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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Talking among grade seven peers as an influence on the teaching of drawing and on the acquisition of… Bevis, Vivian 1982

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TALKING AMONG GRADE SEVEN PEERS AS AN INFLUENCE ON THE TEACHING OF DRAWING AND ON THE ACQUISITION OF DRAWING SKILL  by  VIVIAN BEVIS B.A., Duke U n i v e r s i t y ,  1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in . THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f V i s u a l and P e r f o r m i n g A r t s  i n Education  Faculty o f Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s to the r e q u i r e d  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May  ©  1982  Vivian Bevis,  1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree at the  the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by  the head o f  representatives.  my  It i s  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Visual and Performing Arts in Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  DE-6  (.3/81)  A p r i l 22,  1982  written  ii  Abstract The purpose o f the study was to f i n d out more about v e r b a l and v i s u a l aspects o f teaching a r t and l e a r n i n g t o draw i n the classroom.  I t was to  determine what i n f l u e n c e language has on v i s u a l processes i n drawing and to examine effecfcs'-"of-talking and v e r b a l t h i n k i n g on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f drawing s k i l l s of pre-adolescent students i n grade seven. The study c o n s i s t e d o f a 10-week drawing course f o r f o u r c l a s s e s of grade seven students i n an elementary school i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. I n s t r u c t i o n was the same f o r a l l c l a s s e s except that i n two o f the c l a s s e s students were permitted to t a l k to each other while drawing"and i n two classes students were i n s t r u c t e d not to t a l k while drawing.  Data were  c o l l e c t e d and observations recorded u s i n g scores on drawing'tests, student evaluations, drawing surveys and teacher logs. Although scores on drawing t e s t s showed l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups, c o n s i s t e n t observations i n d i c a t e d that students d i d not t a l k and draw a t the same time.  Students who talked-, stopped drawing,  completed  fewer drawings, made l e s s frequent reference to the model and followed fewer d i r e c t i o n s .  When comparing the work o f the two groups, teacher a t t i -  tude toward the t a l k i n g group r e f l e c t e d more d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n because of the higher incidence o f incomplete work and the necessity of having to r a i s e the voice i n order to be heard.  iii Table o f Contents Page ABSTRACT  1 1  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  v l i  -v.iii i x  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCTION I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Study-.  2.  1 1  Problem  1  S ignificance  2  Purpose  3  Propositions  3  Assumptions  3  Limitations  k  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  k  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e  5  Seeing and Drawing  5  Seeing and V i s u a l A t t e n t i o n  6  V i s u a l Thinking and Drawing  6  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  11  Population  11  Procedure  11  Instructional A c t i v i t i e s  13  Measurement Instruments  13  Assignment o f Subjects  14  iv  Chapter 3.  Page PRESENTATION OF DATA  15  Data From Drawing S u r v e y s  15  A i d s t o L e a r n i n g t o Draw Ability  16  t o Draw  19  Awareness o f A r t Elements Ability  ,  ..  23  t o Form M e n t a l Images  23  Importance o f P r a c t i c e  23  Importance o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n  26  Discouragement  26  Data From Teacher Logs and O b s e r v a t i o n s . ..,  26  Recorded I n c i d e n c e o f T a l k i n g and Not Drawing  26  Recorded I n c i d e n c e o f T a l k i n g and Drawing  29  Incidence o f f a i l u r e  29  to Follow D i r e c t i o n s  I n c i d e n c e o f F a i l u r e t o R e f e r t o Model o r O b j e c t  29  I n c i d e n c e o f Incomplete Drawings  29  I n c i d e n c e o f Second S t a r t s  34  D i f f e r i n g Approaches  34  t o t h e Drawing Task  Teacher A t t i t u d e s  34  Data From Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s Concepts L e a r n e d  35 .-  35  S a t i s f a c t i o n W i t h Performance  37  Ability  to Concentrate  37  Data From Drawing S c o r e s  ... 39  Draw A: P e r s o n T e s t s  41  L i v e Model Drawing S c o r e s  41  V  Chapter 4.  Page 44  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  44  Drawing S u r v e y s A i d s t o L e a r n i n g t o Draw  44  E s t i m a t e d A b i l i t y i n Drawing  45  Awareness o f A r t Elements  47  A b i l i t y t o Form M e n t a l Images  47 48  Importance o f P r a c t i c e . . . . Importance o f C o n c e n t r a t i o n  .  Discouragement i n Drawing  48  Teacher Logs and O b s e r v a t i o n s  49 49  T a l k i n g and Not Drawing T a l k i n g and D r a w i n g  51  Following Directions  52  R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Model and t h e O b j e c t  52  Complete and I n c o m p l e t e Drawings  53  D i f f e r i n g Approaches  54  Teacher A t t i t u d e s  54  Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s  56  Concepts L e a r n e d  57  .. . ;  S a t i s f a c t i o n W i t h Performance  57  A b i l i t y to Concentrate  57 58  Drawing S c o r e s  5.  48  Draw A: P e r s o n Test" S c o r e s . ..  59  L i v e Model S c o r e s  60  CONCLUSIONS  •  62  vi  Page REFERENCES  66  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ...  68  APPENDIX A.  Drawing S u r v e y s  .'  72  P i l o t Survey Drawing S u r v e y I and I I  72 '  76  B.  Instructional Activities  80  C.  S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r Drawings  100  C r i t e r i a f o r L i v e Models  100  C r i t e r i a f o r Draw A P e r s o n T e s t - Woman  103  C r i t e r i a f o r Draw A P e r s o n T e s t - Man  106  D.  Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s  E.  Samples o f T e a c h e r Logs  109 117  vii L i s t of Tables Tables  Page  1.  Number o f Student Responses Ranking Aids i n Learning to Draw  I?  2.  Comparison of Group Responses Ranking Aids i n Learning to Draw .. 18  3.  S e l f Assessment of A b i l i t y to Draw Items Well - Boys  20  4.  S e l f Assessment o f A b i l i t y to Draw Items Well - G i r l s  21  5.  Changes i n Assessed A b i l i t y to Draw Items Well  22  6.  Number of Responses Indicating Awareness o f A r t Elements  24  7.  Awareness o f A r t Elements f o r Treatment and Control Groups  25  8.  Responses Indicating Relative Importance o f Concentration  27  9.  Responses Reporting Discouragement i n Drawing  28  10.  Recorded Incidence of Talking and Not Drawing from Observation .. 30  11.  Recorded Incidence of Talking and Drawing  31  12.  Recorded Incidence of F a i l u r e to Follow Directions  32  13.  Recorded Incidence of F a i l u r e to Refer to Model During Routine 10-Second Scan  14.  33  Recorded Frequency of Remarks Reflecting Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n and Dissatisfaction  36  15.  Incidence of Reported Factors I n h i b i t i n g Concentration  38  16.  Frequency of Responses Indicating Subjective Evaluation of Time Passing  17.  Comparisons o f Mean Scores on Draw A Person Tests and On Live Model Drawings  18.  40  42  Comparisons of Median Scores on Draw A, Person Tests and On Live Model Drawings  43  viii  L i s t of Figures  Figures  Page  1.  Chairs  81  2.  L i v e Model I  83  3.  Household Objects  85  k.  Skeleton  5.  Bones and Pumpkins j Tone  90  6.  Bones and Pumpkins  91  7.  Memory B i c y c l e  8.  Bicycle:  9.  Self Portrait  96  L i v e Model I I  98  10.  88  '.  Viewfinder  . ..  93 9^  ix  A cknow1edgements I would l i k e to express sincere a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the help and encouragement I have received from my advisory committee' i n the preparation of t h i s thesis.  1  I n p a r t i c u l a r , I should l i k e to thank Dr. James' Gray f o r h i s f i n e  s c h o l a r l y guidance, Boh S t e e l e f o r h i s valuable i n s i g h t s on the drawing process and Michael Foster f o r h i s keen observations of c h i l d r e n and t h e i r art. S p e c i a l thanks i s a l s o given to the c h i l d r e n i n the Vancouver schools who continue to i n c i t e my i n t e r e s t and pique my c u r i o s i t y about the processes they employ i n the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r drawings. Thanks are a l s o given most g r a t e f u l l y to my husband, Dick, who d i d without h i s h i k i n g companion throughout the preparation of t h i s work and to my colleague, Linda Glode, who adjusted her teaching schedule to my throughout the process.  convenience  1 Chapter  1  INTRODUCTION  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e .S tutiy '  Most c h i l d r e n l o v e t o draw.  T h e i r drawings have been the source o f  numerous s t u d i e s and o b s e r v a t i o n s which have produced g e n e r a l agreement that children's a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y unfolds naturally i n a l i n e a r , sequential and demonstrable s e r i e s o f s t a g e s from the p r e - s c h o o l s c r i b b l e t o the p r e a d o l e s c e n t attempt a t r e a l i s t i c g r e s s i o n stops.  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h a t there the p r o -  The c l e a r d e c l i n e i n a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y and the apparent  d e c l i n e i n some a r t i s t i c s k i l l s (Gardner, B r i t t a i n , 1970;  Read, 1945.  1973;  R i c h a r d s & Ross, 1967)  change o r i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the developmental cence.  According to Harris  resurgence  K e r r , 1937;  (1963)  suggest  Lowenfeld  &  some s o r t o f  p r o c e s s a t the onset o f a d o l e s -  some a d o l e s c e n t s w i l l  experience a  o f a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y around the ages o f 14 o r 15 y e a r s , b u t  others w i l l  n o t . He c o n c l u d e s  t h a t age most c h i l d r e n w i l l which l i n k drawing s k i l l  t h a t u n l e s s a r e v i v a l o f i n t e r e s t o c c u r s by  show no f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s i n drawing.  Theories  t o i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t u a l and c o g n i t i v e growth  have n o t been a b l e t o e x p l a i n why many a d u l t s do n o t p r o g r e s s beyond t h e drawing stage o f 11-year o l d s ( L a r k - H o r o w i t z ,  1936).  Problem The problem c e n t r a l t o t h i s study i s t h e apparent p r o g r e s s a t the time o f adolescence  o r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e advent o f  f o r m a l mental o p e r a t i o n s ( i n h e l d e r & P i a g e t , have been g i v e n t o account them a r e :  1.  c e s s a t i o n o f drawing  1958)-  Several explanations  f o r t h i s a r r e s t i n a r t i s t i c development.  changes i n c o g n i t i v e development;  2.  Among  i n f l u e n c e o f peers;  2 3.  h e i g h t e n e d i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l and s e x u a l  matters; and k.  1979;  dominance o f language (Dorethy & Reeves,  increased  R o s e n s t e i l & Gardner,  1977).  S ignificance One  o f the  t h e o r i e s most f r e q u e n t l y advanced f o r the apparent c e s s a t i o n  o f drawing p r o g r e s s a t t h i s stage i s t h a t language, which i s emphasized i n Western c u l t u r e and e d u c a t i o n , f o r adolescents The  contention  becomes the dominant and most e f f i c i e n t mode  t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and i s that, education,  a b s t r a c t concepts.  which s t r e s s e s the importance o f r a p i d  r e c o g n i t i o n and naming o f o b j e c t s , encourages s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n t o l a b e l v i s u a l s t i m u l i q u i c k l y and t o pass on t o the next s t i m u l u s one  has been examined i n depth.  S t u d e n t s are l i k e l y ,  before  the  first  t h e r e f o r e , t o become  scanners o f the environment i n s t e a d o f deep p e r c e i v e r s and when they do draw, to use  f a c i l e symbols o r s t e r e o t y p e s  instead o f seeking  new i n f o r m a t i o n  that represent  what they a l r e a d y know  from t h e i r v i s u a l s u r r o u n d i n g s .  As v e r b a l s k i l l s become more e f f i c i e n t f o r e x p r e s s i n g a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s , many p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s and  e f f o r t s altogether  r e l y not o n l y upon words t o e x p r e s s themselves, but upon l i n g u i s t i c  thought t o p r o c e s s most i n f o r m a t i o n  1979;  stop making g r a p h i c  and i n t e r p r e t i n g  1963;  Harris,  develop graphic ships before by r e d u c i n g Arnheim  McKim,  1972)v  (Arnheim, 1969; Harris  (1963)  B u h l e r , 1930;  f e e l s that unless  Edwards, children  t e c h n i q u e s needed t o d e p i c t a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s and r e l a t i o n -  a d o l e s c e n c e , they w i l l l a t e r abandon drawing a l t o g e t h e r , t h e i r opportunities f o r f u l l e r perceptual  (1969),  McKim  (1972),  Randhawa  the problem from a w i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e .  (1978)  and  there-  learning. Rohwer  (1970)  view  They t h i n k t h a t c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be  t a u g h t t o e x e r c i s e b o t h v e r b a l and v i s u a l thought p r o c e s s e s throughout t h e i r school  experience.  the o n l y p l a c e  A l t h o u g h a r t programmes are o f t e n s i n g l e d out a s  i n the c u r r i c u l u m where v i s u a l s k i l l s are s t r e s s e d , the ex-  t e n t t o which they are c o n s c i o u s l y  taught t o the e x c l u s i o n o f v e r b a l  skills  3 i s n o t known.  Dorethy and Reeves  (1979)  contend t h a t more needs to be  known about the v e r b a l and v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f the a r t l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s and that l i t t l e  s u p p o r t i n g d a t a have been developed about the p r o d u c t i o n o f the  v i s u a l a r t s i n r e a l i s t i c classroom s i t u a t i o n s . Purpose The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine p o s s i b l e v e r b a l i n f l u e n c e s on the  drawing p r o c e s s and on the t e a c h i n g o f drawing i n the c l a s s r o o m .  Pri-  m a r i l y , the study w i l l examine e f f e c t s o f t a l k i n g among p r e - a d o l e s c e n t p e e r s i n grade seven i n r e l a t i o n t o (a) a c q u i s i t i o n o f drawing s k i l l , a t t e n t i o n , ( c ) c l a s s r o o m performance  (b) v i s u a l  and (d) t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s .  Propositions The p r o p o s i t i o n s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e t h r e e - f o l d : 1.  That t a l k i n g i n the a r t room among p r e - a d o l e s c e n t grade  s t u d e n t s between the ages o f 11  and 12  y e a r s i n h i b i t s drawing from d i r e c t  o b s e r v a t i o n and hampers a c q u i s i t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l drawing 2.  skill.  T h a t a c q u i s i t i o n o f drawing s k i l l r e s u l t s i n more p o s i t i v e  tudes o f s t u d e n t s toward t h e i r drawing and a r t i s t i c 3-  seven  atti-  ability.  That t a l k i n g among p e e r s i n the a r t room i n f l u e n c e s t e a c h e r a t t i -  tudes toward the c l a s s . Assumptions There are t h r e e b a s i c assumptions u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s t u d y : 1.  That the b r a i n has the a b i l i t y  to p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i n two  f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t ways which have been v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f a r t and o f p s y c h o l o g y . are  F o r the purpose o f t h i s s t u d y they  b e i n g c a l l e d v e r b a l t h i n k i n g and v i s u a l 2.  thinking.  That, by the onset o f a d o l e s c e n c e , the a b i l i t y to p r o c e s s i n f o r -  mation v e r b a l l y becomes more e f f i c i e n t than--the a b i l i t y  to p r o c e s s i t  4 visually. 3.  That verbal thought and expression, having become dominant by the  onset of adolescence, inhibit visual thought and expression. Limitations The study i s limited to approximately 1 0 0 elementary students at the grade seven level in one urban school.  No attempt i s made to classify the  developmental levels of these students nor to determine the preferred learning style for individuals.  Nor i s i t necessary for the purposes of this  study to allocate cognitive functions to one side of the brain or the other. The instructional activities are, with the exception of one memory exercise, based entirely on drawing from direct observation and do not purport to represent a complete range of classroom drawing activities.  The teacher, i n  a l l classes, i s the observer and recorder. Definition of Terms 1.  Blind contour drawing - A contour drawing which i s made while  observing an object or group of objects and which is drawn without looking at the drawing in progress. 2.  Cognitive - A l l mental operations involved in the receiving,  storing and processing of information including those processes of sensory perception, memory, thinking and learning. 3.  Contour drawing - A drawing in which the lines represent the edges  of a form or a group of forms. 4. Deep perception - A synthesis of intelligence and vision whereby not only surfaces, but underlying internal structures and relationships are understood and appreciated. 5.  Holistic - The simultaneous, global, processing of an array of  information in a total configuration as opposed to sequential processing  5 of  the s e p a r a t e p a r t s . 6.  I n t u i t i v e - D i r e c t and a p p a r e n t l y unmediated knowledge; a judgment,  meaning o r i d e a t h a t o c c u r s t o a p e r s o n w i t h o u t any known p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i v e thinking.  of  7.  Mode - A s e t o f c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s used t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n .  8.  R e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l drawing - A drawing made from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n  a n o b j e c t o r group' o f o b j e c t s . 9.  used  S t e r e o t y p e - The r e d u c t i o n o f v i s u a l form t o a symbol o r h a b i t u a l l y  convention. 10.  V e r b a l t h i n k i n g - The i n f e r r e d mental o p e r a t i o n used t o p r o c e s s  l i n g u i s t i c information. 11.  V i s u a l t h i n k i n g - The p r o c e s s i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p e r c e p t u a l  sensory d a t a .gathered from i n t e r n a l o r e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g l o b a l , simultaneous,  i n t u i t i v e mental o p e r a t i o n s .  Review o f L i t e r a t u r e The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between ( a ) s e e i n g and drawing, ( b ) s e e i n g and v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n , and ( c ) v i s u a l t h i n k i n g and drawing from o b s e r v a t i o n have o c c u p i e d much o f the l i t e r a t u r e on r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l drawing. S e e i n g and drawing. to  I n 19^1  N i c o l a i d e s wrote t h a t drawing had l i t t l e  do w i t h t e c h n i q u e , a e s t h e t i c s o r c o n c e p t i o n s , b u t o n l y w i t h the " a c t o f  correct observation."  Hill  (1966)  a s s e r t e d t h a t the r o l e o f the t e a c h e r  was t o h e l p the s t u d e n t l e a r n t o observe to  by p r o v i d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s  waken h i s v i s i o n and t o d i s c o u r a g e a n y t h i n g t h a t might i n h i b i t  exploration.  Hill  felt  designed visual  t h a t the a b i l i t y t o draw depended n o t o n l y on  t e c h n i q u e , b u t a l s o on the a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d t o the v i s u a l environment and p e r c e i v e i t f u l l y and d e e p l y .  6 There i s g e n e r a l use  agreement t h a t c h i l d r e n , a s w e l l a s a d u l t s , do n o t  t h e i r f u l l f a c u l t y f o r seeing.  They tend t o r e a c t a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o  s t i m u l i and s e l e c t from v a r i o u s s i g n a l s o n l y those which p r o v i d e r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r momentary needs.  Much escapes t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n due e i t h e r  to a n u n d i s c i p l i n e d v i s u a l sense o r t o a p r e o c c u p a t i o n f i c a t i o n o f things.  information  with verbal  identi-  The emphasis on naming o b j e c t s c r e a t e s t h e i l l u s i o n o f  knowing the o h j e c t and suppresses t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o examine i t from a f r e s h perspective.  McKim  (1972)  t h i n k s t h a t v i s u a l mental a b i l i t y which i s n o t  used decays and t h a t premature v e r b a l c l o s u r e c o n t r i b u t e s t o p e r c e p t u a l atrophy.  C h i l d r e n l o o k b u t do n o t a t t e n d  S e e i n g and v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n .  t o what they s e e .  Mulholland  (1978)  studied v i s u a l atten-  t i o n w i t h e l e c t r o e n c e p h a l o g r a m s and found t h a t a t t e n t i o n t o v i s u a l s t i m u l i i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e d u c t i o n o f a l p h a rhythms. ' When a n o v e l o r relevant stimulus  i s f i r s t p r e s e n t e d the a l p h a rhythms a r e s u p p r e s s e d and  gradually recover  t o o r i g i n a l l e v e l s as the stimulus  becomes f a m i l i a r .  S t u d i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n w a t c h i n g T. V. showed h i g h a l p h a l e v e l s which i n d i cated  t h a t they were n o t r e a l l y a t t e n d i n g  (1976)  Schwartz, Davidson and Pugash  t o what they were  seeing.  studied v i s u a l attention i n  r e l a t i o n t o hemispheric f u n c t i o n s o f the b r a i n .  They t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s t o  produce more a l p h a rhythms i n one c o r t i c a l hemisphere than i n t h e o t h e r . When s u b j e c t s produced more a l p h a  rhythms i n t h e r i g h t hemisphere, they  r e p o r t e d - s i g n i f i c a n t l y more v e r b a l c o g n i t i o n s . the l e f t  they r e p o r t e d  more v i s u a l , n o n - v e r b a l  V i s u a l t h i n k i n g and drawing.  T  h  e  When they produced more i n cognitions.  a b i l i t y t o draw from d i r e c t o b s e r v a -  t i o n depends on t e c h n i q u e and on t h e a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d nuances o f v i s u a l form. c o r r e c t drawing H i l l  c a r e f u l l y t o the  I n o r d e r t o observe p r o p e r l y f o r t h e purposes o f  (1966)  a s s e r t s t h a t the mind has t o be emptied o f a l l  7 extraneous thought and encumbrances.  The r o l e o f the drawing i n s t r u c t o r  i s t o s t i m u l a t e the s t u d e n t ' s v i s i o n and t o d i s c o u r a g e inhibits visual inquiry.  a n y t h i n g which  The t e a c h e r ' s r o l e i s t o make the s t u d e n t  aware o f the s e n s a t i o n s t h a t impinge upon v i s i o n  directly  , but which do not o f t e n  r e a c h c o n s c i o u s l e v e l s o f thought. Maslow, May, and McKim ( i n McMullan, 1976)  a l l r e f e r to c o n d i t i o n s  s i m i l a r t o H i l l ' s awareness o f s e n s a t i o n s which impinge upon v i s u a l  thought  but which do not r e a c h c o n s c i o u s o r r a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f thought a s p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r c r e a t i v e thought.  They d e s c r i b e a n open, r e l a x e d s t a t e o f  mind which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g l o b a l , open p e r c e p t i o n . c a l l s i t "mindless  (1971)  Maslow  p e r c e p t i o n " by w h i c h he means a n a b i l i t y t o become  "lost  i n the p r e s e n t " and which he f e e l s i s a n e s s e n t i a l element i n c r e a t i v i t y . May  (1975)  c a l l s the same q u a l i t y "detached involvement"  r e f e r s to i t as "relaxed a t t e n t i o n . "  and McKim  I n a l l o f these, i r r e l e v a n t  (1972) tensions  a r e r e l a x e d i n o r d e r t o r e l e a s e f u l l energy and a t t e n t i o n t o c r e a t i v e t a s k s a t hand. A c c o r d i n g to A y r t o n  (1957)  the p r o c e s s o f drawing i n v o l v e s , above a l l  e l s e , p u t t i n g v i s u a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t o work.  Although  the v e r b a l mode o f  p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( v e r b a l t h i n k i n g ) has been thought o f a s dominant, i t has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a v i s u a l mode ( v i s u a l t h i n k i n g ) i n human i n t e l l i g e n c e a s w e l l ( G u i l f o r d ,  1967).  operates  T h i s d u a l i s t i c nature o f  t h i n k i n g has been i d e n t i f i e d and l a b e l e d v a r i o u s l y a s (a)-Secondary Primary  Processes  and  ( F r e u d ) , (b) Accommodation and A s s i m i l a t i o n ( P i a g e t ) ,  ( c ) A. C o g n i t i o n and B. C o g n i t i o n (Maslow), (d) Convergent and  Divergent  T h i n k i n g ( T a y l o r ) , (e) R e a l i s t i c and A u t i s t i c T h i n k i n g ( B l e u l e r ) , ( f ) I n t e l l e c t u a l and I n t u i t i v e o r S e q u e n t i a l and Simultaneous ( L u r i a ) and ( g ) L i n e a r and L a t e r a l (deBono) ( a l l c i t e d i n Samples,  1976).  8 D e s p i t e the l a b e l s , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f each p a i r o f mental o p e r a t i o n s a r e b a s i c a l l y the same.  The  p a r t - b y - p a r t , l i n e a r , l o g i c a l way  f i r s t term o f each p a i r r e f e r s t o a o f p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and the second  to a g l o b a l , h o l i s t i c , i n t u i t i v e process. and Randhawa  (l97l)  Ornstein  (1972),  Pavio  (1971)  assume t h a t the two modes a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y independent  but interconnected.  However, because the f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t o f v i s u a l .  t h i n k i n g i s u s u a l l y embedded i n a v e r b a l c o n t e x t i t can o n l y be s t u d i e d by t a k i n g language e x p l i c i t l y i n t o a c c o u n t e i t h e r by c o n t r o l l i n g i t o r by s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i t s i n f l u e n c e on v i s u a l Wachiowiak  (1971) "believes  f i r m l y t h a t c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s  processing. cannot  p r o p e r l y a t t e n d to v i s u a l tasks i n a r t while v e r b a l i z i n g o r s o c i a l i z i n g . B o t h he and Greenberg  (1970)  m a i n t a i n t h a t a t t e n t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n  are  e s s e n t i a l t o the p r o d u c t i v e use o f any d r a w i n g p e r i o d and a r e the k e y s to quality i n children's art.  Greenberg f e e l s t h a t c h i l d r e n need q u i e t time  f o r t h i n k i n g d u r i n g a r t and t h a t t e a c h e r s who i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r students' concentration. (197-J-) r e c o g n i z e  verbalize constantly  probably  L i n d e r m a n and H e r b e r h o l z  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a g l o b a l - a t - a t t e n t i o n s t a n c e o f open  p e r c e p t i o n whereby c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o s o r t and c l a s s i f y a wide v a r i e t y o f s t i m u l i i n s t e a d o f s e l e c t i n g a few f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n and c l o s i n g o u t rest.  the  They c a u t i o n , however, t h a t t h i s s o r t i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d n o t be a  v e r b a l one  f o r c h i l d r e n , but s h o u l d be a c c o m p l i s h e d as much as p o s s i b l e  through sensory experience  w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t r e s o r t t o word d e s c r i p t o r s .  Teachers o f a d u l t d r a w i n g s t u d e n t s a l s o note the n e c e s s i t y to c o n t r o l verbal influences.  Simmons and W i n e r  (1972)  and Edwards  (1979)  s i l e n c e d u r i n g the d r a w i n g s e s s i o n f o r t h e i r a d u l t s t u d e n t s .  recommend  Simmons and  W i n e r a d v o c a t e a p e r i o d o f f o c u s s i n g i n s i l e n c e b e f o r e commencing a drawing. A l l f e e l that drawing i s mainly a wordless process.  Edwards a r g u e s t h a t  9 f a i l u r e t o s h i f t from a v e r b a l t o a v i s u a l mode o f t h i n k i n g i s the g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e t o a c h i e v i n g deep p e r c e p t i o n and p r e v e n t s the a c q u i s i t i o n o f drawing  skills.  She f e e l s t h a t the k e y t o l e a r n i n g t o draw i s i n s e t t i n g  up c o n d i t i o n s which a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o make the mental non-verbal ways o f p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .  s h i f t from v e r b a l t o  These c o n d i t i o n s must i n v o l v e  the t e a c h e r ' s i n h i b i t i n g o f f a c i l e , v e r b a l responses t o v i s u a l s t i m u l i by p r e s e n t i n g the s t u d e n t w i t h e x e r c i s e s which c a n most e a s i l y be p r o c e s s e d o n l y v i s u a l l y and f o r which t h e r e i s no q u i c k l i n g u i s t i c response.  These  might i n c l u d e drawing a n o b j e c t from an u n f a m i l i a r v i e w p o i n t o r u s i n g b l i n d c o n t o u r drawing  techniques.  E v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be done t o d i s -  courage v e r b a l thought and exchange d u r i n g drawing s e s s i o n s . I f c h i l d r e n a r e g o i n g to l e a r n t o draw, i t seems n e c e s s a r y f o r them to r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e the o n s e t o f a d o l e s c e n c e a t which time n a t u r a l a r t i s t i c development seems t o d e c l i n e .  their  Because a r t rooms where  c h i l d r e n a r e asked t o l e a r n t o draw a r e seldom q u i e t p l a c e s , and because t h e r e i s evidence t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g hampered i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n v i s u a l l y by v e r b a l and l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s o f t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , a n examination o f the v a r i a b l e o f language  i n the drawing p r o c e s s i s o f i n t e r e s t  to a r t e d u c a t o r s and, a s such, has prompted t h i s  study.  The argument p r e s e n t e d so f a r i s t h a t c o g n i t i v e growth i n c h i l d r e n i s enhanced through v i s u a l as w e l l a s v e r b a l developmental c i a t e d w i t h the p r o c e s s e s and p r o d u c t s o f drawing.  experiences asso-  Another basic a f f i r m a -  t i o n i s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s which promote v i s u a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n and a t t e n t i o n a r e n e c e s s a r y t o a t t a i n i n g s u c c e s s i v e l y deeper l e v e l s o f p e r c e p t u a l awareness and t h a t t a l k i n g c a n i n h i b i t v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n to the d e t r i m e n t o f a c h i e v i n g these l e v e l s .  Because the a b i l i t y t o draw from d i r e c t  t i o n depends h e a v i l y on the a b i l i t y t o a t t e n d v i s u a l l y ,  observa-  i t i s instructive  10 to examine the f a c t o r s which i n t e r f e r e w i t h v i s u a l a t t e n t i o n , such as t a l k i n g . Evidence has "been o f f e r e d to s u p p o r t the view t h a t d e s p i t e t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s among s c h o l a r s r e g a r d i n g c e n t drawing s k i l l ,  the reasons f o r the d e c l i n e i n a d o l e s -  t h e r e i s agreement t h a t t h i s d e c l i n e c o i n c i d e s w i t h  the  b e g i n n i n g o f a d o l e s c e n c e a t a time when the v e r b a l mode o f p r o c e s s i n g i n formation  has  become dominant, and  t h a t more needs t o be known about  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e r b a l and v i s u a l i n f o r m a t i o n approaches to the problem would be tions function separately, i f any,  how  to examine how  t h e y work t o g e t h e r  they have on each o t h e r .  processing. v e r b a l and  the  Useful  v i s u a l opera-  and what i n h i b i t o r y e f f e c t s ,  I n an e f f o r t to s u p p l y  b a s i s f o r examining these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h i s study has  a small  empirical  been d e s i g n e d to  f o c u s on the v a r i a b l e o f p e e r t a l k i n g on the drawing p r o c e s s i n the a r t room o f a r e a s o n a b l y average p o p u l a t i o n  o f grade seven  students.  11  Chapter  2  DESIGN OF THE STUDY  Four c l a s s e s o f grade seven s t u d e n t s i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a 10  Columbia  week drawing study t o e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s on t h e i r  draw-  i n g o f t a l k i n g among p e e r s i n the a r t room. Population A t o t a l o f 110 was 12  grade seven s t u d e n t s (52  boys and 58  y e a r s and 5 months p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study.  g i ^ l s ) whose mean age  A l l b u t 17  s t u d e n t s had  a t t e n d e d the same s c h o o l o r i t s annex s i n c e k i n d e r g a r t e n and none was new to the s c h o o l t h i s year.  One new s t u d e n t d i d j o i n the group mid-way, b u t l e f t t h e  s c h o o l b e f o r e the end o f the p r o j e c t . predominantly first  The elementary  school i s i n a stable,  C a u c a s i a n a r e a and o n l y one s t u d e n t d i d not have E n g l i s h as a  language.  Procedure D u r i n g the 10 p e r week.  week study, each c l a s s had one 80-minute drawing s e s s i o n  On Week 1 o f the study a Drawing Survey, which i n c l u d e d the  Goodenough-Harris Draw A P e r s o n T e s t ( i n H a r r i s , c l a s s e s (see Appendix A.) .  The purposes  1963), was  o f the Drawing Survey were t o (a) a s -  sure e q u i t a b l e d i v i s i o n o f the c l a s s e s i n t o two treatment c o n t r o l ( t a l k i n g ) groups, and  g i v e n to a l l  ( n o - t a l k i n g ) and two  (b) f i n d o u t more about the p o p u l a t i o n under study  ( c ) p r o v i d e g e n e r a l comparisons r e g a r d i n g changes i n a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s  a t t h e end o f the study.  The responses' t c the survey were t a b u l a t e d , the  drawings were s c o r e d and the c l a s s e s were s e p a r a t e d as n e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n t o treatment and c o n t r o l groups on t h e b a s i s o f mean drawing a b i l i t y . I n o r d e r t o s t i m u l a t e i n t e r e s t i n the drawing u n i t , the f i r s t t i o n a l a c t i v i t y was g i v e n on Week 2 ( s e e Appendix B ) .  instruc-  No t a l k i n g was  12 permitted  i n the treatment  observation. groups.  groups when s t u d e n t s were drawing from d i r e c t  Moderate, c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n was a l l o w e d  i n the c o n t r o l  D u r i n g Week 3 a l l c l a s s e s drew from a l i v e model."  were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g to a s c a l e developed f i e d DA.PT s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a  These drawings  by the a u t h o r and based on modi-  (see Appendix C ) .  F o r the next f i v e weeks a l l c l a s s e s took p a r t i n t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n a l activities to  and d i s c u s s i o n s d u r i n g which the treatment  t a l k when drawing w h i l e  the c o n t r o l groups were p e r m i t t e d  the end o f each s e s s i o n s t u d e n t s  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( s e e Appendix D).  t o do s o . A t  i n d i c a t e d whether o r n o t they  t h e i r drawings complete o r incomplete  the b a s i s o f ( a ) concepts  groups were asked n o t  considered  and f i l l e d o u t a Drawing E v a l u a t i o n  They were asked t o e v a l u a t e themselves on  l e a r n e d , (b) s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h performance and  (c) a b i l i t y to concentrate.  Items r e g a r d i n g the a b i l i t y  to concentrate i n -  c l u d e d a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f time p a s s i n g and the naming o f f a c t o r s which s t u d e n t s f e l t Observations  inhibited t h e i r concentration.  o f student behaviours  the study by the t e a c h e r - a s - r e s e a r c h e r . scanning a l l students f o r approximately and end o f a l l drawing a c t i v i t i e s , (see Appendix E ) .  and a t t i t u d e s were noted  throughout  The o b s e r v a t i o n s were made by t e n seconds a t the b e g i n n i n g ,  and were r e c o r d e d  middle  i n the T e a c h e r Logs  P a r t i c u l a r note was made o f s t u d e n t s who were ( a ) t a l k i n g  and n o t drawing, (b) t a l k i n g and drawing, ( c ) f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , (d) r e f e r r i n g f r e q u e n t l y t o the model and ( e ) u s i n g d i v e r g e n t approaches t o the drawing t a s k .  Video  tape r e c o r d i n g s were a l s o used to r e c o r d s t u d e n t be-  h a v i o u r s d u r i n g t h e drawing s e s s i o n s i n Weeks 6 and 7. D u r i n g Week 9, s t u d e n t s a g a i n drew from a l i v e model.  The drawings  were a g a i n s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the m o d i f i e d DAPT c r i t e r i a and s c o r e s were compared f o r i n d i v i d u a l and mean d i f f e r e n c e s .  A second Drawing Survey and  13 Draw A, P e r s o n T e s t were a d m i n i s t e r e d week o f the study.  t o a l l groups i n s i l e n c e d u r i n g the  10th  The r e s p o n s e s on the s u r v e y and the s c o r e s on the DAPT  were t a b u l a t e d and r e s u l t s compared t o the i n i t i a l r e s u l t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f o r groups. Instructional Activities The drawing a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d below were chosen to minimize f a c i l e , s t e r e o t y p i c a l r e s p o n s e s and t o encourage a s much c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n and f r e s h p e r c e p t i o n as p o s s i b l e . Activity  1 - C h a i r s ( n e g a t i v e space)  A c t i v i t y 2 - L i v e model ( f r e e h a n d drawing) Activity  3 - Household o b j e c t s  (contour)  A c t i v i t y 4 - S k e l e t o n (volume and g e s t u r e ) Activity  5 - Bones and pumpkins (tone and volume)  Activity  6 - Self portraits (blind  Activity  7 - B i c y c l e s (viewfinders)  Activity  8 - L i v e model ( f r e e h a n d drawing)  contour)  Measurement Instruments A p i l o t Drawing Survey and DAPT were g i v e n t o 102  grade seven  students  i n the same s c h o o l i n June .before the study was begun the f o l l o w i n g September.  The purpose o f the p i l o t survey was t o f i n d o u t the range o f responses  and drawing s c o r e s f o r t h a t group i n o r d e r t o compare i t t o the study population.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the p i l o t survey,  the f o l l o w i n g measurement i n s t r u -  ments were used: 1. - Drawing Survey • I: and I-I; 2.  Goodenough-Harris Draw A. P e r s o n T e s t  3.  M o d i f i e d DAPT c r i t e r i a f o r L i v e Model  4.  S t u d e n t Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s  5.  Teacher Logs o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  14  Assignment o f S u b j e c t s An e f f o r t was made t o d i v i d e t h e f o u r c l a s s e s i n t o two n e a r l y a b i l i t y groups.  The mean s p r e a d on the i n i t i a l DAPT s c o r e s  c h o s e n - f o r t h e treatment groups was f o u r p o i n t s  f o r the c l a s s e s  ( 5 7 and 5 3 ) •  spread was the same f o r the c o n t r o l groups ( 5 4 and 4 8 ) .  equal  The mean  G l a s s e s were sche-  d u l e d i n the morning b e f o r e and a f t e r r e c e s s and were a r r a n g e d so t h a t each o f the groups had one c l a s s which met f i r s t which met r i g h t a f t e r r e c e s s .  t h i n g i n t h e morning and one  The c l a s s e s were numbered by d i v i s i o n .  treatment ( o r no t a l k i n g ) groups were D i v i s i o n s 1 and 4 . made up t h e c o n t r o l ( o r t a l k i n g ) groups.  The  D i v i s i o n s 2 and 3  15 Chapter 3  PRESENTATION OF DATA  Data f o r the s t u d y were g a t h e r e d from f o u r main s o u r c e s : veys, Teacher Logs, S t u d e n t E v a l u a t i o n s and Drawing S c o r e s .  Drawing S u r -  Pre-treatment  p r o f i l e s were o b t a i n e d by comparing responses on the P i l o t Survey to r e s ponses on the f i r s t Drawing Survey.  T h i s comparison showed l i t t l e o r no  d i f f e r e n c e between the two grade seven population's, b u t d i d r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e s p o n s e s o f boys and g i r l s i n each survey.  distinct Results,  have, t h e r e f o r e , been a n a l y z e d t o show the d i f f e r e n c e s between r e s p o n s e s f o r boys and g i r l s w i t h i n the treatment and c o n t r o l groups.  Data a r e p r e s e n t e d  which i n d i c a t e these d i f f e r e n c e s when they o c c u r . E f f e c t s o f the treatment were determined by comparing responses both between and w i t h i n the c o n t r o l and treatment groups.  Because  individual  c l a s s e s were s u b j e c t t o q u i r k s o f s c h e d u l i n g and i n t e r r p u t i o n which might influence results,  i t was deemed u s e f u l t o compare s e p a r a t e r e s u l t s f o r  each c l a s s w i t h i n the c o n t r o l and treatment groups.  Data which  reflect  e f f e c t s o f the treatment, d i f f e r e n c e s between sexes o r n o t a b l e d i s t i n c t i o n s or ing  s i m i l a r i t i e s among c l a s s e s o r between groups a r e summarized discussion.  supplement  i n the f o l l o w -  T a b l e s o f raw s c o r e s which i n d i c a t e these e f f e c t s and which  the d i s c u s s i o n a r e a l s o  included.  Data from Drawing S u r v e y s Drawing S u r v e y s were g i v e n a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f the study.  They  y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the grade seven p o p u l a t i o n a s a whole, on d i f f e r e n c e s between boys and g i r l s and on changes i n a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the study.  The r e s p o n s e s on the f i r s t Survey were  compared w i t h the responses on a P i l o t Drawing Survey g i v e n the p r e v i o u s  16 s p r i n g to f o u r c l a s s e s o f grade seven s t u d e n t s i n the same s c h o o l . the p i l o t group was the two  o l d e r by an average  groups were s i m i l a r .  o f 7.2  months, responses between  From t h i s u s e f u l , but t e n t a t i v e ,  i t seems r e a s o n a b l e to assume t h a t m a t u r a t i o n was d e t e r m i n i n g response.  Although  comparison,  not a s i z e a b l e f a c t o r i n  I t might a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t the changes i n a t t i t u d e s  and o p i n i o n s which showed up between Drawing Surveys I, and II r e f l e c t e d  actual  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the treatment between the two groups r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s e d m a t u r i t y o f the s t u d e n t s . Q u e s t i o n s on the Surveys asked s t u d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e (a) how to draw, (b) what they f e l t they drew b e s t , ( c ) how t a i n s p e c i f i c a r t elements, and (d) how  they l e a r n e d  aware they were o f c e r -  w e l l they c o u l d form mental  images.  A l t h o u g h t o t a l responses on the P i l o t S u r v e y and the f i r s t Drawing Survey were s i m i l a r , they both r e v e a l e d d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses o f boys and g i r l s .  These d i f f e r e n c e s were most pronounced  i n (a) r a n k i n g  o f a i d s i n l e a r n i n g to draw, (b) a s s e s s e d a b i l i t y i n drawing,  (c) stated  awareness o f a r t elements and (d) s t a t e d a b i l i t y to form mental d i s c u s s i o n o f the > . -data -from A i d s t o l e a r n i n g t o draw. and c a r t o o n s was  the Drawing Surveys i s p r o v i d e d  images.  A  below.  On b o t h s u r v e y s boys f e l t t h a t c o p y i n g photos  the most h e l p i n l e a r n i n g to draw.  On the f i r s t s u r v e y  thought t h a t l o o k i n g a t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s drawings h e l p e d them the most. the second s u r v e y they changed t h e i r o p i n i o n and ranked drawing from o b j e c t s as the most h e l p (see Table l ) .  There was  girls  On real  no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e  between the c o n t r o l and treatment groups' response i n e i t h e r s u r v e y (see T a b l e 2). who  On the second s u r v e y , however, t h e r e was  an i n c r e a s e o f those  ranked l e s s o n s as an a i d to drawing and a decrease o f those who  re-  p o r t e d t h a t they l e a r n e d most from l o o k i n g a t o t h e r p e o p l e ' s drawings. t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s who increased only s l i g h t l y .  f e l t t h a t drawing from r e a l o b j e c t s was  The  an a i d  17 Table 1 Number o f Student Responses Ranking A i d s i n Learning to Draw  Ranked 1st Aids  P  S  Ranked 2nd S  1  2  P  S  1  Ranked 3rd  S  2  P  S  Ranked 4th  S  1  2  P  S  S  1  2  Boys  4  3  21  23  20  6 12  12  2  3  1  7  8 15  5  4  7  7  4  2  8  5  5  8  38  23  24  38  33  35  36  6 10  6  7  8  20  21  22  16  10  11  5  4  3  6  7 12  12  11  20  2  1  •i'9  11  7  7 14  8  9 12  35 36 47  34  34 49  Lessons  >  2  9  3  2  7  Drawing Real Objects  10 14  8  6 11  16  Other People's Drawings  16  14  9  11  8  8  Copying Photos  21  19  17  9  8  51 49  43  29  29  4 10  4  Totals  6  Girls  2  Lessons  11  Drawing Real Objects  15  16  24  10  Other People's Drawings  25  22  7  7  8 12  16  15  37  34 49  Copying Photos  6  Totals  48  p = P i l o t Study s  l = -Drawing Survey I  ; Drawing Survey I I  50  53  18  Table 2 Comparison o f Group Responses Ranking A i d s i n Learning to Draw Ranked 2nd  Ranked 1st S  l  Aids  S  2  S  l  S  Ranked  2  S  l  Ranked •4th  3rd S  2  S  l  S  2  Control  3  4  3  11  2  4  23  16  Drawing Real" .Objects  14  19  7  15  12  11  3  2  Other People's Drawings  19  6  9  15  8  15  0  10  Copying Photos  12  18  12  5  6  15  5  9  Totals  . 38  47  31  46  28  45  31  37  4  10  5  6  9  7  22  16  Drawing Real Objects  16  14  15  17  9  6  3  5  Other People's Drawings  17  9  6  5  12  19  4  6  Copying Photos  15  11  13  12  8  8  7  11  Totals  52  44  39  35  38  40  36  38  Lessons  :  Treatment Lessons  S^= Drawing Survey I S= 9  Drawing Survey I I  19 A b i l i t y t o draw. were f a i r l y  On Survey I I boys i n d i c a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y t h a t they  good a t drawing c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s , mountains and l a n d s c a p e s ,  guns and t a n k s , b a t t l e scenes and space scenes. q u e n t l y , as they had on Survey ' I . t h a t  They i n d i c a t e d most f r e -  they were not good a t drawing  eyeryday o b j e c t s , c l o t h e s and f a s h i o n d e s i g n , h o r s e s , people o r f a c e s (side view).  T h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the f i r s t  where they i n d i c a t e d t h a t they drew b e s t p l a n e s o r boats, b a t t l e c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s and space  survey scenes,  scenes.  G i r l s on the second s u r v e y responded most f r e q u e n t l y t h a t they were good a t drawing mountains and l a n d s c a p e s , c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s , t r e e s and f l o w e r s , f a c e s ( f r o n t view) and c l o t h e s and f a s h i o n d e s i g n w h i l e on the f i r s t s u r v e y they f e l t they drew everyday o b j e c t s , t r e e s and f l o w e r s , mountains and l a n d s c a p e s and c a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s b e s t . both s u r v e y s t h a t they f e l t  They i n d i c a t e d on  they were n o t good a t drawing guns and tanks,  b a t t l e scenes, p l a n e s o r b o a t s , c a r s and t r u c k s o r machines. Four o f the c a t e g o r i e s i n which the boys f e l t they drew b e s t , the girls felt  they drew worst.  I n o n l y one o f the g i r l s '  ( f a s h i o n ) d i d boys i n d i c a t e they drew worst.  best categories  C a r t o o n c h a r a c t e r s was the  one c a t e g o r y i n which both boys and g i r l s f e l t they drew w e l l . By the end o f the study t h e r e was a marked i n c r e a s e i n the number o f items t h a t s t u d e n t s f e l t they were a b l e to draw w e l l and a decrease i n the number they f e l t t h e y drew p o o r l y ( s e e T a b l e s 3  a n c  - 4).  A l l c l a s s e s except  D i v i s i o n 1 ( t r e a t m e n t ) showed an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f items s t u d e n t s felt  they c o u l d draw f a i r l y w e l l ( s e e T a b l e 5)-  The c o n t r o l group  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n i n d i c a t e d a b i l i t y t o draw items f a i r l y well. Surveys  The treatment group d i d n o t r e f l e c t much change between  I and .II.  20 Table 3 S e l f Assessment of A b i l i t y to Draw Items Well Comparison o f Boys' Responses on F i r s t and Second Drawing Survey  Very Well S  Items  l  S  2  Average S  l  S  Not Very Well  2  v .  S  2  13  16  29  25  7  /'•'7  Trees and Flowers  4  2  23  24  23  21  Mountains and Landscape  9 .•  17  24  15  17  16  Space Scenes  Cartoon Characters  15  18  20  22  15  8  B a t t l e Scenes  17  16  17  23  16  9  Monsters  12  14  17  19  21  14  Guns and Tanks  14  17  21  19  15  10  Buildings  11  14  18  25  21  9  Everyday Objects  5  10  22  16  23  22  Clothes, Fashion  2  3  6  11  . 42  34  Faces - Side View  2  3  22  22  26  23  Faces - Front View  6  5  20  21  24  20  People  5  8  13  14  31  24  Horses  4  3  10  12  37  32  Other Animals  3  6  16  18  31  19  Planes o r Boats  16  20  20  21  14  7  Cars, -Trucks,'-; Machines  13  15  22  22  14  10  321  330  Totals  +  151  187 +36  +9  377  285 -92  21 Table 4  S e l f Assessment of A b i l i t y to Draw Items V e i l Comparison o f G i r l s ' Responses on F i r s t and Second Drawing Survey  Very W e l l Items  S  SjL  2  Average S  S l  Not Very W e l l  2  S  S l  2  3  4  17  10  33  20  Trees and Flowers  20  21  29  31  3  0  Mountains and Landscape-  1?  25  25  22  12  5  Cartoon Characters  17  25  23  19  13  9  B a t t l e Scenes  0  0  2  7  51  47  Monsters  3  9  20  20  30  24  Guns and Tanks  1  0  ' 7  3  47  49  Buildings  6  10  29  27  18  18  Everyday Objects  5  8  35  30  8  14  Clothes, Fashion  6  16  25  22  20  15  Faces - Side View  7  14  24  20  22  19  Faces - Front View  8  17  25  21  20  15  People  6  12  24  25  23  16  Horses  7  4  15  27  31  22  12  10  24  28  17  15  0  3  18  18  35  33  _2  _0  _8  12  43  - 39  120  178  350  342  426  360  Space Scenes  Other Animals Planes o r Boats Cars, Trucks, Machines Totals  +58  +8  -66  Table 5 Changes i n Assessed A b i l i t y to Draw Items Well  Groups  Boys  Girls  Division 1  -6  -2  Division 4  +12  +20  Total  +6  +6  Division 2  +9  +28  Division 3  ±22  +18  Total  +31  +46  Treatment  Control  23 Awareness of a r t elements.  A t the end of the study more g i r l s than  boys i n a l l classes reported more frequent awareness of s p e c i f i c a r t e l e ments such as source of l i g h t , negative space, s i z e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and tonal values as they drew (see Table 6).  I n the c o n t r o l groups, 52 students r e -  ported that they were very o f t e n aware of these elements compared to 36 students i n the treatment groups. Both treatment and c o n t r o l groups reported about the same number o f students who were sometimes aware of these elements. groups recorded more responses (73)  However, the c o n t r o l  than the treatment groups (56)  from  students who s a i d they were hardly ever aware o f these elements (see Table  7). Comparisons between the two Drawing Surveys i n d i c a t e d that the greatest  amount of change occurred i n (a) reported a b i l i t y to form mental images, (b) a t t i t u d e s toward the importance of p r a c t i c e i n l e a r n i n g to draw, (c) a t t i t u d e s toward the importance o f concentration while drawing and (d) degree o f discouragement i n drawing. A b i l i t y to form mental images.  There was an increase of 16 i n the  number of students who could form a c l e a r mental p i c t u r e of an item a t the end of the study.  Boys and g i r l s made equal gains although more  g i r l s (40) than boys (32) clearly.  reported that they could p i c t u r e a mental image  The number of students who reported that they could not form a  mental p i c t u r e of an object a t a l l increased by one. Importance o f p r a c t i c e .  Only 2k% of the students a t the beginning of  the study f e l t that p r a c t i c e was very important i n l e a r n i n g to draw. the end of the 10 weeks t h i s number had increased to 59% This increase was f a i r l y and g i r l s .  At  f o r a l l classes.  evenly d i v i d e d between groups and between boys  24 6  Table  Number o f Responses I n d i c a t i n g Awareness o f A r t Elements f o r Boys and  O f t e n Aware A r t Elements  S  S  ±  £  Girls  Sometimes Aware '  S  1  S  2  Seldom Aware S  1  S  £  •Boys" Source o f L i g h t  0  1  3  23  27  24  N e g a t i v e Space  0  6  1  21  48  20  11  16  13  21  26  11  Tonal Values  _1  _6  26  44  17  Totals  12  29  22  91  165  72  Source o f L i g h t  1  3  12  33  37  15  N e g a t i v e Space  0  11  6  23  44  20  14  28  10  16  26  9  Tonal Values  13  17  9  22  38  15  Totals  28  59  37  94  145  59  Size  Relationships  Girls  Size  Relationships  Table 7 Number of Responses I n d i c a t i n g Awareness of A r t Elements f o r Treatment and Control Groups  Often Aware A r t Elements  S  S  ±  2  Sometimes Aware S  1  S  2  Seldom Aware S  ±  S  g  Treatment Source of L i g h t  1  1  8  27  49  18  Negative Space  0  8  4  24  45  17  S i z e Relationships  8  16  15  25  21  6  Tonal Values  _1  11  _7  22  42  15  Totals  10  36  34  98  157  56  Source of L i g h t  0  3  7  29  35  21  Negative Space  0  9  3  22  47  23  S i z e Relationships  17  28  8  12  31  14  Tonal Values  _3_  12  _8  26  40  15  Totals  20  52  26  89  154  73  Control  Drawing Survey I  2= Drawing Survey I I  S  26 Importance of concentration. The number of students who thought t h a t concentration was important when drawing from observation a l s o increased f o r a l l classes.  I n the f i r s t Drawing Survey only 30^  of the students f e l t  concentration was important whereas 80% of them thought i t was i n the second survey.  There d i d not seem to be any c l e a r d i f f e r e n c e between the  responses of boys and g i r l s or between treatment and c o n t r o l groups (see Table 8). Discouragement.  The number of students who reported they were o f t e n  discouraged w i t h t h e i r drawings f e l l s l i g h t l y by the end of the study f o r the treatment groups.  The c o n t r o l groups, however, reported two more stu-  dents who were o f t e n discouraged w i t h t h e i r drawing a t the end of the study than a t the beginning (see Table 9).  This d i f f e r e n c e was reversed i n the  next category as the treatment groups reported two fewer students who were hardly ever discouraged and the c o n t r o l reported a gain of f o u r students who s a i d they hardly ever became discouraged w i t h t h e i r drawing. Data from Teacher Logs and Observations Throughout the study observations of student behaviours were noted i n the Teacher Logs.  P a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n was given to (a) students who were  t a l k i n g and not drawing from observation, (b) students who were t a l k i n g and drawing from observation a t the same time, (c) students who were not f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , (d) students who d i d and d i d not r e f e r to the model or object w i t h i n 10  seconds of being observed, (e) the number of incomplete  drawings, ( f ) the number of second s t a r t s , (g) d i f f e r i n g approaches to the drawing task and (h) teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n and a t t i t u d e s toward the c l a s s . Recorded incidence of t a l k i n g and not drawing from observation,  stu-  dents who were t a l k i n g during the routine 10 second scan of student behav i o u r s at the beginning, middle and end of each drawing a c t i v i t y were  27 Table 8 Number o f Responses I n d i c a t i n g  Relative  C o n c e n t r a t i o n While  Very Important. Groups  Importance o f  Drawing  Somewhat Important  Not Important  •• S.  Treatment Division 1  7  20  12  6  Division 4  _9  23  13  _8  16  43  25  14  Total  7  _o  J)  0  7  -11  +27  0  -7  Control Division 2  7  22  17  Division 3  _8  24  11 .  15  46  28  Total  +31  S^= Drawing Survey I S = Drawing Survey I I 2  -21  4  4  0  _3  _8  _0  7  12  0 -12  28  Table 9 Number of Responses Reporting Discouragement i n Drawing  Often Discouraged  Hardly Ever  Groups  Never Discouraged S^  Treatment Division 1  14  11  11  10  0  Division 4  15  12  11  10  _1  29  23  22  20  1  3  Division 2  13  20  10  0.  0  Division 3  18  13  _Z  15  31  33  17  21  Total  3 .  _0  Control  Total  S^= Drawing Survey I S = Drawing Survey I I 0  6  J)  3  0  29 assessed according to whether they were t a l k i n g and, a t the same time, drawing from observation.  Out o f 315 observations o f students' t a l k i n g ,  301 were made o f students who were t a l k i n g but who were not, a t the same time, drawing (see Table  10).  Recorded incidence -of talking-and drawing.  Only 14 out o f the 315  observations o f students' t a l k i n g noted students who were t a l k i n g and drawing a t the same time (see Table l l ) .  Five of these notations occurred  i n one c l a s s d u r i n g a>-memory drawing e x e r c i s e , two occurred while students dotted f r e c k l e s on a drawing o f a l i v e model and made random marks f o r the h a i r and seven occurred while students were c o l o u r i n g i n negative spaces w i t h o i l p a s t e l s d u r i n g the f i r s t i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Incidence o f f a i l u r e to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s .  I n each o f the drawing  a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h the exception o f the l i v e models, a s p e c i f i c technique was emphasized.  Students were asked to use o u t l i n e s of negative space,  b l i n d contours, gesture, tonal values, contour and continuous contour l i n e s and viewfinders.  Instances were recorded whenever d i r e c t i o n s were not being  followed during the scan (see Table 12).  Out of 251 instances, students i n  the c o n t r o l groupe.failed to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s i n 146 cases while students i n the treatment groups f a i l e d to f o l l o w them i n 105 of the cases. Incidence o f f a i l u r e to r e f e r t o model;or object.  During the routine  scans o f the classroom, students were observed f o r approximately 10 seconds to see i f they r e f e r r e d to the model o r the - object in- that i n t e r v a l . ;  t o t a l o f 349 notations were made.  A  The c o n t r o l groups f a i l e d to observe the  model i n 214 ( o r 6 l % ) of the cases and the treatment groups f a i l e d i n 135 (or 39%) o f the cases (see Table  13).  Incidence o f incomplete drawings.  A t the end o f each session students  were asked to i n d i c a t e whether t h e i r drawings were complete o r incomplete.  Table  10  Recorded I n c i d e n c e o f T a l k i n g and Not Drawing from  Drawing A c t i v i t y  Treatment  Observation  Control  Chairs  6  28  L i v e Model I  4  40  Household O b j e c t s  9  49  12  49  Bones and Pumpkins  4  14  B i c y c l e - Memory  3  34  8  26  Self Portrait  0  0  L i v e Model I I  17  30  63  270  Skeleton  - Viewfirider  Total  Table  11  Recorded I n c i d e n c e o f T a l k i n g and Drawing  Drawing A c t i v i t y  Treatment  Control  Chairs  2  5  L i v e Model I  0  0  Household O b j e c t s  0  0  Skeleton  0  0  0  0  Bones and  Pumpkins  B i c y c l e - Memory  0 0  0  Self Portrait  0  0  L i v e Model I I  _0  _2  2  12  - Viewfinder  Total  Table 12 Recorded Incidence o f F a i l u r e to Follow D i r e c t i o n s  Drawing I n s t r u c t i o n  Treatment  Control  O u t l i n e of Negative Space  11  15  Continuous Contour  42  43  Gesture and Volume  20  35  B l i n d Contour  19  27  Use of Viewfinder  13  26  105  146  Total  Table 13 Recorded Incidence of F a i l u r e to Refer to Model o r Object During Routine 10-Second Scan  Drawing A c t i v i t y  Treatment  Control  9  23  L i v e Model I  36  47  Household Objects  26  36  Skeleton  25  33  Bones and Pumpkins  11  13  9  27  19  35  135  214  Chairs  B i c y c l e - Viewfinder L i v e Model I I Total  34 The incidence of incomplete drawings was over four times greater f o r the c o n t r o l groups (l3l)  than i t was f o r the treatment groups  Incidence o f second s t a r t s .  (32).  The number of students who required a  clean sheet of paper i n order to make a second s t a r t on t h e i r drawing was recorded.  The c o n t r o l groups made 28 clean-sheet second s t a r t s compared to  4 for- the treatment groups. D i f f e r i n g approaches to the drawing task.  The majority o f students  proceeded to draw i n a l o g i c a l top to bottom o r l e f t to r i g h t s e r i e s of steps.  They b u i l t up t h e i r drawings i n a part-by-part sequence by f i r s t  o u t l i n i n g a s e c t i o n and then f i l l i n g i n the d e t a i l s .  There were 24 observed  exceptions to t h i s , a l l occurring during the drawing of the l i v e models, i n which students f i r s t -planned the e n t i r e t y of t h e i r drawings before they went back and completed the d e t a i l s .  The treatment and c o n t r o l groups each  produced an equal number o f students who worked i n t h i s manner. Teacher a t t i t u d e s .  Teacher a t t i t u d e s toward the c l a s s and towards  i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c l a s s were recorded weekly i n the Teacher Logs. a t t i t u d e s , when analyzed, f e l l mainly i n t o two categories:  The  s a t i s f a c t i o n and  dissatisfaction. Teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n was r e f l e c t e d i n remarks regarding the f o l l o w i n g : 1.  Purposeful, i n d u s t r i o u s a t t i t u d e toward the task  2.  A t t e n t i o n and close observation  3.  Completed tasks  • 4.  Evidence of e f f o r t and a p p l i c a t i o n , time required to s e t t l e to task  5.  Attempts to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s and t r y new drawing techniques and s t r a t e g i e s  6.  Increase i n a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n concentration  7.  Evidence o f student s a t i s f a c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and involvement  35 Teacher d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t e d from the f o l l o w i n g types o f observations: 1.  F r i v o l o u s , purposeless a t t i t u d e s toward the task  2.  Lazy o r f a c i l e observations o f object o r model, l i t t l e  effort  indicated 3'  Incompleted tasks  4.  Wasting time o r m a t e r i a l s , slow to s e t t l e , s t a r t i n g over  5.  F a i l u r e to t r y new s t r a t e g i e s o r f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s  6.  I n a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n concentration f o r increased lengths o f time  7.  Noise l e v e l too high f o r teacher t o converse with students a t normal p i t c h  There were twice as many remarks i n d i c a t i n g teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the treatment groups as w i t h the c o n t r o l groups.  Out of 127 remarks ana-  l y z e d f o r the n o - t a l k i n g c l a s s e s , 72% o f them i n d i c a t e d teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n and 28% r e f l e c t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n .  For the t a l k i n g c l a s s e s , 31% of  the 143 remarks i n d i c a t e d teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n and 69% of them showed teacher d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n (see Table 14). Data from Drawing Evaluations A t the end o f each drawing s e s s i o n a questionnaire was given to s t u dents who were asked t o evaluate themselves on the b a s i s o f (a) concepts learned, (b) s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work and (c) a b i l i t y to concentrate. Concepts learned.  There was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e among students i n the  c o n t r o l and treatment groups who reported that they understood the concepts very w e l l , f a i r l y w e l l and not very w e l l .  The c o n t r o l groups,  however, were unable to apply these concepts as frequently as the treatment  Table 14  Recorded Frequency o f Remarks R e f l e c t i n g Teacher S a t i s f a c t i o n and D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  Teacher A t t i t u d e  Treatment  Control  Satisfaction  91  45  Dissatisfaction  36  98  1?7  143  Total Remarks  37 groups.  Out of a total of 194 failures to apply concepts, the talking  groups accounted for 58% of the failures (112) and the no-talking groups provided 42% of the failures (82).  Failures were divided almost equally  between boys and girls i n both groups. Satisfaction with performance.  Students were often asked on the  Drawing Evaluation to indicate what they particularly liked about their drawing for that day. An answer of "nothing" was recorded as an indication of dissatisfaction.  An equal number of students i n the control and treatment  groups replied that they liked "everything," but almost twice as many students i n the control groups (29) expressed dissatisfaction with their performance as opposed to 15 i n the treatment groups who indicated dissatisfaction with their work. Ability to concentrate.  The percentage of students who said that  they could concentrate 'very well was slightly higher i n the treatment groups.  In those groups 4 l % reported that they could concentrate very  well while 38% of the students i n the control groups reported concentrating very well.  An equal percentage' of students in a l l groups reported that they  were able to concentrate f a i r l y well while  11%-of  the control groups as  opposed to 8% of the treatment groups reported poor concentration. The total number of students reporting poor concentration was 83. Of this number, the control groups contributed 58% of the poor responses (47) and the treatment groups contributed 43% or 36 responses. The factors which students reported as inhibitors of concentration f e l l into the following categories (see Table 15)« 1. Talking 2.  Distractions by friends or fellow students  3.  Classroom noise  Table 15 Incidence of Reported Factors Inhibiting Concentration  Inhibiting Factors  Treatment  Control  Talking  79  72  People Disturbances  29  10  Class Noise  22  36  Lack of Noise  12  0  Ability Frustrations  44  70  Physical Frustrations  15  39  Personal Reasons  23  _8  224  235  Total  4.  Lack of noise  5.  Ability  6.  Physical f r u s t r a t i o n s  7.  Personal reasons  frustrations  Talking i n the classroom by peers and f r u s t r a t i o n s i n drawing a b i l i t y ranked highest as factors i n h i b i t i n g concentration i n a l l groups.  Talking  ranked s l i g h t l y higher as a f a c t o r i n the treatment groups (35%) than i n the control groups (31%)1 while f r u s t r a t i o n with a b i l i t y was highest i n the control groups {30%) and lower (20%)  i n the treatment groups.  There  were 315 responses from students who reported that nothing had interferred with t h e i r concentration.  Of these responses 45% belonged to the control  or t a l k i n g groups and 55% belonged to the treatment o r no-talking groups. The treatment groups were the only ones to report lack of noise as a f a c tor i n h i b i t i n g concentration.  This f a c t o r was c i t e d 1-2.-?'times or i n 5% of  the t o t a l responses f o r that group. As an i n d i c a t i o n of involvement and concentration, students were asked each week f o r t h e i r subjective opinions on how quickly or slowly time passed during the drawing session (see Table 16).  Although the t a l k i n g  groups indicated more frequently that time passed q u i c k l y , the no-talking groups reported more frequently that they were unaware of time passing. A l l groups reported almost equally that time passed slowly, but the f r e quency of t h i s response was was much lower than f o r the other two categories. Data from Drawing Scores The Draw A Person Tests and the drawings of the l i v e models were scored at the beginning and again a t the end of the study i n order to gain some measure of a b i l i t y so that the groups could be equitably 7  Table  16  Frequency o f Responses I n d i c a t i n g S u b j e c t i v e E v a l u a t i o n o f Time P a s s i n g  -Passage o f Time  Treatment  Control  Quickly  83  124  Slowly  75  68  134  100  Not Aware o f Time P a s s i n g  41 d i v i d e d , c o n s i s t e n c y o f s c o r i n g procedures sons c o u l d be made t o see what e f f e c t s , had on drawing  i f any, the v a r i a b l e o f no t a l k i n g  skill.  Draw Ai P e r s o n T e s t s . c l a s s e s on the f i r s t in  c o u l d be tested,, and compari-  Comparisons o f mean and median s c o r e s f o r a l l  Draw.A, P e r s o n T e s t showed l i t t l e  i n i t i a l difference  the drawing a b i l i t y o f the f o u r c l a s s e s ( s e e T a b l e s 17  and 18).  Divi-  s i o n 3 ( t a l k i n g ) s c o r e d l o w e s t on both DAPT, b u t made the g r e a t e s t g a i n i n s c o r e s d u r i n g the study.  Between the f i r s t  and the second DAPT t h e r e was  a n e t mean g a i n o f +4 f o r the t a l k i n g groups and +3 f o r t h e n o - t a l k i n g groups, b u t t h i s was n o t s u f f i c i e n t to c o n s t i t u t e a r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between the treatment  and c o n t r o l groups.  L i v e model drawing s c o r e s .  The range o f s c o r e s on the l i v e model  drawings was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the DAPT s c o r e s and l i t t l e was i n d i c a t e d between c l a s s e s . l o w e r mean s c o r e s on both had  i n i t i a l difference  D i v i s i o n 3 ( c o n t r o l ) a g a i n had s l i g h t l y  s e t s o f drawings than the o t h e r c l a s s e s , b u t  the same median s c o r e s a s two o f the o t h e r d i v i s i o n s .  A l l classes  made c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e s i n t h e i r mean and median s c o r e s on the second drawing and t h e r e was no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the c o n t r o l and treatment  groups.  42  Table  17  Comparisons o f Mean S c o r e s on Draw A P e r s o n T e s t s and On L i v e Model  Group-  Drawings  #2  Model I  Model I I  DAPT #1  DAPT  Division 1  53  54  51  53  Division 4  57  59  49  52  55  55  49  53  Treatment  Control Division 2 Division 3  ••  50 45  47  43 Table 18  Comparisons o f Median S c o r e s on Draw.A. P e r s o n T e s t s and On L i v e Model Drawings  Group  DAPT #1  DAPT  #2  Model I  Model I I  Treatment Division 1  54  55  51  54  Division 4  61  61  48  54  Division 2  56  57  48  52  Division 3  49  54  48  54  Control  44  Chapter 4  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  An examination Surveys,  o f the f i n d i n g s from d a t a o b t a i n e d on the Drawing  the Teacher Logs, the Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s and the drawing s c o r e s  w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  and f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n .  Drawing Surveys I n a d d i t i o n t o f i n d i n g out more about the p o p u l a t i o n under study, a comparison o f the Drawing Surveys g i v e n a t the b e g i n n i n g and end o f the t e n week p e r i o d p r o v i d e d means f o r d e t e c t i n g changes i n a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the study. and  the changes which o c c u r r e d w i l l A i d s i n l e a r n i n g t o draw.  The r e s u l t s o f the  comparison  be d i s c u s s e d below.  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o p y i n g and i m i t a -  t i o n were Important f a c t o r s i n drawing a t t h i s age and f o r t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . Students  f e l t t h a t they d i d not r e l y on d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f people and  o b j e c t s when drawing, but on c o p y i n g photos and on the p r e v i o u s l y conventions  (1975)  o f other people's  drawings.  T h i s conforms to the W i l s o n s '  idea  t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o draw o b j e c t s p r i m a r i l y through i m i t a t i n g  o t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s drawings and by c o p y i n g media r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . drawing c o n v e n t i o n s succeeding of  developed  Thus,  a r e passed from s i b l i n g s , p e e r s and p r e d e c e s s o r s t o  generations.  They r e j e c t Arnheim's view  (1969)  t h a t drawing  o b j e c t s i s based f i r s t on o b s e r v a t i o n and then on i n v e n t i o n o f a b s t r a c t  mental e q u i v a l e n c e s .  The W i l s o n s f e e l t h a t imagery s o u r c e s f o r h i g h s c h o o l  s t u d e n t s a r e a l l borrowed from o t h e r s t u d e n t s and t h a t t h e r e i s no new i n v e n t i o n o f v i s u a l symbols a f t e r the age o f e i g h t o r nine The boys m a i n t a i n e d The  years.  t h e i r p o s i t i o n on c o p y i n g throughout the  study.  g i r l s , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n drawing r e a l  45 o b j e c t s were more important to them a t the end o f the study than a t the beginning.  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be caused by boys' p r e f e r e n c e s f o r draw-  i n g space scenes, b a t t l e scenes and guns and tanks which are not n o r m a l l y a c c e s s i b l e from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and which a r e sometimes c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t s i n s c h o o l a r t programmes.  G i r l s , on the o t h e r hand,  p r e f e r r e d to draw s u b j e c t s which a r e more o f t e n a v a i l a b l e f o r d i r e c t v a t i o n such as p e o p l e , f a s h i o n , t r e e s and f l o w e r s .  obser-  Perhaps a drawing  pro-  gramme f o r boys a t t h i s age s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r space age machinery and weaponry and i n c l u d e models o f such o b j e c t s to  observe  when drawing.: Estimated a b i l i t y  i n drawing.  A g a i n , t h e r e were marked d i f f e r e n c e s  between the boys and g i r l s i n what they each f e l t they were a b l e to draw best.  What boys f e l t they drew b e s t , g i r l s f e l t they drew worst, w i t h the  s i n g l e exception o f cartoons.  The a f f i n i t y f o r drawing  pronounced among both boys and g i r l s .  c a r t o o n s was  In informal d i s c u s s i o n students  v o l u n t e e r e d t h a t they l i k e d to draw c a r t o o n s because they were easy c o u l d be made to l o o k l i k e among t h e i r f r i e n d s and,  very  "the r e a l t h i n g . "  R e c o g n i t i o n was  i n the event t h a t a c a r t o o n was  and  instant  not t u r n i n g out  r i g h t , d i f f i c u l t p a r t s c o u l d be t r a c e d o r a f r i e n d c o u l d " f i x i t up." S t u d e n t s who  were c o n s i d e r e d good a t drawing  cartoons enjoyed a  p r e s t i g e and were c o n s i d e r e d a r t i s t i c by t h e i r  friends.  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d out a t what age t o o n i n g b e g i n s and u n t i l what age  i t lasts.  certain  t h i s penchant f o r c a r -  C e r t a i n l y students i n t h i s  study were s e a r c h i n g t o e n l a r g e t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e o f c a r t o o n c o n v e n t i o n s . Because the c o n v e n t i o n s used i n t d r a w i n g c a r t o o n s have a l r e a d y been reduced to two  dimensions,  s t u d e n t s do not have t o s o l v e the problem  graphic e q u i v a l e n t s f o r three dimensional o b j e c t s .  of finding  Cartoons seem to s a t i s f y  46  the p r e - a d o l e s c e n t ' s d e s i r e f o r a c c u r a c y i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i l e  allowing  him t o a v o i d the more d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f f i n d i n g t h e s e e q u i v a l e n t s - .  Students  may t i r e o f c a r t o o n c o p y i n g once t h e y have mastered i t and be more r e l u c t a n t t h a n e v e r t o r e t u r n to the i n i t i a l ,  clumsy s t a g e s o f l e a r n i n g t o draw  o b j e c t s i n three dimensional space. The W i l s o n s  (1975)  f e e l t h a t when young p e o p l e outgrow c h i l d h o o d ways  o f d r a w i n g t h e y need t o be t a u g h t new c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h can be e l a b o r a t e d on and re-combined ad i n f i n i t u m .  P e r h a p s , i n s t e a d o f i g n o r i n g the p r e -  a d o l e s c e n t ' s d e s i r e f o r r e p r o d u c i b l e c o n v e n t i o n s , an a r t programme f o r s t u d e n t s - a t - t h i s age s h o u l d emphasize them and h e l p expand t h e s t u d e n t ' s s t o c k o f c o n v e n t i o n s so t h a t when he becomes bored w i t h the c a r t o o n image, he w i l l n o t f i n d h i s s t o r e empty and s t o p d r a w i n g a l t o g e t h e r . A l t h o u g h b o t h boys and g i r l s i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n the numb e r o f i t e m s t h e y thought t h e y c o u l d draw w e l l by the end o f the s t u d y ,  the  d i f f e r e n c e between them and t h e s u b j e c t s they thought t h e y c o u l d draw w e l l and draw p o o r l y remained markedly c o n s i s t e n t .  Boys c o n t i n u e d to f e e l  t h e y drew p e o p l e p o o r l y and d i d n o t show as much c o n f i d e n c e average a b i l i t y t o draw everyday o b j e c t s as g i r l s d i d .  that  in their  These d i f f e r e n c e s  i n r e a l o r imagined a b i l i t y between boys and g i r l s a t t h i s age s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n any f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on t h i s  subject.  By the end o f the s t u d y a l l o f the d i v i s i o n s had i n c r e a s e d e s t i m a t e s o f t h e i r a b i l i t y to draw w e l l e x c e p t D i v i s i o n 1 ( t r e a t m e n t ) w h i c h r e p o r t e d a n e t l o s s i n e s t i m a t e d a b i l i t y t o draw i t e m s w e l l .  Owing t o a m i s s e d  s e s s i o n , t h i s c l a s s was one week b e h i n d the o t h e r s f o r the l a s t two weeks o f the s t u d y .  T h i s meant t h a t t h e y were asked t o complete the second  D r a w i n g S u r v e y and t o r a t e t h e i r d r a w i n g a b i l i t y a f t e r t h e y had r e c e i v e d t h e i r r e p o r t c a r d s and had seen t h e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f t h e i r a b i l i t y .  47 T h i s seemed to produce a downward tendency i n t h e i r s e l f e v a l u a t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e d them t o r a t e themselves "average" i n s t e a d o f "very good" f o r the m a j o r i t y o f items. Awareness o f a r t elements.  A n o t h e r n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between boys  and g i r l s i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n i s t h e i r s t a t e d awareness  o f c e r t a i n elements  i n drawing such as l i g h t s o u r c e , t o n a l v a l u e , r e l a t i v e s i z e and n e g a t i v e space.  On b o t h s u r v e y s twice as many g i r l s a s boys r e p o r t e d t h a t they were  v e r y o f t e n aware o f t h e s e elements.  When t e s t e d on t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n , how-  ever, the boys s c o r e d as w e l l as- the g i r l s .  T h i s may  be a n o t h e r i n d i c a t o r  o f g i r l s h a v i n g more c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r drawing a t t h i s age t h a n boys, o r i t may  r e f l e c t more f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the terms used i n a r t p a r l a n c e .  A b i l i t y to form mental images.  There was an i n c r e a s e f o r a l l  i n r e p o r t e d a b i l i t y t o form mental images.  divisions  Whether o r n o t p r a c t i c e i n  drawing d i r e c t l y from o b s e r v a t i o n improves t h e a b i l i t y to form mental  images  has n o t been e s t a b l i s h e d and d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r study.  who  A l l o f the boys  s a i d they c o u l d not form a mental image had p r e v i o u s l y been i d e n t i f i e d a t the s c h o o l as h a v i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o s h o r t - t e r m v i s u a l memory.  These s t u d e n t s o f t e n had t r o u b l e s u s t a i n i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n d u r i n g  the drawing s e s s i o n .  The two s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l groups w i t h t h i s  problem t a l k e d c o n s i s t e n t l y and seldom f i n i s h e d a drawing,- w h i l e the s t u d e n t i n t h e treatment group was a b l e t o f i n i s h s i x o u t o f e i g h t drawings.  None  o f them was a b l e to draw a b i c y c l e from memory. Both boys and g i r l s r e p o r t e d e q u a l i n c r e a s e s i n a b i l i t y to form c l e a r mental images.  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on  imaging whether t h e r e a r e more- boys than g i r l s w i t h short-term' memory l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i n the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e as was i n t h i s study population.  the case  48 Importance of practice.  The number of students who,  by the end of the  study, f e l t that practice was v e r y important i n learning to draw had doubled. The i n i t i a l attitude might have r e f l e c t e d the prevalent practice i n a r t programmes to stress a broad range of a r t a c t i v i t i e s over depth of experience i n any one of them.  Students cannot l e a r n the value of practice i f teachers  themselves present classes with new a r t a c t i v i t i e s each week.  There were  several times during the l a t t e r part of the study when I f e l t the students were getting t i r e d of drawing.  Although t h i s was probably the case at  times, when asked which lessons they preferred, students reported as many preferences f o r lessons l a t e i n the study as f o r lessons e a r l i e r on.  This  indicated a tolerance or resistance to fatigue which i s not always obvious to the teacher conducting an in-depth programme. Importance of concentration.  A l l classes placed higher importance  on  the necessity to concentrate i n learning to draw at the end of the study than they had i n the beginning.  The f a c t that only 30% of the students  f i r s t f e l t that concentration was very important r e f l e c t s an attitude toward a r t and i t s content that should be of concern to a r t educators.  If  paucity of early t r a i n i n g has f a i l e d to make students aware of the need f o r e i t h e r practice or concentration i n the a r t process, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that so many choose to neglect the pursuit when they leave elementary school. Discouragement i n drawing.  The control or t a l k i n g groups had 33% more  students than the treatment or no-talking groups who  reported being often  discouraged with t h e i r drawing by the end of the study.  They also i n d i -  cated 50% more d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r work on the weekly Drawing Evaluations.  The obvious d i s p a r i t y between the treatment and control groups may  reasonably be seen as a function of the control variable. i n the no-talking groups indicated discouragement  Whenever a student  by s i g n a l i n g f o r help, he  49 was  q u i e t l y asked to t r y t o f i n d ways to s o l v e h i s own v i s u a l  problems.  When s t u d e n t s i n the t a l k i n g groups became d i s c o u r a g e d , they o f t e n j u s t gave up, s t a r t e d o v e r o r began t a l k i n g to f r i e n d s . s t a r t i n g o v e r was  The  i n c i d e n c e o f e r a s i n g and  much g r e a t e r f o r the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s .  S t u d e n t s who  per-  s e v e r e d and t r i e d to s o l v e t h e i r own problems w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g to p e e r d i s t r a c t i o n seemed t o respond w i t h a g r e a t e r degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r drawing and to have become l e s s d i s c o u r a g e d than those who  gave up  e a s i l y and t a l k e d to t h e i r neighbours. Teacher Logs and O b s e r v a t i o n s R e s u l t s o f d a t a gathered i n the Teacher Logs and o b s e r v a t i o n s showed s e v e r a l apparent d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n t r o l and treatment groups. d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n r e g a r d to (a) t a l k i n g and not drawing, and drawing,  (b) t a l k i n g  ( c ) f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , (d) r e f e r e n c e s t o model, (e)  and incomplete drawings,  ( f ) second s t a r t s ,  These  (g) d i f f e r i n g approaches  complete and  (h) t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s . T a l k i n g and n o t drawing. I n the m a j o r i t y o f o b s e r v a t i o n s , when s t u d e n t s began t a l k i n g , they stopped drawing.  N o t a t i o n s i n the T e a c h e r Logs  v i d e o t a p e evidence c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n f i r m e d t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . when s t u d e n t s stopped t a l k i n g ,  Conversely,  they most o f t e n began drawing a g a i n .  Logs r e c o r d f r e q u e n t s u r p r i s e a t how  and  q u i c k l y and q u i e t l y the c o n t r o l  The classes  s e t t l e d down to work on a drawing t a s k i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n even w i t h o u t b e i n g asked not to t a l k . t h e r e was  The moment t h a t everyone began to draw,  s i l e n c e i n the room.  There were p o t e n t i a l  " t a l k e r s " i n each c l a s s .  would r a t h e r s o c i a l i z e than draw.  These were s t u d e n t s who  I n the treatment groups, these s t u d e n t s  would f i d g e t and t r y t o draw t h e i r neighbour's a t t e n t i o n t o them i n some way,  b u t because o f the s t r i c t u r e a g a i n s t t a l k i n g , t h e i r neighbours were  50 reluctant to lie drawn into a conversation. Because there was no such stricture i n the control classes, the "talkers" could usually manage to involve two or three others at" their table in- conversation, which eventually weakened the concentration for the entire table and often spread to other tables i n the classroom.  Almost every time other students became involved  in the conversation, their pencils stopped recording marks on their papers. "Talkers" i n the control classes had a high incidence of crumpled papers and second starts.  They became easily discouraged with their work and would  stop drawing and-begin conversing instead of trying to solve their problems. This- "discouragement/talking" syndrome produced some interesting and f a i r l y consistent behaviours.  The student would f i r s t signal his discouragement  (with a sigh, slump or exasperated motion of his eraser) and then begin to try to involve those around him in a conversation. At the end of the conversation when the others had gone back to their drawings, he would look at the drawings i n progress around him, crumple his paper ostentatiously, get a new one and begin a new conversation before settling to the drawing task once again.  These delaying tactics, when repeated a few times in an  art lesson l e f t l i t t l e time for actual practice, and seemed to reinforce the student's dissatisfaction with his performance. sheet start overs i n the treatment groups.  There were far fewer clean  Those who did begin again,  usually turned their papers over and began again without involving others in their decision, thus losing l i t t l e actual drawing practice. Several times during the study when I attempted to make demonstration drawings from direct observation on the blackboard and talk at the same time, I was aware of the difficulty of' talking, observing and drawing at the same time.  Whenever I decided to emphasize the verbal instructions, the drawing  became slightly incoherent and whenever I chose to concentrate on the drawing,  2-  the v e r b a l commentary became somewhat d i s j o i n t e d .  The d i f f i c u l t y o f t a l k i n g  and drawing from o b s e r v a t i o n a t the same time seems t o i n d i c a t e some i n t e r f e r e n c e between the two o p e r a t i o n s .  The  implications of this possible  inter-  f e r e n c e s h o u l d be examined by a r t e d u c a t o r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t e a c h i n g drawing s k i l l s a t e v e r y age. T a l k i n g and drawing. who  R e l a t i v e l y few o b s e r v a t i o n s were made o f s t u d e n t s  were t a l k i n g and drawing a t the same time, and these seemed more r e l a t e d  to the type o f a c t i v i t y than t o the f u n c t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e . .  Activities  such as c o l o u r i n g i n n e g a t i v e spaces and drawing a b i c y c l e from memory which d i d n o t r e q u i r e s t r i c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f a model seemed to encourage i n g w h i l e drawing.  S t u d e n t s who  more t a l k -  d i d t a l k and draw a t the same time  to use r e p e t i t i v e , random, " d o o d l i n g " marks on t h e i r papers.  tended  They d o t t e d  f r e c k l e s , dashed r e p e a t e d b i c y c l e spokes, c o l o u r e d i n s o l i d dark a r e a s , o r made random l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g h a i r t e s t u r e .  I n s e v e r a l o f the b i c y c l e  drawings, s t u d e n t s marked randomly w h i l e t a l k i n g , t h e n stopped  talking,  l o o k e d a t t h e i r papers and e r a s e d the whole s e c t i o n -Tthey had completed w h i l e talking.  The i n c i d e n c e o f e r a s i n g on the memory b i c y c l e was  those s t u d e n t s who  much h i g h e r f o r  t a l k e d and t r i e d to draw a t the same time.  The memory drawing o f the b i c y c l e was  the one a c t i v i t y o f the whole  study where the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y s e t t l e d q u i e t l y to t a s k . There was  always some murmuring, a l t h o u g h , a t f i r s t ,  i t seemed to take the  form o f communal e f f o r t s to r e c a l l c e r t a i n d e t a i l s , o f b i c y c l e s . a tendency f o r s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l groups who  There  was  could.not'remember d e t a i l s  to g i v e up and b e g i n t a l k i n g t o f r i e n d s about u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s .  This  was  i n sharp c o n t r a s t to the treatment c l a s s e s which s e t t l e d to work immediately and q u i e t l y .  They a l s o had t r o u b l e remembering d e t a i l s , but showed obvious  e f f o r t s to r e c a l l them by c a s t i n g t h e i r eyes upward, r u b b i n g f o r e h e a d s and  52 c l o s i n g t h e i r eyes i n thought.  The amount o f mental e f f o r t p u t f o r t h  the treatment groups i n c o n t r a s t to the c o n t r o l groups s u g g e s t s t h a t may  i n t e r f e r e even more w i t h the f o r m a t i o n o f mental  ing  from d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . Following directions.  S t u d e n t s who  by talking  images than w i t h draw-  t a l k e d d u r i n g c l a s s were l e s s  l i k e l y t o f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s than s t u d e n t s who  d i d not.  They would o f t e n  b e g i n the l e s s o n by f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s , but by the second o r t h i r d  scan  would have f o r g o t t e n to keep t h e i r pen on the paper o r t h e i r eye on the model w h i l e they drew and would have l a p s e d i n t o o l d e r , f a m i l i a r ways o f drawing. of  The s t u d e n t s , by t h i s age,  i t seems had developed t h e i r own  drawing t h i n g s and were r e l u c t a n t to t r y new  Some o f them commented t h a t a new  strategy.  approaches  and  ways  strategies.  t h e i r drawings would be r u i n e d i f they f o l l o w e d  They complained  t h a t i f they f o l l o w e d d i r e c t i o n s ,  p i c t u r e s would n o t l o o k as good' as those o f s t u d e n t s who  their  were n o t f o l l o w i n g  directions. In  o r d e r to expose p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s t o new  n e c e s s a r y t o f i r s t persuade  drawing s t r a t e g i e s , i t seems  them to abandon t h e i r p r e - e x i s t i n g  and c o n v e n t i o n s i n o r d e r to t r y out new  ones.  approaches  I f the a c q u i s i t i o n o f  new  s t r a t e g i e s i s hampered by f a i l u r e to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s when s t u d e n t s a r e a l l o w e d t o t a l k , t h e n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t a l k i n g and f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t i o n s d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n by a r t e d u c a t o r s and drawing R e f e r e n c e s to the model  and the o b j e c t .  The  instructors.  c o n t r o l groups  l e s s o f t e n to the model o r the o b j e c t t h a n the treatment groups.  referred A l l classes  r e f e r r e d w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same f r e q u e n c y d u r i n g the f i r s t scan, b u t then the t a l k i n g groups f e l l ces.  o f f s h a r p l y i n the f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r r e f e r e n -  I n g e n e r a l , o b s e r v a t i o n d e c r e a s e d as t a l k i n g i n c r e a s e d , and w i t h t h a t  i n c r e a s e came more f r e q u e n t e r a s u r e s .  S t u d e n t s who  began drawing a g a i n  53 a f t e r a p e r i o d o f c o n v e r s a t i o n would o f t e n "begin drawing w i t h o u t a p r e l i m i n a r y r e f e r e n c e to the model o r the o b j e c t .  A f t e r a few seconds o f  drawing, they would l o o k a t the model and then e r a s e what they had drawn.  just  The i n c r e a s e d e r a s i n g presumably r e s u l t e d from a comparison between  the image on paper and the r e a l o b j e c t which the s t u d e n t s found l a c k i n g . The more f a m i l i a r the o b j e c t , the fewer o b s e r v a t i o n s were made. the f i r s t l i v e model drawing, 80% o f the s t u d e n t s i n a l l  c l a s s e s stopped r e -  f e r r i n g to the model when drawing d e t a i l s on the h a i r and c l o t h e s . to u n f a m i l i a r o b j e c t s such as the u p - s i d e down man,  In  References  junk o b j e c t s and bones  c o n t i n u e d , i n g e n e r a l , u n t i l c o m p l e t i o n o f the drawing. t h a t u n f a m i l i a r i t y i n s p i r e d g r e a t e r o b s e r v a t i o n may  The seeming  fact  be a r e s u l t o f s t u d e n t s '  h a v i n g fewer p r e - c o n c e i v e d drawing c o n v e n t i o n s to f a l l back on.  I t may  also  r e s u l t from h a v i n g fewer v e r b a l d e s c r i p t o r s to r e l y on t h e r e b y f o r c i n g s t u d e n t s to g a t h e r more v i s u a l Complete  information.  and incomplete drawings.  the treatment and c o n t r o l groups was time was  The most e v i d e n t d i f f e r e n c e between  i n terms o f p r o d u c t i o n .  When t a l k i n g  s u b t r a c t e d from drawing time, the c o n t r o l groups f i n i s h e d f a r fewer  p i c t u r e s than the treatment groups and r e c e i v e d demonstrably l e s s p r a c t i c e . The number o f completed drawings appeared d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the l e n g t h o f time s t u d e n t s s p e n t on t h e i r work.  Some s t u d e n t s s p e n t o n l y seven o r  e i g h t minutes a c t u a l l y drawing d u r i n g a 20 minute  session.  The treatment groups improved t h e i r a b i l i t y to s u s t a i n l o n g e r p e r i o d s o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n each week u n t i l b o t h c l a s s e s c o u l d draw w i t h deep a t t e n t i o n f o r 20 minutes a t a time w i t h o u t showing s i g n s o f r e s t l e s s n e s s .  Restlessness  and g e n e r a l t a l k i n g would u s u a l l y o c c u r i n the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s w i t h i n e i g h t to t e n minutes.  Many s t u d e n t s i n the n o - t a l k i n g groups i n c r e a s e d  p r a c t i c e time by r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r drawings and working u n t i l  their  the b e l l  54 a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the Drawing E v a l u a t i o n a t the end o f each s e s s i o n . s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s r e t u r n e d to t h e i r drawings a f t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s p i t e h a v i n g v"drawingsacknowledged A l t h o u g h these c l a s s e s spent an average  o f two  t o he  minutes l e s s  No  completing  incomplete. per class  filling  o u t the E v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a n the treatment c l a s s e s , they always spent the r e m a i n i n g time b e f o r e the b e l l c h a t t i n g t o g e t h e r . D i f f e r i n g approaches. tional,  S t u d e n t s were t e n a c i o u s i n m a i n t a i n i n g conven-  s e q u e n t i a l approaches  to b u i l d the whole drawing  The m a j o r i t y o f them  proceeded  through a s e r i e s o f s t e p s , c o m p l e t i n g each  b e f o r e g o i n g on t o the next. drawing  to drawing.  detail  Most s t u d e n t s s t a r t e d a t the top i n a f i g u r e  ( a l t h o u g h 8 out o f 1 0 2 p r e f e r r e d to b e g i n w i t h the f e e t ) and drew  o b j e c t s from l e f t • t o r i g t i t u n l e s s they were l e f t handed. :  They had t r o u b l e  i n s e s s i o n s where they were asked to use l a r g e g e s t u r e s o r t o make a g l o b a l p l a n o f t h e i r e n t i r e drawing  b e f o r e g o i n g back and c o m p l e t i n g the d e t a i l s .  T h i s might have been caused by the emphasis on c o n t o u r and the b u i l d - u p o f form by l i n e  i n the p r e v i o u s e x e r c i s e s .  I t seemed as i f s t u d e n t s a t t h i s  age had l e s s d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t to p a r t r e l a t i o n s h i p s than they d i d comprehending the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p a r t s t o wholes. Teacher a t t i t u d e s .  A l t h o u g h I have seldom had more u n i f o r m l y s a t i s -  f y i n g c l a s s e s o f y o u n g s t e r s t o t e a c h , d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n my towards the two s u r p r i s e d a t how  groups showed up i n the Teacher Logs. q u i c k l y and how  I was  attitude  continually  q u i e t l y the c o n t r o l c l a s s e s s e t t l e d to  t a s k w i t h o u t b e i n g asked not to t a l k and a t how  difficult  i t was  to main-  t a i n the " n o - t a l k i n g " s t r i c t u r e w i t h the treatment c l a s s e s w h i l e , a t the same time, k e e p i n g an open, f r i e n d l y atmosphere i n the c l a s s r o o m . became e a s i e r as the weeks p a s s e d and, phere  i n the end,  t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n the treatment c l a s s e s was  This  the b u s i n e s s - l i k e atmosmore s a t i s f y i n g than the  55 open, r e l a x e d atmosphere o f the c o n t r o l I found t h a t , a l t h o u g h I was c o n t r o l c l a s s w i t h how  classes.  f r e q u e n t l y p l e a s e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f a  q u i c k l y i t s e t t l e d down to work, I was  often disap-  p o i n t e d by the end o f the class- w i t h the r e s u l t s o f the drawings.  I always  hated to see the momentum o f a good b e g i n n i n g l o s t as the t a l k i n g i n c r e a s e d and the q u a l i t y and p r o d u c t i o n d i m i n i s h e d .  I c o u l d o f t e n see a p u r p o s e f u l ,  i n d u s t r i o u s a t t i t u d e toward work erode as the amount o f t a l k i n g i n c r e a s e d . The s t u d e n t s who  t a l k e d most seemed to p u t l e a s t e f f o r t i n t o t h e i r work.  I t r i e d to encourage them to work by t a k i n g an i n t e r e s t i n what they were d o i n g , but was  f r u s t r a t e d by the f e e l i n g t h a t they would do b e t t e r i f I  asked them not to t a l k . A l t h o u g h a l l c l a s s e s showed an improvement i n the f r e q u e n c y o f o b j e c t r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the study, I was  d i s c o u r a g e d by the way  the c o n t r o l groups  c o n s i s t e n t l y l a g g e d behind the treatment groups i n number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s per class..  Some s t u d e n t s i n the t a l k i n g c l a s s e s would even s i t w i t h  their  backs to the model o r o b j e c t w h i l e they drew so they c o u l d be c l o s e r to a friend. desks  When i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n a t the b e g i n n i n g o f a c l a s s to move  to get the b e s t p o s s i b l e view o f a model o r o b j e c t , t h e r e was  general  movement and r e - p o s i t i o n i n g i n the treatment c l a s s e s w h i l e the c o n t r o l classes  h a r d l y moved a t a l l .  Some i n d i v i d u a l s i n each c l a s s worked hard and produced v e r y drawings,  satisfying  but the number o f incomplete drawings each week was d i s a p p o i n t i n g  because i t was  a d i r e c t ' , r e s u l t o f w a s t i n g time.  and c l e a n s h e e t second s t a r t s was  The amount o f e r a s i n g  annoying because i t wasted time  and  * materials. Another source o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o n t r o l groups came from t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to t r y new  s t r a t e g i e s o r to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s  consistently,  56 which made i t d i f f i c u l t As  f o r me  to h e l p  them expand t h e i r drawing e x p e r i e n c e .  some members o f a t a b l e group l a p s e d  i n t o o l d ways o f drawing, they  tended to i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s around them.  As  they t a l k e d more and  observed  l e s s they seemed to r e f e r to each o t h e r ' s drawings f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f to the model.  The  instead  treatment groups, on the o t h e r hand, d i d n o t seem to  be as i n f l u e n c e d by p e e r s .  When one  member o f a t a b l e group r e v e r t e d  p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d approach, there was  little  evidence that others a t  to a the  t a b l e were i n f l u e n c e d by i t . P e e r i n f l u e n c e was lengths  o f time each group c o u l d s u s t a i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  n o - t a l k i n g groups who l o o k out  a l s o a major f a c t o r i n the d i f f e r e n c e between the  had  s h o r t a t t e n t i o n spans would sometimes s t o p drawing,  o f the window, f i d g e t and  then r e t u r n to the drawing whereas i n d i -  v i d u a l s w i t h s h o r t a t t e n t i o n spans i n the gage one  concentration  l a r g e l y determined by  treatment groups, the  was  or interplay.  f o r the e n t i r e c o n t r o l group was,  o f the  o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r the  k e p t to an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l  T e a c h e r discouragement u s u a l l y r o s e w i t h the amount o f  t a l k i n g because i t meant students, were detached from the  and  drawing.  Drawing The  tones, i t  t e a c h e r t o converse w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s i n a normal  general not  '. j  same d i s c i p l i n a r y r u l e s were i n e f f e c t f o r a l l c l a s s e s  However, even when s t u d e n t s began t a l k i n g i n low  tone o f v o i c e .  therefore,  " n o - t a l k i n g w h i l e drawing" r u l e f o r the  the n o i s e l e v e l i n the c o n t r o l groups was  a t a l l times.  en-  the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h the s h o r t e s t a t t e n t i o n spans.  W i t h the e x c e p t i o n  and  t a l k i n g groups would u s u a l l y  o r more members o f t h e i r t a b l e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n  Length of sustained  I n d i v i d u a l s i n the  activity  Evaluations w i l l i n g n e s s w i t h which a l l c l a s s e s f i l l e d i n the Drawing  questionnaire  a t the end  o f each s e s s i o n was  gratifying.  The  Evaluation  students  57 u s u a l l y completed  the form q u i e t l y and  i n d e p e n d e n t l y and seemed happy to  g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s and r e f l e c t on the day's s e s s i o n . ment groups sometimes spent two q u a l i t y o f the answers was  Although  the  treat-  o r t h r e e minutes l o n g e r f i l l i n g i t out,  about the same f o r a l l c l a s s e s .  f o l l o w s o f r e s u l t s from the Drawing E v a l u a t i o n .  the  A discussion  F i n d i n g s about (a)  concepts  l e a r n e d , (b) s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h performance and ( c ) a b i l i t y to c o n c e n t r a t e a r e included. Concepts l e a r n e d .  There was  a d i s c r e p a n c y between the concepts t h a t  boys and g i r l s s a i d they were o f t e n aware o f and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a p p l y them.  G i r l s r e p o r t e d b e i n g o f t e n aware o f  l i g h t , n e g a t i v e space, f r e q u e n t l y as boys.  s i z e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  elements such as s o u r c e s o f t o n a l v a l u e s almost  However, when asked t o demonstrate the';  v o l v e d , boys and g i r l s s c o r e d e q u a l l y .  twice as  concepts i n -  T h i s suggests t h a t the responses  the Drawing E v a l u a t i o n s were s u b j e c t i v e measures o n l y and d i d not  on  necessarily  r e l a t e to o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h performance.  Most o f the s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d  f a c t i o n w i t h the drawings they produced.  satis-  A l l f i n i s h e d drawings were mounted  and d i s p l a y e d i n the main h a l l o f the s c h o o l each week and  the s t u d e n t s were  p l e a s e d w i t h the amount o f commendation t h e y r e c e i v e d from p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and f r i e n d s .  The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t d i d o c c u r , however, was  as g r e a t f o r s t u d e n t s i n the c o n t r o l groups. to  stem from two  sources:  These d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s seemed  (a) from e f f o r t s deemed u n s u c c e s s f u l and (b)  incomplete work r e s u l t i n g from too l i t t l e groups who  n e a r l y twnce  effort.  Students  i n the  were d i s s a t i s f i e d were u s u a l l y unhappy w i t h the way  they  treatment handled  an u n f a m i l i a r t e c h n i q u e . A b i l i t y to c o n c e n t r a t e . trate varied greatly.  S u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t e s o f a b i l i t y to concen-  T a l k e r s o f t e n r e p o r t e d t h a t they had  from  concentrated  58 v e r y w e l l , w h i l e o t h e r s t u d e n t s who o n l y average c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  had worked q u i e t l y and  The  reported  Each group seemed to s e t t h e i r s t a n d a r d s f o r  f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t e d c o n c e n t r a t i o n setting.  intensely  i n the c o n t e x t  o f t h e i r own  class  treatment c l a s s e s which were, on the whole, v e r y q u i e t  during  the e n t i r e study, seemed to be b o t h e r e d by t a l k i n g even more than the t r o l c l a s s e s i n which t a l k i n g was  a f a i r l y normal o c c u r r e n c e .  con-  Slighter  c l a s s r o o m n o i s e s such as r a d i a t o r s c l a n k i n g and s o u n d s o f e r a s i n g were ment i o n e d by the treatment groups as i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s w h i l e g r o s s e r such as c h a i r s f a l l i n g and  sounds  b e l l s r i n g i n g were mentioned more f r e q u e n t l y  by  the c o n t r o l groups. The sical  c o n t r o l c l a s s e s were b o t h e r e d by f r u s t r a t i o n s o f a b i l i t y  s u r r o u n d i n g s more f r e q u e n t l y than the  treatment groups.  and  phy-  T h i s may  have  been because they tended to g i v e up e a s i e r when f a c e d w i t h t e c h n i c a l problems and  d i d not always take time a t the b e g i n n i n g o f the p e r i o d to arrange them-  . s e l v e s p h y s i c a l l y i n a good vantage p o i n t from which to view the model, esp e c i a l l y i f t h a t meant moving away from a f r i e n d . There was  no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e between treatment and  t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t o f time p a s s i n g . t i o n a l indicator of concentration who  r e p o r t e d poor c o n c e n t r a t i o n  b e r o f s t u d e n t s who  reported  t h a t "time p a s s i n g " was  and  The  item was  involvement.  c o n t r o l groups i n i n c l u d e d as an  The  number o f s t u d e n t s  d i d not c o r r e l a t e i n any  time passed s l o w l y .  addi-  way  w i t h the num-  T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e  not a u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r w i t h which to c o r r e l a t e  ability  to'concentrate. Drawing S c o r e s F o u r complete s e t s o f drawings were s c o r e d .  The  scores, on b o t h Draw  A' P e r s o n T e s t s were compared f o r a l l groups as were the s c o r e s  on b o t h  model drawings i n o r d e r to see what d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d among the  live  classes  59 and  t o s e e what e f f e c t , i f any,  t h e v a r i a b l e had i n the a c q u i s i t i o n o f  h i g h e r drawing s c o r e s . Draw A, P e r s o n T e s t s c o r e s . f i r s t designed  The Goodenough-Harris DraWiJUPerson T e s t ,  by Goodenough i n 1926  dren, and then r e v i s e d by H a r r i s i n drawing t e s t a v a i l a b l e .  Although  t o measure c o n c e p t u a l m a t u r i t y i n c h i l -  l'96l,  i s t h e most h i g h l y s t a n d a r d i z e d  i t c a n be used from ages f o u r t o f i f t e e n ,  i t becomes l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a t the upper end o f t h e age s c a l e ( H a r r i s ,  196l),  and was o n l y m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l i n measuring drawing a b i l i t y o f the  s t u d e n t s i n t h i s study.  The t e s t , which g i v e s s t u d e n t s t h e c h o i c e o f draw-  i n g a man o r a woman, was m o d i f i e d f o r use i n t h e study by a d d i n g f o u r  items  to t h e woman's p o i n t s c a l e and two t o the men's p o i n t s c a l e i n o r d e r t o have a n equal number o f t o t a l p o i n t s f o r each s e x (see Appendix C ) . D i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a were used t o s c o r e the drawings o f men and women which made i t d i f f i c u l t t o compare boys:'- and girls';'' s c o r e s . women s c o r e d p o i n t s i f they had "feminine-type  Drawings o f  shoes," "cosmetic  lips,"  "cheeks," " s k i r t s " and " j e w e l r y , " w h i l e drawings o f men were c r e d i t e d f o r showing " f o u r a r t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g . " Many o f t h e g i r l s who drew women dressed  them i n today's u n i s e x s t y l e s w i t h o u t  b e n e f i t o f cosmetic  lips,  femine shoes o r j e w e l r y and were p e n a l i z e d p o i n t s . F i n e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s w i t h i n items would have been more h e l p f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e drawings o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  For in-  s t a n c e , no d i s t i n c t i o n s were made between s t e r e o t y p e d symbols f o r noses and attempts a t r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l .  Any nose w i t h an u p r i g h t s t r o k e l o n g e r  than t h e base l i n e r e c e i v e d c r e d i t . s c o r e , b u t women d i d .  Men d i d n o t have t o have n o s t r i l s t o  Men r e c e i v e d c r e d i t f o r arm and l e g movement w h i l e  women d i d not. Despite  these apparent b i a s e s , and because t h e r e was' a f a i r l y  equal  number o f boys and g i r l s i n each c l a s s who tended t o draw persons o f the  60 sex as themselves, and  t h e r e was  o n l y a twelve p o i n t s p r e a d between the l o w e s t  the h i g h e s t median c l a s s s c o r e on the f i r s t  s p r e a d between them on the- second  t e s t and a seven p o i n t  t e s t which i n d i c a t e d a f a i r l y homogeneous  a b i l i t y range f o r a l l o f the c l a s s e s .  The d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r i n g  f o r boys and g i r l s d i d , however, i n v a l i d a t e any comparisons  criteria  of a b i l i t y  that  might have been made between sexes. The v a r i a b l e d i d n o t seem to a f f e c t the s c o r e s i n any way  as t h r e e  c l a s s e s made u n i f o r m i n c r e a s e s and one c l a s s r e t a i n e d the same s c o r e on the second  test.  I n g e n e r a l , the g a i n s i n s c o r e s were a c c r u e d  by s t u d e n t s  used some s h a d i n g and more d e f i n i t e types o f footwear on the second The  who  test.  i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e f o r e , d i d n o t seem to be a r e s u l t o f the v a r i a b l e , ; t a l k i n g .  Many o f the second drawings l o o k e d almost e x a c t l y l i k e s u g g e s t i n g a tendency  t o reproduce  r a t h e r than to i n v e n t new  ones.  the f i r s t  ones  s t o c k f i g u r e s on drawings from memory  I n one case, the Draw A P e r s o n memory  drawing and the l i v e model drawing  showed the same c l o t h e s and f e a t u r e s  t h e r e b y r e v e a l i n g an unusual r e l u c t a n c e to i n c o r p o r a t e new  visual  informa-  t i o n i n t o p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d schema o r c o n v e n t i o n . L i v e model s c o r e s .  I t might have been expected t h a t w i t h the  groups' c o m p l e t i n g a g r e a t e r number o f drawings,  treatment  making more f r e q u e n t ob-  s e r v a t i o n s and f e e l i n g g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r drawings t h a t  they  would  This  was  o u t s c o r e the c o n t r o l group on the second l i v e model drawing.  n o t the case.  A l l c l a s s e s s c o r e d b e t t e r on the second model  i n d i c a t i n g an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n a b i l i t y , b u t t h e r e was ence between the treatment and the c o n t r o l groups. because (a) the s c o r i n g was d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y , (b) and a b i l i t y ,  drawing  no major d i f f e r -  T h i s might have o c c u r r e d  n o t d i s c r i m i n a t i n g enough to p i c k up s u b t l e the study was  too s h o r t to s o l i d i f y  skills  ( c ) the m a j o r i t y o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were con-  cerned w i t h drawing  o b j e c t s i n s t e a d o f p e o p l e , (d) s t u d e n t s have  61 pre-conceived- n o t i o n s o f how  to draw people and r e l y more on e x i s t i n g con-  v e n t i o n s than on f r e s h o b s e r v a t i o n s o r ( e ) because  few o f the boys a t t h i s  age r e p o r t e d they l i k e d to draw people and f e l t they d i d so p o o r l y . O f the r e a s o n s l i s t e d above, d e f i c i e n c y i n the s c o r i n g i n s t r u m e n t and s h o r t n e s s o f the s t u d y  were p r o b a b l y the most p e r t i n e n t .  The drawings  the second l i v e model were l a r g e r and l o o s e r than they had been the time.  of  first  A l t h o u g h s t u d e n t s were i n s t r u c t e d to f i t the whole f i g u r e on the page,  s e v e r a l o f them r a n o f f the page and were, t h e r e f o r e , p e n a l i z e d p o i n t s . Whereas drawing s c o r e s may  p r o v i d e a semblance o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n a  drawing  study, they cannot take i n t o account s u b t l e q u a l i t i e s o f l i n e o r p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which were s t r e s s e d i n the d u r i n g the study.  instruction  S c o r e s were not, t h e r e f o r e , an a l t o g e t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y  measure o f s k i l l s a c q u i r e d . The s h o r t d u r a t i o n o f the study may i n the f a i l u r e o f the t e s t drawings groups. around  have been a n o t h e r major f a c t o r  to r e v e a l g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e s between  Because most o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s had been s t r u c t u r e d the o b s e r v a t i o n and drawing o f o b j e c t s i n s t e a d o f p e o p l e , s t u d e n t s '  s c o r e s may  have s i m p l y r e f l e c t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t ' p r a c t i c e i n drawing p e o p l e .  62 Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS This study examined the variable of talking i n the classroom among grade seven peers as' a factor in the acquisition of drawing s k i l l s .  Data  gathered from drawing test scores, teacher observations, student evaluations and drawing surveys indicate that talking among peers i n the classroom may inhibit the process of visual thinking and retard the acquisition of specif i c concepts and drawing s k i l l s . The proposition that talking in the classroom among pre-adolescent peers inhibits acquisition of representational drawing s k i l l was reasonably, but  not conclusively, examined through analysis of drawing test scores.  Although a clear difference between the control and treatment groups' ability to demonstrate specific art concepts at the end of a drawing session was demonstrated, this difference was not reflected i n the results of the test scores.  The usefulness of standardized tests of drawing people as a re-  liable measure of acquisition of s k i l l i s , thereby, called into question. The test scores are determined by the number of drawing conventions the student includes and, while these may indicate maturity and intelligence, they do not necessarily reflect qualitative aspects of the drawing. Because most grade seven students are familiar with the conventions used i n drawing people, their scores tend to accumulate at the upper end of the scoring scale which limits the range of possible improvement.  Test scores,  were, however, useful i n comparing populations and in determining a degree of equality between treatment and control groups. The most striking indication that talking among grade seven peers inhibits visual modes of thinking was the consistent observation that  63 s t u d e n t s o f t h i s age do n o t t a l k and draw i n a p u r p o s e f u l manner a t t h e same time.  When they, do t a l k and draw s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e y use random,  m e c h a n i c a l s t r o k e s w h i c h they o f t e n e r a s e l a t e r .  S t u d e n t s who t a l k and  draw i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a r e l e s s l i k e l y t o make f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o a model, a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r work, f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s o r t r y new t e c h n i q u e s t h a n a r e s t u d e n t s who s u s t a i n t h e i r d r a w i n g w i t h o u t i n t e r v e n i n g conversation.  S t u d e n t s who c h a t complete  f e w e r drawings and, t h e r e f o r e , r e c e i v e  l e s s p r a c t i c e t h a n s t u d e n t s who do n o t . A l s o o f importance  t o a r t t e a c h e r s i s t h e e f f e c t on t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s  and s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f s t u d e n t s ' t a l k i n g .  T a l k i n g s t u d e n t s a r e seen t o be  w a s t i n g time* p r o d u c i n g below p o t e n t i a l and t o be h a v i n g a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of e r a s u r e s and second s t a r t s .  T e a c h e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t s from h a v i n g  to a s s e s s i n c o m p l e t e work and having;J t o r a i s e v o i c e l e v e l i n o r d e r t o address the c l a s s o r t a l k t o i n d i v i d u a l s . Adolescence  i s an e s p e c i a l l y p e e r c o n s c i o u s s t a g e .  Students a t t h i s  age do n o t e a s i l y i g n o r e t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f a f r i e n d t o s o c i a l i z e and y e t , the e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d here s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y s e e m i n g l y cannot draw from a model o r an o b j e c t and t a l k a t t h e same time.  Nor can they s u c c e s s f u l l y  draw and t a l k i n t e r m i t t e n t l y w i t h o u t f o r g e t t i n g t o r e f e r t o t h e model o r follow directions. P e r h a p s because o f warnings- e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y about t h e dangers of  i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s n a t u r a l a r t i s t i c development and t h e more  r e c e n t emphasis on a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g and v i s u a l t h i n k i n g , some c o n f u s i o n e x i s t s ' among t e a c h e r s a s t o how much guidance and a d o l e s c e n t s i n a n a r t programme.  s h o u l d be g i v e n t o c h i l d r e n  T h i s c o n f u s i o n has l e d t o t h e mis-  c o n c e p t i o n t h a t s t u d e n t s w i l l develop- a r t i s t i c a l l y i f t h e y a r e s i m p l y supp l i e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s and t h o u g h t f u l s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  Teachers a r e o f t e n  64 l o a t h e t o impose i n s t r u c t i o n o r s o c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the a r t room f o r f e a r of  damaging c r e a t i v i t y o r s p o i l i n g the a f f e c t i v e b e n e f i t s o f a r t .  t h e y may  Although  r e a l i z e t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a r t , a s i n any d i s c i p l i n e , ensues from  c o n c e n t r a t i o n , p r a c t i c e and p r o g r e s s i v e development o f s k i l l s , t h e y may the r a t i o n a l e t o i n s i s t on a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o n - v e r b a l environment art  lack  i n the  room. E i s n e r (l9?2) s t r e s s e s the importance o f s k i l l development as the key  to  u n l o c k i n g a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n and a d v o c a t e s i n - d e p t h a r t programmes  w h i c h emphasize p r a c t i c e and development o f a r t t e c h n i q u e s . ful  Without  t e c h n i q u e , he warns, c h i l d r e n ' s v i s u a l thoughts and images w i l l  undeveloped If,  skillremain  o r w i l l f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n o t h e r , more competent modes.  as the l i m i t e d scope o f t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s , v i s u a l p r o c e s s e s a r e  i n h i b i t e d by v e r b a l i n t e r f e r e n c e and i f , a c q u i s i t i o n o f some t y p e s o f drawing  s k i l l s a r e r e t a r d e d by e x t r a n e o u s t a l k i n g i n the a r t room, then-a.modest  r a t i o n a l e may  be p r o v i d e d f o r t e a c h e r s who w i s h t o l i m i t v e r b a l exchange i n  the a r t room i n o r d e r to promote f u r t h e r development i n d r a w i n g  skill.  Drawing d i r e c t l y f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a s a n i m p o r t a n t element i n the e x e r c i s e o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g .  While l i t t l e  em-  p i r i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n has been p r e s e n t e d by w r i t e r s i n the f i e l d o f a r t e d u c a t i o n to show t h a t e x t r a n e o u s c h a t t e r improves d r a w i n g s k i l l o r enhances v i s u a l t h i n k i n g , e v i d e n c e has been o f f e r e d here w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t such t a l k i n g i n h i b i t s the p r o c e s s o f v i s u a l t h i n k i n g i n the d r a w i n g p r o c e s s . I t a l s o i n t e r f e r e s w i t h a c c u m u l a t i o n o f d r a w i n g p r a c t i c e and, a c c o r d i n g t o p u p i l s ' comments, r e s u l t s i n d i m i n i s h e d - s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  performance.  A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e modest and based on a s m a l l s c a l e , they a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s a c o n t r i b u t i o n to what i d e a l i s t i c a l l y s h o u l d be a w i d e n i n g data-base.  S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p  65 between v e r b a l and v i s u a l t h i n k i n g remain t o be examined.  This  investigator  recommends t h a t f u r t h e r study be undertaken to determine: 1.  The p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s o f a n o n - v e r b a l environment f o r d i f f e r e n t types o f drawing  2.  The p o s s i b i l i t y " o f s t u d e n t s verbal  3.  activities. l e a r n i n g to s h i f t c o n s c i o u s l y  to v i s u a l modes o f t h i n k i n g .  The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between drawing and t a l k i n g a t d i f f e r e n t age l e v e l s r a n g i n g from elementary t o secondary  k.  from  school.  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Co., 1971.  New York:  Noonday,  a n a l y t i c and a n a l o g i c modes o f 22 ( l ) . New York:  McGraw-Hill Book  L a r k - H o r o w i t z , B. I n t e r l i n k a g e o f s e n s o r y memories i n r e l a t i o n t o t r a i n i n g i n drawing. J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l o g y , 1936, 4_9, 69-89.  70 Linderman, E. , & H e r b e r h o l z , D. D e v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c and p e r c e p t u a l awareness,. New York: Wm. G. Brown, Co., P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. L o w e n f e l d , V., & B r i t t a i n , W.  C r e a t i v e and mental growth.  New  York:  1970.  MacMillan,  Maslow, A. C r e a t i v i t y i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g p e o p l e . I n H. Anderson ( E d . ) , C r e a t i v i t y and i t s c u l t i v a t i o n . New York: H a r p e r and Row, 1959. Maslow, A. E m o t i o n a l b l o c k s to c r e a t i v i t y . I n S. P a r n e s and H. H a r d i n g ( E d s . ) , A s o u r c e book f o r c r e a t i v e t h i n k i n g . New York: S c r i b n e r ' s 1971. May, R. I n McMullan, W., C r e a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s : C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1976, 10 (4). McKim, R. Experiences i n v i s u a l thinking. C o l e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1972. McMullan, ¥ . Creative individuals: C r e a t i v e B e h a v i o r , 1976, 10 (4). Mendelowitz, D.  1976.  A guide t o drawing.  Mugnaini, J . , & Louvos, J . Nostrand, R e i n h o l d Co.,  Drawing: 1965.  p a r a d o x i c a l personages.  Monterey, C a l i f o r n i a :  p a r a d o x i c a l personages.  New  York:  Journal of  H o l t R i n e h a r t and Winston,  a s e a r c h f o r form.  Mugnaini, J . The h i d d e n elements o f drawing. R e i n h o l d Co., 1974.  Brooks-  New  York:  New  York:  Van  Van Nostrand,  Muholland, T. A program f o r the EEG s t u d y o f a t t e n t i o n i n v i s u a l communication. I n Randhawa & Coffman ( E d s . ) , V i s u a l l e a r n i n g , t h i n k i n g and communication. New York: Academic P r e s s , 1978. Munro, T. A r t e d u c a t i o n , i t s p h i l o s o p h y and p s y c h o l o g y . L i b e r a l A r t s Press, 1956. N i c o l a i d e s , K.  1941.  O r n s t e i n , R.  1972.  The n a t u r a l way  to draw.  Boston:  The p s y c h o l o g y of c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  New  York:  The  Houghton M i f f l i n  Co.,  York:  New  Viking Press,  P a v i o , A. On e x p l o r i n g v i s u a l knowledge. I n Randhawa & Coffman ( E d s . ) , V i s u a l l e a r n i n g , t h i n k i n g and communication. New York: Academic P r e s s ,  1978.  Randhawa, B. Visual trinity: an overview. I n Randhawa, B. & Coffman ( E d s . ) , V i s u a l l e a r n i n g , t h i n k i n g and communication. New York: A c a demic P r e s s , 1978. Read, S i r H. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f c h i l d r e n ' s a r t : a r t as symbolic language. Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957.  71 Read, H. Education through a r t .  New York:  Pantheon Books, 1945.  Richards, M., & Ross, E. Developmental changes i n c h i l d r e n ' s drawings. B r i t i s h Journal of Educational Psychology, 1967, 37, 73-80. R i t s o n , J . , & Smith, Creative teaching of a r t i n the elementary school. Boston: A l l y n and Bacon, Inc., 1975. Rohwer, W. Images and p i c t u r e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g : research r e s u l t s and educational i m p l i c a t i o n s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1970, 73 (6), 393-404. Rouse, M. A new look a t an o l d theory: a comparison of Lowenfeld's h a p t i c v i s u a l theory with Witkin's perceptual theory. Studies i n A r t Education,  1965,  7  (1).  Samples, B. The metaphoric Mind. Co., 1976.  Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley P u b l i s h i n g  Sarason, S. The c u l t u r e of the school and the problem of change. A l l y n and Bacon, 1971.  Boston:  Schwartz, G., Davidson, R., & Pugash, E. Voluntary c o n t r o l of patterns o f EEG asymmetry: cognitive components. Psychophysiology, 1976, 13,  498-504.  Simmons I I I , S., & Winer, M. Drawing, the c r e a t i v e process. C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1977.  Englewood  Simpson, I . Drawing, seeing and observation. Reinhold, Co., 1973.  Nostrand  New York:  Wachowiak, F., & Ramsay, T. Emphasis: a r t . Scranton, I n t e x t Educational P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Walmsley, L. Approaches to drawing.  London:  Van  Pennsylvania:  Evans Brothers L t d . , n.d.  72 Appendix A. Drawing Surveys PILOT . - DRAWING  NAME, 1.  SURVEY  .  m 7 E  *  How a r t i s t i c do people i n your family think you are? very a r t i s t i c  2.  3.  somewhat a r t i s t i c  not a t a l l a r t i s t i c  How well do you think you draw? very well about average  not very well  Indicate how frequently you draw the items i n the l i s t belowi very often  sometimes  cars, trucks 4 machines  hardly ever  •  planes or boats horses other animals people faces - front view faces - side view clothes, fashion design  '  space scenes trees and. flowers mountains 4 landscape  '  cartoon characters battle scenes monsters guns 4 tanks buildings  ;  everyday objectst bicycles, furniture, etc. Check only one answeri 5. Do you draw best from memory or from real objects or from photographs? from memory 6.  7.  photographs  Name an object s i l e n t l y and close your eyes. Indicate how clearly i t appears i n your mind. very c l e a r l y pictured not very clear not pictured a t a l l Do you do most of your drawing when you are alone or with other people? alone  8.  real objects  sometimes alone 4 sometimes with others  mostly with others  Did you do more drawing when you were younger than you do now? more when younger  about the same  more now  73  Pilot  Drawing Survey  9.  page 2  Do you ever get discouraged with your drawing because you can't sake i t look l i k e the real thing? often discouraged  10.  Name  hardly ever  never discouraged  Do you think i t i s important to learn to do overlapping, shading, perspective and point of view i n drawing? extremely important  11.  f a i r l y important  not very important  When you draw how often do you try to use the following techniquesi very often  some times  hardly ever  overlapping shading perspective texture unusual o r d i f f e r e n t point of view 12.  What has helped you the most i n learning to draw? (indicate 18t, 2nd, 3 r d , 4 t h choices) lessons drawing real objects looking a t other people's drawings  13.  Bo you dream i n technicalour? most of the time  14.  copying photos and cartoons  sometimes  never  Indicate how good you think you are a t drawing the items i n the l i s t belowi f a i r l y good  average  not very good  space scenes trees and flowers mountains 4 landscape cartoon characters battle scenes monsters guns 4 tanks buildings  '  everyday objects, bikes, furniture, etc. clothes, fashion design  -  faqes - side view faces - front view people horseB  other animals planes or boats r a r s .  t r u c k s  A m a c h i n e s  ~~~~~~~~~  •  '  74  Pilot  Drawing Survey 15.  page 3  In the space below, draw a picture of a person. d e t a i l s as you can.  \  NaHE Include as many r e a l i s t i c  Use the f u l l sheet of paper f o r your drawing.  75  P i l o t Drawing Survey  16.  page 4  "  NAKEi  B r i e f l y , t e l l what i t i s that you think you draw best and how you learned to draw i t i  17.  In the space below, make a drawing of the thing you draw best,  ( i f you are not  sure what to draw, you nay draw an imaginary scene, an object i n this room your shoe.)  or  76 Drawing Surveys i":!: and I I  DRAWING SUHVEY NAMEi  .  AGE i Years  Months  Hov well do you think you draw? very well  about average  not very well  How a r t i s t i c do your friends think you are? very a r t i s t i c  somewhat a r t i s t i c  not a t a l l a r t i s t i c  Indicate how well you l i k e t« draw the items i n the l i s t belowi very well  f a i r l y well  not well a t a l l  cars, trucks & machines planes or boats horses other animals  '  •  people faces - front view faces - side view clothes, fashion design  .  space scenes trees and flowers mountains 4 landscape cartoon characters  ._  battle scenes monsters gVns & tanks buildings everyday objectst bicycles furniture, etc. 4.  Do you draw best from memory or from real objects or from photographs? from memory  5.  not very clear  photographs Indicate how clearly i t appears not pictured a t a l l  How Important Is practice i n learning to draw? very important  7.  real objects  Close your eyes and try to picture your family car. in your mind. very clearly pictured  6.  *  somewhat important  not important  How important i s i t to concentrate while making a drawing? very important  somewhat important  not important  77  page 2  Drawing Survey  NAMEi  8.  Do you ever get discouraged with your drawing because you can't Bake i t look l i k e the real thing? often discouraged _ hardly ever never discouraged  9.  When you draw, how often are you  aware of the followingt very often sometimes  hardly ever  The source of l i g h t on the object Negative spaces l e f t by the object The size o f the object l n r e l a t i o n to the size of the paper  .  Shadows and darker tones on the surface of the object 10.  11.  What has helped you the most i n learning to draw? (Rank choicest 1st, 8nd, 3rd, 4th) a)  lessons  b)  drawing from real objects  c)  looking a t a r t i s t ' s and other people's drawings  d)  copying photos and cartoons  Indicate how well you think you draw the items i n the l i s t belowt very well about average Space scenes trees and flowers mountains A landscapes cartoon characters battle scenes monsters guns 4 tanks buildings everyday objects, bikes, furniture clothes, fashion design faces - side view faces - front view people horses other animals planes or boats cars, trucks 4 machines  not very well  78  - Drawing Survey 14.  page 3  MKEi  In the space below, draw a camplete picture of a person. you can.  Include r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s .  Make the best drawing  Use the f u l l sheet of paper f o r your drawing.  1  _  37  2  _  38_  3 4  39 40  5 6  41  7 8  * 3 _ 44  42  9 10  46  11  47  12  48  13  49  14  15 16  50 51 52  17 18  53 54_  19  55 56  20 21 ~ 22  23 24  57 58 59 60 61  26  62  27 28  63 64  29  65 66  30 31_ 32  6?_ 68  33 34  69 70  35  71 72  36._.  79  Braving Survey  page 4  NAJKEi  12. What do you think you draw best? 13.  Tell how you learned to draw i t .  lk.  In the space below, sake a drawing of the thing you draw best. (If you are not sure what to draw, you may draw an imaginary scene, an object in this room or your shoe.)  80  Appendix B Instructional  A c t i v i t y 1 - Chairs; Introduction.  Activities  N e g a t i v e Space ( s e e F i g u r e l ) A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e space,  s t u d e n t s were i n v i t e d t o e x p l o r e t h e concept by drawing a p r o f i l e on a s m a l l p i e c e o f paper.file  f a c i n g the f i r s t  They were t h e n i n s t r u c t e d to draw the r e v e r s e p r o one and t o connect the two a t t h e t o p and t h e bottom.  They were then asked t o shade i n t h e space i n between them.  I n the d i s -  c u s s i o n which f o l l o w e d , they i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were a b l e t o r e a d the image e i t h e r as a vase o r as two p r o f i l e s .  When asked which l i n e  ( p r o f i l e ) had  been more d i f f i c u l t t o draw, they a g r e e d t h a t the second p r o f i l e was h a r d e r because  i t had t o be c o p i e d i n the o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .  one mentioned  I n each c l a s s some-  t h a t i t was h a r d e r t o copy than t o draw from i m a g i n a t i o n be-  cause you had a s t a n d a r d o f comparison  present.  I t was a l s o mentioned i n  each d i s c u s s i o n t h a t , on the f i r s t p r o f i l e , you c o u l d say t o y o u r s e l f , " T h i s i s a f o r e h e a d ; t h i s i s a nose, e t c . , " b u t on t h e second one, you had t o draw w i t h o u t b e n e f i t o f v e r b a l d i r e c t i o n s and had t o r e l y on r e f e r e n c e s t o a n g l e s and changes i n d i r e c t i o n a l  line.  P r e l i m i n a r y exercise - Figure-ground r e v e r s a l . chance to p r a c t i c e a more c o m p l i c a t e d l i n e .  S t u d e n t s were g i v e n a  They were asked to c o n s t r u c t  a grotesque p r o f i l e o f a monster (complete w i t h warts and blemishes) and were i n s t r u c t e d t o draw the f a c i n g p r o f i l e .  Some t r a c e d t h e f i r s t  f i l e w i t h a f i n g e r o f one hand w h i l e they drew ..with t h e o t h e r . e r a s e d many times b e f o r e they were s a t i s f i e d .  Roughly  50%  pro-  Others  o f the s t u d e n t s  i n a l l c l a s s e s thought t h i s e x e r c i s e was e a s i e r than t h e p r e v i o u s one. Some s a i d i t was because  they were' " g e t t i n g the i d e a ; "  others s a i d i t  F i g u r e 1.  Chairs  82  was  because they were a b l e to make up t h e i r own  e x e r c i s e they had  p r o f i l e w h i l e on the  t r i e d t o make t h e i r s l o o k l i k e the t e a c h e r ' s .  h a l f o f the s t u d e n t s f e l t t h i s was  The  first other  the more d i f f i c u l t e x e r c i s e because the  l i n e s and a n g l e s were more c o m p l i c a t e d t o copy. Drawing a c t i v i t y - P o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e space. c u s s i o n o f n e g a t i v e space, s t u d e n t s were asked  to l o o k a t groups o f c h a i r s  p l a c e d on t a b l e s a t the f r o n t and back o f the room. to draw o n l y the spaces  After a further dis-  They were i n s t r u c t e d  i n and around the c h a i r s and to make the  spaces  touch the edge o f the paper i n a t l e a s t two p l a c e s .  Many cheated and  to draw the o u t l i n e s o f the c h a i r s .  to t u r n t h e i r  o v e r and to t r y a g a i n .  They were asked  papers  When s t u d e n t s f i n i s h e d t h e i r drawings they were  a l l o w e d to c o l o u r i n the n e g a t i v e spaces w i t h o i l p a s t e l s . was  tried  Black p a i n t  then a p p l i e d t o the e n t i r e s u r f a c e r e v e a l i n g the p o s i t i v e shapes o f the  chairs.  A c t i v i t y 2 - L i v e Model (see F i g u r e 2) Introduction. s t u d e n t s were asked mate f o r a model.  A f t e r the p r e v i o u s week's t r y a t drawing n e g a t i v e i f they would l i k e  to t r y drawing from l i f e w i t h a  A l l were e n t h u s i a s t i c about the i d e a .  which f o l l o w e d they were asked  space, class-  I n the d i s c u s s i o n  to t h i n k o f ways t h i s week's drawing would  d i f f e r from l a s t week's ( t h e model i s a l i v e and w i l l  tend to move; i t w i l l  get t i r e d and the drawing w i l l occupy p o s i t i v e i n s t e a d o f n e g a t i v e s p a c e ) . I t was  s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t both drawings would be a l i k e i n r e q u i r i n g  c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g o f the o b s e r v a t i o n s . asked  A l l c l a s s e s were  t o d e v i s e a s i m p l e , c l e a r s e t o f r u l e s f o r the- model and the  to f o l l o w .  class  The model would remain--as "^mmoving as p o s s i b l e , p i c k a s p o t on  the w a l l a t which to gaze and  take the r o l e s e r i o u s l y .  The c l a s s would draw  Figure 2.  Live Model 1  m c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y during the model's poses and agree not to• do anything to d i s t r a c t the model's a t t e n t i o n . There was a short d i s c u s s i o n o f m a t e r i a l s to be used (school p e n c i l s and 12" x 18" white c a r t r i d g e paper).  I t was e s t a b l i s h e d that the paper  was chosen to provide maximum c o n t r a s t w i t h the p e n c i l l i n e and that i t s r a t h e r l i g h t weight meant t h a t erasures had to be done j u d i c i o u s l y to avoid t e a r i n g the paper.  Students were asked to t r y to make t h e i r f i g u r e s l a r g e  enough to make the negative spaces around them i n t e r e s t i n g . Drawing a c t i v i t y .  Models were chosen from w i l l i n g volunteers (about  s i x to e i g h t students i n each c l a s s volunteered).  Each c l a s s had a boy and  a g i r l posing i n opposite ends o f the room a t the same time.  Students were  i n s t r u c t e d to move t h e i r desks i f necessary to get an unobstructed view and to draw the model they could see most completely and most comfortably. Models were given s t r a i g h t standing poses to approximate as nearly as p o s s i b l e the most common pose used i n the Draw. A' Person Test. Students were asked to draw f o r the e n t i r e session.  They were to  p r a c t i c e observing and to draw continuously f o r the 40-minute period and to s t a r t on the other model i f they f i n i s h e d the f i r s t one before the time was up. There was one e i g h t minute pose a t the beginning o f the session followed by f o u r f i v e minute poses. Activity 3  _  Household Objects:  Introduction. models.  Breaks were three minutes long.  Contour (see Figure 3)  There was a d i s c u s s i o n o f l a s t week's drawing from l i v e  Students agreed that t h e i r f a v o u r i t e method o f drawing was to look  at the model and to draw what they remembered while l o o k i n g a t t h e i r ' paper. In each c l a s s i t was mentioned that they often' f o r g o t what they saw between the time they looked away from the model and the time they began  Figure 3.'Household Objects  86  drawing on t h e i r paper. about 2%  When asked what they d i d about t h i s problem,  o f the s t u d e n t s s a i d they l o o k e d a g a i n and the r e s t s a i d  they  " s o r t o f made i t up." P r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e #1  - Upside-down drawing.  s e a t e d f i g u r e was drawn upside-down on t h e board. paper (4" x 5")  A l i n e drawing o f a S t u d e n t s were g i v e n s m a l l  and asked t o copy the drawing on the board.  to draw o n l y w h i l e l o o k i n g a t t h e board. any time t o check t h e i r p r o g r e s s on paper,  They were t o l d  They c o u l d s t o p t h e i r p e n c i l a t b u t they s h o u l d o n l y b e g i n moving  i t a g a i n when t h e i r gaze r e t u r n e d t o the f i g u r e on t h e board.  I t was  made c l e a r t h a t t h i s was j u s t an e x e r c i s e , the r e s u l t s o f which they would enjoy s h a r i n g w i t h t h e i r f r i e n d s .  They were g i v e n t e n minutes t o complete  the drawing and were asked t o keep drawing and o b s e r v i n g f o r the e n t i r e  time.  I f they f i n i s h e d e a r l y they were t o t u r n the paper o v e r and b e g i n a g a i n . P r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e #2 - B l i n d c o n t o u r drawing.  I n order to provide  p r a c t i c e i n drawing o n l y w h i l e l o o k i n g a t an o b j e c t , s t u d e n t s were asked t o draw a c h a i r w h i l e I t r a c e d i t s c o n t o u r s w i t h my f i n g e r .  They were asked  to draw s l o w l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y and n o t t o l e t t h e i r p e n c i l g e t ahead o f t h e i r p o i n t o f f o c u s on the t e a c h e r ' s f i n g e r . All  s t u d e n t s attempted Drawing a c t i v i t y .  They drew f o r f i v e  minutes.  t o draw o n l y w h i l e l o o k i n g a t the c h a i r . Groups were g i v e n b a t t e r e d , b u t i n t e r e s t i n g o l d  household o b j e c t s t o draw ( o l d c l o c k mechanism, a n t i q u e t o a s t e r , which they dubbed " B e a u t i f u l Junk."  telephones)  They were asked t o draw them u s i n g the  t e c h n i q u e s they had j u s t p r a c t i c e d ( c o n t o u r l i n e , drawing w h i l e d i r e c t l y o b s e r v i n g the o b j e c t ) .  We d i s c u s s e d m a t e r i a l s , n o t i n g the r i c h n e s s and  q u a l i t y o f l i n e t h a t c o u l d be o b t a i n e d u s i n g s o f t l e a d drawing p e n c i l s on m a n i l a paper.  S t u d e n t s were asked t o draw f o r the e n t i r e 3 5  - m  i  n u  t  e  session.  When they f i n i s h e d one o b j e c t they c o u l d b e g i n a n o t h e r one or- t r y i t from a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t angle.  8? A c t i v i t y 4 - Skeleton: Introduction.  Gesture and Volume (see Figure 4)  We discussed the skeleton model i n the classroom  the students located the major hones and joints on themselves.  and  They  practiced s i g h t i n g along a p e n c i l to measure the r e l a t i v e proportions of d i f f e r e n t parts of the body. Preliminary exercise - Drawing volume.  We discussed the concept of  volume and mass i n contrast to the concept of outline.  Students were asked  to use the side of t h e i r white o i l pastel and, through c a r e f u l observation of the model, to draw quickly and l i g h t l y the mass of the entire skeleton before " r e - v i s i t i n g " each part i n d e t a i l .  They were asked to press, hardest  on the parts c l o s e s t to them so that they would show up l i g h t e s t on t h e i r grey paper and to draw continuously f o r ten minutes. t h e i r papers with skeletons, beginning a new one.  They were to f i l l  one each time they f i n i s h e d  They were also reminded of the importance- of looking at the model  while they were drawing and asked not to look at t h e i r papers as they drew. Drawing a c t i v i t y .  In the discussion of the preliminary exercise, most  students admitted that they had had trouble remembering to draw the mass or volume f i r s t instead of the outline.  They f e l t , however, that they were  getting better at drawing while looking d i r e c t l y at an object.  We  talked  about empathy and of the a r t i s t i c necessity to become involved with the subject of one's drawing through f e e l i n g .  We discussed some of the f e e l i n g s  that one might have toward t h i s skeleton (horror, compassion, p i t y , e t c . ) . Students were asked to plan t h e i r pictures so that the skeleton f i l l e d the entire page and to f i l l  i n the mass of the whole f i g u r e with the side of  of t h e i r o i l pastel before going back to r e f i n e d e t a i l s .  Because they were  using white o i l pastel on black construction paper ( l 8 " x 24"), they were t o l d to press hardest on the parts c l o s e s t to them to accentuate t h e i r proximity.  88  F i g u r e 4.  Skeleton  89 Before  beginning  to draw s t u d e n t s  were asked to adopt a d e s c r i b a b l e  o r a t t i t u d e toward the s k e l e t o n and drew f o r 30  students  Still life  p l a y e d a t each t a b l e .  their functions.  (slow,  gesture  Tone (see F i g u r e s  arrangements o f bones and  pumpkins were d i s -  A t t e n t i o n was We  c a l l e d to the  shapes'-and-textures  reviewed the d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n t o u r draw-  ( q u i c k r e n d e r i n g o f t o t a l mass w i t h i n d i c a t i o n s o f movement and  discussed  the o b j e c t .  t r i e d i n t h e i r s k e l e t o n drawings the week b e f o r e .  the importance (and d i f f i c u l t y ) o f drawing w h i l e l o o k i n g a t The  video  camera was  also  introduced.  P r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e - Tone. ' S e v e r a l the opaque p r o j e c t o r and three dimensional  l i g h t source,  students  effects.  r e c t a n g l e s were shown and  t o n a l drawings were shown on  d i s c u s s e d d i f f e r e n t ways o f  s q u i n t and  achieving  P i c t u r e s o f modeled spheres, c y l i n d e r s and students  were asked to i d e n t i f y d i r e c t i o n o f  c a s t shadows, h i g h l i g h t s , deep tones and  were asked to choose an o b j e c t i n the s t i l l l i f e  middle tones.  They  arrangement a t t h e i r t a b l e ,  i d e n t i f y t h r e e d i f f e r e n t tones i n the o b j e c t .  Some had  diffi-  c u l t y because o f the r e f l e c t e d l i g h t i n the room, but a l l s a i d they c o u l d f i n d a t l e a s t one  h i g h l i g h t , c a s t shadow, middle and deep tone.  S t u d e n t s were g i v e n a p i e c e o f 8" x 11" b l a c k and white o i l p a s t e l s . still  5  c a r e f u l , p a r t - t o - p a r t b u i l d up o f form w i t h s e n s i t i v e l i n e ) and  volume) which they had We  Continuous Contour and  S t u d e n t s were asked to t r y to i d e n t i f y the types o f  i n h e r e n t i n each o b j e c t . ing  The  6)  Introduction.  bones and  i t d u r i n g the drawing.  minutes.  A c t i v i t y j - Bones and Pumpkins; and  to m a i n t a i n  feeling  life  A f t e r choosing  grey c o n s t r u c t i o n p a p e r  a pumpkin o r squash i n t h e i r  arrangement, they were to s q u i n t a t i t u n t i l  the tones we  had  d i s c u s s e d and  and  then draw i t q u i c k l y w i t h  they c o u l d  identify  the s i d e o f  their  90  F i g u r e 5-  Bones and Pumpkins; Tone  F i g u r e 6.  Bones and Pumpkins  92 b l a c k o i l p a s t e l , u s i n g o n l y tone to d e f i n e i t s mass.  They were to p u t i n  h i g h l i g h t s w i t h the w h i t e o i l p a s t e l and were g i v e n t h r e e minutes to complete the  drawing. S t u d e n t s were g i v e n 12"  Drawing a c t i v i t y .  and b l a c k , water s o l u b l e , f e l t - t i p p e d pens. still  l i f e arrangements  x 18"  paper  They were asked to draw the  i n f r o n t o f them b e g i n n i n g w i t h the form n e a r e s t to  them and to draw u s i n g a c o n t i n u o u s c o n t o u r l i n e . 20  white c a r t r i d g e  minutes w i t h o u t l i f t i n g  They were to draw f o r  t h e i r pen from the paper and t o draw o n l y w h i l e  l o o k i n g d i r e c t l y a t the o b j e c t .  Once the arrangement was  complete, they  were i n s t r u c t e d t o r e p e a t the forms they l i k e d b e s t and t o f i l l  the paper  w i t h bones and pumpkins, p a y i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the n e g a t i v e spaces formed by the a d d i t i o n s o f each o b j e c t . When f i n i s h e d , s t u d e n t s were asked t o i d e n t i f y t o n a l a r e a s i n each o b j e c t and to use water and a b r u s h to wash the water s o l u b l e i n k i n t o the d a r k e s t a r e a s to c r e a t e volume.  Activity 6 - Bicycles; Introduction. owned a b i c y c l e . got felt  Memory Drawing and V i e w f i n d e r s ( s e e F i g u r e s 7 and  I t was a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t everyone i n a l l f o u r c l a s s e s We  them,how o f t e n we  t a l k e d about o u r b i k e s :  what k i n d s we had, how  we  rode them, o u r e a r l i e s t memories o f them and how  toward o u r p a r t i c u l a r b i c y c l e .  S t u d e n t s were asked to c l o s e  we  their  eyes' and to r a i s e t h e i r hand as soon as they were a b l e to v i s u a l i z e bikes clearly.  8)  their  Roughly k-0% o f a l l s t u d e n t s i n each c l a s s i n d i c a t e d they  c o u l d c l e a r l y p i c t u r e a mental image o f t h e i r b i c y c l e .  The r e s t o f the  s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they c o u l d see p a r t s c l e a r l y , but c o u l d not see •the whole o b j e c t c l e a r l y . ••• i.'h/rvThree-'-s-tud-en-ts i n d i c a t e d t h e y c o u l d n o t see any image a t a l l w i t h t h e i r eyes c l o s e d .  These s t u d e n t s f e l t  confident,  93  Figure ?.  Memory Bicycle  94  Figure 8.  Bicycles,!  'Vlewfinders  95  however, that they could 'remember' everything w e l l enough to draw t h e i r b i cycles. P r e l i m i n a r y exercise - Memory drawing.  Students were asked to draw  t h e i r b i c y c l e from memory i n p e n c i l on 11" x 14" manila paper u s i n g any type o f l i n e o r method they wanted to as l o n g as they drew the best memory b i c y c l e they could.  They were a l s o asked to think about t h e i r f e e l i n g s  about t h e i r b i c y c l e as they drew i t and to t r y t o maintain a p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g o r a t t i t u d e toward i t .  They were to draw f o r 20 minutes from memory.  I f they f i n i s h e d before that time, they could t u r n the paper over and begin another drawing o f something from t h e i r memory. Students discussed d i f f i c u l t i e s they had t r y i n g to draw from memory. Many s a i d they f o r g o t to maintain a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d e toward t h e i r bike because they had been so busy t r y i n g to remember what i t looked l i k e . Drawing a c t i v i t y . viewfinders.  We discussed a r t i s t i c s e l e c t i o n and p r a c t i c e d using  Students were given viewfinders w i t h a square opening and a  square piece of manila paper folded i n t o quarters. They were asked to s e l e c t parts o f the d i s p l a y b i c y c l e u s i n g the v i e w f i n d e r and to draw what they saw w i t h a f i r m contour l i n e on one quarter o f the paper.  They were to pay  p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the r e l a t i v e placement o f l i n e s and shapes i n the viewfinder and to make these correspond to the placement on t h e i r paper. When they f i n i s h e d drawing i n a l l f o u r squares, they could shade i n the negative spaces.  Many students found u s i n g the v i e w f i n d e r was t i r i n g so  they began shading i n negative spaces a f t e r each drawing instead o f f i n i s h i n g the whole s e r i e s f i r s t . Activity 7 - Self Portraits: Introduction.  Continuous Contour (see Figure 9 )  Examples o f s e l f p o r t r a i t drawings were shown.  discussed q u a l i t y o f l i n e , placement, tone and emphasis.  We  Students noted that  96  Figure 9.  Self Portrait '  97 some o f t h e p o r t r a i t s r e l i e d h e a v i l y on shaded volume, some on pure l i n e and some on a c o m b i n a t i o n f o r e f f e c t .  We t a l k e d about c l a r i t y and honesty i n r e -  c o r d i n g what i s o b s e r v e d . P r e l i m i n a r y e x e r c i s e - B l i n d contour o f separate features. were g i v e n a 3"  x  Students  4" c a r d t o p i e r c e w i t h t h e i r p e n c i l p o i n t t o a c t a s a  " b l i n d " w h i l e t h e y drew s p e c i f i c f e a t u r e s o f t h e p e r s o n s i t t i n g d i r e c t l y a c r o s s from them.  They were asked t o draw each f e a t u r e u s i n g a c o n t i n u o u s  l i n e and t o draw o n l y w h i l e l o o k i n g a t t h e f e a t u r e .  They were n o t t o l i f t  the t i p o f t h e i r p e n c i l n o r t o l o o k a t t h e i r d r a w i n g u n t i l t h e y h a d completed the f e a t u r e .  When f i n i s h e d w i t h one f e a t u r e , t h e y were t o f i n d a c l e a n  space on t h e i r p a p e r and draw t h e r e m a i n i n g f e a t u r e s .  They were g i v e n  f i v e minutes t o complete a s e t o f f e a t u r e s . Most s t u d e n t s found t h e e x e r c i s e d i f f i c u l t .  They a d m i t t e d " c h e a t i n g "  i n o r d e r t o "sneak a peak" a t t h e i r d r a w i n g o r l i f t i n g t h e p e n c i l t o a more advantageous s p o t t o b e g i n a new l i n e .  Each c l a s s agreed t h a t they  would t r y hard i n t h e n e x t a c t i v i t y t o m a i n t a i n a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e . Drawing a c t i v i t y . and 12"  x 16"  S t u d e n t s were g i v e n m i r r o r s , f e l t - t i p p e d b l a c k pens  w h i t e c a r t r i d g e paper.  They were asked t o spend 20  d r a w i n g t h e i r own f a c e s w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s l i n e .  minutes  About h a l f o f t h e s t u d e n t s  began w i t h t h e h a i r f i r s t and t h e r e s t were a l m o s t e q u a l l y d i v i d e d between those who began w i t h t h e eyes and those who drew t h e l o w e r c o n t o u r o f t h e face f i r s t . A c t i v i t y 8 - L i v e Model ( s e e F i g u r e Introduction.  10)  The s t u d e n t s were e n t h u s i a s t i c about h a v i n g t h e chance  to draw t h e i r c l a s s m a t e s once a g a i n .  We r e v i e w e d what we had l e a r n e d about  r e l a t i v e body p r o p o r t i o n s , e s t a b l i s h i n g l i g h t s o u r c e s and placement o f f e a t u r e s on t h e f a c e .  Two s t u d e n t s ( a boy and a g i r l ) were chosen from t h e  98  99  many who v o l u n t e e r e d to pose i n each c l a s s . d r a w i n g from a model.  We reviewed the r u l e s f o r  The model a g r e e d t o remain a s unmoving as p o s s i b l e  and the c l a s s a g r e e d t o draw c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y d u r i n g the model's pose and to  t r y n o t t o do a n y t h i n g t h a t would d i s t r a c t the model's a t t e n t i o n . Drawing a c t i v i t y .  Each c l a s s had a boy and a g i r l p o s i n g i n o p p o s i t e  ends o f the room a t the same time a s b e f o r e . the  S t u d e n t s were t o l d t o draw  model they c o u l d see most c o m p l e t e l y and c o m f o r t a b l y and t o move  desks i f n e c e s s a r y t o g e t a n u n o b s t r u c t e d view.  their  Models were g i v e n s t r a i g h t  s t a n d i n g poses a s b e f o r e to most n e a r l y approximate the most common pose used i n t h e i r Draw A: P e r s o n T e s t . There was a n i n i t i a l e i g h t minute pose f o l l o w e d by f o u r f i v e poses. • Breaks were t h r e e minutes l o n g .  minute  S t u d e n t s r e f e r r e d to the model o f t e n  w h i l e they drew and no one drew w i t h t h e i r back c o m p l e t e l y t o the model a s some had i n the f i r s t l i v e model assignment.  The drawings were l a r g e r and  l o o s e r than they had been p r e v i o u s l y and many s t u d e n t s f i n i s h e d more q u i c k l y .  100 Appendix G Scoring C r i t e r i a f o r Drawings  S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r L i v e Model Drawings - Male o r Female 1.  Head present  2.  Neck present  3.  Neck, two dimensions ( s u f f i c i e n t l y wide to support head)  4.  Eyes present  5.  Eye d e t a i l :  "brow o r lashes'  6.  Eye d e t a i l :  p u p i l (ho convergence o r divergence)  7.  Eye d e t a i l :  p r o p o r t i o n ( h o r i z o n t a l l e n g t h greater than v e r t i c a l )  8.  Nose present  9.  Nose, two dimensions  ;  10.  Bridge of nose ( l e n g t h greater than width)  11.  N o s t r i l s c l e a r l y and c o r r e c t l y shown  12.  Mouth present  13.  'VLips,- two dimensions  14.  Beth nose and l i p s i n two dimensions  15;• ' Both' chin-and forehead shown 1  16.  Chin c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d  17.  Hair:  substance, shaped matter  18.  Hair:  d i r e c t e d o r brushed l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g texture  19.  Hair:  .distinct style  20.  Hair:  21.  Ears' pre sent  22.  Ears:  23.  Shoulders:  indication  p r o p o r t i o n and p o s i t i o n c o r r e c t c l e a r change of d i r e c t i o n (may not be square)  24.  Shoulders:  correct  armpit  25.  Arms:  26.  Arms a t s i d e ( o r a c t i v e )  27.  Elbow j o i n t i n d i c a t e d  28.  Fingers  29.  Fingers:  c o r r e c t number  30.  Fingers:  detail correct  31.  O p p o s i t i o n o f thumb  32.  Hands p r e s e n t  33-  W r i s t and a n k l e shown  34.  Legs  35.  Hip:  crotch o r hip convexity  36.  Hip:  e l a b o r a t i o n o r modeling  37.  Knee j o i n t i n d i c a t e d  38.  Feet:  placement a p p r o p r i a t e  39.  Feet:  proportion to f i g u r e  40.  Feet:  detail  41.  Feet:  d e f i n i t e s t y l e o f footwear (complete)  42.  Clothing:  indication  43.  Clothing:  d e t a i l s l e e v e and n e c k l i n e  44.  Clothing:  d e t a i l w a i s t and below  45.  Clothing:  no  46.  Clothing:  d e f i n i t e type, complete, no i n c o n g r u i t i e s  47.  Clothing:  f i n e d e t a i l s ( s t i c h e s , button  48.  Proportion:  f a c e ( l e n g t h g r e a t e r than width)  49.  Proportion:  head t o t r u n k  50.  Proportion:  arm narrows t o w r i s t  correct length  present  (back o f hand i n d i c a t e d )  present ( c o r r e c t angle)  to f i g u r e  transparancies  holes)  102 51.  Proportion:  hand to f i g u r e  52.  Proportion:  l e g s to t r u n k  53 •  Motors  juncture of  54.  Motor:  controlled line  55.  Motor:  superior control, free of  56.  Sketching  57-  Modeling technique:  58.  Directed l i n e s :  head o u t l i n e  59.  Directed lines:  trunk  60.  Directed l i n e s :  appendages may  61.  Directed l i n e s :  s w e l l i n g a t c a l f and  62.  Facial  63.  P e n c i l pressure  64.  Size:  65.  Jaw  lines  erasures  technique  features:  d r a p e r y shown, attempt a t s h a d i n g  not narrow j o i n i n g "body forearm.  symmetrical appropriate  p r o p o r t i o n a l to the p a p e r ( n o t l e s s than  line clearly  indicated  l/2)  DO NOT COPY LEAVES 103-108. The Goodenough-Harris Draw a Person Test may be found i n D. H a r r i s , Children's Drawings as a Measure-,^ of I n t e l l e c t u a l Maturity (New York: Harcourt Brace and World, 19o3v. Goodenough-Harris Draw A Person Test S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r Draw A-Pe-rsen-Test - Woman P o i n t S c a l e 1.  Head present  2.  Neck Present  3.  Neck,two dimensions  4.  Eyes present  5.  Eye d e t a i l :  brow o r lashes  6.  Eye d e t a i l 5  pupil  7.  Eye d e t a i l :  proportion  8.  Cheeks  9.  Nose present  10.  Nose, two dimensions  11.  Bridge of nose  12.  N o s t r i l s shown  13.  Mouth present  14.  L i p s , two dimensions  15.  "Cosmetic l i p s "  16.  Both nose and l i p s i n two dimensions  17.  Both c h i n and forehead shown  18.  L i n e o f jaw i n d i c a t e d  19.  Hair:  indication  20.  Hair:  shaded matter  21.  Hair:  definite style  ' 22.  Hair:  texture, directed l i n e s  23.  Necklace o r earrings  24.  Arms present  25.  Shoulders  26.  Arms a t side ( o r engaged i n a c t i v i t y o r behind back)  103 '  27.  Elbow j o i n t shown  28.  Fingers present  29.  C o r r e c t number o f f i n g e r s  30.  Detail of fingers correct  31.  O p p o s i t i o n o f thumb shown  32.  Hands p r e s e n t  33-  Legs p r e s e n t  34.  H i p s shown:  35.  Feet:  any i n d i c a t i o n  36.  Feet:  proportion  37.  Feet:  detail  38.  Shoe:  "feminine"  39.  Shoe:  style  40.  Placement o f f e e t a p p r o p r i a t e to f i g u r e  41.  Attachment o f arms and l e g s t o t r u n k  42.  Attachment o f arms and l e g s :  43.  Clothing indicated  44.  Sleeve:  any i n d i c a t i o n  45.  Sleeve:  detail  46.  N e c k l i n e : . o t h e r than neck  47.  Neckline:  48.  Waist:  change i n d i r e c t i o n  49.  Waist:  b e t t e r than s i n g l e  50.  Skirt  51.  No t r a n s p a r e n c i e s i n the f i g u r e  52.  Garb f e m i n i n e  53-  Garb complete w i t h o u t i n c o n g r u i t i e s  -  shown  c o r r e c t angle o f l e g s  d e t a i l , shaped  c o r r e c t angles  collar  line  "modeled" t o i n d i c a t e p l e a t s o r d r a p i n g  54.  Garb a definite "type"  55.  Trunk present  56.  Trunk i n proportion, two dimensions  57.  Head-trunk proportion:  58.  Head;  59.  Limbs:  60.  Arms i n proportion to trunk  61.  Location of waist  62.  Dress-= area  63.  Motor coordination:  juncture of lines  64.  Motor coordination:  clean, controlled lines  65-  Superior motor coordination:  66.  Directed lines and form:  head outline  67.  Directed lines and form:  breast  68.  Directed lines and form:  hip contour, convexity  69.  Directed lines and form:  arms taper  70.  Directed lines and form:  calf of leg indicated  71.  Directed lines and form:  facial features symmetrical  head at least l/4 body size  proportion proportion  *72.  Ears indicated  *73-  Proportion:  *74.  Shading or modelling  *75.  Cartoon features  clean, sure, no erasures  hands and feet to figure  Modifications made by the author  106 Goodenough-Harris Draw A Person Test S c o r i n g C r i t e r i a f o r Draw A Person Test - Man P o i n t Scale 1.  Head present . ...  2.  Neck present  3.  Neck, two dimensions  k.  Eyes present  5.  Eye d e t a i l :  brow o r lashes  6.  Eye d e t a i l :  pupil  7.  Eye d e t a i l :  proportion  8.  Eye d e t a i l :  9.  Nose present  glance  10.  Nose, two dimensions  11.  Mouth present  12.  L i p s , two dimensions  13.  Both nose and l i p s i n two dimensions  14.  Both c h i n and forehead shown  15.  P r o j e c t i o n o f c h i n shown:  16.  Line o f jaw i n d i c a t e d  17.  Bridge o f nose  18.  Hair:  indication  19.  Hair:  any attempt a t substance  20.  Hair:  style  21.  Hair:  texture o r d i r e c t i o n l i n e s  22.  Ears present  23.  Ears present:  2k.  Fingers present  25.  Correct number o f f i n g e r s shown  26.  Detail of fingers correct  c h i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from lower l i p  p r o p o r t i o n and p o s i t i o n  107 27.  Opposition o f thumb shown  28.  Hands present  29.  W r i s t o r ankle shown  30.  Arms present  31.  Shoulders:  c l e a r change of d i r e c t i o n  32.  Shoulders:  c o r r e c t armpit  33.  Arms a t side o r engaged i n a c t i v i t y  34.  Elbow j o i n t shown  35.  Legs present  36.  Hip: crotch c o r r e c t angle  37.  Hip: e l a b o r a t i o n  38.  Knee j o i n t shown  39.  Feet:  any i n d i c a t i o n  40.  Feet:  proportion  41.  Feet:  heel- i n d i c a t e d  42.  Feet:  perspective appropriate to p o s i t i o n o f body  43.  Feet:  d e t a i l and s t y l e o f shoe  44.  Attachment o f arms and l e g s to trunk  45.  Attachment o f arms and l e g s :  46.  Trunk present  47.  Trunk i n proportion, two dimensions  48.  Proportion:  head to t o t a l f i g u r e  49.  Proportion:  head to trunk area  50.  Proportions  face  51.  Proportions  length of arms  52.  Proportion:  arms narrow to w r i s t  53.  Proportion:  l e g s not l e s s than trunk  c o r r e c t angles and p o s i t i o n  108  54.  Proportion:  55.  Clothing:  indication  56.  Clothing:  two  a r t i c l e s shown  57.  Clothing:  no  transparencies  58.  Clothing:  four a r t i c l e s with  59.  Clothing:  complete, no i n c o n g r u i t i e s  60.  Profile:  features  61.  Profile:  details correct  62.  F u l l face:  63.  Motor c o o r d i n a t i o n :  juncture of l i n e s  64.  Motor c o o r d i n a t i o n :  clean, c o n t r o l l e d l i n e s  65.  S u p e r i o r motor c o o r d i n a t i o n :  66.  D i r e c t e d l i n e s and  form:  head o u t l i n e  67.  D i r e c t e d l i n e s and  form:  trunk o u t l i n e  68.  D i r e c t e d l i n e s and  form:  arms and  69.  D i r e c t e d l i n e s and  form:  f a c i a l features  70.  "Sketching"  71.  "Modeling" t e c h n i q u e  72.  Arm  73.  l e g movement  limbs  i n two  dimensions  detail  present  features correct  c l e a n , sure, no  l e g s may  technique  movement  *74.  Proportion:  *75-  Cartoon f e a t u r e s  hands and  * M o d i f i c a t i o n s made by the  f e e t to f i g u r e  author  erasures  not narrow a t symmetrical  trunk  109 Appendix D DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N S  #1 s  NAME:  DIVISION:  DATE:  ASSIGNMENT:  Chairs  1. What do you l i k e best about the drawing you d i d today?  2. What d i d you have the most trouble with?  3.  Do you understand the difference between POSITIVE and NEGATIVE space? Yes  No  Not sure  4.  B r i e f l y t e l l what i s meant by NEGATIVE space:  5.  How well d i d you concentrate on your drawing?  very well f a i r l y well poorly  6.  What interfered most with your a b i l i t y  7.  How well d i d you succeed i n making yourself draw only the negative space? very well  .  f a i r l y well  to concentrate?  not very well  8.  Did you make your drawing large enough so that i t touched the edge of the paper i n places?  9r  Did  the drawing session pass quickly o r slowly f o r you?  Quickly  Slowly  Not aware o f time passing  110  DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N #2  NAME:  DIVISION:  DATE:  ASSIGNMENT:  1.  How well d i d you concentrate on your drawing?  very well  Live Model  f a i r l y well_  poorly 2.  What interfered most with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  3.  What do you l i k e best about the drawing you d i d today?  4.  What d i d you have the most trouble with?  5.  What do you think you could do to improve your drawing?  6.  Did you make your drawing large enough on the paper to make the negative spaces interesting?  7.  Which d i d you enjoy drawing more? A) Last week's drawing more  T e l l Why. m  B) This week's drawing more WHY?  8.  Did  the drawing session pass quickly o r slowly f o r you?  Quickly  Slowly  Not aware of time passing  Ill  DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N #3  M  m  DIVISION:  t  DATE:  ASSIGNMENT:  Household Objects  1.  What d i d you l i k e best about the drawing you d i d today?  2.  What d i d you have the most trouble with?  3.  Did you draw slowly enough to allow your p e n c i l to follow your eye around the outline o f the object?  4.  How well d i d you concentrate on your drawing today?  very well f a i r l y well poorly  '  5.  What i n t e r f e r e d most with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  6.  Which d i d you have to concentrate on more? A) Upside down objects B)  Right side up objcets  WHY? 7.  Did you have to concentrate more on t h i s week's drawing or l a s t week's? T e l l Why. A.) This week's drawing more B)  Last week's drawing more  WHY?  8.  Did the drawing session pass quickly o r slowly f o r you? Quickly  Slowly  Not aware o f time passing  112 DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N  #4  N A M E  *  m  :  T  E  DIVISION! ASSIGNMENT:  Skeleton  1.  Which of the drawings you d i d today do you l i k e better?  T e l l WHY?  2.  What d i d you have the most trouble with i n each of today's drawings?  #1-  #2 3.  How well d i d you succeed i n l i g h t l y planning the entire drawing before going back and putting i n d e t a i l s ? very well  f a i r l y well  not very well  4.  Did you remember to colour the parts closest to you more heavily than the parts f a r t h e r away? yes some of the time no  5.  Were you able to maintain a p a r t i c u l a r f e e l i n g toward the skeleton while you were drawing i t ? Most of the time  Sometimes  No  6.  Describe the f e e l i n g you had toward the skeleton while drawing i t .  7.  How well were you able to concentrate on your drawing today? very well  f a i r l y well  poorly  8.  What interfered with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  9.  Did the drawing session pass:  Quickly  Slowly  Not aware of Time_  113  DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N #5  NAME:  .  DATE: 1.  DIVISION: . _  ASSIGNMENT:  Bones and Pumpkins  T e l l what you l i k e t e s t about each of the drawings you d i d today: #1  #2  2.  What do you think you could do to improve each drawing?  #1 # 2  3.  How well d i d you succeed i n keeping your eye focussed on the object while you drew i t ? very well f a i r l y well not very well  4.  Were you able to i d e n t i f y the shadows and highlights on the objects? yes  no  5.  Which d i d you have the most trouble seeing?  6.  How well d i d you concentrate very well  a) shadows b) highlights  on your drawing? f a i r l y well  poorly  7.  What interfered most with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  8.  Show that you understand how to shade a c i r c l e with a given l i g h t source by shading the small c i r c l e s below.  114 DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N #6  NAME:  DIVISION:  DATE:  ASSIGNMENT:  1.  How well d i d you concentrate on each o f the drawings today? A.) Memory B i c y c l e B)  2.  Bicycles  very w e l l  f a i r l y well  poorly  Viewfinder - Parts - very well  f a i r l y well  poorly  Which drawing d i d you have to concentrate on more?  T e l l Why?  A) Memory B) Viewfinder 3.  What interfered with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  4.  Were you able to maintain a conscious f e e l i n g or attitude toward the b i c y c l e while you drew i t from memory?  Yes  Slightly  No  5.  Describe the f e e l i n g you had toward the bicycle i n your memory drawing.  6.  In the viewfinder drawings, were you aware of the following while you drew: Yes Sometimes No Negative space Direction of l i n e Taking mental measurements. Time passing Placement of the drawing r e l a t i v e to placement i n viewfinder window Distractions i n the class  7.  T e l l what you had the most d i f f i c u l t y with i n today's drawing session.  115 D R A ¥ I N G  E V A L U A T I O N #7  NAME: D A T E  1.  DIVISION:  .  ASSIGNMENT:  How  well d i d you concentrate  very well  '  on today's drawing? fairly  w e l 1  P  2.  What interfered with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  3.  How  °°  r l y  well d i d you succeed i n keeping the t i p of your pen on the paper i n  the continuous l i n e drawing?  very well  f a i r l y well  4.  Which part of the face d i d you have most trouble with?  5.  Why  6.  Did the drawing session pass quickly or slowly f o r you?  Tell  not very well Why  do you think you had trouble with i t ?  Quickly  7.  Self Portrait  Slowly  Not aware of time passing  Which part of the face d i d you have the most success i n drawing?  116 DRAWING  E V A L U A T I O N #8  NAME:  DIVISION:  DATE:  ASSIGNMENT:  1.  What do you l i k e best about the drawing you d i d today?  2.  What d i d you have the most trouble with?  3.  How well d i d you concentrate on today's drawing? very well  f a i r l y well  ' Live Model  poorly  4.  What interfered with your a b i l i t y to concentrate?  5.  S t a r the drawings below that you enjoyed doing most i n t h i s u n i t . Put an x next to the ones you enjoyed doing l e a s t i n the u n i t . Negative space - chairs Live drawings from a model Household objects - "Beautiful Junk" Skeletons Bones and pumpkins Bicycles Self portraits  6. What do you think are the most important things to keep i n mind when you are learning to draw?  7.  Did today's drawing session pass quickly o r slowly f o r you? Quickly  Slowly  Not aware of time passing  1.17 Appendix E Sample Teacher Logs T E A C H E R DATE.  November 2 4  L 0 G #  8_  1  DIVISION  ASSIGNMENT: Live model  Ex - refers to model 0 - does not r e f e r to model Entrance  w- completes plan of whole before doing d e t a i l s b - begins with (head, feet, etc.) T - t a l k i n g and not drawing ss- second start L i v e l y but f a i r l y orderly  Introduction:  Listened quietly during introduction  3.  Atmosphere i n room:  4.  eager, relaxed Levels of concentration and p a r t i c i p a t i o n :  11:00  - 11:08  11:35-H :40  11:20-11*25  .  Pose #1- some giggling at f i r s t . . . s e t t l e d i n 30 seconds  #3 - settled immediatel f excellent concentratio  11:45  # 4 Excellent concentration even by this pose  #2 - 11:11 - 11:16 s e t t l ed immediately..absolute s i Lence Distractions:Borrowing erasers. 6. #1  -  11:55  F i l l e d out Evaluationindependently and auietly -most worked on drawing u n t i l the b e l l  Desks turning during #4 to draw other model  Feelings toward class & Individuals during lesson. Why? , Triangle of talkers at T-3 i r r i t a t i n g . Pleased with e f f o r t and concentration evident. No e f f o r t i s needed to maintain quiet. Rest of class drawing seriously and with purpose. Talking ceases a f t e r pose #1. 6 kept drawing during Break #1, Break #2 was quieter... some movement & sharing; 9 kept drawing. 4 drew during Break #3  7.  Feelings a f t e r class leaves.  Why?  8.  Some excellent drawings. Best class yet a l l completed Spot checks. Remarks:  | b-head , Exl234  Triangle at T-3 wastes a l o t of time work r e f l e c t s their disinterest  I  model mo  L  b-head Exl234  Most students observing model even when they get to clothing ->• -ss - — i b-head . _ _ _ T234 T234 I I b-head b-head T T , ' Exl234 Ex 1234 012 Ex 3 ss 111 1 04 0 1 2 4 Ex3 1 ' constant verbal on visual exchange 1  b-head Ex 1234  b-head Ex 1234  w Exl2 034  fT-feet" ' T2-  b-head I Exl23 * (finished ait 3  sits  b-head 1 Exl234 '  1 b-head  clowning 01, Ex234  T2  0 1234  (finishes -begins new b-hair  m  o  d  e  l  ar 4)  11  j | Ex 1 4 023 I b-head Exl234  b-head Ex 1234  ,  J  IJ  -head , Ex 123 04  j  b-head Ex 123  b-head Exl2  b-head Exl234  J  b-head  Ex  1234  01  b-head Ex 234.- draws "stock" head Jrefers to model f o r clothes  118  T E ACHED DA 7Z •.  L 0 G#  DIVISION  November 16, 1981  2  Live Model  ASSIGNMENT:  w— completes plan,of whole before doing d e t a i l s b - begins with (head, feet, etc.) T - t a l k i n g and not drawing ss - second start  Ex - refers to model D - does not r e f e r to model 1.  Entrance:  2.  Introduction:  3.  Attentive Atmosphere i n room: l i v e l y , relaxed  4.  Levels of concentration and p a r t i c i p a t i o n :  Orderly  11:00-11:08  11:  11:20-11:25  Pose #1 - Quiet right #3 - a l l drawing at away, no talking durii g f i r s t i n absolute silence. Talking 1st pose begins a f t e r 3 mins. #2 11:11-11:16 - Excellent concentration 6.  8  #4 - F a i r concentratioi some whispering afte 2 minutes.. Quiet talking by end of pose  Feelings toward class & individuals during lesson.  # 1 - 4 people drew during break.  11:45  35-11:^0  - 11:55  Evaluation Quiet and Independent -Chatted u n t i l the b e l l  Why?  Most moved around and v i s i t e d  # 2 - 4 kept drawing #3 - No one drawing, during break..all moving around and chatting 7.  Feelings a f t e r class leaves.  Why?  Many students finished (or thought they did) by the end of the second pose. Instead of beginning the other model they cha§£e£ checks. Remarks: Concentration high f o r 1 s t and 2nd poses No one began a 2nd drawing. Students seemed i n a hurry to f i n i s h . Few used breaks to improve drawing. Details are hasty.  IT. b-head Exl2 034  8  1  I  .  '  I  Ex 1 0234  L  0 34 1  b-head Ex 12  b-head Exl2 .-  -034- -  b-eye Ex 12  0 34 Beads) W  Ex 1234  034  b-head Ex 1234  b-head Ex 12 034  w Ex 123 04  b-head  Exl234  1 1 1 1 1 b-head 1 • Ex 123 04  - - - -T  Ex ] 123  P4_  b-heada~"l ( 1 Exl234 1  b-head Ex 12  b-head  I  r  b-middle Ex 12 0  023  /  ~~  ~.  0234!  Ex  1  Draws entirely from ^.^ekd neighbor _ ' ^ . e  I_ --  1  b-head b-head| T .23 T, I (waste entire pose #3) ' Ex 1 Ex 14  -0-1234.  --J23- 0Zy±_ _| Z  r  34  T  b-middle Ex 1 N  0234  J b-head Ex 123 04 \ T-4  b-head Ex 1,3 02,4  _ J  119  TEACHER DATE: Ex 0  November 17, 1981  L O G ; 1__  DIVISION  Live Model  ASSIGNMENT:  w- completes plan o f whole before doing d e t a i l s b - begins with (head, feet, etc.) T - talking and not drawing ss- second start  refers to model does not refer to model  1. Entrance:  Orderly Passive a t f i r s t , enthusiastic as models are chosen. Most of this class wanted to use soft, a r t pencils Atmosphere i n room: Serious and productive at f i r s t j noisy toward the end  2. Introduction: 3. 4.  Levels of concentration and participation: 9:48 9:15 - 9:23 9:33 - 9:38  #3 - Settled quickly, Pose #1 - Excellent concentration. Sett! es concentration beimmediately to work gins to break down -talking at T-6 i n 1 nin. a f t e r 2 mins.  9:5? - 10:15 E valuation- quiet and independent except for T-6  #4 - took 1 min. to settle. T-6 murmurs entire time, quiet talking throughout room as people f i n i s t  #2 - 9:26 - 9:31  Settled imm. except T -6 6.  9:53  Feelings toward class & individuals during lesson.  Why?  T-6 talked during entire class... spent approx. 7-8 minutes drawing. Breaks were noisy. A l o t of v i s i t i n g . 10 kept drawing during B. #1; 6 drew during B #2 I r r i t a t i o n at number of people who wasted time. 7.  Feelings a f t e r class leaves.  Why?  Larger, looser drawings than before. Many finished early. Could have put more into drawings. 8. Spot checks. Remarks: When they talk they, freckle or doodle mechanically. There's more talking as they observe less or ss they revert to familiar drawing symbols  I b-head Exl23 i o4  b-shoulder b-pan-Jsl T? i o*a 01 Ex 123 ~ 0 4 Ex234 v  | b-head b-head b-headj Ex 1 0 — Ex IO234' Ex 1 T234 TALKING" ~  b-headd  b-head 01 Ex2  014 Ex23  TI  T234- b-head Ex 1 ^ (>234 \ ^ J. \ " %  ---~-21234 b-head b-head Ex3 0 1,4 01234 gives drawing • lesson . j  j J^'head ' -  ~~ behead"  1 ' 01234——T-4—-^Ex 1 t' 0234  I  b-head Ex 123 0 4  b-pants Exl23 04  b-pants' ' b-head 01 4 ' Ex 13 Ex 2 3 J j 024—T24—  b-head b-pants Ex 12 Ex 12 O34--T- --034 b-head Ex 13 024 -  ,01234 -T24  1  b-shoulderj (ruler) 01234 I b-head 0123 Ex 4  I  b-head Ex 3 0124  b-head  T12  012 Ex3  _IL_  b-head Ex 12 0 34  JU  b-head Ex 12 034  w Ex 123 04  -J  J  120  T E A C H E R  1.  Entrance:  2.  Introduction:  Q  u  i  e  ASSIGNMENT:  Live model  w- completes plan o f whole before doing d e t a i l s b - begins with-(head, feet, etc.) T - talking and not drawing ss- second start  refers to model does not refer to model  Ex 0  ti  DIVISION  November 1 6 . 1981  BATE:  LOG  t  A b i t lethargic, not very serious during introduction. f o r special drawing pencils when offered Atmosphere i n room:  3.  Only 4 asked  lethargic at f i r s t . . . l a t e r , serious, very purposeful 4.  Levels of concentration and p a r t i c i p a t i o n : 9:33-9:38 - 9:23 9:48 -  9:53  9:15  Pose #1 - a b i t slow t | settle - absolute s i l e a f t e r 40-seconds #2  -  9:26-9:31  immediately. rpntptlnr  # 3 - serious, good concentration 8 - 1 0 students drawing"during 1 s t & 2 n d breaks  c e  - settl< d Good con4,  9: 59 -  10:17  #4 - Some whispering a » Some talking during people begin to evaluation f i n i s h . A l o t of 14 returned to work erasing during break and a t begin until bell or poses  ^ w . 2i Mike i s restless, taps eraser constantly, Scott drops things Feelings toward class & individuals during lesson. Vhy?  ,,.  ^  6.  u  c h a r  U  e i  I f e e l I have to monitor the talking intensely to keep the control on. Most are referring to the model and trying to observe closely. Am pleased with the breaks.. . noise l e v e l i s low. Students keep on drawing during breaks, but erase alot at the beginning of next pose 7.  Feelings a f t e r class leaves.  Why?  Drawings are looser than f i r s t ones, a l o t larger...some don't f i t on page. 8. Spot checks.  They are  b-head Exl23  Remarks:  b-headI Exl234 '  b-head Exl23  (refers to ge^ghbour) Many stopped drawing by 4th pose...sat, 10 started the other model  b-head , -T Ex 1  Ex  |_023 Ib-head Exl23 04  b-feet Exl2  1  1  Ex  w  b-head  b-head  1234  Exl234  L  b-head 1 ss I reads 1 01234  JL  b-head Ex  1234  b-head  L  ;  0'  Exl234  b-head Ex 1 2 3 4  b-head Exl23 04  I  b-head  1  Exl234  JL  b-head Ex 1 2 3  b-head  T1234  01234^  1 1  03  1 1  b-feet") I 01234  b-head —T  2,3. 1  b-head Ex 1 '  _023_  I fT-head"' ~ Exl234  b-head Exl234  b-head  JL  0123  Ex 4  b-head  Ex 1 2 3 0 4  b-feet Ex 1 2 3 4  - J  J  

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