UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The early works of Kawabata Yasunari Matson, Gary James 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A8 M39.pdf [ 7.6MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0095005.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0095005-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0095005-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0095005-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0095005-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0095005-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0095005-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0095005-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0095005.ris

Full Text

THE  EARLY WORKS OF KAWABATA YASUNARI by GARY JAMES MATSON  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  ih  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  this  of Asian  Studies)  t h e s i s 'as c o n f o r m i n g  the required  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  S e p t e m b e r 1982 (c) G a r y James Matson, 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an British  Columbia,  it  freely available  understood that for  Library  s h a l l make  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  shall  not  be  ASIANI  S TUQ\£  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  Date  DE-6  (3/81 > ,  OJL.  1 +  IW*-  of  further this  S  Columbia  thesis  head o f  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f  the  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  f i n a n c i a l gain  University  the  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may by  the  the  I agree that  permission  department o r  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  of  agree t h a t  in partial  written  ABSTRACT A c a r e f u l study o f t h e l i t e r a r y c a r e e r o f Kawabata Y a s u n a r i y i e l d s an i n t e r e s t i n g s u p p o s i t i o n on t h e c r e a t i v e rhythm o f t h e author.  In a c y c l i c a l f a s h i o n of f a s c i n a t i n g r e g u l a r i t y ,  Kawabata wrote., and had p u b l i s h e d . most o f h i s b e s t works i n approximate f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s b e g i n n i n g e i t h e r w i t h t h e f i r s t y e a r o f a new decade o r t h e y e a r p r e c e d i n g  t h e new decade.  The  o n l y e x c e p t i o n comes w i t h t h e y e a r s from 1939 t o 1945 i n which l i t t l e was w r i t t e n o r p u b l i s h e d ; t h i s i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e they were t h e y e a r s o f t h e Second World War. A l l o f h i s b e s t works were p u b l i s h e d between h i s t w e n t i e s and s i x t i e s .  E l i m i n a t i n g t h e war y e a r s , we a r e l e f t w i t h f o u r  five-year periods.  These f o u r f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d s a r e l i k e t h e  f o u r seasons o f t h e n a t u r a l c y c l e .  They c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e f o u r  seasons o f t h e man's c r e a t i v e l i f e ,  and t h e tone o f t h e works  matches these s e a s o n a l changes: i n s p r i n g , t h e y o u t h f u l t r a v e l e r of " I z u no o d o r i k o "  ("The I z u Dancer," 1926); i n summer, t h e  ghosts o f " J o j o k a "  ( " L y r i c Poem," 1932); i n autumn, t h e a g i n g  man s e t t i n g o u t t o view t h e maples o f f a l l o f Yama no o t o (The Sound o f t h e Mountain, 1949-54); i n w i n t e r , t h e f a n t a s i e s o f t h e old  man o f Nemureru b i l o  (House o f t h e S l e e p i n g B e a u t i e s , 1960-  61) . The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o study t h e s p r i n g t i m e of Kawabata s w r i t i n g s . 1  f i r s t masterpiece,  The e a r l y works l e a d i n g up t o Kawabata's  " I z u no o d o r i k o , " have h i t h e r t o been l a r g e l y  n e g l e c t e d by c r i t i c s and s c h o l a r s o f Japanese l i t e r a t u r e .  Among  the few s t u d i e s a l r e a d y done on t h e s e e a r l y works, most have -i-  been b i o g r a p h i c a l l y to  take a c r i t i c a l The  thesis  oriented. approach  This thesis  t o the analysis  f o c u s e s on t h e a r e a s  images i n K a w a b a t a s e a r l y w o r k s . o f t h e works,  particularly  thesis.  the Japanese l y r i c a l  areas  A l s o , comparisons  of style,  imagery,  of style,  themes, m o t i f s a n d  tradition  Japanese  One c a n t r a c e  h a v e been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e  a r e made w i t h W e s t e r n  the o r i g i n s  of the haiku poet  M a t s u o Basho.  On a u n i v e r s a l  thinking  i n t h e Western  and s y m b o l i s m  with thematic ially  on t h e s e  The s t y l e  i n the  and w r i t e r o f t r a v e l  level,  lyrical  c a n be s e e n  the style  novel.  early  style  c a n be f u r t h e r  identi-  diaries  corresponds t o  Buddhist  and S h i n t o  as h a v i n g p r o v i d e d Kawabata  and s y m b o l i c m a t e r i a l f o r h i s works.  significant  One  espec-  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S h i n t o i s t h e u s e Kawabata  makes o f w a t e r t o s y m b o l i z e singled  literature  o f Kawabata's l y r i c a l  poetry.  f i e d with that  found  and  and s y m b o l i s m .  back t o Japan's e a r l i e s t  that  culture,  and B u d d h i s t  A number o f g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e a c h e d works.  trend  o f the works.  aspects of t r a d i t i o n a l  S h i n t o t h i n k i n g and symbolism,  from t h i s  To g i v e b r o a d e r m e a n i n g t o t h e  1  analysis  departs  out i s the r o l e  purification.  of the "maternal"  One o t h e r f e a t u r e virgin.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Abstract  i  Introduction  ". .  A Diary: "Jurokusai  Ho N i k k i " . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  iv 1  Death and the V i r g i n : "Chiyo" t o " K a g a r i b i " . . . . . . .  33  Reincarnation:  74  A Travel Diary:  "Sora h i ugoku h i " t o "Aoi umi k u r o i umi". " I z u no odoriko"  103  Conclusion  122  Notes  125  Bibliography.  . .  134  -iii-  INTRODUCTION Except  f o r an  4?  incomplete  ("The  I z u Dancer,"  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i )l| U% English  translation  }%  translators.  1926), t h e  first  has  had  tc.  area  of  ("Diary  by  subjects  Japanese  to "Izu," only  the  "Jurokusai  of a Sixteen-Year-Old,"  i n w h i c h many o f t h e works I s h a l l  stories  and  the  added i n c e n t i v e t h e y " I " and  himself  relatively  faithful  o f h i s own  pieces  As  be  I shall  no  1925),  author.  by  not  t o the  on  Kawabata gave t h e  the  only  stating  facts,  but  in it,that  truth  by  between f a c t  and  fiction.  one,  approaches t o the  i t was  t o the  1  and  outcry  approach t o the  author's  from  i n v e s t i g a t e the  own  of  literature  thesis. -iv-  assur-  items  doubting  relationship  this biographical study  preference  i s found  works.  subseguently  o f Kawabata's  f o r how  A summary o f Kawabata's p o s i t i o n  study  three of t h i s  Kawabata s  "nikki,"  This thesis rejects  approach i n f a v o r of a c r i t i c a l  a work.  between  also publishing several  e v e n t u a l l y c a u s e d an  choose t o m e t i c u l o u s l y  any  t h a t h i s e a r l y works were  o f a number o f i n c i d e n t a l  s c h o l a r s who  might analyze  scholars  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l background of the  d i s c u s s i n g i n chapter  e a r l y works s i m i l a r  examining  m i g h t h a v e n e e d e d t o draw p a r a l l e l s  assurances r e g a r d i n g the contained  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e " I "  ances r e g a r d i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the  chapter  o f modern  (complete works),  h a v e r e c e i v e d some a t t e n t i o n i s t h e  the  e a r l y works  much a n a l y s i s done on i t .  The  of the  critics  Among t h e works w r i t t e n p r i o r  js§f (7) 8  odoriko"  They h a v e f a r e d a l m o s t as p o o r l y as  work i n Kawabata's z e n s h u  n i k k i " -f A  " I z u no  (1899-1972) have b e e n p a s s e d o v e r  o f a n a l y s i s f o r J a p a n e s e s c h o l a r s and literature.  of  on  one three  at the beginning  of  The  p a u c i t y of  Kawabata ends w i t h  critical a flood  a n a l y s i s on  the  e a r l y works  of a n a l y s i s having  b e e n done on  T h a t s u c h a t h i n g came t o p a s s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . questioning and  the  his first  fact  that  "Izu"  masterpiece.  Kawabata's l a s t  novels,  An  who  b e a r s an  Kawabata.  the It  has in  "A  or Seventeen."  fictional  equivalent  of  desperation  f o r a new  a scholar  by  figure of anything  This t i t l e  seems  beloved  work o f  Kawabata s 1  critics.  Perhaps  a n a l y s i s o f t h e work, one  counting  found i n a p a r t i c u l a r  life  writer  never wrote  s c h o l a r s and  s l a n t on  literally  elderly  "Izu."  s u r p r i s e then t h a t t h i s analyzed  t h e y o u n g woman  real  author probably  the  number o f  s e c t i o n of  "Izu."  commas I n my  own  o f t h e work, I u s e  a l i m i t e d number o f r e f e r e n c e s  previous  s t u d i e s on  To  percentage of the meant t h e In to the has  more i m p o r t a n t  study  of the of  b e e n done on  chapter  all,  would have long  I pay  to this  little  attempt t o p r o v i d e  literary  production  particular -v-  thesis. gone i n -  analysis  masterpiece.  o f Kawabata's most  done i n an  at the  one,  already  to  small  t h a t s o much s c h o l a r s h i p has  t h e w o r k s l e a d i n g up  look  analyses  i t ' s amazing t h a t v e r y  o f most, i f n o t  critical In  fact  "Izu,"  e a r l y works i s b e i n g step  earlier  a d d i t i o n o f s e v e r a l p a g e s t o an  light  analysis  have summarized e v e n a  even  and  analysis  "Izu."  of  to  o f an  of Sixteen  i s no  periods  production  Girl  been e x h a u s t i v e l y  finds  the  no  o f h i s e a r l y works  1961), has  resemblance t o the  says t h a t  There i s  t o kanashimi  Sadness,  literary  undeniable  She  b e t t e r than t o be  about the  best  "Izu."  i n t e r e s t i n g p a s s a g e f r o m one  Utsukushisa  ( B e a u t y and Keiko t a l k i n g  i s the  of  My  important a step  preceding  a t t e n t i o n t o the  by  "Izu." problem  of  style  is  as  i n the  c l o s e as one  can  the author's  writings.  lyric  and  poetry  Freedman i s k e y In  I  found  come t o i d e n t i f y i n g The  the Western  two,  f e a t u r e s found  as  almost  In in  of  on  The  thesis  "Izu."  As  c h a p t e r one,  of Oku  Of  style  young v i r g i n  preceding  and  of  literature  i n h i s works.  "Izu." on  p a r t o f my  "nikki."  "Izu."  I t i s the  i s the How  as  appear-  she  relates  comes f u l l  f o u r i s a comparison  element  introduction  based  on E a s t e r n  found  of  a  ideas  creation.  a n a l y s i s on  yfa  as  f o r "Izu"  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  circle the  with  style  ^  chapter  of the  I l i n k Kawabata w i t h t h e h a i k u p o e t  hosomichi  recur-  importance.  the oneness o f  i n a sense  Japanese  Ralph  analysis  immense i m p o r t a n c e  d i a r i e s M a t s u o BashS ^ £ ^1 ~S  chapter no  Frye.  code i n t o Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e  metempsychosis  travel  of the  in  c o m p a r i s o n s t o be made between  c h a p t e r t h r e e , I f o c u s on  spiritual  with  and W e s t e r n a p o c a l y p t i c s y m b o l i s m  i s of considerable  t h e works j u s t  s t y l e has  style  style  n o v e l as d e f i n e d by  a l l o f Kawabata's l a t e r  ance o f t h e b e a u t i f u l , "time"  this  "natural"  i n t h e works f o l l o w i n g t h e  t h e r e were i n t e r e s t i n g  e x p l a i n e d by N o r t h r o p  to  lyrical  a  I p l a c e t h e e m p h a s i s o f my  n a t i v e Japanese b e l i e f s  well  connection  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  chapter  r i n g thematic  I t h i n k i t i s s a f e t o say t h a t the  "nikki."  "nikki"  in  and w r i t e r o f  (1644-1694).  o f Kawabata's  four  The  "Izu" with  (The Narrow Road T h r o u g h t h e  format Basho's Provinces,  c.1693). Kawabata Y a s u n a r i was was  filled  with  a series  an enormous e f f e c t of  two  born  i n O s a k a i n 1899.  of unfortunate  on h i s l i f e  and  events  h i s work.  years, h i s f a t h e r died of t u b e r c u l o s i s . -vi-  His early  life  w h i c h were t o have When he was  an  infant  H i s mother d i e d  the  following year  being by  o f t h e same i l l n e s s .  sent t o l i v e with h i s grandparents  a sickly,  tion  from h i s grandparents.  disposition  deaths,his  From t h e t i m e  his  grandfather  and  h i s bed-ridden lived  t h e same weak  To a d d t o t h e l i s t  o f h i s grandmother's death  until  d i e d when Kawabata was f o u r t e e n , t h e y o u n g b o y  alone  grandfather, i n their  " J u r o k u s a i no n i k k i " grandfather's  c a r e and a t t e n -  g r a n d m o t h e r d i e d when he was s e v e n a n d h i s s i s t e r  when he was t e n .  blind,  I t was a p p a r e n t l y s u f f e r e d from.  sister  Kawabata was h i m -  weak c h i l d who h a d t o h a v e s p e c i a l  that h i s parents  i n hiSl  while h i s older  f o u r y e a r s was s e n t t o l i v e w i t h h i s a u n t .  self  of  This resulted  who was h a r d  country  of hearing  and n e a r l y  home.  i s t h e d i a r y o f t h e f i n a l days o f h i s  life.  -vii-  A DIARY: "JUROKUSAI NO  NIKKI" \  CHAPTER I Kawabata s e a r l i e s t  surviving  1  is  " J u r o k u s a i no  Year-Old").  I t was  published u n t i l entries  nikki"  -f /x/jjjlfc 0)  allegedly  1925  fifteenth  The  "nikki"  0  when he was  w r i t t e n i n 1914  twenty-six years  4 and  end  b i r t h d a y on J u n e  11.  takes  the  form  May  16,  composition  of a S i x t e e n -  Cbiary  first  i n t h e work b e g i n May  author's  piece of l i t e r a r y  b u t was  old.  commonly a s c r i b e d t o t h i s  I t i s a r e c o r d of the day-to-day events  Kawabata's l i f e  written apparently with  explains of  t h a t he  When i t was  added n o t e s  c e r t a i n p a s s a g e s and  terms.  He  has  little  thought  p u b l i s h e d i n 1925,  i n parentheses  to give standard  a l s o addedfto the d i a r y  the  to c l a r i f y  readings  by  dated  a month b e f o r e  autobiography.  future publication.  The  not  giving  the  type  of  i n young of i t s author the  meanings  o f Osaka  dialect"  supplementary  autobiographical information. An  analysis  information at  found  of the k i n d of supplementary w i t h i n the parentheses  t h e h e a r t o f Kawabata's w r i t i n g  information the  final The  found  concerns  his grandfather.  f o r May  center  (entries are  of  sections deal with  life  r e v e a l s what  I t i s the events  life  f o r May  w h i c h t h e o l d man  man's p u b l i c a t i o n  7 and 4,  5,  w h i c h we  read  6,  surrounding of.  "nikki"  are  the d i a r y ' s c h r o n o l o g i c a l 7,  8,  10,  14,  the only t h i n g s i n h i s  15,  on d i v i ' a t i o n  (A T r e a t i s e  on  16).  Both  grandfather's  c o u l d l o o k b a c k on w i t h p r i d e : n  of h i s teachings  K o t a k u a n k i r o n tffc ^£ ^ Jc  8,  was  Almost a l l the  l o n g e s t p a r e n t h e t i c a l s e c t i o n s i n the  i n the e n t r i e s  the  clearly  of the d i a r y .  days o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s two  autobiographical  the o l d  titled  S a f e t y and  Danger  2  Factors with  i n t h e B u i l d i n g o f Houses) and t h e r e c o r d  O r i e n t a l medicine With a d d i t i o n s  created  is  the author has e f f e c t i v e l y  the "nikki"  f o r m s Kawabata l a t e r  unrelated  to h i s feelings,  conventional  says,  on h i s g r a n d f a t h e r  E v e n when t h e y o u n g b o y d o e s  uncharacteristically  i s my p a r a d i s e  one  s u b j e c t i v e account o f f e e l give  f o r the " I " of a  i n an o b j e c t i v e o r " n o v e l i s t i c "  "School  as i t s  an e p i t a p h ,  d i a r y , he seems t o be p l a c i n g a v a l u e  these f e e l i n g s he  like  t o young Kawabata's f o c u s i n g  on t h e p a r t o f t h e " I " .  voice  reads  life  excels i n .  t h e remarkable absence o f a p u r e l y  ings  dysentery.  t h e meaning o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  I n many r e s p e c t s  of the l i t e r a r y Not  s u c h as t h e s e ,  a work w i t h  subject.  i n c u r i n g an e p i d e m i c o f  of h i s success  j u d g e m e n t on  manner.  F o r example,  - Don't t h e s e words b e s t  express  my c i r c u m s t a n c e s a t home t h e s e days?"^" It's  features  such as t h e s e p r e s e n t  have c o n t r i b u t e d  t o i t s widespread  Kawabata h i m s e l f  praised the " n i k k i . "  favorable  reception  in literary  a storm o f controversy fact that  critical  circles  surrounding  i t was p u b l i s h e d  i n the " n i k k i " acclaim.  which  The m a t u r e  An i r o n i c n o t e i s t h a t i t s must p a r t l y  be t o blame f o r  t h e d a t i n g o f t h e work.  some t e n y e a r s  after  i t was  The  originally  supposed t o have been w r i t t e n has r a i s e d doubts about t h e a c t u a l age  Kawabata was when he w r o t e i t .  the  m a i n s t r e a m o f modern l i t e r a r y  sincerity particular  B i o g r a p h i c a l c r i t i c i s m h a s been  criticism  o f t h e " I " i n an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l interest  to critics;  i t was p u b l i s h e d  of a t t e n t i o n .  eventually  and t h e  work h a s b e e n o f  consequently,  Kawabata m i g h t have done t o h i s o r i g i n a l before  i n Japan,  the question  o f what  version of the " n i k k i "  r e c e i v e d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y  amount  3  The 1938  on  f o l l o w i n g are the  some w r i t t e n  finished version  thirty  years before  of the  author s 1  of the  critics  first  comments made by  Kawabata i n  work; t h e y were  published  began t o doubt the  reliability  words:  But f o r c o r r e c t i o n s i n i t s w o r d i n g , t h e work r e m a i n s as i t was w r i t t e n i n t h e o r i g i n a l when I was fourteen. I t wouldn't have been p o s s i b l e t o r e w r i t e i t even i f I'd wanted t o o . . . . I t ' s my o n l y s i n c e r e a u t o b i o g r a p h y ; i t ' s a v a l u a b l e document f o r me. A l s o , i t ' s one o f my best compositions. My l i t e r a r y a b i l i t y was n o t i n t h e least precocious. T h i s s i m p l e s k e t c h taken from near at h a n d o c c u p i e s a s e c u r e p o s i t i o n i n my w o r k s . ^ Such a s s u r a n ces unchanged from the d i s c r e d i t e d by the  "nikki"  by  the  author that  f o r m i t was  originally  Japanese c r i t i c s  written  by  the  as  d i a r y was  written  came t o  a r e s u l t o f a 1968  Hasegawa I z u m i .  In the  tal  e x p r e s s e d doubts about the  items i n the  "nikki".  be  article  September,  i s s u e o f Kokubunqaku m a g a z i n e , Hasegawa began t h e when he  virtually  1968  controversy  v e r a c i t y o f a number o f  Hasegawa p o i n t s  line  the  "The  cause I intended  d i a r y i n t o a l i t e r a r y work, and  some p l a c e s w r o t e an no  sekai  the  f a c t s were a l t e r e d . "  unsympathetic )l| t t  &  criticism  <D #  (p.35)  ed  unhesitatingly  In  1969,  i n a book t i t l e d  written  Kawashima Kawabata  bein Itaru  Yasunari  W (The  w h i c h he  a p p e n d i x was  in  inciden-  second appendix which reads, to turn  first  t o the  on  W o r l d o f Kawabata Y a s u n a r i )  concludes that  s o m e t h i n g Kawabata w r o t e i n 1925.  the He  work s h o u l d  says,  be  in  consider-  "Kawabata has  skill-  f u l l y p r e s e n t e d us w i t h a c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t r e a d s as i f i t were t h e d i a r y o f a s i x t e e n - y e a r - o l d , and t h e w r i t e r has s u c c e e d e d m a g n i f 3 icently in p u l l i n g that off." To  support h i s  examples from w i t h i n Kawabata has  claim, the  Kawashima o f f e r s a number o f  t e x t of the  tampered w i t h the  "nikki"  original.  The  which  specific  indicate  following i s  an  4  o u t l i n e of 1.  In the  the  five points  proper, In  the  the first  3.  4.  life  Omiyo i s t h e father  i n the  In the  first  i n the  explanatory  composition  i t says the  of the  into a publishable  work.  the  the  style  of the  of  diary.  gone a  little  a c t u a l names o f t h e  Japanese f i c t i o n ,  further  This  b e f o r e the  t i m e he  in his  investiga"nikki." "nikki"  was  of  fictional  names Omiyo  O k i k u b o t h f i t i n n i c e l y w i t h Kawabata's a e s t h e t i c meaning o f the  turning  was  L i k e many o t h e r w r i t e r s  The  diary  stereotyped,"  Kawabata s e l e c t e d names f o r h i s  the  Mito.  diary  people mentioned i n the  s y m b o l i c meaning i n mind.  examination of  grand-  Tanaka  a t t e n t i o n when I r e a d t h e  Omiyo's d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w .  his  a y e a r t o work on  "dreadfully  the  A name w h i c h q u i c k l y drew my  An  diary.  written.  author about the  d i a r y was  "motif"  of the  discovery  least  style  name was  discovery  at  I w i s h Kawashima had  with  her  been o r i g i n a l l y  Kawabata h a d  supposedly w r i t i n g  characters  sections  in reality  The  Okiku,  nonetheless,  but  material  the  diary;  diary,  appendix,  diary  c a n ' t remember t h o s e  down c o n c e r n i n g t h e  i t took a year a f t e r the  unlike  the  a  table.  wrote the  to j o t things  t e x t of  m a i d t o y o u n g Kawabata and  the  of  i n the  d i a r y on  the  published;  tion  t i m e he  wrote the  name o f  was  quite  but  used a  y e a r s a f t e r i t had  means t h a t  5.  s a y s he  at the  able  original  came t e n  (desk);  a p p e n d i x , Kawabata s a y s he  Kawabata was the  setsugi  writer  memories o f  of  makes:  s e c o n d a p p e n d i x , Kawabata s a y s he  t s u k u e q a w a r i no  2.  he  and  sensibility.  names s h o u l d p r o v e my  point:  Omiyo  ( " g e n e r a t i o n s o f b e a u t y " ) : To l o c a t e t h e e t e r n a l  woman o f b e a u t y ,  particularly  the eternal virgin,  a e s t h e t i c q u e s t o f many o f Kawabata's h e r o e s . wider perspective, was t o f i n d ially  and r e c o r d e n c o u n t e r s w i t h beauty.  one's p a r t i c u l a r v i s i o n  in  Seen f r o m a  one o f Kawabata's m a j o r p u r p o s e s  aware o f t h e a r t i s t ' s  Okiku  i s the  ability  as a w r i t e r  He was  t o reproduce  espec-  f o r "eternity"  o f beauty.  ("chrysanthemum"):  t h e works o f K a w a b a t a .  "Kiku" occupies a s p e c i a l  As Y o s h i m u r a  Teiji  position  has p o i n t e d out,  Kawabata seems t o a s s o c i a t e t h e name w i t h s p i r i t u a l i s m a n d reincarnation.  4  F o r example,  ( " L y r i c Poem," 1932),  &  i n Kawabata's " J o j o k a " v j  t h e woman who h a s l o s t  ^  i f f l ^ -  forever  in  death  to  be r e b o r n a s a w i l d  in  "Ireika" ^  of  t h e g h o s t Hanako i s s i g n a l l e d b y t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s  of  t h e m i r a c u l o u s g r o w t h o f a chrysanthemum f r o m a t e a b o w l . One  the in  s a y s s h e w o u l d g i v e up h e r l i f e  her lover  'r*  chrysanthemum.  o t h e r example w h i c h  Yoshimura  use o f k i k u i t a d a k i  Kawabata's " K i n j u " ( " O f B i r d s A  i s remarkably  new k i k u i t a d a k i uishable  becomes " f i l l e d  appearance  n e g l e c t s t o mention i s  ("chrysanthemum crown")  and Beasts," 1 9 3 3 ) .  he p u r c h a s e s  birds  The p r o t a alive, but  a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e and i n d i s t i n g The d e a t h s  b u t w i t h e a c h new " r e i n c a r n a t i o n "  reincarnation  example i s f o u n d  unsuccessful at keeping the birds  from t h e p r e v i o u s b i r d s .  saddening,  Another  ("Memorial Poem," 1932) where t h e a p p e a r a n c e  interesting  gonist  t h e n e x t day i f he were  w i t h a young f r e s h n e s s . "  o c c u r s when n e g l e c t  of the birds are o f them l i f e  again  A more o b v i o u s h i n t o f  of a particular pair of  k i k u i t a d a k i brings them t o the verge o f death; however, when they make a  6  temporary recovery, to  the  man  i s moved t o say, " T h e y ' v e come b a c k  life." A c l u e as  t o why  chrysanthemum c a n from the of the  Asahi  be  An  found i n the  such a meaning t o  "Vox  Populi,  E v e n i n g News o f November 17,  column i s t h e  Japanese.  Kawabata a s s i g n e d  chrysanthemum, t h e  explanation  i s given  Vox  Dei"  1979.  flower  The  the  column subject  most l i k e d  by  the  for i t s particular popularity  among o l d e r p e o p l e :  "Takehiko Noguchi remarked t h a t p e o p l e  see  in  'the  counter-  the  ing  chrysanthemum  the  life  strength  w i n t e r decay i n l i f e . '  The of the  w r i t e r of the  wild  s t o r y by  that  i s maintained,  "  column s i n g l e s o u t  the  "naive  chrysanthemum f o r s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n .  Ito Sachio t i t l e d  " N o g i k u no  freshness"  Reference to  h a k a " f f $g (7)  a  ("Wild  Chrysanthemum G r a v e , " 1906) c o n c l u d e s t h e column: S a c h i o I t 5 , who w r o t e "Nogiku-no-Haka" ( W i l d Chrysanthemum G r a v e ) , d e s c r i b e d Tamiko, who was l i k e t h e w i l d c h r y s a n themum, as " l o v e l y , d e l i c a t e and p o s s e s s i n g d i g n i t y . " A f t e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t i n l o v e , Tamiko d i e s and i s b u r i e d a m i d w i l d chrysanthemums. As a r e s u l t o f b e i n g w r a p p e d i n w i l d chrysanthemums w h i c h a r e l o v e l y , d e l i c a t e and f u l l o f t h e power o f l i f e , t h e g i r l , l i k e t h e w i l d chrysanthemum, l i v e s on f o r e v e r i n a c l a s s i c . I think this  19 79  there's  no  question  column f r o m t h e  e c h o o f Kawabata's own Kawabata was  Asahi  J?">  £5  s o u p s e t by  -L  sentiments expressed  E v e n i n g News c a n  be  Kawashima's a c c u s a t i o n s  called  "Tobi  Kite Circling  issue of Shincho.  no  i n the In  mau  as  an  that  he  nishizora"  W e s t e r n Sky")  the  March,  in  the  s e c o n d a p p e n d i x , Kawabata a d m i t t e d t h a t by d i a r y at the  read  in  flower.  in  original  1970,  ("A  the  f e e l i n g s f o r the  wrote a r e b u t t a l i n a p i e c e  M>  that  published  l i n e w i t h what he  t i m e o f p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1925,  discarding he  was  wrote the  unable  7  to present concrete evidence that r e v i s e d work; n o n e t h e l e s s , he  i t was  not  a corrected  d i d give three responses  and  t o the  accusations: 1. He  s a y s he  used both a t a b l e  2. E v e n t h o u g h o f h e  says  o n c e one 3. I n s p i t e  of lack  o f p r o o f , he  to recall  f o r g o t t e n moments  still  insists  t h a t he  didn't  a k i n d o f f i n a l n o t e t o t h e argument between t h e two  on t h e s u b j e c t . appendix  o f t h e work, i n 1971 positions  Citing  and  admissions  o f t h e p e r s o n who  f a t h e r ' s m e d i c a l bag, ability  Isogai  to distinguish truth  as w e l l .  s a y s one from  In c o n c l u s i o n , I s o g a i  sees the d i a r y  g o e s on t o s a y t h a t  the c o r r e c t i o n s  and  t h e use  light.  He  sections,  and  p l e t e d work. language  says t h a t ,  like  the  Kawashima,  r a t h e r t h a n make an  twenty-six; issue  of  "The  indispensable role i n  diary gains a fulcrum with  t h e y c o n t r i b u t e t o p r o d u c i n g an  independent,  I f t h e y w e r e n ' t t h e r e , no m a t t e r how  of the d i a r y might  be,  of  he p r e f e r s t o l o o k upon them i n  s a y s t h a t t h e y p l a y an  t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e work. inclusion,  i n other areas of  r e v i s i o n s Kawabata a p p l i e d t o t h e work and  of supplementary  a positive  the e s t a t e  one's  as t h e work o f t h e a u t h o r when he was  however, I s o g a i  second  found i n h i s  b e g i n s t o doubt  fiction  opinions  i n the sold  men  presented  t h e n e x p r e s s e d h i s own  t h e a u t h o r ' s own  of the f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n  I s o g a i Hideo  the exaggeration of the q u a n t i t y o f manuscript  diary  written  original.  a summary o f t h e two  he  f o r one  diary.  them a g a i n .  over the a u t h e n t i c i t y  and  a d e s k when he w r o t e t h e  "I've f o r g o t t e n the t h i n g s I'd  i t ' s normal  uncovers  rework t h e As  he w r o t e ,  and  beautiful  t h e c o m p o s i t i o n w o u l d be  their comthe  nothing  8  more t h a n a s e r i e s mentioned  I agree with I s o g a i .  i n the beginning of t h i s  supplementary The  of fragments."^  s e c t i o n s Kawabata's  I  chapter, with the a i d of "nikki"  resembles  e p i t a p h i s c a t e g o r i z e d as a p a r t i c u l a r  known a s t h e e l e g y .  As  an e p i t a p h .  form o f the  Much o f t h e r e m a i n d e r  of t h i s  lyric  chapter i s  d e v o t e d t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e l y r i c the  "nikki." One  wishes  t h a t Kawabata t o o h a d  salutary effect revision Why  on t h e  "nikki"  s h o u l d n ' t be  comments on t h e 1948.  difficult  "nikki"  the f i r s t appendix and  o f t h e work. "nikki"  deserves  i n the back o f  i n 1925,  added a second  done by h i m s e l f a t t h e t e n d e r age  nobody w o u l d be  and  t h a t he was  ultimately  Incidentally, vignette  Ashes,"  "nikki".  made appendix  he  Stories,  be  certain  p r o b a b l y hoped  that  any o t h e r q u e s t i o n a b l e a s p e c t s One  would have t o c o n c l u d e  then  petard."  Kawabata a l s o a d d e d an a p p e n d i x  of the r e t r i e v i n g An  of fourteen t o  admitting to a  " h o i s t e d by h i s own  t o the  o f T a n a q o k o r o no s h o s e t s u  1922-50). " K o t s u h i r o i "  1916-49) i s b a s e d  crematorium.  By  fictionalization,  in his collection  (The P a l m - S i z e d  work.  concerned about  his autobiographical  life  of the  and  More t h a n a n y t h i n g e l s e he w a n t e d a f i n e p i e c e o f  amount o f c o r r e c t i o n  ing  correction  t o s u r m i s e what was  i n 1938,  r e c o g n i z e d as h i s " v i r g i n a l "  of  the  at explanation.  Kawabata's m i n d when he w r o t e  writing  t o emphasize  o f s u c h t h i n g s as  Kawatata d i d emphasize t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y  It  in  chosen  r a t h e r than t o emphasize the a u t h e n t i c i t y  an a t t e m p t  his  and  ^ ^  first (T) '\- f i t , ("Gather-  on t h e a c t u a l e p i s o d e i n K a w a b a t a s  of h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s ashes  1  from  the  admission of a touch of f i c t i o n a l i z a t i o n  in  9 the  appendix t o "Kotsu h i r o i " seems aimed at somehow s e c u r i n g f o r  i t t o o added v a l i d i t y as b e i n g the l i t e r a r y product of Kawabata at  the y o u t h f u l age of e i g h t e e n .  T h i s f i n e work c o u l d then  j u s t i f i a b l y occupy the p o s i t i o n of f i r s t  i n the c o l l e c t i o n .  A broader e x p l a n a t i o n f o r Kawabata's s p e c i a l attempts t o f i x these works as " v i r g i n a l p i e c e s " can be gathered from h i s own a p p r e c i a t i o n o f j u v e n i l e and amateur l i t e r a t u r e . the  I f he t r e a s u r e d  maiden work of o t h e r w r i t e r s , i t makes sense t h a t he  wish h i s own  would  " n i k k i " and "Kotsu h i r o i " t o be t r e a s u r e d f o r the  same reason. With the p u b l i c a t i o n of the second appendix i n Shinchosha's Kawabata zenshu o f 1948, the  "nikki".  Kawabata put the f i n i s h i n g touches t o  I t s i n c l u s i o n w i t h the e a r l i e r p u b l i c a t i o n o f the  " n i k k i " i n 1925  i n s e r i a l i z e d form marked the completion of the  work as we know i t today.  The t w i s t s and t u r n s i t took b e f o r e  t h i s f i n a l completion e x e m p l i f y an important f e a t u r e o f the making o f most Kawabata works. form under v a r i o u s t i t l e s ,  They are o f t e n p u b l i s h e d i n s e r i a l  and Kawabata f r e q u e n t l y chooses t o  r e w r i t e them, and add segments, and make changes i n both and c o n t e n t s .  The t i t l e of the work was  o r i g i n a l l y published. 1925 "+" "t  changed  titles  from when i t was  I t f i r s t appeared i n the August and September,  i s s u e s o f Bunqei shunju as " J u s h i c h i s a i no n i k k i " jRj? <D B  tC  ("Diary of a Seventeen-Year  Old").  The f i r s t thorough s c h o l a r l y treatment of the " n i k k i "  was  Hasegawa Izumi's a n a l y s i s of the work i n the aforementioned September, 1968 to  i s s u e of Kokubunqaku.  I t may  come as a s u r p r i s e  t h i n k i t took more than f o r t y years a f t e r i t s p u b l i c a t i o n  b e f o r e someone would g i v e the " n i k k i " a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s , but  10  p e r h a p s i t ' s more s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t i t i s b u t one example of the neglect  most Kawabata w o r k s h a v e s u f f e r e d .  the  pages o f t h e K o j i e n  one  f i n d s f o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e works l i s t e d  "Sp __)  Yukiquni  (Snow C o u n t r y ,  (Thousand Cranes, Mountain, cularly  dictionary t o the l i s t i n g  f F _? (7) £j$ -*r  " I z u no o d o r i k o "  favored  ("The I z u D a n c e r , "  an  ^f-  f£|  (The Sound o f t h e  I t ' s t h e s e f o u r t i t l e s which have been  by s c h o l a r s  and c r i t i c s  as s u b j e c t s  about t h e a u t h o r ' s a d o l e s c e n c e contribute  parti-  f o ranalysis.  done b o t h p r i o r  s e q u e n t t o Hasegawa's c o n t r i b u t i o n h a v e c e n t e r e d  revelations  1926),  1935-48) , Sembazuru  Most o f t h e s t u d i e s o f t h e " n i k k i "  learned  f o r Kawabata,  u n d e r h i s name:  1949-51) , Yama n o o t o th <D %  1949-54).  I f one opens  and sub-  on what i s t o be  f r o m i t a n d how t h e s e  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y a s  i n d i v i d u a l and as a w r i t e r . Found w i t h i n  state in  t h e pages o f t h e " n i k k i "  h a v e n e i t h e r a home n o r a f a m i l y .  passage from t h e b e g i n n i n g from s c h o o l ,  the dying  words o f g r e e t i n g .  the  In the  o f t h e " n i k k i " when t h e b o y r e t u r n s  grandfather  doesn't respond t o t h e boy's  The y o u t h f e e l s  l o n e l y and sad.  This  feeling  l o n e l i n e s s and sadness r e s u l t s i n a sense o f sorrow which boy a s c r i b e s t o h i s g r a n d f a t h e r  May 7, he w r i t e s ability plete  that with  as w e l l .  n o one t o t a l k t o ,  t o see and hear p r o p e r l y ,  be d i s c u s s i n g t h e s t y l e  I'd l i k e  stylistic  t o point  connection  o u t now t h a t along  lyrical  In the entry f o r and w i t h  the i n -  t h e o l d man s u f f e r s f r o m "com-  l o n e l i n e s s , t h e sorrow o f l o n e l i n e s s . " I'll  but  t o the  i n w h i c h y o u n g Kawabata seems t o h a v e b e e n f a t e d a l l a l o n g :  t h e end, he w i l l  of  i s reference  (p.19)  of the "nikki"  at length  later,  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make a novel  l i n e s between  "Bonbon"  11 and  the grandfather.  self"  The u n i t y o f "Bonbon" a s t h e " p e r c e i v i n g  and t h e g r a n d f a t h e r  a s t h e " p e r c e i v e d o t h e r " may be s a i d t o  c o n t r i b u t e t o a p i c t u r e o f t h e b o y a s an " o b j e c t i v e " r a t h e r a  "subjective" self.  expressed novel can  The common f e e l i n g  i n the "nikki"  style.  of loneliness  c o u l d be c a l l e d  indicative  and sorrow  of" t h e l y r i c a l  S u c h a scheme may be o n l y m a r g i n a l l y v a l i d ,  certainly  than  b u t we  s a y t h a t a l r e a d y i n h i s " n i k k i " we f i n d t h e t y p i c a l  Kawabata " I " o r p r o t a g o n i s t whose p a s s i v e c h a r a c t e r s u i t s t h e lyrical  nature  The naturally dition  o f the author's  uneasiness gains  loss of his last t h i s world,  t h e boy e x p r e s s e s  i n intensity  steadily  writing style.  declines.  i n t h e pages o f t h e " n i k k i " .  as h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  The d e a t h  close relative;  of h i s grandfather  he w i l l  appendix:  means t h e  t r u l y become an o r p h a n i n  and t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s o f such  the end o f t h e f i r s t  p h y s i c a l con-  a f a t e a r e s t a t e d near  "The c o n c e p t  o f home a n d f a m i l y  were g r a d u a l l y d r i v e n f r o m my mind, I dreamt o n l y o f w a n d e r i n g . " (p.34)  Various  critics  Kawabata's b e i n g  h a v e commented on t h e c o n n e c t i o n  orphaned and h i s d e v e l o p i n g  literary  between style.  Senuma S h i g e k i r e m a r k s t h a t i n s p i t e  o f the disadvantaged  i n g Kawabata f a c e d a s an i n d i v i d u a l ,  hisplight  not  that unfortunate  a s an o r p h a n was  i f we c o n s i d e r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o h i s d e v e l -  opment a s an a r t i s t . ^  I s o g a i Hideo says,  the young boy connected literature,  upbring-  the world  and by d o i n g  "Through h i s w r i t i n g  of r e a l i t y with  s o was p r o b a b l y  the world of  a b l e t o make h i s p a i n f u l  7 reality  somewhat more b e a r a b l e . "  goes s o f a r a s t o s a y , was  The o u t s p o k e n Kawashima  " F o r Kawabata,  a heaven-sent b l e s s i n g which other  Itaru  ' S e n t i m e n t s o f an O r p h a n ' creative artists  could  only  hope f o r . " The  q u e s t i o n many s c h o l a r s  what was his  g  i t that  diary  motivated the  of the  final  basic  side,  have a s c h o l a r  no  nikki*  theories  i s not  only  fourteen-year-old  days o f h i s  b e e n two we  have asked t h e m s e l v e s i s  offered  Kawabata t o  grandfather's  as  possible  life.  write  There have  explanations.  l i k e Yamamoto K e n k i c h i who  a mere m i d d l e s c h o o l  exactly  On  says,  one  "Jurokusai  student's diary,  but  is  9 a l s o the A  creation  of  a y o u n g boy  look at b i o g r a p h i c a l  information  s u p p o r t Yamamoto's c l a i m . read that writer. the  Kawabata had  of the  who  dispute  has  the  The  the  Kawabata w o u l d seem  t i m e he  support  t o becoming a  writer." to  turned thirteen, sights  for this  on  v i e w can the  we  becoming be  a  found  possible  in  publi-  diary. several  p e o p l e who  hold  Yamamoto's s u g g e s t i o n .  f i r m to another theory  For  example, Y o s h i m u r a  and  Teiji  f o l l o w i n g t o say: S h o u l d n ' t we s a y i t ' s g o i n g t o o f a r t o v i e w t h e d i a r y as t h e a f f i r m a t i o n o f Kawabata's w i s h e s t o become a writer? R a t h e r w a s n ' t t h e d i a r y w r i t t e n as a means o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e p a i n o f f a c i n g a s i t u a t i o n where o n e ' s s o l e companion was a d y i n g o l d man. T h e r e was no i n t e n t i o n t o p r o d u c e a work o f l i t e r a t u r e ; i t ' s p r o b a b l y p r o p e r t o v i e w t h e d i a r y as a p i e c e o f c o n t i n u o u s w r i t i n g on t h e o l d man's s t r u g g l e w i t h d e a t h . 1 0 author himself  to write  the  remarks t h a t  on  on  apparently set his  I suppose f u r t h e r  There are  him  By  aspired  s e c o n d a p p e n d i x where Kawabata t o u c h e s on  cation  him  who  piece.  paper a p o r t r a i t  s t r a n g e was  my  t a k e n up  d i a r y near the  i t ' s one  about the  has  of the "I'm  o f my  two  end  the of  q u e s t i o n o f what  the  second appendix.  problems which continue t o  sure that  i t was  my  dying grandfather,  choice of w r i t i n g  motivated  the  diary  desire  but  He puzzle  t o put  down  what I l a t e r  i n a sketch-like  found  style  13  d u r i n g t h o s e days The  I was  question of the s t y l e  a wide scope scholars  i n Japan.  interpretations  find  following  (p.39)  found i n t h e d i a r y has  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s brought  f o r t h by  resulted in  critics  and  That t h e r e i s such a breadth o f o p i n i o n  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  the  n e a r t h e d y i n g man."  would  i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t o l o o k a t anyone o f t h e  as a d e f i n i t i v e  answer t o t h e p r o b l e m ;  summary o f some o f t h e s e v i e w s w i l l  a common d e n o m i n a t o r  running through  Yamamoto K e n k i c h i c a l l s  s u g g e s t we  can  them.  i t a "strong,  says t h a t b e g i n n i n g w i t h the " n i k k i "  however,  concise  s t y l e . H e  Kawabata's s e n t e n c e s were 12  " s h o r t - b r e a t h e d . . . b r o k e n w i t h a snap." fond of the s t y l e of Genji,  of both G e n j i monogatari s 5 s h i ifj^  C.1008) and M a k u r a no  C.1000), Yamamoto s a y s t h e w r i t e r ' s flowing narrative style laconic  style  Japanese &  7 %  %.  own  yft&ftyil  Ii? -Jstyle  The  i n t o two  (Collection  Pillow  stylistic  streams:  reflect  Yamamoto s a y s t h e two literature  traditions  t o the present.  Kyoshi %  5"  the  Kokinshu  &  h  Kawabata, i n t h e l a t t e r Junichiro,§  &J%  l?3$ —  (1892-1964), and Uno stream.  He  111  KSji ^  stream.  Japanese  s u c h as Takahama ® 4fc  locates writers  (1886-1965), S a t o H a r u o ff  or h a i k a i  fi  (1871-  (1883-1971), t o g e t h e r w i t h  s t r e a m and  B?  1205)  places writers  905) (New  have c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h  (1874-1959), T o k u d a S h u s e i  1943), and S h i g a Naoya  sensuous,  o f A n c i e n t and Modern P o e t r y ,  o f A n c i e n t and Modern P o e t r y , C.  the  classical  o r G e n j i s t r e a m and t h e S h i n k o k i n s h u £ff % ^ %v 5J£ Collection  Tale  Book,  r a t h e r the  s o s h i . Yamamoto d i v i d e s  was  (The  doesn't  of G e n j i but resembles  o f Makura no  literature  Q  A l t h o u g h Kawabata  >^ ^ -  s u c h as  f£  (1891-1961) i n t h e  Tanizaki  % former  14  Yamamoto n o n e t h e l e s s t u r n s a r o u n d and  s a y s Kawabata's  ature c a r r i e s w i t h i t a feminine sense which gives f e e l i n g of  the  Gen j i k i n d .  inheriting  this sensitivity  Kawabata s t i l l  writes  where d e s c r i p t i o n  of  He  it a  liter-  delicate  does emphasize though t h a t  typically  found i n Heian l y r i c i s m ,  i n a manner c l o s e r t o t h e one's s u b j e c t  while  world of  i s r e p r o d u c e d i n an  haikai  objective  way. Nakamura M i t s u o s u p p o r t s t h e quite  d i f f e r e n t from the  of the  Heian period.  concise.  lyrical  He  also  Nakamura goes on  y o u t h , S h i g a Naoya and  view t h a t  to  mode f o u n d i n many women  judges the say  Tanizaki  Kawabata's " n i k k i " i s  that  s t y l e t o be  at the  JunichirS  time of  were t h e  writers  strong  and  Kawabata's  preeminent  13 writers.  The  influenced that  by  t h e s e two  S h i g a had  they share the It i n g the  implication  the  appears t h a t writing  by are  F i c t i o n and  the  number o f  influence  no  scholar  has  ences,  the the  i n the  conclusions  t h e s i s , Roy way  the  loosely associative renqa  i t makes s e n s e t o  on  thesis  events i n the  of  compar-  There c e r t a i n l y  1980  titled  of  British  "An  Artless  Work o f S h i g a Naoya," I was  out  Shiga's w r i t i n g  i n Kawabata's w r i t i n g the  writer's  (Japanese l i n k e d v e r s e ) ,  and  amazed  style  the  " I " o f h i s works.  s t o r i e s are the  haikai  aspect Roy  of  that  style.  terseness of Shiga's  manner r e m i n i s c e n t o f  Shiga achieves with the  since  of.  Kawabata.  r e a c h e d on  points  conclude  Kawabata's w r i t i n g  While' r e a d i n g U n i v e r s i t y  S t a r r s ' M.A.  Reality  h a v e been  p r o d u c e d a m a j o r work  S h i g a and  i d e n t i c a l to those recognized In  of  i f so,  cause f o r i t .  C o l u m b i a s t u d e n t Roy  Kawabata c o u l d  s t y l e Yamamoto s p e a k s  s t y l e s of  w o u l d seem t o be  Art:  writers;  greater  laconic  i s that  linked related  sentin  a  form  "impersonality"  compares t h i s  sense  15  of  the  " I " with the  lyrical  poem.  Roy He  " I " o f a Basho h a i k u o r t h e  T h e s e t h r e e p o i n t s a p p l y t o Kawabata as  later  i n his thesis  s a y s t h a t t h e two  form  called  the  aspects of the s h o u l d be One  "lyrical lyrical  called  novel."  a practitioner  attempt  of t h i s  f e a t u r e Roy  modern " p r i m i t i v i s t s . "  is  given i n the t h e s i s ;  M.  H.  of the  form  also.  suggests  Hemingway and them i n t h e  "primitivism"  "artificial."  certain  t o show t h a t Kawabata  Abrams' d e f i n i t i o n  in brief,  fictional  s h o r t l y examine  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p l a c i n g  of  " n a t u r a l t o the  I shall  n o v e l i n an  more i n t e r e s t i n g  well.  compares S h i g a w i t h E r n e s t Hemingway.  o f them were p r a c t i t i o n e r s  h a v e i n common i s t h e  the  " I " of a Western  Critics  of  as  category  "primitivism"  i s said  such  Shiga  to prefer  Kobayashi 14  H i d e o have i n e f f e c t I  find  the  classification  Shinto values primitivists One in  support and  final  relation  to this  portant  roles  in  thesis,  his thesis  the  "natural"  over  Kawabata e x h i b i t s  thesis  the  later  Roy  a like-minded  p o i n t s out t h a t both  on  fire  fire  rites.  writing,  connects spirit-  be  seen  imlater  and w a t e r a r e p r e d o m i n a n t images i n Kawabata's  associations identical  t o t h e o n e s Roy  points  out  Shiga.  ("writings sketched and  the  mention  water p l a y  As w i l l  Hasegawa I z u m i s a y s t h a t i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s shaseibun  of  how  preference.  Shiga  and  too.  examine  "artificial"  on Kawabata i s t h e way  i n Shinto p u r i f i c a t i o n  l i t e r a t u r e with in  a p p r o p r i a t e and w i l l  and w a t e r i n h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i t h moments o f  transition.  this  how  Kawabata as a " p r i m i t i v i s t "  d i s c o v e r y i n Roy's t h e s i s w h i c h d e s e r v e s  images o f f i r e ual  classified  i n Taisho 7  from  life")  was  (1914), c o m p o s i t i o n  were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by  the  "artistic  of  Taisho  a p o p u l a r method o f  classes at school  realism" of  Suzuki  16  Miekichi style  ^^^JEL  $  of w r i t i n g  (1882-1936) whose arinomama  c o u l d be  tori  found  i n the  These s i g n i f i c a n t  style  could also  certainly  c h i l d r e n ' s magazine A k a i  developments i n  have i n f l u e n c e d t h e  S a e k i S h o i c h i remarks t h a t , except supplementary in  information, the  the present  fashion  tense,  i n what may  and  be  (candid)  "nikki"  composition  s t y l e of the  "nikki."  f o r the s e c t i o n s o f i s w r i t t e n almost  completely  t h i n g s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n an o b j e c t i v e  termed a " s t y l e  before  s t y l e . S a e k i  feels  t h a t i n l a t e r y e a r s Kawabata r e c o g n i z e d t h e s t y l e  of  the  diary  t o be  of  the  an  ideal  rediscovery of t h i s  type.  He  relates  the  significance  s t y l e by Kawabata i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g words:  I t I s p r o b a b l y an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o s a y t h a t t h e c o n s c i o u s p u r s u i t o f a s t y l e b e f o r e s t y l e , an a p p l i c a t i o n o f such b e i n g perhaps termed a n t i s t y l e , was Kawabata's aim; but undoubtedly t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f Kawabata was t h e c a p t u r i n g o f an o b j e c t on p a p e r a t t h e i n s t a n t when t h e o b j e c t and t h e s e l f become one, a moment d e v o i d o f s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m w h i c h s h o u l d be c a l l e d t h e " e t e r n a l p r e s e n t . " ! 7  The  common d e n o m i n a t o r f o u n d  pretations The  of the  style  adopted  a style  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Japanese poetry,  Thousand Leaves, established the  Kokinshu the  perhaps both i n the  t h e Manyoshu 7) ^  C.759).  The  lyrical  lyrical  tradition,  as two  directly  and i n -  i n the e a r l i e s t  mode f o u n d  anthology  of  Ten  i n the  Manyoshu  come t o be  probably  of the Japanese  the a n c i e n t past t o the present.  Shinkokinshu  surprising.  (Collection  characteristic  inter-  " n i k k i " whose f e a t u r e s  f o r J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e what has  from and  of w r i t i n g  i s f a r from  of the w r i t i n g s found  s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t  tradition  of  "nikki"  f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d Kawabata has  directly  of  of the  i n each of the p r e v i o u s  streams i s s u i n g  literary  Thinking of from  the  i t ' s n a t u r a l f o r us t o l o c a t e  the  headwaters  the  17  Manyoshu as  i t s source.  More p r o p e r l y , i t s r  c o n s i d e r the Kokinshu a secondary itself  downstream t a k e s  I t h i n k we 1769)  tive  of  and  1  t e r m s o f " c o n c i s e " and  the  by  o f t h e Manyoshu two e q u i v a l e n t to the  in their  T s u n e t s u g u Muraoka,  terms, respec-  e v a l u a t i o n s of the  i n h i s book S t u d i e s i n  T h o u g h t , e x p l a i n s what M a b u c h i meant by naoki  (1697-  " s t r o n g " u s e d by Yamamoto K e n k i c h i  Nakamura M i t s u o  "nikki."  f o r i t s name.  i n t h e Tokugawa s c h o l a r Kamo M a b u c h i s  naoki, which are e s s e n t i a l l y  supported  to  o f t h e Manyoshu w h i c h  Shinkokinshu  words o f p r a i s e f o r t h e p o e t r y  takaki  and  find  the  stream  more a c c u r a t e  takaki  style Shinto  ( " l o f t y " ) and  ("direct"): " L o f t y " r e f e r r e d t o what was d i v o r c e d f r o m t h e t e d i o u s l y v u l g a r - t o t h e l a r g e as o p p o s e d t o t h e s m a l l , t h e b r o a d as o p p o s e d t o t h e n a r r o w , t h e s i m p l e a s o p p o s e d t o t h e complex, and t h e l a c o n i c as o p p o s e d t o t h e v e r b o s e . I t s b e a u t y was recogn i z e d as " e l e g a n c e . " H e r e we s e e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e g r e a t n e s s o f t h a t w h i c h had s i m p l e p u r i t y . "Direct" r e f e r r e d t o a frankness of f e e l i n g w h i c h was d e v o i d o f o s t e n t a t i o n - t h e s t r a i g h t as o p p o s e d t o t h e s t o o p e d , t h e r e g u l a r as o p p o s e d t o t h e b e n t , t h e e r e c t as o p p o s e d t o t h e t w i s t e d , and t h e e a s y as o p p o s e d t o t h e l a b o r e d . On t h a t f o u n d a t i o n he r e c o g n i z e d a m a n l i n e s s t h a t d i d n o t p e r m i t e f f e m i n a c y . H e r e we s e e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l i t e r a r y v a l u e o f simplicity, i n contrast to sentimentality.18 The  d i r e c t n e s s of the p o e t i c s p i r i t  together with the s t y l e of  of Saigyo's  Kawabata's As  and  poetry  brevity  and  p e r i o d we  i n the  of expression  i n the Shinkokinshu  and  Manyoshu r e m i n d s us of the  of  style  "nikki."  Yamamoto K e n k i c h i p o i n t s o u t ,  writings tion;  a simplicity  found  c o u l d e a s i l y be with again  the  taken  shaseibun  find  as  the  laconic  style  of  an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e same  movement w h i c h began i n t h e  Shiga's tradi-  Meiji  o u r s e l v e s l o o k i n g b a c k t o t h e Manyoshu.  The  18  p o e t most c l o s e l y JE Sffi 3-  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e movement, Masaoka  (1867-1902) was an a r d e n t a d m i r e r  and he a t t e m p t e d own p o e t r y . cription"  o f the anthology,  t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e mode o f t h e Manyoshu i n t o h i s  A t t h e base o f S h i k i ' s  or shasei  Manyoshu  Shiki  ("sketching from  desire life")  for"realistic  des-  was a r e t u r n t o t h e  style.  S a e k i ' s r e f e r e n c e t o how t h e p r e s e n t t e n s e o f t h e d i a r y contains that  a s p e c t o f t h e " e t e r n a l p r e s e n t " sought  author i n h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s n a t u r a l l y implications  than a s p e c i a l  We a r e s t i l l  talking primarily  I  f o r by t h e  s u g g e s t s more u n i v e r s a l  e m p h a s i s o f t h e Manyoshu w a r r a n t s . about  the l y r i c a l  mode t h o u g h ,  and  t h i n k b y t u r n i n g f o r a moment t o a s t u d y done on t h e W e s t e r n  lyrical  n o v e l we c a n f i n d  salient  characteristics  his  later Ralph  some r e v e a l i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s  o f the genre  a n d Kawabata's  between t h e  " n i k k i " and  works. Freedman,  i n The L y r i c a l N o v e l ,  distinguishes the  c4 lyric  from e p i c  a n d drama by t h a t  Saeki  r e f e r s t o as t h e " e t e r n a l p r e s e n t " : C o n v e n t i o n a l l y , t h e l y r i c , as d i s t i n c t from e p i c and drama, i s s e e n e i t h e r a s an i n s t a n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n of a f e e l i n g o r as a s p a t i a l form. The r e a d e r a p p r o a c h e s a l y r i c t h e way an o n l o o k e r r e g a r d s a picture: h e s e e s complex d e t a i l s i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e s them a s a w h o l e . I n Pound's famous p h r a s e , t h e v e r y n o t i o n o f t h e image i s d e f i n e d a s t h e r e n d e r i n g o f "an e m o t i o n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l c o m p l e x i n an i n s t a n t o f t i m e . " 19 A few p a g e s e a r l i e r ,  lyrical  and n o n - l y r i c a l  capturing^the instant  o f which  Freedman e x a m i n e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e  between  writing:  The l y r i c a l n o v e l , b y c o n t r a s t , s e e k s t o combine man and w o r l d i n a s t r a n g e l y i n w a r d , y e t a e s t h e t i c a l l y o b j e c t i v e , form. This i s not t o say that l y r i c a l w r i t e r s a r e u n i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n s o f human conduct t h a t concern a l l f i c t i o n , b u t they view t h e s e  19  questions i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . T h e i r stages are not t h o s e on w h i c h men u s u a l l y p e r f o r m i n t h e n o v e l , b u t i n d e p e n d e n t d e s i g n s i n w h i c h t h e a w a r e n e s s o f men's e x p e r i e n c e s i s merged w i t h i t s o b j e c t s . R a t h e r t h a n f i n d i n g i t s G e s t a l t i n t h e i m i t a t i o n o f an a c t i o n , t h e l y r i c a l n o v e l a b s o r b s a c t i o n a l t o g e t h e r and r e f a s h i o n s i t as a p a t t e r n o f i m a g e r y . Its tradition i s n e i t h e r d i d a c t i c nor dramatic, although f e a t u r e s of b o t h may be u s e d , b u t p o e t i c i n t h e n a r r o w s e n s e o f "lyrical." A l y r i c a l poem's f o r m o b j e c t i f i e s n o t men and t i m e s b u t an e x p e r i e n c e and a theme f o r w h i c h men and t h e i r l i v e s , o r p l a c e s and e v e n t s , h a v e b e e n used. S i m i l a r l y , l y r i c a l n o v e l s s u c h as G o e t h e ' s Werther, H b l d e r l i n ' s Hyperion, or Djuna Barnes' Niqhtwood r e f l e c t t h e p l e a s u r e and p a i n o r t h e d y i n g o f men as e x t e n d e d l y r i c s . Their objectivity lies i n a f o r m u n i t i n g s e l f and o t h e r , a p i c t u r e t h a t detaches the w r i t e r from h i s persona i n a s e p a r a t e , formal world.20 Coincidentally the  t o Freedman's e x a m p l e s o f l y r i c a l  above q u o t a t i o n , t h e y o u n g Kawabata's d i a r y  e x t e n t be  r e a d as t h e o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n  f a t h e r i n t h e manner o f an e x t e n d e d People Yukiquni suggest  21 an  such and  as Nakamura M i t s u o  Yukiquni Nakamura  t h e boy  "nikki." t h e two  of  the  in his analysis  thoughts  f o c u s on  or l y r i c  "nikki" drama.  and  22  both  In  emotions.  t h e g r a n d f a t h e r as t h e  shite  waki  of the  shite  i n the between  respective roles  Kawabata w o r k s ; b u t  the  w o u l d seem t o h a v e e v e n l e s s  t h a t other troublesome  a  Isogai  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  the nature  c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e two prose  o f t h e N5  o f Kawabata's  i s t o p r o v i d e the s h i t e with  t o see the v a l i d i t y  each o t h e r than  prose.  innermost  a s t h e w a k i and  a r t f o r m s i f we  drama and  with  her  I t ' s easy  p l a y e d by  lyric.  Shimamura f u n c t i o n s as t h e  the waki's r o l e  stimulus t o express  grand-  t h a t Komako a c t s t h e p a r t o f t h e  i n t h e n o v e l and  (deuteragonist);  sees  of the dying of h i s  the techniques  contends  t  (protagonist)  with  in  can t o a g r e a t  I s o g a i H i d e o i n an a n a l y s i s o f t h e  affinity  novels  p a i r i n g of  genre  i n common  lyric  and  20  By novel,  r e t u r n i n g t o Ralph Freedman s I t h i n k we  the nature He the  a n a l y s i s of the  1  says,  of the  can  find  a much more s a t i s f y i n g  " I " or protagonist  "Concentration  on  the  explanation  i n Kawabata's  inner  life  consequent c r e a t i o n of a detached  of  lyrical of  literature.  a passive hero  and  ' p o e t i c ' form d i s t i n g u i s h  23 lyrical  from n o n - l y r i c a l n a r r a t i v e . "  Kawabata's w o r k s w h i c h i s one his  literature.  are  united.  plains  the  of the  I t i s the striking  Through such p a s s i v i t y ,  Here i s a q u o t a t i o n  the  passive  hero i n  characteristics self  and  the  other  f r o m Freedman's book w h i c h  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  "perceiving self"  and  of  ex-  the  "perceived o b j e c t " f o r the p o e t i c a r t i s t : The p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t becomes p a r t o f t h e p o e t ' s experience while rendering h i s p r i v a t e s e n s i b i l i t y p u b l i c , but, i n m i r r o r i n g the p o e t ' s i n n e r s t a t e , i t l o s e s i t s separate, independent c h a r a c t e r . In t h i s way, p e r c e i v e d o b j e c t s become m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f the poet's s p i r i t - f e a t u r e s of h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t as t h e y a r e p o r t r a y e d s y m b o l i c a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f art. The " o b j e c t " i s t h e c a t a l y s t t h r o u g h w h i c h a f i n i t e , i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i s t r a n s m u t e d i n t o an i n f i n i t e , aesthetic self.24 From s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e , Sogensha e d i t i o n b a s e d on  of Yukiquni  I t h i n k Kawabata's p o s t s c r i p t i n on w h e t h e r o r n o t  a c t u a l p e o p l e s u g g e s t s an  relationship  s i m i l a r t o the  one  his characters  author-protagonist  -  the are  "object"  Freedman o u t l i n e s :  Shimamura i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t m y s e l f . He i s n o t h i n g b u t a f o i l t o t h e g e i s h a , Komako. T h i s i s a t once t h e f a i l u r e as w e l l as t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e n o v e l . I e n t e r e d d e e p l y i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Komako and o n l y v e r y s h a l l o w l y i n t o Shimamura. In t h a t sense i t i s t r u e r t o s a y t h a t i n many ways I am Komako r a t h e r t h a n Shimamura. I c o n s c i o u s l y t r i e d t o k e e p Shimamura a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m me as I w r o t e . A l s o , t h e e v e n t s and f e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d a r e t h e p r o d u c t s o f my imagination r a t h e r t h a n o f any l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e s . The f e e l i n g s o f Komako i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e t h e embodiment o f my own sadness.25  21  J u s t as Komako, c a n ings of the  the be  " o b j e c t " o f Kawabata's p r o t a g o n i s t  s a i d t o be  sadness,  "nikki,"  loneliness  so t o o  the  and  sorrow.  view the as t h e  T h e r e ' s no  f u n c t i o n o f Kawabata's c h a r a c t e r s waki,  but  isn't  writes  lyrical  Kawabata c o n s c i o u s l y a d o p t i n g to  Turning lyrical genre,  No  of the  "Bonbon" i n  drama's s h i t e  g e n r e Kawabata to  funda-  i t ' s easy  scheme n a t u r a l l y a s  the  outcome  way.  from a  rhythmic or musical  re-  imagine  s u c h a scheme f r o m N5;  "nikki"  in  and  characters'  I t ' s hard  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  author's  similarity  chooses t o w r i t e prose i n a l y r i c a l  t o an  feel-  of the  the  t o view the  novel.  i m a g i n e Kawabata c o m i n g t o t h e  o f someone who  manifestation  t o the  i t more r e a s o n a b l e  i n , the  "object" of  questioning  s p e c t i v e r o l e s from the p e r s p e c t i v e mentally  Yukiquni,  embodiment o f K a w a b a t a ' s own  can we  h i s grandfather,  in  approach,  that  i s the  I t h i n k we  find  i n i t e a r l y examples o f t h a t  literally  nature  of  the  auditory  s e n s i t i v i t y w h i c h Kawabata d e m o n s t r a t e s s o m a s t e r f u l l y i n h i s l a t e r works. in  a rather naive  composition. in  the  of the drink.  "nikki"  As  way,  one  as  come m o s t l y The  the  in a  i s reproduced  fourteen-year-old's expressions  from p a r a l l e l i s m s , r e p e t i t i o n s ,  gives h i s grandfather  d i a r y , we  words,, o r e x p r e s s i o n s .  same u n i t i s r e p r e a t e d interval,  i t s r e p e t i t i o n takes  refrain  might expect  "nikki"  f o l l o w i n g passage i s taken from the  elsewhere i n the  after a short or,  tone found i n the  d i a r y when t h e y o u n g boy  syllables,  kinds:  musical  L i k e a p r i m i t i v e song, m u s i c - l i k e  exclamations.  of  The  g i v i n g the place  of that p a r t i c u l a r  flow  i t is  entry  some t e a  to  i n twos  r e p e t i t i o n s are  immediately;  and  first  hear a r e p e t i t i o n The  found  of  three  repeated  o f words a r h y m i n g  touch;  l a t e r where i t a c t s as t h e c l o s i n g  segment:  22  "Un, s o k a , y o s h i , y o s h i , g u t t o , un, q u t t o . " DeT n o d o b o t o k e ga gokugoku ugoku. K o r e , kemono g a nonde i r u no k a ? Baka, b a k a . Sonna myo na k o t o ga a r u mono k a ? Chugaku no s a n n e n s e i n i mo n a t t e i t e -. .&a^ _ 9i sjt_i• Cha wa y o i . T a n p a k u de y o i . A m a r i o i s h i s u g i r u mono wa i k a n . A j i ^ ^ i s h i . - T a b a k o wa?" ,,  0  >  J  (p. 14)  "Hum, y e a h , good, good, g u l p , hum, g u l p . " And t h e Adam's a p p l e moved a s he d r a n k i n g u l p s . I s t h i s t h e beast drinking? Crazy, c r a z y i How c o u l d t h e r e be s u c h a weird thing? H e r e I am g o i n g i n t o t h i r d y e a r o f m i d d l e school - . "Ah, d e l i c i o u s . The t e a ' s good, t h e l i g h t n e s s i s good. T h i n g s t o o d e l i c i o u s a r e no good. Ah, d e l i c i o u s . — G o t a cigarette?" Kawabata i n t r o d u c e s especially  this  same k i n d o f a u d i t o r y  t h e power o f t h e a r t i s t i c  much o f h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g a s w e l l . not  touch  the reader  as b e i n g  sensitivity,  r e p e t i t i o n o f sounds, The l i n e s  particularly  when we compare them t o t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s " I i h i t o ne." " S o r e wa s o , i i h i t o r a s h i i . "  into  I've reproduced  beautiful,  may  especially  f r o m The I z u D a n c e r :  .  "Honto n i i i h i t o ne, I i h i t o wa __L he," (p. 220) "He's n i c e , i s n ' t h e . " " T h a t ' s t r u e , he does seem n i c e . " "He r e a l l y i s n i c e , i s n ' t h e . I t ' s n i c e t o know n i c e people, i s n ' t i t . " tJo^etketeffI  t h i n k we s h o u l d  appreciate  the effective  use o f  sound i n b o t h o f t h e p a s s a g e s . An ity  explanation  of the origin  o f Kawabata's a r t i s t i c  t o s o u n d c a n be f o u n d i n some o f t h e e s s a y s  produced.  In a piece  called  "Bunsho n i t s u i t e "  ("On S t y l e , " 1 9 5 4 ) , Kawabata w r i t e s reading n't  t h e author has >C ^ " I - ~?  G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i a n d Makura no  f r o m was t h e h i b i k i  In h i g h e r  school,  Z  t h a t a s a y o u n g b o y he e n j o y e d  s S s h i e v e n t h o u g h he c o u l d -  u n d e r s t a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f what he was r e a d i n g .  pleasure  sensitiv-  What he d e r i v e d  (sound) a n d t h e t o n e o f t h e l a n g u a g e .  the r e c i t a t i o n  of norito  (Shinto  prayers)  and semmyo  (Imperial edicts)  p r o v i d e d him w i t h  d i s c o v e r e d what he t h o u g h t t o be t h e h e a r t style  i n the p r i m i t i v e  a n d Makura no s o s h i Kawabata was of  language.  a literary for c  a revelation.  of Japanese  He  literary  songs: t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e "songs" i n G e n j i  c o u l d be t r a c e d b a c k t o n o r i t o .  t o always r e v e r e the beauty i n the t o n a l  In h i s Shinbuntokuhon,  c o m p o s i t i o n by l i s t e n i n g  he w r i t e s , to i t '  " 'To  has been  aspect  appreciate  a w i s h o f mine  ,.26 years." i  A n o t h e r example in  its first  pages.  h e l p s t h e o l d man  of musical evocation  i n the " n i k k i "  i s found  I t ' s t h e famous p a s s a g e where t h e young  urinate  into a  boy  bedpan:  "Aa, aa, i t a t a , i t a t a t t a , i t t a t t a , a, a a . " O s h i k k o o s u r u t o k i n i , i t a m u no de a r u . K u r u s h i i i k i mo t a e s 5 na koe t o tomo n i , s h i b i n no s o k o n i wa t a n i g a w a no s h i m i z u no o t o . "Aa,  itatatta."  (p.10)  "Ah, ah, ow-ow, ow- ow-aow, aow-aow, a, ah." I t h u r t when he p e e d . W i t h t h e g a s p i n g and g r o a n i n g , a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e bedpan t h e s o u n d o f c l e a r w a t e r of a v a l l e y stream. "Ah, ow-ow-aow." The  sounds  o f p a i n t h e o l d man  makes as he p a s s e s w a t e r  been p u t down on p a p e r i n a m u s i c a l way; the  "candid"  "Bonbon's"  sounds  o f t h e g r a n d f a t h e r a r e words  remarkable p o e t i c  sensitivity  "Bonbon" and t h e r e a d e r o f "Bonbon's" epiphany.  We  between  exhibiting  t o t h e sound o f t h e water.  diary experience a point  are s h a r i n g w i t h him t h e " d i v i n e "  t h e sound o f u r i n e festations  and i n t e r s p e r s e d  revelation  and t h e s o u n d o f c l e a r w a t e r a r e b u t two  of the underlying  have  that mani-  a u d i t o r y oneness o f t h e sound o f a l l  water. This  section  of  of the " n i k k i "  has  received  special  attention  from c r i t i c s .  They h a v e p o i n t e d  we c a n draw s t y l i s t i c The  lines  conclusions  i n this part  description  o u t t h a t by e x a m i n i n g about  of the entry  the "nikki"  i s representative  Critics  have e s p e c i a l l y  of the overall  an image o f t h e s o u n d  and t h e  i n o t h e r words, t h e  style of the diary.  marvelled at the poetic  Kawabata makes by t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e s o u n d t h e bedpan i n t o  i n general.  f o r May 4 a r e t e r s e  i s b o t h g r a p h i c and ingenuous;  passage  t h e passage  l e a p t h e young  of urine t r i c k l i n g  o f c l e a r water  into  i n a valley  stream. I can't r e s i s t  outlining  how two J a p a n e s e  the presence o f such a l i t e r a r y  critics  account f o r  technique i n the "nikki."  Hasegawa I z u m i , who l a r g e l y b a s e s h i s method o f l i t e r a r y a n a l y s i s on much u s e o f p r i m a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s , looking"  opinion  on t h e i s s u e .  t o mind t h e coming  elements  He s a y s ,  offers  a "forward-  "The d e s c r i p t i o n  calls  o f Shinkankakuha ("Neo-Perceptionist  27 School") techniques." art  S i n c e we r e a d t h a t  a n d l i t e r a t u r e was i n t r o d u c e d  the establishment of the l i t e r a r y i n c l u d e d Kawabata's own t r e a t i s e  avant-garde  i n t o Japan  about  j o u r n a l Bunqei  European  1920, and t h a t  jidai  i n 19 2 4  on a new k i n d o f w r i t i n g  came t o be c a l l e d N e o - P e r c e p t i o n i s m , a n d  which  was b a s e d  that  on t h e  a v a n t - g a r d e movement, t h e n a r e n ' t we t o be a s t o n i s h e d by t h e " p r e a v a n t - g a r d e " t e c h n i q u e s t h e f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d Kawabata employed i n 1914?  Does t h i s mean we a r e f o r c e d t o be as c y n i c a l  and v i e w t h e " n i k k i " not and w i l l  strictly  presently  Sasabuchi Tomoichi ronistic priate  literary  offer  a s a 1925 l i t e r a r y  piece?  I think  some r e a s o n s why.  displays  analysis"  a s Kawashima  a similar  fondness  by f i n d i n g t h e " n i k k i "  example o f Kawabata's l a t e n t  f o r "anacha most  appro-  s u r r e a l i s t i c tendencies.  25  Sasabuchi unclean  makes s p e c i a l m e n t i o n o f t h e way  Kawabata t a k e s  im^age o f t h e s o u n d o f t h e o l d man's u r i n e and  "metamorphosis" t r a n s f o r m s  t h e image i n t o t h e b e a u t y  the  through  of the  sound  2 8 of c l e a r water running i n a v a l l e y  stream.  I n a p u b l i s h e d d i a l o g u e between K i n y a T s u r u t a and Izumi of  on t h e  "nikki,"  f o c u s i n g on  and  the Neo-Perceptionist School,  e a r l y works. and  i n every  a c h o i c e Hasegawa  article  I've  style  unwaveringly  r e a d o f h i s on  Kawabata's  T s u r u t a would appear t o r e f u t e both N e o - P e r c e p t i o n i s t  surrealistic w o u l d be  i s s u e w i t h Hasegawa's c h o i c e  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Kawabata's w r i t i n g  c a r r i e s w i t h him  it  Tsuruta takes  Hasegawa  influences  on Kawabata's s t y l e when he  b e t t e r t o v i e w Kawabata's t r e a t m e n t  of the  suggests bedpan 2'  scene  as a r e f l e c t i o n If  I were t o make my  views t o support, we  of the  author's  own  i n n a t e method o f  c h o i c e as t o w h i c h o f t h e t h r e e men's  I would u n q u e s t i o n a b l y  are t o p r o p e r l y consider the nature  certainly  s h o u l d n ' t be  genetically It  seems t o me  t h a t many c r i t i c s  as Hasegawa and  compelled  lenses,  I f we  to restrict  Sasabuchi  influence  F o r example, "nikki,"  1.  diary  suffer  from  an  o f t h e modern p e r i o d , t h e y their  tools  I t h i n k t h e y might deduce from  of the The  we  something  o f modern J a p a n e s e  of analysis  were t o p r o v i d e them w i t h t h e p r o p e r  much more l i k e l y offer.  o f Kawabata's s t y l e ,  s a t i s f i e d w i t h d i s m i s s i n g i t as  o f myopia: as s p e c i a l i s t s  period.  choose T s u r u t a ' s ; but i f  earned.  i n Japan such  feel  conception.  their  own  literature  acute  consequently  t o t h e modern corrective  observations a  on Kawabata's s t y l e t h e n t h e ones  i n his close  Hasegawa l i s t s  i s composed m o s t l y  the  analysis  they  of the s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s  following  of short  case  four points:  sentences  26  2.  T h e r e i s an  3.  I n an  effective  "artless"  Perceptionist 4.  The  way,  use  of noun-ending  there  i s found the  sentences germination  of the  Neo-  method  y o u n g Kawabata d i s p l a y s a s p i r i t  which r e f u s e s  to  be  30 c r u s h e d by In the  the weight of grim  hope t h a t  four points, features 1.  I have c a p t u r e d  h e r e i s my  3.  the  style  Hasegawa's the  salient  "nikki":  lines  way  (my  attempt  the  e s s e n t i a l "new"  add  t o Japanese  or scenes i n a f r e e ,  a t d e f i n i n g what seems t o h a v e b e e n  c o n t r i b u t i o n the  Neo-Perceptionists  would  fiction)  a d e t a c h e d manner I f we  were t o t a k e t h e  above f o u r p o i n t s  o f J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e w h e t h e r he ative  of  a traditional  question  ition.  t h a t he  t h e M a k u r a no Tsuruta part  o f an  recognizes  Japanese l i t e r a r y  would say  I t bears repeating  Yamamoto K e n k i c h i  points  out,  innate  b a c k e d up  scene.  The  can  be  c a r r y i n g a chamber p o t comparison does not  them t o be  form, I t h i n k  student representthere's  haikai trad-  u n d e r s t o o d t o be  his opinion  one  a  itself,  as  a part  of  tradition.  Kawabata method o f  scene i s the  ask  that the h a i k a i t r a d i t i o n  soshi, Shinkokinshu has  and  we're s p e a k i n g o f t h e  author's l a t e r masterpiece Yukiquni  The  of the  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of d i v e r s e objects  illogical  by  essence of  terseness noun-ending  no  the  r e w r i t i n g o f what seems t o be  Hasegawa f i n d s i n t h e  2.  4.  reality  conception i n w h i c h we  where t h e  containing  t h a t the  bedpan s c e n e i s by  pointing to  find  the  a similar  e p h e m e r a l b e a u t y Yoko w a l k s  the  u r i n e of the  f i t p e r f e c t l y since i n the  dying  "nikki"  Yukio. the  27  juxtaposition  of the urine with the v a l l e y  c o n t a i n e d , " whereas i n Y u k i q u n i "externally" theless,  it  i t i s t h e beauty  i s "selfo f Y5ko t h a t i s  j u x t a p o s e d w i t h t h e u r i n e i n t h e chamber p o t .  Tsuruta's  Having  stream  observation i s perceptive.  introduced this  c o m p a r i s o n T s u r u t a makes w i t h  s h o u l d a l s o be m e n t i o n e d t h a t we c a n make a t h e m a t i c  between ture.  "Bonbon," Y5ko, a n d o t h e r Both  favorite and  characters i n h i s f i c t i o n .  self-sacrificing  "nurses"  connection litera-  o f one o f Kawabata's  They a r e e x a m p l e s o f t h e p u r e  who d e v o t e  o r d y i n g men.  Yukiquni.  c h a r a c t e r s i n Kawabata's  "Bonbon" and Yoko a r e t y p i c a l  needs o f a i l i n g  None-  themselves  One e x c e l l e n t  t o serving the  example o f an e x t e n s i o n  o f t h e "Bonbon" c h a r a c t e r i s t h e y o u n g woman i n " S u i g e t s u " ("The  Moon on t h e Water,"  1953) who a c t s as a n u r s e  $  f o r her dying  husband. The  line  " A t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e bedpan, t h e s o u n d o f c l e a r  water o f a v a l l e y from  critics.  continuation is  poets The  deserves  Its relationship of this  of considerable As  stream"  tradition  t o the haikai  Kawabata d i s p l a y s a common bond  images p r o v i d e t h e r e a d e r w i t h object i n nature,  feelings The  h i s juxtaposition with a concrete p i c t u r e  and t h e p i c t u r e  of association,  felt  including  and t h e works  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l  with nature.  of a part-  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y opens up  an i n f e r e n c e t o t h e human  at that p a r t i c u l a r  n a t u r a l o b j e c t and i t s p a r a l l e l  "logically"  tradition  importance.  i n haiku poetry,  a spectrum  i t has r e c e i v e d  i n f u t u r e Kawabata l i t e r a r y  o f t h e p a s t when he s t r i k e s  icular  the attention  moment.  image n e e d n o t be  a s s o c i a t e d , as i n t h e " n i k k i . "  The f a c t  that the  y o u n g Kawabata h a s t u r n e d t h e s o u n d o f u r i n e i n t o t h e s o u n d o f t h e  28  c l e a r water  of a valley  or p r e - r a t i o n a l so u n l i k e l y  stream would  ability  seem t o i n d i c a t e  on t h e a u t h o r ' s p a r t  a primitive  t o d i s c o v e r beauty i n  a situation.  In t h i s  connection, I think  (1730-1801) v i e w s  on l i t e r a t u r e  a few words on M o t o o r i  Norinaga's  s h o u l d prove r e v e a l i n g .  The c o r n e r -  stone o f Norinaga's theory i s the capturing i n l i t e r a t u r e feeling  o f mono no aware  to things").  (the "ahness"  of things;  For Norinaga, the w r i t e r  o f u n n a t u r a l moral thought which essence o f things.  a  should cast  "sensitivity aside the chain  p r e v e n t s him from g r a s p i n g t h e  A h e a r t which  i s p u r e and s e n s i t i v e  through such c h a i n s t o g e t t o the core o f t h e t h i n g . would  appear t o have j u s t  sense  i n t h e sound  lotus  breaks  "Bonbon"  s u c h a h e a r t f r o m t h e way he i s a b l e t o  o f u r i n e t h e sound  s u g g e s t s as example t h a t  of a  o f c l e a r water.  such a h e a r t can admire  f l o w e r i n b l o o m i n a muddy p o n d .  The d i r t y  Norinaga  t h e beauty  of a  surroundings 31  need n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l beauty Incidentally, dimensions habit  this  aesthetic  i n Kawabata's l a t e r  c o n c e p t t a k e s on t h e m a t i c  fiction.  T h i n g s o f b e a u t y have a  o f b e i n g i n c o n t a c t w i t h "mud" o r o f p a s s i n g t h r o u g h i t a s  t h e y move i n and o u t o f t h e l i v e s One  of the flower.  example w o u l d  be Y u k i k o ,  o f Kawabata's male  the g i r l  protagonists.  o f t h e Sembazuru,  who  r  e n t e r s K i k u j i ' s w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e woman o f t h e "muddy" b i r t h m a r k . The  c u l t u r a l w e l l s p r i n g which  "primitive"  artistic  sensibility  Shinto.  Shinto i t s e l f  in  Western  fact,  totally right  seems most r e s p o n s i b l e  o f b o t h N o r i n a g a a n d Kawabata i s  i s more a s y s t e m  of aesthetics  than  m i s s i o n a r i e s have found S h i n t o l a c k i n g  an e t h i c a l  t o be c a l l e d  code  f o r the  ethics;  almost  a n d have c o n s e q u e n t l y r e f u t e d S h i n t o ' s  a religion  at a l l .  29  The  S h i n t o w o r l d v i e w s e e s t h e gods, man, a n d n a t u r e a s one.  Inherent  i n such  a view i s a p a n t h e i s t i c outlook which S h i n t o  s h a r e s w i t h Buddhism. philosophical smoothly  concept  When B u d d h i s m was i n t r o d u c e d t o J a p a n , i t s o f t h e oneness o f a l l c r e a t i o n  with t h e indigenous  religion.  f i t in  O f t h e two g r e a t f o r m s o f  Buddhism, H i n a y a n a a n d Mahayana, i t i s t h e l i n e Buddhism which Japanese Buddhism b e l o n g s  to.  o f Mahayana  The p h i l o s o p h y o f  o n e n e s s i n Mahayana B u d d h i s m i s s u p p o r t e d b y a p a n t h e i s t i c  world  v i e w : t h e One i s i n a l l t h i n g s , a n d c o n v e r s e l y a l l t h i n g s a r e t h e One.  In Robert  Schinzinger's introduction  t h r e e N i s h i d a K i t a r o e s s a y s , he t a l k s  to h i s translation of  about  how B u d d h i s t s  symbol o f t h e m i r r o r t o e x p l a i n t h a t Dharmafeaya center o f being")  i s "reflected"  example S c h i n z i n g e r s e l e c t s expansion the  ("the d i v i n e  i n a l l things.  from Buddhist  on t h e a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e  use t h e  The p a r t i c u l a r  teachings reads  found  i n Norinaga's  l i k e an words on  lotus: B u d d h i s t s s a y t h a t DharmaJcaya i s i n a l l t h i n g s , i n t h e same way a s t h e one a n d u n d i v i d e d moon i s r e f l e c t e d i n w a t e r , i n t h e o c e a n a s w e l l as i n m i l l i o n s o f dewdrops, o r e v e n i n d i r t y puddles. I n e a c h r e f l e c t i o n t h e moon i s w h o l e and u n d i v i d e d . 3 2 The  o n e n e s s o f t h e s o u n d o f w a t e r f o r "Bonbon" c a n c l e a r l y  f i n d - i t s c o n c e p t u a l r o o t s i n b o t h S h i n t o a n d Buddhism.  The  pantheistic  a t what  will  overtones  be an i m p o r t a n t One  final  i n the line  from t h e " n i k k i "  hint  f e a t u r e o f l a t e r Kawabata w o r k s .  aspect o f the l i n e  is  t h e emphasis  In  t h e c i t e d passage,  In  a l a t e r passage found  I'd l i k e  t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o  "Bonbon" p l a c e s on t h e a d j e c t i v e he h e a r s  "pure"  t h e sound o f s h i m i z u  or "clear."  ( " c l e a r water")  i n t h e May 7 e n t r y , t h e o l d man a g a i n  30  urinates,  and t h i s  na o t o (a " c l e a r Kivorakasa  time t h e young boy h e a r s t h e sound  sound"),  literature.  (p.19)  ("cleanness")  aesthetic consideration  i s p r o b a b l y t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t a n t  f o r Kawabata's p r o t a g o n i s t s  Kawabata's s e n s e o f b e a u t y  female beauty  as K i y o r a k a  i n particular,  i n general,  r e v o l v e s around  I n Y u k i q u n i i t i s Komako's q u a l i t y  i n a l l of h i s and sense o f  cleanness or p u r i t y .  o f p u r i t y which  draws  Shimamura  to her. We f i n d as f a r b a c k  the origin  as t h e K o j i k i  the Japanese edicts)  kiyoki  bright  heart"),  heart!).  3  and k i y o k i  akaki kokoro  o f " c l e a r water"  o f p u r i t y w i t h water  i n rivers  o r streams,  water  important  part  of lakes,  (Imperial  attributes are  a k a k i k o k o r o ("the  ("the p u r e  further  and b r i g h t  rites  i s well  o r by c r o s s i n g rivers,  from t h i s  t h e May 8 e n t r y ,  calls  i n Shinto r i t u a l .  streams,  can i n c l u d e  The p a r t  water  By b a t h -  them, one i s p u r i f i e d . and s p r i n g s p l a y an I t s association  i t s function  earthly world to a p r i s t i n e , t h e o l d man a p p e a r s  t o mind the  documented.  i n a l m o s t e v e r y Kawabata work.  Shinto p u r i f i c a t i o n  passage  I n semmvo  ("the p u r e h e a r t " ) ,  i n Shinto p u r i f i c a t i o n  The  with  (Record o f A n c i e n t M a t t e r s , 712),  century, the following  kokoro  description  association  ing  ^ f£  From  3  The  plays  ^  c o n c e p t i n S h i n t o as w e l l .  have r e v e r e d a sense o f p u r i t y .  from t h e e i g h t h  idealized:  of this  as a s y m b o l i c  heavenly world.  r e a d y t o make a  In  "real"  passage  from t h i s w o r l d t o a h e a v e n l y w o r l d through the agency o f  water.  He s a y s , " I w o u l d n ' t  there."  (p.25)  mind f a l l i n g  As w i t h many o t h e r l i n e s  into  a pond and d y i n g  i n t h e " n i k k i , " we  t h e s e words o f t h e o l d man r e p e a t e d s h o r t l y  after.  find  31 Another one of Kawabata's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s already to be found i n the " n i k k i " i s his use of contrasting images to support a thematic design.  The loneliness and sorrow of the old man i s  underscored i n the contrast between l i g h t and darkness.  When  darkness s e t t l e s i n the household, the old man's p l a i n t i v e cries "shake the night a i r . " (p.14)  The sadness of the grandfather's  almost complete blindness i s temporarily assuaged when "Bonbon" brings a beam of l i g h t close to the old man's eyes and illuminates his  "world of darkness." (p.14)  A f t e r the old man expresses h i s  desire to drown i n a pond, which i s then followed by his f i n a l r e c i t a t i o n of "Namu amida butsu," the " I " says, "to me, the l i g h t of the lamp turned dark." (p.25)  The undated entry of the diary  discovered even l a t e r than the other sections and included i n the second appendix closes with a play on l i g h t and shadow.  "In the  dim f l i c k e r of l i g h t from the bedside lamp, the two women sat s i l e n t l y with t h e i r heads between t h e i r hands." (p.38) appropriate  I t seems  to learn that the old man passed away i n the night.  It was young Kawabata's awareness of the coming death of his grandfather place.  which prompted him to begin the diary i n the f i r s t  The r e s u l t of writing a "sketch-like" description of those  days before his grandfather's f i r s t of the two questions composition.  death would eventually lead to the  Kawabata asked himself about the  In the second appendix, Kawabata writes that at  f i f t y years of age, just as at the time when he wrote his f i r s t appendix, the thing  he finds strangest i s the fact he i s unable  to r e c a l l the days he had written of. set  He writes that he didn't  about explaining the meaning of memory and forgetfulness i n  the work; he also writes that he didn't make an e f f o r t to touch  32  on  t h e meaning o f " t i m e " One  and " l i f e "  either.  o f t h e c l u e s t o t h e m e a n i n g o f f o r g e t f u l n e s s he does  l e a v e h i m s e l f and us w i t h ugliness  i s found  i n the f i r s t  appendix.  The  o f t h e o l d man's a p p e a r a n c e d u r i n g t h e days when t h e  d i a r y was b e i n g w r i t t e n h a s g r a d u a l l y b e e n d i s a p p e a r i n g f r o m t h e memory o f Kawabata. clean"  He r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he h a d " c o n t i n u e d t o wash  ( k i y o r a k a n i a r a i t s u z u k e t e i t a ) (p.33) t h e memory o f h i s  grandfather over a ten-year p e r i o d . By  r e a d i n g h i s own d i a r y t e n y e a r s  o n l y made t o r e c a l l  later,  a forgotten past, but also  Kawabata was n o t t o r e l i v e the  immediacy o f t h e l i n e a r p a s s a g e o f " n a t u r a l t i m e . " admired t h i s  early  composition  A s much a s he  o f h i s , he s u r e l y must have b e e n  d i s t u r b e d by t h e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y he f o u n d  there.  I agree  Saeki  S h o i c h i t h a t Kawabata p r o b a b l y v a l u e d t h e o b j e c t i v i t y  style  o f t h e d i a r y and a l s o  totally  i n the present  composition  i n later  of i t s being written  t e n s e ; however, t h e p r e s e n t  i s , i n fact,  w h i c h we f i n d  the e f f e c t  beauty  Kawabata f i c t i o n .  in  F o r someone who s o u g h t  i n literature,  the " o b j e c t i v e "  tense  not equivalent to the " e t e r n a l The " e t e r n a l  must be b e y o n d t h e p e r i s h a b i l i t y o f " n a t u r a l t i m e . " becomes a b s t r a c t .  time  o f the almost  o f the present"  present"  The c o n c r e t e  the p u r i f y i n g  the " u g l i n e s s " o f the grandfather  or "real"  with  effect of captured  o f t h e p a g e s o f t h e d i a r y must  s t a n d as somewhat o f a c o u n t e r p o i n t t o what we f i n d  i n f u t u r e works  by  the i n d i v i d u a l .  "Jurokusai  no  n i k k i " h o l d s when compared w i t h  literature.  Such i s t h e p o s i t i o n  Kawabata s  the rest  1  o f the author's  •  DEATH AND  THE  VIRGIN: "CHIYO" TO  "KAGARIBI"  CHAPTER I I I n 1915, took  up  the year  following his grandfather's  r e s i d e n c e i n the dormitory  He  had  first  started  in  the dormitory  at  the  s c h o o l , he  Ogasawara.  The  graduation  shared  two  o f Osaka's l b a r a g i  a t t e n d i n g t h e s c h o o l i n 1912,  until  i n 1917.  a room w i t h  developed  death,  As  Kawabata  Middle  and  he  School.  stayed  a fifth-year  a second-year  a r e l a t i o n s h i p with  student clear  student named  homosexual  overtones. This story and  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  "Shonen"^ ^  1949.  final  The  ("A  t h e b a s i s f o r Kawabata's a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  Boy")  w h i c h was  work i s d i v i d e d  three sections exemplify  m e r i t o f t h e work.  into  They c o n s i s t  The are  found  they on  s c h o o l and  of the the  begun t o l i v e  in sections five  with  and  six.  t o the d e s c r i p t i o n  the w r i t e r v o i c i n g  As  mutually  passive  e e r i e penchant boy  r a t h e r than  either  for dissecting giving a  the touch  Content  literary  of o l d  letters  graduated  their physical frank as•they  from  relationship a r e however,  l y i n g down t o g e t h e r  experience  really  of  their  gone b e y o n d a  most o f Kawabata's h e r o e s  involved with,  ing h i s forehead, feet.  o f how  the p h y s i c a l  "whole" p i c t u r e state,  charms o f t h e  o f him. the author  this  chest,  shoulders,  young boy  relates  the  arms, hands,  extent of a physical  the  With the  o f v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e b o y ' s body  neck,  with  d e s c r i b e the  t h e w r i t e r i n "Shonen" has  asleep or i n a dream-like  p l e a s u r e he  the  stage.  Characteristic they are  1948  i n Tokyo.  the t a c t i l e  c o n t a c t w h i c h seems t o have n o t  people  contents  o f t h e two  physical  in  s e c t i o n s but  l a t t e r had  f r a n k e s t passages d e a l i n g with  are l i m i t e d  a bed  had  seventeen  the o v e r a l l questionable  Ogasawara s e n t t o Kawabata a f t e r the middle  published s e r i a l l y  includ-  and  relationship,  34  the  writer drifts  "Shonen" a p p e a r s in  into a state of reverie. t o have something  The p r o t a g o n i s t i n  i n common w i t h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s  two works w r i t t e n b y Kawabata i n t h e 1960's.  0R  te  Nemureru b i j o the  Eguchi of  (House o f t h e S l e e p i n g B e a u t i e s , 1960) e n j o y s  pleasure of d r i f t i n g  into a state  s l e e p i n g b o d i e s o f young v i r g i n s . " K a t a Ude"  o f r e v e r i e n e x t t o t h e drugged,  The b a c h e l o r i n t h e s u r r e a l i s t i c  ("One Arm," 1963) i s a b l e t o e n j o y t h e v i r g i n i t y o f  a young g i r l  without a c t u a l l y  d e s p o i l i n g h e r by b o r r o w i n g  one o f  h e r arms f o r a n i g h t . The k e y t h i n g b o t h t h e y o u n g g i r l s purity. and  I n Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e ,  female  i s effectively  as w e l l .  i s drawn t o t h e p u r i t y  examining formed  t h e mask, S h i n g o  i n t o those of a  t h e b o r d e r l i n e between m a l e  e r a s e d when y o u n g p e o p l e o f p h y s i c a l  b e a u t y h a p p e n t o be v i r g i n s Shingo  and t h e boy p o s s e s s i s  I n Yama no o t o f o r example,  o f t h e N5 mask o f a y o u n g b o y .  finds the features  o f t h e mask  down i n h i s d i a r y  r e a d i n g o f Dostoyevsky's January ially  my Ogasawara.  That  w i t h Ogasawara,  a revealing reaction to h i s  The House o f t h e Dead. I n t h e e n t r y f o r  23, 1918, Kawabata w r i t e s ,  a f f e c t e d me.  I was b r o u g h t  "The p a s s a g e to tears.  about A l i espec-  I t made me t h i n k o f  i m m a c u l a t e l y p u r e Ogasawara w i l l  p r o v i d e me w i t h a s e n s e  of salvation."  novel  Alexander  i s a nobleman who h a s b e e n i m p r i s o n e d i n S i b e r i a .  i s supposedly based  script.  forever  1  The m a i n c h a r a c t e r i n The House o f t h e Dead, Petrovitch,  trans-  girl.  Two y e a r s a f t e r Kawabata's d o r m i t o r y l i f e Kawabata j o t t e d  Upon  The b r i g h t e s t  c o n t a i n s t h e passage  on t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s  f o u n d i n h i s manu-  chapter i n the novel i s Chapter X  on A l i .  The  which  The f o l l o w i n g i s how he i s d e s c r i b e d :  35  Of t h e t h r e e D a g h e s t a n T a r t a r s , a l l b r o t h e r s , t h e e l d e r two were w e l l - d e v e l o p e d men, w h i l e t h e y o u n g e s t , A l i , was n o t more t h a n t w e n t y - t w o a n d l o o k e d s t i l l younger. He s l e p t b y my s i d e , and when I o b s e r v e d his frank, i n t e l l i g e n t countenance, t h o r o u g h l y n a t u r a l , I was a t o n c e a t t r a c t e d t o h i m and t h a n k e d my f a t e t h a t I h a d h i m f o r a n e i g h b o u r a n d n o t some o t h e r prisoner. H i s whole s o u l c o u l d be r e a d i n h i s beaming countenance. H i s c o n f i d e n t s m i l e had a c e r t a i n c h i l d ish simplicity. H i s l a r g e b l a c k eyes e x p r e s s e d such f r i e n d l i n e s s , such t e n d e r f e e l i n g , t h a t I always took p l e a s u r e i n l o o k i n g a t h i m : i t was a r e l i e f t o me i n moments o f s a d n e s s a n d anguish....How t h i s y o u n g man p r e s e r v e d h i s tender heart, h i s n a t i v e honesty, h i s f r a n k c o r d i a l i t y w i t h o u t becoming p e r v e r t e d and c o r r u p t ed d u r i n g h i s p e r i o d o f h a r d l a b o u r i s q u i t e i n e x p l i c a b l e . . . . C h a s t e a s a y o u n g g i r l , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t was f o u l , c y n i c a l , shameful, o r u n j u s t f i l l e d h i s f i n e b l a c k eyes w i t h i n d i g n a t i o n , a n d made them f i n e r t h a n e v e r . 2 The the  b o y o f "Sh5nen" i s a l s o  like  a young g i r l ,  blessing  too indicates  on h i m .  were a f r e s h Probably  author that  joins  t h a t t h e boy has bestowed a  surprise  the f i n e s t  t h a t y o u a r e my g o d o f s a l v a t i o n . . . . 3 i n my l i f e . . " .  scene  i n t h e s t o r y t a k e s p l a c e when t h e  t h e b o y i n S a g a and t h e y make a t r i p  t h e boy can p e r f o r m m i s o g i  o f t h e b o y ' s body b e i n g  "The naked innocence  close  B u t t h e f i g u r e was d e f i n i t e l y  $  [a term  found  t o a w a t e r f a l l so  ( p u r i f i c a t i o n by b a t h i n g ) .  cascading water. to nature.  i n Shinto]).  The  o f t h e boy brought godly  At the f i r s t  o f what  light,  my  cold."^  much o f Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e  The  him  (kogoshii  sight  passage c o n t a i n s examples o f t h e e s s e n t i a l  artistic  He i s  s t r u c k by t h e  s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as t h e e m a n a t i o n o f a s p i r i t u a l body t u r n e d  spiritual  "...I feel  t r a n s f i x e d by the s i g h t  of  and i n  same manner t h a t he w r i t e s o f Ogasawara i n h i s d i a r y , t h e  author here  You  chaste  which designate  elements i n  singular  moments  sensibility.  ultimate experience  o f misogi  i s t o bathe  completely  36  nude under a w a t e r f a l l . In  The effect of the s p i r i t u a l p u r i f i c a t i o n  such an exercise i s the return to a p r i s t i n e state.  By a r r i v -  ing at this p r i s t i n e state, the boy i n h i s natural innocence possesses divine q u a l i t i e s .  As I indicated i n my analysis of  "Jurokusai no n i k k i , " water, p a r t i c u l a r l y the clear water of a mountain stream or w a t e r f a l l , together with i t s coolness, produces a p u r i f y i n g e f f e c t i n many of Kawabata's works. The imagery of l i g h t and f i r e i s another Kawabata indication of profound aesthetic moments suffused with a sense of the divine. Kawabata's use of f i r e images appears to correspond to the symbolic use of f i r e i n both Western l i t e r a t u r e and Japanese Shinto r i t e s . As pointed out by Northrop Frye, the use of f i r e i n Western apocalyptic symbolism has been to associate i t "with a s p i r i t u a l or angelic world midway between the human and the divine.""'  Fiery  bodies are either to be i d e n t i f i e d with heaven or are to be thought of as passages to heaven. iated with the divine.  In Shinto too, f i r e i s closely assoc-  It ranks on the same l e v e l as water as a '  p u r i f y i n g power. The Shinto scholar Hirata Atsutane (1776-1843) came up with an i n t e r e s t i n g theory on the derivation of the Shinto term musubi. According to him, musu means "to beget" and b i refers to the sun. Musubi designates a synthesizing power which acts to harmonize the waxing and waning of cosmic forces.  F i r e i n i t s various  manifestations i n Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e acts i n a s i m i l a r manner as a synthesizing agent of a divine nature. A f i n a l word on "Shonen" underscores the connection Kawabata makes with the Shinto concept of purity.  The f i c t i o n a l name he  gives to Ogasawara i n the story, h i s "god of salvation," i s  37  K i y o n o > | f j ( f i e l d of p u r i t y " ) . M  In 1917, Kawabata went to Tokyo and entered the F i r s t School.  Higher  The autumn of the following year saw him make h i s f i r s t  t r i p to Izu.  It was during this walking tour that he met up with  a group of wandering performers.  Attracted to the young dancer  in the troupe, he was accepted as a t r a v e l l i n g companion by them for the remainder of the Izu t r i p .  During a stay at Yugashima  Hotsprings four years l a t e r , Kawabata produced a manuscript  titled  "Yugashima de no omoide" which draws on his relationship with Ogasawara as well as the Izu t r a v e l with the wandering performers. The manuscript was eventually turned into two s t o r i e s : the one  I've  just dealt with t i t l e d "ShSnen" and the novelette "Izu no odoriko'  1  which stands as the author's f i r s t masterpiece. In 1919, at the age of twenty-one, Kawabata had his short story "Chiyo"'published i n the F i r s t Higher School's magazine.  It has a rather curious plot.  literary  The " I " of the story  has the uncommon fate of successively coming i n contact with three g i r l s who  a l l happen to be c a l l e d Chiyo: the daughter of Yamamoto  Chiyomatsu, the Izu dancer, and the g i r l f o r whose affections he must compete with a classmate.  Each time he makes contact with  one of the g i r l s c a l l e d Chiyo, he r e c a l l s Chiyomatsu.  The " I "  feels that his f a i l u r e to repay a family debt has caused a p a r t i c u l a r l y p a i n f u l death for the man.  It i s not surprising then  that the hero feels a sense of fear and unnaturalness about the unfolding events.  When the young man  receives from the deceased  man's daughter Chiyo a sum of money bequeathed to him i n her father's w i l l , h i s sense of uneasiness i s compounded.  Nonetheless, he uses  the money to make a t r i p to Izu where he meets up with a group of  38  t r a v e l l i n g performers  and f a l l s i n love with the troupe's fourteen-  year-old dancer named Chiyo.  Ttfhen he returns to Tokyo, a l l the  while receiving l e t t e r s from Chiyomatsu's daughter, the young man f a l l s i n love with a new Chiyo who has captured the attention of his  classmate as well.  The conclusion " I " comes to is"that he has  been cursed by the ghost of Chiyomatsu. There are several possible explanations as to why Kawabata dealt with the world of the supernatural i n t h i s early short story of h i s .  The most obvious would be to point to the fact that the  author's early years were f i l l e d with the deaths of a l l the close members of h i s family.  Being cut o f f from family relationships i n  this natural world, i t should not be s t a r t l i n g to f i n d a person l i k e Kawabata searching for a renewal of these relationships i n a supernatural world.  Not to be overlooked are the years Kawabata  spent alone'with h i s grandfather.  In the " n i k k i " are found examples  of the old man's b e l i e f i n demons and details of his work on d i v i n ation. Another possible source of i n s p i r a t i o n for the element of the supernatural i n "Chiyo" can be uncovered i n the wealth of Japanese c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e which deals with the subject.  Kawabata must  c e r t a i n l y have appreciated the presence of ghosts i n Genji monogatari  yff.  (The Tale of Genji,C. 1008), p a r t i c u l a r l y the vengeful s p i r i t of Lady Rokujo who  takes possession of a number of ladies while  she i s a l i v e and a f t e r she i s dead.  An even better example of  ghostly tales are those to be found i n Ugetsu monogatari fa ^ (Tales of Moonlight and Rain) of Ueda A k i n a r i ± ® 4*&(1734-1809). Probably i n a l l of Kawabata's early works one can detect an element of the supernatural.  His interest i n the supernatural  %%  39  eventually led him to take up the reading of books on s p i r i t u a l i s m from 1925.  Much of the thematic content of Kawabata's writing in  the next ten years was  derived from a knowledge of Eastern r e i n -  carnation and W e s t e r n s p i r i t u a l i s m .  The  finest piece of writing  Kawabata produced which dealt with these two ideas was J  ffc  ("Lyric Poem," 1932).  "Jojoka"  Itfith numerous references to Eastern  and  Western h i s t o r i c a l and l i t e r a r y examples of reincarnation and s p i r i t u a l i s m , "Jojoka" makes an excellent primer f o r the of the  student  supernatural.  Minus the scholarship found i n "Joj5ka," "Chiyo," e s p e c i a l l y i t s l a s t h a l f , should be taken as the f i r s t of Kawabata's long l i n e of stories centering on the world of s p i r i t u a l i s m and reincarna tion.  When the hero of the story returns from his Izu t r i p , he  notices that the cherry blossoms have f a l l e n and senses the smell of the new  leaves. TM$\introduces a switch i n the style of the  short story from the prosaic to the poetic.  The  lines are  shorten-  ed and the author makes use of v i s u a l effect by introducing a s t r i n g of short paragraphs with the enclosed name Chiyo set o f f to the right of the paragraphs. referred to was  E a r l i e r i n the work, the Chiyo most often  Yamamoto Chiyomatsu whose name was written i n  Chinese characters. ephemeral hiragana  Now  Chiyo i s mostly written i n the more  (cursive Japanese s y l l a b i c s c r i p t ) as the name  begins to r e f e r more to Chiyomatsu's daughter and the Izu dancer and ultimately to the ghostly power behind the name. With the smell of the new  leaves, the hero suddenly finds  himself caught up i n the t e r r i f y i n g fate of one who cursed.  has been  As he thinks more deeply about the events taking place,  he begins to believe that he's not the only one who  has been  40  cursed:  the t h r e e Chiyos are themselves  startling  r e v e l a t i o n occurs  cursed.  An  e v e n more  later:  The t h r e e C h i y o s are, of course, ghosts. At the l e a s t , t h e y a r e phantoms w h i c h a r e b e i n g made t o move a b o u t by t h e work o f a g h o s t . Y e s t e r d a y my f r i e n d and I t h o u g h t o f how we h a d n e r v o u s l y gone t o t a k e a l o o k a t t h e p l a c e C h i y o _ h a d appeared. When s h e came c l o s e , f r o m a r o u n d t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h a t b e a u t i f u l f a c e we c o u l d o n l y s e e a g h o s t l y apparition. From b e h i n d h e r , a p a l e h a n d came f o r t h and b e c k o n e d u s . We c o u l d n ' t t h i n k o f h e r as b e i n g a person of t h i s world.^ The of  final  c o n c l u s i o n the hero  events i n h i s l i f e  i s that  ghosts t o contend with.  comes t o a b o u t  e v e r y f a m i l y has  the strange  i t s own  In the case of h i s f a m i l y ,  p a s t t h e y have been haunted  by t h e g h o s t  turn  vengeful  f o r generations  of Chiyo.  He  wishes  to  come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v e n g e a n c e .  Failure  to  means  a c h i e v e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n o r d e r t o a p p e a s e t h e g h o s t  being perpetually In  pursued  by  Kawabata's " n i k k i "  the beginning of a l y r i c a l literature. later  and  w r i t t e n a t t h e age  s t y l e which runs throughout  sadness.  The  I n Kawabata's " C h i y o " w r i t t e n  s u p e r n a t u r a l and n a t u r a l w o r l d s  expression  p e o p l e and  i n "Chiyo."  and w i t h how  at least  at  a touch of the f a n t a s t i c  the world the p r o t a g o n i s t s of h i s s t o r i e s  of lone-  twenty-one,  between  p e o p l e and  Most o f K a w a b a t a ' s l a t e r found  author's  i n t h e noumenal  events of the present f i n d s  some e x t e n t t h e same t h e m a t i c i n t e r e s t regularly  the  finds  f o r much o f h i s  author's concern with the i n t e r a c t i o n  the past a f f e c t  one  i t i s a p i e c e w r i t t e n w i t h a sense  finds the author's e a r l y thematic i n t e r e s t  world.  ly  of sixteen,  mood o f t h e work s e t s t h e t o n e  l i t e r a r y works:  liness one  The  t h e specter.  the  events  its first  stories  share  i n "Chiyo." i n them, and find  three g i r l s  named C h i y o i n t h i s  early  to  There i s consequent-  themselves  in  n o r m a l l y b o r d e r s on t h e w o r l d o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . The  of  short story  of  41  Kawabata's are representative of perhaps a l l the women i n the author's l i t e r a t u r e .  I f one were to point to the most f u l l y  developed and most " r e a l " female character i n a l l o f h i s f i c t i o n , probably i t would be Komako of Yuki^guni; but i t ' s o f considerable interest to read that when questioned about the fleshed-out quality of Komako, Kawabata r e p l i e d , "Obake desu yo."("She's a spook.").  The author would seem to be saying that behind a l l his  female characters there i s found a Chiyo. In  1920, one year after the publication of "Chiyo," Kawabata  graduated from F i r s t Higher School and entered the English Literature Department of Tokyo Imperial University.  Later the  same year, he was introduced to a fifteen-year-old waitress c a l l e d Chiyo (Ito Hatsuyo) working at a Tokyo coffee shop.  This r e a l l i f e  Chiyo would eventually vanish from Kawabata's world and turn into a phantom of sorts l i k e the g i r l s i n the story.  Her role as a  model i n Kawabata's early l i t e r a r y works w i l l be discussed l a t e r . The year 1921 brought with i t the i n i t i a l publication of the sixth r e v i v a l of the magazine Shinshicho.  Its f i r s t three issues  each contained a short story by Kawabata: "Aru konyaku" %~b k% ("A Certain Engagement") i n February, "Shokonsai i k k e i " - t o 1% ^= - % ("Memorial Day Sketch") i n A p r i l , and "Abura" >^  ("Oil") i n July.  "Shokonsai" was well received by such i n f l u e n t i a l writers as Kikuchi Kan and Kume Masao, and i t was t h i s work which r e a l l y launched Kawabata's career as a writer. Kikuchi was p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed by the "power o f v i s u a l i z a t i o n " found i n the work.  By " v i s u a l i z a t i o n " he meant Kawabata's  s k i l l f u l use of sensuous description.  Found i n the opening para-  graphs are several examples of such description.  The sense of  42  smell i s one facet Kawabata works with: "I suddenly caught the scent of the sweet smell of roasting chestnuts.  I'd love some." (p.43)  It i s within the sensuous passages that one finds i n this work the poetic response to natural description which becomes one of the trademarks of the writer.  For example, a few lines after the  main character smells the roasting chestnuts, she supposedly begins to hear the sound of soya beans being parched on the other side of the concourse. farfetched.  Her actually being able to hear this sound seems  The poet has refashioned nature f o r a r t i s t i c ends.  Added to the terse, clear style found i n his e a r l i e r " n i k k i " is an a r t i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t y which chooses to mold r e a l i t y to suit the writer's purpose.  Objective r e a l i t y has been replaced by  "subjective" r e a l i t y . One other conspicuous feature of "Shokonsai" i s his writing the work i n a " f l u i d " first-person voice.  The main character i n  the story, Omitsu, i s at times described from the narrator's point of view, while at other times she herself takes the first-person voice.  For instance, Omitsu's discovery of the unique smell of  horses i s given i n her first-person: "Otome was r i g h t .  There i s  the smell of horses." (p.51) The subject matter for the short story was mostly obtained from the author's v i s i t to the Memorial Day F e s t i v a l held i n the compound of Yasukuni Shrine i n Tokyo.  It i s the special world  of the individuals who work these f e s t i v a l s , people l i v i n g outside the boundary of t y p i c a l society, that Kawabata focused on i n "Shokonsai." In Kawabata's essay "Bungakuteki j i j o d e n " C'My L i f e as a Writer," 19-34)., the author c l e a r l y expresses hfs  43  interest  i n the u n d e r s i d e o f Tokyo l i f e .  from the essay,  In the f o l l o w i n g passage  the a u t h o r p l a c e s the young c i r c u s r i d e r s  "Shokonsai" w i t h i n the context of  this  of  interest:  B u t i t ' s A s a k u s a more t h a n G i n z a , s l u m s more than r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , and a group o f g i r l s w o r k i n g a t t o b a c c o f a c t o r i e s more t h a n s t u d e n t s l e a v i n g a g i r l s ' s c h o o l at t h e end o f t h e day t h a t I f i n d lyrical. I am a t t r a c t e d t o d i r t y b e a u t y . I like v i s i t i n g the tamanori ( b a l l b a l a n c i n g p e r f o r m e r s ) , c i r c u s r i d e r s , j u g g l e r s , a n d i n g a takamono ( f o r t u n e t e l l e r s ) o f Egawa. I e n j o y w a t c h i n g t h e f a k e shows p u t on a t A s a k u s a ' s c h e a p p l a y h o u s e s . My f i r s t w o r k t o b e p r a i s e d was " S h o k o n s a i i k k e i , " a s t o r y a b o u t c i r c u s r i d e r s ; my s h o r t p i e c e t i t l e d " R i n k i n k a n o y u u t s u " found i n the f i r s t i s s u e of Bungei shunju i s a b o u t a y o u n g g i r l who s e l l s k o n n y a k u ( a p a s t e made f r o m t h e s t a r c h o f d e v i l ' s t o n g u e ) ; a n d " I z u no o d o r i k o " t e l l s o f a g r o u p o f t r a v e l l i n g e n t e r t a i n e r s I met when I w a l k e d t h r o u g h I z u as a F i r s t H i g h e r S c h o o l student.9 The s h o r t  line  expressing Kawabata's a t t r a c t i o n  beauty" deserves e l a b o r a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  to  "dirty  s i n c e Edward  S e i d e n s t i c k e r seems t o h a v e a t t r i b u t e d much more t o t h e m e a n i n g than Kawabata i n t e n d e d .  I n h i s e s s a y "On K a w a b a t a , " S e i d e n s t i c k e r  equates " d i r t y beauty" w i t h u g l i n e s s .  He s u g g e s t s t h a t K a w a b a t a  had a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h u g l i n e s s which i s author's writing."^  If  a p p a r e n t i n much o f  S e i d e n s t i c k e r had summarized the passage  q u o t e d a b o v e f r o m w h i c h he t o o k t h e q u o t a t i o n , g i v e n t h e r e a d e r a more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e getting  at.  Kawabata i s  the  saying that i t ' s  he w o u l d h a v e  o f w h a t K a w a b a t a was i n places of  "dirtiness,"  i n o t h e r words i n l o c a t i o n s s u c h as the A y a k u s a p l a y h o u s e s , t h a t he i s a t t r a c t e d muddy p o n d , i t the heart  to beauty.  in  i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f b e a u t y i n t h e mud w h i c h  the  stirs  of Kawabata.  That i s not artist,  Like Motoori Norinaga's lotus  to imply t h a t Kawabata, p a r t i c u l a r l y  had no i n t e r e s t  i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e mud.  as a  To r e s t a t e  literary the  44  formula as i t c e r t a i n l y applies to Kawabata, i t i s because the flower blooms i n the mud that the a r t i s t has been drawn to i t . The two go hand i n hand. the  To f i n d beauty i n such a place makes  beauty a l l the more poignant and precious.  In addition, a  degree of dramatic tension can be derived from the consideration that a slender strand of beauty i s i n danger of being engulfed by a greater sea of mud surrounding i t . The object of beauty i n "ShSkonsai" i s the central character in the story named Omitsu.  Omitsu i s a seventeen-year-old g i r l  who works as a horseback r i d e r for a circus show which puts on performances on occasions such as the Memorial Day F e s t i v a l at Yasukuni Shrine.  That her job as a horseback r i d e r for the troupe  draws attention to her beauty while i t paradoxically threatens to degrade that beauty i s the g i s t of the thematic design b u i l t into the sketch. The author develops this theme more c l e a r l y by introducing into the story two other horseback r i d e r s : the star of the show, Sakurako, who represents a kind of i d e a l i z e d version of Omitsu and Otome who represents the probable image of a degraded future Omitsu. The name Kawabata chooses f o r the star of the show, Sakurako, f a l l s i n l i n e with the names of l a t e r ephemeral or v i r g i n a l female characters i n the author's f i c t i o n .  Like characters such  as the ghost Hanako ("flower child") i n " I r e i k a " "Memorial Poem," 1932) and Yoko ("leaf child") i n Yuki guni, Sakurako flora.  ("cherry blossom child") i s associated with images of F l o r a can be thought of as being one stage further removed  from humans than fauna i s and, for Kawabata, the less human the  45  symbol, the more p r i s t i n e the association becomes.  Although the  name "sakura" carries a f e e l i n g of the ostentatious i n the story, i t should be pointed out that the cherry tree i n Shinto i s a symbol of purity. The reading for Otome includes the meanings of "stop" "cease."  and  It would seem an appropriate name for someone whose  beauty has been i r r e t r i e v a b l y lost through her l i f e as a horseback rider.  Suffering from the consequences of having been the leader  of the troupe's "plaything" and having spent long hours astride horses, she has been s p i r i t u a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y d e b i l i t a t e d by her experiences. Kawabata's s e l e c t i o n of Omitsu as the name for the main character of "Shdkonsai" makes for a s l i g h t l y more complex symbolic interpretation.  Possible meanings for Omitsu include " l i g h t " , "a  ray," and "a beam."  As was mentioned e a r l i e r i n this  chapter,  l i g h t connotes singular moments of aesthetic appreciation i n Kawabata's a r t i s t i c lexicon.  More often than not, examples of  l i g h t i n the author's works are of b r i e f duration.  Borrowing a  Seidensticker phrase which he used to describe the haiku manner of Kawabata's style and applying a more l i t e r a l meaning to i t , momentary beams of l i g h t i n Kawabata's f i c t i o n often seem l i k e " b r i e f flashes i n a v o i d . "  1 1  Omitsu, the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of l i g h t , could further be seen as l i v i n g example of the meaning given to musubi. synthesizing power of musubi, Omitsu represents  Similar to the  the waxing and  waning of the forces of "cosmic" beauty found i n the sketch.  She  i s the f l a s h of l i g h t synthesizing the f r i g i d but consummate beauty of Sakurako with the "warmed over" and degraded beauty of Otome.  46  "Shokonsai" can be divided into s i x sections.  I t i s i n the  long dialogue between Otome and Omitsu near the end of the t h i r d section that Kawabata makes most e x p l i c i t the s i g n i f i c a n t thematic role time plays i n the story.  Having not seen each other f o r some  time, Otome repeats i n amazement the fact that Omitsu has grown up. In a worried tone of voice, Otome three times asks Omitsu how old she i s now.  When Omitsu r e p l i e s that she i s seventeen, Otome pro-  ceeds to caution her to not be deceived by Isaku, the male leader of the troupe.  Otome t e l l s her i t ' s time Omitsu quit the circus.  In a l i n e r i c h i n l i t e r a l and f i g u r a t i v e meaning, Otome says, "Humans get to smell l i k e horses too!" (p.48) not to become the plaything of men.  She warns Omitsu  Otome, who had e a r l i e r been  described as looking l i k e a "corpse d o l l , " (p.48) says, " I f you become the plaything of men, you wind up as good as dead." (p.49) The meaning of time here i s obvious.  As a g i r l of seventeen,  Omitsu has now reached the age where her v i r g i n a l beauty i s threatened.  I f she continues as a circus horseback r i d e r , she too  w i l l have the smell of a horse.  Kawabata's use i n "ShSkonsai" of  the horse as metaphor for the f a l l e n woman i s echoed i n h i s masterpiece Yuki guni.  The symbolic name he gives the main character i s  Komako ("horse c h i l d " ) . Omitsu i s d e l i c a t e l y balancing somewhere between the dream existence of a Sakurako and the too r e a l existence of an Otome. In the very beginning of the sketch, she i s described as lost i n a dream as she performs f o r spectators; however, the consequences of being made to give more performances than she i s humanly capable of have the i r o n i c e f f e c t of repeatedly c a l l i n g her back to the world of r e a l i t y .  The loss of physical and s p i r i t u a l strength  ultimately takes i t s t o l l .  47  The short f i f t h section of "Shokonsai" exposes Omitsu's growing despair as she r e a l i z e s the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of her connecting her dreams with r e a l i t y : As the r e a l i t y of the days sadly brought Omitsu more and more to the point of despondency, her dreams became a l l the more b e a u t i f u l . But she no longer believed i n a bridge between her dreams and r e a l i t y . Instead, whenever the desire had been f e l t , she had mounted a f l y i n g horse and soared to dreams i n the sky. (p.52) She also recognizes there i s an unbridgeable gap between hers e l f and Sakurako.  "...Besides, i t ' s not only our faces.  Just as  Sakurako said, our personalities are different too." (p.52) The scene ends with Omitsu being awakened from her faraway thoughts.  I t ' s time for the f i n a l e of the show.  Kawabata gives a v i v i d description of the f i n a l act on the program as he leads up to a dramatic ending of the sketch.  The  language i s a l i v e with l i t e r a r y devices such as the onomatopeic rendering of Isaku whistling to set the horses c i r c l i n g about the ring.  Metaphors are e f f e c t i v e l y used.  When the children take  t h e i r places i n the center of the ring, they "scattered l i k e mice." (p.53)  Omitsu's horse trots around the r i n g " l i k e a hawk f l y i n g  o f f with a small b i r d i n i t s clutches."  (p.54)  The color of the scene i s red, the color of f i r e .  Indeed, i t  i s f i r e which becomes the focus of the scene; and where there i s f i r e , one should also expect to f i n d i n Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e beauty and a glimpse of the divine. Two men bring out a long red cloth and stretch i t tight across the ring.  The g i r l s are to execute jumps from the backs of t h e i r  horses over the red cloth.  It becomes apparent that the distance  separating Omitsu and Sakurako has never been greater.  Omitsu i s  unsteady i n her performance while Sakurako i s as superb as ever.  48  When wire  and  horse,  begins  she  goddess  It  brings  on  eyes  are  i s at  Omitsu  Sakurako's conclude  of  i t from  divinity.  frame  of  moment  the  of c  the  "She  the  Oval-shaped back  was  burning  pictured  oval."  eventual  artistic  collapse  during her  horse,  reader.  with  Omitsu  i t s back.  The  g r a z i n g the  circling like  a  (p.54)  that  Having  the  of  sight.  e x c e p t i o n a l beauty  o f f "Shokonsai"  twist  of her  ending.  onto  the  through  d a z z l e d by  to  a burning  clima'tic  and  horse  hold of  a  finishes  the  skip  this  story  Omitsu's  both  to  i s a visage  his  author  takes  set w i t h i n the  Omitsu's  for  Sakurako  a  horse  second  prepared  symbolic  falls  from  a  author  the  the  symbolic  standing charges  The  reader  performance,  twist,  r e a r s and  animal.  the  to  position by  following  lines  sketch:  Oh! I ' v e c a u g h t u p t o S a k u r a . I've p a s s e d Sakura. I t was a t t h e p r e c i s e moment w h e n O m i t s u ' s t h o u g h t s w e r e g i v e n o n l y t o h a v i n g c a u g h t up t o . S a k u r a k o t h a t t h e two horses grazed each other; then they both staggered s l i g h t l y a n d t h e s t a r o f t h e c i r c u s show, S a k u r a k o , h e r h a l o o f f l a m e s a n d a l l , f e l l t o t h e g r o u n d , (p.55) In aim.  a p a r a d o x i c a l way,  She  beauty  has  to  "overtaken"  come " f a l l i n g  s k e t c h w h e r e we up  into  the  direction  horse  and  ever,  with  the  has  ring  has  the  to  takes  to  the  dreams of by  transposed on  causing  From  noise  the  opening  festival  o f movement  has  been  been  i n the work  up:  "she  sky."  had  a vigorous  the  artistic  line went  upwards. mounted  a  her  of  the  straight Omitsu's flying  In  the  final  increasing,  the  upward motion  The  fire-world  downward m o t i o n . to  achieved  Sakurako's  the  the a  symbolically  of  likewise  tempo  by  earth."  sense  i s matched been  Sakurako  that  the  soared  sketch  heaven  read  sky,  dream  the  O m i t s u has  circus  vertical  ring,  motion.  and  the  Circling  scene  how-  of  action the  of  inside  ring  on  49  their It  horses,  i s at the precise  her  most  and  physical  state.  further  The  amount  no more  o f Kawabata  Omitsu:  time),  a n d Otome  Sakurako  later  literature  typal  women.  woman  whose  losing it  i s either  means  (Omitsu  elapses  The  Sakurako's  Omitsu has  as v i c t i m  time  examples  the author  t h e woman  o r madness.  indicates  the process  I t i s when  artistic  frames  o f a woman (actor i n  o f these  Kawabata's  three  arche-  i s to represent  time,"  as someone  of her virginal  charms.  I t i s , o f course, the beauty  o n h e r way t o  o f Kawabata's works.  i n the novel, o r through  o f loss  t h e mean-  Throughout  "beyond  a t t h e peak  a s Otome  The  follows  the use o f flashbacks,  c h a r a c t e r such  though,  time"), Omitsu  o f time).  numerous  just  i n "Sh5konsai" c a n  level  three  "beyond  i s t h e c e n t e r o f most  through  "woman  h e r dreams  i s down.  of  Surely  t h e woman o f v i r g i n a l  secondary  this  i n "Sh5konsai"  significance.  has captured  death  i n time  of  on e t e r n a l  frozen  character  characters.  earlier  of her "earthly"  On t h e s y m b o l i c  beauty,  i n time,  i t , who  who h a d o n l y  t h e gap between  to earth.  which  The u s u a l p a t t e r n  that  caught  time  one f i n d s  has been  Frequently woman  (Omitsu  of eternal  time  Sakurako i s  yet herself.  one h o u r .  called  Omitsu,  direction  has f a l l e n  o f the sketch takes  camera work  that  when  i n t h e s k e t c h a r e t h e words  of actual  than  the long r e d cloth.  i n the performance  by the r e a l i t y  The f i n a l  The "goddess"  "fallen"  the  u p a n d down o v e r  of bridging  i svictimized  r e s o u n d i n g words  fall.  ing  moment  the impossibility  reality,  last  jump  "unearthly" beautiful  realized  be  the girls  t h e development comparison  i n "Shokonsai"  of virginal  beauty  that  with  a  main  abstract  one might,  ofthe  Kawabata  i nhis  one r e c o g n i z e s t h e o b v i o u s  i n one, two, o r t h r e e " t h a t  Usually  nature  as Kawabata  50  suggests,  see a "spook" at the heart of even his most r e a l i s t i c  female characters. Kawabata's short story "Abura" ("Oil") was published i n the July, 1921,  issue of Shinshicho.  It belongs to a l i s t of works  which can be c l a s s i f i e d as autobiographical r e c o l l e c t i o n s of the author's early years.  The d i s t i n c t i o n between autobiographical  works such as "Abura" and "Jurokusai no n i k k i " i s obvious.  The  diary style of the " n i k k i " captured the daily "objective" r e a l i t y of the days of the fourteen-year-old Kawabata, whereas "Abura" and other autobiographical pieces were creative products from r e c o l l e c t i o n s of e a r l i e r years. unity of theme symbolized  developed  In "Abura" i s to be found a  by the emblematic object which gives the  work i t s t i t l e . The theme i s death.  How  young Kawabata was  affected by the  loss of his father and mother, and l a t e r his grandmother and  sister  is the thematic concern of the work. The f i r s t  lines of "Abura" d i r e c t l y introduce the reader to  the unfortunate  infant years of the writer: "Because my father  died when I was  two and my mother died the following year, I don't  remember a thing about my parents."  (p.59)  For the student of  Kawabata, these lines are almost l i k e makura kotoba (conventional epithets) introducing the author.  This information i s continually  included i n discussion on the author by researchers and the author himself.  In fact, a good deal of the factual information i n "Abura"  together with a s e l f - a n a l y s i s of the possible effects of the deaths i n h i s family on the author's personality turns up i n a short piece Kawabata wrote soon after his acceptance of the Nobel prize for  l i t e r a t u r e i n 1968.  The autobiographical essay's t i t l e i s  51  "Omoidasu to mo naku" and was published i n an A p r i l , 1969 edition of Mainichi Shimbun.  By comparing not only the contents of the  two works but also t h e i r d i c t i o n and syntax, one i s struck by the amazing s i m i l a r i t y between these two pieces written almost f i f t y years apart.  I t might be said that "Abura" f a i l s as a short  story because of those passages which are reminiscent of the l a t e r autobiographical essay.  E s p e c i a l l y unwelcome i n the short story  are the passages much given to an emotional analysis of the s e l f . The  catchword the author comes up with for the effect of the early  deaths of himself i s "minashigo konjS" ("orphan complex").  The  term f i r s t appears i n a short paragraph following a long f i r s t person musing on the c h i l d i s h tears of sadness and feelings of loneliness the writer had f e l t .  Let me quote that paragraph which  marks a change i n the s e l f ' s attitude i n the story as he resolves to accept h i s fate: As with the sudden, complete disappearance of t h i r t y or forty pictures of my father, i t ' s best not to distress myself over my dead r e l a t i v e s . It's best to avoid s e l f examination of the orphan complex within me. (p.64) Unfortunately i n "Abura" the author never does stray very far  from a cerebral investigation into how and why he has emotion-  a l l y suffered from the deaths i n his family. with the e f f e c t of sensuous experience  It i s when he works  on his memory versus memory  per se, without the intrusion of psychological analysis, that the short story comes a l i v e .  In the opening paragraph of the story,  the " I " mentions that since he r e c a l l s nothing when he looks at photographs of h i s father, he has no r e a l sense of the man i n the photographs being h i s own father. impressions  For the " I " of "Abura" sensuous  are the key to the l a s t i n g effect of early  experiences  52  The one  " I " goes on t o r e l a t e  o f h i s a u n t s h a s on h i m .  the r e f l e c t i v e  effect  A l t h o u g h he c a n ' t remember a t a l l  t h e h a p p i n e s s he was s a i d t o h a v e f e l t  by t h e l i v e l y  took p l a c e a t t h e time o f h i s f a t h e r ' s  funeral,  o f the e f f e c t recall  funeral,  striking  o f the b e l l  that  bearable  the aunt's  The s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s t h e a u n t  t o Buddhtet r i t e s  father's  sound  activity  which  story  o f s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e s on h i m a s an i n f a n t makes h i m  early years.  are r e l a t e d  a reunion with  t h e aunt  f o r t h e dead.  tells  talks  about  A t the time o f h i s  h i m t h a t he h a t e d t h e sound  o f the  b e f o r e t h e Buddha a n d was so u p s e t b y t h e  they had t o cease  striking  commotion o v e r t h e l i g h t e d  He n o t o n l y s u c c e e d e d  it.  Also,  he c a u s e d  t a p e r on t h e B u d d h i s t  i n having the l i g h t  an u n altar.  e x t i n g u i s h e d b u t he a l s o  made s u r e t h e c a n d l e was removed a n d t h e o i l i n t h e e a r t h e n w a r e b o w l was e m p t i e d holding  the garden.  the earthenware  (Kegashite  iru>5t?  He p o n d e r s sound  into  D  3  b o w l my i n f a n t  mouth w h i c h  ill  and t h e s i g h t  effect  tear-stained  o f the o i l l i g h t .  on h i m .  rape  t o vomit.  oil  remains  When he p u t s  my d i s l i k e  f o r the o i l l i g h t  f r o m my h a v i n g b e e n s a t u r a t e d  r e j e c t s the  Among  several  something  in his  to the smell o f  The " I " s u g g e s t s a p o s s i b l e  psychological reference to this physiological "Perhaps  (p. 60)  i t i s s u r e t o cause  He r e m a r k s t h a t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y  with him t o the present.  dirtied  s e e d o i l seems t o h a v e a  has t h e s m e l l o f rape seed o i l ,  him  face  that h i s constitution  t y p e s o f f o o d p r o d u c t s he d i s l i k e s , particularly  t h e image o f m y s e l f  ) b y t h e o i l on my h a n d s . "  over the thought  o f the b e l l  "I recalled  sensitivity  at the Buddhist  (shimikonde  t h e s m e l l o f o i l a t my p a r e n t s ' d e a t h s . "  ita  ofhis:  altar  comes  3f ^ A ^ c V £ ) w i t h  (p.62)  U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e u s e o f o i l as an e m b l e m a t i c  object  53  has been made clear. of ways. his  O i l symbolizes death i n the most concrete  The boy has been s p i r i t u a l l y polluted by the death of  parents.  This s p i r i t u a l p o l l u t i o n i s given a physiological  dimension with the thought that the o i l has permeated the body of the young man. A long passage follows i n which he psychoanalyzes his actions through the years which have prevented him from attaining happiness. He r e a l i z e s that he has only been playing with feelings of loneliness and sadness.  Excessive feelings of s e l f - p i t y f o r his s i t u -  ation as an orphan are recognized as symptoms of "orphan complex." The self-examination results i n a cathartic surrender of h i s "orphan complex" to reveal a "beautiful s p i r i t " found within.  Now  twenty years of age, he can say, "A tremendous sense of happiness could be achieved by the simple act of having been washed of my orphan complex."  (emphasis added) (p.64)  He decides to test his new sense of s e l f by trying to eat some food smelling of rape seed o i l . plete.  The catharsis i s apparently com-  He no longer feels nauseated by the smell and i s able to  eat  the food without any trouble.  The " I " once more r e f l e c t s on  the  connection o i l has had with death: A heart saddened by the deaths of a father and mother had suddenly lodged i t s e l f i n the l i g h t of a Buddhist a l t a r , and i t seemed that a d i s l i k e for o i l came from a time when o i l had been thrown into a garden. Having forgotten this causal relationship, I had come to detest o i l ; and i t could be said that through the chance r e t e l l i n g of the story of my father and mother a cause and effect relationship had been t i e d together, (pp.64-65) The catharsis has been spelled out i n a f a m i l i a r Shinto manner.  To achieve happiness, the " I " of "Abura" has had to wash himself clean of the p o l l u t i o n ( K e g a r e  H)  caused by the death of his  54  parents.  Whether  one points to h i s d i r t y i n g himself with the o i l  from the overturned earthenware bowl or h i s being saturated with the smell of o i l , the young man's p o l l u t i o n i s i n either case seen in physical terms.  At the moment he purges himself of his p o l l u -  tion (the "orphan complex" r e s u l t i n g from the death of his parents), the act i s described as the "washing" away of the complex. In contrasting words which could have come straight out of Shinto terminology, the young man hopes that a pure heart (joshin >^  /(^  ) w i l l be his fortune and not the crooked  ( i b i t s u O "T/~> )  (p.65) heart he has just been purged of. The graphic symbolism i n the f i n a l sentence of the story also f i t s i n p e r f e c t l y with a Shinto order of things.  The darkness of  the young man's l i f e had been symbolized since h i s infant years by his insistence on extinguishing the l i g h t at the Buddhist  altar.  Now with a p u r i f i e d heart, he shares a Shinto reverence for brightness c l e a r l y expressed i n the f i n a l words of the work: "Before the tablet of my deceased r e l a t i v e s , I'd l i k e to o f f e r a radiantly glowing one hundred tapers of o i l . "  (p.65)  Kawabata's " I " has achieved  s p i r i t u a l rejuvenation p r e c i s e l y along Shinto l i n e s : aspects of brightness and purity have i d e n t i f i e d h i s personal cleansing. For about a year and a h a l f after the publication of "Abura" in July, 1921,  Kawabata produced almost nothing of his own  fiction.  His writings for publication consisted mainly of l i t e r a r y reviews. It was  during this time, i n June of 1922,  that he transferred from  the English Department of Tokyo Imperial University to the school's Japanese Literature Department. Almost l i k e a swan song to h i s time spent as an English L i t e r a t u r e student at the university, Kawabata translated three  55  s h o r t p i e c e s from E n g l i s h to Japanese i n the January 1922  i s s u e s o f Bunsho k u r a b u .  Galsworthy's of  Death."  "The The  Road" and  one  The  the  two  f o r January  and  February,  were J o h n  I r i s h w r i t e r L o r d Dunsany's  f o r February  was  "Oasis  A n t o n Chekhov's " A f t e r  the  Theatre." There  can be  little  were Kawabata's own. similarities Galsworthy  doubt t h a t t h e  Commentary on  w i t h Kawabata's own  describes a road  choices f o r  the  translation  three pieces  writings.  t r a v e l e d by  I n "The  suggests Road,"  a long l i n e  of  soldiers  returning  f r o m war.  J u s t as Kawabata m i g h t h a v e done w i t h  material,  Galsworthy  p a r a l l e l s nature  with  the  gradual r e v i v a l  Dunsany's " O a s i s death  this  o f t h e men  o f D e a t h " i s one  this  of  Kawabata's f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h  tale  dilections  as w e l l .  The  alone  is trying  ship  t h r e e o f them s h a r e .  richly  romantic  reduced  brother. rather  She  and  begins  Nadya's t h o u g h t s facing  n e s s t o t h o s e who  one  Lord  on  selection  more  indication  s u b j e c t o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l . reflects  Kawabata's own  corresponds  pre-  t o muse o v e r  typical  girl  t o one  the  o f the  complicated  two relation-  E v e n t h o u g h Nadya i s e x c i t e d by  thought lead  She  she  finds herself  o f l e a v i n g h e r mother  to the  a f u t u r e which w i l l love her.  to the  I n Chekhov's s h o r t p i e c e , Nadya,  touching s i t u a t i o n  to t e a r s at the  than  t o dawn  state.  Kawabata's  to w r i t e a l e t t e r  love her.  the  spectral  same  h e r o i n e o f t h e p i e c e i s Nadya Z e l e n i n ,  b o y s who  is  the  i n Kawabata's e a r l y w o r k s . i n white,  darkness  o f many s u p e r n a t u r a l t a l e s  the T h e a t r e "  o f s i x t e e n whose age  dressed  their  f o r t r a n s l a t i o n w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  Chekhov's " A f t e r  found  from  I r i s h master of fantasy produced.  of  a girl  t u r n i n g from  the  idea of leaving  i n , she and  this  necessarily bring  would appear t o f i n d h e r  the  world  unhappicounter-  56  parts i n two legendary maidens found i n the poetry of the Many5shu. The maiden Tekona of Mama i n Katsushika and the maiden Unai were both courted by more than one man.  Lamenting the r i v a l r y over their  respective selves, both of the maidens took their own l i v e s . Akahito's poem i n the Manyoshu about Tekona t e l l s of the maiden drowning h e r s e l f at the mouth of a r i v e r .  Kawabata expressed a  fondness for these two legendary maidens i n a public lecture he delivered at the Hilo Campus of the University of Hawaii on May 16, 1969. A month following the appearance of h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of "After the  Theatre," Kawabata exhibited h i s own f i c t i o n a l interest i n g i r l s  in t h e i r mid-teens with a short story c a l l e d "Issetsu" — j5>p  ("A  Passage") published i n the March, 1922, issue of Shinshicho.  In  the  story, the fifteen-year-old g i r l Fusayo i s the focus of atten-  tion of two young men friends, Muroki and Ihara.  She i s representa-  t i v e of the type of g i r l who continually turns up i n Kawabata's early l i t e r a t u r e .  For example, Ihara speaks of Fusayo i n words  which might have applied to Omitsu i n "Shokonsai" and which might have been spoken by the student i n Kawabata's l a t e r "Izu no odoriko" in reaction to the dancer: "The question which couldn't be c l e a r l y answered was how much of the adult and how much of the c h i l d were 12 to be found i n two sides of the g i r l , her heart and her body." Another instance of recognition with other young g i r l s i n Kawabata's early works i s a sense of loneliness about Fusayo which i n her case was caused by the loss of her mother.  The author again shows a  consistency of death-related images i n h i s early f i c t i o n by having Fusayo's mother die by drowning. Kawabata's fondness f o r having h i s f i c t i o n a l characters pass  57  from t h i s e a r t h by drowning makes i t again p o s s i b l e to a s s o c i a t e him w i t h the ManySshu. was of  An example j u s t g i v e n from the Manyoshu  the poem about Tekona o f Mama who a river.  drowned h e r s e l f at the mouth  Muramatsu T a k e s h i l i n k s the Manyoshu poet Kakinomoto  Hitomaro's use o f water images w i t h Western l i t e r a r y use o f the image o f O p h e l i a .  A drowned g i r l  f l o a t i n g on the water i s an  image found i n one o f the many poems r e l a t i n g to water and death w r i t t e n by Hitomaro.  Muramatsu goes on to d i s c u s s how  the a n c i e n t s  and poets such as Hitomaro r e c o g n i z e d water and jewels as symbols of  rebirth.  The drowned g i r l  f l o a t i n g along i n water c o u l d be 13  v i s u a l i z e d as f l o w i n g towards r e b i r t h .  Kawabata's symbolic use  of water m i r r o r s t h i s e a r l i e r m o t i f . --  T!he s t o r y o f the mother near the end o f " I s s e t s u "  reminds one o f another l a t e r Kawabata n o v e l , Sembazuru. Sembazuru,  As i n  the author pays s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n to the e f f e c t or l a c k  of  e f f e c t h e r e d i t y p l a y s i n a mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p .  to  the key r o l e the f i r s t  Similar  g e n e r a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r s i n Sembazuru  p l a y s f o r the second g e n e r a t i o n , Ihara o f " I s s e t s u " openly suggests that h i s f a t h e r and Fusayo's mother had an e a r l i e r One of  f i n a l common f e a t u r e worth mentioning i s the use Kawabata makes s e n s a t i o n s and images r e l a t i n g to the passage o f p r i s t i n e  f i g u r e s from t h i s world. at  relationship.  S i m i l a r to K i k u j i ' s f e e l i n g o f coldness  h i s l o s s o f Fumiko and Mrs. Ota, Fusayo i s overcome w i t h a  sense o f coldness a t the thought o f h e r l o s t mother.  The r e s p e c -  t i v e works' succeeding images to f e e l i n g s o f coldness are s i m i l a r as  well.  In " I s s e t s u , " the author a b r u p t l y l i n k s Fusayo's sense  of  coldness w i t h Muroki's words t o the e f f e c t t h a t i n the autumn  of  Fusayo's f o u r t e e n t h year a nova ( s h i n s e i  ^/f _^  ) was  "cleanly"  58  ,i , 14 ( k i y o r a k a n i ;f| £ 6i(/2) b o r n . as^oci^tes Kikuji^S. feeling Fumiko w i t h case,  he  a$ w of  up  en f  t o the  ).  sky  however,  coldness  at the  t o see  the  contribute  a few  be  called  short pieces  first  of  a short  a long  line  w h i c h he  stories.  his  "palm-sized"  e r r o n e o u s t o assume t h e  discredit in  the  i n the  the  "Kaiso  (ake  no  myoj5  story.  He  Girls  and  did,  "Otoko  I t would probably  main i n s p i r a t i o n  be  from  b e h i n d h i s own  i t w o u l d s u r e l y be  the  a C a r t , "1923),  t r a n s l a t i o n s of v i g n e t t e s  form, but  piece  of v i g n e t t e s ,  e n c o u r a g e m e n t t h e y must h a v e g i v e n  any no  r a t e , Kawabata's n e x t f^Cp^/L  meijin"  Later r e t i t l e d  " S o s h i k i no  "Undertaker"),  shun j u and as  In K i k u j i ' s  improper  decito  Kawabata t o  write  same f o r m .  At  or  three  l i t e r a t u r e were t h e  to write  of  of c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g i n  ("Boys and  sion  disappearance  morning s t a r  t o onna t o n i g u r u m a " W t ~¥ t ^ ^ called  also  Kawabata w o u l d p r o d u c e a n o t h e r  which might p r o p e r l y  meantime i n c l u d i n g t h e  Western  author  1 5  took a y e a r before  fiction  f  the  K i k u j i ' s s i g h t i n g o f a h e a v e n l y body.  looks  It  0  I n Sembazuru,  sections: section; The suggests,  This  autobiographical  a very  short  The  contiguous.  I t takes  summer v a c a t i o n  of  of three  up  of the  Bunqei  author's  fiction  a thirty  three  middle  section.  three  i n the  Expert"  issue of  opening s e c t i o n ; a long  young f i r s t  time p e r i o d  ("Funeral  1923  was  Funerals").  work i s d i v i d e d i n t o  concluding  nickname t h e  been g i v e n .  funerals  short  u n i f y i n g element i n the the  May,  same c a t e g o r y  "Issetsu"  i n Attending Q) Z?  i t appeared i n the  a relatively and  Expert  story after  m e i j i n " |^  belongs t o the  "Abura."  ("An  short  sections  person of the  first  day  i s , as  and  third  the  title  story  sections  p e r i o d of time d u r i n g  Jhis t w e n t y - s e c o n d y e a r . distant relatives within  Having attended this  has  short  is the the  space of  time,  59  a male  cousin jokingly  concluding  section  has  female  with  a  suggests  consists c o u s i n who  also  The  author  remarking  the  y o u n g man's  manner  reminiscent of  Kawabata here way  the  has  " I " of  The  opening  line my  of  the  "Abura."  "I  don't  and  father."  first  paragraph  found  i n "Abura."  of  a man  the  person  thoughts  He  had  in  front  the  with  of  an  the  relative  narrator  statue of  half  an  of  sensuous  the  the  lines  author's  "undertaker." of  the  opening  funerals i n the  father's  seem n e i t h e r  also, or  they  the  the  "Soshiki"  first  president  and  as  of  like  his  (chukan  a  g i v e him  portrait  no  juxtaposes  sense  day  he  found  came  on  f o r the  narrator's  insertion  The  Tokyo.  himself standing  of h i s  gazed  to  father's  at  "I  i t I  medical  felt  of  this  as i f  became  (p.72)  reason  of  these  paragraph.  curious feeling: I  section's  a stranger.  S h r i n e and  extremely  for  photographs  at photographs  f l a s h b a c k i n the next  from  alive,  his  looking  person;  recent  a variation  succeeding  a  "Abura,"  of  an  about  In  death.  consists as  as  grave.  with  man  cousin  embarrassingly "in-between"  to Yushima  I t produced  embarrassed."  a  this  the  short  young  represent i n a  thing  photographs  experience  guided  a  about  "Soshiki,"  either  with  experiences  The  his role  smell of o i l i n  i s but  lines  living  a more  s t a t u e were  The  a  about  smell of  "S5shiki"  The  an  d i a l o g u e the  story  grave  remember  the  first-person  been  school.  like  being  recalls  of  (p.71)  a  undertaker.  relationship  section  " I " with  feeling:  nor  The  "I"  In  leaves the )  the  close  m i r r o r the  the  the  o f h i s many e a r l i e r of  <\>  of  section  line  mother  father  story's  of  clothes  smell of  long middle  recollections The  the  use  i s an  teases him  concludes  the  the  he  basically  "undertaker." that  that  recent  60  flashback family  in  members  the  lasting  His  reaction  to  the  with as  midst  effect to  the  once  once  become  his  graphical interest  the  his  living;  the  The of  in  is  early  father.  these  living  "I"  of  the  deaths  indicating  separation  Yushima Shrine Images are  at  are.  For  the  and a p o r t r a i t  or  of  to  his  the  reader  from  the  living.  parallels  his  reaction  are  images  themselves  psychological portrait  piece, in  at  the  the  and the  natural  reality;  the  one  is  in  a  the  more  famous  part  of  Yuki  Shimamura's  on  the  contact  least "I"  as of  point  "real"  to  him  "Soshiki,"  the  statue  of  "I"  this  guni, eyes  the  living  has  a  For  fellow  In  reality,  who  chanced to  meet  Yama n o  oto,  mistakes  a  for  who p l a c e  stock  biographical  was  at  the  the  father  the  dream  and  in  "S  oshiki,"  man  in  the  The  regularly  author  end o f  to  than  Also,  on  main  character  and d a u g h t e r . would  be  his  first  describes  appear  they  into  the  train.  criticism,  was  interest  n o t h i n g more  the  it  particular  gratuitiously  are on  similarly  in  couple  of  which  reality.  whether is  early  "Chiyo",  and r e a l i t y  p a s s e n g e r s who  each other  end o f  to  and  fiction.  example,  they  in  lines  human r e l a t i o n s h i p s  almost  train  image  stranger  of  down t h e  image  autobio-  continuing  "Sh5konsai," i t  as  Kawabata  Kawabata  daughter.  the  later  works.  and  near  feelings or  shows a  is  of  in  another:  in  it  blurring  ambiguous n a t u r e  later  from  "Soshiki,"  relative  reflects  introduces  things  uncertain  the  breaking  supernatural;  overall  young man's  photographs  of  of  textually  temporarily  order  and here  Within  author  least  one  train  statue of  distinguish  when  recounting  blurred.  In  the  the  on h i m s e l f  living  between  of  seems o b v i o u s .  photographs  the  line  the  through father  strangers another Shingo For  those  certainly  61  appear al  t o have c a u s e  t o connect  t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e s e two  e p i s o d e s w i t h Kawabata's u n c e r t a i n  as d e p i c t e d  i n the autobiographical  One o t h e r s p e c i f i c  feelings  fiction-  a b o u t h i s own p a r e n t s  "Soshiki."  i n s t a n c e o f the f l u i d  interrelationship  between two n o r m a l l y d i s t i n c t  states  the  o f t h e death o f h i s grandmother  y o u n g man's r e c o l l e c t i o n s  when he was o f e l e m e n t a r y his  grandmother t h a t  found i n " S o s h i k i "  s c h o o l age.  the f o l l o w i n g  the  I had f e l t  Buddhist a l t a r . "  death has amazingly intermingle  remarkable  ing  next  i t was t h e f i r s t  added)  (p.72)  e l i c i t e d sensations of l i f e ;  of l i f e  some r e s e m b l a n c e  to that  toward  life  and d e a t h  As i n many l a t e r works b y  i n death i s e x t r a c t e d  death the " I " r e p o r t s  time i n  The r e s i d u e o f  from the deceased.  on i n h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l  o f h i s "undertaker" experiences i s h i s s i s t e r ' s .  bears of  (emphasis  sensation occurred:  like a living feeling  at the Buddhist a l t a r .  Kawabata, a s e n s e The  something  just  I t was w i t h t h e d e a t h o f  " C o n c e r n i n g t h e d e a t h o f my g r a n d m o t h e r , my h o u s e t h a t  appears i n  of h i s parents.  recount-  Her death  Because the deaths  h i s m o t h e r a n d f a t h e r o c c u r r e d when he was o n l y an i n f a n t ,  never  r e a l l y knew them.  separated he  f r o m h i m and b r o u g h t  h a d no r e a l  impact  L i k e w i s e , because  sense  he  h i s s i s t e r had been  up i n a d i f f e r e n t  relative's  o f h a v i n g had a s i s t e r a t a l l .  on t h e " I " a t t h e t i m e o f h i s s i s t e r ' s  house,  The g r e a t e s t  death took p l a c e  when he r e a d t h e news o f h e r d e a t h t o h i s n e a r l y b l i n d g r a n d f a t h e r . Once a g a i n t h e s e n s e s p l a y a c r i t i c a l hero. the I  Having  taken h o l d  news o f h i s s i s t e r ' s  think o f the f e e l i n g  the  l e t t e r , e v e n now my  role  f o r a Kawabata l i t e r a r y  o f h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s h a n d as he r e a d a l o u d death, here  i s what t h e " I " w r i t e s :  "When  I g o t f r o m my g r a n d f a t h e r ' s h a n d as I r e a d left  hand f e e l s  cold."  (p.73) Memory i s  62  reinforced An a  sensory  impression  parallel  Kawabata n o v e l .  plays  encounter only  a  interesting  later  guni  by  an  The  Komako.  the  final  "Soshiki"  The  hand  The  of  a  his grandfather's  is  now  of  this  the  sole  that  death  section,  he  of  suggests  member The  comes  "Soshiki"  Shimamura  that  that,  of he  taken  up  the  the has  fact  i n Yuki-  of his  first i t is  i s locked the  up.  " I " of  painful  meaning  that  the  young  In  the  last  to earn  the  title  family. come  and  in-fact,  by  particularly  from  member  admits  "Abura".  with  memory o f Komako  family  remaining  forefinger  of  i n S h i m a m u r a ' s memory  i s his grandfather's.  of  manner  drawn h e r e  narrator  itself  death  be  left  exceptional role  with  within  can  i n the  man line of  "undertaker." Before sections  the  with  " I " makes  their  recollections  of  unifying  the  suffering  a nose  nosebleed  incidents  The the  first  funeral  y o u n g man.  he  has  suffered  pain  with  feels  to  pick  in  the  up  the  ground  fact  the  caused  by  the  from  ashes, and  this  an  the  suddenly  two  cases  height come  to  i s the  next  the " I " the  of  time  in his  implications  t e a c h i n g him  life  to  of  the  death.  to pick  up  goes his  crematorium.  slight to  on  condolences  m o r n i n g when he  mountain  begins  activities  first  people  " I " discovers a h i s nose  into  of  offer  portentous  village  outdoor  three  p l a c e s on  of  h i s grandfather's  and  brings  author  i s a way  the  the  analysis.  the  suggests  occurs  relatives  ashes  that  nosebleed  nosebleed  seven  grandfather's  at  provides  author  funeral  emphasis  occurs  that  the  for careful  a nosebleed that  second  s i x or  calls  The  i n his heart The  element,  when many m o u r n e r s h a v e  the  He  The  nosebleed  day  admission  grandfather's  bleed.  to  him.  this  fire  bleed.  still  About burning  63  On both o c c a s i o n s , the " I " i n s t i n c t i v e l y runs away from the others.  The reason f o r such behaviour i s given as a sense o f  embarrassment coupled w i t h the f e a r o f appearing f r a i l the r e s t o f them.  i n front of  An a n a l y s i s o f the r e s p e c t i v e s e t t i n g s i s more  i n t r i g u i n g from a thematic p o i n t o f view than study o f i n d i v i d u a l pieces o f s e l f - a n a l y s i s are. Although he s u f f e r s the f i r s t second one i n the mountains, i n c i d e n t s have i n common. ground:  nosebleed at h i s home and the  there are a number o f f e a t u r e s the two  In both cases, the " I " runs t o h i g h e r  from h i s house he runs up a f l a g s t o n e path and l i e s  down  on top o f a l a r g e rock; from the crematorium he races to the top of  the mountain and l i e s  down on the g r a s s .  Furthermore, the  r e s p e c t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the surroundings found at the two l o c a t i o n s both evoke grand v i s i o n s o f n a t u r e : from the garden rock, d a z z l i n g rays o f the sun shine down from between the open spaces of  an o l d oak t r e e as he looks up to t h i n patches o f blue sky  above; on the summit, he looks down upon a pond at the bottom o f the mountain where the morning sun i s dancing on the s u r f a c e o f the water. It  shouldn't be d i f f i c u l t  to p l a c e these images w i t h i n the  thematic framework Kawabata has e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f i n e a r l i e r works.  In the midst o f death, the " I " has s u f f e r e d nosebleeds and  has i n s t i n c t i v e l y run to the h i g h e s t p l a c e s he c o u l d f i n d . mountain-top  The  and the rock i n h i s garden both f u n c t i o n as symbolic  p o i n t s o f epiphany.  As w i t h the use o f f i r e images i n Kawabata's  works, the tops o f p l a c e s such as mountains and towers i n h i s f i c t i o n appear t o be used as p o i n t s o f symbolic p r e s e n t a t i o n i n much the same way as they are used i n Western a p o c a l y p t i c  symbolism  64  and n a t i v e J a p a n e s e  beliefs.  symbolism  s u c h as a m o u n t a i n - t o p  a setting  Northrop Frye states  that  or a lighthouse  symbolic p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f the p o i n t  a p o c a l y p t i c w o r l d and  t h e c y c l i c a l w o r l d o f n a t u r e come  alignment." ^  Hori  1  beliefs tain the next  i s believed  t o be  t h e w o r l d o f t h e dead;  --  t h e dead;  t i m e s : "Thus,  " I " h a s made h i s way  symbolism: water  divine  o f death,  blood of l i f e  t o two  o f epiphany. fiery  we  meeting  the  human and  A  and  from e a r t h  places  ideally  few more t o u c h e s  r a y s o f t h e sun  A  f i n a l note  symbolism. red  The  and w h i t e .  filled red  p l a c e o f the l i v i n g  sister  two  with  and h i m s e l f  last  1  suited  to act  complete  the  With  below,  the r e d  dead,  found h i m s e l f i n  a p o i n t midway between  a p p e a r most o f t e n  recalled  scene  t o Kawabata's u s e  that  of  color  i n t h e work a r e  red, the c o l o r o f  of "Shokonsai."  As  fire,  i n "Shokonsai,"  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s a c r e d : the e a r t h h i s travel  grave  o v e r up  i s red clay.  the mountain  road to  Besides t h i s  connotation, red  the b l o o d o f the boy's and  death dichotomy  s i x times i n " S o s h i k i . "  death: white  and  c o l o r s which  s i d e o f the l i f e  appears  heaven." ^  and h i s b l a c k s t a i n e d o b i  "Soshiki" relates  I t s h o u l d be  as e x e m p l i f i e d by life  on  t o o c a n be  grandmother's  of  divine.  the c l i m a c t i c  here  to  f r o m above and w a t e r  are p r e s e n t i n the s e t t i n g s .  o o z i n g from h i s nose  the  t h e moun-  the meeting p l a c e  c o v e r e d w i t h t h e d a r k n e s s o f d e a t h , t h e " I " has the  see t h a t  mountain  o r a passageway from t h i s w o r l d t o the  from the profane t o the s a c r e d  as s y m b o l i c p o i n t s  into  I c h i r o g i v e s much t h e same m e a n i n g t o ancient  and  i s "the  the u n d i s p l a c e d  since  The  the  at which  i n Japan  living  i n poetic  tabi  and w h i t e  On  their  nosebleeds r e p r e s e n t s the f o u n d i n t h e work.  White  each o c c a s i o n i t i s a s s o c i a t e d  d r e s s worn a t f u n e r a l s ,  the white  65  fusuma leading to h i s grandmother's ashes i n the Buddhist a l t a r , and memories of h i s dead s i s t e r summed up by the " I " as "things of white." Kawabata's use of red and white symbolism reminds one of the Japanese proverb on the fleetingness of l i f e  (mujokan S£ ^  )  which reads l i k e a statement on the aesthetics of death: "A rosy 18 face i n the morning, white bones i n the evening." With "SSshiki," Kawabata has introduced the symbolic use of red  and white into h i s l i t e r a t u r e .  It w i l l be seen that these  two colors, with t h e i r symbolic meanings i n tact, become the predominant colors i n a l l of Kawabata's works. The August, 1923 issue of Shinshicho included Kawabata's ^ 0)  f i r s t of three d i f f e r e n t works t i t l e d "Nanpo no h i " in the South").  ("Fire  The publication signalled the beginning of a  series of short stories based on Kawabata's actual relationship with Ito Hatsuyo (nicknamed Chiyo).  In late 1920, h i s f r i e n d Miake Em*  introduced Kawabata to the g i r l who was working at a Tokyo coffee shop.  Kawabata f e l l i n love with Chiyo and on October 8, 1921, he  and Miake v i s i t e d her and her foster parents at t h e i r home i n Gifu Prefecture so that Kawabata could propose marriage.  She accepted,  but only a month l a t e r Kawabata received a l e t t e r from her breaking off  t h e i r engagement f o r some unexplained reason.  shattered by the experience.  Kawabata was  How s i g n i f i c a n t the whole thing was  for Kawabata can be measured by the many stories he produced beginning with "Nanpo no h i " which were based on h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Chiyo.  The series of works have been categorized as both "Chiyo  mono" ("Chiyo a f f a i r " ) and "Michiko mono"  ("Michiko  affair"),  Michiko being the f i c t i t i o u s name Kawabata most often used for Chiyo.  66 By the former Japanese way and she was  of counting ages, he was  sixteen when he proposed.  deeply Kawabata was  twenty-three  Another example of  affected by his proposal and her  eventual  r e j e c t i o n of marriage enters into the opening of Kin j* u ("Of  Birds and Beasts," 1933).  ^  The t a x i the " I " of the short story  i s r i d i n g i n happens to make i t s way It surely i s n ' t mere coincidence  how  into a funeral procession.  that the car following the taxi  in the procession has the number twenty-three pasted on the glass in front of the driver's face. "Nanpo no h i " was not the f i r s t of the Michiko mono" Kawabata Tt  had worked on though. in June, 1922  He had written an e a r l i e r unpublished piece  which covers the same autobiographical area that  "Nanpo no h i " does.  The t i t l e he gave the work was  "Shinsei" jpif Bj|  .  Written i n the third-person narrative, "Shinsei" i s based on the v i s i t Mimei and Kawabata made to Gifu to see Chiyo i n October,  1921.  One might consider the f i r s t "Nanpo no h i " to be a reworked version of "Shinsei." "Nanpo no h i " also covers the events which take place upon a r r i v a l i n Gifu of the two young men. written i n the third-person narrative. produced on the G i f u v i s i t was  Yet one other work Kawabata  a piece c a l l e d "Kagaribi"  ("Fishing Fire?) published i n the March, 1924; According  It too i s  to Hasegawa Izumi, "Kagaribi" was,  /\  issue of Shinshosetsu. i n fact, the new  title  19 Kawabata gave to his r e v i s i o n of "Shinsei."  The research that  went into Hasegawa's pronouncement of "Kagaribi" being the r e v i s i o n of "Shinsei" leaves one a l i t t l e u n s a t i s f i e d .  A perusal of "Shinsei,"  the f i r s t "Nanpo no h i , " and "Kagaribi" gives the impression  that  Kawabata's "Nanpo no h i " i s a polished version of "Shinsei" and that h i s "Kagaribi" i s i n turn an improvement on "Nanpo no h i . "  67  With the ing  of the  three  visit,  "Nanpo no  M i a k e , and  It5  Miake,  and  h i , " and  his  the  three  first  main c h a r a c t e r s  a r e m o d e l l e d on  came t o  feel  that  " S h i n s e i " n e v e r was "Nanp5 no  " S h i n s e i " and  only  h i " was  " K a g a r i b i " was  Unlike  the  "Nanpo no  in  Kawabata,  S u g u r u i s Kawabata,  not  s e l e c t i o n s f o r h i s c o l l e c t e d works.  c o l l e c t e d works.  view of  b a s i c a l l y a f a c t u a l recount-  "Kagaribi"  Michiko i s Chiyo.  Kawabata i n t h e  in  the  Hatsuyo: i n " K a g a r i b i , "  Kawabata's l i f e t i m e ;  obviously  s t o r i e s being  i t ' s clear that  "Shinsei",  is  short  Asakura  published  in  included  by  Kawabata  worthy of i n s e r t i o n  third-person  h i , " "Kagaribi"  narrative point i s written  in  of  the  f a m i l i a r e a r l y Kawabata f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e . The first  a u t h o r has  divided  section begins  i n the  with her  f o s t e r parents,  temple.  A f t e r S u g u r u and  time with the with the  Yanagase t o sists in  family,  priest, see  of the  sections.  t e m p l e g r o u n d s where M i c h i k o  the  father being  Asakura enter  which i n c l u d e s  M i c h i k o j o i n s the  The lives  a Buddhist p r i e s t  the  at  main t e m p l e and  the  spend  S u g u r u p l a y i n g a game o f  two  y o u n g men  a chrysanthemum d i s p l a y .  events which take p l a c e  work w r i t t e n  author presents first Past  in  i n t o two  The  f o r a walk  go  to  second s e c t i o n  con-  a f t e r t h e y a r r i v e a t an  inn  Yanagase. With the  the  "Kagaribi"  the  i n the  reader with a l y r i c a l  s e c t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y given and  present  stream of contrast.  are  intertwined  consciousness  t o the  voice  The  as w e l l .  to  second s e c t i o n i n the  i n w r i t i n g between t h e  contrast  The  i n t e r n a l musings of  I t mainly consists of dialogue  i t a thematic  the  throughout.  i n a manner w h i c h c a l l s  technique.  Such a t e c h n i c a l d i v i s i o n c a r r i e s with  first-person narrative,  In  Suguru. mind  stands  present. two  sections  a word, a word  68  which appears in J-  eight  the second,  AS  the f i r s t  ) o f Suguru.  scene  near  times  With  t h e end  o v e r more t o t h e  half  the prime  "reality"  S u g u r u s h o u l d n o t be  section  is built  of the second  Saying the f i r s t  eliminated.  i n the f i r s t  section,  is built  ( C o n t r a r i w i s e , the second Reality  the f a n t a s i e s  the second  half  times  (kus5 fire  i s given  situation. around  t a k e n t o mean t h a t  examples o f f a n t a s y . )  only three  exception of the f i s h i n g  of the  section  around  and  the f a n t a s i e s  reality section  has  been  does n o t  of  entirely exclude  s e r v e s as a c o u n t e r p o i n t t o S u g u r u ' s  fantasies. Just  after  coming f a c e t o f a c e w i t h M i c h i k o a f t e r  h e r f o r some t w e n t y  days,  Suguru immediately  p r e v i o u s e v e n i n g when A s a k u r a train  to Gifu.  As  Kawabata's l a t e r symbolic is  lost  t h e use  literature,  spent with Michiko.  t h e c a r i s o c c u p i e d by  S u g u r u , an  Kawabata f i c t i o n , S l e e p may and  be  the g i r l s  likened  too:  through c a r as he  a c t s as  time.  B e s i d e s Suguru  As  one  trip.  superimposed  frequently  finds i n  i n t h i s world of fantasy are asleep.  a s s o c i a t e s with death  i s white.  faces...when the  I c o u l d see the w h i t e  over  and  s t u d e n t s on a s c h o o l  students.  a  Suguru  fantasizes  The  girls  here  and  in  are colored i n  faces of the g i r l s  color  and  innocence  " . . . t h e c a r bloomed w h i t e w i t h the s c a t t e r e d  weary s l e e p i n g sleep,  of the t r a i n  t o a s t a t e o f s u s p e n s i o n between l i f e  t h e c o l o r one  Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e white  girl  the n i g h t  so o f t e n does i n  image o f h i s dream M i c h i k o becomes  over the v i s a g e s of the g i r l  death,  the i n t e r i o r  i n a w o r l d o f dreams i n t h e t r a i n  Asakura, For  ride  capsule of timelessness t r a v e l i n g  t h e c o m i n g d a y s t o be  f l a s h e s back t o the  and h i m s e l f were r i d i n g  of a t r a i n  not seeing  of a heightened  travel  drifted level  of  into  innocence s u r f a c i n g i n the of  the  b e a u t i f u l l y innocent  superimposes the The  car."  until  sleeping  It i s within  faces  of  the  this vision  girls  that  e v e n more b e a u t i f u l image o f h i s dream  r e a l M i c h i k o f o r the  fantasies  (p.80)  the  most p a r t  subject  r e t a i n s the  white  Michiko.  face  o f m a r r i a g e i s b r o u g h t up  Suguru  of  Suguru  i n the  second  section. Once t h i s  long  flashback  t o the  expresses astonishment at the  reality  recognizes  face.  him a  i n her  e v e n more i s h e r  literal  level  has  l o t u s i n the  found M i c h i k o h e l p i n g  consternation  at  Suguru r e c a l l s  described girl  Michiko, as  being  like  still  impact,  to  One by  the  be  association  opening scene of  "real"  f e e t had the  "Issetsu," nor  a woman."  his  fulfilling: (p.81)  i n with  an  sexual point  is  (p.81)  It i s  seems t o e s p e c i a l l y a p p e a l t o  Suguru  i n t o question  a child  the the  whole i d e a possibility  (kodomo nanda  "kodomo n a n d a " i n " K a g a r i b i " pointed  a l s o used i n r e f e r e n c e  In  mud."  a t one  story  Michiko,  been  wall  on  the  the  cover a temple w a l l .  S u g u r u s e e m s ' o b s e s s e d by  phrase  i t should  a girl  disturb  i s reminded again  face w i t h the  Fusayo of  and  suddenly  ambiguous n a t u r e o f h e r  bringing  i s , in fact,  Although the  The  Michiko's bare  "neither  simultaneously  marriage to her. she  mud  priest  i s the  side of Michiko that  while  He  about M i c h i k o which a l s o f i t s  Kawabata m o t i f  maturity.  fantasy.  f e e t t h a t were u s e d t o mix  Another feature earlier  the  coming f a c e  what t a s k  "These were t h e  with  feet."  a u t h o r makes w i t h M i c h i k o ' s f e e t . had  Suguru  Something which appears t o  "large bare  of the  i s completed,  a c t u a l appearance of Michiko  wonders what c o n n e c t i o n flaws  train  t o the  out  that  the  exact  i# lacks  the  of that )•  (p.81)  revelatory  same words  d a n c e r o f Kawabata's " I z u no  are odoriko.  70  In  the  ing  l a t t e r work, t h e words a r e u s e d  of r e v e l a t i o n s  to express  f o r t h e young s t u d e n t o f the s t o r y .  that a sexual relationship with a c h i l d question, of  the  joy.  In  " I z u no  Feeling  out of  ," t h e d e n i a l o f p h y s i c a l  love results  i n personal salvation  of eventual p h y s i c a l  c r e a t e s a n x i e t y i n the hero  until  Suguru don't the  odoriko  It i s realization  Michiko that Up  is totally  of  f o r the  communion  section,  S u g u r u , M i c h i k o has  whiteness.  He  felt  that  f r o m h e r body." the  the t o p i c  last  c o n t i n u e d t o be  "a g i r l  As  reality  without  long  as  pristine  a vision  the  and  of  slightest  (p.85)  passage of the f i r s t  of marriage  connection  she was  with  Michiko  t o u c h on t h e s u b j e c t o f m a t r i m o n y a t a l l .  To  sense  "Kagaribi."  the f i n a l passage i n the second  innocence.  In  the  love i n  s u b j e c t i s n o t d i s c u s s e d , M i c h i k o r e t a i n s an a u r a o f  smell  gratify-  s t u d e n t i s a t once f i l l e d w i t h a t r e m e n d o u s  favor of p l a t o n i c student.  t h e most  and  has  Suguru f i r s t  section, fully  Michiko hints  contemplates  at  the  with fantasy:  Wasn't I s e t t i n g t o d a n c e i n a f a n t a s y w o r l d t h e Michiko l i v i n g i n t h i s world with a d o l l Michiko t h r o u g h whom t h e same b l o o d w a s n ' t f l o w i n g ? Is t h i s what i s c a l l e d t h e a w a k e n i n g o f l o v e ? And d o e s n ' t t h e b e a u t i f u l name o f m a r r i a g e mean k i l l i n g a g i r l t o b r i n g l i f e t o my f a n t a s i e s ? , . . M y p r a y e r was offered i n h o p e s o f l e a r n i n g i f a s i n g l e - m i n d e d d e s i r e t o h a v e a s h i n i n g M i c h i k o f l y a b o u t i n a c l o u d l e s s and w e i g h t l e s s f r e e b l u e s k y were t i e d t o l o v e o r n o t o r m a r r i a g e o r n o t . (p. 87) The of  l i n e which c l o s e s the  "Kagaribi"  states that  f i n a l passage of the  to  the c r o s s i n g of the  Suguru's m e t a p h o r i c a l displacement  a world of r e a l i t y .  enter the thoughts  section  t h e y have c r o s s e d t h e b r i d g e t o t h e i n n .  From what f o l l o w s i n t h e s e c t i o n , suggests  first  Not  from a w o r l d  o n c e i n p a r t two  o f Suguru.  bridge  S i m i l a r t o the  will  a "doll  of fantasy Michiko"  f a t e o f Omitsu's  71  p e r s o n a l dreams o f s o a r i n g t h r o u g h Suguru's f a n t a s i e s end  as  of seeing Michiko f l y through  t h e i n n , Suguru asks M i c h i k o i f Asakura  subject  o f S u g u r u and  M i c h i k o s impending  w h i c h had  c o u l d be  to faintly  As was  seen  the case  second  section  talk  decidedly It that  The  virtually  L a t e r i n the color  serious business Ranging  from  i n matrimony t o the t a s k o f  i n order, the tone of the second  o f mundane t a l k  word c h o i c e Kawabata s e l e c t s  identical  t o the f i n a l  turned into quiet,  lines  of  matters  getting  section  about  becomes  c l e a r water  images a r e f u l l y  symbolize  the sense  with the maidenly  recognizable.  of p u r i f i c a t i o n  Michiko.  i n t o a deep s l e e p s i m i l a r  t o one  state  found i n "Izu  shore.  my  no  tranquil  y^X^ I t was  as i f  (p.93) Kawabata h a s  S u g u r u f e e l s by  Purification,  bliss-  to describe this  (sunda m i z u  completely i n t o sleep."  marriage  a momentary  t o be  l a p p i n g a g a i n s t some d i s t a n t  wanted t o f a l l  fall  (p.91)  stands i n  "Then w i t h e v e r y t h i n g p e r f e c t l y q u i e t ,  spreading out  to  i n red."  transformation coin-  forthcoming marriage.  i s only with cessation  state.  The  instant  Michiko's f a c i a l  The  the  mundane.  odoriko."  to  to red.  the  "Suddenly  colored  i n the q u i e t n e s s Suguru i s a b l e t o a t t a i n  heart  broached  (and p u r i t y ) .  turning to the rather  as f u t u r e h a p p i n e s s registers  has  red representing l i f e  been t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m w h i t e  family  t h e n she was  r e p r e s e n t i n g death  the meaning o f t h e i r  I  return;  Sugurw a g a i n r e m a r k s on how  cides with t h e i r  is  come t o an  d r a i n e d f r o m M i c h i k o ' s f a c e i n an  i n "S5shiki,"  contrast t o white  ful  the sky  marriage:  1  color of l i f e  such  horse,  well.  At  has  the sky atop a f l y i n g  i n turn,  used  water  contact  induces a  wish  experiencing nirvana.  72  The state  sense  of purification  of nothingness  quickly  f o l l o w e d by a d e s i r e  g i v e s way t o an o p p o s i n g  gloom which overcomes Suguru. engaged t o a p e r s o n  like  He f e e l s  himself.  t o darkness:  "Suddenly  I was l o o k i n g  a t two f i r e b a l l s . "  two  literally  fireballs  between f i e r y  light  c climactic scene Just about  the  deeply into (p.93)  kill  s e t here  i s soon  w i s h i n g t o marry s i n c e  of the  mirrored i nthe  excitedly  , an i n a u s p i c i o u s  s u p e r s t i t i o n has i t t h a t  fishermen's boats.  intense: next  at first  the f i r e s  the f i r e s  appear  of the f i s h i n g  fires."  one s t a g e , t h e f i s h i n g  t o t h e water."  (p.95)  only f a i n t l y  t o hurry closer  becomes  light  up  t o the "lights  "are standing i nthe  (p.95) fires  a t t h e bows o f t h e b o a t " s e t  From i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  other should s i g n i f y  aesthetic appreciation.  get closer,  and t h e m s e l v e s  t h e image o f t h e s e two g r e a t f o r c e s  i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h each  the f i s h i n g  As t h e b o a t s  h e a r t s ; " then M i c h i k o and Suguru  literature,  darkness,  dichotomy  h e r h u s b a n d , S u g u r u s h o u t s t h a t he s e e s  the darkness;  At  The  t o speak  j^j  s e n s u o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f i r e  middle  an e x t e n d e d  up t h e d a r k n e s s .  being  f o r an a l l u s i o n  The a p p e a r a n c e  i n the year of hinoe  o f t h e cormorant  of t h e i r  sense o f  f o rMichiko  The mood c a l l s  a t t h e p o i n t where M i c h i k o b e g i n s  increasingly  fire  lights  sorry  a  o f t h e work.  year f o r a g i r l  fires  falling  and darkness  h e r being born  she w i l l  to attain  So i t d o e s  of earlier of f i r e  a moment  Kawabata  and water  of unparalleled  here:  Then I h e l d t h e f i s h i n g f i r e s , b r i g h t l y . I was l o o k i n g a t t h e f l i c k e r i n g of t h e flames r e f l e c t e d i n Michiko's face. I t ' s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e ' l l e v e r be a t i m e i n M i c h i k o ' s l i f e when s h e ' l l l o o k a s b e a u t i f u l , (p.95)  73  With  t h e s e words, t h e s p e l l  l y broken.  The  train  fires line  station.  which  had  The future  Asakura  l i t up  in  is ill-fated.  s h i p w i t h C h i y o was  darkness  describes  effectiveacts  t h e two  t o the b r i g h t  along the r i v e r ,  like  o f f at  fishing  the  final  o f them p a s s i n g t h r o u g h  the  lights.  author i s c l e a r l y  makes g r i s t  is  s e e s M i c h i k o and S u g u r u  In symbolic c o n t r a s t  l i t up'the  of "Kagaribi"  town p o o r l y  fires  succeeding f i n a l paragraph of "Kagaribi"  a denouement i n t h e work. the  of the f i s h i n g  h i n t i n g t h a t M i c h i k o and  Whether t h e f a c t  t h a t Kawabata's  b e h i n d t h e ominous n o t e  f o r the m i l l  Suguru's  of the b i o g r a p h i c a l  relation-  i n the f i n a l critic.  line  REINCARNATION: "SORA NI "AOI  UMI  UGOKU HI"  KUROI;  TO  UMI"  CHAPTER I I I Kawabata g r a d u a t e d 1924,  from  t h e same month " K a g a r i b i " was  H i s b a c h e l o r ' s t h e s i s was 0  ^  Tokyo I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y  it  'J"  Japanese  %  1m  ("A  opening  "Nihon s h o s e t s u  S h o r t T r e a t i s e on  paragraph  a p p r o a c h e s t o how  the b i o g r a p h i c a l ,  possible  T. W i n c h e s t e r ' s  says  and  one  might study  the c r i t i c a l .  literature:  t h a t the meaning o f t h e  intrinsic  artistic  the Heian,  Kamakura, and  ?f  w o r t h by  the  beauty.  quickly  an  he  approach i s t o take strictly  his sole  on i t s of  the  Akutagawa artistic  criterion  i n d i v i d u a l work.  e t e r n a l beauty  investigation  a  of  the  continues h i s preface with a d i s c u s s i o n  one  He  must r e a c h  e t e r n a l beauty,  though.  He  says  for  says  that to  conclusions  o f t h e works b f e v e r y p e r i o d .  introduces a caveat  constitutes  approach.  yardstick.  B e a u t y w o u l d a p p a r e n t l y be  d e c i d e what c o n s t i t u t e s on  critical  The  critical  as T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r S and  j u d g i n g t h e a r t i s t i c m e r i t o f an  based  Criticism.  o f r e a s o n i n g w h i c h r e v e a l s Kawabata's v i s i o n  meaning o f l i t e r a t u r e , on  of L i t e r a r y  (1892-1927), m e a s u r e d f o r t h e i r  same c r i t i c a l  In a l i n e  three  Muromachi p e r i o d s , t o g e t h e r w i t h  J'l *lt ^_^T  later  Kawabata s a y s he w o u l d h a v e n o v e l s  o f modern w r i t e r s s u c h  Ryunosuke  historical,  i n t o these  evaluate i t i n the present  worth.  the  Kawabata a c k n o w l e d g e s  p r e f e r s t o choose f o r h i m s e l f i s the  t h e p a s t and  outlines  h i s r e a d i n g of the American s c h o l a r  Some P r i n c i p l e s  work f r o m  novels  shoron  of the p r e f a c e to the t h e s i s  a p p r o a c h e s came f r o m  a p p r o a c h he He  shi  the H i s t o r y of  i n the preface t h a t the i d e a of the d i v i s i o n s  C.  Shinshosetsu.  Novels").  The three  'J  titled  published i n  i n March,  The  author  t h a t d e c i d i n g on  i n o t h e r words d e t e r m i n i n g  a fixed  what set  75 of  i d e a s o f what t h e e s s e n c e o f a r t i s , one must k e e p  dictum of " t r a d i t i o n poet advocated i n  and n o v e l t y "  art  over, this  literary  nature."  to strike On  1  of  is filled  thetical  traditional The  twentieth  their  tombstone.  bloom the  spirit  w i t h examples  o f how  the development  he c h a s t i s e s  century  as a r e s u l t  of Japanese  feckless  Japanese  adoration  of Japanese  the Japanese  liter-  naturalists anti-  c h a r a c t e r and  o f modern J a p a n e s e i n h i s own  what he p r e a c h e d i n t h e b a c h e l o r ' s t h e s i s . t o be  the  the  literature.  able to r e a l i z e  by many f o r h i s a b i l i t y  of  and  f o r f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e how  c o n s e n s u s among c r i t i c s  literature i s  literature He  exactly  has been  praised  a t t h e same t i m e t r a d i t i o n a l  By modern, most c r i t i c s  mean t h e i n f l u e n c e  of  imported avant-garde European  to  e n t e r t h e c o u n t r y i n a b o u t 1920.  analyze i n t h i s  More-  outcome o f an  w r i t i n g s were t o J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l  t h a t Kawabata was  modern.  i n o t h e r words  s u c h as t h e n o v e l G e n j i m o n o g a t a r i and  t h e o t h e r hand,  the e a r l y  ) the  he e x p r e s s e s d i s p l e a s u r e ' t h a t  poetry of the Kokinshu hindered On  become a c o l d  Kawabata d e c r i e s  t h e one hand,  history  sfiL^T  ^  a p r o p e r b a l a n c e between " t r a d i t i o n "  Japanese c l a s s i c s  ature.  of "novelty,"  g o l d e n age o f a r t comes i n t o  transitional  "novelty."  ^  n a t u r e o f a r t , w o u l d mean t h e d e a t h o f  "A work o f a r t w o u l d  e a c h new  inability  of  t h e demise  of the t r a n s i t i o n a l  history:  rvuko  Basho's  haikai.  Kawabata s a y s t h a t demise  (fueki  i n mind  a r t and  on  Kawabata  l i t e r a t u r e which  Most  o f t h e works I  c h a p t e r were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e new  and  began will  movements.  The most e x p e r i m e n t a l o f t h e works I ' l l be t a k i n g up i s " A o i umi kuroi  umi" %  With t h i s  v.*  piece,  % ^  ("Blue Sea,  B l a c k Sea,"  i t m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t Kawabata comes  1925). perilously  76  close t o t i p p i n g the scales too f a r t o the side of Two  months a f t e r  Kawabata had a s h o r t ("Lights  graduating  o f Gakan.  The h i s t o r i c a l  earthquake  and  fire  o f more t h a n one  ual  published  o f September 1,  i n t h e May,  1923  192 4  which  claimed  X'J  issue Kanto  the  lives  thousand people.  Kawabata's p e r s o n a l  of t h i s  I- pj>  f o r the s t o r y i s the  h i s t o r y , some k i n d o f  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e human p r e d i c a m e n t  aftermath  University,  " S o r a n i ugoku h i " ^  background  hundred  Considering  from Tokyo I m p e r i a l  story t i t l e d  T h a t Move i n t h e Sky")  "novelty."  catastrophe  resulting  from  seems a l m o s t a t a s k w i l l e d  spiritthe  t o him  by  fate. Since  i n f a n c y Kawabata h a d  f a m i l y which  left  a month b e f o r e found himself of the Kanto "without early  him  an o r p h a n  his fifteenth  faced a s t r i n g o f deaths  i n t h e t r u e s t s e n s e o f t h e word  birthday.  As  " w i t h o u t home o r f a m i l y . " earthquake  a y o u n g man,  short  with  h i s "orphan  couldn't  s u c h as  rate realized  over h i s dead orphan The  relatives:  Kawabata a s p i r i t u a l in  that  i t was  " I t ' s best  "Soshiki  coming  to  and  terms  "Soshiki"  i n as an  orphan,  not t o d i s t r e s s himself  to avoid self-examination  of  (p.64)  o f the Kanto t r e a t i s e based  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s does  found h i m s e l f best  and  and  t h a t Kawabata went  I f t h e h e r o o f "Abura"  complex w i t h i n me."  consequences  "Abura"  anguish before  overcome t h e c o n d i t i o n he  he a t any  the  complex."  less  In a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l essays  stories  deal of personal  had  Many o f t h e s u r v i v o r s  no m e i j i n , " t h e message comes t h r o u g h c l e a r l y through a great  he  s u d d e n l y f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s more o r  home o r f a m i l y " as w e l l .  autobiographical  in his  provide  earthquake brought on a f a t a l i s t i c  t h e way  forth  outlook  f o r the orphan  from which  t o overcome  77  his  sorrow.  This s p i r i t u a l  three s e c t i o n s of "Sora." philosophic  concepts  t u r n s up  i n the  first  of  At the heart of the d i s c o u r s e are  with  s e t s down h i s s p i r i t u a l  treatise  long t r a d i t i o n s  the two  i n the E a s t : metempsychosis  code i n a framework o f d i a l e c t i c a l  argu-  ment. The  opening  "Shokonsai  ikkei."  noise of the "Sora," "The  line In  this  "Shokonsai,"  on t h e  clear  i n the  e x p e r i e n c e the j o y which  (p.99)  i s beside the p o i n t .  Kawabata i s b e i n g p e r h a p s the beginning of  "Sora"  of epiphany.  pointed  In  i n t o t h e autumn s k y .  describes a similar (p.99) an  As  scene:  The n a r r a t o r  interesting  obser-  of the time: i n Tokyo t o  "In  climb  o b t a i n e d a view they  losing  a sense  of s e l f ,  too clear  p o i n t of  at  the tops of high p l a c e s f u n c t i o n  as  I mentioned e a r l i e r , a c t as  in stating  view,  Northrop  Frye  has  "the symbolic p r e s e n t a t i o n  of the p o i n t a t which the u n d i s p l a c e d a p o c a l y p t i c world  and  cyclical  of  no m e i j i n " point  of nature  reached  i n h i s garden  specific  setting  come i n t o a l i g n m e n t . "  The  h i s symbolic p o i n t s of epiphany and  on t o p o f a m o u n t a i n .  f o r symbolic  there-  right  out t h a t h i g h l o c a t i o n s  world  would  Whether t h i s i s  From a l i t e r a r y  a little  that  living  they  comes f r o m  refreshing their hearts."  points  up  of people instant  of  the  i n "Sora" with  the h a b i t  line  the n a r r a t o r w r i t e s that  supposed h a b i t s o f Tokyo p e o p l e  d a y s i t was  t r u e or not  t o mind t h e o p e n i n g  t o the h e i g h t s . "  description  t o h i g h p l a c e s , and  by  calls  t h e n a r r a t o r more c o n c i s e l y  f o l l o w s up  those  "Sora"  f e s t i v a l went s t r a i g h t  autumn s k y was  vation  of  In  p o i n t s of epiphany  boy  the "Soshiki  at the highest "Sora,"  the  i n t h e work i s  78  the  roof  garden tower of  back of Asakusa Park. only the  two  buildings  earthquake.  twice i n the argument o f section, divine that the  The  i n the  The  story:  school  the  characters  tower i n the  cluding In  d e s t r o y e d by  first  section  long  up  down on  t o the  the  the  accompanying of  epiphany  dialectical  most o f  I t ' s not  looking  and  at  the  first  a e s t h e t i c moment o f  work.  "Sora" are  fires a point  n a t u r e w h i c h t a k e s up  l o c a t i o n f o r the  of  as  l o c a t i o n f o r the  nature which concludes the  school  a p o l i c e s t a t i o n were  garden tower a c t s  i t i s the  i t i s the  and  area not  roof  a fatalistic  and  a t h r e e - s t o r i e d elementary  a  surprising humanity  then  from  heavens i n the  con-  passage. the  opening scene of  K a n e h a r a has  a school  t e a c h e r named  t a k e n some c h i l d r e n t o draw p i c t u r e s a t t h e  tower.  K a n e h a r a has  looking  down on  time of  the  the  story  b e e n j o i n e d by reconstruction  i s l e s s t h a n two  K a n e h a r a ' s o l d f r i e n d i s one Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e . intellectual" treatise  "Sora,"  The  of  an  taking  f o r the  place  the  case of  a character  two  city.  found  the  the  are The  in  "anti-  h i s t a l e n t s to a  of  of  earthquake.  rarest characters  extraordinary  introduction  the  i n the  months a f t e r t h e  w r i t e r Kawabata t u r n i n g  calls  o l d f r i e n d and  top  spiritual  given  to  verbosity. As of  Masao M i y o s h i p o i n t s  Silence,  the  Japanese novel evocation  shows a  the  to his story  Accomplices  i n the  Suggestion  oto  as  an  typical and  Japanese novel r a t h e r  Kawabata's Yama no  "this silence fairly  narrator  preface  for silence."  scene of the  Miyoshi gives  example o f how  i n the  a t t i t u d e toward the  "passion  determine the  description.  "Sora,"  narrator's  out  than  excellent  r e s o n a t e s w i t h meaning.""^  w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  a l i t t l e nervous  about  In  79  i n t r o d u c i n g the nameless  " o l d f r i e n d " whose t h o u g h t s on  life  contained i n undoubtedly  four of the longest paragraphs  (they cover  five  pages o f K a w a b a t a s zenshu) found i n t h e e n t i r e  Before the o l d f r i e n d begins h i s discourse,  n a r r a t o r goes t o t h e t r o u b l e Kanehara's  i s showing  l e n g t h on some The  friend  the c o n d i t i o n s citizens walls,"  opens h i s t a l k by  He  time  Not  or walls.  god who  man  says t h a t  This  a link  ready t o  talk  death.  slipped  i s fine,  beneficial S i n c e the  that  He  and  t o spot crime  and  of the survivors  to  time  i n such a time t h e r e  l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g l e a d s him "bad"  i s t h e n made w i t h a  and t h e  contends  t h e s e n d i n g o f t h e dead boat  the  i n barracks devoid of "roofs  might  to dis-  "primitive"  city.  the worst  says t h a t  t h i n g about  the f i n a l i t y  he h a s w r e s t l e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s l y .  c r e a t e d man  bedecked  that  how  t h e c o n c e p t s o f "good" and  surprisingly,  old friend  a problem  the  through  t o t h e meaning o f a p o s s i b l e  for police.  quake d i s a s t e r was  man  The  f r e e o f human m o r a l i t y The  about  surmises the r e a c t i o n  before returning  the c o n s i d e r a t i o n that appear.  remarking  become v e r y e a s y f o r t h e p o l i c e  w o u l d be no n e e d  works  topic.  criminals.  roofs  personality  i n T o k y o have become f o r t h e p o l i c e .  i t has  the deceased  the reader  the usual signs of g e t t i n g  are relegated to l i v i n g  apprehend  w i t h no  of twice warning  understanding of the f r i e n d ' s  l o q u a c i o u s man at  literary  1  of the author.  are  up on t h i s  one  He  the  earth-  of death i s  suggests that  point.  The  friend  the says  t o t h e moon t h r o u g h t h e h e a v e n s i n a f l o w e r b u t he  exclaims that  god  i s wrong i n m a k i n g  go t o t h e t r o u b l e o f d e p i c t i n g t h e dream o f a j o u r n e y t o  paradise.  The  dream o f a j o u r n e y t o p a r a d i s e l e a d s h i m  up t h e c o n c e p t o f  metempsychosis:  to  bring  80  T o g e t h e r w i t h t h e dream o f a j o u r n e y t o p a r a d i s e i n a n c i e n t t i m e s i n J a p a n , t h e r e was an a p p e a l i n g b e l i e f h e l d by t h e p e o p l e . A princess i n a previous l i f e i s a b e g g a r i n t h i s l i f e and a l i n n e t i n a f u t u r e one, and i n t h e n e x t w o r l d a w h i t e l i l y o f the v a l l e y . I t was s a i d t h a t a p o e t i n t h i s l i f e i s a Buddha i n a f u t u r e l i f e and was a w h i t e r a t i n a previous l i f e . What do y o u t h i n k o f t h i s t h e o r y o f m e t e m p s y c h o s i s ? (p.102) The  old friend  temporarily  o f m e t e m p s y c h o s i s and  takes  up  strays a l i t t l e the  role  from the  fate plays  in life.  o b s e r v e s t h a t uptown p e o p l e d i d n ' t s u f f e r as much a s people. live The  This point leads  downtown, t o d i e o r t o be comments on  metempsychosis the  him  f a t e he  t o say saved,  makes b e f o r e  stress that  c h a n c e and  that to live i s largely  subject He  downtown  uptown o r  to  d e t e r m i n e d by  r e t u r n i n g t o the inevitability  subject  are  one  fate of  and  same t h i n g . A r e s u m p t i o n o f words on m e t e m p s y c h o s i s  of oneness i n t o the  introduce  the  argument:  T h i s t h e o r y o f m e t e m p s y c h o s i s was b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t t o r i d e on a l o t u s i n a f u t u r e l i f e one must p e r f o r m good d e e d s i n t h i s l i f e . It seems t h a t a d m o n i t i o n s t o n o t be r e i n c a r n a t e d as a s n a k e s e r v e d t h e p u r p o s e s o f p r i e s t s i n t h e i r teachings. The i n s p i r a t i o n o f a new life o f f e r e d by someone w o u l d be r e c e i v e d as a welcome t r u t h . I t w o u l d be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d b o t h m a t e r i a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . G e n e r a l l y man has c h o s e n t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between h i m s e l f and a l l t h i n g s f o u n d i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d and c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s l o n g h i s t o r i c a l p r a c t i c e i s n o t v e r y welcome. I wonder i f most o f t h e h e a r t s w h i c h f e e l t h e v o i d o f human e x i s t e n c e h a v e n ' t s p r u n g f r o m t h e l e g a c y o f s u c h a p r a c t i c e . I t h i n k t h a t when man p e r h a p s some day t u r n s a r o u n d and b e g i n s t o w a l k b a c k a l o n g t h e r o a d he has t a k e n , i t w i l l be s i m i l a r t o a s t o n e t h r o w n i n t o t h e s k y w h i c h upon r e a c h i n g a s h i g h as i t c a n go comes f a l l i n g back t o e a r t h . I t h i n k t h a t a t t h e end o f t h i s r e t r a c e d r o a d t h e many i s t h e w o r l d o f t h e one. T h a t ' s where t h e s a l v a t i o n o f most p e o p l e l i e s , (p.103)  concept  81  The  man's d i s c o u r s e  t h o u g h t s on at  this  belief  point  turns  i n the  t o the  f l e e t i n g n e s s of  continuation  of the  and  human r a c e .  that  the  old friend offers his final  and  the  oneness of  metempsychosis  life  It is  thoughts  on  creation:  I t ' s n o t t h e i d e a o f man b e i n g r e b o r n as a p e n g u i n o r an e v e n i n g p r i m r o s e t h a t I f i n d f a v o r w i t h ; what p l e a s e s me more i s t h e t h o u g h t t h a t an e v e n i n g p r i m r o s e and man a r e one. I t i s i n t h i s way o n l y t h a t t h e w o r l d o f t h e h e a r t o f man, i n o t h e r words l o v e , m i g h t become e x p a n s i v e and f r e e . The one i s t h e many and a l l t h i n g s and t h e i r s p i r i t s a r e p a r t o f one d e i t y , (p.104) Upon c o m p l e t i o n remark t h a t f r i e n d was The  end  short  talent  shifts  about the <!.  story.  ) and  men's d i s c u s s i o n heart  the  are he  end  two  men  of  the  t r o d u c e d a minor c h a r a c t e r  and  of the  men  to t h i s  the  as  had  He  (p.105)  but  an  men  a crayon sketch The  focus Two  of  of the  physical  penetrating  i s s a i d t o have a during  i t doesn't  talent for  represents  a  dis-  boy  t w e n t y - f o u r - y e a r o l d Kawabata has i n t o " S o r a " who  old  elementary  P h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n and  the  s e t t i n g with  b e e n w o r k i n g on  bright,  the  while the  y o u n g boy.  a l a r g e head.  to  never appear i n  A l l the  tower.  in  t a l k of  o f K a n e h a r a and  They w i l l  top  p i c t u r e he  of a c h i l d .  make i t c l e a r t h a t  long  autumn b r e e z e . . . . "  b e e n w o r k i n g on  i s described  coupled with recognition  steps  emphasized: h i s eyes are has  The  the  one-sided conversation,  from the  boy  narrator  i n t e r e s t i n g way.  their  for pictures.  the  the  Kawabata l i n k s  s u r r o u n d i n g view from the section  the  tower, o n l y  s i g n a l s the  i n a rather  (surudoku % ^  ing  tall  s t u d e n t named H i r a t a had  features  play  discourse,  w i t h by  discourse  b e e n c a r r y i n g on  first  the  the  played  story again.  school the  of  the  purpose i n the  what f o l l o w s had  top  being  of the  friend's the  "on  of  paintin-  portrait  82  of  h i m s e l f as a young boy.  has  This i s not the f i r s t  drawn h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t  taken  up i n t h e s e c o n d  written  i n an e a r l y work.  chapter o f t h i s  Omitsu.  I n t h e o n l y work  "Shokonsai  i k k e i , " the  s t u d e n t s who a r e g a z i n g a t  One o f them i s d e p i c t e d w i t h g o g g l y  l a r g e e a r s , a n d he i s w e a r i n g  a hunting  eyes and t e r r i b l y  cap.  This p o r t r a i t  t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f Kawabata when he was a u n i v e r s i t y Kawabata's w e a r i n g interpreted  as a g e s t u r e o f p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e e l i t e  Kawabata who, i n t h e c o u r s e with  a hunting  traveling The the  status that  a fictional  of the story,  cap i n a symbolic  The " I "  representation of r e p l a c e s h i s s c h o o l cap  g e s t u r e o f b e c o m i n g one w i t h t h e  performers. young boy i n "Sora"  second  floor  l e a v e s t h e t o w e r a n d g o e s down t o  o f t h e s c h o o l where he meets h i s o l d e r  Ohana i n t h e h a l l w a y Their  d a y s c a n be  o f Tokyo I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y .  " I z u no o d o r i k o " i s c l e a r l y  fits  student.  a hunting cap during h i s u n i v e r s i t y  came w i t h b e i n g a s t u d e n t of  Kawabata  t h e s i s w h i c h was n o t  i n the first-person narrative,  n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s two u n i v e r s i t y  time  broiling  some s a l t e d  salmon f o r d i n n e r .  f a m i l y i s b u t one o f many f a m i l i e s who h a v e t a k e n  the b u i l d i n g .  sister  refuge i n  Ohana l e a v e s h e r t a s k f o r a moment a n d l o o k s down  on t h e s c h o o l c o u r t y a r d f r o m  one o f t h e windows.  The s i g h t  is in  keeping  w i t h t h e s y m b o l i s m Kawabata h a s e s t a b l i s h e d i n e a r l i e r  works.  She s e e s  rows o f b r a n d  new W e s t e r n t o w e l s  hanging  d r y a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n dampened b y t h e w i n d a n d r a i n . towels  a r e two r e d l a t e r a l  symbolic and  stripes.  The r e d h e r e  o f t h e ascendancy o f t h e l i f e  out t o  Found on t h e  i s clearly  f o r c e f o l l o w i n g the death  d e s t r u c t i o n w r o u g h t by t h e e a r t h q u a k e  and  fire:  83  The movement i n t h e g a r d e n o f t h e b r i g h t r e d l i n e s on t h e wet new t o w e l s drew a f o n d l o o k f r o m Ohana, and i t was enough t o c a u s e h e r a s l i g h t f e e l i n g o f sadness. T h e r e h a d n o t been u n t i l now s u c h a v i v i d c o l o r at the s h e l t e r . I t was n e a r noon on a b r i g h t autumn day and t h e w e a t h e r was p e r f e c t f o r d r y i n g o u t t h e t o w e l s dampened by t h e e a r l i e r w i n d and r a i n , (p.106) These t h r e e l i n e s The  a u t h o r has  finally  the short story, his  the next  passage  haphazard  a beggar  beggar she  i n part  school.  receives  without  two  s o o n e r had  just  continues  Ohana b e e n Instead, a dream;  l o n g enough t o h e a r  who  at the s h e l t e r  the c r y  of l i v i n g  of l i v i n g  as beggars  e x h i b i t e d by  the earthquake  i s t h e main g o i n g on  she  episode  at the  other families there.  i n a world outdoors  has  of l i v i n g  In unison w i t h the  meant t h e y  i n the  are  shelter  "old friend"  in  and w a l l s w h i c h s h u t o f f  other, the n a r r a t o r ' s tone attempt  o f how  i n a f a v o r a b l e l i g h t when com-  f o r t h e communal s t y l e  f o r t h o s e who  story  o b v i o u s l y b e e n d e s i g n e d t o show  e x p r e s s e d contempt f o r r o o f s  from each  The  dealing with the a c t i v i t i e s  woman's s t y l e  suited  a distaste  No  from the n a r r a t o r .  " r o o f s and w a l l s . "  one  people  i s around  cope w i t h l i f e  life-style  perfectly  out of the scenes  has  woman f a r e s b e t t e r t h a n Ohana's m o t h e r i n t h e  pared t o the s t y l e  part  two.  T h i s l e n g t h y e p i s o d e has  the beggar  Their  of part  into  woman's b a b y .  and h e r f a m i l y found  close.  manner Kawabata  b e g i n s w i t h Ohana's m o t h e r w a k i n g f r o m  but t h e mother h e r s e l f  attention  of "Sora" t o a  i n t h e s t o r y t h a n she t e m p o r a r i l y d i s a p p e a r s .  section  The  part  i n t r o d u c e d h i s main c h a r a c t e r , Ohana,  c h a r a c t e r s i n " S o r a " move i n and  introduced  to  the f i r s t  but the seemingly  with the opening  of  bring  i n part  to duplicate  their  two  reveals  lives  prior  by e s t a b l i s h i n g b a r r i e r s between t h e m s e l v e s  and  84  others  at the school.  The b e g g a r  woman's f a m i l y  of  o t h e r s a n d show no d e s i r e t o s e a l t h e m s e l v e s  of  them. Extolling  by  society  position  the virtues  part are  counter t o popular moral finds  views.  Another  concern  members i n t h e s h e l t e r . chaotic situation  Their  o f b r o t h e r s who by p r o f e s s i o n  cheerful  commit s u c h  t h e b r o t h e r s a r e a r r e s t e d by p o l i c e  allows  as s t e a l i n g  on g a m b l i n g  t h e y were m i s s e d  fellow  demeanor i n t h e m i d s t o f  plums) f r o m t h e s c h o o l g a r d e n  narrator explains that  at the school  f o r the welfare of t h e i r  caused by t h e e a r t h q u a k e  minor t r a n s g r e s s i o n s they pickled  i nthe  takes place i n  They h a v e b e e n a s o u r c e o f h a p p i n e s s  good-natured  (Japanese  episode  t h e n a r r a t o r a d m i r i n g p e o p l e who a r e  I t involves the story  artisans.  with their  of  of people normally berated  c a s t a s u n a c c e p t a b l e members o f s o c i e t y  three.  the  o f f from t h e r e s t  i s b u t one example i n " S o r a " o f t h e n a r r a t o r t a k i n g a  s t o r y which s i m i l a r l y usually  of a class  are considerate  acceptance umeboshi  at night.  When  charges, the  at the shelter.  What Kawabata h a s s e t o u t t o do i n much o f p a r t s two a n d t h r e e of  "Sora"  beggar to  episodes such  woman a n d t h e b r o t h e r s p a r t i c u l a r  as t h o s e o f t h e  e x a m p l e s o f an  approach  l i v i n g w h i c h m i r r o r t h e p o i n t s made by t h e " o l d f r i e n d " i n  part be  i s t o provide through  one.  The s t o r i e s  o f t h e beggar  t a k e n as p a r a b l e s o f t h e t h e s i s  part  one, t h e o l d f r i e n d  and w a l l s " concepts  and a s s o c i a t e d t h i s  o f "good" and " e v i l . "  The b e g g a r  p r e s e n t e d by t h e f r i e n d .  found a p p e a l i n g a w o r l d without  conditions with a "primitive" city.  woman a n d t h e b r o t h e r s c a n  "roofs  state with the disappearance He f u r t h e r time  associated  In  of the  these  f r e e o f human m o r a l i t y and t h e  woman a n d h e r f a m i l y ,  and t h e b r o t h e r s r e p r e s e n t  85  i d e a l members o f t h i s w o r l d concepts To it  o f good and give these  f r e e of  ideas presented  oneness of the valley  stream  one  of t h i s  thesis  or p r e - r a t i o n a l a b i l i t y  to  t h a t Kawabata p o s s e s s e d  percepts  was  then  Ueda's c h a p t e r his  "evil."  the  significance  unlikely  nikki."  situation.  and  and  Art Theories on  how  shown a  artistic  the  with  a  by  "primitive" customindicated  sensibility  f o r "unnatural"  moral  Shinto.  I n Makoto  Theory of L i t e r a t u r e "  i n Japan,  S h i n t o views the  f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n taken of l i t e r a t u r e with  the  I wrote t h a t  This a b i l i t y  a "primitive"  "Shintoism  Norinaga  Norinaga's theory  of  sound o f c l e a r water of  examined i n c o n n e c t i o n  titled  The  the  N o r i n a g a . t contempt  book L i t e r a t u r e  d u c e s words by and  an  some o f t h e p o i n t s I  t o d i s c o v e r b e a u t y i n what w o u l d  a p p e a r t o be  Motoori  imposed  wider perspective,  s o u n d s , Kawabata had  arily  a d m i r e d by  on  i n " J u r o k u s a i no  e x p r e s s i n g a oneness o f the  me  i n "Sora"  e x p a n d on,  s o u n d o f u r i n e and found  w a l l s " and  evil.  i s u s e f u l t o r e t u r n t o , and  made i n c h a p t e r  " r o o f s and  the  in  scholar repro-  concepts  of  f r o m Ueda's book  "good" links  Shinto:  " U n l i k e C o n f u c i a n i s m o r Buddhism, S h i n t o i s m d o e s n o t i n d u l g e i n any o f t h e n o i s y d e b a t e s o v e r Good a n d E v i l , o r o v e r R i g h t and Wrong," Norinaga says " I t i s a l l - i n c l u s i v e , b o u n t i f u l , and g r a c i o u s — e x a c t l y what p o e t r y aims a t . " In s h o r t , l i t e r a t u r e h e l p s ^ o n e t o r e t u r n t o b a s i c h u m a n i t y , as S h i n t o i s m does. The in  stories  "Sora"  friend"  o f t h e b e g g a r woman and  represent parables  i n p a r t one.  The  a spokesman f o r N o r i n a g a ' s towards  "good" and  "evil."  her  f a m i l y and  the  o f t h e d o c t r i n e expounded by  "old friend"  i n t u r n c o u l d be  interpretation  of a Shinto  brothers  the  taken  attitude  "old as  86  A further  c o n n e c t i o n I made w i t h Kawabata's o n e n e s s o f t h e  s o u n d o f w a t e r a n d S h i n t o i n c h a p t e r one was w i t h aspects of Shinto that  i t s h a r e s w i t h Buddhism.  Mahayana B u d d h i s m b e l i e v e p a n t h e i s t i c world  view s e t o u t by t h e " o l d f r i e n d "  with Shinto thinking.  to one  identified  priests hoped  i n their "to ride  There  by t h e " o l d f r i e n d " teachings.  life."  line  metem-  as o f u t i l i t a r i a n  value  I t was g i v e n a s t h e i d e a t h a t i f i n a future l i f e  one must  The a t t a c h i n g o f " m o r a l "  view o b v i o u s l y runs  p a n t h e i s t i c world  view.  The " o l d f r i e n d "  but the f i r s t - p e r s o n  perform  strings  to a  c o u n t e r t o an " a m o r a l "  d i s a p p r o v a l of t h i s moral  metempsychosis,  The  into  was one f e a t u r e o f B u d d h i s t  p a n t h e i s t i c world  express  S h i n t o and  i n p a r t one  t h a t t h e man's i d e a s f a l l  on a l o t u s  good d e e d s i n t h i s  citly  Both  i n t h e oneness o f a l l c r e a t i o n .  makes i t a l l t h e more c l e a r  psychosis  one o f t h e  i n "Sora" doesn't  aspect  found  Shinto expli-  i n Buddhist  n a r r a t o r i n Kawabata's b e s t  work on m e t e m p s y c h o s i s a n d t h e o n e n e s s o f c r e a t i o n ,  Tatsue o f  " L y r i c Poem," s a y s e l o q u e n t l y what t h e f r i e n d  implies:  The B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e o f t r a n s m i g r a t i o n c a n a l s o be t a k e n a s a s y m b o l o f m o r a l l i f e i n t h i s world. T h a t a hawk s h o u l d be r e b o r n a s a man, o r a man a s a b u t t e r f l y o r as a Buddha, i s t h o u g h t t o be i n r e t r i b u t i o n f o r c o n d u c t i n t h e p r e s e n t life. wise The  T h i s way o f t h i n k i n g i s a s t a i n p l e a s i n g l y r i c poem.5  final  episode  i n "Sora"  name h a s most o f t e n s l i p p e d the g i r l found  Ohana.  c e n t e r s on t h e i n d i v i d u a l  whose  i n a n d o u t o f t h e p a g e s o f t h e work,  Her s t o r y t o o reads  i n p a r t one.  on an o t h e r -  like  a parable t o the thesis  She g i v e s h e r l o v e i n a most  " e x p a n s i v e and  f r e e " way. How s h e began a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a n a m e l e s s man i s d e s c r i b e d near  t h e end o f p a r t two i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:  " I t was  87  as i f t h e man h a d b e e n b l o w n away i n a v i o l e n t had  chanced The  to fall  final  episode  sion of the story ing  on t o p o f Ohana."  t o the a c t i v i t y  Mixed w i t h r e c o l l e c t i o n s momentary f e e l i n g with  immediately  brothers.  of school g i r l s  one n i g h t and  (p.109)  i n t h e work b e g i n s  of the artisan  storm  upon c o n c l u -  Ohana i s f o u n d  listen-  who a r e o n t o p o f t h e r o o f .  o f h e r own e l e m e n t a r y  of self-reproach.  school years  She r e a l i z e s  i sa  that her liason  a man h a d t a k e n p l a c e on t h e o u t l o o k t o w e r o f t h e r o o f  where t h e g i r l s nature  were s k e t c h i n g .  Q u i c k l y Ohana's  allows her t o disparage the g i r l s  vanquishes The  h e r thoughts  strong-minded  and i n s o d o i n g s h e  of self-reproach.  n a r r a t o r t a k e s up how Ohana h a s been r e v i t a l i z e d  the earthquake.  We r e a d t h a t w i t h o u t  g i v e n up h e r p u r i t y  near  the least  and i t had brought  n a r r a t o r goes on t o s a y t h a t  this  thought,  h e r body t o l i f e  had i n s p i r e d  after she had  again.  The  h e r t o wash o f f t h e  sweat a n d g r i m e h e r body h a d a c c u m u l a t e d  s i n c e t h e earthquake and  to  after  p u t on new u n d e r w e a r .  her in  In the evening  l o v e became a s e x p a n s i v e his discourse.  the s h e l t e r , She  and f r e e as t h e " o l d f r i e n d " she d e e p l y  s h e gave h e r s e l f  freely  o f the towels  Ohana a s e n s e  a r e here  t o any man who d e s i r e d h e r .  explicitly  of rejuvenation.  a n d Ohana i s s a i d  "obtained a p a i r  outlined  l o v e d b u t one o f t h e men i n  was p l e a s e d w i t h h e r s e l f - i m a g e a s a l i b e r a t e d woman.  lines  girl  Although  t h e l i g h t s went o u t ,  said  The r e d  t o have evoked i n  A new w o r l d h a d opened up f o r t h e  t o have b e e n made aware t h a t  she had  o f young wings w i t h which she c o u l d t a k e  flight."  (p.114) W i t h Ohana r e c e i v i n g h e r m e t a p h o r i c a l w i n g s , established  a l i n k with t h e opening  and f i n a l  t h e author has  passages  i n "Sora."  88  The  l i n e which  began t h e s h o r t  story,  "The autumn s k y was  to  t h e h e i g h t s , " g a v e t h e work an upward d i r e c t i o n .  of  the f i n a l  work. it  There  i s night  two  scene  i n "Sora" i s i d e n t i c a l  a r e however two i m p o r t a n t and n o t t h e daytime  c h a r a c t e r s here a r e s i l e n t l y  garrulously opening As  fundamental  o f the opening  l o o k i n g down on h u m a n i t y  a s t h e two men a r e i n t h e  scene. I've p o i n t e d out s e v e r a l times a l r e a d y , m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  a d i v i n e n a t u r e i n t h e e a r l y w o r k s o f Kawabata.  have i n d i c a t e d  of f i r e  o v e r Tokyo.  s i n g u l a r moments o f a e s t h e t i c  o f an a i r s h i p w h i c h  A sound  The m a n i f e s t a -  flies  setting,  They a r e  twenty-four hours  i n t h e s k y announces t h e appearance  The two l i g h t s  ethereal  appreciation  found i n t h e ending o f "Sora" a r e unique.  two l i g h t s  this  and, t h e  l o o k i n g up t o t h e s k y and n o t  of  airship.  differences:  scene;  fire  the  The l o c a t i o n  t o the beginning of the  of  tions  clear  of the  o f t h e a i r s h i p a r e r e d and b l u e .  the p r i s t i n e  beauty  a day  o f Ohana s h i n e s  Within forth:  As i f h e r e y e s were washed i n c l e a r w a t e r , Ohana f u l l y s t r e t c h e d t h e l i n e o f h e r b e a u t i f u l t h r o a t a n d l o o k e d up a t t h e l i g h t s . Her eyes i n s t a n t l y looked f a r o f f t o the east. At that moment, t h e b l u e l i g h t s u d d e n l y f e l l and d i s appeared from t h e n i g h t sky. In t h e midst o f t h i s s u r p r i s e , t h e r e d l i g h t was h i d d e n b y a r a i n c l o u d a n d t h e sound was gone f r o m t h e night turned cloudy. Ohana f e l t t h a t s h e was a l o n e on t o p o f the t a l l t o w e r , a n d i t seemed t o h e r t h a t h e r h e a r t h a d gone a n d j o i n e d t h e l i g h t s t h a t move i n t h e s k y . A p p a r e n t l y remembering f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t a man was n e x t t o h e r , s h e dropped h e r head (kushi o o t o s h i t e % y& L l i t e r a l l y , " d r o p p e d h e r comb") t o h i s c h e s t and c r i e d , (p.115) The cally  underlying pristine  n a t u r e o f Ohana h a s been  i d e n t i f i e d when " h e r h e a r t h a d gone a n d j o i n e d  t h a t move i n t h e s k y . "  I n t h e end though,  the author  metaphorithe l i g h t s finishes  89  off  " S o r a " i n t h e same "downbeat" manner he showed i n " S h o k o n s a i ikkei"  and  "Kagaribi."  It's probably just  coincidence,  but i t ' s  an  intriguing  t h o u g h t t h a t Kawabata's word c h o i c e o f Ohana's k u s h i i n g t o t h e man's c h e s t was  i n t h e downward movement w h i c h ends  s e l e c t e d a s an a l l u s i o n  Kushi-mitama  i s t h e waning  of a d i a l e c t i c a l  pairing  t o the S h i n t o term  p u r i t y may  fell  dropp"Sora"  kushi-mitama.  s i d e and s a k i - m i t a m a t h e waxing  s e e n as a s p e c t s o f musubi,  power w h i c h h a r m o n i z e s t h e w a x i n g When h e r h e a d  (comb)  and w a n i n g  t o t h e man's c h e s t ,  remain unstained,  a  synthesizing  of cosmic  Ohana c r i e d .  but her p h y s i c a l p u r i t y  side  forces/  Her  spiritual  has  gone  forever. About story 1925  a year after  " K a e r u 5 j 5 j£l  " S o r a n i ugoku h i , "  1"i %  i s s u e o f Bunqei  jidai.  comes f r o m a B u d d h i s t f o l k Why is  ("Frog  Paradise'9  The m a t e r i a l tale.  The  Kawabata c h o s e t o w r i t e h i s own  o f how  retribution tragic,  side  a mother's  satirical  p a s s by t h e h o u s e  old  Oshizu i s eventually  t h e house. didn't mother.  story  of the  "Kaeru" i s  Jizaemon.  on a p i l g r i m a g e .  One The  and t h e s o n  day two  orphan-  sixteen-year-  t a k e n i n by J i z a e m o n t o do work i n  H e r w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t t h e blame f o r t r o u b l e  actually  tale  i n the "moral"  t h e headman o f h i s v i l l a g e ,  ed s i s t e r s  March,  contributes t o the  s u c c e e d s t o t h e p o s i t i o n when h i s f a t h e r d i e s .  sister  version  " S o r a " i n mind.  o f B u d d h i s t metempsychosis  f a t h e r was  i n the  f o r the short  self-serving belief  y e t humorous, e n d o f h e r s o n  Jizaemon's  published  t o n e o f t h e work i s s a t i r i c a l .  q u i t e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when one k e e p s  the t a l e  Kawabata h a d h i s s h o r t  she  cause t o u c h e s t h e h e a r t o f J i z a e m o n and h i s s e n i l e  Her goodness  would  seem t o be a m a t c h f o r J i z a e m o n  who  90  shows g r e a t  filial  d e v o t i o n t o h i s mother.  T h i n g s b e g i n t o go w r o n g a t t h e home when t h e m o t h e r t h a t O s h i z u i s f i v e months p r e g n a n t . on J i z a e m o n ' s  part,  S h i n s u k e who  t h e two  Oshizu gives b i r t h  i s constantly  returns t o the v i l l a g e resist  h i s advances.  are married.  The  real  t o i s a n e ' e r - d o - w e l l named  on t h e move as a g a r d e n e r .  When he  the f o l l o w i n g year, Oshizu i s unable She  to  hands o v e r t h e baby t o a m e s s e n g e r t o  t a k e t o S h i n s u k e i n h o p e s t h a t he w i l l t h e n she asks f o r g i v e n e s s a  a misunderstanding  t h e m o t h e r comes t o b e l i e v e t h a t h e r s o n i s  t h e f a t h e r o f O s h i z u ' s baby and f a t h e r o f t h e boy  Through  discovers  t a k e c a r e o f t h e boy,  f o r her s i n s b e f o r e drowning  and  herself in  well. The  tale  Jizaemon  jumps a h e a d  i s nearing f i f t y  t o obon s e a s o n e i g h t e e n y e a r s and t h e m o t h e r e i g h t y .  On  the  t h e m o t h e r had d r e a m t o f d y i n g and g o i n g t o p a r a d i s e . welcome dream. Excitedly was  She  she had  p u l l e d by  gets Jizaemon  had  told  frogs.  r i d d e n on a l a r g e Jizaemon  that  P a r a d i s e was  c r o a k i n g on t h e n i g h t stand.  She  she c a n  sleep.  son's  undoing.  Jizaemon's after  Festival  The  a  heaven.  The  i n the v i l l a g e  this  mother  and s e t  of the  frogs  i s more t h a n t h e m o t h e r  t i m e p r o v e s t o be  can  frogs  so  the  s o n o f O s h i z u and S h i n s u k e comes on of k i l l i n g  h i s mother; and c a s t s  d a n c e r s p a s s n e a r t h e p o n d and  dead body i n t h e w a t e r .  the dancers  with frogs.  t o go o u t and q u i e t e n t h e n o i s y  the scene, accuses Jizaemon i n t o t h e pond.  I t was  lotus flower to  pond; however, t h e s o u n d  F o l l o w i n g h i s mother's wishes dutiful  filled  of the s i x t e e n t h  asks Jizaemon  fifteenth,  the rope t o the l o t u s f l o w e r  t o g a t h e r up a l l t h e f r o g s  them f r e e i n t h e i r g a r d e n  later.  The  discover  following quotation  c a r r y t h e o l d mother t o t h e pond:  him  comes  91 One o f t h e y o u n g men s p o k e . "What h a p p e n e d ? It's f u l l of frogs! " " I t ' s j u s t l i k e F r o g P a r a d i s e 1" "Frog Paradise!" "Frog Paradise!" The y o u n g men a n d women c h a n t e d i n u n i s o n . J i z a e m o n was f l o a t i n g on t o p o f a wave o f frogs. E v e n on t o p o f t h e d e a d body c o u n t l e s s f r o g s s a t l i n e d up t r i u m p h a n t l y i n a row. (p.130) Preceded and f o l l o w e d the  by s e v e r a l s h o u t s o f " o i " ("hey") a r e  o l d woman's w o r d s e x c l a i m i n g "Kaeru 5 j 5 "  t h a t h e r dream h a d come t r u e .  i s a lightweight  s t o r y when compared w i t h  Kawabata l i t e r a r y w o r k s , b u t an e f f e c t i v e spoken c o u n t r y psychosis  enjoyable  A short but  dialect  make t h i s  use o f t e r s e l i n e s and  humorous t a l e  of Buddhist  metem-  reading.  s t o r y o f Kawabata's p u b l i s h e d  lightweight.  other  "Shiroi  mangetsu"  Moon") i s a b u s y work f i l l e d  with  o >^  internal  later $  i n 1925 i s a n y t h i n g ("A W h i t e  and e x t e r n a l  Full  literary  reverberations. It  i s written  i n the first-person  n a r r a t i v e , and t h e " I " o f  the  s t o r y r e m i n d s one o f t h e c h i e f m a l e c h a r a c t e r s  and  l a t e r Kawabata l i t e r a t u r e .  of the f i v e parts is  directly  protagonist vocation similar  expressed.  little  This  part  sense o f l o n e l i n e s s i n t h e male  of the " I " i n "Shiroi" t o male h e r o e s  i s n o t made c l e a r .  "nikki."  i s not given  The  This i s  f o u n d i n l a t e r Kawabata l i t e r a t u r e  where  o r i t ' s o f no r e l e v a n c e  What t h e male h e r o does t o e a r n a l i v i n g  f i c t i o n a l interest  The  times i n t h e second  r e a c h e s b a c k t o t h e " I " o f Kawabata's  work anyway.  earlier  w h i c h make up t h e s t o r y h i s s e n s e o f l o n e l i n e s s  e i t h e r t h e man's v o c a t i o n the  Several  i n both  "I" of "Shiroi"  f o r the author.  h a s come t o a h o t s p r i n g s  resort to  to  holds  92  recuperate region is  from  tuberculosis.  as we  and  find  Yukiquni,  just physical  a travel  or s o j o u r n i n the  rejuvenation.  spiritual  than  As we not  Indeed,  also  find  sufficient  i n " I z u no  of h i s p h y s i c a l  this  focus of  i t i s the dancer  i s the  o f most o f t h e  girls  She  belongs  line  t o the  who  performs  Yoko.  In  this  "Shiroi," Onatsu,  she  more example o f t h e p u r e and  a nurse  devote  first  themselves  and  Y5ko i s a d e p t l y h a n d l e d  is  her  tion scene  by  and  The  The  of p u r i t y  pollution.  at the beginning  In  s e r v i c e and the g i r l  Employed as  who  the  to  "Izu  in plays  approximate stories. literature  a nurse  by  the  self-sacrificing  first  Kawabata i n how  eyes.  In the  or  example i s "Bonbon" i n  e t h e r e a l nature he  of the  limits his  f e a t u r e d e s c r i b e d by  acts  as  mysterious desthe  author  Onatsu i s e q u a l l y mysterious  l i k e Yoko, t h e a u t h o r  o f her t o her eyes.  alone  t o s e r v i n g the needs o f a i l i n g  of her: the only p h y s i c a l  strangely beautiful  ethereal;  nature  a l a t e r example i s Yoko i n Y u k i q u n i who  t o the dying Yukio.  cription  chapter.  i n Kawabata's w o r k s .  "nikki"  for  i s more  of characters i n the author's  "I,"  i s one  a girl  we've come a c r o s s i n e a r l i e r  i n the  the  though.  odoriko"  i s taken  a girl  I outlined  d y i n g men  There  r e j u v e n a t i o n f o r the  that  who  " I z u no  Yukiquni,  or s p i r i t u a l  seventeen-year-old  age  "nurses"  recovery.  "Shiroi"  must come i n c o n t a c t w i t h  i t i s Komako and  role  as  country  t o b r i n g about s p i r i t u a l  h e l p c l e a n s e him  Yukiquni  the  such  o d o r i k o " and  He  odoriko"  the  physical.  male c h a r a c t e r .  no  of  r e c o v e r y a t work h e r e  i n Plater Kawabata s t o r i e s  spiritual  is  n a t u r a l surroundings  a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l i n h i s hopes f o r p h y s i c a l  c e r t a i n l y more t h a n  Just  The  and  limits his physical descrip-  c e l e b r a t e d t r a i n window m i r r o r  of Yukiquni,  one  o f t h e e y e s o f Y5ko a c t s  93  like  a mirror within  a mirror.  o f YSko's o p e r a t e i n much t h e the  t r a i n window d o e s .  Her  I t h i n k t h a t Kawabata has same manner K i n y a T s u r u t a  eye  the  eye  suggests  i s a "translucent mirror"  which  7 merges t h e  snow c o u n t r y  i m p o s e d on  the  is  world with  "translucent mirror"  s a i d t o appear t r a n s l u c e n t  ically  symbolizing  the  are  the  subject  sister's  eyes are  (niqotte  iru)."  her  father.  habit  of being  significance  I've  of the  An  parent's  light  has  story,  epitomized that her  short  p h y s i c a l or s p i r i t u a l  younger  fact,  older  eyes are  the  things  i s a concrete  the  In  muddy  sister  malady  from  of beauty have  a  i n Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e .  fact  heredity  f o r the  inherited out,  work as The  face  graph-  o f t h e work: "The  younger s i s t e r ' s  mud  theme o f t h e  i n the  of  (her  heaven.  explanation  with  i n the  t o h a v e b e e n c a u s e d by  minor chords"  the  often pointed  eyes i s a l l encompassing.  microcosm of the  i s a ray  opening l i n e  i s t h a t she  i n contact  o f mud  i s Y o k o ' s eye  Super-  e v e n more m y s t e r i o u s t h a n Y 5 k o ' s .  (p.135)  As  as w e l l )  c l e a r , but  Onatsu's m i s f o r t u n e  c e l e s t i a l world.  that  f i r e - w o r l d of  Onatsu's eyes are they  the  by  the  legacy  muddy  muddy e y e s a r e  said  representation  s t o r y : i n both  unpleasant  girl's  The  "major  and  consequences of  i s t h e work's  in  a  thematic  concern. I think it  was  light  i f one  were t o name t h e  brown o r y e l l o w .  c o l o r o f mud,  Yellow i s the  found i n the  "natural" world  The  muddy c o l o r i n O m i t s u ' s e y e s i s a r e f l e c t i o n  is  i n J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e and  white  (shiroi)  parts  the  short  full  s t o r y not  moon i n t h e  of  say of  "Shiroi."  of t h i s .  t h e work i t s t i t l e ,  in this  that modifies  three  would  dominant c o l o r  the  emblematic o b j e c t which g i v e s  first  one  a full  The moon,  the  color  of  title  but  the  94  c o l o r o f y e l l o w (pp.144, sign  of mysterious happenings,  w i t h such happenings. work. two,  A full and  moon seems t o be a  certainly  "Shiroi"  or three years e a r l i e r  t h e " I " f e a r s p a p e r money he h a s r e c e i v e d suffering  disease.  The  from t u b e r c u l o s i s might  bills  " I " utters  from the w i f e of a  t h e dead  himself a l l suffering  The  father,  s a y s he b u r n t t h e Reverberations  the f r i e n d ' s wife,  from t u b e r c u l o s i s  i s one  and  and e v e n t s i n  eye o f Onatsu's,  c e l e s t i a l world superimposed  the  end o f p a r t  l i k e Yoko's,  has  over the "natural" world.  the " I , " h i s s i s t e r  i n t h e woods when t h e " I " r e f e r s  At  Yaeko, and O n a t s u t o the f u l l  are  moon.  comment c a u s e s t h e g i r l s t o l o o k up t o t h e e v e n i n g s k y . amazing  of  "Shiroi."  "translucent mirror"  two,  the  o f t h e more  o f a t e d i o u s number o f r e - e c h o e d images  the  walking  the  t u r n y e l l o w as he b u r n s them i n h i s h i b a c h i .  abound i n t h e s t o r y :  characters  i n the  cause him t o c a t c h  an a p o l o g y t o t h e woman, b u t he  a c c e p t a b l e examples  filled  found i n p a r t  money b e c a u s e h i s f a t h e r h a d d i e d o f t u b e r c u l o s i s .  "I"  is  universal  Yellow i s a l s o the c o l o r of s i c k n e s s  I n a f l a s h b a c k t o two  friend  The  157).  The  An  thing takes place: A t t h a t moment, t h e e y e s o f O n a t s u whose e y e l i d s p r e s e n t e d a m o r b i d l i n e were m i r a c u l o u s l y s h i n i n g clearly. The w h i t e f u l l moon o f t h e summer s k y i n t h e m o u n t a i n d e p t h s was l i g h t l y s u p e r i m p o s e d on h e r b l a c k p u p i l s , (p.147)  The  full  moon s u p e r i m p o s e d  on O n a t s u ' s  eyes  yellow but the c o l o r o f white, the c o l o r o f The  second l i n e  window m i r r o r m i r r o r eye has  q u o t e d above r e s e m b l e s  i s not the c o l o r purity. a line  from the  s c e n e i n Y u k i q u n i a t t h e moment Y o k o ' s a celestial  light  superimposed  a n e o u s l y merges w i t h t h e e v e n i n g m o u n t a i n s  of  train  "translucent  on i t w h i c h  simult-  o f t h e snow c o u n t r y :  95 "As  i t sent  the  e y e a n d t h e l i g h t were s u p e r i m p o s e d one on t h e o t h e r , t h e  eye  became a w e i r d l y  of  r a y through the p u p i l o f the g i r l ' s  e y e , as  b e a u t i f u l b i t o f p h o s p h o r e s c e n c e on t h e s e a  e v e n i n g mountains.'^ One  and  i t s small  f i n d s a correspondence  native  Japanese b e l i e f s  i n t o t h e common respective ogical  traditions.  b o d i e s o f heaven,  Northrop Frye associated  and water found  says t h a t  with  with the innocent  world:  of a l l the fiery  fits  i n their  innocence i n anal-  chastity.  i t i s t h e moon w h i c h he s a y s  h e n c e most c h a s t e  symbolism  a n d l i t e r a t u r e w i t h t h e moon w h i c h  o v e r a l l meaning o f f i r e  imagery i s o f t e n  associated  i n Western a p o c a l y p t i c  Among t h e f i e r y  i s most c l o s e l y  "The moon, t h e c o o l e s t a n d heavenly bodies,  has a s p e c i a l  9 importance  f o r t h i s world."  Q ^/C (T) 'CJ '\% I r o which  centers  (The S e n t i m e n t L o g i c  Araki  Hiroyuki  'clearness'." ^  'clean,' Araki  1  ronri  and t h e J a p a n e s e  t a k e s up t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  o f t h e moon: "The moon was  symbol o f s p o t l e s s  no s h i n j o  o f t h e Japanese, 1975)  on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l e a n n e s s  sense o f beauty, adoration  I n h i s book N i h o n j i n  Japanese  a n d t h e moon was a  r e f e r s t o t h e f i r s t few  p a g e s o f Kawabata's N o b e l P r i z e a c c e p t a n c e s p e e c h w h i c h  include  the  Kawabata  a u t h o r ' s own f e e l i n g s f o r t h e moon.  q u o t e s s e v e r a l poems on t h e moon w r i t t e n priests.  In h i s speech,  by famous J a p a n e s e  poet-  The f o l l o w i n g i s K a w a b a t a s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f some moon 1  poems w r i t t e n b y Myoe (1173-1232): S e e i n g t h e moon, he becomes t h e moon, t h e moon s e e n b y h i m becomes h i m . He s i n k s i n t o n a t u r e , becomes one w i t h n a t u r e . The l i g h t o f t h e " c l e a r heart" o f the p r i e s t , seated i n the meditation h a l l i n t h e d a r k n e s s b e f o r e t h e dawn, becomes f o r t h e dawn moon i t s own l i g h t . H The carries  w h i t e f u l l moon s u p e r i m p o s e d on O n a t s u ' s b l a c k  pupils  t h e same a n a l o g i c a l i m a g e r y t o be f o u n d i n Kawabata's words  that the  "light  of the  'clear heart' of the priest...becomes  t h e dawn moon i t s own been c l e a r l y  identified  possesses  the p u r i t y  spiritual  pollution.  The unclean  light."  spiritual thoughts  the  meijin,"  The  recalled  a precedent  relationships of  "Shiroi"  Y a e k o and  seen  dramatic  that  Shizue  the worst  but  She  deals with t h i s one  father  i n turn,  the b i r t h s  has  learn that two  other s i s t e r  She  born  i s S h i z u e who  an o v e r u s e  Onatsu shares  of a d i f f e r e n t  s h a r e s w i t h Ohana an  import  o f them.  of t h i s  from  no  the  father  i s three  the In  free  of  years the  " I " and perhaps  of motifs i n  a similar  fate  t o the. same f a t h e r as mother than h e r  with herself, own.  s p i r i t e d woman Ohana i n  "expansive  and  inferred  "Wipe away t h e n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l  philosophical  springs  i s t h r e e years younger than  t o w a r d s s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h c a n be ing:  be-  traumatic uncertainty.  o f t h e t h r e e o f them.  Y a e k o i s an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e She  to  I t i s part three  i s probably n e i t h e r the  b r o t h e r s born  the boys a r e c h i l d r e n  "Sora."  f a t h e r e d t h e two  i s unaware o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t h o u g h t s  later  of h i s  in "Shiroi"  l a t e r works.  example o f what I f i n d t o be  " S h i r o i , " we t h e "Ii.'..'  that  and  f a t h e r o f Yaeko.  Yaeko share about  She  f o r t h e ambiguous n a t u r e o f human  in "Shiroi"  y o u n g e r t h a n Y a e k o who, "I".  in "Shiroi."  i n Kawabata's e a r l i e r work " S o s h i k i  " I " a r e j o i n e d by  " I " nor the  t e n s i o n found  i t was  i s found  same m o t h e r ; however, h e r the  has  he must c l e a n s e h i m s e l f o f r e l a t e s  which e s p e c i a l l y  the  o f p a r t two  of Onatsu  " I " n e e d s t o h e l p c l e a n s e him  f r o m t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f who s h o u l d be  beauty  s h a r e s w i t h h i s s i s t e r Yaeko on t h e t r u t h  hind their births.  It  pristine  a t t h e end  pollution  he  The  for  free"  attitude  from her pet  e x i s t e n c e . " (p.148)  sayThe  s a y i n g as i t i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e " I "  97  comes down t o t h e i d e a o f t h e o n e n e s s o f a l l c r e a t i o n in  "Sora."  painful  Yaeko's p r e s e n c e  reminder  b r o t h e r and tude  to the  " I " o f the immoral n a t u r e o f  One  makes r u d e  o f an  i s a sense  the ghost  Onatsu  b o y f r i e n d she  had  unwittingly  o r n o t has  this  "The  that  discard.  like  Sembazuru,  o f a y o u n g man  i n both,  Mrs.  of It  It's these  (p.170) t h e more a p p a r e n t  i t becomes  of a b l u e p r i n t  f o r Kawabata's  like  i s the story  "Shiroi,"  to cleanse himself of  sexual relationships.  A  the machinations  of  the  pristine  O t a i n Sembazuru and S h i z u e i n " S h i r o i , "  i n d u c e d t o commit s u i c i d e t h r o u g h  and  and h i s  t o me.  l e d Shizue t o s u i c i d e .  something  legacy of a parent's i l l i c i t  which  t o t h e h o s p i t a l were a r e s u l t  analyzes " S h i r o i , "  l a t e r n o v e l Sembazuru. quest  recall  g r i e v o u s harm t o h i m s e l f  b e i n g aware o f i t . "  t h e work r e a d s  figure  of  Y a e k o p o s s e s s e s t h i s power and w o r k s  c l o s e r one  the s p i r i t u a l  Shizue  the marriage  u n s e e n power o f Y a e k o d i d t h i s  same u n s e e n power t h a t  deeds w i t h o u t h e r The  about  s i n i s t e r powers t h r o u g h  inflicted  necessary admission  f r i g h t e n i n g because  she  Shizue.  " I " b e l i e v e s t h a t b o t h t h e s u i c i d e o f S h i zue  Yaeko's powers:  She  i n Kawabata's e a r l y work o f t h e same name.  she  was  b a c k , and  a s p e c t o f Y a e k o t h a t makes one  " I " i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t Yaeko has  subsequent  seen  o f her younger s i s t e r  decided to  more u n i q u e  of "Chiyo"  The  relationship  behind the g i r l ' s  The  Shizue.  atti-  o f j e a l o u s y t o w a r d s o t h e r women.  F o r example, Yaeko managed t o b r i n g  i s one  sexual  1  d e v i o u s l y o r c h e s t r a t e d the l i f e  There  a  f e a t u r e of Yaeko s p e r s o n a l i t y not r e a l l y  comments a b o u t  t o a former  incestuous  as  their  Moreover, h e r amoral  l e a v e s open t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  i n Ohana o f " S o r a "  has  i n t h e work a c t s a t t i m e s  s i s t e r background.  b e t w e e n them.  expressed  is  of a j e a l o u s  98  woman.  T h a t j e a l o u s woman, C h i k a k o  "Shiroi,"  has a v e n g e f u l s p i r i t  p e o p l e r e m i n i s c e n t o f Lady pristine  figure,  i n Sembazuru a n d Y a e k o i n  capable o f taking possession o f  RokujS i n The T a l e o f G e n j i .  Fumiko i n Sembazuru a n d O n a t s u  i n "Shiroi,"  h e l p s t h e y o u n g man c l e a n s e h i m s e l f o f t h e s p i r i t u a l originally It  part,  i n spiritually  life  of  the " I . "  The " I " l a t e r  of "Shiroi"  of  h e r dream o f h e r d e a t h , redirises  (p.167)  frog,  i n part  five  which  In the midst she t r i e s  "luster  a symbol  o f Onatsu's  of  The positive ikkei," positive of  recollections  lines  of part  five,  b e d as h a v i n g t u r n e d W h i t e i s t h e c o l o r we i n Kawabata's  dream, t h e l e a v e s o f t h e n a n t e n  snow a r e merged: "Then t h e snow o f t h e t r e e ' s  falling."  on t h e autumn  F o l l o w i n g t h e nanten  i n the opening  o f autumn," t h e c o l o r w h i t e .  I n Onatsu's  o f renewed  t o relate the sighting of  h a v e come t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h d e a t h a n d p u r i t y ture.  the f i n a l  Images o f l i f e  had f a l l e n  i n h e r dream t o r e a l i t y .  t r e e f r o g images o f l i f e  Shizue  describes Shizue being  Kawabata d e s c r i b e s t h e s t o n e s o f t h e r i v e r the  that  jumps a n d l a n d s on t h e s h o u l d e r  t h e b e r r i e s o f t h e r e d nanten  his illness."  and  a tree  green c o l o r ,  of  pure  part  c l e a n s i n g t h e " I . " Throughout  from which  with i t s bright  "like  and f i n a l  i s b a l a n c e d w i t h death and p u r i t y .  i n c l u d e t h e nanten life  pollution  caused by h i s p a r e n t .  i s i n the f i f t h  succeeds  Another  litera-  and t h e white  l e a v e s began  (p.172) final  lines  of "Shiroi"  ending which "Kagaribi,"  g i v e t o t h e work an u n q u a l i f i e d  e l u d e d t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n "Shokonsai  a n d " S o r a n i ugoku h i . "  ending i s easy t o e x p l a i n :  the f i f t h  and l a s t  The r e a s o n f o r t h e  through t o the f i n a l  part of "Shiroi,"  life  lines  on one s i d e a n d  99  death  and  reality  purity  and  on  t h e o t h e r have been i n p e r f e c t  dream h a v e merged.  Here are those  balance;  final  lines:  W h i l e f r i g h t e n e d by t h e p r e s e n t i m e n t o f two d e a t h s , I h e l d O n a t s u i n an a t t e m p t t o b r i n g b a c k X ^ h e w o r l d o f r e a l i t y t h i s g i r l who d i d n ' t a p p e a r t o be l i v i n g i n a w o r l d o f r e a l i t y . I was l i s t e n i n g t o s o u n d s f l o w i n g t o t h e b o t t o m o f t h e s i l e n c e , (p.174) In  " S o r a , " when t h e d i v i n e  sound o f t h e s e separate. In  lights  In the l a s t  c l o s i n g my  line  two  of  special  they've  One  of " S h i r o i , "  analysis  f a i l t o mention  "Shiroi."  d i s a p p e a r from the sky,  c e a s e s t o be h e a r d .  to  studies  lights  Sound and s o u n d and  first  Japanese  s c h o l a r s who  ideas  from  have,  I n an  r e a d i n g s he h a d  i n the  article  classifies  p i e c e i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r has begun d o i n g on  clearly  spiritualism  and,  t h e a u t h o r g i v e s Yaeko t h e a b i l i t y  spirit In  possession of others.  The  other scholar  a book w h i c h e x a m i n e s Kawabata's use  his  literature,  T a k e d a l o o k s a t one  and  analyzed on  of the f i r s t  the as  borrowed 1925.^  presentiment;  i s Takeda  of b i b l i c a l  me  scope  in  w i t h powers o f t e l e s t h e s i a  I p o i n t e d out,  merge.  "Shiroi"  Kawabata endows O n a t s u as  are  remiss of  done on Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e ,  o f them i s H a d o r i T e t s u y a .  literary  silence  o f t h e work, i t w o u l d be  i n f l u e n c e o f s p i r i t u a l i s m on Kawabata, he the  silence  the  to  take  Katsuhiko.  quotations i n  times the  author  13 has tion  introduced a b i b l i c a l i s actually  an  " a m a l g a m a t i o n " o f two  "My  son,  the  lamp i n t h e m i d s t  quotation  quotation i n his f i c t i o n .  f o r s a k e n o t t h y mother,  f a c e t i o u s l y when r e f e r r i n g  A year before the p u b l i c a t i o n had  q u o t a t i o n s from  f o r thou w i l t  o f a deep d a r k n e s s . "  The  Proverbs:  lose the l i g h t  (p.149)  Onatsu  of  uses  the  t o h e r m o t h e r ' s wanton ways.  o f " S h i r o i m a n g e t s u , " Kawabata  h i s main c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p l a t f o r m o f t h e l i t e r a r y  he h a d  quota-  become a member o f , t h e S h i n k a n k a k u h a  school  ("Neo-Perceptionist  100  School"), It  was  p u b l i s h e d i n the January,  an e s s a y t i t l e d IP  %*T  l£  O % ^ tVS  Garde W r i t e r s " ) . and of  style  1925  " S h i n s h i n s a k k a no %%t*t  ft)  ("The  author r e l i e d  section  Tendency o f t h e  I n t h e e s s a y , Kawabata c a l l e d  i n the Japanese  f o r new  n o v e l , and he e m p h a s i z e d  on i m p o r t e d  jidai.  shinkeiko kaisetsu"  New  sense p e r c e p t i o n f o r the n o v e l i s t .  the  i s s u e of Bunqei  the  expression importance  As w i t h t h e s c h o o l  concepts.  Avant-  itself,  F o r example, t h e  final  o f t h e e s s a y i s d e v o t e d t o Kawabata's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Dadaism.  Masao M i y o s h i h a s  uage Kawabata o u t l i n e s  s u m m a r i z e d t h e m e a n i n g o f a new  of lang-  i n the essay:  He w o u l d h a v e a l a n g u a g e f o r t h e n o v e l t h a t would r e f l e c t immediately the i n c h o a t e s t a t e o f a man's t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , and s e n s o r y e x p e r i e n c e . . . . I n such a language, the s e e r i s not y e t s e p a r a t e d from t h e seen, t h e s p e a k e r from t h e spoken. To i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t , Kawabata p r o v i d e s a sample s e n t e n c e o r two ("My e y e s were r e d r o s e s " as p r e f e r a b l e t o "My e y e s saw r e d r o s e s " ) , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s t e n d s t o muddle t h e d i s c u s s i o n more t h a n clarify it.14 As  f i r s t best exemplified  umi"  %  August,  ^ 1925  \.> Of  issue  i n Kawabata's s h o r t ("Blue  of Bunqei  Sea,  jidai,  B l a c k Sea")  kuroi  p u b l i s h e d i n the  clearly recognizable  the f o l l o w i n g ten years. "Aoi"  i s pure  given the t i t l e s It  " A o i umi  the i n f l u e n c e o f Neo-Percep-  t i o n i s m on Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e w o u l d be for  story  i s written  fantasy.  "The  First  The work i s d i v i d e d Testament"  and  "The  i n the f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e ,  successfully  commits  Rikako.  The  first  suicide,  and  the second  i n t o two Second  sections  Testament."  a first-person  who  s u i c i d e w i t h a y o u n g woman named  section  deals with events p r i o r  section  t o the  f o c u s e s on t h e s u i c i d e  double  itself.  101  Most o f t h e are  b o u n t i f u l l y found i n "Aoi."  beyond the of the The  e a r l i e r Kawabata m o t i f s ,  work.  Floral is a  parentheses i s the  (1), the  dahlia  of  (1), d a n d e l i o n  (2), w i l d  first  chapter,  in  the  works o f Kawabata. likes  following  chrysanthemum,  the  i s the  b e a u t y and  and  the  the  i n "Aoi":  "In  maple image  I  of  discussed  that  the  The  wild  author  reincarnation.  loving a  wild  unnecessary to rewrite  dead atop the  (p.195)  waves o f  a  this  wild  chrysanthemum  represents  creation.  much o f t h e the  life  d e a t h and  force  theme o f  Kawabata i s t r u e  symbolize  As  flower  i s c e r t a i n l y mixed w i t h death i n " A o i " ;  testaments,  death.  (3),  (10),  h a p p i n e s s w h i c h comes w i t h a t r u s t i n m e t e m p s y c h o s i s  oneness of  m a t t e r how of  line  was  the  w i t h s p i r i t u a l i s m and  i t w o u l d be  chrysanthemum f a n t a s y . "  appears: a reed  comes t o a c l o s e .  "Aoi."  work; i n  I t i s with the  I t seems t o be  final  I think  (2).  analysis  chrysanthemum o c c u p i e s a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n  to associate  t e s t a m e n t e v e n t h o u g h one  the  "Aoi"  flora  (4), banana p l a n t  chrysanthemum  the  Life  i t is  abundant i n  f l o r a mentioned i n the  number o f t i m e s t h e  in  The  the  chrysanthemum t h a t  especially  characters  f a c t , so much so t h a t  symbols o f metempsychosis a r e  list  (2), w i s t e r i a  wild  and  scope of t h i s t h e s i s t o attempt a comprehensive  following  peony  In  images,  to  purity,  f i n d s i t s way  "Aoi"  i n t o the  the  c o l o r he  c o l o r most o f t e n  no  pages  i s b a s i c a l l y a theme  form: white, i s the  however,  used  of to  found i n  the  work. The  motifs,  images, and  characters  f r o m e a r l i e r Kawabata w o r k s , b u t l a n g u a g e a d v o c a t e d by attempted  i n "Aoi."  the The  the  deviate  kind  only  slightly  of experimenting  author i n h i s essay i s c l e a r l y following  l i n e s i n the  work  with  being  resemble  102  the c l o s e l y Kawabata's "My eyes A  essay:"'Look sea,  I am  were r e d r o s e s " s a m p l e s e n t e n c e  at the black sea.  the black  Besides t h i s  e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h language, of time  as w e l l  i n the e a r l i e r  quently  f o l l o w so r a p i d l y  and  Kawabata o f r e l y i n g  enough on  a traditional  Perceptionist  in  The  about  one  t o k e e p i n mind a b o u t  c a n be t h o u g h t traditions  i s tempted  for their  next  not  way.  why  the  Neo-  reaction  a t the  o f more a s a means o f  from imported  members o f t h e movement t h e m s e l v e s  were a d v o c a t i n g was  fre-  which would  i n a more " o r g a n i c "  literature  o f b r i n g i n g i n n o v a t i o n i n t o modern J a p a n e s e  The  that  technique of writing"  s u c h a s n a t u r a l i s m and p r o l e t a r i a n  haiku.  transitions  of the formation of the school, p a r t i c u l a r l y  literary  as s u r r e a l i s m  The  movements t h a t were i n vogue i n J a p a n  Kawabata's c a s e ,  "Aoi"  (and c h a r a c t e r s ) d e t e c t e d  S c h o o l came i n t o e x i s t e n c e i s t o s e e i t as a  purpose  i n g Japanese  Kawabata f i l l s  t o o much on n o v e l t y i n " A o i " and  consideration  to other l i t e r a r y time.  space  a r e so s t a r t l i n g  "renqa  the t r a n s i t i o n s  important  and  "Sora n i ugoku h i . "  t o accuse  An  looking at the black  sea.(p.189)  w i t h sudden t r a n s i t i o n s  have brought  B e c a u s e I'm  i n the  "new"  a language  than  models  i t was  literature.  l o o k e d t o European  language  from  models  such  they  traditional  compares Kawabata w i t h  Matsuo Bash5.  a means Although  o f t h e n o v e l , what  not very d i f f e r e n t  chapter, i n fact,  most famous h a i k u p o e t ,  European  protect-  Japan',s  A TRAVEL DIARY:  "IZU  CHAPTER It  i s perhaps a l i t t l e  w r i t e r was ("The 1926 and  firmly  i s s u e s of Bunqei  jidai.  odoriko"  Kawabata's c a l l  already a year  In f a c t ,  more t o J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y very nature diary  f o r new  expression no publish-  degree of  new  t h a t " I z u " owes much  the p a s t ; f o r i n s t a n c e ,  t o mind t h e g e n r e o f t h e  contents  The  diaries  person,  d i a r y has  and  emotional  of the d i a r y are,  a s one  the reader  world  the  literary  might expect,  ( Tosa  to s a t i s f y  the t r a d i t i o n  experiences The  earliest  Diary,  935)  artistic  ends.  a b o u t him,  experiences  i s a universal  place,  vers^of  literary  w r i t t e n by  diary  diary  With Basho's t r a v e l  first  was  the poet and  as  Ki we  truth i s  diaries,  i t s zenith.  d i a r i e s may  have a q u a l i t y has  of  a r e made t o t a k e on the persona  a universal  of the  self-  s e t down h i s  of achieving a kind of o b j e c t i v i t y  " I " ; and  fact.  inner  of h i s journeys,  b u t BashS t h e a r t i s t  w i t h t h e aim  takes  of the  It is a travel  i s s a i d t o have r e a c h e d  literature.  w r i t t e n i n the  account  i n Basho's accounts  " I " o f Basho's t r a v e l  confession  The  (869-945).  a l s o f i n d much l a t e r  mostly  i s given a v i v i d  T s u r a y u k i %L  The  i n Japanese  are o f t e n a f i c t i o n a l i z e d  of the w r i t e r .  nikki  altered  a long t r a d i t i o n  b e a r i n g some r e s e m b l a n c e t o what a c t u a l l y  the  self.  February,  o l d when " I z u " was  i t ' s obvious  forms from  o f t h e work c a l l s  literary  Although  Tosa  and  (nikki).  The  "I"  " I z u no  y e t t h e n o v e l e t t e a t b e s t shows o n l y a m a r g i n a l style.  a  1  i n the Japanese n o v e l i n h i s " S h i n s h i n sakka  e x p r e s s i o n and  no  t h a t K a w a b a t a s r e p u t a t i o n as  a work p u b l i s h e d i n t h e J a n u a r y  s h i n k e i k o k a i s e t s u " was ed,  I03  ODORIKO"  IV  established with  Izu Dancer"),  style  ironic  NO  of  the  aspect;  the  " I " merges w i t h  that  104  of the  traveler.  Nakamura M i t s u o ' s r e m a r k s on t h e that  although  a form  format  "Izu" i n c l u d e almost  Kawabata u s e s  " I z u " may  of f i c t i o n  author's  comments on  be  called  which c o n s i s t s  in his novelette.  by  critics  such  Kawabata has  had  sal  found  i s t o be  this  universal Although  theless  in realizing i n the  " I " has  not t e c h n i c a l l y  shares  i n the  Nakamura s a y s  objectivity  on  as  a travel  a great d e a l with the  w a l k down t h e  student. by  The  the  s t o r y ' s background,  has  been p o s s i b l e  including  t h e r e was  find an  omoide" a n d  "Yugashima de no  omoide" i s no  ological  list  information:  univer-  diaries,  traveler.  of the  a First  Basho.  author's  Higher  School  of "Izu"  p u b l i s h e d comments  burned  A l s o , i n the  pieces  earlier  a section dealing with h i s Izu  then p a r t i a l l y  reproduced  longer available  the manuscript.  o f the making o f  on  autobiographical information, i t  "Izu" prototype o r i g i n a l l y  "Yugashima de no  subsequently  The  1  f o r Japanese s c h o l a r s t o e n d l e s s l y produce  " C h i y o " we  e x p e r i e n c e ; and  that  success  the p u b l i c a t i o n  on what went i n t o t h e m a k i n g o f t h e work. Kawabata s t o r y  fact  Kawabata's " I z u " none-  account  own  an  and  f o r m as e p i t o m i z e d by  I z u P e n i n s u l a when he was  Through the a u t h o r ' s  of the  diary,  a c t u a l experience precedes  eight years.  t o the  the  in his " I . "  the persona  of  Kawabata  i n Basho's t r a v e l  Kawabata's n o v e l e t t e i s a f i c t i o n a l i z e d own  1  first-person  i s testimony  " I " and,  taken  ("I-novel ),  as Nakamura, as an a r t i s t  become so p o p u l a r  says  of the p e r s o n a l accounts  worked towards o b j e c t i f y i n g h i s " I . " t h e s t o r y has  He  a watakushi-shosetsu  experiences written normally  much m a l i g n e d  identical  The  is a  in  i n "Shonen".  s i n c e the  following  "Izu" r e l a t i n g  found  author  chron-  to the preceding  105  1918  years o l d ) : Kawabata t r a v e l s through I z u with the dancer's group of s t r o l l i n g performers.  1919  (20 years o l d ) : "Chiyo" i s p u b l i s h e d . based on Kawabata's Izu e x p e r i e n c e .  1922  (23 y e a r s o l d ) : Kawabata produces a manuscript t i t l e d "Yugashima de no omoide." The f i r s t h a l f of the d r a f t i s the p r o t o t y p e of "Izu." I t i s l a t e r p a r t i a l l y reproduced i n "Shonen" which i s p u b l i s h e d s e r i a l l y i n 1948 and 1949.  1926  ( 2 ^ years o l d ) : "Izu" i s p u b l i s h e d . The  It includes a section  f o l l o w i n g passage d e a l i n g with the author's Izu t r i p i s  taken from  "Shonen":  Wandering performers who t r a v e l from hot s p r i n g r e s o r t t o hot s p r i n g r e s o r t are p a s s i n g from s i g h t w i t h the y e a r s . My r e c o l l e c t i o n s of Yugashima b e g i n w i t h these wandering performers. Memories of my f i r s t I z u t r a v e l flow i n the l i g h t of the t a i l of the comet l e f t by the b e a u t i f u l dancer i n the scenery between S h u z e n j i and Shimoda. Autumn was h a l f over and I had j u s t e n t e r e d second y e a r of h i g h e r s c h o o l . I t was the f i r s t r e a l t r a v e l i n g I'd done s i n c e coming t o Tokyo. Having stayed a n i g h t i n S h u z e n j i , I was walking a l o n g the Shimoda Road to Yugashima ana had j u s t c r o s s e d Yugawa Bridge when I came a c r o s s t h r e e g i r l s who were wandering performers. They were going t o S h u z e n j i . The dancer c a r r i e d a b i g drum; she stood out from a l o n g way o f f . I looked back again and again, t h i n k i n g t h a t 1 d now a c q u i r e d the h e a r t of a traveler.2 1  In  the l i n e from "Yugashima de no omoide" reproduced i n  "Shonen" which reads," Wandering performers who  t r a v e l from hot  s p r i n g r e s o r t t o hot s p r i n g r e s o r t are p a s s i n g from s i g h t with the y e a r s , " we  f i n d expressed a p o e t i c sentiment  c e l e b r a t e d opening Oku  l i n e s o f Basho's most famous t r a v e l  no hosomichi  Provinces ,  t h a t resembles  the  diary,  ( The Narrow Road Through the  C.1693):  The months and days are the wayfarers of the c e n t u r i e s , and as y e t another y e a r comes round, i t , too, turns t r a v e l e r . S a i l o r s whose l i v e s f l o a t away as they l a b o r on boats, horsemen who  106  e n c o u n t e r o l d age as t h e y draw t h e h o r s e a r o u n d o n c e more by t h e b i t , t h e y a l s o s p e n d t h e i r ^ d a y s i n t r a v e l and make t h e i r home i n w a y f a r i n g . Although does  Kawabata's l i n e  from  "Yugashima de no  not appear i n "Izu," the  last  lines  reproduced  omoide"  f r o m t h e same p a s s a g e were  a l m o s t word f o r word i n t h e n o v e l e t t e :  I had seen t h e l i t t l e dancer t w i c e . Once I p a s s e d h e r and t h e o t h e r two y o u n g women on a l o n g b r i d g e h a l f way down t h e p e n i n s u l a . She was c a r r y i n g a b i g drum. I l o o k e d b a c k and l o o k e d back a g a i n , c o n g r a t u l a t i n g myself t h a t h e r e f i n a l l y I had t h e f l a v o r o f t r a v e l . ^ The  key  phrase  "here  finally  I had  the  f l a v o r of t r a v e l "  the  " I " u n d e r g o p r e c i s e l y t h e same p r o c e s s Bash5's " I " g o e s  The  persona Another  can be in  seen  of the  example o f common g r o u n d by t h e k i n d o f p e o p l e  his travel.  performers,  " I " merges w i t h t h a t o f t h e  and h o r s e m e n do  s h a r e d between t h e works  Kawabata's " I " j o i n s  assumes t h e same t y p e o f r o l e  i n Basho's o p e n i n g  vocation of i t i n e r a t e  l i n e s o f Oku  entertainer ties  through.  traveler.  up  By b e c o m i n g a f e l l o w t r a v e l e r w i t h t h e  h i s persona  has  one  with  touring the  sailors  no h o s o m i c h i .  The  "to t h e s e a s o n a l p a s s a g e  They were f r o m Oshima i n t h e l e u I s l a n d s , t h e man t o l d me. In the s p r i n g they l e f t t o wander o v e r t h e p e n i n s u l a , b u t now i t was g e t t i n g c o l d and t h e y had no w i n t e r c l o t h e s w i t h them. A f t e r t e n d a y s o r s o a t Shimoda i n t h e s o u t h t h e y would s a i l back t o the i s l a n d s . ^ One  f u r t h e r s t e p Kawabata t a k e s t o h i n t  seasonal flow of time He  i s found near  l i k e n s the g a t h e r i n g of troupes  at t h e i r  l i n k with  the beginning of chapter s i x . of wandering performers  p e d d l e r s i n Shimoda t o m i g r a t o r y b i r d s r e t u r n i n g t o t h e Incidentally,  i n t h e same way  u s i n g p r o p e r nouns s u c h  a  and  nest.  Basho goes t o t h e e x t e n t  as p l a c e names t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e  of total  107 effect  o f t h e work, Kawabata i n a l i k e manner f i l l s  names w h i c h a c h i e v e a s i m i l a r e f f e c t . has  The  storybook the  group  o f M i t o Komon), t h e p o p u l a r s t o r y o f  o f famous t r a v e l e r s  i n Japan,  dancer  1^1$  F  r e a d f o r h e r i s Mi t o Komon M a n y u k i  (Travel Sketches  "Izu" with  12.  another  Tokugawa M i t s u k u n i and h i s  retinue. In the y e a r s immediately i n c r e a s i n g l y begun t o f e e l In h i s p o e t r y c o u l d be  p r e c e d i n g BashS's t r a v e l s ,  alienated  seen  had  a l s o been g o i n g t h r o u g h  years p r i o r  to h i s journey.  for their  respective  climactic  scene  personal  selves  my  trip."  says  alternative  o f c h a p t e r f i v e we been: " I had  as a m i s a n t h r o p e , that  l e a r n what  d r i v e n me  the the  come a t n i n e -  a lonely misfit,  had  In  and i t  to this  Izu  6  K i y o s h i w r o t e some i n t e r e s t i n g  i n a rather paradoxical fashion  says t h a t  that  people  loneliness  live  the f e e l i n g  of loneliness.  enter the c i t y , attractive  that  mean t h a t p e o p l e says t h a t To do  There  of t h i s  on  loneliness.  i t i s t o escape  p e o p l e g e t out and  s o , he  "There  i s pleasure.  pleasure.  Miki  suggests that Miki  i s an a e s t h e t i c  I f someone l i k e s  Young g i r l s  from further  shut themselves  whereas E a s t e r n e r s e n t e r n a t u r e .  side to loneliness:  loneliness. because  He  thoughts  a l o n e o r become r e c l u s e s .  doesn't  from the o u t s i d e w o r l d .  its  i n the  other than t o take t o the road.  depression at the thought  loneliness  in  which  Kawabata's " I "  stages of s e l f - s c r u t i n y  a n g u i s h o f Kawabata's " I " h a d  Miki He  him.  suffering  I t i s as i f t h e r e were no  f o u n d a t t h e end  teen t o t h i n k of myself was  I n a s i m i l a r way,  painful  had  from the w o r l d around  a tremendous s p i r i t u a l  a t t e s t e d t o h i s estrangement.  he  understand  off  experience  Westerners finds  an  allurement loneliness, the  aesthetic  108 allurement  in  loneliness."  Kawabata, who girls,  was  c a p t i v a t e d by  w o u l d seem t o be  words on  7  a person  that  fits  j o u r n e y Basho t a k e s i n Oku  himself i s representative of l i f e  eternity  Within that  through  life,  recognition  destined to perish.  itself.  The  effect  events  t o o comes f u l l  in  circle  mortality  and  The  of l i f e  he  as a t t h e end,  They a r e i n c i d e n t s  has  come;  sequence o f events  transient  as  involving  he  i t particularly  corres-  his  journey  as b e f o r e . t o be  of  two  i n c i d e n t s which  take  At the beginning of the " I ' s "  o l d people. Pass:  found  a p p l i e s t o man's  i s confronted with  p l a c e i n t h e t e a - h o u s e n e a r Amagi  the  nature.  i s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d i n " I z u " by  as w e l l  hosomichi,  i s t o g i v e the r e a d e r a sense  i t s eternal  mutability  no  way.  As w i t h B a s h o ' s " I " , t h e  nothing i s repeated exactly  effect  The  s i d e o f t h e c i r c l e have  p l a c e a t o p p o s i t e ends o f i t s c i r c l e . trip  place.  i n a circular pattern to  r e t u r n s t h e way  there i s a c y c l i c a l  cycle with  The  on one  on t h e o t h e r s i d e .  " I z u " as w e l l .  life's  Events  i n "Izu" never  Nevertheless,  and  i s to  I z u works much t h e same  Basho c o n s c i o u s l y b u i l t  order of the events.  traveler  time  of  are  o f Basho's s t u d y o f e t e r n i t y  a n a l y z e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e s d e s c r i b e d i n Oku  seems t h a t  the  achieves a v i s i o n  t h i n g s by t h e i f v e r y n a t u r e  t r a v e l Kawabata's " I " makes t h r o u g h When one  revitalize  makes d u r i n g h i s s h o r t  the t r a v e l e r  that  to  His t r a v e l through  man  p r o d u c e a l i t e r a r y work w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s  ponding  i n p e r f e c t l y with Miki's  no h o s o m i c h i  becomes a m i c r o c o s m o f t h e t r a v e l  span o f l i f e .  it  young  loneliness.  The  North  the hearts of b e a u t i f u l  The  images o f  first  death.  occasion takes  109  An o l d man w i t h t h e p a l e c o m p l e x i o n o f a drowned p e r s o n was s i t t i n g c r o s s - l e g g e d n e a r t h e f i r e s i d e . His eyes, y e l l o w and decayed t o t h e p u p i l s , w e a r i l y t u r n e d i n my d i r e c t i o n . With a mountain o f o l d l e t t e r s and p a p e r bags b u i l t up a r o u n d him, y o u c o u l d s a y he was b u r i e d i n w a s t e p a p e r . The s i g h t of t h i s man who c o u l d h a r d l y be t h o u g h t o f a s l i v i n g s t o p p e d me i n my t r a c k s . . . A p p a r e n t l y h e h a d come t o l i v e a l i f e o f s t a r i n g a t t h e l e t t e r s and p a p e r bags t h a t s u r r o u n d e d h i m w i t h o u t t h r o w i n g one o f them away. The m o u n t a i n o f o l d w a s t e p a p e r h a d been b u i l t up o v e r a p e r i o d o f many y e a r s . I l o o k e d a t t h e open f i r e , n o t r e p l y i n g t o t h e o l d woman. A c a r c r o s s i n g t h e m o u n t a i n shook t h e h o u s e . With i t b e i n g t h i s c o l d f o r autumn and snow a b o u t t o f a l l on t h e p a s s , I w o n d e r e d why t h e o l d man h a d n t come down f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n s . tpp-Aoo -01) 1  Suffering  f r o m d r o p s y , t h e o l d man h a s t h e a p p e a r a n c e  one who h a s drowned. yellow,  the color  The " I " p e r c e i v e s t h e o l d man's e y e s t o be  symbolic of impurity  and i n " I z u " a s w e l l .  Later i n "Izu",  and d e c a y  i n "Shiroi  Yugano becomes y e l l o w and muddy f r o m t h e h e a v y  to  fall  the  o f t h e heavy  the dancer's  o l dletters  level.  a n d p a p e r bags  a t t h e mountain  a c t s on b o t h a c o n c r e t e a n d s y m b o l i c he proviJes  As a l o n g - t i m e s u f f e r e r  side the tea-house.  of paralysis/a  contrast t o those  make t h e i r way t h r o u g h t h e m o u n t a i n s  The o n l y m o u n t a i n  o f waste  a token o f t h e passage o f time and o f h i s s u f f e r i n g , as i t g a i n s i n h e i g h t .  paper i s  increasingly  The " I " p o n d e r s o v e r why t h e o l d man  has n o t come down f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n s ; step  out-  o f r e l e v a n c e t o hira i s t h e  one he s t a r e s a t day i n a n d day o u t ; h i s m o u n t a i n  symbolic  rain  purity.  t r a v e l e r s who a c t i v e l y  so  began  t h e d i s t a n t b e a t i n g o f a t a i k o w i t h i t s ominous m e a n i n g  Kawabata's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e o l d man s t a r i n g of  r a i n which  inn  I n t h e d a r k n e s s o f h i s room, t h e image o f  y e l l o w , muddy c r e e k t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s o u n d  heralds for  sunset.  mangetsu"  the creek near the " I ' s "  in  about  o f some-  f u r t h e r we m i g h t  surely  i f we t a k e i t a  a l s o q u e s t i o n what k e e p s  this  110lifeless,  motionless  o l d man i n t h e m i d s t  the mountain's t r a v e l e r s The journey  image o f d e a t h  of the cyclic  flow o f  of l i f e . a t t h e o t h e r end o f t h e " I ' s " c y c l i c a l  o c c u r s when he i s a b o u t t o d e p a r t  from  Shimoda.  A  harbor  w o r k e r comes up t o a s k a f a v o r o f t h e " I " : "Say, y o u ' r e g o i n g t o Tokyo, a r e n ' t y o u . How a b o u t l o o k i n g a f t e r t h i s o l d woman who's on h e r way t o Tokyo, t o o . S h e ' s r e a l l y u n l u c k y . H e r s o n was w o r k i n g i n t h e s i l v e r mine a t R e n d a i j i , b u t b o t h he a n d h i s w i f e d i e d i n t h e e p i d e m i c o f i n f l u e n z a . T h e y l e f t t h r e e g r a n d c h i l d r e n . We t o l d h e r s h e ' d b e t t e r go b a c k w i t h them t o t h e p r o v i n c e s h e comes from. She's f r o m M i t o a n d doesn'tkhowwhat's g o i n g on, s o a f t e r y o u a r r i v e a t R e i g a n j i m a c o u l d y o u s e e t h a t s h e g e t s on t h e t r a i n t o Uenb. ..." (f.<22*0 The to  unfortunate  influenza.  o l d woman h a s l o s t  h e r son and daughter-in-law  A w o r k e r on t h e w a t e r f r o n t h a s s o l i c i t e d  h e l p t o p u t h e r on t h e t r a i n b o u n d f o r Ueno o n c e t h e y Reiganjima  ("the i s l a n d o f t h e s h o r e  of s p i r i t s " ) .  the "I's"  arrive at  T h e o l d woman  and  h e r g r a n d c h i l d r e n , a r e on t h e i r way t o h e r hometown o f M i t o ,  the  same hometown a s t h e t r a v e l e r s  Aren't  i n t h e dancer's  storybook.  we t o assume t h a t t h e o r p h a n e d g r a n d c h i l d r e n a r e f a t e d t o  make t h e i r complex"  own " I z u j o u r n e y "  (koji  just  as t h e " I , " a s u f f e r e r  k o n j S ) , has had t o ?  Kawabata e n h a n c e s t h e c y c l i c a l treatment  o f "orphan  o f t h e weather.  In s p i t e  p a t t e r n found  i n "Izu" with h i s  o f t h e season  being  i n reality  r e s t r i c t e d t o autumn i n t h e s t o r y ,  Kawabata pens a v a r i e t y o f  weather c o n d i t i o n s which v i r t u a l l y  span t h e seasons.  scenes of  involving  the o l d people  the " I ' s " journey  share  T h e two  features b e f i t t i n g  a n d t h e w e a t h e r seems t y p i c a l  the cycle  o f t h e season  would n a t u r a l l y  a s s i g n f o r them, w i n t e r .  blowing  Shimoda when we a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e o l d woman,  and  through  t h e scene  There i s a c o l d  w i t h t h e o l d man t a k e s p l a c e w i t h  we  wind  t h e w e a t h e r abnorm-  Ill  ally  cold  f o r autumn.  A summary o f how t u r n o f the seasons novelette.  the  might  the  " I , " where h i s t r a v e l  is,  and  t h e d i r e c t i o n he  time t h a t  relates  paragraph expect has  from a t r a v e l  so  the season  Also,  i s autumn.  p a t t e r n t o t h e .events i n " I z u " a n d  like: the  i t ' s cold  the pass w i l l  " I " e n t e r s t h e t u n n e l o f Amagi P a s s  two,  i t proves  and  spring-like  t h r e e t h e day sion  t o be  a transitional  conditions.  summer day"  affinity leave  We  with spring.  affords  them a v i s t a  spring:  " F o r some r e a s o n — w a s  of the sea.  t h a t made i t seem s o ? — t h e veiled  Japanese  sight  chapter The  expresor  "an  i s r e v e a l e d an performers the  mountains  i s reminiscent of  i t t h e c l e a r n e s s o f t h e autumn  Their  arrival  a touch of winter i n i t ,  "I"  i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e o l d woman; a n d we  has  come t o an  end.  winter-like  .  t h e i r walk through The  chapter  sky  s e a where t h e sun r o s e o v e r i t was  i n a s p r i n g l i k e mist."  weather which has  4®  " I " and t h e w a n d e r i n g  f o r Shimoda i n c h a p t e r f i v e ,  When  "a balmy autumn day"  from the o r i g i n a l When t h e  0  which  i s winter-  c o v e r e d i n snow.  /j' ^  by  one,  at the beginning of  i n t e r m s s u c h as  but  Chapter  b o u n d a r y between  find  there i s a  at the beginning of  d e s c r i b e d as K o h a r u b i y o r i  i s translateable  Indian  it  be  a  they are supported  a t the tea-house, soon  on  i s made f o r t h e  indicated,  a t u r n of the seasons.  o f t h e o l d man  and  as I ' v e  kind  presently  Autumn i s , o f c o u r s e ,  cyclical  the scene  the  f i n d the  where he  mention  c o n s t a n t i n the s t o r y but,  c o n d i t i o n s which suggest  we  of  d i a r y : background  f a r t a k e n him,  i s taking.  figurative  lines  of the story,  seasonal  includes  to a  would b e g i n w i t h the opening  In the second  o f i n f o r m a t i o n one  first  "I's" travel  i n Shimoda b r i n g s w i t h and  i t i s where  also find that a  the  cycle  I wonder i f i t ' s n o t t o o o u t r a g e o u s t o f i n d qualities  of a similar  i n t h e dancer  n a t u r e t o t h e t u n n e l a t Amagi P a s s .  too  i s at a point  The  tunnel represents a confluence of winter-like  attributes;  of transition,  by  once  t o woman.  and s p r i n g - l i k e  I n a c o n v e r s a t i o n between t h e d a n c e r a n d t h e  through the tunnel,  showing  from g i r l  t h e d a n c e r r e p r e s e n t s a c o n f l u e n c e o f g i r l i s h and  womanly a t t r i b u t e s . "I"  a transition  She  Kawabata seems t o m i r r o r t h i s  h e r i n c a p a b l e o f d e l i n e a t i n g t h e boundary  contrasting  seasons.  fusion  b e t w e e n two  The " I " h a s b e e n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s a b o u t  Oshima: " S t u d e n t s come t o Oshima t o swim, y o u know," t h e g i r l r e m a r k e d t o t h e y o u n g woman b e s i d e h e r . "In  t h e summer, I s u p p o s e . "  I looked  back.  She was f l u s t e r e d . " I n t h e w i n t e r t o o , " s h e a n s w e r e d i n an a l m o s t i n a u d i b l e l i t t l e v o i c e . "Even  i n thewinter?"  She l o o k e d a t t h e o t h e r woman a n d l a u g h e d tainly. "Do  t h e y swim e v e n  i n the winter?"  I asked a g a i n .  She f l u s h e d a n d n o d d e d v e r y s l i g h t l y , s i o n on h e r f a c e . "The It is  child  i s crazy,"  responsible  f o r much o f t h e d r a m a t i c t e n s i o n  not  woman, a n d t h e e y e s o f t h e " I . "  tion.  which There  ambivalence:  t h e eyes o f t h e f o r t y - y e a r  t o a woman a n d a p p e a r s t o  comprehend t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e  She i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y  0  To r e p e a t a g a i n , t h e d a n c e r  i n t h e midst o f changing from a g i r l yet fully  i n "Izu."  expres-  1  i s t h e ambivalent nature o f t h e dancer's s e x u a l i t y  through t h e eyes o f t h e dancer h e r s e l f ,  is  a serious  t h e o l d e r woman l a u g h e d .  seem t o be t h r e e d i v e r g e n t ways o f v i e w i n g t h i s  old  uncer-  of her state of transi-  a c t s a t one t i m e  like  a girl  and a t  other times l i k e startled  a woman.  T h e f o r t y - y e a r o l d woman, however, i s  into recognition of the situation  d a n c e r e x h i b i t s when t h e g i r l  from t h e b e h a v i o r t h e  b r i n g s t e a up t o them a t t h e i n n i n  Yugano: We went up t o t h e s e c o n d f l o o r a n d l a i d down o u r baggage. The s t r a w c a r p e t i n g a n d t h e d o o r s were worn and d i r t y . The l i t t l e d a n c e r b r o u g h t up t e a f r o m b e l o w . As s h e came t o me t h e t e a c u p c l a t t e r e d i n i t s s a u c e r . She s e t i t down s h a r p l y i n an e f f o r t t o s a v e h e r s e l f , but she succeeded o n l y i n s p i l l i n g i t . I was h a r d l y p r e p a r e d f o r c o n f u s i o n so extreme. "Dear me. The c h i l d ' s come t o d d a n g e r o u s a g e , " t h e o l d e r woman s a i d , a r c h i n g h e r e y e b r o w s a s s h e t o s s e d over a c l o t h . The g i r l wiped t e n s e l y a t t h e t e a . " The girl's  r e a d e r comes t o f i n d  budding  protect  sexuality,  that  after this  awakening t o t h e  t h e woman t a k e s i t upon h e r s e l f t o  t h e dancer's p u r i t y .  She t a k e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  seeing t o i t that t h e precarious balance o f the dancer's woman " s c a l e " direction.  doesn't  I t ' s a matter o f course then t o conceive o f  woman's d e e p e n i n g  concern f o r the dancer's p u r i t y  on t h e woman's p e r c e p t i o n Of "Izu"  critical  of the g i r l  importance  He i s r e l i e v e d  he h a d o r i g i n a l l y  thirteen. tains  t o be b a s e d  i n t o a woman. of the " I "  h i s perception  o f t h e dancer  mistaken  f r o m a woman t o a g i r l .  f o r about  sixteen  The s c e n e where t h e " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n "  one o f t h e most famous p a s s a g e s  The  i s i n reality  takes place  found i n t h e story-  conThe " I "  and t h e d a n c e r ' s b r o t h e r a r e l o o k i n g o v e r a t t h e p u b l i c b a t h the  other side  of the  in  o f a s e n s e o f a n g u i s h when s h e i s s u d d e n l y  "transformed" b e f o r e h i s v e r y eyes girl  turning  t o the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n  i s quite the opposite direction  takes.  i n t h e womanly  Revealed i s a sense o f anguish s h o u l d t h e dancer's  p u r i t y be s t a i n e d . the  s u d d e n l y make a s h a r p s w i n g  girl/  river:  from  114  "One s m a l l f i g u r e r a n o u t i n t o t h e s u n l i g h t and s t o o d f o r a moment a t t h e edge o f t h e p l a t f o r m c a l l i n g s o m e t h i n g t o u s , arms r a i s e d a s though f o r a plunge i n t o t h e r i v e r . I t was t h e l i t t l e dancer. I looked a t her, a t t h e young l e g s , a t t h e s c u l p t u r e d w h i t e body, a n d s u d d e n l y a d r a u g h t o f f r e s h w a t e r seemed to; wash o v e r my heart. I laughed h a p p i l y . She was a c h i l d , a mere c h i l d , a c h i l d who c o u l d r u n o u t n a k e d i n t o t h e s u n a n d s t a n d t h e r e on h e r t i p t o e s i n h e r delight at seeing a friend. I l a u g h e d on, a s o f t , happy l a u g h . I t was a s t h o u g h a l a y e r o f d u s t h a d been c l e a r e d f r o m my h e a d . And I l a u g h e d on a n d o n . I t was b e c a u s e o f h e r t o o - r i c h h a i r t h a t s h e h a d seemed o l d e r , a n d b e c a u s e s h e was dressed l i k e a g i r l of f i f t e e n or sixteen. I had made an e x t r a o r d i n a r y m i s t a k e i n d e e d . '^-2 Lustful  ideas  t h e " I " h a d h a r b o r e d f o r t h e "woman" i n t h e  dancer and t h e anguish  he h a d f e l t  over f e a r t h a t her p u r i t y had  b e e n s t a i n e d b y someone f r o m t h e p a r t y before these  are q u i c k l y erased spiritual  Looking  sensation  from h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  p o l l u t i o n s had been  a t h e r innocent,  white nakedness,  t o accomplish night before.  from t h e f a c t  c a l l e d misoqi.  f o ra Shinto  no f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s  r e l a t e d t o the dancer's s e x u a l i t y .  the p u r i f i c a t i o n  of Shinto  i n achieving about i n  ing  why anyone w o u l d s e e h i m r e p r e s e n t i n g  construed  i n "Izu" o f mental  In fact,  b e e n t h a t he becomes i n c a p a b l e  a t h r e a t he v e r y  sense  s t y l e method o f  n e a r t h e p u b l i c b a t h c a n be  t h a t we f i n d  a  A measure o f t h e s u c c e s s  has  purity,  His inner  I n a f i t o f a g i t a t i o n , he h a d s p l a s h e d  of the "I's" p u r i f i c a t i o n  anguish  the " I " experiences  what t h e " I " h a d b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l  by b a t h i n g  head."  The s i g h t o f t h e n a k e d d a n c e r i s  t h e b a t h i n what c o u l d e a s i l y be t a k e n purification  I t i s as i f  by w a t e r a c k n o w l e d g e s an u n d e r c u r r e n t  i d e a s w h i c h p e r m e a t e t h e work.  the  the night  "wiped c l e a r f r o m h i s  a k i n t o c l e a r water washing h i s h e a r t .  of p u r i f i c a t i o n  able  she attended  so s u c c e s s f u l of understand-  a t h r e a t t o the dancer's  much p o s e d e a r l i e r  i n the story.  The  115 verity is  of t h i s  p u z z l e d by  reversal  i s a t t e s t e d t o i n Shimoda  t h e o l d e r woman's r e f u s a l  h i m s e l f t o go by  themselves  Why  I  i t hard t o understand  found  ing.  go w i t h h i m  don't  by h e r s e l f ? '  myself,  but  see  and  anything  Eikichi  argued.  t h e woman was  unbend-  «13 It  "orphan this  c a n ' t she  t o allow the dancer  t o the movies:"'I  wrong.  when t h e " I "  was  the  "I's" depressing self-awareness of h i s  complex" w h i c h p r o m p t e d h i m  t o make t h e  Izu t r i p .  c o n n e c t i o n , t h e p u r g a t i o n o f h i s impure t h o u g h t s  witnesses the dancer ance t h e m a t i c a l l y :  a t t h e p u b l i c b a t h have had  i f his spirit  wasn't p u r i f i e d ,  t h e c a t h a r t i c e x p e r i e n c e f o u n d n e a r t h e end following  i s the c e l e b r a t e d passage  so-called  as  immense  In he import-  he w o u l d n ' t  of the s t o r y .  earn  The  where h i s complex i s o s t e n -  sibly eliminated: "But a l l he w o u l d have t o do w o u l d be t o g e t a gold tooth. Then y o u ' d n e v e r n o t i c e , " t h e d a n c e r ' s v o i c e come t o me s u d d e n l y . I looked back. T h e y were o b v i o u s l y t a l k i n g a b o u t my c r o o k e d teeth. C h i y o k o must h a v e b r o u g h t t h e m a t t e r up, and t h e l i t t l e d a n c e r s u g g e s t e d a g o l d t o o t h f o r me. I f e l t no r e s e n t m e n t a t b e i n g t a l k e d a b o u t and no p a r t i c u l a r n e e d t o h e a r more. The c o n v e r s a t i o n was s u b d u e d f o r a t i m e . "He's n i c e , i s n ' t he," t h e g i r l ' s v o i c e came again. "He seems t o be v e r y n i c e . " "He r e a l l y i s n i c e . I l i k e h a v i n g someone s o nice." She had an open way o f s p e a k i n g , a y o u t h f u l , h o n e s t way o f s a y i n g e x a c t l y what came t o h e r t h a t made i t p o s s i b l e f o r me t o t h i n k o f m y s e l f as, frankly, "nice." I l o o k e d up anew a t t h e m o u n t a i n s , s o b r i g h t t h a t t h e y made my e y e s a c h e a little. I had come a t n i n e t e e n t o t h i n k o f m y s e l f as a m i s a n t h r o p e , a l o n e l y m i s f i t , and i t was my d e p r e s s i o n a t t h e t h o u g h t t h a t h a d d r i v e n me t o t h i s I z u t r i p . And now I was a b l e t o l o o k upon m y s e l f as "a n i c e p e r s o n " i n t h e e v e r y d a y s e n s e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n . I f i n d no way t o d e s c r i b e what t h i s meant t o me. The m o u n t a i n s grew b r i g h t e r - we were g e t t i n g n e a r Shimoda a n d t h e s e a . 1^  1 1 6  After  saying  that  h i s sense of p u r i f i c a t i o n  repercussions  thematically,  stylistically  as w e l l .  "I"  "active" p u r s u i t of  since his  "passive" t o see  position.  him  player)  as  of the  I t has  One  N5  the  of  looking On  scene  relevant the  d a n c e r r e t r e a t s i n t o a more at the  d a n c e r as  " I ' s " r o l e has the  the  waki  shite  (supporting  (protagonist).  "I's" role i s to return  p a r t i c u l a r point,  been  I think  to a  a  review  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f BashS's a r t o f w r i t i n g h a i k u  Bash5 c h o s e t o  look  aesthetic distance.  For  i s to  function  as  leisurely  personality.  or  strong  sentiment  an  emotion or  will  emotion,  but,  at the him,  i n haiku;  be  f o r the  certain  the  kind  one  denotes only  I think  passive, emotion a shadow  out  of  displays  a  Basho would f i n d  s t e p w i t h what he  of"poetic spirit"  and  concepts of "lightness."  a t t i t u d e s toward l i f e .  Sabi  for a  room f o r p a s s i o n a t e  t a l k e d about c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s  were t h e  "reflection"  an  of  passionate a  "poetic  would have  poet.  accomplish  "reflection,"  from  poet's a t t i t u d e toward  " I " i n "Izu"  most p a r t ,  haiku  Included  world  Haiku c a l l s  rather,  t i m e s when t h e  for  poems, he  of the  haiku  T h e r e i s no  i n Kawabata's " I " n o t  To  the  a by-stander.  spirit" the  things  a vague mood.  T h e r e may  his  the  at the this  important  e f f e c t of d e p e r s o n a l i z i n g  looking  the  the  had  .. . 15 revealing.  prove  life  of  drama, and  c o m p a r i s o n w i t h Basho. some o f  way  the  find  Nakamura M i t s u o d o e s , much l i k e  A n o t h e r way  of  I nonetheless  has  deal with the  derives  from the  sabi, Sabi  they might  "fragrance," and  possess.  "reverberation,"  "lightness" refer  "Fragrance,"  technique of haiku adjective  Basho sought f o r i n  sabishi  to  "reverberation,"  and  composition. ("lonely"  or  "desolate").  117  In  Basho's p o e t i c  mood i n c o n t r a s t followers,  of  As  t o the  Kyorai,  technique of quality  context,  argued t h a t  purification  has  r e v e r s e manner t o t h e  stylistic  through t r a n s f o r m i n g the  a shift the  artist  personal  sorrow.  not  One  i n the  "Color"  of  Basho's  substance  refers to  that  the  "I's"  or  the  r e l e v a n c e as  i n t o the  thematic  well.  In  impersonal,  i m p l y t h a t we  dramatically  personal to  What I mean i s t h a t f o r from h i s  " I " has  the  the  soul  the  impersonal  i n Kawabata's " I " f r o m t h e  a  of h i s  p e r s o n a l t o the  I d o n ' t mean t o  Kawabata s o u g h t  impersonal  seeks a p u r i f i c a t i o n  from the  p u b l i c bath scene.  an  poem.  I believe  p o e t who  undergoes a t r a n s f e r  lies  in i t s "color."  earlier,  i n "Izu"  purification.  sabi  mood f o u n d i n t h e  I indicated  represents  p e r s o n a l emotion of  a poem b u t  the  loneliness  "I"  through notice  impersonal  impersonal  been a f f o r d e d  after  tone  the  textual  validity. T h e r e i s more a mood p e r v a d i n g emotion of  sorrow.  a c o l o r i n g of e m o t i o n s so level  of The  Much o f  loneliness  that  loneliness  predominant c o l o r  final,  distant  making a t r a d i t i o n a l overtones of  waved t h e the  girl  description i t , and  sabi,  not  i n the  s o much  novelette  i s seldom r e l e g a t e d  to a  an  has  Kawabata r e s t r a i n s t h e  found i n "Izu"  i s white.  Besides symbolizing q u a l i t i e s  w h i t e i s s a i d t o be  has  about  of  "I's"  personal  sorrow.  seven t i m e s .  "I's"  the  "Izu"  hunting  also  suggestive of  view of  the  loneliness: cap,  and  as  dancer from the  "The the  of p u r i t y  universal  Japanese gesture at  appears  and  town r e t r e a t e d  innocence,  loneliness. ship  finds  a time of p a r t i n g  lighter pulled  began t o wave s o m e t h i n g w h i t e .  It  off.  The her  which  Eikichi  i n t o the  distance  113  The tion"  p r i n c i p l e s of "fragrance,"  a l l h a v e t h e same o b j e c t  a t m o s p h e r i c harmony d i v o r c e d The  "reverberation,"  and " r e f l e c -  i n m i n d : t o p r o d u c e i n a poem an  from l o g i c a l  c o h e r e n c e as a whole.  b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e t e r m s may be summed up a s f o l l o w s :  "fragrance"  accompanies  a calm, e l e g a n t  f o u n d when t h e mood i s o f t e n s i o n , magnitude, The widely  and " r e f l e c t i o n "  result  mood,  excitement,  i s used with  "reverberation" i s grandeur, o r  any mood, q u i e t o r v i o l e n t .  of these concepts i s the b r i n g i n g together  different  things  o f two  and y e t c r e a t i n g a h a r m o n i o u s mood a s a  whole. In  l i n e with  man and n a t u r e ,  Basho's view o f t h e u n i v e r s e  we f i n d  i n the s p i r i t  p o e t i c u n i o n o r harmony o f t h e two.  t o be a u n i t y  between  and t e c h n i q u e o f h i s h a i k u When t h e t e c h n i q u e s  o u t l i n e d were p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e , t h e y o f t e n  juxtaposed  a  I've  man  with  nature. I t h i n k a l e s s o n t o be l e a r n e d  f r o m Kawabata's  "Izu"  i s that  p a r t o f i t s a p p e a l i s due t o a number o f h a i k u - l i k e p a s s a g e s , a n d that  i n reality,  critics  who m i g h t d e t e c t  e n c e s i n some o f t h e s e p a s s a g e s c o u l d much o f l a t e r , For  r a t h e r than e a r l i e r ,  instance,  Neo-Perceptionist  be a c c u s e d o f m a k i n g t o o  i n f l u e n c e s on Kawabata's  a f t e r acknowledging t h a t there  t h e way o f N e o - P e r c e p t i o n i s t  influ-  elements i n "Izu,"  style.  i s n ' t much i n  Hasegawa I z u m i  still  q u o t e s a few l i n e s w h i c h he s a y s c o n t a i n a germ o f an i n f l u 17 e n c e i n them. H e r e i s one o f t h e e x a m p l e s he g i v e s : " L i n e d on one s i d e by a w h i t e  fence,  t h e road  twisted  down f r o m t h e mouth o f t h e  IF tunnel  like  Since  a streak the l i n e  of lightning." reflects  I d o n ' t s e e why we c a n ' t  a mood o f " g r a n d e u r o r m a g n i t u d e , "  consider  i t an a p p l i c a t i o n o f  "reverbera-  119.  tion"  i n a h a i k u - l i k e way.  much i n t h e way  To  say t h a t  of Neo-Perceptionism  such a l i n e  might  doesn't  indirectly  contain  confirm  my  point. When Bash5 t a l k s an a t t i t u d e everyday well  as  things;  Although  stander,  In sion  life.  he  and  lives  i t implies  Bash5's Oku  he  oneness w i t h n a t u r e .  familiarity  i s expected  to  i n common,  in style as  a  t o behave l i k e  a  t o g e t h e r w i t h o r d i n a r y men  and  as  byunder-  feelings.  no h o s o m i c h i  a feeling  referring  h a i k u a c c e p t s human l i f e  i s t o be  f o r t h o s e whose l i v e s were h a r d e s t .  p a s s i o n was  Oku  The  travels  shares t h e i r  is basically  a n a i v e t e and  as an a r t i s t and  he  " L i g h t n e s s " i s t o f i n d beauty  i n s u b j e c t matter.  whole.  stands  toward  of " l i g h t n e s s , "  found a sense Arising  o f u n i t y w i t h them and The  following  no h o s o m i c h i w h i c h e x h i b i t s  this  of  compas-  o u t o f h i s com-  an e s s e n t i a l  i s a h a i k u found  mutual  i n Bash5's  attitude:  P r o s t i t u t e s and p r i e s t S l e p t under a r o o f l e n t a beauty By b u s h c l o v e r a n d moon. ^ With for  Kawabata's " I " we  find  a similar  t h e t r o u p e o f e n t e r t a i n e r s whose s t a t u s  lowest i n the s o c i e t y  sense  of  ranked  compassion as one  of  the  of h i s time:  I was n o t h e l d t o them by c u r i o s i t y , and I f e l t no c o n d e s c e n s i o n t o w a r d thera. Indeed I was no l o n g e r c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o t h a t low o r d e r , t r a v e l i n g p e r f o r m e r s . They seemed t o know i t and t o be moved by i t . Before l o n g t h e v d e c i d e d t h a t I must v i s i t them on Oshima.^ 0  They a l s o p o s s e s s akin to h i s  a fundamental  spirit  i n harmony w i t h  own:  I came t o s e e t h a t t h e l i f e o f t h e t r a v e l i n g p e r f o r m e r was n o t t h e f o r b i d d i n g one I h a d imagined. R a t h e r i t was e a s y - g o i n g , r e l a x e d , c a r r y i n g w i t h i t t h e s c e n t o f meadows and m o u n t a i n s . ^*  nature  120  T h r o u g h an a c t o f c l e a r s h e d s h i s s c h o o l cap  symbolic  significance to himself,  i n f a v o r o f a h u n t i n g cap.  symbolizes  h i s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e o t h e r end  themselves  i s r e p l a c e d by  one  which has  The  cap  of the s o c i a l  he  which scale  a leveling effect  from  on  their  disparate statuses. The  " I " hands o v e r the h u n t i n g cap t o the dancer's  as he  i s about  ship,  i t ' s certainly  The  hunting  t o board  cap has  now  persona In  of the  for. a Buddhist,  a oneness w i t h  Oku  i n a world life  itself,  as  after  and  in  t h e r e s p e c t i v e works has  of  t h i s has  in his travel  death.  the  diaries,  road, his  his  I t c o u l d be  we  the readers are i n v i t e d with the  " I z u " we  f i n d both  made us  for  that  Basho w o u l d  a feeling  to partake  level.  At  and  life.  death.  with i t s mutability  o f sorrow,  " I " o f each  life  aware o f t h i s ;  but b e i n g  r a t h e r i t seems  i n a mutual experience  found aware that of  work.  Kawabata's " I z u , " " p u r i f i c a t i o n " thematic  said  e x i s t s because there i s  the microcosm o f l i f e  not brought  and  on  the  I z u i s o v e r he must r e l i n q u i s h  i n saying t h a t death  in life  used  fellow travelers  well.  b u t he w o u l d a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e r e i s  As  stylistic  as  o f oneness w i t h  e x i s t s because t h e r e i s death.  no h o s o m i c h i  "purification"  light  d o e s n o t deny t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p r e s e n t w o r l d  a concept,  equal v a l i d i t y  i t i n symbolic  friend-  traveler.  of l i f e  embrace s u c h  a simple gesture of  represented a f e e l i n g  B a s h S ' s p o e t r y as w e l l  t h e sake  In  t o see  that h i s journey through  "poetic s p i r i t "  In  Besides  possible  t r a v e l i n g performers, and  ship.  brother  operates  i t s thematic  r e c u r r i n g w a t e r images w h i c h p o i n t t o an  ment o f t h e r o l e w a t e r p l a y s i n S h i n t o i s m .  at both  level,  Kawabata  implicit  Just  one  a has  acknowledge-  example o f  an  121  incident occurs  i n t h e s t o r y which has overtones  i n the f i n a l  chapter.  gives the " I " at the pier  f o r him because they dancer.  One o f t h e g i f t s  i s  (breath freshener t a b l e t s ) .  The b r o t h e r  are called  meaning, however; t a k i n g i n t o i n the expression  concepts  t h e dancer's  brother  kochuseiryozai says  he b o u g h t t h e t a b l e t s  " K a o r u , " t h e same name a s t h e  Kawabata seems t o s u g g e s t  characters  of Shinto  more t h a n  just  a sentimental  c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t one o f t h e i s t h e term f o r p u r i t y ,  i t ' s possible  to a s s o c i a t e t h e purpose o f t h e present with t h e S h i n t o  practice  of ablution. Behind being  Basho's a r t i s t i c  d e t a c h m e n t was a v i e w o f t h e cosmos  a u n i t y between man a n d n a t u r e .  Buddhism and S h i n t o as w e l l .  With t h i s  t h e r e w o u l d seem t o be n o r e a s o n characteristics dissolved  could not find  i n the world  that  essential  expression.  A feeling  outside oneself, a Buddhist  found i n  i d e a i n common,  a synthesis of their  t o t h e v o i d , and a S h i n t o i n s p i r e d nature  I t i s a concept  unique of being  tinged reference  association with the purifying  o f w a t e r might be i n t e g r a t e d .  In the l a s t  lines  of "Izu'  i s p r e c i s e l y what Kawabata h a s done: I floated i n a beautiful emptiness...Everything s a n k i n t o a n e n f o l d i n g harmony. The. l i g h t s went o u t , t h e s m e l l o f t h e s e a a n d o f t h e f i s h i n t h e h o l d grew s t r o n g e r . I n t h e darkness, warmed b y t h e b o y b e s i d e me, I gave m y s e l f up t o my tears. I t was a s t h o u g h my h e a d h a d t u r n e d t o c l e a r w a t e r , i t was f a l l i n g p l e a s a n t l y away d r o p b y d r o p ; soon n o t h i n g would remain.(emphasis a d d e d ) ^  A2.Z CONCLUSION The  final  l i n e s of  a t t a i n e d what many o f ary  pieces  characters  state of  line  i n "Izu"  I quoted e a r l i e r .  everything  p e r f e c t l y quiet,  s p r e a d i n g out  As has  fall  lapping  been u s e d by  original natural  and  work r e j e c t s t h e  t o metempsychosis t o ing  r e b o r n as  b e i n g one,  an  the  In  Most o f  n i k k i , " the  one  the  credence t o vehicle  two  instances  e a r l y works o f Kawabata and  his  The  l i n e s from  lines:  "Then  with  c l e a r water  I t was  image o f  as  i f I  returns  a return  t o an  "finality"  man the  and  " c l e a r water"  a return  the  to  to  a  the  Death i s  original  as  state  of  "old friend" in  of  death.  He  looks  example o f man evening  be-  primrose  idea.  t h r o u g h w h i c h man  " a c t u a l l y " or metaphorically the  i n which  he^had  turned i n t o quiet,  f i n d man's s a l v a t i o n : t h e  been the  returned  metaphorically  f o r emptiness or death.  of  liter-  c l e a r water."  "Sora n i ugoku h i , " the  notion  has  sleep."  evening primrose,  e a r l y works e i t h e r rebirth.  no  has  and  some d i s t a n t s h o r e .  i n death,  lends p o e t i c  W a t e r has  heart  C o n n e c t e d t o p u r i t y and  harmony w i t h n a t u r e . the  my  "I"  to nirvana  t h o s e two  Kawabata t o d e n o t e p u r i t y and  i s a longing  life;  turned to  i d e n t i c a l t o the  into  "Jurokusai  oneness.  unity as  akin  i n a manner  Here are  against  completely  e a r l y as  primordial  a state  "head h a d  i s almost  the  i n Kawabata's e a r l i e s t  innocence r e s t o r e d  "Kagaribi"  wanted t o  indicate that  " f l o a t i n g i n a b e a u t i f u l emptiness,"  r e l a t e d t o S h i n t o when h i s final  odoriko"  o f harmony w i t h n a t u r e ,  i s found  original  the  no  seem t o h a v e u l t i m a t e l y b e e n s e e k i n g : he  to a state he  "Izu  of death or  i n Kawabata's  will  float  death-like  away  states  in  c o v e r e d i n t h i s t h e s i s have b e e n  to  123  associated with "Jurokusai there  t o the The  in  no  nikki"  spiritual  list  talks  spiritual  i n the  b l e s s i n g which other  the heart  then  author  one had  artist  In c h a p t e r s  aesthetic h e r o one chapter  one  and  " I " c o u l d be f i n d s i n the  one,  "nikki"  "perceived o b j e c t " i n the  the  embodiment o f t h e  and  the  n e s s and  "a  i n the  self's  dancer represented  own  result  with  heaven-sent  and  "Izu,"  an  infinite, this  travel  manifestations  the  infinite,  diaries  detached o f Basho.  The just  of the  In  Lyrical  "perceiving self"  novel.  experience  of  aesthetic  f r o m R a l p h Freedman's The  lyrical  a  objectification  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  the  I f Kawabata  c o u l d o n l y hope f o r . "  I e x a m i n e d how  and  I used quotations  Novel t o e x p l a i n the  sadness.  seen i n terms of the p a s s i v e o r lyric  to  i n Kawabata's  b e s t o w e d on h i m  aimed a t the  four,  a return  w o u l d have t o a g r e e  e x e m p l i f i e d i n the  literary  person.  s a d n e s s n a t u r a l l y as  creative artists  perhaps best  dying  of the need f o r  c h a r a c t e r found  (or male h e r o e s ) i n h i s works t o a c h i e v e  "I."  and  " o b j e c t " becomes as t h e  grandfather  " I ' s " own  loneli-  sadness.  In the p r e f a c e of  a drowned  b e e n a s e n s e o f l o n e l i n e s s and  Kawashima I t a r u t h a t t h e  "I"  At  s e n s e o f l o n e l i n e s s and  Kawabata as a  like  r e j u v e n a t i o n w h i c h comes w i t h  h i s orphaned u p b r i n g i n g ,  As  looks  i n t o a p o n d and  in  e a r l y works o f Kawabata h a v e been  renewal i n the t y p i c a l  this  from the g r a n d f a t h e r  about f a l l i n g  pre-rational state.  e a r l y works has  reaches  i n " I z u " who  main c h a r a c t e r s  a pristine,  of  The  who  o l d man  need of the  came by  water.  the h i s t o r y  Nuova s u g g e s t e d been a n o v e l  t o h i s book, Freedraan  of the  lyrical  novel.  features of l y r i c a l  i n the  He  gives a b r i e f says,  "Dante's La  narrative before  c u r r e n t sense a t a l l . "  1  summary  there  Vita had  Kawabata's n o v e l s  and  124  short  stories  share t h i s  lyrical  They a l s o s h a r e something hero o f La V i t a attain  the  o f perhaps  a kind of salvation  transcend t h e i r h e l p o f young  sorrows and  t h r o u g h t h e h e l p o f t h e woman  sadness  and a t t a i n  spiritual  through  girls. i n Kawabata's works a r e women who  t h e f u s i o n o f a maternal and v i r g i n a l  t h e F u t u r e ) d e p i c t t h e image i n p r e c i s e l y  "...the  Beatrice;  rebirth  figure.  T e t s u r S ' s words on t h e f i g u r e o f t h e C h u g u - j i M i r o k u of  t h e male  i n works such as " S h i r o i mangetsu" and  B e a t r i c e and t h e g i r l s represent  Nuova.  equal importance:  Nuova i s a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d e a r t h l y  Kawabata's m a l e h e r o e s "Izu"  feature with La V i t a  'woman' i s t h e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n  t h e same  Watsuji  ( t h e Buddha terms:  o f t h e l o v e o f a mother and  2 the  cleanness o f a v i r g i n . . . " T h i s image o f "/woman" i s j u s t  universality ing  o f Western and E a s t e r n t r a d i t i o n s  t h e works i n t h i s  sality  one o f many e x a m p l e s o f t h e  thesis.  o f one o f J a p a n ' s  I found i n a n a l y z -  They a r e t e s t i m o n y t o t h e u n i v e r -  greatest  writers.  NOTES Chapter I  ^Kawabata Yasunari, Kawabata Yasunari zenshu,Vol. I (Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1969), p.15. For my thesis, I have used Kawabata Yasunari zenshu (19 vols.; Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1969-74) and Vol.XXI of Kawabata Yasunari zenshu (Tokyo: Shinchosha, 1980). Figures in parentheses following quotations refer to the page numbers of Vol. I of the 1969-74 zenshu. 2 Kawabata, Kawabata Yasunari senshu, Vol. VI (Kaiz5sha, 1968) , appendix, as quoted i n Hasegawa Izumi, Kawabata Yasunari ronko (Tokyo: M e i j i Shoin, 1965), pp. 96-97. 3 Kawashima Itaru, Kawabata Yasunari no sekai (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1969) , p. 57. ^Yoshimura T e i j i , Kawabata Yasunari.bi to dento (Tokyo: Tairyusha, 1979), p.276. ^Isogai Hideo, "Jurokusai no n i k k i " i n Kawabata Yasunari no ningen to geijutsu, eds. Kawabata Bungaku Kenkyukai (Tokyo: Kyoiku Shuppan Senta, 1971), p.33. Senuma Shigeki, "Kawabata Yasunari ron," Kodo, Sept. 1934 in Kawabata Yasunari, eds. Nihon Bungaku Kenkyu Shiryo Kankokai (Tokyo: Yuseidd, 1973), p.25. ^Isogai, "Kawabata Yasunari no h i t o to bungaku," Kokubungaku, Aug. 1966, as quoted i n Shokon no seishun eds. Kawabata Bungaku Kenkyukai (Tokyo: Kyoiku Shuppan Senta, 1976), p.220. g  Kawashima, p.36. q  Yamamoto Kenkichi, ed. Kawabata Yasunari (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoten, 1959), p.12. 10  Yoshimura, p. 28.  ^Yamamoto, p. 21.  1  12 Yamamoto, p.58. 13 Nakamura Mitsuo, "Kawabata Yasunari" i n Kawabata Yasunari, ed. Sato K5zo (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1977). "^Kobayashi Hideo, "Kawabata Yasunari" i n Kawabata Yasunari, ed. Sato K6z5 (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1977), p.57.  126 ^Hasegawa Izumi, 1965), p. 110.  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i r o n k o ,  (Tokyo:  Meiji  Shoin,  16 Saeki Sh5ichi, Shobo's Kawabata, p. 1 7  Saeki,  "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i no b u n t a i " 140.  in  Chikuma  pp.140-141.  18 Tsunetsugu Muraoka, S t u d i e s i n S h i n t o Thought, t r a n s . Delmer Brown a n d James T . A r a k i ( T o k y o : M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 1 1 5 . ^ R a l p h F r e e d m a n , The L y r i c a l Press, 1963), p.6.  Novel  (Princeton:  Princeton  Univ.  20 Freedman,  pp.2-3.  ~ Nakamura M i t s u o , Kawabata Y a s u n a r i (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1978. 22 Isogai,  " ' J u r o k u s a i no n i k k i  e d s . Kawabata Bungaku K e n k y u k a i  1  t o sofu"  i n Shokon no s e i s h u n , 1976).  (Tokyo: K y S i k u Shuppan S e n t a ,  23 Freedman,  p.18.  Freedman,  p.20.  24 25  The t r a n s l a t i o n i s by F r a n c i s Mathy, "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , B r i d g e - B u i l d e r t o t h e West," Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , XXIV ( 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 2 1 2 . 26 B o t h t h e p a r a p h r a s i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e f r o m "Bunsho n i t s u i t e " and t h e q u o t a t i o n f r o m S h i n b u n t o k u h o n a r e t a k e n f r o m Yamamoto s Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , p p . 1 4 - 1 5 . 27 Hasegawa I z u m i , Kawabata Y a s u n a r i . Y o k o m i t s u R i i c h i I s s h u (Tokyo: Kadokawa S h o t e n , 1 9 7 2 ) , s u p p l e m e n t a r y n o t e , a s q u o t e d i n Shokon no s e i s h u n , p . 2 2 1 . 1  28  — S a s a b u c h i T o m o i c h i , "Kawabata b u n g a k u t o s h u r u r e a r i z u m u , " Seiki, A p r i l , 1969 i n Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , e d s . N i h o n Bungaku K e n k y u S h i r y o K a n k o k a i (Tokyo: Y u s e i d o , 1 9 7 3 ) . 29 T s u r u t a K i n y a and Hasegawa I z u m i i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , " ' J u r o k u s a i n o n i k k i ' n o k a n s a t s u t o k i r o k u , " K o t e n t o q e n d a i , May 1 9 7 3 , p . 2 1 4 . 30  Hasegawa, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i r o n k o ,  pp.116-121.  127  31  See Makoto Ueda, L i t e r a r y and A r t T h e o r i e s i n J a p a n , ( C l e v e l a n d : P r e s s o f W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v . , 1967) pp.196-213.  32 Kitaro Nishida, Nothingness, trans. p. 1 6 .  I n t e l l i g i b i l i t y and t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f R o b e r t S c h i n z i n g e r (Tokyo: Maruzen, 1 9 5 8 ) ,  33 See  Tsunetsugu,  S t u d i e s i n S h i n t o Thought,  p.31.  128  CHAPTER I I 1. Kawabata K a o r i , Aug. 1979, p. 145.  "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i no s e i s h u n ,  "Bunqakkai,  2. F y o d o r D o s t o y e v s k y , The House o f The Dead, t r a n s . S u t h e r l a n d Edwards (London: Dent, 1962), pp.62-63. 3. Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , (Tokyo: S h i n c h o s h a , 1969), 4. Kawabata, p .  H.  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i z e n s h u , V o l . IX p.283.  313.  5. N o r t h r o p F r y e , Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1957), p . 1 4 5 .  Four Essays  (Princeton:  6. J e a n H e r b e r t , S h i n t o : A t t h e F o u n t a i n - H e a d o f J a p a n (London: G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1967), pp.67-68. 7. Kawabata, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i z e n s h u , S h i n c h o s h a , 1980), p.23.  V o l . XXI  (Tokyo:  8. The q u o t a t i o n and t r a n s l a t i o n i s f o u n d i n Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r T h i s C o u n t r y J a p a n , ( T o k y o : K o d a n s h a I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . , 1979), p.169. 9. Kawabata, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i jsenshu, V o l . X I I I S h i n c h o s h a , 1969) pp.105-06. 10. Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T h i s I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . , 1979) p . 118.  Country, Japan  (Tokyo:  (Tokyo: K o d a n s h a  11. The q u o t a t i o n comes f r o m S e i d e n s t i c k e r s " I n t r o d u c t i o n " t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Kawabata's Snow C o u n t r y , (New Y o r k : B e r k l e y P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1960), p . 7 . 1  12. Kawabata, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i z e n s h u , V o l . XXI S h i n c h o s h a , 1980), p.44.  (Tokyo:  13. Muramatsu T a k e s h i , S h i no N i h o n bungaku s h i .(Tokyo: S h i n c h o s h a , 1975), pp.7-29. 14. Kawabata, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i z e n s h u , V o l . XXI S h i n c h o s h a , 1980), p.48. 15. Kawabata, Kawabata Y a s u n a r i z e n s h u , V o l . V I I I S h i n c h o s h a , 1969), p.139. 16. F r y e ,  (Tokyo: (Tokyo:  p.203.  17. H o r i I c h i r o , F o l k R e l i g i o n i n J a p a n : C o n t i n u i t y and Change, e d . J o s e p h M. K i t a g a w a and A l a n L. M i l l e r ( C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1968), p.177.  129 18. D a n i e l Crump Buchanan, J a p a n e s e P r o v e r b s and S a v i n g s , (Norman: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1965), p.164. 19. Hasegawa Nov., 1972.  Izumi,  "'Shinsei'  to 'Kagaribi',"  Kaishaku,  130  Chapter I I I  '''The q u o t a t i o n comes f r o m Kawabata's p r e f a c e t o h i s b a c h e l o r ' s t h e s i s f o u n d i n Ryjudo, June, 1979, p . 314. ^ H a d o r i T e t s u y a h a s p r o d u c e d a f i n e p i e c e o f s c h o l a r s h i p on t h e s e two c o n c e p t s i n Kawabata's l i t e r a t u r e i n h i s "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i t o b a n b u t s u i c h i n y o . r i n n e t e n s e i s h i s o , " Kokuqo t o Kokubunqaku, March, 1966.  Novel  "^Masao M i y o s h i , A c c o m p l i c e s o f S i l e n c e : The Modern J a p a n e s e ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1974), p . x v . 4  U e d a , p.212  ^Kawabata, " L y r i c Poem," t r a n s . N i p p o n i c a , XXVI (1971), p . 296. 6  Herbert,  F r a n c i s Mathy,  Monumenta  pp.67-68.  7 K i n y a T s u r u t a , "The F l o w - D y n a m i c s i n Kawabata Y a s u n a r i ' s Snow C o u n t r y , " Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , XXVI, p.253. 8 Kawabata, Snow C o u n t r y , t r a n s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r Y o r k : B e r k l e y P u b l i s h i n g C o r p . , 1960), p . 16. 9 Frye,  (New  p.152.  "^Hiroyuki Araki, 1975), p . 4 7 .  N i h o n i i n no s h i n i o r o n r i  (Tokyo:  K5dansha,  K a w a b a t a , J a p a n t h e B e a u t i f u l and M y s e l f I n t e r n a t i o n a l L t d . , 1969), pp.71-72.  (Tokyo:  Kodansha  1 1  H a < J o r i T e t s u y a , "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i t o s h i n r e i g a k u , " t o Kokubunqaku, May, 1970. 12  Kokuqo  13 T a k e d a K a t s u h i k o , Kawabata bungaku t o s e i s h o (Tokyo: Shuppan S e n t a , 1971). 1 4  Miyoshi,  p . 9 7.  KySiku  131  C h a p t e r IV Nakamura M i t s u o , pp.60-61.  1978),  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  (Tokyo: Chikuma  ^Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , Kawabata Y a s u n a r i S h i n c h o s h a , 1969), p.289.  zenshu, V o l . I X  Shobo,  (Tokyo:  3 M a t s u o Basho, The Narrow Road T h r o u g h t h e P r o v i n c e s , t r a n s . E a r l M i n e r i n J a p a n e s e P o e t i c D i a r i e s , comp. E a r l M i n e r ( B e r k e l e y and L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 1 5 7 . 4 Kawabata, "The I z u D a n c e r , " t r a n s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r i n The I z u D a n c e r and O t h e r S t o r i e s (Tokyo: T u t t l e , 1974), p.10. ^ibid, 6  ibid.,  p.12. p.25.  7 M i k i K i y o s h i , "Kodoku n i t s u i t e " i n T e t s u g a k u t o (Tokyo: K o d a n s h a Bunko, 1971), pp.463-64.  jinsei  "The i d e a o f t h e c i r c u l a r p a t t e r n a s w e l l a s much o f t h e p r e v i o u s commentary on Bash5's Oku no h o s o m i c h i was g l e a n e d f r o m N o b u y u k i Y u a s a ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f BashS t r a v e l d i a r i e s i n The N a r r o w Road t o t h e Deep N o r t h a n d O t h e r T r a v e l S k e t c h e s (Harmondsworth, E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books, 1 9 6 6 ) . q  Kawabata, 1 0  ibid.,  "The I z u D a n c e r , " p.22.  pp.12-13.  11 12  ibid.,  p.13.  ibid.,  p.16,  ibid.,  p.27.  13 14 i b i - d . , pp. 25-26. T h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h Basho's a r t o f w r i t i n g h a i k u i s b a s e d on m a t e r i a l I g a t h e r e d f r o m two b o o k s by Makoto Ueda: Zeami, Basho, Y e a t s , Pound: A S t u d y i n J a p a n e s e a n d E n g l i s h P o e t i c s (The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1965) and L i t e r a r y and A r t Theories i n Japan (Cleveland: Press o f Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y 1967). 1 5  132 1 6  Kawabata  "The I z u D a n c e r , " pp.28-29.  /  17 Hasegawa I z u m i , Kawabata Y a s u n a r i 1965), p.275. I  Q  Kawabata, 1 9  Matsuo,  "The I z u D a n c e r , " p.12.  p.188.  if). Kawabata, 2 1  ibid,  2 2  ibid.,  "The I z u D a n c e r , " p . 2 1 .  pp.21-22. p.29.  — r o n k o (Tokyo: M e i j i  Shoin,  Conclusion  "'"Freedman,  p.vii.  2 Watsuji Tetsuro, 1979), p.264.  Koji  junrei  (Tokyo: Iwanami  Bunko,  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 Primary Sources A.  Editions: z e n s h u )lj $ffi)/3cf$.  Kawabata Y a s u t i a r i ShinchSsha,  H  19 v o l s .  Tokyo:  JfC  Vol.XXI.  Tokyo:  1969-74.  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i Shinchosha, B  ^  z e n s h u )|| flziJsf:jot  1980.  Translations:  The  Existence Tokyo:  The  and D i s c o v e r y  Mainichi  Shinbunsha,  House o f t h e S l e e p i n g  I z u Dancer  and M y s e l f .  T o k y o : Kodansha, "Lyric  1-2,  1970,  Snow C o u n t r y . Publishing The  Tokyo:  Trans.  Tuttle,  1974.  Seidensticker.  1969. Monumenta N i p p o n i c a . Vol.XXN/j  pp.287-305.  T r a n s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r . Corp.,  New  York:  Berkley  1960.  Sound o f t h e M o u n t a i n . Knopf, 1970.  Thousand  Viglielmo.  1969.  T r a n s . Edward  Poem." T r a n s . F r a n c i s Mathy.  No.  H.  and O t h e r S t o r i e s .  T o k y o : Kodansha,  and O t h e r S t o r i e s .  Japan the B e a u t i f u l  T r a n s . V.  1969.  Beauties  Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r . The  o f Beauty.  T r a n s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r .  C r a n e s . T r a n s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r .  New  York:  New  York:  Knopf,  1958.  II Araki  Secondary  Hiroyuki ^—  (7)  Sources  *\% ~%m 1%  Buchanan,  Daniel  University Dostoyevsky,  London:  Kawabata's  Dent,  1975.  pp.267-85.  Freedman,  R a l p h . The  Lyrical  Dead.  T r a n s . H.  Sutherland  1962.  Unreality  ' L y r i c Poem'  1963.  ronri  1965.  The House o f The  "The  1971, Press,  shinjo  Crump. J a p a n e s e P r o v e r b s and S a y i n g s . Norman:  o f Oklahoma P r e s s ,  Fernandez, Jaime.  no  T o k y o : Kodansha,  Fyodor.  Edwards.  Nihonjin  o f L o v e : Time and D e a t h i n  ." Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , V o l . XXVI, Novel. Princeton: Princeton  University  135 Frye, Northrop.  Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m :  Princeton University Hasegawa I z u m i )l|  tm  fcife  Press,  5 ^ -  Q >l\  H  Four Essays.  1957.  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i r o n k 5  Tokyo: M e i j i  Shoin,  1965.  . Kawabata Y a s u n a r i . Y o k o m i t s u R i i c h i Ml  it i'J — ~~ jjL  itijL^c t  supplementary note,  1%  % f %R.  T o k y o : Kadokawa S h o t e n ,  as q u o t e d i n Shokon no  seishun  t o ' K a g a r i b i ' " jjcff- 8 $ X. 3|r ^  . November  . Kaishaku  1972.  H a d o r i T e t s u y a ^ fej 'iptci?^ ichinyo-rinne tensei  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i shis5  t  Ml  £°  '  . March,  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i t o s h i n r e i g a k u " . Kokuqo t o Kokubunqaku  t o banbutsu  %  CD 5* Y  Kokuqo t o Kokubunqaku -f| ^  Isshu  p. 221.  . "'Shinsei* $|  Princeton:  fs)  Y ®  ji|  $Z.t%  1966. ffcFai  3< ^  )£ /Cl*  . May,  1970.  pp.26-53. Herbert,  Jean.  S h i n t o : A t t h e Fountain-Head o f J a p a n . London:  George A l l e n Hori  Ichiro.  & Unwin L t d . , 196 7.  Folk Religion  i n Japan: C o n t i n u i t y  J o s e p h M. K i t a g a w a and A l a n L. M i l l e r . of Chicago Press,  and M o d e r n i t y  o f Y a s u n a r i Kawabata." X,  1975,  i n Japanese S u i c i d e :  J o u r n a l o f A s i a n and A f r i c a n  *fc A  .  Hi 2;  •  The Case Studies.  " J u r o k u s a i no n i k k i " -f 7^ /§£ d) Q f  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i no n i n g e n t o g e i j u t s u X.  University  pp.175-87. $  Isogai Hideo  C h i c a g o : The  1968.  I g a Mamoru. " T r a d i t i o n Vol.  a n d Change. E d .  Ml  • E d . Kawabata Bungaku K e n k y u k a i T o k y o : K y o i k u Shuppan S e n t a ,  1971,  fjfc F& <7) /C faV )>} i?%  pp.33-44.  . " ' J u r o k u s a i no n i k k i ' t o s o f u " A / i l <7) Q f G j . Shokon no s e i s h u n \% Z% 0) % • Tokyo: r  ?fi >C  K y o i k u Shuppan S e n t a , .  "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i no h i t o t o bungaku"  t  jj) X ^f-  . Kokubungaku  i n ShSkon no s e i s h u n Kenkyukai Senta,  1976.  Ml i f i \  1976,  pp.220.  \% 1% 0 % % Z  f  t  •  Ml & % 1%. f&  • A u g u s t 1966, • ^ s . Kawabata E  Tokyo: K y 5 i k u  O  as q u o t e d Bungaku  Shuppan  136  Kawabata K a o r i ^1/ 1% f&  Ji|  %  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  <?) % |J  J£ ^  . Bunqakkai  ^  no  seishun:  . August,  1979,  pp.140-57. Kawashima )^\t%  Itaru  j'l d'jf ^  |^<?)  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i Chikuma Shobo, Noriko  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  .  T o k y o : K o d a n s h a , 1969.  Ifk^'ilQ,.  Kobayashi Hideo  Lippit,  .  )l) 11% ^  1977,  M.  . "Kawabata  New  •  Ed. Sato  and F i c t i o n  Y o r k : M.E.  Kozo. Tokyo:  i n Modern J a p a n e s e  Sharpe,  Mathy, F r a n c i s . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , Monumenta N i p p o n i c a .  Yasunari"  pp.54-57.  Reality  White P l a i n s ,  f$t  no s e k a i  V o l . XXIV.  1980.  B r i d g e - B u i l d e r t o t h e West. 1969,  pp.211-17.  M a t s u o B a s h o . The Narrow Road T h r o u g h t h e P r o v i n c e s . Miner. and Miki  In Japanese B o e t i c D i a r i e s .  Los A n g e l e s :  Kiyoshi Tetsuqaku t o  Miyoshi  Earl  Berkeley  1969.  L~ 7 u 7 _  . I n  jinsei •  T o k y o : K o d a n s h a Bunko,  pp.462-65.  Masao.  Berkeley:  Accomplices  o f S i l e n c e : The Modern J a p a n e s e  University of California  Muramatsu T a k e s h i - f c ) ^  Press,  • "Kodoku n i t s u i t e " '$lf£  X. X. 1971,  Trans.  E a r l M i n e r Comp.  University of California  i%  Literature.  S)»J  •  0) Q &  Press,  1974.  S h i no N i h o n b u n g a k u s h i  Tokyo: Shinchosha,  Muraoka T s u n e t s u g u .  Studies  Nakamura M i t s u o  *P %j  fK  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i " )(/ t%  Chikuma Shobo,  pp.72-87.  __.  Delmer  Tokyo: M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n ,  I n Kawabata Y a s u n a r i 1977,  1975.  i n S h i n t o Thought. Trans.  Brown a n d James T. A r a k i .  Novel.  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  ffl^fot  .  Ed Sato  ) l | 3%  .  1964.  )}| il% ff[^ f$  Kozo.  Tokyo:  T o k y o : Chikuma Shobo,  1978. Nishida Kitaro. Trans.  Intelligibility  Robert  Rimer, J.- Thomas  Schinzinger.  and t h e P h i l o s o p h y Tokyo: Maruzen,  Modern J a p a n e s e F i c t i o n  of  Nothingness.  1958.  and I t s T r a d i t i o n s :  Introduction. Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, Saeki  ShSichi  /"I  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  1 ) ^ ' ^)x1^ Ed.  Sato  K6z5  no b u n t a i  . I n Kawabata Y a s u n a r i T o k y o : Chikuma ShobS,  1977,  1978.  ))) V% ff£  pp.136-41.  f&  An  137  Sasabuchi Tomoichi )Wt%  3£ %  )l) ^  lip:  "tr  X,  . "Kawabata b u n g a k u t o s h u r u r e a r i z u m U7  fifc  ^  7  .  Kawabata  • E d s . N i h o n Bungaku K e n k y u S h i r y 5  8%X*?ZHiZ  T'tlfzi  \V\  Yasunari  Kank5kai  • Tokyo: Yuseido,  1973,  pp.262-68. Seidensticker, Vol.  Edward. "Kawabata"  XXII. .  Ltd.,  1969,  This  . Hudson R e v i e w .  pp.6-10.  Country Japan. Tokyo: Kodansha  1979. W lo  Senuma S h i g e k i  ^£3  Yuseid5,  . E d s . N i h o n Bungaku Kenkyu  1973, pp.  %  on J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e . T s u r u t a K i n y a and Hasegawa •  m  K  oten  Country."  1977,  pp.118-28.  Izumi i n c o n v e r s a t i o n .  "'Jurokusai  no  + ^ fk ^ Q iZj<0  r  t o gendai  i£ #  X iJL  . May  "The F l o w - D y n a m i c s i n Kawabata Y a s u n a r i ' s Monumenta N i p p o n i c a . V o l . XXVI. 1971,  Ueda Makoto. L i t e r a r y  and A r t T h e o r i e s  of Western Reserve U n i v e r s i t y ,  Snow  pp.251-65.  i n Japan. C l e v e l a n d :  Press  1967.  . Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s .  Stanford:  Stanford  Univer-  1976. .  " N o b e l P r i z e - W i n n i n g N o v e l i s t : Kawabata  Great H i s t o r i c a l Institute,  F i g u r e s o f Japan. Tokyo: Japan  1978, pp.  English  Poetics.  Culture  Pound: A S t u d y i n J a p a n e s e and  The Hague: Mouton and Co.,  W a l k e r , J a n e t A . The J a p a n e s e N o v e l o f t h e M e i j i of Individualism. 1979.  Yasunari."  306-17.  Zeami, Basho, Y e a t s ,  Press,  Essays  pp.207-18.  Tsuruta Kinya.  Ideal  1971.  Ed. T a k e d a K a t s u h i k o  n i k k i ' no k a n s a t s u t o k i r o k u "  sity,  • Tokyo:  Harmony and C o n f l i c t . "  T o k y o : Waseda U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1973,  £  , T o k y o : K y S i k u Shuppan S e n t a ,  "Kawabata L i t e r a t u r e :  t'^c  T'J t f  . Kawabata b u n g a k u t o s e i s h o  Y ^ .  ^  21-27.  Takeda K a t s u h i k o /II ^  '4  B * £ ¥ Zft  S h i r y S Kankokai  r o n " )ll Ufa f& f& Zrf>  . "Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  )H  Kawabata Y a s u n a r i  X  International  Princeton: Princeton  1965. P e r i o d and t h e University  138 W a t s u j i T e t s u r o £o Iwanami Bunko,  t$  Kadokawa S h o t e n , Yamanouchi,  H.  ^5. ^ • ^  Yuasa Nobuyuki.  £  ^  . Tokyo:  Ml ~b% f^<= ,  £ d . Kawabata  S  K$  Cambridge .  t  Yasunari?  Tokyo:  i n Modern J a p a n e s e  U n i v e r s i t y Press,  Kawabata  Yasunari.bi  . Tokyo: T a i r y u s h a ,  The N a r r o w  Sketches.  ^L,  1959.  Cambridge:  Yoshimura T e i j i  Travel  iunrei  The S e a r c h f o r A u t h e n t i c i t y  Literature. ))| T>U  Koii  1979. A* ^ f j ^ " ^  Yamamoto K e n k i c h i  •  Road  1978.  t o dento 1979.  t o t h e Deep N o r t h a n d O t h e r  Harmondsworth,  E n g l a n d : P e n g u i n Books,  1966.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0095005/manifest

Comment

Related Items