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Soils of three grassland-forest ecotones north of Kamloops, British Columbia Jakoy, Andrew Geza 1981

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SOILS OF THREE GRASSLAND - FOREST EGOTONES NORTH OF KAMLOOPS, BRITISH COLUMBIA by.: ANDREW GEZA JAKOY B.S.F., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (Sopron), 1959 M. F., Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 ' A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF SOIL SCIENCES We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1981 (c*) Andrew Geza Jakoy, 1981 i n I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f ^(9%£ ^C<S The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date DE-6 (2/79) i ABSTRACT S o i l s and vegetation of a grassland - forest ecotone north of Kamloops, B r i t i s h Columbia, were studied on three systematically selected transects. This investigation was to determine the pedogenesis and taxonomy of these t r a n s i t i o n a l s o i l s and to check the s t a b i l i t y of the grassland - forest boundary. The transects ranged i n length of 1.0, 0.8 and 0.4 km, and the elevation ranged from 740 to 890, from 900 to 1000 and from 920 to 940 m respectively. Along the three transects fourteen pedons were sampled. The s o i l climatic subclasses ranged from cool-subarid to cold-subhumid.throughout the arefi., depending on elevation and physiographic location. The associated vegetation was Agropyron - (Artemesia) grassland and Pinus ponderosa - (Pseudotsuga menziesii) savanna - l i k e forest at 740 to 890 m elevations. The vegetation, at 900 to 1000m elevation, was Agropyron - Festuca - (Stipa) grassland, bordering Pseudotsuga menziesii park-like forest. Physical analyses of s o i l samples determined p a r t i c l e s i z e , including fine clays and moisture retention f o r a l l sampled horizons. Mineralogy of <c2.0 p.m clays was checked by X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n . Chemical analyses determined s o i l reation, organic carbon contents, carbon/nitrogen r a t i o s , exchangeable cations and t o t a l base saturations f o r each sampled horizon. Organic fractions of nine selected Ah horizons were analyzed f o r humic, f u l v i c acid contents and absorption spectra between 400 and 700 um. i i Micromorphology of the Bm(Bt) horizons of each pedon was analyzed to detect clay i l l u v i a t i o n . P h y t o l i t h contents and grass species composition of s i l t extracts of nine sola were examined to f i n d c o r r e l a t i o n with past vegetations. No f o r e s t influence was detected i n the present grassland areas established on compacted or on l o c a l l y dry, i c e - d i s i n t e g r a t i o n moraines. These grasslands have o r t h i c subgroups of Dark Brown and Black s o i l s . At the present f o r e s t edge, a tension zone e x i s t s where scattered ponderosa pines and Douglas-firs may encroach upon the grasslands having Ghernozemic s o i l s of low bulk density, at elevations between 820 - 850 m. At elevations of 900 - 930 1, aspen groves occupy Orthic Ghernozemic s o i l s i n depressions. Forests of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir occupy slopes steeper than 20° above 85O to 900 m on colluvium. All-aged Douglas-fir f o r e s t s occupy morainal materials above 930 m on stable surfaces. The s o i l s of these f o r e s t s are E u t r i c and Melanic Brunisols. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . i TABLE OF CONTENTS . . i i i LIST OF FIGURES . v LIST OF APPENDICES AND TABLES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i 1.0 INTRODUCTION 2 1.1 Objective 4 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA. . . . . 7 2.1 Location, Physiography and R e l i e f 7 2.2 Bedrock Geology. 9 2.3 Quaternary Geomorphology and Related Parent Mat e r i a l s . 9 2.4 Climate 12 2.5 Biogeoclimatic Zones and Vegetation 17 2.6 S o i l s 19 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 21 4.0 METHODS 31 4.1 Assembling of Climatic Data 32 4.2 F i e l d Work 32 4.3 Laboratory Work 38 4.3.1 Physical and Mineralogical Analyses 39 4.3.2 Moisture Retention and Plant Available Water. . 42 4.3.3 Chemical An a l y s i s 42 4.3.4 Ana l y s i s of P h y t o l i t h s 45 i v Page 4.3.5 Ashing of Plant Material 48 4.3.6 S t a t i s t i c a l Evaluation of Data,, 48 5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . 4 9 5.1 Climatic Evaluation 50 5.2 Characterization of Sample Plots Along Each Transect . . . 52 5.2.1 Mara H i l l Transect 52 5.2.2 Wheeler Mountain Transect 79 5.2.3 Lac-du-Bois Transect 97 5.3 Comparative Evaluation of Transects 115 5.4 Evaluation of Micromorphological Techniques 124 6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 128 LITERATURE CITED 133 APPENDIX I 141 APPENDIX I I 144 APPENDIX I I I 145 APPENDIX IV 148 APPENDIX V 156 APPENDIX VI 159 APPENDIX VII 160 APPENDIX VIII 163 APPENDIX IX 165 APPENDIX X 166 V LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Map showing l o c a t i o n of study area within the physiographic subdivisions of B r i t i s h Columbia ( a f t e r Bostock, 1948 and Fulton, 1975 a) 7 2 Map showing l o c a t i o n of transects across the three eco-tones, p a r t i a l physiography and major vegetation of the study area (After Watson, 1977) • 8 3 (Photograph) An enclosed depression and associated sub-dued surface pattern of ground moraines on the east slopes of Mara H i l l , approximately 150 m north of p l o t 620. . . . 10 4 (Photograph) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i c e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t e r r a i n . north of Lac-du-Bois 11 5 C l i m a t i c data of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Research Station at North Kamloops, serving as base data f o r the study area. . . 14 6 C l i m a t i c data arid s o i l water balance of I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir, Very Dry Submontane (iDFa) and Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass, Very Dry Northern (PPBG d) subzones l 6 7 Location and extent of sample p l o t s , major vegetation cover and physiography of the Mara H i l l transect 33 8 Location of sample p l o t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p • to c l i m a t i c gradients along the'Mara H i l l transect. (Source: T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch, 1978, Climatic Parameter Maps 921/NE) 34 9 Location and extent of sample p l o t s , major vegetation cover, physiography and c l i m a t i c gradients along the Wheeler Mountain transect. . 35 10 Location and extent of sample p l o t s , major vegetation cover, physiography and c l i m a t i c gradients along the Lac-du-Bois (north) transect t . . . . 3 6 11 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of p l o t 615 53 12 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem at p l o t 615 54 13 (Photomicrographs) Extracted opals from s i l t f r a c t i o n (>20/tm) of pedon 615 Ah horizon compared to ashed material of bluebunch wheatgrass. 56 14 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of p l o t 6l6 57 y i Figure . Page 15 (Photograph) Orthic Dark Brown s o i l of plot 616 59 16 (Photomicrograph) Silasepic and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of ; t h i n section prepared from Bml horizon of plot 616 (c.D.A. #108). . . . . . 60 1? (Photograph) Phytocoenosis of plot 617 on the toe slopes of a 21° c o l l u v i a l slope. 6 l 18 (Photograph) Surface organic layer of the Orthic Eutric Brunisol of plot 617 63 19 (Photomicrograph) Insepic and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of a t h i n section prepared from Bml of pedon 617 64 20 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of plot 618 66 21 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Calcareous Dark Brown Chernozem of plot 618 68 22 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of plot 6 l9 69 23 (Photograph) Orthic Melanic Brunisol of plot 6 l9 71 24 (Photomicrograph) Thin section made from 8-10 cm depth of pedon 6 l9 ,72 25 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of plot 620. 74 26 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem of pedon 620 75 27 (Photomicrograph) A r g i l l o - vosepic and porphyroskelic fa b r i c of Bm horizon of pedon 620 76 28 P r o f i l e of Mara H i l l transect showing major vegetation types, occurrence and i l l u s t r a t e d depths of s u r f i c i a l parent materials. V e r t i c a l exaggeration (2 . 5 x ) . . . . 78 29 (Photograph) Area and vegetation of plot 624 79 30 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem of pedon 624 . 8 1 31 (Photograph) Pedon and adjacent area of plot 625 82 v i i Figure Page 32 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem of pedon 625 84 . 33 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 621. . . . 86 34 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the E l u v i a t e d E u t r i c Brunisol of ped'on 621 88 35 (Photomicrograph) Thin section of B t j horizon of pedon 621. 88 36 (Photomicrographs) Plant opals extracted from the s i l t f r a c t i o n of pedon 621 compared to ashed pine grass plant material. 89 37 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 623. . . . 91 38 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol of pedon 623 93 39 P r o f i l e of Wheeler Mountain transect, showing major vegetation types as well as the extent and i n f e r r e d depths of s u r f i c i a l parent materials. ( V e r t i c a l exaggeration 3-75 x.) . . . 96 40 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 626. . . . 97 41 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Black Chernozem of pedon 626. . 99 42 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 627. . . . 101"-. 43 (Photograph) Turfy root mat>of pedon 627 102 44 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 628. . . . 104 45 (Photograph) Coarse fragments taken from the pedon of 628. . 105 46 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the E l u v i a t e d Melanic Brunisol of pedon 628 lo7 47 (Photomicrograph) C r y s t i c and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of t h i n section prepared from 38-44 cm depth of pedon 628. . . . 108 48 (Photomicrographs) Plant opals extracted from the s i l t f r a c t i o n of pedon 628 compared to ashed plant material of rough fescue i08 49 (Photograph) Vegetation and topography of p l o t 629. . • • 110 v i i i Figure Page 50 (Photograph) P r o f i l e of the Orthic Eutric Brunisol of pedon 629 H I 51 P r o f i l e of Lac-du-Bois transect showing major vegetation types, extent and depth of s u r f i c i a l materials 114 52 Depth of sola of a l l pedons as a function of elevation. . 117 53 Depth d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l and fine clay contents i n three grassland and three forested pedons 119 54 D i s t r i b u t i o n of organic matter content and carbon/nitrogen r a t i o as the functions of depth i n selected grassland, t r a n s i t i o n and forested s o i l s . . 122 55 Parameters showing s i g n i f i c a n t differences at 95% l e v e l between the three categories 123 56 (Electronmicrograph) Electron microscope scan of plant opals extracted from >20 pm s i l t f r a c t i o n of epipedon 619. . 126 57 (Electronmicrograph) Electron microscope scan of graminoid phytoliths extracted from 2^0 um s i l t f r a c t i o n of epipedon 621. 126 i x LIST OF APPENDICES AND TABLES Appendix Table Page I 1 Summary of climatic information available from Mara 141 H i l l (east), Lac-du-Bois (south and Opax H i l l tem-porary weather stations; showing years of record, frost-free period (days) and t o t a l growing degree days >5°C per year. 2 Monthly mean maximum, mean minimum, mean^tempera- 142 ture; monthly and t o t a l May to September p r e c i p i t a -t i o n f o r the three temporary weather stations. 3 Comparison of temperature data given by Dawson 143 (1895, p.13 B) from 1877 to 1893 and 30-year normals of Research Station, CD.A. , Kamloops. (Atm. Env. Service, 1971) I I 1 Environment - Vegetation Tables, Part 1. P l o t 144 summary table: P l o t area description and mensuration data for a l l plots - (B. C. Forest Service, Research D i v i s i o n ) . I l l 1 Environment - Vegetation Tables, Part 2. Plot 145 summary table; Species significance and vigor f o r a l l plots. (B. C. Forest Service, Research Division) IV 1 Summary of morphological description of pedons 148 selected along the Mara H i l l transect. 2 Summary of morphological description of pedons 151 selected along the Wheeler Mountain transect. 3 Summary of morphological description of pedons 153 selected along the Lac-cu-Bois transect. V 1 Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons of the 156 Mara H i l l transect. 2 Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons of the 157 Wheeler Mountain transect. 3 Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons of the 158 Lac-du-Bois transect. VI 1 Moisture retention of surface s o i l s at 0.3» 0.9 f 159-3.0 and 15.0 bar tensions and plant available water. •X Appendix Table VII 1 Summary of chemical properties f o r pedons of the Mara H i l l transect. 2 Summary of chemical properties f o r pedons of the Wheeler Mountain transect. 3 Summary of chemical properties f o r pedons of the Lac-du-Bois transect. VIII 1 Summary f o r the a n a l y s i s of organic f r a c t i o n s of selected surface horizons - carbon contents -Humic/Fulvic a c i d r a t i o s . 2 Summary f o r the o p t i c a l a n a l y s i s of selected surface horizons - Absorbance at 465 nm and 665 nm E4/E6 r a t i o s . IX 1 Summary of p h y t o l i t h contents extracted from selected samples. X 1 Summary of X - r a y . d i f f r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s of oriented < 2.0 jxm clay samples. x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS An appreciation i s due to the memory of the l a t e Dr. Nurettin Keser whose i n s p i r a t i o n put the author on the path of s o i l science. Dr. Les Lavkulich, the supervisor of t h i s study, deserves h e a r t f u l thanks f o r t h i s continuous help and encouragement. The readers of t h i s manuscript, Drs. Charles Rowles, Roy Strang and Hans Schreier are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l c r i t i s i s m . Dr. Schreier's help with the s t a t i s t i c a l analyses i s f u r t h e r appreciated. This study could not have been completed, without the helpful-s t a f f and a v a i l a b i l i t y of the Kamloops Research Station, Agriculture Canada. Grateful acknowledgements are given to Drs. A l a s t a i r McLean and A l van Ryswyk f o r helping to s e l e c t the study areas, p r o v i s i o n of summer o f f i c e space and many h e l p f u l discussions. Special thanks are due to Mr. Clarence Broersma and h i s family f o r help and summer accommo-dation. Climatic data were c o l l e c t e d , assembled and provided by Dr. Dee Quinton, Mrs. Barbara Brooks and Mr. Rick Williams. Special thanks are extended f o r these. F i n a n c i a l support f o r the 1978 f i e l d season was provided by the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service, Research and Range Management D i v i s i o n s . This i s g r a t e f u l l y appreciated, e s p e c i a l l y the personal help and friendship of Mr. Bob M i t c h e l l , research pedologist, Kamloops Region. Laboratory work with t h i n sections could not have been completed without the help of Dr. Keith Valentine and Mr. Terence Lord of Vancouver Research Station, Agriculture Canada. x i i S p e c ial thanks are extended to Dr. Glen Rouse, Geology/Botany, U.B.C. f o r help with the p h y t o l i t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and to Mr. Lazl o Veto, Department of Botany, U.B.C, f o r scanning electron microscope work. x i i i TO MY FAMILY -FOR THEIR LOVE OF NATURE 1 1 . 0 INTRODUCTION 2 1.0 INTRODUCTION Resource management i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i n c r e a s i n g l y u t i l i z i n g the concept that the natural landscape i s a mosaic of homogenous landtype u n i t s (Sprout et a l . , 1966). The recognition and subsequent delin e a t i o n of these landunits should i d e a l l y be based on ecosystem perspectives (Tansley, 1935)• The concept of the soil-forming f a c t o r s (jenny, 1941) accepted i n s o i l science and u t i l i z e d i n s o i l surveys ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 195l)» i s i d e a l l y suited f o r the evaluation of any u n i t of the landscape. In the P a c i f i c Northwest t h i s concept has been adopted i n plant ecology (Krajina, 1965, Daubenmire, 1968 and 1974) and has been extended to include the appreciation of the whole b i o t i c and a b i o t i c environment i n synecology. In t h i s sense, the soil - f o r m -ing f a c t o r s may be r e f e r r e d to as environmental f a c t o r s (Lavkulich, 1969). The u n i t s of the landscape -grade into one another through t r a n s i t i o n a l ecosystems generally r e f e r r e d to as ecotones (Daubenmire, 1968; Spurr and Barnes, 1973)- These t r a n s i t i o n s , de-pending on the scale of observation, may be gradual :Qrl! may extend across 50 to 100 km wide b e l t s (Pettapiece, 19^9? and Z o l t a i , 1976), forming ecotones of mac r o c l i m a t i c a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d regions (Rowe, 1972) or biogeoclimatic zones (Krajina, 1969). One such ecotone i s the forest-grassland t r a n s i t i o n across the North American continent. 3 Ecotones on the smaller scale may be quite narrow, extending through several dozen metres or l e s s (Daubenmire, 1968). In t h i s case, ecotones may be separating subzones of a biogeoclimatic zone or j u s t ecosystem associations within the same biogeoclimatic u n i t ( M i t c h e l l and Green, 1980). In ecology and i t s supporting sciences (e.g. s o i l science), the d i v e r s i t y of ecotones - e s p e c i a l l y that of the forest-grassland t r a n s i t i o n - i s often referenced. Studies of changes i n vegetation and s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through these t r a n s i t i o n s form the basis f o r many s c i e n t i f i c enquiries (Anderson, 1972; Dormaar and Lutwick, 1966; H a r r i s , 197^; Strang and Parminter, 1980). In the western C o r d i l l e r a the r e l i e f f a c t o r g r e a t l y influences the l o c a l climate and i n the semiarid to subarid c l i m a t i c subclasses (Clayt on et a l . , 1977) the forest-grassland ecotone i s seemingly e l e -v a t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d . This f a c t was recognized by Dawson (l895) who estimated that the f o r e s t edge was at about 915 m elevation i n the Kamloops area. The elevation control over vegetation zonation was extensively studied and•diagrammed by McLean (1969) i n the Similkameen V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia, an e c o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r area t o t h i s present study. McLean (1969) and Brayshaw (1970) f u r t h e r recognized that the elevation control over vegetation was g r e a t l y influenced by the p h y s i c a l nature of the parent material. I t i s necessary to increase pur knowledge about these ecotones due to t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l complexity,.productive capacity and dynamic (successional) nature. An improved understanding of these t r a n s i t i o n a l 4 regimes through a series of studies may help management to delineate operational u n i t s of the landscape and assign the best landuse f o r the delineated u n i t s based on t h e i r predicted s t a b i l i t i e s , applying concepts of multiple use i n space and time. A complete synecological approach toward these studies i s h i g h l y desirable and should be c a r r i e d out by a team of s p e c i a l i s t s (.van Ryswyk et . a l . , 1966). Time and resources .are hardly ever a v a i l a b l e to an i n d i v i d u a l to carry out a complete synecological i n v e s t i g a t i o n . By necessity, therefore, the study has to concentrate on some selected aspects of vegetation (Strang and Parminter, 1980), s o i l (Severson and Arneman, 1973) and/or animal d i s t r i b u t i o n (Reynolds, 1962; and Morrison, 1972). 1.1 Objectives The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the s o i l s of the forest-grassland ecotone* i n a well-known and r e l a t i v e l y well-researched l o c a l i t y north of Kamloops i n south c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia (Figure l ) . The s p e c i f i c objectives of t h i s study were: (a) To i n v e s t i g a t e the morphological, p h y s i c a l , minerological and chemical nature of s o i l s of the forest-grassland ecotones through three systematically selected approximately one ( l ) km-long transects (Figure 2); * Ecotone i n t h i s study i s defined as a r e l a t i v e l y narrow t r a n s i t i o n between two neighbouring but unlike plant communities i . e . grassland versus f o r e s t . 5 To r e l a t e t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n to elevation c o n t r o l , to parent material, landform and plant successional e f f e c t s ; To provide a r e l a t i v e l y d e t a i l e d study f o r the currently-developing ecosystematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Kamloops Forest Region, concern-ing the r e g i o n a l l y dry and low elevation areas; and To u t i l i z e two micromorphological techniques of s o i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which have not received wide a p p l i c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia to date. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 7 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 2.1 Location, Physiography and R e l i e f The area selected f o r t h i s study l i e s i n the southern h a l f of the I n t e r i o r System of the Canadian C o r d i l l e r a (Bostock, 1948)(Figure l ) . I t i s enclosed within the 50°44', 50°49' l a t i t u d e s and 120°25', 120°30' longitudes (Figure 2). According to Fulton's (1975a) t e r t i a r y physio-graphic subdivisions the southern part of the area belongs to the Batchelor Midland and the northern section i s part of the Porcupine Upland. I t i s r e f e r r e d to l o c a l l y as the Lac-du-Bois range (Watson, 1977). This and s i m i l a r areas i n the v i c i n i t y of Kamloops prompted Fulton (1967) to study t h i s t e r r a i n as an example of "moderate r e l i e f " . Figure 1. Map showing l o c a t i o n of study area within the physiographic sub-d i v i s i o n s of B r i t i s h Columbia ( a f t e r Bostock, 1948, & Fulton, 1975a). S O ' 4 9 ' S 0 ° 4 0 ' 120*30 ' 120 23 Figure 2: Map showing l o c a t i o n of transects across the three ecotones, p a r t i a l physiography and major vegetations of the study area ( a f t e r Watson, 1977). *C.D.A. - A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Research Station, Kamloops. 9 2.2 Bedrock Geology The geochronology and subaerial extent of bedrock u n i t s reported on Geological Map 886 by Gockfield (1948) f o r t h i s area, was generally accepted by Fulton ( l 9 7 5 a ). A recent study by Watson (1977) u t i l i z e d t h i s geological information. According to these studies the selected areas are underlain by two bedrock un i t s , the mesozoic Nicola Group and the Genozoic Kamloops Group. The Nicola Group i s composed of old volcanic rocks: ande.sites, basalts, breccias and t u f t s affected by various degrees of metamorphism (Fulton, 1975h). The Kamloops Group i s made up mainly of volcanic rocks re s u l t i n g from an intense period of volcanism i n the mid-Eocene epoch of the Tertiary period (Mathews, 1964). This group also contains sedimentary members such as the Tranquille Beds southwest and the Coldwater Beds northeast of the area. 2.3 Quaternary Geomorphology and Related Parent Materials The f i n a l character and secondary drainage pattern of t h i s landscape was created by the events associated with the Fraser g l a c i -ation (Armstrong et - a l . , 1965; and Fulton, 1975a). The l a s t i c e sheet advancing i n a SSE direction eroded high points of t h i s landscape making bedrock control i n some areas e.g. Opax H i l l , Wheeler Mountain and Mara H i l l quite evident. Other areas became covered with a thick blanket of morainal material by the same ice sheet. This morainal blanket shows streamlined or drumlinized pattern and appears to be compacted. I t displays ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s generally associated with 10' lodgement t i l l (Boulton, 1971). These materials are heterogenous and have loamy-skeletal p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n as defined by the Canada S o i l Survey Committee (1978). In other areas, the morainal deposits are not streamlined but appear to have a random and subdued surface pattern with swells and enclosed depressions (Figure 3)• Their thickness ranges from blanket to veneer over underlying materials. The p a r t i c l e size d i s -t r i b u t i o n i n these deposits does not d i f f e r from that of the stream-l i n e d t i l l s . These characteristics are generally associated with ground moraines ( F l i n t , 1971)• Figure 3- An enclosed depression and associated subdued surface pattern of ground moraines on the east slopes of Mara H i l l , approximately 150 m north of P l o t 620. 11 At the time of deglaciation, the uplands became i c e - f r e e f i r s t . The v a l l e y s s t i l l contained s i g n i f i c a n t amounts of i c e which "appeared to have starved" and disintegrated by "downwasting" (Fulton, 1967). Often large blocks of i c e several ha i n area might have become detached from the main i c e sheet, p o s s i b l y because these blocks were protected from simultaneous meltout by thick blankets of s u r f i c i a l sediments. The subsequent melting of these sediment-rich i c e blocks created the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i c e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n areas with t h e i r pervious hummocky gravels and esker complexes (Figure 4). The p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s material i n the study area i s sandy-skeletal. Figure k. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c i c e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n t e r r a i n north of Lac-du-Bois. 12 The slopes of Mara H i l l and wheeler Mountain are commonly covered with l o c a l l y - d e r i v e d c o l l u v i a l materials where the slope angles exceed 20°. The p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n of these materials i s fragmental to loamy-skeletal. At the base of these slopes "slope wash" materials are present, displaying c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of minor f l u v i a l fans. These materials appear to lack s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and contain f i n e s . The p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n of these materials i s loamy. The p o s t - g l a c i a l l o e s s veneer deposits over t h i s landscape are very important considering moisture regimes of s u r f i c i a l materials (Baver et a l . , 1972) and i n some cases these appear to be a "saving grace" f o r these rangelands (personal communication, van Ryswyk, 1977) • Other morainal, g l a c i o - f l u v i a l , f l u v i a l and l a c u s t r i n e materials i d e n t i f i e d and described f o r the Kamloops region by Fulton (1967 and 1975a) are not present i n the study area. 2 A Climate A l t i t u d e and physiography are the major f a c t o r s c o n t r o l l i n g the regional climate of t h i s area (Fulton, 1975a). K r a j i n a ( 1969) , u t i l i z i n g Koppen's c l i m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , provided e l e v a t i o n a l l i m i t s f o r the major c l i m a t i c b e l t s occurring i n the area. Based on these l i m i t s the e n t i r e study area f a l l s within the humid continental b e l t (Dfb). This b e l t , i n t h i s geographic area, has a lower e l e v a t i o n a l l i m i t of 660 m and a higher l i m i t of 1500 m. * Dr. A.L. van Ryswyk, Research Pedologist, Research Station, Ag r i c u l t u r e Canada, Kamloops. 13 Only the major v a l l e y s deeply i n c i s e d i n t o the I n t e r i o r Plateau surface "below 660 m elevation would have a continental steppe (Bsk) climate. These v a l l e y s are often subjected to temperature i n -versions (personal communication - McLean, 197?)*, e s p e c i a l l y during the winter months. The study area i s believed to be situated above the d i r e c t influence of these temperature inversions. M i t c h e l l et a l . (l9?8) c l a s s i f i e d the Kamloops Forest Region i n t o s i x c l i m a t i c regions. According to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the study area f a l l s i n t o the I n t e r i o r Northern Dry Region, where the p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges from 230 mm to 38O mm per year between 400 m and 1000 m elevation. Extensive monthly records of temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n data are a v a i l a b l e from weather s t a t i o n No. 116299 (Agriculture Canada, Research Station, North Kamloops). The t h i r t y year normals of tempera-ture and p r e c i p i t a t i o n data from 1941 to 1970 (Atmospheric Environment Service, 19?l) are p l o t t e d i n Figure 5 and may be used as base data f o r comparison with other data (Appendix I and Figure 6). The recently-completed p r o v i s i o n a l c l i m a t i c parameter maps (1:100 000, 92 i/NE, T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch, 1978) i n d i c a t e that throughout the study area covered by the three transects: (a) The T o t a l Growing Degree Days (>5°C) range from 1900°C to 1300°C; (b) The Fro s t Free Period (days) ranges from 120 to 40 days; (c) The T o t a l May to September P r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges from 150 mm to 225 mm; and (d) The C l i m a t i c Moisture D e f i c i t s , f o r the May to September period range from 300 mm to 100 mm. * Dr. A l a s t a i r McLean, Research Scientist-Range E c o l o g i s t , Research Station, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Kamloops. 14 Climatic Station, Kamloops, CD.A., No. 116299 Longitude: 120°27' W Latitude: 50°43' N Elevation: 34-5 m Mean Total P r e c i p i t a t i o n (30 years): 254 mm Tota l May - September P r e c i p i t a t i o n : 120 mm Climati c Moisture D e f i c i t : 479 mm Annual Mean Temperature: 8.9°C Tota l Growing Degree Days: 2337°C Frost Free Days: 152 Monthly Mean Max. Temp. (°C) Monthly Mean Temperatures (°C) -L Monthly Mean Min. Temp. (°C) Monthly Precipitation (PPT, mm) T°C 30+ 20f 10 f 0+ -10 + A 1 \ _ \ \ N. PPT imm 200 4-150 4-100 f 50 J F M A M J J A S O N D Figure 5- C l i m a t i c data of Ag r i c u l t u r e Canada, Research Stat i o n at North Kamloops, serving as base data f o r the study area. 15 The ranges i n temperature and moisture d i s t r i b u t i o n are apparently due to r i s e i n elevation and north versus south aspects. The E c o l o g i c a l Program S t a f f , M i n i s t r y of Forests, B r i t i s h Columbia, i s currently i n the process of characterizing climates of recognized Biogeoclimatic subzones of the Province. The c l i m a t i c data, compiled by the E c o l o g i c a l Program S t a f f , includes the estimations of monthly p o t e n t i a l evapotranspiration based e s s e n t i a l l y on Thorn-thwaite's (19^8) procedures. The c l i m a t i c data f o r the 5 3applicable Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass, Very Dry Northern (PPBGd) and the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir, Very Dry Sub-montane (iDFa) subzones was obtained* and p l o t t e d i n Figure 6. Comparing the data of Figure 6 to applicable c r i t e r i a and f i g u r e s a v a i l a b l e i n S o i l Taxonomy ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975). i t may be stated that the moisture regime of these subzones i n c l u d i n g the study area i s " u s t i c " . According to t h i s information, c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s may be expected at the beginning of June i n the Ponderosa-Pine -Bunch-Grass, Very Dry Northern Subzone and i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir, Very Dry Submontane Subzone s h o r t l y thereafter. The observation i n Figures 5 and 6 i n d i c a t e s a bimodal monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n , a condition recognized by other i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Strang and Parminter, 1980) f o r northern parts of the I n t e r i o r Plateau. This pattern i s thought to be determined by the inter-mountain location.. of t h i s area. The winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n maximum, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the * Courtesy of Dr. Karel K l i n k a , Research Pedologist, Vancouver Region 16 T°C 30T 20 + 10+ -10+ IDF a PPT mm +200 +150 +100 + 50 J F M A M J J A S O N 0 T ° C 30T 20+ 10+ -10+ PPBG d V PPT imm + 2 0 0 +150 +100 + 50 J F M A M J J A S O N D Monthly Mean Temperatures (°C) ® R 5 j Recharge Monthly P r e c i p i t a t i o n (PPT. mm) • [j U t i l i z a t i o n -Monthly Potential Evapotransplratlon (PET, mm) D D e f i c i t Figure 6. C l i m a t i c data and s o i l water balance of I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir, Very Dry Submontane* (iDFa) and Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass, Very Dry Northern** (PPBGd) Subzones. * The data f o r I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir (a) Subzone were based on seven c l i m a t i c s t a t i o n s . ** The data f o r Poderosa Pine - Bunchgrass (d) Subzone were based on ten c l i m a t i c stations. 1? oceanic climates of the northern hemisphere i s depressed due to the r a i n shadow e f f e c t of the Coast Range, while the summer maximum, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the continental climates (Spurr and Barness, 1973) i s not wholly developed due to the geographical proximity to the P a c i f i c Ocean. The r e s u l t i s the development of severe c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s during the growing seasons, e s p e c i a l l y a t elevations "below 1000.'m. 2.5 Biogeoclimatic' Zones and Vegetation According to the biogeoclimatic zonal c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (Krajina, 1965 and 1969) c u r r e n t l y accepted i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Farley, 1979), the majority of the study area i s within the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone. Only the southern most edge of the area (Mara H i l l , south slope) may belong to the Ponderosa Pine - Bunch Grass Zone considering i t s geo-graphical l o c a t i o n and physiography. I t i s e n t i r e l y i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone considering i t s e l e v a t i o n a l range. The annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n (van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966) i s l e s s than the amount stated f o r the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone and corresponds to the wetter parts of the Ponderosa Pine - Bunch Grass Zone. M i t c h e l l and Green (1980) , i n t h e i r ecosystematic c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n drawn up f o r the western parts of the Kamloops Forest Region, recognize f i v e subzones f o r the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Zone, according to combined c l i m a t i c and physiographic v a r i a t i o n s . These are the: (a) Very Dry Submontane (I .D F a) (b) Very Dry Southern Montane ( i D F b) (c) Dry Submontane . ( l D F c) (d) Dry Western Montane- ( i D F d ) , and (e) Subcontinental ( i D F e) Subzones. 18 This study area appears to have the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described f o r the Very Dry Submontane Subzone. In t h i s subzone, M i t c h e l l and Green ( l 9 8 0 ) d i s t i n g u i s h forested and grassland edaphic variants. Both of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are represented i n the study area. The grass-land v a r i a n t of t h i s subzone i s s a i d to have two phases: edaphic grassland and southern exposure open phases. At the lowermost elevations, the study area appears to grade in t o the Very Dry Northern Subzone of the Ponderosa Pine - Bunchgrass Zone. This subzone i s also stated to have forested and grassland variants. The grasslands of t h i s area and the adjacent f o r e s t s have been studied since 1935 ( T i s d a l e , 194l) by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s of the Kamloops Research Station of A g r i c u l t u r e , Canada. These researchers (Tisdale, 194-7; Tisdale and McLean, 1957. and van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966), through t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t and p r o f e s s i o nal commitment, have provided thorough descriptions f o r the plant communities present i n t h i s area. Their e c o l o g i c a l zonation established f o r the grasslands forms the basis f o r current management and applied research i n the ranching industry (McLean and Marchand, 1956; and Watson, 1977). Watson (1977)> applying remote sensing techniques, co r r e l a t e d with f i e l d checks, produced a 1:20 000 vegetation map of the Lac-du-Bois rangelands, i n c l u d i n g a l l portions of t h i s ecotone study area. Accord-ing to t h i s map the southern part of the study area (Mara H i l l transect) i s i n a bluebunch wheatgrass - b i g sagebrush ( 3 l 4 . l l ) type on i t s eastern side and runs through a tongue of u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n i f e r f o r e s t (3^l) "type and terminates i n an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b i g sagebrush type (325.1). 19 The c e n t r a l part of the study area (Wheeler Mountain transect), i n i t s eastern side, i s i n a Kentucky bluegrass - bluebunch wheatgrass -rough fescue (3 l4 .4l l ) type. This transect i n t e r s e c t s a Kentucky bluegrass - timber milk-vetch (31^-^3) type before i t enters and terminates i n the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n i f e r f o r e s t (34l). The northern part of the study area (Lac-du-Bois transect) i s i n a Kentucky bluegrass - needle and thread - timber milk-Vetch (314.421) type on i t s eastern side and i t ends i n the u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o n i f e r f o r e s t ( 3^l)• 2.6 S o i l s A preliminary s o i l map covering part of the rangelands studied by the Research Station at Kamloops was completed by Green and Leskiw (l97l)• According to t h i s map and the attached legend, the s o i l s i n the southern part of. the study area approaching Mara H i l l from the grass-lands are predominantly Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems i n well-drained p o s i t i o n s . These s o i l s are developed on moderately stony- drumlinized t i l l and have a loam to clay loam texture. Progressing f u r t h e r west, the drumlinized t i l l changes to " d r i f t " i . e . " t i l l devoid of d i s t i n c t g l a c i a l landforms" (Green and Leskiw, 1971)• The s o i l s , i n well-drained p o s i t i o n s of t h i s landscape, are s t i l l dominantly Dark Brown Chernozems, complexed with Dark Grey Chernozems and have a loam to sandy loam texture. Tn forested areas, a c o l l u v i a l blanket i s found over the d r i f t materials. As the top of Mara H i l l i s approached, bedrock becomes exposed and the surface of s o i l s often contains shattered rock. In t h i s '20 area the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozems are -complexed with L i t h i c Dark Brown Chernozems, Degraded E u t r i c Brunisols'," Dark Gray subgroups of L u v i s o l s and Chernozems. These s o i l s have loam to g r a v e l l y sandy loam textures and were considered by the surveyors as a f o r e s t and grassland t r a n s i t i o n complex. In the ce n t r a l portion of the study area, approaching Wheeler Mountain from the grasslands, the s o i l s are dominantly Orthic Black Chernozems i n well-drained p o s i t i o n s and have loam to g r a v e l l y sandy loam texture. The parent materials range from "morainal gravel to shallow d r i f t " . As the topography changes to strongly r o l l i n g and h i l l y from moderately r o l l i n g , the s o i l s become Orthic Gray L u v i s o l s on stable slopes and remain E u t r i c Brunisols on c o l l u v i a l materials. Correspondingly, the vegetation changes to f o r e s t cover. In the northern part of the area, approaching Opax H i l l from the grasslands, the s o i l s are. Orthic Black Chernozems, have g r a v e l l y sandy loam texture and have developed on morainal gravels. As these parent materials change to ground moraines (shallow t i l l s ) , the s o i l s become Orthic Gray L u v i s o l s and Degraded E u t r i c Brunisols, have loam, g r a v e l l y loam, g r a v e l l y sandy loam textures, and are ' under f o r e s t vegetation. * Degraded E u t r i c Brunisol (C.S.S.C, 1970) equivalent to E l u v i a t e d E u t r i c Brunisol (-C.S.S.C, 1978). LITERATURE REVIEW 22 3.0 LITERATURE REVIEW In North America the grassland-forest or p r a i r i e - f o r e s t t r a n s i t i o n has been widely studied by many d i s c i p l i n e s of Natural Science (Pettapiece, 1969). This t r a n s i t i o n zone appears to be an important settlement zone f o r mankind, e s p e c i a l l y i n the c e n t r a l regions of the continent. Most reviews of grassland-forest t r a n s i t i o n concerning s o i l science deal with the areas east of the Rocky Mountains (Pettapiece, 1969; Birkeland, 1974; and Marshall, 1977). Undoubtedly the p r a i r i e -f o r e s t t r a n s i t i o n across a continent l i k e North America or Euro-Asia i s a c l a s s i c a l type and probably influenced the s t a r t of s o i l science i n Russia at the end of the l a s t century. Pettapiece (1969), f o r example, excludes the M.5 section of the Montane. Forest Region (Rowe, 1959) from h i s review. S i m i l a r Montane e c o l o g i c a l condition i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s recognized by Rowe (1972) i n the much more extensive M.l section of the Montane Forest Region. This i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s a c t u a l l y a study of the ecotones between Rowe's (1972) Grassland and Montane Forest Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia. Most i n v e s t i g a t o r s have paid a t t e n t i o n to c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s concerning grassland-forest t r a n s i t i o n , and van Ryswyk et . a l . (1966) s u c c e s s f u l l y applied the r a t i o s of monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s (Thornthwaite, 193l) to quantify the c l i m a t i c gradient approaching the f o r e s t edge i n the Kamloops area. Thornthwaite (1948) emphasized • p o t e n t i a l evapotranspiration as a s i g n i f i c a n t c l i m a t i c f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g plant d i s t r i b u t i o n and growth. Sanderson (1948) suggested the a p p l i c a t i o n of Thornthwaite's evapotranspiration estimates 23 f o r Canada. In the mid 1960's Canadian a g r i c u l t u r a l biometerologists (Baier and Robertson, 19&5) questioned the use of mean temperatures i n the estimation of evapotranspiration l e v e l s and suggested the use of maximum temperatures and temperature ranges. The T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch of B r i t i s h Columbia* i s currently producing maps (l:100 000) showing Clima t i c Moisture D e f i c i t s i n 100 mm i n t e r v a l s based on c a l c u -l a t i o n s suggested by Baier and Robertson (1965). C l i m a t i c Moisture D e f i c i t (mm) by d e f i n i t i o n (Williams, 1980 - personal communication)** equals P r e c i p i t a t i o n (mm) minus P o t e n t i a l Evapotranspiration (mm). Negative f i g u r e s , therefore, i n d i c a t e that p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s exceeded by p o t e n t i a l evapotranspiration i n that instance. Dawson (l895) recognized the d i s t i n c t a r i d i t y of the Kamloops area and likened the e f f e c t of the p r e v a i l i n g westerly winds to "foehn" or "chinook" character. The temperature data, provided by Dawson (Appendix I, Table 3 ) 1 d i f f e r s but l i t t l e from the t h i r t y year normals derived i n 1970 (Figure 5) (Atmospheric Environment Service, 197l)• Dawson estimated the annual r a i n f a l l to be s l i g h t l y over 250 mm. Tisdale ( l 9 4 l ) r e c a l l s a 44-year record of annual average p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r Kamloops as 250 mm. I t i s generally agreed by in v e s t i g a t o r s that the s o i l moisture balance i s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r determining the presence of woody species versus herbaceous plants i n the grassland-forest t r a n s i t i o n zone * T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as T.S.B. during the remainder of t h i s text. ** Mr. Richard Williams, Cl i m a t o l o g i s t , B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of the Environment, Kamloops. 24 (Harris, 1974). Accumulation of moisture i n r e c e i v i n g s i t e s favours the woody vegetation unless s a l i n i t y l e v e l s become l i m i t i n g (Pettapiece, 1969). McLean (personal communication, 1976) singled out the permanent w i l t i n g percentage of the s o i l as a f a c t o r r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r study i f one wishes to f i n d out the l i m i t s of woody plant communities within these ecotones. Gradual cooling associated with increasing elevation provide a l t i t u d i n a l zonation of vegetation i n the C o r d i l l e r a (McLean, 1969)• Dawson (1895) described the v a l l e y bottoms and terraces as "bunch-grass" country and placed the f o r e s t boundary at 915 m. elevation. Investigators i n the mid-continent have not emphasized parent material as a f a c t o r responsible f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of plant communities within the forest-grassland ecotone. In the western C o r d i l l e r a , however, the preference of trees, e s p e c i a l l y ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa, Doug. Lawson) f o r the coarse textured s o i l s ( f l u v i a l gravels and sands) i s well recognized (Baker, 1925; Howell, 1932; McLean, 1969; and Brayshaw, 1970). K r a j i n a (1969) pointed out that the semiarid steppe (Agropyron-Artemesia) plant a s s o c i a t i o n i s confined to f i n e textured s o i l s and the coniferous trees p r e f e r coarse textured s o i l s , e s p e c i a l l y c o l l u v i a l deposits i n the Ponderosa Pine Bunchgrass Biogeoclimatic Zone. The presence of bedrock outcrops and the establishment of woody species downhill from these, i n t h i s zone, was likened to an "umbrella" e f f e c t of the rock outcrop by K r a j i n a (1974). McLean (1969) recognized a Festuca idahoensis - Erigonum  heracloides habitat type ataseveral elevations from 850 m to 1235 m i n the Similkameen River Valley. The presence of t h i s h a b i t a t type at 25 these elevations has always been confined to the occurence of compacted t i l l s (ground moraines with subdued surface expressions) not having rock outcrops, while the adjacent ponderosa pine stands were established on g r a v e l l y f l u v i a l deposits, or the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga  menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) f o r e s t s on the adjacent mountainous t e r r a i n were confined to rock outcrops. Observations l i k e t h i s allowed M i t c h e l l and Green (1980) to d i s t i n g u i s h edaphic grassland subzone va r i a n t s i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir zone. Investigators found that s o i l texture and r e l a t e d moisture regimes control the composition of Agropyron communities (Parsons et, a l , (l97l) and a f f e c t the s u r v i v a l of several-, grass species (McLean and van Ryswyk, 1973) i n "the Kamloops area. Studies of the autoecology of G o r d i l l e r a n coniferous tree species showed that high s o i l surface temperatures control t h e i r lower a l t i t u d i n a l l i m i t s (Bates, 1923). Daubenmire (19^3) was able to e s t a b l i s h a scale f o r these tree species regarding t h e i r tolerance l e v e l s toward s o i l surface temperatures. This tolerance scale was w e l l -c o r r e l a t e d with the a b i l i t i e s of these species to withstand s o i l drought. Brayshaw (1970) was able to conclude that the s u r v i v a l of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir, near the low elevation l i m i t s of these tree species i n the "dry" f o r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia, would be assured by: (a) Adequate shade - at l e a s t during the f i r s t three months of t h e i r seedling l i f e j Lack of ground f i r e s , and (c) Increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y of s o i l moisture. 26 The l i m i t s and/or boundaries of plant communities, -according to Brayshaw (1970), may form a broad ecotone where the impact gradient i s not decisive f o r any one community and does not decrease the competitive a b i l i t i e s of any one species within the merging communities. I f two incompatible species or communities merge, the balance,"quickly" s h i f t s i n the favour of one and a sharp ecotone i s formed. Daubenmire (1968) recognizes two conditions responsible f o r the formation of abrupt ecotones: (a) A change from one community to the other may be abrupt as a r e s u l t of abrupt d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n environmental conditions e.g. rock outcrop; (b) T r a n s i t i o n may be abrupt as a r e s u l t of plant competition along an otherwise continuous gradient. Considering s o i l genesis, the grassland-forest ecotone i s the t r a n s i t i o n zone between Chernozemic s o i l s a ndLuvisolic s o i l s (Pettapiece, 1969)• I t seems that the much higher values of w i l t i n g points i n the Chernozemic s o i l s act as a b a r r i e r to tree growth (Harris, 197^), at l e a s t i n southwest Alberta. This b a r r i e r may be worn down by gradual encroachment of the grassland by woody species e.g. trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides A. Michaux) (Pettapiece, 1969). The change i n the organic component of the mineral s o i l s i s more evident a t the e a r l y stages of tree encroachment, since the organic f r a c t i o n i s a more dynamic constituent of s o i l s (Dormaar and Lutwick, -1966). The changes i n the organic f r a c t i o n were c a r e f u l l y monitored by Anderson (1972) i n the p r a i r i e - f o r e s t ecotone i n Saskatchewan. The 27 commonly applied E 465/ E 665 r a t i o s (Kononova, 196.15 and Schnitzer, 1971) i n Anderson's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s showed a gradual maturity of organic matter with increasing expression of p r a i r i e vegetation and associated Chernozems. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were reported e a r l i e r by Shields et. a l . (1968) and Lowe (1969). Infrared spectra of humic acids also showed di f f e r e n c e s between grassland and forested s o i l s (Dormaar and Lutwick, 1969)• The increase i n carbon/nitrogen r a t i o i s also an evidence of f o r e s t invasion (Dormaar and Lutwick, 1966). L u v i s o l i c s o i l s are distinguished by the accumulations of i l l u v i -a l clay, i n subsurface horizons. I t i s important to e s t a b l i s h that the clay i n question i s r e a l l y translocated and i l l u v i a t e d ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975)• Apart from the macromorphological signs of clay trans-l o c a t i o n ( c l a y skins on ped surfaces) the i n c i p i e n t i n d i c a t i o n s of clay t r a n s l o c a t i o n are u s u a l l y done by observation of t h i n sections (Brewer, 1976; and Dumanski, 1969). Under crossed n i c o l s of the petrographic microscope, the translocated and oriented clay should e x h i b i t cutanic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Brewer, i960). This i s u s u a l l y evidenced by yellowish-brown (amber) col o r s of the suspected surfaces, and variable e x t i n c t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g regular patterns of c r y s t a l l i n i t y . Often there are p a r a l l e l s t r i a t i o n s on ped surfaces and t h i s cutanic material i s markedly separated from non-cutanic ped or s k e l e t a l surfaces (Dumanski, 1969; and Valentine, 1976). I t i s assumed that i n c l a y t r a n s l o c a t i o n the f i n e clay (<0.2jxrn) would be moved f i r s t . I t i s worthwhile, therefore, to check the amount of f i n e c l a y i n various depths of selected pedons and compare the amount 28 of f i n e clay tov/the t o t a l c l a y content ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975)- Fine clays are commonly montmorillonitic ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975)- X-ray examination of clays, therefore, may indicate d i f f e r e n c e s i n clay species between d i f f e r e n t horizons. Ghernozemic s o i l s approach the concept of closed s o i l systems (Buole et, a l . , 1973)- Bases tend to accumulate i n these systems as i n d i c a t e d by high base saturation..' Forest invasion would decrease base saturation (Dormaar and Lutwick, 1966). Macromorphological i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of pedons often reveal past vegetational changes and have been suc c e s s f u l l y used by Jongerious (1966). Personal bias, however, may influence the outcome of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Observations concerning c l a y i l l u v i a t i o n , f o r example, may be reported; yet these observations cannot be substantiated with subsequent examina-t i o n s (McK.ea.p-ue et a l . , 1978) . Various i n v e s t i g a t o r s suggest the examination of past vegetational changes by monitoring the accumulation of plant opals or p h y t o l i t h s i n these t r a n s i t i o n a l s o i l s (Beavers and Stephen, 1958). P h y t o l i t h s , according to Lutwick (1969) are biogenetic opals formed i n mature c e l l s of plants. I t i s generally concluded that plants belonging to the family of Graminae produce a great v a r i e t y and abundance of s i l i c a bodies (Metcalfe, i960). Birkeland (1975) describes the expected r e s u l t s one should obtain upon examining p h y t o l i t h contents of these t r a n s i t i o n a l s o i l s . Jones and Hay (1975) provide an overview f o r the techniques and a p p l i c a t i o n s of b i o l i t h ( i n c l u d i n g phytoliths) i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . Lutwick 29 (1969) summarized the state of knowledge concerning p h y t o l i t h i n v e s t i -gations i n western Canada. Dormaar and Lutwick (1969) successfully applied p h y t o l i t h t r a c i n g techniques i n monitoring gradual encroachment of grasslands by trembling aspen through being able to d i s t i n g u i s h between p h y t o l i t h s of Festuca-sp. (a species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of open parklands) and Calamagrostis sp. ( associated with adjacent f o r e s t s ) . In the C o r d i l l e r a , Witty and Knox (1964) investigated the s t a b i l i t y of a grassland-forest ecotone through -extraction and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of plant opals. They extended t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n to other than graminoid species and found that shrubs such as Ceanothus sp. and Purshia sp., and trees such as ponderosa pine, produce p h y t o l i t h s , although grasses u s u a l l y produce about ten times more p h y t o l i t h s than species of..woody plants. I t i s important, therefore, to be able to d i s t i n g u i s h between p h y t o l i t h remnants of indigenous species. S i l i c a bodies from plant material may be obtained through ashing (Witty and Knox, 1964). Douglas-fir i s also known to produce s i l i c a - e n r i c h e d c e l l s , e s p e c i a l l y the s t a r - l i k e s c l e r e i d types ( S t e r l i n g , 1947). These features were found by Brydon et'- a l . , (1963) i n s o i l s of Vancouver Island. Twiss et a l . (1969) provided a morphological c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r grass p h y t o l i t h s . Unfortunately, they suggest that the large (> 20/*m) elongated epidermal c e l l s of grasses are not species s p e c i f i c . Only the small s i l i c a bodies (Metcalfe, i960) have d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The small si z e d opals (2.0-20.Oyum) would be recoverable from the same size d s i l t f r a c t i o n . Jones and Hay (1975) suggest that the recovery of small s i l i c a bodies i s often unsuccessful. The separation and f i l t e r i n g of small p a r t i c l e s would 30 take at l e a s t twice as much time (Wilding and Drees, 1968). F i n a l l y , one should not exclude the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of past grazing and f i r e h i s t o r y from the examination of these forest-grassland ecotones. According to Dormaar and Lutwick (1966) the rough fescue p r a i r i e - poplar t r a n s i t i o n i n southwest Alberta i s anthropogenic or pyrogenic i n o r i g i n . Strang and Parminter (1980) found that c o n i f e r s are gradually encroaching upon the G h i l c o t i n grasslands since the extensive f o r e s t f i r e c ontrols have been put i n t o p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Pettapiece (1969) discussed the possible s h i f t s i n the l o c a t i o n and extent of the t r a n s i t i o n zone due to periodic a r i d i t y , d e s i c c a t i o n and f i r e s followed by gradual " f i l l i n g i n " of parkland vegetation. Brayshaw (1970) b r i e f l y discussed f a c t o r s responsible f o r the f l u c t u a t i o n of forest-grassland ecotone i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia. 31 4.0 METHODS 32 4.0 METHODS 4.1 Assembling of C l i m a t i c Data Climate i s regarded by many as the most important f a c t o r i n determining s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and plant d i s t r i b u t i o n (Birkeland, 1975)« I n order to obtain a better picture of l o c a l climate, a v a i l a b l e c l i m a t i c data were obtained from the Mara H i l l (east), the Lac-du-Bois (south) and the Opax H i l l temporary weather stations. These data were tabulated (Appendix I, Tables 1 and 2), i n c l u d i n g monthly average, minimum, maximum temperatures and a v a i l a b l e monthly precipitation'. Table 1 (Appendix i ) also shows f r o s t free periods and t o t a l growing degree days c a l c u l a t e d from t h i s information. The temperature data provided by Dawson (l89:5» P- '13. B) , from 1877 to 1893, was transformed to c e l s i u s degrees and was also attached (Appendix I, Table 3) to provide a comparison to the t h i r t y year normals recorded at the Research Station, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada (Figure 5 and Appendix I, Table 3)• The applicable i s o - l i n e s from the p r o v i s i o n a l c l i m a t i c parameter maps (921/NE, 1:100 000, T.S.B., 1978) were transferred to the l o c a t i o n maps of the transects (Figures 8j,' 9 and 10) to provide an appreciation of the c l i m a t i c gradients i n each l o c a l i t y . 4.2 F i e l d Work The study was started i n June, 1976, with the s e l e c t i o n of Mara H i l l (Figures >7- and 8)' and Lac-du-Bois (Figure 10) transects. During the 1976 f i e l d season pedons of 615, 616, 617, 618, 6l9, 620, 626, 627, 628 and 629 were described according to the S o i l Survey Manual 33 Mara H i l l Transect • Legend 520 Sample number, plot size and pedon location — O Traverse line and stations -900 Contour lines (10m intervals) Jeep road Stream (intermittent) r • Drumlin crest, ice flow Ponderosa pine (Douglas-fir) forest Bunchgrass-big sagebrush grassland Figure Location and extent of sample p l o t s , major vegetation cover and physiography of the Mara H i l l transect. 34 Mara H i l l Transect Figure 8"; Location of sample p l o t s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to c l i m a t i c gradients along the Mara H i l l transect. (Source: T e r r e s t r i a l Studies Branch, 1978, Climatic Parameter Maps 92I/NE). 35 Wheeler Mountain Transect Legend I I g 2 0 Sample number, p l o t size and pedon l o c a t i o n O — O Traverse l i n e and stations 900 Contour l i n e s (10m i n t e r v a l s ) ^ o o o | 3 0 0 o o ° Total Growing Degree Days (>5°C) (-100mm)— -Climatic Moisture D e f i c i t — 2 0 0 mm— Total May to September P r e d i p i t a t i o n ZZ ZZZZ Jeep road — « - Stream (intermittent) x x x x x x Fence l i n e ^ • Drumlin crest, ice flow ; •/.*.'-^ 1 I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir LLL : '. :_J forest T\tiui iTi /7T//7? , |- Aspen grove lli 'LL' '-!.' Li (iD ! j Open grassland Figure 9« Location and extent of sample plots, major vegetation cover, physiography and climatic gradients along the Wheeler Mountain transect. 36 Lac-du-Bois (north) Transect Legend |o I 6 2 0 Sample number, pl o t size and pedon l o c a t i o n o O Traverse l i n e and stations — 900— Contour l i n e s (5m i n t e r v a l s ) (-100 mm)—- Cli m a t i c Moisture D e f i c i t 200 mm T o t a l May to September P r e c i p i t a t i o n Z Z Z Z Z Jeep road Esker ridge Stream <. Stream (intermittent) • '. I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir . ' ' — '. uJ f o r e s t li i II in i/T\ Iii i LU M I u _| Aspen grove . Open grassland Figure 1 0 . Location and extent of sample pl o t s , major vegetation cover, physiography and c l i m a t i c gradients along the Lac-du-Bois (north) transect. 37 ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1951) a n ( l "the Manual f o r Describing S o i l s i n the F i e l d ( S o i l Research I n s t i t u t e , Canada, 1975)- S o i l samples were taken from each designated horizon. P a r t i a l vegetation and stand data were recorded during pedon descriptions according to Daubenmire (1968). Colored s l i d e s of p r o f i l e s and p l o t area were taken. Bulk density samples, i n r e p l i c a t e s of five,.were,, taken with an Uhland core sampler from surface s o i l s of p l o t s 618 and 619 a f t e r removal of the upper 5 cm of s o i l . These bulk density samples were taken because i t was noticed that the area of p l o t 6l8 was encroached upon by ponderosa pine (ranging i n age from seedlings to 47 years) from the adjacent mature stand. The p l o t area of 6l9 remained t r e e l e s s although aspect, elevation and l o c a t i o n of the two p l o t s were very s i m i l a r . Undisturbed blocks of s o i l samples were taken from each Bm(Bt) and some Ah horizons by pressing a 10 x 10 cm square and 5 cm deep metal container i n t o the s o i l and c u t t i n g t h i s sampler out of the s o i l . The o r i e n t a t i o n and depth of these blocks were marked and these were retained f o r preparation of t h i n sections. At the end of the 1976 f i e l d season, the Wheeler Mountain transect (Figure 9) was started, to sample a t h i r d type of ecotone of the area. At t h i s time p a r t i a l data and samples were c o l l e c t e d from p l o t s 621 and 625-The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service Research and Range Management D i v i s i o n s awarded a contract to the author and co-worker Dr. Bela Sivak to cover f i e l d expenses f o r the 1978 f i e l d season. The objective of t h i s contract was to study and sample the ecosystems of the Ponderosa Pine -38 Bunchgrass and I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir Biogeoclimatic Zones of the Kamloops Forest Region under the supervision of Mr. Bob M i t c h e l l , regional pedologist. Later, the study of the grassland-forest ecotone north of Kamloops became a part of the ecosystem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n program of the Kamloops Forest Region. During the 1978 f i e l d season, p l o t s 623 and 624 were selected and sampled along the Wheeler Mountain transect. A l l other p l o t s were resurveyed, e s p e c i a l l y considering vegetation, u t i l i z i n g the S i t e Descrip-t i o n Forms of the Manual f o r Describing Ecosystems i n the F i e l d (T.S.B., 1978). A ten basal area f a c t o r prism was used i n the variable p l o t size stand data c o l l e c t i o n , and a l l sample trees were checked f o r age, and height. The plant species of each p l o t were i d e n t i f i e d using the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n keys of the Vascular Plants of the P a c i f i c Northwest (Hitchcock et. a l . , 1969)• I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of some vascular plants, mosses and l i c h e n s was v e r i f i e d by Mr. Frank Boas, plant taxonomist. The names of sampled species were recorded according to Taylor and MacBryde (1977). In May, 1980, a traverse was run along each transect with a s t a f f compass (magn. dl.'23°)using two Suunto clinometers and 100 m s t e e l tape to obtain f i e l d data to p l o t f i g u r e s 8y 9 and 10. 4.3 Laboratory Work The s o i l samples a f t e r a i r - d r y i n g were crushed and screened (Sieve #10) to obtain the f i n e earth f r a c t i o n . The coarse and f i n e earth f r a c t i o n s at t h i s time were weighed and the weight of coarse f r a c t i o n was expressed as percentage of t o t a l weight. The Munsell color 39 of crushed and a i r d r i e d samples, e s p e c i a l l y Ghernozemic Ah horizons, was recorded to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r great group i n the Canadian System (C.S.S.C. , 1978). The pH of each sample was taken i n 2:1 suspension of O.OlMCaCl^. 4.3.1 Physical and Mineralogical Analyses During the l a t e summer of 1976 a t h i n section preparation laboratory was set up by the author at the Agri c u l t u r e Canada Research Sta t i o n (Vancouver) by combining the t h i n sectioning equipment of the Dept. ' of S o i l Science, U.B.C, and the Pedology Unit of the Research Station. The a i r dried s o i l peds were impregnated under vacuum with styrenated polyester r e s i n #32.036 supplied by Reichold Chemicals of Richmond, B.C. This r e s i n was hardened with \% M.E.K., Peroxide 60 c a t a l y s t . The impregnation of samples was often unsuccessful because of improper vacuum. Proper impregnations were eventually achieved with the vacuum u n i t of the Geological Sciences Department, U.B.C. set up i n 1979. The impregnated samples were cut i n t o blocks to f i t glass microscope s l i d e s , using a p e t r o l o g i s t diamond saw with kerosene as l u b r i c a n t . The blocks were ground and polished with successively f i n e r carborundum powders, from 40 to 600 grades. P r i o r to mounting, the blocks were washed i n kerosene i n an u l t r a s o n i c bath. The blocks were mounted on the glass s l i d e s with the same styrenated r e s i n and c a t a l y s t . Then they were hand polished to about 30/^ m thickness with the carborundum powders. The thickness of t h i n sections was checked with- a petrographic microscope 40 under p o l a r i z e d l i g h t "based on the b i r e f r i n g e n t c o l o r s of quartz c r y s t a l s (Kerr, 1959)• Upon obtaining the desired thickness, the sections were washed with kerosene i n the u l t r a s o n i c bath and covered with glass cov.er s l i p s , using Canada Balsam or Flo-Texx # M 7 7 0 - 1 (Lerner Laboratories) as mounting agents. The f i n i s h e d s l i d e s were examined with a C a r l Z e i s s binocular, petrographic microscope (Model D.C. #4653l6l). The pedography of sections was described following methods of Brewer (1964 and 1976). Colored s l i d e s were taken of the sections a t desired magnifications with a Zeiss-ikon microscope mounted camera using Kodachrome Pro f e s s i o n a l I I (ASA 40) and Ectachrome tungsten l i g h t (ASA160) f i l m s . The objective of the t h i n section examination was to detect or v e r i f y e a r l y signs of c l a y i l l u v i a t i o n by f i n d i n g oriented clay on exped or inped surfaces and on skeleton grains, mainly i n samples taken from the B horizons. A secondary objective was to gain ah i n s i g h t i n t o s o i l micromorphology. A l l s l i d e s prepared and examined became part of the t h i n section c o l l e c t i o n of the Pedology Unit of the Research Station. Preparation of oriented s l i d e s of <2.0;^ um clay f o r X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n and p a r t i c l e size a n a l y s i s was- c a r r i e d out simultan-eously. P r i o r to a n a l y s i s , therefore, the carbonates were removed from the carbonated samples with IN sodium acetate s o l u t i o n . Organic matter was removed from a l l samples with hydrogen peroxide treatments. Free i r o n oxides were removed by washing with sodium chloride solution and then adding sodium d i t h i o n i t e to citrate-bicarbonate buffered and heated (75 - 80 °C) samples. A f t e r t h i s , the samples were washed with 41 c i t r a t e "buffer (Green, 1978, p. 4 - 2 9 ) . The f i n a l d ispersion of samples was done with 0 . 4 N sodium pyrophosphate a g i t a t i o n . The p a r t i c l e size a n a l y s i s of the f i n e earth f r a c t i o n (<2.0 mm) was c a r r i e d out by the hydrometer method (Day, 1950) i n a constant temperature and humidity room. The sand, s i l t and cla y f r a c t i o n s were expressed as percentage of the ovendry weight of the f i n e earth f r a c t i o n . The moisture content of the samples analysed f o r p a r t i c l e size was established by ovendrying subsamples and applying t h e i r proportional weight l o s s to the o r i g i n a l samples. A f t e r the hydrometer readings, the s l u r r i e s i n the s e t t l i n g c y l i n d e r s were remixed and about 200 ml of sample was taken from each i n a 250 ml centrifuge b o t t l e to be analysed f o r t h e i r f i n e clay content ( < 0 . 2 u m ) . The >0.2um p a r t i c l e s were s e t t l e d by c e n t r i f u g i n g (Jackson, 1956) to 6 cm depth and an a l i q u o t was taken from above t h i s l e v e l with a 25 ml pipette. A f t e r oven-drying, the samples were weighed to 0 . 0 0 0 1 gm (Green, 1 9 7 8 ) , and the fine clay content of the f i n e earth f r a c t i o n was calculated. The contents of the centrifuge b o t t l e s were washed back to^the sedimentation c y l i n d e r s . The s l u r r y i n the cy l i n d e r s was remixed again and about 200 ml was poured i n t o 250 ml centrifuge b o t t l e s . These b o t t l e s were centrifuged to s e t t l e p a r t i c l e s >2.0jdm to the bottom 1 cm and the<2.0um suspensions were siphoned o f f and c o l l e c t e d i n 1 1 sedimentation c y l i n d e r s . This procedure was repeated several times to c o l l e c t about 300 mg of<2.0 /uclay f o r preparation of oriented X-ray s l i d e s (Green, 1 9 7 8 ) . 42 The s l i d e s of oriented clay samples f o r X-ray a n a l y s i s were prepared according to Methods Manual (Lavkulich et a l . , 1977)• 4.3.2 Moisture Retention and Plant Available Water The moisture retention of surface s o i l s (Ah and Bm horizons) was obtained following the Methods Manual (Lavkulich et a l . , 1977). The extractor chambers were set at 0.3. 0.9, 3-0 and 15.O bar tensions. The moisture content of each tested sample was obtained g r a v i m e t r i c a l l y . The water content difference between 0.3 and 15.0 bar tensions was cal c u l a t e d and expressed as plant a v a i l a b l e water. 4.3.3 Chemical A n a l y s i s The organic carbon content from the horizons of the solum of each pedon was analyzed by using a Leco analyzer (Model No. 507-100). The organic carbon content of carbonated samples or any other samples having higher than 6.5 pH was established with the Walkley - Black t i t r a m e t r i c method (Black et a l . , 1965). The organic matter content was cal c u l a t e d by multiplying the established carbon content with 1.724 f a c t o r . The humic and f u l v i c acids were extracted from surface Ah horizons of three grassland (615, 624 and 626), two t r a n s i t i o n a l (6l8 and 619) and four forested (617, 621, 623 and 628) pedons. The same extraction technique and materials were used that were described by Lowe (198O). This method allows f o r the treatment of samples with wide-ranging c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g carbonated s o i l s 43 with the a p p l i c a t i o n of 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate as an extractant (Lowe, 1980 - personal communication)*.A s i m i l a r technique was suggested by Kononova and Belchikova (1961) and was r e f e r r e d to as "quick" extraction method. A f t e r extraction, the carbon content of humic a c i d f r a c t i o n (Ch ) and f u l v i c a c i d f r a c t i o n (Cf) was determined f o r each sample by the Walkley - Black wet combustion method (Black et. a l . , 1965)• The r a t i o s of Ch/Cf were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each sample and expressed on the dry s o i l basis (about 20.0:^.0.01 gm). Based on r e s u l t s of carbon contents, the concentration of carbon was adjusted to 50 ppm i n the humic a c i d extracts. The absorb-ance of the standardized humic acids was measured at 665 nm and 465 nm wavelengths with a Perkin - Elmer (550) spectrophotometer and the r a t i o of E x t i n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s at 0 . 1 % carbon content was calculated. The samples were scanned with the same spectrophotometer across the v i s i b l e spectrum from 700 nm to 400 nm. A 400 ml portion of the f u l v i c a c i d extracts was treated with p o l y v i n y l pyrrolidone (P.V.P.) and a f t e r c o l o r change (absorbtion) the contents were f i l t e r e d through Whatman No. 1 f i l t e r paper. The carbon content of f i l t r a t e was determined with the Walkley - Black method. The P.V.P.-absorbed f r a c t i o n was dissolved with 2.ON sodium hydroxide; then the colored f u l v i c a c i d was removed with d i l u t e sodium hydroxide. The carbon content of t h i s f r a c t i o n was ~ * Dr. L. E. Lowe, Professor of S o i l Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia 44 determined as a difference between the carbon content of the untreated f u l v i c a c i d (Cf) f r a c t i o n and the carbon content of the f i l t e r e d f u l v i c a c i d . The carbon content of the colored f u l v i c a c i d was adjusted to 100 ppm, and the absorption spectra of t h i s standardized f r a c t i o n was measured at 665 nm and at 465 nm wavelengths. Scans from 700 nm to 400 nm were completed f o r the colored f u l v i c acids of pedon 615 and 621 only. The t o t a l nitrogen content of the surface horizons (solum) of each pedon was determined by a technicon TM, autoanalyzer through c o l o r i m e t r i c methods. The digestion of samples was c a r r i e d out according to the Methods Manual (Lavkulich et a l . , 1977). The r e s u l t s of carbon and nitrogen content analyses allowed the c a l c u l a t i o n of the important carbon/nitrogen r a t i o s . The exchangeable cations ( C a + + , Mg + +, K + and Na +) were extracted by the ammonium acetate method (pH 7.0). The concentration of Ga + + , Mg + +, K + and Na + ions was measured with a Perkin - Elmer 306 atomic absorption spectrophotometer and expressed as m i l l i e q u i v a l e n t s per 100 gm of s o i l (Chapman, 1965; and Lavkulich et a l . , 1977). The t o t a l cation exchange capacity of the same samples was determined by checking the t o t a l nitrogen content of the NH^ saturated samples with the Technicon TM autoanalyzer. Due to the s o l u b i l i t y of calcium carbonate i n ammonium acetate the carbonated samples were tested f o r t h e i r carbonate and b i c a r -bonate equivalency by t i t r a t i o n with a c i d . The s o i l solutions f o r t h i s t i t r a t i o n were prepared from saturated s o i l pastes (Lavkulich et a l . , 1977)• 45 The carbonates and bicarbonates of the t i t r a t e d samples were expressed as m i l l i e q u i v a l e n t s per 100 gm of s o i l . This allowed f o r the explana-t i o n of greater than 100% base saturations obtained with several carbon-ated samples. 4 . 3 . 4 A n a l y s i s of P h y t o l i t h s The extraction of p h y t o l i t h s was c a r r i e d out accordin to the procedures described by Wilding and Drees ( 1 9 6 8 ). Only a few step were modified as noted because of the lack of appropriate equipment. The s i l t f r a c t i o n of surface s o i l samples was tested f o r t h e i r p h y t o l i t h content because, according to Jones and Hay ( l 9 6 5 i Figure 2 ), p h y t o l i t h s generally occur i n the s i l t and very f i n e sand f r a c t i o n s of s o i l s . The organic matter and calcium carbonate was removed from the selected samples with hydrogen peroxide and sodium acetate treatments r e s p e c t i v e l y . The samples were fract i o n a t e d by wet sieving (270 mesh) to remove sand (>53 u m ) portion. The coarse s i l t f r a c t i o n (> 20 um) was obtained by s e t t l i n g , following the nomograph of sedimenta-t i o n times f o r various size f r a c t i o n s (Tanner and Jackson, 1 9 4 7 ). The f i n e s i l t (< 20. um) and c l a y was siphoned o f f and was centrifuged to s e t t l e p a r t i c l e s> 5 nm. The s l u r r y containing<5um.. p a r t i c l e s was d i s -carded.. The plant.opals have a . s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y about 2 .0 to 2.3;- (Beavers and Stephen, 1958) • They are separated from other s o i l minerals by f l o t a t i o n . The heavy l i q u i d of 2 .3 s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y i s 4 6 u s u a l l y mixed by combining bromoform (density 2.8899) and nitrobenzene (density 1 .2037) . Wilding and Drees (1968) suggested using a.Westphal balance to check the s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of the mixture. Since a Westphal balance was not a v a i l a b l e , a 100 ml bromoform mixture was made by t r i a l and e r r o r i n a volumetric f l a s k so that i t s weight was ( 2 . 3 — 0.01) times greater than that of 100 ml of water. Due to the harmful e f f e c t s of nitrobenzene fumes, the work was c a r r i e d out under a fume hood. The s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y of the mixture was checked with known s p e c i f i c g r a v i t y beads 2.285 and 2 .345. The s i l t f r a c t i o n s were ovendried ( l l 0°C) , weighed to 0.0001 gm accuracy (about 2 gm amount) and transferred to 40 ml centrifuge tubes. Mostly, the coarse s i l t f r a c t i o n s >20um were tested because Jones and Hay (1975) suggested that e f f i c i e n t separations are made with p a r t i c l e s i n the 20 to 5Qum size range. The centrifuge tubes containing the s i l t f r a c t i o n s were h a l f - f i l l e d with heavy l i q u i d . A f t e r shaking and s e t t l i n g , the bottom h a l f of the centrifuge tubes were frozen i n an alcohol cold bath nested i n dry i c e . The unfrozen portion of the heavy l i q u i d , con-t a i n i n g the f l o a t i n g opals, was decanted i n a funnel l i n e d with ashless f i l t e r paper (Whatman #42). This f l o a t i n g - o f f procedure was repeated f i v e times f o r coarse and ten times f o r f i n e s i l t f r a c t i o n s to ensure that a l l opal p a r t i c l e s were separated. Between treatments, a l l surfaces were washed with streams of heavy l i q u i d onto the f i l t e r paper to minimize losses of opals. The f i l t e r e d heavy l i q u i d was recycled. 4? The f i l t e r papers containing the opals were placed i n a muffle furnace i n a marked set of c r u c i b l e s and i g n i t e d f o r three hours at 600°C. A f t e r cooling, the contents of the furnace c r u c i b l e s were washed in t o 40 ml centrifuge tubes with heavy l i q u i d and were centrifuged i n a constant-angle c l i n i c a l centrifuge at 1000 r.p.m. f o r four minutes. The lower h a l f of the centrifuge tubes were frozen, and the unfrozen portion was decanted i n t o f i n e - p o r o s i t y tared Pyrex AXTM ( 4 - 5 um) or a Pyrex ASTM (10 - 15 pm) f i l t e r i n g c r u c i b l e s , depending on size f r a c t i o n . The heavy l i q u i d was drawn i n t o a Buchner suction f l a s k with vacuum. The opals retained i n the f i l t e r i n g c r u c i b l e s were washed with acetone, oven-dried, weighed to 0.0001 gm accuracy, trans-f e r r e d to small v i a l s and stored f o r preparation of microscope s l i d e s or scanning e l e c t r o n microscope samples. Microscope s l i d e s prepared from the extracted opals were examined with the same petrographic microscope as the t h i n sections. The p u r i t y of p h y t o l i t h extracts was established with a Swift Automatic Point Counter connected e l e c t r o n i c a l l y to the mechanical stage of the microscope. Scanning e l e c t r o n microscope examination and p o l a r o i d p i c t u r e s were obtained with a Cambridge 250T, Stereoscan of the Department of Botany, U.B.C. P o l a r o i d p i c t u r e s were taken of the opals extracted from s i l t f r a c t i o n s ( 20 um) of pedons 6l5, 617, 619, 621 and 624. The three dimensional images obtained by scanning electron microscopy are superior to the images obtained by common l i g h t microscopes. 48 4.3-5 ' Ashing of Plant Material I t became necessary to v e r i f y the o r i g i n of opals i n the extracts. Freezer-stored samples of Agropyron spicatum, Festuca  s c a b r e l l a and Galamagrostis rubescens were oven-dried and weighed. These drie d samples were b o i l e d with 5% KOH solution u n t i l they became soft and c o l o r l e s s . The b o i l e d plant materials were f i l t e r e d through ashless (Whatman #42) f i l t e r papers, and the a i r - d r i e d f i l t e r papers with t h e i r contents were placed i n the muffle furnace f o r three hours at 600°C. The ashed plant material was f i l t e r e d through a f i n e - p o r o s i t y tared f i l t e r i n g c r u c i b l e ASTM (lO - 15 um) v i a vacuum. A f t e r washing the ash with d i s t i l l e d water, the c r u c i b l e s and t h e i r contents were oven-dried and weighed. The ash was retained f o r microscope examination. 4.3«6 S t a t i s t i c a l Evaluation of Data Data obtained by physical and chemical analyses of s o i l samples were s t r a t i f i e d i n t o three groups according to physiographic l o c a t i o n such as grassland (4 pedons), f o r e s t edge (5 pedons) and f o r e s t (5 pedons). These data were subjected to Mann Whitney U-tests at 95% l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.0 5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 5.1 C l i m a t i c Evaluation Examination of c l i m a t i c records i n d i c a t e that the mean monthly temperatures decrease In t h i s area with increase i n elevation. This trend may be influenced by aspect; that i s why the temperatures between the Mara H i l l (east) and Lac-du-Bois (south) stati o n s are very .similar. The range of temperatures at the Lac-du-Bois (south) s t a t i o n are wider, than at the Mara H i l l .(east) s t a t i o n . Direct comparison between the two stat i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t due to the. lack of concurrent yearly observations (Appendix I. Tables 1 and 2). The r e l a t i v e l y short period of observations concerning p r e c i p i -t a t i o n at the Lac-du-Bois (south) s i t e made the comparison of p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a l i d . The comparison of temperature records provided by Dawson (l895) from 1877 to 1893 f ° r Kamloops to the 30-year normals (Atmospheric Environment Service, 197l) recorded f o r the Agr. Can., Research Station seem to show a c e r t a i n warming trend. This may be caused by the d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s between weather stations (Appendix I, Table 3). Dawson (l895) i n d i c a t e d approximately 250 mm p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the immediate Kamloops v a l l e y bottom area. The 44-year records reported by Tisdale (l94l) also showed 250 mm average p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and so d i d the 30-year normals recorded f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, Research Station (Figure 5> Atmospheric Environment Service, 1971)• The a v a i l a b l e c l i m a t i c data and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c l i m a t i c parameters (T.S.B., 1978) derived f o r the N.T.S. map 92l/NE 5 1 would Indicate that the study area i s i n a "cool" s o i l temperature c l a s s as defined "by the Canada S o i l Survey Committee (1978). P l o t s 623 and 629 may i n some years be under the influence of cold regimes. The s o i l moisture subclass of the Mara H i l l transect may be subarid approaching semiarid, while the Wheeler Mountain and Lac-du-Bois transects are i n the semiarid to.subhumid subclasses as defined by the Canada S o i l Survey Committee (1978). 52 5.2 Characterization of Sample P l o t s Along Each Transect In the following text, an evaluation i s provided f o r each p l o t area according to i t s assigned number, reporting on i t s vegetation and elaborating on i t s s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In the vegetation d e s c r i p t i o n , each new species i s reported by i t s s c i e n t i f i c name followed by the authority according to Taylor and MacBryde (l97?). The number i n brackets following each species i s i t s assessed species s i g n i f i c a n c e number according to the Domin-Krajina system a f t e r K l i n k a (1974). In the s o i l evaluation, a l l necessary fin d i n g s are reported and discussed. The s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d a t l e a s t to \ the family l e v e l according to the Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (C.S.S.C., 1978) and then compared to t h e i r approximate equivalents to the subgroup l e v e l i n ^ S o i l Taxonomy ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975). 5.2.1. Mara H i l l Transect Vegetation of P l o t 6l5 The most s i g n i f i c a n t species of t h i s p l o t was Agropyron spi catum (Pursh) Schriber and Smith (8). The co-dominant species were Festuca s c a b r e l l a Torrey (5) and C a s t i l l e a thompsonii Pennell (5)' Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a subsp. t r i d e n t a t a N u t t a l l (2) appeared to be on the r e t r e a t due to recovery of t h i s range s i t e . Poa sandbergii Vasey (3) was well represented i n t h i s community. This p l o t i s a member of the Middle grassland (Agropyron - Poa) (T i s d a l e , 1947) ecosystem a s s o c i a t i o n . The high species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Festuca 53 s c a b r e l l a i s probably due to the moist east aspect of t h i s s i t e . Figure 11 shows the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vegetation of t h i s s i t e i n 1978. Figure 11. The foreground of t h i s p i c t u r e shows the area and vegetation of P l o t 615. The r e t r e a t of Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a and the recovery of range i s evident. The background i s a northwest-f a c i n g view sampled by the other p l o t s of the Mara H i l l transect. S o i l of Plot 615 The parent material of the s o i l of t h i s p l o t i s a moderately stony, drumlinized and calcareous t i l l . The surface Ah horizons of t h i s s o i l meet the c r i t e r i a of the Ghernozemic Ah horizon of the Canadian System (C.S.S.C, 1978). The base saturation 54 of the surface Ah horizons i s >80%, t h e i r carbon/nitrogen r a t i o i s and t h e i r dry crushed c o l o r Is dark grayish brown. The surface of t h i s s o i l has the second highest plant a v a i l a b l e water content among a l l the tested s o i l s (Appendix V i ) . This i s probably due to i t s loamy texture (Appendix V, Table l ) and the mature state of i t s organic matter, indicated by a r e l a t i v e l y wide Gh/Cf r a t i o (2.14) and a r e l a t i v e l y narrow E465/E665 r a t i o (4.20) (Appendix VT.Il) . The r e l a t i v e l y high organic matter content of t h i s s o i l , considering i t s elevation, Is probably due to i t s aspect and to i t s well-established grass cover. Figure 12. P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem at P l o t 615. 55 I t s taxonomy at the family l e v e l i s an Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, loamy-skeletal, mixed, shallow l i t h i c , weakly-calcareous developed under cool and subarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t i s approximately equivalent•to a Typic Haploboroll. : A t h i n section prepared from the lower portion of the Bm horizon (26-28 cm) of t h i s s o i l i n d i c a t e s l i t t l e pedogenic a l t e r a t i o n and non-cutanic boundaries on the ped surfaces. This t h i n section shows a weak masepic-porphyroskelic f a b r i c , with random ortho-j o i n t planes. Examination .of-phytolith contents indicates- •, predominantly Agropyron-like opals. When the opal extracts from t h i s s o i l are compared to the ashed Agropyron plant material, some of the large p h y t o l i t h s have predominant pointed spines and the small s i l i c a bodies evident i n the ash are also detected i n the extracts (Figure 13) . In summary, i t may*,be stated that there i s no evidence that p l o t 615: has been occupied by _forest, i n the recent- past. . I t i s a t y p i c a l grassland ecosystem. 56 Figure 13. Photomicrographs of extracted opals from s i l t f r a c t i o n (>20jm«) of pedon 615 Ah horizon (on l e f t ) compared to ashed material of bluebunch wheatgrass (on r i g h t ) . (Mag. 200x). 57 Vegetation of P l o t 6l6 Artemisia tridentata(7) attained the highest number of species s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r t h i s p l o t . K o e l e r i a macrantha (Ledebour) Schultes (6) followed, while Agropyron spicatum (5) attained a somewhat lower s i g n i f i c a n c e . These features and the s i g n i f i c a n t representation of Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a (Pursh) N u t t a l l (4) probably indicate a depleted range condition (McLean and Marshand, 1968). The presence of two w e l l -established Pinus ponderosa 6l and 74 years of age, 20 m west of t h i s p l o t i n an erosion channel i n d i c a t e s possible f o r e s t influence. Never-theless, t h i s area s t i l l should be considered as a member of the Middle Grassland ecosystem as s o c i a t i o n , having attained i t s degraded stage due to overgrazing. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c plant cover and aspect of t h i s p l o t i s shown i n Figure 14. Figure 14. The immediate foreground of t h i s picture shows the vegetation of P l o t 6l6. The background i s a northeasterly f a c i n g view of the Lac-du-Bois rangelands. 53. S o i l of P l o t 6l6 The parent material of t h i s p l o t area i s a moderately stony morainal blanket devoid of streamlined features which"character-i z e s ' rangelands east and southeast from t h i s area. The lack of drumlin-iz e d pattern may be due to l o c a l topography or steepness of slope (l6°) influenced by c o l l u v i a l action.. The surface Ah horizons of t h i s s o i l meet the c r i t e r i a of Ghernozemic subgroups having dark grayish brown color and narrow carbon/nitrogen r a t i o s (Ah 1 - 11.9 and Ah2 - 9.8). The low base saturation of the Ahl horizon (60... 9%) may indicate, a c e r t a i n e l u v i a t i o n . The increase i n clay content from surface Ah horizons to Bml horizon i s expressed by a 1.4 r a t i o and t'.o Bm2 horizon by a. 1.6 r a t i o . This could i n d i c a t e c l a y i l l u v i a t i o n . The r a t i o s of f i n e c l a y to t o t a l clay throughout the horizons do not prove t h i s trend. The r a t i o of fi n e clay to t o t a l c l a y i s highest i n the surface Ah horizons (.75) and second highest i n the Gca horizon (.62)(Appendix V, Table l ) . The low organic matter content of Ahl horizon (3-05%) and Ah2 horizon (2.59%) may be the r e s u l t of extended overgrazing (Watson, 1977) and subsequent. depletion of the"-perennial grass cover. - The- p r o f i l e of t h i s s o i l i s shown i n Figure 15. The low water-holding capacity and low plant a v a i l a b l e water content (Appendix Vl)are probably due to the low organic content of t h i s s o i l , which also .provide, an i n d i c a t i o n of degraded status. '. The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l at the family l e v e l i s 59 Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, loamy-skeletal, mixed, weakly calcareous, developed under a cool and subarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t i s approximately equivalent to a Typic Haploboroll. Figure 15. Orthic Dark Brown s o i l of P l o t 6l6 showing coarse roots of Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a having invaded t h i s area as a r e s u l t of range depletion. The examination of a t h i n section taken from the Bml horizon (25-27 cm) d i d not show t y p i c a l cutanic ped surfaces. Considering the generally loamy texture of t h i s s o i l , there i s no evidence that the 60 clay skins were destroyed by shrink and swell a c t i v i t i e s , a condition suggested to be responsible f o r the lack of clay skins i n some a r g i l l i c horizons (Nettleton et a l . , 1969). Some weak organi-zation may be evidenced i n the weak s i l a s e p i c and porphyroskelic f i b r i c of t h i s t h i n section, but i t lacks conclusive evidence of clay t r a n s l o c a t i o n . (Figure 1 6 ) . Figure 16. S i l a s e p i c and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of t h i n section prepared from Bml horizon of 6 l 6 (C.D.A. #108). The large 400 jam diameter channel may show some discontinuous weakly oriented channel a r g i l l a n s i n the upper r i g h t corner of t h i s t h i n section. (80x - crossed n i c o l s ) . In conclusion, i t may be stated that the p l o t 6 l 6 has not been occupied by f o r e s t vegetation i n the recent past. 61 Establishment of f o r e s t pioneers, however, t h i s f a r (300 m) from the adjacent f o r e s t edge, i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y . Vegetation of P l o t 617 Along the Mara H i l l transect, t h i s was the only p l o t having a well-established f o r e s t cover of Pinus ponderosa (5) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (2). Ponderosa pine, on t h i s site, has a poor-medium growth c l a s s , and Douglas-fir a poor growth c l a s s (Appendix I I , a f t e r Klinka, 197^). The grassland influence was strongly noticeable by the presence of Agropyron spicatum (7) and Festuca s c a b r e l l a (4) having high species s i g n i f i c a n c e numbers. I t may be stated that t h i s p l o t lacks the species d i v e r s i t y of forbs and grasses represented on the other non-forested or p a r t i a l l y - t r e e d p l o t s of the Mara H i l l transect (Appendix I I I ) . Figure 17 shows the t y p i c a l vegetation of p l o t 617. Figure 17. Phytocoe-nosis of p l o t 617 on the toe slopes of a 21° c o l l u v i a l slope. 62 The vegetation of p l o t 6l7 may be considered as a Pinus ponderosa - Pseudotsuga menziesii - Agropyron spicatum - Balsamor-hyza s a g i t t a t a ecosystem a s s o c i a t i o n . According to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n provided by M i t c h e l l et- a l . •. (1978) , i t i s a member of. .the Ponderosa Pine - Douglas-fir subzone. I t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c savanna-l i k e f o r e s t . S o i l of P l o t 617 The parent material of t h i s p l o t i s a moderately stony colluvium over morainal blanket. The c o l l u v i a l a ction i s promoted by a very strong (21°) slope of t h i s area. The organic matter accumulation on the surface <D£the mineral soil,'. .- c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a f o r e s t environment, i s evident- here. The r e s u l t i n g organic l a y e r may be classed as a c o n i f e r o - f i b r i m o r (Canadian S o i l Information System, 1975)(Figure 18). Due t o - f o r e s t influence, there i s no evidence of Chernozemic Ah formation. On the other hand, no s i g n i f i c a n t e l u v i a t i o n can be detected. The i l l u v i a l horizons meet the c r i t e r i a established f o r the cambic subsurface horizon ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975)• The rapid decrease i n organic matter content from the t h i n Ah horizon to the Bml and Bm2 horizons and the r e l a t i v e l y wide carbon/nitrogen r a t i o s i n these horizons indicate a change i n the s o i l toward B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s . The q u a l i t y of organic matter also indicates: the f o r e s t influence (Appendix VIII,Table1&2). The s o i l of p l o t 617 has the narrowest Ch/Cf r a t i o (1.65) 63 and the widest E465/E665 r a t i o among the s o i l s of the Mara H i l l transect. These features have long been recognized as i n d i c a t o r s of f o r e s t i n f l u -ence (Kononova, 1961). The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l would be Orthic E u t r i c B r unisol, loamy-skeletal, mixed, ne u t r a l , developed under cool and sub-a r i d climate. At the subroup l e v e l , i t would be equivalent to a Typic or D y s t r i c Eutrochrept. The mottling seen i n t h i s s o i l i s not believed to be associated with gleying (Appendix IV, Table l ) . Figure 18. Surface organic l a y e r of the Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol of p l o t 6l7, showing thick build-up of dry ponderosa pine needles and l i t t l e incorporation of surface organic materials i n t o mineral horizons. A t h i n section prepared from a sample taken from Bml (28-33 cm) shows generally non-cutanic o r i e n t a t i o n . One area i n t h i s 64 t h i n section shows a l i n e of oriented, anisotropic clay skin. In other areas of t h i s section and two other sections examined, there was no evidence of clay i l l u v i a t i o n (Figure 19). I t may be concluded that clay i l l u v i a t i o n i s i n c i p i e n t i n t h i s s o i l . Figure 19. Insepic and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of a t h i n section prepared from Bml of pedon 617. A t h i n l i n e of a r g i l l a n i s apparent i n the upper l e f t hand corner (80x - crossed n i c o l s - f u l l transmission). Examination of p h y t o l i t h s showed somewhat lower opal content f o r t h i s s o i l than f o r the other s o i l s of the Mara H i l l transect. This may i n d i c a t e lower density of grasses i n t h i s area during the past (Appendix IX). E s s e n t i a l l y , these p h y t o l i t h s s t i l l appear to be s i m i l a r to those extracted from the s o i l of p l o t 615. In conclusion, i t may be stated that the establishment 6.5 of savanna-like f o r e s t s composed mainly of ponderosa pine and Douglas-f i r i n these areas are quite possible, even though there are 200 mm c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s . Vegetation of P l o t 6l8 This p l o t area i s characterized by f o r e s t encroach-ment from the adjacent mature stand sampled by p l o t 617. Ponderosa pine (4) was represented on p l o t 618 by three immature (<50 year old) i n d i v i -duals. Seedlings of ponderosa pine ( l ) and Douglas-fir ( l ) also occurred. This p l o t had the greatest species d i v e r s i t y among the samples of the Mara H i l l transect (Appendix I I I ) . I t was heavily invaded by Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a (8). The r e l a t i v e l y high species s i g n i -ficance of Antennaria microphylla Rydberg (3) a l s o i n d i c a t e d grazing pressure. Agropyron spicatum ( 5 ) 1 K o e l e r i a macrantha (3) and Poa  sandbergii (3) represented the graminoid components. The favourable moisture regime and f o r e s t edge habitat of t h i s p l o t was indicated by_^ Juncus a r c t i c u s subspecies. a t e r (Rydberg), Hulten (3) and Poa pratensis Linnaeus (2). I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the expected climax of t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l ecosystem, but i t may be assumed that i t would form a ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir - bluebunch wheatgrass (savanna - forest) system i f i t i s allowed to reach an undisturbed climax. I t would become s i m i l a r to the vegetation of p l o t 617. F i r e s , however, could r e t a r d the establishment of woody species. 66 Figure 20. Plot area of 6l8 being encroached upon by immature ponderosa pines at the foot of c o l l u v i a l slopes of Mara H i l l S o i l of Plot 618 The parent material of t h i s plot i s a sloping f l u v i a l fan (10°) over moderately stony and calcareous morainal materials. The pH and effervescence tests indicated that t h i s s o i l i s carbonated throughout the solum and i n the G horizon. The surface horizons, i n f a c t , seem to have higher carbonate content than the subsurface horizons (Appendix VII, Table l ) . This r e l a t i v e l y high carbonate content does not seem to influence plant establishment. The bulk density of t h i s s o i l appears to have a significant role i n i t s performance. Mean bulk density of pedon 618 ( 0 . 9 5 gm.cm~3 with standard deviation of O . O 6 7 ) i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower 6 ? . than the mean _bulk density of pedon 619 (1.18 gm.cm~3 with.standard deviation o f " 0 . 0 6 0 ) at the 9 9 % l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . No rooting r e s t r i c t i o n s were detected i n t h i s • s o i l . This condition was u t i l i z e d by'burrowing animales, as evidenced by several dens i n the immediate area.. In f a c t , the a c t i v i t i e s of burrow-i n g animals was thought to be p a r t i a l l y responsible f o r the high carbon-ate content of the surface horizons. The texture of t h i s s o i l appears to be uniform throughout i t s depth, providing u n r e s t r i c t e d permeability f o r moisture. I t has the highest plant a v a i l a b l e water content among a l l tested s o i l s of t h i s study (Appendix VI). This s o i l a lso has the highest organic matter content. The maturity of i t s organic matter i s evident from i t s r e l a t i v e l y wide Ch/Cf r a t i o (2.8l). I t s E465/E665 r a t i o i s s i m i l a r to the other grass-land s o i l s tested i n t h i s study (Appendix VIII). The high n u t r i e n t ' l e v e l s of t h i s s o i l are p a r t i a l l y shown by i t s high exchangeable cation content and t o t a l cation exchange capacity (Appendix VII, Table l ) . A d d i t i o n a l Ghernozemic character i n t h i s s o i l " i s detectable by i t s narrow carbon/nitrogen r a t i o and t o t a l base saturation (Appendix VII, Table l ) . The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l i s a Calcareous Dark Brown Chernozem, coarse loamy, mixed, weakly-calcareous, developed under a cool and subarid climate. I t may be considered as an e l u v i a t e d phase due to the higher f i n e c l a y content of the Bmk horizon. At the subgroup l e v e l , i t would be equivalent to a Typic G a l c i b o r o l l (Figure 2l). 68 Figure 21. P r o f i l e of the Calcareous Dark Brown Chernozem of P l o t 618. A 15 cm diameter krotovina i s noticeable on the surface of the morainal material. The r a t i o of f i n e clay to t o t a l c l a y content seems to show clay i l l u v i a t i o n (Appendix V, Table l ) . This i s not proven by the examination of t h i n section prepared from Bmk horizon of 6l8 (25~30 cm). T h i s section showed random, apedal and non-cutanic o r i e n t a t i o n . I t had i r r e g u l a r ortho j o i n t planes with weakly banded or i e n t a t i o n ; more or l e s s p a r a l l e l with the surface. I t contained many i s o t r o p i c fragments considered to be volcanic ash additions. I t had a s i l a s e p i c - c r y s t i c f a b r i c . Examination of plant opal contents (Appendix IX) i n d i c a t e s the highest accumulation of plant opals i n t h i s s o i l . T h i s may be due to the 69 great species d i v e r s i t y and abundant p l a n t cover of t h i s area. I n summary, i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the p l o t area of 6 l 8 has only r e c e n t l y been invaded by f o r e s t species. I t must have funct i o n e d as a grassland s o i l system i n the recent past, i n terms of s o i l genesis, t o have a t t a i n e d the t y p i c a l Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s evidenced i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Vegetation of P l o t 6 l 9 Figure 22. The foreground shows the veg e t a t i o n and l o c a t i o n of p l o t area 6 l 9 . The background shows the adjacent mature f o r e s t of ponderosa pine and D o u g l a s - f i r e s t a b l i s h e d on steeper slopes. The l o c a t i o n of t h i s p l o t i s approximately the same as t h a t of p l o t 618 regarding the edge of mature f o r e s t . This p l o t , :?o however, i s not being encroached upon by tree species. I t has the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an overgrazed Middle Grassland ecosystem with Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a (7), Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a (3), and Antennaria  SPP- (3) i n d i c a t i n g i t s degradation. Agropyron spicatum (5) and Poa  sandbergii (2) represent the graminoid components of the Middle Grassland while the presence of Festuca s c a b r e l l a (3) may i n d i c a t e a favourable moisture regime s i m i l a r to other f o r e s t edge habitats at elevations ranging from 8 50 - 930 m. The l o c a t i o n and vegetation of p l o t 6l9 i s shown i n Figure 22. S o i l of P l o t 619 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s a stony and calcareous lodgement t i l l . The compacted nature i s apparent from i t s hi g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater bulk density than that of pedon 6l8. The low f i n e c l a y and organic matter content of t h i s s o i l may mean a reduction of processes associated with these a c t i v e s o i l components. The base saturation of the Ah horizon i s l e s s than 80%; therefore, i t cannot be considered as a Chernozem according to the Canadian System (C.S. S.C, 1978) (Appendix VII, Table l ) . Figure 23 shows the p r o f i l e of the s o i l of pedon 619. The taxonomy of pedon 6l9 : i s an . Orthic Melanic B r u n i s o l , loamy s k e l e t a l , mixed, a l k a l i n e , weakly-calcareous, developed under cool and subarid climate - eroded phase. I t would be approximately equivalent to an A r i d i c Haploboroll at the subgroup l e v e l 71 due to the 50% "base saturation l i m i t accepted by S o i l Taxonomy ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975) f o r the M o l l i c epipedon. Figure 23. The Orthic Melanic Brunisol of p l o t 6l9. The shallow, poorly structured Ah horizon i s evident over the massive Bm horizon. The analys is of the organic f r a c t i o n of t h i s s o i l showed that i t had r e l a t i v e l y narrow Ch/Cf r a t i o , i . e . a higher f u l v i c a c i d component, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t i v e of B horizons (McKeague, 1968). 72 Figure 24. Thin section made from 8-10 cm depth of pedon 6l9. The subcutanic features are apparently due to freez i n g and thawing i n t h i s a r g i l l a s e p i c to skelsepic f a b r i c (C.D.A.#96 200 x-crossed n i c o l s ) . The examination of t h i n sections made from the lower portion of Ah horizon (8-10 cm depth) showed random to clustered, subcutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n of matrix and apparently a r g i l l a s e p i c to s k e l -sepic f a b r i c . The subcutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s s o i l may not be due to clay i l l u v i a t i o n but to churning movements of the matrix caused by-freezi n g and thawing (Mermut, 1980 - personal communication) . * Dr. A. R. Mermut, Research S c i e n t i s t , Saskatchewan I n s t i t u t e of Pedology, Saskatoon. 73 In summary, i t may be stated, that, due to its-shedding p o s i t i o n , compacted nature and overgrazing, the area of 6l9.has e i t h e r l o s t i t s loess cap, or l o e s s i a l materials have not been deposited here. This area i s not r e c e i v i n g f l u v i a l additions from the adjacent steeper slope, s i m i l a r to p l o t area 6l8. The combination of these features provides an unfavourable condition f o r plant growth under a rather harsh climate. The establishment of deep-rooting tree species such as Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y retarded. Vegetation of P l o t 620 This terrace area above the forested c o l l u v i a l slope i s being encroached upon by Douglas-fir (3) and ponderosa pine (2). The age of these immature trees was derived by branch whorl counts and averaged 22 years with a r e l a t i v e l y narrow standard deviation of 1.3 years. The area does not have recent regeneration or veteran trees. Further f o r e s t influence was shown by the presence " of Amelanchier  a l n i f o l i a ( N u t t a l l ) , The disturbed nature of t h i s s i t e was noted by the high species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Artemisia t r i d e n t a t a (5) and Antennaria spp. (4). The overgrazing i s f u r t h e r evidenced by the depression of Agropyron  spicatum ( l ) , while the species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Poa sandbergii (5) and K o e l e r i a macrantha (4) remained high (McLean and Marchand, 1968). This i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l ecosystem between grassland and f o r e s t . I t would probably form a ponderosa pine - D o u g l a s - f i r -bluebunch wheatgrass (savanna f o r e s t community) as a climax a s s o c i a t i o n . 74 Ground f i r e s could retard the encroachment of woody species. Figure 25 shows the vegetation of p l o t area 620 . Figure 2 5 . View of p l o t 620 on terrace surface mantled by subdued ground moraine showing encroachment of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine. Background (right) i s the c o l l u v i a l bank of t h i s terrace surface. S o i l of P l o t 620 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s a moderately-stony lodgement t i l l devoid of streamlined (drumlinoid) surface ex-pression. This t i l l material i s capped by a 10 cm thick eolian veneer. This s o i l has a clay loam texture throughout i t s sampled horizons. I t s f i n e clay content i s r e l a t i v e l y lower than the other s o i l s of the Mara H i l l transect, except f o r the pedon of 6 l 9 (Appendix V, Table l ) . 75 The surface horizons have moderate organic matter content and the Ah horizon meets the c r i t e r i a of Chernozemic Ah horizons on base saturation and carbon/nitrogen r a t i o . On c o l o r value, i t meets the requirement of Black Chernozem Great Group, but i t f a i l s to q u a l i f y as a Black Chernozem due to i t s high chroma. This s o i l has the second highest t o t a l cation exchange capacity among the s o i l s of the Mara H i l l transects, probably due to i t s high clay content. The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l i s an Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, 1oamy-skeletal, weakly-calcareous, developed under cool and semiarid climate. I t would be approximately equivalent to a Typic Haploboroll at the subgroup l e v e l . Figure 26 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 620. Figure 26. P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, of pedon 620. 7 6 Examination of the t h i n section prepared from the lower portion of the Bm horizon (29-3^ cm) i n d i c a t e s random to clustered, subcutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n with very f i n e to f i n e macro ortho j o i n t planes. I t has an a r g i l l o - vosepic and pozphyroskelic f a b r i c (Figure 2 7 ) . Figure 2 7 . A r g i l l o - vosepic and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of Bm horizon ( 2 9 - 3 4 cm) of pedon 6 2 0 . (c.D.A.#101-Mag. 80x - crossed n i c o l s . ) In summary, i t may be stated that the presence of tree species on t h i s terrace area i s rather recent, and the pedon of 6 2 0 has functioned as a Chernozemic system i n the recent past. I t may be expected that the species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Douglas-fir i n t h i s area w i l l be higher than ponderosa pine, probably due to the s h i f t i n climate from 77 subarid and semiarid conditions. Under present c l i m a t i c conditions, the encroachment of tree species may be c o n t r o l l e d by ground f i r e s . Summary of Mara H i l l Transect An overview of the Mara H i l l transect may be obtained through observation of the p r o f i l e of the t r a n s e c t sketched f o r t h i s area (Figure 28). I t i s evident from t h i s transect and the previous discussion that about one h a l f of t h i s area belongs to the t y p i c a l C ? r d i l l e r a n Steppe Ecosystem (Krajina, 1969) withrthe following conditions: (a) E l e v a t i o n l e s s than 800 m;; (b) Under e x i s t i n g climate; (c) On southerly aspects; (d) On slopes l e s s than 20 ; (e) On morainal materials; and (f) On Orthic Dark Brown s o i l s . Above 800 m and up to at l e a s t 950 m, a savanna - l i k e ecosystem i s found. This i s a grassland - f o r e s t t r a n s i t i o n complex (Green and Leskiw, 1971) where the presence of f o r e s t species i s l a r g e l y determined by the p h y s i c a l nature of the parent material, e s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t e d moisture balance of the s o i l . The steppe - l i k e vegetation, once established, would hold i t s own longer against encroachment of f o r e s t species on compacted morainal materials (Plot 619), with inherently high clay contents and on stable surfaces. In t h i s area f o r e s t trees ( e s p e c i a l l y ponderosa pine) could r e a d i l y invade s i t e s having no rooting r e s t r i c t i o n s , even i f the s i t e had a mature Chernozemic s o i l (pedon 618). S i t e s having shallow s o i l s over bedrock or c o l l u v i a l slopes and materials would generally be occupied by trees. Mara H i l l Transect 620 A.S.L. m 880r 860 840 820 800 780 760 740 615 100 Vegetation X -» * 200 300 400 LEGEND 500 600 700 800 900 S u r f i c i a l Materials vf} if Bunchgrass-big sagebrush grassland (Agropyron-Artemisia) /////I Morainal deposits i i Ponderosa pine (Douglas-fir) savanna forest A A A F l u v i a l fan (slope wash) Golluvium over Eocene volcanios (Kamloops Group) 1000 m Symbols (T.S.B.1978) Mb m Ff Cb R :"-0 • CO Figure 28. P r o f i l e of Mara H i l l transect showing major vegetation types, occurrence and i l l u s t r a t e d depths of s u r f i c i a l parent materials. V e r t i c a l exaggeration (2.5x) ..^Aspect of transect (approx. bearing of X a x i s ) : S65°E 79 5 . 2 . 2 Wheeler Mountain Transect Vegetation of P l o t 624 This p l o t had equal cover and species s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r Agropyron spicatum (7) and Festuca s c a b r e l l a (?). The r e l a t i v e l y moist environment of t h i s area and i t s northwest aspect was r e f l e c t e d by the presence of Poa pratensis ( 3 )• T^ was f u r t h e r indicated by the high species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Astrgalus miser (Dougl.) Hooker (5) and by the 96% herbaceous cover of t h i s p l o t . This p l o t i s a member of the Upper Grassland ecosystem ass o c i a t i o n (Tisdale, 1947) or the dry portion of the Festuca zone described by van Ryswyk et a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ). Figure 29 shows the vegetation and topography of p l o t 624 . Figure 2 9 . The foreground i s the vegetation and the northwest f a c i n g slope of p l o t 6 2 4 . The background (right) i s Wheeler Mountain and the edge of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t . 80. S o i l of P l o t 624 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s a moderately-stony and calcareous lodgement t i l l . This area i s a leading face of a large drumlinoid ridge. The c o l o r of the Ah horizon meets the c r i t e r i o n of the Black Chernozem subgroup on value, but i t s chroma i s above the required 1.5 u n i t . This may be due to the reddish tones associated with the „ Black S o i l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (van Ryswyk, 1973 _ personal communica-tion) . The r e s u l t s of p a r t i c l e size a n a l y s i s and changes i n f i n e clay content per horizon do not i n d i c a t e c l a y e l u v i a t i o n i n t h i s s o i l . The r e l a t i v e l y shallow depth of solum, considering s o i l s of the upper grass-lands, i s probably due to the r e s t r i c t e d moisture penetration i n t h i s s o i l , " caused by .. compactness (Appendix IV, Table 2). In a l l chemical properties t h i s s o i l meets the requirements of Chernozems and i t s high organic matter content corresponds to other Black Chernozems of t h i s l o c a l i t y (van Ryswyk, et a l . , 196.6) Appendix VII, Table 2). Further a n a l y s i s of organic matter, such as the Ch/Cf r a t i o , i n d i c a t e s a r e l a t i v e l y narrow (l.94) value i n comparison with other Chernozems of t h i s study. The E4/E6 r a t i o (4.25) corresponds to values obtained f o r other Chernozems i n t h i s study (Appendix VIII). The taxonomy of pedon 624, according to the Canadian System, i s an • Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, loamy s k e l e t a l , mixed, weakly calcareous, developed under cool and semiarid climate. I t would be equivalent to a Typic Haploboroll at the subgroup l e v e l . Figure 30 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 624. 81 Figure 30. P r o f i l e of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem of pedon 624. A t h i n section prepared from 30-35 cm depth showed random and non-cutanic o r i e n t a t i o n , i r r e g u l a r , very fin e macro-ortho voids and s i m i l a r j o i n t planes. I t had mosepic and porphyroskelic f a b r i c . A n a l y s i s of p h y t o l i t h content i n t h i s s o i l i n d i c a t e d very low opal amounts (Appendix IX). According to Johnston et a l . (1967) l e s s plant opals are produced by species as the climate becomes wetter. This ecosystem should be considered as a true grass-82 land as there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of f o r e s t influence i n t h i s s o i l during the recent past. I t i s a mature Chernozem. Vegetation of P l o t 625 Figure Jl. The foreground of t h i s p i c t ure shows the pedon and adjacent area of p l o t 625. The background i s the edge of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t . The continuous sod cover of these areas i s quite evident. •8-3. Proximity to the f o r e s t edge and associated high moisture l e v e l s were well i n d i c a t e d by the continuous sod of grasses and forbs of t h i s p l o t . Poa pratensis (9) showed very high species s i g n i f i c a n c e . The favourable moisture l e v e l s probably were i n d i c a t e d by the presence of Juneus a r t i c u s (3). T h i s area was homesteaded around the turn of the century and t h i s was shown by the presence of many introduced species such as Centaurea d i f f u s a Linn, ( l ) , Cichorium intybus -.Linn, ( l ) and Cerastium sp. ( l ) . Climax bunchgrasses (AgropyronjFestuca) were conspicuously absent. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the climax stage of t h i s disturbed ecosystem. Trembling aspen i s well established i n r e c e i v i n g s i t e s i n t h i s area (Figure 9) and ' spread of trembling aspen through vegetative propogation i s a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y over t h i s s i t e . Figure 31 shows the l o c a t i o n and vegetation of p l o t 625. S o i l of P l o t 625 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s polygenetic, having e o l i a n and slope wash additions on the surface, and poorly sorted i c e contact deposits over morainal materials at depth. Due to high chroma, t h i s s o i l - f a i l s to q u a l i f y as a Black Chernozem (Appendix IV, Table 2). The progressively coarser textures with depth ind i c a t e an i d e a l moisture regime i n t h i s s o i l . Moisture retention of the surface Ah horizon i s higher than that of pedon 624 (Appendix V i ) . The f i n e clay content of the horizons does not i n d i c a t e clay t r a n s l o c a t i o n . 84 A l l chemical properties of t h i s s o i l i n d i c a t e a Ghernozemic system. S i m i l a r to pedon 624, i t has high organic matter content, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Black S o i l s (Appendix VII, Table 2 ) . The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l i s an Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, fine to coarse loamy-skeletal, mixed, weakly-clacareous, developed under cool and semiarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l , i t 85 would be equivalent, approximately, to a Typic Haploboroll. Figure 32 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 625. The examination o f the t h i n section prepared from 45-52 cm depth of pedon 625 showed random and non-cutanic o r i e n t a t i o n . I t had mosepic to porphyroskelic f a b r i c . According to the analysed data, the immediate \ area of 625 has no i n d i c a t i o n of past f o r e s t cover. Vegetation of P l o t 621 This area has well established f o r e s t cover of Douglas-fir (5) and,in the openings, trembling aspen (5). The regeneration of Douglas-fir (4) i n d i c a t e s that the secondary succession i n t h i s area may follow the Douglas-fir to Douglas-fir pattern. The s i t e index of Douglas-fir shows a moderate #5 growth c l a s s (Appendix I I ) . The f o r e s t influence i s f u r t h e r noticeable i n the presence of t y p i c a l f o r e s t shrubs such as S p i r a e a b e t u l i f o l i a P a l l a s (2) and Rosa nutkana K.B. P r e s l (2). Some of the herbaceous species found are also commonly associated with f o r e s t s e.g. Heuchera c y l i n d r i c a Douglas Hooker ( l ) , Fragaria v i r g i n i a n a (Duchesne) Staudt ( l ) and Galamagrostis rubescens - Buckley ( l ) . Poa  p r a t e n s i s (5) and Agropyron spicatum (3) represented Upper Grassland f o r e s t edge conditions. The age of the present f o r e s t stand (68 years) probably corresponds to the end of the homestead i n t h i s area. T h i s f o r e s t edge a s s o c i a t i o n i s probably a v a r i a t i o n of the Pseudotsuga-Galamagrostis habitat type described by McLean (1969). Figure 33 shows the current vegetation and topography of p l o t 621. 86 Figure 33« Vegetation and topography of plo t 621. The trunks of Douglas-fir trees ind i c a t e c o l l u v i a l a c t i v i t i e s on t h i s slope. S o i l of P l o t 621 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s a very stony colluvium, influenced by slope wash. I t o v e r l i e s calcareous morainal materials. The surface organic l a y e r i s a moder type, and i t i s interwoven with yellow-white mycellium. The surface horizon, due to i t s low pH value ( 4 . 7 ) , was designated as Ahe, and i t i s only 4 cm thick (Appendix IV, Table 2). The Bml horizon, based on f u r t h e r evidence, i s designated as B t j because i t approaches the requirements of an i l l u v i a l B horizon, having 1.14 greater clay content than the e l u v i a l Ahe horizon. 87 This r a t i o i s also evidenced i n the increase of f i n e c l a y content of t h i s horizon (Appendix V, Table 2). Correspondingly, the f i n e c l a y to t o t a l c l a y r a t i o remains the same i n t h i s B t j horizon as i n the Ahe horizon. The observation of chemical properties (Appendix VII, Table 2) shows f o r e s t influence i n the reduction of pH of surface horizon and perhaps a lower organic matter content than the adjacent grassland s o i l s of t h i s wheeler Mountain transect. Carbon/nitrogen r a t i o and base saturation do : not i n d i c a t e f o r e s t influence. A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of the organic f r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d s t r i k i n g d ifferences i n the decrease of Ch/Cf r a t i o (1.13) and a correspondingly wider E4/E6 r a t i o (5.04). These in d i c a t e - a h i g h - f u l v i c , a c i d content (Appendix VIII')/a property-of f o r e s t s . The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l i s 'an E l u v i a t e d E u t r i c B r u n i s o l , loamy-skeletal, mixed, neutral, weakly calcareous, developed under cool and semiarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t would be approximately equivalent to a D y s t r i c Eutrochrept. Figure 34 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 621. A t h i n section, prepared from the lower portion of B t j horizon (22-26 cm) shows "a, banded and sub-cutanic " d i s t r i b u t i o n matrix. The a r g i l l a n s appear to be mottled, probably "matran" types. They occur i n voids and on skeleton grain surfaces. The f a b r i c of the section would be ma-vosepic and porphyroskelic. Figure 35 shows the t h i n section of B t j horizon. Observation of p h y t o l i t h s i n d i c a t e s moderate plant opal content i n t h i s s o i l (Appendix IX). The p h y t o l i t h s extracted from the s o i l of 621 contain Agropyron and Galamagrostis type opals i f the 88 Figure 35. Thin section of B t j horizon of pedon 621 showing matran-like a r g i l l a n s coating "basaltic skeleton grains. (C.D.A. #111 -crossed n i c o l s - Mag. 200x.) 8 9 extract i s compared to the ashed plant material of Galamagrostis sp. (pine-grass). Agropyron epidermal c e l l s commonly have spined (rugged) walls (Figure 1 3 ) , while Galamagrostis has long and smooth-walled c e l l s . Figure 3& shows t h i s comparison. 100 um Figure 3 6 . Plant opals extracted from the s i l t f r a c t i o n ( > 2 0 / * m ) of pedon 621 ( l e f t ) , and the ashed pine grass plant material ( r i g h t ) . (Mag.: 2 0 0 x . ) 90 According to several i n v e s t i g a t o r s (McLean, 1969; Brayshaw, 1970j and B e i l , 1972), pinegrass i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c member . of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t s . In summary, i t may be stated that the f o r e s t influence i s well r e g i s t e r e d i n the pedon of 621. The present f o r e s t stand i s r e l a t i v e l y young (68 years). I t may be reasoned that the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t reoccuppied t h i s area a f t e r the homestead was deserted. Furthermore, the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t formed a stable f o r e s t edge at the base of the c o l l u v i a l slope, and the f o r e s t does not encroach r e a d i l y upon the adjacent grassland/ established, on other than c o l — luvial"-.-materials-*- which form 'a dense and continuous'sod. Vegetation of P l o t 623 This p l o t i s characterized by several overmature Douglas-firs (average age, 269 years). Correspondingly, the growth c l a s s i s very low (Appendix II'). The associated shrubs were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t s ; namely, .Spiraea b e t u l i f o l i a (4), Rosa nutkana (3) and Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ( 2 ) . Herbaceous species were represented by Crepis atrabarba A.A. H e l l e r (3). Balsamorhiza s a g i t t a t a (3) and Astragalus miser (2). Grasses were well represented, probably due to the scattered park-like condition of t h i s stand. Agropyron spicatum (7) and Festuca s c a b r e l l a (6) occurred with high species s i g n i f i c a n c e , while Galamagrostis rubescens .- (4) showed somewhat lower s i g n i f i c a n c e . The increment borings taken at the base of two overmature Douglas-firs showed f i r e scars 47 and 53 years ago. These old trees were able to survive these and probably several other f i r e s . 91 Due to the steep slope of t h i s area, desiccation of woody species (especially coniferous trees) i s quite probable. The p r o b a b i l i t y of desiccation would increase with more southerly exposure. The seedlings of Douglas-fir i n d i c a t e that the secondary succession i n t h i s ecosystem i s from Douglas-fir to Douglas-fir. Figure 37 shows the vegetation and topography of p l o t 623. Figure 37- Vegetation and topography of p l o t 623. The c o l l u v i a l a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s steep slope may be noticed on the random "hay-stack" arrangement of tree trunks. S o i l of P l o t 623 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s an exceedingly stony colluvium over b a s a l t i c bedrock. 92 The surface organic l a y e r i s 4 cm t h i c k , and i t i s a dry moder type, influenced by c o l l u v i a l mixing action.- A n a l y s i s of p a r t i c l e size d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d not ind i c a t e consistent clay i l l u v i a t i o n . The fin e clay to t o t a l clay r a t i o from Ah to AB horizons shows an increase, but t h i s may not be a t t r i b u t e d to clay i l l u v i a t i o n (Appendix V, Table 2), as no other data support • t h i s . A n a l y s i s of chemical properties i n d i c a t e s only p a r t i a l forest'.influence. The pH of the Ah horizon remains close to neutral, probably due to c o l l u v i a l a ction and lack of shade. Base saturation remains above 80%. The carbon/nitrogen r a t i o , however, i s wide, i n d i c a t i v e of f o r e s t conditions (Appendix VII, Table 2). Further a n a l y s i s of the organic f r a c t i o n a l s o indicated f o r e s t influence, but not so c l e a r l y as the data obtained f o r pedon 621. The Ch/Cf r a t i o of 623 (l.55) i s c e r t a i n l y lower than any of the Ch/Cf r a t i o s obtained f o r the s o i l s of open grasslands of t h i s study. The E4/E6 r a t i o of 623 (^65) i s a l s o higher than any of the E4/E6 r a t i o s obtained f o r the open grass-land s o i l s of t h i s study (Appendix V I I l ) . The taxonomy of pedon 623 i s an Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol loamy-skeletal, mixed, shallow l i t h i c , n e utral, developed under cool and semiarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l , t h i s s o i l would be equivalent to a Typic Eutrochrept. Figure 38 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 623. The a n a l y s i s of t h i n sections prepared from 30-35 cm and 50-53 cm depths of pedon 623 showed random and non-cutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n , i r r e g u l a r very f i n e macro-ortho voids, and associated j o i n t planes. The f a b r i c was described as mosepic and porphyroskelic. 93 Figure 38- P r o f i l e of the Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol of Pedon 623. In summary, i t may be stated that due to the steep slope of p l o t 623; a stable s o i l surface has not been formed over t h i s area, and t h i s condition has retarded the maturation of the s o i l . The average age of the present stand i n d i c a t e s that, f o r management purposes, t h i s condition may be considered as stable. 94 Summary of Wheeler Mountain Transect An overview of the Wheeler Mountain transect may be obtained through the observation of the p r o f i l e of t h i s transect (Figure 39)• This p r o f i l e shows that an open .grassland ecosystem association e x i s t s i n t h i s area below 930 m elevation. The presence of the open grassland i s determined by: (a) Slopes l e s s than 20°, (b) Lack of c o l l u v i a l slopes, associated ;with bedrock, and (c) Deep, mature Ghernozemic s o i l s developed on morainal and/or g l a c i o - f l u v i a l materials. Due to increase i n moisture e f f i c i e n c y (van Ryswyk et a l . , 1966) a continuous sod of grasses and forbs may form here, s t a r t i n g approximately 200 m from the f o r e s t edge. This area i s within the e l e v a t i o n a l zone of the forest-grassland t r a n s i t i o n complex. I t may be concluded that the presence of e i t h e r f o r e s t or grassland ecosystem associations, under the e x i s t i n g c l i m a t i c conditions, i s edaphically controlled.The sharp ecotone between the f o r e s t and grassland i s due to the abrupt change i n parent material and slope angle. This condition was recognized as being responsible f o r the formation of abrupt ecotones i n other areas of the C o r d i l l e r a region (Daubenmire, 1968). Forest invasion may be expected from trembling aspen i n t h i s area i f several wet seasons provided a higher moisture supply than the present l e v e l . The continuous sod of grasses and forbs close to the fo r e s t edge may retard the establishment of f o r e s t pioneers ( e s p e c i a l l y 95 conifers) due to lack of space f o r germination, root competition and, perhaps, a l l e l o p a t h y (Daubenmire, 197^; Spurr and Barnes, 1973)-Wheeler Mountain Transect A. S. L. 960 940H 920H 900A 623 624 J * 100 200 300 LEGEND 400 500 600 700 Vegetation V t V Bunchgrass (Agropyron-Fe stuca) /4->~tr/4-» Continuous sod (Poa-Juncus) JUJ mi Sedge-rush fen Surficial Materials Drumlinoid ridge / / / / it ii t Interior Douglas-fir forest (a l l aged) A A A A Ice contact-meltwater deposits Fluvial apron Colluvium over Eocene volcanics (Kamloops Group) 800m Symbols (T.S.B.1978) Mb r(m) F G h(r)-E Fa(f) Cb gure 39 . P r o f i l e of Wheeler Mountain transect, showing major vegetation types as well as the extent and i n f e r r e d depths of s u r f i c i a l parent materials. ( V e r t i c a l exaggeration 3 -75x . ) ^Aspect of transect (approx. bearing of X a x i s ) : N80°E. 97 5 . 2 . 3 Lac-du-Bois Transect Vegetation of P l o t 626 This p l o t had 100% herbaceous cover, r e f l e c t i n g the c l i m a t i c a l l y moist environment of t h i s habitat. The very high species s i g n i f i c a n c e of Stipa r i c h a r d s o n i i Link (8) probably i n d i c a t e d a submesic moisture regime of t h i s area, e s p e c i a l l y on top of hummocks. The com-p e t i t i v e advantage of S t i p a sp. on r a p i d l y drained s i t e s was evaluated by Parsons et a l . (1971) on these rangelands. Figure 40. The foreground of t h i s picture shows the vegetation and hummocky topography of p l o t 626. The background beyond the v a l l e y of a permanent stream i s Opax Mountain, covered by I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t . 98 Agropyron spicatum (4) and Festuca seaore11a (2) were also present. The closeness of the f o r e s t edge and the c l i m a t i c a l l y moist habitat was r e f l e c t e d by the presence of Poa pratensis. Astragalus  miser (2), Erigonum heracleoides N u t t a l l (2) and Lomatium dissecturn var. multifidum N u t t a l l , Mathias and Constance (2) were some of the common representatives of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of associated forbs c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these moist Upper Grasslands. This p l o t may be regarded as t y p i c a l sample of the moist Festuca zone as described by van Ryswyk et a l . (1966). I t may be considered as a l o c a l l y dry ecosystem due to the abundance of S t i p a sp. Figure kO shows the topography and vegetation of p l o t 626. S o i l of P l o t 626 The parent material of t h i s s o i l i s a moderately + stony and hummocky stagnant ice d i s i n t e g r a t i o n moraine, capped by a -10 cm t h i c k e olian veneer. The dry color of the surface Ah horizon meets the c r i t e r i o n of Black Chernozem Great group as defined by the Canadian S o i l Survey Committee (1978). There i s no t e x t u r a l c l a s s change from the Ah to IIAh horizons, according to the physical a n a l y s i s of f i n e earth f r a c t i o n . The increase i n coarse fragments, however, indicates t h i s change (Appendix IV, Table 3)• The increase i n f i n e to t o t a l clay r a t i o with depth i s not considered to indicate clay i l l u v i a t i o n . I t rather r e l a t e s to differences i n parent materials. 9 9 Concerning chemical p r o p e r t i e s , the pedon of 626 shows true Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t s high organic matter content i n the surface Ah ho r i z o n i s i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s moist zone of the Black S o i l s (van Ryswyk e t _ a l . , 1966)(Appendix V I I , Table 3) • F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s of the organic f r a c t i o n proved the mature state of organic matter i n t h i s s o i l w i t h the wide Ch/Cf r a t i o , and a correspondingly lower E4/E6 r a t i o (Appendix V I I l ) . Figure 4l . P r o f i l e of the O r t h i c Black Chernozem of pedon 626. 100 The taxonomy of t h i s pedon i s an Orthic Black Chernozem, loamy-skeletal, mixed, weakly-calcareous, developed under a cool and semiarid climate. At-the subgroup l e v e l i t would be approxi-mately equivalent to a Typic Haploboroll. Figure 41 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 626. The t h i n section prepared from 45 - 50 cm depth of pedon 626 showed random, non-cutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the matrix, i r r e g u l a r , numerous, very f i n e macro-ortho voids and f i n e macro j o i n t planes p a r a l l e l with the s o i l surface. The f a b r i c was described as mosepic and porphyroskelic. The a n a l y s i s of opal content showed moderately low amount of p h y t o l i t h s i n t h i s s o i l . (Appendix IX.) In conclusion, i t may be stated that there are no observable signs to indicate that the p l o t area of 626 has been under f o r e s t influence i n the recent past. The pedon of 626 has functioned as a closed s o i l system f o r a long enough time to develop the mature Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s observed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Vegetation of P l o t 627 The p l o t area of 627 was dominated by trembling aspen (8). The grove had an average age of 48 years with a poor growth c l a s s ( s i t e index: 15-7 m/l00 years, B.C. Forest Service, 1978). Rosa nutkana ( l ) and Symphoricarpus albus (Linn) Blake (3) represented the shrubs. Galium boreale (Linn) (3) and Geranium viscosissimum F i s h e r and Meyer ( l ) indicated the moist nature of t h i s habitat. Poa pratensis (7) and Festuca s c a b r e l l a ( l ) were the 101 representatives of the moist Upper Grasslands, while Agropyron repens (Linn.) Beauvois (3) may have indicated disturbance. This p l o t represented several of the aspen groves associated with the park-like settings of the moist Festuca zone. Figure 42 shows the vegetation and topography of p l o t 62?. Figure 42. Vegetation and topography of p l o t 627. The aspen grove on the upper r i g h t side i s established on the northeast facing aspect. S o i l of P l o t 627 The parent material of pedon 627 i s a moderately stony stagnant ice d i s i n t e g r a t i o n moraine. The surface or g a n i c a l l y r i c h l a y e r i s " t u r f y " , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these moist parklands (Figure 43). lo2 Figure hj. Turfy root mat of pedon 627 developed under trembling aspen, promoted by the abundance of rhizomatous grasses and forbs. The p a r t i c l e size a n a l y s i s d i d not indi c a t e c l a y i l l u v i a t i o n i n t h i s s o i l (Appendix V, Table 3 ) ' The chemical a n a l y s i s b a s i c a l l y shows a Chernozemic system. The rapid decrease i n organic matter content from the Ah to Bm 103 horizons may indicate f o r e s t influence (Appendix VII, Table 3)• The taxonomy of pedon 627 i s an Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem, loamy-skeletal, mixed, weakly calcareous, developed under cool and semiarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t would be approxi-mately equivalent to a Typic Haploboroll. Examination of a t h i n section prepared from 45-50 cm depth showed random and non-cutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the matrix and a few fi n e macro-ortho j o i n t planes normal to the s o i l surface. The f a b r i c was described as mo-vosepic and porphyroskelic. The a v a i l a b l e data would i n d i c a t e that the area of p l o t 627 has not been occupied long enough by trembling aspen t© a l t e r the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Orthic Dark Brown Chernozem toward an eluv i a t e d or dark gray subgroup. Vegetation of P l o t 628 The area of p l o t 628 was dominated by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir "dry" f o r e s t s . D o u g l a s - f i r (8) formed the main canopy, having an average age of 97 years and achieving a poor growth c l a s s (Appendix I i ) . The presence of Douglas-fir seedlings indicated the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the formation of all- a g e d Douglas-fir stands. Shrubs were well represented by Spiraea b e t u l i f o l i a (7) , Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a ( l ) and Shepherd!a canadensis (Linn.) N u t t a l l ( l ) . Aster conspicuus (Lind.) Hooker (3) and Pisporum trachycarpum Bentham and Hooker ( l ) were the common herbs. Among the grasses, Calamagrostis  rubescens (7) i n d i c a t e d the f o r e s t influence while on the south f a c i n g open slope (aspect e f f e c t ) Festuca s c a b r e l l a and Stipa sp. were s t i l l 104 present. The present f o r e s t stand probably originated as a r e s u l t of a f i r e about 100 years ago as indicated by several veteran trees or snags i n the area. Figure 44 shows the vegetation and topography of p l o t 628. Figure 44. Vegetation and topography of p l o t 628. The foreground i s the crest of an esker ridge. S o i l of P l o t 628 The parent material of pedon 628 i s a g r a v e l l y loamy-s k e l e t a l meltout t i l l veneer over g r a v e l l y sandy-skeletal g l a c i o - f l u v i a l material. Under the f o r e s t canopy the organic l a y e r i s a matted mor type. Immediately below t h i s organic layer, a 2 cm t h i c k discontinuous 105 e l u v i a t e d horizon i s detectable. Below the e l u v i a t i o n l a y e r to 20 cm depth, the mineral s o i l i s enriched and colored by humic substances, i n d i c a t i n g that t h i s area p e r i o d i c a l l y has been under the influence of grassland vegetation (Appendix IV, Table 3)-According to the p a r t i c l e size a n alysis, the surface 30 cm of the mineral s o i l has a sandy clay loam texture. The horizons below t h i s depth have sandy loam and loamy sand textures. The textures of these horizons may have res u l t e d from the a c t i o n of a more extensive f l u v i a l regime. This observation i s supported by the examination of coarse fragments checked i n t h i s s o i l (Figure 45). DURAI.INE n - — - | Figure 45. Coarse fragments taken from the pedon of 628. The two rounded fragments on the r i g h t are from below 30 cm depth, showing signs of f l u v i a l a c t i v i t i e s . 106 On the other hand, the higher clay and s i l t content of the upper 30 cm of t h i s s o i l may re s u l t from i n s i t u weathering. The angularity of coarse fragments i n the surface 30 cm might have "been caused by frost shattering. Analysis of-fine clay contents did not indicate clay i l l u v i a t i o n i n t h i s s o i l (Appendix V, Table 3)• In the chemical data of pedon 6 2 8 , forest influence i s recognizable i n the low organic matter contents and wide carbon/nitro-gen r a t i o s . The high base status i s probably the resul t of the basaltic o r i g i n of the parent materials of t h i s s o i l (Appendix VII, Table 3)• Analysis of the organic f r a c t i o n indicated a d i s t i n c t forest influence i n t h i s s o i l by the high proportion of f u l v i c acid com-ponent i n the Ch/Cf r a t i o . The E 4 / E 6 r a t i o of t h i s s o i l i s the highest among a l l the pedons tested i n t h i s study (Appendix V I I l ) . The taxonomy of t h i s s o i l i s an Eluviated Melanic Brunisol, loamy to sandy-skeletal, mixed neutral, developed under cool and semiarid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t would be equivalent, approximately, to a Dystric Eutrochrept. Figure 4 6 shows the p r o f i l e of the pedon 6 2 8 . 107 Figure 46. P r o f i l e of the E l u v i a t e d Melanic Brunisol of pedon 628. The loose, non-coherent ( f l u v i a l ) nature of the parent material of t h i s pedon i s apparent below the kn i f e blade. The a n a l y s i s of t h i n sections prepared from 38-44 cm and 44-49 cm depths showed random to cutanic d i s t r i b u t i o n of matrix. The cutans were described as very f i n e , strongly oriented, free grain a r g i l l a n s . These t h i n sections had a c r y s t i c and porphyroskelic f a b r i c (Figure 47). The a n a l y s i s of p h y t o l i t h contents showed about f i v e times l e s s opal content i n the s o i l of 628 than i n that of 626. This may indicate lower density of grass cover over the area of 628. The p h y t o l i t h s 108 i n the samples of 628 showed Festucoid and Galamagrostid c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Figure 48). •Figure 47. C r y s t i c and porphyroskelic f a b r i c of t h i n section prepared from 38-44 cm depth of pedon 628, showing strongly oriented free grain a r g i l l a n s . (C.D.A. #90 - Mag. 80x - crossed n i c o l s - f u l l transmission). 109 In conclusion, i t may be stated that the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t reoccupied the area of 628 about 100 years ago. The grasses have never occupied the area long enough to impart a mature Ghernozemic character to the pedon of 628. During the existence of f o r e s t cover, the f u l v i c a c i d components of the organic f r a c t i o n were probably increased and t h i s , i n turn, induced clay t r a n s l o c a t i o n and i l l u v i a t i o n . Due to the r a p i d l y drained nature and low water holding capacity of t h i s s o i l , the s u r v i v a l of woody species i s only assured on the northerly aspects of the l o c a l topography. Vegetation of P l o t 629 This p l o t i s occupied by t y p i c a l species of the dry I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t s . Douglas-fir (9) formed an a l l - a g e d f o r e s t of low to medium growth c l a s s i n t h i s area. Shrubs were common, represented by Rosa nutkana (4), Shepherdia canadensis ( l ) and Symphoricarpus albus ( l ) , depending on the density of the tree canopy. The herbs were represented by Aster conspicuus (4), Arnica c o r d i f o l i a Hooker (3), V i c i a americana Muhlenberg (3) and i n the openings by Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Weber (3). Among the grasses, Galamagrostis rubescens. (7) i n d i c a t e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e of f o r e s t a s s o c i a t i o n and Poa pratensis showed the moist nature and somewhat disturbed state of t h i s habitat. This p l o t may be considered as a representative sample of the I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir, very dry submontane subzone ([DF a) . 110 I t i s a parkland association under the e x i s t i n g semiarid and subhumid climate i n the 900-1100 m elevation range. Under these conditions, the succession i s from Douglas-fir to Douglas-fir. The v a r i a b i l i t y of stands allows f o r a great d i v e r s i t y of species and habitat conditions. Figure 49 shows the all-aged Douglas-fir stand of p l o t 629. Figure 49. Vegetation and park-like nature of p l o t 629, showing an all-aged Douglas-fir dominated community. I l l S o i l of P l o t 629 The parent material of the pedon of 629 i s a feature-l e s s , subdued and calcareous morainal blanket. The Ah horizon of t h i s pedon i s only 5 cm t h i c k . A f t e r further examination, i t was established that t h i s horizon i s not followed by an Ahe horizon but rather by a modified B (cambic) horizon. This decision i s supported by the observation of the chemical data (Appendix VII, Table 3). Figure 50. P r o f i l e of the Orthic E u t r i c Brunisol of pedon 629, i n an opening of the park-like I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir dry f o r e s t . 112 Chemical analysis showed a Chernozemic character f o r the Ah horizon. I t should be pointed out that the s o i l samples were taken from a pedon i n a grass covered opening. The rapid decrease of organic matter content from the 5 cm t h i c k Ah horizon to Bm horizons may indicate that the influence of grass vegetation has not been substantial i n t h i s pedon. The taxonomy of pedon 629 i s an Orthic E u t r i c B r u n i s o l , loamy-skeletal, mixed, a l k a l i n e , developed under cool to cold and subhumid climate. At the subgroup l e v e l i t would be approximatly equivalent to a Typic Eutrochrept. Figure 50 shows the p r o f i l e of pedon 629-P l o t 629 i s located close to the 100 mm c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t l i n e (Figure 10). Considering the loamy texture and adequate depth of pedon 629. t h i s s o i l must be i n equilibrium with the e x i s t i n g c l i m a t i c conditions. This means that the s o i l moisture balance i n pedon 629 must have reached the subhumid s o i l moisture subclass as defined by the Canada S o i l Survey Committee (1978). The modal vegetation community under these conditions, at t h i s elevation range, i s a park-like I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t . .113 Summary of Lac-du-Bois Transect The p r o f i l e of the Lac-du-Bois transect shows that an increase i n elevation l o c a l l y i s not a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the p o s i t i o n of the f o r e s t edge (Figure 5l)« The Stipa - Festuca grassland has su c c e s s f u l l y per-s i s t e d on the Black Chernozem polypedon of 6 2 6 at somewhat higher el e v a t i o n than that of 628, probably due to the: (a) Submesic moisture regime of the i c e - d i s i n t e g r a t i o n moraine; (b) Continuous sod of grassland vegetation; and (c) South-southeast aspect. The pedon of 6 2 8 should be d r i e r l o c a l l y than that of 6 2 6 , considering textures, permeabilities and plant a v a i l a b l e water of i t s g l a c i o - f l u v i a l parent material. The presence of f o r e s t and i t s repeated invasion i n t h i s area i s possible'.due to the probable cold a i r flow along the v a l l e y from higher elevations to Lac-du-Bois. The park-like f o r e s t of 6 2 9 i s the extention of the forest stands of Opax H i l l established p r i m a r i l y on c o l l u v i a l slopes or i n areas of bedrock co n t r o l . _ Lac-du-Bois Transect 629 A.S. L. I LEGEND Vegetation rk^fr Continuous sod (Stipa-Agropyron-Festuca) ^ ^ f ^ f * Aspen grove (Populus-Symphorlcarpos) j ,^ ^ ^  I n t e r i o r Douglas-fir f o r e s t ( a l l aged) •X-f^" Permanent small * stream S u r f i c i a l M a t e r i a l s Hummocky i c e dis i n t e g r a t i o n moraine <><>| Ice contact-meltwater deposites Symbols (T.S.B.1978) Mb-h F Gb-r-E //// Ground moraine over Mb-m Eocene volcanics (Kamloops Group) R Figure 51. P r o f i l e of Lac-du-Bois transect showing major vegetation types, the extent and i n f e r r e d depth of s u r f i c i a l parent materials. ( V e r t i c a l exaggeration 2.5x.) ^Aspect of transect (approx. bearing of X axis 115 5-3 Comparative Evaluation of Transects The grassland - f o r e s t ecotone north of Kamloops has broadly s i m i l a r conditions regarding the abrupt change i n vegetation from grass-land to f o r e s t . This i s accentuated by a change i n s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , from Chernozemic to B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s . In the Mara H i l l and wheeler Mountain transects the change i n vegetation i s marked by an abrupt change i n slope with c o l l u v i a l conditions under f o r e s t cover. In the Lac-du-Bois transect the change in:vegetation ± s marked by a change i n parent material from poorly-sorted i c e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n moraine to well-sorted meltwater deposits and associated channelled topography. The three systematically selected transects showed, however, that each t r a n s i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y unique when applying the concepts established f o r s o i l i n d i v i d u a l s (polypedon) or ecosystematic u n i t s . I t i s possible to s t r a t i f y the fourteen pedons sampled by the three transects i n t o three groups according to major vegetative cover and l o c a t i o n s with respect to the present f o r e s t edge. Pedons 6l5, 6l6, 624 and 626 occur i n open grasslands and do not show any i n d i c a t i o n of previous f o r e s t cover. Pedons 618, 6l9, 620,: 625 and 627 are located at or close to the present f o r e s t edge but at present are not covered by well-established and mature coniferous f o r e s t . Pedons 617, 621, 623, 628 and 629 are under well-established coniferous f o r e s t . This coniferous f o r e s t i s not dense but has park-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In the following text, these pedons w i l l be compared and evaluated according to t h i s grouping, considering t h e i r selected macro-116 •morphological, :-physical i'.mlne'ralogical and chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Along with t h i s evaluation, r e l a t i o n s h i p s to climate, parent material and vegetation w i l l he pointed out. Macromorphological C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The observation of Appendix IV shows the depth of sola f o r a l l pedons. This information i s p l o t t e d i n Figure 52. The Mann Whitney U-test of t h i s data revealed that the depths of sola i n the forested pedons i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than i n the f o r e s t edge and grassland pedons. On the other hand, no s i g n i f i c a n t d ifferences were found between the grassland and fo r e s t edge pedons. The deeper sola of forested pedons may be explained by the differences in-parent materials. The- forested pedons have c o l l u v i a l and g l a c i o - f l u v i a l parent materials except f o r pedon 629. However, t h i s pedon has the lowest c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t (Figure 10). The grassland and f o r e s t edge pedons have morainal or f l u v i a l over morainal parent materials. I f the depths to carbonated parent material are examined, the usual trend of the gradual removal of carbonates i s seen with gradual cooling of climate. This trend i s d i r e c t l y proportional to the increase i n elevation. The average deepening of sola of 13 cm per 100 m eleva t i o n r i s e can be observed only on morainal materials since no carbon-ated horizons were observed i n pedons 6l7 and 623 ( c o l l u v i a l parent material) or i n pedon 628 ( g l a c i o - f l u v i a l parent material). This trend of carbonate removal corresponds to find i n g s of Ryswyk e_t a l . (1966) . The Mann Whitney U-test showed that the depths to carbonates i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater i n the 117 f o r e s t s than i n the grasslands. 7^ 0 20 -p 6oi 80+ 100+ 800 —t— Elevation (m) 850 900 950 •o T I T T T 1000 •o I t i 4 . Grassland Forest edge Forested • Depth to carbonated parent material x Depth to non-carbonated parent material y = -0.13x - 32.9; Figure 52. Depth of sola of a l l pedons as a function of elevation and a regression l i n e i n d i c a t i n g a trend toward the removal of carbonate s. Morphological observation of Ah horizons (Appendix IV) shows d e f i n i t e Chernozemic Ah c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r pedons 615, 624 and 626 of the open grasslands. The increasing moisture e f f i c i e n c y corresponding 118 to r i s i n g e levation produces the well-known gradual darkening i n the surface horizons of these pedons (Ryswyk et a l . , 1966) from dark brown to black c o l o r s . The Ghernozemic Ah c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a l s o apparent i n pedons 6l8, 620, 625 and 627: of the f o r e s t edges. The surface horizons of the forested pedons f a i l to meet the c r i t e r i a of the Ghernozemic Ah horizons e i t h e r i n depth, i n structure or i n color. Pedons 616 and 619 may be excluded from t h i s evaluation because of t h e i r truncated nature caused by severe grazing and erosion. Physical and Mineraiogical - C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The observation of Appendix V i n d i c a t e s generally sandy clay loam, clay loam and loam texture classes f o r a l l pedons and horizons. Sandy loam and loamy sand texture classes are found only i n pedons 625, 626, 628 and 629, showing that f l u v i a l action was p a r t i a l l y responsible f o r the formation of the parent materials of these s o i l s . According to S o i l Taxonomy ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975)1 the analysis of f i n e clays i s desirable to detect clay t r a n s l o c a t i o n within a pedon leading to the formation of an a r g i l l i c horizon. The observation of the data of Appendix V does not indicate a d i s t i n c t trend toward the formation of a r g i l l i c horizons. Figure 53 shows the depth d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l and fi n e clays i n s i x selected pedons: 615, 624 and 626 (represent-ing grasslands), and 617, 621 and 628 (representing f o r e s t s ) . Clay i l l u v i a t i o n i s , i n d i c a t e d i n pedon 621 only i n Figure 53- The r a t i o of clay i n the i l l u v i a l horizon of 621 i s only 1.14 times more than i n the overlying e l u v i a l horizon; therefore, t h i s horizon cannot be designated as a Bt. 119 Fine Clay Content (<0.2 ym) 0 10 20 % Figure 53- Depth d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l and fine clay contents i n three grassland and three forested pedons. 120 According to the X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s of- 2.0 um clays (Appendix X), the clay mineralogy of these pedons i s predominantly of the 2:1 type. In pedons 6l9, 620, 621, 623 and 628 a higher expression of vermiculite and montmorillonite i s evidenced i n the Bm horizons than i n the surface horizons. This f i n d i n g may also indicate clay i l l u v i a t i o n . On the other hand, the c l e a r e r expression of these clay minerals i n the subsurface horizons may be caused by more abundant c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n and/or pedogenic organization. The clay mineralogy i n Appendix X r e f l e c t s the mafic nature of the bedrock of t h i s area (Plateau Basalts and Kamloops Volcanics). This i s seen by the presence of amphiboles i n many samples and by the pre-dominance of vermiculite, montmorillonite, c h l o r i t e and i l l i t e clay species and t h e i r intergrades. The r e l a t i v e l y high fin e to t o t a l clay r a t i o s i n these samples (Appendix V) may be explained by the g e o l o g i c a l l y rapid a l t e r a t i o n of primary mafic minerals i n t o secondary clay minerals. The Mann Whitney U-test of the plant-available water contents (Appendix Vi) revealed that the fo r e s t edge pedons have s i g n i f i -c antly greater p l ant-available water than the forested pedons. The difference i n p l a n t - a v a i l able water contents between the forested and grassland pedons i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y not s i g n i f i c a n t . The superior performance of these f o r e s t edge s o i l s i n the supply of plant-available water i s probably due to the lush and diverse vegetation established i n these t r a n s i t i o n a l ecosystems, i t s e f f e c t on s o i l organic matter production and on formation of favourable s o i l structure. 121 Chemical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Diagrams represented i n Figure 5^  were prepared from the data of Appendix VII. The p l o t t i n g of organic matter contents as a function of depth i n d i c a t e s two populations. Population #1 i s the grass-land and f o r e s t edge s o i l s . Population #2 includes the s o i l s under w e l l -established coniferous f o r e s t . The data of carbon/nitrogen r a t i o s also substantiates the two-populations trend. The Mann Whitney U-test showed that the C/N r a t i o s of the forested pedons are s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than e i t h e r of the f o r e s t edge or grassland pedons. This i n d i c a t e s that the grassland and the f o r e s t edge s o i l s have a more mature organic matter than the forested s o i l s . This property c o r r e l a t e s well with the Chernozemic nature of these s o i l s . The greater v a r i a t i o n apparent i n the C/N r a t i o s of the forested pedons i s probably due to t h e i r parkland character ( i . e . p e r i o d i c s h i f t s i n vegetation cover during the past) and to t h e i r immature ( i n c e p t i s o l ) status. I t i s known that f o r e s t conditions generally decrease the t o t a l base saturation of s o i l s (Dormaar and Lutwick, 1966). In t h i s study t h i s trend was detected only i n pedons 621 and 617 (Appendix V i i ) . The Mann Whitney U-test d i d not reveal s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l base saturation between the three groups. This may be the r e s u l t of the high base status of the parent materials north of Kamloops and of the very low and even d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (Figures 5 and 6). The two-populations trend established by the evaluation of physical and chemical data i s f u r t h e r supported by the p a r t i a l a n a l y s i s of organic f r a c t i o n s reported i n Appendix VIII (Tables 1 and 2). 122 O.M. Content g 20 IrOU 60 L Carbon/Nitrogen Rat i o 10 20 30 71 . . „ | „ • > ' • 1 r-A Qs>°A * o A o O A o * Forested A Forest Edge o Grassland Figure 54. D i s t r i b u t i o n of organic matter content and carbon/nitrogen r a t i o as the functions of depth i n selected grassland, t r a n s i t i o n and forested s o i l s , combining Mara H i l l , Wheeler Mountain and Lac-du-Bois transects. 123 The Mann Whitney U-test showed that the r a t i o s of carbon contents i n humic and f u l v i c a cids are s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater i n the grassland surface horizons than i n the forested surface horizons. The commonly applied e x t i n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t r a t i o s (E21/E5) (Schnitzer, 197l) f compared at 465 J^ m and 665 Jim, showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between grassland and forested surface horizons, applying the c r i t e r i o n of the Mann Whitney U-test. Two f o r e s t edge pedons 618 and 619 were excluded from t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s because 619 was considered to be an eroded phase; therefore, i t s humic and f u l v i c acids do not express the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t y p i c a l Ah horizons (McKeague, 1968). I t s p a i r , 618, was also deleted. The study of the Gh/Cf and E4/E6 r a t i o s proved that the- grassland s o i l s i n the north Kamloops area have more mature organic matter components than the forested s o i l s i n t h e i r surface horizons. In summary of t h i s evaluation, the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t parameters are shown i n Figure 55. defined f o r the three groups by the Mann Whitney si g n i f i c a n c e t e s t . Forested Pedons Grassland Pedons 1. Depth of sola 2. Depth of carbonates 3. Carbon/Nitrogen r a t i o s 4. Ch/Cf r a t i o s 5. E/4./E6 r a t i o s Forest Edge Pedons 1. Plant-available water contents 2. Carbon/Nitrogen r a t i o s Figure 55. Parameters showing s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s at 95% l e v e l , between the three categories, using Mann Whitney U-test. 124 5.4 Evaluation of Micromorphological Techniques Thin sections In s o i l science, the micromorphological study of s o i l f a b r i c i s e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l f o r the detection of clay i l l u v i a t i o n and pedological organization. In t h i s study the observation of t h i n sections was u t i l i z e d to detect or to prove cl a y i l l u v i a t i o n . With the exception of pedon 621, the p a r t i c l e size analyses and macromorphological observations d i d not detect clay i l l u v i a t i o n i n any other pedon. Thin section studies found i n c i p i e n t signs of clay i l l u v i a t i o n i n pedon 6l7 (Figure 16). The study of t h i n sections also showed d i s t i n c t clay cutan formation i n pedon 628 (Figure 47). While completing macromorphological observations, the author detected clay i l l u v i a t i o n i n pedon 623 and a Bt horizon was t e n t a t i v e l y recorded f o r t h i s s o i l . Subsequent t h i n section observations proved that clay i l l u v i a t i o n i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t process i n pedon 623. The i n i t i a l preparation of t h i n sections i s d i f f i c u l t , and i t involves many t r i a l s and errors. Nevertheless, i t should be stated that f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of clay i l l u v i a t i o n , the study of t o t a l and fi n e clays should be correlated with observations of t h i n sections (McKeague et a l . , 1978). P h y t o l i t h s The study of plant opals d i d not y i e l d conclusive r e s u l t s of grassland versus f o r e s t sequence north of Kamloops. Pinegrass (Calamagrostis sp.), the common grass of the dry f o r e s t s of the I n t e r i o r , 125 also produces opals abundantly. Agropyron and Festuca spp. also occur on the forested side of the ecotone. The ashing of plant material of Festuca, Galamagrostis and Agropyron spp. yielded 5-73%, 4.24% and 3.14% ash content, r e s p e c t i v e l y . This i s i n agreement with the data reported "by Wilding and Drees (1968) . Galamagrostis opals may "be distinguished from Festuca and Agropyron phy t o l i t h s ; as Galamagrostis commonly y i e l d s long and smooth-walled opaline c e l l s . The average length of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Galama-g r o s t i s c e l l s i s 245 p-ia with standard deviation of 39-37 / i i . Agropyron commonly produces a p h y t o l i t h that has an average length of 115 um (Sd = 15.85 pn). This type of p h y t o l i t h has spiny and rugged walls. Festuca also produces a d i s t i n c t knobby-walled p h y t o l i t h , having an average length of 91.25 nm (Sd = 16.52 um). The Galamagrostis opals are s i g n i f i c a n t l y longer than e i t h e r Fe stuca or Agropyron p h y t o l i t h s at the 99% l e v e l . This may o f f e r a method of recognition f o r the opal extracts of major grass species i n the Kamloops area. Metcalf (i960) described small s i l i c a bodies i n the epidermal sheets of graminoid species. Twiss et a l . (1969) suggested that only small s i l i c a bodies of grasses (^ 20 um size) are species s p e c i f i c . This i s undoubtedly true f o r prepared epidermal t i s s u e s . I t i s a challenge, however, to f i n d small s i l i c a bodies i n a maze of extracted opals i n a s i l t f r a c t i o n of a s o i l sample and to d i s t i n g u i s h these from other mineral or s i l i c a i m p u rities. An electron microscope scan of ex-t r a c t e d opals from pedon 619 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s (Figure 56). Furthermore, the double time required to f i l t e r and p u r i f y the small s i l i c a bodies from 126 Figure 57. E l e c t r o n microscope scan of graminoid p h y t o l i t h s extracted from >20 yum s i l t f r a c t i o n of epipedon 621 (Mag. 200x). The majority of long p h y t o l i t h s (>50%) i s smooth walled Calamagrostid opals. 127 f i n e s i l t f r a c t i o n s makes t h i s approach time consuming and rarely-successful. This was pointed out by Jones and Hay (1975). S i m i l a r to other natural phenomenon, the plant opals are extremely v a r i a b l e . An extended time i s required to provide species s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of the extracts. This may be i l l u s -t r a t e d with the observation of Figure 57. In B r i t i s h Columbia, fur t h e r s c i e n t i f i c enquiries are necessary to enlarge our knowledge of the usefulness of p h y t o l i t h s i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of past vegetation changes. 128 6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 129 6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Pettapiece (1969) noted that the grassland - f o r e s t t r a n s i t i o n zone i s indic a t e d "by a change from Chernozemic to L u v i s o l i c s o i l s . In t h i s grassland - fo r e s t ecotone study north of Kamloops, the Chernozemic s o i l s of grasslands were represented by pedons 6l5, 624 and 626. These showed the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c dark brown to black s o i l sequence with increasing moisture e f f i c i e n c y . Pedons close to or at the fo r e s t edges s t i l l showed Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The t y p i c a l samples f o r t h i s sequence were 6l8, 620, 625 and 627. These pedons a l l belong to the Dark Brown Chernozemic Great Group. Pedons located i n well-established and mature coniferous f o r e s t s showed the f o r e s t influence, with signs of e l u v i a t i o n and with changes i n the properties of organic f r a c t i o n s , but they have not attained L u v i s o l i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These pedons were 617, 621, 623, 628 and 629. These s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d as base-rich Brunisols. S o i l Taxonomy ( S o i l Survey S t a f f , 1975) provides the most appropriate name f o r these s o i l s : I n c e p t i s o l s , i . e . p e d o l o g i c a l l y immature s o i l s . The three systematically selected transects sampled three d i f f e r e n t ecosystematic conditions i n t h i s grassland - f o r e s t ecotone. The Mara H i l l transect approached the ponderosa pine - Douglas-f i r f o r e s t from a b i g sage-invaded middle grassland ecosystem association, established on deep morainal deposits. Due to i t s physiographic l o c a t i o n and lowermost elevations, t h i s transect has the highest c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s (-300 mm). Around 850 m elevation on c o l l u v i a l materials, a 130 ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir savanna-like forest had established. Due to i t s superior heat resistance, ponderosa pine (Daubenmire, 19^ 3) was able to invade grasslands having low s o i l bulk d e n s i t i e s (Plot 6l8), although the s o i l had mature Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and moderate carbonate contents throughout i t s depth. At the same ele v a t i o n and aspect, the area remained the domain of the grasslands on compacted morainal materials (Plot 619). The Wheeler Mountain transect sampled the dry phase of the Upper Grasslands and adjacent Douglas-fir f o r e s t s . Under these con-d i t i o n s the c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s were l e s s severe (-200 mm) than at the Mara H i l l transect. The melt-water deposits and compacted moraines were dominated by grasslands and the s o i l s were t y p i c a l of the Dark • Brown (approaching Black) Chernozemic Subgroups. The f o r e s t s occupied c o l l u v i a l materials above 930 m. The s o i l s under the f o r e s t s showed signs of clay i l l u v i a t i o n (pedon 62l), but f a i l e d to q u a l i f y as L u v i s o l s . The edge of the coniferous f o r e s t appears to be stable and the presence of a l l aged Douglas-fir f o r e s t i s confined to slopes steeper than 20°. The Lac-du-Bois transect sampled the moist phase of the Upper Grasslands and adjacent Douglas-fir f o r e s t s . The c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s are l e s s than -200 mm i n t h i s area. The grasslands are confined to morainal and ice-contact deposits and the s o i l s of the grasslands are Orthic Blacks at 920 - 930 m elevations. Aspect or cold a i r f l o w may r a p i d l y change conditions favoring f o r e s t s . This landscape, with mosaic-l i k e f o r e s t groves, assumes park-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 131 Analysis of laboratory data proved the existence of two d i s t i n c t populations of s o i l s i n the grassland - fo r e s t ecotone north of Kamloops. The s o i l s of the grasslands are Chernozemic. The fo r e s t edge s o i l s s t i l l have Chernozemic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n d i c a t i n g , perhaps, that f o r e s t s are encroaching upon the grasslands. In the f o r e s t s , the s o i l s are El u v i a t e d Melanic and Orthic E u t r i c Brunisols, i n d i c a t i n g s h o r t - l i v e d s h i f t s i n the past vegetation covers or r e f l e c t i n g unstable surface conditions influenced by c o l l u v i a l : action. The asso c i a t i o n o f . f o r e s t species with B r u n i s o l i c s o i l s may be due to the preference of woody species f o r p e d o l o g i c a l l y young s o i l s , al]owing.deeper root penetrations i n t h i s tension zone. The change of Chernozemic s o i l s to L u v i s o l i c s o i l s with grassland to fo r e s t t r a n s i t i o n was not found i n t h i s study. The lack of pronounced clay i l l u v i a t i o n i n the forested side of the ecotone may be the r e s u l t of the high c l i m a t i c moisture d e f i c i t s and of the lack of d i s t i n c t monthly maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n . I t i s known that L u v i s o l i c s o i l s do occur under f o r e s t cover i n t h i s area (Green and Leskiw, 197l)• I t i s assumed that L u v i s o l i c s o i l s north of Kamloops are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o i l s of the areas having stable surface conditions, cold temperature, and subhumid moisture regime subclass. These regimes were only approached by t h i s ecotone study (p l o t 6 2 9 ) . The study of t h i n sections was useful to diagnose signs of clay i l l u v i a t i o n In a l l c r i t i c a l cases. A n a l y s i s of plant opals d i d not give conclusive r e s u l t s con-cerning past vegetation. I t was found that three major grass species 132 may be distinguished from one another by comparing t h e i r coarse s i l t size (>20 um) extracts. I t i s hoped that these microtechniques have added new dimensions to s o i l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 133 LITERATURE CITED Anderson, D. W. 1972. Characteristics of the organic matter of grassland, transitional and forest soils. Univ. Sask. Ph.D. thesis. Univ. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 128p. Armstrong, J. E., D. R. Crandall, D. J. Easterbrook and J. B. Noble. 1965-Late Pleistocene stratigraphy and chronology in southwestern British Columbia and western Washington. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 76:321-330. 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G r a s s o p a l i n some C h e s t n u t and f o r e s t e d s o i l s i n n o r t h - c e n t r a l Oregon S o i l S c i . Soc. Am. P r o c . 28: 685 - 688. Working Group, S o i l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e . d e s c r i b i n g s o i l s i n the f i e l d . O ttawa. 84p. p l u s s u p p l . Z o l t a i , S. C. 1975. S o u t h e r n l i m i t of the C a n a d i a n P r a i r i e s . I n f o r m . E n v i r o n m e n t Canada. N o r t h . Res 12p p l u s maps. 1975. Manual f o r A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, c o n i f e r o u s t r e e s on Rep. No. R-X-128 , C e n t r e . , Edmonton. Appendix I, Local C l i m a t i c Data Table 1. Summary of c l i m a t i c information a v a i l a b l e from Mara H i l l (east), Lac-du-Bois (south) and Opax H i l l temporary weather stations; showing'years of record, f r o s t free p e r i o d (days) and t o t a l growing degree days >5°C per year. Geographical Locations Mara H i l l (east) Weather Stations Lac-du-Bois (South) Opax H i l l Longitude Latitude E l e v a t i o n m Aspect Years of record: P r e c i p i t a t i o n Temperature 120 50 2?' 30" 45' 00" 854 NE 1970 - 74 1970-74, 1976-77 120 50 27' 00" w 47' 00" N 920 SE 1979 - 80 1979 - 80 Frost free period (days) 120 29' 30" W 50 49' 00" N 1100 SE 1976 - 77 t—1 1976 1977 176 164 Total growing degree (days) 65 103 1976 1977 1447 1634 1160 1200 Appendix I, Continued Table 2. Monthly mean maximum, mean minimum, mean temperature; monthly and total May to September precipitation for the three temporary weather stations. Weather Stations Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Ave. Temp. ( C) Mara H i l l (east) Lac-du-Bois (south) Opax H i l l Mara H i l l (east) Lac-du-Bois (south) Opax H i l l Mara H i l l (east) Lac-du-Bois (south) Opax H i l l Mara H i l l (east) Lac-du-Bois (south) Opax H i l l Monthly mean maximum temperature ( C) 12.9 15-2 20.1 22.4 22.2 17-1 16.0 18.1 20.2 24.5 23.2 18.9 10.9 16.4 17.8 19.2 13.8 Monthly mean minimum temperature ( C) 2.5 5-2 8.9 11.1 11.8 8.0 2.5 '6.4 7.3 10.1 9.2 8.1 -0.1 -3-7 5-1 7.8 3-4 Mean monthly temperature ( C) 6.6 11.1 15.4 16.8 19.1 9.2 12.2 13.8 17.3 18.8 5.0 9.0 11.1 12.9 Precipitation (mm) 7.2 13.3 20.6 35.3 31.6 37-5 18.7 41.0 19.5 34.8 12.4 13.4 8.4 17.8 39.0 10.2 12.9 9.1 2.8 0.8 -1.4 6.1 6.5 4.9 17.2 19.1 14.5 7-2 6.3 3.1 12.7 13-0 8.5 Total May to Sept. P.P.T. (mm) 12.9 110.1 17.7 187.7 Appendix I, Continued Table 3. Comparison of temperature data given by Dawson (1895, P-13 B) from 1877 to I893 and t h i r t y year normals of Research S t a t i o n , CD.A., Kamloops. (Atm. Env. Service, 1971) Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Ave./month Kamloops, 1877-93* CD.A. , 1941-70 Kamloops, 1877-93 CD.A. , 1941-70 Kamloops, 1877-93 G.D.A., 1941-70 Monthly mean maximum temperature (°C) -1.6 -1.2 10.0 15.7 20.1 25.2 28.7 29.0 23.3 14.1 6.0 -2.4 3.9 9.1 16.2 22.0 26.0 29.6 28.1 23.0 14.1 5.9 Monthly mean minimum temperature (°C) -9.6 -11.5 -2.3 -9.6 -4.6 -1.8 -5.7 -6.4 -6.0 -0.3 3-8 3.8 2.6 7-5 9.8 12.9 12.7 8.9 2.7 7.2 11.3 13.^ 12.5 8.3 Mean monthly temperature (°C) 9.1 13.7 17.5 20.7 20.6 15.6 9.5 14.6 18.6 21.5 20.3 15.7 4.1 -0.7 3.8 -1.6 8.4 2.4 9.0 2.0 1.2 1.2 -5.0 -5.2 -1.8 -2.0 14.2 15.0 2.6 3-3 8.4 9.2 *Exact l o c a t i o n of weather s t a t i o n u t i l i z e d by Dawson i s not known; assumed to be below 400 m e l e v a t i o n i n the Kamloops area. Location of Research St a t i o n , CD.A. weather s t a t i o n i s noted i n Figure 5-ENVIRONMENT-VEGETATION TABLES. PART 1 A p p e n d i x 1 1 FOREST SERVICE, RESEARCH DIVISION TABLE 1 MH I MH I MH I MH I MH I MH I LB I LB I LB I LB I LB LB I LB I LB I MEAN I 6 15 | e 161 6 17 | 6 18 | 6 19 | 620| 62 1 | 623| 624 | 625 626 627 | 628 | 629 | 889 . 3 745 780 850 850 847 894 940 1006 920 9 15 920 918 920 945 24 . 6 22 36 47 22 16 1 1 5 1 55 22 19 1 1 7 14 1 1 1 15 90 135 130 1 10 150 80 70 308 90 152 90 150 170 0 0 0 0 0 0 E D 0 0 0 0 E 0 . DB DB . EB .DB .DB .DB . EB . GL .DB BL .DB . DB .MB . EB FL L L FL FL FL FL LZ FL KL KL KL SZ L 45 . 7 K 50 K 50 X 4 1 K 38 K 15 L 80 23 . 9 16 17 12 12 28 19 30 45 25 29 15 26 37 24 M M SM M M SM STM SM SM SM SM SHG SM M PM PM PM M M M PM M M M M PM SM PM EVMB MB CVMB CVMB MB EVMB CBMB CV MB FFMB MB FVMB FB FVMB I I Id I I I I I I I I I MIX I 60 5 51 51 69 4 1 38 15 100 84 42 70 64 75 70 77 o 0 W W W W W W W W W W W MW W W 55 2 4 1 50 60 40 38 38 100 65 42 70 42 65 70 52 1 6 1 1 6 1 1 0 1 4 0 O O 0 6 2 MU MU MD MU MU MU MD MU MU MU MU MU MD MD 0 0 o O 7 0 6 . 7 8.6 6 . 3 8. 1 6 . 7 6.9 6 . 1 6.9 7 .O 7.0 7 . 7 7.0 6 . 4 7 . 1 100 0 68 182 58 2Z 68 269 48 97 80 0- O o - - - - - - - - - - -0- 0 0 - - - - - - - - - - ** 0- 0 0 - - - - - - - - - - * o- o o - - - - - - - - - — _ o- 0 0 - - - - - - - - - -7-20 0 - - 7-2 1 - - 7-20 5-29 9- 14 - - - 8-16 7-20 7- 16 0 - 8- 13 6- 18 7-17 - Z-31 - - - - - -o- o 0 - - - - - - - - - - -o- o o - - - - - - - - - -o- 0 0 - - - - - - - - - -o- o 0 - - - - - - -792 7 166 165 142 1308 17 11 1264 18 3 23 9 14 16 25 23 28 1 29 48 36 13 39 35 15 16 22 69 7 180 19 92 23 33 7 1 0 6 O 1 1 0 1 19 . 9 0 0 17 10 0 6 15 60 0 0 0 35 60 75 23 .0 3 50 1 62 50 30 I 1 5 15 1 1 0 27 52 15 74 . G 90 30 56 65 60 60 90 90 96 99 99 60 60 90 o .O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 73 . 7 25 20 90 80 30 50 92 80 99 97 95 99 85 90 19 . 3 70 70 O 15 60 50 O O 0 O 0 0 5 O 4 . 2 5 0 10 5 5 0 4 20 0 0 0 0 10 0 2 . 7 0 10 0 0 5 0 3 1 1 3 5 0 0 10 PLOT NUMBER BIOGEOCLIMATIC UNIT ELEVATION (M) SLOPE GRADIENT (%) ASPECT SOIL SUBGROUP (CSSC, 1978) SOIL FAMILY (PARTICLE SIZE) DEPTH TO RESTR. HOR./LAYER COARSE FRAGMENTS (%) SOIL MO IST.REGIME(HYGROTOPE) SOIL NUTR.REGIME(TROPHOTOPE ) PARENT MATERIALS BEDROCK ROOTING DEPTH (CM) SEEPAGE WATER DEPTH (CM) SOIL DRAINAGE (CSSC. 1978) THICKNESS OF THE SOLUM (CM) THICKNESS OF HUM. HOR. (CM) HUMUS FORM PH OF HUMUS C/N OF HUMUS PH OF MIN. SOIL ENVIRONMENT VEGETATION AGE (YEARS) GROWTH CLASS AND SITE INDEX AA AL PG PC PE PM PP TH TM TP LO NS/HA BA/HA (SO.M) DBH (CM) VOL/HA (CU.M) MAI (CU.M/HA/YR) STRATA COVERAGE (%) GROUND COVERAGE (%) A LAYER B LAYER C LAYER D LAYER H MS DW R S S ENVIRONMENT-VEGETATION TABLES , PART 2 Appendix III BR I T I SH COLUMBI A ^ O R E S T ^ E R V I C E TABLE 1 p. 1 RESEARCH DIVISION SYNSYSTEMATIC UNIT : 100ALL PLOTS PLOT NUMBER I SYNTHETIC I VALUES |615 | 6 1G|617 | 6 1S | 6 1 9|62O|G2 1 623|624|625|62G|627|628|629| ST.NO. SPECIES | P MS RS | SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR A2 A3 B1 B2 C 1 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 28 6 5 2 0-8 5 3 8 2 7 3 8 3 2 POPULUS TREMULOIDES 7 1 3 2 0-7 7 3 3 PINUS PONDEROSA 7 1 2 2 0-5 5 3 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 2 1 4 2 7 0-5 2 3 4 2 5 2 PINUS PONDEROSA 7 1 1 3 0-4 4 3 POPULUS TREMULOIDES 7 1 + 0 0-2 2 3 PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII 14 3 1 0 0-3 3 3 2 2 POPULUS TREMULOIDES 7 1 2 2 0-5 5 2 PINUS PONDEROSA 7 1 + O 0-2 2 3 4 ARTEMESIA TRIDENTATA 35 7 5 1 0-8 2 2 7 3 8 3 7 3 5 3 5 AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA 35 7 1 O 0-2 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 1. 1 2 6 ROSA NUTKANA 28 6 2 0 0-4 2 3 3 3 2 2 4 3 7 CHRYSOTHAMNUS NAUSEOSUS 28 6 1 1 0-2 2 3 1 2 2 3 2 3 8 ARTEMESIA FRIGIDA 28 6 + 7 0-2 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 9 SPIRAEA BETIJLIFOLIA PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII POPULUS TREMULOIDES 2 1 2 1 14 4 4 3 3 1 2 5 0 6 0-7 0-3 0-5 1 1 2 4-4 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 7 3 3 2 10 SYMPHORICARPOS ALBUS 14 3 1 0 0-3 3 3 1 2 1 1 SHEPHERDIA CANADENSIS 14 3 + 2 0-2 1 2 1 3 12 MAHONIA AQUIFOLIUM 7 1 + 0 0-2 2 3 13 JUNIPERUS SCOPULORUM PINUS PONDEROSA 7 7 1 1 + + 0 0 0- 1 0- 1 1 2 1 3 14 ACHILLEA MILLEFOLIUM 85 7 2 7 0-3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 15 ANTENNARIA MICROPHYLLA 85 7 2 3 0-3 2 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 3 16 TRAGOPOGON DUBIUS 7 1 4 1 7 0-2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3 17 AGROPYRON SPICATUM 64 3 5 3 0-7 8 3 5 2 7 3 5 2 5 2 1 1 3 2 7 3 7 3 4 3 18 COLLINSIA PARVIFLORA 64 3 2 5 0-3 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 19 ASTER CAMPESTRIS 64 3 2 2 0-3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 1 3 20 POA PRATENSIS 57 1 4 9 0-8 2 3 3 3 5 3 2 2 3 3 3 7 3 3 3 2 1 KOELERIA MACRANTHA 57 1 3 3 0-5 4 3 6 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 22 TARAX ICUM OF FICIONALE 57 1 2 8 0-5 1 2 2 2 1 2 5 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 3 23 LITHOSPERMUM RUDERALE 57 1 1 9 0-3 2 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 2 3 1 2 24 FESTUCA SCABRELLA 50 0 4 8 0-7 5 2 4 2 3 1 6 3 7 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 25 ALLIUM CERNUUM 50 0 1 3 0-2 1 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 2 1 3 2 3 26 BALSAMORHIZA SAGITATTA 42 9 2 2 0-4 4 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 27 ANTENNARIA DIMORPHA 42 9 1 3 0-2 1 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 28 CALOCHORTUS MACROCARPUS 42 9 1 0 0-2 2 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 2 1 3 29 ASTRAGALUS MISER 35 7 3 2 0-5 5 3 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 30 CAST ILLEJA THOMPSONII 35 7 2 8 0-4 4 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 31 AGROPYRON REPENS 35 7 2 6 0-5 5 3 2 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 32 POA SANDBERGII 35 7 1 8 0-3 3 2 3 2 2 2 5 2 1 3 33 CREPIS SPP. 35 7 1 3 0-3 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 34 STIPA OCCIOENTALIS 35 7 1 2 0-3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 2 35 GERANIUM VISCOSISSIMUM 35 7 1 .0 0-2 2 3 1 1 1 3 2 3 1 3 ENVIRONMENT-VEGETATION TABLES. PART 2 SYNSY5TEMATIC UNIT : 100ALL PLOTS Appendix I I I , Continued BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH DIVISION TABLE 1 p. 2 PLOT NUMBER SYNTHETIC VALUES G15 616 617 618 619|620|621|623|624|625|626|627|628|629| NO . SPECIES P MS RS 36 LOMATIUM DISSECTUM 35 7 1 0 0-2 37 CALAMAGROSTIS RUBESCENS 28 . 6 4 3 0-7 38 GALIUM BOREALE 28 6 1 3 0-3 39 OXYTROPIS CAMPESTRIS 28 6 1 3 0-3 40 CERAST IUM ARVENSE 28 6 1 1 0-2 41 CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLI A 28 6 1 O 0-2 42 POA NEVADENSIS 28 6 1 0 0-2 43 STIPA. COMATA 28 6 + 7 0-2 44 JUNCUS ARCTICUS SSB. ATER 2 1 4 1 3 0-3 45 BROMUS TECTORUM 21 4 1 0 0-2 46 ASTER FOLIACEUS 2 1 4 + 5 0-2 47 POA CANBYI 2 1 4 + 5 0-2 48 ASTER CONSPICUUS 14 3 1 6 0-4 49 ARNICA CORDIFOLIA 14 3 1 0 0-3 50 AGROPYRON SMITHII 14 3 + 5 0-2 51 COMANDRA UMBELLATA 14 3 + 5 0-2 52 ANTENNARIA PARVIFOLIA 14 3 2 0-2 53 ERIOGONUM HE RACL 101DES 14 3 + 2 0-2 54 FRAGARIA VIRG. SUBSP. GLAUCA 14 3 + 2 0-2 55 COLLOMIA LINEARIS 14 3 + 0 0- 1 56 HEUCHERA CYLINDRICA 14 3 + 0 O- 1 57 POLYGONUM SPP. 7 1 + 7 0-3 58 VICIA AMERICANA 7 1 + 7 0-3 59 ASTER SPP. 7 1 + O 0-2 60 CENTAUREA DIFFUSA 7 1 + 0 0-2 61 DISPORUM TRACHYCARPUM 7 1 + 0 0-2 62 MICROSERIS NUTANS 7 1 + 0 0-2 63 POA INTERIOP 7 1 + o 0-2 64 POA SPP. 7 1 + o 0-2 65 AGOSERIS GLAUCA 7 1 + 0 0- 1 66 ARABIS HIRSUTA 7 1 + 0 O- 1 67 ARTEMES1A DRACUNCULUS 7 1 + 0 0- 1 68 BROMUS INERMIS 7 1 + 0 O- 1 69 BROMUS MOLLIS 7 1 + 0 0-1 70 CICHORIUM INTYBUS 7 1 + o O- 1 71 CIRCIUM BREVIFOLIUM 7 1 + 0 0- 1 72 CIRCIUM UNDULATUM 7 1 + 0 O- 1 73 DESCURA INI A RICHARDSONII 7 1 + o 0- 1 74 ERIGERON PUMILUS 7 1 + 0 0- 1 75 EROPHILA VERNA 7 1 + 0 O- 1 76 FRITILLARI A PUDICA 7 1 + 0 0- 1 77 GEUM TRIFLORUM 7 1 + 0 0- 1 78 LAPPULA SOUARROSA 7 1 + 0 0- 1 79 LINUM LEWISII 7 1 + .0 0- 1 80 LOTUS DENTICULUS 7 . 1 + .0 0- 1 81 PHLEUM PRATENSE 7 . 1 + .0 O- 1 82 POA NERVOSA 7 . 1 + .0 0- 1 83 POTENT ILLA GRACILIS 7 . 1 + o 0- 1 84 SEDUM STENOPETALUM 7 . 1 + .o 0-1 SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR 2 . 3 ON ENVIRONMENT-VEGETATION TABLES, PART 2 BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE SYNSYSTEMATIC UNIT 100ALL PLOTS Appendix I I I , Continued RESEARCH DIVISION TABLE 1 PAGE 3 PLOT NUMBER I SYNTHETIC | VALUES |e 15 |e 16 |e 17 |e 18 619<!62o|621 623|624|625|6261627162816291 ST.NO. SPECIES | P MS RS I SPECIES SIGNIFICANCE AND VIGOR DH 85 SMI LAC INA STELLATA 7 1 + 0 O- 1 86 SOLIDAGO CANADENSIS 7 1 + 0 0- 1 87 TRIFOLIUM REPENS 7 1 + 0 0- 1 88 VIOLA SPP. 7 1 + 0 0- 1 89 PELTIGERA CANINA 35 7 1 0 0-2 1 2 90 LETHARIA VULPINA 28 6 + 7 0-2 91 BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS 14 3 1 O 0-3 92 BRYUM SPP. 14 3 + 5 0-2 2 2 93 CLADONIA PYXIDATA 7 1 + 0 0-2 2 2 94 ALECTORIA SARMENTOSA 7 1 + 0 0- 1 95 CERATODON PURPUREUS 7 1 + 0 0- 1 1 2 96 DICRANUM PALLIDISETUM 7 1 0 0- 1 97 POLYTRICHUM PILIFERUM 7 1 + 0 0- 1 1 2 98 CLADONIA SPP. 7 1 + 0 0-+ DW 99 CLADONIA GRACILIS LETHARIA VULPINA 100 POLYTRICHUM UUNIPERINUM 7.1 +.00-1 7.1 +.00-1 7.1 +.00-1 1-3 [2.2 1 .O 1 . 2 1.3 1 . 1 1 . 1 1 . 2 Appendix I V Table 1. Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g the Mara H i l l t r a n s e c t . P l o t No. H o r i z o n Design Depth cm. H o r i z o n Boundary M u n s e l l C o l o r Coarse Fragm. Te x t u r e * . C l a s s < 2mm S t r u c t u r e C o n s i s t e n c e R o o t s & P o r e s M o i s t Crushed Dry V o l . % Type P r i m a r y Secondary 615 L Ah 1 Ah 2 Bm IBm Coa 1 Cca 2 Rk 0 .5-0 0-10 10 - 1 5 15-30 30-in 41 - 50 50-70 70+ Abrupt & smooth t o Abrupt & wavy t o C l B a r & wavy t o A b r u p t & wavy t o G r a d u a l & wavy t o G r a d u a l & wavy t o G r a d u a l & wavy t o Weathered D i s c o n t i 10YR 4/2 10YR 4/2 10YR 5/3 10YR 5/4 and s h a t t e nuous, t h i r \ 10YR j V2 10YR 5 3-4 10YR 5/4 J. 10YR \ 6 /3 r e d ; Carb< l a y e r 10 10 30 20 Dnates: o f b i g sage E Subrounded g r a v e l Subrounded c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s homogenous-ind g r a s s 111 S i l t y loam Loam Loam Sandy C l a y loam Sandy c l a y loam sanded. t e r w i t h l i c h e n c Weak,v.fine t o f i n e , g r a n u l a r Moderate, med., g r a n u l a r Weak t o moderate b l o c k y Moderate, coarse b l o c k y M o d e r a t e - s t r o n g Moderate, med.-j r u s t . Moderate, sub-a n g u l a r b l o c k y , sub-angular , sub-angular med., p l a t y ) l a t y S o f t , v . f r i a b l e s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e Hard, f i r m , s t i c k y V. h a r d , f i r m Abundant, v. f i n e , random P l e n t i f u l , f i n e random Few, v. f i n e , random Few, v . f i n e , h o r i z . - r a n d o m 616 L Ah 1 Ah 2 Bm 1 Bm 2 II Cca 0 .5-0 0- 5 5-20 20 -30 30 -50 50 -53 Carbona A b r u p t & smooth t o A b r u p t , wavy t o G r a d u a l & wavy t o G r a d u a l & wavy t o A b r u p t & wavy t o t e s : s t r e a k A t h i n 1 10YR 3/2 10YR 4/2 10YR 5/3 10YR 5 3 - 4 10YR 6/4 ed, bandec a y e r o f g r j 10YR 4/2 10YR 4/2 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 10YR 6 /3 -., moderate i s s and 20 20 20 30 Ly e f f e b i g sage l i t G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l 4 c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s M a i n l y c o b b l e s r v e s c i n g . t e r . S i l t y loam Loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy c l a y loam Moderate, med.-coarse g r a n u l a r Weak-moderate, su b - a n g u l a r b l o c k y Weak, fine-med. s u b - a n g u l a r b l o c k y Mod., f i n e t o med., s u b - a n g u l a i b l o c k y Mod., sub- V. weak, f i n e a n g u l a r b l o c k y p l a t y S l i g h t l y h a r d v. f r i a b l e S o f t f r i a b l e s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S o f t , v. f r i a b l e n o n - s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , v. f r i a b l e Hard, f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Abundant v. f i n e t o f i n e P l e n t i f u l , f i n e vert.-random Few, med.-coarse random Few, med.-coarse random V. few, m i c r o h o r i z . - r a n d o m h-1 Appendix I V , C o n t i n u e d T a b l e 1, Page 2. Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g t h e Mara H i l l t r a n s e c t . P l o t No. 61? 618 H o r i z o n Design L F-H Ah Ahe j Bm 1 Bm 2 ( B t j ) I I BC Depth 6- 3 3 - 0 0 - 5 Trace 5-50 50-60 60-85 H o r i z o n Boundary M u n s e l l C o l o r M o i s t C r u s h ed Dry Coarse Fragm. V o l . Type T e x t u r e C l a s s <2mm S t r u c t u r e P r i m a r y Secondary A d r y mat o f p i n e n e e d l e s , showing l i t t l e a l t e r a t i o n . M a t t e d l a y e r o f a l t e r e d l i t t e r i n t e r w o v e n w i t h y e l l o w m y c e l l i u m A b r u p t , broken t o Broken t o Ab r u p t , wavy t o Gr a d u a l wavy t o I7.5YR 3/2 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 m+ 10YR 5/4 m+ llOYR v 2 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 No c a r b o n a t e s d e t e c t e d a t 85 cm. depth. 1 1 1 I 10 10 15 15 G r a v e l G r a v e l A n g u l a r G r a v e l & c o b b l e s ang G r a v e l & c o b b l e s [ a n g u l a r -subrounded Loam Sandy Sandy Loam Sandy loam Loam l i t t l e H. Weak,v.fine f i n e , granu. Weak, v . f i n e Weak, f i n e -med. sub-a n g u l a r b l o c k y Mod.-strong med., sub-a n g u l a r b l o c k y C o n s i s t e n c e m+ L Trace r A v e r y t h i n Ah 0 -16 G r a d u a l , wavy t o Bm 16-40 C l e a r smooth t o I I Ck 41 - 70 + : r e s p e c t i v e l y 10YR 10YR 4/2 4/2 10YR 10YR 5/3 5/3 10YR 10YR 7/3 7/2 l o o s e l a y e r o f p i n e , b i g sage and g r a s s l i t t e r • T 1 i . r „ ~ i , 15 15 |Mainly c o b b l e s JMainly c o b b l e s Carbonates; s t r o n g l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , homogenous banded, c o a r s e - 15 cm dim Weak-mod f i n e , g r a n u . Mod., med., sub-ang.blocky Weak-mod. c o a r s e , sub-ang.blocky K r o t o v i n a i n Bm. Loam Sandy loam S i l t y c l a y loam Loose, v, f r i a b l e Loose, f r i a b l e S o f t , v. f r i a b l e Hard, f r i a b l e , s t i c k y , p l a s t i c Hard, f r i a b l e s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Loose, n o n - s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e Hard, f r i a b l e , s t i c k y R o o t s & P o r e s P l e n t i f u l , f i n e random P l e n t i f u l , f i n e F e w - p l e n t i f u l med. c o a r s e Few, v . f i n e vert,-random V. few, m i c r o , Random P l e n t i f u l , f i n e -med., random P l e n t i f u l , f i n e -c o a r s e , random V. few, m i c r o , v e r t i c a l Appendix I V , C o n t i n u e d T a b l e 1 , Page 3 . Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g the Mara H i l l t r a n s e c t . S t r u c t u r e P l o t | No H o r i z o n Depth De s i g n cm. L Trace Ah 0-10 Bm 10 - 38 Cca 38-40 H o r i z o n Boundary M u n s e l l C o l o r Coa] -se Fragm. M o i s t C r u s h ed Dry V o l . % Type I l a y e r o f 10YR 5/4 10YR 4/3 10YR 6/4 b i g sage ar 10YR 4 /3 10YR 5/4 10YR 6/3 i d grass 15 30 30 ; l i t t e r and M a i n l y g r a v e l M a i n l y c o b b l e s M a i n l y c o b b l e s T e x t u r e C l a s s < 2mm P r i m a r y Secondary C o n s i s t e n c e R o o t s & P o r e s A b r u p t wavy t o Abr u p t smooth t o S i l t y loam C l a y loam C l a y loam L Ah I I Ah Bm Cca — r A v e r y t h i n d i s c o n t i n u o u s l a y e r o f p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r and g r a s s l i t t e r . C a r b o n a t e s j s t r o n g l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , homogenous bonded, h o r i z o n t a l . 1-Trace 0-10 10 -15 15-38 38-53 Weak-mod., v . f i n e , g r a n . Mod.-strong sub-ang.blky. Mod., med. sub-ang.blky. |Mod. . f i n e G r a n u l a r plod, . f i n e p l a t y L o o s e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Hard, f r i a b l e , s t i c k y Hard, f r i a b l e , s t i c k y A b r u p t wavy t o Gra d u a l wavy t o A b r u p t wavy t o 10YR 3/2 7-5YR 4/2 10YR 5/4 10YR 6/4 10YR 3 / 2 - 3 10YR 4 / 3 10YR V 10YR 6/3 30 20 20 G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s S i l t y loam Sandy c l a y loam C l a y loam Sandy c l a y loam Weak, fine-med. g r a n u l a r Weak, f i n e , g r a n u l a r Mod.,med., sub-ang. b l o c k y Mod.,med., p l a t y j C a r b o n a t e s r s t r o n g l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , homogenous bonded, s p o t t e d . ^ T e x t u r e c l a s s e s a r e r e p o r t e d a s ob s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d . D u r i n g f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s no c l a y f i l m s were d e t e c t e d i n e i t h e r pedons o f the Mara H i l l t r a n s e c t . H o r i z o n symbols a r e n o t e d a s t h e s e were d e s i g n a t e d i n the f i e l d . Weak, f i n e sub.-ang. b l k y . Weak, f i n e , g r a n u l a r Weak, f i n e sub-ang. b l ockyl S o f t , v. f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S o f t , f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S o f t , f i r m , v. s t i c k y , v. p l a s t i c Loose, f i r m , s t i c k y , s l i g h t l y p l a s t i c F e w - p l e n t y , v . f i n e - c o a r s e Few, v . f i n e , random v.few, m i c r o , random A b u n d a n t , v . f i n e -f i n e , random Few, v . f i n e - f i n e , v ert.-random V. few, v. f i n e -f i n e , random O Appendix I V Table 2. Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g t h e Wheeler M o u n t a i n t r a n s e c t . S t r u c t u r e H o r i z o n Depth H o r i z o n M u n s e l l C o l o r Coarse Fragm. T e x t u r e Design cm. Boundary M o i s t Crushed V o l . Type C l a s s Dry % <2mm L-F 1- 0 Ab r u p t Interwoven w i t h y e l l o w & w h i t e m y c e l l i u m wavy t o Ahe 0- 4 Gr a d u a l 10YR 3 G r a v e l Loam wavy t o 2 - 3 Bm r 4-24 D i f f u s e 5YR 25 G r a v e l & Sandy wavy t o 4/2 c o b b l e s c l a y loam Bm 2 24 -39 D i f f u s e 7.5YR 40 G r a v e l , s t o n e Sandy wavy t o 4/4 c o b b l e s c l a y loam Bm 3 39-62 D i f f u s e 7.5YR 35 G r a v e l , s t o n e Sandy wavy t o 4/4 c o b b l e s c l a y loam B C 62-100 Abr u p t 7.5YR 40 G r a v e l & Sandy wavy t o 5/4 c o b b l e s c l a y loam I I Cca 100-120 10YR 15 G r a v e l & Sandy + 6/4 c o b b l e s c l a y loam Ca r b o n a t e s ; B C v. weakly e f f e r v e s c i n g , s t r e a k e d , h o r i z o n t a l , I I Cca m o d e r a t e l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , banded, random. L-F 4- 0 1 ' 1 G r a d u a l , m o s t l y d r y l i t t e r o f Douglas- f i r , g r a s s e s and f o r b s . smooth t o Ahe 0 -26 D i f f u s e , 10YR 40 G r a v e l , s t o n e S i l t y wavy t o •a c o b b l e s loam A B 26-42 G r a d u a l 10YR 4/4 30 Loam wavy t o B t + 42 - 6 5 G r a d u a l 10YR 50 G r a v e l & C l a y (Bm) wavy t o 5/6 c o b b l e s loam B C 65-80 A b r u p t 10YR 60 G r a v e l & Loam i r r e g . t o 5/6 c o b b l e s Rk 80-100 80 S h a t t e r e d ^ C a r b o n a t e s ; P r i m a r y C o n s i s t e n c e Secondary R o o t s & P o r e s moder t y p e . Mod., c o a r s e sub-ang. b l k y . Weak, f i n e sub-ang. b l k y . Mod., med., sub-ang. b l k y . Mod., med. , sub-ang. b l k y . Mod., med. g r a n u l a r Weak, f i n e g r a n u l a r Loose, v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S o f t , f r i a b l e , s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e S o f t , v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S o f t , v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y P l e n t i f u l , m i c r o h o r i z o n t a l Abundant, v . f i n e , random Abundant, v . f i n e , random Abundant, f i n e -med., random Abundant, med.-c o a r s e , h o r i z . P l e n t y , f i n e , random V.few, m i c r o , o b l i q u e Weak-mod. f i n e , sub-ang. b l k y . Weak, f i n e p l a t y Weak, f i n e | Mod., f i n e -med., sub-ang. b l k y . Weak-mod. f i n e , s u b - a n g . b l k y . mod. e f f e r v e s c i n g i n c r a c k s . Loose, v , f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y , S o f t , v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , F r i a b l e , v. s t i c k y S o f t , v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Abundant, f i n e -c o a r s e , random Abundant, f i n e -med., random Few, v . f i n e random few, v . f i n e Appendix I V , C o n t i n u e d T a b l e 2, Page 2. Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g t h e Wheeler M o u n t a i n t r a n s e c t . P l o t No. H o r i z o n D e s i g n Depth cm. H o r i z o n Boundary M u n s e l l C o l o r Coarse Fragm. T e x t u r e * C l a s s < 2mm S t r u c t u r e . C o n s i s t e n c e R o o t s & P o r e s M o i s t C r u s h ed Dry V o l . % Type P r i m a r y Secondary 624 L Ah Bm Cca I I Cca Trace 0-12 12-42 42 - 60 60 + Carbonate A t h i n layc-G r a d u a l wavy t o A b r u p t wavy t o C l e a r smooth t o s Cca - s t r I I Cca -; r o f g r a s 7.5YR 3/2 10YH 5/6 10YR 5/4 10YR >n§Ty e f f e s t r o n g l y e 5 l i t t e r . 10YR 3/2 r v e s c i n g , i f f e r v e s c i n j 10 25 40 30 ion-home 5, homoj G r a v e l G r a v e l G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s )genous, commo cenous. S i l t y loam C l a y loam C l a y loam C l a y loam n, i r r e g u l a r Mod., v . f i n e -f i n e , g r a n u l a r Mod., f i n e -med. , sub-ang. b l k y . Mod. , f i n e sub-ang. b l k y . Mod. , f i n e p l a t y Mod., f i n e g r a n u l a r L oose, • s l i g h t l y s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Hard, f r i a b l e , s t i c k y V. h a r d , v . f i r m , s t i c k y Abundant, f . f i n e f i n e random P l e n t y , v . f i n e v e r t i c a l Few, v . f i n e , random V. few, m i c r o , h o r i z o n t a l 625 L Ah Bm Cca I I Cca I I I Cca T r a c e 0 -1? 17 -60 60 -70 70 - 105 105-140 Carbonate A t h i n l a y G r a d u a l wavy t o A b r u p t wavy t o A b r u p t wavy t o A b r u p t wavy t o s;- moderat r 3r of g r a s 7 . 5 IBYR 4 / 3 10YR 5/3 10YR 6/4 10YR 4 / 3 e l y t o s t r s and f o r b t 10YR 3/2 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 10YR 6/3 10YR 6/3 o n g l y e f f e 2 l i t t e ] 20 25 25 40 10 r v e s c i n G r a v e l G r a v e l , some c o b b l e s Gravel,some c o b b l e s G r a v e l G r a v e l & c o b b l e s 5, random t o h Loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Loamy sand S i , c l a y loam o r i z o n t a l l y Mod., f i n e -med. g r a n u l a r Mod.-strong fine-med. sub-ang. b l k y . Mod.-strong fine-med. sub-ang. b l k y . S t r u c t u r e l e s s , s i n g l e g r a i n e d Mod.-strong, sub-ang, b l k y . banded - s t r e a k s Mod., f i n e g r a n u l a r Mod., f i n e g r a n u l a r Med, b l o c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e , s i . s t c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f i r m , v . s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y Loose, non-s t i c k y Hard, f r i a b l e s t i c k y Abundant, f i n e -med. , i r r e g u l a r P l e n t i f u l , f i n e , v ert.-random Few, v . f i n e , random V.few, v . f i n e , random V.few, m i c r o , h o r i z o n t a l * T e x t u r a l c l a s s e s a r e r e p o r t e d a s e s t i m a t e d i n the f i e l d , +A few v e r y t h i n c l a y f i l m s were o b s e r v e d on exped s u r f a c e s i n t h e f i e l d on h o r i z o n d e s i g n a t e d a s B t i n pedon 623 . F u r t h e r t e s t s p r o v e d t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i n c o r r e c t . H o r i z o n symbols a r e n o t e d a s d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e f i e l d . Appendix IV T a b l e 3 . Summary of m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g the L a c - d u - B o i s t r a n s e c t . P l o t H o r i z o n Depth H o r i z o n No. Design cm. Boundary . 626 L Trace A v e r y t h i n Ah 0-10 Abr u p t i r r e g u l a r IT. Ah 10-21 G r a d u a l wavy t o Bm 21-42 A b r u p t wavy t o Cca 42-64 Ab r u p t wavy t o I U Cca 64-85 + M u n s e l l C o l o r Coarse Fragm. M o i s t Crushed V o l . Type Dry % T e x t u r e C l a s s <2mm l a y e r o f u n a l t e r e d g r a s s and f o r b l i t t e r . 10YR 10YR 15 3/2 3 1=2 25 W 10.YR 3/3 10YR 10YR 25 4 /3 5/3 10YR 10YR 10 7 / 4 7 /3 10YR 10YR 10 5/3 6/2 G r a v e l ; some c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s S i l t loam Sandy loam Sandy loam Loamy sand Loam Ca r b o n a t e s ; - Cca, m o d e r a t e l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , non-homogenous, random. - I I C c a , m o d e r a t e l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , s t r e a k e d , banded, h o r i z o n t a l . Bm 1 Bm 2 I I Cca S t r u c t u r e P r i m a r y Mod.-strong, f i n e , g r a n u l a r M o d . , v . f i n e -f i n e M o d . , v . f i n e -f i n e g r a n u l a r Weak, v . f i n e g r a n u l a r Mod., med.-c o a r s e , p l a t y ]Mod., f i n e s u b -angular b l o c k y Weak, f i n e sub-ang. b l k y , |Weak, med., sub-ang. b l k y , 1 - 0 0 - 5 5-14 14 - 30 30 -65 65 -85 G r a d u a l smooth t o G r a d u a l wavy t o G r a d u a l wavy t o Abr u p t wavy t o A b r u p t smooth t o Turphy mat o f g r a s s , aspen and f o r b l i t t e r i n t e r w o v e n by f i n e r o o t s I I Loam 7.5YR 3 /2 7.5YR 3/2 10YR 5/4 10YR 5/4 10YR 7 /4 10YR 3/2 10YR 3/2 10YR 4 / 4 10YR 5/4 10YR 6 1R5 30 4o 20 G r a v e l , s t o n e c o b b l e s G r a v e l , c o b -b l e s , some s t o n e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s Sandy loam Sandy loam Loamy sand Sandy loam Mod. ^ . f i n e -f i n e g r a n u l a r Mod., f i n e -med., g r a n u l a r Mod.-strong, fine-med., sub-ang. b l k y . Mod.-strong, fine-med., sub-ang. b l k y . V.weak, med. p l a t y Secondary [ S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e , s i . s t k y , S l i g h t l y h a r d , f r i a b l e , s i . s t k y , [ S l i g h t l y h a r d , v. f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y [Loose, v. f r i a b l e [Loose, v, f r i a b l e C a r b o n a t e s ; - m o d e r a t e l y e f f e r v e s c e n t , homogenous banded, random, i r r e g u l a r . C o n s i s t e n c e jLoose. v . f r i a b l e n o n - s t i c k y S o f t , f r i a b l e , n o n - s t i c k y S l i g h t l y h a r d f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y L o ose, v . f r i a b l e , s l i g h t l y s t i c k y R o o t s & P o r e s P l e n t i f u l , v . f i n e -med. , random Abundant, v . f i n e -med. , random P l e n t i f u l , v . f i n e -f i n e , random Few, v. f i n e , random V. few, m i c r o , random P l e n t i f u l , v . f i n e -f i n e , random Abundant, f i n e -c o a r s e , random P l e n t i f u l , f i n e , random Few, f i n e , v e r t i c a l Appendix I V , C o n t i n u e d T a b l e 3 , Page 2 . Summary of m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g the L a c - d u - B o i s t r a n s e c t . P l o t No. 628 [Horizon D e s i g n Depth cm. |L F H A e j Ahe I I Bm B C 6 - 4 h- 1 1 - 0 0 - 2 2 - 20 20-32 32-70 70-110 H o r i z o n Boundary A b r u p t smooth t o A b r u p t smooth t o A b r u p t smooth t o Abr u p t broken t o Abr u p t ^ r r e g u l a r A b r u p t wavy t o G r a d u a l wavy t o M u n s e l l C o l o r M o i s t lOYR 5/3 10YR 4/2 10YR 5A lOYR V 3 10YR 5/2 Crushed Dry 10YR 2 10YR 4/2 10YR 5/3 10YR 5A 10YR 5/3 Coarse Fragm. V o l . 15 15 20 45 50 T e x t u r e c l a s s e s a r e r e p o r t e d a s e s t i m a t e d i n t h e f i e l d . H o r i z o n symbols a r e n o t e d a s d e s i g n a t e d i n the f i e l d . Type G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l & c o b b l e s G r a v e l (rounded) G r a v e l (rounded) T e x t u r e C l a s s <2mm P r i m a r y S t r u c t u r e Secondary Dry D o u g l a s - f i r l i t t e r . I P a r t i a l l y a l t e r e d l i t t e r i n t e r w o v e n w i t h w h i t e m y c e l l i u m White m y c e l l i u m Loamy sand Sandy loam Loamy sand Loamy sand Loamy sand Weak,v.fine g r a n u l a r Weak-mod., v . f i n e - f i n e g r a n u l a r Weak, f i n e -med. , sub-ang. b u l k y Weak, f i n e -med., sub-ang. b u l k y S t r u c t u r e l e s s S t r u c t u r e l e s s ! s i n g l e g r a i n Weak, f i n e g r a n u l a r C o n s i s t e n c e [Loose, non-s t i c k y L o ose, non-s t i c k y L o ose, v . f r i a b l e n o n - s t i c k y Loose, v . f r i a b l e n o n - s t i c k y lLoose, non-s t i c k y Roots & P o r e s Few, v e r y f i n e , h o r i z o n t a l Few, v. f i n e -f i n e , random F e w - p l e n t i f u l , v. f i n e - f i n e , random P l e n t i f u l , med. random Few, f i n e , o b l i q u e V. few, v . f i n e , h o r i z o n t a l Appendix IV, C o n t i n u e d Table 3» Page 3> Summary o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f pedons s e l e c t e d a l o n g t h e L a c - d u - B o i s t r a n s e c t . P l o t H o r i z o n Depth H o r i z o n M u n s e l l C o l o r Coarse Fragm. T e x t u r e * S t r u c t u r e C o n s i s t e n c e R o o t s & No. D e s i g n cm. Boundary M o i s t C r u shed V o l . Type C l a s s P r i m a r y Secondary P o r e s Dry % < 2mm 629 L 2- 0 G r a d u a l Turphy, r o o l - mat o f g r a s 3 e s . smooth t o Ah 0- 5 A b r u p t 7.5YR 10YR 10 G r a v e l S i l t y Weak-mod., Loose, v . f r i a b l e P l e n t i f u l , v . f i n e -wavy t o 3 / 2 h/z loam . f i n e , g r a n . s t i c k y f i n e , random Ahe 5-12 G r a d u a l 7.5YH 10YR 25 G r a v e l & Sandy Weak-mod., Loose, v . f r i a b l e Abundant, f i n e -(AB) wavy t o 5/2 c o b b l e s loam f i n e med., s l i g h t l y med, v e r t i c a l , g r a n u l a r s t i c k y random Bm 12 - 5 2 A b r u p t 10YR 10YR 25 G r a v e l & Sandy Weak-mod., Weak, f i n e L o o s e , v . f r i a b l e P l e n t i f u l , f i n e -wavy t o 5/3 5A c o b b l e s loam fine-med., g r a n u l a r s l i g h t l y s t i c k y med. , random sub-ang. b l k y . I I Cca 52-75 lOYR 10YR 25 G r a v e l & Sandy Mod., med. v.weak, f i n e S l i g h t l y h a r d , Few, med.-coarse, + h/z 6 / 3 c o b b l e s c l a y loam p l a t y sub-ang. b l k y f r i a b l e , s t i c k y h o r i z o n t a l C a r b o n a t e s } — m o d e r a t e l y e f f e r v e s c i n g , homogenous, h o r i z o n t a l . * T e x t u r e c l a s s e s a r e r e p o r t e d a s e s t i m a t e d i n the f i e l d . H o r i z o n symbols a r e n o t e d a s d e s i g n a t e d i n the f i e l d . Appendix V Table 1. Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons selected along the Mara H i l l transect. A l l t e x t u r a l classes expressed as % oven dry weight of selected samples. P l o t No. Horizon Symbol C oarse Fragments >2.0 mm % Sand 2.0-0.05 mm % Texture Class S i l t 0.05-0.002 mm % =es Total Clay 0.002 mm % Fine Clay <0.2 urn % Textural Class (U.S.D.A., & CD.A. , 1951 1970) Fine Clay to Total Clay Ratio 615 Ah Bm IIBm Cca 2.5 41.1 45.9 45.2 31.40 41.63 42.03 50.63 44.47 39.79 35.04 34.62 24.13 18.58 22.93 14.75 14.62 12.41 14.94 10.89 loam loam loam loam .60 • 67 • 65 .73 616 Ahl Ah2 Bml Bm2 IIGca 20.1 30.0 40.3 43.6 47.1 46.13 40.03 37.76 52.48 34.27 36.25 35-44 27.08 16.60 23.72 26.81 20.44 12.52 14.48 15.21 12.76 loam loam loam s.cl.loam • 75 .61 • 57 .62 617 Ah Bml Bm2 UBC 14.2 36.1 34.0 33-2 35.51 37.94 33.22 33.25 36.80 41.65 39.22 34.80 27.69 20.41 27.56 31.95 17.92 12.21 15.29 18.00 cl.loam loam cl.loam cl.loam • 65 • 59 • 55 • 56 618 Ahk Bmk IICK 4.2 31.4 43.7 33.24 37.49 39.31 47.38 41.18 30.86 19.38 21.33 29.83 13.25 15.64 15.46 loam loam cl.loam .68 • 73 .52 619 Ah Bm Cca 10.2 37.5 31.4 29.20 28.94 43.70 36.67 27.10 34.39 14.66 16.46 nd. loam cl.loam .54 .48 620 Ah IIAh Bm Cca 70.3 45.8 40.1 41.5 25.17 28.70 - 32.60 46.07 32.66 37.62 28.76 38.64 29.78 15.99 18.39 14.90 cl.loam nd cl.loam c l . 1 oam .56 .47 • 50 Codes: s - sandy; c l . - clay; nd - not done Appendix V Table 2. Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons selected along the wheeler Mountain transect. A l l texture classes expressed as % oven dry weight of selected samples. P l o t '•Horizon C oarse Texture Classes Fine Textural Fine Clay No. Symbol Fragments Sand S i l t T o t a l Clay Clay Glass to T o t a l Clay >2.0 2.0-0.05 0.05-0.002 0.002 < 0.2 (U.S.D.A., 1951 Ratio ,^mm %, mm %, mm %, mm %,/jim & CD.A. , 1970) 621 Ahe 11.7 41.98 31.^5 26.57 18.49 loam .69 Bml-Bt 48.7 43.16 26.63 30.21 21.00 cl.loam .69 Bm2 Bm3 IIBG 47.4 47.97 25.44 26.59 17.75 loam • 67 27.8 50.98 26.58 22.44 14.88 s.cl.loam .66 Cca 35.0 54.22 21.54 24.24 19.83 s.cl.loam .82 623 Ah 21.1 37.48 36.88 25.64 15.92 loam .62 AB 28.9 51.03 25.79 23.18 15.3^ s.cl.loam .66 Bm 52.4 46.79 26.13 27.16 15.31 loam • 56 BG 55-8 54.99 21.83 23.18 15.70 s.cl.loam .68 625 Ah 16.7 26.48 41.40 32.12 20.80 cl.loam .65 Bm 37.9 33.84 38.28 27.88 17.77 loam .64 Cca 55-6 35.5 57.20 25.53 17.27 11.08 s.loam .64 II Cca II I Cca 49.3 624 Ah 21.1 38.33 36.14 25.53 15.65 loam .61 Bm 39.7 42.74 30.99 26.27 13-84 loam .52 Cca 36.7 33.00 38.84 28.16 14.92 loam .52 H C c a 25.9 Codes: s. - sandy; c l . - c l a y Appendix V Table 3 . Summary of s o i l textures f o r pedons selected along the Lac-du-Bois transect. A l l texture c l a s s e s expressed as % oven dry weight of selected samples. P l o t No. Horizon Symbol G oarse Fragments > 2 . 0 mm % Texture Glasses Sand S i l t 2 . 0 - 0 . 0 5 0 . 0 5 - 0 . 0 0 2 mm mm % % T o t a l Clay 0.002 mm % Fine Clay <i0.2 /j;m % Textural Glass (U.S.D.A., 1951 & G.D.A., 1970) Fine Clay to T o t a l Clay Ratio 626 Ah 13.1 40 .75 39 .51 19 .74 11.81 loam • 59 IIAh 5 3 . 5 44.73 37 .02 18 .25 11.71 loam .64 Bm 51.4 46 .85 37 .00 16.15 11.03 loam .68 Cca 53-0 34.90 51.87 13.23 9 .53 si.loam .72 627 Ahl 3 . 0 35-02 44.13 2 0 . 8 5 14 .30 loam 16Q Ah2 Bml 46 .0 43.64 36.70 19 .63 9.40 loam .47 Bm2 53-9 6.10 .56 H C c a 53.0 56.24 32.92 10 .85 s.loam 628 Ahe 27-7 63.38 15.^9 21.12 15.43 s.cl.loam .73 Bm 39 .6 62.17 15.53 22.30 15.05 s.cl.loam .67 IIBm 6 2 . 5 74.80 9 .29 15.91 10.06 s.loam .63 BG 58.0 84 .58 5.08 10.34 5 .08 loamy sand .49 629 Ahl 8 . 0 46 .65 31-99 21.36 13.10 loam .61 Bml 61 .5 51.39 27.53 21.09 13.99 loam .66 Bm2 51.2 -H C c a 39 .2 55-35 31.48 13.17 7.47 s.loam • 57 Codes: s - sandy; s i - s i l t ; c l - cla y 159 Appendix VI Table 1. Moisture retention of surface s o i l s a t each p l o t , water content gm/gm at 0.3, 0.9, 3-0 and 15.0 bar tensions and plant a v a i l -able water. P l o t No. Horizon Symbol .3 Tension,bars .9 3.0 15.0 Plant a v a i l a b l e water gm/gm 615 Ah • 38 .24 • 17 .13 .25 Bm .29 .19 • 13 .11 .18 616 Ah .27 .20 .15 .13 .14 Bm • 32 .24 .16 .14 .16 617 Ah • 37 .26 .20 .18 .19 Bm • 36 .22 .17 .14 .22 618 Ahk • 50 • 32 .24 .20 • 30 Bmk .44 • 30 .23 .18 .26 619 Ah • 35 .26 .18 • 15 .20 Bm .31 .26 .22 .20 .11 620 Ah • 39 .29 .22 .19 .20 Bm • 31 .25 .21 .18 .13 621 Ahe .27 .24 .19 .16 .11 Bml Bm2 • 25 .19 .16 .14 .11 Bm3 623 Ahe • 31 .22 .16 .15 .16 AB Bm BG .20 .17 .14 .13 .07 624 Ah .30 .20 • 15 .14 .16 Bm .24 .16 .11 .10 .14 625 Ah .38 .26 .19 .18 .20 Bm .28 .20N .16 .14 .14 626 Ah .33 .19 .15 • 15 .18 Bm .25 .15 .10 .10 .15 627 Ah .37 .23 .18 .18 .19 Bm .24 .16 .12 .12 .12 628 Ahe .20 .16 .14 .13 .07 Bm .20 .16 .14 .13 .07 IIBG .11 .09 .09 .08 .03 692 Ah .30 .25 .17 .15 • 15 Bm .20 .15 .11 .10 .10 Appendix VII Table 1. Summary of chemical properties of mineral s o i l samples from pedons selected along the Mara H i l l transect. P l o t Horizon Depth PH 0M% Wo C/N No. Symbol cm (0.01M CaCl 2) 615 Ahl 0-10 6.0 2 .92 5.04 . 223 1 3 . 1 Ah2 1 0 - 1 5 1 0 . 6 Bm 1 5 - 3 0 6 . 5 1.22 2 .12 . 1 1 5 IIBm 30-41 7 . 0 1.22* 2 .12 .109 11.2 Gcal 41-50 7 - 8 _ Gca2 50-70 11 .9 6 l 6 Ahl 0- 5 6 . 3 1 .77 3 . 0 5 .150 Ah2 5-20 1 .50 2 .59 .153 9.8 Bml 20-30 6 . 5 1 .37 2 .36 .123 l l . l Bm2 30-50 7-1 1.24 2 .15 .122 10.1 UCca 50+ 7 . 8 - - - -617 Ah 0 - 5 5 . 6 3.84 6 . 6 3 .199 1 9 . 3 Ahej Trace 1 6 . 6 Bml 5-50 6 . 3 .88 1 .51 .053 Bm2 50-60 6 . 6 .77 1 .33 .031 24.8 UBC 60-85+ 6 . 9 - - - -618 Ahk 0-16 7 - 9 4 . 5 0 * 7 . 7 0 .431 1 0 . 4 Bmk 16-40 8 . 3 2 .30* 3-90 . 1 9 4 11 .8 IlCk 41-70 8.2 - • - - -619 Ah 0-10 6.4 1 .97 3.40 .169 11.7 Bm 1 0 - 3 8 6 . 9 . 9 3 * 1 .60 .077 12.1 Cca 38+ 7 . 9 - - - -620 Ah 0-10 6.2 2 .66 4 . 5 8 .211 1 2 . 6 IIAh 1 0 - 1 5 6 . 4 1 .58 2 .72 .162 9 . 7 Bm 1 5 - 3 8 " 7 . 4 1 .12 1 .93 .091 1 2 . 3 Cca 38-53+ 8.0 - - - — me/100 gm J C.E.C. (NH4OAC method, pH = 7 -0) C a 2 + Mg 2 + K + Na + me/lOOg 1 me/lOOg Base Saturation 1 6 . 0 6 . 5 0 1 .90 0 .17 7-7 14 . 5 46.8 11.4 1 2 . 7 2 5 . 7 41.9 1 6 . 0 4 . 0 0 8 . 2 5 1 0 . 0 0 7 - 7 5 9 . 1 2 1 1 . 2 5 1 1 . 7 5 9 . 6 2 1 . 2 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 2 5 1 . 7 5 1 . 7 5 1 .00 0 . 5 0 2 .50 + 15.0 3 6 . 8 2 7 . 5 3 1 . 9 16.0 1 6 . 2 15.0 14.8. 17.0 3 9 . 3 Organic carbon content was determined by the Walkley-Black The higher than 100% base saturation values are p a r t i a l l y of CaC03 equivalency values. 1 3 . 1 2 3 1 . 5 6 3 5 . 0 0 3 1 . 8 7 9 . 1 3 1 1 . 5 0 1 3 . 0 0 1 5 . 2 5 1 .50 4 . 7 5 1 .50 . 7 5 2 .50 2 . 2 5 2 . 2 5 2 . 2 2 1 8 . 2 5 2 .10 2 4 . 6 9 1 . 9 5 0 . 0 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1 7 0 . 1 5 0 .87 1 .26 1 .10 0 . 0 0 14.7 8.87 2 . 2 5 0 .30 0.80 1.90 2.40 2.70 0 .00 0 .00 0 .10 0 . 1 5 0 . 2 5 0 . 8 5 22.48 1 2 . 6 0 2 6 . 8 9 3 3 . 3 4 28.40 23.82 3 0 . 5 2 6 . 9 28 .6 2 1 . 4 3 6 . 2 2 9 - 5 2 5 . 2 2 9 - 5 41 .9 '35.0 3 3 - 9 40 .3 3 3 . 0 26.8 3 5 . 7 34.8 method (Black et a l compensated for with 37-8 41 .6 3 .90 42 .6 2 9 . 8 0 34.1 , 1 9 6 5 ) . the estimation 8 O . 5 6 48.14 86.01 100.00+ 60.91 82.85 100.00+ 100.00+ 6 7 . l l 7 4 . 7 7 89 .73 100.00+ 100.00+ 100.00+ 7 7 . 3 9 86.21 80.29 7 7 . 9 3 88 .26 100.00+ H 1 O N O Appendix VII, Continued Table 2. Summary of chemical properties of mineral s o i l samples from pedons selected along the Wheeler Mountain transect. P l o t Horizon Depth PH No. Symbol cm (0.01M' CaCl 2) 621 Ahe 0- 4 4.7 Bml 4-24 5.5 Bm2 24-39 6.1 Bm3 39-62 BC 62-100 6.2 U C c a 100-120 7.8 623 Ah 0-26 6.8 AB 26-42 7.0 Bm 42-65 7.0 BC 65-100 7.0 624 Ah 0-12 6.1 Bm 12-42 7.2 Cca 42-60 7.6 U C c a 60+ 7.7 625 Ah 0-17 6.6 Bm 17-60 6.9 Cca 60-70 8.0 U C c a 70-105 8.3 I U C c a 105-140 8.2 0M% W C/N Exchangeable Cations me/100 gm  (NH4OAC method, pH = 7.0) CaCO 3 T o t a l C.E.C, C a 2 + Mg 2+ K + Na+ me/lOOg me/lOOg 2.52 4.34 .181 13.9 .96 I.65 .061 15.8 .48 .83 .028 17.1 2.53 4.37 .079 32.1 1.13 1.95 .044 25.4 .57 .99 .026 21.7 3.65 6.30 • 353 10.3 1.07 I.85 .089 12.1 17.2 13.5 7.87 8.25 14.5 14.62 38.1 19.06 19.5 4.75 18.7 18.2 17.0 18.7 15.7 20.6 5.12 6.12 7.73 4.35 3.10 3.94 3.68* 6.32 .322 11.50 18.2 11.50 .67* 1.12 .049 13.6 8.2 13.22 " 18.0 18.00 2.50 0.00 - 33.0 2.00 0.00 4.06 25.5 2.20 0.00 4.14 28.6 1.47 0.00 22.20 26.8 2.95 0.00 - 32.1 2.20 0.00 - 27.7 2.15 0.00 - 27.1 1.05 0.00 5.03 25.0 1.95 0.15 - 29.8 0.85 0.00 5.10 14.2 0.40 0.00 11.24 8.9 3.20 0.00 - 35.9 3.25 0.25 - 26.8 2.50 0.92 17.78 19.6 Base Saturation % 38.73 93-14 100.00+ 100.00+ 84.73 94.11 98.23 100.00+ 84.56 100.00 100.00+ 91.78 93.17 100.00+ Organic carbon content was determined by Walkley-Black wet combustion method (Black et a l . 1965)• The higher than 100% base saturation values are p a r t i a l l y compensated f o r with the estimation of CaCO^ equivalency values. ON Table 3> Summary of chemical p r o p e r t i e s of transect. Appendix VII, Continued mineral s o i l samples from pedons selected along the Lac-du-Bois P l o t No. Horizon Symbols Depth cm pH 0% (0.01M CaCl 2) o.nfo C/N 626 Ah 0-10 6.7 4.10* 7.10 • 372 11.0 IIAh 10-21 7.2 2.44* 4.30 .225 10.8 Bm 21-42 7.8 1.65* 2.80 .144 11.5 Cca 42-64 8.3 - - - -I U C c a 64-85 8.1 - - - -627 Ahl 0- 5 6.1 3.52 6.07 .402 8.8 Ah2 5-14 Bml 14-30 6.3 1.52 2.62 .177 8.6 Bm2 30-65 6.6 .96 1.65 .091 10.6 H C c a 65-83 8.0 - - - -628 Aej 0- 2 6.4 2.69 4.64 .128 20.8 Ahe 2-20 6.3 2.67 4.60 .122 22.8 Bm 20-32 6.1 1.31 2.25 .056 17.8 IIBm 32-70 6.4 .52 .89 .021 25.2 BC 70-110 6.7 - - - -629 Ah 0- 5 6.4 3.65 6.33 .309 11.9 Bml 5-12 6.2 1.02 I.76 .083 12.3 Bm2 12-52 6.4 .61 1.05 .043 14.2 H C c a 52-75 7.8 - - - -Exchangeable Cations me/100 gm (NH 0AC method, pH = 7-0) CaCO '3 T o t a l C . E. C . Base Saturation Ca2+ Mg2+ K+ Na+ me/lOOg me/lOOg 14.7 6.25 3.35 0.00 - 26.8 90.86 13.0 6.75 3.00 0.00 3-8 19.8 100.00+ 20.7 11.00 3-38 0.00 17.0 16.1 100.00+ 22.5 13.00 3.20 0.15 19.9 7-7 100.00+ 15.7 7.61 2.55 0.00 - 32.3 r80.22 10.5 6.00 2.45 0.00 - 22.5 84.22 33.1 8.63 1.10 0.15 26.8 7-1 100.00+ 12.2 8.50 1.50 0.00 - 24.1 92.32 10.5 10.00 1.10 0.00 - 25.7 84.05 9.5 9.80 0.85 0.00 7-6 20.5 100.00+ 7-7 9.12 0.87 0.10 8.6 15.2 100.00+ 14.7 8.50 3.55 0.00 - 30.3 88.45 8.0 8.00 2.50 0.00 - 19.6 94.39 I8.5 8.50 1.23 0.17 17.2 15.1 100.00+ * Organic carbon content was determined by the Walkley-Black wet combustion method (Black et a l . , 1965)• + The higher than 100% base saturation values are p a r t i a l l y compensated f o r with the estimation of CaC03 equivalency values. ON ro 163 Appendix VIII Summary tables f o r the an a l y s i s of organic f r a c t i o n s of selected s o i l samples. Table 1: Carbon contents of organic f r a c t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d as percentage of 20 gm. of s o i l . Sample No. & Horizon Humic Acid Ch% F u l v i c A c i d P.V.P. P.V.P. Treated Absorbed 0% Ca.% Ratio Ch/Cf 615 Ah .716 .33^ .282 .052 2.14 617.Ah 1.026 .623 .297 .326 I.65 6l8. Ah .452 .161 .120 .041 2.81 619 Ah • 529 .275 • 239 .036 1.92 621 Ah .446 • 394 .251 .143 1.13 623 Ah 1.004 .647 .228 .419 1.55 624 Ah .925 • 531 .414 .127 1.94 626 Ah 1.130 .437 .313 .124 2.59 628 Ah .647 .576 .182 • 394 1.12 A n a l y s i s : Average Average Ch/Cf r a t i o s Ch/Cf r a t i o s grasslands f o r e s t s xg = 2.2233 xf = 1.3652* Sd = 0.3326 Sd = 0.2773 * Xf i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than Xg on the 98% l e v e l . 164 Appendix VIII, Continued Summary tables f o r the a n a l y s i s of organic f r a c t i o n s of selected s o i l samples. Table 2: Results of o p t i c a l s . Absorbance at 465 • m and 665 m. Expressed f o r e x t i n c t i o n co-e f f i c i e n t at 0.1% carbon content f o r humic acids and three P.V.P. absorbed f u l v i c acids. Sample E0.1% E0.1% 665 E 4 / 7E6 615 HA 13.44 3.20 4.20 bi? HA 12.42 2.44 5.09 6l8 HA 1 4 . 2 4 3.36 4 , 2 4 619 HA 15.40 3.88 3-97 621 HA 12.60 2.50 5 . 04 623 HA 10.24 2.20 4.65 624 HA 15.66 3.68 4.25 626 HA 15.10 3.68 4.10 628 HA 11.34 2.12 5.35 615 FA 5.26 0 .40 13.15 618 FA 3 . 2 4 0 .40 8.10 621 FA 6 . 1 4 0.56 10.95 Analysis: Average Average E4/E6 r a t i o s E4/E6 r a t i o s Grasslands Forests xg = 4.183 xf = 5.032*' Sd = O.O765 Sd = 0.2889 ** Xf i s highly s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater than Xg on the 99% l e v e l . 165 Appendix IX Summary of phytolith contents extracted from selected s o i l samples. Pedon Horizon Size % Pure S i l t % Opal i n the No. Symbol Fraction Opal i n Fraction Fine Earth Tested Sample of S o i l Fraction of '•: (um) S o i l Samples 615 Ah >20 1.02 0.239 0 . 244 Ah <20 1.15 . 206 . 237 Bm >20 0.32 . 214 . 068 617 Ah >20 0.85 .211 . 179 Ah <20 0.81 . 157 . 127 Bm 1 >20 0.56 .251 .141 618 Ahk >20 1.52 .288 .438 Ahk <20 2.41 .186 .448 Bmk >20 1.20 . 254 . 305 619 Ah >20 1.04 .216 .225 Ah <20 0.15 .221 .033 Bm >20 0.11 .182 .020 621 Ahe >20 1.09 .161 .19 8 Ahe <20 0.27 .154 .042 Bm 1 >20 0.04 .136 trace 623 Ah >20 1.43 .189 .270 AB >20 0.36 .132 .047 624 Ah >20 0.29 .170 .049 Ah <20 0.13 .191 .025 Bm >20 0.06 .154 .001 626 Ah >20 0.64 .201 .129 Ah <20 0.96 .194 .186 Bm >20 0.04 .188 .007 628 Ahe >20 0.35 .081 .028 Ahe <20 0.34 .074 .025 Bm >20 0.12 .117 .014 166 Appendix X Summary of clay mineralogy of selected pedons. Results of X-ray d i f f r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s . (Oriented <2.0/im clays) Clay species and minerals pedon Horizon Number Symbols 615 Ahl Ah2 Bm IIBm Ccal Cca2 617 Ahe Bml Bm2 UBC 618 Ahk Bmk HCk 619 Ah Bm 620 Ah IIAh Bm Cca 621 Ahe Bml Bm2 Bm3 BC UCca 623 Ahe AB Bm BC 624 Ah Bm Cca UCca 626 Ah IIAh Bm Cca I U C c a 628 Ahe Bm IIBm BC Mnt. x x XX X X X XX X X XX X XX XXX XXX X XX XX XX XX t r X X X X X t r t r X XX X X V r t . C l t . l i t . XX XX XX X X XX XX X X XX X XX XX XX X XX XX XX X XX XX XX X X X X X XX X XX X X t r X XX XX t r X t r X t r t r x x X X X t r t r t r x X V r t . -- I l t . Qrz. x X X X X X X X t r X t r x X X X X X Amb. x t r t r x Fds. x = low, XX = moderate, xxx = high. t r x t r t r xx t r xx XX X X X X t r X X X t r t r t r X t r t r X t r t r X X t r X t r X t r X t r t r X X X t r X X t r t r t r X X t r t r X X t r t r XX t r X X t r X X t r t r XX X XX X X XX X XX X X X X t r t r X X X t r t r X X X X t r t r X t r X t r t r t r t r t r X X X X t r t r X X XX t r t r X X XX X X XX X X i d e n t i f i e d minerals: t r = t r a c e , Abbreviations: Mnt. l i t . Qrz. = Montmorillonite, Vrt. = Vermiculite, C l t . = C h l o r i t e , = I l l i t e , V r t . - l i t . = V e r m i c u l i t e - I l l i t e intergrade, = Quartz, Amb. = Amphiboles, Fds. = Feldspars. 

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