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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of a landscape rehabilitation management model using a case study approach Peepre, Juri 1981

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DEVELOPMENT OF A LANDSCAPE REHABILITATION MANAGEMENT MODEL USING A CASE STUDY APPROACH by JURI PEEPRE B.L .A. (Honou r s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y of Gue lph , 1976 A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P l a n t S c i e n c e We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t anda rd The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia May 1981 c ) J u r i Peepre , 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f PL/^JT ^^f£fJ(S£L The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 DE-6 (2/79) ABSTRACT Landscape r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has e v o l v e d r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y i n re sponse to en v i r onmen ta l c once rn s a r i s i n g from s u r f a c e m i n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s such as h ighways and t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s , and o t h e r l a r g e s c a l e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s such as dams, s k i de ve l opmen t s , or r e s o u r c e e x p l o r a t i o n . Landscape d e g r a d a t i o n i n h e a v i l y used park and r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d e r e l i c t urban open space a l s o c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of s t u d y . Research e f f o r t s have been d i r e c t e d l a r g e l y toward t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s of s p e c i f i c s i t e p r ob l ems , w h i l e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e work has approached the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of managing l a nd s cape r e s o u r c e s . The t h e s i s p o s t u l a t e s t h a t a management model i n c l u d i n g a broad range of v a r i a b l e s w i l l r e s u l t i n an improved r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o ce s s and a more r a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t of d i s t u r b e d l a n d . The method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h r e e component p a r t s ; a l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , case s t u d i e s , and the deve lopment i i o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management m o d e l . T h r e e m a j o r c a s e s t u d y s i t e s i n d i s t i n c t b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s w i t h i n C a n a d a ' s N a t i o n a l P a r k s were e x a m i n e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e methods e m p l o y e d i n d i f f e r e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s ; t he s c o p e o f p r o j e c t , s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n methods a r e d e s c r i b e d and a s s e s s e d . M o n i t o r i n g p l o t s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o f a c i l i t a t e o b s e r v a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s and p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n r e c r e a t i o n a l o r o t h e r i m p a c t s . O b s e r v a t i o n s o v e r two g r o w i n g s e a s o n s showed m o d e r a t e bu t i n c o n s i s t e n t p l a n t m a t e r i a l s u r v i v a l r a t e s . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s i n e a c h o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s were f o u n d t o be e f f e c t i v e , w h i l e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n management , m a i n t e n a n c e and m o n i t o r i n g p r a c t i c e s were t h e p r i m a r y c a u s e s o f f a i l u r e . The p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s e s were i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s i s c o m b i n e d w i t h t he e s t a b l i s h e d i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t o e v o l v e a l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management m o d e l . The model p r o p o s e s an o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m o f v a r i a b l e s t o c o n s i d e r d u r i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s f rom l and management o b j e c t i v e s th rough s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e s i g n , t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The c r i t i c a l phases of m a i n t e n a n c e , m o n i t o r i n g and r e v i e w are s t r e s s e d , w h i l e the model s t r u c t u r e emphas izes the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ' w i t h i n the p r o c e s s . Landscape r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g must encompass a f u l l range of t e c h n i c a l components y e t f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a g i v e n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and management f ramework. Dr. J . W. N e i l ! TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i i i PART I INTRODUCTION 1 1.0 MAN & THE NATURAL 1 ENVIRONMENT: A RATIONALE FOR LANDSCAPE REHABIL ITATION 1.1 THESIS OBJECT IVES 5 PART I I ; L ITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.0 OBJECT IVES AND DEFINIT IONS 7 2.1 BIOPHYSICAL FACTORS 8 2.1.1 CLIMATIC FACTORS AND TOPOGRAPHY 9 2 . 1 . 2 EDAPHIC FACTORS 11 .1 S o i l M o i s t u r e 12 .2 S o i l T e m p e r a t u r e 13 .3 S o i l C h e m i s t r y 14 .4 S o i l S t r u c t u r e - T e x t u r e 17 .5 M i c r o - o r g a n i s m s and 19 M y c o r r h i z a l F u n g i 2 . 1 . 3 B IOTIC FACTORS 20 .1 P o p u l a t i o n Dynamic s 21 .2 E s t a b l i s h m e n t 25 .3 P l a n t / W i l d l i f e I n t e r a c t i o n s 27 2.1 .4 CARRYING CAPACITY 29 2.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES & THE VISUAL RESOURCE 37 2 .3 . REVIEW OF IMPLEMENTATION METHODS 51 2.3.1 BASE -L INE DATA COLLECTION AND 51 SPECIES SELECTIONS v Page No. 2 . 3 . 2 PROPAGATION 58 .1 Seed 58 .2 V e g e t a t i v e 59 2 . 3 . 3 OUTPLANTING 62 .1 S i t e and Seedbed P r e p a r a t i o n 62 .2 T ime o f P l a n t i n g / S c h e d u l i n g 67 .3 P l a n t i n g T e c h n i q u e s 69 .4 M u l c h e s and E r o s i o n C o n t r o l 84 M a t e r i a l s .5 F e r t i l i z a t i o n , W a t e r i n g , 92 and P r o t e c t i o n o f P l a n t i n g 2.4 MAINTENANCE & MONITORING 96 2.4.1 VEGETATION MANAGEMENT 97 .1 W a t e r i n g and R e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n 97 .2 Weeding 98 .3 A d d i t i o n a l P l a n t i n g and 99 R e p l a n t i ng .4 T h i n n i n g and P r u n i n g 99 2 . 4 . 2 WILDLIFE CONTROL AND INTEGRATED 100 PEST MANAGEMENT 2 . 4 . 3 MONITORING AND EVALUATION 103 2 . 4 . 4 LAND USE MANAGEMENT 104 PART I I I : CASE STUDIES 106 3.0 INTRODUCTION 106 3.1 LONG BEACH NORTH DAY-USE AREA 109 PAC IF IC RIM NATIONAL PARK 3.1.1 SCOPE OF PROJECT 109 3 . 1 . 2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS 109 3 . 1 . 3 LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT PLAN 115 v i Page No. 3 . 1 . 4 REHABIL ITATION METHOD 120 3 . 1 . 5 ASSESSMENT 136 3.2 MALIGNE LAKE HIGHWAY REVEGETATION 152 JASPER NATIONAL PARK 3.2.1 SCOPE OF PROJECT 152 3 . 2 . 2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS 152 3 . 2 . 3 REHABIL ITATION METHOD 156 3 . 2 . 4 ASSESSMENT 165 3 . 2 . 5 FOREST RECOVERY PRELIMINARY TESTS 173 3 . 2 . 6 ASSESSMENT 175 3.3 SNOWSHOE FIREROAD REHABIL ITATION 177 WATERTON LAKES NATIONAL PARK 3.3.1 SCOPE OF PROJECT 177 3 . 3 . 2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS 177 3 . 3 . 3 REHABIL ITATION PLAN 179 3 . 3 . 4 REHABIL ITATION METHOD 180 3 . 3 . 5 IMPLEMENTATION 190 3 . 3 . 6 ASSESSMENT 190 3.4 OTHER SELECTED PROJECTS: A REVIEW 196 3.4.1 BOW SUMMIT IMPROVEMENTS, B a n f f 196 N a t i o n a l Park 3 . 4 . 2 HEATHER LAKE , Mt . Reve l s t o k e 199 N a t i o n a l Park 3.5 SUMARY AND ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES 200 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION 200 3 . 5 . 2 ADMINISTRATION 201 v i i Page No. 3 . 5 . 3 PLANNING 202 3 . 5 . 4 IMPLEMENTATION 204 3 . 5 . 5 OBSERVATIONS WITH NEGATIVE IMPACTS 205 3 . 5 . 6 OBSERVATIONS WITH POS IT IVE EFFECTS 208 3 . 5 . 7 MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING 209 PART IV: LANDSCAPE REHABIL ITATION 213 MANAGEMENT MODEL  4.0 INTRODUCTION 213 4.1 MODEL DESCRIPTION 216 4.1.1 PROPOSED LAND DISTURBANCE 216 4 . 1 . 2 LAND MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES 216 4 . 1 . 3 POLICY DEVELOPMENT 217 4 . 1 . 4 REHABIL ITATION OBJECTIVES 217 4 . 1 . 5 ADMINISTRATIVE OBJECTIVES 218 4 . 1 . 6 S ITE INVESTIGATION 219 .1 B i o p h y s i c a l Component 220 .2 C l i m a t e and T o p o g r a p h y 220 .3 E d a p h i c F a c t o r s 221 .4 B i o t i c F a c t o r s 222 .5 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y 223 .6 V i s u a l Impact A s s e s s m e n t 224 .7 D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s 224 .8 U s e r C o n t r o l 225 4 . 1 . 7 PLANNING AND DESIGN 226 4 . 1 . 8 SPECIES SELECTION 227 4 . 1 . 9 PREPLANNING FOR PLANT MATERIAL 228 4 . 1 . 1 0 SELECTION OF TECHNIQUES 229 v i i i 4.1 .11 SCHEDULING 230 4 . 1 . 1 2 TENDER DOCUMENTS 230 4 . 1 . 1 3 S ITE PREPARATION 231 4 . 1 . 1 4 OUTPLANTING 231 4 . 1 . 1 5 MAINTENANCE 232 4 . 1 . 1 6 MONITORING 233 4 . 1 . 1 7 REVIEW 234 4 .3 SUMMARY OF MANAGEMENT MODEL 235 BIBLIOGRAPHY 236 BIOGRAPHICAL FORM i x LIST OF TABLES TABLE I TABLE II TABLE I I I TABLE IV TABLE V TABLE VI TABLE VI I TABLE V I I I TABLE IX TABLE X Page No. VEGETATION GRADIENT, LONG BEACH 113 SOIL TEST RESULTS, LONG BEACH 121 PLANT MATERIAL SELECT ION, LONG 123 BEACH NORTH REHABIL ITATION CLASS IF ICAT ION ZONES 124 PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CONTRACT 128 GROWN PLANT MATERIAL SURVIVAL RATES OF PLANT MATERIAL, 140 MARCH 1979 PLANT MATERIAL SURVIVAL IN PROTECTED 145 AREAS OF THE POST-LOG REHABIL ITATION ZONE VEGETATION GRADIENTS, 154 JASPER NATIONAL PARK OVER-WINTERING SURVIVAL RATES 167 OF PLANT MATERIAL SPECIES COLLECTED DURING FOREST 175 RECOVERY PROGRAM x L I ST OF FIGURES Page No. FIGURE 1 MAP CASE STUDY LOCATIONS 1 08 FIGURE 2 PHOTO LONG BEACH RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 110 FIGURE 3 PHOTO THE BEACH ZONE 110 FIGURE 4 PHOTO REALIGNMENT OF THE HIGHWAY 116 FIGURE 5 PHOTO THE NEW HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT 116 FIGURE 6 PHOTO OLD PARKING LOT 116 FIGURE 7 MAP S ITE PLAN, LONG BEACH NORTH DAY-USE AREA 118 FIGURE 8 MAP SECTION THROUGH LONG BEACH AREA 119 FIGURE S PHOTO PLANTING CONTAINERIZED STOCK 1 26 FIGURE 10 PHOTO OLD HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT 127 FIGURE 11 PHOTO RESTORATION PLANTING 127 FIGURE 1 2 PHOTO RESTORED AREA 127 FIGURE 13 PHOTO PLANTING CONTAINERIZED STOCK 1 29 FIGURE 14 PHOTO BEACH AREA IN MARCH 1 29 FIGURE 1 5 PHOTO BEACH AREA IN JUNE 1 29 FIGURE 1 6 PHOTO Rosa sp IN NURSERY 131 FIGURE 17 PHOTO Rosa sp IN CONTAINERS 131 FIGURE 18 PHOTO Rosa sp SHOWING NEW GROWTH 1 31 FIGURE 1 9 PHOTO G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n IN NURSERY F L A T S 1 32 FIGURE 20 PHOTO G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n IN STORAGE AREA 132 FIGURE 21 PHOTO TYP ICAL S IZE OF G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n 132 FIGURE 22 PHOTO Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s IN CONTAINERS 1 33 FIGURE 23 PHOTO Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s PLANT IN JUNE 1979 1 33 FIGURE 24 PHOTO ESTABLISHED PLANT IN JUNE 1980 1 33 FIGURE 25 PHOTO BEACH AREA 138 FIGURE 26 PHOTO TYPICAL CONDITION OF G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n 1 38 FIGURE 27 PHOTO INVADING SPECIES 138 FIGURE 28 PHOTO L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a PERFORMED WELL 1 39 FIGURE 29 PHOTO WILLOW CUTTING 141 FIGURE 30 PHOTO FLOURISHING WILLOW SHRUBS 141 FIGURE 31 PHOTO P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s AND Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s IN PARKING LOT 141 FIGURE 32 PHOTO POST-LOG BEACH ZONE 142 FIGURE 33 PHOTO ENTRANCE TO BEACH AREA 142 x i Page No. FIGURE 34 PHOTO PICNIC TABLE LOCATED IN 142 SITKA SPRUCE FRINGE FIGURE 35 PHOTO EFFECTS OF SALT SPRAY 1 51 FIGURE 36 MAP S ITE LOCATION MAP, MALIGNE 1 53 LAKE HIGHWAY FIGURE 37 PHOTO P i c e a g l a u c a IN 157 NURSERY FLATS FIGURE 38 PHOTO HIGHWAY SURFACE PRIOR 1 59 TO PAVING FIGURE 39 PHOTO HIGHWAY SECTION AFTER 1 59 HYDROSEEDING FIGURE 40 PHOTO STEEP COARSE SLOPE 161 FIGURE 41 PHOTO STAB IL IZED SLOPE 1 61 FIGURE 42 PHOTO OLD HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT 164 FIGURE 43 PHOTO SEEDED AND PLANTED AREA ' 164 FIGURE 44 PHOTO S h e p h e r d ! a c a n a d e n s i s 1 66 IN NURSERY FIGURE 45 PHOTO P i n u s c o n t o r t a IN HEALTHY 168 CONDITION FIGURE 46 PHOTO P i c e a g l a u c a SHOWING SHOOT 1 68 GROWTH FIGURE 47 MAP SNOWSHOE FIREROAD 1 78 FIGURE 48 PHOTO TYPICAL ROAD SECTION 183 FIGURE 49 PHOTO ROAD SECTION SHOWING 183 REGENERATION FIGURE 50 PHOTO SPARSE CLUMPS OF GRASS 183 ON SURFACE FIGURE 51 PLANTING 187 DETAILS SNOWSHOE FIREROAD FIGURE 52 CONSTRUCTION 188 DETAILS SNOWSHOE FIREROAD FIGURE 53 EROSION 189 CONTROL SNOWSHOE FIREROAD FIGURE 54 TYPICAL 1 91 CONTRACT DRAWINGS SNOWSHOE FIREROAD FIGURE 55 PHOTO EROSION CONTROL THROUGH 1 95 SLOPE STAB IL IZAT ION FIGURE 56 PHOTO WATER BARS WOULD DIRECT 1 95 WATER FIGURE 57 MAP BOW SUMMIT REHABIL ITATION PLAN 1 97 FIGURE 58 DIAGRAM REHABIL ITATION MANAGEMENT MODEL 21 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank the Western Reg i ona l o f f i c e of Pa rk s Canada f o r p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as a l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t to pursue the methods of l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I n s p i r a t i o n f o r i n i t i a t i n g g r adua te s t u d i e s i n t h i s f i e l d was a r e s u l t of wo rk i ng on the d e s c r i b e d p r o j e c t s w i t h Les B l i g h t , E r i k Mustonen, Ot to Hammer and o t h e r s , and t h e i r i n p u t i n t o the o r i g i n a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i s acknowledged and a p p r e c i a t e d . - • I would a l s o l i k e to thank the members of my g r adua te committee Dr. J . W. N e i l l ( S u p e r v i s o r ) , Dr. M. L a v k u l i c h , Dr. P. D o o l i n g and Dr. V. C. Runeck le s ( Cha i rman ) , f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and d i r e c t i o n d u r i n g my s t u d i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e to thank Dr. N e i l l f o r the i n v a l u a b l e t h e s i s p r e p a r a t i o n a s s i s t a n c e , and f o r the encouragement and h e l p f u l exchange o f t hough t s d u r i n g t he p u r s u i t o f g raduate s t u d i e s . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e xp re s sed to Rob in Ga rdne r , f e l l o w g r adua te s t uden t and p a r t n e r , who has p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p l o r e new and s t i m u l a t i n g i d e a s i n the f i e l d of l a n d s c a p e r e s o u r c e s management. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e t o thank Mrs . T e r r y Salway f o r the l ong hours spent i n t y p i n g and her a s s i s t a n c e w i t h l a y o u t o f the t h e s i s . x i i i 1 PART I INTRODUCTION 1.0 MAN AND THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: A RATIONALE FOR LANDSCAPE R E H A B I L I T A T I O N The d e v e l o p m e n t o f a sound r a t i o n a l e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e s s h o u l d no t be r o o t e d o n l y i n r e s o u r c e e c o n o m i c s , no r c a n t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s be c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o l e f a c t o r s u p p o r t i n g a p e r c e i v e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n n e e d . T h e r e must be a d e e p e r s e a r c h i n t o t h e b r o a d e r h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween man and the w i l d e r n e s s , be tween man ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s e n v i r o n m e n t and h i s c o m p l e t e d e p e n d e n c y on i t f o r s u r v i v a l . Much t h o u g h t has been e x p r e s s e d on t h i s d y n a m i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h a common t h r e a d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t man has f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e h i s n a t u r a l h a b i t a t as an a l 1 - e n c o m p a s s i n g e n t i t y w o r t h y o f a most d i l i g e n t s t e w a r d s h i p . As S imonds (1961) has s a i d , " d i v o r c e d f r o m h i s n a t u r a l h a b i t a t , (man) has a l m o s t f o r g o t t e n the g low and e x u b e r a n c e o f b e i n g a h e a l t h y a n i m a l , and f e e l i n g f u l l y a l i v e . " McHarg ( 1 9 6 9 ) , c l a r i f i e d t h e p o s i t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t : " C l e a r l y t h e p r o b l e m o f man and n a t u r e i s n o t one o f p r o v i d i n g a d e c o r a t i v e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e human p l a y , o r even a m e l i o r a t i n g t h e g r i m c i t y : i t i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s u s t a i n i n g n a t u r e as s o u r c e o f l i f e , m i l i e u , t e a c h e r , s a n c t u m , c h a l l e n g e , and most o f a l l o f r e d i s c o v e r i n g n a t u r e ' s c o r o l l a r y o f t h e unknown i n t h e s e l f , t he s o u r c e o f m e a n i n g . " The g l o b a l i n f e r e n c e o f t h e a u t h o r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s i s a l t e r e d somewhat upon e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a 2 e x p e r i e n c e . McTaggart-Cowan (1968) sugges ted t h a t d u r i n g the f i r s t c e n t u r i e s of s e t t l e m e n t , the o u t r i g h t d e s t r u c t i o n and f i n a l s ubm i s s i on of na tu re were power fu l o b j e c t i v e s . Yet the awareness of w i l d e r n e s s as a n a t i o n a l symbol has p a r a d o x i c a l l y e v o l v e d f rom t h i s very p o s i t i o n ; we a re consuming the d w i n d l i n g w i l d e r n e s s a t a f a s t e r - t h a n - e v e r r a t e , but s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f e e l the p s y c h o l o g i c a l need f o r , and seek c o m f o r t i n , the knowledge t h a t v a s t untouched w i l d e r n e s s s t i l l remains i n t a c t . R e a l i s m d i c t a t e s t h a t the w i l d e r n e s s encoun te red by the c o l o n i s t s i s no l o n g e r s a l v a g e a b l e , as the n a t u r a l a rea s of the c o n t i n e n t have been impacted by man to the e x t e n t t h a t few a rea s of t r u e w i l d e r n e s s r ema in . McTaggart-Cowan has l a b e l l e d the modern man 's t a s k as managing the "new w i l d e r n e s s " , a w i l d e r n e s s t h a t has the p o t e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n some semblance of e q u i l i b r i u m i n s p i t e of man 's c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e . E c o l o g i s t s , such as R i c k l e f s ( 1973 ) , have exp re s sed the v iew t h a t man has i ndeed p a r t i a l l y escaped c o n t r o l by n a t u r e , and t h a t the t a sk now i s t o r e d e s i g n h i s a c t i v i t i e s t o f i t back i n t o the s y s tem. P ragmat i c o u t l o o k s , such as those he l d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Union f o r the C o n s e r v a t i o n of Nature and N a t u r a l Re s ou r ce s , d e f i n e the need as l a nd s cape p l a n n i n g - - " a c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s t h a t s t r i v e s to make the be s t use f o r mankind of the l i m i t e d a rea of the e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , w h i l e c o n s e r v i n g i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y and b e a u t y " ( V a n i c e k , 1 9 7 4 ) . Whether man s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be t h e s o l e b e n e f i c i a r y of l a n d s c a p e p l a n n i n g i s e n t i r e l y a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n , b u t t h e g e n e r a l mood o f c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g on m a n ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p to n a t u r e has c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e t u r n i n g t h e remnant s c a r s of man ' s use and abuse o f t h e l a n d s c a p e t o a n a t u r a l i z e d c o n d i t i o n . Man must p e r c e i v e i n n a t u r e b o t h a h a b i t a t and f o r a g e g r o u n d , and y e t he must a l s o r e l y on i t f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g . To r e t u r n a s c a r r e d l a n d s c a p e t o i t s p r o x i m a t e o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n i s t o r e s t o r e a p o r t i o n of man ' s h a b i t a t , and h e n c e , i s a s t e p i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of ' f i t t i n g back i n t o t h e s y s t e m . ' To i m p r o v e t h e v i s u a l q u a l i t y o f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t i s i n e f f e c t t o i m p r e s s a v i s u a l image of o u r h i s t o r i c a l i d e n t i t y on t he c o l l e c t i v e mind of s o c i e t y . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t of l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n may e n l i g h t e n t h e a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m , b u t s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n v i n c e e c o n o m i c man of i t s w o r t h . I n s t i t u t i o n s may w e l l d e v e l o p p o l i c i e s w i t h a v i e w t o t h e b r o a d e r i s s u e s , b u t t h e r e i s l i t t l e hope t o r e v e g e t a t e a h ighway a l i g n m e n t on t he vague s p i r i t u a l o r " a e s t h e t i c " p r e m i s e a l o n e . P r o p o n e n t s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s must p r e s e n t 4 e v i d e n c e o f e r o s i o n c o n t r o l v a l u e s , i n c r e a s e d b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , i m p r o v e d e c o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y , m a i n t e n a n c e o f w i l d l i f e , p r e s e r v a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e p o t e n t i a l c r e a t i o n o f new s i t e s and a c t i v i t i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , p r e s e r v i n g l a n d s c a p e i n t e g r i t y t h r o u g h a r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p rog ram w i l l s e r v e t o m a i n t a i n a c o h e s i v e v i s u a l image o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and t h i s i n t u r n w i l l e n h a n c e r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . R e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s may be i n c u r r e d s h o u l d r e s o u r c e e x t r a c t i o n o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s be a l l o w e d t o d o m i n a t e t he l a n d s c a p e . K i n g (1977) d e f i n e s r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s as the r e c r e a t i o n a l b e n e f i t s f o r e g o n e as a r e s u l t o f l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e . K i n g r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a m e n i t y r e s o u r c e s a r e n o n - r e n e w a b l e and hence t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s a r e i m p o r t a n t i f a s o c i a l l y o p t i m a l f o r m o f l a n d use i s d e s i r e d . I t i s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t o v e r t i m e t h e b e n e f i t - c o s t a n a l y s i s w i l l f a v o u r p r e s e r v a t i o n , s i n c e t h e b e n e f i t s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e t he o p p o r t u n i t y c o s t s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and the c o s t s o f d e v e l o p i n g n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s w i l l i n c r e a s e o v e r t i m e ( K i n g , 1 9 7 7 ) . A t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , u r b a n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p rog rams may s e r v e t o p r o t e c t t he i n t e g r i t y o f open s p a c e n e t w o r k s , and t o m a i n t a i n c o r r i d o r s o f n a t u r a l p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s and w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s . 5 In t he f i n a l a n a l y s i s , man must r e c o g n i z e t h a t the a m e l i o r a t i o n of impac t s r e s u l t i n g from economic and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s not a q u e s t i o n of c h o i c e , but of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The s i t e s p e c i f i c reasons f o r l a n d use p l a n n i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a re v a r i a b l e , but the i n t e l l i g e n t o v e r a l l management of the env i ronment i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e . 1.1 THESIS OBJECTIVES The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e of the t h e s i s i s to d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e v e g e t a t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l management of d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e s i n o r d e r to deve lop a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management mode l . A h o l i s t i c approach i s adopted to encompass the broad range of v a r i a b l e s i n h e r e n t i n a comp le te r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p rog ram, i n c l u d i n g l a n d use p l a n n i n g , r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n program o b j e c t i v e s , the b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , ma i n t enance , m o n i t o r i n g , and p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l a n d use management. The main body of the t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , commencing w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . The second p a r t b u i l d s on the t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s of the r e v i ew and i l l u s t r a t e s t h r e e a p p l i e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , w h i l e the t h i r d component draws on the o b s e r v a t i o n s and r e s u l t s of these case s t u d i e s to e v o l v e a p l a n n i n g and management model f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e s . 6 R e f e r e n c e s f r om b o t a n y , e c o l o g y , s o i l s , l a n d s c a p e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e management , and r e c r e a t i o n have been c o l l a t e d and p r e s e n t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a sound o u t l i n e o f e s t a b l i s h e d k n o w l e d g e . The t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s were s e l e c t e d f r o m d i s t i n c t b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s i n W e s t e r n C a n a d a , and r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o b l e m s w i t h i n w i l d e r n e s s p a r k e n v i r o n m e n t s , b o t h i n t e r m s o f s i t e p h y s i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s . The d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f e a c h p r o j e c t i s u t i l i z e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and management model a p p l i c a b l e to a v a r i e t y o f l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o b l e m s i n d i s s i m i l a r e c o l o g i c a l z o n e s . P a s t work has e m p h a s i z e d s i n g u l a r t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o s p e c i f i c s i t e s , wherea s t h e h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h e need t o a d d r e s s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n as a l a n d s c a p e r e s o u r c e management p r o b l e m . The model e s t a b l i s h e s an o r g a n i z e d s y s t e m o f v a r i a b l e s t o c o n s i d e r d u r i n g t he r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s y e t r e m a i n s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s f u l f i l l i n g b a s i c management o b j e c t i v e s o f l a n d use p l a n n i n g , a e s t h e t i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y , low c o s t , r e d u c e d m a i n t e n a n c e , e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y , d u r a b i l i t y , and s p e e d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The c r i t i c a l p h a s e s o f m a i n t e n a n c e , m o n i t o r i n g and r e v i e w a r e s t r e s s e d , w h i l e t h e model s t r u c t u r e e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n t h e p l a n n i n g s y s t e m . PART I I : L ITERATURE REVIEW 7 2.0 OBJECT IVES AND DEFIN IT IONS The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w draws on s o u r c e s f r o m numerous r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s , i n c l u d i n g b o t a n y , e c o l o g y , s o i l s c i e n c e , l a n d s c a p e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n , f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e management and r e c r e a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o b u i l d on e s t a b l i s h e d know ledge i n t h e f i e l d s o f r e c l a m a t i o n and r e v e g e t a t i o n . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e r e v i e w i s t o i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l c o m p o n e n t s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a management m o d e l , y e t i t w i l l a l s o d e s c r i b e d e t a i l e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e " s t a t e o f the a r t " . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a management d e c i s i o n , and t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t may be r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o n t i n u u m o f v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i n t e n d e d e c o l o g i c a l p u r i t y o f t h e p r o g r a m . The l i t e r a t u r e i d e n t i f i e s d i f f e r e n c e s be tween r e s t o r a t i o n , r e c l a m a t i o n , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o more s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e p l a n n i n g g o a l s . Cook (1974) has d e f i n e d t h e t e r m s as f o l l o w s : " 1 . r e s t o r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s i t e b e f o r e d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l be d u p l i c a t e d ; 2. r e c l a m a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s i t e i s h a b i t a b l e by o r g a n i s m s t h a t were o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t ; 3. r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t t he l a n d w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o a f o rm and p r o d u c t i v i t y i n 8 c o n f o r m i t y w i t h a p r i o r l a n d use p l a n toward a ba l anced e c o l o g i c a l s t a t e t h a t does not c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . " The term . 1 r e h a b i 1 i t a t i o n 1 w i l l be adopted to encompass a l l the v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s , w i t h the v iew t h a t v a r i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s s imp l y imp l y a d i f f e r e n t degree of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . For a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s , the comp le te r e s t o r a t i o n of a d i s t u r b e d l a nd s cape t o a p r e - d i s t u r b a n c e c o n d i t i o n i s l a r g e l y beyond p r e s e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the complex b i o l o g i c a l community. 2.1 BIOPHYSICAL FACTORS In o r d e r t o unde r s t and f u l l y the f e a s i b i l i t y of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r the b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s w i t h p o t e n t i a l i n f l u e n c e on the s ucce s s o f the program. A r e v i ew of f o u r b a s i c a rea s of c o n c e r n w i l l se rve to form a sound b a s i s from which to a n a l y z e the v a r i o u s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Env i r onmen ta l f a c t o r s such as t e m p e r a t u r e , m o i s t u r e , r a d i a n t ene r gy , c o m p o s i t i o n of the a tmosphere , gas c o n t e n t of the s o i l , s o i l r e a c t i o n , b i o t i c f a c t o r s , and the supp l y of m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t e l e m e n t s , s hou ld be c o n s i d e r e d as an agg regate i n f l u e n c e on the l i f e of an o rgan i sm ( T i s d a l e and N e l s o n , 1975 ) . The b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s i n t e r a c t i n g on a g i ven s i t e w i l l a f f e c t g e r m i n a t i o n , 9 e s t a b l i s h m e n t , p l a n t v i g o u r , seed p r o d u c t i o n , r e s i s t a n c e to u s e , s u c c e s s i o n and c o m p o s i t i o n o r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m a t u r e c ommun i t y . 2.1.1 CLIMATIC FACTORS AND TOPOGRAPHY C l i m a t i c f a c t o r s and t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n c l u d e p r e c i p i t a t i o n , p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s , t e m p e r a t u r e , r a d i a t i o n , a s p e c t , s h a d i n g , snow c o l l e c t i o n , a l t i t u d e , l a t i t u d e , p e r m a f r o s t and n e e d l e i c e , a i r d r a i n a g e , p o s i t i o n on a s l o p e , e x p o s u r e , g r o w i n g s e a s o n , h e a t b u d g e t , and l e n g t h o f d a y . T h e s e d e t e r m i n i n g e l e m e n t s a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c r i t i c a l e d a p h i c and b i o t i c f a c t o r s . P r e c i p i t a t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e a r e l i m i t i n g t o t h e s p e c i e s on a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . F u r t h e r , more s u b t l e l o c a l i z e d d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e f o u n d i n a s p e c t v a r i a t i o n ; s o u t h f a c i n g s l o p e s r e c e i v e more s o l a r r a d i t i o n , and hence show h i g h e r e v a p o r a t i o n r a t e s and t e m p e r a t u r e s . E x c e s s i v e e x p o s u r e may c o n t r i b u t e t o d r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s , and may a l s o l e a v e p l a n t s p r o n e t o wind d e s i c c a t i o n ( D o u g l a s , 1 9 7 5 ) . The p o s i t i o n o f a r e h a b i 1 i t a t i o n l 7 r o j e c t on a s l o p e i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o e x p o s u r e , as l o w e r s l o p e s a r e e x p o s e d t o s u n s h i n e f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r p e r i o d t h a n upper s l o p e s . 10 L o c a l m i c r o - c l i m a t e w i l l f u r t h e r m o d i f y t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f s p e c i e s t h r o u g h such d i f f e r e n c e s as s h a d i n g p a t t e r n s , snow c o l l e c t i o n and a i r d r a i n a g e . C l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a r e n o t a b l y more p e r v a s i v e i n e x t r e m e l o c a t i o n s such as i n a l p i n e o r a r c t i c t u n d r a . L a t i t u d e and a l t i t u d e have a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e g rowth p o t e n t i a l o f p l a n t s t h r o u g h s e v e r e r e s t r i c t i o n s i n a v a i l a b l e s o i l m o i s t u r e , l e n g t h o f g r o w i n g s e a s o n , and t e m p e r a t u r e . In a l p i n e s i t u a t i o n s s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e s p o r a d i c low t e m p e r a t u r e s d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n , a b r a s i o n by w ind due t o i c e and s o i l p a r t i c l e s , l o w e r e d s o i l m o i s t u r e due t o f r o s t , u p r o o t i n g o f p l a n t s by n e e d l e - i c e , and h i g h r a d i a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n summer d r o u g h t (B rown, J o h n s t o n & J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 8 ) . N e e d l e i c e has been shown t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t a f f e c t on s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t by c a u s i n g h i g h l y e r o d a b l e s o i l s u r f a c e s , damaged s e e d l i n g s , and movement o f s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f m a t e r i a l down s l o p e s ( B r i n k , Makkay , F r e y m a n , and P e a r c e , 1 9 6 4 ) . A l l o f t h e s e c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s have a b e a r i n g on t h e s l ow r a t e o f p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n a l p i n e a r e a s . S t u d i e s i n t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n s o f C o l o r a d o have shown t h a t some t u n d r a damaged by r e l a t i v e l y few s e a s o n s o f human t r a m p l i n g w i l l r e q u i r e s e v e r a l c e n t u r i e s t o r e b u i l d a p e r s i s t e n t c l i m a x e c o s y s t e m ( W i l l a r d and M a r n , 1 9 7 1 ) . The same r e s e a r c h 11 d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f o l l o w i n g one s e a s o n o f use some t u n d r a e c o s y s t e m s can r e c o v e r t o v i r t u a l n a t u r a l f o r m , b u t t h a t i f t h e r e i s more t h a n one s e a s o n o f u s e , many more y e a r s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r r e c o v e r y . A r c t i c t u n d r a z o n e s a r e p r o b l e m a t i c due t o many o f t he same c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t a l p i n e a r e a s . However , the s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d g r o w i n g s e a s o n , a l m o s t c o n t i n u o u s summer d a y l i g h t , and e x t e n s i v e p e r m a f r o s t a r e u n i q u e f a c t o r s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , i f p e r m a f r o s t l e n s e s a r e e x p o s e d t o s o l a r r a d i t i o n by e x p o s u r e , t he i c e w i l l thaw c a u s i n g s o i l c o l l a p s e and a c c e l e r a t e d e r o s i o n ( J o h n s o n , Q u i n c y and Brown, 1 9 7 7 ) . 2 . 1 . 2 EDAPHIC FACTORS S o i l - p l a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e c r i t i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e s u c c e s s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m . S e v e r a l w o r k e r s have i d e n t i f i e d s o i l m o i s t u r e as t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t , b u t s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e and c h e m i s t r y a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r y f a c t o r s ( G a s k i n e t a l , 1 9 7 9 ; Brown, 1 9 7 6 ) . S o i l m o i s t u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . C h e m i s t r y c o m p o n e n t s i n c l u d e t y p e o f b e d r o c k f o r m a t i o n , pH v a l u e , c a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y , and n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g . S o i l t e x t u r e , and i t s i n f l u e n c e on b u l k d e n s i t y , t y p e s o f s o i l s , and m y c o r r h i z a l o r g a n i s m s a r e a l s o 12 f a c t o r s w h i c h t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t . The o v e r a l l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e c o l l e c t i v e e d a p h i c f a c t o r s i n t h e management o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s s h o u l d not be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d , hence t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c o v e r s a b r o a d r ange o f b a s i c e l e m e n t s c r i t i c a l t o t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . .1 S o i l M o i s t u r e S o i l m o i s t u r e a f f e c t s t h e g e r m i n a t i o n and s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n t s . G a s k i n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , f o u n d m o i s t u r e t o be t h e m a j o r g rowth l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n a n o r t h e r n r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o j e c t , w h i l e t e m p e r a t u r e was c o n s i d e r e d s e c o n d a r y . E r r i n g t o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) , s t u d i e d n a t u r a l r e v e g e t a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d s i t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and c o n c l u d e d t h a t s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y was t h e most common c a u s e o f s l o w r e v e g e t a t i o n . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e was p r e s e n t e d by Brown ( 1 9 7 6 ) , i n f i n d i n g t h a t s e e d l i n g m o r t a l i t y r e s u l t s more f r o m d r o u g h t i n t h e u p p e r 15 cm o f s o i l t h a n f rom n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y o r s o i l t o x i c i t y . S o i l m o i s t u r e i s l o c a l l y a f f e c t e d by s l o p e , a s p e c t , t e x t u r e , c o l o u r , w ind e x p o s u r e and e v a p o r a t i o n ( E r r i n g t o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e c a s e o f t e x t u r e , c o a r s e s o i l s p e r m i t g r e a t e r i n f i l t r a t i o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , d e c r e a s e t h e amount o f w a t e r a v a i l a b l e t o r o o t s . F i n e r t e x t u r e d s o i l s have s m a l l e r 1 3 p o r e s , and i n c r e a s e d a v a i l a b l e c a p i l l a r y w a t e r . However , t h e h i g h s u r f a c e t e n s i o n o f w a t e r a d h e r i n g t o s m a l l p a r t i c l e s may, i n f a c t , h i n d e r g e r m i n a t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 4 ) . A s p e c t has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n f r o m r a i n - b e a r i n g w i n d s , b u t d r y i n g w i n d s may i n c r e a s e t h e e v a p o r a t i o n on e x p o s e d s l o p e s ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . S o i l m o i s t u r e a l s o may have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n ; f o r examp le as w a t e r c o n t e n t i n c r e a s e s , oxygen l e v e l d e c r e a s e s and i o n u p t a k e i s r e d u c e d ( T i s d a l e and N e l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . Low m o i s t u r e may a d d i t i o n a l l y a f f e c t m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s , and hence t h e a v a i l a b l e , n i t r o g e n ( T i s d a l e & N e l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . .2 S o i l T e m p e r a t u r e S o i l t e m p e r a t u r e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s o i l m o i s t u r e , bu t i s s i g n i f i c a n t enough t o c o n s i d e r u n d e r a s e p a r a t e h e a d i n g . T e m p e r a t u r e becomes a d e t e r m i n a n t i n a l p i n e o r a r c t i c t u n d r a z o n e s where a low h e a t b u d g e t , i n t e n s e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n , f r o s t , and p e r m a f r o s t a r e f a c t o r s . However , s e a s o n a l and d i u r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e i n a l l c l i m a t i c z o n e s may a l s o a f f e c t p l a n t g rowth and s u r v i v a l . In a l p i n e z o n e s where t e m p e r a t u r e s d r o p be l ow 0°C d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g s e a s o n , m e r i s t e m a t i c t i s s u e damage on s p e c i e s no t c o l d h a r d y w i l l o c c u r 14 (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , f r o s t l o w e r s t h e s o i l w a t e r p o t e n t i a l , t h u s l i m i t i n g m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . S o i l pH i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g t h e w i n t e r months and d e c r e a s e s i n summer. T h i s c y c l e i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e d u c t i o n o f m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y a t low t e m p e r a t u r e s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t r e d u c t i o n i n r e l e a s e o f c a r b o n d i o x i d e w h i c h n o r m a l l y c o m b i n e s w i t h w a t e r t o f o r m c a r b o n i c a c i d . ( T i s d a l e & N e l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . D i u r n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s i n s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e w i l l o c c u r i f v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r i s removed f r o m a s i t e . V e g e t a t i o n n o r m a l l y a c t s as an i n s u l a t i v e b a r r i e r t o t h e f l o w o f s e n s i b l e h e a t , and remova l o f c o v e r w i l l r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d d a i l y t e m p e r a t u r e s , and d e c r e a s e d n i g h t t e m p e r a t u r e s (Babb & B l i s s , 1 9 7 4 ) . O t h e r e f f e c t s o f low t e m p e r a t u r e i n c l u d e r e t a r d a t i o n o f n u t r i e n t a b s o r p t i o n . The o p p o s i t e p r o b l e m o f h i g h r a d i a t i o n e v i d e n t i n a l p i n e r e g i o n s r e s u l t s i n h i g h s o i l and p l a n t s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s w h i c h i n t u r n c a u s e summer d r o u g h t (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . .3 S o i l C h e m i s t r y S o i l c h e m i s t r y i s a dynamic s t a t e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o b o t h m o i s t u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e , as w e l l as s t r u c t u r e and m i c r o b i a l a c t i v i t y . The n u t r i e n t b a l a n c e o f s o i l s w i l l a l s o be 15 c o n s i d e r e d u n d e r t h e s o i l c h e m i s t r y h e a d i n g . A l t h o u g h s o i l m o i s t u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e were i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r a s f a c t o r s somewhat more c r i t i c a l t o g e r m i n a t i o n and p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t on a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e , i t i s c l e a r t h a t s o i l c h e m i s t r y p l a y s a m a j o r r o l e i n t h e l o n g t e r m v i g o u r and s u r v i v a l o f t h e p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s i t e g e o l o g y i s i m p o r t a n t i n r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p l a n n i n g , as i t d e f i n e s c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e l o c a l s o i l . I gneous r o c k s , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e r i c h i n a l u m i n o - s i 1 i c a t e m i n e r a l s w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s o f c a l c i u m , magnes ium, and p o t a s s i u m . However , as a l u m i n o - s i 1 i c a t e m i n e r a l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y w e a t h e r e d , t h e y a r e r a t h e r s p a r s e l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n most s e d i m e n t a r y r o c k s ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 4 ) . The g e o l o g i c a l o r i g i n o f a s i t e i s e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i n e n t i n a l p i n e a r e a s , where s o i l s a r e y o u n g and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . As s o i l amendments must be more s i t e s p e c i f i c , a l p i n e s o i l s may be more d i f f i c u l t t o d e a l w i t h . D o t z e n k o ( 1 9 6 7 ) , has s u g g e s t e d f u r t h e r t h a t change r e s u l t i n g f r o m e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o d i f i c a t i o n i s more c r i t i c a l i n t h e a l p i n e s i t u a t i o n , s i n c e s o i l s a r e s h a l l o w e r and more v a r i a b l e due t o t h e d i v e r s i t y o f c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y e v o l v e d . The g e o l o g i c a l h i s t o r y may a l s o i d e n t i f y t he p o s s i b i l i t y o f a c i d m i n e r a l s o i l s f r e q u e n t l y h i g h i n p o t e n t i a l l y t o x i c m i n e r a l s s u c h as a l u m i n u m , manganese , and i r o n ( T i s d a l e and N e l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . 16 C a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y and the pH f a c t o r a r e a l s o d e t e r m i n a n t s o f p l a n t v i g o u r . S o i l s w i t h a low c a t i o n e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y r e q u i r e more f r e q u e n t f e r t i l i z a t i o n s and pH a l t e r a t i o n ; a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p rog ram r e q u i r i n g such e x c e s s i v e m a i n t e n a n c e must be e v a l u a t e d c a r e f u l l y t o i d e n t i f y ways o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i o n e x c h a n g e . F o r opt imum n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y , a pH o f 5.5 - 7.0 i s g e n e r a l l y recommended, ( F u r u t a , 1 9 7 4 ) , w h e r e a s t h e US EPA, ( 1 9 7 5 ) , s u g g e s t s pH 6.5 f o r m i n e r a l s o i l s , and 5.5 f o r o r g a n i c s o i l s . The r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p l a n n e r s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t a low pH may r e s u l t i n an e x c e s s o f t o x i c c a t i o n s and n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y , wherea s a h i g h pH i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c a l c a r e o u s , s a l i n e s o i l s . The s o i l n u t r i e n t r e g i m e , and t h e n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p l a n t a r e key e l e m e n t s i n s o i l c h e m i s t r y . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t s i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e amount o f n u t r i e n t s and t h e r a t e o f n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g ( J o h n s o n and C l e v e , 1 9 7 6 ) . C a r b o n , h y d r o g e n , and oxygen a r e s u p p l i e d i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e a i r , w h e r e a s o t h e r n u t r i e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f r om the s o i l . I n c r e a s e d b u l k d e n s i t y t h r o u g h s o i l c o m p a c t i o n and e x c e s s i v e amounts o f w a t e r r e d u c e s t h e l e v e l o f o x y g e n , t h u s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e , m o i s t u r e , and c h e m i s t r y . T e m p e r a t u r e may a l s o 1 7 a f f e c t t h e t o x i c i t y o f s o i l i f e v a p o r a t i o n e x c e e d s p r e c i p i t a t i o n and c a u s e s an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s o d i u m c h l o r i d e and o t h e r s a l t s a t ° t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e s o i l ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . S e v e r a l w o r k e r s have n o t e d t h a t d i s t u r b e d s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y on c o a r s e t e x t u r e d s o i l s a r e u s u a l l y d e f i c i e n t i n n i t r o g e n ( E r r i n g t o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . .4 S o i l S t r u c t u r e and T e x t u r e S o i l s t r u c t u r e and t e x t u r e have been m e n t i o n e d s e v e r a l t i m e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r e d a p h i c f a c t o r s . S t r u c t u r e i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n when d e a l i n g w i t h s i t e s where human use and t h e c o n s e q u e n t t r a m p l i n g and s o i l c o m p a c t i o n a r e e n v i s i o n e d . S o i l s t r u c t u r e , o r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f g r a n u l e s r e f e r s t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a g g r e g a t e s a r e d e v e l o p e d and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d e s c r i p t i o n s s u c h as p l a t y , p r i s m a t i c , b l o c k y o r g r a n u l a r . A s o i l p o s s e s s i n g a good a g g r e g a t e s t r u c t u r e has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be w e l 1 - d r a i n e d , w e l 1 - a e r a t e d , and p r o v i d e s good c o n d i t i o n s f o r s e e d g e r m i n a t i o n and s e e d l i n g g rowth ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 9 ) . The s t a b i l i t y o f a s o i l a g g r e g a t e , and s u b s o i l l a y e r i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work as heavy m a c h i n e r y may d e s t r o y c e r t a i n s o i l q u a l i t i e s . I t i s t he t y p e o f s u b s t r a t e a f t e r c o n s t r u c t i o n , such as o r g a n i c m a t t e r , g r a v e l , m i n e r a l o r a m i x t u r e o f t o p s o i l and s u b s o i l , w h i c h w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e a e r a t i o n , w a t e r c o n t e n t , and n u t r i e n t r eg ime ( J o h n s o n and C l e v e , 1 9 7 6 ) . S u b s u r f a c e i n s t a b i l i t y may r e s u l t when t h e s h e a r s t r e s s d e v e l o p i n g be tween l a y e r s o f s o i l s e x c e e d s s h e a r s t r e n g t h ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . S o i l s t r u c t u r e d e t e r m i n e s b u l k d e n s i t y t o a g r e a t e x t e n t , w i t h h i g h e r d e n s i t i e s i n d i c a t i v e o f a c o m p a c t e d s o i l w i t h s m a l l e r p o r e s p a c e s . H i gh b u l k d e n s i t i e s i n h i b i t t h e e m e r g e n c e o f s e e d l i n g s , c a u s e r e s i s t a n c e t o r o o t p e n e t r a t i o n , and s l o w t h e r a t e o f oxygen d i f f u s i o n i n t o s o i l p o r e s ( T i s d a l e and N e l s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . A n a l y s i s o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e t h e humus and l i t t e r l a y e r s , as t h e s e h e l p t o m a i n t a i n s o i l f e r t i l i t y t h r o u g h the d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f o r g a n i c s u b s t a n c e t o C 0 2 » H 2 0 ' a n d c a t i o n - y i e l d i n g m i n e r a l s a l t s . In a d d i t i o n , an a b u n d a n c e o f humus and l i t t e r has been d e m o n s t r a t e d t o i m p r o v e t h e r e s i s t a n c e o f a s i t e t o t r a m p l i n g ( J a m e s , e t a l 1 976) S o i l t e x t u r e i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s t r u c t u r e , and t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a s i t e as g r a v e l , s a n d , s i l t , c l a y , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n t h e r e o f , d e t e r m i n e s a e r a t i o n , w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , and e a s e o f d r a i n a g e . C e r t a i n s o i l s , s u c h as g r a v e l s , a r e p r o n e t o n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y and d r o u g h t , w h e r e a s c l a y shows h i g h w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y w i t h d e f e c t i v e a e r a t i o n and s l ow p e r c o l a t i o n . Sandy s o i l s have a t e n d e n c y t o become a c i d i c , as w e l l as b e i n g t y p i c a l l y p o o r i n n u t r i e n t s , due t o 19 low s u r f a c e a r e a . S i l t s , show s u p e r i o r w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y w i t h r e l a t i v e l y good a e r a t i o n , y e t management o f s i l t s o i l s i s g e n e r a l l y d i f f i c u l t ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 4 ) . A b a l a n c e d m i x t u r e o f s o i l p a r t i c l e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f l oam f o r m i n g t h e d o m i n a n t t e x t u r e o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e wou ld be a r a r e o c c u r r e n c e , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o r p o r a t e an a n a l y s i s o f s t r u c t u r e and t e x t u r e t o e n s u r e t h a t p r o p e r a m e l i o r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s a r e a p p l i e d . I t s h o u l d be k e p t i n mind t h a t t h e o r i g i n o f s o i l s may a l s o a f f e c t s t r u c t u r e , as i n a l p i n e a r e a s where w e a k l y d e v e l o p e d s o i l s a r e due t o t h e s l ow m e c h a n i c a l b reakdown o f r o c k (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . .5 M i c r o - o r g a n i s m s and M y c o r r h i z a l F u n g i The humus and o r g a n i c l i t t e r l a y e r were i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o s o i l f e r t i l i t y by s e r v i n g as t h e f o o d o f n u t r i e n t s f o r m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s . As t h e l i t t e r o r s u b s t r a t e i s a t t a c k e d by m i c r o b e s and s o i l a n i m a l s , enzymes a r e s e c r e t e d w h i c h t r a n s f o r m t h e s u b s t r a t e i n t o d i f f u s i b l e c a r b o n compounds a v a i l a b l e f o r a b s o r p t i o n by t h e p l a n t ( L a n d s c a p e R e c l a m a t i o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . D e c o m p o s i t i o n f o r m s ammonia as b a c t e r i a o x i d i z e s t he c a r b o n compounds i n t o n i t r i t e s and u s a b l e n i t r a t e s . The p r o c e s s o f n i t r i f i c a t i o n o c c u r s mos t r e a d i l y i n s o i l s w i t h good c a t i o n - e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y , w a t e r , f r e e o x y g e n , and a c c e p t a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e . R e c e n t r e c l a m a t i o n work has shown t h a t e c o l o g i c a l l y a d a p t e d e c t o - m y c o r r h i z a l f u n g i c a n have a p r o n o u n c e d e f f e c t on t h e g rowth o f t r e e s , as w e l l a s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f g r a s s e s and h e r b s (Marx , 1 9 7 5 ) . I n d e e d , s t u d i e s by Marx (1975) have shown t h a t some t r e e s p e c i e s have an o b l i g a t e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r s p e c i f i c e c t o - m y c o r r h i z a e . T h i s f a c t o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e amount o f a v a i l a b l e i n o c u l u m on s e e d s u t i l i z e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s s h o u l d be m a x i m i z e d . 2 . 1 . 3 B IOTIC FACTORS W h i l e c l i m a t e , t o p o g r a p h y , and s o i l s a r e c r i t i c a l d e t e r m i n a n t s i n t h e p l a n n i n g and s u c c e s s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , b i o t i c f a c t o r s a r e u s u a l l y t h e most r e a d i l y e v i d e n t f rom t h e management p e r s p e c t i v e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r f a i l u r e o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t i s o f t e n j u d g e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e h e a l t h and g rowth o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l and t h e i m p l i c i t c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h u s , when r e v i e w i n g b i o t i c f a c t o r s , t h e p r i m a r y t o o l s f o r v e g e t a t i v e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n a r e b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e b i o t i c r e g i m e must encompas s g r e a t d e a l more t h a n s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , a d a p t a b i l i t y , and a s s u r a n c e o f s u r v i v a l . A b r o a d e r e c o l o g i c a l o u t l o o k i s n e c e s s a r y i f n a t u r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e d i s t u r b e d s i t e i s an 21 e x p r e s s e d o b j e c t i v e . Some o f t h e more p e r t i n e n t e c o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e commun i t y and p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s , i n t r a - and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n , s u c c e s s i o n , s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y , communi ty s t r u c t u r e and p l a n t - w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s . The v e g e t a t i v e p h a s e s o f s e e d d i s p e r s a l , g e r m i n a t i o n , s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t , f l o w e r i n g and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t e n a r e s u b j e c t e d t o v e r y r i g o r o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s e s , and t h e f i n a l s u r v i v a l o f a p l a n t i n g t h u s r e q u i r e s a c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s p r i o r t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s . .1 P o p u l a t i o n Dynamic s The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w w i l l p r o v i d e an o v e r v i e w o f the b i o t i c v a r i a b l e s t o be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n e q u a t i o n w h i l e no a t t e m p t a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d y o f p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s l i t e r a t u r e i s s o u g h t . I n t r a and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n be tween s p e c i e s , s u c c e s s i o n , s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y , and communi ty s t r u c t u r e a r e e c o l o g i c a l n o t a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i c h d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e p a t t e r n o f change on a r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n s i t e . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s a r e o f t e n a n a l o g o u s t o a u t o g e n i c o r p r i m a r y s u c c e s s i o n o f b a r e g r o u n d , b u t may a l s o be s i m i l a r t o s e c o n d a r y s u c c e s s i o n i n v o l v i n g t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n ( W i l l i s , 1 9 7 9 ; M u e l 1 e r - D o m b o i s & E l l e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p l a n t i n g s t r a t e g y c o u l d commence as a s e r a i communi ty w i t h f u r t h e r c h a n g e s i n t h e p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n a n t i c i p a t e d , o r , a l t e r n a t i v e l y , some a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a ' c l i m a x ' communi ty may be e x p e d i e n t . Such p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be made o n l y w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o d o m i n a n t and s u b o r d i n a t e s p e c i e s i n t h e d e s i r e d p l a n t c o m m u n i t y . As Odum (1969) has s a i d , s u c c e s s i o n i s d i r e c t i o n a l and p r e d i c t a b l e , and r e s u l t s f r o m the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t by t h e c o m m u n i t y . E a r l y s t a g e s o f s u c c e s s i o n t y p i c a l l y a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y , l i n e a r f o o d webs, p i o n e e r a n n u a l s p e c i e s w i t h h i g h seed d i s p e r s a l r a t e s , and r a p i d p r o d u c t i o n o f s h o o t b i o m a s s (Odum, 1969 ; R i c k l e f s , 1 9 7 3 ) . As e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new s p e c i e s i n t h e communi ty m o d i f i e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , s u c c e s s i o n o c c u r s and good c o m p e t i t o r s w i t h t y p i c a l l y l a r g e s e e d s , r e l a t i v e l y p o o r d i s p e r s a l , s l o w e r g r o w t h , and t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f b i o m a s s p r o d u c t i o n t o r o o t and stem t i s s u e become d o m i n a n t ( R i c k l e f s , 1 9 7 3 ) . As t h e communi ty d e v e l o p s , i n c r e a s e d s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y and s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y a r e u s u a l l y e v i d e n t , w i t h a g e n e r a l s h i f t t o g r e a t e r i n t e r n a l s t a b i l i t y (Odum, 1 9 6 9 ) . ( T h e r e a r e some t r e n d s wh i ch work a g a i n s t t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n . ) S p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y and a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f r e s i l i e n c e w i l l o n l y c o n t i n u e t o i n c r e a s e i f a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f h a b i t a t n i c h e s o c c u r s . P i e l o u (1966) f o u n d t h a t d e c r e a s e d d i v e r s i t y o v e r t i m e wou ld r e s u l t i f t h e c o l o n i z i n g p o p u l a t i o n was d e n s e , u n s e g r e g a t e d and c o n f i n e d t o t h e h a b i t a t s s u i t e d t o i t . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t h e i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n s u p p o r t e d s e v e r a l s i n g l e - s p e c i e s g r o u p s , and i n t r a - s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n was t h e c h i e f c a u s e o f d e a t h s , t h e n t h e r e wou ld be an i n c r e a s e i n p a t t e r n d i v e r s i t y . O t h e r w o r k e r s d e s c r i b e a r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n d i v e r s i t y , f o l l o w e d by a d e c r e a s e o r i n some i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e v e r s e t r e n d . In c o a s t a l P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i / G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n s t a n d s t h e s t r o n g p o s t - d i s t u r b a n c e s u b c a n o p y o f G a u l t h e r i a  s h a l I o n i n h i b i t s t h e c o m p e t i t i v e a b i l i t y o f o t h e r p l a n t s , c a u s i n g a l a c k o f d i v e r s i t y . However , as t he o v e r s t o r y P.  menz i e s i i d e v e l o p s , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f G. s h a l l o n d e c l i n e s and o p p o r t u n i s t i c s p e c i e s c o l o n i z e , t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y ( L o n g , 1 9 7 7 ) . C o m p e t i t i o n i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n t h e s u r v i v a l o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n t i n g , and i t i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o s u c c e s s i o n and s p e c i e s d i v e r s i t y . When t h e c o l o n i z i n g pha se o f p r i m a r y s u c c e s s i o n has p r o c e e d e d t o t h e p o i n t where i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r f e r e w i t h each o t h e r , t h e n t h e i n t r i n s i c r a t e o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e and r a t e o f d i s p e r s a l have d e c l i n i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f a commun i ty ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . As i n t e r a c t i o n o r " c o m p e t i t i o n " now d o m i n a t e , t h e 24 d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s seek t o d i v i d e up t h e r e s o u r c e s p e c t r u m o f l i g h t , w a t e r , and n u t r i e n t s . The r e s o u r c e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d u n e v e n l y i n a h e t e r o g e n e o u s e n v i r o n m e n t , a l l o w i n g p l a n t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s i n a s p e c i a l i z e d h a b i t a t n i c h e . D i v e r s i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d as many p l a n t f o rms b y - p a s s t h e s t r u g g l e f o r r e s o u r c e s by u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , l e gumes f i x a t m o s p h e r i c n i t r o g e n t h r o u g h t h e use o f m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s , and t h u s e s c a p e the p r o b l e m o f t h e common r e s o u r c e p o o l ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . O t h e r p l a n t s may s u r v i v e c o m p e t i t i o n by s e e k i n g r e s o u r c e s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , by r o o t i n g a t d i f f e r e n t d e p t h s , o r p e a k i n g l e a f p r o d u c t i o n a t a l a t e r o r e a r l i e r d a t e . The common r e h a b i l i t a t i o n seed s p e c i e s o f L o l i u m p e r e n n e and T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s a r e c a p a b l e o f c o - e x i s t i n g on a s i t e p a r t i a l l y b e c a u s e L. p e r e n n e p r o d u c e s l e a v e s i n J u n e and l a t e A u g u s t , w h e r e a s T . r e p e n s p e a k s i n J u l y . T h i s t e m p o r a l n i c h e s e p a r a t i o n p r e v e n t s L. P e r e n n e f r o m d o m i n a t i n g and c h o k i n g o u t T . r e p e n s ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a n t i c i p a t e d i n t r a and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n as t h i s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n o v e r t i m e . D i r e c t c o m p e t i t o r s v i e f o r t he same r e s o u r c e s by o c c u p y i n g t h e same n i c h e . Dependen t s p e c i e s c a n o n l y e x i s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r n i c h e b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n o t h e r p l a n t , w h e r e a s c o m p l e m e n t a r y s p e c i e s a v o i d c o m p e t i t i o n by o c c u p y i n g d i f f e r e n t h a b i t a t , l i f e - f o r m , p h e n o l o g i c a l , o r r e g e n e r a t i o n n i c h e s ( G r u b b , 1977 and M u e l 1 e r - D a m b o i s and E l l e n b e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . .2 E s t a b l i shment The d i s c u s s i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s has i l l u s t r a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n w h i c h a n t i c i p a t e s t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t h e e n t i r e p l a n t c o m m u n i t y , r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y i d e n t i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s f o r p l a n t i n g . However , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be g i v e n t o t h e s p e c i e s - s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n , s e e d l i n g e m e r g e n c e , and e s t a b l i s h m e n t . H a r p e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , s t a t e s t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s e e d l i n g s i n v o l v e s p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n i s t i c e v e n t s , w i t h t h e s e e d l i n g p o p u l a t i o n d e p e n d e n t on a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e e d and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f ' s a f e s i t e s ' . I t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n seed s i z e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s , and h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t c a n d e t e r m i n e s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . A ' s a f e s i t e ' i s d e f i n e d by H a r p e r as a s i t e p o s s e s s i n g s t i m u l i f o r b r e a k i n g d o r m a n c y , c o n d i t i o n s f o r g e r m i n a t i o n , and r e s o u r c e s f o r c o n s u m p t i o n i n t h e c o u r s e o f g e r m i n a t i o n , as w e l l as t h e l a c k o f s p e c i f i c h a z a r d s a f t e r s e e d l i n g e m e r g e n c e . The p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e e d and i t s a b i l i t y t o f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e m i c r o - s i t e s w i l l , o f c o u r s e , d e t e r m i n e t h e s u c c e s s o f a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n o f s e e d s . S h e l d o n (1974) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s h a p e , s i z e , and p o s i t i o n o f t h e seed l y i n g on t he s u r f a c e a r e a l l c r i t i c a l . F o r e x a m p l e , l a r g e r rough s e e d s may be more s e n s i t i v e t o w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y and l o s s , as e v a p o r a t i o n may c a u s e d e s i c c a t i o n and d e a t h . In c o n t r a s t , s m a l l e r s e e d s may be more r e s i s t a n t t o w a t e r l o s s . G e n e r a l l y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t phase a r e l e s s s p e c i f i c t h a n t h o s e f o r g e r m i n a t i o n . P r o v i d e d the r a d i c l e i s a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e t h e s o i l , t h e c h a n c e s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e h i g h . However , s o i l c o m p a c t i o n may have a s e r i o u s e f f e c t - a r a d i c l e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a cemented s o i l s u r f a c e w i l l n o t r e s u l t i n an e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t . The v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s u b s t r a t e may a f f e c t the numbers and p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s o f s e e d s t h a t g e r m i n a t e and emerge as s e e d l i n g s . S o i l t e x t u r e and s e a s o n a l e f f e c t s o f r a i n a r e o t h e r f a c t o r s t o c o n s i d e r i n s e e d l i n g e m e r g e n c e . S m a l l - s e e d e d a n n u a l s g e n e r a l l y must g e r m i n a t e and emerge r a p i d l y i f the s e e d l i n g i s t o s u r v i v e t h e o n s e t o f a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a d a p t a t i o n w h i c h a l l o w s a n n u a l s t o i n h a b i t open d i s t u r b e d g r o u n d ( S h e l d o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t phase i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l s e e d s g e r m i n a t i n g and e m e r g i n g i n v e r y s p e c i f i c m i c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t s . The p l a n t p o p u l a t i o n c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , be c o n s i d e r e d e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l i t c an show r e s i s t a n c e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e s and i s a b l e t o r e p r o d u c e . U l t i m a t e l y , i t may be a r g u e d t h a t t h r o u g h s u c c e s s i o n o r g r o s s e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e , no p o p u l a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d e s t a b l i s h e d - t h e d y n a m i c s o f t h e s y s tem o v e r s e a s o n s , d e c a d e s , o r c e n t u r i e s p r e c l u d e s any n o t i o n o f a b s o l u t e p e r m a n e n c e . .3 P l a n t / W i l d l i f e I n t e r a c t i o n s P l a n t / w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a r e h a b i l i t a t e d l a n d s c a p e i n c l u d e p r e d a t o r - p r e y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e v i g o u r o f p l a n t s , b u t may a l s o encompass i m p a c t s on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f w i l d l i f e . F o r examp le a h i ghway c o r r i d o r f r e s h l y r e v e g e t a t e d w i l l c r e a t e a new f o r e s t edge c o n d i t i o n amenab le t o b r o w s i n g , bu t i f t h e a n i m a l s o v e r - g r a z e a t c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s , t h e c o v e r s p e c i e s may d e c l i n e . J o h n s o n e t a l ( 1 9 7 7 ) r e p o r t e d heavy moose b r o w s i n g o f newly p l a n t e d l u s h s t a n d s o f a n n u a l r y e a l o n g t h e T r a n s - A l a s k a p i p e l i n e . Roden t s and l e p o r i d s have p r o v e n t o be a m a j o r p r o b l e m i n r e f o r e s t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , bu t u n g u l a t e b r o w s i n g may a l s o have an u n d e s i r a b l e e f f e c t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g p l a n t i n g ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . The p r e s s u r e e x e r t e d by h e r b i v o r e s on d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s may r e d u c e c o m p e t i t i v e a b i l i t y and p e r m i t a d d i t i o n a l s u b o r d i n a t e , p o s s i b l y u n d e s i r a b l e , s p e c i e s t o c o - e x i s t ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , a p r e d a t o r may augment t h e monopo l y o f u n p a l a t a b l e s p e c i e s and may d e c r e a s e t h a t o f a p a l a t a b l e o n e . I n s e c t i n f e s t a t i o n s o f p l a n t e d m o n o c u l t u r e s c o u l d have d i s a s t r o u s e f f e c t s on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , hence l e n d i n g f u r t h e r c r e d e n c e t o t h e goa l o f p l a n n i n g f o r communi ty d i v e r s i t y . From an e c o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , p r e d a t o r s have a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on t he p l a n t commun i ty by c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d i v e r s i t y as a g e n t s o f s eed d i s p e r s a l and s e l e c t i v e f e e d i n g ( H a r p e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , d i s t u r b a n c e s s u c h as b u r r o w i n g w i l l c r e a t e l o c a l i z e d f o c i f o r p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n s . I f e n h a n c e m e n t o f w i l d l i f e v a l u e s i s a s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h s h o u l d be a d o p t e d , such as p l a n t i n g p a l a t a b l e s p e c i e s on s o u t h - f a c i n g s l o p e s f o r g r e a t e r p o t e n t i a l w i n t e r use by a n i m a l s ( E t t e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . F r i s c h k n e c h t (1978) s t a t e s t h a t h a b i t a t i m p r o v e m e n t f o r t h e w i l d l i f e component i n v o l v e s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f c o v e r , w a t e r , s h e l t e r , f o o d s o u r c e s , and s p a c e t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . H a b i t a t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r v a r i o u s s p e c i e s d i f f e r . As an e x a m p l e , h i d i n g c o v e r f o r e l k i s d e f i n e d as v e g e t a t i o n c a p a b l e o f c o n c e a l i n g 90% o f an e l k f r o m v i e w o f a p e r s o n 200 29 f e e t away (Thomas , 1 9 7 6 ) . The opt imum s i z e o f t h e r m a l c o v e r o f c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s on summer o r t r a n s i t o r y r ange s h o u l d encompas s f r o m 3 0 - 6 0 a c r e s ( F r i s c h k n e c h t , 1 9 7 8 ) . S p e c i a l h a b i t a t s , such as s n a g s , e d g e s , and r i p a r i a n z o n e s a l s o may be c r e a t e d . R o d e n t s o r b i r d s a r e known t o consume s e e d s and r e d u c e s e e d l i n g s u r v i v a l , and t h e b r o w s i n g o f t e r m i n a l buds and t w i g s , o r t h e ph l oem and o u t e r cambium l a y e r s o f t h e s t e m , r o o t s , o r l o w e r b r a n c h e s , c a n c a u s e c o n s i d e r a b l e damage ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . D e c i d u o u s t r e e s have been f o u n d t o be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o s m a l l mammal damage t h a n c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s ( G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d d i e t o f w i l d l i f e e x p e c t e d t o i n h a b i t a s i t e . G r e e n (1978) r e p o r t s t h a t t h e t y p e and d e n s i t y o f g r o u n d c o v e r a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s i t e d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s o f s m a l l a n i m a l s . S m a l l mammal d i s t r i b u t i o n may be n o t a b l y m o d i f i e d by s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t s t i m u l i such as m i c r o - c l i m a t e , s o i l t y p e , p r e d a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , v a r i a t i o n i n c o v e r , f o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n . 2 . 3 . 4 CARRYING CAPACITY The c o n c e p t o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s r e l e v a n t t o l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n two ways ; f i r s t l y , i f r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f t h e s i t e i s a n t i c i p a t e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l , t h e n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m m u n i t i e s ' c a p a b i l i t y t o w i t h s t a n d p h y s i c a l i m p a c t i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . S e c o n d l y , t h e a b i l i t y o f a s i t e t o a b s o r b r e c r e a t i o n a l o r o t h e r human use has a b e a r i n g on i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y and t h e r e f o r e t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f d e s i g n e l e m e n t s p e r t i n e n t t o t h e d i s p e r s a l o f u s e r s i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . B u r d e n (1972) summar i zed t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f i n t e n s i t y o f p r e s s u r e on an a r e a as i n v o l v i n g : (a ) c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e number o f p e o p l e ; (b) d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p e o p l e ; ( c ) a c t i v i t i e s ; (d) s e a s o n o f y e a r / d u r a t i o n o f u s e . Wagar (1964 ) d e s c r i b e d r e c r e a t i o n a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a s , " t h e l e v e l o f r e c r e a t i o n a l use an a r e a c a n w i t h s t a n d w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s u s t a i n e d q u a l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n . " A more e l a b o r a t e d e f i n i t i o n by Chubb and A s h t o n ( 1 9 6 9 ) , s t a t e s t h a t c a p a c i t y i s , " . . . . t h e number o f u s e r - p e r i o d s t h a t a r e c r e a t i o n s i t e c a n p r o v i d e w i t h o u t p e r m a n e n t b i o l o g i c a l o r p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e s i t e ' s a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t r e c r e a t i o n , and w i t h o u t a p p r e c i a b l e i m p a i r m e n t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . " T h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s encompas s a b r o a d r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s and s i t e s , b u t t h e " r e a l " c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e o f u s e , t y p e o f u s e r , p h y s i c a l and b i o t i c e n v i r o n m e n t , and management o b j e c t i v e s . 31 The c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y must r e f l e c t t h e management o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e s e n s e t h a t v a r y i n g " e q u i l i b r i u m s " may be a c h i e v e d , and t h e f a c t t h a t human use o f any e c o s y s t e m w i l l a l w a y s r e s u l t i n some c h a n g e i n t h e p h y s i c a l - b i o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . A t h i r d i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e i s b a s e d on t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e i s r e l a t e d t o i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f u s e . The m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f o v e r - u s e i n an a r e a i n c l u d e s a l t e r a t i o n t o s o i l p r o p e r t i e s , c h a n g e s i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , and p h y s i c a l damage t o p l a n t s . The e f f e c t s may v a r y f r o m m i n o r v a r i a t i o n i n b i o t i c c o m p o n e n t s t o c o m p l e t e d e n u d i n g o f v e g e t a t i o n . A number o f w o r k e r s have r e c o r d e d t h e c h a n g e s t o s o i l p h y s i c a l p r o p e r t i e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m human i m p a c t s , and t h e s e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b u l a r f o rm as f o l l o w s : 1. I n i t i a l i m p a c t r e s u l t s i n l o s s o f l e a f l i t t e r o r s u r f a c e m i n e r a l h o r i z o n s . The l o s s o f l i t t e r l e a d s t o i n c r e a s e d c o m p a c t i o n u n d e r human t r a f f i c (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . 2. R e c r e a t i o n a l use c a u s e s s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n b u l k d e n s i t y , and d e c r e a s e s i n i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e s . T h e s e c h a n g e s i n t u r n l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d s u r f a c e r u n - o f f and s u b s e q u e n t e r o s i o n (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . I 32 3. As l i t t e r i s r e m o v e d , w a t e r h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y d e c r e a s e s , r e s u l t i n g i n d r o u g h t y s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , p r o d u c i n g s e v e r e m o i s t u r e s t r e s s i n p l a n t s . The p l a n t s t h e r e b y become more s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . 4. As l i t t e r i s b r o k e n down by t r a f f i c , d e c o m p o s i t i o n p r o c e e d s f a s t e r b e c a u s e o f i n c r e a s e d s u r f a c e a r e a (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . 5. Reduced s o i l d e p t h s a r e e v i d e n t on h e a v i l y u sed s i t e s ( M e r r i a m and S m i t h , 1 9 7 4 ) . 6. S o i l c o m p a c t i o n d e p e n d s on s t r u c t u r e o f s o i l , m o i s t u r e , amount o f o r g a n i c c o v e r ( F r i s s e l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . 7. In g e n e r a l , t h e more f e r t i l e s i t e s w i t h low i n i t i a l s o i l d e n s i t i e s a r e a f f e c t e d l e s s by r e c r e a t i o n a l use t h a n s i t e s w i t h i n h e r e n t l y c o a r s e t e x t u r e d s o i l s t h a t a r e l e s s f e r t i l e and low i n o r g a n i c m a t t e r ( D o t z e n k o e t a l , 1 9 6 7 ) . S t u d y o f c h a n g e s t o s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t o n and p h y s i c a l damage t o p l a n t s has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , b u t o n l y t h e main f a c t o r s p e r t i n e n t t o 33 r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n w i l l be r e v i e w e d . L i d d l e (1976) c o m p i l e d a l i s t o f s e v e n o b s e r v a t i o n s on e f f e c t s o f t r a m p l i n g on v e g e t a t i o n as f o l l o w s : 1. P l a n t s w i t h b a s a l a p i c e s and m e r i s t e m s t o l e r a t e t r a m p l i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h o s e t h a t do n o t have t h e s e f e a t u r e s ( B a t e s , 1935 , 1 9 3 8 ) . 2. P l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s a r e l e s s t o l e r a n t t o t r a m p l i n g when the g r o u n d i s w e t , t h a n when i t i s d r y (Wagar , 1 9 6 6 ) . 3. The numbers o f s p e c i e s i n a commun i ty w i l l a t f i r s t r i s e , t h e n f a l l as t r a m p l i n g i n c r e a s e s ( G r i m e , 1 9 7 3 ) . 4. T a l l g r a s s e s w i l l a t f i r s t g i v e way t o l o w e r g r o w i n g d i c o t y l e d o n o u s s p e c i e s b u t as t h e amount o f t r a m p l i n g i n c r e a s e s , t h e m o n o c o t y l e d e n o u s s p e c i e s w i l l r e p l a c e t h e b r o a d - l e a v e d p l a n t s b e f o r e t h e y , i n t u r n , a r e e l i m i n a t e d ( L i d d l e & G r e i g - S m i t h , 1 9 7 6 ) . 5. As p l a n t s u c c e s s i o n p r o c e e d s , v e g e t a t i o n becomes more r e s i s t a n t t o t r a m p l i n g ( G o l d s m i t h , 1 9 7 4 ) . 6. T r a m p l i n g w i l l a t f i r s t s t i m u l a t e , and t h e n r e d u c e p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n as i t s s e v e r i t y r i s e s ( G o l d s m i t h , 1 9 7 4 ) . 7. 34 P l a n t s w i t h h i g h p o t e n t i a l p r o d u c t i v i t y a r e common on p a t h s (Gr ime and H u n t , 1 9 7 5 ) . O t h e r work has d e s c r i b e d a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n , and may be summar i zed as f o l l o w s : 1. The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f v e g e t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o p r i m a r y p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y l o w e r i n e a r l y s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e s ( L i d d l e , 1 9 7 6 ) . 2. Under c o n i f e r o u s s t a n d s , c o n d i t i o n s a r e no t f a v o u r a b l e f o r h e r b a c e o u s g round c o v e r . G r o u n d c o v e r v i a b i l i t y i m p r o v e s as d e n s i t y o f c o n i f e r s i n t h e u n d e r s t o r y d e c r e a s e s ( B e a r d s l e y and Wagar, 1 9 7 1 ) . 3. L a r g e - l e a v e d p l a n t s s u f f e r f r o m t r a m p l i n g t h e m o s t , whereas n a r r o w - l e a v e d g r a s s e s do t h e b e s t ( La Page , 1 9 6 7 ) . 4 . T r a m p l i n g r e s i s t a n c e i s r e l a t e d t o l i f e f o r m , w i t h d u r a b l e p l a n t s o f t e n p o s s e s s i n g f l a t l e a v e s and c o n d u p l i c a t e s tem ( B u r d e n & R a n d e r s o n , 1 9 7 2 ) . 5. S o i l c o m p a c t i o n due t o o v e r - u s e r e s u l t s i n a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e d i a m e t e r g rowth o f t r e e s (La P a g e , 1 9 6 2 ) . R e c r e a t i o n a l use r e s u l t s i n m e c h a n i c a l damage t o t r e e t r u n k s , s t r e s s t o c a n o p i e s as e v i d e n c e d by w i l t i n g , and t r a m p l i n g o f s e e d l i n g s r e s u l t i n g i n r e d u c e d r e g e n e r a t i o n (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . Woody o r l o w - l y i n g s p e c i e s a r e more c a p a b l e o f s u r v i v a l , w h i l e l i c h e n s and f l e s h y p l a n t s a r e e a s i l y damaged (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . The d e g r e e o f c h a n g e t o v e g e t a t i o n may be c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o l i g h t u s e , c o n t i n u e d u s e , and heavy use ( F r i s s e l l , 1 9 7 8 ) . L e s s s h a d i n g may r e s u l t i n b e t t e r g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r g r o u n d c o v e r s . Open f o r e s t c a n o p i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a good c o v e r o f t r a m p l e - r e s i s t a n t s p e c i e s (Dawson, e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t damage t o v e g e t a t i o n may o c c u r a f t e r s h o r t - t e r m use o f f r a g i l e a r e a s ( B o g u c k i , e t a l , 1 9 7 5 ) . As use i n c r e a s e s m o n o c o t s become d o m i n a n t and d i c o t y l e d o n s d e c r e a s e . As u se i n c r e a s e s t h e number o f s p e c i e s d e c r e a s e s ( Y o u n g , 1 9 7 8 ) . 12. O n s e t o f r e c r e a t i o n i s a c c o m p a n i e d by heavy i n i t i a l l o s s o f p l a n t c o v e r , b u t s u s t a i n e d use r e s u l t s i n r e v e g e t a t i o n by " w e e d y " s p e c i e s and d e c r e a s e d r a t e s o f c o v e r l o s s . ( Young , 1978) The s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p l a n t s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n have been shown to m o d i f y t he e c o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y o f a g i v e n s i t e . R e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , i n c o r p o r a t e knowledge o f s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o damage by human use and s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s , and d e s i g n a m e l i o r a t i v e l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s t o r e d u c e t h e i m p a c t o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e . A p o o r l y p l a n n e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s u b j e c t e d to i n t e n s e use p r e s s u r e may soon r e g r e s s t o a d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n . S o c i o l o g i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s b a s i c a l l y a p l a n n i n g and s i t e d e s i g n p r o b l e m ; h o w e v e r , i f p o s t - d i s t u r b a n c e use d f any k i n d i s a n t i c i p a t e d , c l e a r l y i t s h o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t he d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . 2.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES & THE VISUAL RESOURCE 37 D e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s and t h e v i s u a l r e s o u r c e a r e b a s i c l a n d s c a p e management c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h s h o u l d be embod ied i n v i r t u a l l y a l l p h a s e s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , y e t t h e y o f t e n may be i g n o r e d i n f a v o u r o f p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o a p r o b l e m . The p r i n c i p l e s a r e r e l e v a n t t o l a n d s c a p e t r e a t m e n t o f l a r g e - s c a l e m i n i n g o r l i n e a r r i g h t - o f - w a y s i t e s , as w e l l as t o r e c r e a t i o n c o r r i d o r s o r s m a l l e r a c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d s i t e s s u b j e c t t o heavy u s e . N a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s a r e u n d e r s t o o d t o p r o v i d e s o c i e t y w i t h b o t h u t i l i t a r i a n b e n e f i t s i n t h e f o rm o f p h y s i c a l n e e d , and c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s i n t h e f o r m o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s . C o m p r e h e n s i v e r e s o u r c e management t h e n s t r i v e s t o a c h i e v e a h a r m o n i o u s d e r i v a t i o n o f b o t h b e n e f i t s (USFS , 1 9 7 2 ) . Land v a l u e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y o f t e n i s c o n s i d e r e d as s o m e t h i n g more t h a n t h e m a r k e t p r i c e o f r e a l e s t a t e , o r a f a c t o r o f p r o d u c t i o n . L a n d s c a p e v a l u e s must encompass e c o n o m i c , e c o l o g i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c c o m p o n e n t s , w i t h t h e t a s k o f management a d d r e s s i n g e a c h e l e m e n t e q u a l l y . The v i s u a l r e s o u r c e i s d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f f l o r a , f a u n a , l a n d , a i r , w a t e r and a r t i f i c a l o b j e c t s . L a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s o u r c e management f i e l d , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s have y e t t o a c h i e v e a l e v e l o f r e f i n e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o t h e r more r e a d i l y q u a n t i f i e d d i s c i p l i n e s . L a u r i e (1975) d e f i n e d l a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t as t h e p r o c e s s o f r e c o r d i n g v i s u a l q u a l i t y t h r o u g h an o b s e r v e r ' s a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i n t r i n s i c v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s , o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n t h e l a n d s c a p e . V i s u a l a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o e v a l u a t e t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d e p e n d e n t b u t dynamic l a n d s c a p e v a r i a b l e s and t h e c o m p l e x , e m o t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l l y - b o u n d ' a v e r a g e m a n 1 . The n a t u r e o f b e a u t y has i n t r i g u e d p h i l o s o p h e r s f r om t h e dawn o f l a n g u a g e , y e t i t seems t h a t ' m o d e r n ' n o t i o n s show few i n s i g h t s beyond what a r t i s t s and d e s i g n e r s have p e r c e i v e d f o r c e n t u r i e s . A e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m u n i t y and c o m p o s i t i o n w i t h such e l e m e n t s as v a r i e t y , c o n t r a s t , b a l a n c e , f o r m , m a s s , s h a p e , o u t l i n e , s p a c e , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e n c l o s u r e , p r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , t e x t u r e and p a t t e r n , r h y t h m , l i g h t , and c o l o u r ; a l l c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e human c o g n i z a n c e r e a c t i o n ( L a u r i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o L a u r i e , i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r a e s t h e t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s , a r t i s t s , and d e s i g n e r s , b e l i e v e t h a t a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s c an o r s h o u l d be m e a s u r e d . I t i s m a n ' s i n n a t e a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e v i s u a l o r d e r so as t o s t i m u l a t e and s a t i s f y p l e a s u r a b l e f e e l i n g s and e m o t i o n s t h a t we c a l l a e s t h e t i c ( L a u r i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Moore ( 1 9 7 9 ) , an o r g a n i s m s e e k s no t o n l y t o know i t s w o r l d b u t a l s o t o o r d e r t h i s w o r l d , and t h a t change o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o c c u r s w i t h c h a n g e i n t h e amount o f k n o w l e d g e . Moore goe s on t o s t a t e t h a t how a p e r s o n c o n s t r u e s an e n v i r o n m e n t i s a f u n c t i o n o f what he o r she b r i n g s t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e demands p l a c e d on the o r g a n i s m by t he s i t u a t i o n . S h a f e r and R i c h a r d s (1974) i n d i c a t e v a r i a t i o n i n l a n d s c a p e p r e f e r e n c e due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , c u l t u r a l , p e r s o n a l i t y , and e x p e r i e n t i a l b a c k g r o u n d s . V a l u e s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , e t h n i c o r i g i n , and e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e a l s o have been e x p r e s s e d as i n d i c a t i o n s o f t h e p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n l a n d s c a p e p e r c e p t i o n ( L a u r i e , 1975 and M o o r e , 1 9 7 9 ) . S p a c e i s c o n c e i v e d somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y a c r o s s c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l l i n e s , and how a p e r s o n u se s t h e l a n d s c a p e w i l l c l e a r l y a f f e c t t h e a s s e s s m e n t . ( S h a f e r and R i c h a r d s , 1974 , and M o o r e , 1 9 7 9 ) . A f u r t h e r way o f d e s c r i b i n g p e r c e p t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e US F o r e s t S e r v i c e , F o r e s t L a n d s c a p e Management M a n u a l , w h i c h c a t e g o r i z e s t h e v a r i a b l e s as f o l l o w s : What we have seen - p a r t o f o u r c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 2. What we e x p e c t t o see - b e l i e f s , i m a g e s . 40 3. What we do see - t h i s phase i s c o m p a r e d w i t h what we have seen and what we e x p e c t e d t o s e e . R e c e n t r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m e a s u r i n g b e a u t y i s p e r h a p s no t as remote as a r t i s t s and p h i l o s o p h e r s may b e l i e v e . G r e e n b i e (1975) s u g g e s t s t h a t , " t h e r e i s a b a s i c e m o t i o n a l need w i t h i n us f o r n a t u r a l f o r m s t h a t r e l a t e us i n a f u n d a m e n t a l way no t o n l y t o e a c h o t h e r bu t t o t h e non-human e n v i r o n m e n t as w e l l . The harmony o f n a t u r e i s a l s o t he harmony o f o u r n e r v o u s s y s t e m o r g a n i z a t i o n " . G r e e n b i e c i t e s C l y n e s ( 1 9 6 9 ) , i n d o c u m e n t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f a s e n t i c s t a t e , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h e s p a c e - t i m e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c n e u r o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y . C l y n e s ' s r e s e a r c h showed t h a t t h e b a s i c u n i t s o f e m o t i o n a l f e e l i n g a r e u n v a r y i n g and have p r e c i s e s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s work i n r e l a t i o n t o l a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n l i e s i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f v a l i d a t i n g human r e s p o n s e s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , and e c o n o m i c b o u n d a r i e s . As b e a u t y e v o k e s e m o t i o n , and e m o t i o n has been l i n k e d t o s p e c i f i c s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s , i t i s w i t h i n t h e r e a l m o f 41 p o s s i b i l i t y t o measu re b e a u t y i t s e l f . However , c u r r e n t l a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t m e t h o d o l o g i e s r e m a i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y u n r e s o l v e d i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e c o n c i l e t h e f o r m a l q u a l i t i e s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e v i e w e d o b j e c t , w i t h t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up o f t h e o b s e r v e r . A l t h o u g h e n v i r o n m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c l u d e s t h e t o t a l s p e c t r u m o f human s e n s e s , e i g h t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t i s p e r c e i v e d by t h e e y e s ( M i t t m a n n , 1 9 7 8 ) . In t e r m s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l l a n d s c a p e s , s t u d i e s by G r a t z e r and McDowel l (1971) as c i t e d by B r u s h ( 1 9 7 4 ) , r e v e a l t h a t e y e s f i x a t e d most o f t e n a l o n g s h o r e l i n e s , s k y l i n e s , and r i d g e l i n e s , v e g e t a t i o n t y p e e d g e s and edge s o f s t r o n g shadows . In f o r e s t e d s e t t i n g s a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on t h e edges between l a r g e , c o n t r a s t i n g , t e x t u r e d m a s s e s , o r on s m a l l o u t s t a n d i n g o b j e c t s . The dynamic p r o c e s s o f v i e w i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e a l s o b e a r s a r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p e r c e p t i o n . As d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , c o l o u r v a l u e i n c r e a s e s t o w a r d u n i f o r m i t y . The d e f i n i t i o n o f f o r e g r o u n d , m i d d l e g r o u n d and b a c k g r o u n d i n f l u e n c e s v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e o b s e r v e r i s i n m o t i o n . As s p e e d i n c r e a s e s , t h e f o r w a r d d e t a i l f a d e s and t h e c o n e o f v i s i o n d e c r e a s e s (USFS , 1 9 7 4 ) . The eye does no t wander w i t h i n l a r g e e v e n - t e x t u r e d m a s s e s ; i t s k i p s o v e r t h e commonp lace t o f o c u s on t h e d i s t i n c t i v e ( B r u s h , 1 9 7 5 ) . An a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s know ledge wou ld be t h e p l a c e m e n t o f l i n e a r l a n d s c a p e a l t e r a t i o n s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h n a t u r a l edges o f c o n t r a s t . A f u r t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e v e l a t i o n i s made by G r e e n b i e (1 9 7 5 ) , i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g be tween a p e r s o n ' s c a p a b i 1 i t y i n s e e i n g and h i s i n t e r e s t i n s e e i n g , a f a c t w h i c h may r e a d i l y i n f l u e n c e t h e o b j e c t i v e a s s e s s m e n t o f s c e n i c b e a u t y . In g e n e r a l t e r m s , e v a l u a t i o n s o f l a n d s c a p e may be e i t h e r p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c and a e s t h e t i c , o r t h e y may be q u a n t i t a t i v e and u t i l i z e a p p l i e d measurement t e c h n i q u e s ( L a u r i e , 1 9 7 5 ) . K a p l a n (1975) has r e c o g n i z e d a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f methods w i t h e x t r e m e s a t t h e s c i e n t i f i c and a r t i s t i c e n d . The p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h shows a " c o n c e r n f o r o b j e c t i v i t y and q u a n t i f i c a t i o n so p e r v a s i v e t h a t t h e r e s u l t s seem i r r e f u t a b l e , b u t h a r d l y p e r t i n e n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n s t h a t need a n s w e r i n g " ( K a p l a n , 1 9 7 5 ) . A t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , ' d e s i g n e r s as a r t i s t s ' d i s p l a y a q u e s t i o n a b l e o b j e c t i v i t y i n e v i d e n c e . K a p l a n f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s c r i t i c a l l y t h a t most r e s e a r c h methods a r e v e r b a l l y b a s e d , w h i l e t h e p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e i s p r i m a r i l y e x p e r i e n c e d v i s u a l l y . 43 L i t t o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , e n v i s a g e s l a n d s c a p e b e a u t y l i n k e d to e l e m e n t s o f u n i t y , v a r i e t y , and v i v i d n e s s . U n i t y r e p r e s e n t s t he j o i n i n g o f p a r t s i n t o a s i n g l e w h o l e , w h i l e v a r i e t y i n d i c a t e s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f d i f f e r e n t and numerous p a r t s . V i v i d n e s s c o n n o t e s r e l a t i o n s , o r g i v e s a s t r o n g v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n . The N a t i o n a l F o r e s t L a n d s c a p e Management Manual (USFS, 1973) c l a r i f i e s L i t t o n ' s m e t h o d o l o g y , and w i l l be o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s s u b s t a n c e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e , v a r i e t y , and d e v i a t i o n s f r om a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e a r e words u sed t o i d e n t i f y t h e c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s o f a s t u d y a r e a . C h a r a c t e r i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d by t e r m s s u c h as p a n o r a m i c , f e a t u r e , e n c l o s e d , f o c a l , c a n o p i e d , d e t a i l , and e p h e m e r a l . In t h e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n c o n t e x t , t h e c r e a t i o n o f minimum v i s u a l i m p a c t wou ld i n v o l v e d u p l i c a t i n g t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e on t h e d i s t u r b e d s i t e . Dominance e l e m e n t s a r e u sed t o p o r t r a y t h e c h a r a c t e r t y p e s and i n c l u d e t h e c l a s s i c a l a e s t h e t i c t e r m s o f f o r m , l i n e , c o l o u r , and t e x t u r e . Dominance p r i n c i p l e s a r e f u r t h e r m o d i f i e r s t o d e t e r m i n e c o n t r a s t , s e q u e n c e , a x i s , c o n v e r g e n c e , c o - d o m i n a n c e and e n f r a m e m e n t . A l i s t i n g o f dominance p r i n c i p l e s was a l s o c o m p i l e d by L i t t o n (1968) t o c l a r i f y f u r t h e r t h e d i s c e r n m e n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a n d s c a p e . R e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n d e s i g n s s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o match a d j a c e n t s i t e s t o t h e d i s t u r b e d l a n d u t i l i z i n g 44 t h e s e c o n c e p t s , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f dom inance e l e m e n t s . 2, 3 5. C o n t r a s t : S e q u e n c e : Ax i s: C o n v e r g e n c e : Co -domi nance E n f r a m e m e n t : An i n c r e a s e i n c o n t r a s t a l l o w s e a s i e r p e r c e p t i o n . The n a t u r a l s e q u e n c e o f l i n e o r t e x t u r e s h o u l d n o t be d e s t r o y e d . The a x i s i s a d i r e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and s h o u l d no t be c o u n t e r e d . The c o n v e r g e n c e p o i n t o f two a x e s . A l a n d s c a p e where two i d e n t i c a l e l e m e n t s compete f o r v i s u a l domi n a n c e . The c r e a t i o n o f s t r o n g f o c a l p o i n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l d e s c r i p t i v e s y s t e m l i s t s v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s such as m o t i o n , l i g h t , a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n , s e a s o n , d i s t a n c e , o b s e r v e r p o s i t i o n , s c a l e and t i m e . F i n a l l y , L i t t o n d e s c r i b e d v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s w h i c h wou ld a f f e c t how t h e d o m i n a n c e e l e m e n t s a r e s e e n : m o t i o n , l i g h t , a t m o s p h e r i c c o n d i t i o n s , s e a s o n , d i s t a n c e , o b s e r v e r p o s i t i o n , s c a l e , o r t i m e . The d i s t a n c e v a r i a b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , wou ld a l t e r t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a r e h a b i l i t a t e d s i t e d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r i t was i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , m i d d l e g r o u n d o r b a c k g r o u n d . The o b s e r v e r p o s i t i o n c o u l d c h a n g e t h e p e r c e i v e d shape o f a management a c t i v i t y . 45 The US F o r e s t S e r v i c e has p u b l i s h e d a manual on t h e V i s u a l Management Sy s tem w h i c h p r o v i d e s f o r b o t h t h e i n v e n t o r y phase and m e a s u r a b l e s t a n d a r d s f o r management. The s y s t e m i s ba sed on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e r e i s a r e c o g n i z a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t he v i s u a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e s , and t h e i r i n h e r e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s t o a c c e p t a l t e r a t i o n . L a n d s c a p e s a r e o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i e t y c l a s s e s f o l l o w i n g t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i n c r e a s e d d i v e r s i t y p r o v i d e s t h e g r e a t e s t p o t e n t i a l f o r s c e n i c v a l u e : C l a s s A: D i s t i n c t i v e C l a s s B: Common C l a s s C: M i n i m a l V i e w e r s ' s e n s i t i v i t y l e v e l s t o a l t e r a t i o n s w i t h i n e a c h v a r i e t y c l a s s a r e d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e numbers and t y p e s o f p e o p l e v i e w i n g t h e a r e a , and d i s t a n c e z o n e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c o l o u r i n t e n s i t i e s and r e s o l u t i o n o f s h a p e s . L i t t o n (1974 ) s u g g e s t s a c o n t i n u u m o f d e c r e a s i n g v i s u a l s e n s i t i v i t y a l o n g v i e w s h e d e d g e s : 1) s k y l i nes 2) edge t o edge 3) r i d g e - l i n e s 4) edges and m o s a i c a r e a s 5) j u n c t i o n s o f v e g e t a t i o n d e c r e a s i n g s e n s i t i v i t y The p h y s i c a l c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d t o w i t h s t a n d management p r a c t i c e s w i t h o u t n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t i n g s c e n i c q u a l i t y has been t e r m e d v i s u a l a b s o r p t i o n c a p a b i l i t y . P r i o r management g o a l s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , p a r t i a l r e t e n t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , o r maximum m o d i f i c a t i o n s a r e d e f i n e d as v i s u a l q u a l i t y o b j e c t i v e s and a r e c o m p o s i t e l y mapped w i t h t h e v i s u a l a b s o r p t i o n c a p a b i l i t y , r e s u l t i n g i n a map o f t o t a l v i s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s (USFS , 1 9 7 5 ) . The d e s c r i b e d s y s t e m t h u s l o o k s a t t h e v i s u a l l y v u l n e r a b l e l a n d s c a p e as a r e s o u r c e i n i t s own r i g h t b e f o r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p a c t s o f a l t e r n a t i v e d e s i g n o r management schemes ( L i t t o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . L i t t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h has been t e s t e d on numerous p r o j e c t s , and o f t e n has been a d a p t e d to s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m t y p e s such as h ighway r o u t i n g s t u d i e s . J o n e s and J o n e s (1978) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r p e r c e p t u a l a s p e c t s t o v i s u a l d e s i g n as f o l l o w s : 1) p e r c e p t i o n ( i n v e n t o r y o f v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s ) 2) c o g n i t i o n ( a n a l y s i s o f v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r q u a l i t y ) 3) e v a l u a t i o n ( a l t e r n a t i v e s and i m p a c t d e t e r m i n a t i on) 4) d e c i s i o n ( d e s i g n a t i o n o f s i t i n g recommenda t i on s ) The t h r e e p h a s e s o f a s s e s s m e n t , d e s i g n , and e v a l u a t i o n a r e composed o f e l e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m L i t t o n ' s d e s c r i p t i v e a p p r o a c h . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e b a s e l i n e a s s e s s m e n t i n v o l v e s an i n v e n t o r y o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f v i s u a l u n i t s , c h a r a c t e r , and q u a l i t y j u d g e m e n t , such as f o r m , l i n e , o r c o l o u r , and v i s u a l f r a g i l i t y . L o c a t i o n d e s i g n e n c o m p a s s e s f a c t o r s o f v i s i b i l i t y , c o m p a t a b i 1 i t y , p o t e n t i a l v i s u a l f i t , and p r o j e c t s i t i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , wherea s f i n a l v i s u a l e v a l u a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s p r o j e c t - l a n d s c a p e i n t e r a c t i o n by s i m u l a t i o n o f i m p a c t , p r o j e c t v i s i b i l i t y , and ' b e f o r e and a f t e r ' v i s u a l q u a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t . The d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s d e s c r i b e d a r e c l e a r l y r a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e v i s u a l l a n d s c a p e , l o g i c a l l y o r g a n i z e d and e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d and a p p l i e d . The a p p r o a c h may be u t i l i z e d f o r s i n g l e p r o j e c t s o f a l i m i t e d s c a l e , and y e t r e a d i l y a d a p t e d t o r e g i o n a l v i s u a l r e s o u r c e management w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n . R e l a t i v e l y low c o s t s and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r t i s e t o u n d e r t a k e such s t u d i e s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n t a g e s . H o w e v e r , t h e d e s c r i p t i v e method s u f f e r s f r o m a number o f d r a w b a c k s w h i c h must be b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t t h e b e n e f i t s o f more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i q u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o D a n i e l and B o s t e r ( 1976 ) t h e g r e a t e s t weaknes s i n t he a p p r o a c h has been t h e f a i l u r e t o r e l a t e t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n v e n t o r y t o v a l i d a t e d m e a s u r e s o f s c e n i c b e a u t y . The presumed a c c u r a c y o f ' p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g e m e n t ' 48 c e r t a i n l y may be q u e s t i o n e d , and t h e c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s i s a t b e s t d o u b t f u l . The l a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t componen t o f i n t e g r a t e d l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t t o r a t i o n a l i z e on s t r o n g m a t h e m a t i c a l , e c o n o m i c , o r e c o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s when compared t o b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s . E f f o r t s t o a d o p t p u r e l y q u a n t i t a t i v e means o f a s s e s s m e n t have been r e l a t e d more t o t h e d e s i r e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c e p t a n c e u n d e r e c o n o m i c o r s c i e n t i f i c c r i t e r i a , r a t h e r t h a n a t r u e measure o f a e s t h e t i c b e a u t y . I n d e e d , v i s u a l r e s o u r c e s o f t e n have been m a t c h e d d o l l a r f o r d o l l a r a g a i n s t e x t r a c t i o n r e s o u r c e s w i t h a r a t h e r p r e d i c t a b l e o u t c o m e . L a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a l s o c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as an o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r e a t e an a r t f o r m on a g i g a n t i c s c a l e ( O l s c h o w y , 1 9 7 3 ) . The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s p a c e u s i n g p r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , and the e v o l u t i o n o f o r d e r t h r o u g h i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f r h y t h m and v a r i e t y a r e i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o o l s o f t h e d e s i g n e r ( O l s c h o w y , 1 9 7 3 ) . L a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r s s h o u l d be f a m i l i a r w i t h the t e c h n i c a l l a n d s c a p e a s s e s s m e n t l i t e r a t u r e , y e t s h o u l d be c o n v e r s a n t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t s o f b e a u t y , i n c l u d i n g o r d e r , u n i t y , and r h y t h m . D e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a l s o i n c l u d e more p r a g m a t i c a s p e c t s such as c i r c u l a t i o n c o n t r o l , s c r e e n i n g b a r r i e r s , s i g n a g e , g r a d i n g and d r a i n a g e , v i s u a l a s p e c t s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . S i t e s t o be 49 u t i l i z e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n r e q u i r e c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y t o d e t e r m i n e p l a n n e d and a n t i c i p a t e d use p a t t e r n s . The use o f d e s i g n e l e m e n t s t o a c h i e v e u s e r c o n t r o l has been s t u d i e d by a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s , and t h e i r f i n d i n g s a r e s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w : 1. C h a n n e l i n g movements t o m i n i m i z e i m p a c t s and g o a l - o r i e n t e d p a t h s ( S i d a w a y , 1 9 7 7 ; B e a r d s l e y e t a l , 1 974) . 2. Hard s u r f a c i n g h i g h - u s e a r e a s ( B e a r d s l e y e t a l , 1 9 7 4 ; J a m e s , 1 9 7 4 ) . 3. P o s i t i o n i n g v e g e t a t i v e o r " h a r d " b a r r i e r s t o p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . B a r r i e r s may i n c l u d e f e n c e s , b o u l d e r s , l o g s , b r u s h , b o l l a r d , o r t h o r n y p l a n t m a t e r i a l ( N i x e y & S e v e r s , 1 9 7 7 ) . 4. S t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s t o p r e v e n t damage t o f e e d i n g r o o t s o f t r e e s and s h r u b s ( J a m e s , 1 9 7 4 ) . 5. E d u c a t i o n o f u s e r s t h r o u g h j u d i c i o u s use o f s i g n a g e . Ross and M o e l l e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) , h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t 65% o f s t u d y r e s p o n d e n t s i n a r e c r e a t i o n a r e a r e c a l l e d s e e i n g p o s t e d r u l e s , b u t f e w e r t h a n 50% s t o p p e d t o r e a d them. 50 6. C h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s t o e n c o u r a g e o r d i s c o u r a g e use ( S i d a w a y , 1 9 7 7 ) . 7. Good d e f i n i t i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s and edges ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . McEan and T o c h e r (1976) p r o p o s e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f a t h r e e zone d e s i g n and management s y s t e m t o c o n t r o l r e c r e a t i o n a l use and i m p a c t . The zones were d e s i g n a t e d a s : i m p a c t z o n e , r e p r e s e n t i n g c o r r i d o r s o f heavy u s e ; i n t e r s i t e z o n e , an a r e a o f r e l a t i v e l y u n d i s t u r b e d g r o u n d be tween c o r r i d o r s o f heavy u s e , and t h e b u f f e r zone c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e r a r e l y d i s t u r b e d b o r d e r s o f a s i t e . S p e c i f i c d e s i g n and management t e c h n i q u e s wou ld be u t i l i z e d f o r each s e c t o r , w i t h t h e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e t o r e d u c e t h e s i z e o f t h e i m p a c t z o n e . The c o n c e p t i s b a s e d f u r t h e r on t h e i d e a t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o c o n t a i n p o t e n t i a l r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n s i t e d e g r a d a t i o n w i t h i n d e s i g n a t e d i m p a c t z o n e s , t h u s p r o t e c t i n g t he o v e r a l l i n t e g r i t y o f t h e s i t e . 2.3 REVIEW OF IMPLEMENTATION METHODS The c h a p t e r w i l l s ummar i ze t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t e s t e d r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n m e t h o d s , and i s o r g a n i z e d t o p r e s e n t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w o f t h e p r o c e s s f r om b a s e l i n e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h r o u g h s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , p r o p a g a t i o n , s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , o u t - p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , and i n i t i a l m a i n t e n a n c e . 2.3.1 BASEL INE DATA COLLECTION AND SPEC IES SELECTION B a s e l i n e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i s one o f t h e most c r i t i c a l p h a s e s o f a r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t as know ledge o f p r e - d i s t u r b a n c e c o n d i t i o n s as w e l l as t h e s i t e c h a r a c t e r f o l l o w i n g d i s t u r b a n c e i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o s e l e c t p l a n t s p e c i e s , and d e t e r m i n e f e r t i l i z e r r e q u i r e m e n t s o r o t h e r s i t e amendments . S p e c i f i c c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d i n p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r s , such as c l i m a t e , t o p o g r a p h y , commun i t y d y n a m i c s , s o i l , and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . However , as t h e c e n t r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e v e g e t a t i o n i s p l a n t i n g , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n w i l l be p a i d to. b i o t i c f a c t o r s . A c c u r a t e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n b a s e l i n e s f o r l a r g e a c r e a g e s c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d by c a s u a l s u r v e y - t y p e o b s e r v a t i o n , 52 b u t w i l l r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e e c o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . V e g e t a t i o n s h o u l d no t be c o n s i d e r e d a mere s p e c i e s l i s t , no r a map o f t y p e s , f o r i t has f o r m and d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Ward, 1 9 7 4 ) . T h o r o u g h b a s e l i n e s t u d y w i l l r e s u l t i n l e s s t e n d e n c y t o r e p l a c e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i n a s i m p l e p o l y h e d r o n f a s h i o n , and s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h f e w e r f a i l u r e s (Ward, 1 9 7 4 ) . However , f o r many p r o j e c t s a " r e a s o n a b l e " a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s i t e i s a d e q u a t e i n l i e u o f a p r e c i s e a s s e s s m e n t ( S c h i e c h t l , 1 9 8 0 ) . O l g e i r s o n (1974) d e s c r i b e s t h r e e methods o f m o d e l l i n g r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o g r a m s o f w h i c h two a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y u s e d i n t h e f i e l d : 1. g r a d i e n t a n a l y s i s m o d e l s ( A f t e r W h i t t a k e r , 1 9 6 7 ) . G r a d i e n t a n a l y s i s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s , s p e c i e s p o p u l a t i o n , and communi ty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t c h a n g e a l o n g l i n e s drawn i n space o r t i m e . The t e c h n i q u e i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a r e a s d i s t u r b e d by c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s ; 2. p o l y g r a p h t e c h n i q u e s ( a f t e r H u t c h i s o n 1936 , 1 9 4 0 ) . Da ta i s p l o t t e d on a c i r c u l a r g r a p h t o show r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The a d v a n t a g e o f t h i s method i s i t s a b i l i t y t o r e p r e s e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s no t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t f r o m raw d a t a ; 3. f a c t o r i a l a p p r o a c h e s ( M a j o r , 1951 & J e n n y , 1958) and c o m p u t e r - g e n e r a t e d s i m i l a r i t y m o d e l s have a l s o been a p p l i e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r two r e q u i r e a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d work p r o g r a m . A s s e s s m e n t o f b a s e l i n e d a t a a l l o w s i n i t i a l s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n and d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p l a n t a v a i l a b i l i t y . I t i s a s sumed t h a t d i s c u s s i o n o f t he a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f e x o t i c s p e c i e s , o r s p e c i e s n o t n o r m a l l y f o u n d on t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t e n o r m a l l y p r e c e d e s t h e f i n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p e c i e s l i s t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n o b j e c t i v e s d i c t a t e t h a t n a t i v e g e n o t y p e s be u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y o r i n p a r t , t h e a n a l y s i s o f b a s e l i n e d a t a p r i o r t o d i s t u r b a n c e becomes even more c r i t i c a l . S p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d i n c l u d e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r a d a p t i v e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s , w h i l e a l s o a c c o u n t i n g f o r t he a n t i c i p a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s o f t he commun i t y as a w h o l e . S c h i e c h t l (1980) has t e r m e d t h i s as t h e p l a n t s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a , and d e s c r i b e s e c o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e work s i t e , p r o p a g a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , b i o t e c h n i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y , p l a n t v i g o u r , g rowth r a t e , and t h e f i n a l g o a l o f t h e p l a n t as component v a r i a b l e s . The p l a n n e d e c o l o g i c a l s u c c e s s i o n f o r t h e s i t e i s i d e a l l y l i n k e d t o i n d i v i d u a l s p e c i e s and t h e s c h e d u l e o f p l a n t i n g . 54 C r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g p l a n t s have been e s t a b l i s h e d by a number o f w o r k e r s and r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y s t a g e be tween b a s e l i n e d a t a a n a l y s i s and r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . A summary o f s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n c l u d e s : 1. Growth Form (Brown e t a l , 1978 ; B e r g , 1974) Low g r o w i n g p l a n t s w i t h e x t e n s i v e r o o t s h e l p p r e v e n t e r o s i o n , and r e d u c e d e s i c c a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t ( B r o w n , 1 9 7 8 ) . T a l l g rowth h a b i t w i l l r e d u c e f o o t t r a f f i c , w h i l e s h o r t e r h a b i t i s b e t t e r a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e i m p a c t o f t r a m p l i n g . R h i z o m a t o u s , h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e p l a n t s r e s i s t i n v a s i o n by o t h e r s p e c i e s ( B e r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . S e l e c t i o n o f a d a p t e d s p e c i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e s e v e r a l l i f e f o r m s such as g r a s s e s , f o r b s , s h r u b s , and t r e e s ( C o o k , 1 9 7 4 ) . 2. D r o u g h t R e s i s t a n c e D i s t u r b e d s i t e s o f t e n s u f f e r f r o m h i g h r a d i a t i o n , w i n d s , and low w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e most c r i t i c a l d u r i n g t he emergence o f s e e d l i n g s , and s p e c i e s w i t h i n h e r e n t d r o u g h t r e s i s t a n c e a r e b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o s u r v i v e (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . 3. R e p r o d u c t i o n R h i z o m a t o u s s p e c i e s , l a y e r i n g g r a m i n o i d s , and d i c o t y l e d o n s a r e v i e w e d as f a v o u r a b l e , w h i l e v e g e t a t i v e p r o p a g a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s i m p o r t a n t i f a v a i l a b i l i t y i s i n d o u b t (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . Seed p r o d u c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y o p p o r t u n i s t i c and c a n n o t be r e l i e d upon f o r e f f e c t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n on a d i s t u r b e d s i t e . However , t h e seed p r o d u c i n g a b i l i t y o f a s p e c i e s i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i m p o r t a n t . Growth R a t e s and P h e n o l o g y The a b i l i t y t o show r a p i d r o o t g rowth o r f l o w e r i n g p o t e n t i a l a r e d i s t i n c t i v e a d v a n t a g e s . A l p i n e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n wou ld r e q u i r e s p e c i e s w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o c a r r y on p h o t o s y n t h e s i s and r e s p i r a t i o n a t low t e m p e r a t u r e s , and c o m p l e t e t h e i r l i f e - c y c l e i n s i x weeks o r l e s s (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . P e r e n n i a l s p e c i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i n h i g h a l t i t u d e e n v i r o n m e n t s as i n v a d i n g a n n u a l s do no t e x i s t due t o s e v e r i t y o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t (Eaman, 1 9 7 4 ) . M i n e r a l n u t r i t i o n The a b i l i t y t o f i x n i t r o g e n i s i m p o r t a n t as most d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e s a r e d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s e l e m e n t . T u n d r a e n v i r o n m e n t s have been shown t o d e p r e s s norma l r e s p o n s e s t o f e r t i l i z a t i o n , so t h a t t h e p l a n t must u t i l i z e i n d e p e n d e n t mechan i sms (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . Mai n t e n a n c e S p e c i e s r e q u i r i n g low p h y s i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e a r e an a s s e t , as a r e t h o s e r e s i s t a n t t o d i s e a s e s and i n s e c t i n f e s t a t i o n s ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . F u n c t i o n a l U t i l i t y P a r t i c u l a r u s e s o f s p e c i e s f o r w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t , f o r a g e , sound b a r r i e r s , v i s u a l e m p h a s i s , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , r e s i s t a n c e t o wear o r n u r s e c r o p c a p a b i l i t i e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f S t o c k S i t e s p e c i f i c g e n o t y p e s w i l l n o t n o r m a l l y be a v a i l a b l e , b u t many n a t i v e s p e c i e s a r e c o m m e r c i a l l y s t o c k e d and some may have a p p l i c a t i o n t o r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t s . I f t h e use o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s i s n o t f e a s i b l e , t h e n i n t r o d u c e d s p e c i e s s h o u l d a t l e a s t have c o r r e s p o n d i n g s o i l and c l i m a t e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a s i m i l a r a p p e a r a n c e t o i n d i g e n o u s s p e c i e s , be g e n e t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , and show a b i l i t y t o grow q u i c k l y and r e g e n e r a t e n a t u r a l l y ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . A g r o n o m i c g r a s s s p e c i e s may have become a d a p t e d t o opt imum n u t r i e n t c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e i r p r o l o n g e d s u c c e s s i n n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n t c o n d i t i o n s c o u l d r e q u i r e r e p e a t f e r t i l i z a t i o n , and t h u s h i g h e r m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s ( J o h n s o n and CI e v e , 1 9 7 6 ) . 1 0 . W i l d l i f e I n t e r a c t i o n s R e s i s t a n c e t o s m a l l mammal damage i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . H i gh l e v e l s o f c a r b o h y d r a t e s , f a t t y s u b s t a n c e s , and m i n e r a l s , a p p e a r t o be a n i m a l a t t r a c t a n t s , w h e r e a s s t i b e n e s , t a n n i n , c a r d i a c g l y c o s i d e s , o r h i g h l e v e l s o f o i l s may a c t as r e p e l l e n t s { G r e e n , 1 9 7 8 ) . T h o r n y s p e c i e s may be u s e d t o d e t e r l a r g e r h e r b i v o r e s . D e c i d u o u s t r e e s and s h r u b s may p r o v i d e f o r a g e s and t h e r m a l c o v e r , bu t a r e i n a d e q u a t e i n w i n t e r ( F r i s c h k n e c h t , 1 9 7 8 ) . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f d e c i d u o u s and c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s i s b e s t f o r f o o d and c o v e r . C o m p l e t i o n o f s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d n o t t r a n s l a t e d i r e c t l y i n t o a mass p l a n t i n g d u r i n g a s i n g l e s e a s o n whereby an " i n s t a n t " l a n d s c a p e i s c r e a t e d . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n work r e q u i r e s an e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i e s b e s t s u i t e d f o r i n i t i a l p l a n t i n g , and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e op t imum t i m e t o i n t r o d u c e a d d i t i o n a l d e s i r e d d o m i n a n t o r c o - d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s . The e a r l y s t a g e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e p l a n t i n g o f p i o n e e r s p e c i e s w i t h a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n d i v e r s i t y u n t i l t h e d e s i r e d s p e c i e s mix i s a c h i e v e d . T r i t e n b a c h (1977) d e s c r i b e d a New Z e a l a n d h ighway p l a n t i n g w h i c h p r o g r e s s e d w i t h t h r e e d i s t i n c t c o m p o n e n t s . G r a s s e s and l e g u m e s were sown f i r s t t o b r e a k down t h e most d e t r i m e n t a l s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . Nur se p l a n t s 58 i n t he f o rm o f f a s t - g r o w i n g , s h o r t - l i v e d , s e l f s e e d i n g s h r u b s were i n s t a l l e d n e x t , and when some -shade and n a t u r a l mu l ch were e s t a b l i s h e d , a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i e s were p l a n t e d . T h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o g r a m , weeds were removed t o p r e v e n t c h o k i n g o f d e s i r e d s p e c i e s . 2 . 3 . 2 PROPAGATION P r o p a g a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i e s and p r o p o s e d t e c h n i q u e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r . The v a r i o u s o p t i o n s i n c l u d e d i r e c t s e e d i n g , p l a n t i n g r o o t e d o r u n r o o t e d c u t t i n g s , t r a n s p l a n t i n g , o r p r o c u r i n g c o m m e r c i a l s t o c k . F u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t s o f t h e s e b a s i c a l t e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as s o d d i n g , c o r i n g , s p r i g g i n g , p l u g s , i s l a n d s , t h e o p t i o n o f ' c o n t a i n e r s ' v e r s u s ' b a r e r o o t ' , and h y d r o s e e d i n g . .1 Seed C o l l e c t i o n o f f r u i t , s e e d e x t r a c t i o n , s e e d s t o r a g e , p r e g e r m i n a t i o n t r e a t m e n t , and r a i s i n g f r o m s e e d o r d i r e c t s e e d i n g r e p r e s e n t t h e s e q u e n c e o f e v e n t s i f s e e d i s c h o s e n as a component o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n . P r o b l e m s i n f r u i t / s e e d c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e t h e p i c k i n g t i m e and y e a r o f c o l l e c t i o n . V a r t n o u (1978) f o u n d t h a t e a r l y s e e d c o l l e c t i o n r e s u l t e d i n a 59 10% g e r m i n a t i o n r a t e , w h i l e c o l l e c t i o n a f t e r s e e d m a t u r i t y had been a t t a i n e d , i n c r e a s e d g e r m i n a t i o n t o 50%. C o l l e c t i o n a f t e r t h e f i r s t k i l l i n g f r o s t l e d t o a 70% g e r m i n a t i o n r a t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t s h o u l d be r e a l i z e d t h a t c e r t a i n s p e c i e s do no t p r o d u c e seed c r o p s e v e r y y e a r and i t i s , t h e r e f o r e , e x p e d i e n t t o c o l l e c t i n a d v a n c e and p l a c e t h e seed i n s t o r a g e u n t i l r e q u i r e d . Me thods o f s eed e x t r a c t i o n and seed s t o r a g e a r e p e r t i n e n t t o r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o g r a m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f n a t i v e m a t e r i a l a r e r e q u i r e d . V a a r t n o u (1978) f o u n d t h a t r a i s i n g f rom seed was o n e - h a l f t o o n e - t h i r d t h e c o s t o f v e g e t a t i v e means . A s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f work has been done i n W e s t e r n Canada w i t h r e c e n t s t u d i e s e m p h a s i z i n g n a t i v e s p e c i e s ( W a l k e r , 1 9 7 8 ) . Seed i n o c u l a t i o n as i t p e r t a i n s t o o u t p l a n t i n g s u c c e s s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n 3 . 3 . .2 V e g e t a t i v e P r o p a g a t i o n V e g e t a t i v e p r o p a g a t i o n methods have p r o v e n v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n l a r g e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s due t o t h e r e l a t i v e e a s e o f c o l l e c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and p l a n t i n g . Hardwood and s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s have t h e g r e a t e s t a p p l i c a b i l i t y a l t h o u g h r o o t c u t t i n g i s u s e f u l f o r c e r t a i n s p e c i e s . Hardwood c u t t i n g s a r e c o l l e c t e d i n t h e autumn o r w i n t e r f r om c u r r e n t y e a r ' s g r o w t h , and s h o u l d be m a t u r e , p l ump, and 2 5 - 3 0 cm i n l e n g t h ( P r o c k t e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . F i f t e e n c e n t i m e t e r c u t t i n g s o f w i l l o w and p o p l a r , w i t h a 60 D i a m e t e r o f 5-25 mm have worked w e l l (Howe, 1 9 7 8 ) . C u t t i n g s s h o u l d be made i n t h e node a t a 4 5 ° a n g l e . The c u t t i n g b u n d l e s s h o u l d be d i p p e d i n c a p t a n p r i o r t o s t o r a g e a t above 0° C ( Z i e m k i e w i c z [ e d ] , 1 9 7 8 ) . S o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s a r e t a k e n i n t h e s p r i n g , and i t i s recommended t h a t t h e s tems n o t be t o o t h i n and t h u s s u s c e p t i b l e t o damage i f b e i n g p l a n t e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e s o i l . I f s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s a r e t o be r o o t e d p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g t h e y s h o u l d be p l a c e d d i r e c t l y i n t o m i s t i n g b e d s . P r o c k t e r (1977) s u g g e s t s d i p p i n g c o n i f e r c u t t i n g s i n t o h o t w a t e r b e f o r e i n s e r t i n g t o p r e v e n t r e s i n f r om c o n g e a l i n g a t t h e b a s e o f c u t t i n g s . Roo t c u t t i n g s t a k e n fromm 2-3 y e a r o l d f l e s h y t i s s u e a r e n o r m a l l y 2 . 5 - 5 cm l o n g w i t h a h o r i z o n t a l s l i c e a t t h e t o p , and a s l a n t e d c u t a t t he bo t tom to a l l o w i n s e r t i o n i n t o t h e s o i l ( P r o c k t e r , 1 977 ) . A l l c u t t i n g s s h o u l d be t a k e n f r o m h e a l t h y p l a n t s , bu t i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a n a r r o w g e n e t i c b a s e o f c o l l e c t e d m a t e r i a l , the c u t t i n g s s h o u l d be t a k e n f r o m a w ide v a r i e t y o f c l o n e s ( V a a r t n o u , 1 9 7 8 ) . C a r e must be t a k e n d u r i n g h a n d l i n g and s t o r a g e o f c u t t i n g s . They s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o d r y o u t , no r be e x p o s e d t o s u n l i g h t . D u r i n g t r a n s i t , damage t o ba rk t i s s u e s i s 61 t o be a v o i d e d , and t h e c u t t i n g s s h o u l d t h e n be s t o r e d u n d e r c o o l , m o i s t , d a rk c o n d i t i o n s ( N i x e y and S e v e n s , 1 9 7 7 ) . U n r o o t e d c u t t i n g s o f c e r t a i n s p e c i e s may be p l a n t e d d i r e c t l y , b u t i f f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o r o b j e c t i v e s c a l l f o r r o o t e d s t e m s , t h e n s t e p s must be t a k e n t o e n s u r e a v i g o r o u s p l a n t a t t h e t i m e o f o u t p l a n t i n g . H a r s h e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s on most r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e s d i c t a t e t h a t c l o s e a t t e n t i o n be p a i d t o r o o t g r o w t h / t o p g rowth r a t i o s t o p r e v e n t t he f a i l u r e o f s u c c u l e n t p l a n t s n u r s e d on heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n ( H o r s t m a n n , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n i t i a l t r e a t m e n t o f c u t t i n g s p r i o r t o p l a c e m e n t i n m i s t beds s h o u l d i n c l u d e a p p l i c a t i o n o f r o o t i n g h o r m o n e s . I n d o l e b u t y r i c a c i d ( IBA) o r n a p t h a l e n e a c e t i c a c i d (NAA) a r e t h e most common a u x i n s u t i l i z e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t h i g h l e v e l s o f a u x i n s w i t h l ow l e v e l s o f c y t o k i n i n s e n c o u r a g e s r o o t f o r m a t i o n , b u t low l e v e l s o f a u x i n s c o m b i n e d w i t h h i g h l e v e l s o f c y t o k i n i n s e n c o u r a g e s s h o o t f o r m a t i o n ( F u r u t a , 1 9 7 4 ) . F u r t h e r , no te s h o u l d a l s o be made o f p l a n t h a r d e n i n g . I n c r e a s i n g t h e o r g a n i c m a t t e r i n c o n t a i n e r s may h e l p t o s l ow t h e f r e e z i n g p r o c e s s s h o u l d t h e p l a n t i n g be u n d e r t a k e n l a t e r i n t he f a l l . P l a n t s g e n e r a l l y c a n w i t h s t a n d s h o r t p e r i o d s be low 0° C, w i t h r a p i d t h a w i n g c o n s i d e r e d more damag ing t o t i s s u e s 62 ( F u r u t a , 1 9 7 4 ) . P r i o r t o r e l e a s e f r o m t h e n u r s e r y r o o t e d c u t t i n g s s h o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o a g r a d u a l d e c r e a s e o f t e m p e r a t u r e , o r p l a c e d i n a c y c l e o f ' s h o r t d a y s ' ( F u r u t a , 1 9 7 4 ) . 2 . 3 . 3 OUTPLANTING The a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f v a r i o u s s y s t e m s o f o u t p l a n t i n g have been w e l l d o c u m e n t e d , and c o n s i d e r a b l e work has been done on p l a n t i n g i n h a r s h a l p i n e o r a r c t i c t u n d r a c o n d i t i o n s . O u t p l a n t i n g , as r e c e n t l y d e f i n e d , i n v o l v e s g e n e r a l s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , s e e d b e d p r e p a r a t i o n , s c h e d u l i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s t o t h e s i t e , a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , s u p e r v i s i o n , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , f e r t i l i z i n g , and w a t e r i n g ( Z i e m k i e w i c z [ e d ] 1 9 7 8 ) . .1 S i t e and Seedbed P r e p a r a t i o n G r a d i n g , s c a r i f i c a t i o n , t o p s o i l , m o i s t u r e r e t e n t i o n , and s e e d b e d p r e p a r a t i o n a r e i m p o r t a n t s i t e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b u t t h e l e v e l o f t r e a t m e n t w i l l d e p e n d on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and the b u d g e t , as s i m p l e s c a r i f i c t i o n and s e e d i n g a r e r e q u i r e d f o r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s f r o m e x t e n s i v e r e g r a d i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t o p s o i l . 6 3 ( i ) S c a r i f i c a t i o n S c a r i f i c a t i o n o r t i l l i n g i s u t i l i z e d t o i m p r o v e t h e e x i s t i n g s o i l c o n d i t i o n s by p e r m i t t i n g p e r c o l a t i o n o f w a t e r and i n c r e a s i n g oxygen a v a i l a b i l i t y , as w e l l as c r e a t i n g a s u i t a b l y f r a g m e n t e d s u r f a c e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e e d . I f t h e e x i s t i n g s u r f a c e c o n s i s t s o f c o a r s e s u b s o i l s , t h e n t i l l i n g w i l l h e l p t h e b o n d i n g o f t o p s o i l t o t h e s u b s o i l . " " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f s e v e r e l y c o m p a c t e d s u r f a c e s r e q u i r e s heavy " r i p p i n g " e q u i p m e n t t o l o o s e n s o i l t o a d e p t h o f 2 0 - 3 0 cm. A c l a w a t t a c h m e n t mounted on t h e back o f a b u l l d o z e r may be u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s t a s k , b u t t h e opt imum d e p t h f o r r i p p i n g s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y a s s e s s e d s i n c e s o i l s a t l o w e r d e p t h s may c o n t a i n u n d e r s i r a b l e c l a y s o r s a l t s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . A r e a s no t s e r i o u s l y c o m p a c t e d may be s c a r i f i e d t o a d e p t h o f 1 5 - 2 0 cm, and r o t o t i l l e r s o r t r a c t o r - m o u n t e d d i s c h a r r o w s a r e s u i t a b l e . A " C l o d b u s t e r " , a s e r i e s o f c h a i n s w i t h s p i k e s a l o n g i t and a b a l l a t t h e e n d , may a l s o be d r a g g e d a c r o s s a s l o p e t o b reak up the s o i l s u r f a c e . A l l s c a r i f i c a t i o n work s h o u l d p r o c e e d a c r o s s t h e s l o p e t o p r e v e n t i m m e d i a t e e r o s i o n , and c a r e s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d t o a v o i d damage t o e x i s t i n g p l a n t r o o t s . P l a s s (1978) f o u n d t h a t s c a r i f i c a t i o n i n s p r i n g i s n o t as c r i t i c a l i n c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s as f r o s t a c t i o n may c r e a t e a s a t i s f a c t o r y s e e d b e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , heavy m a c h i n e r y may, i n 64 f a c t , do more damage t h r o u g h c o m p a c t i o n and l o s s o f s o i l s t r u c t u r e t h a n t h e s u r f a c e s c a r i f i c a t i o n w a r r a n t s ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . ( i i ) C o n t o u r R e s t o r a t i o n The b a s i c o b j e c t i v e o f r e g r a d i n g i s t o r e t u r n t h e d i s t u r b e d s i t e t o a c o n d i t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e . H o w e v e r , t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d a l s o be u sed t o i m p r o v e m o i s t u r e r e t e n t i o n f o r use by p l a n t s , y e t a v o i d e x c e s s i v e w a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n and p o s s i b l e s u b s e q u e n t e r o s i o n . R e g r a d i n g may a l s o be p l a n n e d i n a manner w h i c h m o d i f i e s t h e s i t e m i c r o - c l i m a t e t o i m p r o v e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s e e d l i n g s d u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . R e d u c t i o n o f w ind v e l o c i t i e s , and m o d i f i c a t i o n o f s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e a r e p o s s i b l e b e n e f i t s ( M a r x , 1 9 7 5 ) . C o n t o u r i n g and s h a p i n g s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o c r e a t e f o rms wh i ch a r e s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e . Reduced v i s u a l impac t w i l l h e l p t h e s i t e b l e n d i n t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e s i t e i n t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g d r a i n a g e p a t t e r n s and c l i m a t i c r e g i m e w i l l a s s i s t i n c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s e e d s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m a d j a c e n t e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n . Wate r c o n t r o l may be a c h i e v e d by a number o f m e t h o d s , i n c l u d i n g d i v e r s i o n s t o p r o v i d e a s a f e o u t l e t o f w a t e r d u r i n g peak r u n - o f f , and c o n t o u r t r e n c h e s t o 65 p r e v e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s u r f a c e r u n - o f f (Me iman, 1 9 7 4 ) . Hodder (1973) i d e n t i f i e s " g o u g i n g " as a t e c h n i q u e t o c o n s e r v e r u n - o f f d u r i n g m o d e r a t e i n t e n s i t y s t o r m s , a l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l m e l t i n g o f snow, and c r e a t i n g c l o d d e d s e e d b e d s s u i t a b l e f o r b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g . The t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e s t h e c r e a t i o n o f s e v e r a l s m a l l d e p r e s s i o n s , p e r h a p s 25 cm deep and 45 cm w i d e , by 60 cm l o n g . Hodder f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s " d o z e r b a s i n s " o r l a r g e d e p r e s s i o n s t o c o l l e c t p r e c i p i t a t i o n f r om e a c h s m a l l d r a i n a g e a r e a , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g much needed s o i l m o i s t u r e f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v e g e t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t g r o w i n g s e a s o n . I f a r e h a b i l i t a t e d a r e a i s t o r e c e i v e any f o rm o f m e c h a n i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e , s l o p e s o f 30% a r e c o n s i d e r e d maximum f o r s a f e , e f f i c i e n t m a n o e u v e r i n g (Manual o f S i t e Management , 1 9 7 8 ) . R e d u c t i o n o f s l o p e a n g l e s w i l l p r o d u c e a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s o f a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e a n g l e o f s o l a r i n c i d e n c e , and a s l o w i n g i n t h e r a t e o f r u n - o f f . ( i i i ) Top so i1 A r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n c a l l i n g f o r p l a n t i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o e x i s t i n g s i t e s o i l o r s u b s o i l , r e q u i r e s s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e l a n d f o r m and c r e a t i o n o f an a m e n a b l e s e e d b e d t o s a t i s f y t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c r i t e r i a . However , i f e x t r e m e l y p o o r s o i l c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f t o p s o i l , o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t o c k - p i l e d s i t e s o i l , f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y . 66 I m p o r t e d t o p s o i l may c o n t a i n t h e seed s o f n o x i o u s weeds and o t h e r u n d e s i r a b l e s p e c i e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e need f o r c h e m i c a l l y t r e a t i n g t h e s o i l ; i d e a l l y , d o n o r and r e c i p i e n t s i t e s s h o u l d be as s i m i l a r as p o s s i b l e t h u s p r o m o t i n g q u i c k r e c o v e r y t o a n a t u r a l s t a t e . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , s o i l s h o u l d be h a n d l e d o n l y once t o h e l p r e t a i n t h e e x i s t i n g m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s . I m p o r t e d s u b s o i l s a l s o may be u sed t o a d v a n t a g e i n i m p r o v i n g t h e t e x t u r e o f c o a r s e s o i l s , f o r e x a m p l e , by a d d i n g f i n e - t e x t u r e d " p l a s t i c " s o i l s t o a c t as b i n d i n g a g e n t s , and r e t a i n n u t r i e n t s and m o i s t u r e . C o n v e r s e l y , heavy c l a y s o i l s may be amended by sand to p r o v i d e i m p r o v e d w a t e r p e r c o l a t i o n and a i r c i r c u l a t i o n ( F o o t e , 1 9 7 0 ) . O t h e r s o i l amendments such as n u t r i e n t s , and o r g a n i c m a t t e r may a l s o be added t o t h e p l a n t i n g bed t o i m p r o v e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r s u p p o r t i n g g r o w t h . A p p l i c a t i o n o f t o p s o i l o r s u b s o i l s s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d by c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e r e c e i v i n g s u r f a c e t o e n s u r e b o n d i n g between t h e two s o i l l a y e r s . B o n d i n g a l s o p e r m i t s movement o f a i r and w a t e r , a l l o w s b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r r o o t g r o w t h , and d i s c o u r a g e s s o i l s l i p p a g e ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . O r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s such as s a w d u s t , s t r a w , d e c o m p o s i n g l e a v e s , o r ba rk s h r e d s may be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o c l a y o r sandy s o i l s t o i m p r o v e s o i l s t r u c t u r e . M o i s t u r e and a i r movement i n c l a y s o i l s , and i m p r o v e d s o i l p a r t i c l e b i n d i n g i n sandy s o i l s 67 a r e b e n e f i c i a l f a c t o r s , w h i l e t h e d e c a y i n g o r g a n i c m a t t e r w i l l p r o v i d e n u t r i e n t s f o r p l a n t g r o w t h ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f raw sawdus t o r o t h e r o r g a n i c m a t t e r w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e need f o r heavy a p p l i c a t i o n s o f n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r t o o f f s e t t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f n i t r o g e n by m i c r o - f a u n a . The f i n a l p r e p a r e d s e e d b e d s h o u l d be l e f t i n a r a t h e r rough c l o d d e d f o rm a l l o w i n g s e e d l i n g s t o e s t a b l i s h i n p r o t e c t e d t r o u g h m i c r o - e n v i r o n m e n t s , w i t h b e t t e r m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y and s h e l t e r f rom d r y i n g w ind and s u n . F r e s h l y t i l l e d s o i l s a l s o a p p e a r t o be i m p o r t a n t t o s u c c e s s f u l g e r m i n a t i o n . P a r t i a l l y b u r i e d l o g s o r b o u l d e r s a l s o may be i n s t a l l e d t o p r o v i d e c o v e r f o r young p l a n t s . .2 Time o f P l a n t i n g / S c h e d u l i n g Time o f p l a n t i n g i s a s i g n i f i c a n t s u r v i v a l f a c t o r , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n o f h a r s h s i t e s . S p r i n g and f a l l p l a n t i n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be opt imum due t o summer s o i l m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c y , e x c e s s i v e e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i on due to sun and d r y i n g w i n d s , and o t h e r d e t r i m e n t a l f a c t o r s . S p r i n g p l a n t i n g has t h e a d v a n t a g e o f m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y ( Z i e m k i e w i c z , [ e d ] , 1 9 7 8 ) , b u t most a u t h o r s recommend f a l l t r a n s p l a n t i n g and s e e d i n g p r o v i d e d t h e p l a n t s r e m a i n d o r m a n t , 68 and s e e d s do no t g e r m i n a t e p r i o r t o t h e o n s e t o f w i n t e r (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . F a l l p l a n t i n g i s w e l l s u i t e d t o a l p i n e a r e a s due t o s p r i n g a c c e s s p r o b l e m s ( F i t z m a r t y m , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n d e e d , some p l a n t s may r e q u i r e l a t e s e e d i n g and t h e s u b s e q u e n t c o l d p e r i o d t o o v e r c o m e i n h e r e n t d o r m a n c i e s ( P lummer , 1 9 7 6 ) . B e n g t s o n e t a l (1973 ) p o i n t ou t t h a t p l a n t i n g s h o u l d o c c u r e a r l y enough t o a l l o w r o o t s t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h , and t h u s a v o i d f r o s t - h e a v i n g p r o b l e m s . The use o f a n t i - t r a n s p i r a n t s i n e a r l y o r l a t e summer p l a n t i n g s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i f s i t e c o n d i t i o n s w a r r a n t i t , o r i f l a r g e s p e c i m e n s a r e t o be moved s u b s t a n t i a l d i s t a n c e s . S c h e d u l i n g d e c i s i o n s u l t i m a t e l y must be made w i t h r e s p e c t t o s p e c i e s and l o c a l c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , as w e l l as c o o r d i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p h a s e s o f t h e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o g r a m . In o r d e r to o b t a i n opt imum p l a n t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , s c a r i f i c a t i o n , a p p l i c a t i o n o f t o p s o i l , and o t h e r s o i l amendments s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o a n t i c i p a t e d p l a n t i n g d a t e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t r a n s p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be r e p l a n t e d as soon as p o s s i b l e , and s t o r a g e t i m e f o r a l l s t o c k s h o u l d be m i n i m i z e d . F a l l and s p r i n g p l a n t i n g may be hampered by u n s e a s o n a l f r o s t s , and c a r e must be t a k e n t o s e l e c t s t o r a g e a r e a s away f r om c o l d a i r p o c k e t s o r c o o l w i n d s . However , 69 c o n t a i n e r i z e d s t o c k s h o u l d n o t be e x p o s e d t o f u l l s u n l i g h t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t e summer, as t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f s o i l s i n d a r k c o l o u r e d c o n t a i n e r s may r i s e s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( F u r u t a , 1 9 7 4 ) . .3 P l a n t i n g T e c h n i q u e s A good d e a l o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w i t h v a r i o u s p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s has r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a b r o a d ra*ng~e o f o p t i o n s f o r t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r . Each t e c h n i q u e has a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o c e r t a i n s p e c i e s and s i t e c o n d i t i o n s , y e t s e v e r a l methods may be u t i l i z e d i n one p r o j e c t . D i r e c t s e e d i n g , r o o t e d and u n r o o t e d c u t t i n g s , t r a n s p l a n t i n g , w i l d i n g s and c o m m e r c i a l s t o c k , w a t t l i n g , s o d d i n g , c o r i n g , s p r i g g i n g , p l u g s , and p l a n t i n g i s l a n d s a r e some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s d e s r i b e d i n t h e 1 i t e r a t u r e . ( i ) D i r e c t S e e d i n g D i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r e e , s h r u b and g r a s s o r legume s e e d s by d r i l l s e e d i n g , b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g , and h y d r o s e e d i n g o f t e n have been t e s t e d , and c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s may be made. However , r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e d i r e c t s e e d i n g o f woody p l a n t s i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d , and i n i t i a l e x p e r i m e n t s show some p r o b l e m w i t h t h e m e t h o d . L e d g a r d (1976 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t p r i o r t o s e e d i n g woody p l a n t s a c o v e r o f g r a s s e s and l egumes 70 s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o t e c t s e e d l i n g s f r o m c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e s . However , h i g h r a t e s o f f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d i n t e r - s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n , and hence r e d u c e d s u r v i v a l o f t r e e s e e d l i n g s . L e d g a r d a l s o f o u n d t h a t t r e e seed p e l l e t i n g w i t h n u t r i e n t s d i d no t i m p r o v e s e e d l i n g g rowth o r s u r v i v a l w h i l e i n o c u l a t e d s e e d s were u s e f u l i n c a r r y i n g m y c o r r h i z a l f u n g i b e n e f i c i a l t o t he p l a n t . S e v e r a l w o r k e r s have d e s c r i b e d the l o s s o f woody p l a n t s e e d s by s m a l l r o d e n t and b i r d p r e d a t i o n ( L e d g a r d , 1976 ; G r e e n , 1 9 7 9 ; ) . ( i i ) D r i l l S e e d i n g S e e d i n g t o g r a s s r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i e s a d a p t e d t o a w ide r ange o f s i t e c o n d i t i o n s ( J o h n s o n & C l e v e , 1 9 7 6 ) . D r i l l s e e d i n g i s w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e s u p e r i o r method o f p l a n t i n g b e c a u s e t h e seed i s b u r i e d i m m e d i a t e l y upon a p p l i c a t i o n , and b e c a u s e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o r e g u l a t e w i t h a c c u r a c y t h e d e p t h , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and r a t e o f s e e d i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c o m p a c t t h e s o i l o v e r l y i n g s e e d s , and l o w e r r a t e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n c a n be u s e d . P r e d a t i o n by r o d e n t s and b i r d s , and seed l o s s t h r o u g h e r o s i o n may, t h e r e f o r e , be r e d u c e d . D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f d r i l l s e e d i n g i n c l u d e p l a c i n g t h e seed too d e e p l y i n t h e s o i l due t o an i m p r o p e r l y a d j u s t e d d r i l l , and s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f s e e d s p e c i e s b e c a u s e o f e q u i p m e n t v i b r a t i o n ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . F o o t e (1970) 71 s u g g e s t s t h a t d r i l l i n g be done a c r o s s s l o p e s so t h a t d e p r e s s i o n s l e f t by t h e d r i l l s and w h e e l s a c t as c h e c k s t o e r o s i o n . ( i i i ) B r o a d c a s t S e e d i n g B r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g i s a t e c h n i q u e whereby seed i s d e p o s i t e d o n t o t h e s o i l s u r f a c e i n a d r y c o n d i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Plummer ( 1 9 7 7 ) , b r o a d c a s t s e e d i n g l o o k s more n a t u r a l t h a n d r i l l s e e d i n g . C y c l o n e s p r e a d e r s p u l l e d by t r a c t o r s , h a n d - p u s h e d m a c h i n e s , o r s i m p l e b r o a d c a s t by hand may be used d e p e n d i n g on t h e s i t e and d e s i r e d u n i f o r m i t y o f c o v e r . Hand b r o a d c a s t i n g i s a p p r o p r i a t e on i r r e g u l a r o r r o c k y s i t e s , o r when p a t c h e s o r c l u m p s o f w i l d f l o w e r s a r e p l a n n e d . L a r g e r legume o r o t h e r s e e d s o f t e n r e q u i r e s p o t p l a n t i n g s i n c e g r e a t e r d e p t h o f b u r i a l may be r e q u i r e d . W a l k e r (1977) c o n c l u d e d t h a t b r o a d c a s t i n g n a t i v e seed w i t h o u t p r o v i s i o n f o r c o v e r i n g seed r e s u l t e d i n a v e r y low r a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ( i v) S p r i g g i ng S p r i g g i n g i s a t e c h n i q u e whereby s h o o t s , r o o t s , o r s p r o u t s o f a p l a n t a r e t r a n s p l a n t e d , w h e r e a s s o d d i n g i s a te rm u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g o f l a r g e r b l o c k s o f h e r b a c e o u s m a t e r i a l o n t o t h e t o p s o i l s u r f a c e . These t e c h n i q u e s 72 a r e c o s t l y , b u t may be p r e f e r r e d i n c r i t i c a l a r e a s ( R e v e g e t a t i v e G u i d e f o r A l a s k a , 1 9 7 7 ) . (v ) * H y d r o s e e d i n g H y d r o - s e e d i n g was p i o n e e r e d i n E u r o p e d u r i n g the l a s t d e c a d e and has g a i n e d w ide a c c e p t a n c e as a t e c h n i q u e i d e a l f o r p r o v i d i n g c o v e r on s t e e p i n a c c e s s i b l e s l o p e s , o r a p p l y i n g seed t o f r a g i l e a r e a s u n a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e i m p a c t o f heavy e q u i p m e n t . Seed c a n be sown o n t o n e a r l y v e r t i c a l s l o p e s p r o v i d e d t h e s l u r r y c o n t a i n s f i b r o u s m u l c h e s t o b i n d t he seed t o t h e s o i l s u r f a c e s . O n e - s t e p a p p l i c a t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r - s e e d - s o i l b i n d e r and w a t e r c an r e s u l t i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o s t s a v i n g s ( C a r r , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e r e a r e a number o f p r e c a u t i o n s w h i c h s h o u l d be t a k e n w i t h h y d r o s e e d i n g , most o f w h i c h have been r e c o r d e d by Kay (1973) as f o l l o w s : 1. C a r e must be t a k e n t o l i m i t seed s o a k i n g t i m e i n t h e h y d r o s e e d e r , and t o m a i n t a i n t h e s l u r r y f e r t i l i z e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n as low as p o s s i b l e ( C a r r , 1 9 7 7 ; Kay , 1 9 7 3 ) . C a r r r e p o r t s a 30% l o s s o f g e r m i n a t i o n i n T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s a f t e r a s i x t y m i n u t e e x p o s u r e t o a s o l u t i o n o f 90 kg o f 1 0 - 3 0 - 1 0 f e r t i l i z e r p e r c u b i c m e t e r o f w a t e r . 73 2. G e a r - t y p e pumps c o m b i n e d w i t h p a d d l e a g i t a t i o n p r e v e n t t h e m e c h a n i c a l damage t o s e e d s h y d r o s e e d e d w i t h c e n t r i f u g a l pumps and b y - p a s s a g i t a t i o n ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . 3. Wood f i b r e s h o u l d be added t o t h e mix t o a c t as a m u l c h . Kay (1973) r e p o r t s t h a t o r g a n i c s e e d i n g a d d i t i v e s such as V e r d y o l S u p e r have q u e s t i o n a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 4. P l a s t i c e m u l s i o n s a r e good d u r i n g i n t e r m e d i a t e s t a g e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o r e t a r d s o i l e r o s i o n ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . However , e m u l s i o n s h o u l d n o t be u s e d as a s e e d l i n g a d d i t i v e as i t may d e l a y g e r m i n a t i o n due t o l a c k o f w a t e r p e n e t r a t i o n . S t r aw i s an e x c e l l e n t s l u r r y c o m p o n e n t , bu t i t must be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s o i l , o r h e l d down w i t h n e t s o r s p r a y e d c h e m i c a l t a c k i f i e r . A s p h a l t e m u l s i o n i s a common t a c k i f i e r ( Kay , 1 9 7 3 ) . 5. Legumes s h o u l d be i n o c u l a t e d i n h y r d o s e e d i n g t o i n t r o d u c e n i t r o g e n - f i x i n g b a c t e r i a o f t h e p r o p e r s t r a i n s . P e l l e t i z e d seed s c o n t a i n t h e i n n o c u l a n t and an a d h e s i v e c o a t i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e s s u r v i v a l o f b a c t e r i a ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . 6. P l a n t g rowth r e g u l a t o r s may be a d d e d t o t h e s l u r r y t o b r e a k d o r m a n c y , s t i m u l a t e g e r m i n a t i o n and i n c r e a s e t h e s i z e and v i g o u r o f s e e d l i n g s ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . 74 7. U n e v e n n e s s o f seed d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e n o c c u r s b e c a u s e t h e gun o p e r a t o r i s u n a b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e p a t t e r n o f a p p l i c a t i o n t h a t he i s m a k i n g . C o l o u r - d y e d wood f i b r e o v e r c o m e s t h i s p r o b l e m ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . 8. H y d r o s e e d i n g s h o u l d no t p r o c e e d when w inds a r e i n e x c e s s o f 23 km p e r h o u r . 75 76 A t t a i n i n g v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r t h r o u g h d i r e c t s e e d i n g i s a l s o an e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s recommend s e e d i n g t o g r a s s p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g o f woody s p e c i e s ( H o r s t m a n n , 1 9 7 8 ) . G a s k i n e t a l (1979) f o u n d t h a t w i l l o w s p l a n t e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h g r a s s e x p e r i e n c e d a d r o p i n s u r v i v a l e q u i v a l e n t t o o n l y 20% o f t h e a v e r a g e w i l l o w s u r v i v a l i n a r e a s n o t s e e d e d . The r a t e o f seed a p p l i c a t i o n i s a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o p e r c e n t a g e c o v e r , and i n t r a - o r i n t e r - s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n . N a t i v e g r a s s e s r e q u i r e a l o n g e r t i m e t o e s t a b l i s h e r o s i o n c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y , and r e p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y may be i n i t i a l l y somewhat l i m i t e d ( P l a s s , 1 9 7 9 ) . However , recommended r a t e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n f o r n a t i v e g r a s s e s a r e i n t h e 5-10 l b s . p e r a c r e r a n g e , w h e r e a s a g r o n o m i c s may be s e e d e d a t up t o 50 l b s . p e r a c r e . N u r s e - c r o p s , s u c h as b a r l e y , o r a n n u a l r y e may be s e e d e d w i t h n a t i v e s p e c i e s t o e n c o u r a g e i m m e d i a t e e r o s i o n c o n t r o l b e n e f i t s , w h i l e p r e s u m a b l y s u c c u m b i n g t o s u p e r i o r n a t i v e g r a s s e s o v e r t h e l o n g e r t e r m . T r a n s p l a n t i n g g r a s s p l u g s o r c o n t a i n e r grown n a t i v e g r a s s p l a n t s c a n be a v e r y e f f e c t i v e means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a g r o u n d c o v e r on d i s t u r b e d a r e a s w i t h e x t r e m e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s ( W a l k e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . 77 ( v i ) Roo ted and U n r o o t e d C u t t i n g s U n r o o t e d c u t t i n g s a r e p e r h a p s t h e e a s i e s t and l e a s t c o s t l y way to a t t a i n v e g e t a t i v e r e p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e f i e l d . C u t t i n g s a r e c o l l e c t e d f r om s i t e s s i m i l a r t o t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a , and l a i d o u t i n d r i f t s i n l o c a t i o n s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s . A l n u s , S a l i x , and P o p u l u s c u t t i n g s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l - a d a p t e d t o d i r e c t p l a n t i n g due t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e r o o t s r a p i d l y and show a c c e l e r a t e d s h o o t g r o w t h . C u t t i n g s wou ld be p l a c e d i n a r o o t i n g hormone and s t u c k i n t h e s o i l a t an a n g l e , w i t h t h e s l a n t e d c u t a t t h e b o t t o m . P r o c k t e r (1977) recommends t h e r o o t i n g hormone S e r a d i x No. 1 f o r s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s , No. 2 f o r s e m i - h a r d w o o d and No. 3 f o r h a r d w o o d . The s o i l s h o u l d be p a c k e d f i r m l y a r o u n d t h e stem to remove a i r p o c k e t s w h i l e a v o i d i n g damage t o b a r k t i s s u e s ( N i x x e y & S e v e r s , 1 9 7 7 ) . U n r o o t e d w i l l o w c u t t i n g s may be p l a c e d i n b u n d l e s o f g roups o f t h r e e t o f o u r s tems i n o r d e r t o c r e a t e a s h r u b b y g rowth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Root c u t t i n g s , o r t h e t e c h n i q u e o f " s p r i g g i n g " as d e f i n e d by J o h n s o n & C l e v e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , have been p l a n t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y o r v e r t i c a l l y t o show a h i g h r a t e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t . 78 The t e c h n i q u e o f w a t t l i n g has e v o l v e d t o d e a l w i t h e r o s i o n c o n t r o l on v e r y s t e e p s l o p e s . W a t t l i n g i s a method o f p l a n t i n g u n r o o t e d c u t t i n g s o f f l e x i b l e t w i g s , i n t r e n c h e s a c r o s s c u t o r f i l l e d s l o p e s ( L e i s e r and Nussbaum, 1 9 7 4 ) . The b u n d l e s a r e s t a k e d down t o s e c u r e them i n p l a c e and t h e y a r e p a r t i a l l y c o v e r e d w i t h s o i l . W a t t l e s s h o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y s t r a i g h t l e n g t h s o f l e a f y b r u s h w i t h s tem t h i c k n e s s l e s s t h a n 25 mm. I f t he m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e has l i t t l e f o l i a g e t h e n s t r a w o r some o t h e r o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be bound i n t o t h e w a t t l e s t o a i d i n p l u g g i n g t he s p a c e s be tween s tems and p r e v e n t w a t e r f r o m e r o d i n g t h e s o i l ( K r a e b e l , 1 9 3 6 ) . W a t t l i n g has been shown t o s l ow t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r f l o w e f f e c t i v e l y , i n c r e a s e w a t e r i n f i l t r a t i o n and e n t r a p s e d i m e n t s ( L e i s e r and Nussbaum, 1 9 7 4 ) . I f s p e c i e s w h i c h r o o t r e a d i l y a r e u s e d , t h e b u n d l e s w i l l be s e c u r e l y f i x e d t o t h e s l o p e s u r f a c e . R o o t e d c u t t i n g s may be c h o s e n as an o u t p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e when a more m a t u r e p l a n t c a p a b l e o f i m m e d i a t e s h o o t g rowth and a c c e l e r a t e d r e p r o d u c t i o n i s d e s i r e d . C u t t i n g s may be g r o w n - o n f o r s e v e r a l months t o two o r t h r e e s e a s o n s and t h e n t r a n s p l a n t e d o n t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e as r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p l a n t s . R o o t e d c u t t i n g s wou ld n o r m a l l y be grown i n c o n t a i n e r s and t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e s i t e i n c a r t o n s f o r e a s y h a n d l i n g . The p l a n t i n g h o l e s h o u l d c o n s i s t o f a s m a l l V - s h a p e d t r e n c h a b l e t o a c c e p t t h e e x t e n d e d r o o t s o f t h e 79 c u t t i n g . The s tem i s t h e n f i r m l y h e e l e d i n and w a t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y . ( v i i ) T r a n s p l a n t i ng In g e n e r a l t e rms t r a n s p l a n t i n g o v e r l a p s and encompas se s s e v e r a l o t h e r more s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s , such as t r a n s f e r r i n g c o n t a i n e r - g r o w n c u t t i n g s t o t h e s i t e , b u t t h e e m p h a s i s o f t he r e v i e w w i l l be on w i l d l i n g s and b a r e r o o t t r a n s p l a n t s f r om f i e l d - g r o w n n u r s e r y c o n d i t i o n s . T r a n s p l a n t i n g o f f e r s t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f a s o i l mass a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e p l a n t w h i c h a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s m i c r o - f a u n a , i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o d e s i c c a t i o n due t o w e l l d e v e l o p e d r o o t s and s h o o t s , has i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s , and has t h e c a p a b i l i t y t o p r o d u c e seed s more q u i c k l y t h a n s e e d e d p l a n t s ( F i t z m a r t y n , 1 9 7 9 ) . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l o c a l m i c r o - f a u n a t o t he s i t e v i a t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g o f i n d i g e n o u s w i l d l i n g s as opposed t o c o m m e r c i a l s t o c k has t h e f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e o f s p e e d i n g up the n a t u r a l i n v a s i o n o f m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s f r o m t h e a d j a c e n t e n v i r o n m e n t ( Z i e m k i e w i c z [ e d ] , 1 9 7 8 ) . 80 In g e n e r a l , t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f t r a n s p l a n t i n g c o m m e r c i a l m a t e r i a l a r e w e l l known; t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h o l e s i z e , a r r a n g e m e n t o f r o o t s , s o i l l e v e l i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t r u n k , b a c k f i l l i n g , and w a t e r i n g a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d . However , w i l d l i n g t r a n s p l a n t s have r e c e i v e d l e s s a t t e n t i o n , and s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s w a r r a n t e d . Whenever p o s s i b l e , t r e e s and s h r u b s s h o u l d be moved t o g e t h e r w i t h sod and h e r b a c e o u s c o v e r a r o u n d t h e t r u n k , i n e f f e c t , t r a n s p l a n t i n g a s m a l l communi ty o f s p e c i e s and t h e p o s s i b l e mutua l b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d f r o m c o n t i n u e d c o - e x i s t e n c e . I f b a r e r o o t s e e d l i n g s a r e t o be u s e d , c a r e must be t a k e n t o p r e v e n t d r y i n g o u t o f r o o t s be tween d i g g i n g and p l a n t i n g . The r o o t s may be k e p t i n w a t e r o r an a n t i - d e s i c c a n t may be a p p l i e d ( N i x e y & S e v e r s , 1 9 7 7 ; Z i e m k i e w i c z [ e d ] , 1 9 7 8 ) . C l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o f work c r e w s i s n e c e s s a r y d u r i n g t h e d i g g i n g and t r a n s p l a n t i n g o f a l l w i l d l i n g s t o e n s u r e p r o p e r h a n d l i n g . ( v i i i ) C o n t a i n e r Grown V e r s u s Ba re Roo t S t o c k The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f c o n t a i n e r grown and b a r e r o o t s t o c k f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f t e n have been d i s c u s s e d , and a summary o f r e l e v a n t f i n d i n g s i s i n c l u d e d . S t e i n (1976) and B a l m e r (1976) d e s c r i b e d a d v a n t a g e s as f o l l o w s : 81 1. A h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e n u r s e r y p r o c e s s may be a t t a i n e d w i t h c o n t a i n e r s t o c k . 2. G r e a t e r p r o d u c t i o n and p l a n t i n g e f f i c i e n c i e s w i t h c o n t a i n e r s t o c k l e a d t o an i n c r e a s e d speed o f p r o d u c t i o n . 3. E x t e n d e d p l a n t i n g s e a s o n s a r e p o s s i b l e . 4 . Improved r a t e s o f s u r v i v a l a r e p o s s i b l e due t o p r o t e c t i o n o f r o o t s i n t r a n s i t , r e t e n t i o n o f m o i s t u r e i n t h e p r e f o r m e d r o o t b a l l , i n t a c t m y c o r r h i z a l and f i n e r o o t s t r u c t u r e s , and e a s i e r p l a n t i n g . D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f c o n t a i n e r grown p l a n t s have i n c l u d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. T h e r e i s a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r more t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g - o n p r o c e s s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y h i g h e r c o s t s . 2. C o n d i t i o n s t h a t a c c e l e r a t e s e e d l i n g g r o w t h a l s o i n c r e a s e t h e i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e and n u t r i t i o n a l i m b a l a n c e s . 3. C o n t a i n e r grown s e e d l i n g s a r e heavy and b u l k y t o t r a n s p o r t . 82 4. I f f o l i a g e i s no t h a r d e n e d p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g , f r o s t damage o r s c o r c h i n g may k i l l t h e p l a n t . D a m p i n g - o f f i s t h o u g h t t o be a g r e a t e r p r o b l e m i n c o n t a i n e r s (Howe, 1 9 7 8 ) . 5. C o n t a i n e r i z e d s t o c k i s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o f r o s t h e a v i n g . ( i x ) S o d d i n g , C o r i n g o r " P l u g s " , I s l a n d o r " R a f t " T r a n s p l a n t s " * The r e l o c a t i o n o f n a t i v e s o d , w i l d f l o w e r c l u m p s , o r o f e n t i r e m i n i a t u r e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s i s a t r a n s p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n , but t h e n e c e s s a r y t e c h n i q u e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f rom m o v i n g s i n g l e woody s p e c i m e n s . S o d d i n g i n v o l v e s r e p l a c i n g t h e o r g a n i c mat , and has p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n i n a r c t i c e n v i r o n m e n t s where r e d u c t i o n o f t h e r m a l d i s t u r b a n c e i s i m p o r t a n t ( J o h n s o n and C l e v e , 1 9 7 6 ) . However , i n a l p i n e a r e a s , where i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t i s d e s i r e d , and where s e e d i n g w o u l d t a k e t o o l o n g t o e s t a b l i s h , s o d d i n g may a l s o be u s e d . H i g h c o s t s and t h e need o f a d o n o r s i t e a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f s o d d i n g . C a m p b e l l and S c o t t e r (1975) e s t a b l i s h e d t e s t p l o t s o f a l p i n e s p e c i e s on Mt. R e v e l s t o k e , B. C , and f o u n d t h a t t r a n s p l a n t e d p l u g s s u r v i v e d w e l l , b u t d i d no t show a p p r e c i a b l e g r o w t h . A d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : 83 1. The p l u g s i z e i s i m p o r t a n t w i t h l a r g e r p l u g s show ing i n c r e a s e d s u r v i v a l . 2. F e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t i s n o t c r i t i c a l , b u t w a t e r i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l . W a t e r i n g i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t on d r y , e x p o s e d s i t e s . 3. A bond must be c r e a t e d be tween t h e s u b s o i l and any added o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l t o p e r m i t w a t e r , m i n e r a l , and gas e x c h a n g e s be tween d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e s u b s t r a t e . 4. The use o f p e a t moss r o t o t i l l e d i n t o t h e s u r f a c e and j u t e n e t t i n g t o r e t a r d e r o s i o n a r e u s e f u l . 5. F r o s t h e a v i n g o f t r a n s p l a n t e d p l u g s p r e s e n t s a p r o b l e m . " I s l a n d " t r a n s p l a n t s have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , a l t h o u g h t h e t e c h n i q u e w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d y o f the Snowshoe F i r e w o o d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The method i n v o l v e s d i g g i n g l a r g e i s l a n d s o f v e g e t a t i o n up t o 1.5 m s q u a r e and t r a n s p l a n t i n g i n t o t h e d i s t u r b e d a r e a . A d v a n t a g e s i n c l u d e t h e i m m e d i a t e b i o l o g i c a l and a e s t h e t i c b e n e f i t s o f an i s l a n d o f h e r b a c e o u s , s h r u b b y , and t r e e m a t e r i a l f r o m w h i c h v e g e t a t i v e e x p a n s i o n and s e e d d i s p e r s a l may o c c u r r e a d i l y . 84 .4 M u l c h e s and E r o s i o n C o n t r o l M a t e r i a l s M u l c h i n g has been r e c o g n i z e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s as an e f f e c t i v e means t o a i d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n t c o v e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y on a d v e r s e s i t e s . M u l c h e s c o n t r o l e r o s i o n by r e d u c i n g t h e s p e e d o f s u r f a c e w a t e r r u n - o f f , by p r o t e c t i n g t h e s o i l f r o m r a i n - d r o p i m p a c t , and c h e c k i n g t h e s c o u r i n g o f h i g h wind v e l o c i t i e s . Seed and f e r t i l i z e r a r e more r e a d i l y h e l d i n p l a c e ; m o i s t u r e i s c o n s e r v e d by r e d u c i n g e v a p o r a t i o n , and t e m p e r a t u r e e x t r e m e s a r e m o d i f i e d ( K a y , 1 9 7 3 ) . M u l c h e s a r e a l s o c a p a b l e o f p r e v e n t i n g e x c e s s i v e s o i l c o m p a c t i o n t h r o u g h t r a m p l i n g , and c a n p r o v i d e n u t r i e n t s f o r p l a n t g r o w t h . A number o f o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c m u l c h e s a r e c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on t h e m a r k e t . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e f f e c t i v e m u l c h e s i n c l u d e r e s i s t a n c e t o e r o s i o n and w e a t h e r i n g , good p o r o s i t y , and low c o s t . A r m b r u s t and D i c k e r s o n (1971) d i s c u s s e d t e m p o r a r y w ind e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and recommended t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d s h o u l d depend on t h e r a t e o f s o i l movement t h a t i s damag ing and t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l r e q u i r e d . They f o u n d t h a t low r a t e s o f s o i l movement f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s c o u l d s e v e r e l y damage s e e d l i n g s . The m u l c h s h o u l d a l s o be n o n - t o x i c to p l a n t s , y e t u n p a l a t a b l e t o a n i m a l s , f i r e r e s i s t a n t , and f r e e o f n o x i o u s weed s e e d s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . F i t z m a r t y n ( 1 9 7 9 ) , i n d i c a t e d t h a t pH l e v e l s and t h e 85 c a r b o n / n i t r o g e n r a t i o s o f t h e m u l c h s h o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . M u l c h pH l e v e l s s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e s o i l pH t o e n s u r e p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and t h e C/N r a t i o s h o u l d be low t o a v o i d p l a n t f a i l u r e c a u s e d by c o m p e t i t i o n be tween p l a n t s and m i c r o - f l o r a f o r a v a i l a b l e s o i l n i t r o g e n . N i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z e r s s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o a r e a s where h i g h C/N r a t i o m u l c h e s , such as s a w d u s t , have been u s e d . ( i ) O r g a n i c M u l c h e s ( f r o m K a y , 1973) S t r a w and hay have shown s u p e r i o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m u l c h e s , a l t h o u g h w o o d c h i p s , b a r k c h i p s , and sawdus t have a l s o been u t i l i z e d . S t r a w m u l c h e s c a n be s p r e a d by hand o r a p p l i e d by m a n u f a c t u r e d b l o w e r s o r s t r a w b e a t e r s . A p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s w i l l v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t o p o g r a p h y , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , r a i n f a l l , and t h e t y p e o f s t r a w , a l t h o u g h c a u t i o n s h o u l d be e x e r c i s e d t o a v o i d s m o t h e r i n g s e e d l i n g s o r c r e a t i n g a f i r e h a z a r d . Wind p r o t e c t i o n on e x p o s e d s i t e s c a n be a t t a i n e d by c r i m p i n g , d i s k i n g , o r r o l l i n g t h e s t r a w i n t o t h e s o i l s . The a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f s t r a w s h o u l d be 1 5 - 4 5 cm f o r m e c h a n i c a l m u l c h i n g . J u t e mesh , p l a s t i c f a b r i c s , o r c o n c r e t e r e i n f o r c i n g w i r e may a l s o be u s e d , a l t h o u g h c h e m i c a l t a c k i f i e r s a r e commonly e m p l o y e d . T a c k i f i e r s a r e e s p e c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use on s t e e p e r s l o p e s o r c o m p a c t e d s o i l s t o o h a r d f o r c r i m p i n g o r p u n c h i n g . Wood f i b r e e m u l s i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d 86 e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y more a c c e p t a b l e t h a n a s p h a l t e m u l s i o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r a r e i n w i d e s p r e a d u s e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , f i n a l l y , t h a t s t r a w o r hay m u l c h e s c o n t a i n up t o 5% c e r e a l seed by w e i g h t , t h u s p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l n u r s e c r o p . However , t h e c e r e a l s may f o rm an a g g r e s s i v e p o p u l a t i o n c o m p e t i n g w i t h d e s i r e d n a t i v e s f o r s p a c e and n u t r i e n t s . H a r v e s t i n g o f n a t i v e g r a s s e s may be a r e i a r i s t i c a l t e r n a t i v e , p r o v i d e d c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s have s i m i l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . Wood r e s i d u e s a r e a v a i l a b l e as b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h e f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . Wood r e s i d u e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d l o n g e r l a s t i n g , l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o b l o w i n g , e a s i e r t o a p p l y , and more f i r e r e s i s t a n t t h a n s t r a w o r hay m u l c h e s . However , h i g h C/N r a t i o s , e x c e s s i v e l y a c i d i c pH l e v e l s , and r e t a r d a t i o n o f a e r a t i o n and w a t e r i n f i l t r a t i o n w i t h m a t e r i a l s such as s a w d u s t a r e p r o b l e m s . Kay (1973) f o u n d t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s o f wood r e s i d u e s must be c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n s t r a w t o a c h i e v e s i m i l a r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . G e n e r a l l y t h e use o f wood r e s i d u e s i s b e s t r e s t r i c t e d t o s l o p e s l e s s t h a n 3 : 1 , a l t h o u g h s h r e d d e d wood o r e x c e l s i o r has i n t e r t w i n e d f i b r e s r e s i s t a n t t o d i s l o c a t i o n by wind o r w a t e r . E x c e l s i o r has d e m o n s t r a t e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s c o m p a r a b l e t o s t r a w p l u s a s p h a l t e m u l s i o n . However , e x c e l s i o r i s e x p e n s i v e , shows a t e n d e n c y t o decompose t o o q u i c k l y , and 87 i n s t a l l a t i o n i s l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e . ( U . S . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r o t e c t i o n A g e n c y , 1 9 7 5 ) . E r o s i o n c o n t r o l f a b r i c s composed o f j u t e mesh, woven p a p e r , o r p l a s t i c f i b r e s a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e b u t h i g h c o s t s o f i n s t a l l a t i o n and q u e s t i o n a b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e d r a w b a c k s . Kay o b s e r v e d t h a t e r o s i o n may o c c u r b e n e a t h t h e n e t t i n g and a n c h o r i n g r e s u l t s i n t e a r i n g by w ind w h i p p i n g . R e l a t i v e l y p o o r b i o d e g r a d a b i 1 i t y and an u n s i g h t l y a p p e a r a n c e a r e o t h e r p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s . S m a l l , e x c e s s i v e l y e r o s i o n - p r o n e s l o p e s a r e s u i t a b l e f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s o f f a b r i c s , as o r g a n i c m u l c h e s a r e g e n e r a l l y no t e f f e c t i v e i n a n c h o r i n g s o i l . Heede ( d a t e unknown) f o u n d t h a t submerged b u r l a p s t r i p s d r a m a t i c a l l y a i d e d s o i l r e t e n t i o n on p l a n t e d s i t e s . G u l l i e s and deep r i l l s were r e s h a p e d t o g e n t l e s w a l e s p r i o r t o i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e b u r l a p . S t r i p s were s e t v e r t i c a l l y 15 cm i n t he g r o u n d t o r e d u c e s o i l movement and t h u s a i d i n t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s e e d l i n g s . Submerged b u r l a p s t r i p s a c t as a m i n i a t u r e c h e c k dam w h i l e w a t e r f l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n s and v e l o c i t i e s a r e r e d u c e d . Heede p o i n t s o u t t h a t a h i g h p o t e n t i a l f o r p l a n t g rowth i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o c e d u r e t o be s u c c e s s f u l . A f t e r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e b u r l a p s t r i p s i n a b o u t 2-5 y e a r s d e p e n d i n g on c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , p l a n t c o v e r s h o u l d be w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . 88 ( l i ) S o i l and Rock M u l c h e s S o i l and r o c k m u l c h e s were h i g h l y r a t e d by Kay due t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f f a v o u r a b l e m i c r o s i t e s f o r s e e d g e r m i n a t i o n . Rough s e e d b e d s r e t a i n s o i l m o i s t u r e and m o d i f y a t m o s p h e r i c m o i s t u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e r e g i m e s . One s t u d y showed t h a t a l a y e r o f g r a v e l 3 cm deep p r o v i d e s more e f f e c t i v e e r o s i o n c o n t r o l t h a n 4 ,000 l b / a c r e o f s t r a w . F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t a g r a v e l c o v e r e n c o u r a g e s i n v a s i o n by i n d i g e n o u s s p e c i e s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . ( i i i ) H y d r o m u l c h i n g ; T a c k i f i e r s ; and S o i l B i n d e r s H y d r o m u l c h i n g i s a t e c h n i q u e by w h i c h a m u l c h i s a p p l i e d as a w a t e r s l u r r y , o f t e n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h s e e d , f e r t i l i z e r , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l c o m p o u n d s , g rowth r e g u l a t o r s , and o t h e r e l e m e n t s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . H y d r o m u l c h i n g and h y d r o s e e d i n g a r e e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s a l l o w i n g t h a t , " m u l c h i n g " s e r v e s a somewhat d i f f e r e n t p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n f r o m " s e e d i n g " . A l d e r , A s p e n , and Hemlock f i b r e s a r e commonly u s e d , w h i l e Kay d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t o f f i c e w a s t e , c o r r u g a t e d b o x e s , chopped newspaper and s e e d s c r e e n i n g s p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y . H y d r o m u l c h i n g m a t e r i a l must a d h e r e t o t h e s o i l , and h o l d s e e d s i n p l a c e d u r i n g heavy r a i n f a l l and w ind s c o u r i n g . M o i s t u r e 89 h o l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a l s o i m p o r t a n t , and s t u d i e s have shown t h a t p r o d u c t s w i t h t h e l o n g e s t f i b r e s have t h e b e s t s l o p e - a d h e r i n g and w a t e r - h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y . A p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s v a r y f r o m 500 t o 3 ,000 l b . / a c r e , w h i l e t h e r a t i o o f 500 l b s . mu l ch t o 1,500 g a l . w a t e r i s e f f e c t i v e i n d i s p e r s i n g s e e d s e v e n l y i n t h e s l u r r y , and t o p r o t e c t seed p a s s i n g t h r o u g h c e n t r i f u g a l pumps. S l o p e a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e s s h o u l d r e a c h 1,000 l b . / a c r e i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e s u f f i c i e n t m u l c h i n g e f f e c t . F i b r e t a c k i f i e r s a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e c u r e f i b r e i n p l a c e , r e t a i n m o i s t u r e , p romote g e r m i n a t i o n , and r e t a r d e r o s i o n . V i r g i n wood f i b r e s a p p l i e d as a h y d r a u l i c mu l ch have been f o u n d t o a d h e r e w e l l t o s l o p e s w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l g l u e s o r t a c k i f i e r s , b u t r e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e s i n t o ways o f i m p r o v i n g t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o w i n d o r r a i n . S e v e r a l c o m m e r c i a l t a c k i f i e r s a r e a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y by t h e a d d i t i o n o f f e r t i l i z e r s t o t h e s l u r r y , and t h e i r e r o s i o n c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e r e d u c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . S t y r e n e b u t a d i e n e (SBR) p r o d u c t s and ' S u p e r S l u r p e r ' , an a b s o r b e n t p o l y m e r made f r om s t a r c h , have shown i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e . ' S u p e r S l u r p e r ' i s a d r y powder w h i c h i s r e p o r t e d c a p a b l e o f a b s o r b i n g 1,000 t i m e s i t s w e i g h t i n w a t e r . ' S u p e r S l u r p e r ' i n a f i b e r s l u r r y i s l e s s e f f e c t i v e when used w i t h f e r t i l i z e r , b u t SBR r e t a i n s i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . ' S u p e r S l u r p e r ' 90 i s n o r m a l l y a p p l i e d a t 100 l b . / a c r e and SBR a t 30 l b s . p e r a c r e , a l t h o u g h o n e - h a l f o f t h e s e amounts i s s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r p r o d u c t s . R e c e n t t e s t s have d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t a p p l i c a t i o n o f g l u e p r o d u c t s a f t e r t h e s e e d i n g o r m u l c h i n g o p e r a t i o n i s much more e f f e c t i v e t h a n i n c l u d i n g g l u e i n t h e s l u r r y m i x t u r e . S u r f a c e s t r e a t e d w i t h g l u e a f t e r h y d r o - s e e d i n g - m u l c h i n g a r e more r e s i s t a n t t o r a i n f a l l i m p a c t , and a r e more d u r a b l e i n g e n e r a l . S o i l b i n d e r s a r e d e s i g n e d t o b i n d s u r f a c e s o i l p a r t i c l e s f o r p r o t e c t i o n f r om w ind and w a t e r e r o s i o n . P l a s t i c e m u l s i o n s such as p o l y v i n y l a c e t a t e h o m o p o l y m e r s o r v i n y l a c r y l i c c o p o l y m e r s ( c a l l e d P V A ) , a r e u s e d , a s w e l l as s t y r e n e b u t a d i e n e ( S B R ) . A l l a r e m i x t u r e s o f p o l y m e r i c p a r t i c l e s w i t h h i g h m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t , and a r e d i s p e r s e d i n a c o n t i n u o u s aqueous p h a s e . E m u l s i o n s a r e g e n e r a l l y s o l d as l i q u i d c o n c e n t r a t e s t o mix w i t h w a t e r , and t h e amount o f w a t e r u sed i s c r i t i c a l I f t h e w a t e r c o n t e n t o f t h e s l u r r y i s g r e a t e r t h a n t h e d e s i r e d PVA d i l u a t i o n , i t i s b e t t e r t o a p p l y t h e e m u l s i o n s e p a r a t e l y P r o b l e m s w i t h e m u l s i o n s i n c l u d e a r e s t r i c t e d r a n g e o f a i r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s ( 4 5 ° - 5 5 ° C ) , s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o d e s t r u c t i o n 91 by f r o s t i f u n c u r e d , r e d u c e d p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , d e l a y e d e m e r g e n c e o f s e e d l i n g s , and c r u s t f o r m a t i o n w h i c h sheds r a i n f a l l . They a r e g e n e r a l l y u n s u i t a b l e f o r u se i n low r a i n f a l l a r e a s , on s o i l s o f low w a t e r h o l d i n g c a p a c i t y , and i n a r e a s s u b j e c t t o f r o s t h e a v i n g . The f o r e g o i n g r e v i e w o f m u l c h e s and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e b r o a d r ange o f a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e . The v a r i o u s p r o j e c t s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n . c o s t and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , b u t s i t e c o n d i t i o n s and m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y u s u a l l y d e t e r m i n e w h i c h a p p r o a c h e s a r e most s u i t a b l e . G e n e r a l l y , p e r f o r m a n c e o f m u l c h e s i m p r o v e s w i t h t h e amount o f mu l ch p e r a c r e and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e f i b r e . I n c r e a s e d f i b r e l e n g t h a i d s i n e r o s i o n c o n t r o l and g e r m i n a t i o n w h i l e no t s u b s t a n t i a l l y r a i s i n g c o s t s . v In many c a s e s a s i m p l e s o i l c o v e r o v e r t h e s e e d o r a r ough s e e d b e d i s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n . I n d e e d , e x p e n s i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s o f m u l c h e s and o t h e r a d d i t i v e s may have a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t . T h e s e m a t e r i a l s may r e t a i n s u f f i c i e n t m o i s t u r e t o p e r m i t g e r m i n a t i o n i n s p i t e o f low s o i l m o i s t u r e . As t h e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l d e t e r i o r a t e s , t h e p l a n t i s f a c e d w i t h i n a d e q u a t e w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r s u r v i v a l . 92 .5 F e r t i l i z a t i o n , W a t e r i n g , and P r o t e c t i o n o f P l a n t i n g F e r t i l i z a t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o e d a p h i c c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r s , and s o i l amendments a t t h e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g , y e t w a r r a n t s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o o u t p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . F e r t i l i z e r may be m i x e d i n w i t h t o p s o i l p r i o r t o s p r e a d i n g o v e r t h e s u b s o i l , o r i t may be a p p l i e d d u r i n g p l a n t i n g and a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s f o r th'e f i r s t few g r o w i n g s e a s o n s . B e n g t s o n e t a l ( 1973 ) f o u n d t h a t b r o a d c a s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f N i t r o g e n and P h o s p h o r o u s on r e c l a i m e d s u r f a c e m ined l a n d i m p r o v e d t h e v i g o u r , a p p e a r a n c e , and g r o w t h r a t e s o f t r a n s p l a n t e d p i n e s , b u t d i d n o t a p p e a r e s s e n t i a l t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t . D i r e c t l y s e e d e d c r o p s , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e d f e r t i l i z e r a t t h e t i m e o f s e e d i n g . R e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n o f g r a s s a r e a s c an have a f a v o u r a b l e e f f e c t by i n c r e a s i n g b i o m a s s , c o v e r , and maximum h e i g h t r e l a t i v e t o t h o s e w i t h o u t r e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n ( G a s k i n e t a l , 1 9 7 9 ) . Cook (1974 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t f e r t i l i z e r be a p p l i e d w i t h s e e d , and t h e n a g a i n as a t o p - d r e s s i n g . However , B e a r d s l e y and H e r r i n g t o n ( 1 9 7 0 ) , i n s t u d i e s o f r e h a b i l i t a t e d c a m p g r o u n d s , f o u n d t h a t f e r t i l i z e r and seed a p p l i c a t i o n s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h a n s e e d a l o n e . A p p l i c a t i o n s o f w a t e r , f e r t i l i z e r , and s e e d showed much g r e a t e r s u c c e s s t h a n seed o n l y and o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s such as 93 w a t e r and s e e d . T h e s e r e s u l t s were s u b s t a n t i a t e d by s t u d i e s i n a l p i n e r e v e g e t a t i o n on Mr . R e v e l s t o k e , B. C , ( C a m p b e l l and S c o t t e r , 1 9 7 5 ) , where f e r t i l i z e r t r e a t m e n t was n o t f o u n d t o be c r i t i c a l t o s u r v i v a l , w h i l e w a t e r i n g p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . In summary, h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n as t o t h e o v e r a l l b e n e f i t s o f f e r t i l i z a t i o n . T r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s and s h r u b s , as w e l l as c o n t a i n e r i z e d r o o t e d c u t t i n g s w i l l be b e t t e r e q u i p p e d t o p romote r o o t and s h o o t g rowth i f a d e q u a t e n u t r i e n t s a r e a v a i l a b l e . The f e r t i l i z e r mix and t h e r a t e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f s o i l t e s t s and t h e d e s i r e d r e v e g e t a t i o n r e s u l t s . V a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e p l a n t s p e c i e s , s o i l t e x t u r e , o r g a n i c m a t t e r c o n t e n t , i o n - e x c h a n g e c a p a c i t y , d e p t h and a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s u p p l y ( F i t z m a r t y n , 1 9 7 9 ) . Optimum n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y i s r e c o r d e d a t a pH o f 5 . 5 - 7 . 0 , w i t h s o i l s b e l o w pH 5.5 r e q u i r i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i m e (Brown e t a l , 1 9 7 8 ) . Too much f e r t i l i z a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h n i t r o g e n may l e a d t o l u s h a p p e a r i n g s h o o t g r o w t h , b u t a r e d u c e d p l a n t v i g o u r ( H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , r e p e a t e d f e r t i l i z i n g may e n d a n g e r woody p l a n t s i f an h e r b a c e o u s " n u r s e c r o p " i s s u p p o r t e d o v e r a l o n g p e r i o d o f t i m e ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . 94 F e r t i l i z e r s may be r e a d i l y s p r e a d w i t h t r a c t o r - o p e r a t e d e q u i p m e n t on a c c e s s i b l e s i t e s , o r by hand a p p l i c a t o r s on s t e e p s l o p e s . H y d r o s e e d i n g e q u i p m e n t i s a l s o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r i n a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s , and f e r t i l i z e r wou ld be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s l u r r y . I f f e r t i l i z e r i s a p p l i e d d r y , a t h o r o u g h w a t e r i n g s h o u l d f o l l o w t o p r e v e n t c h e m i c a l b u r n i n g o f p l a n t s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 8 0 ) . F e r t i l i z a t i o n o f l a r g e r p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s o f t e n done by i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t o f e a c h t r e e o r s h r u b . S t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e s i n c l u d e d r o p p i n g s l o w - r e l e a s e o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z e r d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e r o o t zone by means o f na r row t e m p o r a r y h o l e s o r hand s p r e a d i n g a r o u n d t h e d r i p - l i n e . S t a r t e r t a b l e t s a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t recommended as o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e m a r g i n a l b e n e f i t s ( H o r s t m a n n , 1 9 7 8 ) . L e d g a r d (1976) r e p o r t s t h a t t r e e s e e d p e l l e t i n g w i t h n u t r i e n t s d i d no t i m p r o v e s e e d l i n g s u r v i v a l o r g r o w t h . P l a n t e d a r e a s s h o u l d be t h o r o u g h l y w a t e r e d f o l l o w i n g i n s t a l l a t i o n , and mounded p l a n t i n g s a u c e r s o f l a r g e r m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be c a p a b l e o f r e t a i n i n g e x c e s s w a t e r . Damaged t r a n s p l a n t e d s t o c k s h o u l d be i m m e d i a t e l y r e p a i r e d by p r o p e r p r u n i n g , and a l l p l a n t s o v e r 1.5 m s h o u l d be s t a k e d o r g u y e d . Expo sed p l a n t i n g s i t e s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y v u l n e r a b l e t o d e s t r u c t i o n by w i n d , and i n some c a s e s , e v e n s m a l l e r m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be p r o t e c t e d w i t h a t l e a s t a s i n g l e s t a k e . S t a n d a r d l a n d s c a p e c o n s t r u c t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e where s i z e a b l e 95 m a t e r i a l has been t r a n s p l a n t e d and t h e m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t o f t r e e r e p l a c e m e n t due t o w ind u p t u r n i n g s h o u l d be w e i g h e d a g a i n s t t h e c a p i t a l c o s t o f p r o p e r t r e e s u p p o r t m e a s u r e s ( G r o u n d s M a i n t e n a n c e P r o p o s a l , P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k , P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 9 ) . O t h e r p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s i n c l u d e t e m p o r a r y snow f e n c i n g t o r e d u c e wind o r a l l o w i n s u l a t i n g snow b u i l d up and i n c r e a s e d s p r i n g m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y , o r w i r e f e n c e s t o p r e v e n t t r a m p l i n g o r b r o w s i n g . A l l l a r g e r p l a n t m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be s t a k e d and t i e d t o p r o t e c t a g a i n s t w ind damage, whereas s h r u b s and o t h e r p l a n t s may be s h e l t e r e d by m u l c h i n g as d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , o r by p l a c i n g b r u s h on t h e p l a n t i n g p e r i p h e r y ( S c h i e c h t l , 1 9 8 0 ) . 96 2 . 4 . 0 MAINTENANCE & MONITORING M a i n t e n a n c e i s p e r h a p s t h e most p r o b l e m a t i c management p h a s e ; r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n e f f o r t s s t r i v e t o m i n i m i z e m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , y e t i t i s o f t e n m a i n t e n a n c e w h i c h i s c r i t i c a l t o t he s u c c e s s f u l e s t a b l i s h m e n t and d u r a b i l i t y o f r e v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r . I t s h o u l d be r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t t h a t e v e r y d e s i g n d e c i s i o n has m a i n t e n a n c e i m p l i c t i o n s ( E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e s i g n P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) . A l l t o o o f t e n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f c a p i t a l work i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e end o f t h e p r o j e c t , whereas t h e l i t e r a t u r e amply d e m o n s t r a t e s t he need f o r v e g e t a t i o n management such as r e p l a n t i n g , r e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n , t h i n n i n g and p r u n i n g , d i s e a s e and weed c o n t r o l , w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l , and r e p a i r s to h a r d l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s such as p a t h s , f e n c e s o r o t h e r c o m p o n e n t s w h i c h may be p a r t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e . F u r t h e r m o r e , e v a l u a t i o n o f c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n , and m o n i t o r i n g p l o t s e s t a b l i s h e d to a s s e s s t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f newly p l a n t e d c o m m u n i t i e s . C o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s must be a c c o u n t e d o v e r t h e l i f e o f t he p r o j e c t and m o n i t o r i n g s h o u l d c o n t i n u e a t l e a s t u n t i l t h e p l a n t communi ty has s t a b i l i z e d . 97 2.4.1 VEGETATION MANAGEMENT .1 W a t e r i n g and R e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n P e r i o d i c w a t e r i n g and f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f p l a n t e d a r e a s f o r t h e f i r s t few g r o w i n g s e a s o n s has been shown t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on g rowth and d u r a b i l i t y o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l , i n p a r t i c u l a r where t h e y a r e s u b j e c t e d t o p r e s s u r e s f r om "human f o o t t r a f f i c o r o t h e r i m p a c t s (James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . B e a r d s l e y e t a l , (1 975) r e p o r t e d t h a t on c a m p s i t e s r e c e i v i n g o n l y s e e d , a c o v e r o f o n l y 10% was a c h i e v e d , wherea s a 70% c o v e r c o u l d be e x p e c t e d a f t e r t h e t h i r d g r o w i n g s e a s o n on s i t e s t r e a t e d w i t h w a t e r , f e r t i l i z e r , and s e e d . O t h e r a u t h o r s a l s o a t t e s t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m a i n t e n a n c e w a t e r i n g and f e r t i l i z a t i o n ( D o u g l a s , 1975 : B rown, 1978: H a c k e t t , 1 9 7 2 ) . D o u g l a s (1975 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t w a t e r i n g p e r m i t s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d u r a b l e s p e c i e s o f g r a s s where they m i g h t no t o t h e r w i s e e x i s t . F u r t h e r m o r e , m o i s t v e g e t a t i o n i s more l i k e l y t o r e c o v e r a f t e r c r u s h i n g t h a n i f i t were d r y . I r r i g a t i o n s y s t e m s a r e o b v i o u s l y i m p r a c t i c a l f o r l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s , b u t may be b e n e f i c i a l on i n t e n s i v e l y u s e d r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . The r a t e s o f w a t e r i n g and r e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n w i l l depend on c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , p l a n t s p e c i e s , s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , use p a t t e r n s , and b u d g e t r e s t r i c t i o n s (Ma rx , 1 9 7 5 ) . 98 .2 Weed ing Weed g r o w t h may o f t e n be c o n s i d e r e d d e s i r a b l e on e x t r e m e l y h a r s h s i t e s u n a b l e t o s u p p o r t p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l where t h e b e n e f i t s o f v e g e t a t i o n c o v e r and e r o s i o n c o n t r o l a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n . However , i f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e i s t o r e t u r n a s i t e t o a c o n d i t i o n a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h e m a t u r e s t a t e , t h e n w e e d i n g becomes an i m p o r t a n t m a i n t e n a n c e o p e r a t i o n . M a c p h e r s o n (1979) s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e m o v a l o f weeds w h i c h c o m p e t e f o r a v a i l a b l e p l a n t n u t r i e n t s i s one o f t h e mos t i m p o r t a n t t a s k s i n t h e e a r l y l i f e o f a t r e e . M a c p h e r s o n a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t o f h a n d - w e e d i n g , b u t r e p o r t s t h a t c o n t r o l c a n p r o d u c e i n c r e a s e s i n t r e e g r o w t h o f up t o 20%. A r e p o r t by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w c a s t l e upon T y n e (1972 ) a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t w e e d i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o e l i m i n a t e c o m p e t i t i o n between s p e c i e s d u r i n g t he v u l n e r a b l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t p e r i o d . H a c k e t t ( 1972 ) o u t l i n e s m e c h a n i c a l and c h e m i c a l means o f weed c o n t r o l . Mowing h e l p s t o d i s c o u r a g e b r o a d - l e a f e d weeds , b u t t i l l e r i n g may be e n c o u r a g e d . C h e m i c a l c o n t r o l e n c o m p a s s e s t o t a l weed k i l l i n g , s e l e c t i v e k i l l i n g , and g rowth r e g u l a t i o n . 99 .3 A d d i t i o n a l P l a n t i n g and R e p l a n t i n g The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n may c a l l f o r p l a n t i n g i n phases o v e r s e v e r a l g r o w i n g s e a s o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , g r a s s e s , l e g u m e s , and low g r o w i n g s h r u b s may p r e c e d e t r e e s . Each p l a n t i n g pha se wou ld have s p e c i f i c m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s and hence c o s t p r o j e c t i o n s s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e c a r e o f t r e e s t o be p l a n t e d 2 o r 3 y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e . Dead p l a n t m a t e r i a l s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d a f t e r t h e f i r s t o r second o v e r - w i n t e r i n g p r o v i d e d r e a s o n s f o r t h e f a i l u r e have been e s t a b l i s h e d . R e p l a n t i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n n e d s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d . .4 T h i n n i n g and P r u n i n g T h i n n i n g s e r v e s a t l e a s t two p u r p o s e s d e p e n d i n g on t h e s i t e and i n t e n d e d l a n d u s e . I t may be d e s i r a b l e t o p l a n t o r seed h e a v i l y on h a r s h s i t e s t o e n s u r e a d e q u a t e g e r m i n a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o v e r . However , as c e r t a i n t r e e o r s h r u b s p e c i e s m a t u r e t h e y w i l l compete f o r s p a c e , l i g h t , and n u t r i e n t s , and t h i n n i n g wou ld h e l p m a i n t a i n h e a l t h y p l a n t s . S e c o n d l y , s e v e r a l a u t h o r s have recommended t h e p a r t i a l r e m o v a l o f o v e r s t o r y t o p romote g rowth o f g r o u n d c o v e r v e g e t a t i o n ( R u d u l f , 1 9 6 7 ; James e t a l , 1 9 7 6 ) . Dense u n d e r g r o w t h may s e r v e 100 as w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t and s c r e e n i n g , a s s i s t i n p e d e s t r i a n c o n t r o l , o r i m p r o v e t h e d u r a b i l i t y o f s e e d e d heavy use s i t e s . P r u n i n g i s a p p l i c a b l e i n h i g h p r o f i l e a r e a s t o enhance r e c r e a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s o r p r o t e c t damaged o r d i s e a s e d t r e e s ( R u d o l f , 1 9 6 7 ) . I t may be u t i l i z e d b e n e f i c i a l l y t o f o r c e bushy g r o w t h , m a i n t a i n l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s , p romote u n d e r g r o w t h , and t o t h i n s u r r o u n d i n g v e g e t a t i o n . The l a t t e r t e c h n i q u e may h e l p t o p r o v i d e t h e newly i n s t a l l e d m a t e r i a l w i t h a c o m p e t i t i v e a d v a n t a g e ( S c h i e c h t l , 1 9 8 0 ) . S i 1 v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s must be v i e w e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m ; maximum g rowth p r o m o t i o n i s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i o n f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n a t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n a r e a . R u d o l f (1967) f u r t h e r a d v i s e s t h a t c u l t u r a l t r e a t m e n t s s h o u l d be p l a n n e d i n a d v a n c e , and t h a t c a u t i o n be e x e r c i s e d no t t o j e o p a r d i z e w ind f i r m n e s s o f e x i s t i n g s t a n d s . 2 . 4 . 2 WILDL IFE CONTROL AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT C o n t r o l o f s m a l l mammal damage t o p l a n t s has been an i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r s . G r e e n (1978) f o u n d t h a t r o d e n t s and l e p o r i d s have p r o v e n t o be a m a j o r p r o b l e m i n many r e f o r e s t a t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 101 1. P r e d a t i o n o f a p p l i e d s e e d s by r o d e n t s o r b i r d s . 2. D e c r e a s e i n s e e d l i n g s u r v i v a l due t o b r o w s i n g o f t h e t e r m i n a l buds and t w i g s , o r f r o m t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e ph loem and o u t e r cambium l a y e r s o f t h e s t e m , r o o t s a n d / o r l o w e r b r a n c h e s . In h i s r e v i e w o f s m a l l mammal damage, G r e e n (1978) r e p o r t s a number o f v a r i a b l e s i n p l a n t - a n i m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s on r e h a b i 1 i a t i o n s i t e s i n c l u d i n g : 1. The t y p e and d e n s i t y o f g r o u n d c o v e r a r e i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g l o c a l s m a l l mammal d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s . 2. Mammal ian and a v i a n p r e d a t i o n on s m a l l mammals i n c r e a s e s i n a r e a s o f l ow v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r . 3. The t y p e o f p l a n t c o v e r has a b e a r i n g on t h e t y p e o f snow c o v e r , and hence t h e w i n t e r h a b i t a t o f s m a l l mammals. 4. The v a r i a t i o n s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s m a l l mammals i s a t t r i b u t e d t o a d a p t a t i o n o f e a c h s p e c i e s t o s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t s t i m u l i such as v a r i a t i o n i n c o v e r , e f f e c t s o f c l i m a t e , s o i l t y p e s , p r e d a t i o n p r e s s u r e s , f o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n . 5. D e c i d u o u s t r e e s a r e g e n e r a l l y more s u s c e p t i b l e t o s m a l l mammal damage t h a n c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s . Me thods o f c o n t r o l a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o c h e m i c a l , m e c h a n i c a l , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l . C h e m i c a l c o n t r o l i n c l u d e s t h e use o f r o d e n t i c i d e s t o r e d u c e n u m b e r s , o r s y s t e m i c and c o n t a c t r e p e l l e n t s t o d i s c o u r a g e c o n s u m p t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t s . G reen c i t e s t h e r i s k o f p o i s o n i n g n o n - t a r g e t s p e c i e s , t h e t e m p o r a r y e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p o i s o n i n g , and i n c r e a s e d b r e e d i n g and s u r v i v a l o f s m a l l mammals due t o r e d u c t i o n i n numbers and 102 d e c r e a s e d i n t r a s p e c i f i c e n c o u n t e r s as p r o b l e m s i n t he use o f c h e m i c a l c o n t r o l . R e p e l l e n t s may be s u p e r i o r as t h e y a f f e c t t h e e x t e n t o f damage r a t h e r t h a n t h e numbers o f a n i m a l s , and t h e r e i s l i t t l e d a n g e r o f n o n - t a r g e t s p e c i e s . C h e m o s t e r i 1 a n t s may be u t i l i z e d t o r e g u l a t e r e p r o d u c t i v e s u c c e s s as t h e n a t u r a l r e g u l a t o r y p r o c e s s e s o f p o p u l a t i o n a r e d i s t u r b e d by p o i s o n i n g . E x c e s s f e r t i l i z i n g has been l i n k e d t o i n c r e a s e d l o c a l i z e d b r o w s i n g . M e c h a n i c a l c o n t r o l i n v o l v e s t h e use o f m e c h a n i c a l g u a r d s , s o n i c r e p e l l e n t s , k i l l t r a p s , o r w i r e mesh f e n c e s , w h i l e e n v i r o n m e n t a l methods i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y f o o d s o u r c e s , b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l t h r o u g h p r e d a t o r s o r d i s e a s e i n d u c e m e n t , and h a b i t a t o r g e n e t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n . G reen (1978) s u g g e s t s t h a t h a b i t a t m a n i p u l a t i o n i s t h e most p r o m i s i n g c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e . A r e d u c t i o n i n t h e amount o f c o v e r c a n l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d p r e d a t i o n , l o w e r f o o d a v a i l a b i l i t y and g r e a t e r e x p o s u r e t o c l i m a t i c e x t r e m e s . In a d d i t i o n t o c o n t r o l o f mammalian w i l d l i f e , an i m p o r t a n t componen t o f m a i n t e n a n c e p rog ramming i d e n t i f i e d by s e v e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s has been t h e use i n t e g r a t e d p e s t management t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f i n s e c t s , f u n g u s , and o t h e r d i s e a s e s . P e s t management on l a r g e r p r o j e c t s wou ld i n c l u d e t h e p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l and a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p e s t i c i d e o r o t h e r c o n t r o l t e c h n i q u e s where a p p l i c a b l e . 1 03 2 . 4 . 4 MONITORING AND EVALUATION M o n i t o r i n g i s an e s s e n t i a l s t e p i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i f an a s s e s s m e n t o f c o s t and r e v e g e t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s d e s i r e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i t e p r o b l e m s may be c o r r e c t e d and r e m e d i a l a c t i o n t a k e n t o e n s u r e c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l o f t h e p l a n t c o v e r . N i x e y and S e v e r s (1977) o u t l i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t f o r m o n i t o r i n g r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s : 1. S o i l s 2. Ground V e g e t a t i o n : 3. F o r e s t C a n o p y : 4. P l a n t i n g S u r v i v a l : 5. Use P a t t e r n s : R e c o r d t h e w a t e r i n f i l t r a t i o n , pH and n u t r i e n t b a l a n c e . Mea su re c o v e r a g e o f v e g e t a t i o n , A s s e s s h e a l t h . D e t e r m i n e s u c c e s s and g r o w t h r a t e s . R e c o r d d e v e l o p m e n t o f u n d e s i r e d p a t h s , o r wear on t r a i l e d g e s . In a d d i t i o n to t h e s e f a c t o r s more s o p h i s t i c a t e d s t u d i e s may be a d o p t e d t o measu re c h a n g e s i n s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , weed o r n a t i v e s p e c i e s i n v a s i o n , w i l d l i f e v a l u e s , o r a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t i e s . E v a l u a t i o n may l e a d t o abandonment o f c e r t a i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , o r c h a n g e s i n s p e c i e s , f e r t i l i z e r s , 104 o r m a i n t e n a n c e p r o g r a m s . C o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s may be j u d g e d by a s s e s s i n g t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e p r o j e c t w i t h s t r i c t b i o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s o r p e r h a p s d u r a b i l i t y u n d e r u s e . E x c e s s i v e l y h i g h m a i n t e n a n c e o r r e p l a c e m e n t e x p e n d i t u r e s w o u l d r e n d e r a r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t u n e c o n o m i c a l . 2 . 4 . 4 LAND USE MANAGEMENT Long a f t e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n schemes have been c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d use management must c o n t i n u e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h m o n i t o r i n g e f f o r t s . R e c r e a t i o n a l t r a m p l i n g , s n o w m o b i l e s , o f f - r o a d v e h i c l e s , h o r s e g r a z i n g and t r a m p l i n g , v a n d a l i s m , and f i r e a r e some o f t h e m a n - i n i t i a t e d p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o b l e m s f a c e d by l a n d manager s ( B r o w n , 1 9 7 8 ) . E d u c a t i o n , r e g u l a t i o n s and s u r v e i l l a n c e may somet imes s e r v e as s u f f i c i e n t a c t i o n s t o combat u s e r i m p a c t , bu t l i m i t a t i o n o f u s e r numbers and a c t i v i t i e s may be r e q u i r e d i f t h e s i t e shows c o n t i n u e d d e t e r i o r a t i o n (James e t a l , 1 9 7 4 ) . P e r i o d i c c l o s u r e o f r e h a b i l i t a t e d s i t e s t o a l l human use may a l l o w some d e g r e e o f r e c o v e r y d e p e n d i n g on c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . S o p h i s t i c a t e d r a t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r h i g h use r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s o r back c o u n t r y a r e a s have been w e l l d o c u m e n t e d by S t a n k e y and Baden ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Land use management o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e s s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h p l a n n e d r e s o u r c e and r e c r e a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e n t i r e s t u d y r e g i o n . A c t i o n s e m p l o y e d i n i s o l a t i o n 105 r a i s e t h e r i s k o f c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d u s e s and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r f u r t h e r l a n d s c a p e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . The r e p e t i t i o n o f s i t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p rog rams r e v e a l s p o o r management and u n c l e a r l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s . 106 PART I I I : CASE STUDIES 3.0 INTRODUCTION The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w summar i zed i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a wide v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s i n t o a f r amework f o r a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h t o l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s i s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s on s p e c i f i c s i t e s w i t h r e g a r d t o p l a n n i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and p o s t - r e h a b i 1 i t a t i o n management. T h r o u g h t h e s y n t h e s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , w i t h t h e a p p l i e d a s p e c t o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , a l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model w i l l be d e r i v e d . Each c a s e s t u d y i s d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c o p e o f t h e p r o j e c t , s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m e t h o d , and a s s e s s m e n t . T h r e e p r o j e c t s i t e s i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t were c h o s e n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : ^ 1. The s i t e s were a c t u a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e d i n P a r k s C a n a d a ' s 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 7 9 c a p i t a l p r o g r a m , and as such a f f o r d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e s , y e t p e r m i t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d y n a m i c s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e f r amework i n w h i c h many r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t s t y p i c a l l y e x i s t . 107 2. The t h r e e p r i m e s i t e s r e p r e s e n t a r ange o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t t y p e s , a l t h o u g h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f o v e r - u s e d a r e a s was n o t d i r e c t l y c o n s i d e r e d . L a n d s c a p e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m a j o r d a y - u s e a r e a , c o n v e r s i o n o f a f i r e r o a d t o a h i k i n g t r a i l , and a h i ghway c o r r i d o r r e v e g e t a t i o n scheme a r e i n c l u d e d , w h i l e r e f e r e n c e i s a l s o made t o a h e a v i l y i m p a c t e d s u b - a l p i n e v i e w p o i n t , and o t h e r s m a l l e r s i t e s . " 3. The s i t e s r e p r e s e n t s e p a r a t e p a r k s w i t h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t management p r o b l e m s , and v e r y d i s t i n c t b i o g e o c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A c o a s t a l f o r e s t and b e a c h a r e a ( P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k ) ; s o u t h e r n C a n a d i a n R o c k i e s , s u b - a l p i n e and g r a s s l a n d zone ( W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k ) ; and n o r t h e r n R o c k i e s , montane and s u b - a l p i n e z o n e s ( J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k ) , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c a s e s t u d i e s . 1 The s i t e s were a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n P a r k s Canada 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 7 9 c a p i t a l p r o g r a m . The p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were u n d e r t a k e n as p a r t o f t h e c a p i t a l p rog ram and were n o t i n any way d e s i g n a t e d as r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . The a u t h o r h a s , h o w e v e r , u t i l i z e d t h e s e p r o j e c t s as a b a s i s f o r t h e s i s d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h r o u g h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e a c h s i t e , was a b l e t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t e c h n i q u e s and o b s e r v e r e s u l t s o v e r a one t o two y e a r p e r i o d . FIGURE 1 Case s t u d y 1 o c a t i ons PACIFIC RIM B.C. I I I I ALBERTA / / / s Heather Lake JASPER Bow Summit \ \ i WATERTON LAKES 3.1 LONG BEACH NORTH DAY-USE AREA PAC IF IC RIM NATIONAL PARK 3.1.1 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT L a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e d t h e r e a l i g n m e n t o f a h ighway s e c t i o n i n l a n d f r o m t h e c o a s t a l beach a r e a . Beach and b e a c h t e r r a c e a r e a s were d e s i g n e d and d e v e l o p e d f o r i n t e n s i v e d a y - u s e r e c r e a t i o n , w h i l e o l d p a r k i n g l o t s on t h e b e a c h and abandoned r o a d b e d s , as w e l l as t h e c o r e r e c r e a t i o n s i t e , were d e s i g n a t e d f o r v e g e t a t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The a r e a r e c e i v i n g r e v e g e t a t i o n t r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e d 3 .36 h e c t a r e s o f d i s t u r b e d l a n d , w h i l e t h e t o t a l s i z e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g new p a r k i n g l o t s , h i g h w a y , and t r a i l s i s i n e x c e s s o f 10 h e c t a r e s . 3 . 1 . 2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS Long Beach N o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e W e s t e r n C o a s t a l P l a i n l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The s t u d y s i t e l i e s w i t h i n P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k , Long Beach U n i t , and i s c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f t h e g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n zone i n t h e P a r k . FIGURE 2 The Long Beach North r e c r e a t i o n a l env i ronment draws thousands o f summer t o u r i s t s . FIGURE 3 The beach zone can w i t h s t a n d heavy i m p a c t s , but the p o s t - l o g zone i s more s e n s i t i v e t o t r a m p l i n g p r e s s u r e . I l l Long Beach N o r t h has been c l a s s i f i e d f u r t h e r as p a r t o f a l o c a l w i d e n i n g o f t h e E s t e v a n C o a s t a l P l a i n , an a r e a o f c l a y s , s a n d s , g r a v e l s , and o t h e r u n c o n s o l i d a t e d m a t e r i a l s , l y i n g g e n e r a l l y be low 200 f e e t e l e v a t i o n , a l t h o u g h s c a t t e r e d b e d r o c k p r o t r u s i o n s r e a c h o v e r 400 f e e t ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 3 ) . The beach and beach t e r r a c e a r e a s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s andy s o i l s , a l t h o u g h t h e a d j a c e n t i n l a n d p l a i n has c l a y s o i l s w i t h g e n e r a l l y p o o r d r a i n a g e , and h i g h s o i l w a t e r c o n t e n t . Seaward r u n - o f f i s r e s t r i c t e d by a low nar row r i d g e i m m e d i a t e l y i n l a n d f rom t h e c o a s t w h i l e t h e beach t e r r a c e a r e a i s m o d e r a t e l y w e l l d r a i n e d . The s t u d y a r e a i s a l s o a b u t t e d by a c o a s t a l b l u f f i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e e a s t o f t h e T o f i n o - U c l u e l e t H i g h w a y . M a r i t i m e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r e d o m i n a n t , w i t h 2500 -3800 mm o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , p r o l o n g e d c l o u d i n e s s o r s e a f o g , and a na r row t e m p e r a t u r e r ange f r om 5° C t o 1 4 ° C ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 3 ) . K r a j i n a and B rooke (1970) c l a s s i f i e d t h e c l i m a t e a c c o r d i n g t o Koppen as C f b . The m i l d w i n t e r s and c o o l summers a l l o w up t o 250 f r o s t - f r e e d a y s , and t h e amp le p r e c i p i t a t i o n p e r m i t s a l u s h g rowth o f v e g e t a t i o n . Winds a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y f r o m t h e s o u t h e a s t d u r i n g O c t o b e r t o A p r i l , and f rom t h e n o r t h w e s t d u r i n g summer m o n t h s . S t o rm w i n d s may r e a c h 50 km/p/h i n t h e w i n t e r , w h i l e summer w i n d s a r e l i g h t and v a r i a b l e ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 3 ) . 112 The Long Beach a r e a f a l l s g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n t h e c o a s t a l W e s t e r n Hemlock v e g e t a t i o n zone ( a c c o r d i n g t o K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 5 ) , a l t h o u g h t h e p r o j e c t s i t e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n a r r o w s t r i p o f P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ( S i t k a S p r u c e ) i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e b e a c h . The v e g e t a t i o n g r a d i e n t r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e I i s a d a p t e d f r o m b a s e - l i n e d a t a p r e s e n t e d by B e l l ( 1 9 7 2 ) . Much o f t h e s i t e s i t u a t e d i n l a n d f rom t h e S p r u c e f r i n g e was i n a d i s t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n p r i o r t o p a r k d e v e l o p m e n t ; r e m n a n t s o f d e f e n c e i n s t a l l a t i o n s f rom W o r l d War I I , and open r o u g h meadows w i t h s u c c e s s i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n were p r e d o m i n a n t p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . TABLE I VEGETATION GRADIENT, LONG BEACH AREA ( a f t e r B e l l , 1 972) Zone V e g e t a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n F o r e - 1 o g D r i f t Log P o s t - 1 o g Sea R o c k e t Sea P u r s l a n e Beach Rye Beach Pea G i a n t V e t c h S a l a l Wi11ow W i l d Rose S i t k a S p r u c e F r i n g e S i t k a s p r u c e S a l a l S a l m o n b e r r y Beach T e r r a c e s Red A l d e r S a l m o n b e r r y S a l a l ( C a k i l e e d e n t u l a ) ( H o n k e n y a p e o p T o i d e s ) ( E l m u s m o l l i s ) ( L a t h y r u s j a p o n i c u s ) ( V i c i a g i g a n t e a " ) ( G a u l t h e n a s h a l I o n ) ( S a l i x s p . ) ( Ro sa n u t k a n a ) ( P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) ( A l n u s r u b r a ) (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) C e d a r - H e m l o c k F o r e s t W e s t e r n Red C e d a r ( T h u j a p l i c a t a ) W e s t e r n Hemlock ( T s u g a h e t e r o p h y l l a ) S a l a l ( G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ) 114 A f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s t h e e f f e c t o f c o n s t a n t c o o l b r e e z e s and s a l t s p r a y r e s u l t i n g i n a d i s t i n c t Krummholz e f f e c t , and an o c c u r r e n c e o f s a l t t o l e r a n t p l a n t s . The s t u n t e d and w ind p r u n e d t r e e s and s h r u b s f o rm a v e r y dense p r o t e c t i v e b u f f e r f o r t h e ma in f o r e s t edge a few y a r d s i n l a n d . P e r i o d i c f l o o d i n g , n u t r i e n t l e a c h i n g , and t r a m p l i n g by v i s i t o r s a l s o have an i m p a c t on v e g e t a t i o n . L a r g e l a n d mammals' i n t h e Long Beach r e g i o n a r e l i m i t e d t o b l a c k - t a i l e d d e e r and b l a c k b e a r . R i v e r o t t e r , m i n k , m a r t e n , r a c o o n , g a r t e r s n a k e s , and f r o g s a r e f o u n d i n t h e a r e a . M i g r a t i n g s a n d p i p e r s a r e p r e v a l e n t on t h e beach z o n e , w h i l e e x t e n s i v e m a r i n e l i f e and b i r d c o l o n i e s a r e f o u n d t o t he n o r t h and s o u t h o f t h e s t u d y s i t e ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 3 ) . P a r k v i s i t a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e 3 2 8 , 9 9 9 c o u n t e d i n 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 t o t h e 4 2 4 , 8 2 9 i n 1977 -78 ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) . However , c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a f f i c between T o f i n o and U c l u e l e t r e n d e r s t o t a l number c o u n t s i n v a l i d . No d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r u se o f t h e Long Beach N o r t h Day -Use A r e a , a l t h o u g h some c o n c l u s i o n s may be d rawn . Park u s e , a c c o r d i n g t o t r a f f i c c o u n t e r s i n 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 , peaks i n J u l y - A u g u s t a t o v e r 3 5 , 0 0 0 , w i t h a low o f 9 ,000 i n November . Park i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t a f f r e p o r t e d o v e r 5 8 , 0 0 0 c o n t a c t s i n 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 . The se d a t a show t h a t summer use i s i n t e n s i v e , w h i l e i n t h e w i n t e r m o n t h s , much l o w e r b e a c h a c t i v i t y i s r e c o r d e d . The l o n g weekend i n May 115 has t r a d i t i o n a l l y a t t r a c t e d an i n f l u x o f w e l l o v e r 1,000 v i s i t o r s t o t h e p a r k , w i t h a l l p u b l i c h o l i d a y s d r a w i n g e x c e p t i o n a l l y heavy use ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) . Swimming, s u r f i n g , k a y a k i n g , beach c o m b i n g , s u n b a t h i n g , w a l k i n g , p i c n i c i n g , b i r d and sea an ima l w a t c h i n g and p h o t o g r a p h y a r e p o p u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Long Beach N o r t h D a y - U s e A r e a . 3 . 1 . 3 LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT PLAN S i t e c o n d i t i o n s p r i o r t o d e v e l o p m e n t i n c l u d e d a l a r g e g r a v e l p a r k i n g l o t i n t he p o s t - l o g z o n e , to t h e w e s t o f t he S i t k a S p r u c e f r i n g e . The T o f i n o - U c l u e l e t Highway r a n a d j a c e n t t o t h e i n s i d e o f t h e s p r u c e f r i n g e . R e c r e a t i o n a l v e h i c u l a r and p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c was, t h e r e f o r e , c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e f r a g i l e d r i f t - l o g and p o s t - l o g z o n e , w i t h c o n s e q u e n t t r a m p l i n g o f v e g e t a t i o n and w i d e s p r e a d l i t t e r i n g . The d e v e l o p m e n t c o n c e p t i n c l u d e d mov ing t he h ighway i n l a n d t o p e r m i t r e l o c a t i o n o f p a r k i n g f a c i l i t i e s on t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e s p r u c e f r i n g e i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s t o t h e b e a c h . P e d e s t r i a n a c c e s s c o u l d t h e n be c o n t r o l l e d t h r o u g h two m a j o r e n t r a n c e p o i n t s , w i t h a d d i t i o n a l m i n o r t r a i l s e x t e n d i n g s e a w a r d f r om t h e p a r k i n g l o t p e r i m e t e r . B e l l (1972) i d e n t i f i e d t h e S i t k a S p r u c e ( P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) f r i n g e as a zone c a p a b l e o f w i t h s t a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e r e c r e a t i o n a l i m p a c t . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , p i c n i c i n g f a c i l i t i e s and c o n n e c t i n g w a l k i n g t r a i l s were l o c a t e d i n t he s p r u c e z o n e , w i t h l i t t l e d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r i n g i n t h e more s e n s i t i v e d r i f t - l o g and p o s t - l o g z o n e . FIGURE 4 The l and s cape development p l an c a l l e d f o r r e a l i g n m e n t of the highway e a s t of S i t k a Spruce f r i n g e . FIGURE 5 The new a 1ignment a l l owed p a r k i n g to be r e l o c a t e d away from the s e n s i t i v e beach a r e a . FIGURE 6 The o l d p a r k i n g l o t was s i t u a t e d i n the po s t - 1og zone and p re sen ted an a e s t h e t i c i n t r u s i o n i n t o the beach a r e a . 117 T o i l e t b u i l d i n g s , r e f u s e d i s p o s a l u n i t s , s i g n a g e , b e n c h e s , and two low v i e w i n g d e c k s were a l s o c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e d e s i g n l o c a t e d a t t h e two m a j o r b e a c h a c c e s s p o i n t s . The o v e r a l l c i r c u l a t i o n s y s t e m i n c l u d i n g p a r k i n g l o t s , e n t r a n c e , and w a l k i n g t r a i l s , were d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e peak v o l u m e s o f v i s i t o r s , w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l use and i m p a c t s t h r o u g h c h a n n e l i z a t i o n o f p e d e s t r i a n f l o w , s u r f a c e t r e a t m e n t , and v e g e t a t i v e b a r r i e r s . The v e g e t a t i v e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n component f o r m e d a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n . FIGURE 7 S i t e P l a n , Long Beach North Day-Use Area. F I G U R E 8 S e c t i o n t h r o u g h Long Beach A r e a . r HIGH w»te*. uwe fLAKTlkt; B E C T I O N a a '. T y p i c a l P a r k i n g A r e a B E C T I O N b -b I P i c n i c V l e a d o w S C A L E 1* : 3 0 ' CD P a r k s Canada p o l i c y g e n e r a l l y d i c t a t e s t h e use o f n a t i v e p l a n t m a t e r i a l . In r e s p o n s e , an o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e o f t h e d e s i g n was t o d i s t u r b as l i t t l e t e r r a i n as p o s s i b l e , r e h a b i l i t a t e d i s t u r b e d a r e a s , t o v i s u a l l y h a r m o n i z e w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n , and t o e s t a b l i s h a p l a n t s p e c i e s mix e c o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e d i s t u r b a n c e c o m m u n i t y . 3 . 1 . 4 REHABIL ITATION METHOD E x i s t i n g b i o p h y s i c a l d a t a was c o n s u l t e d d u r i n g t h e i n v e n t o r y s t a g e t o i d e n t i f y p l a n t s p e c i e s , v e g e t a t i o n g r a d i e n t s , s o i l t y p e s , and d r a i n a g e . F i e l d t e s t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s s u p p l e m e n t e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s , and a r e s u m m a r i z e d b e l o w : .1 V e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s d e s c r i b e d by B e l l ( 1972 ) were v e r i f i e d , and s i t e s p e c i e s were i d e n t i f i e d and l o c a t e d on p l a n d e v e l o p m e n t maps. F i v e s o i l s a m p l e s were c o l l e c t e d f r om v a r i o u s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i t e s and a n a l y z e d by A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . A c i d i c pH l e v e l s were f o u n d i n t h e p r e d o m i n a n t l y sandy s o i l s , and l ow l e v e l s o f a v a i l a b l e n u t r i e n t s , s a l t s , and o r g a n i c m a t t e r were r e c o r d e d . N i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c y was v e r y p r o n o u n c e d . The s o i l s f i n d i n g s a r e summar i zed i n T a b l e I I . 121 TABLE II SOIL TEST RESULTS, LONG BEACH AREA Sample T o t a l O r g a n i c No. pH N P K S S a l t s Na M a t t e r (mmhos) 1 4 .9 4 3 73 low 0.3 low low 2 5.5 2 10 66 low 0.2 low low 3 5.8 1 0 1 0 57 low 0.2 low . l,ow 4 5.1 1 0 44 low 0.1 low low 5 5 . 1 0 2 76 low 0.1 low low .2 L a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e p l a n s and p r o p o s e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s were s u p e r i m p o s e d on a map d i s p l a y i n g b i o p h y s i c a l d a t a i n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y t he n a t i v e v e g e t a t i o n t y p e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e p r o p o s e d t r e a t m e n t a r e a s . .3 Each s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n a r e a was t h e n d e s i g n a t e d a g r o u p i n g o f p l a n t s p e c i e s , i n c l u d i n g known i n f o r m a t i o n on dominance p a t t e r n s , s p e c i e s f r e q u e n c y , s o i l , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . 1 22 In a d d i t i o n t o m a t c h i n g n a t u r a l p a t t e r n s o f v e g e t a t i o n , o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as r o o t i n g h a b i t , t o l e r a n c e t o s a l t s p r a y , f l o o d i n g , r a t e o f g r o w t h , g rowth f o r m ( t h o r n s , f o r e x a m p l e ) , and a b i l i t y t o s u r v i v e u n d e r h a r s h c o n d i t i o n s such as d r o u g h t o r t r a m p l i n g were a n a l y z e d . 4 C o m m e r c i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s p e c i e s was i n v e s t i g a t e d and d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h a h o r t i c u l t u r i s t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i n g and g r o w i n g c e r t a i n n a t i v e p l a n t s . Ba sed on s u i t a b i l i t y and f e a s i b i l i t y , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s were c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o t h e r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o g r a m . 123 TABLE I I I PLANT MATERIAL SELECT ION, Long Beach N o r t h P l a n t Sou rc e Q u a n t i ty T h u j a p l i c a t a ( W e s t e r n Red C e d a r ) c ommerc i a l 500 P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ( S i t k a S p r u c e ) commerc i a l 1 ,500 T suga h e t e r o p h y l l a (Wes te rn Hemlock ) commerc i a l 150 P i n u s c o n t o r t a ( S h o r e P i n e ) c o m m e r c i a l 12 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n ( S a l a l ) c ommerc i a l 2 2 , 0 0 0 P o l y s t i c h u m muni tum (Sword F e r n ) commerc i a l 870 V a c c i n i u m ovatum ( E v e r g r e e n H u c k l e b b e r r y ) c o l 1 e c t e d 340 P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ( S i t k a S p r u c e ) c o l l e c t e d 200 Rosa n u t k a n a ( W i l d Rose) c o n t r a c t grown 1 ,310 L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a ( B l a c k T w i n b e r r y ) c o n t r a c t grown 735 R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m ( G o o s e b e r r y ) c o n t r a c t grown 870 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ( S a l m o n b e r r y ) c o n t r a c t grown 4 , 7 0 0 TABLE IV REHABILITATION ZONES, LONG BEACH NORTH Classification Type of Treatment Correspond!ng Biophysical Unit Site Preparati on PI ant Associations CLASS 1 High profile planting at access points and around buildings. Immediate landscape effect. Sitka Spruce Normal landscape Picea development with 20 cm topsoil, large transplanted mum turn stock, intensive Other mai ntenance. sitchensis dominant, with Gaultheria shallon, Polystichum understory. shrubs also used. CLASS 2 Mass planting of contract grown and transplanted materi a l . Beach Terraces and Sitka Spruce Fri nge. Minimum topsoil application, random plant distribution within groupings of species. Percentage of species mix to reflect natural cond i t i on. Some Pi cea si tchen si s to rei nforce Sitka Spruce fringe, Rubus spectabilis, Gaultheria shallon mafn understorypi ants. Alnus  Rubra, invaded naturally. CLASS 3 Beach zone rehabilitation area, using contract grown stock. Attempted to duplicate natural species mixes. Post-log zone Scarification of old parking l o t , application of topsoil, protective fencing in key areas. Left surface rough to allow small hollows for establishment of plants. Scattered Picea  si tchensi s, but mainly Salix cuttings, Rosa  sp . , Ri bes, Rubus, and Lonicera  involucrata. Some Gaultheria sha11on CLASS 4 Road edge and berm treatments to receive turf and planting of conifers. Cedar-Hemlock Forest. No topsoil application, seeding of grasses and planting conifers and understory shrubs, low maintenance. Thuja plicata, application, Tsuga  heterophy11 a, as dominants, with Rubus spectabilis and Gaultheria - shallon planted as understory. 125 D u r i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o n t r a c t g r o w i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s , t he d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n p r o c e e d e d w i t h t he c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s i t e i n t o f o u r t r e a t m e n t z o n e s . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o r e d u c e c o s t s by s e p a r a t i n g h i g h p r i o r i t y f r o m l o w e r p r i o r i t y a r e a s , bu t a l s o was d e s i g n e d t o d e m a r c a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t y p e s by b i o p h y s i c a l u n i t . The f o u r c l a s s e s were a r r a n g e d v e r t i c a l l y on a c h a r t w i t h s u b t i t l e s l i s t e d h o r i z o n t a l l y t o i n d i c a t e t y p e o f z o n e , b i o p h y s i c a l u n i t , p h a s i n g , s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s , s h o r t and l o n g t e r m m a i n t e n a n c e (See T a b l e IV) F o l l o w i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n , a s m a l l s e r v i c e c o n t r a c t was l e t t o a n u r s e r y to c o l l e c t c u t t i n g s f r o m t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a and grow u n d e r c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n f o r one g r o w i n g s e a s o n . C u t t i n g s o f w i l d r o s e s , (Rosa ac i c u l a r i s ) , b l a c k t w i n b e r r i e s ( L o n i c e r a  i n v o l u c r a t a ) , and g o o s e b e r r i e s ( R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m ) were c o l l e c t e d f r o m May 3 0 - J u n e 15 , 1978 , and s t u c k i n a medium o f t h r e e p a r t s sand t o one p a r t p e r l i t e , w i t h a t r e a t m e n t o f S e r a d i x I r o o t i n g hormone. R o o t e d c u t t i n g s were t r a n s p l a n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x weeks l a t e r i n t o 9 cm p o t s , w i t h a g r o w i n g medium o f 70% s a w d u s t , 1 26 20% p e a t , and 10% sand. S a l m o n b e r r i e s (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) ) were c o l l e c t e d as r o o t c u t t i n g s or by crown d i v i s i o n , and were p l a n t e d i m m e d i a t e l y i n t o 9 cm p o t s . 7 A c o n t r a c t was t ende red f o r the l a n d s c a p e deve l opment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the s i t e , i n c l u d i n g the i n s t a l l a t i o n of p l a n t m a t e r i a l s a c c o r d i n g t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t r a t e g y . The p l a n i n d i c a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a rea s (as o u t l i n e d i n Tab le I V ) , s p e c i e s l i s t s and q u a n t i t i e s , w i t h the f i n a l p l a n t g r oup i ng and d i s t r i b u t i o n to be s u p e r v i s e d d i r e c t l y by the l a nd s cape a r c h i t e c t . C l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n was deemed nece s s a r y to ensu re t h a t s i t e f a c t o r s such as m i c r o - c l i m a t e and t opog raphy , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d e s i r e d p l a n t mixes were t aken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . FIGURE 9 P I a n t i ng c o n t a i n e r i zed s t ock a t a cce s s p o i n t to beach a r e a . IZ.7 FIGURE 10 Old highway a l i g nmen t showing r e s t o r a t i o n p l a n t i n g and berm to s c r een new highway l o c a t i o n . FIGURE 11 R e s t o r a t i on p l a n t i n g showing P i c e a s i t e hens i s  and Rubus  s pec t abTT i s a f t e r f i r s t o v e r -w i n t e r i n g p e r i o d . FIGURE 12 Re s to red a rea showing new growth and h e a l t h y g roundcover e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n June 1980. TABLE V PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM CONTRACT TO COLLECT AND GROW NATIVE PLANTS FOR LONG BEACH NORTH PI a n t Type o f C u t t i n g Number C o l l e c t e d and Grown-on S u r v i v a l P r i o r P e r c e n t to P l a n t i n g S u c c e s s Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s r o o t c u t t i n g s ( S a l m o n b e r r y ) c rown d i v i s i o n Rosa n u t k a n a ( W i l d Rose ) hardwood c u t t i n g s R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s ( G o o s e b e r r y ) L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a 1 00 ( B l a c k Twi n b e r r y ) 4 ,700 3,150 1,310 800 870 750 s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s 610 67 61 8 6 . 2 61 0 FIGURE 13 P I a n t i ng c o n t a i n e r i zed s tock on d i s t u r b e d p o s t - l o g zone a t Long Beach P l a n t s were d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to n a t u r a l p a t t e r n s found i n the p o s t - l o g zone. FIGURE 14 Beach a r ea i n March 1979 showing p r o t e c t i ve f e n c i n g . P l a n t e d s tock i s v i s i b l e i n backg round . FIGURE 15 Beach a rea i n June 1980 showing l o s s of p l a n t m a t e r i a l , and i n v a s i o n of g ra s s s p e c i e s . Note path development i n f o r e g r o u n d . 130 Hard l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s such as r o a d and p a r k i n g l o t c o n s t r u c t i o n and p l a c e m e n t o f berms were c o m p l e t e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1978. P r e p l a n n i n g o f t h e v e g e t a t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e q u e n c e c a l l e d f o r s e e d i n g o f an a g r o n o m i c n u r s e c r o p o f r y e - g r a s s ( L o l i u m p e r e n n e ) t o p r o v i d e c o v e r and p r e v e n t e r o s i o n d u r i n g t h e 1978 summer t o u r i s t i n f l u x . D u r i n g t h e f a l l o f 1978 f i n a l s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n i n c l u d e d s c a r i f i c a t i o n where r e q u i r e d , r o t o t i l l i n g , a d d i t i o n o f s t o c k p i l e d t o p s o i l m i x e d w i t h decomposed s awdus t a t a r a t i o o f 4 : 1 , and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l i m e i n t h e f o r m o f b o n e m e a l . T o p s o i l was s p r e a d o n l y on t h e p o s t - l o g beach a r e a and o t h e r h i g h p r i o r i t y z o n e s . Bark c h i p m u l c h was a p p l i e d t o p l a n t i n g a r e a s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s and m a j o r a c c e s s p o i n t s . P l a n t m a t e r i a l i n s t a l l a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n 2 weeks o f t he f i n a l s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n . L a r g e t r a n s p l a n t e d S i t k a S p r u c e were p l a n t e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by n u r s e r y grown W e s t e r n H e m l o c k , W e s t e r n Red C e d a r , and S i t k a S p r u c e . C o n t r a c t grown s h r u b s were t r a n s p o r t e d t o t he s i t e by t r u c k , and s t o r e d f o r one week w h i l e f i n a l s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n was c o m p l e t e d . C o n t a i n e r i z e d s h r u b s and g round c o v e r s p e c i e s were d i s t r i b u t e d by hand i n d e s i r e d m i x e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e s i g n a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n z o n e s . The s u p e r v i s i n g l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t was, t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o m o n i t o r q u a n t i t i e s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l a l l o c a t e d t o each p l a n t i n g z o n e . P l a n t i n g c rews s u b s e q u e n t l y t r a n s p l a n t e d t h e c o n t a i n e r i z e d s t o c k FIGURE 16 Rosa sp . i n nu r se r y f l a t s , showing s p o r a t i c success and v a r i a b l e g rowth . FIGURE 17 Rosa sp. i n c o n t a i n e r s p r i o r to o u t p l a n t i n g , F a l l , 1978. Root growth i s c r i t i c a l , and shou ld be p r o p o r t i o n a t e to top g rowth . FIGURE 18 Rosa sp . showing new growth i n June of 1979. FIGURE 19 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n i n n u r s e r y f l a t s , June 1978 . FIGURE 20 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n i n f i e l d s t o r a g e a r e a p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g , F a l 1 , 1 978. FIGURE 21 T y p i c a l s i z e o f G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n grown i n p a p e r p o t s . Some f r o s t damage o f r o o t s o c c u r r e d p r i o r to o u t p l a n t i ng . FIGURE 22 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , I n c o n t a i n e r s , p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g . Root and stem c u t t i n g s were used. FIGURE 23 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s p l a n t i n June , 1979. T h i s p l a n t was t r a n s p l a n t e d as a r o o t c u t t i n g from the l o c a l a r e a . FIGURE 24 E s t a b l i shed p l a n t i n June , 1980 compet ing w i t h i n v a s i v e g ra s s s p e c i e s . 134 as l a i d o u t , and s p r e a d f e r t i l i z e r o v e r a l l z o n e s . W e a t h e r d u r i n g t h e p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o o l (+5 t o 8 ° C ) , wet d a y s f o l l o w e d by o c c a s i o n a l e v e n i n g f r o s t . S o i 1 c o n d i t i o n s were i d e a l f o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g d u r i n g t h e e a r l y s t a g e s , b u t became p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse i n t he l a t t e r day s w i t h s a t u r a t e d and soggy s u r f a c e s i n c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g f o o t t r a f f i c . F o l l o w - u p f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f s h r u b , t r e e , and g r o u n d c o v e r p l a n t i n g s o c c u r r e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1979 , t o g e t h e r w i t h d i r e c t p l a n t i n g o f u n r o o t e d W i l l o w ( S a l i x sp) c u t t i n g s . C u t t i n g s were c o l l e c t e d f r o m two s p e c i e s i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e d i s t u r b e d b e a c h a r e a , t r e a t e d w i t h r o o t i n g hormone and p l a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n b u n d l e s o f 3-4 s t e m s . S e e d i n g o f g r a s s e s , and w i l d f l o w e r s on a l l r o a d s i d e and open a r e a s was a l s o done i n t h e s p r i n g . Seed m i x t u r e s were b r o a d c a s t s e p a r a t e l y as f o l l o w s : 1. G r a s s and Legume (3 l b s . p e r 1,000 s q . f t . ) F e s t u c a r u b r a ( C r e e p i n g Red F e d c u e ) 30% Poa c o m p r e s s a (Canada B l u e g r a s s ) L o l i u r n p e r e n n e ( P e r e n n i a l R y e - g r a s s ) Ph leum p r a t e n s e ( T i m o t h y ) 2 5% 1 5% 20% T r i f o l i u m r e p e n s (Wh i te C l o v e r ) 1 0% 2. W i l d f l o w e r s (sown by hand as d i r e c t e d ) Chrysanthemum l e u c a n t h e u m ( S h a s t a D a i s y ) 50% D i g i t a l i s p u r p u r e a ( F o x g l o v e ) 50% 135 A f i n a l p l a n t i n g phase was t o i n c l u d e c o l l e c t i n g and s e e d i n g o f l o c a l Beach Pea ( L a t h y r u s j a p o n i c u s ) and G i a n t V e t c h ( V i c i a g i g a n t e a ) t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l h e r b a c e o u s c o v e r , a l t h o u g h t h i s pha se was no t i m p l e m e n t e d . W i r e f e n c i n g was i n s t a l l e d a d j a c e n t t o t h e m a j o r a c c e s s p o i n t s i n o r d e r t o p r o t e c t t h e beach r e h a b i l i t a t i o n z o n e . No f u r t h e r m e a s u r e s were t a k e n t o r e d u c e t h e i m p a c t o f a n t i c i p a t e d summer u s e . D e t a i l e d g r o u n d m a i n t e n a n c e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were c o m p i l e d , a l t h o u g h t h i s f i n a l phase was n o t i m p l e m e n t e d . Key a r e a s w i t h i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e were d e s i g n a t e d as m o n i t o r i n g p l o t s t o e n a b l e v i s u a l r e c o r d i n g o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s , and p r o v i d e rough e s t i m a t e s o f i n v a s i o n by s i m i l a r o r o t h e r c o l o n i z i n g s p e c i e s , t o t a l v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r p e r c e n t a g e s , and e v i d e n c e o f o t h e r i m p a c t s such as w i l d l i f e o r human i n d u c e d damage. A s s e s s m e n t o f p l o t s was , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e n d e d t o e s t a b l i s h an a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f t r e n d s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o j u d g e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e o v e r a l l p r o g r a m , and t o p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management m o d e l . The r e s u l t s o f p l o t o b s e r v a t i o n a r e r e c o r d e d i n t h e o v e r a l l a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Long Beach p r o j e c t . 1 36 3 . 1 . 5 ASSESSMENT A s s e s s m e n t o f t he Long Beach N o r t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n scheme was a i d e d by t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o m o n i t o r t h e p r o j e c t f r om i t s i n c e p t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n , t h r o u g h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e s , and f i n a l l y t h e c o m p l e t e d work o v e r two f u l l g r o w i n g s e a s o n s . T h i s has e n a b l e d t a b u l a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s u c c e s s , as w e l l as o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , u s e r s , and pa rk management. The t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d f o r r e v e g e t a t i o n i t s e l f a r e c r i t i c a l , bu t i t w i l l be shown t h r o u g h t h e a s s e s s m e n t and d e v e l o p m e n t o f a management model t h a t p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e l o n g t e r m v i a b i l i t y o f a p r o j e c t . F o l l o w i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t he l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s i n November o f 1978 , t h r e e s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d o u t i n c l u d i n g an e a r l y s p r i n g v i s i t i n March 1 9 7 9 , e a r l y summer i n J u n e , 1979 , and f i n a l l y i n June o f 1 9 8 0 . T h i s s e q u e n c e o f v i s i t s a l l o w e d t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t r e n d s i n t h e p l a n t e d c o m m u n i t i e s , and w i l l t h u s be d e s c r i b e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y . (a ) S p r i n g I n v e s t i g a t i o n , March 1979 The g e n e r a l a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p l a n t e d a r e a s was p r o m i s i n g w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f p l a n t s i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f 137 l e a f i n g o u t . A v e r y low m o r t a l i t y r a t e was o b s e r v e d , and most o f t h e p l a n t s were i n good g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n . H o r s e t a i l ( E q u i setum s p . ) and b r o a d - l e a v e d weedy s p e c i e s were i n v a d i n g many p l a n t i n g a r e a s as c o u l d be e x p e c t e d . A s i g n i f i c a n t number o f n a t u r a l l y c o l o n i z i n g W i l d Rose (Rosa n u t k a n a ) and S a l m o n b e r r y (Rubus  s p e c t a b i l i s ) were n o t e d i n a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n z o n e s . However , i n t h e c e n t r a l p a r k i n g l o t i s l a n d s t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t b a r e p a t c h e s w i t h l i t t l e o r no n a t u r a l c o l o n i z a t i o n , and y e l l o w i n g o f l e a v e s on i n s t a l l e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o i l i n t h e s e a r e a s r e v e a l e d a h i g h e r t h a n normal c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s a w d u s t , and h e n c e t h e p l a n t s were l i k e l y s u f f e r i n g f r o m n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c y . I ?6 FIGURE 25 Beach a rea zone showing 10 cm G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n p l a n t s . FIGURE 26 T y p i c a l c o n d i t i o n of G a u l t h e r i a  s h a l I o n one y e a r a f t e r p l a n t i n g i n beach a r e a . Note p r obab l e s a l t damage. FIGURE 27 A lnus r u b r a , and T r i f o l i u m sp. invaded many p l a n t i n g areas to compete w i t h c o n t a i n e r s t o c k . Both s p e c i e s are n i t r o g e n f i x e r s . 139 In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e e v i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m on t h e p o s t - l o g beach r e h a b i l i t a t i o n zone i n t h e f o r m o f t i r e t r a c k s , u p r o o t e d s e e d l i n g s , and w i l l o w c u t t i n g s , and damage t o s i t e f u r n i t u r e . V e h i c l e a c c e s s was a p p a r e n t l y g a i n e d by u s i n g e s t a b l i s h e d p e d e s t r i a n t r a i l s . FIGURE 2 8 Lon i c e r a  i n v o l u c r a t a p e r f o r m e d w e l l i n e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n , but were s u b j e c t t o t r a m p l i n g . TABLE VI S ou r ce & S p e c i e s A. CONTRACT GROWN SURVIVAL RATES OF PLANT MATERIAL; (by v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n and d i r e c t Comments March 1979 c o u n t i ng) S u r v i v a l Ra te Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ,  L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a  R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m , Rosa n u t k a n a B. TRANSPLANTED V a c c i n i u m ovatum  P o l y s t i c h u m muni tum P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s C. NURSERY GROWN P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a T h u j a PI i c a t a G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n (4 " p o t s ) G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n (408 p o t ) P o l y s t i c h u m munitum (4 " p o t ) D. CUTTINGS Sa 1 ix spp g e n e r a l l y p e r f o r m e d w e l l ; r o o t g rowth t o s h o o t g rowth r a t i o a t t i m e o f p l a n t i n g c o u l d be i m p r o v e d . p o o r d i g g i n g , c a r e l e s s t e c h n i q u e s , s l o p p y p l a n t i n g ; t a k e n f r om p r o t e c t e d s i t e s , and p i a c e d i n open b a l l e d & b u r l a p p e d f r om open grown s i t u a t i o n , b r o w n i n g on ocean s i d e does no t t r a n s p l a n t wel 1 open grown p o s s i b l e f r o s t damage d u r i n g s t o r a g e , 1978 p o s s i b l e f r o s t damage d u r i n g s t o r a g e , 1978 p l a n t e d i n shady p r o t e c t e d a r e a s showing good l e a f i n g h a b i t v e r y good v e r y good good good good good p o o r v e r y good p o o r e x c e l 1 e n t f a i r p o o r v e ry good e x c e l l e n t KEY SURVIVAL ( p l a n t s i n h e a l t h y g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n ) V e r y good G r e a t e r t h a n 90% Good 70-90% F a i r 50 -70% Poor L e s s t h a n 50% FIGURE 29 S a l i x s p . c u t t i n g p i a n t e d i n March 1979 , s h o w i n g l e a f y g rowth i n June 1979 . C u t t i n g s were c o l l e c t e d l o c a l l y . FIGURE 30 F l o u r i s h i n g w i l l o w s h r u b s grown f rom c u t t i n g s . P h t o g r a p h e d i n June 1 9 8 0 . FIGURE 31 P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s and RubuT  s p e c t a b i 1 i s i n p a r k i n g l o t a r e a . The p l a n t mix r e f l e c t s t h e n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n . IfZ-FIGURE 32 P o s t - l o g beach zone showing f i r e p i t s e s t a b l i s h e d i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a . Note l o s s of p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l and i n v a s i o n of g ra s s s p e c i e s . FIGURE 33 En t rance to beach area showing l a r g e t r a n s p l a n t e d P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s. FIGURE 34 P i c n i c t a b l e l o c a t e d i n S i t k a Spruce f r i n g e . These a rea s were s u b j e c t to v a n d a l i sm. 143 (b) E a r l y Summer I n v e s t i g a t i o n ; J u n e , 1979 The s e c o n d f i e l d v i s i t r e v e a l e d a number o f p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n t he s i t e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n , and d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u s e r c o n t r o l , p r o t e c t i o n o f p l a n t e d a r e a s , and m a i n t e n a n c e . W i d e s p r e a d t r a m p l i n g o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s was e v i d e n t , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e l o s s o f h u n d r e d s o f p l a n t s , and s e r i o u s s o i l c o m p a c t i o n o v e r much o f t h e p o s t - l o g z o n e . C o u p l e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d v a n d a l i s m , t h e e f f e c t s o f low s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t , and low n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y , t he a g g r e g a t e s t r e s s p l a c e d on t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l had r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e a r e a s o f c o m p l e t e l o s s . The p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s o f t h e s i t e , s u c h as p a r k i n g l o t berms and b u f f e r s were no t s u b j e c t e d t o u s e r i m p a c t s and hence t h e p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s were f l o u r i s h i n g . However , i n many o f t h e s e a r e a s c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m weedy h e r b a c e o u s m a t e r i a l and w i d e s p r e a d c o l o n i z i n g Red A l d e r ( A l n u s  r u b r a ) s e e d l i n g s p r o b a b l y had some i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t on t h e v i g o u r o f p l a n t e d s p e c i e s . S a l m o n b e r r y , (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) , was p e r f o r m i n g w e l l t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i t e , r e g a r d l e s s o f c o m p e t i t i o n . Most o f t he n u r s e r y grown S i t k a S p r u c e ( P i c e a  s i t c h e n s i s ) , showed good s h o o t g r o w t h and f o l i a g e was g e n e r a l l y s u p p l e and r i c h l y g r e e n . Many t r a n s p l a n t e d S i t k a S p r u c e , h o w e v e r , were y e l l o w i n g and showed s i g n s o f d r o u g h t and n u t r i e n t s t r e s s . 144 Two o f t h e f o u r p r o t e c t e d a r e a s i n t h e p o s t - l o g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n zone were t h o r o u g h l y c h e c k e d t o compare t h e s u r v i v a l o f p l a n t s i n a r e a s s u b j e c t e d t o u s e r t r a f f i c t o t h o s e s e c t i o n s f e n c e d . In t h e f e n c e d e n c l o s u r e s where p e d e s t r i a n s had m i n i m a l i m p a c t , 259 o f 321 p l a n t s o f v a r i o u s s p e c i e s were i n good c o n d i t i o n f o r an a v e r a g e s u r v i v a l r a t e o f 8 0 . 6 % . Of t h e 19 .3% m o r t a l i t y r a t e , 3% was a c c o u n t e d f o r by u p r o o t e d w i l l o w c u t t i n g s . In b o t h p l o t s t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t i n v a s i o n by p i o n e e r s p e c i e s r e s u l t i n g i n a 45% c o v e r b a s e d on v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n a r e a s o u t s i d e t h e f e n c e d e x c l o s u r e s were d e v a s t a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t a b u l a t i o n s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l were n o t w o r t h w h i l e . T h e s e a r e a s were f o u n d i n t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e b e a c h a r e a , where p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c was a b l e t o p e n e t r a t e t h r o u g h t h e S i t k a S p r u c e f r i n g e on a d i r e c t r o u t e t o t h e b e a c h . The o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e t o t a l l o s s o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l i n t h e p o s t - l o g zone was s u b s t a n t i a l , m o r t a l i t y was l o c a l i z e d and r e s u l t e d f r o m human i m p a c t as o p p o s e d t o p r o b l e m s o f p l a n t s p e c i e s v i a b i l i t y and p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . 145 TABLE VI I PLANT MATERIAL SURVIVAL IN PROTECTED AREAS OF THE POST-LOG REHABIL ITATION ZONE J u n e , 1979 SPECIES PLANTS IN HEALTHY DEAD PLANTS , GROWING CONDITION OR PLANTS IN POOR CONDITION AREA 1 L o n i c e r a f n v o l u c r a t a 28 0 R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m 50 5 Rosa n u t k a n a 17 9 S a l i x s p p . 3 1 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n 7 1 - • Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s 7 5 P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ( n u r s e r y ) 7 0 P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ( t r a n s p l a n t e d ) 0 5 S u b t o t a l 119 26 P e r c e n t 82 .06% 1 7 . 9 3 % AREA 2 P i c e a s i t c h e r s i s 6 0 L o n i c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a 39 2 S a l i x s p p . 13 24 G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n 13 4 R i b e s d i v a r i c a t u m 38 1 Rosa n u t k a n a 14 2 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s 13 3 S u b t o t a l 140 36 P e r c e n t 79.54% 2 0 . 4 5 % TOTAL IN AREA 1 AND 2 259 62 PERCENT 80 .68% 1 9 . 3 1 % NOTE: The two s t u d y a r e a s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 m2 each were p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s e d by 1.5 m h i g h p o s t and w i r e f e n c i n g , and were n o t e x p o s e d t o p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . T h o s e p l a n t s j u d g e d h e a l t h y d i s p l a y e d f u l l l e a f i n g and new g r o w t h , w h e r e a s p l a n t s i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n showed e v i d e n c e o f s e v e r e d i e b a c k , d i s e a s e , o r s p i n d l y g r o w t h . 146 ( c ) E a r l y Summer I n v e s t i g a t i o n ; J u n e , 1980 The f i n a l s i t e v i s i t d i d no t r e v e a l s i g n i f i c a n t new t r e n d s o t h e r t h a n a more w i d e s p r e a d a r e a d i s t u r b e d by u s e r i m p a c t s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e p o s t - l o g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n zone t h e e x c l o s u r e s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r were no l o n g e r i n t a c t and p l a n t m a t e r i a l m o r t a l i t y was p e r v a s i v e t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i t e . S m a l l p o c k e t s o f o r i g i n a l m a t e r i a l were a b l e t o s u r v i v e o n l y i f l o c a t e d o u t s i d e p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c d e s i r e - l i n e s . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c , v a n d a l i s m , c a m p f i r e s , and u p r o o t i n g o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l was o b s e r v e d . However , i n s p i t e o f t h e s e d e t r i m e n t a l f a c t o r s , n a t u r a l c o l o n i z a t i o n p r i m a r i l y by g r a s s s p e c i e s was a d v a n c e d t h r o u g h o u t t he zone w i t h an a v e r a g e c o v e r r a t e o f 4 0 - 7 0 % . N a t u r a l l y s e e d e d Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , Rosa  n u t k a n a , and S a l i x s p p . were a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d s p o r a d i c a l l y i n p r o t e c t e d m i c r o - s i t e s , s u c h as i n h o l l o w s , i n c l u m p s o f g r a s s , o r b e h i n d l o g s o f t h e d r i f t - l o g z o n e . The p l a n t i n g a r e a s i n l a n d o f t h e S i t k a S p r u c e f r i n g e were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . A l l o f t h e b a r e p a t c h e s r e c o r d e d e a r l i e r s u p p o r t e d v i g o r o u s p i o n e e r s p e c i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e n i t r o g e n - f i x e r , Red A l d e r ( A l n u s r u b r a ) . The W e s t e r n Red C e d a r ( T h u j a p l i c a t a ) , S i t k a S p r u c e ( P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) , and c o n t r a c t grown S a l m o n b e r r y (Rubus s p e c t a b i 1 i s ) s h o w e d c o n s i s t a n t l y good g r o w t h , w h i l e t h e l e s s e x t e n s i v e l y p l a n t e d s p e c i e s s u c h as W i l d Rose (Rosa s p p . ) w e r e a l s o h e a l t h y . 147 A l t h o u g h c o m p e t i t i o n f o r w a t e r and n u t r i e n t s may i n h i b i t many o f t h e d e s i r e d p l a n t e d s p e c i e s , a f t e r two s e a s o n s o f g rowth most were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Red A l d e r ( A l n u s r u b r a ) c a n be e x p e c t e d t o e v e n t u a l l y d o m i n a t e some a r e a s , b u t S a l m o n b e r r y (Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s ) and W i l d Rose (Ro sa s p p . ) s h o u l d be a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , as e v i d e n c e d by o t h e r s u c c e s s i o n a l v e g e t a t i o n i n t h e v i c i n i t y . The y o u n g W e s t e r n Red C e d a r ( T h u j a p i i c a t a ) , W e s t e r n Hemlock ( T s u g a  h e t e r o p h y 1 l a ) and S i t k a S p r u c e ( P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s ) a r e ' l i k e l y t o s u f f e r f rom the c o m p e t i t i o n b u t a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l l i k e l y s u r v i v e t o become e v e n t u a l d o m i n a n t s . In summary, o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m wou ld s u g g e s t t h a t a m o d e r a t e , b u t i n c o n s i s t e n t , d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s was a c h i e v e d . The t e c h n i c a l p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s were a c c e p t a b l e , a l t h o u g h a number o f s m a l l p r o b l e m s p r e j u d i c e d the o v e r a l l r e s u l t s . Much improvement c o u l d have been r e a l i z e d i f a d e q u a t e s i t e p r o t e c t i o n and m a i n t e n a n c e had o c c u r r e d . However , t h e p r o j e c t c o n f i r m e d a v a r i e t y o f s u c c e s s f u l t e c h n i q u e s and r e v e a l e d a r e a s where f u r t h e r work i s r e q u i r e d . The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s o u t l i n e a s p e c t s o f t h e p rog ram wh i ch c o u l d be l a r g e l y a v o i d e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f and a d h e r e n c e t o a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and management m o d e l : 148 Park s t a f f s h o u l d have been f u l l y b r i e f e d on t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e a p p r o a c h t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f m a i n t e n a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s . The c o n t r o l o f v i s i t o r s w i t h f e n c i n g was p a r t i a l l y i n s t i t u t e d , bu t s h o u l d have i n c l u d e d a l l s e n s i t i v e a r e a s f o r a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t two y e a r s . The p a r k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was r e l u c t a n t t o t o t a l l y b l o c k a c c e s s t o t he r e h a b i l i t a t i o n zone r e s u l t i n g i n t h e f e n c i n g o f o n l y l i m i t e d key a r e a s . S i g n s e x p l a i n i n g t h e i n t e n t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s s h o u l d have been e r e c t e d . P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n may be f u r t h e r e x t e n d e d t o i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o g r a m s . A m a i n t e n a n c e b u d g e t s h o u l d have been g u a r a n t e e d as a p a r t o f t he c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e . R e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n , w a t e r i n g , and t h i n n i n g f o r t h e f i r s t two g r o w i n g s e a s o n s would have i m p r o v e d t h e v i a b i l i t y o f p l a n t e d a r e a s . The s h o o t - t o - r o o t - g r o w t h r a t i o o f c o n t r a c t grown p l a n t s s h o u l d have been m o n i t o r e d c a r e f u l l y , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t o l i m i t t h e amount o f n i t r o g e n 149 f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n e n f o r c e d . The l a c k o f a d e q u a t e r o o t s y s t e m s may have r e s u l t e d i n t h e f a i l u r e o f many p l a n t s t o e s t a b l i s h . S p r i n g m o i s t u r e a v a i l a b i l i t y was s u f f i c i e n t t o p e r m i t l e a f i n g o u t , b u t t h e summer d r o u g h t may have s t r e s s e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f l i m i t e d r o o t s t o f e e d a l u s h t o p g r o w t h . Methods o f c r a t i n g and t r a n s p l a n t i n g c o n t r a c t grown p o t t e d m a t e r i a l were t h e c a u s e o f some l o s s o f p l a n t s p r i o r t o u n l o a d i n g . P l a n t s s h o u l d be w e l l h a r d e n e d p r i o r t o t r a n s p o r t , and be p a c k e d i n s u c h a manner as t o m i n i m i z e damage t o s tems and l e a v e s . S t o r a g e a r e a s s h o u l d have been c o v e r e d t o p r e v e n t f r o s t damage and d e a t h . L a r g e numbers o f t h e s m a l l e r G a u l t h e r i a s h a l l o n s u f f e r e d f r o m f r o z e n l e a v e s and i n some c a s e s r o o t s , w h i l e s t i l l p a c k e d i n c a r t o n s . The i n t e r e s t and a b i l i t y o f p l a n t i n g c r e w s was q u e s t i o n a b l e . E x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s wou ld have t a k e n g r e a t e r c a r e i n p l a n t m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g . C l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i n l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s t o e n s u r e c o n s i s t e n c y and t h e c o r r e c t a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f p i a n t s . 1 50 The l a t t e r s t a g e s o f p l a n t i n g were h i n d e r e d by wet w e a t h e r and soggy s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e opt imum p l a n t i n g t i m e i s l a t e f a l l , p l a n t s i n s t a l l e d i n muck t e n d t o be u p r o o t e d o r s i m p l y d r o w n e d . C o n s i d e r a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t he p o s t - l o g beach r e h a b i l i t a t i o n zone c o u l d have been made. A r o u g h l y c o n t o u r e d s u r f a c e w i t h r a n d o m l y p l a c e d l o g s and b o u l d e r s wou ld have p r o v i d e d b e t t e r m i c r o - s i t e s f o r p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , as w e l l as d i s c o u r a g e p e d e s t r i a n and i l l e g a l v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c . Due t o c o s t r e s t r i c t i o n s , l o c a l e c o t y p e s were no t u sed f o r a l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l . The w i l l o w c u t t i n g s were c o l l e c t e d l o c a l l y , as were many o f t h e t r a n s p l a n t e d s p e c i e s , bu t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c o n t r a c t grown s p e c i e s were c o l l e c t e d and g rown -on i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d a r e a o f B. C. The l a c k o f r e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n w i t h n i t r o g e n t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e a d d i t i o n o f s awdus t t o t h e s o i l mix p r o b a b l y r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i o u s n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c y i n some p l a n t i n g a r e a s . Lack o f m a i n t e n a n c e p l a n n i n g and budge t a l l o c a t i o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r t h i s o v e r s i g h t . F I G U R E 3 5 Note the e f f e c t s of s a l t spray i n p o s t - l o g zone. 1 51 on the P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s p l a n t e d 152 3.2 MALIGNE LAKE HIGHWAY REVEGETATION, JASPER NATIONAL PARK 3.2.1 SCOPE OF PROJECT In 1973 P a r k s Canada p l a n n e r s p r o p o s e d t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f the e x i s t i n g h ighway between M a l i g n e Canyon and M e d i c i n e Lake i n J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k . The new a l i g n m e n t was t o a d h e r e t o " p a r k w a y " s t a t u s , and where n e c e s s a r y , d e v i a t e f r o m t h e o l d r oad s u r f a c e t o a t t a i n i m p r o v e d g r a d i e n t s . The M a l i g n e Lake Highway c a s e s t u d y p r i m a r i l y d e a l s w i t h t h e r e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e new h ighway edges and embankments and t h e o l d r i g h t - o f - w a y , b u t a l s o e x a m i n e s methods o f f o r e s t r e c o v e r y p r i o r t o r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o g r a m was u n d e r t a k e n f r o m m i l e 3.92 t o 7.14 o f t h e M a l i g n e Lake H i g h w a y , a l t h o u g h t h e f o r e s t r e c o v e r y p o r t i o n s a r e f r o m m i l e 7.14 t o M e d i c i n e L a k e . M i l e 7.14 t o M e d i c i n e Lake has y e t t o be u p g r a d e d . (Mea su rement s a r e i m p e r i a l as a l l d r a w i n g s and work were c o m p l e t e d u s i n g i m p e r i a l m e a s u r e ) 3 .2 .2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS The M a l i g n e Highway e n v i r o n s a r e s i t u a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1,200 t o 1,550 m i n t h e m o n t a i n e and l o w e r s u b - a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n zone o f t h e N o r t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n s . LaRo i ( 1 9 7 0 ) , summar i zed t h e z o n a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n i n J a s p e r N a t i o n a l Park as f o l l o w s : 1 5 3 FIGURE 36 S ITE LOCATION MAP, M a l i g n e Lake H i ghway , J a s p e r N a t i o n a l Park Scale 1:250,000 1 54 TABLE V I I I ZONE VEGETATION GRADIENTS, JASPER NATIONAL PARK ELEVATION VEGETATION TYPE A l p i ne S u b - a l p i n e Montane ( a b o v e ) 2,625 m 2,130 - 2,625 m 2,030 - 2,130 m ( u p p e r ) 1,800 - 2,030 m 1 ,400 - 1 ,800 m (1ower ) 1 ,21 0 - 1 ,440 m 1,210 m ( be low) l i c h e n t u n d r a v a s c u l a r t u n d r a wooded t u n d r a s p r u c e - f i r b e l t p i n e b e l t w o o d l a n d wooded g r a s s l a n d The c o n t i n e n t a l c l i m a t e i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by c o o l summers and c o l d w i n t e r s w i t h a mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2° C. T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s 400 mm w i t h 70% i n t h e f o r m o f snow, w h i l e a v e r a g e c l o u d i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e summer i s 58% ( K u c h a r , 1 9 7 2 ) . The s u r f i c i a l g e o l o g y o f t h e a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l a r g e v a r i e t y o f d e p o s i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s due t o g l a c i a t i o n and e r o s i v e f o r c e s . F o r e s t s o i l s i n J a s p e r g e n e r a l l y have a s h a l l o w p r o f i l e w i t h an e l u v i a t e d Ae h o r i z o n ( K u c h a r , 1 9 7 2 ) . Dominan t v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s i n t h e g e n e r a l a r e a a r e L o d g e p o l e P i n e and S p r u c e - F i r f o r e s t . The l o w e r s o u t h - f a c i n g r e a c h e s o f t h e s t u d y s i t e a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c c e s s i v e L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i nu s c o n t o r t a ) , and T r e m b l i n g A s p e n ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s ) g r o v e s , whereas t o w a r d s M e d i c i n e L a k e , 1 55 Wh i te S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) g i v e s way t o Eng l emann S p r u c e ( P i c e a e n g l e m a n i i ) and s u b - a l p i n e F i r ( A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a ) . The s h r u b s t r a t u m i s r e l a t i v e l y s p a r s e w i t h K i n n i k i n n i c k ( A r c t o s t a p h y 1 o s u v a - u r s i ) , Common J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s c o m m u n i s ) , B u f f a l o b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s ) , and R o s a , Rubus , R i b e s , and Sa 1 i x s p p . , r e a d i l y f o u n d . O t h e r common s p e c i e s i n c l u d e C o r n u s s p . , A l n u s s p . , Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m , ( B e t u l a  g l a n d u l o s a ) , L i nnaea b o r e a l i s, and V a c c i n i u m s c o p a r a r i u m . H e r b a c e o u s c o v e r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by K o e l e r i a c r i s t a t a , A g r o p y r o n d a s y s t a c h y u m , S t i p a r i c h a r d s o n i i , E l y m u s i n n o v a t u s , and o t h e r g r a s s s p e c i e s on x e r i c s o u t h w e s t f a c i n g s l o p e s , w h i l e i n t he Eng lemann S p r u c e zone and t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t i n t h e L o d g e p o l e P i n e f o r e s t , l u s h g r o w t h s o f F e a t h e r - m o s s (Hypnum  c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s) may be f o u n d i n t h e w e l l - s h a d e d a r e a s . W i l d l i f e i n c l u d i n g u n g u l a t e s , r o d e n t s , and a v i a n s p e c i e s a r e common i n t h e a r e a . Mu le d e e r and e l k a r e known t o browse a l o n g r i g h t - o f - w a y edge c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e r e d s q u i r r e l s , C o l u m b i a n g r o u n d s q u i r r e l s , and p o r c u p i n e s a r e c a p a b l e o f i n f l i c t i n g s e r i o u s damage on newly p l a n t e d t r e e s and s h r u b s . The b e r r i e s o f Rubus , R i b e s , and V a c c i num s p e c i e s a r e f a v o u r i t e f o o d s o f r o b i n s , v e e r y , S w a i n s o n s ' s t h r u s h and g r a y j a y . T h e r e a r e no s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e f o r t r a f f i c vo lume a l o n g M a l i g n e Lake Highway a l t h o u g h o v e r a l l p a r k use i n c r e a s e d 1 56 f r o m 1 , 3 1 7 , 2 7 9 i n 1970 -1972 t o 1 , 7 1 3 , 6 7 0 i n 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 7 8 ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) . The p r i m a r y use o f t h e h i ghway i s as a c o r r i d o r l i n k i n g t h e two f e a t u r e d a y - u s e a r e a s o f M a l i g n e Canyon and M a l i g n e L a k e . V i r t u a l l y no t o u r i s t i m p a c t on t h e r e v e g e t a t i o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d , a l t h o u g h t h e v i s u a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t e d r i g h t - o f - w a y w i l l c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t t o u r i s t a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a r e a . 3 . 2 . 3 REHABIL ITATION METHOD: MALIGNE LAKE HIGHWAY .1 The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o n c e p t p l a n was d e v e l o p e d e a r l y i n 1976 by P a r k s Canada s t a f f . R o a d s i d e t r e a t m e n t p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d h y d r o - s e e d i n g and p l a n t i n g o f n a t i v e t r e e s and s h r u b s . I n t r o d u c e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l was i n t e n d e d t o s o f t e n t h e edges o f t h e f o r e s t c u t a l o n g t h e h i ghway r i g h t - o f - w a y t o p r o v i d e a more n a t u r a l a p p e a r i n g edge c o n d i t i o n . E r o s i o n c o n t r o l on s t e e p embankments was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t b e n e f i t . L o c a l p l a n t g e n o t y p e s f r o m s i t e s a l o n g t h e p r o p o s e d h ighway a l i g n m e n t were t o be u t i l i z e d as p a r e n t p l a n t s f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f c u t t i n g s and s e e d , w h i l e t h e g r o w i n g - o n o f c o l l e c t e d s t o c k was t o p r o c e e d i n t h e V a n c o u v e r , B. C. a r e a . F i n a l l y , t h e p l a n c a l l e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f t h e c o n t a i n e r i z e d and h a r d e n e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l back t o t h e h i ghway s i t e f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e f a l l o f 1978. 157 FIGURE 37 P i c e a g l a u e a i n nu r se r y f l a t s one y e a r p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i ng. .2 P r e l i m i n a r y t e s t s were c a r r i e d out by Re id C o l l i n s and A s s o c i a t e s i n 1976 to de te rm ine the f e a s i b i l i t y of c o l l e c t i o n , p r o p a g a t i o n , and n u r s e r y c u l t i v a t i o n of p l a n t s p e c i e s n a t i v e t o J a s p e r N a t i o n a l P a r k . Root c u t t i n g s and stem c u t t i n g s of a v a r i e t y of s p e c i e s (see f o l l o w i n g p a g e ) , were c o l l e c t e d f rom the Park and t r a n s p o r t e d to the c o a s t a l nu r s e r y where they were s t uck i n a r o o t i n g medium of 75% c o a r s e sand and 25% h o r t i c u l t u r a l grade p e r l i t e . Four d i f f e r e n t s t r e n g t h s of IBA ( I n d o l e 3 b u t y r i c a c i d ) powder were used. The f l a t s were p l a c e d on a heated bench w i t h a medium t empe ra t u r e of 21° C. When r o o t e d c u t t i n g s were e s t a b l i s h e d , they were t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o po t s w i t h a s t a n d a r d nu r se r y mix of 75 p a r t s sawdust , 25 p a r t s p e a t , and 15 p a r t s sand. 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n u r s e r y r e p o r t , A r c t o s t a p h y 1 o s  u v a - u r s i , C o r n u s s t o l o n i f e r a , J u n i p e r u s c o m m u n i s , J .  h o r i z o n t a l i s , S a l i x s p p . , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t L o n i c e r a and Sambucus s p p . , c o u l d be p r o p a g a t e d c o m m e r c i a l l y f o r p a r k r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p u r p o s e s . These s p e c i e s p e r f o r m e d w e l l u n d e r n u r s e r y g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s and c o u l d be r e a d i l y t r a n s p l a n t e d . The r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d t h a t R i b e s ad Rosa s p p . wou ld be b e s t p r o p a g a t e d by u s i n g s o f t w o o d c u t t i n g s t a k e n i n summer. FIGURE 38 Highway s u r f a c e p r i o r t o pav i ng and b e f o r e h yd ro seed i ng. U n d u l a t i n g f o r e s t edge was c u t to s o f t e n v i s u a l impact of highway on the l a n d s c a p e . FIGURE 39 Hi ghway s e c t i o n a f t e r h yd ro seed i ng but p r i o r to p l a n t i n g of t r e e s and s h rub s . 160 .3 F o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y t e s t s , a c o n t r a c t was l e t f o r t h e l a r g e s c a l e c o l l e c t i o n o f s e e d and c u t t i n g s , g r o w i n g - o n , and p l a n t i n g . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n s p e c i f i e d t h r e e z o n e s o f p l a n t i n g as f o l l o w s ; (a ) C o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s : L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . ) W h i t e S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) (b) M i x e d C o n i f e r o u s & D e c i d u o u s s p e c i e s : L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a D o u g l . ) W h i t e S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) Dogwood (Conus s p . ) W i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . ) A l d e r (ATI nus s p . ) J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s communi s ) ( c ) D e c i d u o u s & G r o u n d c o v e r s p e c i e s : Rose (Rosa sp .) Dogwood ( C o r n u s s p . ) W i l l o w ( S a l i x s p . ) A l d e r (A l nus s p . ) J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e T u s communi s ) B e a r b e r r y ( A r c t o s t a p h y 1 o s u v a - u r s i ) 8 0 0 / a c r e 400 a c r e 2 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 2 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 3 0 0 / a c r e 1 , 0 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 2 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 3 0 0 / a c r e 1 0 0 / a c r e 9 0 0 / a c r e .4 S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a t e r i a l s , g r o w i n g t i m e , p l a n t i n g c o n t a i n e r s , h a n d l i n g o f s t o c k and p l a n t i n g i n c l u d e d a number o f r e s t r i c t i o n s : ( i ) D e c i d u o u s woody c u t t i n g s were t a k e n i n t h e l a t e f a l l o f 1977 d u r i n g p l a n t d o r m a n c y . 161 FIGURE 40 S t e e p c o a r s e s l o p e p r i o r t o s e e d i n g and p l a n t i n g . FIGURE 41 S t a b i l i z e d s l o p e w i t h P i c e a g l a u c a and P i n u s c o n t o r t a r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d . ( i i ) C o l l e c t e d c u t t i n g s were p l a c e d i n p l a s t i c b a g s , and s t o r e d i n a c o o l p l a c e w i t h t e m p e r a t u r e s n o t h i g h e r t h a n 4 ° C . C u t t i n g s f o r a l l s t o c k were r e c e i v e d a t t h e n u r s e r y w i t h i n 48 h o u r s o f c u t t i n g . ( i i i ) A l l p l a n t s grown f r o m s e e d were grown i n 8cm wide by 15cm deep c o n t a i n e r s p e r m i t t i n g p l a n t r e m o v a l w i t h o u t damage t o r o o t o r c rown g r o w t h . .5 P l a n t g r o w t h and s u r v i v a l was m o n o t o r e d i n t h e n u r s e r y d u r i n g 1 9 7 6 - 1 9 7 8 and f i n a l i n s p e c t i o n s made p r i o r t o s h i p m e n t and o u t p l a n t i n g . .6 A l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l was r e c e i v e d i n good c o n d i t i o n i n June o f 1979 w i t h a v e r a g e t o p g rowth as f o l l o w s : 1 63 PLANT COLLECTION METHOD S IZE AT OUTPLANTING P i n u s c o n t o r t a  P i c e a g l a u c a  A l n u s sp .  Rosa s p .  Co rnus s p .  S a 1 i x s p. J u n i p e r u s communis  A r c t o s t o p h y l o s uva-Seed Seed Seed C u t t i ngs C u t t i ngs C u t t i ngs C u t t i n g s 15 cm. 15 cm. 70 cm. 25 cm. 35 cm. 70 cm. 15 cm. u r s i C u t t i n g s 15 cm .7 P l a n t i n g was c o m p l e t e d i n a two week p e r i o d d u r i n g l a t e June o f 1 9 7 9 , and t h e w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s were i d e a l , w i t h m o i s t but w o r k a b l e s o i l . P l a n t i n g h o l e s were made by a power d r i v e n 10 cm. a u g e r , w h i c h p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e e x c e p t f o r a r e a s o f e x t r e m e l y r o c k y s u b s t r a t e . P l a n t i n g was done on a random b a s i s w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d s p e c i e s mix z o n e s . A d j u s t m e n t s t o t h e p l a n were made t o a l l o w f o r a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s a l l o c a t i o n t o low wet s w a l e s , o r d r y e x p o s e d s l o p e s . A t o t a l o f 2 5 , 0 0 0 c o n i f e r s were p l a n t e d w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l l y l e s s e r q u a n t i t i e s o f s h r u b s and g r o u n d c o v e r s . FIGURE 42 Gap to the r i g h t i n midground i s o l d highway a l i g n m e n t . Photo below i s c l o s e up view of t h i s s l o p e . FIGURE 43 Seeded and p l a n t e d area where o l d highway a l i g n m e n t d i v e r g e s from new r o u t e . 1 165 .8 O t h e r l a n d s c a p e r e s t o r a t i o n t r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e d s e l e c t i v e c l e a r i n g o f t h e e x i s t i n g f o r e s t edge t o open v a l l e y v i e w s , and a d d i t i o n a l l i m i t e d c l e a r i n g o f b l ow-down a r e a s . .9 Seven m o n i t o r i n g p l o t s m e a s u r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10x30 m. d e p e n d i n g on s i t e c o n d i t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d a t d i f f e r e n t e l e v a t i o n s a l o n g t h e M a l i g n e Highway r i g h t - o f - w a y . Each p l o t i n c l u d e d 100 p l a n t s , i n most c a s e s mixed P i n e and S p r u c e , a l t h o u g h two p l o t s were l i m i t e d t o shrub s p e c i e s were a l s o m a r k e d . The p l o t s r e p r e s e n t e d a v a r i e t y o f c o n d i t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g e x p o s e d s o u t h - w e s t s l o p e s , shaded n o r t h - f a c i n g embankments , and wet a r e a s . 3 .2 .4 ASSESSMENT In m i d - J u n e o f 1980 a f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e o v e r - w i n t e r i n g s u r v i v a l r a t e s o f t h e i n s t a l l e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l , and t o a s s e s s t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r e s t o r a t i o n a r e a i n t e rms o f t h e a p p a r e n t v i g o u r o f s e e d l i n g s and s h r u b s , b r o w s i n g damage, and s t r e s s f rom o t h e r f a c t o r s such as n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y and d r o u g h t . 166 Each o f t h e s e v e n p l o t s was i n s p e c t e d w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s were c o u n t e d and a s s e s s e d f o r i n d i c a t i o n s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s , m e c h a n i c a l damage, o r c o m p l e t e f a i l u r e . P l a n t s w h i c h d i s p l a y e d b r o w n i n g o r s e v e r e d i s c o l o u r a t i o n o v e r 60% o f t h e f o l i a g e , s e v e r e m e c h a n i c a l damage, o r u p r o o t i n g were l i s t e d as d e a d . FIGURE 44 S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s i n n u r s e r y p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g . TABLE IX OVER-WINTERING SURVIVAL RATES OF PLANT MATERIAL PLOT SPECIES TOTAL % TOTAL % TOTAL EXPECTED PERCENT NUMBER COMPOSITION MORTALITY IN POOR MORTALITY SURVIVAL CONDITION 1 M ixed P i n e & S p r u c e 3% 6% 9% 91% 2 M ixed P i n e & S p r u c e 1% 2% 3% 97% 3 M ixed P i n e , S p r u c e , J u n i p e r 5% 11% 16% 84% 4 A l d e r , W i l l o w , W i l d R o s e , Dogwood 0 0 0 100% 5 M ixed S p r u c e , 10% 11% 21% 79% 6 M ixed s h r u b s , 0 0 0 100% 7 M ixed P i n e & S p r u c e 7% 11% 18% 82% FIGURE 45 P i nus c o n t o r t a i n h e a l t h y g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n a f t e r f i r s t w i n t e r . FIGURE 46 P i c e a g l a u c a show ing new s h o o t g rowth i n t h e f i r s t s p r i n g a f t e r t r a n s p l a n t i ng . 169 Lack o f s h o o t g r o w t h , o r s i g n i f i c a n t c h l o r o s i s were i n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n s o f n u t r i e n t d e f i c i e n c y o r d r o u g h t , w h i l e h e a l t h y p l a n t s were j u d g e d on t h e b a s i s o f s u p p l e f o l i a g e and new g r o w t h . T a b l e IX shows t h e m o r t a l i t y r a t e s f o r t h e s e v e n p l o t s . A l t h o u g h t h e s u r v i v a l r a t i o f o r t h e f i r s t g r o w i n g s e a s o n a p p e a r s v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g , t h e r e s u l t s c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d t o s i g n i f y e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e p l a n t s . A t l e a s t two g r o w i n g s e a s o n s a r e u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o a s s e s s t h e t r u e s u r v i v a l r a t e o f t r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s and s h r u b s , w h i l e i t may be a r g u e d f u r t h e r v t h a t s e e d p r o d u c t i o n d e f i n e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a p l a n t c o l o n y . N e v e r t h e l e s s c e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t g r o w i n g s e a s o n . The a v e r a g e m o r t a l i t y r a t e f o r t h e m i x e d c o n i f e r p l o t s was 13 .4% w h i l e f o r s h r u b a r e a s v i r t u a l l y no m o r t a l i t y was r e c o r d e d . The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were a l s o n o t e d d u r i n g f i e l d i n s p e c t i o n ; 1. The s i t e showed l i t t l e o r no e v i d e n c e o f b r o w s i n g damage. 2. No a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n m o r t a l i t y o c c u r r e d b a s e d on p l o t l o c a t i o n s on c u t o r f i l l s l o p e s , d e g r e e o f s l o p e , o r e x p o s u r e . 170 3. Sh rub p l o t l o c a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y m o i s t and were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e a s o n a b l y good q u a l i t y s u b s o i l w i t h l e s s g r a v e l and l a r g e r o c k s t h a n f o u n d on c o n i f e r s i t e s . 4 . S o i l m o i s t u r e a p p e a r e d t o have some e f f e c t on m o r t a l i t y , a l t h o u g h no d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . P l a n t s g r o w i n g on t h e d r i e r s i t e s showed a g r e a t e r e v i d e n c e o f s t r e s s . 5. G e n e r a l l y , t h e W h i t e S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) a c c o u n t e d f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r m o r t a l i t y r a t e t h a n L o d g e p o l e P i n e (P i nus c o n t o r t a ) . Of t h e 67 p l a n t s l i s t e d as d e a d , 3.2% were S p r u c e , c o m p a r e d t o 1 0 . 2 % P i n e . Ba sed on t h e above n o t a t i o n s , t h e r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e u t i l i z e d f o r t h e M a l i g n e Highway r i g h t - o f - w a y was , i n l a r g e p a r t , s u c c e s s f u l . The o r i g i n a l c o l l e c t i o n o f l o c a l e c o t y p e s e n s u r e d t h a t p l a n t s g e n e t i c a l l y a d a p t e d t o t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s wou ld be u s e d , and t h e g r o w i n g - o n o f s e e d s and c u t t i n g s i n a m i l d c l i m a t e e n a b l e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v i g o r o u s s e e d l i n g s w i t h good r o o t and s h o o t g r o w t h . O t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d t h e method o f c o n t a i n e r i z e d g r o w i n g and t r a n s p l a n t i n g . P a p e r c o n t a i n e r s p r o b a b l y h e l p e d 171 t h e r e t e n t i o n o f m o i s t u r e a r o u n d r o o t s d u r i n g t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p h a s e , and f o r t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t r a n s p l a n t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , as t h e p l a n t s were p l a c e d i n t o g r a v e l l y n u t r i e n t - d e f i c i e n t s o i l , t h e c o n t a i n e r s r e d u c e d p o t e n t i a l s t r e s s by p r o v i d i n g an i n i t i a l s o u r c e o f humus, n u t r i e n t s , and m y c o r r h i z a l o r g a n i s m s . The use o f power d r i v e n a u g e r s t o p r e p a r e p l a n t i n g h o l e s i m p r o v e d e f f i c i e n c y and r e d u c e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f u p r o o t i n g due t o i n s u f f i c i e n t p l a n t i n g d e p t h . - • The l o w e r s u r v i v a l r a t e o f P i n u s c o n t o r t a and t h e c h l o r o t i c c o n d i t i o n o f many t r e e s r a i s e s a number o f q u e s t i o n s . The P i n u s genus n o r m a l l y have t a p r o o t s , and e n j o y w e l l - d r a i n e d s o i l c o n d i t i o n s . However , t h e y w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e d r o u g h t . P i c e a s p e c i e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d h e r e f i b r o u s r o o t s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d more a d a p t a b l e , t r a n s p l a n t a b l e , and a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d a c e r t a i n amount o f d r o u g h t . T h e s e g r o w t h h a b i t s may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y low r a t e o f s u c c e s s f u l p i n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t on t h e h a r s h h i ghway embankments b u t m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s t r a t e g y c o u l d have r e s u l t e d i n i m p r o v e d s u c c e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h t h e r i g h t - o f - w a y was h y d r o s e e d e d p r i o r t o t r e e p l a n t i n g , a d j u s t m e n t s i n t h e s e e d i n g s l u r r y m i x , may have been a p p r o p r i a t e . A s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n 172 o f c l o v e r s , ( T r i f o l i u r n s p p . ) , c o u l d i m p r o v e t h e n u t r i e n t b a l a n c e o f t h e g r a v e l s o i l s and u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c e c h l o r s i s i n t r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s . S e c o n d l y , s l ow r e l e a s e f e r t i 1 i z e r c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o e a c h p l a n t i n g h o l e , a l t h o u g h t h i s p r o c e d u r e wou ld be e x p e n s i v e . F e r t i l i z e r c o u l d , h o w e v e r , s u p p l e m e n t o n l y t h o s e s p e c i e s known t o w i t h s t a n d t r a n s p l a n t i n g r e l a t i v e l y p o o r l y , such as L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) . The s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c o n t r o l on l a r g e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s such as r i g h t s - o f - w a y . The w i n t e r o f 1 9 7 9 - 1 9 8 0 was a r e l a t i v e l y d r y one w i t h l o w e r t h a n normal snowpack and s u b s e q u e n t l y l e s s a v a i l a b l e s p r i n g m o i s t u r e . T h i s may have a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e d r o u g h t y s o i l c o n d i t i o n s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e J u n e o f 1980 s i t e v i s i t . Me thods t o a l l e v i a t e m o i s t u r e d e f i c i e n c i e s w o u l d i n c l u d e c o n t o u r m a n i p u l a t i o n and p l a c e m e n t o f p l a n t s i n s m a l l h o l l o w s as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . In o r d e r t o draw f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e methods e m p l o y e d , f u r t h e r s i t e m o n i t o r i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f two y e a r s w i l l be r e q u i r e d . The r e l a t i v e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f g r o w i n g - o n l o c a l l y c o l l e c t e d s e e d s and c u t t i n g s i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y m i l d e r c l i m a t e s as o p p o s e d t o c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h e c o l l e c t i o n s i t e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d o n l y t h r o u g h a c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t u t i l i z i n g b o t h m e t h o d s . 173 However , t h e M a l i g n e Highway p r o j e c t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e c h n i q u e i n m o u n t a i n o u s z o n e s , and s e r v e d as a u s e f u l c a s e s t u d y i n t h e g e n e r a l p r o c e d u r e s o f h i ghway r i g h t - o f - w a y r e v e g e t a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e M a l i g n e Highway c a s e s t u d y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , and i n c l u d e a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , m o n i t o r i n g , and m a i n t e n a n c e . The p r i m a r y s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e p r o j e c t was t h e f a i l u r e t o manage t h e r e s t o r a t i o n p rog ram as a c o m p l e t e s y s t e m i n c l u d i n g a l l e n v i r o n m e n t a l and p a r k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o m p o n e n t s . T e c h n i c a l r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a l s o b e a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r o p o s e d management method i n t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e ways and means o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n must be a s s e s s e d and compared t o new p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n . 3 . 2 . 5 FOREST RECOVERY: MALIGNE LAKE HIGHWAY, P r e l i m i n a r y T e s t s The M a l i g n e Lake Highway r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o g r a m as d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , d e m o n s t r a t e d t e c h n i q u e s a p p l i c a b l e t o h i ghway l a n d s c a p i n g f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . However , t he o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f o r e s t r e c o v e r y p r i o r t o c o n s t r u c t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be e x a m i n e d , t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e b r o a d e s t p o s s i b l e s p e c t r u m o f r e s t o r a t i o n management . 1 74 F o r e s t r e c o v e r y i n v o l v e s t h e u se o f e x i s t i n g p l a n t m a t e r i a l i n a r e a s d e s i g n a t e d f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t . The o l d h ighway r i g h t - o f - w a y s i t u a t e d be tween t h e newly c o n s t r u c t e d M a l i g n e Lake Highway s e c t i o n and M e d i c i n e Lake s u p p o r t s a v a r i e t y o f t r e e s and s h r u b s s u i t a b l e f o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g i n t o s e l e c t e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t s i t e s . An i n v e n t o r y o f s e l e c t e d t r e e s and s h r u b s o f a s i z e deemed s u i t a b l e f o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f a l l o f 1978 . T h i s p o o l o f a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l was t h e n a l l o c a t e d t o p r o j e c t s l o c a t e d i n s i m i l a r v e g e t a t i o n z o n e s and e l e v a t i o n s . A p i l o t t r a n s p l a n t i n g p r o g r a m was c a r r i e d o u t i n m i d - S e p t e m b e r o f 1978 where 225 t r e e s and 150 s h r u b s were moved t o t h e Lake E d i t h - A n n e t t e a r e a i n J a s p e r . P l a n t s were dug and r e p l a n t e d w i t h i n s e v e r a l h o u r s u n d e r c o o l wet c o n d i t i o n s . Mos t p l a n t i n g a r e a s c o n s i s t e d o f s andy and g r a v e l l y t i l l , w i t h no a d d i t i o n o f i m p o r t e d t o p s o i l . S p e c i e s m i x e s were d e s i g n a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e a d j a c e n t e x i s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n on t h e p l a n t i n g s i t e s . The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i e s were c o l l e c t e d and p l a n t e d : 175 TABLE X SPEC IES COLLECTED DURING FOREST RECOVERY PROGRAM T r a n s p l a n t e d P l a n t S i z e P i n u s c o n t o r t a 3 0 - 6 0 cm. P i c e a g l a u c a 3 0 - 6 0 cm. P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i 2 5 - 6 0 cm. P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s 2 5 - 9 0 cm. A b i e s 1 a s i o c a r p a 3 0 - 5 0 cm. S h p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s 3 0 - 6 0 cm. Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m 3 0 - 6 0 cm. Rosa s p . 3 0 - 6 0 cm. S a 1 i x s p . 3 0 - 6 0 cm. J u n i p e r u s communis 1 0 - 2 5 cm. B e t u l a g l a n d u l o s a 1 5 - 2 5 cm. R i b e s s p . 2 0 - 3 0 cm. L o m c e r a i n v o l u c r a t a 3 0 - 5 0 cm. 3 . 2 . 4 ASSESSMENT No s c i e n t i f i c d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e p i l o t s t u d y a r e a , a l t h o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s i n t h e e a r l y summer o f 1979 and 1980 p r o v e d w o r t h w h i l e i n i d e n t i f y i n g g e n e r a l s u r v i v a l and e s t a b l i s h m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e t r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s and s h r u b s . W h i t e S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u e a ) , T r e m b l i n g A s p e n , ( P o p u l u s  t r e m u l o i d e s ) , W i l d Rose (Rosa a c i c u l a r i s ) s p e c i m e n s were i n good c o n d i t i o n and showed e v i d e n c e o f new g r o w t h , w h i l e most s h r u b s p e c i e s s u f f e r e d a h i g h r a t e o f m o r t a l i t y . L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s c o n t o r t a ) , D o u g l a s F i r ( P s e u d o t s u g a m e n z i e s i i ) and s u b - A l p i n e F i r ( A b i e s 1 a s i o c a r p a ) t r a n s p l a n t e d m o d e r a t e l y w e l l . 176 The v a r i a b l e r e s u l t s o f t h e p l a n t i n g p rog ram a r e a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a number o f f a c t o r s p e r t i n e n t t o r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o g r a m m i n g . The s k i l l o f c o n t r a c t o r s i n i n i t i a l d i g g i n g and t r a n s p l a n t i n g i s o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e . Many o f t h e p l a n t s were p o o r l y e x c a v a t e d w i t h s u b s e q u e n t r o o t damage and l o s s o f a d h e r i n g humus and s o i l p a r t i c l e s . The p l a n t i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s c a l l e d f o r r emova l o f e a c h p l a n t , c o m p l e t e w i t h a r o o t - b a l l d i a m e t e r o f g r o u n d c o v e r s p e c i e s i n an a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e i m m e d i a t e s o i l - r o o t c o m p l e x . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a n t i c i p a t e d f r u i t i n g and s e e d d i s p e r s a l o f t h e g r a s s e s and o t h e r s p e c i e s wou ld a i d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o i l c o v e r and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e newly t r a n s p l a n t e d c o m m u n i t y . Many o f t h e n a t i v e p l a n t s u t i l i z e d a p p e a r t o be s e n s i t i v e t o s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n s o i l m o i s t u r e and m i c r o - c l i m a t e . H e n c e , when a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c r e a t e a p l a n t communi ty c a r e must be t a k e n t o s e l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s and p r e p a r e a d e q u a t e p l a n t i n g s i t e s o f f e r i n g t h e r e q u i r e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t " n i c h e " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e must be g a i n e d i n t h e a b i l i t y o f e a c h s p e c i e s t o a d a p t t o new e n v i r o n m e n t s and t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d by t h o r o u g h s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e n f o l l o w e d by s p r i n g f e r t i l i z a t i o n and w a t e r i n g . 177 3.3 SNOWSHOE F IRE ROAD REHABIL ITATION - W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l Pa rk 3.3.1 SCOPE OF PROJECT The Snowshoe F i r e Road r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t i n v o l v e d c o n v e r t i n g an 8.1 km s e c t i o n o f e x i s t i n g 4 .3 m w ide g r a v e l f i r e r o a d i n t o a one m e t r e w ide h i k i n g t r a i l . M o d e r a t e a l i g n m e n t a d j u s t m e n t s , s c a r i f i c a t i o n , p l a n t i n g , and s e e d i n g were t h e p r i m a r y c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e p r o j e c t , a l t h o u g h f o o t - b r i d g e c o n s t r u c t i o n and s i g n a g e were a l s o p l a n n e d . 3 .3 .2 S ITE CHARACTERISTICS The Snowshoe F i r e Road e x t e n d s f r o m Red Rock Canyon i n t o t h e n o r t h w e s t p o r t i o n o f W a t e r t o n L a k e s N a t i o n a l P a r k . The r o a d p a r a l l e l s t h e e a s t e r n bank o f Bauerman C r e e k , and t e r m i n a t e s a t t h e w a r d e n ' s c a b i n , 8.1 km f r o m Red Rock C a n y o n . C u r r e n t l y , t h e r o a d s e r v e s as a c c e s s t o t h e Twin L a k e s , Goa t L a k e , and Lone Lake t r a i l , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g l i n k a g e t o l o n g e r r o u t e s such as t h e Tamarack T r a i l . The s i t e i s l o c a t e d i n t h e e a s t e r n r a n g e s o f t h e s o u t h e r n C a n a d i a n Rocky M o u n t a i n s . The p r e d o m i n a n t v e g e t a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t h e F i r / S p r u c e / M e n z i e z i a t y p e , a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n c e o f t h e L o d g e p o l e P i n e and C o n i f e r S avanna t y p e s o c c u r . ( H o l l a n d & K o j i m a , 1 9 7 4 ) . 178 FIGURE 47 S i t e L o c a t i o n P l a n J.ost kike 'Twin Lakes % > K-Goat Lake \ T r a i l bnowshoe *> / e ^> Fireroad V / * s / Red Rock Canyon f Blakiston Creek T r a i l • Parkway MILES 0 V -Tamarack T r a i l MILLES 3 Crandell Lake T r a i l / Road — — — Fireroad T r a i l ••san* Park Boundary ? 3 KILOMETRES 179 S o i l c o n d i t i o n s on t h e r o a d s u r f a c e a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n u t r i e n t - d e f i c i e n t h e a v i l y c o m p a c t e d c o a r s e g r a v e l s and s a n d s . S e v e r a l c r e e k s i n t e r s e c t t h e r o a d and an a b u n d a n c e o f w i l d l i f e s p e c i e s i n h a b i t t h e a r e a . The v a r i e t y o f v e g e t a t i o n t y p e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s c e n i c b a c k g r o u n d o f m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n c r e a t e s a p o t e n t i a l f o r a q u a l i t y h i k i n g e x p e r i e n c e . S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e a n n u a l t o t a l p a r k v i s i t a t i o n c l o s e t o 6 0 0 , 0 0 0 , w h i l e i n 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 7 8 , 1,302 p e r s o n s were r e c o r d e d i n w i l d e r n e s s c amp ing a c t i v i t i e s ( P a r k s C a n a d a , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t may be assumed t h a t l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e v i s i t i n g t h e p o p u l a r Red Rock Canyon Day -Use a r e a h i k e s h o r t d i s t a n c e s on t h e Snowshoe F i r e R o a d , b u t t h a t use by w i l d e r n e s s t r a v e l l e r s o v e r t h e e n t i r e r o u t e wou ld be c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s . H o r s e b a c k r i d i n g and c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g a r e o t h e r o b s e r v e d a c t i v i t i e s on t h e r o a d . 3 . 3 . 3 REHABIL ITATION PLAN .1 The ma in d e s t i n a t i o n p o i n t f o r t h o s e u s i n g t h e r o a d i s t h e Twin L a k e s a r e a , w h i c h p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r day h i k i n g i n t h e s u b - a l p i n e and a l p i n e e n v i r o n m e n t s and f i s h i n g i n t h e l a k e s . V e g e t a t i o n damage and s o i l c o m p a c t i o n was b e c o m i n g a p p a r e n t i n t h e l a k e s a r e a due t o t h e vo lume o f u n r e s t r i c t e d v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s on t h e f i r e r o a d t o w i t h i n 2 km o f Twin 180 L a k e s . As a r e s u l t the f i r e r o a d was c l o s e d t o t r a f f i c w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n t h a t r e d u c e d i m p a c t s on t h e Tw in L a k e s e n v i r o n s wou ld o c c u r . The c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e r o a d t o a t r a i l was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o a v o i d f u t u r e p o l i c y r e v e r s a l s w i t h r e g a r d t o v e h i c u l a r a c c e s s , and t o p r o v i d e a more p l e a s a n t h i k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . .2 The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n o b j e c t i v e was t o c r e a t e a more a t t r a c t i v e b a c k - c o u n t r y t r a i l u t i l i z i n g i n d i g e n o u s p l a n t m a t e r i a l and a m o d i f i e d h o r i z o n t a l a l i g n m e n t t o r e d u c e e x i s t i n g l o n g s t r a i g h t t a n g e n t s . .3 The p l a n was d e v e l o p e d i n k e e p i n g w i t h a l ow key a p p r o a c h t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n due t o b u d g e t r e s t r i c t i o n s , and t h e u n d e s i r a b i 1 i t y o f d i s t u r b i n g c o l o n i z i n g p l a n t m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y on t h e r o a d s u r f a c e . The r i g h t - o f - w a y was t o be r e d u c e d t o a 2.4 m c l e a r i n g w i t h a 1 m g r a v e l t r a i l pad c o n s i s t i n g o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g r o a d s u r f a c e . A v a r i e t y o f t e c h n i q u e s was p r o p o s e d t o e f f e c t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e , t h e p r o c e s s was i n t e n d e d s i m p l y t o f a c i l i t a t e n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n . 3 . 3 . 4 REHABIL ITATION METHOD A l t h o u g h o f f i c i a l s i n W a t e r t o n N a t i o n a l Pa rk c h o s e t o i m p l e m e n t o n l y a l i m i t e d p o r t i o n o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n , t h e d e t a i l s a r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n , as t h e m e t h o d o l o g y w h i c h was d e v e l o p e d w a r r a n t s d i s c u s s i o n . The c a s e s t u d y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d on a p r o j e c t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e Long Beach N o r t h o r M a l i g n e Highway e x a m p l e s . The Snowshoe Road s t u d y , t h e n , a l t h o u g h n o t a c o m p l e t e c a s e h i s t o r y , w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n m e t h o d s and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a management m o d e l . P r i o r t o p l a n d e v e l o p m e n t , a t h o r o u g h i n v e n t o r y o f t h e f i r e r o a d a l i g n m e n t was c o n d u c t e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 50 m s t a t i o n s and a c o m p l e t e p h o t o g r a p h i c r e c o r d o f t h e s t a t i o n s e q u e n c e . V e g e t a t i o n s p e c i e s a d j a c e n t t o t h e r o a d were r e c o r d e d , and a r e a s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n on t h e r o a d s u r f a c e were mapped. N o t a t i o n s on h o r i z o n t a l a l i g n m e n t , v i e w s , p o i n t s o f i n t e r e s t , e r o s i o n p r o b l e m s , s o i l c o n d i t i o n s and c r e e k c r o s s i n g s were a l s o made d u r i n g t h e i n v e n t o r y p h a s e . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e t r a i l r e q u i r e m e n t s r e s u l t e d i n a more i n t e n s i v e l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n f o r t h e t r a i l - h e a d and t e r m i n u s a r e a , i n c l u d i n g t h e p l a n t i n g o f l a r g e n a t i v e s t o c k , b o u l d e r p l a c e m e n t , and s i g n a g e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n f o r t h e 8 .0 km o f r o a d c a l l e d f o r a v a r i e t y o f s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h w i l l be o u t l i n e d as t h e y a p p e a r e d i n t h e Snowshoe F i r e Road D e s i g n R e q u i r e m e n t s R e p o r t ( P a r k s C a n a d a . P e e p r e , 1 9 7 8 ) : Many o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s were i m p l e m e n t e d a l t h o u g h a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n r e m a i n s i n c o m p l e t e d . 182 .1 Roadbed S c a r i f i c a t i o n M a c h i n e s c a r i f i c a t i o n was e m p l o y e d where n a t u r a l r e g r o w t h had n o t a l r e a d y c r e a t e d a t r a i l - l i k e c o n d i t i o n ( a p p r o x . 1 0 , 0 0 0 m 2 ) . W h i l e hand s c a r i f i c a t i o n was u sed i n t h e more s e n s i t i v e a r e a s where n a r r o w s e c t i o n s o f g r a v e l were l o o s e n e d ( a p p r o x . 6 ,000 m 2 ) . W e l l - r o l l e d l o c a l s a w d u s t , s u p p l e m e n t e d w i t h n i t r o g e n - r i c h f e r t i l i z e r was t o be worked i n t o t h e s c a r i f i e d g r a v e l m a t e r i a l . L o o s e n i n g o f t h e g r a v e l bed wou ld a e r i f y t h e m a t e r i a l and p e r m i t w a t e r p e r c o l a t i o n , and t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e n a t u r a l r e g r o w t h o f p i o n e e r s p e c i e s and a i d g e r m i n a t i o n and e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n a r t i f i c a l l y s e e d e d a r e a s . .2 R e g r a d i n g C e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f t h e e x i s t i n g r o a d were washed o u t , and r e q u i r e d r e s h a p i n g . The r e g r a d i n g work was g e n e r a l l y t o be m i n i m i z e d t o p e r m i t many o f t h e s m a l l e r s l o p e s t o f i n d t h e i r n a t u r a l a n g l e o f r e p o s e (See F i g . 5 2 ) . However , where e r o s i o n t h r e a t e n e d t h e t r a i l a l i g n m e n t , r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s were t o be t a k e n , s u c h as t he s h a p i n g o f s l o p e s , and t h e p l a c e m e n t o f l o g w a t e r - b a r s . In some a r e a s , r e m o v a l o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e r o a d b e d c l e a r e d n a t u r a l f o o d d r a i n a g e c h a n n e l s t h u s p r e v e n t i n g f u t u r e u n c o n t r o l l e d w a s h o u t s . FIGURE 48 T y p i c a l r o a d s e c t i o n showing v iew t o w a r d m o u n t a i n s a r o u n d Twin L a k e s . FIGURE 49 Road s e c t i o n where n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f c o m p a c t e d g r a v e l s u r f a c e i s o c c u r r i ng . FIGURE 50 S p a r s e c l umps o f g r a s s have e s t a b l i s h e d on c o m p a c t e d s u r f a c e . 184 B r i d g e s and c u l v e r t s damaged beyond r e p a i r were to be removed and r e p l a c e d w i t h s i m p l e d o u b l e l o g f o o t b r i d g e s . I d e a l l y , t he s t r e a m bank s l o p e s s h o u l d be shaped t o a v o i d a d i t c h - l i k e a p p e a r a n c e . •3 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f " M i n i - C o m m u n i t i e s " A t s e v e r a l l o c a t i o n s a l o n g t h e t r a i l , where a l i g n m e n t c h a n g e s d i r e c t i o n , o r a l o n g s t r a i g h t t a n g e n t was t o be b r o k e n u p , t he r e p o r t recommended d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e r o u t e w i t h p l a n t m a t e r i a l . L o c a l l y t r a n s p l a n t e d s m a l l s t o c k was t o be u t i l i z e d , w i t h the i n t e n t t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a n a t u r a l a s s e m b l a g e o f p l a n t s b e t t e r a b l e t o s u r v i v e i n a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y , t h a n i f p l a n t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . A r e a s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 - 3 2 m*- were d e s i g n a t e d f o r p l a n t i n g w i t h m ixed s p e c i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n s s i m i l a r t o t h e n a t u r a l v e g e t a t i o n z o n e s e n c o u n t e r e d a l o n g t h e t r a i l . Dense r e g r o w t h o f Wh i te S p r u c e ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) , L o d g e p o l e P i n e ( P i n u s  c o n t o r t a ) , and v a r i o u s s h r u b s a l r e a d y g r o w i n g a l o n g t he i m m e d i a t e r oad edge w o u l d be t h i n n e d t o p r o v i d e t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e new p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s . A t y p i c a l p l a n t i n g m i g h t i n c l u d e 3 t o 5 p i n e and s p r u c e as t h e d e s i r a b l e d o m i n a n t s p e c i e s , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h 185 m ixed s h r u b s such as W i l d Rose (Rosa a c i c u l a r i s ) , S n o w b e r r y ( S y m p h o r i c a r p o s a l b u s ) , B u f f a l o b e r r y ( S h e p h e r d i a c a n a d e n s i s ) , o r o t h e r a v a i l a b l e s p e c i e s . G r a s s p l u g s , p e r h a p s n u m b e r i n g 2 0 - 3 0 , and 10 -15 cm i n d i a m e t e e r wou ld be t r a n s p l a n t e d amongst the s h r u b s and' t r e e s , as w e l l as a r o u n d t h e b o r d e r o f t h e p l a n t i n g a r e a . G reen A l d e r ( A l n u s c r i spa ), and T r e m b l i n g A s p e n ( P o p u l u s t r e m u l o i d e s ) wou ld be i n t r o d u c e d as f a s t g rowth " * s p e c i e s , l o c a t e d t o w a r d s t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e p l a n t i n g a r e a f o r added p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e c o n i f e r s . W i l d Rose (Rosa a c i c u l a r i s ) m i g h t a l s o o f f e r some p r o t e c t i o n f o r the commun i ty i f p l a n t e d a t t h e e d g e s . T o t a l p l a n t m a t e r i a l q u a n t i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f the " m i n i - c o m m u n i t y " c o n c e p t i n c l u d e d 450 t r a n s p l a n t e d t r e e s , 500 s h r u b s , and 1,500 g r a s s p l u g s . G e n e r o u s q u a n t i t i e s o f o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l wou ld be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e l o o s e n e d g r a v e l o f t h e p l a n t i n g b e d s , and a s l o w - r e l e a s e o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z e r s h o u l d a l s o be added a t t h i s t i m e . A l l o f t h e p l a n t e d a r e a s w o u l d be w a t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e t r a n s p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n . M u l c h used wou ld s e r v e t o r e d u c e w a t e r l o s t t o e v a p o r a t i o n , t o m o d e r a t e s o i l t e m p e r a t u r e s , and to p r o v i d e d e c a y i n g o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l f o r c o n t i n u i n g s o i l i m p r o v e m e n t . 186 .4 S e e d i n g The d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t i v e g r a s s s eed s u p p l i e s has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and P a r k s Canada and A l b e r t a E n v i r o n m e n t have embarked on a mutua l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o e v a l u a t e n a t i v e g r a s s s p e c i e s . C o m m e r c i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f d e s i r e d e c o t y p e s may be p o s s i b l e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e ( W a l k e r , 1 9 7 7 ) . W a l k e r , h o w e v e r , c a u t i o n s t h a t t h e r e a r e many p r o b l e m s p r o h i b i t i n g c o m m e r c i a l s c a l e p r o d u c t i o n o f n a t i v e g r a s s s e e d due t o s eed s h a t t e r i n g , low y i e l d s , h a i r s and awns, i n t e r m i t t e n t f l o w e r i n g , low f e r t i l i t y and uneven r i p e n i n g . Some o f t h e s e c o s t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be m o d i f i e d by g e n e t i c i m p r o v e m e n t o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n o l o g y . The Snowshoe Road r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n i d e n t i f i e d a t w o - p h a s e s e e d i n g p rog ram b e g i n n i n g w i t h i n t e r i m a g r o n o m i c n u r s e c r o p s such as b a r l e y o r r y e t o p r o v i d e s u r f a c e s t a b i l i z a t i o n . N a t i v e g r a s s s p e c i e s wou ld t h e n be s e e d e d a t a r e l a t i v e l y low r a t e o f a p p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e i n v a s i o n by s p e c i e s c o l o n i z i n g t h e r o a d edge wou ld a l s o be a n t i c i p a t e d . T o t a l s e e d c o v e r w o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 4 , 0 0 0 m . W a l k e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , c o n c l u d e d t h a t A g r o p y r o n t r a c h y c a u l u m ( S l e n d e r W h e a t g r a s s ) and A g r o p y r o n d a s y s t a c h y m ( N o r t h e r n W h e a t g r a s s ) a r e two v e r y p r o m i s i n g n a t i v e s p e c i e s w h i c h show p o t e n t i a l f o r u t i l i z a t i o n . FIGURE 51 P l a n t i n g d e t a i l s , Snowshoe F i r e r o a d T Y P I C A L R O A D S E C T I O N " A " t C T I O t J POK- I t M t T.KFAC6- fXTMUED IU (XWmJC, _JUDITIOU ^CkCJFY C C A D V DO MOT D i m K f r VECETMIOU >>L>£FAC& &DJACEUT TO ROAD T Y P I C A L R O A D S E C T I O N - B -tXWHJG FO<L TKAIL. MJHACE- EVIIMIUC, VEG^-WIOU VEC.ETATIOU % A £ J F Y OULT VfnUUMUD POWIOW OF fcOCD UHECfe tw^te 19 u o G - X I W U C , VECETATIOU HMJD •SC^EJFr' UMteE U E C E ^ A E Y ID AVOID DAMt.CE ID E X I W U t , VE^ETATlOU L O C k l . B C U W PILED AT (MM t U D OF P L A U T I U C . ttLAkJD iijkin.uieAL.-NPFEAfe.ikic, PILE. P L M J T I U L KrtAUID* TO K . COMPACT P L M J T MATtEJAL MI1TUCE ii •WfcdUC TO K -l E E E C U L A E - {, UATLTAL-3 - 5 TCCJi^ TO FOEM COCE Or E A C H PLAUTIUC, WLAUD P E C T U C E . $ LJATEE-g-IO 4 H E L W PLUJTE.D e A U D O M L V A E O U U D TKEE9 FE£TILIZ.e. A U D U M E L Ad CFE.6FIEO, H l « IU i f A ' MULCH a O - 5 0 C^Att PLOW 15- iOCM IU DUkMETEZ, TO BE P O U T E D IkJ a » t PEOXIMITY ID TP-EE9 M J D E O U U X £ A OC LACCE KXJS* ID K . PLACED «£T EACH E.UD OF PLAMTIUC,, IF AVAILABLE IU KOAD DITCH PLAUTIUC MtEA TO BE. *CA£JFI6D TO D&FTM OF ZOO MM ^AEJFIEJ? KOAD 3UWAC6 E-XITTIUC 20AD ^OK/ACS ID BE CETAIUED I* 1M TEAIL CAD 00 T Y P I C A L P L A N T I N G I S L A N D A N D T R A I L A L I G N M E N T O N R O A D FIGURE 52 C o n s t r u c t i o n d e t a i l s , Snowshoe F i r e r o a d S H A P I N G E R O D E D D I T C H E S A N D B A N K S IMTB 4V0ID DAMACE. TO E X I T U C VECtTAT lOU ' L O G F O O T B R I D G E T Y P I C A L D E T A I L L O C A L HDCK/> UTIUZE.P FOC Of- CAP PIEXCTED BY IAJJP^CAPE. ^ p ^ e v i w e . £OkP 7UCFACE K,-C.mXV PIT6H TO B6 COMPACTED tup •%axv TO ceA*> CUTTIUC ^LOPE* ID BE OUT-SIDE VEC.E.TATIOUI D E J f - U P J » Of PlTCHEA TO PtOCEED OUIY UUPEE DKECT 50PEKVW0U Of LAuD*CAFE %IPEEVI»OC EKOTUC 6L0PE CUT TD FILL _ i gA->£ B A U » k£E DULY TO BE * M W U H E t t DICECTEP BY LAUOCAFE. dLOFE lOCFAtE- TO BE COMPACTED A U D -SEEDED TO (JW) E U D SCCTIOU OF flfclJUIklC, LOW TO EECEJV6. Z5MM CHAMFEC PLACE- -SLEEfttft MIUIMUM 0 F . 5 M FEOM ^TKEAM Ej9(.l 5 F A U U I U C , U X A FAtrTEUEO T O •btCEPEE* UITH B M M DE- IFT PIU o u *FAU>7 o v e c i n 15 n n T H E E A D E D EOD T O OOIU L O , * id" MIDDLE OF <*AU TO? AUP BOTTOM W W OF P L A C I N G B O U L D E R S NTS i F A U U l U C UXfy TO 66. SOLACED W -5HOWU DFTIDUAL HMJD-CAIL TD BE. LWED O U dFAU* OVEE. 3 M HAUD-CAIL WPPOC B0CT6D TO •SLE&FCe. M J D -SFAIJUIUC, L06 OU LOCAL FILL IHPOK-TED BOULDEE* TO M , PLACED AT TCAIL - HEAP A * PIEECTED BY IAUD*CAPE AJPEEVItoE. COCY % DF BOULDER., UITH BEAT ^UP^ACE EXPOSED SPNJ OF FOOTBCJP^t ID BC ADJUSTED 10 -iTCEAM WIDTH HMJD-tAlL TO BE ILrlTALLED OU *PAU» OVEE. 5 M ^PMJUIUC U W TO 50O MM TOATED fDLE* PLACED U k U U X J EUD ID MATCH UIDE EUD OF A D J A C E N T LOO. 00 0 0 F I G U R E 53 E r o s i o n c o n t r o l Snowshoe F i r e r o a d . 189 / U X A L FILL- < fTOVS, 1C % VSbiD & liP-W ID ELEVATION CtlXFlU, ID TOP OP 150 - ZOO nft UDC W A T E B • B A R O N S L O P E S 11 S O 190 3 .3 .5 IMPLEMENTATION C o n t r a c t d r a w i n g s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e d i n June o f 1 9 7 9 , a l t h o u g h o n l y a p o r t i o n o f t h e w o r k , i n c l u d i n g l i m i t e d s c a r i f i c a t i o n , was i m p l e m e n t e d . However , a u s e f u l m e t h o d o l o g y was d e v e l o p e d f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s e d c o n t r a c t work . D raw ing s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s were s u p p o r t e d by a s e r i e s o f l i n e a r d i a g r a m s i n d i c a t i n g t r a i l s e q u e n c e s , a l i g n m e n t c h a n g e s , l o c a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l , and o t h e r work ( s e e F i g u r e 5 4 ) . Each s e q u e n c e was m e a s u r e d by t h e o r i g i n a l 50 m s t a t i o n m a r k e r s , and hence p l a n s c o u l d be c r o s s - c h e c k e d by r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n v e n t o r y p h o t o g r a p h s . S e v e r a l e x a m p l e s o f t h e s y s t e m a r e i n c l u d e d f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e ( s e e F i g u r e 5 4 ) . 3 .3 .6 ASSESSMENT W h i l e t h e b u l k o f t h e p r o p o s e d r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n work was no t i m p l e m e n t e d , g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s d u r i n g J u n e o f 1980 i l l u s t r a t e a number o f f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management m o d e l . 1 91 FIGURE 5 4 T y p i c a l c o n t r a c t d r a w i n g s , Snowshoe F i r e r o a d SNOWSHOE FIREROAD REHABSL.TAT8QN 1 . T h e e x i s t i n g r o a d i s g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d o n 2 8 d r a w i n g s , i n d i c a t i n g t r a i l a l i g n m e n t , p l a n t i n g i s l a n d l o c a t i o n s , g r a d i n g , c u l v e r t r e m o v a l , a n d f o o t - b r i d g e i n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d o t h e r c o n t r a c t w o r k . 2 . T h e r o a d s e c t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o 5 0 m e t e r s t a t i o n s f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n l o c a t i n g c o n t r a c t w o r k . N o t e s a n d c o n t r a c t w o r k s p e c i f i e d w i t h i n e a c h s t a t i o n s e c t i o n may be d e l e t e d o r a l t e r e d b y l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r a s d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y . N o r m a l c h a n g e o r d e r p r o c e d u r e s w i l l a p p l y f o r m a j o r d e v i a t i o n s . SAMPLE DRAWING AND EXPLANATION S T A . C O N T R A C T W O R K P L A N R E M A R K S 0 + 3 0 ^ 0 + 2 5 0 L I N E A R S C A L E M O O T R A N S V E R S E N . T S . S o u t h s i d e S t a t i o n p o i n t s i n 50m i n t e r v a l s S l i I l \ l 1 •'TO P 3 M N o r t h s i d e R i g h t s i d e f o r r e m a r k s i n c l u d e s r o u g h l o c a t i o n s f o r p l a n t m a t e r i a l t o b e u s e d i n p l a n t i n g i s l a n d s , e g P 3 . P l a n t s t o b e u s e d w i l l b e f l a g g e d b y l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r . R e f e r t o d e t a i l D r a w i n g N o . P r o p o s e d t r a i l a l i g n m e n t E x i s t i n g r o a d - b e d t o b e s c a r i f i e d \\ \ \ P3 I n d i c a t e s a p p r o x i m a t e p l a n t i n g i s l a n d l o c a t i o n . T h e s e l o c a t i o n s may b e a l t e r e d i n t h e f i e l d b y t h e l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r a s d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y . C I E x i s t i n g c u l v e r t s i t e , t o b e r e t a i n e d o r r e m o v e d a s J I s p e c i f i e d u n d e r c o n t r a c t w o r k . E m b a n k m e n t o r e r o d e d s l o p e t o b e t r e a t e d a s s p e c i f i e d u n d e r c o n t r a c t w o r k o r b y l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r . R e f e r t o d e t a i l d r a w i n g s . E r o d e d d i t c h t o b e t r e a t e d a s s p e c i f i e d . A A W a t e r b a r s t o b e i n s t a l l e d a s s p e c i f i e d o n d e t a i l D r a w i n g N o . . 192 SNOWSHOE FIREROAD REHABILITATION n RUAD MAP [-'ROM BOTTOM OF PARI! UP. S T A . C O N T R A C T W O R K P L A N R E M A R K S O + 3 0 0 0 + 2 5 0 0 + 2 0 0 0 + 1 5 0 0 + 1 0 0 L I N E A R S C A L E | : I O O T R A N S V E R S E N . T S . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r s e e d l i n g s a s d i r e c t e d . S e e d b a n k t o g r a s s w h e r e d i r e c t e d . r / ~ P l a n t m a t e r i a l s o u r c e a t 0 + 2 9 0 . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . P l a c e r o c k s a s d i r e c t e d . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r s e e d l i n g s a s d i r e c t e d . P l a n t i s l a n d w h e r e d i r e c t e d li n 1 <Z P 3 P l a n t i n g i s l a n d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a t 0 + 2 9 0 . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r a s d i r e c t e d . S c a r i f y S o u t h s i d e . \ \ i • S c a r i f y S o u t h s i d e . P l a c e l o c a l r o c k s a s s t a k e d . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r a s d i r e c t e d . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . I I ii i\ S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e o n l y . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r a s d i r e c t e d . P l a n t i s l a n d w h e r e s t a k e d . r IT III M a i n t a i n I . 5 m t r a i l w i d t h f o r S t a . 0 + 0 0 0 t o 0 + 8 5 0 . UTU3U 0 + 0 0 0 S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e o n l y . A l l o w f o r I . 5 m t r a i l p a d w i d t h . P l a n t i n g a s s p e c i f i e d o n D r a w i n g N o . 1 I 1 \ / Do n o t d i s t u r b r o a d s h o u l d e r s . P l a n t m a t e r i a l s o u r c e f o r t r a i l -h e a d a s d i r e c t e d b y l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r . 193 SNOWSHOE FIREROAD R E H ABBLITAT! OISI 2 S T A . C O N T R A C T W O R K P L A N R E M A R K S 0 + 6 0 0 T R A N S V E R S E N . T . S . S c a r i f y S o u t h s i d e . P l a n t i s l a n d a s d i r e c t e d . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . 10+550 IM P l a n t m a t e r i a l s o u r c e a t 0 + 5 5 0 S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e o n l y . P l a n t 5 0 B e a r b e r r y o n b a n k a s d i r e c t e d . 0 + 5 0 0 C o m m e r c i a l s o u r c e o f p l a n t s . S e e d b a n k t o g r a s s . P l a n t d o u g l a s F i r s e e d l i n g s a s d i r e c t e d . P l a n t 5 0 B e a r b e r r y o n b a n k a s d i r e c t e d . 0 + 4 5 0 II M C o m m e r c i a l s o u r c e o f p l a n t s . A l i g n t r a i l a s s t a k e d . S e e d b a n k t o g r a s s . P l a n t D o u g l a s f i r a s d i r e c t e d . P l a n t i s l a n d a s d i r e c t e d . 0 + 4 0 0 * 0 P 4 P l a n t m a t e r i a l s o u r c e a t 0 + 4 0 0 a n d 0 + 4 3 0 . a . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r a s I d i r e c t e d . 0 + 3 5 0 P l a n t m a t e r i a l s o u r c e a t 0 + 3 7 5 . S c a r i f y N o r t h s i d e . P l a n t D o u g l a s F i r a s d i r e c t e d . 1 94 A l t h o u g h i n v a s i o n o f t h e o l d r o a d s u r f a c e by c o l o n i z i n g g r a s s e s , o t h e r h e r b a c e o u s p l a n t s , and a l i m i t e d number o f woody s h r u b s was e v i d e n t p r i o r t o s c a r i f i c t i o n , i t c a n be as sumed t h a t l o o s e n i n g t he s o i l wou ld p r o v i d e i m p r o v e d a e r a t i o n , w a t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , and a more v i a b l e s e e d b e d . W i l d Rose ( R o s a a c i c u l a r i s ) , W i l d S t r a w b e r r y ( F r a g a r i a c h i l o e n s i s ) , and a number o f o t h e r s p e c i e s were n a t u r a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n s c a r i f i e d a r e a s , w i t h t o t a l v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r , b a s e d on v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n , a p p r o a c h i n g 40% i n some c a s e s . S i n c e no d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e i n t e n d e d t r a i l s u r f a c e was p r o v i d e d , h o w e v e r , h o r s e and h i k e r t r a f f i c c a n be e x p e c t e d t o t r a m p l e t h e new g rowth and c a u s e s o i l c o m p a c t i o n . C o n t r o l o f u s e r s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a p r i m e f a c t o r i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and management o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s c h e m e s . The Snowshoe F i r e Road r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n i l l u s t r a t e s t h e need t o a s s e s s t h e c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f a s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o g r a m . The a d v a n t a g e s o f a p l a n c a l l i n g f o r a s i z e a b l e c a p i t a l o u t l a y f o l l o w e d by m a i n t e n a n c e b u d g e t i n g t o p r o d u c e a r a p i d i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e d i s t u r b e d l a n d s c a p e , must be w e i g h e d a g a i n s t a low key a p p r o a c h whereby n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s a r e e n c o u r a g e d . 195 FIGURE 55 E r o s i o n c o n t r o l th rough s l ope s t a b i l i z a t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of wate r ba r s was s p e c i f i e d f o r t h i s a r e a . FIGURE 56 Water ba r s would d i r e c t wa te r i n t o f o r e s t a t l e f t and a v o i d c h a n n e l i n g f o r m a t i o n on r i g h t . 3 . 4 . 0 OTHER SELECTED PROJECTS : A REVIEW The t h r e e p r i m a r y c a s e s t u d i e s o u t l i n e d p r o j e c t s f r o m c o a s t a l f o r e s t t h r o u g h m o n t a n e , s a v a n n a , and l o w e r s u b - a l p i n e f o r e s t t y p e s . The d e t a i l e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s n o r m a l l y u t i l i z e d f o r u p p e r s u b - a l p i n e , and a l p i n e o r t u n d r a z o n e s a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t and m e r i t s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h i s b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f a l p i n e methods i s p r e s e n t e d t o r e c o r d a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e range o f b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s i n o r d e r t o a l l o w a more a c c u r a t e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model a p p l i c a b l e t o a w ide v a r i e t y o f a r e a s . The a u t h o r has n o t been d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n t h e s e e n v i r o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e has been an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n i n p u t , and o b s e r v a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . 3.4.1 BOW SUMMIT IMPROVEMENTS - B a n f f N a t i o n a l Pa rk Bow Summit i s l o c a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1,920 m and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u b - a l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f Eng lemann S p r u c e ( P i c e a e n g l e m a n i i ) , S u b - a l p i n e F i r ( A b i es  1 a s i o c a r p a ) , and a v a r i e t y o f hardy- s h r u b s . An o r g a n i c m a t t o f l o w - g r o w i n g s h r u b s and h e r b a c e o u s s p e c i e s c o v e r t h e f o r e s t f l o o r , w h i l e t he s o i l s u b s t r a t e i s t y p i c a l l y p o o r l y d e v e l o p e d c o a r s e g r a v e l l y m a t e r i a l . FIGURE 5 7 Bow Summit R e h a b i l i t a t i o n P l an 1 98 Bow Summit o f f e r s s p e c t a c u l a r v i e w s o f P e y t o Lake and a t t r a c t s t h o u s a n d s o f v i s i t o r s d u r i n g t h e t o u r i s t s e a s o n . Car p a r k i n g was o r i g i n a l l y p e r m i t t e d i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t t o t h e e x t e n s i v e meadow a r e a s , and t h e P e y t o Lake v i e w i n g a r e a . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e heavy u s e r i m p a c t s c a u s e d s e v e r e s o i l c o m p a c t i o n , d e n u d a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n , and a g e n e r a l l y r e d u c e d s i t e v i s u a l q u a l i t y . S i t e r e d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s c a l l e d f o r r e l o c a t i o n o f t he p a r k i n g a r e a a t some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e s e n s i t i v e meadows and v i e w i n g a r e a , s u p p o r t e d by a h a r d e n i n g o f t r a i l s u r f a c e s and o v e r a l l r e d u c t i o n o f t h e p e d e s t r i a n c i r c u l a t i o n s y s t e m . V i e w i n g d e c k s , i n t e r p r e t i v e d i s p l a y s , and v e g e t a t i o n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f a l l damaged a r e a s were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n . R e v e g e t a t i o n o f t h e c o m p a c t e d o v e r u s e a r e a s was c o m p l e t e d by e x c a v a t i n g l a r g e p l u g s o r r a f t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 cm x 50 cm o f n a t i v e sod f r o m p r o p o s e d t r a i l a l i g n m e n t s , and t r a n s p l a n t i n g them o n t o h a n d - s c a r i f i e d d i s t u r b e d a r e a . The p l u g s were ma tched as t i g h t l y as p o s s i b l e and t h o r o u g h l y w a t e r e d . P r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a good s u r v i v a l r a t e o f t h e p l a n t m a t e r i a l on t h e t r a n s p l a n t e d p l u g s , a l t h o u g h 1 99 t h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f new g r o w t h , f l o w e r i n g , o r seed p r o d u c t i o n , p r o b a b l y as a r e s u l t o f s e v e r e p h y s i o l o g i c a l s t r e s s f o l l o w i n g t r a n s p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . 3 . 4 . 2 HEATHER LAKE - Mt . R e v e l s t o k e N a t i o n a l P a r k 1 H e a t h e r Lake i s s i t u a t e d a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 1950 m i n Mt . R e v e l s t o k e N a t i o n a l P a r k . The a r e a has been d i s t u r b e d and h e a v i l y o v e r u s e d by pa rk v i s i t o r s . In 1976 , 2 5 , 0 0 0 p l u g s ' o f n a t i v e t r a n s p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l were i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e a r e a , w i t h a f o l l o w - u p i n 1977 o f 1 3 , 0 0 0 p l u g s . Sphagnum p e a t m o s s , o r g a n i c f e r t i l i z e r ( 8 - 4 - 2 a t 4 l b s / 1 0 0 s q . f t . ) , and l i m e (3 I b s / s q . f t . ) were a p p l i e d t o t h e p l a n t i n g a r e a s . M a t t - f o r m i n g s p e c i e s were c o l l e c t e d as l a r g e r a f t s , t h e n c u t i n t o 10 x 10 x 7 cm p l u g s and s p a c e d a t 4 0 - 4 5 cm. T h e s e were c o l l e c t e d f rom s i m i l a r e l e v a t i o n s w i t h i n 60 km o f R e v e l s t o k e Summi t . P l a n t m a t e r i a l s were t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e s i t e n o t more t h a n a s i n g l e l a y e r d e e p , and were c o v e r e d by c a n v a s t a r p s t o p r e v e n t w ind d e s i c c a t i o n . 1 The H e a t h e r Lake r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o j e c t was p l a n n e d by O t t o Hammer, P a r k s C a n a d a , W e s t e r n R e g i o n a l O f f i c e 200 P l u g s c o n t a i n e d one common r o o t s t o c k , and were t r i m m e d o f a l l d e v e l o p i n g f l o w e r o r s e e d s t a n d s . The se were t h e n p l a n t e d f l u s h w i t h t h e a d j a c e n t g r a d e and r e f l e c t e d s p e c i e s m ixe s i n t h e v i c i n i t y . A l l p l u g s were t h o r o u g h l y w a t e r e d i m m e d i a t l e y a f t e r p l a n t i n g . P r e l i m i n a r y t a b u l a t i o n s i n 1 9 7 7 - 1 9 7 8 i n d i c a t e d a 9 5 - 1 0 0 % s u r v i v a l , b u t w i t h l i t t l e i n i t i a l g r o w t h . L a r g e r p l u g s , w a t e r , f e r t i l i z e r , and t o p s o i l i m p r o v e d s u r v i v a l (Hammer, 1 9 7 7 ) . 3.5 SUMMARY AND ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDIES 3.5.1 INTRODUCTION The c a s e s t u d i e s o f Long Beach N o r t h D a y - U s e A r e a , M a l i g n e Lake Highway L a n d s c a p i n g , Snowshoe F i r e Road R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and o t h e r s m a l l e r s i t e s i l l u s t r a t e a r ange o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s t y p i c a l o f pa rk e n v i r o n m e n t s . A l t h o u g h each s i t e a n a l y s e d was l o c a t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s p e c i e s and t e c h n i q u e a p p l i c a t i o n s v a r i e d , t h e r e were n e v e r t h e l e s s common t h r e a d s e v i d e n t i n t h e p r o b l e m s o f p l a n n i n g , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and management. T h e s e p r o b l e m s may be summar i zed and e v a l u a t e d as t hey r e l a t e t o e s t a b l i s h e d l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n k n o w l e d g e , and as a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t o f a management m o d e l . 201 3 .5 .2 ADMINISTRATION The c a s e s t u d i e s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the i m p a c t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s and e f f i c i e n c y on t h e f i n a l ou tcome o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s . A c e n t r a l c o n c e r n was t he p e r s i s t e n t l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s agency l e v e l s . F r a g m e n t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and j u r i s d i c t i o n s p r e c l u d e a c o - o r d i n a t e d a p p r o a c h t o p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n d e l a y s , a l t e r a t i o n o f methods and m a t e r i a l s c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , d e l e t i o n o f m a j o r p o r t i o n s o f s c h e d u l e d w o r k , l a c k o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , a b s e n c e o f w e l l o r g a n i z e d i n i t i a l and l o n g te rm m a i n t e n a n c e p r o g r a m s , and f i n a l l y a g e n e r a l l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t he g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n . A s e c o n d m a j o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e r n i s t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a l i s t i c f i v e - y e a r c a p i t a l p rogramming s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w p r e - d i s t u r b a n c e b i o p h y s i c a l a n a l y s i s , p l a n t m a t e r i a l s a l v a g e o r s e e d and c u t t i n g p r o c u r e m e n t , g r o w i n g - o n , and f i n a l d e s i g n . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e a d e q u a t e l e a d t i m e t o c o l l e c t and p r e p a r e n a t i v e p l a n t m i x e s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y e n t a i l an a l l o t m e n t o f f u n d i n g some y e a r s p r i o r t o p r o j e c t c o m p l e t i o n . H o w e v e r , a s p o l i t i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c i e s change i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o 202 e s t a b l i s h a c o o r d i n a t e d w e l l - p l a n n e d a p p r o a c h t o l a n d s c a p e management . 3 . 5 . 3 PLANNING P h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n t he c o n t e x t o f t he c a s e s t u d i e s were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s . D e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r t h e Long Beach N o r t h Day -Use A r e a , M a l i g n e Lake H ighway, and Snowshoe F i r e r o a d R e s t o r a t i o n p r o v i d e d c o n c e p t u a l o u t l i n e s o f p r o p o s e d l a n d use w i t h i n a g i v e n b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , b u t f a i l e d t o a d d r e s s r e s t o r a t i o n needs i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s i t e o r r e g i o n a l i m p a c t s . The M a l i g n e Lake Highway r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m , h o w e v e r , b e n e f i t t e d f r o m a t h r e e y e a r l e a d t i m e f r o m h ighway d e s i g n t o c o n s t r u c t i o n , e n a b l i n g seed c o l l e c t i o n , g r o w i n g - o n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n an opt imum t i m e f r a m e . The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s wou ld be i m p r o v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e and management were e v a l u a t e d d u r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y d e c i s i o n mak ing p h a s e s a l l o w i n g an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e s c o p e and needs o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . A more v i s i b l e l o n g r a n g e commitment t o p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e management and r e s t o r a t i o n wou ld a l l o w f o r r e a l i s t i c r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . 203 A l t h o u g h n o t d e s c r i b e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s , a p o s i t i v e s t e p was t a k e n a t P a r k s C a n a d a , W e s t e r n R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , w i t h t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a P l a n t M a t e r i a l s P r o g r a m . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o g r a m i s i n c l u d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e how t h e e a r l i e r i n i t i a t i o n o f s u c h a p r o g r a m c o u l d have b e n e f i t t e d t he c a s e s t u d i e s i n q u e s t i o n . The P l a n t M a t e r i a l P rogram e v o l v e d i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e l a c k o f r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e n a t i v e p l a n t s f o r use i n l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e s t o r a t i o n , t h e w i d e s p r e a d f a i l u r e o f p l a n t e d a r e a s due t o l a c k o f m a i n t e n a n c e and o t h e r p r o b l e m s , and t h e meagre i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n a t i v e s p e c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s h r u b s , g r a s s e s , and l e g u m e s . The p r o g r a m a d d r e s s e d needs and methods f o r r e s e a r c h , p l a n t m a t e r i a l s u p p l y , p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s and m a i n t e n a n c e , and i n v o l v e d a number o f d e p a r t m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e P l a n D e v e l o p m e n t S e c t i o n , N a t u r a l H i s t o r y R e s e a r c h , and R e s o u r c e C o n s e r v a t i o n . The most s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s was t h e a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s i n t he v a r i o u s p a r k s , f o r e c a s t o v e r a l l p l a n t m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d and commence c o l l e c t i o n , and c o n t r a c t g r o w i n g o f t h e r e q u i r e d s t o c k . The i n t e n t o f t h i s p rog ram a s p e c t was t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s m i x e s as l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s p r o c e e d e d to t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a g e . In t h i s manner , many o f t h e p r o c u r e m e n t u n c e r t a i n t i e s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e d e s c r i b e d c a s e s t u d i e s c o u l d have been a v o i d e d . 204 A f o l l o w - u p s t u d y t o t h e f i r s t P l a n t M a t e r i a l s P rogram r e p o r t was an e x h a u s t i v e i n v e n t o r y o f t h e n u r s e r y i n d u s t r y ' s c a p a b i l i t y i n A l b e r t a t o c o l l e c t and grow n a t i v e s p e c i e s . I t i s c l e a r , t h a t u n l e s s t h e n u r s e r y i n d u s t r y i n g e n e r a l p e r c e i v e s a need f o r s u p p l y i n g n a t i v e m a t e r i a l , t h e n l o n g r ange p l a n t m a t e r i a l p rog ramming i n t h e c o n t e x t o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s o r l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s such as m i n i n g c o m p a n i e s i s e s s e n t i a l i f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be r e a l i z e d . 3 . 5 . 4 IMPLEMENTATION A s p e c i f i c a s s e s s m e n t o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n methods was i n c l u d e d i n t he summary o f e a c h c a s e s t u d y . However , t he p r o b l e m s o f p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o v e r a l l v i a b i l i t y a s p e c t s o f e a c h p r o j e c t were s i m i l a r i n s p i t e o f v a r i a b l e b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s , s i t e c o n d i t i o n s , and t y p e o f p r o j e c t . A summary o f t he common i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o b l e m s i s o u t l i n e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t he i m p o r t a n c e o f a c o o r d i n a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , p l a n n i n g and s i t e work a p p r o a c h . S a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s a r e c o m b i n e d and l i s t e d as p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s . 3 .5 .5 205 SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS WITH NEGATIVE IMPACTS 1. The use o f o n l y one o r two r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s may have r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t p l a n t f a i l u r e i f no t t o t a l p r o j e c t f a i l u r e . 2. Poo r w e a t h e r c o n d i t i o n s a t t h e t i m e o f s i t e work l e d t o u n f a v o u r a b l e s o i l c o n d i t i o n s and p l a n t m o r t a l i t y . 3. Poo r s i t e d r a i n a g e c a u s e d t h e i n u n d a t i o n o f a number o f p l a n t e d a r e a s , r e s u l t i n g i n s t r e s s and h i g h mo r t a l i t y . 4. P l a n t i n g a r e a s u r f a c e s were t o o s m o o t h , t h u s n o t a l l o w i n g f a v o u r a b l e m i c r o - c l i m a t e s f o r s eed and s e e d l i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t . 5. I n s u f f i c i e n t m u l c h i n g a l l o w e d d r o u g h t c o n d i t i o n s t o i n f l i c t a maximum amount o f s t r e s s , and t h e i n a d e q u a t e amount o f m u l c h e n c o u r a g e d r a p i d i n v a s i o n o f weedy s p e c i e s . 6. E x c e s s i v e l y l a r g e p l a n t s were u sed i n some i n s t a n c e s r e s u l t i n g i n t r a n s p l a n t i n g s t r e s s and a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f m o r t a l i t y . Lack o f s k i l l e d l a n d s c a p i n g t r a n s p l a n t i n g p r a c t i c e s and p o t e n t i a l o f a l a r g e number 206 c r e w s r e s u l t e d i n p o o r r e d u c e d t h e s u r v i v a l o f p l a n t s . I n s u f f i c i e n t a l l o w a n c e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n compounded t h e p r o b l e m o f a low l e v e l o f c r e w s k i l l s . A l a c k o f v e r i f i e d know ledge and s c i e n t i f i c d a t a on s e v e r a l p l a n t s p e c i e s r e s u l t e d i n t he r e l i a n c e on i n a p p r o p r i a t e s p e c i e s . C o n t a i n e r i z e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l s were s u b j e c t e d t o l o n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l a g t i m e s , and some p l a n t s were s u b j e c t e d t o heavy f r o s t p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g . C o n t a i n e r i z e d p l a n t m a t e r i a l s were moved f r o m a l u s h g r o w i n g e n v i r o n m e n t i n t o s o i l s o f low f e r t i l i t y and s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . T h i s may have c a u s e d much o f t h e e v i d e n t m o r t a l i t y . L a r g e p l a n t i n g a r e a s were s u b j e c t e d t o summer d r o u g h t and s c o r c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i t h no p r o v i s i o n f o r f o l l o w - u p w a t e r i n g . 207 S h o o t - t o - r o o t r a t i o s o f c o n t a i n e r i z e d s t o c k were no t c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o u r a b l e . H i g h n i t r o g e n f e r t i l i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e g r o w i n g - o n p h a s e r e s u l t e d i n l u s h , l e a f y g r o w t h , b u t d i d no t p r e p a r e t h e p l a n t s f o r t r a n s p l a n t i n g s h o c k . I n a d e q u a t e p l a n t p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s were a d o p t e d , r e s u l t i n g i n w i d e s p r e a d t r a m p l i n g , v a n d a l i s m , and n a t u r a l w e a t h e r damage. W ind th row and f l o o d i n g r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s o f many p l a n t s . T h e r e were c o n s i d e r a b l e d e l a y s between the s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and o u t p l a n t i n g p h a s e s o f t h e work r e s u l t i n g i n s o i l e r o s i o n , n u t r i e n t l e a c h i n g , and i n v a s i o n o f weedy s p e c i e s . A l a c k o f w i n t e r snowpack may have r e s u l t e d i n u n f a v o u r a b l e s p r i n g s o i l m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t . P l a n t s were no t a d e q u a t e l y h a r d e n e d o f f i n t h e n u r s e r y p r i o r t o s h i p p i n g and t r a n s p l a n t i n g . 208 SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS WITH POS IT IVE EFFECTS In g e n e r a l , t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f c u t t i n g s f o l l o w e d by g r o w i n g - o n u n d e r n u r s e r y c o n d i t i o n s and o u t p l a n t i n g p r o v e d t o be an e f f i c i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l t e c h n i q u e . Improvements i n p r o c e d u r e s and p o s t i n s t a l l a t i o n m a i n t e n a n c e wou ld have r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r s u r v i v a l r a t e s . The d i v e r s i t y o f s p e c i e s p l a n t e d p r o v e d t o be an a s s e t as p l a n t s u r v i v a l r a t e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . Even though c e r t a i n s p e c i e s p e r f o r m e d p o o r l y , s u f f i c i e n t c o v e r a g e was o b t a i n e d by t h e r e m a i n i n g p l a n t m i x . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a p p r o a c h as o p p o s e d t o more t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h l a r g e n u r s e r y s t o c k was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s e x p e n s i v e and r e s u l t e d i n a more n a t u r a l a p p e a r i n g s i t e . The i n v a s i o n o f c e r t a i n p i o n e e r s p e c i e s no t d i r e c t l y p l a n t e d a i d e d t h e o v e r a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t . F o r e x a m p l e , Red A l d e r ( A l n u s r u b r a ) e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a s where p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l was no t a b l e t o s u r v i v e . However , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t o f Red A l d e r c o m p e t i t i o n on e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t i n g a r e a s . 209 5. " I s l a n d " o r " r a f t " t r a n s p l a n t s p r o v e d v e r y s u c c e s s f u l , and the s m a l l p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s showed v i s i b l e e v i d e n c e o f g rowth and e x p a n s i o n i n t h e i r new e n v i r o n m e n t . 6. The n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n o f some s i t e s p r o c e e d e d more r a p i d l y t h a n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o n t a i n e r s t o c k . However , t h e c o l o n i z i n g s p e c i e s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f g r a s s e s , b r o a d - l e a v e d h e r b s , and o t h e r p i o n e e r -p l a n t s . T h e s e p l a n t s a i d e d i n t h e s p r e a d o f v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r on t h e s i t e w h i l e t h e a r t i f i c i a l l y i n s t a l l e d m a t e r i a l s h o u l d u l t i m a t e l y m a t u r e and m a i n t a i n a d o m i n a n t c o m p e t i t i v e p o s i t i o n . 7. A s i g n i f i c a n t amount o f know ledge was g a i n e d w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s u i t a b i l i t y o f a v a r i e t y o f p l a n t s p e c i e s and t h e v i a b i l i t y o f s e v e r a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s was t e s t e d . 3 . 5 . 7 SUMMARY OF MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING FACTORS U s e r c o n t r o l t h r o u g h s i g n a g e , a d e q u a t e f e n c i n g , e d u c a t i o n , and p o l i c i n g was no t a c o m p o n e n t o f t h e p o s t - r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n 210 w i d e s p r e a d t r a m p l i n g , v a n d a l i s m , and p l a n t m a t e r i a l m o r t a l i t y . Those s i t e s w h i c h were p r o t e c t e d by f e n c i n g s u p p o r t e d h e a l t h y p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s l o n g a f t e r a d j a c e n t a r e a s were d e v a s t a t e d . W a t e r i n g , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , r e p l a c e m e n t o f dead p l a n t m a t e r i a l , p r u n i n g , and weed c o n t r o l were n o t p r a c t i c e d on any o f t h e c a s e s t u d y s i t e s . A l t h o u g h no s c i e n t i f i c d a t a were c o l l e c t e d t o show t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t s o f t h e s e o m i s s i o n s , i t c a n be a s sumed t h a t i n t h e l o n g te rm a l a c k o f c r i t i c a l m a i n t e n a n c e such as w a t e r i n g and f e r t i l i z a t i o n wou ld have an i m p a c t on p l a n t v i g o u r . T h i s i s v e r i f i e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . I n v a s i o n o f weedy s p e c i e s had b o t h b e n e f i c i a l and d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s , a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i v e o v e r a l l r e s u l t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . Red A l d e r , ( A l n u s  r u b r a ) , g r a s s e s and o t h e r s p e c i e s a p p e a r e d t o compete e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t r a n s p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l and may have r e s u l t e d i n t he f a i l u r e o f l e s s v i g o r o u s p l a n t s . S e l e c t i v e weed ing d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t p h a s e s o f a r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n s i t e w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e v i a b i l i t y o f c e r t a i n p l a n t s , and p r o v i d e b e t t e r g r o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s . 211 4. A l t h o u g h c h e m i c a l p e s t i c i d e s a r e g e n e r a l l y no t p e r m i t t e d i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s , t h i s p o l i c y does n o t e x c l u d e o t h e r t y p e s o f i n t e g r a t e d p e s t management . D i s e a s e s and i n s e c t p e s t s d i d n o t have a v i s i b l e e f f e c t on t h e s u r v i v a l o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and m o n i t o r i n g p e r i o d , b u t t h e l a c k o f r e a d y means t o d e a l w i t h a p e s t p r o b l e m c o u l d have had a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p a c t . 5. A l t h o u g h m a i n t e n a n c e p l a n s , s c h e d u l e s , and c o s t e s t i m a t e s were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e Long Beach N o r t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t t h e s e were n o t i m p l e m e n t e d . The l a r g e c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e w o u l d have been much more e f f e c t i v e l y p r o t e c t e d w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f m a i n t e n a n c e m o n i e s . A h y p o t h e t i c a l s c h e m a t i c b reakdown o f t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t c o m p o n e n t s f o r t h e P a c i f i c Rim r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , a s s u m i n g t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l m a i n t e n a n c e m o n i e s , wou ld have been s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n 10% b a s e d on c o s t e s t i m a t e s d u r i n g 1978 , a f i g u r e w h i c h was s i m i l a r t o p r o j e c t s i m p l e m e n t e d i n o t h e r p a r k s . 21 2 6 . No s c i e n t i f i c o r o r g a n i z e d m o n i t o r i n g p r o g r a m s were i n s t i t u t e d o t h e r t h a n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s t u d y o u t l i n e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The c o l l e c t i o n o f d a t a on t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and l o n g t e r m s u c c e s s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i s c r i t i c a l i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i m p r o v e m e n t s i n m e t h o d o l o g y . 21 3 PART IV LANDSCAPE REHABIL ITATION MANAGEMENT MODEL 4 . 0 INTRODUCTION The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d e s c r i b e d m a j o r c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n k n o w l e d g e base w i t h an e m p h a s i s on t h e h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h . A d i v e r s e g roup o f e l e m e n t s i n c l u d i n g c l i m a t e and t o p o g r a p h y , e d a p h i c and b i o t i c f a c t o r s , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s and u s e r c o n t r o l , were r e v i e w e d as p r e c u r s o r s t o s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n , o u t - p l a n t i n , and m a i n t e n a n c e f a c t o r s . I t was s t a t e d t h a t much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e s c r i b e s s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s t o p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s , w h i l e few c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o o v e r a l l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management. The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w t h e r e f o r e a t t e m p t e d t o draw on a l l o f t h e s t u d y a r e a s p e r c e i v e d t o have some b e a r i n g on t h e outcome o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t . The c a s e s t u d y a p p r o a c h was u t i l i z e d t o p r o v i d e e x a m p l e s o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n a v a r i e t y o f b i o g e o c l i m a t i c z o n e s . A l t h o u g h e a c h o f t h e p r o j e c t s r e p r e s e n t e d a d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f pa rk r e h a b i l i t a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n , u s e f u l d a t a and o b s e r v a t i o n s f r o m a l l o f t h e s i t e s were t a b u l a t e d and a s s e s s e d . The r e s u l t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s i n c l u d e d a s p e c t s o f p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and m a i n t e n a n c e , as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a r e a l i s t i c o u t l i n e o f 214 t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management m o d e l , t h e r e f o r e , was a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and c a s e s t u d y c o n c l u s i o n s . The model was d e v e l o p e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e o f p r o v i d i n g a c l e a r component o u t l i n e o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r e s s i o n t h a t maybe u t i l i z e d f o r a l l t y p e s o f l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n work and i s a p p l i c a b l e i n any b i o p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e d e t a i l e d f a c t o r s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e l e v a n t f o r e a c h p r o j e c t . The model was o r g a n i z e d t o e n s u r e t h a t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r a n g e o f v a r i a b l e s i s c o n s i d e r e d a t t h e o p p o r t u n e p h a s e o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p rog ram o r s p e c i f i c j o b i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e c o s t l y e r r o r s and o m i s s i o n s w h i c h c o u l d l e a d t o p r o j e c t f a i l u r e . The model s t r u c t u r e commences w i t h a b r o a d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y q u e s t i o n s , t h e n p r o g r e s s e s t h r o u g h t h e d e t a i l e d t e c h n i c a l c o m p o n e n t s , and f i n a l l y e n t e r s t h e m a i n t e n a n c e , m o n i t o r i n g , and r e v i e w p h a s e . A l t h o u g h many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , t h e f l o w d i a g r a m i s o r g a n i z e d t o a l l o w i n p u t o f i n f o r m a t i o n a t s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i n o r d e r t o a v o i d p l a n n i n g o r d e s i g n c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on i n c o m p l e t e d a t a . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e model f o l l o w s , w h i l e t h e d e t a i l e d s u p p o r t i v e r e v i e w o f t h e s p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l p a r t s s u c h FIGURE 58 REHABILITATION MANAGEMENT MODEL LAUD D0TIK3MJ<X 3 Z sir- ~ 1 3 Z kDr\IKJI*TKA.TlV£ N a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n v s . r e s t o r a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , r e c l a m a t i o n . C a p i t a l c o s t s , o p e r a t i o n c o s t s , t i m e h o r i z o n s , s t a f f i n g , p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s , c ommunication and l i a i s o n ; I M V I ^ I ^ M I O U 0IOPHY6ICAL-cOMPOUEJJT 6 U r W £ -WJD TOPOCf^rvPHr P r e c i p i t a t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e s , w inds, a s p e c t and r a d i a t i o n , a l t i t u d e , snow c o l l e c t i o n , shade, p e r m a f r o s t , n e e d l e - i c e a i r d r a i n a g e , p o s i t i o n on a s l o p e , e x p o s u r e , growing season] heat budget, l e n g t h o f day. P r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , u n i t y and compos i t i o n , sequence, b a l a n c e form, shape, a x i s , t e x t u r e and p a t t e r n , c o l o u r , enframement, rhythm, c o n t r a s t , v a r i e t y , c o n v e r g e n c e , dominence, co-dominance S o i l m o i s t u r e , s o i l temperat-u r e , s o i l c h e m i s t r y pH CEC, s o i l s t r u c t u r e and t e x t u r e , m i c r o - o r g a n i s m s , m y c o r r h i z a l f a c t o r s , p edology P r i o r t o d i s t u r b a n c e , f o l l o w i n g d i s t u r b a n c e V I S U A L 7/APA6T t &\OT\0 FA6T0K> ^ C A P ^ I T Y Community s t r u c t u r e , s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s , w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g Numbers I n t e n s i t y D u r a t i o n Z o n i n g , c h a n n e l i n g , b a r r i e r s , e d u c a t i o n , boundary d e f i n i t i o n c h o i c e o f m a t e r i a l s , v a n d a l i s m s i g n a g e Landscape d e s i g n e l e m e n t s t r a i l s , s i t e f a c i l i t i e s , a c c e s s , c i r c u l a t i o n PLftJUkJIKJC, ^ D&6ICNi F i s e a l / Commitment r^-PlAKJkJIKJC, FOR. PLAMT r W £ K J A L S e l e c t i o n of p i o n e e r , s u c c e s s i o n a l , o r c l i m a x p l a n t i n g . D i v e r s i t y , r e s i l i e n c e , c o m p e t i t i o n , p h e n o l o g y r , drought-Growth form & r a t e g e r m i n a t i o n , v i g o u r r e s i s t a n c e , r e p r o d u c t i o n seed d i s p e r s a l , m i n e r a l n u t r i t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , a v a i l -a b i l i t y , f u n c t i o n a l u t i l i t y , r e s i s t a n c e t o p e s t s , w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s , t r a n s p l a n t a b i l i t y Seed c o l l e c t i n g , c u t t i n g c o l l e c t i o n , s t o r a g e , g r o w i n g -on, s i z e o f p l a n t a t i n s t a l l -a t i o n , p l a n t m a t e r i a l s a l v a g e OF T&OikJIQUK) C o r i n g s p r i g g i n g , r a f t s , w a t t l -i n g , c u t t i n g s , h y d r o - s e e d i n g , s e e d i n g , t r a n s p l a n t i n g , c o n t a i n e r grown v s . ba r e r o o t , c o l l e c t e d s t o c k , n u r s e r y sources] time h o r i z o n s , equipment P l a n t i n g s e a s o n , s t a f f , equipment a v a i l a b i l i t y DixuiAarft D r a w i n g s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , a p p r o v a l s , c o n t r a c t award, s k i l l e d c o n t r a c t o r 6IT& PRkPAKATIOM S c a r i f i c a t i o n , g r a d i n g , s o i l improvements, d r a i n a g e , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , wind p r o t e c t i o n ] o r g a n i c , s o i l , r o c k mulches OUT-PLAUTIWc, Workload a n a l y s i s , s t a f f r e q u i r e m e n t s , p l a n s and s c h e d u l e s , f i s c a l commitment HZ S k i l l e d c r e w s , w e a t h e r , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p l a n t s , s u p e r v i s i o n c o n t r o l o f p l a n t s t o r a g e , o n - s i t e f e r t i l i z a t i o n S t a k i n g and t i e i n g , m u l c h i n g , weed c o n t r o l , t h i n n i n g , p r u n i n g , w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , w a t e r i n g , mowing va n d a l i s m , , t e m p o r a r y f e n c i n g , i n t e g r a t e d p e s t management -p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l methods, i n s e c t i c i d e s , h e r b i c i d e s . rAOUITOKlKJC >-Impact a s s e s s m e n t , s p e c i e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , community d y n a m i c s , s o i l c o m p a c t i o n , s o i l f e r t i l i t y , p l a n t m o r t a l i t y w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n v a s i o n weedy s p e c i e s C o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , t i m e h o r i z o n s 216 d e v e l o p m e n t and t e c h n i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , a key s t a g e i n t he model f r a m e w o r k . Land management must p r o c e e d w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t he v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , as w e l l as r e c o g n i z e e c o n o m i c , d e m o g r a p h i c , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s b e a r i n g on u s e r r e q u i r e m e n t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . 4 . 1 . 3 . POLICY DEVELOPMENT Land management o b j e c t i v e s p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r must be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t a n g i b l e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r c o r p o r a t e p o l i c i e s b e f o r e t he n e c e s s a r y commi tment s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e r e a l i z e d . Such v i s i b l e p o l i c i e s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o c u r i n g a d e q u a t e f u n d s and e s t a b l i s h i n g l o n g t e r m r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . P o l i c i e s may r e s p o n d t o l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s and i d e n t i f y p r i m e d e s i r e d l a n d use p a t t e r n s , as w e l l as e s t a b l i s h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e q u e n c e s f o r a p p r o v a l . 4 . 1 . 4 REHABIL ITATION OBJECT IVES R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o l l o w the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a n d use p o l i c y and r e p r e s e n t t h e t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d n o r m a l l y 21 7 d e v e l o p m e n t and t e c h n i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , and a r e , t h e r e f o r e , a key s t a g e i n t h e model f r a m e w o r k . Land management must p r o c e e d w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i t r a t i v e and j u r i s d i c t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t , as w e l l as r e c o g n i z e e c o n o m i c , d e m o g r a p h i c , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and g e o g r a p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s b e a r i n g on u s e r r e q u i r e m e n t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s . 4 . 1 . 3 . POLICY DEVELOPMENT Land management o b j e c t i v e s p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r must be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t a n g i b l e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r c o r p o r a t e p o l i c i e s b e f o r e t h e n e c e s s a r y c o m m i t m e n t s f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e r e a l i z e d . Such v i s i b l e p o l i c i e s a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o c u r i n g a d e q u a t e f u n d s and e s t a b l i s h i n g l o n g te rm r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o g r a m s . P o l i c i e s may r e s p o n d t o l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s and i d e n t i f y p r i m e d e s i r e d l a n d use p a t t e r n s , as w e l l as e s t a b l i s h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e q u e n c e s f o r a p p r o v a l . 4 . 1 . 4 REHABIL ITATION OBJECT IVES R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s f o l l o w t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l a n d use p o l i c y and r e p r e s e n t t h e t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d r e s u l t . T h e s e o b j e c t i v e s w o u l d n o r m a l l y 218 e v o l v e i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e v a r i a b l e s o f n a t u r a l r e g e n e r a t i o n , r e s t o r a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and r e c l a m a t i o n d e f i n e d i n S e c t i o n 2 . 0 . The d e g r e e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s o u g h t w i l l , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , d e t e r m i n e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and m o d i f y t h e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n p r o c e s s w i t h r e s p e c t to s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s and s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n . 4 . 1 . 5 . ADMINISTRATIVE OBJECT IVES The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s i s i m p r a c t i c a l w i t h o u t c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e commi tment s i n t he a r e a s o f c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s , o p e r a t i o n s and m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s , s t a f f i n g , c o m m u n i c a t i o n and l i a i s o n . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s i z e o r n a t u r e o f a p r o j e c t , some d e g r e e o f t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d and r e s o l v e d . C o m m u n i c a t i o n and l i a i s o n a r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e l a r g e r p r o j e c t s t o a v o i d d u p l i c i t y and e n s u r e i n t e r e s t i n t h e p r o j e c t amongst a l l p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d . T h e s e e f f o r t s a r e e q u a l l y v a l i d f o r p r i v a t e o r g o v e r n m e n t a l u n d e r t a k i n g s , w h i l e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e p u b l i c s h o u l d a l s o be a h i g h p r i o r i t y t a s k , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g h i g h l y v i s i b l e works s u c h as p i p e l i n e o r h i ghway c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e 219 d e r i v a t i o n o f s u i t a b l e t i m e h o r i z o n s . A p r o j e c t l i f e e x p e c t a n c y o f , f o r e x a m p l e , 2, 10 , 20 o r 100 y e a r s w i l l o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e t h e s e l e c t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n methods and a l l o c a t i o n o f o p e r a t i o n a l o r m a i n t e n a n c e c o s t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e e x p e c t e d t i m e h o r i z o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n and a c c e p t a b l e a p p e a r a n c e w i l l b e a r on t h e c h o i c e o f s p e c i e s and t e c h n i q u e s . 4 . 1 . 6 . S ITE INVESTIGATION S i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s p e r h a p s t h e most c o m p l e x t e c h n i c a l component o f t h e management model i n t h a t i t e n c o m p a s s e s e i g h t m a j o r v a r i a b l e s w i t h o v e r 70 p o s s i b l e i t e m s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o i d e n t i f y , a n a l y z e , and a s s e s s i n t e r m s o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . The p r e - d e s i g n i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t a g e i s d i v i d e d i n t o b i o p h y s i c a l f a c t o r s and t h e l e s s t a n g i b l e e l e m e n t s o f d e s i g n , v i s u a l i m p a c t , and u s e r c o n t r o l . The r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i t y o f s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y e v a l u a t e d t o r e f l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n n e e d s , as on c e r t a i n s i t e s many o f t h e v a r i a b l e s w i l l n o t be a p p l i c a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t e r m s o f d a t a g a t h e r i n g f o r e f f i c i e n t r e t u r n and r e a l i s t i c e x p e n d i t u r e , t h e a p p r o a c h s h o u l d be p r a g m a t i c r a t h e r t h a n s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e x h a u s t i v e . On e x t e n s i v e o r d r a s t i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d s i t e s a more d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y may be n e c e s s a r y t o a c c u r a t e l y v i s u a l i z e s i t e c o n d i t i o n s and t r e n d s , 220 w h i l e s m a l l e r l e s s c o m p l e x s i t e s may p r e s e n t s e l f - e v i d e n t n e e d s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t a g e t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a s h o u l d be r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s and be e v a l u a t e d and c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The c o l l a t e d r e s u l t s o f t h e i n v e n t o r y may t h e n be u t i l i z e d i n t he p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n s t a g e t o a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , and t h e o t h e r p r i m e v a r i a b l e s . .1 B i o p h y s i c a l Component The b i o p h y s i c a l componen t e n c o m p a s s e s c l i m a t e and t o p o g r a p h y , e d a p h i c f a c t o r s , b i o t i c f a c t o r s , and c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y . T h e s e a r e a s o f s t u d y a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s i m p o r t a n t f r om a r e v e g e t a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t s h o u l d a l s o be u t i l i z e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d e s i g n o r u s e r c o n t r o l . A d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f b i o p h y s i c a l a s s e s s m e n t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , c o m p l e t e w i t h r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f e a c h s u b - g r o u p v a r i a b l e . H e n c e , o n l y t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e model w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d h e r e . .2 C l i m a t e and T o p o g r a p h y The c a s e s t u d i e s and l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a n a l y z i n g c l i m a t e and t o p o g r a p h y 221 as t h e y r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e . S e e m i n g l y m i n o r f l u c t u a t i o n s i n e x p o s u r e , o r a s p e c t f o r e x a m p l e , may have a s e r i o u s e f f e c t on t h e v i a b i l i t y o f p l a n t s , w h i l e t o p o g r a p h y may a l s o have a b e a r i n g on d e s i g n , v i s u a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t o r u s e r c o n t r o l . C l i m a t e w i l l f u r t h e r i n f l u e n c e c r i t i c a l a r e a s t h r o u g h o u t t h e m o d e l , i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h o s e c o m p o n e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h p l a n t m a t e r i a l . .3 E d a p h i c f a c t o r s E d a p h i c f a c t o r s a r e seen by many a u t h o r s r e v i e w e d p r e v i o u s l y t o r e p r e s e n t p e r h a p s t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . On d r a s t i c a l l y d i s t u r b e d s i t e s where t h e s o i l s t r u c t u r e o r c h e m i s t r y has been a l t e r e d , e d a p h i c f a c t o r s w i l l g e n e r a l l y d e t e r m i n e t h e s u r v i v a l o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l . S o i l t e s t i n g s h o u l d be p l a n n e d c a r e f u l l y t o a n a l y z e t h e s i t e p r i o r t o d i s t u r b a n c e , f o l l o w i n g d i s t u r b a n c e , and d u r i n g t h e m o n i t o r i n g p h a s e . S o i l t e s t l o c a t i o n s s h o u l d r e f l e c t c o n d i t i o n s on a l l p o r t i o n s o f t h e s i t e , and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s o i l m o i s t u r e s h o u l d be k e y e d t o s e a s o n a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . The l a t t e r a s p e c t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t i m e o f p l a n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s . The amount o f d e t a i l and v a r i e t y o f s o i l s i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d w i l l depend on t h e s i t e c h a r a c t e r as w e l l as r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . 222 R e s u l t s o f p r e l i m i n a r y s o i l t e s t s w i l l a l l o w c o m p o s i t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e f e r t i l i z e r m i x e s d u r i n g t h e d e s i g n s t a g e , w h i l e s o i l t e s t r e s u l t s f o l l o w i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w i l l be u s e f u l t o a m e l i o r a t e n i t r o g e n d e f i c i e n c e s o r o t h e r p r o b l e m s r e l a t i n g t o m u l c h i n g o r o r g a n i c s o i l amendments . .4 B i o t i c F a c t o r s A s s e s s m e n t o f s i t e b i o t i c f a c t o r s p r e s e n t s t he r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r w i t h t h e c o m p l e x p r o b l e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c r i t i c a l d a t a b a s e , g i v e n t i m e and c o s t r e s t r i c t i o n s . I f r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f n a t i v e f o r e s t c o v e r i s a p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e t h e n c o m p r e h e n s i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i e s c o m p o s i t i o n , commun i t y s t r u c t u r e , p o p u l a t i o n d y n a m i c s , n u t r i e n t c y c l i n g , and w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n wou ld be r e q u i r e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t d a t a a r e o b t a i n a b l e . The d e g r e e o f s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y may v a r y f rom o b s e r v a t i o n c o m b i n e d w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n , t o r i g o r o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o v e r a l o n g e r t i m e h o r i z o n . B i o t i c f a c t o r s a r e a l s o c e n t r a l t o t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s as t h e y i n f l u e n c e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n f u n c t i o n s o f s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , and m a i n t e n a n c e . S p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t e d t o n a t i v e s p e c i e s , b u t t h e e x i s t i n g p l a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l a i d i n c h o o s i n g a p p r o p r i a t e r e p l a c e m e n t s t o c k . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l e s s o b v i o u s p o t e n t i a l 223 i m p a c t o f w i l d l i f e b r o w s i n g on l u s h new g r o w t h s h o u l d be e v a l u a t e d t h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l o c a l mammal ian o r o t h e r s p e c i e s , known b r o w s i n g h a b i t s , m i g r a t o r y p a t t e r n s , and h a b i t a t c o n d i t i o n s . .5 C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y i s somewhat more d i f f i c u l t t o measure t h a n t h e o t h e r b i o p h y s i c a l c o m p o n e n t s and has p e r h a p s l e s s a p p l i c a t i o n t o many r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s . However , i t i s a f a c t o r w h i c h s h o u l d r e c e i v e a t t e n t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y on s i t e s where r e c r e a t i o n o r o t h e r use s u c h as g r a z i n g i s i n t e n d e d . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y has r e l e v a n c e t o t h e u n d i s t u r b e d l a n d s s u r r o u n d i n g a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e as w e l l as t h e i n h e r e n t c a p a b i l i t y o f s i t e s o i l and o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s t o w i t h s t a n d c o m p a c t i o n o r o t h e r i m p a c t s . As d e s c r i b e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y d e p e n d s on p r o j e c t e d n u m b e r s , i n t e n s i t y and d u r a t i o n o f use as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e g i v e n b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s i t e . C a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , t h e n , i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e model o n l y i f l i n k e d t o e d a p h i c and b i o t i c f a c t o r s , d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s , u s e r c o n t r o l , and t h e o v e r a l l l a n d management and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . / .6 V i s u a l Impact A s s e s s m e n t 224 The f u n d a m e n t a l s o f v i s u a l i m p a c t a s s e s s m e n t were o u t l i n e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , and i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n d e p e n d e d on t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f d e t a i l , s i z e o f l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e and l a n d use i n t h e ' a f f e c t e d a r e a . V i s u a l a n a l y s i s may be e f f e c t i v e a t t h e i n t u i t i v e o r s c i e n t i f i c l e v e l , a l t h o u g h t h i s d e p e n d s on b u d g e t a r y and t i m e c o n s t r a i n t s as w e l l as a v a i l a b i l i t y o f " e x p e r t i s e . Of p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model i s t h e p r e d i c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y o f a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t o measure and a s s e s s v i s u a l i m p a c t s p r i o r t o l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e , as w e l l as p r o v i d e mechan i sms f o r r e d u c i n g o r m o d i f y i n g t h e s e i m p a c t s . The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , s e l e c t t h e a p p r o a c h w h i c h b e s t r e f l e c t s t h e needs o f t h e l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s , and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s , w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s i t e t o p o g r a p h y , v e g e t a t i o n , and use p a t t e r n s . .7 D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s D e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s a r e c l o s e l y woven w i t h many a s p e c t s o f v i s u a l a n a l y s i s , b u t d i f f e r i n t h a t t h e y a r e t h e t o o l s w h i c h 225 may be a p p l i e d d u r i n g s i t e p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n t o a c h i e v e c e r t a i n a e s t h e t i c g o a l s o f t h e p r o j e c t . As s u c h , d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s may be r e g a r d e d as t h e e l e m e n t s u sed t o m a n i p u l a t e o r m i t i g a t e t h e v i s u a l e f f e c t o f l a n d d i s t u r b a n c e . They may be u t i l i z e d t o r e c r e a t e n a t u r a l f o r m s o c c u r r i n g p r i o r t o t h e d e n u d a t i o n , o r u sed t o c o n s t r u c t new s h a p e s , a p p r o p r i a t e t o t he i n t e n d e d l a n d u s e . The model i d e n t i f i e s 20 f a c t o r s , as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e r e v i e w , b u t t h e l i s t i s c l e a r l y n o t e x h a u s t i v e . H o w e v e r , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f p r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , u n i t y and c o m p o s i t i o n , s e q u e n c e , b a l a n c e , r h y t h m , and e a c h o f t h e r e m a i n i n g f a c t o r s , i n c l u d e d i n t h e m o d e l , f o r m t h e b a s i s o f d e s i g n t h e o r y and may be u s e d t o f u l l a d v a n t a g e on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e s . .8 U s e r C o n t r o l U s e r c o n t r o l i s i n l a r g e measure a componen t d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e as t h e methods u t i l i z e d s h o u l d f o l l o w t h e themes o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t o m a x i m i z e a e s t h e t i c a p p e a l . D e s i g n and t h e t o o l s o r t e c h n o l o g y u sed t o i m p l e m e n t t h e p r o j e c t a r e o f t e n i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e d u r i n g t h e p r o b l e m s o l v i n g p h a s e . D e s i g n s o l u t i o n s may d e p e n d on t h e t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e , o r c o n v e r s e l y , t h e c h o i c e o f methods and m a t e r i a l s may be m o d i f i e d by t h e s a l i e n t d e s i g n c r i t e r i a . U s e r c o n t r o l i s i m p o r t a n t on r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e s i n t h a t t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y s h o u l d be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h p h y s i c a l d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s . Z o n i n g use a r e a s , c h a n n e l i n g , p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n o r i n f o r m a t i o n d e l i v e r y s y s t e m s , and the c h o i c e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s a r e some o f t h e methods a v a i l a b l e t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r s . The t r a d i t i o n a l component s o f l a n d s c a p e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n on s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l use wou ld i n c l u d e t r a i l s , s i t e f a c i l i t i e s , a c c e s s , and c i r c u l a t i o n . 4 . 1 . 7 PLANNING AND DESIGN The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model i s o r g a n i z e d t o p l a c e t h e c r i t i c a l s y n t h e s i s pha se o f p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n a t t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f f a c t o r s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e b i o p h y s i c a l component on t h e one h a n d , and t h e somewhat more s u b j e c t i v e e l e m e n t s o f v i s u a l a s s e s s m e n t , and d e s i g n p r i n c i p l e s on t h e o t h e r . D e s i g n s h o u l d no t be t r e a t e d s i m p l y as a g r a p h i c o r a e s t h e t i c s o l u t i o n t o m a n i p u l a t i o n o f e a r t h - s h a p e s , v e g e t a t i o n p a t t e r n s , o r o t h e r l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s , r a t h e r t h e p r o c e s s must f u l l y i n t e g r a t e t h e e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s i t e , as w e l l as t h e b r o a d e r l a n d management and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s . C o n v e r s l y , as e x p r e s s e d i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s , c a r e must be t a k e n t o a v o i d p u r s u i n g a s i n g l e - m i n d e d t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n a t t he e x p e n s e o f a e s t h e t i c q u a l i t y o r o t h e r t a n g i b l e m e a s u r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e p l a n n e d l a n d u s e . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n d e s i g n , t h e r e f o r e , i s no t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e r m s o f t h e 227 t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e e l e m e n t s , b u t i s i n s t e a d a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . F o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f an o v e r a l l d e s i g n c o n c e p t , t h e n e c e s s a r y s e l e c t i o n o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l , p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , and o t h e r a s p e c t s may commence. As t he model i l l u s t r a t e s , t he s u b s t a n t i a l l e a d t i m e o f t e n r e q u i r e d f o r p l a n t m a t e r i a l p r o c u r e m e n t may n e c e s s i t a t e r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n c o n c e p t d e v e l o p m e n t i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e c o l l e c t i o n , g r o w i n g - o n , o r o t h e r p r e - i n s t a l l a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 4 . 1 . 8 SPECIES SELECTION S p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n v a r i a b l e s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s , w i t h i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f a p p r o p r i a t e themes o r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e p l a n t i n g a r e a i n g e n e r a l . The r e l a t i v e v i r t u e s o f p i o n e e r , s u c c e s s i o n a l , o r c l i m a x p l a n t c o m m u n i t i e s s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s and t i m e h o r i z o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . G e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d i v e r s i t y , r e s i l i e n c e , and c o m p e t i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s s h o u l d be w e i g h e d d u r i n g s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n . The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o u t l i n e s f i f t e e n s p e c i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t t o r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e l i s t c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be e x p a n d e d t o d e s c r i b e s p e c i f i c needs o f u n i q u e o r p a r t i c u l a r l y h a r s h s i t e s . S e l e c t i o n o f s p e c i e s f r o m the s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f f a c t o r s i s , o f c o u r s e , d e p e n d e n t on 228 t h e o v e r a l l d e s i r e d e f f e c t as o u t l i n e d i n t h e f i r s t c a t e g o r y o f v a r i a b l e s . 4 . 1 . 9 PREPLANNING FOR PLANT MATERIAL As d e s c r i b e d i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s , n a t i v e p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o p r o c u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n q u a n t i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t f o r l a r g e s c a l e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e model i n c l u d e s a " p r e p l a n n i n g " phase r e q u i r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i s c a l commitment 2-5 y e a r s p r i o r t o s c h e d u l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d a t e s . A l t h o u g h t h e " p r e p l a n n i n g " f o r p l a n t m a t e r i a l i s s c h e m a t i c a l l y l o c a t e d a f t e r a l l o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y b i o p h y s i c a l and v i s u a l a s s e s s m e n t c o m p o n e n t s , i t i s c l e a r l y u n r e a l i s t i c t o e x p e c t d e t a i l e d and f i n a l s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o be c o m p l e t e d s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e o u t p l a n t i n g i s s c h e d u l e d . H o w e v e r , t o m a x i m i z e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g and d e s i g n e f f o r t s s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e enough t o d e t e r m i n e p l a n t m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . As d i v e r s i t y i s a key componen t i n p l a n t m a t e r i a l s e l e c t i o n , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s i t e c o n d i t i o n s w i l l change s u f f i c i e n t l y t o n u l l i f y an e n t i r e p l a n t p r o c u r e m e n t p r o g r a m . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i n i t i a l c a p i t a l o u t l a y o f c o l l e c t i o n and g r o w i n g - o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . As i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e model t h e o p t i o n s i n c l u d e s e e d o r c u t t i n g c o l l e c t i o n , p l a n t m a t e r i a l s a l v a g e f r om s i t e s c u r r e n t l y u n d e r g o i n g d i s t u r b a n c e , o r p r o c u r e m e n t f r o m 229 c o m m e r c i a l n u r s e r i e s . The opt imum s i z e a t p l a n t i n g s h o u l d be a f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y g r o w i n g - o n p e r i o d . 4 . 1 . 1 0 SELECTION OF TECHNIQUES The a p p r o p r i a t e s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s d e p e n d s on t he s c a l e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t , a v a i l a b l e f u n d s , b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s i t e , and p l a n t m a t e r i a l s p e c i e s . P r e p l a n n i n g f o r p l a n t m a t e r i a l a c q u i s i t i o n must t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , f o r example c o n t a i n e r grown v e r s u s b a r e r o o t s t o c k , o r t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f t r a n s p l a n t i n g i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s v e r s u s l a r g e r r a f t s o f m a t e r i a l . Budge t l i m i t a t i o n s d u r i n g the d e s i g n s t a g e w i l l i n many ways d e t e r m i n e t h e f i n a l methods u s e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f a p r e p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m has no t been i n e f f e c t . R a f t t r a n s p l a n t s a r e l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e , as w e l l as r e q u i r i n g s e n s i t i v e a n d , t h e r e f o r e , c o s t l y use o f e q u i p m e n t , wherea s h y d r o s e e d i n g and c o n t a i n e r s t o c k p r o v i d e a much c h e a p e r c o v e r a g e o v e r a l a r g e r u n i t a r e a . The t i m e h o r i z o n d e s i r e d f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d o r ma tu re a p p e a r a n c e w i l l a s s i s t i n t he e v a l u a t i o n o f p l a n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s . " R a f t s " o r l a r g e t r a n s p l a n t e d s t o c k p r o v i d e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t as may be r e q u i r e d i n key a r e a s , y e t o n l y l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s a r e f e a s i b l e g i v e n t h e h i g h c o s t s . C o n t a i n e r s t o c k w i l l no t a p p e a r e s t a b l i s h e d f o r some t i m e , b u t 230 i n a d d i t i o n to c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a commun i ty o f a p a r t i c u l a r s u c c e s s i o n a l s t a g e may be p l a n t e d . 4 .1 .11 SCHEDULING S c h e d u l i n g i s a componen t o f p r o j e c t management and s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a d v a n c e t o e n s u r e an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a n t i n g s e a s o n . S t a f f o r c o n t r a c t o r a v a i l a b i l i t y , e q u i p m e n t , l e a d t i m e f o r t e n d e r c a l l and award i f t h e p r o j e c t i s t o - b e l e t , and f i n a n c i a l s c h e d u l i n g a r e some o f t he more i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The a n t i c i p a t e d l e n g t h o f t i m e n e c e s s a r y t o c o m p l e t e s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n and o u t p l a n t i n g a r e a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t m a i n t e n a n c e s c h e d u l i n g and c o n t r a c t r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d , p r i o r t o p r o j e c t c o m p l e t i o n d a t e s . 4 . 1 . 1 2 TENDER DOCUMENTS T e n d e r document s o r f i n a l " i n - h o u s e " p l a n s s h o u l d be p r e p a r e d w e l l i n a d v a n c e o f s c h e d u l e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n d a t e s t o a l l o w t h o r o u g h r e v i e w o f d r a w i n g s , and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , n e c e s s a r y a p p r o v a l s , s e l e c t i o n o f s k i l l e d c o n t r a c t o r s , and c o n t r a c t a w a r d . 231 4 . 1 . 1 3 S ITE PREPARATION S i t e p r e p a r a t i o n i s c r i t i c a l t o t h e o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f a r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t , and s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y s p e c i f i e d i n t h e t e n d e r d o c u m e n t s . S c a r i f i c a t i o n , g r a d i n g , s o i l i m p r o v e m e n t s , d r a i n a g e , e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , w ind p r o t e c t i o n , and mu l ch s p r e a d i n g r e p r e s e n t t he m a j o r p r e p a r a t o r y t a s k s , and s h o u l d be c o m p l e t e d i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o o u t p l a n t i n g i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t s o i l l o s s o r p h y s i c a l a l t e r a t i o n . 4 . 1 . 1 4 OUTPLANTING The c a s e s t u d i e s i l l u s t r a t e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o r r e c t o u t p l a n t i n g p r o c e d u r e , d e f i n e d i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s s i m p l y as " f i e l d p l a n t i n g " . C o n t r o l d u r i n g t h e p l a n t i n g p h a s e i s e s s e n t i a l t o e n s u r e t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p l a n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , and i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n and t h e t r a i n i n g o f s k i l l e d work c r e w s . I d e a l l y , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r s h o u l d s u p e r v i s e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p e r s o n a l l y , b u t a l t e r n a t i v e l y o u t l i n e i n d e t a i l t h e p l a n t i n g c o n c e p t t o t h e a p p o i n t e d s u p e r v i s o r . O n - s i t e c o n t r o l was l a c k i n g i n many o f t h e c a s e s t u d y i l l u s t r a t i o n s , and h e n c e i s e m p h a s i z e d as an i m p o r t a n t management pha se f a r l e s s c o s t l y t h a n p r o j e c t f a i l u r e and c o m p l e t e r e p l a n t i n g . F u r t h e r m o r e , due to t h e s c a l e o f many r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e s , numerous d e c i s i o n s 232 r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e c i s e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l w h e t h e r random o r o t h e r w i s e must be d e l e g a t e d t o t h e s u p e r v i s o r . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o t h e r l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s on s i t e s d e s i g n a t e d f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e , such as t r a i l s , s i g n a g e , c a m p s i t e s o r o u t d o o r f u r n i t u r e , s h o u l d be c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h o u t p l a n t i n g t o f a c i l i t a t e r a t i o n a l movement o f e q u i p m e n t and m a t e r i a l s . O t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s i n c l u d e p r o p e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s p l a n t s , s t o r a g e , and w e a t h e r d u r i n g t r a n s p l a n t i n g . A w e l l - p l a n n e d p rog ram and s e e m i n g l y w e l 1 - e x e c u t e d s i t e d e s i g n a r e e a s i l y n e g a t e d by i n a d e q u a t e f o l l o w - u p d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h i s e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t was e m p h a s i z e d i n t he c a s e s t u d y a n a l y s i s and i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m o d e l , p o s s i b l y the most i m p o r t a n t s t e p d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e p r o j e c t e x e c u t i o n . 4 . 1 . 1 5 MAINTENANCE M a i n t e n a n c e b u d g e t s a r e r a r e l y a d e q u a t e , n o r i s m a i n t e n a n c e p l a n n i n g o f t e n c o m p l e t e . Y e t as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t he c a s e s t u d i e s , c a r e and c o n t r o l o f t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s i t e a r e c r u c i a l d u r i n g t h e i n t i t i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t p h a s e , and c e r t a i n l y w o r t h w h i l e f o r some t i m e f o l l o w i n g w i t h i n s i t e s c a l e , b u d g e t , and p l a n n e d use l i m i t a t i o n . M a i n t e n a n c e p rog rams may be e s t a b l i s h e d t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e d y n a m i c c h a n g e s w i t h i n a newly e s t a b l i s h e d p l a n t c o m m u n i t y , o r may be a imed a t c o n t r o l o f d e b i l i t a t i n g i n f l u e n c e s s u c h as p e s t s , s e a s o n a l d r o u g h t , human i m p a c t s t h r o u g h t r a m p l i n g and v a n d a l i s m , o r normal wear and t e a r o f h a r d l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s f o u n d on r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s . M a i n t e n a n c e p l a n n i n g s h o u l d commence e a r l y i n t h e l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s , and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n mak ing p r o c e s s e s , and be c o n s i d e r e d d u r i n g s p e c i e s s e l e c t i o n , d e s i g n o f l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s , s c h e d u l i n g , and s i t e p r e p a r a t i o n p h a s e s . W o r k l o a d a n a l y s i s t o d e t e r m i n e s t a f f ( o r c o n t r a c t ) and b u d g e t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r d e t a i l e d p l a n s and m a i n t e n a n c e s c h e d u l e s a r e d e v e l o p e d . M a i n t e n a n c e p l a n n i n g demands a h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h and t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s must be i d e n t i f i e d c l e a r l y p r i o r t o p rog ram a d o p t i o n . Some o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s t o c o n s i d e r as t o o l s t o a t t a i n s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s a r e weed c o n t r o l , s t a k i n g and t y i n g , m u l c h i n g , t h i n n i n g , p r u n i n g , w i l d l i f e c o n t r o l , f e r t i l i z a t i o n , w a t e r i n g , mowing, t e m p o r a r y f e n c i n g , and i n t e g r a t e d p e s t management . 4 . 1 . 1 6 MONITORING O b s e r v a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o j e c t p e r f o r m a n c e i s w o r t h w h i l e i n mos t a r e a s o f e n d e a v o r , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y so 234 f o l l o w i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n e f f o r t s due t o t he r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f k n o w l e d g e i n t h e f i e l d . M o n i t o r i n g o f f e r s b o t h s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t and t h e more p r a g m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , s p e c i e s v i a b i l i t y and o v e r a l l s u c c e s s o f t h e a t t e m p t t o r e s t o r e a n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . M o n i t o r i n g may measure commun i ty d y n a m i c s , s o i l c o m p a c t i o n , s o i l f e r t i l i t y , p l a n t m o r t a l i t y , w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n v a s i o n o f weedy s p e c i e s , o r any o t h e r v a r i a b l e deemed w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n . A pr ime o b j e c t i v e , t h o u g h , s h o u l d be u s a b l e d a t a w h i c h may i n t u r n be u t i l i z e d t o i m p r o v e o r m o d i f y f u t u r e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management. 4 . 1 . 1 7 REVIEW The model i n c l u d e s a r e v i e w component w i t h c o n n e c t i o n s t o a l l o f t h e o t h e r c o n s t i t u a n t s , and i s i n t e n d e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e dynamic n a t u r e o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n i n g and management . D i s t u r b e d l a n d s r e h a b i l i t a t e d t o a c h i e v e p a r t i c u l a r l a n d use o b j e c t i v e s a r e no t s t a t i c , as t h e p a t t e r n o f u se i s n o t f i x e d i n the l o n g t e r m , n o r i s t h e v e g e t a t i o n m o s a i c l i k e l y t o r e m a i n c o n s t a n t . The r e v i e w p r o c e s s i s , t h e r e f o r e , more t h a n a t e c h n i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f m o n i t o r i n g d a t a , and s h o u l d e x a m i n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l l f a c t o r s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e m o d e l . As l a n d management o b j e c t i v e s c h a n g e o v e r t i m e , t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p l a n n e r must r e s p o n d t o new v a r i a b l e s , and be a b l e t o d raw on t h e r e v i e w p r o c e s s t o e v a l u a t e n e e d s . 4.3 SUMMARY OF MANAGEMENT MODEL 235 The r e h a b i l i t a t i o n management model p r e s e n t e d i n t h e t h e s i s was c o n s t r u c t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e knowledge f o u n d i n t he c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s g a i n e d f r o m e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a s e s t u d i e s . A h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h was used t o i n t e g r a t e b o t h t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s i n t o t h e model a s s u r i n g a s y s t e m t h a t wou ld r e s p o n d e f f i c i e n t l y d u r i n g t he r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d i s t u r b e d s i t e s . L a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s no t v i ewed as a p l a n t i n g p l a n , b u t r a t h e r as a management p r o c e s s d r a w i n g on a w ide v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s t o s o l v e a s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e model i s n o t l i n e a r o v e r t i m e , due t o t h e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t he v a r i o u s s t a g e s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t r e a t i n g a s i t e as a dynamic l a n d u n i t . The model s h o u l d have a p p l i c a t i o n t o most f o rms and s c a l e s o f l a n d s c a p e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s , mine s i t e s , o v e r u s e d r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s , u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t s , o r any d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t where o b j e c t i v e s c a l l f o r a r e t u r n t o a n a t u r a l , p r e - d i s t u r b a n c e o r even a l t e r e d c o n d i t i o n w h i c h i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g o v e r t i m e . 236 BIBLIOGRAPHY A d o l p h s o n , R., ( 1979 ) " P r a c t i c a l E r o s i o n C o n t r o l A p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e Rocky M t n . R e g i o n , U . S . D . A . , F o r e s t S e r v i c e " J j i I n t e r n a t i o n a l E r o s i o n C o n t r o l A s s o c . ; P r o c e e d i n g s o f C o n f e r e n c e X, S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n . A r m b r u s t , D.V. & J . D. D i c k e r s o n (1971 ) " T e m p o r a r y Wind E r o s i o n C o n t r o l : c o s t & e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 34 c o m m e r c i a l m a t e r i a l s " . J . o f S o i l and W a t e r C o n s e r v a t i o n : 26 J u l y - A u g u s t ; p 1 5 4 - 1 5 2 . A t k i n s o n , N.H. & J . C. H e t h e r i n g t o n (1971 ) " R e c r e a t i o n S i t e P r e s s u r e s and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n w i t h s i t e l o c a t i o n " . F o r e s t r y 4 5 ( 2 ) p. 2 2 3 - 2 3 0 . A R e v e g e t a t i v e G u i d e f o r A l a s k a , A l a s k a R u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2. C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s , 1 9 7 7 . p 238 . Babb , T . A . , & L. C. B l i s s , (1974) " E f f e c t s o f p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e on A r c t i c V e g e t a t i o n i n t h e Queen E l i z a b e t h I s l a n d s " . 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(1973) " A l p i n e D i s t u r b a n c e S t u d i e s : O l y m p i c N a t i o n a l P a r k , U . S . A . " . B i o l o g i c a l C o n s e r v a t i o n ; V o l . 5, No. 1, J a n . , p 2 5 - 3 1 . B e l l , M. (1972) F l o r a and V e g e t a t i o n o f P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l P a r k ; Phase 1, Long B e a c h " , P a r k s C a n a d a , W e s t e r n R e g i o n a l O f f i c e . 237 B e n g t s o n , G. W., D. A. Mays , & J . C. A l l e n (1973) " R e v e g e t a t i o n o f C o a l S p o i l s i n N o r t h e a s t e r n A l a b a m a : E f f e c t s o f T i m i n g o f S e e d i n g and F e r t i l i z a t i o n on E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f P i n e - G r a s s M i x t u r e s " j_n P r o c e e d i n g s ; R e s e a r c h and A p p l i e d T e c h n o l o g y Symposium on M i n e d - l a n d R e c l a m a t i o n , M a r c h , P i t t s b u r g P e n n s y l v a n i a ; p 9 3 - 9 7 . B e n g s t o n , G. W., D. A. Mays , T . G. 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