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The performance of nine year old Cowichan native Indian children on two tests of cognitive ability Goldstein, Charlene Ruth 1981

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THE PERFORMANCE OF NINE YEAR OLD COWICHAN NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN ON TWO TESTS OF COGNITIVE ABILITY by CHARLENE RUTH GOLDSTEIN B.Ed. ( E l e m . ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1981 c ) C h a r l e n e Ruth G o l d s t e i n , 1981 In presenting th i s thes is in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thesis for scho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis fo r f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of Educational Psychology The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 1, 1981 ABSTRACT The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the performance o f 9 ye a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on two t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . The t e s t s used were the W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n — R e v i s e d (WISC-R) and the S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (SPM). The sample i n c l u d e d 21 Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n (13 f e m a l e s , 8 m a l e s ) , aged 9-11 y e a r s , drawn from the Cowichan Band near Duncan, B.C. The c h i l d r e n were a s s e s s e d u s i n g b o t h t e s t s and t h e i r s c o r e s were a n a l y s e d u s i n g B.C. norms. The Canadian s u b s t i t u t i o n i t e m s f o r the WISC-R were c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d w i t h the Am e r i c a n i t e m s . 1. H y p o t h e s i s one s t a t e d t h a t the WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e s c o r e s o f 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r -ent from t h o s e of the B.C. norming group. The B.C. norming group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r at the p < .0001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 2. H y p o t h e s i s two s t a t e d t h a t the WISC-R Performance S c a l e s c o r e s o f 9 ye a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of the B.C. norming group. The B.C. norming group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a t p < .0001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 3. H y p o t h e s i s t h r e e s t a t e d t h a t the S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s s c o r e s of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would not be s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f the B.C. norming group. The B.C. norming group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r at the p < .0001 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s gave some su p p o r t t o the assumptions made f o r e x c l u d i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from t h e B.C. norming group. R e s e a r c h s h o u l d be done i n o r d e r t o b u i l d a d a t a base w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o the need f o r the development o f N a t i v e I n d i a n norms f o r the WISC-R and SPM. The r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e was r e v i e w e d and a r e a s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h were d e l i n e a t e d . The e d u c a t i o n a l and assessment needs o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n as p e r c e i v e d by t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s was s t r e s s e d as an a r e a of prime i m p o r t a n c e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s and o t h e r such s t u d i e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: v i i CHAPTER I PROBLEM 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 4 Background t o the Problem 6 Statement of the Problem 8 Hypotheses 10 I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11 V a l i d i t y S t u d i e s of V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s f o r Use w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n 11 The Use of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s t o Determine I n t e l l e c t u a l P o t e n t i a l o f N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n .... 19 The Use of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s t o E x p l o r e the C o g n i t i v e Performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n 21 Summary 23 I I I METHODOLOGY 26 C o m p o s i t i o n of the Sample 26 Ch o i c e of T e s t s 31 P r o c e d u r e s 34 P r e s e n t a t i o n of T e s t s 35 Test A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 37 S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s 37 IV ANALYSIS OF DATA 39 E r r o r Rate 39 I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y 40 D i s c u s s i o n of Means 41 D i s c u s s i o n of V a r i a n c e 42 D i s c u s s i o n o f Hypotheses 43 D i s c u s s i o n of the Problem 43 i v V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION 44 Summary of R e s u l t s 44 Area s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 47 C o n c l u s i o n 49 REFERENCE NOTES 51 REFERENCES 52 APPENDIX A 56 APPENDIX B 57 v LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f T o t a l Sample 27 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f 9 Year O l d Sample 27 3': Random Sequence P r e s e n t a t i o n 36 4 E r r o r Rate 40 5 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n and Non-Native I n d i a n Samples w i t h t T e s t s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e 41 6 C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l s f o r x.-x and T e s t f o r 2 H e t e r o g e n e i t y of V a r i a n c e u s i n g H o t e l l i n g T 42 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o thank: - The 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h e i r p a r e n t s , and the Cowichan Band C o u n c i l f o r t h e i r c o n s e n t and h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . ' - Andy S e l d e r , S u p e r v i s o r o f S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n ( S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 65, Cowichan) and Agnes P i e r r e , N a t i v e I n d i a n Home/School Worker f o r e x p l a i n -i n g t h e p r o j e c t , o b t a i n i n g c o n s e n t , and f o r a n s w e r i n g many q u e s t i o n s ; the p r i n c i p a l s and s t a f f of K o k s i l a , A l e x a n d e r , and Queen of A n g e l s s c h o o l s . - My t h e s i s committee, Dr. 0. A. ( B u f f ) O l d r i d g e and Dr. A r t More, f o r t h e i r g u i d a n c e and p e r s e v e r a n c e ; Dr. Robert Conry f o r s o r t i n g out my s t a t i s t i c a l maze. - Barb Holmes f o r h e r d a t a and s u p p o r t ; Cathy Wengrynuik and Nancy P a r k e r — my f r i e n d s , c l a s s m a t e s , and f e l l o w d a t a c o l l e c t o r s . - Mrs. N i n a T h u r s t o n f o r t y p i n g t h i s t h e s i s . Thanks of a more p e r s o n a l n o te t o : - My husband A l e x Zbar, my mother B e l l a G o l d s t e i n , my f r i e n d and c o -t h e r a p i s t Debbie Rozenberg, f o r t h e i r l o v e , f o r never a l l o w i n g me t o g i v e up, and f o r s h a r i n g the l a u g h t e r and the f r u s t r a t i o n . - My f a t h e r Max G o l d s t e i n , my s i s t e r R o c h e l l e Hammer, her husband H a r r y , and t h e i r sons (my nephews) Mark and K e v i n , my b r o t h e r G e r r y G o l d s t e i n and h i s w i f e G a i l , f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t , t h e i r j o k e s and comments, and t h e i r l o v e . To a l l o f the above, thank y o u — I owe you more tha n i s t a n g i b l e . v i i CHAPTER I PROBLEM I n t r o d u c t i o n When you s t a r t s m e a suring somebody, measure him r i g h t , c h i l d , : measure him r i g h t . Make sure you done t a k e n i n t o account what h i l l s and v a l l e y s he came t h r o u g h b e f o r e he got t o wherever he i s . (Lena Younger admonishing her daughter i n L. H a n s b e r r y ' s R a i s i n i n t h e Sun, p. 102, M e r c e r , 1979, p. 14) The UBCIC U n i o n o f B.C. I n d i a n C h i e f s p o i n t s t o a 90 p e r c e n t dropout r a t e f o r I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n Grade 12 i n B.C. and c l a i m s t h a t the w h i t e e d u c a t i o n system i s not s u i t e d f o r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , who l o s e t h e i r c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y i n t h e p r e s e n t s c h o o l system. (Vancouver Sun, Ja n u a r y 24, 1980) S i n c e t h e l a t e 1960's, l i t i g a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c o n c e r n i n g the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n has had a s i g -n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h a t c o u n t r y . The L a r r y P. case ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a ) w h i c h c e n t e r e d about t h e use o f i n t e l -l i g e n c e t e s t s t o i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e L a r r y P., a b l a c k s t u d e n t , i n t o a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s caused the s t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a t o p l a c e a mora-t o r i u m upon the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n . The C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Board o f E d u c a t i o n must now s e c u r e c o u r t a p p r o v a l b e f o r e u s i n g any s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t o i d e n t i f y b l a c k c h i l d r e n f o r placement i n EMR ( E d u c a b l e M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d ) c l a s s e s ( B e r s o f f , 1980). The c o n t r o v e r s y over the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n i s s p r e a d i n g t o Canada. The N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n Canada a r e conc e r n e d about the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The 1 2 p o l i c y paper on N a t i v e " I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d (1972) s u p p o r t e d , " E l i m i n a t i n g the use of IQ and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s f o r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . I t has been shown t h a t t h e s e t e s t s do not t r u l y r e f l e c t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e of c h i l d r e n b e l o n g i n g t o m i n o r i t y , e t h n i c or o t h e r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s " (p. 10). N a t i v e I n d i a n s are a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e p e o p l e . There are many l i n g u i s t i c s u b d i v i s i o n s amongst the 568 N a t i v e I n d i a n bands i n Canada (Canada Year Book, 1978-79, p. 161). There a r e over 26 d i s t i n c t N a t i v e languages spoken i n B.C. a l o n e ( D u f f , 1967, p. 1 8 ) . N a t i v e I n d i a n s are a m i n o r i t y group i n Canada. The 1971 census f i g u r e s show a t o t a l of 295,215 ( s t a t u s ) N a t i v e I n d i a n s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e 1.4% of Canada's t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n (Canada Year Book, 1978-79, p. 140). The N a t i v e b i r t h r a t e i s one of the h i g h e s t i n Canada ( o v e r 40/1000) and p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t o n e - h a l f of the N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a -t i o n i s 15 y e a r s of age o r younger ( F r i d e r e s , 1978, p. 29) i n c o n t r a s t t o l e s s t h a n 29% of the p o p u l a t i o n of p e o p l e s of B r i t i s h d escent i n Canada who are i n the same age group. There are 34,400 ( s t a t u s and n o n - s t a t u s ) N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (More, 1978). Thus, i t i s c l e a r t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n s r e p r e s e n t a c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s e m i n o r i t y group w i t h many c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n the Canadian e d u c a t i o n a l system, and i t f o l l o w s t h a t the c o n c e r n s over the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h m i n o r i t y c h i l d r e n must be c o n s i d e r e d when w o r k i n g w i t h N a t i v e c h i l d r e n . I n the r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s have been used i n a number of ways w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The t e s t s have been used i n v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , and t o d e t e r m i n e the i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l and c o g n i t i v e performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . 3 The d a t a w h i c h emerged from the s t u d i e s were sometimes used t o c l a s s i f y N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n t o l e a r n i n g c a t e g o r i e s such as slow l e a r n e r s . Two r e s e a r c h a r e a s of g r e a t c o n c e r n a r e the p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y o f such t e s t s and the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g t e s t s normed on one c u l t u r e f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s t u d e n t s from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . W h i l e w o r k i n g as a s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t i n P r i n c e R u p e r t , t h i s a u t h o r e n c o u n t e r e d a number of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , and would o f t e n hear from v a r i o u s e d u c a t o r s and p s y c h o l o g i s t s t h a t , "Everyone knows t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n don't do w e l l on i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e t e s t s i n v o l v i n g t h e use of v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . " T h i s g l o b a l "everyone knows" statement m o t i v a t e d a s e a r c h f o r an e m p i r i c a l base i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o e i t h e r s u p p o r t o r deny the s t a t e m e n t . A f t e r s u r v e y i n g the l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e appeared t o be l i t t l e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t and i n s u f f i c i e n t r e s e a r c h f o r i s s u i n g any a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s about the performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l -i t y . As w e l l , t h e r e appeared t o be no r e s e a r c h i n t h e a n a l y s i s of t h e p erformance of such c h i l d r e n u s i n g B.C. norms. T h e r e f o r e , the a u t h o r sought t o examine the performance of a group of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and t h e n t o a n a l y s e the p e rformances u s i n g B.C. norms. The t e s t s s e l e c t e d were the WISC-R (W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n — R e v i s e d ) , a w i d e l y used i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t and the SPM ( S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ) p r e p a r e d by J . C. Raven, a w i d e l y r e s e a r c h e d and used " c u l t u r e - f a i r " i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . The d e c i s i o n t o use the WISC-R and t h e SPM i s d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r s 3 and 4 of t h i s t h e s i s . These two t e s t s a r e w e l l known and are employed i n the B.C. s c h o o l s system, and some N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n 4 have been and w i l l be a s s e s s e d u s i n g t h e s e t e s t s . There a re thos e who argue t h a t a l l t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y a r e b i a s e d a g a i n s t m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d not be used. However, t o d i s c o n t i n u e the use of t e s t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t g a t h e r i n g and e x a m i n i n g r e a l d a t a may s e r v e t o deny t h e s e c h i l d r e n the b e n e f i t s of a v a l u a b l e assessment t o o l . I n s p i t e of many problems c o n c e r n i n g c o g n i t i v e t e s t i n g f o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , some form o f s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g does have an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r the non-white s t u d e n t i n the s c h o o l system. S c o r e s on c o g n i t i v e t e s t s s t a n d a r d i z e d on a m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e seem t o be an a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t o r o f academic s u c c e s s w i t h i n the educa-t i o n a l sphere o f the m a j o r i t y language and c u l t u r e . They may t h e n be a good i n d e x of f u t u r e academic s u c c e s s w i t h i n the m a j o r i t y c u l -t u r e . I n no way, however, may such t e s t s be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d e x o f c a p a c i t y o r i n t e l l i g e n c e of a m i n o r i t y group c h i l d . ( S i l v e r t h o r n e , 1977) D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The terms d e f i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n appear t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s and some c l a r i f i c a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . Each of the terms i s at the eye of t h e i r own s e m a n t i c storm, b u t , th e y s h a l l be d e f i n e d w i t h i n a p s y c h o m e t r i c frame-work . C o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . " C o g n i t i v e " has many d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h a re v a l i d but c o g n i t i v e w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s s h a l l r e f e r t o "A g e n e r a l term c o v e r i n g a l l v a r i o u s modes of k n o w i n g — p e r c e i v i n g , remembering, i m a g i n i n g , c o n c e i v -i n g , j u d g i n g , r e a s o n i n g " ( D r e v e r , 1978, p. 4 2 ) . An a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of a b i l i t y i s g i v e n by Gagne and F l e i s h m a n (1959) ( i n McMahon, 1974, p. 121). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n s t a t e s t h a t an a b i l i t y i s a g e n e r a l t r a i t of an i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e l i m i t of p e r f o r -mance he a t t a i n s on many d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . C u l t u r e - b o u n d t e s t s . C u l t u r e - b o u n d t e s t s a r e t h o s e t e s t s w h i c h sample and measure a b i l i t i e s and l e a r n i n g t h a t i s v a l u e d by one c u l t u r e , 5 u s u a l l y t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e . D i f f e r e n t i a l e xposure t o t h e m a j o r i t y c u l -t u r e i s u s u a l l y the o v e r r i d i n g r e a s o n f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e s t s c o r e s be-tween t h o s e o f the m a j o r i t y and t h o s e of t h e m i n o r i t y c u l t u r e . What can be a s c e r t a i n e d by such an approach i s the c u l t u r a l d i s t a n c e between g r o u p s , as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n and h i s r e a d i n e s s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e c u l t u r e s p e c i f i c . ( A n a s t a s i , 1976, p. 296) C u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t s . C u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t s a r e t h o s e t e s t s t h a t p r e -suppose o n l y e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e common t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s . There have been s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s at the development of " c u l t u r e - f r e e " t e s t s , however, t h e s e a t t e m p t s have f a i l e d because l e a r n i n g t a k e s p l a c e i n a s o c i o c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . The development of c u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t s has i n c l u d e d the use of ques-t i o n s w h i c h a re e q u a l l y " f a m i l i a r " t o a l l o r by u s i n g e q u a l number of ite m s from each of the c u l t u r e t r a d i t i o n s of the pe r s o n s or by t r a n s l a t i n g e x i s t -i n g t e s t s . F o r the most p a r t , t h e s e a t t e m p t s have a l s o f a i l e d s i n c e "No s i n g l e t e s t can be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e o r e q u a l l y ' f a i r ' t o a l l c u l -t u r e s . There a re as many v a r i e t i e s o f c u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t s as t h e r e a r e para m e t e r s i n wh i c h c u l t u r e s d i f f e r " ( A n a s t a s i , 1976, p. 3 4 5 ) . There have even been a t t e m p t s a t " c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c " t e s t s such as W i l l i a m ' s BITCH-100 w h i c h s u p p o s e d l y measures the i n t e l l i g e n c e of b l a c k c h i l d r e n by u s i n g items w h i c h would be f a m i l i a r t o g h e t t o c h i l d r e n . How-e v e r , t h e s e t e s t s do not p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on the c h i l d ' s l e v e l o f f u n c -t i o n i n g i n the c o r e c u l t u r e ( w h i t e , m i d d l e c l a s s ) i n w h i c h the c h i l d must l e a r n t o s u r v i v e . B i a s i n t e s t i n g . S i n c e t h e L a r r y P. t r i a l ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a ) i n t he U n i t e d S t a t e s , the concept of b i a s i n t e s t s has r e p l a c e d d i s c u s -6 s i o n s of " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t s . "The term ' b i a s ' i s employed i n i t s w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d s t a t i s t i c a l s ense, t o d e s i g n a t e c o n s t a n t or s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r as opposed t o chance e r r o r " ( A n a s t a s i , 1976, p. 192). There a r e many d e f i n i t i o n s of t e s t b i a s i n the l i t e r a t u r e and R e s c h l y ( i n p r e s s - a ) has r e v i e w e d s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s t h a t were c o n c e r n e d w i t h the concept and d e f i n i t i o n s of t e s t b i a s . R e s c h l y has n o t e d t h a t the o v e r -r i d i n g i s s u e i n t e s t b i a s i s the outcomes of t e s t use f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . The d e f i n i t i o n of t e s t b i a s w h i c h t h i s a u t h o r has found most approp-r i a t e s i n c e i t s t r e s s e s b o t h u s e f u l n e s s and f a i r n e s s i s R e s c h l y ' s d e f i n i -t i o n . Assessment, w h i c h does not r e s u l t i n e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as u s e l e s s and b i a s e d o r u n f a i r as w e l l i f e t h n i c or r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s are d i f f e r e n t i a l l y exposed t o i n e f f e c t i v e programs as a r e s u l t of assessment a c t i v i t i e s . ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a , p. 4) Background t o the Problem There were two main c o n c e r n s w h i c h gave r i s e t o the problem w h i c h w i l l be posed and r e s e a r c h e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . One c o n c e r n r e s u l t e d from the r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e and the o t h e r as a r e s u l t of a new r e s e a r c h s t u d y . Concern one. A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been done i n the a r e a of t h e performance of B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . Four s t u d i e s , Gaddes et a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) , F r a s e r ( 1 9 6 9 ) , Bowd ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and S e y f o r t e t a l . (1980) have examined the c o g n i t i v e performance of B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from a number of t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s . Some a r e a s of p s y c h o m e t r i c r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g B.C. N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s t i l l needs t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . The performance of N a t i v e 7 I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on a c o m b i n a t i o n of an " i n t e l l i g e n c e " t e s t and a " c u l t u r e -f a i r " t e s t has not y e t been c o n s i d e r e d by the r e s e a r c h . Some c h i l d r e n i n t he B. C. s c h o o l s system w i l l be a s s e s s e d by the use of " i n t e l l i g e n c e " and " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t s . T h e r e f o r e , e d u c a t o r s would b e n e f i t from h a v i n g e m p i r i c a l d a t a on the performance o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on such t e s t s . Concern two. Holmes (1981) normed f i v e i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s , i n c l u d i n g t he WTSC-R and the SPM on s c h o o l c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m bia. However, Holmes e x c l u d e d N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from her sample. To s u p p o r t the e x c l u s i o n , Holmes c i t e d r e s e a r c h t h a t has been done i n v o l v i n g the performance of B l a c k Americans on the WISC-R. Kaufman and Doppelt (1976) a n a l y s e d the WISC-R s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n d a t a i n terms o f s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n v a r i a b l e s (age, sex, r a c e , g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n , p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n , and t y p e of r e s i d e n c e ) . Kaufman and Doppelt found t h a t the average IQs of w h i t e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e o f b l a c k s . N a t i v e I n d i a n s i n Canada e x p e r i e n c e some of the same s o c i a l and economic d i f f i c u l t i e s as do the b l a c k s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Both groups a r e a d i s t i n c t m i n o r i t y and have been p r o h i b i t e d from e x i s t i n g i n the main-stream o f s o c i e t y at v a r i o u s t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r h i s t o r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , Holmes c o n c l u d e d t h a t the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n might e x h i b i t a p o i n t d i f f e r e n c e on the WISC-R s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f b l a c k c h i l d r e n w h i c h would l e a d t o o v e r p r e d i c t i o n and o t h e r c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e s . A d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r e x c l u d i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from the B.C. norming d a t a because of p o s s i b l e o v e r p r e d i c t i o n i s found i n a s t u d y i n v o l v i n g N a t i v e A merican Papago. R e s c h l y and Sabers (1979) a n a l y s e d t e s t b i a s i n f o u r groups ( A n g l o , B l a c k , C h i c a n o , and N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Papago) u s i n g a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The WISC-R F u l l S c a l e IQ s c o r e and two MAT ( M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t ) s c o r e s ( r e a d i n g and math) 8 were used as the p r e d i c t o r and c r i t e r i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e s c h l y and Sabers found t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e r c e p t s "were the p r i m a r y s o u r c e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s examined" (p. 5 ) . When a common r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was used, the a c t u a l achievement of A n g l o s was under-p r e d i c t e d and the a c t u a l achievement of N a t i v e A merican Papago was o v e r -p r e d i c t e d . S i n c e Holmes, because of e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , had e x c l u d e d N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from h e r s t u d y , i t seemed a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n t o g a t h e r more e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e i n Canada i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t or p o s s i b l y q u e s t i o n the e x c l u s i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n s . Though i t i s w e l l beyond the l i m i t s of t h i s t h e s i s t o r e p e a t Holmes' stu d y w i t h an e q u a l number (340) of N a t i v e I n d i a n s , t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d s e r v e t o p r o v i d e more e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . Such d a t a might n e c e s s i t a t e the need f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n s norms f o r some i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s or t o q u e s t i o n the f u t u r e u s e f u l n e s s of such t e s t s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . Statement of the Problem The problem w h i c h s e r v e d as t h e impetus f o r t h i s t h e s i s a r o s e from the two c o n c e r n s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Though some s t u d i e s have used the WISC-R or the SPM w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , no s t u d i e s comparing the performance of such c h i l d r e n on a c o m b i n a t i o n of the WISC-R and SPM a r e documented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . No s t u d i e s have compared the performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on t h e WISC-R and SPM u s i n g B.C. norms. The o n l y B.C. norming s t u d y (Holmes, 1981) e x c l u d e d N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n based on e m p i r i c a l d a t a from the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h e r e f o r e , the p r o b l e m of i n t e r e s t became t o t e s t the 9 p s y c h o m e t r i c a s s u m p t i o n made by Holmes (1981) i n an e m p i r i c a l way u s i n g B.C. norms t o e i t h e r s u p p o r t o r negate the e x c l u s i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from the B.C. norming group. I f Holmes' a s s u m p t i o n p r o v e s t o be c o r r e c t , t h e n f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s i n d i c a t e d i n o r d e r t o account f o r such t e s t v a r i a n c e between N a t i v e I n d i a n and n o n - N a t i v e s c o r e s . A l s o , d a t a w i l l have t o be g a t h e r e d on the performance o f c h i l d r e n o f many ages and many N a t i v e I n d i a n bands t o a s c e r t a i n as t o whether the t e s t v a r i a n c e phenomena c a r r i e s over t o o t h e r bands or whether i t was a unique o c c u r r e n c e w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y o n l y . The n a r r o w i n g o f the problem a r e a encompassed t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : 1. What band of N a t i v e I n d i a n s s h a l l be used f o r the st u d y ? 2. What w i l l be the age of i n t e r e s t ? 3. What two t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y w i l l be used i n o r d e r t o measure performance? The answer t o the t h r e e q u e s t i o n s were: (a) Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , (b) 9 y e a r o l d s , and ( c ) the WISC-R (We c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n — R e v i s e d ) and the SPM ( S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ) . The rea s o n s f o r the c h o i c e of band, age, and t e s t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chap t e r Three of t h i s t h e s i s . Thus, the r e s e a r c h problem f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s t o det e r m i n e i f t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the mean performance between 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n and t h e i r age mates i n the B.C. norming group on the WISC-R and SPM. A c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s p r o b l e m i s t o d e t e r m i n e whether the two p o p u l a t i o n s (B. C. norming group and Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n group) a r e two s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . 10 Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s emerged from the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , t h e co n c e r n s and statement o f t h e problem d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s and the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s . H y p o t h e s i s 1. The WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e s c o r e s of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i l l not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f the B.C. norming group. H y p o t h e s i s 2. The WISC-R Performance S c a l e s c o r e s o f 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i l l not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e o f the B. C. norming group. H y p o t h e s i s 3. The S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s s c o r e s o f 9'year o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i l l not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of the B.C. norming group. The p < .0.1 was a c c e p t e d as the p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l beyond w h i c h the hyp o t h e s e s would be r e j e c t e d . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The r e v i e w of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e on the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n Canada i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s : (a) v a l i d i t y s t u d i e s of v a r i o u s i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s f o r use w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , (b) the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e i n t e l l e c -t u a l p o t e n t i a l , ( c ) t h e use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s t o e x p l o r e t h e c o g n i t i v e p erformance of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . V a l i d i t y S t u d i e s o f V a r i o u s I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s f o r Use w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n R u s s e l l M a c A r t h u r produced 10 r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n the a r e a of the use o f " c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d " t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h N a t i v e Eskimo, I n d i a n , and M e t i s c h i l d r e n i n Canada's n o r t h . The s t u d i e s , w h i c h date from 1972 t o 1973, a r e not a l l mentioned i n t h i s c h a p t e r as some a r e s o l e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h Eskimo c h i l d r e n . The f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s i s N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . M a c A r t h u r ' s p r e l i m i n a r y work w i t h " c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d " t e s t s began i n 1962 w i t h a s t u d y i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h W. B. E l l e y , t o a s s e s s the p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s as a c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t of g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . The a b i l i t i e s sampled by the M a t r i c e s were ques-t i o n e d by M a c A r t h u r , as he d e s i r e d a t e s t w h i c h sampled a br o a d a s p e c t of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e common t o a wide v a r i e t y of m e n t a l a b i l i t i e s . M a c A r t h u r a l s o e x p l o r e d the r e l i a b i l i t y and u s a b i l i t y of the M a t r i c e s and l o o k e d f o r an i n d i c a t i o n o f some p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e M a t r i c e s 11 12 and s c h o o l s u c c e s s . E l l e y and M a c A r t h u r (1962) sought t o d e t e r m i n e whether the M a t r i c e s had a minimum of c u l t u r a l l o a d i n g , i . e . , t h a t s u c c e s s on the M a t r i c e s d i d not depend upon s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . U s i n g a random sample of 432 grade 7 Edmonton s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , E l l e y and M a c A r t h u r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e M a t r i c e s a l o n g w i t h o t h e r c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t s such as the I P A T - C a t t e l l T e s t of "g", and the L o r g e - T h o r n d i k e Non-V e r b a l I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e e k i n g d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n and SES was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n s d e r i v e d from f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , E l l e y and M a c A r t h u r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the M a t r i c e s b e s t met s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a w h i c h t h e y had e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t of g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y . The M a t r i c e s were r e l i a b l e , had good p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y , were e a s i l y a d m i n i s t e r e d and had a h i g h l o a d i n g (.78) on a g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y f a c t o r , not u n l i k e Spearman's "g". E l l e y and M a c A r t h u r recommended t h a t the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s c o u l d be used as a t e s t of i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l w i t h a v a r i e t y of f i n a n c i a l l y p o o r , f o r e i g n , o r N a t i v e s t u d e n t s , who, because of below average s k i l l s , c o u l d not demonstrate t h e i r p o t e n t i a l on c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e . Though M a c A r t h u r ' s use of f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was a p p r o p r i a t e , h i s own r e s e a r c h on the M a t r i c e s as a t e s t of "g" was b i a s e d . M a c A r t h u r o n l y r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s w h i c h s u p p o r t e d h i s use of the M a t r i c e s as a t e s t of "g" and as a c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . B u r k e , i n h i s 1958 e v a l u a -t i o n of the M a t r i c e s , p r e s e n t e d a number of s t u d i e s w h i c h were not i n agreement w i t h the s t u d i e s t h a t M a c A r t h u r used t o s u p p o r t h i s own p o s i t i o n . However, MacArt h u r f e l t t h e r e was enough r e s e a r c h i n f a v o u r of the M a t r i c e s 13 t o make i t d e f e n s i b l e t o use i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I n 1964 West and M a c A r t h u r used the same t e s t s as i n the 1962 E l l e y and M a c A r t h u r s t u d y , w i t h the a d d i t i o n of the S a f r a n C u l t u r e - R e d u c e d I n t e l -l i g e n c e T e s t . They a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t s t o 126 M e t i s c h i l d r e n , g rades 1-8 i n the town of F a u s t , A l b e r t a , and 155 M e t i s and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n g rades 1-9 i n F o r t Simpson, N.W.T. The samples encompassed t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n of the s c h o o l s i n b o t h a r e a s , and were not random. West and M a c A r t h u r were s e e k i n g t o d i s c o v e r w h i c h t e s t s were the b e s t measures of p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l , w h i c h t h e y d e f i n e d as "an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e s e n t c a p a c i t y f o r f u t u r e development of i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r " (p. 18). The t e s t s w h i c h were good measures of p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l were e x p e c t e d t o e x h i b i t a minimum of c u l t u r a l b i a s i n t h a t t h e y would show l e s s d i f f e r e n c e between c u l t u r e s t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b a l t e s t s , c o u l d be s o l v e d i n any language or mode of e x p r e s s i o n , had a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s c h o o l achievement, and had good c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y w i t h o t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s . A f t e r u s i n g t - t e s t s and c o r r e l a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s , West and M a c A r t h u r recommended t h a t t h e P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s be used a t a l l grade l e v e l s as i t was the l e a s t b i a s e d measure of i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l . On the s u r f a c e M a c A r t h u r ' s f i n d i n g s appear t o be v a l i d , but e m p i r i c -a l l y h i s f i n d i n g s can be d i s p u t e d . I n West and M a c A r t h u r ' s 1964 s t u d y , t h e M a t r i c e s showed s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s as l a r g e as 20.9 a t some grade l e v e l s , as w e l l as showing h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h M e t i s c h i l d r e n and not w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . A l l t e s t s were not a d m i n i s t e r e d at a l l grade l e v e l s and the w h i t e sample t o w h i c h the M e t i s and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were compared was not d e s c r i b e d . M a c A r t h u r ' s method of r e p o r t i n g was s u s p e c t i n a l l o f h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . Samples were i n a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e d , the r e p o r t s were p o o r l y 14 o r g a n i z e d , and t a b l e s were i n t r o d u c e d w i t h o u t any m e n t i o n o f t h e i r d a t a base. M a c A r t h u r ' s g r e a t e s t weakness i n h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t he always r e f e r r e d t o h i s own p r e v i o u s work and h i s own p r e v i o u s d a t a t o g i v e v a l i d -i t y t o p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . However, w i t h the p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n t h e use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n Canada, i t may be c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t M a c A r t h u r had v e r y few r e s e a r c h e r s o t h e r t h a n h i m s e l f f o r d a t a c o m p a r i s o n . The o n l y v a l i d i t y s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t he uses o f the t o t a l WISC w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n was done by S t . John, K r i c h e v , and Bauman i n 1976. Other s t u d i e s w i t h the WISC had been done p r i o r t o 1976, but t h e s e s t u d i e s i n v o l v e d o n l y some of the WISC s u b t e s t s and not the t o t a l t e s t . S t . John et a l . w i s h e d t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s of l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y and t h e number of y e a r s o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n on the WISC performance of I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . A l l t h r e e a u t h o r s had s u b j e c t i v e l y n o t e d t h a t the average N a t i v e c h i l d o b t a i n e d WISC r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g d u l l - n o r m a l i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h average p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r and poor v e r b a l s k i l l s . The purpose of the s t u d y was a l s o t o c o r r e l a t e WISC r e s u l t s w i t h academic performance and c o n s t r u c t a t a b l e e q u a t i n g s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the n o r m a t i v e sample. One hundred O j i b i w a and Cree I n d i a n c h i l d r e n (33 6-7 y e a r o l d s , 31 9-10 y e a r o l d s , and 36 14-15 y e a r o l d s ) , i n N o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o were i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d the WISC. The s u b j e c t s e a r n e d h i g h e r mean performance IQs a t a l l age l e v e l s . The means of the v e r b a l s c a l e sub-t e s t s were from one t o more t h a n f i v e p o i n t s below the means o f t h e n o r m a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . However, the means of the performance s c a l e s u b t e s t s were f o r the most p a r t not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the p u b l i s h e d norms. An a n a l y s i s of the v a r i a n c e was pe r f o r m e d w i t h t h e b e t w e e n - s u b j e c t s 15 v a r i a b l e b e i n g t h e f i v e age groups and t h e w i t h i n - s u b j e c t v a r i a b l e b e i n g the v e r b a l and performance IQs. The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e seemed t o i n d i -c a t e t h a t the o l d e r the c h i l d , the h i g h e r h i s WISC s c o r e . C h i l d r e n who were b i l i n g u a l o r had spoken E n g l i s h at home r e c e i v e d h i g h e r v e r b a l IQ s c o r e s t h a n the c h i l d r e n who spoke o n l y I n d i a n . Language background had no e f f e c t at any age l e v e l on performance IQs. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between WISC s c o r e s and e n d - o f - y e a r s c h o o l marks i n academic s u b j e c t s p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 9-10 y e a r o l d l e v e l o n l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between WISC s c o r e s and e n d - o f - y e a r s c h o o l marks p r o v e d t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t . A t a b l e l i s t i n g c o m p a r a t i v e IQ norms between the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -dren and W e c h s l e r ' s 1949 n o r m a t i v e sample was g i v e n but c a u t i o n about i t s use was n o t e d . S t . John e t a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g I n d i a n WISC r e s u l t s , a l l t h r e e s c o r e s must be used s e p a r a t e l y because o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between the v e r b a l and performance IQs. S e y f o r t , Spreen, and Lahmer (1980) i n the o n l y s t u d y of i t s k i n d r e p o r t e d i n Canada, examined the u s e f u l n e s s of the WISC-R i n the a s s e s s -ment of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . S e y f o r t et a l . examined the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power and the o r d e r of d i f f i c u l t y o f i n d i v i d u a l items on the WISC-R. The a u t h o r s f e l t t h a t i t was i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r i t e m r e s p o n s e s , s i n c e many p s y c h o l o g i s t s make c l i n i c a l i n f e r e n c e s based on p a r t i c u l a r i t e m r e s p o n s e s as w e l l as on t o t a l t e s t and s u b t e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . One hundred and s e v e n t y - s e v e n N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n (93 boys and 84 g i r l s ) r a n g i n g i n age from 6 t o 13 y e a r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e s e p a r a t e bands on N o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d were a d m i n i s t e r e d the WISC-R. 16 An age x group (Band) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d out on f u l l s c a l e s c o r e s t o examine the e f f e c t o f t h e s e two f a c t o r s . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were demonstrated f o r b o t h age (F [6,151] = 3.42, p < .001) and group (F [2,151] = 3.86, p < .001). The age x group i n t e r a c t i o n was found t o be not s i g n i f i c a n t . The group e f f e c t may have r e p r e s e n t e d s i g -n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the t h r e e N a t i v e bands, however t h e s i z e of one band was s m a l l (N = 14) i n c o n t r a s t t o the o t h e r two bands (N = 95 and N = 68, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Due t o t h e s m a l l s i z e of one band, S e y f o r t et a l . chose not t o examine the group e f f e c t because o f i n e q u a l i t i e s between the s i z e s o f the t h r e e bands and t h e r e f o r e c o l l a p s e d a l l t h r e e bands i n t o one l a r g e sample. Of the 167 s u b t e s t items t e s t e d , 157 were answered by at l e a s t one s u b j e c t . Only 25% of the ite m s were i n an a c c e p t a b l e d i f f i c u l t y range of .30 t o .70. S i x t y - e i g h t of the 157 ite m s were i n the extreme d e c i l e s , i . e . , upper and lower t e n p e r c e n t i l e s (50 of 104 v e r b a l items and 18 of 53 performance i t e m s ) and d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the t o t a l t e s t v a r i a n c e . S u b t e s t i t e m placement was a l s o l i s t e d . The a u t h o r s f e l t t h a t many of the s u b t e s t i t e m s were m i s p l a c e d i n o r d e r of d i f f i c u l t y r e l a t i v e t o the WISC-R f o r m a t . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t many of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n t h i s s t u d y found t o be easy some ite m s w h i c h the WISC-R norming group found t o be d i f f i c u l t ; t he o p p o s i t e was a l s o t r u e . S e y f o r t et a l . found t h a t t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n as a group d i s -p l a y e d average p e r c e p t u a l motor s k i l l s and poor v e r b a l s k i l l s . Reasons were g i v e n as t o why such a l a r g e number of WISC-R items d i d not c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the t o t a l t e s t v a r i a n c e . The r e a s o n s i n c l u d e d a t t e n u a -t i o n of age range, use of American c o n t e n t i t e m s , and a v a r i e t y of c u l t u r a l !7 d i f f e r e n c e s . C l i n i c i a n s were urged by S e y f o r t et a l . t o i n t e r p r e t WISC-R f i n d i n g s w i t h extreme c a u t i o n and t o a v o i d u s i n g i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s as an assessment t o o l . The st u d y a l s o " p o i n t e d out the dangers i n h e r e n t i n emp l o y i n g the WISC-R and u s i n g the norms d e v e l o p e d on a l a r g e number of pe r s o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n " ( S e y f o r t et a l . , 1980, p. 2 3 ) . S t . John et a l . and the S e y f o r t et a l . s t u d i e s appeared t o be two s t u d i e s w h i c h gave e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o t h e "everyone knows" statement d e s c r i b e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s . I n 1952, L o l . i t a W i l s o n , i n a m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , compared the P r o g r e s -s i v e M a t r i c e s and the Performance S c a l e o f the WISC f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . W i l s o n used one group of 30 h o s p i t a l i z e d N a t i v e c h i l d r e n , one group o f 30 h o s p i t a l i z e d w h i t e c h i l d r e n who a p p r o x i m a t e d the I n d i a n group i n SES ( s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ) and i l l n e s s , and one group o f w h i t e s from " i n t e l l e c t u a l l y p r i v i l e g e d " homes. A l l t h r e e groups were l o c a t e d i n the Edmonton a r e a . W i l s o n had assumed t h a t the M a t r i c e s would show l e s s d i f -f e r e n c e between N a t i v e and w h i t e c h i l d r e n t h a n the WISC Performance IQ because the M a t r i c e s were e s s e n t i a l l y a n o n - v e r b a l t e s t and l e s s dependent upon r e c a l l of p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l . However, W i l s o n ' s h y p o t h e s i s was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d by e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e . The d i f f e r e n c e between the w h i t e p r i v i l e g e d and h o s p i t a l i z e d N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n was l e s s on the WISC Performance IQ t h a n on the M a t r i c e s . S i m i l a r l y , the s c o r e s o f the h o s p i t a l i z e d w h i t e c h i l d r e n and the h o s p i t a l -i z e d N a t i v e c h i l d r e n d i f f e r e d l e s s on t h e WISC Performance IQ t h a n on the M a t r i c e s . W i l s o n thus c o n c l u d e d t h a t t he performance s c a l e of t h e WISC 18 was p r e f e r r e d over the M a t r i c e s as a b a s i s of c o m p a r i s o n of the g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e o f the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n her s t u d y , w i t h the w h i t e c h i l d r e n of a s i m i l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . W i l t s h i r e and Gray i n a 1969 s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t h e M a t r i c e s and t h e Draw-A-Man t e s t p r o v i d e d d a t a w h i c h c a s t doubts on M a c A r t h u r ' s use of the M a t r i c e s as a " c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d " measure of i n t e l l i g e n c e . E i g h t y - s i x Canadian Cree Reserve I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , aged 7-15 y e a r s , from n o r t h e r n Saskatchewan were a d m i n i s t e r e d the Harris-Goodenough Draw-A-Man t e s t and t h e P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( 1 9 3 8 ) . I n the r e s u l t s o f the Draw-A-Man t e s t , t h e r e s e r v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were e q u a l t o or b e t t e r t h a n the s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample. The I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s c o r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15-20 p o i n t s below the average of the norma-t i v e sample on the M a t r i c e s . The M a t r i c e s and the Draw-A-Man were s i g n i f -i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d and b o t h seemed t o be m e a s u r i n g some common f a c t o r . O l d e r c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower (p < 0.001) M a t r i c e s IQs but not lower Draw-A-Man IQs tha n d i d the younger c h i l d r e n . W i l t s h i r e and Gray n o t e d t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower IQs of t h e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on the M a t r i c e s c a s t some doubt on the use of the M a t r i c e s as a c u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t . I f t h e M a t r i c e s were a c u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t , t h e N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have been c l o s e r t o the p u b l i s h e d norms than was i n e v i d e n c e . As a r e s u l t , W i l t s h i r e and Gray i s s u e d a c a u t i o n a g a i n s t t h e use of the p u b l i s h e d norms when s c o r i n g the M a t r i c e s t h a t have been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . 19 The Use of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s t o Determine I n t e l l e c t u a l  P o t e n t i a l of N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n M a c A r t h u r , i n a 1968 s t u d y , summarized h i s s t u d i e s on a s s e s s i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t u d e n t s . He r e v i e w e d h i s s e a r c h f o r a t e s t w h i c h would sample a br o a d f a c t o r of g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l -i t y as w e l l as meet h i s c r i t e r i a f o r a t e s t w i t h minimum c u l t u r a l b i a s . Data were summarized f o r t h r e e groups of samples. Group I c o n s i s t e d of 281 M e t i s and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n used i n a 1962 v a l i d i t y s t u d y . Group I I c o n s i s t e d o f 45 M e t i s and 97 Eskimo c h i l d r e n used i n a 1968 p r e d i c t i o n s t u d y . Group I I I c o n s i s t e d of 792 I n d i a n - M e t i s , 510 Eskimo, and 709 w h i t e s used i n a 1965 norming s t u d y . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s was used t o d e t e r m i n e the degree t o w h i c h v a r i o u s t e s t s were measuring a g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y f a c t o r as w e l l as o t h e r common f a c t o r s t h a t a r e e v i d e n t i n a b i l i t y and s c h o o l achievement t e s t s . A summary e v a l u a t i o n o f the n i n e c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t s i n terms o f the f o u r c r i t e r i a d e v i s e d by MacArth u r was a l s o p r o v i d e d . M a c A r t h u r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s b e s t met the c r i t e r i a f o r a c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t . However, M a c A r t h u r ' s major f i n d i n g i n t h i s summary s t u d y was t h a t " l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s of Canadian n a t i v e p e o p l e s o f e a r l y s c h o o l age have the g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the l a r g e r Canadian community" ( p . 122). I n 1968, Don F r a s e r , a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n E d u c a t i o n at U.B.C., used the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the me n t a l a b i l i t i e s of B r i t i s h C olumbia N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . F r a s e r chose the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t i n s t e a d of a c u l t u r e - f a i r t e s t because h i s purpose "was t o measure a b i l i t i e s w h i c h are c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t f o r s u c c e s s i n a s c h o o l system w h i c h i s c u l t u r a l l y 20 l o a d e d i n f a v o u r of w h i t e c h i l d r e n " ( F r a s e r , 1969, p. 4 2 ) . The S t a n f o r d - B i n e t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 62 N a t i v e I n d i a n r u r a l and urban c h i l d r e n ; t he sample was not random. Each t e s t was a n a l y s e d i n terms of 14 of J . P. G u i l f o r d ' s S t r u c t u r e of I n t e l l e c t (S.O.I.) a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s (as adapted by Meeker f o r use w i t h S t a n f o r d - B i n e t r e s p o n s e s ) . F r a s e r found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (p < .001) between the I n d i a n mean of 87 and the w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n mean of 100 on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . The r e s u l t s do not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t t h e s e ( N a t i v e I n d i a n s ) c h i l d r e n a r e l e s s i n t e l l i g e n t t h a n w h i t e c h i l d r e n , but th e y do suggest t h a t I n d i a n p u p i l s a r e l e s s w e l l e q u i p p e d w i t h t h e k i n d of a b i l i t y w h i c h seems i m p o r t a n t t o do w e l l i n a l e a r n i n g s i t u a -t i o n w h i c h i s g e a r e d f o r w h i t e c h i l d r e n . ( F r a s e r , 1969, p. 46) The r e s u l t s on the S.0.1. a b i l i t y c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n needed r e m e d i a l h e l p i n a r e a s such as c o g n i t i o n , s y m b o l i c and s e m a n t i c c o n t e n t s , and c o n v e r g e n t p r o d u c t i o n . N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were s t r o n g e r i n a r e a s w h i c h i n v o l v e d memory and f i g u r e c o n t e n t . From t h e s e f i n d i n g s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n p a t t e r n s of a b i l i t i e s , F r a s e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e m e d i a l programs d e s i g n e d f o r p o o r l y a c h i e v i n g w h i t e c h i l d r e n may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p o o r l y a c h i e v i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . A. D. Bowd (1972) e x p l o r e d some d e t e r m i n a n t s of s c h o o l achievement i n N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . He a d m i n i s t e r e d the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s and the M i l l H i l l V o c a b u l a r y S c a l e t o 95 N a t i v e I n d i a n boys from t h r e e r e g i o n s i n B.C. and A l b e r t a , and t o 42 M e t i s and 35 w h i t e boys from two r e g i o n s i n A l b e r t a . An assessment o f p a t e r n a l employment and language background was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d . P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s were computed. S i g n i f i c a n c e was d e t e r m i n e d by employ i n g the t - t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . Bowd found t h a t grade l e v e l c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h the M a t r i c e s i n 21-t h e w h i t e sample. V e r b a l a b i l i t y c o r r e l a t e d b e s t w i t h grade l e v e l i n the N a t i v e I n d i a n samples. P a t e r n a l use of E n g l i s h i n the home c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h vocab-u l a r y and grade l e v e l i n the N a t i v e g r o u p s . Bowd c o n c l u d e d t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n boys needed i n t e n s i v e e a r l y e d u c a t i o n i n the use of E n g l i s h , s i n c e s c h o o l programs demand good v e r b a l p r o f i c i e n c y . Bowd a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s may be u s e f u l t o det e r m i n e the e d u c a b i l i t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , but not as a p r e d i c t o r of s c h o o l achievement. The Use of I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t s t o E x p l o r e the C o g n i t i v e  Performance of N a t i v e I n d i a n C h i l d r e n Gaddes, MacKenzie, and B a r n s l e y i n the 1968 study sought t o examine the v i s u a l - s p a t i a l a b i l i t i e s of two Northwest I n d i a n and two w h i t e groups of c h i l d r e n . The a u t h o r s wanted t o e x p l o r e the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the c u l -t u r a l a r t forms f a m i l i a r t o the Coast I n d i a n s might g i v e them an advantage i n p erformance on mazes and o t h e r s p a t i a l t a s k s . One hundred and t w e n t y - f o u r B.C. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n (70 w h i t e and 54 N a t i v e I n d i a n ) i n grades one t o seven, ages 6 t o 14 were g i v e n the B l o c k D e s i g n s u b t e s t from the WISC, the C a t t e l l C u l t u r e F a i r S h o r t Form, the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man, and the P o r t e u s maze t e s t . Gaddes, u t i l i z i n g a one-way ANOVA and c o v a r i a n c e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a found no s t a t i s t i c a l s u p p o r t ' t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n o f the Northwest p o s s e s s b e t t e r s p a t i a l imagery t h a n w h i t e c h i l d r e n . C o l e and Bruner (1971) c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t the use of a c u l t u r e bound t e s t ( s u c h as the WISC) f o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n s , r e a s o n i n g t h a t what i s p e r c e i v e d as i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r i n one c u l t u r a l group i s not n e c e s s a r i l y p e r c e i v e d as i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r i n a n o t h e r . 22 M a c A r t h u r ( 1 9 6 9 ) , f a c t o r a n a l y z e d s e v e r a l c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d t e s t s ( i n c l u d i n g t he M a t r i c e s ) as w e l l as some s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s . M a c A r t h u r ' s sample c o n s i s t e d of 87 Eskimo p u p i l s , mean age 10.9, and 33 w h i t e p u p i l s , mean age 10.3. The s t u d y was p a r t i a l l y r e p l i c a t e d on 56 I n d i a n - M e t i s p u p i l s , mean age 10.7. A l l t he t e s t s , b o t h c u l t u r e - r e d u c e d and c o n v e n t i o n a l , were found t o l o a d p r i m a r i l y on two f a c t o r s , w h i c h M a c A r t h u r l a b e l l e d V:ED ( v e r b a l e d u c a t i o n ) and R e a s o n i n g - F r o m - N o n - V e r b a l - S t i m u l i . I n g e n e r a l , a b i l i t i e s l e a s t a f f e c t e d by d i f f e r e n c e s i n N a t i v e and w h i t e backgrounds were t h o s e a s s e s s e d by t e s t s h i g h l y l o a d e d on t h e R e a s o n i n g - F r o m - N o n - V e r b a l - S t i m u l i f a c t o r , and t h o s e most a f f e c t e d were a s s e s s e d by t e s t s l o a d e d on the V:ED f a c t o r . M a c A r t h u r n o t e d t h a t under p r e v a i l i n g s c h o o l c o n d i t i o n s o r f i x e d e d u c a t i o n t r e a t m e n t s , the t e s t s l o a d i n g on the V:ED f a c t o r s h o u l d have been b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s of s c h o o l achievement f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . T e s t s , such as t h e M a t r i c e s , w h i c h l o a d e d on t h e Reasoning-From-Non-Verbal-S t i m u l i s h o u l d have been good p r e d i c t o r s o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l of N a t i v e p u p i l s under a d a p t i v e e d u c a t i o n t r e a t m e n t s . I n a c o m p l i c a t e d s t u d y i n Saskatchewan, S c h u b e r t and C r o p l e y (1972) u t i l i z e d t he WISC, a v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of b e h a v i o r a p p a r a t u s , and the S i m i l a r i t i e s and B l o c k D e s i g n WISC s u b t e s t s i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r and IQ of 126 r u r a l and urban N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n and 40 r u r a l w h i t e c h i l d r e n . S u b j e c t s were i n grades 1-7 and ranged i n ages from 6-11 y e a r s o l d . I t must be n o t e d t h a t the samples v a r i e d m arkedly from each o t h e r i n age and s i z e , w h i c h would reduce c o n f i d e n c e i n t he f i n d i n g s . The s t u d y was based on L u r i a ' s t h e o r y t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s p r i m a r i l y 23 a m a t t e r of the a b i l i t y t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n a b s t r a c t v e r b a l terms ( t o use the second s i g n a l s y s t e m ) . M e n t a l d e f i c i e n c y , a c c o r d i n g t o L u r i a , i n v o l v e s the l a c k of c a p a c i t y i n the i n d i v i d u a l t o use language i n r e g u l a t i n g one's b e h a v i o r ( v e r b a l r e g u l a t i o n of b e h a v i o r ) . A p p r o p r i a t e v e r b a l s k i l l s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e i n t e l l i g e n c e a re o b t a i n e d by c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a d u l t s . S c h u b e r t and C r o p l e y found t h a t I n d i a n c h i l d r e n had lower F u l l S c a l e IQs t h a n w h i t e s , and h i g h e r performance IQs t h a n v e r b a l IQs amongst them-s e l v e s . The a u t h o r s a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t N a t i v e c h i l d r e n w i t h IQs below 70 d i f f e r e d from w h i t e c h i l d r e n of a s i m i l a r IQ range i n t h a t the N a t i v e c h i l d r e n b e n e f i t e d more from t r a i n i n g and had a h i g h e r r e g u l a t i o n of b e h a v i o r s c o r e . The main d i f f e r e n c e n o t e d between the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n and w h i t e c h i l d r e n was t h a t the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n d i d not always a n a l y z e e x p e r i -ences i n v e r b a l terms and d i d not f o r m u l a t e i n t e r n a l i z e d r u l e s w h i c h might have g u i d e d them i n new s i t u a t i o n s . S c h u b e r t and C r o p l e y commented t h a t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n must d e v e l -op a second s i g n a l system i n o r d e r t o b e t t e r succeed i n a w h i t e - d o m i n a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c h o o l system and s o c i e t y . Summary Re s e a r c h i n t o the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -d ren has been r e v i e w e d and e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . There were few r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r more r e s e a r c h . The s t u d y by S t . John et a l . (1976) may seem t o be so s i m i l a r t o the p r o p o s e d WISC-R s t u d y as t o make t h a t a s p e c t of the p r e s e n t s t u d y u n n e c e s s a r y . However, s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n c e s s e p a r a t e t h e s t u d y by S t . John 24 e t a l . from the a u t h o r ' s . The WISC-R i s not d i r e c t l y comparable t o the WISC e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a of raw s c o r e s . A l s o , i t can be q u e s t i o n e d as t o whether a group of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from N o r t h w e s t e r n O n t a r i o can be compared w i t h a group of Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from B r i t i s h C o l u m bia. Of f u r t h e r n o t e , the S t . John e t a l . s t u d y r e l i e d upon p u b l i s h e d A m e r i c a n norms, the p r e s e n t s t u d y uses l o c a l (B.C.) norms f o r c o m p a r i s o n . Mark S w e r d l i k (1977) i n an a r t i c l e w h i c h r e v i e w e d the l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g c omparisons between the WISC and t h e WISC-R found t h a t , " I t t a k e s more raw s c o r e p o i n t s t o d a y on the WISC-R t o e a r n the same WISC s c a l e d s c o r e " ( S w e r d l i k , 1977). A l s o , c h i l d r e n who have been e v a l u a t e d u s i n g the WISC and s c o r e d i n the b o r d e r l i n e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n range (IQ 70-80), when r e - e v a l u a t e d u s i n g the WISC-R are l i k e l y t o become e l i g i b l e f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s p l acement. When c h i l d r e n of t o d a y are a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e WISC th e y t e n d t o s c o r e h i g h e r . T h i s h i g h e r s c o r e i s , i n S w e r d l i k ' s o p i n i o n , due t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more m a n i p u l a t i v e m a t e r i a l s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e i n the performance s u b t e s t s , e a r l i e r m a t u r a t i o n , and a g r e a t e r exposure t o p r e - s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n programs. S w e r d l i k , and o t h e r s , f e l t t h a t the "WISC-R as compared t o the WISC i s more a c c u r a t e l y a s s e s s i n g t h e i n t e l -l e c t u a l a b i l i t y o f s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n and comparing them more m e a n i n g f u l l y w i t h t h e i r p e e r s " ( 1 9 7 7 ) . The s t u d y by S e y f o r t e t a l . (1980) would a l s o seem t o negate the use of the WISC-R i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y . However, t h e S e y f o r t et a l . s t u d y d i d not use B.C. norms but r e l i e d upon p u b l i s h e d A m e r i c a n norms. There may be some grounds t o s u p p o r t the use of B. C. norms i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a more a c c u r a t e assessment s i n c e N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would be compared w i t h c h i l d r e n from B.C. who may have l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s and some c u l t u r a l c o m m o n a l i t i e s c l o s e r t h a n t h o s e of A merican c h i l d r e n . However, 25 more r e s e a r c h w i l l be needed b e f o r e t h e use of B.C. norms w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n can be s u p p o r t e d o r the development o f N a t i v e norms recom-mended. A l s o , the S e y f o r t et a l . s t u d y encompassed a group of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on N o r t h e r n Vancouver I s l a n d w h i l e the p r e s e n t s t u d y encompasses Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n whose homes a r e l o c a t e d f a r t o t h e s o u t h . Such d i v e r s e N a t i v e groups may or may not be d i r e c t l y comparable. R e s c h l y c a u t i o n e d a g a i n s t g e n e r a l i z i n g f i n d i n g s from one N a t i v e I n d i a n group t o a n o t h e r . R e s c h l y , i n a number of s t u d i e s (1978, 1979, i n p r e s s -a, i n p r e s s - b ) , examined the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e and b i a s o f the WISC-R as a p p l i e d t o N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Papago c h i l d r e n . O v e r a l l , R e s c h l y found t h e WISC-R t o be a v a l i d , u n b i a s e d p r e d i c t o r of s c h o o l s u c c e s s f o r Papago c h i l -d r e n but s t a t e d t h a t more r e s e a r c h needs t o be done w i t h the WISC-R, e s p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r N a t i v e American c h i l d r e n , b e f o r e any d e f i n -i t e f i n d i n g s o f t e s t b i a s o r f a i r n e s s may be g e n e r a l i z e d . The WISC-R may be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i f used t o p r e d i c t s c h o o l achievement but as a t o o l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o r as an i n d i c a t o r of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , t he use of the WISC-R would be i n d e f e n s i b l e . A l t h o u g h N a t i v e I n d i a n s have many c o n c e r n s i n common, t h e i r d i f f e r e n t languages and d i a l e c t s , a r t forms, and g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n s have r e s u l t e d i n many c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t r i b e s . Whether o r not t h e s e d i f f e r -ences a f f e c t t he a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e f i n d i n g s o f any s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g the use of i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i s i n need of f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n . G e n e r a l i z i n g from a sample, from one I n d a i n group t o a l l I n d i a n s , i n the t i t l e o f a r t i c l e s and i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t e s t r e s u l t s i s m i s l e a d i n g and may a c t u a l l y be i n v a l i d . G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i s an e m p i r i c a l problem f o r w h i c h answers a r e needed. ( M c D i a r m i d , 1971, p. 4) CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY C o m p o s i t i o n o f the Sample The sample c o n s i s t e d of 21, 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -d r e n chosen from the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 39, 9 ye a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The-sample was not random because the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n was l i m i t e d and o n l y t he c h i l d r e n t e s t e d were th o s e whose p a r e n t s had s i g n e d l e t t e r s o f c o n s e n t . TKe'Sample i n c l u d e d 13 females and 8 males drawn from t h r e e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , two p u b l i c and one p r i v a t e (see T a b l e s 1 and 2 ) , i n the Cowichan S c h o o l D i s t r i c t (No. 6 5 ) . The Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n B a n d — A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n . The Cowichan Band (Note 1) c o n s i s t s of 1,750 r e g i s t e r e d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n s and i s the l a r g e s t N a t i v e I n d i a n band i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. S i x s m a l l e r r e s e r v e s s i t u a t e d at the mouth of the Cowichan R i v e r n ear Duncan c o m p r i s e one o f the l a r g e s t urban r e s e r v e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a — 1 2 0 0 Cowichan l i v e on r e s e r v e l a n d , 550 l i v e o f f the r e s e r v e . The unemployment r a t e amongst the Cowichan i s 75 p e r c e n t i n c o n t r a s t t o a 90 p e r c e n t unemployment r a t e amongst o t h e r N a t i v e I n d i a n bands. Those who a r e employed, work i n m i l l s , o r as longshoremen, but the l a r g e s t employer i s the Band C o u n c i l . Many Cowichan women are s e l f - e m p l o y e d as k n i t t e r s of the renowned Cowichan I n d i a n s w e a t e r s . 26 27 T a b l e 1 D e s c r i p t i o n of T o t a l Sample T o t a l Cowichan P e r c e n t a g e — C o w i c h a n T o t a l S c h o o l N a t i v e I n d i a n N a t i v e I n d i a n S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n A l e x a n d e r ( p u b l i c ) 451 63 13. 9% K o k s i l a ( p u b l i c ) 264 154 58. 3% Queen of A n g e l s ( p r i v a t e ) 215 84 39. 1% T a b l e 2 D e s c r i p t i o n o f 9 Year O l d Sample P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e C-9 of of C-9 T o t a l T e s t e d t o Cowichan P e r c e n t a g e T o t a l Nat i v e of C-9 Cowichan T o t a l C-9 a I n d i a n C-9 T e s t e d T e s t e d N a t i v e at the S c h o o l i n t h i s i n t h i s I n d i a n S c h o o l S c h o o l s P o p u l a t i o n Study Study C h i l d r e n A l e x a n d e r ( p u b l i c ) 6 9.5 3 50 4.8 K o k s i l a ( p u b l i c ) 22 14.3 11 50 7.1 Queen of A n g e l s ( p r i v a t e ) 11 13.1 7 54 8.3 aThe symbol C-9 i s the a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n 9 y e a r o l d s . 28 The Cowichan Band i s p a r t o f the C e n t r a l Coast S a l i s h I n d i a n t r i b e . The Cowichan speak a language w h i c h f a l l s i n t o a l i n g u i s t i c s u b d i v i s i o n of Halkomelem (Kew, 1980, p. 2 ) . The a r t o f t h e Coast S a l i s h i s v a r i e d and i n c l u d e s t e x t i l e s , b a s k e t r y , as w e l l as s c u l p t u r e and e n g r a v i n g i n wood, h o r n , and o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . However, l i t t l e i s known by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c about Coast S a l i s h a r t i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e b e t t e r known a r t of the H a i d a o r o t h e r N o r t h Coast I n d i a n t r i b e s . Coast S a l i s h a r t , m u s i c , dance, and t h e a t r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o and are e x p r e s s i o n s o f r e l i g i o u s r i t u a l s . The r i t u a l s a r e o r g a n i z e d on t h r e e l e v e l s — t r i b e , band, and f a m i l y . We s h o u l d remind o u r s e l v e s , however, t h a t such a r t (Co a s t S a l i s h ) was produced and e x p e r i e n c e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . We have no e v i d e n c e t h a t i t was s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r t , t h a t i s , a r t f o r a r t ' s sake. A l t h o u g h we may t r e a t i t i n d e p e n d e n t l y and t r y of a n a l y s e , d e f i n e and u n d e r s t a n d the r u l e s of s t y l e and form, i t a l s o behoves us t o t r y and see and u n d e r s t a n d i t i n i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t . We need t o c o n s i d e r f u n c t i o n and meaning of a r t o b j e c t s f o r t h o s e who made and e x p e r i e n c e d them. (Kew, 1980, p. 3) R a t i o n a l e f o r the c h o i c e of 9 y e a r o l d s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e c h o i c e o f 9 y e a r o l d s as the age of p r e f e r e n c e f o r d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was based on p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n -a l s , and w i t h s u p p o r t of the l i t e r a t u r e . D u r i n g t h i s a u t h o r ' s work as a t e a c h e r at a c h i l d i n p a t i e n t p s y c h i -a t r i c u n i t i n Vancouver, i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t more 9 y e a r o l d s were r e f e r r e d t h a n any o t h e r age. The change from grade t h r e e t o grade f o u r w h i c h t a k e s p l a c e at age 9 appeared t o p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s as the f o r m e r l y "dependent" p r i m a r y 8 y e a r o l d s were e x p e c t e d t o become " i n d e p e n d e n t " i n t e r m e d i a t e 9 y e a r o l d s c a p a b l e of c h a n g i n g c l a s s e s , d o i n g homework, and d e a l i n g w i t h h i g h e r l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t r e a s o n i n g . Many 9 y e a r o l d s c o u l d not cope 29 w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n and new l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A v a r i e t y o f l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s began t o emerge n e c e s s i t a t i n g the need f o r i n - d e p t h , i n p a t i e n t assessment. The Vancouver S c h o o l B oard D e v e l o p m e n t a l Review Program a l s o chose 9 y e a r o l d s as one of the ages of i n t e r e s t . I n p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C o l i n M c D o u g a l l , the D i r e c t o r of C o u n s e l l i n g S e r v i c e s f o r the Vancouver S c h o o l Board and one of the d e v e l o p e r s of the Review Program, he r e l a t e d t h a t the c h o i c e o f 9 y e a r o l d s was made because grade f o u r , w h i c h i s the grade l e v e l of most 9 y e a r o l d s , r e p r e s e n t s a t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t i n t e a c h i n g p a t t e r n s and a major s h i f t i n e d u c a t i o n a l programming. The emphasis i n , grade f o u r changes from an i n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g day t o a s u b j e c t - b y - s u b j e c t l e a r n i n g day. Dr. R o b e r t a McQueen, a p h y s i c i a n w i t h the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h S e r v i c e s i n Vancouver, who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the m e d i c a l i n p u t i n t o the development of the Review Program was c o n s u l t e d . Dr. McQueen c i t e d a number of r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e m e d i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e a r e a of c h i l d development w h i c h suggest t h a t age 9 i s an i m p o r t a n t p h y s i c a l and c o g n i t i v e t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t . Age 9 appears t o be the t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d from c h i l d h o o d t o p r e -a d o l e s c e n c e , when the c h i l d moves from "a s t r o n g academic b e i n g t o a s o c i a l b e i n g " ( T h o r n b u r g , 1974, p. 4 ) . There are p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and c o g n i t i v e c o r r e l a t e s t h a t mark the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d . "We may t r y t o d e f i n e the b e g i n n i n g o f p r e a d o l e s c e n c e u s i n g the s k e l e t a l age as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p r e s e n c e ( a t age 9) of a l l t h e bones of the w r i s t except f o r the p i s i f o r m " (Kohen-Raz, 1971, p. 7 ) . D u r i n g p r e a d o l e s c e n c e , the r e s t o f the m o l a r s ( e x c e p t the t h i r d ) appear and by the end of p r e a d o l e s c e n c e , a t age 13, the repl a c e m e n t of d e c i d u o u s by 30 permanent t e e t h i s almost c o m p l e t e d . E m o t i o n a l l y , p r e a d o l e s c e n c e i s a l s o the time of i n c r e a s e d s e x u a l awareness and the development of sex r o l e s . The 9 y e a r o l d b e g i n s t o s t r e n g t h e n f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h p e e r s and the i m p o r t a n c e of p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a -t i o n i s sometimes overshadowed by peer e x p e c t a t i o n s . The p r e a d o l e s c e n t a l s o i n t e r n a l i z e s many of the s o c i a l and b e h a v i o r a l v a l u e s t h a t w i l l c o n -t r i b u t e t o the t u r b u l e n t p e r i o d of a d o l e s c e n c e . Most of t h e c o g n i t i v e c o r r e l a t e s of p r e a d o l e s c e n c e appear i n the works of P i a g e t and i n the works of t h o s e who have b u i l t upon P i a g e t ' s o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h . At t h i s s t a g e (ages 9-11) c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s a r e f u l l y e l a b o r a t e d and may now be a p p l i e d t o a wide range of problems i n v i r t u a l l y a l l a r e a s of e x p e r i e n c e . The c h i l d i s a b l e t o i n t e r n a l i z e and t o imagine more t h a n two s i m u l t a n e o u s movements, and he u n d e r s t a n d s the s t r u c t u r e of t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space. The o b j e c t i v e s of thought a r e of a more a b s t r a c t c h a r a c t e r and c o n c e p t s a r e l e s s e g o c e n t r i c . (Kohen-Raz, 1971, p. 59) The thought p a t t e r n s of t h e p r e a d o l e s c e n t change from t h o s e ' o f " e g o -c e n t r i s m t o one of p e r s p e c t i v i s m " ( E l k i n d [1970] i n McMahon, 1974, p. 123). The c h i l d i s now a b l e t o a c c e p t and judge d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s of v i e w o t h e r t h a n h i s own. There a r e a l s o changes i n the l i n g u i s t i c development of the p r e a d o l -e s c e n t . Palermo and M a l t e s e (1972) note age 9 as a time of " s t a b l e l i n -g u i s t i c p e r f o r m a n c e " (p. 422) t h a t o c c u r s between two p e r i o d s of l i n g u i s t i c i n s t a b i l i t y when " l a r g e i n c r e a s e s i n new g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s and h i g h e r r o r r a t e s on some k i n d s of c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d " ( p . 422). The a u t h o r s l i n k such l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n s t o P i a g e t ' s t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s from p r e o p e r a t i o n a l thought t o c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s (ages 5-8) and from c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s t o f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s (ages 10-13). O v e r a l l , language i n the p r e a d o l e s c e n t p e r i o d " a t t a i n s h i g h e r l e v e l s 31 of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the a r e a of s o c i a l i z a t i o n and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n and b e g i n s t o show new forms of i n t e g r a t i o n , m a n i f e s t e d i n the g r o w i n g use o f complex s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e s and i n t h e c a p a c i t y t o f o r m u l a t e and w r i t e down i n n e r e x p e r i e n c e s " (Kohen-Raz, 1971, p. 8 0 ) . Holmes (1981) a l s o chose age 9% as an age of i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t r a t i -f i c a t i o n o f the sample f o r her d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . S i n c e Holmes' raw d a t a p r o v i d e d t h e c o m p a r i s o n f o r the raw d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s , the c h o i c e of age 9\ was an added i n c e n t i v e f o r u s i n g Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n of the same age. C h o i c e of T e s t s The WISC-R and t h e SPM were chosen because t h e y a r e commonly known and w i d e l y used t o o l s f o r the p urposes of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l assessment. Each of the two t e s t s has engendered much r e s e a r c h , however, o n l y a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of each t e s t i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s on t h e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g each t e s t a r e i n c l u d e d f o r the i n t e r -e s t e d r e a d e r . W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n — R e v i s e d (WISC-R). The WISC-R, w h i c h i s a r e v i s e d form of the WISC was s t a n d a r d i z e d i n 1970 and p u b l i s h e d i n 1974, and can be used w i t h the age range of 6 t h r o u g h 16 y e a r s o l d . I t i s , p e r h a p s , the most commonly used i n d i v i d u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t . W e c h s l e r d e f i n e d i n t e l l i g e n c e as the " o v e r a l l c a p a c i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l t o u n d e r s t a n d and cope w i t h the w o r l d around him" ( W e c h s l e r , 1974, p. 5 ) . W e c h s l e r v i e w e d i n t e l l i g e n c e as a m u l t i f a c e t e d and m u l t i d e t e r m i n e d e n t i t y t h a t i s i n f e r r e d from the way a b i l i t i e s a r e m a n i f e s t e d under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . W e c h s l e r c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t h e WISC as a' t e s t of i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y and not of g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , as many f a c t o r s 32 not t e s t e d by the WISC a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n t e l l i g e n c e . F o r an e x t e n s i v e r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on the WISC, the r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o "R e s e a r c h w i t h the Wec h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n : 1960-1970''' (Zimmerman & Woo-Sam, 1972). R e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g t he WISC-R da t e d from i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 1974 i s b e g i n n i n g t o emerge.'. Kaufman ( 1 9 7 6 ) , S i l v e r s t e i n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , R e s c h l y and R e s c h l y ( i n p r e s s - b ) a n a l y s e d and f a c t o r a n a l y s e d the WISC-R s t a n d a r d i z a -t i o n d a t a . S w e r d l i k (1977) compared the WISC-R w i t h the WISC and d e t e r -mined t h a t t h e WISC-R gave a more a c c u r a t e i n t e l l e c t u a l assessment th a n the WISC. Though the WISC-R i s c a l l e d an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t , d a t a a r e emerging ( M e r c e r , 1979; R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a ; W i k o f f , 1979) t o su p p o r t t h e WISC-R as a p r e d i c t o r o f s c h o o l s u c c e s s i n the s c h o o l system as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . I n t e s t s w i t h f o u r d i f f e r e n t s o c i o - c u l t u r a l g r o u p s , i n c l u d i n g N a t i v e A m e r i c a n Papago, R e s c h l y ( R e s c h l y & R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - b ) found s u p p o r t f o r t he WISC-R as a p r e d i c t o r of achievement f o r m i n o r i t y and n o n - m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s . R e s c h l y ( i n p r e s s - a ) and Mer c e r (1979) p r e f e r r e d t o c o n s i d e r the WISC-R as a measure of "academic a p t i t u d e " ( R e s c h l y ) o r " S c h o o l F u n c t i o n -i n g L e v e l " ( M e r c e r , 1979). R e s c h l y commented t h a t the WISC-R a l o n g w i t h o t h e r IQ t e s t s "measure o n l y a p o r t i o n o f the comp e t e n c i e s i n v o l v e d w i t h human i n t e l l i g e n c e " ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a , p. 3 8 ) . S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s (SPM). J . C. Raven d e s i g n e d the S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s , p u b l i s h e d i n 1938, based on Spearman's " g" t h e o r y of t h e impo r t a n c e o f e d u c t i v e and r e p r o d u c t i v e b e h a v i o r and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the development of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . 33 The M a t r i c e s can be d e s c r i b e d as " t e s t s of o b s e r v a t i o n and c l e a r t h i n k i n g " (Raven, C o u r t , & Raven, 1977, p. 3).and p r o v i d e "measures of the a b i l i t y t o educe r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o r r e l a t e s " (Raven e t a l . , 1977, p. 3 ) . In o r d e r f o r t h e M a t r i c e s t o be used as t e s t s o f " g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , " t h e y " s h o u l d be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a v o c a b u l a r y t e s t ( s u c h as t h e M i l l H i l l V o c a b u l a r y S c a l e ) t o p r o v i d e an i n d e x of r e p r o d u c t i v e a b i l i t y " (Raven et a l . , 1977a, p. 3 ) . The S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s ( S e t s , A , B, C, D, and E) a r e d e s i g n e d f o r an age range o f 8 y e a r s o l d t o 65 y e a r s o l d . B u r k e , i n h i s 1958 c r i t i q u e o f t h e M a t r i c e s , c i t e d a number of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s t h a t have been engendered by the M a t r i c e s . . S i n c e 1958, r e s e a r c h i n v o l v i n g t he M a t r i c e s has c o n t i n u e d e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r e a of " c u l t u r e -f a i r " t e s t i n g . The M a t r i c e s a r e thought by some t o be a " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t because of the n o n - v e r b a l format and use of d e s i g n s t h a t a r e s u p p o s e d l y f a m i l i a r t o a l l c u l t u r e s . However, the arguments c o n c e r n i n g the concept o f " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t i n g a r e s t i l l b e i n g waged i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i t e r -a t u r e ( M e r c e r , 1979; R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a ; Samuda, 1975). Samuda (1975) argued a g a i n s t the concept of a " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t by s t a t i n g t h a t "... what c o n s t i t u t e s an a c t of i n t e l l i g e n t b e h a v i o r i s i n e s c a p a b l y l i n k e d t o and d e t e r m i n e d by the v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d s of s o c i e t y " ( p . 2 7 ) . As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2, W i l t s h i r e and Gray, i n t h e i r 1969 s t u d y i n v o l v i n g t he use of the M a t r i c e s w i t h N a t i v e Canadian Cree c h i l d r e n , c a s t some doubt on t h e use of t h e M a t r i c e s as a " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t . Burke and Bingham (1969) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the M a t r i c e s may not be a n o n - v e r b a l t e s t . The M a t r i c e s l o a d e d " s i g n i f i c a n t l y on a f a c t o r o f g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g even when i t was h e a v i l y d e t e r m i n e d by v e r b a l c o n t e n t " (Burke & Bingham, 1969, p. 2 51). The a u t h o r s s p e c u l a t e d 34 as t o how much of the performance on the SPM depended on v e r b a l a b i l i t y and s u g g e s t e d t h a t more r e s e a r c h was needed i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e such a phenomenon. R. F e u e r s t e i n , an I s r a e l i e d u c a t o r and p s y c h o l o g i s t , used the SPM and a group of o t h e r s p a t i a l t e s t s i n a unique way i n o r d e r t o examine the problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t y o f c h i l d r e n . The L e a r n i n g P o t e n t i a l Assessment D e v i c e (LPAD), w h i c h i n c l u d e s e l e -ments of the SPM, was d e v e l o p e d by F e u e r s t e i n i n 1972 ( N a r r o l & Bachor, 1975) and i s p u r p o r t e d by him t o be "dynamic t e s t i n g " because t h e s u b j e c t s a r e t a u g h t problem s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t h e changes a r e measured i n s t e a d of c o n v e n t i o n a l p s y c h o m e t r i c " s t a t i c t e s t i n g " i n w h i c h o n l y p r e v i o u s l e a r n -i n g i s a s s e s s e d . P r o c e d u r e s L e t t e r s of c o n s e n t . The n a t u r e of the r e s e a r c h , the r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h , and t h e t e s t s t o be used were f i r s t d i s c u s s e d w i t h Andrew S e l d e r , S u p e r v i s o r of S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t Number 65 ( C o w i c h a n ) . A l e t t e r o u t l i n i n g t h e p r o j e c t was sent t o Mr. S e l d e r who t h e n p r e s e n t e d the i d e a t o the Cowichan Band C o u n c i l . P e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d from b o t h the Cowichan Band C o u n c i l and from the Cowichan S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , . A p p r o v a l f o r the p r o j e c t was a l s o g i v e n by the U.B.C. S c r e e n i n g Com-m i t t e e f o r R e s e a r c h and Other S t u d i e s I n v o l v i n g Human S u b j e c t s : B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s ( C e r t i f i c a t e of A p p r o v a l R e f e r e n c e Number B79-202). P a r e n t a l c o n s e n t was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e use of a l e t t e r ( s ee Appendix B ) . Mr. S e l d e r and Agnes P i e r r e , a N a t i v e I n d i a n Home/School Worker, d i s t r i b u t e d the l e t t e r s t o the v a r i o u s s c h o o l s and were a v a i l a b l e 35 f o r home v i s i t s t o any p a r e n t s who had c o n c e r n s about t h e i r c h i l d ' s p a r t i c -i p a t i o n i n the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . T h i r t y - n i n e l e t t e r s of c onsent were d i s t r i b u t e d and 22 p a r e n t s gave c o n s e n t . One c h i l d was e x c l u d e d because he was 10 y e a r s o l d at t h e t ime of the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . Consent from each c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t e s t i n g s e s s i o n s was a l s o o b t a i n e d . Each c h i l d was t o l d t h a t t h e examiner was i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g out how a group of 9 y e a r o l d s p e r f o r m e d on the t e s t s . The c h i l d r e n were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e i r p erformance on the t e s t s would not a f f e c t t h e i r s c h o o l work nor would t h e i r t e a c h e r s know t h e i r s c o r e s . The c h i l d r e n were t o l d t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s had g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n f o r them t o t a k e p a r t i n the t e s t i n g and t h a t t h e examiner would a l s o l i k e them t o t a k e p a r t . A f t e r h a v i n g a few moments t o t h i n k , t h e c h i l d r e n would t h e n e i t h e r g i v e t h e i r o r a l c onsent or r e f u s a l t o t a k e p a r t . None of the c h i l d r e n r e f u s e d and most appeared e n t h u s i a s t i c about t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P r e s e n t a t i o n of T e s t s The PIAT (Peabody I n d i v i d u a l Achievement T e s t ) was used i n the o r i g -i n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . However, the PIAT was d i s c a r d e d s i n c e i t has r e c e n t l y been r e v i s e d and a l s o d i d not meet th e c r i t e r i a of a t e s t of c o g -n i t i v e a b i l i t y . T h i s s e c t i o n has been r e t a i n e d s i n c e i t c o n t r i b u t e d t o the o r i g i n a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . The WISC-R, PIAT, and SPM p r o t o c o l s were a r r a n g e d i n s i x sequences f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The sequences were c o n s t r u c t e d so t h a t each of the t h r e e t e s t s appeared t w i c e i n the f i r s t p o s i t i o n , t w i c e i n the second p o s i t i o n , and t w i c e i n the t h i r d p o s i t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s 36 s e q u e n c i n g was done i n o r d e r t o reduce tedium on the p a r t of the s u b j e c t s from becoming a c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e . A random s e l e c t i o n from the s i x sequences was made d a i l y by the exam-i n e r s and the p r o t o c o l s p r e s e n t e d i n the o r d e r t h a t had been a r r a n g e d f o r each sequence (see T a b l e 3 ) . T a b l e 3 Random Sequence P r e s e n t a t i o n Sequences A d m i n i s t e r e d G i r l s Boys Sequence 1 1 3 Sequence 2 4 0 Sequence 3 1 1 Sequence 4 1 3 Sequence 5 2 1 Sequence 6 4 0 T o t a l s 13 8 Canadian s u b s t i t u t i o n items f o r the WISC-R. The WISC-R was admin- • i s t e r e d u s i n g t h e Ca n a d i a n s u b s t i t u t i o n i t e m s l i s t e d i n Appendix A as w e l l as o r i g i n a l WISC-R i t e m s . Vernon (1977) at the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l g a r y , w i t h the h e l p o f a number of p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o m p i l e d a l t e r n a t e Canadian s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r some items f o r the WISC-R I n f o r m a t i o n and Comprehension s u b t e s t s . Vernon (1977) found t h a t the Canadian a l t e r n a t e q u e s t i o n s y i e l d e d i t e m pass p e r c e n t a g e s f o r a Canadian sample w h i c h a r e c l o s e r t o the American s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample t h a n on pass p e r c e n t a g e s u s i n g the o r i g i n a l w o r d i n g . The Canadian s u b s t i t u t i o n i t e m s were used by Holmes i n the 37 development o f B.C. norms f o r the WISC-R and SPM. I n o r d e r f o r the B.C. norms, w h i c h were used i n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s i n t h i s t h e s i s , t o be a p p l i c -a b l e , the Canadian s u b s t i t u t i o n i t e m s had t o be used. The p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Canadian and American i t e m s were c o u n t e r -b a l a n c e d so t h a t on each o f t h e 21 WISC-R p r o t o c o l s , t h e Canadian and American q u e s t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d i n the f i r s t o r second p o s i t i o n of p r e -s e n t a t i o n . Though t h i s p r o c e d u r e was used, most of the c h i l d r e n r e a c h e d t h e i r c e i l i n g b e f o r e coming t o the American i t e m s and Canadian a l t e r n a t e s . Of the c h i l d r e n who r e a c h e d as f a r as Item 16 on the WISC-R I n f o r m a t i o n s u b t e s t , none were a b l e t o answer e i t h e r t h e Canadian o r American p r e s e n -t a t i o n o f the i t e m . T h e r e f o r e , though b o t h the Am e r i c a n items and Canadian a l t e r n a t e s were used, t h e i r e f f e c t on the t e s t p erformance was i n s i g n i f i c a n t and was not c o n s i d e r e d i n the f i n a l d a t a a n a l y s i s . T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the week of J a n u a r y 21-25, 1980. Three g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t he a u t h o r , a d m i n i s t e r e d the t e s t s . A l l t h r e e had been t r a i n e d by the same i n s t r u c t o r so t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the WISC-R was f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t . A b r i e f i n g was h e l d t o h e l p i n s u r e the c o n s i s t e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the PIAT and SPM. Each p r o t o c o l was a s s i g n e d a code as t o t h e sex of the c h i l d . The age of each c h i l d was l i s t e d on the p r o t o c o l but the name of each c h i l d was r e c o r d e d on a s e p a r a t e c h e c k l i s t . S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e s The t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by the t h r e e e x a m i n e r s . However, the a u t h o r r e - c h e c k e d each p r o t o c o l and the d e c i s i o n as t o r a t i n g WISC-R res p o n s e s was f i n a l . As i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chap t e r 4, t h e r e were few 38 d i s a g r e e m e n t s between the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n on the 2, 1, o r 0 r a t i n g o f v a r i -ous WISC-R r e s p o n s e s . The PIAT and SPM p r o t o c o l s were r e - c h e c k e d f o r a d d i n g e r r o r s as b o t h were s c o r e d n o t i n g r i g h t o r wrong answers and were not as s u b j e c t t o i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n as i s the WISC-R. The two a s s i s t a n t s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n i t i a l s c o r i n g of the p r o t o c o l s . The a u t h o r was t o t a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of s c o r e s u s i n g the v a r i o u s norms t a b l e s -CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA The f o c u s of t h i s c h a p t e r i s the a n a l y s i s o f the data c o l l e c t e d on the performance o f 21, 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on the WISC-R and SPM. I n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y and e r r o r r a t e a r e d i s c u s s e d as w e l l as the p r e s e n t a t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s f o r bo t h the means and v a r i a n c e . F i n a l l y , t h e hypotheses s t a t e d i n C h a p t e r I a r e e i t h e r a c c e p t e d or r e j e c t e d as d i c t a t e d by the r e s u l t s o f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . B.C. norms f o r the WISC-R V e r b a l and Performance S c a l e s as w e l l as the P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s were used i n the d a t a a n a l y s i s as the norms are c u r r e n t , C a n a d i a n , and b e t t e r a p p r o x i m a t e the performance o f c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia than do the American norms. E r r o r Rate Both the e r r o r r a t e and i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h o n l y the S i m i l a r i t i e s , V o c a b u l a r y , and Comprehension s u b t e s t s of the WISC-R. A l l o t h e r s u b t e s t s of the WISC-R are s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the time t a k e n t o complete a t a s k o r by s i m p l e word or number r e s p o n s e s and ar e s u b j e c t t o l i t t l e examiner i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The SPM and PIAT a r e s c o r e d on the b a s i s o f c o r r e c t o r i n c o r r e c t answers and a r e not s u b j e c t t o examiner i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Of the 21 WISC-R p r o t o c o l s s c o r e d , o n l y 11 c o n t a i n e d any e r r o r s . The e r r o r r a t e on each o f t h e t h r e e WISC-R s u b t e s t s was l e s s t h a n f i v e 39 40 p e r c e n t (see Ta b l e 4 ) . T a b l e 4 E r r o r Rate T o t a l No. of WISC-R Item T o t a l No. S u b t e s t Responses of e r r o r s E r r o r , Rate S i m i l a r i t i e s 183 3 1.6% V o c a b u l a r y 298 14 4.7% Comprehension 206 5 2.4% "Item r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e sum of t h e i t e m s c o r r e c t l y answered by a l l 21 c h i l d r e n When p r o t o c o l s c o n t a i n i n g e r r o r s were c o r r e c t e d , no d i f f e r e n c e t o the V e r b a l S c a l e d Score was n o t e d i n f o u r c a s e s . The V e r b a l S c a l e d Score was r a i s e d by one p o i n t i n f i v e c a s e s and low e r e d by one p o i n t i n two c a s e s . R a i s i n g o r l o w e r i n g the V e r b a l S c a l e d Score by one p o i n t d i d not change the V e r b a l IQ s c o r e s o f any of the c h i l d r e n . I n t e r - r a t e r R e l i a b i l i t y The two g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s who had a s s i s t e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t e s t s were the judges used i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Each WISC-R p r o t o c o l was examined and r a t i n g e r r o r s n o t e d f o r the S i m i l a r -i t i e s , V o c a b u l a r y , and Comprehension s u b t e s t s . The judges d i f f e r e d w i t h the a u t h o r ' s r a t i n g on o n l y one of the e r r o r s . The i n t e r - r a t e r r e l i a b i l -i t y was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 99 p e r c e n t . 41 D i s c u s s i o n of Means The means computed f o r the WISC-R V e r b a l IQ, Performance IQ, and SPM t o t a l s c o r e were compared t o t h e same means computed f o r Holmes' d a t a (see T a b l e 5 ) . T a b l e 5 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n and Non-Native I n d i a n Samples w i t h t T e s t s of S i g n i f i c a n c e B.C. Norming Cowichan Group a Group b M SD M SD t WISC-R V e r b a l IQ 105.85 12.5? 79.00 11.90 9.02* Performance IQ 108.94 12.30 86.23 10.58 7.90* SPM 31.58 8.06 16.14 4.86 8.46* Note: B.C. Norming Group c o n s i s t s of the 9% y e a r o l d norming group. Cowichan Group c o n s i s t s of the 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n s 3 n = 108 b n = 21 *p < .0001 Holmes' raw means were the s t a n d a r d of c o m p a r i s o n . The means r e p o r t e d i n Holmes' B. C. Norms T a b l e s (1980) were t r a n s f o r m e d t o have a mean e q u a l t o 100 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n e q u a l t o 15, i n k e e p i n g w i t h W e c h s l e r ' s p r o c e d u r e f o r the WISC-R. The ages of the c h i l d r e n used i n Holmes' s t u d y ranged from 9 y e a r s 3 months t h r o u g h 9 y e a r s 8 months. Twelve of the c h i l d r e n used i n t h i s s t u d y f e l l i n t o the same age range. The WISC-R F u l l S c a l e IQ means are not r e p o r t e d as the F u l l S c a l e IQ i s d e r i v e d from the c o m p i l a t i o n of the V e r b a l and Performance IQ and" 42 r e p o r t i n g i t would be redundant. As shown i n T a b l e 5, the means f o r the WISC-R and SPM performance of t he Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower (p < .0001) t h a n the means of the n o n - N a t i v e c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n Holmes' s t u d y . D i s c u s s i o n o f V a r i a n c e As shown i n T a b l e 6, the t e s t f o r h e t e r o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e f o r the V e r b a l IQ, Performance IQ, and SPM were not s i g n i f i c a n t . A l t h o u g h the means d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n d i c a t i n g t he p o s s i b i l i t y of two p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e v a r i a n c e s between t h e two groups d i d not v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the two p o p u l a t i o n s may be compared. Ta b l e 6 C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l s f o r x. - x„ and Tes t f o r H e t e r o g e n e i t y o f 2 V a r i a n c e u s i n g H o t e l l i n g T C o n f i d e n c e I n t e r v a l s T e s t f o r Het. f o r x^ - x^ of V a r . x^-x^ Lower L i m i t Upper L i m i t F P WISC-R V e r b a l IQ -26.9 -35.3 -18.4 1.11 .41 Performance IQ -22.7 -30.9 -14.5 1.35 .22 SPM -15.7 -20.7 -10.2 2775 .005 T 2 = 110.8, df = 125, p < .0001 Note: x^ i s t h e mean s c o r e s f o r t h e 9^ y e a r B.C. norming group x^ i s the mean s c o r e s f o r the 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n s 43 D i s c u s s i o n o f Hypotheses H y p o t h e s i s 1. H y p o t h e s i s one s t a t e d t h a t the WISC-R V e r b a l S c a l e s c o r e s of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would not be s i g n i f -i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from th o s e of the B.C. norming group. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t p < .0001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s c o r e s of t h e B.C. norming group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . H y p o t h e s i s 2. H y p o t h e s i s two s t a t e d t h a t t h e WISC-R Performance S c a l e s c o r e s of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would not be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of t h e B.C. norming group. The h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d at p < .0001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s c o r e s of the B.C. norming group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . H y p o t h e s i s 3. H y p o t h e s i s t h r e e s t a t e d t h a t the S t a n d a r d P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s s c o r e s of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n would hot be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e of the B.C. norming group. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d at the p < .0001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s c o r e s o f t h e B.C. norming group were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . D i s c u s s i o n of the Problem Holmes' a s s u m p t i o n f o r e x c l u d i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from the B.C. norming group i s s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n . The WISC-R s c o r e s of the B.C. norming group were more t h a n 15 p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n the Cowichan group and s u g g e s t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of o v e r - p r e d i c -t i o n . However, more d a t a w i l l have t o be c o l l e c t e d on many ages and bands of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f the p o i n t d i f f e r e n c e i s a c o n s i s t e n t f i n d i n g . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION In t he f u t u r e decade Canada's N a t i v e p e o p l e s may choose t o employ p s y c h o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n d e c i d i n g the manner i n w h i c h t h e i r c h i l d r e n might most h a p p i l y and e f f e c t i v e l y l e a r n . (Bowd, 1977, p. 344) Summary of R e s u l t s The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y was t o examine the performance of 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on two t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y : t h e WISC-R and t h e SPM. The two t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 21 (13 f e m a l e s , 8 m a l e s ) , 9 y e a r o l d Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n and the d a t a were a n a l y s e d u s i n g a v a r i e t y of s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . The WISC-R and SPM s c o r e s of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n were compared t o the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by the non-N a t i v e B.C. norming group. The Cowichan N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l ower t h a n t h e B.C. norming group on the WISC-R and SPM. The r e a s o n s f o r the lower performance of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n on the two t e s t s a r e complex and cannot be c o n c l u s i v e l y d e t e r m i n e d due t o the l i m i t e d scope of t h i s t h e s i s . However, some r e a s o n s f o r the lower achievement of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e and may be a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . 44 45 The c o ncept of t e s t b i a s has been c i t e d ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a ) as one of the r e a s o n s f o r the lower performance of m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n . There a r e many d e f i n i t i o n s and t y p e s o f t e s t b i a s . R e s c h l y ( i n p r e s s - a ) s t a t e s t h a t , "The two e s s e n t i a l components of [ h i s ] d e f i n i t i o n of t e s t b i a s a r e u s e f u l n e s s and f a i r n e s s " ( p . 4 ) . R e s e a r c h i s needed t o det e r m i n e whether the two t e s t s d i s c u s s e d i n the st u d y a r e u s e f u l i n the assessment o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . I f the use of t e s t s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y r e s u l t " i n e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s t h a t improve s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s " ( R e s c h l y , i n p r e s s - a , p. 4 ) , t h e n the t e s t s may not be b i a s e d i n terms of u s e f u l n e s s a g a i n s t N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -d r e n . Whether the WISC-R and SPM a r e f a i r t o N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n w i l l a l s o have t o be d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h more r e s e a r c h . I f t h e outcome of th e s e t e s t s p r o v e s t o be of no b e n e f i t t o the i n d i v i d u a l or l e a d s t o i n e f f e c t i v e o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e n such t e s t s may be u n f a i r . The WISC-R i s u n f a i r l y used as an i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The WISC-R samples o n l y a few of the comp e t e n c i e s i n -v o l v e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . As p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , t he WISC-R i s most v a l i d a s : : a r t e s t of academic a p t i t u d e and as a p r e d i c t o r of s c h o o l s u c c e s s i n the s c h o o l system as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s . N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , f o r the most p a r t , a r e not s u c c e e d i n g i n the p r e s e n t s c h o o l system, as e v i d e n c e d by t h e i r s c h o o l d r o p - o u t r a t e , w h i c h i s h i g h e r t h a n the drop-out r a t e of n o n - N a t i v e s t u d e n t s ( H u n t e r & S t e v e n s , 1980, p. 2 ) . U s i n g the WISC-R may h e l p t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n the assessment of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t o det e r m i n e the p r e s e n c e of some of the s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s t h a t such c h i l d r e n w i l l need f o r s u c c e s s i n the s c h o o l system. 46 The v a l i d i t y of u s i n g the SPM w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s h o u l d a l s o be examined t h r o u g h more r e s e a r c h . Data a n a l y s i s w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y suggest t h a t the SPM i s no more " c u l t u r a l l y f a i r " t h a n the WISC-R. Re-s e a r c h i s mounting a g a i n s t the use of the SPM as a " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t . There a re t h o s e , i n c l u d i n g the N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , t h a t a d v i s e a g a i n s t the WISC-R and o t h e r s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s f o r use w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d (1972) recommended e l i m -i n a t i n g IQ and s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s from use w i t h N a t i v e c h i l d r e n as " i t has been shown t h a t t h e s e t e s t s do not t r u l y r e f l e c t t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f c h i l d r e n b e l o n g i n g t o m i n o r i t y , e t h n i c o r o t h e r c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d s " ( p . 10). However, b e f o r e any commonly used t e s t s such as t h e WISC-R and the SPM a r e e l i m i n a t e d , t h e y must be s u b j e c t e d t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s . The t e s t s i n and of t h e m s e l v e s may not be at f a u l t but t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s may be s u s p e c t . At t h i s t i m e , N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g a s s e s s e d u s i n g t e s t s normed on a n o n - N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . The WISC-R and SPM, t o the a u t h o r ' s knowledge, have not been normed on a N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . Norming on a N a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n may p e r m i t a f a i r e r c o m p a r i s o n f o r a l l N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t u d y has c o n c e n t r a t e d on j u s t one s m a l l group of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n but more r e s e a r c h w i t h a v a r i e t y of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n i s needed i n o r d e r t o g i v e assessment t o o l s such as the WISC-R and SPM a f a i r chance. I f t h e s e t e s t s , a f t e r r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h a n d : a n a l y s i s , do not prove t o be u s e f u l i n the assessment o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , t h e n and o n l y t h e n can a case be made f o r t h e i r p o s s i b l e e l i m i n a t i o n . 47 A r e a s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h As d i s c u s s e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h e r e i s s t i l l much r e s e a r c h t o be done i n t h e use of the WISC-R and SPM i n the assessment of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The p o s s i b i l i t y of norming such t e s t s on a N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h t h e c o m p i l a t i o n of the r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g a s a m p l i n g o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h o u t B.C. A ' r e p l i c a -t i o n of Holmes' st u d y on a N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n o r d e r t o t e s t Holmes' a s s u m p t i o n on a w i d e r b a s i s . However, i t must f i r s t be e s t a b l i s h e d as t o whether d i f f e r e n t bands of N a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e d i r e c t l y comparable or are norming e n t i t i e s unto t h e m s e l v e s . The use of the SPM as a " c u l t u r e - f a i r " t e s t f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -d r e n s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The Cowichan group appeared t o s c o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower on the SPM w h i c h l e a d s t o q u e s t i o n -i n g t he " c u l t u r e - f a i r n e s s " o f t h e SPM. I f the SPM i s more " f a i r " t h a n the " c u l t u r e - b o u n d " WISC-R, t h e n an a s s u m p t i o n r c o u l d be made t h a t the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n s h o u l d have s c o r e d c l o s e r t o the mean of the B.C. norming group. There were i n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s t o p e r m i t the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s needed t o d e t e r m i n e whether Native-.'Indian c h i l -d ren p e r f o r m c l o s e r t o average on the SPM tha n on the WISC-R. However, such s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s c o u l d be pe r f o r m e d w i t h a l a r g e r sample and some r e f i n e m e n t of t e c h n i q u e . M e r c e r ' s p l u r a l i s t i c assessment model, SOMPA ( 1 9 7 9 ) , has been i n s t i -t u t e d i n some a r e a s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . SOMPA a s s e s s e s t h e c h i l d ' s h e a l t h and p e r p e c t u a l - m o t o r development, a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r i n and out of s c h o o l , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g an e s t i m a t e of l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l . The c h i l d ' s s c o r e s ' i o n the SOMPA are d e r i v e d from the norms o b t a i n e d on c h i l -d r e n of the sample r a c i a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l group. Dr. A r t More and 48 Dr. B u f f O l d r i d g e a t U.B.C. (1980) have recommended t h a t SOMPA be normed on a N a t i v e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. Such a s t u d y may pro v e t o be a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h . F e u e r s t e i n ' s L e a r n i n g P o t e n t i a l Assessment D e v i c e (LPAD) may a l s o be u s e f u l i n the assessment of the l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . F e u e r s t e i n has s u c c e s s f u l l y used h i s LPAD w i t h a number of m i n o r i t y group c h i l d r e n i n I s r a e l , however, d a t a on the use of the LPAD w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a r e needed. The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l -dren i s a n e c e s s a r y a r e a of c u r r e n t and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . P r o f e s s o r G. H a r r y Cannon ( 1 9 8 0 ) , i n a s t u d y of Ahousaht e d u c a t i o n , commissioned by the Ahousaht Band C o u n c i l , p r o v i d e d b o t h a p h i l o s o p h i c a l and p r a c t i c a l framework f o r ex a m i n i n g the c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The i m p o r t a n c e o f the " i n f o r m a l mode of e d u c a t i o n " (Cannon, 1979, p. 9) t h a t i s the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t c h i l d r e n g a i n t h r o u g h p l a y o r home and b r i n g t o s c h o o l i s s t r e s s e d . N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n may not come t o s c h o o l w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t f o r s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l , " t he f o r m a l mode of e d u c a t i o n " (Cannon, 1979, p. 10). However, N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n do come t o s c h o o l w i t h a v a r i e t y of e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t have not been examined i n the r e s e a r c h . I f such e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be tap p e d , more e f f e c t i v e c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g f o r N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n may be p o s s i b l e . P r o f e s s o r Cannon a l s o p l a c e d emphasis on t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g -l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s as t h e y a p p l y t o N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d , i n P r o f e s s o r Cannon's o p i n i o n , draw on t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s of the N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d . " T e a c h i n g , c o n t r a r y t o t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s and p r a c t i c e , s h o u l d adapt i t s e l f t o the l e a r n e r , the l e a r n e r s h o u l d not have t o bow t o p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s f o r t e a c h i n g " ( F a u r e [1972] i n 49 Cannon, 1980, p. A - 6 ) . The work of N a t i v e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s t o " l e t I n d i a n p e o p l e c o n t r o l I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n " ( N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d , 1972, p. 28) has opened up a n o t h e r v a l u a b l e a r e a of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . Programs such as NITEP ( N a t i v e I n d i a n Teacher E d u c a t i o n Program) at U.B.C. and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s c h o o l s i n A l e r t Bay, New A i y a n s h , and o t h e r a r e a s t h a t a r e under the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e a t t e m p t s t o enhance t h e e d u c a t i o n of N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . The s k i l l s of v a r i o u s e d u c a t o r s and p s y c h o l o -g i s t s w i l l be needed i n o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e v a r i o u s programs. Conelus i o n Holmes' a s s u m p t i o n f o r e x c l u d i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n from t h e B.C. norming group s e r v e d as the impetus f o r t h i s t h e s i s and appears t o be s u p p o r t e d from the d a t a p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n . However, f u r t h e r e x p l o r a -t i o n of t h e use of B.C. norms w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n o r t h e d e v e l o p -ment of s p e c i f i c N a t i v e I n d i a n norms f o r the WISC-R and t h e SPM s h o u l d be p u r s u e d . E d u c a t i o n a l l y , almost e v e r y c o n c e i v a b l e e f f o r t has been made t o see to I n d i a n needs e x c e p t l e t t i n g I n d i a n s do i t the m s e l v e s . . . we ca n ' t s h r u g o f f the b a s i c gut f e e l i n g t h a t we are e d u c a t i o n a l l y s t a r v i n g t o d e a t h . ( S t e r l i n g , 1975, p. 14) For y e a r s , the s c h o o l system and p s y c h o l o g i c a l assessment have been imposed, i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , on N a t i v e I n d i a n s . Now N a t i v e I n d i a n s a r e d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n and a r e t r y i n g t o de t e r m i n e how t o i n t e r f a c e t he e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r own c h i l d r e n w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of the p r e s e n t s c h o o l system. A l l who are i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n and assessment o f N a t i v e I n d i a n c h i l d r e n must a g a i n become, i n t he words of J . W. B e r r y ( 1 9 7 1 ) , " l e a r n e r s " ( p . 154) and work s i d e - b y -50 s i d e w i t h N a t i v e I n d i a n p e o p l e s and t o g e t h e r d e c i d e and a s s e s s what i s i m p o r t a n t i n each o t h e r ' s c u l t u r e . U n l e s s a c h i l d l e a r n s about the f o r c e s w h i c h shape him: the h i s t o r y o f h i s p e o p l e , t h e i r v a l u e s and customs, t h e i r language, he w i l l n ever r e a l l y know h i m s e l f or h i s p o t e n t i a l as a human b e i n g . ( N a t i o n a l I n d i a n B r o t h e r h o o d [1972] i n Ashworth, 1979, p. 3) REFERENCE NOTES Most of the i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e Cowichan Band was g a t h e r e d d u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h E r n i e E l l i o t , Band Manager, and o t h e r members of the Cowichan Band C o u n c i l . 52 REFERENCES A n a s t a s i , A. P s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t i n g ( 4 t h ed.) New York: M a c m i l l a n , 1976. Ashworth, M. The f o r c e s w h i c h shaped them. Vancouver, B.C.: New S t a r Books, 1979. B e r r y , J . W. P s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n the n o r t h . A n t h r o p o l o g i c a , 1971, 13, 143-157. B e r s o f f , D. N. P.v. 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N a t i v e I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n i n Support of N a t i v e P e o p l e s B u l l e t i n , 1975, 1_6, 12-14. S w e r d l i k , M. A. D i s c u s s i o n of WISC/WISC-R. Communique ( n e w s l e t t e r of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S c h o o l P s y c h o l o g i s t s ) , June 1977, 5 ( 1 ) . Tho r n b u r g , H. E. (ed.) P r e a d o l e s c e n t development. Tucson, A r i z o n a : The U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a P r e s s , 1974. Vernon, P. E. F i n a l r e p o r t on m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f WISC-R f o r Canadian use. Canadian P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1977, _5(1), 5-7. W e c h s l e r , D. Manual: W e c h s l e r I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n — R e v i s e d . New Yor k : P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974. Wesman, A. G. I n t e l l i g e n t t e s t i n g . A m erican P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1968, 2 3 ( 4 ) , 267-274. West, L. M., & M a c A r t h u r , R. S. An e v a l u a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s f o r two samples of M e t i s and I n d i a n c h i l d r e n . A l b e r t a J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , March 1964, JL0(1), 17-27. 56 APPENDIX A O r i g i n a l Item No. I n f o . 16 B u l b 17 1776 19 Border. 21 C h i l e 24 T a l l 27 LA/NY Canadian S u b s t i t u t i o n Items f o r t h e WISC-R A c c e p t a b l e Answers Subst i t u t i o n Who i n v e n t e d the t e l e p h o n e ? From w h i c h c o u n t r y d i d most of the f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n Canada come ? Name t h r e e oceans t h a t b o r d e r Canada I n what c o n t i n e n t i s Sweden? How t a l l i s t h e average Canadian man? How f a r i s i t from T o r o n t o t o Vancouver? B e l l , o r Graham B e l l E n g l a n d , B r i t a i n , S c o t l a n d , o r France A c c e p t A r c t i c and e i t h e r A t l a n t i c o r P a c i f i c , o r b o t h Europe 5 ' 7 " - 5 ' l l " o r 170-180 c e n t i m e t r e s 1700-2700 m i l e s , or 2700-4300 k i l o m e t r e s Comp. 17 S e n a t o r s S u b s t i t u t e : Members of P a r l i a m e n t f o r S e n a t o r s and Congressmen Same s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a as i n Manual Appendix B L e t t e r of P a r e n t a l Consent 

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