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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An approach to urban recreation planning Miller, Keith Frederick 1981

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AN APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION PLANNING by KEITH FREDERICK MILLER B.A., t h e U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1981 @ K e i t h F r e d e r i c k M i l l e r , 1981 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the l i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my S c h o o l or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i  M  i i ABSTRACT AN APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION PLANNING T h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the s t a n d a r d s approach has been used, however not o n l y does i t o v e r s i m p l i f y the problem i t a l s o f a i l s t o r e f l e c t the d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of urban p o p u l a t i o n s . S t a n d a r d s a r e i n s e n s i t i v e t o the a v a i l a b i l i t y of community l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and o f t e n l e a d t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s which a r e u n r e a l i s t i c , uneconomical and u n a t t a i n a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , they ar e i n a d e q u a t e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g development p r i o r i t i e s and f o r making a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s among f a c i l i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e has been a growing i n t e r e s t i n d e v e l o p i n g methods which d e t e r m i n e space needs f o r non-urban p a r k s , l i t t l e of t h i s r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d toward urban s e t t i n g s . Methods which have been d e v e l o p e d t r a n s l a t e r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o space r e q u i r e d t o accommodate e x p e c t e d peak u s e r s , t a k i n g i n t o account c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s . They attempt t o e s t i m a t e space demands which r e f l e c t the d i v e r s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n t e r e s t s and r e s o u r c e s of communities. A l t h o u g h an improvement on s t a n d a r d s , d e f i c i e n c i e s s t i l l e x i s t . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s used as a measure, t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s which r e f l e c t the s t a t u s quo. Imbalances i n s u p p l y ar e p e r p e t u a t e d . Severe l i m i t a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s and making a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a l s o r e s u l t from t h e s e methods. T h i s t h e s i s has d e v e l o p e d an a l t e r n a t i v e method; a h y b r i d of methods p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d . R e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s have been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s w h ich a r e accommodated i n a h i e r a r c h y of s e r v i c e a r e a s . A p r o c e s s then t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s by s e r v i c e a r e a s . A computer program was w r i t t e n t o demonstrate the method's a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and the method a p p l i e d t o d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n Richmond, B.C. Determined f o r Richmond s e r v i c e a r e a s was: amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , p a r k l a n d and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s , and l a n d and f a c i l i t y c o s t s , c o s t per peak hour u s e r and the number of peak u s e r s which can be accommodated i n i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . As a p l a n n i n g t o o l , t h i s method d e t e r m i n e s r e q u i r e m e n t s which r e f l e c t s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t s of p o p u l a t i o n s i n v a r i o u s s e r v i c e a r e a s and a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Development c o s t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d which e n a b l e a r e a l i s t i c assessment of t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of development a c c o r d i n g t o a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Development p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s can a l s o be made. The approach d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s has a number of uses i n r e c r e a t i o n system and s i t e p l a n n i n g . However, r a t h e r than a panacea f o r d e c i s i o n making, i t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t o a i d d e c i s i o n making. I t i s n e v e t h e l e s s , f a r from p e r f e c t . S e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s c o u l d be improved upon. For i n s t a n c e , more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o e n able the development of a comprehensive park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system f o r urban a r e a s . The measurement of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and use p a t t e r n s c o u l d be improved. A l s o c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the impact of use on s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n w h i l e o p e r a t i n g c o s t impacts of r e c r e a t i o n development s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d d i t i o n t o c a p i t a l c o s t s . A l t h o u g h i m p e r f e c t , the method d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a u s e f u l p l a n n i n g t o o l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . The a u t h o r hopes i t may f i n d p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE A b s t r a c t . i i L i s t of T a b l e s . ... v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s x Acknowledgment x i i 1. INTRODUCTION 1 1.1. STUDY OBJECTIVES 1 1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT 2 1.2.1. THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION PLANNING 3 1.2.2. MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH THE TRADITIONAL STANDARDS APPROACH 3 1.3. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS 6 1.4. STUDY APPROACH 9 1.5. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS REPORT 10 1.6. DEFINITIONS 11 2. CURRENT APPROACHES TO NEEDS ANALYSIS 15 2.1. INTRODUCTION 15 2.2. NEEDS ANALYSIS 18 2.2.1. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION 19 2.2.2. PEAK LOADS 23 2.2.3. CAPACITY 24 2.2.4. SPACE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND DEFICIENCIES 26 2.3. URBAN APPLICATIONS OF NEEDS ANALYSIS 29 2.3.1. USE METHOD. 29 2.3.2. PARTICIPATION METHOD 36 2.4. SOME PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT APPROACHES TO NEEDS ANALYSIS 41 2.4.1. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 41 2.4.2. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION 43 2.4.3. PEAK LOADS 46 2.4.4. CAPACITY 49 2.4.5. PARK AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND DEFICIENCIES 50 2.5. SUMMARY OF NEEDS ANALYSIS DEFICIENCIES 52 v i 3. AN APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION NEEDS ANALYSIS 56 3.1. INTRODUCTION 56 3.2. PURPOSE 56 3.3. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS 57 3.3.1. ACTIVITIES AND SPACES 57 3.3.2. SERVICE AREAS 58 3.3.3. POPULATION GROUPS 59 3.4. NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS 61 3.4.1. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION 62 3.4.2. POTENTIAL USERS 65 3.4.3. PEAK USERS 67 3.4.4. CAPACITY 7 5 3.4.5. UNITS AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS 75 3.4.6. USERS AND COSTS 77 3.4.7. RECREATION NEED 80 3.5. ANALYSIS METHOD 82 3.5.1. INPUT REQUIREMENTS 82 3.5.2. ANALYTIC PROCEDURE 84 3.5.3. OUTPUT 89 3.6. APPLICATION TO PLANNING PROCESS 90 3.6.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND PROBLEM FORMULATION 90 3.6.2. GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVES 95 3.6.3. EVALUATION AND CHOICE 97 3.6.4. PLAN PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION 98 4. CASE STUDY - APPLICATION TO RICHMOND. 102 4.1. INTRODUCTION 102 4.2. PLANNING AREA 102 4.3. PARK AND FACILITY CLASSIFICATION 103 4.3.1. NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 106 4.3.2. COMMUNITY PARKS AND FACILITIES 106 4.3.3. MUNICIPAL PARKS AND FACILITIES 107 4.4. DATA COLLECTION 108 4.4.1. POPULATION 108 4.4.2. SUPPLY INVENTORY AND LAND COSTS 110 4.4.3. PARTICIPATION 110 4.4.4. FACILITY COST 113 4.4.5. SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER DENSITIES... 114 - 4.5. ANALYSIS . 115 4.6. RESULTS 115 4.6.1. NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 116 4.6.1.1. Space Requirements f o r I n d i v i d u a l Neighbourhoods........ 116 4.6.1.2. T o t a l Neighbourhood Space Requirements and D e f i c i e n c i e s . . . . 118 4.6.1.3. A T y p i c a l Neighbourhood Park 122 v i i 4.6.2. COMMUNITY PARKS AND FACILITIES 124 4.6.2.1. Space Requirements f o r I n d i v i d u a l Community's 124 4.6.2.2. T o t a l Community Space Requirements and D e f i c i e n c i e s . . . . 127 4.6.2.3. A T y p i c a l Community Park and F a c i l i t i e s 131 4.6.3. MUNICIPAL PARKS AND FACILITIES 134 4.6.3.1. M u n i c i p a l A t h l e t i c Grounds and P a r k s 134 4.6.3.2. M u n i c i p a l F a c i l i t i e s 138 4.7. SUMMARY 141 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 147 5.1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 147 5.2. DATA PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 149 5.2.1. PARK AND FACILITY CLASSIFICATION 149 5.2.2. PARTICIPATION INFORMATION 150 5.2.3. PARTICIPATION MEASURES 152 5.2.4. UNIT CAPACITY 153 5.2.5. COSTS 155 5.3. METHODOLOGICAL DEFICIENCIES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS 155 5.3.1. POTENTIAL USERS 156 5.3.2. PEAK LOADS 156 5.3.3. FACILITY DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATING COST... 157 5.3.4. DEFICIENCIES 158 5.4. FEASIBILITY 158 5.4.1. URBAN RECREATION 159 5.4.2. URBAN RECREATION PLANNING 159 5.4.3. INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND INNOVATION 160 5.4.4. PEOPLE AND PLANNING 161 5.5. CONCLUSION 162 BIBLIOGRAPHY * 163 APPENDICES 185 Appendix 1 Needs A n a l y s i s P r o c e s s - T e c h n i c a l S p e c i f i c a t i o n 186 Appendix 2 Urban R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Model Computer Program 194 Appendix 3 Needs A n a l y s i s P r o c e s s - Data Requirements (Richmond Case Study) 228 Appendix 4 1979 Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e Demand ^ bockctT Study Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . -245— v i i i L IST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 NUMBER OF ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS IN THE SURVEY POPULATION 63 2 SURVEY POPULATION BY AGE GROUP 63 3 AGE SPECIFIC PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE RATES FOR TOTAL COMMUNITY POPULATION 63 4 AGE SPECIFIC COMPOSITE PARTICIPATION RATES FOR TOTAL COMMUNITY POPULATION 64 5 AGE GROUP POPULATION IN PLANNING AREAS 66 6 AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA 66 7 TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA 66 8 UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENTS AND USER DENSITIES FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY 70 9 PARKLAND SUPPLY BY RECREATION ACTIVITY IN PLANNING AREAS 70 10 USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATION PROCEDURE 73 11 NUMBER OF USERS (DESIGN LOAD) TO BE ACCOMMODATED IN RECREATION ACTIVITIES IN EACH PLANNING AREA 74 12 UNIT CAPACITY FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY 75 13 NUMBER OF ACTIVITY SPATIAL UNITS REQUIRED IN EACH PLANNING AREA 76 14 ACTIVITY AND TOTAL SPACE REQUIRED IN EACH PLANNING AREA 76 15 PEAK USERS FOR ACTIVITY SPACE PROVISIONS IN EACH PLANNING AREA , 77 16 FACILITY DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY 78 17 LAND COSTS FOR EACH PLANNING AREA 78 i x 18 CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY AND PLANNING AREA 79 19 DEVELOPMENT COST PER PEAK HOUR USER IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY FOR EACH PLANNING AREA 80 20 DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT) BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF SPACE REQUIRED AND THE CURRENT SUPPLY 80 X LIST OF FIGURES IGURE PAGE I I - l . NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS 20 11-2 STEPS IN THE NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS. 21 11-3 ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION DISTRIBUTION OVER TIME 25 11-4 COMMONLY USED DEFINITIONS OF CAPACITY 27 11-5 DURATION OF USE AND GROUP SIZE • 28 11-6 USE METHOD (EXAMPLE) 30 I I - 7 PARTICIPATION METHOD (EXAMPLE) 37 11-8 COMPONENTS OF RECREATION DEMAND... 45 I I - l DATA REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES 83 11-2 DATA INPUT MATRIX STRUCTURE 85 I I - 3 PLANNING UNIT AND ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION MATRIX STRUCTURE 86 11-4 COMPUTER PROGRAM FLOW DIAGRAM 88 I I - 5 PROGRAM OUTPUT EXAMPLE - SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS 91 11-6 URBAN RECREATION PLANNING PROCESS 92 I I - 7 PROBLEM FORMULATION IN A DYNAMIC PLANNING PROCESS.. 94 I I - 8 PROCESS FOR GENERATING PARK AND FACILITY ALTERNATIVES 96 IV-1 1979 RICHMOND PARKLAND DISTRIBUTION 104 IV-2 DATA REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES 109 IV-3 RICHMOND DEMAND STUDY SAMPLE SIZE REQUIREMENT AND RESPONSE RATE 112 IV-4 SAMPLE AND POPULATION AGE GROUP DISTRIBUTION 113 IV-5 SUMMARY OF NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR RICHMOND COMMUNITY'S 117 x i IV-6 SUMMARY OF TOTAL NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS 119 IV-7 SUMMARY OF NEIGHBOURHOOD SPACE REQUIREMENTS, DEFICIENCIES AND COSTS 120 IV-8 A TYPICAL RICHMOND NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK.... 123 IV-9 COMMUNITY PARK SPACE REQUIREMENTS 125 IV-10 COMMUNITY FACILITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS 126 IV-11 SUMMARY OF TOTAL COMMUNITY ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS 128 IV-12 SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 129 IV-13 SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS, DEFICIENCIES AND COSTS 131 IV-14 A TYPICAL COMMUNITY PARK AND FACILITIES 132 IV-15 COMMUNITY CENTRE BUILDING 133 IV-16 MUNICIPAL PARK SPACE REQUIREMENTS 135 IV-17 MUNICIPAL ATHLETIC FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 137 IV-18 MUNICIPAL CULTURAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS 138 IV-19 MUNICIPAL OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITY REQUIREMENTS.140 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many people d e s e r v e t h a n k s f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h i s t h e s i s . To P r o f e s s o r Brahm Wiesman f o r h i s s u p p o r t , encouragement and a s s i s t a n c e , not o n l y i n p r e p a r i n g the t h e s i s but d u r i n g my two y e a r s a t UBC. To Dr. Henry Hightower f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , a s s i s t a n c e and v a l u a b l e a d v i c e i n p r e p a r i n g my t h e s i s . To Dr. B i l l Rees f o r h i s s t i m u l a t i n g debate and c h a l l e n g e s t o i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n the t h e s i s . To Dr M i c h a e l S e e l i g and Dr. John L a r s e n f o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o an e n j o y a b l e t h e s i s d e f e n s e . To Dr. C r a i g D a v i s f o r the computer d o l l a r s needed f o r the da t a p r o c e s s i n g . To Mike Brow f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o l l e c t needed d a t a , and get p a i d i n the p r o c e s s . To K a t h r y n f o r e d i t i n g the f i n a l d r a f t and f o r her support and encouragement t h r o u g h o u t . And f i n a l l y , t o Amdahl 470/V6 f o r her d i l i g e n c e , hardwork and u n y i e l d i n g d e d i c a t i o n i n u n d e r t a k i n g the a n a l y s i s and t y p i n g of the t h e s i s t e x t . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION One of the most im p o r t a n t and complex t a s k s of r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s needs a n a l y s i s . The t e c h n i q u e s f o r r e l a t i n g demand and s u p p l y t o d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i v e need f o r r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e shrouded i n v a l u e judgements, m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n , and t h e o r e t i c a l arguments (Gold,1980:197). 1.1. STUDY OBJECTIVES T h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s i n urban c e n t r e s . A c r i t i c a l i s s u e i n urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s : How can the r e c r e a t i o n needs of a p o p u l a t i o n be d e t e r m i n e d and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s ? S h i v e r s and H j e l t e (1970:221) s t a t e : The s i n g l e g r e a t e s t d e f i c i e n c y among thos e who p l a n f o r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and p l a c e s i s a l a c k of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g n e c e s s a r y space f o r the p r o v i s i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of a l l t y p e s w i t h i n the urban c e n t r e . The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o d e v e l o p a p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e t o det e r m i n e urban r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . As a p l a n n i n g t o o l , i t w i l l r e l a t e demand and s u p p l y t o det e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e need f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n v a r i o u s a r e a s of urban c e n t r e s . S p e c i f i c t h e s i s o b j e c t i v e s a r e : 1) To o u t l i n e some major problems i n the t r a d i t i o n a l 2 s t a n d a r d s approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . 2) To r e v i e w c u r r e n t approaches t o r e c r e a t i o n demand and s u p p l y a n a l y s i s . 3) To d e v e l o p an a l t e r n a t i v e approach f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and needs. 4) To a p p l y and e v a l u a t e the approach i n an i l l u s t r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n . 1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT D e s p i t e some r e c e n t advances i n urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g methods, a p p l i c a t i o n of space and f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s has been the t r a d i t i o n a l , and o f t e n c u r r e n t , means of d e t e r m i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n needs. The most commonly employed approach t o p l a n n i n g f o r l e i s u r e - and, s p e c i f i c a l l y , p l a n n i n g f o r urban open space - i s the s t a n d a r d s approach. About 75 p e r c e n t of a l l Canadian towns and c i t i e s have open space s t a n d a r d s , e x p r e s s e d e i t h e r as a c r e s per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n or as p e r c e n t a g e of d e v e l o p e d a r e a (Burton,1976:29). In 1973, a major s t u d y of urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n Canadian urban c e n t r e s found t h a t , of the 135 communities s u r v e y e d , o n l y 55 communities (41%) had a l o n g range p l a n ( P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 7 4 : 6 ) . Of t h e s e 55 communities, 70 p e r c e n t used s t a n d a r d s t o d e t e r m i n e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , a r e v i e w of r e c r e a t i o n master p l a n s p r e p a r e d by A l b e r t a m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t almost 80 p e r c e n t a p p l i e d s t a n d a r d s i n t h e i r p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 1 T h i s i n d i c a t e s an o b v i o u s need t o upgrade u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a b i l i t y t o p l a n f o r urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s (Rudge,1977). 3 1.2.1. THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION PLANNING W r i g h t , B r a i t h w a i t e and F o r s t e r (1976:17) o u t l i n e a t y p i c a l approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . P r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n of the m u n i c i p a l i t y i s noted and f u t u r e p o p u l a t i o n i s f o r e c a s t e d over s p e c i f i e d time i n t e r v a l s .... By a p p l y i n g r e c o g n i z e d q u a n t i t a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s and s t a n d a r d s f o r common t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s per u n i t of p o p u l a t i o n , a p r e s e n t and f u t u r e demand f o r t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s i s c a l c u l a t e d . At t h i s p o i n t an i n v e n t o r y i s taken of e x i s t i n g p u b l i c open space and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . When the i n v e n t o r y i s compared w i t h demand, i t i s o f t e n d i s c o v e r e d t h e r e i s a p r e s e n t as w e l l as f u t u r e def i c i t . P o t e n t i a l open space l a n d s a re then compared t o e x i s t i n g and f u t u r e demand. C o s t s and a c c e s s t o u s i n g p o p u l a t i o n a re computed and a 'best f i t ' i s found between the l o c a t i o n of s u p p l y and the l o c a t i o n of demand, w i t h i n c o s t l i m i t s . A recommended p l a n i s de v e l o p e d and e x p r e s s e d as a st a g e d program of l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and open space development. A l t h o u g h t h i s approach does not r e f l e c t t he c u r r e n t ' s t a t e of the a r t ' , i t i s s t i l l w i d e l y u s e d . 2 The s t a n d a r d s approach i s s t i l l used t o determine park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , e v a l u a t e adequacy, d e v e l o p p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t e r e s o u r c e s t o r e c r e a t i o n development. I t has p e r s i s t e d , i n p a r t , due t o l a c k of an a l t e r n a t i v e . 1.2.2. MAJOR PROBLEMS WITH THE TRADITIONAL STANDARDS APPROACH Park and f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s have been s u b j e c t t o i n t e n s e c r i t i c i s m i n p a s t y e a r s (Sessoms,1965:26-31; Clawson and 4 Krietsch,1966:147-150; Gold,1973:143-185; Mercer,1973:37-50; B u r t o n , 1976:29-32),. T h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l use i n a l l o c a t i n g p u b l i c l a n d and r e s o u r c e s t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s has been c h a l l e n g e d . As s t a t e d by D a u i t e (1966:335): S t a n d a r d s have o v e r s i m p l i f i e d the s o l u t i o n t o the problem of f i r s t a s c e r t a i n i n g demand; then r e l a t i n g demand t o s u p p l y ; and f i n a l l y , t r a n s l a t i n g r e l a t e d demand and s u p p l y i n t o acreage r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e s i g n f e a t u r e s , t a k i n g i n t o account c a p a c i t y f a c t o r s . E v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a r b i t r a r y r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d s are i n adequate i n d i c a t o r s of demand or need (Gold,1973:8; Sessoms,1965:31; B r i d g e s , 1 9 7 7 : 1 2 ) . U s i n g s t a n d a r d s t o det e r m i n e a community's park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s assumes a " t y p i c a l p o p u l a t i o n w i t h t y p i c a l i n t e r e s t s " (Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 2 0 ) . No r e g a r d i s g i v e n t o d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n or between a r e a s , i n terms of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or v a r y i n g demands (Gold,1973:174; B u r t o n e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 6 3 ) . T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s summarized by the ORRRC Study Report No. 20 which s t a t e s : S t a n d a r d s e x p r e s s e d as so many a c r e s per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n do not d i s c r i m i n a t e among communities i n terms of v a r y i n g p r o p e n s i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n consumption. D i f f e r e n c e s among communities i n terms of demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s produce q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s of r e c r e a t i o n demand. St a n d a r d s have p e r p e t u a t e d a myth of u n i f o r m i t y and e q u a l i t y . The r e c r e a t i o n s t a n d a r d has been i n c o r r e c t l y r e g a r d e d as i n s u r i n g everyone e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s (Gold,1973:196). As Bu r t o n (1976:32) p o i n t s o u t : Most wester n i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s have d e v e l o p e d and committed themselves t o the p r i n c i p a l of e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l of t h e i r c i t i z e n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y has come t o mean, i n 5 p r a c t i c e , i d e n t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t y . And, w h i l e t h e r e i s no doubt t h a t some b a s i c needs of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y common t h a t the p r o v i s i o n of i d e n t i c a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s n e c e s s a r y , i t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t o t h e r k i n d s of needs a r e q u i t e d i v e r s e , so t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i m p l i e s the p r o v i s i o n of a range of d i f f e r e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. S t a n d a r d s have a l s o been c r i t i c i z e d on the grounds t h a t they f a i l t o r e f l e c t community l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s (Gold,1973:173; Bridges,1977:12; W r i g h t et a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 2 1 ) . Communities v a r y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o pay f o r and s u pport r e c r e a t i o n development. Cost i m p l i c a t i o n s of i m plementing s t a n d a r d s o f t e n f a r exceed community f i n a n c i a l and l a n d r e s o u r c e s (Gold,1973:174; Clawson,1963:20; Van Doren,1973:266-271; Dunn,1975:26). Without r e g a r d t o r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s , s t a n d a r d s o f t e n become u n r e a l i s t i c , u n a t t a i n a b l e and u n e c o n o m i c a l . T h i s problem is p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e i n c o r e a r e a s of urban c e n t r e s , which a r e o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h d e n s i t y development, h i g h l a n d v a l u e s and l i t t l e p a r k l a n d . C o s t s of a c q u i r i n g and d e v e l o p i n g l a n d i n t h e s e a r e a s t o meet r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d s i s o f t e n beyond a community's f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t y (Guinan e t al.,1975:3-10; Dunn,1974:34-38; C i t y of Edmonton,1978:118). Stand a r d s a r e a l s o i n a d e q u a t e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g development p r i o r i t i e s and making a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s among d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s .and p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Where park and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s exceed a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , two t y p e s of p r i o r i t y and a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s have t o be made. F i r s t , a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s must be made r e g a r d i n g c h o i c e s between t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; f o r example, t o s a t i s f y 6 demand f o r swimming p o o l s as compared t o demand f o r c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s ; or neighbourhood park needs p i t t e d a g a i n s t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r community c e n t r e s . Secpnd, d e c i s i o n s must be made r e g a r d i n g a l l o c a t i o n s made s p a t i a l l y . S h o u l d i n v e s t m e n t s be made i n Community A or i n Community B? The s t a n d a r d s approach i s i n a d e q u a t e f o r making e i t h e r t y pe of d e c i s i o n . I t l a c k s an i n t e g r a t e d framework f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y , e f f e c t i v e n e s s or b e n e f i t s o b t a i n e d from a l t e r n a t i v e f a c i l i t y and l o c a t i o n i n v e s t m e n t s (Knetsch,1974:10-14). O f t e n r e s u l t i n g i s a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e a l l o c a t i o n of budget t o s a t i s f y demand f o r a r e s t r i c t e d number of r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i e s ( B r i d g e s , 1 9 7 7 : 1 3 -19 ) . T h i s m i s a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s may l e a d t o s e v e r e i n e q u i t i e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n among f a c i l i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s (Dee and Liebman, 1970,: 145-159; Gold,1973:179; Clawson, 1963:21) . These problems a r e more than s e m a n t i c s . The p e r s i s t e n t use of s t a n d a r d s , as p l a n n i n g t o o l s , have p r e v e n t e d p l a n n e r s from e f f e c t i v e l y p e r f o r m i n g t h e i r f u n c t i o n ; from a d e q u a t e l y j u s t i f y i n g , t o d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , recommended a c t i o n ; or more i m p o r t a n t l y , from p r o v i d i n g t h e p u b l i c o p p o r t u n i t i e s they d e s i r e , w i t h i n l i m i t s of l o c a l budgets. A new approach t o needs a n a l y s i s i s r e q u i r e d ; a method which can improve upon the d e f i c i e n c i e s of s t a n d a r d s . 1.3. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS T h i s t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and needs. M e t h o d o l o g i e s a r e reviewed and an approach d e v e l o p e d t o 7 deter m i n e e q u i t a b l e space r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h i n the l i m i t s of r e s i d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . G o l d (1973:15;1980:2) has o u t l i n e d some b a s i c assumptions r e f l e c t i n g h i s v i e w p o i n t and o r i e n t a t i o n t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Some of t h e s e assumptions have been adapted and a p p l i e d h e r e . They s e r v e two p u r p o s e s . F i r s t , t h ey r e p r e s e n t l i m i t a t i o n s on the scope of t h i s s t u d y . Second, they p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n f o r the development and a p p l i c a t i o n of an approach f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . F o l l o w i n g i s a summary of the scope and o r i e n t a t i o n of t h i s s t u d y : 1) Survey methods can be used t o o b t a i n a v a l i d and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n d i c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , and p r e f e r e n c e s f o r , d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 2) T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o d i m e n s i o n s of t i m e , p e o p l e and space f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s and p o p u l a t i o n s . 3) These d i m e n s i o n s , r e p r e s e n t i n g demand,, can be r e l a t e d t o the s u p p l y of r e c r e a t i o n space t o i n d i c a t e need, by p l a n n i n g a r e a s , f o r a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y or s e t of a c t i v i t i e s . 4) T h i s need, t r a n s l a t e d i n t o measures of space, p e o p l e and performance s t a n d a r d s , can be d e t e r m i n e d t o r e f l e c t e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s of r e s i d e n t s and r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . 5) These measures s h o u l d be u s e f u l i n the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s f o r p r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n urban c e n t r e s . Rather than d e t a i l e d s i t e o r p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h needs a n a l y s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o system o r master p l a n n i n g . System p l a n n i n g d e a l s w i t h d e v e l o p i n g p o l i c i e s and recommendations on l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n and development of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the e n t i r e urban c e n t r e . I t can be c o n t r a s t e d 8 w i t h s i t e or p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g which d e a l s w i t h the development of p a r t i c u l a r s i t e s , f a c i l i t i e s or p r o j e c t s . The systems p l a n p r o v i d e s a framework f o r d e c i s i o n making, w h i l e , the s i t e p l a n p r o v i d e s a v e h i c l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the system p l a n (Gold,1980:11,22-24). The approach d e v e l o p e d here w i l l be l i m i t e d t o d e t e r m i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p u b l i c urban r e c r e a t i o n space ( i . e . , p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s ) r e l a t e d t o ( e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l ) r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . W r i g h t e t a l . (1976:7,132-134) o u t l i n e a broad d e f i n i t i o n of urban open space c o v e r i n g space r e q u i r e d f o r e d u c a t i v e , a e s t h e t i c , p r o d u c t i v e , p r o t e c t i v e and r e c r e a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . A subset of urban r e c r e a t i o n space, i n c l u d i n g neighbourhood, community and c i t y w i d e p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , i s the f o c u s of t h i s t h e s i s . P a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s o u t s i d e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , l i k e space p r o v i d e d i n downtown or i n d u s t r i a l a r e a s , or s p e c i a l use a r e a s , a r e not c o n s i d e r e d . A l s o , many r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s s u p p l i e d by the p r i v a t e s e c t o r a r e c o n s i d e r e d ; g e n e r a l l y where f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n i s undertaken by both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s . Where the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i s the s o l e s u p p l i e r , a s s o c i a t e d spaces are e x c l u d e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The approach w i l l p r o v i d e such i n f o r m a t i o n as park and f a c i l i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s , d e f i c i e n c i e s , c o s t s and number of u s e r s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d t o a i d i n the development of p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s ; i n f o r m a t i o n u s e f u l i n p r e p a r i n g a m u n i c i p a l master p l a n . The approach w i l l be p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d toward towns and c i t i e s up t o 200,000 9 p o p u l a t i o n . However, i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d t o l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s . The approach w i l l be d e v e l o p e d and a p p l i e d i n a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . N e c e s s a r y d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s w i l l be d e v e l o p e d , d e s c r i b e d and a p p l i e d . I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d from the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be o u t l i n e d and the approach then e v a l u a t e d i n terms of i t s advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s i n p l a n n i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n urban c e n t r e s . 1.4. STUDY APPROACH Numerous s o u r c e s were r e v i e w e d t o a s s e s s the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of needs a n a l y s i s a p p l i e d t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . A b s t r a c t e d from t h i s m a t e r i a l was a t y p i c a l p l a n n i n g approach i n c l u d i n g c u r r e n t methods of d e t e r m i n i n g urban space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and needs. An a l t e r n a t i v e approach was then d e v e l o p e d based upon r e l a t i o n s h i p s among key v a r i a b l e s i n the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s was adapted t o a s e t of s i m p l e m a t h e m a t i c a l e q u a t i o n s . A computer program was w r i t t e n t o a p p l y t h e p r o c e s s i n a p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . The p r o c e s s was a p p l i e d u s i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d f o r Richmond, B r i t i s h C olumbia. The Richmond s t u d y a r e a was d e l i n e a t e d i n t o neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Numerous urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be p r o v i d e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . I n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n each urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y was c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a survey t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l l y 10 s t r a t i f i e d random sample of Richmond h o u s e h o l d s . I n f o r m a t i o n on p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n , e x i s t i n g p a r k l a n d and f a c i l i t y s u p p l y and l a n d c o s t was a l s o c o l l e c t e d f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a . T h i s d a t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g the computer program t o dete r m i n e f o r each Richmond p l a n n i n g a r e a , and i n t o t a l , t h e : 1) amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , 2) p a r k l a n d and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s , and 3) l a n d and f a c i l i t y c o s t s and the number of u s e r s which c o u l d be accommodated i n park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s approach was e v a l u a t e d based on the r e s u l t s of the Richmond a p p l i c a t i o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study was examined by i l l u s t r a t i n g uses of the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Data problems were i d e n t i f i e d and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h o u t l i n e d . Problems and l i m i t a t i o n s of the approach were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d and s u g g e s t i o n s made f o r improvements. 1.5. ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS REPORT The t h e s i s i s o r g a n i z e d i n f i v e c h a p t e r s . T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o u t l i n e s the stu d y o b j e c t i v e s , problem, scope and l i m i t a t i o n s , and approach. A d e f i n i t i o n of terms i s a l s o p r o v i d e d . The b r i e f problem statement c o n t a i n s an ov e r v i e w and c r i t i q u e of the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Chapter 2 r e v i e w s and e v a l u a t e s c u r r e n t approaches t o needs (demand and s u p p l y ) a n a l y s i s . 11 A needs a n a l y s i s approach i s d e v e l o p e d and i l l u s t r a t e d i n C hapter 3, i n c l u d i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of i t s purpose, p r o c e s s , a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e and a p p l i c a t i o n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Chapter 4 i s an i l l u s t r a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n t o Richmond, B r i t i s h C o lumbia. I n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s and a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s a r e b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d , f o l l o w e d by a p r e s e n t a t i o n of r e s u l t s of the Richmond a p p l i c a t i o n . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n i s neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , d e f i c i e n c i e s and c o s t s . The c o n c l u s i o n , Chapter 6, i s an e v a l u a t i o n of the approach. I n c l u d e d i s an e x a m i n a t i o n of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study and an e v a l u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s . A l s o i n c l u d e d i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of problems and l i m i t a t i o n s and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvements and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 1.6. DEFINITIONS The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s r e f e r t o terms used i n the t e x t . Urban R e c r e a t i o n Space - a l l urban outdoor or i n d o o r space, both p u b l i c l y and p r i v a t e l y owned, used f o r f r e e l y chosen r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s or p u r s u i t s . P a r k s - outdoor urban r e c r e a t i o n space. F a c i l i t i e s - i n d o o r urban r e c r e a t i o n space; o f t e n used, depending on c o n t e x t , t o mean p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t i e s - p a s s i v e and a c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n p u r s u i t s accommodated i n urban r e c r e a t i o n space. 12 S e r v i c e Area - a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a c o n t a i n i n g the p o p u l a t i o n s e r v e d by a p a r t i c u l a r park or f a c i l i t y , or s e t of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t r a v e l t ime from r e s i d e n c e s of u s e r s or s i z e , f u n c t i o n and type of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d . P l a n n i n g U n i t - a s e t of g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s d e f i n e d as s e r v i c e a r e a s f o r p a r t i c u l a r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . Urban c e n t r e s g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n t h r e e p l a n n i n g u n i t s e t s - neighbourhood, community and c i t y w i d e - each h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t e d s e t s of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . P l a n n i n g Area - neighbourhood, community or m u n i c i p a l a r e a . R e c r e a t i o n Demand - a measure of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s or use a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e ; or space r e q u i r e m e n t s e x p r e s s e d i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s f o r a l l or a subset of p l a n n i n g a r e a s . R e c r e a t i o n Supply - a measure of e x i s t i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i n g a l l or a s u b s e t of p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Use - a measure of r e c r e a t i o n use a t a s p e c i f i c s i t e measured i n v i s i t s , v i s i t o r days, v i s i t o r hours or a c t i v i t y days. P a r t i c i p a t i o n - a measure of a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n p e r c e n t or a c t i v i t y days. R e c r e a t i o n Need - the d i f f e r e n c e between r e c r e a t i o n demand, measured i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s , and e x i s t i n g s u p p l y . Peak or D e s i g n Load - i s the amount of e s t i m a t e d peak p e r i o d p a r t i c i p a t i o n or use t o be accommodated i n p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . C a p a c i t y - i s the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n or use which can be s u s t a i n e d or accommodated i n p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s over a d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d . A c t i v i t y S p a t i a l U n i t - i s the space r e q u i r e d f o r one ' u n i t ' of a c t i v i t y such as one s o c c e r f i e l d . User D e n s i t y - the d e n s i t y , i n number of u s e r s , which i s t o be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t . User Accommodation - i s the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n or use t o be accommodated i n p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . Space Requirements - i s the t o t a l amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , or s e t of a c t i v i t i e s , based on d e s i g n l o a d and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . S t a n d a r d - a measure of r e c r e a t i o n space r e q u i r e d , e x p r e s s e d as amount of l a n d or f a c i l i t i e s per u n i t p o p u l a t i o n or as a p e r c e n t a g e of d e v e l o p e d a r e a . 13 Demand A n a l y s i s - a p r o c e s s which t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n or use measures i n t o s p a t i a l u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s . Needs A n a l y s i s - a p r o c e s s which measures a n d - r e l a t e s the demand f o r space t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y t o d e t e r m i n e need, measured i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s , f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 14 CHAPTER 1 FOOTNOTES 1 U n p u b l i s h e d d a t a p r e p a r e d by a u t h o r i n J u l y , 1978, f o r a R e c r e a t i o n Master P l a n M a r k e t i n g Study of A l b e r t a M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . One hundred and e i g h t y f i v e master p l a n s , p r e p a r e d i n the p e r i o d 1972-1978, were r e v i e w e d t o a s s e s s p l a n c o n t e n t and p l a n n i n g approach. 2 For d e t a i l s on the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g see: George D. B u t l e r , S t a n d a r d s f o r M u n i c i p a l R e c r e a t i o n Areas (New York: N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962), pp. 1-34. R i c h a r d K r a u s , R e c r e a t i o n and L e i s u r e i n Modern Soc i e t y (Santa M o n i c a , C a l i f o r n i a : Goodyear P u b l i s h i n g Company, I n c . , 1978), pp. 366-368. Robert D. Buechner ( e d . ) , N a t i o n a l P a r k , R e c r e a t i o n and Open  Space S t a n d a r d s (Washington, D.C.: N a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and Park A s s o c i a t i o n , 1971), pp. 20-23. J . T. Guinan e t a l . , Open Space Study: A n a l y s i s and P o l i c y  Recommendations (Ottawa: P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Department, C i t y of Ottawa, 1976), pp. 7-14. C i t y of Edmonton, 1970-80 P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Master P l a n (Edmonton: P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Department, C i t y of Edmonton, 1.972), p. 3. Thomas L. Bu r t o n e t a l . , G u i d e l i n e s f o r Urban Open Space  P l a n n i n g (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s , 1976), pp. 2-3. Seymour M. G o l d , R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g and D e s i g n (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1980), pp. 143,172-175,183. Glenn B r i d g e s , Towards A s s e s s i n g Community R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y  Need: A Review and An A l t e r n a t i v e ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Program A n a l y s i s D i v i s i o n , P a r k s B r a n c h , M i n i s t r y of R e c r e a t i o n and C o n s e r v a t i o n , 1977), p. 7. P r o j e c t P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t e s , L t d . , Urban Open Space Study f o r  Canadian Communities (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y of S t a t e f o r Urban A f f a i r s , 1974), P. 6. 15 CHAPTER 2 CURRENT APPROACHES TO NEEDS ANALYSIS 2.1. INTRODUCTION Needs a n a l y s i s i s a p r o c e s s which measures and r e l a t e s the demand f o r space t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e need f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n , and between, p l a n n i n g a r e a s (Gold,1980:197). Need, measured i n park and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s , i s u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t i e s and making a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s among d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f a c i l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g a r e a s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the s t a n d a r d s approach has been used t o de t e r m i n e urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Needs a n a l y s i s , i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach, c o n s i s t s of comparing space r e q u i r e m e n t s , as i n d i c a t e d by s t a n d a r d s , t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y . Park and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e used t o f o r m u l a t e p r i o r i t i e s f o r development. A l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s a r e made by ma t c h i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s w i t h a v a i l a b l e c a p i t a l budget monies. As was i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter 1, the s t a n d a r d s approach t o needs a n a l y s i s i s i n a d e q u a t e . A new approach i s r e q u i r e d which can improve upon the d e f i c i e n c i e s of s t a n d a r d s . A c c o r d i n g t o G o l d (1980), two major c h a l l e n g e s a r i s e when d e v e l o p i n g an approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n needs a n a l y s i s : 1) The c o n c e p t u a l c h a l l e n g e t o d e v e l o p c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems r e l a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o space and 16 f a c i l i t i e s which can be a g g r e g a t e d w i t h i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l p l a n n i n g u n i t framework, and 2 ) The m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c h a l l e n g e t o measure and r e l a t e demand f o r space and f a c i l i t i e s t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e needs between, and w i t h i n , p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s may be d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o the e x p e c t e d number of p e r s o n s i n a s e r v i c e a r e a who w i l l use them. Peo p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s , i n t u r n , have park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . D i f f e r e n t p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a l s o r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s i z e s e r v i c e p o p u l a t i o n s . C o s t l y f a c i l i t i e s might be p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s drawing p a r t i c i p a n t s from l a r g e r s e r v i c e a r e a s . For example, s o c c e r , r a c q u e t b a l l and swimming have t h e i r own s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . G e n e r a l l y , s o c c e r f i e l d s a r e p r o v i d e d i n neighbourhood p a r k s w h i l e more c o s t l y r a c q u e t c o u r t s and swimming p o o l s a r e p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e the l a r g e r community p o p u l a t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o support them. P l a n n i n g f o r urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e s a framework w i t h i n which t o work. The r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o be p l a n n e d f o r s h o u l d be e x p l i c i t l y enumerated and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s i d e n t i f i e d . P a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d a l s o be r e l a t e d t o s e r v i c e a r e a l e v e l s ( i . e . , neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l ) a t which they a r e t o be p l a n n e d . These t a s k s a r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the development of t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s based on common r e s o u r c e , space or f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s d e t e r m i n e s the components of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . 17 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of urban a r e a s i n t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l s e t of s e r v i c e a r e a s i n c l u d i n g neighbourhood, community, m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l a r e a s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l s e r v i c e a r e a s . T h i s i d e n t i f i e s the p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated a t d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a l e v e l s . A p p l i e d i n t h i s framework, a method i s r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e the e x p e c t e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v a r i o u s urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and t r a n s l a t e them i n t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate e x p e c t e d peak use. Three c r i t e r i a a r e suggested t o f a c i l i t a t e the development of needs a n a l y s i s methods f o r urban a p p l i c a t i o n s . Each c r i t e r i o n i s r e l a t e d t o a major weakness w i t h the s t a n d a r d s approach. C o m m u n i t y - s p e c i f i c : park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t the p r e f e r e n c e s and c o m p o s i t i o n of the community p o p u l a t i o n they a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . E q u i t y : park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t ah e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n among s e r v i c e a r e a s . Resource C o n s t r a i n t s : park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a v a i l a b l e l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t the c o m p o s i t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e s of a s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n a t a s p e c i f i c time (Gold,1972:370; O.M.C.R.,1976:11; Rudge,1977:8; Gold,1980:127). Neighbourhood p o p u l a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ; c r e a t i n g unique demands f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e t o a l l o c a t e among t h e s e competing demands. A v a i l a b l e l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be a l l o c a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n development t o ensure a b a l a n c e of o p p o r t u n i t i e s among s e r v i c e a r e a s (Wright e t al.,1976:21) 18 2.2. NEEDS ANALYSIS Wright e.t a l . (1976:18) s t a t e : There seems t o be g e n e r a l agreement among p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h a t when used p r o p e r l y , s t a n d a r d s s e r v e as a p o i n t of d e p a r t u r e f o r e s t i m a t i n g : 1) the amount of l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r a p o p u l a t i o n , 2) the number of p e o p l e a g i v e n r e c r e a t i o n a r e a , f a c i l i t y or system may be e x p e c t e d t o s e r v e , and 3) the adequacy of an a r e a , f a c i l i t y or system t o accommodate the p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n i t s s e r v i c e a r e a . S t a n d a r d s have c l e a r l y o v e r s i m p l i f i e d the p l a n n i n g t a s k . S t a n d a r d s of X f a c i l i t i e s or Y a c r e s of l a n d per Z p o p u l a t i o n i g n o r e some i m p o r t a n t p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s , namely: The number of p e r s o n s i n Z p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n or e x p r e s s i n g a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n X f a c i l i t i e s or on Y a c r e s , The number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l use X f a c i l i t i e s or Y a c r e s a t peak use p e r i o d s , The c a p a c i t y or numbers of p e r s o n s who can be accommodated i n X f a c i l i t i e s or on Y a c r e s f o r v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a t peak use p e r i o d s , The amount of X f a c i l i t i e s or Y a c r e s which can be p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e Z p o p u l a t i o n , g i v e n p r e s e n t community l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . Some r e c e n t needs a n a l y s i s methods have been d e v e l o p e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e s e p l a n n i n g c o n c e r n s . E a r l y needs a n a l y s i s methods, de v e l o p e d i n the U.S. d u r i n g the 1960's and 1970's i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of s t a t e outdoor r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s , were used t o d e t e r m i n e space needs f o r non-urban p a r k s (Texas,1965; C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 6 ; L o u i s i a n n a , 1 9 6 6 ; W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 6 9 ; C.D.P.R.,1971; Maryland,1972; Van L i e r , 1 9 7 3 ; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 ; Oregon,1975; 19 M a r i c o p a County,1976; P.D.F.W.,1977). F i g u r e I I - l i l l u s t r a t e s a common approach t o needs a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d f o r non-urban p a r k s . In a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s approach p r o v i d e s space and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a . T h i s method i n v o l v e s s i x major s t e p s , which d e t e r m i n e : 1) p a r t i c i p a t i o n , 2) peak l o a d s , 3) c a p a c i t y , 4) space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , and 5) space and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s . Each s t e p i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e I I - 2 and d e s c r i b e d below. 2.2.1. MEAUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION Methods used t o determine space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r non-urban p a r k s a r e based on f o r e c a s t s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (CD.P.R. ,1971; M a r y l a n d , 1972, V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 ; Oregon,1975; P.D.F.W.,1977). P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d i n ' a c t i v i t y days per p a r t i c i p a n t 1 , where an a c t i v i t y day i s d e f i n e d as p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y by one perso n f o r a twenty f o u r hour p e r i o d . These measures a r e c a l c u l a t e d from survey d a t a by d i v i d i n g the number of a c t i v i t y days of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h r e e month peak p e r i o d by the number of persons i n the ho u s e h o l d sample p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y (Maryland,1972:30; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 : 7 3 ) . A l s o c a l c u l a t e d from the hou s e h o l d s u r v e y i s the p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . These p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g t he t o t a l number of persons p a r t i c i p a t i n g by the t o t a l number of persons i n the hou s e h o l d FIGURE I I - l NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS NUMBER OP PEOPLE IN AGE GROUP BY PLANNING AREA [PARTICIPATION. RATE POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY AGE GROUP PREFERENCE RATE POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY AGE GROUP DEMAND RATE POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY AGE GROUP POTENTIAL USERS POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY IPUNNINO AREAl SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OP RECREATION PARTICIPATION BY ACTIVITY WEEKLY AND DAILY DISTRIBUTION OP PARTICIPATION BY ACTIVITY PEAK USERS POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PUNNING AREAl SIZE OP GROUP USING PACILITY POR ACTIVITY FACILITIES REQUIRED POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREAl SPACE REQUIRED POR RECREATION ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIRED FOR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA COMPARISON OF SUPPLY AND REQUIREMENTS BY PLANNING AREA V I SUPPLY OP FACILITIES POR RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA I DEFICIENCIES OF FACILITIES! BY PLANNING AREA PUBLIC AND IPRIVATE SUPPLY! OF- F A C I L I T I E S [POR RECREATION! ACTIVI T Y TOTAL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SUPPLY OF RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES INVENTORY OF PUBLIC RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES INVENTORY OP| PRIVATE RECREATION AREAS AND FACILITIES PARK AND PACILITY CLASSIFICATION^ PLANNING UNIT jCLASSIFICATION Source i Adapted from PARISJ Park and Recreation Information System; Supply - Demand Analysis (State of C a l i f o r n i a , November 1966) , p, 135. o 21 FIGURE I I - 2 STEPS IN THE NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS STEP 1 P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s , d i s a g g r e g a t e d by socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( a g e ) , a re a p p l i e d t o the "percent p a r t i c i p a t i n g " i n each socioeconomic group. P r o d u c t s are summed to y i e l d the t o t a l number of u s e r s per a c t i v i t y . POPULATION GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 PARTICIPATION PART 1 PART 2 PART 3 PARTICIPANTS USERS 1 USERS 2 USERS 3 STEP 2 The number of a c t i v i t y days per user f o r a t h r e e month peak p e r i o d i s m u l t i p l i e d by the number of u s e r s . TOTAL ACTIVITY USERS X ACTIVITY DAYS/PEAK SEASON TOTAL ACTIVITY DAYS/PEAK SEASON' STEP 3 The number of a c t i v i t y days i n a t h r e e month peak p e r i o d i s d i v i d e d by the months per peak season t o y i e l d peak month a c t i v i t y days. Peak month a c t i v i t y days are m u l t i p l i e d by the perc e n t of peak month use on a peak weekend day. TOTAL ACTIVITY DAYS/PEAK SEASON / MONTHS/ PEAK SEASON X PERCENT PEAK WEEKEND DAY USE USERS/ PEAK WEEKEND DAY 22 STEP 4 The number of us e r s on a peak weekend day a r e d i v i d e d by the product of the average p a r t y s i z e and t u r n o v e r r a t e . T h i s g i v e s the number of ' u n i t s ' r e q u i r e d per a c t i v i t y . USERS PER PEAK WEEKEND DAY / AVERAGE TURNOVER PARTY * SIZE RATE UNITS REQUIRED STEP 5 M u l t i p l y i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d by an a c t i v i t y s t a n d a r d , e x p r e s s i n g the space r e q u i r e d per u n i t , y i e l d s space r e q u i r e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . UNITS REQUIRED ACTIVITY SPACE STANDARD SPACE REQUIRED STEP 6 E x i s t i n g u n i t s and space are s u b t r a c t e d from e s t i m a t e d requirements to y i e l d a c t i v i t y need per p l a n n i n g a r e a . UNITS AND SPACE REQUIRED EXISTING UNITS AND SPACE NEED Source: Adapted From Maricopa County, " D e t e r m i n i n g R e c r e a t i o n Needs," i n L e i s u r e Resources: I t s Comprehensive P l a n n i n g , by Joseph Bannon. (Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c . , 1976) pp. 351-353. 23 sample (Maryland,1972:30). Both ' a c t i v i t y days per p a r t i c i p a n t ' and 'percent p a r t i c i p a t i n g ' f i g u r e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r v a r i o u s s o c i o e c o n o m i c groups. F o r e c a s t s of the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y a r e made f o r v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g a r e a s ( M a r i c o p a County,1976:233). The 'percent p a r t i c i p a t i n g ' f i g u r e s a r e m u l t i p l i e d by the f o r e c a s t e d p o p u l a t i o n i n so c i o e c o n o m i c groups f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a . T h i s c a l c u l a t i o n i n d i c a t e s the f o r e c a s t e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each so c i o e c o n o m i c group. These f i g u r e s a r e summed a c r o s s groups t o p r o v i d e the t o t a l number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . The number of ' a c t i v i t y days per p a r t i c i p a n t ' i s then m u l t i p l i e d by the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s . R e s u l t i n g i s the f o r e c a s t e d number of a c t i v i t y days f o r a t h r e e month peak p e r i o d i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y by p l a n n i n g a r e a . 2.2.2. PEAK LOADS Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e based on the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e c t e d d u r i n g peak use p e r i o d s . The number of a c t i v i t y days p a r t i c i p a t i o n over a t h r e e month peak season i s c o n v e r t e d t o the number of e x p e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s on a 'd e s i g n day' (Maryland,1972:40; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 : 7 3 ) . A d e s i g n day i s a s i n g l e h y p o t h e t i c a l day i n a f u t u r e ' t a r g e t ' year f o r which the number of peak a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a n t s i s e s t i m a t e d ( M a r y l a n d , 1972:40). F a c i l i t y s i z e i s based on th e s e d e s i g n day e s t i m a t e s . 24 In e s t a b l i s h i n g a d e s i g n day i t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t the d e s i g n day w i l l o c c u r i n the peak season and i t w i l l not be the day of h i g h e s t use i n the peak season (Maryland,1972:41). The number of a c t i v i t y days p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h r e e month peak season i s c o n v e r t e d t o the number of d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s by m u l t i p l y i n g the former by the p r o p o r t i o n of peak season use o c c u r r i n g on the d e s i g n day. T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y over the peak season (see F i g u r e I I - 3 ) . The p r o p o r t i o n of peak season use o c c u r r i n g on the d e s i g n day i s e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the p r o p o r t i o n of peak season use o c c u r r i n g i n a peak month by the p r o p o r t i o n of peak month use o c c u r r i n g on a peak ( d e s i g n ) day. The d e s i g n day p r o p o r t i o n i s then m u l t i p l i e d by the number of a c t i v i t y days i n the peak season t o e s t i m a t e the number of d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a . 2.2.3. CAPACITY Design day f i g u r e s a r e t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o l a n d and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s based on u n i t c a p a c i t y . U n i t c a p a c i t y i s the key c o e f f i c i e n t used t o t r a n s l a t e d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s ( d e s i g n l o a d ) i n t o space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s ( f w i s s , 1 9 6 8 : 1 3 9 ; D a u i t e , 1 9 6 6 : 3 3 6 ) . C a p a c i t y i s the amount of use which can be s u s t a i n e d or accommodated i n a r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y , or p a r t t h e r e o f , over a d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d . There a r e numerous v a r i a t i o n s of t h i s FIGURE I I - 3 ACTIVITY PARTICIPATION DISTRIBUTION OVER TIME PEAK MONTH 8 0 f 60+--Relative Amount of Use 4-0-j. 20 I 1 L 1 n t i « . h i i e ' i t I 1 WE WD >> c cd j« 0) 3E Swimming Picnicking Ice Hockey 26 d e f i n i t i o n (see F i g u r e I I - 4 ) . U n i t c a p a c i t y i s g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d i n the number of u s e r s per u n i t per day f o r a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 1 These e s t i m a t e s , which might be c a l l e d d a i l y u n i t c a p a c i t y , a r e d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the average group s i z e u s i n g an a c t i v i t y u n i t by t h e t u r n o v e r r a t e (P.D.F.W.,1977). Both average group s i z e and t u r n o v e r r a t e a r e based upon d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n a park use r s u r v e y 2 (see F i g u r e I I -5 ) . The average group s i z e i s the average number of persons u s i n g an a c t i v i t y u n i t ( e . g . , p i c n i c u n i t ) i n a use p e r i o d . A use p e r i o d i s the average d u r a t i o n of use i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . The t u r n o v e r r a t e i s the average number of t i m e s an a c t i v i t y u n i t i s used by a d i f f e r e n t group i n a twenty f o u r hour p e r i o d . I t i s d e t e r m i n e d by d i v i d i n g the number of hours i n day by the average d u r a t i o n of use. 2.2.4. SPACE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND DEFICIENCIES Land and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y a r e d e t e r m i n e d by a p p l y i n g u n i t c a p a c i t i e s t o d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t f i g u r e s (Maryland,1972:42; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 : 7 3 ; M a r i c o p a County,1976; P.D.F.W.,1977). The d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s d i v i d e d by the d a i l y u n i t c a p a c i t y p r o v i d e the number of a c t i v i t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . M u l t i p l y i n g u n i t s r e q u i r e d by an a c t i v i t y space s t a n d a r d , e x p r e s s i n g the space r e q u i r e d per u n i t , y i e l d s space r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y . The e x i s t i n g number of u n i t s and space f o r each a c t i v i t y i s deducted from the number of u n i t s and the space 2 7 FIGURE I I - 4 COMMONLY USED DEFINITIONS OF CAPACITY Minimum C a p a c i t y - the l e v e l of use a t which a development becomes uneconomical a c c o r d i n g t o c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s or c o s t - b e n e f i t c r i t e r i a . Maximum C a p a c i t y - i s the upper l i m i t of p e o p l e who can be accommodated i n a park development i f d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the s i t e or n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i s i g n o r e d . O p t i m a l (economic) C a p a c i t y - the amount of use t h a t a s i t e or r e s o u r c e can w i t h s t a n d b e f o r e i t d e t e r i o r a t e s f a s t e r than i t can r e g e n e r a t e i t s e l f n a t u r a l l y or be m a i n t a i n e d w i t h the economic r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . R e c r e a t i o n a l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y - i s the amount of use t h a t can be s u s t a i n e d over a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d by an a r e a d e v e l o p e d a t a c e r t a i n l e v e l w i t h o u t c a u s i n g e x c e s s i v e damage t o e i t h e r the environment or the e x p e r i e n c e of the u s e r . D e s i g n C a p a c i t y - the number of pe r s o n s who can be accommodated i n space a l l o t t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r development i n a p l a n . I n s t a n t a n e o u s C a p a c i t y - the amount of use accommodated a t any g i v e n i n s t a n t i n a f a c i l i t y or r e s o u r c e . D a i l y C a p a c i t y 1 - the amount of use accommodated i n a twenty f o u r hour p e r i o d i n a f a c i l i t y or r e s o u r c e . Annual C a p a c i t y 2 - the amount of use accommodated i n a f a c i l i t y or r e s o u r c e on an an n u a l b a s i s (season l e n g t h ) . 1 D a i l y c a p a c i t y i s a l s o the i n s t a n t a n e o u s c a p a c i t y m u l t i p l i e d by a t u r n o v e r r a t e (number of t i m e s a r e s o u r c e or f a c i l i t y can p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n a twenty f o u r hour p e r i o d ) . 2 Annual c a p a c i t y i s a l s o the d a i l y c a p a c i t y m u l t i p l i e d by the season l e n g t h (average number of days per year a c t i v i t y can be e n j o y e d ) . 28 FIGURE II - 5 DURATION OF USE AND GROUP SIZE Duration of Use Relative Amount of Use 30 60 90 ,120 150 180 210 2^0 270 300 MINUTES Group Size Relative Amount of Use -3-1 CA C M l (V I I C M I + C M n Swimming 1 C A C M 1 C M »-( V O I V A CM I C A + CM n 00 I + O x V A I C M Picnicking Ice Hockey NO. OF PEOPLE Sourcet Adapted from Fogg ( 1 9 7 5 * 3 3 ) . 29 r e q u i r e d t o determine the number needed (Maryland,1972:42; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 : 7 3 - 7 4 ; M a r i c o p a County,1976). These e s t i m a t e s , f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a , p r o v i d e r e l a t i v e space and f a c i l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s f o r a l l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 2.3. URBAN APPLICATIONS OF-NEEDS ANALYSIS C o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s r e s e a r c h has been d i r e c t e d toward d e v e l o p i n g methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban r e c r e a t i o n space r e q u i r e m e n t s than f o r non-urban park r e q u i r e m e n t s (U.S. I n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l Work Group on Urban R e c r e a t i o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . However, some r e c e n t s t u d i e s have d e v e l o p e d methods s i m i l a r t o those a p p l i e d t o non-urban p a r k s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban r e c r e a t i o n space needs (Barasch,1971; S p o r t s C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 1 ; Gold,1973; Bu r t o n e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; P r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ; C i t y of Edmonton,1978). C u r r e n t approaches t o urban r e c r e a t i o n needs a n a l y s i s can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t t y p e s , use and p a r t i c i p a t i o n methods. Each method i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d . 2.3.1. USE METHOD The use method e s t i m a t e s space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a range of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s - t e n n i s c o u r t s , s p o r t s grounds, g o l f c o u r s e s , swimming p o o l s and i n d o o r s p o r t s c e n t r e s - based on a c t u a l use a t e x i s t i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s ( S p o r t s C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 1 ; Barasch,1971; P r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s method p r o v i d e s r e l a t i v e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s w i t h i n c i t i e s . F i g u r e I I - 6 p r o v i d e s a h y p o t h e t i c a l example f o r e s t i m a t i n g t e n n i s c o u r t r e q u i r e m e n t s . 30 FIGURE I I - 6 USE METHOD (EXAMPLE) STEP 1 Cur r e n t use i s s t u d i e d t o determine (a) d u r a t i o n of use ( i . e . , t u r n o v e r r a t e ) , (b) average group s i z e , and (c) pe r c e n t users i n each age group. T o t a l number of us e r s per day per a c t i v i t y i s es t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the t o t a l number of a c t i v i t y u n i t s by the average number of us e r s per a c t i v i t y u n i t and the t u r n o v e r r a t e . 500 EXISTING COURTS X 2.5 USERS/ * USE PERIOD 8 USE PERIODS/ DAY 10,000 USERS/DAY STEP 2 The number of us e r s i n each age group i s determined by m u l t i p l y i n g the percentage of u s e r s (observed) i n each age group by t o t a l u s e rs ( u s e r s / d a y / a c t i v i t y ) . 10,000 USERS PER DAY % AGE GROUP 20% (10-14) 50% (15-24) 30% (25-44) USERS PER DAY 2000 (10-14) 5000 (15-24) 3000 (25-44) STEP 3 Cur r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a re d e r i v e d by d i v i d i n g the number of u s ers per age group by r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s . USERS/DAY 2000 (10-14) 5000 (15-24) 3000 (25-44) POPULATION / | 50000 (10-14) 100000 (15-24) 150000 (25-44) PARTICIPATION RATE (%) 4.0 (10-14) 5.0 (15-24) 2.0 (25-44) STEP 4 These r a t e s are a p p l i e d t o p r o j e c t e d age group p o p u l a t i o n i n a p l a n n i n g a r e a . The r e s u l t i n g number of us e r s (users/day) i n each age group are summed t o y i e l d t o t a l u s e r s i n the p l a n n i n g a r e a . 31 PARTICIPATION RATE (%) 4.0 (10-14) 5.0 (15-24) 2.0 (25-44) PLANNING AREA POPULATION X | 2500 (10-14) 4000 (15-24) 10000 (25-44) PLANNING AREA USERS/DAY 100 (10-14) 200 (15-24) 200 ' (25-44) STEP 5 The number of a c t i v i t y units required is determined by dividing the projected number of users per day by the number of users per day per a c t i v i t y unit (capacity). PLANNING AREA USERS/DAY 500 TOTAL / USERS/DAY/ TENNIS COURT 20 NUMBER OF COURTS REQUIRED 25 STEP 6 Total space required is determined by multiplying the a c t i v i t y units required by the space required per unit (space standard). NUMBER OF COURTS RQUIRED 25 X SPACE PER COURT 4800 SQ.FT. TENNIS SPACE REQUIREMENTS 120,000 SQ.FT. STEP 6 Unmet f a c i l i t y needs (in space and units) i s determined by (a) compiling an inventory of existing public and private f a c i l i t i e s , and (b) subtracting existing provisions from those required in each planning area. Units and space required summed across a l l planning areas w i l l equal t o t a l existing provisions(level of service). Discrepancies w i l l exist between planning areas. COURTS AND SPACE REQUIRED 25 COURTS 120,000 SQ.FT. EXISTING UNITS AND SPACE 10 COURTS. 48,000 SQ.FT. NEED 15 COURTS 72,000 SQ.FT. Source: Adapted from Price (1980). 32 Measurement Of P a r t i c i p a t i o n T h i s method bypasses the s t e p r e q u i r e d t o t r a n s l a t e e s t i m a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s ( i . e . , r e p r e s e n t i n g the number who p a r t i c i p a t e a n n u a l l y or i n a peak season) i n t o the number of d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t a c c o m p l i s h e s t h i s by measuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a 'users per day' b a s i s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t the p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s on an 'average' day; t h e average day b e i n g analogous t o a d e s i g n day. Thus, by a p p l y i n g t h e s e r a t e s t o p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s the number of f u t u r e d e s i g n day p a r t i c i p a n t s i s e s t i m a t e d d i r e c t l y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a re based on e s t i m a t e s of the number of d a i l y u s e r s a t e x i s t i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . C u r r e n t use i s s t u d i e d t o det e r m i n e f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y : 1) d u r a t i o n of use, 2) average group s i z e , and 3) p e r c e n t u s e r s i n each age group. The t o t a l number of d a i l y u s e r s per a c t i v i t y i s e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the t o t a l number of a c t i v i t y u n i t s by the average number of d a i l y u s e r s per a c t i v i t y u n i t . D a i l y u s e r s per u n i t i s the p r o d u c t of the average group s i z e and the t u r n o v e r r a t e . For example, average d u r a t i o n of use f o r t e n n i s may be 1.5 h o u r s . In a 12 hour day the t u r n o v e r r a t e i s (1.2/1.5=) 8. The average group s i z e , based on 250 u s e r s c o u n t e d over 100 o b s e r v a t i o n s , i s (250/100=) 2.5 u s e r s per c o u r t . The average group s i z e m u l t i p l i e d by the t u r n o v e r r a t e g i v e s the number of d a i l y u s e r s per c o u r t which i s (2.5 x 8=) 20 p e r s o n s . The e s t i m a t e d d a i l y u s e r s per c o u r t m u l t i p l i e d by the number of c o u r t s p r o v i d e s the t o t a l number of d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s i n the 33 community as (20 x 500=) 10,000 p l a y e r s . •The t o t a l number of d a i l y u s e r s i n each age group i s d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the p e r c e n t a g e of u s e r s (observed) i n each age group by the t o t a l number of d a i l y u s e r s per a c t i v i t y . The number of d a i l y u s e r s i n each age group i s d i v i d e d by r e s p e c t i v e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s t o determine age s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . For example, 20 p e r c e n t of t o t a l observed t e n n i s p l a y e r s might be i n the 10-14 year age group. T h i s p e r c e n t a p p l i e d t o the t o t a l number of d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s p u t s the number of d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s i n t h i s age group a t (10,000 x .20=) 2000 p e r s o n s . W i t h 50,000 persons aged 10-14 y e a r s i n the p o p u l a t i o n , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r t h i s age group i s (2000/50000=) 4.0 p e r c e n t . T h i s p e r c e n t can be c o n s i d e r e d the p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t e n n i s on a d e s i g n day. Peak Load Age s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e a p p l i e d t o p r o j e c t e d age group p o p u l a t i o n s i n i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . The r e s u l t i n g number of d a i l y u s e r s per a c t i v i t y i s summed t o y i e l d t o t a l d a i l y u s e r s i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . For example, the 10-14 age group t e n n i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e a p p l i e d t o the r e s p e c t i v e age group p o p u l a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g a r e a A g i v e s an e s t i m a t e of (.04 x 2500=) 100 d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s aged 10-14 i n p l a n n i n g a r e a A. Summed a c r o s s age groups, the t o t a l i s 500 d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s i n t h i s p l a n n i n g a r e a . 34 Capac i t y The number of d a i l y u s e r s i s c o n v e r t e d i n t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s based on d a i l y c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s f o r each a c t i v i t y . C a p a c i t y s t a n d a r d s a r e the number of d a i l y u s e r s which can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y u n i t . For example, based on 2.5 p e r s o n s per t e n n i s c o u r t and a t u r n o v e r r a t e of 8, the d a i l y u n i t c a p a c i t y has p r e v i o u s l y been e s t i m a t e d as (2.5 x 8=) 20 p e rsons per c o u r t per day. Space and F a c i l i t y Requirements The number of a c t i v i t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a i s e s t i m a t e d by d i v i d i n g t o t a l p r o j e c t e d d a i l y u s e r s by the number of d a i l y u s e r s which can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y u n i t ( d a i l y u n i t c a p a c i t y ) . For example, the 500 p r o j e c t e d t e n n i s p l a y e r s per day i n p l a n n i n g a r e a A d i v i d e d by a c a p a c i t y s t a n d a r d of 20 d a i l y u s e r s per c o u r t g i v e s a t e n n i s c o u r t r e quirement of 25 c o u r t s . The amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the a c t i v i t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d by the space r e q u i r e d per u n i t . For example, a t e n n i s c o u r t r e q u i r e s 4800 square f e e t (60' x 120') of space. The 25 c o u r t s r e q u i r e d i n p l a n n i n g a r e a A, t h e r e f o r e , have a t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t of (25 x 4800=) 120,000 square f e e t . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by summing space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n v a r i o u s park and f a c i l i t y subcomponents ( S p o r t s C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 1 ; 35 P r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . For example, space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r f o o t b a l l , s o c c e r , s o f t b a l l , and f i e l d hockey might be summed t o p r o v i d e t o t a l s p o r t or p l a y i n g f i e l d r e q u i r e m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , hockey, f i g u r e s k a t i n g and r e c r e a t i o n a l s k a t i n g space might be summed t o p r o v i d e i c e r i n k r e q u i r e m e n t s , or swimming, d i v i n g and water p o l o t o p r o v i d e swimming p o o l r e q u i r e m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s , over and above a c t u a l p l a y i n g a r e a space c o n t a i n e d i n a c t i v i t y u n i t s , a r e e s t i m a t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . A n c i l l a r y space i n c l u d e s space such as b u f f e r zones around p l a y i n g f i e l d s , or s t o r a g e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a s w i t h i n i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s . E s t i m a t e d from e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , the p e r c e n t a g e of a n c i l l a r y space t o p l a y i n g space might range from 20 p e r c e n t f o r s p o r t s grounds t o 50 p e r c e n t f o r i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s l i k e swimming p o o l s and i n d o o r s p o r t s c e n t r e s ( S p o r t s C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 1 : 3 2 ) . These p e r c e n t a g e s a r e a p p l i e d t o e s t i m a t e d park and f a c i l i t y p l a y i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t s t o e s t i m a t e a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s . P l a y i n g and a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e summed t o p r o v i d e t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s . Park and F a c i l i t y D e f i c i e n c i e s Unmet f a c i l i t y needs ( i n space and u n i t s ) a r e de t e r m i n e d by: 1) c o m p i l i n g an i n v e n t o r y of e x i s t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a , and 2) s u b t r a c t i n g e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s from t h o s e r e q u i r e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a ( P r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . 36 2.3.2. PARTICIPATION METHOD The p a r t i c i p a t i o n method t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s (Gold,1973:208-253; Burton e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; W r i g h t e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; C i t y of Edmonton,1978). T h i s method i s a m o d i f i e d a p p l i c a t i o n of needs a n a l y s i s t o non-urban p a r k s (see F i g u r e I I -7 ) . Measurement Of P a r t i c i p a t i o n G e n e r a l l y , t h i s method measures p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n the form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s (Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; C i t y of Edmonton,1978). P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e p r e s e n t the perc e n t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . C a l c u l a t e d from survey d a t a , t h e s e r a t e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by d i v i d i n g t he t o t a l number of per s o n s p a r t i c i p a t i n g by t o t a l p e r s o n s i n the ho u s e h o l d sample. I d e a l l y , t h e s e r a t e s a r e e s t i m a t e d f o r socioeconomic groups formed a l o n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s u c h as age, sex and income which i n f l u e n c e r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n (Wright e t al.,1976:86-87,105-106); however, due t o the l a r g e sample s i z e n e c e s s a r y t o e s t i m a t e r e l i a b l e r a t e s f o r many groups, age groups a r e u s u a l l y used (Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ; Gold,1973; C i t y of Edmonton,1978). The number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i s e s t i m a t e d f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s by a p p l y i n g age s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s t o f o r e c a s t e d p o p u l a t i o n s i n each age group. R e s u l t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t f i g u r e s a r e summed a c r o s s age groups t o e s t i m a t e t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . 37 FIGURE I I - 7 PARTICIPATION METHOD (EXAMPLE) ACTIVITY 1 UNIT SPACE DEMAND POTENTIAL PEAK USER 5 UNITS TOTAL REQUIREMENT RATE 2 USERS 3 USERS •DENSITY REQUIRED ' SPACE (SQ.FT.) REQUIRED 7 ACTIVE B a s e b a l l 32400 17.0 850 25 18 1.5 48600 B a s k e t b a l l 4500 14.0 700 21 10 2.0 9000 Horseshoes 600 8.0 400 12 5 3.0 1800 Soccer 27225 23.0 1150 34 18 2.0 54450 F o o t b a l l 20000 38.0 1900 57 60 1.0 20000 S o f t b a l l 32400 21.0 850 25 18 1.5 48600 P l y g r d . a c t . 43560 9.0 450 13 20 .5 21780 Tennis 7200 38.0 1900 57 12 4.0 28800 V o l l e y b a l l 1800 23.0 1150 34 12 3.0 5400 238430 PASSIVE P a s s i v e a r e a 36000 U n s t r u c t u r e d 12000 B u f f e r (20' wide b u f f e r s t r i p around p e r i m e t e r of park area) 47000 TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT ACREAGE REQUIRED COMMUNITY POPULATION STANDARD(ACRES/1000 POPULATION) 333430 7.65 5000 1.5 STEP 1 The f i r s t s t e p i s t o determine the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o be accommodated i n the proposed park or f a c i l i t y development. STEP 2 For each a c t i v i t y , a Demand Rate i s computed. T h i s r a t e i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the sum of the percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the neighbourhood engaging i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and the percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s who c u r r e n t l y are not p a r t i c i p a t i n g but have s t a t e d they would l i k e t o . 38 STEP 3 These r a t e s are a p p l i e d t o the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the neighbourhood t o c a l c u l a t e the number of p o t e n t i a l u s ers f o r each a c t i v i t y . POTENTIAL USERS TOTAL POPULATION X DEMAND RATE STEP 4 The number of peak u s e r s t o be accommodated a t any peak hour of use i s c a l c u l a t e d by a p p l y i n g 3 p e r c e n t t o the p o t e n t i a l u s ers f o r each a c t i v i t y . PEAK USERS ACCOMMODATION RATIO X POTENTIAL USERS STEP 5 For each space u n i t ( i . e . , s o c c e r f i e l d , b a s e b a l l diamond), the maximum d e n s i t y of us e r s which can be accommodated d u r i n g peak hour use p e r i o d s i s e s t i m a t e d . Peak u s e r s t o be accommodated per peak hour i s then d i v i d e d by t h i s maximum d e n s i t y f i g u r e t o a s s e s s the number of s p a t i a l u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y . NUMBER OF ACTIVITY SPACE UNITS REQUIRED / STEP 6 The t o t a l space r e q u i r e d t o accommodate each a c t i v i t y i s determined by m u l t i p l y i n g the t o t a l number of a c t i v i t y space u n i t s r e q u i r e d by the dimensions ( i n square feet)- of each a c t i v i t y space u n i t . TOTAL SPACE REQUIRED PER ACTIVITY UNITS REQUIRED X Source: Adapted from C i t y of Edmonton (1978). 39 Peak Loads Design l o a d i s not e s t i m a t e d as the number of d e s i g n • day p a r t i c i p a n t s but r a t h e r the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a peak hour of use. T o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o peak hour p a r t i c i p a n t s based on the concept of us e r accommodation. User accommodation i s the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s which a r e t o be accommodated a t a peak hour of use (Gold,1973). None of the methods r e v i e w e d have dev e l o p e d a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s v a l u e . G e n e r a l l y , s u g g e s t e d v a l u e s of t h r e e t o s i x p e r c e n t a r e a p p l i e d t o t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s t o e s t i m a t e peak hour p a r t i c i p a n t s ( B u r t o n e t a l . , 1976:103; C i t y of Edmonton,1978). Capac i t y Peak hour p a r t i c i p a n t f i g u r e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l a n d and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s based on u n i t c a p a c i t y . U n i t c a p a c i t y , i n t h i s method, i s g e n e r a l l y e x p r e s s e d as i n s t a n t a n e o u s u n i t c a p a c i t y . I n s t a n t a n e o u s c a p a c i t y might be the o b s e r v e d average group s i z e as e s t i m a t e d from a park user survey or based on the p l a y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a c t i v i t y . For example, i n s t a n t a n e o u s c a p a c i t y f o r t e n n i s might be s e t a t 2.5 persons per c o u r t as e s t i m a t e d from o b s e r v i n g t e n n i s p l a y over numerous use p e r i o d s . Or a ' d e s i r e d ' c a p a c i t y might be s e t between 2 p e r s o n s (minimum) and 4 p e r s o n s (maximum) per c o u r t based on the a c t u a l number of p e r s o n s who can p l a y on a c o u r t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 40 Space and F a c i l i t y Requirements and D e f i c i e n c i e s Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n t o o t h e r needs a n a l y s i s a p p l i c a t i o n s . E s t i m a t e d peak p a r t i c i p a n t s a re d i v i d e d by i n s t a n t a n e o u s u n i t c a p a c i t y t o determine the number of a c t i v i t y u n i t s r e q u i r e d . A space s t a n d a r d , e x p r e s s i n g t h e amount of space r e q u i r e d per u n i t , i s a p p l i e d t o the u n i t r equirement t o det e r m i n e t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each a c t i v i t y . Space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a r e summed t o y i e l d the t o t a l space r e q u i r e d f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a . P l a n n i n g a r e a d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e determined by comparing space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h e x i s t i n g s u p p l y . 41 2.4. SOME PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT APPROACHES TO NEEDS ANALYSIS C u r r e n t approaches t o needs a n a l y s i s have d e v e l o p e d a p r o c e s s which t r a n s l a t e s the e x p e c t e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s of v a r i o u s p l a n n i n g a r e a s . T h i s p r o c e s s g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s : P a r t i c i p a t i o n by v a r i o u s s o c i o e c o n o m i c groups t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , by p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Peak l o a d s or p a r t i c i p a n t s based on the p r o p o r t i o n of use ex p e c t e d on a peak day or peak hour of use. C a p a c i t y i n number of p a r t i c i p a n t s which can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y u n i t d u r i n g a peak day or hour of use. U n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s by a c t i v i t y and p l a n n i n g a r e a based on peak l o a d and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . A c t i v i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a g g r e g a t e d t o p l a n n i n g a r e a park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Comparison of park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h s u p p l y t o det e r m i n e needs measured i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s . S e v e r a l problems w i t h c u r r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s of needs a n a l y s i s t o urban park systems can be i d e n t i f i e d . These problems r e l a t e t o : 1) park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , 2) measurement of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and 3) d e t e r m i n a t i o n of peak l o a d s , c a p a c i t y and space r e q u i r e m e n t s . 2.4.1.. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS Exogeneous t o the a c t u a l method used i n needs a n a l y s i s i s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems d e v e l o p e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n . Most a p p l i c a t i o n s use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems r e l a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n 42 a c t i v i t i e s t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s . A p p l i c a t i o n s of needs a n a l y s i s f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of r e g i o n a l park r e q u i r e m e n t s have d e a l t w i t h a l i m i t e d range of about twenty outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d t o r e g i o n a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s ( C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 6 ; L o u i s i a n n a , 1 9 6 6 ; W i s c o n s i n , 1 9 6 9 ; CD.P.R.,1971; Maryland,1972; V i r g i n i a , 1 9 7 4 ; M a r i c o p a County, 1976; P.D.F.W.,1977). Some urban a p p l i c a t i o n s have used c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n neighbourhood s p o r t f i e l d s and p a r k s (Gold,1973; C i t y of Edmonton,1978); neighbourhood and community s p o r t f i e l d s and p a r k s ( B u r t o n e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) ; and community s p o r t f i e l d s and f a c i l i t i e s l i k e swimming p o o l s and community c e n t r e s ( S p o r t s C o u n c i l , 1 9 7 1 ; P r i c e , 1 9 8 0 ) . W r i g h t e t a l . (1976:105-106) suggest c l a s s i f y i n g r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o a h i e r a r c h y of s e r v i c e a r e a s based on: 1) d i s t a n c e s t r a v e l l e d t o engage i n a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , and 2) l e v e l a t which o p p o r t u n i t y must be p r o v i d e d due t o c o s t s and o t h e r f a c t o r s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e c l a s s i f i e s a c t i v i t i e s i n t o s e r v i c e a r e a s , not i n t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n s e r v i c e a r e a s . Any approach t o needs a n a l y s i s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r the f u l l range of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , and s e r v i c e a r e a s i n which they a r e p r o v i d e d . These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y framework w i t h i n which space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d . A l l needs a n a l y s i s methods can be a p p l i e d w i t h i n such a framework; however, t h e i r s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n s have not r e q u i r e d t h i s work t o be u n d e r t a k e n . 43 2.4.2. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION A major problem i n p l a n n i n g f o r the t y p e , amount and l o c a t i o n of urban space and f a c i l i t i e s i s the measurement of demand. At p r e s e n t no market mechanism e x i s t s by which p l a n n e r s can gauge p u b l i c p r e f e r e n c e s and t h u s d i r e c t the a l l o c a t i o n of l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among r e c r e a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s (Clawson and Knetsch,1966:114-115; W r i g h t e t al.,1976:203) . The economic demand f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n has not been measured. R a t h e r , what has been measured by p l a n n e r s a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e demand f o r r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t i e s i s c u r r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Most needs a n a l y s i s a p p l i c a t i o n s use p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s t o determine park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Such a p p l i c a t i o n s can be s e r i o u s l y m i s l e a d i n g and, o f t e n , i n v a l i d a t e w e l l i n t e n t i o n e d p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . As K n e t s c h (1969:86) s t a t e s i n an o f t e n quoted s t a t e m e n t : The myth p e r s i s t s t h a t somehow we a r e a b l e t o m u l t i p l y p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s by r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s of some form and c a l l i t demand, and then use such f i g u r e s t o j u s t i f y d o i n g j u s t about a n y t h i n g we c a r e t o i n the name of s a t i s f y i n g r e c r e a t i o n needs. The major problem i s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a measure of e x p r e s s e d demand, or consumption (Clawson and Knetsch,1966:115; W i l k i n s o n , 1 9 7 3 : 3 5 ; Dooling,1973:114; C i c c h e t t i , F i s h e r and Smith,1973; Knetsch,1974:15-18; Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 2 0 3 ) . I t r e f l e c t s the c u r r e n t s u p p l y of f a c i l i t i e s . P e ople p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r which f a c i l i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e . The g r e a t e r the s u p p l y of f a c i l i t i e s , the h i g h e r 44 the p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be i n a c t i v i t i e s t hese f a c i l i t i e s accommodate. T r a n s l a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n t o space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l l i k e l y i n d i c a t e 'demand' f o r more of the same f a c i l i t i e s ( S t y l e s , 1 9 7 1 ; 5 0 - 5 1 ; Knetsch,1974:18; Wr i g h t e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 8 5 ) . Requirements f o r a c t i v i t i e s not a v a i l a b l e , or f o r which few o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t , w i l l l i k e l y be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . Thus, use of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s can l e a d t o s e r i o u s m i s a l l o c a t i o n of space and f a c i l i t i e s among a c t i v i t i e s competing f o r l i m i t e d l a n d and c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s . M i s a l l o c a t i o n a l s o o c c u r s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s when p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s a r e used t o dete r m i n e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Those a r e a s a l r e a d y "best o f f " w i l l have the h i g h e s t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , they w i l l have space needs e x c e e d i n g those of a r e a s "worst o f f " . U s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s t o det e r m i n e space r e q u i r e m e n t s w i l l p e r p e t u a t e p r e s e n t imbalances i n s u p p l y by a r e a and a c t i v i t y (Gold,1980:152). As G o l d (1973:179) warns: The i m p l i c a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g t o o v e r - a l l o c a t e i n some a r e a s and u n d e r - a l l o c a t e i n o t h e r s can d i s t o r t demand a n a l y s i s , e x p e c i a l l y where (space and c a p a c i t y ) s t a n d a r d s a r e used t o a l l o c a t e more on the b a s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . T h i s u s u a l l y r e s u l t s w i t h t h o s e w i t h more o b t a i n i n g more, w h i l e those w i t h l e s s r e c e i v e n o t h i n g based on any system of p r i o r i t i e s . A p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s dilemma, a t t e m p t e d by the C i t y of Edmonton, i s the measurement of ' l a t e n t demand', i n a d d i t i o n t o measures of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . F i g u r e 11-8 i l l u s t r a t e s demand components. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s shown as e x p r e s s e d demand, which i s a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s FIGURE .11-8 COMPONENTS OF RECREATION DEMAND ^5 Wants and needs of potential users of f a c i l i t i e s which/ influences dete \rmine Participat-j tion which, leads /exercised, to Opportunity tcXdetermine Existing F a c i l i t y S U P P I V \ User Character-i s t i c s Latent Demand which / i n t e r a c t s 'with Knowledge of F a c i l i t i e s Sourcei Adapted from Gold(1980i56) 46 r e f l e c t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e ( B u r t o n , 1 9 7 0 ) . L a t e n t demand i s a measure of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n which can be e x p e c t e d s h o u l d adequate f a c i l i t i e s , a c c e s s and i n f o r m a t i o n be p r o v i d e d (Gold,1980:148). I t might be a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h p r e f e r e n c e s 3 , w i t h r e c o g n i z e d c a v e a t s : ...many s u b u r b a n i t e s might p r e f e r t e n n i s and i n n e r c i t y r e s i d e n t s h o r s e s h o e s .... The f a l l a c y here i s t h a t each p o p u l a t i o n has not had any o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p or e x p r e s s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s because they a re u n a v a i l a b l e or unknown (Gold,1973:202). 2.4.3. PEAK LOADS A p p l i c a t i o n s of needs a n a l y s i s methods t o r e g i o n a l p a r k s , and the use method a p p l i e d t o urban p a r k s , base e s t i m a t e s of peak day p a r t i c i p a n t s on i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d from park user s u r v e y s . I n a p p l i c a t i o n s of the former, c u r r e n t use i s s t u d i e d t o d e t e r m i n e the d i s t r i b u t i o n of use w i t h i n the peak season. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s y n t h e s i z e d t o d e t e r m i n e the p r o p o r t i o n of peak season p a r t i c i p a n t s which can be e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e on a peak day. T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s used t o c o n v e r t e s t i m a t e d f u t u r e peak season p a r t i c i p a n t s t o peak day p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a p p l i c a t i o n s of the use method, c u r r e n t use i s s t u d i e d t o det e r m i n e the p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on a peak day. T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s used t o c o n v e r t p r o j e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s i n t o f u t u r e peak day p a r t i c i p a n t s . A major problem i n a p p l y i n g e i t h e r approach t o urban 47 a c t i v i t i e s i s the burden of data c o l l e c t i o n . Regional parks are planned to accommodate approximately twenty outdoor recreation a c t i v i t i e s ; a manageable number for which use d i s t r i b u t i o n information might be c o l l e c t e d . However, the numerous urban recreation a c t i v i t i e s imply that the user studies necessary to determine the time d i s t r i b u t i o n of use for each a c t i v i t y are beyond p r a c t i c a l constraints placed on data c o l l e c t i o n . Similar data c o l l e c t i o n problems in applying the use method to urban parks have been addressed by considering a limited number of urban recreation a c t i v i t i e s (Price,1980; Barasch,1971). Both these methods are subject to a more c r i t i c a l deficiency than mere data c o l l e c t i o n . A major problem with both methods i s that estimated peak day proportions, and therefore par t i c i p a n t s , w i l l increase in d i r e c t proportion to the amount of ex i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . This problem i s most e a s i l y i l l u s t r a t e d for the use method. For example, assume tennis and racquetball have the same average group size (2.5) and d a i l y turnover rate (8). If there are 10 tennis and 5 racquetball courts, there are (2.5 x 8 x 10=) 200 d a i l y tennis players and (2.5 x 8 x 5=) 100 d a i l y racquetball players. In a community of 1000 persons, the peak day proportions are (200/1000=) .20 and (100/1000=) .10 for tennis and racquetball, respectively. These proportions would be applied to projected planning area population figures to estimate peak day participants upon which future f a c i l i t y requirements for each a c t i v i t y would be based. Obviously, the status quo in f a c i l i t y provision i s perpetuated using t h i s method. A similar example could be drawn for peak day proportions estimated in regional park applications. Both 48 methods w i l l r e s u l t i n f u t u r e f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , based on e s t i m a t e d peak day p a r t i c i p a n t s , which r e f l e c t e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n . A p a r t i a l s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem i s s u g g e s t e d by G o l d (1973) and used by Wright e t a l . (1976). Both a u t h o r s suggest t h a t the t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o peak hour p a r t i c i p a n t s based on c o n s t a n t p r o p o r t i o n s ( u s e r accommodation) f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r or c o n s t a n t u s e r accommodation p r o p o r t i o n s , e x p r e s s i n g the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l e s t i m a t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o be accommodated a t peak hours of use i n each a c t i v i t y , might c o r r e c t i n e q u i t i e s i n f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s r e s u l t i n g from b a s i n g peak use p r o p o r t i o n s on use of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . However, a problem not a d d r e s s e d i n any a p p l i c a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n method i s how t h i s peak use p r o p o r t i o n i s t o be e s t i m a t e d . G o l d (1973) s u g g e s t s a h y p o t h e t i c a l v a l u e of twenty p e r c e n t f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e B u r t o n et a l . (1976:89-90) suggest v a l u e s between t h r e e and s i x p e r c e n t . The C i t y of Edmonton (1978) assumes t h a t t h r e e p e r c e n t of t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t the numbers of persons which can be e x p e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t a peak hour of use. W r i g h t e t a l . (1976:109) suggest t h i s u s e r accommodation v a l u e i s 'determined by the p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h l o c a l r e s i d e n t s ' . 49 2.4.4. CAPACITY C a p a c i t y i s g e n e r a l l y based on o b s e r v e d e s t i m a t e s of d u r a t i o n of use and group s i z e . C a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d , i d e a l l y , r e f l e c t the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e s i t e ( C h r i s t i a n s e n , 1 9 7 6 ; S u d i a and Simpson,1973). That i s , the amount of use which s h o u l d be accommodated i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y ( u n i t ) s h o u l d r e f l e c t the amount of use t h a t can be p r o v i d e d a n n u a l l y , or over a d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d , w i t h o u t p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the s i t e or a p p r e c i a b l e l o s s of user s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t i n g from e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and o v e r c r o w d i n g (James and R i p l e y , 1 9 6 3 ; Wagar,1964; Lucas,1964; Chubb and Ashton,1969; H e l d , B r i c k l e r and W i l c o x , 1 9 6 9 ; Lime, 1971; Lime and Stankey,1971; Stankey,1972; T i v y , 1 9 7 2 ; S u d i a and Simpson,1973; and V e r b u r g , 1 9 7 4 ) . C a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s , based on the concept of c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , would be m o d i f i e d c o n s i d e r i n g s i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and user s a t i s f a c t i o n a t v a r i o u s use l e v e l s . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been conducted on the n a t u r a l and s o c i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of urban park systems. The r e s e a r c h which has been completed, g e n e r a l l y undertaken f o r non-urban p a r k s , has e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n measuring c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y ( S u d i a and Simpson,1973). A c c o r d i n g l y , u n t i l more r e s e a r c h has been undertaken on the e f f e c t of use on p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and us e r s a t i s f a c t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , i n s t a n t a n e o u s or d a i l y c a p a c i t y may have t o s u f f i c e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . 50 2 . 4 . 5 . PARK AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS AND DEFICIENCIES P r e s e n t needs a n a l y s i s methods det e r m i n e space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s which r e f l e c t : • t h e a c t i v i t y p u r s u i t s of p o p u l a t i o n s they a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e , •an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n among p l a n n i n g a r e a s , but not f a c i l i t i e s , and • a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Needs a n a l y s i s methods r e s u l t i n r e l a t i v e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the s i z e , age c o m p o s i t i o n , and a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t y p u r s u i t s of each p l a n n i n g a r e a p o p u l a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g l y , park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t the c o m p o s i t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e s o f , and an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n among, p l a n n i n g a r e a s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , needs a n a l y s i s a p p l i c a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y r e s u l t i n t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s which r e f l e c t a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Assuming no p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e , space r e q u i r e m e n t s summed f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s w i l l e q u a l the e x i s t i n g s u p p l y of l a n d i n the urban c e n t r e as a whole. These f e a t u r e s a r e most e a s i l y i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n s of the use method. F or example, assume p l a n n i n g a r e a s A and B have r e s p e c t i v e y o u t h p o p u l a t i o n s of 5 0 0 and 5 0 0 p e r s o n s , and a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s of 5 0 0 and 1 5 0 0 p e r s o n s . From a p a r k s s u r v e y d a i l y t e n n i s c o u r t useage might be e s t i m a t e d as 2 0 p l a y e r s per c o u r t per day. I f Area A and B have 5 t e n n i s c o u r t s each, t o t a l d a i l y t e n n i s p l a y e r s a r e e s t i m a t e d as ( 2 0 x 1 0= ) 2 0 0 51 p l a y e r s . I f 40 and 60 p e r c e n t a r e y o u t h and a d u l t p l a y e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e r e a r e (.40 x 200=) 80 youth t e n n i s p l a y e r s and (.60 x 200=) 120 a d u l t t e n n i s p l a y e r s . Age s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , (80/1000=) .08 and (120/2000=) .06 f o r youth and a d u l t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A p p l i e d t o age s p e c i f i c p o p u l a t i o n s i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a g i v e s (.08 x 500=) 40 and (.08 x 500=) 40 y o u t h t e n n i s p l a y e r s and (.06 x 500=) 30 and (.06 x 1500=) 90 a d u l t p l a y e r s i n Areas.A and B, r e s p e c t i v e l y . At a c a p a c i t y s t a n d a r d of 20 d a i l y u s e r s per c o u r t , Area A r e q u i r e s (70/20=) 3.5 c o u r t s and Area B (130/20=) 6.5 c o u r t s . T o t a l community c o u r t r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e 10 c o u r t s , w h i l e a r e a A has a s u r p l u s of (5-3.5=) 1.5 c o u r t s and a r e a B a d e f i c i e n c y of (5-6.5=) 1.5 c o u r t s . T h i s example i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e s e needs a n a l y s i s methods d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i v e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s . A l s o , t o t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( i n space and f a c i l i t i e s ) e q u a l t o t a l s u p p l y ; whereas t h e r e a r e d e f i c i e n c i e s (and s u r p l u s e s ) among p l a n n i n g a r e a s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g a v a i l a b l e l a n d a r e determined a t the expense of p e r p e t u a t i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y i m b a l a n c e s . Because park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e based upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and peak use e s t i m a t e s which r e f l e c t e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , t he s t a t u s quo i n f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y m a i n t a i n e d . A major i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s problem i s t h a t methods which r e s u l t i n m i s a l l o c a t i o n of space among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e inadequate f o r d e t e r m i n i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s upon 52 which p r i o r i t i e s f o r development can be based. P r i o r i t y and a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s must be made between d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f a c i l i t i e s and d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Should F a c i l i t y A or F a c i l i t y B be developed? Does Neighbourhood A have a h i g h e r p r i o r i t y f o r development than A r e a B. To make t h e s e d e c i s i o n s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o compare e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s w i t h f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . These comparisons a r e o n l y v a l i d , u s i n g e x i s t i n g needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s , f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Because f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e b i a s e d by p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s and peak use measures, they a r e i n v a l i d f o r making f a c i l i t y c o m p a r i s o n s . T h i s w i l l r e s u l t as G o l d (1973:177) has warned " w i t h t h o s e w i t h more o b t a i n i n g more, w h i l e those w i t h l e s s r e c e i v i n g n o t h i n g based on any system of p r i o r i t i e s " . 2.5. SUMMARY OF NEEDS ANALYSIS DEFICIENCIES Needs a n a l y s i s methods d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r have d e f i c i e n c i e s . Methods d e v e l o p e d by G o l d (1973), S p o r t s C o u n c i l (1971); B a r a s c h (1971), B u r t o n et a l . (1976), and Wrig h t et a l . , (1976) f o r a p p l i c a t i o n t o urban park systems have, t o the a u t h o r s knowledge, been l a r g e l y u n t e s t e d . T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s as p l a n n i n g t o o l s has not been examined by p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s by P r i c e (1980) and the C i t y of Edmonton (1978) have g e n e r a l l y f o c u s e d on d e t e r m i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l i m i t e d number of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , and p l a n n i n g a r e a s i n urban c e n t r e s . G e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i s broader a p p l i c a t i o n t o a wide range of urban a c t i v i t i e s and pa r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated in- neighbourhood, community 53 and c i t y s e r v i c e a r e a s . A l l of the s e methods have d e v e l o p e d p r o c e s s e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Some a r e b e t t e r than o t h e r s . However, a l l a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s : 1) a p p l i c a t i o n of the s e methods r e q u i r e s a comprehensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s , 2) e s t i m a t e s of t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s of f a c i l i t i e s u n a v a i l a b l e or i n l e a s t s u p p l y i n a d d i t i o n t o a c t u a l u s e r s of e x i s t i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , 3) e s t i m a t e s of peak p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e s knowledge of the time d i s t r i b u t i o n of use, and 4) c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s r e q u i r e knowledge of p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and user s a t i s f a c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i o u s l e v e l s of use. Much more r e s e a r c h i s needed on the urban p a r k s system b e f o r e any of t h e s e methods may be c o n s i d e r e d as e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g t o o l s . Park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s need t o be d e v e l o p e d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p and t e s t methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g u s e f u l e s t i m a t e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and use p a t t e r n s need t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d t o det e r m i n e e x p e c t e d peak l o a d s f o r a wide range of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . S t u d i e s of s i t e use a r e r e q u i r e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t s of use i n t e n s i t y and f r e q u e n c y on p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and user s a t i s f a c t i o n . A l l methods d e s c r i b e d r e q u i r e t h i s t y p e of i n f o r m a t i o n ; i n f o r m a t i o n which i s of l i m i t e d s u p p l y f o r urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . One of the purposes of needs a n a l y s i s i s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which can be used t o d e v e l o p p r i o r i t i e s and make 54 r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s between p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s . A l l of the methods r e v i e w e d attempt t o p r o v i d e such i n f o r m a t i o n . However, the u s e f u l n e s s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r p r i o r i t y and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i s s u b j e c t t o t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s : 1) space r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t the wide range of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s , 2) park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t the p r e f e r e n c e s of p e rsons they a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e , 3) park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d r e f l e c t an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n between p l a n n i n g a r e a s , and 4) park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r a v a i l a b l e community l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . P r o b a b l y the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t d e f i c i e n c y of a l l these methods i s the l a c k of an i n t e g r a t e d framework f o r d e t e r m i n i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t s which meet these c o n d i t i o n s . The t a s k of Chapter 3 i s t o d e v e l o p a h y b r i d of t h e s e methods; an i n t e g r a t e d approach t o needs a n a l y s i s which w i l l d e t e r m i n e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a w i d e r range of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s than has p r e v i o u s l y been a t t e m p t e d . T h i s combined approach w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e the s t e n g t h s of p r e v i o u s methods t o d e t e r m i n e e q u i t a b l e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s which a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h community p r e f e r e n c e s and a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s method w i l l not meet a l l of the above c o n d i t i o n s and improve upon a l l d e f i c i e n c i e s of t h e s e methods i t may h e l p t o advance the s t a t e of the a r t . 55 CHAPTER 2 FOOTNOTES 1 Chubb and Ashton (1969) d e f i n e c a p a c i t y measures based on: 1) us e r u n i t s r e f l e c t i n g the s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of one ' u n i t ' of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , and 2) u s e - p e r i o d s r e f l e c t i n g the number of t i m e s a u s e r u n i t i s used i n a 24 hour p e r i o d . C a p a c i t y i s , t h e n , the number of u s e r - u n i t u s e - p e r i o d s , f o r an a c t i v i t y , t h a t a s i t e can p r o v i d e over a d e f i n i t e time p e r i o d . T h i s number can e a s i l y be c o n v e r t e d i n t o p e r s o n s (based on p e r s o n s per u s e r - u n i t e s t i m a t e s ) per peak time (use p e r i o d s per t i m e ) . A l s o see D a u i t e (1966:336-337). 2 D u r a t i o n of use and group s i z e a r e e s t i m a t e d from o n - s i t e user s u r v e y used t o determine use time d i s t r i b u t i o n . 3 The C i t y of Edmonton(1978) a s s e s s e d 'demand' i n terms of two main components: PARTICIPATION i n r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , and PREFERENCE (or l a t e n t demand) f o r a c t i v i t i e s not p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t the time of the s u r v e y . Chapin (1965) o u t l i n e s a ' t r a d e stamp game' which may be a u s e f u l p r o c e d u r e f o r g e n e r a t i n g m e a n i n g f u l p r e f e r e n c e s . The method has survey r e s p o n d e n t s make c h o i c e s and t r a d e - o f f s r e g a r d i n g the a l l o c a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e time i n r e l a t i o n t o r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p u r s u i t s . 56 CHAPTER 3 AN APPROACH TO URBAN RECREATION NEEDS ANALYSIS 3.1. INTRODUCTION A method has been d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s f o r needs a n a l y s i s . I t i s a h y b r i d of approaches p r e v i o u s l y o u t l i n e d , based upon: 1) Development of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems r e l a t i n g r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s t o space and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n a h i e r a r c h y of s e r v i c e a r e a s . 2) Development of a p r o c e s s t o measure and r e l a t e demand f o r space and f a c i l i t i e s t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y i n o r d e r t o determine d e f i c i e n c i e s between p l a n n i n g a r e a s . The approach i s based on a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n a h i e r a r c h y of s e r v i c e a r e a s . The p r o c e s s t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a s . A computer program has been d e s i g n e d t o a p p l y the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . As a p l a n n i n g t o o l , i t has s e v e r a l u s e f u l a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 3.2. PURPOSE The purpose of the proposed needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s i s t o d e t e r m i n e urban park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and p r o v i d e d e c i s i o n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s . S p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s g u i d i n g 57 i t s development a r e : 1) What amount, type and l o c a t i o n of space and f a c i l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o e q u i t a b l y s e r v e the r e c r e a t i o n needs of a p o p u l a t i o n ? 2) How many u s e r s can be accommodated i n the space and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s a t peak hours of use? 3) What are the development c o s t s , and t h e c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s ? 4) I s the amount, type and l o c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s adequate? 3.3. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS Three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems were d e v e l o p e d t o undertake the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o v a r i o u s park and f a c i l i t y subcomponents. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n t o h i e r a r c h i c a l s e r v i c e a r e a s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n i n t o homogeneous groups. 3.3.1. ACTIVITIES AND SPACES Urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodate numerous r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The range of a c t i v i t i e s i n c i t i e s s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s which accommodate them (Gold,1980:116; B u r t o n et a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 9 0 ; Wright et a l.,1976:104-105). In t h i s t h e s i s the a r r a y of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o common space or f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . For example, hockey, r e c r e a t i o n s k a t i n g and f i g u r e s k a t i n g a l l r e q u i r e an i c e r i n k . Other a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s l i k e 58 s o c c e r , f o o t b a l l and b a s e b a l l a l s o have t h e i r own s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t y ( f i e l d ) r e q u i r e m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , more p a s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s l i k e p i c n i c k i n g and i n f o r m a l games a r e l e s s r i g i d l y , s t r u c t u r e d but n e v e r t h e l e s s somewhat s p e c i a l i z e d and r e s t r i c t i v e i n terms of the p h y s i c a l improvements or f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d t o accommodate them. Thus a c t i v i t i e s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the k i n d s of f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d , u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h i s c o n t e x t a ' f a c i l i t y ' may be e i t h e r a s p e c i a l purpose e n c l o s e d or outdoor s t r u c t u r e or a l o o s e l y bounded outdoor space. Each r e c r e a t i o n ' f a c i l i t y ' has a s s o c i a t e d space r e q u i r e m e n t s and c a p a c i t i e s . For example, an i c e r i n k has s t a n d a r d d i m e n s i o n s r e q u i r i n g a s p e c i f i e d amount of space. Depending on the a c t i v i t y accommodated on the r i n k , a d e s i r a b l e c a p a c i t y , measured i n the number of per s o n s accommodated over a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d of t i m e , can be i d e n t i f i e d . I n terms of numbers accommodated, i n hockey n o r m a l l y two teams of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n p l a y e r s a s i d e can be accommodated on the i c e over an hour p e r i o d . The same f a c i l i t y may be used f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l l y l a r g e r number of r e c r e a t i o n a l s k a t e r s , or a much s m a l l e r number i n a f i g u r e s k a t i n g c l a s s . I d e n t i f i e d f o r each f a c i l i t y s h o u l d be t h e amount of space r e q u i r e d and the numbers of p e r s o n s who can be accommodated i n t h i s space over a s p e c i f i e d p e r i o d of t i m e . 3.3.2. SERVICE AREAS Par k s and o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s i n urban a r e a s have p r i m a r y s e r v i c e a r e a s , analogous t o the ' t r a d e a r e a s ' of 59 commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s e r v i n g the p u b l i c . The range of urban spaces and f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s (Wright et a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 1 0 4 ) . In t h i s t h e s i s , a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a r e a s i s used, c o n v e n t i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l l e v e l s (see Buechner,1972:6; A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 4 : 1 0 4 ; B u r t o n e t al.,1976:77-79; C i t y of Edmonton,1978:33). At each l e v e l of the h i e r a r c h y , t h e r e are more s p e c i a l i z e d and c o s t l y f a c i l i t i e s s e r v i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n s and drawing p a r t i c i p a n t s from g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s . Each type of ' f a c i l i t y ' and i t s a s s o c i a t e d a c t i v i t i e s i s a s s i g n e d t o one or more l e v e l s of the h i e r a r c h y of s e r v i c e a r e a s . 3.3.3. POPULATION GROUPS Requirements f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e o f t e n based on the number of people who can be e x p e c t e d t o use them a t peak use p e r i o d s . I d e a l l y , these e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d be o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y by s u r v e y i n g the i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and use p a t t e r n s of the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . In l a r g e urban c e n t r e s , c o n t a i n i n g numerous s e r v i c e a r e a s , a s u r v e y of a l l a r e a s i s g e n e r a l l y not f e a s i b l e . As an a l t e r n a t i v e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t s of v a r i o u s subgroups i n the t o t a l community p o p u l a t i o n can be s u r v e y e d , and a p p l i e d t o subgroup p o p u l a t i o n s i n s e r v i c e a r e a s t o e s t i m a t e the number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each a r e a (see M a r i c o p a County,1976; Barasch,1974:32-33; Wright e t al.,1976:108-109 f o r d e t a i l s ) . 60 A p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e r e q u i r e s d e f i n i t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n subgroups. The p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o homogeneous groups a c c o r d i n g t o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h ich i n f l u e n c e r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Numerous s t u d i e s have shown t h a t age, sex, income and o t h e r s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i e s t i c s i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . 1 Any of t h e s e f a c t o r s may be used t o form p o p u l a t i o n groups. F a c t o r s s h o u l d be chosen t o meet the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s (Wright et a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 1 0 5 ) : M e a s u r a b i l i t y - the e x t e n t t o which i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . P r e d i c t a b i l i t y - the r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which f u t u r e p r e d i c t i o n s of the numbers i n p o p u l a t i o n groups can be made. S u b s t a n t i a l i t y - the e x t e n t t o which the t o t a l of a l l subgroups r e p r e s e n t s th e e n t i r e community p o p u l a t i o n . V a l i d i t y - the e x t e n t t o which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been shown t o be r e l a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which meet t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e u s e f u l f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . For example, age meets a l l of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s a r e a s o n a b l e p r e d i c t o r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v i t y . P o p u l a t i o n c o u n t s by age groups sum t o r e p r e s e n t the e n t i r e community p o p u l a t i o n , a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from census d a t a and can be e a s i l y p r o j e c t e d f i v e t o t e n y e a r s i n t o the future.. 61 3.4. NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS A p r o c e s s has been d e v e l o p e d t o t r a n s l a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s i n t o park and f a c i l i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e f i c i e n c i e s . I t co m p r i s e s the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s t e p s : T r a n s l a t i o n of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u s e r s , i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , by p l a n n i n g a r e a . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of peak l o a d s or u s e r s , f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s , based on the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on c u r r e n t a v a i l a b l e l a n d i n a one hour p e r i o d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of u n i t c a p a c i t i e s , i n number of u s e r s which can be accommodated i n one a c t i v i t y u n i t i n a one hour p e r i o d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s by a c t i v i t y and p l a n n i n g a r e a based on peak use and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , by p l a n n i n g a r e a , based on a g g r e g a t e d a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of need, measured i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a , based on comparison of park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h s u p p l y . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t o t a l peak hour u s e r s , c a p i t a l c o s t s and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . F o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f o u t l i n e of the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s (see Appendix 1 f o r d e t a i l s ) . A h y p o t h e t i c a l example i s i l l u s t r a t e d t o c l a r i f y s t e p s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s and show c a l c u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d i v i d e d i n t o seven b a s i c p r o c e d u r e s which i n c l u d e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of 1) p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , 2) p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , 3) peak u s e r s , 4) u n i t c a p a c i t y , 5) u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s , 6) u s e r s and c o s t s , and 7) r e c r e a t i o n need. 62 3.4.1. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s measured i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e r a t e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e p r e s e n t the perc e n t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . P r e f e r e n c e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t the perc e n t a g e of the p o p u l a t i o n not c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g but d e s i r i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . P a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e r a t e s a r e summed t o determine a composite p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . Composite p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the sum of a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h a t i n d i c a t e d i n the survey d a t a as p r e f e r e n c e s not r e a l i z e d . I f , f o r example, i n a sample p o p u l a t i o n of 100 t h e r e a r e 25 a c t i v e s o c c e r p l a y e r s and an a d d i t i o n a l 5 who i n d i c a t e t h a t they do not c u r r e n t l y p l a y s o c c e r but would l i k e t o do so, the a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s (25/100=) .25, the p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s (5/100=) .05, and the composite l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the sum of t h e s e or (25+5/100=) .30. The r e s u l t i n g number i s a r a t e , whose u n i t s a r e the pe r c e n t a g e of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e base p o p u l a t i o n . These r a t e s (based on sample h o u s e h o l d s u r v e y data) are e s t i m a t e d f o r subgroups i n the t o t a l community p o p u l a t i o n . S i n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i s , i n most c a s e s , s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by age, a g e - s p e c i f i c r a t e s a r e computed. The procedure i s i l l u s t r a t e d , h y p o t h e t i c a l l y , i n T a b l e s 1 t o 4. 63 TABLE 1 NUMBER OF ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS IN THE SURVEY POPULATION AGE GROUP 1 AGE GROUP 2 ACTUAL PARTICIPANTS POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS ACTUAL POTENTIAL PARTICIPANTS PARTICIPANTS BASEBALL 12 SOCCER 25 PICNICKING 0 4 5 9 6 10 16 9 10 0 TABLE 2 SURVEY POPULATION BY AGE GROUP POPULATION SURVEY GROUP POPULATION AGE GROUP 1 100 AGE GROUP 2 200 TOTAL 300 TABLE 3 AGE SPECIFIC PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE RATES FOR TOTAL COMMUNITY POPULATION (BASED ON TABLE 1 AND TABLE 2) AGE GROUP 1 AGE GROUP 2 PARTICIPATION PREFERENCE PARTICIPATION PREFERENCE RATE RATE RATE RATE •BASEBALL 12.0 4.0 3.0 4.5 SOCCER 25.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 PICNICKING 0.0 9.0 8.0 0.0 64 TABLE 4 AGE SPECIFIC COMPOSITE PARTICIPATION RATES FOR TOTAL COMMUNITY POPULATION (FROM TABLE 3) AGE GROUP 1 AGE GROUP 2 BASEBALL SOCCER PICNICKING 16.0 30.0 9.0 7.5 10.0 8.0 Composite p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , by i n c l u d i n g p r e f e r e n c e s not r e a l i z e d i n a d d i t i o n t o a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , attempt t o improve upon the d e f i c i e n c i e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , a p p l i e d t o p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s , u n d e r e s t i m a t e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c t i v i t i e s not a v a i l a b l e or i n l e a s t s u p p l y . For example, t e n n i s might have a p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 20 p e r c e n t and r a c q u e t b a l l 5 p e r c e n t . These r a t e s r e f l e c t e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t e n n i s and r a c q u e t b a l l g i v e n t h e p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s . However, t h e r e may be enough t e n n i s f a c i l i t i e s t o p r o v i d e n e a r l y everyone who wants t o p l a y w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y ; c o n v e r s e l y , o n l y a few r a c q u e t c o u r t s would enable o n l y a s m a l l number of persons t o a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e , . There may, p o s s i b l y , be many o t h e r s d e s i r i n g t o p l a y but un a b l e t o because of a sh o r t a g e of c o u r t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , o n l y an a d d i t i o n a l 5 p e r c e n t who a r e not p l a y i n g t e n n i s might p r e f e r t o p l a y w h i l e the comparable r a t e f o r r a c q u e t b a l l might be 15 p e r c e n t . These r a t e s r e f l e c t u n r e a l i z e d p r e f e r e n c e s ( i . e . , t h ey r e f l e c t the 65 l a t e n t or p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n which might be e x p e c t e d s h o u l d f a c i l i t i e s be p r o v i d e d ) . Composite r a t e s of 25 and 20 p e r c e n t f o r t e n n i s and r a c q u e t b a l l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e p r e s e n t i n g a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a r e more u s e f u l f o r e s t i m a t i n g the ' t r u e ' number of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p o p u l a t i o n . S i n c e f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e based upon the number of p e r s o n s which can be ex p e c t e d t o use the s e f a c i l i t i e s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t p r e f e r e n c e s u n r e a l i z e d be c o n s i d e r e d i n a d d i t i o n t o tho s e e x p r e s s e d . Not t o do so would o n l y l e a d t o r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r more of the same k i n d s of f a c i l i t i e s , p e r p e t u a t i n g p r e s e n t imbalances i n the s u p p l y . 3.4.2. POTENTIAL USERS Age s p e c i f i c c omposite p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s (based on t o t a l community p o p u l a t i o n ) may be a p p l i e d t o the age group p o p u l a t i o n i n a p l a n n i n g a r e a t o o b t a i n the e s t i m a t e d number of p a r t i c i p a n t s ( p o t e n t i a l u s e r s ) . The number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , summed a c r o s s age groups, g i v e s the number of t o t a l p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y (by p l a n n i n g a r e a ) . T a b l e s 5 t o 7 i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r o c e d u r e . TABLE 5 AGE GROUP POPULATION IN PLANNING AREAS AGE GROUP 1 AGE GROUP 2 TOTAL PLANNING AREA 1 5000 5000 10000 PLANNING AREA 2 10000 10000 20000 TOTAL 15000 15000 30000 TABLE 6 AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA (TABLE 4 APPLIED TO TABLE 5) PLANNING AREA 1 PLANNING AREA 2 AGE AGE AGE AGE GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 1 GROUP 2 BASEBALL 800 375 1600 750 SOCCER 1500 500 3000 1000 PICNICKING 450 400 900 800 TABLE 7 TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY BY PLANNING AREA (FROM TABLE 6) PLANNING AREA 1 BASEBALL 1175 SOCCER 2000 PICNICKING 850 PLANNING TOTAL AREA 2 COMMUNITY 2350 3525 4000 6000 1700 2550 TOTAL 4025 8050 12075 67 Age s p e c i f i c r a t e s , based on the t o t a l community p o p u l a t i o n , a p p l i e d t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a m i n i m i z e b i a s e s t h a t would r e s u l t i n p o t e n t i a l u s e r e s t i m a t e s i f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s r e l a t e d t o each a r e a were used. U s i n g the l a t t e r p r o c e d u r e , an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s among a r e a s would r e s u l t i n an o v e r e s t i m a t e of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n a r e a s "best o f f " and an u n d e r e s t i m a t e i n a r e a s "worst o f f " . F a c i l i t y a v a i l a b i l i t y i m p l i e s t h a t t h o s e a r e a s w i t h more f a c i l i t i e s w i l l have h i g h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s i n a c t i v i t i e s t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s accommodate. C o n v e r s e l y , a r e a s w i t h few f a c i l i t i e s w i l l have c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y lower p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s . The above p r o c e d u r e , u s i n g c o m p o s i t e r a t e s r e f l e c t i n g a c t u a l and l a t e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r the community as a whole, r e s u l t s i n e s t i m a t e s of the number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s t h a t would be found i n each p l a n n i n g area i f i t had the 'average' s u p p l y of f a c i l i t i e s and i f l a t e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n were r e a l i z e d . 3 . 4 . 3 . PEAK USERS To determine u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s , p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o ' d e s i g n l o a d ' or peak u s e r s . N o r m a l l y , d e s i g n l o a d might be e x p r e s s e d as e x p e c t e d peak hour use o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , the number of u s e r s e x p e c t e d t o use f a c i l i t i e s a t a peak hour of use. The number of peak hour u s e r s might t y p i c a l l y be based on the p r o p o r t i o n of a n n u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( i n an a c t i v i t y ) e x p e c t e d t o o c c u r a t a peak hour of use. T h i s peak hour p r o p o r t i o n i s o f t e n based on the p r o p o r t i o n of a n n u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n a peak month, the p r o p o r t i o n of peak month use o c c u r r i n g on a peak week or weekend day, and the 68 p r o p o r t i o n of peak day use o c c u r r i n g i n a peak hour. Peak u s e r s , based on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of use over t i m e , r e p r e s e n t the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . For example, s o c c e r may have 10,000 p e r s o n s p a r t i c i p a t e on an a n n u a l b a s i s . However, s o c c e r b e i n g p r i m a r i l y a summer a c t i v i t y might have 60 p e r c e n t of i t s an n u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r i n the summer months, or a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 p e r c e n t i n J u l y . F u r t h e r m o r e , 10 p e r c e n t of J u l y peak month use might occur on a peak weekend day w i t h 15 p e r c e n t of the peak weekend day use o c c u r r i n g i n any one hour. A c c o r d i n g l y , the number of s o c c e r peak u s e r s i s e s t i m a t e d as (10,000*.30*.10*.15=) 45 p e r s o n s . These e s t i m a t e s of peak use i n c r e a s e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the amount of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s ; t h e r e b y , p e r p e t u a t i n g p r e s e n t s u p p l y i m b a l a n c e s . They a l s o r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e f i e l d s t u d i e s and user s u r v e y s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of use over t i m e . C o n s i d e r i n g the l a r g e number of urban a c t i v i t i e s , such s t u d i e s a r e o f t e n not p r a c t i c a l . T h i s study has, t h e r e f o r e , d e v e l o p e d an a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e . In t h i s method p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e c o n v e r t e d t o d e s i g n l o a d (peak u s e r s ) based on the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y of l a n d d u r i n g a one hour p e r i o d . 2 For example, assume o n l y one urban a c t i v i t y , s o c c e r , i s t o be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d . F u r t h e r assume t h a t s o c c e r has 10,000 annua l p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h a t i t r e q u i r e s one h a l f a c r e of l a n d per s o c c e r f i e l d , and t h a t 35 s o c c e r p l a y e r s can be accommodated on a s o c c e r f i e l d i n any g i v e n hour. I f 20 a c r e s of 6 9 l a n d a r e a v a i l a b l e then the number of peak u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d (20 a c r e s ) a t one p o i n t i n time (1 hour) i s (35*(20/0.5)=) 1400 p e r s o n s . The p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d i s (1400/10,000=) .14 or 14 p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h s i m p l i f i e d f o r one a c t i v i t y , the same p r i n c i p l e can be a p p l i e d t o a wide range of urban a c t i v i t i e s t o d e t e r m i n e the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e l a n d . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n , c a l l e d u s e r accommodation, i s a p p l i e d t o the number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y t o determine t h e number of peak u s e r s . The p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d t o determine u s e r accommodation r e q u i r e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o p o t e n t i a l user e s t i m a t e s ( T a b l e 7 ) , i n f o r m a t i o n on u n i t space r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e s i r e d u s e r d e n s i t i e s f o r each a c t i v i t y . U n i t space r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e the amount of space, measured i n a c r e s , r e q u i r e d f o r one ' a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t ' ( e . g . , s o c c e r f i e l d ) . User d e n s i t y i s the number of persons which can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t a t one p o i n t i n t i m e , s t a n d a r d i z e d t o a common base of one a c r e . For example, 35 p l a y e r s accommodated on a s o c c e r f i e l d r e q u i r i n g 0.5 a c r e s i m p l i e s a user d e n s i t y of (1/0.5*35=) 70 p e r s o n s per a c r e . 70 TABLE 8 UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENTS AND USER DENSITIES FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY USER DENSITY UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENT (PERSONS/ACRE) (ACRES) BASEBALL 70 0.5 SOCCER 60 1.0 PICNICKING 50 1.5 A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n on the amount of l a n d d e d i c a t e d t o each a c t i v i t y i s r e q u i r e d by p l a n n i n g a r e a . TABLE 9 PARKLAND SUPPLY BY RECREATION ACTIVITY IN PLANNING AREAS 1 PLANNING PLANNING TOTAL AREA 1 AREA 2 BASEBALL 2.0 1.0 3.0 SOCCER 2.0 2.0 4.0 PICNICKING 3.0 2.0 5.0 TOTAL 7.0 5.0 12.0 1 Measured i n a c r e s . User accommodation c a l c u l a t i o n s (see Table 10) a r e based on the f o l l o w i n g i d e n t i t y : USER ACCOMODATION TOTAL SUM OF SUPPLY UNIT OF / SPACE PARKLAND REQUIREMENTS SUM OF X USER DENSITIES / TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS 7: The proportion of p o t e n t i a l users which can be accommodated on avail a b l e land i s the number of users who can be accommodated on av a i l a b l e land' divided by the t o t a l number of po t e n t i a l users. Calculation procedures are most e a s i l y described in three steps (see Table 10). STEP 1' The number of users who can be accommodated on av a i l a b l e land i s based on estimates of: 1) the number of a c t i v i t y units, for each recreation a c t i v i t y , which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e land, and 2) the number of users which can be accommodated in these a c t i v i t y u n i t s . The number of units which can be accommodated on av a i l a b l e land i s estimated by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l parkland supply by the sum of unit space requirements for a l l a c t i v i t i e s . The product can be considered the number of units which can be accommodated in EACH a c t i v i t y . The number of users which can be accommodated in these units for a l l a c t i v i t i e s i s determined by multiplying the number of units per a c t i v i t y by the sum of user den s i t i e s for a l l a c t i v i t i e s . For example, from Table 10 the t o t a l supply of parkland i s 12.0 acres. Baseball, soccer and picnicking have user de n s i t i e s of 70, 60 and 50 persons per acre, and units space requirements of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 acres, respectively. The number of units of each 72 a c t i v i t y which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d (12.0 a c r e s ) i s e s t i m a t e d as *12/3=) 4 u n i t s per a c t i v i t y . The number of u s e r s who can be accommodated i n 4 u n i t s f o r each a c t i v i t y i s e s t i m a t e d as (180x4=) 720 p e r s o n s . STEP 2 T o t a l p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e the sum of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . For example, from T a b l e 7, p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n b a s e b a l l , s o c c e r and p i c n i c k i n g t o t a l (3525+6000+2550=) 12,015 p o t e n t i a l u s e r s . STEP 3 The p r o p o r t i o n ( u s e r accommodation) of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d i s e s t i m a t e d by d i v i d i n g the number of u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d by the number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s . For example, based on t o t a l p a r k l a n d s u p p l y (12.0 a c r e s ) , 4 u n i t s i n each a c t i v i t y can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d . These a c t i v i t y u n i t s can accommodate a t o t a l of 720 u s e r s i n b a s e b a l l , s o c c e r and p i c n i c k i n g a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . W i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 12,000 t o t a l p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n b a s e b a l l , s o c c e r and p i c n i c k i n g , the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d i s (720/12000=) .06 or 6 p e r c e n t . 73 TABLE 10 USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATION PROCEDURE ELEMENT STEP 1 T o t a l Land Supply VERBAL DESCRIPTION HYPOTHETICAL TABLE DATA REF. Sum of p a r k l a n d s u p p l y 7.0+5.0=12.0 i n a l l p l a n n i n g a r e a s T o t a l U n i t Space Requi rements Sum of u n i t space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s 0.5+1.0+1.5 = 3.0 Number of U n i t s per A c t i v i t y Accommodated on Land A v a i l a b l e T o t a l s u p p l y of p a r k l a n d i n p l a n n i n g a r e a s d i v i d e d by the sum of u n i t space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s 12.0/3.0=4.0 8,9 T o t a l Sum of user d e n s i t i e s 70+60+50=180 8 User f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s D e n s i t y T o t a l U s e r s Number of u n i t s per 4.0x180=720 Accommodated r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y on A v a i l a b l e t i m e s sum of user Land d e n s i t i e s f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s STEP 2 T o t a l Sum of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s 3575+6000+2550 7 Number of i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s =12075 P o t e n t i a l U s e r s STEP 3 User T o t a l u s e r s which can 720/12075=.06 Accommodation be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d d i v i d e d by t o t a l p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s p o t e n t i a l u s e r s 74 T h i s p r o p o r t i o n ( u s e r accommodation) i s a p p l i e d t o p o t e n t i a l user e s t i m a t e s ( T a b l e 7) t o determine t h e number of u s e r s ( d e s i g n l o a d ) t o be accommodated i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . TABLE 11 NUMBER OF USERS (DESIGN LOAD) TO BE ACCOMMODATED IN RECREATION ACTIVITIES IN EACH PLANNING AREA (USER ACCOMMODATION (TABLE 10) APPLIED TO TABLE 7) PLANNING AREA 1 PLANNING AREA 2 BASEBALL SOCCER PICNICKING 70 120 50 140 240 100 75 3.4.4. CAPACITY U n i t c a p a c i t y r e p r e s e n t s the number of p e r s o n s who can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . I t i s the pr o d u c t of the user d e n s i t y ( p e r s o n s per a c r e ) and u n i t space requirement ( a c r e s per u n i t ) , which p r o v i d e s the number of persons who can be accommodated i n a p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y or space (persons per u n i t ) . TABLE 12 UNIT CAPACITY FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY (BASED ON TABLE 8) BASEBALL SOCCER PICNICKING USER DENSITY (PERSONS/ACRE) 70 60 50 UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENT (ACRES/UNIT) 0.5 1.0 1.5 UNIT CAPACITY (PERSONS/UNIT) 35 60 75 3.4.5. UNIT AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS The number of s p a t i a l u n i t s and a s s o c i a t e d space r e q u i r e m e n t s , f o r each a c t i v i t y by p l a n n i n g a r e a , i s based on d e s i g n l o a d and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . The number of u s e r s t o be accommodated ( d e s i g n l o a d ) i s d i v i d e d by the number of u s e r s which can be accommodated i n an a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t ( c a p a c i t y ) t o d e t e r m i n e the number of a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . TABLE 13 NUMBER OF ACTIVITY SPATIAL UNITS REQUIRED IN EACH PLANNING AREA (TABLE 11 BY TABLE 12 (UNIT CAPACITY)) PLANNING PLANNING AREA 1 AREA 2 TOTAL BASEBALL 2.0 4.0 6.0 SOCCER 2.0 4.0 6.0 PICNICKING 0.65 1.35 2.0 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s , f o r each a c t i v i t y , a r e then e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the number of u n i t s r e q u i r e d by the space r e q u i r e d per a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t . T o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a a r e d e t e r m i n e d by summing a c t i v i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s . TABLE 14 ACTIVITY AND TOTAL SPACE REQUIRED IN EACH PLANNING AREA 1 (TABLE 12 (UNIT SPACE REQ.) APPLIED TO TABLE 13) PLANNING PLANNING AREA 1 AREA 2 TOTAL BASEBALL 1.0 2.0 3.0 SOCCER 2.0 4.0 6.0 PICNICKING 1.0 2.0 3.0 TOTAL 4.0 8.0 12.0 1 Measured i n a c r e s . 77 3.4.6. USERS AND COSTS . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each a c t i v i t y a r e f a c i l i t y and l a n d improvements c o s t s , t o t a l peak u s e r s and c a p i t a l c o s t per peak u s e r . The number of peak u s e r s which can be accommodated i n space p r o v i s i o n s i s d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the number of u n i t s r e q u i r e d by the c a p a c i t y of each a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t . TABLE 15 PEAK USERS FOR ACTIVITY SPACE PROVISIONS IN EACH PLANNING AREA (TABLE 12 (UNIT CAPACITY) APPLIED TO TABLE 13) PLANNING PLANNING AREA 1 AREA 2 TOTAL BASEBALL 70 140 210 SOCCER 120 240 360 PICNICKING 50 100 150 TOTAL 240 480 720 C a p i t a l development c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space p r o v i s i o n s can be e s t i m a t e d f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . To e s t i m a t e f a c i l i t y development c o s t s , two t y p e s of c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d - f a c i l i t y c o s t s and l a n d c o s t s . F a c i l i t y c o s t s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y and l a n d c o s t s f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a . Both c o s t s a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e . For example, t e n n i s c o u r t s r e q u i r e 7200 square f e e t of space a t a f a c i l i t y development c o s t of $20,000 per c o u r t . S t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e , the f a c i l i t y development c o s t f o r t e n n i s c o u r t s i s (43560/7200*$20,000=) $120,000 per a c r e , w h i l e the c o s t of one a c r e of vacant l a n d might be $250,000. 7 8 TABLE 16 FACILITY DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY 1 FACILITY COSTS (000'S) BASEBALL $1000 SOCCER 250 PICNICKING 500 1 F a c i l i t y c o s t f o r a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i n f a c i l i t y development or l a n d improvements, i s s t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e . TABLE 17 LAND COSTS FOR EACH PLANNING AREA 1 LAND COST 1 (000'S) PLANNING AREA 1 $250 PLANNING AREA 2 500 1 Cost of one a c r e of vacant l a n d i n a p l a n n i n g a r e a . F a c i l i t y development c o s t s i n c l u d e development c o s t s f o r f a c i l i t y development or l a n d improvements f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . C o s t s summed f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s y i e l d t he t o t a l f a c i l i t y development c o s t f o r a p l a n n i n g a r e a . Added t o t o t a l f a c i l i t y development c o s t s , f o r p a r k l a n d d e f i c i e n t a r e a s , a r e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s . The sum of f a c i l i t y and l a n d c o s t s y i e l d s an e s t i m a t e of t o t a l c a p i t a l development c o s t i n a p l a n n i n g a r e a . 79 TABLE 18 CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT COSTS FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY AND PLANNING AREA FACILITY LAND TOTAL DEVELOPMENT ACQUISITION DEVELOPMENT COST 1 COST 2 COST 3 (000'S) (000'S) (000'S) PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING PLANNING AREA 1 AREA 2 AREA 1 AREA 2 AREA 1 AREA 2 TOTAL BASEBALL $1000 $2000 - - $1000 $2000 $3000 SOCCER 500 1000 - - 500 1000 1500 PICNICKING 500 1000 — - 500 1000 1500 TOTAL 2000 4000 - 1500 2000 5500 7500 1 Table 16 a p p l i e d t o Table 14. 2 C a l c u l a t e d f o r o n l y p a r k l a n d d e f i c i e n t a r e a s as f o l l o w s : Area 2 r e q u i r e s a t o t a l of 8.0 a c r e s of p a r k l a n d (Table 1 4 ) , i t has a p r e s e n t supply of 5.0 a c r e s (Table 9 ) , and t h e r e f o r e has a d e f i c i t of 3.0 a c r e s . An a c r e of l a n d i n Area 2 c o s t s $500 thousand (Table 17), t h e r e f o r e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s a re (3.0*$500=) $1500 thousand. 3 Sum of f a c i l i t y development and l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s . 80 The c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of space i s the development c o s t p e r peak hour u s e r . I t i s e s t i m a t e d by d i v i d i n g t he f a c i l i t y development c o s t by the number of peak hour u s e r s . TABLE 19 DEVELOPMENT COST PER PEAK HOUR USER IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY FOR EACH PLANNING AREA (TABLE 18 BY TABLE 15) BASEBALL SOCCER PICNICKING TOTAL PLANNING AREA 1 (000'S) $14.3 4.2 10.0 8.3 PLANNING AREA 2 (000'S) $14.3 4.2 10.0 11.5 TOTAL (000'S) $14.3 4.2 10.0 10.4 3.4.7. RECREATION NEED R e c r e a t i o n need i s the d i s r e p a n c y between the amount of space r e q u i r e d f o r each a c t i v i t y and the c u r r e n t s u p p l y . 3 TABLE 20 DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT) BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF SPACE REQUIRED AND THE CURRENT SUPPLY 1 (TABLE 14 FROM TABLE 9) PLANNING PLANNING AREA 1 AREA 2 TOTAL BASEBALL + 1.0 -1.0 0.0 SOCCER 0.0 -2.0 -2.0 PICNICKING + 2.0 0.0 + 2.0 TOTAL + 3.0 -3.0 0.0 1 Measured i n a c r e s . 81 The p r o d u c t of t h i s p r o c e s s i s a r e l a t i v e measure of need, measured i n space, between r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s . For each p l a n n i n g a r e a , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y : • number of s p a t i a l u n i t s and space r e q u i r e d , • d i s c r e p a n c y between space r e q u i r e d and e x i s t i n g s u p p l y , and •development c o s t , peak u s e r s and c o s t per peak hour u s e r . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be used t o make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r i o r i t i e s f o r development between d i f f e r e n t p l a n n i n g a r e a s and d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f a c i l i t i e s . I t can a l s o be used t o a l l o c a t e a v a i l a b l e l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o park and f a c i l i t y development. T h i s method p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n which i s u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r i o r i t y and a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s because space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t two i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n s : E q u i t y - space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s . R e s o urces - space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y of l a n d . E q u i t y i s r e f l e c t e d i n space r e q u i r e m e n t s because the same p r o p o r t i o n of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e accommodated i n a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the amount of space r e q u i r e d t o accommodate peak u s e r s i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l e q u a l the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e l a n d i n t h e community as a whole. 82 3.5. ANALYSIS METHOD An a n a l y t i c procedure- has been d e v e l o p e d f o r the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . The computer program, c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix 2, i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d below. 3.5.1. INPUT REQUIREMENTS I n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s i n c l u d e : a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n , s u p p l y and c o s t d a t a . F i g u r e I I I - l d e s c r i b e s d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s and s o u r c e s . The f o l l o w i n g d a t a i s r e q u i r e d f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y : 1) ACTIVITY DATA - i n c l u d e s s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( s i z e i n a c r e s ) and d e s i r e d u s e r d e n s i t i e s (persons per a c r e ) . 2) PARTICIPATION DATA - i n c l u d e s a g e - s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e r a t e s , d e f i n e d as the p r o p o r t i o n of each age group p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g , and d e s i r i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , i n a r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , r e s p e c t i v e l y . P o p u l a t i o n , s u p p l y and c o s t d a t a a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a s e t of b a s i c a r e a l d a t a c o l l e c t i o n zones. 1) POPULATION DATA - i n c l u d e s age group p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s by zone. 2) SUPPLY DATA - i n c l u d e s a v a i l a b l e neighbourhood, community and c i t y w i d e p a r k s p a c e i n each zone. 3) COST DATA - i n c l u d e s p r e s e n t l a n d v a l u e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the average v a l u e of vac a n t l a n d , i n each zone. A l s o , average development c o s t s f o r f a c i l i t y development and l a n d improvements a r e r e q u i r e d f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 8 3 FIGURE I I I - l DATA REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES DATA TYPE MEASURE DATA SOURCE COMMENT P a r t i c i p a t i o n Percent a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by age group Household and/ Household sample or park user surveys s t r a t i f i e d by p l a n n i n g a r e a s Supply P o p u l a t i o n Number o f , and amount of l a n d devoted t o , f a c i l i t i e s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y Number of persons i n age groups by each p l a n n i n g area P a r k l a n d and f a c i l i t y i n v e n t o r y F e d e r a l or m u n i c i p a l census I d e a l l y , e x i s t i n g p a r k s / f a c i i i t i e s s h o u ld be d i s a g g -r e g a t e d by each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d i n the park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Land Cost Cost of a v a i l a b l e M u n i c i p a l vacant l a n d i n each a s s e s s o r s p l a n n i n g area r e c o r d s S t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e or othe r s u i t a b l e u n i t F a c i l i t y Cost Development c o s t of f a c i l i t i e s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y Past budgets; secondary sources S t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e or othe r u n i t A c t i v i t y User d e n s i t y - d e n s i t y Park user User d e n s i t y and Data at which use i s t o be survey; space e s t i m a t e s accomodated f o r each o b s e r v a t i o n ; s h o u l d be a c t i v i t y p u b l i c a t i o n s s t a n d a r d i z e d t o Space r e q u i r e m e n t - s i z e S i t e / f a c i l i t y of one s p a t i a l u n i t p l a n s ; p a r k / . f o r each r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t y a c t i v i t y s t a ndards p u b l i c a t i o n s one a c r e 84 Two m a t r i c e s a re a l s o r e q u i r e d as i n p u t : 1) P l a n n i n g U n i t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x - d e f i n e s the h i e r a r c h i c a l p l a n n i n g u n i t s t r u c t u r e . S p e c i f i e d a r e the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n zones which a r e i n each n e s t e d s e t of neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g u n i t s . 2) F a c i l i t y - P l a n n i n g U n i t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a t r i x - d e f i n e s the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which a r e accommodated i n each outdoor space and f a c i l i t y , and s p e c i f i e s the p l a n n i n g u n i t a t which they a r e t o be p r o v i d e d . Data i s i n p u t i n m a t r i x form as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e III-.2 and I I I - 3 . 3.5.2. ANALYTIC PROCEDURE A FORTRAN program has been de v e l o p e d t o a p p l y the p r o c e s s . T h i s program t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . F l e x i b i l i t y has been d e s i g n e d i n t o the program t o e n a b l e any of the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s : 1) C a l i b r a t i o n of the program on a r e s t r i c t e d number of zones, r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s or c o m b i n a t i o n of e i t h e r of t h e s e f e a t u r e s . T h i s a l l o w s a n a l y s i s , f o r example, of o n l y : (1) a s p e c i f i c neighbourhood, (2) a s p e c i f i c t y p e of f a c i l i t y a c r o s s a l l neighbourhoods, or (3) a s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y w i t h i n a g i v e n neighbourhood. 2) A l t e r a t i o n of the a r e a l b o u n d a r i e s of any p l a n n i n g a r e a or s e t of p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 3) A l t e r a t i o n of the r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y s e t s accommodated a t each p l a n n i n g u n i t l e v e l . 4) A l t e r a t i o n of the l e v e l of user accommodation i n a l l , or any c o m b i n a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . FIGURE I I 1 - 2 DATA INPUT MATRIX STRUCTURE R e c r e a t i o n A c t i v i t y A c t i v i t y 1 A c t i v i t y 2 A c t i v i t y 3 A c t i v i t y 4 A c t i v i t y 5 A c t i v i t y 6 A c t i v i t y 7 A c t i v i t y 8 A c t i v i t y 9 A c t i v i t y 10 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates (%) (Age Groups) 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 150200250200100 50 50 50 250300200250350350300250 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 500450400350300250200150 50 50200200200200 50 50 300300300250100100 50 50 150200250300350400450500 50 50 50 50500500500500 200200200200200200200200 P r e f e r e n c e Rates (%) (Age Groups) 100200200150150150100100 100 50 50 50100100150150 50 50100 50 50 10 50.10 200200200200200200200200 150250200200300350400450 50 50100100100100 50 50 200200200150150150 50 50 500450400350300250200150 50 50 50 50100100100100 50 50100100150150200200 R e c r e a t i o n F a c i l i t y U n i t Space User A c t i v i t y Cost Requirement D e n s i t y ($000's/acre) ( a c r e s ) ( u s e r s / a c . ) A c t i v i t y 1 500 50 110 A c t i v i t y 2 1000 100 250 A c t i v i t y 3 1000 50 300 A c t i v i t y 4 250 25 125 A c t i v i t y 5 1500 25 350 A c t i v i t y 6 750 10 150 A c t i v i t y 7 300 100 200 A c t i v i t y 8 400 75 175 A c t i v i t y 9 600 20 150 A c t i v i t y 10 100 75 200 P l a n n i n g Age Group P o p u l a t i o n Area (Age Groups) Area 1 7501000 750100015001000 500 500 Area 2 500 500200010002000100015001500 Area 3 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 Area 4 100 500 4001000 500 400 5 550 Area 5 100 200 50 500 650100010001500 Area 6 10001000100015.001000 400 50 50 P a r k l a n d Supply ( a c r e s ) N C M 105 210 150 60 45 210 75 75 340 Land Cost ($000's) 1000 1500 750 750 1000 500 FIGURE I I 1 - 3 PLANNING UNIT AND ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION MATRIX STRUCTURE PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION MATRIX ZONE 1 NEIGHBOURHOOD 1 COMMUNITY 1 MUNICIPAL" 1 ZONE 2 1 1 1 ZONE 3 NEIGHBOURHOOD 2 COMMUNITY 2 1 ZONE 4 2 2 1 ZONE 5 2 2 1 ZONE 6 NEIGHBOURHOOD 3 2 1 ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION MATRIX NEIGH COM MUN ACTIVITY FACILITY INDOOR UNIT TYPE OUTDOOR ACTIVITY 1 1 UNIT 1 TYPE 1 OUTDOOR 1 ACTIVITY 2 2 1 UNIT 2 1 1 ACTIVITY 3 3 2 UNIT 3 1 1 ACTIVITY 4 4 1 3 UNIT 4 TYPE 2 1 ACTIVITY 5 5 2 4 4 2 1 ACTIVITY 6 3 5 UNIT 5 2 1 ACTIVITY 7 4 6 5 2 1 ACTIVITY 8 5 7 5 2 1 ACTIVITY 9 6 UNIT 6 TYPE 3 INDOOR 2 ACTIVITY 10 7 6 3 2 87 F i g u r e I I I - 4 o u t l i n e s a s i m p l e f l o w diagram. The program c o n s i s t s of f o u r b a s i c p a r t s . In the f i r s t phase, composite p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s a r e c a l c u l a t e d by summing age-s p e c i f i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e r a t e s f o r each a c t i v i t y . These r a t e s a r e a p p l i e d t o z o n a l p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s t o e s t i m a t e a g e - s p e c i f i c p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n each a c t i v i t y . P o t e n t i a l user f i g u r e s a r e summed a c r o s s age groups t o d e t e r m i n e the number of u s e r s i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . These f i g u r e s a r e then a g g r e g a t e d t o neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . The second p a r t s e l e c t s and a r r a n g e s s u p p l y and c o s t d a t a , a l o n g w i t h p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , user d e n s i t i e s and space r e q u i r e m e n t s , f o r p r o c e s s i n g of a s p e c i f i c p l a n n i n g u n i t s e t . These neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g u n i t s e t s a r e then p r o c e s s e d - one s e t a t a t i m e . Determined, i n the t h i r d phase, i s the p r o p o r t i o n of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s ( i n r e l e v a n t a c t i v i t i e s ) who can be accommodated on the c u r r e n t s u p p l y of l a n d d u r i n g a one hour p e r i o d . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s a p p l i e d t o p o t e n t i a l u s e r f i g u r e s t o e s t i m a t e the number of peak u s e r s ( d e s i g n l o a d ) t o be accommodated i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . The number of peak u s e r s i s d i v i d e d by u n i t c a p a c i t y , e x p r e s s e d i n the number of p ersons who can be accommodated i n one a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t , t o d e t e r m i n e the number of a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t s r e q u i r e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a . Space r e q u i r e m e n t s , f o r each a c t i v i t y , a r e then e s t i m a t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g the u n i t r e q u i r e m e n t s by the space r e q u i r e d p e r a c t i v i t y s p a t i a l u n i t . F a c i l i t y and l a n d FIGURE I H - i l -COMPUTER PROGRAM FLOW DIAGRAM INPUT A c t i v i t y P a r t i c i p a t -ion/Prefer-ence Rates PROGRAM Sum P a r t i c i p a t -ion and Preference r Rates to Calculate Age Group Demand Rate Calculate Age Group Users By Enne T Sum Age Group P o t e n t i a l Users By Zone to Calculate Total Users] per Zone Aggregate Land and Cost Data By Neighb-ourhood , Community Municipal Plan Units i i i PLANNING UNIT =0 I PLANNING UNIT =PL»NNIN0 UNIT+1 JJser Density and Space Requirement Data I Set Up Land and Cost Data For Planning Unit System 1 Set Up Po t e n t i a l Users and A c t i v i t y [Requirement | Data f o r Planning lUnlt System I I Calculate Proportion Of Pot e n t i a l Users Which Can Be Accomodated On E x i s t i n g Park Land at Desired User Densities Estimate Deficiency, papaclty anc^ ost of pace by Planning Area and In Total Calculate Units and Space Required foij Each Actlvl-f (ty by Plan-ling Area and] In Total i |Aggregate units and space [required, capacity] land cost to act l v l t y components,! t f a c i l l t y types land indoor/outdo lor space OUTPUT OUTPUT Units Required Space Requlreq Deficiency Capacity Cost f o r a c t i v i t i e s by planning u n i t and t o t a l 8 9 improvement c o s t s , t o t a l peak u s e r s , and c a p i t a l c o s t per peak u s e r , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each a c t i v i t y , a r e then e s t i m a t e d . F i n a l l y , t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a a r e d e t e r m i n e d by summing a c t i v i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s . R e c r e a t i o n need, f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a , i s then d e t e r m i n e d by comparing space r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h e x i s t i n g s u p p l y . In the f o u r t h phase, a c t i v i t y space p r o v i s i o n s are a g g r e g a t e d t o v a r i o u s subcomponents of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d i n each p l a n n i n g a r e a and i n t o t a l . Space r e q u i r e m e n t s , c o s t s , peak u s e r s and c o s t per peak hour user a r e summed f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n v a r i o u s park and f a c i l i t y subcomponents. The l a t t e r t h r e e phases of t h i s p r o c e s s a r e r e p e a t e d f o r each s e t of neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Output i s p r o v i d e d upon c o m p l e t i o n of p r o c e s s i n g each s e t . 3 . 5 . 3 . OUTPUT For each p l a n n i n g u n i t s e t output i n c l u d e s f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a and i n t o t a l : 1) Number of s p a t i a l u n i t s and amount of space a l l o c a t e d t o each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 2 ) D i s c r e p a n c y between space r e q u i r e d and e x i s t i n g s u p p l y of r e c r e a t i o n space. 3 ) Development c o s t , number of u s e r s , and c o s t per peak hour user of space p r o v i s i o n s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . 90 F i g u r e I I I - 5 p r o v i d e s an example of program output f o r the t o t a l a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s of neighbourhood p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 3.6. APPLICATION TO PLANNING PROCESS Needs a n a l y s i s , an i m p o r t a n t and complex t a s k , i s c e n t r a l t o t h e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , a t the systems l e v e l , i s o r g a n i z e d i n a sequence of s t e p s shown i n F i g u r e I I I - 6 . The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s , p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , can be put i n the c o n t e x t of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . 4 3.6.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION AND PROBLEM FORMULATION P l a n n i n g urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e s d e s c r i p t i o n of the urban p a r k s system t o be p l a n n e d . A r i s i n g from t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i s an assessment of the e x i s t i n g system i n r e l a t i o n t o a d e s i r e d system. The l a t t e r p r o c e s s i s problem f o r m u l a t i o n . The urban system i s d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o the range of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d t o the p o p u l a t i o n s i n h i e r a r c h i c a l s e r v i c e a r e a s . Needs a n a l y s i s compares the e x i s t i n g p a r k s system ( s u p p l y ) t o the ' d e s i r e d ' system (demand) t o d e t e r m i n e ' f i t ' (need). The f i t between spaces p r o v i d e d and those d e s i r e d e n a b l e s problem f o r m u l a t i o n . I d e n t i f i e d problems, or gaps i n space p r o v i s i o n , p r o v i d e f o c u s t o p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s . 91 FIGURE III-' g OUTPUT EXAMPLE - SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS R E e i E A t t o n A: t i v i r v OASElULL UlA-IOIIO SOFTBALL DIAMOND F1FID HOCKEY FLO "FOITBAIX FIELD LACROSSE P1 F. I) RII3B/ FIELD SOCCER FIELU TEM»US COURT 400 HE IRC TP UK "SRATEOTSAVD 51 EA ACTIVE PARK A4 FA HORSESHOE PITCH KITEFLYING A* FA PICNIC AREA WALK I W> AREA PASSIVE "PRK ATF7T PLAYGROUND HAH NG POI I. PI.AYG10UNO AREA 4 N " T V ' • S S . V K f ^ S T i ^ r s ^2"? S " r " u l A N " w > « - « i r » " cos, . . P i R S o r . s / A r , . r , .ACRES, J*cOIH RE o . . ^ E S ^ E o s , 1 ' " , " C M S U " S ' E P r t c i i v f i e s s - J £ U S J V P E ! i S O N J J I 2 . 10 1 4 . 4 0 i * ; B 9 6 0 . 5 0 1 3 . 0 0 15 .71 3 6 . 3 3 2 0 . 7 4 "lT-a;iD'" 2 9 0 . 4 0 1-3.00 0 0 . C 0 10 .03^ 2 1 7 . «C ' . 3 5 . 6 0 " nunoTTR " -— 0A0MINTOM COURT BASKETBALL C3URT FLOUR HUCKEY Cn T ~ G r W R S T I C ' S " « r F » ~ NF TRAIL COURT T FAM IIANOHAL. CT TR4MP3LIN E A t FA VOLLEYBALL COURT OFFENSE ARTS M w t i s r i r ROOM" COMMUNITY CCNTRE FIRED ARTS RJO'I VISUAL ARTS 100M TEXTILE ART KM A TEXTILE ART IH II l i n B n ? ~ A R T 5 ~ R O 0 ' l WORKSHOP 0 CRAFT MURKSHJP PHOTOGRAPHY SHOP VISUAL ART CENTP MULT I-PURPOSE RH Horrir. Bonn PF.RF-lR'l A l T FAC 01/INS AREA POOL AREA SWIM.MINr. PO'lL RA;OUE IHALL CRI S f r i A j M ^ O U M T R»C'JUET C3IJRTS ICE RINK ICE ARFNA ' I N D i l ' l R - -2 . 0 6 6 0 1 . ^ 3 6 0 1 . 2 3 9 6 r..wo 0 . 4 1 3 2 2 . 4 7 0 3 1 . 5 9 0 9 0 . 1 6 5 3 4 . B 2 0 9 P ; 4 5 9 l 0 . 0 1 3 H 1. POOP 0 . P 6 2 5 I K 0 0 3 0 0 . 2 2 9 6 0 . 0 4 5 9 9. 3 10.3 1.9 ~ f. 3 2 . 7 2. 3 9.6 50. 2 1.4 2.1 B. 3 9.4 56.2 46. 1 3.5 7 . 3 90 . 75 1 0 8 . 9 0 1 0 8 . 9 0 I 74 .24 1 C M . 0!) 4 3 5 . 6 0 2 1 6 . r.l 5 0 1 . H 0 <J 6(1.00 0 . 0 4 4 1 0 . 1377 C . 1 3 7 7 0 . 1 J 4 4 0 . M 4 8 0 . 1 1 7 7 0 . 0 5 7 4 0 . P 6 9 4 0 . 0 5 7 4 n;c23? 4 8 . 1 1 0 . 4 1 0 . B ' 9 . 0 0 . 4 1 .7 7 . 3 1 0 . 5 1 0 . 3 4 . 7 1 0 4 5 . 4 * 10 4 5 . 4 4 1 0 45 . 44 6 9 6 . 9 6 " 7 1 \7A 5 4 4 . 5 3 1171.20 1 ' 1 1 9 . 0 3 P.C 2') 7 0 . 0 2 B ? 0 . 0 28 7 0 . 0 2 0 7 0 . 0 2 1 7 0 . 0 27 5 0 . 0 2 7 5 0 . 0 1 s n 1 6 . 5 1 3 . 2 2 7 . 4 1 4 . 4 Hi? 7 . 5 1 4 . 7 1 3 . 9 3 9I..0 3 21 7fK0!> O . P 5 7 4 3 . 0 ? ? i i 2 0 . 1 t. 1 1 6 1 3 . 13 4 3 5 5 . 10 1 . i ' 3 / 2 O . l ' l ' . 7 2 . 2 1 • 5 2 1 7 . 4 0 1 96.JO 0 .11 ! 11'. • .<• i 3.'. "' 5 4 . 4 ri.i B'l.9.1 v>. 37:* 7 5 . r. 31.9 29. II 3. 9 i t : 7" l . H 9. 5 26. 0 10.4 ?. 6 1.8 1.1.4 0. 2 15.0 5. 9 76. B_ 98. 5 1. 4 0.6 t . 9 24 I. 7 4. 2 2.9 3.0 P;6 0. 1 0.5 C.B 1. 1, 0. 1 5. 0. 0. 1. 0. 0. 0. 0. 4 6. 2 3. 2 0^3 3. 5 0. 2 3 il. 4 1. 7 3 . 7 2 . 4 2. 7 2 . 7 3 0 . 2 ' 0 . 5 9 6 0 2 0 2 3 1 . 2 . 5 7 6 0 . 5 8 4 4 0 5 2 5 0 . 2 . 2 6 9 0 . 0 6 2 8 76 4 8 . 1 . 3 2 2 0 . 2 6 5 5 4 B 1 4 9 . 1 . 780 0 . 0 0 3204 6 7 . 1 . 2 4 b 0 . 1 43281 5 8 . 2 . 4 8 5 0 . 4 2 0 1 1 4 2 4 5 . 1.7 15 1.81)1177 3 0 1 . 6 . 2 5 0 1 . 1 7 1 3 6 5 1 3 9 . 0 . 4 3 8 0 . 7 6 4 2 1 1 1 3 4 . 5 . 7 1 4 5 . 9 7 2 2 4 5 1 6 2 9 . 3 . 6 6 7 0 . 0 2 9 2 8 8 3 3 . 0 . B 8 4 U . 4 E 4 264 9 4 . 5 . 1 6 7 0 . 4 0 4 1 2 3 2 0 1 . 1 . 4 3 8 5 . B 7 4 9 5 5 4 6 1 . 1 2 . 7 5 0 6. 7 9 2 6 1 5 8 6 9 . 7 . 8 1 9 0 . 65 05 28 1 7 7 . 3 . 6 7 3 0 . 2 ' . 1822 1 4 5 . 1 . 6 6 7 i i . B 9 2 3 5 3 32 2 . 2 . 7 70 13. 657192 2.120. 1 3.671252 9. 27 5C65 2.62 3 7 85_ 1 .999264 0.300316 1 .5C3448 2. 70 66 50 4.696012 _A?-§927 4U_ 0.6230B6 411. 291519 2. 696507 2.154940 4,47 70113 2.312607 192. 157. 13 5. 8. 2 5. 103. 157. 236. 1 . 37 7(173 1. 1DC422 2 . 3 0 4 7 7 7 1.OS 3 7 j 4 1 7 . 59 66 IO i ; 8 3 ' . : n 0 4 0. 9 2 0 6 3 2 " 1 0 . 75 141)4 U . 7B41 93 1. 20 25 76 I . 91:ft 759 5 . 3 : 1 3 9 / 6 94. 1350. 353. 395. 594. _ 2 J J J _ 21 1. 113. 230. 269. 23B4. 020. 253. 10 73. 132. 5 4 7 . 6 7 9. 21.0... 3 . ' i S 3 I 69 II. VI 71 43 5 . 3 i ; 1951 ' j . 3.S 19 51 0 5 . 1 C 2 . 46 7. 46 7. 4 . 0 4 4 71 .074 59.229 59.229 14.007 37.Oil ) 59.2 29 14.807 29.B5I 16.480 6 . 6 6 3 3 5 . 7 75 7 . 6 2 0 5 . 4 5 2 7 . 5 3 4 0 . 3 3 2 9 2 . 3 2 0 5 7 2 6 2 5 3. 1 0 5 .°L~1 lo^lZ 6.523 1 C.4 60 10.OIK 5.2 34 7.3U1 _U_.9B9_ 3.64'. 10.024 5. 940 2 .21 ( 2 .92B 24.379 36.527 2 7.7 0: 11.341 11 .341 14.763 FIGURE III-6 URBAN RECREATION PLANNING PROCESS SUPPLY ANALYSIS PRELIMINARY INVENTORY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION SUPPLY INVENTORY PREPARE PLANNING CLASSIFICATIONS FORMULATE OBJECTIVES PREPARE AND ADOPT WORK PROGRAM REVIEW EXISTING POLICIES, LEGISLATION AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES SURVEY OF PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE o o DEMAND ANALYSIS EVALUATE PLAN PREPARATION AND ALTERNATIVES IMPLEMENTATION o ^ o o o o DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE ALLOCATION PROGRAMS SELECT BEST ALTERNATIVE Sourcei Adapted from Wright, Braithwaite and Forster(19?6i53) 93 They a l s o p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r f o r m u l a t i n g p r i o r i t i e s and making r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . In a c o n t i n u o u s or dynamic p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , needs a n a l y s i s might be c o n s i d e r e d a f i t t i n g p r o c e s s ; d e s c r i b e d as a s e r i e s of s t a t i c problems and s o l u t i o n s over t i m e . In the s e r i e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e I I I - 7 : D 0, D,, D^,..,DW r e p r e s e n t s the change i n the problem statement r e s u l t i n g from a change i n demand. S o , S , , S ^ , . . . S M r e p r e s e n t s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u p p l y . S ' 0 , S \ , S ' S ' w r e p r e s e n t s the ob s e r v e d change i n d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u p p l y . Demand f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i s f o r e c a s t e d over a f u t u r e p e r i o d ( t 0 - t > ) . F o r e c a s t e d demand (D 0) i s compared t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y ( S © ) . The e s t i m a t e d d e f i c i e n c y ( D 0 - S 0 ) exceeds a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e f o r e p r i o r i t i e s a r e d e t e r m i n e d and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d t o park and f a c i l i t y development. T h i s development, r e p r e s e n t i n g the obser v e d change i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u p p l y ( S ' „ ) over the development p e r i o d ( t 0 -t , ) , i s added t o the i n i t i a l s u p p l y ( S ^ ) t o g i v e the t o t a l s u p p l y ( S , ) a t the end of the p e r i o d ( t , ) . Demand i s a g a i n f o r e c a s t e d over a f u t u r e p e r i o d ( t , - t a ) , f o r e c a s t e d demand (D,) compared t o e x i s t i n g s u p p l y ( S t or S Q + S ' e ) and the p r o c e s s r e p e a t e d f o r the new development p e r i o d ( t j - t ^ ) . I n t h i s c o n t e x t , the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i e s of i n c r e m e n t a l development d e c i s i o n s based on the f i t between the e x i s t i n g system ( s u p p l y ) and a d e s i r e d system (demand) as they change over t i m e . FIGURE I I I - 7 PROBLEM FORMULATION IN A DYNAMIC PLANNING PROCESS 9^ 95 3.6.2. GENERATION OF ALTERNATIVES, A broad g o a l f o r p l a n n i n g the urban p a r k s system might be: To p r o v i d e the maximum d i v e r s i t y and most e q u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e s i d e n t p r e f e r e n c e s , and a v a i l a b l e l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The aim of g e n e r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s i s t o p r o v i d e a range of s o l u t i o n s s a t i s f y i n g t h i s g o a l w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g i m p l i c i t c o n s t r a i n t s (Lee,1974). Numerous c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s can be p r o v i d e d which meet t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . No optimum 5 s o l u t i o n e x i s t s . The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s can p r o v i d e a range of f e a s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e urban park system c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The p r o c e s s can i l l u s t r a t e what i t means i n terms of l o c a t i o n , amount and c o s t t o p r o v i d e a g i v e n park or f a c i l i t y , or system of urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , under a g i v e n s e t of c o n d i t i o n s . Changing c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s a l l o w s g e n e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s (see F i g u r e I I I - 8 ) . Four means a r e a v a i l a b l e t o ge n e r a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s : (1) Reduce the d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s g i v e n support or a l t e r the l e v e l s of h i e r a r c h i c a l space a t which they are accommodated. (2) I n c r e a s e (or d e c r e a s e ) the l e v e l of user accommodation i n a l l , or a subset o f , r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . (3) I n c r e a s e (or d e c r e a s e ) the d e n s i t y of use. (4) I n c r e a s e (or d e c r e a s e ) the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y of l a n d . FIGURE i l I - 8 PROCESS FOR GENERATING PARK AND FACILITY ALTERNATIVES D E M A N D ACTIVITIES USER DENSITY USER ACCOMODATION POTENTIAL USERS S U P P L Y SPACE PROCESS Demand, supplj) and cost information i s used i n th^ simulation of a r e c r e a t i o n needs analysis] process SPACE Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative N COST CAPACITY COST EFFECTIVENESS 1 J COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES SELECTION OF BEST ALTERNATIVE C O S T LAND CAPITAL INPUTS OPERATION AND PROCESS OUTPUTS ON 97 T h i s p r o c e d u r e a l l o w s c h o i c e t o become the p r i m a r y f o c u s of the p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s e s . 3.6.3. EVALUATION AND CHOICE The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s e n a b l e s c h o i c e among a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s of a c t i o n . E v a l u a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s of a s s e s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and c h o o s i n g the s o l u t i o n which b e s t meets e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s (Catanese and S t e i s s , 1 9 6 8 ; Chadwick,1969; Lee,1974; S t a n k i e , 1 9 7 5 ; Weiss,1976). E v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s r e q u i r e s s p e c i f i c a t i o n of e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a , and a s s o c i a t e d performance measures, r e l a t e d t o d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e which b e s t meets e s t a b l i s h e d o b j e c t i v e s ( i . e . , as i n d i c a t e d by performance measures) i s chosen f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . O b j e c t i v e s i n p l a n n i n g urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s might i n c l u d e : 6 To p r o v i d e maximum d i v e r s i t y and an e q u i t a b l e p r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . 7 To maximize c a p a c i t y and use of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . 8 To m i n i m i z e c o s t s of development and o p e r a t i n g c o s t i m p a c t s . 9 To maximize the c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . 1 0 Performance measures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o b j e c t i v e a r e p r o v i d e d by the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . They a i d e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e urban park and f a c i l i t y developments. T h e i r p r i m a r y 98 use i s not t o h e l p choose the ' b e s t ' a l t e r n a t i v e urban park system , but r a t h e r , t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s and a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s . 1 1 3.6.4. PLAN PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION Upon c o m p l e t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s e v a l u a t i o n , development p r i o r i t i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n s made. A p l a n i s de v e l o p e d o u t l i n i n g p r i o r i t y development and a s s o c i a t e d c a p i t a l budget and time s c h e d u l e s . Need measures and c o s t s p r o v i d e d i n the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s f a c i l i t a t e p r i o r i t y development and r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n on the amount, type and l o c a t i o n of space r e q u i r e m e n t s a i d d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g u p g r a d i n g and redevelopment p r i o r i t i e s i n e x i s t i n g a r e a s , and p r i o r i t i e s f o r new development i n d e v e l o p i n g r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Cost i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s budget e s t i m a t e s . In p l a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the d e s i g n (or s i t e p l a n n i n g ) p r o c e s s i s a i d e d by i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d . S p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y components and s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a i d p r e p a r a t i o n of concept and development p l a n s . 99 CHAPTER 3 FOOTNOTES 1 For d e t a i l s on v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n see: Clawson (1960); P r o c t o r (1962); Boyet and T o l l e y (1965); B u r t o n and Noad (1968); B u r t o n (1971); C i c c h e t t i (1972); L i n d s a y and Ogle (1972:19-24); Bangs and Mahler (1970:32), Sessoms (1964:26-31); B a r a s c h (1971:23-24,43-45); C u r r i e (1973); Dhar (1975); A r c h e r (1976); Bureau of Management C o n s u l t i n g (1976); G a u t h i e r (1977); W r i g h t e t a l . (1976:86-87); and numerous s t u d i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the O.R.R.R.C. r e s e a r c h . 2 The pr o c e d u r e i s based upon the concept of user accommodation d e v e l o p e d by G o l d (1973) and a p p l i e d by Wright e t a l . (1976). An added d i m e n s i o n , d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , d e t e r m i n e s the user accommodation p r o p o r t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o a s u p p l y c o n s t r a i n t . 3 R e c r e a t i o n need d e f i n e d here r e q u i r e s s u p p l y , i n a c r e s , d i s a g g r e g a t e d by a l l a c t i v i t y p r o v i s i o n s . G a t h e r i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a tremendous t a s k . S i m p l i f i e d , i t might be f e a s i b l e t o o b t a i n g r o s s measures of l a n d a v a i l a b l e i n p l a n n i n g a r e a s . I n t h i s case d i s c r e p a n c y would be d e f i n e d a t a p l a n n i n g a r e a l e v e l . * The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d here i s not i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a s y n t h e s i s of a l l approaches t o p l a n n i n g . I t most c l o s e l y resembles the systems ap p r o a c h . T h i s i s o n l y one view of the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and does not go u n c h a l l e n g e d . F o r d e t a i l s on o t h e r approaches t o p l a n n i n g see: Hudson (1979); and Friedman and Hudson . (1974). For d e t a i l s on the systems approach see: Catanese and S t e i s s (1968); Chadwick (1969); S t u a r t (1976); and Lee (1974). For d e t a i l s on the t r a d i t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y - a n a l y z e - p l a n approach t o p r e p a r i n g p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n master p l a n s see: A l b e r t a R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s and W i l d l i f e (1977); O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e and R e c r e a t i o n (1976); Conrad (1977); B a r t o n and Malcolm (1977); and G o l d (1980). 5 What i s 'optimum' v a r i e s depending on o b j e c t i v e s pursued and measures used t o r e p r e s e n t a t t a i n m e n t of those o b j e c t i v e s . D i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s and p o p u l a t i o n sub-groups h o l d d i f f e r i n g s e t s of v a l u e s and o b j e c t i v e s . D e f i n i n g an optimum under c o n d i t i o n s of p o l a r i z e d , m u l t i p l e o b j e c t i v e s i s i m p o s s i b l e . A l s o , an optimum can o n l y be s p e c i f i e d i n r e g a r d s t o a measure i n d i c a t i n g achievement of a narrow s e t of q u a n t i f i a b l e o b j e c t i v e s . C o n s i d e r i n g most o b j e c t i v e s i n urban p a r k s a r e not q u a n t i f i a b l e , any attempt t o d e f i n e the 'optimum system' i s open t o s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n . See D a v i d o f f (1965); Chadwick (1969) and Lee (1974) f o r d e t a i l s on o p t i m i z i n g models i n p l a n n i n g . ' The s p e c i f i c a t i o n of e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a and a p p r o p r i a t e performance measures i m p l i e s t h a t o b j e c t i v e s must be q u a n t i f i e d . 100 A p p r e c i a t i n g t h a t many p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i n urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g a r e not q u a n t i f i a b l e , the o b j e c t i v e s s p e c i f i e d i n c l u d e o n l y some i m p o r t a n t ones which a r e . 7 A key p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e i s t o p r o v i d e d i v e r s i t y and e q u i t y i n the p r o v i s i o n of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . See W r i g h t e t a l . (1976:101-103) 8 C e n t r a l t o t h i s p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e i s the c o n c e p t of c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y - t h a t l e v e l of use which can be s u s t a i n e d i n an a r e a w i t h o u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n and accompanying d e c r e a s e i n u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s o b j e c t i v e i s t h a t the l e v e l of u s e r accommodation i n the urban p a r k s system s h o u l d be c a t e r e d t o by a system of s u i t a b l e c a p a c i t y t o m a i n t a i n ' a c c e p t a b l e ' l e v e l s of user s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e s o u r c e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . D i f f i c u l t y i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g t h i s p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e might l e a d t o m a x i m i z i n g use of the system as measured i n t h e number of u s e r s which can be accommodated a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . T h i s a pproach may attempt t o b u i l d i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and r e s o u r c e d e t e r i o r a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s when d e f i n i n g c a p a c i t y measures f o r s p e c i f i c park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . ' A p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e may be t o m i n i m i z e c o s t s of c a p i t a l development as w e l l as the o p e r a t i n g impacts of such development. C r i t i c a l i n d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s and making r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s i s i n f o r m a t i o n on c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h proposed development. 1 0 From an economic v i e w p o i n t , a p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e might be t o maximize net b e n e f i t s of p r o v i s i o n s and compare a l t e r n a t i v e s on t h i s b a s i s . These i d e a s a r e l i n k e d t o b e n e f i t c o s t a n a l y s i s , which argues t h a t the a l t e r n a t i v e y i e l d i n g t h e most b e n e f i t s over c o s t s be chosen. A p p l i e d t o n o n - p r i c e d s e r v i c e s , t h i s a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o c a l c u l a t e net s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . Analogous t o the e c o n o m i s t s ' consumer s u r p l u s , net s o c i a l b e n e f i t s a r e the d i f f e r e n c e between the ' p r i c e ' consumers pay and t h a t they would be w i l l i n g t o pay r a t h e r than f o r e g o the s e r v i c e . For d e t a i l s see: P e a r s e ( 1 9 6 8 ) . In absence of adequate measures of b e n e f i t s i n e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s , a p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e may be t o maximize c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . T h i s i s a compromise proc e d u r e between m a x i m i z i n g c a p a c i t y , and m i n i m i z i n g c o s t s , of the system. I t a t t e m p t s t o maximize u n i t o utput (peak u s e r s ) as compared t o u n i t i n p u t s ( r e s o u r c e c o s t s ) t o o b t a i n the most c o s t e f f e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s . For d e t a i l s on c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s see: Lee (1974) and Environment and Land Use S e c r e t a r i a t (1977). 1 1 The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s does n o t , and c a n n o t , p r o v i d e o v e r a l l 'system' performance measures which d e s c r i b e the 'best' system i n r e l a t i o n t o o b j e c t i v e s . I t i s not an o p t i m i z i n g model which p r o v i d e s the most e q u i t a b l e and e f f i c i e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of 101 p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s . Performance measures a r e most u s e f u l when examining space r e q u i r e m e n t s and need on an a r e a by a r e a and f a c i l i t y by f a c i l i t y b a s i s . The t a s k of d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s r e f l e c t i n g money and l a n d a v a i l a b l e s t i l l r e m ains. Performance measures s i m p l y a i d the p r o c e s s of d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s and making r e s o u r c e a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . 102 CHAPTER 4 CASE STUDY - APPLICATION TO RICHMOND 4.1. INTRODUCTION The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s was a p p l i e d t o Richmond, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h i s c h a p t e r the p l a n n i n g a r e a and park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d e v e l o p e d f o r Richmond a r e o u t l i n e d , f o l l o w e d by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d t o a p p l y the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . I n c l u d e d i s a d i s c u s s i o n of d a t a s o u r c e s and c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . L a s t l y , t h e r e s u l t s of t h e needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d and summarized. 4.2. PLANNING AREA Richmond, l o c a t e d on L u l u I s l a n d i n the F r a s e r d e l t a s o u t h of Vancouver, i s a community of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 90,000. In 1977 the M u n i c i p a l i t y completed a f i v e y e a r Master P l a n f o r the development of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s p l a n d e l i n e a t e d s e v e r a l neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l park s e r v i c e a r e a s . They p r o v i d e the b a s i s of the p l a n n i n g u n i t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n t h i s t h e s i s and i n c l u d e : NEIGHBOURHOOD - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a of a p p r o x i m a t e l y one q u a r t e r of a square m i l e ; g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an eleme n t a r y s c h o o l . A t y p i c a l Richmond neighbourhood c o n t a i n s 1500-2500 p e o p l e , s e r v e d by park and p l a y f i e l d development. COMMUNITY - r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a u s u a l l y c o m p r i s e d of f o u r t o e i g h t neighbourhoods, c o n t a i n i n g a s e r v i c e p o p u l a t i o n r a n g i n g from 6000-18000. Richmond communities a r e each 103 g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a secondary s c h o o l . Park p r o v i s i o n s i n c l u d e p a s s i v e and s p o r t f i e l d development. Other p o s s i b l e f a c i l i t i e s may i n c l u d e a swimming p o o l , i c e ar e n a and o t h e r development which cannot be e c o n o m i c a l l y p r o v i d e d a t the neighbourhood l e v e l . MUNICIPAL - an a r e a bounded by the c o r p o r a t e l i m i t s of the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. S p e c i a l i z e d p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r use by a l l r e s i d e n t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y , such as t r a i l development, a r e p r o v i d e d a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l . F i g u r e IV-1 i l l u s t r a t e s p a r k l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n community p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 4.3. PARK AND FACILITY CLASSIFICATION A park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been d e v i s e d f o r Richmond (see Appendix 3-A). I t c o n s i s t s o f : 1) r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , and 2) p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated a t each p l a n n i n g u n i t l e v e l . The park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o u t l i n e s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . I d e a l l y , r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s may be c l a s s i f i e d based on t i m e - d i s t a n c e and c o s t f a c t o r s (Wright et a l . , 1 9 7 6 : 1 0 4 ) . For example, space f o r p l a y g r o u n d a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g young c h i l d r e n might be p r o v i d e d i n neighbourhood p a r k s c l s o e t o home; whereas, space f o r a swimming p o o l , which cannot f e a s i b l y be p r o v i d e d i n neighbourhood p a r k s due t o p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t s , may be p r o v i d e d i n community or m u n i c i p a l p a r k s d r a w i n g u s e r s from g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s . The park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d f o r 105 Richmond was p r i m a r i l y based on e x i s t i n g park components and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d i n neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s . The r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s a s s i g n e d t o p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s accommodated a t each p l a n n i n g u n i t l e v e l have been based on the l o c a t i o n s where Richmond r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s l o c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n d a t a was c o l l e c t e d i n the 1979 Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Demand Study. Based on the survey d a t a , r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s were a s s i g n e d t o neighbourhood, community or m u n i c i p a l p a r k s . For example, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 p e r c e n t of a l l Richmond r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c c e r . T h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n o c c u r s i n neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s . T h e r e f o r e , s o c c e r i s a s s i g n e d t o a l l p l a n n i n g u n i t l e v e l s i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y , 40 p e r c e n t of Richmond r e s i d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e i n swimming and t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d between one m u n i c i p a l and t h r e e community swimming p o o l s . Swimming i s t h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the f a c i l i t i e s accommodated i n community and m u n i c i p a l s e r v i c e a r e a s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s not a b s o l u t e but r a t h e r has been d e v e l o p e d f o r the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s and i s based on c r i t e r i a and c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e l e v a n t t o the s p e c i f i c Richmond a p p l i c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t the park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x c l u d e s two a d d i t i o n a l l e v e l s of urban r e c r e a t i o n a l space -sub-neighbourhood and r e g i o n a l space (Wright e t a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e not i n c l u s i v e of a l l p o s s i b l e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . They r e p r e s e n t 106 o n l y t h o s e accommodated i n p u b l i c , and some p r i v a t e , urban r e c r e a t i o n a l space ( i . e . , neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s ) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s . 4.3.1. NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS There a re t h r e e major components i n neighbourhood p a r k s : p a s s i v e a r e a s , p l a y i n g f i e l d s and p l a y g r o u n d s . The p l a y g r o u n d i s an e s s e n t i a l element of a neighbourhood park. I t i n c l u d e s a p p a r a t u s and wading p o o l a r e a s . Landscaped p a s s i v e a r e a s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r n o n - p h y s i c a l or n o n - a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s and p r i m a r i l y i n c l u d e a r e a s f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as h o r s e s h o e s , k i t e f l y i n g , w a l k i n g and o t h e r p a s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y , a f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a i s a l s o i n c l u d e d . P l a y i n g f i e l d s p r o v i d e f i e l d space f o r s p o r t s such as s o f t b a l l , f o o t b a l l , s o c c e r and l a c r o s s e and u s u a l l y i n c l u d e a paved c o u r t s a r e a f o r t e n n i s . 4.3.2. COMMUNITY PARKS AND FACILITIES Community p a r k s o f f e r a wider range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s than neighbourhood p a r k s . x Large and more s p e c i a l i z e d p l a y i n g f i e l d s , p l a y g r o u n d s , c o u r t game a r e a s , and f a c i l i t i e s accommodate a t h l e t i c and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e l a n d s c a p e d a r e a s p r o v i d e f o r more p a s s i v e p u r s u i t s such as w a l k i n g and p i c n i c k i n g . Community space i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major components: 107 community p a r k s and community a t h l e t i c grounds. Community p a r k s p r o v i d e p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e accommodated i n neighbourhood p a r k s , such as a f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a . Space f o r i n f o r m a l p l a y and a wading p o o l a r e a a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s component. Community a t h l e t i c grounds i n c l u d e b a s e b a l l , f o o t b a l l and s o c c e r f i e l d s , a 400 metre t r a c k , t e n n i s c o u r t s and a l a r g e open t u r f e d a r e a f o r a c t i v i t i e s such as rugby and f i e l d hockey. F a c i l i t y development might i n c l u d e a community c e n t r e , r a c q u e t c o u r t s , i c e arena and swimming p o o l . These l a t t e r f a c i l i t i e s each have components which accommodate numerous a t h l e t i c , a q u a t i c and c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s (see Appendix 3-A). 4.3.3. MUNICIPAL PARKS AND FACILITIES M u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the e n t i r e Richmond p o p u l a t i o n and a r e c o m p r i s e d of t h r e e major components: m u n i c i p a l p a r k s , m u n i c i p a l a t h l e t i c grounds and m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s . M u n i c i p a l p a r k s and a t h l e t i c f i e l d s p r o v i d e s i m i l a r , but more s p e c i a l i z e d , a r e a s than t h o s e a t the community l e v e l . There i s a w i d e r d i v e r s i t y of more s p e c i a l i z e d , and c o s t l y , a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . A t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e i c e a r e n a s , swimming p o o l s , r a c q u e t c o u r t s and c u r l i n g r i n k s . Racquet c o u r t s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r squash, h a n d b a l l and r a c q u e t b a l l . Hockey, 108 p u b l i c s k a t i n g , and f i g u r e s k a t i n g a r e p r i m a r y a c t i v i t i e s accommodated i n a r e n a s . Swimming p o o l s accommodate r e c r e a t i o n a l , c o m p e t i t i v e and i n s t r u c t i o n a l swimming, and d i v i n g , a c t i v i t i e s . C u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s c e n t r e s . V i s u a l a r t s c e n t r e s accommodate a d i v e r s i t y of a c t i v i t i e s . P r i m a r i l y i n c l u d e d a r e a r e a s f o r f i r e d , v i s u a l , t e x t i l e and hobby a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Workshop space f o r c r a f t s and a c t i v i t i e s such as photography and l a p i d a r y a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d . P e r f o r m i n g a r t s c e n t r e s i n c l u d e a r e a s f o r dance and music as w e l l as a t h e a t r e f o r m u s i c a l , d r a m a t i c and dance pe r f o r m a n c e s . Outdoor f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e b o w l i n g g r e e n s , g o l f c o u r s e s , r i f l e and a r c h e r y ranges and t r a i l s . Ranges p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a p , s k e e t , p i s t o l and r i f l e s h o o t i n g and a r c h e r y . J o g g i n g , b i c y c l i n g , h i k i n g and e q u e s t r i a n a c t i v i t i e s a r e accommodated i n t r a i l development. 4.4. DATA COLLECTION F i v e t y p e s of d a t a were c o l l e c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r Richmond p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e d : p o p u l a t i o n , s u p p l y and l a n d c o s t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , f a c i l i t y c o s t and a c t i v i t y d a t a . F i g u r e IV-2 p r o v i d e s a summary of d a t a r e q u i r e m e n t s and s o u r c e s . 4.4.1. POPULATION S i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n of the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s the need f o r r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t i e s . 109 FIGURE IV-2 DATA REQUIREMENTS AND SOURCES DATA TYPE MEASURE DATA SOURCE COMMENT P a r t i c i p a t i o n P e rcent a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by age group 1977 Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Demand Study Household sample s t r a t i f i e d by p l a n n i n g a r e a s Supply T o t a l supply of p a r k l a n d i n Richmond ne i ghbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g areas Richmond P a r k l a n d and F a c i l i t y I n v entory(1977) P o p u l a t i o n Number of persons i n age groups by each Richmond neighbourhood F e d e r a l Censusl(1976) Land Cost Cost of a v a i l a b l e vacant l a n d i n each Richmond neighbourhood Richmond L e g a l Department S t a n d a r d i z e d to one a c r e F a c i l i t y Development c o s t of Cost f a c i l i t i e s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y Past budgets; secondary sources S t a n d a r d i z e d to one a c r e A c t i v i t y Data User d e n s i t y - d e n s i t y at which use i s t o be accommodated f o r each a c t i v i t y (persons per acr e ) Space r e q u i r e m e n t - s i z e of one s p a t i a l u n i t f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y ( i n a c r e s ) Secondary s o u r c e s ; S i t e / f a c i l i t y p l a n s ; p a r k / f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s p u b l i c a t i o n s User d e n s i t y and space e s t i m a t e s are s t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e 110 To d e t e r m i n e l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n space and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n f o r m a t i o n on the s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n of neighbourhood p o p u l a t i o n s was r e q u i r e d . P o p u l a t i o n age c o m p o s i t i o n f o r each Richmond neighbourhood was c o l l e c t e d from the 1976 F e d e r a l C e nsus. 2 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix 3-B. 4.4.2. SUPPLY INVENTORY AND LAND COSTS Richmond has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 883 a c r e s of p u b l i c p a r k l a n d ; r e p r e s e n t i n g 10.0 a c r e s per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n . 3 P r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g g o l f c o u r s e s , gun c l u b s and e q u e s t r i a n s i t e s , p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l 457 a c r e s . I n f o r m a t i o n on e x i s t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p a r k l a n d was c o l l e c t e d f o r neighbourhood, community and m u n c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 4 Appendix 3-C o u t l i n e s e x i s t i n g Richmond p a r k l a n d . Land c o s t s i n Richmond neighbourhoods were a l s o c o m p i l e d . 5 They r e p r e s e n t the average c o s t of a v a i l a b l e v a c a n t l a n d . Where vac a n t l a n d i s not a v a i l a b l e , they r e p r e s e n t average c o s t s of r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p e r t i e s i n each neighbourhood. Per a c r e l a n d c o s t e s t i m a t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix 3-C. 4.4.3. PARTICIPATION I n f o r m a t i o n was c o l l e c t e d on a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d i n the park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Data was c o l l e c t e d from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a r e t o a s t r a t i f i e d random sample of the Richmond p o p u l a t i o n . I l l A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d 6 t o a s s e s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s (see Appendix 4 ) . I t c o n s i s t s of ten p a r t s . P a r t s A t o F c o l l e c t p r o f i l e d a t a i n c l u d i n g f a m i l y i n f o r m a t i o n and age, sex and e d u c a t i o n of survey r e s p o n d e n t s . 7 P a r t J c o l l e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n on 158 s e p a r a t e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and i s o r g a n i z e d i n t o f o u r s t e p s . The f i r s t two s t e p s c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on ' l a t e n t demand' or ' p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' ; the l a t t e r two s t e p s on c u r r e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Step One a s s e s s e s a c t i v i t i e s of p r i o r i t y i n t e r e s t i n which the respondent i s not c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g , w h i l e the second s t e p a s s e s s e s reasons f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s of p r i o r i t y i n t e r e s t . S tep Three c o l l e c t s d a t a on a c t i v i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e g u l a r l y f o r a season or more i n the Richmond a r e a . Step Four a s s e s s e s where re s p o n d e n t s most o f t e n or u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e a c t i v i t e s . " The study p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d as a l l p e r s o n s age t e n and over r e s i d i n g w i t h i n the c o r p o r a t e b o u n d a r i e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. The s e l e c t e d sample 9 was a randomly s e l e c t e d h o usehold s a m p l e 1 0 s t r a t i f i e d by Richmond's community p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d 1 1 t o each sample h o u s e h o l d member age t e n and o v e r . F i g u r e IV-3 i l l u s t r a t e s sample s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s and response r a t e s . A n a l y s i s of s u r v e y r e t u r n s p r o v i d e d , f o r each a c t i v i t y , e s t i m a t e s o f : 1) p e r c e n t a g e of the Richmond p o p u l a t i o n c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g , and 2) p e r c e n t a g e of t h e Richmond p o p u l a t i o n not c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but d e s i r i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e . 112 FIGURE IV-3 RICHMOND DEMAND STUDY SAMPLE SIZE REQUIREMENT AND RESPONSE RATE COMMUNITY 1977 SAMPLE RETURN RATE POP 1 PERSONS 2 HOUSEHOLDS3 PERSONS HOUSEHOLDS THOMPSON 6321 124 44 100 (80.6) 39 (88.6) NORTH CENTRAL 7553 149 53 111 (74.5) 43 (81.1) BRIGHOUSE 7103 139 50 76 (54.7) 39 (78.0) EAST CENTRAL 6152 121 43 92 (76.0) 40 (93.0) SOUTH ARM 18691 368 131 173 (47.0) 76 (58.0) CENTRAL 12903 254 91 134 (52.7) 61 (67.0) WEST RICHMOND 13683 270 96 149 (55.2) 68 (70.8) STEVESTON 6325 124 44 90 (72.6) 39 (88.6) BRIDGEPORT 4114 82 30 49 (59.8) 19 (63.3) EAST RICHMOND 2564 50 18 40 (80.0) 15 (83.3) EAST ALR 2236 44 15 33 (75.0) 13 (86.6) HAMILTON 735 23 10 13 (56.0) 5 (50.0) SOUTH ALR 819 12 4 7 (58.3) 3 (75.0) BURKEVILLE 920 18 6 10 (55.5) 4 (66.6) TOTAL 90119 1778 635 1077 (60.6) 464 (73.0) 1 Source: Richmond Parks and L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Comprehensive p l a n . 2 P r o r a t e d sample s i z e requirement i s based on t o t a l sample s i z e requirement of 1057 a d j u s t e d f o r an expected 60% r e t u r n r a t e . 3 Based on average persons over age 10 per household of 2.8. 113 F i g u r e IV-4 compares sample and p o p u l a t i o n age group d i s t r i b u t i o n s . A s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e ( c h i - s q u a r e ) i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between sample and p o p u l a t i o n age group p r o p o r t i o n s (p=.025). Appendix 3-D c o n t a i n s age group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e r a t e s f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y . FIGURE IV-4 SAMPLE AND POPULATION AGE GROUP DISTRIBUTION AGE SAMPLE POPULATION GROUP PERCENT PERCENT 10-14 9.8 11.0 15-19 10.3 12.0 20-24 10.1 9.1 25-34 16.2 16.5 35-44 25.0 22.1 45-54 12.0 13.8 55-64 9.6 8.8 65+ 7.1 6.7 100.0 100.0 NOTE: C h i - s q u a r e v a l u e = 1.4984; d . f . = 7; No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e i n p e r c e n t a g e s ; p = .025 4.4.4, FACILITY COST Development c o s t s f o r a c t i v i t y components r e q u i r i n g f a c i l i t y development or l a n d improvements were e s t i m a t e d . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , g a t h e r e d from numerous secondary s o u r c e s , i s c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix 3-E. Development c o s t i s s t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e of development, i n f a c i l i t y and l a n d improvement c o s t s , f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y u n i t . 1 2 D e v e l o p m e n t c o s t s i n c l u d e c o s t s f o r a n c i l l a r y space i n a d d i t i o n t o p l a y i n g or a c t i v i t y 114 space. Where p o s s i b l e , f a c i l i t y c o s t s a r e based on p a s t park and f a c i l i t y development i n Richmond. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r major f a c i l i t i e s such as p o o l s , community c e n t r e s and an a r t s c e n t r e . A l l c o s t s have been a d j u s t e d t o 1980. 1 3 4.4.5. SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER DENSITIES S p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ( s i z e i n a c r e s ) and d e s i r e d u s e r d e n s i t i e s (persons per a c r e ) were c o l l e c t e d f o r each a c t i v i t y u n i t i n c l u d e d i n the park a n d . f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1 4 Appendix 3-F c o n t a i n s s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t and user d e n s i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . S p a t i a l u n i t r e q u i r e m e n t s , where p o s s i b l e , r e p r e s e n t the d i m e n s i o n s or s i z e of a c t i v i t y components i n e x i s t i n g Richmond p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . 1 5 Examples a r e s i z e d i m e n s i o n s of a swimming p o o l , s o c c e r f i e l d , i c e r i n k and a v a r i e t y of v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t and c r a f t rooms. D e s i r e d s i z e s have been used f o r park and f a c i l i t y components not c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e i n R i c h m o n d . 1 6 In a d d i t i o n t o p l a y i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t s ( r e f l e c t e d i n s p a t i a l u n i t r e q u i r e m e n t s ) , a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s were e s t i m a t e d f o r a l l park and f a c i l i t y components. A n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t the space needed f o r p a r k i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g and b u f f e r space around s p o r t f i e l d s , park a r e a s , and i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s , and space f o r washrooms, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , maintenance 115 and m e c h a n i c a l a r e a s w i t h i n i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s . A n c i l l a r y space was e s t i m a t e d as a p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p o r t f i e l d s , paved c o u r t a r e a s , and p a s s i v e park a r e a s , and i n d o o r and outdoor f a c i l i t i e s l i k e lawn b o w l i n g g r e e e n s , g o l f c o u r s e s , community c e n t r e s , swimming p o o l s , i c e a r e n a s , c u r l i n g r i n k s and o t h e r s . 4.5. ANALYSIS The richmond d a t a was a n a l y z e d u s i n g the computer program c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix 2. T h i s program t r a n s l a t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r v a r i o u s r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n Richmond's neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . 4.6. RESULTS P r e s e n t e d here a r e the r e s u l t s of an a n a l y s i s of Richmond's park and f a c i l i t y needs. I n c l u d e d a r e space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r : 1) neighbourhood p a r k s , 2) community p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , and 3) m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . A s s o c i a t e d peak u s e r s and c o s t s a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . Neighbourhood and community park and f a c i l i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s and i n t o t a l . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a t y p i c a l Richmond neighbourhood and community a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d . Space r e q u i r e m e n t s , and a s s o c i a t e d peak u s e r s and c o s t s , a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . 116 4.6.1. NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 4.6.1.1. Space Requirements f o r I n d i v i d u a l Neighbourhoods Park r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r f o r t y - t h r e e Richmond neighbourhoods; c o n t a i n i n g 335 a c r e s of park space. F i g u r e IV-5 p r e s e n t s a summary of neighbourhood park r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r Richmond communities. Park r e q u i r e m e n t s , r e f l e c t i n g p r e s e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s and t h o s e needed, range from 10.1 a c r e s ( E a s t Richmond) t o 70.8 a c r e s (South Arm). O v e r a l l , neighbourhood park r e q u i r e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t a s t a n d a r d of 3.0 a c r e s per 1000 p o p u l a t i o n . For an average Richmond neighbourhood, c o n t a i n i n g 2000 t o 3000 p e o p l e , the a r e a r e q u i r e d f o r neighbourhood park space ranges from 6.0 t o 9.0 a c r e s . Park r e q u i r e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t the s i z e , c o m p o s i t i o n and e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s of each neighbourhood p o p u l a t i o n . Requirements v a r y from neighbourhood t o neighbourhood. These d i f f e r e n c e s can best be p e r c e i v e d among space d e v o t e d t o f e a t u r e s such as s p o r t s f i e l d s , p l a y g r o u n d s and u n s t r u c t u r e d p a s s i v e a r e a s . In neighbourhoods c o n t a i n i n g a l a r g e number of s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n , a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of park space i s devo t e d t o s p o r t f i e l d s . S i m i l a r l y , i n neighbourhoods w i t h a l a r g e number of o l d e r p e r s o n s , a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n i s devo t e d t o p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s . D i f f e r e n c e s , f o r example, can be noted between a c t i v e and p a s s i v e park space r e q u i r e d i n Thompson, N o r t h C e n t r a l and B r i g h o u s e ; t h r e e communities of s i m i l a r p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , but v a r i e d c o m p o s i t i o n . F I G U R E I V-5 SUBHART o r NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK SPACE R E Q U I R E H E N r S FOR KICIIHOND COINUNITt'S ACTIVE PARK ABEA PLAYGROUND AREA PASSIVE AREA PARK ANCILLARY SPACE 35 o M H •« •4 Ot O a o o m PI ts a a 5 M ^ O K! H m 00 m o< S o < an BO O M 33 Ul -I •< M m a •J .4 •i ° >J 4 B ^ n o m a H »: H J h H O N O M O H ui a on fc. SQHQ U ^  60 * l U N (3 M O H D H ul m Ou M Ul Ul ul o M H « 38 OS U M 33 O < O M O J o c u o 3. a D Ul a a o w o *3 n. 13 33 H »J a o * o tm a. «J .4 H O I* a B3 Ul M H Ul ul M 4 Ul K M * -3 ta Di O * u H 33 H U M M 35 a. O o t* i n Ul Q W < 33 ta w Ul M M O o -•> 33 Qi D Ul *3 O O W CO H U M Ul Ul cn M Cu M 3". 3B o a H O H CO D Ul 3S W 31 M 04 JMH O B I X O O <3i 04 IH Ul « TnonpsoH 6315 20.8 1 1 1 1 5 7.5 1 1 .2 6 6 6. 1 2.7 2.3 0.7 9. 1 23. 5 HOBTH CENTRAL 7165 29.2 1 1 1 1 6 8.1 1 1 ' .2 7 7 7.0 3. 1 3.7 5.5 12. J 27.6 B B I G R O D S B 7073 7.5 1 1 1 5 6.2 1 1. .2 8 6 7.9 2. 9 1.9 0.8 9.1, 23.9 EAST CENTRAL 5959 7.5 1 1 1 1 5 7.5 1 i ; .2 6 5 5. 8 2. 7 1.8 0.5 9.U 22. 5 SOUTH ARB 18155 58.9 3 3 2 3 1 1 16 20. 0 1 1 .2 16 19 17.5 0. 0 6. 1 10.2 28.7 70.8 CENTRAL 12757 56.2 2 2 1 2 1 1 11 18.0 1 .2 12 12 12.6 6.2 1.9 9.7 17. a 08.6 BEST RICHI IOND 138110 56.5 2 2 2 2 1 1 12 18.0 1 1 .2 13 13 13.8 6.5 3.9 10.7 21. 1 53. 5 STEVESTON 6237 37.7 1 1 1 1 5 7. 5 1 1 .2 6 6 6.0 2.8 1.6 0.6 9.J 23. 1 EAST R ICHHOHD 2610 13.5 - 1 1 2 J. 3 1 1 . 2 0 2 0. 1 . 7 .8 1.0 2 . i 10. 1 BRIDGEPORT 3925 20.8 1 1 1 3 5.9 1 1 .2 0 0 0. 2 1.0 1.8 1.5 0.J 10.7 OTHER 0325 26. 5 1 1 1 1 0 7.0 1 1 .2 0 0 0.2 2. 3 1.2 1.6 5. 1 2.2 R I C i m O N D 80091 335.0 10 15 10 10 3 0 70 11 J . 9 10 1 1 2 . 5 85 no no.5 39.3 27.0 62.B 129. 1 335.0 118 4.6.1.2. Total Neighbourhood Space Requirements and Def ic ienc ies Figure IV-6 summarizes neighbourhood park space requirements. The t o t a l park system accommodates almost 3700 peak hour users. This i s the t o t a l number of peak users which can be accommodated in existing neighbourhood park space based on the number of units required for each a c t i v i t y and the associated number of persons which can be accommodated in each unit at desired user dens i t i e s . The 3700 peak users represent approximately 2 percent of t o t a l Richmond users in neighbourhood park a c t i v i t i e s . Total users represent the t o t a l number of persons who part i c i p a t e or desire to part i c i p a t e in a c t i v i t i e s accommodated in neighbourhood parks. Total development cost i s estimated at $17.2 m i l l i o n , approximately $320-480 thousand for a 6.0-9.0 acre s i t e . Rather than i n s u f f i c i e n t acreage in neighbourhood parks, Richmond has a problem of uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n of these areas. Figure IV-7 outlines park d e f i c i e n c i e s for each neighbourhood. Nineteen neighbourhoods have parkland d e f i c i e n c i e s . The t o t a l deficiency in these neighbourhoods amounts to 89.2 acres. The cost of acquiring land to eliminate parkland d e f i c i e n c i e s i s p r o h i b i t i v e . Land ac q u i s i t i o n costs have been estimated at $28.7 m i l l i o n ; six times the cost to develop this l a n d . 1 7 The decreasing a v a i l a b i l i t y and escalating cost of land w i l l make i t necessary to explore alternatives for acquiring and 119 FIGURE IV-6 SUMMARY OF TOTAL NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS ACTIVITY NO. OF TOTAL FACILITY PEAK POTENT I, UNIT SPATIAL SPACE DEVELOPMENT USERS USERS UNITS REQUIREMENT COST REQUIRED (ACRES) (000'S) B a s e b a l l Diamond 14 47.1 $881.6 342 17858 S o f t b a l l Diamond 15 44.1 864.5 381 19881 F o o t b a l l F i e l d 10 24.7 392.8 221 11515 Soccer F i e l d 14 38.4 621.5 362 18900 Rugby F i e l d 3 14.1 211.9 85 4449 L a c r o s s e Box 4 2.7 123.2 99 5150 Tennis C o u r t s 74 15.3 2782.7 445 23228 ACTIVE PARK AREA 186.5 5878.2 1936 100981 Playground 10 2.0 962.3 262 13668 Wading P o o l 11 .5 357.7 215 11197 PLAYGROUND AREA 2.5 1320.0 477 24865 P a s s i v e Games Area 85 136.7 9406.9 870 42783 P i c n i c U n i t 84 8.7 597.8 416 21697 PASSIVE PARK AREA 145.4 10004.7 1286 64480 TOTAL NEIGHBOURHOOD PARKS 335.0 17202.3 3697 190326 120 FIGURE IV-7 SUMMARY OF NEIGHBOURHOOD SPACE REQUIREMENTS, DEFICIENCIES AND COSTS NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK EXISTING PARKLAND FACILITY PEAK LAND SPACE SUPPLY DEFICIT DEVELOPMENT USERS COST REQUIRED (ACRES) (ACRES) COST (000'S) (ACRES) (000'S) Q u i l c h e n a 9.9 11.2 1.3 $506,5 112 Thompson 13.6 9.6 -4.0 692.2 153 $480.0 THOMPSON 23.5 20.8 -4.0 1198.7 265 480.0 B u r n e t t 2.6 0.0 -2.6 129.2 28 312.0 McKay 7.2 12.3 5.1 359.9 80 Brighouse 12.0 12.9 0.9 606.5 131 G a r r a t t 5.8 4.0 -1.8 277.6 63 810.0 NORTH CENTRAL , 27.6 29.2 -4.4 1373.2 302 1122.0 Richmond 14.7 0.0 -14.7 800.0 148 4450.0 Cook 9.2 7.5 -1.7 509.2 96 255.0 BRIGHOUSE 23.9 7.5 -16.4 1309.2 244 4705.0 C u r r i e 11.2 1.5 -9.7 871.9 123 1164.0 Garden C i t y 5.8 0.0 -5.8 299.8 64 696.0 Debeck 5.5 6.0 0.5 280.6 60 EAST CENTRAL 22.5 7.5 -15.5 1452.3 247 1860.0 Kingswood 8.3 9.1 0.8 417.5 94 Woodward 9.4 9.2 -0.2 495.3 106 90.0 K i d d 9.1 11.5 2.4 460.7 102 McNair 8.7 0.0 -8.7 448.7 98 3915.0 Lee 7.7 12.5 4.8 389.9 85 W h i t e s i d e 6.9 0.0 -6.9 349.5 78 3105.0 B r i d g e 13.9 5.9 -8.0 700.9 158 3600.0 Rideau 6.8 10.7 3.9 348.9 75 SOUTH ARM 70.8 58.9 -23.8 3611.4 796 10710.0 F e r r i s 6.2 7.2 1.0 317.8 68 E r r i n g t o n 7.6 13.3 5.7 391.1 83 Maple Lane 6.5 10.5 4.0 337.5 73 London 5.7 0.0 -5.7 301.3 65 2565.0 B l u n d e l l 11.0 4.0 -7.0 596.5 121 3150.0 K i l g o u r 7.2 9.8 2.6 361.9 82 McKinney 4.4 11.4 7.0 227.7 48 CENTRAL 48.6 56.2 -12.7 2533.8 540 5715.0 Grauer 5.4 6.0 0.6 302.1 57 Boyd 3.8 0.0 -3.8 214.2 42 1710.0 Gilmore 15.7 11.0 -4.7 766.3 176 2115.0 Dixon 11.0 11.4 0.4 551.8 123 Steves 17.6 28.1 10.5 901.2 200 WEST RICHMOND 53.5 56.5 -8.5 2735.6 598 3825.0 121 Byng 14.4 23.7 9.3 765.1 156 Ha r r i s 8.7 14.0 5.3 459.5 96 STEVESTON 23.1 37.7 14.6 1224.6 252 T a i t 4.9 4.0 -0.9 254.6 54 99.0 Thomsett 4.2 5.5 1.3 218.9 46 Eburne 1.9 7.3 5.4 98.7 21 Cambie 1.9 0.0 -1.9 99.3 21 228.0 B r i d g e p o r t 1.8 4.0 2.2 94.8 20 BRIDGEPORT 14.7 20.8 -2.8 766.2 162 327.0 M i t c h e l l 10.1 13.5 3.4 509.6 112 EAST RICHMOND 10.1 13.5 3.4 509.6 112 South A i r 2.2 1.5 -0.7 108.4 24 21.0 East A i r 8.4 8.0 -0.4 427.7 92 8.8 Sea I s l a n d 3.3 5.8 2.5 173.0 36 Hamilton 2.5 11.2 8.7 129.5 28 OTHER 16.4 26.5 -1.1 838.6 180 29.8 RICHMOND 335.0 335.0 -89.2 17553.7 3697 2877 Note: Sum of p a r k l a n d d e f i c i t s ( s u r p l u s / d e f i c i e n c y ) i n a l l neighbourhoods equals z e r o a c r e s . The 89.2 a c r e s r e p r e s e n t s the t o t a l of p a r k l a n d d e f i c i e n c i e s i n p a r k l a n d d e f i c i e n t neighbourhoods. 122 d e v e l o p i n g p a r k l a n d ; a l t e r n a t i v e s such as d e v e l o p i n g l a n d f o r more i n t e n s i v e r e c r e a t i o n use and u t i l i z i n g l a n d f o r r e c r e a t i o n w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g o u t r i g h t o w nership. Due t o the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t of l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n , park u p g r a d i n g and redevelopment might be pursued i n d e f i c i e n t neighbourhoods t o make o p t i m a l use of e x i s t i n g park space. 4.6.1.3. A T y p i c a l Neighbourhood Park Space r e q u i r e m e n t s , by type and q u a n t i t y , w i l l v a r y from neighbourhood t o neighbourhood. A c o n c e p t u a l park d e s i g n has been d e v e l o p e d t o i l l u s t r a t e components and s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a t y p i c a l Richmond neighbourhood park (see F i g u r e I V - 8 ) . I t i s i n t e n d e d as a g u i d e l i n e t o t r a n s l a t e the r e s u l t s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l park d e s i g n . I t a l s o s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r each of Richmond's f o r t y - t h r e e n eighbourhoods. The t y p i c a l neighbourhood park s i t e i s 9.0 a c r e s . I t i s c o m p r i s e d of t h r e e major components: s p o r t s f i e l d s , a p a s s i v e a r e a and p l a y g r o u n d . S p o r t s f i e l d development i n c l u d e s s o f t b a l l and c o m b i n a t i o n f o o t b a l l - s o c c e r - r u g b y f i e l d s . Cost of the 3.9 a c r e s p o r t f i e l d development i s e s t i m a t e d a t $55.9 thousand. A paved a c t i v e p l a y zone p r o v i d e s two t e n n i s c o u r t s a t a c o s t of $45.4 thousand. The p l a y g r o u n d zone, c o m p r i s i n g .25 a c r e s , c o n t a i n s a p l a y a p p a r a t u s a r e a and wading p o o l . The development c o s t would be a p p r o x i m a t e l y $80 thousand. The p a s s i v e park a r e a c o n t a i n s a .5 a c r e g r a s s e d 123 FIGURE IV-8 A TYPICAL RICHMOND NEIGHBOURHOOD PARK FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL ACTIVITY UNITS REQUIRED SPACE REQUIREMENT (ACRES) SPORTS FIELDS S o f t b a l l Diamond 1 F o o t b a l l - S o c c e r 1 F i e l d PAVED COURTS AREA Te n n i s C o u r t s 2 PLAYGROUND ZONE P l a y g r o u n d 1 Wading P o o l 1 GRASSED PASSIVE PLAY 1 ZONE PASSIVE RECREATION AREA Landscaped Area 2 FAMILY PICNIC AREA P i c n i c U n i t 3 LANDSCAPED BUFFER ZONE TOTAL PEAK FACILITY USERS DEVELOPMENT COST ($000'S) 1.85 2.0 .4 .2 .05 .5 2.25 .25 1.5 9.0 25 20 12 20 15 20 15 132 $34.3 21.6 45.4 60.0 20.0 15.5 172.0 17.3 78.0 464.1 a c t i v e p l a y zone, 2.25 a c r e u n s t r u c t u r e d l a n d s c a p e d a r e a and a .25 a c r e f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a . I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t o t a l development c o s t would be $204.8 thousand. A d d i t i o n of a 1.5 a c r e l a n d s c a p e d b u f f e r zone around the park p e r i m e t e r y i e l d s a 9.0 a c r e neighbourhood park s i t e . The t o t a l s i t e , accommodating 132 peak hour u s e r s , would have a t o t a l e s t i m a t e d development c o s t of $464.1. 124 4.6.2. COMMUNITY PARKS AND FACILITIES . 4.6.2.1. Space Requirements For I n d i v i d u a l Community's Community park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r Richmond's f o u r t e e n community a r e a s . F i g u r e IV-9 summarizes community park r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i l e f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s are d e t a i l e d i n F i g u r e IV-10. T o t a l community park r e q u i r e m e n t s range from 8.2 a c r e s ( E a s t Richmond) t o 58.0 a c r e s (South Arm). Community space r e q u i r e m e n t s r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3.0 a c r e s of p a r k l a n d per thousand p o p u l a t i o n . An average Richmond community, c o n t a i n i n g 10,000-15,000 p e o p l e , r e q u i r e s 30.0-45.0 a c r e s of community park space. V a r i a t i o n s i n s i z e s of park components o c c u r among communities. These v a r i a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the s i z e , c o m p o s i t i o n and e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e s of each community p o p u l a t i o n . Community f a c i l i t i e s accommodate a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and u s u a l l y r e q u i r e major c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . S m a l l and medium s i z e d Richmond communities, l i k e E a s t Richmond and Thompson,•are i n s u f f i c i e n t i n s i z e t o s u p p o r t major f a c i l i t i e s l i k e an i c e a r e n a . A l l Richmond communities e x c e p t f o r South Arm a r e unable t o support an i n d o o r swimming p o o l . V a r i a t i o n s i n t h e number and s i z e of o t h e r f a c i l i t y components, l i k e community c e n t r e s and r a c q u e t c o u r t s , a r e i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o each community's s i z e . Due t o the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t of community f a c i l i t y development the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s might be a p p l i e d when c o n s t r u c t i n g r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s : POPULATION COHH05ITT PABKLANO BASEBALL DIAMOND SOFTBALL DIAflOND FIELD SOCKET FIELD LACBOSSE BOX FOOTBALL FIELD HO GST FIELD SOCCEB FIELD TENNIS COOHT 400 SEISE TBACK SKATE80A3D ABEA 1-1 a 33 i ••o PLAIGBOOND WADIHG POOL SUBTOTAL PASSIVE GASES ABEA PICNIC UNIT SUBTOTAL COHBOSITT CESTBE SUBBING POOL ICE ABENA RACQUET COUBT SUBTOTAL TOTAL SPACE HEQUIHEB2NT 126 u tn I M S Z T I I I I 3 T J 8000a I 1TXOX Z 3 T 4 S I8»ni3IIY I 3 H S S I U I C lOOd SNIBIU8S TTXOXanS S3TdS iavni3KY S ISO CO HSTOOS sxanco S3Y4S » 3 ¥ T I I 3 H Y aooa 3ISQR oiaois ssodjnainoH •Kxoxans do us JHdYHDOIOHd iOBsyaot! X.2TH3 aooa SI3T igaoH aooa SXBY 3 1 I X I 3 I aooa SXSY i r n s i A uooa S13Y G2HIJ lYzoians uooa I B S I 3 B aooa SX3Y xanco n t s x a n o * i sat S K n o j a v a i xanos T I Y 8 G 8 Y B HTIX ISO 03 T I T B X l a ? a a » S 3 I X S T H B I 3 XBDCO iaiiooB a o o u xanos TIY8X3SST8 xsnco SOXSIBQYB 127 Major f a c i l i t i e s , o f t e n , s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o s e r v e 2-3 community a r e a s . Combined f a c i l i t i e s make development more f e a s i b l e by r e d u c i n g c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s . Maximum use and s h a r i n g s h o u l d be made of e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s o p e r a t e d by the S c h o o l Board and o t h e r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Community f a c i l i t i e s o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e IV-10 a r e not i n t e n d e d t o n e c e s s a r i l y be p r o v i d e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y . The p r i v a t e s e c t o r p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n r a c q u e t c o u r t and i c e arena development. Many community c e n t r e components, p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t a i n i n g t o v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s components, might be accommodated i n e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s . 4.6.2.2. T o t a l Community Space Requirements And D e f i c i e n c i e s F i g u r e IV-11 and V-12 summarize t o t a l community park and f a c i l i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s and a s s o c i a t e d peak u s e r s and development c o s t s . The t o t a l community park and f a c i l i t y system accommodates almost 9075 peak hour u s e r s ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1.5 p e r c e n t of t o t a l Richmond u s e r s i n community a c t i v i t i e s . T o t a l development c o s t f o r community p a r k s i s e s t i m a t e d a t $12.5 m i l l i o n , w h i l e community f a c i l i t y development, i n c l u d i n g community c e n t r e s , r a c q u e t c o u r t s , swimming p o o l s and i c e a r e n a s , i s e s t i m a t e d a t $93.0 m i l l i o n . 1 8 F i g u r e IV-13 summarizes community p a r k l a n d d e f i c i e n c i e s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 65.7 a c r e s of a d d i t i o n a l l a n d i s r e q u i r e d i n d e f i c i e n t communities. Land a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s a r e e s t i m a t e d a t $15.2 m i l l i o n ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t i m e s the c o s t of 128 FIGURE IV-11 SUMMARY OF TOTAL COMMUNITY ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS ACTIVITY NO. OF TOTAL FACILITY PEAK POTENTI. UNIT SPATIAL SPACE DEVELOPMENT USERS USERS UNITS REQUIREMENT COST REQUIRED (ACRES) (000'S) B a s e b a l l Diamond 9 31.9 $596.0 231 17858 S o f t b a l l Diamond 12 31.5 584.4 258 19881 F i e l d Hockey 2 3.9 62.9 48 3690 F o o t b a l l F i e l d 8 16.7 265.5 149 11515 Soccer F i e l d 12 33.2 420.1 245 18900 Rugby F i e l d 2 9.5 143.3 58 4449 L a c r o s s e Box 2 1.9 83.3 67 5150 Tennis C o u r t s 51 10.5 1881.2 301 23228 Skateboard Area 1 1.8 764.2 134 10321 ATHLETIC GROUNDS 140.9 4800.8 1490 114972 Playgr o u n d 8 2.0 650.5 316 13668 Wading P o o l 8 .5 241.8 145 11197 PLAYGROUND AREA 2.5 892.4 461 24865 P a s s i v e Games Area 58 92.4 6388.4 588 42783 P i c n i c U n i t 57 5.9 404.1 281 21697 PASSIVE PARK AREA 98.3 6792.6 869 64480 TOTAL COMMUNITY PARKS 241.7 12485.8 2820 206883 129 FIGURE IV-12 SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY FACILITY REQUIREMENTS ACTIVITY NO. OF TOTAL FACILITY PEAK POTENTI? UNIT SPATIAL SPACE DEVELOPMENT USERS USERS UNITS REQUIREMENT COST REQUIRED (ACRES) (000'S) Badminton Court 48 2.1 $6874.5 192 14844 B a s k e t b a l l Court 12 1.6 5286.4 157 12085 F l o o r Hockey Court 13 1.7 5744.2 162 12540 Gymnastics Area 7 .2 803.2 135 10420 Team H a n d b a l l c o u r t 1 .1 414.2 25 1959 Trampoline Area 5 .3 970.8 183 14107 V o l l e y b a l l Court 11 .8 2389.7 157 12140 Defense A r t s Rooms 11 .6 2047.9 236 18230 Weight Room 3 .1 250.6 94 7226 ATHLETICS 7.7 24781.5 1350 103551 F i r e d A r t s Room 17 .5 1461.6 353 27281 V i s u a l A r t s Room 13 .4 1004.8 395 30502 T e x t i l e A r t s Room 40 1.2 3246.9 872 67281 Hobby A r t s Room 13 .3 740.1 211 16301 C r a f t Workshop 21 .6 1680.1 343 26489 Photography Shop 13 .2 489.6 209 16126 VISUAL ARTS 3.2 8623.1 2384 183980 M u l t i p u r p o s e S t u d i o 29 1.6 5113.2 820 63285 Music Room 9 .2 634.0 253 19496 PERFORMING ARTS 1.8 5747.2 1073 82781 A n c i l l a r y Space 11.8 37487.8 COMMUNITY CENTRE TOTAL 24.5 76639.6 4807 370312 R a c g u e t b a l l C o u r t s 54 Squash C o u r t s 32 A n c i l l a r y Space RACQUET COURTS TOTAL Swimming P o o l 1 A n c i l l a r y Space SWIMMING POOL TOTAL Ice Arena 5 A n c i l l a r y Space ICE ARENA TOTAL 1.0 .4 1.2 2.6 .1 .3 .4 1.8 .4 2.1 3099.9 1927.4 3369.8 8397.1 405.9 1217,7 1623.4 5512.9 1424.4 6937.3 218 85 302 677 677 467 467 16791 6535 23326 42184 42184 36078 36078 TOTAL COMMUNITY FACILITIES 29.6 93597.0 6253 471900 130 FIGURE IV-13 SUMMARY OF COMMUNITY SPACE REQUIREMENTS, DEFICIENCIES AND COSTS COMMUNITY PARK EXISTING PARKLAND FACILI PEAK LAND SPACE SUPPLY DEFICIT DEVELOPMENT USERS COST REQUIRED (ACRES) (ACRES) COST (000'S) (ACRES) (000'S) Thompson 19.2 0.0 -19.2 $7637.9 647 2424.6 North C e n t r a l 22.3 11.4 -10.9 8656.4 740 2747.6 Brighouse 18.8 15.1 -3.7 6827.1 617 960.0 East C e n t r a l 18.2 25.3 7.1 7056.9 607 South Arm 58.0 79.5 21.5 22913.2 1942 C e n t r a l 39.6 67.4 27.8 15514.7 1326 West Richmond 43.7 27.2 -16.5 17181.0 1460 7410.5 St e v e s t o n 18.6 22.3 3.6 7204.5 622 B r i d g e p o r t 11.9 9.9 -2.0 4607.4 397 241.5 East Richmond 8.2 13.4 5.2 3229.9 275 South A i r 1.8 0.0 -1.8 682.1 59 43.3 East A i r 6.8 0.0 -6.8 2629.6 226 151.2 B u r k e v i l l e 2.7 0.0 -2.7 43.3 90 916.9 Hamilton 2.1 0.0 -2.1 99.9 69 227.0 RICHMOND 271.9 271.5 -65.7 106000.0 9074 1503 131 0 d e v e l o p i n g t h i s l a n d . 1 9 A c q u i s i t i o n of 19.2 and 16.5 a c r e s of p a r k l a n d i n the two most d e f i c i e n t communities a l o n e , Thompson and West Richmond, would c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $9.8 m i l l i o n . 4.6.2.3. A T y p i c a l Community Park and F a c i l i t i e s Community p a r k s o f f e r a wider and more s p e c i a l i z e d range of o p p o r t u n i t i e s than neighbourhood p a r k s . Community space i s d i v i d e d i n t o two major components: community p a r k s and community f a c i l i t i e s . F i g u r e IV-14 p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a t y p i c a l community park and a s s o c i a t e d f a c i l i t i e s . Community p a r k s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s i x a c t i v i t y a r e a s : a t h l e t i c grounds, paved c o u r t s a r e a , p l a y g r o u n d zone, g r a s s e d p a s s i v e p l a y zone, p a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n zone and f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a . A community p a r k , f o r a t y p i c a l community of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15,000 p e o p l e , r e q u i r e s 45.0 a c r e s . A t h l e t i c ground development, r e q u i r i n g 18.6 a c r e s , consumes 41% of t o t a l community park space w h i l e accommodating 195 (44%) peak u s e r s . Cost of a t h l e t i c grounds development i s e t i m a t e d a t $339.8 thousand. T e n n i s c o u r t and p l a y g r o u n d development, r e q u i r i n g an a d d i t i o n a l 2.0 a c r e s , c o s t s $320.0 thousand t o d e v e l o p . I t accommodates an a d d i t i o n a l 58 peak u s e r s . P a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s , i n c l u d i n g an a c t i v e p l a y zone, u n s t r u c t u r e d l a n d s c a p e d a r e a and f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a , r e q u i r e s 15.1 a c r e s (33%) accommodating 187 (43%) peak u s e r s . A p e r i m e t e r l a n d s c a p e d b u f f e r zone, p r o v i d i n g park i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n o i s e b u f f e r , consumes 6.8 a c r e s ( 1 5 % ) . 132 FIGURE IV-14 A TYPICAL COMMUNITY PARK AND FACILITIES FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL UNITS REQUIRED ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMENT (ACRES) PEAK USERS FACILITY DEVELOPMEI COST ($000'S) ATHLETIC GROUNDS B a s e b a l l Diamond S o f t b a l l Diamond F i e l d Hockey F i e l d L a c r o s s e Box F o o t b a l l F i e l d S o ccer F i e l d 1 2 1 1 1 2 3.3 5.9 1.9 .4 2.8 4.3 25 50 25 25 20 50 $61.7 115.6 30.4 18.1 44.5 69.5 PAVED COURTS AREA T e n n i s C o u r t s 4 1.7 23 240.0 PLAYGROUND ZONE P l a y g r o u n d Wading P o o l 1 1 .25 .05 20 15 60.0 20.0 GRASSED PASSIVE PLAY ZONE 3 2.6 26 80.6 PASSIVE RECREATION AREA Landscaped Area 12 11.6 116 887.4 FAMILY PICNIC AREA P i c n i c U n i t 9 .9 45 62.1 COMMUNITY CENTRE BUILDING AREA 2.5 333 3029.9 LANDSCAPED BUFFER ZONE(15%) 6.8 - 353.6 TOTAL 45.0 773 4971.4 Community f a c i l i t y development c e n t r e , r a c q u e t c o u r t , swimming p o o l and A t y p i c a l community of 15,000 p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e s community i c e arena development, i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n s i z e 133 t o accommodate a swimming p o o l , an i c e arena or a 400 metre a t h l e t i c t r a c k . 2 0 Community c e n t r e s accommodate numerous a c t i v i t y a r e a s f o r a t h l e t i c , v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s a c t i v i t i e s . F i g u r e IV-15 o u t l i n e s a t y p i c a l community c e n t r e development. FIGURE IV-15 COMMUNITY CENTRE BUILDING FACILITY OR UNIT SEPARATE COMBINED PEAK FACILITY BUILDING SCHOOL USERS DEVELOPMEN' REQUIREMENT COST (SQ.FT.) (SQ.FT.) ($000'S) Gym 9000 5000 45 $666.3 Defense A r t s Room . 2500 2500 25 185.1 Weight Room 900 900 20 58.9 Squash C o u r t 1400 1400 6 138.4 R a c q u e t b a l l Court 3200 3200 12 233.6 F i r e d A r t s Room 1250 - 25 81.8 V i s u a l A r t s Room 1250 - 30 81.8 T e x t i l e A r t s Room 2500 - 40 163.6 Hobby A r t s Room 900 - 15 58.9 C r a f t Workshop 1200 - 15 78.5 Photogrophy Shop 600 - 20 39.2 M u l t i p u r p o s e S t u d i o 2500 2500 30 175.0 Music Room 1000 - 50 65.4 A n c i l l a r y Space 12400 6700 798.2 B u i l d i n g T o t a l 40600 22200 333 2824.7 Off S t r e e t P a r k i n g 45000 - - 187.5 Landscaped Area 23000 12450 — 27.7 TOTAL 108600 34650 333 3039.9 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s were d e t e r m i n e d f o r s e p a r a t e community c e n t r e s and c e n t r e s a d j o i n i n g s c h o o l s , where s c h o o l space i s a v a i l a b l e f o r community use. The s e p a r a t e f a c i l i t y i s 40,600 square f e e t compared t o 22,200 square f e e t f o r a community c e n t r e a d j o i n i n g a s c h o o l . 2 1 Both would accommodate 134 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 335 peak u s e r s a t r e s p e c t i v e development c o s t s of $3.0 and $1.6 m i l l i o n The s e p a r a t e community c e n t r e p r o v i d e s gym space f o r badminton, b a s k e t b a l l and o t h e r team, d u a l and i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t s . I n c l u d i n g space f o r m a r t i a l a r t s , a weight room and f o u r r a c q u e t b a l l and two squash c o u r t s , t o t a l a t h l e t i c a r e a space i s 17,000 (41%) square f e e t . Areas f o r v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s consume 11,200 square f e e t ( 2 7 % ) . Of the a p p r o x i m a t e l y 335 t o t a l peak u s e r s , a t h l e t i c p r o v i s i o n s accommodate 110 (32%) t o v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s 225 (67%) peak u s e r s . In a d d i t i o n t o 28,200 square f e e t of a c t i v i t y space, 12,400 square f e e t (30%) i s r e q u i r e d f o r s t o r a g e , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s . 2 2 The t o t a l community c e n t r e s i t e i s 2.5 a c r e s ; c o m p r i s e d of the community c e n t r e b u i l d i n g , s u r r o u n d i n g l a n d s c a p e d a r e a and p a r k i n g . 2 3 T o t a l s i t e development c o s t i s $3.0 m i l l i o n . 4.6.3. MUNICIPAL PARKS AND FACILITIES M u n i c i p a l space r e q u i r e m e n t s have been d e t e r m i n e d f o r m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . 4.6.3.1. M u n i c i p a l A t h l e t i c Grounds and P a r k s F i g u r e IV-16 i l l u s t r a t e s space r e q u i r e m e n t s and a s s o c i a t e d peak u s e r s and c o s t s f o r m u n i c i p a l p a r k s . 135 FIGURE IV-16 MUNICIPAL PARK SPACE REQUIREMENTS FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL ACTIVITY PEAK FACILITY UNITS REQUIRED SPACE USERS DEVELOPME1 REQUIREMENT COST (HECTARES) (000'S) ATHLETIC GROUNDS B a s e b a l l Diamond 3 10.1 75 $188.6 S o f t b a l l Diamond 3 9.4 75 184.9 F i e l d Hockey F i e l d 1 1.5 25 24.0 F o o t b a l l F i e l d 2 5.0 40 79.5 L a c r o s s e Box 1 .6 25 26.4 Rugby F i e l d 1 3.0 25 45.4 S occer F i e l d 3 6.0 75 97.0 400 Metre Track 1 5.8 100 710.5 PAVED COURTS AREA Te n n i s C o u r t s 16 3.3 95 595.2 PLAYGROUND ZONE P l a y g r o u n d 1 .4 20 60.0 Wading P o o l 1 .2 15 20.0 GRASSED PASSIVE PLAY 5 5.0 50 162.5 ZONE PASSIVE RECREATION AREA Landscaped Area 24 24.3 245 1858.9 FAMILY PICNIC AREA P i c n i c U n i t 18 1.9 90 127.9 TOTAL 76.5 980 4180.8 M u n i c i p a l a t h l e t i c grounds, p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l i z e d f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g b a s e b a l l and s o c c e r f i e l d s , a l a c r o s s e box, a c o m b i n a t i o n 400 metre r u n n i n g t r a c k and f o o t b a l l f i e l d w i t h l i g h t i n g and b l e a c h e r s , and a l a r g e open t u r f e d a r e a f o r rugby and f i e l d hockey, r e q u i r e s 41.4 a c r e s . T o t a l development c o s t i s 136 a p p r o x i m a t e l y $1.36 m i l l i o n . S i x t e e n l i g h t e d t e n n i s c o u r t s a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d ; a t an a d d i t i o n a l c o s t of $595.2 thousand. P a s s i v e r e c r e a t i o n a r e a s r e q u i r e 29.3 a c r e s of m u n i c i p a l p a r k l a n d . T o t a l development c o s t i s $2.0 m i l l i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a f a m i l y p i c n i c a r e a c o n t a i n i n g 18 p i c n i c s i t e s i s r e q u i r e d . Consuming 1,9 a c r e s of l a n d , the p i c n i c a r e a has a $127.9 thousand development c o s t . T o t a l m u n i c i p a l park r e q u i r e m e n t s of 76.5 a c r e s , i n c l u d i n g b oth a c t i v e and p a s s i v e a r e a s , accommodates 980 peak u s e r s . A s s o c i a t e d development c o s t i s $4.2 m i l l i o n . P r e s e n t l y , Richmond has 62.4 a c r e s of a c t i v e and p a s s i v e development a t M i n o r u p a r k . 4.6.3.2. M u n i c i p a l F a c i l i t i e s M u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l and outdoor r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . F i g u r e IV-17 i l l u s t r a t e s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g i c e arenas,, swimming p o o l s , r a c q u e t c o u r t s and c u r l i n g r i n k s . Richmond's a t h l e t i c f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h e x i s t i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . The m u n i c i p a l i t y has two a r e n a s , M i n o r u ( p u b l i c ) and S e a f a i r ( p r i v a t e ) 2 4 , and one p u b l i c i n d o o r swimming p o o l . 2 5 Two p r i v a t e r a c q u e t c o u r t f a c i l i t i e s , Richmond Super C o u r t s and Richmond Racquet C l u b , p r o v i d e t w e l v e r a c q u e t b a l l and seven squash c o u r t s . 2 6 C u r l i n g r i n k s a r e p r o v i d e d a t the Richmond W i n t e r C l u b . 2 7 137 FIGURE IV-17 MUNICIPAL ATHLETIC FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL ACTIVITY UNITS REQUIRED SPACE REQUIREMENT 1 (SQ. FT.) ICE ARENA SWIMMING POOL RACQUET COURTS R a c q u e t b a l l Court Squash Co u r t CURLING RINK TOTAL 2 1 17 10 40000 2 21600 3 30600* 13000 5 105200 PEAK FACILITY USERS DEVELOPMENT COST ($000'S) 150 410 90 32 682 $1677.6 2376.0 2656.9 564.1 7274.6 1 I n c l u d e s o n l y b u i l d i n g s i z e ; not s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s such as p a r k i n g and l a n d s c a p i n g a r e a s . 2 I n c l u d e s two 20,000 square f o o t i c e a r e n a s ; w i t h r i n k a r e a and a n c i l l a r y space ( d r e s s i n g rooms, c o n c e s s i o n s , washrooms, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a s , m e c h a n i c a l , e t c . ) c o m p r i s i n g 80 and 20 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l b u i l d i n g r e s p e c t i v e l y . 3 I n c l u d e s a 21,600 square f o o t swimming p o o l b u i l d i n g c o m p r i s e d of an a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45' by 120' p o o l and d i v i n g tank a r e a (5400 s q . f t . ) and a n c i l l a r y a r e a s (16200 s q . f t . ) * I n c l u d e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,600 square f e e t of c o u r t space and 10,000 square f e e t of a n c i l l a r y ( d r e s s i n g rooms, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , washrooms, e t c . ) space. 5 I n c l u d e s a 13,000 square f o o t c u r l i n g r i n k b u i l d i n g , c o m p r i s i n g square f e e t of r i n k space and 4000 square f e e t of a n c i l l a r y (washrooms, c o n c e s s i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , e t c . ) space. 138 F i g u r e IV-18 i l l u s t r a t e s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g c e n t r e s f o r v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s FIGURE IV-18 MUNICIPAL CULTURAL FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL ACTIVITY PEAK FACILITY UNITS REQUIRED SPACE USERS DEVELOPME1 REQUIREMENT COST 3 (SQ. FT.) ($000'S) VISUAL ARTS CENTRE 87100 1 754 $5568.2 F i r e d A r t s Room 5 6250 112 853.2 V i s u a l A r t s Room 4 5000 125 681.8 T e x t i l e A r t s Room 13 16250 276 2147.7 Hobby A r t s Room 4 3600 67 435.9 C r a f t Workshop 7 8380 109 1102.8 Photography Shop 4 4207 66 346.0 PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE 56600* 1000 4286.2 M u l t i p u r p o s e S t u d i o 9 22500 260 3110.6 Music Room 2 2000 80 291.3 A r t G a l l e r y 1 1200 60 89.8 T h e a t r e 1 3600 600 795.4 TOTAL 143700 1754 9854.4 1 I n c l u d e s a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t o r a g e , h a l l w a y s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a s , washrooms e t c . i n a d d i t i o n t o a c t i v i t y rooms. 2 I n c l u d e s a n c i l l a r y space such as d r e s s i n g rooms, s t a g e , washrooms, l o u n g e - l o b b y and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a r e a s i n a d d i t i o n t o s t u d i o and t h e a t r e a c t i v i t y space. 3 F a c i l i t y development c o s t s f o r a c t i v i t y components c o m p r i s i n g v i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s f a c i l i t i e s a r e p r o r a t e d c o s t s i n c o r p o r a t i n g c o s t s of a n c i l l a r y space.. V i s u a l and p e r f o r m i n g a r t r e q u i r e m e n t s accommodate a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1750 peak u s e r s a t a development c o s t of $9.8 m i l l i o n . F i g u r e IV-18 i n d i c a t e s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p a i n t i n g , 139 pottery, dance, music and drama are as popular among the Richmond population as a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . Richmond has an Arts Centre containing f i r e d and t e x t i l e art rooms, c r a f t workshop, photography shop, multipurpose studio and an art g a l l e r y . Present f a c i l i t i e s are d e f i c i e n t of estimated requirements. Information in. Figure IV-18 indicates that future community centre, and municipal v i s u a l and performing art centre, development should provide increased c u l t u r a l opportunities. Municipal outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s include bowling greens, golf courses, r i f l e and archery ranges and t r a i l s . Figure IV-19 i l l u s t r a t e s requirements for outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s . E x isting provisions meet space requirements for a l l outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s but t r a i l s . Minoru lawn bowling greens provide six pitches. Four private golf courses - Mylora, Green Acres, Quilchena and Richmond Golf Clubs - provide 63 holes on 451.8 acres. A public 9-hole par 3 course i s provided at Hugh Boyd park. Vancouver Gun Club has 75.0 acres dedicated to range a c t i v i t i e s . T r a i l development i s li m i t e d . However, Richmond has developed a t r a i l s plan for use of approximately 30 miles of dyke encompassing the municipality's perimeter. 2 8 Figure IV-19 indicates that 10.3 miles of jogging, walking, b i c y c l i n g and equestrian t r a i l s , at a t o t a l development cost of approximately $1.6 m i l l i o n , are required. 140 FIGURE IV-19 MUNICIPAL OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FACILITY OR UNIT NO. OF SPATIAL ACTIVITY PEAK FACILITY UNITS REQUIRED SPACE USERS DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT COST (ACRES) ($000'S) LAWN BOWLING GREEN 1 3 .3 20 $407.9 GOLF COURSE 2 4 40.0 100 1310.9 RIFLE RANGE 3 20 5.5 60 1199.3 ARCHERY RANGE 10 2.7 48 580.9 JOGGING TRAIL 4 9. 7 9700 88 300.2 WALKING TRAIL 8. 4 8400 77 261.9 BICYCLING TRAIL 19. 0 19000 144 588.7 EQUESTRIAN TRAIL 17. 2 17200 79 431.1 TOTAL 73.5 616 5080.9 1 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e a n c i l l a r y space f o r b u f f e r zone, c l u b h o u s e and p a r k i n g . C o s t s i n c l u d e o n l y greens development and p e r i m e t e r l a n d s c a p e development.; c o s t s of p a r k i n g and clubhouse a r e e x c l u d e d . 2 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o s t s i n c l u d e c l u b h o u s e and p a r k i n g development i n a d d i t i o n t o c o u r s e development. 3 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e a n c i l l a r y space f o r b u f f e r zone, c l u b h o u s e and p a r k i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o range space. Clubhouse and p a r k i n g development are not i n c l u d e d i n e s t i m a t e d f a c i l i t y c o s t s . 4 T r a i l s p a t i a l u n i t s a r e i n 1 0 0 0 ' l e n g t h s of 2 0 ' w i d t h s . Cost r e q u i r e m e n t s i n c l u d e a l l development c o s t s w i t h i n the 2 0 ' r i g h t of way i n c l u d i n g s u r v e y , g r a d i n g , t r a i l s u r f a c i n g , d r a i n a g e , l a n d s c a p i n g and t r e e p l a n t i n g and p r o v i s i o n of a m e n i t i e s such as f u r n i t u r e , garbage r e c e p t a c l e s and s i g n s . 141 4 . 7 . SUMMARY T h i s c h a p t e r has sought t o i l l u s t r a t e the a p p l i c a t i o n of a method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s method has a t t e m p t e d t o improve upon the t r a d i t i o n a l approach of u s i n g s t a n d a r d s t o d e t e r m i n e r e c r e a t i o n needs. As a p l a n n i n g t o o l , the method e n a b l e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s by type and l o c a t i o n . The park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s g i v e n r e f l e c t the p r e f e r e n c e s of people they a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . They a r e based on the s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n and i n t e r e s t of the p o p u l a t i o n i n v a r i o u s urban a r e a s . They a l s o r e f l e c t an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s . S t a n d a r d s have been c r i t i c i z e d as b e i n g u n r e a l i s t i c or u n a t t a i n a b l e because c o s t i m p l i c a t i o n s of i m p l e m e n t i n g s t a n d a r d s o f t e n f a r exceed community l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e method devel o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f l e c t a v a i l a b l e l a n d r e s o u r c e s . Development c o s t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d . T h i s c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e s an e s t i m a t e of c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n e n a b l e s a r e a l i s t i c assessment of the f e a s i b i l i t y of development a c c o r d i n g t o a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s . S h o u l d t h e s e c o s t s be p r o h i b i t i v e i n a l l , or any subset of p r o v i s i o n s , a d j u s t m e n t s can be made i n the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . The outcome of e x p l i c i t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s , such as l o w e r i n g the l e v e l of accommodation 142 p e r t a i n i n g t o any subset of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , can be examined. These a d j u s t m e n t s can be c o n t i n u e d and the outcomes examined u n t i l park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s r e f l e c t a v a i l a b l e community f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . The same p r o c e s s c o u l d be used t o determine r e a l i s t i c and a t t a i n a b l e space and f a c i l i t y s t a n d a r d s . Park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and r e l a t e d u s e r s and c o s t s i s i n f o r m a t i o n which may be u s e f u l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g development p r i o r i t i e s and making a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s between d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Through a comparison of space r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h e x i s t i n g p r o v i s i o n s by t y p e , number and l o c a t i o n , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of gaps or d e f i c i e n c i e s i n park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n has been made p o s s i b l e . D e f i c i e n c i e s by f a c i l i t y or p l a n n i n g a r e a , c o u p l e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on c o s t s , peak u s e r s and c o s t e f f e c t i v e n e s s , e n a b l e s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s f o r park and f a c i l i t y development. For example, t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n can be used t o make a l l o c a t i o n d e c i s i o n s f o r swimming p o o l s as compared t o community c e n t r e s or t o make investment d e c i s i o n s between neighbourhoods f o r redevelopment p r i o r i t i e s i n e x i s t i n g a r e a s , and new development p r i o r i t i e s i n new r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . 143 CHAPTER 4 FOOTNOTES 1 G e n e r a l l y , community p a r k s i n c l u d e a l l components accommodated i n neighbourhood p a r k s p l u s a d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z e d f e a t u r e s . 2 Age group p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r each Richmond enumeration a r e a were c o m p i l e d from 1976 F e d e r a l Census d a t a a v a i l a b l e a t the G r e a t e r Vancouver R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t . E numeration a r e a d a t a was a g g r e g a t e d t o Richmond neighbourhood a r e a s u s i n g the GVRD's geo g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n system. P r o j e c t e d 1980 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s were o b t a i n e d from the Richmond P l a n n i n g Department. The t o t a l i n c r e a s e between 1976 t o 1980 was d i s t r i b u t e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the 1976 p o p u l a t i o n by age group and neighbourhood t o a d j u s t the 1976 neighbourhood age d i s t r i b u t i o n s t o 1980. 3 Richmond 1977-1982 Comprehensive Park and R e c r e a t i o n P l a n (1977). 4 U s i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d from Richmond 1977-82 Comprehensive Park and R e c r e a t i o n P l a n , and a P a r k l a n d and F a c i l i t y I n v e n t o r y p r e p a r e d i n 1977. 5 P r o v i d e d by M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond p r o p e r t y r e c o r d s s t a f f . 6 Survey d e s i g n i s based on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e form o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d by H. A. W a l t e r s used i n t h e Lane County Park and R e c r e a t i o n Study (1971) and used by the C i t y of Edmonton (1978). 7 O p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g adequacy of a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e c o l l e c t e d i n P a r t s G t o I . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was not used i n t h i s t h e s i s ; r a t h e r i t was r e q u i r e d by the m u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond. 8 An a c t i v i t y zone map was d e s i g n e d , and i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o s o l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on the l o c a t i o n s a t which r e s p o n d e n t s ' p a r t i c i p a t e i n v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . Respondents s p e c i f i e d l o c a t i o n code numbers f o r l o c a t i o n s a t which they most o f t e n or u s u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an a c t i v i t y . ' The s a m p l i n g frame was the May 1979 F e d e r a l E l e c t o r a l V o t e r s L i s t . 1 0 The sample s i z e was d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : N = 1.96/S* PQ where: N -minimum sample s i z e P - e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n of the c r i t i c a l ( s m a l l e s t ) p o p u l a t i o n c a t e g o r y Q -1-P S - e r r o r of e s t i m a t e of p r o p o r t i o n of c r i t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n c a t e g o r y based on a 15% 144 c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n =C.V.*P The minimum sample s i z e r e q u i r e d a t a 95% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l and 1.5% e r r o r of e s t i m a t e (C.V=15%), based on the most c r i t i c a l p o p u l a t i o n c a t e g o r y , was 1067 p e r s o n s . At an e s t i m a t e d 2.8 p e r s o n s age t e n and over per h o u s e h o l d , t h i s r e p r e s e n t s 380 h o u s e h o l d s . The e x p e c t e d r e t u r n r a t e was 60%. A d j u s t e d f o r the r e t u r n r a t e , the minimum r e q u i r e d sample s i z e was 1778 persons or 635 h o u s e h o l d s . 1 1 A p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t y f i v e v o l u n t e e r s from e i g h t Richmond community a s s o c i a t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d forms t o 650 sample h o u s e h o l d s . A d r o p - o f f , p i c k - u p method was used. 1 2 For example, i f f a c i l i t y or l a n d improvement c o s t s a r e $50 per square f o o t , then the c o s t of a f a c i l i t y accommodating an a c t i v i t y or s e t of a c t i v i t i e s c o v e r i n g one a c r e of l a n d i s $2,178,000 ($50*43,560). 1 3 These a d j u s t m e n t s were based on an a n n u a l 8% i n f l a t i o n f a c t o r . 1 4 See Chapter 1 f o r d e f i n i t i o n of a c t i v i t y components and Appendix 3-A f o r c o n c r e t e examples. An example of c a l c u l a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o determine space requirement and u s e r d e n s i t i e s w i l l be g i v e n f o r s o c c e r . Soccer has a f i e l d r e q u i r e m e n t of 330 by 200 f e e t , t h e r e f o r e , c o n v e r t e d t o a c r e s , the s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t f o r one s o c c e r s p a t i a l u n i t i s (330x210/43560=) 1.59 a c r e s . Two teams of 12 p l a y e r s a s i d e can use one f i e l d ( s p a t i a l u n i t ) a t any peak hour of use. The t o t a l number of p l a y e r s per s p a t i a l u n i t a t one p o i n t i n time d i v i d e d by the s p a t i a l requirement i n a c r e s (25/1.59) g i v e s the number of persons per a c r e (15.7) accommodated a t peak hour s of use i n s o c c e r . 1 5 T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was c o m p i l e d from a r e v i e w of numerous Richmond park and f a c i l i t y s i t e p l a n s . 1 4 A s s e s s e d t h r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s s t a f f were d e s i r e d s i z e s f o r f a c i l i t i e s u n a v a i l a b l e l i k e t r a i l s and a t h e a t r e . 1 7 I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t neighbourhood park development on 89.2 a c r e s of l a n d would c o s t 5.3 m i l l i o n ($60,000 per a c r e ) . 1 8 Many a c t i v i t i e s making up community c e n t r e f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s may be accommodated i n e x i s t i n g s c h o o l s t h r o u g h f o r m a l j o i n t use agreements between the P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Commission ,and S c h o o l Board. These form of arrangements c o u l d reduce the c o s t of r e q u i r e d community c e n t r e development 145 s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Racquet s p o r t s and arena f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by e n c o u r a g i n g p r i v a t e s e c t o r development, t h r o u g h l e a s e of p u b l i c p a r k l a n d or o t h e r arrangements, would f u r t h e r reduce p u b l i c f a c i l i t y development c o s t s . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t o t a l community f a c i l i t y development c o s t would be reduced s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e community c e n t r e development ($77 m i l l i o n ) and r a c q u e t c o u r t development ($8 m i l l i o n ) a r e a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of t o t a l community f a c i l i t y development c o s t ($93 m i l l i o n ) . 1 5 I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t community park development on 65.7 a c r e s of l a n d would c o s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y $3.7 m i l l i o n (or $60,000 per a c r e ) . I n c l u d i n g f a c i l i t y development (about $200,000 per a c r e ) , l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n c o s t s would s t i l l exceed development c o s t s by more than $2 m i l l i o n . 2 0 Space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l t h e s e i n d o o r f a c i l i t i e s were e s t i m a t e d f o r each Richmond community. A c r o s s a l l c ommunities, o n l y one p o o l and one 400 metre t r a c k was r e q u i r e d . These f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e t h e e n t i r e m u n i c i p a l i t y . Only two communities , South Arm and West Richmond, were of s u f f i c i e n t s i z e t o support i c e arena development. The r e m a i n i n g t h r e e a r e n a s , i n N o r t h C e n t r a l , E a s t C e n t r a l and C e n t r a l communities, s e r v e p o p u l a t i o n s i n a d j o i n i n g community's i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r own p o p u l a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t arenas s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o s e r v e a minimum of 2-3 communities, or a p o p u l a t i o n of about 20,000 p e r s o n s . 2 1 J o i n t development and use, p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h f o r m a l agreements between the M u n i c i p a l i t y and S c h o o l Board, i s d e s i r e a b l e f o r neighbourhood and community park and f a c i l i t y development. G e n e r a l l y , such arrangements p r o v i d e f o r use of p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by s c h o o l s i n r e t u r n f o r use of the s c h o o l and s c h o o l grounds by the community. Combined s c h o o l and park s i t e s d e v e l o p e d under the p r o v i s i o n s of a J o i n t Use and Development Agreement have s e v e r a l a d vantages: 1) m i n i m i z i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s i n a c q u i s i t i o n and development of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , 2) p r o v i d i n g the community w i t h p a r k s and p l a y f i e l d s which a r e adquate i n s i z e and l o c a t i o n , and 3) a l l o w i n g f o r c o n v e n i e n t and e c o n o m i c a l s h a r i n g of f a c i l i t i e s between the M u n i c i p a l i t y and S c h o o l Board. A combined s c h o o l and park s i t e a l s o a l l o w s f o r e f f i c i e n t use of space, p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t a i n i n g t o p a r k i n g and b u f f e r s . C u r r e n t l y , Richmond has s e p a r a t e j o i n t use agreements between i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s r a t h e r than a f o r m a l agreement p e r t a i n i n g t o a l l s i t e s and f a c i l i t i e s owned and o p e r a t e d by the M u n i c i p a l i t y and S c h o o l Board. 2 2 Based on a r a t i o of a c t i v i t y t o a n c i l l a r y space r e q u i r e m e n t s i n e x i s t i n g Richmond community c e n t r e s . 2 3 P a r k i n g was e s t i m a t e d based on peak use l o a d s assuming 3 p e r s o n s per c a r and 400 square f e e t of p a r k i n g space per c a r . 2 4 A c c o r d i n g t o the 1979 L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Demand Study, 34%, 60% and 9.8% of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i g u r e s k a t i n g , hockey and i c e 146 s k a t i n g i s accommodated i n p r i v a t e a r enas ( i . e . , S e a f a i r r i n k ) . C o n v e r s e l y , 66%, 30% and 90% of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i g u r e s k a t i n g , i c e hockey and p u b l i c s k a t i n g i s accommodated a t M i n o r u a r e n a . 2 5 The M u n i c i p a l i t y a l s o has two outdoor p o o l s , one a t South Arm park and a n o t h e r a t S t e v e s t o n p a r k . 2 4 71% of r a c q u e t b a l l , and 66% of squash, p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e accommodated i n Richmond p r i v a t e f a c i l i t i e s . The remainder i s accommodated a t c l u b s o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 2 7 Seventy p e r c e n t of c u r l i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s accommodated a t Richmond W i n t e r C l u b and t h i r t y p e r c e n t o u t s i d e the m u n i c i p a l i t y . 2 8 Richmond T r a i l s P l a n (1979). 147 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS T h i s study has a t t e m p t e d t o improve upon c u r r e n t approaches t o d e t e r m i n i n g urban r e c r e a t i o n space r e q u i r e m e n t s . The approach d e v e l o p e d c o n t r i b u t e s toward a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a b i l i t y t o p l a n f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n urban c e n t r e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s an attempt t o c r i t i q u e the s t u d y . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s t u d y , e v a l u a t i o n of r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e s , d a t a problems and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s and f e a s i b i l i t y of the method. 5.1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY T h i s t h e s i s has a d d r e s s e d the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g r e c r e a t i o n space r e q u i r e m e n t s i n urban c e n t r e s . I t has sought t o s y n t h e s i z e , d e v e l o p and a p p l y a t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Through an a n a l y s i s and s y n t h e s i s of t r a d i t i o n a l and c u r r e n t approaches t o needs a n a l y s i s , t h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d . Shortcomings were i d e n t i f i e d and an a l t e r n a t i v e approach d e v e l o p e d . T h i s method was then a p p l i e d t o Richmond, B r i t i s h Columbia t o i l l u s t r a t e i t s p o s s i b l e r e s u l t s . The approach t o r e c r e a t i o n needs a n a l y s i s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s h o p e f u l l y c o n t r i b u t e s toward a g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g 148 and a b i l i t y t o p l a n f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i n urban c e n t r e s . T h i s approach r e p r e s e n t s a d e p a r t u r e from, and h o p e f u l l y an improvement t o , t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s used i n p l a n n i n g park and f a c i l i t y systems. I t p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n which can a i d p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . T h i s study has p r o v i d e d a r e v i e w and s y n t h e s i s of c u r r e n t approaches t o r e c r e a t i o n needs a n a l y s i s . Few of t h e s e methods have been a p p l i e d i n p r a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s t o urban a r e a s . T h e i r v a l u e and u t i l i t y as p l a n n i n g t o o l s has been, t o d a t e , l a r g e l y u n t e s t e d . Through development and a p p l i c a t i o n of a h y b r i d of t h e s e approaches t h i s t h e s i s has a t t e m p t e d t o p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e i r p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s and has s u g g e s t e d improvements t o them. The approach d e v e l o p e d here f o r urban r e c r e a t i o n needs a n a l y s i s i s not a panacea f o r but r a t h e r an a i d t o d e c i s i o n making. I t s p r i m a r y purpose has been t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n which can be of use i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of a p a r k s and r e c r e a t i o n system p l a n . I t i s suggested t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n on space r e q u i r e m e n t s , d e f i c i e n c i e s and c o s t s might p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n e v a l u a t i n g adequacy, d e v e l o p i n g p r i o r i t i e s , and d e t e r m i n i n g c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n development. The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d be used t o t e s t the f e a s i b i l i t y of c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d s . B e t t e r y e t , i t c o u l d be used t o d e v e l o p new s t a n d a r d s which a r e a t t a i n a b l e a t d e f i n e d l e v e l s of e x p e n d i t u r e s . These s t a n d a r d s , d e v e l o p e d f o r a taxonomy of communities, c o u l d be used as r e a l i s t i c g u i d e s f o r p r e p a r i n g park and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s . 149 5.2. DATA PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH .A dominant theme of t h i s s t u d y has been the need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o p r o c e d u r e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g urban r e c r e a t i o n space needs. The d i v e r s i t y among communities i n p o p u l a t i o n s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n , l a n d and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and so f o r t h makes i t d i f f i c u l t , i f not improper, t o d e t e r m i n e urban r e c r e a t i o n needs t h r o u g h a p p l i c a t i o n of u n i f o r m space s t a n d a r d s . S t a n d a r d s have o v e r s i m p l i f i e d the s o l u t i o n t o the problem of d e t e r m i n i n g space needs. They assume more knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n than a c t u a l l y e x i s t s . However, i t has become e v i d e n t i n t h i s s t u d y t h a t any a l t e r n a t i v e approach t o d e t e r m i n i n g space needs might demand i n f o r m a t i o n which i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ' f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . There are s e v e r a l c o n c e p t u a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s which r e q u i r e improvement and c o u l d be the f o c u s of f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s . A l l r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e f i e l d s t u d i e s which were not p a r t of t h i s s t u d y . At l e a s t f i v e problem a r e a s h i n d e r e d t h i s s t u d y ' s approach t o the problem. They a r e : 1) p a r k and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , 2) p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , 3) p a r t i c i p a t i o n measures, 4) u n i t c a p a c i t y , and 5) c o s t . W i t h i n each of t h e s e g e n e r a l a r e a s some s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e a s a r e summarized below: 5.2.1. PARK AND FACILITY CLASSIFICATION T h i s study has d e v e l o p e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which are accommodated i n p a r k s and 150 f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d w i t h i n neighbourhood, community and m u n i c i p a l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does not i n c l u d e r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , m u n i c i p a l f a c i l i t i e s , such as outdoor e d u c a t i o n and n a t u r e c e n t r e s , c o n s e r v a t o r i e s , s k i h i l l s and campgrounds, were e x c l u d e d from the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . To be comprehensive, the park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d have i n c o r p o r a t e d the f u l l range of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e d park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s and p l a n n i n g u n i t s . There a r e two s p e c i f i c a r e a s which r e q u i r e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y . The p r i m a r y r e s e a r c h t a s k i s t o c l a s s i f y and agg r e g a t e r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e f l e c t i n g s i m i l a r space, r e s o u r c e or f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e a r e a s or p l a n n i n g u n i t s . R e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , and a g g r e g a t e s , might be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o p l a n n i n g u n i t s based on: 1) t r a v e l - t i m e or d i s t a n c e c r i t e r i a , and 2) cost, or t h r e s h o l d f a c t o r s . A secondary r e s e a r c h t a s k might be t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c t i v i t i e s ( m u l t i p l e use and c o n f l i c t s ) , space r e q u i r e m e n t s , r e s o u r c e r e q u i r e m e n t s and user d e n s i t y f o r each a c t i v i t y . 5.2.2. PARTICIPATION INFORMATION There has been l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l r e s e a r c h f o r urban a r e a s on who uses what f a c i l i t i e s , where, and when. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y do not have d a t a c o l l e c t i o n systems t o c o l l e c t and m a i n t a i n such i n f o r m a t i o n . Data d e f i c i e n c i e s on user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and use time and t r a v e l p a t t e r n s a r e major 151 problems i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of any p r o c e d u r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . R e s e a r c h t o p r o v i d e the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n would be r e q u i r e d : Who i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n terms of age, sex, income or e d u c a t i o n . T h i s h e l p s t o i d e n t i f y user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Where they p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s h e l p s i d e n t i f y where p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be l o c a t e d r e l a t i v e t o r e s i d e n c e s of u s e r s . When u s e r s a r e l i k e l y t o p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s h e l p s i d e n t i f y f r e q u e n c y , d i s t r i b u t i o n and peak hours of use. What p e r c e n t a g e of u s e r s p a r t i c i p a t e a t any one t i m e . T h i s h e l p s i d e n t i f y peak u s e r s or l o a d a t peak use p e r i o d s . User C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n f o r m a t i o n on user c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would h e l p improve the p o p u l a t i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Space r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y . r e f l e c t the e s t i m a t e d number of u s e r s . These e s t i m a t e s s h o u l d be r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e . T h i s study based u s e r e s t i m a t e s on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n by age. Important r e s i d e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as sex, e d u c a t i o n , income and m o b i l i t y , and a r e a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , such as d w e l l i n g t y p e , were not i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r o c e d u r e d e t e r m i n i n g the number of u s e r s . A v a i l a b l e d a t a on u s e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s would enable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t t o each a p p l i c a t i o n of the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e . 152 T r a v e l P a t t e r n s I n f o r m a t i o n on d i s t a n c e s p e r s o n s t r a v e l , or a r e w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l , t o engage i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s would improve the park and f a c i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A c t i v i t i e s might be grouped i n t o neighbourhood, community or m u n i c i p a l p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s depending on t i m e - d i s t a n c e from home l o c a t i o n of t h e u s e r . L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n of t h i s type has been documented f o r urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . Time P a t t e r n s Another l i m i t a t i o n was the l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n on when u s e r s p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s i s r e q u i r e d t o g a i n knowledge of the use time d i s t r i b u t i o n of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o c o n v e r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o peak u s e r s or l o a d s t o which p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e s i z e d . Numerous s t u d i e s have examined the f r e q u e n c y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of use f o r g e n e r a l l y non-urban a c t i v i t i e s l i k e camping, b o a t i n g and f i s h i n g . Fewer s t u d i e s have examined the same f o r urban a c t i v i t i e s l i k e g o l f , t e n n i s , s o c c e r and p o t t e r y . 5.2.3. PARTICIPATION MEASURES T h i s t h e s i s has a t t e m p t e d t o measure a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . A c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s measured i n r e l a t i o n t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , w h i l e p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f l e c t s p r e f e r e n c e s 153 f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s u n a v a i l a b l e . Both a r e measured i n 'percent of the p o p u l a t i o n ' and a p p l i e d t o p l a n n i n g a r e a s t o e s t i m a t e a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . The attempt t o measure ' p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' or ' l a t e n t demand' improves upon the s o l e use of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g user e s t i m a t e s and a s s o c i a t e d space r e q u i r e m e n t s . However, an improvement t o the p r e f e r e n c e s approach of measuring l a t e n t demand i s needed. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s u n a v a i l a b l e or unknown. A l s o , when responden t s a r e asked t o i n d i c a t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s c u r r e n t l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o them, a l a r g e number of a c t i v i t i e s might be p r e f e r r e d w i t h no r e g a r d g i v e n t o t i m e , r e s o u r c e , money or o t h e r r e s t r i c t i o n s f a c i n g the respondent. The r e s u l t may be p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h , i f made a v a i l a b l e , would s o l i c i t l i t t l e a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Chapin's (1965) method of h a v i n g s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s make c h o i c e s i n the a l l o c a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e time t o r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y p u r s u i t s might p r o v i d e a needed improvement t o p r e f e r e n c e measurement. 5.2.4. UNIT CAPACITY U n i t c a p a c i t y was based, i n t h i s s t u d y , on s i z e r e q u i r e m e n t s of i n d i v i d u a l s p a t i a l u n i t s and the d e n s i t y a t which use i s t o be accommodated. I n f o r m a t i o n on s p a t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e ; i n f o r m a t i o n on user d e n s i t i e s i s n o t . I d e a l l y , the d e s i r e d user d e n s i t y s h o u l d r e f l e c t the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of the r e s o u r c e or 154 s i t e upon which the a c t i v i t y i s accommodated. S i t e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and u s e r s a t i s f a c t i o n a t v a r i o u s u s e r d e n s i t i e s were not c o n s i d e r e d when d e r i v i n g c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s i n t h i s s t u d y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t a r e a f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The concept of c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y a p p l i e d t o urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s might be viewed as the l e v e l of use which can be s u s t a i n e d b e f o r e r e s o u r c e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and d e c r e a s e d user s a t i s f a c t i o n o c c u r . P h y s i c a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y might be approached by examining o p e r a t i n g c o s t i n p u t s r e q u i r e d a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of use t o m a i n t a i n an a c c e p t a b l e park or f a c i l i t y q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d . For example, a t low l e v e l s of use a s o c c e r f i e l d c o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d a t an a c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d w i t h m i n i m a l maintenance. As use i n c r e a s e s maintenance c o s t s would r i s e t o keep the f i e l d i n good c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h r e g u l a r t u r f maintenance and r e p a i r . I n f o r m a t i o n on an ' o p t i m a l ' use l e v e l per s o c c e r f i e l d , based on.a t r a d e - o f f of c o s t i n p u t s and use l e v e l s , would p r o v i d e a u s e f u l c a p a c i t y measure f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f i e l d r e q u i r e m e n t s . S o c i a l c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y , the l e v e l of use which can be s u s t a i n e d b e f o r e d e c r e a s e d user s a t i s f a c t i o n r e s u l t s from r e s o u r c e d e t e r i o r a t i o n and use c o n f l i c t s , might add another i n t e r e s t i n g d i m e n s i o n t o t h i s r e s e a r c h problem. To d a t e , r e s e a r c h i n t o the c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of urban r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s has been n e g l i g i b l e . 155 5.2.5. COSTS C o m p i l i n g a c c u r a t e u n i t c o s t d a t a f o r v a r i o u s components of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n development i s a p o t e n t i a l problem i n the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s s t u d y . I f e s t i m a t e d c o s t s of park and f a c i l i t y development a r e t o be u s e f u l f o r e v a l u a t i o n and b u d g e t i n g they must be r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e . They w i l l be a c c u r a t e o n l y so f a r as u n i t c o s t i n p u t s a r e a c c u r a t e . R e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on c o s t s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e . A problem w i t h e s t i m a t e d park and f a c i l i t y development c o s t s i s f a i l u r e t o c o n s i d e r economies of s c a l e . The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e e s t i m a t e s development c o s t s i n a l i n e a r f a s h i o n . However, a f a c i l i t y t w i c e the s i z e of an o t h e r does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o s t t w i c e as much t o d e v e l o p . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t s i z e s and s c a l e s of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o en a b l e b e t t e r r e s u l t s i n p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . 5.3. METHODOLOGICAL DEFICIENCIES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT T h i s study has de v e l o p e d a method f o r t r a n s l a t i n g a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . The r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e compared w i t h the e x i s t i n g s u p p l y i n o r d e r t o det e r m i n e d e f i c i e n c i e s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s . The method i s implemented u s i n g the computer program c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix 2. 156 The method d e v e l o p e d i s adequate f o r the purposes of t h i s s t u d y . I t s a p p l i c a t i o n has however r a i s e d some i n s i g h t s and p o i n t e d out a few d e f i c i e n c i e s . In o r d e r t o r e f i n e the t e c h n i q u e and i n c r e a s e i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s f o u r major improvements are suggested f o r d e t e r m i n i n g : 1) p o t e n t i a l u s e r s , 2) peak l o a d s , 3) c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n s , and 4) d e f i c i e n c i e s . 5.3.1. POTENTIAL USERS E s t i m a t e s of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s were d e t e r m i n e d by a p p l y i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , d i s a g g r e g a t e d by age, t o p l a n n i n g a r e a p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e assumes t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , among g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s , i s p r i m a r i l y i n f l u e n c e d by age. I f m o d i f i e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e more f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the need f o r park and f a c i l i t y space, t h i s p r o c e d u r e c o u l d produce more a c c u r a t e user e s t i m a t e s p e r t a i n i n g t o s e p a r a t e g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . 5.3.2. PEAK LOADS E s t i m a t e s of peak u s e r s a r e based on the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . The p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h i s p r o p o r t i o n i s u s e f u l as i t e n a b l e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of e q u i t a b l e space r e q u i r e m e n t s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s which r e f l e c t a v a i l a b l e l a n d . However, t e s t i n g i s r e q u i r e d t o 157 determine i f t h i s user accommodation p r o p o r t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the p r o p o r t i o n of use a c t u a l l y o c c u r r i n g . These l a t t e r e s t i m a t e s are p r o v i d e d through assessment of use time d i s t r i b u t i o n . F i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n and s u r v e y s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o a s c e r t a i n whether the p r o p o r t i o n of annual use o c c u r r i n g i n any peak hour of use i s e q u i v a l e n t t o the user accommodation p r o p o r t i o n . I f peak use p r o p o r t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e they c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d i n the p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g space r e q u i r e m e n t s . 5 . 3 . 3 . FACILITY DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATING COSTS As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , f a c i l i t y development c o s t e s t i m a t e s f a i l t o c o n s i d e r economies of s c a l e . The p r o c e d u r e f o r e s t i m a t i n g development c o s t s s h o u l d be m o d i f i e d t o p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n of c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t s i z e s or s c a l e s of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s o n l y u s e f u l , of c o u r s e , where a p p r o p r i a t e c o s t i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . O p e r a t i n g c o s t impacts of c a p i t a l development a r e o f t e n r e q u i r e d i n p r e p a r i n g a park and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l i n e v a l u a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n developments and e s t i m a t i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t i m p a c t s of recommended development. Data on o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s of v a r i o u s t y p e s of r e c r e a t i o n developments can be e x p r e s s e d i n a r a t i o of c u r r e n t t o c a p i t a l e x p e n d i t u r e . These m u l t i p l i e r s , f o r each type of park and f a c i l i t y , c o u l d be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r o c e s s t o e s t i m a t e the i n c r e a s e i n o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s r e s u l t i n g from each d o l l a r of c a p i t a l development e x p e n d i t u r e . 158 5.3.4. DEFICIENCIES D e f i c i e n c i e s a r e e s t i m a t e d f o r each p l a n n i n g a r e a r a t h e r than f o r i n d i v i d u a l park and f a c i l i t y components w i t h i n each a r e a . T h i s i s p r i m a r i l y due t o the burden of c o l l e c t i n g s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n d i s a g g r e g a t e d by park and f a c i l i t y components. A major improvement i n the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e would be t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o the pr o c e d u r e comparisons of space r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h s u p p l y on an i n d i v i d u a l park and f a c i l i t y component b a s i s . T h i s would e n a b l e development c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n s t o be a p p l i e d o n l y t o d e f i c i e n t components. A budget c o n s t r a i n t , s i m i l a r t o the l a n d c o n s t r a i n t , c o u l d then be b u i l t i n t o the p r o c e d u r e . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n might a i d d e t e r m i n a t i o n of development p r i o r i t i e s and a s s o c i a t e d budget e x p e n d i t u r e s . 5.4. FEASIBILITY The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s appears t o be a more e f f e c t i v e means of p l a n n i n g urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s than the t r a d i t i o n a l method of s t a n d a r d s . I t i s r e s p o n s i v e t o user needs, p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n and s i z e . I t p r o v i d e s space r e q u i r e m e n t s and e n a b l e s comparisons among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s . G e n e r a l l y , i t p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . I t a l s o , however, e n t a i l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i t i o n a l 159 c o s t s . I n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e i n c r e a s e d . A h i g h e r degree of e x p e r t i s e , time and r e s o u r c e s a r e a l s o r e q u i r e d . Thus, the u t i l i t y of t h i s approach might be based on a c r i t i c a l q u e s t i o n : "Are the a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s and e f f o r t s r e q u i r e d t o implement t h i s a pproach worth the a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d ? The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , i n many i n s t a n c e s , may be "No". W h i l e t h i s might be a s o b e r i n g c o n c l u s i o n , i t may be a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l i n l i g h t of the a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e . The f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s a p proach i s d i s c u s s e d from f o u r frames of r e f e r e n c e . 5.4.1. URBAN RECREATION How i m p o r t a n t i s urban r e c r e a t i o n ? The answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n p r o v i d e s the f o u n d a t i o n or r a t i o n a l e f o r p u b l i c committment and e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e . A l t h o u g h r e c r e a t i o n may not rank w i t h o t h e r p r i o r i t i e s , such as employment, h o u s i n g , h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n , i t has been argued t h a t r e c r e a t i o n , p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the q u a l i t y of l i f e . A c c o r d i n g l y , where p u b l i c monies a r e p r o v i d e d t o be expended e q u i t a b l y and e f f i c i e n t l y , urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g may have a p l a c e and purp o s e . 5.4.2. URBAN RECREATION PLANNING E n e r g i e s expended i n p l a n n i n g s h o u l d r e f l e c t the time and r e s o u r c e s d e v o t e d t o i t . Where e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r p u b l i c p a r k s 160 and f a c i l i t i e s a r e l a r g e and the q u a l i t y demanded of d e c i s i o n s h i g h , then p l a n n i n g becomes more i m p o r t a n t . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the approach d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s may be u s e f u l . However, i n the case of s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , where c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a r e s m a l l , the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o p l a n n i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s i s l i k e l y s u f f i c i e n t . Where the means, i n terms of money, manpower and l a n d r e s o u r c e s , a r e not a v a i l a b l e t o implement a p l a n , a g r e a t d e a l of p l a n n i n g e f f o r t cannot be j u s t i f i e d . There i s no sense i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a g i v e n park or f a c i l i t y , or system of p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , beyond the means of achievement. 5 . 4 . 3 . INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND INNOVATION R e l a t i v e l y few m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n Canada have p r e p a r e d l o n g range park and r e c r e a t i o n p l a n s or even u n d e r t a k e n r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . The m a j o r i t y of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , which p l a n , use s t a n d a r d s t o d e t e r m i n e park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . Based on the r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y e v o l u t i o n a r y phase t h a t r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g seems t o r e f l e c t , i s i t r e a l i s t i c t o b e l i e v e t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can, or s h o u l d , upgrade t h e i r a b i l i t y t o p l a n f o r urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s ? I m plementation of the approach t o d e t e r m i n i n g park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e q u i r e s a degree of s t a f f time and e x p e r t i s e e x c e e d i n g t h a t r e q u i r e d t o implement a s t a n d a r d s approach t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Many m u n i c i p a l park 161 departments,' p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s m a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , do not p o s s e s s the s t a f f , t i m e , e x p e r t i s e or o t h e r r e s o u r c e s t o c a r r y out such e x t e n s i v e work. I f the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s i r r e l e v a n t and i n e f f e c t i v e , why have so few p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p l a n n i n g p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s , not at t e m p t e d t o d e v e l o p an a l t e r n a t i v e ? R e s p o n s i b l e p u b l i c a g e n c i e s w i l l m o dify c u r r e n t methods and approaches t o urban r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g when e x t e r n a l f o r c e s make i t n e c e s s a r y t o do so. I f thes e a g e n c i e s cannot or w i l l not i n n o v a t e change when changes ar e r e q u i r e d , then change may i n n o v a t e new i n s t i t u t i o n s t o p l a n f o r urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . 5.4.4. PEOPLE AND PLANNING An e s s e n t i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s the p r o v i s i o n of space f o r p e o p l e . P l a n n i n g s h o u l d ensure t h a t p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d meet t h e needs of peopl e they a r e i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . In g e n e r a l , a r b i t r a r y space s t a n d a r d s do not a p p l y t o v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s and p o p u l a t i o n s and t h e i r s p e c i f i c p r e f e r e n c e s . S u f f i c i e n t p l a n n i n g e f f o r t s h o u l d be expended t o ensure t h a t r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e optimum r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e i r needs and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . P l a n n i n g s h o u l d a l s o ensure r e s o u r c e s a r e a l l o c a t e d e q u i t a b l y or o p p o r t u n i t i e s e q u a l i z e d by a r e a l l o c a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . Under these c o n d i t i o n s , an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g , such as t h a t 162 d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , may be r e q u i r e d and j u s t i f i a b l y implemented. 5 . 5 . CONCLUSION The needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s f a r from p e r f e c t . However, i t does p r o v i d e some i n t e r e s t i n g avenues f o r r e s e a r c h , e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n . I t p l a c e s more demands upon the p r a c t i c i n g r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n e r . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n n o v a t i o n ; i n n o v a t i o n which i s w o e f u l l y l a c k i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n a l approach t o r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g . Change i s seldom easy. The r i s k of f a i l u r e l e n d s an u n r e a l i s t i c f l a v o u r t o new i d e a s . T h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s a c h a l l e n g e t o p l a n n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; a c h a l l e n g e t o improve upon c u r r e n t approaches t o p l a n n i n g urban p a r k s and f a c i l i t i e s . An a l t e r n a t i v e has been advanced f o r t e s t i n g . I t s v a l i d i t y , a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and r e l e v a n c e as a p l a n n i n g t o o l can o n l y be t e s t e d t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . The c h a l l e n g e t o improve upon i t i s extended. 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY A c k r o y d , P e t e r . S p o r t s P a v i l i o n s . London: N a t i o n a l P l a y i n g F i e l d s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1970. A l b e r t a Department of C u l t u r e , Youth and R e c r e a t i o n , R e c r e a t i o n B r a nch. C o n s t r u c t i o n S p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r Squash C o u r t s . Edmonton, A l b e r t a : Department Of R e c r e a t i o n , P a r k s And W i l d l i f e , 1972. A l b e r t a Department Of C u l t u r e , Youth and R e c r e a t i o n , Areas And F a c i l i t i e s P l a n n i n g B r anch. B a l l Diamonds G u i d e l i n e s . 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Ann A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1971. 185 APPENDICES Appendix 1: Needs A n a l y s i s P r o c e s s - T e c h n i c a l Spec i f i c a t i o n 186 Appendix 2: Urban R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g Model - Computer Program 194 Appendix 3: Needs A n a l y s i s P r o c e s s - Data Requirements (Richmond Case Study) 228 Appendix 4: 1979 Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Demand Study Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . , 245 186 APPENDIX 1 NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION T h i s Appendix p r o v i d e s a t e c h n i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , i n the form of a se t of m a t h e m a t i c a l e q u a t i o n s , of the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. 187 NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS A p r o c e s s has been deve l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s t o t r a n s l a t e a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l u s e r s i n t o park and f a c i l i t y space r e q u i r e m e n t s and need. I t com p r i s e s the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s t e p s : T r a n s l a t i o n of a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t o u s e r s , i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , by p l a n n i n g a r e a . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of peak l o a d s or u s e r s , f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s , based on the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on a v a i l a b l e l a n d . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of c a p a c i t y , i n number of u s e r s which can be accommodated i n a c t i v i t y p r o v i s i o n s a t one p o i n t i n t i m e . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of u n i t and space r e q u i r e m e n t s by a c t i v i t y and p l a n n i n g a r e a based on peak l o a d and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r m e n t s , by p l a n n i n g a r e a , based on a g g r e g a t e d a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of need, measured i n l a n d and f a c i l i t i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a , based on comparison of park and f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h s u p p l y . D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t o t a l peak hour u s e r s , c a p i t a l c o s t s and c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of park and f a c i l i t y p r o v i s i o n s . To o u t l i n e the g e n e r a l form of the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s : i - age groups m - number of age groups j - r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s n - number of r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s k. - p l a n n i n g u n i t s t - number of p l a n n i n g u n i t s 1. MEASUREMENT OF PARTICIPATION A c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i s a s s e s s e d t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a ho u s e h o l d 188 s u r v e y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , i n each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , a r e de t e r m i n e d f o r each p o p u l a t i o n group. [1] PR;- = DEM;./ PER; [ f o r ( i = l . . .m) , j = l. . . n ] where: PR;* - p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t a per s o n i n age group i i s p a r t i c i p a t i n g or d e s i r e s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t y j . PER', -number of survey p e r s o n s i n age group i . DEM'' -number of survey p e r s o n s i n age group i ^ p a r t i c i p a t i n g or d e s i r i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t y j . = PART;; + PREF;• where: PART;«-number of pe r s o n s i n age group i ^ p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t y j . PREF;*-number of p e r s o n s , not c u r r e n t l y • ^ p a r t i c i p a t i n g , but d e s i r i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t y j . P a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e s , p e r t a i n i n g t o age groups, a r e a p p l i e d t o p l a n n i n g a r e a p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s . E s t i m a t e s of the number of u s e r s , f o r each r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y , i n p l a n n i n g a r e a s i s d e t e r m i n e d a s : [2] P I T - = POP; * PR'/ [ f o r ( ( i = l. . .m) , j = l . . .n ) , k = l. . . t ] »» [3] PU; = £ P U ; - [ f o r ( j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] JVC ; ' i V ; where: PUVve "number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s f o r r e c r e a t i o n ^ a c t i v i t y j i n age group i f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a k. PU;^ -number of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. POPjy-number of pe r s o n s i n age group i i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. 189 2. NEEDS ANALYSIS Peak l o a d or u s e r s , c a p a c i t y and space r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e d e r i v e d from the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n . 1 1 I t e x p r e s s e s the minimum amount of space t o be a l l o c a t e d t o r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s by p l a n n i n g a r e a s : [4] UD-SU:NU- = UA*PU« [ f o r ( j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] where: UDj - r e p r e s e n t s the d e s i r e d user d e n s i t y f o r one s p a t i a l u n i t of a c t i v i t y j measured i n persons per a c r e , SU \ - s i z e r equirement of one s p a t i a l u n i t f o r a c t i v i t y j i n a c r e s , NU\^. - i s the number of s p a t i a l u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r J a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k, UA*PU- - d e s i g n l o a d measured i n number of u s e r s t o be J accommodated i n r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. 2.1. DESIGN OR PEAK LOAD P o t e n t i a l u s e r s a r e c o n v e r t e d i n t o d e s i g n l o a d or peak u s e r s based on the p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l u s e r s which can be accommodated on - a v a i l a b l e l a n d . Two f a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h i s p r o p o r t i o n ( u s e r accommodation): E q u i t y - space r e q u i r e m e n t s must r e f l e c t an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s among p l a n n i n g a r e a s and f a c i l i t i e s . R esources - space r e q u i r e m e n t s must r e f l e c t l a n d a v a i l a b l e . 190 These f a c t o r s a c t as c o n s t r a i n t s , which appear as f o l l o w s : EQUITY CONSTRAINT UA = CONSTANT [ f o r ( j = 1 . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] where: UA - i s the minimum p r o p o r t i o n ( u s e r accommodation) of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s t o be accommodated f o r a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n a l l p l a n n i n g a r e a s . SUPPLY CONSTRAINT ^ SUj NU^ = ^ S K [ f o r ( j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] j k where: S x , - s u p p l y of r e c r e a t i o n space, i n a c r e s , f o r p l a n n i n g a r e a k. The g e n e r a l form of the user accommodation e q u a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from E q u a t i o n [ 5 ] , I t appears a s : n -r r\ -r »-v [5] UA = [ £ UD^ * [ £ S ^ / ^ S U j I V ^ i P U ' E q u a t i o n [5] r e p r e s e n t s the p r o p o r t i o n of p o t e n t i a l u s e r s which can be accommodated a t d e s i r e d u s e r s d e n s i t i e s on the c u r r e n t s u p p l y of l a n d a v a i l a b l e . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n a p p l i e d t o a l l r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g a r e a s y i e l d s e s t i m a t e s of d e s i g n l o a d d e t e r m i n e d a s : [6] °L^ k= UA * PU- i y [ f o r ( j = l. . .n) ,k= l . . . t ] where: D L \ o " number of persons t o be accommodated i n JVC a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. 191 2.2. CAPACITY C a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s are based upon: 1) space requ i r e m e n t f o r one s p a t i a l u n i t of a c t i v i t y j , and 2) d e n s i t y (user d e n s i t y ) a t which use i s t o be accommodated i n a s p a t i a l u n i t f o r a c t i v i t y j . C a p a c i t y f o r each a c t i v i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d as: [7] CAP ' = UDj * SUj [ f o r j = l . . . n ] where: CAP'. - i n s t a n t a n e o u s c a p a c i t y , i n p e r s o n s , f o r one s p a t i a l u n i t of a c t i v i t y j . 2.3. SPACE REQUIREMENTS, USERS AND COSTS The number of s p a t i a l u n i t s and space r e q u i r e m e n t s , f o r each a c t i v i t y by p l a n n i n g a r e a , a r e based on peak l o a d and c a p a c i t y e s t i m a t e s . The number of S p a t i a l u n i t s i s d e t e r m i n e d a s : [8] NU' = DL* / CAP • [ f o r (j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] where: NU- -number of s p a t i a l u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r a c t i v i t y j J * i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. Space r e q u i r e m e n t s are then d e t e r m i n e d a s : [9] S R j k = SUj * N U ^ [ f o r ( j = l . . .n) , k = l . . . t ] where: SRv -space req u i r e m e n t i n a c r e s f o r a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. 192 The number of u s e r s which can be accommodated i n space p r o v i s i o n s i s e s t i m a t e d a s : [10] USR- = CAP' * NU • [ f o r ( j = l . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] JK 4 4 »S where: USRj.-number of u s e r s which can be accommodated i n space p r o v i s i o n s f o r a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. C a p i t a l c o s t s of space p r o v i s i o n s a r e e s t i m a t e d a s : [11] DC\ = [FC* *SR' ] + [ L C w *SR- ] [ f o r ( j = 1. . . n) , k = l. . . t ] where: DC*tu t n e t o t a l development c o s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ^ park and f a c i l i t y development f o r r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. FC' - i s the average development c o s t f o r a c t i v i t y j , ^ i n f a c i l i t y development or l a n d improvements, s t a n d a r d i z e d t o one a c r e . L C ^ - i s the c o s t of one a c r e of l a n d w i t h i n p l a n n i n g u n i t k. The c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e c r e a t i o n space p r o v i d e d i s the development c o s t per peak hour u s e r . I t i s e s t i m a t e d a s : [12] CE- = DO /USR;. [ f o r ( j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] 4k. 4 \S where: CIS' " i s the development c o s t per peak hour user i n a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g a r e a k. 193 2.4. RECREATION NEED Recr e a t i o n need, measured i n land and f a c i l i t i e s , i s the d i s c r e p a n c y between the demand f o r , and supply o f , r e c r e a t i o n space. I t i s estimated a s 1 ' : [15] D ' = SR- - S; [ f o r ( j = l . . . n ) , k = l . . . t ] •JK JVS •JK where: D\\< "discrepancy ( s u r p l u s or d e f i c i e n c y ) , i n a c r e s , between the demand f o r , and supply o f , r e c r e a t i o n space f o r a c t i v i t y j i n pl a n n i n g area k. -supply of r e c r e a t i o n space, i n a c r e s , f o r a c t i v i t y j i n p l a n n i n g area k. a n d : ^ ^ S R k = ^ The product of t h i s p rocess i s a r e l a t i v e measure of need, measured i n land and f a c i l i t i e s between, and w i t h i n , p l a n n i n g a r e a s . Space demands summed across p l a n n i n g areas equal a v a i l a b l e land; and d i s c r e p a n c i e s ( s u r p l u s - d e f i c i t ) sum to zero. 194 APPENDIX 2 URBAN RECREATION PLANNING MODEL COMPUTER PROGRAM T h i s Appendix c o n t a i n s the computer program w r i t t e n t o undertake the needs a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . Program documentation i s c o n t a i n e d i n the program l i s t i n g . 195 ************************************** * * * * * The Model for Urban Recreation Demand and Impact E v a l u a t i o n * * (MURDIE) was'written by K e i t h M i l l e r at the School of * * Community and Regional Planning at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h * * Columbia in 1979 as a t o o l to a i d determining the demand f o r * * municipal parks and f a c i l i t i e s and in e v a l u a t i n g the f i s c a l * * impacts of both a l t e r n a t i v e development s t r a t e g i e s and s p e c i f i c * * developments. MURDIE attempts to determine the demand f o r munic i p a l * parks and f a c i l i t i e s through Needs A n a l y s i s (demand-supply * * a n a l y s i s ) and F i s c a l A n a l y s i s ( r e s u l t i n g c a p i t a l budget to * * accommodate development). * * * * MURDIE i s w r i t t e n i n s t a n d a r d • f o r t r a n and may be compiled by any * * standard f o r t r a n G compiler. For a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a n a l y t i c * * procedure, program, input requirements and output see s e c t i o n s 3.4* * and 3.5 of the t h e s i s e n t i t l e d " An Approach To Urban Recreation * * Planning " by the author. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * INTEGER CONTRL C THE CONTENT AND STRUCTURE OF EACH VARIABLE AND ARRAY DEFINED C IN THE 'INPUT MODULE' IS DOCUMENTED AS FOLLOWS. C 'A'-NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD RECREATION ACTIVITIES C 'B'-NUMBER OF COMMUNITY RECREATION ACTIVITIES C 'C-NUMBER OF MUNICIPAL RECREATION ACTIVITIES C 'M'-NUMBER OF AGE GROUPS C . 'N'-NUMBER OF RECREATION ACTIVITIES C 'T'-NUMBER OF PLANNING UNITS C *W'-NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING UNITS C 'X'-NUMBER OF COMMUNITY PLANNING UNITS C 'Y'-NUMBER OF MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS C 'Z'-TOTAL NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY,AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNITS C 'I'-AGE GROUP SUBSCRIPT C 'J'-RECREATION ACTIVITY SUBSCRIPT C 'K'-PLANNING UNIT SUBSCRIPT C 'ERROR'-SPECIFIC READ INPUT ERROR FLAG C 'FLAG'-INPUT ERROR FLAG C 'CNT'-COUNT OF READS COMPLETED C 'ACTSEQ(J)'-ARRAY FOR STORING INPUT ACTIVITY SEQUENCE C 'UNTSEQ(K)'-ARRAY FOR STORING INPUT PLANNING UNIT SEQUENCE C 'PART(J,I)','PREF(J,I)'-ARRAYS FOR STORING AGE-SPECIFIC C PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE DATA FOR EACH PLANNED RECREATION C ACTIVITY. DATA STRUCTURE IS ARRANGED WITH AGE GROUPS DOWN C COLUMNS AND ACTIVITIES ACROSS ROWS. C 'USEDEN(J)'-ARRAY FOR STORING USER DENSITY DATA FOR EACH ACTIVITY C 'SPAUNT(J)'-ARRAY FOR STORING SPACE REQUIREMENTS PER 'ACTIVITY C SPATIAL UNIT' FOR EACH ACTIVITY. C 'ADJFCT(J)'-ARRAY FOR STORING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS(RATIO OF FACILITY C DEVELOPMENT AND LAND IMPROVEMENT COSTS TO LAND COSTS)FOR EACH C ACTIVITY. DATA STRUCTURE-ACTIVITIES(ROWS)AND ACTIVITY DATA. C 'POP(K,I)-ARRAY FOR STORING AGE-SPECIFIC POPULATION FIGURES FOR 196 C EACH 'LOWER ORDER' PLANNING UNIT. DATA STRUCTURE IS ARRANGED C WITH AGE GROUPS DOWN COLUMNS AND PLANNING UNITS ACROSS ROWS. C NSUPLY(K),CSUPLY(K),MSUPLY(K)-ARRAYS STORING NEIGHBOURHOOD, C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL SUPPLY DATA IN EACH AREAL DATA COLLECTION C ZONE.. LCOST(K)-ARRAY STORING LAND COST DAT IN AREAL DATA COLLECTION UNITS C FCOST(J)-ARRAY FOR STORING FACILITY DEVELOPMENT COSTS C (COST PER ACRE) FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C ADJFCT(J)-ARRAY FOR STORING THE 'PERCENTAGE OF C ANCILLARY SPACE' FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C THE PERCENTAGE OF ANCILLARY SPACE IS BASED ON THE C AMOUNT OF FACILITY SPACE AS COMPARED TO THE TOTAL C AMOUNT OF SPACE REQUIRED FOR A FACILITY (BASED ON EXISTING C FACI L I T I E S ) . ALL ACTIVITIES ACCOMMODATED WITHIN THE FACILITY C HAVE THE SAME 'PERCENT ANCILLARY SPACE'. C HOME(J)-ARRAY FOR STORING THE PROPORTION OF PARTICIPATION C WHICH IS NON-PARK OR FACILITY BASED ( I . E . HOME BASED) C FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C ADJHEC-VARIABLE SWITCH FOR CONTROLLING ROUTINE TO CONVERT C INPUT DAT FROM ACRES TO HECTARES. '0' IS 'OFF', '1' C IS 'ON*. C HECTAR-VARIABLE STORING THE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR CONVERTING C ACRES TO HECTARES. C COST(K)-ARRAY STORING LAND COST DATA IN AREAL DATA COLLECTION C UNITS. REAL PART(125,8),PREF(125,8),USEDEN(125),SPAUNT(125),FCOST(125), CPOP(80,8),NSUPLY(80),CSUPLY(80),MSUPLY(80),LCOST(80), CADJFCT(125),HOME(125) INTEGER A fB,C,I,J,K,M,N,T,W,X,Y,Z,ERROR,FLAG,CNT,ACTSEQ(125), C UNTSEQ(80),UNTNAM(80) INTEGER ADJHEC REAL HECTAR C DECLARATION OF ARRAYS IN PLANNING UNIT CLASS MODULE. C EACH'VARIABLE AND ARRAY DEFINED IN THE SUPPLY ROUTINE IS DEFINED. C BUNIT(J),NUNIT(J),CUNIT(J),MUNIT(J)-ARRAYS STORING INTEGER C VALUES DEFINING THE PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION. C NNAM(K),CNAM(K),MNAM(K)-ARRAYS STORING INPUT PLANNING UNIT C NAMES C NEBNAM(K),COMNAM(K),MUNNAM(K)-ARRAYS STORING OUTPUT PLANNING C UNIT NAMES ORDERED AND SEQUENTIAL. C NCNT(K),CCNT(K),MCNT(K)-ARRAYS STORING COUNTS OF BASIC AREAL C UNITS WITHIN EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNIT,RESPECTIVELY. C NNUM,CNUM,MNUM-VARIABLES STORING TOTAL NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD, C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS RESPECTIVELY. C NEIGH,COM,MUN-SUBSCRIPTS FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNITS,RESPECTIVELY. C NEBSUP(K),COMSUP(K),MUNSUP(K)-ARRAYS STORING SUPPLY IN NEIGHBOURHOO C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS,RESPECTIVELY. C PUNT-VARIABLE FOR STORING SEQUENCE POSITION OF BASIC AREA C DATA COLLECTION ZONES FROM THE PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION 197 C MATRIX. C NCOST(K),CCOST(K),MCOST(K)-ARRAYS STORING 'AGGREGATE' LAND COST C DATA OF BASIC AREAL UNITS WITHIN NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY C AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS,RESPECTIVELY. C NEBCST(K),COMCST(K),MUNCST(K)-ARRAYS STORING 'AVERAGE' LAND C COST IN NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING C UNITS, RESPECTIVELY. C ADJPOP-VARIABLE SWITCH FOR CONTROLLING ROUTINE FOR ADJUSTING . C NEIGHBOURHOOD POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO FORECASTED C INCREASES IN COMMUNITY POPULATIONS. C COMCNT,MUNCNT-VARIABLES USED FOR COUNTING THE NUMBER OF C NEIGHBOURHOODS FOR WHICH OUTPUT HAS BEEN PRINTED TO C ASSESS WHEN COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL TOTALS ARE PRINTED. C COMNEB(K), MUNNEB(K)-ARRAYS FOR STORING COUNTS OF THE NUMBER C OF NEIGHBOURHOODS IN COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING C AREAS, RESPECTIVELY. C NPOP(K,I),CPOP(K,I),MPOP(K,I)-ARRAYS FOR STORING AGE GROUP C POPULATION FIGURES (SUMMED FROM BASIC DATA COLLECTION C ZONES) FOR EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING AREA. C TNPOP(K), TCPOP(K), TMPOP(K)-ARRAYS FOR STORING TOTAL POPULATION C IN NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREAS. C POPADJ(K)-ARRAY STORING SCALING FACTOR FOR ADJUSTING NEIGHBOURHOOD C POPULATIONS BASED ON FORECASTED COMMUNITY POPULATIONS. C SCALING FACTOR = FORECASTED COMMUNITY POPULATION/EXISTING C COMMUNITY POPULATION. REAL NEBSUP(45)/45*0./,COMSUP(15)/15*0./,MUNSUP(1)/1*0./, C NCOST(45)/45*0./,CCOST(15)/15*0./,MCOST(1)/1*0./, C NEBCST(45),COMCST(15),MUNCST(1)/0./ INTEGER BUNIT(80),NUNIT(8Q),CUNIT(80),MUNIT(80),NCNT(45)/45*0/, C CCNT(15)/15*0/,MCNT(1)/1*0/,NEIGH,COM,MUN,NNUM,CNUM,MNUM, C PUNT LOGICAL*l NNAM(80,20),CNAM(80,20),MNAM(80,20),NEBNAM(80,20), CCOMNAM(80,20),MUNNAM(80,20) LOGICAL*l BLANK/' '/ LOGICAL EQUC INTEGER ADJPOP,COMCNT,MUNCNT REAL COMNEB(45)/45*0./,MUNNEB(1)/1*0./,NPOP(45,8)/360*0./, CTNPOP(45)/45*0./,CPOP(15,8)/120*0./,TCPOP(15)/15*0./, CMPOP(1,8)/8*0./,TMPOP(1)/1*0./ REAL POPADJQ5) C DECLARATION OF ARRAYS IN DEMAND MODULE. C DEMAND(J,I)-ARRAY STORING AGE-SPECIFIC DEMAND RATES, DATA C STRUCTURE IS ARRANGED WITH AGE GROUPS DOWN COLUMNS AND C ACTIVITIES ACROSS ROWS. C POTUSR(J,I,K)-ARRAY STORING AGE-SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IN C EACH ACTIVITY FOR EACH AREAL UNIT. DATA STRUCTURE IS C ARRANGED WITH AGE GROUPS DOWN COLUMNS ACTIVITIES ACROSS C ROWS,AND AREAL UNITS DOWN PLANES. C NTOTPU(K,J),(TOTPU(K,J),TOTPU(K,J)-ARRAYS STORING POTENTIAL C USERS FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY C AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNIT,RESPECTIVELY, DATA STRUCTURE 198 C OF ARRAYS INCLUDES ACTIVITIES AS COLUMN DATA AND PLANNING C UNITS AS ROW DATA. C PRNT, FINISH, START, INCMNT-VARIABLES USED IN PRINTING C POTENTIAL USER TABLES FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD AND COMMUNITY C PLANNING AREAS. C ADJPU-VARIABLE SWITCH FOR CONTROLLING ROUTINE TO ADJUST C POTENTIAL USER FIGURES FOR NON-PARK OR FACILITY BASED C PARTICIPATION. REAL DEMAND(125,8),POTUSR(125,8,80), CNTOTPU(45,125)/5625*0./, CCTOTPU(15,125)/1875*0./,TOTPU(1,125)/125*0./ INTEGER PRNT,START,FINISH,INCMNT,ADJPU C DECLARATION OF ARRAYS IN ACTIVITY/PLAN UNIT CLASS MODULE. C EACH VARIABLE AND ARRAY IN THIS MODULE IS DEFINED AS FOLLOWS. C ACT(J),NJ(J),CJ(J),TJ(J)-ARRAYS OF INTEGER VALUES DEFINING C THE SEQUENCE OF RECREATION ACTIVITIES(ACT) AND CORRESPONDING C SEQUENCES OF THESE ACTIVITIES APPLYING TO NEIGHBOURHOOD(NJ), C COMMUNITY(CJ) AND MUNI CI PAL(TJ) PLANNING UNITS. C ACTCMP(J),FACTYP(J),IN0UT(J)-SEQUENCES OF INTEGER VALUES C DEFINING RECREATION ACTIVITIES INCLUDED IN ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, C FACILITY TYPES, AND INDOOR/OUTDOOR SPACE, RESPECTIVELY. C ACTNAM(J),CMPNAM(J),FCTNAM(J),IONAM(J)-ARRAYS STORING NAMES C OF RECREATION ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, FACILITY C TYPES,AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE. C NAMACT(J),NAMUNT(K)-'COMMON' ARRAYS STORING ACTIVITY NAMES AND C PLANNING UNIT NAMES OF THE PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING C PROCESSED. C ACTPU(K,J)-'COMMON' ARRAY STORING POTENTIAL USERS FOR EACH C ACTIVITY IN EACH PLANNING UNIT OF THE PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM C BEING PROCESSED. C DENUSE(J),UNTSPC(J),FACADJ(J)-'COMMON' ARRAYS STORING USER C DENSITY,UNIT SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS AND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS FOR C THE PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING PROCESSED. C FACCST(J)-'COMMON' ARRAY FOR STORING FACILITY COSTS OF C RECREATION ACTIVITIES FOR THE PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM C BEING PROCESSED. C ANCADJ(J)-'COMMON' ARRAY FOR STORING THE 'PERCENT OF C ANCILLARY SPACE' FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY C IN THE PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING PROCESSED. C SUPLND(K),CSTLND(K)-'COMMON' ARRAYS STORING PLANNING UNIT SUPPLY C AND COST DATA FOR THE SYSTEM BEING PROCESSED. C ACTCNT-VARIABLE FOR COUNTING NUMBER OF PLANNING UNITS IN SYSTEM C . BEING PROCESSED. C PACT-GENERAL SEQUENCE POSITION OF A RECREATION ACTIVITY C APPLYING TO ALL ARRAYS STORING DATA RELATED TO ACTIVITIES. C POSN-SPECIFIC SEQUENCE POSITION OF A RECREATION ACTIVITY C INCLUDED IN A NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY OR MUNICIPAL PLANNING C UNIT CLASSIFICATION. REAL ACTPU(80,125),DENUSE(125),UNTSPC(125),FACCST(125), CANCADJQ25) ,SUPLND(80) ,CSTLND(80) 199 INTEGER ACT(125),NJ(125),CJ(125),TJ(125),ACTCMP(125), CFACTYP(12 5),INOUT(125),ACTCNT,POSN,PACT LOGICAL*l ACTNAM(125,20),CMPNAM(125,16),FCTNAM(125,16), CIONAM(125,8),NAMACT(125,20),NAMUNT(80,20) C DECLARATION OF ARRAYS FOR THE 'USER ACCOMMODATION MODULE'. C FIRST-VARIABLE FOR STORING COMPUTED AVERAGE USER DENSITY. C SECOND-VARIABLE, AVERAGE UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENT C THIRD-VARIABLE,AVERAGE SUPPLY OF PARKLAND. C FOURTH-VARIABLE, SUM OF UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENTS. C FIFTH-VARIABLE, AVERAGE NUMBER OF POTENTIAL USERS. C MINPRP-VARIABLE, COMPUTED USER ACCOMMODATION PROPORTION. C USEACC(J)-ARRAY, USER ACCOMMODATION PROPORTION FOR EACH RECREATION C ACTIVITY. C PERCNT(J), PRCENT(J)-ARRAYS, PROPORTION AND PERCENT, RESPECTIVELY, C OF SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY AS C COMPARED TO TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL ACTIVITIES. C DIFSUP(J)-ARRAY, TOTAL SPACE DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT) C PRORATED TO EACH ACTIVITY BASED ON PERCENT ACTIVITY SPACE C TO TOTAL SPACE. C DlFPER(J)-ARRAY, NUMBER OF PERSONS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY C ASSOCIATED WITH SPACE DISCREPANCY FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C ACTUSR(J)-ARRAY STORING TOTAL NUMBER OF USERS IN EACH RECREATION C ACTIVITY. C PKUSR(J)-ARRAY STORING TOTAL NUMBER OF PEAK USERS IN EACH C RECREATION ACTIVITY. C TOTSUP-TOTAL PRORATED SPACE DISCREPANCY. C TOTPER-TOTAL PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH SPACE DISCREPANCY. C TOTUSR-TOTAL USERS C TPKUSR-TOTAL PEAK USERS UNADJUSTED FOR ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS C DlSCRP-VARIABLE STORING DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF SPA C ANCSPC(J)-ANCILLARY SPACE FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C ADJSUP(J)-PLAYING SPACE FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY. C ANSPER(J)-TOTAL PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANCILLARY SPACE FOR EACH C RECREATION ACTIVITY. C TOTANS-TOTAL ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS. C TADJSP-TOTAL PLAYING SPACE REQUIREMENTS. C TANSPR-TOTAL PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS. REAL FIRST,SECOND,THIRD,FOURTH,FIFTH,MINPRP,USEACC(125) INTEGER THRU,ANC,ADJANC REAL PERCNTU25) ,PRCENT(125) ,DIFSUP(125) ,DIFPER(125) ,ACTUSR(125) , CPKUSR(125),TOTSUP,TOTPER,TOTUSR,TPKUSR,DlSCRP, CANCSPC(125),ADJSUP(125),ANSPER(125),TOTANS,TADJSP,TANSPR C DECLARATION OF ARRAYS FOR THE 'DEMAND-ACTIVITY-SPACE MODULE'. C EACH ARRAY IN THIS MODULE IS DESCRIBED AS FOLLOWS: C UNTNUM(K,J)-STORES NUMBER OF SPATIAL UNITS ALLOCTED TO EACH C ACTIVITY IN EACH PLANNING UNIT. C SPCREQ(K,J)-STORES SPACE REQUIREMENT DATA C CST(K,J)-STORES LAND AND FACILITY COSTS FOR ACTIVITY PROVISIONS C IN EACH PLANNING UNIT. C CAP(K,J)-STORES NUMBER OF PERSONS WHICH CAN BE ACCOMMODATED IN 200 C ACTIVITY PROVISIONS IN EACH PLANNING UNIT. C CSTEF(K, J)-STORES COST PER PERSON DATA OF ACTIVITY PROVISIONS IN C EACH PLANNING UNIT. C UNTSUP(K)-STORES TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT DATA FOR EACH PLANNING C UNIT. C UNTCST(K)-STORES TOTAL COST OF LAND AND FACILITY DEVELOPMENT IN C EACH PLANNING UNIT. C UNTCAP(K)-STORES TOTAL CAPACITY(PERSONS) OF SPACE PROVISION IN C EACH PLANNING UNIT. C UNTCE(K)-STORES COST/PERSON DATA OF PROVISIONS IN EACH PLANNING C UNIT. C DEFCNT(K)-STORES SPACE DEFICIENCY IN EACH PLANNING UNIT C ACTNUM(J)-STORES TOTAL NUMBER OF SPATIAL UNITS REQUIRED FOR EACH C ACTIVITY SUMMED ACROSS ALL PLANNING UNITS. C ACTSPC(J)-STORES TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT FOR EACH ACTIVITY. C ACTCST(J)-STORES TOTAL LAND AND FACILITY COST OF PROVISIONS FOR C EACH ACTIVITY. C ACTCAP(J)-STORES TOTAL CAPACITY(PERSONS) OF PROVISIONS FOR C EACH ACTIVITY. C ACTCE(J)-STORES COST/PERSON OF PROVISIONS FOR EACH ACTIVITY. C SPCTOT-STORES TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT ACROSS ALL ACTIVITIES C AND PLANNING UNITS. C CSTTOT-STORES TOTAL COST OF SPACE PROVISIONS. C CAPTOT-STORES TOTAL CAPACITY(PERSONS) OF SPACE PROVISIONS. C CETOT-STORES COST/PERSON OF TOTAL SPACE PROVISIONS. C SUPTOT-STORES TOTAL LAND SUPPLY C DEFTOT-STORES TOTAL DEFICIENCY OF PARKLAND. C DEFCST-STORES TOTAL LAND ACQUISITION COST IN PARKLAND DEFICIENT C PLANNING AREAS. REAL . UNTNUM(80,125),SPCREQ(80,125),CST(80,125),CAP(80,125), CCSTEF(80,125),ACTNUM(125),ACTSPC(125),ACTCST(125), CACTCAP(125),ACTCE(125),UNTSUP(80),UNTCST(80), CUNTCAP(80),UNTCE(80),DEFCNT(80),SPCTOT,CSTTOT,CAPTOT,CETOT, CSUPTOT,DEFTOT,DEFCST C DEFINES EACH ARRAY AND VARIABLE C CMPNU(K,J),CMPSPC(K,J),CMPCST(K,J),CMPCAP(K,J),CMPCE(K,J)-ARRAYS C STORING NUMBER OF UNITS, SPACE REQUIREMENT, COST, CAPACITY AN C COST-EFFECTIVENESS, RESPECTIVELY, FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS BY UNIT C FCTSPC(K,J),FCTCST(K,J),FCTCAP(K,J),FCTCE(K,J)-ARRAYS STORING SPACE C REQUIREMENT, COST, CAPACITY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS, RESPECTIVELY, C FOR FACILITY TYPES IN PLANNING UNITS. C IOSPC(K,j),IOCST(K,J),IOCAP(K,J),IOCE(K,J)-ARRAYS STORING SAME C FOR INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACE. C TCMPNU(J),TCMPSP(J),TCMPCT(J),TCMPCP(J),TCMPCE(J)-ARRAYS STORIN C MUNICIPAL TOTALS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS. C TFCTSP(J),TFCTCT(J) ,TFCTCP(J),TFCTCE(J)-ARRAYS STORING MUNICIPAL C TOTALS FOR FACILITY TYPES. C TIOSPC(J),TIOCST(J),TIOCAP(J),TIOCE(J)-ARRAYS STORING MUNICIPAL C TOTALS FOR INDOOR AND OUTDOOR SPACE. C CMPDEN(J),CMPUNT(J)-ARRAYS STORING USER DENSITIES AND UNIT SPAC C REQUIREMENTS .FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS. C NAMCMP(J),NAMFCT(J),NAMIO(J)-ARRAYS STORING ACTIVITY COMPONENT, 201 C FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR NAMES, RESPECTIVELY. C CMPARR(J),FCTARR(J),I0ARR(J)-ARRAYS STORING SEQUENCE POSITION OF C ACTIVITY COMPONENT, FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE C BEING ANALYZED IN SPECIFIC PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM. C CMPNUM(J),FCTNUM(J),IONUM(J)-ARRAYS STORING COUNT OF ACTIVITY C COMPONENTS, FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE ENCOUNTERED IN C PARTICULAR PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING ANALYZED. C FCTCMP(J),I0CMP(J)-ARRAYS STORING COUNT OF ACTIVITY COMPONENTS C WITHIN EACH FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE. C CMPCNT,FCTCNT,IOCNT-VARIABLES COUNTING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACTIVITY C COMPONENTS, FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE FOR SYSTEM C BEING ANALYZED. C FNUM,INUM-VARIABLES USED IN SETTING THE SEQUENCE POSITION FOR C EXTRACTING THE FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE C INFORMATION TO BE OUTPUT (EXTRACT VALUE CODE FROM FCTARR(J) AND C IOARR(J), RESPECTIVELY). C FCNT,ICNT-VARIABLES USED IN COUNTING THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITY C COMPONENTS PRINTED. WHEN FCNT EQUALS THE NUMBER OF ACTIVITY C COMPONENTS WITHIN A PARTICULAR FACILITY TYPE(FCTCMP(J)), THEN C THE TOTAL FOR THAT FACILITY TYPE IS OUTPUT. ICNT PERFORMS C THE SAME FUNCTION FOR OUTPUT OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR TOTALS. C PASS-VARIABLE 'SWITCHED ON' TO ENSURE THAT SETTING UP OF C ACTIVITY COMPONENT, FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE C SEQUENCING POSITIONS FOR OUTPUT IS DONE ONLY IN THE C FIRST PASS OF THE ROUTINE (IE ALONG WITH ANALYSIS OF FIRST C PLANNING UNIT). C COMP-ACTIVITY COMPONENT COUNTER. C FACT-FACILITY TYPE COUNTER. C 10-INDOOR, OUTDOOR SPACE COUNTER. C NUMCMP-COUNT OF NUMBER OF ACTIVITY COMPONENTS. C NUMFCT-COUNT OF NUMBER OF FACILITY TYPES. C PMOC-ACTIVITY COMPONENT COUNTER. C FCAF-FACILITY TYPE COUNTER. C OI-INDOOR, OUTDOOR SPACE COUNTER. INTEGER CMPARR(125),FCTARR(125),IOARR(125),CMPNUM(125), CFCTNUM(125), CIONUMQ25) ,FCTCMP(125) ,IOCMP(125) , CMPCNT, FCTCNT, I OCNT, FNUM, CINUM,FCNT,ICNT,PASS,COMP,FACT,10,NUMCMP,NUMFCT,PMOC,TCAF,01 REAL CMPNU(80,125),CMPSPC(80,125),CMPCST(80,125),CMPCAP(80,125), CCMPCE(80,125),FCTSPC(80,125), CFCTCST(80,125),FCTCAP(80,125),FCTCE(80,125),IOSPC(80,125), CIOCST(80,125),IOCAP(80,125),IOCE(80,125),TCMPNU(125),TCMPSP(125), CTCMPCT(125),TCMPCP(125),TCMPCE(125),TFCTSP(125),TFCTCT(125), CTFCTCPM25) ,TFCTCE(125) ,TIOSPC(125) ,TIOCST(125) ,TIOCAP(125) , CTIOCEQ25) ,CMPDEN(125) ,CMPUNT(125) LOGICAL*l NAMCMP(125,16),NAMFCT(125,16),NAMIO(125,8) INTEGER TEMP TEMP=0 INTEGER SUPRIT,RITSUP,SUPACT,SUPACC ************************************ C FOUR SPECIALIZED ROUTINES HAVE BEEN BUILT INTO THE PROGRAM. 202 C THEY ARE BIREFLY DESCRIBED. ALL ARE TURNED 'ON=l' OR 'OFF=0'. C ADJHEC: CONVERTS ALL INPUT DATA FROM ACRES TO HECTARES. C ADJPOP: ADJUSTS NEIGHBOURHOOD POPULATIONS BASED ON C PRORATA SHARES OF FORECASTED COMMUNITY POPULATION C INCREASES (NOTE: INPUT ARRAY NOT PROGRAMMED) C ADJPU: ADJUSTS ESTIMATES OF POTENTIAL USERS FOR ACTIVITIES C HAVING NON-PARK OR FACILITY PARTICIPATION (E.G. HOME C BASED, PRIVATE FACILITIES, ETC.) THE 'PROPORTION C OF USERS PARTICIPATING AT NON-PARK AREAS' IS C READ WITH ACTIVITY DATA AS ARRARY 'HOME'. C ADJANC: ADJUSTS USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATIONS BY CALCULATING C ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN ADDITION TO PLAYING C SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES. THE C 'PERCENT ANCILLARY SPACE' (BASED ON TOTAL UNITS SPACE C REQUIREMENTS) FOR EACH ACTIVITIY ARE READ WITH C ACTIVITY DATA AS ARRAY 'ADJFCT'. ************************************************ ADJHEC=0 ADJPU=1 ADJPOP=0 ADJANC=1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C FOUR VARIABLES ACT AS 'SWITCHES' TO PRINT OR SUPPRESS C PRINTING OF INTERMEDIATE PROCESSING OUTPUT. EACH IS C BRIEFLY DESCRIBED: C SUPRIT: SUPRESSES INTERMEDIATE PROCESSING OUTPUT INCLUDING: C 1) POPULATION, SUPPLY, LAND COST FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREAS, C 2) DEMAND RATES FOR EACH AGE GROUP, C 3) SUPPLY, LAND COST, POTENTIAL USERS, USER C DENSITY, UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENTS, FACILITY C COSTS AND ANCILLARY SPACE ADJUSTMENT FACTORS C FOR EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM AS IT IS PROCESSED. RITSUP: SUPPRESSES PRINTING OF AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS C FOR EACH BASIC AREA DATA COLLECTION ZONE AND TOTAL C POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY FOR EACH C NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA. C SUPACC: SUPPRESSES OUTPUT FOR EACH ROUND INVOLVED IN CALCULATI C USER ACCOMMODATION. ONLY SUMMARY TABLE IS PRINTED AT C THE COMPLETION OF USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATIONS. C SUPACT: SUPPRESSES PRINTING OF UNIT AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS, C COST, CAPACITY, AND COST EFFECTIVENESS FOR EACH C RECREATION ACTIVITY. ******************************************************************** SUPRIT=1 RITSUP=1 SUPACC=0 SUPACT=0 2 0 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C THE FOLLOWING MODULE IS CALLED THE 'INPUT MODULE'. IT INITIALLY C READS AGE-SPECIFIC PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE RATES FOR ALL C PLANNED RECREATION ACTIVITIES. FOLLOWING.ACTIVITY REQUIREMENT DATA, C INCLUDING DESIRED USER DENSITIES,SPACE REQUIREMENTS PER ACTIVITY C SPATIAL UNIT,AND AN 'ADJUSTMENT FACTOR' FOR ACTIVITIES REQUIRING C FACILITY DEVELOPMENT AND LAND IMPROVEMENTS,ARE READ FOR EACH C PLANNED RECREATION ACTIVITY. BOTH DATA SETS HAVE RECREATION C ACTIVITIES ORDERED IN THE SAME SEQUENCE. AFTER READING EACH C DATA SET/A CHECK IS MADE TO INSURE THAT THE DATA HAS BEEN READ C IN THE CORRECT ACTIVITY SEQUENCE. IF INPUT IS INCORRECT AN ERROR C MESSAGE IS PRINTED. FOLLOWING INPUT OF 'ACTIVITY SPECIFIC DATA, C AGE GROUP POPULATION DATA AND LAND SUPPLY AND COST DATA ARE INPUT C FOR 'BASIC AREAL DATA COLLECTION UNITS'. THESE 'AREAL UNITS' ALLOW C LATER AGGREGATION OF THE DATA INTO PLANNING UNITS OF A DEFINED C HIERARCHY(I.E. NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL). AFTER C READING EACH 'AREAL UNIT SPECIFIC DATA SET, A CHECK IS MADE C TO INSURE DATA HAS BEEN READ IN THE CORRECT AREAL UNIT C SEQUENCE. IF INPUT IS INCORRECT AN ERROR MESSAGE IS PRINTED. C AT THE CONCLUSION OF THE INPUT PHASE, THE RUN IS TERMINATED C IF AN INPUT ERROR HAS OCCURRED. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C READ NUMBER OF ACTIVITIES IN EACH PLANNING UNIT SET;NUMBER OF C AGE GROUPS,RECREATION ACTIVITIES AND BASIC AREAL UNITS; AND C NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS READ(5,10) A,B,C,M,N,T,W,X,Y 10 FORMAT(9I3) C READ PARTICIPATION DATA READ(5,11) (ACTSEQ(J),(PART(J,I),I=1,M),J=1,N) C COUNT NUMBER OF READS CNT=0 30 CNT=CNT+1 C CHECK ACTIVITY SEQUENCE FOR INPUT ERRORS DO 100 J=1,N FLAG=0 ERROR=0 IF (ACTSEQ(J) .NE. J)ERROR=l IF (ERROR .EQ. 1)FLAG=1 100 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY SEQUENCE CHECK ARRAY TO '0' DO 101 J=1,N ACTSEQ(J)=0 101 CONTINUE C CHECK COUNT OF READS COMPLETED AND PASS CONTROL TO APPROPRIATE C READ STATEMENT IF (CNT-2)31,32,33 C READ PREFERENCE DATA 31 READ(5,11) (ACTSEQ(J),(PREF(J,I),I=1,M),J=1,N) 11 F0RMAT(I3,22X,8F3.3) GO TO 30 C READ ACTIVITY DATA 32 READ(5,12) (ACTSEQ(J),USEDEN(J),SPAUNT(J),FCOST(J),ADJFCT(J), CHOME(J),J=1,N) 204 12 FORMAT(I3,22X,F7.2,F7.4,F8.6,lX,F3.3,lX,F3.3) GO TO 30 C READ POPULATION DATA-AREAL DATA COLLECTION UNIT 33 READ(5,13) (UNTSEQ(K),(POP(K,I),1=1,M),K=1,T) 13 FORMAT(I3,22X,8F4.0) 34 CNT=CNT+1 C ROUTINE FOR SEQUENCE CHECK AND INITIALIZATION C CHECK PLANNING UNIT SEQUENCE FOR INPUT ERRORS DO 102 K=1,T ERROR= 0 IF (UNTSEQ(K) .NE. K)ERROR=l IF (ERROR .EQ. 1)FLAG=2 102 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE PLANNING UNIT SEQUENCE CHECK ARRAY TO '0' DO 103 K=1,T UNTSEQ(K)=0 103 CONTINUE C CHECK READ COUNT AND PASS CONTROL TO APPROPRIATE STATEMENT IF (CNT-5)35,36 f37 C READ NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL SUPPLY DATA-AREAL UNIT 35 READ(5,14)(UNTSEQ(K),NSUPLY(K),CSUPLY(K),MSUPLY(K),K=1,T) 14 F0RMAT(I3,22X,3F4.1) GO TO 34 C READ COST DATA 36 READ(5,15) (UNTSEQ(K),LCOST(K),K=1,T) 15 FORMAT(I3,22X,F8.6) GO TO 34 37 CONTINUE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C HECTARE ADJUSTMENT ROUTINE C THIS ROUTINE CONVERTS INPUT DATA FROM ACRES TO HECTARE C EQUIVALENTS. CONVERSIONS ARE PERFORMED ON THE FOLLOWING C INPUT DATA: C 1) NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PARKLAND C SUPPLY, C 2) PLANNING AREA LAND COSTS, C 3) USER DENSITY AND UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENTS, C 4) FACILITY DEVELOPMENT COST. C THE ROUTINE IS INVOKED BY SETTING THE VARIABLE 'ADJHEC' TO C '1' C O * IS 'OFF'). * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * IF (ADJHEC .EQ. 0) GO TO 38 HECTAR=2.8 DO 195 K=1,T NSUPLY(K)=NSUPLY(K)/HECTAR CSUPLY(K)=CSUPLY(K)/HECTAR MSUPLY(K)=MSUPLY(K)/HECTAR LCOST(K)=LCOST(K)*HECTAR 195 CONTINUE DO 196 J=1,N USEDEN(J)=USEDEN(J)*HECTAR SPAUNT(J)=SPAUNT(J)/HECTAR 205 FCOST(J)=FCOST(J)*HECTAR 196 CONTINUE WRITE(6,20) 20 FORMAT('1','SUPPLY, LAND AND FACILITY, AND USER DENSITY/SPACE REQU CIREMENT DATA ARE IN HECTARES') 38 CONTINUE C THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS OUTPUT ALL INPUT DATA TO CHECK ACCURACY C OF READS C WRITE PARTICIPATION DATA IF (SUPRIT .EQ. 1) GO TO 300 WRITE(6,200) 200 FORMAT('1',6X,'ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY',22X,'AGE-GROUP',1X, C'PARTICIPATION RATES(PERCENT)') WRITE(6,201) 201 FORMATC 1 , 7X, ' NUMBER' , 6X, ' NAME' , 5X, ' AGE 5-14',2X, CAGE 15-24',2X,'AGE 25-34', 2X, ' AGE 35-44 ' , 2X, ' AGE 45-54', C2X,'AGE 55-64',2X,'AGE 65-74',2X,'AGE 75-UP*,///) WRITE(6,202) (J,(PART(J,I),I=1,M),J-l,N) 202 FORMAT(' ',7X,13,19X,F5.3,6X,F5.3,6X,F5.3,6X,F5.3,6X, CF5.3,6X,F5.3,6X,F5.3,6X,F5.3) C WRITE PREFERENCE DATA WRITE(6,203) 203 FORMAT('1',6X,'ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY',25X,'AGE-GROUP*,IX, C'PREFERENCE RATES(PERCENT)') WRITE(6,201) WRITE(6,202) (J,(PREF(J,I),I=1,M),J=1,N) C WRITE ACTIVITY DATA WRITE(6,204) 204 FORMAT('1',6X,'ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY',5X,'USER',5X, CSPATIAL UNIT',3X,'FACILITY',4X,'ANCILLARY SPACE',3X,'PERCENT') WRITE(6,205) 205 FORMAT(' ',7X,'NUMBER',6X,'NAME',6X,'DENSITY',3X, C'REQUIREMENT',5X,'COST',5X,'ADJUSTMENT FACTOR',2X, C'HOME BASED',///) WRITE(6,206) (J,USEDEN(J),SPAUNT(J),FCOST(j),ADJFCT(J),HOME(J), CJ=1,N) 206 FORMAT(' ' ,7X,13,18X,F7.2,4X,F7.4,8X,F8.6,8X,F5.3,10X,F5.3) C WRITE POPULATION DATA WRITE(6,207) 207 FORMAT('1',IX,'PLAN UNIT',5X,'PLAN UNIT',37X, CAGE-GROUP POPULATION FIGURES') WRITE(6,208) 208 FORMAT(' ',2X,'NUMBER',9X,'NAME12X,'AGE 5-14',2X, CAGE 15-24' ,2X, 'AGE 25-34', 2X, ' AGE 35-44', 2X, ' AGE 45-54', C2X,'AGE 55-64',2X,'AGE 65-74',2X,'AGE 75-UP',IX,' TOTAL ',///) WRITE(6,209)(K,(POP(K,I),I=1,M),K=1,T) 209 FORMAT(' ',3X,13,27X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0, C5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0) C WRITE PLANNING UNIT SUPPLY AND COST DATA WRITE(6,210) 210 FORMAT('1' ,4X,'PLAN UNIT',3X,'PLAN UNIT',3X,1 NEIGHBOURHOOD' , C3X,'COMMUNITY',3X,'MUNICIPAL',3X,'LAND COST') WRITE(6,211) 211 FORMATC ',5X,'NUMBER',7X,'NAME',9X,'SUPPLY',9X,'SUPPLY', C6X,'SUPPLY',4X,'(MILLIONS)',///) WRITE(6,212) (K,NSUPLY(K),CSUPLY(K),MSUPLY(K),LCOST(K),K=1,T) 206 212 FORMATC ',7X,13,21X,F5.1,10X,F5.1,7X,F5.1,5X,F8.6) 300 CONTINUE C CHECK FOR ERROR IN INPUT IF (FLAG .EQ. 0) GO TO 25 WRITE(6,21) FLAG 21 FORMAT('1'INPUT ERROR IN DATA INPUT SET*,13) RETURN 25 CONTINUE * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE IS THE'PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION MODULE'. C IT HAS TWO SUB-COMPONENTS-A SUPPLY AND DEMAND CLASSIFICATION C ROUTINES. THE SUPPLY ROUTINE ESTIMATES LAND SUPPLY AND COST IN C NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS. IT ALSO C INCLUDES A ROUTINE FOR ARRANGING PLANNING UNIT NAMES. THE DEMAND C ROUTINE ESTIMATES POTENTIAL USERS IN NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND C MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS. AGE-SPECIFIC DEMAND RATES, CALCULATED C BY SUMMING PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE RATES, ARE APPLIED TO C AGE-SPECIFIC POPULATION FIGURES TO ESTIMATE AGE-SPECIFIC POTENTIAL C USERS IN BASIC AREAL UNITS. SUMMING ACROSS AGE GROUPS AND AREAL C UNITS YIELDS POTENTIAL USERS FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN NEIGHBOURHOOD, C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS. C BOTH SUPPLY AND DEMAND ROUTINES ARE AIDED BY USING A 'PLANNING C UNIT CLASSIFICATION MATRIX' WHICH DEFINES A NESTED HIERARCHICAL C PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * C READ PLANNING UNIT MATRIX DO 104 K=1,T READ(5,16) BUNIT(K),(NNAM(K,L),L=1,20),NUNIT(K), C(CNAM(K,L),L=1,20),CUNIT(K),(MNAM(K,L),L=1,20),MUNIT(K) 104 CONTINUE DO 105 K.-1,T WRITE(6,16) BUNIT(K),(NNAM(K,L),L=1,20),NUNIT(K), C(CNAM(K,L),L=1,20),CUNIT(K),(MNAM(K,L),L=1,20),MUNIT(K) 16 FORMAT(13,7X,20A1,13,20A1,13,20Al,13) 105 CONTINUE DO 107 K=1,T DO 106 L=l,20 NEBNAM(K,L)=BLANK COMNAM(K,L)=BLANK MUNNAM(K,L)= BLANK 106 CONTINUE 107 CONTINUE NNUM=0 CNUM=0 MNUM=0 DO 110 K=1,T C ASSIGN BASIC DATA COLLECTION ZONE TO A NEIGHBOURHOOD, C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA AS SPECIFIED IN C THE 'PLANNING UNIT CLASSIFICATION MATRIX'. NEIGH=NUNIT(K) COM=CUNIT(K) MUN=MUNIT(K) 207 PUNT=BUNIT(K) C SUM LAND SUPPLY AND LAND COST FROM BASIC AREAL UNITS C TO NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREAS. NEBSUP(NEIGH)=NEBSUP(NEIGH)+NSUPLY(PUNT) COMSUP(COM)=COMSUP(COM)+CSUPLY(PUNT) MUNSUP(MUN)=MUNSUP(MUN)+MSUPLY(PUNT) NCOST(NEIGH)=NCOST(NEIGH)+LCOST(PUNT) CCOST(COM)=CCOST(COM)+LCOST(PUNT) MCOST(MUN)=MCOST(MUN)+LCOST(PUNT) C COUNT BASIC AREA DATA COLLECTION ZONES IN EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD C PLANNING AREA NCNT(NEIGH)=NCNT(NEIGH)+1 IF (NCNT(NEIGH) .GT. 1) GO TO 39 C COUNT NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING AREAS IN EACH C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA COMNEB(COM)=COMNEB(COM)+1 MUNNEB(MUN)=MUNNEB(MUN)+1 C COUNT NUMBER OF BASIC AREA DATA COLLECTION ZONES IN EACH C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA 39 CCNT(COM)=CCNT(COM)+l MCNT(MUN)=MCNT(MUN)+1 C COUNT NUMBER OF NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL C PLANNING AREAS IF (NUNIT(K) .GT. NNUM) NNUM=NUNIT(K) IF (CUNIT(K) .GT. CNUM) CNUM=CUNIT(K) IF (MUNIT(K) .GT. MNUM) MNUM=MUNIT(K) C SUM POPULATION, BY AGE GROUP AND IN TOTAL, FROM BASIC AREAL C DATA COLLECTION ZONES TO NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND C MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREAS DO 108 1=1,M IF (ADJPOP .EQ. 0) GO TO 40 POP(PUNT,I)=POPADJ(COM)*POP(PUNT,I) 40 NPOP(NEIGH,I)=NPOP(NEIGH,I)+POP(PUNT,I) TNPOP(NEIGH)=TNPOP(NEIGH)+POP(PUNT,I) CPOP(COM,I)=CPOP(COM,I)+POP(PUNT,I) TCPOP(COM)=TCPOP(COM)+POP(PUNT,I) MPOP(MUN,I)=MPOP(MUN,I)+POP(PUNT,I) TMPOP(MUN)=TMPOP(MUN)+POP(PUNT,I) 108 CONTINUE C ARRANGE NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA C NAMES DO 109 L=l,20 IF (EQUC(NNAM(K,L),BLANK)) GO TO 41 NEBNAM(NEIGH,L)=NNAM(K,L) 41 IF (EQUC(CNAM(K,L),BLANK)) GO TO 42' COMNAM(COM,L)=CNAM(K,L) 42 IF (EQUC(MNAM(K,L),BLANK)) GO TO 109 MUNNAM(MUN,L)=MNAM(K,L) 109 CONTINUE 110 CONTINUE C COMPUTE 'AVERAGE LAND COST' IN EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING C AREA BASED ON SUM OF LAND COSTS IN EACH DATA COLLECTION ZONE C DIVIDED BY THE NUMBER OF ZONES (WITHIN THE PLANNING AREA). NEIGH=0 43 NEIGH=NEIGH+1 NEBCST(NEIGH)=NCOST(NEIGH)/NCNT(NEIGH) 208 IF (NEIGH .LT. NNUM) GO TO 43 C CALCULATE 'AVERAGE LAND COST' FOR EACH COMMUNITY PLANNING AREA COM=0 44 COM=COM+l COMCST(COM)=CCOST(COM)/CCNT(COM) IF (COM .LT. CNUM) GO TO 44 C CALCULATE 'AVERAGE LAND COST' FOR EACH MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA MUN=MNUM MUNCST(MUN)=MCOST(MUN)/MCNT(MUN) IF (ADJPOP .EQ. 0) GO TO 45 C WRITE ADJUSTED POPULATION FIGURES WRITE(6,207) WRITE(6,208) WRITE(6,209) (K,(POP(K,I), I = 1, M),K=1,T) WRITE(6,213) 213 FORMAT('-','ADJUSTED POPULATION FIGURES') 45 CONTINUE IF (SUPRIT .EQ. 1) GO TO 301 C THE FOLLOWING OUTPUT ROUTINE WRITES NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY C AND MUNICIPAL POPULATIONS ACCORDING TO ORDER OF HIERARCHICAL C CLASSIFICATION COMCNT=0 MUNCNT=0 COM=l MUN=1 WRITE(6,207) WRITE(6,208) NEIGH=0 46 NEIGH=NEIGH+1 C WRITE NEIGHBOURHOOD POPULATION FIGURES BY AGE AND IN TOTAL WRITE(6,214) NEIGH,(NEBNAM(NEIGH,L),L=1,20),(NPOP(NEIGH,I),I=1,M), CTNPOP(NEIGH) 214 FORMATC ',3X,I3,4X,20A1,3X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0, C5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X,F6.0,5X;F6.0,5X,F6.0) COMCNT=COMCNT+l MUNCNT=MUNCNT+1 C IF POPULATIONS FOR ALL NEIGHBOURHOODS WITHIN COMMUNITY ARE NOT C PRINTED, THEN RETURN TO PRINT NEXT NEIGHBOURHOOD POPULATION IF (COMCNT .LT. COMNEB(COM)) GO TO 46 C IF POPULATION FIGURES FOR ALL NEIGHBOURHOODS WITHIN THE C COMMUNITY ARE PRINTED, THEN WRITE THE COMMUNITY POPULATION-C TOTALS WRITE(6,214) COM,(COMNAM(COM,L),L=1,20),(CPOP(COM,I),1=1,M), CTCPOP(COM) COM=COM+l COMCNT=0 IF (MUNCNT .LT. MUNNEB(MUN)) GO TO 46 C IF POPULATION FIGURES FOR ALL NEIGHBOURHOODS IN MUNICIPALITY C ARE PRINTED, THEN WRITE MUNICIPAL TOTALS WRITE(6,214) MUN,(MUNNAM(MUN,L),L=1,20),(MPOP(MUN,I),I=1,M), CTMPOP(MUN) C THE FOLLOWING OUTPUT ROUTINE PRINTS THE NAME, NUMBER OF BASIC C DATA COLLECTION ZONES, LAND SUPPLY AND TOTAL AND AVERAGE LAND C COST OF EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA C WRITE NEIGHBOURHOOD LAND SUPPLY AND COST WRITE(6,215) 2 0 9 WRITE(6,216) WRITE(6,217) (K,(NEBNAM(K, L),L=1,20),NCNT(K),NEBSUP(K),NCOST(K), CNEBCST(K),K=1,NNUM) C WRITE COMMUNITY LAND SUPPLY AND COST WRITE(6,215) WRITE(6,216) WRITE(6,217) (K,(COMNAM(K,L),L=l,20),CCNT(K),COMSUP(K),CCOST(K), CCOMCST(K),K=1,CNUM) C WRITE MUNICIPAL LAND SUPPLY AND COST WRITE(6,215) WRITE(6,216) WRITE(6,217) (K,(MUNNAM(K,L),L=1,20),MCNT(K),MUNSUP(K),MCOST(K), CMUNCST(K),K=1,MNUM) 215 FORMAT('1', 6X, 'PLAN UNIT',3X,'PLANNING',14X,'BASIC AREAL', C3X,'PLANNING UNIT',3X,'AGGREGATE',3X,'AVERAGE') 216 FORMAT(' ',7X,'NUMBER',5X,'UNIT NAME',13X,'UNIT COUNT', C5X,'LAND SUPPLY',4X,'LAND COST' ,3X,* LAND COST' ,///) 217 FORMATC *,8X,I3,7X,20Al,5X,I2,12X,F5.i;7X,F9.6,4X,F8.6) 301 CONTINUE C CALCULATE DEMAND RATES DO 112 J=1,N DO 111 1=1,M DEMAND(J,I)=PART(J,I)+PREF(J,I) 111 CONTINUE 112 CONTINUE ****************************** C THE FOLLOWING DEMAND ROUTINE CALCULATES AGE-SPECIFIC POTENTIAL C USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY FOR EACH BASIC AREAL UNIT. C POTENTIAL USERS ARE SUMMED ACROSS AGE GROUPS AND AREAL UNITS C TO ESTIMATE ACTIVITY-SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH C NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNIT SET. ******************************************************************** C CALCULATE POTENTIAL USERS FOR EACH PLANNING UNIT SET. DO 115 K=1,T NEIGH=NUNIT(K) COM=CUNIT(K) MUN=MUNIT(K) PUNT=BUNIT(K) DO 114 J=1,N DO 113 1=1,M C CALCULATE AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH BASIC DATA C COLLECTION ZONE FOR EACH ACTIVITY POTUSR(J,I,PUNT)=DEMAND(J,I)*POP(PUNT,I) C ADJUST POTENTIAL USER FIGURES FOR HOME BASED USERS IN EACH C RECREATION ACTIVITY IF (ADJPU .EQ. 1) POTUSR(J,I,PUNT)=POTUSR(J,I,PUNT)*(1.-HOME(J)) C SUM AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS FROM BASIC DATA COLLECTION C ZONES TO TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY C FOR EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA NTOTPU(NEIGH,J)=NTOTPU(NEIGH,J)+POTUSR(J,I,PUNT) CTOTPU(COM,J)=CTOTPU(COM,J)+POTUSR(J,I,PUNT) TOTPU(MUN,J)=TOTPU(MUN,J)+POTUSR(J,I,PUNT) 113 CONTINUE 114 CONTINUE 115 CONTINUE C OUTPUT DEMAND RATES IF (SUPRIT .EQ. 1) GO TO 302 C OUPTUT DEMAND RATES WRITE(6,220) 220 FORMAT(' 1',6X,'ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY',26X,'AGE-GROUP',1X, C'DEMAND RATES(PERCENT)') WRITE(6,201) WRITE(6,202) (J,(DEMAND(J,I),1=1,M>,J=l,N) C OUTPUT AGE-SPECIFIC POTENTIAL USERS IF (RITSUP .EQ. 1) GO TO 302 C THE FOLLOWING OUTPUT ROUTINE PRINTS AGE SPECIFIC POTENTIAL C USERS (IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY) FOR EACH BASIC DATA C COLLECTION ZONE K=0 29 K=K+1 WRITE(6,221) K 221 FORMAT('1','AREAL UNIT',13) WRITE(6,222) (J,(POTUSR(J,I,K),I=1,M),J=1,N) 222 FORMATC ' ,13,2X, 8F5. 0 ) IF (K .LT. T) GO TO 29 C THE FOLLOWING OUTPUT ROUTINE PRINTS TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS C IN EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY FOR EACH NEIGHBOURHOOD, COMMUNITY C AND MUNICIPAL PLANNING AREA. FOR NEIGHBOURHOOD AND COMMUNITY C AREAS, TABLES ARE PRINTED IN BLOCKS OF TEN (10) PLANNING C AREAS (ACROSS COLUMNS) C NEIGHBOURHOOD POTENTIAL USERS CNT=0 PRNT=0 PRNT=(W+9)/10 START=1 FINISH=10 INCMNT=10 18 CONTINUE CNT=CNT+1 IF (CNT .EQ. PRNT) FINISH=W C OUTPUT PLANNING UNIT POTENTIAL USERS C NEIGHBOURHOOD POTENTIAL USERS WRITE(6,223) 223 FORMAT('1',6X,'NEIGHBOURHOOD POTENTIAL USERS') WRITE(6,224) 224 FORMATC-' ,22X, 'PLANNING UNIT') WRITE(6,225) 225 FORMATC ',6X,'ACTIVITY',11X,'1',6X,'2',6X,'3',6X,'4', C6X,'5',6X,'6',6X,'7',6X,'8',6X,'9',6X,'10',///) IF (FINISH .EQ. W) GO TO 73 WRITE(6,226) (J,(NTOTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,N) 226 FORMATC ' , 9X, 13 ,10X,F6 . 0 , IX,F6 . 0 , IX,F6. 0 , IX, F6. 0 , C1X,F6.0,1X,F6.0,1X,F6.0,1X,F6.0,1X,F6.0,1X,F6.0) START=START+INCMNT FINISH=FINISH+INCMNT IF (CNT .LT. PRNT) GO TO 18 73 CONTINUE WRITE(6,227) (J,(NTOTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,N) 211 227 FORMAT(' *,9X,13,10X,F6.0,IX,F6.0,IX,F6.0,IX,F6.0) C COMMUNITY POTENTIAL USERS CNT=0 PRNT=0 PRNT=(X+9)/10 START=1 FINISH=10 INCMNT=10 64 CONTINUE CNT=CNT+1 IF (CNT .EQ. PRNT) FINISH=X WRITE(6,228) 228 FORMAT('1',6X,'COMMUNITY POTENTIAL USERS') WRITE(6,224) WRITE(6,225) IF (FINISH .EQ. X) GO TO 65 WRITE(6,226) (J,(CTOTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,N) S TART=START+1NCMNT FINISH=FINISH+INCMNT IF (CNT .LT. PRNT) GO TO 64 65 CONTINUE WRITE(6,229) (J,(CTOTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,N) 229 FORMAT(' 1 ,9X,13,10X,F6.0,IX,F6.0) C MUNICIPAL POTENTIAL USERS WRITE(6,230) 230 FORMAT('1',6X,'MUNICIPAL POTENTIAL USERS') WRITE(6,224) WRITE(6,231) 231 FORMATC ', 6X, ' ACTIVITY', 11X, ' 1' ,///) WRITE(6,232) (J,(TOTPU(K,J),K=1,Y),J=1,N) 232 FORMATC ' , 9X, 13 ,10X,F6. 0 ) 302 CONTINUE ********************************************* C THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE IS THE 'PLANNING UNIT-ACTIVITY C CLASSIFICATION MODULE', IT PREPARES THE APPROPRIATE C SUPPLY,COST,DEMAND AND ACTIVITY DATA ARRAYS REQUIRED C FOR SUBSEQUENT PROCESSING OF A PLANNING UNIT (NEIGHBOURHOOD, C COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL) SYSTEM. ************************************* C READ ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION MATRIX DO 120 J=1,N READ(5,17) (ACTNAM(J,L),L=1,20),ACT(J),NJ(J),CJ(J),TJ(J), C(CMPNAM(J,L),L=1,16),ACTCMP(J),(FCTNAM(J,L),L=1,16), CFACTYP(J),(I0NAM(J,L),L=l,8),INOUT(J) 120 CONTINUE C OUTPUT ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION MATRIX DO 121 J=1,N WRITE(6,17) (ACTNAM(J,L),L=l,20),ACT(J),NJ(J),CJ(J),TJ(J), C(CMPNAM(J,L),L=1,16),ACTCMP(J),(FCTNAM(J,L),L=1,16), CFACTYP(J),(I0NAM(J,L),L=1,8),INOUT(J) 17 FORMAT(20A1,413,16A1,1 3,16A1,12,8A1,13) 121 CONTINUE 212 C CHECK 'CONTROL' AND SET NUMBER OF PLANNING UNITS CONTINGENT ON C ANALYSIS OF NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY OR MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS. C INITIALIZE ARRAYS IN PLANNING UNIT/ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION C ROUTINE. C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY POTENTIAL USER ARRAY CONTRL=0 1 CONTRL=CONTRL+1 DO 117 K=1,T DO 116 J=1,N ACTPU(K,J)=0. 116 CONTINUE 117 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY NAME,USER DENSITY,UNIT SPACE REQUIREMENT AND C ADJUSTMENT FACTOR ARRAYS. DO 118 J=1,N DENUSE(J)=0 UNTSPC(J)=0 FACCST(J)=0 ANCADJ(J)=0. 118 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE PLANNING UNIT SUPPLY AND CUST ARRAYS. DO 119 K=1,T SUPLND(K)=0 CSTLND(K)=0 119 CONTINUE DO 123 K=1,T DO 122 L=l,20 NAMUNT(K,L)=BLANK 122 CONTINUE 123 CONTINUE DO 127 J=1,N DO 126 L=l,20 NAMACT(J,L)=BLANK 126 CONTINUE 127 CONTINUE IF (CONTRL .EQ. 1) T=W IF (CONTRL .EQ. 2) T=X IF (CONTRL .EQ. 3) T=Y C EXTRACT PLANNING UNIT NAMES OF SYSTEM BEING ANALYZED. DO 125 K=1,T DO 124 L=l,20 IF (CONTRL-2) 49,48,47 47 NAMUNT(K,L)=MUNNAM(K,L) GO TO 124 48 NAMUNT(K,L)=COMNAM(K,L) GO TO 124 49 NAMUNT(K,L)=NEBNAM(K,L) 124 CONTINUE 125 CONTINUE ) ******************************* C THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE EXTRACTS THE APPROPRIATE SUPPLY, COST, C DEMAND(POTENTIAL USERS) AND ACTIVITY DATA(ACTIVITY NAME,USER C DENITY,SPATIAL UNIT REQUIREMENT AND ADJUSTMENT FACTORS) FOR C THE PLANNING UNIT(NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL) SYSTEM 213 C TO BE ANALYZED. ***************************** J=0 sw=o ACTCNT=0 DO 129 K=1,T IF (CONTRL-2) 52,51,50 C ASSIGN SUPPLY AND COST TO MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNIT 50 SUPLND(K)=MUNSUP(K) CSTLND(K)=MUNCST(K) GO TO 53 C ASSIGN SUPPLY AND COST DATA TO COMMUNITY PLANNING UNITS 51 SUPLND(K)=COMSUP(K) CSTLND(K)=COMCST(K) GO TO 53 C ASSIGN SUPPLY AND COST DATA TO NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING UNITS 52 SUPLND(K)=NEBSUP(K) CSTLND(K)=NEBCST(K) 53 J=0 54 J=J+1 IF (J .GT. N) GO TO 60 IF (CONTRL-2) 57,56,55 C ASSIGN POTENTIAL USER TO MUNICIPAL PLANNING UNITS 55 IF (TJ(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 54 POSN=TJ(J) PACT=ACT(J) ACTPU(K,POSN)=TOTPU(K,PACT) GO TO 58 C ASSIGN POTENTIAL USERS TO COMMUNITY PLANNING UNITS 56 IF (CJ(J) .EQ- 0) GO TO 54 POSN=CJ(J) PACT=ACT(J) ACTPU(K,POSN)=CTOTPU(K,PACT) GO TO 58 C ASSIGN POTENTIAL USERS TD NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING UNITS 57 IF (NJ(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 54 POSN=NJ(j) PACT=ACT(J) ACTPU(K,POSN)=NTOTPU(K,PACT) C ASSIGN ACTIVITY DATA(ACTIVITY NAME,USER DENSITIES,SPATIAL UNIT C REQUIREMENTS,AND ADJUSTMENT FACTOR) TO RELEVANT ACTIVITIES C IN EACH (NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY AND MUNICIPAL) PLANNING UNIT C CLASSIFICATION. 58 IF (SW .EQ. 1) GO TO 59 DO 128 L=l,20 NAMACT(POSN,L)=ACTNAM(PACT,L) 128 CONTINUE DENUSE(POSN)=USEDEN(PACT) UNTSPC(POSN)=SPAUNT(PACT) FACCST(POSN)=FCOST(PACT) ANCADJ(POSN)=ADJFCT(PACT) ACTCNT=ACTCNT+1 59 IF (J .LT. N) GO TO 54 60 SW=1 214 129 CONTINUE WRITE(6,407) CONTRL 407 FORMAT('1','PLANNING UNIT SET',3X,I3) C OUTPUT PLANNING UNIT NAMES,SUPPLY AND COST C WRITE PLANNING UNIT SUPPLY AND COST DATA IF (SUPRIT .EQ. 1) GO TO 303 WRITE(6,235) 235 FORMAT('1',4X,'PLAN UNIT',7X,'PLAN UNIT', C10X,'PLAN UNIT',3X,'LAND COST') WRITE(6,236) 236 FORMAT(' ',5X,'NUMBER',11X,'NAME',15X,'SUPPLY', C4X,'(MILLIONS)',///) WRITE(6,237) (K,(NAMUNT(K,D,L=1,20),SUPLND(K),CSTLND(K),K=1,T) 237 FORMAT(' ',7X,13,7X,20A1,4X,F5.1,5X,F8.6) C OUTPUT ACTIVITY DATA WRITE(6,238) 238 FORMAT(!1',6X,'ACTIVITY',5X,'ACTIVITY',15X,'USER',5X, C'SPATIAL UNIT',4X,'FACILITY',4X,'ANCILLARY SPACE') WRITE(6,239) 239 FORMAT(' ',7X,'NUMBER',6X,'NAME',18X,'DENSITY',3X, C * REQUIREMENT',7X,'COST' ,5X,'ADJUSTMENT FACTOR' ,///) WRITE(6,240) (J,(NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),DENUSE(J),UNTSPC(J), CFACCST(J),ANCADJ(J),J=1,ACTCNT) 240 FORMAT(' ',7X,I 3,10X,20A1,IX,F7.2,4X,F7.4,8X,F8.6,8X,F5.3) IF (RITSUP .EQ. 1) GO TO 303 IF (CONTRL-2) 61,62,63 C NEIGHBOURHOOD POTENTIAL USERS 61 CNT=0 PRNT=0 PRNT=(T+9)/10 START=1 FINISH=10 INCMNT=10 19 CONTINUE CNT=CNT+1 IF (CNT .EQ. PRNT) FINISH=T WRITE(6,223) WRITE(6,224) WRITE(6,225) IF (FINISH .EQ. T) GO TO 67 WRITE(6,226) (J,(ACTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,ACTCNT) START=START+INCMNT FINISH=FINISH+INCMNT IF (CNT .LT. PRNT) GO TO 19 67 CONTINUE C COMMUNITY POTENTIAL USERS WRITE(6,227) (J,(ACTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,ACTCNT) GO TO 303 62 CNT=0 PRNT=0 PRNT=(T+9)/10 START=1 FINISH=10 INCMNT=10 68 CONTINUE CNT=CNT+1 215 IF (CNT .EQ. PRNT) FINISH=T WRITE(6,228) WRITE(6,224) WRITE(6,225) IF (FINISH .EQ. T) GO TO 69 WRITE(6,226) (J,(ACTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,ACTCNT) START=START+INCMNT FINISH=FINISH+INCMNT IF (CNT .LT. PRNT) GO TO 68 69 CONTINUE C MUNICIPAL POTENTIAL USERS WRITE(6,229) (J,(ACTPU(K,J),K=START,FINISH),J=1,ACTCNT) GO TO 303 63 CONTINUE WRITE(6 f230) WRITE(6,224) WRITE(6,231) WRITE(6,232) (J,(ACTPU(K,J),K=1,Y),J=1,ACTCNT) 303 CONTINUE ************************************* C USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATION ROUTINE C THIS ROUTINE CALCULATES THE PROPORTION OF TOTAL USERS WHICH CAN C BE ACCOMMODATED ON TOTAL AVAILABLE SPACE AT ANY GIVEN POINT IN C TIME. THE PROCEDURE HAS FOUR SUBROUTINES. C C THE FIRST ROUTINE CALCULATES THE INITIAL USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO C BASED ON THE FORMULA: AVERAGE USER DENSITY X AVERAGE UNIT SPACE C REQUIREMENTS X AVERAGE NUMBER OF UNITS WHICH CAN BE ACCOMMODATED C ON AVAILABLE LAND / TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS. C C THIS INITIAL USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO IS USED IN THE SECOND, ROUTINE C TO CALCULATE, ALONG WITH TOTAL USERS, PEAK USERS, AND NUMBER OF UNIT C AND SPACE REQUIRED FOR EACH ACTIVITY AND IN TOTAL. ESTIMATED TOTAL C SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE COMPARED WITH SUPPLY TO TEST WHETHER A SPACE C SURPLUS OR DEFICIT HAS BEEN ESTIMATED USING THE USER ACCOMMODATION C PROPORTION. C C THE THIRD ROUTINE PRORATES ANY TOTAL DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT) C TO EACH ACTIVITY BASED ON THE PERCENTAGE OF ACTIVITY SPACE REQUIREMEN C TO TOTAL SPACE REQUIRED. THE NUMBER OF USERS ASSOCIATED WITH THIS C SPACE DISCREPANCY IS ESTIMATED FOR EACH ACTIVITY. IF CALCULATED C SPACE REQUIREMENTS EXCEED AVAILABLE SUPPLY (DEFICIT) THE NUMBER OF C PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH EXCESS SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE SUBTRACTED C FROM ESTIMATED PEAK USERS AND DIVIDED BY TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS C TO ADJUST THE USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO DOWNWARD. CONVERSELY, IF C CALCULATED SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE LESS THAN SUPPLY (SURPLUS), THE C NUMBER OF PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE SPACE SURPLUS ARE ADDED C TO PEAK USERS TO ADJUST THE USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO UPWARD. THIS C ADJUSTED USER ACCOMMODATION IS THEN APPLIED TO THE SECOND SUBROUTINE C AND THE ENTIRE PROCESS REPEATED UNTIL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESTIMATE C SPACE REQUIREMENTS AND SUPPLY IS LESS THAN ONE QUARTER OF AN ACRE. C C THE FOURTH SUBROUTINE IS AN OPTIONAL ROUTINE WHICH ADJUSTS C THE USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO TO ACCOUNT FOR ANCILLARY SPACE 216 C REQUIREMENTS. ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE c C ESTIMATED AS A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS. THE TOTAL C NUMBER OF PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE C SUBTRACTED FROM PEAK USERS TO ADJUST THE USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO. C THE ADJUSTED USER ACCOMMODATION RATIO IS THEN APPLIED TO THE SECOND C SUBROUTINE, AND SUBROUTINES TWO AND THREE REPEATED UNTIL THE C DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ESTIMATED SPACE REQUIREMENTS (INCLUDING ANCILLARY C SPACE) AND SUPPLY IS LESS THAN ONE QUARTER OF AN ACRE. (NOTE: THE C DISCREPANCY DESIRED CAN BE SET IN THE PROGRAM AND ITERATIONS C CONTINUED UNTIL SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE WITHIN THE DEVIATION FROM C SUPPLY DESIRED). ************************************* FIRST=0. SECOND=0. THIRD=0. FOURTH=0. FIFTH=0. DO 135 J=l,ACTCNT FIRST=FIRST+DENUSE(J) FOURTH=FOURTH+UNTSPC(J) 135 CONTINUE FIRST=FIRST/ACTCNT SECOND=FOURTH/ACTCNT DO 136 K=1,T THIRD=THIRD+SUPLND(K) 136 CONTINUE THIRD=THIRD/T DO 138 K=1,T DO 137 J=l,ACTCNT FIFTH=FIFTH+ACTPU(K,J) 137 CONTINUE 138 CONTINUE FIFTH=FIFTH/(T*ACTCNT) MINPRP=(FIRST* SECOND*(THIRD/FOURTH))/FIFTH WRITE(6,250) CONTRL,FIRST,SECOND,THIRD,FOURTH,FIFTH 250 FORMAT('1',5X,'VALUES FOR UNITS',15,' ARE',5X,'FIRST=', CF10.3,'SECOND=',F8.2,'THIRD=',F8.2,'FOURTH=',F10.2,'FIFTH*',F8.2) WRITE(6,251) MINPRP 251 FORMAT('-','THE USER ACCOMMODATION VALUE IS ',F7.5) THRU=0 ANC=0 96 THRU=THRU+1 IF (THRU .GE. 25) GO TO 422 C INITIALIZE ARRAYS DO 141 K=1,T DO 140 J=1,N UNTNUM(K,J)= 0. SPCREQ(K,J)=0. 140 CONTINUE 141 CONTINUE DO 142 J=1,N ACTNUM(J)=0. ACTSPC(J)=0. ACTUSR(J)=0. 217 PKUSR(J)=0. 142 CONTINUE TOTUSR=0. TPKUSR=0. SPCTOT=0. SUPTOT=0. DEFTOT=0. DISCRP=0. DO 144 K=1,T DO 143 J=1,ACTCNT C CALCULATE POTENTIAL USERS FOR EACH ACTIVITY AND IN TOTAL ACTUSR(J)=ACTUSR(J)+ACTPU(K, J) TOTUSR=TOTUSR+ACTPU(K,J) C CALCULATE PEAK USERS PKUSR(J)=PKUSR(J) + (MINPRP*ACTPU(K,J)) TPKUSR=TPKUSR+(MINPRP*ACTPU(K,J)) C CALCULATE NUMBER OF UNITS REQUIRED UNTNUM(K,J)=((MINPRP*ACTPU(K,J))/(UNTSPC(J)*DENUSE(J))) ACTNUM(J)=ACTNUM(J)+UNTNUM(K,J) C CALCULATE SPACE REQUIRED FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN EACH PLANNING C AREA. IF USER ACCOMMODATION HAS BEEN ADJUSTED FOR ANCILLARY C SPACE (ANC=1), THE TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT IS ESTIMATED AS THE C TOTAL PLAYING SPACE AND ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS. IF (ANC .EQ. 0) SPCREQ(K,J)=UNTNUM(K,J)*UNTSPC(J) IF (ANC .EQ. 1) SPCREQ(K,J)=(UNTNUM(K,J)*UNTSPC(J))*(1.+(ANCADJ C(J)/(1.-ANCADJ(J)))) ACTSPC(J)=ACTSPC(J)+SPCREQ(K,J) SPCTOT=SPCTOT+SPCREQ(K,J) 143 CONTINUE C CALCULATE TOTAL LAND SUPPLY SUPTOT=SUPTOT+SUPLND(K) 144 CONTINUE C CALCULATE SPACE DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT). DEFTOT=SUPTOT-SPCTOT IF (SPCTOT .GT. SUPTOT) DlSCRP=SPCTOT-SUPTOT IF (SUPTOT .GE. SPCTOT) DlSCRP=SUPTOT-SPCTOT IF (SUPACC .EQ. 1) GO TO 420 C OUTPUT UNIT AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS AND DEFICIENCIES FOR C ROUND OF USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATIONS WRITE(6,280) THRU WRITE(6,281) WRITE(6,282) WRITE(6,283) WRITE(6,284) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),DENUSE(J),UNTSPC(J),ACTNUM(J), CACTSPC(J),J=1,ACTCNT) WRITE (6,28 5) SPCTOT,SUPTOT,DEFTOT,DlSCRP 280 FORMAT('1',10X,'USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATION - ROUND=',I2) 281 FORMAT('-', 2X,'RECREATION ACTIVITY',6X,'USER',8X,'UNIT SPACE',3X, C * NUMBER OF' ,3X,'ACTIVITY SPACE' ,2X,'LAND',5X,'SUPPLY' ,3X, CDISCREPANCY') 282 FORMATC ',26X,'DENSITY',5X,'REQUIREMENT',IX,'SPATIAL UNITS',2X, CREQUIREMENT',3X,'SUPPLY',2X,'DEFICIENCY') 283 FORMAT(' ',23X,'(PERSONS/ACRE)',3X,'(ACRES)',5X,'REQUIRED',7X, C(ACRES)',5X,'(ACRES)',2X,'(ACRES)',6X,'(ACRES)',///) 284 FORMATC ' , 2X, 20A1, 5X,F7 . 2 , 6X,F7 .4 , 7X,F5 .1, 9X,F6 .1) 285 FORMATC ',2X,'TOTAL',61X,F6.1,4X,F6.1,4X,F5.1,5X,F5.1) 218 420 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE ARRAYS DO 145 J=1,N PERCNT(J)=0. DIFSUP(J)=0. DIFPER(J)=0. 145 CONTINUE TOTSUP=0. TOTPER=0. DO 146 J=1,ACTCNT C CALCULATE THE" PERCENTAGE OF SPACE REQUIRED IN EACH ACTIVITY C BASED ON TOTAL SPACE REQUIRED PERCNT(J)=ACTSPC(J)/SPCTOT PRCENT(J)= PERCNT(J)*10 0 C PRORAGE THE TOTAL SPACE DISCREPANCY (SURPLUS OR DEFICIT) TO C EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY DlFSUP(J)=PERCNT(J)*DISCRP C CALCULATE THE NUMBER OF USERS ACCOMMODATED IN THE PRORATED C SPACE DISCREPANCY FOR EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY DlFPER(J)=DIFSUP(J)*DENUSE(J) C CALCULATE THE TOTAL DISCREPANCY IN SPACE AND PERSONS TOTSUP=TOTSUP+DIFSUP(J) TOTPER=TOTPER+DIFPER(J) 146 CONTINUE C IF CALCULATED SPACE REQUIREMENTS ARE GREATER THAN SUPPLY, C THEN SUBTRACT THE NUMBER OF PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE C EXCESS SPACE REQUIREMENTS FROM ESTIMATED PEAK USERS AND C DIVIDED BY TOTAL POTENTIAL USERS TO ADJUST THE USER C ACCOMMODATION RATIO DOWNWARD. IF CALCULATED SPACE C REQUIREMENTS ARE LESS THAN SUPPLY, ADD THE NUMBER OF C USERS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEFICIT TO ESTIMATED PEAK USERS C TO ADJUST THE USER ACCOMMODATION PROPORTION UPWARDS. IF (DEFTOT .LT. 0.) MINPRP=(TPKUSR-TOTPER)/TOTUSR IF (DEFTOT .GE. 0.) MINPRP=(TPKUSR+TOTPER)/TOTUSR IF (SUPACC .EQ. 1) GO TO 421 C OUTPUT FOR ROUND OF USER ACCOMMODATION ADJUSTMENT CALCULATIONS WRITE(6,286) WRITE(6,287) WRITE(6 r288) WRITE(6,289) WRITE(6,290) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),ACTSPC(J),PRCENT(J), CDIFSUP(J),DENUSE(J),DlFPER(J),PKUSR(J),ACTUSR(J),J=1,ACTCNT) WRITE(6,291) SPCTOT,SUPTOT,DEFTOT,TOTSUP,TOTPER,TPKUSR,TOTUSR 286 FORMAT('1',1OX,'USER ACCOMMODATION ADJUSTMENT CALCULATION') 287 FORMATC-',2X,'RECREATION ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY SPACE',IX, C'PERCENT OF',2X,'LAND',4X,'SUPPLY',4X,'PRORATED SPACE',5X, C'USER',10X,'USER',5X,'PEAK',1X,'POTENTIAL') 288 FORMAT(' ',26X,'REQUIREMENT',IX,'TOTAL SPACE*,IX,'SUPPLY',3X, C'DEFICIT',6X, C'DlSCREPANCY',4X,'DENSITY',5X,'DlSCREPANCY',IX,'USERS',2X, C'USERS') 289 FORMATC ',28X,'(ACRES)',3X,'REQUIREMENT',10X,'(ACRES)',8X, C(ACRES)',3X,'(PERSONS/ACRE)',5X,'(A)',6X,'(B)',5X,'(C)',///) 290 FORMATC ',2X,20A1,7X,F6.1,7X,F4.1,26X,F7.2,8X,F7.2,6X, CF6.0,3X,F6.0,2X,F7.0) 291 FORMATC-',2X,'TOTAL',22X,F6.1,14X,F6.1,3X,F6.1,8X,F7.2,21X, 219 CF6.0,3X,F6.0,2X,F7.0) 421 CONTINUE WRITE(6,292) MINPRP 292 FORMAT('-','ADJUSTED USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATED AS (B-A)/C IS:', CF7.5) IF (DISCRP .GT. .25) GO TO 96 422 CONTINUE C OPTIONAL USER ACCOMMODATION ADJUSTMENT CALCULATION FOR CONSIDERING C ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS IF (ADJANC .EQ. 0) GO TO 66 C INITIALIZE ARRAYS DO 148 J=1,N ANCSPC(J)=0. ADJSUP(J)=0. ANSPER(J)=0. 148 CONTINUE TOTANS=0. TADJSP=0. TANSPR=0. DO 149 J-l,ACTCNT C CALCULATE ANCILLARY SPACE REQUIREMENTS AS PORTION OF TOTAL C SPACE REQUIREMENTS ANCSPC(J)=ACTSPC(J)*ANCADJ(J) TOTANS=TOTANS+ANCSPC(J) C CALCULATE ADJUSTED (PLAYING SPACE) SPACE REQUIREMENTS ADJSUP(J)=ACTSPC(J)-ANCSPC(J) TADJSP=TADJSP+ADJSUP(J) C CALCULATE NUMBER OF USERS ASSOCIATED WITH SPACE DESIGNATED C TO ANCILLARY SPACE ANSPER(J)=ANCSPC(J)*DENUSE(J) TANSPR=TANSPR+ANSPER(J) 149 CONTINUE IF (ANC .EQ. 1) GO TO 97 C SUBTRACT NUMBER OF PERSONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANCILLARY SPACE C REQUIREMENTS FROM ESTIMATED PEAK USERS AND DIVIDE BY TOTAL C USERS TO ADJUST USER ACCOMMODATION PROPORTION FOR ANCILLARY C SPACE REQUIREMENTS MINPRP=(TPKUSR-TANSPR)/TOTUSR ANC=1 C OUTPUT FOR USER ACCOMMODATION ANCILLARY SPACE ADJUSTMENT C CALCULATIONS WRITE(6,293) 293 FORMAT('1',10X,'USER ACCOMMODATION ANCILLARY SPACE ADJUSTMENT CALCl CLATION') WRITE(6,294) 294 FORMAT('-',2X,'RECREATION ACTIVITY',3X,'ACTIVITY SPACE',2X, C'PERCENT',3X,'ANCILLARY',5X,'ADJUSTED',8X,'USER',9X,'USER',6X, C'PEAK',IX,'POTENTIAL') WRITE(6,295) 295 FORMATC ',26X,1 REQUIREMENT' ,2X,'ANCILLARY',4X,'SPACE',4X, C'LAND AVAILABLE',4X,'DENSITY',4X,'DISCREPANCY',1X,'USERS',3X, C'USERS') WRITE(6,296) 296 FORMATC *,28X,'(ACRES)',6X,'SPACE',3X,'REQUIREMENT',2X, C( P L A Y SPACE)',2X,'(PERSONS/ACRE)',5X,'(A)*,6X,'(B)',5X,'(C)',///) WRITE(6,297) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),ACTSPC(J),ANCADJ(J),ANCSPC(J), 220 CADJSUP(J),DENUSE(J),ANSPER(J),PKUSR(J) rACTUSR(J),J=1,ACTCNT) 297 FORMAT(' ',2X,20A1,7X,F6.1,7X,F5.3,5X,F6.1,6X,F6.1,8X,F7.2,7X, CF6.0,3X,F6.0,2X,F7.0) WRITE(6,298) SPCTOT,TOTANS,TADJSP,TANSPR,TPKUSR,TOTUSR 298 FORMATC-' ,2X, 'TOTAL' , 22X, F6.1,16X,F7 .1, 5X, F7 .1, 22X,F6. 0, 3X, CF6.0,2X,F7.0) WRITE(6,299) MINPRP 299 FORMATC-' ,'ADJUSTED ANCILLARY USER ACCOMMODATION CALCULATED AS C(B-A)/C IS:',F7.5) C REPEAT ROUTINES TWO AND THREE UNTIL SPACE REQUIREMENTS AND C SUPPLY ARE WITHIN ONE QUARTER OF AN ACRE GO TO 96 97 CONTINUE C USER ACCOMMODATION SUMMARY TABLE WRITE(6,400) 400 FORMATC1',10X,'TOTAL ACTIVITY, ANCILLARY AND SPACE REQUIREMENTS CSUMMARY') WRITE(6,294) WRITE(6,295) WRITE(6,296) WRITE(6,297) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),ACTSPC(J),ANCADJ(J),ANCSPC(J), CADJSUP(J),DENUSE(J),DIFPER(J),PKUSR(J),ACTUSR(J),J=1,ACTCNT) WRITE(6,298) SPCTOT,TOTANS,TADJSP,TOTPER,TPKUSR,TOTUSR WRITE(6,299) MINPRP 66 CONTINUE DO 147 J=1,ACTCNT USEACC(J)=MINPRP 147 CONTINUE ****************************** C THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE IS THE 'DEMAND MODULE'. IT ESTIMATES THE C NUMBER OF SPATIAL UNITS,SPACE REQUIREMENTS,SPACE DEFICIENCY,AND C COST,CAPACITY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF SPACE PROVISION FOR C EACH RECREATION ACTIVITY IN EACH PLANNING UNIT. ACTIVITY AND C PLANNING UNIT TOTALS ARE ALSO ESTIMATED. ******************************************************************** C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY/PLANNING UNIT ARRAYS AND PLANNING UNIT ARRAYS. DO 151 K=1,T DO 150 J=1,N UNTNUM(K,J)=0. SPCREQ(K,J)=0. CST(K,J)=0. CAP(K,J)=0. CSTEF(K,J)=0. 150 CONTINUE UNTSUP(K)=0. UNTCST(K)=0. UNTCAP(K)=0. UNTCE(K)=0. DEFCNT(K)=0. 151 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY ARRAYS DO 152 J=1,N 221 ACTNUM(J)=0. ACTSPC(J)=0. ACTCST(J)=0. ACTCAP.(J)=0. ACTCE(J)=0. 152 CONTINUE C INITIALIZE 'TOTALS' ARRAYS SPCTOT=0. CSTTOT=0. CAPTOT=0. CETOT=0. SUPTOT=0. DEFTOT=0. DO 156 K=1,T DO 155 J=l,ACTCNT C CALCULATE NUMBER OF SPATIAL UNITS,SPACE REQUIREMENT,COST,CAPACITY, C AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF PROVISIONS FOR EACH ACTIVITY IN EACH C PLANNING UNIT. UNTNUM(K,J)=(USEACC(J)*ACTPU(K,J))/(UNTSPC(J)*DENUSE(J)) SPCREQ(K,J)=(UNTSPC(J)*UNTNUM(K,J))*(l.+(ANCADJ(J)/(1.-ANCADJ C ( J ) ) ) ) CST(K,J)=FACCST(J)*SPCREQ(K,J) CAP(K,J)=USEACC(J)*ACTPU(K,J) CSTEF(K,J)=(CST(K,J)/CAP(K,J))*1000 IF (CONTRL .EQ. 3) GO TO 70 C ESTIMATE TOTAL NUMBER OF UNITS,SPACE REQUIREMENT,COST,CAPACITY C AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR EACH ACTIVITY. ACTNUM(J)=ACTNUM(J)+UNTNUM(K,J) ACTSPC(J)=ACTSPC(J)+SPCREQ(K,J) ACTCST(J)=ACTCST(J)+CST(K,J) ACTCAP(J)=ACTCAP(J)+CAP(K,J) ACTCE(J) = (ACTCST(J)/ACTCAP(J))*10 0 0 C ESTIMATE TOTAL SPACE REQUIREMENT,COST AND CAPACITY/PLANNING UNIT. 70 UNTSUP(K)=UNTSUP(K)+SPCREQ(K,J) UNTCST(K)=UNTCST(K)+CST(K,J) UNTCAP(K)=UNTCAP(K)+CAP(K,J) 155 CONTINUE C ESTIMATE THE SPACE DEFICIENCY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF SPACE C PROVISION IN EACH PLANNING UNIT. DEFCNT(K)=SUPLND(K)-UNTSUP(K) IF (DEFCNT(K) .GE. 0.) GO TO 98 DEFCST=UNTSUP(K)-SUPLND(K) UNTCST(K)=UNTCST(K)+(CSTLND(K)*DEFCST) 98 UNTCE(K)=(UNTCST(K)/UNTCAP(K))*1000 IF (CONTRL .EQ. 3) GO TO 156 C ESTIMATE TOTALS FOR SPACE REQUIRED,COST,CAPACITY,SUPPLY,DEFICIENCY C AND COST EFFECTIVENESS (IN NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY OR MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNITS) BY SUMMING ACROSS PLANNING UNITS. SPCTOT=SPCTOT+UNTSUP(K) CSTTOT=CSTTOT+UNTCST(K) CAPTOT=CAPTOT+UNTCAP(K) SUPTOT=SUPTOT+SUPLND(K) DEFTOT=DEFTOT+DEFCNT(K) CETOT=(CSTTOT/CAPTOT)*1000 156 CONTINUE C OUTPUT ACTIVITY/PLANNING UNIT INFORMATION 222 IF (SUPACT .EQ. 1) GO TO 304 K=0 71 K=K+1 C WRITE PLANNING UNIT NAME WRITE(6,260) (NAMUNT(K,L),L=1,20) C WRITE HEADINGS WRITE(6,261) WRITE(6,262) WRITE(6,263) C WRITE TABLE WRITE(6,264) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),DENUSE(J),UNTSPC(J), CUNTNUM(K,J),SPCREQ(K,J),CST(K,J),CAP(K,J),CSTEF(K,J),J=1,ACTCNT) C WRITE PLANNING UNIT TOTALS WRITE(6,265) UNTSUP(K),SUPLND(K),DEFCNT(K),UNTCST(K),UNTCAP(K), CUNTCE(K) IF (K .LT. T) GO TO 71 IF (CONTRL .EQ. 3) GO TO 72 C OUTPUT ACTIVITY INFORMATION WRITE(6,266) C WRITE HEADINGS WRITE(6,261) WRITE(6,262) WRITE(6,263) C WRITE TABLE WRITE(6,264) ((NAMACT(J,L),L=1,20),DENUSE(J),UNTSPC(j),ACTNUM(J), CACTSPC(J) ,ACTCST(J),ACTCAP(J) ,ACTCE(J),J-1,ACTCNT) WRITE(6,2 65) SPCTOT,SUPTOT,DEFTOT,CSTTOT,CAPTOT,CETOT C OUTPUT SUMMARY TOTAL BY PLANNING UNIT 72 WRITE(6,267) C WRITE HEADINGS WRITE(6,268) C WRITE TABLE WRITE(6,269) ((NAMUNT(K,L),L=1,20),UNTSUP(K),SUPLND(K),DEFCNT(K), CUNTCST(K),UNTCAP(K),UNTCE(K),K=1,T) WRITE(6,2 7 0) SPCTOT,SUPTOT,DEFTOT,CSTTOT,CAPTOT,CETOT C FORMAT STATEMENTS 260 FORMATC1',1OX,2 0Al) 261 FORMAT**-',2X,'RECREATION ACTIVITY',6X,'USER*,8X,'UNIT SPACE',3X, CNUMBER OF',3X,'ACTIVITY SPACE',2X,'LAND',5X,'SUPPLY',3X, CLAND AND',IX,'CAPACITY',6X,'COST') 262 FORMATC ',26X,'DENSITY',5X,'REQUIREMENT',IX,'SPATIAL UNITS',2X, C'REQUIREMENT',3X,* SUPPLY',2X,*DEFICIENCY',IX,'FACILITY *,IX, C(PERSONS)',IX,'EFFECTIVENESS') 263 FORMAT(' ',23X,'(PERSONS/ACRE)',3X,'(ACRES)',5X,'REQUIRED',7X, C(ACRES)',5X,'(ACRES)',2X,'(ACRES)',3X,'COST',15X, C(COST/PERSON)',///) 264 FORMAT(' ',2X,20A1,5X,F7.2,6X,F7.4,7X,F5.1,9X,F6.1,24X,F9.6,IX, CF7.0,4X,F8.3) 265 FORMATC-',2X,'TOTAL',61X,F6.1,4X,F6.1,4X,F5.1,4X,F10.6,IX,F7.0, C4X,F8.3) 266 FORMATC 1' ,10X,'RECREATION ACTIVITY TOTALS') 267 FORMATC 1' ,40X,'SUMMARY') 268 FORMATC-' ,2X,* PLANNING UNIT', 8X,'DEMAND', IX,'SUPPLY', IX, C'DEFICIENCY',5X, 1 COST',5X,'CAPACITY',IX,'COST-EFFECTIVENESS',///) 269 FORMATC 1 , 2X, 20A1, IX,F6.1, IX,F6.1, 3X,F5.1, 4X,F10 . 6, 3X, CF7.0,6X,F8.3) 223 270 FORMATC-' , 2X, ' TOTAL' , 16X, F6.1, IX, F6 .1, 3X, F5.1, 4X, F10 . 6, 3X, CF7.0,6X,F8.3) 304 CONTINUE *********************************** C THE FOLLOWING IS THE 'AGGREGATION MODULE'. IT CALCULATES AND OUTPUTS C THE NUMBER OF UNITS, SPACE REQUIREMENT, COST, CAPACITY AND COST C EFFECTIVENESS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-C OUTDOOR SPACE BASED ON COMPONENT REQUIREMENTS. ******************************************************************** C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY COMPONENT DATA ARRAYS DO 180 J=1,N CMPARR(J)=0 CMPNUM(J)=0 TCMPNU(J)=0. TCMPSP(J)=0. TCMPCT(J)=0. TCMPCP(J)=0. TCMPCE(J)=0. FCTARR(J)=0 IOARR(J)=0 FCTNUM(J)=0 IONUM(J)=0 FCTCMP(J)=0. IOCMP(J)=0. TFCTSP(J)=0. TFCTCT(J)=0. TFCTCP(J)=0. TFCTCE(J)=0. TIOSPC(J)=0. TIOCST(J)=0. TIOCAP(J)=0. TIOCE(J)=0. CMPDEN(J)=0. CMPUNT(J)=0. 180 CONTINUE DO 182 K=1,T DO 181 J=1,N CMPNU(K,J)=0. CMPSPC(K,J)=0. CMPCST(K,J)=0. CMPCAP(K,J)=0. CMPCE(K,J)=0. FCTSPC(K,J)=0. FCTCST(K,J)=0. FCTCAP(K,J)=0. FCTCE(K,J)=0. IOSPC(K,J)=0. IOCST(K,J)=0. IOCAP(K,J)=0. IOCE(K,J)=0. 181 CONTINUE 182 CONTINUE 224 C INITIALIZE ACTIVITY COMPONENT,FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR C SPACE 'NAME ARRAYS' DO 187 J=1,N DO 187 L=l,16 NAMCMP(J,L)=BLANK NAMFCT(J,L)=BLANK 187 CONTINUE DO 188 J=1,N DO 188 L=l,8 NAMIO(J,L)=BLANK 188 CONTINUE C THE FOLLOWING ROUTINE CALCULATES NUMBER OF UNITS,SPACE REQUIRED, C COST,CAPACITY, AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, C FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE. C INITIALIZE VALUES PASS=0 CMPCNT=0 FCTCNT=0 IOCNT=0 K=0 79 K=K+1 SW=0 J=0 80 J=J+1 IF (J .GT. N) GO TO 91 C PASS CONTROL FOR ANALYZING NEIGHBOURHOOD,COMMUNITY OR'MUNICIPAL C PLANNING UNITS. IF (CONTRL-2) 83,82,81 C SET POSITION OF MUNICIPAL RECREATION ACTIVITY FROM CLASSIFICATION C MATRIX. 81 IF (TJ(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 80 POSN=TJ(J) PACT=ACT(J) GO TO 84 C SET POSITION OF COMMUNITY RECREATION ACTIVITY 82 IF (CJ(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 80 POSN=CJ(J) PACT=ACT(J) GO TO 84 C SET POSITION OF NEIGHBOURHOOD RECREATION ACTIVITY 83 IF (NJ(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 80 POSN=NJ(J) PACT=ACT(J) C SET ACTIVITY COMPONENT, FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR C SPACE(VALUE) ASSOCIATED WITH ACTIVITY AS PER CLASSIFICATION MATRIX 84 COMP=ACTCMP(J) FACT=FACTYP(J) IO=INOUT(J) IF (PASS .EQ. 1) GO TO 90 C COUNT NUMBER OF ACTIVITY COMPONENTS AND NUMBER OF ACTIVITY C COMPONENTS WITHIN EACH FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE C CLASSIFICATION (FOR PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING ANALYZED). IF (SW .EQ. 0) GO TO 85 IF (ACTCMP(J) .EQ. ACTCMP(J-l)) GO TO 86 85 CMPNUM(COMP)=CMPNUM(COMP)+l IF(CMPNUM(COMP) .GT. 1) GO TO 86 225 DO 189 L-1,16 NAMCMP(COMP,L)=CMPNAM(PACT,L) 189 CONTINUE CMPDEN(COMP)=DENUSE(POSN) CMPUNT(COMP)=UNTSPC(POSN) CMPCNT=CMPCNT+1 PMOC=COMP CMPARR(PMOC)=COMP FCTCMP(FACT)=FCTCMP(FACT)+1 I0CMP(I0)=I0CMP(I0)+1 C COUNT TOTAL NUMBER OF FACILITY TYPES AND SET UP FACILITY TYPE C ARRAY TO GUIDE OUTPUT FOR PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING ANALYZED. 86 IF (SW .EQ. 0) GO TO 87 IF (FACTYP(J) .EQ. FACTYP(J-l)) GO TO 88 87 FCTNUM(FACT)=FCTNUM(FACT)+l IF (FCTNUM(FACT) .GT. 1) GO TO 88 DO 190 L=l,16 NAMFCT(FACT,L)=FCTNAM(PACT,L) 190 CONTINUE FCTCNT=FCTCNT+1 TCAF=FACT FCTARR(TCAF)=FACT C COUNT INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE AND SET UP INDOOR-OUTDOOR ARRAY TO C GUIDE OUTPUT.FOR PLANNING UNIT SYSTEM BEING ANALYZED. 88 IF (SW .EQ. 0) GO TO 89 IF (INOUT(J) .EQ. INOUT(J-l)) GO TO 90 89 IONUM(IO)=IONUM(IO)+l IF (IONUM(IO) .GT. 1) GO TO 90 DO 191 L=l,8 NAMI0(I0,L)=I0NAM(PACT,L) 191 CONTINUE IOCNT=IOCNT+l •01 = 10 IOARR(Ol)=IO 90 SW=1 C THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS CALCULATE NUMBER OF UNITS, SPACE REQUIREMENT C COST,CAPACITY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, C FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE IN PLANNING UNITS C ACTIVITY COMPONENT CALCULATIONS CMPNU(K,COMP)=CMPNU(K,COMP)+UNTNUM(K,POSN) CMPSPC(K,COMP)=CMPSPC(K,COMP)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) CMPCST(K,COMP)=CMPCST(K,COMP)+CST(K,POSN) CMPCAP(K,COMP)=CMPCAP(K,COMP)+CAP(K,POSN) CMPCE(K,COMP)=(CMPCST(K,COMP)/CMPCAP(K,COMP))*1000 FCTSPC(K,FACT)=FCTSPC(K,FACT)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) FCTCST(K,FACT)=FCTCST(K,FACT)+CST(K,POSN) FCTCAP(K,FACT)=FCTCAP(K,FACT)+CAP(K,POSN) FCTCE(K,FACT) = (FCTCST(K,FACT)/FCTCAP(K,FACT))*10 0 0 IOSPC(K,IO)=IOSPC(K,IO)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) IOCST(K,IO)=IOCST(K,IO)+CST(K,POSN) IOCAP(K,IO)=IOCAP(K,IO)+CAP(K,POSN) IOCE(K,IO)=(lOCST(K,IO)/IOCAP(K,IO))*1000 C THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS CALCULATE NUMBER OF'UNITS, SPACE REQUIREMENT C COST,CAPACITY AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, C FACILITY TYPES AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE IN TOTAL C ACTIVITY COMPONENTS 226 TCMPNU(COMP)=TCMPNU(COMP)+UNTNUM(K,POSN) TCMPSP(COMP)=TCMPSP(COMP)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) TCMPCT(COMP)=TCMPCT(COMP)+CST(K,POSN) TCMPCP(COMP)=TCMPCP(COMP)+CAP(K,POSN) TCMPCE(COMP) = (TCMPCT(COMP)/TCMPCP(COMP))*10 0 0 C FACILITY TYPE CALCULATIONS TFCTSP(FACT)=TFCTSP(FACT)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) TFCTCT(FACT)=TFCTCT(FACT)+CST(K,POSN) TFCTCP(FACT)=TFCTCP(FACT)+CAP(K,POSN) TFCTCE(FACT) = (TFCTCT(FACT)/TFCTCP(FACT))*10 0 0 C INDOOR-OUTDOOR CALCULATIONS TIOSPC(lO)=TIOSPC(IO)+SPCREQ(K,POSN) TIOCST(I0)=TIOCST(10)+CST(K,POSN) TIOCAP(10)=TIOCAP(10)+CAP(K,POSN) TI0CE(I0)=(TI0CST(I0)/TI0CAP(I0))*1000 IF (J .LT. N) GO TO 80 91 PASS=1 IF (K .LT. T) GO TO 79 C ACTIVITY COMPONENT, FACILITY TYPE AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE OUTPUT C FOR PLANNING UNITS K=0 92 K=K+1 FNUM=1 TNUM=1 FCNT=0 ICNT=0 WRITE(6,260) (NAMUNT(K, L),L=1,20) WRITE(6,261) WRITE(6,262) WRITE(6,263) J=0 93 J=J+1 IF (J .GT. N) GO TO 412 IF (CMPARR(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 93 C0MP=CMPARR(J) WRITE(6,274) (NAMCMP(COMP,L),L=1,16),CMPDEN(COMP),CMPUNT(COMP), C CMPNU(K,COMP),CMPSPC(K,COMP),CMPCST(K,COMP), C CMPCAP(K,COMP),CMPCE(K,COMP) 274 FORMAT(' ',2X,16A1,9X,F7.2,6X,F7.4,7X,F5.1,9X,F6.1,23X,F10.6,IX, CF7.0,4X,F8.3) FCNT=FCNT+1 ICNT=ICNT+1 410 IF (FCTARR(FNUM) .EQ. 0) FNUM=FNUM+1 IF (FCTARR(FNUM) .EQ. 0) GO TO 410 FACT=FCTARR(FNUM) IF (FCNT .LT. FCTCMP(FACT)) GO TO 93 C OUTPUT FACILITY TYPE TOTAL WRITE(6,275) (NAMFCT(FACT,L),L=1,16),FCTSPC(K,FACT), C FCTCST(K,FACT),FCTCAP(K,FACT),FCTCE(K,FACT) 275 FORMAT(' ',5X,16A1,47X,F6.1,23X,F10.6,1X,F7.0,4X,F8.3) FNUM=FNUM+1 FCNT=0 411 IF (IOARR(INUM) .EQ. 0) INUM=INUM+1 IF (IOARR(INUM) .EQ. 0) GO TO 411 IO=IOARR(lNUM) IF (ICNT .LT. IOCMP(IO)) GO TO 93 227 C OUTPUT INDOOR-OUTDOOR TOTALS WRITE(6,276) (NAMIO(lO,L),L=1,8),IOSPC(K,IO),IOCST(K,IO), C IOCAP(K,IO),IOCE(K,IO) 276 FORMAT(1 -', 7X,8A1,53X,F6.1,23X,F10.6,1X,F7.0,4X,F8.3,//) INUM=INUM+1 ICNT=0 IF (J .LT. N) GO TO 93 412 CONTINUE WRITE(6,265) UNTSUP(K),SUPLND(K),DEFCNT(K),UNTCST(K),UNTCAP(K), C UNTCE(K) IF (K .LT. T) GO TO 92 IF (CONTRL .EQ. 3) GO TO 99 C OUTPUT MUNICIPAL TOTALS FOR ACTIVITY COMPONENTS, FACILITY TYPES C AND INDOOR-OUTDOOR SPACE. FNUM=1 INUM=1 FCNT=0 ICNT=0 •WRITE(6,266) WRITE(6,261) WRITE(6,262) WRITE(6,263) J=0 95 J=J+1 IF (J .GT. N) GO TO 415 IF (CMPARR(J) .EQ. 0) GO TO 95 COMP=CMPARR(J) WRITE(6,274) (NAMCMP(COMP,L),L=1,16),CMPDEN(COMP),CMPUNT(COMP), CTCMPNU(COMP),TCMPSP(COMP),TCMPCT(COMP),TCMPCP(COMP),TCMPCE(COMP) FCNT=FCNT+1 ICNT=ICNT+1 413 IF (FCTARR(FNUM) .EQ. 0) FNUM=FNUM+1 IF (FCTARR(FNUM) .EQ. 0) GO TO 413 FACT=FCTARR(FNUM) IF (FCNT .LT. FCTCMP(FACT)) GO TO 95 C WRITE FACILITY TYPE TOTAL WRITE(6,275) (NAMFCT(FACT,L),L=1,16),TFCTSP(FACT),TFCTCT(FACT), C TFCTCP(FACT),TFCTCE(FACT) FNUM=FNUM+1 FCNT=0 414 IF (IOARR(INUM) .EQ. 0) INUM=INUM+1 IF (IOARR(INUM) .EQ. 0) GO TO 414 IO=IOARR(INUM) IF (ICNT .LT. IOCMP(IO)) GO TO 95 C WRITE INDOOR-OUTDOOR TOTAL WRITE(6,276) (NAMIO(IO,L),L=1,8),TIOSPC(lO),TIOCST(IO),TIOCAP(lO), C TIOCE(IO) INUM=INUM+1 ICNT=0 IF (J .LT. N) GO TO 95 415 CONTINUE C OUTPUT MUNICIPAL TOTALS WRITE(6,2 6 5) SPCTOT,SUPTOT,DEFTOT,CSTTOT,CAPTOT,CETOT 99 IF (CONTRL .LT. 3) GO TO 1 STOP 228 APPENDIX 3 NEEDS ANALYSIS PROCESS - DATA REQUIREMENTS (RICHMOND CASE STUDY) Appendix 3-A: Richmond Park and F a c i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 229 Appendix 3-B: 1980 P o p u l a t i o n S i z e and Age Composition by Neighbourhood and Community (Estimated) 232 Appendix 3-C: Richmond Parkland Supply and Land Costs 234 Appendix 3-D P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Preference Rates from the 1979 Richmond L e i s u r e S e r v i c e s Demand Study 236 Appendix 3-E A c t i v i t y Unit Development Costs...,...-. .242 Appendix 3-F A c t i v i t y Unit S p a t i a l Requirements and User D e n s i t i e s .. 243 229 APPENDIX 3-A PARK AND FACILITY CLASSIFICATION FACILITY ACTIVITY RECREATION LEVEL OF TYPE UNIT ACTIVITY ACCOMMODATION A c t i v e B a s e b a l l Diamond B a s e b a l l N, C, M Park S o f t b a l l Diamond S o f t b a l l N, C, M Area F i e l d Hockey F i e l d Hockey N, C, M F o o t b a l l F i e l d F o o t b a l l N, C, M Lacrosse Box Lacrosse N, C, M Rugby F i e l d Rugby N, C, M Soccer F i e l d Soccer N, C, M Tennis Courts Tennis N, C, M 400 Metre Track Track and F i e l d C, M Skateboard Area Skateboarding C, M Pa s s i v e P a s s i v e Play Horseshoes, K i t e N, c, M Park Zone F l y i n g Area Landscaped Walking N, c, M P a s s i v e Area P i c n i c Area P i c n i c k i n g N, c, M Playground Playground Playground A c t i v i t i e s N, c, M Area Wading Pool Pool Wading N, c, M Community Badminton Court Badminton C Centre B a s k e t b a l l Court B a s k e t b a l l C F l o o r Hockey C r t F l o o r Hockey C Gymnastics Area Gymnastics C N e t b a l l Court N e t b a l l C Team Handball Team Handball C Court Trampoline Area Trampoline C V o l l e y b a l l Court V o l l e y b a l l C Defense A r t s Boxing, Fencing, C Room M a r t i a l A r t s , W r e s t l i n g C Weight Room Weight L i f t i n g C V i s u a l F i r e d A r t s Room Ceramics, P o t t e r y , C, M A r t s S c u l p t i n g Centre V i s u a l A r t s Room Cartooning, Doodle C, M A r t , Drawing, Sketching, P a i n t i n g , T e x t i l e A r t s C r o c h e t i n g , K n i t t i n g , C, M Room Dressmaking, Macrame, Embroidery, Q u i l t i n g , N e e d l e c r a f t , Sewing, S t i t c h e r y , Weaving, Basketry, B a t i k , Printmaking, Puppetry, Rugmaking, S i l k S c reening Hobby A r t s Room Tye Dye, Candle Making Decoupage, D o l l Making E t h n i c C r a f t s , Flower C r a f t s , Origami, Paper C r a f t s Cooking A r t s Cake D e c o r a t i n g , Room Cooking Workshop Boat C o n s t r u c t i o n , Model B u i l d i n g , Copper Enamelling, J e w e l l e r y Making, La p i d a r y , B o t t l e C u t t i n g C r a f t s h o p Leather C r a f t , Metal Shop, Resin C r a f t , S t a i n e d G l a s s C r a f t , Wood C r a f t Photography Shop Photography Performing Multipurpose B a l l e t , C r e a t i v e A r t s Centre Studio Movement, Rhythmics, Ballroom Dance, B e l l y Dance, Folk Dance, Highland Dance, J a z z / Modern Dance, S o c i a l Dance, Square Dance, Baton, M o d e l l i n g / P o i s e Yoga, Drama Music Room C h o i r / C h o r a l Groups, Folk S i n g i n g , F o l k G u i t a r , Instrumental Music, Orchestra/Band Theatre A t t e n d i n g Concerts, Dance Performances, L i v e Theatre A r t G a l l e r y A t t e n d i n g A r t E x h i b i t s Swimming D i v i n g Area Springboard D i v i n g , Pool Scuba/Snorkel D i v i n g Pool Area Swimming Racquet R a c q u e t b a l l R a c q u e t b a l l , Handball Courts Court Squash Court Squash Ice Arena Ice Rink Broomball, F i g u r e 231 S k a t i n g , Ice Hockey, Ice S k a t i n g , Ringuette C u r l i n g C u r l i n g Rink C u r l i n g M F a c i l i t y T r a i l s Jogging T r a i l Jogging M B i c y c l i n g T r a i l B i c y c l i n g M Walking T r a i l Walking M E q u e s t r i a n T r a i l Horseback R i d i n g M Go l f Course Golf Hole Golf M Lawn Bowls Lawn Bowling Lawn Bowling M Green Range Archery Range Archery M R i f l e Range R i f l e Range A c t i v i t i e s M Note: N -C -M -Neighbourhood Community Mun i c i pa1 232 APPENDIX 3-B 1980 POPULATION SIZE AND AGE COMPOSITION BY NEIGHBOURHOOD AND COMMUNITY (ESTIMATED) AGE GROUP POPULATION FIGURES NEIGHBOURHOOD 1-14 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 66-74 75-UP TOTAL QUILCHENA 720 215 200 565 400 220 135 95 2555 THOMPSON 1015 320 250 720 510 335 220 125 3495 THOMPSON 1735 535 450 1285 910 555 355 220 6040 BURNETT 160 80 50 100 110 95 50 30 675 MCKAY 515 220 150 295 245 215 130 75 1845 BRIGHOUSE 720 390 300 430 470 460 225 125 3120 GARRATT 355 160 150 195 220 220 145 80 1525 NORTH CENTRAL 1750 850 650 1020 1045 990 550 310 7165 RICHMOND 411 300 482 566 340 620 697 1038 4454 COOK 356 250 277 356 310 403 318 349 2619 BRIGHOUSE 767 550 759 922 650 1023 1015 1387 7073 CURRIE 726 300 282 492 312 360 276 228 2976 GARDEN CITY 378 150 144 246 168 204 156 96 1542 DEBECK 354 150 120 210 216 193 132 66 1441 EAST CENTRAL 1458 600 546 948 696 757 564 390 5959 KINGSWOOD 610 235 150 460 325 180 95 50 2105 WOODWARD 725 230 200 395 375 270 135 80 2410 KIDD 665 245 150 450 380 230 145 70 2335 NCNAIR 655 245 150 410 350 250 105 45 2210 LEE 515 210 150 370 300 235 145 60 1985 WHITESIDE 520 150 135 390 225 155 105 100 . 1780 BRIDGE 1145 305 250 650 515 280 210 185 3540 RIDEAU 430 195 150 305 225 235 165 85 1790 SOUTH ARM 5265 1815 1335 3430 2695 1835 1105 675 18155 FERRIS 437 140 146 216 248 205 65 173 .1630 ERRINGTON 465 200 172 324 265 297 184 103 2010 MAPLE LANE 470 123 120 319 286 211 108 76 1713 LONDON 454 121 100 367 189 124 70 27 1452 BLUNDELL 734 263 250 470 367 351 237 275 2947 KILGOUR 572 158 150 302 316 178 103 59 1838 MCKINNEY 276 123 120 194 130 124 97 103 1167 CENTRAL 3408 1128 1058 2192 1801 1490 864 816 12757 GRAUER 222 126 120 263 187 211 263 164 1556 BOYD 246 122 100 117 146 164 70 35 1000 GILMORE 1205 431 400 503 638 497 187 94 3995 DIXON 790 309 200 597 392 298 152 58 2796 STEVES 1345 370 250 1152 597 386 287 146 4533 WEST RICHMOND 3808 1358 1070 2632 1960 1556 959 497 13840 233 BYNG 837 210 150 370 300 235 145 60 1985 HARRIS 541 200 156 528 304 264 218 119 2330 STEVESTON 1378 573 463 1287. 727 653 575 581 6237 MITCHELL 715 295 220 400 365 285 190 140 2610 EAST RICHMOND 715 295 220 400 365 285 190 140 2610 TAIT 340 125 100 235 145 165 115 70 1295 THOMSETT 230 150 110 180 130 130 105 90 1125 EBURNE 115 45 45 85 65 50 60 40 505 CAMBIE 115 50 45 85 60 55 55 45 510 BRIDGEPORT 100 60 50 70 55 65 55 35 490 BRIDGEPORT 900 430 350 655 455 465 390 280 3925 SOUTH ALR 135 50 50 110 80 65 45 40 575 EAST ALR 545 240 210 325 260 270 205 150 2205 BURKEVILLE 210 80 75 190 90 80 85 70 880 HAMILTON 175 75 50 110 75 70 70 • 40 665 OTHER 1065 445 385 735 505 485 405 300 4325 RICHMOND 22249 8579 7286 15506 11809 10094 6972 5596 88091 APPENDIX 3-C RICHMOND PARKLAND AND LAND COSTS (1979) PLANNING NEIGHBOURHOOD COMMUNITY MUNICIPAL LAND AREA PARKLAND PARKLAND PARKLAND COST (000'S Quilchena 11.2 130.0 Thompson 9.6 120.0 Thompson 20.8 0.0 Burnett 0.0 11.4 120.0 McKay. 12.3 120.0 Brighouse 12.9 450.0 G a r r a t t 4.0 450.0 North C e n t r a l 29.2 11.4 Richmond 0.0 15.1 62.5 300.0 Cook 7.5 150.0 Brighouse 7.5 15.1 C u r r i e 1.5 150.0 Garden C i t y 0.0 25.3 120.0 DeBeck 6.0 120.0 East C e n t r a l 7.5 25.3 Kingswood 9.1 450.0 Woodward 9.2 450.0 Kidd 11.5 450.0 McNair 0.0 26.0 450.0 Lee 12.5 450.0 Whiteside 0.0 53.5 450.0 Bridge 5.9 450.0 Rideau 10.7 450.0 South Arm 58.9 79.5 F e r r i s 7.2 120.0 E r r i n g t o n 13.3 450.0 Maple Lane 10.5 450.0 London 0.0 37.5 450.0 B l u n d e l l 4.0 29.9 450.0 K i l g o u r 9.8 450.0 MoKinney 11.4 115.0 C e n t r a l 56.2 67.4 Grauer 6.0 450.0 Boyd 0.0 27.2 450.0 Gilmore 11.0 450.0 Dixon 11.4 450.0 Steves 28.1 450.0 West Richmond 56.5 27.2 Byng 23.7 225.0 H a r r i s 14.0 22.3 300.0 Steveston 37.7 22.3 T a i t 4.0 110.0 Thomsett 5.5 120.0 Eburne 7.3 120.0 Cambie 0.0 9.9 120.0 Br i d g e p o r t 4.0 120.0 B r i d g e p o r t 20.8 9.9 M i t c h e l l 13.5 13.4 110.0 East Richmond 13.5 13.4 South A i r 1.5 25.0 East A i r 8.0 22.0 B u r k e v i l l e 5.8 340.0 Hamilton 11.2 110.0 Other 26.5 0.0 RICHMOND 335.0 271.5 62.5 236 APPENDIX 3-D PARTICIPATION AND PREFERENCE RATES FROM THE 197 9 RICHMOND LEISURE SERVICES DEMAND STUDY RECREATION PARTICIPATION RATES (AGE SPECIFIC) ACTIVITY 5-14 15-19 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65 + BASEBALL 19.3 19.7 12.5 8.0 9.4 5.8 0.0 0.0 FASTBALL 4.1 28.1 15.1 4.4 7.2 5.5 0.0 0.0 FIELD HOCKEY 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 FOOTBALL 13.6. 14.5 5.4 0.2 2.2 0.0 1.4 0.0 LACROSSE 4.1 3.6 4.3 0.2 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 RUGBY 0.7 4.2 2.2 1.5 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.0 SOCCER 25.4 25.4 9.1 7.1 8.9 4.1 1.4 0.0 TENNIS 22.3 33.5 37.5 25.1 16.4 8.4 1.0 0.0 TRACK AND FIELD 213 6.4 4.3 2.3 2.7 2.1 0.0 0.0 SKATEBOARDING 4.9 9.0 5.3 0.0 .0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 HORSESHOES 2.1 0.0 4.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 1.8 0.0 KITEFLYING 4.8 6.1 4.4 9.1 5.8 3.9 0.0 0.0 PICNICKING 10.9 11.3 19.9 21.6 20.4 14.8 12.6 20.2 WALKING 10.8 20.2 31.4 41-. 6 36.3 47.0 42.7 52.6 PLAYGROUND ACTIVITY 24.7 0.0 0.0 13.8 3.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 POOL WADING 21.3 0.7 0.0 10.6 3.8 2.1 4.9 0.0 BADMINTON 8.6 6.4 11.2 12.3 8.5 8.9 0.0 4.1 BASKETBALL 17.8 20.4 3.8 4.6 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 FLOOR HOCKEY 18.6 7.9 5.4 6.6 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 GYMNASTICS 8.8 9.5 4.4 0.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 NETBALL 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 TEAM HANDBALL 0.0 1.6 1.8 0.2 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 TRAMPOLINE 15.0 7.6 2.2 0.4 4.3 4.8 0.0 0.0 VOLLEYBALL 2.5 8.0 6.8 4.4 5.5 2.7 0.0 0.0 BOXING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 FENCING 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 MARTIAL ARTS 5.7 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 WRESTLING 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 WEIGHT-LIFTING 8.6 7.6 11.3 1.0 2.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 CERAMICS 6.2 5.1 8.0 13.5 11.6 2.0 3.1 14.6 POTTERY 3.0 4.2 1.6 1.1 1.6 0.6 0.0 0.0 SCULPTING 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 3.1 0.0 CARTOONING 2.1 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 DOODLE ART 4.5 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 DRAWING/SKETCHING 6.5 4.6 5.7 3.3 0.8 0.6 0.0 8.9 PAINTING 4.5 2.7 3.1 3.5 2.6 2.1 0.0 17.8 CROCHETING 0.2 0.0 4.6 4.0 7.8 8.0 4.0 18.7 DRESSMAKING 0.7 0.4 5.7 7.1 4.3 10.1 10.2 23.5 EMBROIDERY 0.0 3.3 4.3 2.0 2.8 3.3 1.5 14.6 KNITTING 0.7 2.0 3.3 3.4 7.1 5.4 11.0 5.7 MACRAME 6.1 2.7 5.5 7.9 8.6 0.6 0.0 5.5 NEEDLECRAFT 0.7 4.1 3.6 5.9 3.6 2.1 1.5 8.9 QUILTING 0.7 1.5 6.1 2.2 1.9 3.8 0.0 5.6 SEWING 2.2 6.9 7.4 8.7 6.0 12.4 3.8 25.9 2 3 7 STITCHERY WEAVING BASKETRY BATIK PRINTMAKING PUPPETRY RUGMAKING SILK SCREENING TYE DYE CANDLE MAKING DECOUPAGE DOLLMAKING/REPAIRS ETHNIC CRAFTS FLOWER CRAFTS ORIGAMI PAPER CRAFTS CAKE DECORATING • COOKING BOAT/CANOE CONSTRUCT FURNITURE FINISHING GARDENING/LANDSCAPE HOME REMODELLING INTERIOR DECORATING MODEL BUILDING MODEL AIRCRAFT BUILD COPPER ENAMELLING JEWELLERY MAKING LAPIDARY BOTTLE CUTTING LEATHER CRAFT METAL CRAFT RESIN CRAFT STAINED GLASS CRAFT WOOD CRAFT PHOTOGRAPHY BALLET CREATIVE MOVEMENT RHYTHMICS BALLROOM DANCE BELLY DANCE DISCO DANCE FOLK DANCE HIGHLAND DANCE JAZZ/MODERN DANCE POLYNESIAN DANCE SOCIAL DANCE SQUARE DANCE BATON MODELLING/POISE YOGA DRAMA CHOIR/CHORAL GROUPS FOLK SINGING FOLK GUITAR INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC ORCHESTRA/BAND 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 5 3 . 3 0 . 0 2 . 7 0 . 0 1 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 3 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 7 6 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 1 2 . 8 1 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 5 2 . 2 0 . 0 1 .1 0 . 0 1 . 9 1 . 6 0 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 .1 0 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 4 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 7 2 . 1 2 . 1 0 . 0 1 .1 2 . 1 1 . 5 4 . 4 6 . 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 4 3 . 1 3 . 8 1 . 3 5 . 6 1 0 . 7 2 . 1 0 . 7 0 . 0 4 . 5 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 6 3 . 6 3 . 1 3 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 2 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 1 2 . 1 1 . 3 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 . 0 1 . 0 1 . 8 . 0 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 . 5 1 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 0 1 . 8 1 .1 3 . 6 9 . 6 4 . 0 8 . 1 3 . 3 3 . 4 7 . 4 2 . 4 1 . 3 0 . 0 1 . 8 0 . 4 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 0 1 . 5 1 2 . 9 3 . 6 2 . 1 0 . 7 2 . 2 1 . 4 1 0 . 9 1 0 . 7 1 4 . 3 1 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 6 4 . 6 3 . 4 1 . 3 1 . 8 2 . 2 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 7 2 . 6 0 . 2 2 . 3 7 . 9 1 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 8 2 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 6 8 . 0 5 . 8 0 . 8 1 . 8 0 . 3 5 . 9 6 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 9 4 . 1 0 . 6 6 . 6 0 . 9 8 . 5 2 . 6 0 . 0 2 . 5 5 . 8 4 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 9 8 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 6 0 . 0 3 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 4 1 . 8 0 . 0 1 7 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 3 2 . 4 1 . 4 1 4 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 0 3 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 9 5 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 5 1 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 2 2 1 . 3 5 . 0 2 0 . 1 4 . 4 1 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 . 3 8 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 .1 1 . 8 0 . 0 ' 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 .1 o . o - 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 7 2 . 3 0 . 0 5 . 7 4 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 6 8 . 9 0 . 7 0 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 6 2 . 5 0 . 4 3 . 1 5 . 6 1 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 . 8 2 . 1 4 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 8 . 9 0 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 2 1 0 . 4 2 . 3 . 11 .3 4 . 5 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 4 1 . 8 4 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 4 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 8 6 . 1 3 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 3 1 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 3 8 SCUBA/SNORKEL DIVING SPRINGBOARD DIVING SWIMMING RACQUETBALL/HANDBALL SQUASH BROOMBALL FIGURE SKATING ICE HOCKEY ICE SKATING RINGUETTE ROLLER SKATING ATTEND CONCERTS ATTEND DANCE PERFORM ATTEND LIVE THEATRE ATTEND ART EXHIBITS JOGGING BICYCLING TRAIL WALKING HORSEBACK RIDING CURLING GOLF LAWN BOWLING RIFLE RANGE ARCHERY 2 . 8 1 . 2 1 1 . 2 0 . 3 7 . 0 2 . 2 1 . 0 0 . 0 5 1 . 5 4 1 . 9 3 1 . 3 3 8 . 7 4 . 7 3 . 0 1 1 . 8 6 . 0 1 . 0 2 . 2 4 . 0 3 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 6 2 . 2 0 . 7 4 . 9 . 4 . 9 0 . 2 1 . 6 1 1 . 5 9 . 7 8 . 6 6 . 9 3 5 . 3 1 7 . 5 1 0 . 2 1 6 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 9 . 1 2 6 . 7 2 . 3 1 . 4 9 . 1 1 0 . 1 9 . 1 4 . 6 2 . 7 4 . 3 1 . 8 3 . 0 4 . 2 8 . 4 6 . 7 6 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 7 3 . 9 6 . 4 1 2 . 1 2 5 . 3 2 5 . 2 2 2 . 5 2 8 . 6 2 1 . 1 2 2 . 6 2 7 . 5 1 1 . 2 4 . 3 1 3 . 2 2 1 . 4 5 . 7 9 . 5 8 . 7 2 . 5 0 . 0 3 . 1 4 . 0 3 . 8 7 . 2 1 7 . 1 2 1 . 1 1 0 . 7 2 . 1 0 . 7 2 . 2 0 . 0 2 . 1 1 . 0 0 . 6 1 . 8 4 . 2 1 . 5 5 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 2 . 8 3 6 . 5 1 7 . 7 8 . 9 5 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 .1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 3 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 9 . 0 3 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 2 . 0 8 . 2 4 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 2 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 . 1 8 . 3 7 . 6 5 . 6 4 . 4 1 .1 0 . 0 5 . 6 7 . 7 1 3 . 4 1 1 . 6 5 . 6 3 . 7 7 . 7 8 . 6 5 . 6 2 0 . 2 1 1 . 2 5 . 7 0 . 0 2 5 . 6 2 6 . 9 1 9 . 8 0 . 0 1 7 . 0 1 5 . 0 9 . 4 6 . 5 1 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 4 . 3 7 . 3 1 . 5 0 . 0 1 8 . 2 2 5 . 5 4 1 . 8 7 . 5 0 . 3 0 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 . 9 2 . 1 2 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 3 9 RECREATION ACTIVITY BASEBALL FASTBALL FIELD HOCKEY FOOTBALL LACROSSE RUGBY SOCCER TENNIS TRACK AND FIELD SKATEBOARDING HORSESHOES KITEFLYING PICNICKING WALKING PLAYGROUND ACTIVITY POOL WADING BADMINTON BASKETBALL FLOOR HOCKEY GYMNASTICS NETBALL TEAM HANDBALL TRAMPOLINE VOLLEYBALL BOXING FENCING MARTIAL ARTS WRESTLING WEIGHT-LIFTING CERAMICS POTTERY SCULPTING CARTOONING DOODLE ART DRAWING/SKETCHING PAINTING CROCHETING DRESSMAKING EMBROIDERY KNITTING MACRAME NEEDLECRAFT QUILTING SEWING STITCHERY WEAVING BASKETRY BATIK PRINTMAKING PUPPETRY RUGMAKING PREFERENCE RATES (AGE SPECIFIC) 5 - 1 4 1 5 - 1 9 2 0 - 2 4 2 5 - 3 4 3 5 - 4 4 4 5 - 5 4 5 5 - 6 4 6 5 + 1 6 . 0 1 4 . 6 1 0 . 2 5 . 9 9 . 4 1 . 8 3 . 8 0 . 0 1 6 . 3 1 4 . 4 2 0 . 0 6 . 6 7 . 7 4 . 0 3 . 8 0 . 0 7 . 4 3 . 4 2 . 0 3 . 6 5 . 7 0 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 3 . 9 1 4 . 0 5 . 5 4 . 3 6 . 2 1 . 8 2 . 7 0 . 0 8 . 0 6 . 7 1 . 8 0 . 7 1 . 2 2 . 1 2 . 7 0 . 0 9 . 2 7 . 5 0 . 5 0 . 6 2 . 8 0 . 7 2 . 7 0 . 0 1 5 . 7 1 2 . 9 1 3 . 5 5 . 9 6 . 0 1 .1 6 . 1 0 . 0 1 7 . 5 1 6 . 0 1 4 . 9 2 2 . 1 3 1 3 8 . 0 1 5 . 7 8 . 8 1 3 . 0 2 . 0 1 . 5 1 . 8 0 . 9 2 . 8 5 . 5 0 . 0 3 1 1 4 . 5 7 . 7 1 .1 0 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 . 3 0 . 4 3 . 8 1 . 2 2 . 9 1 . 8 4 . 3 0 . 0 7 . 4 1 . 9 6 . 1 1 . 9 2 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 9 . 7 6 . 6 1 0 . 4 1 3 . 3 1 2 . 6 2 . 9 3 . 0 1 . 0 0 . 9 5 . 3 5 . 6 1 0 . 7 1 5 . 3 8 . 6 1 8 . 2 1 9 . 1 2 1 . 5 0 . 0 2 . 3 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 4 3 . 3 0 . 0 1 2 . 1 0 . 4 3 . 3 2 . 4 3 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 6 . 8 2 6 . 6 2 6 . 9 1 9 . 8 2 4 . 3 6 . 8 8 . 5 0 . 0 2 0 . 9 1 3 . 8 6 . 3 8 . 7 4 . 7 0 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 1 . 4 1 3 . 7 7 . 5 2 . 5 3 . 7 2 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 4 . 1 1 4 . 2 1 3 . 1 6 . 9 4 . 5 0 . 4 2 . 7 0 . 0 1 . 5 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 6 0 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 5 0 . 3 1 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 . 5 1 2 . 0 1 2 . 4 6 . 0 3 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 5 . 5 8 . 0 1 6 . 1 9 . 1 1 4 . 7 3 . 4 0 . 0 0 . 0 9 . 5 6 . 9 2 . 4 3 . 2 5 . 2 0 . 5 5 . 5 0 . 0 6 . 3 2 . 6 6 . 9 6 . 5 2 . 9 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 1 . 9 1 5 . 1 1.0.4 7 . 7 2 . 8 2 . 8 0 . 9 5 . 7 4 . 9 0 . 6 1 . 3 0 . 7 2 . 6 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 0 1 3 . 5 6 . 0 4 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 8 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 8 . 5 2 2 . 0 2 2 . 2 1 6 . 5 1 0 . 4 8 . 6 8 . 0 1 3 . 1 2 2 . 9 8 . 7 1 4 . 7 1 2 . 9 1 0 . 4 4 . 6 1 . 8 1 2 . 7 4 . 8 4 . 1 5 . 7 2 . 0 1 . 3 2 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 5 . 4 8 . 8 9 . 6 2 . 8 0 . 0 1 . 4 0 . 0 3 . 6 1 8 . 2 6 . 9 5 . 2 1 . 3 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 2 4 . 5 1 0 . 6 1 3 . 2 1 1 . 3 7 . 4 4 . 9 1 3 . 8 0 . 0 6 . 4 6 . 7 8 . 4 6 . 0 8 . 1 1 0 . 0 6 . 9 3 . 7 0 . 5 5 . 1 1 3 . 5 6 . 1 6 . 9 2 . 8 1 3 . 7 1 9 . 3 1 . 5 6 . 3 1 2 . 5 9 . 6 1 2 . 4 2 . 5 7 . 5 6 . 6 1 . 9 7 . 7 1 0 . 0 5 . 4 5 . 1 1 . 9 2 . 6 6 . 1 4 . 1 2 . 5 8 . 5 6 . 9 6 . 0 3 . 1 5 . 4 2 1 . 4 7 . 5 1 3 . 8 1 4 . 6 1 1 . 8 6 . 4 3 . 5 3 . 5 9 . 1 0 . 0 0 . 6 2 . 2 4 . 1 7 . 8 3 . 0 2 . 1 2 8 . 6 1 . 9 6 . 5 1 4 . 6 9 . 3 1 0 . 9 2 . 2 1 1 . 7 8 . 3 4 . 5 8 . 5 1 6 . 8 1 0 . 1 1 4 . 4 2 . 3 6 . 4 2 . 9 0 . 0 2 . 0 2 . 0 3 . 2 1 . 7 0 . 0 0 . 0 1 0 . 9 2 . 4 0 . 0 1 0 . 4 4 . 3 7 . 6 1 . 5 6 . 6 1 . 7 3 . 4 4 . 4 9 . 1 3 . 6 2 . 8 1 . 7 1 . 0 5 . 7 1 . 7 1 . 4 1 1 . 8 4 . 2 4 . 8 0 . 5 0 . 9 0 . 0 2 . 9 3 . 3 6 . 2 2 . 0 1 . 2 2 . 3 1 . 0 0 . 0 5 . 8 2 . 0 2 . 2 0 . 7 1 . 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 6 . 4 1 2 . 0 5 . 4 6 . 9 1 2 . 1 8 . 1 8 . 6 3 . 6 SILK SCREENING TYE DYE CANDLE MAKING DECOUPAGE DOLLMAKING/REPAIRS ETHNIC CRAFTS FLOWER CRAFTS ORIGAMI PAPER CRAFTS CAKE DECORATING COOKING BOAT/CANOE CONSTRUCT FURNITURE FINISHING GARDENING/LANDSCAPE HOME REMODELLING INTERIOR DECORATING MODEL BUILDING MODEL AIRCRAFT BUILD COPPER ENAMELLING JEWELLERY MAKING LAPIDARY BOTTLE CUTTING LEATHER CRAFT METAL CRAFT RESIN CRAFT STAINED GLASS CRAFT WOOD CRAFT PHOTOGRAPHY BALLET CREATIVE MOVEMENT RHYTHMICS BALLROOM DANCE BELLY DANCE DISCO DANCE FOLK DANCE HIGHLAND DANCE JAZZ/MODERN DANCE POLYNESIAN DANCE SOCIAL DANCE SQUARE DANCE BATON MODELLING/POISE YOGA DRAMA CHOIR/CHORAL GROUPS FOLK SINGING FOLK GUITAR INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC ORCHESTRA/BAND SCUBA/SNORKEL DIVING SPRINGBOARD DIVING SWIMMING RACQUETBALL/HANDBALL SQUASH BROOMBALL FIGURE SKATING 1.8 15.2 7.4 8.2 9.0 3.7 2.4 1.7 5.9 4.7 3.0 1.4 1.4 9.0 4.8 0.6 3.7 0.5 5.8 12.4 16.2 18.8 10.7 15.5 1.4 8.6 2.8 5.1 0.2 8.7 0.9 20.3 15.3 8.6 14.3 6.6 0.2 1.2 5.0 7.5 0.9 0.0 2.7 3.0 9.0 1.4 5.8 2.8 0.0 4.8 6.6 7.2 16.9 6.6 16.7 39.1 1.4 5.3 0.0 4.0 1.9 0.6 0.0 9.5 1.7 2.5 27.7 25.7 0.5 2.4 0.5 1.2 7.6 6.2 1.0 0.4 0.5 6.5 4.6 2.4 2.3 0.0 4.0 8.8 2.0 10.8 10.2 12.4 5.6 6.1 0.0 4.3 7.3 3.8 8.5 1.9 2.0 0.9 16.6 20.0 13.7 9.6 10.7 8.9 16.6 20.3 7.8 6.8 2.4 1.6 11.6 8.7 9.6 3.9 4.1 0.2 6.5 1.9 3.2 2.9 0.9 1.8 4.6 1.9 9.5 3.6 1.8 0.9 1.9 0.9 17.0 12.3 15.1 22.5 15.2 7.4 24.8 16.1 16.9 23.8 13.7 13.6 20.3 19.6 4.8 2.3 6.3 3.3 4.0 2.0 10.2 3.5 4.2 1.0 2.9 3.5 4.3 3.0 3.0 1.5 2.4 1.0 12.5 8.5 12.6 6.1 34.9 22.2 10.1 4.3 4.7 2.2 1.3 0.4 17.8 l i . 6 11.4 6.6 25.6 21.3 5.7 3.4 2.8 1.7 24.1 5.5 6.5 0.4 13.3 8.3 10.2 6.7 0.0 0.2 14.0 2.9 22.3 5.3 4.9 7.0 1.2 1.9 1.6 3.6 6.9 6.9 7.4 3.9 1.8 1.9 16.3 7.5 9.2 0.9 13.8 24.9 28.4 21.0 7.8 6.3 4.1 4.3 3.1 4.6 5.9 2.0 2.0 1.9 5.0 10.2 4.3 3.3 1.9 0.0 1.1 0.0 7.4 3.0 2.5 0.5 0.7 0.0 13.3 12.5 24.1 13.9 8.6 7.5 26.8 27.1 22.1 15.4 22.1 10.9 26.1 14.8 3.4 4.4 4.7 5.1 3.7 0.0 7.0 2.5 1.5 5.7 1.8 0.8 3.1 1.8 5.4 4.9 1.9 0.0 6.9 3.5 10.2 10.9 17.3 11.9 4.0 0.8 3.0 0.0 4.4 0.0 17.8 20.5 1.1 2.0 19.6 13.7 0.9 4.6 0.0 1.5 2.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 8.5 9.7 4.2 9.6 0.0 0.0 4.7 4.1 13.7 5.8 4.3 9.0 5.2 3.1 0.6 2.8 6.3 0.5 4.7 1.1 1.8 2.2 11.9 2.0 3.4 0.0 23.4 19.2 17.9 0.9 7.3 1.3 1.6 0.0 1.8 0.4 240 1.0 5.7 0.0 0.0 2.7 2.2 1.9 0.0 2.4 0.0 2.4 0.0 3.7 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 26.0 9.4 23.0 3.2 0.0 21.8 0.0 20.2 9.1 18.4 1.0 5.7 7.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.3 9.3 3.6 1.0 5.7 3.3 0.0 0.0 5.7 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.2 1.0 9.6 '3.7 0.0 3.7 0.0 0.0 5.2 5.7 11.4 3.7 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 2.4 0.0 1.5 0.0 2.7 0.0 1.5 0.0 13.1 9.4 2.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.6 0.0 4.3 5.7 6.1 9.4 0.9 1.7 6.1 3.7 2.4 3.7 0.9 0.0 1.5 0.0 7.0 0.0 8.7 16.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.0 241 ICE HOCKEY 13. ,3 6. ,7 4. ,6 3. 8 6. ,0 1. ,7 2. ,7 3. ,7 ICE SKATING 10. ,0 6. ,9 13. ,4 10. 1 9. ,8 5. ,0 1. ,9 5. ,7 RINGUETTE 0. ,9 0. ,0 0. ,0 0. 0 1. ,0 0. ,0 0. ,0 0. ,0 ROLLER SKATING 20. ,8 8. .7 20. .7 9. 9 7. ,5 5. ,3 0. ,0 0. ,0 ATTEND CONCERTS 7. ,4 21. .3 18. ,1 21. 8 21. ,4 17. ,8 23. ,1 22. ,5 ATTEND DANCE PERFORM 0. .9 6. .5 11. ,5 11. 2 8. ,5 7. ,4 13. ,0 11. ,0 ATTEND LIVE THEATRE 5. .9 17. .1 29. .3 29. 9 30. .3 32. .3 30. ,3 22. ,6 ATTEND ART EXHIBITS 1. .9 3. .4 11. ,9 13. 5 9. .6 11. ,0 4. .9 7. ,4 JOGGING 10. .4 15, .0 6. .2 6. 4 13. .1 7. ,8 0. .0 0. .0 BICYCLING 19. .4 14. .3 20. .7 18. 3 22. .3 6. .4 6. .4 4. .8 TRAIL WALKING 1. .2 9, .6 8. .1 10. 9 16. .8 7. .5 10. .6 3. .6 HORSEBACK RIDING 32. .1 23. .5 28, .2 20. 9 8. .8 2. .8 3. .3 0. .0 CURLING 4. .7 2, .9 5, .7 7. 7 15. .5 6. .3 2. .9 2. .2 GOLF 15, .5 9, .9 7, .5 13. 0 14, .3 8. .4 4, .6 3. .7 LAWN BOWLING 4, .1 1, .6 0, .0 1. 0 2, .5 3, .1 18, .2 13. .2 RIFLE RANGE 26, .3 14, .0 13, .1 14'. 4 10, .2 5, .9 7, .5 0, .0 ARCHERY 19, .7 11, .0 16, .5 8. 5 9, .3 6. .3 6, .1 5. .7 APPENDIX 3-E ACTIVITY UNIT DEVELOPMENT COSTS ACTIVITY UNIT DEVELOPMENT FACILITY TYPE DEVELOPMENT COST COST (000'S) (000'S) B a s e b a l l Diamond $18.7 V i s u a l A r t s Centre $2850.0 F a s t b a l l Diamond 19.6 Performing A r t Centre 3050.0 F i e l d Hockey F i e l d 16.0 Theatre 3850.0 F o o t b a l l F i e l d 15.9 Art G a l l e r y 3267.0 Lacrosse Box 45.3 Swimming Pool 4791.6 Rugby F i e l d 15.1 Ra c q u e t b a l l Courts 3180.0 Soccer F i e l d 16.2 Squash Courts 4300.0 Tennis Court 181.5 Ice Arena 1960.0 400 Metre Track 122.5 Jogging T r a i l s 67.5 Skateboard Area 435.6 B i c y c l i n g T r a i l s 67.5 Pa s s i v e Games Area 31.0 H i k i n g T r a i l s 67.5 Landscaped Area 76.5 E q u e s t r i a n T r a i l s 54.5 P i c n i c Area 69.0 C u r l i n g Rink 1960.0 Playground 480.0 Golf Course 24.7 Wading Pool 435.6 Lawn Bowling Green 1300.0 Community Centre 3225.5 Range 217.8 NOTE: A l l c o s t s are s t a n d a r d i z e d to one acre of development. 243 APPENDIX 3-F ACTIVITY UNIT SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS AND USER DENSITIES ACTIVITY UNIT SIZE DIMENSION SPATIAL USER DENSITY USER (UNIT) UNIT DENSITY (acres) ( u s e r s / u n i t ) (user/ac.) Ba s e b a l l Diamond 300' X 300* 2.066 25 us e r s / u n i t 12. .1 F a s t b a l l Diamond 275' X 275* 1.736 25 us e r s / u n i t 14. .4 F i e l d Hockey F i e l d 300' X 180* 1.2396 25 us e r s / u n i t 20. .2 F o o t b a l l F i e l d 195' X 300' 1.343 20 us e r s / u n i t 14. .9 Lacrosse Box 200' X 90' .4132 25 us e r s / u n i t 60. .5 Rugby F i e l d 480' X 225' 2.4793 25 us e r s / u n i t 10. .1 Soccer F i e l d 330' X 210' 1.59 25 us e r s / u n i t 15. .7 Tennis Court 120' X 60' .1653 6 us e r s / u n i t 36. .3 400 Metre Track 700' X 300' 4.821 100 us e r s / u n i t 20. .7 Skateboard Area 200' X 100' .4591 400 s q . f t . / p e r 108. .9 Passive Games Area 1 acre 1.0 10 per/acre 10. .0 Landscaped Area 1 acre 1.0 10 per/acre 10. .0 P i c n i c Area 2725 s q . f t . .0625 5 us e r s / u n i t 80. .0 Playground 10000 sq.f t . .2296 200 s q . f t / p e r 217. .7 Wading Pool 2000 s q . f t . .0459 100 s q . f t . / p e r 453. .4 Badminton Court 32' X 60' .0441 4 us e r s / u n i t 90. .8 B a s k e t b a l l Court 60' X 100' .1377 15 us e r s / u n i t 108. .9 Fl o o r Hockey Court 60' X 100' .1377 15 u s e r s / u n i t 108. .9 Gymnastics Area 30' X 50* .0344 100 s q . f t . / p e r 435. .6 N e t b a l l Court 50' X 100' .1148 20 us e r s / u n i t 174. .2 Team Handball Court 20m X 40m .1380 20 u s e r s / u n i t 144. .9 V o l l e y b a l l Court 42' X 72' .0694 15 us e r s / u n i t 216. .1 Defense A r t s Room 50' X 50' .0574 110 s q . f t . / p e r 396. .0 Weight Room 30' X 30' .0207 20 u s e r s / u n i t 968. .0 F i r e d A r t s Room 25' X 50' .0287 25 u s e r s / u n i t 871. .2 V i s u a l A r t s Room 25' X 50* .0287 30 u s e r s / u n i t 1045. .4 T e x t i l e A r t s Room 25' X 50' .0287 25 u s e r s / u n i t 871. .2 Hobby A r t s Room 20' X 45' .0207 45 s q . f t . / p e r 968. .0 Cooking A r t s Room 25' X 45' .0230 50 s q . f t . / p e r 871, .2 Workshop 35' X 35' .0275 80 s q . f t . / p e r 544. .5 C r a f t Workshop 35' X 35' .0275 80 s q . f t . / p e r 544, .5 Photography Shop 25' X 35' .0138 40 s q . f t . / p e r 1089. .0 Multipurpose Studio 72' X 35' .0574 80 s q . f t . / p e r 544, .5 Music Room 1000 sq. f t . .0229 30 s q . f t . / p e r 1452. .0 D i v i n g Tank 45' X 36' .0372 60 u s e r s / u n i t 1613. .3 Pool Area 45* X 82' .0847 369 u s e r s / u n i t 4355. ,9 Racquetball Court 20' X 40' .0184 3 u s e r s / u n i t 163. .4 Squash Court 18' X 32' .0136 2 u s e r s / u n i t 147. .2 Ice Rink 85'. X 190' .3707 30 u s e r s / u n i t 80. .9 Theatre 3000 s q . f t . .0689 6 s q . f t . / p e r 7260. .0 Art G a l l e r y 20' X 40' .0275 20 s q . f t . / p e r 2178. .0 Jogging T r a i l s 20' X 1000' .4591 48 users/mile 19. ,8 B i c y c l i n g T r a i l s 20' X 1000* .4591 40 users/mile 16. ,5 Hiking T r a i l s 20' X 1000' .4591 48 users/mile 19. ,8 Eques t r i a n T r a i l s 20* X 1000' .4591 24 users/mile 10. ,0 C u r l i n g Rink 14' X 160' .0514 8 u s e r s / u n i t 155. ,6 244 Golf Hole 10 acres 10.0 25 u s e r s / u n i t 2.5 Lawn Bowling Green 20' x 120' .0551 6 u s e r s / u n i t 108.9 Archery Range 10' x 300' .0689 5 u s e r s / u n i t 72.6 R i f l e Range 10' x 300' .0689 3 u s e r s / u n i t 43.6 245 APPENDIX 4 1979 RICHMOND LEISURE SERVICE DEMAND STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE T h i s Appendix c o n t a i n s the q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was designed and admi n i s t e r e d to gather i n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c i p a t i o n and pre f e r e n c e r a t e s r e q u i r e d to undertake the needs a n a l y s i s process developed i n t h i s t h e s i s . In Part J there are FOUR STEPS. You will note EACH STEP contains an "ANSWER C O L U M N " across from each of the FOUR MAJOR RECREATION ACTIVITY SECTIONS. These columns are for your answers to EACH STEP outlined below. Please follow these instructions STEP BY STEP to fill out Part J of the questionnaire. PART J: STEP OIME Please fill in the shaded LH1 C O L U M N marked " INTERESTED" as follows: Mark with a check (\/) all activities in which you have NOT participated during the PAST YEAR, but in which you would REALLY like to if you had the opportunity. Check only activities which you would prefer to participate in. If you wish, you may add activities under "Other" at the end of each major activity section. Example: Tennis Interested Reason Involved Location PART J: STEP TWO In STEP ONE you indicated with a check (\/) all recreation activities which interest you, but in which you have NOT participated during the PAST YEAR. We would like to know why you have not participated in these activities during the past year. Below you see a list of reasons why some people do not participate in selected activities. In the WHITE COLUMN marked " REASON " place the NUMBER of the reason which best describes why you have not participated in an activity which you checked (v") in STEP ONE. If the "reasons" which we have included are not descriptive enough, you may add your own better reasons in the space marked "Other" at the end of the list of REASONS FOR NOT PARTICIPATING. Print the added reason and use the number of the new reason where necessary. EXAMPLE: Tennis Interested Reason Involved Location v/ 4 PART J : STEP THREE I N V O L V E D Please fill in the shaded • C O L U M N marked " INVOLVED" as follows: Mark with a check (v/) all activities in which you have participated REGULARLY FOR A S E A S O N OR MORE DURING THE LAST THREE Y E A R S WITHIN THE R ICHMOND AREA. You may also check activities which you may have added under "Other" in any of the major activity sections. EXAMPLE: Soccer Interested Reason Involved Location v/ PART J: STEP FOUR L C In STEP THREE you indicated with a check (v/) all recreation activities you participated in regularly WITHIN THE RICHMOND AREA DURING THE LAST THREE YEARS. In the WHITE ANSWER C O L U M N marked "LOCATION" please indicate WHERE you participated in each checked (v/) activity by following these instructions: For each activity you checked (v/) in the COLUMN marked " INVOLVED" please FIND THE NUMBER O F THE ACTIVITY Z O N E (on the map) where you MOST OFTEN or USUALLY participated and P L A C E THE NUMBER OF THE ZONE IN THE WHITE COLUMN marked "LOCATION" — opposite each checked (\/) activity in the "INVOLVED" COLUMN. If you participate in a checked activity in your own home or immediate neighbourhood, please use the zone number which best describes the zone of your home or neighbourhood. Please specify the location of the activity or name of facility if it is not indicated by a Z O N E on the map. If you participate in a recreation activity OUTSIDE RICHMOND place the Z O N E CODE 100 next to the checked activity. •Interested Reason Involved Location EXAMPLE: Soccer V 58 REASONS FOR NOT PARTICIPATING: Number Reason 1 No programme offered 2 Cannot afford the activity 3 Programme is uninteresting 4 No recreation facilities near enough 5 Activity offered at unsuitable time of day 6 . Not interested enough . 7 Don't know where programme is offered 8 Programme is overcrowded 9 Don't have equipment 10 Friends won't participate with me 11 No others my age/sex participate 12 Lack skill 13 No transportation 14 No time 15 Other (Specify) 8° E S T Cmlt 8-5511! ©xft. 231 a m to S o © © p.irm, 278=551© p.mni. to 8°©© p=oinio ©nday to Friday STEPS 1 2 3 4 e e< cs o c_ G3 ex ca CSJ 6£ C3 C9 e CULTURAL VISUAL ARTS/ CRAFTS/HOBBIES 001 Basketry 002 Batik 003 Boat/Canoe Construction 004 Bottle Cutting 005 Cake Decorating 006 Candlemaking 007 Cartooning 008 Ceramics 009 Cooking (ethnic -Chinese etc.) 010 Copper Enamelling 011 Crocheting 012 Decoupage 013 Doll Making/Repairs 014 Doodle Art 015 Drawing/Sketching 016 Dressmaking 017 Embroidery 018 Ethnic Crafts 019 Flower Crafts (Ikebana) 020 Furniture Finishing 021 Gardening/Landscaping 022 Home Remodelling 023 Interior Decorating 024 Jewellery Making 025 Lapidary 026 Leathercraft 027 Knitting 028 Macrame 029 Metal Craft 030 Model Building 031 Model Aircraft (Build/Fly) 032 Needlecraft 033 Origami 034 Painting (all media) 035 Paper Crafts 036 Photography (still/motion) 037 Pottery 038 Printmaking 039 Puppetry 040 Quilting STEPS ? 2 3 4 . o ca » es cs o _ ca _ e c o S3 S a 041 Resin Craft 042 Rugmaking 043 Sculpturing 044 Sewing 045 Silk Screening 046 Stained Glass Craft 047 Stitchery 048 Tye Dye 049 Weaving 050 Wood Crafts 051 Other (Specify) CULTURAL PERFORMING A ITS 052 Ballet 053 Ballroom Dancing 054 Baton 055 Belly Dancing 056 Choir/Choral Groups 057 Creative Movement 058 Disco Dance 059 Drama 060 Folk Singing 061 Folk Dance 062 Folk Guitar 063 Highland Dance 064 Instrumental Music 065 Jazz/Modern Dance 066 Modelling/Poise 067 Orchestra/Band 068 Polynesian Dance 069 Rhythmics 070 Social Dance 071 Square Dance 072 Stagecraft 073 Yoga 074 Attending Art Exhibits 075 Attending Concerts 076 Attending Dance Performances 077 Attending Live Theatre 078 Visit Historic Sites 079 Other (Specify) STEPS ATHLETICS 080 Archery 081 Badminton 082 Baseball 083 Basketball 084 Bowling 085 Boxing 086 Broomball 087 Curling 088 Fencing 089 Field Hockey 090 Figure Skating 091 Flcor/Cosom Hockey 092 Football 093 Gymnastics 094 Ice Hockey 095 Ice Skating 096 Jogging 097 Keep Fit/Physical Fitness 098 Lacrosse 099 Martial Arts (Kendo, Judo) 100 Netball 101 Racquetball/Handball 102 Ringuette 103 Roller Skating 104 Rugby 105 Scuba/Snorkel Diving 106 Skateboarding 107 Soccer 108 Softball 109 Springboard Diving 110 Squash 111 Swimming 112 Team Handball 113 Tennis 114 Tracks, Field 115 Trampoline 116 Volleyball 117 Weight-lifting 118 Wrestling 1 2 119 Other (Specify) STEPS OUTDOOR/NATURE RELATED ACTIVITIES 120 Backpacking/Hiking 121 Beavers/Cubs/Scouts 122 Bicycling 123 Bird Watching 124 Boating 125 Brownies/Guides 126 Camping 127 Canoeing/Kayaking 128 Climbing/Rapelling 129 Conservation/Ecology Club 130 Cross-Country Skiing 131 Downhill Skiing 132 Fishing 133 Golf 134 Horseback Riding 135 Horseshoes 136 Hunting 137 Kite Flying 138 Lawn Bowling 139 Motorcycling 140 Nature Studies Activities 141 Orienteering 142 Playground Prog. Activities 143 Picnicking 144 Pool Wading 145 Rafting 146 Rifle Range (Target/Shoot) 147 Rowing 148 Sailing 149 Snowshoeing 150 Snowmobiling 151 Suntanning/Bathing 152 Survival Training 153 Tobogganing 154 Trail Biking 155 Trail Walking 156 Walking for pleasure 157 Water Skiing 158 Other (Specify) RICHMOND LEISURE SERVICES DEMAND STUDY 1979 INSTRUCTIONS: 1. P l e a s e r e a d the a c c o m p a n y i n g letter b e f o r e s tart ing to a n s w e r this con f i den t i a l que s t i onna i re . 2. E a c h m e m b e r of your fami ly a g e 10 y e a r s a n d over is r e q u e s t e d to fill out this q u e s t i o n n a i r e in sp i te of a n y s e e m i n g repet i t ion that m a y be invo lved. Y o u a n d your family h a v e b e e n e s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d to a n s w e r this q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d c o m p l e t e d f o r m s f rom e a c h m e m b e r of your family a re n e e d e d in o r d e r that w e m a y p lan for y o u r fami ly ' s park a n d r e c r e a t i o n n e e d s with the b e s t in format ion p o s s i b l e . NOTE: All in format ion w h i c h y o u p rov i de will b e str ict ly conf ident ia l . PART B - What is the age and sex of the family member whose form this is? 1. My present age is: years Sex: Ma's. . (1) Female. -(2) PART C - Educational Background How many years of schooling have you completed? (check highest one only) G r a d e O - 8 (1) Grade 9 - 10 _ Grade 1 1 - 1 3 (3) -(2) Vocational Training (4) Some University (5) University Graduate (6) Post Graduate (7) • Other _ ( 8 ) PART A - Family Information NOTE: (1) Parts A and B will be much the same for all members of your family. Parents may wish to complete these parts on all forms for their children age 10 and over to ensure their being correct and complete on all forms. (2) All other parts are to be answered independently by each family member. Family Member Current age in years Living at Home? Yes No Man of the House Lady of the House Child One Child ,Two Child Three Child Four Child Five Child Six Other • • • 4 PART D - Occupation (1) Occupation of major wage earner in your family. (2) If you are not the major earner, what is your occupation? PART E - Usual Working Time This question is included in order that we may find out when and for how long you work each day of the week. Indicate the number of hours you work each day — place the N U M BER 0 F H OU RS you work in the correct shift position for each day you work. SHIFT DAY DAY EVENING NIGHT ROTATING Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday PART F - Club Membership Are you a member of any organizations or clubs within the Richmond area? , Yes (1.) No (2) If YES, please name each club or organization in which you are currently a member. ORGANIZATION. (Please Print) PLEASE DISREGARD NUMBERED BOXES — FOR OFFICE USE ONLY PLEASE DISREGARD NUMBERED BOXES — FOR OFFICE USE ONLY CONDUCTED BY: AND: East Richmond, Garden City, Sea Island, South Arm, Thompson and West Richmond Community Associations and Steveston Community Society Richmond Leisure Services Department 1ST? WITH COOPERATION OF: School of Community and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia PART G: Opinions Regarding Recreation Opportunities 1. How would you rate the parks, recreation facilities and programmes available in your community? Very Good (1) Good (2) Fair (3) Poor (4) Very Poor (5) Don't Know (6) Please Explain: ED 16 Do you feel that more park and facility development is needed in your community? Yes (1) No (2) Don't Know (3) Please Explain: • 17 Do you feel that more recreation programmes should be offered in your community? Yes . (D No . (2) Don't Know _ .(3) Please Explain: • , 8 Do you feel the community should make more use of school buildings for recreation purposes? Yes . (1) No . (2) Don't Know. .(3) Please Explain: • 19 Have fees and charges restricted your use of any of the parks, recreation facilities or programmes available in your community? Y e s . No . (2) Don't Know. (3) • 6(a) Are you aware of "Richmond - A Guide to Leisure Activities and Community Services" programme brochure? Y e s . N o . -(2) • 6(b) If YES, do you feel it is an effective method of conveying information on our Leisure Services? Yes . (D No . .(2) Don't Know. .(3) Please Explain: • PART H: Opinions Regarding Recreation Programme Adequacy 1. In each major programme area, are recreation opportunities insufficient, adequate, or over abundant? [Check (v') one in each programme area]. (D Insufficient (2) Adequate (3) Over Abundant 01 Creative & Performing Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, etc.) .02 Enrichment Education 03 Competitive/Organized League Sports 04 Individual and Dual Sports 05 Aquatics 06 Outdoor or Nature Related Activities (e.g. camping & backpacking skills, Nature study, etc.) 2.