  in  contained  illustrating  medallions,  have  this  their  Description  Both  a  beginning  important  the  given  from  In  has  juxtaposed  which  its  most  ivories  are  concerns.  of  the  narrative:  images  through  facets  of  a l l  single  certain  h i s t o r i c a l :  century  of  component  illustrate  narrative  ICONOGRAPHY  programme  is  their  AND H I S T O R I C A L M E A N I N G  THE I V O R I E S '  iconographic  significance.  II  the  Ivories  figural  and  in  an  (Fig.  major  elaborate 2)  is  cycles  Psychomachia of  10  animal  imagery,  ornamental  p i c t o r i a l l y —  the  life  Prudentius  border."*"  the of in  which  more  David the  in  11  interstices  —  and  personifications the  of  two  cycles:  minor  the  occupies  ivories, of each  cover  The  a minor  interstices  their  5 5/8  x 8 1/2  x 8 5/8  lengthwise  one, and  female of  i s contained  of animals  inner corners. identify  one  ( F i g . 3) d e p i c t s  comprised  differences,  measurement  bottom o f  this exception,  the  On  and  both  textual  inches, while The  source  ivories'  example, the d i a m e t e r s  for  the most p a r t , i d e n t i c a l ,  v a r i a n c e more than  of  and  a fraction  o f an  form  three  horizontal  rows o f two  the  twelve  medallions  c o n t a i n s two  far  as d i f f e r i n g  (Figs.  f o r by  4a  i n no  s u b j e c t matter  and  r e g a r d , are 5b).  On  inch wider  and  4b).  interlock  of  at  with  both  4a  one  there  uniform.  they  at  Every  one  in  so  i s a degree  of  medallions.  the  On  to of  Most  centre medallions^ of  ivories,  are,  4b).  another  and  of  from  covers  and  or more f i g u r e s ,  two  the  the  Apart  both  medallions each.  permits,  the  on  (Figs.  uniformity within individual  5a  front  the d i m e n s i o n s  i n s t a n c e , are  inch  a  inch discrepancy in  the m e d a l l i o n s  six medallions  in t h i s  The  measurements a r e r e m a r k a b l y  ivory,  noticeable  l/8th  (Figs.  each  compositional  ivories display  the dimensions  w h i c h measure l / 1 6 t h  t h e back c o v e r  the  the  composition.  i s accounted  For  the  and  inches.  the d e c o r a t i v e b o r d e r s ,  ivory  back c o v e r  help to  pictorial  m e a s u r e s 5 5/8  t o p and  the  the A c t s o f M e r c y ,  c o n s i s t e n c y in dimensions  back a r e the  of  each of which o c c u p i e s  one,  inscriptions  consisting  cycle.  Despite marked  the  Latin  ivory.  the major  the m e d a l l i o n s , w h i l e  birds,  cycle,  four v i r t u e s ,  inner corners of  only in  one  interstices  each  12  formed by the m e d a l l i o n s are s i m i l a r l y u n i f o r m  in size  regard to t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s on the other i v o r y . the measurements of c o r r e s p o n d i n g variations  ( F i g s . 4a and 4 b ) .  the i n t e r s t i c e s are d i f f e r e n t figures,  Although  are s i m i l a r , figures  the scenes p o r t r a y e d i n  on each cover -- one  are e x p r e s s i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h one animals  the two s e t s of imagery  another.  The  i n mood and degree of a c t i o n ,  l e s s d i r e c t l y comparable.  spaces of the f r o n t  cover.  uniform-  On the back  the g e n e r a l shape of the c o r n e r - b i r d s , and  although  cover  their  space, resemble the  forms and h e a d - p o s i t i o n s of the human (Figs.  figures 5a and  5b).  l e s s o b v i o u s , correspondences can a l s o be  noted among the b i r d s and s t i c e s of both i v o r i e s The  con-  In t h i s r e g a r d , the most s t r i k i n g example  p o r t r a y e d i n the c o r n e r s of the f r o n t Similar,  animal and  are  interstices,  d i s s i m i l a r i t y , acquire a c e r t a i n  h e a d - p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i v e t o the s u r r o u n d i n g corresponding  are  t o a l t e r shapes t o conform t o  i s t h a t o f the c o r n e r i n t e r s t i c e s of each i v o r y . c o v e r , note how  In  t h a t they  gruence of shape t h a t adds t o the o v e r a l l c o m p o s i t i o n a l i t y of the i v o r i e s .  cover  interstices  As a r e s u l t , the images i n the  despite their essential  of  battling  However, i t can be noted  i n e v i d e n c i n g an impulse space.  two p a i r s  to the  terms o f e x p r e s s i v e c o n s i s t e n c y , the r e m a i n i n g  available  showing  i n the c e n t r e i n t e r s t i c e s of the back  i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  similar  In a l l c a s e s ,  l o n g axes show o n l y minor  the o t h e r , animals and b i r d s —  struggling  with  the f i g u r e s  (Figs.  5a and  i n the o u t e r - s i d e i n t e r 5b).  f i g u r a l imagery i s complemented by more  p u r e l y ornamental elements w h i c h , w i t h r e s p e c t t o usage and  13  arrangement, are, f o r the most p a r t , c o n s i s t e n t on both Each cover  i s bordered  ivories.  by a wide d e c o r a t i v e frame, the main  motif of which i s a s c r o l l w o r k design of grapes  and  foliage.  the back cover, a s i n g l e i n s t a n c e of i n t e r l a c e , i n the middle the l e f t frame, i s the only i n t e r r u p t i o n  i n the otherwise  tinuous and  The design of the  largely consistent pattern.  cover frame i s somewhat more e l a b o r a t e .  On of  confront  Here, on the top and  bottom, the dominant m o t i f i s i n h a b i t e d by b i r d s and  fishes,  while the s c r o l l w o r k on the s i d e s has been interwoven  with s e t s  of  right.  i n t e r l a c e , two  in the l e f t frame, and  three i n the  Both covers have subordinate d e c o r a t i o n —  a diamond-and-bead  p a t t e r n on the f r o n t , and a r o p e - l i k e motif on the back —  which  i s conceived as a continuum t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y frames the medall i o n s and spaced  a c t s as an inner border.  On each cover, four e v e n l y -  r o s e t t e s complete the d e c o r a t i v e programme, and,  the main and  subordinate frames,  there i s a s l i g h t  as with  variation  between f r o n t and back, i n d i c a t i n g a conscious and c o n s i s t e n t artistic  impulse  to achieve u n i t y without monotony.  The  only  element that does not have a c o u n t e r p a r t i s the narrow beadwork border around the main frame of the f r o n t cover. t h i s motif on the other i v o r y i s a p p a r e n t l y due the back cover was incomplete  never  quite finished.  s t a t e can be seen  can be noted  and  to the f a c t t h a t  border, where i t  t o p - r i g h t segments,  a beadwork m o t i f , subordinate to the main s c r o l l , terminates.  absence of  C l e a r evidence of i t s  i n the ornamental  t h a t , in the lower-middle  The  abruptly  I t s u n f i n i s h e d c o n d i t i o n does not s e r i o u s l y d e t r a c t  14  from  the  general  effect  crepancy  between  the  and  decorative  the  s k i l l  way  in  of  two  unity. their  which  of  both  the  back  ivories  In  cover,  mar  general,  carving,  their  ornamental  and  nor  their  the  does  overall  covers  wealth  of  figural  this  d i s -  compositional  are  remarkable  d e t a i l ,  and  for  for  design-elements  the  comple-  2 ment,  but  do  not  Existing their  visual  is  The  sources that  of  the  as  primarily  the  sets man's  of  of  component  cycles.  requires  textual  which  one  sources  recognized  narrative w i l l  to  comprise  This  the  ivories'  and  thus,  the  based  fifth-century  never  before  been  ivories'  entire  iconographic  t e l l a  how  the  brief for,  of  the  description  each  acknowledged  seemingly  story  of  the  i s ,  as  means  presented  narrative,  source,  that  thematic  be  the  related,  complete  and  detail  hypothesis  precisely  to  not  chapter  The  has  the  interwork  of  this  of  explaining  c l a r i t y  their  source.  for  has  thematically  Prudentius,  tification  ivories  cycles  are  textual  Before  soul,  of  parts  basis  imagery  the  reinforces  d i s t i n c t  one  textual  gramme.  on  another.  continuity.  component  Psychomachia as  this  programme  on  one  remainder  five  iconographic function  literature uniformity  continuity. and  overwhelm,  pro-  unrelated fight  of,  three  and  for iden-  major  4  The on  a  main  Psalter,  ceeding  from  cycle  on  composed left  to  The  David  the  front  of  scenes  right,  and  Cycle  cover from top  to  the  l i f e  bottom,  might of the  be  David.  expected Pro-  medallions  15  illustrate  the  following  episodes  recorded  i n t h e books  of  Samuel: David 36) .  rescues  a lamb from  Samuel a n n o i n t s D a v i d David  meets G o l i a t h  a lion  and  a t Bethlehem  (I Samuel  bear  (I Samuel  (I Samuel 16:4  17:34-  and  13).  18:48-50).  D a v i d r e c e i v e s the sword o f G o l i a t h from t h e p r i e s t , A h i m e l e c h , w h i l e Doeg, S a u l ' s s e r v a n t , l o o k s on (I Samuel 21:3-9). In a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e p r o p h e t , Gad, D a v i d r e p e n t s , b u i l d s an a l t a r , and makes o f f e r i n g s o f p e a c e t o God, w h i l e an a n g e l l o o k s on ( I I Samuel 24:17-18 and 2 5 ) . David, praise  accompanied o f God.  Previous writers the  textual  David time  and here  different  on  source  by  the  f o u r o t h e r m u s i c i a n s , makes m u s i c i n  ivories  f o r the  his musicians. that  the  texts:  scene  function  the  text  as P s a l t e r  identified  m e d a l l i o n , i n which  T h u s , i t can i s seemingly  be  instruments  are p o r t r a y e d  f o r the  refers  of  name the  recalls  150:1, 3 and  first  three  to David's  15:19, and  and  t h a t most f o r c i b l y  c o v e r s , Psalm  noted  a composite  I C h r o n i c l e s 13:8,  w h i c h t o g e t h e r d e s c r i b e the finally,  explicitly  I I Samuel 22:50, w h i c h  i n g o f p r a i s e s t o God,  and  last  have n o t  the  sing-  16:42, musicians; ivories'  4:  P r a i s e ye the L o r d . . . . / w i t h the sound o f the t r u m p e t : . . . w i t h the p s a l t e r y and h a r p . / P r a i s e him w i t h t h e t i m b r e l . . . w i t h s t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s and o r g a n s . The  above  was  facilitated  animals,  identification  and  by  Latin  of persons,  events  i n s c r i p t i o n s naming  objects contained  i n each  and  textual  the main  medallion.  sources  figures,  Again  16  proceeding in  the  from  front  DAVID  left  cover  LEO  SAMUEL  to r i g h t ,  medallions  URS  UNGITUR DAVID GOLIAS  DAVID  ABIMEL'C  Similar cation  IDITUN kinds  of  inscriptions  as f o l l o w s :  BETHLEEM  ALTARE PPH GD ( P r o p h e t a Gad) ( i n s c r i b e d on Gad's s c r o l l )  ASAPH  EMAN.  7  of i n s c r i p t i o n a l  the  the  DOEG  DAVID EGO PECCAVI CONSTRUE ALTARE DNO ETAN  are  t o bottom,  AGN*  1  DAVID  top  scenes  and  c l u e s a l s o a i d i n the  t e x t u a l sources  o f the  identifi-  ivories'  other  cycles.  The This cover and  second  cycle occupies  medallions,  vice,  both  be  On  identified  Faith  and  the  interstices  the  are d e p i c t e d b a s i s o f the  the  front-  s t r u g g l e between  virtue  i n the  of  form o f  inscriptions,  female  the  per-  combatants  as f o l l o w s :  Chastity  (PUDICITIA) - L u s t  Humility  (HUMILITAS) and  Patience  (PATIENCIA) - Anger  Concord  (LIBIDO)  Hope  (SPES) - P r i d e  (FORTITUDO) - G r e e d  (CO [N] CORDIA) - D i s c o r d  a t the  bottom,  (SUP [ER]B [ i ] A)  (IRA)  (SOBRIETAS) - E x t r a v a g a n c e  Courage, S t r e n g t h  alone  the  Cycle  (FIDES) - I d o l a t r y (IDOLAT [ R l ] A )  Moderation  and  Vices  illustrates  of which  sonifications. can  V i r t u e s and  i s Largesse  (LUXURIA) (AVARITIA)  (DISCORDIA) ; (LARGITAS).  17  This  cycle  derives  directly,  and  almost  exclusively,  from  o the  Psychomachia.  bottom, story was  and  of  from  the  conceived  Sequentially, left  fight by  to  for  right,  man's  Prudentius  from  the  soul,  centre-top  front in  cover  much  the  to  centre-  unfolds same  the  way  as  it  himself:  F a i t h f i r s t takes the f i e l d to f a c e . . . Worship-of-the-OldGods...[and] smites her f o e ' s head d o w n . . . . Next to step f o r t h . . . i s the maiden C h a s t i t y [ w h o ] . . . with a sword-thrust... pierces the... t h r o a t [of~| . • • tnat... f i l t h y L u s t . . . . Lo, mild Long-Suffering ...[while] wild passion  was standing with staid countenance fires [WratlT] t o s l a y h e r s e l f . . . .  L o w l i n e s s had gathered for w a r . . . m a d n e s s . . . . As she [ L o w l i n e s s ] hes rade Hope comes t o her s i d e , " h o l d s vengeance.... [Lowliness]... bends head....  £fco m e e t ] P r i d e i n her i t a t e s , "her f a i t h f u l comout to her the sword of the neck, s e v e r s the  Soberness opens up a w a y . . . whereby the temptress Indulgence, for a l l her great t r a i n , s h a l l pay the p e n a l t y . . . Soberness . . . d r i v e s the stone to smash the b r e a t h p a s s a g e in the m i d s t of the f a c e . . . . Good Works d a s h e s i n . . . . L i k e a t h u n d e r b o l t t o A v a r i c e was the s i g h t of the i n v i n c i b l e V i r t u e . . . . The v i c t o r presses h a r d on her w i t h knee and f o o t , s t a b s her t h r o u g h the r i b s . . . . Then k i n d l y P e a c e . . . b a n i s h e s w a r . . . . stopped her speech and b l o c k e d the p a s s a g e of her v o i c e w i t h a j a v e l i n , driving its hard point through the f o u l tongue. It the  can  be  noted  s c e n e s on  resultant  that,  the  in  ivory  picture-text  their  portrayal  occasionally discrepancies  of  diverge —  the  the  Psychomachia,  from  the  reversed  text.  positions  Patiencia-Ira  and  H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a , the  isolation  Largitas,  the  introduction  w i l l  detailed cycles.  and and  explained  of  subsequent  Fortitudo to  —  describing  the  The  be  of further  remaining  of  18  The A c t s o f Mercy Cycle" "" 1  The  third  major c y c l e  of the i v o r i e s  m e d a l l i o n s on t h e back c o v e r . a New  Testament t e x t ,  i s contained  T h i s g r o u p o f images  Matthew 25:35 and  i n the  illustrates  36:  F o r I was an h u n g r e d , and ye gave me meat: I was t h i r s t y , and ye gave me d r i n k : I was a s t r a n g e r , and ye took me i n : Naked, and ye c l o t h e d me: I was s i c k , and ye v i s i t e d me: I was i n p r i s o n , and ye came u n t o me. The  ivories  images o c c u r  t o bottom, l e f t Feeding  i n t h e same s e q u e n c e , and  to r i g h t ,  the hungry  the m e d a l l i o n s  Providing ME) Clothing  shelter the naked  Comforting Visiting From  the i m p r i s o n e d  COLLEGISTIS  ME)  (IN CARCERE ET VENISTIS the crown, and  i t can be n o t e d  acts i s a king.  MICHI  ME)  (INFIRMUS ET V I S I T A S T I S  the j e w e l l e d costume,  these  (HOSPES ET  (NUDUS ET COOPERVISTIS  the s i c k  upper m e d a l l i o n s ,  M [ l H ] l MANDUCARE)  ( S I T I V I ET DEDISTIS  f o r the homeless  that  Katzenellenbogen  top  depict:  (ESURIVI ET DEDISTIS  G i v i n g d r i n k t o the t h i r s t y BIBERE)  t h u s , from  AD  the t h r o n e  the f i g u r e  ME).  1 1  i n the  that  performs  identifies  this  k i n g as  v i e w , i t can be n o t e d  that  the  12 David.  In s u p p o r t  of t h i s  facial  f e a t u r e s o f the f i g u r e  trayed  i n the l a s t  supportive  evidence  are l i k e  those  of David,  two m e d a l l i o n s on t h e f r o n t c o v e r . i s p r o v i d e d by t h e c o s t u m e , w h i c h  a contemporary Byzantine  emperor:  as  por-  Additional i s that of  In B y z a n t i n e m a n u s c r i p t s  of  19  the  eleventh century  and l a t e r ,  David  i s represented  as a t y p e  13 of  t h e e m p e r o r , and i s shown  have f o u n d  that there  in imperial dress.  i s also a textual  Finally,  basis for identifying  the m e r c i f u l k i n g w i t h D a v i d : I C h r o n i c l e s 16:3 And he [pavicT] d e a l t t o e v e r y one o f I s r a e l , o o t h man and woman, t o e v e r y one a l o a f o f b r e a d , and a good p i e c e o f f l e s h , and a f l a g o n o f w i n e . Thus, the A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e noted  by o t h e r  secondly,  fulfills  belief  says:  two f u n c t i o n s :  scholars, i t illustrates  i t i s my  I  the t e x t  First,  from  that i t also continues  as  Matthew;  the s t o r y o f  14 David.  A similar  also occurs As and as  will  with  use o f one c y c l e  regard  be shown, t h i s  t o the David  s u c h , must be e x p l o r e d At this  two r e m a i n i n g  one  characteristic  further  imagery  of these  cycles,  straightforward Generosity  Happiness Joy  i s a key,  of the i v o r i e s ,  and  section of  a r e y e t t o be d e s c r i b e d t h e  Minor  Cycles  cycles consists  of four  i n each o f the i n n e r c o r n e r s o f the f r o n t  Kindness  cover.  groups o f images.  first  the o t h e r  two t e x t s  on t h e f r o n t  i n a subsequent  p o i n t , there  The The  cycle  kind of "double-duty"  p r e v i o u s l y unrecognized,  this chapter.  to i l l u s t r a t e  cover.  figures, As w i t h  i n s c r i p t i o n s make b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  process: (BONITAS)  (top-left)  (BENIGNITAS) ( t o p - r i g h t ) (BEATITUDO)  (LETICIA)  female  (bottom-left)  (bottom-right).  1 5  a  20  The  t e x t u a l source  obvious. nor  The  four V i r t u e s  are they ever The  cover  textual  is also  paleographic named by  obscure. clues.  of these  An  additional  (HERODIUS).  Even  synonomous, and  was  o f t e n used  Psychomachia,  on  i s the  so, p r e c i s e  back lack  of  is  identification  bestiaries,  fact  the  top, Herodius,  the c o o t , t h e h e r o n ,  o f c o n f u s i o n i s the  i s less  imagery.  difficulty  a t the  f o r , i n the m e d i e v a l  added s o u r c e  i n the  animal/bird cycle  the b i r d  associated with  figures  are not mentioned  f o r the  Only  inscription  variously  inclusion  associated with Davidic source  is not p o s s i b l e ,  An  f o r the  the  and  term  is  the s t o r k .  that herodius i s  interchangeably, with  another  17 Latin  term,  of the for  fulica  fulica  F u l k , the  (alternate  spelling:  synonym, C a h i e r  suggested  third  king of L a t i n  fulcia).  On  that Herodius  Jerusalem  the b a s i s  was  (1131-1143),  a  rebus  and  that, of  t h e r e f o r e , the A c t s of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s c o n t a i n p o r t r a y a l s 18 t h i s contemporary k i n g . C a h i e r ' s t h e o r y has p r o v e d v e r y  p o p u l a r , and  has  been  repeated  f r e q u e n t l y by  later  writers  on  19 the be  ivories.  The  definitively  established.  proven  a distraction  source  of Herodius,  g r a p h i c programme. two  suggestions  First,  there  herodius, both  accuracy  from  the  However, i n e i t h e r c e n t r a l problem  i t s relationship  For  this  r e g a r d i n g the  and  reason,  t o the  I would now  the  term,  theory case,  -- t h e  textual derivation  which uses  but which o t h e r w i s e cycle  i n a c c u r a c y o f the  and  i s a text,  the D a v i d  or  i t has  textual  overall like of  cannot  icono-  t o make  Herodius:  fulica,  rather  than  seems t h e m a t i c a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o  the A c t s o f Mercy.  Philippe  de  Thaun,  21  in  a poem w r i t t e n c a  saintly  man,  who,  1120,  like  uses  fulica  King David,  F u l i c a . . . / Saint Ki  as a symbol o f  the  l e a d s an h o n o u r a b l e  horn  life:  signefie  onestement v i t , 20  Issi Although  the p o e t  p r e s u m a b l y , he inherent  c e p t o f honour possible  of  specifically  "living  mention  honourably."  one  which  In any  that  those  actually  special  such  Mercy, deeds  c a s e , the  o f mercy. uses  by Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r  a s s o c i a t e s herodius with  Acts of  understood  incongruent with  source,  herodius, i s a tract he  dit....  h i s contemporaries  i s not  textual  David  d i d not  and  aspects  cum  the  as con-  Another word,  (1096-1141), i n which people  who  live  a  v i r t u o u s l i f e t h r o u g h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f good w o r k s : Bene e r g o i n h e r o d i o . . . e l e c t o r u m p e r s o n a s i g n i f i c a t u r , q u i . . . m u l t a v i r t u s bonae a c t i o n i s s u p p e t i t , quae i l l o s i n superna s u s t o l l i t . 2 1 Although  both  M e r c y , the latter  texts  are  thematically related  relationship  text.  This,  i s more e x p l i c i t l y  in conjunction with  f o r the  programme. in  this  inclusion  Other  findings,  c h a p t e r , tend  Identification cycle little their  of  i s not p o s s i b l e . relationship portrayals  of Herodius  i n the  actual  of  the  the  i n the  t o be p r e s e n t e d  to support other  Medieval  this birds  as  and  use  t h e more  ivories'  the likely  iconographic  at a further  point  view. and  animals  in  this  d e p i c t i o n s of animals  t o modern p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e  of b i r d s  of  expressed  word, h e r o d i u s , p o i n t s t o Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r source  t o the A c t s  animals, medieval  bear  images.  artists  In  found i t  22  difficult looks  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  like  represent tions of  a dog  t o the modern e y e , m i g h t  a wolf,  a lion,  or a b e a r .  images a r e n o t u n i f o r m .  the animal  22  among s p e c i e s .  i n the c e n t r e - b o t t o m  For  F o r e x a m p l e , what  have been  intended  to  M o r e o v e r , modern  percep-  instance, Cahier  identifies  interstice  as an  antelope;  23 Dalton  calls  further  i t a hare.  theorizing  Such a d i s c r e p a n c y i n d i c a t e s 24  that  in this  regard i s best avoided.  Thus, w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f H e r o d i u s ,  the a n i m a l s must r e m a i n  unidentified.  Nonetheless,  i t will  thematically  to the o t h e r c y c l e s ,  the c o m p l e t i o n  of the  Unusual Each one  of  unique  explained earlier six  become c l e a r  the  ivories' Aspects  t h r e e major  that and  these that  overall  o f the  images  they  textual  or c o n t e m p o r a r y  scenes  can  be  traced  are c r u c i a l  Iconography  c y c l e s d e s c r i b e d above has be  at  In the D a v i d  to e a r l i e r  Bible  cycle,  least  readily  r e f e r e n c e s , or by c o m p a r i s o n s  art.  to  i c o n o g r a p h i c programme.  or e x c e p t i o n a l f e a t u r e which cannot through  relate  with  five  or P s a l t e r  of  the  illus-tra-  25 tions. there This  One i s no  i s the  scene,  obvious scene  which Ahimelech far  as I can  any  illustrated  or  the West.  however, a p p e a r s reason  for i t s inclusion  on  the  and  ivories.  c o n t a i n e d i n the m i d d l e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n , i n  presents David  determine, medieval  The  t o be u n p r e c e d e n t e d ,  scene  there  i s no  Bible may,  with  the  sword  similar  or P s a l t e r  therefore,  of G o l i a t h .  scene  from  t o be  either  be u n i q u e  As  found i n  Byzantium  to t h i s  one  23  David  cycle,  and, s i n c e t h e r e  view, the reason  i s no e v i d e n c e  f o r the scene's  inclusion  to contradict  will  this  be c o n s i d e r e d 26  further  i n the f o l l o w i n g  Similarly, is not without prised  as n o t e d unusual  appear  previously,  features.  First  shows s u c h  insertion  of F o r t i t u d e  evidenced  by t h i s  series  and V i c e s  i s no  parable  unusual —  with  feature —  regard  this  complete are  paired  and t h e a s s o c i a t e d  aspects separately  the f a c t  that  t h e two  As f a r as I  i n any work o f a r t p r o there  i s o n l y one  com-  t o the A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e , the  the resemblance  h a s a l r e a d y been n o t e d .  that point  date,  and I r a  invariably  noteworthy.  iconographic p a r a l l e l  1175, and a f t e r , 28 example.  Finally,  cycle,  i s , in i t s e l f ,  before -i  the unusual  pair,  A l s o unique  iconography,  cycle  t h e g r o u p com-  No o t h e r  and A v a r i t i a ,  Beyond  and t h e D a v i d  are juxtaposed  know, t h e r e  David  o f all,,.,  a discrepancy.  o t h e r examples o f Psychomachian 27  *  the V i r t u e s  In t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , P a t i e n c i a  the s e p a r a t i o n of L a r g i t a s  duced  chapter.  b e f o r e H u m i l i t a s , S p e s , and S u p e r b i a .  Psychomachian c y c l e  in  of t h i s  o f H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a , and t h e P a t i e n c i a - I r a  are out of sequence.  both  section  of the m e r c i f u l The t e x t u a l  (I C h r o n . 16:3) i s e v i d e n c e  that  king to  source  cited  the resemblance  at was  intentional,  and was, I b e l i e v e , meant t o show t h e t y p o l o g i c a l  relationship  between O l d T e s t a m e n t  l a r g e s s e and New  Testament  29 mercy. However, i t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e i s one w h i c h , i n t e r m s o f c o m p l e t e n e s s , was 30 never, before or subsequently, p a r a l l e l l e d . Totally  24  exceptional and  as  well,  Psychomachian  example  in  which  is  the  cycles any  cycle's  of  kind  the  of  association  front  Acts  of  cover: Mercy  with  the  there  is  imagery  David  no  extant  occurs  in 31  conjunction  with  The  of  in  drawing i t s e l f ,  sive  Old  necessary as  the  yet,  question,  an  and  iconography reading  of  Why,  of  that  has  the  been  from  to  create  images,  an  when  this  unique  resolving  cover,  are  cycle  programme  the to  the  of  found  example) deemed  ivories,  to  of  tradi-  was  the  answer  problem  be  for  not,  exten-  more  Christ,  the  through  this unusual a  close  Psychomachia.  Major Textual Source of Iconographic Programme  noted  Virtue-Vice  other  therefore,  Both  does  unusually  of  question.  cycle.  parallel  l i f e  of  front  Prudentius'  new  Psychomachian  Testament  iconographic  means  the  a  the  unanswered  The  It  several  overall  the  or  reason  (scenes  served. to  Davidic  Testament-New  containing  have  a  sufficient  iconography  would  is,  an  seem  cycle  tional  either  previously,  cycle  on  the  in  this  the  study  front-cover  and  ivory  elsewhere, closely  3 2 follows  the  recognized gramme  --  text is  the  a l l  it  cussion  the  relationship  ship  is  the  Psychomachia.  dependency  is  text  at  the  cycles,  Accordingly, that  of  the  both  with  root  of  the  covers  major  ivories'  of  —  What  entire on  hypothesis  imagery  never  been  iconographic  pro-  this of  has  same  the  evidences  the  P s y c h o m a c h i a , and  the  iconographic  a  text.  following close  that  variations  d i s -  picture-  this  relation-  described  25  above.  It  w i l l  is  a  as  a metaphor  recurring  contended f i c a l l y fore,  sual  for  that  are,  in  the  the  in  of  argued  motif  conceived  creation  changes  machian figure These  Largitas,  images  the  or  are,  means  In  the  of  and  of  the  thus,  This nor  of  to  but  does  of  to  the  its  be  be  cover that  David viewed  further  were  speci-  both,  there-  same n a r r a t i v e . not  only  also  standard  apply  part  it  its  to,  it  and  the  cycles,  metaphor  does  bringing  of  can  w i l l  front  necessitated  two  additions  the  implicitly,  It  metaphor,  metaphor  however,  course  this  on  illustrations  iconography. of  cycles  depict  visual  in,  e x p l i c i t l y  P s y c h o m a c h i a and  main  effect,  this  the  two to  that,  Psychomachian battle.  juxtapositioning  noted  as  be  the  Davidic  The  the  unu-.  previously-  and  Psycho-  not  include  the  the  Acts  Mercy  of  narrative,  and  isolated cycle.  essential  conclusion.  story-action,  the  Psychomachia makes  33 two  explicit  immediately her  references after  moralizing  the  to  David.  victory  epilogue  to  this  We h a v e s e e n h o w G o l i a t h , by a weak hand....34 Clearly, and ,the  Goliath same,  adjacent was  the  literary with  the to  effected  of  In  f i r s t  Humilitas event,  as  for  the  David  through  resulted  in  the  previous  section.  and the  minor The  Goliath moving  of  picture-text second  was...  had  humility,  metaphor to  be  This  to  noted  David  to  do  placed  positioning  Patiencia-Ira  disjunction  reference  In  f e l l . . .  with  visual  medallion. the  occurs  Superbia.  associates David  order  these  says:  he  H u m i l i t a s - S p e s - S u p e r b i a group  the  of  over  Spes  terrible  metaphor  pride.  The  pair, in  occurs  and  the at  a  26  later her  point  defeat  renowned  in  the  of  Psychomachian  Luxuria,  David,"  and,  action.  Sobrietas a  few  Immediately  invokes  lines  the  further  name  on,  prior  of  to  "the  cries:  35 Repent, The  I  corresponding  cated  repentance, The  above  correlation in  this  the  order for  stice, lion,  to  complement  and are  symbol  its a  of  in  of  the  a  of  a  sacrifice.  been  and  their  Sobrietas  l i t t l e  on  the  doubt  and  pair,  in  a  In  the  these  images  Idolatria,  rites  of  that and  that  each in  Consider,  centre-top  inter-  top-left  latter  medal-  traditionally  relate  the  the  positioned,  the  lamb,  repents.  parallels  scene.  the  advo-  thematic  ivories,  included,  has  David  textual  Psychomachian  Together, of  God....  medallion,  medallions.  description and  clear:  seems  adjacent  bear,  high  explicit  extended  flanking  the  Davidic-Psychomachian  there  has  of  adjacent  Fides-Idolatria  lion,  religions  is  extent  been  an  two  Prudentius'  pagan  the  has  the  fear  and  medallions  example,  the  metaphor  However,  metaphor  to  by  visual  represent  David  you  instances  regard.  literary of  beseech  a  conceptually  personification  of  sacrifice:  36 ... Thus,  that  mouth  because  of  became  symbols  f i c i a l  offering.  consistent between being  Fides  their  of  with  the  an  was  sated  position  Idolatria, The  and  anointed,  that  with the  ivories,  while  the  lamb  medallion  Psychomachian  image  blood  on  top-right  Idolatria.  the  In  which,  account this  at  the  of the  also  of  the  time  lion  represents  is  scene,  b e a s t s . . . .  the  bear sacri-  thematically encounter  David of  and  the  is  shown  ivories'  37 carving,  had  long  been  associated  with  kingship.  The  royal  27  connations the  of  this  adjacent  image  make  Psychomachian  it  an  scene,  appropriate  for,  upon  complement  defeating  to  Idolatria,  Fides . . . crowns her brave comrades... s e l v e s in f l a m i n g pur p i e . 38 Thus,  by  visual  association,  comrades:"  In  the  vanquishing  of  Idolatria,  his  appropriate  the  David  has  already  in  the  and  lion  and  been  bear  and  reward.  Goliath  David  The  becomes  the  medallion  and  the  However,  Humilitas  plays  and  them  one  of  he  them-  Fides'  "brave  in  the  scene,  he  receives  relationship  between  Humilitas-Superbia  it a  clothe  assists  Anointment  metaphorical  described.  between  bids  medallion,  in  Psychomachia, Pudicitia  encounter  and  should  be  peripheral  Superbia:  She  is  added role  scene  that,  in  the  taunted  by  39 Superbia, the  just  placement  Goliath text,  and  the  is  both  contributes of  the  scene.  image.  dent  on  the  This  realization  to  "disdained"  for  the  the  visual  p i c t o r i a l must  inventor of the v i s u a l Patlencia-Ira pair is  of  the  the  have  of  pair —  posed  the  the  of  side  also  of  the  not  for  the the  to  have  David-  have  other  any adjacent  metaphor  a  David-  of  seems  unusual  centre-right  something  of  Concern  only the  Hence,  story-line  does  its  continuation of  the  metaphor  inclusion  content  Goliath.  other  with  the  anointing  by  metaphor.  Patiencia-Ira  with  Thus,  on  consistent  integrity  The  affinities  Davidic  was  Pudicitia-Libido  motivation  Ahimelech thematic  of  David  medallion  preservation been  as  is  depen-  medallion. problem  for  the  metaphor, for, i n t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a , t h e 40 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J o b and h i s sufferings.  28  Moreover, t h e r e i s no c l e a r t y p o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between Job and David which might have suggested the p a r t i c u l a r episode was  to portray i n t h i s medallion.  The  Davidic  scene f i n a l l y  chosen  an e f f e c t i v e compromise, f o r , an image of David r e c e i v i n g  the sword of G o l i a t h i s not o n l y the n a t u r a l c o n t i n u a t i o n of David  the  and G o l i a t h scene, i t i s a l s o t h e m a t i c a l l y congruent w i t h  P a t i e n c i a ' s words upon her v i c t o r y over I r a : 41  We  have overcome a proud V i c e w i t h our wonted v i r t u e . . . .  Through a s s o c i a t i o n of i d e a s and  images, "proud V i c e " can be  s t r u e d as a r e f e r e n c e t o G o l i a t h , and w i t h the h u m i l i t y of D a v i d .  w h i l e a c c o r d i n g l y , the remaining The  S o b r i e t a s - L u x u r i a p a i r and a l r e a d y been d e t a i l e d . l a s t medallion-scene and  h i s musicians  and concludes  medallions  thematic  the  battle,  complete the D a v i d i c -  congruence between the  the scene of David's repentance  Only the m e t a p h o r i c a l  remains t o be d e s c r i b e d .  i s juxtaposed  d e f e a t of D i s c o r d i a .  "wonted v i r t u e " a s s o c i a t e d  P r o g r e s s i n g downward on the i v o r y ,  the n e x t s e t of i n t e r s t i c e s c o n t i n u e s  Psychomachian metaphor.  con-  f u n c t i o n of The  to the p o r t r a y a l of  has the  image of  David  Concordia's  T h i s v i s u a l r e l a t i n g of m u s i c a l harmony to  the harmony of concord has a f i r m t e x t u a l b a s i s , f o r , as d e s c r i b e d i n the Psychomachia, ... when the race of V i c e s was subdued, the V i r t u e ' s h o l y songs rang out i n sweet melodious psalms. The  F o r t i t u d o - A v a r i t i a p a i r does not seem to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  v i s u a l metaphor j u s t d e s c r i b e d .  However, i t can be noted  that  t h e r e are numerous p r e c e d e n t s f o r a s s o c i a t i n g F o r t i t u d o w i t h  29  David, " 4  and  3  that,  i n a d d i t i o n , they  share  the  lion  as  an  attri-  44 bute.  Although  have had  these  for  the  the  creator  associations  i n c l u s i o n of  of  this  Since, tionship machia, who  the  must now the  this  point,  the  crucial  does n o t  in this  the  ivories' problem  appear  i n the  t o whom t h e r e be  on  they  the  are  not  the  front-cover  regard  will  be  main  ivory.  given  may basis Thus,  i n an  ensuing  chapter.  between  Largitas,  in  at  the i c o n o g r a p h i c programme  i n mind,  Fortitudo  a detailed explanation section  of  poem.  the  this  i s to d e t a i l the  i t i s the  as  i t should  word  and  rela-  the  Psycho-  Fortitudo,  isolation  textual references,  regard,  M i d d l e Ages, L a r g i t a s , both  text of  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Rather,  several  In  aim  images and  i s not  are  considered.  chief  be  of  which  noted  image, was  that,  closely  45 associated, Thus, bottom  and  used  i t appears  interchangeably,  that  interstice,  was  the  e f f e c t e d as  Psychomachian n a r r a t i v e , conclusion lines of  of  the  to d e s c r i b e  emphasis  battle. the  i s placed  isolating  f o r , the Rather,  with of  the  Largitas,  a means o f  i t continues of  maintenance  peace. of  (charity).  i n the  centre-  continuing  s t o r y does not  newly-won s t a t e on  Caritas  end for A  the  with  the  several great  more  deal  t h a t p e a c e , and  that  m a i n t e n a n c e d e p e n d s on c h a r i t y : But the n a t i o n ' s p e a c e d e p e n d s on good w i l l between i t s c i t i z e n s i n f i e l d and town.^6 As the poem p r o g r e s s e s , p e a c e i s n o t o n l y d e p e n d e n t on c h a r i t y , but  i t a c t u a l l y becomes c h a r i t y : I t (peace) i s n o t p u f f e d up w i t h p r i d e , i t f e e l s n o j e a l o u s envy o f a b r o t h e r ; i t e n d u r e s a l l t h i n g s w i t h l o n g suffering, believes a l l things. 7  30  In a d d i t i o n t o advancing lated  the Psychomachian s t o r y - l i n e , the  f i g u r e of L a r g i t a s a l s o p r o v i d e s the n a r r a t i v e l i n k  the f r o n t cover  and  the back.  That i s , the  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n theme o f  a theme w h i c h  i s developed  the  between  image o f L a r g i t a s i s  the p i c t o r i a l  f u r t h e r by  iso-  images on  the  charity, back  48 cover.  I n t h i s r e g a r d , r e f e r e n c e may  b i r d , Herodius. p a p e r , two lar,  When t h i s  image was  p o s s i b l e t e x t u a l sources  and  ivories,  i t seems c l e a r  t o be u n d e r s t o o d  were n o t e d .  One  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  t h a t the  image was  c o n c e p t u a l n e x u s b e t w e e n L a r g i t a s , on  M i s e r i c o r d i a , both  as  As  such,  synonomous w i t h C a r i t a s .  Psychomachia intended  Herodius  provides  the  i d e a , was,  the  Ages, mercy, or like  Largitas,  Thus, the s i x scenes of the A c t s  Mercy c y c l e together comprise  the p i c t o r i a l  P s y c h o m a c h i a n theme o f c h a r i t y . the d i s p e n s e r  works.  t h e f r o n t c o v e r , and  In the M i d d l e  image and 49  in particu-  indeed  becomes p a r t o f the P s y c h o m a c h i a n n a r r a t i v e , and  the back.  the  t h e b i r d w i t h good  as a s y m b o l o f c h a r i t y .  A c t s o f M e r c y , on  to  f i r s t discussed i n this  t h a t o f Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r , l i n k s  In l i g h t o f t h e c l o s e w o r d - p i c t u r e  be made a g a i n  of t h i s c h a r i t y  The  culmination of  of  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of a king  as  i s a l s o appropriate to Psycho-  m a c h i a n n a r r a t i v e , f o r , t o w a r d s t h e end  o f t h e poem, t h e  literary  imagery a c q u i r e s r o y a l c o n n a t i o n s : H e r e m i g h t y Wisdom s i t s e n t h r o n e d and f r o m h e r h i g h c o u r t s e t s i n o r d e r a l l the g o v e r n m e n t o f her r e a l m , m e d i t a t i n g i n h e r h e a r t ways t o s a f e g u a r d m a n k i n d . 5 0 The  k i n g on  part:  He  the  has  ivories  risen  s u b j e c t s through  i s contemplative  Wisdom's a c t i v e  counter-  f r o m h i s t h r o n e , and  i s safeguarding  his  the performance of c h a r i t a b l e  deeds.  31  The ing  Psychomachia  bird  and  have n e v e r  animal  i s also  imagery  b e f o r e been  the  on  the s t a t i c  birds  with  i d e a of Psychomachian  source  t h e back c o v e r .  r e c o g n i z e d as  m a l s and the  textual  such,  f o r the Although  the  t h e y a r e a l s o , more s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  and  they  struggling  are not o n l y e x p r e s s i v e l y battle  remain-  ani-  consistent  i t s peaceful aftermath,  the p i c t o r i a l  version  of  51 Prudentius'  own  words:  ... the snow-white d o v e s . . . . know... when.... the w o l f w i t h h i s g o r y j a w s . . . c a r r i e s on h i s b l o o d y m u r d e r s by d e v o u r i n g the l a m b s . P r u d e n t i u s used n a t u r e o f man, T h u s , on  the  this and  kind  of  i t i s on  ivory,  the  imagery this  bird  and  as a metaphor .for the  theme, t h a t animal  the poem  imagery  dual  ends.  i s the  visual  i  means by w h i c h the n a r r a t i v e this  r e g a r d , the  trast  visually,  fighting  final  to i t s c o n c l u s i o n .  a n i m a l s , p l a c e d as  expressively,  Mercy, are p a r t i c u l a r l y Prudentius'  i s brought  and  they are  c o n c e p t u a l l y with  a p p r o p r i a t e as  an  to  In  con-  the A c t s  illustration  of  of  thoughts:  Savage war r a g e s h o t l y , r a g e s w i t h i n our b o n e s , and man's t w o - s i d e d n a t u r e i s i n an u p r o a r o f r e b e l l i o n . . . . L i g h t and d a r k n e s s w i t h t h e i r o p p o s i n g s p i r i t s a r e a t war, and our t w o - f o l d b e i n g i n s p i r e s powers a t v a r i a n c e w i t h e a c h o t h e r , u n t i l C h r i s t our God comes t o our a i d . . . . 5 3 Although the major  the P s y c h o m a c h i a  components o f  does n o t c o n t a i n even armoured  figure  with A v a r i t i a . Virtues  —  the  is clearly  ivories'  the  textual  source  of  i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, i t  a vague r e f e r e n c e t o F o r t i t u d o ,  i n t r o d u c e d as L a r g i t a s '  substitute  Similarly,  o f the f o u r  the p r e s e n c e  B o n i t a s , B e n i g n i t a s , B e a t i t u d o , and  the  i n the  battle  single  Leticia  —  i n the  32  corners to  the  of  the  front  is also  This  indicates  Psychomachia.  been used  i n the  planning  The It w i l l cover  cover,  be  i v o r y was  Victor  recalled  that  apparently  another  the  that  the  based  work by  the  reference  t e x t must  have  programme.  Source  Herodius-image on  I have a l s o  by  another  iconographic  Secondary T e x t u a l  (1097-1141).  extent,  of  inexplicable  a t r a c t by  found  that,  same t h e o l o g i a n  on  the  Hugh o f  to and  backSt.  a much  greater  writer,  was  used  54 as  a complement f o r  other  textual  the  main  text,  the  Psychomachia.  s o u r c e , Hugh's t r e a t i s e e n t i t l e d De  Carnis  et  S p i r i t u s , makes use  of  the  armies  as  a means o f c h a r a c t e r i s i n g  image o f the  This  Fructibus  two  opposing  d u a l i t y of  human  55 nature. tain  However, u n l i k e  the  metaphor.  man's s o u l Vice  and  through  the  associated At  the  Since  Instead, the  of  use  that  of  ivory's  two  main aim  on  Hugh's s y s t e m . tionship perhaps  the  top,  the  reason  why,  the  was  the  the  images:  the  latter  (Caritas)  of at  the the  until  immediately now,  i t has  the  not  been  its  iconography. Caritas.  Psychobottom,  and  inversion  ivories'  obvious,  of  of  image, w i t h  i t s top,  portraying  this inversion,  i s not  Tree  front cover's at  sus-  components  is essentially a pictorial  Because of  t o Hugh's t e x t  poem, i t d o e s n o t  i s Humilitas,  machia , i t s imagery, with L a r g i t a s H u m i l i t a s near  main  I t i s the  bears  Hugh's t r e e ,  1  i t schematizes  of V i r t u e .  concepts,  roots the  Tree  Prudentius  and  of  relathis  recognized  is as  33  the  textual  cratic  s o u r c e o f some o f t h e i v o r i e s ' s e e m i n g l y  iconographic  features.  Although, v i s u a l l y , neither  o f the i v o r i e s resembles the  usual depictions  o f Hugh's s y s t e m o f v i r t u e s  cover  several  represents  another.  As a l r e a d y  Humilitas, from the on  depicted  the t o p . three  Largitas also  figure  wise-unexplained remaining  presence  and P r u d e n t i a  conceptually  related  treatise, of  Temperantia.  56  are a l s o  cardinal  ingly  the m e d i e v a l ideas  derives  tendency  toward  were u n d e r s t o o d  virtues.  For example,  artists  i n Hugh's  f r o m , and i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  were n o t n o r m a l l y  o f the i v o r y ' s rigid  in their  an  aspect  and C o n .  cardinal virtue, Prudentia, cover.  a b s e n c e d o e s n o t i n v a l i d a t e Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r ' s  that  as c o n c e p t u -  . . E l s e w h e r e , he e q u a t e s J u s t i t i a  source  inter-  and images, I s u g g e s t  o f the i c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e f r o n t  textual  The  (Temperance) , J u s t i t i a  .  not part  secondary  virtues  (Prudence) a r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y  related  The r e m a i n i n g  and  hence, the o t h e r -  57 cordia.  represented  on t h e i v o r i e s .  -- Temperantia  t o the c a r d i n a l  Sobrietas  The f o u r  of F o r t i t u d o  some o f t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a n v i r t u e s ally  t o h i s ranking, are  i n Hugh's t r e a t i s e —  However, g i v e n  changing  a l l of which  i n t e r s t i c e , second  a t t h e t o p , Spes w i t h H u m i l i t a s ,  cardinal virtues  (Justice),  i s f o u n d e d upon  according  a t the b o t t o m .  prominently  i n one form o r  i n the c e n t r e  i n importance,  Fides,  (Caritas)  depicted.  n o t e d , Hugh's s y s t e m  theological virtues,  the i v o r i e s :  ( F i g . 6 ) , the f r o n t  o f h i s major c o n c e p t s  on t h e i v o r y  Next  idiosyn-  i s seemIts  t r e a t i s e as a  images, f o r m e d i e v a l adherence  to textual  34  sources. to s u i t For  They  invariably  altered  the c o m p o s i t i o n a l  example,  the word-picture  and t h e m a t i c  in compiling  demands o f t h e i r a r t .  and i l l u s t r a t i n g  the Hortus  ( M u n i c h , S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , C o d . l a t . 13002; c a Herrad  o f Landsberg used  Carnis et S p i r i t u s , V i c e s , omitted  both  relationship  Deliciarum  1159-1180),  t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a and De F r u c t i b u s  b u t i n so d o i n g ,  some, and added  regrouped  t h e V i r t u e s and  o t h e r s , t o conform  t o her p a r -  58 ticular  artistic  purposes.  This p r e d i l e c t i o n  g r a p h i c m o d i f i c a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f m e d i e v a l the  presence  the  ivory.  of L e t i c i a  and B e a t i t u d o  The i n v e n t o r  simply  deemed  figure  of L a r g i t a s .  artists  i n t h e lower  them a p p r o p r i a t e  thematic  corners of  nated  aspects  of Prudentia,  synonymous w i t h  treatise,  Leticia  are l o o s e l y  f o r , among h i s d e s i g -  i s Alacritas  both  perhaps  complements t o t h e n e a r b y  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t they  on Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r ' s  icono-  may e x p l a i n  o f t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c programme  based  roughly  toward  (Joy), a  concept  ( J o y ) and B e a t i t u d o  (Happi-  59  ness). is  I f s o , then  accounted  tual two  the " m i s s i n g "  f o r -- r e p r e s e n t e d  a s s o c i a t i o n with  Leticia  cardinal  virtue,  Prudentia  on t h e i v o r y  through  a concep-  and B e a t i t u d o .  The  s i n g l e V i r t u e s , i n t h e t o p c o r n e r s , have a more  textual  basis.  Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r  specifically 6  Benignitas  (Kindness)  (Generosity), although identical same  remaining  concept,  source.  as an a s p e c t  of C a r i t a s .  not e x p l i c i t l y  and can be presumed  secure  mentions 0  Bonitas  named, r e p r e s e n t s  a nearly  t o have d e r i v e d from t h e  35  Undeniably, images  and  Hugh  satisfactorily does  so  tues,  to  it  a  only that, the  at  St.  in  for  extent  the  figures  conflicting  aspects  of  its  placement  of  apex  the  system  virtues,  main  Themes  The  ivories'  two  aims  in  closest-possible second and by  was  Benignitas to,  the  kingship. several  complement  the  a  the at  it  —  their  to  also  the  et  be  old  is  a  It  and  noted  Spiritus  treatise  with  V i r -  conceived  can  visual  it  for  Psychomachia.  consistent  If  corner  Carnis  the  the  treatise  challenge  ornamental  nature,  Caritas  four  explanation  Fructibus  to  his  is  is  wholly also,  conceptual  one  of  the  ivories'  themes..  The  with  De  ivory's  Fortitudo.  Finally,  human  through  three  purely  of  textual  of  to  represents  appropriate  of  of  partial  s p a c e . ^  the  Nontheless,  regard a  are  theme  between  presence  with  addition,  main  text.  the  provide  extraneous  since  discrepancies  Victor's  least  these  f i l l  are  accounts  and,  that  to  of  lesser  does  inclusion, theory  there  of and  charity.  Psychomachian  of  the  programme view.  of  The  The  of  f i r s t  of  ivories'  Bonitas  are  Largitas, narrative,  in  images  f i r s t ,  conformance  emphasis  the  Iconographic  to  as  its  three  was  images.  two  aspects  of,  accordance alone,  planned  above,  textual  themes, On  apparently  described  dominant  these  stands  Programme  was  sources.  themes  —  is  the  front  cover,  and  conceptually  thus  the  demands  helping  The  charity,  charity,  with  the  to  war,  expressed  related of  the  emphasize  36  the cognate concept, c h a r i t y .  On the second i v o r y , the p i c -  t o r i a l emphasis of the theme i s c a r r i e d f u r t h e r : b i r d of good works, overlooks acts.  Herodius, the  the performance of s i x c h a r i t a b l e  On both i v o r i e s , a second theme, t h a t of war or c o n f l i c t ,  acts as a c o u n t e r p o i n t  t o the c h a r i t y m o t i f .  On the f r o n t  cover,  the b a t t l i n g V i r t u e s and V i c e s c o n t r a s t with  the s t a t i c ,  lated  i v o r y , the v i o l e n t  f i g u r e of L a r g i t a s , while  on the other  animal scenes of the i n t e r s t i c e s provide  a s i m i l a r c o n t r a s t to  the benevolent imagery o f the m e d a l l i o n s . show a t h i r d  theme, that of k i n g s h i p .  f r o n t cover p o r t r a y King David, while  The two i v o r i e s  The medallions  also  on the  those on the back p o r t r a y  another f i g u r e who i s a l s o c l e a r l y a k i n g . chapter,  iso-  Previously in this  there was c i t e d evidence which suggests t h a t t h i s f i g u r e  was intended  t o p o r t r a y David:  His f a c i a l  resemblance t o the  mature David of the two lower f r o n t - c o v e r m e d a l l i o n s , h i s i m p e r i a l costume, s i m i l a r to that worn by David i n some Byzantine P s a l t e r s , and the t e x t of I C h r o n i c l e s 16:3, which  associates  David with m e r c i f u l a c t s , together  i n d i c a t e that the king on the  back cover must be i d e n t i f i e d with  the B i b l i c a l k i n g .  as w i l l be shown, i n t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y  L a t i n Jerusalem, the con-  cept of D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p was a c e n t r a l aspect kingship.  However,  of contemporary  Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the m e r c i f u l king was, to  some degree, meant to be a p i c t o r i a l r e f e r e n c e contemporary k i n g s h i p .  This p o s s i b i l i t y  i n v i t e s some  a t i o n of the problem of the f i g u r e ' s i d e n t i t y : a d d i t i o n t o being  t o an i d e a l o f reconsider-  Perhaps, i n  a p o r t r a y a l of David, the m e r c i f u l king was  37  a l s o meant t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h In p u r s u i n g  this hypothesis,  historical tional,  data,  i n the f i n a l  attempt w i l l  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  regarding  of the d e p i c t e d  section of this  be made t o d e t e r m i n e  chapter,  the a d d i -  figure  w i l l be  i n w h i c h , an  the contemporary  significance  the i v o r i e s . With  noted as  Jerusalem.  r e f e r e n c e must be made t o c e r t a i n  twelfth-century identity  explored  of  and t h u s ,  an a c t u a l k i n g o f  regard  t o the present  t h a t t h e main  recurring motifs  iconography that  d i s c u s s i o n , i t r e m a i n s t o be  themes o f t h e i v o r i e s throughout  of charity,  Maria  a r e a l s o t o be  the Psalms.  In h e r s t u d y  von Thadden has c i t e d  i n c o r p o r a t e the n o t i o n o f c h a r i t y :  Psalms  five  should  which D a v i d  of the Psalms  25:16 and 18;  33:19; 41:1 and 2; 72:12 and 13; and 112:5 and 9. list  found  To t h i s  be added P s a l m s 37:21 and 26; 40:17; and 132:15 i n says:  63 ... The  satisfy  her [ z i o n ' s ] poor w i t h  theme o f s t r u g g l e i s i m p l i c i t  which In  I will  there  this  bread.  i n a m a j o r i t y o f the Psalms, i n  a r e numerous r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e P s a l m i s t ' s  enemies.  r e g a r d , P s a l m s 2, 4, 7, 14, 3 1 , 45, 69, e t c . . c a n be  64 cited.  Other Psalms —  3, 18, 27, 35, and 54 t o 59 —  are  more s p e c i f i c a l l y  evocative  belonging  g r o u p , Psalm 41:1 and 2, t h e themes o f c h a r i t y  and  to t h i s  conflict  become l i n k e d  the enemy, a t h e m a t i c contrasting ivory:  o f armed combat, and i n one P s a l m  through  t h e i d e a o f d e l i v e r a n c e from  connection, n o t i n c o n s i s t e n t with the  images o f c h a r i t y  and s t r u g g l e on t h e  back-cover  38  B l e s s e d i s he t h a t c o n s i d e r e t h the p o o r : the L o r d w i l l d e l i v e r him i n time o f t r o u b l e . . . / W i l l p r e s e r v e him and keep him a l i v e ; a n d . . . thou w i l t n o t d e l i v e r him u n t o the w i l l o f h i s e n e m i e s . The of  ivories' third the  Psalms.  theme, k i n g s h i p ,  J.H.  Psalms, e x p r e s s i v e obligations  of  Eaton  of  the  kingship;  Psalms which a l s o  has  important  p r i v i l e g e s , and  c i t e s as  have r o y a l  an  i d e n t i f i e d thirty-two  duties, he  is also  well  royal  religious  twenty-one  connotations  motif  other  in conjunction  with  65 other 57,  themes.  and  59,  images o f leader,  Several  f o r example  war,  and  thus  an  positioning  on  Vices,  with  s c e n e s from  is  Psalm,  one  considered king,  This of  and  and  the  the  life  c i t e d by  theme o f  king's  additional  the  for  the  role  textual  battle of  of  King  Eaton  3,  as  27,  35,  with  military  basis  for  the  Virtues  David.  juxtaand  F i n a l l y , there  r o y a l , but  i t contains several  7,  kingship as  the  4,  w h i c h must  references  to  be  the  to his c h a r i t a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s : G i v e the K i n g t h y j u d g e m e n t s , 0 God, ..../ He s h a l l j u d g e the poor o f the p e o p l e , He s h a l l s a v e the c h i l d r e n o f t h e n e e d y , and s h a l l break i n p i e c e s the o p r e s s o r . . . / He s h a l l d e l i v e r the n e e d y . . . the p o o r a l s o , and him t h a t h a t h no helper.  kingship  the  not  r o y a l Psalms —  combine  i v o r i e s of  such,  additional  David on  as  72,  —  the  indicating  providing the  of  and  adjacent other.  kingship,  r o y a l P s a l m , embodying charity,  the  on  one,  t h e i r shared  pair  of  i t d o e s the  f o r c i b l y r e c a l l s the  to L a r g i t a s With  as  a king themes o f  i v o r i e s and  the  two  ivories:  doing  King  charitable  charity, Book o f  themes  acts  conflict  Psalms  39  together tic  comprise  correlation  now,  because  an  almost-unparallelled  o f m a n u s c r i p t - t e x t and  of previous i n a t t e n t i o n  example o f  the  thema-  cover-decoration.  to image-text  Until  relationships,  67 this  correlation  noted  has  before that  historically, The  the  ivories'  as w e l l  Contemporary  In  gone u n r e m a r k e d .  as  the B y z a n t i n e  also not  t h r e e themes/are,  textually,  Significance  a previous section  I t has  t o some  degree,  based.  o f the Themes and  of t h i s  been  c h a p t e r , note  i m p e r i a l d r e s s o f t h e k i n g on  the  Images  was  taken  of  back-cover  68 medallions. noted  that  At  that point  i n the d i s c u s s i o n ,  some B y z a n t i n e m a n u s c r i p t s  tury c o n t a i n p o r t r a y a l s of David r e a s o n o f h i s d r e s s and David,  the m e r c i f u l  in similar  his facial  k i n g must  image o f an  specifically  local  imperial  and  B y z a n t i n e costume can  be  Jerusalem. Jerusalem  However, more than royal Byzantine sion  attire  the  a r e , as J o s h u a  of t h e . . . i n c l i n a t i o n  on  as a  a l s o had  significance,  by  version  that  this  a more  and  that  portrayal  the of  the  Latin  the F r a n k i s h r u l e r s 69  B y z a n t i n e c u s t o m s and this practice,  Thus,  However, I b e l i e v e  that  cen-  t o the f r o n t - c o v e r  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y kings of  I t i s well-documented adopted  attire.  c o n s t r u e d as a l i t e r a l  a c t u a l mode o f d r e s s o f the  also  eleventh  be u n d e r s t o o d  type of David  contemporary  late  resemblance  in part  of Byzantine D a v i d i c iconography. borrowed  o f the  i t was  of  modes o f d r e s s .  ivory's  depictions  Prawer n o t e s ,  the p a r t o f J e r u s a l e m  "an  of expres-  royalty  to  40  imitate the  the  kings  both  greatest  of  those  had  emulating example Norman  the  most  graphy,  clusively  Cahier's  a  the  As  synonym  its  for  Western  of  with,  costuming  Eastern to  the  frequently  derivation  king's the  predilection,  European the  as  one  Jerusalem  portrayed  in  rulers,  kings  of  means  Christendom.  the  and  Assuming  as  Acts  for  the  the  of  The  kings  are  the  elaborate  was  Byzantine  of  a  he  rebus  that  of  David.  were  an  actual  such  is  the  Herodius  Fulk,  con-  of  postulated for  icono-  not  medallions  appearance  of  does  portrayal  Mercy  moment  Davidic  costume  simple  meaning  previously,  Fulica,  a  physical  regarding  noted  from  contemporary  figure  that  deeds  theory  recalled.  rulers  this  dress.  possible  Jerusalem.  In  u  contemporary  comparable  merciful  by  /  alone.  Byzantine-style  S i c i l y ,  establish  remains  of  of  r u l e r . "  not  those  powerful  despite  the  inspired  used  regal  Thus,  and  directly  rulers  Byzantine  It  J e r u s a l e m were  before,  Jerusalem,  Christian  may  that  king  partly king  case,  now  be  Herodius,  of  as  Jerusalem  71 between source  of  and  this  in  William adding  and  1131  The  1143.  Herodius regard,  does it  not is  of  Tyre  describes  too  that  he  was  tracing  of  necessarily  interesting Fulk  also  as  "most  "a  the rule  to  note  ruddy  generous  probable  textual  out  theory,  this  that  the  man,  like  "  "works  in  historian  David," of  piety  72 and the g i v i n g of a l m s . " The d a t i n g a l s o a l l o w s for another p o s s i b i l i t y as  range of the ivories s u b j e c t of the A c t s of  Mercy  III,  medallions:  Fulk's  son,  Baldwin  ruler  between  1143  73 and  As  1162.  appearance  is  recorded  consistent  by  William  with  that  of of  Tyre, the  Baldwin's  figure  on  the  physical ivory:  41  He had s t r a i g h t . . . h a i r and wore a r a t h e r f u l l b e a r d on c h e e k s and c h i n . He was o f somewhat f u l l h a b i t , a l t h o u g h he c o u l d n o t be c a l l e d f l e s h y . . . . h i s whole a p p e a r a n c e ^ was s o s u p e r i o r by r e a s o n o f . . . h i s i n n a t e k i n g l y m a j e s t y . In  addition, like  h i s f a t h e r , Baldwin  was  known f o r h i s  piety  75 and  generosity.  performed  However, u n l i k e F u l k , B a l d w i n  at l e a s t  one  notable  a c t o f mercy —  had  the  in  fact  r e l e a s e of  76 the  imprisoned  was  also a specific  reason  was  the  k i n g of Jerusalem  first  tinction  Patriarch  Latin  of being  born,  of Antioch  i n 1160.  Finally,  to a s s o c i a t e Baldwin  like  able  the B i b l i c a l  with  there  David:  to c l a i m the  he  dis-  king himself, in  the  77 Holy  Land. The  weight o f the e v i d e n c e  perhaps i n d i c a t e s  subject  o f the A c t s  of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s ,  figure,  was  III.  Baldwin  established plausible tion  of  and  King  F u l k must a l s o be  alternative.  In e i t h e r  the m e r c i f u l k i n g  so must i n e v i t a b l y dence  However, t h i s  supporting  be  the  i f an  by  the  historical  as an e q u a l l y  f o r any  o f the  the  conclusively  specific  the v i s u a l  identification  be  regarded  i s problematic,  weakened  actual  cannot  case,  that  and  identifica-  attempt textual  figure  as  to  do  evi-  King  78 David. about  Since the  no one  king's  t h i r d , compromise  has  identity  yet considered  i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  theory has,  seems v e r y p r o b a b l e  t h a t the  His  him  face  identifies  recent date.  He  as s u c h , embodies  up  t o now,  figure  as D a v i d ,  i s , thus, the  these  Latin  both  i s an  one  theories  another,  been o v e r l o o k e d .  a It  intentional pastiche.  h i s d r e s s as  Biblical  two  and  Kingdom's c o n c e p t  a k i n g o f more  contemporary, of k i n g s h i p .  and The  42  f i r s t tre  Latin  of  the  kings  of  Jerusalem  Frankish  were  monarchical  Franks,'^  institution,  and, was  at  the  the  cen-  notion  of  80 Davidic had  kingship.  thought  quest  of  of  themselves  Jerusalem,  symbolic. of  Since  Now,  David  in  the  the  City  not  surprising  is  ivory  in  conjunction  On  kingship  such f.215  Bib.  dual  v,  of  Nat.  features  between points  MS of  to  figure,  the  1),  and  his  merciful  may  be  no  additional  between  l i t t l e  difference,  Latin  the  same:  kings At  kingship  the  the had  of  two for,  the  of  more  kings  their  of  Frankish  art  of  the  thus  drawing  a  with  in  David the  allows  p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  and  case, the  new  on  precedent  Vivian  example  the  not  a  Vivian  Frankish  regnum  ivories: composite  Bible, the  f a c i a l  State.  definitive  ultimately,  the  f a c i a l  parallel  to  a  intent  it  would  Davidicum  of  makes have the  Jerusalem.  time long  of  the  been  ivories' associated  creation, with  Frankish  charity:  era.  (Paris,  and  assigned  for  one  medieval  This  is  land  predecessor.  visual 81  the  was  the  of  crown  regard  cover  as  that  of  just  Carolingian  Count  the  of  either  of  given  back  King  than  a  counterpart.  the  con-  David  fact,  is  the  B i b l i c a l  in  Bible  monarchs  ruled  i s ,  ruler  portrayal  become  with  There  evidence  in  and  l i t e r a l i s a t i o n  Rather,  and,  Frankish  portrayals  possibility  true,  There  been  Bald,  contemporary  choice  find  David  above.  a  had  p i c t o r i a l  in  king  of  Davids,  had  Carolingian  features is  a  King  the  suggested  reverse  to  Pepin,  Frankish  as  other.  interesting  the  the  mid-9th-century  Charles  an  as  the  of  second  David,  depiction  lat.  David  Perhaps,  the  a  of  with  on  time  association  in  it  for  as  actuality,  Thus,  Davidic  the  Davidic  Among  the  43  articles the a  of  king's  later  Charlemagne's obligation  document,  to  the  imperial practise  Via  Regia  court,  was  one  charity  and  hospitality,  (ca  which  described  830)  stressed while  charity  as  82 the  kingly  ingly  perpetuated  sketches twelfth of  virtue.  of  the  II,  in  the  traditional  Latin  William  the  of  association  Kingdom,  Jerusalem monarchs  century,  Baldwin  This  Tyre  alms-giving  of  for,  the  notes  of  his  f i r s t  the  Fulk,  in  was  biographical  half  of  "benevolent  the  seem-  the works"  generosity  of  83 Melisende,  and  This  largesse,  royal  gious  the  character  adjacent  images  lions  which  in The  the  third  interstices  obligation  Davidic  of  Largitas  a  Davidic of  Kingdom,  theme,  an  of  concept  Latin  "tender-hearted  of  and  king  also  conflict. both  of  dictated  the  kingship  Davidic is  liberality"  is  King  performs  closely  The  are  as  of  and  by  reminders  the the  ivories' medal-  acts.  it  was  up  with  combat  III.  s e m i - r e l i -  by  merciful  bound  images  ivories  reflected  David,  kingship,  by  Baldwin  or  understood the  ivories'  struggle  that  in  in  the  twelfth-century  84 Jerusalem  existed  Accordingly, effective  the  warfare  in  a  state  kingdom's and  of  constant  survival  defence,  and  was  military largely  thus,  the  conflict.  dependent  f i r s t  duty  upon  of  a  85 king  was  duty,  that  the  of  military  Jerusalem  counterpart,  for  tual  obligations,  also  a  kings  David such  warrior-king.  archetypal  model  upon  leadership.  In  carrying  had  in  their  was as As  an  not the  only  a priest-king  dispensing  such,  which  example  the  he  must  Davidic  of  have  kings  this  B i b l i c a l with  charity been  out  —  viewed  patterned  s p i r i he as  was the  44  themselves. vities, visual  Thus, d e s p i t e h i s n o n - m i l i t a r y c h a r i t a b l e  the king  i n the A c t s  of Mercy m e d a l l i o n s t h r o u g h h i s  and c o n c e p t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n  additionally could,  like  understood David,  acti-  with  David,  must  have  been  as r e p r e s e n t i n g a w a r r i o r - k i n g , one  subdue  the k i n d o f h o s t i l e  forces  who  symbolised  86 by the a d j a c e n t From  images o f t h e f i g h t i n g  the s t a n d p o i n t of t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m ,  i v o r i e s had t h r e e b r o a d to  illustrate  St. Victor's Gospels  treatise,  complete s t o r y  texts:  First  of  texts,  pictorially  charity, conflict,  religious-military  this  strictly tive,  relationship, modern  they  Jerusalem.  role  From  served  o f the told  the  t h e P s y c h o m a c h i a ; and  three recurring  and k i n g s h i p .  themes o f  These  related  also  can be s a i d  themes t o the  of the c u r r e n t k i n g .  the i v o r i e s  function:  Because  t o have a  a twentieth-century  a r e a means by w h i c h c a n be h i g h l i g h t e d  a s p e c t s of the concept  they  and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e y  o f one o f t h e s e  the  the Book o f S a m u e l , Hugh o f  were n o t o n l y t e x t u a l l y - b a s e d , b u t were actual  of a l l ,  the P s y c h o m a c h i a , and a p o r t i o n  secondly  they expressed  the Psalms —  functions.  four separate  o f Matthew;  lastly,  animals.  fourth,  perspecsignificant  of k i n g s h i p in t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y  CHAPTER  THE  IVORIES IN  In of  conjunction  their  ivories.  a  It  context In  —  broad now  the  CENTURY  with  the  this  of  art  it  produced.  by  Hugo  provided  This  1  torium,  programme,  conceptual  description that  explaining  remains  the  SCRIPTORIUM  THE M I D - T W E L F T H  to  Jerusalem  accomplishing  t i o n .  AND THE J E R U S A L E M  iconographic  established  III  and  the  Buchthal's  study,.which  its  is  the  the f i r s t  of  more  for  step and  is  century.  a  the  the  specific  mid-twelfth  brief  kinds  of  information  is  Crusader work  painting,  far,  framework  such  definitive  manuscript  thus  their  part,  study  significance  has,  history,  most  1957  to  in  a necessary  For  on  them  scriptorium  aim,  study  historical  relate  scriptorium,  concentrates  this  narrative  illumina-  on  and  the  thus  scrip-  does  not  2 mention  the  ivories  have  the in  ivories. not  scriptorium examining  the  torium  in  gap  existing  in  cussion Psalter,  which  w i l l an  Similarly,  extensively at  the  time  ivories they  research.  include  an  examination  that  the  made,  this  ivories  chapter  45  the  in  on  conditions  to  w i l l  carved. the be  of  relation  in Thus,  a  d i s -  ivories to  the  scrip-  f i l l i n g  following  comparison  ivories  written  were  regard  S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  the  have  general  particular  iconographic of  who  considered  with  were  those  the  and  4 6  artistic  traditions  possible  i c o n o g r a p h i c m o d e l s , and  tation  o f a new  teristics applied  of  creators. to  the  An  one  s c r i p t o r i u m , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  task  be  be  result  regard,  the p u r e l y  identified,  of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  incidental  which  in this  Finally,  ivories will  ivories will  torium,  the  hypothesis.  the  t o the  of  of  this  new  i n a s m a l l way,  the  the  charac-  information  ivories'  contextual  a temporally-focused  should,  presen-  local  and  between  the  v i e w of  approach  the  complement  two  scrip-  Buchthal's 3  study: of  While  the  the  scriptorium, this  d e c a d e s -ivories  the  were  years  Using that,  from  1187,  an  the e n t i r e  chapter  between  Jerusalem  historical  will  1130  nine-decade  highlight  and  1150,  two  history  of  those  the p e r i o d when  the  active  S c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150  and  approximately  attached  Buchthal  scans  produced. The  tery  latter  liturgical 1125  s c r i p t o r i u m was  t o the H o l y  feels,  t o the  was  fall  p a r t of  Sepulchre  certainly  data,  the  Buchthal of the  determined  kingdom  the A u g u s t i n i a n  Church.  largest,  4  in monas-  This scriptorium,  and  in a l l likelihood,  5 the  only  largely  one under  major o u t p u t most an or  in Jerusalem.  r o y a l patronage, --  the and  exclusive court art."  art:  1130's, i t was thus, Buchthal  i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts  s t y l i s t i c grounds  court  By  to i d e n t i f y  the M e l i s e n d e  He  was  —  as  Psalter,  describes i t s  "first  a b l e , on  seven e x t a n t  functioning  and  fore-  liturgical  examples of  a Sacramentary,  two  and/ this  Missals,  47  a Gospel these,  o f S t . John,  t h r e e , besides the P s a l t e r  twenty-year 1135), Bib.  and two c o m p l e t e  period  in question:  the Sacramentary  . c e n t u r y Mount S i n a i According  and  Q  t o the  o f S t . John  (1130-  and one o f t h e M i s s a l s In a d d i t i o n ,  of twelfth-  .  thirteenth-  .  icons t o the Jerusalem  under d i s c u s s i o n  here. ^  9  scriptorium. icons belong to  Thus, through  1  Weitzmann's,  t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t , B u c h t h a l ' s work, an o v e r a l l  ture  of the e a r l y - m i d d l e y e a r s of the Holy emerged:  Between  r o y a l patronage artistic In  terms o f c o m p l e t e n e s s , quality,  the m i d - 1 1 0 0 ' s , Melisende  and  scriptorium enjoyed  important  in fact,  Psalter  i c o n o g r a p h i c r i c h n e s s , and  the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s o u t s t a n d i n g p r o d u c t  (Figs.  i t s name from  Baldwin  an a c t i v e  pic-  centre.  artistic  takes  Sepulchre  1130 and 1150, the s c r i p t o r i u m  and was, t h e r e f o r e ,  (Paris,  i n a 1966 s t u d y ,  and  t o Weitzmann's d a t i n g , two o f t h e s e  the p e r i o d  has  the Gospel  N a t . , l a t . 12056; c a 1 1 4 0 ) .  Of  (1131-1143), b e l o n g  ( c a 1140),  K u r t Weitzmann a s s i g n e d a g r o u p  Gospel-books.'  from  the e n t i r e  twelfth  7a-14a, and 3 6 a ) .  Queen M e l i s e n d e ,  I I I , and j o i n t - r u l e r  1 1  from  century, i s the  The m a n u s c r i p t  w i f e o f F u l k , mother o f  o f t h e kingdom  from  1131 t o  12 1152.  In h i s a p p e n d i c e s  discusses to  the p a l e o g r a p h i c and l i t u r g i c a l e v i d e n c e  Melisende  calendar written  t o B u c h t h a l ' s s t u d y , F r a n c i s Wormald  as t h e most  likely  patron  that points  of the P s a l t e r :  Its  c o n t a i n s t h e names o f h e r p a r e n t s ; t h e p r a y e r s were 13 f o r t h e u s e o f a n o b l e woman o f h i g h r a n k .  was p e r h a p s  t h e most  important patron  Melisende  of the s c r i p t o r i u m  i n the  48  1 1 3 0 and 1 1 5 0 ,  y e a r s between the  P s a l t e r was n o t t h e o n l y  during that  this  period.  William  t h e queen p r e s e n t e d  f o r there  is a possibility  work o f a r t t h a t o f Tyre w r i t e s  t o the Church.  that  she c o m m i s s i o n e d  o f t h e many  gifts  Among them, he n o t e s ,  were: sacred tional  v e s s e l s o f g o l d and s i l v e r [as w e l l as~] many a d d i g i f t s s u c h as c h a l i c e s , b o o k s , and o t h e r o r n a m e n t s .  Perhaps these  gifts  were W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n  Weitzmann's s t u d y o f J e r u s a l e m - m a d e in Melisende's the  "other  Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e  ornaments," mentioned  m a n u f a c t u r e , made  i n the a t e l i e r  patronage  —  too  among t h e s e  that,  However,  h a s made  i tclear  t i m e , m a n u s c r i p t s were n o t t h e o n l y  scriptorium.  cified  icons  imports.  the Holy  Sepulchre "other  that  products of  some o f t h e u n s p e -  by W i l l i a m ,  that  that,  enjoyed  scriptorium.  were o f l o c a l  t h e queen's It i s possible.  o r n a m e n t s , " were  the i v o r y  covers  15  of  the Melisende  Psalter.  The Through to the  1 1 3 1 - 1 1 4 3  certainty, torium.  their  I v o r i e s and t h e P s a l t e r  function  dating  of the Melisende  to i t s place  Although  this  as i t s c o v e r ,  of origin connection  —  the i v o r i e s  are l i n k e d  P s a l t e r , and, with  the Holy S e p u l c h r e  scrip-  has been made t h r o u g h o u t t h e  16 literature  on t h e i v o r i e s ,  that  is-an  there  ivories  no one h a s , up t o now,  additional empirical  and P s a l t e r  following discussion  both will  basis  for assigning  t o t h e same s c r i p t o r i u m . detail  recognized  a number o f  1 7  Thus, the  iconographic  49  correspondences which, were the  between  considered  made  in  the  manuscript The  Psalter both  same  they  in  in  of  the  manuscript's  New T e s t a m e n t  doubt  a r t i s t i c  correspondences  that  milieu  the  ivories  that  produced  covered.  of  covers.  three series  parallels  certain In  ornamental  other  Psalter,  no  iconographic  form  and  and  leave  specific  once  the  manuscript  primarily  the  together,  majority are  ivories  between  decorative  the  Psalter,  i n i t i a l s  to  the  p i c t o r i a l  cycles,  contain  few  a  ivories  motifs these  common  motifs  Psalms.. only  to  occur  Among  the  additional  and  frames  the of  correspon-  18 dences.  More  beading,  and  parallels A  7-9).  in  and  10a like and  to  birds,  aspects  the  l i b ) ;  yet  another  of  the  main  of  motif  the  last  New T e s t a m e n t  overlooking Psalter,  the  of  comprising  the  the  the  main  large the  D,  often  miniatures  scholars  framed  found (Figs.  and in  have On  a  the  that  the  also not  correspond  the  (Figs.  of  In  almost  the  11a  around  the  versions  several  addition  between  remarked  rope-  motif  F i n a l l y ,  ivories,  (Figs.  same  repeats  frames  motif  cover  t r e f o i l  12b).  has (Figs.  knotwork  medallions  12c-12j).  both  i n i t i a l  front  a  medallion,  programe  with  correspondences  lettering.  inscriptions  of  D contains  12a  rosette  Beatus  E has  acanthus  (Figs.  a  decorative  back-cover  three-point  are  is  of  Psalter  border  ornamental  frame  use  ornamental  above-noted  previous  similarity  a  its  ivories'  an  the  defines  back-cover's this  in  another  that  reminiscent  of  i n i t i a l ,  those  10b);  motif  in  ornamental  second  identical  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  of to  ivories  upon  the  Latin  exactly  and  to  uncials the  50  formation pages  of  of  the  the  smaller  Psalter.  apparent  in  both  vertical  the  letter  the  (Figs.  A ' s ,  decorative  This R's,  13a  and  of  ivories  Psalter.  the  the  the  more  authoritatively  can  broad to  paleographic  the  overall  visual that  most  precludes  striking  of  is  Musician: Psalter  the  impartial of  the  more  the  however,  here,  therefore,  subject.  However,  that  have  been  lend  letters  ivories  and  as  as  well  of  same  of  these, and  use  subtle,  letters  of  most  this  in  the  to  be  made  Psalter  the  support  in  a  number  and  one  of  two  the  similar  lower  other  in  half  the  is  correspondences  which  covers  what  or  has  never  manuscript.  portrayals of  been  the  of King  the  between pointed  This  Beatus  lower-right  perhaps  corres-  David  i n i t i a l  medallion  of  out  as of  the  the  front-  19 cover  ivory  (Figs.  David's  seated  profile  and  research David in  frontal  only  other or  14a  figure the  indicates  and  no  contain  images,  mentioned  iconographic  study  between one  and  the  is  on  the  remains  Psalter,  previous  pondence  the  other,  paleographer,  that  i n i t i a l  coincidence,. there  any  among  said  the  version  detailing  comparisons  Finally,  and  a be  among  cursive  exist  The  of  premise  parallels,  ivories in  expertise  in  Presumably,  kind  requires  a  on  similarity  and  Vs,  and  13b).  correspondences and  paleographic  T ' s ,  Roman E  capitals  and is  royal  turned  head  that, or  14b).  In  sideways,  presented in  the  holy  three-quarter  each  in  the  body  in  three-quarter  twelfth  personages  positions.  instance,  century were The  and  usually  King nearview.  My  earlier, depicted  near-profile  David  51  as M u s i c i a n lelled  i s unknown  i n the  artists  in Byzantine  a r t and  almost  a r t o f the West, as b o t h B y z a n t i n e  tended  t o use  the  full  t h r e e - q u a r t e r or  unparal-  and  Western  frontal  view  20 for  these p o r t r a y a l s .  ivories, file  t h e r e a r e o n l y two  David m o t i f .  century manuscript MS  B 5 26,  to  the D a v i d o f  f . 1;  unrecognized, script  and  i n the P s a l t e r , one  hand.  details: almost hair  from  Canterbury  a round  circle  e y e s , mouth, and both p o r t r a y a l s . an  The  specific  shared  two  Davids  the  i t is sufficient  are not o n l y l i n k e d as book and  that  c o v e r , but  iconographic features.  Of  treatment of  two  the done  a common  their  through  g r e a t e s t importance  —  model. will  For  the P s a l t e r  through  of  artists  chapter.  also visually,  work  their  of t h i s model  of t h i s  functionally,  ivories  having  i s that from  Figs.  were the  figure,  artist  provenance  t o note  the  treatment  a c a r v e r -- worked  section  f . 3;  stylistic  similar  a g a i n s t one  and  by  of each  What seems more l i k e l y  identification  sent purposes,  tionship  these  c r o w n s , and  be c o n s i d e r e d i n an e n s u i n g  ivories  that  However, a d i s s i m i l a r  i l l u m i n a t o r , one  analogy  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y F r e n c h manu-  Canon. P a t . L a t . 217,  hands a r g u e s  an  the o t h e r , p r e v i o u s l y  i n the beard  e a r s and  the  Trinity College,  p o r t r a y a l s o f D a v i d , on  suggest  and  twelfth-  n o t e d by B u c h t h a l as 21  in a late  unusual  draperies.  one  (Cambridge,  Such a s u g g e s t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d  identical  and  i n an e a r l y  initial;  ( O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n , MS The  of the P s a l t e r  o t h e r known i n s t a n c e s o f t h e n e a r - p r o -  which o c c u r s  the B e a t u s  and  those  One,  i s found  16b).  from  F i g . 1 5 ) , was  16a  of  Apart  preand  the  relacertain  to  this  52  study, ship the  is  fact  provides  of  were  the  reflect  between  The  In  partly  Ivories of  and the  their  outside  partly  ences  of  dual  the  Kurt from  those  and of  that  the  relation-  ivories,  scriptorium  that,  around  therefore,  a r t i s t i c  like the  they,  influences  like  current  1150.  the Twofold A r t i s t i c Tradition Jerusalem Scriptorium  the  of  Byzantine  in  Such  noted  artistic  the  Byzantium  converged.  Jerusalem  Weitzmann  of  functional-visual  evidence  kinds  survey  1934 and  in  the  and  from  this  century,  1130  Goldschmidt derived  made  twelfth  Psalter,  there  that  nearly-conclusive  Psalter,  middle the  the  West a  a  ivory  that  the  traditions  —  a duality  place  where  place,  they  carvings, ivories'  of  imagery  Byzantium  that  Eastern  Adolph  could  and  suggested,  and  only  Western  was  occur influ-  twelfth-  22 century  Jerusalem.  overall  a r t i s t i c  Buchthal  sphere  of  showed  the  f i r s t  further Latin  that,  kingdom,  within a  the  major  nucleus for the m i n g l i n g of W e s t e r n and B y z a n t i n e t r a d i t i o n s the Holy S e p u l c h r e s c r i p t o r i u m in the m i d d l e y e a r s of the  was  23 twelfth  century.  "synthetic" of  both  tradition,  East  With portraits,  The  and  its and  West,  result one  that  yet  was  Byzantinizing its  Melisende  Psalter  So  its  of  this  mingling  derived  from  distinct  from  New T e s t a m e n t  Western-style exemplifies  calendar  this  new  was  prior  new  traditions  either.  miniatures and  a  and  i n i t i a l s ,  scriptorium  saints' the  tradition.  24 too  do  ivory  covers.  The  concensus  view  expressed  in  53  the  most r e c e n t  within  (post-1920) l i t e r a t u r e  the d u a l i t y  of a r t i s t i c  on t h e i v o r i e s  tradition  that  i s that,  t h e imagery d i s -  25 plays,  the Western  element predominates.  moment, c o n f r o n t i n g specific  models,  demonstrated their  twelfth  the problem o f i d e n t i f y i n g  t h e dominance  by r e f e r e n c e  general  Without, f o r the  origins,  o f the Western  to a variety  and t h e i r  usage, p r i o r  from t h e L a t i n  inscriptions  scholars  writing armour  on t h e i v o r i e s 26  and weaponry.  and i n t h e two c e n t r e  Superbia,  which  Western  European  Western  armour,  figures  i n a contemporary  Prudentius  have  armour  i n appearance.  adjoining  por t r a y a Is :o:f armour  it,  those script  (Figs.  shown  comparable  example:  the S t . A l b a n ' s 27 D.XVI; c a 1 1 2 0 ) .  manuscripts of the t w e l f t h and weaponry c l o s e  striking  from Durham  (Figs.  from  this  armoured  cen-  t o those  are the resemblances  17a and 17b) and between G o l i a t h ' s  i n an E i n i t i a l  Goliath,  contemporary  between F o r t i t u d o and t h e armed V i r t u e s o f t h e H o r t u s in Munich  medal-  Of t h o s e who have n o t e d  Western  Particularly  most  and .helmets , and use  has c i t e d  However, numerous o t h e r W e s t e r n  the i v o r y .  First,  In t h e D a v i d and G o l i a t h  (London, B.L., C o t t o n MS T i t u s  contain  t h e most  the d e p i c t i o n s o f  are a l l e s s e n t i a l l y  only Dalton  ivories,  cover.  noticed  interstices  and F o r t i t u d o wear  weapons and s h i e l d s ,  of  features,  t o and d u r i n g t h e  on b o t h  " w e s t e r n i s m s " o c c u r on t h e f r o n t  tury  c a n be  of iconographic  apparent  lion,  tradition  century.  Apart  Western  the i v o r i e s '  a late  Deliciarum  s h i e l d and  twelfth-century  manu-  18a and 1 8 b ) . The s e c o n d , . ;  54  s p e c i f i c a l l y Western c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in  the  top-right medallion.  kneeling with  figure  regard  of David.  t o the  In  e x c l u s i v e l y Western  this  I t has  ivories,  o f the scene,  not  t h a t the  convention,  f r o n t cover  occurs  Samuel a n o i n t s  a  been p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d , k n e e l i n g David  i s an  whereas, i n B y z a n t i n e  Anointment  28 scenes, tion  David  invariably  of the horn  stands.  Also.Western,  of anointment, h e l d with  i s the  the wide end  posi-  down-  ward —  B y z a n t i n e p o r t r a y a l s show t h e horn i n the r e v e r s e 29 p o s i t i o n , wide end upward. F i g u r e s 19a and 19c show a t y p i c a l W e s t e r n s c e n e o f A n o i n t m e n t and a c o n t r a s t i n g B y z a n t i n e d e p i c 30 tion  o f the  third,  same e p i s o d e .  distinctively  also, u n t i l acanthus frame. while the of  now,  motif  that comprises  Cathedral  border  around  (ca 1150;  initial  Figs.  front  cover  alternating  ignored  when  the T r e e 20a  knotwork  Byzantine,  comes from  are  the  window i n C h a r t r e s  In a d d i t i o n ,  England Bible  on  character  i t i s compared w i t h  20b).  and  main  i t to concentrate  of Jesse  and  has  s i d e s o f the  ornament as  a  i n the (third  a  form  second, of  quarter  an of  F i g . 20c). the o r i g i n s  the ornament c o n t a i n e d Nonetheless,  this  i n the W i n c h e s t e r  twelfth century; Less c l e a r ,  the  However, t h e m a r k e d l y W e s t e r n  perhaps c l o s e r , p a r a l l e l ornamental  of the  s c h o l a r s regarded  motifs.  k n e e l i n g Anointment,  the v e r t i c a l  ornament becomes c l e a r  ornamental  the  aspect  s c h o l a r s have s i m p l y 31  figural this  Western  gone u n r e m a r k e d :  Earlier later  L i k e the  and  i n t h e main  I b e l i e v e t h a t the  geographic  frame o f  back c o v e r ' s  the  affinities back  major  of  cover.  border-motifs  55  could  have been o f W e s t e r n d e r i v a t i o n .  trefoil  border-motifs  Byzantine  outer  trefoils  ciated  with  example,  although  a r e most f r e q u e n t l y seem as p a r t  ornament, there  twelfth century  For  are  ( F i g . 21a).  a l s o Western  v e r s i o n s by  In a d d i t i o n , the  i s a decorative device  English ivories  of  the  that  first  of  beading  the of  the  is particularly  half  of  the  asso-  twelfth  32 century.  The  difficult to  corner  ornament o f  t o p l a c e , but  as  have marked W e s t e r n Of  e q u a l l y mixed  motif  art  by  ivory  —  o r i g i n a t e d i n the  the  sixth  back-cover  22a  t o 22c  frame  is also  show, i t a p p e a r s  affinities. l i n e a g e and  t i o n a l d e v i c e of each The  figures  the  century,  usage,  the  interlocking  E a s t , was  and  i s t h e main  medallions.  i n common use  continued  t o be  composi-  in  Byzantine  used d u r i n g  the  same m o t i f  was  33 twelfth. used  However, I have o b s e r v e d  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the  mosaics of Monreale  late  the  England  the C o n t i n e n t  and  s a y whether ivories  Byzantine  the use  evidence should  be  i t derived  that suggests  the m e d a l l i o n s  as  occur  can  be  also  found  t h a t the a Western  the  from  original  a Western Although  regard, ivories' feature.  in conjunction  reached a r t of  Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  of  same m o t i f .  Sicilian  i n the  interlocking medallions  be made i n t h i s  regarded  and  manifestation  v e r s i o n o f the  t h a t i t had  ( F i g . 24).  o f the  or whether  nouncements can  and  twelfth century,  is a direct  tradition,  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Norman  ( F i g . 23),  the West by  that this  with  there  the  Byzantine  or no  on  to  Siculodefinite  pro-  i s some  additional  interlocking  medallions  On  the  back  a set of b i r d  cover, and  56  animal two of  imagery.  Similar  examples  k i n d s o f images o c c u r  frequently  the West, s p e c i f i c a l l y  eleventh-century Moorish between  the c o v e r s  and  o f the j u x t a p o s i t i o n  i n the Spain  Moorish  of  these  i n the n o n - C h r i s t i a n a r t  i v o r y c a r v i n g s o f t e n t h - and  ( F i g . 25).  This  ivories  first  was  similarity noted  by  34 Dalton. from  He  d i d n o t , however, m e n t i o n  the C h r i s t i a n  West.  examples d i d e x i s t and  and  the m e d a l l i o n s on  T h u s , i t can  may  the back c o v e r .  Finally, tional and  medallions with  the b i r d  link  with  imagery  (Fig.  ivory 27).  tion  France  interstitial  animal  such  animals  for instance, which  combines  imagery. have an  addi-  of i t s c a r v i n g ,  i t i s not  of a m i d - t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y c h a i r  p i n p o i n t e d the more o b v i o u s W e s t e r n  as w e l l as  of animal  such p r o b a b l e  imagery  the p u r e l y B y z a n t i n e of  Northern  among t w i n i n g a c a n t h u s ,  that  o f the  F i g u r e 26,  the back c o v e r may  examples  from  unlike  the back c o v e r  Winchester  and  "westernisms"  m e d a l l i o n s , i t now  features.  In t h i s  c o n t a i n the major  aspects of as  the  remains  the  combinato note  r e g a r d , the m e d a l l i o n s  example:  the  Byzantine  r o y a l costume o f t h e k i n g , w h i c h has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n 36 the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r o f t h i s p a p e r . In a d d i t i o n , D a l t o n has n o t e d t h a t , i n the upper two m e d a l l i o n s , the t h r o n e from w h i c h 37 the k i n g has Similarly,  a  3 5  Having ivories,  arm  on  here  source  the West, f o r , i n t h e d e t a i l s  i n i t s placement  carved  from  comparable  be n o t e d  have been the  shows a t e n t h - c e n t u r y i v o r y interlocking  any  risen  is like  the e s s e n t i a l l y  those p o r t r a y e d i n Byzantine a r t . Western  iconography  o f the  front  57  cover back  i s not without  plate  Only  Steenbock- has  armour o f F o r t i t u d o origin.  However  are W e s t e r n , and Western, imagery  and  thus  can  be  depicting  f a r noted  overall  p r o p e r l y termed,  i s a Western  this  i s that  the  readily  that  the  scaled  worn by  ivories  Byzan-  these  is also  f e a t u r e of  the  "Byzantine."  These  of  appearance  figures markedly  ivories'  A t most, what i t tradition  of  "hybrids" occur f r e q u e n t l y  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n a r t , and  bility  not  " h y b r i d " of the B y z a n t i n e  armoured w a r r i o r s .  the  and  is ultimately  s i n c e the h e l m e t s  since their  In c o n t r a s t t o  a r e minor  Superbia  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether  seems t o be  in  elements.  c o v e r , however, t h e s e e l e m e n t s  apparent.  tine  i t s Byzantine  the g r e a t e s t p r o b a -  were p a t t e r n e d a f t e r  one  such  39  example. graphic  Thus, with  f e a t u r e s mentioned  the B y z a n t i n e subordinate  in t h i s  a s p e c t of the  t o the Western  demonstrated, mining  r e s p e c t t o the  elements.  ivories'  s e q u e n c e , the works h a v i n g  discussion,  tradition  However, as w i l l  the  icono-  factor  ivories'  is  next  be  in detericonographic  based. T w o f o l d T r a d i t i o n and the P r o b l e m of the I v o r i e s ' Models  In c o n s i d e r i n g the q u e s t i o n o f the  the  twofold scriptorium  i t i s by no means a n e g l i g i b l e  The  for  observable  segment o f  t h e k i n d s o f m o d e l s upon w h i c h  c y c l e s were  readily  t h r e e major  the e x a c t p i c t o r i a l  iconographic cycles  P s y c h o m a c h i a , and  —  the A c t s o f M e r c y —  some i c o n o g r a p h i c a f f i n i t i e s  with  the  the  source David  a number ivories  has  of  58  been  d i s c o v e r e d . **  group,  the  ivories  Previous  u  example  is  an  whose  English  scholars  imagery  crozier,  have  most  now  seen  that,  resembles  in  the  that  Bargello  of of  in  this the  the  41 Florence century from  (Figs.  28a  Winchester  the  l i f e  David  of  ing  a  meeting  cycle,  pairs  example  portrays  of  late  the  following  the  crozier,  twelfthscenes  David: lamb  from  with  David be-heading this  This  a  lion  anointment  David's  Above  28b).  enamel-work  rescuing  David's  and  of  Goliath  Goliath on  the  upper  shaft  Virtues  and  Vices  are  of  the  follow-  represented:  Fides-Idolatria Pud  icitia-Libido  Caritas-Invidia Sobr  ietas-Luxuria  Largitas-Avaritia 42  Concord la-Ran cor Because above that the a  of  group, of  the  crozier  single  parable these  the I  believe  ivories, differs  continuous to  those  reasons,  machian  presence  scenes,  in  and are  of  both  that  the  stresses from  the  back  because  theme  ivories nor  neither  in  does  cover's  completely  and  iconography  the  narrative, the  Largitas  of  Acts  its  of  it  of  Mercy nor  with  like  However, not  show  images  com-  cycle.  For  its  the  the  crozier,  does  contain  David  consistent  the  charity.  that it  Caritas.in  Psychocorresponding  59  cycles  on  possible  the  ivories,  the c r o z i e r  model f o r t h e  ivories.  among works o f a r t t h a t do mercy-related these  imagery,  cannot  As  be  f a r as  c o n s i d e r e d as  I can  determine,  c o n t a i n A c t s of Mercy c y c l e s ,  a converse  examples p o r t r a y s such  situation  scenes  a  exists:  or  none  i n conjunction with  of  either  43  Psychomachian Thus, ivories' piled  or D a v i d i c  i t seems t h a t  imagery,  from  t h e r e can  that  three  Psalter,  pictorial  cycles  be no  single  source  f o r the  i t s i c o n o g r a p h i c programme was (one  f o r each  T h i s assumption  the Melisende  script's  and  at least  more, m o d e l s . of  imagery.  c y c l e ) , and  i s borne out  i n w h i c h he were based  possibly  by B u c h t h a l ' s  determined on  com-  that  a variety  study  t h e manu-  o f models  4 4  used  simultaneously.  In l i n e  with  the d u a l t r a d i t i o n  Jerusalem scriptorium, Buchthal  further  of  and  t h e s e m o d e l s were B y z a n t i n e  ascertained that  o t h e r s were from  the  of  the  some Latin  45  West.  On  the b a s i s of these  of both  Byzantine  and  raphy,  t h e r e can  be  too i s the r e s u l t Western models. the  twofold  during  little  elements  doubt that  of a simultaneous In t h i s ,  tradition  the m i d d l e  Western  findings,  the  t h a t was  y e a r s o f the  use  ivories,  and  given  i n the the  ivories'  presence iconog-  imagery  Byzantine  the P s a l t e r  c u r r e n t i n the twelfth  ivories'  of both like  the  typify  scriptorium  century.  and  60  The  Byzantine  On t h e b a c k - c o v e r Byzantine  throne  architecture  ivory,  Models  the k i n g ' s B y z a n t i n e d r e s s , the  i n t h e two upper  i n the l e f t - c e n t r e  m e d a l l i o n s , and t h e B y z a n t i n e  medallion c l e a r l y  point  t o the  46 use  o f a B y z a n t i n e model f o r the A c t s o f Mercy c y c l e .  model was n o t , I b e l i e v e , determine, figure  the i v o r y  copied exactly,  has t h e e a r l i e s t 47  p e r f o r m i n g A c t s of Mercy.  temporary saint.  Byzantine manuscripts  f o r , as f a r as I c a n  depictions  There i n which  of a r o y a l  a r e , however,  c o n t a i n some s c e n e s  i n which  con-  i s depicted a merciful  F o r e x a m p l e , two t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y G r e g o r y  manuscripts  This  of Nazianzen  the S a i n t  performs  Acts  48 of Mercy. ivory's  A few o f t h e s e c y c l e s iconography,  Thus, w h i l e  30a and 31b show, t h a t  from  o f images  another  kind  twelfth-century Anderson  said  a Gregory  o f Nazianzen  t h i s manuscript With led  mercy s c e n e s , t h e  of c y c l e .  manuscript  (Cod. S i n a i  the u l t i m a t e source  was l i k e l y  miracles.  o f t h e mercy s c e n e s i n  one o f C h r i s t ' s h e a l i n g  thesis:  of this  The A c t s o f Mercy  on a  Gr. 339), J e f f r e y  scenes.  this  research into Byzantine portrayals  The r e s u l t  adapted  In a f o o t n o t e t o h i s a r t i c l e  r e g a r d t o p o s s i b l e models f o r the i v o r i e s , to f u r t h e r  manuscript  i n t h e s e m e d a l l i o n s must have been  Gregory  that  t o the  i t i s p o s s i b l e , as  was t h e m o d e l f o r one o r two o f t h e i v o r i e s ' remainder  closely  b u t o f t h e s e , none compares i n terms o f  number o f images p o r t r a y e d . figures  correspond  comment  of Christ's  r e s e a r c h i s the f o l l o w i n g  images on t h e back c o v e r  were  hypoadapted  61'  directly  from  one  e x t e n s i v e , or p o s s i b l y  two  smaller, Byzantine  49 Christological have been the 29  cycles.  adapted  Standard  to s u i t  Testament  imagery  specific  pictorial  requirements  i c o n o g r a p h i c programme o f t h e b a c k - c o v e r t o 34  show, i n most  were the  removal  Miracle 29);  of  Christ  preaching  with c e r t a i n scene,  into Byzantine  of a p i t c h e r  omissions, C h r i s t  appearance of C h r i s t ,  number  by  t e a c h i n g , or  ( F i g . 33)  and  Visting  these p o i n t s ,  ivories  to a v a r i e t y  Gospels  (Mt. A t h o s ,  g r . 510;  5;  manuscript  just  30c  and  33a),  a scene  of  a  miraculous of  finally,  t o both  any  Comforting  ( F i g . 34). compare  To the  a thirteenth-century Figs.  29a,  an  31a,  and  B i b . Nat.  manuscript  and  the  ( F i g . 30);  and  cited  (Paris,  a n i n t h - c e n t u r y Gregory Figs.  Thus,  o f some f o l d s  Imprisoned  of m a n u s c r i p t s :  t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y Gregory 30a),  addition  the f i g u r e s  necessary  comparable  ( F i g . 31);  readily  the  I v e r o n , Cod.  some  ( F i g . 32);  converted  figures  o f t h e Hungry ( F i g .  t o the T h i r s t y  the simple  of  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  bowl t r a n s f o r m e d  became C l o t h i n g t h e Naked  illustrate  Fig.  and  the Homeless  of h e a l i n g scenes  the S i c k  and  could  As  imperial dress.  i n t o G i v i n g Drink  became S h e l t e r i n g  drapery,  figures  t h e L o a v e s became t h e F e e d i n g  the a d d i t i o n  ivory.  i n s t a n c e s , the o n l y a l t e r a t i o n s  of extraneous  o f C h r i s t ' s costume  MS  the  New  34a),  MS  a  gr  550;  (Paris, Bib.  Nat.  eleventh-century  Lec-  50  tionary on  the  (Mt. A t h o s ,  D i o n y s i o u , Cod.  basis of Buchthal's  more s p e c i f i c  findings,  587;  F i g . 32a).  i t i s possible  However, t o make a  s u g g e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the m o d e l s f o r the A c t s  Mercy m e d a l l i o n s .  Buchthal  found  that  t h e New  Testament  of  cycle  62  in  the Melisende  tions  Psalter  c o r r e s p o n d s most c l o s e l y  i n eleventh-century Gospels  to i l l u s t r a -  and G o s p e l - l e c t i o n a r i e s  from  51 Constantinople. script  He c o n c l u d e d ,  was t h e model f o r t h i s  therefore,  section  that  such  o f the P s a l t e r .  c l o s e s t e x t a n t example o f t h e t y p e o f t h e n o w - l o s t the P s a l t e r , B u c h t h a l c i t e d Mount A t h o s  32a  parallels  and 3 2 b ) .  torium of  Thus, i n view  the presence  paper  were a d a p t e d  that from  used  (Figs.  of Buchthal's findings regarding  o f t h i s model  and g i v e n ,  i n the Jerusalem  creation,  the M i r a c l e s of C h r i s t  cycle  ivory  i n an e l e v e n t h -  or L e c t i o n a r y , p o s s i b l y  by one o f t h e i l l u m i n a t o r s  scrip-  i t i s the c o n c l u s i o n  t h e A c t s o f M e r c y on the back c o v e r  c e n t u r y B y z a n t i n e Gospel-book manuscript  a l s o has  w i t h the A c t s o f Mercy m e d a l l i o n s  a t the time o f the i v o r i e s '  this  model f o r  T h i s same m a n u s c r i p t  the m o d e l s f o r t h e P s a l t e r ' s New T e s t a m e n t c y c l e , therefore,  As t h e  an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y L e c t i o n a r y from  ( D i o n y s i o u cod.. 5 8 7 ) .  iconographic  a manu52  t h e same  of the Melisende  Psalter. In  addition  collection included  t o one o r more G o s p e l - b o o k s ,  of i l l u s t r a t e d  either  a Gregory  was t h e c a s e  i s indicated  a Repentance  scene  and G r e g o r y  century,  images o f D a v i d  Nat.,  Byzantine manuscripts manuscript  must a l s o  or a P s a l t e r .  by t h e p r e s e n c e  in.the  That  David  ( F i g . 2, l o w e r - l e f t m e d a l l i o n ) .  Psalters  image from  the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s  M a n u s c r i p t s o f the n i n t h  manuscript  MS g r . 510, f . 143v) i s i l l u s t r a t e d  such  cycle of  In B y z a n t i n e  t o the t w e l f t h  r e p e n t i n g a r e n o t uncommon.  a n i n t h - c e n t u r y Gregory  have  One  such  (Paris, Bib.  in this  paper ( F i g .  63  53 35a).  One o t h e r  probability, which David Ahimelech  based  medallions  on a B y z a n t i n e  model.  t o be an e x a c t  Psalters, this  as C h a p t e r  pictorial  i s the scene i n the p r i e s t  Although  parallel  there  i n any e x t a n t  should o c c a s i o n no p a r t i c u l a r  II of this  study  surprise  demonstrated, t h i s  s c e n e was, i n a s e n s e , a " l a s t - m i n u t e "  unusual  i n s e r t i o n , necessary f o r 54  c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the Psychomachian-Davidic metaphor.  interest  in metaphorical  o f an e x a c t medallion, common most the  This  ( F i g . 2, c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n ) .  Byzantine  the  i s also, in a l l  r e c e i v e s t h e sword o f G o l i a t h from  d o e s n o t seem  since,  o f the David  iconographic like  traditional  likely  sword  prototype,  suggests  o f Mercy In t h i s  regard,  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  the lack  that the Ahimelech from  some  I b e l i e v e that the of Christ  36 shows, t h e o n l y major  f o r the C h r i s t - C h i l d ,  with  images was a d a p t e d  i s a Presentation  in figure  to effect  in conjunction  image.  possibility  comparison  needed  the Acts  integrity,  This  scene.  As  alterations  a r e the s u b s t i t u t i o n  of a  and t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f any e x t r a n e o u s  55 figures. tains  that  Byzantine visual  the Melisende  P s a l t e r New T e s t a m e n t c y c l e  a Presentation miniature, modelled, according  (see n o t e doubt  Since  5 1 ) , on a c o m p a r a b l e B y z a n t i n e  Presentation  scene.  c o n g r u e n c e between  Psalter's suggesting  Presentation  In f a c t ,  there  (Figs.  a t l e a s t one  and t h e  36a and 36b) t o w a r r a n t  t h a t t h e two images had a common m o d e l —  eleventh-century  Gospels  manuscript  i s no  i s sufficient  the Ahimelech m e d a l l i o n  scene  to Buchthal  image, t h e r e  t h e s c r i p t o r i u m had i n i t s p o s s e s s i o n  con-  described  above:  t h e same The p o s e s  6 4  of  the  lar.  figures  are  Interesting  fairly  close,  and  too,  is  the  iconographically  close  to  another  scene,  comes  from  one  which  resemblance  admits  the  Presentation  Psalter  example,  perhaps  supported  by  the  for  model  black  and Thus,  also  the  frames  the  that  also  the  ivories'  the  scriptorium's  factor,  accounting  for  the  and  a  for  David from it  significant  medallions, the  is  second  among  torial  as  well  aspect  Western  sources  portion  are  of  of  similar is  and  that  for  their  Mercy  tradition  cycle  David  models,  in  its  scriptorium  sequence.  the  tradition,  ivories'  is  the a  key  entirety, The  Psychomachian c y c l e ,  that  nominally  indicate  iconographic  two-fold  the  the  the  examples  other  derive and  remaining  thus, p i c -  found.  The  The  as  of  for  5  of  Acts  a  This  Italian. ^  to  facet  pages,  also  model  p o s s i b i l i t y  i n i t i a l  is  37a).  common was  simi-  Presentation  (Fig.  findings  was  are  medallion  the  This  regard  Byzantine  Italy  Buchthal's the  altars  the  medallion  Italy.  of  lettering,  with  southern  and  from  that  two  Byzantinizing  p o s s i b i l i t y  fact^that  the  gold  the  fact  the  Psychomachian  Western  imagery  Models  of  the  front  cover  has  long  been  57 known tine to  to  be  exclusively  Psychomachian c y c l e s ,  illustrate  tions  Western.  usually  other show  kinds male  and of  There  where  Virtues  Byzantine  figures,  are  rather  texts, than  no  known  Byzan-  and  Vices  are  these the  used  i l l u s t r a -  female  65  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f Psychomachian c y c l e s . West, by c o n t r a s t , P s y c h o m a c h i a n the  i v o r i e s was  imagery  In t h e of the  Medieval  type  seen  p r e v a l e n t i n b o t h monumental a r t and  on  manu-  58 scripts.  Of  the  latter,  Helen Woodruff  e x t a n t e x a m p l e s , done between  the n i n t h  has  and  listed  the  twenty  thirteenth  cen-  t u r i e s , and c o n t a i n i n g as l i t t l e as two, and as many as n i n e t y , 59 . . illustrations. These s u r v i v i n g m a n u s c r i p t s must r e p r e s e n t only  a small f r a c t i o n  o f the o r i g i n a l  Psychomachian m a n u s c r i p t s ,  number o f  illustrated  f o r , according to Woodruff, 60  P r u d e n t i u s ' poem was  first  T h u s , by  century, i l l u s t r a t e d  earlier Latin  the t w e l f t h and  West, and  standard trated salem  contemporary  item  by  presumably,  brought  was  i v o r i e s were c a r v e d , ivories  t o be  the  the c i t y ,  and  on  the  i n the  such m a n u s c r i p t scriptoria.  i n the H o l y i t i s not  between Although  Sepulchre  was  One  10 28  and  a  illus-  in Jeru-  in Jerusalem that  1034  prior  scriptorium  t o the  by  that  when  twelfth  to  century  manuscripts  the mid-1100's.  Beyond  the  enough  One  the model f o r the V i r t u e  front-cover ivory.  the  However, i t s  t h e r e were o t h e r s u c h  in i t s scriptorium,  by  i t is possible  iconographically close 62  t h e s e m a n u s c r i p t s must have been Vice cycle  one  of  T h i s i s an e a r l y e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y  to Jerusalem 61  likelihood  century.  Psychomachias both  c o n s i d e r e d a p o s s i b l e model.  documented p r e s e n c e increases  fifth  i s known t o have been  Ademar o f C h a b a n a i s .  t h i s manuscript  in  at l e a s t  i n most m o d e r a t e - t o - l a r g e  the m i d - 1 0 3 0 ' s .  historian  i n the  d a t e , must have p r o l i f e r a t e d  Psychomachian manuscript  French copy,  the  illustrated  this,  no:;more  and  of  66  s p e c i f i c pronouncement can that the  the  be made.  However, i t can  e x t a n t Psychomachian manuscript t h a t  c l o s e s t t o the  graphically  the  Prudentius  i v o r i e s i s , not  closest.  C o t t o n MS  noted  is chronologically  s u r p r i s i n g l y , also icono- •  T h i s m a n u s c r i p t , the  ( L o n d o n , B.L.,  be  St.  Albans  T i t u s D . X V I ) , was  illumi6 3  nated ca  1120  by  most s t r i k i n g the  the  master of the  iconographic  affinity  front cover's Virtue-Vice  o f an  cycle  St. Albans P s a l t e r .  The  between t h i s m a n u s c r i p t i s the  occurrence  i n both  i s o l a t e d f r o n t a l f i g u r e o f L a r g i t a s / C a r i t a s , shown  arms o u t s t r e t c h e d  ( F i g s . 38a  Prudentius  only  i s the  and  38b).  S i n c e the  known m a n u s c r i p t t o c o n t a i n  St. an  and  with  Albans isolated  64  Caritas figure,  and  since  i t i s a l s o the  Conquest E n g l i s h Psychomachia,^ twelfth century, I f so,  this  the  a specifically  an  illustrated  be n o t e d  that  the  that, in English  In f u r t h e r  o f the  the  Virtues  figures.  and  Vices  Psychonot  support of  ivory's Virtue-Vice  the  feature.  front cover's  cycle  S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s show s i m i l a r i d i o s y n c r a c i e s  costuming of  post-  E n g l i s h Psychomachia,  St. Albans Prudentius.  v i e w , i t can the  image was  known  i t is possible  then the most l i k e l y model f o r the  m a c h i a n c y c l e was unlike  5  only  in  In more t y p i c a l e x a m p l e s , t h e  this and the dress  i s e i t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y a n t i q u e gowns, 6 6  or c o n s i s t e n t l y , contemporary armour. In the S t . A l b a n s m a n u s c r i p t , some V i r t u e s a r e i n a n t i q u e d r e s s (as s e e n i n F i g . 67  3 8 c ) , w h i l e o t h e r s wear c o n t e m p o r a r y c h a i n m a i l and h e l m e t s . . As t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e d e t a i l s , t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s on t h e 68  ivories  a l s o show, an  inconsistency  of  costuming:  67  Vice  Costume  Virtue  Costume  Fides  Gown, n o headwear  Idolatria  Gown ,  helmet  Pudicitia  Gown, h e l m e t  Libido  Gown ,  helmet  Spes  Gown, no headwear  Ira  Gown ,  helmet  Patencia  Gown, h e l m e t  Luxur i a  Gown , h e l m e t  Sobr i e t a s  Gown, h e l m e t  Avaritia  Gown , no headwear  Fortitudo  Armour,  Discordia  Gown , h e l m e t  Concordia  Gown, h e l m e t  Largitas  Gown, no headwear  helmet  F i n a l l y , with regard ivory's dence, the  Psychomachian t o be d e t a i l e d  t o the q u e s t i o n model,  of the provenance  i t c a n be n o t e d  p r e s e n t l y , which  indicates  scriptorium's manuscript c o l l e c t i o n , examples.  of English  ties  o f c o s t u m i n g , and t h e u n u s u a l i s o l a t i o n  English  the e x a c t provenance  t y p e must r e m a i n  size  doubt  largely  about  a matter  he had t o f i n d Psychomachian destroying  the n a r r a t i v e  cycle  of Largitas,  c o v e r ' s Psychomachian  — model.  proto-  t h e r e c a n be  Because  limitations.  of the s m a l l  As a r e s u l t ,  the u s u a l l y  w i t h o u t , a t t h e same  sense.  there  who c a r v e d t h e V i r t u e - V i c e  a means o f a b b r e v i a t i n g pictorial  amongst  was a p r e p o n d e r -  for speculation,  spatial  i s evi-  geographic o r i g i n  i t s mode o f a d a p t a t i o n .  distinct  that,  o f the Psychomachian  o f the i v o r y c o v e r , the a r t i s t  c y c l e worked u n d e r  there  evidence, the p e c u l i a r i -  of the s p e c i f i c  or otherwise — o f the f r o n t  Although  little  this  there  ance  a r e no o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s  Beyond  that  of the  He s o l v e d  this  extensive time,  p r o b l e m by  68  illustrating tant of  reduction  the  kept  ivory,  the  the  in  to  while  Prudentius  the is  climax  imagery  narrative  parallel  of  only  the  choice  ivory's  iconographic  any  given  conformed  sequence  useful  of  of  to  the  reduction.  the  cycle,  purpose:of The  table  portrayal  closest the  page  St.  69  resul-  restrictions  for  defcailing  on  The  spatial  events  As  Virtue-Vice  for  the  main  intact.  episode.  surviving Albans  the  process  provides  a  69 comparative  summary  of  dramatically  the  most  ivory's thirty  Virtue-Vice to  forty  sacrificing In  this  by  triumph of  isolation  for,  by  a  a more eight,  of  visual  of  the  artist  or  cycle in  a  the  process, content.  particularly  the  of  battle-proper,  the to  the  the  the of  thematic  was  use.  of  alone,  transition  climax  selective  without,  Largitas  standing  a  typical  narrative  aftermath  ultimate  were  was  it  exacting  to  used?  individual  front  The  narrative  figure  back  not  only but  cover,  Psychomachia —  David  of  cover's  What  latter  was  the  these  of  the  the  of  scenes,  model? was  the  ivory's  restrictions  medallions.  Psychomachian  Psychomachian model,  question  requirements  limitations  neither the  the  considered:  spatial  contrast, to  the  regard  questions  cable  original  the  images,  reduced a mere  By  Charity.  With  obvious  effective  cycle  narrative  the  cycles.  of  providing  emphasizes  the  the  two  to  device,  represents  cisely  any  the  scenes  respect,  effective  also,  of  F i r s t the  of  is  and,  How  pre-  necessitated  cycle  and  two  by  by  the  interstices.  In  particularly  a l l ,  Davidic  relative scenes  —  applito  the  possibly  E p i s o d e as Descr i b e d i n the Text  Corresponding Image on the I v o r y  Number o f Illustrations per E p i s o d e i n the S t . A l b a n s Prudentius  Numerical P o s i t i o n s and D e s c r i p t i o n s of the S t . Albans Scenes C l o s e s t t o Those on t h e I v o r y Scene  3: F i d e s c o n q u e r s Idolatr ia.  5  Scene  3: P u d i c i t i a s p e a r s L i b i d o through the t h r o a t .  P a t i e n c i a watches as I r a s t a b s herself„  5  Scene 5: I r a f a l l s on her own s w o r d .  H u m i l i t y , with the h e l p o f Hope , defeats Pride.  H u m i l i t a s and Spes behead S u p e r b i a  6  Scene 5: H u m i l i t a s beheads Superbia.  Sobriety contends w i t h , and o v e r c o m e s , Indulgence.  S o b r i e t a s smashes the f a c e o f Luxuria.  5  Scene 5: S o b r i e t a s t h r o w s a stone a t Luxuria.  Greed attempts t o take o v e r man's s o u l . Gen-r e r o s i t y fights with, and k i l l s G r e e d .  Fortitudo Avar i t i a  4  Scene 3: L a r g i t a s Avaritia throat.  F a i t h and C o n c o r d c o n f r o n t , and d e f e a t , Discord.  Concordia stabs Discordia,  4  Scene 3: H u m i l i t a s s p e a r s Discordia ( F i g . 38c) .  Peace and C h a r i t y u n i t e and t r i u m p h .  Largitas alone„  6  Scene 3: C a r i t a s i s s e a t e d a l o n e on a t r i b u n a l ( F i g . 38a) .  The m e e t i n g and b a t t l e o f F a i t h and I d o l a t r y . The d e f e a t o f Idolatry.  F i d e s chokes Idolatr ia  The e n c o u n t e r o f C h a s t i t y and L u s t . The e x t i n g u i s h i n g of L u s t .  Pudicitia Libido.  P a t i e n c e ' s meeting w i t h Wrath. Wrath's suicide.  stabs  spears  stands  stabs i n the  70  because source  of —  units.  the are,  That  necessarily tive his  greater  familiarity  for  most  i s ,  dependent  disposal,  the  specific  in  only  addition,  in  a narrative  story  of  lamb.  reduction  was  that  less  need  as  consideration  that,  the  once  unusual  mainly  copied  ation.  Thus,  of  the  is  that  known  David  the  directly in  the  manuscript  that  the is  a  the  rescue are  For  of  major  of Vice  larger  not  than  require  a  seems exception were no  alter-  p i c t o r i a l  source  question  provenance  the  problem  l i t t l e the  of  Psycho-  d i s c u s s e d above)  of  the  iconographic  his  a r t i s t i c  In  this  drastic  with  scenes  so:  the  problem  with  do  (with  the  case  not  scenes  addressing  and  did  is  episode;  the  It  models  type  present  used.  the  the  Psychomachia Goliath  use  at  had  was  from  the  he  sequence does  Davidic  medallions,  Psycho-  the  medallions  model  narra-  was  before  complex  not  images  the  of  is  larger  to,  kind  textual  Davidic  and  a r t i s t ' s  the  a  interstices.  the  less  how  he  the  Ahimelech medallion,  regarding was  the  the  the  of  chosen,  remaining  As  a  have  occurs  for  and  semantic  restraint,  since  fact,  than  the  David  spaces,  characterised Thus,  the not  anointment  Psychomachian c y c l e ,  clear  no  In  model.  detailed  of  chronology.  working  this  scenes,  did  awkwardly-shaped there  machian  Within  but  as  from  to  restriction  mention, of  could,  Secondly,  reason,  the  he  its  images  comprehensibility  conformance  main  of  their  self-contained  choosing  choice  David,'the  less  in  metaphor.  in  in  their  a r t i s t ' s  the  part,  individual on  Thus,  machian-Davidic  and  their  framework.  f l e x i b i l i t y  the  of  the  Virtue  and  l i k e l y  p o s s i b i l i t y  to  or  be  considered  model.  cycle, as  there the  is  specific  71  model f o r even iconographic exist,  parallels  and o n l y i n d i c a t e  precise  identity.  as  with  a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t ,  fairly  t h e t y p e o f model u s e d ,  rather  than  As an e x a m p l e , r e f e r e n c e c a n be made t o  the b o t t o m - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n David  Manuscripts  t o one or more o f t h e m e d a l l i o n s do  but these p a r a l l e l s  general, its  one o f t h e D a v i d m e d a l l i o n s .  and h i s M u s i c i a n s .  ( F i g . 39b), i n which are d e p i c t e d In t h e West, s i n c e a t l e a s t  the e i g h t h c e n t u r y , such  scenes  as e a r l y  had been most f r e q u e n t l y used 70  as  the f r o n t i s p i e c e s  Dalton  observed,  sequence  to i l l u s t r a t e d  the presence  suggests  that  Psalters.  of this  image  T h u s , as  i n the David  t h e model f o r t h e f o u r m e d a l l i o n s i n 71  question But,  here  beyond  details, cific  was an i l l u s t r a t e d  this,  when  certain  —  created  of this medallion's  David  and h i s M u s i c i a n s  i n England,  probably,  Western  Europe.  iconographic t o a more  possibly  i n the e a r l y  —  A n o i n t i n g , D a v i d and  was an i l l u s t r a t e d  first  twelfth  compiled  Psalter,  i n t h e l a t e e l e v e n t h , b u t more century.  This hypothesis of  mine owes a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f Hugo S t e g e r , was he who  spe-  the model f o r f o u r o f the s i x D a v i d i c  t h e R e s c u e o f t h e Lamb, D a v i d ' s  Goliath,  from  considered together, give support  hypothesis:  scenes  Psalter  much o f t h e n e c e s s a r y  for  i t  supportive  72 data.  Steger's  Western European manuscripts ing  (perched  David  Rex e t P r o p h e t a ,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of David  primarily,  the i v o r y ' s  a dove  study,  but a l s o  v e r s i o n of t h i s on D a v i d ' s  in other scene,  shoulder)  f o c u s e s on  and h i s M u s i c i a n s , i n a r t forms.  he n o t e d  In a n a l y s -  the presence  as an u n u s u a l  of  iconographic  72  detail.  1 5  parable  He  a l s o noted  scenes  i n two  made i n W i n c h e s t e r ,  that this  same f e a t u r e f i g u r e d  eleventh-century English Psalters,  now  i n London  1041-1066) and  (B.L.,  C VI,  f . 30v,  Lib.,  Cod.  three  other examples of p o r t r a y a l s of  David  as M u s i c i a n .  F f . I , 23,  the o t h e r  f . 4v).  The  Canterbury  manuscript,  MS  B 5 26,  f . 1;  in  the S t . A l b a n s  first ca  To  this the lion  of the Winchester  list,  with  dove n e a r comparable concluded  examples  feature. the  To  this motif  on  the  writing.  p o s e and  As  f a r as  as  seen  i f not  a somewhat l e s s e r  triple-arch-motif  and  Shaftesbury  F f . I , 23,  both  front  and  to  However, cover  I know, t h e r e  the  thus,  Steger  same can  setting noted  medal-  of  the  are  no  i t can  c a 1060;  Psalter, mid-twelfth-century  be  said  f o r David  manuscripts:  a t Cambridge  F i g . 41); (London,  the B.L.,  of  and  the p r e s e n c e  in several English  f . 4v;  found  Treasury,  the p o s i t i o n  above-mentioned e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y P s a l t e r  (U. L i b . , Cod.  College,  exclusively, English  degree,  ( F i g . 39b).  in a  i n the f r o n t - c o v e r  t h a t p r o v i d e s the  ivory  are  King  p r o p e r l y belong  outside of England,  a typically,  the o t h e r m u s i c i a n s  the  shoulder. from  with  F i g u r e 40 , showing the B e a t u s  i n i t s c l o s e n e s s t o the  t h a t the d o v e - m o t i f ,  m e d a l l i o n , was  two  i s of David  David's  add  examples o c c u r s  the o t h e r  (U.  I can  the dove m o t i f  P s a l t e r , does not  r e s p e c t t o both his right  a t Cambridge list,  one  Tiberius  ( H i l d e s h e i m , S t . Godehard's  s i n c e the p o r t r a y a l  image i s s t r i k i n g  MS  (Cambridge, T r i n i t y  F i g . 15), while Psalter  now  of these  1100  Cotton  Steger's  unnumbered MS, pp. 56 and 72; F i g . 3 9 a ) . Initial  i n com-  of  be  73  Lansdowne MS  383  f . 15v);  and  the W e s t m i n s t e r P s a l t e r ,  late  74 twelfth-century also  cites  locales, from  a few  but  England,  arch-motif  (London, B.L., additional  i t i s not unreasonable  in portrayals English  favouring  the E n g l i s h  David 42b  Steger  has  striking  out  this English  noted  that  the 75  harp.  that  the d o m i n a n t The  Finally,  i s evidence  contribution factor  In h i s s t u d y upon  the  triplepar-  evidence  i s provided  was  just  and  which  t o the  the  right  of f i g u r e s  of the h a r p , ivory  the p r o b a b l e  and  by  further  indicates  of  42a  and  show the  carver depicted English  by e x t e n s i o n , f o r t h e  in question, i s given  English  the  i s another  Additional  figure  identification  instrument.  there  t o t a l Western  as M u s i c i a n  A comparison  n a n c e o f . t h e model f o r t h i s ,  fact  o f examples i s  t o assume t h a t  of a c c u r a c y w i t h which  three medallions  European  i n s t r u m e n t s p o r t r a y e d i n the m e d a l l i o n ( F i g .  Steger's  degree  of David  Steger  o t h e r Western  p r o v e n a n c e o f the model  p l a y s an E n g l i s h  bear  from  iconographic t r a i t .  o f the m u s i c a l  42b) .  examples  2 A xxn).  s i n c e the g r e a t e s t p r e p o n d e r a n c e  ticularly  one  R o y a l MS  proveother  credence  by  the  t h a t , w i t h i n the  t o the d u a l s c r i p t o r i u m  tradition,  English.  I n f l u e n c e i n the J e r u s a l e m S c r i p t o r i u m , 1130-1150 of Crusader  strong English  illumination,  Buchthal  remarked  i n f l u e n c e s c u r r e n t i n the H o l y  s c r i p t o r i u m d u r i n g the m i d d l e  1100's.  nance of such  front-cover ivory  influences,  the  Because of the was  Sepulchre predomi-  not  the  74  only  product of  features. English  the  Further  artistic  provided  by  this  work o f  key  English  the  the  presence  Melisende P s a l t e r . the  period  in England;  contains  a l s o seen  twelfth  Beatus  inhabited  in English  century;  initial,  and  a Western scrolls  of  a favoured  noted  of  that  cycle  of  popular  large  initial  manuscripts of  mask-head  j o i n i n g of  construction  of  is  typically  feature the  of  t h i s time  extensive  i v o r i e s and  the  at  a variety the  English  importance  B u c h t h a l has  Among t h e s e a r e :  the  and  scriptorium  frontispiece miniatures,  letters, early  evidence of  to e x h i b i t d i s t i n c t i v e l y  t r a d i t i o n s i n the  elements.  full-page mainly  the  scriptorium  the  the bows o f  corresponding 76  initials  in post-Conquest E n g l i s h  a l t h o u g h B u c h t h a l does n o t the  Psalter's  tained  calendar  i n them a r e  that decorate Bury B i b l e Buchthal clearly  appear E n g l i s h :  markedly  s i m i l a r to full-page  was  originally  the  composed.  saints,  initial  The  2,  S  calendar  i n the 77  ca  the  1135  Finally, calendar  listing  also  con-  medallions  l o c a l e where  E d b u r g a who  of  i n the  Psalter's  (Among the  that celebrated  addition,  figures  f. Iv).  specific  is Saint  with Winchester. feast 78  as  The  figures  the  to Winchester  In  Zodiac medallions  Wormald have shown t h a t  l o c a l Winchester  of  the pre-  is particularly r e f e r s to  t r a n s l a t i o n of  the the  relics.)  Various also  the  MS  dominantly-English  Saint's  also  a comparable  points  associated  so n o t e ,  (Cambridge, Corpus C h r i s t i  and  calendar  manuscripts.  give  other  evidence  contemporary products of  the  of  English  the  prevalence  of  the  scriptorium influence  75  in  that  the  artistic  milieu.  For  example, B u c h t h a l o b s e r v e d  Holy Sepulchre's Sacramentary  D.7.3.) and  Missal  illuminated  a few  (Paris, Bib.  that  (Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A n g e l i c a ,  Nat.,  y e a r s p r i o r t o the  Cod.  l a t . 12056),  P s a l t e r , contain  both  examples  79 of E n g l i s h - s t y l e i n h a b i t e d published of  the  icon painted  twelfth  striking Tree  an  in  folio  Lansdowne MS  38 3,  of  but  became, as  the  wider  well,  artistic can  be  the  the  and  early  presence of this  of  did not  that  lintel  to  English  Holy Sepulchre  long  influence,  an  the  the  Holy  pattern  illuminated  scripbooks  manuscripts 8 0  scriptorium.  Buchthal  for  so many E n g l i s h m a n u s c r i p t s  i n the  scriptorium  Englishmen, William, Ralph, c h a n c e l l o r ,  i s general p r i o r of  i n the  imported  c o n c u r r e n c e on  the  40's,  scriptorium  to Melisende  this  the  apparent at  point:  t o 1133, and  over  example,  reason  there  the  of  the  influence  As  is  B.L.  its English-style  Rahmani b e l i e v e s ,  on  in  (London,  artistic  spreading  eastern  half  exact  t i m e , and  most l i k e l y  C h r i s t - f i g u r e shown  of L a t i n J e r u s a l e m .  have s p e c u l a t e d  first  image o f C h r i s t t h a t  of E n g l i s h  particularly  the  an  i n the  scriptorium  means o f  twelfth-century  possession  others  The  made t o the  L.Y.  a d d i t i o n , Weitzmann  Shaftesbury Psalter 80  nucleus  sphere  t u r e s , f o r w h i c h , as were the  the  f. 15r).  S e p u l c h r e C h u r c h , and  in  the  to  In  scriptorium  which d e p i c t s  a self-contained  reference  i n the  its similarity  of Jesse  remain  century,  scrollwork.  two  and  Baldwin  III,  E n g l i s h m o d e l s , and e n c o u r a g e d t h e i r use 82 i n the H o l y S e p u l c h r e ' s w o r k s h o p . However, t h e s e m o d e l s were n o t a l w a y s u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y . T h i s i s t r u e f o r the i v o r i e s ,  76  w h i c h , as It  now  and  I have shown, were a l s o b a s e d  remains  to p o i n t  out  Byzantine elements,  iconographic century  they  also contain  models.  to their  a number o f  associated  with  English other  twelfth-  Jerusalem.  The at  Ivories' Local  l e a s t as  e a r l y as  the  and  Weitzmann p u b l i s h e d  their  the  d u a l i t y of  tradition  recognized,  Byzantine  in addition  details specifically  Latin  Since  that,  on  artistic  and  accepted  as  brief  the  Motifs 1930's, when a n a l y s i s of  Goldschmidt the  ivories,  in L a t i n Jerusalem  has  been  fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  83 twelfth-century  Crusader  tially  view of  accurate  body o f tor  recent  t o be  This  by  the  scholarship  considered  —  —  the  use  of  Without d i s p u t i n g  L a t i n Kingdom and has  shown t h a t  Jerusalem's  largely non-figural  frequent etc.  art.  tradition  a set of motifs  —  most o f w h i c h were known twelfth-century,  but  local was  there  the  w h i c h came .;to be  beading,  East  the  hence, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f , L a t i n  This  line  research  studies such  of  smaller-scale  However, an of  church  these  and  thus  and  has  not  a r t forms as m a n u s c r i p t s and  examination  local motifs,  of  the  and  ivory covers  most o f w h i c h a r e  West  Jerusalem.  f a r , been c o n f i n e d  tomb s c u l p t u r e ,  the  particularly  :  has,  by  spirals,  i n , and of  fac84  tradition.  characterized  in both  small  i s another  artistic  rosettes,  essen-  i t s art, a  favoured new  this  t o u c h e d on 85 ivories.  reveals  simply  to  the  presence  miniature  77  versions  o f the  s c u l p t u r a l ornament on  contemporary  tombs  and  that  can  churches. Among  t h o s e o f the  be p a r t i c u l a r l y is  ivories'  associated  t h e knotwork m o t i f t h a t  right  side  (Figs.  o f the  43b  and  occurs also 10a),  and  front  43c).^  i n the  was  with  d e c o r a t i v e elements twelfth-century Latin  occurs  i n b o t h main f r a m e s :  c o v e r , and As  initial  particularly  noted  Jerusalem,  a t the l e f t  previously,  on  the  the  the  back  same m o t i f  pages o f the Melisende favoured  on  Psalter  (Fig.  f o r the d e c o r a t i o n of  the  87 royal  tombs o f t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m  ivories  a l s o show a s e c o n d  Latin  Kings  —  upper  portion  were a l s o a p o p u l a r time  and  no  t y p e o f ornament u s e d  the g r a p e - l i k e m o t i f o f e a c h main  less  frame  than  Figure  four  i s repeated  i n the M e l i s e n d e  same i v o r y  ( F i g . 2)  multi-leaved in  The  times  Psalter  noted  on  two  rosette  ( F i g . 3,  the  the  lower former  tombs o f  seen  i n the  44c).  be  four-sided  frame),  and  t y p e can  be  the  amongst  shown i n  front  cover  and  The  lower  frame o f  rosette  The  the  this  occurs  variety of rosette:  square 88  icon.  at  found  of r o s e t t e  five-  seen  on  ( F i g . 3)  the  This  version  appears i s an  w h i c h Weitzmann  back c o v e r  also  or s i x - p o i n t e d  spiral  the  Rosettes  in Jerusalem  the back c o v e r  other r o s e t t e - t y p e s :  o f the  kind  Both  on  t y p e , o f which another  a Jerusalem-made  depicts  variation  of  on  and  t y p e s can  c o n t a i n s a second  square-shaped  form  44b  ( F i g . 7a).  the c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n of  elaborated has  (Figs.  four d i f f e r e n t ivories.  also  ( F i g . 44a),  form o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n  the d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e 7b  ( F i g . 43a).  ( F i g . 45b).  another  star A  Jerusalem  78  icon, while comprise occur  spiral  the  frieze  pattern  that  cover  tombs  Jerusalem  ( F i g . 46b).  the s c u l p t e d  to those o f the  Sepulchre's southern  i n n e r frame  numerous i c o n s , b u t can  amongst It  of L a t i n  forms the  the f r o n t  and  of Holy  identical  a l s o as ornament f o r t h e r o y a l  Even more t y p i c a l  of  rosettes  seen  (Figs.  as w e l l ,  "one  89 45c).  and  and  n o t o n l y on  o r n a m e n t s o f the H o l y  i s , as Weitzmann p o i n t s o u t ,  45a  and  bead  d e f i n e s the m e d a l l i o n s  I t appears  be  facade,  i s the diamond  and  ivory,  on  the  a larger  Sepulchre  ivory  scale,  ( F i g . 46a).  o f the t r a d e marks"  of  90 Crusader used  art.  lavishly  From t h i s may  I have o b s e r v e d on  several  of the  that  a plain  bead p a t t e r n  i c o n s p u b l i s h e d by  observation, I tentatively  conclude  was  Weitzmann.  that  beadwork  also  have been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c m o t i f o f t h e a r t o f L a t i n 91 . . . Jerusalem. C e r t a i n l y i t i s a b u n d a n t on the i v o r i e s , o c c u r r i n g in  the  frames  of both  ivories  of  the A c t s o f M e r c y m e d a l l i o n s on  addition,  the  decorated  w i t h a bead p a t t e r n  as an  of Jerusalem,  occurs rarely,  The  abundance o f on  the  left  ( F i g . 39b).  i f at a l l ,  identifiable  scriptorium.  a specifically  local  and  i n most  (Fig. 3 ) .  David m e d a l l i o n are  t o be  T h i s use  an  of  In  also  beadwork  innovation of  the  in Byzantine 92  i n the a r t o f t h e West. local  Jerusalem motifs  i v o r i e s not only confirms t h e i r  century Jerusalem time,  12b),  t h e back c o v e r  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o a more c o m p l e t e  that  and  for i t i s without precedent  and  depicted it  i n the  a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f appears  artists art,  three arches  ( F i g s . 8b  I t now  view  provenance  o f the m i d - t w e l f t h -  seems c l e a r  artistic  —  tradition  that,  at  ran, l i k e  a  79  kind  of connecting  Western  through  f a c e t s o f the d u a l  presence local  thread,  of  these  motifs  hand, w h i c h  tiating  between  on  the  artists  The T h e r e have been  ivories  who  carved  main  and  the  the  Moreover,  i n d i c a t e s the  i s , i n t u r n , an  Ivories'  two  the B y z a n t i n e  scriptorium tradition.  indication  the  both  a i d to  the  work o f  a  differen-  ivories.  Artists  t h e o r i e s . about  the  c r e a t o r of  the 93  ivory One  covers.  such  earliest  v i e w took  ivories, ing  The  and  into  t h a t the  account  i n c l u d e d the  for a Latin  was  the W e s t e r n  suggestion  c o u r t , the  artist  Byzantine  t a s t e of h i s p a t r o n s .  rently,  widely-held  theory  talisch  beeinflusster  one  artist  worked on  v i s u a l evidence side,  tends  the  two  ivories  that  they  are  the 96  than  the  other.  Library, be  here  cover The  the  ivories,  not  and  second  by  t o me  the  perhaps p a r t of artist,  two  an  "B,"  the  was  his  an  not  When p l a c e d  back —  style  a t the  carved the  two  the  more  by t o show skilled  British artist,  entire  upper  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  only  the  side  h a n d s , one  cur-  essentially  close scrutiny  covers  "A,"  work-  "orien-  which  t h a t the more e x p e r t  letter  was  s e c o n d , and  was  assumption  a very  the  the  i f i t assumes t h a t  different  examining  i t became c l e a r designated  need  The  Although  to c o n t r a d i c t . do  altered  artist  i s incomplete,  work o f On  i s t h a t the 95  Abendlander."  theory  features of  artist 94  the W e s t e r n  this  Byzantine.  t h a t , b e c a u s e he  to s u i t  inaccurate,  was  to  front  medallions.  remaining  four  80  m e d a l l i o n s , the cover.  border  I could not determine  animals:  They a r e  hand o f A r t i s t was  rope-like  practised  t h a t , as  A.  skillfully  of  the  animals,  fairly  rest  motifs  i n the main  lions,  show r e l a t i v e  front cover,  the  the  frames,  On  The  a slight  vine  scroll,  the  some d i f f i c u l t i e s four medallions,  their  i n the  appears  t o have c a r v e d  front  cover,  block-like  their  A,  By  display  of drapery,  fine  regard  medaloverall  ornament i s  detail  of  i n the  two  the  thick-  the grape-bunches,  and  (See,  bottom-left corners, Artist  are  B  also  o f human  figures.  somewhat mono-  appearance,  and,  c o n t r a s t , the  in  front-  a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree while  faces expressive.  the upper  from  and  back-cover  i n the p o r t r a y a l figures  in  the d e c o r a t i v e  articulation,  joinings.)  the  and  Aside  be made w i t h  t o p - and  features.  treatment  poses are v a r i e d ,  can  heavy-handedness  the  the  f i g u r e s , done by A r t i s t  fluidity  proficient  i n the m e d a l l i o n s ' b o r d e r s .  t o n o u s l y p o s e d , have a s t i f f ,  of  less  l a r g e n e s s of  a t most o f  facial  he was  i t l a c k s the  evinces  most c a s e s , c o a r s e  motifs,  clear  and  B  bird  i n t h e b o r d e r a r o u n d the  but  as w e l l as  cover  the  and  corresponding  with c l a r i t y ,  those  back  interstitial  v e g e t a l imagery.  the  complexity,  segments n e a r  lower  sort,  and  f o r example, the  In the  indicate  and  s p o r a d i c awkwardnesses  experienced  done, which c o u l d  distinctions  imagery:  treatment.  rendered  ness of  the  clear  t o the  also  the  the  this  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of f i g u r a l  of  frame o f  w h i c h hand c a r v e d  i n the p o r t r a y a l o f a n i m a l  a "specialist"  of  t h e main  However, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t A r t i s t  his  delicacy  and  medallions  a t the  same  Artist o f the  A  time, also  back  81  cover:  Characteristic  detail robe  of the  i n the  thrones  left  i n both  medallion.  scrollwork  on  the hem.)  complexity  of  the  facial  variety  Apart  from  motifs.  noted  two  Jerusalem  cover, other  they  artists  The  on  both  section  elements.  For  example,  the J e r u s a l e m  frame  i s placed  the E n g l i s h local  i n such  —  the  are  d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s and  the  also  rosettes,  noticed spiral  the  figural  from  of  largeness of  a square  chapter,  a s s o c i a t e d with the  front  integrated with the  t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s as  the diamond  On  the  as s e p a r a t e motifs:  the g r a p e - p a t t e r n , joinings,  and  to the  knotwork m o t i f  rest  o f the  i n usage o f J e r u s a l e m  back  other  cover,  elements  In p a r t i c u l a r , the prominence  I  of  the  the c a p r i c i o u s p r e -  that bears  f r a m e ' s ornament.  m o t i f s between  bead  t o the  r o s e t t e i n the c e n t r e - r i g h t m e d a l l i o n ,  of a Jerusalem  relationship  the  local  knotwork on  imagery.  among t h e o t h e r  r o s e t t e s at the m e d a l l i o n  t h e use  ences  out  this  of  s u b t l y complementary  l o c a l m o t i f s a r e more i n e v i d e n c e stand  a way  and  or F r e n c h - s t y l e a c a n t h u s - i n t e r l a c e m o t i f .  features —  the grapes  more f u l l y  fluid  distinctions,  However, on  and  other  sence  of  specifically  covers.  the  medallions.  i n t h e use  apparent  of  which  i n both  less  pattern,  the  be  minute  of A are  general qualitative  i n the p r e v i o u s  occur  figures  also d i f f e r s  t h a t can  the  king's  right medallion  are  middle-right part  these  ornamental  o f the  especially,  i n the  i n a l l o f the  d e c o r a t i v e elements Latin  (Note  and  Also characteristic  showing  the  the d e l i c a t e  medallions,  king's drapery  seen  the work o f As  o f h i s hand a r e  front  little The and  and visual  differ-  back  covers  82  is  suggestive with  artists.  regard  On t h e f r o n t  t o the g e o g r a p h i c a l o r i g i n s  cover,  the s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f l o c a l  ments t o t h e r e m a i n i n g  predominantly  Western  that A r t i s t  "orientalisch  beeinflusster  referred local of  A was t h a t  t o above.  trained that  The p r o m i n e n c e  m o t i f s , and h i s a p p a r e n t  figures,  suggests  images  that A r t i s t  l a c k o f ease  ele-  indicates Abendlander,"  B accords t o  i n the p o r t r a y a l  t h a t he was n a t i v e t o J e r u s a l e m ,  i n the p r i m a r i l y d e c o r a t i v e , n o n - f i g u r a l  and  t r a d i t i o n of  locale. The  above d i s c u s s i o n  chapter.  artists  ning,  the c h a p t e r ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the c o n d i t i o n s , and p e r s o n a l i t i e s  scriptorium  associated with  was d o u b l y - i n t e n t i o n e d :  was t o f o c u s on t h e s c r i p t o r i u m on  t h e o t h e r , t h e i n t e n t was  of  the i v o r i e s '  these  As i n d i c a t e d  i s the f i n a l  of concern  teristics,  to this  o f the i v o r i e s '  topic  in a given  time  What c a n be s a i d  F o r , as t h e combined artist,  they  of ivory  cosmopolitan  covers  scriptorium  p e r i o d , while  creation  i s that  o f both  and above a l l ,  i s nothing  now  the o r i g i n s  are v i r t u a l l y  compendium o f B y z a n t i n e , W e s t e r n , and l o c a l the p a i r  charac-  the Jerusalem  t o d i s c o v e r more a b o u t  iconography.  a Western European  at i t s begin-  On t h e one h a n d , t h e aim  two aims a r e n o t o n l y r e l a t e d ,  inseparable. and  o f the  a native  as a p i c t o r i a l  artistic  traditions,  i f n o t a microcosm o f the  of mid-twelfth-century  Jerusalem.  CHAPTER  RELATED  CONCERNS FOR  Although the  meaning  t o r i a l study  origins at  Chapter was  II  the  only  both  either  with  clusive seems on  proof,  t o me t o  the  ivory.  Baldwin's merciful Holy  Land  of  of  basis  the  the  the  been  i t  of  meant  king,  the dates  of  on t h e  weight  It to  of  that  c a n be added  reign  that  83  there  partially,  with  i s , as w e l l , for  Although  and t e x t u a l  made  III  who i s  in  Chapter  Antioch,  h e , more  is  a  pos-  no  con-  evidence portrayed III  figure,  his birth  than  the  associating  there  the depicted of  III  coincide  history)  Baldwin  already  the P a t r i a r c h  and  (1143-  Tyre's  to  King  continuity  least  in  and Baldwin  historical  resemblance  For example,  was s p e c u l a t e d  and there  is  this  the M e r c i f u l  be, at  pic-  were  ivory.  i t  of  as  and two p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of  ivories,  of  such and  and III  chapter  (1131-1143)  (William  suggest  identity of  II  concerns.  considered.  To the points  rescue  related  the  problems  and -the t e x t u a l  Chapters  interest  Anjou  figure  physical  —  the  cases,  1131-1143 d a t i n g textual  of  a specific  Fulk  In  images,  other  may have  with  mentioned:  in  STUDY  iconographic  imagery,  briefly  figure  identified  sible  this  skirted  but,  on  ivories'  the question  coherence,  1163).  of  times  raised,  that  the  AND P O S S I B I L I T I E S  FUTURE  concentrating  of  IV  anyone  - h i s in  the  else,  84  earned  contemporary  virtues,  several  praise,  of  which  According  to  generous,  s p i r i t u a l ,  A  more  that  recent,  Baldwin  Jerusalem a  and  had  Plain  are  Tyre,  the  embodiment  represented  on  Baldwin  was  III  of  a  the  temperate  objective,  historian,  T.S.R.  to  which  Sharon,  the  led  and  being fact  to  the  which,  in  the  most  that  he  led  and  sober.  Boase,  captured  to  of  the  Ascalon,  development a  1  noted  successful  agricultural turn,  of  compassionate,  courteous,  claim  variety  ivories.  patient,  mentioning  success of  of  some  kings,  military  the  William  as  period  of  of  2 unprecedented food  for  sense, by,  his  an  the  also  abundance subjects,  act  of  upon  reaching  the  deeds  shown  associates  maturity,  he  on  of  was  warfare  also and  known  would  to  at  have  times  to,  the  Baldwin "laid  Thus,  military  comparable  T h e n c e f o r w a r d he [ B a l d w i n ] ' . . . . when I became a m a n , Baldwin  kingdom.  Baldwin's  charity  merciful  e x p l i c i t l y  in  aside  might I put been  victory  and  ivory.  with  in  was,  perhaps  charity, light  in  a  symbolised  William  of  noting  Tyre that,  conduct:"  say w i t h the a p o s t l e , ~ away c h i l d i s h things.' "charitable"  repair  providing  damages  and  in  his  supply  methods food  and  4 protection there  is  to  fortresses  also  one  known  historian  describes  shepherds  to  whom  that  instance  as:an  he  had  had  been where  "unforgivable  under he  siege.  made  attack"  previously  guaranteed  B i b l i c a l  predecessor,  However,  what on  one some  royal  modern Turcoman  safe-  5 conduct.  Thus,  new  was  David,  capable  of  like  also  bloodshed  a  his  "royal as  sinner-saint,"  mercy.  Although  it  one  Baldwin, who  tends  was to  the as  much  associate  85  Baldwin  with  the  merciful  evidence  is  any  preclude  way,  however,  that  and  events  ing  Baldwin  findings case. the  more  one  problem  determined, be  there  one  and  to of  the  the  no  logical  least  theory,  only  the  patron  Thus,  other This  mented  as  in  having  from Fulk  Queen  of  Fulk  rather  any  Baldwin  who  that  would  than  a  this  identity,  but  two —  proven,  should  most  there  interest  in  is the  is  specifically  patron,  she  are  there  it the  the  is  arts.  not  work.  only As  is  would  not  practice,  Baldwin,  commissioned  regard,  In  Although  (1131-1143).  this  and  at  research.  patron  the  the  beyond  medallions  and  of  be  conclusively  indicated,  each  is  proposed  Once  subject  to  one  be  likely are,  at  there  is  consistent  iconography  p o s s i b i l i t i e s  why  The  and  those  queen  —  prove  king's  Mercy  associat-  ivory.  follow-up  merciful  of  for  dates  ivories'  the  of  documents  extent  be  in  possible,  M e l i s e n d e , whose  the  was  —  this  patron.  well  the  might  only  line  Acts  is  it,  is  dates  it  as  of  does  patrons.  ivories'  that  the  It  basis  on  this  can  the  nor  possible  the  patroness,  of  apart  medallions  one.  king  that  historical  contemporary  factual  thus,  reason  like  a  into  ivories' of  (1131-1152),  with  and  subject  same.  conclusive,  the  indicate  question  as  of  really  with  this  portrayed.  sufficient  paper,  naming  subjects in  king  ivory,  a document-search  the  the  is  the  not  potentially-productive  indicated  for  the  research  a  here  on  and  the  definitely  this  Related the  yield  Nonetheless,  as  as  exhaustive  would  of  only,  Fulk  presented  scope  time  suggestive  king  of  reign  nothing  with in  associate  them  improbable Of who  noted  the  three  is  docu-  previously,  86  there the  is  a  many  passage  gifts  from  that  William  the  queen  of  made  Tyre's  history  to  Church  the  that —  describes  gifts  which,  7 presumably,  she  Secondly,  as  Melisende  was  bears  name.  her  commission show  a  for,  as  of  the  this  figure  of  noted of  the  the  would  well.  than  a  queen,  Fulk  and  mother  love,  Thus,  or  these that  or  Fulk, like  cover,  been  natural  for  The  fact  not  necessarily  Melisende  and  the  basis are  uncertain of  problematic, might,  her  own.  who  most  scant  equally  the  to  with  the  identity  out  made  one  of  to  ivories  than  not  the  her  chosen  rather are  now  both  she  have  was  Baldwin  problem  that  Baldwin,  speculations  the  the  which  reign,  On  indicate,  Psalter  of  son's  clearly  the  obligation,  covers.  she,  is  scriptorium.  findings  have  as  the  Jerusalem  Wormald's  covers  arguing  back  in  commissioned  it  that  evidence,  on  who  husband's,  regard.  remains  plausible  of  the  ivories'  patron  unresolved.  There missioned of  of  commissioned  existing in  her  be  and  motherly,  intention  likely  one  rather  or  should  made  Thus,  wife  commemorate It  the  set  king,  wifely,  had  Buchthal's  a  the  had  a l l ,  is, the  the  at  least,  ivories  ivories  l i t t l e  w a s "one  are  doubt  of  products  that  the  Jerusalem's of  a  person  who  monarchs.  scriptorium  whose  com-  First patron-  9 age  was,  according  to  Buchthal  Other,  observable,  details  patron  was  There  royal.  depressions  in  eyes  figures,  of  the  the  are  are,  ornamental which  and  others,  also for  indicative  example,  frames  indicate  predominantly  of that  that the  small  the the  royal. ivories'  circular  covers, ivories  and  in  were,  the or  87  were  intended  t o be, e n c r u s t e d  traces of red paint that^they,  i n the i n c i s e d  and p e r h a p s ,  an  ornament o f t h e i v o r i e s ,  level  effect,  of a r t i s t i c a l s o argue  such p r o f u s e valuable covers  having  personage.  skill  —  no  one o t h e r  than  of  the i v o r i e s ,  as w e l l  which  suggests  d e t a i l and  as t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y required  t o produce  of a royal patron.  o f t i m e and t a l e n t ,  apart  and t h e u s e o f  a p r o j e c t commissioned  from  the Church,  the monarch who c o u l d  f o r the n o b i l i t y  such  Together,  i v o r y , g o l d , gems -- p o i n t c l e a r l y  been o r i g i n a l l y  In f a c t ,  inscriptions  and e f f o r t  i n favour  expenditure  materials  I also noticed  In a d d i t i o n , the r i c h  1  high  jewels.  some o f t h e imagery on t h e i v o r i e s ,  were a t one time g i l d e d . " ' " lavish  with  there  afford  t o the  by a r o y a l  was  probably  a r t of the q u a l i t y  and upper c l a s s e s o f  Jerusalem  12 were c o m f o r t a b l e , i s perhaps the does and  b u t n o t immensely w e a l t h y .  the i v o r i e s '  iconographic  clearest indication i t include  that  tution  merciful  of patronage  king, Chapter  ivories'  specific  monarch, b u t c o n t a i n s ,  through  I I touched  scenes  motifs  Jerusalem.  p e r i p h e r a l l y on  i t s speculations  of the i v o r i e s .  decorative  visual  in twelfth-century  I I I a t times verged  problem o f the s t y l e  David,  and a c t u a l l y , r e l a t e d t o the i n s t i 13  t h e same way t h a t C h a p t e r  question  Not o n l y  king,  images o f c h a r i t y and c o n f l i c t ,  and p r a c t i c e o f k i n g s h i p  In  provides  was r o y a l .  the B i b l i c a l  another, p o s s i b l y twelfth-century  t h a t were, b o t h c o n c e p t u a l l y  the  programme t h a t  patron  p o r t r a y a l s o f both  as w e l l , numerous  the  their  Ultimately, i t  on a r e a s  r e g a r d i n g the related to  Comparisons o f the  t o those  found  i n the a r t o f  88  Western the  Europe,  artistic  taken  from  concerns  the  influences a  purely  are  ivories.  also  mingling  of  attempted a  set  it  current  has  like  Eastern  and  in-depth  of  Jerusalem, in  iconographic  style,  an  and  relevant  Although  ivories'  pile  Byzantium,  to  its  Western  of  of  under-  view.  However,  such  of  style  the  the  recognized  iconography,  s t y l i s t i c  examples  of  problem  been  consideration  scriptorium,were  point  the  long  the  and  and  of  accepted  is  characterized  elements,  no  one  analysis,  or  undertaken  has  stylistically-comparable  that by  a  yet to  works  comof  14 art. do  In so,  accomplishing  the  starting  findings  point.  For  characteristics Musician might art,  of  f i r s t  be  noted  extent,  made  icons,  indicate  this  even  presence  of  indication in any  the  from  regard,  Syria  and  suggest  among the  Armenia  the  future  s t y l i s t i c  Anglicizing  and study  and  of  the  amongst  examples  and  ivories.  ivories the  other  and  useful  examples  bear  the  of  on  local of  ivories  English  Psalter,  comparisons  Southern  and  Finally,  tradition  would  art.  Italy,  ivories  their  and  locally-  Byzantinizing  the  as  iconographic  investigation.  description of  of  a  David  certain  s t y l i s t i c  S i c i l y ,  motifs  consider  The  and  as  to  comparisons,  Melisende  ivories  Norman  might  to  cycle,  wish  iconographic  sought  Jerusalem  need  classification  of  helpful  s t y l i s t i c  other  art  prove  anyone  Western  between  specific of  the  should  that  the  that  task,  might  Virtue-Vice  between  lesser  In  study  manuscripts  a  arise  latter  example,  profitably  particularly  might  this  the  medallion,  parallels to  of  the  as  style, have  is  an  a and to  the  factor thus, entail  89  detailed  comparisons with  other  e x t a n t examples  of  Jerusalem  art. Frequently, any  i n examining  works o f a r t f o r w h i c h  kind of w r i t t e n documentation, q u e s t i o n s  tably  become bound up  a l s o prove  true with  findings dating,  of  that,  dated  the  from  Hortus  ca  logical  of d a t i n g .  ivories,  challenge  the c o n c e n s u s a c c e p t a n c e ivories.  o f some o f t h e and  other  (Figs.  17a,  to  o t h e r works o f a r t m i g h t s u g g e s t  c a 1140-1150,  i n s t e a d of  years  immediately  could  be  that  unreasonable  and  stylistic  end  of  1131-1143 —  following:  stylistically  ivories  latter  ca  possibility.  have  latter  mentioned  Bible  20a,  and  comparisons  a slight  the  ornament  28).  of the  r e - d a t i n g of  the Thus, ivories the  the c u r r e n t d a t i n g r a n g e or e v e n , t o the  1145-1165.  —  twenty  If a later  dating  w o u l d , of c o u r s e , mean  were n o t made c o n c u r r e n t l y — A new  this  noted  (ca 1155) , and  20c,  established, this  Psalter  be  o f the  r e g a r d m i g h t be  is possible that detailed  the  of  o f s c h o l a r s who  (1159-1180) , t h e W i n c h e s t e r  (ca 1175)  pre-  i n the  accuracy  a r t , some e x a m p l e s  In t h i s  of  i c o n o g r a p h i c c o m p a r i s o n s made  it  to e i t h e r  the  However, i t can  1 5  1150-1170) , the C h a r t r e s window b o r d e r  ivories  f a r , they  i s , the d a t e  C e r t a i n l y , nothing  seriously  c a 1150-1180.  Bargello crozier  That  inevi-  Such m i g h t  f o r , thus  extension.  1131-1143.  study  ivories  Deliciarum  t o the  of s t y l e  i s 1131-1143; t h e r e f o r e , i t s c o v e r s  s t u d i e d the  i n the c a s e  between  (ca  this  w h i c h has  previously  by  Psalter  sumably a l s o d a t e  the p r o b l e m  regard  have o n l y been d a t e d the M e l i s e n d e  with  is lacking  1145-1165 d a t i n g range  a  not would  90  a l s o bear Baldwin the idea  on  the q u e s t i o n o f p a t r o n a g e ,  I I I was  subject of  both  d e p e n d e n t on  a detailed  stylistic  possibility  patron  o f the  ivories  the A c t s o f Mercy m e d a l l i o n s .  i s no more t h a n  diction  the  indicating  of t h e i r  speculation, the r e s u l t s  and  At present,  i t s verification of f u r t h e r  s t u d y o f the re-dating,  that  ivories,  or c o n t r a -  research. and  the  are both problems  this  Similarly,  associated for  future  investigation.  Conclusion The  immediate  iconographic. nate  t h e most  unnoticed  For  focus of this  this  study  r e a s o n , i t has  i m p o r t a n t , and  a s p e c t s o f the  has  been, and  been p o s s i b l e  ivories'  cycle  sources,  that  a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s t o the  main s t o r y  —  that  Byzantine-Western debt  to l o c a l  that  both  current And,  o f the  fight  derivation  tradition  has  programme o f  t h a t each each  of  i t s own  i t is clear with  source  telling  or of  as w e l l  iconography,  too that  apparent  —  time the  Psalter,  kingship,  belong  context:  Mid-twelfth-century Jerusalem  o f the  was  and  as i t s  i s the  fact  influences  ivory covers of  temporal  one  simultaneous  ivories'  images o f c h a r i t y ,  to their  as  of the a r t i s t i c  Melisende  securely  textual  I t has  the  a t the  their  images.  The  t o g e t h e r are a r e f l e c t i o n  finally,  illumi-  f o r man's s o u l .  a r e a l s o now  i n the s c r i p t o r i u m  to  i n some i n s t a n c e s , p r e v i o u s l y  become c l e a r but  remains,  creation. the  conflict,  and  geographic  a time  and  place  91  in  which  concepts  the i v o r i e s ' and c a r v e d  t h r e e themes were more t h a n images —  they  were l i v i n g  literary  concerns.  NOTES TO THE TEXT  Notes  t o Chapter I  The s t a n d a r d work on t h e C r u s a d e s and t h e L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m i s S t e v e n Runciman, A H i s t o r y o f t h e C r u s a d e s , 3 v o l s . (Cambridge: The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 ) . O t h e r u s e f u l works on t h e s u b j e c t a r e T.S.R. B o a s e , Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s o f t h e C r u s a d e r s (New Y o r k : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 19 7 1 ) ; Rene G r o u s s e t , The E p i c o f t h e C r u s a d e s , t r a n s . N o e l L i n d s a y (New Y o r k : O r i o n P r e s s , 1970); J . L . L a Monte, F e u d a l Monarchy i n t h e L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m , 1100-1291 (Cambridge, Mass., 1932; r e p r i n t e d . , New Y o r k : K r a u s R e p r i n t , 1970); D.C. Munro, The Kingdom o f t h e C r u s a d e r s (New York and London: D. A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , 1 9 3 5 ) ; J . P r a w e r , The C r u s a d e r s ' Kingdom: E u r o p e a n C o l o n i a l i s m i n t h e M i d d l e Ages (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1972); and J e a n R i c h a r d , The L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m , 2 v o l s , t r a n s . J a n e t S h i r l e y (New Y o r k : N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 7 9 ) , v o l . A: The Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m under t h e House o f Ardennes-Anj ou. 2 F o r t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t o be d e t a i l e d h e r e , s e e , among o t h e r s , C. C a h i e r , Nouveaux M e l a n g e s d ' A r c h e o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e e t de L i t t e r a t u r e , 4 v o l s . ( P a r i s , 1 8 7 4 ) , 2:1; and F r a u k e S t e e n b o c k , Der K i r c h l i c h e P r a c h t e i n b a n d i n Friihen M i t t e l a l t e r ( B e r l i n ! Deutscher Verlag f u r Kunstwissenschaft, 1965) , p . 186. 3 I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h i s F r e n c h m o n a s t e r y had an e a r l y c o n n e c t i o n with a J e r u s a l e m o r d e r , the K n i g h t s Templar. For d e t a i l s , s e e A p p e n d i x 1. P r e s u m a b l y , i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r were b r o u g h t t o G r e n o b l e by a Templar who l o a n e d , o r g a v e , o r e n t r u s t e d them t o t h e monks o f t h e Grande C h a r t r e u s e . They were p r o b a b l y s t o l e n from t h e m o n a s t e r y d u r i n g , or s h o r t l y a f t e r , the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n (see A p p e n d i x 1 ) . How t h e y came i n t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f D r . Commermont i s n o t known. 4  For d e t a i l s r e g a r d i n g the s e p a r a t i o n o f ivories,.and b i n d i n g , and f o r some i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , see A p p e n d i x 2. 5 S i n c e i t was a p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i l i t a r y s t a t e , t h e L a t i n Kingdom's main a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e a r t s was m i l i t a r y a r c h i t e c ture. F o r g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w s o f C r u s a d e r a r t , see B o a s e , op. c i t . , pp. 96-124; idem, "The A r t s i n t h e L a t i n Kingdom o f 92  93  J e r u s a l e m , " W a r b u r g and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 2 (19383 9 ) : 1:21; and P r a w e r , o p . c i t . , pp. 4 1 6 - 6 8 . The l a t e s t and most c o m p r e h e n s i v e work on t h e s u b j e c t i s K e n n e t h M. S e t t o n , gen. ed., A H i s t o r y o f the C r u s a d e s , 4 v o l s . (Madison, W i s c o n s i n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , v o l . 4: The A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e C r u s a d e r S t a t e s , e d . H a r r y W. Hazard, C h a p s . 1-4, and 7. F o r s p e c i f i c comments on c a s t l e s and f o r t r e s s e s , see B o a s e , K i n g d o m s and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p. 120; i d e m , "The A r t s i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m , " p. 15; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p. 417; and S e t t o n , op. c i t . , 4:140-69. F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , as w e l l as i t s m o s a i c and s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n , see B o a s e , op. c i t . , pp. 1-15; i d e m , K i n g d o m s and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , pp. 96, 1 0 1 , and 120-22; and P r a w e r , op. c i t . , 417-19 , 4 3 0 - 3 5 , and 454. Prawer a l s o d i s c u s s e s s m a l l e r a r t f o r m s , op. c i t . , p. 4 4 3 f . and 4 6 1 f . See a l s o B o a s e , op. c i t . , p. 9 7 f . , and S e t t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 139, f o r d i s c u s s i o n s o f s p e c i f i c examples i n t h i s r e g a r d . F o r i n f o r m a t i o n on C r u s a d e r m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n , see Hugo B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n t h e L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1957). C y c l e s and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l images a r e i d e n t i f i e d by their associated Latin inscriptions. F o r a d d i t i o n a l , and more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , see C h a p . I I o f t h i s p a p e r . 7 See C h a p . I l l , p. 58f„ t h i s p a p e r . F o r a b r i e f comm e n t , and a" l i s t i n g o f t h e few c o m p a r a b l e e x a m p l e s i n t h i s r e g a r d , see S t e e n bock,- o p . c i t . , p. 187. See a l s o n. 44, Chap. I l l , f o r more - de'tai l e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A s i m i l a r r e m a r k was made by S t e e n b o c k , l o c . c i t . She a l s o c i t e d t h e i v o r i e s as t h e e a r l i e s t known e x a m p l e o f an A c t s of Mercy c y c l e . I n t h i s she was m i s t a k e n : In the course o f t h i s s t u d y I came a c r o s s an e a r l i e r , a l t h o u g h l e s s c o m p l e t e e x a m p l e — an 1 1 t h - c e n t u r y p a n e l f r o m I t a l y , on w h i c h a r e d e p i c t e d images o f a s a i n t p e r f o r m i n g A c t s o f M e r c y : feeding t h e h u n g r y , v i s i t i n g t h e i m p r i s o n e d , and c l o t h i n g t h e n a k e d . F o r an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see D. R e d i g de Campos, " E i n e b e k a n n t e D a r s t e l l u n g des j u n g s t e n G e r i c h t s a u s d e m E l f t e n Jahrhundert," Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e 5 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 127. A. du Sommerard, L e s A r t s au Moyen Age 4 6 ) , A l b u m , s e r . 8, p i s . 1 2 - 1 6 .  (Paris,  1838-  Amongst w h i c h , a r e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e b i r d , H e r o d i u s , on t h e t o p o f t h e back c o v e r , and t h e u n u s u a l s e q u e n c e c f t h e Virtue-Vice cycle. ( C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:2-14.) Cahier's t h e o r i e s w i l l be d e t a i l e d a t a p p r o p r i a t e p o i n t s i n t h e s e c o n d chapter of t h i s paper.  94  11  C a h i e r made a k e y e r r o r i n h i s o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e when he d e s c r i b e d t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n A v a r i t i a and L a r g i t a s , o p . c i t . , 2:9. He f a i l e d t o n o t e t h a t t h e i v o r i e s a c t u a l l y d e p i c t A v a r i t i a and F o r t i t u d o t o g e t h e r , while Largitas i s portrayed singly. T h i s i s no s m a l l o v e r s i g h t s i n c e t h e s e p a r a t e p o r t r a y a l o f L a r g i t a s i s t h e l i n k between a l l o f t h e i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c c y c l e s , and h e n c e , i s a m a j o r c l u e t o t h e i r meaning. See C h a p . I I o f t h i s s t u d y . 12 W.Y. F l e t c h e r , F o r e i g n B o o k b i n d i n g s i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum ( L o n d o n , 18 9 6 ) , n o . 2] A r t h u r H a s e l o f f , E i n e T h u r i n g i s c h S a c h s i s c h e M a l e r s c h u l e d e s 13. J a h r h u n d e r t s ( S t r a s s b u r g : H e i t z , 189 7 ) , p . 3 4 3 ; F.X. K r a u s , G e s c h i c h t e d e r C h r i s t l i c h e n K u n s t ( n . p . , 18 9 6 ) , l : 5 7 8 f . , and p i . 4 58 ; D r . Waagen (no i n i t i a l s g i v e n ) , T r e a s u r e s o f A r t i n G r e a t B r i t a i n ( n . p . , n . d . ) , v o l . 1, c i t e d by J.O. Westwood,,as p a r t o f h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i v o r i e s i n A D e s c r i p t i v e Catalogue of the F i c t i l e I v o r i e s i n the South K e n s i n g t o n Museum ( L o n d o n , 1 8 7 6 ) , p p . 7 2 - 3 . 13 B r i t i s h Museum, G u i d e t o t h e M a n u s c r i p t s , A u t o g r a p h s , C h a r t e r s , S e a l s , I l l u m i n a t i o n s , and B i n d i n g s E x h i b i t e d i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M a n u s c r i p t s and i n t h e G r e n v i l l e L i b r a r y ( L o n d o n : The Museum T r u s t e e s , 1 9 0 6 ) , p. 146; P. C l e m e n , D i e R o m a n i s c h e M o n u m e n t a l m a l e r e i i n den R h e i n l a n d e n ( D i i s s e l d o r f , 1 9 1 6 ) , p. 1 6 6 f . and F i g . 134; Comte A. de L a b o r d e , E t u d e s u r l a B i b l e M o r a l i s e e ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 7 ) , 5 : 2 1 f . ; C. E n l a r t , L e s Monuments d e s C r o i s e s d a n s l e Royaume de J e r u s a l e m , 4 v o l s . ( P a r i s , 1 9 2 5 ) , 1:199-200; J . A . H e r b e r t , I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n , 1 9 1 1 ) , p . 58; and A l f r e d M a s k e l l , I v o r i e s ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n , 1 9 0 5 ) , p p . 118-19.  14  O.M. D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e o f t h e I v o r y C a r v i n g s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n E r a i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum ( L o n d o n , 1 9 0 9 ) , n o s . 28 and 29, p . 2 3 f . , and p i s . 15 and 16; idem, B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l o g y ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 1 1 ) , p p . 231 and 2 3 3 ; and i d e m , E a s t C h r i s t i a n A r t ( O x f o r d , 1 9 2 5 ) , p. 2 1 8 . 15 . . T h a t o f M o o r i s h S p a i n . See B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l o g y , p . 2 3 3 ; C h a p . I l l o f t h i s paper ^ s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , "The I v o r i e s and t h e T w o f o l d A r t i s t i c T r a d i t i o n o f t h e J e r u s a l e m S c r i p t o r i u m ; " and f i g . 2 5 , t h i s s t u d y . 16 A. G o l d s c h m i d t and K u r t W e i t z m a n n , D i e B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n ( B e r l i n , 1 9 3 4 ) , 2:79-80; J . S t r z y g o w s k i , " R u i n s o f t h e Tombs o f t h e L a t i n K i n g s o f J e r u s a l e m , " S p e c u l u m 11 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 5 0 7 . The m o t i f i n q u e s t i o n i s a k n o t w o r k p a t t e r n . See f i g s . 4 3 a , 4 3 b , and 4 3 c , t h i s s t u d y . 17 B o a s e , "The A r t s i n t h e L a t i n K i n g d o m . . . , " p . 14; A d o l p h K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , A l l e g o r i e s o f t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n M e d i e v a l A r t (London: The W a r b u r g I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 3 9 ; r e p r i n t 7  95  e d . W . W . N o r t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 9 a n d 60. The i v o r i e s a r e a l s o included in a comparative table i n Hugo B u c h t h a l , The M i n i a t u r e s of the P a r i s P s a l t e r (London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1938), p . 28 .  18 B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom of Jerusalem, catalogue entry, p . 139; i n a r e v i e w o f t h i s w o r k i n Art Bulletin 43 ( M a r c h 1 9 6 1 ) : 67-8, H a r r y B o b e r r e g r e t s that Buchthal d i d not study the i v o r i e s since they "have s m a l l scenes composed i n a manner t h a t i n v i t e s c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e m i n i a t u r e s . . . . " ; Gervase Mathew, Byzantine P a i n t i n g (London: Pitman Publishing, 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 16; R e a l l e x i k o n d e r D e u t s c h e n Kunstges c h i c h t e , 1954 e d . , s . v . " D a v i d , " b y R o b e r t L . W y s s , 3: c o l . 1 1 0 7 ; P v U n c i m a n , o p . c i t . , v o l . 3: T h e K i n g d o m o f A c r e a n d t h e L a t e r C r u s a d e s , p . 38 5; a n d M a r i a v o n T h a d d e n , D i e Ikonographie der C a r i t a s in der Kunst des M i t t e l a l t e r s (Unpublished Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n , B o n n , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 47.  19 S t e e n b o c k , o p . c i t . , p p . 186-88 , a n d p i s . 124 a n d 125; and Hugo S t e g e r , D a v i d R e x e t P r o p h e t a ( N u r n b e r g : V e r l a g Hans Carl, 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 216 a n d p i . 22.  20  For summaries of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , see Boase, Kingdoms a n d S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p . 103; P r a w e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 462-66; a n d R . C . S m a i l , The C r u s a d e r s i n S y r i a and t h e H o l y Land (London: T h a m e s a n d H u d s o n , 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 165-66, a n d p i . 62. T h e 1977 survey of Crusader a r t , referred t o in the t e x t , i s volume 4 of S e t t o n , o p . c i t . : The A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e of the Crusader S t a t e s , p p . 128, 1 3 9 , a n d 2 8 8 . For the complete c i t a t i o n , see n . 5, t h i s chapter.)  21 The a u t h o r o f t h e t r e a t i s e i s Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r . For further information, see Chapter II of t h i s s t u d y , the s e c t i o n entitled, "The Secondary Textual Source." Katzenellenbogen, o p . c i t . , p . 10, b r i e f l y described the treatise i n q u e s t i o n , and from h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , I recognized possible p a r a l l e l s with the t w o i v o r i e s , w h i c h p r o m p t e d me t o e x a m i n e t h e o r i g i n a l Latin text. To a somewhat l e s s e r e x t e n t , Von T h a d d e n ' s study was a l s o helpful in this regard. ( S e e n . 55, C h a p . II.)  22 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , A H i s t o r y o f Deeds Done B e y o n d t h e S e a , 2 v o l s , , t r a n s . E . A . B a b c o c k a n d A . C . K r e y (New Y o r k : Columbia University Press, 1943).  96  Notes  to Chapter  II  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n i s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on my own o b s e r v a t i o n s and m e a s u r e m e n t s , made i n t h e M a n u s c r i p t Department o f t h e B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , J u n e 1980. For other d e s c r i p t i o n s of the i v o r i e s , see D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e , pp. 23-24; G o l d s c h m i d t , D i e B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:79-8 0; P r a w e r , The C r u s a d e r s ' Kingdom, pp. 4 63-65; and S t e e n b o c k , K i r c h l i c h e P r a c h t e i n b a n d , pp. 186-88 . 2 The d e c o r a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e i v o r i e s may owe s o m e t h i n g t o t h e r u b i e s and t u r q u o i s e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e s t u d d e d . However, t h e gems were added i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( M a s k e l l , I v o r i e s , p. 1 1 9 ) , and t h u s , c a n n o t p r o p e r l y be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e d e c o r a t i v e programme. 3 D e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t a f a i r amount o f work has been done on the P s y c h o m a c h i a i n m e d i e v a l a r t . See W o o d r u f f ' s a r t i c l e i n A r t S t u d i e s 7:33-79 ; and K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , Allegories o f the V i r t u e s and V i c e s , p a s s i m . See a l s o P.H. M i c h e l , "La P s y c h o m a c h i e , Theme L i t t e r a i r e e t P l a s t i q u e , " G a z e t t e des Beaux A r t s 40 (1952): 319-28; and R. Tuve, "Notes on t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s , " P a r t s 1 and 2, Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 26 (1963): 264-303, and 27 (1964): 42-72. W o o d r u f f , op. c i t . , pp. 33-34, a l s o g i v e s some g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on P r u d e n t i u s and h i s work. 4 For b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t e x t u a l s o u r c e s , and f o r b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e . i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h y , see C a h i e r , Nouveaux M e l a n g e s d ' A r c h e o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e e t de L i t t e r a t u r e , 2:2f; Clemen, D i e Romanische M o n u m e n t a l m a l e r e i i n den Rheinl a n d e n , pp. 166-7; D a l t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 22-4; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p . 4 6 3 f . ; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , pp. 186-7. 5 The t e x t u a l s o u r c e s c i t e d f o r t h i s and the o t h e r c y c l e s r e p r e s e n t my own a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y the c l o s e s t - p o s s i b l e p i c t u r e - t e x t correspondences. U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , my own f i n d i n g s do n o t d i f f e r g r e a t l y from p r e v i o u s t e x t u a l i d e n tifications. See, f o r e x a m p l e , D a l t o n , bp. c i t . , pp. 22-4; S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , pp. 18 6-7; and Westwood, A D e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g u e o f the F i c t i l e I v o r i e s . . . , pp. 72-3. referring  Dalton, to the  op. c i t . , p. 23, a p o c r y p h a l Psalm  suggests 151.  the  source  by  7 The most c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the i n s c r i p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s and t h e o t h e r c y c l e s p o r t r a y e d on the i v o r i e s i s t o be found i n D a l t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 22-4; and Westwood, op. c i t . , pp. 72-3.  97  C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:6-9; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 18 7, have noted t h a t the V i r t u e - V i c e c y c l e c l o s e l y f o l l o w s P r u d e n t i u s t e x t . However, n e i t h e r t h e y , nor anyone e l s e , u n t i l now, has demonstrated t h i s f a c t by q u o t i n g the r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s of t e x t . 1  Q  T h i s l a s t scene on the i v o r i e s i s a c t u a l l y a composite of two e p i s o d e s . In the t e x t , Peace b a n i s h e s war, but i t i s a c t u a l l y F a i t h who d e a l s the death-blow t o D i s c o r d . See the "Psychomachia," i n P r u d e n t i u s , 2 v o l s . , t r a n s . H.J. Thomson (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949), 1:323, l i n e s 634-635; and 1:329, l i n e s 714-716. For the p r e c e d i n g l i n e s of t e x t q u o t e d , see i b i d . , 1:281, l i n e s 22, 28 and 30; 283-85, l i n e s 40, 41, 50, 51 and 86; 287-89, l i n e s 110, 111 and 150; 293 and 299, l i n e s 200 and 205, and l i n e s 279-281 and 283; 30709, and  l i n e s 405-408 and 600-601.  423-424; and  319-21, l i n e s 574,  585-586,  The l i n e numbers j u s t c i t e d are r e f e r e n c e s t o Thomson's E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n , which c o r r e l a t e s c l o s e l y to the L a t i n t e x t on f a c i n g pages. Other l i n e numbers, to be c i t e d i n subsequent n o t e s , w i l l a l s o r e f e r t o Thomson's t r a n s l a t i o n , which has been used c o n s i s t e n t l y throughout t h i s c h a p t e r . For g e n e r a l comments on, and d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h i s c y c l e , see C a h i e r , op. c i t . 2:12-13; D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 24; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 187. In the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a seventh A c t o f Mercy, the B u r i a l of the Dead, was c o n c e i v e d . See R. F r e y h a n , " E v o l u t i o n of the C a r i t a s F i g u r e i n the T h i r t e e n t h and F o u r t e e n t h Century," Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 11 (1948): 70, n. 2. 1 1  12  Katzenellenbogen, op.  c i t . , p.  60.  13  See, for example, two e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y Byzantine manuscripts: the Theodore P s a l t e r , ca 1066 (London, B.L., Addit i o n a l MS 19352, f f . 19 and 97v), and a P s a l t e r , dated 1059 (Rome, V a t i c a n , gr. 752 , f 82); both manuscripts are c i t e d by C h r i s t o p h e r Walter, S t u d i e s in Byzantine Iconography (London: Variorum R e p r i n t s , 1977), "Raising on a S h i e l d in Byzantine Iconography" (XII), p. 172, and "The S i g n i f i c a n c e of Unction in Byzantine Iconography" ( X I I I ) , pp. 62-65. With regard to d e s c r i b i n g the costume as contemporary B y z a n t i n e , see n. 68, t h i s c h a p t e r . 14 To my knowledge, t h i s i s the f i r s t time that the C h r o n i c l e s passage has been c i t e d with regard to the i v o r i e s ' iconography.  98  .  15  .  .  E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s of the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s are based on i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n R.E. Latham, D i c t i o n a r y o f M e d i e v a l L a t i n from B r i t i s h S o u r c e s (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , f o r the B r i t i s h Academy, 1975); and idem, R e v i s e d M e d i e v a l L a t i n Word L i s t (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , f o r the B r i t i s h Academy, 1 9 6 5 ) . These d i c t i o n a r i e s were u s e d h e r e b e c a u s e , as w i l l become c l e a r as the d i s c u s s i o n p r o g r e s s e s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know the m e d i e v a l (as o p p o s e d t o the c l a s s i c a l ) meaning o f t h e s e c o r n e r i n s c r i p t i o n s . See the s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d , "The S e c o n d a r y T e x t u a l S o u r c e . " 16  F l o r e n c e M c C u l l o c h , M e d i e v a l L a t i n and F r e n c h B e s t i a r i e s ( C h a p e l H i l l , N.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 125 and p . 125, n. 74. A few e a r l y works t h a t d i s c u s s the i v o r i e s c o m p l e t e l y o v e r l o o k the b e s t i a r y c o n n e c t i o n of the word, and s u g g e s t t h a t H e r o d i u s was the name o f t h e artist. See, f o r e x a m p l e , the B r i t i s h Museum's G u i d e t o the M a n u s c r i p t s . . . , o f 19 06, p . 14 6; and Clemen, op. c i t . , p . 166, n. 105. 17 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 1:313; and M c C u l l o c h , op. c i t , 125. 18  Cahier,  op.  cit.,  2:10-13.  19  Among them, a r e B o a s e , "The A r t s i n t h e L a t i n K i n g dom," p. 14; idem, Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s o f the C r u s a d e r s , p. 103; D a l t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 26; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p . 465; S m a i l , The C r u s a d e r s i n S y r i a and t h e H o l y L a n d , pp. 165-66; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 187, who n o t e s t h a t the t h e o r y d o e s not e x c l u d e o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e g a r d i n g the i d e n t i t y of the k ing. 20 21  Quoted  in another  c o n t e x t by C a h i e r , op.  cit.,  1:312.  "De S t r u t h i o n e e t E j u s p e n n i s , q u i b u s N o t a n t u r Hypoc r i t a e , e t A c c i p i t r i s a e H e r o d i i , quibus S i g n i f i c a n t u r E l e c t i , " from De B e s t i i s e t A l l i i s R e b u s - L i b e r P r i m u s , i n J . - P . M i g n e , P a t r o l o g i a e L a t i n a ( P a r i s , 1879), 177: c o l . 36. 22 V.-H. D e b i d o u r , Le B e s t i a i r e S c u l p t e du Moyen Age en F r a n c e ( [ P a r i s ] : A r t h a u d , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 211. 23 C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:14; and D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p . 24. ^ An the a n i m a l s the a n i m a l s 2  examination of contemporary b e s t i a r i e s , i n which a r e named, f a i l e d t o shed any l i g h t w i t h r e g a r d t o on the i v o r i e s . I f o u n d no c o n v i n c i n g c o m p a r i s o n s .  25 R e a l l e x i k o n der Deutschen K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , s.v. " D a v i d , " c o l . 1107; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p . 186. See a l s o Chap. I l l o f t h i s p a p e r , the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d , "The W e s t e r n Models."  99  26  As y e t , no a r t h i s t o r i a n has c o n f r o n t e d t h i s problem. With regard to the David c y c l e as a whole, Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 1 8 7 , notes t h a t , as a r u l e i n medieval a r t , the David i c scenes chosen were those which c o u l d be p a r a l l e l l e d with events from the l i f e of C h r i s t . However, I have found no e v i d e n c e , t e x t u a l or p i c t o r i a l , that would suggest that a s p e c i f i c DavidC h r i s t typology was intended to be represented i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . 27 For examples of the u s u a l p a i r i n g of A v a r l t i a - L a r g i t a s , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , pp. 9 , n. 1; 1 1 , n. 1; 1 8 ; 2 0 , n. 5 ; 7 7 ; and passim. Only one other instance of an i s o l a t e d L a r g i t a s f i g u r e has come t o l i g h t in the course of t h i s study: London, B.L. MS Cotton T i t u s D. XVI. (This was a l s o noted by Von Thadden, Die Ikonographie der C a r i t a s . . . , p. 4 2 . However, t h i s manuscript a l s o shows the standard A v a r i t i a - L a r g i t a s p a i r ing and does not c o n t a i n any p o r t r a y a l of F o r t i t u d o . 28  An E n g l i s h enamel c r o z i e r (ca 1175) , now B a r g e l l o , F l o r e n c e . See F i g . 28 , and Chap. I l l , t h i s study. In t h i s example, however, n e i t h e r of are as complete as those d e p i c t e d on the i v o r i e s . 29 . I have no f u r t h e r evidence i n support of  i n the p. 5 8 , of -. the two c y c l e s . this  . view,  and thus, I make t h i s suggestion somewhat t e n t a t i v e l y . 30 Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 1 8 7 , and Chap. I , p. 3 , of paper. 3] The c l o s e s t example m t h i s regard i s i n a ca 1165 manuscript from Ratisbon (Munich, S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k Cod. l a t . 13002) . F o l i o 4r shows David in the same scene as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of C a r i t a s . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p i . X X X I I I - 5 5 . 32 P. 1 7 , t h i s paper; C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2 : 8 ; and Steenbock, op. c i t . , p. 18 7. P r u d e n t i u s , 1 : 2 9 9 , l i n e s 2 9 0 - 2 9 1 ; and 3 0 7 , l i n e s 3 8 5 3 8 6 , and 3 9 4 - 3 9 5 . These r e f e r e n c e s were a l s o noted by Katzenellenbogen, op. c i t . , p. 9 . He d i d not, however, p e r c e i v e the extent of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to the i v o r i e s . 34 P r u d e n t i u s , 1:299 , l i n e s 2 9 0 - 2 9 1 . this  3 3  35 36 37  Ibid.,  1:307,  Ibid., 1:281,  lines 385-386, line  and  394-395.  32.  For i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d , see Meyer S c h a p i r o , "An I l l u m i n a t e d E n g l i s h P s a l t e r of the T h i r t e e n t h Century," Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s J o u r n a l 23 (July I960.) : 179-89 ; and E r n s t H. Kantorowicz, The King's Two Bodies ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), passim.  100'  3  8  3 9  Prudentius, Ibid.,  1:281, l i n e s  1:295, l i n e  239;  37-39. I Samuel  17:42-3.  4fi  Prudentius,  1:291, l i n e s  162-167.  41 Loc.  c i t . , lines  154-155.  42 I b i d . , 1:325 , l i n e 665. C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:9, a l s o n o t e d the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f j u x t a p o s i n g C o n c o r d i a . w i t h a s c e n e o f m u s i c a l harmony. He d i d n o t , however, a c k n o w l e d g e the Psychomachian t e x t u a l s o u r c e . 43 For example, i n the V i v i a n B i b l e f r o n t i s p i e c e t o P s a l m s ( P a r i s , B i b . N a t . , Cod. l a t . I , f . 2 1 5 ) . However, i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t h e r e , as i n o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e e x a m p l e s , t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s u s u a l l y made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of the t h r e e o t h e r c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s : P r u d e n t i a , Temperant i a , and J u s t i t i a . Where D a v i d i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o n l y one v i r t u e , t h a t v i r t u e i s u s u a l l y h u m i l i t y . (See, f o r example, the m a n u s c r i p t c i t e d i n n . 31: i n a n o t h e r s c e n e on the same f o l i o , D a v i d i s p o r t r a y e d w i t h H u m i l i t a s . ) 44 K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p. 60, n. 1; and p . 78, n. 1. 45  cit.,  p. 46 47  I b i d . , p. 17, n. 4 7 and p a s s i m . Prudentius,  2 and  p.  1:333, l i n e s  83,  n.  1;  Von  Thadden,  op.  755-756.  L o c . c i t . , l i n e s 779-780. Prudentius paraphrase of v e r s e s from the " c h a r i t y c h a p t e r " o f the B i b l e (I C o r i n t h i a n s 13:4 and 7) i s l i t e r a l l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s (B.L., C o t t o n MS T i t u s D. X V I ) , i n w h i c h , on f . 29v, Concordia metamorphosizes i n t o C a r i t a s . T h i s was n o t e d by m y s e l f upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f the m a n u s c r i p t a t the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , June 1980. I know o f no p u b l i s h e d p h o t o g r a p h o f t h i s image. 48  1  • . A t the time o f i t s c r e a t i o n , the David-as-Musician m e d a l l i o n may a l s o have been u n d e r s t o o d as an a d d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e l i n k between f r o n t and back c o v e r s : T h e r e i s a t e x t by S t . Ambrose i n w h i c h he s p e a k s o f the " f i n e m e l o d y o f good works," and f u r t h e r o n , o f "a symphony o f good w o r k s . " (See "The P r a y e r o f Job and D a v i d , " i n The F a t h e r s o f the C h u r c h , v o l . 44: S t . Ambrose: Seven E x e g e t i c a l Works ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: The C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y o f A m e r i c a P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 419-20.) I f t h i s c o n n e c t i o n between m u s i c a l harmony and c h a r i t y was known t o the i n v e n t o r o f the i v o r i e s ' i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, then L a r g i t a s may a l s o be p a r t o f t h e Davidic-Psychomachian metaphor d e s c r i b e d a b o v e .  101  49 cit.,  p. 5  0  Freyhan, 93.  op.  c i t . , pp.  69-70; and  P r u d e n t i u s , 1:341, l i n e s  Von  Thadden,  op.  874-877.  51 B o t h C a h i e r (op. c i t . , 2:14) and D a l t o n (op. c i t . , p . 26) r e g a r d e d the b i r d s and a n i m a l s as m a i n l y d e c o r a t i v e . O t h e r w r i t e r s on the i v o r i e s have n o t c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r o b l e m . 52  Prudentius,  1:335, l i n e s  789-796.  I b i d . , 1:343, l i n e s 903-905, and 910-913. It is p o s s i b l e t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , the a n i m a l s and b i r d s o r i g i n a l l y had some a d d i t i o n a l s y m b o l i c p u r port. In the 1159-1180 H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m ( M u n i c h , S t a a t s b i b l i o t h e k , Cod. l a t . 1 3 0 0 2 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , the b e a r and w o l f a r e the symbols o f v i o l e n c e and r a p a c i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . (See A. S t r a u b and G. K e l l e r , H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m ( S t r a s b o u r g , 1879-99; E n g . t r a n s . , e d . and t r a n s . A r i s t i d e D. C a r a t z a s , New R o c h e l l e , N.Y.: C a r a t z a s B r o t h e r s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p . 178. For a d d i t i o n a l , g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on a n i m a l s y m b o l i s m , see K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p. 61; and M c C u l l o c h , op. c i t . , p a s s i m . C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:14, i d e n t i f i e s t h e a n i m a l i n the c e n t r e - b o t t o m i n t e r s t i c e as an a n t e l o p e , symbol o f C h r i s t . However, i t has been n o t e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h i s p a p e r (p. 21f,) t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f u n l a b e l l e d m e d i e v a l a n i m a l imagery i s a p u r e l y s u b j e c t i v e e x e r c i s e . Thus, a l t h o u g h C a h i e r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s y m b o l i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a n i m a l d e p i c t e d i n what i s , on the i v o r y , t h e l a s t n a r r a t i v e p o s i t i o n , would work w e l l as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e l i n e i n t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f the Psychomachia — " u n t i l C h r i s t our God comes t o our a i d . . . . " ( P r u d e n t i u s , 1:343, l i n e s 912^914, q u o t e d p. 31, t h i s paper) — h i s ( C a h i e r ' s ) h y p o t h e s i s must be r e j e c t e d f o r i t s lack of a secure e v i d e n t i a l b a s i s . 5  3  54 F o r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r , I c o n s u l t e d The New S c h a t t - H e r z o g E n c y c l o p e d i a o f R e l i g i o u s Knowledge, 1968 e d . , s . v . "Hugo o f S t . V i c t o r , " by O. Z o c k l e r ; and N o m e n c l a t o r L i t e r a r i u s T h e o l o g i a e C a t h o l i c a e , 1906 e d . , 2: c o l . 81. B o t h o f t h e s e s o u r c e s n o t e the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a c h r o n o l o g y f o r Hugh's w r i t i n g s . A l l that i s known f o r c e r t a i n i s t h a t he began w r i t i n g b e f o r e 1115, and c o n t i n u e d t o do s o u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1141. Z 5 c k l e r and o t h e r s are g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t , i n terms o f the development o f W e s t e r n t h e o l o g y , Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r was the most i n f l u e n t i a l t h e o l o g i a n o f the t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y . 55 F o r g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c o n t e n t o f t h i s t r e a t i s e , see K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , pp. 10, and 66-7; and Von Thadden, op. c i t . , pp. 22-3. For the L a t i n t e x t , see M i g n e , op. c i t . , 176: c o l s . 997-1010.  102  5  6  Ibid.,  176:  col.  1003.  57  . . In a s h o r t t r a c t c i t e d i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t by K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p . 41. (See a l s o M i g n e , op. c i t . , 177: col. 623.) A c t u a l l y , Hugh u s e s the word, Pax. However, as n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n t h i s p a p e r , c o n g r u e n t c o n c e p t s were o f t e n u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y i n the M i d d l e A g e s . F o r a d d i t i o n a l comments i n t h i s r e g a r d , see Von Thadden, op. c i t . , pp. 42, 47. C O  See K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , pp. 10-11, and p a s s i m , for o t h e r s i m i l a r examples i n t h i s r e g a r d . S i m i l a r l y , i n the iconography o f the ambulatory c a p i t a l s a t C l u n y , J u s t i t i a i s added t o the F i d e s - S p e s - C a r i t a s g r o u p . T h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t textual basis for this addition. See K e n n e t h J . C o n a n t , "The I c o n o g r a p h y and the Sequence o f t h e A m b u l a t o r y C a p i t a l s o f C l u n y , " S p e c u l u m 5 (1930).: 282. 59 M i g n e , op. c i t . , word m e a n i n g s , see n. 15,  6 fl  176: this  I b i d . , 176:1004 ; see  c o l . 1002. chapter. a l s o Von  For  sources of  T h a d d e n , op.  cit.,  the pp.  22-3. 61 T h i s s u g g e s t i o n was made by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:9. one e l s e h a s , u n t i l now, a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e p r o b l e m . 62 Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p . 45. I q u e r y her i n c l u s i o n o f P s a l m 25:16 and 18 i n t h i s r e g a r d . These v e r s e s b e a r more on f o r g i v e n e s s t h a n c h a r i t y — u n d o u b t e d l y , t h o u g h , the two are related. 63 T h i s and t h e o t h e r a d d i t i o n s t o Von Thadden's l i s t a r e the r e s u l t o f my own r e a d i n g o f the P s a l m s . 64 For the s o u r c e o f t h i s l i s t , and f o r d e t a i l e d comments on the t e x t s , see J.H. E a t o n , K i n g s h i p and the P s a l m s (London: SCM P r e s s , 1976), p. 1 4 0 f , and p a s s i m . 65 The f i r s t g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f P s a l m s 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 17, 22, 23, 27, 28, 35, 40, 41, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 66, 69, 70, 71, 75, 89, 91, 92, 94, 108, 118, 138, 140, and 143. F o r above l i s t i n g and e x p l a n a t o r y comments, see E a t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 2764. P s a l m s more p e r i p h e r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e theme o f k i n g s h i p are l i s t e d and d i s c u s s e d i b i d . , pp. 64-85. No  6  6  Psalm  72:1,  4,  and  12.  67 S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 188, however, p e r c e i v e d an a s p e c t o f t h i s i c o n o g r a p h i c u n i t y when she d e s c r i b e d the manus c r i p t and c o v e r s as i n t e r d e p e n d e n t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e f o r m e r c o n t a i n s the t e x t o f the P s a l m s , the l a t t e r , images o f t h e Psalmist.  103  68  The B y z a n t i n e costume o f t h e k i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y ment i o n e d by w r i t e r s on t h e i v o r i e s . See, f o r e x a m p l e , D a l t o n , op. c i t . , pp. 23-24; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p . 465; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p . 187. For g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g B y z a n t i n e i m p e r i a l costume and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a r t , and on c o i n s , see I o h a n n i s S p a t h a r a k i s , The P o r t r a i t i n B y z a n t i n e I l l u m i n a t e d Manuscripts (Leiden: E . J . B r i l l , 1976). The c o s t u m e s shown on B y z a n t i n e c o i n a g e p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s e m b l e t h o s e p o r t r a y e d on the i v o r y . See, f o r e x a m p l e , i b i d . , p i . 118. 69 By F u l c h e r o f C h a r t r e s i n the e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . See F u l c h e r o f C h a r t r e s , A H i s t o r y o f t h e E x p e d i t i o n t o J e r u s a l e m , 1095-1127, e d . H.S. F i n k , t r a n s . F.R. Ryan (Knoxv i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f T e n n e s s e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 271. See a l s o James A. B r u n d a g e , t r a n s . , The C r u s a d e s : A Documentary S u r v e y ( M i l w a u k e e : M a r q u e t t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 74-5. The p r a c t i c e o f w e a r i n g E a s t e r n c l o t h i n g was condemned l a t e r i n the c e n t u r y by J a c q u e s de V i t r y , B i s h o p o f A c r e and P a t r i a r c h of Jerusalem. F o r t h e q u o t a t i o n , see J . L . La Monte, "The Sign i f i c a n c e o f the C r u s a d e r s ' S t a t e s i n M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , " B y z a n t i o n 15 (1940-41): 311. For a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the C r u s a d e r s * a d o p t i o n o f E a s t e r n - s t y l e d r e s s , see R i c h a r d , The L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m , A:142; Runciman, A H i s t o r y o f the C r u s a d e s , 2:317; and S e t t o n , A H i s t o r y o f the C r u s a d e s , 4:21-3. 70 P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p . 466. 71 P. 20, and n. 18, t h i s c h a p t e r . 72 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , A H i s t o r y o f Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, 2:47. F o r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on F u l k , see i b i d . , 2:47f p a s s i m ; and G r o u s s e t , The E p i c o f t h e C r u s a d e s , p. 9 I f . 73 - . . . . . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s a l l o w i n g f o r some f l e x i b i l i t y i n the  1131-1143 d a t i n g o f  the  ivories.  74 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , 2:137. W i l l i a m ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of F u l k ' s p h y s i c a l appearance i s l e s s d e t a i l e d (ibid., 2:47). However, as a c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t a r r i v a l from W e s t e r n E u r o p e , F u l k p r o b a b l y o b s e r v e d the F r a n k i s h c u s t o m o f shaving. (See S e t t o n , op. c i t . , 4:22f f o r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g W e s t e r n , as o p p o s e d t o O r i e n t a l , c u s t o m s o f c l o t h i n g and hair styles. F o r o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g B a l d w i n I I I , see i b i d . , 2:136f, 2 3 5 f , and p a s s i m ; see a l s o B o a s e , Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p. l O l f ; G r o u s s e t , op. c i t . , p. 121f; and Runciman, op. c i t . , 2 : 2 3 3 f . 75 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , l o c . c i t .  104  7 6  I b i d . , 2:235-6. The d a t e o f t h i s i n c i d e n t i s a p p r o x i mate. The t r o u b l e between the p r i n c e and the P a t r i a r c h o f A n t i o c h began as e a r l y as 1143, and c u l m i n a t e d i n the imprisonment o f the l a t t e r c a 1158-70. See i b i d . , 2:235, n. 1. 77 78 79 p.  Grousset, See  p.l8f,  op.  c i t . , p.  this  La Monte, op.  121.  paper.  c i t . , pp.  303-04; P r a w e r , op. c i t . ,  503. 80  For g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n on D a v i d i c k i n g s h i p , see K a n t o r o w i c z , Laudes R e g i a e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n H i s t o r y , v o l . 33 (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 56-7 and 103-05; and idem, The K i n g ' s Two B o d i e s , pp. 77 and 81. For more s p e c i f i c informat i o n r e g a r d i n g k i n g s h i p i n L a t i n J e r u s a l e m , see La Monte, F e u d a l M o n a r c h y i n the L a t i n Kingdom..., p. 209; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , pp. 95 and 475; and R i c h a r d , op. c i t . , A:62-4. 81 H e r b e r t K e s s l e r , The I l l u s t r a t e d B i b l e s from T o u r s ( P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 109. 82 F.L. Ganshof. The C a r o l i n g i a n s and the F r a n k i s h M o n a r c h y , t r a n s . J a n e t Sondheimer ( I t h a c a , N.Y.: Cornell U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 61. The V i a R e g i a i s c i t e d by Von T h a d d e n , op. c i t . , p . 21. 8  3  William  of T y r e ,  84 in  n.  1, 85  For d e t a i l s , Chap. I .  see  op.  c i t . , 1:522, 2:47,  . passim,  i n any  of  the  133,  and  sources  137.  cited  P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p. 104. William of Tyre's H i s t o r y makes i t c l e a r t h a t m i l i t a r y p r o w e s s was r e g a r d e d as the most i m p o r t a n t a s s e t o f an e f f e c t i v e k i n g . See i b i d . , 1:522; 2:47; 2:138; and p a s s i m . 86 In t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m , a d u a l r o l e , s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the k i n g , was a l s o f i l l e d by the two m i l i t a r y o r d e r s , the H o s p i t a l l e r s and the T e m p l a r s (founded 1070 and 1120, respectively). These n o b l y - b o r n warrior-monks f u l f i l l e d two functions: the m i l i t a r y d e f e n s e o f the k i n g d o m , and the c a r e o f i t s p o o r and a i l i n g . J a c q u e s de V i t r y ( a c t i v e , l a t e t w e l f t h e a r l y t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ) r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e o r d e r s as " l i o n s a t war, and g e n t l e as lambs a t home." (Quoted by La Monte i n h i s a r t i c l e i n B y z a n t i o n 15, p . 219.) A similar descript i o n c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o the i d e a l o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y k i n g . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the K n i g h t s H o s p i t a l l e r and T e m p l a r , and on t h e i r r o l e i n the L a t i n Kingdom, see L a Monte,  105  F e u d a l M o n a r c h y . . . , Chap. 2; Munro, The Kingdom o f t h e C r u s a d e r s , pp. 98-101; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , Chap. 14; R i c h a r d , op. c i t 7 , A : 1 1 2 f ; and Runciman, op. c i t . , 2:156-9, 248-9, 312-17, 338-41, and p a s s i m . F o r a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f the K n i g h t s H o s p i t a l l e r , s e e E . J . K i n g , The K n i g h t s H o s p i t a l l e r s i n t h e H o l y Land (London: M e t h u e n , 1 9 3 1 ) , C h a p s . 1-3.  106  Notes  to Chapter  III  B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom Jerusalem. (See n. 5, Chap. I f o r c o m p l e t e c i t a t i o n . ) 1  of  2 E x c e p t i n the c a t a l o g u e e n t r y f o r t h e P s a l t e r (ibid., p. 1 3 9 ) , where B u c h t h a l n o t e s the i v o r i e s ' e x i s t e n c e and p r o vides a b r i e f bibliography. 3  1125-1187 and  1225-1250.  Buchthal,  op.  cit.,  Ibid.,  xxx.  4 pp.  xxix-xxx.  5 p.  ^ I b i c l . , p. 35. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on the s c r i p t o r i u m and i t s r o y a l p a t r o n a g e , see i b i d . , p. 3 6 f . P r a w e r , The C r u s a d e r s ' Kingdom, p. 449, summarizes B u c h t h a l ' s comments i n this regard.  7 B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p. 2 3 f . The t h r e e m a n u s c r i p t s t h a t a r e s e c u r e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the s c r i p t o r i u m on l i t u r g i c a l g r o u n d s a r e the M e l i s e n d e P s a l t e r (London, B.L., E g e r t o n MS 1139), the S a c r a m e n t a r y (Rome, B i b l i o t e c a A n g e l i c a , D. 7. 3 . ) , and one o f the M i s s a l s ( P a r i s , B i b . N a t . , Cod. l a t . 1 2 0 5 6 ) . B u c h t h a l has a s s i g n e d t h e f o u r o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t s t o the s c r i p t o r i u m on s t y l i s t i c e v i d e n c e o n l y . These m a n u s c r i p t s a r e : the G o s p e l o f S t . J o h n ( P a r i s , B i b . N a t . , Cod. l a t . 9 3 9 6 ) , the P a r i s G o s p e l s ( B i b . N a t . , Cod. l a t . 2 7 6 ) , the Rome G o s p e l s ( B i b l i o t e c a A p o s t o l i c a V a t i c a n a , V a t . l a t . 5 9 7 4 ) , and the s e c o n d M i s s a l ( N a p l e s , B i b l i o t e c a N a z i o n a l e , V i t t o r i o Emanuele I I I VI G 11) . g B u c h t h a l ' s d a t i n g , o p . c i t . , pp. 1, 14, and 24. The two G o s p e l - b o o k s a r e from the t h i r d q u a r t e r o f the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y ; the N a p l e s M i s s a l d a t e s c a 1190-1200. ( I b i d . , pp. 25 and 35.) The d a t i n g o f the P s a l t e r t o the y e a r s between 1131 and 1143 depends on t h e m a n u s c r i p t ' s c a l e n d a r , w h i c h r e c o r d s the d e a t h o f B a l d w i n I I i n 1131, b u t d o e s n o t r e c o r d the n e x t r o y a l d e a t h , t h a t o f F u l k , i n 1143. General paleographic e v i d e n c e , s u p p l i e d by F r a n c i s Wormald i n an a p p e n d i x t o B u c h t h a l ' s s t u d y , s u p p o r t s t h i s d a t i n g . See i b i d . , pp. 1 and 1 3 5 f . 9 Weitzmann, " I c o n P a i n t i n g i n the C r u s a d e r Kingdom," Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s 20 (1966): 49-83. These a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e made on s t y l i s t i c g r o u n d s , b u i l d i n g , t o some e x t e n t , upon B u c h t h a l ' s f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the s t y l e o f the s c r i p t o r i u m . On t h i s b a s i s , Weitzmann has f o u n d t h r e e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y i c o n s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s p r o d u c t s o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e s c r i p t o r i u m . (Op.  107  c i t . , pp. 52-56.) The r e m a i n i n g i c o n s t h a t he d i s c u s s e s a l l b e l o n g t o the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and a r e n o t , t h e r e f o r e , o f immediate c o n c e r n t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d , i t can be n o t e d i n p a s s i n g t h a t o n l y some i c o n s o f t h i s l a t e r g r o u p were made i n J e r u s a l e m , a s , by the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the major c e n t r e o f a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n was A c r e . ( I b i d . , p. 5 6 f . ) Ibid., 1  1  ibid., ibid.,  pp.  52-4;  and  figs.  1 and  5.  F o r B u c h t h a l ' s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t , see pp. 1-14. See a l s o Wormald's comments i n the A p p e n d i c e s , pp. 122-128, and 132-135.  12 She r u l e d w i t h F u l k from 1131-1143, and w i t h B a l d w i n u n t i l 1152. For h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d on t h e s e t h r e e r u l e r s , see B o a s e , Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p. l O l f ; G r o u s s e t , The E p i c o f the C r u s a d e s , p. 9 1 f ; and f o r the main c o n t e m p o r a r y s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n on M e l i s e n d e , see W i l l i a m o f T y r e , H i s t o r y , 2:132f and p a s s i m . 13 B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p. 1; and Wormald, i b i d . , pp. 122, 127, and 133. 14 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , 2:133-4. 15  A r t i s t s o f the m i d - t w e l f t h c e n t u r y were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y "specialists." Hugo o f Bury S t . Edmunds, f o r e x a m p l e , was a s c u l p t o r and m e t a l - w o r k e r , as w e l l as an i l l u m i n a t o r . (David M. Robb, The A r t o f the I l l u m i n a t e d M a n u s c r i p t (New Y o r k : A.S. B a r n e s , 1 9 7 3 ) , p. 197.) Thus, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i v o r i e s were c o m m i s s i o n e d a t the same time as the P s a l t e r , and were worked on by one o f the s c r i p t o r i u m ' s i l l u m i n a t o r s . In any c a s e , i t would n o t have been u n u s u a l f o r a s c r i p t o r i u m o f t h i s p e r i o d t o p r o d u c e s u c h o r n a m e n t a l work as the i v o r y c o v e r s . 16 For a s a m p l i n g , see p a s s i m i n C a h i e r , Nouveaux M e l a n g e s . . . , 2:1-14; D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e . . . , pp. 22-26; G o l d s c h m i d t and Weitzmann, B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n 2:79f; and S t e e n b o c k , K i r c h l i c h e P r a c h t e i n b a n d , pp. 186-88. See a l s o S t e g e r , D a v i d Rex e t P r o p h e t a , p. 216. 17 S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 188, i s the o n l y one o f t h o s e c i t e d i n n. 16 who e v e n b e g i n s t o a d d r e s s the p r o b l e m o f comp a r i n g i v o r i e s and P s a l t e r : She n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no d i r e c t s t y l i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p between the m a n u s c r i p t and i t s c o v e r s . 18 The f o u r c y c l e s o f the P s a l t e r a r e : s c e n e s from the G o s p e l s , s a i n t s ' p o r t r a i t s , s i g n s o f the Z o d i a c ( i n the c a l e n d a r - s e c t i o n o f the m a n u s c r i p t ) , and the d e c o r a t e d i n i tials. B u c h t h a l shows t h a t e a c h c y c l e was the work o f a d i f f e r e n t hand, and d e r i v e d from a d i f f e r e n t s e t of m o d e l s . See op. c i t . , pp. x x x i i i , 14, and p a s s i m .  108  19 Psalter,  B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p. 12, n o t e d the m o t i f b u t n o t on the f r o n t - c o v e r i v o r y .  in  the  20 F o r e x a m p l e , D a v i d as M u s i c i a n i s p o r t r a y e d i n t h r e e q u a r t e r v i e w i n the P a r i s P s a l t e r ( B i b . Nat., MS g r . 139, f l v ) . F o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see B u c h t h a l , The M i n i a t u r e s o f the P a r i s P s a l t e r , p i . I. (Complete c i t a t i o n i n n. 17, Chap. T7) For a t y p i c a l W e s t e r n example o f t h e f r o n t a l D a v i d , see f i g . 39a, t h i s paper. 21 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m , p. 12 and p. 12, n. 4. -. " 22 • B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:80. Goldschmidt and Weitzmann were n o t t h e f i r s t t o r e c o g n i z e the two a r t i s t i c s t r a i n s i n the i v o r i e s . T h i s had been known, and expressed w i t h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f e m p h a s i s , s i n c e the c o v e r s ' i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n by Du Sommerard. G o l d s c h m i d t and Weitzmann were, however, the f i r s t t o r e l a t e t h i s phenomenon i n the i v o r i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o the c o m p a r a b l e d u a l i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d Jerusalem a r t i s t i c endeavour i n g e n e r a l . 23 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , p. x x x n and p a s s i m . 24 F o r s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on the P s a l t e r , see i b i d . , pp. 1-14. S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 188, d e s c r i b e s the i v o r i e s as an a l m o s t u n p a r a l l e l l e d b l e n d i n g o f E a s t e r n and W e s t e r n e l e m e n t s . 25 See, f o r example, E n l a r t , L e s Monuments des C r o i s e s , p. 200; G o l d s c h m i d t and Weitzmann, op. c i t . , p . 80; P r a w e r , op. c i t . , pp. 465-66; R e a l l e x i c o n der D e u t s c h e n Kunstgeschichte, s.v. " D a v i d , " c o l . 1107; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 188. 26 See, f o r example, D a l t o n , B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l o g y , pp. 231-33; idem, C a t a l o g u e . . . , p. 25; and P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p. 466. 27 D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e . . . , p. 25. My own observations, made upon e x a m i n i n g t h i s m a n u s c r i p t a t the B r i t i s h L i b r a r y , c o n f i r m e d t h a t D a l t o n ' s c o m p a r i s o n was a p t , and t h a t , i n s e v e r a l p l a c e s , t h i s e a r l y t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t showed armoured f i g u r e s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e on the i v o r i e s . Specifically, I found p a r a l l e l s on f o l i o s 2v, 3 r , 5v, 6 r , 6v, 7 r , 7v, and 26v. To my k n o w l e d g e , no p h o t o g r a p h s of t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r f o l i o s have been p u b l i s h e d . 28 The k n e e l i n g D a v i d as a W e s t e r n m o t i f was recognized and n o t e d by Meyer S c h a p i r o i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . See p. 181 of h i s a r t i c l e , c i t e d i n n. 37, Chap. I I , o f t h i s p a p e r .  109  29  • • T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between W e s t e r n and B y z a n t i n e A n o i n t ment i c o n o g r a p h y was p o i n t e d o u t by C h r i s t o p h e r W a l t e r i n S t u d i e s i n B y z a n t i n e I c o n o g r a p h y ( X I I T ) , pp. 59-60; see a l s o i b i d . , ( X I I I ) , f i g s . 1 and 2. I am g r a t e f u l t o my thesis a d v i s o r , D r . Mary M o r e h a r t , f o r b r i n g i n g W a l t e r ' s remarks t o my attention. 30 In a d d i t i o n t o the e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s p a p e r , f . 3v o f t h e P a r i s P s a l t e r ( B i b . N a t . , MS g r . 139) can a l s o be c i t e d as an example o f the t y p i c a l B y z a n t i n e A n n o i n t m e n t s c e n e . (See B u c h t h a l , The M i n i a t u r e s o f the P a r i s P s a l t e r , p i . I l l , for a reproduction.) One o f the e a r l i e s t images o f t h i s t y p e o c c u r s on a s i l v e r p l a t e from C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , c a 630. (For a p h o t o g r a p h , see Weitzmann, Age o f S p i r i t u a l i t y (New Y o r k : The M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t and P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 9 ) , p. 476.) An a d d i t i o n a l example o f the W e s t e r n k n e e l i n g a n n o i n t m e n t can be seen on the r e c t o of a l e a f from the W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e (New Y o r k , P i e r p o i n t Morgan L i b r a r y 6 1 9 ) . (See CM. K a u f f m a n n , Romanesque M a n u s c r i p t s , 1066-1190 (London: H a r v e y M i l l e r , 1 9 7 5 ) , i l l . 240, f o r a p h o t o g r a p h . ) I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d i n p a s s i n g t h a t , due t o the i n f l u x o f B y z a n t i n e models i n t o the West by t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , s t a n d i n g A n n o i n t m e n t s c e n e s a r e n o t unknown i n W e s t e r n a r t of t h i s p e r i o d . In t h i s r e g a r d , the s t a n d i n g D a v i d o f the Morgan l e a f v e r s o , can be cited. (See K a u f f m a n n , op. c i t . , i l l . 241, f o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n . ) 31 In I v o r i e s , p . 119, M a s k e l l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the o r n a ment as " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B y z a n t i n e work" t y p i f i e s the e a r l i e r v i e w , w h i l e S t e e n b o c k ' s b r i e f , n o n - c o m m i t t a l comments (op. c i t . , p. 186) e x e m p l i f y the modern a v o i d a n c e o f the q u e s t i o n o f the o r n a m e n t ' s d e r i v a t i o n . 32 B u c h t h a l , M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , p. 19. 33 The e a r l i e s t e x a m p l e , t h a t I have f o u n d , of i n t e r l o c k i n g m e d a l l i o n s , i : u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h any i m a g e r y comp a r a b l e t o t h a t o f the i v o r i e s , i s a f i f t h - c e n t u r y A.D. f r e s c o from B a w i t . In t h i s work, t h r e e m e d a l l i o n s i n t e r l o c k h o r i z o n t a l l y , and a b u s t of Hope i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c e n t r e m e d a l l i o n . F o r a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , A l l e g o r i e s o f the V i r t u e s and V i c e s . . . , p i . XV-30. For a s i x t h - c e n t u r y example of the m e d a l l i o n m o t i f , see t h e d i p t y c h o f P h i l o x e n u s , c a 525, p i c t u r e d i n T a r d y (no i n i t i a l s g i v e n ) , Les I v o i r e s ( P a r i s , n . d . ) , p i . 8. (U.B.C. l i b r a r y c a l l no. f o r t h i s book: NK 5825 T3.) A t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y i v o r y shows f o u r m e d a l l i o n s , c o n t a i n i n g s a i n t s ' p o r t r a i t s , j o i n e d to a l a r g e r c e n t r a l m e d a l l i o n d e p i c t ing S t . J o h n . See D a l t o n , B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l q g y , f i g . 142. 34 Idem , C a t a l o g u e . . . , p. 25.  110  35  C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:10, r e l a t e s the b i r d s and a n i m a l s t o the imagery i n t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n b e s t i a r i e s . My own c o m p a r i s o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d have f a i l e d t o p r o d u c e any convincing p a r a l l e l s . 3  6  See  p.39f.  See  a l s o n. 68, Chap. I I .  37 C a t a l o g u e . . . , p.  24.  3R  S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 187. She i n a c c u r a t e l y describes Goliath's shield a s a n t i q u e (ibid., loc. c i t . ) . ( A n t i q u e - s t y l e s h i e l d s a r e commonly r o u n d . See n e x t n o t e . ) 39 An i n s t a n c e o f a d e p i c t i o n o f a " h y b r i d " w a r r i o r o c c u r s i n the H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m , f . 54v: G o l i a t h wears c o n t e m p o r a r y c h a i n m a i l and c a r r i e s a round s h i e l d o f the t y p e seen i n s u c h f i f t h - and s i x t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s as the A m b r o s i a n Iliad ( M i l a n , Cod. F. 205, i n f . ) , the V a t i c a n V e r g i l (Cod. V a t . L a t . 3225), and the Roman V e r g i l (Cod. V a t . L a t . 3 8 6 7 ) . For a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see S t r a u b and K e l l e r , H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m , p i . 16. (Complete c i t a t i o n : n. 53, Chap. I I . ) 40 In t h i s r e g a r d , i t can be n o t e d t h a t the e a r l i e s t i n s t a n c e , t h a t I have f o u n d , o f the j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g o f D a v i d w i t h V i r t u e s o c c u r s i n the U t r e c h t P s a l t e r (ca 830)., On f 2 6 r , the i l l u s t r a t i o n t o P s a l m 44 d e p i c t s K i n g D a v i d i n the company of the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f t h r e e u n i d e n t i f i e d v i r t u e s . (For a r e p r o d u c t i o n , see K e s s l e r , The I l l u s t r a t e d B i b l e s from T o u r s , fig. 172.) C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , the n e x t c o m p a r a b l e example i s an image i n the c a 1000 Bamberg A p o c a l y p s e ( S t a a t s b i b . , Cod. A. I I . 4 2 ) . F o l i o 60r shows f e m a l e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f v i r t u e s p a i r e d w i t h B i b l i c a l examples. In the lower l e f t c o r n e r , P e n i t e n c e l e a d s D a v i d by t h e arm. (For an i l l u s t r a t i o n , see K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p i . VI-14.) S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p . 187, m i s t a k e n l y c i t e s t h i s as the e a r l i e s t j u x t a p o s i t i o n i n g o f D a v i d w i t h a Virtue. (As n o t e d above, the U t r e c h t P s a l t e r c o n t a i n s an e a r l i e r example.) In a n o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t , the H o r t u s D e l i c i a r u m (Munich, S t a a t s b i b . , Cod. l a t . 13002, c a 1165), D a v i d i s p l a c e d n e a r C h a r i t y i n t h e upper r e g i s t e r o f f . 4 r , and p a i r e d w i t h H u m i l i t y i n a lower r e g i s t e r o f the same f o l i o . (See K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p i . X X X I I I - 5 5 . ) Because o f i t s d e p i c t i o n of C a r i t a s , t h i s f o l i o c o r r e s p o n d s i n a g e n e r a l t h e m a t i c way t o the i v o r i e s , whose i m a g e r y , as n o t e d i n Chap. I I , emphas i z e s the theme o f c h a r i t y . V i s u a l l y , however, t h e r e i s no p a r t i c u l a r r e s e m b l a n c e between t h e two works o f a r t . 41 T h i s c o m p a r i s o n has been made p r e v i o u s l y by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:6; Clemen, D i e Romanische M o n u m e n t a l m a l e r e i . . . , p . 166; D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e . . . , p. 25; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p. 187.  Ill  42  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e D a v i d s c e n e s by Clemen, op. c i t . , l o c . c i t . ; i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e V i r t u e - V i c e s c e n e s by C a h i e r , op. c i t . , l o c . c i t . 43 44 45  For  details,  Miniature  s e e n . 46, b e l o w .  P a i n t i n g . . . , p. x x x i i i .  I b i d . , p . 2.  46  A l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e Western p o s s i b i l i t i e s a l s o supp o r t s t h i s view: In r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s p a p e r , I f o u n d o n l y two Western examples o f m e r c y - r e l a t e d c y c l e s : an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y wood p a n e l from Rome and t h e c a 1160 F l o r e f f e B i b l e (London, B.L., A d d i t i o n a l MS 17738). D a l t o n , o p . c i t . , p. 25, and Von T h a d d e n , op. c i t . , p . 47, have n o t e d t h a t t h e F l o r e f f e B i b l e c o n t a i n s images o f a woman f e e d i n g t h e h u n g r y , o f a n o t h e r woman c o m f o r t i n g t h e i m p r i s o n e d , and o f a man c l o t h i n g naked b e g g a r s . (I know o f no r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e images.) The o t h e r e x a m p l e , c i t e d above w i t h t h e F l o r e f f e B i b l e , i s one w h i c h p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s have o v e r l o o k e d as an i c o n o g r a p h i c comparison f o r the i v o r i e s . T h i s i s t h e wood p a n e l from Rome, p a i n t e d i n the second h a l f o f the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . I t s main theme i s t h e L a s t Judgement, b u t p a r t o f one o f t h e r e g i s t e r s . ; shows S t . S t e p h e n f e e d i n g t h e h u n g r y , v i s i t i n g t h e i m p r i s o n e d , and c l o t h i n g t h e n a k e d . F o r a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i o n s , s e e t h e a r t i c l e by R. de Campos, c i t e d i n n . 8, Chap. I. A c y c l e o f s a i n t s ' m i s s i o n s and h e a l i n g s c e n e s -- S t . P e t e r ' s R a i s i n g o f T a b i t h a , S t . Bartholomew's M i s s i o n t o t h e I n d i e s , and S t . Matthew's M i s s i o n t o E t h i o p i a ( d e s c r i b e d by P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p p . 440-2) — appear on t h e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y c a p i t a l s of the Church o f the A n n u n c i a t i o n i n N a z a r e t h . V i s u a l l y , t h e s e s c u l p t u r e s do n o t r e s e m b l e any o f t h e i v o r y ' s i m a g e r y , b u t I m e n t i o n them h e r e as t h e o n l y l o c a l i n s t a n c e o f the p o r t r a y a l o f m e r c y - r e l a t e d themes. 47 This i s rather s u r p r i s i n g since a related t r a d i t i o n , r o y a l d i s p e n s a t i o n o f l a r g e s s e , goes back t o Roman I m p e r i a l t i m e s , and was f r e q u e n t l y p o r t r a y e d on t h e c o i n s o f t h i s period. F o r t h e s e e a r l y images on c o i n a g e , see P e r G u s t a f Hamberg, S t u d i e s i n Roman I m p e r i a l A r t (Copenhagen: E j n a r M u n k s g a a r d , 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 1 6 f . 48 The two t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t s o f t h e H o m i l i e s o f Gregory o f Nazianzen c o n t a i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the s a i n t ' s Orat i o n 54, "On Love o f t h e P o o r " (Cod. S i n a i . G r . 339, c i t e d by J e f f r e y C. A n d e r s o n , "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f C o d . S i n a i . G r . 339," A r t B u l l e t i n 61 (June 1979): 175f; and P a r i s , B i b . N a t . MS g r . 550, f . 251, r e p r o d u c e d i n f i g . 30a, t h i s p a p e r . )  112  (The e a r l i e s t known i n s t a n c e of m e r c y - r e l a t e d iconography i n B y z a n t i n e a r t i s found i n t h e C h l u d o f f P s a l t e r (Moscow, MS 129D; s e c o n d h a l f , n i n t h c e n t u r y ) . Von T h a d d e n , D i e Ikonographie d e r C a r i t a s . . . , p. 46, n o t e d t h a t P s a l m 37 of t h i s m a n u s c r i p t i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e o f Mercy.) 49 F o r t h e comment t h a t l e d me i n t o t h i s d i r e c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , see A n d e r s o n "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f Cod. S i n a i Gr. 339," A r t B u l l e t i n 61' (June 1979): 183, n. 69a. (I a l s o l o o k e d a t W e s t e r n New T e s t a m e n t c y c l e s , b u t t h e i r s c e n e s o f h e a l i n g and o t h e r m i r a c l e s were n o t numerous enough t o make a W e s t e r n model f o r the A c t s o f M e r c y a l i k e l y p o s s i bility.) 50 The use of a t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y G o s p e l s f o r t h r e e c o m p a r i s o n s ( F i g s . 29a, 31a, and 34a) d o e s n o t i n v a l i d a t e the basic hypothesis. W h i l e B y z a n t i n e s t y l e , o f no c o n c e r n t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , changed over t h e c e n t u r i e s , i t s i c o n o g r a p h y , the concern here, remained c o n s t a n t . See H e n r i Omont,, M i n i a t u r e s des P l u s A n c i e n s M a n u s c r i t s G r e c s de l a B i b l i o t h e q u e N a t i o n a l e ( P a r i s , 1929); S.M. P e l e k a n i d i s , The T r e a s u r e s o f Mount A t h o s , 2 v o l s . , t r a n s . P h i l i p S h e r r a r d ( A t h e n s , 1974); o r . a n y o t h e r standard c o m p i l a t i o n of Byzantine a r t . 51 . . . . M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp. 4 and 7. 5  2  Ibid.,  p.  7.  53 See a l s o f 136v of the t e n t h - c e n t u r y P a r i s P s a l t e r (Bib. N a t . , MS g r . 1 3 9 ) . A l a r g e r e p r o d u c t i o n can be f o u n d i n Buchthal's:, The M i n i a t u r e s o f the P a r i s P s a l t e r , p i . V I I I . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , see i b i d . , p. 28, on w h i c h i s a t a b l e l i s t ing the B y z a n t i n e m a n u s c r i p t s w h i c h c o n t a i n an image o f the repentant David. T h e r e a r e n i n e t e e n such e x a m p l e s . Buchthal a l s o i n c l u d e s the i v o r y i n t h i s t a b l e . 54 As f a r as I am a b l e t o t e l l , t h e r e i s no o t h e r e x t a n t example o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s c e n e . No p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r has c o n f r o n t e d the p r o b l e m o f the p i c t o r i a l s o u r c e o f t h i s s c e n e , and t h u s , I have t o r e l y on my own o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h i s r e g a r d . 55 I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h e same c h a n g e s t o a c o m p a r a b l e W e s t e r n image would p r o d u c e t h e same r e s u l t . It i s , t h e r e f o r e , p o s s i b l e t h a t the model m i g h t have been a W e s t e r n P r e s e n t a t i o n scene. However, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y negates t h i s o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y , the sheer n u m e r i c a l p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f B y z a n t i n e P r e s e n t a t i o n s c e n e s makes one s u c h scene the most p r o b a b l e m o d e l f o r t h e A h i m e l e c h medallion. 5  ^  M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp.  12  and  13.  113  57  C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:6; Von Thadden, op. c i t . , p . 47. For d e t a i l s , see H e l e n W o o d r u f f , "The I l l u s t r a t e d M a n u s c r i p t s of P r u d e n t i u s , " A r t S t u d i e s 7 ( 1 9 2 9 ) : 3 6 f . 58 For examples o f B y z a n t i n e V i r t u e - V i c e i m a g e r y , see an e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t o f t h e H e a v e n l y L a d d e r o f John C l i m a c u s ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , G a r r e t t MS 1 6 ) , i l l u s t r a t e d i n J.R, M a r t i n , The I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the H e a v e n l y L a d d e r of J o h n C l i m a c u s ( P r i n c e t o n : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954) , p i s . 39-56. For i n f o r m a t i o n on P s y c h o m a c h i a n i m a g e r y i n W e s t e r n E u r o pean f r e s c o e s and s c u l p t u r e , see J a c q u e s H o u l e t , L e s Combats d e s V e r t u s e t d e s V i c e s : L e s P s y c h o m a c h i e s dans l ' A r t ( P a r i s : N o u v e l l e s E d i t i o n s L a t i n e s , 1 9 6 9 ) ; M i c h e l , op. c i t . , n. 3, Chap. I I ; and K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p a s s i m . Woodruff's a r t i c l e , c i t e d i n n. 62 a b o v e , i s the most r e c e n t and c o m p l e t e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on i l l u s t r a t e d P s y c h o m a c h i a n m a n u s c r i p t s . K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , op. c i t . , p a s s i m , t a k e s a b r o a d e r a p p r o a c h , but i s also very informative. 59 W o o d r u f f , op. c i t . , P- 34. 60 61 62 63 Woodruff, 64 65 66 67 folios  Ibid.,  p.  48.  Ibid.,  p.  38.  Ibid.,  p i s . 12,  Kauffmann, op. c i t . , Von  82, 93,  op. c i t . f P . 70. pp. 47 and 66.  Thadden,  Woodruff,  40, 41 ,  op. c i t . , p.  op. c i t . ,  For  104,  109,  further  and  127  details,  42.  d i a g r a m , p.  48.  I b i d . , p . 35 . See n. 27, t h i s c h a p t e r , f o r a l i s t i n g o f s p e c i f i c on w h i c h a r e d e p i c t e d t h e s e armoured f i g u r e s .  68 On t h e i v o r y , t h e c o s t u m i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c y goes beyond t h a t seen i n the S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , as the t a b l e i n s e r t e d i n the t e x t shows, t h e i v o r y has p o r t r a y a l s o f t h r e e costume t y p e s : a n t i q u e gowns, c o n t e m p o r a r y armour, and a h y b r i d o f t h e f i r s t two, c o n s i s t i n g o f a n t i q u e gowns worn w i t h helmets. The S t . A l b a n s P r u d e n t i u s c o n t a i n s d e p i c t i o n s o f two of t h e t h r e e costume t y p e s s e e n on t h e i v o r y : the f i g u r e s i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t wear e i t h e r a n t i q u e gowns or c o n t e m p o r a r y armour. As f a r as I can remember, t h e two t y p e s a r e n e v e r comb i n e d i n t o one c o s t u m e .  114  69  For d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each scene i n the S t . Albans P r u d e n t i u s , s e e K a u f f m a n n , op. c i t . , p . 70. 70 K e s s l e r , op. c i t . ,  pp. 96 and 101.  71 T h i s v i e w was a l s o h e l d by Clemen, o p . c i t . , p p . 166-7; D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e . . . , p . 25. 72 S t e g e r ' s i c o n o g r a p h i c summary t a b l e s were e s p e c i a l l y useful i n this regard. See D a v i d Rex e t P r o p h e t a , p . 2 5 4 f . and  7  3  Ibid.,  Table  14, p . 259.  74 Steger,  op. c i t . ,  Table  15, p . 260.  75 I b i d . , p . 216. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e E n g l i s h h a r p and o t h e r e a r l y m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , s e e F.W. G a l p i n , O l d E n g l i s h I n s t r u m e n t s o f M u s i c (London: Methuen, 1910; r e v i s e d e d . , 1965) . 76 M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g . . . , pp. 2 and 12. 77 For a r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the B i b l e f o l i o , see Kauffmann, op. c i t . , i l l . 148. The P s a l t e r ' s z o d i a c m e d a l l i o n s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p i s . 14c-h, and 1 5 c - h . 78 See i b i d . , pp. 122-23, and 124-26; and S e t t o n , o p . c i t . , 4:128. 79 B u c h t h a l , o p . c i t . , pp. 15 and 19. 80 Weitzmann, " I c o n P a i n t i n g . . . , " p p . 52, 53, and f i g s . 1 and 3. See a l s o S e t t o n , op. c i t . , 4:254. 81 L.Y. Rahmani, "The E a s t e r n L i n t e l o f t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e , " I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 26 (1976): 123 and 128. 82 B o a s e , Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p . 100; B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , pp. 21 and 123; and S e t t o n , o p . c i t . , 4:128 and 254. 83 B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:80; B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p a s s i m ; P r a w e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 416-68; and S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p p . 18 6-88 . 84 See s u c h a r t i c l e s as Zehava J a c o b y , "The Tomb o f B a l d w i n V ( 1 1 8 5 - 8 6 ) , and t h e Workshop o f t h e Temple A r e a , " G e s t a 18 (1979): 3-14; N u r i t h Kenaan, " L o c a l C h r i s t i a n A r t i n T w e l f t h C e n t u r y J e r u s a l e m , " I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 (1973): 167-75 and 221-29; Rahmani, o p . c i t . , pp. 120-29; and W e i t z mann , " I c o n P a i n t i n g . p p . 49-83 .  115  85  B u c h t h a l , op. c i t . , p . x x x i i i , o n l y b r i e f l y n o t e s the e x i s t e n c e o f a " n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n , " but i s n o t s p e c i f i c about the p a r t i c u l a r m o t i f s , e t c . that c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t . H i s focus i s the B y z a n t i n e - W e s t e r n d u a l i t y . 86 They would have been e x a c t l y s i d e - b y - s i d e when t h e m a n u s c r i p t was opened f u l l y . 87 See J a c o b y , o p . c i t . , and t h e a r t i c l e by S t r z y g o w s k i , c i t e d i n n . 16, C h a p . I . 88 Weitzmann, "Icon P a i n t i n g . . . , " p. 69, and f i g . 41. 89 . For an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s t a r r o s e t t e on a t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i c o n , s e e i b i d . , f i g . 34. 90 I b i d . , p . 8 1 . F o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e use o f t h e m o t i f on J e r u s a l e m i c o n s , s e e i b i d . , f i g s . 22, 23, 30, 67, and others. 91 For i l l u s t r a t i o n o f i t s a b u n d a n t use on i c o n s , s e e i b i d . , f i g s . 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 30, 61, and o t h e r s . 92 In a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t , Weitzmann, i b i d . , p . 71, n o t e s the l a c k o f p r e c e d e n t i n B y z a n t i n e a r t . My own r e s e a r c h e s have l e d t o a s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n with regard t o Western a r t . I c o u l d f i n d no example c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e i v o r y ' s s t u d d e d a r c h m o t i f i n any e a r l i e r o r c o n t e m p o r a r y W e s t e r n E u r o p e a n manuscript. F o r examples o f i t s use i n C r u s a d e r a r t , see i b i d . , f i g . 2, showing a s c u l p t e d a r c h , p a r t o f a d e c o r a t e d c a p i t a l i n t h e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y C h u r c h o f t h e A n n u n c i a t i o n a t N a z a r e t h ; and i b i d . , f i g . 45, showing a beaded a r c h on a t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y icon . 93 M a s k e l l , I v o r i e s , p p . 118-19; and t h e B r i t i s h Museum's 1906 G u i d e t o t h e M a n u s c r i p t s . . . , p . 146. 94 D a l t o n , B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l o g y , p . 233; idem, Catalogue..., p . 25; and idem, E a s t C h r i s t i a n A r t , p . 218. 95 • T h i s o f t e n - q u o t e d p h r a s e was f i r s t used by G o l d s c h m i d t and Weitzmann ( B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2 : 8 0 ) . The same i d e a has been r e p e a t e d by P r a w e r , op. c i t . , p . 465; and S t e e n b o c k , o p . c i t . , p . 188; s e e a l s o R e a l l e x i k o n d e r D e u t s c h e n K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , s . v . " D a v i d , " c o l . 1107. 96 S u r p r i s i n g l y , the r e a d i l y - o b s e r v a b l e q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two c o v e r s h a s n o t been w i d e l y n o t e d . They were f i r s t p o i n t e d o u t t o me by my a d v i s o r f o r t h i s p a p e r , D r . Mary M o r e h a r t . To my knowledge, t h e o n l y p r e v i o u s a r t h i s t o r i a n  116  t o have p o s t u l a t e d two a r t i s t s f o r t h e i v o r i e s was C a h i e r , op. c i t . , 2:10. C a h i e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the v i s u a l e v i d e n c e i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n my own. He a t t r i b u t e d the f r o n t c o v e r t o t h e more s k i l l f u l hand, and t h e b a c k , i n i t s e n t i r e t y t o t h e o t h e r hand. As i s d e t a i l e d i n t h e t e x t o f t h i s c h a p t e r , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e f i r s t a r t i s t a l s o d i d a p o r t i o n o f t h e back cover.  117  Notes  to Chapter  IV  W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op.  1  c i t . , 2:137-9.  2 B o a s e , Kingdoms and  S t r o n g h o l d s . . . , p.  110.  W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , 2:275. W i l l i a m q u o t e d t h e e n t i r e passage: V e r s e 11 o f I C o r i n t h i a n s 13 — the " c h a r i t y c h a p t e r " o f the B i b l e . E l s e w h e r e , i b i d . , 2:139, b u t i n a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t , W i l l i a m s a y s t h a t B a l d w i n " ' p u t away c h i l d i s h things.' T h u s , by the p r a c t i c e o f the v i r t u e s he a t o n e d f o r the f a u l t s o f e a r l i e r y e a r s . " T h i s a s s o c i a t i n g o f atonement or r e p e n t a n c e w i t h B a l d w i n p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r l i n k between him and D a v i d , f o r the l a t t e r was o f t e n known and p i c t u r e d as t h e r e p e n t a n t k i n g . See n o t e 6 , b e l o w . 4 W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , 2:273. T h i s , of c o u r s e , o n l y a p p l i e d t o the f o r t r e s s e s b e l o n g i n g t o the F r a n k s . 5  R i c h a r d , The  Latin  Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m ,  A:75.  6 In a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , .the p h r a s e , " r o y a l s i n n e r - s a i n t , " was u s e d by F.P. P i c k e r i n g t o d e s c r i b e D a v i d . See L i t e r a t u r e and A r t i n t h e M i d d l e Ages ( C o r a l G a b l e s , F l a . : The U n i v e r s i t y o f Miami P r e s s , 1970), p. 103. 7 See p . 48, t h i s p a p e r . 8 9 10 ivories.  See  n.  13,  See  n.  6, Chap. I I I .  Not, See  Chap. I I I .  o f c o u r s e , t h e same j e w e l s c u r r e n t l y n. 2, Chap. I I .  adorning  the  The use o f a r e d - p a i n t base c o a t on a r e a s t o be g i l d e d was a B y z a n t i n e i l l u m i n a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , b u t one w h i c h was known i n t h e West by t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . (For e x a m p l e , i n t h e W i n c h e s t e r B i b l e , m i d - l a t e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , the g o l d was a p p l i e d Over a r e d base c o a t . ) 1  1  In f a c t , from 1099 u n t i l 1163, the c o l l e c t i v e w e a l t h o f a l l the s e i g n i e u r s was s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e w e a l t h o f the Crown. (Prawer, op. c i t . , p . 105.) 1  2  13 In a d d i t i o n , i t can be m e n t i o n e d t h a t any o f t h e t h r e e possible royal patrons — F u l k , Baldwin, Melisende — would p r e s u m a b l y have been c a p a b l e o f c o n c e i v i n g t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c programme, f o r C h a r l e s H. H a s k i n s , i n The R e n a i s s a n c e o f the  118  T w e l f t h C e n t u r y (New Y o r k : M e r i d i a n , 1976; o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d 1927), p . 260, n o t e s t h a t t h e r u l e r s o f J e r u s a l e m were among t h e more e d u c a t e d m o n a r c h s o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . Baldwin I I I , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s d e s c r i b e d as s u c h by W i l l i a m o f T y r e , op. c i t . , 2:1-38: "Whatever l e i s u r e he ( B a l d w i n ) c o u l d s n a t c h from h i s p u b l i c d u t i e s he d e l i g h t e d t o d e v o t e t o r e a d i n g . He p a r t i c u l a r l y e n j o y e d l i s t e n i n g t o t h e r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r y and i n q u i r e d w i t h g r e a t d i l i g e n c e i n t o t h e d e e d s and h a b i t s o f t h e n o b l e s t k i n g s and p r i n c e s o f f o r m e r t i m e s . W i t h men o f l e t t e r s and w i s e laymen he l o v e d above a l l t o c o n v e r s e . " Baldwin's i n t e r e s t i n past kings i s a s u g g e s t i v e p o i n t with regard t o the i v o r i e s , f o r the i n v e n t o r o f t h e i r i c o n o g r a p h i c programme was c l e a r l y w e l l - e d u c a t e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n k i n g s . 14 Of a l l t h e w r i t e r s on t h e i v o r i e s , G o l d s c h m i d t and Weitzmann, B y z a n t i n i s c h e n E l f e n b e i n s k u l p t u r e n , 2:79f; and S t e e n b o c k , K i r c h l i c h e P r a c h t e i n b a n d . . . , p p . 18 6-88, a r e t h e ones who have a d d r e s s e d t h e m s e l v e s most d i r e c t l y t o q u e s t i o n s o f style. 15 See, among o t h e r s , t h e B r i t i s h Museum's 1906 G u i d e t o t h e M a n u s c r i p t s . . . , p . 146; D a l t o n , C a t a l o g u e . . . , p . 23; K a t z e n e l l e n b o g e n , A l l e g o r i e s o f t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s . . . , p . 9; P r a w e r , Op. c i t . , p . 463; S t e e n b o c k , op. c i t . , p . 186; S t e g e r , D a v i d Rex e t P r o p h e t a , p . 216; and Von T h a d d e n , D i e I k o n o g r a p h i e d e r C a r i t a s . . . , p. 4 7.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n d e r s o n , J e f f r e y C. "The I l l u s t r a t i o n s 339." A r t B u l l e t i n 61 (June 1979): B o a s e , T.S.R. "The A r t s i n the L a t i n Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e s York:  o f Cod. S i n a i 167-85.  Gr.  Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m . " J o u r n a l 2 (1938/39): 1-21.  . Kingdoms and S t r o n g h o l d s o f t h e C r u s a d e r s . B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1971.  B u c h t h a l , Hugo. Jerusalem.  M i n i a t u r e P a i n t i n g i n the L a t i n Kingdom o f O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1957.  C a h i e r , C. Nouveaux M e l a n g e s d ' A r c h e ^ o l o g i e , d ' H i s t o i r e e t Literature. 4 vols. P a r i s , 1874 . V o l s . 1 and 2. Clemen, P. D i e Romanische M o n u m e n t a l m a l e r e i D C i s s e l d o r f , 1916.  i n den  K i n g s h i p and  the Psalms.,  G o l d s c h m i d t , A., and Weitzmann, K. Elfenbeinskulpturen. Berlin,  L o n d o n : SCM  Christian Press,  T r a n s l a t e d by N o e l O r i g i n a l l y pub-  Hugh o f S t . V i c t o r . De B e s t i i s e t A l l i i s Rebus L i b e r Migne, J.-P. Patrologiae Latina. P a r i s , 1879. -. De Patrologiae  1976.  Die B y z a n t i n i s c h e n 1934. V o l . 2.  G r o u s s e t , Rene. The E p i c o f t h e C r u s a d e s . Lindsay. New Y o r k : O r i o n P r e s s , 1970. l i s h e d , 1939 .  J.-P.  de  Rheinlanden.  D a l t o n , O.M. C a t a l o g u e of the I v o r y C a r v i n g s of the E r a i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum. L o n d o n , 19 09. E a t o n , J.H.  New  Primus. V o l . 177.  Fructibus Carnis et S p i r i t u s . Migne, Latina. P a r i s , 1844-64. V o l . 176.  Jacoby, Zehava. "The Tomb o f B a l d w i n V, K i n g o f J e r u s a l e m (1185-86), and t h e Workshop o f the Temple A r e a . " Gesta (1979): 3-14.  18  Katzenellenbogen, Adolph. A l l e g o r i e s o f the V i r t u e s and V i c e s i n M e d i e v a l A r t . L o n d o n : The Warburg I n s t i t u t e , 1939; r e p r i n t e d . , New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n , 1964. Kauffmann, C M . Romanesque M a n u s c r i p t s , 1066-1190. Harvey M i l l e r , 1975. 119  London:  120  Kenaan, N u r i t h . "Local C h r i s t i a n A r t in Twelfth Century Jerusalem." I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 23 (1973) 167-75, and 221-29. Prawer, Joshua. The C r u s a d e r s ' Kingdom: E u r o p e a n C o l o n i a l i s m in the M i d d l e Ages. New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1972. Prudentius. Psychomachia. Thomson, H.J., t r a n s . Prudentius. 2 vols. C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. V o l . 1. Rahmani, L.Y. "The E a s t e r n L i n t e l o f t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e . " I s r a e l E x p l o r a t i o n J o u r n a l 26 ( 1 9 7 6 ) : 120-29. R e a l l e x i c o n d e r D e u t s c h e n K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , 1954 V D a v i d , " by R o b e r t L . Wyss.  ed.  S.v.  Richard, Jean. The L a t i n Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m . 2 vols. Transl a t e d by J a n e t S h i r l e y . New Y o r k : N o r t h - H o l l a n d P u b l i s h i n g , 19 79. V o l . A: The Kingdom o f J e r u s a l e m under the House o f Ardennes-Anjou. S e t t o n , K e n n e t h M., g e n . e d . A H i s t o r y o f the C r u s a d e s . 4 vols. M a d i s o n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1977. V o l . 4: The A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e C r u s a d e r S t a t e s . Steenbock, Frauke. Per K i r c h l i c h e P r a c h t e i n b a n d im Friihen Mittelalter. B e r l i n : Deutscher V e r l a g f u r Kunstwissenschaft, 1965. S t e g e r , Hugo. David Carl, 1961.  Rex  et Propheta.  Nurnberg:  Verlag  Hans  S t r a u b , A., and K e l l e r , G. Hortus D e l i c i a r u m . Strasbourg, 1879-99. T r a n s l a t e d by A.D. C a r a t z a s . New R o c h e l l e , N.Y.: C a r a t z a s B r o t h e r s , 1977. Von  Thadden, M a r i a . Die I k o n o g r a p h i e der C a r i t a s i n der Kunst des M i t t e l a l t e r s . Bonn: U n p u b l i s h e d d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1951.  Walter, C h r i s t o p h e r . S t u d i e s i n Byzantine Iconography. Variorum R e p r i n t s , 1977. Weitzmann, K u r t . "Icon P a i n t i n g i n the Crusader Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s 20 ( 1 9 6 6 ) : 49-83.  London:  Kingdom."  Westwood, J.O. A D e s c r i p t i v e C a t a l o g u e o f the F i c t i l e i n the S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n Museum. L o n d o n , 18 76.  Ivories  121  W i l l i a m of Tyre. A H i s t o r y o f Deeds Done Beyond t h e S e a . vols. T r a n s l a t e d by E.A. Babcock and A.C. K r e y . New C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1943. Woodruff, Helen. "The I l l u s t r a t e d A r t S t u d i e s 7 (1929): 33-79.  2 York:  Manuscripts of Prudentius."  122  ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF  Beckwith, John. C a s k e t s from A l b e r t Museum, 19 60.  ILLUSTRATIONS  Cordoba.  London: V i c t o r i a  • Ivory Carvings in Early Medieval London: H a r v e y M i l l e r M e d c a l f e , 1972. Bibliotheque Nationale. 1958 .  Byzance  De  England.  e t l a France Medievale.  Cames, G e r a r d . A l l e g o r i e s e t Symboles dans Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1971.  and  Paris,  l'Hortus Deliciarum.  Campos, D. R e d i g . " E i n e Bekannte D a r s t e l l u n g des J u n g s t e n G e r i c h t s aus dem E l f t e n J a h r h u n d e r t . " Z e i t s c h r i f t fur K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e 5 ( 1 9 3 6 ) : 124-33.  D e b i d o u r , V.-H. Le B e s t i a i r e P a r i s : A r t h a u d , 1961.  S c u l p t e du Moyen Age  Demus, O t t o . The M o s a i c s o f Norman S i c i l y . and Kegan P a u l , 1949.  en  London:  D o d w e l l , C.R. The C a n t e r b u r y S c h o o l o f I l l u m i n a t i o n , C a m b r i d g e : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954. G a l p i n , F.W. Old E n g l i s h Instruments 1910; r e v i s e d e d . , 1965. O a k e s h o t t , W. Artists and F a b e r , 19 45. Sigena.  of Music.  o f the W i n c h e s t e r London: Harvey  Bible.  Miller  France. Routledge 1066-1200.  L o n d o n : Methuen, London:  Medcalfe,  Faber 1972.  Omont, H e n r i . M i n i a t u r e s des P l u s A n c i e n s M a n u s c r i t s G r e c s l a B i b l i o t h i q u e N a t i o n a l e . P a r i s , 1929.  de  P a c h t , O t t o ,. and A l e x a n d e r , J . J . G . Illuminated Manuscripts in the B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y , O x f o r d . 3 vols. O x f o r d : The C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1973. V o l . 1. , D o d w e l l , C.R., and Wormald, F . Psalter. London: The Warburg I n s t i t u t e ,  The S t . A l b a n s 1960.  P e l e k a n i d i s , S.M. The T r e a s u r e s o f Mount A t h o s . 2 vols. T r a n s l a t e d by P h i l i p S h e r r a r d . A t h e n s : E k d o t i k e A t h e n o n , 1974 . 122  123  Salmi, Mario.  Italian  S a u n d e r s , O.E. English B o o k s , 1969. S w a r z e n s k i , H. University  Miniatures.  London: C o l l i n s ,  Illumination.  New  York:  Monuments o f Romanesque A r t . P r e s s , 1967.  1957.  Hacker A r t  Chicago:  Chicago  Watson, A r t h u r . The E a r l y I c o n o g r a p h y o f t h e T r e e o f J e s s e . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s and Humphrey M i l f o r d , 1934. Wormald, F r a n c i s . The W i n c h e s t e r M i l l e r M e d c a l f e , 1973.  Psalter.  London:  Harvey  APPENDIX 2 copy , . . ; RESEARCH LABORATORY,  BRITISH MUSEUM,  London, W.C.I. 25th September 1933• IBS. Egerton 1139 Conservation cf Ivory Binding The carved irory plaques had been mounted on jnetal platee by sealing wax and those in turn were f i t t e d into the leather binding and held in position by wax. The warping of the binding and ivories, not always in the same sense* had loosened things so that the ivory projected from the cover and was liable to damage by being scratched. r  Repairsi  1.  2.  The ivories were easily removed with their metal beok plates from the binding and the plates themselves came away easily from the ivory showing i t to be of a frame-like structure cede in two laminations, the decorated upper surface being fretted and held on the frame-work backing by ivory pegs, , This ensemble had warped considerably and the f i r s t step i was to f i t the pieces back into their original positions wherej^key were fixed by wax. One cavity i n the binding was cleaned out and a piece of ' relining canvas of suitable size laid in i t by a relining wax mixture. The back of one ivory was covered by fine muslin using the same relining mixture and the two waxed surfaces, muslin and canvas were pressed into position whilst s t i l l tacky, the wax joint being perfected by the use of an electric iron applied to the inside of the cover* In two places where the gap between the edge of the ivory and the leather binding was unduly great this was f i l l e d with a hard ivory-coloured wax. I oonsider that the removal of the metal plates is to the advantage of the ivories. (sgd.) H.J. Plenderleith. 125  128 Fig. 3  129 Fig.  4  130 Fig.  5  131 Fig. 6  132  Fig.  a  7  b  Fig. 8  Fig.  9  133 Fig.  10  13 4  135  F i g .  13  4of \e-H ^orft o>v*r 7  E a  n  #  »  u  b  F i g .  14  136 Fig.  137  138  Fig.  17  139 Fig.  19  14 0 Fig.  20  141  143 Fig.  23  14 4 F i g . 24  14 5  146  147 Fig.  27  148  149 Fig.  29  151  F i g . 31  b  c  15 3 F i g . 33  b  154  Fig.  b  34  15 5 Fig.  35  153  Fig.  b  36  157 Fig.  b  37  158 Fig.  38  159 Fig.  39  16 0 Fig.  40  161  162 Fig.  b  42  163 Fig.  43  Fig.  44  164 Fig.  b  c  45  165 Fig.  46  

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