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Graphic communications education, art or technology? : a curriculum materials resource guide Scurr, Peter Grant 1981

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GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS EDUCATION: ART OR TECHNOLOGY? B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of V i s u a l and Performing A r t s i n Education F a c u l t y of Education A CURRICULUM MATERIALS RESOURCE GUIDE by GRANT SCURR We accept t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f i r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMIBA September 1981 ©Peter Grant Scurr, 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . P e t e r S c u r r Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s i n E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date Augu s t 1981 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT Graphic communications courses are being taught i n the prov-ince of B r i t i s h Columbia without o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n from the M i n i s t r y of Education. As a r e s u l t development of graphic communication programs has been s p o r a d i c and independent. Although the M i n i s t r y of Education does not o f f i c i a l l y r e c -ognize Graphic Communications, they do p r o v i d e funds f o r equipment and f a c i l i t i e s . Graphic communications or graphic a r t s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y accepted as a component of i n d u s t r i a l e d ucation. Without o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n by the M i n i s t r y of Education and the F a c u l t i e s of Education, there i s no teacher t r a i n i n g i n graphic communications a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Thus educators i n v o l v e d with g r a p h i c communication courses have d i v e r s e backgrounds and have been t r a i n e d i n e i t h e r a r t , i n d u s t r i a l e ducation or business e d u c a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m development has r e f l e c t e d t h i s d i v e r s i t y of experience and background. This t h e s i s p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d because of the f o l l o w i n g d i s c r e p e n c i e s . There are no p r e s c r i b e d courses of study but s e v e n t y - f i v e programs e x i s t throughout the p r o v i n c e . There are no p r o v i n c i a l teacher t r a i n i n g programs but teachers are a u t h o r i z e d to o f f e r g r aphic communications courses. There are no p r o v i n c i a l l y prepared resource m a t e r i a l s but c u r r i c u l u m guides are a v a i l a b l e i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s t h e s i s i s to assemble resource m a t e r i a l f o r graphic communications education and to propose a r a t i o n a l e f o r the development of a program of s t u d i e s recognized by the M i n i s t r y of Education. Graphic communications i s a component of v i s u a l communications that i n t e g r a t e s concepts from both a r t e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s blend of a r t and technology can provide a p h i l o s o p h i c a l base f o r program d e v e l -opment. The i n t e r f a c e of p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n with machine manipulation i s the basis f o r p r e p a r i n g graphic m a t e r i a l s . The review of graphic communications c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s was i n i t i a t e d to determine the e x i s t e n c e and a v a i l a b i l i t y of p r e -pared m a t e r i a l s . The research was conducted over a twelve month p e r i o d and c o n s i s t e d of correspondence with every s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l education agency i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . The c o l l e c t i o n represents the present s t a t u s of c u r r i c u l u m development and pro v i d e s numerous examples of c u r r i c u l u m s t r a t e g i e s . An emphasis on motor s k i l l development was e v i d e n t i n the c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s . Graphic communica-t i o n s i s an i n t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y course of s t u d i e s and program development should r e f l e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p of imagery and technology. Personal e x p r e s s i o n and s k i l l development are components needed to prepare and produce graphic m a t e r i a l . T h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l blend of concepts from a r t and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n can provide the impetus to promote the i n t e g r a t i o n of imagery and technology inherent i n graphic communications ed u c a t i o n . i v Table of Contents Page ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i Chapter I . INTRODUCTION - 1 The impact of Graphic Communications on our s o c i e t y 1 The need to prepare c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s 3 The d i s c o v e r y of e x i s t i n g resource m a t e r i a l s 4 The i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t and graphic communications 5 I I . AN ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL - THE DEFINITION OF TERMS 7 Communication 7 A r t 9 I n d u s t r i a l Education 9 V i s u a l Communication 10 Graphic communication 11 Competency-based I n s t r u c t i o n . . . 12 Performance O b j e c t i v e s 13 Ex p r e s s i v e O b j e c t i v e s 13 Imagery/technology 13 I I I . THE RELATIONSHIP OF FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT AND TEACHER TRAINING TO PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . . . .17 F a c i l i t i e s and Equipment 17 Teacher T r a i n i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia 19 The V i s u a l Communications Education Program . . . .20 (VICOED) V Chapter IV. THE IMPLICATIONS OF CAREER PREPARATION ON GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT 23 What i s Career P r e p a r a t i o n ? 23 Advanced Standing i n A r t / G r a p h i c Communication. . .24 I n t e g r a t i o n of V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g and Comprehensive Education 26 V. THE REVIEW OF EXISTING GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIAL 28 A v a i l a b i l i t y of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s 28 The c u r r i c u l u m review sheet - an e x p l a n a t i o n of terms 29 Canadian guides 33 American guides 54 VI. ART AND TECHOLOGY - THE POTENTIAL FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 210 Present s t a t u s of the p r o v i n c i a l a r t resource guide 210 The 1972 Graphic Communications p r o p o s a l 211 Graphic Communication as an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y program 211 Program Development - a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t . . . 214 VII . CONCLUSIONS 218 REFERENCE NOTES 226 REFERENCES 227 APPENDICES A - I n i t i a l request l e t t e r 230 B - Respondents 232 C - B i b l i o g r a p h y of reviewed c u r r i c u l u m guides . 241 v i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1. Diagram o f G r a p h i c Communications o r g a n i z a t i o n model 8 V l l ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The m a t e r i a l reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s represents the work and e f f o r t of numerous graphic communications educators throughout the United S t a t e s and Canada. I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to them as w e l l as the many department o f f i c i a l s who d i l i g e n t l y responded to my request f o r c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . The f i n a n c i a l support p r o v i d e d by School D i s t r i c t #37 (Delta) t o f a c i l i t a t e purchase of many of these programs was a p p r e c i a t e d . My g r a t i t u d e i s extended to my t h e s i s committee f o r t h e i r encouragement and ad v i c e . I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank Dr. Graeme Chalmers f o r h i s i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of p r o v i n c i a l c u r r i c u l u m development and Dr. Lome Koroluk f o r h i s help i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and t e c h n i c a l competence. My g r a t i t u d e and a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed to my wi f e , J e n n i f e r , f o r her p a t i e n c e , support and reassurance throughout the development of t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 INTRODUCTION The Impact of Graphic Communications on our S o c i e t y Today's s o c i e t y i s being moulded and a f f e c t e d by the gr a p h i c image. Whether a screen p r i n t e d T - s h i r t or a web p r i n t e d newspaper the impact of the p r i n t e d image t o t a l l y surrounds us. This d a i l y i n f l u e n c e i s the impetus f o r d e v e l -oping and p r e p a r i n g c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r secondary students. Graphic communications education cannot be i s o l a t e d i n t o any one p a r t i c u l a r d i s c i p l i n e . Rather i t i n c o r p o r a t e s ideas and concepts from many f i e l d s of study. The blend between what i s p r i n t e d and how i t i s p r i n t e d i n d i c a t e s the need to develop programs of study that d e a l with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between graphic design and i n d u s t r i a l technology. This blend, or c r o s s o v e r between d i s c i p l i n e s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c t h a t must be considered i n p r e p a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , because without r e c o g n i z i n g t h i s blend the o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p and impact of graphic communications i n our s o c i e t y may not be f u l l y r e a l i z e d . I t i s important to have i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs to help develop awareness i n our secondary students of the impact of graphic communication i n today's s o c i e t y . Another p o i n t , 2 e q u a l l y as s i g n i f i c a n t , i s that of p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students to l e a r n entry l e v e l job s k i l l s . The t h i r d l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y i n North America (Ecksten, Note 1), p r i n t i n g - g r a p h i c communications, i s c o n t i n u i n g to grow and expand. This expansion i s due i n p a r t to a c o n s t a n t l y changing technology - a technology that reduces the number of workers while at the same time a l l o w i n g p r o d u c t i o n to i n c r e a s e . In s p i t e of t h i s r e d u c t i o n , the p r o j e c t i o n s f o r employment i n the i n d u s t r y are good ( E l d r e d , 1981). Graphic communications, an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y course of s t u d i e s , must be d i r e c t e d toward p r o v i d i n g an awareness of the s o c i a l impact of imagery as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s t o prepare students f o r entry i n t o the work f o r c e . Divergent as imagery development and i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l s may seem, c u r r i c u -lum design i n graphic communications must encourage the u n i t y between what i s planned and how i t i s produced ( I n s t i t u t e of P r i n t i n g , 1981). The 1965 a r t c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r B r i t i s h Columbia i s p r e s e n t l y under r e v i s i o n and a proposed guide f o r g r a p h i c communications has never been accepted by the M i n i s t r y of Education. Although the a r t guide was prepared f i f t e e n years ago, and the proposed guide has not been r a t i f i e d , student enrollment i n both a r t and graphic communications courses has been i n c r e a s i n g (Hodder, Note 2). 3 The need to prepare cuuriculum m a t e r i a l s C u r r i c u l u m design r e s u l t s i n a s e r i e s of planned and prepared a c t i v i t i e s ( E i s n e r , 1972) whether developed by a governing body such as the M i n i s t r y of Education or by an i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r . These a c t i v i t i e s should be l i n k e d to p r o v i d e the student with the o p p o r t u n i t y to achieve c e r t a i n g o a l s . An advantage of independent c u r r i c u l u m development i s that i t may p r o v i d e the students and i n s t r u c t o r with f l e x i b i l -i t y i n determining l e a r n i n g outcomes. With t o t a l f l e x i b i l i t y i n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g the a c t i v i t i e s prepared w i l l vary between programs. The v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g outcomes p r e s c r i b e d f o r a s i m i l a r course i n d i f f e r e n t areas of the p r o v i n c e i s not congruent with present M i n i s t r y t r e n d s . The M i n i s t r y d u r i n g the past ten years has a u t h o r i z e d numerous c u r r i c u l u m guides i n v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s that i n d i c a t e a d e s i r e to e s t a b l i s h l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r courses taught throughout the p r o v i n c e . A c u r r i -culum guide i s not intended to r e s t r i c t t eaching but r a t h e r to p r o v i d e a base f o r e x p l o r a t i o n that encourages i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h i n g techniques and p h i l o s o p h i e s , while c o n t i n u i n g to p r o v i d e a degree of c o n s i s t e n c y between programs i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o ols and s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . (Graphic Communications, Iowa, 1978; A r t Guide K-12, J e f f e r s o n County, 1973; K i l l e e n & Ornes, 1979) I n s t r u c t i o n i n graphic communications expanded i n the p r o v i n c e during the mid s i x t i e s with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the 4 V i s u a l Communications Education program i n the Vancouver s c h o o l system. V i s u a l Communications Education (VICOED) was developed i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the Ford Foundation and Western Washington State U n i v e r s i t y as a program to u n i f y secondary s c h o o l i n s t r u c t i o n i n f i l m , t e l e v i s i o n , photography, and p r i n t i n g . The program i n subsequent years has not r e t a i n e d the o v e r a l l philosophy of u n i f i c a t i o n of those areas but has d i s i n t e g r a t e d to emphasize one or two p a r t i c u l a r areas contained i n the o r i g i n a l concept. Along with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of VICOED i n t o the Vancouver s c h o o l system other d i s t r i c t s throughout the p r o v i n c e pur-chased equipment and proceeded to o f f e r courses i n p r i n t i n g , photography, f i l m and t e l e v i s i o n . The expansion of courses i n d i c a t e d support from the M i n i s t r y because they were i n f a c t a l l o c a t i n g the necessary c a p i t a l funds to f i n a n c e purchase of equipment and m o d i f i c a t i o n s to f a c i l i t i e s . The M i n i s t r y , aware of the growth of graphic communica-t i o n s programs, i n i t i a t e d a c u r r i c u l u m panel to e s t a b l i s h a p r e s c r i b e d s e t of o b j e c t i v e s to be taught i n the p r o v i n c e . That was i n 1974 and the r e p o r t i s s t i l l pending! The d i s c o v e r y of e x i s t i n g resource m a t e r i a l s This t h e s i s was i n i t i a t e d because of t h i s author's concern f o r the apparent lack of p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s 5 and p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i r e c t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l graphic communica-t i o n s education. Through d i s c u s s i o n with v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t o r s there became e v i d e n t , a need f o r a study of the e x i s t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n t h i s f i e l d . Thus graphic communi-c a t i o n s e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s from o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e were l o c a t e d and analysed. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d correspondence with every s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l education a u t h o r i t y i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n uncovered a vast array of prepared i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . The assembly of a c o l l e c t i o n not only c r e a t e d a wealth of m a t e r i a l but i l l u s t r a t e d a number of p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i r e c t i o n s graphic communications education can pursue. The guides range from f u n c t i o n a l o u t l i n e s to com-prehensive i n s t r u c t i o n a l packages c o n t a i n i n g broad o v e r a l l statements to s p e c i f i c task a n a l y s e s . The t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n r epresents the present s t a t e of c u r r i c u l u m development i n many areas of both Canada and the United S t a t e s . These e s t a b l i s h e d programs s t i m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s and answers about the c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n i n g r a p h i c communications i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t and graphic communications A r t and graphic communications education cannot ated, the o v e r l a p of m a t e r i a l s , ideas and techiques be separ-i s obvious. 6 The o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s t o p r e p a r e a course of s t u d i e s f o r secondary s t u d e n t s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h a t would encourage and s t i m u l a t e the s t u d e n t s ' d e s i r e f o r r e l e v a n t v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g e n t r y l e v e l s k i l l s i n t o the g r a p h i c communications i n d u s t r y . The e x t e n t t o which the union i s encouraged w i l l be the r e s u l t of c a r e f u l , method-i c a l p l a n n i n g and i n v o l v e a p r o c e s s t h a t r e q u i r e s i n p u t from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s t o a l l o w f o r maximum c u r r i c u l u m f l e x i b i l i t y . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t based on the s u r v e y of e x i s t i n g c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l perhaps s t i m u l a t e c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h and p l a n n i n g of a comprehensive v i s u a l communications program t h a t h o p e f u l l y w i l l u n i f y a r t and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n programs throughout the p r o v i n c e . 7 CHAPTER II An O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Model - A D e f i n i t i o n of Terms V i s u a l communications, graphic a r t s , g r a phic communica- t i o n s , and graphic design are a l l terms that are used so f r e q u e n t l y that perhaps they have become too meaningful, that i s they have too many d i f f e r e n t meaning (Tubbs and Moss, c 1977). Agreeing on a working d e f i n i t i o n i s the f i r s t step i n understanding and demonstrating the i n t e n t and scope of these terms. Deciding what should be taught and how i t should be taught ( B o b b i t t , 1924; T y l e r , 1950) i s a c o n t i n u i n g problem f o r c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s , a problem compounded i n t h i s f i e l d by the many v a r i o u s terms used to d e s c r i b e the s u b j e c t matter. The model i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 1 w i l l provide a basis f o r a working d e f i n i t i o n . I t w i l l demonstrate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between image design and t e c h n i c a l competence i n the develop-ment and completion of a two dimensional product. Communication has been d e f i n e d as "the process of c r e a t i n g a meaning between two or more people" (Tubbs & Moss, 1977, p. 6.), a meaning which can be manifested v e r b a l l y or v i s u -a l l y . The proposed model i s not intended to be the " r i g h t model" but r a t h e r a u s e f u l model. I t w i l l emphasize, i n an 9 attempt to c l a r i f y a working d e f i n i t i o n and p e r s p e c t i v e of the terms and concepts used i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s f i e l d , the v i s u a l component of communication. A r t has been d e f i n e d as: A l l those human made things that are done p u r p o s e f u l l y , with some attempt to e i t h e r e n r i c h the message... or done with some attempt to enhance the o b j e c t or s t r u c t u r e . . . or done p u r p o s e f u l l y to a f f e c t a q u a l i t i v e and content awareness i n the viewer.... The premise i s that a l l forms of a r t communicate q u a l i t i e s and ide a s , but they d i f f e r i n t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . (Degge, 1980, p. 5) The V o c a t i o n a l Education Act, 1976 c i t e d i n Vermont•Guide, 1979, p. xx d e f i n e d i n d u s t r i a l education as: Those educ a t i o n programs: a. Which p e r t a i n to the body of r e l a t e d s u b j e c t matter, or r e l a t e d courses, organized f o r the development of understanding about a l l aspects of i n d u s t r y and technology, i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g experiences i n v o l v i n g such a c t i v i t i e s as experimenting, d e s i g n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i n g , e v a l u a t i n g and using t o o l s , machines, m a t e r i a l s , and pr o c e s s e s . Based on these d e f i n i t i o n s graphic communications programs cou l d be e s t a b l i s h e d under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of e i t h e r a r t or i n d u s t r i a l e ducation. However, i t i s t h i s author's c o n t e n t i o n that graphic communications should not be r i g i d l y attached to 10 e i t h e r s u b j e c t area, because a graphic product cannot be r e a l i z e d without a purpose or an understanding of technology. The development of the model i s based on the d e f i n i t i o n of v i s u a l communication as: "the process of t r a n s m i t t i n g i d e a s , thoughts, or concepts from one person to another through a s t i m u l u s p e r c e i v e d by the sense of s i g h t . " ( V i s u a l Communi-c a t i o n s , CBIE, 1974, p. 3) This encompasses both a r t and i n d u s t r i a l education because the thoughts, ideas, and concepts purposely conceived to e n r i c h a message are manifested through a stimulus produced with an understanding of technology and the use of t o o l s , machines, m a t e r i a l s , and p r o c e s s e s . The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s that a r t programs w i l l emphasize v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education, Note 3) and r e s p e c t technique as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the pro-cess while i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n programs w i l l emphasize the physchomotor a c t i v i t i e s of t e c h n i c a l manipulation while r e s p e c t i n g the process of design or image development. This author's model w i l l allow f o r d i f f e r e n t emphasis i n the type and s t y l e of the completed p r o j e c t , while demonstrating the r e l a t i o n s h i p of technology and image development inherent i n the d e f i n i t i o n of a r t and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . A concept or idea of a product should be e s t a b l i s h e d before communication between two or more people can o c c u r . However because of the d i f f e r e n t emphasis p l a c e d upon 11 a c t i v i t i e s t o encourage d e s i g n awareness, problem s o l v i n g p r o c e s s e s , and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l s i n a r t and i n d u s -t r i a l e d u c a t i o n the c o n c e p t i o n -and c o m p l e t i o n of a p r o d u c t may be d i f f e r e n t . A l t h o u g h the p r o d u c t or p r o d u c t s may be mani-f e s t e d d i f f e r e n t l y both areas depend on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g or an awareness of both image and t e c h n i q u e t o e s t a b l i s h a s t i m u l u s which may be p e r c e i v e d by two or more p e o p l e . C u r r i c u l u m i n any s u b j e c t area i s a s e r i e s of plann e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t s t i m u l a t e a beh a v i o u r change ( E i s n e r , 1972). As the model suggests a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s e x i s t s between a r t and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the methods and outcomes emphasized are d i f f e r e n t , t h i s a u t h o r contends t h a t g i v e n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e s the u n i o n between image d e s i g n and t e c h n i c a l competencies c o u l d be developed and encouraged i n g r a p h i c communications c u r r i c u l a . G r a p h i c communications may be d e f i n e d as a medium t h a t blends a r t and i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by the Iowa  Guide f o r C u r r i c u l u m Improvement, t h a t d e f i n e s g r a p h i c communications as: an a r e a of study i n v o l v i n g p e r s o n n e l , systems and t e c h -niques i n communicating i d e a s , knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c i n g of i n d u s t r i a l goods. G r a p h i c communications encompasses a l l of the c o n t e n t of d r a f t i n g , d e s i g n , p r i n t i n g , photography and g r a p h i c a r t s , 12 as w e l l as other graphic r e p r o d u c t i o n processes used by business and i n d u s t r y . (1975, p. 21) However, the d i f f e r e n c e between these two areas i s a l s o the p o i n t where the blend occurs - the determination of i n s t r u c -t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . I n d u s t r i a l education l i t e r a t u r e emphasizes competency based i n s t r u c t i o n . Competency based i n s t r u c t i o n has been d e f i n e d as: I n s t r u c t i o n which, when p r o p e r l y designed and a p p l i e d , r e s u l t s i n the l e a r n e r ' s demonstration of c e r t a i n a b i l -i t i e s . The d e s i r e d a b i l i t i e s are s e l e c t e d before the i n s t r u c t i o n i s designed and are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as observable performance o b j e c t i v e s . . . the a b i l i t i e s are p r i m a r i l y psychomotor.... This type of i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e f e r r e d to as competency-based i n s t r u c t i o n . (Performance O b j e c t i v e s f o r P r i n t i n g Occupations, 1978, p. 4) This i s i n c o n t r a s t with the a r t education l i t e r a t u r e where, f o r example E i s n e r (1972) contends "In the teaching of a r t r e l a t i v e l y seldom do teachers want a s p e c i f i c or h i g h l y p r e d i c t a b l e performance from the student. What i s o f t e n hoped f o r i s that the student w i l l c o nfer h i s p r i v a t e and imaginative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n upon some m a t e r i a l . " (p. 155) However E i s n e r (1972) a l s o i n d i c a t e s that h i s d e f i n i t i o n of e x p r e s s i v e o b j e c -t i v e s "does not d e s c r i b e the behaviour or product a student i s to d i s p l a y or c o n s t r u c t , r a t h e r i t d e s c r i b e s an encounter the 13 student i s to have", (p. 156) That " i n the c r e a t i o n of a r t forms, there i s no s i n g l e c o r r e c t answer, e x p r e s s i v e o b j e c t i v e s are used to compliment, not to r e p l a c e the concept i n s t r u c t i o n -a l o b j e c t i v e . " ( E i s n e r , 1972, p. 155) This author contends that the blend between performance  based o b j e c t i v e s "a statement i n p r e c i s e , measurable terms of a p a r t i c u l a r behaviour to be e x h i b i t e d by the l e a r n e r under s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s " (Performance O b j e c t i v e s f o r P r i n t i n g Occupations, 1978, p. 4) and e x p r e s s i v e o b j e c t i v e s ( E i s n e r , 1972) i n the development of a graphic communications program would encourage a wider understanding of the i n t e g r a t i o n of technique and imagery i n the p r o d u c t i o n of v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s and the subsequent impact of these products on our s o c i e t y . Imagery/technology The m a j o r i t y of c u r r i c u l u m guides reviewed i n a f o l l o w i n g chapter are based on performance o b j e c t i v e s and are t h e r e f o r e competency based programs. There are i n d i c a t i o n s however that i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l competency i s only a p a r t of graphic communications education. Adams and Faux (1977) i n P r i n t i n g Technology - a Medium of V i s u a l Communications s t a t e : " p r i n t i n g educators have r e a l i z e d that the i n d u s t r y i s much l a r g e r than any p a r t i c u l a r process of p r o d u c t i o n . A technology i s not learned by examining only the t o o l s or m a t e r i a l . A 14 technology i s mastered by understanding the concepts." (p. 13) and Armin Hoffman (1965) i n Graphic Design Manual i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n c r e a s e d use of the machines w i l l a l t e r the s k i l l s a person i n t h i s i n d u s t r y w i l l need: In recent years i n d u s t r a l i z a t i o n and automation have meant that a number of craftsmen who used to p l a y an important r o l e i n the f i e l d of a p p l i e d a r t have now been deprived of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s of c r e a t i o n and design or even that the c r a f t s have gone out of e x i s t e n c e . There are signs t h a t , besides the l i t h o g r a p h e r , process engraver, and engraver, not to mention the s i g n w r i t e r , c a b i n e t maker, a r t metal worker, e t c . other t y p i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the a p p l i e d a r t s group, such as the compositor and l e t t e r - p r e s s p r i n t e r , w i l l be overtaken by mechanization. The changes w i t h i n these t r a d e s , or even t h e i r disappearance, have given r i s e to a new s i t u a t i o n . The c r e a t i v e s i d e of the trades mentioned has now been l a r g e l y handed over to the d e s i g n e r and the mechanical s i d e i n c r e a s i n g l y to the machine. This r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n the s t r u c t u r e of the a p p l i e d a r t s means that the designer today must combine a knowledge of photography, i n d u s t r i a l design, typography, drawing s p a t i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , r e p r o d u c t i o n techniques, e t c . (p. 10). 15 Adams & Faux (1977) and Hoffman (1965) i n d i c a t e that t r a i n i n g based s o l e l y on the mastery of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s may not prepare the student f o r the demands of i n d u s t r y . If competency " . . . i n f e r s not only the t e c h n i c a l or mechanical aspects i n v o l v e d , but a l s o the unique s t y l i z a t i o n which brings a e s t h e t i c p l e a s u r e to both the a r t i s t and the viewer." (Brough, 1979, p. 18) I t i s then p o s s i b l e that programs being developed c o u l d r e f u t e the obs e r v a t i o n s of S i e g e l (1978) on graphic communications Too many graduates that I see are the r e s u l t of very s t e r i l e s i t u a t i o n s . They're given s t e r i l e problems t o s o l v e and of course come up with s t e r i l e s o l u t i o n s . T h e i r p o r t f o l i o s are over e d i t e d and a l l the good s t u f f , the guts taken out. There's no spo n t a n e i t y , there's no emo-t i o n a l c o n t a c t , no content, no humour, no w i t , no indepth knowledge of typography, no experimentation with c o l o u r , no warmth and r i c h n e s s , (p. 80) U t i l i z i n g m a t e r i a l s that already e x i s t , programs i n graphic communications that would recognize the sp o n t a n e i t y , emotion and experimentation i d e n t i f i e d by S p e i g e l could be encouraged by blending a r t which Chapman (1978) d e f i n e s "as a dynamic, m u l t i f a c e t e d e n t e r p r i s e . . . i t means g i v i n g form to f e e l i n g s and ide a s , and of e n r i c h i n g our v i s i o n of the world." 16 (p.v.) and i n d u s t r i a l education defined in the Iowa Curriculum  Guide (1975) "as a f i e l d wherein students acquire i n d u s t r i a l -technical knowledge and competencies through creative and problem solving learning experiences involving such a c t i v i t i e s as experimenting, planning, designing constructing and evalu-ating." (p. 10) This would allow students to develop ideas and prepare materials that demonstrate an understanding of the v i s u a l communication process and that would be relevant to the needs of industry. 17 CHAPTER I I I The R e l a t i o n s h i p of F a c i l i t i e s , Equipment and  Teacher T r a i n i n g to Program Development F a c i l i t i e s and equipment Cur r i c u l u m implementation depends on a number of f a c t o r s f o r s u c c e s s f u l acceptance and usage w i t h i n any s c h o o l system. Many of the f a c t o r s are i n t a n g i b l e . They d e a l with the motiva-t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l teachers to rearrange and r e i n t e r p r e t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s and go a l s , and i n c o r p o r a t e new l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . However two f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l c u r r i c u l u m change that can have a major impact on the eventual outcomes are f a c i l i t i e s and equipment. The f a c i l i t i e s and equipment f o r any program are important, but f o r a gr a p h i c communications course they can have a c o n s i d -e r a b l e e f f e c t . Without a reasonable v a r i e t y of s p e c i a l i z e d equipment and f a c i l i t i e s i n which to house i t , a graphic a r t s program w i l l not be able to operate. The impact on program development and implementation by f a c i l i t i e s and equipment i s s i g n i f i c a n t . But from recent developments i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , there appears to be l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p by the M i n i s t r y of Education. In r e s p e c t to graphic communications programs the M i n i s t r y has 18 not prepared any g u i d e l i n e s f o r f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, or c u r r i c u l u m , but f i n a n c i n g i s a v a i l a b l e f o r c a p i t a l expenditure f o r equipment! Major funding f o r equipment i s a v a i l a b l e through a c a p i t a l s h a r i n g program between the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and the M i n i s t r y . Many sch o o l d i s t r i c t s throughout the prov-ince have taken advantage of t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to equip graphic communications f a c i l i t i e s . However, without g u i d e l i n e s from the M i n i s t r y purchases made with that funding vary enormously, not only between d i s t r i c t s , but between i n d i v i d u a l s c hools w i t h i n d i s t r i c t s . With such i n c o n s i s t e n c y and l a c k of guidance i n purchasing, there has been a tremendous v a r i e t y of equipment i n s t a l l e d i n the classrooms of a few v o c a l t e a c h e r s . The s u c c e s s f u l attainment of goals and o b j e c t i v e s i n a graphic communications program depends l a r g e l y on the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of equipment. Therefore p r i o r to equipment purchases there should be a statement of goals and o b j e c t i v e s . Numerous statements both formal and i n f o r m a l have been prepared i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i c t s to s u b s t a n t i a t e the s e l e c t i o n and purchase of equipment. These statements are based on the knowledge, background and e x p e r t i s e of each i n s t r u c t o r , and they r e f l e c t the philosophy of each i n s t r u c t o r , r a t h e r than a s t a n d a r d i z e d g u i d e l i n e . However important f l e x i b i l i t y i s i n c u r r i c u l u m design graphic communications programs have d e v e l -oped i n a s p o r a d i c and d i v e r g e n t manner that hinder the f u r t h e r 19 development of graphics communications education in B.C. The programs r e f l e c t great variations in the blend of the technical with the a r t i s t i c , so inherent in graphic communications. Teacher training in B r i t i s h Columbia Graphic communications is a subject presently being taught in the secondary schools of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, for the student beginning teacher training there are many roadblocks A student cannot receive the necessary courses required to be a q u a l i f i e d graphic arts teacher at any post secondary i n s t i t u -tion in B r i t i s h Columbia. The only avenue open is to qu a l i f y for a B r i t i s h Columbia teaching c e r t i f i c a t e with a specialty in an a l l i e d f i e l d such as Art, Industrial Education, or Business Education. With a BC c e r t i f i c a t e , in conjunction with an interest in graphic arts, the applicant may be able to locate a teaching position. The major teaching training i n s t i t u t i o n s in the province seem to understand, and many subjects related to graphic com-munications are being taught. But the u n i v e r s i t i e s ' programs are not designed to of f e r a major in the s p e c i f i c area of graphic communication education. Without a concentration of post secondary courses, the student is obligated to el e c t course offerings from various departments in an attempt to become a q u a l i f i e d graphic communications instructor. 20 The major university education f a c u l t i e s do o f f e r photo-graphy, fi l m , and t e l e v i s i o n courses, but the emphasis is not necessarily on technique and expression but rather on the use of media as a tool for educational i n s t r u c t i o n . This objective is c e r t a i n l y v a l i d , but in the context of preparing future educators to teach graphic communications courses in school, the emphasis must be d i f f e r e n t . The Visual Communication Education (VICOED) program Western Washington State University at Bellingham is the nearest i n s t i t u t i o n offering a comprehensive program for the aspiring teacher in graphic communications. The Visual Communications Education (VICOED) program prepares the student to become q u a l i f i e d in graphic arts subjects. This training enables the prospective teacher to qua l i f y for a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e in the s p e c i f i c f i e l d of graphic arts education. The p o s s i b i l i t y to concentrate in graphic arts in B r i t i s h Columbia instead of an a l l i e d f i e l d would be advantageous rather than s p e c i a l i z i n g after university graduation. During the mid s i x t i e s , when the Vancouver School Board expanded their course offerings in graphc arts, many of their instructors received upgrading at the then c a l l e d Western Washington State College. The College, Vancouver School Board and the Ford Foundation cooperated to finance the training of 21 teachers and the implementation of the i n n o v a t i v e VICOED program. I n s t r u c t o r s from B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington, Oregon and Hawaii were i n v o l v e d i n three summer s e s s i o n s d e a l i n g with the new program. According to the d i r e c t o r W. Schwalm, ( c i t e d i n King, 1980) the t r a i n i n g program was very s u c c e s s f u l . How-ever the momentum s t a r t e d at Western Washington State C o l l e g e a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new program began to wane. The lack of a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i n g prevented the next step i n t h e i r program from being r e a l i z e d - a high s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . Without a f o r m a l i z e d c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r secondary students, a l l the i n s t r u c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the program implemented d i f -f e r e n t v e r s i o n s of t h e i r own c u r r i c u l a r experiences at Western Washington State Colege. P r e s e n t l y many of the programs developed by the American i n s t r u c t o r s have been so modified and subsequently changed that there i s l i t t l e resemblence to the o v e r a l l VICOED concept. In the Vancouver system, a s i m i l a r change has oc c u r r e d . With the i n e v i t a b l e changes i n s t a f f and the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of time t a b l e s many of the o r i g i n a l Ford Foundation-VICOED i n s t r u c t o r s are no longer i n v o l v e d with graphic a r t s e d u c a t i o n . Therefore, the programs and the system have come f u l l c i r c l e , back to the beginning with programs being taught without the b e n e f i t of t r a i n e d personnel and without a set of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s . 22 F i f t e e n years l a t e r , some of the programs are r e t u r n i n g to the ideas and concepts developed at Western Washington. However, without a c o n s c i e n t i o u s e f f o r t by the M i n i s t r y of Education and the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n (BCTF), w i l l the i n s t r u c t o r s r e f l e c t on the nature of t h e i r courses i n response to the a s p i r a t i o n s of t h e i r students and s o c i e t y ? T e c h n o l o g i c a l change, e s p e c i a l l y as i t a f f e c t s the graphic a r t s i n d u s t r y w i l l make many of the processes and s k i l l s that are being taught o b s o l e t e before the student graduates from second-ary s c h o o l . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to prepare an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r review and c o o r d i n a t i o n of graphic communications i n s t r u c t i o n . 23 CHAPTER IV The I m p l i c a t i o n s of Career P r e p a r a t i o n on  Graphic Communications Program Development The present trend i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s to provide students with a c l u s t e r of courses to l e a r n g e n e r i c s k i l l s -s k i l l s which can be a p p l i e d to a number of d i f f e r e n t occup-a t i o n s . ( C r i e s e , Note 4) The a c q u i s i t i o n of c l u s t e r s of g e n e r i c s k i l l s w i l l h o p e f u l l y allow the p o s s i b l e d i r e c t entry i n t o the i n d u s t r y or provide advanced standing i n a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . The M i n i s t r y of Education has l a b e l l e d t h i s concept of c l u s t e r i n g as Career P r e p a r a t i o n . However the p o l i c y governing the i n t r o d u c t i o n and c o n t i n u a t i o n of these programs i s again under r e v i s i o n . Therefore i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h p r e c i s e g u i d e l i n e s from which to develop p r o p o s a l s and submissions. With t h i s lack of a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y many program concepts may never be d i s c u s s e d or presented. E r r a t i c p o l i c y s h i f t s may a l s o p l a c e many p r e s e n t l y funded programs i n a p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n . If the M i n i s t r y i s i n t e n t on p r o v i d i n g a c l u s t e r of courses that encourages advance t r a i n i n g i n a s p e c i f i c f i e l d , then f i r m p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s must be p u b l i s h e d . Career p r e p a r a t i o n i s based on a p o l i c y s t a t e d i n the 1977 I n d u s t r i a l Education Guide t h a t allows f o r the development of courses with advanced s t a n d i n g : 24 These programs may only be o f f e r e d with the M i n i s t r y of Education approval. They are designed f o r students wishing to spend f i f t y percent of t h e i r time i n a p a r t i c u l a r sub-j e c t area, such as automotive, car p e n t r y , machine shop, e t a l . . . The c u r r i c u l u m o u t l i n e s to be used f o r programs f o r P a r t i c u l a r Occupations (advanced s t u d i e s ) should be those used i n the f i r s t stage of the a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i a l t y i n a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n , (p. 17) From these statements, the M i n i s t r y has modified i t s p o l i c y to become more s p e c i f i c as to number of courses, q u a l i f i c a t i o n of i n s t r u c t o r s , number of hours necessary, and number of students necessary to q u a l i f y f o r funding. However during the past two years the requirements have been c o n s t a n t l y changing. T h i s c o n t i n u a l f l e x i b i l i t y i n requirements f o r program q u a l i f i -c a t i o n , has presented d i f f i c u l t i e s not only f o r e s t a b l i s h e d c a r e e r areas, but a l s o f o r other areas that the M i n i s t r y has not recognized as p o t e n t i a l Career P r e p a r a t i o n s u b j e c t s . Advanced standing i n A r t / G r a p h i c Communications In t h i s author's view the concept of Career P r e p a r a t i o n i s a v a l i d and important step i n the development of e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The i n t e n t i o n of i n t r o d u c i n g an advanced standing i n v a r i o u s areas, i n c o n j u n c t i o n with m a i n t a i n i n g the concept of comprehensive secondary s c h o o l s , allows the maximum number of students the o p p o r t u n i t y to 25 expl o r e c a r e e r areas as w e l l as to l e a r n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . However the philosophy of Career P r e p a r a t i o n should not be r e s t r i c t e d to j u s t t e c h n i c a l , motor s k i l l development. U n f o r t u n a t e l y the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s emphasis i s already apparent by the nature of two requirements f o r M i n i s t r y a p p r o v a l : (1) the i n s t r u c t o r must have acceptable trade experience and (2) the program must share a common c u r r i c u l u m t h a t w i l l a r t i c u l a t e with a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . Upon r e f l e c t i o n of these two requirements, a number of qu e s t i o n s emerge: 1. I f the m a j o r i t y of graphic communications i n s t r u c t o r s are t r a i n e d a r t teachers, how would the M i n i s t r y of Education d e f i n e "trade experience"? 2. How can graphic communications programs throughout the pro v i n c e be a r t i c u l a t e d with a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n without an o f f i c i a l l y recognized c u r r i c u l u m ? 3. How w i l l the post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n i n f l u e n c e program development i n the secondary s c h o o l ? The blend of a r t / g r a p h i c s i s recognized (McFee, 1974) and could be emphasized i n a c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n progam but without the above que s t i o n s answered, t h i s s u b j e c t area may not r e c e i v e the r e q u i r e d approval of the M i n i s t r y . I t i s the i n t e n t i o n of the author to r a i s e these questions i n the hope that advanced standing i n a r t / g r a p h i c s w i l l not be r e s t r i c t e d . 26 I n t e g r a t i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and comprehensive education The B r i t i s h Columbia p r o p o s a l f o r p r e p a r i n g students f o r entry i n t o i n d u s t r y or advance standing at a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n i s to be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the context of the present comprehensive secondary s c h o o l framework. The a b i l i t y to p r o v i d e v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l t r a i n i n g w i t h i n t h i s framework w i l l continue to allow students the maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n p r e p a r i n g programs of study. The i n t e g r a t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i n a comprehensive secondary school does not f o r c e a student to make an e a r l y c a r e e r c h o i c e , but r a t h e r p r o v i d e s the student with a maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n course and ca r e e r c h o i c e . Many d i f f e r e n t programs of v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g e x i s t i n the United S t a t e s , Canada, and B r i t a i n . These programs vary between i n d u s t r y sponsored schools (London School Of P r i n t i n g ) to d i s t r i c t v o c a t i o n a l magnet s c h o o l s . However v a r i e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n s of the v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s , they are l i n k e d by the common f a c t o r s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n one or more trade areas and p r o v i s i o n of s p e c i f i c task t r a i n i n g . Because of the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of v o c a t i o n a l programming students must decide on a r e s t r i c t e d course of s t u d i e s at an e a r l y age. T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i s imperative i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y t e c h -n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . Who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g the t r a i n i n g and how i t i s manifested can take many d i f f e r e n t 27 formats. Examples e x i s t (Graphic A r t s , Alabama, 1977; P o l l o c k , 1979; V i s u a l Communication-Graphic A r t s , A l b e r t a , 1974) t h a t demonstrate a wide range of s o l u t i o n s . H o p e f u l l y through c a r e -f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the needs of the student and of s o c i e t y , programs w i l l continue to be developed and implemented to expand r a t h e r than l i m i t s t u dents' o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Career P r e p a r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia can be modified and changed i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the v a r i e t y of v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l models that a l r e a d y e x i s t . However any program of s t u d i e s that encourages s k i l l development must c o n s i d e r of the needs of i n d u s t r y . H o p e f u l l y with an i n c r e a s e i n p r o v i n c i a l funding f o r Career P r e p a r a t i o n programs the M i n i s t r y i s not over r e a c t i n g to the apparent lack of t e c h n i c a l l y t r a i n e d s t u d e n t s . The p u b l i c s c h o o l system i s s t i l l an o r g a n i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d to the e d u c a t i o n of the youth of t h i s p r o v i n c e , the B r i t i s h Columbia system of p u b l i c education s t r i v e s to serve s o c i e t y and to meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s . The school's primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to educate by e n a b l i n g each student to pursue e x c e l l e n c e , to experience success, and to r e a l i z e maximum p o t e n t i a l . ( K i l l e e n & Ornes, 1979 p. 201) r a t h e r than t r a i n i n g f o r s p e c i f i c job t a s k s . 28 CHAPTER V The Review of E x i s t i n g Graphic Communications  Curriculum M a t e r i a l A v a i l a b i l i t y of c u r r i c u l u m In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n communications c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s from v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l agencies throughout North America are o u t l i n e d and reviewed. This review of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s was i n i t i a t e d with the d e s i r e to i d e n t i f y the p r e s e n t s t a t e of graphic communications c u r r i c u l u m development. To achieve t h i s goal correspondence was conducted with every s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l education agency i n North America. The response f o r i n f o r m a t i o n from these agencies was impressive and r e s u l t e d i n the assembly of a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m guides and resource packages. The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n reviews s i x t y - f i v e examples from t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m development i n graphic communications as i n d i -cated by the f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s v a r i e s depending on the goals and o b j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d by s p e c i f i c agencies. However two main themes e x i s t . The f i r s t theme deals with graphic commun-i c a t i o n s as a segment of a broadly based i n d u s t r i a l education program. O b j e c t i v e s and goals are d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the understanding and awareness of technology i n our s o c i e t y through motor s k i l l development. The second theme emphasizes 29 s p e c i f i c outcomes that t r a n s l a t e i n t o l e a r n i n g job s k i l l s . T h i s v o c a t i o n a l aspect of many of the programs i s i d e n t i f i e d by the dependence on the concept of competency based i n s t r u c t i o n and performance o b j e c t i v e s . Although the analysed m a t e r i a l s represent two main themes, many d i f f e r e n t ideas, concepts and r a t i o n a l e s have been used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m r e s o u r c e s . To help i l l u s -t r a t e the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s programs, a review sheet was designed and used f o r comparison of the programs. The review sheet i d e n t i f i e s eleven concepts that t h i s author considered f o r each review. T h i s s t a n d a r d i -z a t i o n of the review process allows e a s i e r comparison between the c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . The c u r r i c u l u m review sheet - an e x p l a n a t i o n of terms The f o l l o w i n g elements provided the design base f o r the graphic communications m a t e r i a l s review sheet. 1. Reference, Source, and Cost 2. T h i s m a t e r i a l i s : a. a competency based i n s t r u c t i o n program: I n s t r u c t i o n which when p r o p e r l y designed and a p p l i e d r e s u l t s i n the l e a r n e r ' s demonstration of c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s . The d e s i r e d a b i l i t i e s are s e l e c t e d before the i n s t r u c t i o n i s designed and are c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as observable performance o b j e c t i v e s . 30 b. an i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e : A r e f e r e n c e guide t h a t i n d i c a t e s g e n e r a l t o p i c s of study i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a . The t o p i c s are d i s c u s s e d i n broad, g e n e r a l terms. c. an o r g a n i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l program: M a t e r i a l s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e l e s s o n p l a n s and a s p e c i f i e d d a i l y p r o g r e s s i o n . d. a r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s package: M a t e r i a l s e i t h e r p r e p a r e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y o r c o m m e r c i a l l y t o s u p p o r t g r a p h i c communications programs. e. an a r t e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e : A r e f e r e n c e guide i n d i c a t i n g , i n g e n e r a l terms the t o p i c s t o be c o v e r e d i n an a r t program. Course o u t l i n e s i n d i c a t e : a. j o b t a s k s : a u n i t of work a c t i v i t y which c o n s t i t u e s l o g i c a l and n e c e s s a r y s t e p s i n the performance of a d u t y . A t a s k has a d e f i n i t e b e g i n n i n g and e n d i n g p o i n t i n i t s accomplishment and g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t s of two or more d e f i n i t e s t e p s . b. u n i t c o n t e n t : i n d i c a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the course i n s p e c i f i c segments. O b j e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d f o r : a. s p e c i f i c j o b t a s k s : o b j e c t i v e s s i t e d f o r each s t e p of the t a s k s i n performance terms. 31 b. g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g outcomes: o b j e c t i v e s s i t e d f o r program g o a l s r a t h e r than s p e c i f i c t a s k s . 5. I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s o r g a n i z e d t o promote: Every program reviewed r e f e r s t o s k i l l development, j o b t r a i n i n g and d e s i g n but t h i s statement i s d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y the major emphasis of the c u r r i c u l u m package, a. S k i l l development and j o b t r a i n i n g c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d synonymous, and many programs do emphasize s k i l l d e v e l o p -ment i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h j o b t r a i n i n g , but o t h e r s i n d i c a t e motor s k i l l development as a prime g o a l w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o j o b t r a i n i n g o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Motor s k i l l development i s c o n s i d e r e d i n many programs the method f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g the importance and r e l e v a n c e of t e c h n o l -ogy i n today's s o c i e t y . I n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n programs are not d e s i g n e d p u r e l y t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s f o r f u t u r e employment r a t h e r t o demonstrate the impact of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on our c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y . 9. Number of hours per i n s t r u c t i o n a l module: module - a p r e d e t e r m i n e d course of s t u d i e s , u s u a l l y one y e a r i n d u r a t i o n . 10. Number of modules needed t o complete a program of s t u d i e s : the number of s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s needed t o complete a program f o r g r a d u a t i o n o r a r t i c u l a t i o n w i t h a p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n . 32 11. For implementation of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s t r a t e g i e s are o u t l i n e d f o r : a. Management: Can a l l students complete the task l e a r n i n g and p r a c t i c e at the same time? How many students can be i n v o l v e d at the same time? What w i l l be the source of p r a c t i c a l work and m a t e r i a l s used? W i l l the l e a r n i n g experiences be p r o d u c t i o n or products? W i l l the students use t h e i r own t o o l s or s c h o o l t o o l s ? b. I n s t r u c t i o n : W i l l you give demonstrations to the whole c l a s s at one time or to small groups? W i l l you use job and procedure sheets? What tasks ( s k i l l s and knowledge) must be learned p r i o r to t h i s one? How much time w i l l i t take to teach and p r a c t i c e t h i s task? How w i l l the s k i l l s i n the l a b o r a t o r y and the r e l a t e d t e c h n i c a l content of the classroom be coordinated? c. E v a l u a t i o n : How w i l l student success be assessed? W i l l you use paper and p e n c i l t e s t s ? Performance c h e c k l i s t s ? W i l l the student have to s u c c e s s f u l l y complete t h i s task before moving on? At what l e v e l w i l l the student have to perform? (Hindes, 1981, pp. 22-23) GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS C U R R I C U L U M MATERIALS REVIEW. C a n a d i a n G u i d e s GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS C U R R I C U L U M MATERIALS REVIEW. 34 A r t and d e s i g n t e a c h i n g g u i d e . S t . J o h n ' s , N e w f o u n d l a n d : Newfound land Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1977 . Newfoundland Department o f E d u c a t i o n C o n f e d e r a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t . J o h n ' s , N f l d . A1C 5R9 N/C 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide L J c. An organized instructional program D d. A resource materials package D e. An art education curriculum guide -m 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks jzi b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: -a. Specific job tasks L J b. General learning outcomes ^ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development L J b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training d 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook L J e. Instructor's manual L J f. Equipment list ; L J g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 L J b. Grade 9 c. Grade 10 P> d. Grade 11 g e. Grade 12 W-f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. m m . ^ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L J b. Instruction c. Evaluation 12. Overview G r a p h i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n s can and does have many d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s . Depending on the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t e r m , programs can be p r e p a r e d t h a t emphas ize v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a complex i n d u s t r y . The t e c h n i q u e s o f p r e p a r a t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n t o the impact o f p r i n t e d images a re v a l i d a rea s o f s t u d y . The Newfoundland Department o f E d u c a t i o n has a t t e m p t e d t o p r e p a r e m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l a l l o w the s t u d e n t t o a t l e a s t become aware o f the t e c h n i q u e as w e l l as the s o c i a l impac t o f p r i n t e d i m a g e r y . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS C U R R I C U L U M MATERIALS REVIEW. 35 The Newfoundland guide A r t and Design o u t l i n e s two u n i t s that f o r m a l l y d e a l with communication s k i l l s . Graphics and Printmaking: "to encourage students to view gr a p h i c s and printmaking as image making with the same co m p o s i t i o n a l and c r e a t i v e demands as other areas of the a r t s . " (1977, p. 3) Communication Arts-Media; "This U n i t deals b a s i c a l l y with the quetion "Who" says "What" to "Whom". I t deals with a r t and design as i t i s d i r e c t l y employed i n the communication of v a r i o u s i d e a s , i n f o r m a t i o n , and f e e l i n g s . " (1977, p. 9) Communication A r t s : LEVEL TWO: Major Fmphasis T h i s u n i t i s compulsory a t L e v e l I I , and should serve t o broaden student u n d e r s t a n d i n g and involvement, as w e l l as t o p r o v i d e fundamental e x p e r i e n c e f o r those s t u d e n t s who have not had L e v e l One. The major emphasis should be: A. F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n o f b a s i c elements and forms o f communicative d e s i g n i n a) a d v e r t i s i n g b) i l l u s t r a t i o n B. I n t r o d u c t i o n and E x p l o r a t i o n o f new p r o c e s s e s , forms and elements o f v i s u a l communication; 1. A c t u a l E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by Students 2. D i s c u s s i o n , V i s u a l A n a l y s i s and Research A d v e r t i s i i -work w i t h a d v e r t i s i n g to s e l l p r o d u c t s , d e s i g n i n g ads, p o s t e r s , packaging - c r i t i c a l assessment o f a v a i l a b l e a d v e r t i s i n g r e s i g n i n g ads e t c . -work w i t h v a r i o u s media -e x p e r i e n c e i n f i n a l l a y - o u t mounting, p r e s e n t a t i o n , p o r t f o l i o - e x p e r i e n c e i n s e t t i n g up an a d v e r t i s i n g campaign ( p o s t e r s , ads i n s c h o o l paper, s i g n s , packaging, etc.) - b i l l b o a r d d e s i n n , d i s p l a y , s i g n and l o g o - d e s i g n "3 -examination of a d v e r t i s i n g which i s s u c c e s s f u l -examine d e v i c e s i n a d v e r t i s i n g used f o r appeal -both v i s u a l and n o n - v i s u a l -look a t audience - (who i s i t aimed at?) c/i./n-i 1. A c t u a l Experimentation by Students I l l u s t r a t i o n -work with sequence, r e p e t i t i o n , c o n s i s t e n c y e t c . i n i l l u s t r a t i o n - t e l l a s t o r y , v i s u a l l y - e x p l o r e v a r i o u s types of i l l u s t r a t i o n , comics, books car t o o n s , e t c . -experiment with d i f f e r e n t media t o see how they e f f e c t mood, c l a r i t y , a t t e n t i o n e t c l S o c i a l Comment -experiment with d e s i g n f o r s o c i a l comment - e x p l o r e propaganda, p o l i t i c a l , b e h a v i o u r a l d e v i c e s - e x p l o r e d e v i c e s l i k e context c o n t r a s t , i n t i m i d a t i o n , appeal t o emotions i n v a r i o u s media ( p o s t e r s , pamphlets e t c . ) -work w i t h c a r i c a t u r e and c a r t o o n i n g as s o c i a l comment T e l e v i s i o n anA F i l m 2. D i s c u s s i o n , V i s u a l A n a l y s i s and Research -examine the work o f a r t i s t s who i l l u s t r a t e t o commun-i c a t e i n f o r m a t i o n or emotion (Toulous-Lautrec, Shahn, A. Rackham, etc.) -look at p r o t e s t and propag-anda a r t - i n p o s t e r s , magazines e t c . - i d e n t i f y d e v i c e s used t o i n f l u e n c e the viewer -examine how t h i s type o f v i s u a l communication e f f e c t s the p u b l i c -examine elements l i k e e xaggeration, s u b j e c t i v i t y , d i s t o r t i o n and b i d s as they work v i s u a l l y -look at the work of a r t i s t s working i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l comment (Daumier, P i c a s s o ' s "Guernica^ Ben Shahn etc.) - e v a l u a t i o n and d e s i g n o f T.V v i s u a l s - g r a p h i c s , t i t l e s , s e t , e t c . - e x p l o r a t i o n of commercials, photo and animation -experimentation with v i d e o (where p o s s i b l e ) -examination of the v i s u a l d e v i c e s and impact o f T.V. and f i l m - e x p l o r a t i o n o f T.V. prod-u c t i o n , r o l e s of people, s c r i p t , v i s u a l s , sequence e t c . UJ 6 G.P.S G r a p h i c s and P r i n t m a k i n g : LEVEL ONE: Major Emphasis Gra p h i c s and Printmaking (cont.) A. I n t r o d u c t i o n to b a s i c p r o c e s s e s , terms and m a t e r i a l s i n the f o l l o w i n g areas-1. A c t u a l E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n by Students R e l i e f P r i n k i n g -rubbings - g a t h e r i n g t e x t u r e s (stamp p r i n t i n g ) - e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h t e x t -ure t r a n s f e r and embossing ( c l a y , t i n f o i l e t c . ) - e x p l o r a t i o n o f d e s i g n components i n stamp p r i n t i n g p a t t e r n r e p e t i t i o n , border d e s i g n e t c . - c o l l o g r a p h w i t h a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s (cardboard, s t r i n g , scraps) -monoprints and " r o l l e r " p r i n t s ( c o l l o g r a p h s on c y l i n d e r s , marble p r i n t s e t c . ) B l o c k and P l a t d - c a r v i n g i n t o s u r f a c e s t o p r i n t ( t u r n i p s , wax, l i n o , wood, rubber) - e x p l o r a t i o n of compositional| elements, c o l o r , l i n e , over l a p , e t c . - e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n wit!: m i r r o r image and r e v e r s a l - e x p l o r a t i o n o v e r - p r i n t i n g and p r i n t i n g w i t h non-r e c t a n g u l a r shapes D i s c u s s i o n , V i s u a l A n a l y s i s and Research - e x p l o r a t i o n of v i s u a l e f f e c t ! on d i f f e r e n t s u r f a c e s -papers, c l o t h e t c . -examination o f repeat p a t t e r n s i n p r i n t e d o b j e c t s w a l l and wrapping paper, c l o t h P r i n t i n g - i n t r o d u c t i o n of engraving and] i n t a g l i o , through the work of| printmakers l i k e Durer, Blackwood, l o c a l a r t i s t s where p o s s i b l e 1. A c t u a l Experimentation by Students Graphics and Printmaking -experimentation w i t h p r i n t i n g machines i n s c h o o l ( g e s t e t n e r , s p i r i t d u p l i c a t o r etc.) - e x p l o r a t i o n of newspaper p r o d u c t i o n , p r i n t i n g , l a y o u t e t c . 2. D i s c u s s i o n , V i s u a l A n a l y s i s and Research i n the Community - e x p l o r a t i o n o f p r i n t i n g processes which produce newspapers, magazines, comic books e t c . -graphics i n contemporary po s t e r p r o d u c t i o n - i n t r o d u c t i o n to o f f s e t l i t h o g r a p h y - e x p l o r a t i o n o f p o p u l a r i t y of p r i n t s v s . p a i n t i n g s , e t c . (concept o f m u l t i p l e s - e x p l o r a t i o n of g r a p h i c a r t i s t s i n community (where p o s s i b l e ) I n t r o d u c t i o n of Graphics and Printmaking as an i n t e g r a l and v i t a l p a r t o f the A r t s and the b u s i n e s s world. Students should be encouraged to compare i t to o t h e r forms o f image-making and t o e x p l o r e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n communication. C o n s i d e r a t i o n should be g i v e n t o the a r t - b u y i n g market i n r e l a t i o n t o the p o p u l a r i t y o f g r a p h i c s , the v a r i e t y of t a s t e s and standards, c o s t and labour, e t c . CO GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS C U R R I C U L U M MATERIALS REVIEW. 38 Commercial a r t . Edmonton, A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a Department of 1. Education, 1974. A l b e r t a Department of Education Devonian B u i l d i n g , West Tower 11160 Jasper Avenue Edmonton, AL T5K OL3 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program M b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program L J d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks L J b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks j=L b. General learning outcomes V-5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training L"J 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-. a. Specific lesson plans pj b. Pre tests c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook L J e. Instructor's manual L J f. Equipment list d g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress d 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 L J b. Grade 9 L J c. Grade 10 W d. Grade 11 P e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LD b. Instruction » c. Evaluation D 12. Overview The province of A l b e r t a i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g areas i n i t s d e f i n i t i o n of V i s u a l Communication - d r a f t i n g , g r a p h i c a r t s , and commercial a r t . Each of these areas shares an i n t r o d u c t o r y course at the Grade 10 l e v e l , and from there branches i n t o s i x i n d i v i d u a l courses f o r each t o p i c . A l b e r t a p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the student to com-p l e t e a s e l e c t i o n of courses that o f f e r s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l content as w e l l as courses which cover image d e s i g n . c. Commercial Art (i ) Visual Communications 12 (1736) Visual Communications i s a course common to the three major areas i n the career f i e l d . Students w i l l learn about occupational opportunities, basic drawing, composition and design, color theory, l e t t e r i n g , advertising layout, photography, platemaking, p r i n t i n g , and f i n i s h i n g procedures. ( i i ) Commerical Art 22A (General I l l u s t r a t i o n ) (2848) An introduction to drawing and i l l u s t r a t i o n as applied to commercial assignments. The course includes constructive drawing (forms, perspective, e t c . ) , expressive drawing, (mature studies, human form, etc.) and an introduction to various painting techniques. ( i i i ) Commercial Art 22B (Information Design) (2849) An introduction to the elements and p r i n c i p l e s of design as applied to two-dimensional design such as advertising layout and l e t t e r i n g (iv) Commercial Art 22C (Design 3D) (2850) The content of t h i s module stresses the techniques of advertising, design, l e t t e r i n g and merchandising. (v) Commercial Art 32A (Commercial I l l u s t r a t i o n ) (3848) This course i s a continuation of the 22B with more advanced study of drawing and i l l u s t r a t i o n i n three-dimensional design using various materials to create models for display on commercial assignments. (vi) Commercial Art 32B (Production Technology) (3849) Students use a l l the experience gained through previous work to organize and operate a small advertising firm. They w i l l learn about the problems of labor, personnel organization, marketing and the actual production operation. ( v i i ) Commercial Art 32C (3850) Through t h i s course students may increase t h e i r competencies i n areas covered previously by doing additional work i n the school or by engaging i n actual art work for a commercial firm. Students must be under the supervision of the Commercial Art teacher and a craftsman on the job. 40 - G R A P H I C COMMUNICATIONS C U R R I C U L U M MATERIALS REVIEW. I n d u s t r i a l a r t s . St. John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland 1. Department of Education, 1975. Newfoundland Department of Education C o n f e d e r a t i o n B u i l d i n g St. John's, N f l d . A1C 5R9 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program • b. An industrial education curriculum guide 0» c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks • b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote a. Skill development. .. b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the follo\ a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests c. Post Tests d d. Student workbook U e. Instructor's manual D f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: ^ a. Grade 8 g b. Grade 9 IP c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ « _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management d b. Instruction c. Evaluation : • 12. Overview The Newfoundland i n d u s t r i a l a r t s program f o r grades seven, e i g h t and nine i s a basic i n t r o d u c t i o n to m a t e r i a l s and technology. The courses are d i v i d e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : 1. M a t e r i a l s and Processes (wood, p l a s t i c , metal) 2. Power and Energy 3. Communications The communications module covers basic d r a f t i n g s k i l l s , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n p r i n c i p l e s and depending on grade l e v e l , the f o l l o w i n g g raphic a r t s t o p i c s : grade seven - r e l i e f p r i n t i n g grade e i g h t - s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t ( b a s i c ) grade nine - s i l k s c r e e n p r i n t i n (advanced) - i n t a g l i o p r i n t i n g (dry p o i n t & e t c h i n g ) w . • • wing materials. • 4 Grade 7 Objectives of the Course 1. To provide introductory experiences i n working with tools and materials. 2. To introduce students to cooperating i n a laboratory (shop) atmosphere i n conjunction with other students. 3. To provide an introduction to the graphic arts and simple communication systems. 4. To provide an introduction to energy and i t s ap p l i c a t i o n s . Course Content General 1. Safety in the school shop. 2. Modern organization of industry 3. H i s t o r i c a l development of man's use of t o o l s . Materials and Processes Students should understand the use of each tool and operation i n r e l a t i o n to the i n d u s t r i a l materials of wood, metal, and p l a s t i c . 1. Saws 2. Squares 3. Planes 4. Hand d r i l l 5. Brace and b i t 6. Chisels 7. Knives 8. Rules (measuring) 9. Gages 10. Screwdrivers 11. Hammers 12. Mallet 13. F i l e s , 14. Snips 1T>. Joining (Fasteners) 16. Needle 17. Marlin spike 19. Hacksaw Communications Power & Energy 1. R e l i e f p r i n t i n g 1. 2. P i c t o r i a l sketch- 2. ing 3. Measuring 3. 4. Drafting equipment 5. Telephone 4. 6. Intercom 7. Doorbell Energy sources Energy conver-sion Mechanical power E l e c t r i c a l power 4 Grade 8 Objectives of the Course 1. To provide an introduction to materials and basic power tools. 2. To provide an understanding of i n d u s t r i a l design p r i n c i p l e s and planning procedures. 3. To provide an introduction to basic e l e c t r o n i c communication and detection methods. 4. To develope student a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e the representation of three-dimensional objects in a single plane (projection). 5. To introduce students to small gasoline engines and service requirements. Course Content General 1. The importance of industry in our society. 2. Mass production. Materials & Processes Students should understand the use of each tool or operation in r e l a t i o n to the in d i v i d u a l materials of wood, p l a s t i c & metal. Communications Power & Energy 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Project planning Measuring & layout Types and properties of materials Kinds and sizes of materials Finishing J i g saw Hand held e l e c t r i c saw D r i l l press Sander Grinder Lathe Net making Weight molding Forming and molding Laminating Raising and embossing Radar 1. Radio communic- 2. ation (Voice & 3. CW) Sonar 4. Fish detectors 2 View sketching 3 View Skethcing Isometric sketching Blueprint reading S i l k screen (basic) F l u i d power Small engine servi Measuring energy S power Energy control & transmission 4^ GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Stewart, A. Graphic communications, a course of  i n s t r u c t i o n . H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a : Nova S c o t i a Department of Education, 1970. Nova S c o t i a Department of Education Box 578 H a l i f a x , NS B3J 1A6 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program L J b. An industrial education curriculum guide ^ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks CD b. Unit content §r 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks • b. General learning outcomes * 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development » b. Awareness to imagery and design CD c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans L J b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook CD e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 L J b. Grade 9 0 c. Grade 10 P-d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. m ^ m m ^ ^ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: ~"™"™~ — " a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The Nova S c o t i a program i s an attempt to u n i f y d r a f t i n g and p r i n t i n g . The term graphic communication i s used i n t h i s course o u t l i n e i n place of drawing or d r a f t i n g because the s u b j e c t matter has been expanded. (Stewart, 1970, p. i ) Although the s u b j e c t matter has expanded, and i n c l u d e s a l l forms of communicating g r a p h i c a l l y , the Nova S c o t i a program does not emphasize the expanded nature of t h e i r own d e f i n i -t i o n . The course o u t l i n e s t i l l emphasizes the ba s i c and i n t r o d u c t o r y elements of d r a f t i n g . The s e c t i o n d e a l i n g with the expanded nature of t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n i s pr e f a c e d with the f o l l o w i n g d i s c l a i m e r : GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 43 The s u c c e s s of t h i s s e c t i o n i s l a r g e l y dependent on the t e a c h e r ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o r hobby i n t e r e s t . W i t h o u t these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i t i s not recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s attempt t o implement t h i s s e c t i o n . ( S t e w a r t , 1970, p.55) G r a p h i c communications i s an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o u r s e of s t u d i e s and the Nova S c o t i a program a t l e a s t r e c o g n i z e s t h i s f a c t , but i n r e a l i t y t h e i r s t a t e d g o a l of " p r o v i d i n g an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r a p h i c a r t s through a v a r i e t y of e x p l o r a t o r y e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o the p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g f i e l d " ( S t e w a r t , 1970, p . i ) may not be a t t a i n e d , i f the i n c l u s i o n of g r a p h i c a r t s i s s u b j e c t t o the d i s c r e t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t o r . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS SHEET I 58 A - St a n d a r d B - A d j u s t e d C - O c c u p a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n B a s i c Processes (Con t ' d ) Layout and Bf l s i c Design p r i n t i n g p a p e r s , pigments and c o l o r s L e t t e r ing S ty Ie and usage-Form Ing SpacIng B. Compos i t ion (Layout) P r o p o r t i o n s 8d lance Harmony («hape and tone) Processes Q f pflpprmrttc 1 n g I - r ' l r n t Y e a r 1' - S e c o n d T i ' i i r 3 - TIM r d Y.-.tr Common s1zes and types of paper H i s t o r y of ink making Types of ink " C o m p a t i b i l i t y of paper and Ink S u g g e s t e d A c t i v i t i e s References and Notes P r a c t i c e u s i n g ; l e t t e r i n g dev i ce s Speedba11 pens l e t t e r i ng roach ines pas te -up l e t t e r s Instant l e t t e r i n g Des i gn ing and making p o s t e r s . bus ines s c a r d s , t i c k e t s , e t c . us ing media - pg. 60 Make a p i e c e of paper in the lab Reference t e x t ' G raph i c A r t s ' Kagy, pg . 56 P r i n t s p e c i f i c jobs with se l ec ted i n k s . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n IV. Regina Saskatchewan: t Saskatchewan Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1977. I n f o r m a t i o n Bureau Saskatchewan Department of E d u c a t i o n 2220 C o l l e g e Avenue Re g i n a , Saskatchewan S4D 3V7 N/C This material is: • a. A competency based instructional program . b. An industrial education curriculum guide & c. An organized instructional program D d. A resource materials package • • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks d b. Unit content ™ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks Q b. General learning outcomes IS 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development p» b. Awareness to imagery and design L J c. Job training L J 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans bd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook L J e. Instructor's manual _ L J f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 ¥}• b. Grade 9 W c. Grade 10 « -d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The Saskatchewan Department of E d u c a t i o n has developed a program of s t u d i e s i n i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t can be adapted t o e i t h e r an urban or r u r a l s c h o o l . The m u l t i -a c t i v i t y approach t o i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n a l l o w s most s c h o o l s t o o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l the d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s , r e g a r d l e s s of s i z e . The program i d e n t i f i e s c o n t e n t a r e a s f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s i n i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . G r a p h i c communications area s p r i n t i n g , photography, d r a f t i n g are l i s t e d under Communications. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 46 The course structure, due to the m u l t i a c t i v i t y approach is organized in twenty-five hour modules. The student must complete four, twenty-five modules to achieve credit for each grade. Therefore a student could receive cre d i t for Industrial Education 10 with modules from p r i n t i n g , wood-work, photography and metal work. Because of the nature of this programming, the guide recommends that i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials be individualized and class size be r e s t r i c t e d to sixteen students. The Saskatchewan program i s based on the philosophy of awareness to technology and i t s implications on society. Awareness of culture is an e s s e n t i a l outcome of education. Technology, defined as ways of using knowledge to do p r a c t i c a l tasks, is a major component of any culture. Technical Education is an e s s e n t i a l component of each student's general education, an imperative for successful l i v i n g in today's world. (Saskatchewan, 1977, p.iv) Technical Education is not a vocational instruction program, but a program of studies designed to "foster the discovery of interests and aptitudes in technical f i e l d s , which may be u t i l i z e d in both vocational and avocational pursuits." (Saskatchewan, 1977, p.iv) GRAPHIC ARTS Unit I - Printing Processes  Objectives: The student w i l l : • 1. Select from given specimens three different kinds of printing that could be used for a given job. 2. Arrange and print a given message, using a sign press. 3. Demonstrate and explain the p r i n c i p l e of planographic or offset p r i n t i n g . 4. Demonstrate the preparation and functions of metal and paper plates i n offset printing. 5. Demonstrate the use of ste n c i l s in screen printing. 6. Mimeograph an acceptable copy from a prepared s t e n c i l . 7. Make acceptable copy from a prepared s t e n c i l , using a s p i r i t duplicator. 8. Demonstrate the p r i n c i p l e of i n t a g l i o or gravure printing. 9. Give examples of applications in the graphics industry of any of the printing processes dealt with in this unit. 10. Compare the processes used i n printing a large daily newspaper with processes used i n small weekly newspaper plants. 11. Select from among several specified methods the best method of printing for a short-run job. 12. Outline the duties performed i n common occupations in the printing industry and the ways in which people qualify for employment in these occupations. Content: , 1.1 Printing - ways of communicating ideas - printing as symbolic representation 1.2 Relief printing - principle - sign press - rubber stamp 1.3 Stencil printing - principle - screen-printing - paper ste n c i l s 1.4 Planographic printing - principle - s p i r i t duplicator - offset press 1.5 Intaglio - principle - dry etching 1.6 Assembly - bindery 1.7 Industrial settings - newspaper - job-plant Unit II - Relief Printing  Objectives: The student w i l l : 1. With a l i n e gauge, describe in printer*s terms a paragraph from a newspaper. 2. Compare printer's measurement of lines from a newspaper with metric measurement of the same lines. 3. Prepare copy for a c l a s s i f i e d advertisement. h. Prepare written text in copy form for printing. 5. Arrange copy for printing, including pictures. 6. Arrange copy with more than one size of type, to convey a message more e f f e c t i v e l y . 7. Explain procedure to be followed prior to Including copyright material i n a production. 8. Define terminology used i n the graphics industry. 9. Tie up, proofread and correct a type form. 10. Prepare and cut a block for r e l i e f printing a design. 11. Compare production of a given printing job on the old linotype machine with production of the same job i n a modern printing plant using computerized offset equipment. 12. Compare the numbers and kinds of occupations i n a modern job printing plant with those in older plants. Content: 2.1 Relief printing - the process - uses 2.2 Message analysis - words as symbols for meaning - arrangement to convey meaning - the power of the press 2.3 Strikc-on image generation - typewriting - transfer 2.4 Word image generation - cold composition typography - typesetting, proofing - press operation 48 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. V i s u a l communications-graphic a r t s . Edmonton, A l b e r t a : 1 A l b e r t a Department of Education, 1974. A l b e r t a Education Devonian B u i l d i n g , West Tower 11160 Jasper Avenue Edmonton, A l b e r t a T5R 0L2 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program Q b. An industrial education curriculum guide J3» c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks O b. Unit content B-4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: . a. Skill development f& b. Awareness to imagery and design O c Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests Q c. Post Tests d d. Student workbook d e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 59 c. Grade 10 B d. Grade 11 @ e. Grade 12 •& f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. "7 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The V i s u a l Communications-graphic a r t s c u r r i c u l u m guide i d e n t i f i e s major graphic a r t s areas and p r e s c r i b e s tasks to meet the o b j e c t i v e s of the i n d i v i d u a l c o urses. In the ca r e e r f i e l d of V i s u a l Communications-graphic a r t s the Department of education has i d e n t i f i e d seven, one hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e hour modules that a student may complete. The courses range from an i n t r o d u c t o r y course d e a l i n g with the basic components of p r i n t e d u c a t i o n to an advanced work study program. Therefore depending on a student's own i n t e r e s t and car e e r g o a l s , a program of s t u d i e s can be determined which can range from a g e n e r a l overview to an advanced c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 49 The Department also provides, through the material presented in the guide, a base for the student to a r t i c u l a t e with the two major post secondary tr a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The Alberta guide although s p e c i f i c in p a r t i c u l a r course content, remains independent and f l e x i b l e for manipulation by each instructor depending on the nature of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . This guide can provide a valuable example for curriculum planning because of the manner in which the courses have been organized and the indication of the continuity between each course. T o p i c n i : CONVERSION ( C o n t i n u e d ) G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 56 Concept and S u b - C o n c e p t s Approx. T i n e B e h a v i o u r a l O b j e c t i v e s A c t i v i t i e s o r J o b s 2 . F l l n P r o c e s s i n g 3 . P r o o f i n g 4 . S t r i p p i n g The s t u d e n t w i l l : f o l l o w i n g I n s t r u c t i o n , c h o o s e , measure and n i x t h e c o r r e c t c h e m i c a l s t o a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c -t o r y development o f f i l m . w i t h p r e v i o u s l y exposed f i l m , p r o c e s s , by a n a p p r o p r i a t e ite tho d t o s u i t t h e c o p y , t o a c h i e v e a n e g a t i v e w h i c h 1s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r f u r t h e r o p e r a t i o n s . Ic. a f t e r s t u d y , e x p l a i n t h e e l e m e n -t a r y c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n o f the c h e m i c a l s used In d e v e l o p i n g . g i v e n a n e g a t i v e , produce a s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o o f by a method c h o s e n by t h e t e a c h e r . g i v e n t h e m a t e r i a l s , l a y o u t mask; and p r o d u c e f l a t s I n v o l v i n g : ( 1 . ) s i n g l e o r m u l t i p l e n e g a t i v e s Topic I : CONVERSION 1 p l a G e n e r a l i z a t i o n C: Symbols and d e s i g n elements a r e c o n v e r t e d t o r e p r o d u c i b l e elements which can be assembled i n t o a form to f a c i l i t a t e e f f i c i e n t r e p r o d u c t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f v i s u a l I n f o r m a t i o n . Ccnaept and Sub-Concepts A p p r o x . T i n e B e h a v i o u r a l O b j e c t i v e s A c t i v i t i e s o r J o b s R e s o u r c e s The s t u d e n t w i l l : ^ . Camera a . a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e , ( 1 . ) O p e r a t i o n ( 1 . ) make t h e n e c e s s a r y a d -j u s t m e n t s and exposure c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r U n e and h a l f t o n e work f o r s a m e -s 1 « and s c a l e d copy ( 1 1 . ) S c r e e n s ( 1 1 . ) choose a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t a c t s c r e e n (111.) F i l m s (111 .) c a l i b r a t e an e x p o s u r e computer ( 1 v . ) F i l t e r s ( I v . ) make a c o r r e c t c h o i c e o f f i l t e r ( v . ) N e g a t i v e s ( v . ) choose a p p r o p r i a t e f i l m t o a c h i e v e a n e g a t i v e w i t h i n a 10J e r r o r range b. a f t e r s t u d y , e x p l a i n ( 1 . ) f i l m s t r u c t u r e and c o m p o s i t i o n ( 1 1 . ) t h e p r o c e s s o f h a l f t o n e p h o t o g r a p h y (111 .) t h e camera o p e r a t i o n s and how l i g h t 1s c o n t r o l l e d 51 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. V i s u a l coimTiunications 10-20-30. Edmonton, A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a Department of Education, 1976. 1. A l b e r t a Education Devonion B u i l d i n g , West Tower 11160 Jasper Avenue Edmonton, A l b e r t a T5K 0L2 N/C 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program _ J b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program L J d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks L J b. Unit content ^ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes W 5. Instructional material organized to promote: _ a. Skill development *!*• b. Awareness to imagery and design L J c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests td c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook L J e. Instructor's manual L U f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • j' n 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 L J b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 f» d. Grade 11 3 e. Grade 12 £ L f. Post secondary ' ^ 9. Number of hours per instructional module. /OJ' 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. / 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L J b. Instruction L J c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview The province of A l b e r t a makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Under the broad scope of i n d u s t r i a l education both i n d u s t r i a l a r t s and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g are necessary i n p r e p a r i n g a program o s t u d i e s . Our task i n the secondary s c h o o l then, i s to provide students not only with entry l e v e l s k i l l s f o r s e v e r a l c a r e e r s but to o r i e n t the program to meet s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l g o a l s , (p. 6) In t h e i r e f f o r t to meet s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and c a r e e r goals the Department of Education has prepared two programs of study a v a i l a b l e to secondary students. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 52 The I n d u s t r i a l Education 10.20.30 program i s an o r g a n i z a -t i o n of u n i t s i n the f o l l o w i n g f i e l d s . 1. E l e c t r i c i t y 2. M a t e r i a l s 3. Power Technology 4 . V i s u a l Communica-t i o n s . Depending on the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , the i n s t r u c t o r can prepare a program of s t u d i e s based on these f o u r areas. The f o u r areas i d e n t i f i e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m guide are designed to be implemented by the i n s t r u c t o r to p r o v i d e maximum exposure of the s u b j e c t to the students. The 10.20.30 program i s not a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program but a course of s t u d i e s prepared to encourage student awareness to t e c h n o l o g i c a l process and concepts. In c o n j u n c t i o n with the 10.20.30 program the o p p o r t u n i t y does e x i s t , with the companion p u b l i c a t i o n V i s u a l Commun-i c a t i o n s 12. 22 a,b,c 32 a,b,c f o r a student to meet s p e c i f i c c a r e e r entry s k i l l o b j e c t i v e s . - 34 -VISUAL COMMUNICATIONS MODULES 1. Principles of Lithography Content includes basic p r i n c i p l e s of the lithographic process, simple layouts, making masters and of f s e t press operation. 2. Line Photography Students use the process camera to do l i n e photography and prepare orthochromatlc f i l m to make metal masters. 3. Black and White Photography Content Includes the study of cameras, l i g h t sensitive materials and enlarger work. 4. Color Photography Students study p r i n c i p l e s of color photography, properties of color f i l m and techniques of development. 5. Screened Photography This i s a continued study of process camera operation, stripping and platemaking. The module on l i n e photography should precede th i s one. 6. Layout and Design Students w i l l develop s k i l l i n layout and commercial art techniques. 7. Offset Printing Production Students plan a production run of a printed product and i n the process learn about: systems analysis, quality c o n t r o l , offset production, deadlines, wastage and consumer acceptance. 8. Mechanical Drafting Basic drawing concepts are Introduced (o produce product representations through various projection methods. Students learn to use and take care of instruments. - 35 -9. Topographical Drafting Students draw contour maps and learn how to use various projections and how to do dimensioning. 10. Architectural Drawing This module introduces the student to reading and drawing building plans. Housing standards are studied. 11. R e l i e f Printing P r i n c i p l e s of r e l i e f p r i n t i n g w i l l be studied and applied to hand setting type and the use of a small platen press, sign press and rubber stamp machine. 12. Printmaking Techniques Students w i l l learn how to handout prints as well as use the photographic process f o r making p r i n t s . They w i l l learn how to construct and use their own equipment. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. American guides 55 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. B a i l e y , F. The i n - p l a n t p r i n t e r . Trenton, New J e r s e y : 1. New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1977. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $4.75 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide 9* c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: ^ a. A job tasks b. Unit content LD 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks D b. General learning outcomes les 5. Instructional material organized to promote: m a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design 1—1 c. Job training 'fa' 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ^* a. Specific lesson plans pr* b. Pre tests H c. Post Tests *4. d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual d f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress 5S. 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 ^ b. Grade 9 c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 » f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. / 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management • E l b. Instruction "S* c. Evaluation • 12. Overview In-Plant p r i n t i n g : a p r i n t shop w i t h i n a l a r g e r company that manufactures or produces something other than p r i n t i n g , i s becoming an area where a number of students could be employed. The workbook o u t l i n e s the steps and procedures found w i t h i n an i n - p l a n t p r i n t shop. Although the work book i s designed f o r a s p e c i f i c audience, (deaf students) much of the i n f o r m a t i o n could be i n t e g r a t e d and adapted to a l a r g e r more d i v e r s i f i e d group. UNIT IV LAYOUT AND DESIGN LESSON 1 - WHAT IS A DESIGN? At the end of this unit you will lay out two different pages. You will measure accurately, using both the printer's point system and inches. Every time you look at the newspaper or a magazine you are looking at a layout or design that is finished. It all started with an IDEA, a thought that someone had. Before it could be printed, someone had to draw something — maybe only hand lettering. Something that would help a person reading the message to better understand the idea. 48 Design is the second idea — HOW to put that idea or thought on paper so people will look at it. 49 L E S S O N 7 - L O A D I N G T H E P A P E R There is a small crank on each side of the F E E D E R . These cranks set the P A P E R GU IDES . Look at the back of the press where the paper goes. Y o u will see a scale with numbers on each side. Tu rn the cranks until the INSIDES of the guides line up with 8Vi. Press is now ready to take a sheet 8Vi" wide, centered on the press. A £2» i ^ l K J~LJ©L TIT!1! • i IIIIIIIIMI1 S 4 6 le 1 8 K Press table-release bars together, push in and turn P A P E R E L E V A T O R C R A N K to lower P A P E R F E E D T A B L E . ELEVATOR CRANK TABLE 7?ELEAS£ | 123 L E S S O N 6 - HOW T H E F E E D S Y S T E M W O R K S 1 - Paper stacked - ready to print. 2 - A i r blows against stack. Lifts and separates top sheets. 3 — Suction feet lift top sheet and move toward press. 4 - Rubber rollers feed sheet into gripper fingers. 5 - Gripper fingers pul l sheet through press. Sheet is now getting the I M A G E from the blanket. 6 — Gripper fingers release sheet. Ejector fingers and wheels guide sheet to receiving tray. 7 — Automatic jogger neatly stacks sheets. 122 5 8 1 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Braun, R. T., C r a i g , G. W., & D i c k s o n , W. S., e t a l . V o c a t i o n a l p r i n t i n g g u i d e . Richmond, V i r g i n i a : V i r g i n i a S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1974. V i r g i n i a S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n N i n t h S t r e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Richmond, VA 23219 N/C 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program ^ b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program P d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content P> 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LD b. General learning outcomes W» 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training D 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 , b. Grade 9 ® c. Grade 10 58 d. Grade 11 ^ e. Grade 12 S f. Post secondary 'ju/'ii^ 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 4thU 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ST 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management , LJ b. Instruction D c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s guide was p r e p a r e d by the S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n t o s t a n d a r d i z e the i n s t r u c t i o n i n g r a p h i c a r t s t hroughout the s t a t e . The program, a l t h o u g h s p e c i f i c a l l y o u t l i n e s c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s , a l l o w s the i n s t r u c t o r a g r e a t d e a l of f l e x i b i l i t y i n course o r g a n i z a t i o n . "the o b j e c t i v e s t o which we a s p i r e must be h e l d f i r m ; the h a b i t s t o be formed, the s k i l l and judgement t o be a c q u i r e d , the t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge t o be l e a r n e d , and the a c t i v t i e s t o be de v e l o p e d . " (Braun, 1974, p. 1) GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 59 The guide i n d i c a t e d a t o t a l of 960 hours of i n s t r u c t i o n to cover a l l the u n i t s , but does not i n d i c a t e a p a r t i c u l a r course or grade break down. Therefore the i n s t r u c t o r s , depending on equipment and l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s are encouraged to prepare and develop t h e i r own i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . I V . STRIPPING AND PLATEMAKING M a i n O b j e c t i v e : The s t u d e n t w i l l d e v e l o p a c c u r a c y I n p o s i t i o n i n g and p r o c e s s i n i Image c a r r i e r s CONTENT STUDENT LEARNING A C T I V I T I E S AIDS A. S t r i p p i n g 1 . B a s i c s 2 . I n s p e c t i o n and h a n d l i n g o f n e g a t i v e s 3 . M a s k i n g s h e e t l a y o u t 4 . I m p o s i t i o n o f n e g a t i v e 5 . C u t t i n g t h e windows 6 . S t r i p p i n g h a l f t o n e s 7 . S c r i b i n g 8 . O p a q u l n g 9 . S t e p - a n d - r e p e a t w o r k 1 0 . S t r i p p i n g f o r m u l t i - f o r m 11. S h e e t w i s e i m p o s i t i o n B. P r o o f i n g t e c h n i q u e s 1 . Brown l i n e 2 . B l u e p r i n t 3 . C o n t a c t p r i n t 4 . C o l o r k e y C. P l a t e m a k i n g 1 . L i t h o g r a p h i c p l a t e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s a . G e n e r a l c a r e o f p l a t e s b . P r e s e r v a t i v e methods c . P l a t e e m u l s i o n s 2 . M a i n t y p e s o f p l a t e s a . S u r f a c e p l a t e s (1) D i r e c t - i m a g e ( 2 ) P r e s e n s i t l z e d ( 3 ) W1pe-on (4) E l e c t r o s t a t i c b . D e e p - e t c h p l a t e s (1) B i - m e t a l ( 2 ) T r i - m e t a l c . R e l i e f p l a t e s f o r o f f -s e t (1) L e t t e r s e t (2 M e t a l ( 3 ) P l a s t i c (4) F o t o p o l y m e r 3 . E x p o s u r e a . L i g h t s o u r c e s b . T i m i n g c . A i d s (1) S t r i p - o f f m e t h o d ( 2 ) G r a y s c a l e S t r i p a s i m p l e n e g a t i v e T - l , T - 2 , T - 4 R - l , R - 1 4 , A V - 1 , A V - 2 , A V - 3 , A V - 4 , A V - 5 , A V - 6 , A V - 7 , AV-8 Make p r o o f s o r u n d e r s t a n d p r o c e s s Make s u r f a c e p l a t e U n d e r s t a n d p r o c e s s e s U n d e r s t a n d p r o c e s s e s E x p o s e a p l a t e 21 I I I . PROCESS PHOTOGRAPHY M a i n O b j e c t i v e : The s t u d e n t w i l l l e a r n and p e r f o r m a l l d a r k r o o m and c a m e r a p r o -c e d u r e s CONTENT STUDENT LEARNING ACTIVITIES . AIDS A. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o d a r k r o o m e q u i p - L e a r n t h e n o m e n c l a t u r e and T - l , T - 2 , T - 4 , ment and m a t e r i a l s p u r p o s e o f e a c h i t e m R - l , R - 7 , R-13 1 . P r o c e s s camera R - 1 4 , A V - 1 , 2 . T e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l d e v e l o p A V - 2 , A V - 5 , i n g s i n k A V - 6 , AV-7 3 . S a f e l i g h t 4 . Thermometer 5 . T r a y s 6 . T i m e r s 7 . C h e m i c a l s 8 . F i l m s t o r a g e 9 . F i l m c u t t e r s 3. D a r k r o o m p r o c e d u r e and f i l m p r o c e s s i n g 1 . S a f e t y Become aware o f p r o p e r s a f e t y a . C h e m i c a l p r e c a u t i o n s b . M e c h a n i c a l 2 . P r e p a r a t i o n i n t h e d a r k r o o m S e t up t r a y s and m i x c h e m i c a l a . T r a y p l a c e m e n t b . S i n k t e m p e r a t u r e c . M i x i n g c h e m i c a l s 3 . D e v e l o p i n g p r o c e d u r e s f o r D e v e l o p l i n e n e g a t i v e s n e g a t i v e s a . D e v e l o p i n g t r a y t e c h n i -ques b . S t a r t t i m e s c . S t o p b a t h t r a y d . F i x e r t r a y e . W a s h i n g t i m e f . E v a l u a t e n e g a t i v e g . D r y i n g p r o c e d u r e L i n e p h o t o g r a p h y 1 . T h e o r y U n d e r s t a n d t h e way a c a m e r a a . P a r t s o f camera and w o r k s t h e i r f u n c t i o n b . Types o f f i l m & t h e i r use 2 . S h o o t i n g l i n e copy a . B a s i c e x p o s u r e b . B a s i c s e t t i n g s c . R e d u c t i o n s and e n l a r g e -ments d . P o s i t i o n i n g copy on c o p j b o a r d e . Gray s c a l e f . F i l m on f i l m h o l d e r g . Use o f f i l t e r s 1 9 61 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. C o g o l i , J . O f f s e t d u p l i c a t o r o p e r a t o r . Washington, DC: 1 US O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l & T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1966. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e I Washington, DC. $5.00 2. This material is: _* a. A competency based instructional program A? b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program Q d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development. LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pretests td c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual * LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides , • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LI 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 ' LJ b. Grade 9 L J c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • • • • • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. //£—22& 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. / 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management JS b. Instruction B c. Evaluation IS 12. Overview " T h i s course was d e s i g n e d t o make t r a i n e e s competent, c a p a b l e , and employable as o f f s e t d u p l i c a t i n g machine o p e r a t o r s . T h e r e f o r e , the e n t i r e c o u r s e i s devoted t o p r e s s o p e r a t i o n and p r a c t i c e , d e s i g n e d t o make the t r a i n e e e employable i n as s h o r t a p e r i o d as p o s s i b l e . " ( L o g o l i , 1966, p. 1) T h i s i s a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program t h a t r e f l e c t s the i n t e n s e n a t u r e of i n s t r u c t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c j o b s k i l l s . The a u t h o r o u t l i n e s the u n i t s and l e s s o n o b j e c t i v e s s i m p l y and d i r e c t l y , w h i l e a l l o w i n g the i n s t u c t o r t o m a n i p u l a t e the l e n g t h and sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 62 T h i s program c o u l d be adapted t o secondary s c h o o l use, but the emphasis and cour s e time would need t o be a l t e r e d . T h i s program s t i p u l a t e s a maximum o f 20 s t u d e n t s ( f i v e s t u d e n t s per p r e s s ) , as w e l l as s t a g g e r e d s t a r t i n g t i m e s . The s t a g g e r e d s t a r t ( f i v e s t u d e n t s a week a d m i t t e d u n t i l maximum c l a s s s i z e i s a c h i e v e d ) i s de s i g n e d t o a l l o w the advanced s t u d e n t s t o a c t as r e s o u r c e p e o p l e i n the c l a s s r o o m . T h i s concept c o u l d be advantageous i n a c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n program w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary S c h o o l s . C O U R S E U N I T _ INSTALLING A NEW BLANKET SUGGESTED TRAINING TIME Classroom hours Shop hours OBJECT IVE To demonstrate the installation and preparation of a new blanket for operation. UNIT OUTLINE A. Remove old blanket B. Install new blanket C. Run-in the blanket on the duplicator D. Check over-all impression by printing solid under too light a pressure E. Correct low spots in blanket by patching with paper SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. Require trainee to install blanket. Use blankets which hove one or more low spots, if available. B. Require satisfactory test sheets with over-oil inking on plate -20-C O U R S E UNIT ]4_ ELIMINATING TROUBLES DURING DUPLICATOR RUN t SUGGESTED TRAINING TIME Classroom hours , Shop hours OBJECT IVE To demonstrate the detection and correction of common troubles occurring during the 1 duplicator run. UNIT OUTLINE A. Discuss and demonstrate (where possible) the following common problems and remedies: | 1. Gray, washed out copy - possible causes a. Too much fountain solution on image l b. Image breakdown c. Poor ink distribution 2. Scumming-possible causet o. Dirty or worn dampener covers , b. Ink too soft or greasy c. Plate not properly desensitized d. Other 3. Excess of ink NOTE: Amount of ink from side to side of sheet should be adjusted accord-ing to the amount of printed matter from side to side. 4. Uneven ink distribution - possible causes a. Too much ink distributed from certain portions of fountain b. Damaged or glazed ink rollers c. Poor image development 5. Weak spots - possible causes a. Low spots in plate or blanket b. Uneven inking or dampening 6- Streaks - possible causes o. Improper pocking of plote or blanket b. Malfunction of ink or dampening rollers c. Slipping blanket 7. Image breaking down - possible causes a. Poor development b. Length of run (check manufacturer's specifications for estimated length of run) SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. During duplicator operation and under the instructor's supervision, trainee should correct any troubles which occur B. Adjust duplicator so that the troubles listed above will occur. Trainee should make corrective adjustments. - 1 9 -rGRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Communication and mass media - an e l e c t i v e f o r h i g h s c h o o l 1. 1976. Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n Department of C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , I L 60601 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide CI c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package 8 e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks C I b. Unit content 8 . 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks • C I b. General learning outcomes 8 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development Et b. Awareness to imagery and design Q c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests C I c. Post Tests C I d. Student workbook C I e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 8 c. Grade 10 8" d. Grade 11 8 e. Grade 12 S. f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. . ^ ^ ^ ^ m m m m 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: ~ ~ ~ a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s c o u r s e was d e s i g n e d t o be an e l e c t i v e w i t h i n the E n g l i s h program i n the Chicago S c h o o l system. Communica- t i o n s and Mass Media i s an o u t l i n e t h a t d e s c r i b e s the f o l l o w i n g forms o f mass media: a d v e r t i s i n g , j o u r n a l i s m , c a r t o o n s , r a d i o & t e l e v i s i o n , photography & motion p i c -t u r e s , p o p l u l a r l i t e r a t u r e and p o p u l a r music. The impact of mass media on our c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y w i l l c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e , and programs t h a t i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s s h o u l d be encouraged. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r program i s a p o s i t i v e s t e p i n p r e p a r i n g m a t e r i a l s t h a t s t i m u l a t e i n s t r u c t i o n i n areas t h a t are r e l e v a n t t o the growth of s t u d e n t s ' c u l t u r a l awareness. STUDENT ACTIVITIES Advertising Do some core reading on advertising. Consult bibliography for t i t l e s . Discuss questions such as the following concerning a p a r t i c u l a r ad: To what audience does the advertising appeal? What immediate e f f e c t does i t achieve? To what basic human needs or desires does i t appeal? What persuasion devices are used? What attitudes toward the subject and the audience are openly expressed or implied? What s o c i a l , moral, or a r t i s t i c value does the work have? Before beginning a discussion, write a personal essay on "The Good L i f e . " Discuss the things that are important to the students, and define the abstractions used, such as success, love, happiness. A f t e r a l l the papers have been evaluated, the teacher may take some provocative ideas from each paper and s t e n c i l them. Discuss these ideas. This helps develop communication, w r i t i n g and thinking s k i l l s . If the teacher feels that a change in attitude might occur in student's ideas, another s i m i l a r essay might be written a f t e r the.semester 1s work has been covered. Discuss whether advertising has shaped some ideas of what constitutes "the good l i f e " or values generally. Bring a number of magazine and newspaper ads for a s i m i l a r product or s e r v i c e . Discuss the d i f f e r e n t appeals and techniques used. Observe t e l e v i s i o n commercials for the same kind of product or service. Write b r i e f comparisons. Compare the a d v e r t i s i n g i n magazines intended for d i f f e r e n t types of readers; such as Good Housekeeping, Sports I l l u s t r a t e d  New Yorker, Seventeen• How do the products and services advertised d i f f e r to s u i t the image of each magazine? Compare the t e l e v i s i o n commercials broadcast at d i f f e r e n t times of the day and of the week. Discuss how the subjects and s t y l e s of the commercials indicate the d i f f e r e n t audiences for which they are intended. What does t h i s indicate? Create and lay out a full-page magazine ad. Use pictures and copy from magazines and newspapers, or create them. Write a paragraph explaining the techniques and appeals used. Write and produce a one-minute t e l e v i s i o n commercial on a r e a l or imaginary product. This may be done on f i l m , and the audio done on tape or cassette. This may be an i n d i v i d u a l or Q group project. Before presenting the f i l m to the r e s t of the c l a s s , give a b r i e f o r a l presentation explaining the audience planned for and the appeals used. Tour a large supermarket, drugstore, or variety store to discover how many d i f f e r e n t persuasive techniques they are employing. Express an opinion on how e f f e c t i v e each one i s . Conduct a debate on the premise that advertising should be eliminated i n American society. This i s an excellent opportunity for students to do research, use o r a l s k i l l s , and learn about debate techniques. Journalism Do some core reading on journalism. Like advertising, magazine and newspaper journalism i s a composite mass medium and popular art form. It employs the media of p r i n t and photography and the arts of writing, photojournalism, and cartooning to e n t e r t a i n , inform, and influence i t s readers. In discussing journalism as communication, i t i s important to discover propaganda techniques rather than only j o u r n a l i s t i c w r i t i n g as such. In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "How to Detect Propaganda," Clyde R. M i l l e r l i s t s seven common propaganda devices. B r i e f l y , these a r e — Name C a l l i n g . A device to make us form a judgment without examining the evidence on which i t should be based i s name c a l l i n g . The propagandist appeals to our hate and fear. He gives "bad names" to those i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, races, p o l i c i e s , p r a c t i c e s , b e l i e f s , and ideas which he would have us condemn and r e j e c t . Today's bad names include F a s c i s t , demagogue, d i c t a t o r , Red, Communist, rabblerouser, troublemaker. G l i t t e r i n g G e n e r a l i t i e s . The device the propagandist uses to i d e n t i f y his program with virtue by use of "vi r t u e words" which appeal to our emotions i s c a l l e d g l i t t e r i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s . He uses terms l i k e t r u t h , freedom, honor, l i b e r t y , s o c i a l j u s t i c e , p u b l i c  service", the ri g h t to work, l o y a l t y , progress, democracy, the American way. As name c a l l i n g i s a device to make us form a judgment to r e j e c t and condemn, g l i t t e r i n g g e n e r a l i t i e s i s a device to make us accept and approve without examining the evidence. Transfer. A device c a l l e d transfer i s one by which the propagandist c a r r i e s over the authority and prestige of something we respect and revere to something he 6 6 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1 Cook, W., Dorroh, R., e t a l . Photography, Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education & Community C o l l e g e s , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $1.75 (1.25, 1.75, 1.00) 2. This material is: ^ a. A competency based instructional program fa" b. An industrial education curriculum guide C I c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks fa b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks fa b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development W b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans , b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LI d. Student workbook CI e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress fa 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 fa c. Grade 10 ^ d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 j& f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management fa b. Instruction • c. Evaluation fa 12. Overview T h i s progam of s t u d i e s o u t l i n e s the t e c h n i c a l areas of concern which would encourage the development of entry l e v e l s k i l l s f o r the student photographer. However the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n i c a l competence and mastery of image development i s not d i s c u s s e d . Without a d i s c u s s i o n between the i m p l i c a t i o n s of image development and t e c h n i c a l competence a photography student w i l l not be able to develop the a t t i t u d e necesary to motivate and change the audience behaviour. Photography cannot stand on i t s own t e c h n i c a l m e r i t s , but must address i t s e l f to the wider s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of what i t can do to s t i m u l a t e and motivate people. This o u t l i n e does not attempt to d i s c u s s the human r a m i f i c a t i o n s of the photographic image. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 67 The Alabama course outline, however does emphasize the major technical competencies needed to enter into a technical area of photography. This program would provide a valuable source of material for developing a photography course that would blend the concepts of technique and communication theory. In conjunction with the photography question book, the Alabama Department of Education has prepared the following support materials 1. Photography-answers 2. Photography-tests 3. Photography-tests answers The four publications are a l l integrated and relate to s p e c i f i c job tasks. TRADE ANALYSIS AND PROGRESS RECORD PHOTOGRAPHY NO. JOBS AND INFORMATION LESSONS Jon PROGRESS Learning Slants (Steps) Date Objective Reached 1. History and Growth of Photography Infon lation 2. Careers i n Photography Inforr iat ion 3. Use Safety i n Photography 4. Types of Photography Infon lation 5. The Nature of Photography Infon lation 6. Recognizing Different Personalities of Photographers 7. -Develop a Personal Approach to Photography 8. Look at Subjects i n Photographic Terms 9. Practice "Seeing as a Camera Sees" 10. The Components of the Camera Infon nation 11. Camera Shutters Infor nation 1 12. Choose the Right Camera 13. Operate a Box Camera 14. Operate a Single Lens Reflex Camera 15. Operate a Twin-Lens Reflex Camera 1 16. Operate Polariod, Folding, Instamatic, 35MM, I 1 i Press and Studio Cameras 17. How a Simple Lens Works Infor mation ! i 18. Choose Lens and Lenses 19. Select Film 20. Load and Unload Film 21, Use Exposure Meters 22 Select and Use F i l t e r s 23 Set Up and Use Lighting Equipment TRADE ANALYSIS AND PROGRESS RECORD PHOTOGRAPHY NO JOBS AND INFORMATION LESSONS J o n PROGRESS Rh'I J 77-71 C77f / i v I Learning Status (Steps) Date Ol'fcctiii Reached Dan-Cam pic red i Test Grade 1. History and Growth of Photography Infor T lation 2. Careers i n Photography Infor nation 3. Use Safety i n Photography 4. Types of Photography Infor nation — 1 5. The Nature of Photography Infor l lation i 6. Recognizing Different Personalities of 1 j i 1 1 j Photographers • j 1— 1 i :. i ! • ! i 7. Develop a Personal Approach to Photography 1 1 — : 1 1 ! I ! 8. Look at Subjects i n Photographic Terms —f—i 9. Practice "Seeing as a Camera Sees" —• L- 1 i i 10. The Components of the Camera Infon nation 1 ! 11. Camera Shutters Infon _ . • — nation | | 12. Choose the Right Camera i 1 — — , 1 ; 13. Operate a Box Camera t | 14. Operate a Single Lens Reflex Camera , 1 i 15. Operate a Twin-Lens Reflex Camera 1 1 16. Operate Polariod, Folding, Instamatic, 35MM, 1 ! | ; Press and Studio Cameras 1. i | ; 17. How a Simple Lens Works Infor nation ' ; : 18. Choose Lens and Lenses u i i 19. Select Film 1 i j 1 20. Load and Unload Film — M 21. Use Exposure Meters i l 1 22 Select and Use F i l t e r s h 1 23 Set Up and Use Lighting Equipment  CTi co JOB NO. 9 PRACTICE "SEEING AS A CAMERA SEES" TCP: 59-66 1. What may be used i n learning to see as a camera sees? 2. What are the advantages of studying a subject through a frame? 3. What are the most suitable viewfinders used to see as a camera sees? 4. Studying a subject on a groundglass camera has what advantages? 5. Explain photogenic q u a l i t i e s or subjects. 6. L i s t the photogenic q u a l i t i e s which are considered important. 7. Explain faking, 8. Why does complexity and disorder rank high among unphotogenic subject q u a l i t i e s ? 9. Why i s "editing" of a subject before an exposure i s made the most important single control in photography? 10. L i s t the stages which make up the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of " t o t a l seeing" and explain each. -9-N0. 9 ANSWERS CONTINUED 6. 1. Simplicity, c l a r i t y , and order 2. Contrast between l i g h t and dark 3. Forms that are large, simple, and bold 4. Outlines that are d i s t i n c t 5. Detail that can be rendered sharp 6. Texture gives character and ident i t y TCP p. 62-63 7. Pattern, rhythm, and repetition 8. Motion gives a dynamical quality 9. Spontaneity 10. Close-ups 11. Backlight 7. Faking i s tampering with the authenticity of a subject, scene, or event. TCP p. 64 8. Because the camera shows everything within i t s f i e l d of view. TCP p. 64 9. Because many photographs are overloaded with pointless subject matter and extraneous d e t a i l which makes them confusing and therefore i n e f f e c t i v e . TCP p. 64 10. 1. The conceptual stage - exists only i n the photographer's mind — i t i s what he wishes to express. 2. Through the viewfinder - This allows the photographer to look at a subject and analyze i t i n photographic terms. 3. On the contact sheet - placing a l l the photographs on the same subject on a sheet of 8 X 10-inch paper and use these proof p r i n t s as a basis for selecting s p e c i f i c negatives for f i n a l p r i n t i n g . 4. In the darkroom - Differences i n printing - i n cropping, lightness, contrast, etc. - w i l l r esult in prints that look so d i f f e r e n t that an untrained person could not believe they were made from the same negative. TCP p. 66 NO. 10 ANSWERS THE COMPONENTS OF THE CAMERA 1. Photography i s as simple or as complex as one wishes to make i t . TCP p. 68 2. Any camera i s b a s i c a l l y nothing but a l i g h t - t i g h t box or sleeve connecting two v i t a l l y important components, the lens and f i l m . TCP p. 68 3. The two v i t a l l y important components of a camera are the lens and the f i l m . TCP p. 68 4. The a u x i l i a r y devices that control a picture being made are the aiming devices, the focusing devices and the exposing devices. TCP p. 68 5. Without an accurate aiming device, a photographer cannot accurately compose his subjects. TCP p. 68-69 6. Focusing a camera means adjusting the lens-to-film distance i n r e l a t i o n to the lens-to-subject distance to a point that produces a sharp image. TCP p. 69 6 NO. 9 TEST PRACTICE "SEEING AS A CAMERA SEES" 1. For what i s a cardboard frame used? 2. Studying a subject through a frame has what advantages for the future? 3. Name two aids i n learning to see as a camera sees. 4. What advantages does a groundglass camera have when studying a subject? 5. Which subjects are more l i k e l y to make good photographs? 6. L i s t s i x of the photogenic q u a l i t i e s which are considered important. 7. What i s faking? 8. Why do complexity and disorder rank high among unphotogenic subject q u a l i t i e s ? 9. Why i s "editing" of a subject before an exposure the most important single control i n photography? 10. L i s t the four stages which make up the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of " t o t a l seeing." -9-TEST ANSWERS - NO. 8 CONTINUED 8. (1) The time of day; (2) The area i n which the picture i s taken; (3) The intensity of the l i g h t 9. So that he w i l l become aware of color and i t s subtle shades and changes. 10. So that the landscape, or any large subject w i l l not appear no larger than the paper i t i s printed on. TEST ANSWERS - NO. 9 1. A cardboard frame may be used as an aid i n seeing as a camera sees. 2. The perspective of future pictures can be evaluated more e a s i l y i f the subject i s studied through a frame. 3. Two other valuable aids i n learning to see as a camera sees are viewfinders and groundglass equipped cameras. 4. Studying a subject on the groundglass of a camera has the advantage that i t enables a photographer to observe d i r e c t l y the extension of sharpness i n depth. 5. Subjects that are animate or unusual are more l i k e l y to make good photographs. 6. (1) Simplicity, c l a r i t y and order; (2) Contrast between l i g h t and dark; (3) Forms that are large, simple, and bold; (4) Outlines that are d i s t i n c t ; (5) D e t a i l that can be rendered sharp; (6) Texture gives character and identity; (7) Pattern, rhythm, and r e p e t i t i o n ; (8) Motion gives a dynamical quality; (9) Spontaneity; (10) Photogenic devices and techniques; (11) Telephoto and long-focus lenses; (12) Close-ups; (13) Backlight 7. Faking i s tampering with the authenticity of a subject, scene, or event. 8. Because the camera shows everything within i t s f i e l d of view. 9. Many photographs are overloaded with pointless subject matter and extraneous d e t a i l which makes them confusing and therefore . i n e f f e c t i v e . 10. (1) The conceptual stage: (2) Through the viewfinder; (3) On the contact sheet; (4) In the darkroom 5 O 71 I-GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW.' C r a i g , G. W., & Dickson, W. S., e t a l . V o c a t i o n a l p r i n t i n g 1. guide, transparency master s e t . Blocksburg, V i r g i n i a : V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c a l I n s t i t u t e , C o l l e g e of Education, 1974. V i r g i n i a Department of Education D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l Education Ninth S t r e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Richmond, VA 23 219 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide • c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks • b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook • e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packaaes • j. - / k ^ * ^ r - c > £ t e a / >8-7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. « ^ _ ^ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: *""™™""""™ a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s resource package was prepared to be used i n con-j u n c t i o n with the s t a t e wide c u r r i c u l u m guide. The s e v e n t y - f i v e transparency masters could be adapted to most i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. The s e t covers the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s . 1. Safety 2. Measurement 3. Paper Handling and c u t t i n g 4. Proof reading 5. Paste-up i n s t r u c t i o n s and methods 6. Legal r e s t r i c t i o n s 72 C /^ Start new paragraph •vW (jp. No paragraph. Run in 13 Move to right d Move to lett U Lower letter or word n Raise letter or word "fa/. Transpose PROOFREADERS' MARKS NO 1 C U n fine papers, ^ /lead grades are finexf5apers.^ ? / Mead grades are M^ad grades are / Mead grades are Mead|g f a d e slare M e a drjrarJes| a r e Mead are| grades | PROOFREADERS' MARKS NO. 2 Wrong font Mead grades are ic. Lower case letter Jtc. Fourscore and ^ even years ago Cap,. Capital letter Copy. The united States s Caps and small caps The united states Caps and lower case C+£c. T # Ulffflft S / ^ Put in roman type The United States jdbJL. Put in italic type The United States 73 |= GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. E r z i n g e r , L., Lawley, G., & B r a d l e y , H., e t a l . S a l e s m a n s h i p , a d v e r t i s i n g & d i s p l a y . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o s : i.Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1978. C h i c a g o Board of E d u c a t i o n Deparment of C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , IL 60601 $7.50 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package H . e. An art education curriculum guide , • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks ^ b. Unit content ^ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks ^ b. General learning outcomes J?* 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design 2f c. Job training • D 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ._. a. Specific lesson plans ~ b. Pre tests ^ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual C I f. Equipment list C I g. Slides • h. Audio tapes , • i. Student learning packages n 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress I—1 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 b. Grade 9 C I c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 IS* f. Post secondary 1£» 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ m m m m _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management C I b. Instruction ,... • c. Evaluation 12. Overview G r a p h i c communications i s a broad a r e a of s t u d y , r a n g i n g from the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of machine o p e r a t i o n , t o the p h y s c h o l o g i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f an a u d i e n c e . T h i s c u r r i c u -lum guide p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r an i n depth c o u r s e i n one a r e a of g r a p h i c communications. Salesman- s h i p , A d v e r t i s i n g and D i s p l a y emphasizes, both the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of media n e c e s s a r y t o begin t o u n d e r s t a n d the v i s u a l and v e r b a l b u s i n e s s w o r l d . E f f e c t i v e communication whether g r a p h i c or n o t , i s an i n t e g r a l segment o f the n o r t h american economy and t h i s g u i d e w i l l p r o v i d e the i n s t r u c t o r w i t h m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l h o p e f u l l y be r e s p o n s i v e t o t h i s i d e a l . THE NATURE OF ADVERTISING V. The Advertising Agency Assign each student to bring to class a r t i c l e s about advertising agencies that they find i n the f i n a n c i a l sections of the d a i l y newspapers; Discuss the content of these a r t i c l e s i n c l a s s . Obtain copies of Advertising Age and discuss with the class the numerous a r t i c l e s about advertising agencies and what they do. Point out to the class the variety of Job opportunities which are available i n advertising agencies. Explain how people with creative and a r t i s t i c talents combine with those who are buBiness-oriented. Arrange with the public relations d i r e c t o r of an advertising agency f o r the class to tour the agency. Select a student to report to the class on what i s involved i n market research. Invite a representative of an advertising agency to discuss with the class the organization and role of an advertising agency. Select a student to write to a large c i t y newspaper i n q u i r i n g about the marketing services which the newspaper provides f o r l o c a l businesses. Discuss with the class the information received. Discuss with the class the reason f o r the existence of advertising agencies i f newspapers provide s i m i l a r services. Arrange with the public relations d i r e c t o r of a large c i t y newspaper fo r the class to tour the marketing research and advertising departments. VI. Ethics and Standards i n Advertising Assign a student to write to the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Inc., or the l o c a l Better Business Bureau to inquire about the standards or codes of ethics that have been established to protect the consumer. Discuss these codes i n class. Ask the students to bring to class examples of misleading advertisements. Discuss the reasons i n class. Select several students to write to t h e i r c i t y and neighborhood newspapers inquiring about a code of ethics that the papers maintain regarding the advertisements they p r i n t . Discuss with the class the information received. Obtain from the United States Post O f f i c e a copy of t h e i r regulations regard-ing the use of the mail services f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n and sale of goods and services. Discuss these regulations with the class. Select a student to write to the United States Department of Commerce re-questing information about the f i e l d of advertising. Discuss the informa-t i o n received with the class. 103 THE NATURE OF ADVERTISING SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES I. Elements of Advertising Discuss with the class the difference between "paid" advertising and " f r e e " p u b l i c i t y . Have each student bring to class an example of each from both a newspaper and a popular magazine. Have each student bring to class separate examples of advertisements that present only goods, only services, and only ideas. Diseuss with the class the advantage to management of the use of advertising as compared to the use of only a salesman i n s e l l i n g a product. M E S S A G E THE FIVE ELEMENTS THAT MAKE UP THE COMMUNICATIONS VIEW OF ADVERTISING * * Special permission has been granted to reproduce the above from C a r r o l l A. Nolan and Roaan F. Warmke, Marketing. Sales Promotion and Advertising (Cineinnatli South-Western Publishing Co., 1965 . 75 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. G a r r i s o n , C , Rogers, T., B r i g g i n s , C. TV cameraman. Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama State Department of 1 Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Eduation & Community C o l l e g e s , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $1.75 (1.25, 1.75, .75) 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide C c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks fa b. Unit content CI 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks fa b. General learning outcomes C I 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design CI c. Job training fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans Jd b. Pre tests JE* c. Post Tests e* d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual CI f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 CI b. Grade 9 CI c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 .' fa e. Grade 12 B-f. Post secondary 0 » 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ — 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management CI b. Instruction fa-c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The TV Cameraman course o u t l i n e prepared by the Alabama Department - of Education i s a very s p e c i f i c task o r i e n t a t e d program. The students are d i r e c t e d to answer a number of quest i o n s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a job task. The q u e s t i o n s are based on r e s e a r c h , o b s e r v a t i o n and p r a c t i c e . T h i s program emphasizes the concept, i n t e g r a l to many of the Alabama programs, that mastery i s a f o u r step process 1. o b s e r v a t i o n 2. a s s i s t a n c e to the i n s t r u c t o r 3. i n s t r u c t o r a s s i s t s the student 4. student capable of machine o p e r a t i o n without s u p e r v i s ion GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 76 A s t u d e n t may p r o g r e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the c l a s s depending on h i s / h e r m o t i v a t i o n , and t h i s l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e i s encouraged throughout not o n l y t h i s program but o t h e r s developed under the a u s p i c e s of the Alabama Department of E d u c a t i o n . The t e c h n i c a l competencies of the s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t i n g t h i s c ourse would be s u i t a b l e f o r e n t r y i n t o the i n d u s t r y o r p o s t secondary e d u c a t i o n , however, the program does not address i t s e l f t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between communication and human u n d e r s t a n d i n g . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s paramount i n the s t u d e n t s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h and und e r s t a n d the i n t e n s i t y of the what and why of t e l e v i s i o n media. T e c h n i c a l competency does not n e c e s s a r i l y encourage the f e e l i n g o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the power t e l e v i s i o n o r , f o r t h a t m a t t e r , any media can have. TRADE ANALYSIS AND PROGRESS RECORD T.V. CAMERAMAN NO. JOBS AND INFORMATION LESSONS JOB PROGRESS RELATED STUDY I THE CAMERAMAN Learning Status (Steps) Date Objective _ Reached Date Completed Test Grade 1. Qualities of a Cameraman INI 3RMATI0N 2. Responsibilities of a T.V. Cameraman INI 3RMATI0N 3. Responsibilities of a T.V. Studio Crew INF 3RMATION II THE T.V. STUDIO CAMERA 4. Use the T.V. Camera Controls 5. Use of the Different Camera Mountings III BASIC OPTICS USED IN T.V. CAMERA OPERATION 6. Use and Understand the Depth of F i e l d and F-Stops on Camera 7. Shoot a Production Where Lens Angle Has to be Derived e . Camera Work Involving Lenses with Different Angles 9. Camera Work Involving, the Use of Normal, Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Lenses 10. Operation of a T.V. Camera with a Zoom Lens IV PICTURE COMPOSITION 11. Frame a Shot 12. Adjust a Shot to Improve Compositional Effectiveness 13. Adjust a Shot to Improve Concentration 14. Adjust a Shot for Proper In-Depth Focus 15. Adjust a Camera for Recomposing the Picture 16. Use the Camera to Match Other Camera Shots 17. Shoot a Scene Involving High Shots and Low Shot; i v JOB NO. 11 FRAME A SHOT TCO: 62-63 1. What could happen i f you do not take care i n framing a shot of people? 2. What i s meant by the r u l e of thirds? 3. What i s the general idea of placing the subject into a frame, according to the r u l e of thirds? 4 . What should the cameraman avoid at a l l costs when framing a shot? 5. What i s the most obvious thing to do when composing a picture? 6. What part of the screen i s generally the weakest concentra-t i o n a l area? 7. What r e s u l t s i f the pict u r e area i s divided into equal parts? 8. In what type of s i t u a t i o n s are various compositional arrange-ments possible? 9. How can you overcome the i l l u s i o n of people leaning on the frame . . . etc.? 10. What i s wrong with using the rule of th i r d s on every shot? -11-N0. 10 ANSWERS CONTINUED 5. A push-button selector which enables any four present lens angles to be chosen. TCO: 46 -6. Maintaining a sharp focus. TCO: 48 7. The wide angle. TCO: 48 8. When you are using the narrow angle, for example on an extremely force shot. TCO: 48 9. The narrow angle. TCO: 48 10. Wide angle lens. TCO: 48 NO. 11 ANSWERS FRAME A SHOT 1. The border of the picture can produce strange, subjective e f f e c t s . TCO: 62 2. This i s when the frame i s divided v e r t i c a l l y and horizontally into thirds. TCO: 62 3. That the subject should be placed at the intersection of the l i n e s . TCO: 62 4. Dividing the picture area into equal parts. TCO: 62 5. To centralize the main subject. TCO: 62 6. The center. TCO: 62 7. A formal balance results that i s d u l l and montonous. TCO: 62 8. Where two or more people appear i n shot at the same time. TCO: 62 9. Shots can be arranged so that the frame cuts the subject's body o f f at intermediate points. TCO: 63 10. It may lead to rather routine mechanical proportions. TCO: 63 NO. 12 ANSWERS ADJUST A SHOT TO IMPROVE COMPOSITIONAL EFFECTIVENESS 1. The director. TCO: 64 2. The cameraman. TCO: 64 3. The compositional effectiveness. TCO: 64 NO. 11 TEST FRAME A SHOT TRUE - FALSE 1. As t h e camera moves c l o s e r t h e s i z e s o f f o r e g r o u n d o b j e c t s change more r a p i d l y t h a n more d i s t a n t ones. 2. The r u l e o f t h i r d s i s a u s e f u l b e g i n n i n g t o a t t r a c t e d c o m p o s i t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t , b u t s h o u l d n o t be used h a b i t u a l l y . 3. A s l i g h t l y w i d e r l e n s a n g l e g i v e s l e s s space between t h e s u b j e c t and frame. 4. A s l i g h t r e d u c t i o n i n t h e l e n s a n g l e c a u s e s t h e sub-j e c t t o f i l l t h e frame more f u l l y . 5. A c e n t r a l i z e d s h o t o f a p r o f i l e o r a t h r e e - q u a r t e r f a c e c a n be b a l a n c e d and i n f o c u s . 6. I n f r a m i n g p e o p l e , you c a n a c c i d e n t l y i m p l y t h a t t h e y a r e s i t t i n g , s t a n d i n g , o r l e a n i n g on the t o p o f the frame. 7. A l t e r a t i o n o f t h e l e n s a n g l e e n l a r g e s o r r e d u c e s t h e s i z e o f the s h o t . 8. Even d i v i s i o n o f t h e frame when composing t he p i c t u r e p r o d u c e s v e r y m e c h a n i c a l r e s u l t s . 9. S u b j e c t s f u r t h e r from t h e camera become d i s p l a c e d more n o t i c e a b l y t h a n o t h e r s n e a r e r the camera. 10. H i g h e r v i e w p o i n t s g i v e more prominence t o h o r i z o n t a l s u r f a c e t h a n l o w e r camera p o s i t i o n . -11-TEST ANSWERS - NO. 7 True False True True False True True False TEST ANSWERS - NO. 8 False True False True True 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. True True True False True TEST ANSWERS True True False True False 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. False True True False True TEST ANSWERS - NO. 10 True True False True False False True True True TEST ANSWERS - NO. 11 True True False True False 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. False True True False True TEST ANSWERS - NO. 12 True True False True False 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. True False True True False V D 80 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Graphic a r t s . Montgomery, Alabama: State Department of 1 Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1977. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , Alabama 35486 $3.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program 58. b. An industrial education curriculum guide • c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the following materials a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 j» d. Grade 11 P e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for a. Management b. Instruction c. Evaluation 12. Overview T h i s program i d e n t i f i e s seventy-two i n d u s t r i a l tasks and arranges them by r e l a t e d u n i t s r a t h e r than by a s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g sequence. The Sta t e of Alabama r e q u i r e s each i n s t r u c t o r to cover a l l o u t l i n e d tasks s p e c i f i e d i n the guide, but the emphasis and sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n i s the pe r o g a t i v e of the i n s t r u c t o r . The guide i n c l u d e s performance sheets that s t i p u l a t e the o b j e c t i v e , procedure, r e l a t e d knowledge and m a t e r i a l s . The job sheets are not intended to be s e l f i n s t r u c t i o n a l , but ra t h e r as a means f o r r e c o r d i n g and documenting student achievement. These sheets p r o v i d e a v e h i c l e f o r e s t a b l i s h -ing a standard f o r a r t i c u l a t i o n between secondary and post secondary programs. . • rt . • • JOB HO. 21 - OPERATE THE CAMERA OBJECTIVE: Given camera ready copy, make the necessary camera settings and positioning to reproduce the required copy according to the layout s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Observed Hell ped Objective Reached — y 'cols and Materials Related Knowledge 1. Parts of camera 2. Lighting 3. Optical proportions References MGA: 109-127 1. Position copy. 2. Set bellows extension. 3. Set copy board extension. 4. Set angle and distance of l i g h t s . 5. Set "F" stop. 6. Set times for lengths of exposure. 7. Expose. 1. Process camera 2. Proportional wheel 3. Gray scale 4. Film -22-GRAPHIC ARTS Student's Name Student's Address Date Entered Date Completed Instructor w i l l indicate by check •/ or date and his i n i t i a l s when student reaches the objective. A grade should also be given on each job. I. HISTORY 1. History of Lithography Objective Reached Grade II. COMPOSITION 2. Make Thumbnail Sketches 3. Prepare Layout, Using Thumbnail Sketch 4. Prepare Copy For Photooraohina 5. Use and Care for Drawing Instruments 6. Set Hot Type by Hand 7. Compose Hot Type by Machine 8. Compose Cold Type by Hand 9. Compose Cold Type with Typewriter 10. Compose Photographic Display Type 11. Photo-Compose With Machines 12. Prepare Line Copy 13. Prepare Combination Layout 14. Use Black and White Photography 15. Scale Artwork 82 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. The Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation (GATF) i s an organ-i z a t i o n d e d i c a t e d to p r e s e r v i n g the q u a l i t y and e x p e r t i s e of the American p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y . GATF i s not a trade s c h o o l , r a t h e r an i n d u s t r y sponsored research i n s t i t u t i o n . They provide the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s with a v a r i e t y of t e c h n i c a l and i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . T e c h n i c a l education i s not t o t a l l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system. The p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with GATF are prepared to improve the q u a l i t y of workers with c a r e f u l l y planned m a t e r i a l s and i n n o v a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. The m a t e r i a l s prepared at the P i t t s b u r g h foundation d e a l with s p e c i f i c job t a s k s . These o u t l i n e s and concepts can be adopted to e i t h e r an indus-t r i a l or v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n program. Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p betweeen GATF and secondary schools i s the o p p o r t u n i t y to be aware of the next step i n the graphic a r t s students development. The advanced nature of the GATF m a t e r i a l s i n d i c a t e s an awareness by the i n d u s -t r y of the need to encourage sound e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s to i n s t r u c t students who w i l l become journeymen i n t h i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n d u s t r y . GATF a c t i v e l y encourages e d u c a t i o n a l membership from s e c -ondary and c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t o r s by reducing f e e s , o f f e r i n g summer workshops and p u b l i s h i n g a monthly n e w s l e t t e r . The a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s sponsored by the foundation allow educators to maintain a c u r r e n t knowledge of the l a t e s t trends i n the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y as w e l l as expand t h e i r understanding of t h i s r a p i d l y changing i n d u s t r y . Cooperation between i n d u s t r y and education i s imperative, e s p e c i a l l y i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s u b j e c t such as p r i n t i n g . H o p e f u l l y many of the GATF m a t e r i a l s encourage t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n to i n s u r e the t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r students i n t e r e s t e d i n a graphic a r t s c a r e e r w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d and r e l e v a n t . The f o l l o w i n g course o u t l i n e s prepard by GATF i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n i n : 1. Line Photography 2. H a l f t o n e Photography 3. O f f s e t L i t h o g r a p h i c S t r i p p i n g 4. Web O f f s e t P r i n t i n g 5. L i t h o g r a p h i c O f f s e t Feeder Operation 6. Colour S e p a r a t i o n Photography 7. Press Operating f o r O f f s e t Lithography Each course o u t l i n e i d e n t i f i e s g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a p o i n t form sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n . Although prepared f o r a p p r e n t i c e and journeyman t r a i n i n g they can provide a v a l u a b l e resource to the secondary i n s t r u c t o r f o r post secondary awareness and v o c a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n . 83 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Halpern, G. Line photography. P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania: 1 Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide L J c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package e. An art education curriculum guide 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes ^ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: _ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests td c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 H f. Post secondary J9. 9. Number of hours per instructional module. m m m m ^ ^ ^ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. « « . ^ _ _ » 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview COURSE OUTLINE LINE PHOTOGRAPHY Description:. This is a basic course designed to prepare the apprentice for the eventual position of lithographic photographer by providing him with a thorough background i n Line Photography. Its purpose Is to give the apprentice lithographic photographer an understanding of basic photography and to introduce him to the functions, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and duties of photographic department personnel. The course deals primarily with jobs which relate d i r e c t l y or in-d i r e c t l y with a l l phases of li n e photography, the proper performance of which w i l l ultimately lead to consistent quality lithographic printing. It covers basic principles of camera operation and f i l m development, and the fundamentals of the lithographic process as they apply to the duties of the photographer. General Objectives: 1. To develop an appreciation for, and an understanding of, the graphic arts industries, i n parti c u l a r the lithographic industry. 2. To have the apprentice develop basic working s k i l l s and under-standings in the fundamentals of photography. 3. To have the apprentice acquire a working knowledge of the terminology used i n the lithographic industry. 4. To have the apprentice develop good working habits and observe the basic rules of safety i n the photography department. 5. To give the apprentice a background i n the lithographic process. 6. To develop that sense of judgment and understanding of the photographic process which w i l l result i n maximum trouble-free operation. 7. To develop the a b i l i t y to handle the d i v e r s i f i e d types of Jobs in line photography i n a smooth and e f f i c i e n t manner. 8. To develop the a b i l i t y to anticipate, analyze and resolve a l l problems which might arise i n handling each job so that maximum efficiency and quality can be achieved. Specific Objectives: 1. To learn the fundamentals of darkroom operation and maintenance. - 12 -Methods of 1. Inspection or observation 2. Time and temperature a. Time and temperature development at constant di l u t i o n b. Dilution and temperature development at constant time c. Importance of complete darkness X Factorial system 4. Combination Handling the Exposed Film 1. Determining emulsion side Making the Negative 1. Development a. Importance of constant temperature of developing solution Factors determining temperature of developing solution Controlling and checking temperature b. Selection of method of development c. Developer exhaustion d. Timing of e. Effect of prolonged development f. Effect of incomplete development 2. The Stop-bath 3. Fixing a. Importance of agitation during b. Timing of c. Useful l i f e of f i x i n g bath d. Results of excessive time i n fixi n g bath e. Effect of weak bath -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Halpern, G. L i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t feeder o p e r a t i o n s . 1 P i t t s b u r g h . P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania: Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program L J b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • I e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content >P«. 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes pL-5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development 5*» b. Awareness to imagery and design LI c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pretests ^ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 § e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary J?£» 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview I COURSE OUTLINE LITHOGRAPHIC OFFSET — FEEDER OPERATOR Description: This i s a basic course designed to prepare the apprentice for the position of feeder operator. Its purpose i s to give Che o f f s e t apprentice operator an under, standing of the lithographic process as well as to introduce him to the functions, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and duties of pressroom personnel. It deals with basic principles of machine mechanics, press operation, maintenance and fundamentals of the lithographic process as Chey apply to the duties of a feeder-operator. General Objectives: 1. To have the apprentice develop basic working s k i l l s and understandings l n the fundamentals of offset presswork. 2. To have the apprentice acquire a working knowledge of the terminology used In the lithographic industry. 3. To have the apprentice develop good working habits, and observe basic rules of pressroom safety. 4. To give the apprentice a background l n the lithographic process. 5. To develop an appreciation for, and an understanding of, the graphic arts industries - i n particular, the l i t h o -graphic industry. Specific 0btectlve6: 1. To learn the fundamentals of press construction and maintenance. 2. To develop the basic s k i l l s and fundamental operations required for e f f i c i e n t and safe pressroom operation and maintenance, with par t i c u l a r reference to press cleaning and lubrication. 3. To acquire the s k i l l s and understanding necessary to the preparation of fountain solutions. 4. To acquire the s k i l l s and understanding necessary for preparing stock for press feeding, and for setting up the feeding system. - 1 -- 8 -PREPARING THE FOUNTAIN SOLUTION A. Plates for the Offset-Lithographic Process 1. Kinds of plates 2. Plate materials 3. Steps ln platemaking B. Chemistry of Lithography 1. Basic terminology 2. Chemical formula C. Acidity of Fountain Solutions 1. The fountain solution or etch concentrate 2. pH 3. Measurement of pH 4. Factors affecting pH value of solutions D. Fountain Solution Components 1. Water 2. Acid 3. Gum 4. Salts E. Fountain Solutions 1. Preparation of fountain solution concentrate 2. Measurements of liquids and solids 3. Commercial preparations 4. Temperature and humidity 5. Formulary 6. Storage of fountain solutions and components 7. Care and use of rubber gloves F. Pressroom Preparation of Fountain Solutions CO 1. Procedure for preparing fountain solution for press 0^ GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 87 Halpern, G. Web o f f s e t pressmanship. P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania: Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Fobes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide fa c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes P*» 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development P** b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. p, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests bd c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 J& f. Post secondary fa 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L J b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview -4-I. PUTTING TttE PRESS IN REGISTER A. Register and Insertion 1. De f i n i t i o n of register and insertion 2 . Types of register systems a. Simple 3-point b. Pre-registered 3-point 3 . Insertion systems a. Direct or taking b. Indirect Feed-roll insertion Types of feed r o l l and intermediate cylinders Swing or transfer gripper insertion B. Pre-registering Devices 1. Functions of pre-registering devices 2 . Types of pre-registering devices a. Slowing down sheet for register b. Holding down sheet for register c. Moving sheet for register 3. Hastening movement of t a i l end of sheet after insertion 4. Setting of pre-registering devices C. Timing the Sheet for Register and Insertion 1. Importance of timing the sheet 2. Timing the feeder a. Means of timing the feeder 3. Timing trie sheet a. Devices for timing the sheet 4. Causes of sheet being out-of-time with front guides -5-D. Register Table or Plate 1. Location of register table or plate 2 . Function of register table or plate 3 . Types of register table or plate a. Fixed b. Movable 4. Relationships with other registering devices 5. Centering the sheet to the register plate E. Front Guides 1. Function of front guides 2 . Importance in register 3. Other names for front guides 4. Kinds of front guides a. With micrometer adjustment b. With scales for setting c. Adjustable f l a c spring guiae d. Pushing front guide e. Multiple stop f. 2-point drop guides or stops 5. Front guide assembly 6. Setting the front guides 7. Setting the stop fingers F. Side Guiaes 1. Other names for side guides 2. Kinds of side guides a. Push type b. Pull type 3. Selection of side guide CO CO GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 89 R e i c h e l , L. Colour s e p a r a t i o n photography. P i t t s b u r g h , 1 Pennsylvania: Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide P=» c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks 5*' b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks L J , b. General learning outcomes ^ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development j?** b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pr b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • I-I 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 » e. Grade 12 B« f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. m m m ^ m m 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L] b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview 1 COLOR SEPARATION PHOTOGRAPHY  COURSE OUTLINE Description: This is an advanced subject designed to give the Color Camera Apprentice an understanding of process printing as utilized in lithography, and the functions, responsibilities, and duties of the personnel of the color camera department. It deals with basic and advanced principles of color camera work plus techniques used by the color cameraman. It prepares the apprentice for the position of color cameraman. General Objectives: 1. To give the apprentice a background in lithographic process printing. 2. To have the apprentice acquire a working knowledge of file terminology used in lithographic process printing. 3. To have the apprentice develop working skills and understanding in the color camera crafts. 4. To have the apprentice develop good working habits and observe basic rules of safety in the color camera department. Specific Objectives: 1. To study file fundamentals of process printing. 2. To develop an understanding of the role played by the color cameraman as one of the important steps in printing a process color job. 3. To develop a working knowledge of c >lor separation photography and to become a skilled artisan in color camera work. 4. To become skilled in all phases of color camera photography and to develop a working knowledge of how JO overcome limitations of color photography through the use of color correction photography. 5 U. Protecting copy V. Mounting materials W. Copy marks Light and the Theory of Color A. Light from sun B. The refractive index of light C. Direction of light 1. Direct light 2. Incident light 3. Reflected light 4. Refracted light D. Reflectance E. History of color F. Light as a source of color 1. The visible spectrum 2. Spectral wavelengths 3. Newton's prism 4. The millimicron scale G. The spectrophotometer H. Mixing spectral wavelengths I . Pigment colors 1. Primary 2. tiecondaiy 3. Difference between pign ent and spectral primaries VO O GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 91 R e i c h e l , L. O f f s e t l i t h o g r a p h i c s t r i p p i n g . P i t t s b u r g h , 1. Pennsylvania: Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide w c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content ^ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes m. 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. r-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 , LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 5? e. Grade 12 KT f. Post secondary IS 9. Number of hours per instructional module. — » 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation 0 12. Overview COURSE OUTLINE OFFSET STRIPPING (Black - White and Color) Description: This is a basic course designed to prepare the apprentice for the position of stripper. Its purpose is to give the offset apprentice stripper an understanding of the lithographic process, as well as to introduce him to the functions, responsibilities, and duties of stripping department personnel. It deals with basic principles of equipment operation, adjustments to equipment, maintenance and fundamentals of the lithographic process, as they apply to the duties of a stripper. General Objectives: 1. To have the apprentice develop basic working skills and understandings in the fundamentals of stripping. 2. To have the apprentice acquire a working knowledge of the terminology used in the lithographic industry. 3. To have the apprentice develop good working habits and observe basic rules of safety in the stripping department. 4. To give the apprentice a background in the lithographic process. 5. To develop an appreciation for, and an understanding of the graphic arts industries — in particular, the lithographic industry. Specific Objectives: 1. To leam the fundamentals of stripping department equipment and maintenance. 2. To develop the basic skills and fundamental operations required for efficient and safe stripping department operation and maintenance, with particular reference to general cleaning. 3. To acquire the skills and understanding necessary to the preparation of stripping department materials. - 4 -Introduction To The Lithographic Stripping Department A. The Lithographic Industry 1. Relationship of the lithographic industry to the printing industry 2. The major printing processes 3. The development of lithography 4. The requirements for lithographic printing The Lithographic Printing Plant 1. Major divisions of the plant a. Front office b. The shop c. Maintenance department The Stripping Department 1. Relation of stripping to the offset process 2. Activities 3. Personnel 4. Apparel 5. Arrangement of stripping department 6. Color scheme 7. Lighting 8. Ventilation Safety in the Stripping Department 1. Importance of fire prevention 2. Location of fire exits vo t o 93 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Roman, C. Halftone photography. P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania: 1 Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide PJ>» c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content & 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. „ a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress <-> 8. Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 ® e. Grade 12 £ 1 f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: _ a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview 50H CO Page 1 COURSE OUTLINE HALFTONE PHOTOGRAPHY Description: This course has been designed for the photographer who has a thorough background in Line Photography; who desires to develop those skills, under-standings, techniques, and the sense of judgment which are necessary to perform the duties and assume the responsibilities of the journeyman halftone photographer. It deals primarily with jobs which relate directly or indirectly to all phases of halftone photography, the proper performance of which ultimately will lead to consistent quality printing in the field of lithography. This course will enable the photographer to learn about the various theories and aspects of halftone photography. It outlines procedures through which the trainee can apply this knowledge by actually working on specific production jobs. General Objectives: 1. To acquire an appreciation of the role ot the craftsman; to understand the photographer, the stripper, the plate-maker and the pressman, the inter-relationship to one another and the overall contribution to the industry. 2. To stress professional methods of handling and operating  all black-and-white halftone projects which are necessary. 3. To learn how to handle, in a smooth, efficient manner, the diversified types oi jobs which are expected of the quality halftone photographer. 4. To develop the ability ;o analyze, anticipate, and resolve all problems which mii;hL arise in handling each job so that maximum efficiency can be achieved along with nia.xi-mum quality of results. 508 CO Page 5 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC HALFTONE ORIENTATION A. Copy for Halftone Photography 1. The meaning of tone 2. The meaning of value 3. Continuous-tone copy 4. Typical continuous-tone copy encountered by cameraman 5. The photograph as the most typical type of copy a. Characteristics of an ideal photograph for reproduction b. Methods of making improvements on a poor photograph B. Basic Principles Governing Halftone Photography 1. Definition of halftone photography 2. Necessity for the halftone screen 3. Halftone screens a. Glass crossline b. Contact 4. The function of the halftone screen C. Halftone Dots 1. Formation of the halftone dot 2. Shape of the halftone dot 3. Sizes of halftone dots 4. Dots and their relationship to negative and positive material 5. Percentage-size of halftone dots D. Background and History of Halftone Photography 1. Early methods of reproducing varying tone values 2. Limitations of the early methods 3. The first practical halftone screen 4. Inventions and improvements in photolithography 5. The contact screen a. Early uses and results b. Recent uses and results GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. G r a p h i c communications. White Bear Lake, M i n n e s o t a : 1 Minnesota C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s C e n t e r , 1978. Minn e s o t a I n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l s C e n t e r 3554 White Bear Avenue White Bear Lake, MN 55110 $22.00 2. This material is: ^ a. A competency based instructional program p^ r b. An industrial education curriculum guide L J c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: ^ a. A job tasks B* b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: ^ a. Specific job tasks j?** b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development e* b. Awareness to imagery and design _J c. Job training ® 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. p, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests pd c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list , LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • • • • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress D 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 & f. Post secondary 5$. 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: — — — a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s g u i d e i d e n t i f i e s t e r m i n a l performance o b j e c t i v e s f o r the f o l l o w i n g u n i t s i n the g r a p h i c a r t s i n d u s t r y : l a y o u t s d e s i g n , c o m p o s i t i o n , pasteup & copy, p r o c e s s photography, c o n t i n u o u s tone photography, s t r i p p i n g , p l a t e m a k i n g , s h e e t -f e d o f f s e t p r e s s , l e t t e r p r e s s , web p r e s s , s c r e e n p r i n t i n g , b i n d e r y & f i n i s h i n g , d u p l i c a t i n g - c o p i e r equipment, human r e l a t i o n s - p e r s o n a l development & s a f e t y . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 96 G r a p h i c Communications i s the most comprehensive competency based a n a l y s i s reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s program i s not a s t r u c t u r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l program, r a t h e r an o u t l i n e of competencies t o be a t t a i n e d . The g u i d e ' s a u t h o r i n t e n d s t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l u t i l i z e these m a t e r i a l s t o de v e l o p a program o f s t u d i e s t h a t w i l l encourage s t u d e n t growth. Program development i n t h i s p r o v i n c e would c e r t a i n l y be enhanced by r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s comprehensive o u t l i n e . TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS MINNESOTA CURRICULUM SERVICES CENTER 3004 Wtlta But M* W W M I L 1 M MM WtIO um "oiw3 aoo-ott-goK Area of Competence. Statement of D. Perform Photographic Operations - Process 01. Consult Job Ticket and Organize Work Flow Competence TuMi) No. 01. Sort Work to be Photographed ( l i n e , halftone or color) Supplier Magnifying glass Pencil Equipment: Table Job t i c k e t with dummy Given the following: Twenty pieces of copy and job t i c k e t with dummy. (conditions) You, the student, will be able to: SORT WORK TO BE PHOTOGRAPHED (LINE, HALFTONE, COLOR) (outcome) So well that: A l l pieces of copy are sorted into one of these categories: or According to: 1) l i n e copy (criteria) 2) copy to be screened - half Lone 3) copy to be separated - coJor process with 100% accuracy within 10 minutes. TERMINAL PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS 012) 7T0-3M3 800-<62-0eO4 Area of Competence D. Perform Photographic Operations - Process  SCompetonoe 0 1 • C o n s u l t J o b Ticket and Organize Work Flow Talk (I) No.. 02. Crop and Size A l l Photographs Supplies: Equipment: Proportional Scale Job tic k e t with dummy layout Ruler -Pencil Photos Marker Given the following: Job tick e t or tickets containing ten photos for cropping and (conditions) s i z i n g for camera You, the student, will be able to: CROP AND SIZE ALL PHOTOGRAPHS (outcome) So well that: - A l l photos have crop marks i n margin area to indicate portion to be used or ccording tc (criteria) or A o: - A l l photos marked with a percent of size information to the cameraperson A l l photos marked and sized as per dummy A l l markings not to interfere with camera operations 100% accuracy within 20 minutes 98 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. G r a p h i c communications (4 V o l s . ) c u r r i c u l u m , v o c a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n . C o t t a g e Grove, M i n n e s o t a : South Washington 1 County S c h o o l s , 1978. Park S e n i o r High S c h o o l South Washington County S c h o o l s D i s t r i c t 833 C o t t a g e Grove, MN 55016 N/C 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide &=> c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content ^ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes I?* 5. Instructional material organized to promote: _ a. Skill development P** b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests pJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual. LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 - • d. Grade 11 , • e. Grade 12 , • f. Post secondary •••^ • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. tr> 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The g r a p h i c a r t s department at Park S e n i o r High S c h o o l i n C o t t a g e Grove, M i n n e s o t a have p r e p a r e d a s i x c o u r s e program i n g r a p h i c communications. I t i s d e s i g n e d t o be i m p l e -mented on a semester system o v e r t h r e e y e a r s . The c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e s range from a b a s i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o g r a p h i c communications t o advanced t e c h n i q u e s i n c o l o u r s e p a r a t i o n . The c o u r s e o u t l i n e s are v e r y s p e c i f i c i n c o n t e n t , time per u n i t , and sequence of m a t e r i a l . The s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h i s program are r e q u i r e d t o complete the sequence i n o r d e r , an advantage t h a t may not be a v a i l a b l e i f a s c h o o l was on a l i n e a r system. L e c t u r e : 4 s t a g e s o f w o r k . 1 . D e s i g n 2 . Image G e n e r a t i o n 3 . P r e p r o d u c t i o n and P r o d u c -t i o n 4 . B i n d i n g , F i n i s h i n g a n d P a c k a g i n g 2 . D e s i g n S t u d e n t A s s i g n m e n t : R e a d S e c t i o n 4 h o u r s I I i n t e x t . S t u d e n t A c t i v i t y : Do u n i t t e s t s I n t e x t b o o k . Do w o r k s h e e t s on p o i n t s y s t e m and t y p e f a c e s . L e c t u r e - D e m o n s t r a t i o n : L i n e g a u g e s , t y p e f a c e s , f o n t s , h a n d o u t t y p e s a m -p l e b o o k s . D e m o n s t r a t i o n : L a y o u t o f j o b 1 . 3 . C o m p o s i t i o n S t u d e n t A s s i g n m e n t : R e a d u n i t I I , 10 h o u r s c h a p t e r 3 i n t e x t b o o k . Do u n i t t e s t s . S t u d e n t A c t i v i t y : Do w o r k s h e e t s on C a l i f o r n i a Job C a s e , f o u n d r y t y p e , s p a c e s and q u a d s . S e t up and p r o o f j o b 1 and 2 . Do p r o o f m a r k s s h e e t , d i s t r i b u t e t y p e . L e c t u r e - D e m o n s t r a t i o n : C a l i f o r n i a J o b C a s e , s e t t i n g t y p e , t y p e s o f c a s e s , spaces and q u a d s , l e a d and s l u g m a c h i n e s , t y i n g a f o r m , p r o o f i n g t y p e and d i s t r i b u t i n g t y p e . 4 . P a p e r C u t t i n g S t u d e n t A s s i g n m e n t : Read C h a p - 4 h o u r s t e r 5 i n t e x t b o o k . c-S t u d e n t A c t i v i t i e s : Compute t h e most e c o n o m i c a l method o f c u t t i n g p a p e r , c u t p a p e r , do u n i t t e s t . L e c t u r e - D e m o n s t r a t i o n : P a p e r w e i g h t s and s i z e s , C o m p u t i n g p a p e r c u t s , o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p a p e r c u t t e r , s a f e t y when c u t t i n g p a p e r , p a p e r m a n u f a c t u r e . 5 . R e l i e f P r i n t i n g S t u d e n t A s s i g n m e n t : Read S e c - 10 h o u r s t i o n 4 , c h a p t e r 6 i n t e x t b o o k . S t u d e n t A c t i v i t y : Do u n i t t e s t , l o c k u p f o r m , s e t up p l a t e n p r e s s , p r i n t c o p i e s o f j o b , c l e a n p r e s s , make a r u b b e r s t a m p . L e c t u r e - D e m o n s t r a t i o n : L o c k u p o f a f o r m u s i n g two m e t h o d s , k i n d s o f p l a t e n p r e s s e s , m a k i n g a r u b b e r s t a m p , s e t t i n g up a p r e s s f o r p r i n t i n g , c l e a n i n g a p r e s s , s a f e t y when u s i n g t he p l a t e n p r e s s . ^ 100 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Graphic communications edu c a t i o n program. C h a r l o t t e , North 1 C a r o l i n a : P r i n t i n g Industry of the C a r o l i n a s Foundation, 1977. PICA Foundation 301 Hawthorne Lane P.O. Box 4487 C h a r l o t t e , NC 28204 $2895.00 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program L^ b. An industrial education curriculum guide 5P* c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content f» 4. Objectives identified for: o a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests ^ c. Post Tests d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual 5* f. Equipment list » g. Slides B. h. Audio tapes B» i. Student learning packages ® , 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress ^ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 c. Grade 10 B d. Grade 11 B e. Grade 12 ® f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. m m m m 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management W b. Instruction ^ c. Evaluation , • 12. Overview Program development i n any t e c h n i c a l f i e l d must be a c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t between the i n d u s t r y , the u n i v e r s i t y , and the p u b l i c education department. The PICA m a t e r i a l s were prepared by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from Clemson U n i v e r s i t y , Department of I n d u s t r i a l Education and the South C a r o l i n a Department of Education. The P r i n t i n g Industry of the C a r o l i n a s Foundation (PICA) p r o v i d e d the impetus to co-o r d i n a t e these groups and has prepared the most s i g n i f i c n t and comprehensive program reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 101 The PICA m a t e r i a l s could p r o v i d e the base f o r program development i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . They o u t l i n e a l l tasks and competencies needed to a t t a i n e n try l e v e l s k i l l s as w e l l as encourage an awareness of the s o c i a l impact of graphic images. These m a t e r i a l s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the proposed B r i t i s h Columbia A r t guide (1982) would s t i m u l a t e development of a unique course of s t u d i e s blending a r t and technology. X V Graphic Communications Education Program TABLE OF CONTENTS Guide for Users i Elements of the Curriculum i i Curriculum Guide i i SIPs and LAPs i v PASs - Project Assignment Sheets i v How to use the Curriculum v Metrication ix Setting Up the Curriculum When i t Arrives i x A Few Added Suggestions x Instructional Hardware Needed x i i Provision for Keeping the Curriculum Current x i i Who Else W i l l Be Aided by the Graphic Communications Curriculum.. x i i i Table of Contents , xv Course Description x x i i i Course Objectives xxiv Project Assignment Sheets xxvi PAS-l-A A Rubber Stamp for Your Use 1 PAS-2-A Making Business Cards - Letterpress 3 PAS-3-A Make Your Own Name Card or Business Card - Offset Lithography 7 PAS-4-A Make A Personalized Picture Calendar 11 PAS-5-A Custom Made Scratch Pads 15 PAS-b-A Making Personalized Note Pads 16 PAS-7-A Make Your Own Booster Ribbons.. 20 PAS-8-A Making Your Own Super Button 23 PAS-9-B Screen Printing on T-Shirts 26 PAS-10-B Screen Printed Posters 28 PAS-ll-B Printing Pressure Sensitive Stickers 32 PAS-12-B Publish Your Own Calendar 34 PAS-13-B Multicolor Stationery Using Mechanical Negatives 36 PAS-L4-B Multicolor Stationery Using Overlays 39 PAS-15-B Make a Greeting Card with a Three Color Posterization 42 PAS-16-B Printing Simple Heat Transfer Designs - Single Color 47 PAS-17-B Making Personalized Labels by the Step and Repeat Method..... 50 PAS-18-B Make a Multicolor Postcard Using a Single Line Negative 53 PAS-19-B Work and Turn Imposition for a Simple Two-Sided Job 56 PAS-20-C Publishing A Book - Group Project 61 PAS-21-C Screen P r i n t a Multicolor Book Cover Using Photo S t e n c i l s . — 65 .PAS-22-C Making a Greeting Card Using a Duotone 68 PAS-23-C Self Promotional Newsletter Using a Duotone 72 PAS-24-B Work and Turn Stripping for a Multi-color Cover 76 PAS-25-C Making a 3 Panel Brochure Using a Composite Negative 80 PAS-26-C Heat Transfer Using a Screen Tint (Fake Duotones) 84 PAli-27-C Producing a Four Color Process Job 88 PAS-28-C Making a Die Cut Greeting Card 92 PAri-29-C Advanced Eight Page Booklet 97 PAS-10 "Write Your Own Project Assignment Sheet"* 101 8 5. Now do a rough layout of the design. This w i l l show the exact size of each part and where i t w i l l p r i n t . Remember the card has to be 2 x 3 V which i s the size of a standard card. Do Assignment No. 2.8, "Prepare a Rough Layout for a Single Color Job", i f you have never made a rough layout. 6. Have your layout approved by your instructor. 7. Now you are ready to set your type. There are several methods of setting type. If you don't know how to set your type, have your instructor check one of the following assignments for you to do. a. Assignment No. 3.2, "Handset Type" b. Assignment No. 3.3, "Set Cold Type - Strike-On Method" c. Assignment iHo.-.3^4, "Set Cold Type - Preprinted Dry Transfer Lettering Method" d. Assignment No. 3.5, "Set Cold Type - Phototypesetting Method" 8. Proofread your type and make any corrections before your instructor checks your type. 9. Paste up the type for your card. I f you have never made a paste-up, do Assignment No.3.6 "Preparing a Simple Paste-up." 10. Mark your paste-up with center l i n e s as.shown below. 11. Have your in s t r u c t o r check your paste-up. 12. The next step i n any offset lithographic printing job i s to make a l i n e negative. If thi s i s the f i r s t time you have made a l i n e negative, have your instructor check one of the following assignments for you to complete. a. Assignment No. 5.4, "Making Line Negatives on the Process Camera" b. Assignment No. 5.12, "Making Line Negatives by the Contact Method" 13. Have your instructor check your l i n e negative. 14. Now you w i l l s t r i p your negative along with other students' negatives into a " f l a t " . S t r i p your card in position using the "press sheet layout" provided by your instructor. If th^s i s the f i r s t time you have stripped a f l a t , do Assignment No»rj>. 1 "Stripping a Single Color Job". I f you have done thi s befojtej you should follow the LAP, "Basic Stripping," to bt sure you Have your part of the f l a t checked by your instructor. 16. When you and your classmates are done stripping you w i l l be ready to make a plate. I f t h i s i s the f i r s t time you have made a plate, have your instructor check one of the following assignments for you to do. a. Assignment No. 7.8, "Making an Additive Presensitized Offset Plate." b. Assignment No. 7.9, "Making a Subtractive Presensitized Offset Plate." 17. Have your instructor check your plate. 18. You are now almost ready to cut paper for your job. If you have never figured paper cuts, do Assignment No. 8.5, "Simple Paper Calculations." 19. Have your instructor check your calculations and cutting diagram. 20. Cut your paper. If thi s i s the f i r s t time you have used the cutter, do Assignment No. 8.6, "Simple Paper Cutting." Don't forget to get permission to use the paper cutter. 21. Next you w i l l p r i n t the business cards on the of f s e t press. If t h i s i s the f i r s t time you have run the press, do Assign-ment No. 7.11, "Running an Offset Lithographic Press." Be sure your instructor checks your setup every time before  you turn on the press. 22. Now you are ready to cut the sheets i n t o ten separate stacks of cards. Be sure to mark the top sheet so you cut them in the r i g h t place. The person who runs the cutter has one of the most important jobs since a mistake can s p o i l a l l the work that went into the job from the beginning. Be sure to check  with your instructor before you use the cutter. Your business cards are now done and you have gone through every step that any job must go through i n the graphic communications industry. I f you did a good job, people w i l l remember your name and be able to get i n touch with you i f they need to. 0 Copyright 1B77 South Carotin* Dapartmant ot EOucallon. S«oond Printing 1870 Project Assignment PAS-3-A Make Your Own Name Card or Business Card Introduction: A very common printed product that serves as an important communications tool for many people i s the business card or name card. When people meet, i t i s helpful to be able to share cards so that names won't be forgotten. A card usually has the person's name, mailing ad-dress, telephone number, and business or whatever a c t i v i t y the name i s known for. Players for the baseball team might have the name of their position on a name card. Club members would have the i r club names and even a slogan on the card. A person's hobby might be a good thing to put on the name card. There are many ways to make a name card. This project assignment w i l l take you through the steps of designing and producing cards for ten people at one time. They w i l l be printed a l l at once on one sheet of paper and then cut into ten parts. As with work done i n industry you w i l l choose one of several methods to set your type. Again, as done in-industry you w i l l paste up your type and a r t along with the jobs of nine other students so they can be photographed and printed. In another assignment you w i l l be able to set type and p r i n t cards, one at a time, by the letterpress method. This i s not the way to do cards when you have many di f f e r e n t designs to do. Any time you find an assignment which you have already done, check with your instructor to see i f you should go on with the next step. PROCEDURE: 1. The f i r s t thing to do before you design your card i s to write down a l l the things that w i l l be on i t . Be sure to include your name, address, and phone number. 2. If you want a l i n e drawing to go along with the card, find the picture and redraw i t to the size you want i t to be on your card. 3. Now you are ready to design the card. Make several thumbnail sketches of possible designs. Be sure to allow a place for every part of the card that you l i s t e d i n step 1. The card  w i l l be 2 x 3S. If vou have never made a thumbnail sketch, do Assignment No. 2.7, "Prepare Thumbnail Sketches for a Single Color Job". • 4. Select the best sketch and have your instructor check your choice. e Copyright 1877 Soutfi Carolina Dapartmant of Educalion. Sacond Printing 1970 C a r o l i n a : N o r t h C a r o l i n a Department o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n 104 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. G r a p h i c s and i n d u s t r i a l communications ( V o l . 1-3) t r a d e  p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . R a l e i g h , N o r t h 1 l i n a : D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , 1977. N o r t h C a r o l i n a Department o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n B u i l d i n g R a l e i g h , NC 27611 N/C 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide *H c. An organized instructional program , • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks D b. Unit content p» 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks D b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,_, a. Specific lesson plans pJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • LJ b. Grade 9 jS" c. Grade 10 6» d. Grade 11 S e. Grade 12 §!• f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction c. Evaluation • 12. Overview A companion p u b l i c a t i o n t o the N o r t h C a r o l i n a G r a p h i c s  P l a n n i n g Guide, d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t the t e a c h e r i n p r e p a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and u n i t o b j e c t i v e s . The guide r e p r e s e n t s the b a s i c m a t e r i a l t o be c o v e r e d throughout the s t a t e i n g r a p h i c s and i n d u s t r i a l communications I , I I , I I I . In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the s t a t e p l a n n i n g and c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e , the Department of E d u c a t i o n has endorsed the P r i n t i n g I n d u s t r i e s o f the C a r o l i n a s (PICA) r e s o u r c e package and c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r use w i t h i n t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c u r r i c u l u m development i s a s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p i n p r e p a r i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . In any program, e s p e c i a l l y i n v o c a t i o n a l a r e a s , c o o p e r a t i o n between the s c h o o l and the t r a d e i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r s u c c e s s f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n . 105 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Graphics and i n d u s t r i a l communications, trade p r e p a r a t o r y  1 t r a i n i n g p l a n n i n g guide. R a l e i g h , North C a r o l i n a : D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1977. North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l Education Education B u i l d i n g R a l e i g h , NC 27611 N/C 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program M b. An industrial education curriculum guide fas c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package .. • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks £J b. Unit content fa 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes fa 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans p: b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual • LJ f. Equipment list fa g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress L-i 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 t&> c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 : fa e. Grade 12 fa* f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. ________ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ' 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The guide was prepared by the North C a r o l i n a Department P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n to a i d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n p l a n n i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r graphic a r t s i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s program was designed by a team of educators and i n d u s t r y s p e c i a l i s t s and o u t l i n e s a v o c a t i o n a l course of s t u d i e s with s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n job t a s k s . The pl a n n i n g guide a l s o o u t l i n e s b a s i c requirements of the programme: f a c i l i t i e s , equipment and m a t e r i a l s . Course: Graphics £ I n d u s t r i a l Ccimaur.lcations Page 2 Content Information and Skills To Be Taught Methods of Teaching Information and Skills Sources of Information COPYREADING AND PROOFREADING THE CAMERA ( Vertical or Horizontal) 7. Photographic strip type 6. Photographic page { composed) 1. Kinds 2. Proofreaders' Marks 3. Reading and marking 1. Preparing the copy a) Kinds b) Reductions c) Enlargements d) Specifying a) Line Copy f) Halftone copy g) Combinations (line . and halftone) 2. Line Photography a) As to kinds of cameras Technical Information b) Theory c) Parte of camera Copyholder Back Lights Bellows Explanation and demonstrations Text assignment Student practice Discussion Testa Explanation and demonstrations Text assignment Student practice Discussion Tests y.ypl rm t inn Demonstrations Text assignment Student practice Discussion UOUTSe^.r-apri^*! InfUiit.rlpI i ' n m r n-riMti . i r n Content Information and Skills To Be Taught Methods of Teaching Information and Skills Sources of Information i 3- Basic Setting a) Angle and distance of lights b) Exposure ( how arrived ) c) F/Stop ( how arrived ) d) Bellows (extension) e) Copyboard (extensior U. Procedure in Shooting a) Prepare the camera (how) b) Make necessary calculations c) Checking on all points d) Loading film e) Making exposure 5. Halftone Photography Technical Information a) Theory b) Screens and their uses c) Shooting single color d) Making the negative e) Using exposure computer f) Making multi-colored negatives (register work) Explanation Demonstrations Text assignment Student practice Discussion Tests Explanation Demonstrations Text assignment Student practice Discussion Tests Explanation Demonstrations Text assignment Student Practice Discussion Tests 107 r GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Hambrick, G. , J o n e s , G., & Losee, R., e t a l . G r a p h i c a r t s  o c c u p a t i o n s I . Chi c a g o , I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of 1 E d u c a t i o n , 1968. Chicago Board o f E d u c a t i o n Department of C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , I L 60601 $3.75 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program L J b. An industrial education curriculum guide fa c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks Q b. Unit content fa 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes fa 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans id b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests ; LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes , • i. Student learning packages • j- rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 Sfl c. Grade 10 9 d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary , • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. «-«»--—— 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ' 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management 3 b. Instruction fa c. Evaluation • • 12. Overview T h i s i s the i n t r o d u c t o r y l e v e l c l u s t e r program i n g r a p h i c a r t s e d u c a t i o n . T h i s course o u t l i n e i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o v i d e a b a s i c o u t l i n e f o r b e g i n n i n g c o u r s e s i n the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s . 1. Commercial A r t 2. O f f s e t P r e - P r e s s 3. O f f s e t P r e s s 4. D r a f t i n g T h i s i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n guide i n d i c a t e s r e l a t e d j o b a c t i v i t i e s , but does not emphasize the t r a d e a p p l i c a t i o n , r a t h e r the s t u d e n t i s p r o v i d e d a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w i l l encourage an awareness t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the p r i n t e d image v i a hands on e x p e r i e n c e . GRAPHIC ARTS OCCUPATIONS I OFFSET PRESS WORK UNIT TWO: INTRODUCTION TO OFFSET PRESS WORK (Classroom time - 4 hours) OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. Inking system 1. Fountain 2. Fountain r o l l e r 3. Ductor r o l l e r 4. Di s t r i b u t i o n r o l l e r 5. Form r o l l e r B. Water system 1. Dampener fountain 2. Fountain r o l l e r 3. Ductor r o l l e r 4. Vibrator r o l l e r 5. Form r o l l e r C. Pri n t i n g cylinders 1. Plate cylinder 2. Blanket cylinder 3. Impression cylinder 4. Variations a. Two cylinder (Davidson) b. Three cylinder D. Feedings 1. Platform 2. Suction and blowers Give students a general overview of the press Demonstrate each of the f i v e d i v i s i o n s of the press and the i r functions. Explain the Importance of each d i v i s i o n and i t s commonality on a l l o f f s e t presses. Explain i n d e t a i l the parts of each unit. Stress the Importance of safety In each area,, personal safety as well as safe use of equipment. Show the f i l m Offset and You. Go over nomenclature of the press and i t s parts and the points of l u b r i c a t i o n i n each of these d i v i s i o n s . Require students to copy information i n notebooks and to demon-strate their retention. GRAPHIC ARTS OCCUPATIONS I OFFSET PRESS WORK UNIT THREE: OFFSET DUPLICATOR OPERATION (Shop time - 65 hours) OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. Assignment to press Divide the class and assign an equal number of students to each o f f s e t duplicator for theory and study. Divide each group and : assign one or more members the responsible l l t y of a single section of the press (ink-ing B y s t e m , dampening system, pr i n t i n g unit, .* feeding unit, delivery) depending upon the number of members i n each group. Rotate the sections of each group p e r i o d i c a l l y so that a l l students gain f u l l experience on the press. • " The following offset duplicating presses are available at Westinghouse Area Vocation-al School: • >!•-.•• A.; B.' Dick.360 . . . . > , . -. • • , M u i t i l i t h 1250W M u l t i l l t h 1250W MGD 22 •• ••• Davidson 500 B. Preparation of press 1. Prepare fountain unit , 2. Prepare the Ink unit 3. I n s t a l l printed ... master Emphasize the special care necessary to see that equipment w i l l operate and.reproduce at i t s best for a long period of time. Deumetrate the use of the hand wheel. Present-a step-by-step procedure of learning . a habit to eliminate accidentally overlooking or bypassing a step i n preparing the press. 4. Adjust register board Show f i l m , I. S. Berlin (story of letterpress printer going o f f s e t ) . 5. Adjust feeder 6. Adjust delivery 109 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Hambrick, G., Jones, G., Losee, K. Graphic a r t s occupations I I . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of Education, 1968. Chicago Board of Education Department of C u r r i c u l u m 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL. 60601 $2.75 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide 9* c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks Q b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes ^ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development D b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans p: b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • n 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 £3 d. Grade 11 B e. Grade 12 S» f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LD b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The g r a p h i c a r t s occupation c l u s t e r c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g u n i t s of study 1. Advanced Composition 2. Advanced Commercial A r t 3. Advanced O f f s e t Pre-press 4. Advanced O f f s e t Press 5. O c c u p a t i o n a l D r a f t i n g 6. Schematics and B l u e p r i n t Reading T h i s program of s t u d i e s developed i n 1968 i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between image development and p r o d u c t i o n . The authors have prepared u n i t o u t l i n e s that encourage student awareness to the i m p l i c a t i o n s of commercial design and p r i n t i n g p r o d u c t i o n . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 110 "An attempt i s being made through t h i s c u r r i c u l u m program to form a p o s i t i v e bridge between educ a t i o n and employment. Embodied i n t h i s approach i s the z e r o - r e j e c t concept — the idea that the s c h o o l can adapt t h i s program and l e a r n i n g environment of every boy and g i r l to help make t h e i r e d u c a t i o n s u c c e s s f u l and to help provide m o t i v a t i o n which w i l l enable them to succeed i n a c a r e e r " (Jones, 1968, p. v ) . 26 GRAPHIC ARTS OCCUPATIONS II ADVANCED OFFSET PRE-PRESS UNIT FOURi OFFSET PIATEMAKENG (Classroom time - 5 hours) (Shop time - 5 hours) OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A, Metals U 3 e d for plates 1. Surface plates a. Zino b. Aluminum e. Copper d. Steal . 2i Deep-etoh plates a. Copper-chromium bi-metal plate b. Zinc, steel, and chromium tri-metal plate c. Stainless steel-oopper, bi-metal plate d. Aluminum-copper, bi-metal plate B. Chemicals and steps used for offset plates. 1. Flusing with pre-etch-. ormak 2. Coating the surface plate with bi-chromated protein fUm 3. Exposing the plate with arc light illumination U. Developing and washing the image Display and explain the basic physical con-struction of the zinc and alvminum surgace plate used on the offset press. Explain the graining process and the size and kind of abrasive used to grain surface plate metals. Explain, using visual aids, the basic con-struction of deep-etch plates. Have the students draw, mechanically, the illustra-tions presented as aids during the lecture. Demonstrate the complete processing of the surface plate. For the purpose of the demonstration, you will require some type of whirling and drying system to coat the surface plate. If such equipment is not *• available, a movie or visual aid on the subject will meet the objective at this level of the curriculum. Use a sensitivity guide when exposing the plate. Point out the density range desir-able when exposing the plate. Develop the exposed plate by applying ink and soaking the surface plate in water until the ink and unexposed area begin to break up. GRAPHIC ARTS OCCUPATIONS II ADVANCED OFFSET PRESS WORK SKIUS AND JOB LEVELS Skills Clean, lubricate, and oare far tools and materials Troubleshoot for ink-water balanoe, ink distribution an rollers, register, scumming, Image failure or fuzzy or washer-out images. Lubricate the power paper cutter Set up adjustments on the power paper cutter Figure paper stock (simple problems) Lubricate the folding maohine Operate the folder Lubrloate the stitcher Adjust and operate the stitcher Lubrioate and maintain the paper drill Adjust and operate the paper drill Know the various binding operations, suoh as laminating, plastio binding, padding, collating, and bookbinding , Duplicator operator with trndbleshboting experience on the following machines I A. B. Diok 360 Hultilith 12S0W USD 22 Davidson 500 Multilith 1850 -Offset press feeder (beginner) Power paper feeder (learner) Folding machine operator (trainee) Paper Jogger Perforating maohine operator (beginner) Bookbinder (beginner) Inspeotor trainee for envelope press, oheok imprinter, and litho proof-press 112 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1. Hawkinson, B. G r a p h i c a r t s , a c u r r i c u l u m manual. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , 1974. Mid A m e r i c a V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m C o n s o r t i u m 1515 W. 6th Avenue S t i l l w a t e r , Oklahoma 74074 $13.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks \W b. General learning outcomes LD 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. „ a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests J2 c. Post Tests J* d. Student workbook fa e. Instructor's manual "8 f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages fa 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress §3 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 W d. Grade 11 & e. Grade 12 fa f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ m m m m 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction 'fa-c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The G r a p h i c A r t s C u r r i c u l u m guide i s a very comprehensive i n s t r u c t i o n a l package. The program i s o u t l i n e d i n v e r y s p e c i f i c terms, and c o u l d be u t i l i z e d i n the c l a s s r o o m w i t h o u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and d e s i g n . T h i s package i f implemented, would not a l l o w i n s t u c t o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n m a n i p u l a t i n g course c o n t e n t or o b j e c t i v e s . However, i f the i n t e n t of the program i s t o co v e r and mo n i t o r s p e c i f i c c o n t e n t , t h i s package i n c l u d e s a l l the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l n e c e s s a r y t o meet t h a t o b j e c t i v e . Block VI - Process Cameras & Darkroom Unit 4 - Halftone Copy and Film Developing GA-B6-U4-I7 UNIT TEST: I. Match: a. Glass screen (I) A number which indicates the spread b Contact screen between highlight and shadow which a camera and processing system is capable c- Autoscreen of reproducing. d. Highlights (2) Produces halftone dots by exposing e Shadows f''m through vignetted dots on a trans-parent base. — y , o n e s (3) Determines density without using g. Reflection density guide operator's visual judgment. h. Basic density range (4) Produces halftone dots by exposing film . ... through tiny squares etched into glass. , i. Excess density range " ' J — (5) The type of dots which produce an j- Rescreening optical illusion. k. Densitometer (6) Produces halftone dots with a screen . n ... , , . built into the film. I. Calibrated gray scale . . . — (7) Uses lenses to determine density. m- V i s u a l densitometer ( g ) 0 n e o f t h e g r a y s c a l e s u s e d j n d e t e r r n j n . n. Photoelectric densitometer ing density of copy. o Halftone O T , , e ''Shtest shades of a positive. (10) Any of a number of simple densitometers. (11) The darkest shades of a positive. (1 2) Density range of original copy minus basic density range. (13) A device which measures the degree of blackness of a film negative or positive. (14) Shades between highlights and shadows. (15) Exposing a halftone through a screen. 2. Check the item(s) true of continuous-tone copy. a. Consists of an infinite number of shades of gray. b. Can be reproduced directly on most printing presses. c. Includes drawings and paintings as well as photographs. d. Is really a series of tiny dots. 3. Write "G" for glass screen, "C" for contact screen, "A" for autoscreen, "All" for all in the appropriate blanks: a. Opaque material fills the lines etched in the screen. b. Creates a series of tiny dots on a negative. c. Screen is built into the film. Block VI - Process Cameras & Darkroom Unit 4 - Halftone Copy and Film Developing GA-B6-U4-10 VIII. Making the Main Exposure. A. Again, duplicate the conditions under which the main exposure for the test negative was made. 1. The contact screen (use magenta unless otherwise instructed) should overlap the film at least 1 inch on all sides. 2. The screen is placed carefully against the emulsion side of the film. a. Handle the screen by its edges so no fingerprints end up on the screen. b. Smooth .it against the film with a roller, and hold it in place with the vacuum. 3. Make the main exposure for the time determined from the computer. B. When an original photograph is not available, an already printed halftone repro-duction may have to be used as original copy. 1. Since a halftone has already been screened, it can often be treated as original line copy (See Block VI. Unit 3). 2. Rescreening a halftone is necessary if: a. The screen pattern is indistinct. b. The screen pattern is too fine. c. A large reduction in size is necessary (a reduction which results in a screen pattern finer than about 150 lines per inch tends to result in the disappearance of fine dots). 3. For best results, choose a screen which is either 50 lines finer or 50 lines coarser than the original. 4. Or angle copy or screen so the result is 30° rotated from the original angle. IX. Making Flash Exposure. A. Many halftone negatives will not require a flash exposure. B. If the copy density range is greater than the basic density range, flash exposure is necessary. 1. Use the flashing lamp set-up described above. 2. Use the exposure time from the chart on the computer. X. Developing and Evaluating the Negative. A. Standardize the development process as much as possible. The process should be exactly the same as for the test negative. B. Use the same general procedure as for line negatives described in Block VI. Units 2 and 3. OJ 114 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Hawkinson, B. G r a p h i c a r t s - s t u d e n t manual. Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l -T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n . 1974. Mid American V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m C o n s o r t i u m 1515 W. 6th Avenue S t i l l w a t e r , Oklahoma 74074 $9.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: „ a. A job tasks b. Unit content P 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks j » b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training ^ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans *? b. Pre tests c. Post Tests d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages £Cj. 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress 0-8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 D c. Grade 10 -W" d. Grade 11 & e. Grade 12 & f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management Q b. Instruction P~ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview The companion volume f o r the New Mexico C u r r i c u l u m manual i s e x a c t l y the same as the i n s t r u c t o r ' s manual e x c e p t a l l the answers have been removed. The s t u d e n t work book e n a b l e s the s t u d e n t t o p r o g r e s s i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the i n s t r u c t o r . A l t h o u g h r e f e r e n c e t e x t s a re i n d i c a t e d , the s t u d e n t would be a b l e t o complete the i n d i c a t e d assignments w i t h m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d i n the work book. T h i s package would provide a va l u a b l e source of i n s t r u c -t i o n a l m a t e r i a l f o r students e n r o l l e d i n a graphic a r t s course as w e l l as provide a f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e guide. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW 115 Hertz, A. Copy p r e p a r a t i o n and image assembly. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $2.00 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program ^ b. An industrial education curriculum guide fa" c. An organized instructional program. • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content fa 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LD 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. — a. Specific lesson plans p; b. Pre tests bz\ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • >• n 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 8 c. Grade 10 d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 fa f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. — _ — 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction c. Evaluation • 12. Overview "The emergence of l i t h o g r a p h y as the major method of r e p r o d u c t i o n has produced a need f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i n the procedures f o r using a combination of type and i l l u s -t r a t i v e matter to c r e a t e the a r t work needed as the f i r s t step i n p r i n t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r job." (Hertz, 1978, p. 1) There i s a blend between a r t , commercial a r t and graphic a r t s p r e p a r a t i o n and t h i s program attempts to develop the m a t e r i a l necessary to i l l u s t r a t e to the student, t h i s r e l a -t i o n s h i p . Image design f o r graphic a r t s r e f l e c t c e r t a i n t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s which are s i m i l a r to the commercial a r t i s t but the f i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 116 Copy p r e p a r a t i o n and Image Assembly d e f i n e s the s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i c a l s t e p s n e c e s s a r y i n p r e p a r i n g a pasteup and m e c h a n i c a l . The s t u d e n t work book p r e s e n t s the o b j e c t i v e s , notes and a c t i v i t i e s f o r each u n i t y , w h i l e the t e a c h e r ' s guide i d e n t i f i e s s p e c i f i c p o i n t s t o emphasize and demon-s t r a t e . These two b o o k l e t s would d e f i n i t e l y p r o v i d e a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e f o r the i n s t r u c t o r i n e i t h e r g r a p h i c a r t s o r commer-c i a l d e s i g n . Unit 4 - The Simple Pasteup Objective: Prepare a simple pasteup, working from a layout. Information: The pasteup (or mechanical) is the first mechanical step in the step-by-step procedure of going from idea to finished printed piece. In that first step the accuracy of the pasteup artist is paramount, for if an error occurs at that point, it is extremely difficult to correct at a later stage of the printing process. Procedure: The pasteup artist should always work from a layout, either one drawn up in the shop or one supplied by the client. The following tools will be required for the simple pasteup. 1. A light table equipped with a T-square 2. Masking tape 3. An 18" or 24" ruler 4. A non-reproducing pencil 5. Kneaded eraser 6. A triangle 7. Text matter produced by a photo-typesetter 8. Display matter produced by a display typesetter 9. An illustration or illustrations 10. A rigid bristot board or index board measuring 10" X 14" 11. Rubber cement and a pickup A paste-up mechanical is to be prepared, working from the layout on page 18. The size of the finished piece is to be 8-4 X 11 inches. Step 1 — Tape the layout to the waif above the light table for continual reference. Have each of the elements — text matter, display matter, and illustration — close at hand. Step 2 — Aline the 10" X. 14" board by squaring the sheet with the T-square firmly held against the straight edge of the light table. Aline along the 10" width. Step 3 —Holding the board firmly, move the T-square out of the way and tape down each corner of the board with approximately Wi" of masking tape. Only the upper corners need be taped. Step 4 — Using the T-square and the non-reproducing pen or pencil, rule a light horizontal line about V/% from the top of the bristol board. 16 to _!> Step 5 Step 6 Measure 11" from the horizontal rule and draw a parallel rule. In the margin above the top horizontal rule mark two points %Vi apart. Holding the T-square firmly against the straight edge, place the triangle against the T-square and draw parallel vertical rules down from the marked-off points. You now have a rectangle. Check all rules for squareness. Step 7 -Step 8 Step 9 Find the centers of the two marked-off distances and place center marks in the margins. Draw the vertical centerline in non-reproducing pencil. • Referring to the layout on page 18, place the various elements (reproduced on page 18E) in their proper positions on the new prepared mechanical. Study the positioning. - Using the non-reproducing pencil, mark in the margin the position of each element of copy. Remove the elements and place to the side. Step 10-Apply a light application of rubber cement to the back of one element of copy. Step 11 —Using the T-square as a guide, aline the element of copy with the appropriate mark made in step 9. Making sure the copy is squared, press the element to the board. Check again to make sure copy is squared. Step 12 — Repeat steps 10 and 11 for each element of copy. Step 13 — Using the pickup, remove excess rubber cement by working away from the copy elements. Step 14 — Using a ball-point (black) pen and the T-square, draw crop marks about 3/8" long, starting about 1/8" outside each of the corners of the mechanical. Step 15 — Place a strip of double-faced masking tape along the top of the mechanical board; remove the crepe backing from the tape, apply a sheet of tissue to the tape, and press to cover the mechanical. 118 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Hertz, A. Copy p r e p a r a t i o n and image assembly - a student  manual. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Je r s e y Department of 1 Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NS 08903 $4.75 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide W" c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content P» 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes &• 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages -. • j- m 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress L J 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 P-c. Grade 10 d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 . f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction c. Evaluation • 12. Overview GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 119 Hertz, A. Typography and modern t y p e s e t t i n g . Trenton, New Je r s e y : New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $2.00 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program Tr b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program . LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: ^ a. A job tasks 9* b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development jtj" b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training p 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests c. Post Tests ^ d. Student workbook ** e. Instructor's manual , P f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages 5£ 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress ^ 8. Materials are intended to be used at. a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 » d. Grade 11 ^ e. Grade 12 8 f. Post secondary "& 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction § c. Evaluation IB 12. Overview A companion volume to Typography and Modern T y p e s e t t i n g t h a t p r o v i d e s guidance f o r the i n s t r u c t o r on the implementation of the program. S p e c i f i c suggestions are made that encourage the i n s t r u c t o r to maximize the e f f e c t of the student work book. UNIT 5 - TYPOGRAPHY D. Copy Markup Objective: Be able to mark up a client's copy. Information: The typesetter usually has the responsibility for selecting type style, type size, and arrangement for the completed piece. In many instances, however, a client (particularly advertising art departments) will specify the style and size of type to be used. In the first instance, the markup person has the responsibility for selecting a type style appropriate for the piece to be reproduced. In the second situation, the markup person must be sure that the client's instructions are followed as completely as possible. When substitutions are necessary, the client must be advised. The markup person studies the manuscript and the client's layout, checks the availability of specified type styles, and marks up the copy to indicate to the typesetter: 1. The type style 2. The type size 3. The leading 4. The width to be set 5. Bold or italic copy 6. Upper or lower case characters where the manuscript is not clear. 7. Certain obvious errors in typing. On the following page is a sample of manuscript copy that was marked up by the markup person. Following that is a sample for the student's own markup. 27 Mark up the following copy, using 12-point Helvetica with Bold, with 1-point leading set to a width of 3 inches. Show an indent of 1 em for the paragraph. The heading, which is to be centered, is to be set in bold type. Correct any obvious errors with appropriate proofreader's marks. ADDRESS DELIVERED AT THE DEDICATION OF THE CEMETERY AT GETTYSBURG, NOVEMBER 19, 1863 Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that a l l men are created equal. Now we are engaged IN a great c i v i l war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure, we are met on a great b a t t l e f i e l d of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that f i e l d , as a f i n a l place resting fro those who here here gave their l i v e s that that nation might l i v e . I t Is altogether f i t t i n g and proper that we should do t h i s . 29 121 |-GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. H e r t z , A. Typography and modern t y p e s e t t i n g - a s t u d e n t  manual. T r e n t o n , New J e r s e y : New J e r s e y Department of 1 E d u c a t i o n , 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m L a b o r a t o r y R utgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - K i l m e r Campus New Br u n s w i c k , NJ 08903 $4.75 2. This material is: ^ a. A competency based instructional program I** b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks fa" b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: . a. Skill development H-b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training Ijk 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook & e. Instructor's manual |5-f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 ' fa f. Post secondary -£j3» 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management *B b. Instruction jS* c. Evaluation --fa 12. Overview Typography and Modern T y p e s e t t i n g i s a workbook d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t the s t u d e n t i n d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n the p r e p a r a t o r y area of g r a p h i c a r t s . The program i n c l u d e s s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o : 1. typography 2. copy f i t t i n g as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the o p e r a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g machines 1. Compu W r i t e r I t y p e s e t t e r 2. IBM s e l e c t r i c composer 3. A & M Compset - t y p e s e t t e r The s t u d e n t , on c o m p l e t i o n of the program would be a b l e t o op e r a t e the t y p e s e t t e r i n the s c h o o l g r a p h i c a r t s shop. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 122 This program, although very s p e c i f i c c ould be a v a l u a b l e resource manual f o r a comprehensive graphic a r t s program. 123 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. H u l l i n , L. E x p l o r i n g d r a f t i n g - p r i n t i n g . Trenton, New 1 J e r s e y : New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1971. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers-The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 03903 $3.75 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide P» c. An organized instructional program CD d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content ^ * 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes ^ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development & b. Awareness to imagery and design , c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans b. Pre tests c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook , D e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes , • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress JS 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 ^> c. Grade 10 d. Grade 11 m e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction • P« c. Evaluation U 12. Overview A de s i g n must be considered when p r e p a r i n g any p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , and t h i s program i s intended to introduce students to the basic fundamentals of d r a f t i n g and desi g n . The program o u t l i n e s the basic steps of d r a f t i n g which could be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o any i n t r o d u c t o r y graphic communications course. STF.P 4: Make a finished drawing or sketch of the best one selected and letter in any necessary words as shown in Figure 8. W E S T E R N S E A B O A R D R A I L R O A D 820 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94102 Figure No. 8 Remember that your final design will be small when it is printed at the top of the letter paper so keep it neat and simple. 72 UNIT III - DRAFTING FOR THE PRINT SHOP STUDENT Letterhead Design Lesson 3 OBJECTIVE: To learn how to draw a letterhead design. RELATED INFORMATION: A letterhead design is a sketch or drawing of some object which is printed at the top of writing paper or across an envelope. It is used as a code or trade mark of a company and usually tells something about the company or the product they make. Examples such as an airplane for the Airlines, an automobile for Automobile manufacturer, or a shoe for a Shoe manufacturer. These are exact pictures because they represent the exact object being manufactured and sold. However, most customers are looking for something original — something different. See if you can follow these few simple steps and learn how to draw letterhead designs. STEP 1: Check the name of the company and the kind of product they manufacture. This will give you some idea of the kind of object to draw for a letterhead. Here is how you should list your information: Company Name Product Design Remember, your design must tell a story. It can be a freehand sketch or an exact scale drawing. Words may be added to the design to bring out a special point or ideas. STEP 2: Make several rough sketches of your design. Use a separate sheet of paper for each new idea and change positions of your objects to create a new feeling. STEP 3: Check each sketch you have drawn and select the one you feel does the best job of telling something about the company and their product. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 125 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 Curr i c u l u m design i n v o c a t i o n a l education can make very s p e c i f i c demands on the student as w e l l as the i n s t r u c t o r . Many programs i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n marketable s k i l l s that must be obtained and be demonstrated by the student. By demand-ing s p e c i f i c e n t r y l e v e l s k i l l development, the o p p o r t u n i t y i n any program e x i s t s f o r an emphasis on psychomotor a c t i v -i t i e s . Although t h i s emphasis i s not e n t i r e l y n e g a t i v e , the occupations w i t h i n the graphic communications i n d u s t r y demand more than psychomotor development. The I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory, Trade and Indus-t r i a l Education at the Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , has prepared a s e r i e s of booklets i d e n t i f y i n g e i g h t occupations i n the g r a p h i c s i n d u s t r y . These o c c u p a t i o n a l analyses are not course o u t l i n e s , or c u r r i c u l u m guides, but documents t h a t are necessary f o r i n s t r u c t o r s or development teams to comprehend before undertaking the task of p r e p a r i n g course o u t l i n e s and u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n . The e i g h t programs: Bindery Cold Type Composition Commercial A r t i s t O f f s e t Cameraperson O f f s e t Layout and Design O f f s e t Platemaking O f f s e t Press Operator O f f s e t S t r i p p i n g are d i s s e c t e d , to demonstrate the component tasks that c o m p l i l e the p a r t i c u l a r job. The component p a r t s i n c l u d e not j u s t the s k i l l but the d e c i s i o n s the operator (incumbent) must make before the task i s completed. The o c c u p a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , are an expansion of many s i m i l a r programs, but by i n c l u d i n g the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l be able to i n c l u d e other r e l a t e d t o p i c s (mathematics, s c i e n c e , and communications theory i n h i s i n s t r u c t i o n . ) These e i g h t programs, would b e n e f i t any i n s t r u c t o r , by demonstrating the incompassing nature of the job, r a t h e r than the i s o l a t i o n of p a r t s of a job. The Ohio occupa-t i o n a l a n a l y s i s allows the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c o g n i t i v e and the a f f e c t i v e domain to i n t e r a c t , while demonstrating the importance of s k i l l m anipulation f o r v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW 126 B l a y l o c k , R., Nesnadayn, J . , Hansen, V., Koch, M. An 1. a n a l y s i s o f the o f f s e t p r e s s o p e r a t o r . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s L a b o r a t o r y Trade & I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $3.50 2. This material is: _ j a. A competency based instructional program 1* b. An industrial education curriculum guide • c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks **• b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training W-6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • j - r-i 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 & e. Grade 12 & f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ________ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction • LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview i 127 (TASK STATEMENT) LUBRICATE A PRESS TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Press lubrication chart 1. Locate lubrication points Cuts Press 2 . Lubricate press Slips Rags Falls Washing containers or pans Burns Rag container Fires Misc. supplies Caught hair or clothing Crushed hands Electric shock DECISIONS 1. Locate lube points & use appropriate lubricants CUES 1. Press lubrication chart ERRORS 1 (TASK STATEMENT) LUBRICATE A PRESS SCIENCE MATH - NUMBER SYSTEMS Machines: Used to gain mechanical advantage (levers, gears, pulleys, vacuum) Work: Input, output, friction and efficiency in machines Atoms: Static electricity Force: Resistance, distortion, inertia, momentum, friction Addition, subtraction Rounding off decimals & whole numbers Measure of speed, vacuum & R.P.M. COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES 1. Reading 2. Writing 3. Observation 4. Listening EXAMPLES 1. Charts, manuals, press manual 2. Daily time sheet 3. Press operation 4. Foreign sounds SKILLS/CONCEPTS 1. Terminology 2 . Accuracy, descriptions, spelling 3 . Making judgements 4. Performance/auditory analysis 0 128 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Bonanno, e t a l . An a n a l y s i s o f p l a t e m a k i n g i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: i . Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s L a b o r a t o r y Trade & I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Ave. Columbus, OH 43210 $3.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program L J d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks - A ri b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks W» b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development p*-b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training 8 -6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans n b. Pre tests ^ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook L J e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress i— 1 8 . Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 ^ e. Grade 12 §8. f. Post secondary » 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. « — 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction r LJ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview 129 B9 (TASK STATEMENT) Determine exposure time for photo-direct plates TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Job ticket Plate manufacturer's specifications Plate burner spcifications Offset press 1. Read job specifications 2. Place copy on subject holder in proper position 3. Set plate length 4. Set f stop 5. Set exposure time 6. Expose plate 7. Remove plate from machine Cuts Eye injuries (lights) Bums (lights) DECISIONS 1. Plate length 2. Exposure time 3. F stops CUES 1. Job ticket 2. Manufacturer's specifications 3. Manufacturer's specifications y 30 re time for photo-direct plates ERRORS 1. Loss of time, material waste, poor work flow, idle time for other departments, missed deadlines, cost overrun, loss of customer confidence 2. Loss of time, material waste, poor work Dow, idle time for other departments, missed deadlines, cost overrun, loss of customer confidence 3. Loss of time, material waste, poor work flow, idle time for other departments, missed deadlines, cost overrun, less of customer confidence DECISIONS CUES ERRORS 4. Proper placement of copy 4. Visual examination of materials 31 4. Loss of time, material waste, poor work flow, idle time for other departments, missed deadlines, cost overrun, loss of customer confidence 130 r GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Bonanno, J . , & I n n i s , G. An a n a l y s i s of bindery i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: 1. Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory, 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $2.75 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package. • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes D 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development 6j» b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training rj» 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • r-i 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • • d. Grade 11 IS e. Grade 12 P f. Post secondary jB. 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _________ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ' 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation .* • 12. Overview 131 B5 (TASK STATEMENT) Set-up stitcher for side and saddle stitches TOOLS, EQUIPMENT. MATERIALS, OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Job ticket Sample (if available) Stock Measuring tools Hand tools Stitcher machine 1. Set-up stitcher table (side or saddle) 2. Set-up stitch length 3. Set-up stitch position 4. Stitch sample Cuts Smashed fingers Stitched fingers D E C I S I O N S Side or saddle stitch Right length of stitch Proper position of stitch Is sample stitch correct fll£S lob ticket, sample Visual Visual Job ticket, visual E R R O R S Incorrect type of stitch Book falls apart Loss of customer confidence Loss of customer confidence (TASK STATEMENT) Set-up stitcher for side and saddle stitcher MATH - NUMBER SYSTEMS Mechanical functions of simple & complex machine Force friction Resistance Functions of gears levers cams screws belts Electrical power Use of fractions and percentages Ratio & proportions COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES 1. Speaking 2. Reading 3. Writing 4. Listening 5. Viewing EXAMPLES 1. Oral explanation, conversation between individuals 2. Job ticket, sample 3. Work instructions 4. Understanding special instructions, compre-hension 5. Settings, references, making sure staples are correct S K I L L S / C O N C E P T S 1. Terminology, general vocabulary, logic 2. Comprehension, instructions 3. Description, terminology, general vocabulary 4. Concentration 5. Visual analysis, recognizing problems 19 132 pGRAPHIC C O M M U N I C A T I O N S C U R R I C U L U M MATER IALS REVIEW. Hanson, V. e t a l . An a n a l y s i s of the cameraperson i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s L a b o r a t o r y Trade & I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $3.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program SEr b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks b. Unit content LJ -4. Objectives identified for: ^ a. Specific job tasks js* b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ffl a. Skill development j * b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. p-, a. Specific lesson plans td b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress i - 1 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 P e. Grade 12 P f. Post secondary $L 9. Number of hours per instructional module. — — 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management • b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview 133 (TASK STATEMENT) MAKE BASIC EXPOSURE TEST TOR LINE REPROWICTION TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, OBJECTS ACTED UPON Black and white line copy Process camera Linen tester Temperature control sink Darkroom chemistry Film Gray scale Water supply Safety goggles Apron Camera manual STEPS 1- Locate dense, black line copy 2- Posltlon copy and cameraman** gray scale on copy board 3- Set camera tapes at 507; A-Select a n d aet appropriate f-stop at 507 5- S»t camera timer at proper exposure 6- Load A n d expose film 7- Develop film to a solid step three on cameraman's gray scale 8- Pix and rinse film 9- Inspect film for image resolution, focus and density 10- Record data received from test DECISIONS Select appropriate copy and supplies for test Determine quality of negative CUES Visual observation Supply manufacturer's specifications Read comers manual SAFETY - HAZARD Bums Eye injury Toxic vapors Slips and f a l l s Cuts Electrical shock Skin disorders E R R O R S Poor quality reproductions Loss of time and materials (TASK STATEMENT) HAKE BASIC EXPOSURE TEST POR LINE REPRODUCTION SCIENCE MATH - NUMBER SYSTEMS Physics of light: nature of light reflection and absorption; effects of illumination of color; nature of mixing additive and subtractive primary and complimentary colors; theory of light; and law of inverse square proportion Optics: focal lengths, reflection, refraction, aberrations, element composition Mechanics: use of machines to gain mechanical advantage Chemistry: effected molecular change due to illumination; nature of chemical changes and reaction Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division of whole numbers, fractions and decimals Finding a percent of one number and what percent one number is of another Measures of length in inches, picas, points, and converting between each Measurement of time Sequential ordering Mathematical short cuts COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES See in g/ob serving Reading Writing Speaking/listening Copy - film or print processing Charts, tables and/or graphe, Instructions Calibrations Among personnel, supervisors, customers Equipment settings SKILLS/CONCEPTS Making Judgments Interpretation, locating data Making instructions Giving, receiving instructions, trade vocabulary Movement, accuracy, safety 25 134 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. , Hanson, V., Koch, M., & B u l l , W., e t a l . An a n a l y s i s of the  1 c o l d type compositor i n the l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g  i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p a t i o n. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $3.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package CJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks JE* b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks [Ej b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-, a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests pJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 81 e. Grade 12 , f. Post secondary *H* 9. Number of hours per instructional module. « — » — 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview 135 (TASK STATEMENT) Process Copy TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS. OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Method of processing Film Chemicals 1. Process film through developing chemi-cals 2. Make visual inspection of film Cuts Eye damage Toxic odor Cutting tools -DECISIONS 1. Determine strength of chemicals 2. Determine if film is acceptable to CUES 1. Developing time length Quality of face copy 2. Poor face quality ERRORS 1. Improper development Loss of time and materials 2. Loss of lime and materials camera fTACK STATEMENT) Process Copy SCIENCE MATH - NUMBER SYSTEMS Darkroom procedures Optical system - basic Printer's measuring system Interpret graphs and charts COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES Speaking Reading Listening Touching EXAMPLES Oral explanation, instructions between people Copy instructions Machine malfunctions Keyboard operation and settings SKILLS/CONCEPTS Terminology/general vocabulary, logic Comprehension, instructions, speed Auditory discrimination Pressure, motion, movement, safety ' 53 136 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW.' Mowen, K. , Hartman, C , & C o t n e r , M. An a n a l y s i s of the  Commerical a r t o c c u p a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio S t a t e 1. U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s L a b o r a t o r y Trades I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Ave. Columbus, Ohio 43210 $1.25 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: „ a. A job tasks j i * b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: „ a. Specific job tasks 5*" b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training & 6 . Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans n b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list ,.. • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: n a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 LJ d. Grade 11 P-e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. «-•»»»•—. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ________ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation D 12. Overview r o 2 z i t I Mill « " . . l s | sllsl S j£fdT|ii:>ji3urJii ! ? i i JfhiJt iM Jj 3 IS I ; i 1 B E l | i f ill ! t l f l i ii i n j s i l s l l l l l i t i s if i if = 8 11 i i lllpu,, iii Mi! li'l'IH f 11 5 8 = 111 ! 1 i ! ! I ! 1 a 1 111 I s ! M-8 t i . Ml S 'Mi liltiiiSIl ' ! ! . 5*1 1 In ( " • S t ! in 1 a 138 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1 Noelker, J . , Myers, P., M i l l e r , M. An a n a l y s i s of l a y o u t  and design i n the l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus Ohio: Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r i s t y I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1985 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $2.75 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide — c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks fa-b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks fa* b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans ~z b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list ,.. • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress u 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 •.. • d. Grade 11 8 . e. Grade 12 P< f. Post secondary &. 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview 139 B-s (TASK STATEMENT) Prepare a thunbnall sketch TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Job ticket 1. Draw a oulck, snail drawing Paper cuts rtravinp tools u t i l i z i n g the design principles and Art hoard elements selected Drawing table 2. T>rsw numerous other sketches Conv illustrating and exploring other Customer specifications Ideas DECISIONS 1. netermine customer desires CUES Job ticket Customer specifications ERRORS Poorly designed job Loss of time and materials ,3 (TASK STATEMENT) Prenare a thumbnail sketch MATH - NUMBER SYSTEMS Nature of light reflection, ahsomtion Color - wlxinp. and effect of Illumination Color theory Ratio and proportion COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES Readinr Writinp, Seeing/Observing Customer specifications Job ticket Sketches SKILLS/CONCEPTS Interpretation - decision making Giving instructions Proportion - balance of elements 140 I-GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Noelker, J . et a l . An a n a l y s i s of s t r i p p i n g i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: 1 Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $3.50 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package D e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks W-b. Unit content L~J 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks fa b. General learning outcomes D 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans bz\ b. Pre tests pJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 fa f. Post secondary TjS-9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. — _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L~J b. Instruction D c. Evaluation • 12. Overview 141 CS (TASK STATEMENT) STRIP A FLAT WITH A SCREEN TINT TOOLS, EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS. OBJECTS ACTED UPON STEPS SAFETY - HAZARD Dummy Tape machines Misting paper Tape, dear and red 1. Srieci tools, equipmeni and supplies. Cuts Line up table Masking paper tape 2. Prepare masking sheets. T square Exposed film black 3. Examine negatives. Triangles High and low power 4. Indiaic margins. French curves glasses S. Impose negatives. Compasses Color charts 6. Tape negatives. Ruling pens Ink books 7. Position and attach labs or prepare for step and Dividers Block out material repeal machine. Scribers Photo prints 8. Align asymmetrical forms. Re pro prints 9. Check layout. Pencil Light table Pens Artwork Rulers Furnished copy Grids Register systems Cutting tools Negatives Protractors Opaque brushes Sensit ivity Razor blade Percentage tea les Paper wipes Opaque Instructions (job ticket) Scissors DECISIONS 1. Determine reference lines; center line, grippe r line, multi-burn windows, vertical center line 2. Determine position of labs CUES 1. Copy, customer instruction, size of plate, dummy Z Copy, customer instructions, size of plate, dummy ERRORS 1. Waited materials, lost time, inefficiency of production 2. Wasted materials, lost time, inefficiency of production ~S IT ASK STATEMENTI STRIP A FLAT WITH A SCREEN TINT , SCIENCE M A T H - N U M B E R SYSTEMS Opacity of materials Simple machines Optics • magnification Nature of light Color theory Addition, subtraction, muhrpbeation and division of whole numbers, fractions and decimals Rounding off decimals and whole numbers Changing per cents to fractions and fractions to percents Finding a percent of a number and what percent one number is of another Measures of length in inches, picas, points and converting between each Measurement of time in tenths of an hour Ratio and proportions Reading and interpreting charts, tables and/or graphs Sequential ordering COMMUNICATIONS PERFORMANCE MODES Reading Writing Speaking Touching Seeing ! EXAMPLES Job ticket • customers' orders Specifications Customer • supervisor Flat screens Fjurrrine negative. 25 i SKILLS/CONCEPTS Interpretation - trade jargon Giving instruction Reserving instruction Manual dexterity Visual acuity 142 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Iowa i n d u s t r i a l arts handbook for introductory l e v e l ,  graphic communications. Des Moines, Iowa: Iowa Department 1 of Public Instruction, 1978. Iowa Department of Public Instruction Grimmes Building Des Moines, IA 50319 N/C 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program j-J b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package LJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content W 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks '. LJ b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development *=* b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training • LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,-. a. Specific lesson plans n b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: ^ a. Grade 8 S< b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 P d. Grade 11 $ e. Grade 12 55» f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _________ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11 . For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction LJ c. Evaluation LJ 12. Overview The Iowa guide for graphic communications outlines the component areas of study in this f i e l d . The areas of 1. image generation 2. image reproduction 3. image processing 4. image management are discussed in a broad conceptual context. The authors of this guide emphasize the d i v e r s i t y of graphic communica-tions and indicate that implementation of the material depends on the nature of the f a c i l i t e s , materials, and students. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 143 The Iowa guide i s a va l u a b l e resource f o r graphic commun-i c a t i o n s program development because of the i n t e g r a t i o n of broad conceptual o u t l i n e s with s p e c i f i c performance o b j e c -t i v e s . This guide can pro v i d e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an i n t r o d u c t o r y i n d u s t r i a l program and an advanced v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g program. S t u d e n t I n f o r m a t i o n 4 . 1 - A NUMBER: 4 T I T L E : D e s i g n o f a Logo RATIONALE: A l o g o i s t h e g r a p h i c d e s i g n t h a t h e l p s y o u r e c o g n i z e a p r o d u c t o r i n d u s t r y . The e x a m p l e s a r e a l l a r o u n d y o u a l l t h e t i m e . T h i n k a b o u t t h e c o r n e r gas s t a t i o n o r t h e t e l e p h o n e c o m p a n y , o r t h e TV s t a t i o n s . They a l l have a d e s i g n t h a t y o u r e c o n g i z e them b y . I n t h i s a c t i v i t y y o u a r e g o i n g t o use y o u r p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s t o make a l o g o o f y o u r own. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s a c t i v i t y y o u w i l l be a b l e t o : 1 . D e s c r i b e t h e t e r m ' l o g o . ' 2 . I d e n t i f y two u s e s o f a l o g o . 3 . D e v e l o p a l o g o f o r p e r s o n a l u s e . PRE-ASSESSMENT: A p r e - t e s t i s a v a i l a b l e f r o m y o u r i n s t r u c t o r . LEARNING A C T I V I T I E S : M a t e r i a l s : d r a w i n g s u r f a c e , p a p e r a n d p e n c i l s . E n a b l i n g I n f o r m a t i o n : You w i l l n e e d many s k i l l s f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y . D e s i g n a n d l a y o u t a r e n e c e s s a r y a n d c o l d c o m p o s i t i o n i s h e l p f u l . A p p l i c a t i o n : a . D i v i d e a s h e e t o f 8 " x l 2 " p a p e r i n t o f o u r e q u a l p a r t s . b . You a r e g o i n g t o d e s i g n a l o g o o f y o u r o w n . One t h a t y o u c a n use i n d i f f e r e n t g r a p h i c image r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The s h e e t o f p a p e r i s f o r y o u r t h u m b n a i l s k e t c h e s . F o r i d e a s c o n s i d e r a s i m p l e f a m i l y c r e s t , y o u r n i c k n a m e , o r g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n u s i n g y o u r i n i t i a l s . W i t h t h e s e i d e a s u s e t h e s h e e t o f p a p e r f o r f o u r t h u m b n a i l s k e t c h e s o f y o u r l o g o . c . Show y o u r t h u m b n a i l s k e t c h e s t o y o u r i n s t r u c t o r f o r h e l p i n c h o o s i n g w h i c h t o d e v e l o p as a r o u g h l a y o u t on a s i n g l e 8 l / 2 " / l l " s h e e t o f p a p e r . d . Do r o u g h l a y o u t and a g a i n c h e c k w i t h y o u r i n s t r u c t o r f o r comments. e . Do y o u r f i n a l c o m p r e h e n s i v e l a y o u t on a s i n g l e 8 1/2" x l l " s h e e t . EVALUATION: The l o g o and p r e p a r a t i o n work w i l l be t u r n e d i n t o t h e t e a c h e r f o r a s s e s s m e n t . The t e a c h e r w i l l e v a l u a t e y o u r m a t e r i a l s b a s e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : a . c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e o r s t e p s ; b . c o r r e c t n e s s o f l a y o u t p r o c e d u r e s ; c . o r i g i n a l i t y o f d e s i g n . T e a c h e r I n f o r m a t i o n 4.1 NUMBER: 4 T I T L E : D e s i g n o f a Logo RATIONALE: L o g o s o r t r a d e m a r k s a r e a v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e w o r l d o f a d v e r t i s i n g and m a r k e t i n g . E s s e n t i a l l y a l o g o i s t h e b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n symbol o f a b u s i n e s s o r i t s p r o d u c t . , T h i s a c t i v i t y i s d e s i g n e d t o be u s e d f o l l o w i n g t h e d e s i g n and l a y o u t a c t i v i t i e s . The f i n a l p r o d u c t i s a w o r k a b l e l o g o t h a t c a n be u s e d f o r many d i f f e r e n t r e p r o -d u c t i o n m e t h o d s . PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES: Upon c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s a c t i v i t y t h e s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o : 1. D e s c r i b e t h e t e r m ' l o g o . ' 2 . I d e n t i f y two u s e s o f a l o g o . 3 . D e v e l o p a l o g o f o r p e r s o n a l u s e . PRE-ASSESSMENT: The p r e - t e s t c o n s i s t s o f h a v i n g a s t u d e n t d e v e l o p a l o g o u s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s and t o o l s . LEARNING A C T I V I T I E S : M a t e r i a l s : d r a w i n g s u r f a c e , p a p e r and p e n c i l s . E n a b l i n g I n f o r m a t i o n : T h i s a c t i v i t y e s s e n t i a l l y t i e s a l l t h e d e s i g n and c o p y p r e p a r a t i o n a r e a s t o g e t h e r and s h o u l d be u s e d as t h e f i n a l a c t i v i t y b e f o r e t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e s t a r t e d . D e s i g n and l a y o u t a c t i v i t i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e s a n d c o l d c o m p o s i t i o n i s h e l p f u l . A p p l i c a t i o n : A t t h i s p o i n t b e f o r e t h e s t u d e n t s s t a r t w o r k i n g on t h e i r d e s i g n s i t may be h e l p f u l t o show s e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f w e l l known l o g o s ( s e e s t u d e n t s h e e t ) . W h i l e t h e s t u d e n t s a r e w o r k i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t e p s o f t h i s - a c t i v i t y keep s e v e r a l p o i n t s i n m i n d : a . I s c o l d c o m p o s i t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r u s e ? b . As e a c h d e s i g n p r o g r e s s e s i s t h e s t u d e n t ' s work a t h i s o r h e r l e v e l o f a b i l i t y ? c . I s t h e l o g o g o i n g t o be r e p r o d u c a b l e by s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s ? You may n e e d t o p r e v i e w some g r a p h i c image r e p r o d u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s . EVALUATION: S t u d e n t work s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d on s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s : a . c o r r e c t s e q u e n c e o f s t e p s ; I—* b . c o r r e c t n e s s o f l a y o u t p r o c e d u r e s ; >^ c . o r i g i n a l i t y o f d e s i g n . ^ 145 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. I s a a c s o n , A. You've got i t , Danny. T r e n t o n , New J e r s e y : 1 New J e r s e y Department o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , 1976. V o c a t i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m L a b o r a t o r y Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - K i l m e r Campus New Bru n s w i c k , NJ 08903 $4.50 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LD b. An industrial education curriculum guide fa> c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks CJ b. Unit content fa 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks CH b. General learning outcomes ~fa-5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests fa c. Post Tests sjj d. Student workbook fa e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress fa 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 CJ b. Grade 9 P. c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 8. f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. m m ^ i _ _ _ ^ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: ™"~™~™* a. Management LJ b. Instruction I ^ , c. Evaluation • 12. Overview Any program s e t w i t h i n our s c h o o l system s h o u l d be encour-a g i n g development of language s k i l l s , You've Got I t Danny, i s a p r e p a r e d program d e s i g n e d t o improve language s k i l l s w i t h a g r a p h i c a r t s c o n t e n t . T h i s i s a work book i n t e n d e d t o be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r a p h i c a r t s program. The work book i n c l u d e s many s t a n d a r d l a n -guage a r t s i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s i . e . d e f i n i t i o n s , work e n d i n g s , s p l i t t i n g words, a l p h a b e t i z i n g , and mat c h i n g . T h i s package would c e r t a i n l y be advantageous i f o n l y as a guide f o r p r e p a r i n g l o c a l language a r t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l . T h i s program would encourage the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t a r e a s and i n c r e a s e the s t u d e n t ' s awareness of the need t o communicate v e r b a l l y - an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of any v o c a t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e . SPELLING STAIRWAYS Directions: Spell out the words in the squares. Choose from the words below. Two of the words under each puzzle will not fit. 1 t t e c a o e s r. o e o g s r 1. arrive light opaquing stapler camera negative 2. crew table stripper prcsswork operate opaque SPLITTING WORDS Directions: Divide the words into syllables. Use the dictionary for this activity. 1. VariTyper 2. folding 3. stapler ___ 4. bindery 5. operating 7. 8. 9. 10. table stripping opaquing_ negative cameraman 11. presswork 12. interesting 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Arrange the above words in ALPHABETICAL ORDER Write in the spaces below. 9. 10. 11. 12. FIND IT IN THE GLOSSARY Look up the words hole puncher in the glossary. Write the meaning in the space below. 73 3. Laying out the negatives on goldenrod paper according to the way it is to be printed (4) light table cameraman stripping 4. A machine on a stand which staples when pressing a foot pedal. (2) foot stapler folding machine VariTyper 5. A group of people working together. (3) crew opaquing operating 6. Painting out unwanted spots on a negative. (4) presswork opaquing stripping 7. A machine for folding paper. (2) tight table foot stapler folding machine 8. Light and dark reversed on film. (4) negative presswork crew 9. A layout table with a glass top under which a light is placed. (4) operating light table cameraman 10. A place where printed material is put together with adhesive, staples, thread, etc. (2) bindery room opaquing 11. Work produced on a printing press. (4) stripping 12. Running a machine. (2) operating VariTyper presswork negative stripping 72 147 >GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW.' Johnson, T. A C a t a l o g u e o f performance o b j e c t i v e s ,  c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d measures and performance g u i d e s f o r 1. p r i n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . D e t r o i t , M i c h i g a n : Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1978. Wayne S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n - D i v i s i o n of Teacher E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e f o r the Research & Development of Competency Based Teacher E d u c a t i o n Programs D e t r o i t , MI 48909 N/C 2. This material is: ^ a. A competency based instructional program fa-b. An industrial education curriculum guide CJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks * * b. Unit content CJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks ® * b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design — CJ c. Job training » 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests L J d. Student workbook CJ e. Instructor's manual CJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress. 0 " 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 CJ b. Grade 9 B c. Grade 10 B d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 » f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management CJ b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The p r e p a r a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , j o b a n a l y s i s and course o u t l i n e s i s a v e r y time consuming p r o c e s s . A l t h o u g h an e x p e n s i v e t a s k , many programs and o u t l i n e s have been p r e p a r e d . The V-Tecs o r g a n i z a t i o n ( V o c a t i o n a l -T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o n s o r t i u m of S t a t e s , 1973) has a t t e m p t e d , through group c o o p e r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n t o e l i m i n a t e d u p l i c a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and e f f o r t . T h i s c a t a l o g u e of performance o b j e c t i v e s i s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r m u l t i - s t a t e c o o p e r a t i o n . The c a t a l o g i s not a course of s t u d y , but " i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e performance o b j e c -t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o the j o b c o n t e n t - PRINTING." (Johnson, 1978, p. i i ) GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 148 The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n d i c a t e s some of the uses f o r t h e i r c a t a l o g . 1. O b j e c t i v e s may be compared to e x i s t i n g programs f o r p o s s i b l e i n c l u s i o n . 2. Measures may be used to determine e n t e r i n g students competencies, thus a l l o w i n g f o r such things as advanced placement and i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n . 3. Performance guides may be used as a blue p r i n t f o r d e s i g n i n g c u r r i c u l u m which w i l l support s e l e c t e d performance o b j e c t i v e s . This catalogue w i l l p r o v i d e the i n s t r u c t o r or c u r r i c u l u m design team with a s e t of performance based tasks that w i l l i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c needs of the i n d u s t r y . T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i s an important aspect of graphic a r t s e d u c a t i o n , and the i n s t r u c t i o n must u t i l i z e r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h to base education goals and outcomes. However, competency based educ a t i o n u s u a l l y r e f e r s to psychomotor a c t i v i t y , and g r a p h i c s communication i s not e n t i r e l y a "hands on" psy-chomotor a c t i v i t y . Without i n s t r u c t i o n i n the reasons f o r p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i n our s o c i e t y , the graphic education student i s not f u l l y aware of the complexity of the i n d u s t r y . V o c a t i o n a l education programs based on t h i s m a t e r i a l and s i m i l a r documents w i l l p r o v i d e a s o l i d t e c h n i c a l back-ground, but the i n s t r u c t o r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the program must c o n s c i e n c i o u s l y encourage the blend of o b j e c t i v e s from not only the c o g n i t i v e domain but the a f f e c t i v e as w e l l . 47 45 Duty: P r o c e s s i n g F i l m and P r i n t e d M a t e r i a l Dtlty: E x p o s i n g W i t h A Camera Task: D e v e l o p f i l m t o p r o p e r d e n s i t y by t i m e a n d Task: Use d u p l i c a t i n g f i l m f o r l i n e work t e m p e r a t u r e m e t h o d 3 3 . PERFORMANCE O B J E C T I V E : G i v e n e x p o s e d n e g a t i v e , t r a y #1, and t i m e r , d e v e l o p f i l m t o p r o p e r d e n s i t y by t i m e and t e m p e r a t u r e method so t h a t i f i t i s a l i n e t o n e , t h e w h i t e b a c k g r o u n d w i l l be s o l i d b l a c k , no l i g h t p a s s e s t h r o u g h . T y p e , w h i c h i s b l a c k on c o p y , w i l l be s h a r p and c l e a r . On g r a y s c a l e , t h e 1 t h s t e p w i l l be s o l i d b l a c k , and t h e 5 t h s t e p , w i l l be h a l f b l a c k . ( 1 3 , 11) 3 1 . PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE: G i v e n h i g h s p e e d d u p l i c a t i n g f i l m vacuum f r a m e w i t h #3 l i g h t s o u r c e and a f i l m n e g a t i v e , make a d u p l i c a t e n e g a t i v e . The d u p l i c a t e s h o u l d a p p e a r e x a c t l y as t h e o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e w i t h t h e c l e a r a r e a s e q u a l l y t r a n s p a r e n t . ( 1 5 , 18) CRITJERII ONI-RE F^RENCED. MEASURE: S e l e c t an e x p o s e d n e g a t i v e and d e v e l o p t h e f i l m t o p r o p e r d e n s i t y by t i m e and t e m p e r a t u r e m e t h o d . CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASURE: Make a d u p l i c a t e n e g a t i v e u s i n g f i l m and a f i l m n e g a t i v e s u p p l i e d by y o u r i n s t r u c t o r . PERFORMANCE GUIDE: 1 . S e t - u p c h e m i s t r y a t 6 8 " F ( 2 0 ° C ) . 2 . S e t t i m e r f o r 3 m i n u t e s and s t a r t . 3 . When t i m e r r e a c h e s 2 - 3 / 4 m i n u t e s , d r a g f i l m , e m u l s i o n d o w n , i n t o d e v e l o p e r . A. F l i p t h e f i l m o v e r a n d s t a r t a g i t a t i o n . 5 . A t 5 s e c o n d s l i f t f i l m by c o r n e r and d r a i n e x c e s s . 6 . Submerge i n t o a c i d s t o p b a t h f o r 15 s e c o n d s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) and a g i t a t e . 7 . L i f t f i l m a n d d r a i n . R. P l a c e i n f i x . A g i t a t e f o r 10 s e c o n d s and l e a v e i n 4 t o 5 m i n u t e s . 9 . L i f t and d r a i n . 10. P l a c e i n w a t e r wash f o r 5 - 1 0 m i n u t e s . 11. Remove and s q u e e g e e b a s e s i d e o n l y . 12. D r y . PERFORMANCE GUIDE: 1 . In d a r k r o o m vacuum f r a m e , l a y a s h e e t o f d u p l i c a t i n g f i l m e m u l s i o n s i d e u p . 2 . On t o p o f d u p l i c a t i n g f i l m , l a y t h e o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e e m u l s i o n s i d e u p . 3 . C l o s e t o p and t u r n on vacuum. 4 . E x p o s e f i l m f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 s e c o n d s w i t h a #3 l i g h t s o u r c e . C_AU_TI0N: Time w i l l v a r y due t o t h e i n t e n s i t y o f l i g h t and d i s t a n c e f r o m f i l m . Check f i l m s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . 5 . D e v e l o p i n s t a n d a r d d e v e l o p i n g c h e m i c a l s . Q u a l i t y o f t h e d u p l i c a t e n e g a t i v e c a n a l s o be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . 150 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Kempton, R. F., Teaching guide f o r s t i l l photographic  t e c h n i c i a n aide o c c u p a t i o n s . Amherst, Massachusetts: 1. I l l i n o i s O f f i c e of Education, S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $5.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program 5*"* b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks ft" b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks ; ft* b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design D c. Job training 5&* 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans 2r" b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress * 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 : 0-f. Post secondary < • I J f -9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ________ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LD b. Instruction 5^  c. Evaluation • 12. Overview V o c a t i o n a l education must be s p e c i f i c i n r e s p e c t to job t a s k s . This guide i d e n t i f i e s those p a r t i c u l a r tasks necessary f o r e n t r y i n t o the photographic t e c h n i c i a n t r a d e . Although t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i s only one aspect of a comprehensive education, t h i s guide would be advantageous f o r program development i n a r t , i n d u s t r i a l or g r a p h i c communications education. TASK ANALYSIS St111 Jhotograph 1_Je_i1 cJ an _A1.de  ' „ d j c _ _ i c i ^ "-"'••» simulation of actuj1_saXe«J^?caut1ons, . Condition*: i H H : The s t u d e n t w i l l u t i l i z e s a f e t y P___^u__^_JlJjlJjJ!g^ Learning Activity- -. M a i n t a i n c l e a n w o r k i n g a r e a s . ; Stepi: i . 2 A « _ i _ _ c e n t r J ^ ^ v a p o r s . _ . — • — -3 Determine l o c a t i o n o f _ _ _ _ i i 1 _ h e r _ _ : 4. K n ^ _ e _ t x p ^ e U 1 n ^ of fires. —• 5 K n o ^ J t o . ^ _ Understand t h e f o u r g e j i e r t f j j l ^ S u p p o r l i n . K n o w 1 e d B e R « » u , r e d :  r e l a t e d ^ i n g u l s M n g agents, . . . Job: Talk: Learning Activity: Observe s a f e t y p r e L d u t j o n s r e l a ted to chemical hazards. Stops- 1 Adhere to manufacturer's recommendations f o r mixing and using chemicals. 2 Insure that laboratory has adequate ventilation. 2 Never sniff a container to determine its contents. 4 Use proper protective equipment and clothing when  necessary. 5 Use a respirator when mixing chemicals in powder form. g Always add acid to water, never the reverse.  1 Always use cold water when diluting sodium hydroxide.  8 Store solutions in properly labeled containers.  Supporting Knowtodse Roquirod: Knowledge of basic properties and reactions of  chemicals used in photography. i 41 152 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Losee, R. G r a p h i c a r t s o c c u p a t i o n s , b a s i c and advanced  t y p i n g . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : C hicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1971. Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n Department of C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , IL 60601 $2.75 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide S* c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks D b. Unit content JS-4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks CD b. General learning outcomes 53* 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LU b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _ a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 p . d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. /2Q 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 2. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction P-c. Evaluation • 12. Overview When a s t u d e n t i s p r e p a r i n g a program of s t u d i e s i n a secondary s c h o o l , a g r o u p i n g or c l u s t e r i n g of r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s would be advantageous. The Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , G r a p h i c A r t s / T y p i n g i s a p a r t of the c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e t h a t groups s u b j e c t s under major h e a d i n g s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c ourse i s an i n t r o d u c t o r y course i n t y p i n g i t s f o c u s i s the g r a p h i c a r t s i n d u s t r y . U n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n are d e s i g n e d t o f a m i l i a r i z e the s t u d e n t w i t h m e c h a n i c a l photo type c o m p o s i t i o n . UNIT THREE: ERROR'CORRECTIONS ON THE JUSTOWRITER COMPOSING MACHINE OUTEINB OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Review of the basic skills developed In Unit Two B. Corrections ln punctuation 1 . UBB of periods 2. Use of question marks 3. Setting up Indented paragraphs 4. Obtaining line spacing C. Running the perforated tape through the reproducer machine 1. Checking copy reproduced 2. Proofreading copy using standard copy-reading symbols Have students retype lesson from Unit Tw with corrections. Demonstrate the technique of making desired corrections on copy. Use the code deletion method to correct a single word. To correct a complete line, touch the "J-Car Ret" and the "Line Delete" keys simultaneously; allow the carriage to return to starting position and retype the line. To insure good composition on the Justo-writer typing machine, demonstrate and explain how to activate proper keys on the keyboard as follows: When periods, commas, colon, aensi-colona, exclamation points, I n t e r r o -gation points are used, touch the space bar only once. If Indentation la required, touch.the key marked "three units" twice. , If additional line spacing Is desired, touch the "J-Car Ret" key after the line has been completed. Have students proofread copy using standard copyreading symbols, and i f necessary, retype until It Is without errors. UNIT ONE: ORIENTATION OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. Review of basic typing skills B. The production typist 1. Skill development 2. Production review C. Proofreading type-written copy D. Operation of the Justowrlter 1. Recorder 2. Reproducer Note that the content of the advanced ' course Is based on in-depth s k i l l devel-opment and covers broad aspects of the field. . Point out the employment opportunities and the; diversity ''or1' JOB-' requirements. Guide students ln developing special skills such as correction and word divisions. Refer to the recommended texts for lesson plans. Develop lesson plans that Include— controlled spacing inserting blank lines centering material adjusting paper guides setting margins indenting paragraphs comparing pica and elite type. Discuss revisions on rough draft, and use of copyreading symbols to indicate corrections. Assign a research paper on the subject of copyreading symbols. Point out the diversity of the standard symbols. Have student review basic skills to provide transfer of training skills to the Justowrlter machine. Instruct students ln the typing of a Justified column for copy reproduction. 154 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Losee, R. G r a p h i c a r t s o c c u p a t i o n s I I I & IV. C h i c a g o , 1 I l l i n o i s : C hicago Department o f E d u c a t i o n , 1970. Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n Department o f C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , I L 60601 $2.75 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide "P-c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks Q b. Unit content W-4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes » 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • r-i 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 & e. Grade 12 P> f. Post secondary • • • • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. *Z» 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LJ b. Instruction B» c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s g u i d e , a l t h o u g h i n t e n d e d f o r s e n i o r t r a d e and v o c a -t i o n a l c o u r s e s i n g r a p h i c a r t s , i s not s p e c i f i c i n r e l a t i o n ! t o p a r t i c u l a r j o b t a s k s . The guide i s f l e x i b l e , a l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s t o determine u n i t and l e s s o n c o n t e n t . When concerned w i t h a t r a d e or v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e r a t h e r than an i n d u s t r i a l e d u c t i o n c o u r s e , the i n t e n t changes r a d i c a l l y . V o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n must emphasize s p e c i f i c j o b t a s k s t h a t r e l a t e t o the p a t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y the student| i s p r e p a r i n g f o r . Too g e n e r a l a cour s e w i l l p e r h a p s , omit u n i t s t h a t are i n h e r e n t t o i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 155 T h i s program can be an i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r the i n s t r u c t o r to persue f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r trade and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , but as a document to support a program, i t i s too ge n e r a l . 22 GRAPHIC ARTS OCCUPATIONS IV PRE-PRESS UNIT FIVE: PLATEMAKING FOR OFFSET PRESSES OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES A. Plateroom organization 1. Storage 2. Salvage 3. Safety 4. Materials and supplies B. Measurements used i n plate -making 1. Weight 2. Volume 3. Temperature 4. Density 5. P.H. (Acidity and A l k a l i n i t y ) 6. Relative Humidity C. Chemistry of platemaking 1. Formulas 2. Storage of solutions D. Metals used l n surface plates 1. Aluminum 2. Zinc 3. Stainless st e e l Review the Importance of good plateroom organization. Number and catalogue a plate f i l e for possible future r e p r i n t i n g . Keep a running inventory of a l l chemicals used and required. Advise the students that c e r t a i n chemicals are dangerous. Explain safety precautions which must be followed i n the shop i n handling chemicals. I n s t i l l the need for accurate measurement and control at every step i n the produc-t i o n of plates. Provide an opportunity for students to measure dry chemicals, l i q u i d volume, temperature of l i q u i d s , and s p e c i f i c gravity or density of l i q u i d s . Explain that r e l a t i v e humidity measures the degree of dampness. Have the students l i s t a l l formulas for solutions they w i l l need and use l n the production of plates. Demonstrate how to prepare, test,and store solutions, Including counter-etch, coating, developing, lacquers, and asphaltum. Show students samples of basic metals used for surface plates. Demonstrate the use of some of these metals. The majority of your surface plates w i l l be pre-sensitized by a factory processer. 23 4. Pre-sensltlzed E. Coated offset plate exposure 1. Exposing guides 2. Vacuum frames 3. Illumination Demonstrate coated offset plate exposure by exposing a metal plate and placing an L.T.F. s e n s i t i v i t y guide on the lower edge of the grlpper section. Point out the methods of illumination and why some systems are more e f f i c i e n t than other s. Demonstrate a safe method of trimming carbons. BOOKS RESOURCE MATERIALS Cogoll. Photo-Offset Fundamentals. Chap. 13. Halpern. Offset Stripping, Black and White. Chap. 12. Latimer. Survey of Lithography . Chap. 4, Reed. Offset Platemaking . Chaps. 1-19. Sayre. Photography and Platemaking for Photo-Lithography . Part 1. Ul 157 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Losee, R., P t a c e k , M. V o c a t i o n a l g r a p h i c a r t s , o f f s e t  p r e s s . C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : C hicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1 1973. Chicago Board o f E d u c a t i o n Department o f C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , I L . 60601 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program Lj b. An industrial education curriculum guide fa c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content Je-4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes fa-5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development , fa-b. Awareness to imagery and design CJ c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans ^ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests CJ d. Student workbook CJ e. Instructor's manual CJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 CJ c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 . . . . . p . f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management CJ b. Instruction fa-c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s program s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e s t o the o p e r a t i o n and maintenance of the o f f s e t p r e s s . The course o u t l i n e i s extended o v e r the Grade 11 and Grade 12 y e a r s . I n the Grade 11 program, u n i t s c o v e r the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1. O r i e n t a t i o n and S a f e t y f a c t o r s 2. B a s i c F u n c t i o n s o f O f f s e t P r e s s e s 3. O f f s e t Inks and Papers 4. O f f s e t P r e s s Work 5. B i n d e r y P r a c t i c e and i n c o n t i n u i n g t o Grade 12, the program emphasizes the f o l l o w i n g u n i t s : 1. O r i e n t a t i o n f o r J o b O p p o r t u n i t i e s 2. Advanced C h e m i s t r y o f O f f s e t F i l m 3. Paper and Paper Making 4. O f f s e t E s t i m a t i n g GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 158 The Chicago Board of Education, through the a u t h o r i z e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s encourages the i n s t r u c t o r s to be as f l e x i b l e as necessary i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m guides. T h i s allows maxiumum l o c a l c o n t r o l and promotes the i n d i v i d u a l d e s i r e of each student. At any p o i n t throughout the course of s t u d i e s , the student should have a t t a i n e d s k i l l s that would be marketable. UNIT FOUR: OFFSET PRESSWORK OUTLINE OF CONTENT SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES Intreduction to the offset press 1. Review, description, and demonstration 2. Rules and safety 3. Maintenance a. Oiling b. Greasing c. Checking press Review the offset process. Describe and point out functions of the offset press. Demonstrate the operation of the offset press by running blank or waste paper. Discuss and test students on their comprehension of the offset process. Discuss the operating rules and safety precautions of the offset press, press chemicals, and specific safety hazards. Examine the various switches, levers, and prevention devices. Discuss and illustrate the various aspects of maintenance—oiling and greasing the press and checking of the press for loose, damaged, missing, and malfunctioning parts. Stress the necessity and advantages of clean-liness and order. B. Pre-makeready 1. Tools and chemicals Point out tools and chemicals commonly used in the pressroom. Stress the order and differentiation of chemicals. 2. Readying dampening unit a. Mixing fountain solution b. Adjusting damp-ening unit 3. Job essentials a. Job ticket b. Ink c. Paper d. Plates Discuss selection of fountain solution. Illustrate the mixing of fountain solution. Demonstrate pH and alcohol tests of fountain solutions. Establish a routine for checking job ticket, job sample, ink,paper, and plate or plates. 13 Makeready (Setting up the press) 1. Loading the feeder a. Checking the job t i c k e t s b. Checking stock c. Putting stock into feeder d. Setting feeder 2. Setting press for thickness of stock a. Double sheet b. Headstops c. Side guide d. Impression cylinder 3. Setting feeder, delivery Makeready (pulling first sheet) 1. Plate onto press a. Inspect plate b. Set clamps c. Mount onto press 2 . Inking up a. Check ink b. Ink into fountain c. Ink up press Have the student read the job ticket for paper and ink requirements. Have the student check stock for quantity, color, watermark, felt and wire side, weight, grain, and size. Determine proper side guide. Wind stock and place into feeder. Demon-strate leveling and curling of stock where necessary. Set back gauges, blowers, pickup suckers, forwarding suckers. Have the student set the double sheet caliper or choke, headstops for squareness and height, and side guides. Demonstrate setting impression cylinder for thickness of sheet. Ascertain that students check pickup suckers, forward suckers, pile height, pull in wheels, leaders, etc. Inch sheet to headstops, checking blast, vacuum, side guide, timing, wheels, etc. Inch sheet to delivery. Set delivery, skelton wheels, vacuum, wedges. Demonstrate rechecks of press set up by running blank stock through press. Check spray unit and flame, i f necessary. Have student inspect plate for errors, omissions, marks, scratches, proper •development, and dirt on back side. Set front and rear clamps. Tell student to "mike" plate and Backing. Mount on press. Check for ension, and irregularities. Have student remove skin from ink. Make tap out and check with sample. Put ink in fountain. Add drier and compounds, i f desirable. Mix well. 160 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Lowery, A., King, D., Harght, B., Meeker, C. T e l e v i s i o n . Topeka, Kansas: Kansas S t a t e Department of Education, 1 1975. Kansas V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m & Research Center Room 115, W i l l a r d H a l l P i t t s b u r g State U n i v e r s i t y P i t t s b u r g , KS 66762 $5.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide - f a c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks D b. Unit content fa 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks D b. General learning outcomes fa 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa-b. Awareness to imagery and design fa c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ,_, a. Specific lesson plans fa b. Pre tests _] c. Post Tests fa d. Student workbook O e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages §§, 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress O 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 fa c. Grade 10 B a. Grade 11 IS e. Grade 12 & f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. / 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management 62 b. Instruction SI c. Evaluation fa 12. Overview T h i s program of s t u d i e s i s intended to provide an overview of how and why t e l e v i s i o n works. The emphasis i n t h i s program i s to promote a g r e a t e r awareness to the impact of t e l e v i s i o n on our d a i l y l i v e s . For students to develop techniques to i n c r e a s e t h e i r awareness of t h i s impact the program blends p r o d u c t i o n with an indepth study of t e l e v i s i o n communication theory. Although the course promotes the how and why of t e l e v i s i o n , a student w i l l become acquainted with the c a r e e r opportun-i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n the t e l e v i s i o n i n d u s t r y . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 161 T h i s program i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the statewide I n d u s t r i a l Education system that encourages a u n i t y of courses and t o p i c s , but allows f l e x i b i l i t y i n determining many of the s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g outcomes. The p h i l o s o p h i c a l statements of the Kansas program: 1. to examine the s o c i e t y / i n d u s t r y i n t e r f a c e and i d e n t i f y the components of i n d u s t r y , both d e t r i m e n t a l and b e n e f i c i a l t h a t a f f e c t people. 2. t o provide e x p l o r a t o r y problem s o l v i n g experiences by which the student w i l l gain an understanding of how t o o l s are u t i l i z e d , as an ex t e n s i o n of man's p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , i n c r e a s i n g h i s e f f i c i e n c y and ear n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . 3. to provide o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the vast array of o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d e d i n the work world. 4 . to provide subsequent o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n , . op p o r t u n i t y f o r development of r e a l i s t i c employable s k i l l s and u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n of employment g o a l s . (Toth, 1975 p . l ) w i l l be s a t i s f i e d by t h i s program. UNIT B - THE INFLUENCE DF TELEVISION LESSON I - "How Does T e l e v i s i o n I n f l u e n c e Our L i v e s ? " L e a r n e r ' s O b j e c t i v e s i A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g Lesson I , t h e s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o 1. d i s c u s s the v a r i o u s ways i n which t e l e v i s i o n i p r e s e n t l y b e i n g used i n b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n d u s t r y , and e d u c a t i o n . 2. a n a l y z e the way t e l e v i s i o n has a f f e c t e d man's p e r s o n a l l i f e and the o c c u p a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e t o him. Lesson Out l i n e i I . S p o r t s r e p l a y s " I I . Co u r t c a s e s I l l . S t o r e s e c u r i t y IV. E d u c a t i o n t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s V . P r e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n a t home VI . T e l e v i s i o n drama V I I . W i t n e s s i n g of s c i e n t i f i c e v e n t s V I I I . C l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g t o o l IX . Assembly l i n e m o n i t o r i n g X . R e c o r d i n g of m e d i c a l c a s e s XI . P i c t u r e phone 12 Student Handout Sheet #3 In the a r e a of s p o r t s , r e p l a y s of the a c t i o n can show the p l a y e r s and coaches weaknesses and s t r e n g t h s f o r improvement. Because c o u r t c ases consume so much time and money, t e s t i m o n i e s from w i t n e s s e s are taped i n advance f o r c o u r t h e a r i n g s . 13 163 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1 N a t i o n a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and t r a i n i n g standards f o r the  g r a p h i c a r t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l union. Washington, D.C: U.S. Department of Labour Manpower A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1975. Washington A p p r e n t i c e s h i p C o u n c i l Department of Labour & I n d u s t r i e s 318 E. 4th Avenue Olympia, WA 98504 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program , • d. A resource materials package 1)2. e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks ^ b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks QS. b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: . a. Skill development & b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual 51 f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary 3» 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management W b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s booklet o u t l i n e s the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program f o r v a r i -ous trades w i t h i n the Graphic A r t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union (GAU) I t was prepared i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the US Depart-ment of Labour to encourage standard e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n the t r a i n i n g of GAU members. The a p p r e n t i c e s h i p program i s one method f o r students to become q u a l i f i e d i n the graphic a r t s t r a d e s . T h i s booklet suggests p o s s i b l e programs and course o u t l i n e s employers co u l d f o l l o w . Dot Etcher [Litho] (Continued) Light, color theory, and color reaction Halftone tints Use of trade tools and chemicals Masking, staging, etc. Color correction continuous tone films Color correction screened halftones Intensification and blackening Chemistry and application of reduction of dot structure Prepress proofing Familiarization of platemaking Familiarization of press work Retouchers [Gravure] 5 years (Trade) (Term) Basics of all rotogravure branches Judgment of negatives Set up monotone and line negatives Set up color negatives and flash line work Application of dye on negatives for reducing .tone values Cyaniding negatives for increasing tone values Opaquing and outlining of all white paper Air brushing and vignetting with dye and India ink Staging of negatives for color separation and tone value The use of film overlays The use and action of chemicals The use of densitometer for photographic range Checking screen and tone positives for exact reproduction and dot value Local dyeing Elimination of all spots and bad edges with spotting brush and etching tools Grinding of negatives and positives Study of tone value by scale Thorough study of color and its application Basic study of art and composition Proofer [Photoengraving] 5 Years (Trade) ( T e r r n ) Major printing processes Operation and maintenance of presses 16 Proofer [Photoengraving] (Continued) Care of rollers Manufacture and characteristics of paper Manufacture and characteristics of ink Use of overlays and underlays Checking proofs with copy Single color proofing Color proofing and ink sequences Registering plates on and off the block Ink matching Proofing of process color plates—mounted and unmounted with bearers Making and using friskets and masks Basics of etching, finishing, and final printing Stripper - Printers [Photoengraving] > 5 Years (Trade) (Term) Major printing processes Fundamental knowledge of all branches of photoengraving Knowledge and use of trade equipment and tools Copy evaluation Negative assembly Color stripping Pin register systems Mixing solutions Preparation of plate metals Coating and whirling of metals Prints on metals Developments of exposed metal plates Drying and burning of coating Photography, copper etching, and zinc etching basics Stripper and Opaquer [Litho] (Trade) Major printing processes Basic mathematics Drafting and art practices Tools of trade Copy preparation and evaluation Layouts Imposition and major bindery methods 5 Years (Term) 17 Project 2 (Continued) PHASE C - LENS AND IMAGE SIZE A. The Lens B. Optical Problems of Simple Lenses C Lens Correction for Optical Problems D. Optical or Lens Flare E. The Scaling and Focusing of the Image F. Movement of the Camera Parts Project 3 - Camera Area and Darkroom PHASE A - CAMERA AREA - CAMERA BACK, ENLARGER, AND  CONTACT DARKROOMS A. Camera Area (Light Room) B. Camera Back Darkroom C. Lights D. Contact Frame Darkroom E. En larger Darkroom PHASE B - CHEMISTRY AND DEVELOPMENT AREA A. Processing Sink B. Trays C. Chemistry Preparation Area D. Drying E. Storage Project 4 - Cleaning and Maintenance of the Camera and Darkroom A. Cleaning and Maintenance of the Lens Board B. Cleaning and Maintenance of the Backboard C. Cleaning and Maintenance of Bellows D. Cleaning of Camera Bed and Tapes E. Care and Cleaning of Light Source F. Care and Cleaning of the Copyboard G. Care and Cleaning of Darkroom and Equipment H. Caring for Camera Equipment I. Cameraman's Safety Rules 26 Project 5 - Photographic Fi lms - Structure and Color Sensitivity A. Structure of Photographic Film B. Dimensional Stability C. Color Sensitivity D. Film Speed E. Latitude F. Grain Project 6 - Development of the Image A. Introduction B. The Development Process C. Automatic Film Processors D. Maintenance Program E. Problems Incurred During the Developing Process F. Chemistry of Development Project 7 - Copy Evaluation and Preparation A. Evaluating Copy B. Seal i ng Copy to Size C. Copy Identification D. Grouping Together by Type and Size E. Setting up Copyboard F. Care of Copy Project 8 - Shooting Line Copy PHASE A - SCALING AND FOCUSING A. Relationship of Copy Plane to Center of Lens to Focal Plane for Size Determination B. f Number Setting for Reduction or Enlargement C. Covering Power of Lent D. Use of Tapes and Scales c^ 1 E. Focusing on Ground Glass 27 166 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1 Nebraska guide f o r c u r r i c u l u m improvement i n i n d u s t r i a l a r t s K-12. L i n c o l n , Nebraska: Nebraska S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1975. Nebraska Department of E d u c a t i o n 301 C e n t e n n i a l M a l l , South L i n c o l n , NE 68509 N/C 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide ™ c. An organized instructional program CJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content ™ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes m-5. Instructional material organized to promote: „ a. Skill development jj* b. Awareness to imagery and design KP c. Job training CJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests -J d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual ., ® f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress CJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: ^ a. Grade 8 b. Grade 9 B c. Grade 10 • • • B d. Grade 11 g e. Grade 12 '. ffi* f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _ _ _ _ _ _ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management ' CJ b. Instruction c. Evaluation 12. Overview The Nebraska Guide f o r C u r r i c u l u m Improvement i n I n d u s t r i a l  A r t s , does not o u t l i n e s p e c i f i c c o u r s e c o n t e n t , r a t h e r i t e s t a b l i s h e s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l base f o r program development. Course c o n t e n t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of each s c h o o l d i s -t r i c t . T h i s f l e x i b i l i t y may l e a d t o d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n programs w i t h i n the s t a t e , however t h i s guide p r o v i d e s a u n i f i e d r a t i o n a l t h a t would i n t e g r a t e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s t r u c t u r e s and program o f f e r i n g s . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 167 The guide i d e n t i f i e s the major components of i n d u s t r i a l e ducation and s p e c i f i c g e n e r a l l e a r n i n g outcomes at three l e v e l s . Competencies and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s are suggested f o r : 1. Knowledge l e v e l - COGNITIVE DOMAIN 2. S k i l l l e v e l - PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN 3. A t t i t u d i n a l l e v e l - AFFECTIVE DOMAIN Within the o u t l i n e d frame of r e f e r e n c e , i n s t r u c t o r s could develop programs, depending on student and l o c a l needs, that achieve these competencies. D. Demonstrate methods of separating, tormina, machining, assembling of materials and products E. Demonstrate techniques for securing a job. Simulate job interviews In the classroom. Write letters of job applications. Take psychomotor tests. ATTITUDINAL LEVEL-AFFECTIVE DOMAIN SeJecred Student Competencies Sample Learning Activities Experiences and activities at the Junior High Level will enable the student to: A. Discuss the safety measures necessary In a manufacturing plant. B. Relate the necessity of selling, distributing, and servicing a manufactured product. C. Plan wisely before producing goods and services. D. Describe the advantages ol different finishes. E. See the necessity for a variety of |obs In manufacturing fields. View Industrial safety lltms. Practice good safety habits and attitudes. Sell and distribute the student company's mass produced product. Tour an Industry to see how they plan for production. Test and evaluate various types ol finishes. Construct a flow chart depicting how jobs inter-relate and depend on one another. KNOWLEDGE LEVEL-COGNITIVE DOMAIN (Graphic Communications) Se/ocfed Student Competencies Sample Learning Activities Experiences and activities at the Junior High Level will enable the student lo: A. Compare the merits and weaknesses of numerous types of composition. B. Recognize basic reproduction processes used in Industrial applications ol technical graphics. Collect examples of composition from different types of composition machines and critique their weaknesses and values. Identify reproductions produced by various processes 35 C. Use properly the nomenclature associated with Graphic Communications. D. Interpret standardized drafting symbols when they are presented in the form of a drawing. E. Compare the occupational requirements and benefits for at least four jobs in each ol the following areas ol Graphic Communications: research and development, design, drafting, graphic reproduction and packaging. F. Identity at least fifteen industrial occupations In the Graphic Communications cluster. Use property the terminology associated with graphic communications in dairy conversation within the laboratory. Produce a cardboard or atyrofoam model from a dimensioned drawing. Answer questions pertaining to a drawing when presented with a print. Have each member of the class interview two employees In one of the areas of graphic communications, the similarities and differences in job requirements end benefits Play 'Twenty Questions" with some students picking an occupation and the other members of the class asking questions, attempting to identify the occupation. SKILL LEVEL-PSYCH OMOTOfl DOMAIN Selected Student Competencies Sample Learning AcftvtSes Experiences and activities at the Junior High Level will enable the studenl to: A. Compare and contrast the industrial applications of Ihe basic printing processes. B. Demonstrate the interrelationship of photography with drafting and graphic arts as used in industry. C- Produce copies using image reproduction processes generally found in business and offices. D. Discuss the primary responsibilities of those necessary to the production of a printed document in industry. E Interpret the responsibilities of those necessary to the design and production of an industrial product. Prepare a display using examples of the basic printing processes. Produce a photodrawtng. Produce a film positive half-tone for photo silk screening. Produce notes and flow charts from the management of a class "corporation" using a spirit duplicator. Produce presentation materials using a thermofax machine. Hold a small group discussion regarding the production of a printed document in industry resulting in Ihe making of a flow chart showing a document's route. Divide the class into small groups and establish a corporate structure. Design a product, assigning individual responsibilities according to (ha design phase of the predetermined corporate structure. 1 6 9 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW.' Nieminen, J . , & Barrett, M, e t a l . A guide for teaching  graphic arts in Indiana. Indianapolis, Indiana: Indiana 1. Department of Education, 1 9 7 0 . Vocational Instructional Materials Laboratory Department of Vocational Technical Education Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 4 7 8 0 9 N/C 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program. b. An industrial education curriculum guide P» c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes & 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. p, a. Specific lesson plans p; b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 , LJ b. Grade 9 3» c. Grade 10 W d. Grade 11 * e. Grade 12 B f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______» 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction .. c. Evaluation • 12. Overview This booklet is a guide, not a program of studies. The curriculum guide was prepared "to a s s i s t the teacher in his attempt to acquaint his students with the graphic arts industry, inform them of the p r i n c i p l e s involved in graphic reproduction, and furnish them with an understanding and appreciation of the type of work performed by craftsmen in the graphic arts." With this intent, the developers have prepared a document that allows the maximum f l e x i b i l i t y f o r teacher designed units but also allowing for a basic core of material to be covered. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 170 T h i s guide a l s o attempts to d i s t i n g u i s h the p l a c e graphic a r t s occupies i n our everchanging t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . The chairman of the r e v i s i o n committee o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r y and the present trends i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n . "... The problems of graphic communications with which f u t u r e generations w i l l be faced cannot be answered through p u r e l y mechanical process and technique-o r i e n t e d i n s t r u c t i o n . What i s needed i s a broader understanding based on concepts of how we communicate. Understandings of the problems of mass communications, a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t one of the most powerful f o r c e s a f f e c t i n g our i n d u s t r i a l economy, and the g r e a t e s t danger to our very e x i s t e n c e , i s a comprehensive understanding and the use of e f f e c t i v e communications and communications technology (Nieminen, 1970, p. 1). The t h i r t e e n u n i t s of i n s t r u c t i o n o u t l i n e d i n t h i s guide cover the major areas of g r a p h i c a r t s e d u c a t i o n , but the i n t e n t i s not s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g , but an o v e r a l l awareness to the graphic i n d u s t r y and a l l i e d f i e l d s . Depending on the nature of the s c h o o l and l o c a l community, t h i s guide allows the i n s t r u c t o r to o r i e n t a t e the program i n one of f o u r ways 1. P r i n t i n g 2. Graphic A r t s ( i n d u s t r i a l a r t s ) 3. Graphic Communications (expanded i n d u s t r i a l a r t s ) 4. V i s u a l Communications Education (independent f i e l d of study) TECHNICAL CONTENT OUTLINE TEXTS REFERENCE AUDIO VISUAL d. print finishing (1) preparation of print (2) mounting 6. Basic elements of design a. texture b. lines c. shapes d. forms e. patterns f. rhythm g. movement h. color i . balance j . proportion k. emphasis (center of interest) 1. harmony m. perspective IX. Process Photography A. History of Process Camera B. Theory of Process Photography C. Process Camera 1. Types a. vertical b. horizontal 2. Construction a lens b. camera back c. copyboard d. bellows e. lights f. frame 3. Operation of the camera for line copy a. copy (1) scaling (2) arranging (3) types of copy b. adjustments (1) lens (2) lights (3) ground glass . c. focusing copy d. placing film e. making exposure F35 F70 F77 63 TECHNICAL CONTENT TEXTS AUDIO-OUTLINE REFERENCE VISUAL 4. Determining standards a. lights (1) angle (2) intensity (3) distance b. F -stop c. emulsion speeds of film d. development (1) agitation (2) time and temperature (3) developer types 5. Films a. film characteristics (1) base (2) chemical composition emulsions (3) anti -halation dies b. types (1) orthochromatic film (2) panchromatic film (3) transparent stripping film (4) self-screening film (5) mechanical negatives (6) auto-positive (7) Polaroid (self-developing) c. handling film d. processing film (1)developer (2) stop bath (3) fixer and hardener (4) wash (5) dry D. Theory of Halftone Photography S2 1. Graduations of tone 2. Types of copy 3. Halftone screens a. what the halftone screen does b. classifications of screens (1) angle (2) lines per inch GAFT A\ c. types of screens #19 (1) glass crossline screen (a) advantages GAFT AV ' (b) disadvantages #18' (2) plastic contact screen (a) advantages 65 —1 172 •GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. O'Dean, J . V o c a t i o n a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a f t i n g . C h i c a g o , 1 I l l i n o i s : C hicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , 1968. Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n Department o f C u r r i c u l u m 228 N o r t h La S a l l e S t r e e t C h i c a g o , I L 60601 $3.75 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program fa b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide , • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content P 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes W 5. Instructional material organized to promote: rf a. Skill development g* b. Awareness to imagery and design fa c. Job training • » 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. —. a. Specific lesson plans hd b. Pre tests L J c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook jJ e. Instructor's manual fa f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage Individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 ; LJ b. Grade 9 LJ c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 3 e. Grade 12 i j r f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. JUS 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 1-11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: . a. Management fa b. Instruction fa c. Evaluation 12. Overview The Chicago Board of E d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d e s d r a f t i n g as a segment i n a c l u s t e r of co u r s e work f o r g r a p h i c a r t s o c c u p a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s program i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o A r c h i t e c t u r e , i t s d e s i g n and scope i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d r a f t i n g and g r a p h i c d e s i g n . THE MATURE AMD SCOPE OF VOCATIONAL ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING Help students to become aware that methods and materials used i n construction vary g r e a t l y depending upon geographic l o c a t i o n and are continually changing. (See Hepler and Wallach, pp. 2u9-6l.) Explain to students that most basic engineering p r i n c i p l e s , upon which modern framing methods are based, have been known f o r cen-t u r i e s , but i t has not been u n t i l recent years that the development of materials and construction methods has allowed the u t i l i z a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s . Point out new and improved methods of erecting s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l , of laminating and processing preformed wood st r u c t u r a l members, and of developing and r e f i n i n g i n the use of concrete and masonry, including prestressed concrete slabs. These provide the architect with f l e x i b i l i t y of design and conservation of materials and time. (See Hepler and Wallach, pp. 262-337J Hornung, pp. 7-16, 3U-U1.) C. Characteristics of Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Working Drawings Explain and discuss the use of the architect's scale> emphasizing i t s main function. Have students discuss and develop a knowledge of various building materials and the f i e l d assembly of parts. I l l u s t r a t e the symbols and conventions that appear on plans, elevations, sections, and d e t a i l s . Explain the purpose, use, and content of spe c i f i c a t i o n s and schedules, developing the thought that specifications guarantee the purchaser that the contractor w i l l deliver the building exactly as spec i f i e d . They are control documents and l e g a l contracts. (See Waffle, p. u63; Hepler and Wallach, pp. 338-U6.) Discuss plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and e l e c t r i c a l outlets. I l l u s t r a t e p l o t plans and landscape layouts. D. Elements of Residential Design Discuss the elements of r e s i d e n t i a l design^pointing out that i n -d u s t r i a l automation methods have enabled manufacturers to produce high q u a l i t y and low priced products that can be incorporated i n t o a modular system of design. Revolutionary advances i n our technology provide a great stimulus f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l design; constant changes i n our culture must be reflec t e d i n our architecture. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF VOCATIONAL ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTING E. Land Planning Explain the procedures that may be followed i n selecting a suitable s i t e . Discuss compass orientation. Show the primary function of the landscape plan and the types and locations of vegetation. Explain that the architect often proposes changes i n the existing contour of the land to enhance the function of the s i t e . (See Hepler and Wallach, pp. 218-33} Waffle, pp. 239-u7.) F. Mechanical I l l u s t r a t e the p r i n c i p a l systems of heating that are i n general use, c i t i n g the achievement of i d e a l comfort through the use of a i r -conditioning and regulation of proper humidity. Explain that the average home has approximately 30 d i f f e r e n t elec-t r i c a l appliances. The e l e c t r i c a l power i s brought to the home by service entrance wires. Understanding the e l e c t r i c a l system of the home begins with the basic terms used i n home wiring: voltage, ampere, watt, kilowatt, c i r c u i t , conduit, e l e c t r i c current, resistance, and short c i r c u i t . Discuss plumbing systems, supply l i n e s carrying fresh water and pressure, and l i n e s carrying waste to the disposal system by grav i t y drainage. 0. Design Factors Discuss the design process. Explain that the major design a c t i v i t y occurs during the preparation of sketches and d e t a i l drawings. Point out that u n t i l the students become fa m i l i a r with standard building material sizes and furniture requirements, a template may be used. Display a complete set of r e s i d e n t i a l drawings depicting the design process. The set should include sketches, working drawings, and the f i n a l presentation drawing. Point out that f i r s t sketches r a r e l y produce the finished product. Discuss the st r u c t u r a l engineering required for a residence. Point out the implications for an intermediate building. Explain the importance of designing a s t r u c t u r a l l y sound bu i l d i n g . 174 >GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1. O f f s e t p r i n t i n g . Montgomery, Alabama: State Department of Education, D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1977. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $2.50 2. This material is: n a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package ^ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. . Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks • LJ b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training • fa 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. r-, a. Specific lesson plans —, b. Pre tests t_ c. Post Tests «_ d. Student workbook fa e. Instructor's manual fa f. Equipment list • g. Slides , • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress fa 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • fa c. Grade 10 fa d. Grade 11 fa. e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management J~ b. Instruction *W c. Evaluation fa 12. Overview O f f s e t P r i n t i n g i s a study guide prepared to a s s i s t the student i n developing independent study s k i l l s by p r o g r e s s i n g through a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c job sheets that i n c l u d e q u e s t i o n s and r e f e r e n c e s . The study guide a l s o c o n t a i n s a D a i l y Performance Chart which encourages the student to manage and c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r study r o u t i n e . The performance c h a r t i n d i c a t e s a f o u r step process f o r completion of any task. 1. Observation 2. Helping to perform the job under s u p e r v i s i o n 3. Doing the job under s u p e r v i s i o n 4. Performing the job alone, without d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n NO. 17 ANSWERS CONTINUED 8. "Ideal photographic copy" normally should have a f u l l range of tones which blend together smoothly. The photo should not appear " f l a t " and grayish, nor overly "contrasty"-with strong shadows and expanses of pure white. POF: 153 NO. 18 ANSWERS SHOOT LINE COPY 1. Line photography i s the copying on f i l m of o r i g i n a l camera copy which i s composed e n t i r e l y of dots, l i n e s , and areas of a single color or tone—no continuous tones. POF: 123 2. Line photography i s sometimes cal l e d simple "black-and-white photography" or "single-copy photography." POF: 123 3. The copy usually i s positioned upside-down on the camera copyboard. POF: 123 4. The l i s t i s located on page 140 of POF. 5. Kodalith Ortho Type 3 Film (both .007" regular base and .0032" thin base). POF: 125 6. Process cameras used for o f f s e t photography are designed and equipped to render true images (at reductions, same size, and enlargments) of a f l a t surface, from corner to corner, over the entire copyboard. POF: 125 7. The most modest of these cameras costs from several thousands of dollars and upwards and since these cameras "must be marvels of precision", utmost care i s es s e n t i a l . POF: 125 8. Most large process cameras are horizontally b u i l t . That i s , the s l i d i n g copyboard i s near one end on horizontal r a i l s , the f i l m holder i s at the other end, and the lens can be adjusted between the two ends on the r a i l s The horizontal process camera i s much l i k e a very large view camera used to take p o r t r a i t s . POF: 125 9. V e r t i c a l process cameras are popular i n the intermediate size ranges. This type stands the t r a d i t i o n a l horizontal camera on end, that i s , the r a i l s are v e r t i c a l , the copyboard i s low near the fl o o r , and the fi l m holder i s mounted firmly so the operator can look down at the ground glass image. POF: 126 10. The advantage of v e r t i c a l cameras i s that they take very l i t t l e f l o o r area and are convenient to use, as walking and waste motions are minimized. POF: 126 -13-JOB NC. 18 SHOOT LINE COPY POF: 123-12 140-14 1. Define l i n e photography. 2. What i s another name for li n e photography? 3. In what manner i s the copy positioned on the camera copyboard? 4. L i s t the procedural steps i n shooting l i n e copy. 5. Give the trade name of an example of f i l m which would be suitable for most l i n e photography. 6. For what are process cameras used f o r o f f s e t photography designed? 7. Why i s the utmost care e s s e n t i a l i n the operation and handling of the process camera? 8. Describe the horizontal process camera. 9. Describe the v e r t i c a l process camera. 10. What i s the greatest advantage of the v e r t i c a l process camera? -18-t NO. 18 TEST TEST ANSWERS - NO. 18 SHOOT LINE COPY 1. black and white or 5. process single color 6. lens 2. latent 7. True F I L L IN THE BLANK 3. p l a s t i c 8. True 4. horizontally and 9. False 1. U s u a l l y , l i n e copy i s p r e p a r e d w i t h b l a c k i n k on w h i t e v e r t i c a l l y 10. True p a p e r . F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s c a l l e d and pho t o g r a p h y o r pho t o q r a p h y . TEST ANSWERS - NO. 19 2. An i n v i s i b l e image which w i l l become v i s i b l e d u r i n g the 1. o p t i c a l 6. white d e v e l o p i n g o f the f i l m n e g a t i v e i s a image. 2. reflected 7. chamois 3. l i g h t 8. False 3. Most g r a p h i c a r t s f i l m f o r l i n e work i s a r e l a t i v e l y t h i n 4. highlight 9. True s h e e t o f f l e x i b l e - b a s e 5. shadow 10. True 4. The two b a s i c ways o f b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s cameras i s TEST ANSWERS - NO. 20 and 1. f i l t e r 6. shadow 5. The l e n s , b e l l o w s , camera back, c o p y b o a r d , and l i g h t s 2. lens 7. 30, 40 are the b a s i c p a r t s o f a camera. 3. densitometer 8. True 4. 90 9. False 6. The most d e l i c a t e , c r i t i c a l , and e x p e n s i v e p a r t o f a 5. increase 10. True camera i s t h e TEST ANSWERS - NO. 21 TRUE - FALSE 1. tone 5. black T F 7. Most l a r g e p r o c e s s cameras a r e t h e h o r i z o n t a l 2. moire 6. drying t y p e . 3. duotone 7. True 4. 133 8. False T F 8. G e l a t i n f i l m and g e l a t i n cemented between s h e e t s o f o p t i c a l g l a s s i s used f o r f i l t e r s . TEST ANSWERS - NO. 22 T F 9. The g a l l e r y camera i s l o c a t e d i n s i d e the darkroom. 1. one-thousandth 6. hue, value, chroma 2. f l a t , process 7. white, black T F 10. When f i l t e r s a r e used e x p o s u r e time must be 3. electromagnetic 8. Kelvin l e n g t h e n e d . 4. beam 9. True 5. 39.4 10. True TEST ANSWERS - NO. 23 1. yellow, magenta, cyan 5. short 2. di r e c t , i n d i r e c t 6. False 3. r e f l e c t i o n . 7. True transparent 8. True 4. photographic masking TEST ANSWERS - NO. 24 1. colored 6. duoton 2. black 7. black 3. green 8. True 4. blue 9. True 5. lacquer 10. False -18--4-177 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Pauls, V., S u l l i v a n , V., & Blough, A. Photography. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Department of Ed u c a t i o n , 1972. Kansas V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m and Research Center Room 115 W i l l a r d H a l l P i t t s b u r g State U n i v e r s i t y P i t t s b u r g , KS 66762 $6.00 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program ^ b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program LJ d. A resource materials package : • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content ^ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks , LJ b. General learning outcomes 9* 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development 9* b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training. CJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. „ . a. Specific lesson plans pf b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress 1^ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 _> c. Grade 10 » d. Grade 11 3 e. Grade 12 • ©• f. Post secondary t°1f7 ^ 9. Number of hours per instructional module. I iris 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. t 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction ^ c. Evaluation 12. Overview A w e l l organized i n t r o d u c t i o n to the techniques of photo-graphy. The package i n c l u d e s u n i t o u t l i n e s and l e s s o n plans that i n d i c a t e the content to be covered i n each s e c t i o n . Although r e f e r e n c e i s made to image development i n the p r e f a c e , the concept i s not d e a l t with i n a formal method w i t h i n the body of the guide. H o p e f u l l y , through i n s t r u c t i o n i n the t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s , the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l encourage d i s c u s s i o n on the impact of photography on our communication needs. This program would provide a v a l u a b l e source of m a t e r i a l f o r any i n s t r u c t o r engaged i n photo-gr a p h i c i n s t r u c t i o n . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW 178 Photography c u r r i c u l u m , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . C o t t a g e Grove, M i n n e s o t a : South Washington County S c h o o l s , 1978. Park S e n i o r High S c h o o l South Washington County S c h o o l s D i s t r i c t 833 C o t t a g e Grove, MN 55016 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide ® * c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks . LJ b. Unit content ¥*• 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks L] b. General learning outcomes 'Jw 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training CJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans "pr b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual CJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade9 W c. Grade 10 g d. Grade 11 M e. Grade 12 , ® f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _______ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management L_l b. Instruction • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s program i s open t o any s t u d e n t i n grades t e n through t w e l v e and i s d e s i g n e d as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of photography A g e n e r a l c o u r s e p r e p a r e d t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n becoming aware of the p o t e n t i a l of the photographc image as w e l l as p r o v i d e an i n s i g h t i n t o the c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l of photography. The o u t l i n e c o v e r s the b a s i c p h o t o g r a p h i c p r i n c i p l e s of h i s t o r y , camera t y p e s , l e n s , exposure c o n t r o l , e t c . 3. P r inc ip le s of l i g h t Student Assignment: Read Chapter 3 2 hours in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 2 in workbook. 4. Lenses Student Assignment: Read Chapter 4 2 hours in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 3 i n workbook. Demonstration: Types of lenses 5. Exposure Controls Student Assignment: Read Chapter 4 hours 5 in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 4 in workbook. Lecture: F stop system, speeds• depth of f i e l d , parts of a camera. Demonstration: Observing speeds and f stops. S l ide Ser ies : "Photography-How It Works". 6. Camera Handling Student Assignment: Read Chapter 6 5 hours in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 5 in workbook, take sample p i c -tures. Demonstration: Loading f i l m , holding camera f inder s , l i g h t ing, rewinding pos i t ions, view-readings, focus-f i lm. 7. Film Processing Student Assignment: Read Chapter 8 4 hours in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Develop a r o l l of f i l m , complete assignment 7 i n work-book. Demonstration: Loading f i lm in a tank, processing a r o l l of f i l m . Lecture: Steps in processing f i l m , theory of development, chemical s t ruc -ture, charac ter i s t i c s of a good nega-t i v e . 8. Film Student Assignment: Read Chapter 10 3 hours in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 6 in workbook. Lecture: ASA, gra in, contrast F i lm: "The Story Behind Fi lm" Student Assignment: Read Chapter 15 hours 10 in textbook. Student A c t i v i t y : Complete ass ign-ment 9 in workbook, make contact 9. Contact and Project ion P r i n t -ing 180 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1 P o l l o c k , S. A c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r p r o d u c t i o n o r i e n t a t e d  photo o f f s e t . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : I l l i n o i s O f f i c e of Education, 1979. Steve P o l l o c k Johns burg High School 2002 West Kingwood Road McHenry, IL 60050 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program ; 1* b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks P» b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development >0 b. Awareness to imagery and design LJ c. Job training 1^ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans pd b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • j - r - i 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 P c. Grade 10 B d. Grade 11 B e. Grade 12 & f. Post secondary •••• • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. fl^O 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. %> 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction . c. Evaluation & 12. Overview A very s p e c i f i c task o r i e n t a t e d c u r r i c u l u m guide. P o l l o c k has conducted research w i t h i n the i n d u s t r y that i n d i c a t e d the tasks necessary f o r a student to l e a r n , which would pr o v i d e d e f i n i t e e n try l e v e l s k i l l s . Although t h i s program i s w e l l researched and documented, there i s no r e f e r e n c e to the impact of graphic communications on our s o c i e t y . The package i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . o f s p e c i f i c tasks and t h e i r subsequent mastery. This package would provide v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r any graphic a r t s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , i n the v o c a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l area. 181 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 1. P r i n t i n g an i n s t r u c t o r ' s manual. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Department of Education, Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education S e r v i c e , V o c a t i o n a l Education D i v i s i o n , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio $3.25 2. This material is: ^ a. A competency based instructional program *5 b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program CJ d. A resource materials package CJ e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: ^ a. A job tasks ' f a b. Unit content CJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development • b. Awareness to imagery and design c. Job training f& 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ^ a. Specific lesson plans 2?" b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests d. Student workbook .'. . e. Instructor's manual fa-f. Equipment list • • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 B. c. Grade 10 B d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 fa" f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _________ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management CJ b. Instruction CJ c. Evaluation • 12. Overview The i n s t r u c t o r ' s manual i s e x a c t l y the same as the student manual, except answers have been pr o v i d e d f o r the q u e s t i o n s . C O P Y C A M E R A W O R K DATE NAME _ 2. Nomenclature of the Process Camera. Purpose of Assignment: To identify the parts of the process camera. References: Cogoli, John E., "Photo-Offset Fundamentals", L ine Photography. Related Information: A typical process camera consists of: 1. Frame and Bed a. Copyboard (II Glass (2) Copyholder (opaque or transparent} b. Lights c. Lensboard (1) Lenses {2J Iris Diaphragm (3) Shutter d. Cameraback (1) Fi lmholder (2) Ground Glass (3) Halftone Screen Device 2. Controls a. Timer b. Aperture Setting for Diaphragm c. Copyboard Extension d. Bellows Extension e. Vacuum Pump Questions: (Answer the fol lowing as briefly as possible.) 1. Locate each of the parts of your process camera. Answers: 1. Check with instructor. 2. What is the largest piece of f i lm your camera wil l hold? 2. Check with instructor. 3. Does your camera have a shutter? 3. Check with instructor. 4. Does the il lumination come from photof iood bulbs or arcs? 4. Check with instructor. 5. What is the purpose of the bellows? 5. To form a light-tight tunnel from the lens to the fi lm regardless of the movement of the lens. 109 C O P Y C A M E R A W O R K NAME DATE 3. Principles of the Process Camera, a. Light. Purpose of Assignment: To present some basic terms concerning light. References: Jaffe, Edwin, "The Science of Physics in Lithography", G A T F . World Book Encyclopedia, Vo l . II. Related Information: The camera uses controlled light to record a reflected image upon film. The image must be repro-duced upon the fi lm in a precise, definite size which may or may not be the same size as the original on the copy. To successfully understand the control of light, we must understand a few basic terms: 1. The amount of light that strikes a surface is calted the " i l l uminat ion " . 2. The brightness of the tight source is measured in "candlepower". 3. The intensity of the light on an illuminated surface is measured in "foot-candles". 4. The amount of light that falls on an object depends upon the candlepower of the original source and the distance of that object from the source of light. 5. The amount of light of a given source falling on an object varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. This is the Law of Inverse Squares and allows us to calculate the reduced intensity of the i l lumination as the distance from the source to the object, e.g., copyboard to f i lm, changes. A m i . of I l lumination (in Ft. Candles) = Candlepower of Source Sq. of Distance from Object to Source 6. Light is reflected from a smooth surface at an angle equal to that at which it arrived at that surface. This is called the "angle of ref lect ion". The "angle of incidence" is the angle between the ray of light and a line drawn perpendicular to the surface. Incident Ray Normal Reflected Ray Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection Surface 7. By using the principle of refraction, lenses can be ground which wi l l " b e n d " light rays so that they wi l l make objects appear to be targer or smaller. Questions: (Answer the following as briefly as possible.) 1. Would the photofiood bulbs or arcs on the camera be considered the light source for the copyboard? Answers: 1. Y e s . 2. Would the copyboard be considered the light source for the film? 2. Yes. 3. Would the intensity of the light reaching the f i lm be reduced by moving the copyboard away from the lens? 3. Yes. 4. Would the intensity of the light reaching the fi lm be decreased by moving the lens away from the cameraback? 4. Yes. I l l GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW 183 P r i n t i n g , a l e a r n e r ' s manual. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State Department of Education, Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education S e r v i c e , V o c a t i o n a l Education D i v i s i o n , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $3.75 2. This material is: _, a. A competency based instructional program S*L b. An industrial education curriculum guide • c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks fa b. Unit content LI 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LI b. General learning outcomes fa 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development fa b. Awareness to imagery and design ;.. U c. Job training 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ._. a. Specific lesson plans j?* b. Pre tests LI c. Post Tests LI d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LI b. Grade 9 fa c. Grade 10 H d. Grade 11 » e. Grade 12 fa f. Post secondary ; • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. _______ 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management LI b. Instruction , • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview P r i n t i n g i s a study manual, or work book designed to a s s i s t the student progress through s p e c i f i c tasks o u t l i n e d by the i n s t r u c t o r . Each page of the work book i d e n t i f i e s a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t , and p r o v i d e s the purpose, r e f e r e n c e s , r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n (background m a t e r i a l ) and a l i s t of q u e s t i o n s . T h i s study manual provides an adjunct to t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and could be adapted f o r use i n many d i f f e r e n t g r aphic a r t s programs. The o r g a n i z a t i o n and p r e s e n t a t i o n of u n i t s i s dependent on the i n s t r u c t o r , not the c u r r i c u l u m guide. C O P Y C A M E R A W O R K (~*S NAME DATE 2. Nomenclature of the Process Camera. Purpose of Assignment: To identify the parts of the process camera. References: Cogoli, John E., "Photo-Offset Fundamentals", Line Photography. Related Information: A typical process camera consists of: t. Frame and Bed a. Copyboard [1) Glas (2) Copyholder (opaque or transparent) b. Liyhts c Lensboard (1) Lenses (2) Iris Diaphragm (3) Shutter d. Cameraback {1) FHmholder (2) Ground Glass (3) Halftone Screen Device 2. Controls a. Timer b. Aperture Setting for Diaphragm c. Copyboard Extension d. Bellows Extension e. Vacuum Pump Questions: (Answer the fol lowing as briefly as possible.} 1. Locate each of the parts of your process camera. 2. What ts the largest piece of f i lm your camera wi l l hold? 3. Does your camera have a shutter? 4. Does the i l lumination come from photof lood bulbs or arcs? 5. What is the purpose of the bellows? O 109 C O P Y C A M E R A W O R K NAME DATE 3. Principles of the Process Camera. ^ a. Light. / Purpose of Assignment: To present some basic terms concerning light. References: Jaffe, Edwin, "The Science of Physics in Lithography", G A T F . World Book Encyclopedia, Vo l . II. Related Information: The camera uses controlled light to record a reflected image upon f i lm. The image must be repro-duced upon the fi lm in a precise, definite size which may or may not be the same size as the original on the copy. To successfully understand the control of light, we must understand a few basic terms: 1. The amount of light that strikes a surface is called the " i l l uminat ion " . 2. The brightness of the light source is measured in "candlepower". 3. The intensity of the light on an illuminated surface is measured in "foot-candles". 4. The amount of light that falls on an object depends upon the candlepower of the original source and the distance of that object from the source of light. 5. The amount of light of a given source falling on an object varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. This is the Law of Inverse Squares and allows us to calculate the reduced intensity of the i l lumination as the distance from the source to the object, e.g., copyboard to fi lm, changes. Amt. of Illumination (in Ft. Candles) = Candlepower of Source Sq. of Distance from Object to Source 6. Light is reflected from a smooth surface at an angle equal to that at which it arrived at that surface. This is called the "angle of ref lect ion". The "angle of incidence" is the angle between the ray of light and a line drawn perpendicular to the surface. Incident Ray Normal Reflected Ray Angle of Incidence Angle of Reflection Surface 7. By using the principle of refraction, lenses can be ground which wil l " bend " light rays so that they wil l make objects appear to be larger or smaller. Questions: {Answer the following as briefly as possible.) 1. Would the photoflood bulbs or arcs on the camera be considered the light source for the copyboard? 2. Would the copyboard be considered the light source for the film? 3. Would the intensity of the light reaching the fi lm be reduced by moving the copyboard away from the lens? 4. Would the intensity of the light reaching the fi lm be decreased by moving the lens away from the cameraback? 00 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 185 Reynolds, M. Graphic and conuriuni cat ions media c l u s t e r  guide. Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Department of Education, 1974. Michigan Department of Education 520 Michigan N a t i o n a l Tower Lansing, MI 48909 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: ^ a. A job tasks 1p» b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: . a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: . a. Skill development "BN b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training £9. 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LI e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 • d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. ________ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. '• 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management b. Instruction c. Evaluation : 12. Overview Many of the graphic a r t s c u r r i c u l u m guides are designed to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a program with average and above average s t u d e n t s . The Michigan Department of Education-Graphics  and Communications C l u s t e r Guide was prepared to help and "to serve students with unique e d u c a t i o n a l problems" (Reynolds, 1974, p. 2). The author, i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the U.S. Department of Labour's job task i n v e n t o r y has i d e n t i f i e d s i x job areas f o r a n a l y s i s . They are: Book-bi n d i n g , Screen P r i n t i n g , O f f s e t Lithography, L e t t e r p r e s s , Commercial Photography, D r a f t i n g . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 186 These s i x areas a l l have o v e r l a p p i n g s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s . The commonality of the j o b t a s k s are i d e n t i f i e d and m a t e r i a l s were p r e p a r e d t o i n t r o d u c e the s t u d e n t s t o t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s program, a l t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y d e s i g n e d as. a c o o p e r a t i v e t o o l f o r i n s t r u c t i n g v o c a t i o n a l / s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , has c e r t a i n r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h a t are a p p r o p r i a t e t o c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n a t any l e v e l . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of s p e c i f i c s k i l l s t o s u b j e c t areas o v e r l a p i n many t e c h n i c a l a r e a s , however p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n , as e v i d e n t i n t h i s p r o v i n c e tend t o negate t h i s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y . The M i c h i g a n guide emphasizes the importance of r e l a t e d s k i l l s and b u i l d s a progam t h a t can be de s i g n e d t o tak e advantage of t h i s c r o s s o v e r . H o p e f u l l y c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t o r s w i l l a c c e p t the s u b j e c t t o s u b j e c t i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y and c o o r d i n a t e programs t h a t a l l o w the s t u d e n t t o become f u l l y aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . 187 Code: CCM - LP03 SUBCLUSTER: LETTERPRESS PRINTING TASK: I d e o t l f y and c l a s s i f y cype Sheet l of 1 Student Name: Student P r o g r e s s B e h a v i o r a l Task Knowledges/Task S k i l l s G i v e n the necessary t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s , equipment, and r e q u i s i t e knowledge, the l e a r n e r w i l l : i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c type f a c e s from a v a r i e t y o f p i e c e s o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l : a. s c r i p t b. Roman c. san s e r i f d. I t a l i c e. d i s p l a y / n o v e l t y f . b l o c k l e t t e r . i d e n t i f y type by the f o l l o w i n g : by s i z e by broad c l a s s e s s c r i p t f a c e s d i v i d e d n o v e l t y f a c e s d i v i d e d Roman f a c e s d i v i d e d . I n s t r u c t i o n a l Methods • T e a c h e r l e a d s c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l development of d i f f e r e n t type s t y l e s a v a i l a b l e i n l a b . • S t u d e n t s p r e p a r e and d i s p l a y samples of a l l t y p e f a c e s a v a i l a b l e i n l a b . • S t u d e n t s review I l l u s t r a t e d t e x t m a t e r i a l s . T a s k - R e l a t e d ' Competencies A 1,6 NUMBERS B 4a APPLICATION C 2 PHYSICAL D l a , 2a, 3c.g I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s G r a p h i c A r t s Chapter 2 r* r-*• Ul * -4 c: n g 0 ft B O" ^. ft * rr • 1 a < 0 ft O" 90 n 3 yr o c a 3 C 1 3 ° a* P- ft j TJ a a o_ j " s S tt a SB J i * n ts » * = 1 " 1 0 O - X M X X » X H O X PLATEN-PRESS MAN K O o X x x X M X X O X PLATES-PRESS MAN APPRENTICE X o o « O o X PRINTING PRESS OPERATOR X o 0 o 0 X X PLATEN-PRESS FEEDER M COMPOSITOR GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW 188 S c h o f i e l d , J . Commercial a r t . E a s t B r u n s w i c k , New J e r s e y : M i d d l e s e x County S c h o o l Board, 1975. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m L a b o r a t o r y Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - K i l m e r Campus New Brunswic k , NJ 08903 $5.00 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program i * * b. An industrial education curriculum guide LJ c. An organized instructional program d. A resource materials package e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: _ a. A job tasks b. Unit content LI 4. Objectives identified for: ^ a. Specific job tasks fa b. General learning outcomes L I 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development b. Awareness to imagery and design fa c. Job training m 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. ^ a. Specific lesson plans b. Pretests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LI f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages fa >• rn 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 LI c. Grade 10 LI d. Grade 11 • e. Grade 12 • f. Post secondary • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. {.j 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ^uSUifh 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: v a. Management LI b. Instruction LI c. Evaluation ; • 12. Overview T h i s package d e s c r i b e s a comprehensive f o u r y e a r h i g h s c h o o l program i n Commercial A r t . The s t u d e n t e n r o l l e d i n t h i s program w i l l c o mplete, " f o u r y e a r s of i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h a minimum of 180 s c h o o l days p e r y e a r . Three c l o c k hours p e r day are devot e d t o shop i n s t r u c t i o n and t h r e e c l o c k hours t o academic and r e l a t e d s u b j e c t i n s t r u c t i o n . " The M i d d l e s e x V o c a t i o n a l Commercial A r t program i s d e s i g n e d t o p r e p a r e a s t u d e n t w i t h s p e c f i c t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s which would a l l o w the s t u d e n t t o im m e d i a t e l y e n t e r the j o b market. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 189 T h i s program i s not intended to be a p a r t of a comprehen-s i v e high s c h o o l program, r a t h e r a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a t i o n a l course of s t u d i e s . However, many of the t o p i c s and u n i t s covered could be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a graphic com-munications program without any d i f f i c u l t y . In r e l a t i o n to the developing nature of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the pro v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, programs s i m i l a r to t h i s c o u l d p rovide t e c h n i c a l as w e l l as p h i l o s o p h i c a l back-ground on the d i r e c t i o n and e v e n t u a l success of i n t e n s i v e v o c a t i o n a l programming. COURSE OF STUDY OUTLINE Commercial Art Shop Practice  Exploratory 9th Year Objectives: Upon completion of the Exploratory Cycle Program i n the Commercial Art shop and given the necessary tools, material f a c i l i t i e s and time, the student w i l l be able to: 1. Verbally name the Four Basic Shapes; state that they are "forms" and that form has three dimensions: height, width and depth. 2. State why the Four Basic Shapes are the "foundation" of drawing. 3. Give the reason for having a "Morgue" - or C l i p F i l e . 4 . Use a T-square for al i g n i n g paper on the drawing board and, with a t r i a n g l e , draw horizontal and v e r t i c a l l i n e s 5. Sharpen either a f l a t - l e a d sketching p e n c i l or a round-lead drawing p e n c i l ; the f i r s t to be used for sketching and the second for drawing thin accurate l i n e s . 6. Make and use a Transfer Sheet. 7. Make and use a Pickup. 8. Use rubber cement for a simple pasteup. UNIT I. FOUNDATION OF DRAWING A. Four Basic Shapes B. Modified Basic Shapes C. Combined and Modified Basic Shapes UNIT II RUBBER CEMENT AND RUBBER CEMENT THINNER A. Making and Using a Pickup B. Making and Using a Transfer Sheet C. Dry-Mounting Method Pasteup D. Wet-Mounting Method Pasteup UNIT III INTRODUCTION TO TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT A. T Square and Triangle B. Scales 1. English and Metric COURSE OF STUDY OUTLINE Commercial Art  Shop Practice  9th Grade Objectives: Upon completion of the second half of the 9th grade Commercial Art Course the student w i l l be able to: 1. Demonstrate h is awareness of the need for safe practices i n an a r t studio or a r t department by l i s t i n g , at l e a s t eight p o t e n t i a l accident-producing situations on the paper provided. 2. Safely use a single-edge razor blade and metal r u l e r to cut artpaper, having been supplied with paper and tools. 3. Discriminate good-from-poor quality of ruled l i n e s by e n c i r c l i n g any evidence of poor q u a l i t y that appears in any of the lines drawn on the sheet supplied him. 4 . Lay out requested size of working area and shapes i n pe n c i l and then ink i n the outlines of the shapes, having been provided with written instructions, a T-square, tr i a n g l e , drawing p e n c i l , sanding pad, rule pen, India ink and a 12" scale. 5. Demonstrate how to use compass with lead and with pen attachment by drawing a c i r c l e , the l i n e width of which i s 3/16" and the diameter of which i s 3-1/2". He w i l l also demonstrate how to use a red sable handbrush and India ink to f i l l in the space between the outer and inner edges of the 3/16" l i n e width. 6. Demonstrate his a b i l i t y to use French curves by drawing a compound curve, f i r s t i n pencil, and then by going over the same curve using ink or temperas i n a rule pen. Aforementioned tools, ink or temperas and paper w i l l have been supplied him. 7. Use the red sable handbrush, water j a r , we l l / s l a n t , temperas and artboard given him to demonstrate his know-ledge of the following scales: gray, t i n t , shade or tone by producing a 9-step version of any one of the four. -9- O 191 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. S c h o f i e l d , J . H. Commercial a r t , s t u d y and t e a c h i n g guide  1 ( V o l . #1). T r e n t o n , New J e r s e y : S t a t e of New J e r s e y Department o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n , 1976. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m L a b o r a t o r y Rutgers - The S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103, K i l m e r Campus New Bru s n w i c k , NJ 08903 $5.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide ®" c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks •• 5^ 1 b. Unit content LJ 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks » b. General learning outcomes LJ 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development 8 b. Awareness to imagery and design © c. Job training 'P 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans p-b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages fjj,. 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 ® c. Grade 10 ® > d. Grade 11 P. e. Grade 12 P-f. Post secondary • • • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. /T^ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. *f 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management p* b. Instruction j» c. Evaluation , J8» 12. Overview T h i s i s a cours e of s t u d i e s i n t e n d e d t o be implemented over a p e r i o d of f o u r y e a r s . The guide i s j u s t t h a t - a g u i d e . I t can be e a s i l y expanded, r e a r r a n g e d o r changed a t any p o i n t . I t i s de s i g n e d not o n l y t o te a c h the ' s c a l e s ' i . e . commercial a r t s k i l l s , but i t a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r ' p l a y i n g some music", w o r k i n g out complete jobs which r e q u i r e not o n l y the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s , but a l s o r e q u i r e some i m a g i n a t i o n . The blend between t e c h n i c a l competence and v i s u a l e x p r e s s i o n , i s i m p o r t a n t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of any program i n v i s u a l . e d u c a t i o n , and t h i s course of s t u d i e s a t t e m p t s t o u n i f y these c o n c e p t s . The stu d y guide i s de s i g n e d t o be f l e x i b l e enough t o a l l o w the i n s t r u c t o r t o ma n i p u l a t e and i n t e r p r e t s p e c i f i c u n i t s t h a t w i l l enhance the s t u d e n t s ' a b i l i t y t o blend s k i l l and v i s i o n . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 192 The study guide p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , overheads, l e s s o n plans and student assignment sheets that can be used depending on the i n t e n t of the p a r t i c u l a r program or i n s t r u c t o r . However the o v e r a l l emphasis of the package i s to provide the student with t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s which can be a p p l i e d to e n t e r i n t o the f i e l d or to a r t i c u l a t e with a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . UNIT I - FOUNDATION OF DRAWING LESSON 1 - Four Basic Shapes OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to — 1. Name the 4 Basic Shapes. 2. State that they are 3-dimcnsional forms. 3. Tell why drawing is an illusion. 4. Produce one 2-point perspective sketch each of a cube and a cylinder. *5. Safely sharpen a sketching pencil usin? a single-edge razor blade. * Suggestion: Instruct 2 or 3 students at a time in the safe use of razor blade for sharpening sketching pencil. Show them how, watch them do it, and advise them to report any accident to instructor immediately. INTRODUCTION: 1. Project overhead transparencies of Cube, Cylinder, Cone, and Sphere. PROCEDURE: 1. Show and compare actual shapes with transparencies. 2. Draw conclusions: a. drawings are 2-dimensional b. actual shapes are 3-dimensional forms c. drawings are "illusions" 3. Drawings (or illusions) are created through use of perspective. 4. Demonstrate 2-point perspective by pointing out a storage cabinet in shop where student can see the front and one side, but not the top — talk about VP's, eye-level, etc 5. Have students hold a small wooden cube at arm's length; first, at eye-level, then above and below eye-level. APPLICATION: 1. Students will make one pencil sketch each of cube and cylinder supplied them. This drawing is to meet Criteria standards. 2. Label (write) appropriate drawing: Cube — one of four basic shapes — or forms Cylinder — one of four basic shapes — or forms CRITERIA: 1. Cube drawing must show top and two sides, vertical edges must not "lean" excessively, and must show evidence of perspective. UNIT I - FOUNDATION OF DRAWING LESSON 3 - Combined and Modified Basic Shapes OBJECTIVES: Students will be able to — 1. Produce one drawing each of front and side view of human head as examples of combined/modified basic shapes (sphere and cylinder). 2. Show evidence of his knowledge of the location features of human head by dividing front and side views properly and locating these features at proper points of division. 3. State the result of unsafe handling of razor blades. INTRODUCTION: 1. Review Lesson 2—Q — Define "Modify". 2. Using styrofoam wig manikin (or window display head-neck-shoulders manikin) show combined/modified basic shapes. Head = modified sphere; Neck = modified cylinder. PRESENTATION: (See illustration of Suggested Teaching Aid on next page.) 1. Using blank sheet on easel flip chart, show how front view of human head can be divided for features of face: vertical center-line, location of eyes, nose, lips, and ear. 2. Turning head to side view simply means carrying divisions of facial features around head to side for location. 3. Summary: a. the 4 Basic Shapes are forms b. forms have 3 dimensions — they occupy space o ANYTHING drawn is based on these shapes APPLICATION: 1. Students make one pencil sketch each of the front and side views of human head (man or woman). 2. Label each drawing: "Modified and Combined Basic Shapes — (Human head) Sphere and Cylinder." CRITERIA: 1. Construction lines should be light and evident on both front and side views. 2. Locations of facial features should be in reasonably correct locations of both drawings. 11 194 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. T a l b o t , W., & Ballam, O. et a l . An i n t e g r a t e d secondary- post secondary c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r graphic a r t s . S a l t 1 Lake C i t y , Utah: Utah State Board of Education, 1977. Utah State Board of Education 250 E. 5th South S t r e e t S a l t Lake C i t y , UT 84111 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package , • • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: . a. A job tasks jC, b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks ty* b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development • b. Awareness to imagery and design • c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. _. a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LI d. Student workbook • e. Instructor's manual , • f. Equipment list • g. Slides • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • j-7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 • b. Grade 9 • c. Grade 10 & d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 @S f. Post secondary ; glf. 9. Number of hours per instructional module. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. • 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: " " " " " " " ^ ~ ' a. Management • , b. Instruction c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s package i s a guide f o r graphic a r t s education that o u t l i n e s areas of study i n be h a v i o u r a l terms The i n t e n t of the program i s to provide a basic core of m a t e r i a l that w i l l be covered throughout the s t a t e at both secondary and post secondary l e v e l s . The program i s very f l e x i b l e , a l l o w i n g each i n s t r u c t o r to develop and expand h i s program depending on equipment and l o c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs. However the core m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e s a base f o r i n t e g r a t i o n with post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s which w i l l allow "the student to begin and/or complete the course i n high s c h o o l or may begin or continue the program i n a post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n without r e p e a t i n g those s k i l l tasks s u c c e s s f u l l y mastered" ( T a l b o t , 1977, p . i ) . GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 195 The Utah program would provide valuable resource material for educators preparing a r t i c u l a t e d materials for this province. Post secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n can, in many subject areas, be accomplished. But for a program to be success-f u l l y a r t i c u l a t e d the schools, industry and post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s must be w i l l i n g to cooperate and share reason-able expectations. The Integrated Secondary Post-Secondary  Graphic Arts Guide from Utah, is an example where the three areas of concern have been able to cooperate, and produce a document that can provide the continuity necessary to encourage interschool a r t i c u l a t i o n . UNIT 5 REPRODUCTION PHOTOGRAPHY P u r p o s e o r U n i t O b j e c t i v e : To t e a c h a s t u d e n t how t o use p r o c e s s d a r k r o o m f a c i l i t i e s , e q u i p m e n t and p r o c e d u r e s p r o p e r l y t o p r e p a r e p h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s r e a d y f o r r e p r o d u c t i o n . T o p i c a l O u t l i n e : I . P r o c e s s D a r k r o o m B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e : . E a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y and e x p l a i n t h e u s e s o f t h e p r o c e s s d a r k r o o m f a c i l i t i e s and a r e a s t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . A . S a f e t y B . Wet and d r y a r e a s C. C h e m i c a l s D. E q u i p m e n t E. C o n t a c t a r e a F. F i l m d r y i n g a r e a G. L i g h t i n g H. L a y o u t o f d a r k r o o m I . T e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l J . T r o u b l e s h o o t i n g K. H o u s e k e e p i n g I I . P r o c e s s Camera B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e : Each s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o d e s c r i b e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r o c e s s c a m e r a s , i d e n t i f y d i f f e r e n t p a r t s and f u n c t i o n s o f p r o c e s s c a m e r a s , and d e m o n s t r a t e c a r e and o p e r a t i o n o f p r o c e s s c a m e r a s t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . 20 A. Types o f p r o c e s s c a m e r a s B. P a r t s and f u n c t i o n s C. C a r e and o p e r a t i o n D. Lens F i l m s and P a p e r s B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e : E a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o i d e n t i f y and d e s c r i b e t h e u s e s o f v a r i o u s f i l m s and p a p e r s u s e d i n r e p r o d u c t i o n p h o t o g r a p h y t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . A . P a r t s i n c r o s s s e c t i o n B. Types and u s e s C. H a n d l i n g , s t o r a g e and c a r e D. H i s t o r y o f d e v e l o p m e n t E. M a n u f a c t u r i n g L i n e P h o t o g r a p h y B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e : E a c h s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o p r o p e r l y p r e p a r e l i n e p h o t o g r a p h y t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . A . T y p e s o f c o p y B. H a n d l i n g o f f i l m C. D e v e l o p i n g o f f i l m D. L i n e p h o t o g r a p h y e x p o s u r e c a l i b r a t i o n E. T r e a t i n g o f p r o b l e m c o p y F. T r o u b l e s h o o t i n g C o n t a c t P r i n t i n g B e h a v i o r a l O b j e c t i v e : Each s t u d e n t w i l l be a b l e t o p r o p e r l y p r e p a r e c o n t a c t p r i n t i n g t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . A . P r e p a r a t i o n o f c o n t a c t a r e a B. E x p o s u r e c a l i b r a t i o n 21 1 9 7 G R A P H I C C O M M U N I C A T I O N S C U R R I C U L U M MATER IALS REVIEW. < T r o t h , C. I know - a vocabulary game f o r the p r i n t i n g  t r a d e . Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Jersey Department of 1 Education, D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1 9 7 6 . V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4 1 0 3 , Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 0 8 9 0 3 $ 1 1 . 5 0 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program L J b. An industrial education curriculum guide '& c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks L J b. Unit content • 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes • 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development ^ b. Awareness to imagery and design , LJ c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. n a. Specific lesson plans LJ b. Pre tests '. LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook "& e. Instructor's manual • f. Equipment list • g. Slides , • • • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress • 8 . Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 18 c. Grade 10 S d. Grade 11 frS e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary • 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. ' 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: _ a. Management b. Instruction : • c. Evaluation 12. Overview In any area of i n s t r u c t i o n , m a t e r i a l s that help motivate students are important adjuncts to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s game developed by Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y Voca-t i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory i s no e x c e p t i o n . The l e a r n i n g t o o l f o l l o w s the g e n e r a l form of a bingo game. T h i r t y - t h r e e d i f f e r e n t word sheets are f u r n i s h e d ; there are s e v e n t y - f i v e d e f i n i t i o n cards f o r the i n s t r u c t o r to use and a master sheet. ( T r o t h , 1 9 7 6 , p . D T h i s p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g device would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r encouraging the development of c o r r e c t usage of terms commonly used i n the p r i n t i n g t r a d e . PRINTING QUAD COPYRIGHT PLATEN TRIPLICATE BULK MATRIX ETCH SERIF REAM SETOFF MAKEUP MEASURE CYLINDER SCUMMING FOUNTAIN COPY LEADING LITHOGRAPHY BLOW UP HALFTONE COMPOSING STICK PROOF OFFSET SWATCH 1 B L A N K E T - R u b b e r - o r synthetic costed paper used in offset printing; it transfers the image from the plate to tne paper. Print B L O W UP - T o enlarge an illustration or a photograph. Print B U L K - Thickness of paper; also the thickness of the total number of page's in a publication. Print C A L I P E R S - A measuring instrument with two legs or jaws that can be ad ju s ted t o m e a s u r e t h i c k n e s s e s , diameters, and the distance between surfaces. Print C A P T I O N - A brief description or explanation below a pictorial illustration. Print C H A R A C T E R - A n y single unit of type, such as a letter, number, punctuation mark, or other graphic symbol. Print B U R N I S H - T o make shiny or lustrous, especially by rubbing. C H A S E - A rectangular steel or iron frame into which letterpress material is locked for printing. 199 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Vermont guide to c u r r i c u l u m content f o r i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . M o n t p e l i e r , Vermont: Vermont Department of Education, 1 1979. Vermont Department of Education 120 State S t r e e t M o n t p e l i e r , VT 05602 N/C 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program b. An industrial education curriculum guide. c. An organized instructional program d. A resource materials package e. An art education curriculum guide 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks b. Unit content 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LJ b. General learning outcomes K>» 5. Instructional material organized to promote: a. Skill development LJ b. Awareness to imagery and design t LJ c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of, this package include the following materials. j-« a. Specific lesson plans E" b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list L J g. Slides • • • • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress L J 8. Materials are intended to be used at: ^ a. Grade 8 b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 d. Grade 11 e. Grade 12 f. Post secondary 9. Number of hours per instructional module. 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for a. Management b. Instruction c. Evaluation 12. Overview • • • • .•sa T h i s guide, " i s an attempt to provide recommendations to a s s i s t i n d u s t r i a l a r t s teachers i n g u i d i n g students through l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s " . (Vermont, 1979, p r e f a c e ) The guide p r o v i d e s basic o u t l i n e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s i n d r a f t i n g , e l e c t r i c i t y , g r a p h i c s , metal, power, and woodwork. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 200 I n d u s t r i a l a r t s programs i n Vermont are based on p h i l o -s o p h i c a l statements that encourage the development of s e l f worth and awareness, to the student as w e l l as our techno-l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . I n s t r u c t i o n i n the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s i s p r e l i m i n a r y to v o c a t i o n a l and c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n . However c l o s e these two areas are, the Vermont guide makes a s t r o n g d i s t i n c t i o n between them. The student needs the i n s t r u c -t i o n a l time to experience the d i f f e r e n t areas of i n d u s t r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n before e n t e r i n g a s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n , and t h i s program allows time f o r the student to pursue t h i s techno-l o g i c a l e x p l o r a t i o n . In c o n j u n c t i o n with i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o r a t i o n , the student w i l l be i n s t r u c t e d i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s that are a p p l i c a b l e to the job market. Therefore t h i s guide has e s t a b l i s h e d a p a r t i c u l a r format f o r u n i t p r e s e n t a t i o n . The format: o b j e c t i v e , teacher task, student l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y , r e -sources, and basic competencies encourage t e c h n i c a l s k i l l development as w e l l as promote an awareness to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of technology and our i n d u s t r i a l c u l t u r e . 201 CURRICULUM - GRAPHIC TECHNOLOGY (CONT'D) OBJECTIVE TASK (TEACHER) LEARNING ACTIVITY (STUDENT) RESOURCE BASIC COMP. LINE COPY / Given Instruction student will be able to Identify and pro-duce a 1Ine copy. .esson and demonstration on na In a 11ne negat1ve. 1Ix cherotcals, set up cam^  sra for IIne photography, sxpose a Une negative, use > grey scale. Graphic Arts Text, Job Sheet Math 10 Listening 1 HALF TONE Provided with Instruction the student w i l l be able to Iden-t i f y 3 half tone. Lesson and demonstration on naklng a half tone. -heading assignment In text, dentlfy half tone, explain rhe purpose of a contact Film. Text, Job Sheet Reading 4 Speaking 2 PLATE MAKER Provided with Instruction the student will explain the func-tion of a plate maker and be able to describe the basic principles of operation. Lesson and demonstration on equipment for exposing presensl-tlzed plates. Expose an offset plate us-rng a prepared flat, pro-cess a presensltlzed plate, set up offset press and run :oples. Text, Job Sheet Listening 1 DIRECT IMAGE MASTER Student w i l l be able to pre-pare and identify a direct Image master. Explain a direct Image master using samples. Jrepare a direct Image mas-ter, set up press for sln-jle color run. Text, Job Sheet Listening 1 OBJECTIVE TASK (TEACHER) LEARNING ACTIVITY (STUDENT) RESOURCE BASIC COMP. PROCESS CAMERA (cont'd) Provided with Instruction the student wl11 Understand the principles of operation of the process camera'. Explain the baste principles of operation of the production process camera and demonstrate the following: diaphragm (F-stops), enlargements, reduction, timer. Read unit In text on pro-cess camera, adjust and Identify F-stops, set cam-Bra up for enlargement, and reduction, written evalua-tion, visual aids. Comprehensive Graphic Arts Read 1ng 4 L1sten1ng 1 Writing 4 Students will be able to Iden-tify the kinds of film and the basic parts of a film. Present a lesson on film, struc-ture, kinds of f1Im, handlIng film. . Text (reading and research of film), observe pieces of film, know the two main kinds of film. Comprehensive Graphic Arts, Visual Aids, Library Books. Reading 4 Listening 1 Provided with Instruction the student will be able to Iden-tify a positive from a nega-r. tive. Provided with Instruction the student will be able to Iden-tify the solutions for pro-cessing film. Explain how to Identify a posi-tive from a negative. Explain processing of film and Identify the solution. visual aids, examine Identify samples of nega-tives and positives, when to use a positive and a negative. Know dark room arrangments 3f chemicals, mix process-ing chemicals, orally Identify chemicals. Speaking 2 Reasoning 4 L1sten1ng 1 Math 10 Speaking 1,2 SCALE AND CROP PHOTOGRAPHS Provided with Instruction the student will learn how to scale and crop photographs. Lesson and demonstration on - . scaling and cropIng photographs ?rop photographs:, use a pro sortlon wheel to determine sercentage of en 1argement and reduction, explain an anlargement and reduction. •Text, Job Sheet Speaking 1,2 GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 202 Visual communication-CBIE. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State 1. Department of Education, 1974. Kansas Vocational Curriculum & Research Center Room 115, Willard Hall Pittsburg State University Pittsburg, Kansas 66762 $6.00 2. This material is: _ a. A competency based instructional program y b. An industrial education curriculum guide W c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks LJ b. Unit content r*-4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks b. General learning outcomes 9" 5. Instructional material organized to promote: ^ a. Skill development £*• b. Awareness to imagery and design • P=» c. Job training LJ 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans pr b. Pre tests ; td c. Post Tests d. Student workbook e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list LJ g. Slides • • • • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages IjS 7. instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress LJ 8. Materials are intended to be used at: _ a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 » c. Grade 10 Si d. Grade 11 £ e. Grade 12 "& f. Post secondary j&f)' ^ 9. Number of hours per instructional module. ^ J ^ L — 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. / 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management ^ b. Instruction , • • • SB c. Evaluation • JO. 12. Overview The Kansas State Visual Communication program is an attempt to unify three i n d u s t r i a l education subjects into one area. The integration of photography, pr i n t i n g , and drafting resulted in a package t i t l e d "Visual Communication". The author of the guide maintains that in today's indus-t r i a l - t e c h n o l o g i c a l society, the integration of these concepts is a s i g n i f i c a n t step towards a more aware population. GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 203 V i s u a l Coirununications i s the process of t r a n s m i t t i n g i d e a s , thoughts, or concepts from one person to another through a stimulus p e r c e i v e d by the sense of s i g h t . Many d i s c i p l i n e s are i n v o l v e d i n teaching about commun-i c a t i o n . The v i s u a l communication phase of I n d u s t r i a l Education i s not intended to assume the r o l e of these d i s c i p l i n e s . Rather, i t i s intended to be a study of the technology of v i s u a l communications with emphasis on a gen e r a l model f o r developing and producing com-munications i n a number of d i f f e r e n t media systems. (CBIE, 1974, p . i v ) Th i s program was designed to i n t e g r a t e t e c h n i c a l commun-i c a t i o n s k i l l s i n t o one course of study, an i n t e n t s i m i l a r t o the VICOED program developed by Schwalm at Western Washington State U n i v e r s i t y . As a c o n t r i b u t o r to the - . development of t h i s program he has i n f l u e n c e d the p r e p a r -a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c l e s s o n by l e s s o n course o u t l i n e . T h i s course of s t u d i e s i s unusual because i t does attempt t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n and blend of communication theory with the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of graphic a r t s s k i l l s . H o p e f u l l y t h i s program w i l l become a v a l u a b l e resource f o r c u r r i c u l u m development i n the f u t u r e , f o r i t s attempt at u n i f i c a t i o n can be s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of car e e r e d u c a t i o n programs, not only i n v i s u a l communications but i n other t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i e l d s as w e l l . However, there i s another reason f o r developing such a course ( V i s u a l Communications) the philosophy of c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g i n d u s t r i a l education i s p r e d i c a t e d upon the idea of e x p l o r a t o r y experiences with careers which progress from broad to narrow as the c h i l d con-t i n u e s through s c h o o l . (CBIE, 1974, p . i v ) ACTIVITY 1 FOR LESSON 37 -> ( T e a c A e A Guideline*) OFFSET PRINTING NEMO PAD Student Learning Objectives Learn the pri n c i p l e s of off s e t p r i n t i n g including: a. producing an image c a r r i e r b. transfer of the image c. operating the of f s e t press s a f e l y d. designing the communicative material e. working e f f e c t i v e l y producing communication material - f . padding, binding* and trimming communication material f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n Each student w i l l make a design layout for a memo pad which should communicate to the receiver at least three things about himself: (1) a l i n e drawing depicting sender*s occupation or character, (2) the sender's name, and (3) the sender's motto or slogan. General Teacher Outline I . Assembling the image c a r r i e r A. Prepare the copy f o r the copier. 1. Select type sizes from the shop s t y l e sheet and use the Headliner or S e l e c t r i c typewriter to compose the type for the pad. 2. Complete the art work. 3. Make a paste-up of the job. 4. Make the offset plate on an e l e c t r o s t a t i c copier. 5. Have design prepared so i t w i l l f i t on an 8*5" x 11" sheet of paper or a sheet half that s i z e . II . Transfer the image A. Prepare the offset press. 1. Prepare the inking mechanism. 2. Prepare the dampening system. 3. Make i n i t i a l inking and dampening. 4. I n s t a l l plate on the press and make feeder adjustments. 5. Make reg i s t e r board adjustments. 6. Adjust the impression. 7. Make the t r i a l impression. 8. Adjust the margins. 9. Adjust delivery. B. Run the Job on the of f s e t press. 393 ACTIVITY 1 FOR LESSON 37 [Studzwt P/wzeduAe.) HANDOUT SHEET FOR MEMO PAD ACTIVITY NOTE TO THE STUDENTS: Do each of the following items i n the sequential order given and check to the l e f t of the number when complete. The operations involved i n making a photographic offset plate for the memo pad and prin t i n g i t on the offset press are technical processes. 1. Make a design layout for a memo pad using paper furnished by the instructor, size 5 V x 8V'- The sheets of this pad should communicate a t least three things to the receiver: (a) your name, (b) a l i n e drawing depicting your occupation or character, and (c) yor.r motto o r slogan. 2. After receiving the instructor's OK on your design layout, select type sizes from the shop style sheet and, using the Headliner, compose the type for the pad. 3. Refer to your layout. Your layout i s your guide for making the paste-up. Arrange the type according to the layout. Draw i n the area where your picture w i l l be placed. 4. When the layout i s complete, present i t to the instructor so i t may be approved before i t i s sent to have an e l e c t r o s t a t i c p late made. 5. Familiarize yourself with the safety rules f o r operating the offset press. 6. Receive from your instructor thirteen (13) sheets of 17" x 22" paper. Using the math formula for paper cutting that was discussed by the instructor, determine how many sheets of 5V x 8*5" sheets can be cut from the larger 17" x 22" sheets. Set up the paper cutter with your group to cut the paper to si z e . Have the instructor OK the cut before you cut the paper to si z e . 7. Etch and mount the plate on the offset press and pri n t 100 sheets for your memo pad. 8. Place B e v e r a l memo pads i n the padding press. Place chipboard between each pad and on top and bottom. Jog the.sheets together and tighten down the press. Apply the padding compound. 9. After the padding compound dries (one hour), trim the memo pad in the paper cutter. 10. Turn the memo pad i n fo r a grade. 395 O 205 -GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. Ward, W., B u t l e r , D., & B u t z , N, e t a l . P r i n t i n g . Topeka, 1 Kansas: Kansas S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n , 1972. Kansas V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m and Research C e n t e r Room 115, W i H a r d H a l l P i t t s b u r g S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P i t t s b u r g , KS 66762 $6.00 2. This material is: a. A competency based instructional program LJ b. An industrial education curriculum guide "B» c. An organized instructional program • d. A resource materials package • e. An art education curriculum guide • 3. Course outlines indicate: a. A job tasks ^ b. Unit content 5> 4. Objectives identified for: a. Specific job tasks LD b. General learning outcomes ®» 5. Instructional material organized to promote: . a. Skill development. b. Awareness to imagery and design , fa c. Job training • 6. Contents of this package include the following materials. a. Specific lesson plans pp b. Pre tests LJ c. Post Tests LJ d. Student workbook LJ e. Instructor's manual LJ f. Equipment list • g. Slides • • • • h. Audio tapes • i. Student learning packages • • • j- n 7. Instructional materials are designed to encourage individual progress U 8. Materials are intended to be used at: a. Grade 8 LJ b. Grade 9 85 c. Grade 10 0 d. Grade 11 fa e. Grade 12 fa. f. Post secondary YA'/y ^ 9. Number of hours per instructional module. /r)(s 10. Number of modules needed to complete a program of studies. 11. For implementation of this curriculum material, strategies are outlined for: a. Management D b. Instruction 1... • c. Evaluation • 12. Overview T h i s program p r o v i d e s an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y . I t i s not d e s i g n e d t o be used i n a v o c a t i o n a l program, r a t h e r t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the g e n e r a l framework o f I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n . T h i s c o u r s e i n p r i n t i n g i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s which w i l l h e l p the s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d the t e c h n i q u e s and a p p r e c i a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y t o the i n d u s t r i a l l y o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y i n which we l i v e . (Ward, 1972, p.x) GRAPHIC COMMUNICATIONS CURRICULUM MATERIALS REVIEW. 206 Although the program tends to encourage the e x p l o r a t i o n of p r i n t i n g technique, three o b j e c t i v e s of the guide are s i g n i f i c a n t . 1. Developing an awareness of the economic, h i s t o r -i c a l , and s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of p r i n t i n g . 2. Improving a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and the i n t e g r a l techniques of p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n g i n v o l v e d . 3. Developing p r e - v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e to the p r o d u c t i o n areas of the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y . (Ward, 1972, p.x) The package a l s o c o n t a i n s suggested shop l a y o u t s , equipment l i s t s and standard r e f e r e n c e l i s t s . UNIT C - ASSEMBLY LESSON 3 - "Copy for Pasteup" Learner Objectives: At the completion of th i s lesson the student w i l l be aware of the variety of materials available for use as camera copy on pasteups as evidenced by p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n class discussion. At the completion of th i s lesson the student w i l l recognize that pasteup copy can be divided into two catagories - l i n e copy and continuous tone copy, as evidenced by an objective t e s t . At the completion of t h i s lesson the student w i l l be able to pasteup or draw rule forms as evidenced by s a t i s f a c t o r y completion of the learner a c t i v i t y . Presentation Outline: I. Copy for pasteup A. Line copy - good contrast required 1. Black or red range for ortho f i l m 2. Matte f i n i s h preferable to glossy because of f l a r e on camera 3. Etch proofs (reproduction proofs) of hot type 4. Strike-on copy (spray i t with f i x a t i v e to prevent smearing) 5. Photographic composition (cut-in corrections d i f f i c u l t ) 6. Stats or PMT prints - screened p r i n t s of continuous tone copy 7. Screens and patterns 8. Pre-printed art 9. India (or red) ink 10. Rules and borders on pressure-sensitive tape 11. Amberllth and Rubylith 12. Bourges materials B. Continuous tone copy 1. Mount for s t a b i l i t y and handling 2. Scale and/or crop 3. Indicate s i z e for window i n l i n e copy 4. Outline and dropout I I . Proofing A. Provide acetate overlay for corrections to protect camera copy B. Copying best to prevent s o i l i n g of o r i g i n a l pasteup 1. Xerox - good f l a t process, s i z e l i m i t a t i o n 2. Diffusion transfer process - excellent q u a l i t y 3. Various blueprints used by newspapers 4. Many others i n use - avoid those bending pasteup or heating i t I I I . Sorts book A. During slack time, cast or printout alphabets and sorts of your fonts B. Provide good proofs - high contrast C. Wax a l l 56 D. Press in book of gloss or p l a s t i c stock E. Use for quick corrections, alterations, or changes noticed while pasting up job as a time saver IV. Copy-to-plate systems A. Quality improving B. Primary use in past has been on small offset duplicators C. Several on market now 1. Itek 2. Addressograph-Multilith 3. 3M 4. AB Dick 5. Rotaprint 6. Kodak PMT system 7. Agfa-Gavaert Required for t h i s lesson: Supplies: Pressure sensitive tape Equipment and Tools: Teaching Aids: Graham professional pasteup k i t - see appendix E, for vendor (also used i n Lesson 2 - "Basic Pasteup Techniques") Precision layout gr i d Transparencies - see appendix A, for source Supply catalogues Teacher A c t i v i t y : 1. Send for catalogues of adhesive tapes and patterns. Some suppliers w i l l send samples or fold-out charts which you may post. 2. Give lecture based on learner objectives, show audio-visual presenta-t i o n , and pass around catalogues. 3. Demonstrate inking l i n e s with rapidograph pens and r u l i n g with pressure-sensitive tape. 4. Additional demonstrations and lessons are suggested i n presentation out l i n e , such as proofing, a sorts books, and copy-to-plate systems that by-pass the intermediate step of a negative i f there i s no continuous tone copy. Safety Procedures: None Additional References: Textbooks: See appendix D, for source t o O —1 57 208 T h i s c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s r e v i e w s o f 68 g r a p h i c communications c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . The m a t e r i a l s range from s i n g l e page o u t -l i n e s t o e l a b o r a t e r e s o u r c e packages and i l l u s t r a t e a v a r i e t y of c u r r i c u l u m s t r a t e g i e s . G r a p h i c communications e d u c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n course throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada and a l l programs reviewed r e f l e c t e d t h i s a f f i l i a t i o n . The programs emphasized s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g r a t h e r than image and i d e a development. Of the reviewed g u i d e s 42.6% were i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n programs and g e n e r a l l y s t r e s s e d s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l development i n r e s p e c t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of our t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . However 48.5% o f the reviewed programs emphasized competency based e d u c a t i o n . The dependence on performance o b j e c t i v e s f o r s t u d e n t achievement of p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g outcomes i n d i c a t e s s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n f o r j o b a t t a i n m e n t . The r e m a i n i n g m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r were f o u r r e s o u r c e packages and one a r t e d u c a t i o n / g r a p h i c s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . The c o n t e n t o f a l l programs reviewed was s i m i l a r , but, depending on the s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n , the format v a r i e d con-s i d e r a b l y . T h i s a u t h o r p r o v i d e d examples from.each guide and the sample s h e e t s i l l u s t r a t e s i m i l a r t o p i c s o r u n i t s wherever p o s s i b l e . The sample s h e e t s w i l l a l l o w the r e a d e r t o compare f o r m a t , s t y l e , and coverage of the reviewed m a t e r i a l . 209 The guides v a r i e d i n length and many programs were compon-ents of a comprehensive i n d u s t r i a l eduation c u r r i c u l u m guide. The advancement from i n d u s t r i a l education to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n -ing was evident i n the competency based programs. Emphasis on performance o b j e c t i v e s i n d i c a t e d a v o c a t i o n a l bias i n t r a i n i n g students f o r entry l e v e l job s k i l l s . These m a t e r i a l s could a l l be used i n f u t u r e program development i n t h i s province r e g a r d l e s s of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i r e c t i o n the M i n i s t r y of Education w i l l pursue i n e s t a b l i s h i n g graphic communications as a recognized course. Although a number of e x c e l l e n t c u r r i c u l u m programs were reviewed e.g. ( P o l l o c k , 1974; Hawkinson, 1975; PICA, 1977), they could not be i n s t i t u t e d without m o d i f i c a t i o n to s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r needs i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . Because s k i l l t r a i n i n g i s only a component of gr a p h i c communications, study must be i n i t i a t e d to encourage development of programs that blend a r t with technology. The c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s c o l l e c t i o n can p r o v i d e a base f o r continued r e s e a r c h i n graphic communications program develop-ment. 210 CHAPTER VI Art and Technology - the Potential  for Program Development in B r i t i s h Columbia Present status of the art resource guide At the present time art and graphic communications are being taught i n t h i s province without the benefit of a recent p r o v i n c i a l curriculum guide. The art guide/resource book, w i l l be completed, published and implemented by September 1982. The development of the art guide has followed standard ministry development practice and hopefully the implementation of t h i s document w i l l be started during 1981-1982 with the f u l l i n t r o -duction i n the school system by September 1982. The Ministry's Curriculum Implementation Branch w i l l be developing strategies for implementation throughout the province. In conjunction with the Ministry, the p r o v i n c i a l association of art teachers -the B r i t i s h Columbia Art Teachers' Association and the Art Education Faculty at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia expect to be cooperating i n these implementation strategies. The cooperation between Ministry personnel, the professional association and the Universities i s imperative for successful acceptance of this document. 211 The 1972 Graphic Communications proposal However, the graphic communications curriculum guide at the present time has not been scheduled for implementation. Throughout the past two years the author has been in contact with the Ministry (Oliver, Note 5 & 6; Verge, Note 7; Daneliuk, Note 8) i n regard to the status of the guide. During this time a number of proposed timelines for r a t i f i c a t i o n have been discussed, but none have been acted upon. In recent discussion with a representative (Verge, Note 9) of the Curriculum Devel-opment Branch of the Ministry of Education the l a t e s t proposal submitted was to attach the guide to the Career Preparation program. However th i s p a r t i c u l a r scheme has yet to be accepted by the appropriate o f f i c i a l s . As indicated e a r l i e r many problems exi s t with the development of the Career Preparation program and i t w i l l be perhaps d i f f i c u l t to implement a broadly based program within the r e s t r i c t i v e confines of Career Preparation. The pot e n t i a l for a program of studies that combines the image/design and the development of s k i l l s has existed i n th i s province. But without the cooperation of the Ministry in recognizing the v a l i d i t y of graphic communications, this p o s s i b i l i t y may not be realized. Graphic communications as an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y program This author appreciates the d i f f i c u l t y in deciding where to place the graphic communications curriculum. Should i t be an 212 Art, (Schofield, 1975) Industrial Education, (Hawkinson, 1974) Career Preparation, (Hambrick, & Jones, & Losee, 1968) or Business Education (Hertz, 1978) program? A l l these areas could state precedents throughout North America to substantiate t h e i r claim. The Ministry has also found t h i s decision d i f f i -c u l t to make. Perhaps this is not a decision which needs to be made; rather graphic communications might be established as a separate subject area without necessarily tying i t to any of the above mentioned subject areas. Graphic communications i s an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y program of studies, drawing units and components not only from these three areas but from other areas of the curriculum as well. Because of i t s broad base as an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y subject i t i s , perhaps, d i f f i c u l t to c l a s -s i f y . It i s this broad scope of what could be considered to be involved i n graphic communications that has contributed to the lack of response from the Ministry to r a t i f y and implement a program of studies. Graphic communications affects everyone. We cannot escape the influence of the printed image in our present society. A medium with such e f f e c t t h i s should be included i n the cu r r i c u -lum of t h i s province. The inclusion of a program of studies i n this f i e l d w i l l expose students to the potential of the media to manipulate and modify public opinion and to at t a i n technical job s k i l l s . 2 1 3 T h e m e d i u m s o f g r a p h i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n s : p h o t o g r a p h y , f i l m , t e l e v i s i o n , a n d p r i n t i n g c a n b e t a u g h t f r o m b o t h a t e c h n i c a l o r a n a e s t h e t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e y c a n n o t b e s e p a r a t e d ( M c F e e , 1 9 7 4 ) t o t e a c h o n e w i t h o u t t h e o t h e r i s n o t a l l o w i n g t h e p o t e n -t i a l o f t h e s u b j e c t t o b e r e a l i z e d . T e c h n i q u e i s n e c e s s a r y , i f n o t i m p e r a t i v e . H o w e v e r , w h a t t h e t e c h n i q u e c a n p r o d u c e i s e q u a l l y a s i m p o r t a n t . T h e p r e s e n t t r e n d a l t h o u g h i s n o t t o s t r e s s b o t h a s p e c t s o f t h e s e m e d i u m s . A s t h e s u r v e y h a s s h o w n c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s t h r o u g h o u t N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y p e r f o r m a n c e b a s e d . T h i s e m p h a s i s o n p e r f o r m a n c e a n d m e a s u r a b l e s k i l l s i n d i c a t e s t h e d e s i r e b y c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s a n d a d m i n -i s t r a t o r s t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . T a s k a n a l y s i s o f a n y o f t h e g r a p h i c c o m m u n i c a t i o n s m e d i u m s a r e p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t h a t i d e n t i f y a l l t h e t a s k s ( K e n t u c k y D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 8 0 ; P o l l o c k , 1 9 7 9 ) n e c e s s a r y f o r e n t r y i n t o a t r a d e . T h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e h a s a l s o i m p l i e d t h a t t h i s f o r m o f t r a i n i n g i s a c c e p t a b l e ( I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 7 ) . H o w e v e r t e c h n i c a l c o m p e -t e n c y d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e t h e m e d i u m t o c o m m u n i c a t e E f f e c t i v e e x p r e s s i o n d e p e n d s o n g o o d v i s u a l d e s i g n a n d g o o d v i s u a l d e s i g n d e p e n d s o n c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n a n d t h e p r o p e r u s e o f t o o l s a n d t e c h n i q u e s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1 9 7 8 , p . 1 0 4 ) . 214 If the nature of our comprehensive secondary school i s to "foster the optimum growth and development of each student" (Killeen, & Ornes, 1979, p. 201) then the emphasis of only one aspect of a subject f i e l d could be detrimental to the students' development. The Ministry, i n this author's opinion, must take steps to i d e n t i f y and implement strategies for teaching one or a l l of the mediums of graphic communicatins in both the technical and aesthetic areas. The scope of program development already established i n t h i s province has affected the implementation of a prescribed curriculum guide. There is a wide range in the blend between technical t r a i n i n g and aesthetic education. This range should be analysed and i f possible a rationale written to explain the d i r e c t i o n that graphic communications education should take i n thi s province. If a prescribed outline i s j u s t i f i e d i t should be necessary to establish the int e n s i t y of t r a i n i n g from a general outline to an indepth prevocational program. Program development - a cooperative e f f o r t Development of curriculum materials for graphic communi-cations i n the nineteen eighties w i l l depend on the combined ef f o r t s of representatives from the Ministry of Education, the graphic arts industry, the a r t / i n d u s t r i a l education pro-fessional associations, and the f a c u l t i e s of education. Among 215 these groups a common set of tasks and objectives could be established. If a common statement of goals could be published a relationship would develop that does not presently e x i s t . We need to establish a dialogue among people concerned with the development of graphic coinmuni cat ions education to encourage a better understanding of the mutual problems of curriculum design, apprenticeship, financing and f a c i l i t i e s . Resource material i s already available, as presented in chapter Five, that could be modified to sui t the needs of thi s province. However a concentrated e f f o r t i s necessary i f the i n s t i t u t i o n s , the Ministry and the industry are to be united i n preparation of a common statement of goals. With the introduction of the Art curriculum, proposed for September 1982 and considering the lack of status of the graphic communication curriculum guide, the poten t i a l for a s i g n i f i c a n t change i s evident. If the people concerned are coordinated, the development of a graphic communications program of studies that blends art and i n d u s t r i a l education i s possible. The art curriculum provides a base for curriculum development i n respect to imagergy development where the mater-i a l reviewed i n thi s paper describes resources for technical development. Because of the history of graphic communication development and the background of the majority of instructors i n t h i s province (Hodder, Note 2) a unique program of studies 216 could be prepared. Because the majority of graphic communica-tions instructors are trained art educators, and because of a lack of technical t r a i n i n g provided by the teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , i t would seem that preparation of courses of study that blend the technical with the aesthetic could be undertaken using for reference the material reviewed in this thesis. However while the potential does exist for a unique course of studies, p r a c t i c a l problems of organization and implementa-t i o n are apparent. F a c i l i t i e s , equipment, inservice t r a i n i n g , Career Preparation, size and d i v e r s i t y of schools are a l l areas that should be of concern to an industry/educational committee. The relationship and the solution of these problems are perhaps necessary before development of a program could be i n i t i a t e d . The problems of curriculum development i n th i s province can be solved, but only with the combined cooperation of a l l parties concerned. Through this cooperation, graphic communications, the t h i r d largest industry i n North America, could be recog-nized i n the p r o v i n c i a l school system. The recognition i s imperative, because this province should not only educate students i n the effect the media have on our d a i l y l i v e s but also provide the a b i l i t y for our children to become trained to accept jobs and careers i n the f i e l d . It should not be neces-sary to advertise abroad for a trained graphic arts technician. 217 Hopefully the future w i l l bring a r e a l i z a t i o n that the Ministry of Education has not provided the leadership to coordinate the introduction of a scheme of graphic communications education that allow the f l e x i b i l i t y i n education as well as t r a i n i n g for many students i n the province. With the introduction of Career Preparation, the Ministry has indicated a desire to incorporate more i n d u s t r i a l s k i l l development at the secondary l e v e l , but there are indications that graphic communications may not be included (Abel, Note 10). Therefore steps should be taken to encourage persons to see the importance of th i s subject area and to assure i t s inclusion i n secondary programs. 218 CHAPTER VII Conclusion Graphic communications education i n t h i s p rovince i s not o f f i c i a l l y recognized by the M i n i s t r y of Education d e s p i t e the f a c t that s e v e n t y - f i v e programs e x i s t throughout the p r o v i n c e . The F a c u l t i e s of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not prepare teachers s p e c i f i c a l l y to teach graphic communications, although courses are a v a i l a b l e i n photography, t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m and printmaking. Without formal r e c o g n i t i o n by the M i n i s t r y of Education and the teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , p r o s pects f o r the continued development of graphics communications c u r r i c u l a and resource m a t e r i a l s are l i m i t e d . Although these d i s c r e p e n c i e s are apparent the M i n i s t r y of Education has pr o v i d e d s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s with f i n a n c i a l support f o r equipment and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d because t h i s author was concerned about the lack of e d u c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l guidance from both the M i n i s t r y of Education and the p r o v i n c i a l teacher t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s e s p e c i a l l y i n a p e r i o d when s o c i e t y i s demanding more a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n programming and f i s c a l manage-ment of education i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . I t seems incongruent to 219 provide funds and f a c i l i t i e s for graphic communications pro-grams without the benefit of a curriculum guide. A curriculum guide indicates a sequence or series of a c t i v i t i e s that should be included in a program of in s t r u c t i o n . But the Ministry of Education has been negligent in preparing such a document for this subject area. Without a frame of reference individual instructors have attempted to prepare course outlines and resource materials. Depending on the background and expertise of each author many d i f f e r e n t concepts of graphic communications have been implemented. F l e x i b i l i t y in curriculum design is important, but equally important is a degree of continuity among various schools and school d i s -t r i c t s . Presently in this province graphic communications education is not coordinated; programs range from printmaking that emphasizes the development of imagery to more trade oriented pre-vocational p r i n t i n g tasks. Before new programs in any subject area can be developed, i t is appropriate to survey what has already been developed. This thesis project was the f i r s t step in that development process - to uncover existing graphic communication c u r r i c u l a and resource materials. This has involved correspondence with every p r o v i n c i a l and state education agency, the six American regional vocational curriculum centres, and various graphic arts instructors. The process entailed a compilation of 2 2 0 68 g r a p h i c communications c u r r i c u l u m guides. These guides, which represent the o f f i c i a l c u r r i c u l u m p o l i c y of the p a r t i -c u l a r i s s u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l agency, range from one page course o u t l i n e s to e l a b o r a t e resource m a t e r i a l packages. Graphic a r t s i s c o n s i d e r e d an i n d u s t r i a l e ducation s u b j e c t i n the United States and the m a j o r i t y of programs r e f l e c t t h i s a f f i l i a t i o n by s t r e s s i n g s k i l l development through competency based i n s t r u c -t i o n a l programs, emphasizing performance o b j e c t i v e s . Although t e c h n i c a l competence i s an important aspect of graphic communi-c a t i o n s , the i n c r e a s i n g s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of graphic machinery would i n d i c a t e that i n s t r u c t i o n i n machine manipulation should not be the only concern of a graphic communications program. The image that i s produced i n any of the f o u r component areas, photography, f i l m , t e l e v i s i o n , and p r i n t i n g , must be considered an important segment i n c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n . This author o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model that has d e f i n e d terms a s s o c i a t e d with the f i e l d of graphic communications. The model i s based on the d e f i n i t i o n of v i s u a l communications. ...as the process of t r a n s m i t t i n g i d e a s , thoughts, or concepts from one person to another, through a stimulus p e r c e i v e d by the sense of s i g h t . ( V i s u a l Communications, CBIE-Kansas, 1974, p. 4) 221 The sender who conceives the idea or concept of a p r i n t e d product must be able to manipulate h i s idea g r a p h i c a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y i n order that the r e c e i v e r p e r c e i v e s the i d e a . The idea must be presented as an image, which i m p l i e s r e f e r e n c e to graphic design and basic p r i n c i p l e s of c o l o u r , l i n e , shape, form and t e x t u r e . Once the image has been prepared, i t must be reproduced which i m p l i e s a knowledge of technique and machine manipulation. Graphic communications processes r e l y on developing imagery and s k i l l f u l r e p r o d u c t i o n f o r the r e c e i v e r to comprehend the sender's message. The components of graphic communications can be separated. The f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s can be considered to c o n s t i t u t e g r a p h i c communications: printmaking, d r a f t i n g , p r i n t i n g , photography, f i l m , and t e l e v i s i o n . Graphic communications education should not be concerned with j u s t one or two of these segments. Rather graphic communications education programs should have a wider scope, and should encourage student awareness to a l l forms of graphic e x p r e s s i o n . The M i n i s t r y of Education i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g a p r o p o s a l to i n c l u d e graphic communications i n the Career P r e p a r a t i o n program. If t h i s p r o p o s a l i s adopted, i t would have a d e t r i m e n t a l impact on programs a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e . 222 Career P r e p a r a t i o n i s a program designed to be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a comprehensive s c h o o l system that allows a student to c l u s t e r a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d courses to provide advanced standing i n a post secondary i n s t i t u t i o n . Two s t a t e d c r i t e r i a f o r the o f f e r i n g of Career P r e p a r a t i o n courses that could not be met by e x i s t i n g g r aphic communication programs are post-secondary a r t i c u l a t i o n and i n s t r u c t o r trade e x p e r i e n c e . In c o n j u n c t i o n with these requirements, Career P r e p a r a t i o n i m p l i e s an emphasis on s k i l l t r a i n i n g . Career P r e p a r a t i o n programs would tend to de-emphasize the d e s i r a b i l i t y of a blend between a r t and t e c h -nology. Graphic communications i s r e a l l y an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y course of s t u d i e s , blending imagery from a r t education and s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n from i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t i o n . Programs that e x c l u s i v e l y s t r e s s e i t h e r component can not provide the student with a well-rounded i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. A p r i n t e d product cannot be completed without a design and a design cannot be reproduced without t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . Therefore graphic commun-i c a t i o n s c u r r i c u l u m development must i n c o r p o r a t e concepts and ideas from a r t education as w e l l as t e c h n i c a l s k i l l a c q u i s i t i o n from i n d u s t r i a l e ducation. Programs reviewed i n t h i s t h e s i s , e.g. P o l l o c k (1979), Hawkinson (1974), PICA (1977), Graphic Communication of White Bear, Minnesota (1978), and Ohio State (1975) are competency 223 based programs that would, i n conjuncion with the r e v i s e d B r i t i s h Columbia a r t guide (1982) p r o v i d e a s t r o n g foundation f o r f u t u r e c u r r i c u l u m development i n graphic communications educ a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s p r o v i d e s a benchmark, a s t a r t i n the process of implementing research to develop a program of s t u d i e s i n t e g r a t -ing a r t and technology. The a r t i s t must be f a m i l i a r with technology f o r the g r e a t -est impact on h i s audience. However technology cannot promote i t s e l f without the b e n e f i t of c r e a t i v e and t a l e n t e d d e s i g n e r s . How the s c h o o l system p r o v i d e s f o r these o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the students' development, i s the next step i n the p r o c e s s . The process of expanding c u r r i c u l u m to encompass technology and design, which w i l l allow students the f l e x i b i l i t y to become s k i l l f u l i n s p e c i f i c tasks as w e l l as expand t h e i r c r e a t i v e awareness i s a necessary task. A program should be designed to a l l o w the g r e a t e s t number of students to c o n t r o l , or at l e a s t be aware o f , the i n f l u e n c e the graphic i n d u s t r y can and w i l l have on them. The i n c r e a s e d impact of v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on today's s o c i e t y w i l l continue to grow and expand, and i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i i l i t y of our system to i l l u m i n a t e , as much as i s p o s s i b l e , the b e n e f i t s of such i n f o r m a t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the p i t f a l l s of over indulgence and r e l i a n c e on media. 224 Graphic media i s becoming evermore s o p h i s t i c a t e d and simple machine manipulation and o p e r a t i o n i s no longer a s i g n i f i c a n t e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour. I t i s imperative, that students under-stand the h i s t o r y and background of p r i n t and video imagery to be a b l e to cope with the sheer magnitude of the d a i l y and c o n t i n u a l bombardment of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . Not only w i l l graphic media continue to expand, but a l s o the c o s t of such ventures. [E.g. t h i r t y seconds of commercial a i r time during the broadcast of the American f o o t b a l l championship-Super Bowl XV c o s t $250,000.] With such costs at stake producers of graphic m a t e r i a l w i l l continue to explore avenues that w i l l guarantee the success of t h e i r messages. The success of the i n f o r m a t i o n package whether i n p r i n t , f i l m , or t e l e v i s i o n w i l l depend to a s i g n i f i c a n t degree on the awareness of the audience. I t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l t i y to educate the audience not only i n the t e c h n i c a l aspects of p r o d u c t i o n but i n emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects as w e l l . Therefore the i n t e g r a t i o n of a r t and g r a p h i c s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the development of any program that dwells on the manipulation of imagery, whether those programs f a l l under the s p e c i f i c j u r i s d i c t i o n of a r t , i n d u s t r i a l e ducation or business education. A l l these areas have a r e s p o n s i b i l t i y to inform, provoke and i n turn develop awareness to the r e a l m a n ipulative power of g r a p h i c design. 2 2 5 T h i s p r o v i n c e i s dev e l o p i n g a program avenues of d i s c o v e r y at the t h r e s h o l d with of s t u d i e s that would f o r our students. the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n f a c t provide 226 Reference Notes 1. E c k s t e i n , H. The way to e v a l u a t e , understand, and buy  p r i n t i n g . Paper presented at P a c i f i c Rim Media Seminar, Vancouver, B.C., 1981. 2. Hodder, G. A r t programs and f a c i l i t i e s i n secondary  sc h o o l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u b i a , 1979. Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1979. 3. A guide/resource book, A r t 8-12. Unpublished manuscript, B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education, 1981. 4. C r i e s e , D. Personal communication, A p r i l 6, 1981. 5. O l i v e r , D. Personal communication, March 4, 1979. 6. O l i v e r , D. Personal communication, February 8, 1980. 7. Verge, M. Personal communication, J u l y 10, 1980. 8. Daneliuk, C. Personal communication, June 4, 1980. 19. Verge, M. Personal communication, March 13, 1981. 0. Abel, D. Personal communication, May 15, 1981. 227 References A r t guide K-12. Lakewood, Colorado: J e f f e r s o n County School D i s t r i c t R - l , 1973. B o b b i t t , J . Drawing, design, v i s u a l a r t . In G. Hardiman & T. Z e r n i c h (Eds.), C u r r i c u l u m C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r V i s u a l A r t s Education. Champaign, I l l i n o i s : S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1974. Brouch, V. How to p u b l i s h : The hazardous journey. A r t  Education, 1979, ^2, 18-23. A c a t a l o g of performance o b j e c t i v e s , c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d measures and performance guides f o r p r i n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . D e t r o i t , Michigan: Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y , D i v i s i o n of Teacher Education, I n s t i t u t e f o r the Research and Development of Competency Based Teacher Education Programs, 1978. Chapman, L. Approaches to a r t i n edu c a t i o n . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978. Degge, R. Keynote address BCATA conference-1980. J o u r n a l B r i t i s h Columbia A r t Teachers' A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980, 2_1, 3-6. E i s n e r , E. Education a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: MacMillan, 1972. E l d r e d , N. T r a i n i n g f o r new technology. Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation Education Report, March, 1981, 26, 1-4. 228 Entry t a s k s . F r a n k f o r t , Kentucky: Kentucky Department of Education, Bureau of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1980. Graphic a r t s . Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama State Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1977. Graphic communications. Des Moines, Iowa: State of Iowa, Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1978. Hambrick, G. & Jones, G., & Losee, K. Graphic a r t s occupation I I . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of Education, 1968. Hawkinson, B. Graphic a r t s - a c u r r i c u l u m manual. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico S t a t e Department of Education, V o c a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , 1974. Hertz, A. Typography and modern t y p e s e t t i n g . Trenton, New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1978. Hindes, T. Updating VO-ED: The Ohio experience. School Shop, 1981, 2, 22-23. I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n . V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Education, 1977. I n s t i t u t e of P r i n t i n g . Design knowledge f o r p r i n t i n g p e r s o n n e l . P r o f e s s i o n a l P r i n t e r , 1981, 2A_, 5-6. Iowa guide f o r c u r r i c u l u m improvement i n i n d u s t r i a l a r t s (K-12). Des Moines, Iowa: State of Iowa Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1976. K i l l e e n , J . Ornes, N. Proposal f o r a r e v i s i o n of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e handbook f o r elementary and secondary s c h o o l s , d r a f t I I . V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education, 1979. 229 King, B. V i s u a l communication education (VICOED). BCATA J o u r n a l f o r A r t Teachers, 1980, 20, 12-14. McFee, J . S o c i e t y , a r t , and e d u c a t i o n . In G. Hardiman & T. Zernich (Eds.), C u r r i c u l u m C o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r V i s u a l A r t s E d u c a t i o n . Champaign, I l l i n o i s : S t i p e s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1974. P o l l o c k , S. A c u r r i c u l u m guide f o r p r o d u c t i o n o r i e n t a t e d photo o f f s e t . S p r i n g f i e l d , I l l i n o i s : I l l i n o i s O f f i c e of Education, 1979. S c h o f i e l d , J . Commercial a r t . East Brunswick, New J e r s e y : Middlesex Country School Board, 1975. S i e g l , R. Address - S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . Communications A r t s , 1978, 2, 80-81. Tubbs, S., & Moss, S. Human communication (2nd ed.). New York: Random House, 1977. T y l e r , R. B a s i c p r i n c i p a l s of c u r r i c u l u m and i n s t r u c t i o n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1950. Vermont guide to c u r r i c u l u m content f o r i n d u s t r i a l a r t s . M o n t p e l i e r , Vermont: Vermont Department of Education, 1979. V i s u a l communications-CBIE. Topeka, Kansas: Kansas State Department of Education, 1974. V i s u a l communications-graphic a r t s . Edmonton, A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a Department of Education, 1974. 2 3 0 APPENDIX A I n i t i a l request l e t t e r A 231 art department delta secondary school 4615 51st Street Delta British Columbia V4K 2V8 CANADA 112-604-946-4194 D e a r S i r : I am p r e s e n t l y c o m p l e t i n g a M a s t e r s D e g r e e i n A r t E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B . C . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h my w o r k i n A r t E d u c a t i o n , I am p r e p a r i n g a s u r v e y a n d c o l l e c t i o n o f r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a n d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s f o r G r a p h i c A r t s E d u c a t i o n . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s w i l l f o r m a b a s e f o r c o n t i n u e d w o r k i n c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t a t b o t h t h e d i s t r i c t a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . A t p r e s e n t , t h e r e i s no p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m o r r e s o u r c e m a n u a l f o r t h i s p r o v i n c e . A l i m i t e d p r o p o s a l was s u b m i t t e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n 1 9 7 2 , b u t i t was n e v e r r e l e a s e d . D u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r , h o w e v e r , t h e p r o p o s a l was r e v i v e d i n d r a f t f o r m , a v a i l a b l e f o r comment a n d c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . H o p e f u l l y , t h e m a t e r i a l a s s e m b l e d f r o m t h i s s u r v e y w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e c u r r e n t t r e n d s a n d d i r e c t i o n s i n G r a p h i c A r t s c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s i n p u t w i l l p r o v i d e a n e e d e d s t i m u l u s t o d e v e l o p a p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e a n d r e s o u r c e m a n u a l f o r t h i s p r o v i n c e . I w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e a c o p y o f y o u r d e p a r t m e n t ' s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e f o r G r a p h i c A r t s a n d , i f a v a i l a b l e , t h e p r i c e o f t h e a s s o c i a t e d r e s o u r c e m a n u a l . A n y f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c a t a l o g u e s o f A r t a n d I n d u s t r i a l A r t s r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s w o u l d a l s o be a p p r e c i a t e d . Thank y o u f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n . Y o u r s t r u l y , P e t e r S c u r r G r a p h i c A r t s I n s t r u c t o r P S / c b \ 3 APPENDIX B R e s p o n d e n t s 233 Alabama Department of Education State O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Montgomery, AL 36130 Al a s k a Department of Education Pouch F. Juneau, AK 99811 A r i z o n a Department of Education 1535 W. J e f f e r s o n Phoenix, AZ 85007 Arkansas Department of Education Education B u i l d i n g , C a p i t o l M a l l L i t t l e Rock, AR 72201 C a l i f o r n i a Department of Education 721 C a p i t o l M a l l Sacramento, CA 95814 C e n t r a l Michigan U n i v e r s i t y Mount Pleasant Michigan, MI 48859 Chicago Board of Education Department of Curriculum 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL 60601 Colorado Department of Education 201E. C o l f a x Ave. Rm. 523 Denver, CO 80203 Conn e c t i c u t Department of Education 165 C a p i t o l Avenue H a r t f o r d , CT 06115 D a l l a s Independent School D i s t r i c t S k y l i n e Career Development Center 7777 Forney Road D a l l a s , TX 75227 Delaware Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n Townsend B u i l d i n g Dover, DE 19901 East C e n t r a l C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s Center 100 North F i r s t S t r e e t S p r i n g f i e l d , IL 62777 James Kendrick C o o r d i n a t o r V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m Development U n i t no response Ray Van D i e s t Fine A r t s S p e c i a l i s t Brenda Turner S p e c i a l i s t - A r t Education James A l l i s o n Program Man a g e r - I n d u s t r i a l & Health Education Louis Nash Consultant i n A r t s Education Cleo Johnson Coord i n a t o r Barton G a l l e g o s D i r e c t o r Bureau of Management Production & D i s t r i b u t i o n P a t r i c i a Burger State Governmental R e l a t i o n s Robert J . Saunders A r t Consultant Paul H a r r i s D i r e c t o r C u r r i c u l u m Career Education no response C h e r i Brueggeman A c q u i s i t i o n S p e c i a l i s t 234 Eastman Kodak Education Markets S e r v i c e s Rochester, NY 14650 F l o r i d a Department of Education The C a p i t o l T a l l a h a s s e e , FL 32304 Georgia Department of Education State O f f i c e B u i l d i n g , Rm 242 A t l a n t a , GA 30334 Graphic A r t s Research Center (GARC) Rochester I n s t i t u t e of Technology One Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation (GATF) 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g e , PA 15213 Hawaii Department of Education 1390 M i l l e r S t r e e t Honolulu, HI 96813 Idaho Department of Education 227 Cen B, Jorden B u i l d i n g Boise, ID 83702 I l l i n o i s O f f i c e of Education 100 N. 1st S t r e e t S p r i n g f i e l d , IL 62777 Indiana Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n 227 State House I n d i a n a p o l i s , IN 46204 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education The Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 Iowa Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n Grimes B u i l d i n g Des Moines, IA 50319 Richard R. B a l l C o o r d i n a t o r of School P u b l i c a t i o n s no response Ruth Gassett A r t s & Humanities Consultant Herbert P h i l l i p s D i r e c t o r Dr. J a c k S i m l i c h E d u c a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r no response no response I n d u s t r i a l E d u c a t i o n a l Consultant Robert Thomas I n d u s t r i a l Education Consultant Laura Magee Consultant A r t s Education 235 J e f f e r s o n County Department of Education P.O. Box 15128 Denver, CO 80215 Kansas Department of Education 10th & Quincy Topeka, KS 66612 Maine Department of Education Education B u i l d i n g Augusta, ME 04333 Midwest C u r r i c u l m C o o r d i n a t i o n Center 1515 West 6th Avenue S t i l l w a t e r , OK 74074 La r r y S c h u l t z A r t C o o r d i n a t o r E i l e e n Heinen D i r e c t o r E d u c a t i o n a l A s s i s t a n c e Pat White D i r e c t o r , I n d u s t r i a l Education Helen Trahan S u p e r v i s o r , Bureau of Curriculum, I n s e r v i c e & S t a f f Development V i r g i l i o Mori A r t s C o o r d i n a t o r no response Perry Gemmill A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r Graphic Communications Richard Gilman D i r e c t o r , E d u c a t i o n a l Information S e r v i c e s Tom F a r r e l l A s s i s t a n t Superintendent f o r Pubic A f f a i r s Bob Patton, D i r e c t o r State Department of V o c a t i o n a l & T e c h n i c a l Education Kentucky Department of Education C a p i t a l P l a z a Tower F r a n k f o r t , KY 40601 L o u i s i a n a Department of Education 419 North S t r e e t Baton Rouge, LA 7 0804 Maryland Department of Education P.O. Box 8717 Baltimore, MD 21240 U n i v e r s i t y of Maryland Department of I n d u s t r i a l Education C o l l e g e of Education D i v i s i o n of Human & Community Resources C o l l e g e Park, MD 20742 Massachusetts Department of Education Boston, MA 02108 Michigan Department of Education 520 Michigan N a t i o n a l Tower Lansing, MI 48909 Minnesota C u r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e Center Peggy Loumas 3554 White Bear Avenue C u r r i c u l u m Consultant White Bear Lake, MN 55110 Minnesota Department of Education Thomas Ryerson 550 Cedar S t r e e t S u p e r v i s o r Secondary St. Paul, MN 55101 V o c a t i o n a l Programs Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Occupations 236 3M - P r i n t i n g Products 3M Center St. Paul, MN 55144 M i s s i s s i p p i Department of Education 501 S i l l e r s B u i l d i n g Jackson, MS 39202 M i s s i s s i p i S tate U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of Education Research & C u r r i c u l u m Unit f o r V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l Education P.O. Drawer DX M i s s i s s i p p i S t a t e , MS 37762 M i s s o u r i Department of Education J e f f e r s o n State O f f i c e B u i l d i n g J e f f e r s o n C i t y , MO 65101 Montana Department of Education State C a p i t o l , Room 106 Helena, MT 59601 Nebraska Department of Education 301 C e n t e n n i a l M a l l , S. L i n c o l n , NE 68509 Nevada Department of Education 400 W. King S t r e e t Carson C i t y , NV 89710 New Hampshire Department of Education 410 State House Annex Concord, NH 03301 New J e r s e y Department of Education 225 West State S t r e e t Trenton, NJ 08625 New Mexico Department of Education Education B u i l d i n g Santa Fe, NM 87503 New York Education Department Education B u i l d i n g Albany, NY 12234 Jon B. Engfer Sales S e r v i c e S u p e r v i s o r Sandra N i c o l a A r t Education Consultant P. Crousen L i b r a r i a n (Southeast C u r r i c u l u m C o o r d i n a t i o n Center) Grace McReynolds D i r e c t o r C urriculum Development Kay Burkhardt Consultant A r t s i n Education I n d u s t r i a l A r t s C o o r d i n a t o r No response Ken Latchan I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Consultant D i r e c t o r V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y New Brunswick, New Jersey V i c k i Breen A r t S p e c i a l i s t D.L. Richardson State S u p e r v i s o r Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education A.J. Dudley, Chief Bureau of I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Education 99 Washington Avenue Albany, NY 12210 237 North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c Education Education B u i l d i n g R a l e i g h , NC 27611 North Dakota P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n Department State C a p i t o l Bismark, ND 58505 Peggy M. B a l l A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r A r t and Design Programs Department of Community Co l l e g e s Roger Kolsrud Music & Fine A r t s C o o r d i n a t o r Northeast Network f o r Cu r r i c u l u m 225 West State S t r e e t Trenton, NJ 08625 Jeseph K e l l y D i r e c t o r Northwestern V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m Management Center B u i l d i n g 1 7 - A i r d u s t r i a l Park Olympica, WA 98504 Ohio Department of Education 65 S. Front S t r e e t Columbus, OH 43215 Catherine Johnson Warner R. Moore D i r e c t o r D i v i s i o n of Personnel P u b l i c a t i o n s & Legal S e r v i c e s Oklahoma Department of Education O l i v e r Hodge B u i l d i n g Oklahoma C i t y , OK 73105 Sue S h i e l d s C u r r i c u l u m Department Oregon Department of Education 942 Lancaster Dr. NE Salem, OR 97310 Don Austen S p e c i a l i s t C u r r i c u l u m Development Pennsylvania Department of Education H a r r i i s b u r g PA 17120 John W. Brandt S u p e r v i s o r V o c a t i o n a l Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Joe McCarthy Senior Program A d v i s o r A r t s i n Education Bureau of Cu r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s PICA FOUNDATION P.O. Box 4487 301 Hawthorne Lane C h a r l o t t e , NC 28204 Rhode I s l a n d Department of Education 199 Promenade S t r e e t Providence, RI 02908 B i l l Treadaway Executive V i c e P r e s i d e n t Jim H a r r i n g t o n Consultant, Program Development Donald R Gardner, J r . Coord i n a t o r Program Development 238 South C a r o l i n a Department of Education 1429 Senate s t r e e t Columbia, SC 29201 no response South Dakota Department of Education State O f f i c e B u i l d i n g P i e r r e , SD 57501 D i r e c t o r of Cur r i c u l u m Development Tennessee Department of Education C o r d e l l H u l l B u i l d i n g N a s h v i l l e , TN 37219 Gerry E Wilmoth T e c h n i c a l C o o r d i n a t o r Texas Education Agency 201 E. 11th S t r e e t A u s t i n , TX 78701 Utah Board of Education 250 E. 5th South S t r e e t S a l t Lake C i t y , UT 84111 P h i l Manning Program D i r e c t o r Fine A r t s D i v i s i o n of Cu r r i c u l u m Department Charles Stubbs Sr. S p e c i a l i s t A r t Education Ralph Anderson I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Consultant Vermont Department of Education 120 State S t r e e t M o n t p e l i e r , VT 05602 V i r g i n i a Department of Education Ninth S t r e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Richmond, VA 23219 D i r e c t o r of Cur r i c u l u m I n d u s t r i a l Education Ben L. Baines State S u p e r v i s o r Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Washington Department of Education Old C a p i t o l B u i l d i n g Olympia, WA 98504 West V i r g i n i a Department of Education C a p i t o l Complex, B u i l d i n g 6 Room 330 Ch a r l e s t o n , WV 25305 W i l l i a m R a d c l i f f e , J r , D i r e c t o r B a s i c Education Jim Synder C u r r i c u l u m S p e c i a l i s t I n d u s t r i a l A r t s Western Cu r r i c u l u m C o o r d i n a t i o n Center U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii C o l l e g e of Education Wist H a l l 216-1776 U n i v e r s i t y M a l l Honolulu, HI 96822 G a i l Vrago Information & A c q u i s i t o n s S p e c i a l i s t 239 W i s c o n s i n Department o f P u b l i c no r e s p o n s e I n s t r u c t i o n 126 Langdon S t r e e t M a d i s o n , WI 53702 Wyoming Department o f E d u c a t i o n B a r b a r a W e s t e r Hathaway B u i l d i n g Communcations S e r v i c e s Cheyenne, WY 82001 D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a B o a r d o f no r e s p o n s e E d u c a t i o n 415 12th S t r e e t , N.W. W a s h i n g t o n , DC 70004 A m e r i c a n Samoa Department o f no r e s p o n s e E d u c a t i o n Pago Pago, AS 96799 N o r t h e r n M a r i a n a I s l a n d s J a y B. T i t u s D epartment o f E d u c a t i o n A s s o c . Dean, C u r r i c u l u m S a i p a n , M a r i a n a I s l a n d s 96950 P u e r t o R i c o Department o f no r e s p o n s e I n s t r u c t i o n Box 759 Hato Rey, PR 00919 240 A l b e r t a Education Devonian b u i l d i n g , West Tower 11160 - Jasper Avenue Edmonton, A l b e r t a T5K 0L2 Manitoba Department of Education Robert F l e t c h e r B u i l d i n g 507-1181 Portage Avenue Winnipeg, Manitoba R3G 0T3 New Brunswick Department of Education P.O. Box 6000 F r e d e r i c t o n , New Brunswick E3B 5H1 J . D. Harder Associate Director Curriculum W.H. Van Rooy Curr i c u l u m Consultant Lester B a r t l e t t Director Program Development & Implementation Newfoundland Department of Education Nova Scotia Department of Education Trade Mart Building P.. Box 578 Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2S9 Fay P. Lee D i r e c t o r P u b l i c a t i o n & Reference Ontario Department of Education 16th Floor Mowat Block Queen's Park Toronto, Ontario M7A 1L2 R.C. Blackwell Education O f f i c e r Elementary Education Branch P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d Department of Education Charlottetown, PEI CIA 7N8 William B a r t l e t t Art Consultant Quebec Department of Education Saskatchewan Department of Education 2220 C o l l e g e Avenue Regina, Saskatchewan S4P 3V7 M. P i t s u l a D i r e c t o r , Program Development APPENDIX C b l i o g r a p h y o f r e v i e w e d c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s 242 A r t and design teaching guide. St. John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland Department of Education, 1977. Newfoundland Department of Education C o n f e d e r a t i o n B u i l d i n g S t . John's, N f l d . AIC 5R9 N/C Commercial a r t . Edmonton, A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a Department of Education, 1974. A l b e r t a Department of Education Devonian B u i l d i n g , West Tower 11160 Jasper Avenue Edmonton, AL T5K OL3 I n d u s t r i a l a r t s . S t . John's, Newfoundland: Newfoundland Department of Education, 1975. Newfoundland Department of Education C o n f e d e r a t i o n B u i l d i n g St. John's, N f l d . AIC 5R9 N/C Stewart, A. Graphic communications, a course of  i n s t r u c t i o n . H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a : Nova S c o t i a Department of Education, 1970. Nova S c o t i a Department of Education Box 578 H a l i f a x , NS B3J 1A6 N/C T e c h n i c a l education, d i v i s i o n IV. Regina Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan Department of Education, 1977. Information Bureau Saskatchewan Department of Education 2220 C o l l e g e Avenue Regina, Saskatchewan S4D 3V7 N/C 243 V i s u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s - g r a p h i c a r t s . E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1974. A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n D e v o n i a n B u i l d i n g , W e s t T o w e r 11160 J a s p e r A v e n u e E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a T5R 0L2 N/C V i s u a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s 10-20-30. E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a : A l b e r t a D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1976. A l b e r t a E d u c a t i o n D e v o n i o n B u i l d i n g , W e s t T o w e r 11160 J a s p e r A v e n u e E d m o n t o n , A l b e r t a T5K 0L2 N/C 244 B a i l e y , F. The i n - p l a n t p r i n t e r . Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Jersey Department of Education, 1977. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $4.75 Braun, R. T., C r a i g , G. W., & Dickson, W. S., e t a l . V o c a t i o n a l p r i n t i n g guide. Richmond, V i r g i n i a : V i r g i n i a State Department of Education, 1974. V i r g i n i a S tate Department of Education D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education Ninth S t r e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Richmond, VA 23219 N/C C o g o l i , J . O f f s e t d u p l i c a t o r o p e r a t o r . Washington, DC: US O f f i c e of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l & T e c h n i c a l Education, 1966. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e Washington, DC. $5.00 Communication and mass media - an e l e c t i v e f o r high s c h o o l  e n g l i s h . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of Education, 1976. Chicago Board of Education Department of Curriculum 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL 60601 N/C Cook, W., Dorroh, R., e t a l . Photography. Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education & Community C o l l e g e s , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $1.75 (1.25, 1.75, 1.00) 245 C r a i g , G. W., & Dickson, W. S., e t a l . V o c a t i o n a l p r i n t i n g  guide, transparency master s e t . Blocksburg, V i r g i n i a : V i r g i n i a P o l y t e c h n i c a 1 I n s t i t u t e , C o l l e g e of Education, 1974. V i r g i n i a Department of Education D i v i s i o n o f V o c a t i o n a l Education Ninth S t r e e t O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Richmond, VA 23219 N/C E r z i n g e r , L., Lawley, G., & Bradley, H., e t a l . Salesmanship, a d v e r t i s i n g & d i s p l a y . Chicago, I l l i n o s : Chicago Board of Education, 1978. Chicago Board of Education Deparment of Curriculum 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL 60601 $7.50 G a r r i s o n , C , Rogers, T., B r i g g i n s , C. TV cameraman. Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama State Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Eduation & Community C o l l e g e s , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education P.O. Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , AL 35486 $1.75 (1.25, 1.75, .75) Graphic a r t s . Montgomery, Alabama: State Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1977. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Box 2847 U n i v e r s i t y , Alabama 35486 $3.00 Halpern, G. Line photography. P i t t s b u r g h , Pennsylvania: Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation Graphic A r t s T e c h n i c a l Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue P i t t s b u r g h , PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 246 Halpern, G. Lithographic o f f s e t feeder operations. Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. Graphic Arts Technical Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 Halpern, G. Web of f s e t pressmanship. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. Graphic Arts Technical Foundation 4615 Fobes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 Reichel, L. Colour separation photography. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. Graphic Arts Technical Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 Reichel, L. Offset lithographic s t r i p p i n g . Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. Graphic Arts Technical Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 Roman, C. Halftone photography. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Graphic Arts Technical Foundation. Graphic Arts Technical Foundation 4615 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Member $5.10 Non-member $10.20 247 Graphic communications. White Bear Lake, Minnesota: Minnesota Cu r r i c u l u m S e r v i c e s Center, 1978. Minnesota I n s t r u c t i o n M a t e r i a l s Center 3554 White Bear Avenue White Bear Lake, MN 55110 $22.00 Graphic communications (4 Vols.) c u r r i c u l u m , v o c a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n . Cottage Grove, Minnesota: South Washington County Schools, 1978. Park Senior High School South Washington County Schools D i s t r i c t 833 Cottage Grove, MN 55016 N/C Graphic communications education program. C h a r l o t t e , North C a r o l i n a : P r i n t i n g Industry of the C a r o l i n a s Foundation, 1977. PICA Foundation 301 Hawthorne Lane P.O. Box 4487 C h a r l o t t e , NC 28204 $2895.00 Graphics and i n d u s t r i a l communications ( V o l . 1-3) trade  p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g c u r r i c u l u m guide. R a l e i g h , North C a r o l i n a : North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1977. North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education Education B u i l d i n g R a l e i g h , NC 27611 N/C Graphics and i n d u s t r i a l communications, trade p r e p a r a t o r y  t r a i n i n g p l a n n i n g guide. R a l e i g h , North C a r o l i n a : D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1977. North C a r o l i n a Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education Education B u i l d i n g R a l e i g h , NC 27611 N/C 248 Hambrick, G., Jones, G., & Losee, R., e t a l . Graphic a r t s  occupations I. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of Education, 1968. Chicago Board of Education Department of C u r r i c u l u m 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL 60601 $3.75 Hambrick, G., Jones, G., Losee, K. Graphic a r t s occupations I I . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Chicago Board of Education, 1968. Chicago Board of Education Department of Curriculum 228 North La S a l l e S t r e e t Chicago, IL. 60601 $2.75 Hawkinson, B. Graphic a r t s , a c u r r i c u l u m manual. Santa Fe, New Mexico: New Mexico S t a t e Department of Education, V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n , 1974. Mid America V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m Consortium 1515 W. 6th Avenue S t i l l w a t e r , Oklahoma 74074 $13.00 Hawkinson, B. Graphic a r t s - s t u d e n t manual. Santa Fe, NM: New Mexico State Department of Education, V o c a t i o n a l -T e c h n i c a l D i v i s i o n . 1974. Mid American V o c a t i o n a l C u r r i c u l u m Consortium 1515 W. 6th Avenue S t i l l w a t e r , Oklahoma 74074 $9.00 249 Hertz, A. Copy p r e p a r a t i o n and image assembly. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New J e r s e y Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The St a t e U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $2.00 Hertz, A. Copy p r e p a r a t i o n and image assembly - a student  manual. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Je r s e y Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NS 08903 $4.75 Hertz, A. Typography and modern t y p e s e t t i n g . Trenton, New Je r s e y : New Jersey Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $2.00 Hertz, A. Typography and modern t y p e s e t t i n g - a student  manual. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Je r s e y Department of Education, 1978. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $4.75 H u l l i n , L. E x p l o r i n g d r a f t i n g - p r i n t i n g . Trenton, New Je r s e y : New Jersey Department of Education, 1971. V o c a t i o n a l - T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers-The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 03903 $3.75 250 B l a y l o c k , R., Nesnadayn, J . , Hansen, V., Koch, M. An  a n a l y s i s of the o f f s e t press o p e r a t o r . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $3.50 Bonanno, et a l . An a n a l y s i s of platemaking i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Ave. Columbus, OH 43210 $3.00 Bonanno, J . , & I n n i s , G. An a n a l y s i s of bindery i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory, 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade and I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $2.75 Hanson, V. et a l . An a n a l y s i s of the cameraperson i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, OH 43210 $3.00 Hanson, V., Koch, M., & B u l l , W., e t a l . An a n a l y s i s of the  c o l d type compositor i n the l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g  i n d u s t r i e s o c c u p a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1976. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $3.00 251 Mowen, K., Hartman, C , & Cotner, M. An a n a l y s i s of the  Commerical a r t o c c u p a t i o n . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1974. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trades I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Ave. Columbus, Ohio 43210 $1.25 Noelker, J . , Myers, P., M i l l e r , M. An a n a l y s i s of la y o u t  and design i n the l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r i s t y I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y 1985 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $2.75 Noelker, J . et a l . An a n a l y s i s of s t r i p p i n g i n the  l i t h o g r a p h i c o f f s e t p r i n t i n g c a r e e r s . Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Laboratory Trade & I n d u s t r i a l Education Ohio State U n i v e r s i t y 1885 N e i l Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43210 $3.50 Iowa i n d u s t r i a l a r t s handbook f o r i n t r o d u c t o r y l e v e l ,  g r a p hic communications. Des Moines, Iowa: Iowa Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , 1978. Iowa Department of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n Grimmes B u i l d i n g Des Moines, IA 50319 N/C Isaacson, A. You've got i t , Danny. Trenton, New J e r s e y : New Jersey Department of Education, D i v i s i o n of V o c a t i o n a l Education, 1976. V o c a t i o n a l / T e c h n i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Laboratory Rutgers - The State U n i v e r s i t y B u i l d i n g 4103 - Kilmer Campus New Brunswick, NJ 08903 $4. 50 252 Johnson, T. A Catalogue of performance o b j e c t i v e s ,  c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d measures and performance guides f o r  p r i n t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . D e t r o i t , Michigan: Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y , 1978. Wayne State U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e of Education - D i v i s i o n of Teacher Education I n s t i t u t e f o r the Research & Development of Competency Based Teacher Education Programs D e t r o i t , MI 48909 N/C Kempton, R. F., Teaching guide f o r s