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The introduction and historical development of social studies in the curriculum of the public schools… Dawson, Elisabeth 1982

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THE INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE CURRICULUM OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by ELISABETH DAWSON B.A., UNIVERSITY OF WINNIPEG, 1971 i A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES So c i a l Studies D i v i s i o n -Department of Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF- BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1982 q) Elisabeth Dawson, 1982. In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of 12 D\) tft 7i Old The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT Socia l studies f i r s t appeared i n the o f f i c i a l l i t e r a t u r e of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education i n 1927 when i t replaced h i s -tory and geography i n the curriculum of the newly established junior high schools. During the depression the "new curriculum" introduced the concept of s o c i a l studies to the enti r e public school system. Though the content of the s o c i a l studies courses remained primar-i l y h i s t o r y , with some geography i n the elementary schools, the change i n name to s o c i a l studies allowed the goals to be oriented around b e h a v i o r — r a t h e r than content. Through the goals of s o c i a l studies, the concept of the ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' of the i n d i v i d u a l was introduced into the pu b l i c school system. The introduction of s o c i a l studies into the curriculum was without controversy despite such p o l i t i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d aims, f o r many teachers, having experienced, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , the e f f e c t s of World War I, saw s o c i a l studies as part of a child-centred curriculum which would help students f i n d a better l i f e . In r e a l i t y , though some experimenta-t i o n did take place, very l i t t l e changed i n the classroom and most teachers and students noticed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e . While there have been no fundamental changes i n the content of the s o c i a l studies curriculum, changes are to be found i n the goals. S o c i a l studies was introduced into the curriculum to transmit c i t i z e n -ship; to create a good Canadian c i t i z e n who would maintain B r i t i s h t r a d i -t i o n s . A f t e r World War I I , though the goals remained c i t i z e n s h i p trans-mission, the concept of a good c i t i z e n changed. A good c i t i z e n was seen as one who was not only a good Canadian c i t i z e n but also a good "world" c i t i z e n . During the 1950's the goal of formal c i t i z e n s h i p transmission, as the "raison d'etre" of s o c i a l studies, gradually changed. Beginning with the r e v i s i o n of the elementary curriculum in 1957 a more t r a d i t i o n a l view of education held that knowledge was an important goal of s o c i a l studies. The concept of s o c i a l studies as a s o c i a l science f i n a l l y developed i n the revisions for both elementary and high school which began i n 1966. As the concept of s o c i a l studies as a s o c i a l science developed there was a demand for the i n c l u s i o n of more geography i n the curriculum. This coincided with the growth of departments of geography i n Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , and resulted i n the i n c l u s i o n of geography i n the 1966-68 r e v i s i o n s of the s o c i a l studies curriculum on a basis equal to that of h i s t o r y . U n t i l t h i s l a s t r e v i s i o n , the s o c i a l studies curriculum had been based almost e n t i r e l y on h i s t o r y though the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies had always included a l i s t of the s o c i a l sciences from which s o c i a l studies would be drawn. Since t h i s l i s t was almost e n t i r e l y ignored by the teachers who drew up the course o u t l i n e s , i t can be said that s o c i a l studies, as defined by the Programmes of Study, has not been taught i n B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1 II SOCIAL STUDIES IS INTRODUCED INTO THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 9 II I THE "NEW CURRICULUM" 25 IV SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE FORTIES AND FIFTIES 41 V A TIME OF CHANGE: 1957-1970 67 VI CONCLUSION 91 BIBLIOGRAPHY 96 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the valuable assistance received from her committee chairman, Dr. N e i l Sutherland. Thanks are also extended to Dr. W. A. Bruneau and Dr. C. K. Cu r t i s f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and suggestions. v CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The c e n t r a l problem i n dealing with s o c i a l studies i s the d e f i n i t i o n of the term, " s o c i a l studies." This has arisen because of the m u l t i p l i c -i t y of views of what s o c i a l studies i s . G. S. Tomkins points out that s o c i a l studies has been and s t i l l i s being used to denote "any subject, p r o v i n c i a l courses of study or programmes i n Canada focussed on 'man and society'."''" However the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and society has not only undergone fundamental changes since the introduction of s o c i a l studies into the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum in 1927 but one ls personal view of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p also colours one's view of s o c i a l studies. As the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Studies Assessment (1977) points out: "So c i a l Studies" i s many things to many people. Some view i t primar-i l y as the content of the programme of studies manifested i n the curriculum guides published by the Mi n i s t r y of Education. Others view i t p r i m a r i l y as classroom a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by teachers and students and the resources they use. S t i l l others view i t as meanings educators and parents give to S o c i a l Studies as they experi-ence i t within the perspective of t h e i r day-to-day world.2 As a r e s u l t of these many and var i e d views of s o c i a l studies, attempts to define the term have not c l a r i f i e d the question—what i s s o c i a l studies? The reason for t h i s problem i s explained thus: F i r s t used i n the lat e 1800's the term " s o c i a l studies" has defied d e f i n i t i o n a l consensus ever since. The trouble originated over the f a c t that the usage of the term preceded i t s d e f i n i t i o n and that i t was used i n a v a r i e t y of situations.-^ 1 What has resulted from t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a "plethora of competing d e f i n i -4 t i o n s " which have complicated the question. Most d e f i n i t i o n s of s o c i a l studies have attempted to define i t s con-tent. In the following d e f i n i t i o n s which originate from a v a r i e t y of sources, s o c i a l studies i s conceived as the subject matter of academic d i s c i p l i n e s which has been adapted for use i n schools. For example: The S o c i a l Studies are the s o c i a l sciences s i m p l i f i e d for pedagogical purposes.5 . . . s o c i a l studies consist of adaptions of knowledge from the s o c i a l sciences for teaching purposes at the elementary and secondary l e v e l s of education.6 The s o c i a l studies are comprised of these . aspects of h i s t o r y , economi i c s , p o l i t i c a l science, sociology, anthropology, psychology, geography and philosophy which i n p r a c t i c e are selected for i n s t r u c t i o n a l pur-poses i n schools and colleges.7 The term " s o c i a l studies" i s used to include h i s t o r y , economics, soci ology, c i v i c s , geography and a l l modifications of subjects whose con-tent as well as aims i s s o c i a l . ^ Inherent i n a l l the d e f i n i t i o n s which use content to define s o c i a l studies i s the question of which d i s c i p l i n e s make up the s o c i a l sciences. Furthermore, the i n c l u s i o n of new or developing d i s c i p l i n e s also raises problems. In defining s o c i a l studies i n terms of content, some areas of s o c i a l education, e.g., analysis and decision making, are ignored. An a l t e r n a t i v e to the method of defining the s o c i a l studies by con-9 tent has been suggested by J. L. Barth and S. S. Shermis. They note that due to a lack of any accepted d e f i n i t i o n , "anything c a l l e d ' s o c i a l studies' i s thereby s o c i a l studies." Barth and Shermis define s o c i a l studies i n terms of the goals of s o c i a l studies rather than the content. They define s o c i a l studies "as a set of goals which describe how the con-tent of c i t i z e n s h i p education i s to be selected, organized and taught"; c i t i z e n s h i p being the 'raison d'etre' of s o c i a l studies. They i d e n t i f y 3 three separate competing t r a d i t i o n s or sets of goals i n s o c i a l studies. Each of these t r a d i t i o n s or goals has a s p e c i f i c view of c i t i z e n s h i p . The sets of goals control the s e l e c t i o n and organization of content and teach-ing of s o c i a l studies so that a s p e c i f i c type of c i t i z e n w i l l r e s u l t . The three t r a d i t i o n s or goals are " s o c i a l studies as c i t i z e n s h i p transmission," " s o c i a l studies as s o c i a l science," and " s o c i a l studies as r e f l e c t i v e i n -quiry. " " S o c i a l studies as c i t i z e n s h i p transmission" implies that there i s content, known i n advance, which should be taught to students. The pur-pose i s to produce a c i t i z e n who conforms to an expected set of character-i s t i c s set by the community. The method by which t h i s information i s transmitted i s a mixture of description and persuasion. "The teacher's function i s to describe events, people, phenomena and ideas thought worthy of being learned by a l l future c i t i z e n s . " Content i s selected on the basis that what was v a l i d i n the past, remains v a l i d today and consists of " f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s , b e l i e f s and theories." "Soc i a l studies as s o c i a l science" i s concerned with the knowledge of the structure of the s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e s which comprise the s o c i a l sciences. The purpose of t h i s i s to produce a c i t i z e n who i s knowledge-able, such knowledge being good for i t s own sake. The method used i s the transmission of s o c i a l science concepts considered important t r a d i -t i o n a l l y or by a consensus of s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s . The s e l e c t i o n of con-tent r e f l e c t s what a consensus considers important. " S o c i a l studies as r e f l e c t i v e inquiry" i s a process which describes decision making within the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l framework of the community. It i s a preparation for c i t i z e n s h i p where the student acquires "practice i n making decisions which r e f l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l problems and which 4 presently a f f e c t them or are l i k e l y to a f f e c t them." The method used i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y inquiry involving the methods of the s o c i a l sciences; content i s the data of inquiry."^ This thesis w i l l trace the development of s o c i a l studies from i t s introduction into the curriculum of the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1927 to the l a s t complete r e v i s i o n of the s o c i a l studies curriculum which took place between 1966-70. In t h i s context the thesis w i l l examine the changing goals and character of s o c i a l studies and the process of cur-riculum r e v i s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to changes in education and society. The Barth and Shermis model i s useful to i l l u s t r a t e some of the changes which have taken place i n the s o c i a l studies curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This has always defined s o c i a l studies by i t s academic content. However, t h i s method of d e f i n i t i o n provides a narrow view since the content of s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia has, for the most part, been b u i l t around h i s -tory and, to a l e s s e r extent, geography. If the Barth and Shermis model i s used to investigate the B r i t i s h Columbia s o c i a l studies curriculum the dynamics of change can be seen more e f f e c t i v e l y since i t i s the goals which show the changes. While the purpose of s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia has always been to teach c i t i z e n s h i p , the set goals of s o c i a l studies has changed according to the views of c i t i z e n s h i p i n vogue at various times. It was as a component of the curriculum of the newly established junior high schools that s o c i a l studies was formally introduced into B r i t -i s h Columbia. The establishment of the junior high schools was one of the most important recommendations of the Putman-Weir Survey (1925).^ According to Putman and Weir, these schools were to provide not only the t r a d i t i o n a l curriculum but also p r a c t i c a l subjects which could a s s i s t stu-dents i n making vocational choices. The junior high school curriculum, which was modelled a f t e r junior high school programmes i n the United States placed emphasis on the p r a c t i c a l . As one h i s t o r i a n , Jean S. Mann, has put i t , "the c r i t e r i o n f o r the acceptance of any subject was the contribu-12 t i o n i t made to the so l u t i o n of l i f e problems of the twentieth century." By the end of the 1930's, with the introduction of the "new c u r r i c u -lum" throughout the public school system, s o c i a l studies had replaced a l l the courses formerly designated h i s t o r y and geography. The replacement of these courses with s o c i a l studies was a p o l i t i c a l act i n the sense that i t was an attempt by the p o l i t i c a l leaders of the time to inculcate what they saw as the " r i g h t " s o c i a l values as a means of preserving democracy by preventing s o c i a l unrest. In the 1920's and 1930's s o c i a l unrest ascribed to increased non-B r i t i s h immigration and economic depression was the cause of great concern to the p o l i t i c a l leaders of the time. They saw the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l , i n the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n of the maintenance of law and order, as a means of preventing such s o c i a l unrest and decided to use the school system as the means through which t h i s could be accomplished. In t h i s context, s o c i a l studies became the s p e c i f i c area of the curriculum where the i n d o c t r i n a t i o n of these " r i g h t " s o c i a l values or c i t i z e n s h i p trans-13 mission, would take place. The content of that part of the curriculum replaced by s o c i a l studies did not change. By changing the t i t l e of the courses to s o c i a l studies, the government was able to change the goals to specify the sort of c i t i z e n which was to be created, without a l t e r i n g the content. If the course t i t l e s had remained h i s t o r y or geography i t would not have been possible to include the concept of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , f o r the goals of these d i s c i p l i n e s are narrowly defined and organized around content rather than behavior. 6 Although the term, s o c i a l studies, was introduced without controversy, the content of some courses did present p r a c t i c a l problems i n the secondary schools. As a r e s u l t , by the early 1940's the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation sought and obtained input by s o c i a l studies teachers into c u r r i c -ulum r e v i s i o n . Though modifications were made to various parts, i t was not u n t i l a f t e r World War II that extensive s o c i a l studies curriculum re-v i s i o n began. In t h i s r e v i s i o n teacher committees were arranged, grade by grade, to develop new courses. C i t i z e n s h i p transmission was s t i l l the c e n t r a l objective i n t h i s r e v i s i o n at a time when large scale immigra-t i o n was taking place i n Canada. World c i t i z e n s h i p was also becoming a concern of educators i n t h i s period. Beginning i n the l a t e 1940's and continuing through the numerous s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n s of the 1950's which were caused by teachers' r e j e c t i o n of course content, controversy became more vocal be-tween the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s , who believed that knowledge of subject matter was important and the progressives or child-centred educators who were accused of underemphasizing subject matter. The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s were supported by growing numbers of teachers who had been trained i n geo-graphy at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and who demanded a separate status for that subject. A royal commission was established i n 1958 to examine the problems 14 . . . . i n education. The evidence, r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l studies, c o l l e c t e d by the royal commission, suggested that the common expectation of the main outcomes of s o c i a l studies was knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s of h i s -tory and geography. The commission recommended a review of s o c i a l studies courses with a greater emphasis being placed on both subject matter and the separation of h i s t o r y and geography. 7 The department of education commissioned representatives from the u n i v e r s i t i e s and Reaching profession to provide reports on the teaching of geography and h i s t o r y i n schools. Subsequently, i n 1966, the work of r e v i s i n g the e n t i r e s o c i a l studies curriculum was begun. By 1970 the new curriculum was being implemented. In 1963, i n his unpublished t h e s i s , "The H i s t o r i c a l Development of the Teaching of Geography i n B r i t i s h Columbia," W. E. Topping recorded the development of geography, both as a separate subject and as a component of the s o c i a l studies c u r r i c u l u m . ^ Topping described i n d e t a i l the con-tent and the teaching methods f o r geography. However, he did not deal with the concept of s o c i a l studies i n which geography was but one compon-ent part. Topping mentioned only i n c i d e n t a l l y the reasons f o r the i n c l u -sion of s o c i a l studies i n the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum and omitted the changes i n the goals of s o c i a l studies and the process of curriculum change. In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the development of s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia I have used the Programmes of Study, Annual Reports of the  Department of Education, Royal Commission Reports, records and p u b l i c a -tions of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation and an extensive set of interviews with ministry o f f i c i a l s , teachers, and u n i v e r s i t y professors who were involved with curriculum r e v i s i o n through the period i n question. While I do not intend to focus e n t i r e l y on the study of s o c i a l studies i n the secondary f i e l d , there i s more evidence a v a i l a b l e for t h i s than for other facets of the study. In addition, many of the changes which took place i n s o c i a l studies had more impact on the curriculum of the secondary schools than of the elementary schools. 8 FOOTNOTES ^George S. Tomkins, "The Soc i a l Studies i n Canada," (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished paper, no date), p. 1. 2 . . . . T. Aoki et a l . , B r i t i s h Columbia So c i a l Studies Assessment, a report to the Mini s t r y of Education ( V i c t o r i a , 1977), p. 3. 3 R. D. Barr, "The Question of our Professional Identity: Reaction to the Barth/Shermis A r t i c l e , " S o c i a l Education (November 1970), p. 752. 4 I b i d . ^Edgar Wesley, quoted i n J . L. Barth and S. S. Shermis, "Defining the Soc i a l Studies; An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s , " S o c i a l Education (November 1970), p. 744. Thesaurus of E.R.I.C. Descriptors, quoted i n R. D. Barr, "The Ques-ti o n of Our Professional Identity," p. 754. ^Standard Terminology for Curriculum and Instruction, U.S. O f f i c e of Education, quote i n i b i d , g National Council for the S o c i a l Studies, Charter, quoted i n i b i d . 9 J . L. Barth, and S. S. Shermis, "Defining the So c i a l Studies: An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s . " ^ I b i d . , pp. 743-75. ^ J . H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System ( V i c t o r i a : King's- P r i n t e r , 1925). 12 J . S. Mann, "B. M. Weir and H. B. King," i n J . D. Wilson and D. C. Jones, eds., Schooling and Society i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h Columbia . (Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enterprises Limited, 1980), p. 95. 13 See Jean S. Mann, "Progressive Education and the Depression i n B r i t i s h Columbia," (unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , 1978), and Timothy A. Dunn, "Work, Class and Education: Vocational-ism i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Public Schools, 1900-1929," (University of B r i t -i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , 1978). 14 . . . S. N. F. Chant et a l . , Report of the Royal Commission on Education ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960). 15 W. E. Topping, "The H i s t o r i c a l Development of the Teaching of Geo-graphy i n B r i t i s h Columbia," (University of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , 1963). CHAPTER TWO SOCIAL STUDIES IS INTRODUCED INTO THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Socia l studies developed i n the United States i n the early years of th i s century. In 1905 the expression s o c i a l studies was f i r s t used i n connection with education. It was used as "an encyclopedic term to include c i v i c s , economics, and sociology" i n an a r t i c l e i n a magazine, Southern Workman.^ By 1911, s o c i a l studies was used to include h i s t o r y , c i v i c s , . 2 commercial geography, economics, p o l i t i c s , and sociology. The expres-sion ' s o c i a l studies' passed into general c i r c u l a t i o n with the pu b l i c a t i o n , i n 1916, of the f i n a l report of the Committee of So c i a l Studies of the Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education of the National Education Association, which declared "that the conscious and constant purpose of the S o c i a l Studies i s the c u l t i v a t i o n of good c i t i z e n s h i p . " A good c i t i z e n being "one who appreciates the nature and laws of s o c i a l l i f e , one who has an i n t e l l i g e n t and genuine l o y a l t y to high national 3 i d e a l s . " The meaning of the term s o c i a l studies given by the aforementioned committee permitted the i n d i v i d u a l subjects of h i s t o r y , c i v i c s , geography, economics, and sociology to maintain t h e i r separate i d e n t i t i e s . However, the use of the term 's o c i a l studies' to name an integrated course of study became common during the 1920's. 9 In recognition of the fact that under modern conditions a c i t i z e n can-not be i n t e l l i g e n t upon the problems he i s forced to meet i n d a i l y l i f e without at least an elementary knowledge of the s o c i a l sciences, the term s o c i a l studies has come into use, to designate an integrated program of h i s t o r y , economics, and geography, which w i l l enable pupils to comprehend l i f e i n society.^ The National Council for the S o c i a l Studies was formed on March 3rd, 1921 by a group of American educators, one of whom was Earle U. Rugg from the Teachers College, Columbia University, New York."' The founding of t h i s organization r e f l e c t e d the growing popularity of s o c i a l studies in the United States. The progressive education movement, led by such people as John Dewey, was also developing i n the United States during t h i s time and had great influence on the s o c i a l studies curriculum. The c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e s of progressivism involve a child-centred programme as opposed to subject-centred and "a commitment to development of the worth of each i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d . " This movement grew out of changes which had arisen i n society i n the l a s t decades of the nineteenth century as a r e s u l t of immigration, i n d u s t r i a l development, the growth of c i t i e s , and resultant poverty. Schools were to improve the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and educational reforms were seen as the panacea f o r many s o c i a l i l l s . In t h i s context s o c i a l studies became an important component of curriculum reform and by the 1930's i n the United States, i t had "overstepped the boundary of the s o c i a l sciences proper and had taken the e n t i r e curriculum for i t s f i e l d . S o c i a l studies served several needs: the need to assimilate immigrant and minority groups, the need to foster patriotism and c i t i z e n s h i p , and 8 the need to provide a common s o c i a l education for the masses. The introduction of s o c i a l studies to B r i t i s h Columbia follows the early development of that subject i n the United States. In 1900 public school education was divided into elementary and high school sections, 11 each separated into junior, intermediate, and senior d i v i s i o n s , each d i v i -sion taking two years to complete. In the Manual of School Law and  School Regulations, which introduced a r e v i s i o n of the curriculum to star t the twentieth century, geography and h i s t o r y were, separately, important 9 parts of the school curriculum. In the elementary schools general world geography and topics on B r i t i s h and Canadian h i s t o r y were i n t r o d u c e d . ^ An education monograph, published i n 1914, notes the increasing i n t e r -est of educators i n the development of Canadian h i s t o r y and geography at t h i s time. In the early stages there was comparatively l i t t l e study of Canadian History e i t h e r i n High schools or Common schools. Nor was there any s p e c i a l attention to Canadian Geography. From 1890 onwards, however, those aspects of Geography and History became more important. In some respects t h i s increasing i n t e r e s t i s representative of the growth of l o c a l p a triotism and corresponds to the growth of the Dominion and Province themselves. i-*-B r i t i s h Columbia's high schools taught the h i s t o r i e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada, Rome, and Greece. The geography consisted of physical geography. An examination of the textbooks of that day which are s t i l l a v a i l able shows that they concentrated on f a c t s . The h i s t o r y texts are 12 chronological accounts with few i l l u s t r a t i o n s other than maps. Curriculum r e v i s i o n took place in the elementary and high schools be-tween 1900 and 1919 and minor changes involving textbooks and suggestions f o r teaching methods were made. In 1919, the junior grade of the elemen-13 tary school geography was combined with nature study. In the high schools a new Canadian h i s t o r y and c i v i c s course was introduced into the f i r s t year of the Junior Grade i n 1920. In the following year the physical geography course was deleted. This action v i r t u a l l y removed 14 geography from the high school curriculum. In 1921 the subjects for Junior M a t r i c u l a t i o n (Intermediate Grade) 12 included "History and H i s t o r i c a l Geography," with the d e s c r i p t i o n : The essentials of European h i s t o r y , ancient, medieval, and modern (to the eighteenth century) as presented by Breasted and Robinson i n t h e i r Outlines of European History, Part 1 (Ginn and Co.) The geography required w i l l be that r e l a t i n g to the h i s t o r y pre-scribed. In the subjects leading to Senior Ma t r i c u l a t i o n (Senior Grade) only h i s -tory was required. The course was "The evolution of Modern European Society as interpreted by Breasted and Robinson i n t h e i r Outlines of 16 European History, Part 2 (Ginn and Co.)." An examination of the government-set examinations for high school entrance and for each grade of high school for the period 1900-1924 reveals what was either taught or expected to be taught i n geography and h i s t o r y . ^ Each examination, which took from one and one-half to two hours to complete, required f a c t u a l answers written in paragraphs, for example: Urban High School Entrance Examination, 1910, Geography 1. Draw an outline map of that part of Canada l y i n g west of Ontario and Hudson Bay and indicate on i t : (a) The Provinces and Dis-t r i c t s , (b) The r i v e r systems and the P a c i f i c Slope and the Great Central P l a i n . (c) One trade route. 2. Give a b r i e f account of the causes and work of winds. 3. (a) What i s meant by latitude? (b) Within what l i m i t s of l a t i t u d e does B r i t i s h Columbia l i e ? (c) Within what l i m i t s of l a t i t u d e i s the sun sometimes overhead? 4. (a) Make a diagram i l l u s t r a t i n g the course of the currents i n the P a c i f i c Ocean, (b) D i s t i n g u i s h between tides and ocean currents. 5. Compare B r i t i s h Columbia with France as to physical features, climate and occupation. 6. (a) Name two great commercial centres i n each of the following countries: France, A u s t r a l i a , Germany, India, Russia, China, Spain and Egypt. (b) What natural products may be purchased at each of the follow-ing places: Halifax, Winnipeg, V i c t o r i a (B.C.), Charleston, Mauritius, Cornwall (England), Messina and Smyrna? 7. Write b r i e f l y on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c plants and animals of the Cool Belts.18 13 High School Entrance Examination, 1915, B r i t i s h History 1. The Roman Conquest. (a) Name three B r i t i s h leaders who fought against the Romans. Write an account of any one of these. (b) What changes were brought about i n B r i t a i n as a r e s u l t of the Roman occupation? 2. Give an account of any two of the following:-(a) Edward I.'s Model Parliament. (b) The Magna Charta. (c) The Declaration of Rights (1689). 3. Describe any two of the following great reforms:-(a) The A b o l i t i o n of Slavery. (b) The Reform B i l l of 1832. (c) Catholic Emancipation. (d) Repeal of the Corn Laws. 4. Write an account of any two of the following:-(a) Lord Roberts. (b) S i r Walter Raleigh. (c) Wycliffe. (d) George Stephenson. 5. (a) With whom i s B r i t a i n at war at the present time? Who are the " A l l i e s " ? (b) Sketch a map of Europe and mark the po s i t i o n of each of the following: the countries at war, Seine, Rhine, Danube, V i s t u l a , K i e l Canal, Dardanelles, Vosges, Carpathians, Caucasus, East Prussia, G a l i c i a , Alsace, Heligoland, London, Warsaw, Pa r i s , Petrograd,v Vienna, Belgrade, Ostend, Havre. (c) In connection with t h i s great war associate an event with each of the following: Marne, Falkland, Louvain.19 The government examinations reveal that f or a student to be successful i n the public examinations, the teaching had to emphasize memorization of f a c t s . In h i s study of the development of geography teaching i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Topping noted that the courses of study r e f l e c t e d both European and American trends i n the teaching and r e l a t i v e importance of geography 20 and h i s t o r y i n the curriculum between 1900 and the mid 1920's. There seemed to be no s p e c i f i c reason for the exclusion of geography from the high school curriculum i n 1921. A number of reasons have been offered . . . . 21 to explain the general decline i n the p o s i t i o n of geography at t h i s time. The subject was i n decline i n the United States and Europe due to poor textbooks and teaching. There was also a general shortage of u n i v e r s i t y -14 trained teachers i n geography, e s p e c i a l l y i n Canada. (It was not u n t i l 1922 that geography, as a formal subject, was a v a i l a b l e at the University 22 of B r i t i s h Columbia. ) John Gibbard, a u n i v e r s i t y student and l a t e r high school teacher i n Vancouver during t h i s time, r e c a l l e d that Dr. S. Mack-Eastman, who was head of the History Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, was i n f l u e n t i a l i n the development of B r i t i s h and Canadian h i s t o r y courses 23 i n the high school curriculum i n the 1920's. Dr. Eastman prepared the Canadian e d i t i o n of a textbook which was used i n the high schools at t h i s time. There were, however, other circumstances which help to explain the dominance of h i s t o r y over geography throughout the school system of B r i t i s h Columbia. The early years of the twentieth century saw the population of B r i t i s h Columbia increase quite dramatically. In 1901 the population was 178,657. By 1911, i t had more than doubled to 392,480, and by 1921 25 i t was 524,582. The population increase was accompanied by increased i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n which caused both s o c i a l and economic unrest. By the early 1900's, middle class reformers from leading business and p o l i t i c a l c i r c l e s thought that the s o c i a l f a b r i c was tearing under the heavy weight of r a d i c a l p o l i t i c s , r a c i a l r i o t s , highly v i s i b l e poverty and dramatic confrontations between c a p i t a l and labour.26 As i n the United States e a r l i e r , mass public schooling was h a i l e d as the so l u t i o n for these problems. Schools were to have a s o c i a l i z i n g e f f e c t and act, among other things, as transmitters of values and attitudes which . . . . . 2 7 had been previously the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of other i n s t i t u t i o n s . If t r a d i -t i o n a l values and a t t i t u d e s were required to be transmitted v i a the schools, h i s t o r y with i t s emphasis on past developments and achievements would be the 28 natural route. 15 In 1924, the l i b e r a l government of B r i t i s h Columbia commissioned a survey of the province's education system. J. H. Putman, a senior inspector of the Ottawa schools and G. M. Weir, professor of education at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, were chosen to conduct the survey. Both Putman and Weir were advocates of the educational concepts and trends of progressive education which were moving north from the United States. The r e s u l t i n g report, known as the Putman-Weir Survey, published i n 1925, was decidely i n favour of many of the new concepts i n education. In the Survey the authors c r i t i c i z e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum with i t s emphasis on formal, academic d i s c i p l i n e . "Education i s l i f e , not a mere preparation for l i f e c o n s i s t i n g of the memorization of facts and p r i n c i p l e s and the mastery of a formal c u r r i c u -29 lum." The authors of the Survey also pointed out that since the needs of l i f e are constantly changing, so educational p r a c t i c e must "undergo 30 a gradual process of adjustment to the ever-evolving s o c i a l background." The Survey advocated a more child-centred, a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d curriculum which included new subjects such as vocational/manual t r a i n i n g and home economics. One of the recommendations of the Putman-Weir Survey, was the establishment of a 'middle school,' or junior high school, covering grades seven, eight, and nine, where pupils who were not destined for u n i v e r s i t y or normal school, could receive a ' l i b e r a l ' education. The curriculum of t h i s school was to be wide enough to allow each c h i l d to have the greatest v a r i e t y of educational experiences, and to a s s i s t the c h i l d i n making vocational choices. In speaking s p e c i f i c a l l y about the state of h i s t o r y and geography i n the province i n 1925, the Survey noted that the common method of teaching facts l e f t students without any sense of the d i s c i p l i n e s of geography or h i s t o r y and that many pupils were s t i l l ignorant of funda-mentals of Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia. As a r e s u l t , another recom-mendation was made that a greater emphasis should be attached to the hi s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, and that more stress should be 31 placed on " c i v i c s , current events and pr o j e c t . " Some of the recommendations of the Putman-Weir Survey were quickly put into e f f e c t . The f i r s t junior high school opened i n Penticton i n 1926, followed by two i n Vancouver, Templeton, and K i t s i l a n o . (Some junior high school work was also begun at Point Grey.) New Programmes of Study were also created f o r elementary schools i n 1925-26, junior high schools i n 1927-28, and for high and technical schools i n 1930. The elementary school curriculum was the f i r s t to be reviewed a f t e r the Putman-Weir Survey. Although there i s no reference to s o c i a l stud-i e s , as such, i n that geography and h i s t o r y are s t i l l l i s t e d separately, the influence of progressivism appeared i n the curriculum. C i t i z e n s h i p and c i v i c s were included i n the elementary school curriculum and the "project" or "enterprise" was to be used, though not ex c l u s i v e l y , as a teaching method. When the term "project" was f i r s t used i n education i t was used to describe manual t r a i n i n g exercises such as "making a coaster wagon, 32 a l i b r a r y table, or a f o o t s t o o l . " Later, as the term was taken over by other d i s c i p l i n e s , i t s meaning became confused. In the 1920's i n the United States, the "project" was used i n elementary schools to describe (experimental) i r t t e r - d i s c i p l i n a r y learning experiences. Since the "pro-j e c t " was supposed to r e l a t e "to the purposes of the boys and g i r l s i n the l i f e they were a c t u a l l y l i v i n g , " there was nothing f i x e d nor stereo-33 typed i n i t . Up to 1935, no course of studies based e n t i r e l y on t h i s method had appeared i n the United States,but the "project" idea was used to organize units based on t h i s method. Later i n the 1920's the word " a c t i v i t y " was substituted for "project" and courses of study were organ-. . . 34 ized i n terms of children's a c t i v i t i e s . Used i n connection with s o c i a l studies, the "project," " a c t i v i t y , " or "enterprise" was a teaching method which integrated the s o c i a l sciences with other subjects i n a c e n t r a l theme or u n i t , at the heart of which was a manual a c t i v i t y of some sort. The emphasis on the teaching of h i s t o r y also changed. The aim of h i s t o r y i n the elementary school i s no longer considered a mere chronicle to kings and diplomacy, a l i s t of b a t t l e s and of statutes, but i s becoming more and more a s o c i o l o g i c a l study. The advance of c i v i l i z a t i o n , the progress of the community to culture, economic freedom and the growth of democracy are the bedrock of the subject.35 The teacher was to teach h i s t o r y so that the p u p i l might understand more 3 6 c l e a r l y the " s o c i a l system i n which he l i v e s . " "Through h i s t o r y he w i l l learn the s i g n i f i c a n c e of c i t i z e n s h i p , i t s p r i v i l e g e s and i t s respon-s i b i l i t i e s , and he w i l l become acquainted with the s o c i a l forces around him. Dent's Canadian Geography for Juniors (B.C. edition) by G. A. Cornish .(1928) stated that, "The present elementary textbook i s a protest against unpedagogical, unpsychological, dry as dust methods of presenting 38 geography to c h i l d r e n . " I t goes on to assert that the author has selected topics which w i l l be n a t u r a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g and that each topic w i l l lead to problems to be solved. "The pupils attack every new problem 39 with a zest and c u r i o s i t y that compel t h e i r i n t e r e s t . " The book does i l l u s t r a t e a more child-centred approach to learning. An equally i n t e r e s t i n g book, written by Arthur Anstey, a teacher at the Normal School i n Vancouver, i s The Romance of B r i t i s h Columbia.''" It i s a h i s t o r y book for the elementary schools, although not prescribed. B r i t i s h Columbia's h i s t o r y i s t o l d through heroes and heroines i n story form. The hidden message i s not so subtle! Brave, determined men and women, they were not to be turned back or made a f r a i d by dangers and d i f f i c u l t i e s . The \stories of t h e i r heroic deeds and patient endurance w i l l show how gr a t e f u l we should be to them f o r the noble part that they played i n opening up the country and making i t possible f o r us to l i v e here i n ease, comfort and plenty.^1 As f a r as "brave men and women" are concerned, the chapter on the construc-t i o n of the C.P.R. from Vancouver does not once mention the Chinese labourers; the heroes are the surveyors, engineers, and the "hardy work-men," whoever they may be! The term s o c i a l studies appears for the f i r s t time i n the o f f i c i a l l i t e r a t u r e of the Department of Education i n the Programme of Studies 1927-28 for the new junior high schools. The stated aim of these schools was to provide a more suitable educational environment i n the early ado-lescent period. This was to be accomplished by broadening and enriching the curriculum, integrating education, p a r t i c u l a r l y "English and the So c i a l Studies [to] give that common background of ideas and experience 42 necessary for the attainment of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . " F a c i l i t i e s for progressive discovery, provision for i n d i v i d u a l differences and increased opportunities " f o r both the development of leadership and for s o c i a l 43 cooperation and democratic c i t i z e n s h i p " were also recommended. "So c i a l s o l i d a r i t y , " " s o c i a l co-operation and democratic c i t i z e n s h i p " are s i g n i f i c a n t concepts. The National Council for the So c i a l Studies i n the United States, i n 1921, had observed that s o c i a l studies served the needs of a s s i m i l a t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p , and patriotism. This becomes 19 s i g n i f i c a n t when i t i s noted that the two newly established junior high schools i n Vancouver were situated i n working class areas where most students probably would not have attended high school and many immigrants and t h e i r f a m i l i e s , would l i v e . The Putman-Weir Survey stated that the development of a united and i n t e l l i g e n t Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p accentuated by the highest B r i t i s h ideals of j u s t i c e , tolerance and f a i r p l a y , should be accepted without question as the fundamental aim of the p r o v i n c i a l school system. Such an aim has stood the test of time and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n the d a i l y l i v e s of the B r i t i s h peoples has enhanced the good name of the B r i t i s h Empire. 4 4 The i n c l u s i o n of s o c i a l studies i n the junior high school curriculum was a means to t h i s end. I t was described as a u n i f i e d course i n "geo-45 graphy, h i s t o r y and c i t i z e n s h i p . " It was also stated to be experi-mental and part of a new departure i n curriculum making. There were no prescribed textbooks, though several were recommended, for i t was not intended that one textbook should be used ex c l u s i v e l y , but rather 46 that " s o c i a l i z e d methods and procedures should predominate." The teacher was reminded that " i t must not be forgotten that the great pur-pose i n a l l our work i n s o c i a l studies i s to develop i n t e l l i g e n t , respon-47 s i b l e and s o c i a l l y conscious c i t i z e n s . " There follows a l i s t of general objectives which are to lead towards the achievement of t h i s purpose. In addition to a l i s t of s k i l l s and study habits, there i s a section e n t i t l e d "Right Ideals and Attitudes to be developed." These include "an appreciation of the necessity for government," "a willingness to submit to the r u l e of the majority and r i g h t s of the minority," "a respect for the rights of property of others," "an appreciation of the d i g n i t y of labour," and "recognition of the fact 48 that B r i t i s h and Canadian t r a d i t i o n i s to abide by the Law." In the l i g h t of the s o c i a l unrest of the time, the creators of the curriculum made a d i r e c t attempt to use the schools to i n s t i l l a " r i g h t " a t t i t u d e , i n the minds of the young. The content of the curriculum developed for the junior high schools included Canadian h i s t o r y , B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , and the geography and h i s t o r y of the B r i t i s h Empire. Consistent with changes to the elementary and junior high schools, a new programme of studies was developed f o r high schools and introduced i n 1930. Again, the term s o c i a l studies i s used, with the explanation, The course i s named s o c i a l studies because several studies are i n -volved, namely h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e , geography, c i v i c s , economics and sociology. It i s however a u n i f i e d course because knowledge of h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i s considered e s s e n t i a l f or a proper under-standing of p r i n c i p l e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . ^ However, on reading the new Programme of Studies, one finds that the three years of high school s o c i a l studies are dominated by h i s t o r y — world, B r i t i s h and Canadian—while geography appears as an e l e c t i v e , with two courses. By 1930, s o c i a l studies was a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the public school curriculum but i f one examines c a r e f u l l y the content of the cur-riculum, one finds that there has r e a l l y been l i t t l e change since 1900. There i s s t i l l an emphasis on B r i t i s h , Canadian, and Commonwealth a s s o c i -ations. The s i g n i f i c a n t differences appear to be i n a more c h i l d -centred approach to the teaching of geography and h i s t o r y i n the elemen-tary schools. The Putman-Weir Survey has been c a l l e d a 'conservative document' in spite of i t s progressive theories. John Gibbard r e f l e c t e d that he had always taught some geography along with h i s t o r y i n h i s high school courses because i t seemed more meaningful that way. I t was only as he 21 began to read the l i t e r a t u r e describing s o c i a l studies that he r e a l i z e d he was already teaching i t . " ^ Because there was l i t t l e change i n the classroom there was no controversy when s o c i a l studies was introduced into the curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t was simply a new name given to the old courses. Though there i s evidence from the government examina-tions and from the textbooks of the time to show that teaching methods were changing i n the elementary school, there i s no evidence that there was any change, other than i n name, i n the high schools. Any changes which did take place were not caused by the introduction of s o c i a l studies but by the "progressive" ideas which were having some influence on educa-t i o n a l philosophy. The introduction of s o c i a l studies into the c u r r i c -ulum of the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia cannot be considered an innovation, that i s , an experimental, new departure i n curriculum making. It provided the government with a reason to introduce a set of goals designed to create a s p e c i f i c type of c i t i z e n , a philosophy which was further developed i n the curriculum changes of the 1930's as s o c i a l stud-ies came to play a central r o l e i n the "new curriculum." 22 FOOTNOTES ^"Rolla M. Tryon, The S o c i a l Sciences as School Subjects, Report of the Commission on the S o c i a l Studies Part XI, (New York: Charles S c r i b -ner's Sons, 1935), p. 399. 2 I b i d . , p. 400. 3 Shirley H. Engle, "Exploring the Meaning of the S o c i a l Studies," Soc i a l Education (March 1971), p. 280. 4 Gertrude Hartman, "The So c i a l Studies," Progressive Education II (1925), p. 208, quoted i b i d . , p. 401. 5W. F. Murra, "The B i r t h of the NCSS—As Remembered by Earle U. Rugg," So c i a l Education (November 1970) . Jean S. Mann, "G. M. Weir and H. B. King: Progressive Education or Education f o r the Progressive State," i n J . Donald Wilson and David C. Jones, eds., Schooling and Society i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h  Columbia (Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enterprises Limited, 1980), p. 91. See also G. S. Tomkins, " S o c i a l Studies i n the United States," The B.C.  Teacher (Vancouver: February 1964), pp. 200-203, and G. S. Tomkins, "The S o c i a l Studies Movement as a R e f l e c t i o n of the Changing Character of School and Society i n the United States, 1876-1957" (University of B r i t i s h Columbia: unpublished paper, no date). ^Tryon, The So c i a l Sciences as School Subjects, p. 402. Tomkins, "The S o c i a l Studies Movement as a R e f l e c t i o n of the Chang-ing Character of School and Society i n the United States, 1876-1957," p. 34. 9 . . . . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Manual of School Law and School Regulations of B r i t i s h Columbia (1900). ^The following textbooks were prescribed i n the Manual of School  Law 1900, for use i n elementary schools: W. J. Gage & Co., New Canadian  Geography (Toronto: 1899). A copy of t h i s book i s a v a i l a b l e at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Library (Special C o l l e c t i o n s ) . Robertson's Public School History, with B.C. Supplement. I could not f i n d a copy of t h i s book i n the l i b r a r y at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia nor i n the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y , V i c t o r i a . 11 . . Graham A. Lowing, C u r r i c u l a of Public Schools for General Edu- cation i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Educational Monograph Series, No. 1, ( V i c -t o r i a : Department of Education, 1914), p. 7. 12 . . . The following textbooks are l i s t e d as prescribed for the high schools i n the Manual of School Law 1900. Junior grade: Arabella Buckley and W. J . Robertson, High School History of England and Canada, Copp Clark, Toronto, 1891; W. J . Gage and A. Sutherland, Elementary  Geography of the B r i t i s h Colonies, MacMillan, London, 1898. 23 Intermediate grade: J . R. Green, A Short History of the English People, MacMillan, London, 1902, and R. S. Tarr, New Physical Geography, Mac-M i l l a n , New York (only 1903 version a v a i l a b l e ) . Copies of these books are a v ailable i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y (Special C o l l e c t i o n s ) . 13 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Courses of Study (1919), p. 1. 14 . Minor changes included the addition of an economic and p o l i t i c a l geography course to the commercial course i n 1906. In 1909 both geo-graphy and h i s t o r y were dropped from the Junior Grade. (Manuals of  School Law 1906, 1909.) 1 5Courses of Study (1921), p. 20. ^ I b i d . , p. 24. •^The examination papers are to be found in the volumes of The Annual  Report of the Public Schools of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia covering the period 1900-1924. 18 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education Annual Report (1915), p. clxx. 19 Annual Report (1915), p. A c c l x x x v i i i . 20 W. E. Topping, "The Development of Geography Teaching i n B.C." Chapter Three. 2 1 I b i d . , pp. 58-60. 2 2 I b i d . 23 Interview with Mr. J . E. Gibbard, Vancouver, J u l y 28th, 1981. 24 . . . W. M. West, The Story of World Progress, Canadian e d i t i o n prepared by Mack Eastman (Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1924). The revised e d i t i o n issued i n 1936 i s t i t l e d , S. Mack Eastman, West's Story of World Progress. 25 Census of Canada 1901, 1911, and 1921 from M. C. Urquhart (Ed.), H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada (Toronto: MacMillan, 1965), p. 14. 26 T. Dunn, "The Rise of Mass Public Schooling i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1900-1929," i n J. D. Wilson and D. C. Jones (Eds.), Schooling and Society  i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h Columbia (Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enterprises Ltd., 1980), p. 23. See also, Timothy A. Dunn, "Work, Class and Educa-t i o n : Vocationalism in B r i t i s h Columbia's Public Schools, 1900-1929," (University of B r i t i s h Columbia: unpublished M.A. t h e s i s , 1978). 2 7 I b i d . , p. 24. 28 Between 1901 and 1921, Public School Acts made schooling compulsory for a l l c h i l d r e n between the ages of seven and fourteen i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t o t a l enrollment i n the public schools between these 24 dates increased from 23,615 to 85,950 and the percentage of regular atten-dance from 64.94 to 82.16 (for the year 1921-22). In the high schools for the same period, the enrollment rose from 584 to 8,634 (about 12% of the t o l d school population i n 1921). (From T. Dunn, i b i d . , pp. 26-29.) 29 J. H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925), p. 44. 30 31 Ibid., p. 40. Ib i d . , p. 150. 32 . . . Tryon, The S o c i a l Sciences as School Subjects, p. 511. 33 Ibid. 34 Ibid. See also Donalda J . Dickie, The Enterprise i n Theory and  Practice (Toronto: W. J. Gage & Co. Limited, 1940). 35 . . B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Programme of Studies Elementary Schools (1925-26), p. 49. Ibid. Ibid. 38 G. A. Cornish, Canadian Geography f o r Juniors (Toronto: Dent, 1928), foreword. 39 Ibid. 40 A. Anstey, The Romance of B r i t i s h Columbia (Toronto: W. J . Gage and Co., 1927). 41 Ibi d . , Introduction. 42 Programme of Studies Junior High Schools (1927-28), foreword. ^ I b i d . , p. 6. 44 . Putman-Weir, Survey, p. 38. 45 Programme of Studies Junior High Schools (1927-28), p. 18. 46 47 48 Ibid. Ibid. Ibid., pp. 18-19. 49 Programme of Studies, High Schools (1930), p. 21. 5 0 J . S. Mann, "G. M. Weir and H. B. King," p. 93. "'''"Interview with Mr. J. E. Gibbard. CHAPTER THREE THE "NEW CURRICULUM" In B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1930's the times seemed r i g h t f o r a change in the education system. There was no sign of any r e l i e f from the Depression and i t seemed as i f society was floundering. Education was seen as the c r u c i a l factor i n the shaping of a better world and educators of a l l p o l i t i c a l philosophies were recommending ways i n which the school system should be directed. In 1932 the conservative government of that day authorized an in v e s t i g a t i o n into the f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s of the province; The r e s u l t i n g report, known as the Kidd Report, recommended, among other things, that free education should cease a f t e r a pupil's fourteenth year of age. This report was attacked by i t s c r i t i c s , which included large numbers of the public as well as educators, as "reactionary anti-democratic, class-biased and a denial of equal opportunity."''' Although the conser-vatives t r i e d to disassociate themselves from the report, they were iden-t i f i e d with i t s e l i t i s t and r e s t r i c t i v e outlook. At the same time, from the opposite side of the p o l i t i c a l spectrum, some members of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (C.C.F.) declared, during the provin-c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1933, that the schools should be used for the "indoc-2 t r i n a t i o n of s o c i a l i s t p r i n c i p l e s . " I t was in these circumstances that the "new curriculum" was conceived and s o c i a l studies played a central r o l e i n that new curriculum. 25 26 In August 1933, C. M. Weir, co-author of the Putman-Weir Survey, was nominated as a l i b e r a l candidate i n the Vancouver r i d i n g of Point Grey. Af t e r the e l e c t i o n , as a r e s u l t of the l i b e r a l v i c t o r y , Weir was appointed Minister of Education. Beginning i n 1935, Weir turned h i s attention to the whole curriculum to make i t the most up-to-date i n Canada and, to make the school system meet the needs of a rap i d l y changing world . . . to make B r i t i s h Columbians more s o c i a l l y minded, more co-opera-t i v e i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e to society as a whole . . . and better equipped for using t h e i r l e i s u r e . J In A p r i l 1935, i n an a r t i c l e i n The B.C. Teacher, Weir r e f l e c t e d "many improvements undoubtedly have been made i n the curriculum since the report of the School Survey i n 1925. Something s t i l l remains to 4 be done." The a r t i c l e explained how curriculum r e v i s i o n was to take place. A Central Committee was to give d i r e c t i o n , one member of which would be the Curriculum Advisor. Under the Central Committee there were to be General Committees f o r the elementary, junior high, and senior high schools. F i n a l l y , under each General Committee would be the Sub-j e c t Committees which would formulate the course of study f o r each sub-j e c t . The Curriculum Advisor was H. B. King, a former c l a s s i c s teacher, then p r i n c i p a l of the K i t s i l a n o Junior-Senior High School who had pre-viously been appointed as technical advisor to a commission on School Finance set up by Weir i n 1934. Dr. King had attended the University of Washington where he received his doctorate; h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n concerned the teaching of French by the d i r e c t method. He fought constantly with the t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s i n education and the teachers who worked with him suggested that Dr. King should be given the c r e d i t f o r opening the options and loosening up the curriculum f o r those students who were not academically minded. Dr. King was not l i k e d by the teachers who had to work with him but he was respected.^ In order to set up the various committees, Dr. King i n v i t e d the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation (the B.C.T.F.) to submit names for the committees. Accordingly, the General Secretary of the B.C.T.F., Harry Charlesworth, wrote to the l o c a l associations asking that names be forwarded d i r e c t l y to H. B. King at the Parliament Buildings i n V i c -. 6 t o r i a . In February 1936, The B.C. Teacher was asked to announce -the names of the Subject Committees f o r the j u n i o r and senior high schools. The Junior High School S o c i a l Studies Committee l i s t e d the following: Dr. 0. M. Sandford, K i t s i l a n o High School (Chairman) Mr. J. R. Atkinson, Point Grey Junior High School Mr. K. A. Waites, King Edward High School Mr. F. C. Hardwick, King Edward High School Mr. J. N. Burnett, Aberdeen School, Vancouver Mr. J . C h e l l , Central School, New Westminster^ The Senior High School So c i a l Studies Committee l i s t e d : Mr. A. S. Matheson, University H i l l (Chairman) Dr. H. M. Morrison, Lord Byng High School Mr. H. D. Dee, V i c t o r i a High School Mr. F. M. Painter, Magee High School Mr. R. Straight, Inspector, Vancouver Dr. W. N. Sage, University of B r i t i s h Columbia^ In a speech to the members of the r e v i s i o n committees, Weir c l e a r l y stated the d i r e c t i o n the new curriculum should take. Co-operation, rather than competition, should be taught i n schools and the school's primary function was to be the i n c u l c a t i o n of co-operative s o c i a l a t t i -9 . . . tudes. In the new curriculum s o c i a l studies played a c e n t r a l r o l e as "an instrument for the creation of a viable democratic s o c i e t y . " ^ In an a r t i c l e i n The B.C. Teacher i n June 1934, Dr. H. M. Morrison, who l a t e r became a member of the Senior High School Revision Committee, stated that "the s o c i a l studies may be regarded as the warp and woof of our education. Around them we should weave the other sub-j e c t s of the secondary school curriculum."^""'' The reason that s o c i a l studies was singled out i n t h i s way was that, i f true education claimed to teach children how to l i v e , then i n order to do that, c h i l d r e n must be taught what l i f e was a l l about. 12 "So c i a l Studies i s the study of l i f e . " The s o c i a l studies was to occupy an important place i n the new curriculum as a s o c i a l i z i n g agent. Dr. King was responsible f o r the appointment of a l l teachers who served on the Subject Committees. Some believed that he chose those 13 teachers he thought he could influence. Two of the members of the Junior High School S o c i a l Studies Committee (0. M.Sandford and F. C. Hardwick) had taught i n the K i t s i l a n o Junior High School when King was p r i n c i p a l . The Junior High School Social Studies Committee served f o r about one year. The committee prepared a syllabus which ignored grades one to twelve. At the end of the year, Dr. King asked the Committee to select textbooks f o r Canadian and B r i t i s h h i s t o r y and geography. One of the textbooks the committee had been given was Dr. King's own book, . 14 A History of B r i t a i n . Dr. King had written the textbook when he was p r i n c i p a l of K i t s i l a n o Junior High School. Dr. King's book was not highly regarded and was rejected by the Junior High School S o c i a l Studies Committee. "^ When the Department of Education took over the task of t i d y i n g up the course of studies they added Dr. King's book to the pre-scribed l i s t f o r junior high s c h o o l s . ^ The Elementary Programme of Studies was published i n 1936 and the "Aims and Philosophy of Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia," prepared by the General Elementary School Committee, stated: From the point of view of society, the schools i n any state e x i s t to develop c i t i z e n s or subjects according to the p r e v a i l i n g or domin-ating ideals of the state or society. Any state desires to transmit i t s c ulture. A l l states seek to ensure t h e i r safety, s t a b i l i t y and perpetuity. The people of a democratic state such as Canada aim for more than t h i s . They wish to have c i t i z e n s able to play t h e i r part i n a democratic state, but able also to make new adjust-ments i n an evolving and progressive s o c i a l order, so that s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y may be united with s o c i a l progress.17 These aims were repeated i n the Programmes of Study for the Junior High Schools and the Senior High Schools which appeared l a t e r , and emphasize the concern over the necessity of s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y . The s o c i a l studies for elementary schools was a combination of fused and separate courses i n geography and h i s t o r y . While the general pre-amble to s o c i a l studies states that i t was "designed to give the p u p i l an understanding of h i s environment and control over i t , and to promote 18 h i s growth and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , " the General Aims for S o c i a l Studies i n Grades I, I I , and I I I , state that a p u p i l i s "to develop a sense of gratitude for s o c i a l welfare and a consequent sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 19 towards others." But i t i s i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the h i s t o r y pro-gramme that the emphasis on s o c i a l co-operation i s noticeable. "Man does not l i v e i n i s o l a t i o n but i n communities. This involves s o c i a l 20 regulations and i n s t i t u t i o n s . " Weir's emphasis on s o c i a l co-operation was not unique to him. In her thesis dealing with t h i s period, Jean Mann quotes the deputy Minis t e r of Education i n Ontario, Duncan McArthur, i n an a r t i c l e i n The School, December 1934, as blaming "unrestrained i n d i v i d u a l i s m , " the l a i s s e z -f a i r e complacency, for the mess the world was i n , and Mann suggests that 21 t h i s a t t i t u d e was t y p i c a l of many educators at t h i s time. The solu-t i o n McArthur gave was to place emphasis on "the development of the crea-22 t i v e and s o c i a l rather than on a c q u i s i t i v e impulses." The a r t i c l e i l l u s t r a t e s how to use s o c i a l studies to create and promote r i g h t s o c i a l attitudes and Mann suggests that t h i s could have been "adopted as a mani-festo regarding the place and function of s o c i a l studies i n the curriculum by any Department of Education i n any province i n Canada during the mid-23 depression years." By 1937 the Programmes of Study for both the Junior and Senior High Schools were ready. The s o c i a l studies i n the junior high schools was a c o r r e l a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t branches of the s o c i a l sciences, mainly h i s t o r y , geography, and c i v i c s . The objectives of the 1926-27 c u r r i c u -lum were repeated and the same textbooks were to be used u n t i l new books were a v a i l a b l e . The comment i s made, i n the 'General Statement' at the beginning of the outline for s o c i a l studies, that the course may appear heavier than the former one. This was due to the addition of several new units to the curriculum. These new u n i t s , i n grade VII, for example, were r e l a t e d to c i v i c s , i . e . , "The Pupil and h i s Environ-ment" and l o c a l studies, i . e . , "Your Own Community." The "suggested a c t i v i t i e s " f o r these new units r e f l e c t the concern over s o c i a l co-operation and good c i t i z e n s h i p . The students were to Prepare a t a l k i n which you explain how a good home helps to make a good community. . . . Draw up a code of good c i t i z e n s h i p for your school. . . . Show how any one of these organizations ( v i z . , Munic-i p a l Council, School Board, P o l i c e Dept., F i r e Dept., etc.) makes your community a better place to l i v e . . . . Show that i t i s neces-sary for the c i t i z e n s to delegate authority to some cen t r a l organiza-t i o n . . . . L i s t the most important t i e s of the empire. 2 4 The l i s t of references: for t h i s section contains a l i s t of ten books plus an a t l a s . Their t i t l e s are i n t e r e s t i n g i n that they i n d i -cate the d i r e c t i o n that c i t i z e n s h i p lessons are to follow. One book is The B r i t i s h Subject by Bateson and Weston, published by Oxford Uni-v e r s i t y Press. Another, The Way of the C i t i z e n i s published by 31 McDougalls' Educational Co. i n London. A t h i r d textbook i s Our Selves 25 and the Community by Reynolds and published by Cambridge Press. I t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g point to note that i f American influences on teaching methods found an easy route across the Canadian border v i a the teachers who sought graduate studies i n the United States, the B r i t i s h influence on the programme content, by way of the textbooks, had not diminished. Dr. King's book, as has been mentioned previously, appeared on the prescribed textbook l i s t f o r the junior high schools. I t does give insight into the junior high school s o c i a l studies curriculum. King says that he o f f e r s some "conservative innovations." This book does not attempt to give a romantic view of h i s t o r y but rather a s o c i a l view. Reference i s frequent to comparable modern conditions when old e v i l s or old problems are discussed.^ and The d e t a i l s of m i l i t a r y campaigns have been almost e n t i r e l y omitted, p a r t l y because a compressed account of a campaign gives a f a l s e p i c -ture to i t lacking i n s o c i a l significance.27 If s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was important to King, so, too, was e f f i -ciency. King approved of the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c management for schooling, a system which was promoted by F r a n k l i n Bobbitt at the Uni-28 v e r s i t y of Chicago. In his book, King repeatedly states that his innovations and planning w i l l save time. Some of h i s techniques included placing questions at the beginning of chapters so that these would have a "problem r a i s i n g " e f f e c t and t r a i n a c h i l d to read with a questioning a t t i t u d e . King said he had removed a l l f a c t u a l material unrelated to important dates and concepts and he said that an aim of the book had been to develop a sense of h i s t o r i c a l sequence to avoid the confusion 29 which could take place, yet h i s book remained highly f a c t u a l ! In the appendix at the end of the book, there i s printed "A Message to the Youth of the Empire" given by Stanley Baldwin on May 18th, 1937 at the Empire Youth Rally at the Albert H a l l , at the time of the corona-t i o n of George VI. The l a s t few l i n e s of the speech seem to sum up the whole purpose of the s o c i a l studies curriculum. "And l e t me say t h i s to you. From tonight onwards and a l l your l i v e s , put your duty 30 f i r s t and think about your r i g h t s afterwards." The s o c i a l studies curriculum was designed to show the duties of a c i t i z e n , duties which were to include reasoning, c r i t i c a l thinking, and 'ri g h t ' values, shaped i n the B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n . No one seems to have questioned that these concepts are not synonymous! The emphasis on B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s at a time when l o c a l studies are becoming important i s i n t e r e s t i n g . In the l a t e 1930's the Public  Schools Annual Reports began to p r i n t s t a t i s t i c s of the numbers of c h i l -dren of foreign parentage attending the public schools i n the province. In the Annual Report 1936-37, the largest group of "foreign" students i n school were the Japanese (5,499), followed by Scandinavians (2,339), Germans (2,071), I t a l i a n s (2,058), and Chinese (1,447), making a t o t a l 31 of 20,435 out of a t o t a l number of 118,431. This was a large number of students, most of whom were found i n the elementary schools and junior high schools i n both urban and r u r a l areas. I t made sense to the cur-riculum developers, to stress B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n s i n the elementary and junior high schools since most students did not attend high school. The Programme of Studies f o r Senior High Schools, introduced two courses only. Additional courses were to be added as the programme got underway. Both these i n i t i a l courses were based on h i s t o r y , a l -though other subjects were acknowledged as contributing towards the subject matter of s o c i a l studies. "This concentration of the s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s around h i s t o r y as a core i s l o g i c a l because h i s t o r y i s the cement that binds the So c i a l Studies. A l l the Soci a l Studies have a 32 past and the past i s h i s t o r y . " High school graduation required three courses i n s o c i a l studies above grade VIII. The new curriculum did make an e f f o r t to remove the academic bias of matriculation from determin-ing the course content. The preamble to general objectives of s o c i a l studies sets the tone. The S o c i a l Studies are to be understood as those studies whose sub-j e c t matter r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the organization and the develop-ment of human society and to man as a member of a s o c i a l group. The Social Studies are designed to t r a i n the pupil as a member of society, and c u l t i v a t e h i s s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y . . . . The S o c i a l Studies should provide the pu p i l with tools and procedures which may be employed i n the so l u t i o n of the p r a c t i c a l problems of our e x i s t i n g and devel-oping society.33 The teacher i s exhorted to provide the pu p i l with "material to think about, with a method of thinking and with s i t u a t i o n s and problems which 34 challenge him to think." However, the content of the curriculum did not suggest how t h i s might be done. I t was s t i l l a chronological account of world h i s t o r y , the b u i l d i n g of the c o l o n i a l empires and the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution to the, then, present day. The textbook, J. S. Shapiro, R. B. Morris, and F. H. Soward, C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe and the World, Canadian E d i t i o n (Toronto: Cop Clark Co. Ltd., 1938), was almost iden-t i c a l to that i t replaced (Story of World Progress). When the geography e l e c t i v e s were revised and introduced i n 1937 there was no d i r e c t attempt to a l i g n geography and h i s t o r y . Geographic s k i l l s were seen as impor-tant as well as the study of geographic problems and the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge of Canada and the B r i t i s h Commonwealth. The introduction of the new curriculum between 1935-39 brought l i t t l e controversy. In an e d i t o r i a l i n The B.C. Teacher, the editor suggests that public education had to take some blame f o r the i l l s of the world and that the basic error i n education had been a matter of educational objectives, but that t h i s was now being corrected. " . . . and an outstanding feature of the c u r r i c u l a r studies now engrossing the attention of the teaching body i s the central and basic p o s i t i o n given 35 to educational p r i n c i p l e s and objectives." While the editor refers to the f a c t that a l l teachers do not give these aims "unreserved approval," he considers them i n error. " A l l w i l l agree that education i s i n d i v i d u a l but that any i n d i v i d u a l development opposed to the s o c i a l 36 good i s e s s e n t i a l l y undesirable." The new s o c i a l studies curriculum was the topic of a c r i t i c a l a r t i -37 c l e by F. A. Armstrong, a teacher, at a l a t e r date i n The B.C. Teacher. The author states that while there appears to be general agreement that the new s o c i a l studies curriculum i s "greatly superior: there are im-perfections." One of the c r i t i c i s m s was the "undue" amount of time spent on the B r i t i s h Empire, e s p e c i a l l y i n elementary and junior high school. The author suggests that students who do not go to high school leave school with "an unbalanced picture of the world, and i t s a f f a i r s , 38 and our place i n i t . " Greater c o r r e l a t i o n of the courses i n h i s t o r y and geography was needed i n the elementary school, so that c h i l d r e n would have the opportunity to study ancient and modern l i f e . A newspaper e d i t o r i a l deplored the lack of Canadian h i s t o r y i n 39 the new curriculum. A reply by Dr. King absolutely refuted the c r i t i -cism. Even a casual examination of the programmes of study for the public schools of the Province w i l l reveal the inaccuracy of these state-ments. It may be observed however, that h i s t o r y i s included under the aceepted modern caption, s o c i a l s t u d i e s . 4 ^ There appears to have been some confusion i n the mind of the general public over the use of the term s o c i a l studies! 35 In the Annual Report 1939-40, Dr. King, then the Chief Inspector of Schools, said that B r i t i s h Columbia "has received much pr a i s e " for i t s c u r r i c u l a r reforms but that the curriculum reforms of B r i t i s h Colum-bia are si m i l a r i n philosophy to those appearing across Canada and e l s e -41 where. "The development of our own curriculum i s simply a B r i t i s h Columbia expression of educational philosophy and psychology as these 42 have been developing i n the English-speaking world." During the l a t t e r h a l f of the 1930's many provinces became involved i n curriculum change, however only i n the four western provinces did s o c i a l studies become a "subject" from grade one to matriculation. Elsewhere i n Canada i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to elementary and junior high schools. The introduction of s o c i a l studies i n the B r i t i s h Columbia cur-riculum i n the lat e 1920's and i t s establishment i n a central r o l e i n the 1930's was at a time when the whole world was i n turmoil. S o c i a l studies was one of the means used to transmit and inculcate the " r i g h t " s o c i a l values. In t h i s way i t was thought that the smooth running of 43 the state could be ensured. That the " r i g h t " values were those of the middle classes, who generally ran the schools and the government, did not seem to be a problem to most people, hence the lack of protest when the new curriculum appeared. That the s o c i a l studies curriculum seemed to be one of in d o c t r i n a t i o n would not be shocking i n those times. Fascism and communism both used i n d o c t r i n a t i o n i n education as a l e g i t -imate means of propagating t h e i r views. A l l the B r i t i s h Columbia cur-riculum did was to use the r h e t o r i c of the time. In the 1930's during the depression, there was the idea among 44 teachers i n the school system that things would get better. The "proud tower" had been struck down i n World War I. If only the masses were taught the r i g h t things, the world would improve. Most teachers were i d e a l i s t s . The intentions of the majority were a l t r u i s t i c . There was no d i r e c t i n d o c t r i n a t i o n such as that implied by the words of the s o c i a l studies curriculum, although one could argue that the content of the curriculum was i n d o c t r i n a t i o n enough. The i n t e n t i o n of the teach-ers was to improve the l i v e s of t h e i r students, though the i n t e n t i o n of the government was the preservation of the state. In actual f a c t , there was very l i t t l e change. As the teachers of the time stated, most of the r h e t o r i c was theory and not p r a c t i c e . Government examinations s t i l l had to be passed and i t was these which directed the "what" and 45 "how" of teaching. The goals of s o c i a l studies from the time of i t s i n c l u s i o n i n the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum i n 1927 to the new curriculum, f i t into the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies Barth and Shermis c a l l c i t i z e n s h i p transmis-46 . . . . . sion. C i t i z e n s h i p i s i d e n t i f i e d with t r a i t s and values such as law and order and adherence to community norms. A good c i t i z e n i s one who has i n t e r n a l i z e d the " r i g h t " values, con-forms at least outwardly to what i s expected of him, votes regu-l a r l y , j o i n s c e r t a i n community organizations and, i n general, "accepts" the l o c a l community's concepts of democracy.47 This i s exactly the purpose of s o c i a l studies as given i n the Programmes of Study. The content of t h i s p o s i t i o n according to Barth and Shermis rests on three extremely shaky assumptions: that c i t i z e n s h i p i s best achieved by storing up f a c t s , p r i n c i p l e s , b e l i e f s , and theories; that what was v a l i d i n the past i s v a l i d today; and that what i s considered important by a consensus i s s u f f i c i e n t f or s e l e c t i n g curriculum f o r the 48 schools. B r i t i s h Columbia's s o c i a l studies curriculum f i t s these three assumptions. The textbooks are f u l l of f a c t s ; the content of the curriculum shows l i t t l e change from 1900 and the curriculum r e v i s i o n took place through several committees. The only area where the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum may not conform to the Barth and Shermis model of c i t i z e n s h i p transmission i s i n the method of transmission. This i s stated as a "mixture of d e s c r i p t i o n 49 and persuasion." The teacher's function i s to describe a l l that which i s thought should be learned by students. Barth and Shermis assume that the teacher w i l l transmit t h i s knowledge unbiased and without i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , and regardless of personal f e e l i n g s "should persuade students of the rightness or wrongness of c e r t a i n values."^^ The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the production of good c i t i z e n s was c e r t a i n l y given to s o c i a l studies teachers i n p a r t i c u l a r . As the Programme of Studies stated, "because the Social Studies are p e c u l i a r l y adapted to t h i s end, teachers of S o c i a l Studies must assume a large share of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f or the r e a l i z a -t i o n of these e s s e n t i a l s of good citizenship."^''" The teacher of s o c i a l studies was also reminded that "to take advantage of his p o s i t i o n to propagandize his own v i e w s — o r the view of any party or group to which he may belong or with which he may sympathize, v i o l a t e s the objectives 52 of S o c i a l Studies." The introduction of s o c i a l studies into the B r i t i s h Columbia cur-riculum between 1927-1937 cannot be considered innovative. The goals of s o c i a l studies were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the preservation of the state and as f a r as course content was concerned there was l i t t l e change. The lack of controversy concerning the introduction of s o c i a l studies can be explained by the f a c t that both progressives and t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s saw s o c i a l studies from t h e i r own perspectives and neither group perceived a threat to t h e i r ideas. The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s saw l i t t l e change in the status quo while the progressives saw the chance to put new ideas into p r a c t i c e . In r e a l i t y , there was very l i t t l e change i n the classroom. 39 FOOTNOTES 1 J . S. Mann, "G. M. Weir and H. B. King," p. 97. 2 I b i d . , p. 101. 3 Vancouver Daily Province, October 4th, 1935. 4 G. M. Weir, "The Revision of the Curriculum," The B.C. Teacher, ( A p r i l 1935), p. 20. " W . F. C. Hardwick, Mr. E r i c K e l l y , Mr. J . E. Gibbard, Interviews. Letters from H. B. King and H. Charlesworth, October 31st, 1935. B.C.T.F. Vault Books. 7The B.C. Teacher, February 1936, p. 7. 8 9 Ibid., p. 8. Ibid., (quoted) pp. 11-12. ^ J . S. Mann, "Progressive Education and the Depression i n B.C.", p. 119. ''"''"Dr. H. M. Morrison, "S o c i a l Studies i n Secondary Education," The  B.C. Teacher (June 1934), p. 31. 12 Dr. H. M. Morrison, "A Plea for Social Studies," The B.C. Teacher (February 1935), p. 7. 13 Mr. F. C. Harwick Interviews August 6 and August 10, 1981. 14 H. B. King, A History of B r i t a i n (Toronto: MacMillan, 1937). ^Not one of the people who taught at t h i s time holds Dr. King's book i n high regard. Most of them c a l l e d i t "a dreadful book." 16 Mr. F. C. Harwick, Interview. The imposition of Dr. King's book on the Junior High School l i s t by the Department of Education was con- . firmed by Mr. E r i c K e l l y and Mr. J. E. Gibbard. ^Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary School (1936), p. 7. 18 19 20 Ibid., p. 6. Ibid., p. 8. Ibid., p. 58. 21 J. S. Mann, "Progressive Education i n the Depression," p. 121. 22 23 Ibid., p. 122. Ibid., p. 123. Programme of Studies f o r the Junior High School (1937), pp. 234-235. 25 It i s unfortunate that these books are not available i n the Li b r a r y at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 26 H. B. King, A History of B r i t a i n , Introduction. Ibid. 2 8 J . S. Mann, "G. M. Weir and H. B. King," p. 107. 29 H. B. King, A History of B r i t a i n , Introduction. 30 . Ibid., p. 552. 31 Annual Report 1936-37, p. L. 16. The Annual Report does not define what i t means by "foreign parentage." 32 Programme of Studies for Senior High Schools (1937), p. 114. 33 . 34 Ibid., p. 110. Ib i d . 3 5 T h e B.C. Teacher (February 1937), p. 259. "^ I b i d . , p. 261. 37 F. A. Armstrong, " S o c i a l Studies," The B.C. Teacher ( A p r i l 1939), pp. 405-407. 38 Ibid., p. 406. 39 Vancouver Daily Province, Friday January 27th, 1939. 40 H. B. King Correspondence, Box 18, F i l e 6, P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a . 4 1Annual Report (1939-1940), p. B 32. 4 2 I b i d . 43 See J . S. Mann, "Progressive Education i n the Depression," f o r d e t a i l s on other curriculum changes. 44 Mr. J . E. Gibbard, Mr. E. K e l l y , Mr. F. C. Hardwick, Interviews. 45 T,., Ibid. 46 Barth and Shermis, "Defining the Soc i a l Studies: An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s , " pp. 744-746. 47 48 49 50 Ibi d . , p. 744. Ibid . Ibid. I b i d . , p. 745. "^Programme of Studies (1937), p. 111. 5 2 I b i d . , p. 110. CHAPTER FOUR SOCIAL STUDIES IN THE FORTIES AND FIFTIES The period between the end of World War II and 1960 saw extensive r e v i s i o n of s o c i a l studies courses i n which several i n t e r e s t i n g develop-ments are noted. Course r e v i s i o n , i n the secondary area i n p a r t i c u l a r , saw the involvement of an increasing number of s o c i a l studies teachers. S i m i l a r l y , as teachers became more involved with curriculum r e v i s i o n , teacher c r i t i c i s m of s o c i a l studies courses also became more vocal. This i s not to suggest that s o c i a l studies teachers were more c r i t i c a l of t h e i r colleagues' work but rather i l l u s t r a t e s that there was a great d i v e r s i t y of opinion amongst s o c i a l studies teachers as to what should constitute the courses. In the s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n s a f t e r World War II the concept of ' c i t i z e n s h i p ' developed from the narrow base of nationalism to the broader base of world c i t i z e n s h i p , and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for c i t i z e n s h i p education was shared among a l l teachers. A most s i g n i f i c a n t development was the increased amount of geography at a l l l e v e l s of the s o c i a l studies curriculum. This was not the old 'capes and bays' geo-graphy but the teaching of geographic s k i l l s , and the recognition that geography did have an important contribution to play i n the s o c i a l studies curriculum. The shortage of teachers i n the 1950's made teaching d i f f i c u l t 41 at a l l l e v e l s and s o c i a l studies teachers were c r i t i c i z e d f o r following the textbooks rather than the course outlines or teaching towards examin-ations. However, the confidence of s o c i a l studies teachers i s r e f l e c t e d i n the formation, within the B.C.T.F., of the B r i t i s h Columbia Soc i a l Studies Teachers Association (B.C.S.S.T.A.) during 1958-59. When the new curriculum was introduced into the public school system during 1936 and 1937 there was great i n t e r e s t by education o f f i c i a l s as to how e f f e c t i v e l y the implementation was progressing. This in t e r e s t was seen i n a meeting held on October 22nd, 1937 i n V i c t o r i a . The Minis-ter of Education, Dr. Weir, c a l l e d a meeting of school inspectors to discuss t h i s matter. Dr. Weir reported that there was great i n t e r e s t among the general public and i t was important that i t should get o f f to a good start.''" The agenda for the meeting included such topics as whether teachers were doing much professional reading, whether teachers were able to teach the "new curriculum" and whether schools were equipped 2 f o r the new programme of studies. The general consensus among the inspectors was that teachers were organizing study groups and doing a great deal of reading i n connection with the new courses e s p e c i a l l y s o c i a l studies. One inspector noted, 3 "there i s a vast amount of reading i n that, i n a l l grades." It was 4 also noted that many teachers were attending summer school. One problem which gave r i s e to considerable discussion was the lack of well-equipped school l i b r a r i e s i n some areas of the province. As Dr. Weir noted, "the curriculum i s not going to function unless we have the function's c e n t r e — t h e school library.""' But the school d i s -t r i c t s were poor and did not have funds to equip school l i b r a r i e s . School inspectors throughout B r i t i s h Columbia complained about the lack of equipment i n schools into the early 1940's. In 1942 one inspector, H. H. Mackenzie, wrote, " i n any modern high school professing to carry out a progressive system of education a reasonably equipped l i b a r y i s the sine qua non of any r e a l progress. There i s immediate need of equip-ment i n the Maple Ridge High S c h o o l . I n regard to s o c i a l studies and general science, another inspector, J . F. K. English, said i n 1944, "there i s not enough [material] available to permit the employment of g e f f e c t i v e research methods." The inspectors' reports for t h i s period often l i s t i n d i v i d u a l teach-ers and the courses each taught. In the Maple Ridge High School, the teachers are l i s t e d as each teaching between three to six d i f f e r e n t courses i n three to s i x d i f f e r e n t subject areas. One teacher taught s o c i a l studies, health, guidance, physical t r a i n i n g , and remedial English. Another teacher taught senior matriculation h i s t o r y , two s o c i a l studies 9 courses, English, and boys' counselling. With such diverse and heavy workloads, one wonders how teachers were able to cope with both teaching and preparing the new courses. I t c e r t a i n l y does not seem l i k e l y that there would be great innovation i n the classroom even i f the teachers themselves were academically capable of teaching a l l they were required to do. There would not be time! In 1937, however, the e f f e c t of the new curriculum on teachers i s reported to have been very p o s i t i v e . Inspector H. H. Mackenzie, for example, said, I would l i k e to say that looking back over a period of t h i r t y years' experience, I have never experienced anything l i k e the e f f e c t of the new revised curriculum on the attitude of teachers and the people generally i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The stimulus given to educational thought and educational enter-p r i s e i n that area has been simply remarkable not only on the part of the teacher but on the part of the general public and the trustees. On the older teachers, some of them teaching t h i r t y f i v e - f o r t y years, i t simply r e v i t a l i z e d these p e o p l e . ^ Interest i n curriculum r e v i s i o n was high. The B.C.T.F. had estab-l i s h e d a Federation Curriculum Revision Committee e a r l y i n 1937 to con-sider communications from the Department of Education's Central Revision Committee.^ A year a f t e r the introduction of the high school courses, teachers presented a series of resolutions to the Curriculum Revision Committee of the B.C.T.F. The resolutions did not question the p h i l o s -ophy of s o c i a l studies but rather commented on the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n teaching s o c i a l studies. The two main problems were the length of S o c i a l Studies V (the f i n a l s o c i a l studies course i n the high school programme), and the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced i n teaching s o c i a l studies i n r u r a l schools. These d i f f i c u u l t i e s included a lack of equip-ment for teaching s o c i a l studies and the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n teaching separate s o c i a l studies courses to small groups of students.''" In June 1940, a b r i e f submitted by a Committee of the S o c i a l Stud-ies Section of the B.C. Secondary Teachers Association, on the subject of modifications to Soc i a l Studies V, was forwarded to the Department 13 of Education. The b r i e f , which suggested that the course was too long and that some of the units were e i t h e r inappropriate or duplicated each other, was submitted to a s p e c i a l committee selected by the Depart-ment of Education for i t s consideration. The spe c i a l committee was of the opinion that the problems were the f a u l t of the teachers who were . 14 not s e l e c t i n g the appropriate sections of each u n i t . In h i s reply to the report from the Superintendent of Education, J . S. W i l l i s , the general secretary of the B.C.T.F. pointed out that the teachers who had drawn up the b r i e f were experienced s o c i a l studies teachers and that since four of the s p e c i a l committee members were on the o r i g i n a l committee which drew up the Soc i a l Studies V course, they had a vested i n t e r e s t i n it.' 1""' As a r e s u l t of the general secretary's l e t t e r , a meeting was arranged between members of the Central Revision Committee and a delegation from the B.C.T.F. The meeting took place 16 on 26th September, 1941, i n the Hotel Vancouver. The Central Revision Committee assured the delegation that s o c i a l studies courses would be subject to r e v i s i o n from time to time and that revised units from teach-ers would be welcomed. The Central Revision Committee accused teachers of following the course of studies too s l a v i s h l y for examination purposes and pointed out that the teachers were not acquainted with the aims of education as written in the Programmes of Study. During the war years there was very l i t t l e change to the s o c i a l studies curriculum. An a r t i c l e i n The B.C. Teacher stated that the fa c t of war had changed the classroom conditions for every subject but t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y true for s o c i a l s t u d i e s . ^ The a r t i c l e l i s t e d the gains and the losses; among the gains were included increased i n t e r e s t i n current a f f a i r s and geography, more thoughtful attention to forms of government, and a desire to know more about the conditions of the world. Included i n the losses were the e f f e c t of the war on the older boys, who were unable to s e t t l e down to do steady work, and t h e i r c y n i c a l or f a t a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s . With the end of the war and the gradual resumption of normal l i f e , education came under public scrutiny with the publishing of the Cameron 18 Report concerned with the financing of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The report i t s e l f made no recommendations regarding curriculum but exten-sive changes were recommended i n educational administration. However, the p u b l i c school curriculum was being viewed very c r i t i c a l l y from many perspectives. While some educators c r i t i c i z e d the high school s o c i a l studies course because they said, i t s purpose was to prepare for matricu-l a t i o n rather than c i t i z e n s h i p , other educators attacked the curriculum 19 . . . . as being too progressive. In an a r t i c l e i n The B.C. Teacher, p r i n c i -pal of V i c t o r i a College, Dr. John M. Ewing, said, "we stand, as i t were, between two mutually antagonistic modes of thought and have not succeeded 20 i n achieving harmony between them." Dr. Ewing was not a supporter of progressive education. He described i t as "a contempt for d r i l l , a scorn of d i s c i p l i n e , a suspicion of personal scholarship, a firm b e l i e f that a l l unpleasant tasks must be avoided and a consequent watering down . . . 21 of i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " The Annual Report f o r 1945-46 announced a new Central Curriculum Committee together with plans to revise the s o c i a l studies courses from 22 grades one to s i x . The following year the Annual Report announced the establishment of the Curriculum D i v i s i o n of the Department of Educa-t i o n charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of continuing r e v i s i o n and develop-ment of courses of study for a l l schools. I t was also announced that 23 gradual reorganization of the secondary curriculum would take place. There were no s p e c i f i c reasons given f o r the need for curriculum change at t h i s time other than the on-going need for curriculum r e v i -sion. There were however several factors which would have influenced the decision to revise the s o c i a l studies curriculum at t h i s time. It had been ten years since the l a s t s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n had occurred for both the elementary and secondary schools and the experience of World War II had broadened the concept of c i t i z e n s h i p . As the Assistant Superintendent of Education, H. L. Campbell, commented i n a speech to a Women's I n s t i t u t e Convention, 47 Consider for a few moments the subject of education and c i t i z e n -ship i n general. C r i t i c a l periods i n hi s t o r y have always seen men evaluate t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . We are i n such a period today. Momentous events have transpired and are t r a n s p i r i n g . A t e r r i b l e war has ju s t been concluded. A new World Power, Russia has arisen. China i s on her way to national status. India i s beginning her career as a self-governing nation. In the realm of science, the fabulous power of the atom has been harnessed. And humanity, i s s t i l l hoping for the 'brave new world' of i t s dreams. In t h i s c r i t i c a l period, Society i s evaluating i n s t i t u t i o n s such as educa-t i o n and c i t i z e n s h i p as i t has never done before.24 C i t i z e n s h i p education was seen not only as a means of passing on t r a d i -t i o n a l values but also as a means of coping with a changing and complex world. During the ten years since the previous curriculum r e v i s i o n there had been a substantial increase i n the t o t a l enrollment of students along with an increase i n the percentage of students who had foreign parents. In 1936-37 the t o t a l enrollment was'.1187.431, 20,435 (17%) of whom had 25 foreign parents. In 1944-45 the t o t a l enrollment had increased to 125,136, 29,191 (21%) of whom had foreign p a r e n t s . 2 6 By 1946-47 the t o t a l enrollment had increased again to 137,827 of whom 34,446 (25%) had foreign p a r e n t s . 2 7 The increases i n ''enrollment between 1936-37 and 1946-47 were not gradual increases nor were they for the same reasons. There was very l i t t l e increase i n t o t a l enrollment between 1936-37 and 1942-43. How-ever, between 1942-43 and 1944-45 the t o t a l public school enrollment 28 jumped from 119,043 to.125,136. The development of wartime industries 29 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a f t e r Pearl Harbour, explains t h i s increase. To accommodate th i s increase, 18 new elementary schools were b u i l t i n B r i t -. 3 0 i s h Columbia. The year following the end of the war, 1945-46, saw the t o t a l enrollment increase by 4,869 to 130,605. Of t h i s increase 31 4,540 were students with foreign parents. The broadening of the concept of c i t i z e n s h i p and the increase i n 48 the t o t a l enrollment with i t s increasing percentage of foreign students c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f i e d s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n at t h i s time but there were other reasons which might explain why the elementary s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n was the f i r s t to be revised, and completed within a year. The elementary s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n was announced in the Annual Report 1945-46, th i s was H. B. King's l a s t year as Chief Inspector of Schools and G. H. Weir was, once again, the Minister of Education. (Dr. Weir l o s t h i s seat i n the e l e c t i o n of 1941 and was re-elected i n the 1945 p r o v i n c i a l election.) It does not seem u n l i k e l y that these two people, who were responsible for the i n i t i a l r e v i s i o n i n 1935, would wish to revise t h e i r o r i g i n a l work to bring i t up to date. The Elementary S o c i a l Studies Committee members were: Mr. H. C. G i l l i l a n d , V i c e - p r i n c i p a l , P r o v i n c i a l Normal School, V i c t o r i a (Editor) Mr. John Gough, Inspector of Schools, V i c t o r i a Dr. H. M. Morrison, Chief Personnel O f f i c e r , C i v i l Service Commis-sion, formerly Inspector of Schools Dr. Wm. P l e n d e r l e i t h , Inspector of Schools, Nanaimo Mr. B. Thorsteinsson, Inspector of Schools, Duncan The fa c t that t h i s committee was composed of highly placed government o f f i c i a l s located i n , or near V i c t o r i a provides evidence of the haste with which the r e v i s i o n of the elementary s o c i a l studies curriculum took place. Social studies was described i n the curriculum guide as, . . . subjects which are concerned with the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of people i n groups and with the i n t e r a c t i o n between those groups and t h e i r physical environment. Some of these subjects are h i s t o r y , geography, c i v i c s , economics and sociology. In the elementary school, material i s drawn from a l l of these subjects to form the basis for experiences that w i l l explain to the c h i l d h i s s o c i a l and physical environment, and w i l l a f f o r d such pr a c t i c e i n wholesome l i v i n g i n that environment as w i l l help him to achieve s o c i a l l y competent s e l f -r e a l i z a t i o n . ^  3 49 This very broad, child-centred outlook was r e f l e c t e d i n the aims of s o c i a l studies. The aim of the school i s to make good c i t i z e n s — o f our community, of our nation, of our world. The overriding aim of So c i a l Studies i s to provide c h i l d r e n with those r i c h experiences i n group a c t i v i -t i e s of a co-operative nature that w i l l help each c h i l d to grow to-wards a s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n i n harmony with the progress of society.34 The emphasis, i n the elementary courses, was to be on process, though facts were acknowledged as being necessary. Instructions on the use of geographic tools and v i s u a l aids were also given. The content of the elementary s o c i a l studies courses followed a pattern that began i n the home, spread to the community then to the world, with an emphasis on s p e c i f i c experiences and c o l o u r f u l s t o r i e s . Teachers were warned 35 to avoid d e t a i l s which involved long l i s t s of names and explanations. The elementary curriculum, with i t s emphasis on process, was an example of the interest-centred c u r r i c u l a of progressive education. The use of a prescribed textbooks was played down. It was not to be used to indicate the content of courses but to be used for enrichment and 36 freetime reading. At the back of the 1950 Programme of Studies were extensive l i s t s of supplementary readers for both students and teachers, but one wonders where the school boards were to f i n d the money to provide these resources i n the l i g h t of the inspectors' comments e a r l i e r i n the decade. If the supplementary material was not a v a i l a b l e , the teacher would be forced to r e l y on the textbooks. Two geography textbooks were prescribed, New World Horizons and 37 Old World Horizons. The subject matter was presented i n a sample study method, that i s , the use of one example to represent a general pattern. Topping, i n his thesis on the teaching of geography i n B r i t i s h Columbia, said that i n order to maintain a high i n t e r e s t l e v e l i n these books, f a c t u a l material was av o i d e d . J U Despite the progressive approach given i n the d i r e c t i o n s to teach-ers through the published curriculum, the content remained generally the same. As mentioned previously, the primary grades looked at t h e i r home, then t h e i r community and then t h e i r extended community. In the intermediate grades, the content was selected from h i s t o r y and geography. However the t i t l e s of the grade four and grade s i x geography courses were s i g n i f i c a n t . These were "World Folk" and "World Neighbours," and 39 r e f l e c t e d the extended sense of world c i t i z e n s h i p . When the Social Studies for the Elementary Schools was published i n i t s f i n a l form i n 1950, i t contained e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s for organiz-ing units with time allotments and v i s u a l aids which could be used. Dr. H. B. King started the elementary s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n but i t was completed i n i t s f i n a l form by the Elementary So c i a l Studies Revision Committee. The s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n f or the secondary schools was part of a t o t a l reorganization of the secondary curriculum which began the year a f t e r the administrative changes, recommended by the Cameron Report, became e f f e c t i v e . The p r i n c i p l e s underlying t h i s reorganization included a reduction i n the number of courses necessary for u n i v e r s i t y entrance, the lowering of the standard required i n c e r t a i n subjects, and the pro-v i s i o n of advanced e l e c t i v e courses.in the major subject f i e l d s so "that students might pursue t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t further i n high school 40 than i s now po s s i b l e . " These p r i n c i p l e s showed a fundamental change i n education and opened the high schools and u n i v e r s i t y to growing num-bers of students. The secondary s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n was far more a committee process than that of the elementary; i t also took much longer to complete. Even the general public was i n v i t e d to take part. The Annual Report (1946-47) announced that Dr. Weir had held public meetings i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a at which the public had been i n v i t e d to o f f e r suggestions as to what should constitute the content and method of the s o c i a l studies . 4 1 courses "to t r a i n young people f o r e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p . " In Vancouver, the meeting attracted about 200 members of the general . . . . 42 pub l i c , including trades unionists, churchmen, and teachers. Sugges-tions to the Minister, varied from the study of trades unionism to the i n c l u s i o n of large p r i n t s of the Ten Commandments i n every classroom. A teacher who was the president of the United Nations' Society, Vancouver Branch, urged the subordination of "Canadianism" to the concept of one 43 world. Another teacher warned that s o c i a l studies teachers tended to lose a sense of proportion i n the subject with the r e s u l t that i t became too d i f f i c u l t and parents were being forced to do t h e i r children's homework. As a r e s u l t of the meetings, " i t was decided that the basic course i n s o c i a l studies should consist of a fusion of h i s t o r y , geography, 44 economics and sociology." The high school s o c i a l studies courses were developed by separate committees of teachers between 1946-1949. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to look at the l i s t of teachers involved i n the r e v i s i o n of the high school 45 courses. 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA SOCIAL STUDIES REVISION COMMITTEE Chairman: Mr. Harold L. Campbell, Chairman D i v i s i o n of Curriculum, Depart-ment of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C. General Coordinator: Dr. K. F. Argue, Department of Education, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Secretary: Mrs. Muriel Scace, Director of Educational Reference and School Service The S o c i a l Studies Revision Committee as divided into sub-committees: Soc i a l Studies 30: (Social Studies V) Dr. R. F. Sharp, Chairman, Magee High School, Vancouver Mr. Kenneth A. Waites, King Edward High School, Vancouver Mr. A. W. Hyndman, King Edward High School, Vancouver Mr. Stephen T. Moodie, Duke of Connaught High School, New Westminster Soc i a l Studies 20: (Social Studies IV) Mr. W. M. Armstrong, King Edward High School, Vancouver, Chairman Mr. F. H. Pratt, Burnaby South High School Mr. I. R. M i l l e r , North Vancouver High School Mr. Arnold Webster, Grandview High School S o c i a l Studies 10: (Soc i a l Studies III) Mr. R. C. Ha r r i s , Chairman, John O l i v e r High School, Vancouver Mr. C. D. Smith, King George High School, Vancouver Mr. E. L. Yeo, Britannia High School, Vancouver Mr. W. A. Willander, Vancouver Soc i a l Studies 8: (Social Studies II) Mr. John E. Gibbard, Magee High School, Vancouver, Chairman Mr. Louis Grant, Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver Miss L i l l i a n Cope, K i t s i l a n o High School, Vancouver Mr. Clyde McK. Smith, L i s t e r Junior High School, New Westminster Mr. Bert M. Cooper, John Robson Junior High School, New Westminster 53 Soc i a l Studies 7: (Social Studies I) Mr. Harold Northrop, Chairman, Lord Byng High School, Vancouver Mr. Sydney Taylor, Vancouver Technical High School Mr. P. J . Sanderson, Capital H i l l Junior High School, New Westminster Mr. E. J. Irwin, Templeton Junior High School Consultants: Professor A. C. Cooke, Department of History, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Dr. J . L. Robinson, Department of Geology and Geography, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Professor H. F. Angus, Department of Economics, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Of the 21 teachers l i s t e d , 14 are from the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , and the remaining 7 from adjacent school d i s t r i c t s . The influence of Vancouver teachers i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been s i g n i f i c a n t , both i n actual curriculum development and i n the r o l e they played within the B.C.T.F. during the early days of s o c i a l studies. Since Vancouver has always had the greatest number of teachers, e a s i l y accessible to each other, t h i s influence i s not so s u r p r i s i n g . The l o c a t i o n of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, which produced con-sultants for the r e v i s i o n committees, also enhanced Vancouver's p o s i t i o n . However, s o c i a l studies teachers in secondary schools i n the rest of the province were not neglected. A questionnaire prepared by the B.C.T.F. was d i s t r i b u t e d province-wide, i n 1945 because "the e n t i r e s o c i a l studies course i s about to be revised. We are anxious to have 46 a consensus of opinions." The questions concerned suggestions for a l l courses, asking what was good or bad about present courses, and for suggestions f o r new courses and e l e c t i v e s . The questionnaires were to be returned to the B.C.T.F. Unfortunately there i s no information as to the r e s u l t s of the questionnaire nor to what use was made of the information gathered. The Deputy Minister of Education, Harold Campbell, convened a meet-ing in Vancouver for the teachers appointed to the r e v i s i o n committees. They were given a free hand to draw up the whole s o c i a l studies cur-riculum including the choice of textbooks. The courses were to be based on a s o c i a l studies idea with an h i s t o r i c sequence since no r a d i c a l changes were wanted.^ While the s o c i a l studies curriculum was being revised a disagree-ment between the B.C.T.F. and the Department of Education developed. Although teachers were the members of the curriculum r e v i s i o n committees there was no teacher representative on the Central Curriculum Revision Committee. The Superintendent of Education's point of view was that having a teacher on the Central Curriculum Revision Committee would be l i k e having a representative from the Department of Education in the 48 B.C.T.F. As the disagreement continued, an e d i t o r i a l was published i n The 49 B.C. Teacher e n t i t l e d "Who Should Make the Curriculum?" The B.C.T.F. maintained that curriculum development should be completely i n the hands of teachers and not subject to a committee of non-teachers f o r approval. "Curriculum education i s teacher education at i t s best and no one should be denied the p r i v i l e g e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s inherent i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase of the teaching p r o f e s s i o n . B y November 1948 another e d i t o r i a l states that d i r e c t representations on the Central Curriculum Revision Committee was a major Federation objective."'''" However, the B.C.T.F. did not get i t s representative on that committee. In the Introduction to the Programme of Studies 1950, s o c i a l studies i s defined as, "the S o c i a l Sciences, h i s t o r y , geography, sociology, econ-omics, p o l i t i c a l science, and psychology when these sciences are 55 f u n c t i o n a l l y organized to f a c i l i t a t e r e l a t e d and meaningful presentation 52 to students." C i t i z e n s h i p was s t i l l the central objective of s o c i a l studies i n s t r u c t i o n . Stated i n b r i e f e s t fashion the cent r a l objective of So c i a l Studies i n s t r u c t i o n i s the promotion of better c i t i z e n s h i p . The pursuit of t h i s objective begins i n elementary school Social Studies with s p e c i a l attention to the home, the school, the community and heresay communities. In the Junior and Senior High Schools q u a l i t y c i t i z e n -ship i n home, school, and l o c a l community, i s s t i l l of major con-cern; but with increased maturity, increased competence f o r a higher q u a l i t y of c i t i z e n s h i p i n the Province, i n the nation and the com-munity of nations, i s also sought. The end objective i s good world c i t i z e n s h i p . Obviously t h i s objective i s not achieved without patient study and act i v e , thoughtful p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s o c i a l environment. Probably the fact that the central objective of Soc i a l Studies i s q u a l i t y c i t i z e n s h i p cannot be stressed too f r e -quently provided that t h i s insistence does not add converts to the i l l u s o r y and s o c i a l l y dangerous notion that teachers, e s p e c i a l l y S o c i a l Studies teachers, are s o l e l y or even mainly, responsible f o r the q u a l i t y of the c i t i z e n s h i p of our oncoming generations. Never-theless S o c i a l Studies teachers must, i t i s thought, pay spe c i a l attention to the development of better c i t i z e n s , even though the business of b u i l d i n g q u a l i t y c i t i z e n s i s a shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which they carry along with other teachers and many other s o c i a l agents and a g e n c i e s . " Two important concepts are noted here. As i n the Programme of  Studies for Elementary Schools, a concept of world c i t i z e n s h i p was devel-oped. Secondly, the onus f o r c i t i z e n s h i p education while not being removed from s o c i a l studies teachers, was now seen as a shared respon-s i b i l i t y . The r e s u l t i n g courses, having been drawn up by separate committees, show a wide v a r i e t y of approach. Rather than follow the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies, the committees produced courses that were either geo-graphy or h i s t o r y or separate units of both. S o c i a l studies 7, 8 and 20 were mainly h i s t o r y courses. S o c i a l studies 10 was a geography course, the f i r s t time that geography had been extensively taught i n 54 high schools since 1927. I n i t a l l y , the s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n committee developed S o c i a l Studies 30 as a course i n world problems. When the course was f i n a l l y introduced i n 1952 i t had become the "Geography, History, Culture and International Relations of Canada. The reason for the change i n courses i s not evident. There was no mention of the controversy i n the Annual Reports for t h i s period and the idea of ending the s o c i a l studies courses with a course on world problems c e r t a i n l y f i t t e d i n with the concept of world c i t i z e n s h i p . Mr. J . R. Meredith, the deputy Director of Curriculum during the period i n question r e c a l l e d that the senior s t a f f i n the Department of Education considered the proposed course too broad and too d i f f i c u l t to s u i t the needs and i n t e r e s t s of the general population of students who were now entering the secondary school and for whom the curriculum reorganization had been provided. Mr. Meredith also r e c o l l e c t e d that representation had been made to the government over the years, by such organizations as the Parent-Teachers Association, B.C.T.F., and the B.C. Federation of Labour. These representations had often included references concerning the need for a course about Canada at the senior l e v e l . Mr. Meredith considered i t l i k e l y that the senior s t a f f of the department, in consultation with the Curriculum Advisory Board, discussed the problem and came to the conclusion that i n view of the anticipated d i f f i c u l t i e s with the o r i g i n a l course and the need to do a more e f f e c t i v e study of Canada, a new course should be designed. The new course, on Canada, contained about equal amounts of geography, h i s t o r y , economics, and sociology and i t was probably the one course which came closest to the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies given i n the programme guides. When the revised s o c i a l studies courses were implemented i n the secondary schools, they were s t i l l i n experimental form and teachers were i n v i t e d to c r i t i c i z e them, which they did! A meeting of s o c i a l studies teachers held on March 10th, 1953 i n Vancouver, with M o l l i e Cot-tingham as chairman, decided that the s o c i a l studies courses should be rearranged through the grades. The teachers wanted "World Problems" reintroduced with a Canadian h i s t o r y course as an e l e c t i v e . Though the Department of Education refused to rearrange the s o c i a l studies courses, two courses were eventually revised as a r e s u l t of teacher protest. These were Soc i a l Studies 20 i n 1956 and So c i a l Stud-ies 10 in 1958. So c i a l Studies 20 was c r i t i c i z e d f o r i t s content, which was a world h i s t o r y course organized by themes rather than chronologic-a l l y , and i t s textbook (Louis Capon, Across the Ages, Toronto: Gage, no date) followed t h i s pattern. A f t e r r e v i s i o n the course was a study 58 of h i s t o r y from the Renaissance to the present. The S o c i a l Studies 10 course changed very l i t t l e but the o r i g i n a l textbook was revised to provide a Canadian e d i t i o n . The textbook, World Geography, was used i n American high schools and had been adapted 59 only s l i g h t l y f o r use i n Canadian schools. Mr. E r i c K e l l y was asked by the Department of Education to take the chairmanship of the r e v i s i o n . Having consulted the B.C.T.F. Soc i a l Studies Committee, he, with the 60 department, selected the committee of teachers. A f t e r a lengthy search no suitable Canadian or other textbook was found and the o r i g i n a l textbook was re-introduced with a more adequate r e v i s i o n f or Canadian schools. As a r e s u l t of the process of s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n , two r e s o l u -tions were proposed at a So c i a l Studies Workshop held i n V i c t o r i a , July 6 2 4th 1955. The f i r s t r e s o l u t i o n requested the Department of Education 58 to implement a system where curriculum r e v i s i o n could be done during the summer holidays. The second r e s o l u t i o n requested that the Depart-ment of Education consult with the B.C.T.F. on the s e l e c t i o n of candi-dates to p a r t i c i p a t e i n curriculum r e v i s i o n . As f a r as the f i r s t reso-l u t i o n was concerned there was no extensive secondary s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n u n t i l the r e v i s i o n s of 1966-68 when meetings were held throughout the period. No written evidence appeared i n the records at the B.C.T.F. to confirm that the second r e s o l u t i o n was successful. The teachers who took part i n the curriculum r e v i s i o n at the secondary l e v e l thought that they had been suggested f o r the s o c i a l studies r e v i -sion because of t h e i r work with the B.C.T.F. In 1954 a new s o c i a l studies course was introduced. This was S o c i a l Studies 32, the geography of B r i t i s h Columbia. The course stud-ied the p h y s i c a l , economic, and regional geography of the province. To accompany the course the Department of Education prepared a B r i t i s h  Columbia Geography Manual with the help of Dr. J . Lewis Robinson and Dr. John D. Chapman of the geography department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The introduction of such a course i l l u s t r a t e s two important developments for s o c i a l studies. In spite of the extension of the concept of c i t i z e n s h i p from a narrow to a broader i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , nationalism s t i l l remained important. The insistence that S o c i a l Studies 30 have a Canadian content follows t h i s idea, and the addition of a course with a p r o v i n c i a l emphasis supports i t . The second important develop-ment was that i t was a geography course, and geography came to have i n -creasing importance i n the s o c i a l studies programmes of B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1950's as that subject had a world-wide increase i n popularity. History dominated the secondary s o c i a l studies curriculum from i t s inception i n 1927 u n t i l the 1960's but curriculum r e v i s i o n i n the 1950's showed that there had been considerable increase i n the geography content. If good c i t i z e n s h i p was the transmission of t r a d i t i o n a l values, h i s t o r y was the most p r a c t i c a l means of promoting i t . However, circum-stances were changing. World War II and i t s aftermath had helped to broaden the concept of c i t i z e n s h i p , and t e l e v i s i o n was becoming popular, bringing p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s from a l l over the world into Canadian l i v i n g rooms. Questions such as "Why?" or "Where?" were now being asked and geography was seen as the foundation which would provide these answers. E f f o r t s to increase the si z e and importance of the geography department included the sending of members of the department to teachers' conventions to provide workshops and address teachers. In The B.C. Teacher i n 1954, Dr. J. Lewis Robinson noted that every h i s t o r i c a l event i s also geographical, and he made a plea for the i n c l u -6 3 sion of geography along with h i s t o r y i n s o c i a l studies. Every h i s t o r i c a l event takes place i n a place. That event i s geo-graphical as well as h i s t o r i c a l . Often i t i s the very character of that place that makes the event possible. It i s said that "history repeats i t s e l f , " and we sometimes forget that the unchanging geography of that place i s the reason for the repetition.64 Dr. Robinson concluded his paper, which was based on h i s address to the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Convention, October 1953, by saying, "there i s no excuse for S o c i a l Studies teachers not knowing something about the contribution that geographical teaching can make to an i n t e r e s t i n g class and towards better understanding." 6~* The a r r i v a l of Dean N e v i l l e Scarfe to head the newly formed College of Education at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1956, coincided with the e f f o r t s of the geography department to increase i t s s i z e . Dean Scarfe came to the College of Education with an i n t e r n a t i o n a l reputation 60 i n the teaching of geography. He had been Dean of Education at the University of Manitoba since 1951 and previous to that had worked at the London I n s t i t u t e of Education i n England. He had been chosen as chairman of the 1950 UNESCO Conference on Geography Teaching, held i n Montreal, and had published a book on geography teaching f o r the UNESCO organization which had been translated into many languages. The com-bined e f f o r t s of the College of Education and the geography department 66 resulted i n the l a t t e r having the largest undergraduate intake i n Canada. In 1967, Robinson wrote, Large undergraduate enrollments have been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a decade—more than twice that of any other Canadian u n i v e r s i t y p r i o r to 1964 and equal to the com-bined t o t a l s reported from M c G i l l , Toronto and Western Ontario i n the early 1960's. 6 7 The 1950's saw the beginning of a movement towards the i n c l u s i o n of geography as a component of the s o c i a l studies curriculum equal to that of h i s t o r y . Though t h i s did not happen u n t i l the s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n s i n the 1960's, the foundation for i t s change i n status was l a i d i n the 1950's. While the j o i n t e f f o r t s of the College of Education and the geo-graphy department were p u b l i c i z i n g geography, s o c i a l studies teachers were considering the establishment of a P r o v i n c i a l S p e c i a l i s t s ' Associa-t i o n . The topic had been ra i s e d at the 1958 Easter Convention and the Soc i a l Studies Section chairmen were asked to determine the wishes of the teachers. Accordingly, on September 22nd, 1959 an i n v i t a t i o n was extended to a l l teachers of s o c i a l studies to j o i n the So c i a l Studies 68 Teachers Association. The aims of the Association were to function as a medium of exchange (of ideas), to stimulate l o c a l e f f o r t s , to co-ordinate a consensus of opinion through the province and, as an expediting committee, to push for adoption of ideas which gained general acceptance 69 among s o c i a l studies teachers. The f i r s t o f f i c e r s elected were B. Holt of West Vancouver as president and R. Kaser of Vancouver as v i c e -president. Membership was open to any person who was an active or associate member of the B.C.T.F. The emergence of an o f f i c i a l association of s o c i a l studies teachers was the i n e v i t a b l e product of circumstances. Social studies teachers had had great experience working together on r e v i s i o n committees. They had also worked together while c r i t i c i z i n g the revised courses of the 1950's. I t was also a time of change. The Royal Commisson on Educa-t i o n , which i s discussed i n the next chapter, had already been established to investigate education i n B r i t i s h Columbia and s o c i a l studies teachers f e l t that one c o l l e c t i v e voice would carry more weight. The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l 1 Studies Teachers Association (B.C.S.S.T.A.) was to play an active part i n the development of s o c i a l studies i n the next decade. Soci a l studies i n the period between World War II and the Royal Commission on Education was s t i l l seen as c i t i z e n s h i p transmission, as defined by Barth and Shermis. 7^ Its purpose was s t i l l to produce good c i t i z e n s who conformed to a preconceived set of expectations. As the concept of the type of c i t i z e n s which should emerge from the schools broadened, the method used to create such a c i t i z e n and content of the courses also broadened. There was s t i l l a mixture of de s c r i p t i o n and persuasion but rather than a focus on f a c t s , the s o c i a l studies c u r r i c -ulum attempted to focus on process and s k i l l s . It was no longer impor-tant just to produce a c i t i z e n who knew, rather i t was important that the c i t i z e n knew how. Where content i s concerned, a consensus of teachers and other 62 curriculum developers s t i l l produced the curriculum, but there was also an attempt, i n the secondary curriculum, to avoid the chronological h i s -tory of the past and focus on themes. This was not well received by teachers as we know from the fate of Soc i a l Studies 20 i n 1956. F i n a l l y , the idea printed i n the revised courses from 1950 onwards, that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c i t i z e n s h i p lay not only with s o c i a l studies teachers, but with a l l teachers, weakens the whole concept of s o c i a l studies as c i t i z e n s h i p transmission. Although the aim of s o c i a l studies i n t h i s period remained c i t i z e n s h i p as the Programmes of Study said, the method and content of the courses did not follow the Barth and Shermis d e f i n i t i o n as c l o s e l y as the s o c i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n s of 1935-37. 7 1 63 FOOTNOTES '''Minutes of Meeting with School Inspectors, held i n the O f f i c e of the Minister of Education on Friday October 22nd, 1937, at 3:15 p.m., (Pro v i n c i a l L i b r a r y ) . 2 I b i d . 3 Ibid., Inspector Gower. 4 Between 1935 to 1939 the enrollment at the Summer School f or Teachers i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver increased from 444 to 1,048 (Annual Report [1934-35] p. 534, and Annual Report [1938-39], p. J 38). ^Minutes of Meeting, October 22nd, 1937. Inspectors Reports to Dr. H. B. King, G.R 456 Box 1, P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 7 I b i d . , Inspector H. H. MacKenzie, January 1942. g Ibid., Inspector J . F. K. English, of T r a i l Central School, Febru-ary 1944. 9 Ibi d . , Inspector H. H. MacKenzie, January 1942. The teachers were B. Brickman and H. L. Draper. •^Minutes of Meeting of School Inspectors, October 22nd, 1937. Inspector H. H. MacKenzie. 1 : LNotice dated March 16th, 1937, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. 1 2 R e s o l u t i o n s I, I I , IV, XVII, XVIII, June 6th, 1938, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. 13 . . . . Brief submitted by a Committee of the Soc i a l Studies Section of the B.C. Secondary Teachers Association to "Outline Suggested Modifica-tions of S o c i a l Studies V," June 10th, 1940. (Members of the committee were W. E. Reed, E. K e l l y , K. A. Waites, 0. M. Sanford, J . E. Gibbard, C. M. Mclntyre, J. S. Burton.) B.C.T.F. Vault Book. 14 Report from the Superintendent of Education to the General Secre-tary of the B.C.T.F. January 1941, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. Committee mem-bers included W. N. Sage, H. M. Morrison, and H. D. Dee. "'"^Letter from General Secretary B.C.T.F. to Superintendent of Educa-t i o n , A p r i l 18th, 1941, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. "^Report of Meeting between Central Revision Committee and a B.C.T.F. delegation, September 26th, 1941, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. Members of the Central Revision Committee were Dr. D. L. MacLaurin (Chairman), H. B. King, J . R. Sanderson, Max Cameron. In the B.C.T.F. delegation were 64 W. E. Reed, E r i c K e l l y , J. E. Gibbard, J . S. Burton. •^Soc i a l Studies Revision Committee, "War and Social Studies," The  B.C. Teacher (May-June, 1943), p. 316. 18 Maxwell A. Cameron, Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Educa- t i o n a l Finance ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1945). 19 . . . . . There are many a r t i c l e s , e d i t o r i a l s , and resolutions published i n The B.C. Teacher between 1943-45 on t h i s issue. 20 J. M. Ewing, "A Balanced Educational Philosophy," The B.C. Teacher (December 1945), p. 98. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 99. 22 Annual Report (1945-46), p. MM 35. The Central Curriculum Commit-tee i s l i s t e d as H. L. Campbell (Chairman), D. M. A. Cameron, J . Gordon, W. Gray, H. M. MacCorkindale, E. M. White, and C. B. Wood. They were a l l inspectors, p r i n c i p a l s , or from the u n i v e r s i t y . 2 3Annual Report (1946-47), p. Y 30. 24 . . . H. L. Campbell, excerpts from an address given to the Ninth Biennial Convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia Women's I n s t i t u t e s , printed i n B.C. Schools Secondary E d i t i o n (October 1948), p. 29. 25 Annual Report (1936-37), p. L 16. The Annual Report does not define "foreign parentage." 2 6 I b i d . , (1944-45), p. Y 9 and p. Y 14. 2 7 I b i d . , (1946-47), p. Y 9 and p. Y 14. 28 Ibid., (1936-37), p. L 16, i b i d . , (1942-43), p. B 7, i b i d . , (1944-45), p. Y 9. 29 Report of William Gray, Municipal Inspector of Schools, North Van-couver and West Vancouver, Annual Report (1944-45), p. Y 99. 30 Ibid., p. Y 9. 31 Annual Report (1945-46), p. MM 9 and p. MM 14. Note: i n Annual  Report 1941-42 (p. B 11) there were 4168 Japanese chi l d r e n i n B.C.'s public schools. In the Annual Report 1942-43 (p. B 12) the number i s down to 586. 32 . . Soc i a l Studies f or the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1950) Frontpaper. Note: The 1946 e d i t i o n i s typewritten and to be found i n the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y . This was only revised s l i g h t l y i n word-ing i n 1950 and 1954. 33 34 Ibid., (1946), p. 1. I b i d . , p. 4. 3 5 I b i d . , (1950), p. 10.8. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 74. 37 J. Gough, New World Horizons (Toronto: Dent 1942); J . Gough, Old World Horizons (Toronto": Dent 1944) . 38 W. E. Topping, "The Development of Geography Teaching i n B.C." p. 121. 39 Social Studies for the Elementary Schools (1950). 40 41 Annual Report (1946-47), p. Y 30. Ibid., p. Y 31. 42 The Vancouver Sun, November 29th, 1946; The Vancouver Daily  Province, November 29th, 1946. 43 Mr. John Gibbard. 44 Annual Report (1946-47), p. Y 31. 45 . This l i s t has been taken from the private papers of Mr. L. Grant and forms part of the "experimental" e d i t i o n of the courses published i n 1947 so that members of the r e v i s i o n committees could prepare u n i t s . A copy of t h i s same "experimental" e d i t i o n i s to be found in the Provin-c i a l L i b r a r y . 46 . . . Soc i a l Studies Questionnaire, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. There i s no date but the preceding paper i n the Vault Book i s dated June 6th, 1945. 47 Interview with Mr. J. Gibbard, a member of the Secondary Revision Committee. 48 . . . The B.C. Teacher, A p r i l 1948. E d i t o r i a l announcement of C u r r i c -ulum Revison made by the Superintendent of Education, Colonel Fairey. 49 50 Ibid., (May-June 1948), p. 287. Ibid. 5 1 I b i d . , (November 1948), p. 59. 52 Programme of Studies Junior and Senior High Schools (1950), p. 1. 53 Ibid., p. 2. 54 W. E. Topping, "The Development of Geography Teaching i n B.C." p. 126. " ^ B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, The So c i a l Studies (1953), p. 23. "^Letter from Mr. J . R. Meredith, V i c t o r i a , to the writer, May 1982. "^Minutes of Meeting of S o c i a l Studies Teachers, March 10th, 1953, B.C.T.F. Vault Book. 58 Junior and Senior High School So c i a l Studies (1956), p. 62. 59 J. H. Bradley, World Geography (Toronto: Ginn, 1950). ^ I n t e r v i e w with Mr. E r i c K e l l y . ^"*"Ibid. 62 Minutes of a Meeting held during Social Studies Workshop, V i c t o r i a , July 4th, 1955, from B.C.T.F. Vault Book. 63 J. Lewis Robinson, "The Place of Geography i n the So c i a l Studies," The B.C. Teacher (January 1954), pp. 160-164. ^ I b i d . , p. 161. ^^ I b i d . , p. 164. 66 Interview with Dr. J. Lewis Robinson, July 27th, 1980. ^ 7 J . Lewis Robinson, "Growth and Trends i n Geography i n Canadian U n i v e r s i t i e s , " The Canadian Geographer, Vol. XI 4, 1967 (pp. 216-220), p. 220. The a r t i c l e gives the figu r e of 2,330 undergraduates i n the geography department at U.B.C. From documents, B.C.T.F. Vault Book, September 22nd, 1959. 69 ' . . Ibid., paraphrased by writer from Constitution f o r the B.C. Social Studies Teachers' Association of the B.C.T.F. 7 ^ J . L. Barth and S. S. Shermis, "Defining the So c i a l Studies: An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s , " p. 744. 7 1 I b i d . , pp. 744-5. CHAPTER FIVE A TIME OF CHANGE: 1957-1970 The process of change within society as a whole eventually causes changes in education. The elementary and secondary curriculum revisions in B r i t i s h Columbia i n the 1960's were the r e s u l t of changes i n education which began e a r l i e r . These changes, i n turn, r e f l e c t e d a general swing towards a more t r a d i t i o n a l approach to educational philosophy and r e -sulted i n increasing c r i t i c i s m of progressive education. In the years since the Putman-Weir Survey progressive influences had generally shaped the d i r e c t i o n of educational philosophy i n B r i t i s h Columbia.''" That the progressives did not have i t a l l t h e i r own way however, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the number of a r t i c l e s f o r and against progres-2 sive education printed in The B.C. Teacher during the 1940's. This c r i t i c i s m of progressive education was not merely a p r o v i n c i a l concern but i n time r e f l e c t e d growing c r i t i c i s m throughout the rest of Canada and i n the United States. In Canada the p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1953 of So L i t t l e f o r the Mind, a searing indictment of progressive education by the h i s t o r i a n , Hilda Neatby, caused education to become a topic of 3 widespread debate. Professor Neatby attacked both the goals and the methods of progres-sive education. "'Education i s l i f e ' has been translated for the school to take over 'every part of the c h i l d ' s l i f e ' and every function of 4 society." "Progressive education i n Canada i s not l i b e r a t i o n , i t i s 67 i n d o c t r i n a t i o n both i n t e l l e c t u a l and m o r a l . S o c i a l studies was singled out for special condemnation. "The s o c i a l studies are the t r u l y t y p i c a l part of the progressive curriculum with i t s obsession for i n d o c t r i n a t i o n . " B r i t i s h Columbia's S o c i a l Studies Programme was c r i t i c i z e d for a per-ceived inconsistency. . . . i t i s s t a r t l i n g to f i n d that B.C. which also shows i t s e l f most pess i m i s t i c about the a b i l i t y of Junior high school students to read t h e i r s o c i a l studies material demands that they develop the " a b i l i t y " to discriminate as to the varying r e l i a b i l i t y of sources, an a b i l i t y to which eminent h i s t o r i a n s rather wish than claim, to possess. 7 Professor Neatby was accused by her c r i t i c s of "armchair i n v e s t i g a -t i o n " because her sources were the Programme Guides of the p r o v i n c i a l Departments of Education, rather than actual observation of classroom teaching. However, she does describe accurately the weaknesses of the extremes of both the progressive and t r a d i t i o n a l perspectives of educa-t i o n when she concludes, In essence, u n i t , enterprise and a c t i v i t y are a proper protest against a very common t r a d i t i o n a l v i c e . If progressives play down subject matter, t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s too often l e f t i t so bound and gagged that only the most perceptive students could d i s t i n g u i s h signs of l i f e . 8 The degree to which the ideas of progressive education were actu-a l l y practised by the average teacher i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d i f f i c u l t to say. The evidence available indicates that the extremes of progres-sivism, as described by Professor Neatby, were avoided. In the Annual  Report 1953-54 J. F. K. English, Assistant Deputy Minister of Education and Director of Curriculum, noted, The curriculum for the schools of B r i t i s h Columbia i s designed to secure the best possible education for each c h i l d . . . . Through-out the process care i s taken to avoid undue influence from any group or from p a r t i c u l a r educational theories, progressive or t r a d i -t i o n a l . The r e s u l t i n g curriculum i s a c t u a l l y somewhat t r a d i t i o n a l i n comparison with that i n force i n other places.9 The f i r s t S o c i a l Credit government was elected i n 1953 i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the trend towards a more t r a d i t i o n a l view of education was noticeable when the "Aims of Education" appeared i n Dr. English's report for 1954-55. The people of the Province have established schools for the p r i n c i -pal purposes of developing the character of our young people, t r a i n -ing them to be good c i t i z e n s and teaching them the fundamental s k i l l s of learning necessary for further education.10 The point was made that the school was not the only agency for education i n i t s broadest sense and that home, church, community, and school should . 1 1 . work together for the t o t a l education of the c h i l d . In the l i s t of objectives which follows the general explanation of the "Aims of Educa-t i o n , " the f i r s t objective was "To ensure that a l l pupils master the 12 fundamental s k i l l s of learning to the l i m i t of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s . " The o f f i c i a l "Aims of Education" were prepared with the advice of a newly appointed P r o v i n c i a l Curriculum Advisory Board, a group of 13 (unnamed) handpicked personnel. In 1955 t h i s committee was re s t r u c -tured and renamed the Professional Committee on Curriculum Development, whose "function i s p r i m a r i l y to advise on technical problems connected 14 with the improving and administration of the curriculum." Members of t h i s committee consisted of s t a f f from the Department of Education, members of the B.C.T.F., and Department of Education appointees."^ Soc i a l studies curriculum r e v i s i o n took place during these years when the focus of education was changing. The trend towards a more t r a d i t i o n a l view was not too evident i n the r e v i s i o n of the two second-ary courses, S o c i a l Studies 10 and S o c i a l Studies 20 (already dealt with i n the previous chapter) since the r e v i s i o n of these courses was r e s t r i c t e d to the content, not the goals of the courses. In the Annual Report (1953-54) the r e v i s i o n of s o c i a l studies courses for grades one to s i x 70 was announced, and t h i s r e v i s i o n does indicate a more t r a d i t i o n a l view 16 of education. The teachers who ass i s t e d i n the preparation of the programme were Mr. B. B. Crawford, Mr. S. Bragagnola, Miss L i l a R. Dicken, Mrs. E. K e t t l e w e l l , Mr. A. J . Longmore, Mrs. F. E. L e i t n e r , Mr. Monty Morley, Mrs. Brenda Rauch, and Mr. E. G. Taylor.''"7 There i s no informa-t i o n given as to the teachers' schools or the amount or kind of assistance they provided. The s o c i a l studies r e v i s i o n was the r e s u l t of an appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the previous programme by the Department of Education. The following recommendations were made i n the curriculum guide. 1. More s p e c i f i c assistance should be given, p a r t i c u l a r l y to begin-ning and inexperienced teachers concerning t h i s programme. 2. More d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n should be given concerning the stand-ards of attainment which should be expected from pupils at various l e v e l s . 3. There should be an adjustment of content presently prescribed for the various grade l e v e l s with p a r t i c u l a r reference to elim-inating undue r e p e t i t i o n at some grade l e v e l s and reducing the amount of content i n others. 4. Due emphasis should be given to inductive-deductive thinking; i . e . , developing important major concepts from a study of spec-i f i c d e t a i l s and applying previously learned knowledge to the sol u t i o n of new problems. 5. Due attention should be given to the h i s t o r y and geography of Canada i n order that pupils may have a better understanding of t h e i r own country and traditions.-'- 8 These recommendations indicate a d e f i n i t e trend towards the importance of course content and standards of attainment. While s o c i a l studies was s t i l l concerned with the study of peoples and countries, the subject d i s c i p l i n e s were r e s t r i c t e d to "history, geo-19 graphy and c i v i c s . " This was a much narrower i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s o c i a l studies than had been given in the previous r e v i s i o n , that i s " h i s t o r y , 20 geography, c i v i c s , economics and sociology." The curriculum guide acknowledged that "because of i t s scope, So c i a l Studies i s a d i f f i c u l t 71 subject to teach" and the teacher i s t o l d to make "judicious decisions" 21 between the demands of the subject matter and the method of teaching. The aim of s o c i a l studies was now quite s p e c i f i c . The primary aim of So c i a l Studies i s to help ch i l d r e n to gain the knowledge and develop those understandings, at t i t u d e s , habits and s k i l l s that w i l l enable them to become well-adjusted, well-informed and s o c i a l l y responsible citizens.22 As far as the prescribed content i s concerned, the elementary school curriculum i n 1957 was not so d i f f e r e n t from the previous r e v i s i o n . At the primary l e v e l the student s t i l l progressed from the home to the com-munity and then the world, though more formal geography was introduced e a r l i e r i n the 1957 r e v i s i o n . In the intermediate grades, the content was divided between geography and h i s t o r y with some of each i n every grade and with a greater emphasis on Canadian topics. The year that the new elementary curriculum was introduced also s i g n a l l e d the b i r t h of the space age when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik i n October 1957. In the United States t h i s event was seen as humiliation, and doubt about the achievements of public education i n t e n s i -f i e d public debate. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the trend i n education towards a more t r a d i t i o n a l approach was given added incentive. In the Annual Report for 1957-58, the Director of Curriculum, J. R. Meredith, stated, There i s no value i n changing simply f o r the sake of change. Revi-sions must be preceded by a thorough analysis of e x i s t i n g courses and textbooks. What are the aims and purposes? Are these s i g n i -f i c a n t i n the l i g h t of present day demands? Are t h e i r content, s k i l l s and knowledge educationally valuable to pupils and society? Is i t accurate, comprehensive and challenging? Are these courses and texts well-organized for teaching and learning? Such questions as these must be studied c a r e f u l l y and thoroughly i n order that a sound basis can be established for making improvements i n the future.23 72 The "sound basi s " referred to were the findings of the Royal Commission on Education, appointed by Order i n Council, January 17th, 1958. Three commissioners, S. N. F. Chant (the chairman), J. E. L i e r s c h , and R. P. Walrod, were appointed to inquire into and report on the state of educa-t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The Report of the Royal Commission on Education 24 was published i n 1960 and has become known as the Chant Report. The Commission was empowered to investigate and assess the p r o v i n c i a l school system, to i d e n t i f y weaknesses, and make recommendations. The Commission conducted hearings throughout the province. It heard many b r i e f s from both professional and lay people. While the B.C.T.F. prepared a formal b r i e f , a separate b r i e f prepared by the B.C.T.F. Social Studies Section concerned high school s o c i a l stud-ies i n p a r t i c u l a r . The b r i e f stated that a f t e r f i v e years of s o c i a l studies i n high school, a student should have the following: an apprecia-t i o n and understanding of the legacy of past c i v i l i z a t i o n s , a knowledge of the geography of the world and i t s resources, a d e t a i l e d knowledge of the geography, h i s t o r y , c i v i c s , and economics of Canada and an under-standing of the background factors r e l a t i n g to the development of the 25 . . . . . . modern world. Most of the b r i e f s given by c i t i z e n s concerning s o c i a l studies questioned the usefulness and appropriateness of the subject and suggested, "that the term ' s o c i a l studies' has ou t l i v e d i t s u s e f u l -ness. So c i a l Studies courses should be c a l l e d what they are: h i s t o r y 26 or geography." These b r i e f s recommended that the s o c i a l studies 27 courses be reorganized into geography and h i s t o r y . In i t s Report, the Commission recommended that the primary aim of education i n B r i t i s h Columbia should be "THAT OF PROMOTING INTELLEC-TUAL DEVELOPMENT." This should be the emphasis on the whole school programme, the ra t i o n a l e being that i n t e l l e c t u a l development was e s s e n t i a l 28 for human s u r v i v a l . To t h i s end, the Commission considered that the "word and number subjects" had to be at the very centre of the public school curriculum and that "outside t h i s core but s t i l l within an inner zone are the subjects that deal with the ways of man and the world i n 29 which he l i v e s — H i s t o r y , Geography, Science and languages." Where s o c i a l studies was concerned, the Commission noted that there was a difference i n the general aims of s o c i a l studies and the meaning given to s o c i a l studies by those who submitted b r i e f s to the commission-ers. "From the sources of information available to the Commission, i t was obvious that parents and others expected that the main outcome of s o c i a l studies courses would be knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s of 30 h i s t o r y and geography." The Commission recommended a complete review of the s o c i a l studies curriculum, "WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE SIG-NIFICANCE OF THE SUBJECT MATTER AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THE UNITS OF THE COURSES ARE KNIT TOGETHER TO PROVIDE COHERENT AND CONSECUTIVE COURSES 31 OF STUDY." The Commission considered that the merger of geography and h i s t o r y had not been successful and recommended a greater d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n between them i n the design of the curriculum, "so that more stress may be placed upon the mastery of f a c t u a l knowledge in the study of these ,,32 subj ects. The question of the content of the s o c i a l studies had been causing strong f e e l i n g s among teachers f o r some time. At the Annual General Meeting of the B.C.T.F. i n 1959, the Fraser Valley D i s t r i c t put forward the r e s o l u t i o n , "Be i t resolved that the Department of Education make necessary changes to provide that h i s t o r y and geography be taught as 33 two separate subjects." The r e s o l u t i o n was not endorsed by the S o c i a l 74 Studies Committee at the Annual General Meeting but the executive of the B.C.S.S.T.A. arranged a meeting of s o c i a l studies teachers i n Van-couver on November 10th, 1959, where the proponents were allowed to pre-sent t h e i r case. The speakers were Dr. Robinson and Mr. J . Gibbard (University of B r i t i s h Columbia), Mr. Many (Chilliwack), and Mr. J . Church 34 (Gladstone Secondary School, Vancouver). The following arguments were put forward i n favour of separation: 1. It was d i f f i c u l t to t r a i n teachers in the techniques and p h i l -osophies of both h i s t o r y and geography. 2. The viewpoint of geography was so d i f f e r e n t from that of hi s t o r y that a teacher cannot hold and present both adequately. 3. There was an increasing trend towards the separation of these subjects i n Canada. Ontario had already separated the two subj ects. 4. History was the dominant subject i n p r a c t i c a l l y every s o c i a l studies programme. To give f u l l benefit to geography there would have to be separation. The arguments against the separation of the two subjects were: 1. It was not the task of the high schools to create h i s t o r i a n s or geographers, t h i s was the task of the University. 2. Interest should be concentrated on the p u p i l not on the sub-j e c t since the aim should be to produce a well-informed c i t i z e n capable of s e l e c t i n g appropriate material from any subject. It was f e l t that s o c i a l studies was more l i k e l y to produce such a c i t i z e n than geography and h i s t o r y taken separately. 3. The current curriculum was already too subject centred and since studies indicated that there was l i t t l e r etention of f a c t u a l material, there should be a concentration on teaching pupils to think.35 No vote was taken at the meeting since i t was not considered a group representative of the whole province but the meeting did indicate that there were two d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed groups of s o c i a l studies teachers. The arguments of those who favoured the separation of h i s t o r y and geography were advanced with the p u b l i c a t i o n of Jerome Bruner's The Pro-3 6 cess of Education (1960). Bruner, a Harvard psychologist, advanced the theory that any subject may be taught to anyone at any age, i n some form, with scrupulous i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty. The early teaching of science, mathematics, s o c i a l studies and l i t e r a t u r e should be designed to teach these subjects with scrupu-lous i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty, but with an emphasis upon the i n t u i t i v e grasp of ideas and upon the use of these basic ideas.37 In the United States the outcome of Bruner's ideas was an unprecedented p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n curriculum development by u n i v e r s i t y scholars and s c i e n t i s t s who prepared courses which were up-to-date with advances i n science and scholarship and which were implemented on a national scale. Some of these programmes made t h e i r way into some Canadian provinces. As f a r as s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia was concerned, the most important e f f e c t s were on the support given to geography, a neglected academic d i s c i p l i n e , and the influence that the u n i v e r s i t i e s came to have on curriculum development. The Department of Education stepped into the impasse i n s o c i a l studies. Separate geography and h i s t o r y advisory committees were formed on which both teachers and u n i v e r s i t y representatives were i n v i t e d to s i t . The advisory committees were asked "to consider the question of re v i s i o n s i n the present programme of S o c i a l Studies courses for secondary schools" and "to study and make recommendations concerning the place 38 of h i s t o r y i n the future programme." The members of the History Advisory Committee were B. Holt, R. Simms, D. Sage, Miss H. B o u t i l i e r , Dr. A. B. Neatby, Dr. J . H. Winter, Miss E. Deyell, L. Grant, and N. Sutherland. J . R. Meredith and R. B. Knowles represented the Department of Education on the Committee. The members of the Geography Advisory Committee were A. Gunn, R. E l l i o t t , 0. M. Sanford, W. Topping, F. Hard-wick, G. Tomkins, Dr. J . Chapman, Dr. A. Farley, and Dr. J . L. Robinson. The make up of these committees showed the influence of the Univer-s i t y ; one h a l f of the representatives on each committee was u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y . The teachers on the History Advisory Committee f e l t that there was often c o n f l i c t i n the respective viewpoints of the classroom 39 teachers and the u n i v e r s i t y f a c u l t y concerning the curriculum. How-ever t h i s f e e l i n g i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the Minutes of the Meetings. The Report of the Geography Advisory Committee was ready by March, 1962. It included a general statement and suggested programmes for elementary and secondary schools. The Report of the History Advisory Committee was completed i n June, 1963. Both reports emphasized the uniqueness and separateness of each d i s c i p l i n e . Throughout the secondary school years, geography must be taught so that i t reveals the structure of the d i s c i p l i n e as i t i s understood by professional geographers themselves.^0 History i s one approach to the study of society but i t i s a d i s t i n c t d i s c i p l i n e . . . . When hi s t o r y i s merged with r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s into a single course of studies students at the secondary school l e v e l cannot be expected to understand i t s unique nature.^1 In an e d i t o r i a l i n a s p e c i a l s o c i a l studies issue of The B.C. Teacher, R. I. Simms, the president of the B.C.S.S.T.A. pointed out that the History and Geography Reports were not r e v i s i o n committees. "The Committees were instructed to outline the scope and sequence of what they thought students should master i n geography and h i s t o r y i n the 42 Secondary Schools." The e d i t o r i a l further noted that there were "strong fee l i n g s about geography and h i s t o r y being treated as separate ,. . r . „43 d i s c i p l i n e s . In March 1964, a l e t t e r from J . R. Meredith, Director of Curricu-lum to the B.C.T.F., was printed i n the B.C.S.S.T.A. Newsletter. The l e t t e r i i n v i t e d suggestions for the names of q u a l i f i e d people who would be appointed to the Social Studies Revision Committee. The c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature of c e r t a i n aspects of t h i s r e v i s i o n i s such that formation of a representative committee of q u a l i f i e d and exper-ienced persons i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Any assistance the Fed-eration can provide w i l l be greatly appreciated.44 77 The l e t t e r suggested that a balanced committee of both teachers and uni-v e r s i t y representatives, representing both h i s t o r y and geography i n t e r e s t s would be formed. While the S o c i a l Studies Revision Committee was being formed i n the l a t e spring of 1964, the B.C.S.S.T.A. arranged a panel discussion on the topic of S o c i a l Studies. Curriculum Revision "to spark and d i r e c t 45 discussion." The four members of the panel were J. Church, represent-ing the Department of Education; A. Welsh, speaking for the geography oriented; B. Holt, speaking for the h i s t o r y oriented; and J. Gibbard, speaking for the s o c i a l studies oriented. Each speaker presented a p a r t i c u l a r point of view. A. Welsh and B. Holt spoke on the value of t h e i r respective d i s c i p l i n e s and advocated separate treatment within the curriculum. John Church, a Vancouver teacher on leave of absence to the Department of Education as Secondary Curriculum Consultant, sug-gested the p o s i t i o n of the department. One of Mr. Church's main points was that the differences which existed evolved from d i f f e r e n t points of view. The Department suggests that i n any curriculum development, the needs of the subject, the needs of society and the needs of the p u p i l must be considered. Sometimes, as we know, compromise i s e s s e n t i a l to a t t a i n a consensus i n meeting the three needs. 4^ In making a plea for s o c i a l studies, John Gibbard spoke to the idea that a knowledge of geography and h i s t o r y , though valuable i n i t s e l f , would not solve the problems of the world. Soc i a l problems need to be studied and thought through with hard-heads and soft hearts, with knowledge and l o g i c , but with understand-ing and sympathy too. Geographers want to teach some people to think Tike geographers, h i s t o r i a n s want them to think and learn as h i s t o r i a n s but s o c i a l studies teachers are concerned that they should a l l , as c i t i z e n s of the community, the nation and the world, learn to think l i k e concerned and involved members of society—concerned for i t s future and involved i n i t s p r o c e s s e s . 4 7 78 In the s o c i a l studies issue of The B.C. Teacher, John Meredith, the Director of Curriculum, gave some idea of the problems awaiting those involved in the r e v i s i o n of s o c i a l studies. What s h a l l the s o c i a l studies teach? What s h a l l be the content? How s h a l l i t be taught? Possibly no other single area of the secondary curriculum presents as many complexities and d i f f i c u l t problems as does the area c a l l e d the s o c i a l studies. Possibly i n no other curriculum area have both the general p u b l i c and members of the profession expressed a more sustained i n t e r e s t and offered a wider divergence of possible solutions. Both public and profes-sion have recognised not only a need for r e v i s i o n of the present s o c i a l studies but also the f a c t that the r e v i s i o n w i l l have a pro-found and far-reaching s i g n i f i c a n c e . ^ The general announcement of the establishment of the S o c i a l Studies Revision Committee was made i n Explorer, i n December 1964. The commit-tee consisted of s o c i a l studies teachers at elementary, j u n i o r high, and senior l e v e l s as well as administrators and representatives from the u n i v e r s i t i e s and the Department of Education. The Revision Committee had the authority to make recommendations concerning the functions and goals of the s o c i a l studies programme i n secondary schools, to review c a r e f u l l y the recommendations of the Geo-graphy and History Advisory Committees, to recommend a programme of courses f o r the secondary school curriculum with the necessary curriculum guides 49 . . and textbooks. The members of the Revision Committee were not to be p u b l i c l y announced. "This p o l i c y , based on experience has been estab-l i s h e d to protect the i n d i v i d u a l members from undue pressure.""^ The Secondary Revision Committee members were J. S. Church, C. W. Dick, D. F. Forman, Dr. C. F. Goulson, P. Harper, B. G. Holt, Miss M. E. Pedley, D. P. Reimer, D. S. Steinson, Dr. G. S. Tomkins, and A. J . Welsh. The Elementary Revision Committee members were Mrs. E. S. Buhles, S. S. Galbraith, G. Halkett, R. Hamelin, E. Lighbody, Dr. D. H. M i t c h e l l , Miss J. F. Proctor, Mrs. H. Sloan, K. S. Thibodeau, and 79 Miss F. M. Worledge. Inspector C. T. Rendle chaired both the secondary and elementary committees.^''" These committee members were far more representative of the province than those on e a r l i e r s o c i a l studies com-mittees, though most members s t i l l represented the Lower Mainland, Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island. The Secondary Revision Committee began i t s work before the Elementary Revision Committee. At the f i r s t meeting on September 30th, 1966, at the B.C.T.F. Building i n Vancouver, the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the r e v i s i o n 52 were given by the Department of Education. The S o c i a l Studies Pro-gramme from grade eight to eleven was to consist of two years of geography and two years of h i s t o r y . These two main d i s c i p l i n e s were to be taught each year. The r e v i s i o n committee l a t e r divided into subject committees to "discuss broad p r i n c i p l e s and concepts of each d i s c i p l i n e and to pro-53 duce a plan for s o c i a l studies." Both the geography and h i s t o r y subject committees made an attempt to integrate the two subjects within each grade by providing a common theme as f a r as possible. At a workshop held on January 30th, 1967, the committee divided into sub-committees 54 to complete rough outlines f o r each grade. By February 20th, 1967, the rough o u t l i n e s , which included topics f o r in-depth study, were pre-sented to the whole Revision Committee. "^ The rough outlines were not e n t i r e l y accepted by the whole Revi-sion Committee. There was debate on the continuity of the themes from grade to grade and the l e v e l of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n required for each grade. The main d i f f i c u l t y pertained to the question of whether to use a problem approach or a chronological approach to the themes. Neither the geo-graphy courses nor the h i s t o r y courses met with the approval of the u n i -v e r s i t i e s . The minutes of the meetings record that the u n i v e r s i t y departments pressed hard for the new approaches to geography and h i s t o r y , such as the use i n the new courses of documents, maps, and a i r photo-graphs. The outlines f o r each grade had been drawn up by the teachers on the r e v i s i o n committee and the u n i v e r s i t i e s f e l t that the new approaches had been neglected. The teachers on the Revision Committee were unhappy with the interference from the u n i v e r s i t i e s and f e l t that t h i s influence was out of a l l proportion to the number of u n i v e r s i t y representatives on the Curriculum Revision Committee.^ 7 While the minutes do not show that changes were made as a r e s u l t of t h i s "interference" the secondary s o c i a l studies curriculum 1968, does include some of these new approaches. Between 1967 and 1968 work began on the s e l e c t i o n of textbooks needed for each course. The o r i g i n a l idea of the Revision Committee was to provide a number of source books for d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b i l i t y . In the end however, a basic book, the "A" issue, was provided f o r a l l students i n each course and a separate l i s t of books, the "B" issue, was provided, i n smaller numbers, f o r in-depth studies. A memo to a l l members of the Secondary Revision Committee from the Department of Educa-t i o n dated May 6th, 1969, and found among the correspondence concerning the search for textbooks i n the Department of Education records,; i n d i -cates that budget considerations were responsible for t h i s decision. In s p ite of a l l the time spent on curriculum r e v i s i o n by the Secondary Committee, the courses of study ended up a product of com-promise. There was compromise i n the achievement of an equal balance of h i s t o r y and geography, each subject occupying ha l f of the school year, rather than being offered simultaneously as independent subjects. There was compromise i n the i n t e g r a t i o n of the two subjects i n each grade. Though the h i s t o r y and geography sections of the Secondary Revision Committee worked separately they did t r y to integrate the two d i s c i p l i n e s i n each grade as far as they were able. In grade eight, the "Developing T r o p i c a l World" i s linked to "Renaissance, Evolution and Revolution." The grade nine •"Industrial-Urban Relations" geography course i s linked to "Nineteenth Century Europe and the Contemporary World." In grade ten and grade eleven, the emphasis i s on Canada. In grade ten both h i s t o r y and geography courses are e n t i t l e d "Canada i n i t s North American Setting," while i n grade eleven the emphasis in h i s t o r y i s "Canada i n Her World Setting," and i n geography, i t i s "The Geography of World 59 Problems." There was compromise between the int e r e s t s of the u n i v e r s i t y and the teachers. The teachers f e l t that they knew what should be taught i n the classroom. At the same time the u n i v e r s i t y teachers f e l t i t t h e i r duty to see that there was scholarship i n the new curriculum. L a s t l y , there was compromise i n the s e l e c t i o n of textbooks i n that only one book was prescribed f or a l l l e v e l s of a b i l i t y i n each grade. The Elementary S o c i a l Studies Revision Committee began i t s work a f t e r the Secondary Revision Committee. They began on October 4th, 1966. This committee was given ins t r u c t i o n s f o r the r e v i s i o n by the Department of E d u c a t i o n . ^ As i n the case of the secondary curriculum, geography and h i s t o r y were to be given equal time. The Elementary Com-mittee was also t o l d that i t s work had to accommodate the work of the secondary curriculum. To make sure that the " f i t " was there, the grade seven course was prescribed by the Department of Education and was "Man i n the Mediterranean."^ The committee set to work and produced a cur-riculum which had a more c u l t u r a l approach than the previous r e v i s i o n . In grades one through three, students were to learn about "The Immediate 82 Environment," the "Total Community," and "People Around the World." In grade four the course was "The World as the Home of Man" and i n grade f i v e i t was "The Development of Man i n North America." In grade six 62 "The United States and L a t i n America." The o u t l i n e was intended to be a blueprint that teachers could use but as i n the case of the secondary textbooks, budget l i m i t a t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d the provision of i n s t r u c t i o n a l materials. Some of the elemen-tary materials were s p e c i a l l y written for t h i s curriculum. For example, for grade f i v e , a spe c i a l series of booklets, the Growth of a Nation  Series was produced. 6 3 Both the Elementary and Secondary Revision Committees requested that the new courses be f i e l d - t e s t e d before being authorized but the Depart-ment of Education would not arrange t h i s . The committees also wanted inservice t r a i n i n g provided by the department but a l l that was provided 64 was at the l o c a l school board l e v e l by other teachers. The new revised s o c i a l studies courses were introduced into the classroom i n 1968 with So c i a l Studies eight, other grades following year by year. The Elementary Programme was implemented between 1971-1972. The s p e c i f i c objectives of s o c i a l studies were given as: 1. KNOWLEDGE To cause students to acquire a body of knowledge (comprised mainly of basic concepts or p r i n c i p l e s and generalizations) about the functioning of human s o c i e t i e s — b o t h past and present, both at home and throughout the world. 2. METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE To cause students to develop some f a c i l i t y i n using the methods of Inquiry through which knowledge i n the s o c i a l domain i s discovered and acquired. 3. THE USE OF KNOWLEDGE AND A SPIRIT OF INQUIRY To cause students to develop the capacity for the sorts of speculative and creative thought which enable one to think h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , to hold tentative conclusions, and to recon-struct the knowledge already i n one's possession. 4. VALUE QUESTIONS To provide a forum i n which students may learn to deal with value questions i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e t h i c a l l y honest way.65 The Elementary s o c i a l studies objectives^ follow along the same l i n e s , "a) Basic Knowledge, b) S k i l l s , c) C r i t i c a l Thinking, and d) Feelings, 66 Attit u d e s , and Values." The concentration of the curriculum on the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge follows the curriculum developments of the 1960's. Knowledge here does not r e f e r to the old concept of storing up useless facts but rather the knowledge of a d i s c i p l i n e , i n t h i s case geography and h i s t o r y . To t h i s end the Secondary Curriculum Guide includes separate statements to describe the function and concepts of geography and h i s t o r y . ^ 7 In neither the Secondary nor Elementary Curriculum Guides does a d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies appear, except to comment that " t h i s subject deals with human b e i n g s — i n the past, i n the present, i n the immediate 68 community and i n various parts of the world." This i l l u s t r a t e s yet another compromise. Although the new curriculum i n the secondary schools could more accurately be c a l l e d "geography and h i s t o r y " or " s o c i a l science," the Department of Education responded to those who s t i l l advo-cated " s o c i a l studies" by allowing the new courses to stand under the old name. One complete departure from past t r a d i t i o n s i s the lack of any di r e c t mention of c i t i z e n s h i p . The word i t s e l f i s not mentioned! Be-fore the actual process of curriculum r e v i s i o n began, teachers i n the province were asked to make submissions to the curriculum committees on the basis of a published "Progress Report" which described the types of courses to be written and some of the parameters which were to be used. The lack of emphasis on c i t i z e n s h i p i n the "Progress Report" 69 was a recurring c r i t i c i s m by teachers. The reply to the c r i t i c i s m came from B. Holt a member of the Secondary Revision Committee who 84 pointed out: The point i s emphasized that no one becomes a good c i t i z e n because he i s t o l d to be a good c i t i z e n . A teacher can, and should, set an example of good c i t i z e n s h i p but i t i s what he does, not what he says, that matters. In t h i s respect, the s o c i a l studies teacher has no greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than any other teacher, or, for that matter than any other parent or adult. . . . What concerned the committee about a precise recommendation suggesting that the s o c i a l studies teacher should produce good c i t i z e n s was the p o s s i b i l i t y that outright i n d o c t r i n a t i o n could r e s u l t . Canadians shudder at the consequences of such complete surrender of one's r i g h t to think.70 This i s the complete reversal of the purpose of s o c i a l studies as i t was f i r s t introduced into the B r i t i s h Columbia curriculum. A good c i t i -zen i s now seen as one who thinks for himself/herself, having been trained to think by a school curriculum designed to show the structure of know-ledge . In the Barth and Shermis d e f i n i t i o n of the goals of s o c i a l studies, " S o c i a l Studies as a S o c i a l Science" has, as i t s purpose, the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge i n the s o c i a l science d i s c i p l i n e s f or i t s own sake.7"*" As a teacher, the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t transmits c e r t a i n selected concepts, the products of the teacher's own research or that of others. Both concepts and content are selected on the basis of a consensus of sug-gestions received from any interested p a r t i e s . The Social Studies Cur-riculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia follows t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies. The idea of s o c i a l studies as a v e h i c l e f o r c i t i z e n s h i p trans-mission was gone, at least as far as the curriculum was defined. Not a l l teachers recognised t h i s f a c t , though a l l noticed the s t r u c t u r a l d i f -ferences . This autumn, i n most B.C. secondary schools the new s o c i a l studies curriculum made i t s f i r s t appearance. Content, organization and teaching materials have a l l been r a d i c a l l y changed from the pattern with which over the years we have a l l become very f a m i l i a r . ^ 2 85 In an e d i t o r i a l i n Explorer,. . the writer, a member of the Secondary-Revision Committee said: For teachers of s o c i a l studies, therefore, the new curriculum means "challenge." We are challenged to reconsider our whole philosophy of education to reevaluate our techniques, to reassess our a t t i t u d e towards students. We are challenged to make our work more d i f f i -c u l t but in the long run more rewarding. / J The S o c i a l Studies Curriculum Revision of the l a t e 1960's was more innovative than the much "celebrated" curriculum of 1935-37. I t changed the goals and content of s o c i a l studies; i t introduced geography on an equal basis with h i s t o r y and attempted to introduce new approaches to teaching the content. The f i n a l decisions on the curriculum were reached through compromise, a process which i n v i t e s c r i t i c i s m . The r e v i s i o n was an attempt to make deliberate changes i n the s o c i a l studies curriculum, a change which began with the Elementary Revision i n 1957. In the conclusion of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Studies Assessment (1977) the S o c i a l Studies Programme i s c r i t i c i z e d thus: The B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Studies Program approaches the study of man-in-his-world from these three perspectives: s c i e n t i f i c , s i t u a t i o n a l , and c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e knowing. Through each of these, students are exposed to various i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of how the s o c i a l world has been constructed. The program, however, does not provide a balance betweeen these perspectives; rather i t emphasizes s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. 7 4 What was perceived as a c r i t i c i s m i n 1977 would have been regarded as a compliment by the Secondary S o c i a l Studies Revision Committee 1966-68 for t h i s was what they set out to do, a f a c t which i s stated d i s t i n c t l y i n the goals of the programme. In the h i s t o r i c a l development of the s o c i a l studies curriculum i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the 1966-68 curriculum r e v i s i o n was the only one i n which the goals and the content correspond. This was because the S o c i a l Studies Revision Committees wrote the goals. The c r i t i c i s m of the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Studies Assessment (1977) i l l u s t r a t e s the transient nature of curriculum design. In the 1970's there have been a number of developments i n society which have, i n turn, been r e f l e c t e d i n attitudes to education. The Canadian Studies Foundation i s one example of a movement which focused concern on the lack of Canadian content i n the public school curriculum and has resulted i n the i n c l u s i o n of more "Canadiana" i n many subject d i s c i p l i n e s i n c l u d -ing s o c i a l studies. The s o c i a l studies curriculum, since i t deals with people and events, past and present, i s p a r t i c u l a r l y vulnerable to the changes i n a t t i t u d e s . If the 1966-68 Social Studies Curriculum seems to be lacking when.compared to present day needs t h i s does not detract from the f a c t that when i t was written, i t was the most innovative s o c i a l studies curriculum B r i t i s h Columbia had had. 87 FOOTNOTES ''"J. H. Putman and G. M. Weir, Survey of the School System of B r i t i s h  Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925). See also J. S. Mann, "Progres-sive Education and the Depression i n B.C." 2 The B.C. Teacher. There are numerous a r t i c l e s and e d i t o r i a l s for and against progressive education u n t i l the mid 1950's. 3 Hilda Neatby, So L i t t l e for the Mind (Toronto: Clark Irwin and Company, 1953) . 4 5 6 Ibid., p. 55. Ib i d . , p. 42. Ibid., p. 162. 7 I b i d . , pp. 163-64. 8 I b i d . , p. 173. 9Annual Report (1953-54), p. 029. 1 0 I b i d . , (1954-55), p. EE 28. 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . , p. EE 29. 13 • Ibi d . , and interview with J . P. Meredith, V i c t o r i a , November 7th, 1981. 1 4 I b i d . , (1955-56), p. FF 31. ^Interview, John Meredith. 1 6Annual Report (1953-54), p. EE 29. •^Programmes of Study f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Programme for the Primary Grades ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1957), p. 126; Programmes of Study f or the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia, Programme for the Intermediate Grades ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Pr i n t e r , 1957). 18 Programme of Studies f or the Primary Grades (1957), p. 129. 19 T,., Ibid. 20 Soci a l Studies for the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1950), p. 11. 21 Programme of Studies f o r the Primary Grades (1957), p. 129. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 30. 2 3Annual Report (1957-58), p. W 38. 24 S. N. F. Chant, J . E. L i e r s c h , R. P. Walrod, Report of the Royal Commission on Education ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960). 25 B.C.T.F., "Brief to the Royal Commission on Education," Vancouver, A p r i l 1959. 2 ^ Royal Commission on Education, B r i e f s No. 1-366, ( V i c t o r i a : 2 7 I b i d . , see B r i e f s nos. 61, 154, 192, 203, 237, 282, 336, 340, and 364. 28 Chant Report (1960), p. 17. 29 30 31 Ibid., p. 283. Ibid., p. 308. Ibid., p. 309. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 310. 33 Resolution 48, quoted B.C.S.S.T.A. Newsletter (January 1960). 34 Ibid . The writer has condensed the main points of the arguments for the sake of b r e v i t y . 35 . Ibid. The writer has condensed the mam point of the arguments for the sake of brevi t y . 3 6 Jerome S. Bruner, The Process of Education (Cambridge, Mass.: Cam-bridge University Press, 1960). 37 Ib i d . , p. 13. 38 Le t t e r from J . F. K. English, Deputy Minister and Superintendent, Department of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C., to Mr. N. Sutherland, College of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, December 4th, 1962. 39 Interviews with Miss H. B o u t i l i e r , Vancouver, July 20th, 1981, Mr. L. Grant, Vancouver, August 21st, 1981, and Mr. B. Holt, West Van-couver, August 17th, 1981. 40 B.C. Department of Education Advisory Committee, "A Suggested Pro-gramme in Geography for B.C. Secondary Schools," March 1962, p. 6. 41 B.C. Department of Education Advisory Committee, "A Suggested Pro-gramme in History f o r B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools," June 1963. 4 2 T h e B.C. Teacher (February 1964), p. 109. I b i d . 44 B.C.S.S.T.A., Newsletter (March 1964). 45 B.C.S.S.T.A., Explorer (June 1964), pp. 4-16. Note: The actual date of the panel discussion i s unknown but i t took place between the B.C.T.F. Easter Convention and May 1964. 46 . 47 . Ibi d . , p. 7. Ibid., p. 15. 89 48 The B.C. Teacher (February 1964), p. 208. 49 Explorer (December 1964), p. 1. 50T, ., Ibid. "'''"The names of the members of the Revision Committees appear i n the Minutes of Meetings of both the Secondary and the Elementary Social Stud-ies Revision Committees. They also appear i n Secondary School C u r r i c u -lum Guide: So c i a l Studies—1968 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1968), and Elementary So c i a l Studies 1971 ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1971). 52 . -Minutes of Meeting of the Secondary So c i a l Studies Curriculum Revi-sion, Vancouver, September 30th, 1966. 5 3 I b i d . , December 5th, 1966. 5 4 I b i d . , January 30th, 1967. 5 5 I b i d . , February 20th, 1967. "^ I b i d . , May 16th, 1967 and June 2nd, 1967. The meetings included representatives of the h i s t o r y department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, the Professional Committee and Revision Committee represen-t a t i v e . At a s i m i l a r meeting on June 20th, 1967, geography department of Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y , Burnaby, B.C. c r i t i c i z e d the geography com-ponent. 57 58 Interview, B. Holt. Ibid. 59 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, Secondary School Cur- riculum Guide 1968, pp. 21-22. ^Minutes of Elementary So c i a l Studies Revision Committee, Vancouver, October 4th, 1966, and interview with K. Thibodeau, North Vancouver, February 26th, 1982. ^Minutes of Meeting Elementary S o c i a l Studies Curriculum Committee, October 4th, 1966. 62 T,., Ibid. 63 Daniel R. Bi r c h and Rosemary Neering, Growth of a Nation Series (Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1974). 64 Interviews with K. Thibodeau, F. C. Worledge, and B. Holt. ^Secondary School Curriculum G u i d e — S o c i a l Studies (1968) . 66 Elementary School Curriculum G u i d e — S o c i a l Studies (1971). 12, 67 Seondary School Curriculum G u i d e — S o c i a l Studies (1968), pp. 4-68 T... Ibid., p. 1. 90 69 B.C.S.S.T.A. Explorer;, (May 1966), p. 25. 7°B. Holt, " C i t i z e n s h i p , " i b i d . , p. 27. 7 ^ J . L. Barth and S. S. Shermis, "Defining the S o c i a l Studies: An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s , " pp. 747-8. 72 N. Sutherland, "To Teach the New Curriculum we must Reverse the Teaching of History," The B.C. Teacher (November 1968). 73 B. Holt, Explorer L„ (December 1968). 74 . . . . B r i t i s h Columbia Social Studies Assessment: Summary Report, p. 62. CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION This thesis has been concerned with the reasons for replacing the t r a d i t i o n a l courses of h i s t o r y and geography with s o c i a l studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia and with the h i s t o r i c a l development of s o c i a l studies up to 1970. Two major conclusions flow out of t h i s research. F i r s t , that the introduction of s o c i a l studies into the curriculum and i t s sub-sequent development were the r e s u l t s of p o l i t i c a l acts by those i n author-i t y i n education. Second, despite the goals of s o c i a l studies, the content of the curriculum has varied very l i t t l e over the years. When the goals of s o c i a l studies are viewed i n h i s t o r i c a l perspec-t i v e , they are seen to change i n r e l a t i o n to changes i n the p r e v a i l i n g mood of public opinion. Since the goals of s o c i a l studies (except for the revisions between 1966-68), were written by the Department of Educa-t i o n , the broad assumption i s made that they represent the p r e v a i l i n g p o l i t i c a l views of the time. S o c i a l studies was d e l i b e r a t e l y introduced into the B r i t i s h Colum-b i a curriculum to transmit c i t i z e n s h i p , when the threat of c i v i l unrest provided the excuse for s o c i a l i z i n g the school population by attempting to inculcate the 'righ t ' attitudes deemed necessary, by those i n author-i t y to preserve the state. As times have changed the goals of s o c i a l studies have been changed by the Department of Education to r e f l e c t these changes. 91 If the s o c i a l studies r h e t o r i c has been p o l i t i c a l has i t been f o l -lowed through i n the classroom? The evidence c o l l e c t e d from the i n t e r -views conducted during 1981-82 with the teachers named at the end of t h i s t h e s i s , provides a negative answer. When s o c i a l studies was i n t r o -duced i n the 1920's and 1930's many teachers were enthusiastic with the new approach. Having been affected d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y by World War I and l a t e r by the depression, they saw s o c i a l studies as a way to make things better. They saw i t as an aspect of child-centred education which would help t h e i r students f i n d a better life.''" This i s quite the opposite idea from that of the government i n s t r u c t i o n s i n the Programmes of Study. Though there was some experimentation i n teaching s o c i a l studies by a few teachers i n the early days there was not much change i n the high school classroom. One reason for t h i s was the r e a l -i t y of the matriculation exams. U n t i l 1965 the demands of the govern-ment examinations i n grade twelve and the year end examinations for the other high school grades co n t r o l l e d the subject matter and the methods used to teach s o c i a l studies i n high schools. Notwithstanding the broad d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies which appears at the beginning of each Programme of Studies and which l i s t s the d i s c i -p l i n e s from which the content of s o c i a l studies may be drawn, u n t i l the l a s t r e v i s i o n (1966-68), s o c i a l studies was dominated by h i s t o r y , especi-a l l y i n high school. In fact an examination of both the content of s o c i a l studies from i t s inception up to 1968, and of those courses which were replaced by s o c i a l studies, shows that there have been no funda-mental changes in the content of the s o c i a l studies curriculum, nor was there any fundamental change when s o c i a l studies was introduced into the curriculum. This i s not so su r p r i s i n g when one considers that teacher committees were responsible for the content of the s o c i a l studies curriculum and drew on the material with which they were f a m i l i a r . To develop t h i s point, there i s no evidence to suggest that s o c i a l studies as defined by the Programmes of Study has ever been taught i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The content of the courses has never followed the d e f i n i t i o n , except i n the l a s t r e v i s i o n . By following the content, or even using i t as a guide, s o c i a l h i s t o r y would be the closest one came to s o c i a l studies. In elementary schools the course content f o l -lowed the d e f i n i t i o n of s o c i a l studies more cl o s e l y i n the primary years but once the intermediate grades were reached the courses were generally r e s t r i c t e d to h i s t o r y and geography. Since the content of s o c i a l studies had not fundamentally changed over the years most teachers con-tinued to teach as they had always done. A. B. Hodgetts described i n What Culture? What Heritage? the 2 abysmal state of h i s t o r y teaching in Canada. This i s the report of a two year study of h i s t o r y in both elementary and secondary classrooms throughout Canada and since h i s t o r y formed the basis of s o c i a l studies courses i n nine out of the ten provinces, the indictment i s against the 3 teaching of s o c i a l studies. The report considered that "Canadian h i s -4 tory i s rendered almost useless as a stimulating school subject." In spite of a l l e f f o r t s made to the contrary, the report found that "three out of four Canadian h i s t o r y classes were engaged in the mechanical mem-or i z a t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l fact.""' The report concluded, "that the d e f i c -iencies of the p a s t — d e f i c i e n c i e s that have prompted so much f u t i l e study and comment for more than t h i r t y y e a r s — a r e being perpetuated with varying degrees of i n t e n s i t y i n a l l parts of Canada." 6 For a l l the t a l k of innovation, f o r a l l the enthusiasm shown by some teachers, very 94 l i t t l e change had taken place over the years in the classroom. The teaching of "true" s o c i a l studies, that i s , a fusion or integra-t i o n of those d i s c i p l i n e s as defined i n a l l the Programmes of Study since 1935 (except that for 1968), would require an exceptional educational background not a v a i l a b l e to most teachers. While t h i s has always been true i t would be very d i f f i c u l t f o r anyone today to have s u f f i c i e n t tech-n i c a l knowledge of a l l these d i s c i p l i n e s to provide a balanced s o c i a l studies course. The curriculum and teacher t r a i n i n g programmes in B r i t i s h Columbia, since the l a s t r e v i s i o n , have encouraged s p e c i a l i z a -t i o n i n either h i s t o r y and/or geography. Since the adoption of s o c i a l studies as a replacement for h i s t o r y and geography from 1927 on, i t has not been possible to construct a course with a "true" s o c i a l studies content f o r B r i t i s h Columbia nor has anything l i k e s o c i a l studies appeared i n B r i t i s h Columbia classrooms. Social studies was accepted without controversy i n the 1920's and 1930's because i t brought l i t t l e change to most teachers and p u p i l s . It may well be that the Ministry of Education has yet to experience the r e a l test of the concept of s o c i a l studies, f i f t y years a f t e r i t s i n t r o -duction. 95 FOOTNOTES ^"Interviews with Mr. E. K e l l y , Mr. L. Grant, Mr. J . Gibbard, Mr. F. Hardwick. 2 A. B. Hodgetts, What Culture? What Heritage? (Toronto: Ontario I n s t i t u t e f or StudiGs i n Education 9 1968). 3 I b i d . , p. 18. 4 I b i d . , p. 21. 5 I b i d . , p. 27. 6 I b i d . , p. 115. 96 BIBLIOGRAPHY P r o v i n c i a l Government Sources Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education Annual Reports of the Public Schools of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia (1900-1972), V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . Curriculum Guides The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education, has published the following curriculum guides. Manuals of School Law and School Regulations of B r i t i s h Columbia (1900-1918) . Courses of Study (1919-24). Programme of Studies Elementary Schools (1925-26). Programme of Studies Junior High Schools (1927-28). Programme of Studies High Schools (1930). Programme of Studies f o r the Elementary Schools (1936) . Programme of Studies f o r the Junior High Schools (1937). Programme of Studies for the High Schools (1937). Social Studies for the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1946). Note: This e d i t i o n i s typewritten, c a l l e d "Experimental" and to be found i n the P r o v i n c i a l L i b r a r y . S o c i a l Studies for the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1950). Programme of Studies Junior and Senior High Schools (1950). The Social Studies (1953). Soc i a l Studies for the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1954). Junior and Senior High School S o c i a l Studies (1956). Programmes of Study f o r the Elementary Schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (1957). Secondary School Curriculum Guide: So c i a l Studies—1968. Elementary So c i a l Studies 1971. 97 Aoki, T. T., Langford, C , Williams, D. M. , and Wilson, D. C. B r i t i s h  Columbia S o c i a l Studies Assessment 1977. Summary Report. A Report to the Ministry of Education, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Royal Commissions Cameron, Maxwell A. Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Educational  Finance. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1945. Chant, S. N. F., L i e r s c h , J. E., and Walrod, R. P. Report of the Royal  Commission on Education. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960. "Royal Commission on Education B r i e f s No. 1-366." 1958-59. B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation, So c i a l Studies Section. "B r i e f to the Royal Commission on Education." Vancouver, 1959. Putman, J. H., and Weir, G. M. Survey of the School System. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1925. P r o v i n c i a l Archives In the P r o v i n c i a l Archives, V i c t o r i a B r i t i s h Columbia, l e t t e r s and inspectors reports to H. B. King are f i l e d under "H. B. King Correspondence." Others Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education. "Instruction to Members of Junior and Senior High School Curriculum Commit-tees, 1935." "Minutes of Meeting with School Inspectors, held i n the O f f i c e of the Minister of Education on Friday October 22nd, 1937 at 3:15 p.m." Letter from J . F. K. English, Deputy Minister and Superintendent, Depart-ment of Education, V i c t o r i a , B.C., to Mr. N. Sutherland, College of Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, December 4th, 1962. (Dr. Sutherland's papers.) Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education Advisory Committee. "A Suggested Programme i n Geography for B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools," March 1962. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Department of Education Advisory Committee. "A Suggested Programme i n History for B r i t i s h Columbia Secondary Schools," June 1963. 98 Minutes of Meetings of the Secondary Social Studies Curriculum Revision, 1966-67. Minutes of Meetings of the Elementary So c i a l Studies Curriculum Revision Committee, 1966-67. B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation The l e t t e r s and papers of the B.C.T.F., up to 1958 are f i l e d , i n chrono-l o g i c a l order, i n the "Vault Books." After 1958, the records are on micro-fiche. They are located at the B.C.T.F. Headquarters i n Vancouver. Interviews Miss Helen B o u t i l i e r , Vancouver, July 20th, 1981. Mr. John Church, Vancouver, October 15th, 1981. Mr. John Gibbard, Vancouver, July 28th, 1981. Mr. Louis Grant, Vancouver, August 14th, 1981. Mr. F. C. Hardwick, Vancouver, August 6 and August 10th, 1981. Mr. Bernard Holt, West Vancouver, August 10th, 1981. Mr. E r i c K e l l y , Vancouver, July 22nd, 1981. Mr. J . R. Meredith, V i c t o r i a , November 7th, 1981. Dr. J . Lewis Robinson, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, July 27th, 1981. Mr. N e v i l l e V. Scarfe, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, August 6th, 1981. Mr. K. Thibodeau, North Vancouver, February 26th, 1982. Dr. G. S. Tomkins, Vancouver, March 8th, 1982. Miss F. C. Worledge, Vancouver, March 7th, 1982. 99 Books Ashworth, Mary. The Forces Which Shaped Them. Vancouver: New Star Books, 1979. Bruner, Jerome S. The Process of Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Cam-bridge University Press, 1960. C u r t i , Merle. The Social Ideas of American Educators. American H i s t o r -i c a l Association Commission on the Social Studies. New Jersey: Pageant Brooks, 1959. Dickie, Donalda J . The Enterprise i n Theory and P r a c t i c e . Toronto: W. J . Gage & Co. Limited, 1940. Dewey, J . Democracy and Education. New York: MacMillan, 1916; r e p r i n t ed., MacMillan, 1963. Hodgetts, A. B. What Culture? What Heritage? Toronto: Ontario I n s t i -tue for Studies i n Education, 1968. Johnson, F. Henry. History of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964. Lowing, Graham A. Curriculum of Public Schools f o r General Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Educational Monograph Series No. 1. V i c t o r i a : King's P r i n t e r , 1914. Neatby, H. So L i t t l e f o r the Mind. Toronto: Clark Irwin and Company Limited,. 1953. Rugg, H., and Withers, W. So c i a l Foundations of Education. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1955. Stevenson, H. A., and Wilson, J . D. Precepts, P o l i c y and Process:  Perspectives on Contemporary Education. London, Ontario: Alexander, Black Associates, 1977. Tryon, R o l l a M. The S o c i a l Sciences as School Subjects. Report of the Commission on the So c i a l Studies Part XI. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935. Urquhart, M. C , ed. H i s t o r i c a l S t a t i s t i c s of Canada. Toronto: Macmillan, 1965. Wilson, J . D., and Jones, D. C , eds. Schooling and Society i n Twentieth  Century B r i t i s h Columbia. Calgary: D e t s e l i g Enterprises Ltd., 1980. 100 Theses Dunn, Timothy A. "Work, Class and Education: Vocationalism i n B r i t i s h Columbia's Public Schools, 1900-1929." M.A. t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Mann, Jean S. "Progressive Education and the Depression in B r i t i s h Columbia." M.A. t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978. Topping, W. E. "This H i s t o r i c a l Development of the Teaching of Geography in B r i t i s h Columbia." M.A. t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. A r t i c l e s Armstrong, F. A. " S o c i a l Studies." The B.C. Teacher, A p r i l 1939, 405-407. Barr, R. D. "The Question of our Professional Identity: Reaction to the Barth/Shermis A r t i c l e . " Social Education, November 1970, 751-754. Barth, J . L., and Shermis, S. S. "Defining the So c i a l Studies: An Exploration of Three T r a d i t i o n s . " S o c i a l Education, November 1970, 743-751. Campbell, H. L. "Education for C i t i z e n s h i p . " Excerpts from an address given at the Ninth Biennial Convention of the B r i t i s h Columbia Womens' I n s t i t u t e s . B.C. Schools (Secondary D i v i s i o n ) , October 1948, 29-31. Cottingham, M o l l i e . "A Century of Public Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Address to the Annual Meeting of the Canadian College of Teachers, August 11th, 1953. Engle, S h i r l e y H. "Exploring the Meaning of Social Studies." Social  Education, March 1971, 280-288. Ewing, J . M. "A Balanced Educational Philosophy." The B.C. Teacher, December 1945, 98-99. Milburn, Geoffrey, "The So c i a l Studies Curriculum i n Canada: A Survey of the Published L i t e r a t u r e i n the Last Decade." The Journal of Educational Thought, December 1976, 214-224. Morrison, H. " S o c i a l Studies in Secondary Education." The B.C. Teacher, June 1934, 31-32. Morrison, H. "A Plea for So c i a l Studies." The B.C. Teacher, February 1935, 6-8. 101 Murra, W. F. "The B i r t h of the NCSS—As Remembered by Earle W. Rugg." Social Education, November 1970, 728-729. Putnam, R. G. "Geography i n Secondary Schools." The Canadian Geographer, Vol. XI(4), 1967, 230-233. Robinson, J . Lewis. "The Place of Geography i n the S o c i a l Studies." The B.C. Teacher, January 1954, 160-164. Robinson, J . Lewis. "Growth and Trends i n Geography i n Canadian Uni-v e r s i t i e s . " The Canadian Geographer, Vol. XI(4), 1967, 216-220. Social Studies Revision Committee. "War and Social Studies." The B.C.  Teacher, May-June 1943, 316. Sutherland, N e i l . "The Triumph of 'formalism': The 'New' Education i n Canada i n the 1920's and 1930's." A paper prepared for the Canadian History of Education Association Conference, Toronto, February 1982. Tomkins, G. S. " S o c i a l Studies i n the United States." The B.C. Teacher, February 1964, 200-203. Tomkins, G. S. "The So c i a l Studies Movement as a R e f l e c t i o n of the Changing Character of School and Society in the United States 1876-1957." Unpublished paper, no date. Tomkins, G. S. "The So c i a l Studies i n Canada." Unpublished paper, no date. Note: The B.C. Teacher, published by the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation and Explorer, published by the B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l Studies Teachers' Association, have been valuable sources of information. Only the most pertinent a r t i c l e s have been l i s t e d here. School Textbooks Anstey, A. The Romance of B r i t i s h Columbia. Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1927. Birch, Daniel R., and Neering, Rosemary. Growth of a Nation Series. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1974.. Bradley, J . H. World Geography. Toronto: Ginn and Company, 1950. Buckley, Arabella, and Robertson, W. J . High School History of England  and Canada. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1891. Capon, Louise. Across the Ages. Toronto: W. J. Gage and Company, no date. 102 Cornish, G. A. Canadian Geography for Juniors. Toronto: J . M. Dent * and Sons, 1928. W. J . Gage, and Sutherland, A. Elementary Geography of the. B r i t i s h  Colonies. London: MacMillan, 1898. (no author) New Canadian Geography. Toronto: W. J . Gage and Company, 1899. Gough, J . New World Horizons. Toronto: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1942. Gough, J . Old World Horizons. Toronto: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1944. Green, J . R. A Short History of the English People. London: Macmillan, 1902. King, H. B. A History of B r i t a i n . Toronto: Macmillan, 1937. Shapiro, J. S., Morris, R. B., and Soward, F. H. C i v i l i z a t i o n i n Europe  and the World. Toronto: Copp Clark, 1938. Tarr, R. S. New Physical Geography. New York: Macmillan, 1903. West, W. M. The Story of World Progress. Canadian E d i t i o n prepared by Mack Eastman. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, 1924. These textbooks are available i n the Special C o l l e c t i o n s D i v i s i o n of the Library at the Un i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 

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