UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of a landscape rehabilitation management model using a case study approach Peepre, Juri 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1981_A6_7 P44.pdf [ 20.46MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0095007.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095007-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095007-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095007-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095007-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095007-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095007-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

DEVELOPMENT OF A LANDSCAPE REHABILITATION MANAGEMENT MODEL USING A CASE STUDY APPROACH  by B.L.A.  JURI PEEPRE ( H o n o u r s ) , The U n i v e r s i t y  of Guelph,  A THESIS IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of P l a n t S c i e n c e  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to the r e q u i r e d  The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  May c) J u r i  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  Columbia  1981  Peepre,  1981  1976  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  i n partial  fulfilment of the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  the Library shall  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study.  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o rextensive for  financial  copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of this  gain  shall  Department  of  PL/^JT ^^f£fJ(S£L  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  It i s thesis  n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  (2/79)  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my  understood that  DE-6  I further  copying of t h i s  department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . for  make  Columbia  written  ABSTRACT  Landscape recently  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n has e v o l v e d r e l a t i v e l y  i n response  surface mining,  to environmental  resource park  and o t h e r l a r g e  Landscape  and r e c r e a t i o n s i t e s , also  little  of  The t h e s i s  including  a broad range  rehabilitation disturbed  process  has a p p r o a c h e d  postulates  of  urban  study.  toward  while  the l a r g e r q u e s t i o n  of v a r i a b l e s w i l l and a more r a t i o n a l  result  model  i n an  improved  t r e a t m e n t of  land.  a l i t e r a t u r e review, case  includes  studies,  i i  of  landscape  t h a t a management  The method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n parts;  used  and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d e r e l i c t  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f managing resources.  or  in heavily  s p e c i f i c s i t e problems,  work  as  scale  developments,  degradation  from  such  e f f o r t s have been d i r e c t e d l a r g e l y  solutions  comparatively  ski  c o n s t i t u t e an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t  Research technical  lines,  p r o j e c t s such as dams,  exploration.  open s p a c e  arising  c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i n e a r c o r r i d o r s  h i g h w a y s and t r a n s m i s s i o n engineering  concerns  three  and t h e  component  development  of  a  rehabilitation  sites  in  distinct  Parks  were  different  management  biogeoclimatic  examined  to  and  Three  zones  illustrate  rehabilitation  characteristics  model.  the  projects;  case  study  within  Canada's  National  methods  employed  in  the  rehabilitation  major  scope  methods  of  are  project, described  site and  assessed.  Monitoring observation recreational seasons  areas  primary  were  implementation  An established a  proposes  of  to  and  processes  of  information  The  of  two  in  each  were  variables  to  in  the  factors.  combined  literature  management  the  and  contributing  the  of  deficiencies  design,  is  growing  material  practices  studies in  over  while  important  presented  system  post-rehabilitation  plant  planning,  case  facilitate  techniques  monitoring  rehabilitation  organized  to  Observations  effective,  were  the  and  inconsistent  be  failure.  analysis  success  rehabilitation  found  landscape an  but  maintenance  causes  established  impacts.  moderate The  were  material  other  rates.  management,  evolve  plant  or  showed  survival study  of  plots  with  the  review  model. consider  The  to  model  during  the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o c e s s through  site  critical stressed,  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and d e s i g n ,  w h i l e t h e model  rehabilitation  p l a n n i n g must encompass  components  and management  yet  and r e v i e w  s t r u c t u r e emphasizes the p r o c e s s .  objectives  to implementation.  phases of m a i n t e n a n c e , m o n i t o r i n g  interrelationships'within  technical  f r o m l a n d management  Landscape a full  framework.  J . W.  are  the  range  f u n c t i o n w i t h i n a given  Dr.  The  Neil!  of  administrative  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT  ii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  PART  I  INTRODUCTION 1.0  1.1 PART  xiii  II;  MAN & THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT: A RATIONALE LANDSCAPE R E H A B I L I T A T I O N THESIS  2.0  OBJECTIVES  AND  2.1  BIOPHYSICAL  REVIEW  7 7  FACTORS  CLIMATIC  2.1.2  EDAPHIC  8  FACTORS  AND  TOPOGRAPHY  9  FACTORS  11  .1 .2 .3 .4 .5  Soil Moisture Soil Temperature Soil Chemistry Soil Structure - Texture Micro-organisms and Mycorrhizal Fungi  12 13 14 17 19  BIOTIC  FACTORS  20  .1 .2 .3  P o p u l a t i o n Dynamics Establishment Plant/Wildlife Interactions  21 25  CARRYING  CAPACITY & THE  2.2  DESIGN  PRINCIPLES  2.3.  REVIEW  OF  2.3.1  5  DEFINITIONS  2.1.1  2.1 .4  1 FOR  OBJECTIVES  LITERATURE  2.1.3  1  29  VISUAL  IMPLEMENTATION  RESOURCE  METHODS  B A S E - L I N E DATA C O L L E C T I O N SPECIES SELECTIONS  v  27  37 51  AND  51  No.  Page 2.3.2  2.3.3  PROPAGATION  58  .1 .2  58 59  Seed Vegetative  OUTPLANTING  62  .1 .2 .3 .4  62 67 69 84  S i t e and S e e d b e d P r e p a r a t i o n Time o f P l a n t i n g / S c h e d u l i n g Planting Techniques M u l c h e s and E r o s i o n C o n t r o l Materi als F e r t i l i z a t i o n , Watering, and P r o t e c t i o n o f P l a n t i n g  .5  2.4  MAINTENANCE 2.4.1  & MONITORING  VEGETATION .1 .2 .3  MANAGEMENT  2.4.2  W I L D L I F E CONTROL PEST MANAGEMENT  2.4.3  MONITORING AND  2.4.4  LAND  USE  CASE  STUDIES  III:  92  96 97  W a t e r i n g and R e f e r t i 1 i z a t i o n Weeding A d d i t i o n a l P l a n t i n g and R e p l a n t i ng T h i n n i n g and P r u n i n g  .4  PART  No.  AND  INTEGRATED  EVALUATION  MANAGEMENT  97 98 99 99 100  103 104 106  3.0  INTRODUCTION  106  3.1  LONG BEACH NORTH D A Y - U S E AREA P A C I F I C RIM NATIONAL PARK  109  3.1.1  SCOPE  109  3.1.2  SITE  3.1.3  LANDSCAPE  OF P R O J E C T CHARACTERISTICS DEVELOPMENT  vi  109 PLAN  115  Page  3.2  3.3  3.4  3.5  3.1.4  REHABILITATION  3.1.5  ASSESSMENT  MALIGNE LAKE HIGHWAY J A S P E R N A T I O N A L PARK  METHOD  No.  120 136  REVEGETATION  152  3.2.1  SCOPE  OF P R O J E C T  152  3.2.2  SITE  3.2.3  REHABILITATION  3.2.4  ASSESSMENT  3.2.5  F O R E S T RECOVERY P R E L I M I N A R Y  3.2.6  ASSESSMENT  CHARACTERISTICS  152  METHOD  156 165 TESTS  173 175  SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D R E H A B I L I T A T I O N WATERTON L A K E S NATIONAL PARK  177  3.3.1  SCOPE  177  3.3.2  SITE  3.3.3  REHABILITATION  PLAN  179  3.3.4  REHABILITATION  METHOD  180  3.3.5  IMPLEMENTATION  190  3.3.6  ASSESSMENT  190  OF P R O J E C T CHARACTERISTICS  OTHER S E L E C T E D P R O J E C T S :  177  A REVIEW  3.4.1  BOW SUMMIT I M P R O V E M E N T S , N a t i o n a l Park  3.4.2  HEATHER L A K E , N a t i o n a l Park  SUMARY  AND A N A L Y S I S  Mt.  Banff  Revel stoke  OF C A S E  STUDIES  196 196  199  200  3.5.1  INTRODUCTION  200  3.5.2  ADMINISTRATION  201 vi i  Page  PART  No.  3.5.3  PLANNING  202  3.5.4  IMPLEMENTATION  204  3.5.5  OBSERVATIONS  WITH  NEGATIVE  IMPACTS  205  3.5.6  OBSERVATIONS  WITH  POSITIVE  EFFECTS  208  3.5.7  MAINTENANCE  IV:  AND MONITORING  LANDSCAPE R E H A B I L I T A T I O N  209 213  MANAGEMENT MODEL 4.0  INTRODUCTION  213  4.1  MODEL  216  DESCRIPTION  4.1.1  PROPOSED  LAND D I S T U R B A N C E  4.1.2  LAND MANAGEMENT O B J E C T I V E S  216  4.1.3  POLICY  217  4.1.4  REHABILITATION  OBJECTIVES  217  4.1.5  ADMINISTRATIVE  OBJECTIVES  218  4.1.6  SITE  DEVELOPMENT  INVESTIGATION  .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7 .8  219  B i o p h y s i c a l Component C l i m a t e and Topography Edaphic Factors Biotic Factors Carrying Capacity Visual Impact A s s e s s m e n t Design P r i n c i p l e s User Control  4.1.7  PLANNING  4.1.8  SPECIES  4.1.9  PREPLANNING  AND D E S I G N  4.1.10  SELECTION  PLANT  227 MATERIAL  OF T E C H N I Q U E S  v i i i  220 220 221 222 223 224 224 225 226  SELECTION FOR  216  228 229  4.3  4.1.11  SCHEDULING  230  4.1.12  TENDER  DOCUMENTS  230  4.1.13  SITE  PREPARATION  231  4.1.14  OUTPLANTING  231  4.1.15  MAINTENANCE  232  4.1.16  MONITORING  233  4.1.17  REVIEW  234  SUMMARY  OF MANAGEMENT MODEL  BIBLIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHICAL  235 236  FORM  ix  LIST  OF  TABLES Page  TABLE  VEGETATION  I  TABLE  II  TABLE  TABLE  III  IV  SOIL PLANT BEACH  TEST  GRADIENT, RESULTS,  MATERIAL NORTH  REHABILITATION  TABLE V  PRELIMINARY GROWN PLANT  TABLE  S U R V I V A L RATES MARCH 1 9 7 9  VI  LONG BEACH  SELECTION,  ZONES  OF PLANT M A T E R I A L ,  TABLE  VIII  VEGETATION GRADIENTS, J A S P E R NATIONAL PARK  TABLE  IX  OVER-WINTERING SURVIVAL OF PLANT M A T E R I A L  X  123  R E S U L T S OF CONTRACT MATERIAL  VII  M A T E R I A L S U R V I V A L IN P R O T E C T E D OF THE P O S T - L O G R E H A B I L I T A T I O N  S P E C I E S C O L L E C T E D DURING RECOVERY PROGRAM  x  113 121  LONG  CLASSIFICATION  TABLE  TABLE  PLANT AREAS ZONE  LONG BEACH  No.  124 128  140  145  154  RATES  FOREST  167  175  LIST  OF  FIGURES Page  FIGURE FIGURE  1 2  MAP PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE  3 4 5 6 7  PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO MAP  FIGURE 8 FIGURE S F I G U R E 10 F I G U R E 11 FIGURE 1 2 F I G U R E 13 F I G U R E 14 FIGURE 1 5 FIGURE 1 6 F I G U R E 17 F I G U R E 18 FIGURE 1 9  MAP PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO  FIGURE  20  PHOTO  FIGURE  21  PHOTO  FIGURE  22  PHOTO  FIGURE  23  PHOTO  FIGURE  24  PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE  25 26  PHOTO PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE  27 28  PHOTO PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE  29 30 31 32 33  PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO  C A S E STUDY L O C A T I O N S LONG BEACH RECREATIONAL ENVIRONMENT THE BEACH ZONE REALIGNMENT OF THE HIGHWAY THE NEW HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT OLD PARKING LOT S I T E P L A N , LONG BEACH NORTH D A Y - U S E AREA S E C T I O N THROUGH LONG BEACH AREA P L A N T I N G C O N T A I N E R I Z E D STOCK OLD HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT RESTORATION PLANTING RESTORED AREA P L A N T I N G C O N T A I N E R I Z E D STOCK BEACH AREA IN MARCH BEACH AREA IN JUNE R o s a sp IN NURSERY R o s a sp IN CONTAINERS R o s a sp SHOWING NEW GROWTH Gaultheria shallon IN  NURSERY F L A T S  Gaultheria shallon IN S T O R A G E AREA T Y P I C A L S I Z E OF Gaultheria shallon Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s IN CONTAINERS R u b u s s p e c t a b i l i s PLANT J U N E 1979 E S T A B L I S H E D PLANT IN J U N E 1980 BEACH AREA T Y P I C A L CONDITION OF Gaultheria shallon INVADING S P E C I E S Lonicera involucrata  1 08 110 110 116 116 116 118 119 1 26 127 127 127 1 29 1 29 1 29 131 131 1 31 1 32 132 132 1 33 1 33  IN  1 33 138 1 38 138 1 39  PERFORMED WELL  WILLOW C U T T I N G F L O U R I S H I N G WILLOW SHRUBS P i c e a s i t c h e n s i s AND R u b u s s p e c t a b i l i s IN P A R K I N G P O S T - L O G BEACH ZONE ENTRANCE TO BEACH AREA  xi  No.  141 141 141 LOT 142 142  Page  P I C N I C T A B L E L O C A T E D IN SITKA SPRUCE FRINGE E F F E C T S OF S A L T SPRAY S I T E L O C A T I O N MAP, M A L I G N E LAKE HIGHWAY P i c e a g l a u c a IN NURSERY F L A T S HIGHWAY S U R F A C E PRIOR TO PAVING HIGHWAY S E C T I O N A F T E R HYDROSEEDING S T E E P COARSE S L O P E S T A B I L I Z E D SLOPE OLD HIGHWAY ALIGNMENT SEEDED AND P L A N T E D AREA Shepherd!a canadensis  FIGURE  34  PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE  35 36  PHOTO MAP  FIGURE  37  PHOTO  FIGURE  38  PHOTO  FIGURE  39  PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE  40 41 42 43 44  PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO PHOTO  FIGURE  45  PHOTO  FIGURE  46  PHOTO  FIGURE FIGURE FIGURE  47 48 49  MAP PHOTO PHOTO  FIGURE  50  PHOTO  FIGURE  51  FIGURE  52  FIGURE  53  FIGURE  54  FIGURE  55  FIGURE  56  FIGURE FIGURE  57 58  PLANTING SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D DETAILS CONSTRUCTION SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D DETAILS EROSION SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D CONTROL TYPICAL CONTRACT SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D DRAWINGS EROSION CONTROL THROUGH PHOTO SLOPE STABILIZATION WATER BARS WOULD D I R E C T PHOTO WATER BOW SUMMIT R E H A B I L I T A T I O N P L A N MAP R E H A B I L I T A T I O N MANAGEMENT MODEL DIAGRAM  IN NURSERY  P i n u s c o n t o r t a IN H E A L T H Y CONDITION P i c e a g l a u c a SHOWING SHOOT GROWTH SNOWSHOE F I R E R O A D T Y P I C A L ROAD S E C T I O N ROAD S E C T I O N SHOWING REGENERATION S P A R S E CLUMPS OF GRASS ON S U R F A C E  No.  142 1 51 1 53 157 1 59 1 59  '  161 1 61 164 164 1 66 168 1 68 1 78 183 183 183 187 188 189 1 91  1 95 1 95 1 97 21 5  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I Parks  would l i k e  Canada  a landscape  for providing  field  Les  Blight,  input  the Western Regional  office  Inspiration  t h e methods o f  for  initiating  graduate  studies  E r i k Mustonen,  would a l s o  O t t o Hammer and o t h e r s ,  planning  and d e s i g n  is  and t h e i r  acknowledged  like  to thank  t h e members o f my g r a d u a t e c o m m i t t e e  (Supervisor),  V. C. R u n e c k l e s  D r . M. L a v k u l i c h , D r .  (Chairman),  direction  d u r i n g my s t u d i e s .  thank  Neill  the p u r s u i t of graduate  studies.  Sincere  also expressed  explore  s t u d e n t and p a r t n e r , who has new and s t i m u l a t i n g i d e a s  resources Salway  management.  preparation  l a y o u t of the  spent  to  assistance,  of thoughts  to Robin Gardner,  during  fellow  p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y  i n the f i e l d  F i n a l l y , I would l i k e  f o r the long hours  Dooling  In p a r t i c u l a r , I w o u l d l i k e  f o r the i n v a l u a b l e t h e s i s  appreciation is  P.  f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and  and f o r t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t and h e l p f u l e x c h a n g e  graduate  and  - •  D r . J . W. N e i l l  Dr.  in  was a r e s u l t o f w o r k i n g on t h e d e s c r i b e d p r o j e c t s w i t h  i n t o the o r i g i n a l  and Dr.  as  landscape  appreciated.  I  of  t h e o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a r c h i t e c t to pursue  rehabilitation. this  to thank  of  landscape  to thank Mrs.  Terry  i n t y p i n g and h e r a s s i s t a n c e  thesis.  xi i i  to  with  1 PART  I  INTRODUCTION  1.0  MAN AND THE NATURAL E N V I R O N M E N T : LANDSCAPE REHABILITATION The  development  rehabilitation only  in  of  resource  be  perceived  rehabilitation broader  nor  considered  historical man's  environment  and  complete  thought  has  with  a common  thread  recognize  his  worthy  a most  said,  of  and  the  feeling  position  by  habitat  from  glow  fully  his  and  dependency this  that  as  factor  an  natural  McHarg  be  on  a  it  of  deeper man  for  dynamic has  being  (1969),  his  relationship,  Simonds  a  the  survival.  failed  (man)  a  search  and  of  to  al1-encompassing As  FOR  rooted  supporting  perception  habitat, of  be  between  man  stewardship.  exuberance  alive."  stating  philosophical  suggesting  diligent  sole  on  not  preservation  T h e r e must  expressed  natural  "divorced  forgotten  been  the  the  RATIONALE  for  should  relationship  between his  rationale  can  need.  wilderness,  Much  sound  landscapes  economics,  values  the  a  disturbed  aesthetic  into  of  A  entity (1961)  has  healthy  clarified  has  almost animal, the  that:  " C l e a r l y t h e p r o b l e m o f man a n d n a t u r e i s n o t o n e o f p r o v i d i n g a d e c o r a t i v e b a c k g r o u n d f o r t h e human p l a y , or even a m e l i o r a t i n g the grim c i t y : i t is the n e c e s s i t y of s u s t a i n i n g n a t u r e as s o u r c e o f life, m i l i e u , t e a c h e r , s a n c t u m , c h a l l e n g e , and most o f a l l o f r e d i s c o v e r i n g n a t u r e ' s c o r o l l a r y o f t h e unknown i n the s e l f , the source of meaning." The altered  global  somewhat  inference  upon  of  examination  the of  authors' the  North  perceptions America  is  2 experience.  McTaggart-Cowan  first  c e n t u r i e s of  final  submission  awareness  suggested t h a t during  s e t t l e m e n t , the o u t r i g h t d e s t r u c t i o n  of n a t u r e were p o w e r f u l  of w i l d e r n e s s  evolved from t h i s  as a n a t i o n a l  very p o s i t i o n ;  dwindling wilderness simultaneously  (1968)  feel  objectives.  symbol  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  i n , the knowledge  remains  intact.  that vast  rate,  is  no l o n g e r  Yet  but seek  untouched w i l d e r n e s s  salvageable,  as  the  the  need f o r , and  Realism d i c t a t e s t h a t the w i l d e r n e s s the c o l o n i s t s  and  paradoxically  we a r e c o n s u m i n g  at a f a s t e r - t h a n - e v e r  comfort  has  the  still  encountered  the n a t u r a l  by  areas  t h e c o n t i n e n t have been i m p a c t e d by man t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t areas  of  true wilderness  t h e modern m a n ' s t a s k wilderness  t h a t has  equilibrium such as  remain.  as managing  ( 1 9 7 3 ) , have e x p r e s s e d  to redesign outlooks,  his  Union f o r the C o n s e r v a t i o n define that  the  h e l d by t h e  t o make t h e b e s t  planning--"a use  has task  system.  International Resources,  continuing  f o r mankind of  of  Ecologists,  i n t o the  o f N a t u r e and N a t u r a l  t h e need as l a n d s c a p e  strives  area of  those  a  and t h a t t h e  a c t i v i t i e s t o f i t back  such as  labelled  t h e v i e w t h a t man  by n a t u r e ,  few  some s e m b l a n c e  i n s p i t e of man's c o n t i n u e d p r e s e n c e .  Ricklefs  Pragmatic  has  t h e "new w i l d e r n e s s " ,  the p o t e n t i a l to m a i n t a i n  indeed p a r t i a l l y escaped c o n t r o l now i s  McTaggart-Cowan  of  process  the l i m i t e d  earth's  surface,  (Vanicek,  1974).  beneficiary but to  the  has  conserving  Whether  landscape  of  general  nature  scars  while  mood  clear  of man's  use  of  man  planning current  abuse  productivity  should is  to  entirely  another  for  of  the  and  continue  thinking  implications and  its  on  be  man's  returning landscape  beauty"  the  sole  question,  relationship  the to  remnant  a  naturalized  condi t i on.  Man ground,  must  and y e t  perceive  he  must  spiritual  well-being.  proximate  original  habitat,  and  into  system.'  the  environment historical  may  worth. the  To  in  will  the be  rely  is  step  improve  effect on  to  the  both  on  it  restore  a portion  of  man's  in  the  the  direction  visual  context  a  mind  convince  highway  alignment  alone.  Proponents  on of  the  vague  develop  or  our of  our  rehabilitation supporting  policies  spiritual  rehabilitation  but  hope  man with  to  its  of a  view  revegetate  "aesthetic"  programs  back  society.  of  economic  little  of  image  of l a n d s c a p e problem,  'fitting  of  quality  visual  to  is  or  to  collective  there  psychological  its  necessary  but  forage  to  the  issues,  for  and  landscape  impress  well  habitat  scarred  to  may  a  a  approach  Institutions  broader  a  nature  return  philosophical  enlighten  evidence  To  is  identity  The  also  condition  hence,  is  in  must  to a  premise  present  4 evidence  of  erosion  productivity,  control  improved  wildlife,  preservation  potential  creation  For  of  ecological of new  example,  program  visual  the  of  recreational incurred  should  activities defines  be  recognizes the  that  form  of  hypothesized favour the  that  opportunity  costs  developing  natural  1977).  the  At  programs networks,  may  serve  and  communities  to  and  to  the  resources  use  is  are  desired.  as  the  is  benefits  protect  maintain wildlife  and  species.  of  of  if  a  analysis  (1977)  hence  socially  will  preservation  the  costs over  urban  integrity  corridors  King  further  increase  spectrum,  the  be  recreational  important  the  the  may  and  since  of  costs  non-renewable  It  development,  a  enhance  King  benefit-cost  will  will  disturbance.  the  end  turn  through  transportation  time  of  the  cohesive  landscape.  are  costs  environments  other  or  land  of  in  a  opportunity  a  over  preservation,  this  costs  result  of  and  integrity  maintain  opportunity  opportunity land  to  and  dominate  maintenance  opportunities  landscape  serve  biological  activities.  extraction  to  amenity  recreational  optimal  as  and  Recreational  allowed  foregone  sites  will  resource  recreational  benefits  recreational  environment  values.  increased  stability,  preserving  rehabi1itiation image  values,  of  natural  are  of time  (King,  rehabilitation open plant  space  5 In  the f i n a l  analysis,  amelioration  of  impacts  recreational  a c t i v i t i e s is  responsibility. planning overall  and  The  site  from economic  not a q u e s t i o n specific  that  the  and  of c h o i c e , but  reasons f o r land  of the environment  but t h e  is  of  use  intelligent  indispensable.  THESIS OBJECTIVES  The p r i m a r y analyze of  resulting  recognize  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n are v a r i a b l e ,  management  1.1  man must  vegetative  disturbed  management the broad  landscapes  range  rehabilitation rehabi1itiation  in order  A holistic  of v a r i a b l e s program, program  design  post-rehabilitation  is  to develop  to d e s c r i b e  approach inherent  including  is  of  adopted to  l a n d use  the t h e s i s  commencing  builds  on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s  planning,  biophysical monitoring,  is  divided  w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . of the  into  studies  on t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s  to evolve  rehabilitation  of  and  r e v i e w and  and r e s u l t s  a planning  and management  disturbed  landscapes.  three  The s e c o n d  a p p l i e d r e h a b i l i t a t i o n p r o j e c t s , w h i l e the draws  encompass  management.  parts,  component  management  in a complete  o b j e c t i v e s , the  l a n d use  and  a rehabilitation  p r i n c i p l e s , maintenance,  The main body  three  the t h e s i s  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and e n v i r o n m e n t a l  model.  environment,  o b j e c t i v e of  part  illustrates  third of  model  these for  case  6 References planning  and  recreation sound  design,  have  outline  The  in  zones  terms  objectives. utilized  management  of  the model  rehabilitation work  has  sites, to  address  in  site  soils,  to  Western  Canada,  within  establish  selected and  wilderness  and  analysis  of  each  a  rehabilitation  applicable  to  a  variety  the  dissimilar  holistic  rehabilitation  as  approach  landscape  project  is and  landscape zones.  solutions  will  use  planning  ecological  technical  a  of  different  environments, land  of  singular  a  distinct  represent park  constraints  and  from  development  in  and  knowledge.  physical  problems  landscape  management,  presented  were  description  emphasized  whereas  and  studies  problems  The  in  case  ecology,  wildlife  collated  established  three  rehabi1itiation  botany,  forestry,  been  of  biogeoclimatic  both  from  to  specific  demonstrate resource  Past  the  need  management  problem.  The to  consider  directed use  model during  towards  planning,  maintenance,  establishes the  fulfilling  ecological  are  The  review  stressed,  the  interelationships  basic  integrity, phases  while  within  the  the  system  process  management  acceptability,  critical  and  organized  rehabilitation  aesthetic  establishment.  an  low  yet  remains  cost,  planning  and  structure system.  of  land  reduced  maintenance,  model  variables  objectives  durability, of  of  speed  of  monitoring emphasizes  7 PART  LITERATURE  II:  2.0  OBJECTIVES  The related  AND  landscape  DEFINITIONS  literature  disciplines, planning  review  including  and  in  REVIEW  design,  the  fields  of  reclamation  and  the  review  is  to  various  identify  necessary  for  will  describe to  the  illustrate  the  values  desired  result  representing  program.  The  may  the  reclamation,  specifically  define  the  planning  as  follows:  "1.  condition  of  the  before  that the  reclamation were land  implies  originally will  be  to  science,  knowledge  in  objective  of  components model,  a management by  purity  in  order  (1974)  implies  has  that  will  the  habitable  3. a  form  is  be  rehabilitation and  of  of  the  between  disturbance site  it  decision,  a continuum  differences  Cook  yet  art".  ecological  goals.  management  rehabilitation  rehabilitation  present;  returned  the  restoration  that  of  represented  and  terms  2.  of  essentially be  soil  The  a management  "state  numerous  established  theoretical  identifies  restoration,  site  of  intended  literature  on  from  wildlife  applications  the  is  ecology,  revegetation.  development  Rehabilitation and  build  detailed  sources  forestry,  recreation,  techniques  to  on  botany,  and  also  order  draws  to  more  defined the  duplicated; by  organisms  implies  productivity  in  that  8 conformity  with a p r i o r  ecological  state  environmental values."  The t e r m . r e h a b i 1 i t a t i o n 1  the  condition  is  simply  For a l l  largely  will  1  imply  the complex  balanced  with  be a d o p t e d  to  w i t h the view  purposes, the  landscape present  to a  that of  complete  pre-disturbance  capabilities  biological  to  aesthetic  a d i f f e r e n t degree  practical  beyond  a  substantially  consistent  definitions,  of a d i s t u r b e d  understanding  in  community.  BIOPHYSICAL FACTORS  In  order  rehabilitation biophysical  to understand  objectives  factors  the program. serve  various  objectives  restoration  toward  t h a t does n o t c o n t r i b u t e  rehabilitation.  2.1  plan  d e t e r i o r a t i o n and i s  encompass a l l variable  l a n d use  it  four  t o f o r m a sound b a s i s  temperature, atmosphere, factors,  content  and t h e s u p p l y  considered (Tisdale  techniques.  moisture, gas  interacting  important  the  of  site  areas  energy, soil,  of m i n e r a l  1975).  on a g i v e n  basic  of concern the  factors  such  composition  soil  success  of  reaction,  on t h e  The b i o p h y s i c a l affect  life  of  factors  germination,  of  will various as the  biotic  nutrient elements,  influence  will  on t h e  to analyze  Environmental  the  to c o n s i d e r  influence  from which  radiant  as an a g g r e g a t e  and N e l s o n ,  of  with potential  A r e v i e w of  rehabilitation  is  f u l l y the f e a s i b i l i t y  an  should  be  organism  9 establishment, use,  plant  succession  and  vigour,  seed  composition  production,  or  structure  resistance of  the  to  mature  c ommun i t y .  2.1.1  CLIMATIC  FACTORS  AND  TOPOGRAPHY  Climatic  factors  and  their  precipitation, aspect,  shading,  permafrost exposure, These  prevailing  and  snow  needle  growing  and  ice,  on  are  receive  solar  rates  more  and  drought  found  desiccation  lower  shorter  in  and  (Douglas,  slopes period  are than  position  and  are  closely  related  temperature Further,  aspect  radition,  rehabi1itationl7roject as  latitude,  budget,  site.  temperatures.  conditions,  drainage,  radiation,  heat  and  a particular  distinctions  altitude,  include  length to  on  a  of  day.  the  slope,  critical  factors.  Precipitation species  air  elements  biotic  temperature,  collection,  season,  determining  edaphic  winds,  manifestations  and  also  1975). on  a  exposed upper  The slope to  more  hence  higher  show  exposure  leave  is  may  plants  position also  of  a  the  localized  facing  slopes  evaporation  contribute  prone  to  to  wind  a  related  for  to  subtle south  sunshine  slopes.  limiting  variation;  Excessive may  are  to  exposure,  significantly  10 Local adaptability patterns,  micro-climate  of  snow  species  locations  such  altitude  have  through  length  of  factors  as a  plants  through  collection  Climatic  in  profound  growing  season,  the  growing  season,  particles,  lowered  soil  been  shown  to  seedlings,  slow the  by  and  and  a  movement Makkay,  All  these  rate Rocky  of  plant  Mountains  damaged  by  require  several  ecosystem  relatively  of  Colorado few  and  available  by to  have  Marn,  of  low  due  to  alpine  moisture,  in  of  damaged  material  down  1964).  a  bearing  areas.  some  persistent same  on  the  Studies  trampling  The  has  surfaces,  human  1971).  of  seedling  that  a  soil  summer  ice  shown  rebuild  and  uprooting  amounts  have  of  ice  Needle  soil  Pearce,  and  temperatures  resulting  on  extreme  alpine  frost,  1978).  factors  seasons to  wind  soil  In  sporadic  erodable  in  in  potential  affect  and  pervasive  growth  substantial  climatic  shading  Latitude  radiation  Freyman,  centuries  (Willard  due  establishment of  in  abrasion  highly  as  tundra.  the  include  significant  (Brink,  of  on  & Johnson,  causing  more  temperature.  high  the  drainage.  arctic  moisture  Johnston  have  establishment  slopes  problems  needle-ice,  (Brown,  notably  and  during  drought  are or  modify  differences  air  restrictions  specific  by  such  effect  situations  plants  further  and  alpine  severe  will  tundra will  climax  research  in  11 demonstrated ecosystems there  is  that  can  more  required  for  recover than  climatic  severely  one  factors  and  extensive  exposed  to  causing  soil  2.1.2  solar  have but  identified  factors  and  of  (Gaskin are  bedrock  nutrient  density,  some  form,  many  tundra  but  more  that  years  if  are  are  problematic alpine  season,  For  example,  by  and  exposure,  accelerated  many  ice  erosion  the  requiring  lenses  will  the  summer  factors  permafrost the  of  However,  continuous  unique  if  to  areas.  almost are  due  are  thaw  (Johnson,  Quincy  FACTORS  plant of  a  soil  et  moisture and  al,  pH  Soil  soils,  and  are  critical  program.  the  most  are  Brown,  related.  formation,  of  as  chemistry  1979;  closely  cycling.  types  relationships  rehabilitation  temperature  temperature type  -  success  soil  use  1977).  EDAPHIC  the  use,  permafrost  radition  collapse  Soil in  of  of  natural  affect  growing  consideration.  Brown,  zones which  special  and  season  virtual  season  tundra  restricted  daylight,  to  one  recovery.  Arctic same  following  texture,  also  1976).  cation and  mycorrhizal  Several  important  Chemistry  value,  determinants  its  workers element,  considered Soil  moisture  components exchange  and  include  capacity,  influence  organisms  primary  are  on  bulk  also  12 factors  which  the  The  overall  the  management  importance of  underestimated, range  of  rehabilitation of  hence  the  elements  implementation  process.  Soil  Moisture  Soil  moisture  establishment the  major  project,  of  growth while  studied  British  Columbia  was  most  the  factor  in  natural and  seedling  mortality from  texture, 1975). permit of  For  by  of  slow  soil  from  locally  of  infiltration  and,  therefore,  to  roots.  Finer  textured  Errington  sites  in  deficiency  that  the  upper  15  cm  toxicity.  by  texture,  be  Further  in  slope,  evaporation  case  to  revegetation  finding  soil  the  available  seedling  moisture  moisture  affected  and  and  disturbed  drought or  broad  secondary.  in  in  be  a  and  revegetation.  deficiency  exposure in  of  not  planning  found  account.  factors  covers  northern  (1976),  more  nutrient  is  that  Brown  results  example,  greater  water  cause  edaphic should  considered  concluded  wind  a  revegetation  moisture  colour,  was  into  germination  limiting  presented  Soil  the  the  (1979),  common  than  to  Gaskin  was  soil  critical  affects  take  review  plants.  evidence  of  projects  literature  temperature  (1975),  must  collective  rehabilitation  basic  .1  these  plan  aspect,  (Errington,  coarse  soils  decrease  the  soils  have  amount smaller  13 pores, high in  and  increased  surface  fact,  direct  tension  hinder  rain-bearing  oxygen  on  is  decreases  have  example  and  ion  hence  a  as  uptake  may  the  particles  Aspect  has  precipitation  (Hackett,  may  Low m o i s t u r e and  winds  for  Temperature  Soil  temperature  significant  zones  frost,  and  diurnal also  enough  Temperature  tundra  where  may  also  small  1974).  drying slopes  However,  to  but  Soil  heading.  may  (Willis,  water.  increase  the may,  a  from  the  1972).  direct water is  influence  content  reduced  additionally  available,  on  increases,  (Tisdale  and  affect  nitrogen  (Tisdale  &  1975).  .2  but  adhering  of  moisture  micro-organisms, Nelson,  water  availability  exposed  1975).  capillary  the  composition;  level  Nelson,  on  winds,  Soil chemical  of  germination  influence  evaporation  available  where  a  fluctuations affect  temperatures  meristematic  tissue  to  consider  heat  are in  plant  closely  becomes low  permafrost  is  soil  below  damage  on  under  determinant  budget,  factors.  growth  drop  a  related  However, in  survival.  0°C d u r i n g species  a in  not  moisture,  alpine solar  all  alpine  hardy  arctic  and  climatic  growing  cold  or  radiation,  seasonal  In  the  soil  separate  intense  temperature and  to  zones  zones season, will  occur  14 (Brown  et  al ,  potential,  1978).  thus  Furthermore,  limiting  moisture  frost  lowers  availability  the  soil  (Brown  water  et  al,  1 978).  Soil  pH  increases  decreases  in  microbial  activity  reduction  in  with  water  summer.  This  at  release  to  form  Diurnal vegetative  cover  acts  during cycle  low of  carbon  removed  an  insulative  barrier  removal  of  cover  result  decreased  Other of  nutrient  night  surface  temperatures  et  al,  alpine  in  low The  regions  opposite  which  in  turn  in  will  problem  of  soil  normally heat,  and  retardation high  and  summer  if  1974).  include  high  occur  temperatures,  & Bliss,  cause  1975).  sensible  daily  temperature  of  combines  & Nelson,  of  increased  results  normally  Vegetation  flow  (Babb  reduction  subsequent  temperature  site.  the  the  the  which  and  radiation  plant  drought  (Brown  1978).  .3  both  of  absorption.  in  a  to  and  months to  (Tisdale  soil  temperatures  effects  evident  in  from  as  and  related  dioxide  acid.  fluctuations  will  is  winter  temperatures  carbonic  is  the  Soil  Chemistry  Soil  chemistry  moisture  microbial  and  is  a  dynamic  temperature,  activity.  The  as  nutrient  state  well  as  balance  closely structure of  soils  related  to  and will  also  be  15 considered  under  moisture  and  somewhat  more  on  a  the  role  chemistry  temperature critical  rehabilitation  a major  soil  in  were  to  site,  the  long  heading.  identified  earlier  germination  and  it  that  is  term  clear  vigour  Although  and  as  plant  soil  factors  establishment  soil  chemistry  survival  of  the  plays plant  population.  An  understanding  rehabi1itiation  planning,  inherent  local  rich  in  in  the  However,  nutrients as  weathered,  is  young  they  1978). soils  of  are  rocks  it  soil  calcium,  rather  amendments  be m o r e  difficult  suggested  further  that  soils  are  also  more  shallower  conditions may  is  in  under  identify  frequently  high  manganese,  and  the  in iron  deal  they  in  the  evolved.  potentially  of  toxic  and  in  site  where et  a  are  al , alpine  (1967),  has  environmental situation,  to  The  geological  the  such  1975).  since  diversity  mineral  minerals  Nelson,  of  soils  due  acid  quickly  specific,  from  the  most  Dotzenko  alpine  with  origin  (Brown  with.  variable  possibility  (Tisdale  more  are  potassium.  relatively  areas,  resulting  critical  which  and  heterogeneous  to  associated  geological  alpine  be  example,  represented The  must  more  are  in  limitations  for  are  magnesium,  1974).  important  certain  which  sparsely  change  and  is  rocks,  minerals  pertinent  may  modification  defines  Igneous  characteristically  As  geology  minerals  (Willis,  especially  and  as  alumino-si 1icate  sedimentary site  site  soil.  alumino-si 1icate  essential  of  of  history  soils as  aluminum,  16 Cation determinants capacity  exchange  of  plant  require  alteration;  a  maintenance  must  improving  the  suggests  soils.  The  such  identify  ways  1974),  a  pH  of  whereas  the  planner  should  recognize  an  excess  of  toxic  pH  is  soil  nutrient  availability amount  of  the  supplied  indirectly from  oxygen,  and  also  and  the  the  rate  of  in  structure,  by  the  EPA,  organic  that  a  low  of  chemistry.  the  interaction  nutrient  other  bulk  of  for  soil  whereas  amounts  US  7.0  nutrient  and  Increased  -  nutrient  hydrogen,  air,  illustrating  soil  and  determined  through soil.  the  elements  Carbon,  thus  Temperature  is  and  excessive  of  key  cations  5.5  characteristic  1976).  the  characteristics may  are  nutrients  Cleve,  a  regime,  nutrients  and  compaction  high  plant  of  (Johnson  available  of  5.5  rehabi1itiation  of  exchange  excessive  and  requirements  also  pH  soils,  The  of  and  mineral  in  6.5  soils.  level  cation  for  result  pH  saline  soil  to  availability,  (Furuta,  calcareous,  are  low  requiring  carefully  nutrient  a  the  program  a  are  exchange.  whereas  of  with  factor  fertilizations  deficiency,  The  pH  frequent  recommended,  (1975),  the  Soils  evaluated  optimum  generally  pH may  be  and  vigour.  rehabilitation  ion  For is  more  capacity  cycling  oxygen  nutrients  density  water  are  reduces  through the  interdependent  moisture,  and  chemistry.  17 affect  the  toxicity  precipitation other  salts  workers  and  if  an  surface  noted  soils  soil  causes  at°the  have  textured  of  that  are  evaporation  accumulation of  the  soil  disturbed  usually  of  sodium  (Harper,  sites,  deficient  exceeds chloride  1977).  Several  particularly  in  nitrogen  and  on  coarse  (Errington,  1979).  .4  times  in  Soil  Structure  and  Texture  Soil  structure  and  texture  relation  particularly where  human  compaction of  developed prismatic, aggregate  are  and  the  edaphic  consequent  is  to  or  and  has  the  provides  growth  by  granular.  which  soil  potential  (Willis,  1979). is  rehabilitation  work  heavy  machinery  qualities.  is  such  as  organic  the  type  matter,  and  subsoil,  which  and  nutrient  regime  will  of  an  The  mineral  determine  (Johnson  and  the  the  sites  arrangement  such  for  are as  a  platy,  good  seed  germination of  a  soil  consideration  destroy  after  certain  a mixture  1976).  in soil  construction,  aeration,  Cleve,  a  soil  stability  or  is  wel1-drained,  important  substrate  gravel,  or  be  may  several  with  aggregates  conditions  layer  It  and  possessing to  subsoil as  dealing  descriptions  A  good  when  trampling  to  mentioned Structure  structure,  extent  characterized  structure  and  the  Soil  been  factors.  consideration  envisioned.  blocky  seedling  aggregate,  and  refers  wel1-aerated, and  other  significant use  granules  to  have  water  of  topsoil  content,  Subsurface  instability layers  of  pore  densities  seedlings, of  cause  the  shear  bulk  bulk  shear  of  to  diffusion  to  a great  inhibit  root  into  soil  developing  (Hackett,  a compacted  densities  resistance  stress  strength  density  indicative  High  oxygen  when  exceeds  determines  spaces.  rate  result  soils  structure higher  may  1972).  extent,  soil the  Soil  with  with  smaller  emergence  penetration, pores  between  and  (Tisdale  of  slow  and  the  Nelson,  1 975).  Analysis humus  and  litter  fertility C 0  2»  an  H  2  0  a  n  the  structure as  these  abundance  of  should  help  decomposition  cation-yielding  d  the  soil  layers,  through  '  improve  of  humus  and  resistance  of  of  mineral  litter  has  a  to  site  to  also  include  maintain  organic salts.  been  the  soil  substance In  addition,  demonstrated  trampling  to  to  (James,  et  al  1 976)  Soil  texture  classification combination capacity, gravels, clay and  slow  acidic,  a  site  thereof,  and are  shows  of  closely as  determines  of  drainage.  prone  to  nutrient  high  water-holding  well  as  Sandy  being  related  gravel,  ease  percolation. as  is  to  sand,  silt,  aeration, Certain  clay,  and or  the  a  water-holding soils,  deficiency capacity  structure,  and  with  soils  have  a  typically  poor  in  such  drought,  defective  tendency  to  nutrients,  as whereas aeration become due  to  19 low  surface  with  area.  relatively  Silts,  good  aeration,  generally  difficult  particles  characteristic  of  a  analysis  of  that  the  alpine  areas  mechanical  .5  of  and  weakly  breakdown  of  The previously food  of  humus  as  secreted  is  for  Reclamation,  1972).  oxidizes  carbon  the  nitrates.  The  soils  good  with  acceptable  to  by  for  of  dominant  of  an  to  ensure  also  It  should  affect  (Brown  are  al,  Mycorrhizal  litter soil  into  by  cation-exchange  kept  due  as  to  in  mind  in  the  slow  Fungi  layer  As  were  forms  serving litter  plant  nitrites  the  or are  carbon  (Landscape  and  occurs  as  enzymes  diffusible  ammonia  capacity,  identified  animals,  into the  by  the  soil  substrate  be  1978).  fertility  and  soil  proper  structure,  soils et  that  is  texture  incorporate  nitrification  temperature.  mixture  therefore,  Decomposition  process  soils  and  absorption  compounds  silt  occurrence,  microbes the  capacity  rare  organic  transform  available  a  the  micro-organisms.  attacked  which  compounds  and  contributing  nutrients  substrate  and  be  of  A balanced  developed  rock  Micro-organisms  management  applied.  may  water-holding  forming  texture  are  soils  where  loam  must,  procedures  origin  yet  would  planning  superior  1974).  of  site  structure  amelioration  and  (Willis,  rehabilitation  rehabilitation  show  as  bacteria  usable most  water,  readily  free  in  oxygen,  Recent adapted the  ecto-mycorrhizal  growth  herbs that  of  (Marx, some  specific amount  trees,  tree  of  available  well  have  determinants projects, the  in  the  biotic  tools  the  on  by  factor seeds  be  a  that  ecologically  pronounced  performance  obligate  This  Marx  of  grasses  (1975)  have  requirement suggests  utilized  effect  on and  shown  for  that  the  in  maximized.  topography,  planning  of  is  the  Thus, for  are  and  usually  often  plant  when  and  success  perspective.  project  growth  effectiveness.  have  studies  should  factors  management  and  shown  FACTORS  climate,  a particular  has  can  as  an  inoculum  projects  While  primary  fungi  Indeed,  species  BIOTIC  health  work  ecto-mycorrhizae.  2.1.3  of  as  1975).  rehabilitation  from  reclamation  The  of  are  critical  rehabilitation  most  readily  effectiveness  judged  material  reviewing  vegetative  the  soils  on  the  and  biotic  rehabi1itiation  or  basis  the  evident failure  of  the  implicit  factors, are  cost  the  being  described.  An great  deal  understanding more  than  of  species  assurance  of  survival.  necessary  if  naturalization  the  biotic  selection,  A broader of  the  regime  must  adaptability,  ecological disturbed  encompass and  outlook  is  site  an  is  21 expressed  objective.  considerations intra-  and  community  interactions. germination,  and  are  the  include  The  rehabilitation  .1  biotic  population  no  to  be  to  dispersal,  flowering  and  thus  processes  review  will  introduced at  a  literature  which  Rehabilitation  similar  seed  planting  a  rehabi1itiation  or  of  of  reproduction stresses,  requires  prior  provide into  to  the  an  a  development  of  is  overview  study  Intra  species,  succession,  directly  the  of  sought.  are  of  rehabi1itiation  comprehensive  structure  processes  autogenic  species  environmental  community  describing a  succession,  rigorous  between  and  on  dynamics,  plant-wildlife  phases  competition  diversity,  change  population  very  attempt  dynamics  interspecific  ecological  Dynamics  following  while  and  pertinent  plans.  variables  equation  to  ecological  Population  The  and  establishment,  survival of  more  competition,  vegetative  subjected  comprehension  the  structure  seedling  final  of  community  interspecific  diversity,  often  Some  and  ecological  influence  the  species  notations pattern  of  site.  projects  are  often  primary  succession  of  bare  secondary  succession  involving  analogous  ground, the  but  to may  also  modification  of  be  existing  vegetation  Ellenberg, commence  1974).  as  a  population  decisions  should  'climax'  relationship  is  plant  and  of  succession  seed  be  1969;  in  community  good  poor  to  1973).  the  As  some  to  trends  increase  habitat  if  niches  a  understanding  and  and  work  higher  by  has  results the  pioneer  from  the  environment,  and  tissue  degree  the  this of  seeds,  occurs.  (1966)  biomass new  of  in  found  diversity a  general  (There  are  Species only  number  that  occurs  (Ricklefs,  with  1969).  the  species  biomass  species  will  high  relatively  progression.)  resilience  stages  with  dominant  (Odum,  increase  Pielou  of  ,  the  species  shoot  evident  in  Early  succession  increased  a corresponding  the  succession  allocation  become  usually  stability  against  large  of  species of  planning  the  low  establishment  typically  are  annual  plant  to  species  community.  production As  Such  said,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  develops,  internal  subordinate  (1969)  the  attempt  an  rapid  stem  complexity  which  and  and  some  could  in  with  growth,  community  greater  diversity to  root  structural  shift  slower  changes  expedient.  1973).  with  strategy  be  Odum  webs,  modifies  competitors  dispersal,  As  and  Ricklefs,  production  and  food  further  &  may  environment  rates,  (Odum,  and  only  are  planting  alternatively,  predictable,  the  linear  the  codominant  typically  dispersal  the  made  community.  directional  diversity,  or,  Muel1er-Dombois  with  community  between  modification of  community  anticipated, a  1979;  Furthermore,  serai  establish  desired  (Willis,  continue of  decreased  diversity was  over  dense,  it.  time  would  unsegregated  Conversely,  if  result  and  the  groups,  and  chief  deaths,  then  pattern  of  followed  by  trend.  In  stands  the  a  workers  coastal strong  inhibits  causing  a  lack  menzi e s i i  population  habitats  suited  supported  several  competition  would  be  an  rapid  increase  to  was  increase  the  in  the  of  or  in  a  some  instances,  the  species  the  diversity,  reverse  menziesii/Gaultheria  competitive  diversity.  in  subcanopy  ability  However,  importance  colonize,  of  of  as G.  thereby  of  Gaultheri a  other  the  shallon  plants,  overstory  shallon  P.  declines  increasing  and  diversity  1977).  survival to  of  a  phase  where  of  of  one  and  of  the  rate  declining  influence  species  primary  individuals  intrinsic  As  is  rehabilitation  succession  colonizing  1977).  there  post-disturbance  Competition  point  the  intra-specific  Pseudotsuga  develops,  opportunistic  linked  to  population  describe  decrease  shalIon  the  colonizing  diversity.  Other  (Long,  the  confined  initial  single-species cause  if  on  interaction  the or  important  planting,  and  diversity.  succession  interfere  natural  most  increase  has  it  When  each  other,  and  rate  of  "competition"  of  is  closely  to  the  then  the  dispersal  a community  now  in  the  proceeded  with  composition  factors  dominate,  have  (Harper, the  24 different light,  species  water,  unevenly  in  establish is  seek  and  a  heterogeneous  maintained by  as  in  many  a  utilizing  nitrogen  and  thus  escape  the  (Harper,  1977).  seeking  resources  depths,  or  peaking  common  Trifolium  repens  are  because  L.  perenne  whereas  T.  repens  separation T.  repens  account will  plants  the  vie  Dependent  because  of  species  avoid  the  intra species  for  niche.  of  at  a  July.  in This  from  for legumes  micro-organisms,  rooting later  pool  at  by  different  or  earlier  date.  Lolium  perenne  and  co-existing  leaves  Diversity  competition  of  to  example,  resource  survive by  plants  struggle  For  common  species  of  Perenne  use  times,  distributed  niche.  the  of  June  on  a  and  late  temporal  dominating  site  partially  August,  niche and  choking  out  1977).  anticipated  competitors  L.  in  rehabilitation  influence  may  seed  capable  peaks  (Harper,  the  production  produces  prevents  A  of  habitat  by-pass  the  are  spectrum  allowing  sources.  through  rehabilitation  resource  resources  forms  different  leaf  the  specialized  problem  at  The  different  atmospheric  Other  up  environment,  plant  fix  The  divide  nutrients.  themselves  resources  to  the  and  of  competition  should,  can  resources only  another by  therefore,  interspecific  composition  same  species  presence  plan  over by  exist plant,  occupying  take  competition time.  a  as  the  same  particular  whereas  different  this  Direct  occupying in  into  niche  complementary habitat,  life-form, and  phenological,  Muel1er-Dambois  .2  and  or  regeneration  Ellenberg,  niches  (Grubb,  1977  1974).  E s t a b l i shment  The the  discussion  importance  of  the  rather  simply  planting. species  specific  emergence,  and  establishment events,  with  of  and  seed  that  interactions  of  the  differences of  the  requirements  seedling  seed  the  should  for  Harper  involves  of  'safe  sizes  environment  plan  plant  also  be  (1977),  precise  which  for given  to  the  seedling  states  that  the  deterministic  dependent It  on is  requirements,  can  illustrated  community,  species  sites'.  and  has  germination,  population  frequency in  entire  individual  consideration  seedlings  dynamics  rehabilitation  of  establishment.  the  heterogeneity  a  identifying  However,  -  population  developing  anticipates than  of  determine  availability also  apparent  and  species  composi t i o n .  A possessing  'safe  stimuli  germination,  and  germination,  as  seedling  site' for  is  defined  breaking  resources well  emergence.  as  the  for  by  Harper  dormancy, consumption  lack  of  as  a  site  conditions in  specific  the  for  course  hazards  of  after  The ability  to  determine (1974)  physical  find the  appropriate  success  indicates  lying  on  the  rough  seeds  loss,  as  that  surface may  smaller  seeds  the  chances  radicle  the  an  established  substrate  seeds  that  may  affect  effects  of  seedling  emergence.  and rain  Small-seeded rapidly  if  the  be m o r e  a cemented  and  the  may  other  annuals seedling  and  is  of  the  and  to  and  death. to  In  water  than  seed  larger  availability  loss.  necessary those  for  penetrate  a  serious  surface in  will  the  the  to  must  survive  effect not  Soil  -  a  result  character  particular  factors  to  Sheldon  example,  seedlings.  generally  seeds.  high.  have  soil  its  course,  conditions  able  are  and  position  specific  is  numbers as  of  For  variations  emerge are  of  water  less  radicle  the  will,  resistant  that  are  The  seed  desiccation  compaction  plant.  germinate  to  establishment  with  seasonal  emerge  may  the  soil  confronted  cause  phase  for  size,  critical.  appears  Provided  However,  in  it  shape, all  the  population  sensitive  may  establishment  germination. soil,  are  of  micro-sites  a given  the  be m o r e  Generally, the  of  evaporation  contrast,  for  characteristics  of  species  of  texture  and  consider  in  germinate  and  the  of  onset  adverse allows  conditions. annuals  1974). seeds  The  to  It  inhabit  and  micro-environments.  established changes  may  that  be  argued  change,  no  dynamics precludes  .3  of  the  any  phase  until  can  system  notion  be  seasons,  absolute  Interactions  Plant/wildlife  interactions  predator-prey  vigour  plants,  but  behaviour  of  revegetated  wildlife. will  browsing,  but  the  species  cover  heavy  moose  along  the  proven  to  ungulate  may  if  may  browsing  a major  browsing  may  a  new  of  newly  also  gross  in  a  a  it  environmental  or  -  the  centuries  planted  on  the  the  corridor  freshly  condition  amenable  at  critical  periods,  et  al  lush  Rodents  (1977)  stands and  reforestation an  influencing  impacts  edge  Johnson  have  to  rehabilitated  highway  over-graze  in  be  Ultimately,  established  decades,  forest  pipeline.  problem  or  encompass  decline.  however,  resistance  relationships  example  animals  Trans-Alaska be  For  create the  also  individual  permanence.  Plant/Wildlife  include  cannot,  reproduce.  considered  landscape of  to  by  specific  show  succession  over  of  can  which  (Sheldon,  characterized very  able  adaptation  ground  population  it  is  through  is in  plant  and  population  particular disturbed  emerging The  environmental  this open  establishment  germinating  considered  is  undesirable  of  reported annual  leporids programs, effect  to  have but  rye  immediately exerted  by  following herbivores  competitive  ability  undesirable, a  predator  may  may  that  of  an  as  agents  1977).  create  of  as  greater  a  (1978)  wildlife  component  shelter,  food  As  an  of  hiding  concealing  disastrous  use  plant is  and  further  of  on  credence  predators by  and  a  have  to  the  selective such  as  approach on  objective should  the  adopted,  slopes  habitat  improvement  to  of  be  that  space  feeding  If  south-facing  manipulation  to  burrowing  successions. stated  a  contributing  (Etter,  of  example,  infestations  animals  cover  possibly  species  by  requirements  90%  For  effects  disturbances  species  and  Insect  dispersal  involves  Habitat  one.  different  states  sources,  example,  capable  winter  1977).  community  for  palatable  reduce  diversity.  values  rather  potential  Frischknecht  foci  pressure  unpalatable  lending  plant  seed  wildlife  planting  conditions.  of  of  The  subordinate,  perspective,  Furthermore,  rehabilitation, such  hence  the  localized  enhancement  have  community  on  may  (Harper,  palatable  ecological  effect  diversity  will  for  species  monopoly  could  1978).  additional  co-exist  projects,  planning  beneficial  dominant  the  a  monocultures  From  (Harper,  of  (Green,  permit  to  augment  rehabilitation goal  on  and  species  decrease  planted  planting  1973). for  the  of  cover,  water,  provide  better  living  for  various  for  elk  is  defined  an  elk  from  view  for  species as of  differ.  vegetation a  person  200  29 feet  away  (Thomas,  coniferous  1976).  species  on  encompass  from  30-60  habitats,  such  as  The  summer acres  snags,  optimum  or  size  transitory  and  thermal  range  (Frischknecht,  edges,  of  of  should  1978).  riparian  cover  Special  zones  also  may  be  created.  Rodents seedling or  the  lower  survival,  phloem  Deciduous  damage  small  modified soil  diet  by  2.3.4  in  and  CARRYING  consume  browsing  of  terminal  layers  considerable  been  found  to  species  plan  should  expected  the  and  type  determining mammal  habitat  the  damage  take to  the  site  and  reduce  buds  and  twigs,  stem,  roots,  (Green,  inhabit of  or  1978). to  small  1978).  into  account a  the  site.  Green  groundcover  distribution  distribution  pressures,  seeds  susceptible  (Green,  density  stimuli  interspecific  of  be m o r e  wildlife  Small  predation  The landscape  of  specific  availability  to  coniferous  that  animals.  known  cambium  cause  have  factors  type,  the  outer  than  reports  important  and  are  rehabilitation  anticipated (1978)  birds  can  trees  A  of  and  branches,  mammal  or  may  be  are patterns  notably  such  as  micro-climate,  variation  in  cover,  food  competition.  CAPACITY  concept  of  rehabilitation  carrying in  two  capacity ways;  is  relevant  firstly,  if  to  recreational  use  of  plant  the  site  material,  capability design  to  is  anticipated  then  an  or  sociological  carrying  design  physical  Secondly,  recreational  of  understanding  withstand  process.  other  elements  following  the  human  impact  ability  use  capacity  pertinent  has and  to  the  measurement  of  pressure  consideration  people;  as,  (c)  "the  of  the  activities;  (1964)  level  of  a  definition  provide  by  site's  activities  and  according  (d)  of  season  quality  and  of  to  but  type  environment,  and  of  on  the  of  use,  a  site  area  on  or  can  type  management  as  a  a  the  distribution of  that  physical and  capacity while  elaborate  capacity site  user,  deterioration without  range  of  capacity physical  objectives.  is,  can  experience."  broad  of  use.  withstand A more  carrying of  is  involving:  recreation  recreation,  "real"  users  carrying  states  recreational  absorb  summarized  (b)  the  manipulation  of  area  of  its  the  recreation."  a  to  to  year/duration  an  encompass the  an  people;  that  support  definitions sites,  (1972)  biological  of  essential  bearing  (1969),  user-periods  ability  is  recreational use  Ashton  permanent  to  of  described  impairment  These  biotic  Chubb  without  number  recreational  sustained  number  appreciable  vary  the  Wagar  providing  "....the  of  communities'  dispersal  Burden  (a)  the  therefore  consideration. of  installation  of  a  significant  intensity  of  the  will and  31 The capacity that  the  must  varying  human  use  changes  is  to  over-use  any  the  in  an  area  may  complete  presented  on  species  effects  physical  based  will  the  of  form  impact  surface  mineral  some  change  in  important change  is  The m a n i f e s t a t i o n  of  soil  physical  variation  that  in  properties,  damage  to  plants.  biotic  components  vegetation.  have  resulting  Initial  increased  minor  to  sense  fact  environmental  use.  alteration  workers  tabular  of  the  the  in  A third  carrying  in  and  result  that  and  of  objectives  achieved,  evidence duration  from  of  be  discussion  always  composition,  properties in  may  includes  denuding  the  environment.  and  vary  number  in  management  ecosystem  intensity  in  A  1.  reflect  physical-biological  related  to  elements  "equilibriums"  of  principle  The  critical  as  recorded  from  human  the  changes  impacts,  and  to  soil  these  are  follows:  results  in  loss  horizons.  The  compaction  under  of  leaf  loss  human  of  litter  or  litter  leads  traffic  (James  et  to al,  1976).  2.  Recreational  use  density,  decreases  changes  and in  subsequent  turn  causes  lead  erosion  to  substantial in  infiltration  increased  (James  increases  et  al,  rates.  surface 1976).  in  bulk  These  run-off  and  I  32 3.  As  litter  is  decreases, producing  thereby  (James  et  proceeds (James  5.  al,  et  7.  In  sites  al,  Study to  but  susceptible  to  The  damage  by of  traffic, increased  decomposition surface  area  of  with  fertile  on  on  heavily  structure  organic  more are  evident  used  sites  cover  fertile  affected  inherently and  low  coarse  in  soil,  (Frissell,  sites less  of  with  by  low  initial  recreational  textured  organic  1978).  matter  soils  use that  (Dotzenko  1967).  of  plants  literature,  plants.  1974).  depends  the  than  less  are  Smith,  densities  et  damage  depths  soil  are  in  conditions,  1976).  amount  general,  down  because  compaction  moisture,  soil  stress  more  capacity  1976).  al,  and  holding  droughty  moisture  broken  soil  (Merriam  Soil  is  in  become  faster  Reduced  6.  severe  litter  water  resulting  plants  As  4.  removed,  changes has  only  to  species  compositon  received  considerable  the  factors  main  and  attention  pertinent  to  physical in  the  33 rehabi1itiation list  of  seven  vegetation  1.  will  as  follows:  Plants  with  features  3.  Plant  The  numbers then  apices  are  less  than  as  will  that  when  in  first  plant  give  to  Trampling  will  1974).  production  as  before  proceeds,  trampling  at  the  have  these  will  to  lower  in  when  1966).  first 1973).  growing  of  trampling  will  replace  turn,  are  1976).  vegetation  severity  at  (Grime,  amount  they,  stimulate,  its  (Wagar,  species  (Goldsmith,  first as  on  trampling  dry  way  & Greig-Smith,  succession  resistant  primary  plants  is  to  increases  monocotyledenous  (Liddle  a  tolerate  not  a community  increases,  As  but  it  species  broad-leaved  do  tolerant  dicotyledonous the  compiled  trampling  meristems  trampling  at  (1976)  1938).  species  fall  of  and  those  1935,  wet,  of  grasses  eliminated  6.  is  Liddle  effects  than  (Bates,  ground  the  5.  basal  better  the  Tall  on  communities  rise,  4.  reviewed.  observations  trampling  2.  be  becomes  more  1974).  and  then  rises  reduce  (Goldsmith,  34 7.  Plants  high  paths  (Grime  Other  work  attention,  1.  with  and  The  may  successional  Under for  summarized  with  decreases  whereas  as  (Liddle,  stands,  ground  density  plants  of  is  common  on  factors  worthy  of  related  generally  Wagar,  suffer  from  grasses  lower  are  not  Groundcover  conifers  and  to  primary in  early  1976).  conditions  cover.  narrow-leaved  are  follows:  vegetation  (Beardsley  Large-leaved  additional  productivity  stages  herbaceous as  of  productivity  1975).  described  coniferous  improves  3.  Hunt,  vulnerability  production,  2.  and  has be  potential  do  in  the  favourable  viability  understory  1971).  trampling the  best  the  most,  (La  Page,  1967).  4.  Trampling durable  resistance  plants  conduplicate  5.  Soil in  stem  compaction  the  often  diameter  is  related  possessing  (Burden  due  to  growth  to  life  flat  leaves  & Randerson,  over-use  results  of  (La  trees  form,  with  and  1972).  in  Page,  a  reduction  1962).  Recreational trunks, and  use  stress  trampling  regeneration  Woody  or  The  of to  (Frissell,  associated species  use  al,  lichens et  al,  change light  may  with  by  in  to  tree  wilting,  reduced  1976).  are  and  more  fleshy  capable  of  plants  are  easily  may  categorized  1976).  to  vegetation  use,  result  a  be  continued  use,  in  growing  use  of  increases  Open good  et  damage  dicotyledons species  et  damage  evidenced  resulting  species  covers.  Significant  As  as  seedlings  (Dawson,  short-term  mechanical  and  heavy  use  1978).  shading ground  in  canopies  (James  (James  according  for  of  while  degree  Less  to  low-lying  survival, damaged  results  canopies  of  conditions are  trample-resistant  1978).  vegetation  fragile  monocots  decrease.  decreases  forest  cover  al,  to  better  As  (Young,  areas  occur  (Bogucki,  become use  may  dominant  increases  1978).  after et  al ,  1 975).  and the  number  of  12.  Onset  of  loss  of  recreation plant  revegetation cover  The have  been  given  select  landscape use.  planning use  df  to  elements  modify  of  is  into  species  and  may  soon  heavy  use  and  plant  ecological planners  and  initial  results  decreased  the  should,  impact  regress  carrying problem;  anticipated, decisions  species  carrying  to  design  rehabilitation  design  the  sustained  susceptibility  reduce  planned  site  kind  incorporated procedures.  the  by  in rates  of  1978)  species,  Sociological  and  any  to  pressure  condition.  but  characteristics  appropriate  use  accompanied  "weedy"  (Young,  knowledge  A poorly  intense  by  Rehabi1itiation  incorporate and  soil  shown  site.  loss.  cover,  is  of  a  capacity however,  clearly  it  concerning  capacity  of  a  therefore,  damage  by  human  use  ameliorative the  project to  composition  recreational subjected  to  disturbed is if  basically  a  post-disturbance  should  be  rehabilitation  37 2.2  DESIGN  PRINCIPLES  & THE  Design  principles  and  the  landscape  management  components  virtually  all  of  ignored The  in  favour  principles  large-scale  heavy  are  and  harmonious  should  be  yet  are  they  often  to  a  treatment  right-of-way  basic  embodied  solutions  landscape  smaller  resources  in  resource  derivation  the  production.  sites,  in may  be  problem.  of  as  activity-oriented  and  The components  of  the  society  flora,  Landscape  the of  to  form  well  as  sites  to  subject  then  strives (USFS,  often  considered  estate,  values  must  encompass  components, element  resource fauna,  is  with  is  need,  needs. achieve  1972).  or  a  a  Land  as  something  factor  of  economic,  the  task  of  equally.  defined  land,  assessment  to  benefits is  society  physical  psychological  real  each  provide  of  of  aesthetic  visual  in  form  both  price  addressing  understood  management of  Landscape  ecological, management  market  are  benefits  contemporary  than  objects.  or  benefits  Comprehensive  more  to  linear  utilitarian  cultural  in  which  resource  use.  both  value  visual  technical  relevant or  RESOURCE  rehabilitation,  purely  corridors  Natural with  of  mining  recreation to  phases  VISUAL  air, a  as  including  water  and  relatively  the  artifical  recent  addition  to  the  resource  methodologies  have  yet  of  other  characteristic Laurie  (1975)  recording  visual  the  relationship variables  and  the  'average  man .  of  nature  the  dawn  few  insights  for  centuries.  beyond  form,  shape,  such  light,  colour;  (Laurie, aesthetic  aesthetic  It as  to  is  stimulate  it  but  has  disciplines.  the  of  characteristics  attempts  dynamic and  process  aesthetic  or  to  evaluate  the  landscape  culturally-bound  all 1975).  man's and  and  as  scale,  innate satisfy  or  to  the  should  ability  to  pleasurable  human  and  be  it  show  unity  and  balance,  pattern,  Laurie,  artists,  from  relationships  and  from  perceived  contrast,  spatial  to  notions  have  derived  texture  According  can  designers are  contributing  philosophers  'modern'  variety,  space,  philosophers,  qualities  that  qualities  elements  and  intrigued  seems  artists  outline,  proportion  and  yet  what  enclosure,  that  as  observer's  emotional,  beauty  Aesthetic  with  mass,  of  language,  composition  whether  refinement  quantified  analysis  the  1  The  reaction  of  qualities,  independent  complex,  level  an  visual  Visual  consequently  assessment  through  intrinsic  between  a  readily  landscape  landscape.  and  achieve  more  quality  of  field,  to  defined  appreciation within  management  and  rhythm,  cognizance is  doubtful  designers,  believe  measured.  create  visual  feelings  and  order  so  emotions  that  we  call  (1979), to  an  order  organism  this  with  change  that  how  what  he  a  in  the  she  placed  (Laurie,  seeks  world,  person  or  demands  aesthetic  and  attitudes,  1979). and  Space  racial  clearly Moore,  have  and  the  US  which  of  by  the  (1974)  and  assessment.  goes a  also  occurs on  to  function  interaction  state of  with  in  variation  the  in  socio-economic,  backgrounds. expectations  indications (Laurie,  somewhat  but  situation.  experiential  a person  is  in  differences  as  Moore  world  Moore  indicate  origin,  to  organization  situation,  perception  how  its  environment  expressed  conceived  Values, for  the  of  the  potential  1975  and  Moore,  differently  across  cultural  uses  the  landscape  will  (Shafer  and  Richards,  1974,  and  1979).  A further the  ethnic  been  lines,  affect  to  and  landscape is  the  Richards  personality,  in  an  organism  and  know  knowledge.  on  the  According  to  change  to  cultural,  variability  of  construes  p r e f e r e n c e due  also  that  amount  landscape  future  only  brings  Shafer  beliefs,  not  1975).  Forest  way  Service,  categorizes  W h a t we  the  have  of  describing  Forest  Landscape  variables  seen  -  perception  as  part  is  Management  presented Manual,  follows:  of  our  consciousness.  in  40 2.  What we  3.  What  expect  we do  to  see  see  -  -  beliefs,  images.  this  phase  compared  have  seen  is and  what  we  with  what  expected  we  to  see.  Recent measuring  beauty  philosophers "there that to  is  also  is  may  state,  that  specific  us  a  in  our in  say,  of  and  validating  human  cultural,  the  and  emotion  spatio-temporal  only  that,  natural  to  each  system  organization".  the  harmony  presence  of  of  research  are  unvarying  but  nature  is  Greenbie  a  configuration  Clynes's  forms  other  The  feeling  of  this  to  economic has  and  suggests for  of  sentic  of  a  showed and  that  have  characteristics.  responses and  artists  well.  activity.  emotional  us  not  space-time  rehabilitation  social,  within  possibility  as  (1975)  documenting  significance  assessment  as  the  remote  way  nervous  spatio-temporal  The  emotion,  of  that  as  need  environment  to  units  not  fundamental  (1969), is  shown  Greenbie  emotional  neurological  basic  precise  perhaps  basic  harmony  Clynes  has  believe.  non-human  the  cites  the  a  relate  the  research  been  constituents,  work  lies the  in  in the  linked is  to  to  possibility  environment  boundaries.  it  relation  As  across beauty  landscape of different evokes  specific  within  the  realm  of  41 possibility landscape  measure  assessment  unresolved derived  to  in  from  emotional,  their the  and  beauty  itself.  methodologies efforts  viewed  to  environmental  spectrum  of  senses,  the  (Mittmann,  eyes  landscapes, Brush  studies  (1974),  shorelines, edges  of  focussed masses,  shadows.  on  edges  or  on  a  colour  small  dynamic  particularly  when  decreases  The masses;  it  of  toward  perception,  vision  large,  forward  (USFS,  total  perceived  (1971)  most  as  often  cited  type  edges  attention  is  textured  objects.  viewing As  the  background  The  fades  is and  also  increases,  definition  influences  observer  detail  landscape  distance  uniformity.  the  in the  of  visual  motion. cone  As  of  1974).  eye  does  not  wander  skips  over  the  commonplace  by  within to  large focus  even-textured on  by  along  contrasting,  perception.  and  the  McDowell  forested  the  recreational  settings  middleground  increases,  is  In  foreground,  speed  includes  vegetation  process  increases  of  qualities  observer.  ridgelines,  between  to  the  percent  fixated  outstanding  relationship value  and  formal  physiological,  experience  terms  eyes  and  strong the  In  Gratzer  that  skylines,  The bears  reveal  of  current  substantially the  the  eighty-seven  1978). by  with  make-up  Although human  remain  reconcile  object,  psychological  However,  the  and  distinctive would  be  (Brush,  the  coincident  placement  with  seeing  in and  his the  In  methods purely  interest  with  hardly  (Kaplan,  so  at  the  pervasive to  a  fact  of  the  that  which  scenic  of  a  or  they  and  that  Greenbie in  readily  may  may  be  be  techniques a  polarization  artistic for  results  questions  may  landscape  "concern  the  by  beauty.  recognized  scientific  made  c a p a b i 1 i ty  measurement  has  shows  is  person's  aesthetic,  (1975)  approach  pertinent  The  objectivity  seem  need  end.  of  and  irrefutable,  answering"  1975).  At  the  questionable critically the  Kaplan  scientific  a  evaluations  applied  knowledge  alterations  revelation  assessment  and  this  contrast.  seeing,  terms,  extremes  quantification but  in  utilize  1975).  of  of  landscape  between  philosophic and  application  psychological  general  quantitative (Laurie,  edges  objective  purely  An  linear  distinguishing  influence  either  of  natural  A further (1 9 7 5 ) ,  1975).  extreme,  objectivity  that  physical  other  most  in  evidence.  research  landscape  is  'designers  methods  primarily  as  Kaplan are  artists' further  verbally  experienced  display  a  suggests  based,  visually.  while  43 Litton elements the  of  (1977),  unity,  joining  of  variety,  parts  indicates  the  Vividness  connotes  into  complexity  The  (USFS,  clarifies  outlined  briefly  landscape, landscape study  area.  panoramic,  minimum the  and  the  classical  or  to  is  from  to  portray  aesthetic  the  terms  Dominance  principles  determine  contrast,  sequence,  of  and  by  further  the  a  as  of  essence  site.  of  Dominance  and  include  colour,  and  modifiers  convergence,  of  and  creation  types  line,  such  detail,  the  disturbed  elements  terms  duplicating  axis,  be  Characteristic  canopied,  form,  Manual  will  critical  character  are  visual  characteristic  context,  the  parts.  Management  described  involve on  a  the  variety  strong  substance.  focal,  texture.  and  its  to  represents  numerous  methodology,  further  landscape  a  linked  Unity  Landscape  identify  would  beauty  while  and  gives  Forest  enclosed,  impact  used  different  rehabi1itiation  characteristic are  whole,  deviations  used  feature, In  single  illustrate  words  visual  elements the  to  landscape  vividness.  Litton's  Character  ephemeral.  a of  National  variety, are  and  relations,  impression. 1973)  envisages  to  co-dominance  enframement.  A listing Litton  (1968)  characteristic attempt  to  to  of  dominance  clarify  landscape.  match  adjacent  further  principles the  to  also  discernment  Rehabi1itiation sites  was  the  of  designs  disturbed  compiled  by  the should  land  utilizing  44 these  concepts,  dominance  in  conjunction  with  an  appreciation  of  elements.  Contrast:  An i n c r e a s e i n c o n t r a s t easier perception.  2,  Sequence:  The n a t u r a l sequence of l i n e or t e x t u r e s h o u l d n o t be d e s t r o y e d .  3  Axi s:  The a x i s i s a d i r e c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s , and s h o u l d n o t countered.  5.  variable season,  The c o n v e r g e n c e axes.  Co-domi nance  A l a n d s c a p e w h e r e two i d e n t i c a l elements compete f o r visual domi n a n c e .  Enframement:  The c r e a t i o n poi nts.  factors distance,  Finally, affect  how  the  atmospheric scale, alter  or the  whether The  be  Convergence:  Finally,  it  such  hierarchical as  Litton  The  perception in  the  position  activity.  position,  elements season,  distance of  a  scale  variable are  seen:  variable,  rehabilitated  could  change  and  site  the  lists  condition,  time.  factors  which  motion,  light,  would  depending or  perceived  would  position,  example,  middleground  two  focal  system  observer  for  of  strong  atmospheric  distance,  foreground,  of  descriptive  light,  described  dominance  time.  was  motion,  observer  conditions,  observer  management  the  point  allows  on  background. shape  of  a  45 The Visual  US  Forest  Management  phase  and  based  on  System  measurable the  the  visual  and  their  strength inherent  greatest  the  of  of  colour  are  for  is  a  various  ordered that  to  according  Class  B:  Common  Class  C:  Minimal  sensitivity  viewing  determined the  intensities  and  a continuum  viewshed  edges:  1)  s k y l i nes  2)  edge  to  area,  levels  the The  the  inventory system  is  variation  natural  in  landscapes,  alteration.  to  variety  diversity  to  according and  classes  provides  alterations to  distance  resolution  of  on  the  value:  Distinctive  are  of  accept  increased  scenic  both  recognizable  types  A:  class  for  a manual  management.  Class  suggests  3)  for  there  the  published  provides  capabilities  potential  people  which  that  assumption  Viewers' variety  has  standards  premise  Landscapes following  Service  decreasing  of  the zones  shapes.  visual  within  numbers  and  each types  distinguishing Litton  sensitivity  (1974) along  edge  ridge-lines  4)  edges  and  5)  junctions  decreasing  mosaic of  areas  vegetation  sensitivity  The management quality  physical  practices  has  management  been  quality  before  management  on  specific and  schemes  design  as  the  (Litton,  projects,  types  such  identified  partial  defined  mapped  a  of  retention, visual  the  total  system  Prior  as  with  visual  visual  thus  resource  of  scenic  capability.  are  described as  withstand  affecting  a map  impacts  in  looks  its  alternative  at  own  design  or  1974).  descriptive  numerous  (1978)  The  in  landscape  considering  problem  Jones  resulting  to  retention,  compositely  1975).  land  absorption  modifications  are  vulnerable  Litton's tested  and  the  negatively  visual  maximum  (USFS,  visually  right  or  of  preservation,  capability,  constraints the  of  objectives  absorption  without  termed  goals  modification,  capability  and and  as  analytical often  has  highway  four  approach  been  routing  perceptual  has  adapted studies.  aspects  to  been  to Jones visual  follows:  1)  perception  (inventory  of  2)  cognition  (analysis quali ty)  3)  evaluation  ( a l t e r n a t i v e s and d e t e r m i n a t i on)  4)  decision  (designation  of  visual visual  of  resources) character  impact  siting  recommendati ons) The are  composed  three of  phases  elements  of  assessment,  derived  from  design,  Litton's  and  evaluation  descriptive  approach.  For  inventory quality  or  example,  compatabi1ity,  and  The  rational  organized be  and  utilized  readily  context  and  the  such  descriptive must  be  for  of  to  and  balanced  or  and  visual by  of  and  applied.  regional  of  visual  resource  rehabi1itiation. professional  suffers  against  from  the  a  number  benefits  of  determines  assessment.  The  scale,  logically  and  management  to  may  yet within  low  costs  undertake  However,  the  drawbacks  more  are  approach  Relatively  of  project  described  expertise  advantages.  visibility,  landscape,  limited  visual  siting  quality  understood  and  impact,  techniques  a  of  evaluation  visual  of  and  project  simulation  an  character,  colour,  the  projects  involves  factors  after'visual  significant  method  fit,  analytical  landscape  are  line,  of  single  availability  studies  final  evaluations  easily  adapted  the  visual  descriptive  units,  encompasses  interaction  'before  assessment  visual  form,  design  whereas  project-landscape  of  as  potential  recommendations,  clearly  such  Location  visibility,  baseline  classification  judgement,  fragility.  the  which  sophisticated  techniques.  According  to  Daniel  weakness  in  the  approach  features  of  the  inventory  beauty.  The  presumed  has to  and been  Boster the  validated  accuracy  of  (1976)  failure  the to  measures  'professional  greatest  relate of  the  scenic  judgement'  48 certainly from  may  be  different  The landscape  assessment  resources  a  true  often  extraction  component  or  difficult  a  rehabilitation  create  an  art  The  and  and  evolution  and  (Olschowy, familiar yet  including include  1973).  Landscape  be  of  the  technical  unity,  pragmatic  barriers, plant  of  order  such  grading  and  other  desire  tools  of  as  regarded  an  proportion  incorporation the  of  designer  planners  should  be  literature,  concepts  of  beauty,  principles  also  control,  drainage,  factors.  as  scale  circulation  and  visual  outcome.  assessment  Design  criteria,  against  using  through  to  for  Indeed,  be  space  strong  compared  dollar  gigantic  rhythm.  signage,  for  on  a  on  scientific  beauty.  traditional  aspects  the  could  landscape  and  or  to  rehabilitation  with  material,  more  results  quantitative  also  indispensible  conversant  order,  more  screening aspects  are  of  when  predictable  manipulation  variety  with  should  the  form  rationalize  dollar  rather  of  integrated  purely  aesthetic  been matched  1973).  rhythm  adopt  economic  of  of  grounds  related  under  (Olschowy, scale,  to  been  with  to  ecological  measure  Landscape to  is  have  have  comparability  assessment  Efforts  resources  opportunity  at  the  doubtful.  acceptance  than  and best  economic,  factors.  professional rather  is  rehabilitation  biophysical of  studies  landscape  mathematical,  means  questioned,  Sites  visual to  be  49 utilized planned  for and  recreation anticipated  The been  studied  summarized  1.  require  use by  of a  use  design  number  careful  scrutiny  to  determine  patterns.  elements  of  to  achieve  researchers,  and  user  their  control  has  findings  are  below:  Channeling  movements  goal-oriented  paths  to  minimize  (Sidaway,  impacts  1977;  and  Beardsley  et  al,  1 974) .  2.  Hard  surfacing  James,  3.  Positioning  boulders, material  and  study posted  traffic. logs,  of  (Beardsley  "hard"  Barriers  et  of  al,  1974;  but  through  in  a  fewer  thorny  to fences, plant  1977).  and  (1974),  include  or  facilities  trees  users  respondents  of  barriers  may  bollard,  & Severs,  Moeller  rules,  or  brush,  location  roots  Education Ross  vegetative  (Nixey  Strategic feeding  5.  areas  1974).  pedestrian  4.  high-use  shrubs  to  (James,  judicious  however,  recreation than  50%  prevent  use  found area  damage  1974).  of that  signage. 65%  recalled  stopped  to  to  read  of seeing them.  50 6.  Choice  of  materials  (Sidaway,  7.  Good  to  encourage  or  discourage  use  1977).  definition  of  boundaries  and  edges  (Parks  Canada,  1980).  McEan three use  zone  and  design  impact.  representing relatively and of  the a  and The  site.  zone  Specific  for  each  the  size  of  the  idea  that  the  zones  degradation the  of  proposed  design  zone.  better  within  overall  use;  to  to  of  the  The  concept  contain  integrity  of  as:  rarely  overall  designated  control  zone,  impact the  of  an  based  zones,  area  heavy  objective  site.  zone,  disturbed  potential  a  recreational  techniques  is  of  impact  corridors  management the  adoption  intersite  between  and  with  system  the  designated  heavy  ground  sector,  is  were  consisting  impact  it  (1976)  management  undisturbed  buffer  protecting  Tocher  corridors  utilized  site  and  of  use,  borders would  to  be  reduce  further  on  rehabi1itiation thus  2.3  REVIEW  The  OF  chapter  rehabi1itiation present data  a  IMPLEMENTATION  will  summarize  implementation  comprehensive  collection,  the  of  species  the  out-planting  control,  and  initial  2.3.1  BASELINE  DATA  COLLECTION  AND  Baseline  data  collection  is  of  a  following species,  amendments.  conditions  determine Specific  include  all  such  climate,  as  carrying  the  is  as  tested  organized from  to  baseline  propagation,  fertilization,  SPECIES  one as  of  site  erosion  as  the  necessary  in  order  components  factors  the  discussed  However,  in  community as  the  special  the  site to  requirements of  SELECTION  most  knowledge  well  fertilizer  planting,  critical  of  character select or  other  investigation preceding dynamics,  central  attention  plant site  should  chapters, soil,  and  consideration will  be  paid  in to.  factors.  Accurate acreages  is  project  topography,  capacity.  revegetation biotic  of  on  maintenance.  disturbance and  is  process  techniques,  rehabi1itiation  pre-disturbance  and  selection,  preparation,  phases  literature  methods,  review  through  METHODS  cannot  be  natural  vegetation  obtained  by  casual  baselines  for  survey-type  large observation,  52 but  will  require  intensive  Vegetation list,  nor  spatial will  a map  of  result  in  less  polyhedron  failures  (Ward,  "reasonable" precise  three  which  are  two  for  tendency  fashion,  1974).  assessment  not  (Ward,  of  of  relatively  analysis  of  and  along  drawn  construction  polygraph is  plotted  on  represent  data;  a mere  and  for  1980).  (After  baseline  study  material  in  accompanied  many is  used  plant  be  projects  adequate  or  to  lieu  of  a  programs  of  1967).  factors,  characteristics  space  fewer  field:  Whittaker,  environmental  with  (1974)  revegetation the  a  a  in  Olgeirson  in  species  distinguishable  Thorough  site  applicable  species  that  change  time.  areas  disturbed  by  practices;  techniques  information. to  is  form  should  community in  has  replace  easily  Gradient  population,  considered  modelling  models  technique  to  the  analysis  studies.  1974).  and  gradient  The  it  (Schiechtl,  methods  lines  be  However,  assessment  describes  2.  types,  relationships  simple  1.  should  ecological  (after  a circular The  Hutchison  graph  advantage  relationships  of not  to  show  this  1936,  Data  relationships  method  readily  1940).  is  its  apparent  of  ability  from  raw  3.  factorial  approaches  computer-generated applied two  in  a more  Assessment  assumed or  and  that  species  precedes if  rehabilitation  be  used  prior  particular also  as  a  for  of  biotechnical goal  of  the  part,  succession  individual  species  and  the  the  even  analysis  site,  as  for the  and  (1980)  the  vigour,  site  schedule  of  normally  Furthermore,  of  genotypes  baseline  plants,  has  of  termed  data  of while  the this  as  the  ecological  techniques, growth  rate,  variables.  is  species,  consideration  describes  component  is  site  interactions  propagation  plant  It  native  individual  anticipated  species  critical.  include of  latter  exotic  particular  more  should  been  availability.  that  criteria,  ecological  initial  dictate  Schiechtl  plant  allows  objectives  suitability, the  program.  of  and  the  work  lists.  capabilities  work  although  acceptability on  also  species  becomes  the  have  1958)  of  in  whole.  sociological  conditions  final  or  data plant  the  found  selection  adaptive  accounting  community plant  plan  disturbance  Species  of  development  exclusively  to  of  normally  final  programs,  baseline  discussion  & Jenny,  models  sophisticated  determination  not  the  of  1951  similarity  rehabilitation  require  selection  (Major,  ideally  The  linked  planting.  and  the  planned to  54 Criteria a  number  between A  1.  of  workers  baseline  summary  of  Growth Low  and  data  Form  growing  plants  represent  analysis  and  factors  (Brown  et  al,  plants  with  1978;  1978).  Tall  growth  habit  shorter  habit  invasion  other  by  species  grasses,  forbs,  Drought  low  critical with  sites  often  water-holding during  inherent  survive  objectives.  the  to  help  prevent  plant  (Brown,  foot  withstand  traffic, the  competitive 1974).  several  trees  impact  plants  Selection life  (Cook,  while  forms  of resist  of such  as  1974).  Resistance  Disturbed and  of  (Berg,  and  stage  1974)  roots  reduce  include  shrubs,  Berg,  highly  species  should  will  able  Rhizomatous,  by  includes:  desiccation  trampling.  established  intermediary  extensive  better  been  rehabi1itiation  reduce  is  have  the  and  adapted  3.  selecting  significant  erosion,  2.  for  (Brown  the  al,  from  capacity.  emergence  drought et  suffer  of  resistance  high These  radiation, factors  winds,  are  most  seedlings,  and  are  equipped  better  species to  1978).  Reproduction Rhizomatous are  viewed  species, as  layering  favourable,  graminoids,  while  vegetative  and  dicotyledons  propagation  potential et and  al ,  is  1978).  cannot  disturbed species  Growth The  important Seed  be  is,  ability  are  carry  on  less  in  do  et  high  not  nutrition  ability  landscapes  to are  environments  fix  fertilization,  independent  root  opportunistic  reproduction  producing  and  complete al,  ability  on  a  of  a  to  shown  to  mechanisms  the  (Brown  at  of  plant et  al,  must  to  low  as the  as  element. depress  capacity  in  six  species  important  this  the  life-cycle  severity  in  that  with  Perennial  is  flowering  Alpine  environments  nitrogen  been  or  respiration their  altitude  so  species  1978).  due  growth  advantages.  require  deficient  have  (Brown  important.  rapid  exist  Mineral  doubt  Phenology  would  1974).  to  seed  show  (Eaman,  The  the  and  (Brown  necessary annuals  However,  photosynthesis  temperatures, or  effective  distinctive  rehabilitation  in  generally  for  and to  is  is  upon  nevertheless,  Rates  potential  availability  production  relied  site.  if  weeks  are  invading environment  most  disturbed  Tundra  normal  responses  utilize  1978).  Mai n t e n a n c e Species as  are  requiring those  (Hackett,  low  resistant  Utility  Particular  uses  barriers,  of  to  considered  (Parks  Availability  wear  of  specific  genotypes  may  have  application  use  of  insect  an  asset,  infestations  climate  requirements,  and  Agronomic  at  least  conditions,  nutrient  deficient and  1 976).  not  forage,  control,  capabilities  a  not  feasible,  should  be  naturally have  their  conditions higher  and  and  projects. then  show  become  prolonged  to  If  indigenous to  grow  1972).  adapted success  maintenance  the  and  ability  require  some  introduced soil  (Hackett,  could  available,  stocked  appearance  related,  may  be  corresponding  similar  and  thus  normally  commercially  have  species  nutrient  CI e v e ,  is  regenerate  fertilization,  erosion  rehabi1itiation  genetically  grass  habitat,  1980).  are  to  species  should  be  wildlife  crop  will  species  species  and  and  are  Stock  native  species,  nurse  Canada,  many  native  for  emphasis,  or  but  quickly  diseases  species  visual  resistance  Site  to  maintenance  1972).  Functional  sound  physical  to  optimum  in  repeat costs  (Johnson  10.  Wildlife  Interactions  Resistance  to  small  consideration.  High  substances,  minerals,  whereas  and  stibenes, oils  may  act  Thorny  species  may  be  cover,  but  are  A combination for  food  and  of  into  "instant"  and  an  planting  the  species of  the  desired  stages  appropriately  dominant  pioneer  species  with  desired  species  mix  Zealand  distinct break  highway  components.  down  the  to  be  in  animal  attractants,  larger  winter  or  {Green,  provide  and  fatty  glycosides,  deter  may  high  1978).  herbivores.  forages  and  thermal  (Frischknecht,  coniferous  most  selection during  created.  additional  New  to  shrubs  species  is  understanding  are  used  important  carbohydrates,  repellents  deciduous  of  a mass  of  as  an  1978).  species  is  best  cover.  landscape  evaluation  is  cardiac  inadequate  Completion directly  and  of  appear  tannin,  of  trees  damage  levels  levels  Deciduous  an  mammal  suited  optimum  time  characterized increase  achieved.  planting Grasses  to  in  and  soil  work  an  requires planting,  introduce species.  the  The  planting  diversity (1977)  progressed legumes  whereby  initial  Tritenbach  which  detrimental  by  translate  season  for  co-dominant  a gradual is  single  not  Rehabilitation  best  or  a  should  were  with  of  until  the  described three  sown  conditions.  early  first  Nurse  to plants  a  58 in  the  were  form  of  installed  established, program,  fast-growing, next,  and  additional  weeds  were  short-lived,  when  some -shade  species  removed  to  were  selfseeding and  natural  planted.  prevent  shrubs mulch  Throughout  choking  of  were the  desired  species.  2.3.2  PROPAGATION  Propagation selection  of  vegetative planting  cover.  rooted  procuring  sprigging,  .1  or  plugs, and  various  options  cuttings,  stock.  islands,  closely  the  for  include  to  direct  refinements as  option  sodding, of  the  establishing  transplanting,  Further such  linked  of  a  seeding, or  these  basic  coring,  'containers'  versus  hydroseeding.  Seed  pregermination  collection  of  the  the  fruit, and  seed  sequence  the  found  picking  that  extraction,  raising  rehabilitation  include  (1978)  of  treatment,  represent  component  Vartnou  techniques  proposed  techniques  Collection  seeding  and  unrooted  include  root',  are  The  commercial  alterations  'bare  species  requirements  early  of  from  events  plan. time seed  seed  if  seed  Problems  and  seed  year  of  collection  or is in  storage, direct chosen  as  fruit/seed  collection. resulted  in  a  a  59 10%  germination  been the  attained, first  rate,  increased  killing  frost  Furthermore,  it  produce  crops  to  seed  collect  in  required.  should  to  advance  of  found  raising  of  vegetative  done  in  .2  in  be  with  1978).  success  will  propagation  rehabilitation  have  is  useful  in  the  be  mature,  Fifteen  storage,  for  autumn  the  plump,  planting.  greatest  certain or  and  projects  winter and  from  25-30  centimeter cuttings  in  have to  to  of  length  willow  and  large (1978)  one-third  of  work  the  has  as  it  proven the  native  pertains  Section  cost  been  emphasizing  to  3.3.  very  effective  relative and  root  cuttings  are  growth,  (Prockter, poplar,  ease  of  softwood  although  current year's cm i n  not  are  if  Vaartnou  Hardwood  Hardwood  do  storage  particularly  applicability  species.  storage  seed  studies  due  species  until  amount  methods  rate.  in  one-half  discussed  after  expedient  and  inoculation  had  therefore,  required.  recent  be  Vegetative  cuttings  was  Seed  Propagation  collection,  programs,  A substantial  Canada  seed  maturity  Collection  certain  is,  extraction  seed  50%.  that  the  seed  germination  it  are  after  to  70%  and  material  from  a  place  Vegetative  large  to  realized  seed  means.  (Walker,  outplanting  led  and  of  native  Western  species  germination  rehabi1itiation  quantities that  collection  every year  Methods  pertinent  while  cutting collected  and  should  1977).  with  a  60  Diameter  of  5-25  should  be made  should  be  mm h a v e  in  the  dipped  (Ziemkiewicz  in  recommended to  damage  cuttings placed  are  rooted  prevent  resin  2.5-5 cut  at  the  (Howe,  1978).  45° angle. to  The  storage  be  are  taken  not  be  into  prior  misting  cuttings  at  fromm with  bottom  2-3  hot at  year  allow  thin  Cuttings  cutting above  spring, and  bundles  0° C  the  base  fleshy  slice  insertion  of  inserting  into  are  top,  the  be  suggests  cuttings.  the  is  softwood  should  (1977)  tissue  at  If  they  before  it  susceptible  soil.  Prockter  the  and  thus  outplanting  water  old  a horizontal to  to  the  into  beds.  into  in  too  directly  from c o n g e a l i n g  taken  cm l o n g  a  prior  stems  to  conifer  cuttings  the  planted  dipping  well  1978).  being  directly  at  cuttings  that  if  node  captan  [ed],  Softwood  worked  to Root  normally  and  soil  a  slanted  (Prockter,  1 977 ) .  All in the  order  cuttings  to  avoid  cuttings  (Vaartnou,  a  narrow  should  be  be  taken  genetic  taken  from  from  base a wide  of  healthy  plants,  collected  variety  of  but  material, clones  1978).  Care  must  be  cuttings.  They  exposed  sunlight.  to  should  should  taken not  during be  During  handling  allowed transit,  to  dry  damage  and  storage  out, to  nor  bark  of  be tissues  is  61  to  be  avoided,  cool,  moist,  and  dark  rooted plant  but  stems, at  the  conditions attention the  if  then  of  Indolebutyric common  levels  of  cytokinins  Increasing  the  the  freezing  the  fall.  0°  C,  with  (IBA)  taken  plants  of  sites  application  low  levels  It  dictate  on  planted  call a  for  vigorous  that  ratios  heavy  prior  of  levels of  should of  auxins  shoot  close  to  prevent  applications  to  placement  rooting  hormones.  be  also  organic  matter  in  noted  combined  of  containers  the  planting  generally  can  withstand  considered  more  be  1974).  help  hardening. to  to  slow later  periods  damaging  root  levels  undertaken  short  the  high  high  plant  may  in  are  encourages  with  of  (NAA) that  (Furuta,  be made  should  thawing  acid  cytokinins  formation  should  rapid  be  environmental  napthaleneacetic  note  Plants  may  ensure  growth  cuttings  utilized.  process  to  under  1977).  objectives  Harsh  nursed  stored  Sevens,  species  or  growth/top  or  encourages  Further,  be  be  1978).  with  low  certain  must  then  and  conditions  root  include  auxins  but  of  treatment  auxins  formation, of  to  acid  (Nixey  outplanting.  succulent  should  should  rehabilitation  (Horstmann,  beds  most  steps of  paid  Initial mist  further  on m o s t  failure  nitrogen  cuttings  time  be  cuttings  conditions  Unrooted directly,  the  below  tissues  in  62  (Furuta,  1974).  cuttings  should  temperature,  Prior be  or  to  release  subjected  placed  in  to  from  a  the  gradual  a cycle  of  nursery decrease  'short  days'  rooted of (Furuta,  1 974).  2.3.3  OUTPLANTING  The outplanting has  been  advantages have  done  conditions. site  been  on  Outplanting,  as  recently  of  seedbed  supervision,  .1  Site  and  Grading,  level  and  the  for  quite  of  as  of  are will  simple  considerable or  arctic  defined,  of  work  tundra  involves  general  scheduling,  site,  alternative  control,  planting  fertilizing,  topsoil,  moisture  and  retention,  important  site  depend  rehabilitation  on  scarifiction  conditions  topsoil.  systems  Preparation  scarification,  treatment  alpine  various  1978).  Seedbed  different  application  the  erosion  [ed]  preparation  budget,  to  of  and  preparation,  materials  (Ziemkiewicz  the  documented, harsh  watering  seedbed  well  in  transportation  and  disadvantages  planting  preparation,  techniques,  and  from  and  considerations  seeding  extensive  but  objectives  are  regrading  required and  63  (i)  Scarification  Scarification existing  soil  or  conditions  increasing  oxygen  fragmented  surface  surface  consists  bonding  of  for  of  topsoil  cm. be  "ripping" A claw  coarse to  the  should  be  contain  this  carefully  of  clays  15-20  cm,  and  rototillers  A  "Clodbuster",  break  a up  proceed should Plass  ball  at  the  soil  across be  exercised  (1978)  critical  in  satisfactory  or  or  end,  found certain  slope to that  the  then  of  creating If  the  water  a  the  tilling  may  suitably  existing  will  help  to  avoid  soil  depth  20-30  to  back  a of  at  (Parks  All  be  chains dragged  immediate to  scarification as  Furthermore,  to  disc  frost heavy  a  depth  of  harrows  are  spikes  work  a  along  slope  to  should  erosion, plant is  action  may  1980).  across  spring  may  ripping  depths  with  existing in  for  Canada,  scarification  damage  of  bulldozer  lower  scarified  of  prevent  a  depth  tractor-mounted  also  "  requires  be  may  the  surfaces  soils  series  and  compacted  optimum  salts  circumstances  seedbed.  as  seed.  the  a  surface.  the  improve  "  since  compacted  the  on  but  assessed  seriously  and  of  to  percolation  well  loosen  mounted  not  it  as  severely to  Areas  suitable.  permitting  subsoils,  task,  undersirable  utilized  subsoil.  equipment  for  is  application  attachment  utilized  by  availability,  Rehabilitation heavy  tilling  not may  machinery  and  care  roots. as create  may,  in  a  64  fact,  do  more  structure  damage  than  the  through  surface  compaction  and  scarification  loss  of  warrants  soil (Hackett,  1 972).  (i i)  Contour  The disturbed  moisture  basic  site  landscape.  be  to  and  planned  establishment. surface  impact  are  improve Reduction  help  incorporation  of  the  site  into  for  the  adjacent  existing  a  of  regime  establishment vegetation.  methods,  including  during  peak  of  used  avoid  of  to  in  diversions  run-off,  and  to  1975).  create  Reduced  forms visual  and  drainage  creating  originating  control  during  modification  environment  assist  Water  may  (Marx,  surrounding  seeds  Regrading site  landscape. the  improve water  and  attempt  to  excessive  seedlings  benefits  into  will  be  the  the  surrounding  erosion.  should  the  return  the  velocities,  natural  the  suitable  water  shaping  blend  climatic  yet  modifies  possible  site  and  of  wind  to  also  protection  the  patterns  outlet  of  plants,  which  of  are  and  should  subsequent  the  is  approximating  by  a manner  suggestive  will  number  use  temperature  regrading  process  possible  Contouring which  the  for  in  to  of  a condition  retention  micro-climate  of  objective  However,  concentration also  Restoration  may  be  provide  contour  conditions from achieved a  safe  trenches  to  by  65  prevent Hodder  concentration (1973)  run-off  during  melting  of  broadcast several by  60  large  snow,  long.  depressions area,  If mechanical safe,  1978). benefits slowing  (i i i )  The  maintenance,  Reduction of  a  slope in  of  the  the  are  will  angle  each  Site  solar  wide, or  small  moisture  for  season.  form  considered of  cm  basins"  any  produce  of  45  growing  receive  (Manual  angles  and  of  maximum  Management, additional  incidence,  and  a  Top s o i 1  existing landform  site and  implementation conditions of  30%  of  run-off.  A rehabilitation into  of  creation  soil  first  to  differential for  from  needed  the  is  manoeuvering  of  rate  area  slopes  reduction  the  much  conserve  suitable  "dozer  precipitation  during  rehabilitated  the  cm d e e p  describes  providing  to  allowing  seedbeds  25  1974).  technique  involves  perhaps  vegetation  a  clodded  further  (Meiman,  storms,  technique  collect  thereby of  a  to  efficient  in  creating  Hodder  as  intensity  depressions,  establishment  for  and  run-off  "gouging"  moderate  small  drainage  surface  identifies  seeding.  cm  of  or  creation  criteria.  dictate  stock-piled  soil  site  the  plan  calling  subsoil, of  an  for  planting  requires  amenable  stabilization  seedbed  However,  if  extremely  importation  of  topsoil,  soil,  further  directly  to  satisfy  poor  soil  or  considerations  of the  application are  necessary.  66  Imported weeds  and  other  chemically sites  handled  be a  only  Imported the  to  as  once  of  fine-textured  may  be  amended  and  air  also  and  by  bed  and to  cultivation  between  the  air  water,  and  discourages  two  soils clay  to  or  soil  bark  and  the  better  soil  may  such be  soil  or  for  also  Canada,  incorporated  particle  soils  percolation  amendments  added  to  should ensure  root  such  the growth.  be  preceded  bonding movement  growth,  of  and  1980).  sawdust,  Moisture  and  clay  permits  for  be  improving  supporting  to  should  agents,  water  subsoils  surface  as  in  heavy  be  quick  adding  soil  also  conditions  structure.  improved  may  Bonding  (Parks  materials  Other  recipient  soil  binding  improved  potential  topsoil  slippage  as  for  micro-organisms.  by  Conversely,  receiving  shreds  act  need  promoting  advantage  example,  to  matter  layers.  and  existing  to  1970).  the  of  the  provide  organic  donor  noxious  the  possible,  for  (Foote,  allows  improve  soils,  to  indicating  Wherever  used  soils  sand  soil  Organic leaves,  soils,  improve  of  be  of  thus  retain  may  seeds  possible  moisture.  Application by  as  help  the  ideally,  state.  to  circulation  nutrients,  planting  soil;  "plastic"  nutrients  contain  species,  similar  coarse  retain  as  the  natural  subsoils  texture  may  undesirable  treating  should  recovery  topsoil  straw, into and  binding  decomposing  clay air in  or  sandy  movement sandy  in  soils  67  are  beneficial  provide should other  nutrients be  noted,  organic  of  nitrogen  trough and also  Partially  .2  form  to  cover  be  result  in  the  fertilizer  to  seedbed  allowing  seedlings with  wind  important logs  or  and  need  to  1980).  raw  for  will It  sawdust  or  heavy  the  consumption  boulders  and  generally  has  (Ziemkiewicz,  [ed],  transplanting  and  a  winds,  the  a  establish  in  protected  moisture  rather  availability tilled  soils  germination.  may  significant  be  installed  and  other  seeding  but  of  most  provided  survival  harsh to  excessive  advantage  1978),  of  considered  deficiency,  drying  planting  is  rehabi1itiation  moisture  in  to  plants.  planting  are  be  Freshly  also  of  the  left  successful  Time  in  to  sun.  Planting/Scheduling  sun  of  offset  better  of  due  matter  Canada,  should  Time  soil  organic  incorporation  young  summer  Spring  (Parks  for  plantings  to  growth  prepared  drying  buried  particularly fall  will  decaying  micro-fauna.  from  appear  the  that  micro-environments,  shelter  provide  plant  however,  final  clodded  while  nitrogen  by  The rough  for  matter  applications of  factors,  sites.  be  due  and to  e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i on  moisture  the  Spring  optimum  detrimental  authors  factor,  factors.  availability  recommend  plants  remain  fall dormant,  68  and  seeds  et  al ,  to  spring  do  1978).  plants  germinate  Fall  access  may  overcome  al  (1973  )  problems late  inherent point  roots  prior  planting  require  to  allow  not  is  to well  seeding  and  that  onset  suited  (Fitzmartym,  dormancies  out  the  the  to  establish,  and  use  of  anti-transpirants  winter  alpine  thus  (Brown  areas  Indeed,  subsequent  period  Bengtson  occur  avoid  due  some  cold  1976).  should  time  to  1979).  (Plummer,  planting  of  early  et  enough  to  frost-heaving  problems.  The planting  should  if  specimens  large  be  considered are  Scheduling respect  to  species  coordination  In  with  order  scarification, amendments planting  should by  should  as  away  local  other  to  be  obtain  soon  as  frosts,  from  of  cold  possible,  and air  the  optimum  completed  Fall  of  and care  or  substantial  climatic  phases  early  conditions  ultimately  Furthermore,  be m i n i m i z e d .  unseasonal  areas  decisions and  site  be m o v e d  application  dates.  replanted  to  if  in  warrant  be  made  conditions,  as  well  other  soil  immediately  prior  to  storage  spring must  pockets  or  be  program.  anticipated should  time  all  planting  cool  as  material  taken  or  conditions,  and  and  it,  with  rehabi1itiation  transplanted  summer  distances.  must  planting  topsoil,  late  to  winds.  for may  be  select  be  stock  hampered storage  However,  69  containerized particularly dark  stock in  coloured  .3  late  good  techniques options  has  for  applicability several  and  to  certain  unrooted  stock,  1i t e r a t u r e .  Direct  application  have  prior  is  drill  seeding,  been  tested,  However,  with  seeding  sunlight,  of  soils  in  (Furuta,  and  the woody  one  of  some  tree,  of  1974).  of  the  yet  grass  seeding,  and  hydro  these  limited,  and  initial  Ledgard  desribed  or  legume  seeding  techniques  seeding  (1976) of  wildings  techniques  direct  has  sprigging,  and  of  of  Direct  shrub  cover  ra*ng~e  technique  coring,  the  a  broad  conditions,  into  plants  planting  transplanting,  comparisons  method.  a  project.  sodding,  are  various  Each  site  cuttings,  broadcast  research  comparatively  problem to  islands  and in  wattling,  Seeding  often  made.  planting  with  planner.  utilized  Direct  by  full  significantly  development  species  and  i n the  some  the  rooted  and  plants  in  be  seeds  rise  to  temperature  experimentation  may  (i )  exposed  the  rehabilitation  plugs,  be  of  resulted  commercial  as  may  methods  seeding,  be  Techniques  deal  the  not  summer,  containers  Planting  A  should  of  woody  experiments reported  grasses  and  may  show  that  legumes  70  should  be  established  extremes.  However,  increased survival pelleting  tree  with  and  fungi  Drill  adapted  to  1976).  Drill of  range  planting  application,  and  accuracy  depth,  seeds, by  and  and  therefore, placing  be  the  adjusted equipment  it  fertilizer  were  to  the  climatic  application  and  hence  reduced  also  found  that  improve  woody  seedling  useful  in  plant.  plant  Green,  requires  careful  tree  growth  seed or  carrying  Several  seeds  1976;  is  by  workers  small  rodent  1979;).  too and  vibration  (Johnson  widely  considered  to  the  it  possible of and  reduced.  drill,  conditions  is  seed  to  is  and  seed  loss  in  the  can  of  soil  due  of  (Parks  1980).  Canada,  soil be  seed  Cleve, superior upon  with  seeding. overlying  used.  Predation  erosion  drill  stratification  the  species  immediately  of  the  of &  regulate  through  Disadvantages  deeply  to  rate  compact  application  be  buried  possible  distribution,  rates  selection  site  because  birds,  seed  of  because  is  lower  rodents  of  grass  seeding  Furthermore,  not  seeds  (Ledgard,  to  a wide  the  did  from  Seeding  Seeding  method  loss  of  Ledgard  beneficial  the  seedlings  competition,  seedlings.  predation  (i i)  rates  inoculated  described bird  high  nutrients  while  mycorrhizal have  protect  inter-specific of  survival  to  to  may,  seeding an  species Foote  include  improperly because (1970)  of  71  suggests  that  depressions  drilling  left  by  be  the  done  across  drills  and  slopes  wheels  so  act  that  as  checks  to  erosi on.  (i i i)  Broadcast  Seeding  Broadcast  seeding  deposited to  onto  Plummer  drill  the  (1977),  seeding.  hand-pushed depending  soil  the  Cyclone  and  appropriate  when  or  clumps  depth  or of  other burial  broadcasting  seeds may  in  a very  ( i v)  S p r i g g i ng  Sprigging sprouts  of  used  describe  to  herbaceous  a plant  low  the  material  require  of  spot  is  According  natural  than  tractors,  by  or  hand of  may  rocky  planting (1977) for  be  cover.  used Hand  sites,  planned.  provision  or  Larger since  greater  concluded covering  that  seed  establishment.  whereby  transplanted,  transplanting the  by  are  Walker  technique  onto  more  uniformity  irregular  seed  condition.  broadcast  without  rate  a  are  pulled  required.  seed  is  on  whereby  looks  wildflowers  often  be  native  resulted  of  a dry  seeding  desired  is  legume  in  simple  broadcasting patches  technique  spreaders  or  site  a  surface  broadcast  machines,  on  is  of  topsoil  shoots,  whereas larger surface.  roots,  sodding blocks These  is  or a  term  of techniques  72  are  costly,  but  (Revegetative  (v)  *  may  be  Guide  preferred  for  decade  and  providing  has  gained  cover  on  fragile  areas  equipment.  Seed  provided to  critical  areas  1977).  Hydroseeding  Hydro-seeding  to  Alaska,  in  the  the  soil  can  sown  taken  with  Kay  (1973)  1.  Care  must  be  concentration  after  reports a  10-30-10  or  impact  can  to  ideal  for  applying of  vertical  mulches  last  seed  heavy slopes  bind  the  seed  of  result  in  significant  a  number  of  most  precautions of  which  which  have  should  been  be  recorded  by  follows:  hydroseeder,  Carr  the  water  the  1977).  hydroseeding, as  slopes,  application  and  during  a technique  nearly  fibrous  One-step binder  (Carr,  are  onto  contains  surfaces.  There  withstand  Europe  as  inaccessible to  be  in  acceptance  unable  slurry  savings  pioneered  wide  steep  fertilizer-seed-soil cost  was  sixty  taken and as  to  to  as  loss  minute  fertilizer  seed  maintain  low  a 30%  limit  the  slurry  possible  (Carr,  of  germination  exposure per  soaking  cubic  to  a  meter  time  the  fertilizer 1977; in  Kay,  1973).  Trifolium  repens  solution of  in  of  water.  90  kg  of  73  2.  Gear-type  pumps  mechanical pumps  3.  Wood Kay  4.  damage  and  fibre  Super  Plastic  emulsions  as  it  may  delay  penetration. it  must  nets  be  or  common  order  should  Pelletized  6.  to  is  (Kay,  be  seeds  the  act  a  intermediate  used  as  due  as  mulch.  additives  not  to  lack  excellent  such  the  soil,  stages  (Kay,  as  seedling  of  water  or  of  1973).  a  slurry  tackifier.  additive  component, held  Asphalt  down  but  with  emulsion  is  a  1973).  inoculated  bacteria  of  contain  the  in  hyrdoseeding  the  proper  growth  regulators  may  break  dormancy,  stimulate  be  of  germination  seedlings  (Kay,  and  bacteria  added  to  introduce  strains.  innoculant  Plant  of  to  erosion  survival  vigour  centrifugal  soil  be  the  effectiveness.  influences  and  mix  seeding  that  size  with  prevent  1973).  during  into  chemical  agitation  retard  an  incorporated  nitrogen-fixing  coating  good  germination  tackifier  Legumes  to  organic  should  Straw  sprayed  (Kay,  questionable  are  emulsion  paddle  hydroseeded  added  that  have  in  seeds  be  reports  Verdyol  with  agitation  should  (1973)  However,  to  by-pass  construction  5.  combined  to  the  and  1973).  an  adhesive  (Kay,  slurry  increase  1973).  to the  74  7.  Unevenness gun  of  operator  application overcomes  8.  seed is  unable  that  this  he  should  of  hour.  km p e r  is  problem  Hydroseeding 23  distribution  not  to  often  discern  making. (Kay,  the  occurs  because  pattern  Colour-dyed  the  of  wood  fibre  1973).  proceed  when  winds  are  in  excess  75  76  Attaining also to  an  effective  grass  Gaskin with 20%  prior  et  al  grass of  to  contributing  woody  found  of  establish  recommended  seeded or  at  annual  to  rye  immediate to  5-10 up  50  may  per  lbs. be  ground  plants cover  conditions  can on  acre per  grasses  be  a  very  disturbed  (Walker,  1977).  also and  grasses  limited  application range,  acre. with  over  the  plugs  longer  or  effective areas  and  (Plass,  with  longer  reproductive 1979). grasses  agronomics such to  as  may  be  barley,  encourage  presumably  succumbing  term.  container means  a  native  species  while  or  require  for  only  significant  intra-  whereas  native  to  seeded.  a  Nurse-crops,  benefits,  grass  is  1978).  simultaneously  not  capability,  somewhat  seeded  Transplanting grass  Native  of  areas  is  seeding  (Horstmann,  equivalent  cover,  control  control  native  in  seeding  recommend  planted  survival  percentage  rates  lbs.  species  application  initially  erosion  superior  seed  erosion  However,  the  be  in  direct  authors  willows  survival  competition.  may  in  a drop  to  capacity  are  of that  willow  factor  inter-specific to  planting  average  rate  through  Several  experienced  the  cover  technique.  (1979)  The  time  vegetative  of  extreme  grown  native  establishing climatic  a  77  (vi)  Rooted  and  Unrooted costly  way  Cuttings area,  to  are  and  to  out  are  perhaps  in  sites  drifts  in  Alnus,  roots  similar  locations  Salix, to  the  easiest  reproduction  from  well-adapted  produce  Cuttings  vegetative  collected  species.  particularly ability  cuttings  attain  laid  particular  Unrooted  and  direct  rapidly  in  to  show  least  field.  disturbed  suitable  planting  and  the  the  Populus  and  for  the  cuttings  are  due  to  their  accelerated  shoot  growth.  stuck  in  bottom.  Cuttings  would  be  the  at  angle,  Prockter  No.  1 for  for  hardwood.  to  soil  remove  (Nixxey  The  in  create  a  soil  bundles shrubby  technique  of  have  been  planted  rate  of  of  "sprigging"  hormone  and  cut  recommends  the  rooting  hormone  No.  should  2 for  be  Unrooted of  damage  to  characteristic. as  defined or  firmly  willow  three  by  at  semi-hardwood  packed  avoiding  horizontally  establishment.  rooting slanted  groups  growth  a the  while  1977).  in  with  cuttings,  pockets  & Severs,  placed  (1977)  softwood  air  an  placed  to  bark  stems  Root  vertically  to  No.  the  3  stem  tissues may in  be order  cuttings,  Johnson  Seradix  and  around  cuttings  four  the  & Cleve show  a  or  to the  (1976), high  78  The erosion  technique  control  planting across  unrooted  cut  bundles  or  are  partially straight  or  some  other  to  aid  the  in  eroding  slow  the  species  securely  the  surface and  be  when  transplanted  for  self-sufficient grown easy  in  the  trench  to  be  stems  1936).  are  1974).  used,  less  foliage into  and  the  the  water  been  shown  water  Nussbaum,  bundles  straw  wattles  prevent has  than  then  increase  and  are  reasonably  Wattling  (Leiser  The  they  thickness  bound  of  trenches  and  be  effectively,  1974).  will  be  surface.  be  chosen  plant  months  Rooted  to  is  the  an  two  or  of  immediate  three  site  to  outplanting  desired.  cuttings  hole  accept  as  capable  transported  planting  place  little  between  rehabilitation  and  in  with  a method  Nussbaum,  stem  has  deal  is  in  should  with  reproduction  plants.  able  may  them  should  flow  mature  several  The  brush  slope  a more  containers  handling.  V-shaped  the  and  Wattles  sediments  cuttings  onto  secure  readily  accelerated  grown-on  twigs,  (Kraebel,  root  to  flexible  spaces  entrap  to  Wattling  material  water  evolved  slopes.  available  the  has  (Leiser  soil.  soil  which  and  to  leafy  organic  Rooted  growth  of  of  slopes  material  fixed  technique  steep  down  plugging  infiltration If  filled  lengths  wattling  cuttings  covered with  If  to  very  staked  25 mm.  from  on  of  as  should  Cuttings seasons  and  normally  site  in  consist  extended  may then  relatively  would  the  shoot  roots  be  cartons  of of  a  small the  for  79  cutting.  The  stem  is  then  firmly  heeled  in  and  watered  immediately.  (vii)  T r a n s p l a n t i ng  In  general  terms  transplanting  overlaps  encompasses  several  other  more  techniques,  transferring emphasis  of  container-grown the  transplants  from  review  will  accompanying less  the  susceptible  shoots,  has  capability  plant to  1979).  the  the  opposed  via to  which  the  seeds The  speeding  up  natural  adjacent  environment  to  has  well  invasion  (Ziemkiewicz  of  as  the  root  of  soil  developed and  has  and  plants  wildlings advantage  1978).  is  roots  micro-fauna  micro-organisms  [ed],  mass  the  seeded  local  further  a  micro-fauna,  than  indigenous  the  but  bare  of  nutrients,  introduction  stock  and  contains  quickly  of  site,  advantages  due  more  the  such  conditions.  already  available  to  wildlings  nursery  transplanting  commercial the  on  desiccation  produce  (Fitzmartyn, site  be  offers  immediately to  cuttings  field-grown  Transplanting  specific  and  to  as of  from  the  80  In material  general,  are  arrangement  well of  backfilling, transplants  the  techniques  known;  roots,  the  soil  and  watering  are  have  received  less  is  warranted.  shrubs  should  be  moved  around  the  species  trunk,  and  the  co-existence. be  taken  to  planting. may  be  in  bare  prevent The  applied  1978).  Close  digging  and  drying  roots  may  (Nixey  relation  attention,  with  out  be  of  kept  & Severs,  roots in  1977;  supervision  of  work  transplanting  of  all  a  to  or  trees  small  is  wildlings  and  be  an  cover  community  from used,  of  continued care  digging  must  and  anti-desiccant  Ziemkiewicz  crews  wildling  herbaceous  between  water  trunk,  special  derived  are  the  However,  and  benefits  seedlings  to  possible, sod  commercial  size,  and  transplanting  mutual  root  hole  standardized.  together  possible If  in  Whenever  effect,  transplanting  appropriate  level  consideration  of  [ed],  necessary  during  to  proper  ensure  the  handling.  (vii i)  Container  The stock  for  summary Balmer  of  Grown  relative  merits  rehabilitation relevant  (1976)  Versus  often  findings  described  of  is  Bare  Root  Stock  container  grown  have  been  included.  advantages  as  and  discussed, Stein  follows:  bare and  (1976)  root a and  81  1.  A high  degree  attained  2.  with  Greater stock  of  control  container  production  lead  to  over  an  and  planting  3.  Extended  planting  seasons  4.  Improved  rates  survival  of  in  roots  rootball, easier  transit,  intact  1.  There  be  are  of  with  container  production.  possible.  are  possible  retention  of  and  due  moisture fine  root  to in  protection the  preformed  structures,  and  planting.  is  a  of  container  requirement  growing-on  Conditions the  3.  may  grown  plants  have  included  following:  the  2.  process  efficiencies  speed  mycorrhizal  Disadvantages the  nursery  stock.  increased  of  the  Container  process,  that  incidence  for  of  grown  more  and  accelerate disease  seedlings  technical  consequently  seedling  and  are  higher  growth  nutritional  heavy  knowledge  and  also  during  costs.  increase  imbalances.  bulky  to  transport.  82  4.  If  foliage  damage  or  thought  5.  is  not  scorching  to  be  a  Containerized  (ix)  hardened may  Sodding,  kill  greater  stock  is  Coring  prior the  problem  more  or  to  outplanting,  plant. in  Damping-off  containers  susceptible  "Plugs",  frost  to  Island  (Howe,  frost  or  entire  "Raft"  operation, from the  but  moving organic  environments important where  long  and  the  single mat,  to need  and  is  Mt.  plugs  Additional  may  are  (1975)  observations  involves  However, where be  but  in  C ,  of  suggested  is  alpine  not  take  costs  sodding.  plots  found show  that:  areas,  would  High  of  test  replacing  arctic  seeding  and  did  in  used.  established  well,  or  different  disturbance  also  B.  clumps,  quite  disadvantages  Revelstoke,  survived  are  thermal  and  *  transplanting  application  1976).  sodding  Scotter  on  of  desired,  site  a  Sodding  particular  Cleve,  donor  is  wildflower  techniques  reduction  effect  and  sod,  specimens.  has  establish,  species  transplanted growth.  and  a  native  communities  woody  where  of  of  necessary  (Johnson  Campbell alpine  plant  the  immediate  too  "  relocation  miniature  1978).  heaving.  Transplants  The  is  of  that appreciable  83  1.  The  plug  size  increased  2.  considered  essential.  A bond  5.  must  be  material  to  between  of  peat  netting  to  retard  heaving  "Island" the  literature,  the  case  study  method  involves  square  and  include island  of  vegetative  not  critical,  Watering  is  between  the  moss  of  plugs  showing  but  very  watering  important  is on  dry,  herbaceous, expansion  the  any  mineral,  and  gas  of  the  into  the  into  shrubby,  will  Firewood islands the  biological  added  substrate.  surface  presents  received  technique  large  seed  and  plugs  have  Snowshoe  and  subsoil  and  jute  useful.  transplanted  digging  immediate  parts  are  transplants  the  water,  rototilled  erosion  although of  permit  different  transplanting  the  is  created  use  Frost  larger  sites.  exchanges  The  with  survival.  treatment  organic  4.  important  Fertilizer  exposed  3.  is  of  and  little be  dispersal  attention  elaborated  vegetation area.  aesthetic  tree  problem.  Rehabilitation.  disturbed and  a  may  occur  in The  up  to  1.5  Advantages  benefits  material  from  in  of  an  which  readily  .  m  84  .4  Mulches  and  Mulching effective  means  has  to  particularly  on  reducing  speed  the  from  wind  velocities.  also  aid  of  rain-drop  trampling,  of  and  is  can  of  available  effective  mulches  porosity,  discussed the  movement They  is  that  severely  non-toxic resistant, 1980).  low  to  low  free  Fitzmartyn  for  and  erosion  of  the soil  of  (1979),  the  degree  of  weed  indicated  to  that  weathering,  for  of  that  soil required.  short  should  (Parks pH  (1971)  recommended  animals,  seeds  are  of  control  The m u l c h  and  are  and  rate  movement  unpalatable  noxious  on  in  through  Dickerson  and  high  growth.  mulches  and  control  depend  and  compaction  the  held  Mulches  erosion  Armbrust  of  readily  Characteristics to  by  evaporation,  inorganic  market.  cover,  scouring  plant  an  protecting  1973).  nutrients  seedlings. yet  (Kay,  as  erosion  by  more  reducing  soil  should  damage  the  excessive  cost.  rates  control  are  years  plant  run-off,  fertilizer by  several of  checking  resistance  damaging  plants,  and  the  wind  selected  that  found  could  on  temporary  material  and  organic  include  and  water  modified  provide  currently  Mulches  conserved are  for  establishment  sites.  preventing  A number  good  the  and  Materials  recognized  impact,  extremes  capable  Control  surface  Seed  moisture  temperature  been  adverse  soil  place;  Erosion  periods  also  be  fire Canada,  levels  and  the  85  carbon/nitrogen  ratios  of  Mulch  should  approximate  pH  levels  establishment,  and  failure  by  competition  soil  nitrogen.  for  caused  available  applied have  to  been  (i)  areas  the  the  where  Straw  sawdust  have  by  or  hay  been  applied  by  Application  rates  will  conditions,  rainfall,  fire by  crimping,  wire  may  commonly  or  on  Wind  to  should  be  low  plants  ratio  of  Jute also  be  steeper  punching.  although  be  considered.  ensure to  and  mulches,  plant  avoid  plant  micro-flora  fertilizers  should  such  as  be  sawdust,  vary and  used,  Straw  type  blowers to  of  on  should  plastic  the  be  straw,  15-45  or  or  compacted  soils  fibre  emulsions  are  can  creating  be  the  soil  caution  or  soils.  The  reinforcing  tackifiers  are  appropriate hard  considered  for  a  attained  mechanical  concrete  too  beaters.  although  into  especially  spread  topography,  sites  as  and  be  straw  cm f o r  chemical are  can  seedlings  straw  fabrics,  although  or  the  exposed  rolling  barkchips,  mulches  smothering  Tackifiers  slopes Wood  the  effectiveness  woodchips,  according  avoid  or  1973)  superior  manufactured  straw  employed.  shown  protection  mesh,  Kay,  utilized.  to  disking,  length  mulching.  use  exercised  hazard.  average  pH  Nitrogen C/N  also  soil  between  (from  have  mulches,  also  be  high  Mulches  and  rehabilitation  should  ratio  should  used.  Organic  hand  C/N  mulch  for  crimping  86  environmentally although  the  It contain  up  more  latter  should to  5%  acceptable are  be  However,  population  alternative,  less  susceptible than  excessively water  residues similar best or  must  with  desired  natives  native  grasses  may  sites  mulches  providing may  be  has  water.  available  blowing, or  pH  hay  have  and  materials  found  that  an  form  an for  be  a  space  reiaristic  similar  less  intertwined Excelsior  to  to  straw  plus  expensive,  shows  a tendency  apply,  such  as  than  the  than  use  3:1,  to  of  lasting, fire  C/N  ratios,  aeration  and  are  rates  of  the  more  high  straw  to  of  wood  achieve  wood  residues  is  although  shredded  wood  resistant  demonstrated  asphalt  and  sawdust  application  of  longer  However,  retardation  fibres  has  by-products  considered  higher  Generally  slopes  as  mulches.  considerably  to  are  easier  levels,  with  (1973)  restricted  or  hay  cereals  residues  effectiveness.  comparable is  acidic  excelsior  wind  to  straw  Kay  are  Wood  infiltration  problems.  thus  or  the  collection  residues  industry.  resistant  of  straw  conditions.  Wood forest  Harvesting  that  weight,  competing  provided  environmental  by  emulsions,  use.  finally,  crop.  aggressive  nutrients.  noted, seed  nurse  asphalt  widespread  cereal  additional  and  in  than  emulsion. decompose  to  dislocation  by  effectiveness However, too  excelsior  quickly,  and  87  installation Protection  is  labour  Agency,  Erosion paper,  or  control  observed  that  anchoring  are  erosion  biodegradabi1ity  in and  Small,  may  tearing an  of  not  effective  anchoring  Heede strips Gullies  the  (date  dramatically and  deep  installation in  fabrics,  of  rills the  were  establishment  of  seedlings.  for  plant  are  growth  successful. 2-5 be  years well  is  After  appearance  organic  found  established.  of Kay  and  Relatively  are  other  slopes  mulches  that  are  poor  possible  are  suitable  generally  submerged  retention  Strips  were  movement  water Heede  flow points  for  climatic  the of  on  burlap  planted  gentle  and  Submerged  disintegration on  netting  whipping.  to  necessary  depending  the  reshaped  soil  dam w h i l e reduced.  wind  as  burlap.  reduce  velocities  drawbacks.  soil  to  check  are  beneath  costs  soil.  ground  miniature  woven  effectiveness  erosion-prone  unknown) aided  mesh,  high  unsightly  applications  jute but  by  excessively  of  available  occur  for  in  Environmental  composed  also  questionable  results  problems.  fabrics  fibres  and  (U.S.  1975).  plastic  installation  intensive.  set  swales  thus  aid  in  strips  concentrations that  procedure the  burlap  conditions,  prior  vertically  burlap  out  sites.  a  act  as  a  and potential  be  strips  plant  cm  the  high to  15  to  cover  in  about  should  88  (li)  the  Soil  and  Rock  Mulches  Soil  and  rock  mulches  creation  Rough  of  seedbeds  retain  moisture  and  layer  gravel  of  control  species  4,000  that  a  (Parks  (i i i)  gravel  as  a  fertilizer, other  water  elements  hydroseeding "mulching" "seeding". while  Kay  chopped  are  Alder,  in  place  a  newspaper  and  heavy  study  by  Field  Kay  due  to  germination. atmospheric  showed  effective  encourages  that  a  erosion  observations  invasion  often  seed must  in  by  by  have  indigenous  1980). similar  Hemlock  rainfall  and  which  a mulch  to  with  processes primary fibres  seed,  allowing  that  function  from  are  commonly  corrugated  the  and  scouring.  ,  used,  boxes,  poorly.  soil,  and  and  performed  wind  is  regulators,  Hydromulching  waste,  screenings adhere  Binders  growth  different  office  Soil  combination  compounds,  and  that  and  technique  Canada,  Aspen,  material  during  a  somewhat  demonstrated  Hydromulching  is  essentially  serves  seed  modify  more  Tackifiers;  control  (Parks  rated  1980).  slurry,  erosion  and  straw.  cover  Canada,  Hydromulching  of  for  One  provides  lb/acre  Hydromulching;  applied  moisture  regimes.  3 cm d e e p  highly  microsites  soil  temperature  than  indicated  favourable  were  hold  seeds  Moisture  89  holding shown  characteristics  that  products  slope-adhering vary  and  from  500  to  1,500  mulch evenly  in  to  the  order  Fibre place,  retain  erosion. been  to  tackifiers, resistance affected slurry,  to  Slope to  wood  adhere  the  their  control  butadiene  (SBR)  'Super  fertilizer,  into  through reach  fibre  in  mulch  additional of  have  glues  improving  to  are  or  their  tackifiers  fertilizers  capabilities  1,000  retard  hydraulic  commercial  of  seeds  effect.  and  ways  lbs.  are  the  reduced  .  performance.  in  addition  a  rates  500  should  secure  without  Several  erosion  polymer  of  slopes  as  of  passing  germination,  continues  by  to  best  dispersing  mulching  intended  applied  to  adversely  absorbent  Slurper'  fibres  ratio  rates  sufficient  are  well  in  the  have  Application  the  seed  application  rain.  Styrene  capable  protect  promote  research  while  studies  have  capacity.  to  ensure  and  fibres  effective  or  and  longest  is  wind  significantly  an  and  moisture,  but  important,  lb./acre,  tackifiers  Virgin  found  the  water  slurry,  lb./acre  also  water-holding  gal.  pumps.  in  with  3,000  centrifugal  are  absorbing a  fiber  but  SBR  made  from  Slurper' 1,000 slurry retains  products starch,  is  times is  a  its  less  its  dry  and  have  'Super  shown  powder  weight  effective  performance.  improved  which  in  Slurper',  is  reported  water.  when  'Super  used  'Super  with  Slurper'  90  is  normally  acre,  applied  although  at  100  one-half  lb./acre  of  these  and  SBR  amounts  at  is  30  lbs.  superior  per  to  other  products.  Recent glue  products  more  effective  Surfaces more  tests  after than  treated  resistant  have  the  seeding  including  with  to  demonstrated  glue  or  rainfall  mulching  glue  after  that  in  the  application operation  slurry  of  is  much  mixture.  hydro-seeding-mulching  impact,  and  are  more  are  durable  in  general.  Soil  binders  particles  for  emulsions  such  acrylic  high  protection as  (SBR).  molecular  aqueous  concentrates  to  critical  the  the  If  desired  PVA  from  (called All  weight,  phase.  designed  polyvinyl  copolymers  butadiene  are  are and  with  water  wind  acetate PVA),  are are  of  of is  the  the  as  in  a  sold  better  to  Plastic  vinyl as  styrene  particles  with  continuous as  amount  slurry  or  well  polymeric  generally  content it  used,  soil  erosion.  homopolymers  are  and  surface  water  dispersed  water,  diluation,  bind  and  mixtures  Emulsions mix  to  liquid of  is  water  used  greater  than  apply  the  is  emulsion  separately  Problems airing  with  temperatures  emulsions  (45°-55°C),  include  a  restricted  susceptibility  to  range  of  destruction  91  by  frost  if  emergence  of  rainfall. rainfall areas  uncured,  seedlings,  They  are  areas,  subject  The techniques available.  on  to  soils  frost  determine  the  to  permit  acre  retention  plant  is  faced  aids  vary  a  or  of  in  low  erosion  and  in  in  a  in  mulches  erosion  of  rough  In  seedbed  applications influence  spite of  inadequate  of the  may low  of on  retain soil  material  water  in. cost  and  availability  suitable.  improves the  control  costs.v  control  alternatives  considerably  length  materials  capability with  the  negative  These  of  raising  seed  germination  water  and  expensive  have  establishment.  range  projects  performance  substantially  may  broad  and  most  while  additives  mulches  are  length  Indeed,  of  approaches  the  sheds  capacity,  which  fibre  solution.  holding  material  Increased  over  use  and  per  cover  water  for  conditions  mulch  soil  low  delayed  which  site  of  not  of  formation  unsuitable  review  various but  crust  establishment,  heaving.  illustrates The  plant  generally  Generally, amount  and  foregoing  effectiveness, usually  reduced  the  fibre. and  many is  with  germination  cases the  a  simple  best  mulches  and  other  plant sufficient moisture.  moisture As  deteriorates,  availability  for  the the  survival.  92  .5  Fertilization,  Fertilization edaphic  controlling  planting,  yet  outplanting  applied  during  growing  to  planting  of  cover,  and  al  the  be  mixed  subsoil,  regular  to  the  time  relates  or  in it  intervals  the  have  a  of  to  with may  for  be  th'e  first  top-dressing.  reclaimed  essential  seeded  crops,  however,  of  seeding.  height et  applied  However,  were  alone.  Applications  of  greater  success  seed  growth  increasing  relative  to  those  1979).  Cook  with  seed, and  and  only  grass  biomass,  (1974)  suggests  again  as  a  (1970),  found  fertilizer  other  of  without  then  that  better  fertilizer, and  of  Herrington  significantly  water,  rates  required  by  al,  surface  to  Referti1ization  campgrounds,  not  and  effect  Beardsley  rehabilitated  than  on  appear  favourable  applications  Phosphorous  not  be  fertilizer  broadcast  did  time  maximum  that  but  Directly  at  and  found  appearance,  that  seed  at  may  Planting  at  it  vigour,  (Gaskin  of  amendments as  of  relation  the  referti1ization  studies  soil  in  discussion  (1973)  Nitrogen  pines,  establishment.  can  et  improved  transplanted  areas  discussed  and  over  and  Protection  seasons.  fertilization  fertilizer  and  Fertilizer  spreading  Bengtson  land  been  further  techniques.  prior  mined  has  factors,  warrants  topsoil  few  Watering,  and  than seed  treatments  in and  seed showed such  as  much  93  water  and  alpine  seed.  These  revegetation  on M r .  Scotter,  1975),  where  critical  to  survival,  In  summary,  overall  benefits  shrubs,  as  equipped are  well  to  fertilizer while  watering  and  C ,  treatment  there  containerized root  B.  is  no  a  not  shoot  found  question  cuttings  growth  if  as  to  to  trees will  in  and  significant  Transplanted  rooted  studies  (Campbell  was  played  by  be  role.  the  and be  adequate  better  nutrients  available.  fertilizer  determined  revegetation texture, and  substantiated  fertilization.  promote  The be  were  Revelstoke,  however,  of as  results  on  soils  organic  nutrient  pH  5.5  al,  1978).  Too  may  lead  lush  vigour  to  endanger supported  woody over  of  supply is  soil  rate tests  shoot  at  a  if  an  a  period  growth,  time  species, capacity,  of  but  a  repeated "nurse  (Parks  soil depth  Optimum  5.5-7.0, lime  particularly  herbaceous of  pH o f  should  desired  1979).  application  Furthermore,  plants  the  plant  (Fitzmartyn,  an  application  ion-exchange  fertilization,  1972).  of and  include  recorded  appearing  long  the  content,  requiring  much  (Hackett,  and  Variables  matter  availability  below  basis  results.  available  nutrient  the  mix  with (Brown  with  nitrogen  reduced  plant  fertilizing crop"  Canada,  et  is 1980).  may  94  Fertilizers tractor-operated  may  be  equipment  on  applicators  on  appropriate  for  inaccessible  included  in  the  slurry.  thorough  watering  plants  (Parks  material  is  steep  readily  Canada,  often  Standard  organic  fertilizer  by  means  of  drip-line.  (1976)  did  improve  not  Planted installation, should  be  areas  and  of  transplanted  stock  pruning,  all  Exposed  and  planting  destruction should  be  landscape  by  into  should  retaining  plants sites  wind,  protected  be  over are  hand  some  with  at  least  practices  a  burning  of  plant  each  of  the  tree  root  spreading not  saucers  or  zone  around  recommended  the  as  1978).  with  nutrients  watered of  water.  cases,  be  single  material  Damaged by  staked  vulnerable even  following  larger  repaired  m should  are  of  be  slow-release  thoroughly  a  dry,  larger  pelleting  particularly  in  would  (Horstmann,  immediately 1.5  of  also  growth.  excess  and  construction  or  hand is  chemical  periphery  seed  planting  be  applied  dropping  benefits  survival  should  is  treatment  or  by  fertilizer  generally  tree  or  equipment  prevent  the  holes are  that  mounded  capable  include  marginal  seedling  to  individual  tablets  reports  sites,  Fertilization  temporary  indicate  Ledgard  follow  directly  Starter  and  fertilizer  practices  narrow  observations  areas,  If  by  with  Hydroseeding  1980).  done  shrub.  accessible  slopes.  should  spread  or  appropriate  guyed.  to  smaller  stake.  proper  material Standard  where  sizeable  95  material  has  replacement capital  due  cost  Maintenance  been  transplanted  to  of  wind  proper  Proposal,  and  upturning tree  the  should  support  Pacific  maintenance  Rim  cost  be w e i g h e d  measures  National  of  tree  against  the  (Grounds  Park,  Parks  Canada,  1 979).  Other fencing  to  increased prevent should whereas  p r o t e c t i o n measures  reduce spring  wind  moisture  trampling be  staked  shrubs  or  or and  and  allow  to  plants  or  placing  earlier,  periphery  (Schiechtl,  by  1980).  All  protect  other  described  insulating  availability,  browsing. tied  include  may  or  larger  temporary snow  build  wire  fences  plant  against be  brush  wind  sheltered on  snow  the  up  and  to  material damage, by  mulching  planting  as  96  2.4.0  phase;  MAINTENANCE  & MONITORING  Maintenance  is  rehabilitation  perhaps  the  most  planning  and  design  minimize  maintenance  requirements,  which  critical  the  is  durability apparent  of  that  project,  of  cover.  every  decision  design  Design capital  whereas  vegetation  the  management  thinning  and  pruning,  control,  and  repairs  fences  or  other  rehabilitation effectiveness established planted the  until  site. should  to  the  of  the  plant  Press, work  as  disease to  hard  assess  It  community  maintenance  the  end  amply  the the the  need  control,  wildlife  landscape  elements  such  may  be  part  evaluation  and  and  of  should  stabilized.  be  paths,  cost  monitoring  must  as  the  of  development  monitoring  for  referti1ization,  weed  effectiveness  has  implictions  of  demonstrates  replanting, and  maintenance  readily  considered  growth  and  be  to  and  often  which  Cost  project  has  undertaken,  the  should  management  strive  often  too  Furthermore, be  is  All  literature such  it  efforts  establishment  1978).  is  components  communities.  life  successful  revegetative  (Environmental completion  to  yet  problematic  of  plots newly  accounted  continue  at  over least  97  2.4.1  VEGETATION  .1  Watering  and  Periodic  watering  for  the  first  significant in  traffic  al ,  cover  (1 9 7 5 ) of  expected water,  1975: that  the  fertilizer, of  Brown,  where  and  is  were  Irrigation  large  scale  recreation will  depend  sites.  not  likely  projects,  use  Other  watering 1972).  recover  but  be  may  rates  of  patterns,  70%  on  also  Beardsley only  could  attest  durable  exist. after  watering plant budget  seed,  treated  (1975)  crushing  with to  and  the  (Douglas,  points  out  species  than  impractical on  a  be  Furthermore,  beneficial  and  f r o m "human  fertilization  of  a  material,  cover  sites  areas  have  plant  receiving  obviously  conditions,  to  1976).  Douglas  otherwise  planted  pressures  a  establishment  to  of  authors and  of  shown  al,  season  are  The  et  whereas  systems  on c l i m a t i c  characteristics, 1975).  the  to  campsites  growing  seed.  might  more  on  Hackett,  been  durability  (James  achieved,  third  vegetation dry.  that  has  subjected  impacts  permits  they  and  are  maintenance 1978:  watering  grass  other  fertilization  seasons  they  10% was  after  and  growth  reported  only  importance  on  where or  Referti1ization  growing  effect  particular  foot et  few  MANAGEMENT  of moist  if  it  for  intensively  used  referti1ization  species,  soil  restrictions  (Marx,  98  .2  Weeding  Weed extremely the  growth  harsh  benefits  important  rehabilitation approximating important the  removal  a  is  tree.  objective  Newcastle  of  upon to  vulnerable  but up  weed  weeds,  the  but  encompasses regulation.  most  total  A  (1972)  then  may  weed  are  a  (1979)  in  an states  the  early cost  can  produce  the  University  between  that  that  plant  prohibitive  suggests  more  condition  becomes  tasks  where  a  available  the  by  if to  weeding  for  report  of  increases  weeding  species  life  in  of is  during  the  period.  outlines  Mowing  site  on  material  control  Macpherson  competition  (1972)  a  control  also  planted  However,  important  that  desirable  erosion  return  acknowledges  establishment  tillering  to  compete  20%.  eliminate  control.  and  operation. which  to  considered  support  state,  reports  Tyne  Hackett of  of  to  cover  is  mature  weeds  be  composition.  Macpherson  growth  required  species  one  hand-weeding, tree  vegetation  the  of  often  unable  maintenance  nutrients of  sites  of  than  may  helps be  mechanical  to  discourage  encouraged.  killing,  selective  and  chemical  means  broad-leafed  Chemical killing,  control and  growth  99  .3  Additional  The phases  over  rehabilitation several  legumes,  and  planting  phase  hence  cost  planted  low  2 or  3 years  plant  the  established. planned  .4  Thinning  and  Thinning  serves  intended  land  site  and  seed  heavily  on  establishment species  mature  nutrients, Secondly, of  and  they  to  1967;  Each  requirements  care  of  trees  and  to  be  is  be  replaced  reasons  for  necessary is  after  the  to  the  first  failure  ensure  have  that  the  maintained.  Pruning  at  least  use. sites  et  to  may  would have  growth al,  as for  help  purposes  be  ensure  compete  authors  promote  It  two  However,  will  thinning  James  the  in  grasses,  trees.  maintenance  composition  cover.  several  overstory  (Rudulf,  of  planting  example,  precede  should  provided  species  harsh  may  for  For  include  Replanting  original  call  future.  material  over-wintering  may  specific  should  in  Replanting  seasons.  shrubs  have  projections  second  been  growing  and  plan  growing  would  Dead or  Planting  desirable adequate  certain space,  maintain  recommended of  1976).  depending  ground Dense  to  plant  or  light,  and  shrub  and  healthy  cover  the  or  germination  tree  the  on  plants.  partial  removal  vegetation  undergrowth  may  serve  100  as  wildlife  control,  or  habitat  and  screening,  assist  improve  the  durability  of  Pruning recreational (Rudolf, growth, thin  1967).  It  maintain  the  advantage  applicable  qualities  surrounding  provide  is  or  may  light  a  recreation  a  treatments be  existing  2.4.2  quite  exercised  latter  enhance  trees  force  undergrowth,  technique  with  to  diseased to  sites.  a  bushy  and  to  help  to  relation  to  may  competitive  1980).  the  is  caution  promote  material  of  or  use  areas  beneficially  installed  promotion  cultural  utilized  The  (Schiechtl,  natural  be  heavy  profile  damaged  vegetation.  newly  objectives  protect  pedestrian  seeded  high  conditions,  Si 1 v i c u l t u r a l the  in  in  practices  must  rehabilitation different area.  not  be  to  viewed  program;  criterion  Rudolf  should  be  (1967)  planned  in  jeopardize  in  maximum  from  establishment  further advance,  wind  growth  advises and  firmness  of  that  that of  stands.  WILDLIFE  CONTROL  Control  of  small  mammal  concern  of  rehabilitation  rodents  and  leporids  reforestation  damage  have  programs  AND  for  INTEGRATED  to  plants  planners. proven the  to  PEST  has  Green be  MANAGEMENT  been  (1978)  a major  following  an  increasing  found  problem  reasons:  that in  many  101  1.  Predation  2.  D e c r e a s e i n s e e d l i n g s u r v i v a l due t o b r o w s i n g o f t h e t e r m i n a l buds and t w i g s , o r f r o m t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f t h e p h l o e m and o u t e r cambium l a y e r s o f t h e s t e m , r o o t s and/or lower branches.  In  his  number  review of  of  of  applied  small  variables  rehabi1iation  mammal  in  sites  seeds  by  rodents  damage,  plant-animal  or  Green  birds.  (1978)  relationships  reports  a  on  including:  1.  The t y p e and d e n s i t y o f g r o u n d c o v e r a r e important f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g l o c a l s m a l l mammal distribution patterns.  2.  Mammalian increases  3.  The t y p e o f snow c o v e r , mammals.  4.  T h e v a r i a t i o n s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s m a l l mammals i s a t t r i b u t e d to a d a p t a t i o n of each s p e c i e s to s p e c i f i c h a b i t a t s t i m u l i such as v a r i a t i o n i n c o v e r , e f f e c t s o f climate, soil types, predation pressures, food a v a i l a b i l i t y and i n t e r s p e c i f i c c o m p e t i t i o n .  5.  Deciduous trees are s m a l l mammal damage  Methods mechanical, use  of  to  cites  temporary and  of  p l a n t c o v e r h a s a b e a r i n g on and h e n c e t h e w i n t e r h a b i t a t  control  to  the  risk  of  effectiveness  survival  of  are  reduce  discourage  small  categorized Chemical  numbers,  consumption poisoning of  the type of small  g e n e r a l l y more s u s c e p t i b l e than c o n i f e r o u s species.  environmental.  rodenticides  repellents Green  and  a n d a v i a n p r e d a t i o n on s m a l l mammals i n a r e a s of low v e g e t a t i v e c o v e r .  due  to  includes and  particular  and  increased in  the  contact  plants.  species,  reduction  to  chemical,  systemic  non-target  poisoning,  mammals  control  or  of  into  of  the  breeding  numbers  and  102  decreased  intraspecific  chemical the  control.  extent  there may  is  be  of  Excess  rather  danger  utilized  regulatory  Repellents  damage  little  encounters  to  of  fertilizing  of  has  may  problems  be  than  superior  the  been  are  linked  to  the  use  they  of  of  affect  animals,  species.  reproductive  population  in as  numbers  non-target  regulate  processes  as  and  Chemosteri1 ants  success  as  disturbed  by  increased  the  natural  poisoning.  localized  browsi ng.  Mechanical guards, while food  sonic  sources,  suggests control to  repellents,  environmental  inducement,  control  that  habitat  habitat  technique.  increased  exposure  to  mammalian  by  fungus,  projects  would  material  and  and  other  include  the  applications  where  wire  provision  is  in  several  of  addition  component  supplementary  of  diseases.  Pest  the  or  disease  cover and  (1978)  can  lead  greater  control  of  maintenance has  been  the  control  of  management  on  inspection  pesticide  or  Green  of  to  authorities  periodic  fences,  promising  availability  for  applicable.  mesh  most  amount  techniques  of  mechanical  predators  the  the  In  important  management  insects,  techniques  an  of  manipulation.  food  extremes.  identified pest  genetic  lower  or  use  through  manipulation  predation,  wildlife,  integrated  include  control or  the  traps,  A reduction  climatic  programming  kill  methods  biological  and  involves  other  of  plant  control  use  larger  1 03  2.4.4  MONITORING AND  Monitoring landscape  an  rehabilitation  revegetation site  is  EVALUATION  technique  problems  may  ensure  continued  (1977)  outlined  recreation  be  essential if  corrected of  Soils  2.  Ground Vegetati on:  Measure  Forest Canopy:  Assess  Planting Survi val:  Determine  4.  5.  Use  studies  may  composition, or  aesthetic  of  cost  check  list  Furthermore,  action  cover. for  of  and  desired.  remedial  plant  process  taken  Nixey  to  and  Severs  monitoring  Record the water i n f i l t r a t i o n , nutrient balance.  Patterns:  In  is  the  sites:  1.  3.  and  the  following  in  assessment  effectiveness  survival the  an  step  to  adopted  weed  of  health.  or  these to  and  vegetation,  success  and  growth  Record development of w e a r on t r a i l edges.  addition be  coverage  pH  factors  measure  native  species  undesired  more  changes  rates. paths,  or  sophisticated in  species  invasion,  wildlife  values,  qualities.  Evaluation rehabilitation  may  lead  techniques,  or  to  abandonment  changes  in  of  certain  species,  fertilizers,  104  or  maintenance  assessing  the  variables  or  maintenance  success perhaps  or  recreational  2.4.4  the  site  of  Long  after  of  of  by  land  managers  horse  the  impact, be  sites  depending  Land  integrated of  the  with  entire  if  al, all  render  the  high  a  for  high well  management  planned  as  user  site  completed, conjunction  snowmobiles,  vandalism,  shows  may  to  and  some  of degree  of  Sophisticated sites  Stankey  rehabilitation  Actions  actions  closure  recreation  and  problems  continued  allow  by  and  regulations  numbers  Periodic  documented of  in  sufficient  conditions.  resource  region.  continue  Education,  of  use  use  been  post-rehabilitation  1974). human  have  trampling,  serve  climatic  been  study  and  limitation  et  on  have use  biological  trampling,  1978).  sometimes  to  techniques  (1977).  grazing  required  rehabilitated  areas  Recreational  (Brown,  but  (James  country  by  uneconomical.  man-initiated  may  deterioration  rationing  judged  Excessively  would  must  some  recovery  expenditures  management  efforts.  may  use.  use  are  activities  under  be  strict  schemes  fire  user  with  implementation  vehicles,  combat  project  may  MANAGEMENT  land  surveillance  effectiveness  durability  off-road  and  the  development  USE  monitoring  faced  Cost  replacement  LAND  process  with  programs.  in  back  and  sites  recreational employed  or  Baden  should  be  development isolation  105  raise  the  further  risk  landscape  rehabilitation land  use  of  conflicting  land  deterioration.  programs  objectives.  reveals  uses The  poor  and  the  repetition management  possibility of and  site unclear  for  106  PART  III:  CASE  3.0  INTRODUCTION  The wide  STUDIES  variety  literature  review  summarized  of  into  framework  sources  approach  to  the  studies  case  specific  landscape  sites  is  applied  management  of  model the  to  in  the  case  will  according  to  landscape  development  the  be  scope  the  literature  derived. the  plan,  a  a  primary  the  project,  process  synthesis  review,  case site  rehabilitation  a  objective  implementation,  with  landscape  Each  from  comprehensive  rehabilitation  Through  studies,  of  for  The  planning,  management.  presented  aspect  illustrate  regard  post-rehabi1itation information  rehabilitation.  to  with  a  information  of on  and of  the  rehabilitation  study  is  described  characteristics, method,  and  assessment.  Three chosen  1.  for  the  The in  project  following  sites Parks  such  sites  were  planning  and  observation dynamics  a  recreational  actual  the  rehabilitation  1976-1979  the  to  projects  of  the  projects program,  participate  phases,  institutional  characteristic  rehabi1itiation  capital  opportunity  implementation of  environment  were  reasons:^  Canada's  afforded  in  or  yet  and in  as the  permit  administrative  framework  typically  included  exist.  in  which  many  107  2.  The  three  prime  rehabilitation of  over-used  Landscape  while  The  project  areas  of  a  reference  sites  montane are  1  of  a major  day-use  are  is  also  to  considered.  scheme  made  and  to  a  other  separate  smaller  and  characteristics. Rim  National  sub-alpine  National  in  the  and  Park);  zones case  and  a  impacted sites."  with  quite  very  distinct  A coastal Park);  and  forest  zone  northern  (Jasper  and  southern  grassland  studies  area,  included,  heavily  parks  problems,  sub-alpine  represented  directly  rehabilitation  revegetation  Rockies,  and  although  of  trail,  (Pacific  Lakes  range  hiking  management  area  (Waterton  not  a  a  viewpoint,  biogeoclimatic  Canadian  was  represent  different  beach  types,  fireroad  corridor  sub-alpine  3.  represent  redevelopment  conversion highway  sites  National  Rockies, Park),  .  The s i t e s were a c t u a l l a n d s c a p e d e v e l o p m e n t and r e h a b i 1 i t i a t i o n p r o j e c t s i n P a r k s Canada 1976-1979 c a p i t a l program. The p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n , and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n were u n d e r t a k e n as p a r t o f t h e c a p i t a l p r o g r a m and were n o t i n a n y way d e s i g n a t e d a s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . The a u t h o r has, h o w e v e r , u t i l i z e d t h e s e p r o j e c t s as a b a s i s f o r thesis d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h r o u g h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f responsibility f o r e a c h s i t e , was a b l e t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h t e c h n i q u e s a n d o b s e r v e r e s u l t s o v e r a o n e t o two y e a r p e r i o d .  FIGURE  1  Case s t u d y 1 o c a t i ons  I I I  B.C.  I  ALBERTA  / / /  s JASPER Bow Summit PACIFIC RIM  Heather Lake  \  \  i  WATERTON  LAKES  3.1  LONG  BEACH  PACIFIC  3.1.1  SCOPE  NORTH  RIM  highway beach  section  terrace  day-use  for  revegetation while  parking  The  zone  as  total  old  and  of  Beach  the  and  coast  lies is  Park.  of  within  beach  the  is  part  lots  on  considered  part  The  hectares  site,  area  of  in  of  of  the  Rim of  Western  the  10  Park,  general  new  hectares.  Coastal  British  National  were  disturbed  is  Island,  and  receiving  including  excess  and  intensive  beach  recreation  a  Beach  for  the  of  development,  Vancouver Pacific  area.  developed  core  3.36  trails  Long  North  realignment  rehabilitation.  CHARACTERISTICS  site  the  included size  and  parking  as  the  coastal  designed  well  highway,  the  included  the  SITE  Unit, in  were  vegetative  the  along  study  Beach  from  treatment  lots,  3.1.2  located  inland  roadbeds,  designated  PARK  development  areas  AREA  PROJECT  recreation, while  abandoned  land,  NATIONAL  OF THE  Landscape  DAY-USE  Plain  Columbia. Long  recreation  FIGURE  2  The Long Beach North r e c r e a t i o n a l e n v i r o n m e n t draws thousands of summer t o u r i s t s .  FIGURE  3  The b e a c h zone c a n w i t h s t a n d heavy impacts, but the p o s t - l o g zone i s more s e n s i t i v e t o trampling pressure.  Ill  Long of  a local  clays,  soils,  and  Estevan  gravels,  and  other  run-off from  below  beach  although  generally  the  drained.  immediately  and  a  over  400  while study  to  the  Maritime 2500-3800  reach  mm o f  narrow  1973).  climate  according  summers  allow  east  Krajina to to  variable  northwest the  (Parks  the  and  250  lush  winter, Canada,  are  of  months.  summer  scattered  clay  1973).  by  is  Seaward inland  moderately  a coastal  well  bluff  Highway.  14° C  or  the  Storm are  with seafog,  (Parks the  winters  October  winds  with  immediately  classified  and  sandy  soils  and  cool  ample  vegetation.  during  of  content.  The m i l d days,  area  materials,  cloudiness  (1970)  part  predominant,  5° C to  Cfb.  summer  1973).  by  prolonged  growth  while  area  as  Canada,  Tofino-Ucluelet  southeast  during  ridge  abutted  Brooke as  has  water  terrace  frost-free  a  the  soil  from  an  although  (Parks  plain  conditions  range  Plain,  characterized  narrow  also  Koppen  from  in  of  climatic  predominantly  km/p/h  low  is  are  high  beach  area  permits  50  a  the  precipitation  the  by  feet  inland  precipitation,  Canada,  from  and  temperature  up  areas  adjacent  further  unconsolidated  elevation,  restricted  The  Coastal  feet  drainage,  coast  classified  200  terrace  the  poor  is  been  the  protrusions  beach  has  of  generally  bedrock  North  widening  sands,  lying  The  Beach  to  Winds  are  April,  and  winds  may  light  and  reach  112  The Western  Hemlock  although Picea  the  The  adapted  from  site  defence with  project  site  vegetation base-line  successional of  zone is  generally  (according  within  to  the  Krajina  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a  coastal (1965),  narrow  immediately  adjacent  to  gradient  represented  in  I  data  prior  installations  falls  Spruce)  inland  condition  construction  area  (Sitka  situated  disturbed  Beach  vegetation  sitchensis  beach.  the  Long  presented  from to  the park  from World  vegetation  recreational  were  by  Spruce  Bell  (1972).  fringe  development; War  II,  and  predominant  facilities.  Table  was  in  remnants  open  rough  prior  to  strip  of  the is Much  of  a o f meadows  TABLE  I  VEGETATION  GRADIENT,  (after  LONG  Bell ,  BEACH  1 972)  Vegetation  Zone  Fore-1og  Sea Sea  Drift  Beach Beach Giant  Log  Post-1og  Sitka  Spruce  Beach  Terraces  Cedar-Hemlock  Fringe  Forest  Rocket Purslane Rye Pea Vetch  AREA  Association  (Cakile edentula) (Honkenya p e o p T o i d e s ) (Elmus mollis) (Lathyrus japonicus) ( V i c i a gigantea")  Salal Wi11ow W i l d Rose  (Gaulthena shalIon) ( S a l i x sp. ) (Rosa nutkana)  Sitka spruce Salal Salmonberry  (Pi c e a s i t c h e n s i s) (Gaultheria shallon) (Rubus spectabilis)  Red A l d e r Salmonberry Salal  (Alnus rubra) (Rubus spectabilis) (Gaultheria shallon)  Western Cedar Western Salal  (Thuja plicata) (Tsuga h e t e r o p h y l l a ) (Gaultheria shallon)  Red Hemlock  114  A further cool  breezes  effect, and  and  wind  buffer  for  an  an  the  nutrient on  Large  mink,  to  area.  mammals' deer  sandpipers life  north  and  of  study  1978).  However,  Ucluelet  1971-72  renders  available although  for some  35,000,  with  a  reported  show  that  much  lower  to  the  black  The  dense  by  stunted  protective  inland.  Periodic  visitors  and  bird  in  Long  in  may  1977-78, of  use  9,000  58,000 is  Beach be  in  also  intensive,  activity  is  North  in  in  recorded.  the  No  zone, to  the  328,999  and  data  are  Area,  use,  July-August  according at  to  over  interpretative  1977-78.  The  the  Canada,  Tofino  Park  in  found  Day-Use  in  found  (Parks  Park  while  otter,  1973).  from  invalid.  are  beach  are  between  November.  contacts  the  1977-78  drawn.  peaks  are  Canada,  substantially  number  the  on  colonies  (Parks  424,829  River  frogs  prevalent  site  region  bear.  are  counts  of  Beach  and  total  over  beach  plants.  very  Long  traffic  low  summer  the  snakes,  increased  conclusions  counters  constant Krummholz  few y a r d s  considerable  use  traffic  staff  the  has  in  a  of  distinct  trampling  and  garter  marine  counted  a  tolerant  a  and  in  extensive  visitation  in  effect  vegetation.  while  Park  the  form  edge  leaching,  racoon,  south  salt  shrubs  forest  land  Migrating  is  resulting  of  and  black-tailed  marten,  factor  spray  trees main  impact  limited  salt  occurrence  pruned  flooding, have  and  important  the long  These winter  data months,  weekend  in  May  115  has  traditionally  visitors  to  the  exceptionally surfing,  popular  heavy  bird  gravel  the  drift-log  parking order  and and  prevent  points,  with  parking  lot  (Picea  perimeter.  considerable facilities spruce  zone,  sensitive  fringe  connecting  with  east  little  drift-log  and  Day-Use  are  Area.  to  included  the  Highway  consequent The  to of  to  the  trails  ran  two  spruce  identified  a  capable For  walking  trails  development  this  of  were  and  fragile of concept of in  Pedestrian entrance  seaward the  from  Sitka  the  Spruce  withstanding  reason,  occurring  zone.  the  fringe  major  extending  impact.  adjacent  vehicular  on  beach.  large the  relocation  (1972) zone  of  development  the  a  trampling  permit  through  post-log  west  Recreational  side  access  as  photography  concentrated  inland  minor  recreational  and  zone,  littering.  Bell  walking,  development  with  controlled  additional  sitchensis)  to  therefore,  the  Swimming,  PLAN  fringe.  highway  be  North  Tofino-Ucluelet  vehicular  then  and  1,000  drawing  1978).  The  zone,  over  sunbathing,  Beach  prior  spruce  on  holidays  watching  Long  widespread the  public  post-log  was,  facilities  could  animal  well  the  post-log  moving  to  access  the  traffic  vegetation included  in  of  Canada,  DEVELOPMENT  lot  of  all  influx  combing,  the  fringe.  inside  pedestrian  sea in  an  (Parks  conditions  parking Spruce  use  and  LANDSCAPE  Site  with  beach  activities  3.1.3  to  park,  kayaking,  picnicing,  Sitka  attracted  picnicing  located in  the  in  the  more  FIGURE 4 The l a n d s c a p e development p l a n called for r e a l i g n m e n t of t h e highway e a s t of S i t k a Spruce fringe.  FIGURE 5 The new a 1ignment allowed p a r k i n g to be r e l o c a t e d away from t h e s e n s i t i v e beach a r e a .  FIGURE 6 The o l d p a r k i n g l o t was s i t u a t e d i n the p o s t - 1 o g zone and p r e s e n t e d an a e s t h e t i c i n t r u s i o n i n t o the beach a r e a .  117  Toilet benches, design  and  two  located  The entrance,  at  the  walking  volumes  of  impacts  through  visitors,  and  rehabi1itiation development  low  overall  and  treatment,  buildings,  refuse  viewing two  decks  major  trails,  component  plan.  were  of  also  to  components  a major  of  the  points.  to  parking  handle  control  pedestrian The  signage,  including  designed  barriers. formed  units,  access  system  attempting  channelization vegetative  were  beach  circulation  while  disposal  use  flow,  of  and  surface  vegetative part  peak  the  lots,  FIGURE 7  Site  Plan,  Long Beach N o r t h  Day-Use  Area.  FIGURE  Section  8  r HIGH w»te*. uwe  BECTION  a a '. T y p i c a l  BECTION  b-b I Picnic  through  Long  Beach  Area.  fLAKTlkt;  Parking  Vleadow  Area  SCALE  1*: 3 0 '  CD  Parks native the  plant  design  existing mix  to  In  disturb  disturbed  native  generally  response, as  little  areas,  vegetation,  ecologically  3.1.4  policy  material.  was  rehabilitate  Canada  similar  REHABILITATION  to  terrain  visually  as  use  establish  a  predisturbance  of  objective  of  possible,  harmonize  the  with  plant  the  species  community.  METHOD  inventory  stage  identify  gradients,  soil  observations  the  overall  to  biophysical  types,  an  and  Existing to  to  dictates  and  supplemented  data  plant  was  species,  drainage. these  consulted  the  vegetation  Field  findings,  during  tests  and  are  and summarized  below:  .1  Vegetation and  site  patterns  species  development various  maps.  described  were  identified  Five  soil  representative  Agriculture.  Acidic  predominantly  sandy  nutrients,  salts,  Nitrogen  deficiency  findings  are  and  organic  was  summarized  and  levels  soils,  very in  Bell and  samples  sites  pH  and  by  (1972) located  were  analyzed  plan  collected  from  Alberta  found  in  the  levels  of  available  matter  were  pronounced.  Table  on  verified,  by  were low  were  II.  recorded. The  soils  121  TABLE  II  SOIL  Sample No.  pH  1  4.9  4  2  5.5  2  3  5.8  1 0  4  5.1  1  5  5 . 1 0  .2  Landscape areas  .3  order  to  the  Each  proposed  site  information other  a  grouping on  AREA  3  73  low  0.3  low  low  10  66  low  0.2  low  low  1 0  57  low  0.2  low  Organic Matter  .  l,ow  0  44  low  0.1  low  low  2  76  low  0.1  low  low  site  plans  and  a map  displaying  on  the  and of  dominance  factors.  BEACH  S  treatment  development  designated  and  identify  LONG  K  superimposed  to  RESULTS,  Total Salts Na (mmhos)  P  development  were  in  N  TEST  native  proposed  vegetation  rehabilitation  biophysical type  data  corresponding  areas.  rehabi1itiation plant  species,  patterns,  area  was  including  species  then known  frequency,  soil,  1 22  In  addition  to  matching  considerations spray,  flooding,  example), as  4  such  and  drought  Commercial  or  growth  ability  to  survive  under  trampling  availability  of  held  of  with  collecting  suitability  considered  were  and  essential  and  was  form  to  other  salt  (thorns,  harsh  for  conditions  investigated  horticulturist growing  feasibility, to  vegetation,  such  analyzed.  species a  of  tolerance  growth,  feasibility  were  habit,  of  were  on  rooting  patterns  rate  discussions  Based  as  natural  the  to  certain  the  and  determine native  following  rehabi1itiation  the  plants.  species  program.  123  TABLE  III PLANT  MATERIAL  SELECTION,  Thuja  plicata  Picea  sitchensis  Tsuga  heterophylla  Pinus  contorta  Gaultheria  Vaccinium  (Western  nutkana  Lonicera  Hemlock)  Pine)  North Quanti ty  c ommerc i a l  500  commerci al  1 ,500  commerc i a l  150  commercial  12  c ommerc i a l  22,000  commerci al  870  (Evergreen Hucklebberry)  col 1ected  340  (Sitka  collected  200  (Salal)  munitum  sitchensis  Cedar)  Spruce)  (Western  (Shore  ovatum  Red  (Sitka  shallon  Polystichum  Rosa  Beach  Sou r c e  Plant  Picea  Long  (Wild  (Sword  Fern)  Spruce)  Rose)  involucrata  (Black  Twinberry)  contract  grown  1 ,310  contract  grown  735  Ribes  divaricatum  (Gooseberry)  contract  grown  870  Rubus  spectabilis  (Salmonberry )  contract  grown  4,700  TABLE IV  REHABILITATION ZONES, LONG BEACH NORTH  Classification  Type of Treatment  Correspond!ng Biophysical Unit  Site Preparati on  PI ant Associations  CLASS 1  High p r o f i l e planting at access points and around buildings. Immediate landscape e f f e c t .  Sitka Spruce  Normal landscape development with 20 cm t o p s o i l , large transplanted stock, intensive mai ntenance.  Picea s i t c h e n s i s dominant, with Gaultheria shallon, Polystichum mum turn understory. Other shrubs also used.  CLASS 2  Mass planting of contract grown and transplanted materi a l .  Beach Terraces and Sitka Spruce F r i nge.  Minimum t o p s o i l a p p l i c a t i o n , random plant d i s t r i b u t i o n within groupings of species. Percentage of species mix to r e f l e c t natural cond i t i on.  Some Pi cea si tchen si s to rei nforce Sitka Spruce f r i n g e , Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , Gaultheria shallon mafn understorypi ants. Alnus Rubra, invaded n a t u r a l l y .  CLASS 3  Beach zone r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area, using contract grown stock. Attempted to duplicate natural species mixes.  Post-log  S c a r i f i c a t i o n of old parking l o t , a p p l i c a t i o n of t o p s o i l , protective fencing in key areas. Left surface rough to allow small hollows f o r establishment of plants.  Scattered Picea si tchensi s, but mainly Salix c u t t i n g s , Rosa sp . , Ri bes, Rubus, and Lonicera i n v o l u c r a t a . Some Gaultheria sha11on  CLASS 4  Road edge and berm treatments to receive turf and planting of c o n i f e r s .  Cedar-Hemlock Forest.  No t o p s o i l application, seeding of grasses and planting conifers and understory shrubs, low maintenance.  Thuja p l i c a t a , a p p l i c a t i o n , Tsuga heterophy11 a, as dominants, with Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s and G a u l t h e r i a shallon planted as understory.  zone  -  125  During  the  contract  investigation  growing  rehabilitation the  site  was  intended  from  into  lower  demarcate four  four  listed  by  but  phasing, short  the  was  to  site and  high  biophysical  of  to  unit.  a chart  indicate  type  preparation  long  a  priority  designed  on  and  classification  separating  by  of  classification  This  vertically  horizontally  availability  development  also  types  arranged  unit,  the  zones.  costs  areas,  associations,  Table  The  with  of  zone,  techniques,  term maintenance  (See  IV)  Following service  the  the  (Rosa  development  contract Lower  condition  for  and  from  of  three  of  Seradix  parts I  of to  a a  area  growing black  rehabilitation nursery  and  May  twin  30-June  sand  to  were  9 cm p o t s ,  grow  season.  one  15, part  to  (Ribes 1978,  plan,  collect  under  Cuttings  berries  gooseberries  rooting  cuttings into  let  Mainland  ac i c u l a r i s ) ,  collected  Rooted  was  one  involucrata),  later  treatment  reduce  were  material  proceeded with  priority  biophysical  from  plan  rehabilitation  subtitles  plant  possibilities,  to  classes  plant  of  a  small  cuttings  controlled of  wild  roses,  (Lonicera divaricatum) and  perlite,  stuck with  in a  were a  medium  treatment  hormone.  transplanted with  a  approximately  growing  medium  of  six 70%  weeks sawdust,  1 26  20% p e a t ,  and  10% s a n d .  were c o l l e c t e d as were p l a n t e d  7  root  cuttings  immediately  A c o n t r a c t was  tendered  rehabilitation  of  plant materials The p l a n IV),  the  lists  site,  and d i s t r i b u t i o n  to ensure  that  topography,  site  FIGURE 9 ng n e r i zed at access t o beach  division,  and  development  and  including  the  installation  to the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  with  (as  factors  supervision  outlined  deemed  such as m i c r o - c l i m a t e  and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e s i r e d during  planting  plant  in  Table  plant  directly  was  of  strategy.  the f i n a l  t o be s u p e r v i s e d  Close  into consideration  spectabilis))  9 cm p o t s .  and q u a n t i t i e s ,  architect.  PIanti contai stock point area.  o r by c r o w n  f o r the landscape  according  landscape  taken  into  (Rubus  i n d i c a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n areas  species  grouping  Salmonberries  by  the  necessary and mixes  operations.  were  IZ.7  FIGURE  10  Old h i g h w a y alignment showing restoration p l a n t i n g and berm to s c r e e n new highway l o c a t i o n .  FIGURE  11  R e s t o r a t i on p l a n t i n g showing P i c e a s i t e hens i s and Rubus spectabTTi s a f t e r f i r s t overwintering period.  FIGURE  12  Restored area showing new g r o w t h and h e a l t h y groundcover establishment in June 1980.  TABLE  V  PRELIMINARY NORTH  RESULTS  FROM  CONTRACT  Cutting  GROW N A T I V E  Number C o l l e c t e d and G r o w n - o n  PLANTS  FOR  LONG  Survival Prior to P l a n t i n g  BEACH  Percent Success  PI a n t  Type  Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s (Salmonberry)  root cuttings crown d i v i s i o n  4,700  3,150  67  Rosa nutkana (Wild Rose)  hardwood  cuttings  1,310  800  61  Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m (Gooseberry)  softwood  cuttings  870  750  86.2  610  61 0  Lonicera involucrata 1 00 ( B l a c k Twi n b e r r y )  of  TO C O L L E C T AND  softwood  cuttings  FIGURE  13  P I a n t i ng c o n t a i n e r i zed s t o c k on d i s t u r b e d p o s t - l o g zone a t Long Beach P l a n t s were d i s t r i b u t e d according to natural patterns found i n the p o s t - l o g zone.  FIGURE 14 Beach a r e a i n March 1979 s h o w i n g p r o t e c t i ve fencing. Planted stock i s v i s i b l e in background.  FIGURE  15  Beach a r e a i n J u n e 1980 s h o w i n g l o s s of p l a n t m a t e r i al , and i n v a s i o n o f grass species. Note p a t h development i n foreground.  130  Hard construction of  1978.  called  and  for  seeding  perenne)  summer  of  stockpiled  ratio  4:1,  and  Topsoil  other  priority  access  areas  the  were  final  Western  Red  transported  ground  were  During  spread  zones.  only  Bark  vicinity  of  prevent  in  fall  erosion of  1978  required,  the  lime  in  the  the  service  was  sequence  during final  the site  sawdust  form  post-log  mulch  spring  rototilling,  decomposed  on  lot  rye-grass  with  chip  of  crop  where  of  parking  rehabilitation  the  mixed  and  completed  nurse and  application  the  site  and  to  site  Planting  the  preparation  supervising quantities  followed  Cedar,  species  to  the  crews  Sitka by  applied  facilities  at  a  of  beach  nursery  Spruce. and  stored  area  and  to  and  major  was,  within  Western grown  for  by  hand  one  in  therefore,  allocated  to  transplanted  each the  weeks  Spruce  Hemlock, shrubs week  were  while  shrubs  desired  zones.  2  Sitka  Containerized  classification  architect  subsequently  grown  Contract  distributed  material  completed  transplanted  completed.  designated  plant  by  was  Large  truck,  was  were  landscape of  installation  preparation.  first,  cover  according  material  site  planted  final  in  cover  topsoil  was  road  points.  Plant of  agronomic  as  vegetative  scarification  the  bonemeal.  planting  an  influx.  of  berms  the  tourist  addition  such  of  provide  included  high  of  to  preparation  of  elements  placement  Preplanning  (Lolium 1978  landscape  and  mixes  The  able  to  planting  monitor zone.  containerized  stock  FIGURE  16  Rosa s p . i n nursery f l a t s , showing s p o r a t i c s u c c e s s and v a r i a b l e growth.  FIGURE 17 Rosa s p . i n containers prior to o u t p l a n t i n g , F a l l , 1978. Root growth i s c r i t i c a l , and s h o u l d be p r o p o r t i o n a t e to top g r o w t h .  FIGURE  18  Rosa s p . s h o w i n g new g r o w t h i n J u n e o f 1979.  FIGURE  19  Gaultheria in nursery June 1978.  FIGURE  shallon flats,  20  Gaultheria shallon in f i e l d storage area p r i o r to outplanting, Fal1, 1 978.  FIGURE  21  Typical s i z e of Gaultheria shallon grown i n p a p e r pots. Some f r o s t damage o f roots o c c u r r e d p r i o r to o u t p l a n t i ng .  FIGURE 22 Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s , In containers, p r i o r to planting. Root and stem c u t t i n g s were u s e d .  FIGURE  23  Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s plant in June, 1979. This plant was t r a n s p l a n t e d as a r o o t c u t t i n g from t h e l o c a l area.  FIGURE  24  E s t a b l i shed p l a n t i n J u n e , 1980 competing w i t h invasive grass species.  134  as  laid  out,  and  spread  during  the  planting  8°  wet  days  C),  Soi1conditions stages,  but  saturated  followed  became  planting collected  occurred of  beach  area,  or  in  bundles  on  all  two  roadside  mixtures  were  1.  Grass  Festuca Poa  rubra  2.  Phleum  pratense  Wildflowers  Chrysanthemum  sp)  was  by  of  as  to  done  in  and the  1,000  as  Fedcue)  were  disturbed  individually wildflowers spring.  30% 2 5%  Rye-grass)  20% 1 5% 1 0%  Clover)  directed)  leucantheum  purpurea  direct  sq.ft.)  (Timothy)  hand  the  planted  Bluegrass)  (White  with  follows:  per Red  and  groundcover  Cuttings  grasses,  also  lbs.  and  together  adjacent  hormone  Seeding  tree,  cuttings.  immediately  (Perennial  repens  (sown  Digitalis  traffic.  (Canada  perenne  Trifolium  foot  separately  Loliurn  early  supporting  (Creeping  compressa  the  of  (Salix  (3  during  incapable  areas  Legume  frost.  with  rooting  open  to  days  1979,  stems.  (+5  latter  of  with  cool  the  spring  species  by  in  in  Willow  Weather  worse  shrub,  broadcast  and  transplanting  of  the  zones.  evening  fertilization  3-4 and  for  all  characterized  occasional  surfaces  treated of  over  was  progressively  unrooted  from  by  ideal  soggy  Follow-up plantings  operations  were  and  fertilizer  (Shasta  (Foxglove)  Daisy)  50% 50%  Seed  135  seeding (Vicia this  A  final  planting  of  local  Beach  gigantea)  phase  was  Wire points  in  further summer  not  use.  success,  were  and  to  evidence  of  damage.  Assessment  enable rough  impacts of  establish  an  judge  effectiveness  useful  the  management in  the  model.  overall  collecting  japonicus)  and  herbaceous  of  Giant  cover,  and Vetch although  the  major  rehabilitation  zone.  reduce  the  maintenance phase  the  was  visual  total such  as  the  the  The  results  derivation  the  plot Long  by  cover or  a  or  percentages,  and  induced  intended  to  accurate  and  to  to  provide  rehabilitation  observation Beach  as  material similar  human  program, of  were  designated  plant  sufficiently  overall  of  of  therefore,  trends  No  anticipated  were  invasion  wildlife  access  implemented.  site  vegetative  was,  of  of  not  of  of  specifications  recording  estimates  to  impact  development  for  assessment  adjacent  beach  to  plots  approximation  information  the  final  species,  other  installed  ground  within  provide  colonizing  include  additional  taken  this  areas  plots  to  (Lathyrus  protect  although  monitoring  was  Detailed  Key  was  implemented.  to  measures  Pea  provide  fencing  order  compiled,  other  to  phase  are  project.  recorded  1 36  3.1.5  ASSESSMENT  Assessment was  of  aided  by  the  inception  in  planning  and  finally  This  has  of  users,  revegetation the  and  of  park  and  out in  in  November  including June,  visits  work  are  an  full  growing  between  but  the  will  be  well  employed shown  model  management  is  essential  the  to  as  as  development  techniques it  phases,  seasons.  success, site  scheme its  implementation  material  The  from  a management  implementation of  1978,  early  three  spring  the  observation  and  Spring  will  thus  in  be  the  of  the  site  June of  for  through  that  long  in of  March 1980.  trends  March  of  landscape  term  in  1979, This the  were  early  carried summer  sequence  of  planted  chronologically.  1979  the  plants  development  investigations  described  appearance  majority  of  visit  Investigation,  general  with  project  of  allowed  promising  rehabilitation  development  finally  The  two  plant  critical,  and  (a)  the  through  management.  1979,  communities,  monitor  over  of  North  project.  Following plans  to  relationships  itself  a  Beach  design,  tabulation  post-rehabilitation viability  and  completed  the  assessment  Long  opportunity  enabled  observation plan,  the  the  planted in  the  areas  early  was  stages  of  137  leafing the  out.  plants  sp.)  and  areas  as  A very  were  in  colonizing  be  Wild  spectabilis)  significant  Rose  were  bare  and y e l l o w i n g examination  of  of  from  growing  weedy  (Rosa  noted  in  the  patches leaves  the  soil  concentration  suffering  mortality  of  nitrogen  in  rate  A  and  observed,  and  Horsetail  ( E q u i setum  invading number  parking  little  on  installed  in  these  sawdust,  or  and  deficiency.  lot no  plant  areas  many of  Salmonberry  rehabilitation  central with  were  significant  nutkana) all  was  condition.  species  expected.  However,  normal  good  broad-leaved could  low  of  planting  naturally (Rubus  zones.  islands  natural  there  the  a  were  colonization,  material.  revealed  hence  most  An  higher  plants  than  were  likely  I?6  FIGURE  25  Beach a r e a zone s h o w i n g 10 cm Gaultheria shallon plants.  FIGURE  26  Typical condition of G a u l t h e r i a s h a l I o n one y e a r after planting in beach a r e a . Note probable s a l t damage.  FIGURE 27 A l n u s r u b r a , and T r i f o l i u m sp. i n v a d e d many p l a n t i n g areas to compete w i t h container stock. Both s p e c i e s are nitrogen f i x e r s .  139  In vandalism of  tire  damage by  the  tracks, to  using  FIGURE  on  addition,  site  there  post-log uprooted  furniture.  established  28  Loni c e r a i nvolucrata performed well in e a r l y s t a g e s of the r e s t o r a t i o n , but were s u b j e c t to t r a m p l i n g .  was  beach  considerable  rehabilitation  seedlings, Vehicle  pedestrian  evidence  and  willow  access  trails.  was  zone  in  of the  cuttings, apparently  form  and gained  TABLE  VI  S U R V I V A L RATES OF PLANT MATERIAL; M a r c h 1979 (by v i s u a l e s t i m a t i o n and d i r e c t c o u n t i ng)  Source & S p e c i e s A . CONTRACT GROWN  Comments  Survival  Rubus spectabilis, Lonicera involucrata Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m , Rosa n u t k a n a  generally performed w e l l ; r o o t growth to shoot growth r a t i o at time of p l a n t i n g c o u l d be i m p r o v e d .  very very good good  poor d i g g i n g , careless techniques, sloppy p l a n t i n g ; taken from protected sites, and p i a c e d i n open  good good poor  balled & burlapped f r o m open grown situation, browning on o c e a n s i d e  very  poor  B.  good good  TRANSPLANTED  V a c c i n i u m ovatum P o l y s t i c h u m munitum Picea sitchensis  C . NURSERY GROWN Picea sitchensis  Tsuga  heterophylla  does wel 1  not  transplant  Thuja  PI i c a t a  open  grown  excel 1ent  Gaultheria (4" pots)  shallon  possible frost damage during storage, 1978  fair  Gaultheria (408 p o t )  shallon  possible frost damage during storage, 1978  poor  Polystichum (4" pot) D. C U T T I N G S Sa 1 i x s p p  KEY Very Good Fair Poor  good  munitum  good  p l a n t e d i n shady protected areas  v e ry  showing leafing  excel lent  good habit  SURVIVAL ( p l a n t s condition) G r e a t e r t h a n 90% 70-90% 50-70% L e s s t h a n 50%  in  healthy  good  growing  Rate  FIGURE  29  Salix sp. cutting pi a n t e d i n March 1979, showing l e a f y growth in June 1979. C u t t i n g s were collected locally.  FIGURE  30  Flourishing willow s h r u b s grown from cuttings. Phtographed in June 1980.  FIGURE  31  Picea sitchensis and R u b u T spectabi1i s i n parking l o t area. The p l a n t m i x r e f l e c t s the natural condition.  IfZ-  FIGURE 32 P o s t - l o g beach zone s h o w i n g f i r e pits established in r e h a b i l i t a t i o n area. Note l o s s of p l a n t e d m a t e r i a l and i n v a s i o n of g r a s s species.  FIGURE 33 E n t r a n c e t o beach area showing l a r g e transplanted Picea s i t c h e n s i s.  FIGURE 34 Picnic table located in Sitka Spruce f r i n g e . These a r e a s were s u b j e c t to v a n d a l i sm.  143  (b)  Early  The inherent  in  importance  second the  of  Investigation;  field  site  user  maintenance. evident,  Summer  Widespread in  soil  compaction  Coupled  with  increased  stress of  placed  complete  on  and the  loss.  loss  over  much  vandalism, low  plant  The  berms  and  buffers  impacts  and  hence  the  plant  herbaceous  many  material  rubra)  seedlings  vigour  of  was  of  competition.  Most  si tchensi s),  showed  supple  and  however, nutrient  richly  the  some  the  green.  Many and  the  the  problems  planted  of  areas,  post-log  and  areas  plants,  effects  the  was  and  zone.  of  low  soil  availability,  the  aggregate  had  resulted  areas not  of  the  in  subjected were  to  from  effect  (Rubus  Sitka  signs  of  on  Sitka  (Alnus the  spectabilis), of  Spruce  foliage  transplanted  user  Alder  regardless  and  as  weedy  inhibiting  grown  such  areas  flourishing.  Red  site,  large  site,  colonizing  growth  showed  of  demonstrated  competition  nursery shoot  number  rehabilitation  Salmonberry,  good  were y e l l o w i n g stress.  had  throughout of  of  communities  widespread  species.  well  were  areas  probably  planted  performing  these and  of  material  peripheral  a  hundreds  nutrient  lot  in  of  of  1979  and  protection  parking  However,  plan,  trampling  the  serious  content,  revealed  development  control,  resulting  moisture  visit  June,  (Picea  was  generally  Spruce,  drought  and  144  Two  of  rehabilitation  the  four  protected  zone  were  thoroughly  survival  of  sections  fenced.  had in  plants  minimal good  the  willow  In  impact,  condition  19.3%  visual  by  areas the  259  for  mortality  cuttings.  invasion  in  an  pioneer  both  devastated  material  were  to  not  central  portion  able  penetrate  route  of  plots  of  compare traffic  to  those  species  were  rate  of  80.6%.  for  by  uprooted  a a  the  pedestrians  various  was in  post-log  where  accounted  resulting  to  user  survival  there  the  Of  significant 45% c o v e r  based  on  estimation.  Rehabilitation were  plants  3% was  species  to  enclosures  average  rate,  In  321  in  checked  subjected  fenced of  areas  to to  plant  extent  worthwhile.  of  the  beach  through  the  beach.  The  observations  material  mortality opposed  the  areas  was  to  techni ques.  in  the  localized  problems  of  outside that  fenced  tabulations  These area,  the  the  areas  where  Sitka  were  Spruce  although  post-log  zone  was  plant  species  from  plant  found  fringe  that  resulted  of  pedestrian  suggest  and  exclosures  the  traffic  on  the  in  a  direct  total  loss  substantial, human  viability  impact and  was  as  planting  145 TABLE  VII PLANT M A T E R I A L S U R V I V A L IN P R O T E C T E D AREAS OF T H E P O S T - L O G R E H A B I L I T A T I O N ZONE J u n e , 1979  SPECIES  PLANTS IN HEALTHY GROWING C O N D I T I O N  AREA 1 Lonicera fnvolucrata Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m Rosa n u t k a n a S a l i x spp. Gaultheria shallon Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s Picea sitchensis (nursery) Picea sitchensis (transplanted)  28 50 17 3 7 7 7  0 5 9 1 1 5 0  0  5  Subtotal  119  Percent  82.06%  AREA  DEAD P L A N T S , OR P L A N T S IN POOR C O N D I T I O N  - •  26 17.93%  2  Picea s i t c h e r s i s Lonicera involucrata S a l i x spp. Gaultheria shallon Ribes d i v a r i c a t u m Rosa n u t k a n a Rubus s p e c t a b i l i s  6 39 13 13 38 14 13  0 2 24 4 1 2 3  Subtotal  140  36  Percent  79.54%  20.45%  259 80.68%  62 19.31%  TOTAL IN PERCENT  AREA  1 AND  2  NOTE: T h e two s t u d y a r e a s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 m2 e a c h w e r e p a r t i a l l y e n c l o s e d by 1.5 m h i g h p o s t a n d w i r e f e n c i n g , a n d w e r e n o t e x p o s e d to p e d e s t r i a n t r a f f i c . Those p l a n t s judged healthy d i s p l a y e d full l e a f i n g a n d new g r o w t h , w h e r e a s p l a n t s i n p o o r c o n d i t i o n s h o w e d evidence of severe d i e b a c k , d i s e a s e , or s p i n d l y growth.  146 (c)  Early  The trends  final  other  impacts.  than  For  exclosures material  Summer  site  example,  described  pockets  of  located  outside  uprooting  of  the  earlier  plant  were  traffic,  factors,  natural  grass  species  was  advanced  throughout  cover  rate  40-70%.  and  Salix  Naturally  spp.  protected  micro-sites,  or  logs  behind  The were  well  earlier  of  grown  Rose  supported  while  the  All  vigorous  Red  Salmonberry  (Rosa  areas  established.  plicata),  growth,  such  Alder  Sitka  less  spp.)were  as  in  the  the  and  Small  only  if  Further  campfires, However,  zone  plant  site.  survive  the  and in  spite  primarily with  an  of  by  average  Rubus  spectabilis,  Rosa  established  sporadically  in  hollows,  clumps  in  of  grass,  zone.  of  of  bare  the  pioneer (Alnus  the  Sitka  species  (Picea  The  Western  sitchensis),  planted  fringe  recorded  including  spectabi1is)showed  healthy.  Spruce  patches  rubra).  extensively  also  intact  colonization  inland  Spruce  (Rubus  to  seeded  also  drift-log  planting  nitrogen-fixer, (Thuja  the  were  zone  observed.  detrimental  nutkana,  rehabilitation  desire-lines.  these  of  user  vandalism,  was  new  by  longer  able  significant  disturbed  throughout  traffic  material  area  no  1980  reveal  post-log  pervasive  pedestrian  June,  not  were  material  vehicular  did  widespread  in  was  original  of  visit  a more  mortality  evidence  Investigation;  and  the Red  contract  consistantly species  Cedar  such  good as  Wild  147 Although inhibit of  many  growth  can  be  be  other  Western  to  able  to  well  Cedar  suffer  from  likely  survive  In  the  to  become  that  these  Spruce  a moderate, The  were  small  prejudiced  the  protection confirmed where  and a  of  development management  the of  been  maintenance  variety  further  aspects  have  work  of is  program and  model:  of  overall  The  a  evidenced  The  young  (Tsuga are'likely  individuals  the  to  will  rehabilitation  planning,  be  design,  results. if  and number  of  site  However,  largely  a  of  Much  adequate  and  following  program  degree  although  techniques  could to  spp.)  as  sitchensis)  occurred.  successful  adherence  (Rosa  inconsistent,  realized  which  rubra)  but  Hemlock  of  seasons  (Alnus  vicinity.  acceptable,  required.  two  areas,  Rose  may  dominants.  but  had  Alder  Western  technical  techniques  could  the  number  eventual  implementation  improvement  a  after  circumstances,  (Picea  but  nutrients  some  Wild  in  observations  achieved.  problems  and  piicata),  competition  Red  dominate  vegetation  Sitka  summary,  suggest was  and  in  and  species,  established.  survive  (Thuja  water  planted  spectabilis)  successional Red  for  eventually  (Rubus  heterophy 1 la)  success  desired  were  expected  should  would  the  most  Salmonberry  by  of  competition  the  revealed  points avoided  rehabilitation  project areas  outline with  planning  the and  148 Park  staff  rationale order  to  should behind  have the  facilitate  been  approach a  better  maintenance  requirements.  The  of  control  visitors  instituted,  but  areas  period  for  a  administration to  the  only  key  be  should  further  A maintenance part  of  the  watering, seasons  would  have at  zone  on  the  rehabilitation  understanding  in  of  fencing  was  partially  included  all  sensitive  least  reluctant  the have  two  to  years.  totally  resulting  intent been  extended  budget  capital  and  with  to  briefed  The  block  in  the  park access  fencing  the  rehabilitation  erected.  to  should  for  improved  Public  interpretive  have  been  expenditure.  thinning have  of  the the  education  programs.  guaranteed  shoot-to-root-growth  plants  should  specifications  have to  been limit  ratio  first  two  growing  viability  of  monitored the  as  Referti1ization,  of  planted  areas.  The  of  areas.  explaining  projects may  of  rehabilitation  limited  Signs  should  was  fully  amount  contract  grown  carefully, of  and  nitrogen  a  149 fertilizer root  application  systems  plants  to  roots  Methods potted  to  may  to  have  have  feed  of  a  lush  material  were  unloading.  prior  to  transport,  frost  damage  areas  damage  and  some  roots,  The  interest  and  questionable. greater  care  supervision ensure pi a n t s .  and  be  have  is  consistency  and  but  capacity  of  was  summer  of  limited  and  contract  some  should  be in  loss well  such  grown  of  plants  hardened a manner  to  prevent  Large  numbers  of  the  of  in  the  as  leaves.  covered  from  frozen  packed  planting workers  material  essential  many  the  still  ability  of  been  suffered  plant  failure  adequate  out,  packed  stems  while  of  availability  cause  Experienced in  the  transplanting  death.  shallon  lack  moisture  the  Plants  to  in  The  growth.  the  should  Gaultheria cases  top  and  to  Storage  leafing  stressed  crating  minimize  Spring  permit  prior  to  resulted  establish.  sufficient drought  may  enforced.  in  handling.  large correct  leaves  scale  and  cartons.  crews  would  smaller  was  have  taken  Close projects  to  appropriation  of  in  1 50 The  latter  stages  weather  and  optimum  planting  in  tend  muck  of  soggy  to  planting  soil time  be  is  late  uprooted  improvements  the  beach  A roughly  placed  logs  and  boulders  micro-sites  for  plant  Due  to  for  all  species, species  but  the  were area  The  of  lack  counteract probably some  illegal  as  of  local  remainder  B.  the  and  of  in  areas.  allocations  as  the  as traffic.  were  not  used  were  transplanted  contract  grown-on  better  well  cuttings the  been  in  the  grown Lower  C.  addition  resulted  provided  vehicular  of  have  of  randomly  ecotypes  many  installed  could  with  The w i l l o w  were  the  preparation  zone  have  wet  drowned.  site  surface  referti1ization  planting  budget  and  collected  Mainland  the  establishment,  material.  locally,  plants  simply  would  restrictions,  plant  collected  in  contoured  pedestrian  cost  or  by  Although  fall,  rehabilitation  made.  discourage  hindered  conditions.  Considerable post-log  were  a  of  with  sawdust  serious Lack  nitrogen  of  accounted  to  the  nitrogen  this  soil  mix  deficiency  maintenance for  to  planning  oversight.  in and  1 51 FIGURE  35  Note t h e e f f e c t s in post-log  zone.  of  salt  s p r a y on t h e P i c e a  sitchensis  planted  152 3.2  MALIGNE  3.2.1  SCOPE  In of  the  Lake to  1973  Highway  case  new h i g h w a y also  edges  construction  from  Medicine  Lake.  SITE  elevation  of  sub-alpine  National  Park  NATIONAL  forest The to  using  with and  The  the  PARK  the  to  Medicine  Lake  are  imperial  as  7.14  imperial  was  to  adhere  from  the  Maligne  to  from has  all  old  Lake of  the but  road  program  Maligne  are  Medicine  right-of-way,  prior  portions  improvement  revegetation  old  revegetation of  and  deviate  the  recovery  7.14  the  alignment  gradients.  embankments of  new  Canyon  necessary,  deals  recovery  Mile  The  where  3.92  was  Lake  mile yet  Highway,  7.14 to  drawings  to  be and  work  measure)  CHARACTERISTICS  Maligne 1,200  to  vegetation  (1970),  JASPER  proposed  Maligne  improved  (Measurements  The  LaRoi  mile  forest  completed  3.2.2  Park.  activities.  the  were  and  planners  between  primarily  methods  although  upgraded.  Canada  and  attain  study  examines  undertaken  Parks  National  to  REVEGETATION,  PROJECT  status,  surface  HIGHWAY  highway  Jasper  "parkway"  road  OF  existing  in  LAKE  Highway 1,550 zone  summarized as  follows:  environs m in  of  the  the  the  are  situated  montaine  Northern  zonation  of  and  Rocky  at  an  lower Mountains.  vegetation  in  Jasper  153 FIGURE  36  S I T E L O C A T I O N MAP, M a l i g n e Lake Highway, J a s p e r National Park  Scale 1 : 2 5 0 , 0 0 0  1 54 TABLE  VIII  VEGETATION  GRADIENTS,  JASPER  NATIONAL  PARK  ZONE  ELEVATION  VEGETATION  A l p i ne  (above) 2,130 -  lichen tundra vascular tundra  Sub-alpine  2,030 - 2,130 m (upper) 1,800 - 2,030 m 1 ,400 - 1 ,800 m (1ower)  Montane  summers  and  continental cold  approximately  is  form 58%  of  snow,  (Kuchar, by  to  and  generally (Kuchar,  have  while  a  a  large  shallow  woodland wooded grassland is  distinguished annual  precipitation  The  surficial of  forces. profile  is  cloudiness  variety  belt  of  400  70%  mm w i t h  through of  an  soils  the  the  depositional  with  cool  temperature  geology  Forest  by  summer  area  features in  in  is due  Jasper  eluviated  Ae  general  area  horizon  1972).  Lodgepole  Pine  of  successive (Populus  pine  a mean  average  erosive  Dominant  reaches  with  Total  1972).  characterized glaciation  climate  winters  2° C.  wooded t u n d r a spruce-fir belt  1 ,440 m (below)  1 ,21 0 1,210 m The  the  2,625 m 2,625 m  TYPE  the  and  vegetation Spruce-Fir  types  forest.  study  site  are  Lodgepole  Pine  ( P i nu s  tremuloides)  groves,  in  the The  predominantly contorta),  whereas  lower  are  south-facing  characterized  by  and  Aspen  towards  Trembling  Medicine  Lake,  1 55 White  Spruce  (Picea shrub  (Picea  englemanii) stratum  is  (Arctostaphy1os Buffaloberry and  Sa 1 i x  Cornus  way  to  sub-alpine  Fir  (Abies  relatively  (Shepherdia  sp.,  L i nnaea  cover  is  sparse Common  found. Ledum  Stipa  and  grass  on  the  Englemann  Lodgepole  Pine  Spruce  forest,  c r i s t a - c a s t r e n s i s)  Wildlife species browse  are  Columbian  The  berries  foods  of  in  the  of  Rubus,  robins,  Maligne  damage  are Lake  no  to  in  area.  a of the  edge  on  and  statistics  cristata,  Elymus  innovatus, slopes,  extent  rodents, and  are  V a c c i num  elk  avian are  red  species  and are  gray  available  for  traffic  park  use  of  favourite  and  overall  to  shrubs.  thrush  although  known  squirrels,  capable  trees  the  areas.  and  while  in  while  (Hypnum  well-shaded  planted  include  scopararium.  Feather-moss  deer  Ribes,  (Betula  limited  porcupines  newly  Rubus,  facing  conditions,  and  The  communis),  species  Koeleria  Mule  Swainsons's  Highway  common  ungulates,  Ribes,  veery,  and  found  squirrels,  serious  There along  be  right-of-way  ground  inflicting  may  Rosa,  southwest  growths  including  common  along  lush  and  (Juniperus  richardsonii,  xeric  zone  lasiocarpa).  Vaccinium  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  dasystachyum,  in  and  Spruce  Kinnikinnick  Juniper  Other  b o r e a l i s,  species  Englemann  groenlandicum,  Agropyron other  with  canadensis),  readily  Alnus  glandulosa), Herbaceous  and  gives  uva-ursi),  spp.,  sp.,  glauca)  jay.  volume  increased  1 56 from  1,317,279  in  1970-1972  Canada,  1978).  The  linking  the  feature  Maligne  Lake.  is  two  rehabilitated appreciation  primary  REHABILITATION  .1  The by  Canada  shrubs.  Introduced  plant  edges  the  cut  provide  a more  control  on  benefit. highway  Local  collected  of  the  containerized site  for  plant were  cuttings  stock  was  plan and  is  as  Maligne  certainly  and  to  material the  appearing was  genotypes to  be  and  on  (Parks a  corridor  Canyon  the of  and  revegetation the  affect  tourist  for  in  in  was  fall  HIGHWAY  developed  was  native  highway  trees to  edge  condition.  also  considered  as  while the  parent  an  1978.  to  proposed  plants  growing-on  of  back  the  important  the  Vancouver,  material of  soften  Erosion  along  the  in  and  right-of-way  sites  early  proposals  intended  transportation  plant  the  of  from  seed,  LAKE  treatment  utilized  proceed  hardened  plan  planting  along  called  installation  MALIGNE  Roadside  embankments  alignment  collection  Finally,  natural  steep  of  qualities  concept  staff.  hydro-seeding  forest  1977-1978  highway  impact  visual  METHOD:  included  of  areas  will  rehabilitation  Parks  the  in  area.  3.2.3  1976  of  tourist  the  right-of-way the  use  no  although  of  1,713,670  day-use  Virtually  anticipated,  to  B.  C.  for  the  of area.  the to  the  highway  157 FIGURE 37 Picea glauea i n n u r s e r y f l a t s one year p r i o r to o u t p l a n t i ng.  .2  Preliminary  Associates  i n 1976  propagation, Jasper of  (see  transported  were c a r r i e d o u t  by R e i d C o l l i n s  to d e t e r m i n e the f e a s i b i l i t y of  and n u r s e r y  National  species  tests  Park.  c u l t i v a t i o n of p l a n t  Root c u t t i n g s  f o l l o w i n g page),  to the c o a s t a l  medium o f  75% c o a r s e  different  strengths  collection,  species  and stem c u t t i n g s  IBA  native of  to  a variety  were c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e P a r k  nursery  where  t h e y were  stuck  sand and 25% h o r t i c u l t u r a l g r a d e of  and  (Indole  3 butyric  acid)  in a  and rooting  perlite.  Four  powder were  used.  The f l a t s were p l a c e d on a h e a t e d bench w i t h a medium t e m p e r a t u r e 21° C.  When r o o t e d c u t t i n g s  into pots  with a standard  p e a t , and  15 p a r t s  sand.  were e s t a b l i s h e d ,  nursery  mix o f  they  75 p a r t s  were  sawdust,  of  transplanted 25  parts  1 According uva-ursi,  Cornus  h o r i z o n t a l i s, Sambucus  to  nursery  stolonifera,  Salix  spp.,  the  could  spp., be  Juniperus  and  to  purposes.  These  nursery  conditions  and  The  report  propagated  indicated by  using  a  propagated  rehabi1itiation growing  report,  that  Ribes  softwood  communis,  lesser  extent  commercially  species  could ad  Arctostaphy1os  be  Rosa  cuttings  J. Lonicera  for  performed readily spp.  taken  park well  under  transplanted.  would in  and  be  summer.  best  FIGURE  38  Highway s u r f a c e p r i o r to paving and b e f o r e h y d r o s e e d i ng. Undulating forest edge was c u t t o soften visual i m p a c t o f highway on t h e l a n d s c a p e .  FIGURE  39  Hi ghway section after h y d r o s e e d i ng but p r i o r t o p l a n t i n g of t r e e s and shrubs.  160 .3  Following  contract  was  let  analysis  for  the  growing-on,  and  specified  three  of  (a)  Coniferous  the  large  cuttings,  zones  of  preliminary  scale  planting. planting  collection The  as  Mixed  of  a  seed  rehabilitation  and plan  follows;  species:  Lodgepole Pine (Pinus c o n t o r t a White Spruce ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) (b)  tests,  Coniferous  & Deciduous  Dougl.)  800/acre 400 a c r e  species:  Lodgepole Pine (Pinus c o n t o r t a White Spruce ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) Dogwood ( C o n u s s p . ) Willow ( S a l i x sp. ) A l d e r (ATI n u s s p . ) J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e r u s communis)  Dougl.)  200/acre 100/acre 200/acre 100/acre 100/acre 300/acre 1,000/acre  (c)  Deciduous  & Groundcover  species: 100/acre 200/acre 100/acre 100/acre 300/acre 100/acre  R o s e ( R o s a sp .) Dogwood ( C o r n u s sp.) Willow (Salix sp.) A l d e r (Al nus s p . ) J u n i p e r ( J u n i p e T u s communis) Bearberry (Arctostaphy1os uva-ursi)  900/acre .4  Specifications  containers,  for  handling  of  materials, stock  and  growing planting  time,  planting  included  a  number  of  r e s t r i c t i ons:  (i)  Deciduous of  1977  woody  during  cuttings plant  were  dormancy.  taken  in  the  late  fall  161 FIGURE 4 0 Steep c o a r s e slope p r i o r to seeding and p l a n t i n g .  F I G U R E 41 Stabilized slope with Picea glauca and P i n u s c o n t o r t a randomly di s t r i buted.  (ii)  Collected  cuttings  bags,  stored  and  temperatures for  all  within  (iii)  All wide  48  plants by  removal  in  not  stock  of  grown  15cm  placed  cool  in  plastic  place  than  received  with  4°C. at  Cuttings  the  nursery  cutting.  from  deep  without  a  higher  were  hours  were  seed  were  containers  damage  to  grown  in  permitting  root  or  8cm plant  crown  growth.  .5  Plant  nursery to  shipment  .6 in  during and  All June  of  growth  1976-1978  survival and  final  was  monotored  inspections  in  made  the prior  outplanting.  plant  1979  and  material  with  average  was top  received growth  in as  good  condition  follows:  1 63 PLANT  COLLECTION  METHOD  SIZE  AT  OUTPLANTING  Pinus  contorta  Seed  15  cm.  Picea  glauca  Seed  15  cm.  Alnus  sp.  Seed  70  cm.  C u t t i ngs  25  cm.  Rosa  sp.  Cornus  sp.  C u t t i ngs  35  cm.  Sa1 i x  s p.  C u t t i ngs  70  cm.  Cuttings  15  cm.  Cuttings  15  cm  Juniperus  communis  Arctostophylos  uva-  ursi  .7  Planting  June  of  1979,  but  workable  cm.  auger,  rocky  and  completed  the  weather  soil.  which  Planting  proved  in  a  two  week  period  during  conditions  were  ideal,  with  holes  effective  were  made  except  by  for  a  power  areas  of  late  moist  driven  10  extremely  substrate.  Planting species  mix  appropriate slopes.  was  was  done  on  a  zones.  Adjustments  species  allocation  A total  substantially  of  lesser  25,000  random  basis  to  plan  to  the low  conifers  quantities  of  wet  were shrubs  within were  swales, planted and  specified  made or  to dry  allow  exposed  with  ground  for  covers.  FIGURE 42 Gap t o t h e r i g h t i n midground i s o l d highway alignment. Photo below i s c l o s e up view of t h i s s l o p e .  FIGURE  43  Seeded and p l a n t e d a r e a where o l d highway a l i g n m e n t d i v e r g e s f r o m new route.  1  165  .8  Other  selective valley  landscape  clearing  views,  and  of  restoration  the  existing  additional  treatment  forest  limited  included  edge  clearing  to of  open blow-down  areas.  .9  Seven  10x30  m.  monitoring  depending  different  on  elevations  site  Each  mixed  Pine  Spruce,  shrub  species  variety shaded  of  also  were  Maligne  included  100  two  marked.  embankments,  established  at  Highway plants,  plots  The  including  approximately  in  were  plots  most  limited  represented  exposed  south-west  and  areas.  wet  cases to a  slopes,  ASSESSMENT  mid-June  of  1980  determine  the  installed  plant  condition  of  vigour  seedlings  from  the  although  conditions,  north-facing  3.2.4  In  were  plot  measuring  conditions  along  right-of-way. and  plots  of  other  drought.  a  field  investigation  over-wintering  the  material,  and  restoration  factors  and such  survival to  shrubs, as  rates  assess  area  in  the  terms  browsing  nutrient  was of  conducted  to  the  general of  the  damage,  deficiency  apparent and  and  stress  166 Each  of  were  counted  stress,  the  seven  which  60%  the  listed  as  displayed  inspected  for  damage,  foliage,  or  indications complete  browning  severe  while  or  of  physiological  discolouration  damage,  or  in  nursery  prior  to  over  uprooting  44  canadensis  plants  failure.  severe  mechanical  individual  dead.  FIGURE  Shepherdia  was  assessed  mechanical  Plants of  and  plots  outplanting.  were  TABLE  IX  OVER-WINTERING  SURVIVAL  TOTAL % MORTALITY  TOTAL % IN POOR CONDITION  RATES  OF P L A N T  MATERIAL  PLOT NUMBER  SPECIES COMPOSITION  1  Mixed Pine Spruce  &  3%  6%  9%  91%  2  Mixed Pine Spruce  &  1%  2%  3%  97%  3  Mixed P i n e , Spruce, Juniper  5%  11%  16%  84%  4  Alder, Willow, Wild Rose, Dogwood  0  0  0  5  Mixed  Spruce,  10%  11%  21%  6  Mixed  shrubs,  0  0  0  7  Mixed Pine Spruce  11%  18%  &  7%  TOTAL EXPECTED MORTALITY  PERCENT SURVIVAL  100%  79% 100% 82%  FIGURE  45  P i nus c o n t o r t a i n healthy growing condition after first winter.  FIGURE  46  Picea glauca showing new shoot growth in the first spring after t r a n s p l a n t i ng.  169 Lack interpreted healthy new  of  as  shoot  signs  plants  were  of  or  nutrient  judged  on  significant deficiency  the  basis  of  chlorosis  or  were  drought,  supple  while  foliage  and  growth.  Table plots.  IX  Although  season  appears  shows the  very  interpreted  to  two  seasons  growing  survival argued plant  rate  ratio  usually  transplanted seed  rates  for  the  the  of  the  required  trees  and  production  for  to  the  first  results  establishment  are  furthervthat  growing  cannot  be  plants. assess  shrubs,  defines  seven  At the  while  least true  it  may  establishment  of  be a  colony.  observations mortality shrub  mortality  encouraging,  signify  of  the  survival  Nevertheless during  rate  areas  general  1.  growth,  for  the the  virtually  observations  The  site  certain  conclusions  first mixed  growing conifer  no m o r t a l i t y were  showed  also  little  be  season. plots  was  noted  may  was  drawn  The  during  The  field  or  no  evidence  difference  in  mortality  average  13.4%  recorded.  of  from  while  for  following  inspection;  browsing  damage.  2.  No  appreciable  on  plot  slope,  locations or  on  exposure.  cut  or  fill  occurred  slopes,  degree  based of  170 3.  Shrub  plot  locations  characterized with  less  by  a  gravel  were  generally  reasonably  and  large  good  rocks  moist  and  quality  than  were  subsoil  found  on  conifer  sites.  4.  Soil  moisture  mortality,  although  substantiate drier  5.  sites  Generally, for  a  appeared  this  a  significantly Pine  listed  dead,  as  data  some  are  greater  White  Lodgepole  have  observation.  showed  the  no  to  Spruce lower  ( P i nus 3.2%  available Plants  evidence  (Picea  to  growing of  rate  Of  Spruce,  on  the  on  the  stress.  glauca)  mortality  contorta). were  effect  accounted  than 67  compared  plants to  10.2%  Pi ne.  Based procedure large  on  the  utilized  part,  ensured  climatic  conditions  vigorous  growing  in  that  and  the  Maligne  The  would  with  factors  notations,  be  used,  good  right-of-way  adapted  local  to  the  the  growing-on  enabled  the  development  the  Paper  and  shoot  method  of  containers  was,  of  and  root  included  revegetation  collection  genetically  climate  transplanting.  the  Highway  original  plants  a mild  seedlings  contributing  for  successful.  ecotypes  and c u t t i n g s  above  growth.  of  seeds  of  Other  containerized probably  in  helped  171 the  retention  of  transportation  phase,  transplanting. gravelly  to  and  mycorrhizal planting of  roots  the as  initial  the  soil, an  organisms.  lower  The  well-drained drought.  Picea  withstand  survival  a  of  Pinus  soil  considered  many genus  more  certain the  on  due  use  placed  into  reduced of  of  humus, power  efficiency to  raises  the  of  relatively  drought. low  modifications  in  the  rehabilitation  For  example,  number tap  and  they  highway  rate  will  here  These of  and  and  not  and  embankments  roots,  able  growth  enjoy  tolerate  fibrous  successful  strategy  the  of  roots,  transplantable,  harsh  improved  a  otherhand  the  in  driven  insufficient  contorta  have  However,  on  may  The  Pinus  normally  adaptable, amount  of  trees  conditions.  species,  explain  rate  establishment  prior  source  improved  uprooting  were  following  containers  initial  holes  period  plants  the  the  - •  condition  questions.  resulted  during  depth.  chlorotic  to  for  providing  possibility  The  help  by  prepare  the  planting  are  and  Furthermore,  stress  nutrients,  reduced  around  nutrient-deficient  potential  augers  moisture  to  habits  may  pine  but  could  have  success.  although  to  tree  planting,  have  been  appropriate.  the  adjustments A  right-of-way in  the  significantly  was  seeding higher  hydroseeded slurry  mix,  proportion  172 of  clovers,  balance  of  (Tri foliurn the  transplanted applied  to  gravel  trees.  each  expensive.  such  Lodgepole  The  to  of  normal  snowpack  1979-1980  to  alleviate  contour  manipulation  In the  methods  two  years  employed,  disadvantages cuttings  in  conditions only  be of  draw  growing-on  similar  to  could  be  procedure  would  be  this  supplement  only  relatively  rights-of-way. dry  one  to  with  available  for of  the  those  poorly,  of  control  1980  lower  than  spring  site  in  soil  visit.  would  plants  on  The  droughty  deficiencies  include small  hollows  review.  final  required.  in  ferti1izer  as  June  placement  further  significantly  through  the  literature  to  chlorsis  difficult  less  accounted  moisture and  reduce  is  relatively  during  the  order  will  such  have  Methods  in  content  may  observed  nutrient  contorta).  subsequently  conditions  described  although  and  This  the  release  however,  projects a  ultimately slow  (Pinus  was  improve  transplanting  moisture  moisture.  as  could,  Pine  rehabilitation  winter  and  hole,  withstand  soil  could  Secondly,  Fertilizer  known  large  soils  planting  species as  spp.),  conclusions  site The  monitoring  relative  locally  milder  on  for  success  of  period  of  a  advantages  collected  climates  the  as  seeds opposed  the  collection  site  can  a controlled  experiment  utilizing  be  and and to  determined  both  methods.  173 However,  the  Maligne  feasibility  of  as  case  a  useful  right-of-way  The with  regard  model  are  the  Highway  technique  study  in  the  implications to  the  of  and  maintenance.  project  the  failure  system  to  including  administration  components.  bear  to  relevance  and  compared  3.2.5  described highway  and  to  new  Lake  all  zones,  and  of  served  highway  of  construction possible  aspects primary the  of  study  management  planning,  shortcoming  restoration and  results  management  design,  of  the  program  as  a  park  of  method  implementation  the in  must  study  also  that  be  assessed  undertaken.  MALIGNE  Highway  LAKE  techniques  completion  also  spectrum  of  HIGHWAY,  revegetation  opportunities  should  case  rehabilitation  Technical  demonstrated  the  a  Highway  environmental  following  However,  of  manage  projects  Maligne  landscaping  broadest  the  procedures  Maligne  The  proposed means  previously,  activities.  the  to  the  FOREST RECOVERY: Preliminary Tests The  prior  ways  the  include  and  alternative  mountainous  general  development  monitoring,  complete  in  established  revegetation.  significant,  was  project  be  of for  program  as  applicable  to  construction forest  examined,  restoration  to  recovery conceptualize  management.  1 74 Forest material  in  recovery  areas  involves  designated  for  highway  right-of-way  situated  Maligne  Lake  section  variety  of  selected  suitable  of  of  in  similar  Lake  replanted  of  within areas  addition  of  on and  the  to  planted:  and  and was  1978  where  several  zones  area hours  consisted  of  sites.  of  The  in  of  and  was  a into  sites.  An  deemed fall  carried 150  of  to  1978.  projects  Plants wet  mixes  in  were  were  dug  conditions. t i l l ,  were  existing  species  out  shrubs  gravelly  adjacent  following  size the  old  elevations.  cool  Species the  supports  allocated  and  and  a in  Jasper.  under  Lake  The  transplanting  then  trees  plant  constructed  development  program  sandy  topsoil.  observations  for  shrubs  225  newly  Medicine  was  existing  development.  conducted  transplanting  of  the  landscape  vegetation  imported  planting  between  material  Edith-Annette  planting  according  and  use  future  suitable  trees  available  mid-September the  shrubs  transplanting  A pilot  to  and  selected  for  pool  located  trees  rehabilitation  inventory  This  Highway  the  were  with  moved and Most no  designated vegetation collected  175 TABLE  X SPECIES  COLLECTED  DURING  FOREST  Pinus c o n t o r t a Picea glauca Pseudotsuga menziesii Populus tremuloides Abies 1asiocarpa  30-60 30-60 25-60 25-90 30-50  cm. cm. cm. cm. cm.  Shpherdia canadensis Ledum g r o e n l a n d i c u m Rosa s p . Sa1ix sp. J u n i p e r u s communis Betula glandulosa Ribes sp. Lomcera involucrata  30-60 30-60 30-60 30-60 10-25 15-25 20-30 30-50  cm. cm. cm. cm. cm. cm. cm. cm.  No  ASSESSMENT  scientific  although proved  data  worthwhile  Spruce  shrub Pine  (Picea  condition species (Pinus  sub-Alpine  in  Wild and  the  of  the  glauea), Rose  suffered  (Abies  a  the  summer  general  Trembling  high  Douglas  rate Fir  1asiocarpa)  study  1979  survival trees  Aspen,  acicularis)  evidence  pilot of  transplanted  (Rosa  showed  from  early  identifying  contorta), Fir  collected  in  patterns  tremuloides), good  were  observations  establishment White  PROGRAM  Transplanted Size  Plant  3.2.4  RECOVERY  and  and  shrubs.  (Populus  of  new  growth,  of  mortality.  transplanted  1980  and  specimens  (Pseudotsuga  area,  were  while  in most  Lodgepole menziesii)  moderately  and well.  176  The  variable  attributable  to  a  results  number  of  programming.  initial  digging  and  Many  the  damage  and  plants loss  specifications  complete  with  an  attempt  to  complex.  Furthermore,  dispersal  of  the  transplanted  sensitive  prepare  Many  of  to  small  care  the  gained  cover  native  must  be  when taken  planting  "niche" the  ability  environments  and  the  by  for  and  contractors  with  soil  of of  in  importance.  subsequent  particles.  removal  of  ground the  each  The  species  immediate  species  and  would  diversification  in  soil-root seed  aid of  root  plant,  cover  fruiting  thorough  fertilization  and  plants in  utilized  soil  attempting to  sites  select  of  each  to  the  the  newly  site  to  a  plant  species  experience  adapt  operations then  be  and  required  Further  species  preparation,  watering.  recreate  the  to  and  appropriate  offering  transplanting  appear  moisture  characteristics.  in  preceded  and  other  variations  Hence,  adequate  establishment be  critical  anticipated  and  to  is  of  are  community.  micro-climate. community  soil  pertinent of  integrity  the  grasses  of  humus  program  skill  diameter  the  planting  excavated  called  root-ball  protect  establishment  poorly  adhering  planting  a  The  transplanting were  of  the  factors  rehabi1itiation  of  of  to  must  new  should  be  followed  by  spring  177 3.3  SNOWSHOE F I R E National Park  3.3.1  SCOPE  The involved gravel  fire  the  Snowshoe  Fire  parallels  the  the  road  such  as  the  of  cabin, as  trail,  The southern  metre  of  wide  scarification, of  and  the  Lakes  project  existing  hiking  were  4.3  trail.  planting,  project,  signage  site  extends  bank  8.1  as  well  is  and  m wide Moderate  seeding  although  also  planned.  significant  incidence (Holland  Lakes  to as  Red  the  Canyon  National  Bauerman Red  Rock  Creek,  Rock  Twin  providing  Park. and  to  road at  Currently,  Goat  linkage  The  the  terminates  Canyon.  Lakes,  into  Lake, longer  and routes  Trail.  located  Rocky  consists  of  from  km f r o m  access  Tamarack  Canadian  occur.  one  Waterton  association  types  a  Road  eastern  serves  Lake  Waterton  CHARACTERISTICS  portion  warden's  -  rehabi1itiation  km s e c t i o n  components  northwest  the  Road  8.1  construction  SITE  Lone  an  into  primary  3.3.2  Fire  adjustments,  foot-bridge  The  Snowshoe  road  REHABILITATION  PROJECT  converting  alignment were  OF  ROAD  of of  in  the  Mountains. the the  eastern The  ranges  predominant  Fir/Spruce/Menziezia Lodgepole  & Kojima,  1974).  Pine  and  of  the vegetation  type, Conifer  although Savanna  178 FIGURE Site  47  Location  Plan  %>  K-Goat  \  Trail  Lakee  ^>  /  J.ost kike bnowshoe Fireroad  *> Vs // *  'Twin Lakes  f  Red Rock Canyon  • Parkway  B l a k i s t o n Creek Trail  V  Crandell Lake T r a i l /  -Tamarack T r a i l  ——— ••san* MILES 0  MILLES  3  ? 3 KILOMETRES  Road Fireroad Trail Park Boundary  179 Soil by  Several  wildlife  scenic a  background quality park  1,302  persons  visiting  the  the  lakes.  apparent vehicular  Road,  the  in  which  sub-alpine  the  access  lakes on  entire  and  on  road.  the  a  to  indicate in  annual  1977-1978, activities  large  but  the  potential  Day-Use  route  riding  point  provides  and  alpine  damage area  the  of  that  would  numbers area use  of  hike by  be  cross-country  skiing  PLAN  destination  Vegetation  addition  that  Fire  activities  area,  assumed  Snowshoe  observed  the  be  Canyon  Horseback  The main  and  abundance  camping  Rock  less.  .1  gravels an  while  Red  over  REHABILITATION  in  may  in  Statistics  wilderness  popular  characterized  creates  in  3.3.3  hiking  terrain  recorded It  and  types,  600,000,  travellers  Lakes  road  to  the on  coarse  close  1978).  distances  Twin  vegetation  experience.  were  the  are  area.  hiking  people  considerably  the  surface  compacted  mountainous  Canada,  other  of  visitation  wilderness  road  of  (Parks  the  the  intersect  inhabit  variety  total  short  creeks  species  The  are  on  nutrient-deficient heavily  sands.  for  conditions  and  due  fire  to  road  for  using  opportunities environments  soil the to  those  within  of  for and  compaction volume  the  road  day fishing  was  in  becoming  unrestricted  2 km o f  is  Twin  180 Lakes. the  As  a  result  anticipation  environs was  would  that  to  vehicular  hiking  environment.  attractive material long  and  to  was  of  the  Twin  Lakes  conversion  of  the  road  to  avoid and  future  to  plan  traffic  policy  provide  objective  utilizing  developed  the  The a  was  a  with  trail  reversals  a more  to  to  with  pleasant  create  indigenous  alignment  effect  process  in to  keeping budget  colonizing  right-of-way  1 m gravel  existing  to  due  disturbing  with  the  proposed  possible,  was  surface.  m clearing of  on  horizontal  rehabilitation  undesirabi1ity  portion  impacts  to  was  a  more  plant  reduce  existing  tangents.  approach  2.4  road  trail  a modified  The p l a n  road  to  access,  back-country  straight  the  closed  rehabilitation  .3  on  The  essential  regard  The  fire  reduced  occur.  considered  .2  the  road  trail  surface.  rehabilitation, was  intended  with  a  low  key  restrictions, plant  material  was  to  pad  consisting  be  A variety although  simply  to  and  already  reduced  of  the  of  to  a  a  techniques  whenever  facilitate  natural  regeneration.  3.3.4  REHABILITATION  Although implement  only  a  METHOD  officials limited  in  Waterton  portion  of  the  National  Park  rehabilitation  chose plan,  to  the  details  developed  or  then,  contribute development a  thorough  with  the  of  road  surface points  were of  were  made  analysis  terminus  strategies  Snowshoe Peepre, although  Fire 1978): a  the  fire  plan  for  which  trail  be  Design  substantial  of  the  planting  km o f  outlined  road as  remains  the  conducted photographic adjacent  on  the  to  road  alignment,  views,  and  creek  phase.  resulted the  called  a  native  the for  they  appeared  Report  (Parks  were  in  trail-head  large  However,  recommendations  portion  was  conditions  of  Road  and  species  for  Long  development,  complete  requirements  Requirements  the  plan  inventory  plan  the  will  methods  to  soil  signage.  8.0  a  from  Snowshoe  horizontal  the  the  colonization  problems,  and  the  will  Many  on  illustrates  alignment  and  of  was  history,  Vegetation  areas  including  The  Prior  road  which  different  case  development  placement,  Road  model.  during  landscape  area,  boulder  of  study  rehabilitation  Notations erosion  rehabilitation of  and  methodology  examples.  sequence.  mapped.  also  quite  50 m s t a t i o n s  recorded,  intensive  stock,  the  interest,  An  and  of  a management  of  the  a complete  analysis  station  were  Highway  of  as  The c a s e  project  not  inventory  the  crossings  more  the  of  a  Maligne  establishment  record  on  although  to  herein,  discussion.  employed  North  study,  presented  warrants  techniques Beach  are  a in  variety the  Canada.  implemented  incompleted.  182 .1  Roadbed  Scarification  Machine  scarification  regrowth  had  already  (approx.  10,000  the  sensitive  more  loosened  not  the would  the  process  seeded  aerify  aid  trail-like  narrow  material.  material  encourage  germination  and  and  of  local  used  were  sawdust, to  be  Loosening  of  the  water  in  gravel  was  permit  natural  was  sections  fertilizer  natural  condition  scarification  Well-rolled  2  where  worked gravel  percolation,  and  regrowth  of  pioneer  establishment  in  artifically  areas.  .2  Regrading  Certain and  m ).  gravel  the  should  and  where  employed  a  hand  nitrogen-rich  scarified  bed  species  areas 6,000  with  created  While  2  (approx.  supplemented into  m ).  was  required  minimized natural  to  taken,  water-bars. cleared  The  permit  of  of  the  such  of  reshaping.  angle  threatened  sections  as  many  repose  trail the  the  regrading the  (See  of  In  some  areas,  natural  food  drainage  uncontrolled  washouts.  of  channels  and  to  a  measures the  find where were  placement  portion  thus  washed  generally  However,  remedial  removal  were  was  slopes  52).  slopes,  road  work  smaller  Fig.  alignment,  shaping  existing  of  the  preventing  out, to  be  their erosion to of  be log  roadbed future  FIGURE  48  Typical road section showing view toward mountains around Twin L a k e s .  FIGURE  49  Road s e c t i o n where natural r e g e n e r a t i o n of compacted gravel surface is o c c u r r i ng.  FIGURE  50  Sparse clumps of g r a s s have established on compacted surface.  184 Bridges removed  and  and  culverts  replaced  with  footbridges.Ideally, avoid  a ditch-like  •3  several  changes  direction,  up,  report  the  material. the  better  of  double bank  repair  were  to  be  log  slopes  should  be  shaped  to  "Mini-Communities"  a  long  recommended  intent to  stream  locations or  Locally  able  simple  beyond  appearance.  Establishment  At  with  the  damaged  to  along  the  straight  definition  transplanted  small  re-establish  a  survive  in  a  small  trail,  tangent of  the  stock  natural  where was  to  route was  alignment be  with  to  be  assemblage  community,  than  broken plant  utilized, of  if  plants  planted  individually.  Areas planting natural  with  of  contorta), immediate the  mixed  White and  road  the  zones  in  10-32  (Picea  shrubs  would  be  m*- w e r e  proportions  encountered  Spruce  edge  new p l a n t  as  species  various  A typical spruce  approximately  vegetation  regrowth  for  of  along  glauca),  already thinned  designated  similar the  to  the  trail.  Lodgepole  growing  to  along  provide  the  for  Dense  Pine  (Pinus  the material  communities.  planting  desirable  might  dominant  include species,  3 to in  5 pine  and  association  with  185 mixed  shrubs  such  (Symphoricarpos or  other  20-30, the  as  albus),  available  and  shrubs  planting  Wild  10-15  cm  in  Alder  species,  located  protection  of  might  also  some  offer  edges.  transplanted  of  well  plugs,  would  as  Snowberry  (Shepherdia  be  around  trees,  quantities  into  loosened  slow-release All the  of  canadensis),  perhaps  numbering  transplanted  the  temperatures,  periphery  conifers.  plant  border  material  of  shrubs, organic of  the  fertilizer  planted  areas  and  of  amongst the  would  and  to  provide  improvement.  planting (Rosa  concept  1,500  should  evaporation,  the  would  be  Mulch to  decaying  beds, be  moderate organic  area  for  acicularis) if  planted for  included  450  plugs.  be  incorporated  and  a  added  watered used  *  required  grass  also  Aspen growth"  community  planting  to  fast  quantities  material  operation.  as  Rose  the  "mini-community"  500  Trembling  of  Wild for  lost  soil  and  introduced  protection  transplanting  water  continuing  the  be  the  gravel  organic  c r i s p a ),  would  the  Generous  reduce  as  the  Total  implementation  after  diameteer  towards  added  time.  Grass  (Alnus  tremuloides)  the  acicularis),  area.  (Populus  the  (Rosa  Buffaloberry  species.  and' t r e e s ,  Green  at  Rose  at  this  immediately  would  serve  soil material  for  to  186 .4  Seeding  The received Canada  considerable  and  research  development  Alberta  project  production  of  possible  in  cautions  that  scale low  yields,  fertility  there  and  agricultural  The two-phase  of  hairs  future are  and  may  stabilization.  rate  of  colonizing  the  road  edge  would  be  that  Agropyron  dasystachym  promising  native  ecotypes  seed  Some by  or  rye  Commercial may  Walker,  be  however,  commercial  due  shattering,  of  to  seed  flowering, these  with  to  low  costly  improvement  would  also  14,000  or  while be  agronomic  be  seeded  invasion  by  anticipated.  m .  a  surface  then  Walker  (Slender  Wheatgrass) show  identified  interim  would  trachycaulum  which  plan  provide  species  (Northern  species  Parks  prohibiting  genetic  application,  Agropyron  1977).  has  mutual  desired  rehabilitation  approximately  concluded  a  species.  intermittent  grass  low  on  and  grass  beginning  barley  Native  supplies  technology.  Road  relatively  cover  grass  be m o d i f i e d  program as  embarked  problems  ripening.  Snowshoe  such  of  seed  recent years,  (Walker,  awns,  engineering  in  native  many  native  grass  have  quantities  uneven  seeding  crops  attention  evaluate  near  characteristics  nurse  to  production  native  Environment  large  the  of  potential  a  species Total  seed  (1977), Wheatgrass)  are  at  two  for  and  very  utilization.  FIGURE T Y P I C A L  Planting  51 R O A D  SECTION  details,  Snowshoe  Fireroad  "A"  L O C k l . B C U W PILED AT (MM t U D OF PLAUTIUC. ttLAkJD iijkin.uieAL.-NPFEAfe.ikic, PILE.  t C T I O t J POK- I t M t T.KFAC6- fXTMUED IU (XWmJC, _JUDITIOU  P L M J T I U L KrtAUID* TO K . COMPACT P L M J T MATtEJAL MI1TUCE ii •WfcdUC TO K l E E E C U L A E - {, UATLTAL-  ^CkCJFY C C A D V DO MOT D i m K f r V E C E T M I O U >>L>£FAC& & D J A C E U T TO ROAD  3 - 5 TCCJi^ TO FOEM COCE Or E A C H PLAUTIUC, WLAUD  T Y P I C A L  R O A D  SECTION  -  B  P E C T U C E . $ LJATEE-  g - I O 4 H E L W PLUJTE.D eAUDOMLV AEOUUD TKEE9 FE£TILIZ.e. A U D U M E L Ad CFE.6FIEO, H l « IU i f A ' MULCH  a O - 5 0 C^Att P L O W 15-iOCM IU DUkMETEZ, TO BE P O U T E D IkJ a » t PEOXIMITY ID TP-EE9 MJD  E O U U X £ A O C LACCE KXJS* ID K . PLACED «£T EACH E.UD OF PLAMTIUC,, IF AVAILABLE IU KOAD DITCH  tXWHJG VEC.ETATIOU  FO<L TKAIL. MJHACE-  EVIIMIUC, V E G ^ - W I O U  PLAUTIUC MtEA TO BE. *CA£JFI6D TO D&FTM OF ZOO MM ^AEJFIEJ?  %A£JFY  OULT  VfnUUMUD POWIOW OF fcOCD UHECfe t w ^ t e 1 9 u o G - X I W U C ,  HMJD •SC^EJFr' U M t e E U E C E ^ A E Y  ID AVOID  DAMt.CE ID  EXIWUt,  KOAD  3UWAC6  E-XITTIUC 2 0 A D ^OK/ACS ID BE CETAIUED I * 1M TEAIL CAD  VECETATIOU  VE^ETATlOU  00  T Y P I C A L TRAIL  P L A N T I N G  A L I G N M E N T  I S L A N D A N D O N  R O A D  Construction  FIGURE 52 S H A P I N G  E R O D E D  DITCHES  A N D  details,  Snowshoe  Fireroad  LOG  B A N K S  FOOTBRIDGE  IMTB  T Y P I C A L  DETAIL L O C A L HDCK/> UTIUZE.P FOC Of- CAP PIEXCTED BY IAJJP^CAPE. ^ p ^ e v i w e .  4V0ID DAMACE. TO E X I T U C VECtTATlOU '  £OkP  Of PlTCHEA TO PtOCEED OUIY UUPEE DKECT 50PEKVW0U Of LAuD*CAFE %IPEEVI»OC  7UCFACE  E U D SCCTIOU OF flfclJUIklC, LOW TO EECEJV6. Z5MM CHAMFEC  K,-C.mXV PIT6H TO B6 COMPACTED  tup  •%axv  TO ceA*>  PLACE- -SLEEfttft MIUIMUM 0 F . 5 M FEOM ^TKEAM Ej9(.l  CUTTIUC ^LOPE* ID BE OUT-SIDE VEC.E.TATIOUI D E J f - U P J »  E K O T U C 6L0PE CUT TD FILL _ i gA->£  B A U » k £ E D U L Y TO BE * M W U H E t t DICECTEP BY LAUOCAFE. DFTIDUAL HMJD-CAIL TD BE. LWED O U dFAU* OVEE. 3 M  dLOFE lOCFAtE- TO BE COMPACTED A U D -SEEDED TO (JW) 5 F A U U I U C , U X A FAtrTEUEO T O •btCEPEE* UITH B M M DE-IFT PIU o u *FAU>7 o v e c i n 15 n n T H E E A D E D EOD T O OOIU L O , * id" MIDDLE OF <*AU  TO? AUP BOTTOM W W i F A U U l U C UXfy TO 66. SOLACED W -5HOWU  P L A C I N G  HAUD-CAIL W P P O C B0CT6D TO •SLE&FCe. M J D -SFAIJUIUC, L06  OF  B O U L D E R S  NTS  OU LOCAL FILL  IHPOK-TED BOULDEE* TO M , PLACED AT TCAIL - HEAP A * PIEECTED BY IAUD*CAPE AJPEEVItoE.  SPNJ OF FOOTBCJP^t ID BC ADJUSTED 10 -iTCEAM WIDTH HMJD-tAlL TO BE ILrlTALLED O U *PAU» OVEE. 5 M  COCY % DF BOULDER., UITH BEAT ^UP^ACE EXPOSED  ^PMJUIUC U W TO 50O MM TOATED fDLE* PLACED U k U U X J EUD ID MATCH UIDE E U D OF A D J A C E N T LOO.  00 00  189  FIGURE  Erosion  53  control  Snowshoe  /  U X A L FILL- < fTOVS, 1C % VSbiD & liP-W ID  CtlXFlU, ID TOP OP ELEVATION  150 - ZOO nft UDC  W A T E B • B A R 11  SO  O N  S L O P E S  Fireroad.  190 3.3.5  IMPLEMENTATION  Contract June  of  1979,  limited  contract  station  of  54).  markers,  system  Figure  3.3.6  the  are  not  hence  inventory  was  trail and  measured  plans  could  the  were  other  be  proposed  work  the  (see  original  the  by  the  bulk  implemented,  management  model.  to  the  general  during  relevant  of  June  the  of  proposed  50 m by  examples technique  rehabi1itiation  conclusions 1980  development  based  illustrate of  a  on a  a  alignment  cross-checked  of  in  useful  supported  Several  illustration  a  sequences,  by  photographs.  for  including  of  specifications  material,  work,  However,  presentation  indicating  completed  of (see  ASSESSMENT  investigations factors  and  sequence  included  the  implemented.  plant  and  of  were  54).  While was  of  specifications  a portion  for  diagrams  Each  to  was  Drawings  location  and  only  developed  linear  reference the  was  work.  changes, Figure  although  scarification,  methodology  series  drawings  work  site  number  rehabilitation  of  1 91 FIGURE  Typical  5 4  contract  drawings,  S N O W S H O E FIREROAD  Snowshoe  Fireroad  REHABSL.TAT8QN  1.  The e x i s t i n g r o a d i s g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d o n 28 d r a w i n g s , i n d i c a t i n g t r a i l alignment,planting island locations,grading,culvert removal,and foot-bridge i n s t a l l a t i o n , a n d other contract work.  2.  The r o a d s e c t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o 50 m e t e r s t a t i o n s f o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n l o c a t i n g c o n t r a c t work. Notes and c o n t r a c t work s p e c i f i e d w i t h i n each s t a t i o n s e c t i o n may b e d e l e t e d o r a l t e r e d b y l a n d s c a p e s u p e r v i s o r a s deemed n e c e s s a r y . Normal change o r d e r p r o c e d u r e s w i l l apply for major deviations.  SAMPLE DRAWING AND EXPLANATION  STA.  CONTRACT  WORK  PLAN  0+30^ South Station points intervals  S  side in  li  Existing road-bed scarified  P3  to  Indicates  I  specified  under  planting  may b e a l t e r e d  supervisor culvert  side  Right side f o r remarks includes rough locations for plant m a t e r i a l t o be used i n p l a n t i n g i s l a n d s , e g P 3 . P l a n t s t o be u s e d w i l l be f l a g g e d by landscape supervisor. Refer to d e t a i l D r a w i n g No.  approximate  locations  Existing I  North  \\ \ \  be  landscape  J  l\l P 3  M  These  C  M O O N . T S.  I  1 •'TO  50m  Proposed t r a i l alignment  0+250  REMARKS  LINEAR S C A L E T R A N S V E R S E  a s deemed  site,to contract  island  location.  in  field  the  by  the  necessary.  be r e t a i n e d  or  removed  as  work.  Embankment o r e r o d e d s l o p e t o b e t r e a t e d as s p e c i f i e d under c o n t r a c t work o r by landscape s u p e r v i s o r . Refer to detail drawings.  Eroded d i t c h  A A  Water b a r s t o D r a w i n g No.  to  be  be  treated  as  specified.  installed .  as  specified  on  detail  192  SNOWSHOE FIREROAD REHABILITATION  n  RUAD MAP [-'ROM BOTTOM OF PARI! UP.  STA.  CONTRACT  WORK  PLAN  REMARKS  LINEAR S C A L E T R A N S V E R S E  r/ ~  O+300 Scarify  North  side.  P l a n t Douglas as d i r e c t e d . Seed bank directed.  to  Fir  |:IOO N . T S.  Plant  material  source  at  0+290.  seedlings  grass  where  0+250 Scarify Place  North  rocks  as  Plant Douglas as d i r e c t e d . Plant  side. directed. Fir  li  seedlings  i s l a n d where  directed  n  1  Planting island a t 0+290.  source  materials  <Z P 3  0+200 Scarify  North  side.  P l a n t Douglas directed.  Fir  as  Scarify  South  side.  Scarify  South  side.  \ \  i I I ii  0+150  •  Place l o c a l staked.  rocks  as  Plant Douglas directed.  Fir  as  Scarify  North  side.  Scarify  North  i\  0+100  Plant Douglas directed. Plant  island  side Fir where  only. as staked.  I.5m t r a i l 0+850.  width  for Sta.  III  UTU3U  Scarify North side only. Allow f o r I.5m t r a i l pad width. P l a n t i n g as s p e c i f i e d Drawing No.  0+000  r IT  Maintain 0+000 t o  on  1/ I 1  \  Do n o t d i s t u r b  road  shoulders.  Plant m a t e r i a l source f o r t r a i l head as d i r e c t e d by landscape supervisor.  193  SNOWSHOE FIREROAD R E H ABBLITAT! OISI  STA.  CONTRACT WORK  REMARKS  T R A N S V E R S E  0+600 Scarify Plant  10+550  PLAN  South  N.T. S.  IM  side.  island  as  directed.  Scarify  North  side.  Scarify  North  side  2  Plant  material  source  at  0+550  only.  P l a n t 50 B e a r b e r r y as d i r e c t e d .  on  bank  Commercial  source of  plants.  Commercial  source o f  plants.  0+500  Seed bank  to  grass.  Plant douglas as d i r e c t e d .  Fir  seedlings  P l a n t 50 B e a r b e r r y o n as d i r e c t e d .  0+450  bank  M  II  Align  trail  Seed bank  as  to  grass.  P l a n t Douglas directed. Plant  island  staked.  fir  as  as  directed.  *0  P 4 Plant material 0+430.  source a t  0+400  Plant  source a t  0+375.  a.  0+400 Scarify  North  P l a n t Douglas Idirected.  side. Fir  as  0+350 Scarify  North  Plant Douglas directed.  side. Fir  as  material  and  1 94 Although colonizing  grasses,  number  of  can  assumed  be  woody  aeration, Rose and  the  of  hiker  traffic  cause  soil  prime  factor  The need  to  assess  was to  successful  limited  provide  viable  cases.  trample users  chiloensis),  based  Since  provided,  Wild  established  cover,  on  no  however,  the  new  should  implementation  it  improved  seedbed.  (Fragaria  naturally  of  a  scarifiction,  would  a more  some  Control  Fire  the  a  rapid  weighed  against  Road  costs  program.  produce  are  in  to  and  by  and  visual  definition horse  growth be  in  and  and  considered management  a of  schemes.  capital  processes  soil  vegetative  40%  surface  plants,  prior  were  expected  Snowshoe  revegetation sizeable  the  road  Strawberry  surface  compaction. in  and  Wild  total  trail be  the  species  with  can  rehabilitation  the  other  old  evident  loosening  approaching  intended  the  herbaceous  penetration,  areas,  estimation, of  that  of  was  acicularis),  number  scarified  other  shrubs  water  (Rosa a  invasion  The  outlay  low  and  followed  key  encouraged.  benefits  advantages  improvement a  rehabilitation  in  by  the  approach  of  of a  a  plan  maintenance disturbed whereby  plan  illustrates  sophisticated calling  for  budgeting  landscape,  natural  a  to  must  be  regeneration  195  FIGURE  55  E r o s i o n c o n t r o l through s l o p e s t a b i l i z a t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of water b a r s was s p e c i f i e d f o r t h i s a r e a .  FIGURE  56  Water b a r s would d i r e c t water i n t o f o r e s t at l e f t and a v o i d c h a n n e l i n g f o r m a t i o n on right.  3.4.0  OTHER  The coastal forest  three  forest  for  The  discussion  of  case  merit  alpine  comprehensive  range  more  accurate  rehabilitation  wide  variety  responsible although and  is  is  The  has  input,  been and  an  observation  Summit  is  1 asi ocarpa), low-growing  and  a  shrubs  floor,  while  the  coarse  gravelly  located  soil  -  an  of  not  for  is  zones  a  are  brief more  to  allow  applicable  to  a  a  directly  these  environs,  significant  planning  results.  National  elevation  Sub-alpine  species  Park  of  1,920  consisting  hardy- s h r u b s .  substrate  order  been  in  vegetation  herbaceous  material.  in  normally  This  record  model  Banff  englemani i ) ,  variety and  of  at  sub-alpine  (Picea  has  opportunity  Bow  Spruce  zones  projects  IMPROVEMENTS  tundra  to  from  sub-alpine  techniques  consideration.  author  SUMMIT  projects  lower  or  presented  BOW  by  and  alpine  management  rehabilitation  characterized  Englemann  and  biogeoclimatic  areas.  for  there  design  3.4.1  of  outlined  savanna,  special  methods of  REVIEW  rehabilitation  sub-alpine,  and  A  studies  montane,  detailed  upper  different  PROJECTS:  primary  through  types.  utilized quite  SELECTED  An  cover  typically  Fir  of ( A b i es  organic the  poorly  m and  matt  forest developed  of  FIGURE 5 7  Bow Summit R e h a b i l i t a t i o n  Plan  1 98 Bow attracts parking  Summit  thousands was  extensive  offers of  visitors  originally  meadow  Consequently,  denudation  site  quality.  visual  Site  and  heavy  compaction,  the  user of  area  at  some  viewing  area,  overall  reduction  Viewing  decks,  supported  rehabilitation  of  the  by  all  from  the  hardening  areas  and  were  to  the  reduced  relocation  trail  Car  soil  a generally  for  and  area.  severe  circulation  displays,  damaged  adjacent  sensitive of  Lake  season.  viewing  caused and  Peyto  tourist  Lake  called  pedestrian  interpretive of  Peyto  plans  a  of  immediately  impacts  distance  views the  vegetation,  redevelopment  parking  during  permitted  areas,  the  spectacular  of  the  meadows  and  surfaces  and  system.  vegetation also  included  in  the  plan.  Revegetation completed cm x  by  excavating  50 cm o f  transplanting plugs  were  watered. rate  of  native them  matched  plant  sod  onto as  Preliminary the  of  the large from  compacted plugs  on  was  rafts  approximately  proposed  trail  alignments,  as  the  disturbed  possible  observations  material  areas  or  hand-scarified  tightly  overuse  and  indicate  area.  and The  thoroughly  a good  transplanted  50  survival  plugs,  although  1 99 there  is  a  noticeable  production, following  3.4.2  Mt.  native  as  LAKE  -  Heather  Lake  is  by  follow-up  in  organic  fertilizer  Ibs/sq.  ft.)  were  species  were  collected  7 cm p l u g s  were  deep,  and  Park.  at  or  seed  physiological  The  13,000  has  In  1976,  stress  applied  to  the  at  large 40-45  within  transported  60 to  covered  rafts, cm.  km o f the by  These  site  canvas  not  disturbed  in and  the  with  peatmoss,  were  and  lime  (3  Matt-forming into  10  x  collected Summit.  more  tarps  m  area,  cut  Revelstoke  1950  to  areas.  then  of  plugs'of  sq.ft.),  planting  1  25,000  Sphagnum  4 lbs/100  as  been  introduced  plugs.  Park  elevation  area  visitors. were  National  an  at  were  flowering,  severe  (8-4-2  spaced  elevations  materials layer  and  of  Revelstoke  material of  growth,  situated  park  1977  new  result  Mt.  National  overused  of  operations.  HEATHER  transplanted  similar  a  transplanting  Revelstoke  heavily  a  probably  lack  to  than  10 x from  Plant a  prevent  single wind  desiccation.  1  T h e H e a t h e r L a k e r e v e g e t a t i o n p r o j e c t was p l a n n e d by O t t o Hammer, P a r k s C a n a d a , W e s t e r n R e g i o n a l Office  200 Plugs of  all  developing  planted mixes  contained  flush  in  the  immediatley 1977-1978  flower  with  the  indicated  a  Larger  survival  (Hammer,  3.5  SUMMARY  3.5.1  INTRODUCTION  Lake  each  site  AND  Highway and  varied,  they and  relate as  a  the  basis  were  were  thoroughly  species  watered  tabulations but  fertilizer,  with  and  trimmed  then  reflected  CASE  Long  smaller  typical located  in  little  initial  topsoil  improved  Day-Use  Area,  Beach  North  Snowshoe sites  of in  STUDIES  park a  Fire  different  nevertheless  of  problems  planning, may  be  development  of  range  of  Although  biophysical  species  and  technique  common  implementation  summarized  landscape  a  environments.  there  were  Road  illustrate  plant  established for  of  OF  individual  problems  These to  were  Landscaping,  was  applications  management.  and  survival,  water,  other  and  the  grade  and  These  Preliminary  ANALYSIS  projects  analysed  in  stands.  plugs  95-100%  studies  environment,  evident  rootstock,  1977).  case  rehabilitation  All  plugs,  Rehabilitation,  seed  planting.  growth.  Maligne  or  common  adjacent  vicinity. after  The  one  and  and  evaluated  rehabilitation  a management  threads  as  knowledge,  model.  201 3.5.2  ADMINISTRATION  The  case  studies  administrative  policies  rehabilitation  projects.  lack  of  information  various  agency  jurisdictions planning methods  and and  of  of  and  finally  for  the  materials  a  and  in  analysis,  native funding  major  plant  material  adequate  mixes,  some y e a r s  political  and  and prior  allow  administrative  within  or  of  project  alteration  scheduled  and  concern  five-year  and  design.  time  to  work,  absence  programs,  appreciation  is  plan.  the  capital biophysical  Rehabilitation  an  completion. change  of  cutting  collect  entail  policies  and  maintenance  seed  the  project  rehabilitation  consequently to  persistent  construction,  term  of  of  pre-disturbance  final  lead  to  of  outcome  the  delays,  success  during  realistic  and  in  portions  the  salvage  growing-on,  require  approach  administrative  to  was  understanding of  final  responsibilities  long  of  objectives  sufficient  procurement, projects  lack  the  impact  communication  the  major  and  establishing  plant  to  protection  initial  general  and  resulting  critical of  on  the  concern  a co-ordinated  deletion  A second  programming  A central  implementation,  goals  difficulty  efficiency  Fragmented  preclude  organized  indicate  dissemination  environmental  well  and  levels.  rehabilitation, lack  clearly  it  and  prepare  allotment However, is  of as  difficult  to  202 establish  a coordinated  well-planned  approach  to  landscape  management.  3.5.3  PLANNING  Physical case  studies  process. Area,  were  Maligne  Lake  restoration  needs  The  Lake  Maligne  benefitted  from  construction, implementation  land  would  long  scope  Snowshoe  Fireroad  of  proposed  land  range  restoration planning.  outlines  in  the  three  context  seed an  site  time  time  phases  allow  physical for  realistic  within  regional  a  The  impacts.  however,  highway  the  design  an  programs.  to  and planning  implications  evaluated  landscape  Day-Use  Restoration  growing-on,  if  the  address  program,  allowing  rehabilitation to  or  North  use  frame.  considerably were  to  from  collection,  optimum  making of  of  lead  management  commitment would  year  Beach  failed  rehabilitation  improved and  but  Long  of  rehabilitation  and  environment,  needs  the  context  Highway,  decision  and  with  the  the  within be  within  for  enabling  disturbance  preliminary the  associated  Highway a  functions  plans  conceptual  biophysical  process  not  Development  provided given  planning  of  during assessment A more  management  rehabilitation  of  visible and  program  203 Although studies,  a  Regional  Office,  Program. how  the  positive  benefitted  native the  the  case  maintenance available  on  number Natural  the  needs  material  intent species  projects manner, the  in of  described  planted  problems,  grasses,  a  of  the  maintenance,  the  in  program  process  the  various  for  contract  a  aspect  landscape  the  case  to  the  was  provide and  material involved  Section, The  most  the to  identify  overall  plant  commence stock.  The  appropriate  stage.  been  a  rehabilitation  uncertainties have  and  required  implementation  could  to  forecast  the  to  program  Development  period  development  procurement studies  of  and  attempt  parks,  growing  of  information  plant  regard  the  five-year  restoration,  Conservation.  with  was  available  lack  The  and  of  Material  species,  legumes.  Resource  have  and  meagre  Plan  illustrate  Plant  to  native  the  to  could  due  techniques  and  Materials  Plant  readily  research,  including  a  development areas  case  Western  The of  the  Canada,  program  lack  and  and  of  included  for  program  of  such  is  of  methods  proceeded many  of  landscape  Research,  as  program  the  planning  this  mixes  the  to  requirements  of  Parks  response  and  and  at  implementation  characteristics  species  collection,  taken  context  question.  use  aspect  rehabilitation  the  in  departments,  significant  in  studies  shrubs,  History  important  of  other  planting of  the  failure  and  particularly addressed  in  for  widespread  supply,  with  was  initiation  evolved plants  described  step  Discussion earlier  Program  not  In  this  experienced  avoided.  in  204 A follow-up report  study  to  the  first  was  an  exhaustive  inventory  capability  in  Alberta  collect  is a  clear, need  for  material large  that  unless  supplying  programming  corporations  rehabilitation  3.5.4  nursery  in  context  such  as  mining are  to  specific  in  the  problems  of  plant  be  range  governmental is  It  perceives plant  agencies  essential  or  if  realized.  project  assessment  summary  of  of  each  establishment  were  similar  in  implementation  case and  summary  implementation  of  the  common  illustrate  the  importance  and are  site  work  combined  overall  viability  of  and  type  problems  listed  Salient as  was  the aspects  variable  a coordinated  approach.  and  However,  conditions,  of  methods  study.  spite  site  a spects.  species.  general  long  companies  zones,  studies  then  of  biogeoclimatic  planning  in  Program  industry's  native  industry  material,  the  nursery  grow  native  objectives  included  each  the  and  the  Materials  IMPLEMENTATION  A  of  to  of  Plant  is  of  project.  outlined  A  to  administrative, features  positive  and  of  the  negative  case  205 3.5.5  SUMMARY  OF O B S E R V A T I O N S  1.  The  use  of  may  have  total  2.  Poor to  3.  one  resulted  project  weather  site  in  two  IMPACTS  rehabilitation  significant  conditions soil  drainage  planted  or  NEGATIVE  plant  techniques  failure  if  not  failure.  unfavourable  Poor of  only  WITH  areas,  at  the  time  conditions  caused  the  resulting  and  of  site  plant  inundation  in  stress  work  led  mortality.  of  and  a  number  high  mo r t a l i t y .  4.  Planting  area  allowing  favourable  seedling  5.  amount  were  too  smooth,  micro-climates  for  thus  not  seed  and  establishment.  Insufficient inflict  surfaces  mulching  a maximum of  mulch  allowed  amount  of  encouraged  drought  stress, rapid  conditions  and  the  invasion  to  inadequate  of  weedy  species.  6.  Excessively resulting percentage  large  in of  plants  were  transplanting mortality.  used  stress  in and  some a  instances  high  206 Lack  of  skilled  transplanting potential  practices  of  a  number o f  large  allowance  for  problem  low  of  A  lack  of  several  a  level  verified  plant  species.  Containerized  plant  transportation subjected  to  heavy  Containerized growing soil the  and  times, frost  plant  evident  skills.  scientific  in  the  data  reliance  and  some  plants  prior  to  This  the  may  on  to  long  were  outplanting.  were of  on  moved low  have  from  a  fertility caused  lush and  much  of  mortality.  planting  scorching  follow-up  content.  compounded  subjected  soils  poor  survival  were  materials into  in  plants.  and  materials  environment  moisture  Large  lag  crew  resulted  inappropriate  the  supervision  knowledge  species  resulted  reduced  and  Insufficient of  crews  landscaping  areas  were  conditions  watering.  subjected with  no  to  summer  provision  for  drought  207 Shoot-to-root  ratios  consistently during  the  growth,  did  transplanting  Inadequate  natural  not  High  phase  prepare  stock  nitrogen  resulted the  in  plants  were  not  fertilization lush,  leafy  for  shock.  plant in  protection  widespread  weather  Windthrow  containerized  favourable.  growing-on  but  resulting  of  and  measures  trampling,  were  adopted,  vandalism,  and  damage.  flooding  resulted  in  the  loss  of  many  plants.  There  were  considerable  preparation resulting invasion  A lack  of  in of  prior  were to  outplanting  soil  erosion,  weedy  species.  winter  unfavourable  Plants  and  delays  snowpack  spring  not  soil  and  phases  of  nutrient  may  have  moisture  adequately  shipping  between  the the  site work  leaching,  resulted  and  in  content.  hardened  transplanting.  off  in  the  nursery  208 SUMMARY  In  OF O B S E R V A T I O N S  general,  growing-on proved  to  the  WITH  collection  under  nursery  an  efficient  Improvements  in  procedures  higher  The as  survival  diversity plant  though  was  was  resulted  species  obtained  a more  example, where  the  Red  Alder  it  Alder  and  and  post in  planted  by  outplanting technique.  installation significantly  performed by  the  remaining  as  less  not  on  to  mix.  more nursery  expensive  and  site.  not  directly  effort.  established  able  asset  Even  large  species  rubra)  possible  competition  to  with  appearing  was  an  sufficient  rehabilitation  (Alnus  be  plant  opposed  pioneer  overall  to  poorly,  development  natural  not  proved  considerably.  considerably  material  was  followed  economical  varied  certain  aided  planted  However, Red  of  and  approach  landscape  invasion  planted  of  rates  generally in  cuttings  resulted  species  rehabilitation  stock  EFFECTS  rates.  of  certain  traditional  The  have  survival  coverage  The  would  of  conditions  be  maintenance  POSITIVE  to  areas  survive.  determine  established  in  For  the  effect  planting  areas.  209 5.  "Island" and  the  or  "raft"  small  evidence  of  transplants  plant  growth  proved  communities and  very  showed  expansion  in  successful,  visible  their  new  envi ronment.  6.  The  natural  rapidly  than  some  establishment  the  grasses,  broad-leaved  herbs,  plants.  These  aided  installed maintain  A  a  colonizing  plants  cover  on  material a  to  variety  the  the of  of  landscape plant  in  site  other  the  while  knowledge  the  implementation  techniques  SUMMARY  OF M A I N T E N A N C E  AND  control  education,  through  and  post-rehabilitation  artificially and  was  gained  with  suitability  viability  of  tested.  MONITORING  FACTORS  was  program.  adequate  not  of  of  was  signage,  policing  consisted  mature  rehabilitation and  stock.  pioneer-  spread the  more  position.  several  User  container  ultimately  species  proceeded  generally  and  competitive  amount  sites  of  species  should  dominant  significant  regard  3.5.7  the  of  However,  vegetative  7.  regeneration  fencing,  a component  This  resulted  of in  the  of  210 widespread  trampling,  mortality. fencing  Those  sites  supported  adjacent  areas  vandalism, which  healthy  were  fertilization,  material,  pruning,  and  on  the  study  of  case  scientific  data  results  these  the  of  long  term  watering plant  and  of  detrimental result  is  rubra),  lack  This  difficult  with  resulted  the  in  and  phases  a  growing  of  sites.  collected  of  is  to  it  of  long  dead  were  not  Although show  can  critical  after  be  practiced  the  direct  assumed  have in  plant  no  maintenance  would  verified  had  although to  other  during  conditions.  the  species  of  an  the  that such  impact  in as  on  literature  the  plants,  beneficial relative Red  vigorous  initial site and  and  would  and  overall  Alder,  appeared  material  less  rehabi1itiation certain  both  determine.  failure  weeding  viability  control  transplanted  Selective of  weed  species  effects,  effectively  communities  by  earlier.  weedy  grasses  material  protected  replacement  omissions,  described  Invasion  plant  fertilization  vigour.  review  were  a  were  plant  devastated.  Watering,  any  and  to  (Alnus compete  may  have  plants.  establishment improve  provide  better  the  211 4.  Although  chemical  permitted exclude  and  on  types  the  ready  deal  means  to  significant  Although  were  large  more  the  the  allocation  Pacific  have  estimates projects  does  not  pest  management.  have  a  visible  material  period,  a pest  plans,  during  but  problem  schedules,  for  these  expenditure  the  Rim of  the  a  the  the  lack  of  could  have  had  A  been  slightly  during  1978, in  a  less  other  North  implemented. been  much small  hypothetical cost  components  projects,  maintenance  than  figure  cost  Beach  have  relative  material  and  relatively  rehabilitation  plant  implemented  not  would  monies.  of  Long  were  protected with  breakdown  for  would  with  maintenance  schematic  policy  not  plant  monitoring  project  capital  of  did  of  developed  effectively  amount  this  not  impact.  rehabilitation The  pests  maintenance  estimates  generally  integrated  survival and  are  Parks,  of  insect  implementation  a  5.  National  other  Diseases effect  in  pesticides  10%  which  parks.  based was  assuming monies, on  cost  similar  to  21 2 6.  No  scientific  instituted in  this  or  other  thesis.  implementation projects  is  opportunity  organized than The  and  independent  collection  long  critical for  the  monitoring  in  term order  improvements  of  in  study  data  success to  programs  of  provide  on  were  outlined the  rehabilitation the  methodology.  21 3 PART  IV  LANDSCAPE  4.0  REHABILITATION  literature  review  the  existing  rehabilitation  the  holistic  approach.  climate  and  capacity,  to  maintenance  literature problems,  describes  rehabilitation attempted  to  of  application, were  and  the  all  outcome  study  a  zones.  useful and  data  that  to  was  areas  in  park  a  of  The  aspects  of  planning,  maintenance,  as  well  the  of  the  to  particular  therefore to  have  project.  to  provide of  projects  rehabilitation from  resulting  administration,  providing  as  out-plantin,  perceived  variety  observations  assessed.  review  utilized  each  reviewed  overall  rehabilitation  projects  and  much  solutions  study  of  were  preparation,  the  type  as  control,  literature  Although  different  carrying  The  approach  on  factors,  stated  a  emphasis  biotic  technical  of  an  including  references  of  rehabilitation  tabulated  included  contain  with  of  elements  site  was  specific  on  case  biogeoclimatic represented  It  components  of  user  selection,  major  base  group  and  and  management.  on  The examples  few  draw  bearing  edaphic  factors.  while  knowledge  principles  species  described  A diverse  topography,  design  precursors  some  MODEL  INTRODUCTION The  and  MANAGEMENT  a  all  of  the  sites  conclusions implementation,  realistic  outline  of  214 the  problems  encountered.  The  development  rehabilitation  management  model,  the  literature  review  case  was  developed  outline  of  a  with  types  of  any  biophysical are  landscape  of  variables  rehabilitation costly  errors  failure.  of  enters  specific  is  points  conclusions  based  A brief detailed  which  the to to  supportive  review  of  that  in  order  a  policy  technical  variables  of  utilized  of  planning  for  a  to  comprehensive phase  of  a  minimize  project broad  and  then and  review  phase.  interdependent, information or  in  detailed  components,  are  input  component  questions,  monitoring,  model  applicable  opportune  with  incomplete  clear  of  project.  commences  avoid  The  the  to  and  synthesis  is  lead  allow  description  and  could  detailed  of  job  a  each  the  order on  for  at  specific  a  maybe  of  considered  organized in  all  ensure  maintenance,  many  work  to  structure  the  the  Although diagram  relevant  that  organized  or  was  providing  although  administrative  through  of  the  conclusions.  rehabilitation  omissions  The model  progresses  flow  is  program and  consideration  finally  was  study  progression  necessarily  model  therefore,  objective  environment,  not  The range  the  rehabilitation  all  factors  and  of  the  at  design  data.  the  the  model  specific  follows,  while  technical  the  parts  such  FIGURE 58  REHABILITATION  MANAGEMENT MODEL  LAUD D0TIK3MJ<X  3Z sir-  1  ~  3Z  Natural regeneration vs. restoration, rehabilitation, reclamation. Capital costs, operation costs, time h o r i z o n s , s t a f f i n g , p o l i c y i m p l i c a t i o n s , communication and l i a i s o n ;  kDr\IKJI*TKA.TlV£  IMVI^I^MIOU  0IOPHY6ICALcOMPOUEJJT 6 U r W £ -WJD TOPOCf^rvPHr  P r o p o r t i o n and s c a l e , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , u n i t y and compos i t i o n , s e q u e n c e , b a l a n c e form, shape, a x i s , t e x t u r e and p a t t e r n , c o l o u r , enframement, rhythm, c o n t r a s t , v a r i e t y , convergence, dominence, co-dominance  Precipitation, temperatures, w i n d s , a s p e c t and r a d i a t i o n , a l t i t u d e , snow c o l l e c t i o n , shade, p e r m a f r o s t , n e e d l e - i c e a i r d r a i n a g e , p o s i t i o n on a s l o p e , e x p o s u r e , g r o w i n g season] heat budget, l e n g t h o f day.  Prior to disturbance, following disturbance  S o i l moisture, s o i l temperatu r e , s o i l c h e m i s t r y pH CEC, s o i l s t r u c t u r e and t e x t u r e , micro-organisms, mycorrhizal f a c t o r s , pedology  t &\OT\0 FA6T0K>  ^  CAP^ITY  Zoning, channeling, b a r r i e r s , e d u c a t i o n , boundary d e f i n i t i o n choice of m a t e r i a l s , vandalism signage  Landscape design elements trails, site facilities, access, c i r c u l a t i o n  Community s t r u c t u r e , s p e c i e s composition, population dynamics, w i l d l i f e i n t e r a c t i o n nutrient cycling  Numbers Intensity Duration  PLftJUkJIKJC, ^ D&6ICNi Selection of pioneer, successional, or climax plant ing. Diversity, resilience, competition Growth form & r a t e , phenology g e r m i n a t i o n , v i g o u rr , d r o u g h t r e s i stance, reproduct ion seed d i s p e r s a l , m i n e r a l n u t r i t i o n , maintenance, a v a i l ability, functional u t i l i t y , resistance to pests, w i l d l i f e interactions, transplantability Fi s e a l / Commitment  r^-PlAKJkJIKJC, FOR. PLAMT r W £ K J A L  OF T&OikJIQUK)  Seed c o l l e c t i n g , c u t t i n g c o l l e c t i o n , storage, growingon, s i z e o f p l a n t a t i n s t a l l a t i o n , plant material salvage  Coring sprigging, r a f t s , wattling, c u t t i n g s , hydro-seeding, seeding, transplant ing, c o n t a i n e r grown v s . b a r e r o o t , c o l l e c t e d s t o c k , n u r s e r y sources] time h o r i z o n s , equipment  P l a n t i n g season, s t a f f , equipment a v a i l a b i l i t y  DixuiAarft 6IT& PRkPAKATIOM  Drawings, s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , a p p r o v a l s , c o n t r a c t award, skilled contractor  S c a r i f i c a t i o n , grading, s o i l improvements, drainage, e r o s i o n c o n t r o l , wind p r o t e c t i o n ] o r g a n i c , s o i l , rock mulches S k i l l e d crews, weather, transportation of plants, supervision control of plant storage, on-site f e r t i l i z a t i o n  OUT-PLAUTIWc, Workload a n a l y s i s , s t a f f r e q u i r e m e n t s , p l a n s and s c h e d u l e s , f i s c a l commitment  HZ  S t a k i n g and t i e i n g , m u l c h i n g , weed c o n t r o l , t h i n n i n g , pruning, w i l d l i f e control, f e r t i l i z a t i o n , w a t e r i n g , mowing vandalism,, temporary f e n c i n g , i n t e g r a t e d p e s t management p h y s i c a l , c u l t u r a l methods, insecticides, herbicides.  Impact a s s e s s m e n t , s p e c i e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t , community dynamics, s o i l compaction, s o i l f e r t i l i t y , plant mortality w i l d l i f e interactions, invasion weedy s p e c i e s  rAOUITOKlKJC >-  Cost e f f e c t i v e n e s s , time  horizons  V I S U A L 7/APA6T  216 development therefore, must  and a  well  key  proceed  constraints as  technical stage  within imposed  recognize  geographical  in  the by  rehabilitation the  model  framework.  administrative the  various  economic,  implications  and  levels  demographic,  bearing  objectives,  on  and  Land  are,  management  jurisdictional of  government,  as  sociological,  and  requirements  and  user  expectati ons.  4.1.3.  POLICY  Land  management  rehabilitation governmental  are  to  desired  land  to  use  be  land  term  in  are  patterns,  sequences  for  represent  desired  programs.  visible  funds  and  Policies  identify  may  prime  the  approval.  objectives  the  adequate  establish  as  tangible  Such  as  well  the  necessary  and  Rehabilitation  achieve  the  objectives  OBJECTIVES  and  by  into  realized.  procuring  REHABILITATION  policy  before  rehabilitation  management  use  perceived  transformed  policies  instrumental  administrative  land  must  implementation  long  respond  objectives  corporate  for  establishing  4.1.4  planner  or  commitments policies  DEVELOPMENT  result.  the  follow  the  technical  These  establishment  solutions  objectives  would  of  required normally  21 7 development  and  therefore, must  a  well  key  proceed  constraints as  technical stage  within imposed  recognize  geographical  in  the by  rehabilitation the  model  framework.  adminitrative the  various  economic,  implications  and  on  and  Land  are,  management  jurisdictional  levels  demographic,  bearing  objectives,  of  government,  as  sociological,  and  requirements  and  user  expectations.  4.1.3.  POLICY  Land  management  rehabilitation governmental commitments policies  are  respond  to  desired  land  or  to  use  objectives  must  corporate  be  implementation  long  land  term  in  are  patterns,  sequences  for  represent  desired  programs.  visible  funds  and  Policies  identify  may  prime  the  approval.  objectives  the  adequate  establish  as  tangible  Such  as  well  the  necessary  and  Rehabilitation  achieve  the  objectives  OBJECTIVES  and  by  into  realized.  procuring  REHABILITATION  policy  before  rehabilitation  management  use  perceived  transformed  policies  instrumental  administrative  land  planner  for  establishing  4.1.4  DEVELOPMENT  result.  the  follow  the  technical  These  establishment  solutions  objectives  would  of  required normally  218 evolve  in  response  restoration, 2.0.  The  measure, modify  4.1.5.  of  of  costs,  design and  without  natural  reclamation sought  of  site  process  species  of  administrative  and  personnel or  public  project,  functions  duplicity  highly  visible  large  to  degree  be  and  interest  in in  efforts  high  priority  works  such  as  and  the  Rehabi1itiation should  be  objectives  project  considered  the  projects amongst  valid  communication  task,  pipeline  and  of  resolved.  larger  equally  while  a  the  these  the  are  in  Regardless  of  is  maintenance  identified  undertakings, be  commitments  or  highway  administrative  simultaneously  for with  particularly  construction.  objectives  and  objectives  liaison.  important  These  governmental also  are  ensure  involved.  should  some  should  liaison and  respect  rehabilitation  communication  and  Section  OBJECTIVES  certain  a  in  in  selection.  staffing, of  defined  will,  with  operations  nature  regeneration,  investigation,  expenditures,  avoid  during  of  capital  or  private the  and  implementation  Communication  all  and  intensity  techniques  administrative  to  the  ADMINISTRATIVE  impractical  variables  rehabilitation  planning  The  size  of  determine  the  the  rehabilitation,  degree  selection  areas  to  in  the  219 derivation  of  expectancy  of,  obviously  of  expected  appearance  4.1.6.  time  divided  to  Furthermore,  than  drastically to  the in  realistic  necessary  biophysical visual  required  of  scientifically sites  accurately  20 of  or  is  costs. and  species  perhaps  the  management model  The  with  impact,  of  and  and and  site  the user  not  be  gathering approach  exhaustive. a more  visualize  and  acceptable and  most in  techniques.  complex that  it  70 p o s s i b l e in  items  terms  of  investigation less  the  stage  tangible  control.  investigation needs,  as  should on  for  efficient  should  be  inventory  conditions  return  pragmatic  On e x t e n s i v e  and  be  certain  applicable.  detailed site  methods  Furthermore,  assess  information  will  the  over  pre-design  factors  will  rehabilitation  of  analyze,  life  100 y e a r s  completion  choice  data  expenditure,  disturbed  for  reflect  variables  A project  maintenance  intensity  to  terms  10,  variables  identify,  design,  of  the  major  evaluated  many  of  objectives.  into  of  carefully  rather  the  investigation  The  and  on  Site  rehabilitation  sites  or  horizons  component  2,  selection  INVESTIGATION  information  elements  the  bear  eight  horizons.  example,  operational  will  encompasses  is  time  SITE  technical  of  for  influence  allocation the  suitable  or may  be  trends,  220 while  smaller  needs. should  less  complex  Throughout be  the  relevant  evaluated  and  results  planning  and  of  design  the  present  other  stage  to  may  assist  then  in  techniques,  self-evident  the  collected  objectives  categories  inventory  of  stage  rehabilitation  to  the  selection  may  investigation  compared  collated  selection,  to  sites  and  be  of  information.  be  utilized  determining  and  data  the  other  The  in  the  species prime  vari ables.  .1  Biophysical  The topography, capacity. from  a  These  with  the  variable.  relate  the  .2  to  The demonstrate  of  and  case the  factors,  are  in  but of  biophysical  complete  Hence,  discussion  Climate  study  consideration  review,  sub-group  of  encompasses  biotic  perspective,  discussion  literature  component  factors,  areas  revegetation  A detailed the  biophysical edaphic  conjunction  Component  of  only the  with the model  climate  and  carrying  themselves  should  important  also  be  or  user  design  assessment  is  ramifications significant will  be  and  utilized control.  presented of  in  in  each  points  elaborated  as  they  here.  Topography  studies  importance  and of  literature analyzing  review climate  clearly and  topography  221 as  they  relate  Seemingly example, while  minor may  have  user  control.  factors  to  in  during  bearing  material.  seen  perhaps  by  the  many  On  generally  determine  disturbance,  monitoring  conditions of  fluctuations.  on  soil The  collected  rehabilitation  phase. all  The will  be  planned  Soil  test of  should  aspect  could  amount  of  depend  objectives.  on  has  been  disturbed altered,  survival  site,  and  site  plant  analyze and  should  and  to  influence  detail  of  to  disturbance,  keyed  the  reviewed important  locations  be  particular,  carefully  the  plants,  visual  drastically  the  following  in  most  chemistry  portions  moisture  latter  operations.  information  should  of  further  authors  single  will  to  will  with  are  for  design,  model,  factors  prior  on  the  rehabilitation.  testing  aspect  throughout plant  site.  viability  Climate  or  Soil  or  the  structure  observations  planting  a  on  soil  the  reflect  represent  effect  the  material. site  factors  landscape  where  edaphic  as  or  Edaphic  variable  the  have  dealing  previously  sites  also  areas  rehabilitation  exposure,  may  critical  Edaphic  in  serious  components  .3  the  a  assessment  influence  to  fluctuations  topography  impact  those  specifically  seasonal time  of  variety character  of as  soils well  222 Results composition  of  stage,  while  useful  to  of  preliminary  appropriate  soil  test  ameliorate  relating  to  mulching  .4  Biotic  the  critical  wildlife are  planner  with  the  of  combined  factors  they  selection existing  are  influence  selection,  a  not  plant  replacement  the  design  other  will  be  problems  amendments.  forest  would  be  degree with  on  of  cost  cover  is  species  to  scientific  professional  central and  to  design  will  Furthermore,  of  determining  restrictions. a  primary  If  objective  composition, nutrient the  cycling,  extent  study  opinion,  the  limited  characteristics  the  may to  that vary  and  data from  rigorous  horizon.  techniques,  necessarily  problem  dynamics,  time  presents  and  required  of  longer  planning  stock.  complex  population  also  selection is  during  or  factors  time  information  The  over  given  native  interaction  obtainable.  Biotic as  base,  structure,  investigation  soil  biotic  data  observation  organic  allow  implementation  deficiences  site  comprehensive  community  mixes  following  of  re-establishment then  results  will  Factors  Assessment rehabilitation  tests  fertilizer  nitrogen or  soil  the  rehabilitation functions  and to aid  of  species  maintenance. native in  less  Species  species,  choosing obvious  process  but  the  appropriate  potential  223 impact  of  wildlife  evaluated species,  through known  browsing  on  lush  identification  browsing  habits,  new  of  growth  should  be  local  mammalian  or  other  migratory  patterns,  and  habitat  conditions.  .5  Carrying  Capacity  Carrying measure less is  than  the  application  a factor  sites  where  intended. lands  capacity other to  which  recreation  capability  of  site  compaction  or  other  As capacity of  use  of  a  only  as  they  site. if  principles,  soil  on  to  user  rehabilitation  components  other  use  has  and  as  perhaps  However,  particularly  as  relevance  other  has  projects.  such  site  and  to  grazing to  the  well  conditions  on  is undisturbed  as  to  it  the  inherent  withstand  impacts.  in  the  literature  review,  numbers,  intensity  projected  relate  Carrying  linked  or  difficult  attention,  rehabilitation  described  depends  receive  capacity  a  more  rehabilitation  should  surrounding  somewhat  biophysical  many  Carrying  is  to  the  given  capacity,  carrying  biophysical  then,  edaphic  and  biotic  control,  and  the  is  overall  land  duration  characteristics  relevant  factors,  and  to  the  model  design management  and  objectives.  /  224  .6  Visual  The outlined the  Assessment  fundamentals the  required  desired in  in  Impact  of  literature  review,  sophistication  level  of  the'affected  intuitive  or  budgetary  and  detail, area.  scientific time  visual  of  size  and  it  land  constraints  was  may  although as  well  depended  be  this as  were  recognized  disturbance  analysis  level,  assessment  investigation of  Visual  impact  on  and  the  land  effective depends  that  use  at  the  on  availability  of"  experti se.  Of model  is  primary  the  predictive  measure  and  well  provide  as  impacts. the  The  management the  assess  approach  concern  mechanisms  impacts for  rehabilitation which  best  of  the  site  the  rehabilitation  capability  visual  objectives,  context  in  analytical  techniques  prior  to  land  reducing  or  modifying  planner  reflects and  of  management  the  therefore,  needs  of  the  select  land  objectives,  vegetation,  as  these  must,  rehabilitation  topography,  disturbance,  to  and  within  use  patterns.  .7  of  visual  Design  Principles  Design  principles  analysis,  but  are  differ  closely  woven  in  they  that  with are  many  the  aspects  tools  which  225 may  be  applied  certain  aesthetic  principles or  may  mitigate  utilized  to  denudation, intended described  land in  the  and  used use.  principle  Control  User  control the  principles  tools  or  to  indistinguishable  conversely, by  the  rehabilitation  is  in  is of  balance,  to  used  to  during on  choice design sites  large  utilized  maximize  depend  the  salient  list  in  used  design  to  manipulate  the  full  20  They  prior  shapes,  identifies  included  achieve  such,  occurring  new  to  disturbance.  fundamentals  used  As  elements land  sequence,  methods  technology  may  of  the  be  design  to  clearly  the  not  rhythm,  and  and  form  advantage  to  as  proportion  model,  be  the  appropriate factors,  may  scale,  each  the  of  basis  of  on  sites.  these  solutions  but  the  may  the  forms  The model  User  as  as  and  project.  construct  factors,  rehabilitation  .8  to  review,  and  the  effect  composition,  theory  of  natural  However,  remaining  design  visual  the  planning  regarded  recreate or  site  goals  be  the  exhaustive. unity  during  the the  of  implement problem  the  and User  a  component  follow  appeal. the  the  phase.  materials  carrying  themes  are  available,  control  design  Design  project  solving  techniques  methods  that  should  aesthetic  criteria. in  measure  is  of  and  the  often Design  or  may  be  modified  important  capacity  should  on be  integrated  with  channeling, delivery some  of  site  the  methods  place  the  elements other.  on of  the  Design  and  hand,  broader  not  be  care  taken  solution  at  the  to  measure  relevant  to  design,  therefore,  the is  design  The on  trails,  of  aesthetic  planned  not  land  mutually  design  in a  to at  biophysical more  subjective  principles as  a  on  rather  the  graphic  earth-shapes,  and  pursuing  organized and  the  characteristics  expressed  avoid  expense  of  management as  the  simply  elements,  ecological  Conversly,  be  treated  is  planning  design  manipulation  land  of  and  assessment,  objectives. must  phase  somewhat  landscape  the  are  planners.  include  model  the  or  as  information  circulation.  and  patterns,  well  would  areas,  materials  architectural  from  to  the  rehabilitation  use  use  or  construction  arising  solution  integrate  education  management  aesthetic  fully  Zoning  DESIGN  factors  should  other  to  synthesis  one  visual  of  recreational  AND  of  public  landscape  rehabilitation  culmination  component  of  access,  critical  solutions.  choice  available  for  PLANNING  The  the  components  facilities,  design  barriers,  and  designated  4.1.7  the  physical  systems,  traditional sites  physical  of  or  vegetation  process  must  a  as  site,  rehabilitation earlier  discussions,  single-minded  quality use.  exclusive  or  other  technical tangible  Rehabilitation in  terms  of  the  227 tangible process design  and in  intangible  problem  concept,  planting  plant  material  planning  and  collection,  4.1.8  the  design  Species  selection  themes  The  plant  The  list unique  from  the  or  virtues  pioneer,  of  and  weighed  second  category are  certainly  particularly  second  time  horizon  category  activities.  two  assessment area  ,  relation  and  selection.  outlines  fifteen  species  rehabilitation, to  sites.  factors  is,  describe  although  specific  Selection of  to  competitive  species  expanded  or  considerations.  resilience,  to  of  in  during  harsh of  in  for  facilitate  successional  discussed  relevant be  the  the  early  into  planting  be  diversity,  be  the  As  required  to  divided  of  should  often  order  requiring  overall  material,  relatively  in  objectives  an  commence.  time  are  selection of  pre-installation  variables  should  could  may  development  of  a  plant  necessitate  other  objectives  which  of  lead  decisions  communities  characteristics  of  or  implications  interactions  the  initial  relative  management  General  or  SELECTION  appropriate  land  concept  SPECIES  with  may  instead  completion  aspects  substantial  growing-on,  is  selection  other  procurement  categories,  general.  and  but  Following  necessary  techniques,  illustrates,  climax  solving.  the  model  elements,  course,  of  needs  species  dependent  on  228 the  overall  desired  effect  as  outlined  in  the  first  category  of  variables.  4.1.9  PREPLANNING  material  As  described  is  often  quantities For  this  for  plant  difficult  the  for  to  is  However,  scheduled.  effectiveness  unlikely  is that  a  nullify  an  initial  capital  relatively include sites  currently  and  key  component  in  plant  outlay As  commitment  in  collection,  undergoing  after  and  projects.  years  prior  "preplanning" all  of  the  components,  final  years  design  it  is  site  before  efforts  material  outplanting  the  model  disturbance,  or  As it  the  material  is  to  Furthermore,  growing-on  plant  be  selection,  sufficiently  program. and  should  requirements.  material  change  collection  identified  cutting  located  plant  will  in  rehabilitation  procurement of  the  plant  phase  2-5  Although  maximize  conditions  particularly  "preplanning"  several  planning  native  rehabilitation  detailed  plant  small. or  to  thesis,  assessment  determine  entire  seed  visual  to  site  a  dates.  completed  initial  enough  scale  fiscal  expect  investigations  diversity  and  the  procure,  includes  and  to  be  of  schematically  biophysical  unrealistic  body  large  model  is  MATERIAL  to  implementation  material  preliminary  complete  the  administrative  scheduled  clearly  PLANT  in  sufficient  reason  requiring to  FOR  the  is  options salvage  procurement  from  from  229 commercial factor  in  4.1.10  nurseries. determining  SELECTION  The scale  of  rehabilitation  Preplanning  plant  consider  for  bare  individual  root  ways  preplanning labour  therefore, container unit  mature  immediate limited  or  the  for  final  has  not  been  provide  will  stock  assist  or  large  may are  will  as  a much  horizon  be  in  design  effect.  requiring  the  an  appear  in  given  will  Raft  if  and,  over  a  and larger  established  high for  a  transplants  hydroseeding  of  or  planting  provide  areas,  established  in  particularly  stock  key the  grown  transplanting  stage  evaluation  transplanted  required  of  coverage  for  the  therefore  sensitive  whereas  desired  on  material.  used,  cheaper  feasible  not  the  in  equipment,  use  as  a  biophysical  container  merits  of  methods  of  effect  be  species.  must  example  rafts  during  the  material  relative  larger  depends  funds,  acquisition  costly  "Rafts"  should  period.  techniques  plant  well  quantities  Container  and  as  appearance  planting  available  techniques,  limitations  time  at  growing-on  of  intensive,  The  techniques.  site,  versus  program  stock  area.  selection  material  of  determine  size  necessary  project,  stock,  plants  Budget  are  the  selection  optimum  TECHNIQUES  appropriate  of  many  the  OF  characteristics  versus  The  yet  only  costs. some  time,  but  230 in  addition  to  successional  4.1.11  cost  stage  effectiveness, may  of  a  particular  planted.  SCHEDULING  Scheduling should  be  planting time  let,  and  for  tender  considerations. site  be  prepared ,prior  or  Tender  documents  in  advance  review  approvals, award.  of  to  award are  and  project  DOCUMENTS  well  and  or of  project  ensure  if  the  some  of  length  and  selection  of  are  is  to-be  important  necessary  also  to  significant  requirements  should  dates.  "in-house"  and  equipment,  more  time  contract  scheduled  drawings,  the  and  appropriate  project  of  completion  final  an  management  availability,  outplanting  scheduling  to  of  contractor  anticipated  TENDER  thorough  contract  advance  scheduling  maintenance  necessary  in  preparation  that  prepared  component  call  The  in  4.1.12  a  Staff  financial  complete  is  established season.  lead  allow  be  a community  plans  implementation  should  be  dates  to  specifications,  skilled  contractors,  and  231 4.1.13  a  SITE  PREPARATION  Site  preparation  rehabilitation  the  tender  mulch  to  be  prevent  4.1.14  soil  outplanting "field  essential  to  personally,  ensure and  of  be  the  grading, wind  to  success  of  specified  in  soil protection,  preparatory  prior  physical  overall  carefully  control,  major  tasks,  outplanting  and  and  in  order  of  correct  alteration.  to  the  lacking  in  many  emphasized  as  project scale  defined  the is  best  an  the  the  should  important and  of  rehabilitation  many  for  is  plant and  the  detail  the  control  illustrations,  failure  phase  simply  implementation  On-site  management  complete  in  thesis  supervision  Ideally,  outline  the  planting  close  supervise  study  of  conditions  through  supervisor.  case  importance  body the  crews.  alternatively  of  the  possible  work  appointed  in  during  achieved  skilled  but  illustrated  Control  planner  concept  the  the  studies  planting".  rehabilitation  to  or  procedure,  training  than  erosion  immediately  loss  case  establishment, the  should  to  OUTPLANTING  The  as  and  represent  completed  critical  Scarification,  drainage,  spreading  should  project,  documents.  improvements,  is  phase  far  replanting. sites,  and less  planting was hence costly  Furthermore,  numerous  is  due  decisions  232 regarding  the  random  otherwise  or  The designated campsites  precise  for or  outdoor  materials.  Other  storage,  are  implementation. case  study  most  important  4.1.15  This  essential  step  during  planning  studies,  care  during  worthwhile and  coordinated of  sites  with  equipment the  and  viability  transportations  transplanting.  and  seemingly  inadequate  element  presented the  on  signage,  influencing  proper  by  elements  entire  in  wel1-executed follow-up  was  emphasized  the  model,  project  during in  the  possibly  the  execution.  MAINTENANCE  maintenance  crucial  is  be  whether  supervisor.  trails,  movement  during  negated  material  the  as  should  program  and  such  include  weather  to  factors  easily  analysis  plant  landscape  rational  efforts  Maintenance  case  use,  significant  A well-planned design  other  furniture,  and  of  delegated  of  facilitate  rehabilitation  site  be  recreational  to  plants,  must  construction  outplanting  of  arrangement  planned  for use  the some  budgets often  and  are  complete.  control  intitial time  rarely  of  Yet  as  nor  within  Maintenance  is  illustrated  rehabilitation  establishment  following  limitation.  the  adequate,  phase, site  and  scale,  programs  may  site  in  the  are  certainly budget, be  established  to  established  plant  debilitating  manipulate  through  tear  hard  of  Maintenance management and  be  community,  influences  impacts  analysis  landscape planning  determine  requirements maintenance  are  schedules  goals  program to  and  attain  tying,  mulching,  fertilization, integrated  4.1.16  be  aimed  found  or  on  early  contract)  and  sites.  land processes,  design  of  phases.  detailed  human  wear  the  and  of  drought,  making  selection,  newly  control  normal  in  decision  after  at  a  recreation  preparation  (or  within  seasonal  vandalism,  site  are  landscape  Workload  budget  plans  and  developed.  planning must of  the  objectives  thinning,  watering,  pest  pests,  policy  staff  Some  specific  as  species  and  objectives  adoption.  may  commence  established  Maintenance the  and  changes  or  and  should  during  scheduling,  dynamic  elements  objectives,  to  such  trampling  considered  elements,  the  demands be  a  holistic  identified  components are  weed  pruning,  mowing,  clearly  to  wildlife  and  prior  consider  control,  temporary  approach  as  staking  to tools  and  control,  fencing,  and  management.  MONITORING  Observation worthwhile  in  most  and  areas  evaluation of  of  endeavor,  project but  performance  particularly  so  is  234 following  rehabilitation  development scientific cost the  of  and  effectiveness,  measure plant  to  mortality,  prime  or  any  a  utilized  to  the  natural  and  deemed  should or  overall  compaction,  interactions,  be  both of  success  soil  worthy  modify  offers  of  Monitoring  invasion  usable  recent  considerations  environment.  soil  improve  relatively  Monitoring  pragmatic  viability  variable  though,  to  field.  more  dynamics,  other  due  the  the  wildlife  objective, be  in  species  restore  community  species,  turn  knowledge  interest  attempt  efforts  of  data  future  may  fertility, of  weedy  attention. which  may  A  in  rehabilitation  management.  4.1.17  REVIEW  The to the  all  of  the  dynamic  Disturbed  the  nature  are  long  constant. technical  The  planner the  review  of  not  nor  review  all  as  the  to  change to  is,  new  over  use  mosaic  therefore, data,  time,  variables,  evaluate  and  of  needs.  into the and  illustrate  management.  is  land not  likely  more  and  connections  to  particular  pattern  integrated  with  intended  planning  vegetation  monitoring  factors  is  achieve  the  process of  respond  process  is  to  component  and  rehabilitation  static,  objectives  must  review  constituants,  evaluation of  a  rehabilitated  term,  implications management  includes  other  lands  objectives in  model  than  should the  use fixed  to  remain  a  examine  model.  As  the land  rehabilitation be  able  to  draw  on  235 4.3  SUMMARY  The thesis  was  current  rehabilitation  constructed  literature,  evaluation to  of  integrate  the  model  during  OF MANAGEMENT  the  reflect  a  with  studies.  technical  assuring  the  management  combined  case  both  to  MODEL  and  system  rehabilitation  but  management  process  factors not  to  linear  various a  solve  site  over  stages as  a  application  time, in  due  land  to  forms  most  the  unit. and  sites, where  pre-disturbance over  time.  even  was  used  components  into  sites.  Landscape  as  a planting on  the  a wide  model of  should  model  altered  of of  the treating  have  mine  for  sites,  or a  any  return  condition  of is  landscape  developments, call  plan,  variety  the  necessity  corridors,  objectives or  approach  Therefore,  and  the  from  inter-relationships  scales  urban  gained  in  the  efficiently  drawing  The  linear  found  in  respond  viewed  problem.  to  including  project  self-supporting  not  implementation,  recreation  development natural,  specific  dynamic  rehabilitation, overused  a  results  disturbed  is  a  the  would  therefore,  as  knowledge  administrative  rehabilitation, rather  presented  the  A holistic  that  of  model  to  which  a is  236  BIBLIOGRAPHY A d o l p h s o n , R., (1979) "Practical Erosion Control Applications i n t h e Rocky M t n . R e g i o n , U . S . D . A . , F o r e s t S e r v i c e " Jji International Erosion Control Assoc.; Proceedings of C o n f e r e n c e X, S e a t t l e , Washington. A r m b r u s t , D . V . & J . D. D i c k e r s o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) " T e m p o r a r y Wind Erosion Control: c o s t & e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 34 c o m m e r c i a l materials". J . o f S o i l and W a t e r C o n s e r v a t i o n : 26 July-August; p 154-152. A t k i n s o n , N.H. & J . C. H e t h e r i n g t o n ( 1 9 7 1 ) P r e s s u r e s and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n w i t h s i t e F o r e s t r y 4 5 ( 2 ) p. 2 2 3 - 2 3 0 .  "Recreation location".  Site  A Revegetative Guide f o r A l a s k a , Alaska Rural Development C o u n c i l P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 2. Cooperative Extension Service, U n i v e r s i t y of A l a s k a , F a i r b a n k s , 1977. p 238. B a b b , T . A . , & L. C. B l i s s , (1974) " E f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e on A r c t i c V e g e t a t i o n i n t h e Q u e e n E l i z a b e t h Islands". J . of A p p l i e d E c o l o g y 11(1). B a l m e r , W. E . , (1976) " U s e o f C o n t a i n e r Grown S e e d l i n g s on D i s t u r b e d S u r f a c e A r e a s " 2lL P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e on F o r e s t a t i o n o f D i s t u r b e d S u r f a c e A r e a s , K. A . U t z . , (ed) U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , South East A r e a , Birmingham, Alabama. B e a r d s l e y , W. G. & J . A . W a g a r , ( 1 9 7 1 ) on a F o r e s t e d R e c r e a t i o n S i t e " . J. 728-732.  "Vegetation Management of F o r e s t r y , (Oct.) p  B e a r d s l e y , W. G . , R. B. H e r r i n g t o n , a n d J . A . W a g a r , (1974) " R e c r e a t i o n S i t e Management: How t o R e h a b i l i t a t e a H e a v i l y Used Campground W i t h o u t S t o p p i n g V i s i t o r U s e " . J . of F o r e s t r y , (May), p 279-281. B e l l , K. L. & B l i s s , L. C . ( 1 9 7 3 ) "Alpine Disturbance Studies: Olympic National Park, U.S.A.". Biological Conservation; V o l . 5, N o . 1, J a n . , p 2 5 - 3 1 . B e l l , M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) F l o r a a n d V e g e t a t i o n o f P a c i f i c Rim N a t i o n a l Park; P h a s e 1, L o n g B e a c h " , P a r k s C a n a d a , Western Regional Office.  237  B e n g t s o n , G. W . , D. A . M a y s , & J . C . A l l e n (1973) " R e v e g e t a t i o n of Coal S p o i l s in Northeastern Alabama: E f f e c t s o f T i m i n g o f S e e d i n g a n d F e r t i l i z a t i o n on E s t a b l i s h m e n t of Pine-Grass M i x t u r e s " j_n P r o c e e d i n g s ; R e s e a r c h a n d A p p l i e d T e c h n o l o g y S y m p o s i u m on M i n e d - l a n d Reclamation, March, P i t t s b u r g Pennsylvania; p 93-97. B e n g s t o n , G. W . , D. A . M a y s , T . G. Z a r g e r , ( 1 9 7 3 ) "Techniques U s e f u l i n E s t a b l i s h i n g V e g e t a t i v e C o v e r on R e c l a i m e d Surface-Mined Land". Unknown s o u r c e . B e r g , W. A . ( 1 9 7 4 ) " G r a s s e s & Legumes f o r R e v e g e t a t i o n o f Disturbed Subalpine Areas". In R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h - A l t i t u d e Disturbed Lands; P r o c e e d i n g s of a Workshop at Fort C o l l i n s , Colorado State University. B o g u c k i , D. J . , J . L . M a l a n c h u k , T . E . S c h e n c k ( 1 9 7 5 ) "Impact o f S h o r t - t e r m c a m p i n g on g r o u n d - l e v e l v e g e t a t i o n " , Journal of S o i l & Water C o n s e r v a t i o n . S e p t . - O c t . p. 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 . B o u r d o , E . A . & G. W i l l i s (1975) "Borrow P i t R e f o r e s t a t i o n " Michigan Technological U n i v e r s i t y , Ford Forestry Centre, R e s e a r c h N o t e #17. B r i n k , V. C , J . R. M a c k a y , S. F e y m a n , D. G. P e a r c e ( 1 9 6 7 ) " N e e d l e Ice and S e e d l i n g . Establishment in Southwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. Canadian J o u r n a l of P l a n t S c i e n c e Vol p 135-139. B r o w n , R. W . , R. S. J o h n s t o n , " R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of a l p i n e W C o n s . 3 3 ( 4 ) p 1 54-1 6 0 . B r u s h , R. 0 . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Recent Assessment Research with Land f o r R e c r e a t i o n " j[n  D. A . J o h n s o n (1978) tundra disturbances".  J.  of  47  S.  &  Developments in Landscape Implications f o r Managing F o r e s t Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n , U.S.F.S., NC-9.  B u r d e n , R. F . , & P. F . R a n d e r s o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) "Quantitative Studies o f t h e E f f e c t s o f Human T r a m p l i n g on V e g e t a t i o n a s a n a i d t o t h e Management o f S e m i - N a t u r a l A r e a s . " J . of A p p l i e d E c o l o g y 9; p 4 3 9 . C a m p b e l l , S . E. & G. W. S c o t t e r ( 1 9 7 5 ) S u b a l p i ne R e v e g e t a t i o n a n d Di s t u r b a n c e S t u d i e s - M t . Revelstoke National Park. Canadian W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e ; Envi ronment Canada. C a r r , W. W. ( 1 9 7 7 ) H y d r o s e e d i n g o f F o r e s t Road S l o p e s for E r o s i o n C o n t r o l and R e s o u r c e P r o t e c t i o n . M.Sc. rhesi s U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a F o r e s t r y ; p 57.  238  U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 5 ) "Beaver Creek V i s u a l A n a l y s i s " Regional O f f i c e L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s G r o u p , Rocky M o u n t a i n Region. V a n i c e k , V. ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Definition L a n d s c a p e P l a n n i n g . V o l . 1,  of Landscape No. 1  Planning".  W a l k e r , D . , R. S. S a d a s i v i a h , and J . W e i j e r (1977) "The U t i l i z a t i o n and G e n e t i c Improvement o f N a t i v e A l b e r t a G r a s s e s f r o m t h e E a s t e r n S l o p e s o f the Rocky Mountains". R e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n P a r k s and W i l d l i f e , A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , P a r k s C a n a d a , and Alberta Environment. Dept. of G e n e t i c s , Univ. of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . W a l i , M. K. ( e d ) (1975) P r a c t i c e s and P r o b l e m s of Land Reclamation in Western North America. U n i v e r s i t y of Dakota P r e s s . Grand F o r k s .  North  W a r d , R. T . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "A C o n c e p t o f N a t u r a l Vegetation Baselines". J_n R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands: P r o c e e d i n g s of a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado State University. W h i t t a k e r , R. H. ( 1 9 5 3 ) "A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c l i m a x t h e c l i m a x as a p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n . Ecological 23. p 42-78. W h i t t a k e r , R. H. ( 1 9 6 7 ) "Gradient Biological Review 4 2 ( 2 2 9 ) .  Analysis  of  theory: Monography  Vegetation".  W i l l a r d , B. E. & J . W. M a r r ( 1 9 7 1 ) "Recovery of a l p i n e tundra u n d e r p r o t e c t i o n a f t e r damage by human a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Rocky Mts. of C o l o r a d o " . Biological C o n s e r v a t i o n , V o l . 3, No. 3, A p r i 1 . p 1 8 1 - 1 9 0 . W i l l i s , A. J . (1973) I n t r o d u c t i o n to A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , L o n d o n . p 2 3 6 . Wilson-Hodges, C. Aesthetics". U n i v e r s i t y of  (1978) "The Institute of Toronto.  Plant  Ecology.  Measurement of Landscape Environmental Studies,  Wagar, J . A. (1964) "The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y of Recreation". F o r e s t S e r v i c e Monograph 7. Wagar, J . A. (1974) Reconsidered".  George  "Recreational Carrying J . o f F o r e s t r y ; May.  Wildlands  for  Capacity  Y o u n g , R. A . ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Camping I n t e n s i t y Effects Groundcover i n I l l i n o i s Campgrounds. J . of Conservation. (Jan.-Feb.) p 36-38.  on V e g e t a t i v e S o i l and Water  239  d e C a p i t a , M. E . , T . A . a n d B o o k o u t , ( 1 9 7 5 ) "Small Mammal Population; V e g e t a t i o n a l C o v e r , and H u n t i n g Use o f an Strip-mined area" In O h i o J . o f S c i e n c e V o l 7 5 ( b ) p 3 0 5 - 3 1 3. — D o t z e n k o , A . D . , N. T . P a p a m i c h o s , D. S . R o m i n i ( 1 9 6 7 ) o f R e c r e a t i o n a l U s e on S o i l a n d M o i s t u r e C o n d i t i o n s Rocky M o u n t a i n N a t i o n a l P a r k " J . of S o i l & Water C o n s e r v a t i o n , October p 196-197. D o u g l a s , R. W. ( 1 9 7 5 ) Forest Recreation. Pergamon P r e s s I n c . , Toronto.  Second  Ohio  "Effect in  Edition.  D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n and N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s , P a r k s , Canada, W e s t e r n R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , E n g i n e e r i n g and A r c h i t e c t u r e (1977). Snowshoe F i r e r o a d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; Waterton Lakes National Park; Design Requirements Report, Calgary, Alberta. Eaman, T . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Plant Species Potential for High-Altitude Revegetation" In R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h - A l t i t u d e Disturbed Lands; P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado State University. E c k b o , G. ( 1 9 7 4 ) Landscape".  " A r t , S c i e n c e , T e c h n o l o g y , Democracy and L a n d s c a p e P l a n n i n g . V o l 1, No 1, J u n e .  the  E n v i r o n m e n t C o u n c i l of A l b e r t a (1979) "The Environmental E f f e c t s o f F o r e s t r y O p e r a t i o n s i n A l b e r t a - R e p o r t and Recommendations". Alberta; Feb 1979. E r r i n g t o n , J . C. (1975) "Natural Revegetation of Disturbed Sites in B r i t i s h Columbia". PhD T h e s i s , U . B . C . D e p t . o f Forestry. E t t e r , H. M. ( 1 9 7 3 ) " M l n e d - 1 a n d R e c l a m a t i o n S t u d i e s on B i g h o r n Sheep Range i n A l b e r t a ; Canada" Biological Conservation Vol 5(3) p 1 9 1 - 1 9 5 . F e n t o n , M. R. ( 1 9 7 3 ) "Landscape Design P r i n c i p l e s f o r Strip-Mine Restoration" In E c o l o g y & R e c l a m a t i o n o f D e v a s t a t e d L a n d V o l 2. R. J . H u t n i k & G. D a v i s ( e d ) & Breach, N.Y. Fife,  E.  "A  New  Direction  in  Planting  F i t z m o r t y n , G. ( 1 9 7 9 ) Impact and G r o u p Camps i n B a n f f N a t i o n a l of C a l g a r y , C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a .  Design".  Unknown  Gordon  source.  Recovery of Horse Supported Park. Masters Thesis, Univ.  240  F o o t e , L . E . , D. L . K i l l , & A . H. B o l l a n d ( 1 9 7 0 ) Erosion P r e v e n t i o n and T u r f E s t a b l i s h m e n t M a n u a l . O f f i c e of M a t e r i a l s , C o n s t r u c t i o n D i v i s i o n , Minnesota Department Hi g h w a y s . Fox,  J . (1977) " A l t e r a t i o n and American N a t u r a l i s t III.  co-existence  of  tree  of  species".  F r i s c h k n e c h t , N. C . ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Use of Shrubs f o r Mined Land R e c l a m a t i o n a n d W i l d l i f e H a b i t a t " ljn P r o c e e d i n g s , Workshop on R e c l a m a t i o n f o r W i l d l i f e F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o (1978). F r i s s e l l , S. S. (1978) " J u d g i n g R e c r e a t i o n I m p a c t s on Wilderness Campsites". Journal of F o r e s t r y , (August) 481-483. F u r t a d a , T. (1974) M a r k e t i n g , Cox  p  E n v i r o n m e n t a l P l a n t P r o d u c t i o n and P u b l i s h i n g Company, A r c a d i a , C a l i f o r n i a .  G a r d n e r , R. B. ( 1 9 7 8 ) " C o s t P e r f o r m a n c e , and A e s t h e t i c Impacts o f an E x p e r i m e n t a l F o r e s t Road i n M o n t a n a " . U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n , INT 2 0 3 . G a s k i n , D. A . , L . J o h n s o n , S. D. I n d g e ( 1 9 7 9 ) "Second Year R e s u l t s o f t h e C h e r a R i v e r L a k e s Embankment Revegetation Project. l_n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Erosion Control Assoc; P r o c e e d i n g s o f C o n f e r e n c e X, S e a t t l e , Washington. G r e e n , J . E. ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Techniques f o r the Control of Small Mammal Damage t o P l a n t s : A Review" Alberta Oil Sands Environmental Research Program; P r o j e c t VE 7 . 1 . 1 August, 1 978. G r e e n b i e , B. ( 1 9 7 6 ) Design for D i v e r s i t y . Planning for n a t u r a l man i n t h e n e o - t e c h n i c e n v i r o n m e n t : an e t h o l o g i c a l approach"^ Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company. Amersterdam. G r u b b , P. J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) "The Maintenance of s p e c i e s - r i c h n e s s in plant communities: the importance of the r e g e n e r a t i o n niche". Biological Reviews. 52(1). H a c k e t t , B. ( 1 9 7 1 ) Landscape Theory & P r a c t i c e . Oriel  Planning: Press.  H a c k e t t , B. ( 1 9 7 2 ) Landscape O r i e l Press 1972.  Development  Harper, J . Press.  F.  (1977)  Population  Biology  An  of  of  Introduction  Steep  Plants.  to  Slopes.  Academic  241  H e e d e , B. H. Disturbed U.S.D.A.  "Submerged Burlap S t r i p s A i d e d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n S e m i - a r i d S i t e s i n C o l o r a d o a n d New M e x i c o " . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , R e s e a r c h N o t e , RM 3 0 2 p 8 .  of  H e r r i n g t o n , R. B. a n d W. G. B e a r d s l e y ( 1 9 7 0 ) "Improvement and M a i n t e n a n c e of Campground V e g e t a t i o n i n . C e n t r a l Idaho". U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e Research Paper INT-87. H o l l a n d , W. D . , a n d G. M. C o e n ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Reclamation Planting in Waterton Lakes N a t i o n a l P a r k " . U n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t by Canadian F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e , Northern F o r e s t Research Centre Edmonton, A l b e r t a . J a m e s , T . , P. M o n t i , E . M a c k i n t o s h , D. W. S m i t h o f R e c r e a t i o n a l U s e on S o i l & V e g e t a t i o n i n Provincial Park, Kenora". Interim Report; Ontario M i n i s t r y of Natural Resources.  (1976) "Impact Rushing River P h a s e B.  J o h n s o n , L . , & K. V . C l e v e ( 1 9 7 6 ) "Revegetation in Arctic & s u b - A r c t i c North America-A l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w " . Corps, of E n g i n e e r s , C o l d R e g i o n s R e s e a r c h and E n g i n e e r i n g L a b o r a t o r y , H a n o v e r , New H a m p s h i r e , C R R E L R e p o r t , 7 6 - 1 5 . J o h n s o n , W. A . ( 1 9 6 7 ) "Overuse of the National National Parks Magazine; Vol 41(241) J o n e s , G. R. ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e . March 1978.  Assessment",  Parks".  Landscape  K a p l a n , S. ( 1 9 7 5 ) "An i n f o r m a l model f o r t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f p r e f e r e n c e " . Ijn L a n d s c a p e A s s e s s m e n t , Z u b e , E . H . , e t a l ( e d s ) , Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n , and P o s s I n c . , Stroudsberg, Penn. K a p l a n , S. (1975) "Some M e t h o d s a n d S t r a t e g i e s in t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f P r e f e r e n c e " , In L a n d s c a p e Assessment, Z u b e , E. H . , e t a l ( e d s ) , Dowden, H u t c h i n s o n , and Poss Inc., S t r o u d s b e r g , Penn. Kay,  B. L . ( 1 9 7 7 ) " H y d r o s e e d i n g and E r o s i o n C o n t r o l Chemicals" In R e c l a m a t i o n & U s e o f D i s t u r b e d L a n d i n t h e Southwest. J . L. T h a m e s ( e d ) U n i v . o f A r i z o n a P r e s s . Tucson, Arizona; 1977.  Kay,  B. L . ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Mulches f o r Erosion Control & Plant E s t a b l i s h m e n t on D i s t u r b e d S i t e s " . Proceedings: High A l t i t u d e R e v e g e t a t i o n Workshop No. 3 ( I n f o r m a t i o n Services No. 28) Environmental Resoures C e n t r e , Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, Colorado.  242  K i n g , D. A . (1 9 7 7 ) " R e c r e a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t y C o s t s " Ijn R e c l a m a t i o n & Use o f D i s t u r b e d Land i n t h e S o u t h w e s t . University of Arizona Press., Tucson, Arizona. K r a j i n a , V. J . ( 1 9 5 9 ) B i o c l i m a t i c Zones i n B r i t i s h Columbia. B o t a n i c a l S e r i e s N o . 1. U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, V a n c o u v e r , B. C . K r a j i n a , V. J . ( e d ) (1965) Dept. of Botany, U.B.C. K r a j i n a , V . J . & R. America. Dept.  C. of  Ecology  of  Western  North  America.  Brooke (ed) Ecology of Western North B o t a n y , U.B.C1 v o l z ( N o . I, Z)  K u c h a r , P. ( 1 9 7 2 ) Ecological Impact Study of the M a l i g n e Area, Jasper National Park. Parks Canada; Western Regional Office. K u c h a r , P. ( 1 9 7 3 ) Habitat types of Waterton Park, D.I.A.N.D., Calgary, Alberta Land  Surface (1979); Council, No. 3.  L a P a g e , W. F . Forestry,  Lakes  Lake  National  Reclamation: An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bibliography A l b e r t a Land S u r f a c e C o n s e r v a t i o n and R e c l a m a t i o n A l b e r t a Department of Environment; Staff Report  (1962) May, p  "Recreation 319-321.  & the Forest  Site"  J .  of  L a u r i e , I. C. ( 1 9 7 4 ) Nature i n C i t i e s : Report of the P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Symposium h e l d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Manchester. L a u r i e I. C. ( 1 9 7 5 ) "Aesthetic Factors in Visual Evaluation" In L a n d s c a p e A s s e s s m e n t Z u b e , E . H . , e t a l ( e d s ) , Dowden, rTTTtchi n s o n , a n d P o s s I n c . , S t r o u d s b e r g , P e n n . L e d g a r d , N. J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) "Research into the Direct Woody P l a n t s i n H i g h C o u n t r y R e v e g e t a t i o n " . J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y Vol 21(2) p 253-264.  Seeding of New Z e a l a n d  L e i s e r , A. T . & J . J . Nussbaum (1974) W a t t l i n g as an E r o s i o n Control Method; Proceedings: Erosion Control Symposium June 11-12, p 67-74. Dept. of Environmental H o r t i c u l t u r e , University of C a l i f o r n i a . L e o p o l d , L . B. ( 1 9 6 9 ) "Quantitative A e s t h e t i c F a c t o r s among R i v e r s " . Survey C i r c u l a r 620, p 16.  Comparison of Washington:  Some Geological  243  L i d d l e , M. J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) "A primary p r o d u c t i v i t y tolerate trampling". 251 - 2 5 5 .  t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between o f v e g e t a t i o n and i t s a b i l i t y to B i o l o g i c a l c o n s e r v a t i o n 8(40) p  L i n t o n , D. L . ( 1 9 6 8 ) "The Assessment Resource". Scottish Geographical L i t t o n , R. B. ( 1 9 7 4 ) Landscapes". J .  o f S c e n e r y as Magazine, 84,  "Visual V u l n e r a b i l i t y of of F o r e s t r y , J u l y 72(7).  Long, J (1977) "Trends in plant with development in a s e r i e s Gaultheria shallon stands".  a p  the  Natural 219-238.  Forest  species diversity associates of Pseudotsuga menziessii/ Northwest Science 51(2).  L o p o u k h i n e , N. ( 1 9 7 0 ) " F o r e s t T y p e s and R e l a t e d V e g e t a t i o n of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta 1968". F o r e s t Mgmt. Institute Information Report FMR-X-28; Canadian F o r e s t r y Service, Ottawa. L u c a s , R. C. & G. H. S t a n k e y (1974) Social Carrying Capacity for Backcountry Recreation. U.S.D.A. F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e , General Technical Report, N.C.-9. Lynch,  K.  (1964)  The  View  from  the  Road.  Appleyard.  Landscape R e c l a m a t i o n (1972) A r e p o r t on r e s e a r c h into problems of r e c l a i m i n g d e r e l i c t l a n d . By a r e s e a r c h t e a m o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N e w c a s t l e u p o n T y n e V o l u m e 2. PIC Business P r e s s L t d . , 1972. M a c p h e r s o n , R. ( 1 9 7 9 ) " T h e C o n t r o l o f Weeds i n A r b o r i c u l t u r a l J o u r n a l V o l . 3(6) p 466-470.  Young  M a h o n e y , C. L . ( 1 9 7 6 ) "Soil i n s e c t s as i n d i c a t o r s patterns in recreation areas". 74(1). Manual  of  Site  Management  (1978)  Environmental  Trees"..  of  use  Design  Press.  M a r x , D. H. ( 1 9 7 5 ) " M y c o r r h i z a e a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r e e s on s t r i p - m i n e d l a n d " p 3 0 5 - 3 1 3. J_n d e C a p i t a , M. E . a n d B o o k o u t , T . A. 91975) " S m a l l Mammal Population; Vegetational C o v e r , a n d H u n t i n g Use o f a n O h i o S t r i p - m i n e d area" In O h i o J . o f S c i e n c e V o l 7 5 ( b ) p 288-297. M c A r t h u r , E . D . , B. C . G i u n t a , A . P. P l u m m e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) f o r R e s t o r a t i o n o f D e p l e t e d Ranges and D i s t u r b e d Utah S c i e n c e , M a r c h .  "Shrubs Areas".  244 M c E w e n , D. & S. R. T o c h e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) "Zone Management: key t o c o n t r o l l i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l impact in developed campsites". J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y 74(2) p 90-93. M c H a r g , I. Inc. ,  (1969) N.Y.  Design  M c G u i r e , J . R. ( 1 9 7 7 ) Planting Trees". McTaggart-Cowan, Management". Lectureship.  I.  with  Nature.  Doubleday  and  Company,  " T h e r e ' s More t o R e c l a m a t i o n than American F o r e s t s 83(7) p 14-19.  (1968) "Wilderness-Concept, Function, & T h e H o r a c e M. A l b r i g h t Conservation U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a .  M e i m a n , J . R. ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Water and E r o s i o n C o n t r o l i n R e l a t i o n to R e v e g e t a t i o n of H i g h - A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands" In R e v e g e t a t i o n of High A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands: Proceedings of a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s C o l o r a d o S t a t e University. M e r r i a m , L. C . & C . K. S m i t h ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Visitor Developed Campsite in the Boundary Waters J o u r n a l of F o r e s t r y ( O c t . ) p 627-630.  I m p a c t on N e w l y Canoe A r e a " .  M i t t m a n n , H. ( 1 9 7 4 ) " L a n d s c a p e Management C o n s i d e r a t i o n s in R e v e g e t a t i o n of High A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands" In Revegetation of H i g h - A l t i t u d e Disturbed Lands; "Proceedings of a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s , C o l o r a d o S t a t e University. M o e l l e r , G. outdoor NE-289.  H., et al "Measuring p e r c e p t i o n of elements environments". U.S.D.A. FS, Research Paper, (1973).  M o o r e , G. T . ( 1 9 7 9 ) E n v i r o n m e n t and  "Knowing Behaviour  about Environmental V o l . 11(1) p 33-65.  Knowing".  M u e l 1 e r - D o m b o i s , D . , & H. E l l e n b e r g ( 1 9 7 4 ) Aims and o f V e g e t a t i o n E c o l o g y , J o h n - W i l e y a n d S o n s , N.W. N a t u r a l Woodland Nursery p r a i r i e Gardening".  Ltd. "A G u i d e t o N a t u r a l Waterloo, Ontario.  in  Methods p 525.  Woodland  and  N i s h i m u r a , J . Y. (1974) " S o i l s & s o i l problems at High Altitudes" hn R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands: P r o c e e d i n g s of a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s Colorado State University. N i x e y , D. C . & S. R. S e v e r s ( 1 9 7 7 ) "A R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Study of R e c r e a t i o n a l A r e a s i n G e o r g i a n Bay I s l a n d s N a t i o n a l Park". V o l . 2. Base-line Environmental Research L t d .  245  Odum, E ( 1 9 6 9 ) "The Strategy S c i e n c e 164; p 262-270.  of  Ecosystem  Development".  O l g e i r s o n , E. ( 1 9 7 4 ) " E c o l o g i c a l Problems in the Revegetation of High A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands: Highways" Vn B e r g , W. A. (1974) " G r a s s e s & Legumes f o r R e v e g e t a t i o n o f D i s t u r b e d Subalpine Areas". In R e v e g e t a t i o n o f High-Altitude Disturbed Lands; P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado State University. " L a n d s c a p e P l a n n i n g on a n E c o l o g i c a l B a s i s " R e c l a m a t i o n o f D e v a s t a t e d L a n d V o l 2. R. Davis (ed). Gordon & B r e a c h , N.Y. Parks Canada National Northern  2lL J.  Ecology & H u t n i k 4 G.  (1973) Provisional Master Plan: P a c i f i c Rim Park; Long Beach U n i t . Dept. of Indian & A f f a i r s , Parks Canada, Planning Division.  Parks Canada (1978) Conceptual Report f o r a Plant Materials Program i n W e s t e r n N a t i o n a l P a r k s and H i s t o r i c S i t e s ; Plan Development S e c t i o n , Western Region, Parks Canada. Parks Canada #78-17.  (1978)  Park  Use  Statistics  P a r k s Canada (1980) Rehabilitation manual; unpublished).  of  1977-1978.  Disturbed  Sere  Areas.  P e t e r s o n , G. L. & D. W. L i m e ( 1 9 7 9 ) " P e o p l e and t h e i r Behaviour: A C h a l l e n g e f o r R e c r e a t i o n Management". F o r e s t r y , June, p 343-346. P i e l o u , E. C . ( 1 9 6 6 ) "Species in the study of e c o l o g i c a l B i o l o g y 10, p 370-383.  d i v e r s i t y and succession".  "Reclamation of of S o i l & Water  J.  of  pattern diversity J . of Theoretical  P l a s s , W. T . (1 9 7 5 ) "Reclamation of S u r f a c e - m i n e d Ohio J . of S c i e n c e Vol 75(b) p 3 0 5 - 3 1 3 . P l a s s , W. T . ( 1 9 7 8 ) Appalachia". J . p 56-61.  (Draft  Land".  Ijn  coal-mined land in Conservation. March-April  P l u m m e r , A . P. ( 1 9 7 0 ) " P l a n t s f o r r e v e g e t a t i o n o f r o a d c u t s and other disturbed or eroded a r e a " . Range Improvement Notes. V o l . 1 5 , N o . 1, J a n . U . S . D . A . F o r e s t S e r v i c e , INT Region. P l u m m e r , A . P. ( 1 9 7 6 ) "Shrubs f o r the S u b a l p i n e zone of the Wasatch P l a t e a u " . J_n P r o c e e d i n g s H i g h A l t i t u d e R e v e g e t a t i o n W o r k s h o p N o . 2, R. H. Z u c k & L . F . B r o w n (ed). Colorado State University Fort C o l l i n g s , Colorado.  246  P l u m m e r , A . P. ( 1 9 7 7 ) " R e v e g e t a t i o n of Disturbed Intermountain Area S i t e s " . In R e c l a m a t i o n & U s e o f D i s t u r b e d L a n d i n t h e Southwest. J.~~L~. T h a m e s ( e d ) U n i v . o f A r i z o n a P r e s s . Tucson, Arizona. P o s e y , R. & J . P a r c e l l ( 1 9 7 9 ) " R e v e g e t a t i o n E f f o r t s on t h e M t . Hood N a t i o n a l F o r e s t " . J_n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Erosion Control Association; p r o c e e d i n g s o f c o n f e r e n c e X, Seattle, Washi n g t o n . P r i c e , L . W. ( 1 9 7 1 ) " V e g e t a t i o n , M i c r o t o p o g r a p h y , and D e p t h A c t i v e L a y e r on D i f f e r e n t E x p o s u r e i n S u b a r c t i c Alpine Tundra". Ecology 52; p 638-647. Prockter, Sons;  N. N.  J. Y.  (1977)  P i c k l e p s , R. E. ( 1 9 7 3 ) O r e g o n , p 861 .  Simple  Propagation.  Ecology,  R e t z e r , J . L. 9 1 9 5 6 ) "Alpine J . of S o i l S c i e n c e . Vol.  Chiron  Charles  Press;  of  Scribner's  Portland,  S o i l s o f the Rocky 7; N o . 1. p 2 2 - 3 2 .  Mountains".  R o s s , T . L. & G. H. M o e l l e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) "Communicating Rules in Recreation Areas". U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , Research Paper, N.E.-197. R u d o l f , R. 0 . ( 1 9 6 7 ) Management". J. S c h i e c h t l , D r . H. Conservation, A l b e r t a , '.  "Silviculture for of F o r e s t r y , June,  Recreation p 385-390.  1980 B i o e n g i n e e r i n g f o r Land U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a Press. *  Area  Reclamation Edmonton,  and  S h a f e r , E. L. and T . A. R i c h a r d s (1974) "A C o m p a r i s o n o f V i e w e r R e a c t i o n s t o O u t d o o r S c e n e s and P h o t o g r a p h s o f Those Scenes". U.S.D.A. F o r e s t r y S e r v i c e , Research Paper, NE-302. S h e l d o n , J . V. (1974) "The behaviour of seeds i n s o i l The i n f l u e n c e o f s e e d m o r p h o l o g y and b e h a v i o u r o f on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p l a n t s f r o m s u r f a c e - l y i n g J . of E c o l o g y 62. p 4 7 - 6 6 .  (III). seedlings seeds".  S i d a w a y , R. M. ( 1 9 7 7 ) "Research Facilities". Forestry, Vol.  in the Design of R e c r e a t i o n 5 0 , N o . 1. p 67-74.  S i m o n d s , J . S. ( 1 9 6 1 ) Inc., N. Y.  Architecture.  Landscape  McGraw-Hill  247 S i m s , H. P . , R. E . L e e c h , B. R. Hammond, & L. S. J a c k s o n Survey of Reclamation A c t i v i t i e s in the Province of Alberta". A l b e r t a Environment, Research S e c r e t a r i a t No. 2; J u n e 1 9 7 7 .  "A Report  S t a r k e y , G . H. & J . B a d e n ( 1 9 7 7 ) "Rationing Wilderness Use, methods; p r o b l e m s and g u i d e l i n e s " . U.S.D.A. F o r e s t S e r v i c e , R e s e a r c h P a p e r , INT 1 9 2 . S t e i n , W. I. (1976) "Prospects Stock" J_n T r e e P l a n t i n g i n Proceedings of a Conference U n i v e r s i t y , Feb. 1976. S u t t o n , R. K. (1 9 7 5 ) o f S o i l and Water  f o r Container-Grown Nursery the Inland Northwest; held at Washington State  "Why N a t i v e P l a n t s a r e n ' t u s e d C o n s e r v a t i o n . V o l . 3 0 , N o . 5.  more".  J .  Thames, J . L. ( e d ) ( 1 9 7 7 ) R e c l a m a t i o n & Use o f D i s t u r b e d L a n d in the Southwest. U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona. T i e d e m a n n , A . R., G. 0 . K l o c k , L . L . M a s o n , D. E . S e a r s (1976) "Shrub Plantings f o r Erosion Control in Eastern Washington - P r o g r e s s and R e s e a r c h N e e d s " . U.S.D.A. Forest Service, R e s e a r c h Note PNW-279. T i s d a l e , S . L . & W. L . N e l s o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) Soil F e r t i l i t y & Ferti1izers. M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g c o . , I n c . N.Y. p 6 9 4 . T r i t e n b a c h , P. ( 1 9 7 7 ) landscape design". 1 5 7 - 1 61 .  "An e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h t o highway Landscape A r c h i t e c t u r e , March, p  T w i s s , R. H. ( 1 9 6 9 ) " C o n f l i c t s i n F o r e s t Landscape Management: t h e need f o r f o r e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e s i g n " . of F o r e s t r y 67(1). U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 2 ) Forest Northern Region.  Landscape  U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 3 ) National U t i l i t i e s Handbook 4 / 8 .  Forest  U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 3 ) N a t i o n a l F o r e s t Agricultural Handbook 3 4 3 . U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 4 ) 1, C h a p t e r 1: Handbook 462.  Management  Landscape  Landscape  Vol.  J .  1,  Management  Management  Vol.2,  Vol.  N a t i o n a l F o r e s t L a n d s c a p e Management V o l . The V i s u a l management S y s t e m , Agriculture  1,  248  U . S . D . A . FS ( 1 9 7 5 ) "Beaver Creek V i s u a l A n a l y s i s " Regional O f f i c e L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t s G r o u p , Rocky M o u n t a i n Region. V a n i c e k , V. (1974) "Definition L a n d s c a p e P l a n n i n g . V o l . 1,  of Landscape No. 1  Planning".  W a l k e r , D., R. S. S a d a s i v i a h , a n d J . W e i j e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) "The U t i l i z a t i o n and G e n e t i c Improvement o f N a t i v e A l b a e r t a G r a s s e s from the E a s t e r n S l o p e s of the Rocky Mountains". R e p o r t p r e p a r e d f o r A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n P a r k s and W i l d l i f e , A l b e r t a E n e r g y and N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s , P a r k s C a n a d a , and Alberta Environment. Dept. of G e n e t i c s , Univ. of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . W a l i , M. K. ( e d ) ( 1 9 7 5 ) P r a c t i c e s and P r o b l e m s o f Land Reclamation i n Western North America. U n i v e r s i t y of Dakota Press. Grand F o r k s .  North  W a r d , R. T . ( 1 9 7 4 ) "A C o n c e p t o f N a t u r a l Vegetation Baselines". In R e v e g e t a t i o n o f H i g h A l t i t u d e D i s t u r b e d Lands; P r o c e e d i n g s of a Workshop a t F o r t C o l l i n s , Colorado State University. W h i t t a k e r , R. H. ( 1 9 5 3 ) "A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c l i m a x t h e c l i m a x as a p o p u l a t i o n p a t t e r n . Ecological 23. p 42-78. W h i t t a k e r , R. H. ( 1 9 6 7 ) "Gradient Biological Review 42(229).  Analysis  of  theory: Monography  Vegetation".  W i l l a r d , B. E. & J . W. M a r r ( 1 9 7 1 ) "Recovery of a l p i n e tundra u n d e r p r o t e c t i o n a f t e r damage by human a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e Rocky Mts. o f C o l o r a d o " . Biological C o n s e r v a t i o n , V o l . 3, N o . 3, A p r i l . p 1 8 1 - 1 9 0 . W i l l i s , A. J . (1973) Introduction to A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , L o n d o n . p 2 3 6 . Wilson-Hodges, C. Aesthetics". U n i v e r s i t y of  (1978) "The Institute of Toronto.  Plant  Ecology.  Measurement of Landscape Environmental Studies,  Wagar, J . A. (1964) "The C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y of Recreation". F o r e s t S e r v i c e Monograph 7. Wagar, J . A. (1974) Reconsidered".  George  "Recreational Carrying J . o f F o r e s t r y ; May.  Wildlands  for  Capacity  Y o u n g , R. A . ( 1 9 7 8 ) "Camping I n t e n s i t y Effects Groundcover in I l l i n o i s Campgrounds. J . of C o n s e r v a t i o n . (Jan.-Feb.) p 36-38.  on V e g e t a t i v e S o i l and Water  249  Z i e m k i e w i c z , P. F . , C . F . D e r m o t t , H. P. S i m s ( e d ) (1978) "Proceedings: W o r k s h o p on N a t i v e S h r u b s i n R e c l a m a t i o n " . A l b e r t a Land C o n s e r v a t i o n & R e c l a m a t i o n C o u n c i l Report #RRTAC 7 9 - 2 1 9 7 8 . Z u b e , E . H. ( 1 9 7 0 ) Landscape". J.  "Evaluating o f S o i l and  t h e V i s u a l and C u l t u r a l Water C o n s e r v a t i o n 25(4).  Z u b e , E. H. ( 1 9 7 4 ) " P e r c e p t i o n and M e a s u r e m e n t o f S c e n i c Resources in the Southern Connecticut River V a l l e y " . Amherst: Institute f o r Man a n d H i s E n v i r o n m e n t . . P u b l i c a t i o n No. R - 7 4 - 1 . U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusets. p Z u b e , E. H . , e t Hutchinson,  al (eds) Landscape Assessment. Dowden, and P o s s . I n c . , S t r i u d s b e r g , Penn. (1975).  191.  


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items