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The indigenous voice : the expression of indigenous culture in the literary works of José María Arguedas,… Taylor, Rita 1981

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THE INDIGENOUS VOICE: THE EXPRESSION OF INDIGENOUS CULTURE IN THE LITERARY WORKS OF JOSE MARIA ARGUEDAS, VINCENT ERI, WITI IHIMAERA AND PARTICIA GRACE, by RITA TAYLOR B . A . , S i r George Wil l iams U n i v e r s i t y , 1965 M.A. , The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Comparative L i te ra ture We accept th is thes is as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 19 81 (g) RITA TAYLOR In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Comparative L i t e r a t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date March 9. 1981. DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT What l inks the texts of Jose Maria Arguedas (Los r i o s  profundos, 19 58) , Vincent E r i (The Crocodile> 1970) , Wi t i Ihimaera (Tangi, 1973) and P a t r i c i a Grace (Mutuwhenua, 1978) together i s t h e i r common goal of expressing indigenous cul ture from an ' i n s i d e ' perspect ive in response to fore ign i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The purpose of th is study i s to invest igate the problematic process of l i t e r a r y rendering of indigenous cul ture in i t s context of domination. In the In t roduct ion, a t h e o r e t i c a l framework i s proposed wi th in which the c r i t i q u e s of the i n d i v i d u a l texts are s i tua ted . Since the thematic content of these works i s based on c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and the purpose of the study i s to invest iga te the process of the aesthet ic mediation of these c o n f l i c t s , the c r i t i c a l theor ies drawn from are ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' . Within th is frame of reference bas ic questions r e f e r r i n g to the r e l a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e to ideology and the s o c i a l funct ion of l i t e r a t u r e are posed. The chapters deal ing with the s p e c i f i c texts invest igate how each author del ineates the c o n f l i c t of the dominating and dominated c u l t u r e s , by what means an inner perspect ive of indigenous cul ture i s rendered, how the problem of expressing indigenous cul ture in the language of the dominating cul ture i s reso lved , and how the aesthet ic devices correspond with the proposed ' indigenous^ or 'pro- indigenous' ideology. In the sect ion on Los r i o s profundos, the text i s b r i e f l y re la ted to indigenismo, both as a pro-indigenous movement and as a concept. Arguedas' de l ineat ion of the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contrad ic t ions of the Andean world and his methods of rendering indigenous cul ture from the ' i n s i d e ' by in tegra t ing Quechua structures (language, music, mythology), and through the use of aesthet ic devices (metaphor, image, symbol) are d iscussed. The chapter on The Crocodi le focuses on E r i ' s rendering of the process of co lon iza t ion whereby the colonized are d ivested of t h e i r c u l t u r a l s t ruc tures . This study again i s based on how t h i s .process i s rendered from ' i n s i d e ' the indigenous perspect ive and how the aesthet ic devices used by the author correspond with the indigenous viewpoint. In the chapter on Tangi and Mutuwhenua, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the general concepts and process of maoritanga and the texts i s drawn. Ihimaera's and Grace's methods of de f in ing a maori c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y in the l i t e r a r y medium are discussed and the impl ica t ions regarding t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e s towards ' r e t r i e v i n g 1 cu l ture are considered. i v . In the C o n c l u s i o n , the t e x t s by the f o u r authors are drawn i n t o c l o s e r r e l a t i o n w i t h one another. The f i n d i n g s of the study of t h e i r t e x t s , w i t h regard to how each author expresses the indigenous ' v o i c e ' and the i d e o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c u l a t i o n s , are summarized. \ v. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. INTRODUCTION. CRITICAL ORIENTATION. 1 II. INDIGENTSMO. THE PARADIGM OF THE WANDERER IN A WORLD OF SOCIAL OPPRESSION. JOSE MARIA ARGUEDAS, LOS RIOS PROFUNDOS. . . . . 24 III. QUECHUA VISION. EL CORAZON INDTGENA JOSE MARIA ARGUEDAS, LOS RIOS PROFUNDOS 58 IV. THE LOSS OF CULTURAL STRUCTURES. VINCENT ERI, THE CROCODILE 89 V. MAORITANGA. THE SEARCH FOR MAORI IDENTITY. WITI IHIMAERA, TANGI. PATRICIA GRACE, MUTUWHENUA 129 VI . CONCLUSION 186 BIBLIOGRAPHY 218 v i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my appreciat ion to the members of the thes is committee: Antonio U r r e l l o , Isaac Rubi'o.and Harold Edinger . I would a lso l i k e to thank Ulamila Naugavule, R e j i e l i Racule , Lavenia Kaurasi and Makiut i Tongia (of F i j i , Rotuma and Cook Is lands ) , whose conversation and f r iendsh ip have been part of the i n s p i r a t i o n for th is p r o j e c t . CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION. CRITICAL ORIENTATION. 1. The purpose of th is introductory chapter i s to del ineate the c r i t i c a l sphere within which the t h e o r e t i c a l ana lys is of the texts to be discussed i s s i tua ted . Since concrete s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l cont rad ic t ions are the d i r e c t concern of the texts chosen for d i s c u s s i o n , and since the object ive of the study i s to invest igate the problematic process involved in the l i t e r a r y expression of the indigenous ' v o i c e ' in a context of c u l t u r a l oppression, the t h e o r e t i c a l concepts of 'soc io logica l ' " ' " c r i t i c s are of methodological re levance. Rather than arguing the p a r t i c u l a r or general views of the ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' c r i t i c s d iscussed , these views w i l l be placed in r e l a t i o n to each other so as to e s t a b l i s h a body of i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts which w i l l serve as a t h e o r e t i c a l focus for the c r i t i q u e s that fo l low. The bas ic precept upon which any ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' study i s based i s that which recognizes the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i t e r a r y st ructures and s o c i a l r e a l i t y . L i te ra ture then i s envisaged as a process in te rac t ing with and an i n t e g r a l part of other s o c i a l processes. One of the most i n f l u e n t i a l exponents of s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t i c i s m i s Georg Lukacs. The comments that fo l low do not attempt to do j u s t i c e to h is vast range of theory and prac t ice but represent rather a summary of those concepts that are p a r t i c u l a r l y re levant to the d iscuss ion of the texts 2. t h a t f o l l o w s . Lukacs' theory of the n o v e l and some of the novels on which i t i s based, are the products of a p e r i o d of rampant i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Europe which saw the breakdown of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . The breakdown of s t r u c t u r e s c r e a t e d on one hand an o p t i m i s t i c promise of l i b e r a l freedom; but, on the other hand, a sense of the l o s s of o r g a n i c r e l a t e d n e s s and consequently a sense of a l i e n a t i o n . His theory of the n o v e l as a form having a s t r u c t u r e of presence-in-absence (of values) and the l o s s of meaning a p p l i e s w e l l to the t e x t s to be d i s c u s s e d , which take l a r g e l y f o r t h e i r s u b j e c t matter the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the indigenous c u l t u r e s i n f a c e of f o r e i g n i m p o s i t i o n s and new s t r u c t u r e s . Lukacs' main p r o p o s a l i n The Theory of the Novel i s t h a t whereas, the theme of the e p i c i n v o l v e s the d e s t i n y of a community, the n o v e l as genre e v o l v i n g from the epos presents d e s t i n i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s whose i n t e r i o r l i v e s are d i v o r c e d from 2 'communal' l i f e or from s o c i a l v a l u e s and norms. In the world of the e p i c the q u e s t i o n of 'meaning' had not y e t been separated from the t e x t u r e of 'being'; by c o n t r a s t i n the world of the n o v e l there e x i s t s a b a s i c imbalance experienced on p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l l e v e l s , g i v i n g r i s e t o the search f o r 'meaning'. The d i a l e c t i c a l antinomy experienced between s o c i a l norms and conventions and the s u b j e c t i v i t y of the p r o t a g o n i s t c o n s t i t u t e s the search towards a r e c u p e r a t i o n of ' a u t h e n t i c ' b e i n g from which 'meaning' i s not r a d i c a l l y d i s c o n n e c t e d . 3 3. The concept of the 'problematic protagonis t ' and h is 'search ' i s thus cent ra l to the theory of the nove l . The term 'problematic protagonist ' - re fers to the i n d i v i d u a l who, exper iencing 'd issonance' between h is s u b j e c t i v i t y and the wor ld , seeks, i r o n i c a l l y , ' au thent ic ' va lues . This search , according to Lukacs i s cent ra l to the narrat ive s t ructure of 4 the novel form. This concept, re levant with some modi f ica -t ions to the texts to be d iscussed , which take for t h e i r subject matter the search for ' indigenous' values as a 'concealed ' t o t a l i t y , w i l l be appl ied to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l nar ra t ive s t ructures in the chapters that fo l low. At t h i s point i t i s a lso important to def ine Lukacs' i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts of ' r e f l e c t i o n ' and ' rea l is :m' . ' R e f l e c t i o n ' denotes not the unmodified, mechancial mir ror ing of r e a l i t y but a combination of r e f l e c t i v e phenomena and abstract ions whereby "a new r e a l i t y " i s created through ' i n d i r e c t n e s s ' , which according to Lukacs i s " s p e c i f i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a r t " . 5 Realism re fe rs to that type of l i t e r a t u r e that has as i t s object ive the depic t ion of "man and society as complete e n t i t i e s " , a l i t e r a t u r e recognizant of the fact that "every a c t i o n , thought and emotion of human beings i s inseparably bound up with the l i f e and struggles of the community". The ' c e n t r a l category' of r e a l i s t l i t e r a t u r e i s the ' t y p e ' : "a pecu l i a r synthesis which organ ica l ly binds together the general and the p a r t i c u l a r both in characters and 4. 7 ^ s i t u a t i o n s . " For Lukacs, r e a l i s m , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o n a t u r a l i s m and expressionism, r e s t s ' n e i t h e r on a l i f e l e s s g average" nor on "an i n d i v i d u a l p r i n c i p l e " . U n d e r l y i n g Lukacs' theory i s the concept of man as a c o l l e c t i v e b e i n g whose s u b j e c t i v i t y i s 'produced' w i t h i n and through the a c t i v i t y of the c o l l e c t i v e . T h i s i s based on Marx's premise: " I t i s not the consciousness of men t h a t determines t h e i r b e i n g , but, on the c o n t r a r y , t h e i r s o c i a l 9 e x i s t e n c e determines t h e i r consciousness." In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the n o v e l form, Lukacs r e c o g n i z e s the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of content and form; t h a t i s , form i s p e r c e i v e d as the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p r a c t i c e of content r a t h e r than i t s mere mould. For Lukacs, and s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t i c s f o l l o w i n g along h i s l i n e s , a s o c i o l o g i c a l viewpoint of l i t e r a t u r e i m p l i e s not only l o o k i n g a t the r e l a t i o n of the a b s t r a c t a b l e content of a work of a r t t o s o c i e t y , but l o o k i n g at the r e l a t i o n s of a r t forms t o s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s ; t h a t i s , form i s p e r c e i v e d as a b e a r e r of i d e o l o g y . The i s s u e by which d i f f e r e n t approaches of the c r i t i c s under the g e n e r a l heading of a ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' study of l i t e r a t u r e are most c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i s t h a t of the r e l a t i o n between i d e o l o g y and the t e x t . T h i s i s s u e i s r a i s e d here both because the category of 'ideology' i s c e n t r a l t o the l i n e of ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' c r i t i c i s m taken up i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , and because one of the q u e s t i o n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters r e f e r s t o the p r o d u c t i o n of 'indigenous' 5. or 'pro- ind igenous ' ideology in the respect ive tex ts . For Lukacs and Lucien Goldmann ideology i s synonymous with w o r l d - v i s i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y the wor ld -v is ion of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l group or c l a s s . Goldmann makes th is c lear i n the in t roduct ion to The Hidden God: What I have c a l l e d a 'world v i s i o n ' i s a convenient term for the whole complex of ideas , asp i ra t ions and fee l ings which l inks together the members of a s o c i a l group (a group which, i n most cases, assumes the existence of a s o c i a l class) and which ^ opposes them to members of other s o c i a l groups. For Goldmann the tex t / ideo logy r e l a t i o n i s that of a s t r u c t u r a l homology: "the s t ructures of the world of the work are homologous with the mental s t ructures of cer ta in s o c i a l groups." It i s on the bas is of th is c o r r e l a t i o n that Goldmann proposes the " g e n e t i c - s t r u c t u r a l i s t " method. According to th is approach the work of ar t i s perceived as a const i tuent element of the c o l l e c t i v e consciousness, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to the more t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i c a l approach which Goldmann terms a "sociology of contents" , whereby the work i s considered as expressing the c o l l e c t i v e consciousness on the l e v e l of content . For Goldmann, although the i n d i v i d u a l text i s to be t reated by the c r i t i c / r e a d e r as having i t s own author i ty , with no higher author i ty than i t s e l f , the fac t that each work of l i t e r a t u r e has a world-view (that i s , values) based on the s o c i a l and economic l i f e b u i l t in to i t , leads to the necessi ty on the part of the c r i t i c to take in to account the embracing 6 . s o c i a l s t ructure by which the genesis of the l i t e r a r y work can be expla ined. The c r i t i c ' s pro ject as described by Goldmann i s an osci l lat ion between comprehension and explanat ion; the former a c t i v i t y seeking the "overa l l s i g n i f i c a n t s t ructure of the text i t s e l f " and the l a t t e r " ' i n c o r p o r a t i n g ' t h i s s t ructure as a const i tuent element, in to 13 an immediately embracing s t r u c t u r e . " Goldmann's mode of c r i t i q u e i s based on Lukacs' concept of ' t o t a l i t y ' which in turn i s derived from Hegel 's d i a l e c t i c . According to th is concept ion, every human act ion appears both as a s t ructure of meaning and as part of other wider s t r u c t u r e s . In Goldmann's re in te rp re ta t ion of Lukacs and Hegel: "Every human fac t presents i t s e l f both as a comprehensive s i g n i f i c a n t s t ruc tu re . . .and as a c o n s t i t u t i v e element of a ce r ta in number 14 of other , la rger s t ructures which embrace and integrate i t . " In th is conception of ' t o t a l i t y ' l i e s a lso the assumption that " a l l human behaviour tends to modify a s i t u a t i o n f e l t by the subject to be a d isequ i l ib r ium so as to e s t a b l i s h an 15 e q u i l i b r i u m . " Terry Eagle ton, e laborat ing upon Goldmann, perceives Goldmann's concept of homology as r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c , since i t does not take in to account the dynamic aspect of the t e x t / ideology r e l a t i o n nor of the complexit ies or 'unevenness' of ideology or ideologies themselves. For Eagleton the ' ideology of the tex t ' i s d i s t i n c t from the ideology that "pre -ex is ts 16 the tex t" . It i s not the ideology of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l 7. group as expressed in the structure of the work, but the product of the conjuncture of var ious and sometimes contradictory i d e o l o g i c a l formations, which may per ta in to general (or dominant) au thor ia l and aesthet ic ideo logies and ca tegor ies . According to Eagleton, the " ' ideology of the t e x t ' . . . (is) a uniquely const i tu ted world of representat ions. . .(which) fa r from r e f l e c t i n g ideology in miniature , a c t i v e l y extends and elaborates i t , being a c o n s t i t u t i v e element in i t s s e l f -17 reproduct ion" . It a lso has a transformative func t ion . The movement of the tex t / ideo logy re la t ions "can only be grasped as a ceaseless r e c i p r o c a l operat ion of text on ideology and ideology on tex t , a mutual s t ruc tur ing and destructur ing i n which the text constant ly overdetermines i t s own determina-; 18 t i o n s . " Thus, for example, the text determined by s p e c i f i c ex t ra - tex tua l s t ructures i s overdetermined by aesthet ic considerat ions which are determined by the mode of i n s e r t i o n of au thor ia l ideology in to general aesthet ic conventions and norms, and so f o r t h . For Eagle ton, then, i t i s not so much a question of the d i r e c t correspondences between c lass views and l i t e r a r y s t ructures but of the "mode of i n s e r t i o n of au thor ia l and 19 aesthet ic formations in to the hegemonic ideology as a whole". In terms of the d iscuss ion of the texts that fo l lows , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the conclusions drawn therefrom, L u k a c s ' , Goldmann's and Eagleton 's views on the r e l a t i o n between ideology and l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be considered and drawn upon as an 8. i n t e r r e l a t e d c o l l e c t i v e of ideas . Forming part of the issue of ideology insofar as a s o c i a l viewpoint of l i t e r a t u r e i s concerned, are the i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts of the s o c i a l funct ion of l i t e r a t u r e and of ' aes the t ic v a l u e ' . This issue i s ra ised here since concepts of funct ion and value are i m p l i c i t i n the pro jects of the authors to be d iscussed , which involve s o c i a l protest and the v i n d i c a t i o n of indigenous ' c u l t u r e ' . The c r i t i c s of a s o c i o l o g i c a l approach have responded to these concepts i n b a s i c a l l y two d i s t i n c t i v e ways. On the one hand are the c r i t i c s (Christopher Caudwell, Ernst F ischer and 20 Herbert Marcuse amongst others) who see the s o c i a l funct ion of l i t e r a t u r e as l y i n g in i t s o r ien ta t ion towards greater freedom. Impl ic i t i n th is view, as i t i s expressed by the above-mentioned c r i t i c s , i s the idea of l i t e r a t u r e going beyond, or d i s t a n t i a t i n g i t s e l f from, ideology. Thus, Marcuse, for example, proposes that the aesthet ic and f i c t i o n a l character of l i t e r a t u r e and ar t i n general allows i t to give "establ ished r e a l i t y " another dimension—"that of poss ib le l i b e r a t i o n " . . . . a r t wills i t s e l f as i l l u s i o n : as an unreal world other than the estab l ished one. And p r e c i s e l y in th is t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n , ar t preserves and transcends i t s c lass character . And transcends i t , not toward a realm of mere f i c t i o n and fantasy , but toward a universe of concrete p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 2 1 At the opposite pole of th is view are the views in which the funct ion of l i t e r a t u r e and ar t i n general i s regarded to be the t r a n s f e r r a l of ideology "bred in the centres of 22 author i ty in to f a m i l i a r exper ience." Eagleton's view of l i t e r a t u r e as being part of the c u l t u r a l apparatus i n t e r a c t i n g with the i d e o l o g i c a l apparatus of 'communications' and thereby having the i d e o l o g i c a l funct ion of "reproducing the s o c i a l 23 re la t ions of the mode of production" takes th is d i r e c t i o n . These concepts are best understood in the context of Antonio Gramsci's theory of hegemony and counter-hegemony. Hegemony "might be def ined as an 'organiz ing p r i n c i p l e ' , or world-view Cor combination of such world-views) that i s d i f fused by agencies of i d e o l o g i c a l cont ro l and s o c i a l i z a t i o n in to every area of d a i l y l i f e . To the extend that th is p r e v a i l i n g consciousness i s i n t e r n a l i z e d by the broad masses, 24 i t becomes part of 'common s e n s e ' . . . " Counter-hegemony on the other hand i s those forces wi th in soc ie ty that aim at breaking the " i d e o l o g i c a l bond between the r u l i n g c lass and 25 various sectors of the general popula t ion ." The l i t e r a t u r e of the establishment (that i s , both that which i s disseminated on the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l and through the educat ional apparatus as part of t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and that which i s disseminated on the popular l e v e l as a consumer product) i s c l e a r l y part of the process of hegemonic ru le (Eagleton). It i s part of the process whereby e x i s t i n g values supportive of the status quo are incu lca ted so as to appear ' innocent ly ' and ' n a t u r a l l y ' as part of 'common s e n s e ' . 10. T h i s does not take away the p o s s i b i l i t y of a su b v e r s i v e l i t e r a t u r e or a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t p l a y s a concrete r o l e i n counter-hegemony; t h a t i s , i n the i d e o l o g y t h a t aims a t t r a n s f o r m i n g r a t h e r than "reproducing the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f the (dominant) mode of p r o d u c t i o n . " In r e l a t i o n t o what f o l l o w s ; t h a t i s , the d i s c u s s i o n of t e x t s t h a t d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h s i t u a t i o n s of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n , the counter-hegemonic p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d i s the primary one of g i v i n g ' v o i c e 1 through the l i t e r a r y medium to those ' s i l e n c e d ' by the dominating i d e o l o g y . L i t e r a t u r e , then, i n terms of Gramsci's paradigm and Eagleton's co n c e p t i o n , i s not apart from i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e but p a r t i c i p a t e s i n i d e o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s and s o c i a l processes o f d e s t r u c t u r a t i o n and s t r u c t u r a t i o n of i d e o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . L i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e s may be o p p o s i t i o n a l or a l t e r n a t i v e t o i d e o l o g i c a l hegemony, they may be e f f e c t e d w i t h i n or a g a i n s t hegemony, but they do not go beyond i d e o l o g y . To e l a b o r a t e a b i t f u r t h e r , i n s o f a r as counter-hegemony i s concerned, i n t e l l e c t u a l s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o i t s f o r c e s w i l l p l a y a r o l e i n 'demystifying' the r u l i n g i d e o l o g y . T h i s i s the f i r s t phase of s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; t h a t i s , the phase o f consciousness t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m as d i s t i n c t from a mere d i s p l a y o f p o l e m i c a l and negative a t t i t u d e s towards hegemonic r u l e . Paulo F r e i r e ' s concept of c o n s c i e n t i c a p ( c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n ) — t h e process whereby men become conscious of the s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n which they l i v e and thereby 2 6 of t h e i r own c a p a c i t y t o tr a n s f o r m t h a t s o c i a l r e a l i t y — i s 11. u s e f u l here. F r e i r e ' s s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n s of domination p e r t a i n d i r e c t l y t o the themes of the t e x t s t o be d i s c u s s e d and w i l l be drawn upon i n subsequent chap t e r s . A l s o of r e l e v a n c e , although i n a d i f f e r e n t sense, i n s o f a r as hegemony and counter-hegemony are concerned i s Y u r i Lotman's concept of "two forms of a r t i s t i c codes", an " a e s t h e t i c s of i d e n t i t y " and an " a e s t h e t i c s of o p p o s i t i o n " , one c o n f r o n t i n g the other both i n terms of a e s t h e t i c conventions and s o c i a l 27 norms. In the realm of l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e , B e r t o l t Brecht opposes c l e a r l y an " a e s t h e t i c s of o p p o s i t i o n " t o an " a e s t h e t i c s of i d e n t i t y " . His p r a x i s of h i s conception of a r t ' s f u n c t i o n as c o n s i s t i n g i n exposing or ' l a y i n g bare' s o c i a l c o n t r a -d i c t i o n s r a t h e r than r e s o l v i n g them, l e a v i n g q u e s t i o n s open r a t h e r than producing answers, makes the p r o p o s i t i o n f o r a 2 8 'counter-hegemonic* or ' r e v o l u t i o n a r y ' a r t c o n c r e t e . An argument from the stance of Russian Formalism b e a r i n g on s i m i l a r p o i n t s i s t h a t of V i k t o r Shklovsky, who saw the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the a e s t h e t i c as r e s i d i n g i n i t s p o s s i b i l i t y of deautomization of automized p e r c e p t i o n of and response t o e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s f u n c t i o n i n i t s e l f i s not one of ' l i b e r a t i o n ' (Marcuse), but of p r o v i d i n g the momentary d i s l o c a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e s of p e r c e p t i o n r u l e d by s o c i a l norms, whereby the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e e i n g something 'anew' may be born. Thus he proposes t h a t a r t should 'deform' and 'make 29 s t r a n g e 1 the f a m i l i a r by which process new p e r c e p t i o n s are f a c i l i t a t e d . The f a c t t h a t l i t e r a t u r e as an a e s t h e t i c 12. formation has b u i l t in to i t a process , should i t be so used, whereby automatic perceptions can be suspended at least momentarily, i s s i g n i f i c a n t in terms of counter-hegemonic attempts to transform consciousness. Shklovsky's argument br ings us c loser to ' aes the t ic va lue ' as re la ted t o , yet d i s t i n c t from, the s o c i a l funct ion of l i t e r a t u r e . The problem of ' aes the t ic va lue ' as such i s that i t tends to be regarded as a general and often ' s t a t i c ' concept deal ing (with var ia t ions of course) with broad ' u n i v e r s a l s ' such as beauty, t r u t h , and (r ight up to Lukacs and Goldmann) coherence and a harmonious conjunction of form and content. Goldmann wri tes in th is respect : . . . i n the background of our research— there i s a prec ise concept of aesthet ic and l i t e r a r y va lue . .This i d s ' t h e idealdeveloped in German c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s , passing from Kant, through Hegel and Marx to the ear ly works of Lukacs, who defines t h i s value as a tension overcome between, on the one hand, sens ib le . ' m u l t i p l i c i t y and r ichness and, on the other hand, the unity which organizes th is m u l t i p l i c i t y in to a coherent whole.30 Aesthet ic va lue , rather than represent ing a ser ies of f i x e d concepts revolv ing around 'immanence' or around a conception of whether a work of ar t presents an i d e o l o g i c a l l y 'p rogress ive ' v i s i o n or not ( e . g . , Plekhanov, and to some degree Lukacs ); may be regarded, as i t i s by Jan Mukarovsky, as a "process that evolves against the background of actua l a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n and in r e l a t i o n to the everchanging c u l t u r a l 32 s o c i a l context" . As a process , value can nei ther be f i xed 13. nor can i t be i s o l a t e d from ar t as a ser ies amongst other c u l t u r a l se r ies nor from the prism of norms through which i t i s perce ived . A lso eschewing both 'immanentist' theor ies of value and the premise of s o c i a l i s t rea l ism ( i . e . , that aesthet ic value should be determined in terms of whether a work i s i d e o l o g i -c a l l y 'p rogress ive ' or ' r e a c t i o n a r y ' ) , Eagleton wr i tes : " l i t e r a r y value i s a phenomenon which i s produced in that i d e o l o g i c a l appropr iat ion of the tex t , that "consumptional product ion 1 of the work which i s the act of reading. It i s 33 always r e l a t i o n a l va lue . . . . " Tony Bennett's res ta t ing of the concept of ' r e l a t i o n a l va lue ' i n a s l i g h t l y broader sense i s use fu l here: The problem of value i s the problem of the s o c i a l production of va lue; i t re fe rs to the ever ongoing process ; whereby which texts are to be valued and on what grounds are incessant ly matters for debate and, indeed s t rugg le . Value i s not something which the text has or possesses. It i s not an a t t r ibu te of the text ; i t i s rather something that i s produced for the text .3 4 For the purpose of syn thes is , Mukarovsky's d iscuss ion of the i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts of ' aes the t ic va lue ' and ' s o c i a l f u n c t i o n ' i s usefu l at t h i s p o i n t . The " fee l ing of unity evoked by a work of a r t " , he w r i t e s , usual ly " is considered the main c r i t e r i o n of aesthet ic va lue" . This ' u n i t y ' , however, should be considered not as "something s t a t i c ; as complete harmony, but as dynamic, as a problem with which the work 14. 35 c o n f r o n t s the viewer". Thus a work which has a "weakly based dynamics"; t h a t i s , one i n which s i m i l a r i t i e s outweigh d i f f e r e n c e s , " r a p i d l y becomes automatic", the reader's task i s "too simple". By the same token, i f d i f f e r e n c e s outweigh s i m i l a r i t i e s the r e s u l t f o r the reader i s " d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . . . the i n a b i l i t y t o grasp the u n i f y i n g i n t e n t of the work. . . . " A 'dynamic u n i t y ' i s e s t a b l i s h e d when " s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s c o n d i t i o n e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the m a t e r i a l a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t , are very s t r o n g , but. . .achieve a mutual e q u i l i b r i u m . " " ^ Mukarovsky extends the above argument, which focuses on the ' i n t e r n a l ' arrangement of the t e x t , t o the " r e l a t i o n s h i p between the work as a c o l l e c t i o n of v a l u e s and those v a l u e s p o s s e s s i n g p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y f o r the c o l l e c t i v e which p e r c e i v e s the work": only a t e n s i o n between the e x t r a - a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s of a work and the l i f e - v a l u e s of a c o l l e c t i v e enable a work t o a f f e c t the r e l a t i o n between man and r e a l i t y . . . . . . .the independent a e s t h e t i c v a l u e of an a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t i s h i g h e r and more enduring t o the e x t e n t t h a t the work does not lend i t s e l f t o l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from the s t a n d p o i n t of a g e n e r a l l y accepted system of v a l u e s of some p e r i o d and some m i l i e u . I f we r e t u r n t o the i n n e r composition of the a r t i s t i c a r t i f a c t , i t i s c e r t a i n l y not d i f f i c u l t to conclude t h a t works having great i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f f e r — d e p e n d i n g on the degree of divergence and the d i v e r s i t y i n s i g n i f i c a n c e which r e s u l t s — a much l e s s convenient b a s i s f o r the mechanical a p p l i c a t i o n of an e n t i r e system of v a l u e s with p r a c t i c a l v a l i d i t y than do works without i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n c e or w i t h only weak d i f f e r e n c e s . 3 7 15. Thus the degree to which a work of ar t can be automatized plays a c r u c i a l ro le in the 'measure' of ' v a l u e ' . A work of a r t , then, expressing the hegemonic value system without embodying the i n t e r n a l contrad ic t ions thereof , w i l l have l i t t l e aesthet ic value although i t s s o c i a l funct ion res ides c l e a r l y and unambiguously in i t s agency for the t r a n s f e r r a l of hegemonic ideology to 'common sense' (Gramsci). Likewise a work embodying counter-hegemonic ideology without e s t a b l i s h i n g the contrad ic t ions w i l l be qu ick ly automatized and subscribed to without struggle by those already adhering to i t s i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s and equal ly rap id ly dismissed by those who oppose them. The e f f e c t i s not thought-provoking but a confirming of what one already thinks and knows. Brecht , on the recept ion of workers to h is theatre spec tac les , wr i tes : Anything that was worn out , t r i v i a l , or so commonplace that i t no longer made one th ink , they d id not l i k e at a l l ('You get nothing out of i t ' ) . I f one needed an a e s t h e t i c , one could f i n d i t here. At th is point i t might be added that aesthet ic value i s s i tuated at the conjuncture of the aesthet ic (that i s , the deployment of l i t e r a r y dev ices , symbol, image, metaphor, e t c . ) , and the st ructures of 'meaning' of the text . In r e l a t i o n to the d iscuss ion of the texts that fol lows th is can be stated concrete ly in terms of the conjuncture of aesthet ic formations and the proposed pro- indigenous ideology. 16. I t remains now to br ing the ac tua l texts to be discussed more d i r e c t l y in to th is Introduct ion of c r i t i c a l o r ien ta t ion and to e s t a b l i s h the d i r e c t i o n that t h e i r study i s to take. The texts by Arguedas, E r i , Ihimaera and Grace have in common the descr ip t ion of c o l o n i a l experience, of the superimposit ion of one cu l ture upon another i n the context of economic and c u l t u r a l imper ia l ism, from the point of view of the indigenous. 3 ^ Centra l to each text i s a ' search ' for values in Lukacs' sense. The search in these texts i s based on s o c i a l contra -d ic t ions and concrete h i s t o r i c a l processes whereby the indigenous having undergone the e f fec ts of c u l t u r a l erosion seek communal values d i s t i n c t from those of the dominant c u l t u r e . As depicted in the novel form, the search i s both i n d i v i d u a l and communal; the protagonist i s both a subject ive i n d i v i d u a l and the ' i n d i a n ' , the ' c o l o n i z e d ' , or the 'maori ' c o l l e c t i v e s . The p rac t i ce of a r t , as manifest i n these works, which may or may not be the i n d i v i d u a l author 's conscious i n t e n t i o n , i s s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . The approach taken i n the fo l lowing study of these texts therefore takes in to account the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s from which they are produced and to which they a l l u d e . For t h i s reason each d iscuss ion of the i n d i v i d u a l authors includes i n i t i a l comments on the immediately v i s i b l e context which gave r i s e to the need for t h e i r expression of the indigenous voice i n l i t e r a t u r e . This i s in accordance with Goldmann's model of c r i t i c i s m which presents a d i a l e c t i c between l i t e r a r y st ructures and the s o c i a l s t ructures which 17. 'embrace' and ' i n tegra te ' those of the tex ts . There i s , as we s h a l l see in the subsequent chapters, i m p l i c i t l y i f not e x p l i c i t l y a p o s i t i o n taken on part of the authors as expressors of the indigenous voice through the l i t e r a r y medium v i s - a - v i s the dominating c u l t u r e , that p o s i t i o n being one of s o c i a l p ro tes t . The texts are wr i t ten in protest of the dominant ideology and express the need for an ideology of the dominated. Imp l ic i t i n these works i s the t h e o r e t i c a l conclusion that once the ideology of the ru le rs i s no longer i n t e r n a l i z e d by the dominated, p a r t i c u l a r l y those aspects of i t which d i r e c t l y a id the l a t t e r ' s e x p l o i t a t i o n (such as the idea of t h e i r ; inherent i n f e r i o r i t y ) and the dominated reformulate t h e i r ideology in polemical response to the dominators'., the r u l i n g ideology w i l l be destructured as that of the dominated i s s t ruc tured . T h i s , however, i s a s i m p l i f i e d and general ized statement of the forces i n t e r a c t i n g in the t e x t s , as in every text more than one ideology i s at work (Eagleton) and the text 40 i t s e l f i s m u l t i p l e , and an 'open' p r o j e c t . The process of responding to s o c i a l contrad ic t ions in these texts can be i d e n t i f i e d with the process elaborated by Goldmann (via Hegel and Lukacs) whereby the subject f e e l i n g d i s e q u i l i -brium seeks equ i l ib r ium. The ' search ' for values as expounded by Lukacs and Goldmann i s rendered in these texts on a c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l as the search fo r ' indigenous' va lues . The object of the study of these t e x t s , then, i s to 18. invest iga te how the indigenous voice i s expressed, how i t i s mediated by i t s v e h i c l e , the l i t e r a r y tex t ; and what contra -d i c t i o n s , contrasts and c o n f l i c t s confront the r a i s i n g of the voice i n the context of the dominant cu l ture the in tent ion of which i s to varying degree the suppression of that v o i c e . S p e c i f i c questions ra ised i n t h i s context are: 1) how are the re la t ions of oppression del ineated i n the texts and what contrad ic t ions a r ise from the bas ic oppressor/oppressed contrad ic t ion? 2) how i s the i n t e r n a l viewpoint of the indigenous c o l l e c t i v e mediated? 3) how i s the paradoxical problem fac ing the author who uses the language of the dominant cu l ture to express the consciousness of the indigenous people resolved? 4) to what extent i s the deployment of symbol, metaphor, image and other aesthet ic devices in conjuncture with the pro- indigenous ideology produced? 5) to what extent does the protest of the texts ' feed* in to the dominant ideology and to what extent i s i t i n fact subsumed by i t ? In terms of t h i s p r o j e c t , the afore-mentioned concepts of p a r t i c u l a r l y Lukacs, Goldmann, Eagleton and Mukarowsky as we l l as Gramsci 's model of hegemony, are of t h e o r e t i c a l re levance. The i r t h e o r e t i c a l formulat ions, i n t e r r e l a t e d , and perceived here as a 'body' or as a composite view, provide a focus and a consistency i n r e l a t i o n to the knowledge that i s to be e l i c i t e d from the t e x t s , as we l l as an area of debate wherein the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between method and mater ia l and between approaches may be taken in to account. 19 . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the c r i t i c a l procedure fol lowed i s based on a d i a l e c t i c between what Goldmann categorizes as comprehension 41 and explanat ion. What has been s p e c i f i c a l l y formulated by Goldmann i s i m p l i c i t in the prac t ices of ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' c r i t i c s in general and in Lukacs, Eagleton and Mukarowsky in s p e c i f i c . Comprehension, i n terms of my app l ica t ion of Goldmann's procedure, focuses on the tex ts ' inner st ructures and devolves in terms of an i n t r i n s i c study of the t e x t s 1 aesthet ic texture— a study of symbol, image, metaphor and other c r i t e r i a of polysemic and aesthet ic d iscourse ( 'polysemic' r e f e r r i n g to a m u l t i p l i c i t y of simultaneous meaning, and ' a e s t h e t i c ' to the process whereby the manifoldness or m u l t i p l i c i t y of meaning i s organized) . Explanation in the context of what fol lows re fers to a ' read ing ' of the text in the d i r e c t i o n of the s o c i a l formations that are the t e x t ' s 'embracing' s t ruc tures , with the fo l lowing in mind—that the exchange between l i t e r a r y s t ructure and society as 's t ruc ture of 42 s t ruc tures ' i s i n t e r n a l to l i t e r a t u r e , not ex terna l . 2 0 . CHAPTER I. FOOTNOTES. For the sake of c l a r i f i c a t i o n , two main and d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t branches of ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m are 1) a study of the s o c i a l production of l i t e r a t u r e and 2) a study of the re la t ions between s o c i a l r e a l i t y and l i t e r a t u r e . It i s the l a t t e r that concerns us here. For a breakdown of var ious approaches to a "sociology of l i t e r a t u r e " see Janet Routh, " Introduct ion" , The Sociology of L i t e r a t u r e ; Theore t ica l Approaches, ed. J . Routh and J . Wolf f , (Gr. B r i t : Univ. of Keele , 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 George Lukacs, The Theory of the Novel , t rans . A. Bostock, USA: MIT Press , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 60 f f . 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . 5 . s Istvan E o r s i , "Lukacs and the Theory of L y r i c Poetry" , i n The New Hungarian Quar ter ly , V o l . V I , (No. 1 8 , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 3 4 . g s Lukacs, Studies in European Realism, (USA: Grosset & Dunlap, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 9 . 7 I b i d . , p. 6 . Lukacs i s here in accord with Engels who wrote that the characters in novels should be both p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l s and general types. See Marx and Engels , Uber Eunst und L i t e r a t u r . V o l . I. (Dietz , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 1 5 5 . 8 I b i d . 9 Kar l Marx, "Preface" , A C r i t i q u e of P o l i t i c a l Economy, t rans . N. Stone, (Chicago: Kerr & C o . , 1 9 0 4 ) , pp. 1 1 , 1 2 . Lukacs quotes th is passage in History and Class Consciousness, (Cambridge: MIT Press , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 1 8 . 1 0 L u c i e n Goldmann, The Hidden God, t rans . P. Thody, (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 1 7 . 1 1 Goldmann, Towards a Sociology of the Novel , (UK: Tav is tock , 1 9 7 5 ) , p. 1 5 9 . 12 I b i d . , p. 1 6 0 . Goldmann wr i tes : "One can see the considerable d i f ference that separates the sociology of contents and s t r u c t u r a l i s t soc io logy . The f i r s t sees in the work a r e f l e c t i o n of the c o l l e c t i v e consciousness, the second sees i t on the contrary as one of the most important const i tuent elements of th is c o l l e c t i v e consciousness, that element that enables the members of the group to become aware 21 of what they thought, f e l t and d id without r e a l i z i n g ob jec t ive ly i t s s i g n i f i c a t i o n . " 13 Goldmann, "The Sociology of L i t e r a t u r e : Status and Problems of Methods", In ternat ional S o c i a l Science J o u r n a l , V o l . XIX, (No. 4, 1967), pp. 498,499. 14 N Goldmann, "The Ear ly Writ ings of Lukacs", t rans , J . Humes, T r i Quar ter ly , No. 9, (Spring, 1967), p. 166. 15 Goldmann, "The Sociology of L i t e r a t u r e " , p. 49 4. 16 Terry Eagleton, C r i t i c i s m and Ideology, (London: NLB, 1976), p. 80. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 97. i p I b i d . , p. 99. 19 Ibxd . , p. 54. 20 See Caudwell , I l l u s i o n and R e a l i t y ; F i s h e r , The Necessity  of A r t , Marcuse, Conterrevolut ion and Revolt . 21 Herbert Marcuse, Counterrevolut ion and Revol t , (Boston: Beacon Press , 1972), pp. 87,88. Marcuse here takes up Louis A l t h u s s e r ' s argument of the tex t -ideology r e l a t i o n whereby ideology i s d is tan t ia ted by^art .as expressed in "A Let ter on Art in Reply to Andre Daspre", Lenin and Phi losophy, t rans . B. Brewster, (NY: Monthly Review, 1971), p. 222. "What art makes us see, and therefore gives us in the form of ' s e e i n g ' , ' p e r c e i v i n g ' and ' f e e l i n g ' (which i s not the form of knowing), i s the ideology from which i t i s born, i n which i t bathes, from which i t detaches i t s e l f as a r t , and to which i t a l l u d e s . " 22 Harold Rosenberg, Discover ing the Present , (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press , 1973), p. 5. According to Rosenberg ar t i s general ly of react ionary rather than revolut ionary a l l e g i a n c e . He re fers to Tro tsky 's statement that l i t e r a t u r e c r y s t a l l i z e s what has happened on the revolut ionary l e v e l only a f te r the revo lut ion when i t i s already in need for fur ther change. He quotes Trotsky (1935) "It takes some time for a complete overturn of s o c i a l foundat ions, customs and assumptions to produce an a r t i s t i c c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n along new axes. How much time? One cannot say offhand, but a long time. Ar t i s always c a r r i e d in the baggage t r a i n of a new epoch, and great a r t . . . i s an e s p e c i a l l y heavy load . . . " , p. 78. 23 Eagleton, op. c i t . , p. 56. 22 2 4 C a r l Boggs, Gramsci 's Marxi sm, (UK: Pluto Press , 1976), p. 39. Boggs wr i tes : "By hegemony Gramsci meant the permeation throughout c i v i l s o c i e t y — i n c l u d i n g a whole range of s t ructures and a c t i v i t i e s l i k e trade unions, schoo ls , the churches, and the fami ly—of an ent i re system of va lues , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , mora l i t y , e t c . that i s in one way or another supportive of the es tab l ished order and the c lass i n t e r e s t s that dominate i t . Hegemony in th is sense might be def ined as an 'organiz ing p r i n c i p l e ' , or world-view (or combination of such wor ld-v iews) , that i s d i f fused by agencies of i d e o l o g i c a l cont ro l and s o c i a l i z a t i o n in to every area of d a i l y l i f e . To the extent that t h i s p r e v a i l i n g consciousness i s i n t e r n a l i z e d by the broad masses, i t becomes part of 'common s e n s e ' ; as a l l r u l i n g e l i t e s seek to perpetuate t h e i r power, wealth, and s t a t u s , they necessar i l y attempt to popular ize t h e i r own phi losophy, c u l t u r e , mora l i t y , e t c . and render them unchal lengeable, part of the natura l order of th ings . For hegemony to assert i t s e l f s u c c e s s f u l l y in any s o c i e t y , there fore , i t must operate in a d u a l i s t i c manner: as a 'general conception of l i f e ' for the masses, and as a ' s c h o l a s t i c programme' or set of p r i n c i p l e s which i s advanced by a sector of the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . " 2 5 I b i d . , p. 40 2 6 Paulo F r e i r e , C u l t u r a l Act ion fo r Freedom, (England: Penguin, 19 72), p. 51 f f . 27 D.W. Fokkema and E l rud Kunne-Ibsch, Theories of  L i te ra ture in the Twentieth Century, (London: C. Hurst , 19 77), p. 149. 2 8 Brecht 's pro ject b a s i c a l l y was to undermine the bourgeo is ie 's appropr iat ion of ar t fo r i t s own ends and to render i t to the p r o l e t a r i a t . 29 V ik tor Shklovsky, "The Resurrect ion of the Word", Russian Formalism, ed. S. Baun and J . Bowlt, (USA: Harper and Rowe, 1973), p. 86 f f . 30 Goldmann, MThe Sociology of L i t e r a t u r e " , p. 514. 31 See a lso Galvano De l ia Volpe, C r i t i q u e of Tas te , (London: NLB, 1978), p. 245 f f . 32 Fokkema and Kunne-Ibsch, op. c i t . , p. 33. 33 Eagleton, op. c i t . , pp. 166,. 167. 23. 34 Tony Bennett, Formalism and Marxism, (London: Methuen, 19 79), p. 173. See a lso P ie r re Macherey, "Problems of R e f l e c t i o n " , L i t e r a t u r e , Society and the Sociology of L i t e r a t u r e , ed. F. Barker et a l . , Proceedings of the Conference held at the Univers i ty of Essex, Ju ly 1976, (Univ. of Essex, 1977), p. 45: "Works of ar t are processes and not ob jec ts , for they are never produced once and for a l l , but are cont inua l ly suscept ib le to "reproduct ion": in f a c t , they only f i n d an iden t i t y and a content i n th is cont inual process of t ransformat ion. There i s no e terna l i n a r t , there are no f ixed and immutable works." 35 Jan Mukarovsky, Aesthe t ic Funct ion , Norm and Value as  S o c i a l F a c t s , t rans . M. Suino, (Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan, 1970), p. 91. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 92. 37 I b i d . , p. 9 3. 38 s B e r t o l t Brecht , "Against Georg Lukacs", New Lef t Review, No. 84, (March-Apr i l , 1974), p. 52. Eagleton quotes th is passage in C r i t i c i s m and Ideology, p. 169. 39 I am aware that the term ' indigenous' i t s e l f i s ' i d e o l o g i c a l ' , r e lay ing a complex of 'not ions ' concerning those who have been co lon ized . I t i s not an unambiguous term, born as i t i s of a s i t u a t i o n of domination. 40 By 'open p ro jec t ' I re fe r to the inner dynamics of a given t e x t , to i t s pa r t i c ipa to ry funct ion in an aesthet ic process amongst other s o c i a l processes, and to the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between texts and t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l l y concrete readers. The work of a r t i s not a constant . As Bennett wri tes "It i s a s i t e on which the production of meaning—of var iab le meanings—takes p l a c e . " Bennett, op. c i t . , p. 17 4. 41 / See a lso Tzvetsan Todorov, Poetique de l a prose, (Par is : S e u i l s , 1971), p. 241 f f . Todorov l i s t s three categories of c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y : 1) p r o j e c t i o n : reading through the text i n d i r e c t i o n of the author, s o c i e t y , e t c . , 2) commentaire: e x p l i c a t i o n , ' c lose reading ' of the text (as pro jec t ion moves through and beyond the tex t , commentary remains within i t ) , 3) l a poet ique, a study of the propert ies of l i t e r a r y d iscourse . 42 Hans Gunther, Struktur aIs Prozess, (Munchen: Wilhelm F i n k , 1973), p. 64. CHAPTER II. INDTGENTSMO. THE PARADIGM OF THE WANDERER IN A WORLD,, OF SOCIAL OPPRESSION. JOSE MARIA ARGUEDAS , LOS RIOS PROFUNDOS. 0 acaso fue mi madre la: vicuKa de las pampas of fue mi padre e l venado de los montes, para ser er rante , para andar s i n descanso por los montes y las pampas, apenas envuelto por e l v iento en las abras y en los ce r ros , vest ido de v iento y de f r i o . Can to Kechw.a. In La t in America the novels that concern themselves with the indigenous peoples u n t i l now have been wr i t ten by non-indigenous w r i t e r s . The ear ly phase of f i c t i o n wr i t ing that concerned i t s e l f with the indian world has been c a l l e d i n d i a n i s t a . Ind ian is ta l i t e r a t u r e was wr i t ten from the perspect ive of outsiders to indian cul ture and i t s problematic r e l a t i o n to the dominant c u l t u r e . Largely focusing on ' l o c a l co lour" , the wr i ters f a i l e d in t h e i r attempts to present r u r a l indian cul tures as a l i v e w o r l d - v i s i o n s . 1 Indigenismo, a subsequent movement act ive in the s o c i a l sciences and in l i t e r a t u r e focusing on the indian wor ld , found i t s c lea res t ' express ion in the wr i t ing of the Peruvian s o c i a l i s t th inker Mar ia tegui , tb whom Arguedas claims great indebtedness.^ Mar ia tegui 's a s s e r t i o n , i n Siete ensayos sobre la rea l idad peruana (1928), that the problem of the indian was 3 not ethnic but socio-economic r e f l e c t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change of a t t i tude and or ien ta t ion towards the indigenous popula t ion . Mariategui i d e n t i f i e d the indian 'problem' with the problem of land: " . . . e l nuevo planteamiento consis te en 4 buscar e l problema mdigena en e l problema de l a t i e r r a . " 5 The ch ie f opponent of the I n d i a n thus was gamonalismo, the land-tenure system of the Peruvian economy under which the i n d i a n s , having l e g a l protect ion only in theory but not in p r a c t i c e , were l e f t completely open to the abuse and e x p l o i t a -t ion of the landlords and p o l i t i c a l bosses. This perspect ive on the problem of the indigenous populace expressed i t s e l f on the l e v e l of l i t e r a t u r e when the ind igen is ta w r i t e r s , i n contrast to i n d i a n i s t a wr i ters who had explo i ted the indian world fo r i t s foreignness and exot ic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , chose to revea l and protest against the s o c i o -economic e x p l o i t a t i o n and degradation of the dominated people. In Mar ia tegui 's words: " E l indigenismo, en nuestra l i t e r a t u r a . . . t iene fundamentalmente e l sent ido de una r e i v i n d i c a c i o n • 6 de lo autoctono. . . . " The struggle fo r land between land-owners and indian communities, i n e v i t a b l y won by the l and lords , became a major l i t e r a r y theme. When Arguedas publ ished h is f i r s t work of f i c t i o n , Agua, (19 35), indigenismo as a concept and focus had already penetrated one sect ion of the i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . Part of h is motivat ion to write about the indian world came from h is r e j e c t i o n of what previous w r i t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Lopez Albujar and Garcia Calderon had produced on the subject . Their d i s t o r t i o n s of indian r e a l i t y impel led him to wri te about i t 7 " ta l cual e s , porque yo lo he gozado, yo lo he s u f r i d o " . 26. His view of indigenismo as expressed in an a r t i c l e Razon  de ser de l indigenismo eh e l Peru shows the d i r e c t l i n e of h is th ink ing with that of Mar ia tegui : E l propio nombre. . .de indigenismo demuestra que, por f in^ l a poblacion marginada y l a mas vasta del p a i s , e l ind io que habia permanecido durante var ios s i g l o s d i ferenc iada de l a c rc j l l l a y en estado de i n f e r i o r i d a d y servid--umbre, se convierte en problema, o... mejor, se advierte que const i tuye un problema, pues se comprueba que no puede; n i sera pos ib le s iga ocupando l a pos ic ion s o c i a l que los i n t e r e s e s . d e l regimen c o l o n i a l le habian obligado a ocupar.^ His mot ivat ion , then was la rge ly "una r e i v i n d i c a c i o n de lo autoctono", and an attempt to i n s e r t in to the mainstream of Peruvian l i t e r a t u r e the indian ' v o i c e ' rather than s tereotypic representat ions of indian l i f e . In th is sense, and a lso through h is a c t i v i t y as ethnographer of indian cul ture and t rans la to r of Quechua poetry and legends, Arguedas was part -of a group of i n t e l l e c t u a l s insp i red by Mariategui who opposed the hegemonic concept of the ' v a l u e - l e s s ' indian whose cul ture was held to be i n f e r i o r ; and, for some extremists , responsible 9 fo r the 'backwardness' of Peru in genera l . His s o c i a l l y -or iented aim as wr i ter i s c l e a r l y stated in E l zorro de a r r i b a  y e l zorro de abajo: . . .de vo lcar en l a corr iente de l a sab idur ia y e l arte de l Peru c r i o l l o e l caudal del arte y l a sabidur ia de un pueblo a l que se consideraba degenerado, d e b i l i t a d o o "extrarfo" e "impenetrable" pero que. . .no era s ino lo que l l e g a a ser un gran pueblo, oprimido por e l desprecio s o c i a l , l a dominacion p o l i t i c a y l a explotacion economica en e l propio sue lo . . . . l u Ind igen is ta authors in general took up the " r e i v i n d i c a c i o n de lo autoctono" focusing on two major i s s u e s : 1) the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the indian in the h i s t o r i c a l context of indian land and labour appropr iat ion by the dominators (e .g . Icaza, Huasipungo, Ecuador, 19 34); 2) the problem of the indian cul ture in terms of a re -eva luat ion and r e d e f i n i t i o n in opposi t ion to the view held by the dominant group that indian cu l ture was inherent ly i n f e r i o r (e .g . A l e g r i a , E l mundo es  ancho y ajeno, Peru, 1941). Two bas ic l i m i t a t i o n s of indigenismo on the s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l l e v e l were the p o l a r i z a t i o n of the indigenous and non- ind ige-nous worlds, and a l imi ted knowledge and experience of the actua l indian world and cul ture on the part of the proponents of indigenismo. These l i m i t a t i o n s were a lso part of ind igen is ta wr i t ing in which the indian s i t u a t i o n was general ly rendered from an ' ex te rna l ' viewpoint. In other words, while the focus changed from ethnic to socio-economic concern, the viewpoint s t i l l remained ex te rna l . The characters of ind igen is ta novels and s t o r i e s tended to emerge as representat ive f igures rather than f u l l human beings. The 'oppressed ind ians ' and t h e i r 'oppressors ' became s tereo-types r e f l e c t i v e of a p o l i t i c a l a t t i tude ; as i s most ev ident , fo r example, i n Huasipungo. This type of w r i t i n g , however, had i t s funct ion as i t served as a break-through wi th in which the necessi ty fo r r a d i c a l change in a t t i tudes and for concrete s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l change was recognized. 28. On the l e v e l of c u l t u r e , the pro - ind ian p o s i t i o n was often weakened by an incomplete knowledge and/or a romantic a t t i tude on part of the wr i ter towards the subject ; as , for example, i n A l e g r i a ' s E l mundo es ancho y ajeho. Yet novels such as these are important in terms of t h e i r polemical ro le v i s - a - v i s the dominant a t t i tudes of indian c u l t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y . The problem of expressing indian cul ture in l i t e r a t u r e was fur ther complicated by the mere fac t of language. A major concern, at l eas t on part of some w r i t e r s , was the paradoxical problem of rendering authent ica l ly the indian wor ld -v is ion in a language a l i e n to that v i s i o n and in some respects contra -d ic tory to i t s o r i e n t a t i o n s . Arguedas, completely b i - l i n g u a l and therefore aware of the f i n e r subt le t ies of the l i n g u i s t i c problem, resolved the problem of making Spanish an adequate veh ic le fo r the rendering of the Quechua v i s i o n ("la materia s de nuestro e s p i r i t u " ) not without subject ing himself f i r s t to 12 what he described as "una pelea i n f e r n a l con l a lengua." His reso lu t ions in r e l a t i o n to Los r i o s profundos w i l l be discussed in the fo l lowing chapter. General ly speaking, fo r the above-stated reasons i t was d i f f i c u l t fo r wr i ters to avoid rendering ' e x t e r n a l ' and at times s tereotyp ic representat ions of the indian world. This appl ies not only to wr i ters such as Icaza and A l e g r i a , but a lso to As tur ias in whose n o v e l , Hombres de maiz, (Guatemala, 19 49) , despi te , . or perhaps because o f , h is h ighly aesthet ic and t e c h n i c a l l y innovating attempt to render the mythic 29, connection between the indian and his magico- re l ig ious world; the indian ' m i n d ' , i n my view, remains an abs t rac t ion . It i s at th is point that Arguedas' s i t u a t i o n in the l i t e r a t u r e of indigenismo i s important. In tune with the indian world on the l e v e l of s e n s i b i l i t y and knowledgeable on the l e v e l of Quechua cul ture and language (part ly due to the circumstance of h is growing up in an indian community), he i s considered to be the f i r s t La t in American wr i ter to give an 13 ' i n t e r n a l ' viewpoint of the Quechua i n d i a n . This i s b a s i c a l l y because, as Antonio U r r e l l o points out , Arguedas, although 14 mest izo , "espir i tualmente es un i n d i o . " Arguedas himself descr ibes h is experience which l i e s at the root of the wr i t ing of Los r i o s profundos i n such terms: . . . l a poblacion indigena me tomo practicamente bajo su p r o t e c c i 6 n . Entonces yo v i v i intimamente con esa gente, y aprendi a hablar e l quechua, aprendi sus canciones y me iden t i f ique enteramente con e l l o s . 1 5 Furthermore, Arguedas who "sent ia e l Peru en quechua y 16 en caste l lano" was in a bet ter p o s i t i o n to portray indian r e a l i t y p r e c i s e l y because he belonged to both c u l t u r e s : " . . .no se puede conocer a l i nd io sino se conoce a las demas personas que hacen de l ind io lo que es . . . .es necessar io 17 conocer todo e l contexto s o c i a l . " Once the focus of indigenismo i s narrowed down on the ' Indian ' problem as such, i t then must be readjusted to include the wider contextual re la t ionsh ips in a d i a l e c t i c a l 30. process . It i s in th is sense that the dualism and p o l a r i z a t i o n inherent in the i n i t i a l concept of indigenismo i s superseded. Arguedas through h is w r i t i n g , both f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n , proposes the necessi ty and p o s s i b i l i t y of a d i a l e c t i c a l process of c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Once th is necessi ty i s formulated the concept of indigenismo gives way to a comprehensive view wherein the 'otherness' of the indian populace i s integrated with the ' t h i s n e s s ' of a dynamic c u l t u r a l whole. This c u l t u r a l ' u n i t y ' however i s not envisioned in terms of a s s i m i l a t i n g ind ian cul ture in to the dominant cu l ture but in terms of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p whereby the p o s i t i v e values of both are recognized and r e a l c u l t u r a l d i f ferences are not used to the detriment of the indigenous populace as j u s t i f i c a t i o n s for domination and e x p l o i t a t i o n . In Goldmann's and Lukacs' terms, Arguedas * reformulat ion of the problematic c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t i s par t of a continuous process of destructur ing and res t ruc tur ing s o c i a l a t t i tudes and formations, i n which process l i t e r a t u r e plays a const i tuent r o l e . It i s a ques t ion , then, of changing s o c i a l a t t i tudes that have c r y s t a l l i z e d in to r i g i d stereotypes by counteract ing these stereotypes. The fo l lowing quest ion posed by Arguedas i s thus s i g n i f i c a n t in terms of a change of ' a t t i t u d e ' : por que llamar ind igen is ta a l a l i t e r a t u r a que nos muestra e l a l terado y brumoso ros t ro 1 de / nuestro pueblo y nuestro propk-io r o s t r o , a s i atormentado? 18 s In Los r i o s profundos the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the indian struggle as our struggle i s concret ized a e s t h e t i c a l l y through the symbolic and f i g u r a t i v e uni ty of the protagonist and the c o l l e c t i v e , and through the medium of the ' search ' for homo-geneous and c o l l e c t i v e 'va lues ' in Lukacs' and Goldmann's sense. The paradigm of the wanderer and h is search i s cent ra l to the narrat ive s t ructure of Arguedas' tex t . To r e i t e r a t e , Lukacs, as mentioned in the In t roduct ion, d is t ingu ishes the novel from the epic which "gives form to a t o t a l i t y of l i f e 19 that i s rounded from wi th in" . ; that i s , l i f e that i s imbued with unquestioned meaning. The novel by contrast : seeks, by g iv ing form, to uncover and construct the concealed t o t a l i t y of l i f e . The given st ructure of the object ( i . e . the search , which i s only a way of expressing the sub jec t ' s recogni t ion that nei ther object ive l i f e nor i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the subject i s spontaneously harmonious in i t s e l f ) suppl ies an i n d i c a t i o n of the form-giving intent ion.20 In Los n o s profundos the search for the ' t o t a l i t y ' of l i f e which in the world of the novel as genre i s no longer taken for granted, i s expressed as the search for a re inte^ grated indian world i n the concrete context of co lon iza t ion and oppression. Lukacs' comment that the novel l i k e no other ar t form i s "an expression of . . . t ranscendental homeless-21 ness" i s a lso s i g n i f i c a n t here. His abstract and general ized concept i s concret ized i n Arguedas r text as the concrete 'homelessness' of those Quechua people who have been severed from l a n d and c u l t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y the pongo and the colonos. Arguedas' l i n k here i s w i t h M a r i a t e g u i whose a s s e r t i o n t h a t the i n d i a n problem i s a problem of land p o i n t s t o the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between economics and c u l t u r e whereby c e r t a i n aspects of the l a t t e r are determined i n the l a s t i n s t a n c e by the economic s t r u c t u r e . T h i s view, as mentioned, marked a s i g n i f i c a n t change of a t t i t u d e towards the i n d i a n populace. In the t e x t then the search f o r 'meaning' i s not m e t a p h y s i c a l as p a r t i a l l y i m p l i e d i n Lukacs' theory of the 22 novel but r o o t e d i n s o c i a l cause. The b a s i c paradigm of the t e x t — t h a t of the wanderer and h i s s e a r c h , i s a f u n c t i o n both of the n o v e l form i t s e l f (Lukacs" theory) and a f u n c t i o n of the u n i f i c a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l viewpoint c a r r i e r , Ernesto, w i t h the i n d i a n c o l l e c t i v e whose 'cause' he r e p r e s e n t s i n d i r e c t l y as does Arguedas i n terms of h i s l i t e r a r y venture. By means of t h i s paradigm the ' i n t e r n a l ' viewpoint of the Quechua world i s c a r r i e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y , and the o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which Quechua c u l t u r e i s denied ' a u t h e n t i c i t y ' i s c r i t i c i z e d . Through the d e s c r i p t i o n of Ernesto's s e a r c h , Arguedas focuses on a constancy i n c h o i c e i n a f i e l d o f experience wherein s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l f o r c e s c o n f l i c t . The c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s 'are the i n d i a n world-view and the s o c i a l f o r c e s d e s t r u c t i v e t o the v a l u e s a s c r i b e d w i t h i n the t e x t t o t h a t view. The choice i s p r o - i n d i a n . 33. At t h i s point i t i s important to understand the funct ion of Ernesto both as narrator and protagonist i n the text and to see why the character chosen i s p a r t i c u l a r l y apt for expressing the ' i n d i a n ' viewpoint. Antonio Cornejo-Polar wr i tes : "narrador y protagonista se unimisman en l a dec is ion basica de movi l ia rse hacia e l pasado en busca de l a autent ic idad 23 e x i s t e n c i a l . " This ' a u t h e n t i c i t y ' i s recovered p r e c i s e l y at moments when the values of the indian world-view are reaf f i rmed; which i s expressed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y in terms of a u n i f i e d r e l a t i o n between man and nature. Arguedas' choice of Ernesto as medium of expression for the c u l t u r a l ambivalence of the Andean world i s use fu l because Ernes to ' , , l i ke h is author, s o c i a l l y belongs to the world of the dominators while s p i r i t u a l l y belonging to the indian world. In other words, he p a r t i c i p a t e s in both worlds yet at the same time i s marginal to or uprooted from both. He i s a 'marginal ' character on yet another l eve l—being nei ther qui te c h i l d nor qui te adult he has something of the v i s i o n of both. Ernesto 's marg ina l i ty , that i s , h is not f i t t i n g in to the hierarchy of the s o c i a l s t ruc tu re , as we l l as h is p a r t i c u l a r s e n s i b i l i t y , i s p r e c i s e l y what allows him to "see" what others cannot; o r , as Linares expresses i t , to see "too much": Que to e s p i r i t u encuentre l a paz, en la t i e r r a d e s i g u a l , cuyas sombras tu percibes demasiado. (p. 2 41). In the narra t ive st ructure of the text Ernesto 's search 34. i s b u i l t up of a ser ies of journeys. The bas ic journey c i rcumscr ib ing the various events of the novel i s Ernesto 's passage from the mountains to Abancay and back to the mountains. During th is phase he acquires more knowledge and experience of the forces of oppression. Therefore the rea f f i rmat ion of h is p ro - ind ian choice at the end ("Rezar£ con los colonos, v i v i r e con e l l o s , " p .^23 i j ) , i s made on a higher l e v e l of consciousness. Arguedas' dep ic t ion of h is p ro tagon is t ' s journey can be i d e n t i f i e d with a ' r i t e of passage ' , def ined by Arnold van Gennep as the "passage from one s i t u a t i o n to another or cosmic or s o c i a l world to another" with i t s phases of separat ion , 24 l i m i n a l i t y and reaggregat ion. These phases in the text are both concurrent and sequent ia l . Although Ernesto makes d e f i n i t e space- and time-bound t r a n s i t i o n s , separat ion (from the indian community), l i m i n a l i t y (or "outsiderhood") and reaggregation (of indian world values) are interwoven at a l l points of the journey. The f i r s t journey in the text i s the pi lgrimage to Cuzco, the Inca world centre . As pi lgrimage i t has a sacred character . Both symbol ica l ly and l i t e r a l l y i t funct ions in the novel as Ernesto 's contact with the s t i l l - a l i v e s p i r i t of the indian past . In Cuzco the t r a g i c dichotomy between indian past and ind ian present i s i n t e n s i f i e d . Hence Ernesto 's r e f l e c t i o n : "En ningun s i t i o debia s u f r i r mas l a cr iatura . humanaV (p. 2 4) . 35. Ernesto 's subsequent journey to Abancay represents h is i n i t i a t i o n in to "un mundo cargado de mostruos y de fuego" (p. 42). Abancay, s i tua ted i n a hot , s t i f l i n g va l l ey and cons t r i c ted by the te r ra ins of haciendas, seats of ind ian e x p l o i t a t i o n , i s described as an in fe rno . The school which he at tends, with i t s b r u t a l pecking order , aggression, racism and exp lo i t a t ion i s a microcosm of the s o c i a l world at large wherein those who dehumanize others dehumanize themselves. Here Ernesto remains in a l i m i n a l p o s i t i o n , unable to take up h is prescr ibed ro le in the schoo l . Linares therefore c a l l s him by names general ly given to those who stay on the f r inge or outside of s o c i e t y : "Loco", "tonto vagabundo", "extrana c r i a t u r a " , e t c . Ernesto i s a lso an outs ider to the c l o s e d - i n world of the Patibamba colonos. He cannot pass over the threshold of t h e i r huts . Even i n Huanupata, the d i s t r i c t described as the only happy one in Abancay, he remains in a per iphera l p o s i t i o n : Yo quede fuera de l c i r c u l o , mirandolos , . . . (p . 110). Me miraban con extra'neza, muchos (p. 177) . The s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of Ernesto 's condi t ion of "outsiderhood" or marg ina l i ty i s i t s r e l a t i o n to the s o c i a l outsiderhood of the colonos and the pongo themselves. Separated from the indian community as he has known i t i n the pas t , and subjected to the dissonant atmosphere of the Ca tho l i c s c h o o l , where the natura l energies of the students are turned 36 . into b r u t a l i t y and perversion and the 'indian' value of ternura i s negated by hatred (" . .'.los odios no cesaban, se complicaji y se extendian" [p.. 55]); Ernesto suffers from intense s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n . This manifests i t s e l f not only in estrangement from others, but most poignantly, from nature i t s e l f , or rather herself i n Andean terms: Habia aun luz a esa hora, e l crepusculo iluminaba los tejados; e l ^ c i e l o amarillo, meloso, parecia arder. Y no teniamos a..donde i r . Las paredes, e l suelo, las puertas, nuestros vestidos, e l c i e l o de esa hora, tan raro, s i n profundidad, como un duro techo de luz dorada; todo parecia contaminado, perdido o iracundo. Ningun pensamiento, ningun recuerdo podia l l e g a r hasta e l aislamiento mortal en que durante ese^tiempo me separaba del mundo. Yo que sentia tan mio aun lo ajeno. Yo: .no podia pensar, cuando veia por primera vez una h i l e r a de sauces hermosos, vibrando a l a o r i l l a de una acequia, que esos arboles eran ajenos! Los r i o s fueron siempre mios; los arbustos. . . las adoradas pampas de maiz. Pero a l a hora en que v o l v i a de aquel patio, a l anochecer, se desprendia de mis ojos l a maternal imagen del mundo. (pp. 6 5,66). Lukacs writes: "Estrangement from nature. . .i s only a projection of man's experience of his self-made environments 25 as prison instead of as parental home." The school with i t s atmosphere of aggression and dissonance i s c l e a r l y a prison. The prison of the colonos at Patibamba i s contingent upon that of the school, for i t i s at the school that the ideology supporting the oppressive s o c i a l structure making the Patibamba prison possible i s preached by the Director, whose task i s to educate the p r i v i l e g e d to take up t h e i r roles i n the given structure. Arguedas describes how the students themselves f a l l 37. v i c t i m to the process support ive of imbalance and dehumani-zat ion by becoming dehumanized themselves. There i s , however, a v i s i o n of the 'parenta l home1 present in the nove l . The s o c i a l pr ison of the Patibamba colonos has i t s polar opposite in the a y l l u where Ernesto was nurtured as a c h i l d , "en l a mas pequena y alegre quebrada que he conocido," (p. 41). The i n t a c t indian community i s described as a locus of symmetric and harmonious re la t ions between men and nature. This i s Lukacs' "homogeneous world" of the e p i c ; the experience of i t s absence g iv ing the novel (as genre) form. It i s the ' t o t a l i t y ' which l i e s 'concealed ' and has to be rediscovered i n the Lukacsian sense of the nove l ' s structure as a st ructure of presence-and-absence (of v a l u e s ) . In Arguedas' t ex t , s o l i t u d e , the product of ' homelessness', and the loss of authentic 'o rgan ic ' re la t ions between men and nature i s experienced both on the i n d i v i d u a l psycho log ica l l e v e l and on the c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l l e v e l . Ernesto and the Quechua speakers, s p e c i f i c a l l y the pongo and the landless colonos, are l i t e r a l and metaphorical wanderers marked by s o l i t u d e . This theme i s fur ther u n i f i e d in the f igure of e l cantor de l a V i rgen de Cocharacas: "yo peregr ino, andando v i v o . " (p. 183). Blond-bearded and l i g h t - e y e d , he i s recognized by Ernesto as "un ind io como los de mi pueblo" (p. 183) s ince ' i n d i a n ' i s def ined c u l t u r a l l y and s o c i a l l y , not r a c i a l l y . E l cantor i n a voice of "acerada t r i s t e z a " expresses the 38. c o l l e c t i v e lament and sorrow of the Quechua people. The inner form of the novel i s understood by Luka*cs "as the process of the problematic i n d i v i d u a l ' s journeying towards 2 6 himself". ' The " t o t a l i t y required by the novel form" i s 27 ' accomplished by "the return home". In Los r i o s profundos, the jarahui de l a despedida sung by the women of the a y l l u i s the entreaty fo r that re turn : no te o l v i d e s , mi pequeno, H i jo mio, has de vo lve r . . . Cp. 46). Ernesto p r e c i s e l y never fo rge ts . His return l i e s in h is p ro - ind ian v i s i o n and in h is turning to the mountains at the end of the na r ra t i ve . F i n a l l y , however, the protagonist of 2 8 the text i s not Ernesto but the indian people themselves whose i n f i n i t e l y sorrowful desi re fo r ' r e t u r n ' i s voiced by the s inger : Rio Paraisancos caudaloso r i o , no has de b i f u r c a r t e hasta que yo regrese , hasta que yo vue lva . Porque s i te b i f u r e a s , s i te extiendes en ramas, en los pececi l los , que yo he cr iado alguien se cebar ia / y desperdic iados, morir ian en las p layas . (p. 180). The return in the huayno i s envisioned in the sense of the return of the male to the female, that i s , to nature h e r s e l f . The song expresses the c o l l e c t i v e search for r e i n t e g r a t i o n . 3 9 . The seekers and homeless wanderers then, in Los r i o s  profundos, are two- fo ld : on the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , Ernesto; on the c o l l e c t i v e l e v e l , the indian people, who are s p i r i t u a l wanderers. Ernesto however i s not the mere representat ive of the c o l l e c t i v e . Belonging to both cul tures he symbolizes the need for union or harmony of the two cu l tu res ; f o r , the inner harmony of one cul ture can at th is point no longer be r e a l i z e d in i t s e l f , as i t does not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . I f homogeneity (Lukaics') i s des i red , although the indian world in i t s in tac t state serves as a model of homogeneous r e l a t i o n s , i t fol lows that i t can be achieved only in the context of both cu l tu res . However through i t s imposit ion of a s o c i a l order in which the indian occupies the lowermost p o s i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y , the dominant cu l ture i s i n i m i c a l to that of the indigenous. The indian as a c o l l e c t i v e in Arguedas' text i s projected not as a f i x e d c u l t u r a l and ethnic en t i ty but as a way of being in a s o c i a l process. As Arguedas wr i tes : " la l i t e r a t u r a llamada ind igen is ta no es n i podia ser una narra t ive c i rcumscr i ta a l ind io si^no a todo e l context s o c i a l i „ 29 a l que pertenece.;" In h is presentat ion of the indian perspect ive , Arguedas therefore depicts the wider context of s o c i a l s t ructure which la rge ly determines the indian l i f e cond i t ion . Lukacs' and Goldmann's conception of ' t o t a l i t y ' whereby each "human fact" i s both a s t ructure of meaning and part of other wider s t ructures i s re levant here. A lso Goldmann's proposal for 4.0, c r i t i c a l a c t i v i t y as an o s c i l l a t i o n between comprehens ion and exp1an a t l o n 3 ^ i s corresponded by Arguedas' a c t i v i t y as author v i s - a - v i s h i s subject . In h i s text i t i s not a question of ' r e f l e c t i n g ' s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s in the sense of mi r ror ing actua l cond i t ions ; but of combining in Lukacs' sense " r e f l e c t i v e phenomenon" and abstract ions whereby a "new r e a l i t y " i s produced through the aesthet ic p r i n c i p l e of ' i n d i r e c t n e s s ' . This "new r e a l i t y " however does not transcend the g iven , nor the ' i d e o l o g i c a l ' , but represents a re -order ing of the given in to a perspect ive whereby the inner mechanism of the s o c i a l process of domination may be viewed. In other words, apart from dep ic t ing the r e s u l t s of the co lon iz ing process (the loss of land and c u l t u r e , economic misery, s o c i a l degradation, s p i r i t u a l so l i tude and 'orphanhood'); Arguedas demonstrates a e s t h e t i c a l l y how the r e l a t i o n s of domination and oppression funct ion and how they are maintained. In the text there i s an opposi t ion between the indian sense of 'community' and the imposed s o c i a l s t ructure wi th in which., as mentioned, the indian i s s i tuated on the lowermost p o s i t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y . For the purpose of d e f i n i t i o n I draw on V i c t o r Turner 's use of the terms 'community' (which he c a l l s 'communitas') and s o c i a l s t ructure which re fe r to two contrast ing modal i t ies of s o c i a l i n t e r -re la tedness: 'communitas' suggests a view of "society as a homogeneous i n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d whole"; whereas s o c i a l s t ruc tu re , 41. defined as "the patterned arrangements of ro le^sets , s t a t u s - s e t s , and status sequences consciously recognized and regu lar ly operative in a given s o c i e t y " , suggests a "segmented system of s t r u c t u r a l pos i t ions (which may or may not be arranged in a 31 hierarchy." ] In Los r i o s profundos, Arguedas depicts the s o c i a l s t ructure by de l inea t ing the re la t ions between the dominating group and those dominated as perceived by Ernesto; who, as mentioned, occupies a l i m i n a l p o s i t i o n — t h a t i s , outside of the st ructure i t s e l f and yet part of i t . Ernesto , having known the 'communitas' of the indian a y l l u , comes to know the h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i a l s t ructure wherein the indian has the p o s i t i o n of 32 "lowermost s t a t u s . " The f igures described i n the text who "hacen de l ind io lo que es" are the landowners, the p r i e s t and the m i l i t a r y , forming an interdependent power group. There i s no d o c t r i n a i r e commentary on, or explanation o f , the s o c i a l s t ructure in the text as such. The subtle and not-so-subt le human i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th in the s o c i a l s t ructure are revealed in terms of a process of symbolic contrasts and metaphoric ana log ies . Through th is b a s i c a l l y ' a e s t h e t i c ' means of construct ing the process of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n between oppressors and oppressed, Arguedas prevents the ready automati-zat ion of the re la t ions of domination by the reader. In other words, the aesthet ic here o f fe rs a 'detour ' in Shklovsky's sense whereby automatic perceptions are momentarily circumvented. Lukacs' concept of ' i n d i r e c t n e s s ' as a 42. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the aesthet ic i s re la ted here. In the opening chapter , the landlord and h is servant , the pongo, form the immediate contrast of oppressor and oppressed. The pongo i s described as barely appearing a l i v e , const r ic ted in h is breathing by an i n v i s i b l e weight ("el i n v i s i b l e peso que oprimia su resp i rac ion" p. 21 ) . The o ld man, "imperioso", who "parecia pesar mucho, como s i fuera de acero ," (p. 22) i s that weight. The pongo i s i d e n t i f i e d with the f r a g i l e , martyr ized, b a r e l y - s u r v i v i n g tree in the courtyard (the only l i v i n g th ing that makes the courtyard less of a he l l ) and with the Senor de los Temblores in the ca thedra l : E l ros t ro de l Cruc i f i cado era cas i negro, desencajado, como e l de l pongo. (p. 23) . s Later the colonos who "tenian l a misma aparencia que e l pongo de l v i e j o " (p. 34) are drawn in to th is r e l a t i o n s h i p . By a s i m i l a r manner of l i n k i n g the compl ic i ty of the landlords and the church i s revea led . The o ld man and Linares are i d e n t i f i e d by the q u a l i t y of t h e i r v o i c e s : s . . .estaba a l i i e l V i e j o , rezando apresuradamente con su voz meta l ica . (p. 23). CLinares) . . .con su voz meta l ica , a l t i s i m a , imploro perdon para las f u g i t i v a s . . . . (.p...l68) . Later L inares ' recept ion room i s l ikened in Ernesto 's mind 33 to the o ld man's s a l o n , and both are i d e n t i f i e d with the i n t e r i o r of the churches at Cuzco, which are key emblems of the r u l i n g establ ishment: Me l l e v o a l salon de r e c i b o . Se parec ia a l de l V i e j o . . . .Dos grandes espejos con marcos dorados b r i l l a b a n en l a pared. La luz profunda de esos espejos me ha arrebatado siempre, como s i por e l l o s pudiera verse mas a l i a de l mundo. En los templos del Cuzco h a y . . -muchos, en lo a l t o de las columnas, ina lcanzab les . (pp. 144,145). The word " inalcanzable" recurs l a te r in r e l a t i o n to the mayordomo and the landlords who are i d e n t i f i e d with God by the colonos: " . . .como c r i s t i a n o s reciben brdenes de los mayordomos que representan a D ios , que es e l patron, h i j o de D ios , inalcanzable como E l . " (p. 224). U r r e l l o ' s comment that th is type of poet ic synthesis by means of analogy i s fa r more e f f e c t i v e than doc t r ina i re explanat ion/ which, i f interposed in to the narrat ive of the 34 text would detract from i t s poet ic q u a l i t y . is much to the p o i n t . The subtle nature and the danger of the a l l i a n c e of the Church and landlord c lass are thus revealed on the l e v e l of poet ic subt le ty . The poet ic process of i d e n t i t i e s and contrast i s a bas ic aspect of Arguedas 1 technique whereby ideology and aesthet ics are f u l l y integrated and a lso whereby, as mentioned, rap id automatization of the value-system of the text cannot take p l a c e . This i s how ar t through i t s funct ion s of ind i rec tness (Lukacs, Shklovsky) may a c t i v e l y engage the reader 's thought process . 44. Occupying a p o s i t i o n between the o ld man and the pongo, i s the inso lent mestizo servant (of indian blood but accul turated in to Spanish white s o c i e t y ) , who i d e n t i f i e s with the world of the masters. His o u t f i t of r i d i n g pants and boots l inks him to the small hacendados described i n La hacienda and forms a stark and immediate contrast to the threadbare poncho and bare feet of the pongo. The f igure of the mest izo, occupying a middle p o s i t i o n between landlords and peons, recurs l a te r in the text in the form of the Patibamba mayordomos who carry external signs of domination and violence—guns and boots. Their b r i e f appearance and the descr ip t ions of outer d e t a i l s u f f i c e to show the mayordomo1s s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the world of the masters: En los extremos de los corredores, dos mestizos de botas y de grandes sombreros alones se a r r o d i l l a r o n con f u s i l e s en las man os . (p. 104). Violentamente se escucharon los pasos del^mayordomo p r i n c i p a l que subio a l pa lco . Tenia botas , de las mas a l t a s . . . . (p . 119). The o ld man and the pongo both appear d i r e c t l y only in the f i r s t chapter , yet t h e i r shadows f a l l across the ent i re t ex t . The o ld man's absent presence i s s i g n i f i c a n t in that i t represents the actua l r e l a t i o n of the landlords to the colonos. Although the landlords determine the l i v e s of the co lonos, they are ra re ly seen by the l a t t e r . Like God, they are " ina lcanzab les" . 45. The other f igure in the text l inked to the old: man as part of the power group i s the co lonel of the regiment. His p o s i t i o n i n the s o c i a l s t ructure i s viewed by the schoolboys as even higher than that of the landlords whose in te res ts he protects and defends. Ernesto contemplates the co lonel in church, where he i s enthroned, while Linares lav ishes pra ise upon him from the p u l p i t (". . .E log io a l corone l . . . . " Q?. 167]) : Lo vimos imponente, con sus entorchados y char re teras , bajo e l a l to techo del templo. . .en un gran s i l l c r t ; lo contemplamos como a algo mas que un gran hacendado. (p. 201). Although the regiment plays a minor ro le in the n a r r a t i v e , i t s mere presence in Abancay i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e . Ernesto views them: Vest idos de polacas cenidas, r a r a s , y esos , kepis a l t o s , de c o l o r e s ; las botas especia l ism a s ; los ve ia d i s p l i c e n t e s , como contemplando a los demas desde otro mundo. . . .No eran como los otros seres humanos que conocia , d istantes o proximos a mi . . . .Se paraban con gran aplomo en todas par tes , como s i no fueran de t i e r r a sino que l a t i e r r a nac iera de e l l o s , en dondequiera que estuv iesen. (p. 202). The uniformed men, whose presence provokes admiration i n the schoolboys who i d e n t i f y with the dominant group (Antero) and te r ro r i n those who i d e n t i f y with the dominated (Pa lac ios , Ernesto ) , cannot be re la ted to on a human l e v e l . They are uni ts in the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e — s t a t u s - r o l e s , ro le-masks, dangerous i n t h e i r ro le "para mandar, para f u s i l a r y hacer degol lar con las bayonetas." (p. 203). These "aves ornamentales" of power are in d i r e c t contrast to the "naked" and defenseless being of the colonos and the pongo who are described as "gusanos". E r n e s t ' s s e l f - i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with the l a t t e r i s a lso expressed i n terms of the image of the worm: ". . .me s e n t i . . .como un f r a g i l gusano." (p. 162). Ernesto perceives the very nature of the dangerous q u a l i t i e s of the regiments' o f f i c e r s as a lso revealed in the co ld possession-and-power-oriented manner in which they regard the g i r l s of Abancay. Antero, son of a l and lo rd , becomes contaminated by the c o l o n e l ' s son: Yo tengo una, y ot ra en "proyecto". Pero a S a l v i n i a l a cercamos. Es pasto prohib ido , por mi y por Gerardo. jNadie prueba eso! Gerardo ya tumbo a una. . . .La h izo l l o r a r , e l bandido. La probo. Cp. 206). Antero thus allows himself to be absorbed in to the oppressor 's consciousness, which in F r e i r e ' s words "tends to transform everything surrounding i t in to an object of i t s 35 domination." Even h is p h y s i c a l features are thereby marked: / • "En los lab ios de Antero habia madurado otra vez esa especie de b e s t i a l i d a d que endurecia su boca, mas que los otras rasgos de su c a r a . " (P. 209). Through Ernesto 's percept ions, Arguedas connects the behaviour of Antero and Gerardo and the abusiveness in general of the regiments' o f f i c e r s with the b e s t i a l behaviour of Peluca i n the schoolyard. Thus the sexual aggression of the schoolboys i s drawn in to d i r e c t r e l a t i o n with the general motivat ion for power and v io lence inherent in the power s t ruc tu re . The des i re to dominate i s c lass-based and contagious (Antero). The fac t that the sexual v io lence and the exp lo i ta t ion of l a opa i s to le ra ted at the c a t h o l i c schoo l , i s p r e c i s e l y because v io lence and exp lo i t a t ion are part of the s o c i a l order,which the school supports and for which i t educates the students. The army and the hacienda as i n s t i t u t i o n s of power and exp lo i t a t ion are authorized by the Church, which gives r e l i g i o u s sanct ion to the oppressive s o c i a l s t ruc ture . The subt le and important ro le of r e l i g i o n in the s o c i a l s t ructure i s described through Ernesto 's f ine perception of L inares ' powers of manipulation and h is ambiguity ("s ig los de sospechas pesaban sobre e l , y e l temor, l a sed de c a s t i g a r . " Q?. 232] ) . Arguedas depicts the r e l a t i o n of L i n a r e s , who represents the church's au thor i ty , to the colonos as being on a higher l e v e l of complexity than the d i r e c t l y exp lo i ta t i ve and b r u t a l r e l a t i o n of the landlords to the colonos. The subtle v io lence perpetrated towards the peons by means of the r e l i g i o u s ideology i s fa r more d e b i l i t a t i n g and hence more dangerous than the e x p l i c i t domination of the land lords . It i s in the d i s c r i p t i o n of L inares that Arguedas pinpoints the mechanisms of domination which often are i n d i r e c t and v e i l e d to those 48. d i r e c t l y invo lved . As p r i e s t Linares encourages the landlords in t h e i r ro le of ' p i l l a r s ' of the nat ion and prepares the s p i r i t u a l ground-work for the t o t a l submission of the colonos. As d i rec to r of the school he contro ls education for the purpose of maintaining the system. Through the Church and school, values in support of the s o c i a l order of inequa l i ty are d i f f u s e d . Linares preaches to the Abancayos, the landlords and the schoolboys: s Elogiaba a los hacendados; decia que e l l o s eran e l fundamento de l a p a t r i a , los. p i l a r e s que sostenian su r iqueza . Se r e f e r i a a l a r e l i g i o s i d a d de los senores, a l cuidado con que conservabah las c a p i l l a s de las haciendas y l a ob l igac ion que imponian entre los ind ios de confesarse, de comulgar, de casarse y v i v i r en paz, en e l t rabajo humilde. Luego bajaba nuevamente l a voz y narraba algun pasaje de l c a l v a r i o . (p. 47). Through t h i s sermon and the one that Linares preaches to the Patibamba colonos, Arguedas depicts the i d e o l o g i c a l funct ion of the Church as mediator of s o c i a l r e a l i t y with the goal of making i t i n t e r n a l l y acceptable to both oppressors and oppressed. L inares ' act of reading a passage from the Passion fo l lowing h is confirmation of the land lords ' and colonos' respect ive r o l e s , suggests that C h r i s t ' s martyrdom i s used as a paradigm for the actual s o c i a l martyrdom of the colonos— a paradigm which funct ions to make that martyrdom acceptable to both landlords and colonos. Thus Chr is t never appears in 49 . the t e x t as a redemptive f i g u r e ; f o r s o c i a l l y the i n d i a n i s without hope of redemption. The sermon preached by L i n a r e s i n Quechua t o the colonos makes t h i s process of i n d o c t r i n a t i o n even more c l e a r . He implores the colonos to s u f f e r , t o accept s u f f e r i n g as a s a c r e d t r u s t , p a r t of a p a t e r n a l i s t i c s a c r e d system: Todos padecemos, hermanos. Pero unos mas que o t r o s . Ustedes s u f r e n por l o s h i j o s , por e l padre y e l hermano; e l patron padepe por todos ustedes; yo por todo Abancay. Y Dios, nuestro Padre, por l a gente que s u f r e en e l mundo entero. . . . L l o r e n , l l o r e n — g r i t 6 — , e l mundo es una cuna de l l a n t o para' l a s p o b r e c i t a s c r i a t u r a s , l o s i n d i o s de Patibamba! Cp. 120). The p a t e r n a l i s m invoked i s both r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l , and thus the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the s a l t by the c o r r e c t 'Godlike' a u t h o r i t y becomes an event of great importance: Ahora ahora mismo, r e c i b i r a n mas, mas s a l , que e l patron ha hecho t r a e r para sus c r i a t u r a s , sus p o b r e c i t o s h i j o s , l o s runas de l a hacienda. . . . (p. 121). In the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e as mediated by the Church the colonos are the " p o b r e c i t o s h i j o s " of e l p a t r o n , of L i n a r e s and of God. The patron as mentioned i s equated w i t h God, - 3 6 " i n a l c a n z a b l e como E l . " (p. 224) . The colonos d i s p o s s e s s e d of land and c u l t u r e , are orphans ("Lloran como s i fueran huerfanos" (j>. 155] ) . As such they are the dependent ' c h i l d r e n of the power group. E f f e c t i v e l y s i l e n c e d , t h e i r ' voice' i s reduced t o c h i l d i s h w a i l s . L i n a r e s 50. i n h is manipulatory eulogy o f t h e i r humi l i ty acts as a major t o o l fo r keeping them at the bottom of the s t a t i c s o c i a l s t ruc tu re . Thus the Church ensures that the status quo remains unchallenged. Arguedas, r e l y i n g i n part on h is own chi ldhood perceptions in the Catho l ic school of Abancay, incorporates the Church's i d e o l o g i c a l funct ion in obtaining popular consent to the hegemonic c lass ru le in to the tex t , thus speaking for the colonos who, submerged in t h e i r r e a l i t y , cannot re la te t h e i r part in the s o c i a l s t ructure to the whole. Suf fer ing ( thei r s u f f e r i n g , which i s c l e a r l y due to an imbalance in the s o c i a l world) i s made to appear i n t r i n s i c to human l i f e . The l o g i c dispensed by the Church i s evident in the conversation between Ernesto and the Quechua-speaking cook concerning one of the most explo i ted characters in the tex t , l a opa, who r a c i a l l y white i s s o c i a l l y i n d i a n : —t iene que s u f r i r todav ia , d icen . A eso ha venido. —Sufre? —ps gente! ,iPor que no va a s u f r i r ? Acaso es c a l l o muerto su cuerpo? —Por que s u f r i r so lament e?' —Para eso Dios l a ha mandado a este pueblo. (p. 19 7) . However, through a e s t h e t i c , i . e . in th is case symbolic means, Arguedas l ibera tes t h i s character from the apparent determinism of s u f f e r i n g . 17a opa becomes symbol ica l ly ' i d e n t i f i e d with the l i b e r a t i n g f igure in the nove l , dona F e l i p a . Wrapped i n dona F e l i p a ' s s c a r f , l a opa ceases to .51, s u f f e r . Instead she mocks the s o c i a l system, r i s i n g symbol ica l ly above i t when she cl imbs the tower of Abancay. From the height of the tower, she who has occupied with the Indians the lowermost rung of the s o c i a l ladder , now looks down upon the parading gentry, thus somewhat t r a g i c a l l y revers ing her former' p o s i t i o n of l y i n g on her back in the dust of the school pa t io where she was explo i ted in the ro le of " la puta i n d i a " : Oia a l a banda de musicos desde e l mirador mas a l t o y solemne de l a cuidad, y contemplaba jexaminandolos, a los i l u s t r e s de Abancay. Los senalaba y en ju ic iaba . (p. 198). Through dona F e l i p a , the mest iza , Arguedas introduces in the text the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e v o l t against the a u t h o r i t i e s . Dona F e l i p a i s immune to the ideology of the Church and does not accept the robbing of the poor by the a u t h o r i t i e s . The revo l t however i s s h o r t - l i v e d , s ince the m i l i t a r y are i n s t a l l e d in Abancay as a consequence. When ideology does not work in achieving ' c o n s e n t ' , coercive force i s put in to a c t i o n . However her disappearance gives r i s e to the popular b e l i e f that she w i l l r e tu rn , leading the se lva indians in revo l t against the whole of Abancay. In other words, she becomes a popular 'symbol' fo r hope. The other p o s s i b i l i t y i s presented by Arguedas by the colonos, who, because of the fever epidemic, bend the w i l l of the au thor i t i es and enter Abancay l i k e a s i l e n t stream to demand mass. This s e l f - a s s e r t i v e act ion on t h e i r part seems 52. c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n the context of t h e i r a c t u a l s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n , which, h o l d s them imprisoned. Hence L i n a r e s ' s u r p r i s e : "Es que ahora, m o r i r a s i , p i d i e n d o misa, avanzando por l a misa... Pero en o t r a o c a s i o n un s o l o l a t i g a z o en l a c a r a es s u f i c i e n t e . . . ." Cp. 240). The i n c u l c a t i o n o f f a i t h and s p i r i t u a l 'toughness' by the church i s thus d e p i c t e d by Arguedas as having a b a c k l a s h . The a c t i o n o f the colonos makes the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n d i a n s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n d e s p i t e , and w i t h i n the context o f , the d e s c r i b e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e seem a l i t t l e l e s s remote. What i s t o be i n f e r r e d from t h e i r a c t i o n i n the n a r r a t i v e i s made e x p l i c i t by Arguedas i n Primer encuentro. . . .: La t e s i s e r a e s t a : e s t a gente se subleva por una razon.de orden enteramente magico. (Como no l o haran, entonces, cuando luchen por una cosa mucho mas d i r e c t a como sus prop/'ias v i d a s . . . . 37 Arguedas' d e p i c t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e has a r e a l base i n the s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f the wider s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e t h a t 'embraces' the t e x t i n Goldmann's terms. His d e s c r i p t i o n s , as mentioned, however do not merely ' r e f l e c t ' , i n the sense of m i r r o r i n g , or 'record' elements of the embracing s t r u c t u r e , but they a l s o r e p r e s e n t an a e s t h e t i c r e - o r d e r i n g of r e a l i t y whereby there i s a simultaneous l a y i n g bare of s o c i a l c o n t r a -d i c t i o n s and t h e i r f u n c t i o n and a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an a e s t h e t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l r e s o l u t i o n , That r e s o l u t i o n does not s p u r i o u s l y ' r e s o l v e ' the s o c i a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of the r e a l i t y on which the text i s based but points in the d i r e c t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y of change. On the part of the i n d i v i d u a l pro tagonis t , the pro - ind ian cho ice , based la rge ly on an abhorrence of oppression and on an emotional and s p i r i t u a l a f f i n i t y with the indian world, resolves any inner c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The discovery of the presence-in-absence of indian values consol idates the choice . The cont rad ic t ion then i s not in the inner at t i tudes of the protagonist but in the external world of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . On the l e v e l of the indian c o l l e c t i v e , Arguedas through symbol, image, metaphor and other aesthet ic c r i t e r i a used i n the descr ip t ion of the indian world v i s i o n , mediates the c o n f l i c t i n h is p o s i t i v e rendering of the inner indian world wherein forces e x i s t that may at any point be unleashed in d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l change. In th is sense, although wi th in the framework of the textua l dep ic t ion of the wanderer ( ind iv idua l and c o l l e c t i v e ) and the search in a s o c i a l order of oppression, the p o l i t i c a l act ion of the indians has yet to take p lace ; the impetus for such a future p o s s i b i l i t y i s already present as described by Arguedas in the nexus of the Quechua v i s i o n or world-percept ion i t s e l f . I t i s a question of recogniz ing both the s o c i a l misery of the indians and i t s funct ion in the s o c i a l s t ructure as we l l as the inner or s p i r i t u a l strength of the indian populace. The v i n d i c a t i o n of the indian on s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and s p i r i t u a l l eve ls i s Arguedas' contr ibut ion to a ;;;. 54. p r o - i n d i g e n o u s i d e o l o g y . How t h i s i d e o l o g y i s r e n d e r e d t h r o u g h t h e ' i n s i d e ' v iew o f the Quechua v i s i o n i t s e l f i s the s u b j e c t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . 55. CHAPTER II. FOOTNOTES. See a lso Wil l iam Eowe*s comments on the subject of the La t in American reg iona l novel i n "Mito, Lenguaje e i d e o l g i a como estructuras l i t e r a r i a s " ;.' , Recopi lacion de textos sobre  Jose Maria Arguedas, ed. Jean Larco , (Cuba: Casa de las Americas, 1976) , p. 257 f f . 2 Primer encuentro de narradores peruanos, Arequipa 19 65, (Lima: Casa de l a cu l tura de l Peru, 1969), p. 255. Arguedas w r i t e s : " . . . sin^, ' Amauta1 , l a r e v i s t a d i r igada por Mar ia tegui , no s e r i a nada." .~ . s i n las doctr inas soc ia les di fundidas despues de l a primera guerra mundial tampoco habria s ido nada". 3 y . ' Jose Carlos Mar ia tegui , Siete ensayos de mte rp re tac ion de l a rea l idad peruana, (Lima: Amauta, 1977), p . . 35 . 4 I b i d . , p. 44. ' 5 I b i d . , p. 36, 37. ^ I b i d . , p. 332. 7 Arguedas, op. c i t . , p. 41. 8 y y Arguedas, "Razon de ser del indigenismo en e l Peru" , Recopi lac ion de tex tos . . . . , pp. 428, 429. 9 <y I b i d . , p. 428. Arguedas w r i t e s : "Segun estos h i s p a n i s t a s , e l , i n d i o es e l responsible ' de l as l imi tac iones y defectos del p a i s ; . a f i r m a n que es r e f r a c t a r i o a l a c i v i l i z a c i o n , freno que impide l a evolucion s o c i a l de l peru . . . . " "^Arguedas, E l zorro de a r r iba y e l zorro de abajo, (Buenos A i r e s : Losada, 19 71), p. 2 81. "''"''Arguedas comments on th is in " E l razon de ser de l indigenismo en e l Peru" , Recopi lac ion de tex tos . . . . , p. 425. "Mariategui no disponia de. informacion sobre l a cu l tura indigena o i n d i a ; no se habia estudjLado, n i e l tuvo oportunidad n i tiempo para hacer lo ; no se* conocia . . . " 12 Arguedas, Primer encuentro de narradores P. 41. 13 ' ' See Antonio U r r e l l o , Jose Maria Arguedas, e l nuevo ros t ro de l i n d i o , (Lima, 19 74); Antonio Corne jo-Polar , Los universos harra t ivos de Jose Maria Arguedas, (Buenos A i r e s , : 1973); Mario Vargas L l o s a , "Prologo" ,' Los ribs' "pro fund os (Cuba, 1963); Jose Luis R o u i l l o n , "Notas c r i t i c a s a l a obra de Jose Maria Arguedas", Cuentos o lv idados , (Lima, 1973); Hugo Blanco, Land or Death, (NY: 19 72). ^Antonio U r r e l l o , " E l nuevo indigenismo peruano", Cuadernos Americanos, V o l . 185, (no. 6, 1972), p. 186. "^Arguedas, "La nar ra t iva en e l Peru contemporaneo", Recopi lac ion de textos . . . . , pp. 412, 413. 16 Arguedas, E l zorro de a r r i b a y e l zorro de abajo, p. 172. 17 Arguedas, Primer encuentro. . . . , p. 172. 18 Arguedas, "La novela y e l problema de l a expresion l i t e r a r i a en e l Peru" , Yawar F i e s t a , (Buenos A i r e s : Losada, 1974), p. 174. 19 \ Georg Lukacs, The Theory of the Novel , (Cambridge: MIT Press , 1973), p. 60. I b i d . 2 1 I b i d . , p. 41. 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 12, 15, 71. 23 s' Antonio Corne jo-Polar , Los universos narrat iyos de Jose Maria Arguedas, (Buenos A i r e s ! E d i t i o r i a l Losada, 1973) , p. T0 4 24 Arnold van Gennep, The Rites of Passage, t rans . M. Vizedom and G. C a f f e , (London: Routledge and Kegan, P a u l , 1960), p. 10. 25T . s . . C A Lukacs, op. c i t . , p. 64. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 80. ' 27 T, I b id . 28 ^ ' See a lso Antonio U r r e l l o , Jose Maria Arguedas: E l nuevo ros t ro de l i n d i o , (Lima: Juan Mej ia-Baca, 19 7 4) , p. 147. 29 / ' Arguedas, "Razon de ser de l indigenismo en e l Peru" , Recopi lac ion de textos . . . . , p. 429. 30 See In t roduct ion, p .6 . -31 V i c t o r Turner, Dramas, F i e l d s , and Metaphors, ( Ithaca: C o r n e l l Univ. Press , 1974), p. 237. 32 I b i d . , p. 237. "Lowermost s ta tus . . . r e fe rs to the lowest rung in a system of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n in which unequal rewards are accorded to func t iona l ly d i f f e r e n t i a t e d p o s i t i o n s . " 33 Antonio U r r e l l o , op. c i t . , P. 157. I b x d . J J P a u l o F r e i r e , Pedagogy of the Oppressed, t rans . M. Ramos (NY: Seabury Press , 19 70), p. 45 4. Arguedas expresses th is a lso i n "Razon de ser de l indigenismo en e l Peru" , Recopi lacion de textos . . . . , P. 426 "La i g l e s i a jugo un papel muy importante en l a imposicion y conservacion de l a mansedumbre que permite, inc luso hoy la destruccion f i s i c a impune de los indios de l a hacienda. Una caudalosa, b e l l a , modeladpra l i t e r a t u r a quechua r e l i g i o s a c a t o l i c a r ige todavia l a conducta de los i n d i o s : proclama e l do lo r , l a obediencia y aun l a muerte como un supremo b i e n . Yo he escuchado a predicadores f ranc iscanos , en una hacienda de Apurimac, af irmar desde e l pu lp i to de l a i g l e s i a dorada de l feudo, que e l patron es e l representante de Dios en l a T i e r r a y lo que e l patron hace^no debe d i s c u t i r s e s ino r e c i b i r s e como una d i s p o s i c i o n sagrada." 37 Arguedas, Primer encuentro. . . . , p. 239. CHAPTER III. QUECHUA VISION. EL CORAZON INDIGENA. 58. En l a Puna una f l au ta t r i s t e una tenue f l a u t a como un rayo de luna y e l guejido de una quena con un canto quechua. . . Chuapi punchapi tutayaca ^ ("anochecio en mitad del dia") Ernesto Cardenal The misery of the indian s o c i a l condi t ion i s perhaps most immediately expressed in the descr ip t ion of Ernesto 's glimpse through the crack under the door in to one of the huts at Patibamba, where a c h i l d picks with a long needle nests of f l e a s ' larvae from a younger c h i l d ' s naked body. The smaller c h i l d submits to the treatment without t ea rs . Ernesto , however, having witnessed the scene hur ls c r i e s of despair at the hacienda gate; the hacienda being d i r e c t l y responsible fo r the inhuman condi t ion at Patibamba. It is in brief and v i v i d glimpses such as these that the s o c i a l protest of the novel i s conveyed. The complementary message to t h i s one, however, i s that despite s o c i a l degradation the Quechua cul ture survives as a world-percep-t ion and moreover inf luences the non- indian Andean world. It survives in language, music, myth and legend; and most importantly in the substrata of these—the concrete re la t ions of the Quechua-speakers to each other and to nature. I n t h i s c h a p t e r Arguedas' c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e Quechua w o r l d w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . Q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h i s r e s p e c t a r e : 1) how does Arguedas r e n d e r the i n n e r v i e w p o i n t o f the Quechua w o r l d ? and 2) how do the p r o - i n d i g e n o u s i d e o l o g y and the a e s t h e t i c d e v i c e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h each o t h e r ? The Quechua s p i r i t r e s i d e s i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f E r n e s t o h i m s e l f ; t h a t i s , i t i s p a r t o f h i s w o r l d - p e r c e p t i o n . E r n e s t o does n o t seek t o a t t a i n the Quechua w o r l d , t o make a b r i d g e between h i m s e l f and i t ; b u t e x p e r i e n c e s i t as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f h i m s e l f . T h i s i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s t i t l e . The deep r i v e r s , l o s r i o s p r o f u n d o s , a r e t h e Quechua w o r l d as i t f l o w s t h r o u g h him. "Para e l hombre quechua moholingue", w r i t e s Arguedas: e l mundo e s t a v i v o ; no hay mucha d i f e r e n c i a , en cuanto que es s e r v i v o , e n t r e una montana, un i n s e c t o , una p i e d r a inmensa y e l s e r humano. . . .Tampoco hay mucha d i f e r e n c i a e n t r e l o r e l i g i o s o , l o magico y l o o b j e c t i v o . Una montana es dxos, un n o es d i o s , e l c i e m p i e s t i e n e v i r t u d e s s o b r e n a t u r a l e s . 1 When t h i s m a g i c o - r e l i g i o u s bond between n a t u r e and man i s s e v e r e d , t e r r i f y i n g s o l i t u d e b r e a k s i n , as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e huayno quoted by C a r d e n a l : " a n o c h e c i o en m i t a d d e l ^ 2 d i a " . I n o r d e r t o communicate,this w o r l d i n i t s v a r y i n g degrees between f r a g m e n t a t i o n and t o t a l i t y , Arguedas -had f i r s t o f a l l t o come t o terms w i t h t h e problem o f language: 60. . . . l a a n g u s t i a p r i m a r i a . . .es. . .por l a simple r e a l i z a c i o n . R e a l i z a r s e , t r a d u c i r s e , c o n v e r t i r en t o r r e n t e d i a f a n o y l e g i t i m o e l ldioma que parece ajeno; comunicar a l a lengua c a s i e x t r a n j e r a l a m a t e r i a de n u e s t r o e s p i r i t u . . . .Era n e c e s a r i o encontrar l o s ^ u t i l e s desordenamientos que h a r i a n d e l c a s t e l l a n o e l molde j u s t o , e l intrumento adecuado.3 / During the course of h i s w r i t i n g (from Agua t o Los r i o s  p r o f u n d o s ) , Arguedas chose t o i n c o r p o r a t e l e s s and l e s s Quechua words i n t o h i s t e x t s . Instead he m o d i f i e d Spanish i n such a manner as t o make i t more adequate f o r r e n d e r i n g the Quechua s e n s i b i l i t y . W i l l i a m Rowe 1s comments on t h i s aspect of Arguedas' use of language when t r a n s c r i b i n g i n d i a n 'speech' are r e l e v a n t here. F i r s t of a l l : " E l quechua es un idioma con i n f l e x i o n e s , es d e c i r , uno en e l c u a l se u t i l i z a n terminaciones-casos para si/ S expresar r e l a c i o n e s que en e l espanol o e l i n g l e s se d e f i n e n por medio de a r t i c u l o s , pronombres, p r e p o s i c i o n e s y 4 conjunciones." Rowe goes on to say t h a t the g e n e r i c world of the i n d i a n , i n c o n t r a s t to our i n d i v i d u a l i z e d one, i s suggested by Arguedas by means of the omission of a r t i c l e s and c o n j u n c t i o n s , by a p r e f e r e n c e f o r u s i n g the gerundive i n s t e a d of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l verb forms, and by r e a r r a n g i n g the u s u a l word order i n such a way t h a t the verb i n the phrase appears much c l o s e r t o the end than i s u s u a l i n e i t h e r Spanish or E n g l i s h . The elements of speech thus tend t o combine and i n t e r a c t on a d i f f e r e n t plane from t h a t 5 of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a c t i o n . In the speech of e l cantor , for example, i t can be seen how Arguedas renders something of the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Quechua: "Huayno abanquino, hermoso; e l corazon e n t i b i a viendo b a i l a r , oyendo" (p. 184). Yet I would agree with Rowe that the d isorder ing of syntax can only give an impression of Quechua indian thought, i t cannot reproduce i t s s t ruc ture .^ What i s of importance i s that by undoing the l o g i c a l order of words in a sentence, Arguedas ar r ives at a rendering of speech that more c l o s e l y approximates the i n t u i t i v e rather than r a t i o n a l manner of expression of the i n d i a n . Mario Vargas-L losa wr i tes : " . . . l a ruptura s is temat ica de l a s i n t a x i s t r a d i c i o n a l . . .cede e l paso a una organizacion de las palabras dentro de l a f r a s e , no s 7 de acuerdo an un orden l o g i c o , s ino emocional e i n t u i t i v o . " To render the ac tua l 'speech' of the i n d i a n s , Arguedas thus uses the above-mentioned incorporat ion of Quechua syntax in to Spanish as we l l as the simple Spanish spoken by some indians in t h e i r own communities. However of more i n t e r e s t perhaps than th is t e c h n i c a l aspect of rendering ' i n d i a n ' dialogue in Spanish, are the s i g n i f i c a t i o n s a t t r ibu ted to Quechua as a language in the text and the r e l a t i o n of the language in i t s present state to the state of Quechua cul ture i t s e l f . Language and cul ture are i n d i v i s i b l e and in d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n , the former being not merely a veh ic le of expression 62. for the l a t t e r but act ing upon i t , changing i t as i t i s changed. Relevant here i s Paul Feyerabend's comment: "languages and the react ion patterns they involve are not merely instruments for descr ib ing events. . .but a lso shapers of events. . .(and) t h e i r 'grammar' contains a cosmology, a comprehensive view of the wor ld , of s o c i e t y , of the s i t u a t i o n of man which inf luences thought, behaviour, p e r c e p t i o n . 1 , 8 The Quechua language as i t i s integrated in to the n a r r a t i v e , i n the huaynos and in scat tered phrases of dialogue (apart from the naming of i n s e c t s , f lowers , musical instruments, e t c . ) , r e f l e c t s the fore ign inf luence by the mere fac t of ass imi la t ion of Spanish words to denote objects and abstract concepts brought in by the fore ign cu l tu re : The Spanish i n f l u x of words i s most evident in the huaynos which are composed as commentary to the c o n f l i c t between the chicheras and the a u t h o r i t i e s . They are mestizo expressions in every sense of the word. In the ancient huaynos which deal with the re la t ions of men, nature and death, such as the tarantu la huaynos, Apank 'ora l lay , Spanish words have no presence. F u s i l warkusk'atas t a r i n k u , Encontraron colgados los f u s i l e s (p. 153). r i f l i n c h u t o k ' r o alma r u r u l l a n s i no es e l r i f l e , es e l alma de l so ldadi to (p. 110). On the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l of speech. (Saussure's p a r o l e ) , the mixing of Spanish and Quechua funct ions in a d i f f e r e n t manner from the c o l l e c t i v e and c u l t u r a l expression of the huayno. The degree of c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l ambiguity on part of the speaker i s ind icated by the manner or degree of l i n g u i s t i c mixture in h is speech. Speech thus becomes an index of the degree of c u l t u r a l a l i ena t ion or proximity . For example, the s o c i a l l y anomalous p o s i t i o n of the drunken indian s o l d i e r in the regiment i s expressed in h is speech: mezclaba su cas te l lano barbaro con e l quechua. . . . —runaka—yo. . . j e f e , A g u i l a , wamanchallay, patu r i a c h a l l y . jCuatro y a , jud idu; s igoro prenada, ya de mi , en pueblo extrariol (p. 16 3) . The degree of a l i ena t ion from the language i s commensurable with the degree of a l i ena t ion from the cul ture i t s e l f on part of those who are most dominated and oppressed Thus for example both the pongo and the Patibamba colonos respond to Ernesto 's Quechua of the com>uneros with s i l ence the pongo because he i d e n t i f i e s the s o c i a l degradation which he has i n t e r n a l i z e d with the Quechua language; and the colonos because the i r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n has closed them of f completely from contact with the c u l t u r a l matr ix: Ya no escuchaban n i e l lenguaje de los a y l l u s ; les habian hecho perder l a memoria; porque yo les hable con las palabras y e l tono de los comuneros, y me desconocieron. (p. 45). 64. The s i l e n c e of the colonos thus expresses t h e i r a l i e n a t e d e x i s t e n c e and t h e i r c u l t u r a l orphanhood. The only person who can e l i c i t a response from them (apart from L i n a r e s who s k i l f u l l y manipulates t h e i r hearts) i s dona F e l i p a . She does t h i s when her v o i c e "se torno t i e r n a y d u l c e " (p. 105). T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t because throughout the t e x t the q u a l i t y of tenderness i s a t t r i b u t e d to the speech and being of the Quechua people: . . . e l d u l c i s i m o h a b l a r de l a s s i r v i e n t a s i n d i a s y de l o s ' c o n c e r t a d o s 1 . (p. 10). . . .me i n f u n d i e r o n l a impagable t e r n u r a en que v i v o . (p. 46). Me miraban f a m i l i a r m e n t e , con una t e r n u r a que me f o r t a l e c i a . (p. 183) . In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the s o f t and tender accent of the Quechua-speakers, are the m e t a l l i c v o i c e s of L i n a r e s and e l v i e j o (pp. 23, 16 8). Arguedas w r i t e s i n Canto Kechwa: Los que hablamos e s t e idioma sabemos que e l kechwa supera a l c a s t e l l a n o en l a expresi6n de algunos sentimientos que son l o s mas c a r a c t e r i s t i c o s d e l corazon i n d i g e n a ; l a t e r n u r a , e l c a r i n o , e l amor a l a n a t u r a l e z a . Los mismos p r i n c i p a l e s , despreciadores del i n d i o , cuando sienten una gran emocion dejan e l caste l lano para hablar en kechwa, y en ese rato se desahogan con mas v i o l e n c i a , como quien habla con sus propias palabras.9 The s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the SpanislwQuechua r e c i p r o c i t y i s that Quechua i s used to express emotion. In the tex t , the landlord from Chalhuanca, when overwhelmed with f e e l i n g switches to Quechua because of i t s wider emotional p o s s i b i l i t i e s : E l chalhuanquino. . . l e hablaba en quechua, of rec iendole todas las recompensas y los mundos que eh e l idioma de los indios pueden prometerse, hasta calmar por un instante las grandes a f l i c c i o n e s . (p. 41). In contrast to th is spontaneous use of Quechua on part of a non- ind ian , i s L inares ' use of Quechua for the purpose of manipulating the colonos. Likewise the Fransciscan p r i e s t s : "Hablan en quechua, a l i v i a n a los i n d i o s ; les hacen cantar himnos t r i s t e s " (p. 155). This use of the language by the p r i e s t s i s sensed c o r r e c t l y by Ernesto. ias"an abuse of the people to whom i t i s d i r e c t e d . Ernesto fo r the f i r s t time a c t i v e l y disobeys Linares when he hears h is sermon in Quechua to the colonos. He leaps from the ra ised plat form of the preacher to l i t e r a l l y and symbol ica l ly f a l l at the feet of an o ld indian (p. 130). Later he r e f l e c t s : " E l quechua en que hablo a los indios me causaba amargura"' (p. 130). In the school a l l boys except V a l l e speak Quechua. Va l l e understands but cannot render i t s sounds; nor does he in h is c u l t u r a l arrogance f e e l the need to do so . He aspires to leave the s i e r r a or Peru a l together: "Por fortuna no necesi tare de los i n d i o s ; pienso i r a v i v i r a Lima o a l extranjero" (p. 86). The older boys who dominate the younger resor t to Quechua for terms of abuse: " .Fuera , akatank'as!" (p. 75), i "Deja a los k 'echas. . ." (p. 76). In contrast Ernesto and Palac ios always use Quechua in terms of warmth and fee l ings of c loseness . Thus Ernesto , for example, addresses Antero by h is Quechua nickname, Markask'a, when he fee ls c lose to him, and by h is Spanish names Antero or Candela, when he fee ls a l ienated from him. Roui l lon wr i tes : Cuando las palabras quechuas irrumpen en e l re la to de Arguedas, parecen romper las estructuras mentales de nuestra lengua, nuestros habitos r u t i n a r i o s de cu l tura o c c i d e n t a l , e imponer una nueva exper iencia de l espacio y de las materias de l cosmos.-'-0 This i s c e r t a i n l y one aspect of Arguedas' use of Quechua i n the tex t . As w i l l be discussed in subsequent chapters, i t i s in fact the most widely used method on part of authors fo r approximating the reader d i r e c t l y to the 'otherness' of the indigenous cul ture in a non-indigenous context and language. Using much Quechua i n the text 67. however would appear i n a sense contradictory to Arguedas' i n t e n t i o n , which i s not to depict indian v i s i o n as 'o ther ' but as part of Peruvian t o t a l i t y , part of "nuestro propio r o s t r o " . In Los r i o s profundos Arguedas la rge ly resolves the problem of rendering Quechua v i s i o n in the Spanish idiom. The connotations of the Quechua or indigenous 'd iscourse ' are rendered however not only through the use of Quechua and i t s mixture with Spanish, but through the use of music mythology, metaphor and symbol. Arguedas draws widely on music—that i s , the music of nature, ranging from the de l i ca te sounds of insects to the thunder of spr ing r i v e r s ; , and the music composed by Andean man who l i s t e n s to the voices of nature: . . .grandes r i o s que cantan con l a musica mas hermosa a l chocar contra las piedras y las i s l a s . (P. 42) . . . .un arbol que canta s o l o , con una voz profunda. . . . (p. 2 7). Los hombres de l Peru, desde su or igen , han compuesto musica, oyendola ( la tuya) , v iendola cruzar e l espac io . . . . ( p . 158). The concatenation of the voices of nature and man i s an important aspect of the Quechua d iscourse , which i s character ized by the comprehensive view of a nature-man r e c i p r o c i t y and of a world in which everyth ing, inc lud ing 68. stones, i s a l i v e and t h e r e f o r e p a r t i c i p a t e s i n the cosmic v o i c e . As C o r n e j o - P o l a r w r i t e s : ". . .musica y n a t u r a l e z a t i e n e n i d e n t i c o s e n t i d o . " The huayno, then, i n s p i r e d by the sounds of nature not s u r p r i s i n g l y evokes images of nature i n the l i s t e n e r ' s mind: Canto. E l semblante de l o s pueblos de a l t u r a , d e l a i r e t r a n s p a r e n t e , a p a r e c i e r o n en mi memoria. (p. 179). Cuando cantaban con sus voces d e l g a d i t a s , o t r o p a i s a j e presentiamos, e l r u i d o de l a s hojas grandes, e l b r i l l o de l a s cascadas que s a l t a n entre arbustos y f l o r e s . . . l a l l u v i a pesada. . . .(pp. 50,51). Concerning the huayno, Arguedas w r i t e s i n Senores e i n d i o s : E l i n d i o y e l mestizo de hoy, como e l de hace c i e n anos, sigue encontrando en e s t a musica l a e x p r e s i o n entera de su e s p i r i t u y de todas sus emociones. . . . E l wayno es, pues, canto u n i v e r s a l d e l Peru i n d i o y mestizo. Ha s i d o su voz y su expr e s i o n mas l e g i t i m a a t r a v e s de todos l o s tiempos.12 An important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the huaynos i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t i s t h e i r l a m e n t f u l tone and content. The huayno as lament has i t s o r i g i n both i n the oppressiveness of nature i n the hig h p l a t e a u s and i n the o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l c o ntext of the i n d i a n . The i n h o s p i t a l i t y o f the bar r e n h e i g h t s t o the l i v i n g s o u l i s v o c a l i z e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the songs from C o l l a o , a c o l d r e g i o n , songs which b r i n g t o mind the landscape whence: they have t h e i r o r i g i n : 69. Pero e l collavino cantaba, y los de l a quebrada no^podian b a i l a r bien con ese canto. Tenia un ritmo lento y duro, como s i molieran metal; y s i e l huayno era t r i s t e , parecia que e l viento de las alturas, e l a ire que mueve a l a paja y agita las pequenas yerbas de l a estepa, llegaba a l a chicheria. Entonces los viajeros recordabamos las nubes de a l t u r a , siempre llenas de amenaza, f r i a s e inmisericordes, o l a l l u v i a lobrega y los campos de nieve interminables'. (p. 50) However the apparent p r e d i l e c t i o n for lamentful songs springs not from th i s aspect of nature but from the s o c i a l context. As Arguedas writes i n Canto Kewcha: ". . .de un pueblo oprimido no se puede e x i g i r musica predominantemente i ..13 alegre." The lamentful huayno represents the c o l l e c t i v e voice of an oppressed people. Their g r i e f becomes voiced as the lament of nature herself. A p o l i t i c a l expression of t h e i r oppression (that i s , ' p o l i t i c a l ' i n terms of revolt) may have i t s germination precisely i n these lamentful huaynds; f o r , from the depth of the lament surges simultaneously the i n s p i r a t i o n to vanquish (veneer), to break the b a r r i e r s , to f i g h t . Arguedas" description of Ernesto's reaction to the i n f i n i t e sadness of the music of Rio Paraisancos best i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s : 70. ^Quien puede ser capaz de senalar los limites que median entre lo heroico y e l h i e l o de l a gran t r i s t e z a ? Con una musica de estas puede e l hombre l l o r a r hasta. consumirse, hasta desaparecer, pero podria igualmente luchar contra una legion de condores. . .o contra los monstruos que se dice habitan en e l fondo de los lagos. . . .Yo me sentia mejor dispuesto a luchar contra e l demonio mientras escuchaba este canto. . .yo i r i a contra e l , seguro de vencerlo. (p. 181) Here the f i g h t i s seen i n heroic, mythic terms of a combat with animals and monsters. By contrast the i n s p i r a t i o n of the c a r n i v a l song sung by the rebe l l i o u s chicheras i s concretely t i e d to the p o l i t i c a l action taken by them: La voz del coro apago todos los insultos y dio un ritmo especial, ca s i de ataque, a los que marchabamos a Patibamba. (p. 103). The p o l i t i c a l intention i s further expressed i n the subversive mestizo l y r i c s invented to the tune of huaynos at Huanupata afte r the r e v o l t — f o r example, "'Huayruro', ama baleaychu; No dispares, huayruro" (p. 151). Ernesto when he passes the gates of Patibamba for the l a s t time also uses c a r n i v a l music as a challange: ". . .entone en voz a l t a un canto de desafio, un carnaval de Pampachiri" (p. 239) . Arguedas shows how, i n t h e i r servitude, the colonos have been made to forget t h e i r music as they have been made to abandon the language of the ,comuneros. In Linares' words: 71. ". . .no tocan esas flautas y tambores endemoniados, rezan a l amanecer y a l Angelus. . . .Reina l a paz y e l s i l e n c i o de Dios" (p. 230). On the haciendas indigenous music i s thus replaced by force with the music of r e l i g i o u s obedience — p r a y e r and mournful hymns. " E l s i l e n c i o de Dios" reigns over the "trabajo, devocion, s i l e n c i o " (p. 231) of the peons. Stripped of t h e i r own music and language, t h e i r voices are e f f e c t i v e l y ' s i l e n c e d 1 . Through the reference to music and through the inclusion of the huayno i n the text's narrative, Arguedas shows both the means by which the culture has been attacked and i n some eras eroded, and the relevance of music i n the Quechua discourse as a whole. Music i s related to nature and to. magic, as described through the use of the zumbayllu and winku at the school. These 'instruments' endowed with magic have the power to open the doors of memory and to transmit messages over far regions. The s p i r i t s of music, of nature and of the Quechua-speaker in t e r a c t i n a magically-bounded realm. At t h i s point Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff's comments regarding the Colombian Kogi culture are relevant: The inner l i f e which the Kogi attribute to t h e i r material culture and to a wide range of natural phenomena i s not the expression of an animistic attitude but refers to the fa c t that these objects of phenomena contain a mass of information, a wealth of associations and meanings that make each object 72. a s t o r e h o u s e o f d e t a i l e d codes t h a t a r e l i n k e d i n t o i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n c e p t s . These o b j e c t s o r phenomena, t h e n , "speak" t o the b e h o l d e r ; t h e y can even answer h i s q u e s t i o n s and g u i d e h i s a c t i o n s , t h e y a r e h i s memory, h i s p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e . . . .Next t o t h e s e a re n a t u r a l phenomena t h a t a re s i m i l a r l y used t o g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s : a mountain, a cave, a l a k e , a r i v e r . . . .And then t h e r e a re c e r t a i n named s p i r i t b e i n g s , p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s . . . a n c e s t r a l gods. . . .The c a t e g o r i e s a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . . . .14 The symbolic re la t ionsh ips re fe r red to by R e i c h e l -Dolmatoff apply equal ly to the Quechua v i s i o n as expressed a e s t h e t i c a l l y in Los r i b s profundos. The Quechua world i s character ized by a continuous man-nature r e c i p r o c i t y ; i t i s a world in which nature i s pe rson i f i ed and man i s endowed with forces of nature (magic). I t i s due to th is -sense of r e c i p r o c i t y that the human laments in the huayno are expressed as the laments of nature, and that the text i s saturated with images and metaphors derived from nature. Thus, fo r example, when Ernesto f i r s t glimpses the square and the cathedral in Cuzco he immediately draws analogies with nature: E r a , ( l a plaza) l a mas extensa de cuantas habia v i s t o . Los arcos aparecian como en e l conf in de una si lente. pampa de las regiones heladas. . . . (p . 13). Era una inmensa fachada; parec ia ser tan ancha como l a base de las montanas que se elevan desde las o r i l l a s de algunos lagos de a l t u r a . (p. 13). 73. In the world of the text, the highlands are sacred. The snows are the abodes of gods and s p i r i t s . The deep lakes harbour s p i r i t - b e i n g s , which at the ring of b e l l s are transformed into b u l l s . Insects are the messengers of the enchanted earth's surface; or, l i k e the huayronk'o, messengers of the d e v i l and the curses of saints. The winku, "(una) mezcla de angel con brujos" (p. 125), i s endowed with magic power. This system of categorization provides meaning, a meaning which i s under constant assault by the forces of the imposed s o c i a l structure which intervenes between the indian and his culture. Because nature i s perceived as mother and the sun as father, the indian when dis^ possessed of land and alienated from his culture, i s i n the state of orphanhood. This i s the significance of "no tiene padre, n i madre, solo su sombra" (the pongo), and "l l o r a n como huerfanos" (the colonos). In the world of the text, nature i s never perceived by Quechua-speakers as i n d i f f e r e n t to human action. It may be benign or h o s t i l e but never a l i e n . The s p i r i t s i t harbours may be invoked for aid i n the human struggle: . . .vino a mi memoria, como un relampago, l a imagen del Apu K'arwarasu. . . .Los indios invocan a l K'arwarasu unicamente en los grandes peligros. (p. 87). Or, nature h e r s e l f may be seen to respond with destruct iveness i n human r e l a t i o n s with des t ruc t ion . When L leras abuses the black brother , Migue l , Palac ios exclaims: L lovera quiza cen iza ! Quiza l a helada matara las p l a n t i t a s ! E l c i e l o va a vengarse. . . .Creo que e l s o l se mori ra . Ay papaci to . (p. 129). P a l a c i o s 1 expressions of fo lk b e l i e f s , which often are a mixture of indigenous and Catho l ic elements, and to which he has recourse p a r t i c u l a r l y during times of great s t r e s s , are a fur ther aspect of the Quechua contexture of Los r i o s  profundos. The most popular fo lk b e l i e f expressed in the text i s that of the condenados: Pa lac i tos no ten ia f i n cuando hablaba de los muertos y de los condenados. Despues de o i r l e nos ibamos a l a cama como a un abismo helado, a temblar. (p. 175). The whole conception of condenados, beings who, having committed p e r v e r s i t i e s in l i f e are condemned to wander a f te r 16 death as monsters that eat human and animal f l e s h , i s the r e s u l t of indigenous and Catho l ic syncret ism, e f fec ted by the reworking of o ld b e l i e f s with new ones to provide a mediation point between the two. This type of syncretism func t ions , as does the whole sphere of myth, as an organ iza t iona l p r i n c i p l e . In Levi-Strauss'• words, "the purpose of myth" i s "to provide a l o g i c a l model capable of 17 overcoming a cont rad ic t ion" . The point here i s that the contrad ic t ions inherent in the superimposit ion of one cul ture over another are mediated by the creat ion of new 18 myths that carry elements of both. Thus in a sense a new func t iona l ' language' i s created. Arguedas does not simply incorporate these fo lk b e l i e f s in to the text as an aspect of Quechua cul ture but shows as wel l the mechanism whereby these funct ion in the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The Church accepts syncret ism, as i t can be turned to i t s convenience in terms of manipulat ion, So L i n a r e s , fo r example, threatens the Patibamba colonos with the condi t ion of the condenados: E l robo es l a maldicion de l alma; e l que roba o recibe lo robado en condenado se conv ier te ; en condenado que no encuentra reposo, que a r ras t ra cadenas. . . . (pp . 120, 121). Just as he malappropriates the Quechua language for purposes of manipulation so he malappropriates the residue of legendary c u l t u r e . However h is threat i r o n i c a l l y becomes a double-edged sword. The colonos, p r e c i s e l y because of t h e i r t e r ro r of becoming condenados i f dying unabsolved from the fever which they personi fy and which they understand as "una ma ld ic ion" , f lood in to Abancay bending the w i l l of the au thor i t i es and of L inares in order to demand mass. 76. As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , Arguedas wishes to imply that i f the colonos are able to revo l t because of a supernatural reason, they w i l l be able to revo l t for reasons of s u r v i v a l . The message of l i b e r a t i o n in the tex t , however, i s c a r r i e d in terms of the depic t ion of the surv iv ing Quechua v i s i o n i t s e l f and in terms of the metaphors that are part of that v i s i o n . 19 . • The ' r o o t ' metaphor by means of which the p o s i t i v e aspect of the v i s i o n i s conveyed i s that of the r i v e r s , los  r i o s profundos. Blood r i v e r s , spr ing torrents and the veins of the human body, the human blood ' r i v e r s ' through which the water of nature speaks to the soul (p. 147), are i n t e r -re la ted meaningfully in the indian v i s i o n . Opposite to the image of f o r c e f u l r i v e r s that burst through narrow rock channels overcoming a l l obs tac les , i s the recurrent image of i c e — f r o z e n nature, frozen r i v e r s , the frozen human heart . The Quechua-speakers, surrounded by the g lac ie rs and e terna l snows of the Andes, env is ion death in these terms: Pero oyendo hablar en quechua de e l l a se abraza c a s i , como a un fantoche de algodon, a l a muerte, o como a una sombra helada. . .o de n ieve , de l a nieve de las cumbres, donde l a v ida ya no e x i s t e . (pp. 225,226). Death and both emotional and p h y s i c a l pain are expressed throughout the text in terms of images of i c e : E l mundo nunca fue mas t r i s t e ; c a l c i n a d o , s i n esperanza, hundido en mis entranas como un helado duelo. (p. 10 8). . . . e l h i e l o de l a gran t r i s t e z a ? (p. 181). La voz aguda c a i a en mi corazon. . .como un r i o helado. (p. 181) . The " r i o helado" and the t o r r e n t s of the s p r i n g r i v e r s , l o s r i o s profundos, become b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y death and l i f e . The o p p o s i t i o n of the two f u r t h e r s i g n i f i e s the s t r u g g l e of the i n d i a n i n the context of s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n . In the Andean cosmovision, r i v e r s are sacre d . Apurimac, i n Quechua means " E l hablador" as Arguedas w r i t e s : "'Dios que habla s i g n i f i c a su nombre" (p. 29). The Apurimac i n s p i r e s tenderness and f e a r i n " l o s ninos de h a b l a quechua" (p. 26). I t s v o i c e "ensordece, e x a l t a . . . .infunde p r e s e n t i m i e n t o s a mundos desconocidos" (p. 26) . Pachachaca means /'puente sobre e l mundo" (p. 49). Contemplation of i t s waters eases Ernesto's s o u l i n Abancay. I t s m y s t i c a l power i s r e v e a l e d i n i t s ' v o i c e ' : E l Pachachaca brama en e l s i l e n c i o ; e l r u i d o de sus aguas se extiende como o t r o u n i v e r s o en e l u n i v e r s o , y bajo esa s u p e r f i c i e se puede o i r a l o s i n s e c t o s , aun e l s a i t o de l a s langostas e n t r e l o s a rbustos. (p. 152). Ern e s t o takes the r i v e r as h i s model: "Habia que s e r como ese r i o . . .como sus aguas vencedoras" (p. 69). Both 78. the Apurimac and the Pachachaca are likened to a galloping horse "que marcha por e l mas profundo camino t e r r e s t r e " (p. 69). The paradigm of the wanderer has i t s analogy i n nature i n the passage of r i v e r s . The ri v e r s as metaphors and symbols resonate l i k e a chord i n music through the Quechua text, l i n k i n g natural and supernatural worlds, human and natural worlds, conscious and unconscious forces, the in d i v i d u a l and the c o l l e c t i v e . The r i v e r s are considered as powerful aids i n the indian struggle. In the course of the novel, they emerge as an v . . . image for l i b e r a t i o n . Dona Fe l i p a as a l i b e r a t i n g figure in her f i g h t against the authorities thus i s i d e n t i f i e d with the Pachachaca: Tu eres como e l r i o , senora. Cp. 162). E l Pachachaca, e l Apu, esta, pues contigo. (p. 168). Ernesto when faced by Linares 1 darker soul invokes the r i v e r s : Los rios lo pueden arrastrar; estan conmigo. .El Pachachaca puede venir! (p. 221). At the end of the narrative, the Pachachaca i s seen to sweep away the dreaded fever personified as a woman, as well as the e v i l s p i r i t of Lleras: E l ^ r i o l a l l e v a r i a a l a Gran Selva, pais de los muertos. .Como a l Lleras! (p. 244). The r i v e r s w i t h t h e i r symbolic connotations are d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o the image of the Inca w a l l . The w a l l g i v e s E r n e s t o the s t r e n g t h t o c o n f r o n t the o l d man. I t i s a symbol of the l i v i n g Quechua c u l t u r e . A l i v e , i t "speaks t o the beholder" (Reichel-Dolmatoff) "cada p i e d r a h a b l a " (p. 12) By analogy i t i s r e l a t e d to the r i v e r s : E r a e s t a t i c o e l muro, pero h e r v i a por todas sus l i n e a s y l a s u p e r f i c i e e r a cambiante, como l a de l o s r i o s ^ e n e l verano, que t i e n e n una cima a s i , h a c i a e l c e n t r o d e l ca u d a l , que es l a zona t e m i b l e , l a mas poderosa. (p. 11). The ' b o i l i n g ' w a l l l i k e the ' b o i l i n g ' r i v e r s are the oppo s i t e t o the ' r i o helado' and the metaphors of f r o z e n nature f o r human ' g r i e f and death. Through the r e l a t e d images of the Inca w a l l and r i v e r s , the p o s s i b i l i t y of overcoming the o b s t a c l e s which f r e e z e the human h e a r t w i t h d e s p a i r i s a r t i c u l a t e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y . The Quechua words t h a t s p r i n g t o Ernesto's mind as he contemplates the a n c i e n t w a l l which has s u r v i v e d earthquake < and conquest, t i e together the b a s i c metaphors of the t e x t , c r e a t i n g a network of r e l a t i o n s h i p s whereby a message of ' l i b e r a t i o n ' and a p o s i t i v e pro-indigenous view may be 'read' l o s r i o s profundos (triumph) (despair) yawar mayu n o de sangre Los i n d i o s Haitian "yawar mayu" a esos r i o s t u r b i o s , porque muestran con e l s o l un b r i l l o en movimiento, semejante a l de l a sangre. Tambien llaman "yawar mayu" a l tiempo v i o l e n t o de l a s danzas g u e r r e r a s , a l momento en que l o s b a i l a r i n e s luchan. (p. 11) ^Que l a sangre de ese mi H o n de hombres podia c o r r e r y s a l p i c a r , y formar espuma como un r i o ? ^ £Y que un gen e r a l o un c a p i t a n estaban tan b i e n templados que podian b r i n d a r s e aguardiente a l a o r i l l a de r i o s de sangre? (p. 175). Mi corazon sangraba a t o r r e n t e s . Una sangre d i c h o s a , que se derramaba libremente en aquel hermoso dia^en que l a muerte, s i l l e g a b a , h a b r i a s i d o t r a n s f i g u r a d a , c o n v e r t i d a en t r i u n f a l e s t r e l l a . (p. 106). yawar unu £Tu sangre acaso no es agua? Por agua s a n g r i e n t a a h i l e habla a l alma, e l agua, que siempre e x i s t e b a j o l a t i e r r a . (p. 147). yawar we'ke l a g r i m a s de sangre . r i o s de l a g r i m a s . (p. 11) . . . l a s e n o r a l l o r o , l a g r i m a s de s a n g r e . (p. 117). Yo h u b i e r a c a n t a r , e n t r e l a g r i m a s de sangre, a q u e l c a r n a v a l de Patibamba. . . . (p. 108) . yawar rumi p i e d r a de sangre p u k ' t i k , yawar rumi p i e d r a de sa n g r e , h i r v i e n t e ^ A c a s o no p o d r i a d e c i r s e "yawar r u m i " , p i e d r a de sa n g r e , o " p u k ' t i k yawar r u m i " , p i e d r a de sangre h i r v i e n t e ? E r a e s t a t i c o el^muro, p e r o h e r v i a por todos sus l i n e a s y l a s u p e r f i c i e e r a cambiante, como l a de l o s r i o s en e l v e r a n o , que t i e n e n una cima a s i , h a c i a e l c e n t r o d e l c a u d a l , que es l a zona t e m i b l e , l a s mas poderosa. (p. 11). 82. The torrents of blood streaming from the heart ("una sangre dichosa") and the tears of blood ("lagrimas de sangre") re la te to Ernes to 's experience of simultaneous triumph insp i red by the ch icheras , and heavy despair i n the face of the unchanging r e a l i t y of the human misery at Patibamba. Yawar unu ("agua sangrienta") unites the nature-body metaphor ( r ivers of blood and the veins and a r te r ies of the human body) with the general Quechua indian conception of the r e c i p r o c i t y between man and the natura l universe . The stone of b o i l i n g blood ("piedra de sangre, h i r i v i e n t e " ) i s the r i v e r of blood ("r io de sangre") which denotes force and power—yawar rnayu r e f e r r i n g both to the torrents of spr ing r i v e r s and in music to the v i o l e n t tempo of the war dance. The binary opposite to th is i s the " r io de sangre" of the blood massacre—the r e s u l t of r evo l t int imated by the m i l i t a r y ' s presence in Abancay a f te r the ch icheras ' r e v o l t . The colonos' f lood ing in to Abancay at the end of the narra t ive corroborates the p o s s i b i l i t y already contained in the r i v e r metaphor, of which the fo l lowing passage i s one of the major expressions: s / s Yo quede fuera de l c i r c u l o , mirandolos, como quien contempla pasar l a crec iente de esos r i o s andinos de regimen imprev is ib le ; t an ,secos , tan pedregosos, tan humildes y vacios durante anos, y en algun verano 83. entoldado, a l p r e c i p i t a r s e las nubes, se hinchan de un agua sa lp ican te , y se hacen profundos; detieneh a l transeunte, despiertan en su corazon y su mente meditaciones y temores desconocidos. (p. 110). The humi l i ty of the i n d i a n , l i k e that of the r i v e r s "tan humildes", can at any point give way to f o r c e . The indian people are a po ten t i a l f o r c e . In the above passage Ernesto remains "fuera de l c i r c u l o " . When the colonos enter Abancay, he again i s an outs ider to the i r a c t i o n ; that i s , he does not p a r t i c i p a t e in i t d i r e c t l y . As U r r e l l o points out th is i s in accord with the c o l l e c t i v e nature of indian 20 community. The act ion i s c o l l e c t i v e ; the i n d i v i d u a l hero draws to the s i d e . The Quechua world, then, i s portrayed by Arguedas 1) i n i t s ambiguity through the ambiguity of the 'problemat ic ' protagonist (Lukacs) in whom both worlds in te rac t and through whom i s expressed the ins is tence of b i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t y not to the detriment of the indian cul ture and people, 2) i n i t s negative aspect of oppression and s o c i a l misery, 3) and in i t s p o s i t i v e strength as a surv iv ing world-percept ion and value system. The pro tagon is t ' s search for 'homogeneity' in Lukacs' terms i s cons t r i c ted by the shadows of an unequal human world. From these shadows he seeks refuge in nature, i n the memory of the susta in ing warmth of the a y l l u indians and in the mythology and music of the indian world. This 84. seeking of refuge from the d iv is iveness of r e a l i t y as experienced, however, i s not depicted in terms of romantic nosta lg ia for i r r e v e r s i b l e time past but in terms of the need for a harmonious world-view and a s o c i a l order that allows the i n d i v i d u a l and the c o l l e c t i v e to be integrated with the universe . His search in the text represents the ' i n d i a n ' search for the c u l t u r a l 'home', as a locus of meaningful r e l a t i o n s , which has been disrupted by the co lon iz ing process. The c o n f l i c t of the two c u l t u r e s , then, as depicted by Arguedas i s re la ted to the s o c i a l s t ructure wherein the indian i s oppressed and which la rge ly determines the present state of h is c u l t u r e . This st ructure i s both the 'embracing' s t ructure of the text in Goldmann's terms and i n t e r n a l to the na r ra t i ve ; the exchange between l i t e r a r y st ructures and society as a 's t ructure of s t ruc tures ' being i n t e r n a l to the 21 l i t e r a r y tex t . The bas ic cont rad ic t ion brought out in the text i s the cont rad ic t ion between the s o c i a l r e a l i t y of the Quechua people and the strength of the surv iv ing Quechua c u l t u r e . The l a t t e r i s brought out from within the contexture of the Quechua world-percept ion i t s e l f — w h i c h i s character ized by the r e c i p r o c a l r e la t ions between man and nature as expressed through metaphor, image and mythical conceptions. The system of metaphors in the text serves to mediate th is 85. c o n t r a d i c t i o n , po in t ing to i t s reso lu t ion by impl ica t ions of triumph that appear on the surface l e v e l contradictory to the s o c i a l r e a l i t y . In S o c i a l Change and H is to ry , Robert Nisbet makes a usefu l argument fo r the process whereby "metaphor i s not only the consequence of exper ience; . . .(but) often the 22 p r e r e q u i s i t e . " Arguedas' metaphors, e s p e c i a l l y the r i v e r metaphor fo r l i b e r a t i o n , i n the sense that they are metaphors for r e i n t e g r a t i o n , may be in terpreted as prerequ is i te for revo l t or change. From the preceeding descr ip t ion of Arguedas' use of images and metaphors in the narra t ion in a drawing together of the indian perspect ive from w i t h i n , i t i s c l e a r that the pro-indigenous ideology produced in the 23 text (in Eagleton 's terms ) i s in harmonious conjuncture with the aesthet ic c r i t e r i a used. In t h i s sense, the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l contradict ions of the Andean world which reverberate i n the tex t , f ind a p a r t i a l ' r e s o l u t i o n ' in the aesthet ic contexture of the work; that i s , through the deployment of l i t e r a r y devices such as l y r i c d e s c r i p t i v e n e s s , symbol, image and metaphor. It i s through these devices that an ' inner ' balance of the text i s e s t a b l i s h e d , whereby the cont rad ic t ion of s o c i a l oppression and the s u r v i v a b i l i t y of indian cul ture i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y mediated. This ' i n n e r ' balance however i s not produced by the e l iminat ion of tensions or con t rad ic t ions , as these do 86. not cease to e x i s t . It represents rather a balancing of tens ion , and the harmony thus estab l ished i s 'dynamic' 24 rather than s t a t i c i n Mukarowsky's terms . The text remains open-ended as i s the r e a l i t y which, i s i t s concrete base. Further aspects of th is w i l l be discussed in the Conclusion in comparison with the novels by E r i , Ihimaera and Grace. To conclude, Arguedas in h is depic t ion of the inner view of the indigenous world does not merely record aspects of indigenous ' h i s t o r y ' . His p a r t i c u l a r g iv ing of ' v o i c e ' to matters indigenous i s a const i tuent element, in Goldmann's terms, of a process whereby s o c i a l consciousness and by extension ' h i s t o r y ' may be transformed. A l s o , as mentioned i n r e l a t i o n to indigenismo, Arguedas' ' v o i c e ' responds to the necessi ty of that process ' own s e l f -transformation . 87. CHAPTER I I I . FOOTNOTES. Con vers ando con Arguedas", Recopilacion de textos  sobre Jose Maria Arguedas, ed. Jean Larco. .. (Cuba: Casa de las Americas, 19 76) , p. 2 8 . 2 Ernesto Cardenal, Homenaje a los indios americanos, (Buenos Aires: Carlos Lohle, 19 72) , p. 44"! 3 Jose Maria Arguedas, "La novela y e l problema de l a expresion l i t e r a r i a en e l Peru", Yawar F i e s t a , (Buenos Ai r e s : Losada, 1974), pp. 170, 171. 4 . ' William Rowe, "Mito, lenguaje^e ideologia como estructuras l i t e r a r i a s " , Recopilacion de textos. . ., p. 265. 5 I b i d . ^Ibid, p. 266. 7 . s ' Mario Vargas Llosa, "Prologo", Los r i o s profundos, J.M. Arguedas, (Cuba: Casa de las Americas, 1965), p. xix. g Paul Feyerabend, Against Method, (London: NLB, 1975), p. 223. Feyerabend bases his comments on the l i n g u i s t i c theory of Benjamin Whorff. 9 Arguedas, Canto Kechwa, (Lima: Ediciones Club del Libro Peruano, 1938), p. 16. ^"°Jose Luis Rouillon, "Notas c r i t i c a s a l a obra de Jose Maria Arguedas", Cuentos olvidados, J.M. Arguedas, (Lima: Imagenes y l e t r a s , 1973), p. 86. x ^Antonio Cornejo Polar, Los universos narrativos de  Jose Maria Arguedas, (Buenos Aires: Losada, 1973), p. 119. 12 ~* Arguedas, Senores e indios, (Buenos Aires: Calicanto, 1976), pp. 202,203. 13 Canto Kechwa, p. 17. 14 Gerardo Reichel-Dolmatoff, "The Loom of L i f e : A Kogi P r i n c i p l e of Integration", Journal of Latin American Lore, 4:1, (1978), p. 11. 15 / cf. Claude Levi-Strauss, The Savage Mind, (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1966), pp. 221, 222. Levi-Strauss refers to th i s as a "r e c i p r o c i t y of perspectives i n which man and the world mirror each other." (p. 222). 88, "^Arguedas,' Formacion de una cu l tura nac ional indo- americana, e d. A. Rama, (Mexico: S ig lo XX, 1975) , p. 73. ^ L e v i - S t r a u s s , S t ruc tu ra l Anthropology, (NY: Basic Books, 1963), p. 229. 18 c f . Arguedas 1 d iscuss ion of the myth of Inkari i n Formacion de una cu l tura nacional indo-americana. 19 Paul Ricoeur , The Rule of Metaphor, (Toronto: Univ. of of_Toronto Press, 1977) , p.244 . 'Root' metaphors according to Ricoeur are those that "organize metaphors in to networks." 20 s ' Antonio U r r e l l o , Jose Maria Arguedas: e l nuevo rost ro de l i n d i o , (Lima: ed. Juan Mejia Baca, 1974), p. 145). 21 See In t roduct ion, p. 19. 22 Robert N isbet , S o c i a l Change and H i s t o r y , (NY: Oxford Univ. P r e s s , 1969), p. 5. To c l a r i f y I w i l l quote N i s b e t ' s example: "Metaphor i s not only the consequence of experience, i t i s often the p r e r e q u i s i t e . Thus to r e f e r to God as a 'mighty f o r t r e s s ' may be, as i t doubtless was to Luther , a summarization of pas t , f e l t experience. But to countless others s i n c e , the words "a mighty fo r t ress i s our God" have served to create the experience, to add dimensions of r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g not prev ious ly known. Metaphor can be, i n shor t , not merely anter ior to personal experience but the cause of i t " . 23 See In t roduct ion, p. 7. 24 See In t roduct ion, pp. 13, 14. According to Lukacs, Goldmann, and Mukarovsky i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t sense; the inner equ i l ib r ium of a text i s one of the c r i t e r i a of i t s ' aes the t ic v a l u e ' . 89. CHAPTER IV. THE LOSS OF CULTURAL STRUCTURES. VINCENT ERI, THE CROCODILE Another Hohao (ancestral board) represent ing the powerful ancestor ' K i v a v i a ' was buried—perhaps one would be j u s t i f i e d in saying 'bur ied a l i v e ' — b y i t s owner. K ivav ia appeared to him in a dream explaining that times had changed, that whereas he had been able to help h is people in the olden days, he was not able to help them any fur ther in th is new age. He asked to be dressed up in European clothes and bur ied i n the v i l l a g e cemetery. A lber t Maori K i k i As mentioned, fo r Arguedas the problem of fa lse representat ions of indigenous l i f e in l i t e r a t u r e was a ch ie f motivation for w r i t i n g . In Los r i o s profundos the ' i n s i d e percept ion ' i s embedded in the l e v e l of narrat ion in the pro tagon is t ' s r e l a t i o n to the Quechua world as i t resides wi th in and without h is s u b j e c t i v i t y ; and on the l e v e l of discourse in the network of symbols, metaphors and images that spr ing from the dominated cu l tu re . Arguedas inser ted h is p ro - ind ian ' a t t i t u d e ' in to the general movement of indigenismo to which he reacted on the l e v e l of l i t e r a t u r e ; i n other words, he pa r t i c ipa ted in a process already in act ion whereby the focus on the indigenous populat ion i s posed in terms of s o c i a l redress . E r i ' s i n i t i a t i v e towards an indigenous-or iented tex t , both in terms of ' i n s i d e ' percept ion and s o c i a l p ro tes t , was unprecedented in the wr i t ten literature"*" of the area of the 90. South P a c i f i c , apart from Alber t Maori K i k i ' s autobiography, 10,000 Years in a L i f e t i m e , (1968); and se lec t ions of poetry 2 and short s t o r i e s which appeared in l i t e r a r y reviews. Part of E r i ' s (and K i k i ' s ) motivation to wri te "derived out of the i r des i re to correct misconceived views of l i f e and th ink ing in Papua New Guinea encouraged by expatr iate 3 w r i t e r s ' d is to r ted or fabr ica ted f i c t i o n a l accounts;'" E r i ' s pro ject in The Crocodi le (1970) i s to recreate the l i f e experiences of a co lon i zed , dominated person, whereby the mechanism of oppression and c u l t u r a l loss may be c l a r i f i e d . This r e c r e a t i n g , then, i s not in the sense of ' reproducing' or mechanically mi r ror ing r e a l i t y , but of combining, in Lukacs' terms of ' r e a l i s m ' , " r e f l e c t i v e phenomena and abstract ions" whereby a "new r e a l i t y " i s c r e a t e d . 4 Through E r i ' s aesthet ic shaping of events (the 'new r e a l i t y ' ) the i n t e r a c t i o n a l processes underlying these events are ' l a i d bare' (Brecht) .^ Thematical ly both Arguedas' and E r i ' s texts focus on the c o n f l i c t of two cul tures in a r e l a t i o n s h i p of domination. The bas ic d i s t i n c t i o n in th is respect between the two t e x t s , however, l i e s in that Arguedas describes the p a i n f u l process of the s u r v i v a l of the dominated cul ture wi th in the constra in ts of a long-estab l ished oppressive s o c i a l order , whereas E r i de l ineates the experiences of the more recent ly co lon ized . In Arguedas' text the co lon iza t ion process with i t s h is to ry 91. of four centur ies has become domestic, or i n t e r n a l ; that i s , the indian populat ion continues to be ' c o l o n i z e d ' from within Peru. The opposi t ion between ' c o l o n i z e r ' and ' c o l o n i z e d ' and t h e i r respect ive c u l t u r a l value systems as out l ined in the text i s not without p o s s i b i l i t y of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i n the na t iona l context of Peru. What prevents the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s the oppressive s o c i a l s t ructure wi th in which r e a l c u l t u r a l d i f ferences and d i s t i n c t i o n s funct ion as imaginary ones such as the dichotomy of s u p e r i o r i t y -i n f e r i o r i t y for the purpose of e x p l o i t a t i o n . In E r i ' s text the author i ta t ive ru le of the white fore igner d ic ta tes to the indigenous peoples. The opposi t ion between the imposed r e l i g i o u s and l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the indigenous c u l t u r a l system i s not d i a l e c t i c a l , and therefore there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of d ia logue; but i t i s ' r e a l ' in the sense of t o t a l incompat ib i l i t y between the two systems. Rec iproc i ty between the two cul tures does not e x i s t . The law and r e l i g i o n of the fore ign dominator are superimposed upon the indigenous cu l ture as a s o l i d b lock , al lowing no two-way movement but s t i f l i n g t o t a l l y the indigenous c u l t u r e , thereby causing i t s d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . What i s to be determined, then, i s how E r i portrays the problematic c o n f l i c t of two cul tures in a r e l a t i o n of oppression from the viewpoint of the dominated. With regard to th is he faces the same paradox as Arguedas and the other wr i ters to be d iscussed , of de l ineat ing indigenous r e a l i t y 92. i n the language of the dominators and using an a r t i s t i c form (the novel) which originates with the foreign culture. Apisai Enos writes i n "Niugini Li t e r a t u r e " : "In the past i t has been the outsiders writing about Niuginians. . . . i t i s time f o r Niuginians to present an inside perception. E r i , whose novel, as we have seen, i s the f i r s t published from Papua New Guinea, responds to the problem of inside perception on many l e v e l s . On one l e v e l The Crocodile has deliberate t i e s to o r a l t r a d i t i o n both i n form and function. The narrative i s episodic and follows the o r a l t r a d i t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e i n i t s recounting of events i n chronological sequence. Within the novel are s t o r i e s , episodes r e t o l d , such as Sevese's story of the war between two clans, through which information of the family and clan history i s transmitted. One of the functions of s t o r y t e l l i n g i n o r a l t r a d i t i o n i s the imparting of counsel. This function i s integrated i n the narrative i n terms of the information contained i n the stories t o l d and also i n the advice and knowledge d i r e c t l y imparted by the older, experienced and respected men of the community such as Hera, Aravape, Sevese. The following passage demonstrates th i s and also shows the s i m p l i c i t y of style which characterizes E r i ' s writing: 93, "Not every death, i s looked at with, abhorrence," Aravape sa id by way of a s incere attempt to restore h is nephew's conf idence. "Death through i l l n e s s i s the good sor t of death. For that matter, death anywhere on land i s good, because your beloved r e l a t i v e s w i l l have the opportunity of having a l as t long hard look at your body and face . They look at you with s p e c i a l eyes and not with the everyday eyes with which they see you when you are a l i v e . Unlike the white men, we do not have cameras by which the faces of our r e l a t i v e s can be taken and kept. For th is reason, your r e l a t i v e s w i l l see your face for the l a s t time in such a manner as to re ta in i t in t h e i r minds for as long as they can. (p. 107). A lso on the l e v e l of form, another aspect of ins ide percept ion in E r i ' s text i s that events per ta in ing to the supernatural are recounted in the same manner as a l l other events. They belong to one r e a l i t y . From the perspect ive of the indigenous, the magico- re l ig ious world i s not a ' d i f f e r e n t ' wor ld. It i s the integrated world of da i ly experience and i t can be rendered in the simple words of everyday language, even of a fore ign language such as E n g l i s h . Here i s a bas ic d i f ference then from the concern of some ind igen is ta authors, who, i n the i r attempt to render ' i n d i a n ' v i s i o n which they perceive as ' d i f f e r e n t ' , search for a means of expression that w i l l confer that d i f f e r e n c e . Thus A s t u r i a s , for example, i n Hombres de maiz confers a sense of ' i n d i a n ' v i s i o n but not from an ' i n d i a n ' viewpoint; and h is text speaking about indians does not speak to them. 94, •To what extent i s the use of the Engl ish language for the ' i n s i d e ' expression of Papua New Guinean r e a l i t y considered problematic? Enos summarizes: Unfortunately the d i v e r s i t y of languages forces them to use Eng l ish (a language tha,t does not r e a l l y r e f l e c t t h e i r cultures) as an a l te rna t ive form which gives them a wider audience than the i r own l i n g u i s t i c group, . . . . . i f Niuginian wr i ters want to wri te for a bigger audience outside and ins ide N i u g i n i , and want to p a r t i c i p a t e in in te rna t iona l l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s the language they have to use. However, there i s a need for creat ing an acceptable Niuginian E n g l i s h . . . .One way of doing t h i s . . . i s by incorporat ing l o c a l metaphors, expressions and images, to, give the language i t s place and i d e n t i t y . 7 Insofar as language i s concerned, E r i ' s choice of Eng l ish i s the consequence of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of indigenous t r a d i t i o n a l Papua New Guinean languages, of which approximately g seven hundred are sa id to e x i s t . Had he used T o a r i p i , the language of the community described in the tex t , he would have r a d i c a l l y l im i ted h is readership. The other p o s s i b i l i t y would have been to use the more widely-spoken P i d g i n , a language which E r i does incorporate in to the text in the dialogue between Papuans and Europeans. However apart from the fac t that Pidgin has l i t t l e l i t e r a r y p r e s t i g e , i t s hybr id nature would perhaps not make i t a bet ter veh ic le for the expression of the community's cul ture than i s E n g l i s h . The point to be made here i s that what may be c a l l e d the 'essence' of the indigenous perspect ive i s ca r r i ed in the images and metaphors of the text which per ta in to and comment upon the cul ture described in the process of change. Thus, for example, the network of tree images in the text a r ises from the c u l t u r a l context , ca r r i es the c u l t u r a l context and makes a statement on i t . In the fo l lowing quotat ions, the image of the tree serves to describe the union of human, natura l and supernatural worlds in the indigenous v i s i o n of r e a l i t y : Mi toro . . . .had the a t t r ibutes of a heal thy, steady t ree . (p. 48). H o i r i pressed back f i rmly against the s c a l e - l i k e r ings of the palm t ree . Comfort and confidence t r a v e l l e d up h is arm and in to h is body as h is f ingers met iculously moved from one r ing to the next. The tree was a companion, t a l l , . s o l i d and rough-skinned. (p. 110). It dimly i l luminated the out l ine of a massive, f lowering tree just outside the house. Many funera l ceremonies had been conducted in i t s shade. Sevese used to say that i t was not a t r e e — i t was a house. Their ancestors l i v e d there. (p. 59). This image i s then reversed upon i t s e l f when i t appears as the wood of the wal ls of the administrat ion o f f i c e . No longer the abode of ancestors , but the abode of the fo re igners , the wood which has been transformed by saws i s now sensed as a saw "s t r ipp ing (Hoiri) of h is d ign i ty" in the o f f i c e where l o c a l cul ture and -the .humanity-of the -local - people^ denied: 96. He f e l t that any man who walked i n there (the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r ' s room) would not be the same man when he came out. The smooth wood pane l l ing on both sides seemed to move in on a man l i k e a pa i r of wood saws, s t r i p p i n g him of h is d i g n i t y . (p. 176). Another aspect of importance ra ised by Enos i s that the use of E n g l i s h , although necessary, causes a d is junc t ion between wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e and popular c u l t u r e : . . .what we are creat ing i s mostly in E n g l i s h , a language of the administrat ion and academic i n s t i t u t i o n s , which does not r e a l l y r e f l e c t our c u l t u r e . . .we are creat ing an 'unpopular' l i t e r a t u r e , for an e l i t i s t c u l t u r e . . . .What we are creat ing i s ne i ther t r a d i t i o n a l nor popular in the way that o r a l l i t e r a t u r e was and s t i l l i s in the v i l l a g e s . 9 This d is junc t ion between wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e and popular cu l ture i s a problem re la ted to co lon ia l i sm on more than one l e v e l . To expand on Enos' view, co lon ia l i sm introduces a language and a t r a d i t i o n of wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e which become appropriated by the educated or an e l i t e that does not represent l o c a l c u l t u r e . A lso western cul ture br ings with i t i t s own i n t e r n a l s p l i t between l i t e r a t u r e and c u l t u r e , a s p l i t r e l a ted to the mass-production of ar t by the cul ture indust ry . Enos however concludes that despite these problems the ''Nuiguinian wr i ter may f i n d h is own i n t e g r i t y in the end: h is concept of h is ar t and i t s funct ion w i l l be one with the i n t e r e s t s of h is public.""'"^ The matter posed now i s not so much as to how these r e a l contrad ic t ions are resolved but how they are 'worked' . I t i s my supposition that E r i deliberately remains close to the simple s t o r y - t e l l i n g of the o r a l t r a d i t i o n i n response to the issues raised above. Instead of using the complex techniques of contemporary European novels, he uses a t r a d i t i o n a l model, that of reordering experience i n a simple style and chronological order. In his reconstruction of the c o l o n i a l experience i n t h i s form he responds to the needs of the people f o r whom he i s writing and whose viewpoint he i s representing, thus challenging c u l t u r a l colonialism.^"'" The questions to be discussed now are 1) how does E r i on a narrative l e v e l portray the relations of oppression? 2) how does the i n d i v i d u a l protagonist represent the indigenous c o l l e c t i v e ? 3) how i s the c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t from the perspective of the indigenous portrayed? 4) i n what sense are the aesthetic c r i t e r i a (image, metaphor, symbol) i n accord with indigenous v i s i o n ; or, how do the aesthetic and i d e o l o g i c a l elements correspond with each other? On one l e v e l of the narrative, E r i depicts the overt relations between the indigenous and the foreigners i n terms of the power structure. These relations are portrayed through H o i r i ' s , the protagonist's, experiences with the white 'masters'. H o i r i ^ i n the sense of Lukacs' problematic hero, l i v e s i n ambiguity. His ambiguity i s d i r e c t l y related to the external s o c i a l contradictions inherent i n colonialism which determine his l i f e . 98. E r i ' s t e x t , as that of Arguedas, shows the departure from the homogeneous world of the epic as postulated by Lukacs' theory of the nove l . In Arguedas' tex t , however, the problematic protagonist seeks authentic values which he knows e x i s t but which he experiences as 'absence' in a s o c i a l world of oppression,-whereas E r i ' s protagonist experiences the process of a progressive i n v a l i d a t i o n of h is e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l values by the imposed fore ign r u l e . The journey and the paradigm of the wanderer (Lukacs) i s cen t ra l to the narra t ive structure of both tex ts . H o i r i and other members of h is community are uprooted c u l t u r a l l y and d is loca ted geographical ly during the events of the n a r r a t i v e . For Ho i r i the bas ic journey i s one in to bewi lder -ment and s p i r i t u a l vacuum. His process i s the one descr ibed by Goldmann and Lukacs whereby the subject in s i tua t ions of d isequ i l ib r ium seeks equ i l ib r ium. H o i r i seeks to balance the larger s o c i a l s t ructures of external co lon ia l i sm with the l i f e st ructures of h is c o l l e c t i v e . His asp i ra t ion however i s ' i r o n i c ' as the contrad ic t ions produced by the two opposing cul tures cannot be reso lved . This use of irony i s fo r Lukacs one of the determining c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the novel as d i s t i n c t from the e p i c . Unlike Arguedas who wri tes from the f i r s t - p e r s o n viewpoint of a character both ' i n d i a n ' and white, E r i wri tes from the th i rd -person viewpoint of the colonized indigenous person. Arguedas, as mentioned, makes a strong symbolic l ink between h is main character and the indian c o l l e c t i v e , which funct ions a e s t h e t i c a l l y to propose the p o s s i b i l i t y of future c u l t u r a l homogeneity. E r i ' s th i rd -person viewpoint focuses on H o i r i , whose experience i s representat ive of the experience of the indigenous c o l l e c t i v e . His process in. the narrat ive text i s the common experience of the co lon ized; h is t r i a l s , the general t r i a l s of a community contacted by Europeans. H o i r i i s a character ' type ' i n Lukacs' and Engels ' sense of the word, and h is experience i s a model representat ion of 12 experience- ; that i s , of the co lon ized . In E r i ' s use of the th i rd -person viewpoint, importance i s placed not so much on the i n d i v i d u a l himself but on act ion and event. H o i r i and the c o l l e c t i v e he represents are passive (but not unref lec t ive ) actors in a process which i s e s s e n t i a l l y beyond t h e i r immediate c o n t r o l . The subject of the text i s the co lon iza t ion process i t s e l f , which i s depicted i n terms of i t s r e l a t i o n s of oppression. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dominators and the dominated described i n E r i ' s text i s the same as in Los r i o s profundos. It i s character ized by p h y s i c a l and p s y c h i c a l v i o l e n c e , the l a t t e r d isplayed by the func t iona l i n s e n s i t i v i t y on part of the dominators to the c u l t u r a l values of the indigenous people 100 and the r e f u s a l to recognize t h e i r humanity. However inso fa r as the methods used to depict the r e a l i of oppression are concerned, there i s a great d i f fe rence between the two tex ts . As mentioned, Arguedas reveals the subt le t i es of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the power group and the dominated in a process of contrasts and metaphoric ana logies . His text i s f ree from stereotypes. In cont ras t , a l l Europeans encountered by H o i r i i n the course of the narra t ion are stereotypes. This however i s not because of au thor ia l in tent to more e a s i l y denigrate these f igures of oppression by withholding the inner depth recognizant of t h e i r humanity, but because the r e l a t i o n s h i p i t s e l f between the white author i ty f igures and the i r indigenous sub jec ts , f lowing as i t does from a s o c i a l status of power, i s two-dimensional. The government o f f i c e r s manifest themselve two-dimensionally to the people whose l i v e s they c o n t r o l . H o i r i , unl ike Ernesto who belongs to both c u l t u r e s , cannot know these people who impose t h e i r presence on him s o l e l y in t h e i r r o l e - f u n c t i o n . Personal re la t ionsh ips are not poss ib le as the white p a t r o l o f f i c e r s and other government o f f i c i a l s pro ject only r i g i d images of power. In S a r t r e ' s words: "The c o l o n i z e r . . . s ince he denies humanity to others . . . regards i t everywhere as h is enemy (and) must assume the opaque r i g i d i t y and imperviousness of 13 stone." The cont rad ic t ion of the co lon izer l i e s in that 101. re ly ing great ly on the indigenous people and working i n a context unfami l ia r to him, he must mask h i s v u l n e r a b i l i t y with impenet rab i l i ty . The Papuans in the novel perceive the Europeans as b r u t a l and unfeel ing f igures of power who, even i n t h e i r r e l a t ions among themselves, seem to be incapable of f e e l i n g : They do not f e e l the same way about t h e i r r e l a t i v e s as we do. . . .Perhaps the way they l i v e hardens the i r hearts in to something l i k e a stone which i s heavy and lumpy but does not f e e l . (p. 101). The Europeans, on the other hand, cast the indigenous in the r o l e of ch i ld ren (as in Arguedas), to be rebuked, c o n t r o l l e d , s t r ipped of the r i g h t to make dec is ions or to have f e e l i n g s . Their ' n a t u r a l ' i n f e r i o r i t y i s assumed by the c o l o n i z e r , an assumption which funct ions to j u s t i f y t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n . E r i del ineates the Europeans' e x p l i c i t r e la t ions with the Papuans in a ser ies of encounters. These encounters, which are part of the organiz ing p r i n c i p l e of the n a r r a t i v e , form H o i r i ' s p a i n f u l i n i t i a t i o n in to the world of white people , which manifests i t s e l f as incomprehensible to him and o f fe rs him no place but that of a menia l . Each encounter shares the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — t h e customs and fee l ings of the indigenous are trampled upon as the European commands. In 102. Freire's words: "The oppressed, as objects, as 'thing' have no purpose except those t h e i r oppressors prescribe for them." The European j u s t i f i e s his action to himself and to the indigenous i n terms of his role-function: Don't you see that the work I'm doing i s to develop your country and make you people c i v i l i z e d ? (p. 71). To quote F r e i r e again: " A l l domination involves invasion. . .with the invader assuming the role of a helping 15 f r i e n d . " The role of the "helping f r i e n d " i s shown i n i t s hollowness i n the 'helper's' attitude of scorn: . . .a scornful grin beamed across the o f f i c e r ' s face. . . .(p. 152). . . .the voice, f u l l of scorn, trumpeted out from the loud h a i l e r . (p. 16 4). A taunting smile stole across the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r ' s face. (p. 175). In E r i ' s p o r t r a i t u r e , the scornfulness of the oppressor i s seen by those who have more experience with the white man than H o i r i for what i t i s — a defense mechanism. Behind the role-mask of power l i e s , as mentioned, the i n t e r n a l contradiction of the colonizer who i s greatly outnumbered by those whom he oppresses and therefore always i n p o t e n t i a l danger. Frantz Fanon describes the process: "The s e t t l e r p i t s brute force against the weight of numbers. . . .His preoccupation with security makes him remind the native out 16 loud that there he alone i s the master". 103. The Papua New Guinean poet Tawali Kumalau s a t i r i z e s the s i t u a t i o n in "The Bush Kanaka Speaks": Every white man the gorment sends to us forces h is veins out shouting nearly forces the excreta out of h is bottom shout ing: you bush kanaka.17 In the tex t , Sgt. Latu recognizes the dua l i ty of the p a t r o l o f f i c e r s , who on p a t r o l are more exposed to t h e i r v u l n e r a b i l i t y : To him a l l the Government o f f i c e r s wi th whom he had been on pa t ro ls were men with two faces . . . .the white man on p a t r o l was the same man i n name and appearance as the man he had known on a revo lv ing chai r behind a desk, meting out j a i l sentences to the v i l l a g e r s . . .(but) h is persona l i ty had completely changed. . . .the bush, the mosquitos, the snakes, the leeches and the separat ion of the o f f i c e r from h is own k i n d , a l l contr ibuted to the change in h is p e r s o n a l i t y . (p. 83) . I t i s La tu 's knowledge of the white man which gives him the p o s s i b i l i t y to be a mediator rather than a mere puppet in the power h ierarchy . It i s a quest ion , then, of knowing the enemy. The white men's surface d ign i ty (expressed by t h e i r 's tarched c lo thes ' and t h e i r manners at the p a t r o l s t a t i o n ) , i s exposed i n i t s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y by the t o t a l lack of d ign i ty i n the i r r e l a t i o n s with the indigenous people. The language used throughout the narrat ive when the white men address the l o c a l people i s r e f l e c t i v e of t h e i r a t t i tude of 104. d i s r e s p e c t , which as i t deprives the addressee of d ign i ty a lso takes away any semblance of d ign i ty on part of the addressor: "Now come on, you apes, paddle as fas t as you can. . . " (p. 77). "Just you look, you i d i o t of a cook. . . " (p. 78). "Why the h e l l you good-for-nothings stand about there , gazing at me with your hungry black eyes. . .? (p. 82). "You s i l l y ass ! Haven't you ever signed your name for anything?" (p. 176). This language i s in d i r e c t contrast to that used by the indigenous when they address each other . Thus, fo r example, i n the passage quoted p r e v i o u s l y , Aravape, in the white world a mere "house b o i " , addresses h is nephew i n d i g n i f i e d language, r e f l e c t i v e of the respect between uncle and nephew. Through t h i s type of contrast the inner perspect ive of the values of Papuan cul ture i s fur ther es tab l i shed . Each European in the text p a r t i c i p a t e s in the act ion as a r o l e ; f o r , as he prescr ibes a ro le for the indigenous so he i m p l i c i t l y prescr ibes one for h imsel f . The o r i g i n of the ro le and of the prescr ibed pattern of behaviour (that of paternal ism and unquestionable authority) i s re legated to the somewhat abstract ent i ty of the Government: " . . .the work of the Government must go on unhindered. The people were the Government's ch i ld ren and therefore h is children." (p. 100) . 105. "I am pleased with the work you've done," Mr. H i l l t o l d the men as i f he were the government. (p. 16 8). "A waste of bloody good time, my time, the Government's t ime." (p. 77). "The Government i s bubbling over with anger over the way you are a c t i n g . " (p. 130). As mentioned in r e l a t i o n to Arguedas, in the oppressor 's consciousness everything may be transformed in to an object to be appropr iated, inc lud ing time and men. The fore ign government as the oppressor of the Papuans, being a kind of abstract p a t e r n a l i s t i c e n t i t y , cannot be d i r e c t l y attacked by the Papuans. A l s o , under i t s umbrel la , the administrat ion o f f i c e r s become v ic t ims of the i r own r o l e , jus t as they v ic t im ize the indigenous i n the ro le they have prescr ibed for them. The face presented by the white oppressor, be i t Mr. Smith, Mrs. Jones, Mr. H i l l or Mr. Green, i s for th is reason portrayed by E r i as invar iab ly the same. The problem i s one of the st ructure of power rather than of the ind iv idua ls whose demands must be met at each encounter. The only white people i n the narrat ive who show a d i f f e r e n t face are the s o l d i e r s : "For the f i r s t time the brown men r e a l i z e d that not a l l white men had hearts of stone" Cp. 149). This d i f fe rence ex is ts p r e c i s e l y because t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p does 106. not flow from a s o c i a l status of power, t h e i r ro le being not to ru le over them but to f i g h t with them under the ru le of the Angau o f f i c e r s . E r i describes the process whereby the younger men, caught up in the pressures of the present , are trapped in the power r e l a t i o n of the white fore igners and the indigenous They have i n t e r n a l i z e d the ro les prescr ibed for them. The older men, as powerless in terms of the domination and submitt ing to the power s t ructure because they have no choice but to do s o , nevertheless s t i l l represent an author i ty that funct ions in terms of counsel i n the i r communi It i s through the i r voices that the more than immediately v i s i b l e context of the struggle i s expressed: The e lde r l y man sighed and drew himself up beside H o i r i . "You sound as i f you are already convinced by the white man's sweet t a l k . . . .We no longer have any d ign i ty l e f t . . . .There was murmuring among the young men. They a l l expressed surpr ise at t h e i r own lack of knowledge of the way of l i f e that they were l i v i n g . . . .They'd been l i v i n g t h e i r l i v e s on the sur face . . . . They'd been r e l y i n g heavi ly on the eyes in the f ront of t h e i r heads. I t ' s the eyes in the back of the head that see the sor ts of things the o ld man was t a l k i n g about. (pp. 143,144). The dependency on the white man's money and goods and the consequences thereof are a lso pinpointed as an enemy by the older men: 10 7, . . .when they want anything done they wave the two (money and tobacco) about and we o f fe r our s e r v i c e s . (p. 96). Tobacco and sugar, two of the white man's most powerful b i t s of magic. . . .Get used to smoking and dr ink ing tea and y o u ' l l slave for the res t of your working l i f e for the white man. (p. 170) . Hera, the o l d e s t crew member on the p a t r o l , r e c o g n i z e s the f u l l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the white domination: I know. . .we have f a i l e d i n our duty towards you. We have f a i l e d to stand by you f i rmly as we used to do with our leaders in t r i b a l warfare. But th is i s a d i f f e r e n t kind of war where one side has a l l the ammunition and the other has none. What's more, these are weapons a man can ' t make as he p leases: they can be got only through going to school and learning t h e i r Engl ish language: i t ' s t h e i r schools and t h e i r language and i t can hardly be expected of them to be over-generous. Even i f they were, i t i s dangerous to absorb i t a l l . (p. 101). The enemy can be fought f i n a l l y only on h is terms, and before he can be fought at a l l he must be known. The f i r s t step towards th is i s to learn h is language. Thus H o i r i hopes that what has confused him throughout the act ion of the tex t , w i l l be less confusing to h is son i f he can a v a i l himself of the white man's educat ion. He envisions h is bankbook as h is "son's second heart" (p. 176); the book "would help him to go to other places in search of more and bet ter educat ion". (p. 176). This hope, however, i s i r o n i c both because the bankbook may be taken out of H o i r i ' s hands as he i s taken p r i s o n e r , and i n a broader sense because 108. inherent in the concept of education as the only loophole in terms of domination i s the danger of a s s i m i l a t i o n : " . . . i t i s dangerous to absorb i t a l l . " E r i renders the oppressor-oppressed r e l a t i o n s h i p throughout the narra t ive as s t a t i c . The c o l o n i z e r ' s world i s a c losed one, there being no access to the sphere of p r i v i l e g e . For th is reason the percept ion of the world imposed by the dominators in order to serve the ends of domination must be s t a t i c . H o i r i at the end of the narra t ive i s described as a 'numb' man, the v i c t i m of a process which acts upon him and which he does not f u l l y understand. He has been anaesthetized and s i l enced through the manipulatory process of external domination. The overt da i l y dehumanization and exp lo i ta t ion described in the encounters between the indigenous and the fore igners however are surface phenomena i n the nar ra t ion . On a deeper l e v e l the text confers a sense of indigenous l i f e and i t s d is rupt ion at i t s very r o o t s , as the slow c r i p p l i n g e f f e c t of the subtle mechanism of the C h r i s t i a n mission together with the threat posed by the l ega l s t ructure of the fore ign administrat ion e f f e c t i v e l y undermines l o c a l t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e . 109. The two leve ls are fused a e s t h e t i c a l l y by an i m p l i c i t analogy, the ' roo t ' metaphor of the text which forms i t s t i t l e — t h e crocod i le episode as metaphor fo r the c o l o n i z a t i o n . This metaphor springs from the nexus of the indigenous cul ture i t s e l f , as w i l l be discussed fur ther . It i s through t h i s metaphor and the discourse i n which i t i s embedded that the complex and subt le aspects of the co lon iza t ion process are concret ized from within the indigenous perspect ive . Apart then from the surface contacts of the Papuans with the fore ign admin is t ra t ion , there runs through the text an author i ty of purely indigenous nature—a dimension of l i f e i n which the supernatura l , the world of s p i r i t s and dead ancestors plays the dominant r o l e . This dimension permeates the tex t . Since Papuan s o c i a l l i f e i s d i r e c t l y re la ted to the s p i r i t wor ld, the white man's invasions of the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l world of the Papuans e n t a i l an attack on the supernatura l , a l t e r i n g i t s meaningful e f fec t on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The white man's law denies outr ight the existence of the realm wherein Papuan ' l aw ' 'genera tes , and an attack on any one l e v e l of Papuan l i f e const i tu tes an attack on the i r en t i re cul ture and wor ld-percept ion. The problem the Papuans face by the imposit ions of the fore ign administrat ion i s not so much a problem of being forced to abandon b e l i e f s , but of negating 'Papuan' experience. The experience of the supernatural forms part of the d a i l y 110. ' n a t u r a l ' experience i n l i f e , as demonstrated f o r example i n the f o l l o w i n g passage: In the middle of the n i g h t H o i r i was awakened by the v o i c e s of people t a l k i n g down below. He r a i s e d h i s . . head. . .to get a b e t t e r h e a r i n g . "We must p r o t e c t h i s son while he i s away", someone s a i d . " A f t e r a l l , they are the ones who c l e a n above our chests every day, and discourage the Kunai grass from sending t h e i r w iry r o o t s r i g h t through our bones." H o i r i s a t up w i t h a j e r k . . . .A strange b l u e l i g h t f i l l e d the room. . . . H o i r i peered through the spaces i n the f l o o r b o a r d s and saw t h a t the kerosene lamp was s t i l l b u r n i n g . But there was no one around. The v o i c e s had stopped now, and the blue l i g h t faded. (p. 59). The s p i r i t s t h a t H o i r i overhears are about t o take up a p r o t e c t i v e r o l e r e c i p r o c a t i n g the p r o t e c t i o n t h a t has been extended towards them by humans. The c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the n a r r a t i v e gains f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e as i t p o i n t s to H o i r i ' s own f u t u r e — i t w i l l be h i s son who needs p r o t e c t i o n when he i s r e c r u i t e d t o c a r r y cargo f o r the white man. The experience of the s u p e r n a t u r a l which i s p r i m a r i l y p e r c e p t u a l r a t h e r than c o n c e p t u a l , continues once the f o r e i g n i n v a s i o n has taken p l a c e ; but i t s meaningfulness, i t s d i r e c t i o n a l aspect, i t s e f f e c t on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s a l t e r e d . Whereas s o c i a l r e a l i t y and i d e o l o g y have formed an i n s e p a r a b l e whole, and a system of r e c i p r o c i t y i n s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s l i f e has assured a n a t u r e - c u l t u r e homogeneity; 111. the invasion of the foreigners creates a r a d i c a l s p l i t and breakdown of c u l t u r a l codes. What E r i delineates i n the text i s the subtle mechanism of the process whereby the functional aspects of the super-natural experience i n Papuan society ( i . e . , the guidance and protection of ancestor and clan s p i r i t s , the general system of human and s p i r i t r e c i p r o c i t y of which sorcery forms a part) are rendered unfunctional. The breaking down of c u l t u r a l structures gives r i s e to syncretism, which serves as a t r a n s i t i o n a l and i l l u s o r y mediation, not resolution, of contradictions Ccf. Arguedas). The c u l t u r a l confusion and disin t e g r a t i o n of the supernatural discourse are mirrored i n the confused messages of syncretism, which represent the attempt to restructure codes by incorporating foreign elements into the system of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s . In th i s sense, the colonization process i s in t e r n a l i z e d on a deeper l e v e l . Thus the s p i r i t s of the dead are now seen to take on the v i s u a l form of Europeans: " i f she survived the journey she would shed her dark skin and become a European" (p. 14). This raises the question: "Maybe, when people die and change t h e i r skins, t h e i r feelings and ideas also change" (p. 72). These newly "Europeanized" ancestors are seen to take on the. role of sending g i f t s df manufactured goods to t h e i r l i v i n g r e l a t i v e s , goods which are intercepted by l i v i n g /', : 112. white people: . . .the goods in the h u l l are renamed. They change your name and mine on a l l the goods that our dead ancestors sent for us . (p. 46) . The new phenomenon of the c a r g o - c a r r y i n g ships themselves can only be e x p l a i n e d i n s u p e r n a t u r a l terms: . . .only s p i r i t people knew the ways of keeping the heavy s t e e l ships a f l o a t . (p. 46). E r i does not ' e x p l a i n ' the interconnect ions of the supernatural events in the n a r r a t i v e . They are described as experienced by the indigenous and the text thus addresses i t s e l f p r imar i ly to those for whom the supernatural has emotional resonance rather than purely i n t e l l e c t u a l sense. The 'embracing' or ex t ra - tex tua l s t ructure of the text has to be known (Goldmann). In the f o l l o w i n g passage, f o r example, the f a c t t h a t the i n v i s i b l e p a r t of H o i r i i s h i s s p i r i t i s e x p l i c i t t o the p u b l i c t o whom the book addresses i t s e l f , but not n e c e s s a r i l y e x p l i c i t t o the ' f o r e i g n e r s ' t o the c u l t u r e d e s c r i b e d : The paddl ing movements in h is hands became an endless mechanical motion. The v i s i b l e part of h is being was there i n the canoe but the i n v i s i b l e part was cl imbing the steps of h is house. It sounded l i ke Fr iday cry ing so he hurr ied up the s teps . "Mitoro, M i toro , " he c a l l e d but there was no answer. (p. 78). -113. Each human p a r t i c i p a t e s •d i rect ly in the supernatural as he possesses a s p i r i t nature which can disengage i t s e l f from the p h y s i c a l body during s l e e p V dream, daydream and a f ter death. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the above inc ident i n the narra t ive i s that i t must have occurred at the time Mitoro was taken by the c r o c o d i l e . H o i r i has an int imat ion of h i s son being l e f t without h is mother. Intimations such as the above and the percept ion of signs as premonitions form part of the c u l t u r a l ' r ead ing 1 of the characters , a reading which involves both the • ,;? .... supernatural and purely p h y s i c a l l e v e l s . The c a l l . . . of the herahera b i r d preceding the news of M i to ro 's abduction i s read as a message: "the ominous message that the herahera i s b r i n g i n g , the meaning of which i s s t i l l a secret to us" Cp. 9 3). This has i t s analogy i n the purely p h y s i c a l realm when the t u i ' s voice i s ' read ' as an announce-ment of the turn of the t i d e : "Can you hear the t u i c a l l i n g ? It i s announcing the turn of the t ide" Cp. 9) . These int imat ions are a lso r e f l e c t e d in the text on the l e v e l of purely sequent ia l na r ra t ion . Thus the woman whose voice i s heard cry ing out about her son being a cargo-c a r r i e r at the beginning of the novel sets the tone for what i s to come; H o i r i * s mother's death by sorcery i s a prelude fo r h is w i f e ' s abduction; the conversation among the cargo crew revo lv ing around sorcery and crocodi les precedes 114. Aravape's a r r i v a l with the news of Mitoro's having been taken by a crocodile. By this technique a homology i s established between the narrative process i t s e l f and the mental functioning or i n t u i t i v e 'reading' of the characters; or, the narrative structure r e f l e c t s the mental structuring process of the characters. Yet t h i s reading of signs and the p o s s i b i l i t y of the s p i r i t disengaging i t s e l f from the physical body to 'see'what happens elsewhere, decrease, as the horizon of phenomena changes for the Papuans, p a r t i c u l a r l y with the advent of the war between the Australians and the Japanese on t h e i r land. E r i most poignantly represents the breakdown of codes due to c u l t u r a l clash through the act of sorcery responsible for Mitoro's abduction and i t s consequences. Sorcery i s an organizational p r i n c i p l e i n the system of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . I t appears as having purely negative function; yet, as Fredrik Barth points out, i t s p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on s o c i a l r e l ations consists i n i t s stimulation of tact and s e n s i t i v i t y to others (in order to avoid r e t a l i a t i o n ) and i n i t s general 18 encouragement of the carrying out of s o c i a l obligations. I t i s part of a larger system of payback. In E r i ' s text, the process of sorcery and i t s e f f e c t s (negative and positive). are negated by white law, which does not consider the role of sorcery i n the general framework of supernatural experience. I t i s i s o l a t e d from i t s general frame of reference and dealt with as a separate and d i s t i n c t issue. In the separation 115. from i t s context i t loses i t s function and appears as a purely 'negative' practice based on "superstitious nonsense": The mesiri man, who had sent his mother to her grave, had been working on another woman. Her brothers went to attack him one night and he narrowly escaped by hiding i n the v i l l a g e constable's house. The matter was dealt with by the patrol o f f i c e r at Mirivase. The mesiri man was released, because no proof was produced i n court as evidence. In any case, the p a t r o l o f f i c e r said, there was no such thing as witchcraft. I t was a l l super-s t i t i o u s nonsense. The two brothers, on the other hand, were charged with brandishing offensive weapons and were sentenced to two weeks of hard labour. (p. 61).. Sevese i n recounting t h i s to his son admonishes him that those who counteract sorcery by magic, although regarded as heroes i n t h e i r own society, are criminals i n the eyes of the white law. The indigenous then finds himself i n a state of paradox—a state wherein two systems of values clash, one t e l l i n g him to do one thing and the other the opposite. Both positions are untenable; and the r e s u l t i s inaction. The tragedy of Hoiri's family l i e s i n that foreign r e l i g i o n and law prevent them from matching "magic with magic" Cp. 178) , both i n the event of sorcery that takes his mother's l i f e and i n Mitoro's abduction: H o i r i cursed his father. . . .If he had given his mother the correct juice of herbs, barks and roots to drink, they might have counteracted the force of sorcery. But maybe his being a deacon of the LMS church prevented him from taking such measures. (p. 11). .116. Surely there must be another power that was stronger than those magicians who had robbed him of h is w i fe . There might be such a person in his: own v i l l a g e . Ho i r i d id not know- of anyone i n p a r t i c u l a r . As a c h i l d he had heard of many of them. . . .He d id not want to confuse h is father by asking him to ta lk about things that were against h is deaconship i n the London Missionary Soc ie ty . . . .H is p o s i t i o n as a deacon. . . forbade him to re ly on the powers of magic. (pp. 121, 123) H o i r i i s l e f t without an important c u l t u r a l resource since the "government and the C h r i s t i a n mission have f r ightened (the magicians) away" (p. 123), thus undermining the c u l t u r a l s t ruc tu res : And yet they can ' t replace the serv ices these magicians gave to the people. The Government and the missions are i n e f f e c t i v e i n deal ing with the tragedy that occurred i n our fami ly . Cp. 123). No, i t was a p ic ture of hopelessness. One sees such things in very bad dreams. The enemy i s r i g h t i n f ront of you, but whatever you do you can ' t touch him. A l l you can do i s brandish your weapon. Your feet do not move forward when you want them t o . They are e i ther securely t i e d or you f i n d you are standing on a p e c u l i a r l y s l ippery sur face . The one man who can help you cut your enemy down stands with a wicked gr in on h is face . He enjoys seeing you almost b i t i n g your tongue o f f i n your rage. He leans back with laughter as i f to say: "Why don' t you b i te i t o f f?" Cp.. 124) . The nightmare adequately describes the state of paradox. Having divested the indigenous of h is own c u l t u r a l means of dea l ing with, r e a l i t y , the white man "with a l l h is power and 117. wisdom" Cp • 178) w i l l not replace these means and moreover s a d i s t i c a l l y mocks the ensuing he lp lessness . E r i depicts H o i r i ' s c o n f l i c t as c o n s i s t i n g in that he be l ieves both in h i s own r e l i g i o n and i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . In the v i l l a g e s i t u a t i o n , surrounded by h is own people and f a m i l i a r t h i n g s , he be l ieves in h i s c u l t u r e ' s supernatural wor ld. He be l ieves in s p i r i t s who are p r o t e c t i v e , such as h is grandfather 's which a s s i s t s him during the c rocod i le hunt, and i n s p i r i t s which are h o s t i l e , such as that of the s o r c e r e r ' s a ide . However when he comes in to contact with the white world and fee ls i t s th rea ts , h is C h r i s t i a n upbringing comes to the f o r e . Thus when H o i r i comes across the suspected s o r c e r e r ' s aide in the camp of the white s o l d i e r s , h is C h r i s t i a n upbringing and the fear of the white man's law prevent him from g iv ing the swif t stroke of r e t r i b u t i o n . The b i t t e r ambiguity of his s i t u a t i o n in general i s r e f l e c t e d in h is thoughts and act ion during the bombing of the v i l l a g e , when h is family seeks refuge in the Church: "To h e l l with the fami ly , " H o i r i s a i d a n g r i l y . "What do they think the church i s ? A very strong house? . . . .B las t me, I should not have sa id that . It i s God's house and God knows everyth ing. He i s master of the brains that make the dest ruct ive weapons." Then o f f he ran again towards the church, making a quick act of c o n t r i t i o n fo r the lack of f a i t h he had just shown. (p. 133). 118. The counterpart of th is takes place when he f inds himself i n a place of legendary magic during a cargo-carry ing journey. Here he i s a f r a i d to d isplease h is own ancestors as in the passage quoted above he i s a f r a i d to d isplease the C h r i s t i a n god: A l l the ta lk he had heard about the place might be "supers t i t i on"—or whatever name the missionar ies gave to such t a l k i n g and th ink ing . But H o i r i was not going to try and disprove h is ancestors and then have to go through the res t df h i s ' l i f e with a f o o t b a l l - s i z e d p a i r of t e s t i c l e s . Cp. 91) . These passages contain an element of i rony and humour, (absent i n Arguedas), which i s an aspect of the th i rd-person viewpoint wherein the i r o n i c distance between main character and author allows for a transcendence of the problematic aspect of the hero i n Lukacs' terms as w i l l be discussed fu r ther . However inso fa r as a progressive flow of act ion takes place i n the n a r r a t i v e , apart from the occasional humourous aspect of the mixture of the two c u l t u r e s , there i s a sense of increas ing ' b l i n d i n g ' and impotence. Thus, f o r example, H o i r i r e a l i z e s that he has l o s t h is a b i l i t y to ' s e e ' : They'd been r e l y i n g heavi ly on the eyes i n the f ront of t h e i r heads. I t ' s the eyes i n the back of the head that see the sorts of things the o ld man was t a l k i n g about. Cp. 144). 119. Later this i s manifested again when H o i r i , surmising something about his father, i s not able to penetrate that r e a l i t y nor does his s p i r i t go forth (as i t had during Mitoro's abduction): For most of the time H o i r i was not conscious of the objects that were i n the l i n e of his v i s i o n . There was something magical about the power of his eyes; he looked through the trunks of trees, the lines of empty f u e l drums and through Meraveka's. s k u l l . But though his eyes were able to do these things, he was not able to get any closer to the horizon. . . ."I've been thinking of our old man, Sevese." (pp. 161,162). Sevese's own i n a b i l i t y to discern signs i n the sky aptly r e f l e c t s the process of the breakdown of the c u l t u r a l information system: He expected to see some signs among the orange clouds; signs of confirmation or denial about th i s war that everyone said was on the way. But just when he could make out something, darkness swallowed everything up once more. (pp. 130,131). The darkness prefigures his own death during the war, the advent of which he cannot now surmise. Relevant at this point i s Yuri Lotman's concept of culture, . . .as the nonhereditary memory of the community, a memory expressing i t s e l f i n a system of constraints and prescriptions . . . .The fundamental "task" of culture. . . i s i n s t r u c t u r a l l y organizing the world around man. 120. Against the background of nonculture,2Q culture appears as a system of signs. In these terms, the codes of the indigenous culture depicted i n The Crocodile are i n the process of dis i n t e g r a t i o n . Social and r e l i g i o u s structures, which are the base for the network of human inte r a c t i o n amongst themselves and with the world of nature and of s p i r i t s , are undermined. "The elavo  sevese", the clan s p i r i t , "certain to guide them i n t h e i r decision" (p. 144), s t i l l l i v e s , but i n the experience of disor i e n t a t i o n loses i t s protective and guiding function. In the phase during which his own culture i s destroyed and new and meaningful structures have not yet been formed, the colonized i s a s p l i t being, alienated from his own history and culture but not integrated into the foreigner's process, i n which he figures only as an object or 'thing' to be exploited. The paradoxical s i t u a t i o n of belonging neither here nor there i s r e f l e c t e d i n the speech used by the Papuans i n the text i n t h e i r speech with the foreigners. They use Pidgin, a hybrid of native and foreign languages, belonging neither to t h e i r world nor to the world of the dominators, whereas the p a t r o l o f f i c e r s and other government representatives i n the text address them only i n English. There i s i n E r i ' s text no proposal for r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between indigenous and foreign elements. What i s depicted i s the v i o l a t i o n of the indigenous culture by the foreign 121. dominators. The text poses problems and exposes contrad ic t ions (in Brecht 1 s sense) without o f fe r ing spurious r e s o l u t i o n s . It reconstructs a phase of c o l o n i a l experience in which the opposi t ion between the two cul tures put in to contact with each other i n a r e l a t i o n of domination i s one of antagonist ic i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y . This incompat ib i l i t y and i t s numbing e f fec ts on the dominated i s drawn together in the major or ' roo t ' metaphor of the text—the metaphor of the c rocod i le which i s drawn from the supernatural d iscourse or the indigenous discourse i t s e l f . "Mitoro," H o i r i c a l l e d . "Mi torol" But the woman walked f a s t e r . . . . "Why don' t you answer me Mitoro? Have you forgotten your name? Don't we speak the same language? Answer me for the sake of your son Sevese!" The woman began to run. H o i r i fol lowed i n pursu i t and grabbed her arm. The woman screamed. H o i r i l e t go her arm and stood panting with despa i r . He hardly not iced that people were beginning to crowd around him. Was there no way of winning back h is wife? But he knew that i t was hopeless. The power of the magicians had put her completely beyond h is reach. They had transformed her mind and they wielded absolute power over her tongue. She was the same woman in appearance on ly . I f only he hadn't been brought up a C h r i s t i a n , H o i r i thought. Then he might have known the kind of people who could match magic with magic. (pp. 177,178). The significance of t h i s passage i s related d i r e c t l y to the b e l i e f s of the magic procedure of her abduction by the crocodile. The sorcerer's aide's s p i r i t had entered the crocodile and caught Mitoro. H o i r i i n wounding the s p i r i t injured the physical body of the sorcerer's aide. This man then appears again i n the white s o l d i e r s ' camp, where H o i r i sees him and r e a l i z e s that he cannot r e t a l i a t e . Later when H o i r i i s t o l d that the man had died he laments the fact that i n Chr i s t i a n terms he would be happily enjoying his a f t e r l i f e . Meanwhile the abducted Mitoro l i v e s i n Kerema where she had been brought to the sorcerer. The above passage r e f l e c t s H oiri's b e l i e f that the s p i r i t of Mitoro has been stolen, which results for Mitoro i n amnesia. She has been made to forget her i d e n t i t y . Her s p i r i t no longer belongs to her but i s commanded by the w i l l of the sorcerer. Mitoro thus l i v e s and th i s i s the reason why her body had been found neither i n the r i v e r nor i n the stomach of the crocodile and why her s p i r i t had not harrassed the v i l l a g e r s who presumed her dead: Everyone t o l d everyone else that t h e i r snake image had been e f f e c t i v e i n keeping the ghost of the dead woman away from under t h e i r houses. She had not poked at them through the spaces between the f l o o r i n g nor squirted b r a i n - c h i l l i n g water at them. She must have been very considerate to her v i l l a g e people. (p. 10 8) . 123. I t i s o n l y a t the end of the n a r r a t i v e t h a t the meaning of the abduction i s c l a r i f i e d and t h i s meaning f i l t e r s through the n a r r a t i v e i n a context of p u r e l y Papuan b e l i e f c o n s t r u c t s and experience. The v a r i o u s connotations of the s o r c e r y event are s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y t o the readers f a m i l i a r w i t h the e x t r a - t e x t u a l c u l t u r a l background and t h e r e f o r e are not o v e r t l y d e s c r i b e d nor e x p l a i n e d by E r i . The c r o c o d i l e event denotes s o r c e r y and connotes c o l o n i z a t i o n . The white man's a c t of power i s r e l a t e d i n the indigenous' eyes to the dimension of magic. The c r o c o d i l e even when not possessed by a s p i r i t i s a c r e a t u r e of power and t h e r e f o r e r e s p e c t e d . Thus Jim Green, f o r example, i s c a l l e d "the c r o c o d i l e " because of h i s i n t r a c t a b l e power, and H o i r i i s r e f e r r e d t o as a c r o c o d i l e when he a c t s out the power of h i s manhood wit h M i t o r o b e f o r e t h e i r marriage. The c o l o n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , l i k e the c r o c o d i l e , i s a l l -devouring. I t 'abducts' or ' s t e a l s ' the s p i r i t of the c o l o n i z e d . J u s t as M i t o r o i s c o n t r o l l e d by the s o r c e r e r ' s w i l l , the c o l o n i z e d under the s p e l l of the new masters i s c o n t r o l l e d , made t o l o s e h i s i d e n t i t y , language and c u l t u r e . Thus what has happened to M i t o r o i s what happens to the c o l o n i z e d through the process of i n v a s i o n and domination: "They had transformed her mind. . .they w i e l d e d a b s o l u t e power over her tongue. She was the same woman i n appearance o n l y . " 124. I t i s the same process suf fered by Arguedas 1 oppressed: "no t iene padre n i madre, solo su sombra", " les habian hecho perder l a memoria (del) lenguaje de los a y l l u s . " L o g i c a l l y the 'magic' of the white man has to be counter-acted with, h is own c u l t u r a l 'magic'-—education i s seen as serving as a means of a t ta in ing that magic. This message, however, as mentioned, i s i r o n i c i n two senses. F i r s t , H o i r i , who sees h is bankbook as the means for h is son's educat ion, i s deluded about the money's a b i l i t y to "grow" ( interest) and the bankbook may be taken from him as he i s taken p r i s o n e r , jus t as money has prev iously been taken from him by the a u t h o r i t i e s . On another l e v e l , as mentioned, in education i s the danger of a s s i m i l a t i o n . This danger has already caused havoc i n H o i r i ' s own l i f e in terms of h is attending a C h r i s t i a n schoo l : "If only he hadn't been brought up as a C h r i s t i a n . . . " (p. 14). As F r e i r e points out , the "educated man i s the adapted man. . . . t h i s concept i s we l l su i ted to the purposes of the oppressors, whose t r a n q u i l i t y rests on how wel l men f i t the world the 2 1 oppressors have created, and how l i t t l e they question i t . " The Crocodi le d i f f e r s from Los r i o s profundos in the use of i rony and humour. The use of irony has a transcending f u n c t i o n . For Lukacs, as mentioned, i rony i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the novel form and i t s st ructure of presence-and-absence 22 (of values) and of ' d issonance ' . In E r i ' s text i rony (and 125. i t s e f f e c t of distantiation) has a transcending function i n the sense that although the protagonist i s bewildered by the r e a l i t y he confronts and which constantly eludes his expectations, the author i s not and delineates the l o g i c a l cause underlying that confusion. In the a r t i c u l a t i o n of c u l t u r a l bewilderment and confusion, as mediated through the aesthetic devices of the text, there i s an i m p l i c i t transcendence of the confusing aspect of the colonization process. The intention i s not to bewilder the reader with the bewilderment of the protagonist but to c l a r i f y and pinpoint the forces ( h i s t o r i c a l and cultural) behind that bewilderment, yet never going beyond Hoiri's own experience. As mentioned previously Lukacs describes the novel as being "the epic of an age i n which the extensive t o t a l i t y of l i f e i s no longer d i r e c t l y given, i n which the immanent meaning i n l i f e has become a problem, yet which s t i l l thinks 2 3 v i n terms of t o t a l i t y " . However Lukacs' l e v e l of abstraction i n his theory has to be concretized i n i t s application to the texts discussed. In E r i ' s text i t i s not "metaphysical 24 dissonance" that gives structure to his novel form but h i s t o r i c a l l y concrete events t r i g g e r i n g the 'search' for equilibrium that constitute i t s basic structure. Lukacs' search f o r meaning i n a meaningless universe has to be q u a l i f i e d here as the search for balancing opposing systems 126 . o f v a l u e s i n a h i s t o r i c a l l y c o n c r e t e c o n t e x t . C o l o n i a l d o m i n a t i o n i n E r i ' s t e x t i s i m p l i c i t l y analogous t o the n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s o f s o r c e r y . The e f f e c t s o f f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n and r e l a t e d phenomena are u n c o n s c i o u s l y a s s i m i l a t e d by the i n d i g e n o u s t h r o u g h the s u p e r n a t u r a l d i s c o u r s e . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e p r o c e s s o f 'numbing' and b e i n g r e n d e r e d ' h e l p l e s s ' on t h e p a r t o f the dominated i s r e n d e r e d by E r i t h r o u g h the s t r u c t u r e s o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l . I n t h i s way, the metaphor which forms the t i t l e o f the t e x t e v o l v e s d i r e c t l y from w i t h i n the i n d i g e n o u s d i s c o u r s e , and The C r o c o d i l e on a l l l e v e l s p r e s e n t s an ' i n s i d e : p e r c e p t i o n ' o f the r e a l i t y o f the i n d i g e n o u s p e o p l e whose c u l t u r e i s u n d e r g o i n g imposed change and d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I n t h i s sense E r i g i v e s ' v o i c e ' t o the o p p r e s s e d , and t h i s ' v o i c e ' becomes w i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i o n a p o l e m i c a l i n s e r t i o n i n t o a l i t e r a t u r e t h a t has r e n d e r e d f o r e i g n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Papuan e x p e r i e n c e . I n E a g l e t o n ' s words: I f y o u r h i s t o r y has been l a r g e l y one o f s t r u g g l e , d e f e a t and d e p r i v a t i o n , t h e n m e r e l y t o p r e s e r v e a r e c o r d o f t h a t b e c o m e s — i f t h e term i s s t i l l u s a b l e — a s a c r e d t a s k . By such r e c o r d i n g , t h e poet ceases m e r e l y t o ' r e f l e c t ' h i s t o r y — a s though t h a t were a r e a l i t y q u i t e independent o f h i s a r t — and becomes i n s t e a d p a r t l y c o n s t i t u t i v e o f the c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f h i s people.25 127. CHAPTER IV. FOOTNOTES. Although s o c i a l protest and ' i n s i d e ' percept ion have been unprecedented in ' w r i t t e n ' l i t e r a t u r e , they have been voiced and continue being voiced in t r a d i t i o n a l o r a l l i t e r a t u r e , as pointed out by N ige l Krauth in " P o l i t i c s and Ident i ty in Papua New Guinean L i t e r a t u r e , " Mana, V o l . 2, (May 1978), p. 46 f . 2 E n ' s The Crocodi le was the f i r s t publ ished novel wr i t ten by an indigenous wr i ter in the South P a c i f i c . It was fol lowed by A lber t Wendt's Sons for the Return Home (.1973), Samoa, and Wi t i Ihimaera's Tangi , (1973), New Zealand. A r t i c l e s that deal with the development of wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e in t h i s area are: Ken Arv idson, "The Emergence of a Polynesian L i t e r a t u r e " . World L i te ra ture i n E n g l i s h , V o l . 14, No. 1, (Apr i l 1975). N ige l Krauth, " P o l i t i c s and Ident i ty i n Papua New Guinean L i t e r a t u r e " . 3 N ige l Krauth, "Papua New Guinea in Recent White F i c t i o n " , South P a c i f i c Images, ed . Chr is T i f f i n , (Queensland: Univ. of Queensland, 19 78), p. 35. 4 See In t roduct ion, p. 3. 5 See the reference to Brecht 's view of ar t i n the In t roduct ion , p. 11 . ^Apisai Enos, "Nuigini L i t e r a t u r e " , Kovave, V o l . 4, No. 1, (Nov. 19 72) , p. 49 . 7 I b i d . , p. 48. g Nige l Krauth, " P o l i t i c s and Ident i ty in Papua New Guinean L i t e r a t u r e " , p. 45. 9 Enos, op. c i t . , p. 48. 1 0 I h i d . , p. 49. "^It must be kept in mind here , however, that in terms of a d i r e c t message, o r a l l i t e r a t u r e rather than the l i t e r a t u r e wr i t ten in. English, would have a much wider pub l ic amongst Papua New Guineans. As Nige l Krauth wri tes in " P o l i t i c s and Ident i ty . . . . " (pp. 45, 46): "While the wr i t ten Engl ish, l i t e r a t u r e of Papua New Guinea has had i t s greatest impact 128. i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , i t s i n t e r n a l impact as a means of iden t i t y explorat ion has been minimal." 12 See Int roduct ion, pp. 3, 4. 13 Jean-Paul Sa r t re , " Introduct ion" , The Colonizer and  the Colon!zed, A lber t Memmi, t rans . H. G r e n f i e l d , (Boston: Beacon, 19 67). p. x x v i i i . 14 Paulo F r e i r e , Pedagogy of the Oppressed, t rans . Myra Ramos, (NY: Seabury, 1970), p. 46. 1 5 I b i d . , p. 150. "^Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the E a r t h , t rans . C. Fa r r ing ton , (Gr. B r i t : Penguin, 1963), p. 42. 17 Tawali Kumalau, "The Bush Kanaka Speaks," Kovave, V o l . 1, No. 2, June 19 70, p. 17. 18 Fredr ik Bar th , R i t u a l and Knowledge among the Baktaman  of New Guinea, (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press , 1975), pp. 133, 134,135. 19 Yur i Lotman and B. Uspensky, "On the Semiotic Mechanism of Cu l tu re" , New L i te ra ry H is to ry , V o l . 9, No. 2, 1978, p. 213. I b i d . 21 F r e i r e , op. c i t . , p. 63. 22 v Georg Lukacs, The Theory of the Novel , (Cambridge: MIT Press , 1971), p. 56. 23 J I b i d . 24 I b i d . , p. 71. 25 Terry Eagleton, "Recent Poetry" , Stand, V o l . 21, No. 1, 1979, p. 70. 129. CHAPTER V. MAORITANGA. THE SEARCH FOR MAORI IDENTITY. WITI IHIMAERA, TANGI. PATRICIA. GRACE , MUTUWHENUA. At l as t we begin to feed the roots of the tree so long neglected. Whereas E r i ' s concern in The Crocodi le i s to present the process of co lon iza t ion and i t s detr imental e f fec ts from the perspect ive of the co lon ized; the concerns of the two maori w r i t e r s , Wi t i Ihimaera and P a t r i c i a Grace are focused on a d e f i n i t i o n of a maori c u l t u r a l ' i d e n t i t y ' . A s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n between the work of these wr i ters and that of Arguedas and E r i i s that in the former texts there i s an absence of the st ructures and re la t ions of oppression. Instead of de l inea t ing mechanisms of the process of domination as do E r i and Arguedas, the process enters the texts in terms of one of i t s consequences—the need for r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g the parameters of a c u l t u r a l maori i d e n t i t y as d i s t i n c t from the dominant pakeha"*" (white New Zealander) c u l t u r e . S o c i a l protest in t h e i r texts i s there-fore i m p l i c i t rather than e x p l i c i t . However the authors are l inked to Arguedas and E r i in t h e i r e f f o r t s to counteract through the l i t e r a r y medium the rendering of indigenous matters by those belonging to the dominant c u l t u r e ; " . . .maori things can and should be wr i t ten about by Maori 2 par t i c ipan ts rather than by Pakeha observers ." 13Q. In order to situate t h e i r work i n t h e i r New Zealand context i t i s necessary to draw upon maoritanga, both as a movement or s o c i a l process and a conception that refers to 3 'maori' "structures of feeling". Maoritanga on the most basic l e v e l represents the process of conscientizacao i n Freire's terms: "a process i n which men, not as r e c i p i e n t s , but as knowing subjects, achieve a deepening awareness both of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y which shapes t h e i r l i v e s and 4 of t h e i r capacity to transform that r e a l i t y " . As a pro-indigenous people's movement i t can be related to indigenismo. However i n i t s primarily c u l t u r a l focus i t d i f f e r s from indigenismo, which, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Mariategui's use of the term, focused on the socio-economic condition of the indigenous as well as on a r e d e f i n i t i o n of indigenous culture i n terms of i t s value. Furthermore indigenismo represents a movement of i n t e l l e c t u a l s directed towards the indigenous population, but not surging from the l a t t e r i t s e l f . Maoritanga poses the question: What i s i t to be maori i n New Zealand? The loss of maori language 5 and of other cohesive c u l t u r a l tools, an e f f e c t of the c u l t u r a l violence of colonialism, makes such a question necessary. As a concept and ideology, maoritanga, sometimes referred to as mauri Maori, i s the maori. response to the New Zealand pakeha ideology which proposes the assimilation of maori culture within the sanctions of l i b e r a l and 1 3 1 . 'humanistic' a t t i t u d e s . The i n h e r e n t h y p o c r i s y of such a t t i t u d e s i s r e v e a l e d i n a maori p e r s p e c t i v e which d e s c r i b e s the a s s i m i l a t i o n process as t h a t of a sfiark. swallowing a s m a l l e r f i s h : "there e x i s t s i n New Zealand a type of Pakeha i m p e r i a l i s m which means the hidden f e e l i n g t h a t t h i n g s E n g l i s h are s u p e r i o r to t h i n g s n o n - E n g l i s h . So long as t h i s s o r t of c u l t u r a l arrogance p e r s i s t s , New Zealand race r e l a t i o n s are b e s t summed up as b e i n g a shark and kahawai 7 r e l a t i o n s h i p . " In The Emergence of a./Polynesian L i t e r a t u r e , Ken A r v i d s o n w r i t e s : U n t i l at l e a s t the m i d - s i x t i e s , the pakeha--the white New Zealander—was i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t a t o t a l s y n t h e s i s between the European and Maori c u l t u r e s would be achieved i n t i m e . . . . But d u r i n g the s i x t i e s a new and powerful tendency became apparent i n the d e s i r e t h a t maoritanga, the maori c u l t u r e , must not be f u r t h e r eroded by a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o ' t h e European way of l i f e . . . .8 Maoritanga, thus, became a term - more and more used i n the ' s i x t i e s t o r e f e r t o a sense of maorihood t h a t i s d e f i n a b l e c u l t u r a l l y and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , imbued wi t h p r i d e . Maori'ness' had long been a negative i d e n t i t y , a r a c i a l one with s o c i a l stigma. The concept of maoritanga t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t s the process whereby an almost destroyed c u l t u r e looks a t i t s e l f and salvages what i t can; a process whereby 9 a people " s t r i p p e d of d i g n i t y " r e b u i l d c u l t u r a l p r i d e . 1 3 2 . As an awareness process (that i s , awareness of what i t i s to be maori i n the New Zealand pakeha-dominated context ) , maoritanga i s character ized by the necessi ty of question posing: Is New Zealand not reaping the harvest of nearly 1 5 0 years of c u l t u r a l v io lence? What can we Mauri aspire to i f we are not rooted to the land , i f there i s no language and l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n to speak for our s o u l s , i f we have not got an ideology (mauri Maori) fo r our people, i f our creat ive imaginations and our leadership energies are weakened by fear of loss of jobs and promotional pro jects? Insofar as l i t e r a t u r e i s concerned, u n t i l the 1 9 6 0 ' s no l i t e r a t u r e , that i s in the non-maori or 'western' sense, had been produced by the maori; which i s not to say that the maori d id not continue t h e i r own a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s . Thus they composed music, dance-songs, and songs, some of which f o r c e f u l l y express and describe the maori/pakeha c o n f l i c t , of which the fo l lowing excerpt from a dance-poem composed i n the ' f i f t i e s by Tu in i Ngaway i s an example: 133. Te mataurange o te Pakeha P a t i p a t i , a ka muru whenua Kia haha r a , e hoa ma Ka mutu ano Te tanga manawa oranga, a oranga. Te matauranga o te Pakeha Ka tua r i i te penihana organa Hei aha ra? Hei patu kiganga patu mahara mauri e Pakeha education sucks you i n then conf iscates land Be strong f r i e n d s , Land i s a l l we have to rest a throbbing heart and for our sustenance. Pakeha education dispenses s o c i a l secur i ty benef i ts Why? To suppress customary ways, to confuse us , to k i l l our sacred and ^ c u l t u r a l s p i r i t s . The s i t u a t i o n i s the same as in Papua New Guinea where c r i t i c i s m and expression of the contact with the fore ign cul ture i s voiced i n i t i a l l y through the medium of o r a l t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . Meanwhile pakeha wr i ters had incorporated maori characters in to the i r l i t e r a t u r e . Their depic t ion of maori people , character ized by stereotyped notions which Grace 12 s a t i r i z e s in Mutuwhenua, was f i r s t c r i t i c i z e d by B i l l Pearson in The Maori and L i t e r a t u r e : " A l l of Pakeha wr i t ing about Maoris . . . i s concerned with the Maori as an outsider or debutant in New Zealand s o c i e t y , i n d i v i d u a l l y or communally. . . .Much of i t s confus ion , sent imenta l i ty , and patronage r e f l e c t s common Pakeha at t i tudes to the ' . Maori . . . . " " ^ Just as Arguedas reacted against the. images of indians presented in e a r l i e r ind lgen is ta l i t e r a t u r e and E r i against 134. the f i c t i o n a l accounts of Papua New Guinea l i f e wr i t ten by expat r ia tes , Ihimaera and Grace reacted against the s te reo -typed images of t h e i r people i n pakeha-written l i t e r a t u r e . A lso par t l y i n response to Pearson's comment i n the above-mentioned a r t i c l e that no maori nove l i s ts or playwrights had as yet appeared on the New Zealand l i t e r a r y scene, 14 Ihimaera wrote Tangi (19 73), the f i r s t novel publ ished by a maori author. Tangi was fol lowed by Whanau (1974), and by Grace's Mutuwhenua (1978). In the a r t i c l e "Why I Wri te" , Ihimaera states that h is 15 concern i s with " re ta in ing our emotional i d e n t i t y " . His concern i s e s p e c i a l l y for the young, who no longer speak maor i ; "who are maori by colour but who have no emotional iden t i t y as Maori" . He a lso re tor ts in the same a r t i c l e to the c r i t i c i s m that had been made against him of not being p o l i t i c a l enough: " . . .my work i s p o l i t i c a l because i t i s exc lus ive ly Maor i , the c r i t i c i s m of Pakeha soc ie ty i s i m p l i c i t i n the presentat ion of an e x c l u s i v e l y Maori values : • <: system. . . . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y Ihimaera views himself as a New Zealander who wri tes "to make New Zealanders aware of t h e i r ' o t h e r ' , Maor i , her i tage . To convince my countrymen, with love and anger, that they must take t h e i r Maori persona l i ty in to 18 account." In th is respect there i s a p a r a l l e l between h is pro jec t and that of Arguedas. He views the Maori values of 135. l i f e as a un ive rsa l l y 'human' p o s s i b i l i t y , enr ich ing maori and pakeha a l i k e . For Ihimaera the maori s ide as 'o ther ' can be integrated with (which i s not to say absorbed by) the pakeha side to t h e i r mutual b e n e f i t . What he f i n a l l y proposes i s : "te manaaki, mutual respect among Maori and 19 Pakeha for each o ther 's values and a t t i t u d e s . " Te manaaki as we s h a l l see i s a lso what c l e a r l y emerges from Grace's Mutuwhenau, and what l inks both maori authors to Arguedas. Both Ihimaera and Grace present i n t h e i r work a ' r e d e f i n i t i o n ' of what i t i s to be maori i n t h e i r response to the pakeha view of maori cul ture as being p r a c t i c a l l y non-ex is tent . From t h e i r work emerges the sense that there i s a p o s i t i v e maori c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and by th is process of a f f i rmat ion the ass imi la t ion proposed by pakeha ideology i s i m p l i c i t l y c r i t i c i z e d . The problem, then, that Ihimaera poses fo r himself i n Tangi i s that of c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y . Part of h is in tent ion 20 as author, as he defines i t i n h is comments on h is w r i t i n g , i s to transmit maori c u l t u r e , to br ing i t s legends and t r a d i t i o n in to the l i v i n g present . Related to th is i s h is in tent ion to show how the maori 'community' s t i l l ex is ts as an organic whole and as a locus of re la t ionsh ips despite the dest ruct ion of cul ture caused by e x p l o i t a t i o n and domination. The extended family system bound by the f e e l i n g of aroha, love , respect)' (c f . Arguedas' ternura) has survived pakeha i n f l u e n c e . 136, His search, for a posi t i v e resolution to the problem of maori i d e n t i t y led him to maori custom and t r a d i t i o n as the nexus of the surviving culture. In an interview he c l a r i f i e s why he chose the tangi ceremony as major focus f o r his text: I looked for the one major physical i n s t i t u t i o n that Maori people r e t a i n i n the most p o s i t i v e way and found i t i n the tangi, our ceremonial of mourning. The tangi i s a focus for Maori culture, showing most aspects of Maoritanga ("Maoriness"); i t ' s v i r t u a l l y the only i n s t i t u t i o n we have for conveying our feelings about being Maori.21 Narrative events, symbols and images i n the text converge upon the ceremonial, whereby an emotional communal ide n t i t y i s established. What has to be understood i n terms of a reading of Tangi i s that 'maoriness' denotes on the deepest l e v e l , a l e v e l of 'feelings'. These feelings f i n d d e f i n i t i o n i n relationships which, despite the pressure upon the maori to assimilate into pakeha society, survive as d i s t i n c t l y maori re l a t i o n s regarding family, land and r e l i g i o n . In Maori Marsden's words: "Maoritanga i s a thing df the heart rather than the head. For that reason analysis i s necessary only to make e x p l i c i t what the Maori understands i m p l i c i t l y 22 i n his d a i l y l i v i n g , f e e l i n g s , acting and deciding." Ihimaera describes his novel i n the poem-like prologue as "a poetic drama i n prose". I t represents the drama of the maori culture as s i g n i f i e d by the tangi ceremonial whereby 137. the voices of the maori extended family r e a l i z e se l f - express ion in unison through the r i t u a l by means of which g r i e f i s exorc ized . At the same time i t represents the inner drama of the i n d i v i d u a l protagonist Tama, who, by de f in ing himself wi th in the course of the n a r r a t i v e , def ines the community from which he or ig inates and to which he returns as an act ive p a r t i c i p a n t . Tama as protagonist i s not problematic in Lukacs 1 sense, for authentic values manifest themselves through h is l i v e d experience of maori r e a l i t y as expressed through formal custom and through aroha which l i k e ternura funct ions to harmonize oppos i t ions . There i s no 'quest ion ing ' of maori community values in the tex t ; on the contrary these values are concret ized as a source of s p i r i t u a l strength and c u l t u r a l continuity-. The problematic nature of values and t h e i r 'quest ion ing ' i s e x t r a - t e x t u a l , produced by the pakeha-maori c o n f l i c t which forms and generates the text yet paradoxica l ly enters i t only margina l ly . This i s in contrast to Arguedas i n whose text indigenous values themselves are not questioned but t h e i r problematic nature in terms of the re la t ions of domination and oppression i s the e x p l i c i t ' impetus' of the pro tagon is t ' s (both i n d i v i d u a l and co l lec t ive ) 1 ' s e a r c h ' . In i t s poet ic and dramatic i n t e n s i t y , the text has c lose l i nks to the o r a l t r a d i t i o n , which Ihimaera describes as 138. "incandescent and ablaze w i t h the pa s s i o n of l i v i n g . . . .more ak i n t o poetry than t o prose, a community experience between o r a t o r and audience r a t h e r than the more s o l i t a r y one between 23 . w r i t e r and reader". His ch o i c e of the t a n g i r i t u a l , the 24 purpose of which " i s t o make the people respond as one" f u r t h e r enhances the sense of communal experience. I t i s through t h i s r i t u a l t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l (Tama) i s f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the c o l l e c t i v e . The main s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e of the no v e l i s the e l e g i a c . The i n i t i a l r e f u s a l t o b e l i e v e h i s f a t h e r ' s death, the f e e l i n g s of g u i l t and sorrow, the eulogy of h i s f a t h e r , (whom he c a l l s "the a x i s of my u n i v e r s e " [p. 49] ),, and the ex p r e s s i o n of g r i e f are b a s i c e l e g i a c m o t i f s t h a t make up i t s n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . F u r t h e r aspects of the e l e g i a c are the s t r o n g sense of time t h a t passes, the concurrent d e s i r e t o h o l d time back (the myth of Maui); and a f e e l i n g of a l i e n a t i o n from the 25 world i t s e l f caused by the s t a t e of sorrow. The a l i e n a t i o n however i s experienced i n terms of a l i e n a t i o n from the pakeha world, as the maori world draws more s t r o n g l y together i n mutual sorrow through the death of one of i t s community members. Thus as the maori f a m i l y i s drawn more t i g h t l y t o g e t h e r , a c l o s u r e i s e s t a b l i s h e d between i t and the pakeha world. 139 . The text has two d i s t i n c t nar ra t ive leve ls -^ the s o c i a l and the mythologica l . Through both a pro-maori view i s es tab l ished . The former i s expressed in p r o s e - l i k e passages; whereas the l a t t e r i s expressed in poet ic and dramatic terms. The s o c i a l l e v e l i s general ly subsumed by the mytholog ica l , which i s the narra t ive base whereby ' i d e n t i t y ' i s def ined. The l e v e l of a negative s o c i a l i d e n t i t y i s brought in to the nar ra t ive by f lashbacks as Tama journeys from Gisborne to Well ington and back. The f lashbacks br ing in to focus the nomadic l i f e of the labouring and landless maori family and the struggles of the ch i ld ren at schoo l , where they encounter the values of the pakeha. By t h i s means of f l a s h -back Ihimaera weaves in references to hardship and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , such as the f o l l o w i n g , which shows the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of pakeha d e r i s i o n of the maori by a maori c h i l d : Maori BoyI Maori Boy] There was such sp i te in her voice that I 'd f e e l ashamed and puzzled. Because, you see, she was Maori jus t l i k e me. (p. 76). Counteracting the pakeha-imposed negative maori i d e n t i t y are images and events that re la te to the value of aroha and the sense of community whereby the s p i r i t u a l s u r v i v a l of the maori family in ensured. P o s i t i v e maori s o c i a l r e a l i t y as l i v e d among themselves i s expressed in the d i r e c t reference 140. to the "Maori way" which support the general theme of family uni ty as a p r i n c i p l e of s u r v i v a l : This i s the Maori way: not to ta lk of one family for we belong to each other , not only family l i v i n g but family dead. Cp. 30). He gave h is heart to the whanau, as was the Maori way. (P. 139) Tama, you must look af ter your mother and s i s t e r s and brother i f I should d i e . That 's the Maori way. (p. 29). The m a o r i s o c i a l r e a l i t y a l l u d e d t o i n the t e x t however i s subsumed by t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l base on whi c h t h e n a r r a t i v e i s c o n s t r u c t e d . Thus t h e e x p l i c i t answer t o the q u e s t i o n ". . .what i s a m a o r i ? " (p. 48) i n t h e t e x t i s g i v e n i n m y t h o l o g i c a l terms: Takit imu, T a i n u i , Te Arawa, Mataatua, Kurahaupo, Tokomaru, Aotea. . . .They are the Maor i , Tama. As long as you remember them you are a Maor i . Then again, he pressed h is palm against my heart . —To manawa, a ratou manawa. Your heart i s a lso the i r heart . Cp. 49). T h i s answer, backed up by c o n t i n u a l t e x t u a l r e f e r e n c e s t h a t r e l a t e t he im p o r t a n c e o f t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l p a s t i n terms o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an i d e n t i t y , s u p p r e s s e s the n e g a t i v e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e maori and the pakeha c o n t e x t whereby t h e q u e s t i o n , "what i s a m a o r i ? " , becomes n e c e s s a r y i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . 1.4.1, E a g l e t o n p o i n t s out t h a t every t e x t poses q u e s t i o n s t o which the s o l u t i o n i s al r e a d y p r e — g i v e n and the m a t e r i a l taken t h e r e f o r e i s stacked a t the o u t s e t towards an i d e o l o g i c a l l y coherent r e s o l u t i o n : Problem and s o l u t i o n are sy n c h r o n i c i n the sense t h a t the t e x t so works upon i t s m a t e r i a l s as t o c a s t them from the o u t s e t i n t o ' r e s o l v a b l e ' (or acce p t a b l y u n r e s o l v a b l e ) form i n the very a c t of t r y i n g t o r e s o l v e them. . . . t h i s i s one of the senses i n which i t can be s a i d t h a t the work 'determines i t s e l f . 26 The m y t h o l o g i c a l i s the means by which Ihimaera from the out s e t o r d e r s the m a t e r i a l o f the t e x t towards a p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n of the i d e n t i t y q u e s t i o n i n terms of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i d e . By t u r n i n g t o the p a s t the p r i d e o f i d e n t i t y , negated by the pakeha presence, i s r e c u p e r a b l e . I t i s a q u e s t i o n of r e d i s c o v e r i n g the maori legendary p a s t i n order t o l o c a t e the p a t t e r n wherein the maori can e s t a b l i s h h i s p l a c e and r e a l i z e h i s i d e n t i t y : "I am the people who came b e f o r e me and I am the people who w i l l come a f t e r me. Although I w i l l 27 d i e , the p a t t e r n w i l l not be broken." The process o f the maori p r o t a g o n i s t i s t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Goldmann whereby the s u b j e c t e x p e r i e n c i n g d i s e q u i l i b r i u m \ 2 8 seeks e q u i l i b r i u m and ' t o t a l i t y ' i n Lukacs' sense. I t i s a q u e s t i o n of i n t e g r a t i n g the d a i l y i n d i v i d u a l experience i n t o the l a r g e r f a m i l y and c l a n s t r u c t u r e s and these i n t u r n i n t o the l a r g e r s t r u c t u r e s of the c o l l e c t i v e maori c u l t u r e p a s t , which, i s a l s o the pr e s e n t . 142. The m y t h o l o g i c a l element i s present both as a s t r u c t u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t of the n a r r a t i v e , t h a t i s form; and as n a r r a t i v e u n i t s i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout the t e x t as p a r t of content. The b a s i c s t r u c t u r e o f Tangi i s mythic, being the s t o r y of the journey of the hero t o the c e n t r e of the world. Tama's journeys from Gisborne t o W e l l i n g t o n and back are c i r c u l a r , b e g i n n i n g and ending with W a i t u i , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the movement of h i s thoughts. In the sacred space of the Rongopai marae, which i n the context of the t e x t i s the symbolic world c e n t r e of the maori v i l l a g e f a m i l y , a u t h e n t i c c u l t u r a l v a l u e s through which maori i d e n t i t y i s r e a l i z e d are a l i v i n g f o r c e . During t h i s journey towards the c e n t r e , i n i t i a t e d by h i s f a t h e r ' s death, Tama d i s c o v e r s who he i s and what f u t u r e r o l e he i s t o take i n the maori community. The absence of h i s f a t h e r Rongo b r i n g s him t o Rongopai where he r e d i s c o v e r s h i s presence. Thus the s t r u c t u r e of presence-in-absence as c e n t r a l s t r u c t u r e of the n o v e l form i n Lukacs' theory i s a l s o p r e s e n t i n Tangi; The v i l l a g e , the meeting house, my f a m i l y . . . And I whispered t o f a t h e r : E pa, you are s t i l l here. (p. 201). A l l e p i s o d e s , a l l f l a s h b a c k s and foreshadowings i n the t e x t converge r a d i a l l y towards t h i s s i n g l e c e n t r e — t h e marae of Rongopai where the sacred r i t u a l of the t a n g i takes p l a c e : 143. Rongopai i s l i k e my father. Home. The place of the heart. The centre of my universe. Cp. 115). The tangi as a ceremony of mystical p a r t i c i p a t i o n and Rongopai as a sacred space, where "another world" i s entered, become the text's major unifying symbol of the maori culture. This symbol i n function i s p a r a l l e l to the symbol of the . r i v e r s i n Arguedas' text. Through Rongo's explanations to his son, Ihimaera describes the i c o n i c s i gnificance of the meeting house: This house, i t i s also the body of an ancestor, son. See the Koruru, at the top of the entrance? That i s the head. The arms are the maihi. The boards sloping down from the Koruru to form the roof. See the ridge pole? It holds up the roof and i s the backbone. And there, inside the house, those panels are the r i b s . Cp. 144). Part of Ihimaera's writing technique i s to integrate the c u l t u r a l images with the descriptions of Tama's s p e c i f i c a l l y 'maori' f e e l i n g s . The above analogy, for example, recurs i n the description of Tama's feelings for his family, thus becoming constitutive of the link between maori past and present. The whanau i s my home. The love and a f f e c t i o n they hold for each other are the ridgepoles of my heart. The sharing and enjoying of each other are the r a f t e r s . And within those walls and roof, my heart i s shared with my whanau, so closely intertwined. Cp. 120). 144. I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s k i n d o f i n t e g r a t i o n o f images t h a t t h e 'maori' c o n t e n t o f t h e t e x t i s s t r e n g t h e n e d and u n i f i e d . Thus as i n E r i ' s t e x t , a l t h o u g h t h e language used i s t h a t of the dominant c u l t u r e , the images are d e r i v e d from the i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e . The m e e t i n g house as an i c o n i c analogy t h a t l i n k s m a o r i p a s t and p r e s e n t becomes, as mentioned, t h e u n i f y i n g symbol f o r the maori s o c i a l f a m i l y commitment and the f a m i l y ' s l i n k t o the a n c e s t r a l p a s t . A t t h e same time I h i m e a r a e x p l i c i t l y i n t r o d u c e s t h r o u g h Rongopai th e a s p e c t o f change e f f e c t e d by pakeha i n f l u e n c e : The young men, i n d e c o r a t i n g t h e house, had d e p a r t e d from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e s i g n s . The o l d r e v e r e n c e and d i g n i t y had gone. I n i t s p l a c e , the young men had b l e n d e d b o t h M a o r i and pakeha a r t . . . .But you t o l d me, Dad, t h a t perhaps even t h e n , the young men had seen t h a t the o l d l i f e was e n d i n g . . . .And t h i s m e e t i n g house f o r you was a symbol o f the t w i l i g h t y e a r s o f the M a o r i . (p. 116). The m o t i f o f change b o t h i n terms o f c u l t u r a l change and f a m i l y change (as the f a t h e r i s d e a d ) , i s however subsumed by m y t h o l o g i c a l t i m e , the time o f e t e r n a l r e c u r r e n c e , f i g u r e d i n t h e t e x t i n t h e sun's j o u r n e y i n g a c r o s s the h o r i z o n , i n i t s s e t t i n g o n l y t o r i s e a g a i n . I t i s t h r o u g h t h i s c y c l i c a l t ime t h a t change and e t e r n i t y c o a l e s c e and become one; which p r o v i d e s , d e s p i t e the a m b i g u i t y o f the ' d y i n g ' c u l t u r e , a sense o f permanence and the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s . "The t w i l i g h t y e a r s of the M a o r i " can thus be i n t e r p r e t e d t o 145. mean both dusk and dawn. It i s a world turned f u l l c i r c l e . Yet , some time, the world must turn again. . . . From the ruins of an o ld l i f e , a new l i f e must r i s e . (p. 126). This i s the end of my journey but i t i s a lso my journey beginning. (p. 19 4). The l i f e - d e a t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n , the cont rad ic t ion of the simultaneously dying and surv iv ing cul ture i s resolved i n Tangi through mythic means. Tama's journey i t s e l f represents the journey of the e te rna l re turn . He i s a lso l ikened to the major mythic hero of the maori—Maui, who aspired to br ing immortal i ty to men. Apart from th is st ructure based on mythic time and space are var ious s p e c i f i c maori myths which Ihimaera weaves through the text to re lay a s p e c i f i c a l l y ' indigenous' content. The myth of Papatuanuku and Rangitane, father sky and mother ear th , i s brought in to the text l i k e an incantat ion in r e l a t i o n to Tama's parents , g iv ing them a dimension larger than l i f e , and in tegra t ing them in to the pattern of archetypal parenthood. The legend of the canoes that brought the f i r s t maori to the shores of Aotearoa, recurs throughout the text both f i g u r a t i v e l y and i n metaphoric descr ip t ions of Tama's emotions. This again i s an aspect of Ihimaera's wr i t ing technique whereby c u l t u r a l images are drawn together on more than one l e v e l of the tex t : 146. The wind b las ts open my mind. The current changes, wave upon wave of coldness, reaching up to drench the sky plunging down upon a small canoe a d r i f t . . . .And I d r i f t away amid the s w i r l i n g , f reez ing t i d e , upon that endless sea. Cp. 4) . His f a t h e r ' s journey to Cape Reigna i s another un i fy ing motif i n the t e x t s ' organizat ion of mythological images, as v i s i o n s of Reigna enter Tama's mind in f lashes throughout the n a r r a t i v e : It seems as i f I am standing on a towering c l i f f watching the wh i r l ing currents seething among the rocks , the deep flow of grey water and the ebb and flow of the ragged k e l p . (p. 14). This i s my journey in to the Underworld. Far ahead I can see the points of flame g l i t t e r i n g . (p. 20). At times however mythological elements are incorporated in to the narra t ive in an external manner; that i s , they are a r t i f i c i a l l y bound to the narra t ive instead of a cons t i tu t i ve element in i t s constructure . This i s the r e s u l t of the i r d i d a c t i c funct ion in the n a r r a t i ve . Ihimaera interposes descr ip t ions of s p e c i f i c myths for the purpose of t ransmit t ing c u l t u r e . For example, the descr ip t ions of H ine-nu i - te -po have no funct ion i n the text except that the myth be made known: And with, the night comes Hine-nui - te -Po whom a l l men must fo l low to Rarohenga, the world a f te r death. She was the f i r s t c h i l d of the world and her father was Tane, who mated with the woman he had fashioned from red 147. ear th . Hine was born , and Tane took her a lso to wi fe . Her name was then Hinetitama, the Dawn Maid. She was very b e a u t i f u l . (p. 92) . Here Ihimaera 1s method i s in d i r e c t contrast to G r a c e ' s , who makes the myth of Reigna part of Ripeka's ac tua l experience without r e s t a t i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r tex t . Ihimaera l i t e r a l l y i n s e r t s myths in to the narrat ive in fu l f i lment of h is in ten t ion "to use Maori myths, to make the past l i v e in the p resent . 1 In th is sense, Ihimaera incorporates myth in to the text to e s t a b l i s h a process whereby the past provides a dynamic pattern of c u l t u r a l t o t a l i t y , the t o t a l i t y desired and needed for i d e n t i t y , v i s - a - v i s the fragmentation of c u l t u r e . The cen t ra l motif of the t a n g i , the ceremonial of mourning, with i t s connotations of death and r e b i r t h on a communal s c a l e , enables Ihimaera to draw in to a cohesive whole var ious myths deal ing with b i r t h and death—that i s , s p e c i f i c a l l y the myth of Papatuanuku and Rangitane, of Maui, H ine -nu i - te -Po , and the journey to Rarohenga. S t r u c t u r a l l y the tangi organizes the various strands of the nove l , and themat ical ly i t serves as a symbol of u n i f i e d cul ture and of communal experience. F i n a l l y the message— that although a member of the community d i e s , he l i v e s ; i s transposed to s i g n i f y the s u r v i v a b i l i t y of the Maori cu l ture i t s e l f . The problem of the ' d y i n g ' cul ture i s synchronic with i t s r e s o l u t i o n of ' s u r v i v a b i l i t y ' i n Eagleton 's terms of the 148. text's process of problem-solving. As Tama, i n d i v i d u a l l y , takes the place of his father as head of the family; the community i s reintegrated, and t h i s i s i m p l i c i t l y extended to include the c u l t u r a l whole: "From the ruins of an old l i f e , a new l i f e must r i s e . " The i d e o l o g i c a l message of continuity i s also concretized on the l e v e l of form by Ihimaera's technique of r e p e t i t i o n and rhytlmiic echoes. The use of r e p e t i t i o n thus has the double function of s i g n i f y i n g the continuity i n general terms and of being part of the structure of the ceremonial songs themselves: "The r e p e t i t i o n i s i n the waiata tangi, the funeral chants, and I use r e p e t i t i o n d e l i b e r a t e l y ; i t i s part of our ceremonial, and i t i n t e n s i f i e s the sense of 30 g r i e f and loss." The text of the waiata tangi i t s e l f i s rendered i n maori, for which Ihimaera s k i l f u l l y weaves i n English translations. Throughout the narrative Ihimaera blends i n maori words and phrases which become part of the rhythmic r e f r a i n s . Thus, for example, the phrase "To manawa, a ratou manawa" ("your heart i s also t h e i r heart") recurs throughout the text with v a r i a t i o n s : "To manawa, e taku manawa".' It i s thus that Ihimaera ensures that the maori language has a presence i n the 'maori' text despite the fact that i t i s not part of the spoken language of the protagonist. Although 149 . maori i s spoken by the older generation i t has not been transmitted to the younger. The use of maori language i n Ihimaera's text i s d i s t i n c t from Arguedas' use of the indigenous language, and also from Grace's as s h a l l be discussed. Actual spoken patterns of the indigenous language and i t s various hybrids with the dominant language form part of t h e i r t e x t s 1 meaningful structures. The way i n which the maori language i s inserted into Ihimaera's text i s more as a reminder of culture (similar i n function to the insertion of some of the myths), rather than an i n d i c a t i o n of i t s present l i v i n g r e a l i t y . I t i s question— able therefore whether Ihimaera by i n s e r t i n g maori myth and language i s able to "make them l i v e i n the present" as i s his intention. To conclude there are two basic i n t e r r e l a t e d problems which Tangi i s meant to r e s o l v e — t h a t of i d e n t i t y and that of the 'dying' culture (Tama regrets that "Maoritanga. . . even when I was a boy. . .was dying." [p. 79} ) . Identity i s recuperable through a knowledge of the mythological history and, i n the present, through the conception of aroha as the organic bond of the extended family system. The problem of the 'dying' culture i s s i m i l a r l y dealt with i n terms of retrieving, maori'mythology and through the depiction of the major maori c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n , the tangi, which s t i l l constitutes a unifying, l i v i n g force. 150. The e leg iac aspects that run through the text can be read in two ways: the actua l mourning of Rongo which br ings the c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n of the tangi in to a c t i o n , and the mourning of the cul ture i t s e l f , which i s represented by Rongo. The paradox i s that i t i s p r e c i s e l y through the act of mourning, the sense of l o s s , that the cul ture i s experienced as a l i v i n g presence (Lukacs' s t ructure of presence-and-absence). The lamentful Waiata t a n g i , as the lamentful huayno in Arguedas' t ex t , becomes the most legi t imate expression of the indigenous people. There are s i l ences in Ihimaera's text that are the r e s u l t of the conscious r e f u s a l to deal with the maori-pakeha c o n f l i c t e x p l i c i t l y , which i s at the base of the necessi ty for mourning. A cont rad ic t ion of the text then l i e s in i t s r e f u s a l to lay bare the r e a l i t y which necessi ta tes the expression of 'authentic' indigenous l i f e in the f i r s t p lace . In Ihimaera's text the i m p l i c i t c u l t u r a l 'mourning' appears to come as from a vacuum. The s t y l e i t s e l f contr ibutes to the i d e o l o g i c a l cont rad ic t ion of the tex t . Highly l y r i c a l i n mood and tone i t d i s t r a c t s from the r e a l issue of i d e n t i t y and c u l t u r a l l o s s . The emphasis i s on "the landscapes of the heart , the emotional 32 landscapes which make Maori people what they are" to the exclusion or suppression of the s o c i o - h i s t o r i c s i t u a t i o n that determines these ' landscapes' in the f i r s t instance. It i s 151. i n t h i s sense that Ihimaera's wr i t ing i s c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t from that of E r i and Arguedas, who re la te the emotional or ' f e e l i n g ' aspect of indigenous l i f e to the larger context of s o c i a l constructure . The technique of t i m e - s h i f t s that operates i n the text i s in a sense a lso i n cont rad ic t ion to the theme of c i r c u l a r time as created by the images. The s h i f t s do not corre la te with the sense of c i r c u l a r time but create instead a sense of the fragmentary. As Norman Simms points out , the l i t e r a r y problem Ihimaera seems to have set fo r h imse l f , that i s , "the fus ing of the Maori sense of time and place and the communal sense of iden t i t y which the Maori f e e l s , with European techniques of narrat ive presenta t ion , such as 33 f lashback and overlap" , r e s u l t s i n an over r id ing of content by technique. Furthermore, "the ins ights of the author are 34 l o s t i n excessive verbiage and sent imenta l i ty . " For Ihimaera the i d e o l o g i c a l funct ion of h is art i s to a f f i rm maori l i f e v i s - a - v i s the pakeha ideology of a s s i m i l a t i and to i n s e r t the prev iously absent maori voice in to the mainstream of New Zealand l i t e r a t u r e . Yet h is s i l ence as to the s o c i a l s t ructure which la rge ly determines the maori community contr ibutes to a sense of a romant ic izat ion of r u r a l maori family l i f e . Furthermore the emphasis on the mythological both as content and as narrat ive structure 152. d i s t r a c t s from the maori-pakeha c u l t u r a l cont rad ic t ion which i s the r e a l h i s t o r i c bas is fo r the 'dy ing 'cu l tu re in the f i r s t p l a c e . Ihimaera ends the novel with "a roar of pr ide" (p. 207). The s i g n i f i c a n c e and funct ion of t h i s work are presented i n terms of r e i n s t a t i n g pr ide for the maori . The l i m i t a t i o n of wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f as such a channel l i e s i n that i t speaks only to those with p r i v i l e g e d access to educat ion, and i s l o s t to that sector of maori people who without the p r i v i l e g e of l i t e r a c y would need the sense of pr ide most. In th is sense Ihimaera p a r t i c i p a t e s in the paradoxical s i t u a t i o n of most spokesmen for indigenous cul ture in wr i t ten l i t e r a t u r e which l i e s in tha t , because of the medium chosen, they address themselves pr imar i ly to the non-indigenous and s 35 to the indigenous e l i t e of the populat ion. However th is h i s t o r i c a l l y necessary cont rad ic t ion does not devaluate Ihimaera's contr ibut ion to maoritanga. His l i t e r a r y recording of maori values and 's t ructures of f e e l i n g ' based on a sense of community i s a const i tuent element, in Goldmann's terms, of the larger process of maoritanga in i t s general d i r e c t i o n towards changing s o c i a l a t t i tudes held by pakeha and maori a l i k e . Maoritanga as a concept and c u l t u r a l value in Grace's Mutuwhenua i s expressed i n s t ructures of r e l a t i o n s h i p s : extended family and t r i b a l r e l a t i o n s , the re la t ionsh ip to 153. the ancestors , to the s p i r i t world or the supernatura l , to land and to nature in general . This complex of r e la t ions i s expressed by Te Kapunga Dewes: " . . .The Maori community embraces te hunga ora ( l i v i n g people) and te hunga mate (dead people ) , both having wairua (sacred s p i r i t s ) ; and mauri ( l i f e ) i s i n man, c rea tures , creat ions of nature and a l l 36 inanimate t h i n g s . " These re la t ionsh ips are i n the process of Grace's narrat ive drawn in to a cohesive c u l t u r a l whole which i s perceived as d i s t i n c t from, but not necessar i ly in opposi t ion t o , the pakeha 'way of l i f e ' . The process of the text i s that of posing the question of maori c u l t u r a l i den t i t y and r e s o l v i n g i t themat ica l ly . The pro tagon is t , who i s the nar ra tor , i s problematic in Lukacs' sense of the term: "That i s to say (she) must always stand in opposi t ion to (her) s e t t i n g , to nature or society inasmuch as i t i s p r e c i s e l y (her) r e la t ionsh ip to them, 37 (her) in tegra t ion in to them, which i s the issue at hand." In Mutuwhenua, Ripeka's in tegra t ion in to the maori community as a locus of ' e s s e n t i a l ' values i s the i s s u e . The process of in tegra t ion responds to the primary question—what i s 3 8 maori ident i ty?—from which the narrat ive i s developed. The problematic aspect of maori i d e n t i t y , inasmuch as i t i s problematic because of i t s context of pakeha domination, i s presented i n the form of the p ro tagon is t ' s search. Her search leads her out of the immediate maori context as represented by the fami ly , towards pakeha ' l i f e ' ; only to f i n d herse l f back in the maori world as a way of being i n  the World. Her sense of 'maoriness' i s thus extended to a deeper l e v e l of consciousness. The search proceeds in three bas ic phases 1) the r e j e c t i o n of maor i 'ness ' on Ripeka's par t ; she choses the pakeha name Linda to i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f ; 2) the recogni t ion of maori values as an i n t e g r a l part of herse l f that cannot be re jected at w i l l but that move and speak through her , unconsciously , as i t were; 3) and the l i v e d experience of the supernatura l , which conc lus ive ly corroborates her maori i d e n t i t y . The process of the search i s e s s e n t i a l l y described wi th in a psycho log ica l dimension, as the essence of being maori i s discovered in the ' i n f e r i o r i t y ' of the protagonis t . The 'problemat ic ' nature of her search i s depicted i n what > 39 Lukacs categor izes as a 'pedagogical ' form. Her process i s one of growth and l ea rn ing ; of r e b e l l i o n against the constra ints of the maori community to acknowledgement of what i t e n t a i l s c u l t u r a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . P a t r i c i a Grace's de l ineat ion of th is search i s suffused with 'humanism', that a t t i tude which Lukacs describes as the "fundamental a t t i tude of the pedagogical novel" as i t "demands a balance between a c t i v i t y and contemplation, between wanting to mould the world and 40 being purely recept ive towards i t . " 155. Lukacs wr i tes : "The novel t e l l s of the adventure of i n f e r i o r i t y ; the content of the novel i s the story of the soul that goes to f i n d i t s e l f , that seeks adventures i n order to be proved and tested by them, and by proving i t s e l f , to 41 f i n d i t s own essence." This essence i s concret ized i n Grace's por t ra i tu re of her p ro tagon is t ' s search as 'maori ' essence, but 'maori ' only inasmuch as i t has been drawn in to question as c u l t u r a l value in the f i r s t place,- that i s , v i s - a - v i s the pakeha world, for i t i s a lso un iversa l 'human' va lue . Unl ike Ihimaera i n Tangi , Grace does not depict maori l i f e wi th in i t s own terms of re ference, but includes the pakeha terms both as part of Ripeka's struggle to r e a l i z e her own i d e n t i t y , and i n the pa r t l y symbolic pakeha-maori intermarr iage; in which, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , maori values assert themselves. There i s f i n a l l y an at t i tude of f u l l acceptance, not of the pakeha world but of the maori world. The search i s therefore not 'degraded' i n Lukacs' sense, for authentic values are found to e x i s t as the pro tagon is t ' s attempt to journey away from them s i g n i f i e s simultaneously a journeying towards them. For the protagonists of Arguedas", Grace's and Ihimaera's novels authentic values do e x i s t . The search in these novels i s not ' i r o n i c ' i n Lukacs' sense, for there i s something which i s commensurate with the inner desires and longings of 156 42 the 'heroes'. The "inner security of the epic world" . i s recuperable, although not i n i t s o r i g i n a l sense; that i s , as something immanently given and not drawn into question, but i n a perpetual struggle (of. dissonance and harmony) created by the c o n f l i c t of two cultures. This c o n f l i c t does not cease as long as the protagonist's biography (which i s also the biography of the indigenous community) continues. It i s therefore recuperable i n moments, either those which v 43 Lukacs c a l l s the " l y r i c a l moments" (the experience of . harmony of the i n d i v i d u a l soul with nature) or those moments when i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e consciousness are i n harmony and that harmony i s unthreatened by the imposed culture. In Arguedas' and Grace's novels the metaphysical "transcendental home" of Lukacs' theory of the novel i s concretized as the c u l t u r a l locus, as a set of values and r e l a t i o n s , of the indigenous c o l l e c t i v e i n the context of domination. In Mutuwhenua, the c o l l e c t i v e maori community i s not linked symbolically to the main character but 'speaks' i t s e l f through her as i t were. As she finds out during the events of the narrative, the community constitutes her essence. Her i n d i v i d u a l i t y as expressed i n her feelings and actions i s therefore constantly related to the larger c o l l e c t i v e whole. This i s the significance of her mother's words: "And we need you to be what you are and that's important. And we need you to hold on to what i s i n you" (p. 130). 157. What she re jec ts at f i r s t as p rescr ip t ions and const ra in ts (that i s , of the maori extended family) and what she wishes to exchange fo r whatever the pakeha world has t o . o f f e r , becomes increas ing ly more important to her i n t e r n a l l y , as c o n s t i t u t i v e of a s p i r i t u a l f i e l d wi th in which her act ions and decis ions are generated. The s o c i a l bonds of the maori family are ac tua l ly the t i p of an iceberg of m u l t i - l e v e l l e d ' f e e l i n g ' , the depth of which i s p r e c i s e l y what she experiences as hold ing her back in her desire "to be d i f fe rent" (p. 11) and to leave the maori family environment. Since maori s t ructures are not empty concepts but 's t ructures of f e e l i n g ' and l i v e d experience, Ripeka f inds that she cannot dispose of her 'background' at w i l l . The environment that has nurtured her i s not something imposed upon her ex te rna l l y ; but i s , as she d iscovers , an i n t e r n a l source of strength without which her l i f e would be confusion. Her desire to integrate with the pakeha i s thus thwarted not by encountering pre judice 'out there 1 (for c l e a r l y Graeme and h is f a m i l y ' s funct ion in the novel i s to show that there i s not always necessar i l y pre judice against the maori i n the pakeha wor ld) , but because her maori s e l f i s too strong to be absorbed or in tegrated . The maori bond, then, i s experienced / !. as unbreakable, for i t i s based on what i s i n t u i t i v e and l i v i n g , not on s o c i a l ru les or precepts , Grace symbolizes th is bond by Ripeka 1 s bond to her mother: 158. It was impossible even to escape on a dream. My mother knew every thought I had as though i t were her own. It was as though the o r i g i n a l u m b i l i c a l cord had been replaced by one less v i s i b l e , and I say ' l e s s v i s i b l e ' because there were times when I thought I could see th is one qui te p l a i n l y . And through th is new one pu lsed , not b lood, but every thought I had ever had, every emotion I had f e l t . . . .1 could s i t in my very own tree under i t s quiet green covers , where I alone could reach out and press a sof t purple berry or thread on to a grass s ta lk the secret white f lowers , then afterwards go ins ide to f i n d her with f ingers already s ta ined , wearing about her neck a c i r c l e t c lumsi ly knotted, matching my own (p. 48). Ripeka's search, as cent ra l to the narrat ive s t ruc tu re , i s both i n d i v i d u a l and general in Lukacs' sense. The ... i n d i v i d u a l c o n f l i c t at the centre of which i s the issue of maori i d e n t i t y i s homologous to her search for an integrated s e l f or for ind iv idua t ion on a un ive rsa l l y 'human' l e v e l . The s t o r y , t h e n , i s constructed of memories of events that lead up to the maori-pakeha marriage and of events successive to the marriage which lead to the conclusion that her son must be brought up by the maori fami ly . Her des i re to be ' d i f f e r e n t ' i s at the base of her marriage with a pakeha, fo r she cannot be the ' t o t a l ' maori as represented by Toki i n the n o v e l , whose "soul i s dark glowing black" and "who has never once erred" (p. 152). On the l e v e l of s t o r y - l i n e the c o n f l i c t i s resolved p a r t l y through Graeme's capacity fo r love and to le rance , and the love and tolerance of her family towards him. On the 159 . l e v e l of discourse, the pro-maori discourse i s materialized i n the text i n language and s t y l e , image and symbol; and i n the symbolic, mythological dream journey contained within the larger journey towards i d e n t i t y . Insofar as language i s concerned, Grace uses maori to a small extent throughout the narrative. The indigenous names fo r plants and sea food appear i n the text together with words of r e l a t i v e l y common usage such as kai (food), moko (tattoo) , tapu (sacred) and kuia, (old woman) . These words are used i n the o r i g i n a l language because they carry with them connotations of the maori 'essence' of the things denoted. Thus kai i s d i s t i n c t from 'food' i n that i t denotes s p e c i f i c a l l y maori food as well as a whole r i t u a l of partaking of food and i t s gathering or procuring. Thus, for example, during her f i r s t journey away from home, i l l - a t - e a s t i n a pakeha restaurant eating pakeha food, Ripeka v i s u a l i z e s the food at home: Tonight they'd be having boiled mutton and cabbage, and there'd be a dish of fish-heads b o i l e d white. The whole place would stink to high heaven. Well. Rough sort of kai that anyway. (p. 38)'.'. The description continues with the evocation of the jokes and laughter of her family at mealtime, setting up a clear contrast between the maori r e l a t i o n to food and t h e i r communal gesture of eating as against the more formal manner of the pakeha. 160. On thi s f i r s t journey from her fa m i l i a r home, Ripeka dreads each mealtime, "choking down unwanted food" (p. 42). This "unwanted food" i n the novel's contexture, becomes symbolic of that which i s opposite to k a i , kai as index of that which nourishes not only the body but the s p i r i t ; that i s , as index of her culture as a whole. The episode i n the pakeha restuarant has i t s counterpart i n the partaking of food during the f i s h i n g expedition at Rakaunui, when, afte r gathering kina (sea urchins) , her uncle parodies the pakeha ( i . e . , fancy), way of eating this t y p i c a l l y maori k a i . The word k a i , then, i n the novel's contexture, brings f o r t h a whole set of values which points to a difference between maori and pakeha worlds. Words then do not simply denote objects or people but relat i o n s h i p s . Thus kuia denotes not only an old woman, i t s l i t e r a l meaning, but the terms of respect that the maori att r i b u t e to old women; that i s , a relationship which i s part of a system of rel a t i o n s h i p s . This term gains s i g n i f i -cance i n the narrative by the presence of Nanny Ripeka who as grandmother i s greatly respected by the family. The maori words are not inte r j e c t e d into the English language text to remind the reader that the r e a l i t y described i s maori (Ihimaera); but are used i n a context that c l e a r l y shows that t h e i r English equivalents cannot transmit t h e i r 'maori' sense. In this sense i t i s only the use of these words wi th in the larger context of what can be described as a 'maori d iscourse ' that makes1 them v a l i d bearers of meaning. The main funct ion of the use of the maori words and t h e i r connotations i s to demonstrate areas of ' d i f f e r e n c e ' between maori and pakeha ways of perce iv ing and responding to r e a l i t y , In other words, i f the maori appears to be 'pakehaf ied' and therefore absorbed in to the world of the dominant c u l t u r e , th is i s only a surface phenomenon. The d i f ference manifests i t s e l f a lso on the l e v e l of speech. The Engl ish spoken by the maori as rendered by Grace i s d i s t i n c t i v e from pake ha-spoken E n g l i s h : "Your unc le 's he 's hard i n the head," (p. 52). "Those h i l l s , there are tapu places in them. . . . A l l that part you can see, where the bush covers , s t a r t i n g from you grandmother's p l a c e , then back and down th is way to the creek. . . .That 's where we bur ied i t . That thing you found when you were c h i l d r e n . (p. 57). My garden been good to me too , Ripeka. My potatoes, my tomatoes a l l good and some of my corn ready. My kumara growing, a l l the vines spreading out and growing good. Cp. 71). The cadence and syntax of maori speech i s fur ther r e f l e c t e d in Grace's s t y l e of w r i t i n g i t s e l f which r e l i e s heavi ly on incomplete sentences, g iv ing a l y r i c tone and rhythm to the n a r r a t i v e : Thinking of the other p l a c e , with, i t s crabbed rocks and ensnared bowls of sky, and i t s presence of s p i r i t s . Where your tread i s no more than a shadow, your plunging no more than a r i p p l e . Cp, 109). 162, Her use of the l y r i c or p o e t i c aspect of language has s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s . On one hand the g o a l of p o e t i c language i n g e n e r a l i s a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t and i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h t h i s i s 44 i t s f u n c t i o n t o c r e a t e "suprapersonal and l a s t i n g v a l u e s " . I t i s i n t h i s double f u n c t i o n t h a t p o e t i c language i s d i s t i n c t from what Mukarovsky c a l l s 'emotional' langue, which "tends, i n i t s essence, toward e x p r e s s i o n of emotion which i s most immediate and which i s t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d i n i t s v a l i d i t y t o 45 the unique p s y c h i c s t a t e of the speaking i n d i v i d u a l . " The emotive f u n c t i o n of language i s not absent but combined by Grace with the a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n of p o e t i c language t o achieve on the l e v e l of s t y l e a s y n t h e s i s of the i n d i v i d u a l and the g e n e r a l . Thus the reader i s co n f r o n t e d on one hand by a constant e v o c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g , and on the other hand by an e q u a l l y constant e v o c a t i o n of u n i v e r s a l i z e d human f e e l i n g . Grace's l y r i c e x p r e s s i o n f u r t h e r enhances the sense of un c o n c e p t u a l i z e d f e e l i n g s and emotions t h a t t h r e a d together maori l i f e which c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the p r e v i o u s l y - q u o t e d conception of maoritanga as "a t h i n g of the h e a r t r a t h e r than the head. . .For t h a t reason a n a l y s i s i s necessary only t o : make e x p l i c i t what the Maori understands i m p l i c i t l y i n h i s 46 d a i l y l i v i n g , f e e l i n g , a c t i n g and d e c i d i n g . " For Lukacs: ". . .the t o t a l i t y of r e a l i t y can only be apprehended, very n e a r l y approximately, i f the o b j e c t i v e d i a l e c t i c o f the phenomenon and the essence, as w e l l as the 163. drive towards the essence, are conceived as being inseparably joined." The p e c u l i a r i t y of poetry i s that "the subjective d i a l e c t i c of the drive towards the essence absorbs the objective d i a l e c t i c of phenomenon and essence", whereas i n prose and drama, s t r i c t l y speaking, "the position i s 47 reversed". Bearing this useful d i s t i n c t i o n i n mind, i t can be seen how the use of poetic expression i n Grace (and Arguedas) functions to l i n g u i s t i c a l l y correlate the personal biographic journey towards 'essence' (which i s concretized as 'indigenous' value postulated as a human universal p o s s i b i l i t y ) . The l y r i c a l further functions to draw together on a l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l the sense of a strong nature-man bond, which i n Grace (and Arguedas) serves to underly also man's rela t i o n s to man. The description of Nanny Ripeka i s a clear example: "an old woman who was the h i l l and the creek running through", (p. 152). Also the use of l y r i c i s m as a ch a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of the chosen form of expression i n Grace, Ihimaera and Arguedas draws t h e i r work close to the indigenous forms of o r a l l i t e r a t u r e : spoken poetry, incantation, song. The maori discourse i s embedded further i n Grace's use of a set of images and symbols which forms the i n t e r n a l organization of the narrative. The images of the trees growing i n front of the house and of the greenstone i n the 16 4, g u l l y coa lesce , by means of the i r recurrence in the n a r r a t i v e , in to powerful symbols of the meaning of maoritanga as a system of r e l a t i o n s — r e l a t i o n s to land, s o c i a l and family r e l a t i o n s , r e l a t i o n s to the supernatural . The three t r e e s , the macrocarpa, t i kouka and hga lo , and t h e i r pos i t ions r e l a t i v e to each other represent d i f f e ren t family members. It i s not each i n d i v i d u a l tree which i s important but the i r symbolic and actual r e l a t i o n to each other: The macrocarpa was c a l l e d Papa Rakau because i t was the b ig o ld one, fa ther of the others . . . .(.p. 10). . . .without i t s strength against the wind that l i c k s through the gu l ly there, the others—the t i kouka and the one that gave me that name--would not have taken root and f l o u r i s h e d . (p. 10). When Ripeka no longer reaches up to grasp the Leaping Branch of the Macrocarpa, her den ia l of that gesture symbol-izes her den ia l of her own 'background' . Her l i f e which in i t s contrad ic t ions turns out not to be a l l that easy, f inds symbolic c o r r e l a t i o n in the p h y s i c a l aspect of the ngaio t ree : . . .the pained twis t ing of i t s limbs and the scar r ing on the patterned s k i n , but even so i t i s a quiet t ree . (p. 1). The same c o r r e l a t i o n i s found between the t i kouka, which was planted when her father was a boy, and her fa ther : v. The t i kouka i s a tree with nothing hidden. . . . my father i s a man with nothing hidden. (p. 16). 165. The narrative opens with the description of the trees and closes with the symbolic planting of a second t l kouka, to represent the newly-born son who i s to take the place of Ripeka's father: I went to plant a tree, a t i kouka, beside the other one, and sheltered from the sun's f e r o c i t y by the old one that stood behind, guarded by the one that stood before. I kept the s o i l firm and wet about the roots as I knew she would continue to do a f t e r I'd gone. She would care also for the boy I'd gently weaned and given to her. Cp. 152) . This passage d i r e c t l y correlates with the following reference to the genealogical family tree, which i s also the 'tree of l i f e ' : I began to r e c i t e the old names to her. . . . It was strange to hear these old things on the new voice, my voice that had never sounded them before. And i f I f a l t e r e d here and there my father and uncle joined i n with me, u n t i l I stopped. 'But that's only the trunk of the tree', I said, 'the length. . . .Now these are the branches that spread everywhere, and I continued the r e c i t a t i o n , l i n k i n g every name u n t i l there were no more. 'And every branch reaches out,' I said. 'Touches every other'. Cp. 101). The tree i s used as a metaphor to express the union and relationships of the maori extended family. The s o i l that nourishes the tree i s the maori culture. Thus the image of the tree i s also used to describe a possible, disjunction i n s p i r i t u a l depth of a maori-pakeha union; 166, You think your roots are too f a r apart yours and his w i l l never touch, Cp,. .129.1. . . . i f you two f i n d you that you can ever touch i n the deep things of the s p i r i t because of what you have deep i n you then you w i l l have to come back to us. (p. 130). The image of the trees recurs throughout the text to symbolically delineate the sacred space of maoritanga wherein plant and human growth are analogous and wherein human relationships form part of a system of interdependencies with 48 each other and with nature. The greenstone which also recurs throughout the narrative denotes the s p i r i t of the culture, which i s atemporal. Found i n the creek and returned to the earth and the ancestors, i t represents the essence of the maori culture as i t was and s t i l l i s which held this stone sacred. The stone i s an aspect of the eternal to which the temporal i s subservient. Whereas the trees, l i k e the family members grow and decay i n time, the stone transcends time: The ngaio tree w i l l age and die. Or perhaps i t w i l l not age. Perhaps the wind w i l l have i t i n spite of i t s protectors. . . .But the stone with both l i f e and death upon i t has been returned to the hands of the earth, and i s safe there, i n the place where i t t r u l y belongs. (p. 9). The stone which Ripeka c a l l s "a stone to give less meaning, to simplify f e e l i n g " Cp, 3) i s the part of her "that w i l l not change" (p. 9). It i s symbolic of the maori 267, ' t reasure ' deeply embedded wi th in her . The fee l ings she harbours towards i t corroborate her i d e n t i t y : The stone and the people do not l e t me forget who I am although I have wanted to many t imes. (p. 3) . the stone was my inher i tance . (p. 121). In the nove l ' s contexture then, the stone funct ions as 49 a sacred symbol. It i s part of a c u l t u r a l code as are the s stones of the inca wal l i n Los r ios profundos.-To repeat , i n Reichel-Dolmatof f ' s. words ; These ob jec ts . . ."speak" to the beholder; they can even answer his questions and guide h is ac t ions ; they are h is memory, h is points of reference.50 The stone represents a contract between man and nature, and th is contract i n turn impl ies a code of behaviour i n the re la t ions amongst men. The c u l t u r a l message of the stone, of the tapu h i l l s and g u l l y i s one of r e c i p r o c i t y as a main code of behaviour, which points to a conception of man and nature as interdependent systems, as d i s t i n c t from the concept of nature as man's dominion, ( i . e . , over which man has dominion). Thus the funct ion of the stone i n the narrat ive i s a lso to point to a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f ference between maori and pakeha worlds. The pakeha, unable to perceive s p i r i t u a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in the stone, sees i t as a mere object of mater ia l va lue: "Must be worth a coin or two. . . .Can ' t you see? What use i s i t to anyone back there in the h i l l s . " (p. 7) . 16 8. Rec iproc i ty emerges as a major maori s t ructure of r e l a t i o n s in Mutuwhenua. Grace complements the complex of images which concret izes th is r e l a t i o n by stra ightforward exposi t ion of the concept through the comments of Ripeka, such as the fo l lowing: My ear ly days had been spent in an enclosure of people and t h e i r love , and an enclosure of land and i t s love—because 1 1ve always known that land can love i t s people and always under-stood the r e c i p r o c i t y between people and land. (p. 110). That the lack of proper respect to ear th , stone and the s p i r i t s of the dead can br ing on serious consequences i s demonstrated by the event that takes place during the Rakaunui f i s h i n g expedit ion when Ripeka's cousins profane the dead: "We bet ter sleep c lose to her ton ight . Some of the o ld Maori might come marching down the h i l l . . . . " (p. 62) . The ser ies of accidents that take place the next day confirms the fac t that one must not profane a sacred p l a c e . The day of Rakaunui i s a day when the protagonists enter the sacred space and sacred time of the i r c u l t u r e . Graeme recognizes that here i s one l e v e l of maori experience (the supernatural) which he cannot share because of i t s sacred q u a l i t y : 169 . 'And I don' t know i f i t i s i n me to be l ieve such th ings; yet who am I not to be l ieve when there are so many things not understood. I f e l t an uneasiness that was nothing to do with angered s p i r i t s . I t was a f e e l i n g that perhaps I shouldn ' t be there with you at a l l . T h a t . i t wasn't my p l a c e . I f e l t properly on the outside for the f i r s t t ime . ' (p. 76). The r e l a t i o n to the supernatura l , then, as exempli f ied both in the meaning of the greenstone and the events of the day of Rakaunui, i s what marks most d i s t i n c t i v e l y the d i f fe rence between maori and pakeha experience. The events of Rakaunui in the narrat ive lead to Ripeka's symbolic dream journey, through which Grace draws together severa l l eve ls of the maori discourse i n the tex t . In the dream journey to Reingat Grace weaves maori :. mythology d i r e c t l y in to the l i v e d experience of Ripeka's l i f e . In her dream, which comes about by her own inner c r i s i s and the presence of the s p i r i t s i n her house, Ripeka reenacts-the mythological journey of the dead to the edge of the c l i f f at Reinga, where leaping in to the sea , they enter the underworld: I must begin a long_journey in to darkness. I was at the edge of a c l i f f . Standing looking out over a washing white sea. (p. 132). And I could leap out of the l i g h t in to the burnishing sea to meet the darkness again , the darkness which was age- long, the imperishable darkness, the darkness for ever and unending. (p. 133). 170. The dream r e f l e c t s the maori b e l i e f t h a t i n dream the s o u l disengages i t s e l f from the body and v i s i t s Reinga 51 "where i t holds converse w i t h the s p i r i t s of i t s f r i e n d s . " In t h i s dream however the journey s i g n i f i e s a l s o the a c t u a l reenactment of the passage t o Reinga of the dead, f o r she i s 52 about t o leap i n t o the waters as the owl c a l l s her name. T h i s c o l l e c t i v e mythic dimension of her dream has i t s i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t i v e i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of her passage as a passage through p s y c h o l o g i c a l c r i s i s : "the dark n i g h t 5 3 of the s o u l " , a c r i s i s which p r e c i p i t a t e s a new knowledge and a r e b i r t h . The journey i s a l s o a premonition of the a c t u a l death of her f a t h e r which occurs as her c h i l d i s born: Go. Go then i n t o the n i g h t , your n i g h t t h a t i s long and ever l o n g . That i s dark beyond measure and i n t e n s e l y dark. Go i n t o t h i s your ever l o n g e s t and darkest of n i g h t s . (p. 150). T h i s dream journey, an i n n e r experience t h a t t i e s her e m o t i o n a l l y t o the maori world serves as an i n v e r s e journey to the f i r s t one, whereby the p r o t a g o n i s t attempted t o go outward—towards the pakeha world. I t r e p r e s e n t s Lukacs' p r o b l e m a t i c p r o t a g o n i s t ' s j o u r n e y i n g towards C h e r ) s e l f : "The i n n e r form of the n o v e l has been understood as the process of the p r o b l e m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l ' s j o u r n e y i n g towards 54 h i m s e l f . " In f u n c t i o n the journey i s p a r a l l e l t o Ernesto's journey to Cuzco i n Los r i o s p r o f u n d o s — b o t h l e a d i n g t o the nexus of 171. of c u l t u r e . In Arguedas' text however the cul ture has a p h y s i c a l cor re la te i n the actua l Inca c i t y , whereas i n Grace the cu l ture e x i s t s as re f lexes i n the unconscious, where images of the supernatural dimensions of maori cul ture have an uneasy presence. S t r u c t u r a l l y , i n Mutuwhenua, th is inner journey funct ions to coalesce the r e s o l u t i o n to the iden t i ty problem which has i n i t i a t e d the narra t ive process . This reso lu t ion as depicted in the narrat ive corresponds with the maori myth of c r e a t i o n : " . . .through the night of unseeing, the night of hes i tant exp lo ra t ion , the night of bold groping, night i n c l i n e d 55 towards the day and emergence in to the broad l i g h t of day." Fol lowing her dream-journey in to darkness, Ripeka i s able to communicate her supernatural experience to Graeme, on whom the house as tapu space has had no e f f e c t . Now the darkness of unending n igh t , of death, i s transformed in to a "warm blanket of night which would eventual ly peel i t s e l f back on breathing d a y l i g h t . " (p. 137). Ripeka, l i k e the moon of Mutuwhenua, which gives the novel i t s t i t l e , goes underground only to r i s e again . The r e s o l u t i o n of her own personal c r i s i s leads a lso to her dec is ion of g iv ing her son to her fami ly , whereby she resolves the death of her father by al lowing her son to grow i n h is p l a c e . Thus a symbolic p lant ing takes p lace : "I went to plant a t r e e , a t l kouka" (p. 152). 172 . The pattern of death-b i r th i s one of cont inu i ty—both on the l e v e l of the family and on the l e v e l of maori cu l ture which i s symbolized by the ' s tone ' now inher i ted by Ripeka's c h i l d as a source of inner strength and i d e n t i t y . This pattern i s fur ther symbolized i n the narrat ive by the phases 5 6 of the moon: the br ight f u l l moon of Rakaunui and the dark moon of Mutuwhenua. The days of Rakaunui, during the f i s h i n g expedit ion and Easter , are days of harmony and ' te manaaki' when Graeme i s accepted in to the maori fami ly . Mutuwhenua appears i n the centre of the text as symbolic of the darkness of Ripeka's confusion: There was no l i g h t at a l l , i t being the night of Mutuwhenua, when the moon i s hidden, when the moon goes underground to s leep . And in the darkness my thoughts were a confus ion, th ink ing of what the o ld lady had s a i d to me, th ink ing of my father and of what the past had given me and of what the future h e l d . (p. 75) . At the end when her c r i s i s i s overcome, Mutuwhenua i s symbolic of the pur i ty of the darkness of the maori: Whose soul i s dark glowing b lack . S ta in less and s h i n i n g , and as pure as the night of Mutuwhenua when the moon goes underground ^ to s leep . (p. 152). The descr ip t ion of T o k i ' s sou l gains meaning through the word 'maori ' i t s e l f , the root of which, u r i , i n i t s more ancient form mauri , means dark. "Mauri i s the hear t , the 57 dark b lood . . . . " The passage in to darkness (the dream journey) with i t s symbolic r e l a t i o n to the night of 173. Mutuwhenua i s the passage in to the heart of maori cul ture in i t s most awesome aspect , i n i t s purest mythological context . Grace ends the narrat ive with the memory of Rakaunui and i t s connotation of mutual respect between the two cul tures and the " l i g h t of understanding", and with a b r i e f a l l u s i o n to the myth of Rona, which supports the message of respect . Rona who because of lack of respect fo r the moon, was pu l led from earth to stay f i xed on i t s surface i s c l e a r l y v i s i b l e at the time of Rakaunui, reminding the viewers of the necessi ty fo r respect . In her reso lu t ion to the search that makes up the st ructure of the tex t , Grace shows that maori i d e n t i t y i s based on f e e l i n g and i n t u i t i o n stronger than w i l l or reason. As a ' s t ruc ture of f e e l i n g ' , maoritanga i s based on respect for nature and fami ly , dead and l i v i n g , the "commitment between earth and people" between "sky and earth" (p. 137). The ' ideology of the tex t ' ( in Eagleton 's terms) i s humanistic and r e l i g i o u s ; the l a t t e r not in a dogmatic sense but i n the sense of the expression of love , which as the cor re la te to respect in the maori s t ructure of r e l a t i o n s h i p s , i s a un i fy ing and harmonizing p r i n c i p l e (_cf. ind ian ternura in Arguedas). Love, which passes understanding (the message of Graeme), i s a lso seen as the bridge between pakeha and maori . This l a t t e r message however i s weakened by the por t ra i tu re of i t s bearer in the text . Being a passive 174. c h a r a c t e r , r e f l e c t e d i n the n a r r a t i v e only through Ripeka's l o v e , h i s t o t a l r e c e p t i v i t y t o her maori values i s d e p i c t e d without ' h i s t o r y ' , without context. There i s a r e l u c t a n c e on p a r t of the author t o make any c r i t i c i s m , e x p l i c i t or i m p l i c i t , of the pakeha, which ma n i f e s t s i t s e l f both i n the i d e a l i z e d p o r t r a i t of Graeme (who as i d e a l pakeha has h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n the i d e a l maori, T o k i ) , and i n the gaps and s i l e n c e s i n the t e x t . There i s , f o r example, no reason g i v e n f o r Ripeka's v i o l a t e d f e e l i n g s caused by her sense of ' d i f f e r e n c e ' d u r i n g the s c h o o l c o n c e r t , except t h a t she a s p i r e s t o the world of her f r i e n d Margaret, who i s v i s u a l i z e d i n the image of 'gold'-—"her g o l d h a i r f a l l i n g s o f t l y on to her s h o u l d e r s . And g o l d sounds d r i f t i n g and swooping and l i f t i n g from under her bowing hand" (p. 13). T h i s image of the pakeha g i r l s e t s up an unbearable c o n t r a s t f o r Ripeka i n her maori c l o t h i n g "with the dark swampish s t a i n s " (p. 13). Why does she see her s c h o o l companion i n the l i g h t of a 'golden' s u p e r i o r i t y ? The meaning behind her sense of r e v o l t a g a i n s t her 'maorihood', i s not questioned; The t e x t remains s i l e n t as to'the reason behind the pat answer given by her f a t h e r as e x p l a n a t i o n f o r her a t t r a c t i o n t o the pakeha world: "Every Maori goes Pakehafied once i n h i s l i f e " (p. 26). As a l r e a d y mentioned i n r e l a t i o n t o Ihimaera, a c c o r d i n g t o E a g l e t o n "every t e x t can be seen as a ^problem' t o which 175 . a ' s o l u t i o n ' i s to be found, and the process of the text i s the process of prob lem-soly ing ." The problem i s set up at the outset i n such a way as to provide the po ten t i a l r e s o l u t i o n . The mater ia ls the text takes (or does not take, for that matter) are thus 's tacked ' towards a reso lu t ion on the l e v e l of form, that i s , an i d e o l o g i c a l l y coherent r e s o l u t i o n . For i d e o l o g i c a l reasons, Grace describes the causes of Ripeka's i n i t i a l discomfort i n her maori world as p s y c h o l o g i c a l ; that i s , the psycho log ica l react ion to "being d i f f e ren t " from others as part of the process of growing up i n genera l , rather than i d e n t i f y i n g the necessi ty of her search as s o c i a l cause. C lea r ly her in ten t ion i s to show the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s which draw together 'maorihood' without indictment of the pakeha wor ld , the presence of which i n the f i r s t instance has created the necessi ty to evaluate or redef ine maori i d e n t i t y . This i s where the inner i d e o l o g i c a l cont rad ic t ion of the text l i e s . This absence or gap at the outset of the s ta t ing of the problem determines the reso lu t ion i n a d i r e c t i o n where i t i s not necessary to c r i t i c i z e the pakeha. This i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the c r i t i c i s m of the maori father as r a c i s t because of h is i n i t i a l anti-pakeha f e e l i n g s , and i n the words of the grandmother who lamenting the loss of maori blood ("you're g iv ing our blood away" ( p. 74 ), confirms her 176.. acceptance of the useful things the: pakeha world has brought: I don^t hate. I l i k e the Pakeha and a l l these things he made. My warm house, my warm bed, my old stove, a fridge for my ka i , a radio for my ears, and new eyes to help my old eyes see better, and Pakeha things to help my garden grow, and a l l sorts of flowers for me to look at, and to take to my family buried over there. I don't hate. (pp. 73,74). Also on the l e v e l of pl o t , the 'maori' problems are resolved i n too pat a way at the end. Toki "who has never erred" plans to l i v e with the grandmother upon, his marriage with a woman who i s maori (implicitly).; Hemi and his pakeha wife Pam w i l l leave the c i t y and l i v e and work on th e i r uncle's land; and Ripeka'a son w i l l be raised i n the maori family. On the l e v e l of s t y l e , the l y r i c i s m which, as already mentioned, i s appropriate i n some aspects to the production of pro-indigenous discourse, also has the function of allowing, through i t s high propensity towards indirectness, an obscuring rather than a c l a r i f y i n g of issues at the base of which i s i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t . Thus, for example, i n the episode dealing with the breaking of Ripeka's friendship with her pakeha school fr i e n d the cause i s v e i l e d by the l y r i c and impressionistic rendering of the reminiscences revolving around the issue of t h e i r 'difference'. 176a. Leaf 177 missed in numbering 178. The message given at the end of the t e x t i s t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e f i r s t e x perienced by Ripeka and her s c h o o l f r i e n d and l a t e r on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l w i t h Graeme, although c u l t u r a l l y insurmountable, i s surmountable through l o v e . The r e s o l u t i o n i s thus p l a c e d w i t h i n the realm of the 'mystery' of l o v e . The t e x t i s c l e a r l y meant to p l e a s e both maori and pakeha. In i t s r e s o l u t i o n of Ripeka's i n n e r c o n f l i c t the very h i s t o r y of o p p r e s s i o n t h a t gave r i s e t o the c o n f l i c t i n the f i r s t p l a c e i s r e p r e s s e d . Grace proposes t h a t maori c u l t u r e i s s t i l l a l i v e and has an e x i s t e n c e and meaning of i t s own which, must not be neglected". Thereby she negates the pakeha i d e o l o g y of t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . However the s i l e n c e s i n the t e x t and the c h o i c e of a romantic love s t o r y as b a s i s of a maori-pakeha union d e p i c t e d i n l y r i c a l terms, make the pro-indigenous i d e o l o g y produced i n the t e x t h i g h l y subsumable by the dominant i d e o l o g y i f not an a c t u a l f a c e t of i t . The ' h i s t o r i c ' value of the t e x t l i e s i n i t s a e s t h e t i c d e l i n e a t i o n of maoritanga ; which, together w i t h Ihimaera's r e n d e r i n g of the same, c o n s t i t u t e s an indigenous viewpoint p r e v i o u s l y absent i n New Zealand w r i t t e n l i t e r a t u r e ; and the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n of the t e x t , which moves the p r o b l e m a t i c aspects of the i s s u e of maori i d e n t i t y t o a l e v e l not c o n s c i o u s l y intended by the author, i s p a r t of t h a t 'value'. 179. To use a maori metaphor, both Grace's and Ihimaera's cont r ibut ion to a 'maori ' d e f i n i t i o n of maori i d e n t i t y or maoritanga represents the w i l l to "nourish the roots of the 59 tree so long neglected" . 180 . CHAPTER V. FOOTNOTES. A ' pakeha ' i s a maori term commonly: used i n New Zealand to denote white or European people. L i t e r a l l y i t means ' f o r e i g n e r 1 . The Maori -Polynesian Comparative D ic t ionary , ed. Edward Tregear, (Well ington: Lyon & B l a i r , 1891). 2 Michael K ing , " Introduct ion" , Te AO H u r i h u r i , ed. M. K ing , (NZ: H icks , Smith & Sons, 1975), p. 18. 3 See Raymond Wi l l i ams, Marxism and L i t e r a t u r e , (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press 1978), p. 128 f f . "Structures of f e e l i n g " re fe r to s o c i a l experience i n process . According to Eagleton 's summary of Wi l l iams' argument the term re fers to "a set of received ways of perce iv ing and responding to r e a l i t y . " Marxism and L i te ra ry C r i t i c i s m , (Berkeley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press , 1976), p. 25. 4 Paulo F r e i r e , C u l t u r a l Act ion for Freedom, (Gr. B r i t : Penguin, 1974), p. 51. 5 See B i l l Pearson, F r e t f u l Sleepers and other Essays , (Auckland: Heinemann, 1974), p. 118. " . . .many teachers implemented o f f i c i a l p o l i c y by strapping ch i ld ren i f they spoke Maori . . . . u n t i l some r e l i a b l e research i s done, no one can accurately say how wide ly , or by what age-groups, Maori i s spoken." Te Kapunga Dewes, "The Case f o r Oral A r t s " , Te Ao  H u r i h u r i , ed . M. K ing , (N .S . : H icks , Smith & Sons, 1975), pp. 59,60. Dewes wr i tes : "Schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s are challenged to resur rec t the mauri and wairua (Maori l i f e , soul and sacred s p i r i t ) and consciously develop an ideology, (Maoritanga or mauri Maori) because most other nations and t h e i r c u l t u r a l groups have developed and continue to develop the i r own ideologies i n unique ways. A Maori ideology (mauri Maori) i s necessary because our kind of welfare state i s no guarantee for the s u r v i v a l of a Maori c u l t u r a l her i tage ." Other conceptions of 'maoritanga' as expressed i n the Te Ao  Hur ihur i c o l l e c t i o n of essays are as fo l lows: "Maoritanga cons is ts of an acknowledgement and pr ide i n one's i d e n t i t y as a Maor i . While Maoritanga has a phys ica l base in ethnic i d e n t i t y , i t a lso has a s p i r i t u a l and emotional base derived from the ancest ra l cul ture of the Maor i . " Ranginui Walker, "Marae: A Place to Stand", p. 32. 181, ". . .maoritanga i s not something homogenous. . , <I have come to believe not so much i n maoritanga (possibly a European concept) as i n 'Tuhoetanga', 'Waikatotanga', 'Ngati Poroutanga', and so on. Regional and t r i b a l v ariations i n history, kawa and d i a l e c t are considerable and should be preserved." Michael King, "Introduction", p. 18. "I can't go round saying because I'm a Maori that Maoritanga means this and a l l Maoris have to follow me. . .1 have a f a i n t suspicion that Maoritanga i s a term coined by the Pakeha to bring the tribes together. Because i f you cannot divide and r u l e , then for t r i b a l people a l l you can do i s unite them and r u l e . Because then they lose everything by losing t h e i r own t r i b a l h i s t o r i e s and t r a d i t i o n s that give them t h e i r i d e n t i t y " John Rangihau, "Being Maori", p. 233. "Maoritanga i s a thing of the heart rather than the head. For that reason analysis i s necessary only to make e x p l i c i t what the Maori understands i m p l i c i t l y i n his daily l i v i n g , f e e l i n g , acting and deciding." Maori Marsden, "God, Man and Universe: A Maori View", p. 191. 7 Ibid., p. 57. g Ken Arvidson, "The Emergence of a Polynesian Lite r a t u r e " , World Literature Written i n English, Vol. 14, No. 1, (April 1975), p. 94. Michael King i n "Introduction", Te Ao Hurihuri, makes the same point: "The p o l i c i e s of. . .successive New Zealand governments set-out to assimilate Maori culture into a transplanted European one. The p o l i c i e s f a i l e d . Something loosely referred to as Maoritanga—expression of a f e e l i n g of Maori i d e n t i t y survived. . . ." (p. 13). B i l l Pearson, "The Maori and Literature" i n The Maori People  in the Nineteen-Sixties, ed. E. Schwimmer, (London: C. Hurst, 1968), writes: "I t i s a recurrent Pakeha prediction—made once again as I write by the Prime Minister of NZ—that the Maori w i l l be absorbed, giving to future New Zealanders a pigmentation no darker than a summer tan" p. 225. 9 Witi Ihimaera, Whanau, (Auckland: Heinemann, 1974), p. 16-. ^ ^Dewe s , op cit-; -y- p. 66. Ibid., p. 59. 182. 12 P a t r i c i a Grace's character, Ripeka, i n Mutuwhenua responds with wry humour to the pakeha stereotyping of the maori: "In the books I'd read there was only one thing that ever happened to us g i r l s . We didn't become famous or have int e r e s t i n g and ordinary l i v e s . We either got ourselves into what i s known as 'trouble' or we lay about giving some, bloke hot sex. And that was a l l . Nothing else. Except sometimes we did r i d i c u l o u s things i n Pakeha kitchens, l i k e ringing the fire-alarm instead of the dinner gong because we did not know the difference. And sometimes we were given the romantic treatment. Soft brown eyes, soft mellow v o i c e — l i k e soft i n the eyes, soft i n the voice, soft i n the head. No one ever had speckled eyes l i k e me. . . .Or sang f l a t , bathed once a day, and wouldn't touch beer." p. 45. 13 B i l l Pearson, "The Maori and Lite r a t u r e " , The Maori  People i n the Nineteen-Sixties, ed. E. Schwimmer, (London: C. Hurst, 1968), pp. 217 f f . In his c r i t i c a l evaluation of pakeha writers who have written of maori people, Pearson l i s t s among such writers: Roderick Finlayson, John Mulgan, Hamilton Grieve, Dulce Carman, Sylvia Ashton-Warner, Maurice Duggan, Douglas Stewart, Maurice Shadbolt, Noel H i l l i a r d , Enid Tapsell. 14 Arvidson, op. c i t . , p. 109. Arvidson writes: "Ihimaera frankly acknowledges that he was provoked into writing by the c r i t i c a l essays of B i l l Pearson, deploring the absence as late as 19 69 of Maori novelists and playwrights." Ihimaera i n "Te Taha Maori (the Maori side) belongs to us a l l . . .", New Zealand Book World, No. 2, July 1973, p. 4, writes: "Up to the time of B i l l Pearson's report, there existed i n book form only Reweti Kohere's autobiography (19 51) and Hone Tuwhare's verse c o l l e c t i o n No Ordinary Sun." 3 5 . Witi Ihimaera, "Why I Write", World Literature Written i n English, Vol. 14, No. 1, (April 1975), p. 117. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 118. 17 Ibid., p. 117. Ibid. 19 Ihimaera, "An Interview with Witi Ihimaera", World Literature Written i n English, Vol. 16, No. 1, (April 1977), __ _ _ 183. 20 See Ihimaera, "Why I Wri te" , World L i te ra tu re Written  in E n g l i s h , V o l . 14, No. 1, and "An Interview with Wi t i Ihimaera", World L i t e ra tu re Writ ten in E n g l i s h , V o l . 16 . , No. 1 21 Wi t i Ihimaera, "An Interview with Wit i Ihimaera", p. 118. 22 Maori Marsden, "God, Man and Universe: A Maori View", Te Ao H u r i h u r i , p. 191. 23 Ihimaera, "Te Taha Maor i" , New Zealand Book World, No. 2, (July 1973), p. 3. 24 Ihimaera, "An Interview. . . " , p. 120. 25 See a lso Chris T i f f i n , "Mates, Mum and Maui: The Theme of Maturi ty in Three Antipodean Novels" , Awakened Conscience, ed. C D . Narasimhaiah, (New D e l h i : S t e r l i n g Pub. , 1978) , p. 133 f f . 2 6 Terry Eagleton, C r i t i c i s m and Ideology, (London:.NLB, 1978), pp. 87, 88. 27 Ihimaera, The New Net Goes F i s h i n g , (Auckland: Heinemann, 19 77), p. 33. 28 See In t roduct ion, p. 6. 29 Ihimaera, "An Interview. . . " , p. 119. 30 T, . , I b id . 31 See footnote 29. 3 2 I h i m a e r a , "Why I Wr i te" , p. 118. 33 Norman Simms, "Maori L i te ra tu re in E n g l i s h " , World  L i te ra ture Today, V o l . 52, (1978), p. 223. 3 4 T , . , I b i d . 35 This dilemma i s a lso discussed by N ige l Krauth as mentioned in r e l a t i o n to Vincent E r i i n " P o l i t i c s and Ident i ty in Papua New Guinean L i t e r a t u r e . " 3 6 Te Kapunga Dewes, op. c i t . , p. 56. 37 F r e d r i c Jameson, Marxism and Form, (Pr inceton: Pr inceton Univ. P r e s s , 1971), p. 172. 184, 3 8 Ibid., Jameson writes: "Each novel i s a process i n which we witness the very invention of those problems whose solution i s i t s story." 39 Lukacs, The Theory of the Novel, (Cambridge: MIT, 1971), p. 132 f f . 4 (^Ibid. , p. 135. 4 1 I b i d . , p. 89. 42 Ibid. 43 Ibid., p. 63 . 44 Jan Mukarovsky, On Poetic Language, trans. J. Burbank & P. Steiner, (Lisse: Peter de Ridder, 1976), pp. 8, 9. 45 Ibid., p. 8 . 46 Marsden, op. c i t . , p.. .191:. ,. 4^Istvan Eorsi quotes Lukacs i n "Lukacs and the Theory of L y r i c Poetry", Hungarian Quarterly, Vol VI, No. 18, (Summer 19 6 5), p. 35. 48 Marsden, op. c i t . , p. 216. 49 C l i f f o r d Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures, NY: Basic Books, 1973), p. 89, writes: ". . .sacred symbols function to synthesize a people's ethos--the tone, character, and qua l i t y of t h e i r l i f e , i t s moral and aesthetic s t y l e and mood--and t h e i r world-view— the picture they have of the way things i n sheer a c t u a l i t y are, t h e i r most comprehensive ideas of order." 50 o ' See p. 71. 51 Richard Taylor, Te Ika A Maui (London: Wertheim & Macintosh, 1855) , p. 160'. 52 The b e l i e f that an owl c a l l i n g one's name s i g n i f i e s death i s widespread among indian populations. Cf.'Margaret Craven, The Owl Called My Name, a novel set i n an Indian community of the B.C. Coast. 53 Joseph Campbell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces, (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1968), p. 271. 54 v Lukacs, op. c i t . , p. 80. 55 Marsden, op; c i t . , p. 216. 185, Taylor points out the importance of the moon's phases to the maori before westernizat ion in Te Ika iA Maui, p. 176, "The New Zealanders, i n former t imes, had no names for the d i f f e r e n t days, but only fo r the n igh ts ; fo r i t was by moons they counted time. . . .They have. . .names for the d i f f e r e n t nights of the moon. . .(and) the year i s counted by moons." 5 7 I b i d . , p. 160. 5 8 Eagle ton, op. c i t . , pp. 87,88. Ihimaera, "Te Taha Maori (the Maori side) belongs to us a l l . . . " , New Zealand Book World, No. 2, (July 1973)., p. 5. 186. CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION. The t e x t s d i s c u s s e d are l i n k e d by t h e i r g o a l , which i s to g i v e l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n t o the indigenous c u l t u r e . The purpose of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s t o respond d i r e c t l y (by means of summarizing and comparing) t o the s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n (p. 18) wit h regard t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of g i v i n g 'voice' t o the indigenous i n a context of c u l t u r a l o p p r e s s i o n ; and t o e l a b o r a t e on the i s s u e o f i d e o l o g y as i n t r o d u c e d i n the f i r s t chapter i n terms of the p e r s p e c t i v e s of the ' s o c i o l o g i c a l ' c r i t i c s d i s c u s s e d . One of the qu e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n p e r t a i n s to the i n d i v i d u a l authors' d e l i n e a t i o n s of the oppressor/ oppressed c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n the context of the c o n f l i c t i n g dominating and indigenous c u l t u r e s . In Los r i o s profundos and The C r o c o d i l e the contours of t h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n are given e x p l i c i t shape. The n a r r a t i v e a c t i o n r e v o l v e s around p r a c t i c a l and d a i l y consequences of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n . In Mutuwhenua and Tangi the c o n t r a d i c t i o n , t h a t i s i n the c u l t u r a l sense, forms the e x t r a - t e x t u a l base which impels the authors to seek t o r e t r i e v e i n v a r y i n g degree the sense of a 'maori' c u l t u r e as a l i v i n g ensemble of human r e l a t i o n s and an a c t i v e w o r l d - p e r s p e c t i v e , d i s t i n c t and apart from the s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of the dominant c u l t u r e . 187. In Grace's and Ihimaera's t e x t s , then, the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s p r e s e n t i n terms of a d e p i c t i o n of i t s consequences, which i n a broad sense n e c e s s i t a t e the c i r c u m s c r i b i n g of a maori i d e n t i t y , whereas i n Arguedas' and E r i ' s t e x t s the a c t u a l mechanisms of the r e l a t i o n s of oppression are d e s c r i b e d through the c h a r a c t e r s and t h e i r ' s i t u a t i o n s ' i n the n a r r a t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g comparison of the t e x t s d e a l i n g w i t h both ' d i f f e r e n c e s ' and ' s i m i l a r i t i e s ' does not concern i t s e l f d i r e c t l y w i t h the b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e e v o l v i n g from the d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l context of each t e x t . The comparison focuses on the authors' r e l a t i o n s t o t h e i r m a t e r i a l and the a e s t h e t i c consequences t h e r e o f . I n s o f a r as Arguedas and E r i are concerned, there i s a b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r approaches t o the oppressor/ oppressed c o n t r a d i c t i o n . Arguedas c o n s t r u c t s a f i e l d of images which p o i n t s c l e a r l y and unambiguously t o the o ppression and s o c i a l misery of the i n d i a n colonos and the pongo. The i n n e r c o n s i s t e n c y or harmony of the n o v e l i s c o a l e s c e d p r e c i s e l y through and w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d of images. Thus, f o r example, i n the chapter Los v i a j e s , a chapter which i n terms of n a r r a t i v e events appears t o be athwart the a c t i o n of the r e s t of the n o v e l , images of o p p r e s s i o n are d i f f u s e d which s e t o f f a s e r i e s of echoes and resonances throughout the t e x t . T h i s chapter f u r t h e r s e t s a tone and d e l i n e a t e s a sphere of emotion w i t h i n which the p r o b l e m a t i c of oppression i s s i t u a t e d . 188, The episodes of the parrots, for example, who, shot at and k i l l e d , do not f l e e from t h e i r aggressors, and of the birds that are k i l l e d c r u e l l y and s a d i s t i c a l l y by children are linked to the b r u t a l i z a t i o n of the cedron tree, which i s i m p l i c i t l y analogous to the pongo 1s b r u t a l i z a t i o n in the f i r s t chapter, and point to the dehumanization of the colonos as well as of the school children i n the subsequent chapters. In other words, i n Arguedas' text, on one l e v e l oppression i s rendered i n the emotional sensing and experiencing of i t through images. This l e v e l coexists and interacts with another l e v e l of rendering oppression—the clear depiction of the contingencies involved i n the r e l a t i o n s between oppressor and oppressed, which include the ideology diffused through Linares' sermons, the presence of the Patibamba' hacienda i n r e l a t i o n to the Patibamba hovels, and the r e v o l t of the mestizas and i t s consequences. There i s a unity i n the text of emotion (the subjective experience of oppression) and ideology through which the process of s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l oppression i s defined. Furthermore, because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of varying images of oppression there i s a universal aspect that resonates i n the text, l i f t i n g human suffering momentarily to the l e v e l of a 'universal' condition. Nature herself i s 'ambiguous'. The fact however that the s p e c i f i c suffering of the pongo and the colonos i s mirrored also on a larger plane 189, of nature ( f o r example, the o p p r e s s i v e c o l d of the b a r r e n plateaus) i s not used i n the t e x t t o j u s t i f y the o p p r e s s i o n of humans by humans. The e x p l o i t a t i o n of the concept of the u n i v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n of s u f f e r i n g by the Church v i s - a - v i s the colonos i s e x p l i c i t l y a t t a c k e d . Arguedas' stance r e g a r d i n g the process of oppression i s d i a l e c t i c a l . That i s t o say, o p p r e s s i o n i s p e r c e i v e d as a process composed of c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements i n motion which i n c l u d e s p o s s i b i l i t i e s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and change. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s contained w i t h i n the t e x t i n the colonos' a c t i o n a t the end through which they momentarily defy t h e i r o p pressors; and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , i n the i n h e r e n t v a l u e s of the i n d i a n v i s i o n i t s e l f (as i s p o i n t e d out i n the chapter, Quechua V i s i o n ) . Another aspect of the oppressor/oppressed c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s t h a t the r e l a t i o n s of o p p r e s s i o n are not always d i r e c t . Arguedas c l e a r l y d e f i n e s the i d e o l o g i c a l process whereby the c o n t r a d i c t i o n i t s e l f i s masked—thus the colonos p e r c e i v e L i n a r e s as a s a i n t r a t h e r than as an agent of oppression d i r e c t l y l i n k e d t o the l a n d l o r d s and t h e i r whip-and-gun-bearing mestizo r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . In t h i s sense, Arguedas' t e x t may be regarded as having the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of c o n t r i b u t i n g to an 'unmasking' of the i d e o l o g y as p e r p e t r a t e d by the Church-l a n d o w n e r - m i l i t a r y power group. 190. In E r i ' s text r e l a t i o n s of oppression are d i r e c t . Oppressor and oppressed are mutually h o s t i l e . Each act ion depicted in the text makes t h e i r opposit ion c l e a r . E r i ' s method thus i s d i f f e r e n t from that of Arguedas.- He does not use images but descr ip t ions of d i r e c t contact between the dominators and the dominated, rendered in e x p l i c i t act ion and dialogue (or absence of dialogue) between the two. The impact therefore i s of a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y . The d i f ference i s a lso expressed through the choice of narrat ive viewpoint. E r i ' s protagonist does not emotionally i d e n t i f y with the oppressed as does Ernesto . He i s d i r e c t l y dominated, constant ly f a l l i n g betwixt and between his own cul ture and the fore ign imposed c u l t u r e . The issue of the text then i s the process and dynamics of external co lon iza t ion in which oppression, c u l t u r a l invasion and economic exp lo i ta t ion are v i s u a l i z e d in t h e i r inseparable un i ty . Part of the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the inner mechanisms of t h i s process i s E r i ' s de l ineat ion of how the dominated are brought to the point where they a s s i s t the i r oppression by growing dependent on the white man's goods. Through t h e i r dependencies the system i s guaranteed to perpetuate i t s e l f . As mentioned in the chapter on E r i , the character chosen through whom the e f fec ts of co lon iza t ion are concre t i zed , i s a ' t y p i c a l ' character in Lukacs and Engels* sense. The s i tua t ions he confronts are ' t y p i c a l ' in the context of 191. c o l o n i z a t i o n . The importance of t h i s i n the context of E r i ' s p r o j e c t i s t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l experience c o n c r e t i z e s the g e n e r a l experience of the community. In E r i ' s t e x t the oppressors a l s o are presented as ' t y p i c a l ' , t h a t i s they are ' t y p i c a l ' agents f o r the l a r g e r order of economic i m p e r i a l i s m . In Grace and Ihimaera's t e x t s , the 'oppressor' as c h a r a c t e r i s absent. Yet i t i s i n the c u l t u r a l s u p p r e s s i o n through f o r e i g n domination t h a t the n e c e s s i t y f o r e x p r e s s i n g maoritanga s p r i n g s . Oppression, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i n t h e i r work i s e x t r a - t e x t u a l . I t surrounds and i s a g e n e r a t i n g agent of- the t e x t s , but does not form an e x p l i c i t p a r t of the t e x t s ' i n t e r n a l d i s c o u r s e s . In Grace's t e x t o ppression i s present i n i t s consequence of the sense of i n f e r i o r i t y as experienced by Ripeka i n r e l a t i o n t o her pakeha f r i e n d , which motivates her to change her name t o a pakeha one. However t h i s i n f e r i o r i t y , which t r i g g e r s the search f o r a p o s i t i v e maori i d e n t i t y , has no r e a l base w i t h i n the n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e . The c r i s i s of Ripeka i s r e s o l v e d i n the t e x t without e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e t o i t s o r i g i n . In Ihimaera's Tangi l i k e w i s e some consequences of o p p r e s s i o n are p r e s e n t — t h e r e f e r e n c e t o the nomadic l i f e of h i s parents who, because of t h e i r l a n d l e s s n e s s are s u s c e p t i b l e to e x p l o i t a t i o n , the r e f e r e n c e s t o r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 192. at school which leads to the fac t that most maori ch i ld ren drop out of the school system, and Tama's lament at the loss of maoritanga—these a l l point to a 'wronging' of the maoris in the pakeha system. As to the structures of th is oppression, however, the text i s ' s i l e n t ' . I t i s in t h i s ' s i l e n c e ' that the two maori wr i ters d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from E r i and Arguedas. The maori authors do not protest oppression, but work 'outward' from within i t . On th is l e v e l , i n t h e i r conscious in ten t ion to redef ine matters ' i n d i g e n o u s ' , t h e i r s i l e n c e regarding the r e a l s t r u c t u r a l s o c i a l contradic t ions would ind ica te that the p ro tes t , i m p l i c i t as i t i s , i s made within the terms of the dominant ideology rather than against i t . In ter re la ted with the oppressor/oppressed cont rad ic t ion i s the c o n f l i c t of the dominating and dominated c u l t u r e s . Each author sets up a l i t e r a r y paradigm of the interconnections, antagonisms and contradic t ions of the two c u l t u r e s . In Arguedas the degree of c u l t u r a l a l i ena t ion on part of the oppressed i s d i r e c t l y re la ted to the degree of economic e x p l o i t a t i o n . Thus the comuneros remembered by Ernesto who s t i l l have t i e s to t h e i r land are less a l ienated from the i r cu l ture and language than the economically enslaved colonos and the pongo, who are e f f e c t i v e l y ' s i l e n c e d ' by t h e i r 'masters ' . Together with h is protest against the l a t t e r s ' s i t u a t i o n wi th in the s o c i a l s t ructure and t h e i r consequent 19 3. c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n , i s Arguedas 1 v i n d i c a t i o n of Quechua c u l t u r e as i t s t i l l e x i s t s i n the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s of the Quechua speakers who are l e s s e c onomically e x p l o i t e d . The 'search' of the p r o t a g o n i s t i n Lukacs' sense i s d i r e c t e d a t a r e a l i z a t i o n of ' t o t a l i t y ' or homogeneity which i m p l i e s a s o c i a l system t h a t u n i f i e s r a t h e r than s p l i t s i t s members. The value-system of the indigenous c u l t u r e with i t s c o l l e c t i v i s t v a l u e s i s i n t h i s sense p o s i t i v e l y opposed t o the i n d i v i d u a l i s t and commercial o r i e n t a t i o n s of the imposing c u l t u r e . In h i s d e l i n e a t i o n of the Quechua v i s i o n Arguedas uses a s t r u c t u r e of presence-and-absence. I t i s i n the absence of the harmonizing values of the Quechua world t h a t t h e i r presence i s confirmed. The c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of the oppressor and the oppressed, of the dominating and the dominated c u l t u r e s , and of the simultaneous misery and grandeur of the i n d i a n populace are not r e s o l v e d . The i d e a of harmony, however, i s expressed n e g a t i v e l y . Relevant here i s Theodor Adorno's a p p l i c a t i o n of d i a l e c t i c a l theory t o l i t e r a t u r e (which i s p a r a l l e l t o Brecht's d i a l e c t i c a l view of a r t ) : A s u c c e s s f u l work. . . i s not one which r e s o l v e s o b j e c t i v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n a spurious harmony, but one which expresses the i d e a of harmony n e g a t i v e l y by embodying the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , pure and uncompromised, i n i t s innermost s t r u c t u r e . 1 194. The search f o r harmony d e s i r e d by the p r o t a g o n i s t i s not d i r e c t e d towards the p a s t (perhaps imagined) harmony of Quechua c u l t u r e but t o a p r e s e n t which i n c l u d e s both c u l t u r e s i n i n t e r a c t i o n . I n s o f a r as the problem of the two c u l t u r e s i s concerned, Arguedas' t e x t e x e m p l i f i e s not a b e l i e f i n a s s i m i l a t i o n nor an i d e a l i s t i c or n o s t a l g i c d e s i r e t o see a r e i n s t a t i n g of 'post-Inca' c u l t u r e ; but what Rama i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Senores e i n d i o s c a l l s r t r a s c u l t u r a c i 6 n r . T h i s term r e f e r s t o the concept of c u l t u r a l i n t e r a c t i o n not to the detriment of e i t h e r one of the two c u l t u r e s . One c u l t u r e i s not to be swallowed or absorbed by the o t h e r . There are areas of exchange and i n t e r c h a n g e, and areas of d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s . Real d i f f e r e n c e s , as d i s t i n c t from 'imaginary' ones in v e n t e d f o r the purpose of m a n i p u l a t i o n (such as the concept of the i n h e r e n t i n f e r i o r i t y of the indigenous people) need not be turned i n t o o p p o s i t i o n s . T h i s 'hope' towards a b i - c u l t u r a l Peruvian r e a l i t y , i n which ' d i f f e r e n c e s ' are n e i t h e r wiped out nor used t o the advantage of the dominating c u l t u r e , but accorded t h e i r p l a c e , can only be r e a l i z e d through s o c i a l r e d r e s s . The u n i t y d e s i r e d on the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l i s i n h e r e n t i n Arguedas' use of language, i n which he combines Quechua and Spanish elements p o i n t i n g t o areas of the d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the two. The problem of form and language i n Los r i o s profundos i s worked out not only i n terms of the 195. problem of expressing d u a l i t i e s but spheres of actual and p o t e n t i a l c u l t u r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Arguedas c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y uses a r i v e r metaphor to express the possible confluence of the two c u l t u r a l zones: No se t r a t a , pues, de una busqueda de l a 1 forma en su acepcion s u p e r f i c i a l y corriente, sino como problema del e s p i r i t u , de l a cultura, en estos paises en que corrientes extranas se encuentran y durante si g l o s no concluyen por fusionar sus direcciones, sino que forman estrechas zonas de confluencia, mientras en lo hondo y lo extenso las venas principales fluyen s i n ceder, increiblemente.3 In The Crocodile the opposition between the two cultures i s t o t a l l y h o s t i l e and antagonistic. The foreign culture i s experienced by the indigenous as i n i m i c a l to the s i g n i f i c a t i o n s of t h e i r own c u l t u r a l practices. The l i t e r a r y paradigm of the c u l t u r a l clash corresponds with the h i s t o r i c a l events of the colonization process, whereby a minority of foreigners backed by superior technology, imposes i t s ' w i l l ' upon the indigenous. In Frantz Fanon's words: "A. . .culture under c o l o n i a l domination i s a contested culture whose destruction i s sought 4 m systematic fashion". In E r i ' s text, as i n Arguedas', economic exploitation and c u l t u r a l alienation are synonymous processes and correlate i n degree. The process whereby foreign r e l i g i o n , law and 1 ideology, and economic exploitation e f f e c t i v e l y 'silence' the indigenous i s rendered consistently from the point of view of 196, the indigenous. To nar ra t i ze the i r process, as does E r i , i s not to a s s i s t i n an attempt to re t r i eve cul ture (cf . Ihimaera) but to c l a r i f y the causes of c u l t u r a l a l i ena t ion in the f i r s t p l a c e . In Grace and Ihimaera the pakeha cul ture v i s - a - v i s the maori one i s not depicted as i n i m i c a l , nor are the condi t ions of exp lo i t a t ion and the s i t u a t i o n of the maori i n the s o c i a l s t ructure points of i s s u e . Insofar as the two cul tures are concerned the problem i s one that i s personal ly or i n d i v i d u a l l y surmountable. Thus just as there i s no r e a l 'oppressor ' in the n a r r a t i v e , there i s no 'oppress ing ' c u l t u r e . Yet the act ion of rea f f i rming c u l t u r a l va lues , o r , i n Ihimaera's case, r e t r i e v i n g c u l t u r e , i s the consequence of c u l t u r a l domination. The paradigm of the problematic hero appl ies to the i r texts i n the same sense as in Arguedas. The values sought are manifested as 'communal' va lues , those that bind the i n d i v i d u a l to h is indigenous community. Homogeneity in Arguedas and Grace (and i m p l i c i t l y in Ihimaera), however, i s re t r i evab le not only in the context of the i n d i g e n o u s - l i f e -values but a lso i n a harmonious conjuncture of the two c u l t u r e s . The concept of ' t o t a l i t y ' (Lukacs') as presented in Arguedas, Grace and Ihimaera involves a process whereby the mutual i n t e r a c t i o n of the two cul tures i s p o s i t i v e , that i s working to the benef i t of both, rather than negat ive. For Grace and Ihimaera th is i s summarized i n the p r i n c i p l e of te manaaki, 'mutual r e s p e c t . ' 19 7. Apart from de l ineat ing re la t ions of oppression and indigenous c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s , each author deals with the problem of rendering ' indigenous' d iscourse; discourse here r e f e r r i n g to.how the cul ture 'speaks' i t s e l f . To manifest t h i s d iscourse , which springs from the i n i t i a l necessi ty to define from 'w i th in ' as against from 'w i thout ' , thus e f f e c t i n g a ' r e d e f i n i t i o n ' of matters indigenous, i s a s o c i a l act addressed towards s o c i a l change. Once th is step i s to be undertaken, the problem of language as both aesthet ic and i d e o l o g i c a l problem has to be reso lved . In terms of the i d e o l o g i c a l aspect , each author has to deal with the fac t that the p r i v i l e g e of education and l i t e r a c y , that i s , h is s p e c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l access to the language of the dominating c u l t u r e , sets him from the outset apart from the subjects of h is tex t . This d i s t a n t i a t i o n , however, although in the s t r i c t sense contradictory to the expression of the ' indigenous' voice f r o m ' w i t h i n ' , has i t s p o s i t i v e aspect in the fact that through the d i s t a n t i a t i o n the problem of ' indigenous' discourse in the larger context of the dominating cul ture can be a r t i c u l a t e d more c r i t i c a l l y . Eagleton 's comments on language and ideology are relevant to the issue of ' indigenous' d iscourse: A l i t e r a r y text i s re la ted to General Ideology not only how i t deploys language but by the p a r t i c u l a r language i t deploys. . . .The l i n g u i s t i c i s always at base the p o l i t i c o - l i n g u i s t i c , a sphere wi th in which the struggles of imper ia l 198. conqueror with subjugated s ta te . . .are fought out . L i te ra ture i s an agent as wel l as e f f e c t of such s t rugg les , a c r u c i a l mechanism by which the language and ideology of an i m p e r i a l i s t c lass es tab l ishes i t s hegemony, or by which a subordinated s t a t e , c lass or region preserves and perpetuates at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l an h i s t o r i c a l unity shattered or eroded at the p o l i t i c a l . 5 Insofar as the authors d iscussed , however, are concerned, i t i s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , not so much a black and white question of whether or not by using Spanish or Eng l ish the authors subscribe to the "General Ideology" of the dominators, whose proposal of the i r language as the 'common' nat iona l language i s part of the act of achieving hegemony. Nor i s i t a question of how by t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l incorporat ion of the indigenous language in to the text they work within a sphere whereby the indigenous to some degree "preserve and perpetuate at the i d e o l o g i c a l l e v e l an h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i t y shattered or eroded at the p o l i t i c a l " . The language question in terms of the l i t e r a r y texts discussed may be posed rather i n terms of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the language or languages used and the indigenous s i g n i f i c a t i o n s they are meant to r e l a y . Furthermore, th is r e l a t i o n s h i p i s re levant only in the larger context of the ent i re l i n g u i s t i c - a e s t h e t i c system b u i l t up i n the tex ts . It i s then a question of how indigenous structures can be maintained through, and in sp i te o f , the language of the dominating c u l t u r e , wi th in the larger ' s e t ' of a recognizable ' indigenous' discourse which includes aesthet ic c r i t e r i a such as metaphor, image and symbol. 199 . The use, then, of the p a r t i c u l a r indigenous languages e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by i n s e r t i o n s of indigenous phrases and words, or i n d i r e c t l y by s y n t a c t i c a l adjustments i n the Spanish or E n g l i s h tongue t o correspond t o indigenous syntax (a method used by Arguedas and Grace), r e p r e s e n t s only one l e v e l of e x p r e s s i n g 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e . By i t s e l f t h i s l e v e l i s of l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i s d e r i v e d from i t s r e l a t i o n t o the l a r g e r a e s t h e t i c c o n s t r u c t u r e . Taking Arguedas as example, i t i s my s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the Quechua reader would most d i r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e h i s v o i c e i n the huaynos of the t e x t . The huaynos however e n t e r the n a r r a t i v e not only i n terms of l i t e r a l i n s e r t i o n s but have a presence i n Arguedas' l y r i c i s m , i n the p a r t i c u l a r s e n s i b i l i t y and tone conveyed through h i s w r i t i n g s t y l e , as w e l l as i n the phrases resounding i n the t e x t t h a t are d e r i v e d from huaynos. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the pongo, f o r example, "no t i e n e madre n i padre, s o l o su sombra" (p. 22), i s an echo of the r e f r a i n of a huayno e x t e r n a l t o the t e x t , "ya no tengo s i n o mi sombra." The huaynos are not simply added to the t e x t as an 'indigenous' extraneous element, but form p a r t of the dynamics of the a e s t h e t i c t e x t . The 'inner' balance of the t e x t , i n Mukarovsky's sense of 'dynamic' r a t h e r than ' s t a t i c ' harmony, r e s t s i n the c o n c a t e n a t i o n of l y r i c i s m , images p o e t i c r e f r a i n s and song. 200. Furthermore, his use of Quechua i n i t s various s i g n i f i c a t i o n s (e.g., the 'negative' use i n the 'silence' of the colonos, the p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s attributed to i t s expressions, the mixing of Spanish and Quechua speech as r e f l e c t i v e of the s o c i a l status of the speaker, e t c . ) , i s one l e v e l of indigenous discourse i n the text. This l e v e l i s part of a larger discourse constituted by the voices of nature, mythological and legendary elements, syncretisms and the relations of Quechua speakers to each other and to nature. For Arguedas this discourse, i n need of expression because of the context of domination, i s transferable into ' l i t e r a t u r e ' written i n the Spanish language. I f i n the t r a n s f e r r a l i t s e l f there i s contradiction, then this contra-d i c t i o n exists precisely because of the contradictions residing i n the r e a l and concrete h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l processes to which he responds and into which he inserts his act of w r i t i n g as a s o c i a l practice. In E r i ' s case the question of language also has to be posed i n terms of what choices are available to the writer. Because of the m u l t i p l i c i t y of indigenous languages and di a l e c t s i n Papua New Guinea, he has i n fact l i t t l e choice but to write i n the 'common' language, a l b e i t the language of the dominators. Once this i n i t i a l contradiction i s recognized, the problem centers on textual narration techniques and aesthetics-—the necessity to correlate foreign language 2.01. and indigenous mental s t r u c t u r e s , t o i n v e n t metaphors and images t h a t s p r i n g from the l i f e - p r a c t i c e s of the indi g e n o u s . Both Grace and Ihimaera use maori i n t h e i r t e x t s . Grace uses a s i m i l a r technique of language modulation t o Arguedas. The maori c h a r a c t e r s i n the t e x t speak E n g l i s h but f o l l o w maori syntax and tho u g h t - p a t t e r n s . Grace's own w r i t i n g s t y l e o f t e n r e f l e c t s t h i s l i n g u i s t i c a d a p t a t i o n . The a c t u a l maori words t h a t she i n t e r j e c t s i n t o the t e x t are commonly used words t h a t have been adopted by both non-maori speaking maori and pakeha a l i k e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of these words i s i n t h e i r p o i n t i n g t o s p e c i f i c maori ways of r e l a t i n g t o f a m i l y , food, e t c . , as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. As mentioned i n the d i s c u s s i o n of T a n g i , Ihimaera uses maori phrases i n the t e x t as p o e t i c r e f r a i n s . In h i s assumption t h a t the readers w i l l not understand the meaning of these phrases, he juxtaposes them wi t h t h e i r E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . This method works i n terms of the p o e t i c t e x t u r e of the t e x t which allows f o r a k i n d of freedom not a c c e s s i b l e to prose. Thus the phrase, "to manawa, e taku manawa; your h e a r t i s my h e a r t " (p. 78), and i t s v a r i a t i o n s , a r e repeated throughout the n a r r a t i o n . T h i s a e s t h e t i c device of r e p e t i t i o n supports the message of ' c o n t i n u i t y ' i n the t e x t and a t the same time repeats the a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e s of the recorded chants of the Tangi ceremony. 202, Further relevant to the issue of 'indigenous' discourse i s the question concerning the extent to which the deployment of symbol, metaphor, image and other aesthetic devices are i n conjuncture with the pro-indigenous discourse i n the i d e o l o g i c a l sense. In Arguedas, as has been discussed i n the chapter Quechua Visi o n, aesthetic and i d e o l o g i c a l elements are i n harmonious conjuncture. Through the images, symbols and metaphors, the d i a l e c t i c of the indigenous culture as not a s t a t i c 'entity' but as a dynamic process, i s relayed. The images are themselves dynamic and through t h i s q u a l i t y the notion of change, of transformation and hope i s concretized. Thus, for example, the Inca wall as image represents both a permanent indigenous structure, i n d e s t r u c t i b l e ; and a f l u i d force i d e n t i f i e d with the force of r i v e r s . As mentioned i n the chapter, Quechua V i s i o n , i t i s through the 'root 1 metaphor of the r i v e r s , los r i o s profundos, and the various images organized around t h i s metaphor, that the d i a l e c t i c a l l i nk between triumph, the force of the culture, and despair, the s o c i a l misery and oppression exerted upon i t , i s made. Arguedas' f a i t h i n the indian culture, his conviction of i t s s u r v i v a b i l i t y , and his viewing of the indians no matter how exploited as f i l l e d with p o t e n t i a l strength/ that i s , his pro-indigenous ideology, i s thus embedded i n the symbolic structure of the text. The negative, the subjugation of the 20 3. pongo and the colonos, i s negated by the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s of the Quechua world. This d i a l e c t i c , the negation of the n e g a t i o n i n H e g e l i a n terms, i s an a c t i v e o r g a n i z i n g a e s t h e t i c and i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e i n the t e x t . In E r i ' s The C r o c o d i l e , the most important aspect of 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e i s r e l a y e d i n the t e x t through the u n i f y i n g or 'root' metaphor of the c r o c o d i l e . Around t h i s metaphor the concrete mis-adaptations to new phenomenon on p a r t of the indigenous, as he attempts t o s t r u c t u r e phenomenon i n accordance t o the s t r u c t u r e s he knows, are o r g a n i z e d . The i n i m i c a l o p p o s i t i o n of the dominators i s thus d e s c r i b e d as r e l a y e d through the p e r s p e c t i v e of the indigenous, w i t h i n which p e r s p e c t i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are o r g a n i z e d i n terms of the paradigmatic workings of the s u p e r n a t u r a l . Hence the experience of c o l o n i z a t i o n as an a c t of 'sorcery' corresponds to the world-view of the indigenous. In E r i ' s t e x t , the d i s c o u r s e of the s u p e r n a t u r a l permeating the t e x t on a l l l e v e l s ls_ the 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e . The i d e o l o g i c a l ' v o i c i n g ' of the s t r u g g l e s of the ' s i l e n c e d ' i s c o r r e l a t e d a e s t h e t i c a l l y . In Grace's Mutuwhenua the 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e emerges i n the sense of how t h i s d i s c o u r s e e x i s t s as a d i s t i n c t and r e c o g n i z a b l e s e t of r e l a t i o n s , d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e and v i s i b l y separate from pakeha d i s c o u r s e . T h i s d i s c o u r s e i s c o n c r e t i z e d i n the t e x t i n the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the images of the t r e e s , 204. the i n t u i t i v e r e l a t i o n t o the s a c r e d maori image of the greenstone, the gestures and speech o f the f a m i l y , the r i t u a l s of p r o c u r i n g and p a r t a k i n g of food, the care extended among f a m i l y members, and the r e l a t i o n t o the s u p e r n a t u r a l . A l l these p o i n t t o ' c u l t u r e ' and t o a d i s c o u r s e d i s t i n c t from t h a t of the pakeha. I t i s through negation t h a t t h i s d i s c o u r s e i s d i s c o v e r e d by the p r o t a g o n i s t h e r s e l f , who, by r e j e c t i n g her maori background because of an i n i t i a l sense of shame v i s - a - v i s the ap p a r e n t l y s u p e r i o r pakeha world, .comes to experience i t s l i v i n g q u a l i t y w i t h i n her. Ripeka does not speak f o r or of maori c u l t u r e ; maori c u l t u r e 'speaks' i t s e l f through her, as ' s t r u c t u r e s of f e e l i n g ' , t h a t i s as unconscious, r e c e i v e d l i f e - p a t t e r n s and responses. There i s c o n s i s t e n c y and harmony between the author's p r o j e c t of g i v i n g shape to the contours of maoritanga as a s e t of l i v e d r e l a t i o n s , and the a e s t h e t i c means employed. The s t y l e i t s e l f , l y r i c a l and emotive, corresponds t o the f a c t t h a t maori'ness 1 i s experienced p r i m a r i l y on a l e v e l o f f e e l i n g , not always e x p l a i n a b l e i n r a t i o n a l terms. Ihimaera's n a r r a t i v e method d i f f e r s from t h a t of Grace. In Grace's t e x t , 'indigenous' elements flow as i t were through and from the i n n e r experience of the p r o t a g o n i s t h e r s e l f . In Ihimaera's t e x t , legendary and m y t h o l o g i c a l c u l t u r a l elements form p a r t of an a e s t h e t i c p a t t e r n t h a t i s woven through the 205. t e x t , s i d e by s i d e r a t h e r than an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f , the p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n of the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s emotional response to the event of h i s f a t h e r ' s death. There are two b a s i c but not always, i n t e r r e l a t e d l e v e l s of 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e i n the t e x t . One i s the use of c u l t u r a l images, legends and the r i t u a l of the t a n g i ; the other i s the l i v e d experience and e x p r e s s i o n of aroha as a bond i n the maori community. These two l e v e l s meet i n the t a n g i , the r i t u a l which b r i n g s the extended f a m i l y together to express t h e i r love and g r i e f , but otherwise they are not always f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d . Contrary t o h i s purpose of making 7 the p a s t l i v e i n the p r e s e n t , Ihimaera, i n my view, f a i l s t o i n c o r p o r a t e as a l i v i n g p r a c t i c e the m y t h o l o g i c a l elements i n t o the a c t i o n of the t e x t . Therefore there i s an ambiguity i n h i s attempt to ' r e t r i e v e ' maori c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a t i o n s on t h a t l e v e l . The s i g n i f i c a t i o n s are not as i n Grace p a r t of the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s 'inner' and a t times u n c o n s c i o u s l y l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e . They are i n s e r t e d i n t o the n a r r a t i v e as p o e t i c d e v i c e s w i t h the f u n c t i o n of ' t r a n s m i t t i n g ' c u l t u r e . At t h i s p o i n t , Fanon's d e s c r i p t i o n of three d i f f e r e n t phases of w r i t i n g of the c o l o n i z e d i n The Wretched of the E a r t h i s u s e f u l to p i n p o i n t the ambivalence of t h i s aspect of Ihimaera's 'indigenous' d i s c o u r s e : "In the f i r s t phase. . . the n a t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l gives proof t h a t he has a s s i m i l a t e d the c u l t u r e of the occupying power. . . .His i n s p i r a t i o n i s 206, European and we can e a s i l y l i n k up these works with d e f i n i t e trends i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the mother country." In the second phase the writer goes to the past-—legends, myth, childhood memories, t r a d i t i o n s . . . ."old legends" are "reinterpreted i n the l i g h t of a borrowed aestheticism". In the t h i r d phase, the writer participates i n a l i t e r a t u r e of protest, i n "a revolutionary l i t e r a t u r e , and a national 8 l i t e r a t u r e " . Insofar as the second phase i s concerned, Ihimaera's position within t h i s phase can be c l a r i f i e d by a comparison with Arguedas, E r i and Grace. A l l four writers incorporate mythological and legendary c u l t u r a l elements into t h e i r texts as part of 'indigenous' discourse. The l a t t e r three however d i f f e r from Ihimaera i n that i n t h e i r texts these elements are not representative of s t a t i c c u l t u r a l residues but represent l i v e d r e a l i t i e s . They are dynamic elements i n t e g r a l to the indigenous world-perspective as i t exists i n the present. It might be added that Arguedas and E r i , whose writing contains a strong element of protest against the s i t u a t i o n of the indigenous i n c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l terms, to some degree can be regarded as participants i n Fanon's th e o r e t i c a l t h i r d phase. Ihimaera's embivalence i s expressed i n his writing method, which, with i t s European-inspired complicated technique of flashbacks and foreshadowings at times d i s t r a c t s from rather than u n i f i e s the 'discourse'. His idea of rendering 207, the ' c o n t i n u i t y ' of cu l ture i s in a sense contradicted by h is cho ice , fo r aesthet ic reasons, of a fragmented way of presenting h is mater ia l - In my view, both with regard to h is manner of i n s e r t i n g elements of the mythological past and of present ing the mater ia l in terms of form, there i s a d is juncture of ideology and aesthet ics which remains p a r t i a l l y unresolved within the structures of the text . The f i n a l argument of th is Conclusion i s that which responds to the question of l i t e r a t u r e and ideology ra ised in the Int roduct ion. To r e i t e r a t e b r i e f l y , i n Gramsci 's theory, hegemony i s the ideology or rather ensemble of ideologies of the dominant c l a s s . It i s the 'organiz ing p r i n c i p l e ' or combination of world-views "d i f fused by agencies of i d e o l o g i c a l 9 cont ro l and s o c i a l i z a t i o n in to every area of d a i l y l i f e " . Counter-hegemony on the other hand are forces that aim at transforming rather than perpetuating the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of the dominant mode of product ion. S t r i c t l y speaking, in the Gramscian sense the term ind icates the forces that aim at breaking the " i d e o l o g i c a l bond between the r u l i n g c lass and var ious sectors of the population.""''^ As mentioned in the previous d i s c u s s i o n , according to Goldmann and Lukacs ' ideo logy ' i s synonymous with the world-v i s i o n of p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l c l a s s e s . In Goldmann's conception there i s a s t r u c t u r a l homology between the t e x t s ' s t ructures and the mental s t ructures of the s o c i a l group to which the author belongs. Eagleton expands th is view, which has a 208. reduc t ion is t element in that i t impl ies the existence of a set ideology for each s o c i a l c l a s s , by proposing a concept that takes in to account the fact that ideologies are not even, non-contrad ic tory , spontaneously homogeneous ' e n t i t i e s ' . ".' Insofar as the l i t e r a r y text i s concerned, the ' ideology of the tex t ' i s the product of the conjuncture of var ious and varying i d e o l o g i c a l formations (a conjuncture of genera l , aesthet ic and au thor ia l ideologies and ca tegor ies ) . Important i s "the mode of i n s e r t i o n of au thor ia l and aesthet ic formations in to the hegemonic ideology as a whole"."'"''" Important here i s to note that "hegemonic ideology" and i t s counter - fo rces , in Gramsci 's terms, do not oppose each other as two closed systems. As Chantal Mouffe points out " i d e o l o g i c a l struggle in fac t consis ts of a process of d i s a r t i c u l a t i o n - r e a r t i c u l a t i o n of given i d e o l o g i c a l elements. . . . " The emphasis i s on a transformation of i d e o l o g i c a l t e r ra ins and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of new i d e o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e s rather than on "the confrontat ion of two already 12 elaborated, c losed world-views." This i s app l icab le to the question of pro- indigenous ideology v i s - a - v i s the dominant ideology. In terms of our d i s c u s s i o n , the dominant and ' indigenous' ideologies do not confront each other as separate e n t i t i e s but const i tu te a f i e l d of struggle wherein i d e o l o g i c a l elements are " d i s a r t i c u l a t e d and r e a r t i c u l a t e d . " 209 , Giving 'voice' to the indigenous v i s - a - v i s the dominant culture which to a large extent has silenced that voice i n order to maintain i t s position of domination, i s primarily an i d e o l o g i c a l act. This act however does not necessarily mean that the ideology produced i n the text (in Eagleton's terms), i s d i s t i n c t l y part of a counterforce against the dominant ideology'which functions to 'silence' the forces, although t h i s may be the author's intention. In terms of our analysis, therefore, the emphasis rests on how these 'voices' are i d e o l o g i c a l contributions which oppose, or propose alternatives to, the terms of the dominant ideology rather than on whether the protests made are s t r i c t l y 13 within or against i t s terms. The i n i t i a t i v e of indigenismo as a movement comprised of l i t e r a r y , s o c i a l and revolutionary practices i s to oppose the s t a t i c hegemonic concept of the i n f e r i o r i t y of the indigenous populace and to r e c t i f y t h e i r economic and s o c i a l e x ploitation. In Los r i o s profundos, Arguedas participates i n t h i s struggle on the l i t e r a r y l e v e l . Part of his project i s to break the stereotyped and automated attitudes towards the indian populace and to point, obliquely as i t were, through the aesthetic network of symbol and image, to the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r freedom. The s o c i a l protest against the oppressive condition of the indigenous i s consolidated by a depiction of the oppressor/oppressed contingencies which are presented not as authorial opinions 210. but which a r ise from the characters and .their ' s i t u a t i o n s ' wi th in the narra t ive i t s e l f . His manner of present ing these c o n f l i c t s , i n my view, i s such that an automatic response to the issues of the text i s not f a c i l i t a t e d . In other words, h is work corresponds to Mukarovsky's conception of the ' s u c c e s s f u l ' work of ar t which i s one wherein ' s i m i l a r i t i e s ' (everything tending in the same d i rec t ion) and ' d i f f e r e n c e s ' (elements of oppos i t ion , contradict ion) are so balanced that the reader 's task i s ne i ther too simple nor d i f f i c u l t , and that there cannot be an automatic correspondence between the values of the world of 14 the text and the values of the reader. In Brecht 's terms, the reader has to ' t h i n k ' . Shklovsky's concept of ' d e f a m i l i a r -i z a t i o n ' and Lukacs' of ' i n d i r e c t n e s s ' (as being a ' \ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the aesthet ic) work in the same d i r e c t i o n . Although Arguedas i s d is tan t i a ted as i n t e l l e c t u a l and by h is own s i t u a t i o n wi th in the s o c i a l s t ructure from the indigenous on whose behalf and fo r whom he ' s p e a k s ' , th is cont rad ic t ion has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t inasmuch as i t allows him p r e c i s e l y to depict the r e l a t i o n of the ' p a r t ' to the' 'whole ' ; that i s the indian s i t u a t i o n wi th in the s o c i a l context. This i s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h is statement: "no se puede conocer a l ind io s i no se conoce a las demas personas que hacen de l ind io l o que es . . . .es necesar io conocer todo e l 15 contexto s o c i a l . " 211. F i n a l l y the importance of p r e s e n t i n g a l i t e r a r y 'voice' on b e h a l f of the ' s i l e n c e d ' r e s t s not on the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c e of w r i t i n g but i n the i n t e r a c t i o n of l i t e r a r y and other s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s . In Arguedas' case, t h i s i s demonstr-. able i n the i n t e r a c t i o n between M a r i a t e g u i ' s and Arguedas' i n t e l l e c t u a l and l i t e r a r y p r a c t i c e s and Hugo Blanco's r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r a c t i c e with r e s p e c t to s o c i a l r e d r e s s . The i d e o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n of E r i ' s t e x t i s the c l a r i f i -c a t i o n of the process of c o l o n i z a t i o n from the p o i n t of view of those ' s i l e n c e d ' w i t h i n t h a t p r o c e s s . T h i s l i t e r a r y c l a r i f i c a t i o n t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n t e r v e n e s i n the ' s i l e n c i n g ' process i t s e l f . E r i ' s r e c o r d i n g of the p a s t s t r u g g l e s and d e f e a t of the Papuans does not merely r e f l e c t i n the 'mirror' sense a phase i n a h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s , but f u n c t i o n s ( i n Goldmann's terms) as a c o n s t i t u e n t element of the consciousness of the people t o whom the r e c o r d i s addressed. His p r o j e c t i n v o l v e s a c l a r i f y i n g of past experience whereby the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n may be viewed i n a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e , and whereby, i m p l i c i t l y , a f u t u r e may be proposed. Of s i g n i f i c a n c e i s the f a c t t h a t E r i ' s t e x t i s p r i m a r i l y addressed t o the indigenous, as i s e v i d e n t i n the procedure whereby the metaphors and images s p r i n g from the l i f e - p r a c t i c e s o f the indigenous c u l t u r e i t s e l f . The t e x t thus responds t o the need f o r indigenous e x p r e s s i o n as a g a i n s t the f a l s e 212. r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of indigenous l i f e i n the works of e x p a t r i a t e w r i t e r s . To r e a l i z e t h i s p r o j e c t , E r i does not use complex contemporary European l i t e r a r y techniques but w r i t e s simply on b e h a l f of and f o r the people who are the s u b j e c t of h i s t e x t and whose c u l t u r e has been con t e s t e d . As i n Arguedas, the problem of oppression i s not r e s o l v e d . In t h i s sense the t e x t ' s m a t e r i a l s correspond t o the a c t u a l ongoing s t r u g g l e i n h e r e n t i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t 'embrace' the t e x t i n Goldmann's terms. Relevant here i s a l s o Brecht's p r o p o s a l t h a t a r t should expose c o n t r a -d i c t i o n s r a t h e r than r e s o l v e them. On the whole, the t e x t s of Ihimaera and Grace are more e a s i l y subsumable i n t o the dominant i d e o l o g y than those of Arguedas and E r i . P a r t of the reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t the absence of the s o c i a l nexus wherein the c u l t u r a l i n f e r i o r i t y of the maori, to which the t e x t s respond, i s s i t u a t e d , allows the i m p l i c i t p r o t e s t of the t e x t to be e a s i l y n e u t r a l i z e d by or i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o pakeha i d e o l o g y . The p o t e n t i a l counter-f o r c e , furthermore, i s weakened as the t e x t s 'speak' t o the dominant i d e o l o g y i n i t s own language of humanism and l i b e r a l i s m . The p a r a d o x i c a l and c o n t r a d i c t o r y nuances i n v o l v e d i n the ' s i l e n c e s ' of the t e x t s can be p a r t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the ambiguity of the authors as mouthpiece f o r the maori people; and, perhaps even more p o i g n a n t l y t o the ambiguity of 21.3. the maori themselves in the i r struggle to survive as maori under the pressures of a s s i m i l a t i o n . In both Ihimaera's and Grace's case i t i s important to note that the i r knowledge and experience of maori language and mythology i s not d i r e c t but i s mediated by texts produced for and within pakeha 17 educat ional i n s t i t u t i o n s , which presupposes an ass imi la t ion in to pakeha thought. This i s in contrast to Arguedas' d i r e c t r e l a t i o n to the Quechua language and community. In Grace's text the message c l e a r l y comes across that the 'pakeha' world as such i s not a d i r e c t threat to the inner 'maori ' f ee l ings and r e l a t i o n s . Yet the question of compromise remains an i s s u e . How far do these fee l ings have to be compromised i n order to achieve a harmonious cohabitat ion of pakeha and maori? The message, highly subsumable in to the terms of the dominant i d e o l o g y , ! i s that although there are d i f fe rences in t h e i r cul tures the pakeha and the maori are a l i k e in t h e i r 'humanity' . Insofar as Ihimaera i s concerned, i f the task of the i n t e l l e c t u a l opposed to the dominant ideology i s to unmask c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , to demystify (in Gramsci's sense of the i n t e l l e c t u a l ' s counter-hegemonic ro le ) , , h is contr ibut ion to such 'unmasking' i s quest ionable . The presentat ion of mythology and the pra ise of aroha in themselves do not const i tu te a threat to the pakeha world and the i d e o l o g i c a l elements of Tangi can be e a s i l y incorporated by the dominant ideology. 214. In terms of the i n i t i a t i v e s of maoritanga as a movement, however, Ihimaera's and Grace's texts make an important cont r ibut ion t o ' i t s i d e o l o g i c a l commitment to negate the p r i n c i p l e of the a s s i m i l a t i o n of maori cul ture in to pakeha c u l t u r e , a p r i n c i p l e which i n fac t proposes c u l t u r a l death. Their contr ibut ions to rebu i ld ing c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y and p r i d e , although made Within rather than against the general terms of pakeha ideology provide an a l te rna t ive view of the maori and t h e i r cu l ture in New Zealand society which i s not without s i g n i f i c a n t ' v a l u e ' . E r i and Arguedas, as mentioned, do not give aesthet ic reso lu t ions to r e a l s o c i a l con t rad ic t ions . To do s o , i n t h e i r terms, would be to a id hegemonic ru le in masking them. Grace and Ihimaera however resolve the contrad ic t ions in t h e i r t e x t s ; that i s , the problems encountered by the protagonists are ' s u c c e s s f u l l y ' overcome. T h i s , in view of the preceding d i s c u s s i o n , i s due to the f a c t that the r e a l s o c i a l cont ra -d i c t i o n s that e x i s t outside the t e x t s , although generating the t e x t s , are not d i r e c t l y deal t with in them. The fo l lowing comments by Bennett are of importance at t h i s po in t : There are no forms of c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e which are i n t r i n s i c a l l y and forever e i ther dominant or o p p o s i t i o n a l , Their funct ioning and e f f e c t , in p o l i t i c a l terms, depend on the place 215. they occupy within that incessantly changing nexus of relationships which defines t h e i r position i n r e l a t i o n to one another.18 Insofar as the r a i s i n g of the 'indigenous' voice i n l i t e r a r y texts i s concerned, what i s of importance i n the f i n a l analysis i s what 'meaning' or 'value' i s produced for these texts i n the larger context of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; 19 or, to use Bennett's terms, how these texts are 'worked'. 216. CHAPTER VI . FOOTNOTES xTheodor Adorno, Pr isms, t rans . S. Weber, (Gr. B r i t : N e v i l l e Spearman, 1967), p. 32. 2 -Angel Rama, "Jose Maria Arguedas t rascu l tu rador" , Senores e i n d i o s , J . M . Arguedas, (Buenos- A i r e s : C a l l c a n t o , 19 76) , p. 15 f f . 3 Jose Maria Arguedas, Yawar F i e s t a , (Buenos A i r e s : Losada, 1974), p. 174. 4 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the E a r t h , t rans . C. Fa r r ing ton , (England: Penguin, 1967), p. 191. 5 Terry Eagleton, C r i t i c i s m and Ideology, (Gr. B r i t a i n : NLB, 1976), p. 55. 6 s Arguedas, "La soledad cosmica en l a poesia quechua," Idea, July-December, 1961, p. 1. 7 Wi t i Ihimaera, "An Interview wxth Wi t i Ihimaera", World L i te ra ture Written in E n g l i s h , V o l . 16, No. 1, p. 119. g Fanon, op. c i t . , pp. 178, 179. 9 See Int roduct ion, p. 9. x<^See In t roduct ion, p. 9. x x E a g l e t o n , op. c i t . , p. 54. 12 Chantal Mouffe, "Hegemony and Ideology in Gramsci", Gramsci and Marxist Theory, ed. C. Mouffe, (London: Routledge & Kegan, 19 79), p. 19 3. 13 See Raymond Wi l l i am's d iscuss ion of hegemony in Marxism and L i t e r a t u r e , (Oxford: Oxford Univers i ty Press , 1977), p. 114. "The major t h e o r e t i c a l problem with immediate e f f ec t on methods of a n a l y s i s , i s to d i s t i n g u i s h between a l te rna t ive and oppos i t iona l i n i t i a t i v e s and contr ibut ions which are made wi th in or against a s p e c i f i c hegemony (which then sets ce r ta in l i m i t s to them or which can succeed in n e u t r a l i z i n g , changing or ac tua l l y incorporat ing them) and other kinds of i n i t i a t i v e and contr ibut ion which are i r r e d u c i b l e to the terms of the o r i g i n a l or. the adaptive hegemony, and are in that sense independent." 14 See In t roduct ion , pp. 13, 14. 217. "*"5Primer encuentro de narradores peruanos, Arequipa 196 5, (Lima: Casa de l a cu l tura del Peru, 1969), p. 172. 16 With regard to th is note: Arguedas' reference to Mariategui in Primer encuentro de  narradores. . . , p. 255. B lanco 's references to Arguedas in Land or Death, (NY: Pathf inder Press , 1972), pp. 130-134. The correspondence between Blanco and Arguedas, "Correspondencia entre Hugo Blanco y Jose Maria Arguedas", Amaru, No. 11, Dec. 1969, p. 12 f f . 17 Ihimaera in "An Interview. . . . " , p. 117, wr i tes : "The fac t that I cou ldn ' t speak the language too, put me at another remove from Maori c u l t u r e . I studied Maori at the Univers i ty but don' t speak i t , fo r the kind I learned i s the academic and wri t ten k i n d , not the spoken k i n d . " David M c G i l l i n "Unassuming Grace", New Zealand L i s t e n e r , No. 80, (Oct. 1975), p. 21, mentions that Grace " is an urban Maori . . . .Her father d id not speak Maor i . 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