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The themes of justice and grace in three of Friedrich Dürrenmatt’s early works Shaffer, Verina Tracey 1981

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THE THEMES OF JUSTICE AND GRACE IN THREE OF FRIEDRICH DURRENMATT'S EARLY WORKS by VERINA TRACEY SHAFFER B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of German We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December, 1980 © Verina Tracey Shaffer, 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f Germanic S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 w e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e December 31, 1980 i ABSTRACT In t h i s study I am attempting to shed some l i g h t on the themes of justice and grace as they are expressed i n three d i f f e r e n t works by F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, a contemporary Swiss playwright. The drama Es steht geschrieben (19^7), the comedy Ei n Engel kommt nach Babylon (1953) and the radio-play Das  Unternehmen der Wega (195^) were written within a time-span of approximately eight years and can therefore be counted among the author's early works (taking into consideration that his most recent play was published i n 1976). In the playwright's f i r s t drama, Es steht geschrieben, the topics of justice and grace are presented i n balanced proportions, i n t h e i r negative as well as positive aspects. The themes are expressed by frequent use of symbols; by par-ody, often of b i b l i c a l revelations and events; by caricatures of c e r t a i n characters; and by grotesque contrast i n s i t u a -tions and the behaviour of the relevant types. A good deal of irony, s a t i r e and humor i s e x p l i c i t or implied as well. In addition, I t r i e d to draw attention to the nature of imma-nent justice and grace i n t h i s drama. In E i n Engel kommt nach Babylon, the two themes are not as evenly distributed as i s the case i n the f i r s t work dis-cussed. The predominance of grace seems to have resulted i n less severity i n the content of t h i s play. Although the theme i i of justice c l e a r l y e x i s t s , i t i s outweighed here, by the im-pact of grace on man. I have attempted to elucidate Durren-matt's approach and choice of genre i n conveying both of the themes i n t h i s comedy, discussing form as well as the charac-ters employed. In Das Unternehmen der Wega, justice and grace are almost exclusively of an immanent kind. The topics are conveyed pre-dominantly by the attitudes, motivations and behaviour of the various individuals or groups. There i s l i t t l e symbolism i n t h i s play but irony and s a t i r e are i m p l i c i t throughout. It i s a "secular" work as opposed to the two previously discussed ones, which show a strong r e l i g i o u s content. This makes f o r a d i f f e r e n t philosophical outlook i n t h i s play on basic prob-lems and t h e i r possible solutions i n human existence. In a l l three works Durrenmatt has demonstrated convinc-ingly, I think, how justice and grace are perceived and i n t e r -preted. Acceptance or r e j e c t i o n of these concepts are con-tingent upon the attitudes and insights of the individuals or groups i n question; whether for better or worse, i s s t i l l up to man's free choice. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTERS PAGE Abstract. . i Introduction . i v I The themes of justice and grace i n . . . . Fr i e d r i c h Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama "Es steht geschrieben" 1 II The themes of justice and grace i n the comedy "Ein Engel kommt nach Babylon" . . . 45 III The themes of justice and grace i n the radio-play "Das Unternehmen der Wega" . . . 80 Bibliography . . . . . . . 108 i v INTRODUCTION The themes of j u s t i c e and grace can he observed i n most of F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt's works. In some they are of a more e x p l i c i t , i n others of a more immanent nature. I n the thre e p l a y s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , the t o p i c s are q u i t e o v e r t l y expressed i n the f i r s t two i n s t a n c e s , whereas i n the t h i r d one, the themes are mostly inherent i n the p o r t r a y a l of the c h a r a c t e r s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s . The three works i n q u e s t i o n present an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r -i e t y of genres. The drama Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n i s i n the s t y l e of a "Welt t h e a t e r " , conveying a baroque r i c h n e s s of images, c h a r a c t e r s and s i t u a t i o n s . F or the comedy E i n Eng e l  kommt nach Babylon the author chooses the form of an o r i e n t a l f a i r y - t a l e , combined, t o some extent with p l a c e s and charac-t e r s from Old Testament times. In the r a d i o - p l a y Das Unter- nehmen der Wega we have the a u r a l e f f e c t o n l y where the spoken word, without any v i s u a l impact, spurs on the l i s t e n -e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . C e r t a i n conspicuous f e a t u r e s are common to a l l t h r e e p l a y s d i s c u s s e d . Irony, f o r i n s t a n c e , i s n o t i c e a b l e i n each work. In the f i r s t drama, the r i c h , i n f l u e n t i a l and r i g h t e o u s p r o t a g o n i s t becomes poor and r i d i c u l o u s — b y h i s own c h o i c e . The i n i t i a l l y poor a n t a g o n i s t becomes wealthy and p o w e r f u l — V s o l e l y by means of shrewdness and ambition. I r o n i c a l l y , though, they both s u f f e r the same fate, a v i o l e n t death. In the comedy discussed, the naive i d e a l i s t evolves i n -to a frustrated and vengeful r u l e r . The innocent and loving heroine, on the other hand, i s continually disappointed but maintains hope against hope. Only the poor beggar manages to avoid f r u s t r a t i o n and disappointment because he has neither expectations nor i l l u s i o n s about man but, s u r p r i s i n g l y , he retains a note of optimism. Not even the angel escapes Durren-matt' s irony i n t h i s play. Despite his e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l nature, the angel i s endowed with a number of very human t r a i t s . Irony can also be detected throughout the t h i r d play. It i s i r o n i c a l , for instance, that the delegation from planet Earth attempts to win a l l i e s — from a people the terres-t r i a l s had, f o r two centuries, deported to another planet and l e f t there to perish. It i s i r o n i c a l , too, that the so-c a l l e d peaceful mission from Earth turns out to carry with i t the most destructive weapons on board the space-craft. There i s wisdom and insight demonstrated i n a l l three works. This i s expressed mostly by individuals or groups of people who r e a l i z e and accept an unfathomable kind of justice and mercy, whether they are perceived as being of a divine nature or based simply on the premises of humanitarian ethics. The protagonist and an old c l e r i c excel with t h e i r insight i n the f i r s t drama, the former i n a more r e l i g i o u s sense, the l a t t e r i n a humanitarian way. Wisdom i s shown most impres-v i sively by the beggar in the second play. There are no r e l i -gious connotations in his attitude but he is probably the most convincing humanist in these plays. In the radio-play, i t is a former deputy of the planet Earth who chooses to become a doctor and spend his time and energy solely to relieve the suffering of his fellow-men. His wisdom and insight is based on the realization of the weaknesses of human nature. There is acceptance in his attitude but no despair. Last but not least, there is the entertaining element in each of the three works discussed. As mentioned earlier, there i s the colourful abundance of the f i r s t drama in the tradition of a "Welttheater". Grotesque contrasts are used effectively. Humor, parody and irony make for a rich variety of impressions in this play. Even the most solemn monologues and dialogues are often followed by witty discourses or com-ments . In the comedy i t is the style of a fairy-tale in connec-tion with the dim past of the Old Testament time which makes for unusual effects. The combination of ordinary mortals and beings from outer space, i.e. heaven, adds to the unique-ness of this play. It is the beggar again who excells with satire and humor whereas both of these are of a more implied nature in some other characters, notably the King and the members of his court. The entertaining element in the third play l i e s mostly in i t s science-fiction aspect. The author lets the listener v i i v i s u a l i z e the environment of a planet, thus f a r unknown to man. In addition, the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a space-age which had just begun when Durrenmatt wrote t h i s radio-play, are stimulating to the mind of modern man. There i s l i t t l e overt humor i n the characters involved but some i s inherent i n situations and the reactions of certain individuals from the planet Earth. The didactic element can hardly be overlooked i n the three works i n question although t h i s aspect i s not e x p l i c i t anywhere. Independent thinking or the lack of i t i s mentioned or alluded to i n each of the plays. Ready-made solutions are nowhere presented but the inevitable consequences of attitudes and actions are demonstrated throughout the works chosen here. Justice and grace are thus i l l u s t r a t e d and made palatable while, at the same time, provoking the audiences to ponder and take a stand on these matters. 1 CHAPTER ONE The themes of justice and grace i n Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama, "Es steht geschrieben" The content of Es steht geschrieben, Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama on stage (premiere in Zurich, 1947) is predominantly religious in nature and i t s main purpose seems to be, as Elisabeth Brock-Sulzer points out, to disquiet the audiences and to arouse them from s p i r i t u a l lethargy. 1 In doing so, the playwright has obviously succeeded in creating a drama of timeless validity, in the tradition of the baroque "Welt-theater." Timo Tiusanen aptly notes: "There is a baroque abundance and co-existence of extreme contrasts in Durrenmatt, 2 there is his ambition to create the whole world on stage." The author himself, however, chooses to remain ambiguous on this. In the preface to this drama, he states: "Inwieweit sich heutiges Geschehen tdarinl spiegelt, sei dahirigestellt" (p. 12). In his introductory stage directions, though, he calls the happenings in the play "eine kunterbunte Welt, die gestern genau so war wie heute und morgen" (p. 12). Whether one views i t in the historical context, i.e. the rise and f a l l of the Anabaptist movement in Munster, West-f a l i a , shortly after the f i r s t upheavals of the Reformation, or considers i t in the light of more recent events, such as 2 the r i s e and subsequent d o w n f a l l of the T h i r d Reich, the s i g -n i f i c a n c e of j u s t i c e and grace can h a r d l y be overlooked. The theme of j u s t i c e , i n Es s t e h t geschrieben, i s made ev i d e n t by a number of r e c u r r i n g symbols, by parody, c a r i c a -t u r e s and a l s o , at times, through stage d i r e c t i o n . E q u a l l y important, however, i s an immanent j u s t i c e which i s r e v e a l e d i n the a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s of the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s on stage. There are r e l a t i v e l y few symbols e x p r e s s i n g grace as compared to the numerous ones r e f e r r i n g t o j u s t i c e . Grace i s the p o l a r -i t y of*', the l a t t e r which i s not s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e Es s t e h t  g e s c h r i e b e n appears to be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the "Welt-t h e a t e r " of the baroque p e r i o d , and Gero von W i l p e r t , i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s time, s t a t e s * " P o l a r i t a t und innere Span-3 nungen s i n d Grundformen ... . barocker Welterfahrung". The most conspicuous symbol of j u s t i c e i n Durrenmatt*s f i r s t drama i s the sword. The A n a b a p t i s t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e -gard themselves as the sword God has chosen to b r i n g about j u s t i c e amongst the condemned ( i n t h i s case, the C a t h o l i c s and the L u t h e r a n s ) . The t r i b u l a t i o n s the B a p t i s t s themselves have to s u f f e r , are i n t e r p r e t e d as a necessary process i n be-coming the sword of God's revenge. "Gott g e f i e l es," they say, "seine Knechte dem Bosen a u s z u l i e f e m , denn so e i n e r e i n Schwert w i l l , h a l t e r das E i s e n i n s Feuer" (p. 1 * 0 . The s e c t c o n s i d e r s i t s e l f c a l l e d upon to purge the world f o r the Second Coming of C h r i s t . They r e s e r v e , however, to themselves the r i g h t t o punish and even execute those who are opposed to them, 3 s u r p a s s i n g t h e i r own p e r s e c u t o r s i n c r u e l t y and vengeance. T h i s s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s r e s u l t s e v e n t u a l l y , a f t e r a b r i e f f l o w e r i n g o f t h e i r power, i n t h e i r own d e s t r u c t i o n . Jan M a t t h i s s o n , the l e a d e r and prophet of the A n a b a p t i s t s of Munster, i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f ( i n B r e c h t i a n manner) c a r r y i n g a g i a n t sword, "das Schwert der G e r e c h t i g k e i t " (p. 48). When the c o u n c i l members o f the s e c t suggest t h a t the c i t y - w a l l s be r e p a i r e d and troops be gathered i n o r d e r to defend the c i t y , M a t t h i s s o n d e c l i n e s t h e i r request by t h r e a t e n i n g themi "Wer mit der A b s i c h t h a n d e l t , d i e Stadt wider den F e i n d zu v e r t e i d i g e n , s o i l durch das Schwert umkommen" (p. 5 2 ) , thus assuming j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y over them. He h i m s e l f , however, when he rushes out o f the c i t y t o defeat the enemy s i n g l e -handedly (assuming s e l f - r i g h t e o u s l y t h a t God would be on h i s s i d e ) cannot r e f r a i n from k i l l i n g a few s o l d i e r s with h i s own sword before he i s overpowered, thus, i r o n i c a l l y , con-f i r m i n g the q u o t a t i o n from the B i b l e which he had p r e v i o u s l y used ( t h a t , whosoever s h a l l use the sword, s h a l l d i e by the sword). H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f j u s t i c e has become s e l f - f u l -f i l l i n g prophepy. In the scene between K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , h i s daughter J u d i t h and the drunken night-watchman, the sword i s ag a i n the c e n t r a l symbol o f j u s t i c e . The f o r m e r l y r i c h merchant, who chose poverty and r i d i c u l e as h i s l o t i n order t o g a i n s a l v a t i o n , and h i s innocent daughter who f o l l o w e d h e r f a t h e r i n t o a l i f e of a b j e c t poverty, are the only ones able to grasp the t r u e 4 meaning and i m p l i c a t i o n s of j u s t i c e . In a h i g h l y r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e j u s t i c e i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d . "Was i s t G e r e c h t i g k e i t ? " the f a t h e r asks h i s daughter, "wer i s t gerecht auf d i e s e r runden Erde?" J u d i t h ' s answer: "Es kommt den Menschen n i c h t zu, gerecht zu s e i n " l e a d s to h i s i n s i g h t t h a t man w i l l never be capable of being j u s t , and he e x c l a i m s : "Hort i h r Men-schen . . . U n g e r e c h t i g k e i t i s t euer Los , . . und Irrtum" (p. 77). As a consequence o f t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k passes on the sword o f j u s t i c e to the l o w l i e s t of the Ana-b a p t i s t s , the s t i n k i n g , drunken night-watchman, d e s p i t e the l a t t e r ' s p r o t e s t . (In Die Wiedertaufer, twenty years l a t e r , Durrenmatt c a r r i e s t h i s t o p i c y e t another s t e p . T h i s time, the i n h e r i t o r of the sword of j u s t i c e , a butcher, does not d e c l i n e the j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y bestowed on him but, on the c o n t r a r y , menaces h i s f e l l o w Baptists» "Ich b i n S t a t t h a l t e r geworden, I h r T a u f e r . Ich werde u n n a c h s i c h t i g gegen jeden v o r -gehen, der n i c h t an unsere gerechte Sache g l a u b t " . With t h i s , the p l a y w r i g h t e v i d e n t l y confirms the p o i n t he had a l r e a d y made i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , namely t h a t man cannot know j u s t i c e , and furthermore t h a t as soon as he i s g i v e n power to execute j u s t i c e , he i s l i a b l e t o abuse i t . ) Besides these more s e r i o u s l y t r e a t e d i n s t a n c e s where the sword i s used as a symbol of j u s t i c e , t h e r e are a l s o some ver y funny p a r o d i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n with t h i s symbol. One i s the c a r i c a t u r e of a c i t y - g u a r d , d e p i c t e d i n the stage d i r e c -t i o n s as " e i n k l e i n e s , d i c k e s Mannlein, . . . das einen mach-5 tigen Sa.be 1 am Giirtel hangen hat, der hinter ihm mit grossem Gepolter iiber den Boden holperti" callingi "Das Gesetz i s t das Gesetz" (p. 1 9 ) . It i s a clumsy kind of justice repre-sented here. The grotesque size, of the sword making more of a hindrance in enforcing the law than contributing to i t s effectiveness. Instead of arresting Bockelson, the guard soon bows to the eloquence of the self-appointed prophet and, having been promised shared riches in the future kingdom of the Anabaptists, he decides to ignore "das Gesetz" and join the pseudo-religious leader. Another instance of a parody of the sword of justice i s the person of the vegetable-seller. This female character (who calls to mind Grimmelshausen's over-sexed and militant "Courasche") can hardly wait to lay hands on the handsome and v i r i l e looking enemies she espies from the city wall. "Der Feind: Der.Feind,:?" she shouts, "Ich w i l l ihn an meinen Leib pressen und ihn zerquetschen", to which one of the bystanders remarks J "Ich mc-chte sie mit einem zweischneidigen Schwerte vergleichen, so grausam wird sie innerhalb und ausserhalb der Mauer wuten" (p. 57), and he recommends that the city gates be bolted lest the "two-edged sword" escape. Not unlike Jan Matthisson, but without his religious fervour, the vegetable-woman wants to bring about justice by leading the poorly-armed citizenry of Munster onto the walls from where they are soon, however, ordered back into town by Matthisson who, at the time, i s s t i l l i n authority. 6 The sword, then, as a symbol of j u s t i c e , whether i t i s used i n a f i g u r a t i v e sense as i n the case of the A n a b a p t i s t s o r the above mentioned v e g e t a b l e - s e l l e r s o r as a stage r e -q u i s i t e (mostly i n d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e s i z e ) } or as the out-ward symbol i n a r h e t o r i c a l d i a l o g u e , o f t e n appears to be the a p p r o p r i a t e symbol of j u s t i c e , a p t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y used by Durrenmatt to convey t h i s c e n t r a l t o p i c . The next most o f t e n r e c u r r i n g symbol of j u s t i c e i n Es  s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , i s the sun. I n the f i r s t l i n e s of the p l a y (a parody of the a p o c a l y p t i c v i s i o n s o f S t . John), one of the B a p t i s t s exclaims* "Gott v e r h i i l l t e s e i n A n g e s i c h t , da e r l o s c h die Sonne im Meer" (p. 1 3 ) . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the chaos and the appearance of the condemned from the underworld ensues. With God i g n o r i n g h i s c r e a t i o n , j u s t i c e disappears from the f a c e of the e a r t h and " s i e Cthe condemnedl erhoben s i c h , zu t o t e n und zogen aus wider die T'aufer" (p. 1 3 ) . God, the sun and j u s t i c e are juxtaposed* God e q u a l l i n g l i g h t and the disappearance of l i g h t r e s u l t i n g i n the v a n i s h i n g o f j u s -t i c e . In another i n s t a n c e , p e r t a i n i n g t h i s time to the s t a t e of an i n d i v i d u a l , the sun a g a i n symbolizes the l i g h t o f a h i g h e r j u s t i c e . The scene takes p l a c e i n the house o f the wealthy K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k whose complacency i s p r o f o u n d l y d i s -t u rbed when he reads the B i b l e words* "Verkaufe was du hast und g i b ' s den Armen, so w i r s t du e i n e n Schatz im Himmel haben . . ." (p. 26), and h i s daughter Judith*,s ominous remark* 7 "Ich w i l l euch Licht bringen. Die Sonne i s t hinter dem Dom und es wird Nacht" (p. 2 7 ) , aptly expresses the encroaching darkness and despair in the rich merchant's heart. Although the innocence and love of his daughter shine like a sun in her father's l i v e , she is unable to bring light into his spiri t u a l anguish. Whereas the disappearance of the sun causes, in the first-mentioned instance, an outward chaos, as illustrated in the mock apocalyptic vision, the same event now symbolizes the inner turmoil and confusion in the wealthy man's heart. Also associated with the sun as a symbol of light and justice is gold. When.Knipperdollinck, roused by the written word of the Bible, decides to dispose of his riches i n order to gain a treasure in heaven, he throws gold coins by the sackful among the people on the market-place, shoutings "Nehmt: NehmtJ Da und da. Gold, das r o l l t , das k l i r r t , das tanzt . . . wie kleine Sonnen. Port damit" (p. 42). Bockel-son,for his part, has no qualms about the Bible word regard-ing a universal kind of justice (which could be implied in "Verkauf was du hast und gib's den Armen . . . " ) , To him, i t is obviously justified that Knipperdollinck's wealth becomes his possession, since the former had come to Munster with nothing but a torn garment on his body and an empty stomach, thereby establishing a kind of mock justice. Only the vege-table-seller, i n the scene on the market-place, shows her own sense of justice. "Ich nehme kein geschenktes tGoldl ", she 8 says to Monk Bleibeganzs "Ich b i n eine klassenbewusste P r o l e -t a r i e r i n " (p. 1*2). The sun i s , however, not o n l y s y m b o l i z i n g l i g h t o r g o l d but i s a l s o equated w i t h s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r s i n Es s t e h t ge- s c h r i e b e n . Johann Bockelson says, f o r i n s t a n c e , about the prophet Jan Matthisson, a f t e r the l a t t e r had walked i n t o c e r -t a i n death when he was attempting to d e f e a t the numerous ene-mies single-handedly» " A l l z u l a n g e warst du die Sonne d i e s e r Stadt . . . seht nun den Tod des a l t e n Propheten, seht nun, wie s i c h d i e Sonne i n s Meer der E w i g k e i t versenkt" (p. 56). Bockelson now sees t h a t the time o f h i s r u l e has come. A f t e r the r e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c , the m a t e r i a l i s t i c manipulator takes over. In a h i g h l y comical scene, the drunken night-watchman, when suddenly faced with K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k who c a r r i e s the sword of j u s t i c e , c r i e s i n f e a r s " . . . nur n i c h t das Schwert, o Sonne der G e r e c h t i g k e i t " (p. 78). S i m i l a r l y , the Emperor C h a r l e s V c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f " d i e Sonne, um d i e s i c h a l l e s d r e h t " , although h i s dream i s to c i r c l e around a s t a t u e o f j u s t i c e "wie um eine Sonne, j a h r e l a n g und n i c h t s anderes" (p. 68). T h i s somewhat u n r e a l i s t i c dream o f C h a r l e s V p o i n t s to y e t another symbol of j u s t i c e , namely the s t a t u e of j u s t i c e . The Emperor makes i t q u i t e e x p l i c i t what k i n d o f statue t h i s should be and where i t should be l o c a t e d . He envisages an o r d i n a r y k i n d of " j u s t i c e " , b l i n d - f o l d e d , a s c a l e i n one hand and a sword i n the other (p. 6 8 ) . J u s t i c e , then, should be o r d i -nary, i . e . applicable to everyone} blind-folded, i . e . being impartial; with a scale, i . e . weighing the good and the bad against each other; and with a sword, i . e . having the power to execute j u s t i c e . Even the most desirable location where the statue should stand, i s s p e c i f i e d by the Emperor. "Es muss ein Kloster sein," he says, "abgelegen i n kahlen Bergen, mit einem kreisrunden Hof i n der Mitte, umgeben von einem Laubengang antiker Saulen . . . (p. 6 8 ) . It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to know whether Durrenmatt used the depiction of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l arrange-ment for the location of the statue of justice consciously or i n t u i t i v e l y . It c a l l s to my mind, at any rate, Carl Jung's d e f i n i t i o n of the archetype of the Mandala. He defines t h i s as a "Kreis, Ceinl s p e z i e l l magischer Kreis"^, and then elabo-rates: "Die Mandalas sind nicht nur uber den ganzen Osten ver-b r e i t e t , sondern auch bei uns aus dem M i t t e l a l t e r r e i c h l i c h be-zeugt." In Aniela Jaffe's essay on;"The symbol of the c i r c l e " she states: "In architecture,the mandala also plays an impor-tant part--but one that often passes unnoticed. It forms the ground plan of both the secular and sacred buildings i n nearly 7 a l l c i v i l i z a t i o n s . " From the above, one might well assume that the playwright, whether he was, at the time he wrote Es steht geschrieben, f a -m i l i a r with the concept of the Mandala or not, consciously or else i n t u i t i v e l y chose t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r i k i n g archetypal 10 image to emphasize the central importance of justice. Of significance i s also that Charles V reserves the to him ideal state, the contemplation of justice in the solitude of a monastry, for the evening of his l i f e . This may well express the Utopian quality of the Emperor's wish for a world where justice would be at the centre of man's thoughts. His somewhat weary-sounding statement, however? "Noch aber i s t es dumpfer Mittag und noch bin ich die Sonne, um die sich alles dreht" (p. 69), indicates that the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire i s s t i l l in the middle of his l i f e and has to shoulder the burden of exercising j u s t i c e . Besides the most conspicuous symbols of justice in Es steht geschrieben, the sword, the sun and the statue of justice, i t follows almost inevitably that there would also be judges and executors. And indeed, as Werner Oberle states: Durrenmatt's Werk erinnert an ein Gericht. Immer wieder sind Richter da, immer wieder auch Henker, und vor allem sind da diejenigen, die sich mit dem Richter oder Henker auseinandersetzen mussen, die ihre Schuld bekennen oder abstreiten, solche, die ihren Tod annehmen, und solche, die sich als nicht-betroffen erklaren. 8 Among the judges in this drama, i t i s foremost God as the omniscient judge who is acknowledged most dramatically in the last scene of the play when Knipperdollinck, in his monologue on the torture-wheel, cries out: "Die Tiefe meiner Verzweif-lung i s t nur ein Gleichnis deiner Gerechtigkeit" (p. 115). By f u l l y accepting the unfathomable justice of God he, as Murray Peppard aptly remarks, "achieves a kind of transfigura-11 t i o n and an e c s t a t i c v i s i o n of God's j u s t i c e and mercy de-Q s p i t e a l l appearances." C h r i s t , whose Second Coming on Judgment Day i s r e f e r r e d to e a r l y i n Es steh t g e s c h r i e b e n , i s the other s i g n i f i c a n t judge i n the s p i r i t u a l realm. The r e l i g i o u s f e r v o u r of the A n a b a p t i s t s seems :to be caused mostly by the a n t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s event which they expect to take p l a c e i n the near f u t u r e . Munster i s regarded by them as the p o t e n t i a l new Z i o n , t h a t i s , of course, a f t e r the " u n b e l i e v e r s " , i . e . the C a t h o l i c s and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e i r Bishop "mit se i n e n Kebs-weibern und Lustknaben," as w e l l as " d i e erbarinlichen Luther-aner" (p. 15) have been defeated. Only then, so they b e l i e v e , "wird e n d l i c h der Tag kommen, der v e r h e i s s e n i s t , wo e r a l i e n s i c h t b a r , i n f e u r i g e r Wolke s i t z e n wird, G e r i c h t zu h a l t e n uber Gerechte und Ungerechte" (p. 15). When C h r i s t , i n the f i n a l judgment, separates the lambs from the goats, the Ana-b a p t i s t s take i t f o r granted t h a t they w i l l be among the f o r -mer ones. T h e i r s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s prevents them form s e e i n g t h e i r own h y p o c r i s y . Then t h e r e are o t h e r , mostly s e l f - a p p o i n t e d judges i n t h i s drama. Jan M a t t h i s s o n , the l e a d e r o f the A n a b a p t i s t s , i s one of them. The stage d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h i s scene a r e : "Matt h i s s o n wendet s i c h von den Zuschauern ( a f t e r h i s lengthy s e l f - i n t r o d u c t i o n i n f r o n t of the c u r t a i n ) ab, und s c h r e i t e t auf den m i t t l e r e n , kostbaren S e s s e l zu, der auch etwas e r-hoht i s t " (p. 50). The v i s u a l e f f e c t , then, i s a l r e a d y 12 one of a king or a judge. His address to the council members of the sect confirms thist "Ihr Vater der Taufer, ihr, die ihr s i t z t zu meiner Rechten und Linken auf Stuhlen der Gerech-tigkeit und der Rache" (p. 5 0 ) . Here again, Durrenmatt created a parody of the Last Judgement by letting Matthisson assume the role of Christ and his council members those of execution-ers. . Matthisson's religious fanaticism, his utter lack of diplomacy (he refuses, for instance, any request of the Catho-l i c Bishop without considering i t f i r s t , p. 5 2 ) , and his ab-sence of discernment as to the seriousness of the danger threat-ening the city, prove him to be a very incompetent judge. Johann Bockelson, Matthisson's successor, is a judge of a different order. Realistic and shrewd, the newly elected King of the Anabaptists has the last word in matters of l i f e and death (although he has, pro forma, invested Knipperdollinck with the symbolic sword of justice). It is he who orders that the starving women and children of Minister be k i l l e d by their own soldiers before they run into certain death at the hands of the enemy outside the city gates. He does not, however, have Knipperdollinck executed when the latter resigns voluntar-i l y from his position as a judge and commits the unpardonable blunder of passing the sword of justice to the lowly night-watchman. Bockelson merely orders that the "offender" be re-moved from his sight. "Ubergebt ihn den Eingeweiden der Erde, einem Ort, wie ein Grab, fern von unserem Ohr, dass wir sein 13 Stohnen n i c h t vernehmen" (p. 8 5 ) . T h i s sentence, although p r a i s e d unisono by the court as a solomonic judgment, sur-passes i n c r u e l t y the p e n a l t y o f immediate death. In the f i r s t - m e n t i o n e d i n s t a n c e o f Bockelson*s judgment, an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the r e a l s i t u a t i o n , namely c e r t a i n death f o r the s t a r v i n g women and c h i l d r e n who are attempting t o f l e e the c i t y and run i n t o the enemies hands, appears to j u s t i f y h i s order, whereas, i n the second case, i t i s more l i k e l y i n s u l t e d v a n i t y which l e t s him take revenge on Knipper-d o l l i n c k by removing him from the s i g h t o f the p l e a s u r e -l o v i n g c o u r t . K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , on the oth e r hand, proves h i m s e l f t o be a m e r c i f u l judge towards Bockelson. When they r e v e r s e r o l e s ( i n the scene before the dance on the r o o f - t o p s of Miinster), the former now on the King's throne, i t i s at f i r s t a solemn re c k o n i n g . "Wer hat d i c h zum Konig gemacht?" K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k asks. "Ich b i n gekommen, Rechenschaft von d i r zu ve r l a n g e n , Konig Bockelson", and then adds the ominous q u e s t i o n : "Wo i s t mein Weib K a t h e r i n a und wo i s t mein Tochterchen J u d i t h ? " (p. 105) . Bockelson, whose r i c h e s (which he had taken from the wealthy merchant) are now exhausted has to admit t h a t o n l y K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s p o s s e s s i o n s had enabled him to l e a d , f o r a l i m i t e d time, a l i f e o f lu x u r y and splendour. In a d d i -t i o n , he has to confess the d r e a d f u l t r u t h t h a t the merchant's 1 wife and daughter are both dead ( t h a t Bockelson h i i h s e l f has k i l l e d K a t h e r i n a and has, i n d i r e c t l y , caused a l s o J u d i t h ' s 14 death i s not e l a b o r a t e d upon). K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , however, does not condemn h i s opponent but proposes i n s t e a d t h a t they become r e c o n c i l e d and dance t o g e t h e r . K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s k i n d of j u s t i c e seems to confirm the B i b l e word: "Mein i s t d i e Rache". By not t a k i n g h i s j u s t i f i e d revenge on Bockel-son, he transcends the merely human asp e c t o f j u s t i c e and r e f l e c t s God's mercy i n s t e a d . Besides the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d judges i n Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama, th e r e are two more s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r s endowed with j u d i c i a l power which both, although f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, r e s e n t . The Emperor C h a r l e s V o b v i o u s l y d e t e s t s the r o l e of a judge. There are two main reasons g i v e n f o r t h i s : the v a s t n e s s of h i s empire, and h i s e x c e s s i v e l o v e f o r o r d e r and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . C h a r l e s ' V statement: "Die Z a h l meiner Landereien i s t so g r o s s , dass i c h s i e n i c h t einmal auswendig aufsagen kann" (p. 68) i n d i c a t e s the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of c o n t r o l l i n g and r u l i n g j u s t l y over so v a s t an empire. (The p l a y w r i g h t seems to s a t -i r i z e here any o v e r - s i z e d empire, s t a t e o r o r g a n i z a t i o n as he does too, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n h i s n o v e l Grieche sucht G r i e c h i n (1955)» where the head of a l a r g e chemical combine has almost completely l o s t touch with the lower l e v e l s o f h i s o r g a n i z a -t i o n , i s thus unable to e f f e c t i v e l y prevent c o r r u p t i o n , due to the sheer i m p o s s i b i l i t y of b e i n g informed, and r e t i r e s i n -to the a l o o f n e s s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . ) In a d d i t i o n , t o the v a s t n e s s of the Holy Roman Empire, 15 i t i s the r u l e r ' s o b s e s s i o n with o r d e r l i n e s s which prevents him from b e i n g an e f f e c t i v e and j u s t r u l e r . Stage d i r e c t i o n s are t h a t C h a r l e s V should s i t " i n einem Raum s t r e n g s t e r Ord-nung" (p. 6 8 ) . The only i n d i s p e n s a b l e person i n the cou r t i s the Master o f Ceremonies who looks a f t e r the smooth f u n c t i o n -i n g o f the minutest d e t a i l s i n the Emperor's l i f e . A n y t h i n g i n t r u d i n g i n t o t h i s s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d l i f e s t y l e , as f o r i n -stance the "Reichstag" i n Worms, i s c o n s i d e r e d by Ch a r l e s V to be a nuisance (p. 69)> Although i t i s the Emperor's dream to contemplate the essence o f j u s t i c e i n h i s o l d age, he remains a l o o f to the urgent problems o f the day. "Ich l i e b e n i c h t das p l a n l o s e S p i e l des Z u f a l l s " , he s t a t e s , " i c h bewundere d i e r e g e l -massigen Bahnen der G e s t i r n e " (p. 6 8 ) , and i t i s i n t h i s s p i r i t t h a t the urgent request f o r t r o o p s by the Bishop o f Munster i s d e a l t with. Here, the r u l e r ' s f i n a l , u njust and u n r e a l i s t i c " s o l u t i o n " to the Bishop's dilemma i s the prom-i s e of a hundred and f i f t y i m p e r i a l s o l d i e r s of the poorest q u a l i t y (p. 7*0. I t i s only when the Bishop mentions t h a t Johann B o c k e l -son, the "King" o f the A n a b a p t i s t s , had p u b l i c l y burned the p o r t r a i t s o f the Emperor and the Pope, t h a t C h a r l e s V i s roused from h i s non-committal a t t i t u d e and does not h e s i t a t e to condemn the o f f e n d e r t o . prolonged t o r t u r e and to exe c u t i o n . T h i s sentence, though seemingly j u s t i n the eyes of the world, i s n e v e r t h e l e s s based on i n j u r e d p r i d e on the 16 p a r t of the Emperor and reminds one of Bockelson's cowardly d i s p o s a l of K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k . As opposed to the o t h e r human judges i n Es s t e h t ge- s c h r i e b e n , the Bishop i s perhaps the most c l e a r - s i g h t e d per-son with j u d i c i a l power (and may express the p l a y w r i g h t ' s , view on j u s t i c e b e s t ) . He i s , however, a l s o the most r e l u c t a n t to e x e r c i s e h i s a u t h o r i t y as a judge. In the dialogue with the r i c h merchant K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , he makes e x p l i c i t h i s per-c e p t i o n of human and d i v i n e j u s t i c e . To the angry reproach of the, a t t h a t time, s t i l l r i c h and i n f l u e n t i a l Knipper-d o l l i n c k ! " I h r habt k e i n Recht, uns zu r i c h t e n " , the Bishop r e p l i e s w e a r i l y : "Es geht n i c h t um G e r e e h t i g k e i t . . . . t Vor Gott s i n d w i r beide im Unrecht, T a u f e r und B i s c h o f " (p. 3 7 ) . The polemic ends with the humble admittance of the C a t h o l i c d i g n i t a r y t h a t he i s no l e s s g u i l t y than h i s a d v e r s a r i e s , the A n a b a p t i s t s . "Bekampfe i c h n i c h t Cauchl meine Peinde," he says to the p a r t i n g merchant, " B i n i c h n i c h t mehr a l s du, a l s dass i c h d i c h segnen konnte?" (p. 3 8 ) . When K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s daughter t r i e s to b r i n g about j u s t i c e i n her own way, the Bishop a g a i n wants to a v o i d exer-c i s i n g h i s a u t h o r i t y as a judge. Although he r e a l i z e s her i n t e n t i o n (to k i l l him as the Old Testament J u d i t h had k i l l e d H o l o f e r n e s ) he t r i e s to d ismiss her, s e n s i n g her s e l f l e s s motives. I t i s only a f t e r her stubborn r e f u s a l t o leave t h a t he can no l o n g e r shun h i s j u d i c i a l duty and has to sentence her to death, a judgment she f r e e l y a c c e p t s . P e r f e c t j u s t i c e , 1? then, as these i n s t a n c e s i l l u s t r a t e , cannot be e x e r c i s e d by man s i n c e h i s judgment w i l l always tend to be l i m i t e d by i n -c a p a b i l i t y , v a n i t y or, a t bes t , the r e a l i z a t i o n o f human im-p e r f e c t i o n . Besides the judges i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , there are the e x e c u t i o n e r s who have t h e i r impact as w e l l i n t h i s drama, although not as s t r i k i n g l y as the judges p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . The e x e c u t i o n e r s have to c a r r y out the judgments made but have no decision-making power, with the e x c e p t i o n of Bo c k e l -son, who assumes both r o l e s s e v e r a l times. In one i n s t a n c e , he k i l l s the bla c k s m i t h Mollenhock with h i s sword i n the middle o f the ni g h t when the l a t t e r w aits to be hanged i n the morning f o r attempted t r e a s o n i n defense of the c i t y . Bockelson seems to commit t h i s c r u e l and s u p e r f l u o u s deed i n order t o emphasize h i s newly a c q u i r e d a u t h o r i t y as K i n g of. the B a p t i s t s . "Ich kann d i c h t o t e n , " he says p r o u d l y t o the captured man, t i e d up on a p o l e , " i c h kann d i c h von diesem P f a h l e r l o s e n " (p. 67) thereby assuming the double f u n c t i o n of a judge and an e x e c u t i o n e r . When Bockelson k i l l s h i s former "Queen" K a t h e r i n a , whom he has caught i n an' attempt at. b r i b e r y a s w e l l as'the i n t e n t i o n of f l e e i n g the c i t y and see k i n g refuge with the enemy, he takes revenge by t r e a c h e r o u s l y k i l l i n g h e r , i n a l a s t p a s s i o n -ate embrace, with h i s dagger (p. 98). Again, he assumes the r i g h t t o make a s w i f t judgment and to execute i t without g i v i n g her a chance f o r f l i g h t o r defense. ( C r i m i n a l as t h i s deed 18 may appear, Bockelson has not k i l l e d an innocent woman. K a t h e r i n a has, a f t e r a l l , l e f t h e r husband K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k and v o l u n t a r i l y j o i n e d the usurper o f power and wealth. Now, the same man with whom she had shared g l o r y and luxury comes to be her judge and ex e c u t i o n e r . ) The most c o l o u r f u l p o r t r a y a l of an e x e c u t i o n e r appears i n the scene on the market-place. T h i s s i n i s t e r c h a r a c t e r i s the focus o f the towns people's a t t e n t i o n and ad m i r a t i o n . "Kolossal'." exclaims a young g i r l , "Diese Armer und B e i n e r l " (p. 40), and, l a t e r on: "Wie e i n Gott i s t so e i n S c h a r f r i c h -t e r . " (p. 42). With t h i s , she expresses the awe of the masses towards someone having the a u t h o r i t y as w e l l as the p h y s i c a l , s t r e n g t h and s k i l l to execute j u s t i c e . (A s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s the gymnast i n Der Besuch der a l t e n Dame (1956), by the same p l a y w r i g h t . He too i s an embodiment o f brute s t r e n g t h . ) Towards the end of t h i s drama, one more type of execu-t i o n e r e n t e r s the scene. As opposed to h i s predecessor t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s not emphasizing h i s p h y s i c a l prowess but i s r a t h e r a c a r i c a t u r e o f a would-be-poet. To the m a t t e r - o f - f a c t statement of the guard: "Wir mussen noch d r e i -hundert Stuck tLeichen) b e s i c h t i g e n , " the ex e c u t i o n e r , i n h i s t u r n , quotes from S c h i l l e r ' s Braut von Messina: "Das Leben i s t der Guter hochstes n i c h t , der Ub e l g r o s s t e s aber i s t d i e Schuld" (p. 1 1 2 ) , thus g i v i n g an almost p h i l o s o p h i c a l bent to the former's dry comment. ( T h i s type o f e x e c u t i o n e r appears too i n Durrenmatt's, E i n E n g e l kommt nach Babylon, ( 1 9 5 3 ) . 19 In t h i s comedy, i t i s S i d i , the hangman, who would r a t h e r spend h i s time among b e a u t i f u l antiques than working on the gallows.) With the last-mentioned e x e c u t i o n e r i n Es s t e h t  g e s c h r i e b e n , the author has endowed t h i s otherwise s i n i s t e r c h a r a c t e r with a h i g h l y c o m i c a l aspect. J u s t i c e , then, i s executed by three d i f f e r e n t types of c h a r a c t e r s : the s e l f - a p p o i n t e d Bockelson who appears to r e l i s h both, judging and executing; the anonymous type on the market-p l a c e of Munster, who c a r r i e s out p u b l i c executions to the s a d i s t i c d e l i g h t o f the onl o o k e r s ; and the last-mentioned, the e x e c u t i o n e r who would r a t h e r be a poet. As b e f i t s the baroque r i c h n e s s of t h i s drama, the c o l o u r f u l v a r i e t y o f e x e c u t i o n e r s adds to the imagery c o n t r i b u t i n g to the t o p i c of j u s t i c e . Besides the symbols of j u s t i c e d i s c u s s e d , the judges and the e x e c u t i o n e r s , there i s the s i g n i f i c a n t a spect o f an imma-nent kind of j u s t i c e r e v e a l e d by c e r t a i n conspicuous t r a i t s of some of the c h a r a c t e r s i n Es s t e h t geschrieben. In the t r a d i t i o n of the "Welttheater", a l l seven deadly s i n s are r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s work. The most obvious ones, how-ever, are p r i d e , l u s t and g l u t t o n y and these three may lend themselves best to i l l u s t r a t e immanent j u s t i c e . S e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and p r i d e are e v i d e n t i n the a t t i t u d e of the A n a b a p t i s t s . A l r e a d y i n the f i r s t scene, the tone i s s e t as to what they b e l i e v e to be t h e i r m i s s i o n , as w e l l as t h e i r p o s i t i o n on the day o f reckoning. They c l a i m to be f a u l t l e s s , i . e . "reinen Leibes" (p. 13), they believe that "der Erdkreis Cwird) . . . i n die Hande der Taufer f a l l e n . . . (p. 1 5 ) , and that "Zum Zeichen des Bundes [wird} er LGottl seinen Knechten eine Stadt geben, von der sie die Erde bezwingen werden" (p. 15), and that a new Solomon w i l l r i s e from t h e i r midst (a role which Bockelson then assumes). As to t h e i r p o s i t i o n on Judgment Day, the Anabaptists believe they are "erwahlt, zur Rechten des Herrn zu sitzen" (p. 14). This l a t t e r , very dangerous assumption that they are the chosen race, predestined to rule over other individuals or nations who may or may not accept t h e i r " s u p e r i o r i t y " , rules out any genuine justice and i s possibly an i n d i r e c t r e f e r -ence to the self-destructive pride of the Third Reich. The downfall of the proud and self-righteous Baptist:; populace of Munster i s dramatically presented as well. The knight Johann von Buren, one of the m i l i t a r y commanders of the combined troops of Catholics and Lutherans, conjures power-f u l images of defeat and destruction. "Stadt! StadtJ", he c a l l s out, "Deine Mauern sinken dahin, deine Turme zerbrechen. Blutige Nacht. Bl u t i g e r Mond. Du schreckliche Fackel des Sie-ges . . . Stunde der Menschenjagd . . .Tod: Tod: Bleiches A n t l i t z v o l l Verwesung und Mord" (p. 111). An a l l u s i o n to the "ghost-towns" of Germany af t e r the l a s t bomber-raids i n the Second World War might be seen here. Immmanent ju s t i c e , as pertains to the s i n of pride, i s impressively i l l u s t r a t e d i n the development of the Anabaptist's f a t e . P r i d e i s , however, not o n l y evident as a c o l l e c t i v e g u i l t of the A n a b a p t i s t s , but i s even more c l e a r l y expressed i n i n -d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s . K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , although presented as having achieved almost s a i n t - l i k e s t a t u r e before h i s death i n h i s u n q u e s t i o n i n g acceptance of God's j u s t i c e i s , before he g i v e s up a l l h i s p o s s e s s i o n s and becomes a f o o l of God, not f r e e of self-righteousness and p r i d e h i m s e l f . In h i s dialogue with the Bishop he too, not u n l i k e the B a p t i s t s , quotes God and C h r i s t as b e i n g on t h e i r s i d e . "Gott wird uns h e l f e n " , he says and adds p r o u d l y : "Wer wider uns i s t , i s t wider C h r i s t -us" (p. 35 ) . The Bishop's r e p l y : " V i e l l e i c h t w i r d Gott keinem von uns h e l f e n i n diesem Kampf" (p. 35)» expresses not o n l y the wisdom of o l d age but a l s o the i n s i g h t t h a t God's help should not be taken f o r granted by any i n d i v i d u a l , group or n a t i o n . (Had not a l s o the s o l d i e r s of the T h i r d Reich the presumptuous c l a i m "Gott mit uns" engraved on the b e l t - b u c k l e s of t h e i r uniforms!) Since K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k has f a i l e d , by s h a r i n g , f o r some time, the A n a b a p t i s t s p r i d e and s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s , immanent j u s t i c e l e t s him s u f f e r the same f a t e as b e f a l l s the o t h e r B a p t i s t s , namely a slow and p a i n f u l death on the t o r t u r e - w h e e l . U n l i k e K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , however, i n whose l i f e p r i d e has had o n l y a temporary i n f l u e n c e but who then matured to true h u m i l i t y , Johann Bockelson expresses an e v i l k i n d of p r i d e which manifests i t s e l f i n unscrupulous and manipulative be-h a v i o u r . The only aspect o f redeeming grace, p r e v e n t i n g t h i s 22 c h a r a c t e r from becoming a demonic hero, is the i n h e r e n t humor of most s i t u a t i o n s where h i s p r i d e i s concerned. H i s g r a n d ^ a r r i v a l i n Munster has a l r e a d y a h i g h l y c o m i c a l e f f e c t . When he wakes up i n a d u s t - c a r t , where he has recovered from h i s a l c o h o l i c stupor, he p r o c l a i m s , to an audience of two street-sweepers and a c i t y - g u a r d , that they see before them not only a B a p t i s t but one of t h e i r g r e a t e s t prophets. To the r e s p e c t f u l i n q u i r i e s o f the guard as to h i s f u r t h e r p l a n s , he s t a t e s , ("mit gnadiger Handbewegung" ), u s i n g a l r e a d y the r o y a l t h i r d - p e r s o n pronoun: "Wir gedenken uns so b e i l a u f i g zum Herrn der Erde zu erheben" (p. 2 2 ) , a g o a l he claims to achieve "mit e i n e r l'acherlichen L e i c h t i g k e i t " (p. 2 2 ) , thanks to h i s i n t i m a t e connections w i t h the a r c h a n g e l G a b r i e l who, he t e l l s h i s credulous l i s t e n e r s , had c a r r i e d him through the a i r from Leyden i n H o l l a n d to Munster i n Westfalen i n a matter of h a l f an hour. The demonic q u a l i t y of Bockelson's p r i d e , however, be-comes e v i d e n t when he r e l a t e s : " Ich werde mit den Menschen wie mit l e i c h t e n B a l l e n s p i e l e n " (p. 2 3 ) . A f t e r he has manipul-ated the A n a b a p t i s t s to e l e c t him as t h e i r King, h i s next step i s "das Reich Gottes" Ci.e. the kingdom o f the A n a b a p t i s t s ] " i n s e i n e r H e r r l i c h k e i t auf Erden zu e r r i c h t e n " (p. 8 3 ) . F o r t h i s purpose, he has designed a map of the world i n the middle of which, he t e l l s h i s s u b j e c t s , " i h r mich . . . auf einem Thron e r b l i c k e n kb'nnt" (p. 83) and he then goes on g r a c i o u s l y to d i s t r i b u t e the c o n t i n e n t s a c c o r d i n g to h i s whims and p r e f e r -23 ences (pp. 8 3 - 4 ) . S h o r t l y before the defeat o f the A n a b a p t i s t s and h i s own d o w n f a l l , Bockelson's p r i d e reaches i t s climax i n a dialogue (which a c t u a l l y i s a monologue) with Mother E a r t h , where he d e c l a r e s t Der Himmel wolbt s i c h um mich wie e i n Konigsmantel. Ich trage d i c h , Himmel . A . Ich w i l l den Himmel. Ich w i l l i h n mit meinen Handen herabzwingen, Mutter Erde. Mit seinem Feuer und mit s e i n e n Sternen w i l l i c h d i r einen Teppich b e r e i t e n (p. 97). T h i s d i a l o g u e evokes powerful a r c h e t y p a l images. An i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n of the male with the heavenly f o r c e s can be seen here as opposed to the submissive, maternal nature of the e a r t h . Bockelson, a t any r a t e , f e e l s h i m s e l f to be the r u l e r of heaven and e a r t h and h i s p r i d e , here, takes on almost cosmic p r o p o r t i o n s . When he makes a s i m i l a r statement, however, i n the night-scene b e f o r e he k i l l s the b l a c k s m i t h Mollenhock: "Ich werde Erde und Himmel beherrschenJ", the b l a c k s m i t h answers h i s e x e c u t i o n e r w i t h the p r o p h e t i c a l words: "Die Din-ge e n t f l i e s s e n wie Wasser den Handen" (p. 66). By s t a r k con-t r a s t s , then, Durrenmatt i n d i c a t e s the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of imma-nent j u s t i c e which f o l l o w s as a consequence of Bockelson's s a t a n i c p r i d e . He who wants to t e a r down the heavens and claims to h o l d the e a r t h has to s u f f e r an e q u a l l y dramatic d o w n f a l l . F i r s t l y , he becomes a madman and f o o l , dancing with K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k on the r o o f - t o p s of Munster, then he has to s u f f e r on the t o r t u r e - w h e e l u n t i l he can exhale h i s l a s t b r e a t h , and t h i r d l y , he ends i n the same k i n d of d u s t - c a r t 2k from which he s t a r t e d h i s comet-like c a r e e r , without having found the i n s i g h t and mercy h i s a n t a g o n i s t K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k f i n d s i n the end. S e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and p r i d e , then, whether they be t r a i t s o f i n d i v i d u a l s or groups of people, may t e m p o r a r i l y l e a d to g r e a t s u c c e s s , but u l t i m a t e l y immanent j u s t i c e w i l l manifest i t s e l f i n equal p r o p o r t i o n . T h i s , I t h i n k , the p l a y w r i g h t has p o r t r a y e d c o n v i n c i n g l y i n these t h r e e most conspicuous examples. Immanent j u s t i c e i s , however, not o n l y demonstrated i n the deadly s i n of p r i d e but a l s o i n the e x c e s s i v e s e n s u a l i t y of a number of c h a r a c t e r s i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n . Even though the consequences here are not as o v e r t as are those of s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and p r i d e , t h i s t r a i t n e v e r t h e l e s s bears i t s a p p r o p r i a t e f r u i t s , as i s expressed throughout the p l a y . Johann Bockelson seems a g a i n to be the most obvious i l l u s t r a t i o n of the s i n of l e c h e r y . H i s s e n s u a l i t y i s as e x c e s s i v e as i s h i s p r i d e . In h i s i n i t i a l scene, with the before-mentioned c i t y - g u a r d , he unabashedly admits: "Ich l e b -te i n Leyden i n g r o s s e r Sunde des F l e i s c h e s " (p. 22), an e l o -quent statement the guard c o r r e c t l y i n t e r p r e t s as "Ihro Gnaden l i e b t e d i e Weiber" (p. 22), the guard h i m s e l f b e i n g "von e t -was s i n n l i c h e r Natur" (p. 2k), as he l a t e r c o n f i d e s i n Bockel-son. Bockelson*s i n s a t i a b l e s e n s u a l i t y comes to the f o r e i n h i s l i f e - s t y l e a f t e r he has taken over K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s wealth. And he not o n l y takes p o s s e s s i o n of the l a t t e r * s b e a u t i f u l w i f e but a c q u i r e s a number of young v i r g i n s as w e l l , whose so l e purpose i t i s to wait on him and to g r a t i f y h i s immense s e x u a l a p p e t i t e s . As t h e r e i s no l i m i t to h i s p r i d e , t h e r e i s no moderation i n s e n s u a l i t y n o t i c e a b l e e i t h e r . B o c k e l son's ambition i s to become "wie Salomo und d i e Z a h l t s e i -n e r l Weiber wie der Sand am Meer" (p. ^ 5 ) . He a l s o s e t s h i s eyes on Jan Matthisson's wife D i v a r a f o r whom he p l a n s to w r i t "hunderttausend G a z e l l e n g e d i c h t e " (p. ^ 5 ) , i n the s t y l e of the Song of Songs, a f u r t h e r parody of the g r e a t K i n g Solomon. There are v i c t i m s of l e s s e r s t a t u r e too, such as the kitchen-maid Warwara of the Anabaptists' r o y a l household with whose body Bockelson seems to be i n t i m a t e l y f a m i l i a r (p. 100), a c c o r d i n g to the accurate d e s c r i p t i o n he g i v e s her admirer, a young c i t y - g u a r d . H i s o f f e r , t h a t they exchange r o l e s f o r the n i g h t , i . e . he, the K i n g , s t a n d i n g on guard and the young man v i s i t i n g the kitchen-maid i n the former's p l a c e , meets with l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e on the p a r t of the young l o v e r . A f u r t h e r conquest of t h i s mock-Solomon i s a t a i l o r ' s daughter who i s used by Bockelson ( s h o r t l y before he becomes a king) f o r a double purpose. About her, he p r o u d l y r e l a t e s : E i n Madchen erhob s i c h , g e w a l t i g i n der Rede, eine S c h n e i d e r g t o e h t e r , noch Jungfrau v o r wenigen Tagen, deren Schonheit mich e r q u i c k t , welche Gesichte s i e h t und mich s e l b s t e r b l i c k t , s i t z e n d auf dem Thron Sa-. lomos (p. 56 ) . S u p e r s t i t i o n and s e n s u a l i t y both are used by Bockelson to f u r t h e r h i s ambitions and, a t the same time, s a t i s f y h i s l u s t . 26 L a s t but not l e a s t , the K i n g of the A n a b a p t i s t s i s able to seduce J u d i t h K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k by g r a n t i n g her her f a t h e r ' s l i f e . He shows no s c r u p l e s i n u s i n g blasphemy i n order to g a i n J u d i t h ' s consent, when he meets her i n h i s moonlit garden i "Der Mond spannt durch den Park e i n Band von S i l b e r zum P a l a s t " he s t a r t s r o m a n t i c a l l y , then adds c o n v i n c i n g l y J "Gott s e l b s t , G r a f i n , hat uns diese S t r a s s e v o r g e z e i g t " (p. 8 8 ) , and l i k e her mother be f o r e her, she f o l l o w s him i n t o h i s s e n s u a l t r a p . With t h i s i s f u l f i l l e d one of the i n i t i a l claims Bockelson had made e a r l y i n the p l a y ( i n the dialogue w i t h the guard): "Ich werde seine t K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s l Frau h e i r a t e n . . . Oder seine T o c h t e r . . . Oder beide zusammen" (p. 2 5 ) , to which the guard can only r e p l y with awe: "Ihro Gnaden denken g r o s s z u g i g " (p. 2 5 ) . A l e s s r e s p e c t f u l r e a c t i o n to Bockelson's g r e a t s e x u a l a p p e t i t e comes from the Count of Hessen, a v i r i l e man h i m s e l f , w i t h not o n l y one, but two l e g a l wives (with Luther's s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n ) . In t h i s comical p a r t of the dialogue with the Bishop, who approaches the P r o t e s t a n t Count f o r troops a g a i n s t the A n a b a p t i s t s , von Hessen's r e a c t i o n to Bockelson's "harem" i s q u i t e venomous: von Hessen: "Wie i c h gehort habe, s o l i der Konig der T a u f e r mehrere Frauen haben?" Bishop: "Er i s t a l l e r d i n g s mit f i i n f z e h n Frauen verheiratet»" von Hessen: "Eine ungeheure Z a h l . " Bishop: "Etwas v i e l , Hoheit." von Hessen: ( f i n s t e r ) : "Ich werde d i e s e n u n g l u c k l i c h e n Narren mit e i g e n e r Hand i n Stiicke r e i s s e n " (p. 91). Count von Hessen's anger, however, about the l a r g e number of wives Bockelson possesses can h a r d l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as envy, s i n c e the former i s i n a predicament a l r e a d y with o n l y two wives. To the Bishop's keen o b s e r v a t i o n (von Hessen having been one of h i s former p u p i l s ) s " I h r habt euch v e r a n d e r t , Ho-h e i t " , the Count answers somewhat w e a r i l y : "Ich habe zwei Frau-en g e h e i r a t e t , Eminenz" (p. 9 0 ) , The Bishop's request f o r t r o o p s under the command of the Count comes to von Hessen as a welcome r e l i e f although he pretends t h a t l e a v i n g h i s wives would mean a great s a c r i f i c e f o r him. Both of the j e a l o u s women, however, i n s i s t on accompanying him and s h a r i n g h i s l i f e i n camp, to which the h a p l e s s husband can only r e p l y C'sehr dumpf"): "Die v e r f l u c h t e S i n n l i c h k e i t " (p. 9 2 ) . The Count, then, i s trapped, by h i s own c h o i c e , with two wives, each one g r o t e s q u e l y echoing the other i n t h e i r speech ( i n d i -c a t i n g t hat two of the same are too much of a good t h i n g , hence the admitted weariness on the p a r t of the husband). Immanent j u s t i c e i s thus s u b t l y made v i s i b l e i n t h i s h i g h l y c o m i c a l i n t e r l u d e i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n . Another i l l u s t r a t i o n of immanent j u s t i c e r e g a r d i n g i l l i c -i t s e x u a l a c t i v i t y i n army camps and m i l i t a r y campaigns i s r e v e a l e d i n the dialogue between von Buren and Mengerssen, two w a r r i o r s who r e l a t e to each other the p l e a s u r e s and dangers of army l i f e . Von Biiren r e g r e t s the l o s s of h i s f i n a n c i a l means due to an a f f a i r he engaged i n when f i g h t i n g i n I t a l y . " I ch f i e l e i n e r paduanischen-vSignorina i n d i e Arme" 28 (p. 5 4 ) , he t e l l s h i s companion. As to the i m p e r i a l troops which are to a s s i s t a g a i n s t the A n a b a p t i s t s of Munster, von Buren notes t h a t many of them have s y p h i l i s , c o l l o q u i a l l y d e p i c t e d as "Franzosenkrankheit" and Mengerssen sums up these k i n d s of p l e a s u r e s and t h e i r consequences: "Es i s t e i n ent-s e t z l i c h e r F e h l g r i f f des Himmels, d i e hbchste Freude mit e i n e r so k l a g l i c h e n K r a n k h e i t zu behaften" (p. 5 5 ) . Two more male c h a r a c t e r s i n Es s t e h t geschrieben, may i l l u s t r a t e the immanent j u s t i c e which i s i n h e r e n t i n e x c e s s i v e s e n s u a l i t y : one i s the t r a g i - c o m i c f i g u r e of Jan Matthisson, the prophet and l e a d e r of the A n a b a p t i s t s , the other the a r i s -t o c r a t i c Bishop of Munster, Franz von Waldeck. When Mat t h i s s o n i n t r o d u c e s h i m s e l f to the audience, he mentions t h a t he had j u s t " d i e Arme der wundersch'onen D i v a r a v e r l a s s e n " (p. 4 9 ) . There i s a g r e a t s e n s u a l attachment n o t i c e a b l e i n t h i s other-wise s t e r n , f a n a t i c prophet to h i s b e a u t i f u l w i f e , and Johann Bockelson shrewdly knows how t o e x p l o i t t h i s weakness i n M a t t h i s s o n f o r h i s own ends. He counts on the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t , s i n c e the a u t o c r a t i c l e a d e r of the B a p t i s t s has s t r i c t l y f o r b i d d e n h i s f l o c k to prepare a n y t h i n g f o r the defense of the c i t y such as r e p a i r i n g the c i t y w a l l s , he would not be on guard d u r i n g the n i g h t s but more l i k e l y i n the company of h i s a t t r a c -t i v e w i f e . Bockelson's advice to the o t h e r c o u n c i l members then i s to take advantage of t h i s s i t u a t i o n , a s s u r i n g them t h a t : "Der eine [Matthisson] bewundert i n den Nachten den Busen s e i n e r Frau und der andere tthe A n a b a p t i s t o f the c o u n c i l ] 29 f i i l l t Locher i n der Stadtmauer aus" (p. 5 3 ) . Jan M a t t hisson, on the other hand, condemns the C a t h o l i c Bishop as " e i n e r der v e r t r o c k n e t s t e n Lebemanner . . . d i e je iiber d i e Erde gewandelt und der eine Konkubine h a t t e , d i e Anna Pohlmann h i e s s " (p. 4 9 ) . The B a p t i s t s a l s o accuse the Bishop of having, even i n h i s o l d age, "Kebsweiber und Lust-knaben" (p. 1 5 ) . (The perverse s e n s u a l i t y o f the church : d i g n i t a r y c o u l d , however, a l s o be an a l l u s i o n to the corrup-t i o n of the C a t h o l i c Church, p r e v a l e n t b e f o r e the onset of the Reformation.) Among the female c h a r a c t e r s , where s e n s u a l i t y u l t i m a t e l y l e a d s to t h e i r doom, are K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s wife and daughter. K a t h e r i n a i s d e p i c t e d , by both her husband and Bockelson, as a wholesome, sensuous beauty. K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k says of her: "Mein Weib i s t schb'n, Ihre Haut i s t wie der Schnee" (p. 26), and Bockelson compliments the r i c h merchant, when they f i r s t meet: " E i n Weib mit e i n e r f e s t e n B r u s t " (p. 2 9 ) . K a t h e r i n a i s e n t i c e d by Bockelson*s s e n s u a l i t y and i s not w i l l i n g to f o l l o w her f i r s t husband i n t o h i s self-imp o s e d l i f e o f p o verty and r i d i c u l e . To her daughter J u d i t h , however, she t r i e s to j u s t i f y the choice she has made: "Ich b i n nur e i n schwaches Weib", she c r i e s , "und was vermbgen w i r gegen unser B l u t . . . E r t B o c k e l s o n l hat von mir B e s i t z genommen und i c h kann n i c h t s anderes denken denn i n n " (pp. 46-7). In a c t u a l i t y , she has r a t h e r f a l l e n a v i c t i m to her own p h y s i c a l p a s s i o n s . She i s aware, though, of the p o s s i b l e d i r e consequences of her 30 s e n s u a l i t y . "Ich weiss," she says, "dass v i e l Ungluck s e i n w i r d und v i e l e Tranen, dass f u r jede Lust uns Ve r z w e i f l u n g wartet" (p. 4 7 ) . Immanent j u s t i c e u l t i m a t e l y leads her ( i n her l a s t scene) again i n t o the arms of her seducer who, i n the d i s g u i s e of the young c i t y - g u a r d , r e c o g n i z e s her i n t e n t i o n of l e a v i n g him and f l e e i n g the c i t y i n o r d e r t o j o i n the ene-my, and k i l l s her m e r c i l e s s l y . J u d i t h , K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s daughter, whom Bockelson, when he f i r s t sees her, p r a i s e s as "eine J u n g f r a u . Wie S t r a h l der Sonne i n Morgenwolken" (p. 2 9 ) , r a d i a t e s n a t u r a l goodness and innocence. And y e t , l i k e Margaretha i n Goethe's Faust I, she succumbs to the s e n s u a l , experienced man who steps i n t o her l i f e at an opportune moment. But remorse about the l o s s of her innocence soon torments her. Her f a t h e r , to whom she confesses h er predicament, consoles her w i t h almost the same words her mother had used f o r her own j u s t i f i c a t i o n ( o n l y here they are posed as q u e s t i o n s ) : " B i s t du n i c h t e i n schwaches Weib? Hast du n i c h t d e i n e r Mutter B l u t ? " (p. 9 3 ) . Knipper-d o l l i n c k , who, i n h i s dark dungeon, has reached a s t a t e of acceptance and harmony with a l l c r e a t u r e s , knows t h a t God's f o r g i v e n e s s i s c e r t a i n f o r J u d i t h ' s human weakness (which i s f r e e of s e l f i s h motives, as opposed to her mother's f a i l u r e ) . When J u d i t h , aware o f her own se n s u a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s s i n c e she became Bockelson's m i s t r e s s , goes to the Bishop with the i n t e n t i o n of u s i n g her feminine charms t o seduce and then to k i l l him (as her name-sake i n the Old Testament had k i l l e d 31 H o l o f e r n e s ) , i n order to save Minister from, so she b e l i e v e s , i t s arch-enemy, she i s a c t i n g a g a i n f o r u n s e l f i s h reasons. Indeed, her endeavour i s h e r o i c s i n c e she r i s k s her own l i f e i n t h i s v e n t u r e , should i t f a i l . . T h e Bishop, however, not only a h i g h d i g n i t a r y o f h i s church but a l s o a connoisseur of women, sees through her p l a n and t h i s i n e v i t a b l y leads to her death which she (again u n l i k e her'mother) f r e e l y a c c e p t s . There i s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e , then, between the two women d i s c u s s e d here. K a t h e r i n a r e p r e s e n t s the m a t e r i a l l y and sen-s u a l l y minded , woman, a type who always j o i n s the one o f f e r i n g the most advantages. ( T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s d e a l t w i t h a g a i n by Durrenmatt i n h i s l a t e r work, Die Ehe des Herrn  M i s s i s s i p p i d 9 5 2 ) , i n the person o f A n a s t a s i a . ) Beauty and s e n s u a l i t y are used by t h i s type of woman as a means to her ends. J u d i t h , on the o t h e r hand, r e p r e s e n t s the woman who i s v i r t u o u s by nature. She i s a p o r t r a y a l o f the u n t a i n t e d c h a r a c t e r , a t t r a c t i n g i t s o p p o s i t e . A union between such con-t r a s t i n g p o l e s ( J u d i t h - Bo c k e l s o n ) , however, almost i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s to the s a c r i f i c e of the v i r t u o u s one (thereby m a i n t a i n i n g the b a s i c u n c h a n g e a b i l i t y of t h i s c h a r a c t e r , as i s a l s o de-p i c t e d i n the f a t e of Margaretha i n Faust I ) . J u d i t h , too, d e s p i t e her "downfa l l " from innocence, remains unchanged i n her true nature as i s expressed by her t e a r s of remorse ( i n the d i a l o g u e with h e r f a t h e r i n the dungeon, p. 9 3 ) . In her encounter w i t h the Bishop i n the army camp she laments: "Mein L e i b i s t zerbrochen und meine Seele e r l o s c h e n " (p. 9 8 ) . By 32 her h u m i l i t y , though, i n a d m i t t i n g her weakness and her w i l l -ingness to r i s k her l i f e f o r the sake of o t h e r s , she main* t a i n s her b a s i c wholeness, while her mother, who t r i e s to save her own l i f e ( i n the l a s t scene with B o c k e l s o n ) , l o s e s i t . Immanent j u s t i c e i s r e v e a l e d i n the mother's and daugh-t e r ' s f a t e , and the r e s u l t s a r e , i n both i n s t a n c e s , of com-p e l l i n g l o g i c : K a t h e r i n a d i e s a t the hands o f her seducer and s i n k s i n t o o b l i v i o n , J u d i t h f i n d s j u s t i c e and mercy i n her acceptance of death. C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to e x c e s s i v e s e n s u a l i t y i s another human weakness, namely g l u t t o n y . The most conspicuous c h a r a c t e r r e -p r e s e n t i n g t h i s v i c e i s a g a i n Johann Bockelson. He i s not o n l y e x c e s s i v e , as p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d , i n h i s p r i d e and s e n s u a l -i t y but a l s o i n h i s c u l i n a r y demands. One of the f i r s t t h i n g s he compliments K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k on i s the w e l l - f e d appearance of the l a t t e r : "Du hast einen runden Bauch," says Bockelson a d m i r i n g l y , "mit einem grossen Magen und g e f l i l l t e n Darmen. Gesegnet s e i d e i n Bauch, gesegnet s e i d e i n A p p e t i t l " (p. 29). Greed, then, not j u s t f o r the wealthy merchant's house, g o l d , w i f e and daughter, but a l s o f o r h i s r i c h supply of good food, i s r e v e a l e d here. In the g r o t e s q u e l y funny banquet scene, Bockelson enu-merates a l o n g l i s t o f mouth-watering d i s h e s he has j u s t gorged h i m s e l f on. The a s t o n i s h i n g number and haphazard combination of the courses and a s s o r t e d beverages range from the elegant "Austern mit Champagner" to the strange " B r i e s v o r z e i t i g ge-33 borener K a l b e r , samt dem schweren Burgunderwein", to h e a r t y game-dishes such as "B'arentatze, k o s t l i c h gewurmt", to "ex-q u i s i t e Erdbeeren . . . i n Quittenmark mit Schlagsahne, K i r s c h dazu" and many other, e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g items (pp. 79 -81 ) . T h i s whole l i s t , however, may a l s o be an outpouring of Durren-matt' s own c u l i n a r y i m a g i n a t i o n r a t h e r than a c a r e f u l l y p l a n -ned banquet. The theme of the banquet, i n c i d e n t a l l y , r e c u r s i n s e v e r a l of h i s l a t e r works, n o t a b l y i n Die Panne (1956) , where a d e l i c i o u s gourmet meal, t a s t e f u l l y put t o g e t h e r t h i s time, serves as a background f o r a r a t h e r s i n i s t e r t r i a l . The exaggerated number and v a r i e t y o f d i s h e s i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , however, tends to ; r e i n f o r c e the grotesque con-t r a s t of Bockelson's i n s a t i a b l e g l u t t o n y as compared to the s t a r v a t i o n p r e v a l e n t i n the besieged c i t y o f Munster. The p i o u s exclamations throughout the banquet scene i n the form of p a r o d i e s of Old Testament psalms such as: "Gepriesen s e i . . . der Schweinebauch im Gelee", or, "Gesegnet und gebenedeit s e i , was i c h eben genossen" (p. 80) a r e , regarded i n the l i g h t o f the d i r e circumstances the A n a b a p t i s t s o u t s i d e K i n g Bockelson's c o u r t f i n d themselves i n , more of a blasphemy than genuine g r a t i t u d e toward the g i v e r of a l l good t h i n g s . Sexual conno-t a t i o n s too such as: "Wie b r u n s t i g war i c h nach Froschschen-k e l n . . . (p. 79 ) , o r , "Gepriesen s e i e n Nacktarsch und L i e b -f r a u m i l c h " (p. 80), s t r e s s a g a i n the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween g l u t t o n y and l e c h e r y . In the context of the s i n of g l u t t o n y , an i n t e r e s t i n g 34 aspects i n the two main c h a r a c t e r s o f the drama can be no-t i c e d . K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , who has, with the " r e n u n c i a t i o n of h i s w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s , a l s o shed any p r e v i o u s tendency to g l u t t o n y , and Bockelson, who has taken over the former's wealth and subsequently became a g l u t t o n , are i n s t a r k con-t r a s t to each o t h e r . While at t h e i r f i r s t meeting, B o c k e l -son p e r c e i v e d h i m s e l f as b e i n g n o t h i n g but " e i n l e e r e r Magen" and d e p i c t s h i m s e l f as the poor Lazarus i n the r i c h man's house (p. 2 9 ) , the s i t u a t i o n , l a t e r i n the p l a y , becomes r e -v e r s e d . Now K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k i s the poor Lazarus on the door-steps of the King's c o u r t , c a l l i n g out to Bockelson: "Ich habe Hunger" (p. 1 0 2 ) . The King's r e p l y t h a t he had, un-f o r t u n a t e l y , j u s t f i n i s h e d the l a s t d i s h of beans and saus-age, i n d i c a t e s the p u r e l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c assumption t h a t the poor man o u t s i d e c o u l d only be c a l l i n g f o r t a n g i b l e food. K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , however, c o n t r a d i c t s Bockelson's assumption, sh o u t i n g : "Mich hungerts nach dem Reich Gottes" (p. 1 0 2 ) . His hunger f o r s p i r i t u a l f o o d i s thus str o n g l y c o n t r a s t e d to the other's one-sided concern f o r sense g r a t i f i c a t i o n o n l y . Lust and g l u t t o n y , then, as expressed by c e r t a i n charac-t e r s i n t h i s drama, are shown to have a d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t , j u s t as s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s and p r i d e l e a d to i n t o l e r a n c e and c r u e l t y . Immanent j u s t i c e l e a d s i n a l l these i n s t a n c e s d i s -cussed to s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n , defeat and u l t i m a t e l y , death. The, t o p i c of j u s t i c e , be i t o v e r t l y p r e s e n t e d through the use of symbols or be i t i m p l i e d through the s u b t l e laws 35 of cause and e f f e c t , can be t r a c e d i n most of Durrenmatt's works. H i s l a t e s t n o v e l ( s t i l l i n p r o g r e s s ) w i l l , a c c o r d i n g to Urs Jenny's chronology, bear the t i t l e , Die J u s t i z . 1 0 For the purpose of t h i s study, however, I f e e l t h a t a s i g n i -f i c a n t theme such as j u s t i c e needs the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i t s o p p o s i t e p o l e as w e l l , namely the nature and impact of grace on man, as i s shown i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n . Kurt F i c k e r t observes t h a t ! "Durrenmatt proceeds i n p l a y a f t e r p l a y . . . to p o r t r a y the t e n s i o n between " G e r e c h t i g k e i t " , the judgment of man's s i n f u l n a ture, and "Gnade", God's f o r g i v e n e s s . " 1 1 There are, as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , few symbols i n t h i s work, p e r t a i n i n g t o grace. T h i s a b s t r a c t concept i s mainly expressed as a s t a t e of mind, m o t i v a t i n g the a c t i o n s of the c h a r a c t e r s concerned. In a negative sense grace i s , i n some i n s t a n c e s , s e l f - r i g t h e o u s l y assumed as a p r e r o g a t i v e ? i n o t h e r s , i t i s bestowed on the powerless by the ones w i e l d i n g power. In a p o s i t i v e sense, grace comes t o man from God and manifests i t s e l f as an i n n e r experience. I t i s o f t e n r e -v e a l e d i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s or groups i n q u e s t i o n . Since one of the b a s i c t e n e t s of the P r o t e s t a n t f a i t h i s t h a t man i s s i n f u l and without God's grace he can do n o t h i n g (Luther's concept of " s o l a g r a t i a " ) , i t i s perhaps not sur-p r i s i n g t h a t Durrenmatt, h i m s e l f a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r ' s son, t r i e s t o come to terms with t h i s view i n many of h i s works and n o t a b l y i n h i s f i r s t drama (although he d e p i c t s h i m s e l f 36 " a l s e i n im w e i t e s t e n Sinne e n t w u r z e l t e r P r o t e s t a n t , b e h a f t e t mit der Beule des Z w e i f e l s , m i s s t r a u i s c h gegen den Glauben, den e r bewundert, w e i l er i h n v e r l o r e n " p. 48), F r i t z B u r i ' s p o i n t , however, t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of Durrenmatt's works 12 r e v o l v e around the theme of grace, r e p r e s e n t s a r a t h e r one-s i d e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Grace needs to be c o n s i d e r e d i n con-t r a s t to i t s opposite p o l e , j u s t i c e . A n a t u r a l s t a t e of grace i s p o s s i b l e o n l y before the F a l l , as i s a l l u d e d to i n J u d i t h K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k * s s t a t e of innocence. In any other i n s t a n c e i n t h i s p l a y , grace appears to be generated through the t e n -s i o n with i t s opposite p o l e . The o n l y conspicuous symbol p e r t a i n i n g to grace i n Es  s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , i s the moon, i n c o n t r a s t to the sun as a symbol of j u s t i c e . Bockelson, f o r example, l i k e s t o per-c e i v e h i m s e l f as b e i n g a m e r c i f u l k i n g and r e p e a t e d l y a s s o c i a t e s the gentle l i g h t of the moon wit h h i s i n f l u e n c e , as opposed to M a t t h i s s o n whom he l i k e n s t o the s c o r c h i n g sun, a c c u s i n g him: "Unter d e i n e r G l u t v e r d o r r t e das Leben," whereas, "unter meinem Sch e i n w i r d s i c h der milde Zauber der Nacht uber d i e S t a t t e n der Menschen b r e i t e n " (p. 5 6 ) . When he seduces J u d i t h , p r e t e n d i n g to have mercy on her f a t h e r , the scene takes p l a c e i n a moonlit garden. Even when Boc k e l s o n r e a l i z e s t h a t he i s doomed, he g r a n d l y d e c l a r e s : "Seht meinen Untergang im schimmernden L i c h t e des Vollmondes" (p. 1 0 3 ) . In the dialogue between K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k and the drunken night-watchman, the l a t t e r , when he sees the f o r m e r l y r i c h 37 merchant, dressed o n l y i n a s h i r t hut c a r r y i n g the sword of j u s t i c e , c r i e s out i n fears"Q-jSonne der G e r e c h t i g k e i t , Mond der Gnade und B l i t z der Rache . . . . GnadeI Gnade: G r e i f t n i c h t zum Schwert" (p. 7 8 ) , thus making e v i d e n t the p o l a r i t y of j u s t i c e and grace. Sun and moon, however, are mentioned throughout the p l a y , as Jenny observes, o f t e n i n con-t r a s t to each other, but are not e x c l u s i v e l y symbols of j u s t i c e or grace. Grace, then, i s r a r e l y expressed by symbols but more o f t e n by the a t t i t u d e and behaviour of groups or i n d i v i d u a l s i n Es s t e h t g e schrieben. Before we take a c l o s e r look a t these c h a r a c t e r s , however, a few statements on the nature of grace may be e n l i g h t e n i n g . A c c o r d i n g to the wise and scep-t i c a l Bishop, human happiness, i f man possesses such a t a l l , s h ould be regarded as pure grace. "Das Gluck wurde ihm Cdem Menschen] n i c h t gegeben," he s t a t e s i n h i s s e l f - i n t r o d u c t i o n , "und wenn e r es hat, i s t d i e s eine grosse Gnade" (p. 33)• Not on l y i n happiness, though, but a l s o i n a b j e c t misery can man experience grace. To Count von Hessen's r a t h e r s e l f - r i g h t -eous remark, when he p o i n t s t o the d e f e a t e d A n a b a p t i s t s on the torture-wheelss "Weh ihnen, s i e haben G o t t v e r l o r e n " , the Bishop w i s e l y puts the i s s u e i n t o the r i g h t p r o p o r t i o n s : "Wohl dem, der i h n am Rade w i e d e r f i n d e t " (p. 114). With t h i s , Durrenmatt may convey t h a t f o r man to be i n a s t a t e of grace, n e i t h e r p e r s o n a l happiness (as K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k enjoyed when he was s t i l l i n p o s s e s s i o n of h i s h e a l t h and r i c h e s ) , nor 38 success and power (as Bockelson*s career i l l u s t r a t e s ) , and not even a l i f e free of sorrow and s u f f e r i n g (as i s shown where the blacksmith Mollenhock i s t i e d to a pole, or Knipper-do l l i n c k to a torture-wheel) i s necessary, but that i t i s an inner state of being. A negative aspect of grace i s mirrored i n the Anabaptist's conviction that they "have" God's grace (pp. 1 3 - 1 5 ) . Based on t h i s assumption, they take i t to be t h e i r task to b u i l d God's kingdom on earth. The wise old Bishop, however, r e a l -izes t h e i r motivations. Knipperdollinck's proud, sel f - a s s e r -t i v e statement: "Wir kampfen f u r das Reich Gottes", i s deflated by the Bishop's revealing answer: "Ihr kampft fur das Reich der Taufer . . . Weil i h r euch nicht besiegen k'onnt, wollt i h r die Welt besiegen" (p. 3 7 ) . Munster's Anabaptists, i n t h e i r defeat, experience God's justice but, because of t h e i r hypo-c r i s y and misguided ambitions, they do not achieve a true state of grace. As an in d i v i d u a l character i n Es steht geschrieben, i t i s Johann Bockelson who expresses grace i n i t s negative aspect. The adjective "gnadig" i n connection with him, mostly with an i r o n i c overtone, recurs several times. Already early i n the drama, he claims "mit gnadiger Handbewegung" (p. 22) that he w i l l become lord of the earth within the near future. After his l a v i s h , s o l i t a r y Banquets, he i s usually "gnadig gestimmt" (p. 81), i . e . approachable. The noun "Gnade" i s frequently used by the presumptuous Bockelson. As soon as he r i s e s from 39 the d u s t - c a r t he i s , thanks t o h i s eloquence, addressed by the c i t y - g u a r d as "Ihro Gnaden" (pp. 21-3): When Bockelson i s Ki n g of the A n a b a p t i s t s he c l a i m s , before the assembled c o u r t , to be "gewappnet mit der Gnade des Himmels" (p. 82). Knipper-d o l l i n c k , on the other hand, i s i n "Ungnade" when he appears b e f o r e the King a f t e r he has made the unpardonable blunder of p a s s i n g on the sword of j u s t i c e t o the l o w l i e s t of the Bap-t i s t s . In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i s c o u r s e , K i n g Bockelson r e p e a t -e d l y uses the term "Gnade". To the former merchant's r e -quest t o leave him i n h i s s t a t e of p o v e r t y , the King "gener-o u s l y " concedess "Wir w o l l e n euch d i e s e Gnade zugestehen", not without reminding him t h a t o n l y h i s "libergrosse Gnade" pre-vents him from p u n i s h i n g the blunders K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k has committed (p. 85), and the King , as w e l l as h i s s u b j e c t s , s t a t e t h a t i t i s they who are chosen by the grace of God to r u l e the e a r t h . To the b l a c k s m i t h Mollenhock, t i e d t o the t o r t u r e - p o l e , a w a i t i n g h i s ex e c u t i o n , the King of the B a p t i s t s holds j u s t i c e and grace i n h i s hands. When Bockelson g i v e s the condemned man the "coup de grace", demonstrating h i s power over l i f e and death, Mollenhbck p e r c e i v e s i t as an a c t of mercy. Instead of p r o t e s t i n g h i s death, he c r i e s out: " 0 Macht der Hande, i n de-nen Barmherzigkeit wohnt" (p.6 ? ) . What was intended as a dem-o n s t r a t i o n of a mock-divine j u s t i c e on Bockelson's p a r t , i s to the doomed man d e l i v e r y and grace. Another in s t a n c e where grace i s n e g a t i v e l y expressed i s 40 in the character of Charles V. In his dialogue with the Bishop, the Emperor seems neither willing to execute justice as befits the dangerous situation the Anabaptists have created in Miin-ster, nor prepared to act as a merciful ruler. He does con-demn Bockelson for his affronts to his majesty, to torture and death but grants the Bishop only a token allowance of imperial troops. At the end of the audience, Charles V dismisses the high cleric with the formal, but in this context highly ironi-cal: "Wir entlassen eure Eminenz in hochster Gnade" (p. ?4), thus mocking the concept of royal grace. The Bishop himself, however, is willing to show mercy and, on occasions, is able to recognize the impact of God's grace on man. When he has, for instance, clearly seen through the scheme Judith Knipperdollinck had devised to k i l l him, he is ready to show mercy instead of justice, since he realizes her unselfish motivations. Kissing her on the forehead, he says: "Geh nun!" (p. 101), thereby foregoing any claim to take just revenge. It is only after Judith insists on staying and facing the consequences of her intended murder, that the Bishop has no other choice l e f t than to deliver her into the hands of justice. In a last touching gesture, however ("Er reisst sich das Kreuz vom Hals" (p. 101), as stage directions indicate), he offers her this sign of divine mercy for the hour of her exe-cution. In the somewhat macabre scene, where the Bishop addresses the severed head of Jan Matthisson, he s t i l l finds words of 41 compassion i n s t e a d of triumph. "Ich habe von deinem Tod e r -f a h r e n , " he says, "und i c h weiss, dass der Herr d i c h gesegnet hat, denn du fandest i h n i n der Stunde des Todes" (p. 64). A s i m i l a r r e c o g n i t i o n of the s t a t e of grace i n man i s demon-s t r a t e d hy the humble Bishop when he encounters K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k on the t o r t u r e - w h e e l . Here the Bishop admits t h a t there are no v i c t o r s i n t h i s war and adds: "Ich w o l l t e d i c h w i derlegen, Caberl du hast d i e Welt w i d e r l e g t " (p. 114), thereby acknow-l e d g i n g the v i c t o r y of God's grace i n man as the only v a l i d one. In the c h a r a c t e r of K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , a continuous pro-g r e s s i o n towards an i n n e r s t a t e of grace can be observed. From h i s generously c a n c e l l i n g the enormous debts of the C a t h o l i c Church (p. 34), to the v o l u n t a r y d i s p o s a l of a l l h i s w o r l d l y p o s s e s s i o n s , to h i s f o r g i v i n g a t t i t u d e toward the s e n s u a l weakness of h i s wife and daughter (p. 93)» to the r e n u n c i a t i o n of h i s a u t h o r i t y as a judge, to h i s showing mercy i n s t e a d of revenge to Bockelson (p. 106 ) , he c o n t i n u -a l l y grows i n God's grace. The poorer and more a b j e c t Knip-p e r d o l l i n c k becomes, the c l e a r e r the l i g h t o f grace r a d i a t e s from him u n t i l , on the t o r t u r e - w h e e l , by f u l l y a c c e p t i n g the unfathomable j u s t i c e of God, he i s f i l l e d w ith "Gnade b i s zum Rande . . ." (p. 115)» as opposed to h i s a n t a g o n i s t who, b e l i e v i n g o n l y i n v i s i b l e phenomena such as "den l e e r e n Him-mel . . . und an die Erde ... ." (p. 66) s i n k s , without f u r -t h e r u t t e r a n c e s , back i n t o darkness. 42 I t may be i n t e r e s t i n g to add, i n the context of the above, t h a t Jan Matthisson's and b l a c k s m i t h Mollenhbck's deaths foreshadow K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k ' s experience of d i v i n e mercy. Ma t t h i s s o n , by t r u s t i n g without r e s e r v a t i o n i n God's h e l p , throws h i m s e l f i n t o the hands of the enemy and, accord-i n g t o the Bishop's words, f i n d s God's grace i n doing so. Mollenhock, f o r h i s p a r t , admits: "Ich muss an meinem Galgen f i n d e n , was i c h i n meinem Leben gesucht habe" (p. 6 7 ) . He too f i n d s God's mercy by a c c e p t i n g h i s f a t e . I r o n i c a l l y , a l l of the r e c i p i e n t s of God's grace share one common f a t e , they a l l s u f f e r a v i o l e n t death. The f e a t u r e which d i s t i n ^ guishes them from the others who are e q u a l l y defeated and condemned ( i . e . the A n a b a p t i s t s of Munster, and Bockelson, t h e i r King) i s , t h a t they y i e l d t o and accept God's j u s t i c e and thereby achieve an i n n e r s t a t e of grace. Oberle notes t h a t " d i e zustimmenden Opfer s i n d auch d i e Empfanger der Gnade. Die G e f o l t e r t e n , d i e Zerbrochenen, d i e L a c h e r l i c h e n , d i e Demiitigen s i n d Gefasse, b e r e i t , d i e Gnade Gottes zu em-p f angen." 1 1 + In K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k (who embodies each of the above types Oberle mentions), as expressed i n h i s l a s t monologue, the dramatic f i n a l e i n Es s t e h t g eschrieben, the two opposite p o l e s of j u s t i c e and grace come i n t o harmony, demonstrating v i v i d l y t h a t o n l y from a d i v i n e ( o r d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d ) l e v e l can j u s t i c e and grace be g i v e n and experienced. ^3 ENDNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE Elisabeth Brock-Sulzer, Durrenmatt in unserer Zeit i (Basels Friedrich Reinhardt, 196«), p. 2 7 . Brock-Sulzer states: "Diirrenmatt i s t kein Quietist, er sieht und sah es als eine der Aufgaben des Schriftstellers an, zu beunruhigen, "Protestant" zu sein in einer Welt, die von geistiger und seelischer Trag-heit immer wieder bedroht wird." 2 Timo Tiusanen, Durrenmatt (Princeton: Univ. Press, 1977), p. 43. 3 Gero von Wilpert, Sachwbrterbuch der Literatur (Stutt-gart: Alfred Kroner, 1969), p. 69. ^ Friedrich Durrenmatt, Komodien III (Zurich: Arche, 1970), p. 143. . ^ C.G. Jung, Erinnerungen, Traume, Gedanken (Zurich: Ex Libr i s , 1961), p. 413. ~~ 6 Jung, p. 413. ^ Aniela Jaffe, "Symbolism in the Visual Arts," Part 4, in Man and his Symbols (New York: Doubleday, 1964), p. 242. Werner Oberle, "Grundsatzliches zum Werk Friedrich Durrenmatts" in Der unbequeme Durrenmatt (Basel: Basilius Presse, 1962), p. 18. ^ Murray B, Peppard, Friedrich Durrenmatt (New York: Twayne, 1969), p. 10. 1 0 Urs Jenny, Durrenmatt (Velber bei Hannover; Friedrich Verlag, 1965), p. 10. 1 1 Kurt Fickert, To Heaven and Back (Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1972), pp. 12-3. 44 F r i t z B u r i , "Der ' E i n f a l l ' d e r G n a d e i n Durrenmatts dramatischem Werk", i n Der unbequeme Durrenmatt ( B a s e l : B a s i -l i u s P r e s s e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 3 9 . 1 3 J Jenny, p v 1 9 . ^ Oberle, p. 1 9 . A l l quotes from the t e x t Es s t e h t geschriebenj, are from F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, Komodien I I und Fruhe Stucke ( Z u r i c h : Arche, 1 9 6 3 ) , with the page-numbers g i v e n p a r e n t h e t i -c a l l y . 45 CHAPTER TWO The themes of j u s t i c e and grace i n the comedy " E i n E n g e l kommt nach Babylon" In E i n Engel kommt nach Babylon ( f i r s t performed i n Munich, 1953)» the theme of j u s t i c e and grace i s expressed i n a v e r y d i f f e r e n t v e i n than was the case i n Durrenmatt*s stage-p l a y , Es s t e h t geschrieben. The l a t t e r i s d e f i n e d by the p l a y -wright simply as " e i n Drama" whereas he c a l l s the former a "fragmentarische Kpmodie". Armin A r n o l d f e e l s t h a t the form Durrenmatt chose i s indeed the o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e one i n our time t o convey an e s s e n t i a l l y r e l i g i o u s theme such as the l o s s of d i v i n e grace. He s t a t e s : An sich„ware der V g r l u s t der g o t t l i c h e n Gnade k e i n Thema f u r eine Komodie. In unserem Z e i t a l t e r kann aber e i n solches Thema nur noch unt e r der Maske der I r o n i e , der P a r o d i e , der S a t i r e , k u rz: der Komodie, d a r g e s t e l l t werden. 1 The author h i m s e l f seems t o co n f i r m t h i s , i n h i s essay on "Theaterprobleme" when he says* "Die Kombdie . . . s e t z t eine u n g e s t a l t e t e , im Werden, im Umsturz b e g r i f f e n e , eine Welt die am Zusammenpacken i s t wie d i e u n s r i g e t v o r a u s ] . " (His view on the s t a t e o f our world i s , then, a r a t h e r p e s s i m i s t i c one and t h i s t r e n d appears to i n c r e a s e i n h i s l a t e r works.) In the comedy we are about to d i s c u s s , there i s a d i f f e r -ence n o t i c e a b l e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of emphasis as p e r t a i n i n g 46 to the t o p i c s o f t h i s study. In Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n . the theme of j u s t i c e i s most conspicuous and grace i s shown as the outcome of a humble acceptance o f j u s t i c e . In E i n E n g e l  kommt nach Babylon, the or d e r of these p o l e s seems to be r e -ve r s e d . Here, God's grace, as p e r s o n i f i e d by the b e a u t i f u l and innocent K u r r u b i , i s predominant. She i s o f f e r e d to man-k i n d as a f r e e g i f t , but o n l y t o those who accept her uncon-d i t i o n a l l y , i . e . without p r e c o n c e i v e d standards of j u s t i c e , does she become grace from heaven. A l s o , a d i f f e r e n c e i n genre can be seen i n the forms Durrenmatt employs i n each o f these p l a y s . Whereas h i s f i r s t work on stage i s , t o some extent, a h i s t o r i c a l drama, i n E i n  E n g e l kommt nach Babylon, the author chose the framework o f an o r i e n t a l f a i r y - t a l e which seems t o a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r a r t -i s t i c freedom i n regard t o the concept of time. The nature of the f a i r y - t a l e enabled the p l a y w r i g h t to reach back to time immemorial, t o a l l u d e t o present-day c o n d i t i o n s , and t o p o i n t forward t o p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the f u t u r e . In t h i s sense, then, t h i s comedy has a t i m e l e s s q u a l i t y about i t as w e l l , perhaps even more so than the f i r s t drama which was i n s p i r e d by the "Welttheater" of the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . The t i m e l e s s element, permeating E i n E n g e l kommt nach  Babylon, i s i n t i m a t e d a l r e a d y by the e r a and the l o c a t i o n d u r i n g and i n which the a c t i o n takes p l a c e . The p l a y i s set i n Old Testament times but no s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d , save a few " m i l e s t o n e s " , such as the mention of 47 a n c i e n t c i t i e s l i k e Babylon and N i n i v e , the r i v e r Euphrates, the mountains of Lebanon? and a few s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s such ass Gilgamesch, Nimrod and Nebukadnezar. With t h i s "raw m a t e r i a l " , Durrenmatt may have aimed at r e - c r e a t i n g a world and p r o v i d i n g a p o s s i b l e reason "weshalb es i n Babylon zum Turmbau kam, der Sage nach zu einem der g r a n d i o s e s t e n , wenn auch u n s i n n i g s t e n Unternehmen der Mehschheit; umso w i c h t i g e r , " the author adds, "da w i r uns heute i n a h n l i c h e Unternehmen v e r s t r i c k t sehen" (p. 2 6 3 ) . (The author p o s s i b l y a l l u d e s to modern-day space r e s e a r c h and space p r o j e c t s , keeping i n mind, however, t h a t the f i n a l v e r s i o n of t h i s comedy was w r i t t e n b e f o r e 1953*) Again, the nature of the f a i r y - t a l e seems to be w e l l - s u i t e d t o l i n k the dim past w i t h the p r e s e n t , w i t h i t s s i m i l a r temptations f o r dominion over the p l a n e t E a r t h and the ensuing consequences, those of s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n looming over man; a t o p i c which i s d e a l t w i t h even more f o r c e f u l l y i n the r a d i o - p l a y , Das Unternehmen der Wega, which I s h a l l d i s -cuss i n Chapter t h r e e of t h i s study. The concept of time, as expressed by the main c h a r a c t e r s i n E i n E n g e l kommt nach Babylon, i s o f l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . The a n g e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , admits knowing not much about c r e a t u r e s c a l l e d human beings s i n c e he had heard, once o n l y , s e v e r a l thousands years ago, a l e c t u r e on t h i s t o p i c (p. 168). The f i r s t m i n i s t e r of Babylon implores the K i n g to exempt him from having to s p i t i n h i s conquered opponent's (Nimrod's) face s i n c e he had had to perform t h i s irksome duty f o r the 48 l a s t ninehundred years (p. 1 7 0 ) . A k k i , the beggar, r e l a t e s t h a t he a c q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t name every c e n t u r y or so (p. 1 7 4 ) , and S i d i , the hangman, keeps a d i a r y on world events, t a k i n g p l a c e over m i l l e n i a . "Weltreiche gehen, W e l t r e i c h e kommen, habe a l l e s n o t i e r t " , he boasts (p. 2 1 6 ) . L a s t but not l e a s t , the kings Nebukadnezar and Nimrod express the c y c l i c up and down of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n of power i n rhythmic language: Nebukadnezar: "Wir s i n d a n e i n a n d e r g e k e t t e t , i c h und du." Nimrod: "Immerzu, immerzu." Nebukadnezar: " S e i t a l l den Tausenden von Jahren, d i e waren." Beide: "Gben i c h , unten du, unten i c h , oben du, immerzu, immerzu" (p. 2 2 5 ) . The genre of the f a i r y - t a l e , then, seems to lend i t s e l f w e l l to t h i s l i b e r a l use of time, as the v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i l l u s t r a t e . B esides the t i m e l e s s element, there i s y e t another con-spicuous f e a t u r e i n t h i s comedy, namely the medium of dance and movement. T h i s d e l i g h t f u l q u a l i t y does not d i m i n i s h the b a s i c a l l y s e r i o u s mood of the p l a y but r a t h e r e n r i c h e s i t . B r o c k - S u l z e r t h o u g h t f u l l y comments: "Durrenmatt hat h i e r neben a l l e r Grosse, a l l e r dramatischen H a n d f e s t i g k e i t , etwas Neues e r r e i c h t : t a r i z e r i s c h e Anmut, G r a z i e . Und n i c h t a l s Gegensatz zur Grosse, sondern a l s eine i h r innewohnende K r a f t . " J The author, perhaps q u i t e i n t e n t i o n a l l y , p o r t r a y s d i v i n e g r a c e ; i n t h i s work, as b e i n g of an e t h e r e a l nature and t h e r e f o r e able to move wherever i t w i l l . A k k i ' s f a r e w e l l to K u r r u b i , b e f o r e the mob c a r r i e s her o f f t o the K i n g , seems to bear t h i s out. 49 The wise beggar, here, conceives of the young g i r l as "ein Faden nur seiner tGottes] Gnade, schwerelos und heiter," and adds with regrets, "und nun tragt ein Windstoss dich • weiter" (p. 2 1 2 ) . Significantly, the attributes of dance and movement apply mostly to the extra-terrestial beings: the angel and Kurrubi. The angel f l i e s from outer space to the planet Earth with a double mission, namely to bring God's grace to man and, at the same time, to explore this tiny planet in the solar system. During his sojourn, the angel is in constant move-ment. He f l i e s from heaven, he floats or hovers over Babylon, he descends and ascends, he dives into the oceans and, in the city-gardens, he hops from palmtree to palmtree. He only walks when he is changed, in the beginning of the play, into human form, to introduce Kurrubi to the poorest of men. Kurrubi's native element of movement appears to be the dance. As soon as she is created by the Lord of a l l things (God here evoking the image of a master-magician or toy-maker), she dances on His hand, resembling a doll on a music-box (p. 1 6 8 ) . Later on, when she has become subject to human joys and suffering, Akki, the beggar, manages to cheer her up by stomping a rhythm and clapping his hands, u n t i l she dances around him (p. 2 1 2 ) . In the f i n a l scene of the play, she hurries with Akki through the sand-storm, chased by the King's men, fired on by the optimistic beggar, s t i l l i n search of her beloved, followed by a few poets, who skip after them (p. 2 5 1 ) . 50 A r a t h e r grotesque form of movement i s d i s p l a y e d by the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d h e i r to Babylon's t h r o n e . S e v e r a l times, he i s mentioned i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s , as f o r i n s t a n c e J "Von l i n k s h i n t e n t a n z t s t u t z e r h a f t e i n I d i o t g r i n s e n d und s e i l h u p f e n d uber die Biihne" (p. 225) o r , "von r e c h t s h i n t e n s e i l h i i p f t der I d i o t im Bogen liber d i e Buhne" (p. 228), the i m b e c i l e ' s c h i l d i s h r o p e - s k i p p i n g s y m b o l i z i n g the p o t e n t i a l powerlessness and weakness of the B a b y l o n i a n empire. Both the k i n g s , Nebukadnezar and Nimrod admit: "Wir s c h l i c h e n beide betrunken zu s e i n e r Mutter" (p. 2 2 5 ) , w i t h the dancing i d i o t b e i n g the r e s u l t of t h e i r u n c o n t r o l l e d p a s s i o n . I n the f i r s t two i n s t a n c e s , then, the angel's constant moving about and K u r r u b i ' s j o y f u l dancing r e v e a l a d e l i g h t f u l , p o s i t i v e q u a l i -t y , whereas the i d i o t ' s dancing and s k i p p i n g expresses a nega-t i v e and grotesque a s p e c t . In Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama, Es s t e h t geschrieben, there i s a l r e a d y the element of dance, namely i n the unique scene on the r o o f - t o p s of Munster, with Bockelson and Knipper-k d o l l i n c k . The dance-scene here, t o o , has a grotesque and, at times, even lewd q u a l i t y about i t but expresses, i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , more of a "dance macabre" i n d i c a t i n g t h a t approach-i n g death w i l l be the great e q u a l i z e r f o r both, the p r o t a g o n i s t and the a n t a g o n i s t . In E i n . E n g e l kommt nach Babylon, however, dance and move-ment pervade the whole p l a y and t h i s i s expressed not only by the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned c h a r a c t e r s but a l s o through the use 51 of language. B r o c k - S u l z e r a p t l y notes " d i e immer zum A u f f l u g b e r e i t e Sprache, d i e s i c h an der Grenze zwischen Poesie und Prosa h a l t durch d i e Makamenform und durch d i e hymnischen Worte des E n g e l s " ^ , and Durrenmatt h i m s e l f i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t on t h i s as w e l l . He i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t the language on stage cannot do without e x a g g e r a t i o n . He s t a t e s s Der E n g e l etwa, d e r n n a c h Babylon kommt, w i r d von Akt zu Akt uber d i e Schonheit der Erde b e g e i s t e r t e r , u s e i n e Sprache muss diese s t e i g e r n d e B e g e i s t e r u n g ausdrucken und s i c h b i s zum Hymnus s t e i g e r n . 6 The author must have been aware too, of the o r i g i n o f the term "Makame" which, a c c o r d i n g to Gero von W i l p e r t , d e r i v e s from the A r a b i c "makameh" denoting a g a t h e r i n g of p h i l o s o p h e r s , s c h o l a r s and those with l i t e r a r y i n t e r e s t s , " b e i deren Dispu-t a t i o n e n . . . S c h l a g f e r t i g k e i t , w i t z i g e W o r t s p i e l e und E i n -f a l l s r e i c h t u m den S i e g uber d i e Gesprachspartner davontrug."" 7 Durrenmatt s u c c e s s f u l l y employs the form of the Makame. "Damit versuche i c h , " he says, "das A r a b i s c h e d i e s e r G e s t a l t , d i e Freude am F a b u l i e r e n , am Wortgefecht, am W o r t s p i e l auszudruk-k e n . " 8 In a d d i t i o n to the above mentioned two i n s t a n c e s of move-ment as expressed through language, a t h i r d f e a t u r e i s worthwhile c o n s i d e r i n g , namely the one t h a t K u r r u b i i n s p i r e s most men i n Babylon, from the poor poets by the r i v e r s i d e , to the wealthy banker, to the o l d C h i e f - t h e o l o g i a n , t o the King's page, to w r i t e and r e c i t e p o e t r y , l a u d i n g her beauty and v i r t u e s . T h i s , t'oo, can be seen i n the context o f the immer zum A u f f l u g b e r e i t e t n l Sprache" and adds to the grace-52 f u l movement permeating t h i s comedy. Dance and movement, then, whether expressed i n a l i t e r a l sense or through the medium of language, i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h i s p l a y , adding rhythm and a q u a l i t y of l i g h t n e s s t o i t which i s , a t l e a s t to t h i s e x t e n t , q u i t e unique i n Durrenmatt's work. The c o n t r a s t , the author c r e a t e s between the scenery i n the foreground of the stage and i n i t s background i s q u i t e out of the o r d i n a r y as w e l l , s u r p a s s i n g perhaps the scope of most f a i r y - t a l e s r e a l i z e d as s t a g e - p l a y s . With a r t i s t i c mastery, Durrenmatt s e t s the world of a n c i e n t Babylon a g a i n s t a back-ground of the Andromeda Nebulas a galaxy s i m i l a r t o the M i l k y Way, c o n s i s t i n g of hundreds o f m i l l i o n s o f s t a r s . By i n v e s t i n g , however, an immense galaxy with the func-t i o n of heaven out of which descends an a n g e l , b r i n g i n g God's grace to the i n h a b i t a n t s of the p l a n e t E a r t h , makes f o r a "Ausweitung der Welt"^ as B r o c k - S u l z e r formulates i t . Durren-matt h i m s e l f , a l r e a d y as a young boy, r e a l i z e d : "Die Welt i s t g r o s s e r a l s das Dorf. Uber den Waldern stehen d i e Sterne", and he f u r t h e r r e l a t e s , "Ich z e i c h n e t e i h r e K o n s t e l l a t i o n e n . . . . Ich war n i e e i n P t o l e m a e r . " 1 0 T h i s great i n t e r e s t i n astronomy seems to have remained with him throughout h i s c a r e e r and comes to the f o r e i n many of h i s works. In h i s f i r s t drama, f o r i n s t a n c e , we hear how B ockelson i n h i s p r i d e l i k e n s h i m s e l f t o the image of a meteor, when he b o a s t s : "Das i s t mein G e f a l l e , . . . dass i c h i n s Bodenlose f a l l e . Durch 53 meinen S t u r z wird d i e Erde a u s e i n a n d e r b r e c h e n " . 1 1 In E i n  E n g e l kommt nach Babylon, s t a r s , g a l a x i e s and s o l a r systems are mentioned s e v e r a l times by the ange l and s p a c e - e x p l o r e r , w i t h the e f f e c t t h a t the macrocosmos, e.g. the u n i v e r s e , i n c o n t r a s t t o e a r t h , a microcosmos, i s conveyed as incomprehen-s i b l e i n i t s vastness but i s n e v e r t h e l e s s " b e d r o h l i c h nah" (p. 1 6 ? ) . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of heaven versus e a r t h i s made c l e a r a l -ready i n the i n i t i a l stage d i r e c t i o n s . The p l a y w r i g h t de-p i c t s i t as " w i c h t i g s t e n G r t , . . . unermesslich" i n i t s d i -mensions, whereas e a r t h i s s e t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s immensity with the simple stage r e q u i s i t e o f a " a l t b a b y l o n i s c h e G a s l a -t e r n e , s p a r l i c h n a t u r l i c h im V e r g l e i c h zum Himmel daruber" (p. 1 6 7 ) . Durrenmatt f o l l o w s here a law of o p t i c a l e f f e c t s where a s i n g l e branch, p o l e o r oth e r o b j e c t i n the foreground tends t o r e - i n f o r c e the vastness of the landscape or, i n t h i s case, the stage background. Conspicuous too i s the c o n t r a s t between the grandiose, a l b e i t i n d i f f e r e n t heaven, r e p r e s e n t e d by the Andromeda Nebula, and the p o s t e r s i n the foreground, d e p i c t i n g problems on the p l a n e t E a r t h such as: " B e t t e l n i s t u n s o z i a l " (p. I67), and the i n t i m a t e d splendour and u g l i n e s s o f a m e t r o p o l i s , "pr'ach-t i g und d r e c k i g z u g l e i c h " (p. I67). The angel's f i r s t im-p r e s s i o n of t h i s p l a n e t i s not f a v o u r a b l e e i t h e r . Being used to move around gaseous formations i n the cosmos, he f i n d s e a r t h a "zahe und s t o r r i s c h e Masse" (p. I67) and very c o l d 54 even in the deserts near Babylon, as compared to climates in other solar systems he usually explores (p. 169). (The author may also allude here to the stubbornness and coldness with which most of the earth's inhabitants react to Kurrubi, grace incarnate.) Heaven i s , however, not only represented as the immense physical universe, containing countless ce l e s t i a l bodies but i s , in this comedy, also often referred to as a metaphysical realm. To the Chief-theologian, for example, heaven seems to be mainly a theological concept; to King Nebukadnezar, heaven is a power opposing his own; and to the f i r s t minister, heaven means mostly a concept to be reckoned with p o l i t i c a l l y . The planet Earth, too,, a tiny b a l l amongst bi l l i o n s of other star-formations in the universe is,not only a physical phenomenon but has, like heaven, a tangible as well as a meta-physical aspect. Despite i t s relative insignificance as com-pared to the size of other planets, i t is nevertheless the one destined to receive God's grace. But before we take a closer 12 look at the " ' E i n f a l l ' der Gnade" , as Fritz Buri expresses i t , let us consider bri e f l y Durrenmatt's choice of city where most of the action takes place. The ancient city of Babylon i s , as Urs Jenny states, "die 13 mythische Grosstadt . . . die Weltmetropole schlechthin" J and the author himself relates: "Was mich an Babylon-'reizte, war das Heutige, das Zyklopische dieser Stadt . . . eine Art New York".1*1' With this choice, Durrenmatt has succeeded, I think, 5 5 a g a i n i n l i n k i n g the b i b l i c a l p a s t with the t w e n t i e t h century. One c o u l d w e l l a s s o c i a t e the ambitious endeavour of the con-s t r u c t i o n of Babylon's Tower wit h an e d i f i c e such as the Empire S t a t e B u i l d i n g i n New York. The O l d Testament metro-p o l i s , the p l a y w r i g h t chose f o r t h i s comedy may, however, a l s o r e p r e s e n t man's as opposed to God's c r e a t i o n , d e p i c t e d by the c i t y i n the foreground of the stage and the Andromeda Nebula i n the background ( i n A c t s I I and I I I ) . A c o m i c a l a s p e c t , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c i t y of Babylon, i s the King's arrogance i n assuming t h a t h i s c i t y was the o n l y m e t r o p o l i s and t h a t the world would end a t the mountains of Lebanon. To the angel's s u p e r i o r knowledge, t h a t there e x i s -t e d a few o t h e r " v i l l a g e s " behind the mountains i n s i g h t , such ass "Athen, Sparta, Karthago, Moskau, Peking" (p. 173)» the r u l e r g r a n d l y r e p l i e s : "Der grosse Konig Nebukadnezar w i r d auch diese D o r f e r erobern" (p. 173, a r e a c t i o n which c a l l s t o mind the a n t a g o n i s t of Durrenmatt's f i r s t drama, Johann Bockelson, who p r o u d l y d e c l a r e d : "Wir gedenken uns so b e i -l a u f i g zum Herrn der Erde zu erheben". 1^ C o n s i d e r i n g now the main c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s comedy on God's grace and j u s t i c e , there are two main groups i n con-t r a s t t o each other. On the one hand, t h e r e are the angel and K u r r u b i , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the m e t a p h y s i c a l world and on the o t h e r , the i n h a b i t a n t s o f e a r t h , the t a n g i b l e , p h y s i c a l world. W i t h i n the l a t t e r group, there are a g a i n a few c a t e -g o r i e s , namely the r u l i n g group, headed by the K i n g who sym-56 b o l i z e s power: then the f i r s t m i n i s t e r as the one w i e l d i n g power; the c h i e f - t h e o l o g i a n e x e r t i n g mainly s p i r i t u a l power; the g e n e r a l as l e a d e r o f the army; the banker who dominates the kingdom's economy; and l a s t but not l e a s t , the hangman, e x e c u t i n g j u s t i c e or what i s deemed to be j u s t i c e by those i n a u t h o r i t y . A k k i , the beggar and the poor poets form a category of t h e i r own. They show a l r e a d y a c e r t a i n a f f i n i t y with K u r r u b i and a r e , i n c i d e n t a l l y , the onl y ones who accept her without s p e c u l a t i o n s f o r p e r s o n a l g a i n . The t h i r d of these sub-groups c o n s i s t s of the masses, r e -presented by the workmen and t h e i r wives, the s o l d i e r s , the merchants, the town-courtesan and the policeman, the l a s t -mentioned o f t e n a c t i n g as a middle-man between those i n author-i t y and the common people. The masses, as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s i n the course of the p l a y , are swayed back and f o r t h , bestowing t h e i r f avour now on the r u l i n g group, now on the ange l and K u r r u b i , depending on who i n c i t e s t h e i r greed or f e a r . Since grace i s the predominant theme i n E i n E n g e l kommt  nach Babylon, but does not exclude j u s t i c e , i t i s worth-while to take a c l o s e r look at the presence or absence o f these opposite p o l e s i n the main c h a r a c t e r s on stage. The a n g e l , as a f i r s t i n s t a n c e , can be p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g i n a permanent s t a t e of grace, time and space having no s i g n i f i c a n c e i n h i s mode of e x i s t e n c e . The reason f o r t h i s 57 continuous state of harmony with divine laws and the absence of problems and suffering common on the planet Earth, l i e s obviously in his unconditional obedience to his creator. This is alluded to several times in the play. To Kurrubi's plea, for example, to stay with her until she was more famil-iar with human beings, the angel replies unwaveringly: "An mir i s t es, die Menschen zu verlassen, und an dir, bei ihnen zu bleiben. Wir mussen beide gehorsam sein" (p. 190). His unquestioning obedience to God comes to the fore also in his reply to King Nebukadnezar's request, to give the radiantly beautiful Kurrubi to the King and not to the poorest of man. "Ich habe den Auftrag," the angel says, "zum geringsten der Menschen zu gehen, aber keine Fahigkeit, den Grund des Him-mels zu wissen" (p. 188). Durrenmatt may well imply here that although angels are thought to be free of human prob-lems and temptations, they nevertheless lack the freedom of choice to act against God's intention. As to the angel's other function in this play: to ex-plore land and sea of the planet Earth, two possible inter-pretations come to mind, f i r s t l y , i t could explain the angel's often displayed indifference to human sorrows and problems, due to the inevitable pre-occupation and absent-mindedness this "profession" entails. To Kurrubi's urgent request, not to leave her alone in the new and bewildering circumstances she finds herself in, the angel spreads his wings, saying: "Unmoglich. Ich habe schliesslich noch einen Beruf. Ich muss 58 die Erde untersuchen. Ich e i l e , zu messen, zu s c h u r f e n , zu sammeln, neue Wunder zu entdecken" (p. 191). Secondly, the angel's t a s k to e x p l o r e the e a r t h a l s o l e a d s to h i s e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g awe of the o v e r a l l beauty and p e r f e c t i o n of t h i s t i n y p l a n e t . In the p r o c e s s of h i s d i s -c o v e r i e s he becomes more and more e n t h u s i a s t i c and d e c l a r e s , b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to the outer cosmos: E i n u n w i r k l i c h e s Wunder i n den erhabenen Wusteneien der G e s t i r n e . Der blaue S i r i u s , d i e weisse Wega, ndie tosenden Cepheiden . . . n i e wiegen s i e d i e s e s Korn-chen Materie auf, d i e s e winzige Kugel . . . atmend im Grun der K o n t i n e n t e , im S i l b e r der Meere (p. 248). Having seen the t a n g i b l e beauty of the p l a n e t E a r t h , he concludes t h a t harmony and a s t a t e of grace among men would e x i s t as w e l l . In h i s l a s t f a r e w e l l t o K u r r u b i , the a n g e l s t a t e s j o y f u l l y : " A l l e s , was i c h fand auf diesem S t e r n , war Gnade und n i c h t s anderes" (p. 249) and he departs with envy f o r her b e i n g able to remain on t h i s , t o him, so f o r t u n a t e p l a n e t . H i s envy, however, has a r a t h e r i r o n i c c o n n o t a t i o n s i n c e , a t t h a t p o i n t i n time, the young g i r l had j u s t been sentenced t o death by Babylon's King f o r r e f u s i n g to be " r e a -sonable" and comply w i t h h i s wishes. The a n g e l , however, not b e i n g encumbered w i t h a human body and human emotions, has the advantage of p e r c e i v i n g every-t h i n g i n the p r o p o r t i o n s of the macrocosmos as opposed to the i n h a b i t a n t s on e a r t h who are bound to see t h i n g s from a narrow p o i n t of view w h i c h - i s , i n a d d i t i o n , o f t e n b l u r r e d by t h e i r own needs and p r e j u d i c e s . In h i s comment on the second v e r s i o n 59 of t h i s comedy, Durrenmatt s t a t e s , i n a v e r y p o s i t i v e v e i n : Immer noch hat der E n g e l r e c h t , immer noch i s t d i e Erde das Wunder. Der E n g e l mag uns weltfremd e r s c h e i n e n , i c h glaube jedoch, dass jene welt-fremder s i n d , welche dfre Welt nur a l s Verzweif-l u n g sehen. Die E r d e H h a n g t n i c h t im N i c h t s , s i e i s t e i n T e i l der Schopfung. 16 T h i s o p t i m i s t i c p o i n t of view on the p o s i t i o n of the p l a n e t E a r t h i n the u n i v e r s e does not seem to be maintained i n the p l a y w r i g h t ' s l a t e r works as i s evident a l r e a d y i n the p l a y d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I of t h i s study. The angel.Vs main purpose i n t h i s comedy, however, i s not o n l y to i n v e s t i g a t e the wonders of the p l a n e t E a r t h but, l i k e o t h e r angels we hear about i n r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g s and f a i r y -t a l e s , t h i s one too has the t a s k of b r i n g i n g something of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o mankind. In both, the Old and the New T e s t a -ment , i t i s most o f t e n an important announcement he has t o make, as f o r i n s t a n c e the angel G a b r i e l having the t a s k of announcing to Mary t h a t she was chosen to become the mother of the promised Messiah. I t i s more i n the nature of a f a i r y -t a l e , however, t h a t the a n g e l i n Durrenmatt's ;comedy should b r i n g something t a n g i b l e to the p l a n e t E a r t h and i n the per-son of K u r r u b i , the author has c r e a t e d h i s perhaps most b e a u t i f u l and l o v a b l e female c h a r a c t e r on s t a g e . She has an other-w o r l d l y , a n g e l i c q u a l i t y about her and, a t the same time, r e -p r e s e n t s a c r e d i b l e young g i r l , capable o f human behaviour and emotions. K u r r u b i i s s i m i l a r to the angel inasmuch as she too o r i g i n a t e s from the hand of God and as such l i v e s i n a s t a t e 60 of innocence and grace. Jenny associates the name Kurrubi 17 with "Cherub" ' which sounds quite convincing. The Concise Oxford Dictionary, namely, defines a cherub as an "Angelic being . . . gifted with knowledge land] love [and also as] 18 beautiful or innocent child." the heroine of this play embodies a l l of these attributes. The angel who brings her to earth emphasizes, in addition, that she is "unverganglich wie das Nichts . . . und verganglich wie der Mensch" (p. 168). Like the angel, then Kurrubi i s a cele s t i a l being but unlike him she i s , at the same time, "Ein Wesen in Menschenform" (p. 168), and as such subject to human joys, hopes, disappoint-ments, suffering and despair. An interesting aspect, in the context of Kurrubi*s mission, can be seen in the many allusions to the l i f e of Christ on earth. Kurrubi*s arrival on this planet, for instance, i s f i r s t made known by the angel to the poorest of men (the beggars Akki and Anaschamaschtaklaku); Christ's birth was f i r s t announced to lowly shepherds. Kurrubi's reception by men is of an ambiguous nature. King Nebukadnezar desires her because of her beauty but then kicks her to ground when she in-sists on following only the poorest of men in accordance with God's command. King Herod, when he heard of Christ's birth inquired, at f i r s t , carefully as to where the newborn child might be found so he too could go and worship him; then, however, decides to have him k i l l e d instead, for fear of losing his throne; similarly, Kurrubi i n her just indignation, accuses King Nebukadnezar: "Deine Macht i s t Ohnmacht . . . deinen Thron wagst du nicht zu verlassen, aus Furcht, ihn zu ver-lieren" (p. 244) when the King, in vain, tries to convince her that he and the poorest of men were one and the same per-son. Akki and the poets, however, accept Kurrubi without re-servation; the shepherds and the three magi also accepted Christ on faith, the former believing unconditionally the message of the angels, the latter having their faith based on predictions and the careful observation of the laws of astrology. In Durrenmatt's comedy, the ruling group, the banker, the merchants and the masses praise Kurrubi with poems and when they become convinced, by the re-appearance of the angel, that she is indeed of supernatural origin, they a l l , except Akki and the poets, want to make her their queen, shouting* "Es s o i l unsere Konigin sein" (p. 211). This close-ly resembles Christ's entry into Jerusalem where the Jews wanted to proclaim him their king after having witnessed his power to perform miracles. When the mob, which had previously lauded Kurrubi and had wished to see her crowned, now screams* "Ein Hexenmadchen. . . . Gib es dem Henker" (p. 247), we are reminded of a similar scene, related in the New Testament, where the mob cried* "Crucify him:", shortly after the same crowd had demanded that Jesus of Nazareth be made their king. When Kurrubi is deserted by a l l who had earlier claimed to love her, the scene calls to mind a similar situation in the garden on the Mount of Olives where Christ was abandoned by 62 even h i s c l o s e s t f r i e n d s . i n the hours o f h i s t r i a l . To conclude t h i s b r i e f comparison between the f a t e o f 11 . . . . Durrenmatt*s heroine i n E i n E n g e l kommt nach Babylon and events i n C h r i s t ' s l i f e , a l a s t s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l between these two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of God's grace may be worthwhile c o n s i d e r -i n g , I am t h i n k i n g of the f i r s t g o s p el of S t . John i n the New Testament where he speaks o f the o r i g i n o f the Logos, the Word t h a t became F l e s h . S t . John was i n s p i r e d to w r i t e * "Und das L i c h t s c h e i n t i n der F i n s t e r n i s , und d i e F i n s t e r n i s hat's n i c h t e r g r i f f e n " , and l a t e r , i n the same g o s p e l , "Wie v i e l e i h n aber aufnahmen, denen gab e r Macht, Gottes K i n d e r zu wer-den". 1^ In t h i s modern p l a y , too* although i t i s set i n the d i s t a n t p a s t of Old Testament times, K u r r u b i comes as a r a d i a n t l i g h t i n t o man's world on e a r t h but most of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , a f t e r b e i n g at f i r s t impressed by her miraculous appearance on the p l a n e t and enamoured of her beauty, r e j e c t her when she i n s i s t s on h o l d i n g f a s t t o God's command; to belong o n l y to the po o r e s t of them. To those, however, who accept her f o r what she r e p r e s e n t s , namely grace i n c a r n a t e , she becomes a - l i g h t they cannot f o r g e t . The poor poets by the r i v e r s i d e s o r r o w f u l l y r e c i t e at her p a r t i n g : "Ach, wie haben w i r ge-schraachtet / Nach der Gnade. . . . / Hoffend, dass der a l t e , weise / E n g e l uns das Madchen l a s s e " (p. 2 1 3 ) . The beggar Akki, who r e a l i z e s perhaps b e s t K u r r u b i ' s t r u e nature, s t a t e s with r e g r e t , when he has to give her over t o the masses who, i n t h e i r s p i r i t u a l darkness, want her f o r t h e i r e a r t h l y queen: 63 " Z u f a l l i g tauschte ich dich ein ( f o r the ex-king Nimrod, i n the beggar's contest with Nebukadnezar, p. 193), fundi ein Stuck Himmel b l i e b an mir haften" (p. 212). Whereas Kurrubi, then, personifying divine grace, i s the purest and most be a u t i f u l character i n t h i s comedy, Akki, the beggar i s perhaps the most c o l o u r f u l one. He i s so, however, not i n a l i t e r a l sense as i s the angel who, i n appearance, could have been inspired by some of Chagall's paintings (as stage directions indicate, f o r example i n Act I I , p. 208, the angel i s to wear "Tannzapfen, Mohn im Haar, Sonnenblumen, Tann-zweige usw. im Arm"). Akki, apart from h i s notorious flaming-red beard, distinguishes himself more with an earthy good humour, common sense, wit, but also, at times, with scathing irony. His most sympathetic t r a i t , though, i s his mostly v e i l e d , but ever-present compassion f o r any fellow-human being i n need. He i s indeed the character who combines mercy and a sense of justice i n his personality, as opposed to King Nebukadnezar who has the the grand plan to re-educate man-kind and deigns i t not below him "es noch mit Humanitat zu versuchen" (p. 1?2). Akki, the poorest of men by his own choice, i s the true humanitarian i n t h i s play. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the beggar i s one of the few who accepts Kurrubi. When he trades her f o r the captive ex-king Nimrod, he already gives her supernatural o r i g i n the benefit of the doubt. Not without some scepticism, he nevertheless concedes: "Ein Engel s o i l dich hergebracht haben. Ich b i n ein 64 Freund* der Marchen, i c h w i l l das U n g l a u b l i c h e glauhen" (p. 194). H i s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r p h a n t a s t i c t a l e s does not, however, pre-vent him from c o n s i d e r i n g a l s o the p r a c t i c a l aspect o f a p r o f i t -able p a r t n e r s h i p with the b e a u t i f u l g i r l from heaven. "Wir w o l l e n doch sehen," he says with good common sense, "was w i r e r b e t t e l n , du mit d e i n e r Schonheit und i c h mit meinem r o t e n B a r t " (p. 194), The genuine kindness, i n n a t e i n t h i s sym-p a t h e t i c beggar, i s r e v e a l e d by K u r r u b i when she has to take l e a v e o f him on request of the masses. "Du nahmst mich zu dir" , she says with g r a t i t u d e , " Du gabst mir zu essen, wenn i c h hungerte, zu t r i n k e n , wenn i c h d u r s t i g war. Wenn i c h mich f u r c h t e t e , sangst du mir deine gewaltigen L i e d e r v o r . . . wenn i c h mude war . . . t r u g s t du mich . . . auf deinen machtigen Armen. Ich l i e b e d i c h , wie man einen V a t e r l i e b t " (p. 212). None of the other c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s comedy de-serves o r r e c e i v e s such h e a r t - f e l t words of p r a i s e . A k k i shows mercy, however, not o n l y t o the innocent and b e a u t i f u l but extends i t to a l a r g e number of poor poets (whose o c c u p a t i o n he c o n s i d e r s a nuisance most of the t i m e ) ; a few p i c k - p o c k e t s , and even some outcas t l e p e r s , a l l of whom share the c h a r i t a b l e beggar's outdoor l i v i n g q u a r t e r s under the b r i d g e by the r i v e r Euphrates. To the t h i r s t y policeman (who only r e c e n t l y had to t o r t u r e the beggar f o r the l a t t e r ' s contempt of the law, f o r b i d d i n g anyone t o beg f o r a l i v i n g i n Babylon) A k k i o f f e r s some wine t o d r i n k (p. 198). And he l e t s the hangman, who came to execute him, j o i n i n the common f e a s t 65 of " R i n d f l e i s c h s u p p e " and "eine B o u t e i l l e b e s t e n Agypters" (pp. 214-6), t o g e t h e r with the above mentioned;poets, a s s o r t e d p e t t y c r i m i n a l s and o u t c a s t s . The beggar's compassion and mercy, then, with the h e l p -l e s s , the poor, or the p r i s o n e r s o f t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n s , such as the policeman or the e x e c u t i o n e r , r e f l e c t d i v i n e mercy at i t s b e s t . H i s c h a r i t y may sometimes have a p r a c t i c a l note, as i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with K u r r u b i , or be s p i c e d with con-temptuous remarks as he o f t e n does when he shows kindness t o the p o e t s , or have a j o v i a l or even s l y tone as when he o f f e r s food and d r i n k t o h i s p e r s e c u t o r o r hangman. That he c l o t h e s h i s good deeds i n t o these aforementioned d i s g u i s e s , takes the h y p o c r i t i c a l s t i n g out o f them which so o f t e n accompanies the c h a r i t y of men and makes him one of the most endearing char-a c t e r s Durrenmatt has c r e a t e d i n t h i s work. Not o n l y A k k i ' s mercy towards h i s fellow-men, however, deserves a t t e n t i o n but e q u a l l y so h i s sense of j u s t i c e . T h i s complementary t r a i t can be n o t i c e d throughout the p l a y but i s i l l u s t r a t e d most c l e a r l y i n two of h i s Makames and, i n A c t I I I , i n h i s new p r o f e s s i o n as the King's hangman. In the f i r s t Makame, the beggar expounds to h i s audience, c o n s i s t i n g o f the p o e t s , the policeman and K u r r u b i , the t r a n s i -t o r i n e s s of a l l t h i n g s . By d e v e l o p i n g t h r e e d i f f e r e n t examples, A k k i r e l a t e s the f a t e of those who, he says, had brought him up i n one o f h i s p r e v i o u s i n c a r n a t i o n s , " i n jungen Jahren, v o r v i e l e n tausend Jahren" (p. 2 0 1 ) . In the f i r s t stage, he de-66 s c r i b e s a l i f e of a f f l u e n c e he enjoyed as a y o u t h — u n t i l bankruptcy s e t s i n and both h i s parents had to end on the s t a k e . The second stage deals with a p e r i o d of p i e t y and d e v o t i o n which he had to spend under the guidance o f a prophet. But then, another h i g h p r i e s t took over i n Babylon a n d — t h e prophet, t o g e t h e r w i t h h i s man-made gods, had to burn on the stake as w e l l . In the t h i r d stage, as a young man, he says he has been f u r t h e r educated by a g e n e r a l who, by h i s l o y a l t y to the k i n g and h i s b e i n g v i c t o r i o u s i n b a t t l e , accumulated honour and r i c h e s u n t i l — a n o t h e r k i n g came to power and the g e n e r a l too had to s u f f e r the f a t e o f the p r e c e d i n g c h a r a c t e r s . The moral the beggar draws from these experiences i s con-t a i n e d i n the f o u r t h paragraph of t h i s Makame, namely: "Der Mensch s e i wie Sand, Sand a l l e i n h a l t stand" (p. 201). T h i s statement i s an i n t e r e s t i n g parody o f the pr o v e r b , "Wer auf Gott v e r t r a u t , hat n i c h t auf Sand gebaut", God b e i n g a s s o c i a t e d i n the l a t t e r statement as the s o l i d rock as opposed t o d r i f t -i n g sand. Having d e p i c t e d the outcome of these three i n s t a n c e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Makame of h i s l i f e , f i r s t l y : "Das S i l b e r w ird schwarz, das Gold r o l l t davon": secondly: "Die R e l i g i o n wird schwarz, d i e Gnad* r o l l t davon" and t h i r d l y : "Die Ehre w i r d schwarz, das Amt r o l l t davon", and t h a t , consequently: "Die Z e i t w i r d schwarz, d i e Macht r o l l t davon" (p. 201), Akki concludes t h a t o n l y a beggar who owes n o t h i n g and i s nobody of s i g n i f i c a n c e , would manage to escape a n n i h i l a t i o n . The f i r s t Makame, then, t e l l s about the inherent j u s t i c e 67 i n a l l c o n d i t i o n s , i . e . he who i s wealthy r i s k s t o l o s e a l l (Akki h i m s e l f throws a l l the r i c h e s he accumulates d u r i n g h i s begging rounds, i n t o the r i v e r Euphrates. "Nur so wird d i e Welt vom Reichtum e r l e i c h t e r t " , he t e l l s the s u r p r i s e d K u r r u b i , p. 196)5 he who worships only w i t h i n a r i g i d framework of a c e r t a i n r e l i g i o n , must p e r i s h when a change occurs? and he who i s ambitious and l o y a l to one r u l e r o n l y , has to d i e when an-o t h e r comes to power. T h i s t h r e a d of wisdom i s spun f u r t h e r i n the beggar's l a s t Makame, which i s a b r i l l i a n t p i e c e of r h e t o r i c * "Die Ma-kame von der Waffe der Schwachen" (p. 2 2 1 ) . Here, the p o s s i b l e d o w n f a l l of power i t s e l f i s d e p i c t e d and how t h i s can be . • ; brought about. But f i r s t , A k k i warns of the p o t e n t i a l p i t -f a l l s en r o u t e to t h i s goal* Never t r y to conquer the powerful w i t h h e r o i c r e s i s t a n c e — t h e y w i l l only laugh about i t . Never i n c i t e t h e i r envy by d i s p l a y i n g your p o s s e s s i o n s to them—they have means to take them away from you. And the c o n c l u s i o n i s a g a i n : "Nur wer n i c h t s hat und n i c h t s i s t , b l e i b t u n v e r s e h r t " (p. 2 2 1 ) . T h i s l a s t Makame i s then e n r i c h e d with a number of poignant p i e c e s of advice on how to behave i n order to s u r v i v e , such as: " S t e l l e d i c h dumm, nur so w i r s t du a l t . Von innen g r e i f e an . . . e r n i e d r i g e d i c h und du b r i c h s t jede Mauer. E r t r a g e Schmach, . . . vergrabe, w i l l ' s d i e Z e i t , wilde Hoff-nung, h e i s s e L i e b e , L e i d und Gnade, M e n s c h l i c h k e i t " (pp. 2 2 1 - 2 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , with these c o n c l u d i n g words, A k k i puts on the mask and red coat of a hangman and thus transformed, i l l u s -68 t r a t e s the t r u t h of the above Makame. He now goes on, i n Act I I I , t o put i n t o p r a c t i c e what he had j u s t expounded on: to c o n t r i b u t e h i s share i n b r i n g i n g about j u s t i c e upon the King's c o u r t . Akki's r o l e as Nebuakdnezar's hangman, a p o s i t i o n he had c l e v e r l y t r a d e d with S i d i (who c a l l e d h i m s e l f "der Unbestech-l i c h e " ) , i n o r d e r to e l e v a t e t h i s unpopular p r o f e s s i o n t o o . The new hangman's motto i s : "Henken h e i s s t l a u f e n l a s s e n l " (p. 2 2 0 ) . T h i s does not come as a s u r p r i s e , however, a f t e r h a v i ng heard h i s Makames and r e a l i z e d h i s compassionate a t t i - ^ ' tude i n v a r i o u s circumstances. A k k i now adheres t o h i s p h i l o -sophy by s p a r i n g f i r s t the King's page who was condemned f o r w r i t i n g poems about K u r r u b i (p. 2 2 6 ) j he then does not make any e f f o r t to a r r e s t and hang the geographers and astronomers of the kingdom whose s o l e crime c o n s i s t e d i n t h e i r ignorance of a few " v i l l a g e s " on the other s i d e of the Lebanon (p. 2 2 6 ) ; and i n s t e a d of k i l l i n g the poets who, a c c o r d i n g the K i n g Nebu-kadnezar, made p u b l i c n o n - e x i s t e n t emotions and i n v e n t e d t a l e s without any l o g i c t o them, A k k i carouses w i t h them out o f the King's s i g h t and e v e n t u a l l y l e t s them go. The only men i n Babylon he would have hanged with p l e a s u r e are the t h e o l o g i a n s and foremost among them t h e i r head, U t n a p i s c h t i m . T h i s r e l i -g i o us l e a d e r , however, an a u t o c r a t i n the s p i r i t u a l realm, the c r e a t o r of dogmas and w r i t e r of a r t i c l e s a g a i n s t the e x i s t e n c e of angels (p. 227) , i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n the King's endeavour t o win K u r r u b i as h i s w i f e . A k k i ' s eagerness to e l i m i n a t e t h e , 69 i n h i s o p i n i o n , s u p e r f l u o u s t h e o l o g i a n s , i s o v e r r u l e d , i n t h i s case, by those i n a u t h o r i t y . Before we take a c l o s e r look at the C h i e f - t h e o l o g i a n , however, some l i g h t ought to be shed f i r s t on the c h a r a c t e r of the " E r z m i n i s t e r " i n i E i r i v E n g e l kommt nach Babylon. T h i s p o w e r f u l p o l i t i c i a n , author and guardian o f the f i v e hundred thousand paragraphs which are s a i d t o uphold the kingdom's bureaucracy i s , i n more than one a s p e c t , d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the p e r s o n a l i t y of A k k i , the beggar. T h i s may best be i l l u s t r a t e d by the tempting o f f e r which i s made to the beggar by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f i r s t m i n i s t e r and a l s o , by the " E r z m i n i s t e r " ' s r e a c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the two super-n a t u r a l b e i n g s : the a n g e l and K u r r u b i . When the policeman, ordered by those i n a u t h o r i t y , o f f e r s A k k i a l u c r a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n the department of f i n a n c e , with the promise of a s p l e n d i d c a r e e r to come, the l a t t e r f l a t l y d e c l i n e s , s t a t i n g i n s t e a d h i s p r e f e r e n c e s : " K a r r i e r e n , P o l i z i s t Nebo, i n t e r e s s i e r e n mich n i c h t " , Akki says s t u b b o r n l y , "Ich z i e h e v o r , f r e i s c h a f f e n d e r K'unstler zu b l e i b e n " (pp. 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 ) . The f i r s t m i n i s t e r , on the o t h e r hand, adapts h i m s e l f ^(chame-l e o n - l i k e , t o any change i n the kingdom. When Nebukadnezar, f o r i n s t a n c e , l o s e s h i s throne t o the e x - k i n g Nimrod, the f o r -mer s a d l y s t a t e s : "Wir r o l l e n einem allgemeinen Untergang ent-gegen", t o which the f i r s t m i n i s t e r s e l f - a s s u r e d l y r e p l i e s : "Leute wie w i r kommen immer wieder irgendwie hoch" (p. 2 3 9 ) . L a t e r on, when the masses r i o t and t h r e a t e n to overthrow the 70 kingdom, the "Erzminister" has the appropriate documents a l -ready prepared. "Zum Gluck hahe ich die repuplikanische Ver-fassung h e r e i t " (p. 244) he says smugly. The appearance of the angel i s to the c a l c u l a t i n g p o l i -t i c i a n not a possible miracle with a c e r t a i n purpose.but, on the contrary, a d e f i n i t e nuisance. In t h i s respect, the f i r s t minister resembles the character of Charles V i n Es steht geschrieben, who said: "Ich liebe nicht das planlose S p i e l des i* 2 Z u f a l l s , i ch bewundere die regelmassigen Bahnen der Gestirne". One can compare t h i s statement of the emperor with the highly s a t i r i c a l declaration of the "Erzminister" i n t h i s comedy, who says: E i n Staat, eine gesunde Autoritat i s t nur moglich, indem die Erde Erde und der Himmel Himmel b l e i b t , indem die Erde eine Wirklichkeit d a r s t e l l t , die von P o l i t i k e r n zu gestalten i s t , und der Himmel eine holde Theorie der Theologen, ilber die sonst niemand klug zu werden braucht. Wird jedoch der Himmel Wirk-l i c h k e i t . . . muss der Staat notgedrungen zu einer Farce werden (pp. 239-40). and he issues the stern warning that " i n Zukunft Cmiisse] das Erscheinen von Engeln r i c h t i g organisiert werden" (p. 241). Like the emperor i n the previously discussed drama, then, the head p o l i t i c i a n of Babylon's kingdom attempts, mostly i n v a i n l i k e the former, to impose human control on any event, even the most unpredictable or, i n t h i s case, supernatural ones. Akki, for his part, does not worry much as to whether Kurrubi was brought to earth by a supernatural being or not. He gives the sensational news, as mentioned e a r l i e r , the bene-f i t of the doubt and accepts the creation "aus dem Nichts" 71 (p. 168), without wanting to exploit i t for his own ends. To the f i r s t minister, though, Kurrubi is a commodity which he tries to manipulate to p o l i t i c a l advantage. "Wir haben die Moglichkeit," he says enthusiastically, "metaphysisch zu ver-ankern, was politisch auf allzu schwachen Beinen stand tthe threat of an imminent overthrow of the monarchy]. Machen wir das Madchen zur Konigin, so i s t die republikanische Idee fur einige Jahrtausende zerstoben" (p. 2 3 1 ) . Quite in agreement with the f i r s t minister's proposal is Utnapischtim, the kingdom's Chief-theologian. He, too, sees nothing but advantages in a marriage of King Nebukadnezar and the young g i r l , said to be brought to earth by an angel. "Religion und Staatsraison fiigen sich aufs schonste zusammen", he rejoices, not considering, at f i r s t , that Kurrubi i s meant to belong only to the poorest of men and a union with the King would therefore be out of the question. When the innocent g i r l insists, however, on obeying solely the angel's, i.e. God's command, the old theologian attempts, with remarkable dialectic s k i l l , to convince her that heaven would not and could not demand the impossible. "Wenn du das Gebot des Him-mels als unbedingt ansiehst," he argues, "und verlangst, dass der Konig, der dich als Bettler erhielt, nun auch ein Bettler werden miisse, so verwirrt das die menschliche Ordnung" (p. 2 3 8 ) . There i s , then, the "logical" human order of things as opposed to the unfathomable w i l l of heaven to which Kurrubi uncompromisingly wants to adhere and which the Chief-theolo-72 gian tries to bend and re-interpret unti l i t f i t human con-venience. In this attempt Utnapischtim goes as far in his spir i t u a l arrogance as to say: " Es i s t meine Pfl i c h t , den Himmel zu bewahren, sich selber zu schaden" (p. 242). He, then, has the arrogance of wanting to control and manipulate things supernatural just as the f i r s t minister attempts to organize the happenings on earth. Another of the Chief-theo-logian's arguments in convincing the young g i r l to hide her true identity is that humanity is not ready yet to comprehend her supernatural origin and her purpose on this planet. " A l l -zufrlih schwebte der Bote des Himmels zu uns Kindern herab" (p. 2 4 3 ) , he says with mock-humility (since he considers him-self mature and wise enough to save even heaven from harming i t s e l f ) . As a consequence, the appearance of the angel being so detrimental to the precepts of state and established r e l i -gion, Utnapischtim is ready for a settlement with the "Erz-minister" The former agrees to deny publicly the reality of the angel, on the condition that half of the monarchy's income would go into the coffers of the temple. A l l the Chief-theologian's shrewdness, though, in the battle with Kurrubi's unwillingness to compromise with the "menschlichetnl Notwendigkeiten" (p. 243), as the King puts i t , is to no avail. Utnapischtim's attempt to interpret the message of heaven: "Die Worte des Himmels diirfen nie person-l i c h , sondern nur allgemein aufgefasst werden" (p. 228), as he t e l l s Nebukadnezar, is frustrated by Kurrubi's resistance. 7 3 Durrenmatt i s said to have remarked, at the introductory evening of t h i s play, that "die tragischste und schmerzlich-ste Person des Werkes s e i der Obertheologe, der den Himmel II 21 entscharfen wolle." The head of the established r e l i g i o n , then, loses out on t h i s unique chance to win God's grace by courageously accepting i t . The tragedy of t h i s kind of attitude i s well expressed i n the l a s t stage directions concerning Utnapischtim. When Kurrubi turns to him as a l a s t resort f o r protection and understanding, directions are: "Der Ober-theologe wendet sich ab" (p. 2 ^ 7 ) . A d i f f e r e n t attitude towards the intentions of heaven i s portrayed i n the character of King Nebukadnezar. He i s not just attempting to interpret the divine w i l l to s u i t his own wishes but, i n the course of the play, develops a strong oppo-s i t i o n towards the justice of heaven. The young king starts his reign with the naive but nevertheless dangerous idea of establishing a perfect government. His desire i s to achieve "e i n makelloses Reich, . . . ein durchsichtiges Gebilde, das a l l e umschliesst, vom Henker b i s zum Minister". This aim, he t r i e s to j u s t i f y with the noble sounding: "Wir streben nicht nach Macht, wir streben nach Vollkommenheit" (p. 1 7 2 ) . That thi s i s utter utopia i s re a l i z e d very soon by Akki, the beggar, who re p l i e s to the co n f i d e n t i a l information of the policeman, that even "die Wissenschaft [mussel vollkommen . . . sein (in Nebukadnezar's kingdom)",: "Der Anfang vom Ende" (p. 1 9 9 ) . When the King, i n Act I of the comedy, i s offered grace 74 i n c a r n a t e i n the person of K u r r u b i (the a n g e l assuming t h a t he i s indeed the poorest and l e a s t capable of men s i n c e he had j u s t l o s t the beggar's c o n t e s t with A k k i ) he, not u n l i k e U t n a p i s c h t i m , t r i e s t o r e - i n t e r p r e t the angel's c l e a r i n -s t r u c t i o n s . E x c e r p t s from the d i a l o g u e between the messen-ger from heaven and the K i n g i n beggar's d i s g u i s e i l l u s t r a t e the l a t t e r ' s b a r g a i n i n g w i t h the a n g e l : Nebukadnezar ( b i t t e r ) : So w i l l s t du d i e s e H e i l i g e dem l e t z t e n B e t t l e r u b e r l a s s e n ? Der E n g e l i Der Himmel weiss, was e r t u t ! . . . Nebukadnezar ( v e r z w e i f e l t ) : Was s o i l denn e i n B e t t l e r mit i h r tun? Der E n g e l : B i n i c h e i n Mensch, der Brauche kennt? • • • • Nebukadnezar: An Nebukadnezar's S e i t e wurde s i e d i e Welt r e g i e r e n , an meiner b e t t e l t s i e J Der E n g e l : Du musst nun einmal l e r n e n , dass das W e l t r e g i e r e n dem Himmel zukommt und das B e t t e l n den Menschen (p. 190). There i s a c u r i o u s r e v e r s a l of v a l u e s expressed i n the above d i a l o g u e . The King's argument, from a human p o i n t of view, sounds reasonable enaough but t h i s does not d i s t r a c t the a n g e l from i n s i s t i n g on e x e c u t i n g d i v i n e o r d e r s , namely to g i v e K u r r u b i o n l y to the poorest of men. The a n g e l , then, suddenly i n s p i r e d , r e l a t e s : " V i e l l e i c h t i s t es so, dass, je armer e i n Mensch i s t , desto machtiger d i e Vollkommenheit aus ihm h e r v o r b r i c h t " (p. 190). What the angel speaks of here i s , however, d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed to the per-f e c t i o n Nebukadnezar p l a n s t o achieve i n h i s kingdom. The k i n d of man the angel r e f e r s to seems to be more i n the 75 Lutherian sense, e.g. that God's grace can be worked best i n the man who u t t e r l y depends on Him through f a i t h , whereas Nebukadnezar aims at a man-made perfection, independent of divine grace. It i s not surprising either, that Babylon's King l i k e s to think of himself as being a humanitarian (p. 1 7 2 ) , the term being defined i n The Concise Oxford Dictionary as "One who pro-fesses humanism . . . ,talso a l visionary philanthropist". By eliminating poverty and educating the human race i n order to establish an immaculate world-kingdom, Nebukadnezar i s doubly frustrated i n his e f f o r t s * f i r s t l y , by Akki's resistance i n giving up his occupation as a beggar and, secondly, by Kurru-b i 's insistence of belonging to Anaschamaschtaklaku only. The young r u l e r then t r i e s to revenge himself on the unco-operating heaven by condemning Akki to death and by kicking Kurrubi, heaven's grace offered to him, to the ground. After the events i n Act I of the play, Nebukadnezar i s depicted as f e e l i n g "m'ude und t r a u r i g , vom Himmel b e l e i -digt (p. 1 9 ^ ) . His growing bitterness and cynicism i s ex-pressed i n his answer to the innocent g i r l ' s question, after the angel had departed: "Weinen denn die Menschen nicht, wenn ein Engel des Himmels von ihnen geht?" to which the King re-p l i e s : "Wir haben das Weinen verl e r n t und das Fluchen gelernt" (p. 1 9 D . In Act II and III of this comedy, Nebukadnezar's frus-t r a t i o n grows more profound since he p e r s i s t s i n his Utopian 76 endeavour o f c r e a t i n g a new o r d e r , based s o l e l y on human r e a -son. By pronouncing the death sentence on the l a s t beggar, the geographers and astronomers as w e l l as the p o e t s , the K i n g assumes t h a t now, the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s p l a n s had begun. Hi s attempts are i n v a i n , however, ( h i s death sentences are a l l b e i n g waived by A k k i , who became the King's hangman, with-out the King's knowledge) and h i s ever-deepening sadness and r e s u l t i n g f u r y at heaven's i n j u s t i c e i s summed up towards the end of Act I I I , where he r e a l i z e s : Ich t r a c h t e t e nach Vollkommenheit. Ich schuf eine neue Ordnung der Dinge. Ich suchte d i e Armut zu t i l g e n . Ich wiinschte d i e Vernunft e i n z u f u h r e n . Der Himmel missachtete mein Werk. Ich b l i e b ohne Gnade (p. 249). Having reached t h i s f i n a l stage of disappointment and de-s p a i r there are o n l y two p o s s i b l e a t t i t u d e s l e f t : h u m i l i t y or c o n t i n u i n g p r i d e . King Nebukadnezar p e r s i s t s i n h i s p r i d e , c a l l i n g t o mind Johann Bockelson, the a n t a g o n i s t of the f i r s t drama, who d i s p l a y e d a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e t i l l the end. When Ne-bukadnezar r e a l i z e s t h a t not only he but a l s o h i s s u b j e c t s , who d e s i r e d K u r r u b i as w e l l ( e i t h e r as a wife or a queen), r e f u s e t o give up t h e i r wealth, t h e i r b u s i n e s s or whatever ma-t e r i a l s e c u r i t y they have, thus becoming c o l l e c t i v e l y g u i l t y , the K i n g decides t o take d i r e c t revenge on heaven by command-i n g h i s people to b u i l d a tower, "der d i e Wolken d u r c h f a h r t , durchmessend d i e U n e n d l i c h k e i t , m i t t e n i n das Herz meines F e i n -des. Ich w i l l der Schopfung aus dem N i c h t s t l . e . K u r r u b i , God's c r e a t i o n ] " , he swears, " d i e Schopfung aus dem G e i s t des Menschr: 77 en e n t g e g e n s t e l l e n und sehen, was b e s s e r i s t , meine Gerech-t i g k e i t oder d i e U n g e r e c h t i g k e i t Gottes" (p. 250 ) . A f t e r t h i s dramatic climax of human p r i d e and arrogance there f o l l o w s , however, an a n t i c l i m a x , when the i d i o t dances once more a c r o s s the stage, demonstrating the u t t e r v a n i t y of the King's l a s t , g i g a n t i c , but n e v e r t h e l e s s doomed endeavour i n a t t e mpting to f i g h t the j u s t i c e of heaven. Stage d i r e c -t i o n s i n d i c a t e : "Da s e i l t a n z t der I d i o t g r i n s e n d uber d i e Biihne. Nebukadnezar bedeckt s e i n A n t l i t z i n ohnmachtiger Wut, i n ohnmachtiger Trauer" (p. 250 ) . But t h i s extremely p e s s i m i s t i c ending of the King's attempts i s counter-balanced by a j u b i l a n t f i n a l e . I t i s A k k i , the beggar, who has the l a s t word i n t h i s comedy on God's grace. He does not reproach heaven f o r i t s seeming i n j u s t i c e but e x a l t s i n p r a i s i m g the e a r t h which, t o him, i s s t i l l "an Mog-l i c h k e i t e n wunderbar . . . e i n m a l i g an Gluck und e i n m a l i g an Gefahr (p. 251) whereas Babylon, he says p r o p h e t i c a l l y , " z e r -f a l l t mit seinem Turm . . , der ..sich unaufhaltsam i n d i e He-he s c h i e b t , dem Sturz entgegen" (p. 251 ) . A k k i , the great r e a l i s t as w e l l as the great i d e a l i s t , f l e e s with K u r r u b i (whom he had accepted from the beginning) toward " e i n neues Land, v o l l neu-er V e r f o l g u n g , v o l l neuer Verheissung und v o l l von neuen Ge-sangen" (p. 251 ) . 78 ENDNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO 1 Armin Arnold, Friedrich Durrenmatt (Berlin: Colloqium Verlag, 1969), p. 41. 2 Friedrich Durrenmatt, "Theaterprobleme," in Theater- Schriften und Reden (Zurich: Arche, 1966), p. 120. 3. Elisabeth Brock-Sulzer, Friedrich Durrenmatt, Stationen  seines Werkes (Zurich: Arche, I960), p. 7 5 . Friedrich Durrenmatt, "Es steht geschrieben," in Komodien II und Fruhe Stiicke (Zurich: Arche, I 963 ) , pp. 106-10, ^ Brock-Sulzer, p. 78. 6 Durrenmatt, "TheaterproblemeJ" pp. 113-14. 17 Gero von Wilpert, Sachworterbuch der Literatur (Stutt-gart: Alfred Kroner, 1969), p. 467. o Durrenmatt, "Theaterprobleme", p. 114. ^ Brock-Sulzer, p. 78 . 1 0 Durrenmatt, "Dokument," in Theater-Schriften, p. 35 11 Durrenmatt, Es steht geschrieben, p. 6 7 . 12 F r i t z Buri, "Der 'E i n f a l l ' der Gnade in Durrenmatts dramaturgischem Werk," in Der unbequeme Durrenmatt (Basel: Basilius Presse, I962), p. 3 5 . 1 ^ Urs Jenny, Durrenmatt (Velber bei Hannover: Friedrich Verlag, 1965) , p. 50. 14 Durrenmatt, "Theaterprobleme", p. 107. 79 Durrenmatt, Es steht geschrieben, p. 22. ^ Hans Banziger quotes F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, i n F r i s c h und Durrenmatt (Bern: A. Francke, I960), p. l6o. 17 Jenny, p. 50. "Cherub", i n The Concise Oxford Dictionary, 1965. 19 John I, verses 5-9, i n Die B i b e l oder die ganze Heilige  S c h r i f t des Alten und Neuen Testamentes, Nach der deutschen Ubersetzung Martin Luthers (Stuttgart: Wiirttembergische B i b e l -anstalt, I969), pp.. 117-18. Durrenmatt, Es steht geschrieben, p. 168. Banziger quotes Durrenmatt, p. 162. 22 "Humanitarian," i n Oxford Dictionary, p. 592. A l l quotes from the text E i n Engel kommt nach Babylon-, are from F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, Komodien I (Zurich: Arche, 1957), with the page-numbers given parenthetically. 8 0 CHAPTER THREE The themes of j u s t i c e and grace i n the r a d i o - p l a y "Das Unternehmen der Wega" In the p l a y , Das Unternehmen der Wega, (1954), Durren-matt f l i n g s open the c u r t a i n , so to speak, onto a world en-t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r the sphere of a drama i n the s t y l e o f a "Welttheater", o r a comedy i n the genre o f an o r i e n t a l f a i r y - t a l e . Not onl y d i d the author here c r e a t e a work of s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n but i t i s a l s o , u n l i k e most of h i s othe r works, "auf d i e eine Ebene des Hb'rens a b s t r a h i e r t " 1 , i . e . i t i s a r a d i o - p l a y . T h i s may account, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r i t s r e l a t i v e o b s c u r i t y as compared to many of h i s stage-p l a y s or n o v e l s . A stage o r f i l m v e r s i o n of t h i s r a d i o - p l a y , though, seems q u i t e f e a s i b l e (as the p l a y w r i g h t has done, f o r i n s t a n c e , with Herkules und der S t a l l d e r Augias, another o f 2 h i s r a d i o - p l a y s ). To date, however, Das Unternehmen der Wega, has been con-veyed (to my knowledge) through the spoken word on l y , without stage, scenery, background and perf o r m i n g a c t o r s . Durren-matt' s statement: "Es g i b t . . . keine andere Uberwindung des Abgrunds zwischen den Dingen a l s durch d i e P h a n t a s i e " y , seems e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e i n the case of a r a d i o - p l a y s i n c e the audience has to b r i d g e the gap between the a u r a l and the v i s -81 u a l by means o f the i m a g i n a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the l i s t e n e r i s under the i l l u s i o n t h a t he hears a taped r e c o r d i n g of the events t a k i n g p l a c e , i . e . the l a u n c h i n g o f the space-hsip WEGA, the c o n v e r s a t i o n s on board and the dia l o g u e s between the v i s i t o r s from p l a n e t E a r t h and the i n h a b i t a n t s of Venus, a t a s k which i s as s i g n e d to Mannerheim, the medical d o c t o r on board. The concept o f t i m e l e s s v a l i d i t y can be r e a d i l y seen i n the two p r e v i o u s works. T h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n drama, however, has a v i s i o n a r y q u a l i t y about i t . Durrenmatt wrote Das Unter- nehmen der Wega i n 1954; i n 1957, the f i r s t e a r t h - s a t e l l i t e s were moving i n the o r b i t and "The f i r s t n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n " , as i s s t a t e d i n McGraw-Hill E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Sc i e n c e and Tech- nology, "was by a f i s s i o n weapon detonated a t Alamogordo, New Mexico, on J u l y l 6 , 1945" .^ During the t h i r t y - f i v e y e ars elapsed s i n c e , tremendous "progress" has been made, though, both i n space r e s e a r c h and i n the development of ever dead-l i e r weapons. The p l a y w r i g h t ' s p r o j e c t i n g the p l o t of t h i s work i n t o the year 2255 (thereby a l l o w i n g the c o l d war to smoulder on f o r another t h r e e c e n t u r i e s ) , i s , however, i n the l i g h t o f today's s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , almost w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g . Robert C o l l i s o n , i n h i s a r t i c l e , "The new t h r e a t of n u c l e a r war" i n Saturday Night's magazine of May 1980, e l u c i d a t e s : " . . . the f e a r t h a t the S o v i e t s w i l l soon be able t o launch a s u c c e s s f u l f i r s t s t r i k e obsesses Pentagon war pl a n n e r s . So they've dreamed up the MX (a new s u p e r m i s s i l e ) , America's own 82 f i r s t - s t r i k e weapon system . . . comparable i n s i z e t o the S o v i e t ' s g i a n t SS-18".^ Although Durrenmatt has demonstrated remarkable v i s i o n i n t h i s p l a y , C o l l i s o n (and with him many o t h e r s , w r i t e r s and s c i e n t i s t s a l i k e ) see the p o s s i b i l i t y of mutual a n n i h i l a t i o n on t h i s p l a n e t as a p r o s p e c t of the near f u t u r e , u n l e s s man s t a y s w i t h i n the l i m i t s of reason. Die "Ausweitung der Welt"/' as E l i s a b e t h B r o c k - S u l z e r f o r -mulates i t , i s d r a m a t i c a l l y expressed i n t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n p l a y . But whereas i t has a g r o t e s q u e l y - f u n n y note when, i n the f i r s t drama, the p r o t a g o n i s t Bockelson d e c l a r e s * "Ich werde wie e i n Meteor durch eure Nachte sturzen"? o r when, i n the second work d i s c u s s e d , the angel, a l i a s s p a c e - e x p l o r e r , p r a i s e s the grandeur and beauty of c e l e s t i a l b o d ies such as "der blaue 8 S i r i u s , d i e weisse Wega, die tosenden Cepheiden . . . " the exclamations are more i n a p o e t i c veins the mention of moon-f o r t r e s s e s , however, occupied by the Russians, the s t r e n g t h and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of a p o p u l a t i o n on Mars, and the d i r e c l i -matic c o n d i t i o n s on Venus, a l l of t h i s sounds today, though o r i g i n a t i n g from Durrenmatt's p r o d i g i o u s i m a g i n a t i o n , q u i t e r e a l i s t i c and w i t h i n the range of the f e a s i b l e . The i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a l i b r e of the c a s t i n Das Unternehmen  der Wega adds to the concept of an "Ausweitung der Welt" as .'; w e l l . Mannerheim, f o r i n s t a n c e , who has the t a s k of t a p i n g a l l the c o n v e r s a t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e on t h i s voyage and then r e p o r t -i n g t o the P r e s i d e n t of the Free U n i t e d Nations on E a r t h , i s presumably German, extremely p o l i t e and doggedly l o y a l ? C o l o n e l 83 C a m i l l e Roi i s p o s s i b l y a Frenchman, e l e g a n t i n h i s uniform, one can imagine, and p r e c i s e i n e x e c u t i n g orders? then " e i n gewisser P e t e r s e n " , a dubious c h a r a c t e r , former w a r - c r i m i n a l , w i t h a Scandinavian-sounding name; John Smith, with a t y p i c a l Anglo-Saxon name, suspect to the members of the Free Nations because he i s s a i d to be the son of an American Communist; Irene from Poland, a former p r o s t i t u t e , now a nurse on Venus; and .the, two main c h a r a c t e r s : the p r o t a g o n i s t S i r Horace Wood, F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r of the Free U n i t e d Nations of the p l a n e t E a r t h , sounding d i s t i n g u i s h e d as w e l l as cosmopolitan; and Bo n s t e t t e n , the a n t a g o n i s t of the p l a y , presumably Swiss, a former delegate of the Free U n i t e d Nations, now a medi c a l d o c t o r on Venus, c a l l i n g t o mind A l b e r t Schweitzer, Henry Dunant o r — G r a f Bodo von Ubelohe i n Durrenmatt's, Die Ehe des  Herrn M i s s i s s i p p i (1952) . A l l of these c h a r a c t e r s may sound somewhat c l i c h e - r i d d e n but then, i n a s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n r a d i o -p l a y l i k e t h i s , which the author c r e a t e d i n a v e r y condensed and economical manner, l e a v i n g much to the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the l i s t e n e r , the use of s t e r e o t y p e s i s almost a n e c e s s i t y . I t seems t o enhance r a t h e r than d i m i n i s h the impact of the drama. T h i s contemporary c a s t , then, c o n s i s t s of two groups: the passengers and crew on board the space-ship WEGA, t r a v e l -l i n g from p l a n e t E a r t h to Venus on a s p e c i f i c m i s s i o n , and the former t e r r e s t i a l s , now i n h a b i t a n t s of Venus. The l a t t e r group i s made up of former c r i m i n a l s and p o l i t i c a l l y " u n d e s i r -able elements" from both power-blocks on E a r t h who have been, 84 f o r the past two c e n t u r i e s , deported t o the extremely unhos-p i t a b l e p l a n e t Venus and the r e l e f t to t h e i r own d e v i s e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , t o o , t h a t the p l a y w r i g h t , i n t h i s work, determined t h a t a l l the c h a r a c t e r s be o r d i n a r y human beings as opposed t o the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d comedy, where the c h a r a c t e r s from o u t e r space are d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from m o r t a l men on E a r t h , namely d i r e c t c r e a t i o n s of God. Seen i n a p s y c h o l o g i c a l context, however, the people on Venus are of grea t i n t e r e s t i n s o f a r as they have undergone profound changes i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and behaviour due to the h o s t i l e e n v i r o n -ment they were t h r u s t i n t o , i n c o n t r a s t t o the v i s i t o r s from E a r t h who appear r a t h e r s t a t i c i n t h e i r o u t l o o k and t h i n k i n g , as Wood expresses i t at the outset of t h e i r journey and a g a i n on t h e i r r e t u r n t o E a r t h , they are " g e f e s s e l t " (pp. 8, 43), i . e . p r i s o n e r s of t h e i r s e l f - c r e a t e d power-system on p l a n e t E a r t h (which they c o n s i d e r , however, t o be s u p e r i o r t o any other c o n c e i v a b l e , t h i s b e i n g p a r t of t h e i r s t a t i c , p r e j u d i c e d way of t h i n k i n g ) . Looking at the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f j u s t i c e and grace i n t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n p l a y now under s c r u t i n y , one soon n o t i c e s the immanent c h a r a c t e r of these themes. They are of a much l e s s e x p l i c i t nature than was the case i n e i t h e r o f the two pre -v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d works. A l s o , t h e r e are h a r d l y any symbols e v i d e n t here, save perhaps the one i m p l i e d i n the author's c h o i c e of Venus, a p l a n e t l o n g a s s o c i a t e d with the goddess of love and beauty, whereas i n t h i s p l a y i t i s , f o r the deported 85 t e r r e s t r i a l s , a h a b i t a t with the most c r u e l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , as Mannerheira r e p o r t s t "Es war d i e H i t z e , d i e F e u c h t i g k e i t der L u f t , die immer spurbaren Erdbeben . . . . D i e s e r Himmel ohne Sonne, e i n schwer l a s t e n d e r Wolkenbrei, von unermesslichen Or-kanen d u r c h b r u l l t . . ." (p. 18). And y e t , j u s t i c e and grace are present on Venus, whereas on E a r t h , t h e y are expected t o come about i n the f u t u r e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , the passengers on board the WEGA, members of the Free U n i t e d Nations of Europe and America, are on t h e i r way to Venus on a s p e c i a l m i s s i o n . I n Durrenmatt*s f i r s t drama, the A n a b a p t i s t s too b e l i e v e they have a m i s s i o n , namely t o purge the world o f the " u n b e l i e v e r s " . In the p r e -v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d comedy, i t i s the angel who comes t o E a r t h w i t h a double m i s s i o n : t o b r i n g God's grace t o men and, i n a d d i t i o n , t o explore the p l a n e t E a r t h . I n the present p l a y , the d e l e g a t i o n from E a r t h has the m i s s i o n o f winning a l l i e s f o r a war a g a i n s t the opposing power-block on E a r t h . As i n -c e n t i v e s f o r a s e l e c t e d number of i n h a b i t a n t s on Venus, p o l i t -i c a l power t o r u l e the p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e , and hope to r e t u r n to E a r t h a f t e r a v i c t o r i o u s outcome of the war, are h e l d out. Before we e l a b o r a t e any f u r t h e r , however, on the r e a c -t i o n s of the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus t o the p r o p o s a l s from t h e i r v i s i t o r s and the d e c i s i o n they f i n a l -l y make, one might w e l l ask at t h i s p o i n t a l r e a d y : I s t h e r e any j u s t i c e or mercy i n h e r e n t i n e i t h e r the d e p o r t a t i o n of " u n d e s i r a b l e elements" from E a r t h to another p l a n e t , of which 86 i s known, as the S e c r e t a r y o f St a t e admits: " K l i m a t i s c h i s t d i e s e r P l a n e t eine Katastrophe. E r b e f i n d e t s i c h i n einem Zu-stand wie d i e Erde v o r etwa h u n d e r t f u n f z i g M i l l i o n e n Jahren" (p. 12), or the present a c t i o n of approaching the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a n u c l e a r war a g a i n s t the opponents of the Free U n i t e d S t a t e s o f the p l a n e t E a r t h . From the viewpoint of the t e r r e s t r i a l s , , the d e p o r t a t i o n of c r i m i n a l s and p o l i t i c a l non-conformists, t o another planet,, ., a " s a f e " d i s t a n c e of f o r t y - f i v e m i l l i o n k i l o m e t e r s away seems, i n an age o f space t r a v e l , a reasonable enough s o l u t i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the German proverb: "Aus den Augen, aus dem S i n n " . Such d e a l i n g s , however, show v e r y l i t t l e j u s t i c e and no com-p a s s i o n a t a l l s i n c e , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t i s known to the t e r r e s t i a l s t h a t the chances f o r s u r v i v a l on Venus are extremely poor. F o r those who manage to s u r v i v e and propagate .there, i t p r e s e n t s almost endless d i f f i c u l t i e s and surpasses i n c r u e l t y any punishment customary on E a r t h . The assumption of the d e l e g a t i o n from E a r t h t h a t the i n -h a b i t a n t s o f Venus would now comply i n a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a n u c l e a r war a g a i n s t the opposing power-block of the so-c a l l e d Free U n i t e d Nations o f Europe and America, t h i s a f t e r s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s of u t t e r i n d i f f e r e n c e as t o t h e i r f a t e on p l a n e t Venus, demonstrates a g a i n grave i n j u s t i c e on the p a r t of the t e r r e s t r i a l s . F o r them, the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus has ob-v i o u s l y no human d i g n i t y whatsoever, as the M i n i s t e r of Defense c a s u a l l y s t a t e s : "Es g i l t , d i e Bagage da oben f u r einen K r i e g 87 gegen Russland und A s i e n zu g e w i n n e n . : S t r a t e g i s c h b e s i t z t der P l a n e t Venus den V o r t e i l , dass d i e Wolkenschicht s e i n e r Atmo-sphare eine Beobachtung der Oberflache unmoglich macht" (p. 14). There are two p o i n t s , then, t h i s m i n i s t e r makes: " d i e Bagage da oben", and " s t r a t e g i s c h b e s i t z t der P l a n e t Venus den V o r t e i l . . ." . Human beings on Venus are t h e r e -f o r e regarded by the t e r r e s t r i a l s as pawns o n l y and t h e i r par-t i c i p a t i o n i n a war i s c o u r t e d s o l e l y because the p l a n e t they are f o r c e d to l i v e on c o u l d be advantageous to the Free U n i t e d Nations on E a r t h f o r war s t r a t e g y . The assumption, however, the l e a d e r of the d e l e g a t i o n , S i r Horace Wood, expresses: "Wir haben es mit Menschen zu tun. S i e s i n d n i c h t anders a l s w i r und ebenso l e i c h t zu v e r f i i h r e n wie w i r " (here with the promise of p o l i t i c a l power and the hope of r e t u r n i n g to E a r t h , p. 26), does not c o i n c i d e anymore with the views of the i n -h a b i t a n t s of Venus who, d u r i n g two c e n t u r i e s of hardship and s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , have developed d i f f e r e n t concepts of j u s t i c e and grace. The u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s making necessary a d i p l o -matic m i s s i o n from E a r t h t o Venus, are f e a r and d i s t r u s t t f e a r of the p o s s i b i l i t y of mutual a n n i h i l a t i o n by means of n u c l e a r weapons which both power-blocks possess, and d i s t r u s t t h a t the opposing power may launch the f i r s t bomb. Durrenmatt, i n h i s essay on "Theaterprobleme", speaks of "unsere Welt, d i e nur noch i s t , w e i l die Atombombe e x i s t i e r t : aus Furcht v o r i h r " , 9 and, i n t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n p l a y , he l e t s the M i n i s t e r of De-8 8 fense remarks " . . . sowohl w i r a l s auch d i e Russen t b e s i t z e n l k u n s t l i c h e Monde, von denen aus w i r einander beobachten"(p. 1 4 ) . F e a r , then, and d i s t r u s t motivate both power-blocks t o ever c o s t l i e r means of watching over the enemy's every move. On a s m a l l e r s c a l e , f e a r and d i s t r u s t are i l l u s t r a t e d e a r l y i n the p l a y when Wood, b e f o r e b o a r d i n g the s p a c e - c r a f t , i s p o l i t e l y asked by Mannerheim t o put on a hat and dark g l a s -s e s . "Spione konnten uns erkennen", i s the p l a u s i b l e explana-t i o n , and Wood agrees: "Das i s t immer zu b e f i i r c h t e n " (p. 7). The l e a d e r of the m i s s i o n i s a l s o not s u r p r i s e d to r e a l i z e t h a t Mannerheim i s not o n l y i n charge o f the p h y s i c a l w e l l -b e i n g of the passengers and crew on board the WEGA but a c t s , a t the same time, as a member of the S e c r e t S e r v i c e o f the Free Nations on E a r t h and i s a s s i g n e d t o tape (with a pocket-tape-r e c o r d e r ) Wood's every u t t e r a n c e on t h i s m i s s i o n and then t o r e p o r t back t o the P r e s i d e n t of the Free Nations upon t h e i r r e t u r n . Wood, the seasoned p o l i t i c i a n , however accepts t h i s r a t h e r irksome circumstance as p a r t of the r u l e s of the game, which can be expressed byt Don't t r u s t anyone, not even your c l o s e s t f r i e n d or a l l y . The d e l e g a t i o n from E a r t h , then, a r r i v e s on Venus with an a t t i t u d e of f e a r and d i s t r u s t and, once t h e r e , seems n e i t h e r capable nor w i l l i n g t o t o l e r a t e any o t h e r p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e . T h e i r main f e a r i s , as t h e i r l e a d e r Wood s t a t e s , towards the end o f the plays "Die Russen konnten kommen und mit ihnen e i n e n Pakt s c h l i e s s e n " (p. 43 ) which i s , of course, p r e c i s e l y the i n -89 t e n t i o n of the members of the Free U n i t e d S t a t e s . Aggravat-i n g the s e v e r i t y of the deadlock s i t u a t i o n on E a r t h i s the p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e s t a t e of a near-balance of power as f a r as armament i s concerned. During t h e i r f i r s t conference on board the WEGA, Wood emphasizes t h i s dangers "Die beiden Geg-ner s i n d annahernd g l e i c h machtig. Annahernd'.' (p, 11). ( T h i s warning bears a s t r i k i n g resemblance t o the e a r l i e r mentioned statements by C o l l i s o n , p u b l i s h e d i n May 1980, twenty-six years a f t e r Durrenmatt's, Das Unternehmen der Wega.) C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o f e a r and d i s t r u s t a r e , on the p a r t of the t e r r e s t r i a l s , ; c o w a r d i c e and escapism. Wood, f o r i n s t a n c e , does not l i k e the prospect of l e a v i n g the b e a u t i f u l p l a n e t E a r t h and embarking on a m i s s i o n with an u n c e r t a i n outcome. "Schade, w e g f l i e g e n zu m'ussen", he says n o s t a l g i c a l l y t o Mannerheim, "ware g e m f i s c h e n gegangen" (p. 9). Towards the end of the p l a y , Wood comforts h i m s e l f with the knowledge t h a t he i s i n the p o s s e s s i o n of a "secure" bomb-shelter on E a r t h , thanks t o h i s e l e v a t e d p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y of the p o l i t -i c a l system he belongs t o . In the case o f a n u c l e a r war, he plans to r e t r e a t i n t o a sane world of e s t h e t i c l i t e r a t u r e such as the r e a d i n g of T.S. E l i o t . (Escape from a c r u e l r e a l i t y occurs r e p e a t e d l y i n Durrenmatt's work as, f o r i n s t a n c e , i n Frank der Funfte (1959), where the main c h a r a c t e r , a c o r r u p t b a n k - d i r e c t o r , i s , as Urs Jenny puts i t , "Goethe und Morike zugeneigt, e i n X s t h e t " , 1 0 or as i n Der Mitmacher (1976), where Doc, the a n t a g o n i s t of t h a t p l a y , seeks r e s p i t e from h i s macabre 9 0 type o f work, the chemical d i s s o l v i n g o f corpses, i n the r e a d i n g of comic books.) A dangerous k i n d of cowardice i s demonstrated i n the a v o i d -ance of independent t h i n k i n g and the acceptance f o r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y . I t i s Wood, the shrewd p o l i t i c i a n , who expresses t h i s perhaps b e s t i n h i s d i a l o g u e with C o l o n e l R o i , the man i n charge o f the n u c l e a r weapons on board the WEGA. Wood says; Mit Verwunderung habe i c h i h r e Anwesenheit bemerkt, Oberst, doch w e i t e r daruber nachzudenken, kann i c h mir a l s Aussenminister der f r e i e n Nationen n i c h t l e i s t e n (p. 17 ) . The m i l i t a r y commander, f o r h i s p a r t , cannot a f f o r d e i t h e r t o ponder or r e f l e c t on h i s a c t i o n s . To Wood's i r o n i c comments " S i e s i n d e i n g e f a h r l i c h e r Bursche, R o i " , the C o l o n e l simply r e p l i e s s " [ i c h b i n ! S o l d a t " (p. 1 7 ) . He assumes no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the H-bombs on board, or the purpose they might s e r v e , s i n c e they are t h e r e , "Auf Wunsch des P r a s i d e n t e n " (p. 1 7 ) , and Wood takes the same stance when he g i v e s h i s per-m i s s i o n f o r the bombs to be dropped on Venus. To Roi's urg-ings "Der President hat b e f o h l e n " , the F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r then d i p l o m a t i c a l l y consentss "Wenn der President b e f o h l e n h a t , Oberst R o i , l a s s e n S i e d i e Bomben eben abwerfen", adding c o l d -l y , " moglichst gleichm'assig liber d i e Venus v e r t e i l t " (p. 3 k ) . With t h i s , both of the men t r a n s f e r any i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y t o the "President", a nameless f i g u r e i n the power-struc-t u r e of the Free U n i t e d Nations. Durrenmatt says of types such as theses "Ihre Macht i s t so r i e s e n h a f t , dass s i e s e l b e r nur noch z u f a l l i g e , aussere Ausdrucksformen d i e s e r Macht s i n d , 91 b e l i e b i g zu e r s e t z e n " 1 1 and states, furthermore, "die heutige Macht i s t nur zum kleinsten T e i l sichtbar, wie bei einem E i s -berg i s t der gr'osste T e i l im Gesichtslosen, Abstrakten ver-12 sunken". There are, then, no more in d i v i d u a l v i l l a i n s i n a modern tragedy of t h i s kind. Wood and Roi, as well as the other mem-bers of the delegation from Earth, are only cogs i n the wheels of an i n t r i c a t e state-machinery of giant proportions. The death of m i l l i o n s , caused by nuclear weapons, i s , as the author puts i t , "von Weltmetzgern inszeniert: und von Hackmaschinen ausgefuhrt". Wood's protestations: "Ich b i n kein Schlachter" (p. 41), i s v a l i d only inasmuch as there can be no more i n d i -v idual g u i l t considering the anonymity of large power-struc-tures whose decisions they are to execute. Two aspects, however, point towards a more personal kind of g u i l t as f a r as the leader of the delegation i s concerned. One i s h i s relationship with Bonstetten, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the diplomat's sentimental: "Du b i s t mein Freund, Bonstetten. Ich kann doch einen Freund nicht t'oten" (p. 41 ) fwhich i s soon deflated, though, by his r e g r e t f u l remark: "Es i s t trag i s c h , dass ich i n dieser Hinsicht nicht f r e i bin" (p. 42). Wood, then, finds himself i n a dilemma between feelings of personal sympathy and friendship f o r his former fellow-student, and the obligations as leader of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r mission to Venus. By chosing to conform to the demands his p o s i t i o n imposes on him, he betrays the p r i n c i p l e s of l o y a l t y to a f r i e n d he s t i l l not 92 o n l y l i k e s but a l s o admires f o r h i s courage and d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The o t h e r aspect which i n t i m a t e s a p e r s o n a l g u i l t i n Wood's behaviour i s h i s f r a n t i c attempt, a f t e r the i r r e v e r s -i b l e e x e c u t i o n o f h i s consent to bomb the p l a n e t , t o j u s t i f y h i s d e c i s i o n . "Mich e k e l t d i e s a l l e s " , he t e l l s Mannerheim, "Diese Venus i s t f u r c h t e r l i c h . S i n d s c h l i e s s l i c h a l l e s Ver-b r e c h e r da oben. B i n s i c h e r , dass B o n s t e t t e n s i c h mit den Russen verbunden w o l l t e " (p. 45). T h i s need to j u s t i f y one's a c t i o n s seems to be i n n a t e i n man. The author expresses t h i s i n one o f h i s aphorismsJ "Das Schwerstes S i c h n i c h t zu r e c h t -14 f e r t i g e n . " In a d d i t i o n , Wood, p o r t r a y e d as the well-educa-t e d cosmopolitan, becomes obvious as the i n t e l l e c t u a l with the bad c o n s c i e n c e , as opposed to the M i n i s t e r of Defense o r C o l o n e l Roi whose s o l e ambition i t i s to earn y e t another l a u r e l i n the s u c c e s s f u l conquest of "enemies".1-' The F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , f o r h i s p a r t , i s not o n l y aware o f the consequences of h i s d e c i -s i o n but f e e l s p e r s o n a l l y g u i l t y about i t , hence h i s need f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d — e s c a p e i n t o the realm of the harmonious and e s t h e t i c by means of which he hopes to numb the p a i n f u l f e e l -ings of g u i l t . One more group of negative t r a i t s on the p a r t of the t e r r e s t r i a l s i s worthwhile c o n s i d e r i n g b e f o r e we shed some l i g h t on the behaviour and r e a c t i o n s of the i n h a b i t a n t s on Venus. Although i t may appear p a r a d o x i c a l , f e a r , d i s t r u s t and cowardice are o f t e n e f f e c t i v e l y covered up by a d i s p l a y o f p r i d e , a r r o -gance and an a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y . The f i r s t encounter of the 93 d e l e g a t e s from E a r t h with the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the people on Venus, i s a m a s t e r f u l s a t i r e on t h i s t o p i c . Mannerheim r e p o r t s s Seine E x z e l l e n z Wood h i e l t den k l e i n e n Z e t t e l mit dem Konzept s e i n e r Rede i n den Handen, hat t e s i c h auch eine machtige H o r n b r i l l e a u f g e s e t z t , doch sahen wir n i c h t s a l s d r e i Manner i n z e r -s c h l i s s e n e r K l e i d u n g , d i e nur aus Hemd und Hose bestand. S i e naherten s i c h uns zogernd vom S t r a n -de her (p. 19 ) . The above d e p i c t e d s i t u a t i o n i s not without a good p o r t i o n of grotesque humor as w e l l : the presumably el e g a n t , w e l l -groomed diplomat from the p l a n e t E a r t h , accompanied by Manner-heim and two other m i n i s t e r s , i s prepared f o r an i n t r o d u c -t o r y speech t o — a group of three men, c l a d i n o l d s h i r t s and p a n t s , approaching only h e s i t a t i n g l y . P r i d e and a sense of s u p e r i o r i t y i s c l e a r l y expressed i n dress and approach of the v i s i t i n g d e l e g a t i o n . The f i r s t words of i n t r o d u c t i o n ex-changed mark a l r e a d y a c o n t r a s t between h u m i l i t y and p r i d e . John Smith ( l e i s e ) : "Ich b i n John Smith"; Wood: " S i r Horace Wood" (p. 1 9 ) , and whereas the men from Venus are i n t r o d u c e d simply .as "Herr P e t e r s e n , H e r r P e t r o v " , Wood deems i t necessary to present h i s c o l l e a g u e s as " E x c e l l e n c i e s " (p. 19 ) . The e f f e c t of s u p e r i o r i t y i s d e f l a t e d , however, when Wood s t a r t s out with h i s c a r e f u l l y prepared speech, c o n t a i n i n g much rheto-r i c , complete with q u o t a t i o n s by T.S. E l i o t , and nature i n t e r -f e r e s with a f u r i o u s thunderstorm. Wood's e l a b o r a t i o n on the concepts of " I d e a l e . . . Humanitat . . . F r e i h e i t " are drown-ed a c c o u s t i c a l l y by "Krachender Donner, unermesslichetn] Wind-94 stossetnl [und] Regenrauschen" (pp. 19-20). Arrogance and vanity are displayed by the Minister of De-fense and the Minister f o r e x t r a t e r r e s t r i a l domains. They f i n d i t "Unertraglich . . . unsinnig . . . Zum Wahnsinnigwerden" (pp. 22-3) on Venus, and the sight of a chameleon, measuring f i f t y meters i n length i s to them, downright "Unanstandig" (p. 24). When the delegates, l a t e r on, are expected to continue t h e i r negotiations with Irene, a former p r o s t i t u t e , the two ministers express t h e i r frustrated pride i n no uncertain terms. One exclaims: "Noch nie i s t eine diplomatische Mission auch nur ann'ahernd so b e l e i d i g t worden. Man halt uns i n einer ver-stunkenen Kabine zum Narren" (p. 28), and the other vents his feel i n g s with: "Wenn wir nicht die Russen auf dem Buckel hatten, ware es unsere P f l i c h t , diesen Kerlen den Krieg zu erklaren", adding, "Wir haben s c h l i e s s l i c h unseren irdischen S t o l z l " (p. 28). Even the p o l i t e Mannerheim cannot hide his astonish-ment. He reports: "Wir waren uberrascht. Wir hatten geglaubt i n einer Stadt oder einem Landhaus zu verhandeln . . .taber wir waren] eingepfercht i n einen kleinen, schlechtbeleuchteten Raum, der durch die Wogen des fremden Ozeans abenteuerlich hin und her geworfen wurde" (p. 20). Wood's pride, however, i s of a much subtler kind than are the ones of the three men previously mentioned. The Foreign Minister keeps his sense of humor, at lea s t i n the early stages of the play. When the two oth@P ministers advocate a speedy return to Earth since they consider t h e i r mission a f a i l u r e and, 95 "Eine lacherliche Angelegenheit" (p. 24), Wood manages to see the comical aspect of the s i t u a t i o n . "Mir schien die Venus vernunftig", he says, "Jedes Mal, wenn ich i n meiner Rede auf Ideale zu sprechen kam, hat's gedonnert" (p. 24). The simple statement of the representatives of the people on Venus that they don't need a government and not even p o l i t i c s per se, e l i c i t s Wood's respect and he i s s t i l l w i l l i n g to negotiate: with whoever i s av a i l a b l e . He i s proud, however, to be a humanitarian. When he claims, i n the dialogue with his former fellow-student Bonstetten: "An unserem guten Willen kann nicht gezweifelt werden. Die F r e i h e i t und die Humanitat werden sich s c h l i e s s l i c h durchsetzen", he seems ac t u a l l y to believe i n what he says although these statements have a somewhat defen-sive r i n g to them. Bonstetten's reply: "Na t i i r l i c h " (p. 40), i s then tinged with gentle irony. The Foreign Minister, however, deflates h i s grand claim immediately afterwards with the seemingly r e a l i s t i c words: "Wir sind einfach momentan gezwungen, scharfe Massnahmen zu ergreifen" (p. 40), thereby implying that following the threat and, i f necessary, the use of nuclear weapons, freedom and human-itarianism would ensue as a consequence. (This would then raise the question as to who would be l e f t on the planet, a radio-active wasteland, to enjoy freedom and humanitarianism?) The double-standard, then, of the delegates from Earth i s evident. Talking about ideals and, at the same time, plan-ning to act and f i n a l l y acting i n a manner diametrically opposed 96 to these i d e a l s , l e a d s to doubt about what the v i s i t o r s from E a r t h might say or promise, no matter how e l o q u e n t l y formulated. The d e l e g a t i o n from E a r t h cannot conceive of any oth e r b a s i c a t t i t u d e i n human r e l a t i o n s than f e a r and d i s t r u s t and a d i s p l a y o f p r i d e and arrogance t o c o n c e a l the former. That t h e r e a r e , however, a l t e r n a t i v e s i n a t t i t u d e p o s s i b l e , i s p e r -haps the crux o f t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n p l a y . These are dem-o n s t r a t e d v i v i d l y by the i n h a b i t a n t s of Venus, as expressed by t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who have to d e a l with the diplomats from E a r t h . There i s , f i r s t o f a l l , a r e f r e s h i n g d i r e c t n e s s i n the manner of speech the people on Venus employ i n c o n t r a s t t o the o f t e n long-winded approach o f the t e r r e s t r i a l s . To the F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r ' s i n q u i r i e s , f o r example, as to the extent of a u t h o r i t y , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r government, Smith, P e t e r s e n and P e t r o v might have, Smith answers simply t h a t they have no government. To Wood's a s t o n i s h e d r e a c t i o n : "Wie s o l i i c h das verstehen?", the p l a i n ( i f somewhat rude, at l e a s t i n the ears of the v i s i t o r s ) answer i s : "Wie i c h es sagte" (p. 21). There i s no double meaning, then, e n t a i l e d i n the statements of the i n h a b i t a n t s of Venus which would make necessary an i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of t h e i r every word. Wood seems t o be aware of a l a c k of t r u t h f u l n e s s , o f t e n occurring as a matter of course, i n the speech of the t e r r e s -t r i a l s . When the p l a n e t E a r t h i s s t i l l i n s i g h t , he muses: 97 "Schon, d i e Erde. . . . E i n gebogener S c h i l d . Schade, dass s i e f a l s c h i s t . . . . Ihre Bewohner sagen n i c h t immer d i e Wahrheit" (p. 10 ) . L a t e r on, Wood's s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e r e are indeed n u c l e a r bombs on board the WEGA, i s confirmed, t h i s d e s p i t e C o l o n e l Roi's i n i t i a l , e v a s i v e : "Wiisste n i c h t wozu"(p. 17 ) . Another member of the d e l e g a t i o n , the Secre-t a r y of S t a t e , i s caught i n the attempt o f camouflaging the t r u t h about deputies from E a r t h (such as Bonstetten) on Venus. He t e l l s the F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , at f i r s t 1 "Die Venus i s t f u r eine menschliche B e s i e d l u n g ungeeignet, sowohl Russland a l s auch unsere verbiindeten S t a a t e n haben denn auch d i e Kommissare zuriickgezogen". I t i s only a f t e r Wood i n s i s t s : "Ich hor t e etwas anderes dariiber" (pp. 1 2 - 3 ) , t h a t the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e admits t h a t , i n f a c t , the deputies had, by t h e i r own c h o i c e , r e f u s e d t o r e t u r n t o E a r t h . The g r a v e s t f a l s e h o o d , however, on the p a r t of the t e r r e s -t r i a l s i s t h e i r promise t h a t t h e i r s p a c e - c r a f t would v i s i t the pl a n e t Venus with p e a c e f u l i n t e n t i o n s and t h a t they would not c a r r y any weapons with them. The t r u t h l a t e r r e v e a l e d i s t h a t not o n l y were t e n of the d e a d l i e s t n u c l e a r bombs put on board the WEGA but a l s o the command g i v e n , by those i n charge w i t h i n the Free U n i t e d Nations, t o detonate them over Venus should the p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e not agree t o the p r o p o s i t i o n s of the d e l e -g a t i o n from E a r t h . Falsehood i s , however, not a p a r t of the a t t i t u d e o r be-hav i o u r o f the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus, s i n c e t h i s would on l y 98 c r e a t e c o n f u s i o n and s e r i o u s l y hamper t r u s t and co o p e r a t i o n , so v i t a l f o r t h e i r s u r v i v a l . E q u a l l y absent on t h i s p l a n e t are p r i d e and arrogance. Petersen's statement, e a r l y i n the p l a y , i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s . He t e l l s the m i n i s t e r f o r e x t r a t e r r e s -t r i a l domains: "Die Venus i s t g r o s s , und w i r s i n d k l e i n . S i e i s t grausam. Wir miissen kampfen, wenn w i r l e b e n wollen" (p.2 1 ) . T h i s i s not b o a s t i n g but a simple acknowledgement of d i r e l i v -i n g c o n d i t i o n s . John Smith i s not b e i n g arrogant e i t h e r when he, t o the remark of the M i n i s t e r of Defense: " S i e nennen s i c h B e v o l l m a c h t i g t e r der Venus . . .", t r u t h f u l l y answers: " I c h b i n es" (p. 2 2 ) , and f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t i t was he h i m s e l f who had taken the l i b e r t y of having t h i s f u n c t i o n (to the con-s t e r n a t i o n of the " K r i e g s m i n i s t e r " ) , s i n c e i t was h i s duty to a c t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e when they r e c e i v e d the w i r e l e s s messages from E a r t h . P r i d e and arrogance, then, as w e l l as any k i n d of f a l s e -hood, are absent on Venus because, as i l l u s t r a t e d , a l l o f these t r a i t s would mean an u t t e r waste of time and energy. In a d d i -t i o n , there i s no cowardice concealed i n the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s p l a n e t . In the context o f the above mentioned s i t u a t i o n of r e c e i v i n g w i r e l e s s messages from another p l a n e t , Smith em-p h a s i z e s : "Kelner d a r f s i c h b e i uns um s e i n e Aufgabe drScken, auch wenn e r di e s e Aufgabe z u f a l l i g e r h a l t und s i e ihm n i c h t im mindesten l i e g t " (p. 2 2 ) . Under an aust e r e system such as t h i s i t i s no s u r p r i s e , then, t h a t t r u e heroism develops amongst the people on Venus. Irene, the former p r o s t i t u t e . 99 from Poland, i s a good example f o r t h i s . Not only has she married and looks a f t e r a deaf-mute man hut she a l s o works now as a nurse i n a p r i m i t i v e k i n d of submarine which i s con-r.. v e r t e d i n t o a h o s p i t a l , a s s i s t i n g the d o c t o r i n a l l k i n d s of t a s k s , i n c l u d i n g amputations without any means of a n a e s t h e s i a (p. 3 D . L a s t but not l e a s t , i t i s B o n s t e t t e n , the former deputy of the Free U n i t e d Nations, who e x c e l l s i n courage and heroism. Having completely abandoned a l u c r a t i v e d i p l o m a t i c c a r e e r on E a r t h he chose to work on Venus as a d o c t o r and i n t h i s func-t i o n f a c e s almost insurmountable o b s t a c l e s . He r e a l i s t i c a l l y t e l l s h i s former f e l l o w - s t u d e n t Woods A l l e s mussen wir uns s e l b e r s c h a f f e n . Werkzeuge, K l e i d e r , S c h i f f e , Funkapparate, Waffen gegen die r i e s i g e n T i e r e . A l l e s f e h l t . Die E r f a h r u n g , das Wissen. . . . Keine Medikamente; P f l a n z e n , Fruch-t e , d i e w i r n i c h t kennen, d i e meisten g i f t i g . So-gar an das Wasser kann man s i c h nur langsam ge-wohnen (p. 38), But to Wood's ob j e c t i o n s "Dann muss es e i n f i i r c h t e r l i c h e s Leben s e i n " , B o n s t a t t e n r e p l i e s f i r m l y : " E i n r i c h t i g e s Leben" (p. 37). Heroism, then, i n s t e a d of cowardice can be seen i n i n d i -v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n p l a y but i s a l s o demonstrated on a l a r g e r s c a l e , namely when the whole popula-t i o n r e f u s e s , d e s p i t e the tremendous h a r d s h i p on Venus, to r e -t u r n to the p l a n e t E a r t h . T h i s k i n d of heroism i s based on an a t t i t u d e of h u m i l i t y and f e a r l e s s n e s s which l e d to a sense of t o t a l acceptance of adverse circumstances and even death. Bon-s t e t t e n , i n h i s dialogue with Wood, expresses t h i s with d i g n i t y : 100 " A l l e s Notwendige i s t l e i c h t . Man muss es nur annehmen... . . das Notwendigste, das N a t u r l i c h s t e auf diesem P l a n e t e n i s t der Tod. E r i s t l i b e r a l l und zu j e d e r z e i t , " adding q u i e t l y , "Wir f i i r c h t e n eure Bomben n i c h t , w e i l w i r m i t t e n im Tode l e b e n und l e r n e n mussten, i h n n i c h t mehr zu f i i r c h t e n " (p. 4 2 ) . As to why mankind on the p l a n e t E a r t h l i v e s i n a s t a t e of c o n t i n -uous f e a r of each o t h e r , the d o c t o r on Venus r e a l i z e s c l e a r l y t h a t : "Die Erde i s t zu schon. Zu r e i c h . Ihre M o g l i c h k e i t e n s i n d zu g r o s s . S i e v e r f i i h r t zu Ungleichhe-it" (p. 3 9 ) . There can be no j u s t i c e , then, on E a r t h s i n c e the v e r y advantages o f t h i s p l a n e t such as b e n e f i c i a l c l i m a t e s - a n d steady c y c l e s of seasons, p r o d u c i n g f o o d i n p l e n t y , have not l e d to happiness, e q u a l i t y and the b r o t h e r l y s h a r i n g of a l l r e s o u r c e s , but to " U n g l e i c h h e i t " . Abundance i s taken f o r granted and leaves the human race on E a r t h p l e n t y of time and energy to covet t h e i r neighbour's p o s s e s s i o n s and s t r i v e f o r the dominion over more and more, p o s s i b l y extending t h e i r quest, as i s i m p l i e d i n t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n drama, t o o t h e r p l a n e t s as w e l l . In a d d i t i o n , the two power-blocks on E a r t h l i v e i n deadly c o m p e t i t i o n and ready themselves f o r , so they b e l i e v e , an Armageddon which would soon be unavoidable, as the F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r expounds on the d e l e g a t i o n ' s f i r s t c o n f e r -ence on board the WEGA: Die D i p l o m a t i c i s t am Ende i h r e r Kiinste, der K a l t e K r i e g l a s s t s i c h n i c h t mehr v e r l a n g e r n , e i n F r i e d e i s t unmb'glich, d i e Notwendigkeit, e i n e n K r i e g zu f i i h r e n , g r o s s e r a l s d i e F u r c h t v o r ihm (p. 11). 101 On the p l a n e t Venus, however, j u s t i c e has developed as a n a t u r a l consequence of c r u e l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , as opposed t o the i n e q u a l i t y on E a r t h , r e s u l t i n g from the i n s a t i a b l e greed of t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s . On Venus i t i s p o v e r t y which i s the g r e a t e q u a l i z e r , s i n c e p r a c t i c a l l y every member of the popu-l a t i o n was deported t o the p l a n e t without any p e r s o n a l belong-i n g s . T h i s accounts f o r the h e a l t h y p r i d e they then take i n t h e i r achievements. "Nur h i e r i s t d i e Armut etwas N a t u r l i c h e s " , says B o n s t e t t e n , "An un s e r e r Nahrung, an unseren Werkzeugen k l e b t nur unser Schweiss, noch n i c h t U n g e r e c h t i g k e i t wie auf der Erde" (p. 3 9 ) . (Poverty, we may r e c a l l , was an important t o p i c too i n Es s t e h t g e s c h r i e b e n , and i n E i n Engel kommt nach  Babylon. In the f i r s t drama, i t i s K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k who r e -j o i c e s i n h i s a b j e c t p o v e r t y , a f t e r he had f r e e d h i m s e l f from a l l h i s p o s s e s s i o n s , and i n the comedy d i s c u s s e d , i t i s the u n f o r g e t t a b l e A k k i who deems the s t a t e of po v e r t y as the bes t p o s s i b l e means f o r s u r v i v a l . ) P o v e r t y and c r u e l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s a l s o make f o r the ut-most c o o p e r a t i o n among the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus. I t i s im-p r e s s i v e to note the frequency of the f i r s t p e rson p l u r a l i n t h i s p l a y when any of the people on Venus speak, such as: "Wir haben keine Regierung";"Wir konnen uns P o l i t i k n i c h t l e i s t e n " (p . 2 1):Es i s t w i c h t i g f u r uns, dass w i r Wale jagen"(p. 2 7 ) ; "Wir w o l l e n n i c h t zurvick" (p. 3 2 ) , and many oth e r i n s t a n c e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t statement i n t h i s context i s perhaps: "Wir mussten t o t e n , wenn w i r zuruck w o l l t e n , denn h e l f e n und t b t e n 102 i s t b e i euch tauf der E r d e l dasselbe. Wir konnen n i c h t mehr t b t e n " (p. 3 8 ) . The d a i l y s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l , then, has c r e a t e d on Venus a k i n d of i d e a l communism or, by the same token, a r e a l i z a t i o n of the second p a r t of the main law of the Hebrew-Christian t e n e t s r Love your neighbour as y o u r s e l f . C o o p e r a t i o n , developed due to sheer n e c e s s i t y , seems to t h r i v e among the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus whereas on E a r t h , as i s p resented i n t h i s p l a y , t h i s concept has almost disappeared and been r e p l a c e d i n s t e a d by an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n which u l t i m a t e l y may show no winners but de s t r o y a l l . There are only two kinds of f e a r the p o p u l a t i o n on Venus ex p e r i e n c e s : the f e a r of the a f f l u e n c e on E a r t h which has l e d to greed and f a l s e h o o d , and the f e a r of e v i l i n t e n t i o n s of the d e l e g a t i o n from E a r t h . The r e a l i s t i c B o n s t e t t e n ex-pres s e s t h i s a p t l y when he t e l l s Wood: "Und so haben wir Fur c h t v o r i h r (der Erde . Furcht vor ihrem U b e r f l u s s , F u r c h t v o r dem f a l s c h e n Leben, Furcht v o r einem P a r a d i e s , das eine H b l l e i s t " (p. 3 9 ) . The people on Venus p r e f e r t h e r e f o r e t o remain "In e i n e C r l H b l l e , d i e e i n Pa r a d i e s i s t " (p. 3 8 ) , as Wood r u e f u l l y s t a t e d e a r l i e r . As to the second k i n d of f e a r , t h i s too i s r e a l i z e d and expressed by B o n s t e t t e n , who has no i l l u s i o n s about the purpose of the m i s s i o n from E a r t h . " I h r braucht uns j e t z t nur, um uns wie Hunde v o r den Wagen eures K r i e g e s zu spannen. Doch'konnt i h r uns zwar h i e h e r s c h i c k e n , aber n i c h t zur Ruckkehr zwingen" (p. 3 9 ) , he f r a n k l y t e l l s the l e a d e r of the d e l e g a t i o n . 103 Since Das Unternehmen der Wega i s an e n t i r e l y s e c u l a r p l a y , as opposed to the two p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d works which show a s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s content, the concepts of j u s t i c e and grace must a l s o he c o n s i d e r e d i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . There i s , a t any r a t e , no mention of d i v i n e j u s t i c e v ersus human j u s t i c e , or God's mercy versus a human i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term. The h i g h e s t concepts on E a r t h mentioned i n t h i s p l a y a r e , as the M i n i s t e r f o r e x t r a t e r r e s t i a l domains ("mit schwacher Stimme") s t a t e s , " d i e hehren I d e a l e der F r e i h e i t , der Humanitat und der P r i v a t w i r t s c h a f t " (p. 3 2 ) . The F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r , too, seems to b e l i e v e t h a t freedom and humanism w i l l e v e n t u a l l y triumph on E a r t h . True humanism should, however, i n c l u d e j u s t i c e and mercy towards one's f e l l o w human b e i n g , as an i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as a race (which would comprise, i n the context of t h i s p l a y , a l -so human beings on o t h e r p l a n e t s ) . J u s t i c e might then more c o n v e n i e n t l y be c a l l e d f a i r n e s s , and mercy human c h a r i t y t o -wards the weak, the e r r i n g and the disadvantaged. But then, the terms o f freedom, humanitarianism and f r e e e n t e r p r i s e are o f t e n n o t h i n g but l o f t y concepts used, as i n t h i s work, to cover base i n s t i n c t s , such as f e a r , cowardice and the r u t h l e s s a p p l i c a t i o n of the assumed r i g h t s of the s t r o n g e r and b e t t e r equipped. On Venus, however, j u s t i c e i s present as the consequence of the need f o r s u r v i v a l . The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the t e n e t i Love your neighbour as y o u r s e l f , has produced not only 104 j u s t i c e but a l s o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t t h i s way of l i f e i s pre-f e r r a b l e to a l i f e on the p l a n e t E a r t h where to he l p each o t h e r o f t e n means the e l i m i n a t i o n of anyone who does not comply with the demands and ex p e c t a t i o n s o f whoever may i n power. The c e n t r a l i n s i g h t i n t h i s work, though, i s expressed i n B o nstetten's r e p l y t o Wood's c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n s : "Was habt i h r gegen d i e milde Erde e i n g e t a u s c h t ? . . . . Welche Erkennt-n i s habt i h r d a f i i r bekommen?", to.,which the doctor on Venus answers with c o n v i c t i o n : "Der Mensch i s t etwas Kostbares und s e i n Leben eine Gnade" (p. 3 8 ) . The F o r e i g n M i n i s t e r ' s d i s -appointed: " L a c h e r l i c h . Diese E r k e n n t n i s haben wir auf der Erde schon lange", i s c h a l l e n g e d by Bons t e t t e n ' s e a r n e s t : "Nun? Lebt i h r nach d i e s e r E r k e n n t n i s ? " (p. 3 8 ) . The ensuing s i l e n c e f o l l o w i n g i s an answer i n i t s e l f . On E a r t h , then, t h i s c e n t r a l i n s i g h t has not produced p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . E a r t h i s "zu schon . . . Zu r e i c h " (p. 3 9 ) , and t h e r e f o r e not conducive t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of man's i n -s i g h t s . Durrenmatt p r e s e n t s t h i s t o p i c a l s o i n h i s f i r s t drama where i t i s only K n i p p e r d o l l i n c k , however, who has the courage to l i v e a c c o r d i n g to the i n s i g h t s he gained by r e a d i n g the g o s p e l . In E i n Enge l kommt nach Babylon, i t i s onl y A k k i who, i n the course of h i s exp e r i e n c e s , has l e a r n e d about the f u t i l -i t y of man's greed and ambitions and who a c t s a c c o r d i n g l y . How t i m e l y i t i s , i n the second h a l f of the t w e n t i e t h century, to t h i n k about the i n s i g h t s man on the p l a n e t E a r t h has gained so f a r , i s e l u c i d a t e d by the author. He f e e l s t h a t : "Die Welt, 105 i n der wir leben, i s t nicht so sehr i n eine Krise der Er-kenhtnis gekommen, sondern i n eine Krise der Verwirklichung i h r e r Erkenntnisse.""^ In t h i s s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n radio-play, then, the playwright has succeeded i n drawing up yet another i l l u s t r a t i o n of the concepts of justice and grace. Because the population on Earth has f a i l e d to put into practice the p r i n c i p l e s of free-dom and humanitarianism, neither justice nor grace have emerged. That alternatives are possible i s demonstrated by the attitude and conduct of the inhabitants of Venus, t h i s despite the t r a g i c ending of the play, the bombing of the planet by the delegation from Earth. The bringing about of justice among human beings and the a b i l i t y of regarding every das as "Gnade", are the achievements which r e a l l y matter. Wood's pessimistic words, on the other hand, (afte r the H-bombs had detonated on Venus): "Nun sind die Bomben gef a l -len, und bald werden sie auch auf der Erde f a l l e n " (p. k5), indicate the j u s t i c e , i . e . the law of r e t r i b u t i o n , which i s inherent i n every action. Durrenmatt's creation of a science-f i c t i o n utopia on Venus where there i s no impulse toward falsehood, competition or cowardice and where a l l work to-gether i n brotherly love, contains nevertheless a somewhat grim note since t h i s i d e a l state came about only through ex-treme hardship and adverse circumstances. The author may well imply that t h i s might indeed be the only way mankind would ever manage to survive. 106 ENDNOTES TO CHAPTER THREE 1 F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, "Vom Sinn der Dichtung i n unse-rer Z e i t , " i n Theater-Schriften und Reden (Zurich: Arche, 1966) , p. 61. 2 Urs Jenny, "Lebensdaten und Werkverzeichnis," i n Durrenmatt (Velber bei Hannover: F r i e d r i c h Verlag, 1 9 6 5 ) » p. 10. ^ Durrenmatt, "Kunst;" i n Theater-Schriften, p. 42. ^ "Nuclear Explosion," McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia, 1971. ^ Robert C o l l i s o n , "The new threat of nuclear war," i n Saturday Night, 95 , May 1980, p. 17. ^ Elisabeth Brock-Sulzer, F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, St a-* tionen seines Werkes (Zurich: Arche, I960), p. 30. ^ F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, Es steht geschrieben, i n Kombdien II und Fruhe Stucke (Zurich: Arche: 19&3J, p. 2 3 . Q F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, E i n Engel kommt nach Babylon, i n Kombdien I (Zurich: Arche, 1957), p. 248. 9 Durrenmatt, "Theaterprobleme," i n Theater-Schriften, p. 122. 1 0 Jenny, "Frank der Fiinfte", i n Durrenmatt, p. 73 . 1 1 Durrenmatt, Theaterprobleme", p. 119. Durrenmatt, p. 119• Durrenmatt, p. 119. 1 ^ Durrenmatt, "Hingeschriebenes," i n Theater-Schriften, p. 89. 10? J F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, "Nachwort," i n Der Mitmacher Z u r i c h : Arche, 1976), p. 158. In the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d "Boss", the author s t a t e s ! "Es g i b t I n t e l l e k t u e l l e mit schlechtem Ge-wissen, wie unter anderem mich, und I n t e l l e k t u e l l e ohne s c h l e c h t e s Gewissen". Durrenmatt, "Vom S i n n der Dichtung," p. 60. A l l quotes from the t e x t are from F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt, Das Unternehmen der Wega ( Z u r i c h : Arche, 1958), w i t h the page-numbers g i v e n p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y . 1 0 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY PRIMARY SOURCES Durrenmatt, F r i e d r i c h . Dramaturgisches und K r i t i s c h e s . T h e a t e r - S c h r i f t e n und Reden I I . Z u r i c h : Arche, 1972. . Grieche sucht G r i e c h i n . Z u r i c h : Arche, 1955. . Kombdien I. Z u r i c h : Arche, 1 9 5 7 . Komodien I I und Fruhe Stucke. Z u r i c h : Arche, 1963. . Komodien I I I . Z u r i c h : Arche, 1 9 7 0 , . Der Mitmacher. Z u r i c h : Arche, 1976. Der R i c h t e r und s e i n Henker. Der Verdacht. Z u r i c h : Benziger, 1 9 5 2 » . Die S t a d t . Z u r i c h : Arche, 1952. T h e a t e r - S c h r i f t e n und Reden. Ed. E l i s a b e t h B r o c k - S u l z e r . Z u r i c h : Arche, 1966. . Das Unternehmen der Wega. Z u r i c h : Arche, 1 9 5 8 . SECONDARY SOURCES A r n o l d , Armin. F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt. B e r l i n : Colloquium, 1969. Banziger, Hans. F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt. Bern: Francke, 1976. F r i s c h und Durrenmatt. Bern: Francke, i 9 6 0 . B r o c k - S u l z e r , E l i s a b e t h . Durrenmatt i n unserer Z e i t . B a s e l : Reinhardt, 1 9 6 8 . . F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt: S t a t i o n e n s e i n e s Werkes. Z u r i c h : Arche, i960. B u r i , F r i t z . "Der ' E i n f a l l ' der Gnade i n Durrenmatts drama-turgischem Werk." In Der unbequeme Durrenmatt. B a s e l : B a s i l i u s P r e s s e , 1 9 6 2 . "Cherub." In The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y , 1965. C o l l i n s , Robert. "The new t h r e a t of n u c l e a r war." Saturday Night. May 1 9 8 0 , p. 1 ? . F i c k e r t , K u r t . To Heaven and Back. L e x i n g t o n : Univ. P r e s s , 1 9 7 2 . "Humanitarian." In The Concise Oxford D i c t i o n a r y , , 1 9 6 5 . J a f f e , A n i e l a . "Symbolism i n the V i s u a l A r t s . " P a r t 4 . In Man and h i s Symbols. New York: Doubleday, 1 9 6 4 . Jenny, Urs. Durrenmatt. V e l b e r b e i Hannover: F r i e d r i c h V e r l a g , 1 9 6 5 . John I, Vers 5 - 9 . In Die B i b e l oder d i e ganze H e i l i g e S c h r i f t  des A l t e n und Neuen Testamentes. Nach der deutschen Ubersetzung M a r t i n L u t h e r s . S t u t t g a r t : Wurttembergische B i b e l a n s t a l t , 1969. Jung, C.G. Erinnerungen, Traume, Gedanken. Z u r i c h : Ex L i b r i s , I 9 6 I K i e r k e g a a r d , Soren. The L a s t Years, J o u r n a l s 1 8 5 3 - 5 5 . Ed. and t r a n s , by Ronald G. Smith. London: C o l l i n s : 1 9 6 5 . 110 Knopf, Jan. F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt. Munchen: Beck, 1976. "Nuclear E x p l o s i o n . " In McGraw-Hill E n c y c l o p e d i a , 1971. O b e r l e , Werner. " G r u n d s a t z l i c h e s zum Werk F r i e d r i c h Durren-matts." In Der unbequeme Durrenmatt. B a s e l : B a s i l i u s P r e s s e , 1962. Peppard, Murray B. F r i e d r i c h Durrenmatt. New York: Twayne, 1969. Radhakrishnan. "Humanism." In Recovery of F a i t h . London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1961. Tiusanen, Timo. Durrenmatt. P r i n c e t o n : Univ. P r e s s , 1977. W i l p e r t , Gero von. "Barock." In Sachworterbuch der L i t e r a l t u r . S t u t t g a r t : Kroner, 1969. "Makame." In Sachworterbuch der L i t e r a t u r . 1969. 

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