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Alpine and subalpine vegetation in the southern Chilcotin Mountain rangelands of British Columbia Selby, Corinne Judy 1980

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ALPINE AND SUBALPINE VEGETATION IN THE SOUTHERN CHILCOTIN MOUNTAIN RANGELANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by CORINNE JUDY SELBY B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P l a n t Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1980 (c) Corinne Judy Selby, 1980 i n In presenting th i s thesis in pa r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shal l make i t f ree ly avai lable for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of th i s thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publ icat ion of th i s thesis for f inanc ia l gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department O f P l a n t . S n i s n n s The Univers ity of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 _ _ A p r i l 2k, 1980 Date E-6 B P 75-51 1 E A b s t r a c t : An e c o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of high e l e v a t i o n range provides a framework fo r proper resource management. A l p i n e and subalpine v e g e t a t i o n i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains was studied to c h a r a c t e r i z e the plan t communities of the high e l e v a t i o n rangelands i n the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. The impacts of grazing on the s t r u c t u r e and composition of the veget a t i o n were evaluated. Two hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e s i t e s were sampled i n a 10,000 ha area. P l o t s were s e l e c t e d randomly w i t h i n homogeneous u n i t s d e l i n e a t e d on 1:30,000 (40 chain) a i r photos p r i o r to the f i e l d season. These were c l a s s i f i e d on the ba s i s of physiognomy, dominant species and environmental c o n d i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g nineteen community types were described: Picea engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t , Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis f o r e s t , S a l i x bare l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland, S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e shrub wetland, S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i shrubland, S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. s h r u b f i e I d , S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e I d , Arctostaphylos  uva-ursi-Ame1anchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland, S a l i x cascadensis dwarf w i l l o w shrubland, Dryas o c t o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d , Dryas octopetala-Festuca a l t a i c a a l p i n e grassland, Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland, Carex n i g r i c a n s l a t e snowbed meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a brachyphylla meadow, Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow, Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum meadow, Phleum alpinum-Carex  phaeocephala meadow, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry meadow, and crustose l i c h e n rock-land or t a l u s t e r r a i n u n i t . Changes i n the s t r u c t u r e and composition of pla n t communities i n response to grazing pressure were evident on the more h e a v i l y used v a l l e y bottom meadow community types. A f t e r many years of use, Festuca a l t a i c a appears to have, been el i m i n a t e d from h e a v i l y grazed meadows, there i s a decrease i n the height of the v e g e t a t i o n , an increase i n the exposed bare ground, and an increase i n the abundance of weedy species i n a l l community types. Many of the community types described from t h i s region are f l o r i s t i c a l l y and/or e c o l o g i c a l l y comparable with p l a n t communities described from other high e l e v a t i o n areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the southern Yukon, and the P a c i f i c Northwest of the United States. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES v i i LIST OF APPENDICES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x 1. INTRODUCTION 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA 6 1. H i s t o r y 6 2. Physiography and Geology 8 3. S o i l s 9 4. Climate 12 5. Vegetation 15 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 22 3. METHODOLOGY ~ 35 4. RESULTS 39 Forest Types 42 1) Picea engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t 45 2) Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis dry f o r e s t 47 T a l l Shrub Types 49 1) S a l i x bare lay i-Carex a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland 49 2) S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e shrub wetland 51 3) S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix bare l a y i shrubland 53 4) S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. shrub f i e l d 55 5) S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e l d 57 6) Arctostaphylos uva-ursi-Ame1anchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland 59 - i v -Page Dwarf Shrub Types 61 1) S a l i x cascadensis dwarf w i l l o w shrubland 61 2) Dryas octopetala f e l l f i e l d 63 3) Dryas octopetala-Festuca a l t a i c a a l p i n e grassland 65 Meadow Types 67 1) Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland 67 2) Carex n i g r i c a n s l a t e snowbed meadow 69 3) Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a brachyphylla meadow 69 4) Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow 73 5) Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum meadow 75 6) Phleum alpinum-Carex phaeocephala meadow 77 7) K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry meadow 79 Ro c k - t a l u s - l i c h e n t e r r a i n u n i t 81 5. RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL TEMPERATURE TO PLANT COMMUNITY DISTRIBUTION 84 6. NOTES ON THE FLORA OF THE SOUTHERN CHILCOTIN MOUNTAINS 90 7. DISCUSSION 95 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Pla n t Community Types 95 2. Successional R e l a t i o n s h i p s of Pla n t Communities 102 3. Grazing I m p l i c a t i o n s 106 4. R e l a t i o n s h i p of plant community types from the study area 116 with those of surrounding areas 5. R e l a t i o n s h i p to previous high e l e v a t i o n range studies 121 8. SUMMARY 127 LITERATURE CITED 130 APPENDIX A 139 APPENDIX B 148 APPENDIX C 163 - v -LIST OF TABLES Page I. SELECTIVE LIST OF FORAGE PREFERENCE BY CATTLE ON MOUNTAIN 29 GRASSLAND RANGES IN COLORADO AND WYOMING I I . SELECTIVE LIST OF FORAGE PREFERENCE BY SHEEP ON FESTUCA 30 IDAHOENSIS ELMER RANGE IN WESTERN COLORADO (MAY, 1960) I I I . SUMMARY FLORISTIC TABLE SHOWING CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES GROUPS FOR 44 THE NINETEEN COMMUNITY TYPES. CONSTANCY VALUES ARE RECORDED ONLY WHEN A SPECIES OCCURS IN 20% OR MORE OF THE PLOTS INCLUDED IN THE COMMUNITY TYPE IV. PICEA ENGELMANII-ABIES LASIOCARPA FOREST 46 V. PINUS ALBICAULIS-JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS DRY FOREST 48 VI. SALIX BARCLAYI-CAREX AQUATILIS SHRUB WETLAND 50 V I I . SALIX BARRATTIANA ALPINE SHRUB WETLAND 52 V I I I . SALIX BRACHYCARPA-SALIX BARCLAYI SHRUBLAND 54 IX. SALIX BRACHYCARPA-FESTUCA SPP. SHRUBFIELD 56 X. SALIX BRACHYCARPA-PHLEUM ALPINUM SHRUBFIELD 58 XI. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI-AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA DRY SHRUBLAND 60 X I I . SALIX CASCADENSIS SWARF WILLOW SHRUBLAND 62 X I I I . DRYAS OCTOPETALA FELLFIELD 64 XIV. DRYAS-FESTUCA ALTAICA ALPINE GRASSLAND 66 XV. CAREX AQUATILIS/ROSTRATA WETLAND 68 XVI. CAREX NIGRICANS LATE SNOWBED MEADOW 70 XVII. FESTUCA ALTAICA-FESTUCA BRACHYPHYLLA MEADOW 71 XVIII. FESTUCA BRACHYPHYLLA MEADOW 74 XIX. FESTUCA BRACHYPHYLLA-PHLEUM ALPINUM MEADOW 76 XX. PHLEUM ALPINUM-CAREX PHAEOCEPHALA MEADOW 78 XXI. KOELERIA CRISTATA MEADOW 80 XXII. ROCK-TALUS-LICHEN TERRAIN UNIT 82 XXIII. SUMMARY FLORISTIC TABLE SHOWING CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES 108 GROUPS FOR FOUR VALLEY BOTTOM MEADOWS. VALUES ARE COVER CLASS - v i -LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. Lo c a t i o n of study area 3 2. Grazing u n i t s included i n the study area 4 3. Topographic map of the study area and v i c i n i t y 5 4. P r e l i m i n a r y s o i l map of the study area derived from E.L.U.C. 11 S e c r e t a r i a t Map 920 5. P r e c i p i t a t i o n (adjusted 30 year means) and temperature at 13 Bra l o r n e , B.C. 6. Maximum and minimum temperature at Upper B i g Creek, 1977 14 7. Snow Survey from Green Mountains ( e l e v a t i o n 1710 m; 50°47', 16 122°55') 1960-1978. Values recorded are the snow depth water equivalent 8. Dichotomous key for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of pla n t community types 43 9. Mean s o i l temperatures w i t h 95% confidence i n t e r v a l s f o r p l a n t 86 community types i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains. S o i l temperature was recorded at -20 cm 10. Hygrotope range for community types 87 11. Mean e l e v a t i o n and e l e v a t i o n range f o r p l a n t community types 88 12. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a south-facing p l a n t community 99 toposequence i n Relay V a l l e y 13. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n o r t h - f a c i n g plant community 100 toposequence i n Relay V a l l e y 14. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a l p i n e p l a n t community toposequence on the Dash Plate a u 101 - v i i -LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES Page I. Photograph of Relay Basin 18 I I . Photograph of Relay V a l l e y 19 I I I . Photograph of west side of Dash Plateau 21 - v i i i -LIST OF APPENDICES Page A. P l a n t s c o l l e c t e d i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains 139 B. C o l l e c t i n g s i t e s from the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains, 1977 148 C. Vegetation map of the Relay area i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n $p£w«X 163 Mountains, B.C. o&Wetfc'o-'v^ - i x -Acknowledgements: The author expresses sincere thanks to committee members Dr. M.D. P i t t , Department of P l a n t Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and advice; Dr. L.M. L a v k u l i c h , Department of S o i l Science, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s advice and encouragement; and Dr. W.B. S c h o f i e l d , Department of Botany, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r h i s encouragement and help w i t h bryophyte i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . S p e c i a l thanks go to Ms. K a r l a S t r a z i c i c h for her a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i e l d ; Mr. J . H i l t o n and Mr. R. F r e d e l l , Range D i v i s i o n , B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of Forests f o r t h e i r help i n arranging l o g i s t i c support; Mr. D. Moon, B r i t i s h Columbia Pedology U n i t , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada f o r h i s advice and help w i t h the mapping phase of the study; Dr. V.C. Brink and Dr. V.J. K r a j i n a f o r h e l p f u l d i s c u s s i o n s ; and Ms. S. Sturgeon f o r her e x c e l l e n t t y p i n g s e r v i c e . F i n a l l y , I wish to thank my husband, Peter, f o r h i s patience, help and encouragement during a l l phases of the t h e s i s work. - 1 -CHAPTER 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a province of extremely diverse topography, v a r y i n g i n e l e v a t i o n from sea l e v e l to 4,666.5 m. at the top of Mt. Fairweather on the B r i t i s h Columbia-Alaska boundary. Mountainous t e r r a i n dominates the 94.7 m i l l i o n hectares of land and water that comprise B r i t i s h Columbia. Of that land base, 36% (34 m i l l i o n hectares) i s c l a s s i f i e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service as a l p i n e f o r e s t , scrub, rock, and barren (Pearse, 1976). This " a l p i n e " land i s considered by the B.C. Forest Service to be non-productive w i t h l i t t l e or no d i r e c t value to the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . However, these lands do provide e s s e n t i a l summer range to large numbers of w i l d l i f e and, i n some areas, to domestic l i v e s t o c k as w e l l . R e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n the form of hunting, horse pack t r i p s , and backpacking i s another major use of our a l p i n e resource. Furthermore, mineral p o t e n t i a l i s o f t e n high i n moun-tainous t e r r a i n and considerable disturbance can r e s u l t from mining a c t i v i t y . Pressure on the a l p i n e and subalpine n a t u r a l resources w i l l probably increase i n the f u t u r e , as t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i s more f u l l y r e a l i z e d . The environment i s extremely f r a g i l e and proper management i s e s s e n t i a l to i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n and continued p r o d u c t i v i t y . Toward t h i s end coordinated resource planning i s c u r r e n t l y being used i n at l e a s t one a l p i n e area i n B r i t i s h Columbia to help a l l e v i a t e m u l t i p l e use c o n f l i c t s and to maximize b e n e f i t s and minimize c o n f l i c t s among the various resource users. Sound management and planning d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r e a knowledge of the resource base. A v e g e t a t i o n study provides valuable i n f o r m a t i o n on w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , abundance of key range species and r e c r e a t i o n p o t e n t i a l , and aids i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v e g e t a t i o n types which are p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to - 2 -human or g r a z i n g impact. Bas e l i n e data provide a benchmark against which to assess range trend and the success of the various management schemes which may be implemented. Thus an understanding of the v e g e t a t i o n ecology of an area f a c i l i t a t e s proper land management. With t h i s goal i n mind, the o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were (1) to c o l l e c t and i d e n t i f y the f l o r a l elements of an a l p i n e -subalpine rangeland i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains (no extensive b o t a n i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s had p r e v i o u s l y been made i n t h i s part of B r i t i s h Columbia); (2) to c h a r a c t e r i z e and map a l p i n e - s u b a l p i n e vegetation u n i t s ; and (3) to compare grazed andungrazed s i t e s as to species composition and community s t r u c t u r e . The study area i s located i n the C h i l c o t i n Mountains on the eastern f l a n k of the Coast Range, north of Carpenter Lake and SW of Gang Ranch at a p p r o x i -mately 51°11'N l a t i t u d e and 123°W longitude (Figure l ) . Relay V a l l e y or the C h a r l i e Cunningham area (as i t i s known to nearby r e s i d e n t s ) i s only 215 km due N of Vancouver. Relay V a l l e y , Relay Basin, Graveyard V a l l e y and Two Lakes Basin and the Dash Plateau were the main areas of study. They comprise four a l p i n e - s u b a l p i n e grazing u n i t s as defined by the B.C. Forest S e r v i c e , Range D i v i s i o n i n Williams Lake. A small part of the Paradise V a l l e y g r a z i n g u n i t was also examined. The t o t a l area encompasses approximately 100 sq. km (10,000 ha) (Figures 1, 2 and 3 ) . The C h a r l i e Cunningham Area was chosen as the study s i t e f o r s e v e r a l reasons. I t has a long h i s t o r y of range use but l i t t l e or no management has been p r a c t i c e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y . I t s a c c e s s i b i l i t y and p r o x i m i t y to Vancouver make future r e c r e a t i o n a l pressure i n e v i t a b l e and, i n f a c t , the area was once considered as a p o t e n t i a l P r o v i n c i a l Park s i t e . W i l d l i f e are p l e n t i f u l and there i s the p o t e n t i a l f o r mineral development. Furthermore there i s a remote - 3 -1 2 3 ° Ul S c a - l e - \'-50 0,000 F i g u r e 1: Lo c a t i o n of study area Figure 2: Grazing u n i t s included i n the study area gure 3: Topographic map of the study area and v i c i n i t y - 6 -p o s s i b i l i t y that Relay V a l l e y w i l l some day be a part of a road system from Pemberton to Williams Lake. In 1977 the area was included i n a Coordinated Resource Management Plan and more i n t e n s i v e management began. This study should provide u s e f u l information for planning and management p o l i c i e s i n the high e l e v a t i o n rangelands of the C h i l c o t i n Mountains. D e s c r i p t i o n of Study Area 1. H i s t o r y : Relay V a l l e y has been recognized as prime summer grazing land since 1939 when the Haywood Ranch f i r s t s t a r t e d d r i v i n g sheep form the T r a n q u i l l e Range to Relay Creek by way of French Bar Creek and Beaver V a l l e y . The sheep grazed i n what was then c a l l e d the "Paradise grazing u n i t " before being t r a i l e d back to the T r a n q u i l l e v i a Tyaughton and Mud Creeks. The Paradise grazing u n i t was considered to be the most productive i n the area, p o s s i b l y because of g r e a t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and had an estimated c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of 2 ha (5 acres) per sheep. As many as 4300 head of sheep (3600 on the average) grazed i n Relay V a l l e y each summer u n t i l 1964 when the Haywood operation went out of business. The economics of t r a i l i n g or t r u c k i n g (which was done f o r s e v e r a l years) sheep such a long distance from the base ranch and of g e t t i n g and keeping r e l i a b l e shepherds at a minimal s a l a r y p a r t l y e x p l a i n the demise of the Haywood sheep ranch. From 1965 u n t i l 1967 Relay V a l l e y was rested from domestic g r a z i n g . I t would be very i n t e r e s t i n g to have some q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the range c o n d i t i o n at t h i s time for comparative purposes but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no data are a v a i l a b l e . We can assume that the rangelands were s t i l l considered r e l a t i v e l y productive because i n 1967 the Gang Ranch rece i v e d a grazing permit - 7 -f o r t h i s area from the B.C. Forest Service Range D i v i s i o n f o r 4500 cows and 1000 y e a r l i n g s . The b a s i s f o r determining the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the range i s unknown. The Gang Ranch moves c a t t l e i n t o Relay V a l l e y by two main routes. One i s up Big Creek to Two Lakes Basin and down Relay Creek. The other i s through Hungry V a l l e y i n t o Beaver V a l l e y , past P r e n t i c e Lake and down i n t o Relay V a l l e y . A t h i r d route that has been used led from Hungry V a l l e y up Dash Creek, onto the Dash Plateau and then down i n t o Two Lakes Basin. C a t t l e are herded (with the help of cowboys) throughout the study area from l a t e J u l y u n t i l e a r l y September when they are rounded up and herded back to the base ranch some 50 miles to the north. Some c a t t l e may be l e f t i n the area u n t i l snow b r i n g s them down i n t o the v a l l e y s . Graveyard V a l l e y apparently d i d not have an extensive period of sheep grazing but has been used by c a t t l e for a longer time period than the Relay Creek drainage area. C a t t l e were gr a z i n g along Graveyard Creek i n 1945 (Wood, 1949). Unfortunately a l l the records were l o s t i n a f i r e . The Western Canada Ranching Company L t d . , otherwise known as the Gang Ranch, has been owned by American i n t e r e s t s (W.P. Studdert and F.E. Skelton) u n t i l r e c e n t l y ( i n 1978 i t was purchased by Dale Alsager of A l b e r t a ) . Management of the ranch has not always been based on the p r i n c i p l e s of sound range management. From 1966-1970, 5200-5600 head of c a t t l e per year were grazed i n the backcountry u n t i l October 31. This r e s u l t e d i n an estimated use of 22,500 AUMs* i n 1969 and 1970 (the years of heaviest u s e ) . Such use placed *An A(nimal) U ( n i t ) M(onth) i s the amount of forage required by one mature (450 kg.) cow or the equivalent f o r one month. Each AUM requires an average of 300 kg. of a v a i l a b l e forage (McLean and Marchand, 1968). - 8 -extreme pressure on the v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l resource base. As a r e s u l t , the gr a z i n g season was reduced by one month and the number of c a t t l e permitted west of the Fraser R i v e r was reduced to 4000 head ( F r e d e l l et a l . , 1974). Recommended use of these rangelands i n 1975 was 6000 AUMs. In 1974 the B.C. Forest Service Range D i v i s i o n i n Williams Lake d i d a reconnaissance survey of Crown rangelands used by the main Gang Ranch, of which there are approximately 2,125 sq. km ( F r e d e l l et a l . , 1974). Based on t h i s report a r e s t r o t a t i o n grazing scheme for the summer rangelands was implemented i n 1977. Stocking rates f o r the high e l e v a t i o n range u n i t s were reduced to 2,000 head i n 1975, 1500 head i n 1976 and i n 1977 to 1000 head grazed under a r e s t - r o t a t i o n a l system which allows f o r a l t e r n a t e year use of the range u n i t s . I t i s hoped that t h i s l e v e l of use w i l l a l l o w f o r range r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Some fencing has a l s o been b u i l t to improve c o n t r o l of c a t t l e d i s t r i b u t i o n . Seeding of severely d i s t u r b e d s i t e s was begun i n 1977, but the r e s u l t s are not known. The Gang Ranch backcountry was included i n a coordinated Resource Management Plan i n 1977. I t i s to be re-evaluated each year u n t i l 1982. 2. Physiography and Geology: The study area i s located i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains (a sub-d i v i s i o n of the C h i l c o t i n Ranges) which l i e s along the eastern side of the P a c i f i c Ranges physiographic u n i t of Holland (1976). I t i s west of the Yalakom R i v e r and north of Carpenter Lake and f a l l s w i t h i n the t r a n s i t i o n zone between the Co a s t a l Mountains and the C h i l c o t i n P l a t e a u . The part of the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains that i s between Tyaughton and Relay Creeks has a l s o been r e f e r r e d to as the "Red Mountains" (Wood, 1949). R e l i e f ranges from - 9 -1600 m to 2790 m. The highest point w i t h i n the study area i s Relay Mountain (2790 m). Timberline l i e s between 2000 and 2100 m. The Relay Area i s u n d e r l a i n by a complex of seven bedrock types. They are predominantly Mesozoic and are of the J u r a s s i c and Cretaceous p e r i o d s . The Relay Mountain Group (comprised of 3 u n i t s ) represents the o l d e s t rocks followed by the more common Taylor Creek Group. The Kingsvale Group i s the youngest u n i t i n t h i s area. A l l are sedimentary. The Cenozoic rocks are of two types: the p l u t o n i c rocks of the Eocene and the v o l c a n i c i n t r u s i o n s found i n the C h i l c o t i n group of the Upper Miocene or Pliocene (Tipper, 1978). Relay peak i s an erosion remnant of these f l a t l y i n g T e r t i a r y v o l c a n i c rocks (Wood, 1949). 3. S o i l s The development of s o i l s i s i n f l u e n c e d by c l i m a t e , topography, geology, hydrology, geomorphology, b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , and time (Retzer, 1974; Lav-k u l i c h and Sneddon, 1976). Conditions i n the a l p i n e and subalpine environments o f t e n r e s u l t i n a complex mosaic of s o i l types w i t h i n a small area (Bamberg and Major, 1968); however, s o i l development i s often l i m i t e d . Low temperatures i n h i b i t the p h y s i c a l and chemical weathering of s o i l s ( B l i s s , 1966) and can l i m i t root p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o the s o i l . The t r a n s l o c a t i o n of s i l t s , c l a y s , sesquioxides and bases can occur only i n s i t e s where there i s s u f f i c i e n t water moving through the solum to promote leaching (Snedd on, 1973). P r e c i p i t a t i o n i s o f t e n low so that t r a n s l o c a t i o n s are minimal. Where v o l c a n i c ash i s present large q u a n t i t i e s of mobile i r o n and aluminum are a v a i l a b l e on weathering and a p o d s o l i s a t i o n occurs even where r a i n f a l l i s low (Sneddon, 1973; V a l e n t i n e et a l . , 1978). E r o s i v e f a c t o r s are prominent i n the a l p i n e landscape as w e l l . - 10 -Wind and water e r o s i o n , c r y o t u r b a t i o n and s o l i f l u c t i o n are a c t i v e processses wearing away the landscape and c o n t r i b u t i n g to the immaturity of s o i l s (Retzer, 1974). Furthermore, there has been a l i m i t e d time ( 10,000 years) a v a i l a b l e for s o i l development as most mountainous areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia are post-P l e i s t o c e n e i n age. The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of s o i l types i s based on the Environment and Land Use Committee S e c r e t a r i a t s o i l s and landform map 920 (Figure 4 ) . Although there are no g l a c i e r s found i n the study area, the e f f e c t s of Pl e i s t o c e n e g l a c i a t i o n are evident. The v a l l e y s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y U-shaped and the summits are rounded. Much of the s o i l parent m a t e r i a l i s of g l a c i a l o r i g i n - e s p e c i a l l y i n the v a l l e y s where morainal deposits are pre-dominant. D y s t r i c b r u n i s o l s are common on these landforms. According to Val e n t i n e et a l . (1978), they are a c i d i c and "have r e l a t i v e l y t h i n , poorly decomposed organic surface l a y e r s w i t h l i t t l e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the organic matter i n the mineral s o i l " . These s o i l s are sometimes modified by the a d d i t i o n of v o l c a n i c ash from the Bridge R i v e r a s h f a l l of 2,120-2,670BP ( L a v k u l i c h and Sneddon, 1976). In the steeper mountainous areas, c o l l u v i a l processes have produced the primary s o i l parent m a t e r i a l . The topography has r e s u l t e d i n unstable areas with l i t t l e s o i l development. Regosols are predominant, although i n l e v e l areas (e.g. Graveyard V a l l e y ) b r u n i s o l s have developed and i n rugged areas, rockland i s found. F r o s t a c t i o n r e s u l t s i n patterned ground ( e s p e c i a l l y rock s t r i p e s ) i n some of these a l p i n e areas (Washburn, 1956). Rock s t r i p e s are common on the Dash P l a t e a u . An o r t h i c r egosol has developed on the large a l l u v i a l deposit at the base of the western slopes of Relay Mountain. F l u v i a l processes are r e s p o n s i b l e for t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e landform u n i t . - 11 -Scale :1:100,000 Figure 4: P r e l i m i n a r y s o i l map of the study area derived from E.L.U.C. S e c r e t a r i a t Map 920 Br u n i s o l s (1) BI = O r t h i c D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l (2) GC--MV = O r t h i c D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l - O r t h i c Regosol (3) MY--YA-RO = O r t h i c Regosol-Sombric Brunisol-Rockland (4) PU = O r t h i c Regosol ( a l l u v i a l deposit) (5) DP = O r t h i c Regosol (morainal d e p o s i t ) (6) RT--RO = O r t h i c Regosol-Rockland (7) RT--BH-RO - O r t h i c R e g o s o l - L i t h i c Regosol-Rockland (8) BH--RT = L i t h i c Regosol-Orthic Regosol (9) TG = Glayed Cumulic Regosol (10) ND--DD = Rego G l e y s o l - O r t h i c D y s t r i c B r u n i s o l (11) CL = T e r r i c Humisol (12) RO = Rockland - 12 -In v a l l e y bottoms or depressional areas w i t h a h i g h water ta b l e and poor drainage such as the Two Lakes B a s i n , rego g l e y s o l s have developed. Small areas wit h very poor drainage develop s o i l s i n which organic matter accumu-l a t e s due to c o l d s o i l temperatures and low m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y . 4. Climate The l o c a t i o n and topography of Relay V a l l e y play a major r o l e i n d e t e r -mining the c l i m a t e . Although the study area l i e s i n the Coastal Range, i t s p o s i t i o n on the lee side r e s u l t s i n a more c o n t i n e n t a l climate than i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of B r i t i s h Columbia's western mountains. J u l y i s the warmest month with a mean temperature of 15°C i n Bralorne. January i s the c o l d e s t , averaging -7.7°C. Mean annual temperature i s 4.3°C. The study area l i e s i n a r a i n shadow and receives roughly 500 mm p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h some f a l l i n g i n every month. Convectional summer showers, a c o n t i n e n t a l f e a t u r e , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and provide much of the annual r a i n f a l l . Midsummer days are g e n e r a l l y sunny and warm but there can be f r o s t during any month of the year. There are no weather s t a t i o n s e i t h e r w i t h i n the study area or at eco-l o g i c a l l y comparable s i t e s i n the v i c i n i t y . In order to get an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the c l i m a t e , 30 year norms from Bralorne (1016 m; 50°47'N, 122°49'W) to the south have been tabulated along w i t h 1977 data from Upper B i g Creek (1693 m; 51°15'N, 123°07'W) to the N (Figures 5 and 6). Of course the values given need to be adjusted f o r the e l e v a t i o n of the study s i t e (1600 m-2790 m). On the average there i s a decrease of about 5.5°C f o r each 1000 m increase i n e l e v a t i o n (Daubenmire, 1974, page 165). Temperature i s modified by slope and aspect (a 5° slope toward the pole reduces s o i l temperature a p p r o x i -mately equivalent to 300 miles of l a t i t u d e toward the po l e , Daub 1974, - 13 -page 165) however, and m i c r o c l i m a t i c data are not a v a i l a b l e . Summer p r e c i p -i t a t i o n g e n e r a l l y increases with e l e v a t i o n ( B u t t r i c k , 1978) and w i n t e r snow-f a l l i s greater i n higher e l e v a t i o n s than i n v a l l e y bottoms. Strong winds a f f e c t the snow d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n which i n turn i n f l u e n c e s v e g e t a t i o n . A l l of these f a c t o r s complicate the e x t r a p o l a t i o n of c l i m a t i c data from lowlands to mountainous t e r r a i n . However, a general p i c t u r e of c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s can be gleaned from a v a i l a b l e data. The temperature and p r e c i p i t a t i o n data from Bralorne and the snow survey data from Green Mountain (Figure 7) are p a r t i c u -l a r l y u s e f u l . They i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t w i nter snow pack but adequate summer r a i n f a l l to prevent drought. The temperature data from Upper B i g Creek i l l u s t r a t e the extreme temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s that can occur at h i g h e l e v a t i o n s . 5. Vegetation The vegetation of the study areas l i e s w i t h i n two b i o g e o c l i m a t i c zones as described by K r a j i n a (1965;1969). These zones are separated p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of climate ( B e i l et a l . , 1976). The Engelman Spruce Subalpine F i r (ESSF) zone has been d i v i d e d i n t o a wet and dry subzone by the B.C. Forest Service (Annas and Coupe, 1979). The study area l i e s i n the ESSF a or dry subzone. The ESSF zone i s found i n the i n t e r i o r of B.C. where a c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e predominates (Dfc a f t e r Koppen). I t has a lower mean annual temperature (1-4°C) than the c o a s t a l subalpine zone (3-7°C) and has gr e a t e r temperature extremes. The annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 410-1830 mm with approximately 43 percent f a l l i n g as snow. Cold winter temperatures, high summer temperatures, and low p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e s u l t i n a high p r o b a b i l i t y of frozen ground i n the winter and the p o t e n t i a l for summer drought ( K r a j i n a , 1965; F r a s e r , 1970). This zone ranges i n e l e v a t i o n from 1200-2100 m. i n southwestern B.C. - 16 -E o Figure 7. Snow Survey from Green Mountain ( e l e v a t i o n 1710 m; 50°47', 122°55') 1960-1978. Values recorded are the snow depth water e q u i v a l e n t . Several tree species are able to t o l e r a t e the r e l a t i v e l y severe winters of the ESSF zone. Those found w i t h i n the study area are Picea engelmanii*, Abies  l a s i o c a r p a , Pinus a l b i c a u l i s and Pinus c o n t o r t a . Dominant shrubs are S a l i x spp. and B e t u l a glandulosa. The l a t t e r species i s more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the northern subzone. According to Dr. V.J. K r a j i n a (personal communication), the more extensive w i l l o w - b i r c h shrub areas might be considered as a southern extension of the Spruce-Willow-Birch Zone where summer nig h t temperatures are higher than i n the ESSF zone. The lower e l e v a t i o n s of t h i s zone are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a continuous f o r e s t , while a parkland has developed at higher e l e v a t i o n s . Tree i s l a n d s are found i n areas of heavy snow accumulation where there i s an adequate moisture supply during the growing season ( B e i l et a l . , 1976). At the upper l i m i t s f o r tr e e growth krummholz i s found. Extensive herb and shrub meadows l i e i n the t r a n s i t i o n from subalpine f o r e s t to the a l p i n e areas ( P l a t e s 1 and 2 ) . At higher e l e v a t i o n s (above 2000 m) i n the study area, the vege t a t i o n i s re p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Al p i n e Tundra Zone, which l i e s above the area of con-tinuous f o r e s t and parkland. The c o n t i n e n t a l climate places i t i n the I n t e r i o r Subzone where there i s a r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t e r s n o w f a l l and a somewhat wetter summer than i n the Coastal Subzone ( B e i l et a l . , 1976). The mean annual temperature i s -0.4 to -1.5°C and the mean monthly temperature i s l e s s than 0°C f o r 7-11 months of the year. This r e s u l t s i n a short growing season l i m i t e d by f r o s t . Annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 700-2800 mm w i t h n e a r l y three-fourths f a l l i n g as snow ( K r a j i n a , 1965). * a u t h o r i t i e s f o r species c o l l e c t e d i n the study area are given i n Appendix A. - 18 -Plate I. Photograph of Relay Basin grazing unit - 19 -Plate I I . Photograph of Relay Valley grazing u n i t . Note the open south-facing slopes and the forested north-facing slopes. - 20 -The vege t a t i o n i n the a l p i n e zone i s dominated by herbs, bryophytes and l i c h e n s , along w i t h some low shrubs ( P l a t e I I I ) . Climax species are thought to be Cassiope mertensiana (C. tetragona i n the n o r t h ) , Phyllodoce  empetriformis, P. g l a n d u l i f l o r a and Empetrum nigrum (Archer, 1963). In the C h a r l i e Cunningham area, the a l p i n e vegetation f a l l s i n t o three main physiognomic categories - shrub lands dominated by S a l i x brachycarpa and Betul a glandulosa; herbaceous meadows dominated by Festuca spp., Poa spp. and Carex spp. plus numerous fo r b s ; and. lichen-dominated f e l l f i e l d s and boulder f i e l d s . - 2 1 -Plate I I I . Photograph showing west side of Dash Plateau - 22 -CHAPTER 2 L i t e r a t u r e Review Vegetation ecology i n the a l p i n e and subalpine zones has been studied throughout the world (Eady, 1971; Ives and Barry, 1974). For a d i s c u s s i o n of e c o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems the reader i s r e f e r r e d to Mueller-Dombois and E l l e n b e r g (1974) and Poore (1955; 1962). Amongst many others, B u t t r i c k (1978) discussed environmental f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i v e r s i t y i n composition and d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l p i n e plant communities. He considers p r e c i p i t a t i o n ( e s p e c i a l l y s n o w f a l l ) , geography, and substrate to be the primary c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s . High e l e v a t i o n ecosystems have not been e x t e n s i v e l y studied i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The c o a s t a l a l p i n e zone i n r e c e n t l y d e g l a c i a t e d areas o f G a r i b a l d i Park was described by Archer (1963). Fraser (1970) examined pioneer succession and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between v e g e t a t i o n and environment i n three g l a c i a l v a l l e y s i n G a r i b a l d i Park. These were at subalpine e l e v a t i o n s (1464-1525 m). Brink (1959;1964) a l s o discussed pioneer species and plant communities i n G a r i b a l d i Park. The subalpine zone of the c o a s t a l f o r e s t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Brooke et a l . (1970). Kuramoto and B l i s s (1970) described subalpine meadows i n the Olympic Mountains of Washington. E c o l o g i c a l work i n the southern i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia has been done on the Engelmann spruce-subalpine f i r zone near Kamioops ( A r l i d g e , 1955) and i n the Nelson Forest D i s t r i c t ( U t z i g et a l . , 1978). Subalpine parkland vege-t a t i o n was not c l a s s i f i e d i n e i t h e r study. Eady (1971) included both a l p i n e and t i m b e r l i n e vegetation i n her study on B i g White Mountain as d i d Douglas and B l i s s (1977) i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n of the v e g e t a t i o n i n the North Cascades Range of Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia and Del Moral (1979) i n h i s c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of high e l e v a t i o n v e g e t a t i o n i n the Wenatchee Mountains of Wash-- 23 -ington. S c h e f f l e r (1972) b r i e f l y described h i g h e l e v a t i o n communities i n the Ashnola i n r e l a t i o n to w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . Timberline vegetation i n Washington and Oregon i s discussed by F r a n k l i n and Dyrness (1973), who a l s o suggest that very few data are a v a i l a b l e from the a l p i n e zone. Pojar (1977) examined a l p i n e and subalpine communities i n the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve and surrounding S p a t s i z i Plateau Wilderness Park i n north c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. The a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n of Nevis Mountain and v i c i n i t y i n northeastern B r i t i s h Columbia was discussed by Lord and Luckhurst (1974) i n r e l a t i o n to stone sheep h a b i t a t . Aside from research i n the Ashnola (Morrison, 1972) and on Nevis Mountain (Luckhurst, 1973), l i t t l e work has been done i n B r i t i s h Columbia on a l p i n e -subalpine vegetation i n r e l a t i o n to gr a z i n g use by domestic animals. A general d i s c u s s i o n of the fescue grasslands of western Canada was presented by Looman (1969) and Hanson (1951) defines c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s f o r mountain rangelands i n southwest A l b e r t a . On the other hand, a l p i n e range research i n the western United States has a long h i s t o r y . Grazing of high e l e v a t i o n rangelands by domestic l i v e s t o c k was common i n the C e n t r a l Rockies of the United States as e a r l y as the mid-1800's. The demand f o r forage at high e l e v a t i o n s increased as a r e s u l t of overstocking on lower more a c c e s s i b l e rangelands. E a r l y use was almost e n t i r e l y unregulated but i n the e a r l y 1900's people began to v o i c e concerns about depleted ranges, e r o s i o n , excessive l i v e s t o c k numbers, and lack of management. N a t i o n a l Forests were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the United States at about t h i s time and the management of mountain rangelands began (Turner and Paulsen, 1976). Much of the range research done i n the mountains of the western United States i s a p p l i c a b l e to the high e l e v a t i o n ranges i n B.C. as the p r i n c i p l e s of sound range management are not i n f l u e n c e d by the 49th p a r a l l e l . A p p l i c a t i o n of these p r i n c i p l e s , however, req u i r e s a knowledge of l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as an understanding of these range p r i n c i p l e s . - 24 -The p e r i o d of grazing i n a l p i n e and subalpine ecosystems i s n e c e s s a r i l y s h o r t , r e s u l t i n g from topographic and c l i m a t i c l i m i t a t i o n s . The growing season i s only 6-10 weeks ( T h i l e n i u s , 1975) and i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t to p r e d i c t i t s length. S i t e v a r i a t i o n s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t p l a n t development and of course various species d i f f e r i n t h e i r rate of development. I t i s hard to r e c o n c i l e t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y with the requirement f o r a s p e c i f i c time period i n which to graze the summer rangelands. A knowledge of both p l a n t growth and s o i l c o n d i t i o n s i s necessary i n order to set acceptable l i m i t s on the grazing season. The snow pa,ck and rat e of snow melt are the major f a c t o r s determining range readiness (Turner and Paulsen, 1976; T h i l e n i u s , 1975). Dormancy i n p l a n t s may be broken as e a r l y as A p r i l or as l a t e as August. Although some species may begin growth under 50-100 cm of snow, the breaking of dormancy i s more o f t e n associated w i t h the melting of snow cover, s o i l and a i r temperatures r i s i n g above 0°C and the presence of l i q u i d water ( B l i s s , 1962). C o s t e l l o (1939) c o r r e l a t e d the developmental stages of important range p l a n t s w i t h date of snow melt. He found that i n subalpine meadows fl o w e r i n g s t a l k s were i n evidence an average of 33 days a f t e r the snow had disappeared. Seeds had ripened an average of 99 days a f t e r snow disappearance. For every 1000 foot increase i n e l e v a t i o n there was a delay of roughly 10-14 days i n the date at which a p a r t i c u l a r stage of growth was reached ( n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes might be even l a t e r ) . Thus c a t t l e cannot be allowed merely to d r i f t to the higher ranges as p l a n t development may not be s u f f i c i e n t to provide adequate forage and s t i l l a l l o w f o r recovery of v i g o r and completion of the seasonal growth c y c l e ( E l l i s o n , 1944; C o s t e l l o , 1939). The s o i l i s most s u s c e p t i b l e to damage a f t e r snow disappearance. There i s an abundance of water from the melting snow and s o i l moisture content reaches a h i g h of about 30 percent of the dry weight of s o i l ( C o s t e l l o , 1939). An e a r l y grazing season might r e s u l t i n an increase i n trampling damage on wet so i 1 s . Summer growth of p l a n t s i s i n f l u e n c e d p r i m a r i l y by temperature and p r e c i p i -t a t i o n . E a r l y i n the season temperature l a r g e l y determines the rate of growth ( B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968). C o s t e l l o (1939) found that there was an inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between temperature and the number of days required to complete any stage of development. This c o r r e l a t i o n i s not as apparent l a t e r i n the growing season when drought, photoperiod and carbohydrate accumulation become the more c r i t i c a l f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g growth ( B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968), while summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n can extend the length of the growing season ( C o s t e l l o , 1939). In some years there may be l i t t l e or no v i a b l e seed production or germination because of s o i l drought or a c o l d growing season w i t h temperatures that i n h i b i t f l o w e r i n g and f r u i t i n g ( B l i s s , 1962; B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968). I f g r a z i n g extends l a t e i n t o September, preformed flower buds i n both d i c o t s and monocots may be removed r e s u l t i n g i n an a l t e r a t i o n of the flower-root reserve replenishment c y c l e . This could have adverse a f f e c t s on p l a n t growth i n the f o l l o w i n g year ( T h i l e n i u s , 1975). Thus i t i s imperative that g r a z i n g n e i t h e r begin too e a r l y nor extend too l a t e i n t o the season i f a good ve g e t a t i v e cover i s to be maintained. The q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of forage produced on the range i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n c a l c u l a t i n g the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of any range u n i t . Most high e l e v a t i o n range u n i t s are a composite of many p l a n t communities and an o v e r a l l estimate of p r o d u c t i v i t y i s o f t e n both d i f f i c u l t and inadequate unless proper d i s t r i b u t i o n can be assured. Although the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of - 26 -forage i n a community i s not i d e n t i c a l from s i t e to s i t e the values reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e can be used to determine the approximate range that might be expected from a given h a b i t a t type. Moisture and species composition are the most important f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y . X e r i c s i t e s g e n e r a l l y have a low herbage production w h i l e s i t e s w i t h a v a i l a b l e moisture are h i g h l y productive. Subalpine mixed grass-forb meadows have the highest average p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h values ranging from 110-220 2 g/m ( a i r dry weight) (Johnson, 1962; Turner and Paulsen, 1976). Hurd (1961) describes Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis Elmer) stands w i t h a herbage pro-2 duction of 364 g/m ( a i r dry weight) with grasses and sedges c o n t r i b u t i n g an average of 54 percent of the t o t a l production. Idaho Fescue alone had an average c o n t r i b u t i o n of 19 percent. This meadow type i s found a l s o i n the a l p i n e and represents the most productive s i t e s there. G e n e r a l l y a l p i n e 2 meadow and t u r f s i t e s have a p r o d u c t i v i t y range of 7-122 g/m ( a i r dry weight) (Paulsen, 1960; Hurd, 1961; Johnson, 1962; Wasser and Retzer, 1966; T h i l e n i u s , 1975). Highest production was on the sedge meadow s i t e s and lowest was on windswept t u r f s i t e s and stands w i t h l e s s than 50 percent p l a n t cover (Paulsen, 1960). According to Branson and Lommason (1958) heavy use can decrease the p r o d u c t i v i t y of mountain rangelands by as much as 50 percent. Dwarf w i l l o w and wet meadow s i t e s a l s o had r e l a t i v e l y low reported p r o d u c t i v i t y 2 - values were 22 and 82 g/m r e s p e c t i v e l y (Johnson, 1962). There has been remarkably l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n published from B r i t i s h Colum-b i a on the q u a n t i t y of forage at high e l e v a t i o n s . B r i n k et a l . (1972) reported values f o r three a l p i n e l o c a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia In G a r i b a l d i , an area of high s n o w f a l l , Lupinus a r c t i c u s S. Wats, meadows had a net p r o d u c t i v i t y of 2 2 95 g/m at 1707 m and 188 g/m at 1990 m, wh i l e Phyllodoce empetriformis was four times as productive with a value of 805 g/m at 1990 m. In the - 27 -d r i e r environment of the Ashnola, Danthonia - Carex meadows on F l a t i r o n Moun-2 t a i n had a reported value of 176.8 g/m (2164 m) with Carex meadows at 138 2 g/m (2256 m). P r o d u c t i v i t y estimates from Nevis Mountain i n the north 2 ranged from a low of 36 g/m on high e l e v a t i o n (1820-1920 m) grasslands to a 2 high of 234 g/m on lower e l e v a t i o n (1554-1570 m) Elymus-Agropyron meadows. Mountain forage species g e n e r a l l y provide a hig h q u a l i t y d i e t . Turner and Paulsen (1976) suggested that forage grown i n the open tends to have a higher carbohydrate content than that grown i n the shade. In v i t r o dry matter d i g e s t -i b i l i t y of a l p i n e forage was r e l a t i v e l y high throughout the grazing period ( S t r a s i a et a l . , 1970; T h i l e n i u s , 1975). Average percent d i g e s t i b i l i t y of grasses was 64 percent; sedges and forbs 60 percent; and cushion p l a n t s 44 percent ( T h i l e n i u s , 1975). Nitrogen was highest e a r l y i n the gr a z i n g season (which began i n J u l y ) and decreased w i t h time, but g e n e r a l l y remained above the required l e v e l s ( S t r a s i a et a l . , 1970). Crude p r o t e i n averaged 50 percent greater and phosphorus 100 percent greater i n a l p i n e grasses of the south-eastern Canadian C o r d i l l e r a than i n comparable species (at the same pheno-l o g i c a l stage) from a lower e l e v a t i o n Festuca s c a b r e l l a a s s o c i a t i o n , w h i le a l p i n e sedges averaged twice the l e v e l s of the non-alpine species (Johnston et a l . , 1968). Both crude p r o t e i n and phosphorus l e v e l s were highest at the l e a f stage and d e c l i n e d w i t h advancing m a t u r i t y . By l a t e summer, crude p r o t e i n l e v e l s were f r e q u e n t l y below recommended maintanance l e v e l s (8.3 percent) f or cows and calves although calcium l e v e l s were g e n e r a l l y adequate (Pond and Smith, 1971; Paulsen, 1969; Johnston et a l . , 1968). Forbs are an important part of the d i e t of sheep while they form a small percentage of the c a t t l e d i e t . Paulsen (1969) found s e v e r a l forbs to be n u t r i t i o n a l l y s u p e r i o r to grasses during the f i r s t h a l f of the gr a z i n g season, - 28 -and they were above minimum required l e v e l s of crude p r o t e i n , phosphorus and c a l c i u m even a f t e r they were dry and decumbent. Many of these forbs were h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d during the f i r s t h a l f of the growing season and were u t i l i z e d as h e a v i l y as the grasses although t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the d i e t was not as h i g h because t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y was r e l a t i v e l y low (Paulsen, 1969). Forage preference and u t i l i z a t i o n are important f a c t o r s to consider i n the management of rangelands. "Key" forage species may not be always the most p r e f e r r e d , and h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d species may be subjected to severe grazing pressure i f they are not considered i n the determination of g r a z i n g l e v e l s . Table I l i s t s some of the species p r e f e r r e d by c a t t l e on mountain grassland ranges. R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e research has been done on the d i e t of domestic sheep on a l p i n e - s u b a l p i n e meadows ( P i c k f o r d and Reid, 1942; May, 1960; Paulsen, 1960; Johnson, 1962; S t r a s i a et a l . , 1970; Pond and Smith, 1971). Sheep appear to p r e f e r f o r b s ; 60-70 percent of t h e i r d i e t c o n s i s t s of forbs ( T h i l e n i u s , 1975); however S t r a s i a et a l . (1970) reported that by l a t e summer forbs had decreased to 31 percent of the d i e t . This was probably a f u n c t i o n of seasonal a v a i l -a b i l i t y , although red and sheep fescues (Festuca rubra L. and F. ovina L.) were found to be a major part of the d i e t and were h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d on the a l p i n e ranges i n the c e n t r a l Rocky Mountains ( S t r a s i a et a l . , 1970). Generally forbs are at the top of both l i s t s but forage u t i l i z a t i o n does vary among s i t e s . May (1960) found that forbs were a more important part of the sheep d i e t i n basins while sedges and grasses were important on r i d g e s (Table I I ) . E s t a b l i s h i n g acceptable grazing l e v e l s i s not an easy task where the topography i s rugged. U t i l i z a t i o n i s not uniform and l i v e s t o c k d i s t r i b u t i o n may be r e l a t e d more d i r e c t l y to the nature of the topography than to the vege-t a t i o n ( E l l i s o n , 1944). Conservative l e v e l s of use are recommended because of TABLE I . S e l e c t i v e l i s t of forage preference by c a t t l e on mountain gra s s l a n d ranges i n Colorado and Wyoming Species ( i n general order of preference) Festuca t h u r b e r i Vasey range i n Colorado (Paulsen, 1969) H e l i a n t h e l l a q u i n q u i n e r v i s (Hooker) A. Gray Poa p r a t e n s i s E r i g e r o n macranthus Nutt. Agoseris spp. Lathyrus leucanthus Rydb. Festuca idahoensis S t i p a l e t t e r m a n n i i Festuca t h u r b e r i K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Carex spp. Festuca idahoensis Elmer range on sedimentary s o i l s i n Wyoming (Pond and Smith, 1971) (in c l u d e s only major grasses and sedges) Poa ampla Festuca idahoensis Bromus pumpellianus S c r i b n . Agropyron spp. Poa secunda & P. canbyi Poa i n t e r i o r Danthonia intermedia S t i p a columbiana Carex petasata Carex obtusata K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a - 30 -Table I I . S e l e c t i v e l i s t of forage preference by sheep on Festuca idahoensis Elmer range i n western Colorado (May, 1960) Species ( i n order of preference) r i d g e community Oxytropis s e r i c e a Nutt. Bromus spp. Agropyron spp. Lupinus sericeus Pursh Poa secunda P r e s l . A s t e r spp. & Er i g e r o n spp. Danthonia intermedia K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a b a s i n community A l l i u m b r e v i s t y l u m S. Wats Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e Agoseris glauca Oxytropis s e r i c e a Aster spp. & Er i g e r o n spp. Agropyron spp. Bromus spp. Carex phaeocephala Phleum alpinum Lupinus sericeus Poa secunda Danthonia intermedia Trisetum spicatum . P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a Poa spp. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Geum t r i f l o r u m A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m - 31 -the f r a g i l i t y of h i g h e l e v a t i o n environments and the short growing season. Recovery from damage can take 30 years or more ( E l l i s o n , 1949) and, according to the work of P i c k f o r d and Reid (1942), the g r a z i n g c a p a c i t y of range i n d e t e r i o r a t e d c o n d i t i o n (the second weed stage) was 96 percent lower than i n climax c o n d i t i o n . This does not achieve the b a s i c purpose of range management which was defined by E l l i s o n (1944) as: "to maintain the resource i n such a c o n d i t i o n that i t w i l l supply man w i t h a maximum of the products and s e r v i c e s he needs, or i f the resource i s already depleted to r e s t o r e i t to that c o n d i t i o n " . Suggested u t i l i z a t i o n of green fescue (Festuca v i r i d u l a Vasey) range i n Oregon & Washington was 50 percent ( P i c k f o r d and Reid, 1942). In the U i n t a Mountains, sheep stocki n g guides are based on 40 percent u t i l i z a t i o n of forage species on wet meadows and 30 percent on other communities (Lewis, 1970). U t i l i z a t i o n of l e s s than 40-45 percent was required to maintain or improve forage production of Idaho fescue on a l p i n e c a t t l e range i n the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming (Beetl e et a l . , 1961). T h i l e n i u s (1975) states that " l i g h t to moderate removal (20-30 percent of herbage) appears to be a reasonable range of allowable use". The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e of high e l e v a t i o n range management should be to main-t a i n a balance between topography, c l i m a t e , s o i l s , p l a n t s and animals ( E l l i s o n , 1944). An e f f e c t i v e p l a n t cover and a s t a b i l i z e d s o i l are fundamental to sound management. The d i v e r s i t y of s i t e s and p l a n t communities i n mountain range-lands precludes the widespread management goal of a p a r t i c u l a r species compos-i t i o n or s u c c e s s i o n a l stage. However, once the primary o b j e c t i v e has been met, the range manager can attempt to "develop and maintain those types and species combinations which are most val u a b l e as forage", but t h i s requires a d e t a i l e d knowledge of the species, t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance, and t h e i r r e l a t i v e d e s i r -- 32 -a b i l i t y ( E l l i s o n , 1944). This information i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r most mountain rangelands. The c o n d i t i o n of mountain rangelands i s i n f l u e n c e d to some extent by forage preference as s e l e c t i v i t y a f f e c t s the d i r e c t i o n of change i n v e g e t a t i o n under gra z i n g . According to E l l i s o n (1944), "mountain range i n good c o n d i t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a mixture of many species, of which a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n are p a l a t a b l e " . Those species which are c o n t i n u a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r may have d i f f i -c u l t y i n completing t h e i r l i f e c y c l e since the short growing season g e n e r a l l y co i n c i d e s with the grazing season. However, r a d i c a l changes i n species com-p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e many years ( E l l i s o n , 1944) and p l a n t composition may show l i t t l e change even when other signs of damage r e s u l t i n g from grazing are apparent (Lewis, 1970). R e l a t i v e changes i n abundance and a d e c l i n e i n v i g o r of the p a l a t a b l e species are the more v i s i b l e v e g e t a t i v e evidences of change i n range c o n d i t i o n (Evanko and Peterson, 1955; Lewis, 1970). The r e s u l t i s a d e c l i n e i n forage value. Changes i n v e g e t a t i o n are often associated w i t h changes i n s o i l and micro-c l i m a t e . In areas of rugged topography, the s o i l - s t a b i l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e of the v e g e t a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y important ( E l l i s o n , 1944). Water surface r u n - o f f increases w i t h a decrease i n p l a n t cover and the chances f o r e r o s i o n are greater when the s o i l i s exposed to the f u l l i n f l u e n c e of sun, wind and water ( F o r s l i n g , 1931; E l l i s o n , 1944; Turner and Paulsen, 1976). P i c k f o r d and Reid (1942) found that the s o i l l o s s from a green fescue stand i n the second weed stage, as defined by Sampson (1919), was 2076.9 metric tons per ha. Less organic matter i s incorporated i n t o the s o i l as a r e s u l t of over-grazing (heavy g r a z i n g can decrease the amount of l i t t e r by 25 percent) which may cause poorer water r e t e n t i o n and i n f i l t r a t i o n r ates ( E l l i s o n , 1949; Pond and Smith, 1971). D i r e c t trampling of s o i l increases these problems ( E l l i s o n , 1944). - 33 -These f a c t o r s place great stresses on p l a n t growth. Furthermore, the l o s s i n ve g e t a t i v e cover allows the s o i l temperature to r i s e f a s t e r i n the spring and continue higher throughout the summer (Turner and Paulsen, 1976). A side e f f e c t of t h i s change i n microclimate i s e a r l i e r maturation of the ve g e t a t i o n (Turner and Paulsen, 1971). In a d d i t i o n , bare s o i l i s h o t t e r i n the day ( r e s u l t i n g i n increased evaporation) and colder at night ( f r o s t heaving i s greater i n bare spaces) ( E l l i s o n , 1949) which hinders s e e d l i n g establishment. Thus i t can be d i f f i c u l t to re s t o r e a depleted range to s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n d i t i o n . I n d i c a t o r s are o f t e n used i n order to judge range c o n d i t i o n . D i s c r e t i o n must be used however, as they can i n d i c a t e d i f f e r e n t things under d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . E l l i s o n (1944) provides an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i c a t o r s of c o n d i t i o n and trend i n high e l e v a t i o n range-watersheds. The improvement of range c o n d i t i o n has been attempted throughout a v a r i e t y of programs. Of prime importance i s the r e g u l a t i o n of grazing by r i d i n g , s a l t i n g and fencing to prevent unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n and undue congregation of animals ( P i c k f o r d and Reid, 1942). Fencing, water development and t r a i l b u i l d i n g (though expensive i n rugged t e r r a i n and i n some cases r e q u i r i n g annual maintenance) may help to maintain proper d i s t r i b u t i o n and to minimize f u r t h e r damage to areas already s u f f e r i n g from heavy use. Seeding has been used r a t h e r u n s u c c e s s f u l l y i n attempts to h a l t erosion (Evanko and Peterson, 1955; T h i l e n i u s , 1975). When d e s i r a b l e p l a n t s are scarce, seeding may be necessary. E l l i s o n (1949) suggests mulching of the s o i l surface to improve the microclimate f o r seedl i n g establishment. These areas should be pr o t e c t e d u n t i l p l a n t s are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . F e r t i l i z a t i o n was g e n e r a l l y f e l t to be uneconomic ( B i l l i n g s and Mooney, 1968; T h i l e n i u s , 1975; Turner and Paulsen, 1976) although f e r t i l i z e r does increase p a l a t a b i l i t y and might therefore be used to improve c a t t l e d i s t r i b u t i o n . Pond and Smith (1971) found that 56 - 34 -kg/ha of n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r i n the Idaho fescue community r e s u l t e d i n a 5 percentage point increase i n crude p r o t e i n content and increased production by as much as 168 kg/ha. The cost was not evaluated. A l l of these range improvement techniques should be used i n conjunction w i t h appropriate r e g u l a t i o n of g r a z i n g use. Delaying the s t a r t of the g r a z i n g season would allow forage p l a n t s to reach a stage that would minimize damage from g r a z i n g ( C o s t e l l o , 1939). A knowledge of plant development at d i f f e r e n t e l e v a t i o n s would allow an e c o l o g i c a l l y meaningful r e g u l a t i o n of the time of g r a z i n g and d i v i s i o n of the range i n t o g r a z i n g u n i t s (Branson and Lommason, 1958). When based on l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , grazing systems, such as r o t a t i o n or r e s t - r o t a t i o n , were found to b e n e f i t mountain ranges grazed by c a t t l e (Johnson, 1965; Turner and Paulsen, 1976). However, Pond and Smith (1971) suggest that stocking rates are more important than systems of g r a z i n g . L i g h t to moderate grazing maintains plant v i g o r , allows f o r adequate seed production and helps to s u s t a i n or improve the microenvironment ( E l l i s o n , 1949). C e r t a i n l y these f a c t o r s are fundamental to improved range c o n d i t i o n . Even when a grazing scheme i s implemented l e v e l s o f use should be monitored and the r e s u l t s o f the system evaluated. This requires a b a s i c knowledge of plant species and communities i n the area under management. The range manager i s able to develop or maintain those plant communities which provide the most v a l u a b l e forage only when he knows what species are present and t h e i r r e l a t i v e abundance. This i n f o r m a t i o n i n conjunction w i t h a knowledge of species p a l a t a b i l i t y allows the range manager to judge the c o n d i t i o n of s p e c i f i c parts of the range and to e s t a b l i s h objec-t i v e s against which range trend can be assessed ( E l l i s o n , 1949). The frame-work f o r improved range management i s provided by v e g e t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . - 35 -CHAPTER 3 Methodology Environment, physiognomy and species composition were the main c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s used i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping of v e g e t a t i o n . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of taxa i s c o n t r o l l e d l a r g e l y by environment and groups of species are charac-t e r i s t i c of s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t s . These h a b i t a t s , which form a mosaic over the landscape, may have d i s t i n c t boundaries or may grade i n t o each other, depending on the steepness of environmental gradients ( B u t t r i c k , 1978). Physiognomy can be used for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of broad vegetation u n i t s , which are then r e f i n e d and c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of species composition and e c o l o g i c a l s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . E c o l o g i c a l terminology often requires c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s t h e s i s "stand" r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c example of ve g e t a t i o n which was sampled and s i m i l a r stands are grouped i n t o plant communities. A "community" i s con-sidered to be a s p e c i f i c , concrete assemblage o f pl a n t s which has boundaries and can be described i n terms of i t s s t r u c t u r e , species composition and environment. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the communities, as here defined, are based on the stand c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The a p o s t e r i o r i mode of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n discussed by Kuchler (1967) provided the b a s i s f o r the methods used i n the study. In t h i s approach one "maps f i r s t , and c l a s s i f i e s l a t e r " . Maps of the study area were made from B.C. Forest Service black-and-white, 40-chain a i r photos. (These were used because they were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e at a minimal cost.) Physiognomically homogeneous vege t a t i o n u n i t s were del i n e a t e d on the a i r photos p r i o r to the f i e l d work and were used to locate sampling s i t e s i n the f i e l d . F i e l d work was c a r r i e d out i n the summer of 1977. F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the study area was gained during a two week reconnaissance survey i n June. Vege-t a t i o n sampling was done i n J u l y and August. The Gang Ranch cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ( e l e v a t i o n 1640 m) was used as the base camp. A l l s u p p l i e s and research c o l l e c t i o n s were transported i n and out by h e l i c o p t e r . Aside from the i n i t i a l t r i p i n t o the cabin a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was by f o o t . An extensive c o l l e c t i o n of the v a s c u l a r p l a n t s , bryophytes and macrolichens was made during the summer. Vascular p l a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was based on H i t c h -cock & Cronquist (1973) and HuIten (1968). Assistance i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of mosses was given by Dr. W.B. S c h o f i e l d and Mr. B. Tan. Hale (1969) was used for l i c h e n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . P a r t of the l i c h e n c o l l e c t i o n was i d e n t i f i e d by Mr. M.T. Goward and a few d i f f i c u l t specimens were i d e n t i f i e d by Mr. G. Otto. A l i s t of a l l species i d e n t i f i e d i s found i n Appendix A. Voucher specimens have been deposited i n the UBC herbarium and e c o l o g i c a l d u p l i c a t e s are on f i l e i n the Forest Service herbarium at Williams Lake. Two hundred and t h i r t y - n i n e s i t e s were sampled during the f i e l d season. The sampling procedure was adapted from Douglas (1974) and P o j a r (1977). This system i s b a s i c a l l y a reconnaissance-type technique which allows for a large area to be covered i n a l i m i t e d amount of time but s t i l l gives q u a n t i t a t i v e data. Sample p l o t s were randomly located w i t h i n the homogeneous u n i t s d e l i n e a t e d on the a i r photos. P l o t s i z e was r e l a t e d to p l a n t physiognomy according to the s c a l e used by Pojar (1977): radius of c i r c l e herbaceous 1 m low shrub 3 m t a l l shrub 7 m f o r e s t e d 15 m Crown cover was estimated f o r a l l species found w i t h i n the p l o t using the 6 cover c l a s s e s of Daubenmire (1959) (0-5, 5-25, 25-50, 50-75, 75-95, 95-100 - 37 -percent). Cover estimates were a l s o made f o r rock, bare ground and l i t t e r . For each p l o t environmental data were c o l l e c t e d on slope, aspect, e l e v a t i o n , hygrotope, and s o i l temperature at a depth of 20 cm. Hygrotope assessments are a r e l a t i v e r a t i n g of a v a i l a b l e moisture during the growing season where mesic i s considered average, x e r i c i s d r i e r than average, hy g r i c i s wetter than average, and h y d r i c i s saturated throughout much of the growing season. I t i s a s u b j e c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Rare species, which occured w i t h i n the stand but outside the p l o t , were al s o recorded. Vegetation tables were constructed w i t h the a i d of computer programs w r i t t e n by K l i n k a and Phelps (1978) and by Ceska and Roemer (1972). P l o t s were grouped according to f l o r i s t i c and environmental s i m i l a r i t i e s . Sorensen's c o e f f i c i e n t was used by the Ceska and Roemer Program (1972) to c a l c u l a t e mean s i m i l a r i t y of the p l o t groupings. The formula f o r t h i s index of s i m i l a r i t y i s IS = C/%(A+B) where C = the number of species common to two r e l e v e s , A = the t o t a l number of species i n releve A, and B = the t o t a l number of species i n r e l e v e B. The l a r g e r the value the greater the s i m i l a r i t y . S i m i l a r i t y i n d i c e s of 25-50 percent are common (Mueller-Dombois and E l l e n b e r g , 1974). Cover and constancy were used to evaluate species s i g n i f i c a n c e . Both dominants and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species were used to describe the community types. Constancy was based on the percentage of p l o t s (P) i n which species were present. The constancy c l a s s e s are according to the Braun-Blanquet s c a l e ( K l i n k a & Phelps, 1978). Percent presence constancy 81-100 61-80 41-60 21-40 1-20 V IV I I I I I I mostly present o f t e n present seldom present rare c o n s t a n t l y present - 38 -For communities w i t h fewer than f i v e p l o t s , constancy was replaced by a simple r e l a t i v e frequency value c a l c u l a t e d using the f r a c t i o n of p l o t s i n which a species was present (e.g. 2/3 = 66 pe r c e n t ) . A mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e (MS) value was obtained by converting the cover c l a s s to percentage using the mid-p o i n t value. The average cover percentage was then converted back to a cover c l a s s which represents the mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e . For example, a species present i n 5 p l o t s which form a p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n might have cover c l a s s values of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The corresponding percent midpoint values are 2.5, 15, 37.5, 62.5, and 85. The average of these values i s 40.5 percent or cover c l a s s 3. Tables for each community are presented i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n . The species are arranged by l a y e r s , by decreasing constancy w i t h i n each l a y e r , and by decreasing mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h i n each constancy c l a s s . Species occur r i n g i n only one p l o t are l i s t e d at the bottom of each t a b l e . The r e s u l t i n g tables f o r each community are presented i n the r e s u l t s s e c t i o n . An inventory map was drawn to i l l u s t r a t e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p l a n t com-munity types (Appendix C). No management i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been included. The map was produced at the s c a l e of the a i r photographs used i n the study (40 chain or 1:29,200) although some of the communities are small and b a r e l y d i s -t i n g u i s h a b l e at t h i s s c a l e . To map at a l a r g e r s c a l e would have r e q u i r e d d i f -f erent photographs and more time than was j u s t i f i e d f or t h i s phase of the study. D e l i n e a t i o n of u n i t s would be more accurate at a l a r g e r s c a l e , however. Where mapping u n i t s represent two community types, the f i r s t one i s dominant. Meadows are o u t l i n e d w i t h s o l i d l i n e s as these u n i t s represent the primary g r a z i n g areas for c a t t l e and are therefore of greatest importance to the range manager. - 39 -CHAPTER 4 Results The a l p i n e and subalpine rangelands i n the C h i l c o t i n Ranges are composed of a number of p l a n t communities interwoven to form a complex p a t t e r n over the landscape. In the subalpine zone open meadows grade i n t o shrub t h i c k e t s and f o r e s t , while shrublands, f e l l f i e l d s and fescue meadows c h a r a c t e r i z e the a l p i n e zone. There i s often no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between a l p i n e and subalpine community types. For t h i s reason, and the f a c t that each management u n i t incorporates both vegetation zones, a l l data were tre a t e d together. Nineteen p l a n t communities have been c l a s s i f i e d based on the r e s u l t s of the Ceska-Roemer tabular a n a l y s i s program (Ceska and Roemer, 1972). They f a l l i n t o f i v e main physiognomic types and w i l l be presented a c c o r d i n g l y . The a b b r e v i a t i o n s w i l l be used i n l a t e r f i g u r e s and on the vegetation map. I . Forest 1. P i c e a engelmanii - Abies l a s i o c a r p a (pa) 2. Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - Juniperus communis ( p j ) I I . Shrub A. T a l l Shrub 1. S a l i x b a r c l a y i - Carex a q u a t i l i s (SC) 2. S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a (SA) 3. S a l i x brachycarpa - S a l i x b a r c l a y i (SB) 4. S a l i x brachycarpa - Festuca spp. (SF) 5. S a l i x brachycarpa - Phleum alpinum (SP) 6. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi - Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a (AA) - 40 -B. A l p i n e Dwarf Shrub 1. S a l i x cascadensis (SD) 2. Dryas octopetala (DO) 3. Dryas o c t o p e t a l a - Festuca a l t a i c a (DF) IV. Meadow 1. Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a (CA) 2. Carex n i g r i c a n s (CN) 3. Festuca a l t a i c a - Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a (FF) 4. Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a (FB) 5. Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a - Phleum alpinum (FP) 6. Phleum alpinum - Carex phaeocephala (PC) 7. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a (KC) V. R o c k - t a l u s - l i c h e n T e r r a i n U n i t ( r t ) A dichotomous key to the f i e l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these community types i s presented i n Figure 8. This key i s based on physiognomy and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species combinations derived from the Ceska-Roemer ta b u l a r a n a l y s i s program (1972). Species groups and rel e v e or community types are simultaneously formed by t h i s computer program. The species group i s formed under v a r i o u s percent combinations which define the minimum number of species required f o r a relev e to conta i n t h i s species group (e.g. 5/10) and the maximum number of occurrences outside the group. Species are treated separately f o r each stratum. Those re l e v e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a p a r t i c u l a r species group are combined to form community types. A t o t a l of s i x t e e n species groups are used to c h a r a c t e r i z e the nineteen community types. - 41 -Group 1: 5/10 Abies l a s i o c a r p a A l , B2, C Pi c e a engelmanii A l , B l Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m Linnaea b o r e a l i s P y r o l a secunda Lophozia h a t c h e r i L e t h a r i a columbiana Group 2: 1/1 Carex r o s t r a t a Group 3: 1/3 Carex a q u a t i l i s Drepanocladus aduncus Plagiomnium rostratum Group 4: 3/7 S a l i x brachycarpa S a l i x b a r c l a y i B e t u l a glandulosa Equisetum arvense Luzula p a r v i f l o r a Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e Tomenthypnum n i t e n s Group 5: 1/3 S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n Carex canescens Group 6: 2/3 S a l i x cascadensis A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a P e d i c u l a r i s ornithorhyncha Group 7: 1/3 Dryas octo p e t a l a C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a [Cladonia squamulose] Group 9: 2/4 Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a Penstemon procerus Polemonium pulcherrimum Geum t r i f l o r u m Group 10: 1/3 Phleum alpinum Trisetum spicatum A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s Group 11: 1/1 Carex n i g r i c a n s Group 12: 3/8 K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Agropyron caninum Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i Poa i n t e r i o r Erigonum umbellatum Ci r s i u m hookerianum Rosa a c i c u l a r i s E r i g e r on speciosus Group 13: 2/6 P h a c e l i a s e r i c e u s S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t a Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a Shepherdia canadensis Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s Rosa a c i c u l a r i s Group 14: 1/1 Juniperus communis Populus tremuloides Group 15: 2/5 Pinus a l b i c a u l i s A, B l , B2 Phyllodoce empetriformis Poa nervosa - 42 -Group 8: 2/3 Group 16: 2/4 Festuca a l t a i c a C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a [Cladonia squamulose] [Black crustose l i c h e n s ] Rhizocarpon geographicum Oxytropus campestris [Crustose l i c h e n s ] These d i a g n o s t i c groups, w i t h t h e i r corresponding releve or community types, are presented i n Table I I I . One a d d i t i o n a l group i s included. Group 17 includes species which appear to have increase i n abundance and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n areas that have been d i s t u r b e d . I t i s represented i n 2/3 of the communities described. Releve type 19 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h i s species group only which r e q u i r e s the presence of four of the followng nine species: Cerastium arvense A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Carex phaeocephala Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a Galium boreale Poa p r a t e n s i s T o r t u l a norvegica This t a b l e u t i l i z e s only 68 species (out of 423 c o l l e c t e d i n the study area) to c h a r a c t e r i z e the community types. Other species having a h i g h constancy or dominance w i l l be discussed i n the i n d i v i d u a l community d e s c r i p t i o n s . Forest Types: The subalpine f o r e s t was not e x t e n s i v e l y sampled, as i t provides only a l i m i t e d amount of forage. I t i s however an important component of the l a n d -scape and i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the h a b i t a t requirements f o r w i l d l i f e . Two broad coniferous types are apparent from the l i m i t e d data c o l l e c t e d - the P i c e a engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a ( s p r u c e - f i r ) type and the Pinus a l b i c a u l i s -Juniperus communis (white bark p i n e - j u n i p e r ) type. In a d d i t i o n , there are s u c c e s s i o n a l stands of Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) that have been F i g u r e 8. Dichotomous key f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p l a n t community types l a Tree or shrub l a y e r ("greater than 30 cm) p r e s e n t . 2a Tree spec i e s domi nant 3a Evergreen f o r e s t 4a At l e a s t (5/10) o f the Abi ea 1 a s i o carpa s p e c i e s group ( O are present P i c e a - A h i e s f o r e s t (pa) 4b At l e a s t (2/5) of the Pi nus a l b i c a u 1 i s s p e c i e s group (15) are present Pinus a l b i c a u l i s f o r e s t ( p j ) 3b Deciduous f o r e s t w i t h Populus t r e m u l o i d e a and s p e c i e s group (13) present Populus t r e m u l o i d e s f o r e s t (AA) 2b Shrubs domi nant 5a At l e a s t (3/7) s p e c i e s from S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a s p e c i e s group (4) are p r e s e n t . 6a S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a i s p r e s e n t S a 1 i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e ahrub w e t l a n d (SA) 6b S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a not p r e s e n t ; Sa l i x b a r c l a y i and/or S^ br a c h y c a r p a dominant 7a At l e a a t 1/3 s p e c i e s from the Carex a q u a t i 1 i a or Carex r o s t r a t a s p e c i e s S a l i x bare 1 ayJ shrub wetland (SC) groups are pre s e n t i n herb s t r a t a 7b U n d e r s t o r y composed o f a v a r i e t y o f g r a s s e s and f o r b s of low cover v a l u e s S a l i x b a r e l a y i - S a 1 i x brachycarpa s h r u b l a n d (SB) 5b Less than 3 s p e c i e s from the Sa1ix b r a c h y c a r p a s p e c i e s group are p r e s e n t . 8a At l e a s t 2/6 s p e c i e s from the Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a group (14) are present (may c o n t a i n s c r u b Populus t r e m u l o i d e a or P_^  t r i c h o c a r p a ) A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i - A m e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland ( AA) 8b Shrub l a y e r i s dominated by Sa1ix b r a c h y c a r p a and/or B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 9a Herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n dominated by Featuca a 1 t a i c a and S a 1 i x b r a c h y c a r p a -F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a s p e c i e s groups (8 and 9 ) . '. ~ Sa 1 i x b r a c h y c a r p a - F e s t u c a shrub meadow (SF) 9b Herbaceous v e g e t a t i o n dominated by Phleum alpinum and Carex phaeocephala ( s p e c i e s group 10) . . . S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum shrub meadow (SP) l a V e g e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s e d by sedges, g r a s s e s , f o r b s and/or low shrubs l e s s than 50 cm; c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s predominate i n 18b. Carex aquat i \ i a or Carex r o s t r a t a dominant ( s p e c i e s groups 2 o r 3 ) ; g e n e r a l l y on wet s i t e s . . . Carex aquat i1 i s / r o s t r a t a wetland (CA) 10b V e g e t a t i o n composed o f a v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s ; not dominated by Carex s p e c i e s groups (except Carex n i g r i c a n s ) 11a S a l i x c a acadenais ( s p e c i e s group 6) dominant . . . * S a l i x c a s c a d e n s i s dwarf w i l l o w (SD) l i b S a l i x c a s c a d e n a i a absent 12a V e g e t a t i o n dominated by the Dryas o c t o p e t a l a s p e c i e s group (7) w i t h o r w i t h o u t the F e s t u c a a 1 t a i c a s p e c i e s (8) 13a C o n t a i n s 2/3 s p e c i e s from the Fe s t uc a a l t a i c a s p e c i e s group Dryas o c t o p e t a l a - F e s t u c a a l t a i c a meadow (DF) 13b Lacks 2/3 s p e c i e s from the F. a l t a i c a s p e c i e s group; v e g e t a t i o n dominated by g r a s s e s , f o r b s and sedges Dryas o c t o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d (DO) 12b V e g e t a t i o n dominated by g r a s s e s , f o r b s and sedges 14a At l e a s t 3/8 s p e c i e s from the K o e l e r i a s p e c i e s group (13) are pre s e n t K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a d r y meadow (KC) 14b Does not c o n t a i n t h r e e s p e c i e s from the K o e l e r i a group; v e g e t a t i o n dominated by F e s t u c a spp., Phleum a l p i n u m or Carex n i g r i c a n s (except i n 18b by l i c h e n s ) 15a At l e a s t 2/4 s p e c i e s from group (9) pre s e n t or 2/3 from the Fest u c a a 1ta i ca group (8) 16a F e s t u c a a l t a i c a and F_^  b r a c h y p h y 1 l a are codominant grasses F e s t u c a spp. meadow (FF) 16b F e s t u c a brachyphy11 a s p e c i e s group p r e s e n t but l a c k s 2/3 s p e c i e s from F. a l t a i c a group 17a C o n t a i n s 2/3 s p e c i e s from the Phleum alpinum s p e c i e s group (10) or one s p e c i e s w i t h a cover g r e a t e r than 1 Festuca-Phleum a1pinum meadow (FP) 17b F e s t u c a brachyphy11 a s p e c i e s group dominant; Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i a dominant on rocky s o i l s F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow (FB) * F e s t u c a spp. absent; v e g e t a t i o n domi nanted by sedges, f o r b s , 1i chens or Phleum alpinum 18a At l e a s t 1/3 s p e c i e s from Phleum a l p i num s p e c i e s group (10) present 19a Carex n i gr i cans p r e s e n t Carex n i g r i cans snowbed meadow (CN) 19b Carex n i g r i cans absent; v e g e t a t i o n dominated by Phleum alpinum, T r i s e t u m s p i cat urn and Carex pjiaeoccpha 1 a Phleum a 1 pi n u m~Ca_re x phaeocephfl 1 a meadow (PC) 18b Lacks Ph 1 <*um s p e c i e s group; c o n t a i n s 2/4 s p e c i e s from the b l a c k c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s p e c i e s group (16) R o c k - t a l u s - 1 i chen t e r r a i n un i t ( r t ) Table I I I . Summary f l o r i s t i c t a b l e showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c spec i es groups f o r the n i n e t e e n commun i t y t y p e s . Constancy va1ues are recorded on 1y when a s p e c i e s occurs i n 20X or more of the p l o t s i n c l u d e d i n the community t y p e . Community Type Pe Cr Ca Sb Sa Sb Sb Sb Sc Do Do Fa Fb Fb Pa Cn Kc Au Pa Rt 10 A l Ca Sb Fab Pa Fa Fb Pa Cp Aa Jc Number o f P l o t s 5 1 5 8 9 14 17 7 6 12 12 18 24 20 15 4 24 12 5 9 5 S p e c i e s / P l o t x 10 256 10 62 203 240 265 297 271 198 1 72 244 215 181 200 168 152 195 224 430 94 124 Mean S i m i l a r i t y 47 100 27 30 33 31 39 41 51 28 46 45 35 41 32 30 39 42 46 25 36 Group 1 Abies l a s i o c a r p a B2 Abies l a s i o c a r p a C Lophozia h a t c h e r i P y r o l a secunda L e t h a r i a columbiana Linnaea b o r e a l i s V a c c i n i u m p a r v i f o l i u m A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a A l P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i A l P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i B l Group 2 Carex r o a t r a t a Group 3 Carex a q u a t i l i s Depranocladus aduncus Plagiomniuro r o s t r a t u m Group A S a l i x b r a chycarpa Aulacotnnium pa l u s t r e B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a Equtsetum arvense L u s u l a p a r v i f l o r a S a l i x b a r c l a y i Tomenthypnum n i t e n s Group 5 S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n Carex canescena Group 6 S a l i x c a s c a d e n s i s P e d i c u l a r i s o m i t h o r h y n c h a A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a Group 7 Dryas o c t o p e t a l a C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a Group 8 Festuca a l t a i c a ' ^ C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a [ C l a d o n i n squamuloseJ V IV IV IV V I I I I I I I I I IV I I I IV I I V IV I I IV I I I I I I I I IV I I V IV IV IV IV IV I I I I I I IV IV I I I I I IV V IV IV I I I V I I I I I I I I IV IIT I I I I I V TV IT TTT t l T i l V TTT TI V V IT V IV I I I IV I I Group 9 Festu c a b r a c h y p h y l l a I I I t V I I TV T i t V V V TTT I t I I Fermteraon procerus •IT TI TTT IV TT. IV ITT IV IT I t T l TT Po 1 emon i um pulcherrimum IT IT IV IV TV I I I t T I TV t l Geum t r i f l o r u r a I I I I I t IV TV IIT ITT Group 10 Phleum a l p i n u m T r i a e t u m .spicatum A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i a Group t l Carex n i g r i c a n s Group 12 K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Agropyron caninum A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i Poa i n t e r i o r Eriogonum umbellatum C i r s i u n hookerianum Rosa a c i c u l a r i s C E r i g e r o n s p e c i o s u s Group 13 A n e l a n c h i e r a l n i f o l i a P h a c e l i a s e r i c e u s S m i l a c i n a a t e l l a t a Shepherdia canadensis Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s Rosa a c i c u l a r i s B2 Group 1* ( a s s o c i a t e d spp.) J u n i p e r u s communis Populus t r e m u l o i d e s TTI I I V IV IT Tt TI I t I I I I TV I I t v t v TI I I I I I I IV TTT I I t l t v • Tt Tt IT V V t i l ITI I I t t V I I I I l i t H I t t I I t t l I t TI IV I t IV I I I ITT t t l tv TTI I I Croup 15 Pinus a l b i c a u l i a P h y l l o d o c e e m p e t r i f o r m i s P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s A l Poa nervosa Pinus a l b i c a u l i s Group 16 i B l a c k c r u s t o a e l i c h e n s ] " Rhi r o c a r p o n geographicum I I Oxytropus c a m p e a t r i s (Crustone l i c h e n s ) Croup 17 C e r a s t i u i a arvense A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m I I Carex phseocephala Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r a i f o l i a TT F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a I I I Galium b o r e a l e T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a Poa p r a t e n s i n t l IV I I ITT TV IT ITT TTI TT TT IV TV IIT IV IIT ITT TT I I ITT IV TT TIT V TTT V TV TV TT TI TTT V V V I I TV IV V V TV I I I t v IV I t ITT V IV IV IV ITT TTT T i t TTT TT TT IT TT TT V TT TTT Tl T i t 11 t t I t t v Tl V TT I I I TI t i l V IV t l I t V V V V V TIT I t t t l i t Tt ITT IT I t t I I I TV TTt V t t l V TV TT I I TT I t TIT - 45 -c l a s s i f i e d by the predominant understory vegetation - e i t h e r a K o e l e r i a  c r i s t a t a (Junegrass) meadow or a dry shrub (Arctostaphylos-Amelanchier) type -and w i l l be discussed w i t h those communities. 1. P i c e a engelmanii - Abies l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t : (Table IV) The s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t type occurs commonly on north to north-west f a c i n g slopes but was found a l s o along drainage channels on southeast f a c i n g slopes i n Relay V a l l e y . F l a t v a l l e y bottoms to steep (27°) slopes support t h i s type of ve g e t a t i o n . Best development w i t h i n the study area occurs from 1600 to 1865 meters on mesic or h y g r i c s i t e s . At higher e l e v a t i o n s subalpine park-land w i t h tree i s l a n d s of stunted subalpine f i r replace the continuous f o r e s t . P i c e a engelmanii (Engelmann spruce) and Abies l a s i o c a r p a (subalpine f i r ) dominate the canopy i n mature stands. Tree height averages 10-11 meters. Occasional evenraged stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) have r e s u l t e d from past f i r e s , but spruce and f i r are present i n the subcanopy s t r a t a . The shrub layers are g e n e r a l l y poorly developed, g i v i n g the community an open appearance and young trees are f r e q u e n t l y the only species present. However, snowbush (Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u m ) was abundant on the steep, north f a c i n g slopes of Relay V a l l e y and Barclay's w i l l o w ( S a l i x b a r c l a y i ) was common i n the spruce swamp of the v a l l e y f l o o r . Numerous species are found i n the herb l a y e r . A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a , P e d i c u l a r i s bracteosa, Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m , P y r o l a secunda, Vaccinium p a r v i f o l i u m , Linnaea b o r e a l i s , Lupinus n o o t k a t e n s i s , and F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a a l l have a high constancy (60 percent) but g e n e r a l l y a low cover. Subalpine f i r seedlings were present i n a l l but the wettest stands. Common l i c h e n s and bryophytes are Cladonia spp., P e l t i g e r a aphthosa, Drepanocladus uncinatus, Lophozia h a t c h e r i , Brachytheeium spp., P o h l i a nutans, and Polytrichum juniperinum. L e t h a r i a columbiana i s a constant epiphyte. - 46 -T a b l e IV. P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i - A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t P l o t Number B i o g e o c 1 i m a t i c U n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) Slope G r a d i e n t (°) Aspect Hygrotope S o i l Temperature f°C) L i t t e r Bare Ground Rocks 1757.0 13.8 8.3 3 2 1 209 ESSF 1830 27 310 mesic 9 2 1 225 ESSF 1865 19 110 me6ic 9 3 89 ESSF 1670 3 10 n e s i c 7 4 2 206 ESSF 1820 17 269 mesic 8 3 88 ESSF 1600 3 F mesic 8.5 2 2 Spec i e s TREES A l P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i Abies L a s i o c a r p a P i n u s c o n t o r t a A2 P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i A3 P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i P i n u s c o n t o r t a 80.0 60.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B l P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a B2 A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a 60.0 40.0 100.0 HERBS C A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i e 100.0 1 A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a 80.0 1 P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 80.0 1 E p i l o b i u r o a n g u s t i f o l i u m 80.0 3 P y r o l a secunda 80.0 1 Vacinnium p a r v i f o l i u m 60.0 2 L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s 60.0 2 L u p i n u s n o o t k a t e n s i s 60.0 1 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 60.0 1 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 40.0 2 A s t e r f o l i a c e o u s 40.0 1 L i 1 Hum colutnbianum 40.0 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 40.0 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 40.0 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH C l a d o n i a spp. 80.0 P e l t i g e r a apthosa 80.0 Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s 80.0 L o p h o z i a h a t c h e r i 80.0 Brachytheeium spp. 60.0 P o h U a nutans 60.0 P o l y t r i c h u r o j u n i p e r i n u m 60.0 P l e u r o z i u m s c h r e b e r i 40.0 Bryuro spp. 40.0 Dicranum scoparium 40.0 Leptobryum p y r i f o r m e 40.0 DW L e t h a r i a columbiana 100.0 DR Rhizocarpon geographicum 40.0 {Black c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency o f 202 or l e s s and t h e i r c o v e r : Rhododendron a l b i f l o r u m 5, S a l i x b a r c l a y i 3, J u n i p e r u s coomunis 1, S a l i x s i t c h e n s i s 1, Carex diepenna 4, Equisetum arvense 3, P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s 3, Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s 2, H a b e n a r i a o b t u s a t a 2, Poa nervosa 2, P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a 2, Rubus a c a u l i s 2, A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 1, Cornus can a d e n s i s 1, Osmorrhiza c h i l e n s i s 1, V a c c i n i u m d e l i c i o s u m 1, V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 1, Anemone o c c i d e n t a l i s 1, Carex a q u a t i l i s 1, Carex phaeocephala 1, Carex r o s s i i 1, E r i g e r o n s p e c i o s u s 1, Galium t r i f i d u m 1, Geum t r i f l o r u m 1, L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a 1, L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 1, Moneses u n i f l o r a 1, Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 1, Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 1, S a x i f r a g a a rguta ? x ? l y a l l i i 1, S t e l l a r i a c r i a p a 1, V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s 1, P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s +, Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 3, Plagiomnium e l l i p t i c u m 3, Tomenthypnum n i t e n s 2, Amblystegium serpens 1, A t r i p l e x p a t u l a 1, Blepharaetoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m 1, C a l y p o g e i a m u e l l e r i a n a 1, [ C l a d o n i a squamulose 1 ] , C l i m a c i u m dendroides 1, L o p h o z i a spp. 1, P l a g i o c h i l a a s p l e n i o i d e s 1. T i s m i a a u s t r i a c a 1, Helodium b l a n d o w i i 1, K i a e r i a s t a r k e i 1, C l a d o n i a spp. 1, [ C r ustose l i c h e n s 1] - 47 -Species group 1 contains the d i a g n o s t i c species f o r the community. These species have a high f i d e l i t y f or t h i s f o r e s t type as they are found almost e x c l u s i v e l y i n only t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Mean s i m i l a r i t y of the releves i s 47 (based on Sorensen's c o e f f i c i e n t ) . P l o t 88 represents a wet v a r i a t i o n of the community as species group 3 and 4 are a l s o present. A more d e t a i l e d study of the subalpine f o r e s t probably would lead to the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s e v e r a l s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t types. For the purpose of t h i s study one general mesic to h y g r i c f o r e s t type i s s u f f i c i e n t . 2. Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - Juniperus communis dry f o r e s t : (Table V) This a s s o c i a t i o n occurs on ridges or rocky south to southeast f a c i n g slopes i n the subalpine parkland zone. A l l of the stands sampled were on the north side of Relay V a l l e y between 1790 and 2015 meters. R e l i e f i s g e n e r a l l y s t r a i g h t to convex. Slopes of 11° were most common but 40° was recorded at one s i t e . The s o i l i s stony and w e l l drained. This community type f a l l s onto the dry end of the hygrotopic s c a l e . Mean s i m i l a r i t y of the f i v e p l o t s i s 46. Pinus a l b i c a u l i s (whitebark pine) forms the most conspicuous element of t h i s community. The f o r e s t i s g e n e r a l l y open w i t h the dominant trees averaging 3-8 meters i n height. Subalpine f i r i s u s u a l l y present i n the t a l l shrub s t r a t a along w i t h whitebark pine. Juniperus communis (mountain j u n i p e r ) i s a constant low shrub component along with (to a l e s s e r extent) subalpine f i r and whitebark pine. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c members of the herb l a y e r i n c l u d e A r n i c a  c o r d i f o l i a , A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Agoseris glauca, Antennaria m i c r o p h y l l a , Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m , Lupinus nootkatensis, Trisetum spicatum, E r i g e r o n  peregrinus, Artemesia norvegica, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s , Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a , C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a , Polemonium pulcherrimum, and Sedum lanceolatum a l l w i t h a - 48 -Table V. Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u e communis d r y f o r e s t P l o t Number Mean 70 227 47 213 136 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c U n i t ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 1926.0 2015 1985 1940 1900 1790 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 16.6 11 11 11 10 40 Aspect 108 146 100 360 180 Hygrotope x e r i c x e r i c submesic •ubmesic xer i c S o i l Temperature (°C) 11.2 11 10 8.25 12.5 14.25 L i t t e r 2 1 2 1 2 Bare Ground 2 2 1 2 1 3 Dead Wood 3 3 Rock s 2 2 3 1 1 1 Species P MS COVER CLASS TREES A l P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s 80.0 3 3 2 3 3 A3 Pinus a l b i c a u l i s 60.0 2 2 2 2 SHRUBS B l P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s 100.0 2 1 1 3 2 2 Ab i e s l a s i o c a r p a 80.0 2 1 2 2 3 B2 J u n i p e r u s communis 100.0 2 2 2 3 1 2 Ab i e s l a s i o c a r p a 80.0 2 1 1 2 2 Pinus a l b i c a u l i s 60.0 1 2 1 1 Shepherdia canadensis 40.0 2 2 2 P i n u s c o n t o r t a 40.0 1 1 1 HERBS C A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 100.0 2 2 2 2 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 100.0 ? 1 2 2 1 j A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 100.0 1 1 1 1 2 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 100.0 1 1 2 1 1 1 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 100.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 Lupinus n o o t k a t e n s i s 80.0 3 3 1 4 2 T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m 80.0 2 2 2 2 E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 80.0 2 2 1 2 2 Artem e s i a n o r v e g i c a 80.0 2 2 1 2 1 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 80.0 2 2 1 2 1 C a s t i l l e j a m i n i s t a 80.0 1 1 1 1 2 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 80.0 1 1 1 1 Polemonium pulcherriumum 80.0 1 1 1 1 1 Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 80.1 1 1 1 1 • 1 V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t o s u m 60.0 2 1 3 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 60.0 1 2 1. 1 Juncus drunmondii 60.0 1 1 2 1 A p o s e r i a a u r a n t i a c a 60.0 1 1 1 1 Gentiana a m a r e l l a 60.0 1 1 1 1 H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e 60.0 1 1 1 1 Potent i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 60.0 1 1 1 1 S i l e n e p a r r y i 60.0 1 1 1 1 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i 40.0 2 2 3 Phleum a l p i n u m 40.0 2 2 Poa nervosa 40.0 2 2 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 40.0 2 2 A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 40.0 1 1 2 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 40.0 1 1 2 Carex phaeocephale 40.0 1 ? 1 Carex r o s s i i 40.0 1 1 2 Eriogonum umbellatum 40.0 1 1 2 P h y l l o d o c e e m p e t r i f o r m i s 40.0 1 2 1 Poa P a l u s t r i s 40.0 1 2 1 Anenome m u l t i f i d a 40.0 1 1 1 A n t e n n a r i a n e g l e c t a 40.0 1 1 1 A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 40.0 1 1 l ' C e r a s t i u m arvense 40.0 1 1 1 C i r s i u m hookerianum 40.0 1 1 1 Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 40.0 1 1 1 Galium b o r e a l e 40.0 1 1 1 Penstemon p r o c e r u s 40.0 1 1 1 Pinus a l b i c a u l i s 40.0 1 1 + - 48a -Table V c o n t i n u e d P l o t Number 70 227 47 213 136 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 60.0 1 1 1 1 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 40.0 2 4 2 P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m 40.0 2 3 1 Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u t n 40.0 2 2 2 C I a d o n i a squamulose 40.0 2 2 2 S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 40.0 1 2 1 C l a d o n i a spp. 40.0 1 1 1 DR [Crustose spp.] 1 2 1 Rhizocarpon geographicum 40.0 1 2 1 [Black c r u s t o s e ] 40.0 1 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 20T and t h e i r c o v e r : Abies l a s i o c a r p a 2, P i n u s c o n t o r t a 2, P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i 1, S a l i x spp. 1, Symphoricarpos a 1bus 1, Vaccinum d e l i c i o s u m 1, Poa c u s i c k i i 3, A r n i c a p a r r y i 2, A r n i c a a o r o r i a 2, Bromus i n e r m i s 2, E r i g e r o n s p e c i o s u s 2, Lirmaea b o r e a l i s 2, Poa f e n d l e r i e n a 2, Poa i n t e r i o r 2, V a c i n n i u m p a r v i f o l i u m ?, A b i e s l a s i ocarpa 1 , A l l i u m cernuum 1, E q u i s e t u m arvense 1, E r i g e r o n a c r i s 1, Agrophyron s p i catutn 1, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a 1, A r a b i s drunmondii 1, A r a b i 6 l y a l l i i 1, A r n i c a l a t i f o l i a 1, A r t e m e s i a f r i g i d a 1, A s t e r s i b i r i c u s 1, Carex a l b o n i g r a 1, Draba spp. 1. Elymus glaucus 1, E p i l o b i u m alpinum 1, F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 1, F e s t u c a saximontana 1, Geum t r i f l o r u m 1, Heracleum Ianaturn 1, Hordeum jubatum 1, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 1, Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 1, P a c h i s t i m a m y r s i n i t e B 1, P h a c e l i a s e r i c e a 1, Poa g l a u c a 1, P y r o l a Becunda 1, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 1, Rhinanthes c r i s t a - g a l l i 1, Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 1, Senecio lugens l t Senecio s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 1, S t i p a columbiana 1, T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 1, V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s 1, V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 1, P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i +, C l a d o n i a ecmocyna 2, P e 1 t i g e r a malacea 1 , Brachytheeium a l b i cans 1, Brachythee iutn spp. 1, Ceratadon purpureus 1, C e t r a r i a i s land i c a 1, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 1, P o h H a nutans 1, T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1, L e t h a r i a columbiana 2 - 49 -constancy of IV or V and an average cover c l a s s of 1 or 2. Phyllodoce  empetriformis and Poa nervosa are as s o c i a t e d species of low s i g n i f i c a n c e . They have a higher f i d e l i t y to t h i s type than to any other community which e x p l a i n s t h e i r presence i n the d i a g n o s t i c species group (15) for t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . T a l l Shrub Types: There are s i x shrub dominated community types i n the study area. 1) S a l i x b a r e l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland: (Table VI) This a s s o c i a t i o n was found i n the subalpine zone along streams i n a l l the v a l l e y s s t u d i e d ranging i n e l e v a t i o n from 1615-1920 meters. The slope was minimal (0-7 u) i n a l l but one stand which had numerous small r i v u l e t s f l o w i n g down a moderate slope of 17°. The aspect ranges from f l a t v a l l e y bottoms to north or northeast f a c i n g s l o p es. I t i s i d e n t i f i e d by the presence of both species groups 3 and 4. The presence of Carex a q u a t i l i s i n d i c a t e s areas sub-j e c t to extensive f l o o d i n g and indeed the hygrotope i n t h i s community ranged from h y g r i c to h y d r i c throughout the growing season. The eight p l o t s i n t h i s type have a mean s i m i l a r i t y o f 30. S a l i x bare l a y i ( Barclay's w i l l o w ) i s the dominant shrub, a t t a i n i n g a height of 90-120 cm. I t has a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 4 (62.5 p e r c e n t ) . B e t u l a  glandulosa (dwarf b i r c h ) also has a high constancy (V) but has an average cover o f only 2 (15 pe r c e n t ) . A small amount of S a l i x brachycarpa i s found o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the shrub s t r a t a as w e l l . Carex a q u a t i l i s (water sedge) i s the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of the he r b - l a y e r . I t has a constancy of IV and a mean cover of 4. F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a var. glauca ( b l u e l e a f strawberry) a l s o has a high constancy (IV) but has a low mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e . Three primary mosses with a constancy of IV c h a r a c t e r i z e the D l a y e r - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e , - 50 -Table V I . S a l i x bare l a y i - Carex a q u a t i l i s shrub wet land P l o t number Mean 155 38 87 159 166 112 83 53 B i o g e o c l i m e t i c u n i t ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n 'M) 1806.9 1860 1620 1615 1845 1830 1920 1790 1975 Slope G r a d i e n t f°) 4.6 2 0 0 5 0 17 6 7 Aspect 82 F F 60 F 80 • 2 350 Hygrotope h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c • u b h y g r i c me s i c h y g r i c • u b h y g r i c h y g r i c S o i l Temperature (°C) 0 10 7 7.5 10 9 11.5 10 7 L i t t e r 2 2 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 Bare Ground 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 Rocks 1 1 Spec i e s P MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B2 S a l i x b a r c l a y i 100.0 4 5 3 5 4 5 3 4 5 B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 75.0 2 2 2 2 1 I 3 S a l i x bracbycarpa 62.5 2 2 3 2 1 2 HERBS C Carex a q u a t i l i s 62.5 3 4 3 2 5 4 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 62.5 1 1 2 1 1 2 A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 50.0 2 2 2 1 V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 50.0 1 2 1 2 1 Equisetunt arvense 50.0 1 1 1 1 1 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 37.5 1 1 3 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 37.5 1 1 2 1 Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s 37.5 1 1 2 1 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 37.5 1 1 1 1 L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 37.5 1 1 1 1 P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 37.5 1 1 1 1 P y r o l a a s a r i f o l i a 37.5 1 1 1 1 Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 37.5 1 1 1 1 Carex disperma 25.0 3 3 Poa c u s i c k i i 25.0 1 2 2 Rubus a c a u l i s 25.0 1 2 2 C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 25.0 1 1 2 P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s 25.0 1 2 1 Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s 25.0 1 2 1 Carex r o s t r a t a 25.0 1 1 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 25.0 1 1 1 Carex a l b o n i g r a 25.0 1 1 1 Geum t r i f l o r u m 25.0 1 1 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 25.0 1 1 1 V e r o n i c a w o n n s k j o l d i i 25.0 1 1 1 P i c e a engelmanii 25.0 1 1 + BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 75.0 3 3 3 2 2 4 5 Toroentbypnum n i t e n s 62.5 2 2 2 3 1 2 Drepanocladus aduncus 62.5 2 2 1 3 1 1 P o h l i a nutans 50.0 1 1 + + Plagiomnium r o s t r a t u m 37.5 2 2 3 2 Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 25.0 2 + 3 P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 25.0 1 1 2 Plagiomnium e l l i p t i c u m 25.0 1 2 1 Brachytheeium spp. 25.0 1 + 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 202 and t h e i r c o v e r : P i n u s c o n t o r t s 2, A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 3, Carex n i g r i c a n s 3, Poa a l p i n a 3, Anemone o c c i d e n t a l i s 2, A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 2, A n t e n n a r i a p u l c h e r r i m a 2. A s t r a g a l u s r o b b i n s i i 2, Carex l i m n o p h i l a 2, Carex n o r v e g i c a 2, Carex r o s s i i 2, Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n 2, F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 2, Phleum a l p i n u m 2. S a x i f r a g a a r g u t a ? x ? l y a l l i i 2, S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t e 2, Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 2, V a l e r i a n a a i t c h e n s i s 2, A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 1, Anemone m u l t i f i d a 1, A r n i c a s o r o r i a 1» Ar t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 1, Bot r y c h i u m l u n a r i a 1, C a l t h a b i f l o r a 1, Carex d i o i c a 1, E p i l o b i u m alpinum 1, Equisetum s c i r p o i d e s 1, Galium b o r e a l e 1, Geum macrophyllum 1. Juncus drummondii 1, Penstemon p r o c e r u s 1, Poa i n t e r i o r 1, Poa leptocoma 1, Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 1, P y r o l a minor 1, Se n e c i o s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 1, T r i s e t u m spicatum 1, Cratadon purpureus 2, P o l y t r i c h u m s t r i e t u r n 2, P e l t i g e r a apthosa 2, C l a d o n i a spp. 1, [ C l a d o n l a squamulose 1 ] , C l i m a c i u m d e n d r o i d e s 1, Leptobryum p y r i f o r m e i , P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 1, P h i l o n o t i s f o n t a n a 1, Amblystegium serpens +, Bryum spp. +, Bryum v e i g e l i i +, Desnatadon l a t i f o l i u s +, P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 4. - 51 -Tomenthypnum n i t e n s and Drepanocladus aduncus. There are no l i c h e n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f or t h i s community. There was no evidence of past c a t t l e grazing i n t h i s community type. 2) S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e shrub wetland: (Table V I I ) This i s the a l p i n e and t i m b e r l i n e counterpart of the S a l i x b a r c l a y i wet shrub community j u s t described. I t occurs between 1920 and 2150 meters, w i t h a north aspect and a mean slope of 6°. Two of the nine p l o t s have a south aspect. These are i n an open b a s i n (Two Lakes Basin) on the north side of the lakes. They maintain a mesic to h y g r i c moisture status throughout the summer as do the other stands. This community type i s found only i n areas of slow moving water or with a seepage i n f l u e n c e , p o s s i b l y r e s u l t i n g from l a t e snow melt. The t e r r a i n was g e n e r a l l y s l i g h t l y concave. The mean s i m i l a r i t y o f these p l o t s was 33. S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a i s the dominant shrub present i n a l l stands. I t a t t a i n s an average height of 60 cm and a mean cover of 3 (37.5 per c e n t ) . An a s s o c i a t e d shrub, B e t u l a glandulosa (dwarf b i r c h ) has a constancy of IV and a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2 (15 per c e n t ) . S a l i x brachycarpa and S a l i x b a r c 1 a y i are o c c a s i o n a l l y present. The herb l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Polygonum viviparum, Equisetum arvense, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , and Veronica w o r m s k j o l d i i a l l w i t h a constancy of IV and a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 1 or 2. Fourteen sedges were i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l l of which have a low frequency of occurrence. Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e i s the only bryophyte of s i g n i f i c a n t con-stancy (IV) and mean cover c l a s s ( 3 ) . No l i c h e n s were found i n t h i s community. The community type i s i d e n t i f i e d by the presence of S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a i n species group 5. Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n and Carex canescens have a high f i d e l i t y f o r t h i s shrub type although they a l s o occur i n sedge wetlands. Most stands a l s o meet the c r i t e r i a f o r species group 4. - 52 -Table V I I . S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e ahrub wetland P l o t number Mean 231 219 Biogeoc l i m a t i c u n i t ESSF AT E l e v a t i o n (M) 2030.0 1950 2190 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 6.1 8 4 Aspect 162 22 Hygrotope s u b h y g r i c h y g r i S o i l Temperature (°C) 7.6 8 8 L i t t e r 2 2 2 Bare Ground 2 2 1 Rocks 1 Spec i e s P MS SHRUBS B2 S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a 100.0 3 2 1 B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 66.7 2 3 3 S a l i x b r a chycarpa 22.2 2 4 HERBS Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 77.8 2 1 Equisetum arvense 77.8 1 1 2 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 66.7 2 1 V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 66.7 1 1 Poa a l p i n a 55.6 2 L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 55.6 1 Anenome o c c i d e n t a l i s 55.6 1 Phleum alpinum 55.6 1 2 1 Ar t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 55.6 1 2 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 44.4 1 1 C a l t h a b i f l o r a 44.4 1 Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s 44.4 1 1 S a l i x n i v a l i s 33.3 2 Carex c a p i t a t a 33.3 1 A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 33.3 1 2 1 Carex canescens 33.3 1 2 Carex a l b o n i g r a 33.3 1 Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n 33.3 1 F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 33.3 1 Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 33.3 1 C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 33.3 1 1 Carex n o r v e g i c a 22.2 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 22.2 1 2 V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 22.2 1 2 A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 22.2 1 A r n i c a d i v e r s i f o l i a 22.2 1 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 22.2 1 2 De l p h i n i u m glaucum 22.2 1 1 2 E p i l o b i u m alpinum 22.2 1 Juncus druramondii 22.2 1 P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s 22.2 1 2 Poa a r c t i c a 22.2 1 V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s 22.2 1 E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s 22.2 1 1 E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 22.2 1 1 Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s 22.2 1 1 C e r a s t i u m arvense 22.2 1 1 P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 22.2 1 Penstemon p r o c e r u s 22.2 1 1 Rubus a c a u l i s 22.2 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 22.2 1 1 20 19 230 61 18 193 201 ESSF ESSF ESSF AT ESSF AT AT 1955 1960 1955 2065 1965 2110 2120 3 3 8 9 6 14 0 360 320 170 352 330 326 352 h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c 9 7 7 7 4.5 7.5 10.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 t COVER CLASS 2 4 3 5 3 3 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 ., 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 4 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 52a -Table V I I c o n t i n u e d P l o t Number 231 219 20 19 230 61 18 193 201 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 77.8 3 2 2 2 5 2 4 2 Tomenthypnum n i t e n s 55.6 2 2 2 1 2 1 P h i l o n o t i s f o n t a n a 55.6 1 1 2 1 2 P e l t i g e r a apthosa 33.3 1 1 1 2 Drepanocladus aduncus 22.2 1 3 1 L o p h o z i a epp. 22.2 1 2 2 Brachytheeium spp. 22.2 1 2 1 Climacium dendroides 22.2 1 2 1 P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 22.2 1 2 1 P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 22.2 1 1 1 Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u 6 22.2 1 1 + Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 202 and t h e i r c o v e r : S a l i x b a r c l a y i 3, Carex disperma 3, Carex a q u a t i l i s 2. Carex n i g r i c a n s 2, Carex pachystachya 2, Carex r o s t r a t a 2, Equisetum p a l u s t r e 2, Equisetum v a r i e g a t u m 2, Eriophorum brachyantherum 2, F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 2, Juncus m e r t e n s i a n u s 2, L u z u l a p i p e r i 2, A r n i c a m o l l i s 1, Carex phaeocephala 1, A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a 1, Anenome m u l t i f i d a 1, A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 1, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a 1, A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 1, Carex aurea 1, Carex d i o i c a 1, Carex l i m n o p h i l a 1, Carex p a y s o n i 6 1, Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 1, Draba spp. 1, E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 1, E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m 1, G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 1, G e n t i a n a p r o s t r a t e 1, Geum t r i f l o r u m 1, Halpopappus l y a l l i i 1, L i n n a e a b o r e a l i s 1, P e t a s i t e s a a g i t t a t u s , P y r o l a minor 1, S a l i x s c o u l e r i a n a 1, S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1, Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 1, V e r o n i c a s e r p y l l i f o l i a 1, B r y o e r i t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m 2, D i s t i c h i u m c a p i l l a c e u m 2, Hylocomium splendens 2, P o h l i a nutans 2, P e l t i g e r a ? c a n i n a 2, P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 1, Bryum spp. 1, C l a d o n i a spp. l , [ C l a d o n i a squamulose 1] Mnium thompBOnii 1, Plagiomnium r o s t r a t u m 1, P o l y t r i c h u m B t r i c t u m 1, T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1, Campylium s t e l l a t u m +, Drepanocladus r e v o l v e n s +, Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s +, L o p h o z i a ? i n c i s a +, Plagiomnium e l l i p t i c u m +, Timmia a u s t r i a c a + - 53 -Several p l o t s had evidence of trampling disturbance. This may have been the r e s u l t of past use by c a t t l e as these s i t e s were often on the edge of ponds used by c a t t l e . The high moisture l e v e l s i n t h i s community make i t extremely s e n s i t i v e to trampling damage which r e s u l t s i n s o i l mucking. 3) S a l i x b rachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i shrubland: (Table V I I I ) This low shrub community type i s found i n both a l p i n e and subalpine environments on a l l but south-facing slopes. I t ranges i n e l e v a t i o n from 1835 to 2120 meters. The m a j o r i t y (85 percent) of s i t e s occur on gentle lower slopes and v a l l e y bottoms with a slope gradient between 0 and 15° and are found throughout the study area. Two stands are on steep (35°) west-facing slopes. This a s s o c i a t i o n has a good moisture regime ranging from mesic to h y g r i c . The t e r r a i n i s predominantly concave. The mean s i m i l a r i t y f o r the fourteen p l o t s included i n t h i s type was 31. S a l i x brachycarpa i s the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shrub for t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . I t has a constancy of V and a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3 (37 p e r c e n t ) . A height of 60 cm i s common for t h i s w i l l o w although i t o c c a s i o n a l l y reaches 90-120 cm. S a l i x b a r c l a y i a l s o has a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3 (37 percent) but i s present i n only 64 percent of the rel e v e s g i v i n g i t a con-stancy of IV. Luzula p a r v i f l o r a , Aster f o l i a c e o u s and Equisetum arvense are constants (IV) i n the herb s t r a t a w i t h average cover values of 1 and 2. The D lay e r contains only one species of importance - Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e w i t h a Constance of IV and mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2 (15 percent). Tomenthypnum  n i t e n s i s conspicuously absent i n a l l but one p l o t . Only species group 4, the S a l i x brachycarpa group, c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s community type. The presence of t h i s group and the lack of groups 3 and 5 can be used to c l a s s i f y p l o t s i n t o t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Table V I I I . S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a - S a l i x b a r c l a y i shrubland P l o t number Mean 106 108 119 168 194 162 169 189 120 186 128 125 145 60 Biogeoc 1 i m a t i c u n i t ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF AT AT ESSF ESSF AT AT ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 1982.1 1930 1900 1965 1870 2035 1835 1850 2035 2035 1965 2070 2070 2120 2070 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 9.9 8 0 4 8 11 0 0 15 35 9 10 4 0 34 Aspect 104 F 214 108 8 F F 300 238 276 118 94 84 304 Hygrotope h y g r i c mesic h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c h y g r i c mesic h y g r i c sub- h y g r i c mesic mesic sub- sub-h y g r i c h y g r i c mesic S o i l Temperature (°C) 9.0 10 9.5 8 12 8 10 19 8.5 7 7 9 10 4 4.5 L i t t e r 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 5 2 Bare Ground 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 Rocka 1 2 2 1 Speciea P MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B2 S a l i x b r a chycarpa 85.7 3 1 3 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 5 5 2 S a l i x b a r c l a y i 64.3 3 5 5 • 5 4 3 4 4 2 2 B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 50.0 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 HERBS C L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 78.6 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A s t e r f o l l a c e u s 64.3 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 Equiaetum arvense 64.3 2 3 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 57.1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 57.1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 57.0 2 1 1 3 2 3 2 2 Anenome O c c i d e n t s l i s 50.0 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 Poa a l p i n a 50.0 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 50.0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 42.9 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 42.9 2 2 1 2 1 2 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 42.9 2 1 2 2 2 2 I Phleum alpinum 42.9 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Poa p a l u s t r i s 42.9 1 1 1 2 1 2 I S enecio p a u c i f l o r u s 42.9 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 42.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 35.7 1 2 - 1 1 1 1 C e r a s t i u m arvense 35.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a 35.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 Gentiana a m a r e l l a 35.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 V e r o n i c a v o r m s k j o l d i i 35.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 28.6 2 1 5 1 1 F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 28.6 1 2 3 Carex a l b o n i g r a 28.6 1 7 1 1 2 E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 28.6 1 2 1 1 1 V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 28.6 1 1 2 1 1 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 28.6 1 1 1 1 1 A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 28.6 1 1 1 1 1 Penstemon pr o c e r u s 28.6 1 1 1 1 1 Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 28.6 1 1 1 1 1 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 28.6 1 1 1 1 1 Carex pachystacha 28.6 ! + 1 1 1 Carex dispenna 21.4 3 2 4 1 Equisetum variegatum 21.4 1 2 2 1 A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 21.4 1 2 2 Geum macrophyllum 21 .4 1 1 s 2 2 P y r o l a a a a r i f o l i a 21.4 1 1 2 2 M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 21.4 1 1 1 2 Senecio t r i a n g u l a r i s 21.4 1 2 1 1 T r i a e t u m spicatum 21.4 1 1 1 1 E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s 21.4 1 1 1 1 Polemonium pulcherrimum 21.4 1 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 71.4 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 35.7 1 + 1 1 + 1 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 28.6 1 1 2 1 2 P o h l i a nutans 28.6 1 1 1 + 2 Brachythecium spp. 28.6 1 1 1 + 1 Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 21.4 2 3 1 3 P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 21.4 1 1 2 1 Bryum spp. 21.4 1 1 2 + P e l t i g e r a ? c a n i n a 21.4 1 1 1 1 M a r c h a n t i a polymorphs 21.4 1 1 1 1 P h i l o n o t i s fontana 21.4 1 + 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 201 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a 2. S a l i x n i v a l i s 3,2, Cares a t r a t a 2, Carex n i g r i c a n s 2, C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 2, V a c c i n i u m caeapitoaum 2,1, A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 2,1, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 2^,1, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 2,1, Poa teptocoma 1, D e l p h i n i u m glaucum 1, E p i l o b i u m alpinum 1, G e n t i a n a propinqua 1, Geum t r i f l o r u m 1, Poa a r c t i c a 1, Poa s a n d b e r g i i I , V e r o n i c a s e r p y l l i f o l i a 1, A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 2, C a l t h a b i f l o r a 2, Dryas o c t o p e t a l a 2, Juneus drummondii 2, M i t e l l a pentandra 2, Oxytropua c a t a p e s t r i s 2, P e d i c u l a r i s o m i t h o r h y n c h a 2, Tr i f o l i u m repens 2, V a l e r i a n a s i tchens i s 2, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 1, A n t e n n a r i a umbrine 11a I , A r a b i a drummond i i 1, B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a 1, Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a 1, Carex c a p i t a t a I , Carex r o s s i i 1, Carex s p e c t a b i l i s 1, Draha i n c e r t a 1, Draba p r a e a l t a 1, Draba spp. 1, E r i g e r o n s p e c i o e u s 1, Galium b o r e a l e a 1, G e n t i a n a p r o a t r a t a I , Habenaria o b t u a a t a 1, Haplopappus l y a l l i i 1, Heracleum Ianaturn 1, Juncua mertenaianus 1, L u z u l a a p i c a t a 1, P h y l l o d o c e e m p e t r i f o r m i s 1, P l a t a n t h e r a d i l a t a t a 1, Poa nervosa I , Poa r u p i c o l a 1, P y r o l a secunda I , Rubus a c a u l i a 1, Rumex ac e t o s a 1, S a x i f r a g a adscendens I , S a x i f r a g a a r g u t a ? x ? l y a l l i i 1, Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 1, S i l e n e a c a u l i s I , S i l e n e d o u g l a s i i 1, S t e l l a r i a c r i s p a 1, Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 1, P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i • , C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1, C l a d o n i a Bpp. I , Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u a 1, Drepanocladua u n c i n a t u s 1, Ceratadon purpureus +, P o h l i a cruda +, Cratoneuron commutatum 5, Hylocomium splendens 3, Tomenthypnum n i t e n s 3, Amblystegium serpens 2, Climacium dendroides 2, Cratoneron f i l i c i n u m 2, D i s t i c h i u m c a p i l l a c e u m 2, D i t r i c h u m f l e x i c a u l e 2, B r y o e r i t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m 2, Campylium s t e l l a t u m 1, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 1 , [ C l a d o n i a squamulose 1J, D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a 1, Dicranum scoparium 1, Hypnum revolutum I , L o p h o z i a ? o b t u s a 1, L o p h o z i a h a t c h e r i 1, Mnium thompsonii I , P a n n a r i a spp. 1, P e l t i g e r a malacea 1, P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 1, So l o r i n a c r o c e a 1, S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 1, Brachythecium c o l l i n u m +, L o p h o z i a ? w e n z e l i i +, C e t r a r i a p i n a s t r i 1, B l a c k c r u s t o s e I , [ Crustose l i c h e n s l l f R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum I - 55 -Although small amounts of se v e r a l grasses (Poa a l p i n a , Phleum alpinum, Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , Festuca a l t a i c a , etc.) were found i n most p l o t s , there was no evidence of past g r a z i n g use by c a t t l e . The high shrub cover and s p a r s i t y of d e s i r a b l e forage provide l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e f o r the use of t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type by c a t t l e . 4) S a l i x brachycarpa - Festuca spp. s h r u b f i e l d : (Table IX) This s h r u b f i e l d i s found i n mesic to x e r i c a l p i n e and t i m b e r l i n e e n v i r o n -ments. I t ranges i n e l e v a t i o n from 1930 to 2240 meters on non-south f a c i n g slopes with an average gradient of 13°. The topography v a r i e s from convex to s l i g h t l y concave. Seventeen stands w i t h a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 39 were used to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s community type. S a l i x brachycarpa i s the constant (V) dominant of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . I t has a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3 (37 percent) and an average height of 30-60 cm. B e t u l a glandulosa i s an associated shrub w i t h a constancy of I I I . However, i n some stands dwarf b i r c h i s the only shrub present w i t h an average cover of 3 for the 9 p l o t s i n which i t i s found. Festuca a l t a i c a , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a and P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a are the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species i n the herb s t r a t a a l l having a constancy of V and a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. A d d i t i o n a l species w i t h a high Constance (IV) and mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 1 are Solidago m u l t i r a d i a t a , Myosotis a l p e s t r i s , Artemesia  norvegica, Polygonum viviparum, and Cerastium arvense. In the D l a y e r , C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s i s the only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species. This l i c h e n has a constancy o f IV and a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 1. This community type i s i d e n t i f i e d f i r s t by i t s physiognomy. There i s an obvious shrub stratum but i t does not f i t i n t o species group 4. The second key to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s community i s the presence of species groups 7, 8 ft Table I X . S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a - F e s t u c a spp. s h r u b f i e l d P l o t number Mean 207 93 198 99 148 217 202 97 92 140 181 176 191 15 183 101 195 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT AT ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 2098.8 2090 2150 2170 2100 2230 2195 2135 2170 2125 2070 2040 2240 2080 1955 1980 1930 2020 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 13.1 14 11 7 31 0 4 9 15 15 13 0 15 16 7 8 35 22 Aspect 338 360 290 344 F 60 240 58 84 214 P 234 342 150 20 240 208 Hygrotope sub- sub- mesic x e r i c h y g r i c mesic sub- x e r i c sub- sub- 8ub- mesic sub- sub- sub- x e r i c sub-S o i l Temperature (°C) x e r i c mesic me s i c m e s i c mesic mesic mesic h y g r i c mesic mesic 9.6 5 6. 5 9.5 6.5 11 8 11 11 10 7.5 10.5 13 9.5 10 12 12 10 L i t t e r 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 Bare Ground 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 2 2 Rocks 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 Species P MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B2 S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a 82.4 3 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 4 5 2 3 3 3 B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 52.9 3 5 2 3 4 4 5 2 3 3 HERBS C F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 94.1 2 2 2 2 3 ! 3 2 2 2 , 3 2 3 3 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 94.1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a 82.4 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 Ln S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 76.5 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 I 1 ON Ceraatium arvense 76.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 A r t e n e s i a n o r v e g i c a 70.6 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i a 64.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 64.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 64.7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 L u z u l a a p i c a t a 58.8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I Penstemon pro c e r u s 52.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Poa a l p i n a 52.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 I S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 52.9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Delphinium glaucum 41.2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Rumex a c e t o s a 41.2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Sedum la n c e o l e t u m 41.2 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 S a l i x n i v a l i s 35.3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 K o b r e s i a myoauroides 35.3 2 1 3 2 2 1 2 Carex c a p i t a t a 35.3 2 1 2 2 2 2 Senecio s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 35.3 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 35.3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i 29.4 2 3 2 1 2 2 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 29.4 1 2 1 1 1 1 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 29.4 1 1 1 2 1 1 Gentiana am are 11 a 29.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 Dryas o c t o p e t a l a 23.5 2 2 4 2 1 Geum t r i f l o r u m 23.5 1 2 2 1 2 A r e n a r i a r u b e l l a 23.5 1 1 1 1 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 23.5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Poa a r c t i c a 23.5 1 1 1 1 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 23.5 1 1 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH • C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 64.7 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 58.8 1 + 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 C l a d o n i a 8pp. 58.8 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 41.2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 Bryum spp. 41.2 1 + 1 1 2 t + + 2 1 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 41.2 1 2 1 1 1 1 C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a 41.2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 [ C l a d o n i a aquamulose] 35.3 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 Ceratadon purpureus 29.4 1 1 + 2 + 1 Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u s 29.4 1 1 + + 1 1 P e l t i g e r a apthosa 23.5 1 1 2 1 1 S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 23.5 1 2 1 1 1 DR (Black c r u a t o s e l i c h e n s ] 23.5 1 1 1 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 20X and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : J u n i p e r u s communis 1, Carex s c i r p o i d e a 2, E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 1,2, Carex pachystachya 1,2, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 1,2, S i l e n e a c a u l i s 1,2, Draba i n c e r t a 1, S e l a g i n e l l a densa 1, Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s 1, Carex a l b o n i g r a 1, Draba p r a e a l t a 1, T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m 1, Carex phaeocephala 2, Agropyron caninum 1,2, An*nome m u l t i f i d a 1,2, A n t e n n a r i a u m b r i n e l l a 1,2, Poa s a n d b e r g i i 1,2, E r i g e r o n a c r i s 1, F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 1, A s t e r s i b i r i c u s 1, Draba spp. 1, Galium b o r e a l e 1, Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 1, P e d i c u l a r i s o m i t h o r h y n c h a I , Phleum alpinum 1, Poa p a l u s t r i a I , Polemonium pulcherrimura I , T h a l i c t r u r a o c c i d e n t a l e 1, V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 1, V e r o n i c a v o r m s k j o l d i i I , Carex n a r d i n a 2, E p i l o b i u m l a t i f o l i u m 2, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u a 2, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 2, Poa g l a u c a 2, Poa p r a t e n s i s 2, A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 1, Cardamine b e l l i d i f o l i a I , L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 1, Abies l a s i o c a r p a 1, Anenome drummondii 1, A n t e n n a r i a raicrophylla 1, A r a b i a l y a l l i i 1, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 1, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a I , Carex s p e c t a b i l i s 1, Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a I , Draba aurea 1, E r i g e r o n h u r a i l i s 1, G e n t i a n a propinqua 1, G e n t i a n a p r o s t r a t a I , P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 1, P h a c e l i a s e r i c e a 1, P i c e a e n g e l m a n i i 1, P o t e n t i l l a n i v e a 1, S a l i x spp. 1, S a x i f r a g a b r o n c h i a l i s 1, S a x i f r a g a o c c i d e n t a l i s 1, S i l e n e p a r r y i 1, T h l a s p i arvense 1, A g r o s t i s b o r e a l i s +, Dicranum fuscescens 2, Hypmim revolutum 2, Brachythecium spp. 1,2, P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 1,2, L o p h o z i a f l o e r k e i 1,2, Dicranum m u e h l e n b e c k i i 1, Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s I , Eurynchium p u l c h e l l u m +, Hylocoraium splendens 1,3, P o l y t r i c h u m s t r i c t u m 1,3, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 3, C e t r a r i a e r i c i t o r u m 2, P e l t i g e r a malacea 1,2, P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 1, P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m 1, Bartrami a i t h y p h y l l a 1, Iaopterygium p u l c h e l l u m 1, Thamnolia s u b u l i f o r m i s 1, Mnium t h o m p s o n i i +, R i n o d i n a app. 3, Aulocotnnium p a l u s t r e 2, Brachythecium a l b i c a n s 2, B r y o e r i t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m 2, Lecanora spp. 2, S o l o r i n a b i s p o r a 1, Blepharastoraa t r i c h o p h y l l u m 1, B l i n d i a acuta I , C o r n i c u l a r i a a c u l e a t a 1, Drepanocladus r e v o l v e n s 1, P e r t u s a r i a app. I , P h i l o n o t i s fontana 1, Psoroma app. 1, T o r t e l l a f r a g i l i s 1, Amblystegiura serpens +, C e p h a l o z i a ? B i c u s p i d a t a D i s t i c h i u m c a p i l l a c e u m D i t r i c h u m f l e x i c a u l e +, E n c a l y p t a v u l g a r i s +, Lescuraea r a d i c o s a + , P o h l i a cruda +, P o h l i a nutans +, Thuidium a b i e t i n u m +, C e t r a r i a p i n a s t r i 1, (Cruetose l i c h e n s 1].Rhizocarpon geographicum 1 - 57 -or 9. Festuca a l t a i c a must be present or Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a must have a cover greater than 5 percent. Evidence of past grazing by c a t t l e i s present i n t h i s h a b i t a t type. Bunch grasses have been close-cropped and the average amount of l i t t e r i s 15 percent (cover c l a s s 2). This community i s g e n e r a l l y more open than the wetter shrub types and has more d e s i r a b l e g razing species. 5) S a l i x brachycarpa - Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e I d : (Table X) This shrub-grass meadow community i s common i n subalpine v a l l e y bottom-lands between 1632 and 2030 meters. The mean slope gradient i s 7° on convex to s l i g h t l y concave topography. The hygrotope v a r i e s from sub-mesic to sub-h y g r i c where there i s seepage from above. The seven stands which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n have a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 41. The shrub stratum i s dominated by S a l i x brachycarpa which has a constancy of V and a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3. S a l i x s i t c h e n s i s replaced S a l i x  brachycarpa on the one rocky s i t e that was sampled ( i n Graveyard V a l l e y ) . The height of t h i s stratum v a r i e s from 30 to 150 cm. The herb stratum i s ch a r a c t e r i z e d by the grasses Phleum alpinum ( a l p i n e timothy) and Trisetum  spicatum ( s p i k e t r i s e t u m ) . There i s l i t t l e or no fescue present. Important forbs with a constancy of IV or V are A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , P o t e n t i l l a  d i v e r s i f o l i a , T halictrum o c c i d e n t a l e , Epilobium a n g u s t i f o l i u m , F r a g a r i a  v i r g i n i a n a , Penstemon procerus, A s t e r f o l i a c e u s and Galium boreale. No bryophytes or l i c h e n s are c o n s i s t e n t l y present. / This community type i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d by the presence of d i a g n o s t i c species group 10 (Phleum and Trisetum) i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a shrub stratum that does not meet the species requirement for the S a l i x brachycarpa species group (number 4 ) . - 58 -Table X. S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a - Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e l d P l o t number Mean 82 52 102 29 40 77 158 B i o g e o c 1 i m a t i c u n i t ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 1878.9 1800 1970 1900 2030 1632 1970 1850 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 7.0 16 5 5 10 3 5 5 Aspect 14 346 290 140 180 70 174 Hygrotope mesic •ubmesic • ubmesic s u b h y g r i c mesic submesi c mesi c S o i l Temperature (°C) 9 9.5 6 9 8 6.5 13 11 1 L i t t e r 2 2 3 1 1 2 Bare Ground 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 Rocks 1 1 Species P MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B2 S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a 85.7 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 S a l i x s i t c h e n s i s 28.6 2 4 2 HERBS Q Phleum alpinum 100.0 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 100.0 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 100.0 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 85.7 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 85.7 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 85.7 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 71.4 2 2 1 3 1 2 T r i s e t u m s p i cat urn 71.4 2 1 2 2 2 2 Penstemon procerus 71.4 1 1 1 2 1 1 Galium b o r e a l e 71.4 1 1 1 1 1 1 A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 57.1 2 2 3 2 1 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 57.1 2 2 2 1 2 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 57.1 2 2 2 1 Carex pachystachya 57.1 1 2 1 1 1 Agropyron caninum 42.9 2 2 2 2 Poa a l p i n a 42.9 2 2 2 2 E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 42.9 1 2 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 42.9 1 1 2 1 A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 42.9 1 1 1 1 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 42.9 1 1 1 1 C e r a s t i u m arvense 42.9 1 1 1 1 G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 42.9 1 1 1 . 1 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 42.9 1 1 1 1 V e r o n i c a w o r r a s k j o l d i i 42.9 1 1 1 1 Equisetum arvense 28.6 2 1 3 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 28.6 2 2 2 Carex r o s s i i 28.6 1 2 1 C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 28.6 1 2 1 Delphinium glaucum 28.6 1 1 2 P e d i c u l a r i s b r a c t e o s a 28.6 1 2 1 V a l e r i a n a s i t c h e n s i s 28.6 1 2 1 Danthania i n t e r m e d i a 28.6 1 1 1 E p i l o b i u m alpinum 28.6 1 1 1 F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 28.6 1 1 1 Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 28.6 1 1 1 Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 28.6 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH C l a d o n i a spp. 42.9 1 1 1 1 Brachythecium spp. 28.6 2 2 4 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 28.6 1 2 1 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 28.6 1 2 1 P e l t i g e r a malacea 28.6 1 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y l e s s than 202 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : B e t u l a g l a n d u l e * a 3, Abies l a s i o c a r p a 1, G e n t i a n a pros t r a t a 2, Geranium r i c h a r d s o n i i 2, Geum t r i f l o r u m 2, Heracleum lanatum 2, Poa c u s i c k i i 2, Poa i n t e r i o r 2, Poa leptocoma 2, S e n e c i o t r i a n g u l a r i s 2, T r o l l i u s l a x u s 2, A r n i c a s o r o r i a 1, Anenome o c c i d e n t a l i s 1, A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 1, A n t e n n a r i a p u l c h e r r i m a 1, A r a b i s drummond i i 1, A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r 1, A s t r a g a l u s r o b b i n a i i 1, Carex phaeocephala 1, Carex s c i r p o i dea 1, Carex s p e c t a b i l i s 1, Draba c r a s s i f o l i a 1, E r i g e r o n s p e c i o e u s 1, Geum macrophyllum 1, Juncus drummondii 1. L u z u l a s p i c a t a 1, M i t e l l e pentandra 1, Oxytropus d e f l e x a 1, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 1, Poa p a l u s t r i s 1, Polemonium pulcherrimum 1, Rhinanthes c r i s t a - g a l l i 1, Rumex a c e t o s a 1, S a l i x n i v a l i s 1, Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 1, S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1, Vaccinum caespitosum 1, V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 1, Poa p r a t e n s i s 3, A g r o s t i a s c a b r a 2, A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 2, A r n i c a c h a m i s s o n i s 2, A r n i c a c o r d i f o l i a 2, Bromus anomalus 2, Carex n i g r i c a n s 2, A l e c t o r i a o c h r o l e u c a 2, D i c r a n u o m u e h l e n b e c k i i 2, P o h l i a nutans 2, Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 1, Bryum spp. 1, P e l t i g e r a apthosa 1, L o p h o z i a spp. +, [Black c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s 1 ] , R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum 1 - 59 -Evidence of grazing i n t h i s h a b i t a t type i s not as abundant as i n the S a l i x - F e s t u c a meadow community. There were t r a i l s through most stands, cow pies were present, and some grasses obviously had been grazed but e i t h e r there was not extensive use of t h i s type or regrowth of the dominant grasses was b e t t e r than i n the fescue stands. 6) Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i - Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland: (Table XI) This dry shrub a s s o c i a t i o n commonly occurs on x e r i c or subxeric s i t e s w i t h a southerly aspect. Slopes are g e n e r a l l y moderate to steep, ranging from 16° to 39° with a mean of 28°. A l l stands were i n the subalpine zone between 1720 and 1940 meters. Bare, rocky s o i l covered an average of 30 percent of each p l o t w h i le rocks and coarse fragments averaged 10%. A l l s i t e s were on convex slopes. Twelve stands w i t h a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 42 were used to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s community type. A l l but one stand included at l e a s t one species i n the B2 (30cm-2m) l a y e r but no s i n g l e species i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the community as a whole. Shrub height r a r e l y exceeded 60 cm. H a l f of the p l o t s contained Shepherdia  canadensis ( s o o p o l a l l i e ) w i t h a cover of 2 or 3 and h a l f supported scrub aspen or poplar (Populus tremuloides or Populus t r i c h o c a r p a ) ; however some stands contained both while others contained n e i t h e r . Although these two v a r i a t i o n s are of i n t e r e s t there does not seem to be a s u f f i c i e n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the C or D s t r a t a of these samples to j u s t i f y s u b d i v i d i n g t h i s community type. Three p r o s t r a t e or low shrubs are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Arc to s taphy1os u v a - u r s i (bearberry) has a Constance of V and a mean s i g n i f i -cance of 3. Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a (Saskatoon berry) has a constancy of IV and an average cover c l a s s of 2, but a l s o has a high f i d e l i t y f o r t h i s community. Rosa a c i c u l a r i s i s found i n e i t h e r the B or C s t r a t a w i t h a constancy of V ( i t t>0 Table X I . A r c t o a t a p h y l o a u v a - u r s i - Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a d r y sh r u b l a n d P l o t number He an 36 48 138 237 43 211 210 46 35 177 178 80 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (H) 1807.1 1730 1900 1775 1775 1795 1750 1720 1815 1740 1910 1940 1835 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 28.1 18 16 38 32 16 38 39 21 19 32 31 37 Aspect 130 170 180 170 162 206 214 168 134 144 168 138 Hygrotope submesic x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c S o i l Temperature (°C) 14.7 11 11 19 12 13.5 21 17.5 10 11 14.5 16.5 19 L i t t e r 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 Bare Ground 3 3 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 2 3 4 3 Rocks 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 3 2 1 2 S p e c i e * F MS COVER CLASS SHRUBS B2 Sh e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s 50.0 2 Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 50.0 2 J u n i p e r u s communis 41.7 2 Populus t r e m u l o i d e a 33.3 2 A r t e a e a i a f r i g i d a 25.0 1 Symphoricarpos a l b u s 25.0 1 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 100.0 A r c t o a t a p h y l o a u v a - u r s i 91.7 K o e l e r i a c r i a t a t a 83.3 C i r s i u m hookerianum 75.0 Gal i u m b o r e s l e 7S.0 Ce r a s t i u m arvense 66.7 Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a 66.7 Poa i n t e r i o r 58.3 A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 58.3 S m i l a c i n a s t e l l a t e 58.3 P h a c e l i a a e r i c e a 58.3 E r i g e r o n s p e c l o s u s 50.0 Er i o g o n u a umbel1sturn 50.0 Agropyron cenimnt 50.0 Anenome a u l t i f i d a 50.0 Penstemon f r u t i c o a u s 50.0 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 41.7 Geum t r i f l a n g e 41.7 Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 41.7 Polemonium pulcherrimum 41.7 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 41.7 Fe s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 33.3 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 33.3 Bromus anomalua 33.3 Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 33.3 S i t a n i o n h y a t r i x 33.3 Senecio s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 33.3 Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 25.0 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 25.0 Ca l a m a g r o s t i s purpurascens 25.0 Carex phaeocephala 25.0 Penstemon p r o c e r u s 25.0 C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t e 25.0 A l l i u m cernuum 25.0 F e s t u c a saximontana 25.0 Gen t i a n a a m a r e l l a 25.0 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 4 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ON o DR [Black c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 25.0 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a fre q u e n c y l e s s than 201 and t h e i r cover v a l ues: Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 2, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a 2, P i n u s a l b i c a u l i s 2 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 1 7 E l v i r ^ . n , . . \ \ \ • * l b l C a u H 8 2 ' , P r u n u s «-"gin.t. 1, A r e n a r i a c . p i l l a r i s 1,2, Ox y t r o p u . c a m p e s t r i s 1.2, i, ciyrnus g i a u c u s 1,2, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1, Geum macrophr 1 lum 1 S i l e n e m r r v i 1 c.;.. - „ i . < . .. • r o s s i i 1, C r e p i s o c c i d e n t a l s 1, Poa p r e t e n s e 1, P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s I , Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l ! . 1, A r a b i s h i r s u t e 1 A s t e r s i b i r U u a 1 I m i Z l ' * b 0 n i 8 " D e l ? h i n i u n * l a u c u I " L D " b » « « « • 1. E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 1, Haben.ria o b t u s a t " " H i e r a c i u m s c o u l e r i m f f i c l m - U f w ™ 1 ' . L " P l n u 8 n o o t k a t e n s i s 1. Polygonum s p e r g u l a r i a e f orme 1, Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 1, Symphoricarpos a l t a . , Tar'xacum o f f i c i n a l e 1, T n . e t u m s p i c a t u m 1. Desm.tadon l a t i f o l i u s 1. P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n a 1, T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1 [cTusto.e l i c h e n s 1] " " " " ^ - 61 -has a constancy of I I I f o r each s t r a t a s e p a r a t e l y ) . Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s and P h a c e l i a s e r i c e a are associated low shrubs with a constancy of I I I and an average cover c l a s s of 1 but a high f i d e l i t y f o r t h i s type. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a i s the most common grass with a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2 (17.5 percent) and a constancy of V. A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Cirsium hookerianum, Galium  boreale and Cerastium arvense are a l l i n constancy c l a s s e s IV or V with an average cover of l e s s than 5 percent ( 1 ) . Smilacina s t e l l a t a w i t h a mean species s i g n i f i c a n c e of 1 and a constancy of I I I i s a d i a g n o s t i c species because of i t s high f i d e l i t y f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . No bryophytes or l i c h e n s are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Species group 13 i s d i a g n o s t i c f or t h i s community type although the K o e l e r i a species group (12) i s g e n e r a l l y present as w e l l . I t i s probable that t h i s i s a l a t e r s u c c e s s i o n a l stage of the K o e l e r i a grassland community which w i l l be described l a t e r . This h a b i t a t type appeared to have received l i t t l e grazing use by c a t t l e ; the slopes are too steep and rocky, and there i s not an abundance of forage a v a i l a b l e . However, Saskatoon berry i s an important game browse species and s o o p o l a l l i e b e r r i e s are eaten by bears. In a d d i t i o n aspen has a high g r a z i n g preference for sheep, c a t t l e and game (McLean et a l . , 1964). Dwarf Shrub Types: The three dwarf shrub community types are a l l found i n the a l p i n e zone. The p r o s t r a t e , woody growth form i s an adaptation to harsh environmental c o n d i t i o n s above t r e e l i n e . 1) S a l i x cascadensis dwarf w i l l o w shrubland: (Table X I I ) This a l p i n e community type occurs only on the Dash Plateau between 2065 and 2310 meters. The mean slope gradient i s 8° and a l l s i t e s had a - 62 -Table XII. Salix cascadensis dwarf willow shrub land Plot number Mean 151 216 220 150 154 153 Biogeoclimatic unit AT AT AT AT AT AT Elevation (M) 2245.0 2240 2185 2230 2230 2310 2275 Slope Gradient (°) 6.7 4 10 7 8 5 6 Aspect 46 46 336 12 322 360 Hygrotope submesic subxeric subxeric xeric xeric xeric S o i l Temperature (°C) 11.6 9 9 9 13 13 17 L i t t e r 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 Bare Ground 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 Rocks 3 1 1 5 3 5 Spec ies P MS COVER CLASS HERBS C Salix cascadensis 100.0 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 Arenaria obtusiloba 100.0 2 2 1 1 1 2 ] Luzula spicata 100.0 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 83.3 2 2 1 2 1 1 Sibbaldia procumbens 83.3 2 2 2 1 1 1 Poa alpina 83.3 1 2 1 1 1 J Pedicularis ornithorhyncha 66.7 2 2 1 2 2 Silene acaulis 66.7 2 1 1 2 2 Festuca brachyphylla 66.7 1 1 1 2 1 Antennaria alpina 66.7 1 1 2 1 1 Polygonum viviparum 50.0 2 2 1 2 S t e l l a r i a longipes 50.0 1 1 1 1 Agrostis v a r i a b i l i s 33.3 2 2 2 Carex phaeocephala 33.3 1 1 2 Festuca a l t a i c a 33.3 1 2 1 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 33.3 1 2 1 Artemesia norvegica 33.3 1 1 1 Draba c r a s s i f o l i a 33.3 . 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH Stereocaulon spp. 100.0 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 Polytrichum p i l i f e r u m 66.7 1 2 2 1 1 Tor t u l a norvegica 50.0 2 2 2 2 Cladonia spp. 50.0 1 1 1 2 Polytrichum juniperinum 33.3 1 2 2 [Cladonia squamulose] 33.3 1 2 1 Drepanocladus uncinatus 33.3 1 2 1 Hypnum revolutum 33.3 1 2 1 Solorina crocea 33.3 1 1 2 Peltigera malacea 33.3 1 1 1 DR Rhizocarpon geographicum 66.7 1 1 1 2 • 1 [Black crustose lichens] 50.0 1 1 1 1 [Crustose lichens] 33.3 2 2 2 Other species with a frequency less than 30Z and the i r cover values: Carex pyrenaica 2, Luzula p a r v i f l o r a 2, Pedicularis l a n g s d o r f i i 2, Androsace septentrionalis 1, Carex albonigra 1, Carex d i o i c a 1, Carex nardina 1, Draba spp. 1, Gentiana propinqua 1, MyoBOtis a l p e s t r i s 1, Poa a r c t i c a 1, Polemonium pulcherrimum 1, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 1, Trisetum spicatum 1, Bryum spp. 2, Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u s 2, P e l t i g e r a apthosa 2, Dicranum muehlenbeckii 1, Lophozia ? obtusa 1, Rinoditia spp. 1, Cetraria i s l a n d i c a + , Encalypta vulgaris + - 63 -n o r t h e r l y aspect. The s o i l s are g e n e r a l l y rocky and w e l l drained w i t h a hygro-tope of x e r i c to sub-mesic. Topography v a r i e s from s l i g h t l y concave to convex. Si x p l o t s w i t h a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 51 were included i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . The herb l a y e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by S a l i x cascadensis (cascade w i l l o w ) w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2 (15 p e r c e n t ) , A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a (mean s i g n i f i c a n c e = 2), Luzula s p i c a t a (mean s i g n i f i c a n c e = 2), and Poa a l p i n a (mean s i g n i f i c a n c e = 1 ) , a l l of which are i n constancy c l a s s V. P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a and S i b b a l d i a procumbens are present i n 71 percent of the stands ( I V ) . Both have an average cover c l a s s of 2. P e d i c u l a r i s ornithorhyncha or P_^  l a n g o d o s f i i are associated species. The height of the C l a y e r v a r i e s from 2-12 cm. Stereocaulon i s a constant (V) l i c h e n present i n the D l a y e r . This a s s o c i a t i o n i s i d e n t i f i e d by the presence of species group 6, of which S a l i x cascadensis i s the most d i a g n o s t i c species. L i t t l e or no evidence of grazing was found i n t h i s community. Those stands located near a source of water d i d have some cropping of grasses and cow dung present, but by and la r g e , there was not an adequate amount of forage to a t t r a c t g razing c a t t l e to t h i s h a b i t a t type. 2) Dryas o c t o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d : (Table X I I I ) This f e l l f i e l d community type i s a frequent component of the a l p i n e environment. I t was found on moderate to steep non-south f a c i n g slopes ranging i n e l e v a t i o n from 2075 to 2220 meters. Most stands were along rocky ridges and appeared to be w e l l drained. The hygrotope was x e r i c to sub-mesic. The d i v e r s i t y of the 12 p l o t s included i n t h i s community i s suggested by the mean s i m i l a r i t y value of 28. Dryas octopetala i s the only constant member of t h i s community type. I t occurs i n a l l stands with a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 3. No other s i n g l e species Table X I I I . Dryas o c t o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d P l o t number B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) Slope G r a d i e n t (°) Aspect Hygrotope S o i l Temperature (°C) L i t t e r Bare Cround Rocks Species HERBS Dryas o c t o p e t a l a 100.0 Featuca b r a c h y p h y l l a 58.3 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r a i f o l i a 58.3 S a l i x n i v a l i s 50.0 A r t e n e a i a n o r v e g i c a 50.0 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 41.7. Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 41.7 A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 33.3 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 33.3 A s t r a g a l u a a l p i n u s 33.3 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 33.3 Penatemon p r o c e r u s 33.3 C e r a a t i u a arvense 33.3 K o b r e B i a myosuroides 25.0 L u z u l a s p i c a t a 25.0 S i l e n e a c a u l i s 25.0 Carex c a p i t a t a 25.0 P o t e n t i l l a v i l l o a a 25.0 Myoaotia a l p e s t r i a 25.0 Oxytropus campeatris 25.0 Polemonium pulcherrimum 25.0 Sedum la n c e o l a t u m 25.0 T r i s e t u m apicatum 25.0 V e r o n i c a v o r m s k j o l d i i 25.0 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS 215"). 2 17.1 9.9 2 2 3 MS 208 AT 2075 15 348 x e r i c 13 2 2 3 58 AT 2200 32 322 x e r i c 3.5 2 2 2 59 AT 2130 18 336 8ubmesic 5.5 2 57 55 142 AT AT AT 2270 2205 2180 25 18 10 310 300 252 x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c 4 7 -2 2 2 3 1 1 4 4 2 2 2 2 I 73 AT 2220 13 70 x e r i c 15 2 3 3 COVER CLASS 199 AT 2170 4 274 x e r i c 16.5 I 3 3 141 AT 2160 13 218 x e r i c 12 3 2 2 94 AT 2075 11 356 submesic 9 2 2 1 96 AT 2120 20 70 x e r i c 11 2 2 1 144 AT 2155 26 68 mesic 13 2 2 DH S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 33.3 2 P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m 33.3 2 C l a d o n i a 8pp. 33.3 1 Hypnum revolutum 33.3 1 C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a 25.0 1 C e t r a r i a n i v a l is 25.0 1 C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 25.0 1 P e l t i g e r a r u f e acens 25.0 1 DR [ B l a c k c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 58.3 2 R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum 50.0 I (Crustose l l c h e n B ] 25.0 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 201 and t h e i r cover v a l u e a : F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 2, A r n i c a r y d b e r g i i 1,2, Carex n a r d i n a 1,2, E r i g e r o n compos i t us 1,2, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1,2, Poa a l p i n a 1,2, S a x i f r a g a b r o n c h i a l i s 1,2, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a 1, Draba app. 1, Poa r u p i c o l a 1, S e l a g i n e l l a densa 1, C a s s i o p e t e t r a g o n s 4, Carex a t r a t a 2, Carex phaeocephala 2, Carex s c i r p o i d e a 2, Juncua p a r r y i 2, P e d i c u l a r i s o r n i t h o r h y n c h a 2, Poa a r c t i c a 2, Poa s a n d b e r g i i 2, S a l i x brachycarpa 2, A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a 1, S o l i d a g o n u l t i r a d i a t a 1, A g o a e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 1, Anenome m u l t i f i d a I , Carex a l b o n i g r a 1, Draba n i v a l i s 1, E r i g e r o n h u m i l i s 1, O x y r i a digyna 1, Ranunculus e a c h a c h o l t z i i I , S a x i f r a g a adscendene I , S i l e n e d o u g l a a i i 1, S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 1, Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 1, P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 2,3, A l e c t o r i a o c h r o l e u c a 1 , 2 , [ C l a d o n i a equamulose 1 , 2 ) , P o h l i a cruda 1,2, Dicranum m u e h l e n b e c k i i 1, T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1, Thamnolia s u b u l i f o r m i s + , Bryum spp. 3, Rylocoaium Bplendena 2, O c h r o l e c h i a u p s a l i e n s i s 2, Brachythecium spp. 2, P o h l i a nutans 2, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 1, B r y o e r i t h r o p h y l l u m r e c u r v i r o s t r u m 1, C a l o p l a c a app. 1, Ceratadon purpureus I , Deematadon l a t i f o l i u s I , Blepharastoma t r i c h o p h y l l u m + , Climacium dendroides +, C o m i c u l a r i a a c u l e a t a + , D i a t i c h i u n c a p i l l a c e u m + , T o r t e l l a f r a g i l i a * i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s group o f p l o t s . Two subtypes can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d . The f i r s t contains Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and other meadow species such as Artemesia norvegica, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s , and Antennaria a l p i n a . K obresia  myosuroides i s a dominant i n the second subtype which i s represented by only three sample p l o t s . Polygonum viviparum and S i l e n e a c a u l i s are a s s o c i a t e d species. Snow w i l l o w ( S a l i x n i v a l i s ) i s found more c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the Kobresia subtype. This community a t t a i n s an average height of 10 cm. This community type i s e a s i l y recognized by the presence of Dryas  oc t o p e t a l a without the Festuca a l t a i c a species group (8) i n a s s o c i a t i o n . A v a r i e t y of other species may be present i n c l u d i n g many crustose l i c h e n s . Evidence of grazing i n t h i s harsh environment was not pre v a l e n t . 3) Dryas-Festuca a l t a i c a a l p i n e grassland: (Table XIV) This community type i s r e s t r i c t e d to the a l p i n e zone where i t covers a large p a r t of the more gentle topography. The mean slope gradient i s 9° although one stand was on a moderate 22° slope. The t e r r a i n i s s t r a i g h t to convex. Best development occurs at an e l e v a t i o n of about 2200 meters on a l l aspects. Most s i t e s are rocky and w e l l drained with a hygrotope of x e r i c to sub-mesic. There i s a r e l a t i v e l y high mean percentage of rock and coarse fragments (15 percent) i n a d d i t i o n to an average 15 percent cover of l i t t e r . The mean s i m i l a r i t y of the twelve p l o t s which comprise t h i s community i s 46. Festuca a l t a i c a , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , S a l i x n i v a l i s , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a and Polygonum viviparum are a l l constant members of t h i s assoc-i a t i o n with a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. Dryas o c t o p e t a l a (the only low shrub element) and Polygonum viviparum are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w i t h a constancy of IV and mean cover c l a s s e s of 2 and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The general height of the C stratum i s 100-200 cm. The D l a y e r i s dominated by the li c h e n s C e t r a r i a Table XIV. Dryaa - F e s t u c a a l t a i c a a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d P l o t number Mean 223 197 221 152 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t AT AT AT AT E l e v a t i o n (M) 2213.8 2370 2170 2250 2265 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 9.0 2 8 6 4 Aspect 166 300 318 36 Hygrotope x e r i c aubmesic xer i c submesic S o i l Temperature (°C) 10.9 12 9 11 9 L i t t e r 2 2 2 2 3 Bare Ground 2 1 1 1 Rocka 2 3 2 1 Speciea P MS HERBS C Feetuca a l t a i c a 91.7 2 2 2 1 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 91.7 2 2 2 1 S a l i x n i v a l i s 83.3 2 3 2 1 1 F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 83.3 2 2 1 Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 83.3 1 1 1 2 Dryas o c t o p e t a l a 66.7 2 1 2 4 L u z u l a s p i c a t a 66.7 1 1 1 Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 58.3 1 1 1 1 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e a 58.3 1 1 1 1 Carex c a p i t a t a 50.0 2 1 2 2 A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 50.0 1 1 S e l a g i n e l l a densa 50.0 1 1 1 A r e n a r i a o b t u a i l o b a 50.0 1 1 1 Carex n a r d i n a 41.7 1 2 1 2 S i l e n e a c a u l i s 41.7 1 1 2 1 A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 41.7 1 1 1 A r e n a r i a r u b e l l a 41.7 1 1 T r i s e t u m spicatum 33.3 1 1 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 33.3 1 1 C e r a s t i u m arvenae 33.3 I 1 1 Draba app. 33.3 1 A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 25.0 1 2 Carex a l b o n i g r a 25.0 1 2 P e d i c u l a r i s o r n i t h o r h y n c h a 25.0 1 1 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 25.0 1 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 25.0 1 1 Draba i n c e r t a 25.0 1 1 1 V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 25.0 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 100.0 2 2 2 2 2 S t e r e o c a u l o n app. 91.7 2 2 3 3 1 C e t r a r i a c u c u l l a t a 58.3 2 2 1 2 3 C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 58.3 2 2 1 2 3 [ C l a d o n i a squamulose] 41.7 1 2 Thamnolia s u b u l i f o r m i s 41.7 1 + 2 1 C l a d o n i a spp. 41.7 1 1 1 1 I C o m i c u l a r i a a c u l e a t a 33.3 1 1 2 P e l t i g e r a rufeecena 33.3 1 1 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 25.0 1 A l e c t o r i a o c h r o l e u c a 25.0 1 218 AT 2190 2 130 x e r i c 11 1 1 4 147 AT 2260 13 40 submesi c 11 2 1 3 COVER CLASS 123 AT 2170 10 12 x e r i c 11 3 I 1 205 AT 2135 14 26 xer i c 12.5 2 2 277 AT 2300 2 266 xer i c 10 2 1 2 54 AT 2130 16 66 submesi c 6.5 3 2 146 AT 2115 22 44 xer i c 16.5 2 2 3 149 AT 2210 9 58 raesi c 11 2 1 2 DR Rhizocarpon geographicum 66.7 1 I [ B l a c k c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 50.0 1 1 [Crustose l i c h e n s ] 16.7 1 1 Psoroma app. 16.7 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 202 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : K o b r e s i a myosuroides 1,2, Penstemon pro c e r u s 1,2, Poa a l p i n a 1,2, S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1,2, V a c c i n i u m caespitosum 1, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1, M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 1, Polemonium pulcherrimum 1, A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 2, Carex p y r e n a i c a 2, Cassiope t e t r a g o n a 2, Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 2, P e d i c u l a r i s l a n g s d o r f i i 2, Poa a r c t i c a 2, H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e 1, Anenome m u l t i f i d a 1, A n t e n n a r i a u m b r i n e l l a I , Carex c o n c i n n o i d e s 1, Carex phaeocephala 1, G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 1, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 1, S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a 1, S a x i f r a g a l y a l l i i 1, S i l e n e d o u g l a s i i 1, Drepanocladus u n c i n a t u s 1,2, C a l o p l a c a app. 1, Dicranum scoparium 1, P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m 1, T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1, Ceratadon purpureus +, Dicranum fuscescens 2, Dicranum muehlenbeckii 2, Bart rami a i t h y p h y l l a 1, D a c t y l i n a a r c t i c a 1, O c h r o l e c h i a u p s a l i e n s i s I , P e l t i g e r a malacea 1, P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a l y Sphagnum recurvum 1, Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u a +, Hypnum revolutum +, L o p h o z i a h a t c h e r i L o p h o z i a spp. +, P o h l i a nutans +, O c h r o l e c h i a u p s a l i e n s i s 1, Pseudephebe app. 1, U m b i l i c a r i a app. 1 - 67 -i s l a n d i c a and Stereocaulon spp. (each w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2) on s o i l and by the presence of Rhizocarpon geographicum (a crustose l i c h e n ) on rocks. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s type re q u i r e s the presence of species groups 7 (Dryas) and 8 (F. a l t a i c a ) . As would be expected of a grassland there was evidence of gra z i n g through-out t h i s community type. Many fescue bunchgrass p l a n t s had been c l o s e cropped although cow dung was noted i n only three s i t e s . Deer were s i t e d at these e l e v a t i o n s and may have been responsible f o r some of the c l o s e g r a z i n g . No evidence of recent grazing was seen. Meadow Types: The seven community types that have a herb dominated physiognomy can be d i v i d e d i n t o two main groups. The f i r s t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the predominance of sedges while the second has an abundance of grasses. The sedge communities tend to be r e s t r i c t e d and patchy i n t h e i r occurrence while the grass meadows occur more e x t e n s i v e l y throughout both the a l p i n e and subalpine zones. 1) Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland: (Table XV) Sedge-dominated wetlands are found o c c a s i o n a l l y on poor l y drained depressions on v a l l e y bottomlands. The s o i l remains saturated throughout the growing season. Stands sampled ranged i n e l e v a t i o n from 1620 to 1960 meters. None were above tree l i n e . The species d i v e r s i t y i s lower than f o r any other community type, averaging only 6 species per p l o t . The mean s i m i l a r i t y of the f i v e Carex a q u a t i l i s stands i s 27. One Carex r o s t r a t a stand i s a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s type. Carex a q u a t i l i s or Carex r o s t r a t a form the dominant cover i n t h i s assoc-i a t i o n . The average cover c l a s s i s 5. Carex canescens i s an a s s o c i a t e d species of high s i g n i f i c a n c e (3 & 4) i n two stands. The herb stratum Table XV. Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland Pl o t number Bi o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) Slope Gradient C°) Aspect Hygrotope S o i l Temperature (°C) L i t t e r Species HERBS Mean 1875.0 0.0 8.1 2 MS 182 ESSF 1940 0 F h y d r i c 9.5 2 37 ESSF 1620 0 F hy d r i c 7 2 165 ESSF 1820 0 F h y g r i c 12 2 11 ESSF 1950 0 F hy d r i c 6 1 COVER CLASS 16 ESSF 1960 0 F hy d r i c 7 2 17 ESSF 1960 0 F h y d r i 6 1 Carex a q u a t i l i s Carex canescens Epilobium alpinum Galium t r i f i d u m Geum macrophyllum Cerastium arvense Carex r o s t r a t a 83.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 33.3 16.7 4 2 1 1 1 1 2 5 3 3 4 2 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES DH Drepanocladus aduncus 33.3 2 Plagiomnium rostratum 33.3 2 Other species w i t h a frequency o f 20% or le s s and t h e i r cover values: Carex pachystachya 2, Eriophorum p o l y s t a c h i o n 2, Festuca brachyphylla 2, Poa p a l u s t r i s 2, S a l i x brachycarpa 2, S t e l l a r i a longipes 2, V i o l a ? nephrophylla 2, Aster f o l i a c e u s 1, Chrysosplenium tetrandum 1, Poa a r c t i c a 1, P h i l o n o t i s fontana 4, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 3, C a l l i e r g o n giganteum 3, C i n c l i d i u m stygium 3, Amblystegium s a x a t i l e 2, Bryoerithrophyllum recurvirostrum 2, P e l t i g e r a refescens 2, C a l l i e r g o n stramineum + - 69 -ge n e r a l l y a t t a i n s a height of about 45 cm. A number of mosses are a s s o c i a t e d and have a high s i g n i f i c a n c e but none has a high constancy. This community type i s e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by the dense sward of sedge. Species groups 2 (Carex r o s t r a t a ) or 3 (Carex a q u a t i l i s ) must be present. There was no v i s i b l e evidence o f past g r a z i n g by c a t t l e . 2) Carex n i g r i c a n s l a t e snowbed meadow: (Table XVI) This sedge community occurs at t i m b e r l i n e i n areas of l a t e snow melt. Best development was i n depressions or on moderate slopes (up to 23°) where s o l i f l u c t i o n was an a c t i v e process. The hygrotope was mesic to sub-hygric. Of the four stands included i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n , three were on east f a c i n g slopes and one was on a west f a c i n g slope. The mean e l e v a t i o n was 2065 meters. This community type has a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 30. Carex n i g r i c a n s (black a l p i n e sedge) i s the most frequent member of t h i s community and has the highest mean s i g n i f i c a n c e (3). Species found i n 3/4 stands i n c l u d e S a l i x n i v a l i s ( a l s o a dominant w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2 ) , Luzula p a r v i f l o r a , Artemesia norvegica, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i , Juneus  drummondii and Trisetum spicatum. Cassiope mertensiana was present i n 2/4 p l o t s with an average cover c l a s s of 4. The general height of the C s t r a t a was 8-12 cm. The Phleum species group (10) and the Carex n i g r i c a n s species group (11) are d i a g n o s t i c f o r t h i s community type. I t i s not extensive and d i d not appear to have been grazed. 3) Festuca a l t a i c a - Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow: (Table XVII) The dominant grassland community at high e l e v a t i o n s i n the study area i s t h i s mixed fescue type. I t i s common between 1820 and 2225 meters on pre-dominantly east, south and west aspects. The slope gradient i s gentle to - 7 0 -Table XVI. Carex n i g r i c a n s l a t e snowbed meadow P l o t number B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) Slope Gradient (°) Aspect Hygrotope S o i l Temperature (°C) L i t t e r Bare Ground Species HERBS Carex n i g r i c a n s S a l i x n i v a l i s L u zula p a r v i f l o r a Artemesia norvegica Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i Juncus drummond i i T risetum spicatum Cassiope mertensiana S i b b a l d i a procumbens Anenome m u l t i f i d a Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s Veronica wormskjoldii BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH Stereocaulon spp. Polytrichum juniperinum Mean 187 56 192 190 ESSF ESSF ESSF AT 2065.0 2020 2070 2100 2070 13.8 8 23 21 3 282 48 56 98 mesic mesic subhygric mesic 8.5 9 6 9.5 9. 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 p MS COVER CLASS 100.0 3 2 3 1 5 75.0 2 4 2 1 75.0 2 2 2 1 75.0 2 1 2 1 75.0 1 1 2 + 75.0 1 1 1 + 75.0 1 1 1 + 50.0 3 5 3 50.0 2 2 2 50.0 1 1 1 50.0 1 1 1 50.0 1 1 1 50.0 1 1 2 50.0 1 1 1 Other species o c c u r r i n g i n 1/4 stands w i t h t h e i r cover v a l u e s : Agoseris glauca 2, Anenome o c c i d e n t a l i s 2, Antennaria a l p i n a 2, Caltha b i f l o r a 2, Carex s p e c t a b i l i s 2, E r i g e r o n speciosus 2, Phyllodoce empetriformis 2, Erigeron purpuratus 1, Polygonum viviparum 1, S a l i x spp. 1, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 1, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a 1, C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 1, Hieracium g r a c i l e 1, Phleum alpinum 1, Poa a r c t i c a 1, Sedum lanceolatum 1, Abies l a s i o c a r p a +, Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 3, Polytrichum s t r i c t u m 3, Dicranum rauehlenbeckii 2, P e l t i g e r a apthosa 2, Bartramia i t h y p h y l l a 1, Bryum spp. 1, Lophozia spp. 1, P h i l o n o t i s fontana 1, Polytrichum p i l i f e r u m 1, D i s t i c h i u m c a p i l l a c e u m +, P o h l i a nutans + - 71 -Table X V I I . F e s t u c a a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow PIot number Mean 75 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 2037.8 1990 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 9.4 9 Aspect 206 Hygrotope x e r i c S o i l Temperature (°C) 11.8 11 L i t t e r 2 3 Bare Ground 2 3 Rocks 1 1 Species P MS 204 185 200 143 188 122 AT ESSF AT AT AT AT 2110 1960 2030 2170 2080 2145 15 8 4 16 13 0 20 220 284 228 328 F sub- meaic sub- meBic sub- mesic mesic x e r i c m e s i c 11.5 12.5 11 10.5 9 12 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 HERBS C Fe s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 94.4 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 94.4 C e r a s t i u m arvense 94.4 F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 83.3 Carex phaeocephala 77.8 Penstemon pr o c e r u s 77.8 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 66.7 Ar t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 61.1 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 61.1 Polemonium pulcherrimum 61.1 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 50.0 Poa a l p i n a 44.4 Geum t r i f l o r u m 38.9 S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 33.3 S e l a g i n e l l a densa 27.8 Senecio s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 27.8 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 27.8 L u z u l a e p i c a t a 27.8 T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m 27.8 S t e 1 1 a r i a l o n g i p e s 27.8 Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 22.2 Carex c a p i t a t a 22.2 My o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 22.2 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 22.2 Poa s a n d b e r g i i 22.2 Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 22.2 A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 22.2 Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s 22.2 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 77.8 [ C l a d o n i a squamulose] 72.2 P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 50.0 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 38.9 C l a d o n i a spp. 38.9 P e l t i g e r a malacea 33.3 P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m 22.2 Ceratadon purpureus 22.2 S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 22.2 P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 22.2 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 202 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : S a l i x n i v a l i s 1,3,5, A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 1,2, E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 1,2, Phleum a l p i n u m 1,2, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 1,2, Carex p a c h y s t a c h y a 1,2, A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 1,2, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1,2, Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 1, Poa c u s i c k i i 1, Rumex a c e t o s a 1, V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 1, A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 1,2, Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 1,2, G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 1, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 1, Poa i n t e r i o r 1, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a 1, A r e n a r i a r u b e l l a 1, A n t e n n a r i a u m b r i n e l l a 2, A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r B i 2, D e l p h i n i u m glaucum 2, Eriogonum umbellatum 2, L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 2, Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 2, Poa g l a u c a 2, Poa p r a t e n s i s 2, Senecio canus 2, V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t o s u m 2, Agropyron caninum 1, S i l e n e a c a u l i s 1, Anenome m u l t i f i d a 1, A r a b i a drumnondii 1, B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a 1, Draba l a n c e o l a t e 1, Draba spp. 1, Draba s t e n o l o b a 1, G a l i u m b o r e a l e 1, Galium t r i f i d u m 1, H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e 1, P e d i c u l a r i s o r n i t h o r h y n c h a 1, Ranunculus e s c h B c h o l t z i i 1, Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 1, Bryum spp. 1, Eurynchium p u l c h e l l u m 2, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 1, Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u s 2, C a l o p l a c a app. 1, C l a d o n i a nemoxyna 1, C o r n i c u l a r i a a c u l e a t a 1, C o r n i c u l a r i a m u r i c a t a 1, Rubus a c a u l i s 1, S o l o r i n a c r o c e a 1, B r a c h y t h e c i u m c o l l i n u m +, E n c a l y p t a v u l g a r i s +, L o p h o z i a app. + , R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum 1 171 124 172 129 163 66 116 9 130 131 132 AT AT AT ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 2170 2225 2145 2015 1820 1945 1865 1960 2015 2010 2025 13 5 21 6 3 18 10 16 5 2 5 180 40 176 260 220 274 100 180 268 272 272 sub- mesic eub- mesic x e r i c x e r i c sub- x e r i c mesic mesic mesic mesic mesic mesi c 11 9 15 11 14.5 12 18.5 7 12 12 13 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 j 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 + 2 1 + + 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 4 3 + 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 - 72 -moderate (a mean of 9° and an extreme of 21°) and the t e r r a i n i s often hummocky. The hygrotope i s on the dry end of the s c a l e , v a r y i n g from mesic to x e r i c . S o i l s are rocky and w e l l drained. A large a l l u v i a l fan i n Relay Basin supports the most extensive stand of t h i s community. An average of 15 percent of the p l o t i s exposed mineral s o i l w h i l e l i t t e r comprises an average of 15 percent of the ground cover. The eighteen stands sampled have a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 45. Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and Festuca a l t a i c a are the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c com-ponents of t h i s community. Both have a constancy of V and a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. These grasses reach an average height of 20-30 cm. Carex phaeocephala i s a frequent ( c l a s s IV) c o n s t i t u e n t w i t h an average cover of 2 as w e l l . Forbs with a constancy of IV or V i n c l u d e P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , Cerastium  arvense, Penstemon procerus, A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Artemesia norvegica, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s , and Polemonium pulcherrimum. None of these i s e s p e c i a l l y d i a g n o s t i c . C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a and Cladonia squamules are the only constant species i n the D l a y e r . They have mean cover c l a s s e s of 1 and 2 r e s p e c t i v e l y . The key to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s community type i s the presence of the Festuca a l t a i c a species group (8) without the Dryas group (7). Group 9 (F. brachyphylla) i s a l s o present and d i a g n o s t i c when i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h group 8. The high constancy of A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s r e s u l t s i n the presence of the Ph1eum species group (10) as w e l l but t h i s i s not considered of major importance i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n , although i t does add to the species d i v e r s i t y of t h i s type. This community type has been h e a v i l y grazed by c a t t l e i n the past. Close cropping of fescue bunch grasses (Festuca spp.) r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r near demise i s a common s i g h t , as i s an abundance of cow dung. Regrowth i s slow because of the short growing season and dry c o n d i t i o n s ; however there were new shoots - 73 -around the edges of many of the dead bunches. These a l p i n e and h i g h subalpine meadows have probably been an important forage source for both c a t t l e and w i l d l i f e . 4) Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow: (Table XVIII) This community type i s common throughout the study area i n both the a l p i n e and subalpine zones, ranging i n e l e v a t i o n from 1670 to 2220 meters. I t i s r e s t r i c t e d to southerly or e a s t e r l y aspects on a wide range of slope g r a d i e n t s . The hygrotope v a r i e s from mesix to x e r i c . The t e r r a i n i s g e n e r a l l y convex. There i s o f t e n a large amount of bare s o i l (15 percent on average) and of l i t t e r (a mean of 15 percent). The twenty-four p l o t s included i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n have a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 35. The dominant grass i n t h i s meadow community i s Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a ( a l p i n e fescue) w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. Important forbs w i t h a constancy of IV or V are Cerastium arvense, Geum t r i f l o r u m , Polemomium pulcherrimum, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a and A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m . Oxytropus campestris ( w i t h a cover c l a s s of 2 or 3) i s an important i n d i c a t o r of the rocky v a r i a n t of t h i s community which might be considered a s u b a s s o c i a t i o n . There are no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bryophytes or l i c h e n s . The average height of t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type i s 12-30 cm. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s community i s based on the presence of the Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a species group (9) without the Festuca a l t a i c a group. The Phleum  alpinum species group (10) may be represented by one species with a cover of le s s than 5 percent - any grea t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would place the stand i n the next community type. The rocky subtype meets the requirement f or the crustose l i c h e n species group (16). - 74 -Table X V I I I . Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow P l o t number B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) Slope G r a d i e n t (°) As pect Hygrot ope S o i l Temperature (°C) L i t t e r Bare Ground Rocks Species P HERBS C F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 87.5 C e r a s t i u m arvense 83.3 Geum t r i f l o r u m 79.2 Polemonium pulcherrimum 75.0 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 66.7 A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 66.7 Carex phaeocephala 58.3 Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s 58.3 E r i g e r o n compositus 45.8 Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 41.7 M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 41.7 Penstemon p r o c e r u s 41.7 Galium b o r e a l e 41.7 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 37.5 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 33.3 G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 33.3 Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 29.2 Anenome m u l t i f i d a 29.2 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 29.2 Poa e a n d b e r g i i 25.0 Delphinium glaucum 25.0 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i 20.8 Festuca a l t a i c a 20.8 K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 20.8 A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 20.8 Haplopappus l y a l l i i 20.8 T r i s e t u m spicatum 20.8 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 33.3 DR [Crustose l i c h e n s ] 20.8 Mean 139 180 232 234 173 164 103 AT AT AT AT AT ESSF ESSF 1976.7 2040 2050 2150 2215 2065 1825 1900 18.7 24 26 25 20 32 18 0 214 236 70 56 68 122 F n e s i c x e r i c .ub- x e r i c x e r i c eub- Bub-11 .9 x e r i c x e r i c mesic 11 13 8 8 17 15.5 13 2 3 3 1 2 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 MS 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 13 ESSF 1955 0 F mesi c 7 2 2 76 ESSF 1990 28 150 me&ic 12.5 2 3 COVER CLASS 115 ESSF I860 0 F mes i c 12 2 2 105 ESSF 1905 33 68 x e r i c 15 2 2 1 107 ESSF 1900 0 F 8 u fa-mes! c 13.5 2 160 ESSF 1835 0 68 sub-mesi c 12 1 238 ESSF 1670 40 110 x e r i c 10 4 1 127 ESSF 2100 18 164 x e r i c 13 2 4 1 62 ESSF 1885 24 240 x e r i c 14 2 2 2 121 AT 2155 26 188 x e r i c 14 2 3 2 98 233 49 63 64 65 AT AT ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 2165 2220 1920 1890 1890 1900 0 22 10 25 25 23 F 68 176 242 208 195 x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c 13 8 10.5 11.5 11 13 1 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 14 ESSF 1955 30 200 x e r i c 10 2 2 2 Other 6 p e c i e s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y l e s s than 201 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : a l p i n a 2, C a l a m a g r o s t i s purpurascens 2, Carex pachystachya 2, Carex r o e s i i 2, Carex s p e c t a b i l i s 2, Juncus drummondii 2, K o b r e s i a myosuroides 2 Poa c u s i c k n 2, P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s 2, P o t e n t i l l a q u i n q u e f o l i a 2, S a l i x b r a c h y c a r p a 2, S i b b a l d a procumbens 2, S t l p a n c h a r d s o n n 2, Agropyron caninum 1, A r n i c a s o r o r i a 1, A s t e r s i b i r i c u s 1, Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 1, r_,j-i„-«i, i r. • v Bquamulose 2 Hypnum r e v o l u t u m 2, P e l t i g e r a apthosa 2, d ™ , ' ' f J " f Z T 1 0 ! " P e U i 8 " a v * 1 * " * L P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 1, S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 1, Brachythecium c o l l i n u m 1, L o p h o z i a f l o e r k e i 1, [Black c r u s t o B e l i c h e n s 1,2], Lecanora spp. 1, R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum i Past g r a z i n g use by c a t t l e was evident i n most stands sampled. Some fescue bunchgrasses were close cropped and o l d cow pies were g e n e r a l l y present. Many of the v a l l e y bottom meadows i n Graveyard V a l l e y f i t i n t o t h i s community. This v a l l e y has been h e a v i l y grazed for many years. 5) Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a - Phleum alpinum meadow: (Table XIX) This p l a n t community represents a t r a n s i t i o n between the Festuca brachy- p h y l l a and the Phleum alpinum a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t i s found g e n e r a l l y where more mesic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , although three of the twenty stands sampled were on rocky w e l l drained s i t e s . This community type occurs throughout the subalpine zone r i g h t up to t i m b e r l i n e . The e l e v a t i o n ranges from 1640 to 2090 meters with a mean of 1874 meters. F l a t v a l l e y bottoms to steep slopes (43°) on a l l aspects support t h i s type of ve g e t a t i o n . The t e r r a i n v a r i e d from s t r a i g h t to concave. The mean s i m i l a r i t y f o r the stands i n t h i s community type was 41. Numerous forbs dominate t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . Those w i t h the hi g h e s t constancy are A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m and Cerastium arvense. Both have a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , T halictrum o c c i d e n t a l e , Penstemon  procerus, Polemonium pulcherrimum, and Geum t r i f l o r u m are also present more than 60 percent of the time. Phleum alpinum and Carex phaeocephala are the dominant grass and sedge species with a constancy of IV and mean s i g n i f i c a n c e values of 2. Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and Trisetum spicatum are each present i n 55 percent of the sample p l o t s . This community a t t a i n s an average height of 15 cm although i n a few s i t e s grasses reached a height of 45 cm. Both the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a (9) and Phleum alpinum (10) species groups must be met f o r a stand to f i t i n t o t h i s community type. E i t h e r two species from group 10 or one species with a cover greater than 1 i s req u i r e d . In - 76 -Table XIX. Fes t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a - Phleum alpinum meadow P l o t number Mean 18. i 174 4 7 10 12 23 B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t ESS] F AT ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 1874. 3 192: 5 2060 1640 1950 1960 1945 ESSF 1 700 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 12.1 0 1 43 0 0 16 19 21 Aspect 31: ! 40 F F 140 226 50 Hygrot ope mesi • c xer i c n e s i c mesic x e r i c x e r i c mesic S o i l Temperature (°C) 11 .: 1 1( ) 16 12 7 8 10 11 L i 1 1 er 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 ] Bare Ground 2 2 2 2 2 Rocks 1 2 Spec i es P MS O0VE1 I CLASS HERBS C A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 100.( ) 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 Ce r a s t i u m arvense 85.( ) 2 1 2 2 1 j Phleum alpinum 75.C ) 2 2 2 2 2 i. 2 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 75.C ) 2 2 1 1 1 1 ] T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 75. C 1 1 2 1 1 i Carex phaeocephala 70.C 1 2 2 2 1 2 l Penstemon pr o c e r u s 70. C I 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 Polemonium pulcherrimum 70.C I 1 1 1 1 1 Geum t r i f l o r u m 65.0 2 3 3 2 1 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 55.0 2 2 1 2 2 F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 55.0 2 2 4 1 1 T r i s e t u m spicatum 55.0 1 2 2 2 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 45.0 2 1 1 2 3 Galium b o r e a l e 45.0 1 2 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 40.0 2 2 1 3 1 Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 40.0 1 1 1 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 35.0 1 1 1 2 Poa a l p i n a 30.0 1 2 2 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 30.0 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 30.0 1 1 2 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 25.0 2 4 2 Carex pachystachya 25.0 1 1 1 A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 25.0 1 1 Androsace s e p t e n t r i o n a l i s 25.0 1 1 1 G e n t i a n a a m a r e l l a 25.0 1 A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 20.0 12 A s t e r f o l i a c e o u s 20.0 1 Anenome m u l t i f i d a 20.0 1 1 Agropyron caninum 20.0 1 1 S e l a g i n e l l a densa 20.0 1 1 V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 20.0 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 40.0 2 1 1 3 1 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 35.0 1 1 1 1 CI a d o n i a spp . 20.0 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a f r e q u e n c y l e s s than 20Z and t h e i r cover \ values: V a c c i n i u m c a e s p i t o s u m 1,2,3, Eriogonum umbellatum 2, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 1,2, S t i p a columbiana 1,2, A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 1,2, Poa p r a t e n s i s 1, Poa s a n d b e r g i i 1, M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 1, Sedum l a n c e o l a t u m 1, Rhinanthes c r i e t a - g a l l i 2,3, C i r B i u m hookerianum 1,3, F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 2, F e s t u c a saximontana 2, Poa c u s i c k i i 2, S o l i dago m u l t i r a d i a t a 2, H a c k e l i a f l o r i b u n d a 1,2, Poa i n t e r i o r 1,2, C a s t i l l e j a o i n i a t a 1,2, Geum macrophyllum 1,2, A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 1,2, A r n i c a s o r o r i a 1, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1, Rumex a c e t o s a 1, S a l i x n i v a l i s 5, A n t e n n a r i a u m b r i n e l l a 2, L u p i n u s n o o t k a t e n s i s 2, L u z u l a p a r v i f l o r a 2, Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 2, Poa a r c t i c a 2, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 2, S e n e c i o i n t e g e r r i m u s 2, S e n e c i o s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 2, Carex c a p i t a t a 2, C a l a m a g r o s t i s p u r p u r a s c e n s 1, Carex n i g r i c a n s 1, Geranium r i c h a r d s o n i i 1, A g r o s t i s s c a b r a 1, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 1, A n t e n n a r i a p u l c h e r r i m a 1, A r a b i a drummondii 1, A r e n a r i a l a t e r i f l o r a 1, A r e n a r i a o b t u s i l o b a 1, B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a 1, Bromue anomalus 1, C a l t h a b i f l o r a 1, D e l p h i n i u m glaucum 1, Draba spp. 1, Galium t r i f i d u m 1, Hsplopappus l y a l l i i 1, L u z u l a s p i c a t a 1, Poa p a l u s t r i s 1, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i 1, S e n e c i o p e u c i f l o r u s 1, S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1, V i o l a ? n e p h r o p h y l l a 1, P e l t i g e r a malacea 1,2, Bryum spp. 1,2, P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 1,2, C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a 1 , [ C l a d o n i a squamulose 1], Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u s 1, P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 1, S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 1, [ C r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 39 51 81 104 110 114 ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 1630 1935 1815 1900 1870 1860 0 4 14 0 0 0 F 286 178 F F F mesic mesi c mesic sub- sub- sub-m e s i c m e s i c mesi c 8.5 8 12 10.5 13 13 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 3 3 " 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 4 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 • 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 117 137 167 ESSF ESSF ESSF 1920 1785 1870 21 21 21 240 1 04 1 32 m e s i c sub- sub-mesic x e r i c 11.5 14 15.5 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 179 226 239 170 ESSF ESSF ESSF AT 1955 1965 1710 2090 17 0 20 16 120 162 100 340 sub- m e s i c x e r i c m e s ic mesic 12 12 10.5 8 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 + a d d i t i o n , species group 17 (the Cerastium arvense group) i s g e n e r a l l y present but i t i s not used to c l a s s i f y the stands. Grazing of t h i s community type was common and o f t e n very heavy. 6) Phleum alpinum-Carex phaeocephala meadow: (Table XX) This community type i s widespread i n the subalpine parkland but i s found only o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the a l p i n e zone. The f i f t e e n stands sampled ranged i n e l e v a t i o n from 1640 meters at Relay Cabin to 2080 meters i n Relay B a s i n . The slope gradient v a r i e d from f l a t to a steep 36° on predominantly south to east aspects. The t e r r a i n was d i v e r s e and the hygrotope was i n the range of sub-mesic to sub-hygric. This moisture regime r e s u l t e d i n an average grass height of 30-45 cm. Only 2 stands had rocky s o i l . The p l o t s used to c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n had a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 32. The dominant species i n t h i s community are Phleum alpinum ( a l p i n e timothy) and Carex phaeocephala w i t h mean s i g n i f i c a n c e values of 2, and Trisetum  spicatum w i t h a mean cover of 1. A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m and P o t e n t i l l a  d i v e r s i f o l i a are constant forbs w i t h an average cover c l a s s value of 2. There are no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bryophytes or l i c h e n s f o r t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s group i s based on the presence of species group 10 - the Phleum group. At l e a s t one of the two grasses must be present. The A c h i l l e a species group (17) i s als o met for 80 percent of the stands but i s not required f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s type. Grazing of t h i s community type i s common and c a t t l e dung was noted i n almost a l l stands. However, the grasses and sedges of t h i s community do not show evidence of clo s e cropping. Their more dispersed growth form might allow them to withstand g r a z i n g pressure more e a s i l y or perhaps the increased moisture a v a i l a b i l i t y permits b e t t e r regrowth. Table XX. Phleum alpinum - Carex phaeocephala meadow P l o t number Mean B i o g e o c l i m a t i c u n i t E l e v a t i o n (M) 1874.0 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 10.7 Aapect Hygrotope S o i l Temperature (°C) 11.1 L i t t e r 2 Bare Ground 2 Rocks 1 Speciea P MS 113 72 175 111 I ESSF AT AT ESSF ESSF 1860 2080 2060 1970 1640 0 7 18 36 0 F 60 56 62 F mesic mesic x e r i c x e r i c mesic 12 13.5 15 15 11 I 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 8 118 157 229 ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 1640 1955 1960 1860 1775 0 2 11 0 21 F 1 80 226 F 159 mesic mesic mesi c mesi c mesic 9 7 11 12 10. 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 COVER CLASSES 235 41 50 176 228 ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 1740 1700 1910 207S 1885 22 6 13 1 2 12 133 152 44 182 134 mesic tries i c mesi c sub- mesi c me s i c 10 8 10 1 2 11 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 c A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 93.3 2 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 Phleum alpinum 80.0 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 2 3 3 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 73.3 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 Carex phaeocephala 66.7 3 1 2 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 Tr i 8 e t u m epicatum 60.0 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 53.3 2 2 3 2 2 3 1 4 F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a 53.3 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 46.7 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 46.7 1 1 1 2 I 1 1 1 A s t r a g a l u a a l p i n u e 40.0 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 40.0 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 Ceraatium arvenae 40.0 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 Galium b o r e a l e 40.0 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 33.3 1 2 2 2 1 1 Penstemon procerus 33.3 1 1 1 2 1 1 Poa a l p i n a 26.7 I 2 1 3 2 Poa p a l u a t r i s 26.7 1 3 2 1 2 A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 26.7 1 2 2 1 2 Anenome m u l t i f i d a 26.7 1 2 2 1 1 Agropyron caninum 26.7 1 2 1 1 2 Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 26.7 1 1 1 2 2 S i b b a l d i a procumbens 26.7 1 1 1 2 1 E p i l o b i u m a n g u a t i f o l i u m 26.7 1 1 1 1 1 Lupinua n o o t k a t e n a i s 20.0 1 1 5 Del p h i n i u m glaucum 20.0 1 2 2 1 Haplopappua l y a l l i i 20.0 1 2 1 1 L u z u l a a p i c a t a 20.0 1 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 33.3 2 1 4 2 T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 26.7 I 2 1 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e a s than 202 and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 1.3, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 2, Poa p r a t e n e i s 2, V a c c i n i u m caespitosum 2, Carex r o s s i i 1,2, A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 1,2, Eriogonum umbel latum 1,2, Juncus drummondii 1,2, S e l a g i n e l l a densa 1,2, A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 1, E r i g e r o n s p e c i o s u s 1, Gentiana amare11 a 1, V e r o n i c a w o r m s k j o l d i i 1, Carex pachystachya 3, C i r s i u m h o o k e r i anurn 3, P h y l l o d o c e e m p e t r i f o r m i s 3, Rhinanthes c r i s t a - g a l l i 3, Ant e n n a r i a mi crophy!1 a 2, A r n i c a p a r r y i 2, Bromus c a r i natus 2, Carex a l b o n i g r a 2, Equisetum arvense 2, Geum t r i f l o r u r a 2, H i e r a c i u m g r a c i l e 2, L u z u l a g l a b r a t a 2, Poa r u p i c o l a 2, P o t e n t i l l a g r a c i l i s 2, S t i p a columbiana 2, Poa c u s i c k i i 2, H a c k e l i a f l o r i b u n d a I , Ranunculus u n c i n a t u s 1, A g r o s t i s scabra 1, A r e n a r i a obtust1oba 1, Arn* ca c o r d i f o l i a 1, A m i c a s o r o r i a 1, Bromus anoraalus 1, Carex c a p i t a t a 1, Carex m i c r o p t e r a 1, C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 1, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1, Fest u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 1, Geum macrophyl1um 1, Polemonium pulcherrimum 1, Ranunculus e s c h s c h o l t z i i I , Rum ex a c e t o s a 1, S a l i x brachycarpa 1, S a x i f r a g a o c c i d e n t a l i a 1, Sedura 1anceolatum 1, Senecio p a u c i f l o r u s 1, Abies l a s i o c a r p a + , P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m +,4, Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e 1,3, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m +,2, P o h l i a nutans 1,2, Bryum spp. 1, [Cladonia squamulose 2]J P e l t i g e r a apthosa 2, P e l t i g e r a s p u r i a 2, S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 2, P h i l o n o t i s fontana 1, C l a d o n i a spp. 1, Desmatadon l a t i f o l i u s 1, Brachythecium spp. +, Tomenthypnum n i t e n s +,[Black c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s l ] } ( C r u 8 t o s e l i c h e n s l j 7 R h i z o c a r p o n geographicura 1 7) K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a meadow: (Table XXI) This dry meadow community i s abundant on moderate to steep (39°) south to south-east f a c i n g s l o p e s . The s o i l s are g e n e r a l l y rocky and w e l l drained ranging from x e r i c to sub-mesic on the hygrotopic s c a l e . Exposed or bare s o i l comprises an average of 22 percent of the ground cover. The topography was s t r a i g h t to convex. This a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d to the subalpine zone between 1680 and 2020 meters. The twenty-four p l o t s included i n t h i s type had a mean s i m i l a r i t y of 39. A shrub stratum was present i n f i v e of the sample p l o t s . Juniperus  communis, Populus tremuloides ( a l s o present as small trees i n one stand), Populus t r i c h o c a r p a and Shepherdia canadensis were each present i n one to three stands. These may be t r a n s i t i o n a l between the dry shrub and dry meadow communities. The two aspen stands are on more mesic s i t e s and have a h i s t o r y of f i r e . These l a t e s u c c e s s i o n a l s i t e s w i l l probably climax i n a Pinus  a l b i c a u l i s (whitebark pine) open f o r e s t community. The herb stratum i s dominant f o r t h i s p l a n t community. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a i s the most important grass with a constancy of V and mean cover of 2. A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , Cerastium arvense, Galium b o r e a l e , F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a and Agoseris glauca are a l l prominent forbs w i t h a mean s i g n i f i c a n c e of 2. Rosa a c i c u l a r i s has a constancy of IV but an average cover o f only 1. This stratum a t t a i n s a height of 30-45 cm. There are no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i c h e n s or mosses. There are a number of important d i a g n o s t i c species of low constancy ( I I or I I I ) . Poa i n t e r i o r , Agropyron caninum, Erigeron speciosus, Arctostaphylos  u v a - u r s i , Cirsium hookerianum and Eriogonum umbellatum are a l l members of species group 12 which i s used to i d e n t i f y the K o e l e r i a community type. This - 80 -Table XXI. K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a d r y meadow P l o t number Mean 22 30 Bi ogeoc 1 imat i c u n i t ESSF ESSF E l e v a t i o n (M) 1821.0 1710 1920 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 22.6 12 12 Aspec t 140 164 Hygrotope x e r i c mesic S o i l Temperature (°C) 13.6 12 11 L i t t e r 2 2 2 Bare Ground 2 5 2 Rock s 2 1 Species P MS 42 44 85 135 161 31 79 ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF 1785 1845 1830 1780 1890 1760 1895 20 17 32 30 32 12 22 160 120 170 124 204 140 ' 138 x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c sub- meeic mesic x e r i c 12.5 11 15 21 15 10 17 2 1 1 2 3 1 1 4 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 COVER CLASSES HERBS C A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m 95 .8 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 \ 2 Cera s t i u m arvense 87 .5 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 83 .3 2 2 3 1 1 3 I 2 Ga1ium borea1e 83 .3 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 ] 2 F r a g a r i a V i r g i n i a n s 62 .5 2 2 1 4 2 A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 62 .5 2 1 2 1 2 1 Rosa a c i c u l a r i s 62 .5 1 1 2 1 Geum t r i f l o r u m 58 .3 2 1 2 2 Poa i n t e r i o r 54 .2 2 1 2 1 2 2 Carex phaeocephala 54 .2 1 1 2 1 I 2 Polemonium pulcherrimum 50 .0 1 1 2 2 Agropyron caninum 50 .0 1 1 2 1 1 2 Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a 41 .7 1 2 2 2 E r i g e r o n s p e c i o s u s 41 .7 1 1 2 2 2 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i 37 .5 2 2 C i r s i u m hookerianum 37 .5 1 1 2 2 1 Erigonum umbellatuto 37 .5 1 1 1 1 Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e 33 .3 1 1 2 2 I Anenome m u l t i f i d a 33 .3 1 1 1 1 Penstemon p r o c e r u s 33 .3 1 2 1 Gent i a n a a m a r e l l a 33 .3 1 T h a l i c t r u m o c c i d e n t a l e 29 .2 1 1 \ A n t e n n a r i a m i c r o p h y l l a 29 .2 1 1 1 Bromus anomalus 29 .2 1 2 1 I A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s 25 0 1 2 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 25 0 1 1 1 2 E p i l o b i u m a n g u s t i f o l i u m 25 0 1 1 1 Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 25 0 1 1 1 1 Lupinus n o o t k a t e n s i s 20 8 1 1 2 2 Poa a r c t i c a 20 8 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 25.0 1 1 Bryum spp. 20.8 1 * 1 DR [Bl a c k c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 20.8 1 Other s p e c i e s w i t h a frequency l e s s than 20X and t h e i r cover v a l u e s : Populus t r e m u l o i d e s 4, J u n i p e r u s communis 2, Pop u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s 3, Sh e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s 3, Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 2, S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 1,2, A s t e r s i b i r i c u s 1,2, Androsace a e p t e n t r i o n a l i s 1, B o t r y c h i u m l u n a r i a 1, P h a c e l i a s e r i c e a 1, A g r o s t i s v a r i a b i l i s 2,3, Poa f e n d l e r i a n a 2,3, Rh i n a n t h e s c r i s t a - g a l l i 2,3, A s t r a g a l u s r o b b i n s i i 2, F e s t u c a saximontana 2, A r t e m e s i a f r i g i d a 1,2, Bromus i n e r m i s 1,2, H a c k e l i a f l o r i b u n d a 1,2, Poa g l a u c a 1,2, Populus t r e m u l o i d e s 1,2, P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 1,2, S e n e c i o lugens 1, F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 1, Poa c u s i c k i i 1, A l l i u m cernuum 1, A n t e n n a r i a a l p i n a 1, A r a b i a drummondii 1, C a l a m a g r o s t i s purpurascens 1, D e l p h i n i u m glaucum 1, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u s 1, S e n e c i o s t r e p t a n t h i f o l i u s 1, S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 1, T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m 1, Agropyron s p i c a t u m 2, A s t e r f o l i a c e u s 2, A s t r a g a l u s m i s e r 2, Carex h o o d i i 2, Carex pachystachya 2, C a s t i l l e j a m i n i a t a 2, F e s t u c a a l t a i c a 2, Hypnum r e v o l u t u m 2, Symphoricarpos a l b u s 2, V a l e r i a n a d i o i c a 2, Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 1, A g o s e r i s a u r a n t i a c a 1, A g r o s t i s e c a b r a 1, Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a 1, A n t e n n a r i a p u l c h e r r i m a 1, Ar a b i B h o l b o e l l i i 1, A r a b i s l y a l l i i 1, A r t e m e s i a c a m e s t r i s 1, Equisetum arvense 1, E r i g e r o n compositus 1, Geum macrophyHum 1, Haplopappus l y a l 1 i i 1, J u n i p e r u s communis I , L i 1lium columbianum 1, L u z u l a s p i c a t a 1, Penstemon f r u t i c o s u s 1, Poa s a n d b e r g i i 1, P o t e n t i l l a a r g u t a 1, S i b b a l d i a procumbens 1, Vacinnium c a e s p i t o s u m 1, Wood s i a a c o p u l i n a 1, P e l t i g e r a malacea 1, E n c a l y p t a v u l g a r i s 1, P e l t i g e r a r u f e s c e n s 2, Bryum c a e s p i t i c i u m 1, P e l t i g e r a ? c a n i n a 1, P o h l i a nutans 1, P o l y t r i c h u m j u n i p e r i n u m 1,[Crustose l i c h e n s 1] ( R h i z o c a r p o n geographicum 1 212 236 24 25 45 86 78 21 90 156 214 91 ESSF i a/.n ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF ESSF PCCTT 84 1820 1700 2005 1800 1765 1980 1680 1755 1865 1750 1760 ESSF J O 32 13 14 15 30 23 15 4 39 1 Q 1830 192 1 77 126 134 144 160 152 130 158 184 1 ? 110 26 156 33 x e r i c s ub — x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c sub- mesic sub- x e r i c 122 mes I c x e r i c x e r i c mesic mesic 19 .5 12 13 7 16 13 16 12 11 17 21 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 9 12 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 196 ESSF 2020 34 208 x e r i c 15.5 2 2 2 34 ESSF 1720 20 170 sub-x e r i c 9 2 2 5 1 1 2 - 81 -species group i s a l s o found i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h group 13 (the P h a c e l i a s e r i c e u s group) which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the dry shrub type. These two communities are on s i m i l a r h a b i t a t s and probably represent s u c c e s s i o n a l stages toward a climax whitebark pine f o r e s t . This community appeared to be s e n s i t i v e to gr a z i n g . T e r r a c i n g was observed on s e v e r a l slopes although the grasses showed l i t t l e evidence of past use. Half of the stands sampled met the requirements f or the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a species group (9) l a r g e l y because o f the presence of Geum t r i f l o r u m ( o l d man's beard) with an average cover of 2. However fescue was very scarce. The prevalence of forbs may be a r e s u l t of past g r a z i n g pressure. The species composition may r e f l e c t past l e v e l s of use, although t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to qu a n t i f y without proper c o n t r o l s i t e s . Rock-Talus-Lichen T e r r a i n U n i t : (Table XXII) This type i s i d e n t i f i e d by the t e r r a i n rather than a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c vege-t a t i o n type. Talus slopes and b o u l d e r f i e l d s are a f a i r l y prominent feature of the a l p i n e landscape and are found o c c a s i o n a l l y i n the subalpine. They occur p r i m a r i l y below c l i f f s . Sampled s i t e s were between 1845 and 2345 meters. The slope ranged from 1 to 42° on no r t h , east and south aspects. Rock and coarse fragments or exposed shallow mineral s o i l comprised 60 to 100 percent of the ground cover. A l l stands were x e r i c although shaded, moist c r e v i c e s d i d provide m i c r o h a b i t a t s f o r p l a n t establishment. The mean s i m i l a r i t y f o r the nine p l o t s c l a s s i f i e d as t h i s type i s 25. The herb stratum i s sparse. There was an average o f nine species per p l o t , but none has a high constancy or cover. Species with a constancy of I I are Oxytropus campestris, Astragalus a l p i n u s , P o t e n t i l l a n i v e a , and Cerastium  arvense. The cryptogram stratum i s w e l l developed. Rhizocarpon geographicum - 82 -Table X X I I . R o c k - t a l u s - l i c h e n t e r r a i n u n i t P l o t number Mean 100 203 27 28 67 69 74 26 224 Biogeoc 1 i m a t i c u n i t AT AT AT AT ESSF ESSF AT AT AT E l e v a t i o n (M) 2095.0 2080 2115 2085 2190 1845 2000 2120 2075 2345 Slope G r a d i e n t (°) 15.1 13 . 6 5 9 42 31 25 4 1 Aspect 210 140 100 210 62 62 10 130 114 Hygrotope x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c x e r i c xer i c x e r i c x e r i c S o i l Temperature (°C) 12.2 16 17.5 - 6 - - 12.5 7 14 L i 11 er 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 Bare Ground 2 1 2 2 1 5 3 Rocks 4 2 4 6 5 6 6 2 4 4 Species P MS COVER CLASSES HERBS C Oxytropus c a m p e s t r i s 44 4 ! 2 1 1 2 A s t r a g a l u s a l p i n u s 44 4 1 1 1 1 1 P o t e n t i l l a n i v e a 33 3 1 1 1 1 C e r a s t i u m arvense 33 3 1 1 1 1 A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i 22 2 3 2 Carex a l b o n i g r a 22 2 1 2 2 F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a 22 2 1 2 2 C a l a m a g r o s t i s purpurascens 22 2 1 1 2 S a x i f r a g a b r o n c h i a l i s 22 2 I 1 2 S e l a g i n e l l a dense 22 2 1 1 2 A s t e r s i b i r i c u s 22 2 1 1 1 E r i g e r o n compositus 22 2 1 1 1 P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a 22 2 1 1 1 Polemonium pulcherrimum 22 2 1 1 1 S t e l l a r i a l o n g i p e s 22 2 1 1 1 BRYOPHYTES AND LICHENS DH S t e r e o c a u l o n spp. 22 2 1 2 2 DR Rhizocarpon geographicum 88 .9 2 1 4 1 3 3 1 2 2 [Black c r u s t o s e l i c h e n s ] 66 7 2 1 4 2 3 2 1 [Crustose l i c h e n s ] 44 4 2 1 2 7 4 U m b i l i c a r i a spp. 22 .2 1 2 2 Pseudephebe spp. 22 .2 1 l 2 Other s p e c i e s : Carex n a r d i n a 2, Draba oligospermia 2, K o b r e s i a myosuroides 2, Lupinus l e p i d u s 2, Poa r u p i c o l a 2, Populus t r i c h o c a r p a 2, S a l i x n i v a l i s 2, Wood s i a s c o p u l i n a 2, E r i g e r o n p e r e g r i n u a 1, A g o s e r i s g l a u c a 1, Anenome drummondii, Anenome m u l t i f i d a 1, A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i a 1, A r t e m e s i a n o r v e g i c a 1, D a n t h o n i a i n t e r m e d i a 1, D e l p h i n i u m glaucum 1, Draba spp. 1, J u n i p e r u s communis 1, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a 1, L u z u l a s p i c a t a 1, M y o s o t i s a l p e s t r i s 1, P h a c e l i a s e r i c e a 1, Poa i n t e r i o r 1, Polygonum v i v i p a r u m 1, Roaa a c i c u l a r i s 1, S enecio canus 1, Senecio e l m e r i 1, S o l i d a g o m u l t i r a d i a t a 1, C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s 2, L ecanora spp. 1, P o l y t r i c h u m p i l i f e r u m I , Sphagnum recurvum 1 T T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a 1, L o p h o z i a f l o e r k e i +, Thamnolia s u b u l i f o r m i s +, Hypogymnia spp. 1, O c h r o l e c h i a u p s a l i e n s i s 1, P a n n a r i a spp. 1, P a r m e l i a tasmanica 1, X a n t h o r i a elegans 1 - 83 -and black crustose l i c h e n s are common and prominent (cover c l a s s e s range from 1-4). No mosses were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . This t e r r a i n u n i t can be c l a s s i f i e d by the rock or t a l u s substrate and by the lack of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species combinations f o r any of the other community types. The crustose l i c h e n species group (16) i s present and d i a g n o s t i c when not i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h another species group. - 84 -CHAPTER 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p of S o i l Temperature to Plant Community D i s t r i b u t i o n Low s o i l temperatures are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l p i n e environments and have been considered important i n " i n f l u e n c i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a l p i n e and sub-a l p i n e plants about timber l i n e " (Higgens and Spomer, 1976). S o i l temperature g e n e r a l l y decreases w i t h i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n but i t i s a l s o s t r o n g l y cor-r e l a t e d with slope exposure and s o i l moisture. B l i s s (1956) found that a l p i n e s o i l temperatures were highest on the ridges and lowest i n wet meadow s i t e s . He a l s o noted t h a t , i n A l a s k a , s o i l s on steep south-facing slopes were g e n e r a l l y warmer i n summer than those on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes. High s o i l temperatures and low s o i l moisture regimes t y p i f i e d r i d g e t o p f e l l f i e l d s i n the North Cascades (Douglas and B l i s s , 1977). B i l l i n g s and B l i s s (1959) a t t r i -buted low surface temperatures to water saturated s o i l s . Nimlos et a l . (1965) associated cooler temperatures i n the wet sedge-hummock stand type with the saturated c o n d i t i o n o f the s o i l and concluded that i n the a l p i n e , a v a i l a b l e s o i l moisture was the dominant f a c t o r determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of stand types. None of these studies measured s o i l temperatures i n subalpine communities. S o i l temperature g e n e r a l l y decreases from the surface to a depth of 76 cm as does the range i n temperature ( B l i s s , 1956; Nimlos et a l . , 1965). In Montana the d a i l y temperature range for a i r and s o i l at the 2.5 cm depth was 11°C, s o i l at 15 cm depth was 3.3°C, and at 76 cm depth was only 1°C (Nimlos et a l , , 1965). Douglas and B l i s s (1977) found that "average temperatures at -10 cm. i n a f e l l f i e l d were 7-8° lower than at -2 cm and there appeared to be l e s s f l u c t u a t i o n throughout the summer at the greater depths (-10, -20, and -30 cm)". The roots of many a l p i n e p l a n t s extend to a - 85 -depth of about 30 cm ( B l i s s , 1956). Mean d a i l y temperature f l u c t u a t i o n s over the summer were l a r g e s t at the dry meadow type and l e a s t at the sedge-hummock type (Nimlos et a l . , 1965). Mean summer s o i l temperatures reported f o r w e l l drained s o i l s i n the a l p i n e were; 5.5°C at -2.5 cm, 4.4° at -15 cm and 1.1° at -101 cm (Nimlos et a l . , 1965). Poorly drained s o i l s had s l i g h t l y lower values. S o i l temperatures at -10 and -20 cm on Grouse Ridge, Mt. Baker ranged from 20-30°C at the top of the slope to 5-10°C towards the base of the slope (Douglas and B l i s s , 1977). Methods In the present study, s o i l temperature at -20 cm was recorded for each p l o t sampled throughout the summer ( J u l y 11-August 30). Mean s o i l temperature with 95 percent confidence l i m i t s are presented for each plant community type i n Figure 9. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c hygrotope and e l e v a t i o n range f o r each community are summarized i n Figures 10 and 11. Results & D i s c u s s i o n The mean summer s o i l temperature was between 7 and 9°C on wetter s i t e s w h i l e i t ranged from 11 to 15°C on w e l l drained s i t e s . Only the extreme ends of the sc a l e are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t . These values are i n the v i c i n i t y of those reported by Douglas and B l i s s (1977) f o r Mt. Baker although s o i l temperatures above 20°C were not recorded at any time during the summer. Al p i n e and subalpine summer s o i l temperatures d i d not d i f f e r . Those pl a n t communities found p r i m a r i l y i n the a l p i n e zone had mean s o i l temperatures ranging from 9 to 12°C. The S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a community type i s an exception wi t h a mean temperature of 7.6°C. I t i s also the wettest type found i n the a l p i n e . Subalpine communities had mean s o i l temperatures between 7.9 and 14.7°C. - 86 -Figure 9. Mean s o i l temperatures w i t h 95% confidence i n t e r v a l s f o r plant community types i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains. S o i l temperature was recorded at -20 cm. - 87 -< < o CO Q OO O Q. O a a. ca oo o oo z o ra a < < oo a> o. >• c 3 E E o o u u u o o u O — a> CO k_ a 0) a> 0) a> O) T3 o K X E E >> >. <** n XI £ £. o • 3 3 w CO 3 0) CO X Figure 10. Hygrotope range f o r community types. c M 2300 3 2200 <! pi rt H-O 3 (B 3 2100 2ooal I < 1900 o 3 H B> 3 OP fD 1800^ 1 700 co CO o n 1600 3 o o SA CA pa CN SC SB SP SF DO DF FP PC pj SD FF FB KC AA c 3 Commun i t y Type - 89 -The highest s o i l temperatures tended to be on south or south-east f a c i n g slopes. The K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry grassland and the Arc to s taphylos-Amelanch i e r dry shrubland have mean temperatures of 13.6 and 14.7°C. These communities were a l s o on r e l a t i v e l y steep slopes. The Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis f o r e s t i s a l s o found on steep south to south-east f a c i n g slopes but the S a l i x  cascadensis community i s not. This dwarf w i l l o w type i s found only on north-f a c i n g slopes. However, the slopes are very gentle and the s o i l s are rocky and w e l l drained. Furthermore, the lower 95 percent confidence l i m i t i s 8.3°C which i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s than the 12°C lower l i m i t f o r the K o e l e r i a community. The S a l i x cascadensis community i s subject to greater seasonal s o i l temperature f l u c t u a t i o n than the subalpine communities appear to be. High s o i l temperatures g e n e r a l l y correspond with dry, w e l l - d r a i n e d h a b i t a t s as w e l l as with a steep southerly aspect. The lowest s o i l temperatures were found i n the wet sedge and w i l l o w community types. This i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h data reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e ( B l i s s , 1956; Nimlos et a l . , 1965). The c o l d e s t s o i l s were on v a l l e y bottoms or n o r t h e r l y aspects. Summer s o i l temperatures recorded i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains f o l l o w the same general patterns reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Low temperatures are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the wetter s i t e s and high temperatures are g e n e r a l l y found on w e l l drained s i t e s w i t h a southerly aspect. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -ferences were found between a l p i n e and subalpine community s o i l temperatures at -20 cm. - 90 -CHAPTER 6 Notes on the F l o r a of the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains The mountains on the lee side of the Coast Range i n B r i t i s h Columbia have not been e x t e n s i v e l y explored by b o t a n i s t s l a r g e l y because of t h e i r i nacces-s i b i l i t y . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , that a number of species c o l l e c t e d i n the Relay Creek area represent range extensions for the province. This area appears to be a t r a n s i t i o n not only between the c o a s t a l and i n t e r i o r zones but also between northern and southern f l o r i s t i c elements. These f a c t o r s along w i t h the d i v e r s i t y of h a b i t a t s i n these dry i n t e r i o r mountains c o n t r i b u t e to the f l o r i s t i c richness of the area. A t o t a l of 310 v a s c u l a r p l a n t species were i d e n t i f i e d from c o l l e c t i o n s made i n 1977. Forty-one f a m i l i e s and 136 genera were represented. Bryophyte c o l l e c t i o n s included 57 moss species ( i n 41 genera) and 10 l i v e r w o r t s ("in 6 genera). Twenty-six genera of l i c h e n s and 29 species were i d e n t i f i e d . Eleven genera were not i d e n t i f i e d to the species l e v e l . U n i d e n t i f i a b l e crustose lic h e n s were d i v i d e d i n t o two groups - black crustose and other crustose l i c h e n s . Although most of t h i s f l o r a i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l p i n e and subalpine environments throughout western North America, a number of species have a more r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r occurrence i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Moun-ta i n s i s noteworthy. These are b r i e f l y discussed, below. The general range i s taken from Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973) and Hulten (1974). Carex i l l o t a * - This species was found at only one l o c a t i o n on the Dash Plateau ( p l o t 153). I t i s rare i n B.C. and has been c o l l e c t e d only i n G a r i b a l d i Park and i n Strathcona Park on Vancouver I s l a n d , but i s widespread south of B.C. * a u t h o r i t i e s for p l a n t species are given i n Appendix A. - 91 -Carex l i m n o p h i l a - This species i s s a i d to be widespread i n Washington and to occur i n A l b e r t a . I t i s known from B.C. i n two l o c a t i o n s other than the present c o l l e c t i o n s ( p l o t s 2, 20 and 87). Specimens from near Hope and NW of Williams Lake are deposited i n the UBC herbarium. Carex paysonis - This i s a l s o a rare species i n B.C. w i t h c o l l e c t i o n s from Mount Rowe i n SE B.C. and the Elaho R i v e r and Meager Creek i n SW B.C. I t was c o l l e c t e d on the Dash Plate a u i n the study area ( p l o t 219). I t i s common i n SW A l b e r t a and f u r t h e r south. E r i g e r o n purpuratus - Although rare i n B.C. t h i s species has been c o l l e c t e d both i n the north ( i n the S p a t s i z i area) and south ( i n the Tchaikazan V a l l e y , G l a c i e r Park, and i n the v i c i n i t y of Paradise Mine near Invermere) of the province. P r i o r to the Relay Mountain c o l l e c t i o n ( p l o t 133) however, the southern c o l l e c t i o n s were c a l l e d E r i g e r o n p a l l e n s Cronq. D e t a i l e d work by G.W. Douglas has shown t h i s species to be synonomous with E. purpuratus, a species found i n the Yukon and Alaska. Eriophorum brachyantherum - A circumboreal species that i s common throughout northern B.C. and occurs i n the Rocky Mountains of southeastern B.C. I t has not been reported p r e v i o u s l y from the southwest part of the province but was common i n the S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a shrub wetland of Two Lakes Basin ( p l o t 230). Festuca a l t a i c a - This species i s very common i n northern B.C., the Yukon and Alaska. I t i s a l s o widespread i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains where i t i s apparently at the southern l i m i t s of i t s range. Gentiana p r o s t r a t a - A rare species i n northern B.C. that i s s a i d to occur south i n the Rocky Mountains. Previous c o l l e c t i o n s have a l l been i n northern B.C. I t was rare i n the study area and occurred only i n Two Lakes Basin ( p l o t 15). Lupinus lepidus var. l o b b i i - This lupine i s extremely common to the south of the study area but seems to be at the northern l i m i t s of i t s range i n the Two Lakes area ( p l o t 100). This species has been considered a community dominant i n an a l p i n e area i n Washington (Del Moral, 1979). Only one stand was encountered i n the study but Lupinus lepidus was the main dominant on t h i s rocky, unstable slope. Papaver radicatum - A rare species i n B.C. p r e v i o u s l y c o l l e c t e d as f a r south as the Hazelton area i n the western part of the province and on Mount A s s i n i b o i n e i n the Rocky Mountains. I t s occurrence on the eastern side of the Dash Plateau ( i n the v i c i n i t y of p l o t 57) i s a s i g n i f i c a n t range extension i n B.C. Poa l e t t e r m a n i i - This i s a common species on the higher peaks i n the Rocky Mountains and southwestern B.C. but was a l s o c o l l e c t e d on B i r c h Mtn. i n north-western B.C. I t was c o l l e c t e d at the top of Relay Mountain ( p l o t 133). Dr. V.C. B r i n k (personal communication) b e l i e v e s that t h i s grass may be found only on Nunatuks, or s i t e s which escaped g l a c i a t i o n . Populus t r i c h o c a r p a - Black cottonwood i s widespread at low e l e v a t i o n s but i s only o c c a s i o n a l l y found i n the a l p i n e . Specimens less than 15 cm i n height were c o l l e c t e d at 2190 m i n Relay V a l l e y ( p l o t 28). The only h i g h e l e v a t i o n c o l l e c t i o n s i n the U.B.C. herbarium are from G a r i b a l d i Park where i t i s found at 1520 m. Ranunculus g e l i d u s - A rare species has been c o l l e c t e d i n northern B.C. (Mt. Ed z i z a and the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve) and i n Snow Creek Pass i n the Rocky Mountains. The c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s species on Relay Mountain ( p l o t 133) represents a considerable range extension. - 93 -Ranunculus inamoenus - This species i s rare i n B.C. but the previous c o l -l e c t i o n s represent a d i s j u n t d i s t r i b u t i o n . Two l o c a l i t i e s i n southeastern B.C. ( i n the Flathead and Wall Lake regions) are w i t h i n the range described by Hitchcock and Cronquist (1973). C o l l e c t i o n s from Anzus Lake and the Ilgachuz Mtns. however are considerably to the north and west. The presence of t h i s species i n Graveyard V a l l e y t i e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n together and suggests that t h i s species may be more common than c o l l e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e . S a l i x cascadensis - Cascade w i l l o w i s a r e l a t i v e l y common species i n southeastern B.C. and i n the Washington Cascades. I t was widespread on the Dash Plateau ( p l o t s 150-154, 216, 220) where i t i s near the northern l i m i t s of i t s range. Senecio elmeri - This species occurs at high e l e v a t i o n s i n Washington and southern B.C. I t was c o l l e c t e d on the rocky slopes of Relay Mountain ( p l o t s 133 and 74) and nearby ridges ( p l o t 124), where i t i s at the apparent northern l i m i t of i t s range. C i n e l i d i u m stygium - This moss had not been c o l l e c t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n south-western B.C. I t i s r e l a t i v e l y common north of Pr i n c e George and was c o l l e c t e d i n the Rocky Mountains near Golden. I t was found i n only one l o c a t i o n ( p l o t 182) near Two Lakes V a l l e y . Introduced species - In s p i t e of the long h i s t o r y of grazing i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains, very few weedy species are present. Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e i s the only widespread introduced species. I t i s r e l a t i v e l y common i n meadows on v a l l e y bottoms and lower slopes. Horses, c a t t l e and spruce grouse do u t i l i z e t h i s species. Poa p r a t e n s i s (Kentucky bluegrass) has become f a i r l y common i n the moist v a l l e y bottom meadows but i t i s abundant only i n a few h e a v i l y grazed stands. T r i f o l i u m hybridum ( a l s i k e c l o v e r ) i s frequent i n the v i c i n i t y of Relay Cabin but had not spread i n t o adjacent meadows. M a t r i c a r i a  m a t r i c a r i o i d e s (pineapple weed), a n a t i v e c o r d i l l e r a n weed, was found on the o l d mining road i n Relay V a l l e y . I t d i d not appear to be spreading. - 95 -Chapter 7 DISCUSSION: 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n of Plant Community Types The h i g h e l e v a t i o n p l a n t communities i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains l i e i n the a l p i n e and subalpine zones. The d i v i s i o n between these two zones i s not always c l e a r l y evident. Krummholz g e n e r a l l y occurs at the upper l i m i t s of tree growth but has been included i n both zones by various authors ( L u t t -merding, 1976; Douglas and B l i s s , 1977; K r a j i n a , 1969; Love, 1970; among o t h e r s ) . In the present study, a l p i n e was considered to be the area above the occurrence of upright t r e e s , thereby i n c l u d i n g krummholz i n the a l p i n e . Tree i s l a n d s w i t h u p r i g h t trees i n the center would then form the upper l i m i t of the subalpine zone. This i s r e f e r r e d to as t i m b e r l i n e although i t u s u a l l y represents a region or zone of v e g e t a t i o n r a t h e r than a d i s t i n c t l i n e . The lower l i m i t of the a l p i n e zone occurs at roughly 2,000 meters i n the study area. This f i g u r e v a r i e s w i t h aspect. On warmer and d r i e r south-facing slopes t i m b e r l i n e may be s l i g h t l y higher while i t may be f i f t y meters lower on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes. A l p i n e p l a n t communities were sampled at e l e v a t i o n s up to 2350 m on the Dash Plat e a u . Only the rockland t e r r a i n u n i t was found above t h i s . In regions where the topography i s r e l a t i v e l y g e n t l e , there i s a gradual s h i f t from subalpine to a l p i n e c o n d i t i o n s . Such i s the case i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains. In these regions there can be a s u b s t a n t i a l overlap between a l p i n e and subalpine community types (Del Moral, 1979). This i s confirmed by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t communities i n the present study. Only three of the nineteen p l a n t communities described are r e s t r i c t e d to the a l p i n e zone (see Figure 11). A l l are found on rocky, w e l l - d r a i n e d h a b i t a t s . The Dryas octopetala community i s the d r i e s t type found i n the - 96 -study area aside from the rockland t e r r a i n u n i t . I t i s r e s t r i c t e d to r i d g e s and moderate to steep slopes that would be r e a l t i v e l y snow-free i n the winter. The Dryas-Festuca type develops on gentle to moderate a l p i n e slopes w i t h l i m i t e d w i nter snowpack. Areas which have a greater snowpack and l a t e r snowmelt date ( l a t e June) but are w e l l - d r a i n e d , support the S a l i x cascadensis community type. This type was r e s t r i c t e d to n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes. Two communities are found i n the a l p i n e and at t i m b e r l i n e . The S a l i x  b a r r a t t i a n a shrub wetland i s an a l p i n e community for the most part but i s found i n Two Lakes B a s i n where c o l d a i r drainage probably r e s u l t s i n a l p i n e c o n d i t i o n s below tree l i n e . Seepage from surrounding slopes maintains a high moisture status throughout the summer i n a l l S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a stands. The Carex n i g r i c a n s community i s r e s t r i c t e d to snowbed h a b i t a t s at t i m b e r l i n e and i n the lower a l p i n e zone. The growing season f o r p l a n t s i n t h i s type may not begin u n t i l mid to l a t e J u l y . These species are adapted for r a p i d growth and o f t e n reproduce by v e g e t a t i v e means. Several community types are found i n both a l p i n e and subalpine h a b i t a t s . These are the more mesic fescue grasslands and w i l l o w s h r u b f i e l d s . The Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow i s the dominant grassland at high e l e v a t i o n s on gentle to moderate slopes. I t i s more widespread i n the a l p i n e but s e v e r a l subalpine stands were sampled as w e l l . On steeper slopes or at lower e l e v a t i o n s the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community i s more p r e v a l e n t . This type seems to be more common on rocky s i t e s . The S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix  b a r c l a y i shrubland i s r e s t r i c t e d to h a b i t a t s w i t h some seepage input. I t occurs p r i m a r i l y on gentle lower slopes. The S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. shrub meadow i s widespread i n the a l p i n e but occurs a l s o i n the upper subalpine. These s h r u b f i e l d s have good to moderate drainage. - 97 -Three meadow communities are g e n e r a l l y found i n the subalpine zone but are found o c c a s i o n a l l y at or j u s t above t i m b e r l i n e . The Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland i s rare i n the study area. I t i s l i m i t e d to depression areas w i t h water saturated s o i l s throughout the summer. A large stand of t h i s v e g e t a t i o n type occurs i n Two Lakes Basin which, because of the topography and e l e v a t i o n , supports a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . This was the only t i m b e r l i n e sedge wetland stand that was found. The Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum and Ph1eum alpinum-Carex phaeocephala community types are quite widespread i n the subalpine but have a very l i m i t e d occurrence above t i m b e r l i n e . They are found where mesic c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l . A l l four a l p i n e p l o t s that c l a s s i f y as one of these two communities showed signs of g r a z i n g . Six community types are r e s t r i c t e d to the subalpine zone. The s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t i s best developed on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes or i n draws where there i s an adequate moisture supply. D r i e r slopes support the Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s  communis f o r e s t type. At t i m b e r l i n e , stunted whitebark pine and subalpine f i r form an open parkland v e g e t a t i o n . Krummholz Abies l a s i o c a r p a extends i n t o the a l p i n e i n areas where there i s s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n from severe winter c o n d i t i o n s . The S a l i x bare l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland community i s r e s t r i c t e d to v a l l e y bottoms along streams which keep the s o i l saturated throughout the summer. On s l i g h t l y higher ground w i t h b e t t e r drainage the S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum alpinum type predominates. Dry, south-facing slopes support the Arc tostaphylos-Amelanchier shrub f i e I d and the K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a grass meadow. The s h r u b f i e l d was g e n e r a l l y on the coarser textured s o i l s . Well defined sequences of p l a n t communities are not common i n t h i s area. Microtopographic v a r i a t i o n a l t e r s drainage patterns and r e s t r i c t s the d i s t r i -b u t ion of communities over the landscape. The r e s u l t i s a patchwork of - 98 -community types rather than a d i s t i n c t toposequence. Nevertheless, g e n e r a l i z e d patterns help to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between communities. Figures 12, 13 and 14 represent t h e o r e t i c a l toposequences i n Relay V a l l e y and on the Dash Pla t e a u . The four broad h a b i t a t types discussed by B u t t r i c k (1978) are evident i n these toposequences. At the base of slopes and i n depression areas, s o i l s are saturated or moist throughout the growing season. This i s a runoff or seepage h a b i t a t . The Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a community i s found i n the very wettest s i t e s . The S a l i x bare lay i-Carex a q u a t i l i s , S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a and S a l i x  b rachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i shrub community types are a l s o g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to runoff h a b i t a t s . The S a l i x brachycarpa type i s sometimes found i n more mesic c o n d i t i o n s but t h i s i s where i t grades i n t o the S a l i x - F e s t u c a shrub meadow. The Carex n i g r i c a n s and S a l i x cascadensis community types are found only i n areas w i t h l a t e l y i n g snow. They are ge n e r a l l y on n o r t h - f a c i n g slopes. Late snowmelt r e s u l t s i n a short growing season i n snowbed h a b i t a t s and once the snow has melted these s i t e s can become very dry. Snowmelt i s e a r l i e r i n the dwarf w i l l o w stands (which are on more exposed slopes) than i n the Carex type. On slopes with moderate to good drainage the mesic meadow and s h r u b f i e l d communities are found. These are the most widespread types. The zonal com-munities are included i n these meadow and s h r u b f i e l d h a b i t a t s . The Festuca  a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a , Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a , Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum  alpinum and Phleum alpinum-Carex phaeocephala meadow communities are a l l found i n t h i s mesic h a b i t a t type. The S a l i x - F e s t u c a spp. and Salix-Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e l d s as w e l l as the Picea-Abies f o r e s t are included i n t h i s h a b i t a t type. - 99 -Figure 12. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a south- f a c i n g p l a n t community toposequence i n Relay V a l l e y . 100 -Figure 13. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a n o r t h - f a c i n g p l a n t commun toposequence i n Relay V a l l e y . Figure 14. Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an a l p i n e plant community toposequence on the Dash Plate a u . - 102 -We 11-drained h a b i t a t types occur on ridges and f e l l f i e l d s i n the a l p i n e and on steep south-facing slopes i n the subalpine. The Dryas o c t o p e t a l a , Dryas-Festuca a l t a i c a , K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , Arctostaphylos uva-ursi-Amelanchier  a l n i f o l i a and Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis community types are a l l r e s t r i c t e d to these x e r i c h a b i t a t s . In a d d i t i o n , the crustose l i c h e n type i s found on rockland and t a l u s t e r r a i n on ridgetops and steep upper slopes. O c c a s i o n a l l y the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a meadows occur on x e r i c f e l l f i e l d h a b i t a t s but t h e i r best development i s on mesic s i t e s . 2. Successional R e l a t i o n s h i p s of P l a n t Communities General patterns of succession can be determined by analy z i n g stand s t r u c t u r e and changes i n species composition. Exclosures or r e l i c stands a l l o w f o r a more p r e c i s e comparison of the vege t a t i o n i n areas subject to grazing pressure; however, l a c k i n g these, i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e to determine broad r e l a t i o n s h i p s between pla n t communities and to hypothesize s u c c e s s i o n a l p a t t e r n s . Mountain t e r r a i n g e n e r a l l y provides a d i v e r s i t y of h a b i t a t types over the landscape, r e s u l t i n g i n a corresponding mosaic of suc c e s s i o n a l and climax types. The climax types are i n dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m w i t h the environment. The c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r may be c l i m a t i c , topographic or edaphic; thus a number of climax communities may be recognized w i t h i n one c l i m a t i c r e g i o n . Successional stages are g e n e r a l l y thought of as a l i n e a r p r ogression towards a climax type. This i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case. In the a l p i n e , c y c l i c a l climaxes have been described i n r e l a t i o n to c r y o t u r b a t i o n and s o l i f l u c t i o n ( C h u r c h i l l and Hanson, 1956), processes which d i s r u p t the - 103 -environmental balance. In h a b i t a t s where these processes are a c t i v e i t may be p o s s i b l e to describe m i n i - s u c c e s s i o n a l sequences. B u t t r i c k (1978) suggests that the same community patterns w i l l occur even though the h a b i t a t p o s i t i o n s on the landscape may change. In the present study, no attempt was made to document m i n i - s u c c e s s i o n a l p a t t e r n s . Rates of succession are g e n e r a l l y slow, r e s u l t i n g from the short growing season and slow growth of woody species. F i r e and g r a z i n g are the primary f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e t r o g r e s s i v e changes. There was no evidence of f i r e i n the a l p i n e stands although a h i s t o r y of f i r e was apparent i n the subalpine communities. Both zones have been grazed by domestic animals as w e l l as by w i l d l i f e . There are no records to document l e v e l s of g r a z i n g throughout the study areas. Because d i r e c t i o n a l changes i n a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n are very slow, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine succession and climax stages. C e r t a i n r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , however, are f a i r l y evident. The crustose l i c h e n v e g e t a t i o n on rock-land and t a l u s t e r r a i n u n i t s obviously includes the primary c o l o n i z e r s of t h i s harsh environment. On scree slopes the Dryas o c t o p e t a l a community i s an e a r l y invader. The a b i l i t y of Dryas to f i x n i t r o g e n undoubtedly gives i t an advan-tage i n c o l o n i z i n g these s i t e s . I t i s probably succeeded by the Dryas-Festuca type when greater s o i l development has occurred and the moisture status has improved. The climax of t h i s progression appears to be the Festuca a l t a i c a -Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community although development would be extremely slow. This type i s considered to be the zonal v e g e t a t i o n or c l i m a t i c climax i n t h i s dry a l p i n e region. B u t t r i c k (1978) f e l t that the Festuca meadows were the zonal v e g e t a t i o n i n the A t l i n region because of low p r e c i p i t a t i o n . In areas of greater p r e c i p i t a t i o n , heath veg e t a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y considered climax (Archer, 1963; K r a j i n a , 1965; F r a n k l i n and Dyrness, 1973; P o j a r , 1977). - 104 -The other f i v e communities found i n the a l p i n e zone seem to be f a i r l y s t a b l e given present c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . The Carex n i g r i c a n s t i m b e r l i n e community i s a topoedaphic climax i n h a b i t a t s w i t h l a t e l y i n g snow and good water r e t e n t i o n throughout the summer. The S a l i x cascadensis community i s a l s o found i n snowbed h a b i t a t s (as reported by Douglas and B l i s s , 1977) but the substrate r a p i d l y d r i e s out. Given a shorter snow d u r a t i o n both of these communities might develop towards the fescue g r a s s l a n d . The a l p i n e shrubland communities appear to be topoedaphic climaxes. They are dominant on s i t e s w i t h a b e t t e r moisture status than i n a l p i n e grasslands. The S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a type i s found i n basins with a seepage i n f l u e n c e while S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix  b a r c l a y i i s found on moist slopes and the S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. type i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of mesic slopes. The l a t t e r might be considered a zonal c1imax commun i t y . Three s u c c e s s i o n a l sequences can be postulated for the subalpine zone. In moist h a b i t a t s the f o l l o w i n g hydro-sequence appeared to predominate: Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a S a l i x b a r c l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i S a l i x brachycarpa- Festuca spp. P i c e a engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a Pinus J(fire) c o n t o r t a - 105 -Wherever a sedge wetland occurred the other three communities could be found i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y and g e n e r a l l y i n a topographic sequence. Grazing on the edges of sedge wetlands has r e s u l t e d i n some s o i l compaction and channeling r e s u l t i n g from trampling damage (wet s o i l s are e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e to t h i s ) . This may be i n c r e a s i n g the rate of succession as w i l l o w species are able to invade on the tops of s o i l remnant " i s l a n d s " . Wherever f i r e s have occurred, Pinus contorta stands precede the climax s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t . In the upper subalpine the w i l l o w communities climax i n a Salix-Fescue type. On dry, south-facing slopes the s u c c e s s i o n a l sequence seems to be as f o l l o w s : K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a Talus Arctostaphylos uva-ursi-Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a or scree slopes \ Populus t r i c h o c a r p a and/or ( f i r e ) Pinus a l b i c a u l u s - J u n i p e r u s communis  Populus b a l s a m i f e r a * The dry junegrass meadow community i s f a i r l y common on the south-facing slopes of Relay V a l l e y and may be maintained by f i r e . Encroachment by shrubs was evident but not abundant. The species c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s grassland are g e n e r a l l y a l s o present i n the dry Arctostaphylos-Amelanchier shrubland. In f a c t , K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a i s dominant i n both community types. Stands with a f i r e h i s t o r y are u s u a l l y dominated by Populus t r i c h o c a r p a but the shrub and herb l a y e r s are that of the dry shrub and grassland communities. Fine t a l u s or scree slopes may have a shrub stratum dominated by aspen or p o p l a r . I n t h i s case the dry shrub community i s a pioneer stage. These are g e n e r a l l y on - 106 -steep, south-facing slopes and w i l l probably be succeeded by the Pinus  a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis f o r e s t . Several w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d o l d pine stands were found on south-facing slopes of Relay V a l l e y . The whitebark pine f o r e s t i s a topoedaphic climax i n t h i s region. The question of succession on the subalpine meadows i s a more d i f f i c u l t one. The S a l i x - F e s t u c a and Salix-Phleum communities suggest that many of the grasslands may be su c c e s s i o n a l to shrub-dominated communities. Indeed, w i l l o w seedlings were present i n some of the meadow stands s t u d i e d . However, the meadow communities occupy d r i e r h a b i t a t s and under the present c l i m a t i c regime these s i t e s might not support extensive shrub growth. The mosaic of shrub and meadow communities i n d i c a t e s that there i s a very f i n e l i n e i n the moisture requirements f or the two communities. Annual f l u c t u a t i o n s undoubtedly r e s u l t i n a dynamic balance. Both of these shrub and meadow types might w e l l be con-sidered topoedaphic climaxes. 3. Grazing I m p l i c a t i o n s Although vegetation changes slowly i n response to grazing pressure, given s u f f i c i e n t time and l e v e l s o f impact the composition o f p l a n t communities may change s u f f i c i e n t l y to allow the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of stages of r e t r o g r e s s i o n or secondary succession. The range c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s of Dyksterhuis (1949) are based on r e l a t i v e changes i n species coverage and s e v e r a l studies have docu-mented changes i n species composition on high e l e v a t i o n fescue rangelands (Hanson, 1951; Looman, 1969; F o r s l i n g , 1931; Branson and Lommasson, 1958). In the subalpine, grazing was more prevalent i n the meadow and w i l l o w -grass communities. These types are found on v a l l e y bottoms and lower slopes and therefore provide the most r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e - 107 -forage. The wet shrublands were dominated generally by a dense overstory of shrubs and a ground cover of mosses, neither of which were u t i l i z e d by c a t t l e . Some forage was provided by small amounts of Phleum alpinum, Aster foliaceus and i n the Salix-Carex community by Carex a q u a t i l i s . The sp r u c e - f i r forest was too dense and lacked an adequate herb stratum to provide an appreciable amount of forage. There was evidence of grazing i n the open pine forests but thi s community was found generally on the less accessible upper slopes. Thus the c a t t l e tend to be concentrated i n a r e l a t i v e l y few plant communities. Estimates of carrying capacity should take this into account. Examination of the plant communities found i n four of the main v a l l e y bottom meadows suggests that there might be a successional r e l a t i o n s h i p between the meadow community types (Table XXIII). The large meadow at the base of Relay Mountain i n Relay Basin is composed of the Fe s t u c a - a l t a i c a - Festuca brachyphylla community type. A l l f i v e sample plots from this stand c l a s s i f y as th i s type. The elevation of th i s stand is about 2000 m. The main t r a i l into Relay Basin leads to the west rather than into this meadow. The t r a i l into t h i s part of the basin was not well used and consequently was d i f -f i c u l t to follow. The meadow obviously had been grazed by c a t t l e but apparently by fewer animals or for fewer years. The dominant fescue bunch-grasses were generally i n good condition and there were few bare spaces between plants. Some flowering stalks reached 45 cm i n height. The v a l l e y bottom meadow i n Graveyard Valley c l a s s i f i e d as a composite of two community types. Four of the eight plots were i n the Festuca brachyphylla community and four were i n the Festuca brachyphy11a-Phleum alpinum type. The elevation of this stand is about 1900 m. This v a l l e y has been grazed by c a t t l e since the early 1940's (Wood, 1949). The t r a i l s into the v a l l e y were a l l well TABLE X X I I I : Summary f l o r i s t i c t a b l e showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i e s groups f o r four v a l l e y bottom meadows. Values are cover c l a s s . Relay Saain Graveyard Va H e y Two Lakes V a l l e y Relay Cabin P l o t Number 129 130 131 132 185 115 103 107 105 104 110 114 117 10 7 8 6 5 2 1 3 4 41 Community Type Fa Fa Fa Fa Fa Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Pa 19 19 19 Pa Pa Fb Pa Fb Fb Fb Fb Fb Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Pa Group B 2/3 Fe s t u c a a l t a i c a C e t r a r i a i a l a n d i c a [ c l a d o n i a squamulosej Group 9 2/4 Festu c a b r a c h y p h y l l a Penstemon p r o c e r u s Polemonium p u l c h e r r i m u a Geum t r i f l o r u m Group 10 1/3 Phleum a l p i n u m T r i s e t u m s p i c a t u m A r e n a r i a c a p i l l a r i s Group 17 4/9 Cera * t i u r n arvense A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m Carex phaeocephala Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a Galium b o r e a l e T o r t u l a n o r v e g i c a Poa p r a t e n a i a 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 1 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 o 00 - 109 -worn and easy to f o l l o w . The present range c o n d i t i o n must be considered poor ( F r e d e l l et a l . , 1974). The meadows are s i m i l a r i n appearance to x e r i c s i t e s although they have a submesic hygrotope. There i s a great deal of bare ground between p l a n t s and the best growth of plants r a r e l y exceeds 15 cm r a t h e r than the 25+ cm of l e s s d i s t u r b e d stands. Festuca a l t a i c a was l a c k i n g from the v a l l e y bottom meadow but was found at the north end of the v a l l e y across the creek from the main meadow. Although Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a was present, i t s v i g o r was g e n e r a l l y poor, the bunches were small and growth was sparse. Phleum alpinum and Geum t r i f l o r u m were f a r more prominent i n Graveyard V a l l e y than i n Relay Basin. According to Looman (1969) both of these species would be expected to increase i n grazed s i t e s . The v a l l e y bottom meadow i n Two Lakes Basin i s s i m i l a r to that of Grave-yard V a l l e y but more r e s t r i c t e d i n area and i t i s adjacent to a watering pond. Such areas often r e c e i v e a heavier concentration of use. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sample p l o t s from t h i s stand. Of the s i x p l o t s one was i n the Festuca a l t a i c a - F . b r a c h y p h y l l a community, two were i n the Festuca-Ph1eum alpinum type, one was i n the Phleum alpinum and only two met the requirements f or the Cerastium arvense ( f i e l d chickweed) species groups (17). Poa p r a t e n s i s (Kentucky bluegrass) was the dominant grass i n the l a t t e r two p l o t s , both of which were adjacent to the sedge wetland surrounding the small lake at the east end of the b a s i n . The Phleum alpinum p l o t was a l s o adjacent to water (the outflow creek) and the s o i l surface was i r r e g u l a r , p o s s i b l y as a r e s u l t of c a t t l e trampling e a r l y i n the season when the s o i l s are s t i l l q u i t e wet. This meadow i s at an e l e v a t i o n of 1970 m and probably has been grazed by c a t t l e f o r n e a r l y as long as Graveyard V a l l e y (Wood, 1949). The t r a i l from B i g Creek i s w e l l worn as i s the t r a i l from Relay Cabin. The q u a l i t y of forage i n t h i s meadow i s low. Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a was dominant i n only two - no -p l o t s while Festuca a l t a i c a was present only i n one p l o t . Ph1eum alpinum was r e l a t i v e l y common but i t i s a low growing species that does not provide much forage. The abundance of Poa p r a t e n s i s on the wetter s i t e s i s considered to be a r e s u l t of heavy grazing (Hanson, 1951; McClean and Marchand, 1968; Looman, 1969). The v a l l e y bottom meadow at Relay Cabin i s somewhat unusual i n that i t i s at a lower e l e v a t i o n (1.640 m) and i s fenced to provide pasture f o r horses and to serve as a h o l d i n g area for c a t t l e being driven i n t o and out of the a l p i n e rangelands. This r e s u l t s i n severe grazing l e v e l s f o r short periods of time. The growing season i s s l i g h t l y longer here ( i n 1977 most forbs were i n flower by mid-June) but the v e g e t a t i o n composition does not r e f l e c t the more favorable growing c o n d i t i o n s . Only one p l o t was c l a s s i f i e d as the Festuca brachyphy11a- Phleum alpinum type; three were i n the Phleum alpinum community, and one met only the Cerastium arvense species group requirements with Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e (common dandelion) the dominant species i n t h i s and the other four stands. Fescue was not recorded i n any p l o t s . A l p i n e timothy and spike t r i s e t u m were the dominant grasses but t h e i r cover was always l e s s than that of Taraxacum. S t i p a columbiana (Columbia needlegrass) and Kentucky bluegrass were a l s o important grasses. The concentration of g r a z i n g i n t h i s v a l l e y has produced a species poor forage i n t h i s meadow which may r e s u l t i n a lower c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . Comparison of these four meadows i s l i m i t e d by the f a c t that they are not a l l at the same e l e v a t i o n and d e t a i l e d records of past g r a z i n g use are not a v a i l a b l e . However, comparison i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t generates some hypotheses concerning grazing impacts that can be tested i n the f u t u r e . Assuming that Relay Basin has received the l e a s t amount of grazing pressure, the Relay Cabin meadow the heaviest grazing impact and Graveyard V a l l e y and - I l l -Two Lakes B a s i n the longest use, but not as concentrated as i n Relay V a l l e y , i t i s p o s s i b l e to c o r r e l a t e grazing use with plant composition. Relay Basin has the best range c o n d i t i o n . The Festuca a1taica-Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a type c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s rangeland. Many years of grazing has e l i m i n a t e d Festuca  a l t a i c a from the Graveyard V a l l e y meadow and r e s u l t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y poorer range c o n d i t i o n s w i t h the d e c l i n e of t h i s d e s i r a b l e forage species. This area i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and Festuca-Phleum p l a n t commun-i t i e s . These community types are found also i n the Two Lakes v a l l e y bottom meadow, but i n a d d i t i o n the Phleum alpinum type and the Cerastium arvense species group c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t e s which have been damaged by trampling. The meadow at Relay Cabin i s predominantly the Phleum type (fescue has been eliminated) and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the weedy species i n the Cerastium group (eg. dandelion). This meadow i s i n the poorest c o n d i t i o n . Range recovery might i n v o l v e the f o l l o w i n g hypothesized succession: Cerastium arvense species group Phleum alpinum community Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum community Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community Festuca a1taica-Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a On steep, rocky slopes succession may end at the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community. This i s suggested by the r e s u l t s of p l o t s 62 through 65 on the north slopes of Relay V a l l e y . Four p l o t s were sampled i n t h i s southwest-f a c i n g meadow at 1900 m because i t showed l i t t l e evidence of gra z i n g . A l l were c l a s s i f i e d as the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community and were included i n the - 112 -rocky s u b a s s o c i a t i o n dominated by Oxytropus campestris (slender crazyweed). K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a was an abundant grass i n t h i s stand, however, and i t may be tha t , given s u f f i c i e n t time, t h i s fescue meadow w i l l be succeeded by the K o e l e r i a meadow community and e v e n t u a l l y w i l l climax i n a pine f o r e s t (which p r e s e n t l y surrounds i t ) . Grazing impacts are more severe on slopes. T e r r a c i n g can occur and when p l a n t s are damaged the s o i l i s subject to r a p i d e r o s i o n . Species such as Bromus tectorum and Hordeum jubatum were present on one badly d i s t u r b e d s i t e near P r e n t i c e Lake. The p a t t e r n of p l a n t community dominance i n r e l a t i o n to grazing suggested by t h i s work corresponds c l o s e l y w i t h that found by Looman (1969) i n the f o o t h i l l s of the Rocky Mountains. Looman (1969) found the dominance p a t t e r n i n a transect from heavy to moderate gr a z i n g s h i f t e d from A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m to Phleum pratense L.-Poa p r a t e n s i s - A c h i l l e a —> Phleum-Poa —> Poa-Phleum- Danthonia i n t e r m e d i a — > Danthonia-Poa-Phleum—> Danthonia-Festuca s c a b r e l l a . A s i m i l a r trend was reported by Hanson (1951) for rough fescue grasslands. Overuse o f t e n r e s u l t s i n a considerable increase i n weedy forbs even though the o r i g i n a l species may not be e l i m i n a t e d completely. This i s a f u n c t i o n of p a l a t a b i l i t y since the most d e s i r a b l e forage species w i l l be at a competitive disadvantage as they w i l l be grazed more f r e q u e n t l y than non-p a l a t a b l e species. The a b i l i t y to reproduce q u i c k l y ( o f t e n v e g e t a t i v e l y ) , to c o l o n i z e bare ground and to withstand trampling a l s o give a competitive advantage to weedy species. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are found i n most of the species included i n the Cerastium arvense species group (17). Four out of nine species from t h i s group are present i n 105 p l o t s . The widespread occur-rence of t h i s species group i s probably a f u n c t i o n of past g r a z i n g . I t i s found i n a l l but the wettest and d r i e s t h a b i t a t s . Both meadows and shrub-f i e l d s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high frequency and cover of many of the species - 113 -i n the Cerastium species group. This e f f e c t i v e l y decreases the d i s t i n c t i o n between community types and, as these species increase i n cover, the product-i v i t y of the more valuable forage species decreases. This means that estimates of forage production should be adjusted according to the c o n d i t i o n of the range. Unfortunately p r o d u c t i v i t y studies were not included i n t h i s study. These data would be u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g acceptable grazing l e v e l s f o r these high e l e v a t i o n dry rangelands s i n c e , according to the l i t e r a t u r e , p r o d u c t i v i t y can range anywhere from 267 to over 1000 kg/ha ( B l i s s , 1956). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v e s t o c k i s another f a c t o r that should be considered i n determining the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of mountain rangelands. Not a l l p l a n t communities are grazed. The open meadows and the mesic s h r u b f i e l d s are the most h e a v i l y u t i l i z e d community types. These represent only a small percentage of the t o t a l area and are r e s t r i c t e d l a r g e l y to the lower slopes and w e l l -drained v a l l e y bottomlands. These areas g e n e r a l l y w i l l be o v e r u t i l i z e d before the higher slopes are grazed. This e x p l a i n s the observation by F r e d e l l et a l . (1974) that the rangelands on the upper slopes were i n good c o n d i t i o n while the lower ones were i n poor c o n d i t i o n . I t i s almost impossible to o b t a i n uniform u t i l i z a t i o n over such v a r i e d topography. Thus estimates of usable rangeland should i n c l u d e only r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e slopes that support v e g e t a t i o n which i s g e n e r a l l y u t i l i z e d . The proper d i s t r i b u t i o n of animals i s one of the most important problems i n c a t t l e management on a l p i n e rangelands ( T h i l e n i u s , 1979). The most e f f e c t i v e means of c o n t r o l l i n g u t i l i z a t i o n of the rangelands requires r e g u l a t i o n of the grazing season which o f t e n c o i n c i d e s w i t h the rather short and unpredictable growing season. The i n i t i a t i o n of growth v a r i e s between s i t e s as w e l l as from year to year. In the subalpine meadows of Relay - 114 -V a l l e y , p l a n t growth was w e l l underway by mid-June i n 1977. At higher e l e v a t i o n s , however, patches of snow remained u n t i l the end of June and the adjacent s o i l s were saturated. These wet s o i l s are extremely s u s c e p t i b l e to trampling damage. Delaying the s t a r t of the grazing season minimizes s o i l damage and makes allowance f o r the annual, v a r i a t i o n i n the s t a r t of the growing season. Furthermore, recent work by Tiezea and Archer (1979) suggests that e a r l y season grazing may have detrimental e f f e c t s on the net carbon balance, the e f f e c t s of which w i l l not be evident u n t i l subsequent growing seasons. In terms of the carbon balance, mid to late-season grazing was found to have the l e a s t e f f e c t on the p l a n t s . On the other hand, grazing must not extend too l a t e i n t o the f a l l because of the l i k e l i h o o d of snowstorms and the p o s s i b i l i t y of damage to the moist s o i l s . Current allowed use (August 1-September 15) of the h i g h e l e v a t i o n rangeland i n the Relay area i s w e l l w i t h i n these g u i d e l i n e s . The e f f e c t of a l t e r n a t e year use on the c o n d i t i o n of the range should be evaluated - the r e s u l t s of t h i s study provide the necessary b a s e l i n e data as t h i s g r azing scheme was implemented i n 1977. Judging range c o n d i t i o n i n the a l p i n e and subalpine requires a knowledge of the l o c a l ecology and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the v e g e t a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to s i t e and environmental v a r i a b l e s ( T h i l e n i u s , 1979). Each range type or p l a n t community should have a set of c r i t e r i a on which to judge i t s c o n d i t i o n as cross community comparisons may not take i n t o account the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s i t e p o t e n t i a l . Poor c o n d i t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d g e n e r a l l y i n a d e c l i n e i n p l a n t v i g o r or herbage production as well as a decrease i n ground cover (Lewis, 1970) but both of these c r i t e r i a must be judged r e l a t i v e to the best c o n d i t i o n for that p l a n t community. An a l p i n e f e l l f i e l d w i l l always look poor when compared with a fescue meadow since bare ground i s present n a t u r a l l y . In a d d i t i o n , - 115 -d i f f e r e n t community types can t o l e r a t e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of grazing r e s u l t i n g i n a composite of c o n d i t i o n classes w i t h i n small areas. Those types found on unstable s o i l s and steep slopes such as the Dryas o c t o p e t a l a , Amelanchier  a l n i f o l i a - A r c t o s t a p h y l o s u v a - u r s i and K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a communities or on wet s o i l s such as the sedge and shrub wetland types may be s u s c e p t i b l e to damage at lower l e v e l s of grazing than the mesic meadow and shrubland types. Stands i n poor c o n d i t i o n may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n such as fencing to p r o t e c t them from f u r t h e r damage when adjacent range s i t e s i n good c o n d i t i o n are s t i l l being grazed. The use of i n d i c a t o r species i n judging range c o n d i t i o n has l i m i t a t i o n s . Changes i n species composition r e q u i r e many years and are not e a s i l y documented. Even when they are known, these changes provide evidence f o r long term trend and can be used only i n d e f i n i n g long term management o b j e c t i v e s . In a d d i t i o n , a l l species may be d e s i r a b l e when the major concern i s to prevent s o i l e r o s i o n (which i s the f i r s t goal of good range management). C e r t a i n species may be important i n i n d i c a t i n g the q u a l i t y of forage but a knowledge of user preference i s required to c l a s s i f y species as d e s i r a b l e or un d e s i r a b l e . This information i s not a v a i l a b l e f or c a t t l e or sheep on high e l e v a t i o n range-lands i n B r i t i s h Columbia The r e s u l t s of the present study suggest that Festuca a l t a i c a i s h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d by c a t t l e but t h i s observation r e q u i r e s documentation. V a r i a t i o n i n v i g o r or p r o d u c t i v i t y of key species may be a r e s u l t of c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s r a t h e r than grazing. According to T h i l e n i u s (1979), p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the a l p i n e can f l u c t u a t e n a t u r a l l y by as much as 50 percent from year to year. Thus the range manager needs to become f a m i l i a r w i t h the annual v a r i a b i l i t y i n key range communities so that grazing l e v e l s and c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s w i l l be a p p r o p r i a t e l y determined. This was beyond the scope of the present study. - 116 -4. R e l a t i o n s h i p of P l a n t Community Types from the Study Area With Those of Surrounding Areas Many plant communities described f o r the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains have e c o l o g i c a l and f l o r i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h community types studied i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia as w e l l as i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. Very few v e g e t a t i o n studies have been done i n the r e l a t i v e l y dry a l p i n e zone the r e f o r e suggested c o r r e l a t i o n s are often of a general nature. The two broad f o r e s t communities described are t y p i c a l of the dry i n t e r i o r subalpine zone (Annas and Coupe, 1979). The four Abies l a s i o c a r p a and P i c e a  engelmanii tree i s l a n d communities of Eady (1971) would be combined i n the s p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t type. Very l i t t l e Pinus a l b i c a u l i s was found on B i g White Mountain. Del Moral (1979) describes a Pinus a l b i c a u l i s : J u n i p e r u s communis: Penstemon d a v i d s o n i i community on dry ridges and a widespread P^ a l b i c a u l i s -Abies 1a s i oc arpa:V acc i n ium m y r t i l l u s community on south-facing slopes i n the Enchantment Lakes Basin, Washington. Both of these are comparable to the Pinus a l b i c a u l u s - J u n i p e r u s communis community type. The t a l l w i l l o w shrub communities found i n the study area are c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c of northern B.C. but were not described i n studies south of the C h i l c o t i n Ranges (Kuramoto and B l i s s , 1970; Eady, 1971; Douglas and B l i s s , 1977; Del Moral, 1979). The S a l i x b a r c l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s community type i s f l o r i s t -i c a l l y and e c o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the S a l i x bare l a y i - B e t u l a glandulosa-Carex  aquatilis-moss community found on po o r l y drained v a l l e y bottoms i n the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve ( P o j a r , 1977). S i m i l a r l y the a l p i n e S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a shrub type corresponds to the S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a - P e t a s i t e s f r i g i d u s - Tomenthypnum n i t e n s community of Pojar (1977). Both occur on wet s i t e s i n a l p i n e v a l l e y bottoms. The S a l i x planifolia-Empetrum nigrum-Sphagnum ru n o f f community on B i r c h Mountain described by B u t t r i c k (1978) has some s i m i l a r i t i e s - 117 -to the S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a wet shrubland. O g i l v i e (1969) described a s i m i l a r S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a community for the Rocky Mountains of A l b e r t a . Although there are f l o r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , the S a l i x brachycarpa-S. b a r c l a y i community has the c l o s e s t a f f i n i t y to the S a l i x (glauca. b a r c l a y i , p l a n i f o l i a ) - F e s t u c a  altaica-Rubus a r c t i c u s - P e t a s i t e s frigidus-Aulacomnium p a l u s t r e community described by Pojar (1977). The l a t t e r i s f l o r i s t i c a l l y r i c h e r than i t s southern counterpart and S a l i x glauca takes the place of S a l i x brachycarpa; however, they do occupy s i m i l a r h a b i t a t s . I t i s also s i m i l a r to the Astero (yukonensis)- Junco ( a r c t i c i ) - S a l i c e t u r a brachycarpae a s s o c i a t i o n described by Hoefs et a l . , 1975. The S a l i x glauca community of O g i l v i e (1969) i s also e q u i v a l e n t . The d r i e r w i l l o w shrub communities a l s o have t h e i r counterparts i n the north. The S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. s h r u b f i e l d i s comparable to the Gladys Lake B e t u l a glandulosa-Festuca altaica-cryptogam community while the S a l i x brachycarpa-Ph1eum alpinum type i n t h i s study i s more or l e s s equivalent to the S a l i x glauca-Betula glandulose-Festuca a l t a i c a community ( P o j a r , 1977). The l a t t e r are prevalent on v a l l e y bottoms and lower slopes while the former are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the upper slopes. The abundance of Phleum alpinum rather than Festuca a l t a i c a or |\_ b r a c h y p h y l l a may be a f u n c t i o n of the grazing h i s t o r y i n the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains. The Arctostaphylos uva-ursi-Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrub community i s most s i m i l a r to the Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i community described by Douglas and B l i s s (1977) i n the North Cascades. The Juniperus communis-Arctostaphylos  uva-ursi-grass community i n the S p a t s i z i ( P o j a r , 1977) and the Juniperus- Arctostaphylos community c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Douglas (1974) i n the Yukon are e c o l o g i c a l l y and f l o r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r s i m i l a r as w e l l . A l l of these p l a n t communities are found on dry, steep, south-facing slopes. - 118 -The S a l i x cascadensis dwarf w i l l o w community type i s not widespread i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Douglas and B l i s s (1977) and Taylor and B l i s s (1978) describe a s i m i l a r community i n both the western and eastern North Cascades. The h a b i t a t i n the eastern part of the range i s i d e n t i c a l to that found i n the present study. Although S a l i x cascadensis was found i n the Enchantment Lakes Bas i n , Del Moral (1979) d i d not consider i t a community dominant. Dryas octo p e t a l a i s a circumboreal species that i s dominant over extensive areas i n the north and i n the Cascades. I t was very common i n the study area but had a l i m i t e d occurrence on Big White Mountain (Eady, 1971) and i n the Enchantment Lakes B a s i n (Del Moral, 1979), both of which are a l s o i n the r e l a t i v e l y dry a l p i n e zone. Douglas and B l i s s (1977) describe a Dryas  oc t o p e t a l a community of s i m i l a r composition and h a b i t a t to that of the study area. The Dryas hookeriana-Oxytropis porocarpa-Cetraria community of O g i l v i e (1969) i s also comparable. The C e t r a r i a n i v a 1 i s-Vac c i n ium uliginosum f e l l -f i e l d described by B u t t r i c k (1978) i s e c o l o g i c a l l y equivalent to the Dryas- Festuca a l t a i c a community and i s f l o r i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , with Dryas and Festuca a l t a i c a , both dominants i n the community. Hrapko and LaRoi (1978) describe a Dryas octopetala-Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a community type on S i g n a l Mountain, A l b e r t a which i s comparable to the Dryas- Festuca a l t a i c a community i n which F^ brac h y p h y l l a i s als o a dominant. Both of the Carex meadow communities have been described i n other areas. The Carex a q u a t i l i s or C^ r o s t r a t a wetlands were found i n the subalpine by Pojar (1977) i n the Gladys Lake E c o l o g i c a l Reserve. Brooke et a l . (1970) described the Eriophoro-Sphagnetum a s s o c i a t i o n i n the Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone. This community i s dominated by Carex a q u a t i l i s and i s found i n h y d r i c to h y g r i c h a b i t a t s as are the sedge wetlands i n the study area. The - 119 -Carex n i g r i c a n s community i s widespread i n the P a c i f i c Northwest but was not found i n Northern B r i t i s h Columbia. I t always occupies l a t e m e l t i n g snow s i t e s and i s common, although of l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n the subalpine and low a l p i n e zones. Carex n i g r i c a n s community types have been described by Del Moral (1979), Hrapko and LaRoi (1978), Douglas and B l i s s (1977), Kuramoto and B l i s s (1970), Brooke et a l . (1970), O g i l v i e (1969), and Archer (1963). Grass-dominated meadows are prevalent i n the d r i e r c l i m a t e regions o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the P a c i f i c Northwest. F i v e grassland communities were described f o r the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains while lush forb meadows c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of lower e l e v a t i o n s or wetter subalpine c o n d i t i o n s (Archer, 1963; Brooke, 1970; Kuramoto and B l i s s , 1970; P o j a r , 1977) were not found. The Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a community type i s comparable to the Festuca a l t a i c a - P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a described by B u t t r i c k (1978). Festuca meadows were considered the zonal v e g e t a t i o n on B i r c h Mountain. Pojar (1977) includes both a l p i n e and subalpine Festuca a l t a i c a grassland communities. Both would be s i m i l a r to the F^ a l t a i c a - F . b r a c h y p h y l l a community described i n t h i s study although the subalpine type (which extends i n t o the a l p i n e ) i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . Festuca saximontana replaces F^ brac h y p h y l l a as a prominent member of the herb stratum. The rough fescue (Festuca s c a b r e l l a ) grasslands i n the Southern Rocky Mountains of A l b e r t a appear to be s i m i l a r i n composition (aside from the species of fescue) and ecology (Jaques, 1976). The Festuca  viridu1a-Lupinus l a t i f o l i u s community i n the North Cascades (Douglas and B l i s s , 1977) and the Festuca idahoensis type i n the Olympic Mountains (Kuramoto and B l i s s , 1970) are also s i m i l a r . The K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry grassland community type i s comparable to the Poa glauca-Carex s u p i n a - P o t e n t i l i a pennsylvanica-Artemesia b o r e a l i s b o r e a l - 120 -steppe grassland described by Poj a r (1977). Poa glauca i s replaced by Poa  i n t e r i o r i n t h i s study area. Both are r e s t r i c t e d to dry, steep, south-facing slopes. There were no other reports of s i m i l a r communities i n the l i t e r a t u r e . No reports of communities comparable to the Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a and Phleum  alpinum community types were found. I t i s p o s s i b l e that they are a f u n c t i o n of past grazing use and represent v a r i o u s l e v e l s of range c o n d i t i o n i n the subalpine grasslands. Looman (1969) found that a Phleum pratense-Poa  p r a t e n s i s - A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m combination replaced the Festuca s c a b r e l l a -Danthonia intermedia community with heavy gr a z i n g . Intermediate combinations were al s o found. These appear to be comparable to the Phleum alpinum-Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a and Ph1eum alpinum community types described i n the present study. The Rockland or t a l u s t e r r a i n u n i t that i s dominated by crustose l i c h e n s o f t e n i s not included i n ve g e t a t i o n studies because there are so few herbaceous p l a n t s present. B u t t r i c k (1978) described an U m b i l i c a r i a b l o c k f i e l d having no va s c u l a r species that i s comparable to the crustose l i c h e n t e r r a i n u n i t type. Pojar (1977) describes a subalpine talus-lichen-moss t e r r a i n u n i t dominated by cryptogams as w e l l as an a l p i n e f e l l f i e l d t e r r a i n u n i t . Both are s i m i l a r to the t e r r a i n u n i t described i n the present study. Much more d e t a i l e d work would be requied to f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s t e r r a i n u n i t type. The p l a n t community types described f or the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains are not unique to that area. S i m i l a r communities are found i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia, Washington and southwestern A l b e r t a . The Carex n i g r i c a n s and S a l i x cascadensis community types have counterparts only to the south while the w i l l o w shrublands are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to the north and i n the Rocky Mountains of A l b e r t a . The other communities were found both to the north and south of the study area. - 121 -5. R e l a t i o n s h i p to Previous High E l e v a t i o n Range Studies Mountain systems supply man w i t h a v a r i e t y of products. Forage production i s of prime i n t e r e s t to the range manager although the storage and supply of water i s of equal importance. According to E l l i s o n (1944), range i n good c o n d i t i o n w i l l supply man with a maximum of the products he needs. Thus range c o n d i t i o n i s the present h e a l t h of the range i n r e l a t i o n to i t s p o t e n t i a l to supply the desired products ( i . e . forage and water). The p o t e n t i a l must be determined on a s i t e s p e c i f i c b a s i s . The s i t e p o t e n t i a l may not be the "climax" state as the climax community type may not provide a maximum of the des i r e d products. Furthermore, i t i s not always p o s s i b l e to determine the climax type f o r h i g h e l e v a t i o n rangelands. Even when i t i s p o s s i b l e to determine the t h e o r e t i c a l climax type, i t may not be r e a l i s t i c to expect to achieve broad species combination goals as harsh environmental c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n a slow s u c c e s s i o n a l r a t e . Range c o n d i t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y evaluated i n terms of species composition i n r e l a t i o n to the climax p o t e n t i a l (Dyksterhuis, 1949). Four c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s ( e x c e l l e n t , good, f a i r , and poor) derived from the pro p o r t i o n of decreasers, i n c r e a s e r s , and invaders (Dyksterhuis, 1949) are f r e q u e n t l y used to c l a s s i f y the c o n d i t i o n of a rangeland. In the a l p i n e , however, changes i n species composition occur s l o w l y and the r e l a t i v e amounts of decreasers, i n c r e a s e r s and invaders may not provide the best i n d i c a t i o n of range c o n d i t i o n , although they may r e f l e c t long term changes. Furthermore, the responses of high e l e v a t i o n species to gr a z i n g have not been documented so that t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would be purely s u b j e c t i v e . Other i n d i c a t o r s of range c o n d i t i o n should be evident before changes i n species composition have occurred. Plant d i s t r i b u t i o n , v i g o r , and s o i l s t a b i l i t y are the most - 122 -important f a c t o r s to consider i n assessing h i g h e l e v a t i o n range c o n d i t i o n . These w i l l be discussed i n terms of the c o n d i t i o n c l a s s e s proposed f o r moun ta i n r ange1and s. The goal of the range manager i s to maintain the balance between topo- < graphy, c l i m a t e , s o i l , p l a n t s , and animals ( E l l i s o n , 1944). This balance i s the normal c o n d i t i o n of the range. There i s a dynamic e q u i l i b r i u m between a l l of the components of the system. This balanced c o n d i t i o n i s equivalent to good or e x c e l l e n t range c o n d i t i o n . P l a n t s are evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and provide a ground cover of at l e a s t 65-70 percent, w i t h s m a l l , and w e l l dispersed areas of bare s o i l ( E l l i s o n , 1960). In meadows or herblands, a good mixture of f o r b s , grasses and sedges, provides an almost complete cover of v e g e t a t i o n and l i t t e r . P lant v i g o r i s a l s o an important i n d i c a t o r of range c o n d i t i o n . Herbage production i s v a r i a b l e and d i f f i c u l t to assess but p l a n t h e i g h t , s i z e of bunches, f l o w e r i n g , seed se t , and cover of key forage species gives an i n d i c a t i o n of range h e a l t h . Further research i s needed to c o r r e l a t e these c r i t e r i a w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y . A s t a b l e s o i l i s another f a c t o r required for balanced range c o n d i t i o n . S o i l s t a b i l i t y i s l a r g e l y a f u n c t i o n of slope, moisture, and v e g e t a t i v e cover. S o i l s on steep slopes are e a s i l y eroded when the v e g e t a t i v e cover i s damaged. S i m i l a r l y , wet s o i l s are most s u s c e p t i b l e to damage. In g e n e r a l , loamy textured s o i l s have the optimal r e s i s t a n c e to water erosion and s o i l s with a c l a y texture are the most s u s c e p t i b l e as they hold the most water. S o i l s w i t h a high s i l t or sand content have poor s t r u c t u r a l q u a l i t i e s and are therefore e a s i l y eroded ( T r o t t i e r and S c o t t e r , 1973). More d e t a i l e d s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n from the Relay area would be u s e f u l i n determining er o s i o n p o t e n t i a l . Many of the s o i l s i n the Relay area occur on slopes greater than 20 percent and are - 123 -therefore more e a s i l y eroded when the ve g e t a t i o n i s removed. I f these slopes are h e a v i l y sodded they are not s u s c e p t i b l e to damage (Lewis, 1970). Most of the s o i l s i n the study area are w e l l to moderately w e l l drained which reduces the erosion hazard. Where s o i l s are i m p e r f e c t l y drained ( i n Two Lakes Basin, along c r e e k s i d e s , i n l a t e snow depressions, and i n concave depressions on the Dash Plateau) care should be exercised i n order to maintain a balance between the v e g e t a t i o n and s o i l s . There are b a s i c a l l y two types of range d e t e r i o r a t i o n or unbalanced range c o n d i t i o n . Both may correspond to e i t h e r f a i r or poor range c o n d i t i o n depending on the degree of change from a balanced s t a t e . The f i r s t type includes c r i t e r i a which can be assessed soon a f t e r overgrazing of a range occurs. Species are thinned out, there i s a de c l i n e i n plant v i g o r , and there i s an increase i n the s i z e of patches and i n the amount of bare ground to over 30 percent of the ground cover (Lewis, 1970). Evidence of s o i l e r o s i o n may al s o be present (e.g. g u l l i e s , s o i l remnants, e t c . ) . This unbalanced range c o n d i t i o n may l a t e r be masked by an increase i n the cover of species that are not r e a d i l y grazed. The range s t i l l appears to be balanced although i t may no longer supply a maximum amount of forage. Given s u f f i c i e n t time, weedy species may replace the more d e s i r a b l e forage species as the community dominants. This i s the second type of unbalanced range. The growth form of these species l i m i t s the herbage production a v a i l a b l e to the gr a z i n g animals. The main species i n the Relay area that appeared to have become prominent as a r e s u l t o f grazing were Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e , Cerastium arvense, F r a g a r i a v i r g i n i a n a , Geum t r i f l o r u m , A c h i l l e a m i l l e f o l i u m , P o t e n t i l l a d i v e r s i f o l i a , and Cerastium  hookerianum. These species might be considered i n c r e a s e r s or invaders; however, t h i s cannot be substantiated by the present study as no data are - 124 -a v a i l a b l e to determine the abundance of these species i n ungrazed parts of the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains. The presence of these p e r e n n i a l species i s more d e s i r a b l e than bare ground as they help to s t a b i l i z e the s o i l and prevent e r o s i o n . However, i n r e l a t i o n to the s i t e p o t e n t i a l they g e n e r a l l y do not i n d i c a t e balanced range c o n d i t i o n unless they are found i n conjunction w i t h more d e s i r a b l e range species. The d i v e r s i t y of topography and vege t a t i o n i n mountain rangelands r a i s e s the question of the s u i t a b i l i t y of community types f o r g r a z i n g . This should be based on the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s i t e s and on the h a b i t s of the animals (Lewis, 1970). S o i l s which are s e n s i t i v e to e r o s i o n should be avoided as should slopes of greater than 20 percent (unless they are w e l l sodded). A p r o t e c t i v e ground cover of vege t a t i o n and l i t t e r must be maintained or the stand should not be grazed (Lewis, 1970). Wet s o i l s should not be subjected to unnecessary trampling pressure. The observed d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of the grazing animals gives perhaps the best i n d i c a t i o n of the s u i t a b i l i t y of stands f o r g r a z i n g . C a t t l e appeared to have p r e f e r r e d the subalpine v a l l e y bottom meadows and lower slopes. The d r i e r shrub f i e l d types were al s o grazed. In the a l p i n e the Festuca meadows were p r e f e r r e d although the Dryas-Festuca type a l s o r e c e i v e d some grazing use. On the Dash Plateau the stands c l o s e s t to Dash Creek received the heaviest use. The grazing c a p a c i t y of these high e l e v a t i o n rangelands i s d i f f i c u l t to determine because of the mosaic of v e g e t a t i o n types; however, the v e g e t a t i o n map of the area (Appendix C) should be of value. Estimates of c a r r y i n g capacity should be based on p r e f e r r e d g r a z i n g areas and not on the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e acreage. These prime meadow and s h r u b f i e l d types represent perhaps 25 percent of the area and are b a s i c a l l y confined to the main drainage courses. - 125 -These areas have o f t e n been h e a v i l y grazed before the upper slopes r e c e i v e l i g h t use. High e l e v a t i o n range cannot s u s t a i n heavy use because of the short growing season and g e n e r a l l y low p r o d u c t i v i t y . The d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t r i b u t i n g c a t t l e evenly over the range also imposes l i m i t a t i o n s on the grazing c a p a c i t y . The g r a z i n g plan should be easy to f o l l o w and gr a z i n g u n i t s should be t i e d to w e l l defined n a t u r a l areas (Lewis, 1970) i n order to more e a s i l y c o n t r o l range use. C a t t l e should not be l e f t to graze unattended f o r any length of time and the grazing route should backtrack as l i t t l e as p o s s i b l e so that p l a n t s have an opportunity to recover from previous g r a z i n g . Flowering and seed set must be ensured i n order to maintain a p r o t e c t i v e v e g e t a t i o n cover. To meet t h i s o b j e c t i v e , l i g h t g r azing of no more than 30 percent on dry meadows and 40 percent on wet meadows i s recommended (Lewis, 1970). This i s e s s e n t i a l since the growing season corresponds with the grazing season. The period of use should be i n J u l y and August. Grazing too e a r l y i n the season might damage the s o i l s as they are s t i l l saturated from snow melt. The v a l l e y bottoms and no r t h - f a c i n g slopes are ready f o r use l a t e r than the south-facing s l o p e s . North-facing a l p i n e slopes should g e n e r a l l y be avoided as these areas are subjected to s o l i f l u c t i o n processes which make them i n h e r e n t l y u n s t a b l e . The Dash Plateau should not be grazed before the end of J u l y and even then should receive only very l i g h t use because of the sparse growth of d e s i r a b l e forage species. The grazing season throughout the study area should not extend i n t o the f a l l as an adequate mulch might not be l e f t to p r o t e c t the s o i l . These recommendations are based on a knowledge of the l o c a l c l i m a t e , v e g e t a t i o n ecology and past g r a z i n g use of the Relay area and are b e l i e v e d to be acceptable l e v e l s of use for an area of low p r o d u c t i v i t y with a short - 126 -growing season. Further research i s required to document the e f f e c t s of var i o u s grazing p r a c t i c e s on d i f f e r e n t community types. Without more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on plant development and herbage production, i t i s best to be conservative- i n our use of the resource. High e l e v a t i o n p l a n t s may be adapted to survive i n harsh c o n d i t i o n s but we do not have an adequate knowledge of how much grazing pressure they can withstand. Further research i s re q u i r e d to document the e f f e c t s o f grazing on a l p i n e and subalpine v e g e t a t i o n i n the southern i n t e r i o r mountains where high e l e v a t i o n meadows are a c c e s s i b l e and have been u t i l i z e d f o r the grazing of domestic animals. In order to provide a data base for future r e g u l a t i o n of a l p i n e grazing u n i t s , study of a represen-t a t i v e p r i s t i n e a l p i n e area should be undertaken p r i o r to the issuance of grazing permits. Changes i n the vegetation and s o i l s can then be monitored when grazing occurs. Such a study would of n e c e s s i t y be long term but the r e s u l t s would be i n v a l u a b l e i n shaping future grazing p o l i c y . The resource i s a v a i l a b l e . I f we use i t w i s e l y , i t w i l l continue to provide a maximum of products. CHAPTER 8 Summary 1. The a l p i n e and subalpine v e g e t a t i o n of the Southern C h i l c o t i n Mountains i n southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia was studied during the summer of 1977. 2. The study area i s located on the lee side of the Coast Range. The geology i s p r i m a r i l y sedimentary w i t h v o l c a n i c i n t r u s i o n s . 3. S o i l development i s g e n e r a l l y poor. Regosols and B r u n i s o l s are predominant over most of the landscape. Rego Gl e y s o l s have developed i n areas with a high water t a b l e and poor drainage. 4. The study area l i e s i n a r a i n shadow and the winter snowpack i s r e l a t i v e l y l i g h t . However, there i s g e n e r a l l y an adequate supply of water during the growing season because of convectional summer showers c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e . The mean annual temperature i s l e s s than 4°C i n the subalpine and probably l e s s than 0°C i n the a l p i n e . 5. Homogeneous map u n i t s were de l i n e a t e d on 40 chain a i r photos p r i o r to the f i e l d season. P l o t s were located randomly w i t h i n map u n i t s . Data were c o l l e c t e d from 239 sample p l o t s . 6. Sample p l o t s were combined i n t o 19 p l a n t community types on the b a s i s of physiognomy, dominant species and s i m i l a r environmental c o n d i t i o n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c species group combinations were used to i d e n t i f y community types. 7. The community types i d e n t i f i e d were: P i c e a engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t , Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis dry f o r e s t , S a l i x b a r c l a y i - Carex a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland, S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e shrub wetland, S a l i x brachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i shrubland, S a l i x brachycarpa-Festuca spp. s h r u b f i e l d , S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e l d , A r c tostaphylos - 128 -uva-ursi-Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland, S a l i x cascadensis dwarf w i l l o w shrubland, Dryas o c t o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d , Dryas octopetala-Festuca  a l t a i c a a l p i n e g r a s s l a n d , Carex a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wetland, Carex  n i g r i c a n s l a t e snowbed meadow, Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow, Festuca b r a c h y p h y l l a meadow, Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum meadow, Phleum alpinum-Carex phaeocephala meadow, K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry meadow, and crustose l i c h e n rockland or t a l u s t e r r a i n u n i t . 8. S o i l temperature was c o r r e l a t e d with s o i l moisture or hygrotope which seemed to be a f a c t o r i n determining the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p l a n t community types only at the extremes. 9. Community types r e s t r i c t e d to runoff or seepage h a b i t a t s are the Carex  a q u a t i l i s / r o s t r a t a wet meadow, the S a l i x b a r e l a y i - C a r e x a q u a t i l i s shrub wetland, the S a l i x b a r r a t t i a n a a l p i n e shrub wetland, and the S a l i x  brachycarpa-Salix b a r c l a y i shrubland. 10. Snowbed h a b i t a t s support the Carex n i g r i c a n s type i n the subalpine and the S a l i x cascadensis type i n the a l p i n e . 11. Mesic types i n c l u d e the Festuca a l t a i c a - F e s t u c a b r a c h y p h y l l a , Festuca  b r a c h y p h y l l a , Festuca brachyphylla-Phleum alpinum and Phleum  alpinum-Carex phaeocephala meadow types. In a d d i t i o n the S a l i x  brachycarpa-Festuca spp. and S a l i x brachycarpa-Phleum alpinum s h r u b f i e l d s as w e l l as the Pi c e a engelmanii-Abies l a s i o c a r p a f o r e s t type are found i n h a b i t a t s w i t h moderate to good drainage. 12. A number of community types are found only on w e l l drained r i d g e s , f e l l f i e l d s or dry, south-facing slopes. The Dryas oct o p e t a l a f e l l f i e l d and Dryas octopetala-Festuca a l t a i c a meadow are r e s t r i c t e d to the a l p i n e zone. The K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a dry meadow, Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i -- 129 -Amelanchier a l n i f o l i a dry shrubland and Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - J u n i p e r u s communis dry f o r e s t types are found i n the subalpine zone. 13. The heaviest grazing occurred on v a l l e y bottoms and lower slopes although evidence of grazing was found i n the a l p i n e p l a n t communities as w e l l . 14. Grazing i n f l u e n c e s h i g h e l e v a t i o n vegetation i n two primary ways. 1) In wet h a b i t a t s trampling damage was prevalent. This has created s o i l remnant m i c r o s i t e s on which species r e q u i r i n g l e s s moisture become e s t a b l i s h e d . 2) A f t e r many years of use Festuca a l t a i c a appears to have been e l i m i n a t e d from h e a v i l y grazed meadows. Weedy species have become more abundant i n a l l community types. Given time, t h i s change i n species composition might r e s u l t i n a decrease i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y of the rangelands. 15. Many of the community types are f l o r i s t i c a l l y and/or e c o l o g i c a l l y comparable with p l a n t communities described from other h i g h e l e v a t i o n areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the southern Yukon, and the P a c i f i c Northwest of the U.S. Strong a f f i n i t i e s w i t h both the S p a t s i z i Plateau to the north and the Northern Cascades to the south i n d i c a t e the t r a n s i t i o n a l nature of the study area. 16. The vege t a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and inventory map presented i n t h i s study provide the b a s e l i n e data necessary f o r proper land management. These data can be used i n assessing the r e s u l t s of the grazing scheme implemented i n 1977 and i n future planning to coordinate m u l t i p l e use i n t h i s scenic a l p i n e and subalpine environment. - 130 -L i t e r a t u r e C i t e d Annas, R.M. and R. Coupe (eds.). 1979. 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ALLIUM CERNUUM ROTH AMELANCHIER ALNIFOLIA (NUTT.) NUTT. ANENOME DRUMMONDII WATS. ANENOME M U L T I F I D A POIR. ANENOME OCCIDENTAL!S S . WATS. A N D R O S A C E SEPTENTRIONAL IS L. ANTENNARIA ALPINA ( L . ) GAERTM. ANTENNARIA MI CRGPHYLLA RYDB. ANTENNARI A NEGLECTA GREENE ANTENNARIA P U L C H E R R I M A (HOOK.) GREENE ANTENNARIA U^BR I NELL A RYDB* AQUILEGI A FORMOSA F ISCH. A R A B I S O I V A R I C A R P A A. NELS ARAB!S DRUMMONDII GRAY ARABIS HIRSUTA ( L . ) SCOP. ARABIS HOLBOELLII H O R N E M . ARABIS L E M M O N 1 1 WATS. ARABIS LYALL I I WATS. ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA-URSI ( L . ) S P R E N G . ARENARIA C A P I L L A R I S POIR. ARENARIA LATERIFLORA L . ARENARIA O B T U S I L O B A (RYDB.) FERN. ARENARIA RUBELLA (WAHLENB.) J . E . SMITH ARNICA , ALPINA ( L . ) OLIN ARNICA CHAMISSONIS LESS. ARNICA CORDIFOLIA HOOK * ARNICA DIVERSIFOLIA GREENE ARNICA LAT IFOL IA BONG. ARNICA MOLLIS HOOK. ARNICA PARRY I GRAY ARNICA R Y D B E R G I I GREENE ARNICA SORORIA GREENE ARTEMESIA C A M E S T R I S L-VAR. WORMSKIOLD11 (BESS.) CRONQ. - 1 4 0 -A R T E M E S I A F R I G I D A V) I L L D . A R T E M E S I A M 1 C H A U X I A N A B E S S . A R T E M E S I A N O R V E G I C A F R I E S A S T E R F O L l A C e U S L I N D L . A S T E R M O D E S T U S L I N D L . A S T E R S I B I R I C U S L . A S T R A G A L U S A L P I N U S L. A S T R A G A L U S A M E R I C A N U S ( H O O K.j) J O N E S A S T R A G A L U S E U C O S M O S R O B I N S . A S T R A G A L U S R Q B B I N S I I ( Q A K E S ) G R A Y V A R . M I N O R ( H O O K . ) B A R N E B Y A S T R A G A L U S M I S E R D O U G L . A T R I P L E X P A T U L A L -B A L S A M O R H I Z A S A G I T T A T E { P U R S H ) N U T T . B E T U L A G L A N D U L Q S A M I C H X . B O T R Y C H I U M L U N A R I A ( L . ) S W A R T Z B R O M U S A N O M A L U S R U P R . B R O M U S C A R I N A T U S H . £ A . B R O M U S I N E R M I 5 L E Y S . B R O M U S T E C T Q R U M L. C A L A M A G R O S T I S C A N A D E N S I S ( M I C H X . ) B E A U V . C A L A M A G R Q S T I S P U R P U R A S C E N S R . BR • C A L T H A BI F L O R A D C . C A P S E L L A B J R S A - P A S T O R I S ( L'.l M E D I C . C A R D A M I N E B E L L I Q I F D L I A L. C A R D A M I N E O L I G O S P E R M A N U T T . C A R E X A L B O N I G R A M A C K . C A R E X A Q U A T I L I S W A H L . C A R E X A T R A T A L . C A R E X A U R E A N U T T . C A R E X B I P A R H T A A L L I O N I C A R E X C A N c S C E N S B A I L E Y C A R E X C A P I T A T A L . C A R E X C Q N C I N N A R * BR * C A R E X C O N C I N N O I D E S M A C K . C A R E X D I O I C A L. C A R E X D I S P E R M A D E W E Y C A R E X H Q Q D I I B O O T T C A R E X I L L Q T A B A I L E Y C A R E X L I M N O P H I L A H E R M A N N C A R E X M I C R O P T E R A M A C K . C A R E X N A R D I N A F R I E S C A R E X N I G R I C A N S R E T Z . C A R E X N O R V E G I C A R E T Z . C A R E X P A C H Y S T A C H Y A C H A M . C A R E X P A Y S O N I S C H A M . C A R E X P H A E O C E P H A L A P I P E R C A R E X P Y R E N A I C A W A H L . C A R E X R O S S 11 B O O T T C A R E X R O S T R A T A S T O K E S C A R E X S C I R P O I D c A M I C H X . C A R E X S P E C T A B I L I S D E W E Y C A S S I O P E T I T R A G O N A ( L . ) D . D O N - 141 -C A S S I G P E CASTILLEJA CASTILLEJA CERASTIUM CERASTIUM CHENOPODIUM CHR YSOSPLENIUM CIRSIUM CIRSIUM CLAYTONIA COLLINSI A CORNUS CREPIS CRE PIS DANTHONIA DELPHINIUM D £ S C H A M P S I A DR A BA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRABA DRYAS ELYMUS EPILOBIUM EPILOBIUM EPILOBIUM EQUISETUM EQUISETUM EQUISETUM EQUISETUM ERIGERON V A R . ERIGERON ERIGERON ERIGERON SSP. ERIGERON ERIGERON ERIOGONUM VAR. E R I O P H O R U M ERIOPHORUM FESTUCA FESTUCA FESTUCA F R A G A R I A GALIUM M E R T E N S I A N A MINI ATA PARVI FLORA ARVENSE B E R R I N G I A N U M LEPTOPHYLLUM TETRANDUM EDULE HOOKERIANUM LANCEOLATA PARVIFLORA CANADENSIS NANA OCCIDENTALS INTERMEDIA GLAUCUM ATROPURPUREA AUREA CRASSIFOL IA I N C E R T A LANCEOLATA NIVALIS OLI GOSPER MA P A Y S O N I I . PRAEALTA STENOLOBA SPP . OCTOPETALA GLAUCUS AL PINUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM L A T I FOLIUM ARVENSE PALUSTRE S C I R P O I D E S VARIEGATUM A C R I S D E B I L I S COMPOSITUS HUMILIS PfcREGRINU5 CALL IANTHEMUS PURPURATUS SPECIQSUS UMBEL LATUM MAJUS B R A C H Y A N T H E R U M P Q L Y S T A C H I O N ALTAICA BRACHYPHYLLA SAXIMONTANA VIRGIN!ANA BOREALE (BONG.) G. DON DOUGL. BONG. L. CHAM. + SCHLECT. {MOQ.) WATS. I LUND) FRIES NUTT. NUTT. PURSH LINDL. L , RICH. NUTT. VASEY WATS. ( W A H L . ) S C H E E L E VAHL R. GRAH. PAYS. RQYLE L I L JEBL . HOOK. MACBR. GREENE LEDEB. L . L. BUCKL. L . L. L. L . L. MICHX. SCHLEICH, L. GRAY PURSH GRAHAM {PURS H) GREENE {GREENE} C R O N O . GREENE (LINDL.) DC, TORR. HOOK. TRAUTV. + M E Y . L. TR IN. SCHULT. RYDB. DUCHESNE L. - 142 -GALIUM TRIFIDUM GENTIANA PROPINQUA GENTIANA P R O S T R A T A GENTIANA AMARELLA GERANIUM RICHARDSON 11 GEUM MACROPHYL LUM GEUM TRIFLORUM H A B E N A R I A OBTUSATA HACKELIA FLORIBUNDA H A P L O P A P P U S L Y A L L 11 HERACLEUM LANATUM HIERACIUM CYNOGLOSSOIDES HIERACIUM G R A C I L c HIERACIUM SCOULERI HI EROCHLOE ODORATA HORDEDM JUBATUM JUNCUS DRUMMONDII J U N C U S MERTENSI ANUS JUNCUS P ARRYI JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS VAR. MONTANA KALMIA MIGROPHYLLA KOELERIA CRISTATA • KOBRESIA MYOSUROIDES LEDUM GLANDULOSUM ?X? LEDUM GROENLANDICUM L E P I D I U M V I R G I N I C U M LILL IUM COLUMBIANUM LINNAEA BOREAL IS LI S T E R A BOREAL IS LITHOSPERMUM RUDERALE L O M A T I U M NUDICAULI LONICERA INVOLUCRATA LUP INUS LEPIDUS VAR. LOBBII LUPINUS NOQTKATENSIs LUZULA GLABRA! A LUZULA PARVI FLORA LUZULA PI PERI LUZULA S P I C A T A MATRICARIA M A T R I C A R I O D E S MIMULUS TIL I N G I I VAR. CAESPITOSUS MITELLA P E N T A N D R A MONESES UNI FLORA MYOSOTIS ALPESTRIS O S M O R R H I Z A C H I L E N S I S OXYTROPUS CAMPESTRIS VAP . GRACILIS OXYTROPUS DEFLEXA O X Y R I A DIGYNA P A C H I S T I M A M Y R S I N I T c S PAP AVER RADICATUM L. RICHARDS. HAENKE L. F ISCH. 4- TRAUTV. W I L L D . PURSH ( B A N K S ) RICHARDS. ( L E H M . ) JOHNST. GRAY M I C K X . ARV.-TOUV. HOOK . HOOK. ( L . ) BEAUV. L. E. MEYER BONG. E N G E L M . L. A IT . I H C C K . ) HELLER PEPS. (V I LL . ) FIORI NUTT. OEDER L. HANSOM L . • MORONG DOUGL. (PURSH) COULT. + ROSE (RICH.) BANKS DOUGL. (GRAY) H I T C H C . DONN. (HOPPE) DESV. (EHRH.) DESV. (COV.) JONES ( L . ) DC. (LESS..) PORTER R E G E t~ (GREENE) GRANT HOCK. L . F . W. SCHMIDT H. + A. (L. I DC. (NELS.) B A R N E B Y (PALL. ) DC. ( L . ) H I LL . (PURSH) RAF. POTT. - 143 -PARNASSI A PARNASSIA PEDICULARIS PEDICULARIS PEDICULAR IS PENSTEMON VAR. PENSTEMON PETASITES VAR. VAR. VAR. PETASITES PHACELIA PHLEUM PHYLL'ODOCE PHYLLODOCE PICEA PINUS PINUS PLATANTHERA POA POA POA POA PDA POA POA POA VAR. VAR. POA POA POA POA POA POA POLEMONIUM POLYGONUM POLYGONUM POLYGONUM POPULUS POPULUS POTENTILLA .POTENTILLA POTENTILLA POTENTILLA POTENTILLA POTENTILLA POTENTILLA PRUNIJS PYROLA PYROLA FIMBRIA!A PALUSTRIS B R A C T E Q S A LANGS DORF II ORNITHORHYNCHA FRUTICOSUS SCOULERI PROCERUS FRIGIDUS FRIGIDUS NIVALIS PALMATUS SAGITTATUS SERICEA ALPINUM EMPETRIFORMIS GLANDULI FLORA E N G E L M A N I I ALBICAULIS CONTORTA DILATATA ALP INA ARCTICA CANBYI CUSICKII FENDLERIANA GLAUCA INTERIOR LEPTOCOMA LEPTOCOMA PAUSISPICULA L E T T E R M A N I I NERVOSA PALUSTRIS PR ATENSIS RUPICOLA SANDBERGII PULCHERRIMUM DOUGLAS II VIVI PARUM S P E R G U L A R I A E F O R M E TREMULOIDES TRICHOCARPA ARGUTA DIVtRSIFOL I A DRUMMONDII GRACILIS NIVEA QUINQUEFOLI A VILLOSA E MARGINATA ASAR IFOLIA MINOR KONIG. I. . BENTH. F ISCH. BENTH, (PURSH) GREENE (L INDL.) CROMO. DOUGL. ( L . ) FRIES (GREENE) CRONQ.. (A IT . ) CRONQ. (BANKS) GRAY (GRAH.) GRAY L. (SW.) D. DON (HOOK.) COV. PARRY ENGELM. DOUGL. (PURSH) LINDL. L . R. BR. (SCRIBN.) PIPER VASEY (STEUD.) VASEY M. VAHL RYDB. T R I N . (SCRIBN. 6 MERR.J H I T C H C . VASEY (HOOK.) VASEY L. L. NASH VASEY HOOK. GREENE L. MEISN. MICHX. T . + G. PURSH ' LEHM. DOUGL. L. RYDB. PALL. (DCUGL.) WALP. MICHX. L . - 144 -PYROLA RANUNCULUS RANUNCULUS RANUNCULUS RANUNCULUS RISES RI BES RHINANTHES RHODODENDRON ROSA RU BUS R U M E X SALIX SALIX SALIX SALIX SALIX SALIX SAL IX SALIX SALIX SAN ICULA SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA VAR . SAX I F R A G A SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA ?X? SAXIFRAGA SAXIFRAGA S E D U M S EL AGINELL A SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SENECIO SHEPHERDIA SI BBALDIA SILENE SILENE SILENE SIT ANION SMI LACINA SOL I DAGO STELLARI A STELLARIA SECUNDA ^SCHSCHGLTZII GELIDUS INAMOENUS IJNCINATUS LACUSTRE VISCOSXSSIMUM CRISTA-GALLI AL BIFLORUM ACICULARIS ACAULIS ACiTOSA BARCLAYI BARRATTIANA BRACHYCARPA CASCADENSIS GLAUCA NIVALIS SCOULERIANA SITCHENSIS SP P . GRAVEOLENS ADSCENDENS CAcSPITOSA BRONCHIAL IS AUSTROMONTANA CERNUA DEBI LIS LYALLI I OCCIDENTALS ARGUTA LYALL I I TRICUSPIDATA. LANCEOLATUM DENSA CANUS ELMER I . FREMONT 11 INTEGERRIMUS LUGENS PAUCIFLORUS STRE PTANTHIFO LIU S TRIANGULARIS CANADENSIS PROCUMBENS ACAULIS DOUGLAS1I PARRY I HYSTRIX STELLATA MULT IRADIATA CRISPA LONG I PES L . SCHLECHT. KAP. + K IR. GREENE D. DON ( P E R S . l POIR. PURSH L. HOOK. LINDL. MICHX. L. ANDERSS. HOOK. NUTT. COCKERELL L . HOCK. BARRATT SANSON L. POEPP. L. L. L . (WIEG. ) J ONES L. ENGELM. ENGL. WATS. C. DON ENGL. ROTTB. TORR. RYDB. HOOK. PIPER T . f- G. NUTT. RICH. PURSH G R E E N E HOOK. ( L . ) NUTT . L. L. HOOK. (WATS.3 HITCHC. (NUTT.) SMITH (L . ) DESF. A IT. CHAM. + SCHLECHT GOLD IE - 145 - ' STIPA COLUMBIANA M A C C U N ST I PA R I C H A R D S O N I I LINK SYMPHORICARPOS AL BUS ( L . ) BLAKE VAR. LAEVIGATUS F F R N . TARAXACUM LAEVIGATUM {WILLD.) DC. TARAXACUM O F F I C I N A L E WEBER THALICTRUM OCCIDENTAL!! GRAY T H L A S P I ARVENSE L . TRIFOLIUM RE PENS L . T R I S F T U M SPICATUM <L.) RICHTER TROLLIUS LAXUS SAL I SB. V A C C I N I U M CAfcSPITOSUM MICHX. VACCINIUM DELICIOSUM PIPER VACCINIUM P A R V I FOLIUM SMITH VALERIANA DIOICA L. VAR. SYLVATICA (RICH.) WATS. VALERIANA S I T C H E N S I S BONG. VERONICA AMERICANA SCHWEIM. VERONICA S E R P Y L L I F O L I A L . VERONICA W O R M S K J O L D I I R OFF. + SCHULT. VIOLA NEPHROPHYLLA GREENE WOODS!A SCOPULINA D . C . EAT. MOSSES AMBLYSTEGIUM S A X A T I L E SCHIMP. AMBLYSTEGIUM SERPENS (HEDW.) B .S .G. AULACOMNIUM PALUSTRE' (HEDW.) S C H W A E G R . B A R T R A M I A ITHYPHYLLA BR ID. BLINDIA ACUTA (HEDW.) B.S.G. BRACHYTHECIUM ALBICANS (HEDW.) B.S.G. BRACHYTHECIUM C O L L I N U M (C. MUELL.) B.S.G. BRACHYTHECIUM SPP. B.S.G. BRYOERITHROPHYLLUMRECURVIROSTRUM (HEDW.)CHEN BRYUM CAESPITICIUM HEDW. BRYUM WEIGELII S P R E N G . BRYUM SPP. HEDW. CAL LI ERGON GIGANTEUM (SCHIMP.) KINDB. CALLIERGON STRAMINEUM ( B R I O . ) KINDB. C A M P Y L I U M POLYGAMUM / (B.S.G.) C . JENS. CAMPYLIUM S T E L L A T U M (HEDW.) C . JENS. C E R A T A O O N PURPUREUS (HEDW.J BRIO. CINCLIDIUM STYGIUM sw. CLIMACIUM DENDROIDES (HFDW.) WEB. + MOHR CRATONEURON COMMUTATUM (HEDW.,) ROTH CRATONEURON FT L.IC I MUM (HEDW.) SPRUCE D E S M A T A D O N LATIFOLIUS (BRID.) BR ID. DICRANUM FUSCESCENS TURN. DICRANUM MUEHLENBECK11 B.S.G. DICRANUM SCOPARIUM HEDW. DISTICHIUM CAPILLACEUM (HEDW.) B .S .G. D I T R I C H U M FL EXICAULE (SCHWAEGR.) HAMPE - 146 -D R E P A N O C L A D U S DR E P A N O C L A D U S D R E P A N O C L A D U S E N C A L Y P T A E U R Y N C H I U M H E 1. O D I U M H Y L O C O M I U M H Y P N U M H Y P N U M I S O P T E R Y G I UM K I A E R I A L E P T O B R Y U M L E S C U R A E A M N I U M GR T H O T R I C H U M P H I L O N O T I S P L A G I O M N I U M P L A G I O M N I U M P L E U R O Z I U M P O H L I A P O H L I A P O H L I A P O L Y T R I C H U M P O L Y T R I C H U M P O L Y T R I C H U M R H A C O M I T R I U M S P H A G N U M S P H A G N U M T H U I D I U M T I MM I A T O M E N T H Y P N U M T O R T E L L A T O R T U L A A D U N C U S R E V O L v G N S U N C I N A T U S V U L G A R I S P U L C H E L L U M B L A N DOW I I S P L E N D E N S C I R C I N A L E R E V O L U T U M P U L C H E L L U M S T A R K E I PYR I F O R M E R A D I C O S A T H O M P S O N ! I S P E C I O S U M F O N T ANA E L L I P T I C U M R O S T R A T U M S C H R E B E R I . C R U D A N U T A N S S P P . J U N I P E R I NUM P I L I F £ R U M S T R I C T U M C A N E S C E N S R E C U R V U M W A R N S T O R F I I A B I E T I N U M A U S T R I A C A NI T E N S F R A G I L I S N O R V E G I C A + S A U E R B . I. H A G . ( H E D W . ) W A R N S T . ( S W . ) W A R N S T . ( H E D W . ) W A R N S T . HEDW * ( H E D W . i J E N N . ( W E B . + MOHR ) W A R N S F . (HEDW,) B . S . G . H O O K . ( M I T T . ) L I N D B . ( H E D W . ) J A E G (WEB + MOHR) ( H E D W . ) W I L S . ( M I T T . ) M O F N K . s e n IMP . N E E S E X S T U R M ( H E D W . ) B R I D . ( B R I O . ) K O P . ( S C H R A D . J K O P . ( B R I D . ) M I T T . ( H E C W . ) L I N D B . ( H E D W . ) L I N D B . H E D W . H E D W . H E D W . 8RID. ( H E D W . ) B R I D . P . B E A U V . R U S S . ( H F D W . ) B . S . G . H E D W . ( H E D W . ) L O E S K E ( H C C K . + W I L S . ) L I M P R . ( W E B . ) W A H L E N B . EX L I N D B , L I V E R W O R T S B L E P H A R A S T O M A C A L Y P O G E I A C E P H A L O Z I A L O P H O Z I A L O P H O Z I A L O P H O Z I A L O P H O Z I A L O P H O Z I A L O P H O Z I A M A R C H A N T I A P L A G I O C H I L A T R I C H O P H Y L L U M , M U E L L E R I ANA ? B I C U S P I D A T A F L O E R K E I H A T C H E R I ? I N C IS A ? O B T U S A ? W E N Z E L I I S P P . P O L Y M O R P H A A S P L E N I O I D E S ( L . ) D U M . ( S C H I F F N . ) K . M U L L . ( L . ) DUM . ( W E B . E T MOHR) S C H I F F N . ( E V A N S ) S T E P H . ( S C H R A D . J D U M . ( L I N D B . ) D U M O R T . < N E E S ) S T E P H . D U M . E M E N D . K . M U L L . L. • ( L . E M E N D . T A Y L . ) D U M . L I C H E N S A C A R O S P O R A C H L O R O P H A N A ( W A L E N B . EX A C H . i M A S S - 147 -AL ECTOR I A OCHROLEUCA (HOFFM.J MASS. BLACK CRUSTOSE LICHENS CALOPLACA SPP. TH. FP.. CANDELARI ELLA SPP. MULL. CETRARIA CU CUL LATA (BELL.) ACH. CETRARIA ERICITORUM OPIZ. CETRARIA ISLANDICA ( L . ) ACH. CETRARIA NIVALIS ( L . ) ACH. CETRARIA PINASTRi (SCCP.) S. GRAY CLADINA MITIS SANDST. CLADONIA COCCIFERA ( L . l WILLD. CLADONIA ECMOCYNA (ACH.) NYL. CLADONIA NEMOXYNA (ACH.) NYL. CLADONIA PYXIDATA (L.3 HOFFM. CLADONIA SQUAMULOSE HILL EX WEB. CLADONIA SPP. HILL EX WSB. CORNICULARIA ACULEATA (SCHREB.) ACH. CORN ICULARIA MURICATA (ACH.) ACH. CRUSTOSE LICHENS DACTYLINA ARCTICA (HOOK.) NYL. HYPOGYMNIA SPP. (NYL.) NYL. LECANORA SPP. ACH. LET HARIA COLUMBIANA (NUTT.) THOMPSON OCH ROLECHIA UPSAL IENS IS ( L . ) MASS. PANNARIA SPP . DEL. PAR MEL. IA TASMANICA HOOK. P TAYL. PELTIGERA APTHOSA ( L . ) WILLD. PEL TIGERA ? CANINA ( L . ) WILLD. PELTIGERA MA LACEA (ACH.) FUNCK. PSLTIGSRA RUFESCENS (WEISS) HUMB. PELTIGERA SPURIA (ACH.) DC. PERTUSARIA SPP . LAM. 6 DC. PHYSCONIA MUSCIGENA (ACH.) POELT PS EUDEPHE8E SPP . CHCISY PSOROMA SPP. NYL. RHIZOCARPON GEOGRAPHICUM ( L . ) DC. RINODINA SPP. ACH. SOLOPINA CROCEA (L . ) ACH. SOLORINA BISPORA NYL . STEREOCAULON SPP . HOFFM. THAMNOLIA SUBULIFORMIS (EHRH.) CUL8. UMBILICARIA SPP. HOFF. XANTHORI A ELEGANS (L INK) TH. FR. - 148 -APPENDIX B COLLECTING SITES FROM THE SOUTHERN CHILCOTIN MOUNTAINS, 1977 L a t i t u d e and longitude for major regions w i t h i n the study area: Dash Plateau 51° 12' 123° Graveyard V a l l e y 51° 09' 123° 06' L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y 51° 09' 122° 58' Pr e n t i c e Lake 51° 11' 122° 54' Relay Basin 51° 08' 123° Relay V a l l e y & Cabin 51° 11' 122° 58' Two Lakes Basin 51° 12' 123° 04* June 23 (1-4) Horse pasture at Relay Cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1640 m; f l a t meadow dominated by Taraxacum o f f i c i n a l e and A c h i l l a m i l l e f o l i u m w i t h assorted grasses; rocky s o i l J u l y 11 (5) Two Lakes Meadow. 30 m SE of East Lake i n Two Lakes B a s i n ; e l e v . 1950 m; gentle convex slope w i t h N aspect J u l y 12 (6-7) Two Lakes Meadow - as 5 J u l y 13 (8) Two Lakes Meadow; grassy meadow E of east lake i n Two Lakes B a s i n ; e l e v . 1955 m; convex, S-facing slope, s l i g h t l y hummocky (9-10) Two Lakes Meadow; rocky, S-facing slope NE of East Lake; e l e v . 1960 m; dry grass slope (11) Two Lakes Sedge Wetland; E end of East Lake; e l e v . 1950 m; h y d r i c (12) Two Lakes Meadow; N side of creek that runs west out of West Lake; e l e v . 1945 m; steep rocky slope with a SW aspect (13) Two Lakes Meadow; f l a t meadow west of West Lake; e l e v . 1955 m (14) Two Lakes Meadow; steep, S-facing slope west of West Lake; e l e v . 1955 m; dominated by f o r b s ; very rocky and w e l l drained (15) Two Lakes - Birch-Willow Shrub type; 20 yards N of West Lake; el e v . 1955 m; h y g r i c ; hummocky; growth 30 cm w i t h o c c a s i o n a l Pinus  c o n t o r t a to 6.5 m; S-facing gentle slope (16-17) Two Lakes Sedge meadow; between 2 la k e s ; e l e v . I960 m; h y d r i c ; Carex a q u a t i l i s dominant sps. J u l y 14 (18) Two Lakes Birch-Willow Shrub; on S side of East Lake; e l e v , 1965 m; NW-facing, gentle slope; growth 1 m; h y g r i c (19) Two Lakes Birch-Willow-Sedge Wetland; on S side of East Lake; el e v . 1960 m; h y d r i c ; shrub height about 6 m - 149 -(20) Two Lakes W i l l o w - B i r c h Wetland; E end of b a s i n , north of outflow creek; e l e v . 1955 m; dis t u r b e d h a b i t a t - very hummocky with wet depressions; growth of shrubs .3-.6 m J u l y 15 (21) Relay Cabin; h e a v i l y grazed meadow on S-facing slope above cabin between 2 la r g e g u l l i e s ; e lev. 1680 m; w e l l drained (22) Relay Cabin S-facing meadow as 21 but elev. 1710 m (23) Relay Cabin SE-facing seepage meadow; E- f a c i n g s i d e of r a v i n e s l i g h t l y NW of cabin; e l e v . 1700 m; steep slope; mesic J u l y 17 (25) Juniper-Arctostaphylos stand on S-facing slope NW of Relay Cabin; steep; e l e v . 2005 m; x e r i c (26) F e l l f i e l d W of saddle above c a b i n ; e l e v . 2075 m; x e r i c ; ESE aspect; s c a t t e r e d forbs (27) F e l l f i e l d below saddle; E - f a c i n g ; e l e v . 2085 m; l i c h e n s abundant (28) Saddle above cabin; W-facing rocky slope; e l e v . 2190 m; windswept; sparse, low growth (29) Ravine subalpine meadow below saddle - Low S a l i x shrub; SE-facing; e l e v . 2030 m; gentle slope; S a l i x growth l e s s than 25 cm (30) Subalpine meadow above cabin; SW f a c i n g ; e l e v . 1920 m; concave, gentle slope; mesic (31) Subalpine meadow above cabin; SE-facing; e l e v . 1760 m; a few sc a t t e r e d aspen (to 4.5 m i n height) J u l y 18 (32) Aspen meadow E of cabin; o l d burn s i t e with a S aspect; e l e v . 1670 m; good growth of grasses (33) Elymus stand E of cabin; 1 mile below t r a i l ; e l e v . 1670 m; steep, badly eroded slope; rocky s o i l ; growth to .6 m (34) Talus slope 1.6 km E of cabin, above t r a i l ; e l e v . 1720 m; dominants are aspen, Juniperus communis and Rosa a c i c u l a r i s . Pinus  a l b i c a u l i s dotted over slope. S-facing, steep slope (35) Rocky Populus tremuloides-Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i stand j u s t E of 34; el e v . 1740 m; an o l d burn s i t e ; SE-facing steep slope (36) Pinus a l b i c a u l i s - S h e p h e r d i a canadensis-grass stand on steep S-facing slope above t r a i l 2.5 km east of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1730 m (37) Sedge meadow 2.5 km E of cabin on N side of Relay Creek; e l e v . 1620 m; h y d r i c - 150 -(38) S a l i x - B e t u l a - C a r e x wetland; e l e v . 1620 m; shrubs .75-.9 m on N side of Relay Creek 2.5 km E of cabin (39) Taraxacum meadow j u s t E of cabin on v a l l e y f l o o r ; e l e v . 1630 m; Phleum alpinum and Geum t r i f l o r u m are abundant (40) S a l i x shrub stand E of cabin; e l e v . 1632 m; S a l i x 1-2 m t a l l ; g entle slope to creek (41) Grassy meadow j u s t W of horse pasture at Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1700 m; 10 percent slope w i t h SE aspect; mesic; o l d burn s i t e (42) Well drained meadow W of Relay Cabin horse pasture; e l e v . 1785 m; steep, S-facing slope; convex, x e r i c ; a l o t of bare ground (43) As i n #42; 1795 m; 30 percent slope (44) Grass-forb meadow; 1.6 km W of Relay cabin; e l e v . 1845 m; aspect 120°; 30 percent slope; s l i g h t l y convex; x e r i c , e r o s i o n i s evident (45) Arctostaphylos-grass meadow; 2.5 km W of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1800 m; S-facing, steep (30 percent) slope; rocky s o i l ; x e r i c ; convex J u l y 21 (46) Juniperus-Arctostaphylos-Shepherdia shrub community; 3.2 km E of cabin; e l e v . 1815 m; S-facing; very steep (40 percent) slope; rocky s o i l ; convex; subxeric (47) Subalpine parkland 3.2 km E of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1940 m; E-facing (100°); 20 percent slope (48) Juniperus-Arctostaphylos-Sherpherdia shrub type; 4 km E of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1900 m; S-facing, steep slope (30 per c e n t ) ; very rocky; x e r i c (49) Grass-forb meadow; 4.5 km E of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1920 m; S-facing, medium slope (18 pe r c e n t ) ; very rocky; exposed; dominants are Poa spp. & Oxytropus campestris (50) Heath meadow 4.5 km E of Relay Cabin; elev. 1910 m; on N-facing r i d g e w i t h moderate slope (23 percent); mesic-hygric J u l y 22 (51) Grass meadow i n L i t t l e Paradise B a s i n ; e l e v . 1935 m; W-facing, mesic, v a l l e y bottom; deep, loamy s o i l (52) S a l i x shrub type i n L i t t l e Paradise B a s i n ; e l e v . 1970 m; N-facing v a l l e y bottom; submesic; gently convex (53) S a l i x - w e t l a n d type i n L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 1975 m; N-facing; gentle slope; h y g r i c - h y d r i c - 151 -(54) S a l i x n i v a l i s - g r a s s meadow i n L i t t l e P a radise; e l e v . 2130 m; ENE aspect w i t h moderate-steep slope (16°); very hummocky; submesic; krummholz Abies l a s i o c a r p a i n v i c i n i t y (55) A l p i n e rocky ridge on W side of L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 2205 m; WNW-facing with steep slope (18°); x e r i c (56) Subalpine heath meadow on W side of L i t t l e P a r a d i s e ; e l e v . 2070 m; NE-facing, steep slope (23°); s l i g h t l y concave; mesic; l a t e snow area (growth j u s t begun) J u l y 23 (57) A l p i n e tundra on N-facing side of rid g e to north of ca b i n ; e l e v . 2220 m; steep slope (25°); very rocky; x e r i c ; C e t r a r i a n i v a l i s & C.  i s l a n d i c a are dominants ( a l s o Kobresia myosuroides) (58) A l p i n e heath meadow on N-facing side of rid g e to N of cabin; e l e v . 2200 m; steep (32°), NW-facing slope; rocky s o i l ; x e r i c ; concave (prob. a l a t e snow depression area); w i t h Dryas o c t o p e t a l a (59) D r y a s - S a l i x n i v a l i s ; concave depression areas amidst heath meadow ( p l o t 58); e l e v . 2130 m; NW-facing moderate slope (18°); submesic (not as rocky) (60) Subalpine parkland on N-facing side of rid g e to N of cabin; e l e v . 2070 m; WNW aspect; steep slope (34°); submesic (61) S a l i x wetland on N side of r i d g e to N of cab i n . ; e l e v . 2065 m; N-facing, gentle slope (9°); concave; h y g r i c J u l y 24 (62-65) Well drained meadow above the t r a i l to P r e n t i c e Lake i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1855 m; aspect 240°; f a i r l y steep slope (24°); dominants are f o r b s ; s o i l i s very rocky (66) Arctostaphylos-grass meadow above the t r a i l to P r e n t i c e Lake i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1945 m; moderate slope (18°); W-facing; x e r i c J u l y 26 (67) Talus slope 2.5 km from the cabin along the t r a i l to Relay Basin; e l e v . 1845 m; steep slope (42°); NE aspect (68) Juniper scrub on t a l u s slope 2.5 km from cabin on Relay Basin t r a i l ; e l e v . 1900 m; moderate slope (24°); NE aspect; l i c h e n s are dominant (69) Talus slope 2.5 km SW of Relay Cabin i n Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2000 m; steep slope (31°); NE aspect; dominated by crustose l i c h e n s (70) Subalpine f o r e s t 3.2 km SW of Relay Cabin below the l i t t l e lake on the W side of Relay Basin; e l e v . 2015 m; gentle slope (11°); E - f a c i n g ; rocky s o i l ; x e r i c ; dominants are Pinus a l b i c a u l i s & Abies  l a s i o c a r p a - 152 -(71) Talus slope above l i t t l e lake on W side of Relay B a s i n ; 3.2 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2105 m; steep slope (33°); x e r i c (72) Seepage meadow above tree l i n e on W side of Relay B a s i n ; 2.5 km from cabin; e l e v . 2080 m; gentle slope (7°); concave; mesic; e x c e l l e n t growth J u l y 27 (73) A l p i n e tundra 2.5 km SW of Relay Cabin at j u n c t i o n of Relay V a l l e y & Relay Basin; e l e v . 2220 m; gentle slope (13°); E aspect; Dryas octopetala & C e t r a r i a i s l a n d i c a are dominants (74) A l p i n e tundra 2.5 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2120 m; moderate-steep slope (25°); N-facing; convex; x e r i c ; sparse v e g e t a t i o n (75) Ridgetop meadow (subalpine) 2 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1990 m; gentle slope (9°); SW aspect; h e a v i l y grazed (76) Well drained forb meadow 2 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1990 m; SE aspect; steep slope (28°); concave; mesic (77) Willow shrub meadow 2 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1970 m; E aspect; gentle slope (5°) on v a l l e y bottom; s l i g h t l y concave; submesic; S a l i x height .3 m (78) Arctostaphylos shrub meadow 1.6 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1980 m; SE aspect; moderate slope (23°); convex; x e r i c (79) Subalpine meadow 1.6 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1895 m; SE aspect; moderate slope (22°); s l i g h t l y concave; mesic; growth to .3 m (80) Arctostaphylos-grass meadow 1.6 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1835 m; SE aspect; steep slope (37°); s l i g h t l y convex; x e r i c J u l y 28 (81) Grass meadow 3.2 km W of cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1815 m; S-facing, moderate slope (14°); concave; mesic (82) T a l l w i l l o w shrub on v a l l e y bottom 3.2 km W of cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1800 m; moderate slope (16°); N-facing; mesic to subhygric; undulating t e r r a i n ; S a l i x to 1.2 m (83) Low w i l l o w shrub on f l o o d p l a i n of Relay Creek 3.2 km W of cabin; e l e v . 1790 m; N-fac i n g ; sub-hygric; S a l i x to .75 m (84) Shepherdia-Juniperus shrub type 3.2 km W of cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1830 m; on S-facing, steep (33°) slope; convex; mesic; an o l d burn s i t e (85) Well drained meadow 3.2 km W of cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1830 m; steep (32°), S-facing slope; rocky; dominated by forbs - 153 -(86) Arctostaphylos-grass meadow on steep (30°), S-facing slope 2.5 km W of cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1765 m J u l y 29 (87) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrub wetland 1.6 km E of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1615 m; l e v e l to s l i g h t l y concave; hy g r i c to sub-hygric; mosses abundant (88) Spruce bog 1.6 km E of c a b i n ; e l e v . 1600 m; h y g r i c (89) Even-aged lodgepole pine stand 1.6 km SW of cabin; e l e v . 1670 m; some Abies regeneration; N aspect; on a bench above Relay Creek; sparse ground cover; a l o t of w i n d f a l l J u l y 30 (90) Grass-forb meadow 2.5 km W of Relay Cabin 45 m above Relay Creek; elev. 1755 m; SSE aspect; gentle slope to creek; mesic (91) Aspen grove 1.6 km W of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1760 m; SE aspect; steep slope (26°); mesic; undulating topography, an o l d burn s i t e w i t h a l o t of dead t r e e s ; trees to 6 m t a l l J u l y 31 (92) Low shrub meadow at t i m b e r l i n e below saddle to N of cabin; e l e v . 2125 m; moderate slope (15°); E aspect; submesic (93) Betula-Dryas a l p i n e meadow below saddle to N of ca b i n ; e l e v . 2150 m; moderate slope (11°); N aspect; submesic-xeric (94) Seepage meadow below f e l l f i e l d on N side of saddle to N of cabin; e l e v . 2975 m; N-facing, moderate slope (11°); rocky; mesic; concave b a s i n (95) Wetland meadow below saddle to N of cabin on N-facing slope; e l e v . 2065 m; moderate slope (15°); the moss s t r a t a i s dominant (96) A l p i n e meadow below r i d g e (on N side) to N of ca b i n ; e l e v . 2120 m; medium slope (20°); ENE aspect; concave, s u b x e r i c ; somewhat rocky (97) A l p i n e shrubland meadow on N side of r i d g e to N of cabin; e l e v . 2170 m; ENE aspect; moderate slope (15°); concave; submesic x e r i c ; very rocky, dominated by Arctostaphylos uva-ursi & Kobresia  myosuroides (98) A l p i n e grassland i n saddle to N of cabin; e l e v . 2165 m; l e v e l ; very rocky; stone s t r i p e s are apparent Aug. 1 (99) Low w i l l o w shrubland above Two Lakes; on N-facing slope j u s t E of the saddle i n the r i d g e ; e l e v . 2100 m; steep slope (31°); convex; s l i g h t l y rocky, x e r i c (100) F e l l f i e l d on S side of r i d g e to N of Two Lakes j u s t W of saddle; e l e v . 2080 m; SSW aspect; gentle slope (13°); undulating t e r r a i n ; rocky; x e r i c ; dominated by Arctostaphylos u v a - u r s i & Lupinus  lepidus - 154 -Aug. 2 (101) Shrubland on rocky slope above headwaters of Graveyard Creek; e l e v . 1930 m; subalpine steep slope (35°); SW aspect; convex; x e r i c ; a l o t of bare ground and rock (102) T a l l w i l l o w shrubland at SE end of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1900 m; on v a l l e y bottomland; submesic; rocky s o i l ; S a l i x to 1.5 m (103-104) Grass meadow at S end of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1900 m; v a l l e y bottom ( o l d lake bed); submesic (105) Well drained grass meadow on E f a c i n g h i l l s i d e on SW side of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1905 m; steep slope (33°); s l i g h t l y concave; x e r i c (106) S a l i x wetland i n small v a l l e y o f f W side of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1930 m; E - f a c i n g , gentle slope (8°); concave; h y g r i c (107) Grass meadow i n Graveyard V a l l e y on v a l l e y f l o o r ; e l e v . 1900 m; submesic; growth to 15 cm (108) Low w i l l o w shrubland on E side of Graveyard Creek about m i d - v a l l e y ; e l e v . 1900 m; on gently r o l l i n g v a l l e y bottom; mesic-subhygric (109) Grass meadow on W si d e of Graveyard V a l l e y on an a l l u v i a l f an; el e v . 1905 m; ENE aspect; gentle slope (6°); x e r i c Aug. 3 (110) Grass meadow i n middle of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1870 m; v a l l e y bottom ( l a c u s t r i n e ) ; submesic (111) Old burn s i t e w i t h Pinus a l b i c a u l i s regeneration on western slopes of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1970 m; ENE aspect; steep slope (36°); convex; rocky; x e r i c (112) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on western side of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1920 m; E - f a c i n g , moderate slope (17°); concave; h y g r i c (113) Sedge meadow i n middle of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1860 m; on v a l l e y f l o o r below Pinus c o n t o r t a f o r e s t ; hygric-mesic (114-115) Grass meadow i n center of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1860 m; on v a l l e y f l o o r ; mesic; growth 10-12 cm (116) Well drained meadow at N end of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1865 m; E- f a c i n g , gentle slope (10°); hummocky; submesic (117) Forb meadow on E side of Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1920 m; SW aspect; moderate slope (21°); concave; mesic; Epilobium  a n g u s t i f o l i u m i s common - 155 -Aug. 4 (118) Grass meadow 1.6 km E of Graveyard V a l l e y on way to Relay Basin; e l e v . 1960 m; SW aspect; gentle slope (11°); concave; mesic (119) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on a l l l u v i a l fan 2 km E from Graveyard V a l l e y on way to Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 1965 m; convex; h y g r i c ; SW aspect (120) Shrub-meadow complex .8 km W of pass to Relay Basin from Graveyard V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2035 m; a l p i n e ; SW aspect; hummocky; subhygric (121) Well drained a l p i n e meadow i n pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2155 m; S-facing, steep slope (26°); convex; submesic Aug. 5 (122) A l p i n e meadow on S si d e of small lake (pond) E of pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2145 m; f l a t ; very rocky; mesic (123) A l p i n e shrub meadow ( S a l i x n i v a l i s - D r y a s - F e s t u c a ) E of pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay Basin; e l e v . 2170 m; N-facing, moderate slope (10°); convex; x e r i c (124) A l p i n e meadow SE of pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2225 m; NE aspect; gentle slope (5°); very rocky; s l i g h t l y convex; mesic (125) Low w i l l o w shrubland i n v a l l e y bottom E of pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2070 m; E - f a c i n g ; s l i g h t l y concave; mesic (126) Well drained meadow i n v a l l e y bottom E of pass from Graveyard V a l l e y to Relay Basin; e l e v . 2075 m; S-facing; gentle slope (12°); very rocky; hummocky; submesic to x e r i c (127) Well drained meadow on W side of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2100 m; S-facing, moderate slope (18°); convex; x e r i c (128) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on W side of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2070 m; ESE aspect; gentle slope (10°); undulating t e r r a i n ; mesic (129-132) Subalpine meadow i n E side of Relay Basin on la r g e a l l u v i a l fan at base of Relay Mountain; e l e v . 2015 m; W-facing, very gentle slope (6°); s l i g h t l y convex; mesic-submesic Aug. 6 (133) Rockland on peak of Relay Mtn.; v o l c a n i c rock; e l e v . 2790 m; dominated by crustose l i c h e n s ; convex; x e r i c Aug. 8 (134) Well drained meadow 6.4 km E of cabin & above t r a i l to P r e n t i c e Lake; e l e v . 1720 m; ESE aspect; moderate-steep slope (23°); poor c o n d i t i o n ; convex; x e r i c (135) Well drained meadow 6.4 km E of cabin and above t r a i l to Pr e n t i c e Lake; e l e v . 1780 m; ESE aspect; steep slope (30°); convex; x e r i c - 156 -(136) Subalpine parkland (Pinus a l b i c a u l i s ) 5.5 km E of cabin on N side of Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1790 m; S-facing; steep slope (40°); convex; x e r i c , w i t h Arctostaphylos & Juniperus shrubs (137) Subalpine meadow 4.8 km E of cabin on N side of Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1785 m; E aspect; moderate slope (21°); concave; mesic; rocky; dominant trees are Pinus a l b i c a u l i s & P^ con t o r t a (138) Arctostaphylos-Juniperus shrubland on S-facing slope above P r e n t i c e Lake c u t o f f (4.8 km E of Relay c a b i n ) ; e l e v . 1775 m; steep slope (38°); very rocky; convex; x e r i c ; o l d burn s i t e Aug. 9 (139) Arc tostaphylos-grass meadow on the S side of k n o l l to S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2040 m; moderately steep slope (24^); SW aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; mesic (140) B i r c h - w i l l o w shrubland on S si d e of k n o l l to S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2070 m; gentle slope (13°); SW aspect; concave; mesic h y g r i c (141) Dryas f e l l f i e l d on S side of k n o l l to S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2160 m; gentle slope (13°); SW aspect; concave; x e r i c (142) Lichen f e l l f i e l d on S side of k n o l l to S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2180 m; gentle slope (10°); W aspect; convex; x e r i c ; rocky (143) A l p i n e meadow on S side of k n o l l to S of cabin on W f a c i n g side of pass; moderate slope (16°); e l e v . 2170 m; concave; mesic (144) Dryas meadow on W side of r i d g e to W of k n o l l S of ca b i n ; e l e v . 2155 m; ENE aspect; steep slope (26°); convex; mesic (145) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on eastern slope of k n o l l to S of cabin; e l e v . 2120 m; E aspect; concave; subhygric (146) Dryas f e l l f i e l d on N side of k n o l l S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2115 m; NE aspect; moderate slope (22°); concave; rocky; x e r i c Aug. 10 (147) A l p i n e meadow i n cirqu e on E side of Dash plateau to W of saddle above Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2260 m; NE aspect; gentle slope (13°); convex; very rocky; submesic (148) B i r c h wetland i n depression area of c i r q u e to the W of the saddle above Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2230 m; s l i g h t l y concave; h y g r i c (149) A l p i n e meadow NW of c i r q u e to W of saddle above Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2210 m; gentle slope (9°); ENE aspect; concave; mesic (150) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d NW of c i r q u e to W of saddle above Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2230 m; gentle slope (8°); N. f a c i n g ; convex; x e r i c - 157 -(151) A l p i n e meadow on E side of Dash p l a t e a u above c i r q u e ; e l e v . 2240 m; slope very gentle (4°); NE aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; submesic (152) A l p i n e meadow on E si d e of Dash plateau NW of c i r q u e ; e l e v . 2265 m; very gentle slope (4°); NE aspect; rocky; convex; submesic (153) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on -E si d e of Dash p l a t e a u NW of c i r q u e ; e l e v . 2275 m; gentle slope (6°); N aspect; very rocky; concave; x e r i c (154) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on E end of Dash plateau below the k n o l l ; e l e v . 2310 m; very gentle slope (5°); NNW aspect; very rocky; convex; x e r i c Aug. 11 (155) W i l l o w - b i r c h wetland on Relay V a l l e y f l o o r j u s t E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1860 m; f l a t ; h y g r i c ; S a l i x growth to 1 m (156) Subalpine meadow on S-facing h i l l s i d e of Relay V a l l e y j u s t E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1865 m; steep slope (39°); S aspect; rocky; c onvex; s ubme s i c (157) Subalpine meadow at foot of S-facing slope j u s t E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1860 m; l e v e l ; mesic (158) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on Relay V a l l e y f l o o r 2.5 km E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1850 m; very gentle slope (5°); s l i g h t l y concave; mesic; growth to 1 m (159) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrub wetland i n Relay V a l l e y 3.2 km E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1845 m; gentle slope (5°) with ENE aspect; c onvex; s ubhygr i c (160) Subalpine meadow i n Relay V a l l e y 3.2 km E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1835 m; on v a l l e y bottom; submesic (161) Well drained subalpine meadow on S-facing slope of Relay V a l l e y 3.2 km E of Two Lakes b a s i n ; e l e v . 1890 m; steep slope (32°); SSW aspect; convex; subxeric (162) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland 4 km W of Relay Cabin i n Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1835 m; on v a l l e y bottom; h y g r i c Aug. 12 (163) Subalpine meadow i n Relay Basin south of the rock s l i d e 4 km from Relay Cabin; elev. 1820 m; v a l l e y bottom; rocky; submesic (164) Arctostaphylos meadow on the rocky h i l l s j u s t beyond the t a l u s slope i n Relay Basin 4 km from cabin; e l e v . 1825 m; moderate slope (18°); ESE aspect; convex; subxeric (165) Sedge wetland meadow i n Relay Basin j u s t beyond t a l u s slope 4 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1820 m; v a l l e y bottom; h y g r i c ; Carex  a q u a t i l i s i s dominant - 158 -(166) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on east side of creek i n Relay Basin 4.8 km; SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1830 m; mesic; growth to 1 m (167) Well drained subalpine grass-forb meadow on E-faci n g slope of Relay Basin 4.8 km SW of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1870 m; moderate slope (21°); SE aspect (168) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrub wetland i n Relay Basin 4.8 km SW of cabin; elev. 1870 m; gentle slope (8°); E - f a c i n g ; s l i g h t l y concave; h y g r i c (169) Low w i l l o w shrubland on a l l u v i a l outwash on v a l l e y f l o o r i n Relay Basin 4.8 km SW of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1850 m; rocky; submesic Aug. 13 (170) A l p i n e meadow at end of L i t t l e Paradise b a s i n ; e l e v . 2090 m; moderate slope (16°); N aspect; hummocky; s l i g h t l y concave; mesic (171) A l p i n e grass meadow on E-faci n g slopes of Paradise V a l l e y j u s t over the pass from L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 2170 m; gentle slope (13°); S aspect; concave; submesic (172) A l p i n e grass meadow on E- f a c i n g slopes of Paradise V a l l e y j u s t over the pass from L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 2145 m; moderate slope (21°); S f a c i n g ; concave; submesic (173-175) A l p i n e meadow on ENE f a c i n g slope i n Paradise V a l l e y j u s t over pass from L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 2065 m; steep slope (32°); overgrazed; concave; x e r i c ; dominants are Cirsium hookerianum & Geum  t r i f l o r u m (176) Low w i l l o w shrub at end of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y j u s t W of pass to Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2240 m; moderate slope (15°); SW aspect; convex; mesic; growth to .3 m Aug. 15 (177) Poplar scrub on SE f a c i n g slope i n ba s i n j u s t SE of Two Lakes Basin o f f of Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1910 m; steep slope (32°); convex; rocky; x e r i c ; growth to 1.3 m; a l o t of bare ground (178) Poplar scrub on S-facing slope i n b a s i n j u s t E of Two Lakes on S side of Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1940 m; steep slope (31°); convex; rocky; x e r i c (179) Subalpine meadow i n spruce-lodgepole pine f o r e s t i n ba s i n j u s t E of Two Lakes Basin on S side of Relay V a l l e y ; e l e v . 1955 m; moderate slope (17°); ESE aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; submesic (180) Arctostaphylos meadow N of pond to SE of Two Lakes B a s i n ; e l e v . 2050 m; moderately steep slope (26°); SW aspect; concave; submesic (181) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland SW of pond above Two Lakes B a s i n ; s l i g h t l y convex; submesic; l e v e l ground - 159 -(182) Sedge wetland on v a l l e y f l o o r i n ba s i n SE of Two Lakes Basin and S of Relay V a l l e y ; s l i g h t l y concave; h y d r i c ; e l e v . 1940 m; dominated by Carex r o s t r a t a (183) Dry w i l l o w shrub i n ba s i n SE of Two Lakes B a s i n ; e l e v . 1980 m; gentle slope (8°); N. aspect; convex; submesic Aug. 16 (184-185) B i g meadow (subalpine) on a l l u v i a l fan i n Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 1925 m; gentle slope (7°); NW aspect; convex; mesic (186) S a l i x wetland at S end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 1965 m; gentle slope (9°); W-facing; s l i g h t l y concave; h y g r i c ; growth to 1.2 m (187) Subalpine meadow i n parkland at S end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2020 m; gentle slope (8°); W-facing; convex; mesic to subhygric (188) A l p i n e meadow on NW-facing slope at S end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2080 m; gentle slope (13°); convex; submesic (189) S a l i x wetland at S end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2035 m; moderate slope (15°); WNW aspect; concave; h y g r i c Aug. 17 (190) Carex n i g r i c a n s l a t e snow depression area on E-faci n g r i d g e of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2070 m; concave; subhygric to mesic; l o c a l (191) Subalpine shrubland on S r i d g e of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2080 m; moderate slope (16°); N aspect; undulating t e r r a i n ; submesic (192) Heath community on E-faci n g slope at end of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2100 m; moderate slope (21°); mesic; l a t e snow depression areas (193) Seepage shrub meadow i n L i t t l e Paradise; e l e v . 2110 m; gentle slope (14°); NW aspect; concave depression area; h y g r i c ; mosses common along stream (194) S a l i x wetland at end of L i t t l e Paradise B a s i n ; e l e v . 2035 m; gentle slope (11°); N aspect; concave; h y g r i c (195) S a l i x - g r a s s meadow i n N arm of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2020 m; moderate slope (22°); SSW aspect; hummocky; submesic (196) Poplar scrub on rocky SW-facing slope at mouth of L i t t l e Paradise V a l l e y ; e l e v . 2020 m; steep slope (34°); unstable; convex; x e r i c Aug. 18 (197) A l p i n e meadow on southern, lower p o r t i o n of W Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2170 m; s l i g h t l y concave; gently r o l l i n g ; submesic (198) B i r c h shrubland on SW end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2170 m; gentle slope (7°); W aspect; convex; mesic - 160 -(199) Gravel bed on SW end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2170 m; gentle slope (4°); W aspect; concave; x e r i c (200) A l p i n e meadow on Dash Plate a u on the W side near Dash Creek; el e v . 2030 m; gentle slope (4°); W aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; subxeric (201) Seepage meadow along Dash Creek drainage; e l e v . 2120 m; concave; h y g r i c ; hummocky from c a t t l e trampling (202) B i r c h - w i l l o w shrubland i n c e n t r a l part of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2135 m; gentle slope (9°); WSW aspect; convex; submesic; growth to .3 m (203) Arctostaphylos dwarf shrub f e l l f i e l d on W part of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2115 m; gentle slope (6°); SE aspect; g r a v e l l y ; convex; x e r i c ; sparse v e g e t a t i o n (204) A l p i n e meadow on SW end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2110 m; moderate slope (15°); NNE aspect; s l i g h t l y hummocky; convex; submesic (205) A l p i n e meadow on SW end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2135 m; moderate slope (14°); NNE aspect; convex; x e r i c Aug. 19 (206) Spruce f o r e s t on k n o l l S of cabin across Relay Creek; e l e v . 1820 m; moderate slope (17°); W-facing; convex; mesic; no shrub l a y e r (207) B i r c h - w i l l o w shrubland on N-facing slope S of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2090 m; moderate slope (14°); very rocky; convex; submesic (208) Subalpine parkland on N. f a c i n g slope to S. of ca b i n ; e l e v . 2075 m; moderate slope (15°); rocky; s l i g h t l y concave; x e r i c (209) Old lodgepole pine f o r e s t on N f a c i n g slope on S side of Relay Creek above cabin; e l e v . 1830 m; steep slope (27°); NW aspect; convex; mesic; s u c c e s s i o n a l to subalpine f i r Aug. 21 (210) Aspen scrub-Shepherdia on rocky, south-facing slope below the Red C l i f f s 3 km E of cabin; e l e v . 1720 m; steep slope (39°); SSW aspect; convex; x e r i c (211) Aspen scrub below Red C l i f f s 3 km E of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1750 m; steep slope (38°); SSW aspect; very rocky; convex; x e r i c ; growth to .8 m (212) Well drained meadow j u s t W of Red C l i f f s 3 km E of cabin; e l e v . 1840 m; steep slope (36°); S-facing; rocky; convex; x e r i c - 161 -(213) Old burn s i t e w i t h Abies l a s i o c a r p a & Pinus a l b i c a u l i s regeneration on top of r i d g e above Red C l i f f s 3 km E of ca b i n ; e l e v . 1900 m; gentle slope (10°); N aspect; concave; submesic; growth to 3 m (214) Subalpine meadow j u s t W of creek by Red C l i f f s 3 km E of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1750 m; moderate slope (19°); ESE aspect; submesic (215) Subalpine meadow W of creek by Red C l i f f s 3 km E of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 1740 m; steep slope (32°); S-facing; concave; mesic Aug. 22 (216) A l p i n e tundra on E side of Dash Plateau below c i r q u e l a k e ; e l e v . 2185 m; gentle slope (10°); NE aspect; rocky s o i l ; concave; mesic (217) B i r c h - w i l l o w shrubland on E end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2195 m; gentle slope (4°); ENE aspect; convex; mesic; growth to .3m (218) D r y a s - l i c h e n f e l l f i e l d on E end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2190 m; almost f l a t w i t h a south-eastern exposure; rocky; convex; x e r i c (219) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrub wetland on E side of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2190 m; very gentle slope (4°); N aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; h y g r i c ; growth to .6m (220) A l p i n e meadow on E side of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2230 m; gentle slope (7°); N aspect; convex; subxeric (221) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d E of the dry gorge on the eastern side of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2250 m; gentle slope (6°); NW aspect; very rocky with some stone s t r i p e s ; convex; x e r i c (222) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on E end of Dash P l a t e a u ; e l e v . 2300 m; s l i g h t slope (2°); W aspect; very rocky; s l i g h t l y concave; x e r i c (223) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on the k n o l l W of the saddle on Dash P l a t e a u (eastern end); e l e v . 2370 m; s l i g h t slope (2°); S aspect; s l i g h t l y convex; x e r i c ; very rocky (224) A l p i n e f e l l f i e l d on top of the rid g e to the W of the saddle N of Relay Cabin; e l e v . 2345 m; e s s e n t i a l l y f l a t ; very rocky; x e r i c Aug. 23 (225) S p r u c e - f i r f o r e s t i n cool drainage area on S-facing slope above cabin; e l e v . 1865 m; moderate slope (19°); E aspect; beside creek; concave; subhygric (226) Subalpine meadow on S-facing slope above cabin; e l e v . 1965 m; on a bench w i t h a SE aspect; convex; mesic (227) Subalpine f o r e s t (parkland) with Pinus a l b i c a u l i s , P. contorta & Abies l a s i o c a r p a ; on S-facing slope above cabin; e l e v . 1985 m; gentle slope ( H o ) ; SE aspect; very rocky; x e r i c - 162 -(228) Subalpine seepage meadow i n f o r e s t opening on S-facing slope above cabin; e l e v . 1885 m; gentle slope (12°); SE aspect; concave; hyg r i c Aug. 24 (229) Subalpine sedge meadow 2.5 km W of Relay Cabin between Relay Creek and the t r a i l ; e l e v . 1775 m; moderate slope (21°); SSE aspect; concave; mesic (230) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrub wetland on N side of Two Lakes midway between the lak e s ; e l e v . 1955 m; gentle slope (8°); S aspect; s l i g h t l y convex; h y g r i c ; growth to .6 m (231) W i l l o w - b i r c h shrubland on N side of Two Lakes Basin above the S a l i x wetland areas; e l e v . 1950 m; gentle slope (8°); SSE aspect; convex; submesic; growth to .75 m Aug. 26 (232) A l p i n e meadow on N-facing slopes at end of Relay Basin (W s i d e ) ; e l e v . 2150 m; steep slope (25°); ENE aspect; convex; su b x e r i c ; j u s t above tree l i n e (233) A l p i n e meadow on N-facing slopes at W end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2220 m; moderately steep slope (22°); ENE aspect; convex; x e r i c ; rocky (234) A l p i n e meadow on N-facing slopes at W end of Relay B a s i n ; e l e v . 2215 m; moderate slope (20°); ENE aspect; convex; x e r i c Aug. 27 (235) Subalpine meadow 1.6 km E of cabin; e l e v . 1740 m; moderate slope (22°); SE aspect; s l i g h t l y concave; mesic (236) Open pine f o r e s t on o l d burn s i t e on S-facing slope s l i g h t l y E of cabin; e l e v . 1820 m; steep slope (32°); S aspect; very rocky s o i l ; convex; submesic Aug. 28 (237) Open pine f o r e s t - shrub area at N end of P r e n t i c e Lake; e l e v . 1775 m; steep slope (32°); S aspect; x e r i c Aug. 29 (238) Overgrazed meadow on E f a c i n g h i l l s i d e at N end of P r e n t i c e Lake above sedge meadow; e l e v . 1670 m; steep slope (40°); E aspect; convex; x e r i c ; a l o t of bare ground (239) Grass meadow on E-facing slope at S end of P r e n t i c e Lake; e l e v . 1710 m; moderate slope (20°); E aspect; convex; x e r i c ; rocky s o i l 

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