UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Germanic elements in French Toponymy Caljouw, William Robert 1981

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1981_A8 C34.pdf [ 11.3MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094985.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094985-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094985-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094985-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094985-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094985-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094985-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094985-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094985.ris

Full Text

Germanic Elements i n French Toponymy by William Robert Caljouw B.A., The University of V i c t o r i a , 1976 A Thesis submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of The Requirements For The Degree of MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of (French) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1981 @ William Robert Caljouw, 1981 In present ing th is thes is in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements foi an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary shal l make it f ree ly ava i lab le for reference and study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of th is thes is for s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h is representa t ives . It is understood that copying or pub l ica t ion of th is thes is for f inanc ia l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wri t ten permission. Department of The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i i ABSTRACT The p r i n c i p a l aims of t h i s study are two-fold. The f i r s t i s to survey previous research i n the f i e l d and to discuss the main questions concerning the origi n s and sig n i f i c a n c e of the Germanic elements i n the place-names of France. To t h i s end the work done by leading s p e c i a l i s t s from the la t e 19th to the mid 20th centuries i s studied. By comparing t h e i r findings an attempt i s made at s i f t i n g through the various hypotheses and at gaining an idea of present knowledge i n t h i s area. The second objective i s to c l a s s i f y the d i f f e r e n t types of place-names containing Germanic elements. Using t y p i c a l examples, each of these categories i s examined i n turn. The information derived from several thousand examples i s used to produce maps showing geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of the most important place-name types. These provide new insights into the extent of Germanic settlement and i t s l a s t i n g influence i n the Frerich-speaking world. i i i T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S P a g e T i t l e P a g e ' 1 A u t h o r i z a t i o n • 1 1 A b s t r a c t i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s . . V 1 I. A C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e o f R e s e a r c h t o D a t e . . 1 A . G e n e r a l S t u d i e s • • 1 F o o t n o t e s 5 1 B . M o n o g r a p h s 6 3 F o o t n o t e s 9 2 I I . G e r m a n i c E l e m e n t s i n F r e n c h P l a c e - N a m e s 9 9 A . G e r m a n i c C o m p l e m e n t a n d R o m a n c e / G a l l o - R o m a n D e t e r m i n a t i v e 99 F o o t n o t e s 1 0 8 B . G e r m a n i c C o m p l e m e n t a n d G e r m a n i c D e t e r m i n a t i v e . . 1 0 9 F o o t n o t e s 1 5 5 C . G e r m a n i c S i m p l e N a m e s 1 6 1 F o o t n o t e s 1 8 3 D . G e r m a n o - R o m a n c e P l a c e - N a m e s C o m p o s e d o f T h r e e E l e m e n t s I 8 5 F o o t n o t e s 1 9 9 I I I . C o n c l u s i o n s 2 0 1 IV. B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 0 4 i v LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1. The Names i n -acum/-iacum. 106 Figure 2. Names i n -court ( c o r t i s ) . 118 Figure 3. Names Beginning with c o r t i s - . 119 Figure 4. Names i n - v i l l e . 128 Figure 5. Names i n - v i l l a r e and i t s Variants. 131 Figure 6. Names Beginning with v i l l e - or v i l l a r e - . 132 Figure 7. Forms i n -ing(en), -ange(s), -enge(s), -ingue. 141 Figure 8. Forms i n -ans, -ens, - e i n ( s ) , -ain. 143 Figure 9. Names i n -heim. 147 Figure 10. Names i n -baki (bekkr). 150 Figure 11. German Simple Anthroponyms. 165 Figure 12. Germanic Saints' Names. 170 Figure 13. Germanic Simple Names — Appellatives and Adjectives. 176 Figure 14. Germanic Ethnic Names, "Germanische Volkernamen". 181 Figure 15. Names i n -iaca c u r t i s , -iaca v i l l a . 190 Figure 16. Names i n -in-iacum. 191 Figure 17. Names i n -ingheim. 195 Figure 18. Boulenois Saxon Colony. 196 Figure 19. Names i n -ingtun, -inghove. ' 197 v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To my grandmother, Mrs. D.R. Wing, for her encouragement and to my supervisor, Dr. F. Hamlin, for his h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m and suggestions. v i I A Consideration of the .State of Research to Date A. General Studies Toponymy i s the study of place-names, a multi-faceted study concerned with various human sciences, notably l i n g u i s t i c s , geography, his t o r y and ethnology. A place-name gives an ins i g h t into the language of a p a r t i c u l a r ethnic group, often offers an ind i c a t i o n or description of the physical lay-out of the area i n question, serves to r e f l e c t an history or the commemoration of an incident or a period and may relate some valuable information about the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the race or t r i b e to which i t owes i t s existence. The value of toponymy to the study of the so c i a l history of Europe i s stressed by Ferdinand Lot i n Les Invasions germaniques: "Remonter plus haut, les textes ne le permettent pas, mais §. defaut de textes, l a toponomastique et 1'archeologie des tombes peuvent jeter des lueurs precieuses" 1. 2 Horeover, "veritable f o s s i l s of human geography" , place-names indicate much about the movements and/or pattern of settlement of a people. Clearly the study of toponymy opens up a treasure-trove of information on the r a c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c evolution of a people or country. As Godefroid Kurth puts i t : "Les noms de lieux forment un mysterieux reservoir de souvenirs, dont beaucoup sont contemporains des premiers ages d'un peuple et qui, tous, ont quelque chose a nous raconter sur les homines :;et 3 les choses du passe." In t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n the toponyms that have complete or p a r t i a l Germanic o r i g i n of France and to a limited extent of Belgium w i l l be examined with a view to better comprehending 2 t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c e v o l u t i o n a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e s t u d y w i l l f o c u s o n t h r e e f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t s : o r i g i n , s i g n i -f i c a n c e a n d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h e d a t a h e r e c o n s i d e r e d w i l l b e r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e n a m e s o f i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s t o w n s , v i l l a g e s a n d m o r e r a r e l y h a m l e t s . I s h a l l b e g i n b y m a k i n g a d e t a i l e d a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e w o r k d o n e b y s c h o l a r s s u c h a s A u g u s t e L o n g n o n , H e r m a n n G r o h l e r , A u g u s t e V i n c e n t , A l b e r t D a u z a t , C h a r l e s R o s t a i n g , F r a n z P e t r i , M a u r i t s G y s s e l i n g , W a l t e r v o n W a r t b u r g , E r n s t G a m i l l s c h e g a n d F e r d i n a n d L o t . T h e p l a c e - n a m e s t h e m s e l v e s w i l l t h e n b e e x a m i n e d , e s t a b l i s h i n g a s e r i e s o f c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o s t r u c t u r a l a n d s e m a n t i c p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e f o u n d a t i o n o f w o r k d o n e i n F r e n c h t o p o n y m y w a s l a i d p r i n c i p a l l y d u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h a n d e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . We s h a l l f i r s t r e v i e w t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h v a r i o u s g e n e r a l s t u d i e s h a v e m a d e t o t h i s s c i e n c e a n d t h e n s e l e c t e d m o n o -g r a p h s l i m i t e d t o r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f t o p o n y m y . P e r h a p s m o r e t h a n a n y o n e e l s e A u g u s t e L o n g n o n , r e n o w n e d F r e n c h h i s t o r i a n a n d g e o g r a p h e r , a i d e d t h i s b r a n c h o f k n o w l e d g e t o e v o l v e f r o m i t s p o s i t i o n o f t h e m e r e " c e n d r i l l o n d e l a l i n g u i s t i q u e " t o t h a t o f a s e r i o u s a n d w e l l - r e s p e c t e d s c i e n c e . A l b e r t D a u z a t w h o f o l l o w e d i n L o n g n o n ^ s f o o t s t e p s a t t h e E c o l e p r a t i q u e d e s H a u t e s E t u d e s p r a i s e d h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d c h a r a c -4 t e r i s e d h i m a s " . . . l e v r a i f o n d a t e u r d e l a t o p o n y m i e f r a n c a i s e " . F o l l o w i n g a r e s o m e o f t h e h i g h l i g h t s o f L o n g n o n ' s a c a d e m i c c a r e e r a n d w o r k i n t h i s f i e l d . I n 1 8 8 9 L o n g n o n r e p l a c e d A l f r e d M a u r y a t t h e C o l l e g e d e F r a n c e , w h e r e f r o m 1 8 9 2 o n w a r d s h e o c c u p i e d t h e c h a i r i n h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y . T h e s a l i e n t a s p e c t o f 3 Longnon's p e r i o d of i n s t r u c t i o n was h i s i n i t i a t i o n of the study of place-names., a r e l a t i v e n o v e l t y , i n a d d i t i o n to h i s o r i g i n a l r e p e r t o i r e of seminars on h i s t o r y and geography. As e a r l y as 1879 he submitted a p e t i t i o n to the head of the h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o l o g i c a l sciences department i n order t o request the i n c l u s i o n of courses i n toponymic studies of France to the r e g u l a r s y l l a b u s . His e s t i m a t i o n t h a t a knowledge of the h i s t o r y and e v o l u t i o n of toponyms would r e v e a l i n v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about the h i s t o r y of France i s c l e a r l y and c o n c i s e l y formulated i n the concluding remark to h i s p e t i t i o n : "...et j'estime q u ' i l s o r t i r a meme de c e t t e seule p o r t i o n du vaste cadre que j e me t r a c e , des lumieres 5 precieuses pour l ' h i s t o i r e de notre pays." Of course the "vaste cadre" mentioned r e f e r s to the immense f i e l d of research open to p h i l o l o g i s t s i n French toponymy of which, then and even now, whole areas remain v i r t u a l l y " t e r r a i n c o g n i t a " . During the whole of Longnon's s c h o l a r l y a c t i v i t y he'published but two works on the s u b j e c t : h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the D i c t i o n n a i r e topographique de  l a France on the toponymy of the departement of the Marne published i n 1891 and the A t l a s h i s t o r i q u e de l a France of 1907. A f t e r Longnon's death two of h i s d i s c i p l e s , Paul M a r i c h a l and Leon M i r o t , undertook to preserve the work and r e p u t a t i o n of t h e i r mentor i n a book c a l l e d Les noms de l i e u de l a France which was published i n a s e r i e s of f i v e f a s c i c l e s between 1920 and 1929. In t h i s work a l l the place-names have been grouped i n t o a s e r i e s of chapters intended to f a c i l i t a t e examination. The chapters may be d i v i d e d i n t o two l a r g e groups: chapters one to sixty-one concern the r a c i a l , e t h n i c o r i g i n of the p l a c e -names and s i x t y - t w o t o e i g h t y - f i v e r e l a t e to those toponyms dealing with many aspects of human society and culture. By f a r the majority of the toponyms of which at least one element i s Germanic ars treated i n the f i r s t group ;of which chapters forty to f o r t y - s i x deal with Teutonic origins according to the various t r i b e s : Saxon, Burgundian, Gothic, Frankish and Scandinavian. Necessarily a certain number of Germanic toponyms would be found under such headings as "Hierarchie c i v i l e " where some names serve to r e c a l l the rule and influence of the Teutonic invaders during the Early Middle Ages. In the f i r s t chapter devoted to the names of Germanic o r i g i n Longnon acknowledges the primacy of t h e i r contribution to French toponymy during the period approximately spanning the Vth 7 to Xth centuries. A l l these chapters contain much h i s t o r i c a l background information on such topics as the routes of the "Volkerwanderung", the subsequent invasions and settlement of G a l l i a and the p o l i t i c a l events pertinent to the explanation of certain place-names or place-name types. Throughout i t i s manifest that Longnon's in t e r e s t i s , to a very high degree, h i s t o r i c a l . Indeed, rather s u r p r i s i n g l y , l i t t l e attention i s paid to l i n g u i s t i c 8 analysis which i s such an es s e n t i a l element of toponymy. Following the i n i t i a l chapter r e l a t i n g to the consideration of the Germanic toponyms of the -ing type the remainder of the chapters concerns the names which can be attributed more or less with certainty to a p a r t i c u l a r Germanic t r i b e . The second chapter treating names of Saxon o r i g i n i s divided into two sections one of which examines those i n Normandy and organises them a f t e r a l i s t of Germanic common nouns of Saxon o r i g i n such as -tun, -ham, - i g , -naes etc, whilst the other contains the 5 toponyms of Boulenois which are organised alphabetically. However the toponyms of supposed Burgundian o r i g i n are organised alpha-b e t i c a l l y under the t i t l e s of certain "arrondissements" or departements of the area of former Burgundian colonisation. The chapter on Gothic names contains very l i t t l e place-name analysis for two h i s t o r i c a l reasons: the Goths did not s e t t l e G a l l i a i n great numbers and few documents e x i s t to corroborate the o r i g i n s of the toponyms. Nevertheless Longnon does consider a group of names ending i n -ens < -ing occurring in southern France which, 9 he asserts, are most l i k e l y of Gothic o r i g i n . The arrangement of the very extensive section on Frankish origins i s quite varied. The f i r s t chapter includes a series of sub-headings by common nouns which, according to Longnon, have been " . . . t i r e ( s ) de l a langue des F r a n c s " f o r example: -bach, -Strom, - f a r a , - T a r / — l a r i , -loh, -ing and -oar. The remainder of the chapters are devoted to the study of those heterogeneous toponyms joining Romance and Frankish elements. During the next three chapters the compound place-names are grouped afte r certain Latin appellatives or common nouns: - c o r t i s , - v i 1 l e , - v i l l e r , -mansus, -monasterium, -cappella, -mons etc. Then Longnon examines those place-names owing t h e i r creation to a simple Germanic anthroponym and Romance element, whether s u f f i x or appellative. For the sake of easier analysis the place-names formed from a compound Germanic anthroponym are l i s t e d alpha-b e t i c a l l y under the f i n a l element or, i n the case of the names derived from a simple name,"''"'" under that name. An example of the 12 f i r s t sort i s provided by Bretencourt (Seine et Oise) derived from the compound Germanic anthroponym, B e r t h i l d i s , c l a s s i f i e d 6 alphabetically under the heading of the second element - h i l d i s , 13 . As for the second type of place-name, Goussancourt (Aisne) i s l i s t e d alphabetically after the simple anthroponym, Gontio. The section concerning those toponyms of Frankish o r i g i n i s completed by a chapter on the "noms de r i v i e r e " which, though i t l i e s without the l i m i t s of the focus of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , i s worthy of mention. Although a great many of the names applied to bodies of water i n France harken back to recondite pre-Latin and, 14 often, p r e - C e l t i c sources Longnon attempts to demonstrate that besides those names whose exteriors are manifestly Germanic there are others, Romance i n appearance but formed through Germanic influence. A t y p i c a l l y . Germanic custom consists of designating a region or t e r r i t o r y a f t e r i t s p r i n c i p a l r i v e r or body of 15 water. He then proceeds to elaborate his theory indicating certain a d j e c t i v a l endings which, during the Frankish period, were tacked onto Romance hydronyms i n order to create names of various "pagi" or d i s t r i c t s . In the conclusion Longnon advances the hypothesis that one may very well be able to ascertain the extent of Germanic settlement of G a l l i a Romana by noting the areas i n which hydronyms i n the Germanic suffixes - a i n , - i n , -an occur."'" F i n a l l y Les noms de l i e u treats the Germanic place-names of a rather l a t e r creation a r i s i n g from the permanent establishment 17 of the "Northmen" i n the north of France, the name of the province attests t h e i r presence, Normandy. After a short h i s t o r -i c a l expose on the subject of the h o s t i l e incursions and l a t e r usurpations of French t e r r i t o r y by the Northern invaders, Longnon commences a study of the toponyms of Scandinavian o r i g i n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that he distinguishes between two types of 7 names of Scandinavian o r i g i n both of which are compound: f i r s t l y -Romance and Germanic elements combined with a f i n a l Norse appellative and, secondly, a Scandinavian anthroponym combined with the Romance s u f f i x - v i l l e . In Chapter f i f t y - f i v e on the place-names with Norse endings the toponyms have been arranged alphabetically a f t e r certain Norse appellatives i n d i c a t i n g either a physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the land or a type of habitation, i e : -bekkr, -budh, -bu, - d a l , -gard, -grunn, -holm, -hus, - k l i f etc. Unfortunately Longnon contents himself with merely l i s t i n g the modern form of those place-names whose second element i s derived from Norse according to the appropriate appellative. The departement i s indicated i n parentheses but r a r e l y , i f ever, are dates of attestation or early forms provided. Explanations are c h i e f l y semantic i n nature and almost always r e s t r i c t e d to the Norse common nouns which constitute the f i n a l elements i n these composite toponyms. Longnon concludes with the observation that t h i s l i s t does not purport to contain a l l the toponyms of Scandinavian o r i g i n since there exists quite a number of compound names of which some of the constituent elements may be Scandi-navian'; but, as these elements are akin to other Germanic languages, t h i s cannot be affirmed with any certitude. To exemplify this d i f f i c u l t y he c i t e s the names Cherbourg, Monte-18 bourg and Jabourg a l l located i n Normandy. The second type of place-name of Scandinavian descent outlined by Longnon unites a Scandinavian anthroponym with the Romance appellative - v i l l e , so p r o l i f i c i n toponymic formations. Indeed i t i s asserted that toponyms of t h i s sort are quite numerous i n Normandy: "Les noms de lieux en - v i l l e sont f o r t nombreux en 8 19 N b r m a n d i e . . . " I n o r d e r t o g a x n a v a l i d i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e - V i l l e n a m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o -v i n c e , a s u r v e y o f t h e n a m e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l " c o m m u n e s " w a s e f f e c t e d . T h e r e s u l t s a r e e x t r e m e l y i l l u m i n a t i n g s i n c e t h e a r e a s o f k n o w n c o n c e n t r a t e d S c a n d i n a v i a n c o l o n i s a t i o n p o s s e s s a h i g h 20 p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s e n a m e s . I n c o n s e q u e n c e L o n g n o n f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y m a y f o r m a v a l u a b l e g a u g e o f 21 . t h e d e g r e e o f s e t t l e m e n t . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h i s t o p o n y m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e h e e x a m i n e s a f e w e x a m p l e s o f n a m e s o f c o m m u n e s w h o s e f i r s t e l e m e n t i s a n a d j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n a n a n t h r o p o n y m . P l a c e - n a m e s s u c h a s B e l l e v i l l e ( S e i n e M a r . ) a r e m u c h l e s s c u r r e n t t h a n t h o s e p r e c e d e d b y a S c a n d i n a v i a n p e r s o n a l n a m e . A s i n a l l t h e t o p o n y m i c s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d b y A u g u s t e L o n g n o n , t h e h i s t o r i c a l , s e m a n t i c s i d e p r e d o m i n a t e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e l i n g u i s t i c , s y n t a c t i c o n e . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e p l a c e - n a m e s a r e s t u d i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i m p l e a n t h r o p o n y m f r o m w h i c h t h e y d e r i v e . T h e s e a n t h r o p o n y m s , g i v e n i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l f o r m , w e r e c u l l e d f r o m a n I c e l a n d i c h i s t o r i c a l w o r k o n t h e N o r s e s e t t l e m e n t 22 o f t h a t i s l a n d . N o i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o t h e e a r l y f o r m s o r t h e i r d a t e s o f a t t e s t a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d a n d , i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , n o e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n c o m p o n e n t . O f t h e t o p o n y m s w i t h c o m p o s i t e a n t h r o p o n y m s o n l y a n u m b e r o f " t h e o p h o r e s " , n a m e s o f d i v i n i t i e s , a r e c o n s i d e r e d . O n c e a g a i n m o r e h i s t o r i c a l t h a n l i n g u i s t i c d a t a a r e g i v e n . T h i s e n d s t h e s e r i e s o f c h a p t e r s i n w h i c h L o n g n o n d e v o t e s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e p l a c e - n a m e s o w i n g t h e i r f o r m a t i o n , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o G e r m a n i c i n f l u e n c e . 9 For the most part, the reception of Longnon's study of the place-names of France i n Les noms de l i e u was favourable. It i s natural that the research contained i n t h i s work should represent a very v a l i d and important contribution to that science. In the introduction to his Les noms de l i e u x , Albert Dauzat praises many of the points of the book and underscores i t s fundamental nature: "Les noms de l i e u de l a France, est, et restera longtemps, 23 l'ouvrage de fond pour les noms de lieux habites..." At the same time, the work manifests a number of serious weaknesses and has thereby drawn some negative c r i t i c i s m from other s p e c i a l i s t s 24 such as Hermann Grohler. Longnon's somewhat exaggerated penchant for h i s t o r i c a l explanation, lack of attention to l i n g u i s t i c , phonetic aspects, i n s u f f i c i e n t use of early forms with appropriate dates , and sometimes even his method of organising the material have been the cause f o r reproach. Hermann Grohler, a contemporary of Longnon, produced a good general study e n t i t l e d uber Ursprung und Bedeutung der Ortsnamen franzosischer Sprache comprising two volumes of which the f i r s t , published i n 1913, concerns the toponyms derived from ancient Ligurian, Iberian, Phoenician, Greek, G a l l i c and Latin sources and the second, completed only i n 1933, treats of the more recent Romance and Germanic toponymic nomenclature. I t i s noteworthy that although the f i r s t volume appeared well over seven years before Longnon's work the second took twenty years. The author blamed the long delay on certain annoying circumstances and 25 f i n a n c i a l troubles. We s h a l l here concentrate on the second volume which contains the study of the Germanic toponyms. In the Foreword Grohler pays homage to Longnon's lectures but 10 26 c r i t i c i s e s certain weaknesses of' Les noms de l i e u de l a France. He mentions also the works of other noted toponymists. With regard to Dauzat's Les noms de l i e u x , he praises i t generally whilst affirming that the scope of the book i s much more r e s t r i c t e d than that of his own: "Auch das an sic h v o r t r e f f l i c h e Buch von Dauzat ver f o l g t ganz andere Absichten als das meine und b l e i b t nach dem Umfang des Gebotenen weit hinter dem vorliegen-27 dem zuriick." To Auguste Vincent he feels obliged for a number of early forms of various place-names which furthered his own 2 8 research. As to the goal of his work, Grohler maintains that i t should serve a broader readership and not merely a few academics. It .is designed as a reference guide- to aid both researchers and interested laymen: "MeinBuch i s t i n erster L i n i e als Nachschlagewerk gedacht, das auBer dem Romanisten auch den 29 Geographen und den gebildeten Laien interessieren wird." Before launching into the examination of the toponyms Grohler provides a l i t t l e h i s t o r i c a l data divided into two sections: a very b r i e f "Introduction to C h r i s t i a n i t y " followed by a longer history of the "Germanic Invasions" and a discussion of t h e i r tremendous influence i n place-name formation. The method employed i n organising the material of t h i s second volume focuses upon f i v e main categories. Certainly the f i r s t category on "Romance Place-names" i s by f a r the most extensive, occupying well over two hundred pages (pp. 12-239). It has further been divided into seven sub-headings which serve to indicate the nature of the denomination, i .e. : i) names expressing settlement i i ) names describing geographical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i i i ) names i n d i -cating cover and state of the land iv) borders, streets, paths, 11 measures of distance v) the three kingdoms of nature: animal, vegetable, mineral vi) water names v i i ) river-names transferred to place-names. The second category i s wholly devoted to the "Germanic Place-names" which are c l a s s i f i e d according to three groups: i) common nouns of West Germanic o r i g i n i i ) common nouns of North Germanic o r i g i n i i i ) Germanic anthroponyms, further separated in t o those of West and North Germanic creation. The remaining categories almost exclusively concern non-Germanic toponyms. The t h i r d category combines several sub-divisions but, generally, studies the place-names which r e f l e c t p o l i t i c a l or re l i g i o u s influences. There i s a section dealing with names by i n s t i t u t i o n s of the feudal system i n the Early Middle Ages (fiscus, feudum, honor etc.) accompanied by two chapters about the toponyms formulated from Chr i s t i a n nomenclature (basilica,, oratorium, salvator, crux etc.J or from the names of saints or martyrs. Those place-names which do not seem to f i t any of the previous c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Grohler organised i n t o a category e n t i t l e d "'Namen verschiedenen Ursprungs". These include names drawn not only from C l a s s i c a l Latin appellatives but also from Vulgar Latin and French. The f i f t h and f i n a l category of "Nameniibertragungen" considers place-name transfers which occurred on account of d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l events. The v i c i s s i t u d e s of war and the accompanying changes i n lords or sovereigns often brought about alterations or substitutions to r e f l e c t the new circumstances.^ 0 In Kis treatment of tnie Germanic toponyms of France, Grohler, unlike Longnon, does not consider separately the place-names which derive from the d i a l e c t s of various West Germanic t r i b e s . Instead of grouping the names under the headings Saxon, Gothic, Frankish, Burgundian and Longobardish, he unites them a l l under the c o l l e c t i v e designation of West Germanic common nouns. Naturally he makes the d i s t i n c t i o n between West Germanic and North Germanic or Scandinavian: "Ihrem Ursprunge nach haben wir zwei Gruppen zu unterscheiden: westgermanische Worter, d.h. solche frankischen, sachsischen, alemannischen, burgundischen Ursprungs, denen auch die westgotischen und wenige longobardische zugezahlt werden mogen, und nordgermanische, die durch die Ansiedlung der Normannen eingefuhrt wurden und sic h demgema.13 auf die Normandie 31 beschranken." The consideration of the West Germanic appellatives consists of a series of paragraphs devoted to one noun wherein i t i s i n t e r -preted etymologically and semantically and i l l u s t r a t e d by appro-priate toponyms. Only those toponyms to be found on the French 32 side of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r are employed as examples. Some h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s about the employment of a p a r t i c u l a r appellative are often included. On the l i n g u i s t i c side, one i s afforded etymological information with the variations i n the Germanic d i a l e c t s . Grohler indicates the modern form, the location (depart-ment) and gives the early form(s) together with the dates of attestation i n documents. In view of the large number of early forms furnished, i t appears that Grohler attaches rather more importance to them than does Auguste Longnon. In a l l some f i f t y -seven West Germanic appellatives from -burg to a hypothetical -wrat j a are treated with nine appellatives -budh, -bu, ^-thveit, - t o f t , - f 16, -holm, -oog_, -haugr, and -hafn fi g u r i n g i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of North Germanic or what Longnon c a l l s Scandi-navian. 13 Next Grohler approaches the question of those place-names composed of eith e r a simple Germanic anthroponym or an anthro-ponym i n combination with a non-Germanic common noun or s u f f i x . The section dealing with "Germanische Personennamen" i s quite extensive due, of course, to the importance and frequency of th i s type of toponym i n France. Preceding the examination of toponyms of this type i s an h i s t o r i c a l introduction coupled with a l i n g u i s t i c explanation of the methods of formation of toponyms containing a personal name. As a resu l t of the conquest, Grohler explains, the Germanic personal names were adopted by the Gallo-Romans and hence were incorporated i n the toponymy: "Nach der Unterwerfung Galliens durch die Barbaren mufiten auch diese weichen und germanischen 33 Namen Platz machen." The greatest portion of the section on personal names con-cerns those of West Germanic derivation but there i s a small part towards the end which looks at those of Old Norse o r i g i n . The arrangement of the material follows the alphabetical l i s t i n g of the o r i g i n a l form of the Germanic anthroponym from which the place-names reputedly derive. I t i s from Forstemann's eminent 34 book on Germanic personal names, Altdeutsches Namenbuchy that Grohler has culled the o r i g i n a l forms. Naturally a l l the place-names i n which the anthroponym i s supposed to figure are accom-panied by t h e i r appropriate early forms and dates of attestation. Additionally Grohler provides some very illuminating observations on o r i g i n , evolution and d i s t r i b u t i o n based on his r i c h documen-tation. Although the great majority of the Germanic toponyms occur i n the chapters already dealt with one can find a few more i n such areas as those place-names r e f l e c t i n g p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s 14 concepts. In the feudal period e s p e c i a l l y , one encountered Germanic place-names because the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties were Germanic. To c i t e only one example given by Grohler, there are a goodly number of "lieux habites" i n France and Belgium which originate from the Germanic compound sub-stantive, all-6d, or "entire property", a feudal term s i g n i f y i n g 35 an estate held not of a superior but i n absolute ownership. Due to the combination of the conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y of the Germanic tribes i n France with the vogue for Germanic personal names amongst the conquered natives, i t i s not surprising to f i n d toponyms i n which Germanic names of saints figure. In the chapter on toponyms containing the names of s a i n t s , Grohler has a section which treats those with Germanic saints' names which he borrowed from Forstemann. The research and information provided by Grohler have been recognised by most toponymists. Mirot and Marichal, editors of Longnon's Les noms de l i e u de l a France, laud Grohler's con-t r i b u t i o n . Nevertheless various aspects of his work have attracted c r i t i c i s m from some academic quarters. In the preface to Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing's Dictionnaire des noms de lieux de France, though his method i s said to have an advantage over that of Longnon i n that i t furnishes "des formes anciennes 37 souvent bien datees", he i s c r i t i c i s e d f o r gaps i n his i n f o r -mation and weaknesses i n some of his hypotheses: "...encore que 1 1 information de Grohler, qui t r a v a i l l a i t a'Breslau, fut souvent fragmentaire et sa science parfois i n c e r t a i n e . " ^ Of those a c t i v e l y engaged during the early part of t h i s century i n the domain of French toponymy ce r t a i n l y Auguste 15 Longnon, Hermann Grohler and Auguste Vincent may be counted amongst the foremost. The l a s t member of t h i s triumvirate, Auguste Vincent, an eminent Belgian scholar, produced a system-a t i c a l l y researched, well documented volume c a l l e d Toponymie de  l a France, published i n 1937. But t h i s was d e f i n i t e l y not the f i r s t attempt at toponymie research for Vincent as he had previously published Les noms de lieux de l a Belgique i n 1927, Like his colleague Longnon, Vincent lectured f o r some years on toponymy at an i n s t i t u t e of higher learning, i n t h i s case, the I n s t i t u t des Hautes Etudes de Belgique i n Brussels. In fac t he regarded the production of the monumental Toponymie rather as a sort of extension of those lectures. Toponymie de l a France, as the name implies, relates only to 39 those toponyms found within the borders of present-day France. In essence i t i s a methodical discussion of the etymologies of a great number of actual French place-names. The goal which Vincent set himself for t h i s t r e a t i s e i s succ i n c t l y expressed i n the i n t r o -duction: " I l {re: the work) a pour but de decrire les d i f f e r e n t s types de formation employes depuis 1la n t i q u i t e , en donnant pour 40 chacun d'eux l e plus grand nombre possible de bons exemples." This aim i s re a l i s e d by the thoroughness and attention to d e t a i l shown i n the examination of the place-names. As to the c r i t e r i o n followed i n the sel e c t i o n of the material Vincent has included only those toponyms for which he could find "des formes suffisam-41 ment anciennes." This i s the most important requirement i n toponymie research, for without early forms there i s great d i f f i c u l t y i n establishing the proper etymology or sense of a place-name. Any conclusions based s o l e l y on the modern form of 16 a n y g i v e n n a m e a r e a p t t o b e e r r o n e o u s . F i n a l l y , i n a g r o u p o f n a m e s p o s s e s s i n g a c o m m o n c o n s t i t u e n t o n l y t h o s e w h o s e o t h e r e l e m e n t s c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d . L a T o p o n y m i e c o m p r i s e s t w o m a i n s e c t i o n s . T h e f i r s t c o n s i s t s o f t h e c h a p t e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n d s u b s t i t u t i o n o f p l a c e - n a m e s w h i l s t t h e s e c o n d d e l v e s i n t o . a m o r e s p e c i f i c s t u d y o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t o p o n y m s , t h a t i s , t h e t y p e s o f t o p o n y m s c r e a t e d d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s i n F r e n c h h i s t o r y . T h e l a t t e r c o v e r s s o m e 2 89 p a g e s a s o p p o s e d t o t h e 4 6 o f t h e f o r m e r . T h e f i r s t c h a p t e r s c o l l e c t e d u n d e r t h e t i t l e o f " P h e n o m e n e s G e n e -r a u x " a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f p l a c e - n a m e s , t h e s u b s e q u e n t a l t e r a t i o n s , a n d t h e m o d e r n f o r m a t i o n s . I n t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h i s s e c t i o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f o n e p l a c e - n a m e b y a n o t h e r i s d i s c u s s e d . B u t i t i s t h e s e c o n d m o r e p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n w h i c h c o m e s w i t h i n t h e f o c u s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I t h a s b e e n d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e l a r g e s u b - h e a d s , n a m e l y : " L ' A n t i q u i t e " , " L e H a u t M o y e n A g e " , a n d " L e M o y e n A g e d a n s s o n e n s e m b l e " . T h e s e s u b - h e a d s a r e t h e u m b r e 1 1 a - t e r m s u n d e r w h i c h t h e c h a p t e r s s t u d y i n g t o p o n y m s o f a p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c o r e t h n i c o r i g i n a r e a s s e m b l e d . T h e h e a d i n g " L ' A n t i q u i t e " i n c l u d e s p l a c e - n a m e s o f L i g u r i a n , I b e r i a n , P h o e n i c i a n , G r e e k , G a l l i c a n d L a t i n d e r i v a t i o n . I n " H a u t M o y e n A g e " o n e e n c o u n t e r s t h e n a m e s o r i g i n a t i n g f r o m G e r m a n i c , S c a n d i -n a v i a n , B a s q u e , B r e t o n a n d R o m a n ( m e d i e v a l f o r m a t i o n s ) s o u r c e s . L a s t l y , " L e M o y e n A g e d a n s s o n e n s e m b l e " e n c o m p a s s e s a l l t h e R o m a n c e p l a c e - n a m e s f r o m t h e H i g h M i d d l e A g e s t o t h e m o d e r n 4 2 p e r i o d . F u r t h e r m o r e t h i s l a r g e s t o f t h e t h r e e s u b - h e a d s a r r a n g e s t h e t o p o n y m s i n t o s e m a n t i c g r o u p i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n 17 s i m i l a r ideas expressed, for example, those names designating some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or type of body of water f a l l into the grouping under "Les Eaux". There are many such l o g i c a l l y established classifications., from the place-names of a non-topographical nature to those touching upon some aspect of r e l i g i o n . Unlike his predecessors, Auguste Vincent chose to place his consideration of the Germanic toponyms under the h i s t o r i c a l t i t l e of the "Haut Moyen Age". This i s a f i t t i n g chronological c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n because-the time of the "Volkerwanderung", c i r c a 375-568 A.D., during which the Germanic tribes invaded and s e t t l e d •' G a l l i a , belongs properly to t h i s epoch. Vincent prefaces the actual study of the i n d i v i d u a l toponyms by a few pages concerning the ethnic composition of the t r i b e s , separating them into the t r a d i t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s of West Germanic (Franks, Alamans, Saxons), North Germanic (Danes, Norwegians, Swedes) and East Germanic (Burgundians, Goths), discussing t h e i r wanderings and f i n a l l y focusing upon the in d i v i d u a l peoples to examine the history of th e i r o r i g i n s and t h e i r conquest of G a l l i a Romana. With regard to the Germanic mode of place-name giving Vincent points, out two p r i n c i p a l types of place-names occurring i n France. The f i r s t i s the toponym consisting of a personal name joined with the c o l l e c t i v e ending -ing. The second type i s composed of a personal name and a common noun. With th i s l a t t e r type one must distinguish between those where the anthroponym takes a genitive ending and 43 those where i t combines with -ing. The study of the Germanic toponyms, excluding those of North Germanic or Scandinavian o r i g i n , i s organised into three areas: "horns d'habitants", "noms composes d'un a p p e l l a t i f et d'un nom de 18 personne", and "noms communs divers". "Noms d 1 habitants" examines b a s i c a l l y the place-names whose constituent elements are: a personal name with either the Germanic f i n a l element -ing or i t s p l u r a l form i n -ingen. Following the clear explanations for these formations advanced by Vincent i s a large number of place-names chosen to i l l u s t r a t e these "types". A l l the names are l i s t e d i n alphabetical order according to the modern form accompanied by a number of dated early forms and often an i n d i -cation of the source document or chronicle. In addition, the names of the 'commune' and 'departement' are given. I t i s clear that Vincent provides many more examples than do eith e r Longnon or Grohler. However he discusses the place-name type and then merely gives the l i s t of examples and the supporting material rather than entering into a discussion of the i n d i v i d u a l names. Now the toponyms which combine both a topographical desig-nation and a personal name are arranged rather d i f f e r e n t l y in so far as they come under the t i t l e of the p a r t i c u l a r Germanic common noun contained i n them a l l . Vincent concisely expounds the etymology and meanings of these common nouns and furnishes a l i s t of i l l u s t r a t i v e French place-names. The nouns ranging from -alah, "temple", to -vort/-voort, "ford", are considered alphabetically. In a l l some twenty-five common nouns figure i n t h i s study. There follows a section on common nouns which do not combine with per-sonal names beginning with Middle High German acker, " f i e l d " , and terminating with wisa, "meadow": there are f i f t y - o d d such appellatives. Under the t i t l e of the common nouns Vincent groups both simple and compound place-names containing them. By com-parison with the previous category' of common nouns the number of toponymie examples ci t e d for each i s r e l a t i v e l y scant. 44 Like other noted toponymists, Vincent examines the place-names of North Germanic o r i g i n separately rather than to lump a l l the material together under the innocuous term "Germanic". After a l l , regardless of scruples on the basis of l i n g u i s t i c differences, one must acknowledge that the advent of the Scandinavians or Northmen i n Francia, for the Franks had established dominion over the whole country by then, i s estimated to date from the Xth 45 century. This i s at least three hundred years l a t e r than the f i r s t colonisation of G a l l i a Romana by the other Germanic peoples i f one reckons t h i s from the end of the "Volkerwanderung" or c i r c a 568 A.D.. Given the s i m i l a r i t y of many of the Germanic tongues at the time, toponymists have found i t d i f f i c u l t , often impossible, to attribute many place-names to a s p e c i f i c Germanic idiom. This problem presents i t s e l f a l l too c l e a r l y i n the case of the so-cal l e d Scandinavian toponyms of Normandy. Vincent, very much aware of the p i t f a l l s i n t h i s area, notes a dual complication: "Une double d i f f i c u l t y toutefois se prgsente pour les noms germaniques de l a region normande. D'un cote, plusieurs termes sont communs aux langues scandinaves et a 1'anglo-saxon. Les saxons ayant d i r i g g leurs expeditions, comme les Normands, aussi bien en France qu'en Angleterre, i l n'est pas toujours possible de dire s i un nom est plutot danois que saxon. D1 autre part, les Normands et a b l i s au Xe s i e c l e ont cesse tres v i t e de parler leur langue, n'etant qu'une infime minorite parmi les populations 46 romanes." Grohler, Dauzat and Longnon are a l l i n agreement with t h i s affirmation as i s c l e a r l y demonstrated by treatments 20 of these Scandinavian place-names. Longnon alludes to a further problem i n that many Northmen appear to have adopted'Frankish names r 47 ' r e l a t i v e l y early.- - ' So i t may be a very hasardous a f f a i r proving the Scandinavian descent of names of various Norman inhabited places. In approaching the question of the Scandinavian place-names, Vincent has assembled f i f t e e n common nouns of Norse o r i g i n which form the p r i n c i p a l elements i n some of the toponyms of Normandy. Not a l l are purely Norce since -heima> -holmr, and -mara* are common to old Saxon which renders absolute c l a s s i f i c a t i o n d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible. In his consideration of the Norman place-names Albert Dauzat expresses the following view on the complexity of the l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n i n that province: "En Normandie, 1 1 apport saxon, sous-jacent au norrois (langue des Northmans)} est assez d i f f i c i l e a" discerher^la plupart des racines etant communes aux deux langues."^ As to the analysis, Vincent explains the s i g n i f i c a t i o n s , delves into t h e i r etymologies, sometimes discusses the d i s t r i -bution of the toponyms of a certain type, and provides examples with relevant supportive data, v i z : early forms, dates of attestation and sources. But t h i s overview of the toponyms of North Germanic o r i g i n does not embrace the names of the - v i l l e type, i n other words,, those i n which a Scandinavian personal name i s joined with v v i l l e . This i s a category upon which Longnon placed much importance for he viewed i t as useful i n determining the approximate area of Norse colonisation: "La proportion dans laquelle les presente l a nomenclature topographique des departe-ments qu'a formes l a Normandie procure d'utiles indications sur l'etendue de l a colonisation scandinave."^^ Contrary to the examples of Longnon and Grohler, Vincent does not presume to examine the - v i l l e names of Normandy as Scandinavian, rather he considers them together with the rest of the French place-names of t h i s type i n the chapter on "Noms Romans". It i s highly l i k e l y that t h i s decision was motivated by the uncertainty attached to the origins of these Norman toponyms. What applies to the common nouns applies equally to the personal names. The kinship between the Saxon and Norse idioms combined with the h i s t o r i c a l tendency of the Northmen to adopt the names and, eventually, the tongue of t h e i r Frankish neighbours, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e i r c h r i s t i a n i s a t i o n , a l l serve to obfuscate the issue of derivation within t h i s r e g i o n . ^ . Besides the section dedicated exclusively to the Germanic place-names of France, one encounters a great many more of a somewhat l a t e r formation, names dating largely from the High Middle Ages, i n the f i n a l chapter "Noms Romans". In spite of the s i m i l a r i t y of the terms one must not confuse t h i s chapter with the e a r l i e r "Noms Romains" on the Latin names attested during the Roman period p r i o r to the Germanic inroads. For the most part, Vincent deals with two prototypes: those composite names uniting either 1) personal name and common noun or 2) personal name and a Gallo-Roman or Latin s u f f i x . The personal names are predomirs.-nantly Germanic. I t . i s explained that this i s c h i e f l y due to the popularity which the Germanic names enjoyed amongst the Gallo- -Romans: "Les noms de personnes que l'on rencontre i c i sont en majeure pa r t i e germaniques; imposes de bonne heure par l a mode, i l s sont portes par les Gallo-Romains comme par les Germains.""^ 22 Vincent f i r s t approaches the second type grouping the place-names under the headings of the nine suffixes which constitute the examination. The f i r s t three ending -acus, -iacas, -in-iacus are the most p r o l i f i c with regard to the abundance of place-names composed of them whilst the remaining s i x , -arus, -aster, -aticus, -avus, -ara, -anus, -olium, are rather more infrequently encountered i n French toponymy. Moreover pertinent information on the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of these toponyms i s often provided. For example Vincent states that evidence confirms that -iacum names are densest near the l i n g u i s t i c border between Germanophones and francophones: "Ces noms sont plus denses a mesure qu'on 52 approche de l a frontiere l i n g u i s t i q u e " . Examples of the place-names formed from Germanic anthroponyms . and Latin or Gallo-Roman common nouns are exceedingly numerous. Again the examples are arranged according to the alphabetical l i s t i n g of the Latin or Gallo-Roman common noun. The two appellatives to which Vincent j u s t i f i a b l y gives most attention are the Latin substantives - c o r t i s and - v i l l a both of which are very thoroughly documented. In his treatment of " v i l l a " Vincent includes a footnote on the subject of the l i n g u i s t i c intermingling i n Normandy. "En Normandie, c'est parfois un nom anglo-saxon; dans 53 quelques cas, un nom scandinave..." Under - c o r t i s and - v i l l a one discovers a veritable-, motherlode of specimens serving to demonstrate the d i v e r s i t y and richness of these hybrid Germano-54 Roman formations. ••-'.i.i From the-'.points of view of structure, treatment, and documentation, Vincent's La Toponymie must, at lea s t , be considered amongst the most valuable works on French toponymy. It certa i n l y r a n k s h i g h l y e v e n i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h o s e o f L o n g n o n a n d G r o h l e r . 1 - T h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s w o r k t o t h e s t u d y o f F r e n c h t o p o n y m y i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d b y C h a r l e s R o s t a i n g i n t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e D i c t i o n n a i r e d e s n o m s d e ' l i e u x d e F r a n c e : " I l a p p a r t e n a i t a~ A u g u s t e V i n c e n t d e n o u s d o n n e r l e p r e m i e r l i v r e s y s t e m a t i q u e s u r l a t o p o n y m i e f r a n c a i s e : . . . e n e f f e t , l e n o m b r e d e t o p o n y m s e t u d i e s d a n s c e t o u v r a g e [ t h a t o f V i n c e n t ] ) e s t c o n s i d e r a b l e , e t c h a c u n d ' ; . e u x i e s t a c c o m p a g n e d ' u n e l i s t e d e f o r m e s a n c i e n n e s b i e n d a t e e s e t r e p e r t o r i e ' e s , , c c q u i • f a i t d e c e l i v r e u n o u ' t i l " d e t r a v a i l 55 i n c o m p a r a b l e a u q u e l n o t r e p r o p r e o u v r a g e d o i t b e a u c o u p . " I n 1 9 4 7 , s o m e t e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f h i s T o p o n y m i e , A u g u s t e V i n c e n t p r o d u c e d a n o t h e r g e n e r a l w o r k o n t o p o n y m y , a s o r t o f h a n d b o o k f o r l a y m e n e n t i t l e d , Q u e s i g n i f i e n t n o s n o m s d e  l i e u x ? , o f f e r i n g a g e n e r a l b u t v e r y c o n d e n s e d v i e w o f . t h e t o p o n y m y o f B e l g i u m . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p l a c e - n a m e s o f G e r m a n i c o r i g i n o f B e l g i u m , V i n c e n t h a s c h o s e n t o s p r e a d t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o v e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e t e x t . T h e f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t o f " L e s n o m s l e s p l u s a n c i e n s " w h i c h e x a m i n e s i n d i v i d u a l l y t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r o r i g i n s o f t h e e a r l i e s t B e l g i a n t o p o n y m s : G a l l i c , G a l l o - R o m a n , R o m a n ( m e d i e v a l ) a n d G e r m a n i c . V i n c e n t ' s s t u d y o f t h e G e r m a n i c t o p o n y m s i s a b r i e f o n e c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y o f a n a n a l y s i s a n d e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t s u f f i x - i n g a n d o f s u c h a p p e l l a t i v e s a s ' ' - h e l m , - - z e l e , - d o n k , - b e e k , e t c . O n e e n c o u n t e r s f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f G e r m a n i c p l a c e - n a m e s i n t h e s e c o n d m a j o r s e c t i o n o n t h e m e d i e v a l f o r m a t i o n s , i . e . : t h e t o p o n y m s r e l e v a n t t o t o p o g r a p h y . T h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s b r o a c h e s t h e t o p i c o f t h e b i l i n g u a l t o p o n y m s a l o n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r w h i c h b i s e c t s B e l g i u m v . . Generally, Vincent gives the modern name of a p a r t i c u l a r toponym, the location i n terms of province and, wherever possible, attested early forms. The etymological and semantic interpre-tations are b r i e f i n accordance with the nature of t h i s general but, nevertheless, valuable work. It furnishes an overview of the pervasive Germanic contribution to Belgian toponymy. Albert Dauzat also figures prominently among French toponymists. He succeeded Auguste Longnon i n 1922 at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes i n Paris and founded the s p e c i a l i s t p e r i o d i c a l Revue internationale d 1onomastique. In the realm of toponymy, Dauzat produced two important books: the comprehensive study Les  noms de lieuxTorigine et evolution. Paris: Delagrave 1926 and the p a r t i c u l a r examination of pre-Indoeuropean and Gallo-roman based toponyms e n t i t l e d La Toponymie francaise, Paris: Payot 1960.^^ However, since only the former work concerns i t s e l f with Germanic toponyms i t alone w i l l be reviewed here. It was Dauzat's avowed intention i n compiling Les noms de 1 lieux to produce a comprehensible synopsis of French toponymy combining explanations of the methods of place-namesformation, h i s t o r i c a l development and mutation, and an examination of the categories of toponyms. As much as he admired his predecessor; Dauzat desired to distance himself from what he perceived to be the rather narrow p a r t i c u l a r i s a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Longnon's 57 book. Rather he preferred to produce a t r e a t i s e on toponymy more accessible to the public at large and one which would afford a good overview of the whole question. The appointed purpose of his book i s "...synthetiser et vulgariser une science encore peu 5 8 connue". Also, d i s s i m i l a r to Longnon or others studied thus 25 f a r , D a u z a t e x t e n d s t h e s c o p e o f h i s e x a m i n a t i o n t o e n c o m p a s s , e v e n i f a t t i m e s s o m e w h a t s u p e r f i c i a l l y , s u c h a l m o s t u n e x p l o r e d r e g i o n s o f t o p o n y m y a s : h y d r o n y m y , o r o n y m y , c h o r o n y m y , a n d t h e 59 v a s t d o m a i n o f m i c r o - t o p o n y m y o r f i e l d - n a m e s . T o i n t r o d u c e h i s r e s e a r c h , D a u z a t , l i k e V i n c e n t , d e v o t e s t h e e n t i r e f i r s t p a r t w h i c h b e a r s t h e d e s i g n a t i o n " P h e n o m e n e s g e n e r a u x " t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s o f t o p o n y m i e f o r m a t i o n , t h e v a r i o u s m o t i v e s f o r s u b s t i t u t i o n s a n d p h o n e t i c a n d s e m a n t i c m u t a t i o n s . I n d e e d t h e e n t i r e w o r k c o n s i s t s o f b u t t w o u n i v e r s a l s e c t i o n s w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r b r o k e n d o w n i n t o c h a p t e r s o n p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s o f t o p o n y m y . T h e s e c o n d a n d l a r g e s t s e c t i o n " C a t e g o r i e s e t c o u c h e s h i s t o r i q u e s " a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f p l a c e - n a m e s a n d t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n d l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s c o n t i n -g e n t u p o n t h e f o r m a t i o n s w r o u g h t b y s u c c e s s i v e e p o c h s . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r d i v i s i o n o f t h e t e x t w h e r e t h e a u t h o r d e l v e s i n t o t h e s u b j e c t o f G e r m a n i c t o p o n y m s o f F r a n c e a n d a l l i t s r a m i f i -c a t i o n s . T h e s e c t i o n e m b r a c e s t w o c h a p t e r s : f i r s t l y , " L e s n o m s d e l o c a l i t e s " , c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a m e s o f i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s a n d s e c o n d l y , " N o m s d e l i e u x d i v e r s " , t r e a t i n g o f n a m e s a p p l i e d t o t e r r i t o r i e s , b o d i e s o f w a t e r , r e l i e f a n d f i e l d s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o s o m e s e v e n s u b - h e a d s f r o m a s t u d y o f p r e - C e l t i c c r e a t i o n s t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e n o n - R o m a n c e r e g i o n s o f G a l l i a . . D a u z a t d o e s n o t r e s p e c t p o l i t i c a l f r o n t i e r s b u t s e e k s t o e n c o m p a s s w i t h i n h i s s t u d y t h e w h o l e o f m o d e r n F r a n c e a n d G e r m a n i s e d G a u l ( F l a n d e r s , R h i n e l a n d , A l s a c e a n d S w i t z e r l a n d ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , D a u z a t ' s n i n e t e e n p a g e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e G e r m a n i c t o p o n y m s b e a r s t h e t i t l e " F o r m a t i o n s d e l ' e p o q u e F r a n q u e " 26 which appears to demonstrate the high degree of significance attached by the author to th i s t r i b e ' s settlement of G a l l i a . He i s the only one of the authors discussed t i l l now who has chosen t h i s term to designate the Germanic contingent of toponyms. Grohler and Vincent prefer the more neutral "Germanic" and even Longnon, though he divides up the analysis after r a c i a l or t r i b a l o r i g i n s , does not employ the epithet 6 0 "Frankish" as a global term for them a l l . At the outset of t h i s study Dauzat advances some very v a l i d h i s t o r i c a l observations on the subject of the invasions of the Barbarians and t h e i r consequences for the country and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , toponymy. One very s i g n i f i c a n t remark concerns the stagnation of the towns of G a l l i a following the Barbarian occupation, a period which saw, conversely, a blossoming and expansion i n the country-side: " . . . l a decadence des v i l l e s a pour contre-partie l e developpement des centres ruraux; l a dynastie merovingienne, 61 en p a r t i c u l i e r , a ete une grande monarchie agricole." In truth, as Dauzat so corre c t l y observes, the tendency of the Frankish period was to be towards the clearing and settlement of the land and away from the Roman c i t i e s and towns. Naturally t h i s was to manifest i t s e l f i n the nomenclature of the "lieux-6 2 habites". There follows a consideration of the types of place-names which resulted from the arrogation of the r u r a l possessions by the victorious Franks, and the c u l t i v a t i o n of newly cleared lands. Dauzat affirms that the process of ^ p o l i t i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c change fomented' a r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n of the system of name-giving for "domains" or r u r a l estates from the Gallo-roman custom of applying the name of the owner with a s p e c i f i c i n f l e c t i o n to the Germanic t r a d i t i o n of compound names constituted by an anthroponym attached to some appellative: "Un changement ling u i s t i q u e considerable s'affirme dans les noms des nouveaux domaines: ceux-ci offrent toujours l e nom du possesseur, mais les derives font place aux composes, sous une influence evidemment germanique (qui rappelle les formations originales gauloises et specialement e n - i a l o s ) " (Dauzat, Noms de lie u x , p. 36)f In these formations, Dauzat points out, the personal name, customarily representing the owner of the property, serves to modify the common noun wedded to i t . He further asserts that these appellatives i n d i c a t i n g a r u r a l property ("domaine rural") are very r e s t r i c t e d i n number; Several substantives of Latin o r i g i n possessing t h i s s i g n i f i c a t i o n , that i s : fundus, praedium, ager, v i l l a , and c o r t i s are discussed. However, the greatest weight i s set upon - v i l l a and - c o r t i s because they showed them-selves to be extremely f e r t i l e i n the formation of compound names, p r i n c i p a l l y containing Germanic anthroponyms. It i s stated that the toponyms with -cour or -vi11a as t h e i r second element are concentrated i n the north and north eastern portions 6 3 of France i e : those formerly colonised by Germanic t r i b e s . The evidence of t h e i r geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n l o g i c a l l y suggests that t h e i r creation r e f l e c t s Germanic influence. Then Dauzat enters a discussion of the syntax of the compound toponyms. In the majority of cases i t i s the anthroponym, the complement, which occupies the f i r s t p osition whilst the subject comes after. Regarding the significance of these morphological changes Dauzat draws*- upon the observations and conclusions of other 28 p h i l o l o g i s t s . He . subscribes i n large measure to D'Arbois de Jub a i n v i l l e * s hypothesis that the compound names, where the 64 anthroponym i s the f i r s t element,, are the most ancient. His one reservation for not subscribing wholly to t h i s view stems from Longnon's idea that these compounds are d i f f i c u l t to judge on the basis of syntax alone because the d i f f e r e n t systems of formation became intermixed through the ages. The system of the Gauls consisted of beginning a compound name by the complement 65 whereas, contrariwise, that of the Romans generally placed the p r i n c i p a l element or subject foremost. The Germans, reintroduced the order complement - subject s i m i l a r to the t r a d i t i o n of the Gauls. Dauzat remarks that even during the feudal period Germanic Syntax persisted i n the Norman - v i l l a names much l a t e r than elsewhere. No doubt th i s i s due to the r e l a t i v e l y l a t e 6 6 a r r i v a l of the Northmen. Obviously t h i s tangled knot of what 6 7 Dauzat terms "couches contradictoires" renders the task of etymological research exceedingly problematic. In view of these and other contrary factors the researcher has d i f f i c u l t y a f f i x i n g a f a i r l y accurate date to these place-names: "Dans le d e t a i l , et faute de precisions historiques qui font presque toujours defaut, i l est souvent impossible.de faireune chronologie meme 6 8 approximative." Having looked at the common nouns, Dauzat now focusses 69 upon the anthroponyms. He echoes Longnon"s opinion when he maintains that the personal names sprung from Germanic sources preponderate i n the compound formations , i «.e. : - v i l l a , - c o r t i s , whilst the Romance names "ne forment qu'une infime ' m i n o r i t e " . ^ To support his point he furnishes a short l i s t of Germanic 29 personal names which are contained i n the toponyms following, for example: he ci t e s the Germanic masculine authroponym, Abbo with a genitive i n f l e c t i o n - Abbone - which figures i n the 71 place-names, Aboncourt, Abancourt and Courtabon, Unfortunately Dauzat provides no i n d i c a t i o n of l o c a t i o n , early forms or dates. Dauzat continues with a look at the anthroponyms of Norse o r i g i n which occur i n the place-names of Normandy. These he stresses, 72 are "...prescjue toujours Northman." However, he admits that the Scandinavian anthroponyms of the region had been affected f to some extent by the influence of Frankish neighbours. Astonishingly he alludes not at a l l to the hazards of pr e c i s e l y ascertaining the orig i n s of the anthroponyms i n Norman place-73 names. This survey ends with the examination of the vulgar L a t i n appellatives -monte, - v a l l e , and -ponte which also often unite with anthroponyms to form new place-names. The f i n a l portion of t h i s section on Germanic toponyms contains a succinct evaluation o f the- effects o f the.various Germanic folk-groups upon the toponymy of Gallia-Romana. Dauzat examines the types of Germanic place-names other than those which possess a personal name as one of t h e i r constituent elements. He investigates the toponymie legacies of the i n d i v i d u a l tribes which permanently took up residence i n Gallia:" - Visigoths, Burgundians, Franks, Saxons and Northmen. To the Visigoths who se t t l e d the south and south-west and the Burgundians who s e t t l e d the Saone and Rhone valleys exceedingly few place-names can be 74 attributed with any degree of certainty. Dauzat shows that certain place-names which terminate i n the Germanic c o l l e c t i v e p a r t i c l e -ing"derive.from.the V i s i g o t h i c and "Burgundian sources. 30 In the lands of the Visigoths the "-ing" ending may take any of these forms: -ens, -enx, -eng dependent upon the locati o n . However, i n the case of the Burgundian place-names, the research i s hindered greatly by the incidence of two non-Germanic endings within the l i m i t s of supposed Burgundian t e r r i t o r y , namely, the Gallo-Ligurian -incos and the Latin -anus or i n the related form, 75 -anica. S i m i l a r l y the p r o l i f i c -ing ending occurs i n Frankish t e r r i t o r y as well but, r e l a t i v e to the t o t a l of Frankish place-names, only 7 6 to a rather minimal extent. This i n t e r e s t i n g phenomenon appears to suggest, he maintains, that the Franks were assimilated e a r l i e r than t h e i r r a c i a l cousins, the Burgundians and Visigoths. This viewpoint seems to be supported by Longnon i n a statement from his h i s t o r i c a l expose on the Franks: "En Neustrie, l a population gallo-romaine e t a i t assez dense, tandis que l a population franque e t a i t eparse: c e l l e - c i adopta bientot l a langue l a t i n e , et les noms de l i e u purement germaniques qu'on peut rencontrer dans cette ' 77 region sont en minorite1.' Dauzat remarks that the greatest number of place-names of the -ing type occur i n the province of Lorraine, an area of intensive Frankish colonisation. Next there i s a consideration of a short series of Frankish common nouns, - f a r a , -ham, - l a r , and -bak which figure either i n simple 7 8 or complex toponyms. But these are only treated very super-f i c i a l l y . Few toponyms i l l u s t r a t i n g these composite formations are presented. F i n a l l y Dauzat reviews those elements for which French toponymy i s indebted to the Saxons and Northmen. With regard to the extent of Saxon toponymic influence he finds himself i n disagreement with Longnon's overestimation of i t s importance: "L'importance des elements saxons a ete un peu exageree par 79 Longnon." Indeed Longnon devotes three chapters or twenty pages e n t i r e l y to the various aspects of the Saxon element i n French place-names. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the results of t h e i r respective research into the Saxon heritage of the place-names of Normandy, the region of concentrated Saxon settlement, serve to underscore t h i s divergence. For whereas Longnon advances nine common nouns which figure i n Norman toponyms as Saxon i n o r i o r i g i n : -tun, -ham, -cot, -ho, - i g , -naes, -f l e o d , -gate, -dike. Dauzat admits a mere four: - e ^ ( - i g ) , -hou(-ho) , -ham 'and -tun. On the other hand Dauzat gives Longnon c r e d i t for the discovery of a s i g n i f i c a n t Saxon settlement i n the region of modern Boulogne. This discovery was effected not through the examination of documents or inseriptions but rather through toponymie research: "Une trentaine de noms de lieux dont l e second element represente tun, " v i l l a g e , " et dont on ne trouve nulle part a i l l e u r s 1' equivalent en France, sinon, on l ' a vu a* Bayeux, sont masses 8 0 entre Boulogne,•Fauquembergues et C a l a i s . . . " On the strength-of t h i s f i n d alone Longnon f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n concluding that a substantial Saxon settlement existed there: "L'existence d 1une colonie saxonne en Boulenois est atteste, sinon par les monuments 81 e c r i t s , du moins par l a toponomastique de l a region." In a summary of the contribution of the Northmen to the toponymy of France Dauzat^suprisingly, judges i t to be the most considerable of a l l the Germanic peoples: "De tous les apports germaniques en toponymie, noms de personne 1 part, l e 8 2 contingent le plus important a ete fourni par les Northmans..." There are several reasons why th i s statement seems imprudent i f not erroneous. F i r s t l y , as has already been noted, i t i s often d i f f i c u l t to di s t i n g u i s h accurately between the various Germanic idioms on account of t h e i r s i m i l a r i t y . Secondly, the Northmen were r e s t r i c t e d to the narrow confines of Northwest G a l l i a , the Franks p o l i t i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y dominated the bulk of the country. This suggests strongly that the Frankish contribution should be the greater. Longnon admits t h i s : "La Gaule pouvait, des l o r s , s'appeler France, puisque l a domination franque s'etendait sur l a presque t o t a l i t e de notre pays actuel: e l l e en debordait d 1 * 83 a i l l e u r s considerablement les limites au nord et a l ' e s t . " Dauzat reserves anthroponyms from his evaluation but, even on the basis of common nouns alone, the proportion of the Scandinavian or North Germanic elements to the Frankish or West Germanic appears small. This point i s demonstrated by contrasting the numbers of common nouns of each group treated i n the works of Longnon, Vincent and Grohler. In Vincent's Toponymie de l a  France, of the approximately eighty-eight Germanic common nouns analysed, only f i f t e e n are rather loosely c l a s s i f i e d as Scandi-navian. Longnon, whom Dauzat himself accused of exaggerating the Scandinavian element, shows a disproportionately high percentage of North Germanic words. Of a t o t a l of c i r c a f i f t y - f i v e names, seventeen are termed "Scandinavian" although a few are of rather doubtful o r i g i n . F i n a l l y , Hermann Grohler, who has separated a l l the Germanic appellatives into West- and North Germanic, examines a t o t a l of s i x t y - s i x names of which nine supposedly 84 stem from the Norse idiom. Having considered these factors, the opinion advanced by Dauzat appears ill-founded. Dauzat presents nine common nouns expressive of various aspects of the land or of habitation, which derive from Old Norse: -bekk, -budh, -boeuf, - d a l , -flodh,•-hind, -mar, -thorp, -thv e i t , and - t o f t . An explanation of the meanings, of phonetic alte r a t i o n s and a few i l l u s t r a t i v e toponyms are given. -In a l l the compound place-names quoted these common nouns form the f i n a l element. Therefore i t i s not surprising that Dauzat should 8 5 contend that t h i s holds true for the majority of Norse toponyms. Charles Rostaing supports t h i s view: "L'apport scandinave est constitue essentiellement par des noms a valeur topographique formant le second element d'un mot compose..."^ Included i n th i s study i s a small i n s e r t map of the departements of Normandy on which the l i m i t s of the area of maximum concentration where most Scandinavian toponyms occur have been indicated. This c l a r i f i e s the question of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . Les noms de l i e u studies the Germanic toponyms i n a couple of other short sections. One section on "Regions non-romanes" contains e s s e n t i a l l y a survey of the p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the toponymy of those regions of ancient Gaul which were Germanised: Flanders, Rhineland, Alsace and Alemannish Switzerland. It i s very much concerned with the formation of the actual l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r between the Romance and the Germanic groups and other h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s . However, there i s an enumeration of some of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Germanic common nouns employed i n toponymic formation together with a few examples. This broad examination i s rather too general and thus provides l i t t l e more information than i s contained i n the main section on place-names of Germanic derivation previously discussed. In the sections e n t i t l e d "Noms d 1habitants" and "Noms de t e r r i t o i r e s " Dauzat discusses the etymology and composition of some names containing Germanic elements, i.e.:the names of the d i f f e r e n t folk-groups, Burgundians, Franks and Normans stem from the o r i g i n a l designations applied to these peoples i n t h e i r respective .Teutonic idioms and contributed to the creation of the t e r r i t o r i a l appellations: Bourgogne, France, Normandie. In "Noms .de .cours d'eau" the Germanic element i s examined and, though Dauzat judges i t s o v e r a l l influence upon the hydronyms of G a l l i a to have been minimal, he maintains that: "Les. Germains.ont apporte peu de 8 7 noms dans les regions germanisees de l a Gaule." Nevertheless i t i s shown by means of appropriate examples that the Germanic common nouns -aha, -bach, -wasser, -bee(bach) figure i n some hydronyms. Also Dauzat echoes Longnon's theory with regard to the Germanic influence manifested i n the i n f l e c t i o n -ain with 8 8 i t s variants - e i n , - i n , found i n numerous r i v e r names. It i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f i t t i n g that the next general work investigated should be Les noms de lieux of Charles Rost.aing because he and Albert Dauzat were colleagues and friends as well as being destined to co-operate on the compilation of Le Dictionnaire des noms de lieux de France. This work resembles that of Dauzat i n many respects, most p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i t s structure and the treatment of the material. To a l l appearances, Rostaing's book i s a rather more condensed or coneise version of i t s counterpart since the former contains some 126 to the l a t t e r ' s 256 pages (excluding i n d i c e s ) . Certainly, Rostaing enjoyed the benefit of consulting his colleague's work since there was a twenty odd year i n t e r v a l between the appearance of the two books: Dauzat's was f i r s t published i n 1926 whilst Rostaing's appeared i n 1945. The structure of t h i s Les noms de lieux seems a sort of copy of that of i t s predecessor and namesake authored by Dauzat. Both possess two major d i v i s i o n s : the f i r s t part consists of a general outline of the history, p r i n c i p l e s , and methods of French toponymy whilst the larger second part i s devoted to the analysis of the s a l i e n t contributions of various ethnic origins to toponymy. To a great extent the correspondence holds true also for the arrangement of the second part. However, the one major point of divergence occurs i n the manner i n which t h i s second part has been structured, for, whereas Rostaing divides i t up according to French toponymy and the toponymy of the non-francophone French regions, Dauzat uses the categories of place-names as his c r i t e r i a thus creating one large section on the subject of "lieux habites" and the other one treats the remaining categories names of t e r r i t o r i e s , inhabitants, hydronyms, field-names etc. Despite t h i s , one i s impressed by the resemblances. Both Rostaing's section "La toponymie francaise" and the corresponding "Les noms de localite's" of Dauzat sketch i n broad terms the various l i n g u i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l s t r a t a which together comprise modern French toponymy. Beginning with a survey of the pre-indo-European (Ligurian, Iberian) formations, they continue through formations of G a l l i c , Gallo-roman, Roman, Germanic origins to those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s t o r i c a l periods, from feudal to modern. It 36 i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t D a u z a t a n d R o s t a i n g b o t h c r e a t e d a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n c o v e r i n g t h e t o p o n y m i e s o f t h e n o n - F r a n c o p h o n e b o r d e r r e g i o n s o f G a l l i a , i : e . : F l a n d e r s , A l s a c e , R h i n e l a n d , S w i t z e r l a n d , B a s q u e c o u n t r y , B r i t t a n y . U n l i k e D a u z a t , h o w e v e r , R o s t a i n g e v e n i n c l u d e s a b r i e f e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e t o p o n y m y o f C o r s i c a . C e r t a i n l y t h e m a n y s i m i l a r i t i e s o f s t r u c t u r e d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e w h i c h t h e s e w o r k s b e a r t o o n e a n o t h e r . T o e v a l u a t e t h e l i n g u i s t i c l e g a c y t o t o p o n y m y m a d e b y t h e d i v e r s e e t h n i c g r o u p s w h i c h f o r m e r l y i n h a b i t e d F r a n c e , i s a p r i m a r y a i m . T h a t R o s t a i n g r e a l i s e d t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h i s s t a t e -m e n t i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s b o o k : " D e t e r m i n e r a v e c p r e c i s i o n a q u e l l e c o u c h e d e p o p u l a t i o n a p p a r t i e n -n e n t -•" l e s t o p o n y m e s , e t p a r c o n s e q u e n t q u e l e s t 1 ' a p p o r t r e s p e c t i f d e c h a c u n d e s p e u p l e s q u i o n t o c c u p e n o t r e p a y s , t e l 89 e s t l e b u t d e l a t o p o n y m i e . T h i s a i m f i n d s i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c e n t r a t e d b u t m e t h o d i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e t o p o n y m i e f o r m a t i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m s p e c i f i c r a c i a l o r l i n g u i s t i c s o u r c e s . I n o r d e r t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s , o n e n e e d o n l y e x p l o r e a n y o f t h e s e c t i o n s d e v o t e d t o t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a t i o n s . A s t h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e G e r m a n i c t o p o n y m s , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o d i s c u s s t h e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s f i e l d p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c h a p t e r " L ' A p p o r t G e r m a n i q u e 1 ! . L i k e a l l h i s c o l l e a g u e s b e f o r e h i m , R o s t a i n g p r e f a c e s t h e c h a p t e r w i t h h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e o r i g i n s a n d w a n d e r i n g s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t G e r m a n i c p e o p l e s . H e d e t a i l s t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t o f G a l l i a a n d a t t r i b u t e s t o i t a l i m i t e d t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e p r i m i t i v e l a n g u a g e a n d t o p o n y m y : " C e t a p p o r t g e r m a n i q u e a m o d i f i e l a s t r u c t u r e l i n g u i s t i q u e e t s u r t o u t l e v o c a b u l a i r e d u l a t i n de Gaule, et i l a egalement l a i s s e des traces £n toponymie"." Some other very general points on the Germanic toponymie c o n t r i -bution are advanced as wel l . For example, Rostaing refers to the custom of creating names for the new r u r a l domains by means of a Germanic personal name which arose from the foundation or appropriation of lands by the v i c t o r s . Despite the power and influence enjoyed by the Germans, i t i s pointed out that such Latin appellatives as; -ffions, - v a i l i s , -pons- describing a l o c a l i t y 91 were i n no wise uprooted by t h e i r Germanic equivalents. Another innovation which gradually gained currency was the substitution of Germanic syntax, modifier - p r i n c i p a l element, for i t s l a t i n counterpart, p r i n c i p a l element - modifier. He stresses the d i f f i c u l t y of distinguishing the diverse Germanic origins i n the face of the r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the Teutonic d i a l e c t s and of the extent of the Frankish domination of 92 G a l l i a . F i n a l l y Rostaing presents the c r i t e r i a for the thematic d i v i s i o n of the chapter, namely: the consideration of the place-names formed with the Germanic anthroponyms or appellatives, and the hybrid Germano-roman creations. I t can scarcely be denied that the position occupied by the Germanic personal names vis - S - v i s the Germanic element i n the toponymy of France i s a central one. Rostaing confirms t h i s view i n a remark at the conclusion of the present chapter: "Tel est 1'apport germanique dans l a toponymie francaise. On notera en premier l i e u q u ' i l est forme essentiellement par des noms de personne, ceux que les conquerants imposerent aux domaines 93 q u ' i l s creerent." Rostaing presents b a s i c a l l y two types of anthroponymic formations, f i r s t l y , anthroponym plus the Gallo-38 roman ending -iacus and secondly, anthroponym p l u s the Germanic c o l l e c t i v e s u f f i x - i n g . The combinations w i t h - i a c u s are s a i d to r e f l e c t the e a r l y p e r i o d of Germanic occupation when t h e , invaders had but l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i r more numerous G a l l o -94 roman s u b j e c t s . Generally the place-names i n -1acus and i t s composite v a r i a n t - i n , iacus occur most f r e q u e n t l y i n the North 95 and Eastern p o r t i o n s of the country. To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s forma-t i o n , there follow,- a few such French place-names. The departement and the anthroponym from which the place-name deriv e s are i n d i -cated. Then Rostaing examines the c r e a t i o n s w i t h the purely Germanic s u f f i x - i n g and i t s manifold a l t e r n a t i v e forms. Rostaing concurs completely w i t h the other toponymists that - i n g denotes 9 6 l e s s f i l i a t i o n than the f o l l o w i n g o f a higher personage. These creations too stem from the f i r s t years of occupation but, u n l i k e t h e i r .-iacus opposites, do not enjoy the same wide geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . One encounters I them above a l l i n Flanders, L o r r a i n e , Alsace and the Franche Comte. On the subject of the v a r i a n t s , Rostaing maintains that they derive from two prototypes: e i t h e r a Frankish feminine s u f f i x -ingas which gives the forms -ange, -enge, -ingue, o r , from the Burgundian masculine 97 s u f f i x -ingos w i t h the modern forms -ans, -ens. The few -mg place-names found south of the L o i r e r e q u i r e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n because of the confusion which may a r i s e w i t h the L i g u r i a n s u f f i x - i n c o s , a l s o found i n the area. I t i s presumed that these names de r i v e from the V i s i g o t h s who s e t t l e d south and south western France f o r the v a r i a n t s are -ens, - e i n s , very s i m i l a r to those of the Burgundians to whom they are l i n g u i s t i c a l l y a k i n : "... i l s (the place-names c i t e d ) temoignent du sejour prolonge des 39 9 8 - W i s i g o t h s , d o n t l a . l a n g u e e t a i t v o i s i n e d e s B u r g o n d e s . . . " A n i n t e r e s t i n g p h e n o m e n o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e F r a n c h e -C o m t e w h e r e b o t h t h e F r a n k i s h - a n g e n a m e s a n d t h e B u r g u n d i a n 99 - a n s / - e n s t y p e s m i n g l e . O f c o u r s e t h i s i n s p i r e d v a r i o u s h y p o t h e s e s a s t o t h e c a u s e . R o s t a i n g d i s c u s s e s b r i e f l y t h e c o n -f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s o f T h . P e r r e n o t " a n d E . G a m i l l s c h e g ; t h e f o r m e r p r o p o u n d s t h e t h e o r y , t h a t t h e F r a n k i s h n a m e s a r e o l d e s t w h i l s t t h e l a t t e r u p h e l d t h e c o n t r a r y v i e w . F o r h i s p a r t , R o s t a i n g c o n -s i d e r s t h e v i e w t h a t t h e B u r g u n d i a n n a m e s a r e t h e m o s t a n c i e n t : " T h . P e r r e n o t a s o u t e n u q u e l e s e t a b l i s s e m e n t s f r a n c s comme B e r t h e l a n g e ( D o u b s ) a v a i e n t p r e c e d e c e u x d e s B u r g o n d e s , a l o r s q u e G a m i l l s c h e g a p r i s l a p o s i t i o n c o n t r a i r e e t s a t h e o r i e , d ' a p r e s l a q u e l l e l e s n o m s b u r g o n d e s c o n s t i t u e n t l a c o u c h e l a p l u s a n c i e n n e r e c o u v e r t e p a r l e s n o m s f r a n c s , p a r a x t a d m i s e a u j o u r d ' h u i , b i e n q u ' i l f a i l l e e v i t e r l e s g e n e r a l i s a t i o n s s y s t e m a t i q u e s . B y w a y o f e x a m p l e , R o s t a i n g c i t e s a f e w t o p o n y m s , p r i m a r i l y f r o m F l a n d e r s , L o r r a i n e a n d t h e F r a n c h e C o m t e . F o r t h e s e t h e l o c a t i o n i s g i v e n a s w e l l a s t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e p e r s o n a l n a m e i n -v o l v e d b u t n o e a r l y f o r m s o r d a t e s . T h e G e r m a n i c c o l o n i s t s d i d n o t c r e a t e p l a c e - n a m e s m e r e l y f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m s t o w h i c h c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s h a v e b e e n a p p e n d e d b u t a l s o e x p l o i t e d t h e r e s o u r c e s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i d i o m s . T h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f t o p o n y m s c o m p o s e d o f a p p e l l a t i v e s o r c o m m o n n o u n s b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e l o c a l d i a l e c t s : B u r g u n d i a n , F r a n k i s h , S a x o n , N o r s e e t c . T h e w o r d s f a r a , " f a m i l y " , a n d t a l , " v a l l e y " , a p p e a r t o b e c o m m o n t o a l l G e r m a n i c t o n g u e s b e c a u s e e x a m p l e s o c c u r i n F r a n k i s h , B u r g u n d i a n a n d V i s i g o t h i c r e g i o n s . T h e i r c u r r e n c y a m o n g s t t h e G e r m a n i c p e o p l e s i s a t t e s t e d b y t h e 40 d i s c o v e r y o f p l a c e - n a m e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e m i n t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f d i f f e r e n t t r i b e s . ' ' " ^ " ' ' N e x t R o s t a i n g c o n s i d e r s t h e s u p p o s e d l y F r a n k i s h n o u n s : b a h , " s t r e a m " , a n d h a m , " v i l l a g e " , w h i c h a l s o o f t e n f i g u r e i n t o p o n y m i e f o r m a t i o n s . T h e r e i s u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e o r i g i n s a n d p r e c i s e m e a n i n g s o f - h a m w h i c h i s c o m m o n i n p l a c e -n a m e s o f F r a n k i s h a n d S a x o n d e s c e n t . I n h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e m a n t i c e v o l u t i o n o f t h i s w i d e - s p r e a d W e s t G e r m a n i c w o r d , R o s t a i n g e c h o e s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y V i n c e n t : t h e s e n s e a l t e r e d f r o m " b e n d i n a r i v e r " t o " m e a d o w " o r " p i e c e o f l a n d " 102 u n t i l f i n a l l y i t c a m e t o s i g n i f y a " v i l l a g e " . R o s t a i n g c i t e s a s e r i e s o f i l l u s t r a t i v e F r e n c h t o p o n y m s o r i g i n a t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y f r o m t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n d e p a r t e m e n t s . L i t t l e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n , n o e a r l y f o r m s b u t , a t l e a s t , t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s a r e s t a t e d . B a h w h i c h a l s o a p p e a r s a s b a i s o r b e c q u e , d e p e n d e n t u p o n l o c a l i t y , i s a l s o s u i t a b l y e x e m p l i f i e d . T h e n e x t c o m m o n n o u n d i s c u s s e d i s t h e S a x o n - t h u n , " f a r m " , w h i c h o c c u r s u n d e r t h e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r m - t o n o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e C h a n n e l . R o s t a i n g , l i k e D a u z a t , r e l i e s f o r h i s e x a m p l e s u p o n t h e s o u r c e p r o v i d e d b y L o n g n o n 1 s r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e S a x o n c o l o n y o f B o u l o g n e . H e a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p l a c e - n a m e s o f t h i s t y p e f o u n d i n F r a n c e w i t h t h o s e i n E n g l a n d : I . e . : " A l i n c t h u n ( P C ) , n o m l d e p e r s o n n e a n g l a i s e A l l i n g t o n " , o r " A u d i n c t h u n ( P C ) , . n o m d e p e r s o n n e O d o : a n g l . O d d i n g t o n . H o w e v e r , R o s t a i n g u n d e r s c o r e s t h e p r o b l e m s e p a r a t i n g t h e S a x o n p l a c e - n a m e s f r o m t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n o n e s o n a c c o u n t o f t h e l i k e n e s s o f t h e t w o i d i o m s : " . . . E n N o r m a n d i e , l 1 e l e m e n t s a x o n e s t d i f f i c i l e a d i s c e r n e r , l a p l u p a r t d e s r a c i n e s e t a n t c o m m u n e s a u ,,104 s a x o n e t a u n o r o i s . This survey of the formations with Germanic appellatives concludes with a short consideration of the Scandinavian common nouns. Contrary to the perhaps exaggerated importance which Longnon attached to the toponyms formed from Scandinavian personal names a l l i e d with - v i l l e , Rostaing asserts that i t i s rather the Scandinavian appellatives which represent the chief part of the Norse contribution to French toponymy: "L"apport scandinave est constitue essentiellement par les noms a valeur c topographique formant l e second element d'un mot compose et 105 appartenant au vieux norrois ou au danois." His examination embraces almost p r e c i s e l y the same appellatives as that of Dauzat i e : bokkr, budh, f l e t / f lodh, haugr, lundr , mare, thorp ,' ^ th'veit 106 and topt. The one difference consists i n Dauzat's substitution of dal for haugr. Nevertheless some s l i g h t divergences may be registered i n t h e i r respective explanations of the meanings of these words; for, whereas Rostaing explains thorp as "un groupe d'habitations' 1^ Dauzat says " v i l l a g e , parfois i s o l e " or with topt the former c a l l s i t "piece de t e r r e , t e r r a i n avec habitation.", the l a t t e r states "masure, v i l l a g e ou ruines." The t h i r d and f i n a l section of t h i s chapter concerns the myriad heterogeneous formations which arise from the joining of Romance or Gallo-Roman elements with Germanic elements. This corresponds to the chapter i n Longnon's work e n t i t l e d "Noms romano-francs". By f a r the largest contingent of the Germanic toponyms of France are of t h i s type. Rostaing explains the creation of these hybrids as a r i s i n g from the settlement of a Germanic minority amongst a Roman majority. The Germans were able to impose t h e i r 42 p o l i t i c a l r u l e b u t n o t t h e i r l a n g u a g e u p o n t h e n a t i v e s . I n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h i s p o l i t i c a l d o m i n a t i o n a n d a l s o o f a l a t e r v o g u e a m o n g t h e n a t i v e s f o r t h e c o n q u e r o r ' s n a m e s , a v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r o f p l a c e - n a m e s w e r e i n v e n t e d : " O r n o u s s a v o n s q u e d e s 1 ' e p o q u e c a r o l i n g i e n n e , l e s n o m s d e p e r s o n n e , d a n s l a F r a n c e d u N o r d , e t a i e n t , p a r e s p r i t d * i m i t a t i o n , p a r s n o b i s m e , p o u r r a i t - o n 1 0 7 d i r e , d e v e n u s g e r m a n i q u e s . . . " C e r t a i n l y s u c h p h o n o m e n a a r e c o m m o n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f c o n q u e s t s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s . R o s t a i n g t h e n e x a m i n e s t h e - v i l l e a n d - c o u r t p l a c e - n a m e s w h i c h c o u n t a m o n g t h e m o s t p r e v a l e n t f o r m a t i o n s . T h e y c u s t o m a r i l y c o m b i n e w i t h a G e r m a n i c a n t h r o p o n y m a n d e x h i b i t a v e r y G e r m a n t y p e o f s y n t a x , h e r e R o s t a i n g r e f e r s t o F e r d i n a n d L o t : " . . . l e s n o m s e n - v i l l e e t - c o u r t e t a i e n t d e s n o m s r o m a n s , f o r m e s p a r d e s g e n s p a r l a n t 1 0 8 u n e l a n g u e r o m a n e . " S o t h e R o m a n - s p e a k i n g n a t i v e s w e r e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e G e r m a n i c m o d e o f w o r d - f o r m a t i o n a n d w o r d - o r d e r , 4 . 1 . • • , -i . 1 0 9 i n t h i s i n s t a n c e a t l e a s t . B u t R o s t a i n g a d d s t h a t l a t e r , d a t i n g f r o m a b o u t t h e 1 0 t h c e n t u r y , o n e t e n d e d t o f i n d p l a c e - n a m e s o f t h e t y p e w h e r e - c u r t i s , - v i l l a p r e c e d e d t h e p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t d u e t o a m o r e o r l e s s c o m p l e t e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e G e r m a n s . I t i s a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e t o p o n y m s i n - c o h o r s o r - c u r t i s , o c c u r i n F r a n k i s h t e r r i t o r y . T o g i v e c r e d e n c e t o t h i s c l a i m , h e b o r r o w s f i g u r e s o n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u c h n a m e s t h r o u g h o u t F r a n c e f r o m a n u m e r i c a l s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d b y V i n c e n t . T h i s a l l s h o w s a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f - c o u r t t o p o n y m s i n t h e n o r t h e r n a n d n o r t h w e s t e r n d e p a r t e m e n t s . ^ ® T h e r e a f t e r R o s t a i n g t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e L a t i n c o m m o n n o u n - v i l l a a n d i t s V u l g a r L a t i n v a r i a n t - v i l l a r e w h i c h b o t h o f t e n a l l y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h G e r m a n i c p r o p e r n a m e s . V i 1 1 a w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o V i n c e n t , d e n o t e d " h a b i t a t i o n d u m a i t r e d u d b m a i n e " 1 ' 1 " " 1 ' i n t h e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d d i d n o t g a i n i t s m o d e r n m e a n i n g " d o m a i n e r u r a l " u n t i l a b o u t t h e 5th c e n t u r y o r a f t e r 112 t h e G e r m a n i c I n v a s i o n s . L o n g n o n i s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s o p i n i o n : " L e n o m c o m m u n - v i l l a , p a r l e q u e l b n d e s i g n a i t u n d o m a i n e r u r a l , e t q u i e s t e n t r e , a l ' e p o q u e f r a n q u e , d a n s l a c o m p o s i t i o n d ' u n g r a n d n o m b r e d e n o m s d e l i e u , n e p a r a i t g u e r e 113 e t r e e m p l o y e a u meme u s a g e , a l ' e p o q u e r o m a i n e . " - B y d i n t o f t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e - v i l l a c o m p o s i t i o n s i n t h e L o r r a i n e ' , A r t o i s - P i c a r d y , P a r i s i a n a n d B e a u c e r e g i o n s , a l l w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f F r a n k i s h c o l o n i s a t i o n , R o s t a i n g l o g i c a l l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e y s e r v e a s a g a u g e o f F r a n k i s h s e t t l e m e n t : " C ' e s t a s s e z d i r e q u ' i l s o f f r e n t u n e a i r e f r a n c i q u e . " A s L o n g n o n a n d ; D a u z a t d i d i n t h e i r w o r k s , R o s t a i n g m e n t i o n s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t 114 c l u s t e r s o r " m a s s e s c o m p a c t e s " o f - v i l l a n a m e s i n N o r m a n d y w h e r e , d u e t o t h e l a t e a r r i v a l o f t h e N o r t h m e n , v i l l a r e t a i n e d i t s s e n s e o f " v i l l a g e " m u c h l o n g e r t h a n e l s e w h e r e i n F r a n c e . E x a m p l e s o f - v i l l a i n u n i o n b o t h w i t h L a t i n a n d , m u c h m o r e c o m m o n l y , w i t h G e r m a n i c a n t h r o p o n y m s a r e l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y . A n i n t r i g u i n g t o p o n y m i c p h e n o m e n o n , w h i c h a p p l i e s t o - c u r t i s a n d - v i l l a a l i k e c o n s i s t s o f t h e g r a f t i n g o f t h e n a m e s o f G e r m a n i c f o l k - g r o u p s i n t h e g e n i t i v e p l u r a l c a s e , o n t o t h e s e a p p e l l a t i v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , R o s t a i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s b y e x a m p l e s t h a t t h e w o r d - o r d e r c a n b e r e v e r s e d i n s o m e t o p o n y m s . H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e n a m e s i n w h i c h t h e a p p e l l a t i v e s p r e c e d e w e r e p r o b a b l y c r e a t e d t o w a r d s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i n v a s i o n s w h i l s t t h e n a m e s e x h i b i t i n g t h e r e v e r s e o r d e r c o u l d n o t b e o l d e r t h a n t h e I X t h c e n t u r y : " P r o b a b l e m e n t i l s ' a g i t d e c o l o n i e s c o n s t i t u t e s au debut des invasions ou meme avant; quant aux noms du second type, qui datent au plus tot du IX s i e c l e , . i l s , doivent designer des l o c a l i t e s occupees uniquement par des Francs on des Goths, 116 alors que les v i l l a g e s avaient une population melee." There-fore these toponyms appear to provide valuable information on the colonisation pattern of France at or before the time of the Germanic conquest. Longnon penetrates more deeply into the h i s t o r i c a l background of such place-names a t t r i b u t i n g many to "...des cantonnements de barbares etrangers aux races germanique et slave. Another type of composition i n which both c u r t i s and v i l l a occur i s that where the Gallo-Roman s u f f i x -iacus or -iacum ; constitutes the i n i t i a l element. Although Rostaing does not attempt to explain t h i s occurrence. Vincent offers one theory with regard to such names with c u r t i s : "Dans certains cas, c o r t i s est peut-etre simplement oppose a un nom en -iacus deja 118 existant." For his part, Dauzat compares v i i 1 a with -iacum in so far as the former i s presumed to have replaced the l a t t e r i n the invention of names for new r u r a l domains following the Germanic conquest: "C'est vers l a f i n du v s i e c l e , apres une periode d'anarchie et d'invasion, que les composes en - v i l l a remplacerent les derives en -acura pour nommer les nouveaux 119 domaines." Doubtless during the early period of the occupati such hybridisations arose on account of the gradual substitution of these Latin appellatives for the s u f f i x -iacus. That the Gallo-roman s u f f i x continued i n usage even for a time into the 120 Germanic period i s attested by certain place-names. The l a t e r alternative form of - v i l l a , v i l l a r e , has been 45 explained as designating variously: "...une partie de l a 121 122 v i l l a " , "...les dependances d'un domaine r u r a l " or "... 123 domaine de seconde importance." In a b r i e f analysis of the o r i g i n and use of the word, Rostaing points out that i t s presence on both sides of the modern language border s i g n i f i e s that - v i l l a r e was employed by the Latin-speaking population to designate 124 "un etablissement fonde ou- occupe par un Germain." This very hypothesis i s offered almost verbatim by Vincent i n his own investigation into t h i s Vulgar-Latin appellative. V i l l a r e appears i n the German-speaking border lands under the forms: -wihr in Alsacft, and -we i l e r - w i l i e r i n the Rhineland. Resulting from the later^Germanisation of certain northern areas of France, the Latin genitive of the anthroponyms i n these compositions was given rather the Germanic genitive -s_7 e s p e c i a l l y i n Alsace. But outside Alsace, as Rostaing proves by several very relevant examples, the Germanic genitive was not employed, i e : Aubervil1iers 125 (S: Al b e r t ) , Badonviller (MM: Bado). To terminate t h i s evaluation of the "apport germanique", as Rostaing terms i t , certain other Latin or vulgar Latin appellatives which j o i n with Germanic personal names are enumerated and exemplified, v i s : mesnil T magny, mansus, pons, sartum, v a i l i s , and mons. For none of the place-names ci t e d are more d e t a i l s indicated than merely the modern name, location and anthroponym from which i t derived. The conclusion to the chapter states that because most of the Romance appellatives studied continued i n use aft e r the Germanic period, one can only date the place-names by means of the syntax they manifest and even then one must be wary of h a s t i l y formulated decisions. In order to support the point he quotes, two toponyms which, though both are ancient, exhibit reversed word-order: Romainville and Villemomble, It i s generally accepted by scholars that the Germanic syntax persisted into the medieval period when i t was superseded by the contrary 126 Romance version. Besides the section devoted to the Germanic toponyms of France, Rostaing, l i k e Dauzat, examines the Germanic legacy to be found i n the water-names and also i n the toponyms of the non-Francophone regions of France. Both he and Dauzat agree that few hydronyms owe t h e i r creation to the Germans: (Dauzat) "Les Germains ont 127 apporte peu de noms dans les regions germanisees de Gaule." 12 8 (Rostaing): "L'apport germanique se reduit § f o r t peu de chose." This i s not surprising since, as J u b a i n v i l l e indicated, many 129 hydronyms are of p r e - C e l t i c or C e l t i c o r i g i n . The examples enumerated by Dauzat and Rostaing are e s s e n t i a l l y the same: the purely Germanic r i v e r names, L'Aa, Haine; compound names i n -bekkr i n Normandy, and f i n a l l y those r i v e r names terminating in the genuine Germanic s u f f i x -ain, -ane. However, contrary to Longnon, Rostaing does not emphasise the importance of t h i s l a s t group to a determination of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Germans on the s o i l of Gaul. Of a l l the general works reviewed to t h i s point, Rostaing's Les Noms de l i e u x , f i r s t printed i n 1945 , i s the most recent and therefore had the advantage of exploiting the excellent research compiled by Longnon, Grohler, Vincent, Dauzat inter a l i a . Hence i t i s scarcely surprising that i n many respects the opinions and hypotheses expounded by Rostaing do not seem novel, rather they correspond to a high degree to those of the above-mentioned a u t h o r s . T h e c o n c i s e n e s s a n d c a t h o l i c a i m o f t h i s w o r k m e a n t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e t o p o n y m i c m a t e r i a l w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y a p p e a r s o m e w h a t s u p e r f i c i a l . H e n c e t h e a b s e n c e o f e a r l y f o r m s , d a t e s o f a t t e s t a t i o n a n d o f t e n o f s e m a n t i c e x p l a -n a t i o n s . R o s t a i n g d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o i m i t a t e t h e d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t s o f L o n g n o n , G r o h l e r o r V i n c e n t b e c a u s e h i s f i r s t p r i o r i t y i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e h a n d b o o k w a s b r e v i t y . I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e b o o k ' s p r i n c i p a l e m p h a s i s w a s p l a c e d o n t h e l i n g u i s t i c r a t h e r t h a n t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t o f t o p o n y m y . I n t h i s r e s p e c t R o s t a i n g f o l l o w s G r o h l e r , V i n c e n t a n d D a u z a t r a t h e r t h a n L o n g n o n . H i s m o d e s t g o a l o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e g e n e r a l d e v e l o p -m e n t o f F r e n c h t o p o n y m y a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n r e a l i s e d . I n t h e c o n c l u s i o n h e p o i n t s t o t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e v a s t f i e l d o f " l i e u x - d i t s " a n d t h e t o p o n y m s o f p r e - I n d o e u r o p e a n o r i g i n . A n o t h e r l o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e G e r m a n i c t o p o n y m s o f N o r t h G a l l i a i s f o u n d i n D r . M a u r i t s G y s s e l i n g ' s l e c t u r e t o t h e R o y a l D u t c h A c a d e m y o f t h e S c i e n c e s o n t h e p l a c e - n a m e s o f i n h a b i t e d p l a c e s : N e d e r z e t t i n g s n a m e n e n N e d e r z e t t i n s g e s c h i e d e n i s i n d e N e d e r l a n d e n , N o o r d - F r a n k r i j k , • e n ' " N o o r d - W e s t D u i t s l a n d . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w a s i n t e n d e d o n l y a s a n o u t l i n e " * " " ^ o f t h e q u e s t i o n a n d n o t a c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s s e r t a t i o n . G y s s e l i n g d e c l a r e s h i s i n t e n d e d p u r p o s e i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n : " D e z e s t u d i e i s e e n p o g i n g o m d e d i a c h r o n i e n a t e g a a . n v a n d e v e r s c h i l l e n d e t y p e s v a n N e d e r z e t t i n g s n a m e n i n d e N e d e r l a n d e n , N o o r d - W e s t - D u i t s l a n d e n 131 N o o r d F r a n k f i j k . " A b o v e a l l G y s s e l i n g s t u d i e s t h e t e n d e n c y t o p r o g r e s s f r o m d e r i v a t i o n a l t o c o m p o s i t i o n a l t o p o n y m i c f o r m a t i o n b y m e a n s o f s p e c i f i c s u f f i x e s a n d a p p e l l a t i v e s b o t h G e r m a n i c a n d 48 R o m a n c e . H e c o n s i d e r s t h i s o n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t t e n d e n c i e s i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t o p o n y m i c n o m e n c l a t u r e i n t h e s e r e g i o n s : " E e n v a n d e g r o t e t e n d e n s e n i n d e g e s c h i e d e n i s v a n d e p l a a t s n a m e n i n o n g e g e w e s t e n i s d a t m a n g e l e i d e l i j k o v e r g a a t n a a f l e i d i n g e n n a a r 1 3 2 s a m e n s t e l l i n g e n . " T h e o r i g i n , p h o n e t i c c h a n g e s a n d g e o g r a p h -i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s u f f i x e s a n d a p p e l l a t i v e s a r e d i s c u s s e d a n d i l l u s t r a t e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e t o p o n y m s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e a r e a o f e n q u i r y . Q u i t e a l o t o f a t t e n t i o n i s l e n t t o t h e G a l l o - R o m a n s u f f i x - i a c u m w h i c h c o n t i n u e d i n u s e a f t e r t h e c o n q u e s t o f t e n c o n j o i n e d w i t h a G e r m a n i c a n t h r o p o n y m . T h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e l e c t u r e c h i e f l y c o n c e r n s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e m o s t f r e q u e n t G e r m a n i c c o m m o n n o u n s w i t h e x a m p l e s . S i n c e t h i s l e c t u r e w a s i n t e n d e d f o r o r a l r e n d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a w r i t t e n o n e , t h e r e s e a r c h s e e m s a t t i m e s t o j u m p f r o m p o i n t t o p o i n t w i t h o u t l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n . H o w e v e r , s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s a n d t o p o n y m i c e x a m p l e s a r e c o n t a i n e d t h e r e i n . T h e f i n a l g e n e r a l w o r k t o b e r e v i e w e d i s t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e D i c t i o n n a i r e d e s n o m s d e l i e u x d e F r a n c e , t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e p r o d u c t i o n o f A l b e r t D a u z a t a n d C h a r l e s R o s t a i n g . I t w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 6 3 , e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r D a u z a t ' s d e a t h , t h u s i t i s t h e m o s t r e c e n t . I . o f t h e w o r k s s t u d i e d . T h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h i s e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l w o r k d e r i v e s f r o m i t s s t a t u s a s t h e o n l y d i c t i o n a r y w h i c h d e v o t e s i t s e l f t o t h e t o p o n y m s o f t h e w h o l e o f F r a n c e , n o t m e r e l y t h o s e f r o m c e r t a i n d e p a r t e m e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , d i s s i m i l a r t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n s o f L o n g n o n , D a u z a t , G r o h l e r , V i n c e n t a n d R o s t a i n g , i t d o e s n o t e m p l o y a n y o f t h e v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l a n d s y s t e m a t i c m e t h o d s o f o r g a n i s i n g t o p o n y m i c m a t e r i a l b u t r a t h e r , p r e s e n t s t h e m i n t h e a b s o l u t e l y o b j e c t i v e m a n n e r o f a n a l p h a b e t i c a l 49 structure. In the preface to the Dictionnaire, co-author Rostaing writes: "Ce qui d i f f e r e n c i e cet ouvrage de ceux qui l'ont precede, c'est evidemment q u ' i l se presente sous l a forme d'un 133 dictionnaire et non d'un repertoire historique et systematique. '•'•' The "champ de t r a v a i l " or focus i s exclusively the names of i n -habited places, that i s , hamlets, v i l l a g e s , towns and c i t i e s : " I l reste a singnaler que ce dictionnaire ne presente pas toute l a toponymie de l a France: i l se borne a relever les noms de 134 lieux habites..." However, Rostaing alludes to preparatory work done by his late colleague, Dauzat, on two further areas, "nomsde pays et de montagnes" and "noms de r i v i e r e s " which, he predicts, should serve to supplement the present dictionary. Of the research sources consulted for the compilation of t h i s comprehensive work, one may arrange them into five p r i n c i p a l categories: 1) the "dictionnaires topographiques" which cover only about one t h i r d of France Rostaing regards these as the greatest source i n s p i t e of the manifest d e f i c i e n c i e s ; 2) the "dictionnaires departementaux", p a r t i c u l a r studies not included in the o f f i c i a l d i c t i o n a r i e s ; 3) the i n d i v i d u a l monographs or works on s p e c i f i c regions, i.e.:Beszard on Maine, Perrenot on Burgundy, Gamillscheg on Germanic toponyms i n general; 4) general works of Longnon, Grohler.and Vincent and f i n a l l y 5) specialised periodicals such as: Z e i t s c h r i f t fur Ortsraamenforschung , Onomastica, and Revue internationale d ','onomastique . The structure of t h i s dictionary i s i t s paramount advantage to researchers^ for the whole wealth of place-names h,as been arranged according to the f i r s t l e t t e r of the p r i n c i p a l element. But i t i s more than a mere index since much valuable information 50 about the i n d i v i d u a l names i s provided. What i s the method employed i n the treatment of the place-names? B a s i c a l l y , the method followed resembles that of other toponymists such as Longnon or Grohler: the modern, o f f i c i a l form of the toponym i s indicated, then the oldest form together with corresponding date of attestation and l a s t l y , the interpretation of the old form(s) given s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l s , the semantic and phonetic evolution of the names are outlined. Though th i s dictionary bears the t i t l e Dictionnaire des noms de lieux de France, i t makes no claim to completeness due e s s e n t i a l l y to two hindrances to analysis: often no old forms are available for a certain toponym or, conversely, i f the early forms are available, they 135 defy interpretation. Therefore, a number of place-names have been necessarily omitted. Ernest Negre published a concise but useful study e n t i t l e d Les Noms de lieux en France i n 1963, shortly a f t e r the appearance of Dauzat and Rostaing's Dictionnaire. Although more modest, th i s work again offers a good general view of the Germanic strata i n French, toponymy. Chapter 5 dedicates a 17-page section to a con-sideration of these elements. Negre sub-divides t h i s into a large section on the early creations, "premier apport germanique", and a much smaller one on the l a t e r "apport saxon et normand". While several good examples are explained i n each of the six major cate-gories established by Negre, the scope of his work necessarily l i m i t s the number of these. In fact, Negre adds l i t t l e to the t r e a t -ment of the subject by his'predecessors, es p e c i a l l y Charles Rostaing whose Les Noms de lieux (19 45) seems to have provided him with a model. The two works are very s i m i l a r i n intention, scope, and organization. FOOTNOTES I. A Consideration' of the State of Research To Date A. General Studies Ferdinand Lot, Les Invasions germaniques. P a r i s : Payot, 1935, p. 14. 2 Jean Brunhes, Les Noms de l i e u x et l e contact des langues. Quebec: 1972, p. 2. 3 Godefroid Kurth, Toponymie d i a l e c t a l e germano-romane de  l a province de Liege. P a r i s : 1971, from the Avant-Propos. 4 A l b e r t Dauzat. La Toponymie f r a n g a i s e . P a r i s : 1960. p. 30. 5 Longnon, Les Noms de l i e u de l a France. P a r i s : 1920-1929, r p r t , New York: Burt F r a n k l i n , 1973. Preface, p. V I I . "Malgre l e s recherches de Longnon et de ses emules, bien des cantons de ce vaste domaine sont encore peu ou po i n t d e f r i c h e s l e s noms de r i v i e r e s , depuis un echec s e n s a t i o n n e l , ont e f f r a y e l e s chercheurs, l e s noms de montagnes et accidents de t e r r a i n ne le s ont pas a t t i r e s ; quant aux l i e u x - d i t s tout e s t a f a i r e meme l a toponymie de l i e u x habites renferme une grande p a r t i e d'inconnue." Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , P a r i s : Delagrave, 1926, p. V I I I . 7 -"Dans l e contingent qu'ont apporte a l a toponomastique frangaise l e s populations e t a b l i e s en Gaule du Ve au Xe s i e c l e — Saxons, Burgondes, Goths, Francs, Scandinaves, Bretons et Basques, l e s noms d ' o r i g i n e germknique tiennent une place preponderante." Longnon, p..175. 52 8 Both Dauzat and Grohler c r i t i c i s e d Longnon 1s apparent over-emphasis of h i s t o r i c a l explanation. Dauzat: "A noter aussi que Longnon, avant tout h i s t o r i e n et geographe f a i t passer au second plan le point de vue linguistiqu'e et f a i t preuve parfois d' i n -suffisance dans ses connaissances celtiques et plus generalement phonetiques." (Dauzat. Les Noms de lieux, p. 13) Grohler alludes to Longnon's primary i n t e r e s t i n history rather than i n l i n g u i s t i c s : "Longnon war i n erster L i n i e Historiker und Archivar, seine Vortrage iiber die Ortsnamen gleichsam ein Nebenprodukt, das sich seinen historischen Interessen unterordnen muBst." Ursprung, p. V. Vorwort. 9 "...on peut t e n i r pour considerable le nombre de noms de l i e u dont l a forme primitive aurait ete un a d j e c t i f nominal en -ing attribudble aux Wisigoths." Longnon, p. 206 § 8 6 0 . ^ Longnon, p. 211. Longnon affirms that these names are often due to a hypo-c o r i s t i c f ormation , p .p . 250-251. } 1 2 i b i d . , p. 249 • § 992. 1 3 i b i d - , p. 253 .'§:" 1021. 14 i b i d . , p. 266 e . c§ 1152 v. the opinion expressed by D'Arbois de J u b a i n v i l l e . 15 ""'Ox un certain nombre de d i v i s i o n s de l a Gaule franque sont designees par des denominations qui lors meme qu' i l s revetent exterieurement une forme romane, portent l a marque caracteristique d'une origine germanique car, dans 1*Europe occidental c'est presque exclusivement en Germanie et en Gaule, dans le bassin du 5 3 R h i n q u ' o n l e s r e n c o n t r e . " i b i d . , p . 2 6 9 § 1 1 5 7 . 1 6 ' i b i d . - , p . 2 7 5 . § 1 1 6 6 . 1 7 M u c h p o l e m i c i s i n g h a s b e e n c a u s e d b y t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f s c h o l a r s a s t o t h e r a c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e N o r t h m e n . O p i n i o n s v a r y w h e t h e r t h e y m i g h t b e p r i n c i p a l l y o f D a n i s h o r N o r w e g i a n e x t r a c t i o n . L o n g n o n c h o o s e s j u d i c i o u s l y n o t t o e n t e r t h e d e b a t e , t o a v o i d i t b y e m p l o y i n g t h e i n n o c u o u s d e s i g n a t i o n , S c a n d i n a v i a n : " S i l a q u e s t i o n e s t c e p e n d a n t e n c o r e d o u t e u s e , i l e s t d u m o i n s c e r t a i n q u e l e s h o m m e s d e r a c e s c a n d i n a v e s ' ' e t a b l i r e n t e n g r a n d n o m b r e d a n s l e s p a y s c e d e s a R o l l o n p a r l e s r o i C h a r l e s l e S i m p l e e t R a o u l . " i b i d . , P . 2 7 7 . § 1 1 6 7 . 1 8 i b i d . , p . 2 9 2 . 1 9 i b i d . , p . 2 9 2 § 1 2 2 5 . 2 0 S e i n e M a r i t i m e : 2 3 3 o f 7 5 9 ; E u r e : 1 2 1 o f 7 0 0 ; C a l v a d o s : 1 1 1 o f 7 6 7 ; M a n c h e : 1 5 7 o f 6 6 4 . i b i d . , p . 2 9 3 -§ 1 2 2 5 . 2 1 , I Q C c i t ; 2 2 H a n n e s F i n n s o n s I s l a n d s L a n d n a m a b o k p r i n t e d a t C o p e n h a g e n i n 1 7 7 4 , L o n g n o n , p . 2 9 6 - •.§ 1 2 3 1 . 2 3 D a u z a t , L e s N o m s d e l i e u x , p . 1 3 . 24 H e r m a n n G r o h l e r , U b e r U r s p r u n g u n d B e d e u t u n g , V o r w o r t , p V . l o c . c i t . 2 6 G r o h l e r c o m p l a i n s t h a t t h e o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l d o e s n o t a f f o r d o n e a g o o d o v e r v i e w o f F r e n c h t o p o n y m y : " . . . s o k a n n d o c h d i e A n o r d n u n g d e s S t o f f e s d e n n i c h t b e f r i e d i g e n , d e r s i c h e i n e n U b e r b l i c k a u f d a s G e s a m t g e b i e t d e r O r t s n a m e n f r a n z o s i s c h e r S p r a c h e v e r s c h a f f e n w i l l . " l o c . c i t . 54 27 I b i d . , p. VI. 2 8 l o c . c i t . 29 i b i d . , p. VII. 3 0 Grohler l i s t s an in t e r e s t i n g example of a name substi-tution i n consequence of an armed c o n f l i c t : "Die Stadt Albert (Somme) hiefi i n friiherer Z eit An ere, der nach i h r benannte Marechal d'Ancre wurde von dem Herzog de Luynes vertrieben und der Ort nahm den Namen seines Befreiers an." i b i d . , p. 443. 3 1 i b i d . , p. 25G. 32 But unlike Longnon, he also u t i l i s e s examples drawn from the Francophone areas of Belgium, Luxemburg and Switzerland, i n short,from the whole French-speaking area. 3 3 Grohler, p. 289 . 34 Forstemann, Altdeutsehes Namenbuch, "Personennamen". 2. Auflage, Bonn:, 1960. 35 The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. ed. C.T. Onions. 3rd e d i t i o n , Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1977, p. 49, "allodium". 3 6 "...Dr. Grohler a eu toute latitude pour m u l t i p l i e r , en plus de t r o i s cents pages, les examples accompagnes de references precises et les hypotheses digne de l a plus serieuse attention." Longnon, Avertissement, p. IX. 37 > Dictionnaire des noms de l i e u x de France, eds, Dauzat, Rostaing, P a r i s : 1960, Preface,p. VI. loc. c i t . 55 39 "Ce l i v r e est consacre aux noms de lieux de l a France dans son etendue a c t u e l l e . " Auguste Vincent. Toponymie de l a France. Paris: 1960, p. 7 §107. ^ i b i d . , Preliminaires, p. 7. loc. c i t . 42 Vincent remarks that some of the names of t h i s chapter may go back to the Roman period but that no means of corroborating t h i s hypothesis i s available. i b i d . , p. 186 §436. 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 i b i d . , p. 136 §314. Longnon, Grohler, Dauzat. Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 158 §370. i b i d . , pp. 158-159 §370. i b i d . , p. 295 § 1230. Dauzat, Les Noms de lieux, p. 144. Longnon, p. 293 § 1225. "Vielmehr scheint es, als hatten die Wikinger mit ihr e r Sprache auch v i e l f a c h die heimischen Namen aufgegeben und die frankischen und sachsischen i h r e r neuen Landsleute angenommen." Grohler, Ursprung, p. 251. 51 Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 166 §394. 5 2 i b i d . , p. 170 §403. 5 3 i b i d . , p. 180 §429. 54 Longnon c l a s s i f i e s these archetypes as "Noms romano-francs" , Chapter XLVIII, p. 22 3. 56 55 -D i c t i o n n a i r e des noms de l i e u x de France, eds. Rostaing, Dauzat. P a r i s : 1961, Pref a c e p. VI. ^ There are some r e f e r e n c e s t o Germanic i n f l u e n c e i n the toponymy of the Beauce r e g i o n but the d e t a i l s given are so sparse as t o make c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u p e r f l u o u s . Dauzat, Toponymie, p. 50. 57 "Mais 1'ouvrage c a p i t a l d'Auguste Longnon, dont nous par Ions dans 1' I n t r o d u c t i o n , e s t s u r t o u t destine" aux s p e c i a l i s t e s " . Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , Avant-Propos, p. V I I . ^ i b i d . , p. V I I . 5 9 i b i d . , p. V I I I . ^ In the p r e l i m i n a r y h i s t o r i c a l d i s c u s s i o n to h i s chapter on F r a n k i s h o r i g i n s , Longnon quotes the use of "F r a n k i s h " i n the g e n e r i c sense of "Germanic" by the L a t i n h i s t o r i a n F l a v i u s V o p i s c u s : " M i l l e Francos, m i l l e sarmates semel occidimus. - Le nom de F r a n c i d e s i g n a i t c o l l e c t i v e m e n t l e s d i v e r s e s n a t i o n s germiniques unies par un l i e n f e d e r a l . " Longnon, p. 20 8 §864. V i n c e n t quotes a c o l l e c t i v e usage of " F r a n k i s h " : "France e s t un nom c o l l e c t i f designant l e s Germains du Rhin i n f e r i e u r . " V i n c e n t , op. c i t . p. 134 §313. 61 ' Dauzat, Les- Noms de l i e u x , p. 133. 6 2 P e t r i a t t r i b u t e s t h i s t o the changes p o l i t i c a l scene: " L e t z t e r e Tatsache h a t t e e i n G u t t e i l der deutschen und f r a n z o s i s c h e n Romanisten v e r a n l a B t , s i e zumindest t e i l w e i s e i n mehr O d e r weniger d i r e k t e r Form a l s Zeugnisse f r a n k i s c h e r Herrensiedlungen liber e i n -heimischen Bauerntum i n Anspruch zu nehmen." (Franz P e t r i , V o l k s e r b e , Bonn: 1937, p. 36.) 57 " . . . l e maximum de densite des noms de l i e u x en -court se trouvant on L o r r a i n e , t a n d i s que c e l u i des noms en - v i l l e e st en Beauce." Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 136. 6 4 i b i d . , pp. 137, §154. 6 5 "...l'examen de l a toponymie f a i t presumer que l e systeme c o n t r a i r e t e n d a i t a p r e v a l o i r . " i b i d . , p. 138. 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 l o c . c i t . Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 138 i b i d . , p. 139. Longnon, p. 228 §931. Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 139 l o c . c i t . i b i d . , p. 140. Longnon, on the other hand, i s very aware of t h i s complex problem. Longnon, p.295 §12 30. 74 Lack of documents i s one primary reason as Longnon s t a t e s i n reference to V i s i g o t h i c t e r r i t o r i e s : "Les texte s a n t e r i e u r s au IX s i e c l e q u i concernent ces regions sont a l a v e r i t e , peu nombreux". i b i d . , p. 205 §857. 75 . This p a r t i c u l a r problem i s acknowledged by both Vincent and Longnon. Vincent: "Les noms en - i n g sont souvent d i f f i c i l e s a d i s t i n g u e r de ceux d e r i v e s au moyen du s u f f i x e f i g u r e - i n c u s . " op. c i t . , p. 137 §317. Longnon: "Mais i l s e r a i t dangereux d'etre plus a f f i r m a t i f , car dans l e s formes modernes des noms de l i e u x l e s u f f i x e -incus se d i s t i n g u e d i f f i c i l e m e n t d'un s u f f i x e 58 germanique presque i d e n t i q u e , - i n g . . . " Longnon, p. 20 §26. 7 6 Both Dauzat and Longnon agree. See Dauzat, Les Noms de  l i e u x , p. 143, Longnon, p. 217 §887. 77 Longnon, p. 210 §290. 7 8 Longnon i n c l u d e s a l s o -stroom, - l a r , op. c i t . , pp. 215-6 §§879-884. 79 Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 144. ^° i b i d . , p.. 145. o -j i b i d . , p. 188. ^ i b i d . , p. 146. 8 3 Longnon, p. 210 §864. 84 Despite the e x c l u s i o n of those names which occur i n both West and North Germanic d i a l e c t s , one need not ther e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y magnify the e f f e c t of the Scandinavian element, f o r fewer p l a c e -names are composed wi t h these than w i t h such West Germanic a p p e l l a t i v e s as: -burg, -heim, -tun, - s a l e t c . , e t c . 8 5 Rostaing, Les noms de l i e u x , P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1961, p. 69. 8 6 Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 146. ^ i b i d . , p. 201. 8 8 Longnon, p. 272 §1163; Dauzat: " L 1 i n f l u e n c e germanique se manifeste indirectement par l a conservation a l a f i n a l e de nombreux noms de r i v i e r e s , d'un cas regime q u i s ' e t a i t developpe en ancien f r a n c a i s , d'apres l e germanique pour l e s noms feminin, - a i n . ...", Dauzat, Les Noms de l i e u x , p. 201. 59 89 Rostaing, Les noms de lieux, p. 5. i b i d . , p. 61. 91 "II faut cependant remarquer que ces mots ne sont pas tres nombreux, q u ' i l s n'ont pas reussi a detroner les denominations elassiques, comme mons, v a l l i s , pons. . . " , i b i d . , p. 62. 92 loc. c i t . 93 i b i d . , p. 78. 94 e e "Tout d'abord, au V et au VI si e c l e s les conquerants ne purent imposer que le nom de personne, le suffixe etant donne par les Gallo-Romains. C'est pourquoi nous trouvons une premiere couche formee d'anthroponymes et du suffixe -iacus..." i b i d . , p. 63. 95 i loc. c i t . 96 Vincent's explanation of i t s sense i s an even broader one. He feels i t connotes re l a t i o n s h i p , descent, dependency or belonging. Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 137 §317. 97 i b i d . , p. 139 §319. This view finds support from Vincent. 98 Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 66. 9 9 Longnon demonstrates that -enges, -anges are the Frankish equivalents of -ing. (p. 218 §890). He also holds that the s u f f i x -ans i s due to Burgundian influence. (p. 198 §814). ^ 0 0 Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 64. For example, Grohler supports the view that -fara i s common to the other idioms: "Doch muB das Wort auch im Frankischen und Gallischen vorhanden gewesen sein, wie sein Vorkommen i n O.N. beweist' 60 Ursprung, p. 255. Longnon, however, places i t i n the study of non-Frankish common nouns. p. 214 §875. 102 Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 68. 103 Longnon, (Les noms de l i e u de l a France) p. 188 §761-2. "*"0^ Rostaing, -Les Noms de lieux, p. 68. 105 , loc. c i t . Dauzat, Les Noms de lieux, p. 147, Rostaing, Les Noms de  lieux, pp. 70-71. Rostaing, l o c . c i t . 108 ' loc. c i t . 109 See the supporting views of Vincent, Dauzat — Vincent "L 1adoption du type germanique de composition nom de personne et nom commun, pour des noms romans, suppose que le masse de l a population etant restee romane, un parler germanique e t a i t dans une certaine mesure en usage (dans conditions variables suivant les endroits)." Toponymie, p. 170 §403. Dauzat: "Apres les grandes Invasions, i l est indubitable que 1'influence germanique a remis en honneur le type complement et determine (Romani v i l l a , Romain v i l l e ) . . . " Les Noms de lieux, p. 138. ^ ® Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 72. m Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 180 §429. 112 Rostaing, op. c i t . , p. 73. 113 Longnon, p. 125 §517. 114 Rostaing, op. c i t . , p. 73. Though Longnon feels that "cortis i s a superior gauge of d i s t r i b u t i o n : "On rencontre des noms de lieux formgs H l'.aide de c o r t i s dans l a Bourgogne, l a Franche Comte, et les parties de l a Suisse qui avoisinent l a Jura, mais surtout dans les pays ou s'etablirent les hommes de race franque...", Longnon, p. 226 §927. 115 . loc . c i t . Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 74. 117 Longnon, p. 135 §541. 1 1 8 Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 176 §410. 119 Dauzat, Les noms de lieux, p. 136. 1 on Longnon: " . . . l a persistance en Gaule, a l'epoque franque, de 1'usage de ce suffixe (-iacus) a ete precedemment signalee." p. 223 §948. 121 Rostaing, Les Noms de lieux, p. 74. 1 2 2 Longnon, p. 236 §954. 1 2 3 Vincent, op. c i t . , p. 184 §434. 124 Rostaing, op. c i t . , p. 76. 125 , loc. c i t . 1 2 6 See Vincent, Toponymie, p. 165 §394 and Dauzat, Les Noms  de lieux, p. 154. 1 2 7 Dauzat, p. 201. 128 Rostaing, p. 112. 129 See Longnon, p. 256 §1132. 1 30 Maurits Gysseling, Nederzettingsnamen, p. 5, "...niet een grondig noch d e f i n i t i e f expose". 62 l b i d . , p. 5, 132 loc. c i t . 133 Dictionnaire des noms de lieux de France, eds. A Dauzat/Ch. Rostaing, Paris: 1961, Preface, p. VI. 134 i b i d . , p. VIII. 135 "En e f f e t , ce dictionnaire n'est pas absolument complet, et les lacunes q u ' i l presente se j u s t i f i e n t de deux manieres: ou bien nous n 1avons pu rencontrer, dans les documents dont nous disposions, aucune forme ancienne... ou bien nous avions des formes anciennes, mais nous ne savions comment les analyser..." i b i d . , Preface, p. VII. 63 B . M o n o g r a p h s A f t e r t h e r e v i e w a n d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l w o r k s o n F r e n c h t o p o n y m y , i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t u r n o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s p e c i f i c a r t i c l e s a n d m o n o g r a p h s . S o m e o f t h e s e w o r k s a r e o f a d e c i d e d l y h i s t o r i c a l b e n t , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t o p o n y m i e e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g v a r i o u s h y p o t h e s e s o n . . s e t t l e m e n t , a n d o t h e r s t e n d t o s t r e s s m o r e o f a l i n g u i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e , w h i l s t t h e m a j o r i t y c o m b i n e a m o r e o r l e s s e q u a l m e a s u r e o f b o t h . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e t o p o n y m y p r o p e r l y f o r m s a b r a n c h o f h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s . R a t h e r t h a n e x a m i n i n g t h e m i n c h r o n o -l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o p u b l i c a t i o n , l e t u s b e g i n w i t h t h e m o s t e x t e n s i v e m o n o g r a p h , a w e l l o r g a n i s e d , d e t a i l e d o p u s c o m p o s e d b y t h e G e r m a n t o p o n y m i s t , F r a n z P e t r i : G e r m a n i s c h e s V o l k s e r b e i n  W a l l o n i e n u n d N o r d f r a n k r e i c h . T h e s o m e w h a t w o r d y t i t l e m i g h t w e l l b e c o n s t r u e d a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e a m p l i t u d e o f t h i s t r e a t i s e . F r o m t h e o u t s e t i t s h o u l d b e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t P e t r i ' s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i n c r e a t i n g t h i s b o o k i s a n h i s t o r i c a l o n e : t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f F r a n k i s h c o l o n i s a t i o n o f n o r t h e r n F r a n c e a n d W a l l o n i a a n d i t s c u l t u r a l c o n s e q u e n c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , h e a t t e m p t s , b y m e a n s o f t o p o n y m i e a n d a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , t o e v a l u a t e t h e G e r m a n i c l e g a c y , " V o l k s e r b e " , t h e h i s t o r i c a l , l i n g u i s t i c a n d s o c i a l e f f e c t s o f t h e F r a n k i s h o c c u p a t i o n . I n his assessment of the l i n g u i s t i c , c u l t u r a l contribution of the ancient Germans to G a l l i a Romana, P e t r i feels i t has been sadly-neglected or even minimised by French scholars: "Aber im a l l g e -meinen i s t der Franzose nicht geneigt, den germanischen Grundlagen seines Volkes und seiner Kultur stcirkere Beachtung widerfahren 136 zu lassen." Thus, c l e a r l y , his interest i n toponymy i s largely determined by i t s value as a s c i e n t i f i c aid, a "Hilfswissenschaft",^ to arrive at his h i s t o r i c a l goal. This view P e t r i summarises i n the introduction to the f i r s t volume (of his two volume work): "Kann eine solche Arbeit niemals ohne ein grundliches Einarbeiten i n der Namenkunde unternommen werden so war unser letztes Interesse doch kein namenkundliches i n einem eng fachwissenschaftlichen 138 Sinne, sondern ein geschichtliches." Toponymy should be a means to an end rather than an end i t s e l f : "Der l e t z t e Akzent unserer Untersuchung heiBt so uberall auf der geschichtlichen Seite der Dinge. Wir glauben, daB der Versuch einmal gewagt werden muBte, aus der ins Unabsehbare auseinderflieBenden toponomischen 139 Einzelforschung die geschichtliche Summe zu Z i e h e n . " In respect of the great weight placed upon the h i s t o r i c a l value of 140 toponymy, P e t r i may be compared to Auguste Longnon. In his h i s t o r i c a l aim and i t s extension P e t r i i s actually r e a l i s i n g some-thing already foreseen by the h i s t o r i a n , Marc Blochi "Peut-etre les etudes archeologiques et toponymiques nous apporteront-elles un jour quelques precisions sur l a r e p a r t i t i o n des groupes 141 barbares dans l a Gaule du Nord." The examination, as the t i t l e implies, focuses upon the Francophone regions of Northern France above the Loire River 142 and the portion of southern Belgium to the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . As the chief part of the Germanic toponyms of G a l l i a are encountered i n t h i s area and as those south of the Loire may often derive from any of several Germanic t r i b e s , P e t r i ' s r e s t r i c t i o n therefore appears j u s t i f i e d : "Es ware unratsam gewesen, das schon so sehr weit gespannte Feld der Untersuchung nochmals um ein Mehrfaches und i n einem Ausmasse zu erweitern, das i n k e i n e r l e i Verhaltnis, zu den jenseits der Loiregrenze zu erwartenden 143 Ergebnissen gestanden hatte. " Certainly the d i f f i c u l t y of determining the proper o r i g i n of the Germanic place-names beyond the Loire border influenced Petri' s choice of "Untersuchungs-raum" (area of research) i. "Zu dem s t e l l t sich das schon inner-halb unseres Untersuchungsgebietes nicht selten auftauchende Problem, ob die jeweilig, germanischen Namenspuren den Franken oder 144 einem anderen Germanenvolk.vzuzuweisen, mit wachsender Scharfe." Even north of the Loire, t h i s complication of etymological i n -vestigation e x i s t s . To provide a better overview, t h i s area may be divided into three portions: the valley of the Meuse embracing almost a l l of Wallonia, France north of the Seine and those French lands between the Loire and the Seine. P e t r i views these divisions as expedient to a general investigation but attaches no greater significance to them:. "Diese Gliederung, der im iibrigen keine t i e f e Bedeutung zukommt, bedarf wohl keiner besonderen 145 Rechtfertigung." Furthermore he affirms that the regions along the l i n g u i s t i c border, e s p e c i a l l y those i n Belgium, deserve more attention because of the insights t h e i r toponymie material may provide on the formation and consequences of t h i s b a r r i e r between two peoples which P e t r i characterised thus: "Sie war aber 146 vor allem eine volkische Riickzugslinie." In general, the organisation of the toponymic material follows two p a r a l l e l l i n e s . There i s the geographical arrangement of toponyms according to administrative d i v i s i o n s , and a; systematic grouping of names after common semantic values^, e. g.: the toponyms relevant to bodies of water are c l a s s i f i e d under the chapter heading "Gewasserbezeichnungen". In his geographical arrangement of the toponyms, P e t r i stands alone amongst the toponymists examined t i l l now but the systematisation according to semantic categories i s employed too i n the works of Longnon, Vincent, and Grohler. P e t r i advances am-excellent j u s t i f i c a t i o n for the geographical organisation of the material to the e f f e c t that a knowledge of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these Germanic toponyms may shed l i g h t upon the question of settlement: "Ohne eine genaue Kenntnis der Verteilung der Namen im Raume i s t aber eine zuverlassige siedlungsgeschichtliche Gesamtauswertung der 147 frankischen Ortsnamen ein Ding der Unmoglichkeit." Clearly the systematic grouping of names after common meanings f a c i l i t a t e s the l i n g u i s t i c and etymological analysis of those place-names of which they form a past. For PetriTs purposes th i s organisation appears indispensible: "Erorterung der sprachlichen und etymologischen Fragen und ebenso fur manche sprachgeographischen Beobachtungen die systematische /Anordnung des Materials nach wie .. • , • ^  ,,148 vor unumganglicn This research work i s structured after four basic d i v i s i o n s : the f i r s t concerns the r e p a r t i t i o n of Germanic toponyms i n those provinces and departements of Wallonia and Northern France, the second i s an examination of the Germanic toponyms of these regions arranged according to certain Germanic appellatives, the t h i r d treats p r i n c i p a l l y of the anthropological and archaeological discoveries pertaining to Frankish colonisation, the fourth contains the concluding remarks, theories of the author. Necessarily the larger, c a t h o l i c divisions of the text are further p a r t i t i o n e d into various sub-headings i n order to render the study more coherent. In the f i r s t part e n t i t l e d , "Die germanischen Ortsnamen und ihrer Verteilung iiber die einzelnen Provinzen und Departements", the Germanic toponyms p r i n c i p a l l y of the Walloon-speaking portions of the provinces of Liege, Limburg, Brabant and Hainaut are presented and examined from an ety-mological point of view. For more precise geographical arrange-ment they figure under the t i t l e of t h e i r l o c a l canton, the smallest Belgian administrative d i v i s i o n . Each overview of the Germanic toponyms of a p a r t i c u l a r province may be broken down into two sections: the f i r s t a summary providing information on i t s ethnogenic character, some l i n g u i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s on Frankish settlement, the general nature of the toponymy and some previous toponymie studies; the second, longer section i s devoted to an i n d i v i d u a l survey of the place-names of the :. . d i f f e r e n t regions or cantons. Pe t r i ' s method of toponymie analysis i s very detailed thus affording the researcher a wealth of valuable material. The place-names studied are extremely varied; there are the names of c i t i e s , towns, v i l l a g e s , r i v e r s , field-names, even street and country path names etc. The toponyms are l i s t e d alphabetically after t h e i r modern name, wherever pertinent the French equivalent i s indicated, then the dated older forms followed by references to archives, to onomastic works such as that of Forstemann, to 68 etymological d i c t i o n a r i e s and often to works of other toponymists. Obviously the documentation i s r i c h . Not only does P e t r i give the location of a toponym i n terms of the administrative d i v i s i o n s but also, i n his pursuit of pr e c i s i o n , he often indicates the s p e c i f i c route on which the name i s found: Fumal a.d. Mehalgne: Roman road from Thienen-Hoei. Cross referencing i s employed i n order to li n k place-names sharing certain elements. Inspite of some possible omissions of toponymie material and doubtful etymological interpretations, P e t r i estimates the value of t h i s consideration to l i e i n the evidence i t provides on the extent of the Germanic nomenclature i n the toponymy of these regions: "Unsere landschaftlichgeordnete Ubersicht hat - unbeschadet ihrer ^Liickenhaftigkeit und mancher Unsicherheiten - das Vorhandensein einer betrachtlichen germanischen Namenschicht i n weiten Teile n 149 des ehemaligen Westfrankenreichs ergeben." In the second part, following the examples of Longnon, Grohler and Vincent, P e t r i assembles various toponyms under the heading of certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Germanic appellatives for comprehensive analysis. However, i n contrast to the methods employed by these colleagues, common nouns i n turn are grouped according to the nature of t h e i r designation into four categories: 1) hydronyms ("GewaBerbezeichnungen"), a very thorough study of the numerous and widespread names i n -baki, 2) names r e f e r r i n g to vegetation ("Vegetationsbezeichnungert"), e s p e c i a l l y - i t h i , "heath, woodland"; but also - s a r t , -rod, - s t e r , -ast, - l a r etc; 3) topographical names ("Lagebezeichnungen") , -berg, -here , -har, -d a l , etc; 4) names r e f e r r i n g to settlement ("Siedlungsbezeich-150 nungen"), i . e . : the p r o l i f i c compositions with -heim and o t h e r s s u c h a s t h e p o l e m i c e l e m e n t - i n g X J X a n d l a s t l y , t h e n a m e s i n - m a l l u m , " m e e t i n g - p l a c e " . T h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e t o p o n y m s i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s m e r i t s a t t e n t i o n . A f t e r a s y n o p s i s o f t h e o r i g i n , e v o l u t i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n o f t h e a p p e l l a t i v e s w h i c h f i g u r e i n a g i v e n c a t e g o r y , t h e r e i s a s u r v e y o f c e r t a i n i l l u s t r a t i v e p l a c e - n a m e s . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h y d r o n y m s c o n t a i n i n g - b a k i . H e r e t o p o n y m i c e x a m p l e s c u l l e d f r o m b o t h B e l g i u m a n d F r a n c e a r e l i s t e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y i n c o l u m n s , t h e l o c a t i o n s a n d s o m e t i m e s o l d e r f o r m s a r e g i v e n ; m a t c h e d w i t h t h e s e a r e a n y s y n o n y m s f o u n d i n t h e D u t c h o r G e r m a n - s p e a k i n g l a n d s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r d o c u m e n t a r y s o u r c e s . T h e f i n a l p a r a l l e l c o l u m n c o n t a i n s t h e s e m a n t i c e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s h a r e d e p i t h e t . P e t r i c o m m e n c e s w i t h t h e e x a m p l e o f A l b a i s i n B r a b a n t w h i c h h a s t h e D u t c h e q u i v a l e n t s : A l b e k e , A a l b e k e , A e l b e k e a n d t h e G e r m a n e q u i v a l e n t s : A l b a c h , A l e b e c k e , A h l e b e k e , A s l b e c k , A h l b a c h , A h l e n b a c h ; a l l o f w h i c h p o s s e s s t h e G e r m a n i c e p i t h e t a l - , O l d H i g h G e r m a n " s t r e a m , r i v e r " . I n d e e d t h i s i s t h e a n a l y t i c p r o c e d u r e e m p l o y e d f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e m a t e r i a l t h r o u g h o u t t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , P e t r i a p p e n d s t o t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n a n u m b e r o f u s e f u l m a p s g r a p h i c a l l y p o r t r a y i n g t h e r e p a r t i t i o n o f t o p o n y m s w i t h s p e c i f i c G e r m a n i c a p p e l l a t i v e s , i . e . : - b a k i , - h e l m , - i n g h e i m , - i n g e n , - m a l i e , - m a k a l , e t c . S i m i l a r t o A l b e r t D a u z a t i n h i s L e s N o m s d e l i e u x , P e t r i d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d e n s i t y s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r r a t h e r d e p a r t m e n t a l d i v i s i o n s . T w o f u r t h e r t h e m e s d e a l t w i t h b y P e t r i i n t h e l a t t e r s t a g e s o f t h i s s e c t i o n c o n c e r n t h e t o p o n y m i c p h e n o m e n a a r i s i n g f r o m t h e 70 contact of Germanic and Romance cultures: the hybrid formations i n ~co u rt-, - v i l l e , - v i l l e r s and the manifold hypotheses as to t h e i r origins are treated under the t i t l e of "Weilernamen", the complex but i n t r i g u i n g subject of name substitutions, "Orts-namenausgleich", t y p i c a l of regions along the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . Regarding the hybrid toponyms, P e t r i discusses quite thoroughly the many theories advanced by French and other foreign p h i l o l o g i s t s on t h e i r significance to the Germanic i n f l u x into G a l l i a Romana. He proceeds from the Grober-Schiber theory, to which Longnon also adhered, which maintains that the c o r t i s compositions are a d i r e c t 152 resu l t of Frankish colonisation., and therefore may serve to illuminate the complex question of r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , to the even more daring hypothesis of Gamillscheg that many such names are merely translations of o r i g i n a l l y wholly Germanic compositions and since these could only occur i n b i l i n g u a l areas, they can act 153 as a gauge of the progress of assimilation. Though P e t r i agrees with certain aspects of the current theories, he neverthe-less continues to s i f t through them exposing t h e i r various weaknesses and emphasising the parodox of those hybrids 1 h i s t o r i c a l 154 implications. Naturally the name-substitutions ("doublets") or the co-existence of two separate versions for a single 155 toponym can furnish some precious insights on the creation, phonetic evolution and, l a t e r , the assimilation of Germanic toponyms i n Francophone t e r r i t o r y . For his investigation P e t r i has chosen the provinces of Lorraine and Alsace where the conse-quences of a French-German synthesisation are very often manifested i n the l o c a l toponymy. In the case of Lorraine he examines doublets exhibiting substitutions from Germanic -ingen to R o m a n c e - i a c u s , v i l l e a n d c o u r t ; f r o m - d o r f t o - v i l l e o r - c o u r t ; a n d f r o m - b e r g t o - m o n t . O n c e a g a i n , i n t a b u l a r e x p o s i t i o n , t h e m o d e r n d o u b l e t s w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o l d e r f o r m s ( d a t e d ) a r e c o n t r a s t e d i n o p p o s i t e c o l u m n s u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g o f t h e s u b s t i t u t e d e l e m e n t s , i . e . : - i n g e n , - a c u s o r _vj.ce v e r s a . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a s c h o s e n b y P e t r i d o n o t p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o t h e F r a n k i s h z o n e o f c o l o n i s a t i o n b u t r a t h e r , p r i m a r i l y , t o t h a t o f a k i n d r e d t r i b e , t h e " A l a m a n n i " , t h e " A u s g l e i c h p h e n o m e n a " w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l t o b o t h . P e t r i h i m s e l f e x p l a i n s t h a t t h i s w a s d o n e t o a f f o r d a w i d e r s c o p e t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n : " I m I n t e r e s s e e i n e r m o g l i c h s t a l l s e i t i g e n B e l e u c h t u n g d e s P r o b l e m s w e r d e n w i r d a b e i u n s e r e B e o b a c h t u n g e n a u f e i n e r u m f a s s e n d e r e n G r u n d l a g e a u f b a u e n a l s b i s h e r u n d a u c h d i e n i c h t f r a n k i s c h e n A b s c h n i t t e d e r w e s t l i c h e n S p r a c h g r e n z e i n d i e U n t e r s u c h u n g m i t e i n z u b e z i e h e n . " F o r A l s a c e n o t a b l e s o f e x a m p l e s e x i s t , i n s t e a d t h e a u t h o r i s c o n t e n t t o d i s c u s s t h e s a l i e n t a s p e c t s o f t r a n s l a t i o n a n d t h e d o u b l e t p h e n o m e n o n a n d e x e m p l i f y t h e m i n f o o t n o t e s . T h e m o s t p r o m i n e n t s u b s t i t u t i o n i n A l s a c e i s f r o m - d o r f t o - c o u r t . T h i s P e t r i i l l u s t r a t e s b y t e n p l a c e - n a m e s w i t h t h e i r a l t e r n a t i v e R o m a n c e 157 a n d G e r m a n i c f o r m s . O n t h e b a s i s o f t h i s e n q u i r y , P e t r i f e e l s j u s t i f i e d i n s u p p o r t i n g F e r d i n a n d L o t ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i n m a n y c a s e s t h e F r e n c h a n d G e r m a n f o r m s o f a " b o r d e r t o p o n y m " a r o s e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a n d s e p a r a t e l y : " L e n o m d ' u n meme d o m a i n e a e t e 15 f o r m e a l ' e p o q u e f r a n q u e s i m u l t a n e m e n t e n g e r m a n i q u e e t e n r o m a n " F o r i l l u s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s P e t r i p r o v i d e s a map o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r i n L o r r a i n e u p o n w h i c h t h e v a r i o u s s u b s t i t u t i o n s , " A u s -g l e i c h e " , h a v e b e e n i n d i c a t e d . T h e v e r y l a s t p a g e s o f t h e s e c o n d p a r t a r e . d e v o t e d t o t h e m y r i a d p l a c e - n a m e s c o n t a i n i n g G e r m a n i c 72 anthroponyms and the Gallo-roman s u f f i x -acum. A map shows t h e i r geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n over northern France and Wallonia. Regarding the "Weiler" names, P e t r i maintains that these toponyms should not necessarily be seen as an indicator of Germanic penetration. However, because the -acum names generally stem from a period when the vogue for Germanic personal names had not yet seized the Gallo-159 Romans they may serve as a standard in determining the extent of substitutions: "Am ehesten i s t diese Methode (for ascertaining the number of substitutions) fur den Ausgleich germanischer Siedlungs-suffixe zu -acum angangig. Er stammt aus einer Z e i t , i n der die S i t t e des Tragens germanischer Personennamen bei den Romanen noch 16 0 nicht sehr verbreitet gewesen sein d i i r f t e . " The t h i r d part of Petri's work i s devoted to archaeological and anthropological evidence of Germanic settlement i n northern 161 France ar.d Wallonia. Through the excavation of Frankish graves, the discoveries of vessels and ornaments of Frankish manufacture and the examination of s k e l e t a l remains he attempts to reconstruct the approximate zone of settlement. As a further aid to determining-the extent of Germanic colonisation., which P e t r i suggests i s an ethno-l o g i c a l one, he propounds a thorough investigation into the r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population of these regions i n order to discern to what degree i t may derive from the predominantly Nordic Franks. The combination of r a c i a l and toponymic evidence as well as archaeological finds should prove invaluable i n t h i s matter: "Tauschen wir uns nicht, so darf die von i h r nachgewiesene Ver-breitung des nordischen Typs iiber Nordfrankreich neben dem Auftreten der germanischen Ortsnamen und neben der Verbreitung der friih-m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e n Bodenfunde i n diesen Gebieten als ein weiteres wichtiges Argument fur die Bedeutung der frankischen Volkssiedlung im 16 2 Chlodwigreiche i n Betracht gezogen werden" Moreover by means of a map P e t r i demonstrates the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Nordic race over central and western Europe. Later, on the theme of the r e l a t i o n of the various t r i b e s to settlement, P e t r i examines the problem of distinguishing the legacies of the S a l i c and Ripuarian branches of the Franks through a discussion of the -sele names and also those place-names which r e f l e c t i n themselves the presence of a p a r t i c u l a r t r i b e , for example: toponyms containing the proper nouns Alemanni, Burgundian, Frank etc. As to the formation of t h i s l a t t e r group of toponyms the author takes the view that t h e i r Romance mode of composition attests to t h e i r creation by Romance-speaking peoples: "Von den germanischen Spuren der frankischen Zeit unterscheidet sich diese ganze Namensklasse f deutlich dadurch, daG sie ih r e r Bildung nach romanisch i s t , nur der Inhalt der Namen selber gestattet, die Siedlung den Germanen zu-zuschreiben. Ihre Benennung stammt, im Unterschied, zu der germanische 16 4 Bevolkerung selber, sondern von ihren romanischen Nachbarn." In the concluding fourth part of his work, P e t r i evaluates a l l the evidence of a toponymic, archaeological, ethnological nature which pertains to the theme of Frankish settlement and the formation of the modern l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . There are f i f t e e n pages of concludi remarks. The following statement i n which he speaks of the s i g n i f i -cance of the Frankish settlement may summarise his findings: "Wir stehen am Ende. Mit H i l f e einer moglichst umfassenden Auswertung des namengeschichtlichen Q u e l l e n m a t e r i a l s h o f f e n wir gezeigt zu haben, da6 die volkischen und k u l t u r e l l e n Wirkungen, die von der frankischen Landnahme ausgegangen sind, nicht von vornherein an der germanisch-franzosischen Sprachgrenze zum Stehen gekommen sind, sondern sich soweit erstreckt haben wie die frankische Herrschaft i n Gallien gereicht h a t . " 1 6 ^ .In other words, P e t r i has attempted to demonstrate through his toponymic, archaeological, and l i n g u i s t i c documentation that the influence of the Frankish occupation pervaded the whole t e r r i t o r y under t h e i r dominion. Franz P e t r i ' s toponymic work includes not only t h i s extensive writing, but also a number of tr e a t i s e s and a r t i c l e s i n learned journals. In the Darmstadt research publication "Ertrage der Forschung" (1977) he presents two reports concerned e s s e n t i a l l y with the value of toponymic investigation i n establishing the scale of Germanic settlement as well as the process of consolidation of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . As in Volkserbe, he reiterates the necessity of combining the results of archaeological and toponymic research to arrive at a good general impression of the scale of Frankish coloni-sation i n northern Gaul: "Erst kombiniert (with archaeological evidence) vermochten die unmittelbaren Namenreste, die unter germanischen EinfluB enstandenen Namen vom Typus der Weilernamen und r der Ortsnamenausgleich - so suchte i c h im "Volkserbe" nachzuweisen -eine ungefahre Gesamtvorstellung von dem AusmaB der frankischen 166 Volkssiedlung i n Nordgallien zu vermitteln." Both reports are b r i e f and deal primarily with the various toponymic hypotheses of other scholars which P e t r i c r i t i c i s e s i n the l i g h t of t h e i r value to the question of Germanic settlement. The f i r s t report, Das Zeugnis der Ortsnamen, contains a c r i t i c a l analysis of.the p r i n c i p a l theories advanced by leading tpponymists i n the years 1926-53. The examination encompasses Gamillscheg 1s theory that a considerable number of toponyms may not originate from the e a r l i e s t period of Germanic settlement but from a l a t e r i n f l u x . 16 7 P e t r i supports t h i s hypothesis. Also considered i n t h i s report 16 8 are: the rather far-fetched theory of a Romanist who attributes the syntax of the "Weiler" names (in -court, - v i l l e , - v i l l e r s ) 169 to G a l l i c rather than Germanic influence, the various theories of Wartburg, Gysseling and esp e c i a l l y the Germanist W. Jungandreas on the question of toponymie assimilation, "Namenausgleich", i n the regions along the language border l i k e northern Wallonia and the Moselle area. F i n a l l y there i s Raspers' proposal for the addition of Germanic " P o l i t i c a l names" to those categories which r e f l e c t the Germanic influence i n G a l l i a . This, P e t r i treats with suspicion on account of the contrived, unconvincing nature of the examples (see p. 48) and some rather fau l t y interpretations: "Uberhaupt i s t Raspers Namen-deutung nicht selten sehr gezwungen und mit den Gewohnheiten fr i i h -m i t t e l a l t e r l i c h e r Namengebung schwerlich im Einklang". In the second report, Das Zeugnis der Orts- und Personen-namen, P e t r i continues with t h i s c r i t i c a l appraisal of more recent toponymie research from 1953 to 1976 regarding Frankish settlement. At the commencement of thi s update report, P e t r i underscores the invaluable evidence of Frankish influence offered by the phenomena of the "Weiler" names and of toponymie assimilation: "Frankische Ortsnamen, Namen vom Avricourt oder Weiler-typus und Prozesse des Ortsnamenausgleichs sind die Sprachphanomene, die aus dem Bereich der Toponymie als Zeugnisse fur die Frankonisierung des ehemaligen Nordgallien i n erster L i n i e im Betracht k o m m e n . " M o r e precisely P e t r i devotes the report to an evaluation of Maurits Gysseling's Toponymisch  Woordenboek, a dictionary of the toponyms of Belgium, Holland, North France and West Germany before the year 1226, indeed, P e t r i e x t o l l s i t as the most s i g n i f i c a n t work of the period: "...die u n s t r e i t i g 171 wichtigste toponymische Neuerscheinung (der B e r i c h t s z e i t ) . . . " and to a series of theories and works on the various aspects of toponymie assimilation, bilingualism, the importance of anthro-ponymy. From this analysis he concludes that the foremost service of Gysseling 's book i s i t s evidence of the profound mixture of Romance and Germanic elements i n the toponymy of a portion of 172 northwestern Gaul. On the subject of anthroponymy, P e t r i considers i t s value i n r e f l e c t i n g the Frankish c u l t u r a l heritage of these region 173 to have been too long ignored. Various recent research works and some h i s t o r i c a l sources l i k e the Irminon Polyptic are b r i e f l y discussed. In conclusion, i t i s Petri's view that the extraordinary incidence of Germanic anthroponyms i n Romance t e r r i t o r y attests undeniably to the pervasive character of Germanic influence: "Nichts zeigt wohl deutlicher, daB die Annahme der gcrmanischen Namen durch die iibergroBe Mehrzahl der Romanen i n den Kernteilerr des Westfrankenreiches kein AusfluB einer bloBen Mode war, sondern die Folge einer a l i e n Lebensbereiche erfassenden germanisch-romischen Symbiose, bei der die frankischen Fiihrungsschichten des Reiches i n einem wahrhaft erstaunlichen Weise pragend zu wirken 174 vermochten." The Germanic toponyms, the toponyms formed due to Germanic influence and the anthroponyms a l l are ineffaceable mani-festations of the wide-spread Germanic-Romance c u l t u r a l fusion c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Northern G a l l i a . A concluding remark to Volkserbe expressed i t thus: "Die bleibenden Wirkungen die von der Landnahme auf die Gesamtentwicklung der reromanisierten Gebiete ausgegangen sind, sind nichts destoweniger b e t r a c h t l i c h . Walloniens und Nord-frankreichs Volkstum, Sprache, und Kultur sind von i h r tiefgehend 175 beeinfluBt worden." 77 Although P e t r i ' s research and c r i t i c a l appraisal of the work of other toponymists undoubtedly merits attention, i t should be noted that he does not appear to have approached the subject of Frankish settlement and i t s c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c ramifications i n a t o t a l l y impartial, s c i e n t i f i c manner. This venerable academic worked i n Germany, c i r c a 19 36, under the u l t r a - n a t i o n a l i s t i c H i t l e r i a n regime, and must have been influenced to some degree by the chauvinistic, r a c i s t perspective which then permeated a l l aspects of l i f e including, lamentably, the human sciences. It seems somewhat an exaggeration on his part to have concluded i n Volkserbe that Frankish colonisation was so extremely fundamental 176 to the c i v i l i s a t i o n of northern G a l l i a . The seeds of chauvinism are to be found i n P e t r i ' s writings. He, l i k e many of his compatriots following the disastrous Great War, was concerned for those Germans i n the l o s t t e r r i t o r i e s , the German-speaking inhabitants of East Belgium (Eupen-Malmedy) and of Alsace-Lorraine as well as i n the east, and sought to encourage them to r e s i s t a ssimilation. In Volkserbe, P e t r i makes an impassioned appeal to ethnic Germans, "Volksdeutsche", i n these regions to c u l t i v a t e t h e i r heritage: "Genau wie a l l e s iibrige Geschehen sucht auch die deutsche Volksgeschichte auf dynamischen und nicht auf statischen Grundlagen: Was Du vererbt von Deinen Vatern hast, erwirb es, um es zu besitzen" - das g i l t i n der Volksgeschichte 177 so gut wie sonst im Leben." Also the employment of terminology t y p i c a l of the National S o c i a l i s t r a c i a l and p o l i t i c a l ideology 78 seems to suggest that P e t r i was more than s u p e r f i c i a l l y influenced by them, for example, the following words or phrases often crop up i n Volkserbe: v o l k s p o l i t i s c h , Rassenbild, nordische Rasse, sprachfremd, artfremd, volkisches.Geschehen etc. Indeed his emphasis upon r a c i a l evidence to substantiate his claim of a wide-spread Germanic colonisation of North Gaul conforms e n t i r e l y with the ethnological interpretations underlying h i s t o r i c a l research of the period. One might well apply to P e t r i the warning issued by Dauzat i n his Toponymie (1939) against p o l i t i c a l or n a t i o n a l i s t i c bias which might d i s t o r t toponymie research: "A une epoque ou certaines doctrines p o l i t i q u e s cherchent a asservir l a science, on ne sera pas etonne s i l a toponymie a ete u t i l i s e pour etayer des 17 8 revendications n a t i o n a l i s t e s de l'heure presente." In a l l fairness one cannot accuse him of agitating for t e r r i t o r i a l adjustments but c e r t a i n l y of prejudice i n favour of the Germanic contribution to the culture and c i v i l i s a t i o n of Wallonia and Northern France. Regardless of his p o l i t i c a l views, Pe t r i ' s works do o f f e r some valuable information to the researcher. The scope of research i s very broad; he does not merely treat "lieux habites" but " l i e u x - d i t s " (microtoponymy), choronyms, oronyms and hydronyms. Locations are given i n great d e t a i l . The e a r l i e s t forms are provided with dates and exact indications of the sources. The arrangement according to province and canton affords one a good general view of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n whilst the l a t e r tabular method f a c i l i t a t e s comparison of b i l i n g u a l toponyms. Though the material i s not as extensive as i n Longnon's or Vincent's works, i t i s , nevertheless, considerable and may be easier to assimilate on account of the organisation. P e t r i 79 devotes much attention to the study of the Germanic appellatives examining o r i g i n , phonetic and semantic evolution and geographical r e p a r t i t i o n . Some excellent examples organised under the appropriate appellative are ci t e d . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i s P e t r i ' s evaluation of some of the chief hypotheses and problems involved i n the question of the Germanic toponyms of the Francophone areas of northern G a l l i a , i .e.: the Grbber-Schiber theory on Frankish settlement, the o r i g i n of the "Weiler" names,the significance and causes of toponymic assimilation ("Ausgleiche") and f i n a l l y the estimation of the respective contributions of the S a l i c and Ripuarian branches of the Frankish folk-group. This naturally i s also the advantage of the two reports he submitted about the "etat present" of research on the h i s t o r i c a l importance of the Germanic toponyms to the journal Ertrage der Forschung. Apart from Franz P e t r i ' s Volkserbe and a r t i c l e s there are a number of other ' valuable monographs on the various aspects of the Germanic toponyms of the northern Gallo-Romance area. Some of these appear as a r t i c l e s i n journals, some are books whilst s t i l l others are chapters i n larger works. They may be distinguished from one another by the perspective - whether primarily l i n g u i s t i c , h i s t o r i c a l or a marriage of both. We s h a l l evaluate them succinctly on an i n d i -vidual basis so as to gain a good overview. In the second volume of his Ausgewahlte Aufsatze (Tubingen, 1962) Ernst Garnilischeg presents the a r t i c l e , "La colonisation germanique dans l a Gaule du Nord", wherein he attempts to determine the significance of Germanic settlement by means of toponymic d i s t r i b u t i o n . He begins the a r t i c l e by discussing the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n of the Teutonic t r i b e s at the time of the f i r s t invasions, then outlines the consequences of 80 the co-existence of two nations that i s , "doublets", a r i s i n g from two p a r a l l e l systems of toponymic nomenclature and the subsequent causes and effects of assimilation. Since t h i s examination i s a very general view of a large question, few place-names are cited as examples. Perhaps the s a l i e n t point of the a r t i c l e i s Gamillscheg 1s premise that those toponyms, whether Romance or Germanic, which do 179 not r e f l e c t the phonetic state t y p i c a l of the 5th century do not stem from the f i r s t period of Franco-Roman contact. The other place-names are r e f l e c t i o n s of what Gamillscheg terms a "post-migration". This a r t i c l e provides some int e r e s t i n g d e t a i l s on the ramifications of co-existence and re-romanisation on the toponymy of northern France and Wallonia. Another a r t i c l e with an h i s t o r i c a l bent i s Walther von Wartburg rs "Die frankische Siedlung i n Nordfrankreich im Spiegel, der Ortsnamen" published i n the Z e i t s c h r i f t 'fur romanische P h i l o l o g i e . Here, s i m i l a r to Pet r i ' s Volkserbe, the focus i s upon the determination of the extent of Germanic influence: "...die Frage des Ausmasses. 180 frankischen Einschlags i n Nordgallien..." (Wartburg, p. 284). This a r t i c l e i s divided into f i v e sections concerning the evaluation of toponymic research which reveals something about Frankish settlement. The chapter "Forschungslage" embraces Wartburg's c r i t i c i s m of Gamillscheg 1 s massive Romania Germanic a (3 vols. 1934-1936) which possesses "...ein reiches Material an Worter und Namen" 181 (Wartburg, p. 285) and appraises the following works where, according to the author, the material has been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y checked and erroneous theories• are propounded: P e t r i ' s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study i n Volkserbe and Gamillscheg's pendant to Pe t r i ' s work, Germanische Siedlung i n Belgien und Nordfrankreich (Abhandlungen der 81 preuBischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1937). In the remaining chapters Wartburg devotes himself to a detailed assessment of the p r i n c i p a l theories advanced i n Gamillscheg's l a t e s t t r e a t i s e , i . e . : the l i n g u i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n between the S a l i c and Ripuarian Franks, the hypothesis of subsequent waves of Germanic s e t t l e r s after the i n i t i a l colonisation i n the 5th century (supported by some toponymic evidence, i e : the - b i z i and -inghem people), and an investigation into the o r i g i n of the - v i H e r s names i n southern Lorraine and the northern Franche-Comte. This monograph closes with a series of concise conclusions based upon the c r i t i c a l review of the preceding works. Wartburg's chief conclusion accords closely with the opinion expressed by Franz P e t r i i n Volkserbe, namely that the per-vasive Frankish influence i n northern G a l l i a was due to a large popular i n f l u x : "Unumstritten i s t j e t z t wohl die Erkenntnis, daft frankische Volkskraft i n weitem AusmaB sich (iber ganz Nordgallien ergossen hat. Vorbei i s t es endgultig mit der alten Meinung von dem bloG dynamischen Charakter der Reichsgrundung Chlodwigs. Die Franken haben ihren Fuhrer von'Anfang b e g l e i t e t , haben seine Unter-nehmung mitgetragen, haben ihren A n t e i l gehabt an der Weitung des 182 Lebensraumes, haben Nordgallien neu und intensiv besiedelt." The main advantage of Wartburg's work l i e s i n the cogent, apparently impartial evaluations of these two s i g n i f i c a n t toponymic t r e a t i s e s . Ernst Gamillscheg's Romania Germanica published i n 3 volumes between 193 4-36 attempts, l i k e P e tri's l a t e r work Volkserbe, to evaluate the legacy of the ancient German tribes i n Romania through l i n g u i s t i c and h i s t o r i c a l research. A second edition of the work published i n 1970 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter) w i l l serve as the basis for this appraisal. The goal of the second edition i s the 82 same as that of the o r i g i n a l , v i z : "...die Darstellung der Romania i n dem, was i n i h r an germanischen Spuren erhalten i s t . " (p. VI, 183 Vorwort). The value of t h i s work i s i n Gamillscheg 1s synthesis of toponymie, onomastic, phonological and h i s t o r i c a l evidence to arrive at a picture of the l a s t i n g Germanic influence i n Romance t e r r i t o r y : "Es b l e i b t der R.G. (Romania Germanica) das Verdienst i n 184 diesem Augenblick das Wagnis einer Synthese auf sich genommen..." However, the whole work does not concern toponymy: i t i s only the sections on the Franks and Burgundians which examine the contributions of t h e i r idioms to the place-names of France. Volume I has a 314 page section (pp. 38-352) on the Franks and t h e i r influence upon French toponymy. There are four main d i v i s i o n s : i) a consideration of the etymology and toponymie examples of the Gallo-Roman and Germanic suffixes ( i . e . : -iacum, - acum, -iac a , -iacas; -ingues , -ange.Xs) )', appellatives (-hem, -haimj - c u r t i s , - v i l l a , --villare) and the. Germanic compounds (-ingheim, -ingatun). i i ) a look at the Frankish words not adopted by the Gallo-Romans but which figure i n toponymy, i e : akker "arable f i e l d " = Acre, des Acrex, (Eure), L'Acre (Mayenne) or Wrosti "desert" = Wortnne/Hainaut, Belg.) i i i ) an examination of the phonological changes r e f l e c t e d i n the romanised forms of Germanic place-names iv) a series of fine surveys of the Germanic toponymy of the departements north of the Loire. In addition to the wealth of toponyms, complete with early forms and dates, there are many excellent maps which d e t a i l the d i s t r i b u t i o n of various place-name types. Each survey of a departement has at least one such map. For example i n the case of Haute Saone (p. 218) Gamillscheg provides a map which shows the geographical breakdown of the -ingos, -court names. 83 V o l u m e I I I w h i c h d e v o t e s 2 0 0 p a g e s s o l e l y t o t h e B u r g u n d i a n s d i s p l a y s e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e o r g a n i s a t i o n a s t h a t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e F r a n k s : t h e B u r g u n d i a n - i n g o s a n d t h e G a l l o - R o m a n / R o m a n c e - i a c u m , - a n u m , - i n c u m a r e e t y m o l o g i s e d a n d e x a m p l e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d ; o v e r -v i e w s o f e a c h o f t h e d e p a r t e m e n t s f r o m f o r m e r B u r g u n d i a n t e r r i t o r y a r e p r o v i d e d ; t h e F r a n k i s h e l e m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e - i n g a s n a m e s , i n n o r t h e r n B u r g u n d y i s i n v e s t i g a t e d ; a l a r g e d i c t i o n a r y o f t h e - i n g o s n a m e s f r o m A b b a n s ( D o u b s ) t o Y e n s ( W a a d t , S w i t z e r l a n d ) g i v e s e t y m o l o -g i c a l d e t a i l s , l o c a t i o n s , e a r l y f o r m s a n d d a t e s ; a n d f i n a l l y B u r g u n -d i a n p e r s o n a l n a m e s s e p a r a t e d i n t o l i s t s o f f i r s t a n d s e c o n d e l e m e n t s , a r e e x p l a i n e d a n d i l l u s t r a t e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e t o p o n y m s i e : B u d a 1 8 5 " m e s s e n g e r " - B r e n a n s ( A i n ) T o f a c i l i t a t e r e f e r e n c e G a m i l l s c h e g a p p e n d s a n i n d e x w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e r e s e a r c h e r r e a d i l y t o f i n d t o p o n y m s , p e r s o n a l n a m e s , e n d i n g s a n < 3 a p p e l l a t i v e s . F o r t h e s p e c i a l i s t o r t h e s t u d e n t o f t o p o n y m y t h i s w o r k , t h o u g h p r i m a r i l y h i s t o r i c a l i n b e n t , h a s a n u m b e r o f a t t r a c t i o n s : a s y s t e m a t i c , w e l l d o c u m e n t e d e t y m o l o g i s a t i o n a n d e x p l a n a t i o n o f t o p o n y m s a n d o f v a r i o u s p l a c e - n a m e g e n e r a , m a n y u s e f u l m a p s s h o w i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c e r t a i n p l a c e - n a m e s , i n d i v i d u a l s u r v e y s o f c e r t a i n d e p a r t e m e n t s . n o r t h o f t h e L o i r e a n d i n B u r g u n d y , a n d t h e e x c e l l e n t a r r a n g e m e n t a n d r e f e r e n c i n g o f t h e t o p o n y m i e m a t e r i a l . I n 1 9 3 3 , F e r d i n a n d L o t , h i s t o r i a n a n d t o p o n y m i s t , p r o d u c e d a n e x c e l l e n t s t u d y i n R o m a n i a ( v o l u m e L I X ) e n t i t l e d , " D e l ' o r i g i n e e t d e l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n h i s t o r i q u e d e s n o m s d e l i e u x e n - v i l l e e t e n - c o u r t . " I m p r e s s e d b y t h e c l e a r , w e l l d o c u m e n t e d h y p o t h e s i s , i € : 1 8 6 c o n t a i n s , A l b e r t D a u z a t t e r m e d i t " u n r e m a r q u a b l e a r t i c l e . " A s i m p l i e d b y t h e t i t l e , L o t i n t e n d s t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r o v e n a n c e , a n d t h e t o p o n y m i e a n d h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R o m a n c e a p p e l l a t i v e s 84 - v i l l a and -court. He maintains that these appellatives composed 18 with Germanic anthroponyms are of "formation relativement recente." Lot does not subscribe to Longnon's theory that these names derive 188 from Germanic sources, e s p e c i a l l y Frankish ones. He declares 189 "cette assertion ne r e s i s t e pas a l a r e f l e x i o n " , on account of the presence of the Romance appellatives which would suggest that the 190 Germans had already become assimilated l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . Since the re-romanisation was effected rather late (VHth c. ) i t follows that these formations must be of a more recent o r i g i n and therefore useless i n determining r a c i a l distributions; " . . . e l l e s cessent de nous o f f r i r un crite"re precieux pour l a geographie ethnique de l a 191 Gaule." In order to emphasise the u n s u i t a b i l i t y of the - v i l l e , -court toponyms i n any determination of the r e p a r t i t i o n of the Germanic people i n north Gaul, Ferdinand Lot proves by examples that the -court formations derive from the Roman period and merely continued afterwards^ " I l faut obeir a un ve r i t a b l e p a r t i p r i s pour nier que l a formation en cour a i t commence des l'epoque romaine. 192 L'ere merovingienne en a vu seulement l e developpement." Thus they cannot a l l claim Germanic o r i g i n . Moreover, even the syntax of these formations i s not necessarily exclusively Germanic. Lot r i g h t l y refers to the substitution process by which v i l l e and cour replaced the older composite formations terminating i n the Gallo-Roman -iacus: "Les composes en v i l l e et en cour se substituant a des formations avec suffi x e -iacus, l a tendance naturelle e t a i t de 193 rej e t e r ces termes a l a f i n du mot." These appellatives do not only combine with Germanic but also with Latin anthroponyms, i . e . : Pierrecourt (Haute Saone, Saone et L o i r e ) , Rem!court (Siene), Romainville (near P a r i s ) , Morville (Beauce). 85 In contradiction of Longnon's claim that these names are limited to the area north of the Loire, Lot points out that a considerable number of examples occur to the south i n wholly Romance t e r r i t o r y . In t h i s way Ferdinand Lot succeeds, i f not i n demolishing the complacent hypotheses, then, at lea s t , i n r a i s i n g serious doubts as to t h e i r veracity. Lot proceeds to study the significance for the question of Germanic settlement of v i l l a and i t s variants v i l l e r s , v i l l a r e ; court with i t s hypocoristic form c o r t i c e l l a , and mansus with i t s numerous alternative forms. He examines the delicate case of the toponymie si t u a t i o n i n the b i l i n g u a l f r o n t i e r regions of France. It is a complex si t u a t i o n for the toponyms often reveal nothing about the extent of Germanic occupation because the toponymist i s unable to discern which of the b i l i n g u a l forms i s the o r i g i n a l . Indeed, Lot proposes that i t i s probable i n many cases that both forms arose independantly of one another. Lot continues examining the various factors which appear to substantiate his view that these place-name types afford no insights into the r a c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n : "Notre conclusion c'est done que les l o c a l i t e s en -cour, v i l l e , -meix, etc. sont impuissantes a fournir les renseignements precieux que l'on d i t touchant l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des 194 "races" sur le sol de l a Gaule." The f i n a l section of t h i s t r e a t i s e investigates the frequency and ethnological importance of the - v i l l e names coupled with Scandinavian anthroponyms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Normandy. Again these names do not serve to indicate the presence of a Germanic population,rather i t i s only those place-names possessing a Germanic appellative which may be regarded as attesting to t h i s : " I l n'y a presomption de peuplement scandinave que lorsque les deux parties du 195 compose sont des termes norrois." Lot concludes t h i s a r t i c l e 86 w i t h a statement s t r e s s i n g the i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the - c o u r t , >-ville 196 toponyms to a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of Germanic s e t t l e m e n t . Rather than a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r formation t o a Germanic o r i g i n he regards i t as "...une e v o l u t i o n n a t u r e l l e , a l a f o i s phonetique e t semantique, du 197 l a t i n de l a Gaule." In h i s d i s q u i s i t i o n on the causes and conse-quences o f the "Volkerwanderung", Les I n v a s i o n s : l e s vagues germani-que s ( P a r i s : 1965), L u c i e n Musset expressed the essence of L o t ' s t h e s i s i n t h i s f a s h i o n : "Lot a acheve de . demontrer que l e s innombrabies toponymes en - v i l l e e t en - c o u r t composes avec un nom d'homme germanique pour premier ou second terme ne s i g n i f i e n t r i e n pour l ' h i s t o i r e du peuplement f r a n c ou 1'extension du d i a l e c t e 198 f r a n c i q u e . . . " A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s e nquiry puts to r e s t c e r t a i n erroneous, at the very l e a s t m i s l e a d i n g , t h e o r i e s e l a b o r a t e d by people l i k e Longnon and Dauzat at an e a r l i e r stage. S i m i l a r t o P e t r i ' s two c r i t i c a l r e p o r t s i n E r t r a g e der Forschung, Johannes Hubschmid consecrates a b r i e f a r t i c l e to the toponymic study of Belgium and the Walloon-German border r e g i o n s , namely: "Zur Ortsnamenkunde B e l g i e n s und angrenzender romanisch-germanischer Gebiete" (i n Z e i t s c h r i f t f u r romanische P h i l o l o g i e , LXXIX, 1963) . T h e r e i n he pres e n t s a c r i t i c a l account of the c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s r e s e a r c h made by two p a r t i c u l a r , r e c e n t works: M a u r i t s G y s s e l i n g " s Toponymisch  woordenboek van Belgife, Nederland, Luxemburg,,Noord-Frankrijk en  West D u i t s l a n d voor j-226 and Wolfgang Jungandrea's H i s t o r i s c h e s Lexikon der Siedlungs-und Flurnamen des Mosellandes (1963). Hubschmid's r i c h l y documented a r t i c l e comprises f o u r p r i n c i p a l d i v i s i o n s : f i r s t l y , h i s c r i t i c a l treatment of the toponymic d i c t i o n -a r i e s of G y s s e l i n g and Jungandreas; s e c o n d l y , the examination o f those words of Romance and pre-Romance o r i g i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y etymologised 87 by other toponymists; t h i r d l y , a detailed study of those pre-Romance suffixes (i.e. : -awo/'-awa; Saravus--die Saar or -avus; Andecavi— Anjou, P i c t a v i — P o i t o u ) . Obviously, Hubschmid's primary i n t e r e s t l i e s i n the examination and interpretation of the toponyms and suffixes of pre-Romance o r i g i n since a very limited attention i s afforded to his c r i t i q u e of Gysseling and Jungandrea's works. He weighs the good and bad points of both works. The broad scope and p r o l i f i c etymological interpretations afforded by Gysseling are praised,but there are some negative aspects as well, i Z e . : G y s s e l i n g has not evaluated a l l of his sources and often employs examples i n 199 his etymologies which have no context. As for Jungandreas, Hubschmid admits that his work i s much more modest i n scope, but, i n contrast, i s d e f i n i t e l y more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y precise i n i t s treatment of the toponyms.^ 0 0 However, everything considered, Hubschmid concludes that both general works are valuable contributions to the toponymy of Gallo-Romania e s p e c i a l l y i n the ascertainment of the 201 ' "Sprachgeschichte beider Raume". Since such a high proportion of the Germanic place-names of France contain a Germanic personal name, whether masculine or feminine, i t i s clear that a consideration of the o r i g i n , composition, significance of these anthroponyms would prove indispensible to toponymie research. Indeed, on t h i s subject, two writings i n p a r t i c u l a r afford some valuable information. The f i r s t , "L'anthro-ponymie germanique continentale dans 1 1ancienne Gaule du V l e au VII ", i n Etudes germaniques (janvier-mars, 1969) i s a very concise, general assessment by Adigard des Gautries of three aspects of the question, that i s : the h i s t o r i c a l importance, the documentary sources and evidence, and the research work to date. C h i e f l y , Des 88 Gautries examines the excellent research into anthroponymy effected by Auguste Longnon and, more recently, by Marie-Gherese Morlet of the C.N.R.S. By far the greatest attention i s lent to the detailed reference onomasticon which Morlet compiled i n 1968, of the Germanic anthroponyms of ancient G a l l i a (exclusive of the Scandinavian ones). He gives an outline of the methods of organisation and investigation and the documentation peculiar to t h i s work. In summation, Morlet's contribution to the study of both anthroponymy and toponymy i s 202 accorded special praise for the richness of i t s documentation. The f u l l t i t l e of Mile Morlet's lexicaon of Germanic personal names i s : Les noms de personne sur le t e r r i t o i r e de e e l'ancienne Gaule du VI au XII s i e c l e : I. Les noms issus du  germanique continental et les creations gallo-germaniques (C.N.R.S., 196 8) . The reference to the Germanic anthroponyms figures i n the s u b t i t l e because t h i s examination i s the f i r s t part of a larger work on anthroponyms of a l l derivations. It i s a 2 37 page alphabetical repertory of the majority of the personal names of wholly Germanic or hybrid Gallo-Germanic derivation, t h e i r various phonetic variations and hypocoristic forms, with etymological commen tary and excellent documentation of sources. For research purposes, Morlet r e l i e s largely upon two sources of information: 1) the Recueils des Actes des r o i s , a c o l l e c t i o n of laws by French monarchs 2) various c a r t u l a r i e s , charters, necrologies and polyptychs drawn from public and private archives. Certainly, the methodical arrange ment and chronological, phonetic interpretations make t h i s book a valuable aid to research. As the bulk of Germanic names customarily are composed of two l e x i c a l elements i t i s l o g i c a l that under the alphabetically arranged etyma the relevant complex names with phonet 89 p e r m u t a t i o n s and t h e h y p o c o r i s t i c forms s h o u l d , where a v a i l a b l e , f o l l o w . M o r l e t p r o v i d e s an e t y m o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f the c h i e f theme and o f the second element where the l a t t e r has not a l r e a d y been e x p l a i n e d as the c h i e f theme i n a n o t h e r name. F o r example, the Germanic etymon g a i d found i n t h e Lombardian g a l d a and Saxon gadu s i g n i f i e s , "sword o r l a n c e " , i t s a t t e s t e d compound names are G a i d a l d and G a i d u l f u s and i t s h y p o c o r i s t i c forms are Gaido and G a i d e r i s u s . R e g a r d i n g t h e e t y m o l o g i e s and meanings o f t h e second elements o f t h e compound names, M o r l e t s u g g e s t s r e f e r e n c e t o the a p p r o p r i a t e themes - a i d and - u l f u s . An a l p h a b e t i c a l i n d e x o f t h e p r i n c i p a l themes u t i l i s e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f anthroponyms f a c i l i t a t e s r e s e a r c h . On account o f the c o h e r e n t o r g a n i s a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and w e a l t h o f examples, M o r l e t ' s work p r o v i d e s v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the e s s e n t i a l l y F r a n k i s h anthroponyms w h i c h A d i g a r d des G a u t r i e s r e g a r d s as w i t n e s s e s o f the v i t a l i t y o f t h e i r r a c e i n N o r t h G a l l i a : "... un v i v a n t temoignage du r o l e c a p i t a l que l e s F r a n c s ont joue 203 dans l a f o n d a t i o n de l ' e t a t moderne q u i l e u r d o i t son nom."-A p a r t from th e g e n e r a l works and t h e monographs, a t h i r d s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on Germanic toponyms of G a l lia-Romana i s p r o v i d e d by c e r t a i n c h a p t e r s o f books which address themselves t o t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Germanic I n v a s i o n s . Amongst the c u l t u r a l , l i n g u i s t i c and p o l i t i c a l consequences o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f G a l l i a by German t r i b e s , a d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e upon toponymy i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e d . The books t o be b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d here a r e , f o r the c h i e f p a r t , h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t i s e s and r e f l e c t the p e r s p e c t i v e s and r e s e a r c h o f the p e r i o d from c i r c a 1935 t o 1968. I n 1935, F e r d i n a n d L o t produced Les I n v a s i o n s germaniques, an e x c e l l e n t h i s t o r i c a l o v e r v i e w which proceeds from the d e s c e n t of the German peoples to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l conquests i n the occidental remnants of the Roman Empire. The second part of his book examines the questions of the co-existence and assimilation of the two nations posterior to the conquest. Therein Lot studies two manifestations of Germanic influence relevant to toponymy, that i s : the expro-p r i a t i o n of the r u r a l domains with subsequent creation of Germanic designations and the wholesale acceptance of Germanic anthroponyms by the Gallo-Romans. In the case of the f i r s t manifestation, Lot traces the progress of colonisation by means of toponymie evidence and, with the second, he exposes the p r i n c i p l e s of onomastic formation peculiar to the Germans. The f i r s t volume of Paul Levy's La langue allemande en s France (Lyon, 1950), contains a nine page introduction designed to retrace the or i g i n s and ramifications for France of the Germanic invasions. His goal i s simply formulated at the very outset: "Pour se f a i r e une idee de 1'empire ling u i s t i q u e des Germains sur les parlers de l a Gaule d'abord, de l a France ensuite, i l est indispensable de se rappeler tres rapidement l a forme et l'etendue de leurs i n f i l t r a - . i . • > 204 tions." Levy i s of the opinion that the German language survives not merely i n the p a l t r y proportion of German words incorporated i n the French language but also i n such areas as toponymy and anthro-ponymy. He proceeds to outline "grosso modo" the strong contribution to French toponymy by the Germanic tongues. The survey of the simple and complex, pure Germanic and hybrid Germano-romance toponyms i s accompanied by a few s a l i e n t examples. With regard to the vogue of Germanic personal names, Levy furnishes a sizable alphabetic l i s t of examples contrasting the modern French with the o r i g i n a l form. Another h i s t o r i c a l work with a t i t l e very l i k e that of Lot's i s Lucien 91 Musset's Les Invasions; les vagues germaniques (Paris, 1965). He addresses the subject of the formation of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r 205 exposing the weaknesses of the current hypotheses. Also, the work includes a few pages of general remarks on the pre-eminence enjoyed by Germanic personal names from the Vlth century on and the toponymic innovations wrought by the Germanic "Landnahme" (abrogation of land). Few examples are. given and the information i s rather too general to be of much use. F i n a l l y , the t r e a t i s e on the history of the Burgundians, Les Burgondes, (Neuchatel, 1968) , by Odet Perrin possesses a short section on "Langage et toponymie" wherein certain toponyms of Burgundy and the Franche Comte, supposedly representative of the defunct Burgundian idiom, are presented and analysed. Perrin provides several short l i s t s of toponyms i n order to i l l u s t r a t e the 20 6 use of the t y p i c a l l y Burgundian patronymic suffixes -ing, -ung. Though the examples are few, some of them are -interesting. Although t h i s introduction cannot claim to have studied a l l the contributions made to the research of the Germanic toponyms of France and Belgium, and.despite the lack of a chronological treatment of the material, the chief period of investigation from c i r c a the end of the 19th century to the present has been covered: commencing with Longnon's Les Noms de lieux (ca. 1880-1920) and continuing up to Rostaing and Dauzat's toponymic lexicon, Dictionnaire des noms de  lieux (1963). Those sixty-odd years were undeniably the formative ones for the science of toponymy. Now that a l l the possible aspects of the formation and extension of the Germanic toponyms have been discussed, i t i s appropriate to proceed to a detailed analysis of the various categories of these toponyms and the hypotheses p e r t i -nent to t h e i r creation, evolution and sig n i f i c a n c e . - 'FOOTNOTES _T. A Consideration of the State of Research To Date B. - Monographs 136 Franz P e t r i , ' Germanis che s Volkserbe i n Nordfrankreich und Wallonien, Vorwort, p. IX. 137 i b i d . , V o l . I , p. 9. i b i d . , p. 53. P e t r i , p. 53. 140 Longnon, on toponymie study; i n an a p p l i c a t i o n to the M i n i s t e r of Education: "...et j'estime q u ' i l s o r t i r e meme de c e t t e seule p o r t i o n du vaste cadre que j e me t r a c e , des lumieres precieuses pour l ' h i s t o i r e de notre pays," Longnon, auertissement des E d i t e u r s , p. V I I . 141 P e t r i , Vorwort, p. VI. 1 4 2 r-r-l b i d . , p. 55. 143 . l o c . c i t . 1 4 4 n 4- • r-r P e t r i , p. 55. 145 i b i d . , p. 57. 146 D i b i d . , p. 989 . 147 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 4 14 8 P e t r i , Volkserbe, Vorwort, p. IV. 149 P e t r i , p. 509. 1 5 0 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 617: "Es i s t b e k a n n t l i c h d i e allgemeinste und v e r b r e i t e s t e Bezeichnung, d i e das Germanische f u r Gruppen oder Bauwerken, i n welchen d i e Menschen zu geselligem und schiitzendem Zusammenwohnen sich vereinigen, besaB." 151 See pages 641-643 of Volkserbe. Here P e t r i discusses the various often widely divergent theories on the significance of this element. 152 P e t r i , Volkserbe, "...ein direckter Niederschlag der groBen germanischen V o l k e r f l u t . . . " , p. 707. 1 5 3 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 708. 154 The greatest contradiction exposed consists of the seemingly i r r e c o n c i l a b l e dichotomy between the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i -ficance of the French "Weilernamen" and t h e i r German counterparts; the former supposedly i n d i c a t i n g Germanic settlement whilst the l a t t e r indicate the Roman or Gallo-Roman settlements. See P e t r i , Volkserbe, pp. 708-709. Substitutions and translations are intended rather than mere phonetic variants (such as Genf for Geneve or T r i e r for Treves). P e t r i confirms t h i s : "Die l e d i g l i c h durch eine unterschiedliche Lautentwicklung zustandegekommenen Doppelformen etwa Genf neben Geneve, Nanzig neben Nancy, Atrecht neben Arras, Treves neben T r i e r , f a l l e n nicht unter den eigentlichen Ortsnamenausgleich und werden hier deshalb nicht beriicksichtigt. " Volkserbe, p. 718. 1 5 6 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 718. 157 P e t r i , Volkserbe, see note No. 5, p. 727. 158 i b i d . , p. 728. F. Lot. De l ' o r i g i n e et de l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n historique. .et l i n g u i s t i q u c des noms de lieux; en - v i l l e et ••on --court. Romania,:; ,59 (1933) . 94 159 "...als Richtsatz fiir die Anzahl der Ausgleichungen..." Volkserbe, p. 756. 160 cp. c i t . , Longnon agrees that i t was the Franks not the Gallo-Romans who formed these -acus, -1acus names: "... et les Francs, l o r s q u ' i l s voulurent donner leurs noms aux proprietes q u ' i l s possedaient, combinerent ces noms avec le groupe -iacus." Longnon p. 83, § 243. 161 Lot i n his a r t i c l e on the compositions i n -court and - v i l l e puts l i t t l e f a i t h i n the evidence furnished by excavated v tombs because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n distinguishing between Frankish and Gallo-Roman: "A moins d'admettre que les Gallo-Romains ne mouraient pas, i l faut se resigner a accepter que Francs et indigenes suivaient les memes r i t e s de sepulture, car tous les cimetieres qu'on peut assigner a 1"ere merovingienne sont ' 'barbares' ". Lot, p. 204. 162 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 853. 16 3 To what degree did these two branches take part i n ~ \ colonisation? P e t r i admits the uncertainty incumbent upon such an enquiry: "UngewiB i s t auch der A n t e i l , den jede von beiden Gruppen von der Landnahme gehabt hat." Volkserbe, p. 871. 164 Volkserbe, p. 816. 1 6 5 i b i d . , p. 987. 166 F. P e t r i , Das zeugnis der Ortsnamen. Ertrage der Forschung. Darmstadt Bericht I, p. 32. i b i d . , p. 33. J . Johnson, Etude sur les noms de- l i e u dans' lesquels entrent les- elements -court,- - v i l l e e t — v i l l i e r s . P a r i s , 1946. 169 Here are the three grounds for overthrowing t h i s hypothes (1) The G a l l i c tongue did not exhibit this syntax to a s u f f i c i e n t degree. '.(2) It i s unlikely that the G a l l i c place-name types would have persisted unaltered through the Roman period. (3) The strength of the G a l l i c place-name types i s not strong enough to create the very numerous place-names with Germanic epithets. i b i d . , p . 38. 170 F. P e t r i , "Das Zeugnis der Orts-und Personennamen", Ertrage der Forschung, Bericht I I , p. 140. 1 7 1 i b i d . , p. 141 172 loc. c i t . 173 'Diejenige Kategorie frankischer Namen, an der die groBe Neuuberpriif ung der frankischen Sprach und Siedlungs-geschichte im letzten halben Jahrhundert so gut wie voriiberge-gangen war und die infolgedessen auch i n der bisherzen Diskussion nur eine ganz untergeordnete Rolle gespielt hat, waren bis vor kurzem die Personennamen.1 p. 151, Bericht I I . 174 175 176 177 178 p. 11. Das Zeugnis der Orts und Personennamen, p. 15 3. Volkserbe, p. 9 89. loc . c i t . Volkserbe, p. 998. A. Dauzat, La Toponymie frangais, (Paris: Payot, 1939 ) 179 After the 5th century the unvoiced i n t e r v o c a l i c consonants were voiced, i e : Pradellos i s the French name of this place, Pradels i s the corresponding Flemish form, whilst P r a t e l l o s i s the older Latin form which demonstrates the unvoiced state of the i n t e r v o c a l i c " t " . Gamillscheg has taken this place-name from the departement of Nord. 180 Walther von Wartburg, "Die frankische Siedlung i n Nord-frankreich im Spiegel der Ortsnamen." Z e i t s c h r i f t fur romanische  Ph i l o l o g i e , LIX, 19 39, p. 284. i b i d . , p. 285. 1 8 2 i b i d . , p. 399-"I Q O i b i d . , p. VI, Vorwort. 184 Walther von Wartburg, Die Frankische Siedlung, p. 2 85. 185 Ernst Gamillscheg, Romania Germanica, p. 210, 186 Dauzat, Toponymie, p. 32. J 1 8 7 Lot, p. 199. 188 "Pour nous t e n i r a 1'expose de Longnon, i l implique que les l o c a l i t e s en -court, ou en partie en - v i l l e , doivent leur origine et leur nom aux Germains qui se sont empares de l a Gaule, plus particulierement aux Francs." Lot, p. 201. "*"8^ i b i d . , p. 202. 190 . , 191 , loc. " c i t . 97 192 B o t h D a u z a t a n d G r o h l e r m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e f o r m a t i o n w a s p r e v a l e n t i n R o m a n t i m e s : " N u l n e c o n t e s t e q u e l e s n o m s d e l i e u x e n - v i l l e n ' a i e n t e t e f o r m e s e n m i l i e u r o m a n . " D a u z a t , T o p o n y m i e , p . 53: " V e r e i n z e l t i s t d i e s e r G e b r a u c h i m R e i c h e s c h o n e r h e b l i c h f r i i h e r f e s t z u s t e l l e n . " G r o h l e r c i t e s a n e x a m p l e a t t e s t e d i n M a u r e t a n i a , n a m e l y ; o v l r ^ c ) . G r o h l e r , p . 32. 19 3 19 4 19 5 19 6 1 9 7 1 9 8 L o t , y , p . 218. i b i d . , p . 220. i b i d . , p . 238. i b i d . , p . 246 . l o c . c i t . L u c i e n M u s s e t , L e s i n v a s i o n s : L e s v a g u e s g e r m a n i q u e s . P a r i s : P r e s s e s U n i v . 1 9 6 5 , p . 2 5 9 . 1 9 9 J . H u b s c h m i d , " Z u r O r t s n a m e n k u n d e B e l g i e n s u n d a n g r e n z e n d e r v o m - g e r m . G e b i e t e " Z t s c h r f t f . r o m . P h i l . L X X I X f f i ( 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 3 4 5 . 2 0 0 . , ~ . A r  l b i d . , p . 3 4 6 . 2 0 1 o n , i b i d . , p . 3 9 6 . 2 0 2 J . A d i g a r d d e s G a u t r i e s . " L ' a n t h r o p o n y m i e g e r m a n i q u e c o n t i n e n t a l e d a n s l ' a n c i e n n e G a u l e d u V I e a u V I I s s i e c l e . " E t u d e s g e r m a n i q u e s . P a r i s : J a n u a r y - M a r c h 19 6 9 , p . 8 5 . 2 0 3 A d i g a r d d e s G a u t r i e s , p . 8 5 . 2 0 4 P a u l L e v y , L a L a n g u e a l l e m a n d e e n F r a n c e , ( L y o n : 1 9 5 0 ) , p . 3 . 2 0 5 T h e o b s t a c l e t h e s i s ( F o r e t c h a r b o n n i e r e a n d ' l i m e s 98 belgicus ' X as well as the 'line of retreat' theory are shown to be less than s a t i s f a c t o r y i n explaining the position of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . 206 Odet Pe r r i n , Les Burgondes, (Neuchatel: 1968) , p. 384. II. Germanic Elements i n French Place Names A. Germanic Complement and Romance/Gallo-Roman Determinative In order to analyse the extent and meaning of Germanic influence, and p a r t i c u l a r l y of settlement, i n G a l l i a Romana only "lieux habites" w i l l be examined. There e x i s t numerous methods of arrangement from Longnon's ethnic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s according to t r i b a l a f f i l i a t i o n ("origine saxonne, origine burgonde") to -those of Charles Rostaing and Paul Levy which are more of a l i n g u i s t i c nature classing toponyms after t h e i r formation ( i . e . : "derives d 1anthroponymes" or "app e l l a t i f s " ) and f i n a l l y to Vincent's thematic categories ("la nature, l'homme"). The following, uncomplicated approach appears to best s u i t the heterogeneous stock of Germanic toponyms. These comprehensive c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be employed i n t h i s study: a) Germanic complement and Romance/Gallo-Roman determinative, b) Germanic complement and Germanic determinative, c) Germanic simple names, d) Germano-Romance place-names composed of 3 elements. In addition, smaller d i v i s i o n s w i l l be encountered under these global t i t l e s as circumstances require. The actual examination i s meant both to delve into the 'problems', the many often contra-dictory hypotheses regarding o r i g i n and evolution, and to say 20 something about the significance to French history and toponymy. This can be achieved by r e f e r r i n g to what has been stated by various s p e c i a l i s t s , discussing cer t a i n i l l u s t r a t i v e toponyms and by a consideration of maps d e t a i l i n g the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r place-name types. 100 It i s appropriate to s t a r t t h i s study with the largest of a l l the categories i n terms of the specimens avai l a b l e , that i s , those hybrid formations with a Germanic stem and a Romance ending. One should scarcely be surprised that t h i s group i s the most numerically strong because the Germans, though conquerors, set t l e d a land whose population remained largely Gallo-Roman. Paul Levy refers to the extremely high incidence of such "cross-bred" names in these terms: " I l s sont aussi extremement repandus; dans quelques parties de l a France, i l s forment l a .base de toute 208 l a toponymie". In general the type of place-names which appertain to t h i s category combine a Germanic personal name with a Romance/Gallo-Roman ending, either an appellative or a s u f f i x . In view of the great variety of anthroponyms i t i s expedient to arrange the names afte r t h e i r endings. The following Romance/ Gallo-Roman endings figure prominently i n these composite formations: the appellatives c o r t i s , v i l l a ; the Gallo-Roman fle x i o n -(i)acum; as well as an' extended series of rather less frequent Romance appellatives such as boscus, campus, fossa, exsartum, fons, v a l l i s , vadum, mansus, etc. As the - (i)acum toponyms are both frequent and quite ancient i n terms of the Teutonic occupation of G a l l i a , l e t us examine them f i r s t . Most s p e c i a l i s t s agree that the names formed from a Germanic anthroponym and -(1)acum or i t s feminine p l u r a l counterpart -iacas, date from the e a r l i e s t period of the Germanic invasions. 209 Dauzat takes them back to the 5th century. The l o g i c a l explanation for t h i s hybridisation i s that the German s e t t l e r s were too few i n the early stages of the occupation to force t h e i r idiom on the natives. Thus these names are testimonials to the 101 m a r r i a g e o f t w o r i v a l c u l t u r e s . T h e s e h y b r i d , d e r i v e d p l a c e -n a m e s o c c u r , n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e n o r t h a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n ^ p o r t i o n s o f F r a n c e w h e r e G e r m a n i c s e t t l e m e n t i s k n o w n t o h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t c o n c e n t r a t e d . L o n g n o n a f f i r m s t h a t t h e - ( i ) a c u m n a m e s a r e f o u n d e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e g i o n s c o l o n i s e d b y t h e F r a n k s : " . . . i l s p a r a i s s e n t s u r t o u t d a n s l e s p a y s c o l o n i s e s 210 p a r l e s F r a n c s s o i t e n B e l g i q u e o u d a n s l a F r a n c e d u n o r d - e s t " D e s p i t e t h e s e a f f i r m a t i o n s i t i s h a z a r d o u s t o a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x t e n t o f c o l o n i s a t i o n b y m e a n s o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f c e r t a i n p l a c e - n a m e - t y p e s a l o n e , d u e t o t h e w i d e - s p r e a d a d o p t i o n o f G e r m a n i c p e r s o n a l n a m e s b y t h e i n d i g e n o u s p o p u l a t i o n a t a l a t e r d a t e . B u t i t a f f o r d s a f a i r l y g o o d i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e o f G e r m a n i c s e t t l e m e n t , w h e n c o o r d i n a t e d w i t h a r c h e o l o g i c a l o r o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l e v i d e n c e . C e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l p r o b l e m s o b l i g e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s e t h i m s e l f r e a l i s t i c g o a l s . T h e o r i g i n a l f o r m o f t h e p r o l i f i c ( i ) a c u m s u f f i x w a s t h e G a l l i c - a c u m , w h i c h , a f t e r t h e R o m a n c o n q u e s t , w a s e m p l o y e d i n t o p o n y m s w i t h v a r i o u s L a t i n p a t r o n y m i c s i n - i u s , i . e . : P a u l i ' ( u s ) + - a c u m = P a u l i a c u m . D u e t o t h e a b u n d a n t u s e o f p a t r o n y m i c s i n s u c h t o p o n y m s t h e G e r m a n s , i g n o r a n t o f L a t i n a c c i d e n c e , s i m p l y 211 t a c k e d t h e - i - o n t o t h e e n d i n g t o c r e a t e a n e w f o r m - ( 1 ) a c u m . T h e n t h r o u g h t i m e a n d d u e t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r e g i o n a l f o r m s o f s p e e c h - a c u m / - ( i ) a c u m h a v e u n d e r g o n e p h o n e t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e a l s o b e c o m e f i x e d . i n t h e o r t h o g r a p h y . F o r e x a m p l e i n m u c h o f t h e " l a n g u e d ' o i l " t e r r i t o r y - a c u m b e c o m e s -ay_ w h i l s t i n t h e z o n e o f t h e " l a n g u e d ' o c " i t b e c o m e s - a c o r - a t . V i n c e n t p o i n t s o u t t h a t , w i t h t i m e , t h e p h o n e t i c v a r i a t i o n s s t a b i l i s e d a l o n g r e g i o n a l l i n e s i n m o r e o r l e s s s t a n d a r d " g r a p h i e s " : " L ' e v a l u a t i o n 102 de ce suffi x e a donne des terminaisons assez diverses, dont l a 212 graphie a eu une tendance a s'unitormiser regionalement..." To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s type of toponym certain names representative of the d i f f e r e n t forms of -acum/-(i)acum have been culled from an extensive l i s t of some 289 such names compiled p r i n c i p a l l y from a survey of Dauzat and Rostaing 1s Dictionnaire des noms de  lieux de France. It should be noted that the information on the Germanic anthroponyms has been v e r i f i e d i n Marie-Therese Morlet's Les noms de personne sur l e t e r r i t o i r e de l'ancienne Gaule. Where the documented form(s) given are not i n Morlet's work this i s indicated i n parentheses. The examples c i t e d are not merely l i s t e d but are complemented by additional etymological information to explain the o r i g i n a l composition, early forms where documented, and the locations expressed i n terms of "departements". A map demonstrating the general geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s place-name type throughout France offers a means of ascertaining r e l a t i v e density at a glance. Beginning with the -acum examples, one finds Germanic anthro-ponyms combined with these regional variants: -acum ^  -ai(s)/-ay, forms peculiar to "langue d ' o i l " t e r r i t o r y ; -acum ^ - a c h , the germanised form of Alsace and French Flanders; -acum^-e, a form found mainly north of the Loire; -acum ^  -gc/-at, the only t r u l y southern forms occurring through most of southern France. Since th i s study i s concerned foremost with the Germanic element the place-names have been l i s t e d alphabetically after the appropriate anthroponym. Assuin (a form of Ansuinus p. 39 Morlet; from ans- "divinte paienne,idole" and wini- "ami"): Assenay (Aube) Ascenaium 1152-80; Athana (not i n Morlet): A i n a y - l e - V i e i l (Cher) 103 Athanaco Vth 8.) Audesid (Audesindus p. 44; from aud- " r i c h e s s e , p r o s p e r i t e " and s i n d - "chemin, voyage"): Auxais (Manche) no e a r l y form(s). Baro (prob. a h y p o c o r i s t i c form of ber- p. 53): Bayac (Saone et L o i r e ) * Baronacum ( h y p o t h e t i c a l ~ r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ) ; Haribod (not i n I4orlet; but h a r i - "epee" and "bod- "messager"): Harboue (Meurthe ..et Moselle) Harbouey 1245, Herboye X I H t h c. ; 213 Maurinus (from Latino-Germanic h y b r i d root maur- p. 168): Moernach (Haut Rhin) de Muornache 1230; Munderin (not i n Morlet; mund- " p r o t e c t i o n " p. 170) : Montenach (Moselle) Mondelar X l t h perhaps Mund- + - l a r , " c l e a r i n g " , Mondern 1403, Mondernacken 1407; S a l i s a (prob. der i v e d from s a l - "maison" p. 194): Saussignac (Dordogne) Saussignac 1053; Suabo (Swabo or Suavo from svaba-" l e peuple souabe- p . 204); Zuoafques ( P a s d e c ) Suavekes c. 1115, Suavaca 1200, Swaveque 1434, Zouafque 1698; V a l d i n . (Waldinus p. 214; from Wald- "gouverner, commander"): Vadenary (Marne) Vaudensis v i l l a c. 1066. With -( i j acum the s u f f i x created and most,extensively used by the Germans, there are a number of a l t e r n a t e "graphies" dependent upon the r e g i o n : - (1) acum} - e_, t h i s s u f f i x occurs e s p e c i a l l y i n Poitou and Saintonge (Longnon, p. 85 §279); -(1)acum - i / - y , f r e q u e n t l y found i n the north and northwest; -(1)acum^-ey, encountered i n the northeastern provinces of L o r r a i n e , Franche-214 v Comte, Burgundy and p a r t s of Champagne, -(1)acum >^ -ac, as w i t h -acum, t h i s transformation occurs i n the south; r (l)'a'cum ^ ~ i e u ( x ) , found i n the areas along the Rhone e s p e c i a l l y i n the departements L o i r e , Rhone, A i n , Haute Savoie, Isere and Savoie (Vincent, p. 71 §177). Once again the examples are l i s t e d a f t e r the Germanic personal name: Betto (p. 57; from b e r t - " i l l u s t r e , 104 b r i l l a n t " )•: Betheny (Marne) Beteneium Xlth c. ; Buni (Buno p. 62; from bu/bun- "habiter"): Bignac (Charente) de Bugnaco 1293; Frizzoy (prob. a hypocoristic form of f r i s - "le peuple f r i s e " p. 94): Froissy (Oise) Frissiacum 1130; Salumar (doubtless derived from the root s a l - "maison" p. 194): Serinerieu (Isere) Salmaireu X l l l t h c ; Suint/Suwend-i (Swind- " f o r t , puissant", p. 205): Souance (Eure et Loire) Sucenci C. 1128, Suentheium 1141; Toarwart (not l i s t e d i n Morlet; prob. a combination of thiot-/deod- "peuple" and ward- "gardien"): Thouarce (Maine et Loire) Toarciacus Xlth C ; Warin (Warinus, p. 219; from wara-"protection"): Varney (Meuse) Varney 12 89; W a t i l i (prob. Wazili p. 212; from wad- "gage, engagement"): V a t i l i e u (Isere) de Vatilevo Xlth C , de V a t i l i a c o X l l l t h C. It i s worth l i s t i n g a few other ^graphies" which occur rather r a r e l y both i n a general sense and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n combination with Germanic anthro-ponyms: -acum ^ -et - Bezenet ( A l l i e r ) from Bisenus (from Biso p. 57); - (i) acum y - ler/'-er - S c i e n t r i e r (Haute Savoie) from Sinthar (Sindharius p. 201; sind- "voyage, chemin" and h a r i -"epee); MeSanger (Loire Atlantique) from Maso. A feminine p l u r a l form -lacas occurs i n a very r e s t r i c t e d geographical area, namely, i n the province of Picardy. The toponyms occur under the forms - l e s , or more seldom, -ee: Aanelee (Nord) no early forms, from A l i o (p. 28; a l a - "tout"); Ramousies (Nord) Ramulgeias 965, from Ramold (Ramoldus p. 135; hram- "corbeau" and aid- "vieux"). F i n a l l y , i f one consults the map of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of -acum/-(i)acum (v. f i g . 1 "The names i n -acum/-(1)acum") i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the largest concentrations occur 105 north and east of the L o i r e roughly corresponding to the known areas of Teutonic occupation and i n f l u e n c e . Moreover the p o i n t of maximum den s i t y , f a l l s i n t o the north-western edge of the map embracing the departements Pas de C a l a i s , Nord and A i s n e . This accords g e n e r a l l y w i t h the i n s e t map of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of -iacum 21 S names furni s h e d by Charles Rostaing i n h i s Noms de l i e u x . Also one remarks the s i z e a b l e number of such place-name specimens which occur w i t h i n the confines of the ancient kingdoms of Burgundy (o u t l i n e d c l e a r l y on the map) which agrees to some extent at l e a s t w i t h the research of T.Perrenot on the toponymy of Burgundy who s t a t e d : "Ce mode de formation semble a v o i r p r i s beaucoup d'extension dans 1 ' a n c i e n n e B u r g o n d i e " (La toponymie burgonde, p. 251). This holds true p r i n c i p a l l y f o r the northern and middle p o r t i o n s of the vast t e r r i t o r y then under Burgundian r u l e ( t i l l 534 AD.). However, i n view of the t o t a l number of toponyms recorded t h i s c l a i m seems to have been somewhat exaggerated. Out 2 of 289 toponyms 50, that i s but .43 x 1000 km i n r e l a t i o n to the 2 huge area of 114, 509 km , are a c t u a l l y included i n the bounds of ancient Burgundy w h i l s t i n the smaller zone formed by the north-western departements A i s n e , Nord and Pas de C a l a i s there are 73 2 2 names i n an area of 19,755 km or 3.7 x 1000 km , obviously a considerably greater d e n s i t y . These are j u s t a few observations t h a t one could make on the b a s i s of the data provided by the map. There are some other Romance and Gallo-Roman "formatives which combine wi t h Germanic elements, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h personal names. These have a much more r e s t r i c t e d usage than t h a t enjoyed by -(1)acum. I t w i l l s u f f i c e t o l i s t them and to provide some fig 1 ffiie uattteg lit ~acum]^ )ftruftt I V o » 4 c 106 ~9 Haitte:5 -tt-H-c » » * 4--U4M-42 t frwm&of indent H99 itittt** total 107 appropriate toponyms to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r usage: *ialo., t h i s G a l l i c s u f f i x i s sometimes regarded as a substantive (v. Vincent p. 92 §212): Baneuil (Dordogne) -Banno + i a l o ; - (i)onem: Baon (Yonne) -Bado + -onem; -anum? Baudignan (Landes) Baldin + -anum; -inum: Berthen (Nord) Berto + -inum; -ensem: Berthez (Gironde) Berto + -ensem; - a r i a : Guitinleres (Char. Mar.) Wittin + - a r i a ; -etum: Houssay (Loire et Cher) h u l i s "houx" + -etum; -iscum:> Jaudrais (Eure et Loire) Gauthar + -iscum; -onis: Malbouzon (Lozere) Malbodo + -onis; -oscum: Onoz (Jura) Hago + -oscum; -osum: Rampoux (Lot) rampa "croc, g r i f f e " + -osum; and f i n a l l y G a l l i c -avum: Vanault - l e -Chatel (Marne) Wango + -one + -avum. This l i s t makes np claim to completeness but i t does provide one with a b r i e f overview of some of the less widely used Latin/Gallo-Roman suffixes which may be found united with Germanic elements. 108 FOOTNOTES A. Germanic Complement and Romance/Gallo-Roman Determinative 207 As the abbe Negre declares: "II est interessant de voir les divers degres de 1'influence germanique sur l a toponymie, suivant les regions et suivant les differentes categories de noms de lie u x . " Les noms de lieux en France, p. 96 2 08 Paul Levy, La Langue Allemande en France, p. 22. 209 Dauzat, p. 114. 2 1 0 Longnon, p. 89 § 248. 211 Paul Lebel ascribes t h i s creation to the Germans' misunderstanding of Latin (p. 53). However, Vincent believes that -lacum had been employed as a toponymic ending already i n Roman times: "Enfin, i l est probable que l'on a employe des l'epoque romaine au l i e u de -acus, un suffixe -iacus dSgage des nombreux noms de lieux ou l ' i appartenait au g e n t i l i c e . " , p. 70 §175. 212 Vincent, p. 71 §177. 213 Grohler, p. 336. 214 ^ Vincent l i m i t s t h e i r southward extent to the departements Doubs, Jura, and eastern Saone et Loire (p. 71 §177). The research undertaken for the d i s t r i b u t i o n map supports both the view of Longnon and of Vincent. Longnon, p. 85 §277. Rostaing, p. 65. Gysseling, p. 5. 109 B. Germanic Complement and Germanic Determinative , Let us pass onto the compound names formed by the union of an anthroponym w i t h an a p p e l l a t i v e . There i s q u i t e a number but t h i s study w i l l f i r s t consider the ancient and widely employed L a t i n settlement name - c o r t i s . This progression from d e r i v a t i o n a l to compound place-names corresponds to the general tendencies of toponymie formation i t s e l f as M. G ysseling observed: "Een van de groote tendensen i n de geschiedenis van de plaatsnamen i n onze gewesteri i s dat man g e l e i d e l i j k overgaat van a f l e i d i n g e n 216 naar samenstellingen". As these l i n g u i s t i c changes were t a k i n g p l a c e , the d e r i v a t i v e -acum was g r a d u a l l y superseded i n toponymie formations by - c o r t i s (Grohler, p. 29). The a p p e l l a t i v e - c o r t i s or - c u r t i s d e r i v e s from the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n cohors, c o h o r t i s and i t s meaning evolved from the "courtyard of 217 a farm' to ' r u r a l domain' by the time of the Merovinian dynasty. By a "pars para t o t o " extension - c o r t i s e v e n t u a l l y s i g n i f i e d not only the farm i t s e l f but a l l the surrounding h a b i t a t i o n s and so became a synonym f o r ' v i l l a g e 1 . I t i s i n t h i s l a t t e r sense that - c o r t i s f i g u r e s i n a l a r g e number of French toponyms north of the L o i r e . Several d i f f e r e n t , sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g , hypotheses attempt to e x p l a i n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these Germano-Romance toponyms to French h i s t o r y and toponymy. According to Longnon the Germans p r e f e r r e d - c o r t i s to - v i l l a which would seem to account f o r the r a t h e r r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of such names to areas g e n e r a l l y 110 held to have received the strongest Germanic influence. Thus he tends to view such names as gauges of both the degree of Germanic influence on G a l l i a Romana and t h e i r settlement. In t h i s way Longnon t r i e s to e s t a b l i s h a p a r a l l e l between the incidence of - c o r t i s names i n Maine and archaeological evidence to prove the existence of an " i l o t de population germanique" (p. 226 §927) . Both he and Albert Dauzat ascribed such formations to the theory that German landlords lent t h e i r names to t h e i r new farms or estates ("Herrensiedlungstheorie"). P e t r i tends to view the -court, - v i l l a type names not so much as evidence of Germanic colonisation as of l a t e r medieval r u r a l expansion and the ex-panding Germanic influence on the language of the inhabitants of northern G a l l i a " . . . i c h habe mich entschieden..., daB die franzosischen Namen i n erster L i n i e als Zeugnisse fruhmittel- • a l t e r l i c h e r Ausbausiedlung sind, i n denen zwar der frankischer SpracheeinfluB besonders s i n n f a l l i g i n Erscheinung t r i t t und die deshalb eines der wichtigsten sprachlichen Zeugnisse dafiir bilden wie weitgehend germanische Sprachgewohnheiten damals 218 auch bei den romanischen Massen Eingang gefunden hatten..." Unlike Longnon, P e t r i does not attempt to demonstrate any p a r a l l e l between geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of these "Weilernamen", s e t t l e -ment names, and the elusive phenomenon of the Germanic "Land-nahme" i n G a l l i a . Furthermore i n his Volkserbe P e t r i refutes both the Grober-Schiber theory that - v i l l a and -court were ch a r a c t e r i s t i c of Germanic "Herrensiedlung" (cf. Dauzat, Longnon), mere r e f l e c t i o n s of the settlement of German a g r i c u l t u r a l overlords, and the untenable notion that the manner of formation i s e s s e n t i a l l y Germanic. He maintains that t h i s i s f a l s e since the I l l majority of the population was Gallo-Roman and that they were necessarily responsible for the creation of these names. The creation was due rather to the changed l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n , the change i n popular speech from Latin to French which Walther v. Wartburg described thus: "Franzosisch i s t also eine durch die Franken und i n ihrem Munde geschaffenen Sonderform des 219 Romanischen". Equally circumspect towards the complex question of the significance of the -court, - v i l l a names are Charles Rostaing and Ferdinand Lot. Indeed the l a t t e r scholar i n his i n s i g h t f u l , systematic treatment of these names elaborates on the danger of employing them as a medium for advancing theories on settlement: ."II est done plus sage de renoncer a t i r e r des noms de l o c a l i t e s en -cour et - v i l l e r i e n de "precieux", 220 quoiqu'on dise, sur l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des races sur notre s o l " . 221 Instead he, l i k e Rostaing i n Les noms de lieux, holds that the autochtonous inhabitants created these place-names u t i l i s i n g Germanic personal names which were either those of foreign over-lords or more l i k e l y of Gallo-Romans who had adopted such names: "L 1 e x p l i c a t i o n , qui evite cette d i f f i c u l t e , c'est que l a formation nouvelle en - v i l l e et en -cour est le f a i t des populations romanes elles-memes. Ces mots ayant p r i s le sens de 'domaine' les paysans les accolent au nom de leur seigneur et p r o p r i e t a i r e . Et s i ce nom est le plus souvent germanique c'est parce que, depuis l a seconde moitie du VI s i e c l e , l a mode a ete 222 aux noms de personnes germaniques". This c e r t a i n l y appears to be the most cogent and persuasive of the theories outlined. Whatever the truth may be as to the basis of the creation of the 112 - c o r t i s names they merit attention since they o f f e r a large source of p a r t i a l l y Germanic toponyms and an astonishingly r e s t r i c t e d zone of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n . Although toponymic research tends to group the - v i l l a / - c o r t i s names together because of convenience and because they are both habitative names which occur frequently with Germanic anthro-ponyms, t h i s study w i l l analyse them separately in order to provide a more d i s t i n c t , detailed view both concerning the theories on o r i g i n and evolution and the toponymic examples peculiar to each type. One should note that two systems of sy n t a c t i c a l composition characterised the settlement names. The most common composition follows the model anthroponym + - c o r t i s whilst the other system places the determinative before the complement,i.e.: c o r t i s + anthroponym. Both methods of compo-s i t i o n w i l l be discussed and i l l u s t r a t e d by appropriate toponyms. The f i r s t group of - c o r t i s toponyms to be examined w i l l be those exhibiting the complement + determinative syntax. Undeniably these represent the numerically strongest group. Moreover research has shown that such formations are more ancient than those i n which 223 c o r t i s precedes the determinative. Longnon espouses the "two current theory" which divides the c o r t i s type names into a Germanic and a Romance current according to the word order. But the issue of syntax i s much more complex. Toponymists do not appear able to agree as to the significance of t h i s syntax of such a Germanic aspect. The Germanic word-order i s thought by Longnon to stem from the "Herrensiedlung" and the influence of the 224 Teutonic idiom. S t i l l others f e e l that t h i s non-Romance syntax might be a continuation of a G a l l i c method of formation 113 (v. p. 37, P e t r i ' s Z.d.0.) Though P e t r i and Lot both attack the "Herrensiedlung" theory as untenable because i t i s impossible to prove t h a t the Germanic anthroponyms were given by the Barbarians or the n a t i v e s , the l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n Cto the zone of former Frankish dominion), the frequency of conbination w i t h Germanic anthroponyms and the r e l a t i v e a n t i q u i t y of these names do suggest some Germanic i n f l u e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g toponyms exemplify the formation complement + determinative. They are found mainly i n the north and northeast from the Seine to the f r o n t i e r s of France. Most names seem to 225 be concentrated i n the A r t o i s - P i c a r d y and Lo r r a i n e areas. Concerning the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s place-name type i t should be noted t h a t the Germanic anthroponym i s d e c l i n e d w i t h the Romance 226 "cas oblique" ending -one. There i s a large number of d i f f e r e n t anthroponyms employed i n these combinations but there i s but one orthographic form of - c o r t i s v i z . - c o u r t . A l l examples have been arranged a f t e r the o r i g i n a l form of the Germanic anthro-ponym i n each case: Adda (p. 19 from a d a l - "noble" M o r l e t ) : Adaincourt (Moselle) Daincourt 1316, Adeincourt 1421) B e r t a l d (Bertaldus p. 56, from b e r t - " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " and a l d -" v i e u x " ) : La Bertancourt (Meuse) Bertaldo c u r t i s 754, Bertancourt 1271, Bertancourt 1745; Dagino (Daginus p. 64; from dag- " j o u r " ) : Dancourt (Seine Mar.) Daencourt 1135 (Somme); Ebbo (p. 78; a h y p o c o r i s t i c form of ebur- " s a n g l i e r " ) : Ippecourt (Meuse) Eppone curte 709, Espeia c u r t i s 1049, E p e i c u r t 1141; Guma (Gommo p. 116; guma- "homme"): Gomecourt (Pas de C a l a i s ) Gumincurz 1104, Gummecurt 1135; Gundo "(p. 118; from gund- " l u t t e , combat"): 114 Contescourt (Aisne) Gundescourt 1123; Huno ( p. 140; from hun-" f o r c e " ) : Noncourt (Vosges) de Hunocurta c. 1107; O l f r e d (probably A l t f r i d u s p. 30; from a i d - "vieux" and f r i d - " p a i x " ) : O f f r o i c o u r t (Vosges) de Olfredocurte c. 950; Romulf (Romolf p. 191; from rum-" g l o i r e " and wulf- " l o u p " ) : Remoncourt (Meurthe et Moselle) Remuncort 1162, (Vosges) Romulficurt Xth c. ; Wandelin '(Wandelinus p. 217; from wand-/wandel- "changer"): V a n d e l i c o u r t (Pise) Baldane c o r t i s 69 3 Balda was replaced by Wandelin. A l l these examples conform to the Germanic schema (cf. anthroponym + determinative = A l b e r s d o r f , Schleswig-Holstein) which tempts one to a t t r i b u t e t h e i r c r e a t i o n to a German i n f l u e n c e . However, as has already been noted a s u p e r f i c i a l judgement un-supported by h i s t o r i c a l evidence i s hazardous since - c o r t i s as a toponymic element has been continuously employed from the Roman 227 p e r i o d . Furthermore the great s y n t a c t i c a l f l e x i b i l i t y of L a t i n i s expressed too i n the composition of place-names thus enabling the co-existence of the two systems of formation: - c o r t i s , c o r t i s - . This f a c t complicates f u r t h e r the task of a s c e r t a i n i n g the o r i g i n and s i g n i f i c a n c e of these names. Un l i k e the toponyms e x h i b i t i n g the pseudo-Germanic composition those i n which the determinative c o r t i s - precedes the complement do not present a problem since they are almost unanimously regarded as purely Romance c r e a t i o n s . These are viewed as c o n t i n u i n g the employment of -cort1s i n the same manner as t h a t p r i o r to the Teutonic invasions except that the Romance anthroponyms are g r a d u a l l y replaced by Germanic ones. The abbe Negre confirms the unequivocal view held by many s p e c i a l i s t s on t h i s mode of formation and he e x p l a i n s i t s e v o l u t i o n thus: "A l e u r s u j e t tout 115 le monde est d'accord: i l s sont l'oeuvre d'une population romane. I l est probable que c e l l e - c i n'avait jamais cesse de creer des noms de lieux a l a maniere romane, d'abord avec des noms de 22 8 personne romains, puis avec des noms germaniques..." Though the toponyms c i t e d below a l l contain a Germanic personal name, the appearance i s much more Romance: "...d'aspect moins 229 Germanique et plus conforme a 1'esprit de l a langue francaise" The age of such toponyms combined with Germanic anthroponyms i s generally judged to be considerably more recent than those displaying the "Germanic" syntax. Whereas the apogee of the - c o r t i s names with a Germanic aspect was between the V l l t h and 230 V l l l t h centuries, those of a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c Romance appearance flourished beginning i n the V l l l t h century and reaching the peak of t h e i r popularity i n the IXth century. Interestingly the commencement of t h i s popularity coincides with the achievement of domination by the Germanic onomastic nomenclature i n G a l l i a Romana: "Au VIII s i e c l e enfin, l a nouvelle mode l ' a emporte 231 partout en Gaule." The geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the names with the Romance composition d i f f e r s substantially from that of the previous kind. Rather than being concentrated i n the northwest and northeast of France, these toponyms are strongly represented i n central Champagne, 232 parts of Burgundy and the Jura region. Another point of divergence between the two methods of composition consists of various orthographic forms which - c o r t i s may take: court- or curt-, the former i s by far the most common form whilst the l a t t e r occurs primarily i n the departement Ain, cour-, cor-, co-, con— and com-. Here are some examples of hybrid toponyms containing 116 - c o r t i s i n the f i r s t p o s i t i o n : Acco (p. 22; from ag- "tranchant de l'epee"): Courtaeon (seine et Marne) also Courtecon (Aisne) Curtecon 1136; Bertold(Berataldus p. 56; from bert- " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " and aid- "vieux"): Courbetaux (Marne) cur i a Bertodi c. 1159; Bertr i c h (Bertricus p. 56; from bert i d . and r i c -"puissant"): Compertrix (Marne) B e r t r i c i c o r t i s 1028, de Courbertreio 1262; Francio (p. 92; from franc- "le peuple franc"): Confrangon (ain) curte Francione 997-1031; Frido (p. 94; from f r i d -"paix"): ; Curtafond (Ain) i n v i l l a Corte fredone 923-927, Cortefont 1249; Hago (Haco p. 120; from hag- "doture, maison"): Cohan (Aisne) Corhaon X H t h c , Cohaum 1174; Haimon (doubtless a hypocoristic form of halm- "maison, demeure" p. 121): Cortemont (Marne) Corteisius mons 1131-42, Curteimont 1180, cortoymont 1244; Lando (p. 157; from land- "terre, pays"): Coulandon ( A l l i e r ) Courlandon (Marne) c u r t i s Landonis 1146; Otmund (probably Odalmunt p. 175; from odal- "pays, p a t r i e " and munt- "protection"): Courtaumont (Marne) c u r t i s otmundi c. 850, Cortosmont 1209; Ricbert (Rigobertus p. 188; from r i c - "puissant" and bert- " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " ) ; Corribert (Marne) c u r t i s R i b e r t i 1147-1151. It i s quite revealing to consider the geographical d i s t r i -bution of the c o r t i s names both of the Romance and Germanic formations according to the maps compiled f o r - t h i s analysis (v. f i g . 2 "names i n -court"; f i g . 3. "names beginning with c o r t i s - " ) . Considering f i r s t the names with Germanic syntax we find a s o l i d b e l t of specimens, at least 10 per departement, which stretches from the English Channel i n the west to Alsace and the Vosges i n the east. The greatest part of the 4 81 specimens are 117 located north of the Seine. Indeed the compactness e x h i b i t e d i n t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s q u i t e s t r i k i n g because such r e g u l a r i t y i s r a r e l y found i n toponymy. In t h i s t h i c k b e l t one d i s c o v e r s the 2 zones of greatest d e n s i t y : Somme 9.7 x 1000 km , Meuse 7.9 x 2 2 1000 km , Haute Marne 6.8 x 1000 km , Meurthe et Moselle 6.5 x 2 1000 km . The d i s t r i b u t i o n f i g u r e s provided on the map ( f i g . 2) accord 'grosso modo' wit h the d i s t r i b u t i o n f u r n i s h e d by Dauzat, Rostaing and Longnon who a l l give L o r r a i n e ( i . e . : M o s e l l e , Meuse, Meurthe et Moselle, Vosges) as the province i n which the highest 233 concentration of such names occur. A look at the comparative d i s t r i b u t i o n f i g u r e s provided by Rostaing, P e t r i and myself, demonstrates t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , w h i l s t the i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s " v a r y , the ranks of the departements i n terms of the degree of concen-234 t r a t i o n remain constant. With regard to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of those toponyms i n which c o r t i s - i s the i n i t i a l element i t i s remarkable at the outset that the areas i n which the f i r s t category were p a r t i c u l a r l y abundant are devoid of names of the Romance formation. Neither the northwest nor the northeast o f f e r any such specimens. Both formations occur north of the L o i r e , t r a d i t i o n a l l y the l i m i t of Germanic i n f l u e n c e . Only Dauzat o f f e r s d e t a i l s on the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s formation. He c i t e s the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of Champagne, part of Burgundy and the southern Bernese J u r a as the zones of the highest incidence (p. 138). This information corresponds w e l l to the map ( f i g . 3) r e s u l t i n g from t h i s research study: c e n t r a l Champagne (approx. A i s n e , Marne, 2 Seine-et-Marne, Aube) contains 27 or 1.0 x 1000 km ; Burgundy and the Franche Comte ( i e : Haute Marne, Cote d'or, Haute Saone, 2 Doubs) contain 21 or .84 x 1000 km ; and i n the French J u r a area ffo & "JUatttfes h t - c o u r t l ~ c o r t i s ) i H 120 2 ( i e : J u r a , Ain) there are a mere 7 or .63 x 1000 km . To gain an idea of the proportionate s i g n i f i c a n c e of these f i g u r e s , one must r e l a t e them to a t o t a l of some 91 names of t h i s composition. The maximum den s i t y focuses on the departement of Cote d'Or i n 2 Burgundy which has 12 names or 1.4 x 1000 km . Another L a t i n a p p e l l a t i v e which f i g u r e s prominently i n t h i s category i s - v i l l a accompanied by i t s younger d e r i v a t i v e - v i l l a r e . L i k e the previous h a b i t a t i v e name, v i l l a was f i r s t employed i n toponymy under the Roman Empire, but the height o f - i t s ' p o p u l a r i t y 235 was only a t t a i n e d during the F r a n k i s h p e r i o d . F o l l o w i n g the Germanic invasions i n the Vth century - v i l l a began to occur combined w i t h Germanic personal names p r i n c i p a l l y i n northern G a l l i a where Frankish/German i n f l u e n c e was most i n t e n s e . Such compound toponyms o f f e r another example of c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c symbiosis. The semantic e v o l u t i o n of - v i l l a from the c l a s s i c a l L a t i n to the F r a n k i s h p e r i o d and High Middle Ages sheds l i g h t both on i t s h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c development and on i t s usage i n toponymy. In i t s c l a s s i c a l sense i t r e f e r r e d to the estate of a landowner together w i t h i t s surrounding dependent b u i l d i n g s or as Lewis and Short's A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y puts i t : "a country 236 house, country seat". Longnon and Vincent agree s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : the former e x p l a i n s t h a t v i l l a meant "une maison de campagne" i n the c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d which somewhat l a t e r , 2 3 7 through an extension, ..came to s i g n i f y "domaine r u r a l " - ; w h i l s t the l a t t e r a t t r i b u t e s two senses to i t s c l a s s i c a l usage: 23 8 " h a b i t a t i o n du maitre du domaine" or simply "domaine". However, the v i l l a s grew i n t o r u r a l agglomerations by the time of the 'grandes i n v a s i o n s ' or the High Middle Ages and t h e i r meaning 121 became the e q u i v a l e n t of " v i l l a g e " . Thus the sense of v i l l a was synonymous w i t h that of c o r t i s . A.E. V e r h u l s t , respected Flemish p h i l o l o g i s t , was convinced of the synonymous usage of these two L a t i n a p p e l l a t i v e s i n e a r l y medieval toponymy of G a l l i a Romana: "In andere ge v a l l e n echter wordt v i l l a g e b r u i k t a l s synoniem van c u r t i s , i n het b i j z o n d e r wanneer de c u r t i s het 239 gehele dorp met z i j n l a n d e r i j e n omvatte...". In i t s extended meaning v i l l a was widely used a f t e r the "Landnahme" to designate the domains or r u r a l p r o p e r t i e s which had been r e c e n t l y pioneered. The p o p u l a r i t y was so great t h a t i t , g r a d u a l l y supplanted some other toponymie elements such as the d e r i v a t i v e -acum which had h i t h e r t o been f r e q u e n t l y used: "C'est vers l a f i n du V e s i e c l e , apres une periode d'anarchie et d 1 i n v a s i o n que l e s composes en - v i l l a remplacerent l e s d e r i v e s en -acum pour nommer l e s nouveaux .. 240 domames . V i l l a r e i s a vulgar L a t i n a p p e l l a t i v e which d e r i v e s from v i l l a and s i g n i f i e s a s o r t of s u b - d i v i s i o n of the l a r g e r r u r a l domain. D i s s i m i l a r to i t s parent noun, v i l l a r e has not been a t t e s t e d i n the Roman per i o d and t h e r e f o r e appears to be a purely medieval c r e a t i o n . Since i t i n d i c a t e s o n l y a p o r t i o n of the 241 agglomeration of the v i l l a , i t s sense i s r e s t r i c t e d t o "hameau". In combination w i t h Germanic anthroponyms both v i l l a and v i l l a r e were productive i n French toponymy t i l l the IXth century and, i n some areas, as l a t e as the Xth century (Verhulst, p. 37). Although v i l l a r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a Romance c r e a t i o n , i t acquired such an acceptance amongst the neighbouring German speaking peoples that i t became part of t h e i r idiom as the common noun " - w e i l e r " , e s p e c i a l l frequent i n West Rhenish toponyms. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Longnon 122 explains that the Alemanni, a Germanic t r i b e s e t t l e d i n northeast G a l l i a , adopted the term as th e i r own: "Le mot v i l l a r e a ete adopte par les Alamans, l'une des nations germaniques qui, par raison de voisinage, ont ete le plus directement en contact avec 242 les populations romaines..." So v i l l a r e unlike the older v i l l a or even c o r t i s was incorporated as part of the toponymic nomenclature of both ethnic groups appearing widely d i s t r i b u t e d on both sides of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r . Concerning d i s t r i b u t i o n v i l l a and v i l l a r e are thought to be less h e l p f u l i n resolving the problem of Germanic settlement of G a l l i a than c o r t i s because they continued i n use t i l l the Xth century whilst the l a t t e r had already f a l l e n into disuse by the V IHth. Longnon therefore regards the toponyms formed with - c o r t i s to be better gauges of the extent, of settlement: "D'autre part, le mot v i l l a ayant forme des noms de l i e u , des le haut moyen age, dans les diverses regions de l a France, on ne saurait t i r e r de ces noms les renseignements precieux que fournissent, touchant l a d i s t r i b u t i o n des races sur notre s o l , les noms de l i e u dans l a 243 forme primitive desquels entre l e mot c o r t i s . This i s , however, not the case with the v i l l e names of Normandy which are numerous and are often combined with Scandinavian rather than Frankish anthroponyms. Those examples i n which the composition i s Scandinavian anthroponyms ,+:/villa o f f e r evidence of the r a c i a l character of either the inhabitants or the landlord since Gallo-244 Romans and Franks did not adopt Norse, personal names. The bulk of the v i l l a and v i l l a r e names occur i n the zone north of the Loire. On account of the high concentration of v i l l a toponyms i n Lorraine, Artois-Picardie and Beauce region around Paris, Rostaing 123 245 declares that they o f f e r "une a i r e f r a n c i q u e " . But of course they abound too i n the c o a s t a l departements of Normandy. V i l l a r e i s concentrated h e a v i l y i n the three northeastern departements which s t r a d d l e the l i n g u i s t i c border: M o s e l l e / Bas Rhln and Haut Rhin. In formation v i l l a and v i l l a r e f o l l o w c o r t i s , u n i t i n g w i t h a Germanic anthroponym which i s u s u a l l y i n the "cas ob l i q u e " . Moreover, they e x h i b i t e i t h e r the Romance or the Germanic system of composition. The place-names i n which the determinatives form the second element are i n d i s p u t a b l y the most numerous. C e r t a i n l y the vogue f o r the Romance type of formation, determinative + comple-246 ment, i s the more recent, having begun c.800 A.D., Place-names of the type Frankish or non-Scandinavian personal name + v i l l a are lo c a t e d l a r g e l y i n L o r r a i n e , Champagne and I l e -de-France. The f o l l o w i n g examples have been s e l e c t e d from these regions to i l l u s t r a t e t h i s formation. Throughout France the "graphic" v i l l e i s common but sometimes v e l l e , p e c u l i a r t o Champagne and the Franche Comte, may be found. They are organised according t o the Germanic elements i n v o l v e d : Abbewin (Abevinus p. 13; from abb- "homme" and w i n i - "ami"): A b a i n v i l l e (Meuse) A b u n i v i l l a 1151, A b i e n v i l l e 1318; B i s u i n i (obscure, probably from h y p o c o r i s t i c Biso -a d e r i v a t i v e b i d - "attendre, esperer" and w i n i "ami" p. 57): B e s i n v e l l e (Hte Saone) B i s u i l l e 1150, B e s i n v e l l e 1160, B i s i v i l l a 1179, B e s i u v e l l e 1212: Leobod (Leotbodus p. 159; l e u t - "peuple" and bod- "messager"): L e b e u v i l l e (Meurthe et Moselle) Leutbodi v i l l a 957, Liebodis v i l l a 1218, L y b e u v i l l e 1291, T h i l l o (not l i s t e d i n Morlet but propably d e r i v e d from d i l - / t i l -"bon, brave"p. 66) G l o n v i l l e (Meurthe et Moselle) D y l l o n v i l l e 1295, D e l o u v i l l e 1324; Winicho (winihho P- 2 2 7 7 front wind- "ami"): G e n n e v i i l a (Calvados) G u i n e q u e v i l l a 1215, G e n n e v i l l a 1257. In the f o l l o w i n g toponyms the personal names are recognised as being of Norse o r i g i n . Almost a l l such names occur i n Normandy. (Note: Therese Morlet's onomasticon does not cover Scandinavian anthro-ponyms) : Aka: A c q u e v i l l e (Calvados) A c h e v i l l a 1190, (Manche); H e l g i : H e r q u e v i l l e (Manche) H e l g e v i l l a 1156-72; M a l t i : M o t t e v i l l e (Seine-Maritime) M a l t e v i l l a 1059; Thor: T o u r v i l l e (Manche) T u r v i l l a 1112, (Seine Mar), (Eure); T h o r k e t i l l : Teurthevilla-Bocage (Manche) T o r q u e t e v i l l a 1180-2, Theurteville-Hague (Manche) T o r q u e t e v i l l a 1221. This example too combines w i t h a r e c o g n i s a b l y non-Frankish anthroponym and v i l l a : i t i s a name of V i s i g o t h i c o r i g i n and occurs i n an area h i s t o r i c a l l y viewed as one i n f l u e n c e d by the V i s i g o t h s : Leud-hari^Leutharius p. 160; from j e u t - "peuple" and h a r i - "epee"): Lauzervf H e (Hte Garonne) no e a r l y forms l i s t e d . These names i l l u s t r a t e a more Romance aspect v i z . where the a p p e l l a t i v e v i l l a precedes the complement. Although t h i s formation has been documented i n the Roman pe r i o d ( i e : V i l l e u r -247 banne (Rhone) i t f e l l i n t o disuse during the f i r s t c e n t u r i e s a f t e r the invasions only to re-emerge, u s u a l l y combined w i t h an 248 anthroponym, between the V I H t h and Xth c e n t u r i e s . This specimen from the Franche Comte e x h i b i t s the a l t e r n a t e "graphie" - v e l l e p e c u l i a r to the r e g i o n : Manfred (Manfridus p. 93; from man- "homme" and f r i d - " p a i x " ) : V e l l e m i n f r o y (w-cia^no) v i l l a n i Manfredi 815. In a d d i t i o n to the toponyms combined w i t h Germanic anthroponyms one encounters some i n which the complement r e f e r s to a s p e c i f i c German t r i b e . These serve as u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s of 125 the presence of such ethnic groups on the s o i l of G a l l i a , for as Rostaing noted: "II est curieux de constater que ces e t a b l i s s e -ments se trouvent dans le t e r r i t o i r e occup^ par le peuple q u ' i l s 249 d€signent." Here are two examples, the f i r s t r e f e r r i n g to the Franks, the l a t t e r to the Goths: V i l i e f ir an coe ur (Loire et Cher) vi l l a m Francori Xth c ; Villegoudou • (Tarn) v i l l a OjO-lor 1176. The early medieval settlement name vi1Tare, "domaine de seconde importance", also enjoyed great popularity e s p e c i a l l y in the north and northeast of G a l l i a . Indeed i t s popularity amongst the Germans was such that they assimilated i t into t h e i r idiom. But i t underwent some substantial phonological changes which vary according to region. The o r i g i n a l Vulgar Latin v i l l a r e / v i l l a r i s commonly occurs as v i l l i e r ( s ) or v i l l e r ( s ) i n the north, weiler, w i l i e r or wihr i n the Germanophone east, and v i l l a r , v i i 1 a r d , v i l l a r s , i n the central and southern regions. Though v i l l a r e i s spread throughout France, i t i s almost exclusively found i n the north when i t i s combined with a Germanic anthroponym: "Ce n'est que dans l a moitie nord de l a France que ce mot entre en 250 composition avec des noms de possesseurs..." Ernest Nfigre states that the zone of incidence of - v i l l a r e names combined with Germanic personal names corresponds roughly to that of the -court names. In these compound toponyms the anthroponyms always occur in the "cas oblique" except i n the Germanised areas where i t i s replaced by the strong Germanic genitive i n -s_. To demonstrate the various "graphies" which - v i l l a r e may take according to region, the following specimens have been selected. Once again the primitive forms of the anthroponyms have been cross-checked with Morlet's data: Adalbehrt (Adalbertus p. 15; from adal-126 "descendance, race noble" and bert- " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " ) : A u b e r v i l l i e r s (Seine) A l b e r t i v i l l a r e 1059, (S. et M.) Haubertviller 1347; Bono (obscure either L a t i n bonus or Norse bon- "priere, requete"; Morlet favours the former p. 60) Bonv i l l e r (Moselle) B o i n v i l l e r 1251, Bonvillers (M. et M.) B o n v i l l e r 1269; Botthar (Boetharius p. 59; from bod- "messager" and h a r i - "epee"): B o u t e r v i l l i e r s (S. et O.); Calo (Chaldo(?) p. 151; from cald-" f r o i d " ) : C h a l o nviliars (Hte Saone) v i l l a Calonis c. 610. Chalunviler 1178; Haribehrt (Haribertus p. 125; h a r i - "epee" and bert- " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " ) : HerbeViller (M. et M.) H e i r b e v i l l e r 1314; Meginwulf (Meginulf p. 166; from magan- "force, puissance" and wulf- "loup"): Mignovillard (Jura). The forms - w i l i e r , -weiler, -wihr are limited to the heavily Germanised regions of the northeast, Alsace and Lorraine. The popularity of v i l l a r e 251 amongst the Alemanni which Longnon stressed i s supported by the large number of examples i n these Germanised "graphies" located i n the lands h i s t o r i c a l l y colonised by t h i s t r i b e . Whilst w i l l e r / w e i l e r occur p r i n c i p a l l y i n the departements Haut Rhin, Bas Rhin and Moselle -wihr i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Haut Rhin alone. These toponyms i l l u s t r a t e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Germanic "graphies": Fulcrad (Fulcradus p. 95; from f u l c - "peuple" and rad- "avis, c o n s e i l " ) : Fortschwir (Haut Rhin) F u l r a d i v i l l a r e 854; Gunzo (probably a hypocoristic form from gund- " l u t t e , combat"): Guntzwiller (Moselle) Guntzweiller 1779; Hartmann (Hartmannus p. 123; from hart- "rude, dur, intrepide" and man- "homme"): Hartmannswiller (Haut Rhin) Hartmanswiler 1200; Huno (p. 141; from hun- "ours"): Hunawihr (Haut Rhin) Hunniville 1114, Unegvilre 1123, Hunnenwihr 1291; Macco (p. 165; derived from mag- "parent"): Mackwiller (Bas Rhin) v i l l a r e Macchone 712; Marc (adjective derived from marc •" front l e r e , province" p. 167): Merschwiller (Moselle) Merssweiller 1594, Merckveiler 1681. Like c o r t i s and v i l l a , v i l l a r e exhibits both what Longnon 252 termed the "Germanic" and the "Romance" currents, that i s : the syntax, complement + determinative, which supposedly arose due to Germanic influence or the reverse order, determinative + complement, which i s d e f i n i t e l y more Romance both i n appearance and character. Such names are quite well dispersed throughout G a l l i a (France). The toponyms cited below show t h i s Romance syntax under the regional "graphies" y i l l e r ( s ) , v i l l i e r ( s ) , v i l l a r ( s ) , v i l l a r d , w i l i e r ( w e i l e r ) : Ambert (Ambertus p. 33; f i r s t element i s obscure, and bert- " i l l u s t r e , b r i l l a n t " ) : Vil1arembert (Savoie) de Amberto 739, de v i l l a r i o Raimberti 1184; E r f o l d ( E r f o l t p.. 41; from a r b i - "heritage" and the second element i s probably b o l - "ami, fre~re"): V i l l i e r s f a u x (Loire-et-Cher) V i l l e r -faut 1330; Gerard (Garardus p. 103; from gar- "pret" and hard-"rude, dur, i n t r e p i d e " ) : Villargerel(Savoie) V i l l a g e r a r d i c. 1170, V i l l a r g e r a r d i 1183; Saxo (Saxo p. 194; from sahs- "se rattache au nom de peuple: les Saxons"): V i l l a r s e x e l (Hte Saone) V i l l e r s a s c e l 1282; Wald (derived from appellative wald- " f o r e s t " ) : Willerwald (Moselle) v i l l e r w a l d t 1751. The f i n a l example i s the only one available i n which the Germanised form w i l i e r ( w e i l e r ) precedes the complement. Such a syntax i s naturally rare i n German-speaking t e r r i t o r y . The map p l o t t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the place-names of the type, Germanic anthroponym + - v i l l a , shows c l e a r l y that the vast majority of the names are located north of the Loire (v. f i g 4 128 oo c\l H 129 "names i n - v i l l e " ) . Of the 621 such toponyms c o l l e c t e d , only c.31 l i e south of t h i s r i v e r i n ^ q u i t a i n e . They occur i n the lands 253 r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e to the c i t i e s of Bordeaux and Toulouse or, . more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n the departements Charente (8 or 1.3 x 2 2 1000 km ) and Haute Garonne (10 or 1.6 x 1000 km ). Franz P e t r i i s i n p e r f e c t accord w i t h the i n d i c a t i o n of the map: " J e n s e i t s der L o i r e kommt f a s t keine Spur mehr von solchen Ortsnamen vor, b i s auf eine k l e i n e r e Gruppe von - v i l l e im Departement der Haute 254 Garonne und im Departement de l a Charente"... In the t e r r i t o r i e s formerly under Fra n k i s h dominion north of the L o i r e , the densest concentrations occur i n the northeast near the l i n g u i s t i c border i n the departements: Meurthe et Moselle with 2 9 62 or 11.9 x 1000 km Meuse with 39 or 6.3 x 1000 km , Vosges w i t h 2 2 28 or 4.7 x 1000 km , Haute Marne wi t h 14 or 2.2 x 1000 km , 2 Moselle w i t h 12 or 1.9 x 1000 km and i n the area surrounding P a r i s which comprises the Beauce r e g i o n , i e : Seine et Oise w i t h 2 2 32 or 6.0 x 1000 km , Seine et Marne w i t h 18 or 3.0 x 1000 km , 2 Eure et L o i r e w i t h 42 or 7.1 x 1000 km , L o i r e t w i t h 10 or 1.5 x 2 1000 km . Although Dauzat claims that the Beauce region (approx. the departements Eure et L o i r e and L o i r e t ) i s the zone of 255 maximum concent r a t i o n of the v i l l a place-names i n France , t h i s i s c l e a r l y c o n t r a d i c t e d by the f i g u r e s provided by the map,for the c. 52 specimens of Beauce cannot compare w i t h the 62 specimens of Meurthe et Moselle. One can only surmise that the apparently " i n f l a t e d " view held by Dauzat i s due to the i n c l u s i o n of a l l - v i l l e names i n c l u d i n g those of a completely Romance/Gallo-Roman composition. But i t . i s s u r e l y i n the northwest of France, i n the c o a s t a l departements of Normandy, th a t the g r e a t e s t number of 130 - v i l l e names congregate. These are thought to have been created in Xth century with the seizure and colonisation of these lands by 256 the Northmen. Here i s a l i s t of the d e n s i t i e s : Seine Maritime with 95 or 15.3 x 1000 km2, Manche with 66 or 13.5 x 1000 km2, 2 Eure with 59 or 9.8 x 1000 km , and Calvados with 49 or 8.9 x 2 1000 km . The v i l l a r e toponyms (v. f i g . 5 "names i n v i l l a r e and i t s variants") occur much less frequently than the - v i l l a names: the former has but 173 specimens as opposed to 621 for the l a t t e r . However the d i s t r i b u t i o n i s more regular since a l l - v i l l a r e names are located north of the Loire . The zone of maximum concentration i s indisputably the three eastern departe-257 2 ments: Haut Rhin with 36 or 10.2 x 1000 km , Bas Rhin with 38 or 7.9 x 1000 km2, and Moselle with 28 or 4.5 x 1000 km2. Almost a l l the 102 examples employ the germanised forms w i l i e r , weiler, wihr. One also finds sizeable concentrations i n the departements Doubs (10 or 1.9 x 1000 km ) and Oise (13 or 2.2 x 2 1000 km ), F i n a l l y , concerning those compositions of the Romance type, v i l l e - / v i l l a r e - + complement, the map (v. f i g . 6 "names beginning with v i l l e - or v i l l a r e - " ) indicates a very d i f f u s e incidence. For the 85 specimens there appears to be no pattern of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The areas with the most sizeable concentrations a l l have fewer than 10 specimens and are widely separated, i e : 2 Haute Saone has 8 or 1.5 x 1000 km , Savoie has 8 or 1.3 x 2 2 1000 km , Aude with 6 or .96 x 1000 km , L o i r et Cher with 6 or 2 2 9.5 x 1000 km and Yonne with 5 or .67 x 1000 km . Although v i l l a and c o r t i s are the most p r o l i f i c of the Romance appellatives combining with German anthroponyms there are some other terms which enter such combinations , i ;;e. ,fontana , JVC tttlWg CLftS US VCLrJCUftis 1131 H 1 ;—' r r 1—. * * • I H 133 mansionile, mansus, mons, pons,* r i v u s , sartum and v a i l i s e t c . These common nouns represent c e r t a i n thematic cat e g o r i e s from references to h a b i t a t i o n s (mansus, m a n s i o n i l e ) , topographical d e s c r i p t i o n s (mons, r i v u s , v a l l i s ) to man-made s t r u c t u r e s (pons). S i m i l a r to the v i l l a examples, toponyms employing these L a t i n 25 8 a p p e l l a t i v e s are found p r i n c i p a l l y north of the L o i r e . Mansus 259 i s a l a t e L a t i n noun meaning, " p e t i t e ferme" or " l o t de t e r r e 2 60 avec h a b i t a t i o n " . I t takes d i f f e r e n t "graphies" according to region: -metz, -mez i n the Pas de Calais-Nord zone, -meix i n the Meurthe-et-Moselle or Meuse area, -mer i n the Somme. The f o l l o w i n g toponyms are composed of t h i s a p p e l l a t i v e and a Germanic anthro-ponym Aubrometz (PdC) Aubourcmes 1243, from A d a l b u r g i s ; Engle- belmer (Somme) Englebertmes 1301, from E n g i l b e r t ; Gibeaumeix (M et M) G i b o d i v i l l a 707-38 Gibboins Mansus 965, from Gebald. Mansio, a h a b i t a t i o n , y i e l d s the modern French "maison". Such examples are r a r e : Contalmalson (Somme Guntar maisans 1261, Contarmaisons 1261, from Gunthard. A l a t e r L a t i n noun derived from mansio i s 261 m a n s i o n i l a , "maison de paysan" which appears e i t h e r as m e n i l / mesnil o r , i n the Franche Comte and Burgundy, as magny: Aubermesnil (Seine Maritime) Osbermaisnil 1139, from Osbert; Badmeni1-aux-Bois (Vosges) e c c l . B a l d i n i m e n i s i s 1062, Baudemesnil-1317, from Baldo; Giromagny ( B e l f o r t ) Girardmaigny 1426, Giromaigny 16 55 from G i r a r d . These examples serve to i l l u s t r a t e the p r i n c i p a l settlement names but there are s t i l l others: C e l l a y " p e t i t e maison", i s found i n A l l i a n c e l l e s (Marne) A s o n e l l a c. 850, from Agiso ( l a t e r replaced by A l i s a ) ; B i l l a n c e l l e s (Eure et L o i r e ) B i l l u n c e l l a e c. 1116, from B i l l a ; or under the Germanised form z e l l e : F l o r i n g z e l l e (PdC) from F l o r i n g ; caste Hum gives the modern 134 French "chateau" and i s found i n Hattonchatel (Meuse) Atona 812, castrum Haddonis 1015, from Haddo; e c c l e s i a , modern French " e g l i s e " : B e l l e n g l i s e . (Aisne) B e l a i n e g l i s e 1120, from B i l l u n g ; Nompatelize (Vosges) Norpardi e c c l e s i a e 1140, N b r p a t e g l i z e , from Norbert. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t a f f o r d s a general i n d i c a t i o n of the t o p o g r a p h i c a l a p p e l l a t i v e s found i n Germano-Romance hy b r i d toponyms: boscus, " b o i s " ; Auzebosc (Seine Maritime) from A l t g i s ; f ons, "f o n t a i n e " : N o i r e f o n t a i n e (Doubs) de Fonte A r n u l p h i 114 7, N o i r e f o n t a i n e 1748, from Arnwulf; campus, "champ": Humbercamps (Pas de C a l a i s ) Heudebercamp 1200, from H i l d i b e r t ; (ex)sartum, "defrichement": Gespunsart (Ardennes) Geb'unisartun 1081, Ges-prunsart 1264, from Giboin; podium, " l i e u e l e v e " : Frespech (Lot et Garonne) from F r i s c o ; pons, "pont": Guerpont (meuse) from Weri; pratum, "pre": Gaudiempre (Pas de C a l a i s ) Gunduwini pratum 1179, from Gunduwin; r i v u s , " r u i s s e a u " : Blancherupt (B. Rhin) from Blanca; and f i n a l l y v a i l i s , " v a l l e e " : Rimboval (Pas de C a l a i s ) Raimbodi v i l l i s 1177, from Raginbod. A l l the previous examples e x h i b i t the Germanic type of composition but a number of these a p p e l l a t i v e s do demonstrate the more Romance syntax. There are c e r t a i n l y fewer examples of the Romance composition but these, n e v e r t h e l e s s , occur i n more or l e s s the same regions as t h e i r counterparts employing c o r t i s and v i l l a . For example, fons i s found i n : F o n t e v r a u l t (M et L) Fon's E v r a l d i 1100-17, from E b r a l d ; or Fontgambault (Indre) abbatiam F o n t i s gambaudi 1184, from Gundbald mansus: Marimbaud (Gironde) from Raginbald; podium: Pechabon (Hte Garonne) from Abbo; v a l l i s : Valframbert (Orne) from Frambert. These names should s u f f i c e to show the existence of both methods of formation. A 135 262 The Germano-Romance toponyms studied are the results of a c u l t u r a l symbiosis but there are also wholly Germanic formations which attest to a strong, d i r e c t germanic influence. The l a t t e r category embraces homogeneous Germanic place-names of the type, Germanic complement + Germanic determinative, either a s u f f i x or an appellative. Here too one finds toponyms formed eith e r through derivation or composition. Similar to the ancient formations i n -lacum the Germanic c o l l e c t i v e s u f f i x -ing joined with an anthro-ponym i s encountered i n northern France and dates from the e a r l i e s t period, of Germanic colonisation. This i s the single example of derivation belonging to Germanic toponymie nomenclature employed i n France. The method of formation termed composition, so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Germanic tongues, permits the combination of a wide range of appellatives to create new terms. The common nouns which can often be ascribed to a p a r t i c u l a r Germanic ethnic group are joined to an anthroponym usually i n the genitive case, i . e . : Bernolsheim (B. Rhin) - from Bernwulfs + heim. Many of these nouns are of a topographical nature whilst others re f e r rather to human habitations and structures: -heim, -dorf, -hof, -berg, -bruch, -mar, -kirch(e) etc. This examination w i l l consider the various Germanic determinatives with appropriate i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n an attempt to appreciate the contribution made to French toponymy by the i n d i v i d u a l German t r i b e s . A controversy surrounds the etymology of the s u f f i x -ing. One deceptive hypothesis which Longnon condemned as "completement 2 62 erronee" posits that -ing expresses f i l i a t i o n , i . e . : Beringen, the son(s) of Bero, and therefore i s the equivalent to "son" or the High German adjective "jung". Rather more believable i s the theory championed by Vincent, Longnon, and Dauzat that t h i s s u f f i x expresses the "subjection" of certain men to a p a r t i c u l a r lord or c h i e f t a i n . Vincent explains his view thus: "... I 1ensemble des personnages entourant, a t i t r e de subordonnes, le o /- *5 personnage dont le nom forme l i e r a d i c a l " . However, Grohler i n s i s t s that -ing o r i g i n a l l y had a "patronymische Bedeutung", that i s i t referred to a clan relationship and eventually came to 264 s i g n i f y a mere i n d i v i d u a l name. Odet Perrin, too, i n his Les Burgondes attributes a patronymic function to thi s common Germanic s u f f i x where i t occurs i n Burgundian toponyms: "A 1'origine, les noms de lieux burgondes furent formes par un toponyme 265 termine par le suffixe ing on ung..." F i n a l l y as a synthesis or compromise, F. Lot combines the " f i l i a t i o n " and "subjection" theories a r r i v i n g at the following statement: " I l (ing) s'emploie pour designer l a c o l l e c t i v i t e formee autour d'un chef 266 par sa f a m i l l e , sa descendance, ses gens..." Despite the obvious d i s p a r i t y of these etymologies a l l sources seem to be agreed on the " c o l l e c t i v e " character of the s u f f i x whether i t 2 67 means "the son(s) of..." or "the people of..." Another point upon which most scholars are united i s the antiquity of the -ing place-names of France with regard to the stage of Germanic settlement r e f l e c t e d . I t seems ce r t a i n that such toponyms may be traced back to the e a r l i e s t days of Teutonic colonisation: "Tout indique que les noms en -.ing remontent aux premiers, temps 268 de l a colonisation germanique..." Whatever i t s true etymology may be, i t i s certain that the c o l l e c t i v e s u f f i x -iug was common to a l l the Germanic idioms because i t i s found i n certain d i s t i n c t forms i n the regions 137 269 colonised by the Alemanni, Burgundians, Franks, and Visigoths. In the Frankish zone of northern France including French Flanders, one encounters the genitive p l u r a l form -inga/-ingas which y i e l d s -ange/-enge i n the Romanised areas of the northeast and -ingue in Flanders. In the area formerly se t t l e d and ruled by the Burgundians, p a r t i c u l a r l y the departements of Doubs, Haute Saone and Jura, the primitive Gothic form -ingos l i v e s on i n the "graphies" -ans, -ens. However, where place-names bearing these "graphies" occur i n the Languedoc or Aquitaine i t i s often probable that they stem rather from the Visigoths whose d i a l e c t i s c l o s e l y related to that of the Burgundians. Unfortunately a complication arises i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of -ing toponyms i n the central and southern zones of France due to confusion with 2 70 an obscure, purportedly Ligurian s u f f i x - i n c o ( s ), i e : Albenc (Isere), p r e - c e l t i c Alba, "forteresse, c o l l i n e " , + -incum. As for the t r u l y German regions of Alsace and Lorraine (east) one naturally finds l i t t l e change i n form where eithe r -ing or i t s p l u r a l form -Ingen are standard. Following are a series of toponyms which serve both to i l l u s t r a t e the regional "graphies" and, i n some instances, to r e c a l l the influence of a p a r t i c u l a r Teutonic t r i b e : A* -ing ^  -ing or the p l u r a l form -ingen The s u f f i x remains unaltered only i n the heavily Germanised areas of northeastern France, that i s , i n the departements of Moselle, Bas Rhin, and Haut Rhin. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y t h i s zone which was subjected to the most intense Germanisation'in a l l G a l l i a Romana contains a large number of -ing place names. Due to the s t a b i l i t y of the form the normally d i f f i c u l t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 138 (cf. Volkserbe, p. 642) i s obviated. In the case of those names from the Moselle departement the p l u r a l form -ingen, the most commonly used i n modern German toponymy, i s replaced by the s i n g u l a r form - i n g which may o f t e n be due to a process of F r a n c i s a t i o n . These toponyms c a l l e d from the Germanophone areas of France i l l u s t r a t e these p o i n t s w e l l : A l z i n g (Moselle) Anselnigen, 1594, A l t z i n g XVIIth c. from A n s i l a or Alzo (prob. h y p o c o r i s t i c form of a l l s - "autre" p. 33, M o r l e t ) ; Guebling (Moselle) Gueblingen 1525, from Gabilo ( l i k e l y a h y p o c o r i s t i c form der i v e d from g i b - "don" p. 108) ; Lasjjigeja (Luxemburg, Belgium) Luxengias 1042, from Lucki/Ludger (Leudegarius p. 159; from H u t - "peuple" and gar-^ " p r e t " ) ; Qermingen (B. Rhin) from Ermo (p. 84; from erman- "immense"); Wei H1 • n g e n (B. Rhin) from W i z z i l o (probably derived from wid- " b o i s , f o r e t " , p. 220). B. - i ^ g -ingue(s) or -ange/-enge The f i r s t a l t e r n a t e form occurs i n a compact group i n the extreme northeast corner of France i n the departements of Nord and Pas de C a l a i s which comprise French Flanders w h i l s t the l a t t e r s t r o n g l y Francised forms are most prevalent i n L o r r a i n e . In>6ther words, these v a r i a n t s occur i n the zones of ancient F r a n k i s h dominion. Here are some specimens bearing these forms: Autingues (Pas de C a l a i s ) Altenges 1206, from A l t o (p. 31; from a i d - " v i e u x " ) ; Durenges (Liege, Belgium) from Duro (Torro p. 76; from dur " g i a n t " ) ; Herange (Moselle) Helgeringon 1178, from Helihgar ( l i k e l y H e l i t g e r u s p. 12 8; from h e l i d - "homme, heros" and gar- " p r e t " ) ; Uckange (Moselle) Utingas 1152, Ukenge 1181, from Ucho/Hugo (Hucho p. 140; from hug- " e s p r i t , pensee"); Wulverdinghe.' (Nord) Uulverdinge 1189, from Wulfrad (Wolfrat p. 230; from wulf- "loup" and rad- "avis, c o n s e i l " ) . C. -ing -ans, yens (-eins) By far the majority of the place-names taking these endings are found i n the "Siedlungsraum", zone of settlement, of the Burgundians the Franche Comte, the departements of Ain, Cote d'or and Doubs. There are i s o l a t e d examples i n other parts of France but. these almost c e r t a i n l y do not arise because of Burgundian influence. In view of the incidence of both Frankish anthroponyms and suffixes (i.e.:-ange, -ingej on Burgundian t e r r i t o r y i t i s prudent 271 to regard as Burgundian i n o r i g i n only those toponyms i n which an unequivocably Burgundian anthroponym unites with -ans, -ens (-eins). Th. Perrenot recognised the value of the anthro-ponyms for the purpose of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : "Le nom qui precede le s u f f i x e -ingen est d'une importance decisive; l u i seul nous permet de nous convaincre s i nous avons a f a i r e a un nom 272 alemannique, francique bu autre..." As has been noted already such "graphies" usually denote a V i s i g o t h i c or other o r i g i n when they occur in the south. Here are some toponyms which are regarded as Burgundian or V i s i g o t h i c : Battenans (Doubs) Batenans c. 1235, Bathenans 1360, from the hypothetical Baltenans derived from the Burgundian anthroponym Baltho (Baldo p. 50); Fremondans (Doubs) Frummundans 1136, from Frumemund (form not l i s t e d ; probably derived from frum- "premier" and munt- "protection") from * Gothic Frumamunds; the next two toponyms stem from the area around Toulouse and are thought to r e s u l t from Gothic influence: * Esqualquens (Hte Garonne) representing Skalkingos derived from the Gothic anthroponym Scalco (p. 196; from scale- " s e r v i t e u r " ) ; Roumens (Hte Garonne) from Ruomo (probably a hypocoristic form of rum-" g l o i r e " p. 191). 140 The variety of "graphies" which the s u f f i x -ing may take i n France as well as the problem of the confusion with Ligurian -inco(s) renders the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and analysis quite complicated. Dauzat speaking of the -ing toponyms acknowledges the complexity of t h i s task: "Cette question des noms de lieux en -ing est une des plus complexes et des plus controversies de l a toponymie 27 3 germano-romane..."(Top. burg. p. 6) Fortunately the plotted geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of these names can shed valuable l i g h t on t h i s problem. In p l o t t i n g the location of the 442 -ing names which occur i n France i t seemed expedient to divide the study between two maps: one containing those forms i n which the Germanic "g" has been retained i . e . : - i n g , -ange(s), -enge(s), -ingue ( f i g . 7 "forms i n -ing(en), -ange(s), -enge(s), -ingue") and another containing the forms -ans, -ens, -eins ( f i g . 8. "forms in -ans, -ens, -ein(s) , - a i n " ) . The f i r s t d i s t r i b u t i o n map ( f i g . 7) shows that the primitive Germanic s u f f i x -ing(en) and the romanised forms i n -ange(s), -enge(s) and -ingue are concentrated over-whelmingly in the northeastern departement Moselle and to a lesser degree in the eastern departements of Cote d'Or and Jura. It i s s t r i k i n g to remark the high density of -ing toponyms i n 2 Moselle which alone encompasses 134 specimens or 21.6 x 1000 km . However, given that Moselle forms the northeastern gateway to the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r , i t i s perhaps understandable that so 274 many examples should occur there. The other two points of concentration Cote d'or and Jura possess 10 specimens or 1.1 x 2 2 1000 km and 11 specimens or 2.0 x 1000 km respectively. This marked decrease i n density underscores the significance of Moselle. 4 2 0 2 4 6 142 Now the second map ( f i g . 8) e x h i b i t i n g p r i m a r i l y the d i s t r i -b u t i o n . of the s u f f i x e s -ans, -ens appears t o c o n f i r m the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t such place-names d e r i v e from a Burgundian form -ingos s i n c e the g r e a t m a j o r i t y of the specimens congregate i n the f o l l o w i n g f o u r departements which fo r m e r l y belonged to the 2 Burgundian realm: Doubs (58 names; 11.1 x 1000 km ), Haute 2 2 Saone (34 names; 6.4 x 1000 km ), J u r a (22 names; 4.4 x 1000 km ) 2 and A i n (15 names; 2.6 x 1000 km ). Together these f o u r departements account f o r 129 of a t o t a l 23 8. A comparison of the two maps r e v e a l s t h a t some o f the Burgundian departements possess names c o n t a i n i n g the F r a n k i s h type forms -ange, -enge as w e l l as the Burgundian -ans, -ens ( i e : Cote d'or 10-6, Saone et L o i r e 7-4, and Haute Savoie 3-4 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The m i n g l i n g o f these d i v e r g e n t forms i n the same t e r r i t o r y i s thought to be due to the a c t i v i t y o f p a r a l l e l F r a n k i s h and Burgundian i n f l u e n c e s , probably f o l l o w i n g the conquest of Burgundy by the F r a n k i s h kings i n 534 A.D. The need f o r c i r c u m s p e c t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the etymologies o f toponyms i n these t e r r i t o r i e s i s c o g e n t l y e l a b o r a t e d by Odet P e r r i n i n Les Burgondes: "Je pense que 1'on peut c o n s i d e r e r comme ve r i t a b l e m e n t burgondes l e s l o c a l i t e s en -ans, -ens e t c . quand e l l e s sont groupes en grand nombre dans l'une ou 1'autre des r e g i o n s de l a Sequanaise ou de l a Savoie, mais qu'une re s e r v e s 1impose pour l e s noms i s o l e s et a u s s i pour ceux q u i se t r o u v e n t d a n s . l a p a r t i e s e p t e n t r i o n a l e de l a Sequanaise ou des i n f l u e n c e s alemanniques ou f r a n c i q u e s sont i 275 t o u j o u r s p o s s i b l e s . . . " Apart from the compact numbers o f examples i n the c e n t r a l departements of a n c i e n t Burgundy, there are other -ans, -ens names o c c u r r i n g throughout France but -4-H t f f f l f t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the southwest on the s i t e of the ancient V i s i g o t h i c kingdom. The zone immediately surrounding Toulouse, the Visigoths' c a p i t a l , that i s : Haute Garonne, Tarn, Gers, and Ariege,contains a f a i r number of place-names i n -ens. In fac t , Haute Garonne, the point of maximum density, contains 11 such 2 names or 1.7 x 1000 km . These toponyms are regarded as Gothic i n o r i g i n whilst the remaining more is o l a t e d names probably represent "pockets" of Germans (v. Negre, p. 102). Relatively few Germanic words were borrowed by the Gallo-Romans after the "Landnahme" but the number can be substantially increased by including the sixty odd appellatives which remain " f o s s i l i s e d " i n French toponymy (v. Levy, p. 19). These sub-stantives have a descriptive value because they indicate something about the nature of the land or the type of human habitation or structure. In t h i s type of toponym the Germanic appellative i s joined to a complement which may be either an adjective (i.e.: Dieffenthai (Haut Rhin) = "deep valley") or an anthroponym (ie: Bendorf (Haut Rhin) = Benno" + d o r f ) . Almost without exception the syntax i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Germanic, complement + determinative. As these toponyms are wholly comprised of Germanic elements i t follows that they should occur lar g e l y i n the t e r r i t o r i e s submitted to the most intense Germanic influence v i z . Alsace-Lorraine. It i s possible to dist i n g u i s h three basic classes of appellatives according to t h e i r t r i b a l / d i a l e c t a l 2 76 o r i g i n : Frankish or Common Germanic, Saxon and Scandinavian. Of the appellatives of a Common Germanic, "gemeindeutsche", source, the settlement noun -helm which s i g n i f i e s " v i l l a g e , dwelling place" (Grohler, p. 253) i s perhaps the most frequently 145 employed i n a l l France. Certainly for Franz P e t r i there appears to be l i t t l e doubt i n t h i s regard: "Es 1st bekanntlich die allgemeinste und verbreiteste Bezeichnung, die das Germanische fur Gruppen von Bauwerken, i n welchen die Menschen zu geselligem 27 7 und schiitzendem Zusammenwohnen sich vereinigten, besaB..." This appellative i s common to Holland, Belgium, Germany and appears often i n the toponymy of England as these examples from the southern counties . demonstrate: Aylesham(Kent), Chilham(Kent), Horsham(Sussex), Lenham(Kent), Sidlesham(Sussex), Shoreham(Sussex), and Wingham(Kent). In terms of i t s function as designation for habitations and i t s widespread usage i n toponymy, one could j u s t i f i a b l y maintain that a correspondence ex i s t s between -helm and the Romance names -court, - v i l l e . Semantically there i s a p a r a l l e l too between -heim and -court because both o r i g i n a l l y s i g n i f i e d a single dwelling-place but l a t e r gained the broader sense of " v i l l a g e " . Unfortunately the great s i m i l a r i t y of form 27 8 and d i s t r i b u t i o n with . -ham, "a bend i n a r i v e r " , complicates etymologisation. A further complication to analysis i s presented by the divergent modern "graphies" which -helm takes i n various regions of France: -heim/-haim i n the German-speaking east, - a i n / -ien i n Wallonia, -hem, -em, -ent, -en i n the north and northwest. Concerning the composition of the place-names i n -heim, i t i s customary to f i n d the appellative tacked onto a Germanic anthro-ponym i n either the strong or weak forms of;the genitive, that i s i n -s_ or i n -en. These toponyms serve to i l l u s t r a t e the various -helm names occurring i n France: A. -helm In the Germanophone departements of Moselle, Bas Rhin and Haut Rhin t h i s i s the dominant form. The following examples contain 146 Germanic personal names i n the strong or weak genitive: Balders-heim (H. Rhin) Balthersheim 976, from Baldo (p. 50; from bald-"hardi"); Friedelsheim•(B Rhin) Fridesheim c. 1140, Fridelsheim XVIIIth c., from Friddo (p. 94; from f r l d - "paix"); Habsheim (H Rhin) Habuhinasheim 758, from Habuini (not l i s t e d i n Morlet; f i r s t element may be hab- "posseder" p. 118, and the second wini-"ami", p. 226); Meyenheim (H Rhin) Meieneim 1187, Megenheim 1232, from Megino ( l i k e l y a hypocoristic form of magan- "puissance" p. 165); Sessenheim (B Rhin) Sahsenheim c. 1050, from Sahso/Saxo (Sahso, p. 194; from sahs- "les Saxons"). B. -helm >^ -hem (em) , (-ent) ; -ham (-ain) , (-ant). Toponyms having these alternate forms are found mainly i n the northwest of France p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the departements Nord and Pas de C a l a i s . Some of them might well be traced to a Saxon o r i g i n as the coastal regions of these areas are recognised as zones of Saxon colonisation and as place-names i n -ham occur on both sides of the Channel (v. Longnon p. 182 §742). Here are some samples: Audrehem (Pd.C) Aldonhem 844, from Aldo (p. 31; from aid- "vieux"); Bohain (Aisne) Bohang 1138, Buchammum X l l t h c , from Bodo/Bolo (Bodo, p. 59; from bod- "messager"); Drineham (Nord) from Taro/Terro (not l i s t e d i n Morlet); Etreham (Calvados) Oesterham 1350, from adjective ost- "east"; Gonnehem (PdC) Goneham 1142; Godneham 1163, from Godina (p. 114; from god-"dieu ou bon"). The d i s t r i b u t i o n map of the -heim place-names (v. f i g 9 "names i n -heim") reveals a th i n l i n e of specimens along the northern periphery of France running roughly from southern Alsace to Normandy with a gap i n the Ardennes-Meuse zone. However, 148 th i s l i n e has a notable bulge i n the Al s a t i a n departements Haut Rhin and Bas Rhin where the greatest concentration of these names occurs. . F u l l y 156 of^1.8 8 -heim names: are grouped i n .these 2 two areas: Bas Rhin has 105 or 21.9 x 1000 km and Haut Rhin 2 has 51 or 14.6 x 1000 km . The remaining 37 specimens are quite spread out. Another point of concentration i s the northwest 2 corner where Nord has 9 or 1.6 x 1000 km and Pas de Calais has 2 7 or 1.0 x 1000 km . In view of the wide extension of -heim i n present Germanic t e r r i t o r y t h i s limited d i s t r i b u t i o n i n France may well be the r e s u l t of either r e s t r i c t e d colonisation of G a l l i a by the Germans or the consequences of subsequent Romani- ^ sation processes or both of these factors. For Godefroid Kurth t h i s served to support his theory that the l i n e of Frankish/ Germanic settlement corresponded to that of the l a t e r l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r (v. P e t r i , Volkserbe, 639). , Another quite widely employed Germanic appellative i s the hydronymic bak, baki, "stream", which takes two main forms i n French toponymy: -bach or the Romanised variant -bais i s -from High German whilst -beek (or the Romanised equivalent -becque) i s of Low German o r i g i n . This common noun enjoys great popularity north of the l i n g u i s t i c f r o n t i e r and i s the basis for a good number of toponyms i n France. For Ernst Gamillscheg the -baki names of Belgium and France had a special significance because by p l o t t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the variant forms i n -bais, -bai, he proposed to be able to delimit the zones of colonisation of the S a l i c and Ripuarian Franks, the t r i b e s held to have j o i n t l y conquered and set t l e d a large portion of northern G a l l i a Romana. However, Walter von Wartburg i n his c r i t i c a l appraisal of Gamillscheg's 149 theory took a negative view of the s i g n i f i c a n c e a s c r i b e d to these 279 forms. Whatever the true importance.of t h i s noun may be, i t merits a t t e n t i o n on account of i t s r e l a t i v e l y high incidence i n France. A map (v. f i g . 10 "names i n - b a k i (-bekkr) showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the - b a k i toponyms r e v e a l s t h a t the g r e a t e s t concentration occurs i n the Germanophone departements where, of 2 80 a t o t a l of 12 3 such names documented, Haut Rhin has 4 3 or 2 2 12.2 x 1000 km , Bas Rhin has 23 or 4.8 x 1000 km and Moselle 2 has 16 or 2.6 x 1000 km . These names a l l terminate i n the modern High German -bach o r , i n r a r e r cases, the romanised - b a i s . On the other hand, 'the Low German forms i n -bee (que) are found -'in the Pas de C a l a i s and Nord due to Flemish i n f l u e n c e . Together 2 they possess 8 specimens or .65 x 1000 km . There are a few s c a t t e r e d specimens i n the other departements north of the L o i r e and even one or two below the L o i r e ( i . e . : i n Savoie, L o i r e and Deux SSvres). In Normandy (v. areas w i t h cross-hatching) one f i n d s some places bearing the Scandinavian e q u i v a l e n t of - b a k i 281 v i z . -bekkr. The toponyms s e l e c t e d here to i l l u s t r a t e both the High and Low German forms encountered i n France u s u a l l y combine w i t h a p p e l l a t i v e s r a t h e r than anthroponyms. This i s i n c o n t r a s t to the a p p e l l a t i v e s and s u f f i x e s discussed thus f a r . These are the r e g i o n a l i s e d "graphies" and t h e i r examples: A. - b a k i ^ -bach This i s the standard form i n Germany and i n those departements contiguous to t h a t country i e : M o s e l l e , Haut and Bois Rhin: Bousbach (Moselle) Buezbach 1429, Buschbach 1525, from busc-(MHG. Busch) "wood"; Carspach (Haut Rhin) Charoltespach 877, Karolspach 1266, from Charoald (probably Charivaldus p. 127; fig 4Q inS&iih \Se1LR,e i 150 151 from h a r i - "epee" and wald^ "gouverner, commander"); Leimbach (H Rhin) Leymbach 1223, Lembach (Bas Rhin) from Lehm " c l a y " ; Muhlbach (H Rhin) Mulebac 1057-72, Muhlbach-sur<-Bruche (B Rhin) from Mlihle " m i l l " ; Wisembach (Vosges) Wesembeg 1180, from wisa "meadow". B-* ~ba k i ^  - b a i s (-bouix) This i s the romanised form of the High German noun found mainly i n the departements Marne, Aisne , Seine ..et Oise, Seine et Marne and Pas de C a l a i s and Nord: Marbalx (Nord) Marbasio 1151, from marah "horse"; Orbaix (Marne) m o n a s t e r i i Orbacensis IXth c. from -uro/-urus "Auerochs"; Rebais (Seine et Marne) Resbacis 635-6, Resbacem X l l t h c , Resbaco 1174, Resbacum 1214, from hros- "horse". C. - b a k i ^ -bee(ques) This i s the Low German form. I t occurs i n the names of Pas de C a l a i s and Nord e x c l u s i v e l y : Bambecque (Nord) Banbeca 1164, from ban "border"; Estiembecque (PdC) Stainbeca 1084, Estainbeke X l l l t h c., from s t e i n "stone"; Steenbecque (Nord) Steenbeka 1183, from steen "stone", (cf. previous example). Besides -heim and -bach there i s q u i t e a l i s t of other Fra n k i s h or Common, Germanic a p p e l l a t i v e s belonging to French toponymy. Rather than enter i n t o great d e t a i l on the etymology of each a p p e l l a t i v e t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o an enumeration i n c l u d i n g the meanings and appropriate i l l u s t r a t i o n s . F o l l o w i n g the p r i m i t i v e form of each a p p e l l a t i v e . . i s a f i g u r e r e f e r r i n g to the number of specimens found i n France. This a f f o r d s one an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of each noun. The need to de s c r i b e the land r e s u l t e d i n t h i s s i z e a b l e grouping of topographical names: au, auwja(17) "wet p l a i n " -1 5 2 - A u d e u x ( D o u b s ) f r o m t h e a n t h r o p o n y m A d o , E s c h a u ( B a s R h i n ) f r o m a s k " a s h " ; b e r g ( 2 4 ) " m o u n t a i n " - A u d e m b e r t ( P d C ) f r o m t h e a n t h r o p o n y m H u n d o , L o o b e r g h e ( N o r d ) f r o m l o h " w o o d " " ; b r u c h (5 ) " s w a m p y l a n d " - R u b r o u c k ( N o r d ) f r o m r u " r o u g h " ; b r u n n e n ( 1 3 ) " f o u n t a i n , s o u r c e " - M o n t b r u n n ( M o s e l l e ) f r o m t h e a n t h r o p o n y m M u n t ; f e l d ( 1 3 ) " f i e l d " - B e n f e l d (B R h i n ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m B e n n o , R e i c h s f e l d (B R h i n ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m R i c o ; f u r t ( 3 ) " f o r d " -I l l f u r t h (H R h i n ) f r o m 1 1 1 t h e n a m e o f a r i v e r ; g a r d ( 2 ) " g a r d e n , " e n c l o s u r e " H a u g a r d (Somme) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m H a n o ; H o l z ( 9 ) " w o o d " - H a d o l ( V o s g e s ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m H a i d o ; l a n d ( 2 ) " l a n d " H i r s c h l a n d " ( B R h i n ) f r o m h i r s c h " s t a g " ; l a r ( 1 7 ) " c l e a r i n g " -A n d e l a r r e (H S a o n e ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m A n d o , W a l l e r s ( N o r d ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m W a l l o ; l o h ( 9 ) " w o o d " - E n g l o s ( N o r d ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m I n g i l o , W a t t r e l o s ( N o r d ) f r o m w a t e r " w a t e r " ; m a r ( 1 0 ) " p o n d , l a k e " G e r a d m e r ( V o s g e s ) : f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m G e r w a l d ; s a n d ( 2 ) " s a n d " -W i s s a n t ( P d C ) f r o m w i t " w h i t e " ; s t a t t ( 1 0 ) " p l a c e , s p o t " -M a h s t a d t ( M o s e l l e ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m M a c c o ; s t e e n ( 5 ) " s t o n e " -E r s t e i n (B R h i n ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m E r o ; t a l ( 1 6 ) " v a l l e y " -B e u t a l ( D o u b s ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m B o d o , R e n i d a l e ( D o u b s ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m H r e n d o l f ; a n d f i n a l l y - w a l d ( 4 ) " w o o d " - B i r k e n w a l d (B R h i n ) f r o m e i t h e r a n t h r o p o n y m B i r i c o o r b i r k e " b i r c h " . I n o r d e r t o d e s i g n a t e t h e i r h a b i t a t i o n s o r c o m m u n i t i e s t h e T e u t o n i c s e t t l e r s e m p l o y e d a s e r i e s o f c o m m o n n o u n s w h i c h G e r m a n t o p o n y m i s t s t e r m " S i e d l u n g s b e z e i c h n u n g e n " . T h e r e a r e a l s o s o m e a p p e l l a t i v e s i n d i c a t i n g t h e n a t u r e o f m a n - m a d e s t r u c t u r e s . L i k e t h e p r e v i o u s t o p o g r a p h i c a l a p p e l l a t i v e s t h e s e t o o a r e o f F r a n k i s h o r " a l l g e m e i n d e u t s c h e " o r i g i n : a l a h (3 ) " t e m p l e " - B o u a f l o ( S e i n e e t O i s e ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m B a l d o ; b u r g ( 3 7 ) " f o r t , c a s t l e " -V i t t e r s b u r g ( M o s e l l e ) f r o m a n t h r o p o n y m W i d h a r i ; b r u c k ( 5 ) " b r i d g e " -B l i e s b r u c k 153 ( M o s e l l e ) B l i e s i s a r i v e r name; dorf (53) " v i l l a g e " - P i s d o r f (B Rhin) from anthroponym P i s o , V o l s t r o f f (Moselle) from anthroponym Wolo; haus (31) "house, d w e l l i n g " - Bosselshausen (B Rhin) from anthroponym Buozolt, Reithouse (Jura) from r e i t ( e n ) "to r i d e " ; hof ..(22) "farm" - Bergueneus (PdC) from berg "mountain"; k i r c h e (18) "church" - HaverSkerque (Nord) from anthroponym Hawirich, Neunkirch (Moselle) from neu "new"; and l a s t l y s a l a (16) "house, d w e l l i n g " - A u d r e s e l l e s (PdC) from anthroponym Other/ Guerqueselles (Orne) from anthroponym Warga. Almost i n v a r i a b l y these examples c o n t a i n a l l Germanic elements and e x h i b i t Germanic syntax. One unusual exception to t h i s r u l e appears to be Burgalays (Haute Garonne) formed from burg + Adalheid, which d e s p i t e i t s Germanic c o n s t i t u e n t s shows a wholly un-Germanic word-order,either a d i r e c t Romance c r e a t i o n or a transformation due to a l a t e r Romanisation. S p e c i a l i s t s are able to d i s t i n g u i s h a p p e l l a t i v e s of Saxon and Scandinavian sources i n a l i m i t e d zone i n the northwest of France. The Saxon names are l o c a t e d l a r g e l y i n the c o a s t a l areas around Boulogne and i n some pa r t s of Normandy w h i l s t the Scandi-navian or Norse names abound i n the Norman departements of Manche^Oise, Calvados, Seine-Maritime and Eure. Due to the co-existence of Norse and Saxon elements i n Normandy i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h the o r i g i n s with c e r t a i n t y . Furthermore, Rostaing c i t e s the s i m i l a r i t y of the two d i a l e c t s as a co m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r : "En Normandie 1 1 element saxon est d i f f i c i l e a d i s c e r n e r , 2 82 l a p l u p a r t des rac i n e s etant communes au saxon et au n o r r o i s " . The toponyms i l l u s t r a t i v e of v a r i o u s Saxon and Norse a p p e l l a t i v e s show Germanic word-order and g e n e r a l l y combine wi t h anthroponyms. 154 These a p p e l l a t i v e s are considered to have a Saxon source: cot (3) " h a b i t a t i o n " - Caudecotte (Eure), (Seine-Maritime) from k a l t " c o l d " ; f l e o d h (5) " g u l f , bay" - F i q u e f l e u r - E q u a i n v i l l e (Eure) from anthroponym F i c c h o , Honfleur (Calv) from anthroponym Huno; gat (2) "passage" - Enquingatte (PdC) from anthroponym i n g u i n , Houlgate (Calvados) from hohi "hollow"; ho (1) "promontory" -2 8 3 Quettehou (Manche) from anthroponym K e t i l l ; tun (9) "farm, v i l l a g e " - O f f r e t u n (PdC) from the anthroponym V u l f h a r , Warneton (Nord) from anthroponym Warin. As f o r the Norse a p p e l l a t i v e s , these are amongst the most s i g n i f i c a n t : bekkr (12) "stream" -Foulbee (Eure) from f u l l " f o u l " , Varenguebec (Manche) from anthro-ponym Waring; both (12) " h a b i t a t i o n , s h e l t e r " - Baboeuf (Oise) from anthroponym Baddo; bu (2) "farm" - Tournebu (Calvados) from thorn "thorn, spine"; hus (3) "house" - Crapus (Seine-Maritime) from anthroponym Krappo, Etainhus (Seine-Maritime) from s t e i n "stone"; lundr (6) " l i t t l e wood" - Boulon (Calvados) from anthroponym Bolo.; topt (53) "land w i t h h a b i t a t i o n " , t h i s i s the most popular Norse a p p e l l a t i v e and the eq u i v a l e n t of v i l l a i n 284 toponymy, Beautot (Seine-Maritime) from anthroponym B a l d r e k r , Houdetot (Seine-Maritime) from anthroponym Huldo. But there are o c c a s i o n a l d e v i a t i o n s from the customary Germanic word-order here too: Tortiambert.. (Calvados) from thorp + Hambert. FOOTNOTES 155 B. Germanic Complement and Germanic Determinative e 216 _ , . ' Gysseling, p. 5. 217 A.E. Verhulst proposes that - c o r t i s was applied as a c o l l e c t i v e designation not only for the buildings and lands belonging to a r u r a l estate but also the dependent farms round about: "Het word c u r t i s duidt b i j n a steeds een groot land-goederencomplex aan, omvattend niet alleen een geheel van gebouwen en gronden die rechtstreeks voor de groot grondbezitter geexploiteerend w'erden, maar ook de aan d i t domeincentrum i n mindere of meerdere mate ondergeschikte kleinere landbouwbed-r i j v e n . " Verhulst, p. 38. 218 P e t r i , "Zeugnis der Ortsnamen", Ertrage: Bericht I 1926-53, p. 37. 219 Wartburg, "Frankische Siedlung", p. 285. 220 Lot, De l ' o r i g i n e , p. 204. 221 Rostaing, Noms, p. 71. 2 2 2 Lot, De l ' o r i g i n e , p. 204. 223 "D'une facon generale, on peut dire que les noms ou l'epithete precede (systeme germanique) sont les plus anciens... Dauzat, p. 154. 2 2 4 Longnon, pp. 225-6 §926. Dauzat too attributes t h i s syntax to the influence of the Teutonic invaders and t h e i r language. Les' noms de lieux, p. 13 8. 225 Rostaing, Noms, p. 72. 226 Vincent, Toponymie, p. 172 §407. 156 227 "Le systeme de composition l a t i n e e t a i t beaucoup plus souple". Dauzat, p. 138. 2 2 8 Negre, p. 106. 229 T . Levy, p. 22. 230 Musset, p. 197. 231 T ^ „ c Levy, p. 25. 232 Dauzat, Noms, p. 138. 2 3 3 Dauzat, p. 136, Longnon p. 226 §927, Rostaing, p. 72. 234 Here , are j u s t a few comparisons. The source of the f i g u r e i s i n d i c a t e d thus: + P e t r i , my f i g u r e s , Rostaing-PdC +38, 35, 29; Meuse +48, 49, 23; Somme +71, 60, 31; Nord +19, 18, 14; Aisne +42, 31, 19; 01se +36, 28, 10; M e t M +39, 34 , 16; Vosges +33; 38, 13; Moselle 28, .„• 13. v. P e t r i , p. 706, Rostaing, pp. 71-72. 235 Lot, De L ' o r i g i n e , p. 206. 236 A L a t i n D i c t i o n a r y , eds. Cha r l t o n Lewis and Charles Short. Oxford: Charendon r e p r i n t 1966. p. 2019. 237 Longnon, p. 235 §949. 2 3 8 Vincent, p. 180 §429. 2 3 9 V e r h u l s t , p. 38. 240 ^ . , o r Dauzat, p. 136. 2 4 1 Vincent, p. 184 §434. 2 4 2 Longnon, p. 238 §959. 157 2 4 3 Longnon, p. 235 §949. 244 Vincent recognises the h i s t o r i c a l , ethnological value of those toponyms i n which Scandinavian personal names are united with - v i l l a : "Nous disposons done d'un c r i t e r e , qui nous f a i s a i t defaut pour le reste de l a France, pour e t a b l i r l a race, sinon des habitants du v i l l a g e , du moins de leur seigneur., (Lot, De 1'origine, p. 235) Longnon agrees with t h i s opinion: "La proportion dans laquelle les presente l a nomenclature topo-graphique des departements qu'a formes l a Normandie procure d ' u t i l e s indications sur 1 1etendue de l a colonisation scandinave, (p. 293 §1225), Longnon, p. 236 §951. 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 Rostaing, p. 73. Vincent, p. 183 §433. Longnon, p. 12 5 §517. Rostaing, p. 70. Ibid., p. 74. Dauzat, p. 137. Longnon, p. 238 §959. Longnon, p. 228 §930. Negre pointed out that such names surrounded Toulouse l i k e "une aurgole...", (p. 103). 254 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 707. 255 Dauzat, Les horns de lieux, p. 136. 2~*^ Longnon, p. 292 §1225. 158 257 This i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the vigorous usage of v i l l a r e by the Germans. Gysseling speaks of the popularity of v i l l a r e thus: "Het Romaande naambestanddeel v i l l a r e i s , over de .taalgrens heen, dus als leenwoord, ook i n het Rijnlanden het Duitse zuidwesten zeer productief geworden..." (p. 33). 258 "L'aire d 1extension de ces composes ne depasse pas c e l l e de v i l l a . ..." (NSgre, p. 103). 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 Longnon, p. 238 §961. Vincent, p. 177 §417. Ibid., p. 177 §416. Longnon, p. 175 §736. Vincent, p. 136 §314. Grohler, Ursprung, p. 290. Perrin, p. 384. Lot, Invasions, p. 204. Contrary to certain views, i t i s true that -ing appears i n a patronymic function i n the names of the dynasties: Merovingian, Carolingian, Lotharingian, s i g n i f y i n g the discen-dants or relations of these monarchs: Mero-, Carol-, Lothar-. Notwithstanding the various c o n f l i c t i n g opinions, i t seems appropriate to conclude that, at the very l e a s t , -ing expresses "belonging" as P e t r i puts i t : "...jede beliebige Zugehorigkeit, P e t r i , Volkserbe, p. 643. 2 6 8 Vincent, p. 136 §314. 159 269 Perrenot i n d i s c u s s i n g the e v o l u t i o n of i n g emphasises that most Germanic toponymie elements are drawn from a common source: "Tous e t a i e n t des Germains, l e s uns de l ' o u e s t , l e s autres de l ' e s t , et ont pu i s e , pour l a denomination de l e u r s etablissements dans un fonds commun, l a v i e i l l e langue germanique. Perrenot, Toponymie burgonde, p. 27. 270 Rostaing comments thus on the r e l a t i v e ease of con-founding these s u f f i x e s : "Mais dans tout l e M i d i des confusions de s u f f i x e s se sont p r o d u i t e s , en p a r t i c u l i e r entre - i n g germanique et l i g u r e - i n c o . . " p. 66. 271 Negre a t t r i b u t e s t h i s phenomenon to the establishment of F r a n k i s h c o l o n i e s there f o l l o w i n g t h e i r v i c t o r y over the Burgundians, p. 101. 272 Perrenot, p. 36. 273 P e t r i echoes t h i s view: "Im ganzen i s t d i e r i c h t i g e Auswahl der -ingen Namen aus dem i n Betracht kommenden Namen-m a t e r i a l der romano-frankischen Gebiete ungewohnlich s c h w i e r i g . . " Volkserbe, p. 642. 274 This d i s t r i b u t i o n agrees w i t h t h a t a r r i v e d at by Rostaing who s t a t e d that one encounters toponyms i n - i n g "..plus p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t dans l e departement de l a Mos e l l e . . . " , p. 64. 2 7 5 P e r r i n , p. 384. 2 7 6 Grohler recognises but two c l a s s e s of a p p e l l a t i v e s : "westgermanisch" and" "-nordgermanisch" , p. r250. 2 7 7 P e t r i , Volkserbe, p; 517. 160 9 7 8 Grohler: "Ohne A t t r i b u t wird es (-heim) i n ON. selten gebraucht und i s t schwer zu trennen von den aus germ. ham. 'FluGknie' abgeleiteten Ham, Han, Hem, deren Gebiet sich iiberdies mit dem des Heim ziemlich deckt...", Grohler, Ursprung, p. 253-4. 279 Wartburg, "Frankische Siedlung", p. 292. 2 80 Levy claims that there are 250 -baki names in France, Note #1, p. 19. 281 As these names are treated separately under the heading of Scandinavian appellatives, no further toponymic examples w i l l be offered here. 282 _ . . c a Rostaing, p. 69. 2 83 This saxon appellative appears frequently i n the toponymy of southern England, i e : A l f r i s t o n (Sussex), Alton (Hants), Laughton (Sussex), Preston (Hants), Singleton (Sussex) etc. 284 Lot, De 1'origine, p. 242. 161 C. Germanic Simple Names To t h i s point the study has concerned i t s e l f with the place-names which contain Germanic elements either through derivation or composition but there i s another category of toponyms formed from a single Germanic word, either an appellative or an anthro-ponym. One can group these single names into four p r i n c i p a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : a) common nouns or adjectives, b) personal names, c) ethnic or regional names and d) r e l i g i o u s names. A l l these names r e f l e c t the tremendous impact of the Teutonic presence on the s o c i a l order, the demography and r e l i g i o n of G a l l i a Romana. Though the Germans have long since been assimi-lated and much of t h e i r legacy has been erased, i t i s toponymy which continues to indicate the former pervasiveness of t h e i r influence. Germanic anthroponyms i n " i s o l a t i o n " v i z . without other elements, serve as designations for inhabited places throughout France. Like the Romans, the Teutons often chose to designate some places by a personal name alone as a consideration of modern 2 85 German toponymy proves. In the case of G a l l i a Romana there are several possible explanations for the existence of such place-names. They may originate from the name of a German landlord ( i . e . : the "Herrensiedlung" theory) or m i l i t a r y leader or, more plau s i b l y , they may t e s t i f y to the vogue which Germanic personal names enjoyed with the aboriginal inhabitants beginning i n the V l t h century. Whether these names were created by a German or Gallo-Roman population i s extremely d i f f i c u l t to ascertain but the s i g n i f i c a n t point i s the strength and extent of Germanic influence they indicate. Toponyms consisting s o l e l y of a Germanic personal name arose during the High Middle Ages, the time of the great "V51kerwanderung", and reached t h e i r peak of popularity i n the 28 6 feudal period. It i s not surprising to discover that the greatest number of such names bear a masculine personal name because the basis of ancient German society was p a t r i a r c h a l . Nevertheless there are a few examples i n which a feminine anthro-ponym i s employed. A l l the anthroponyms f a l l into one of two groups according to t h e i r formation: f i r s t l y the customary compound form, what Longnon terms "type solennel"; secondly the 2 87 single element, f a m i l i a r form or "type hypocoristique". Here are some examples of the compound names. A l l are alphabetically arranged according to the primitive form of the appropriate anthroponym: Agilmund (Eglemund P« 22; from ag - "tranchant de l'epge" and munt - "protection"); Alglemont (Ardennes); Baldwin (Baldwin p. 50; from bald - "hardi" and win! ("ami"): Bauvin (Nord); Baldranus (p. 50; from bald - "hardi" and hram -. "corbeau"): Boran (Oise) Baudrinum 726; Berulfus (p. 53; from ber "ours" and wulf - "loup"): Berus (Sarthe) vico Berulfo 616; Haduwin (Hadwin p. 119; from had - " l u t t e , combat" and wini -"ami"): Cadouin (Dordogne) de Cadunio 1201; Hariwan : (not l i s t e d i n Morlet; probably from ha r i "armee" and wan - "attente, esperance" liaravesnes (PdC) Haravennae, end of the Xlth century; Hederamnus (not i n Morlet): Airan (Calvados) Heidram 84 3; Heilmar (Hailmarus p. 121; from h a i l - "sain" and mari - " i l l u s t r e " ) : Hellimer (Moselle) Heylmer Xth century, Heylimer 1121; Landwin (Landuinus 163 p. 157; from land - "pays" and w i n i "ami"): Lauwin-Planque (Nord) Lanuin 957; Odbehrt (Odbertus p. 43; from aud -" r i c h e s s e , p r o s p e r i t e " and b e r t " i l l u s t r e , p u i s s a n t " ) : Aubers (Nord) O t b e r t i c o 1135; Theudoad (not l i s t e d but probably from t h i o t -"peuple" and . dod - "jugement") : D_oue (Maine et L o i r e ) Doe 631, Theodadus, Thedwat 814, Doadus 847; S i g i h a r t (p. 198; from s i g - " v i c t o i r e " and hard- " i n t r e p i d e " ) : Sequehart (Aisne) t e r r a Segardi 1147; Warhard ( l i k e l y Warihart p. 218; from wara -" p r o t e c t i o n " and hard - "dur, i n t r e p i d e " ) : Guerard (S et M) Wairar 1045, de Werardo 1080; W i l l i r a m n ( W i l l i r a m p. 225; from w i l j a - "valonte" and Hramn "corbeau") : Guilherand (Ardeche) . Less numerous are the examples where the second element has been suppressed to create an abbreviated, h y p o c o r i s t i c form: A b i l o (p. 13; from abb- "homme"): Ablon (Calvados) (Seine et Oise) Abelon 1198; Berno (p. 54; from bern - "ours"): Bernis (Gard) Bernices 920, Bernizes 1007, Bernon (Aube) Bernon 1097; Hagino (p. 120; from hag - " c l o t u r e , maison"); Hagen (Moselle) Haguen . 1737, Haine (PdC), Haisnes (PdC) Hainnac 877, Aines 976, Haines 1123; Hrodo/Hrogo (Hrodo p. 135; from hrod - " g l o i r e , louange"): RonCQ- (Nord) Rone 1209; Runo (probably a h y p o c o r i s t i c form of ,run -"mystere, s e c r e t " ) : Rognon (Dougs) Roignons 1165; Sino (probably from s i n - "sens, o p i n i o n " ) : Senon (Meuse) Senon 1127; T a l l o (p. 64; from d a l - " v a l l e e " ) : Falon (Nievre) Talon 1490; Wacco (Wacho p. 211; from wac - " v e i l l e r " ) : Vacon (Meuse) Vuacon 1101; Wano (p. 216; from wan - " a t t e n t e , esperance"): Guesnes (Vienne) Guaina 1108, vagina 1124-1140; Winco (probably from the L a t i n o -German root vinco - p. 226): Wingen (Bas Rhin), W-sur-Moder (B Rhin). Rarer s t i l l are feminine anthroponyms i n i s o l a t i o n . 164 In a l l , research of the specimens c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s category r e v e a l s but twenty-six of a t o t a l of 367 examples r e f e r to feminine names. They are moreover almost e x c l u s i v e l y compound names as these examples show: A l p i g a r d i s ( A l b i g a r d i s p. 29; from a l b -" e l f e " and gard "enclos, demeure"): Auppegard "Seine-Maritime) Aupegart X I H t h century; Alseda (Alsedus p. 18; from adal -"noble"): Aussois (Savoie) de Auceis 1184; B r u n i h i l d ( B r u n i h i l d i s p. 61; from b r u n i - " b r u n i , p o l i " and h i I d - "combat"): Bourniquel (Dordogne) Bruniquel 1281; G i s i l a ( G i s l a p. I l l ; from G i s a l - "o.tage"):' Le G u i s l a i n (Manche); Hunila (probably from the root hun - " f o r c e " ) : Houlle (PdC) Hunela 854; I s e l i n d i s (p. 147; from i s a r n - " f e r " and l i n d - " b o u c l i e r " ) : I s l a n d (Yonne) -Ielent 1184, H a n 120 8; S i g i t r u d (p. _199; from s i g -" " v i c t o i r e " and tr u d -" f o r t " ) : Sorrus (PdC) S i g e t r u d i s c. 814. Generally the anthro-ponyms are of Fr a n k i s h or "gemeingermanisch" stock but o c c a s i o n a l l y the names are a t t r i b u t e d to a p a r t i c u l a r t r i b a l source, i . e . , the Scandinavian H e l g i y i e l d s Heugon (Orne) the V i s i g o t h i c A l i o i n s p i r e s L l o (Pyrenees O r i e n t a l e s ) and the Gothic*-Merico gives Merigon (Ariege). The d i s t r i b u t i o n map ( f i g . 11 "Germanic s i n g l e anthroponyms) shows that names of t h i s type are widely s c a t t e r e d throughout France. One would expect t h i s i n view of the adoption of Germanic names by the autochtonous p o p u l a t i o n . However, i t i s s t i l l i n the areas most h e a v i l y s e t t l e d by Germans that the l a r g e s t number are found. F i v e northern departements, four of which are l o c a t e d along the l i n g u i s t i c border, c o n t a i n ten or more specimens each: 2 Pas de C a l a i s has 28 or 4.2 x 1000 km , Nord has 25 or 4.4 x 2 2 1000 km , Ardennes has 12 or 2.3 x 1000 km , Moselle has 14 or 2.2 x 1000 km and Meurthe et Moselle has 11 or 2.1 x 1000 km . Also there are some concentrations worth mentioning i n other germanised regions, i . e . , i n Franche Comte (Hte Saone, Doubs, 2 Jura) there are 25 specimens or 1.5 x 1000 km , i n the northwest corner of Normandy (Manche, Calvados) there are 16 or 1.4 x 1000 km 2 and i n Savoy (Hte Savoie, Savoie) there are 14 or 1.4 x 1000 km . Despite the fact that these names are not r e l i a b l e gauges of settlement, i t i s remarkable that the highest concentrations l i e in those areas of France which were once heavily Germanised. The Germanic onomasticon finds generous expression also in the realm of r e l i g i o n , more precisely, i n the hundreds of Germanic saints' - names which function as place-names. These names augment by several hundred the number of anthroponyms occurring i n i s o l a t i o n . That t h i s toponymie formation i s i n vigorous usage i n Germanic lands, i s demonstrated by such examples as these: St. Gotthard (Switzerland), St. Hubert (W. Germany, Belgium), St. Ingbert (W. Germany), St.1 Lenaarts (Belgium), St. Leonhard (Austria) , St. Truiden (Belgium) , st'.' Tuna (Sweden) and St. Wendel (W. Germany). It was i n the V l t h century that inhabited places i n France began to be c a l l e d a f t e r the name of a l o c a l patron saint. Once again i t i s a complex matter to determine which names were borne by Gallo-Romans and which by actual Germans. In the Vth and V l t h centuries the proportion of Germanic personal names indicated by e c c l e s i a s t i c a l documents was s t i l l low permitting one to surmise that they represented ethnic Germans. Paul Levy c i t e s the example of the acts of the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l councils held i n Gaul (475-578 A.D.) i n which of 288 508 signatures a mere 28 were of Germanic o r i g i n . Of course the ethnic background of the celebrated, popular saints i s known, i.e.,St. Genevieve (Genofeva), the patroness of Paris, was the daughter of Gallo-Roman parents Gerontius and Severa; on the other hand, SS Mgdard, Sigismund and Radegonde were a l l Germans, indeed, the l a t t e r two were sovereigns of r u l i n g Germanic dynasties i n G a l l i a Romana. Thus these saint;s names, "vocables hagiogra-phiques", offe r no aid i n establishing the l i m i t s of Germanic colonisation. But they t e s t i f y to the ubiquitousness of the Teutonic presence i n G a l l i a which affected the various levels of s o c i a l l i f e including the r e l i g i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y the Germanisation of the church i n northern G a l l i a was greatly f a c i l i t a t e d by a rapprochement between the autochtonous Gallo-Romans and the Franks who, e a r l i e r than other Germans, accepted orthodox Catholicism, abjuring the h e r e t i c a l Arianism common to most German peoples i n the early Middle Ages. It was the church i t s e l f which fostered the accommodation with the Franks: "Le clerge, seule autorite morale qui p e r s i s t a t , poussa les populations dans l a voie de l a resignation ou, pour 2 89 mieux dire au ralliement." Eminent church teachers l i k e Gregory of Tours and bishop Remy of Rheims were w i l l i n g collabor-ators of the Frankish kings. This early r e l i g i o u s accommodation of Franks and Gallo-Romans and the Frankish p o l i t i c a l domination probably accounts for the dearth of Burgundian,sSaxon, Gothic, arid Norse names in the l i s t of Germanic saints. The l a t t e r t r i b e s also remained f a i t h f u l to Arianism thus hindering a similar rapprochement. The alphabetically compiled l i s t of saints' names which follows i s divided into two groups: masculine and feminine anthroponyms. This l i s t i s by no means complete but provides some 168 inter e s t i n g toponymie examples. Wherever the i d e n t i t y of the saint i s known t h i s information i s given. Here are specimens bearing masculine personal nemas: Agilus: St. A g i l (Loire et Cher) Sanctus Agilus c. 1272, St. Ay (Loiret) parr. Sancti A g i l i 1202, St. Isle (Mayence) S. A i l l e 1452, S. Ysle 1554, Agilus was a saint who l i v e d i n Orleans i n the Vth century; Autbertus: St. Aubert (Nord) de S. Autberto 1057, Autbertus was bishop of Cambrai V l l t h century; Baldo: St. Bauld (Indre et Loire) capp. S. Baldi V l t h century, Baldo was a hermit who l i v e d near Sens and died i n 620 A.D. Baomadus: St. Borner ( E et L ) S. Baomirus 1130, St. Bomer-les-Forges (Orne) e c c l . S. Bomari 1199, Baomadus was a deacon i n l a Perche IVth century; Sigiramnus: St. Cyran-du-Jambot (Indre) e c c l . S. Sigiranni 1212, Sigirannus was a hermit i n Berry i n the V l l t h century; Garimar: St. Germe (Gers), St. Germer (Wise), St. Germier (Hte Garonne) (Gers) (D. Sevres) e c c l . S. Germerii 959 (Tarn), one Garimar was bishop of Toulouse i n the V l t h century; another was an abbe i n the north of France in the V l l t h century; Mathric: St. Mery (S et M) de S. Mederico 1171, Mathric was a saint of Autun i n the V l t h century; Ricmar: St. Rigomer-des-Bois (Sarthe) e c c l . S. Rigomeride S i l v a c. 990 , St. Rimay ( L e t Ch.) c e l l u l a . S . Ricmiri 832, Ricmar was a hermit of Maine c. V l t h - V l l t h cc.; Sigismund: St. Sigismond (Loiret) puteus S. Sigismondi 843, . (M et L) e c c l . S. Sigismundi 1080-96, (Savoie) de S. Sigismundo c. 1170, (H. Savoie), (Vendee), St. Sigismond-de-Clermont (Charente Maritime) Sigismund was king of the Burgundians and was murdered by Chlodomir who had him thrown into a well i n 523 A.D.; Theudric: St. Thierry (Mane) coenobium. S. Theodorici 922, Theudric was founder of the monastery i n the V l t h century; Otha l r i c : St. U l r i c h (H. Rhin) de S. Odalrico 1106, Othalric was bishop of Augsburg i n the Xth century. Far fewer examples of feminine saint's names e x i s t . A survey of the names coll e c t e d reveals that merely 21 of 417 are feminine. These specimens exhibit the Germanic names of female martyrs and saints of G a l l i a : Austroberta: Ste. Austreberthe (PdC) v i l l a Beate Austroberte 1220, (Seine Mar), Austroberta, abbesse i n Ponthieu and Normandy V H t h century; Bova: Ste. Beuve-en-R1v1ere (Seine Mar) Bova, abbess i n Rheims V H t h century; Genovefa: Ste Genevieve (Aisne) S. Genovefa 1250, (Manche), (M et M) Saincte Genevieve 1369, (Oise), (Seine Mar), Ste. G.-sur-Argence. (Aveyr.), Ste.. G. -des-Bois (Loiret) e c c l . Beatae Genovefae 1152, (S et 0 ) , Ste. G.-en-Caux (Seine Mar), Ste. G.-les-Gasny (Eure) S. Genovefa c. 1024, from Genovefa patroness of Paris Vth century; Irmina: Ste. Hermine (Vendee) Irmina, abbesse and daughter of Dagobert I i n V H t h century; Manchildis: Ste. Menehou1d (Marne) S. Maneho.ut 1148, Manehildis, a v i r g i n of Perthois Vth century; Sigolena: Ste Sigolene (H. Loire) e c c l . S. Segolena 1164, Sigolena, abbess i n Albigeois V I H t h century. The profound Germanic influence on the G a l l i c church i s documented by the 420 place names which are dotted throughout France (v. f i g 12, "Germanic saint's names"). They occur i n varying degrees of frequency i n almost a l l parts of the country. Few examples are located i n the German provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. But unlike previous place-name types there i s a r e l a t i v e balance i n d i s t r i b u t i o n between the halves of France north and south of the Loire. The region with the highest density of saint's names i s Normandy of which four departements (Calvados, 171 Seine-Maritime, Orne, Eure) contain 61 specimens or 2.5 x 1000 2 km . The point of maximum concentration i s Orne with 20 or 2 3.3 x 1000 km . In a l l , some eleven departements contain 10 or more specimens (indicated by v e r t i c a l l i n e s ) . The remaining 2 seven are: r i l e et Vxllaine with 11 (1.6 x 1000 km ), Mayenne with 11 (w.l x 1000 km 2), Charente Maritime with 12 (1.7 x 1000 km 2), Dordogne with 11 (1.2 x 1000 km 2), Creuse with 10 (2.0 2 2 x 1000 km ) and Saone et Loire with 11 (1.3 x 1000 km ). The t h i r d class of toponyms within t h i s category comprises Germanic appellatives and, to a minor degree, adjectives which occur i n i s o l a t i o n . Such names are both testimonials to the 290 need of Germans to designate t h e i r new environment and evidence of the fusion of the Romance and Teutonic cultures, for a number of these words have been integrated into modern French or some of i t s d i a l e c t s , i . e . : burg^ bourg, s a l a ^ s a l l e , ham ^ hameau, heriberga > auberge, h u l i s ^ houx, haga> haie. But many words of Germanic o r i g i n have become ' f o s s i l i s e d ' i n French toponymy being neither understood nor employed i n any other context by the l o c a l population. Thus a great variety of. Germanic words not i n common French usage have been preserved through toponymy. By no means can a l l the toponyms of t h i s kind be attributed to the Germans because some w i l l be due to 291 l i n g u i s t i c borrowings, e s p e c i a l l y i n d i a l e c t a l usage. As the appellatives and adjectives refer to s p e c i f i c domains of the natural surroundings and human a c t i v i t i e s or i t s products, the place-names w i l l be examined under certain general rub r i c s : trees and plants, mountains and heights, bodies of water, habitations, and m i l i t a r y terms and sundry land forms. In a l l cases the 172 p r i m i t i v e form of the Germanic word i s i n d i c a t e d and explained: A. t r e e s and p l a n t s : buch, "beech": Boucg (M et M) i n Boiaco, Bouch Xth century; busk, "wood": Le Bu-sur-Rouvres (Calv.) Le Busc 1373, Bousse (Moselle) Bous 1224, the former may a l s o d e r i v e from Scandinavian busker; e i k a , "oak": Ecques (PdC) Eka IXth century; Eeke (Nord) apud Hechas 1066; ask, "ash": E i x (Meuse) Ex 1049, Asse 1219, Aixe 1266; hag, "hedge": Hayes (Moselle) Heis 1192,^Hecq (Nord) Hecques 1131, the l a t t e r name der i v e s from modern German Heck; l i n t a , " l i n d e n " : Lynde (Nord) Linde c. 1320; lundr, " L i t t l e wood": La Londe (Seine Mar) Landa 1337; hanap, "hemp": "Hannapes (Aisne) v i l l a Hanapio 845, (Ardennes) Hanape 1113; a p h a l t a r , "apple t r e e " : Le Veurdre ( A l l i e r ) A v u l d r i a 1399; rogo, "rye": Raon-aux-Bo1s (Vosges) Rua 1140, Ravou 1243, R-sur-Plaine (Vosges) Rawon sur P l e i n e 1328; reke, "hedge": Recques-sur-Course (PdC) Rech 1224, R. -sur-Hem (PdC); r o r , "rush, reed": Rohr (B Rhin) Roraha IXth century, -aha subsequently disappeared. B. mountains and h e i g h t s : berg, "mountain": Berck (PdC) datum Bergis 1215, B i e r k 1282, Berg (Moselle) Berge 915, (B Rhin) Bergue 1361, Bergues (Nord) Bergon 944, Bierges (Marne) Biergue 1158; b u h i l , " h i l l o c k " : Boelhe (Liege, Belgium) B o i l e s 1134-8, Buhl (B Rhin) (H Rhin) B u h i l e 1216, B.-Lorraine (Moselle) Bule XVth century; hangr, " e l e v a t i o n " : La Hogue (Calv.) Hoga 1077, (Manche), Les Hogues (Eure), La Hougue (Manche) Hoga 1062, Saint Vaast-la-Hougue (Manche); hun, "height": Hoh-Hergles (Nord) Hun 868. C. Bodies of water: b a k i , "stream": Le Bac d'Erquinghem (Nord), Berry-au-Bac (Aisne), Choisy-au-Bac (Oise); bekkr, 173 "stream": Bee de Mortagne (Seine Maritime) Beccensem e c c l . 1171-81, Le Bec-Hellouin (Eure) Beccus X l t h century, Beccus H e r l e v i n c. 1160; Bee-Thomas (Eure) Beccus Thomae 1195; born, "source": Borre (Nord) Bur 1218, Borre 1226; stroom, "stream": Estreux (Nord) Estroem 1142, Etreux (Aisne) Estron 1114, Etroeungt (Nord) Struem 114 7, Eta i n (Nord) Strum 874-900, (PdC). Estrum X H t h century, Lestrem (PdC) Strumum 1140; s u l z a , " s a l t y water": Soulce-Cernay (Doubs) Sulcea 1179, Soultz (H Rhin) Sulze 708, S.-Tes-Bains (B Rhin) Sulgha 770, S.-sous-forets (B Rhin) S u l c i a 737. D. h a b i t a t i o n s : bur, "hut, h a b i t a t i o n " : Beure (Doubs) Buyre 1349, Beyren (Moselle) Burias 762,,Boeurs-en-Othe (Yonne) Burs 1138, Buire (Aisne) Bures 1147, B.-au-Boir (PdC) Buyrae 1042, Bures X H t h century, B.-sur-i; 'Ancre (Somme) , Bure (Meuse) Bura 1195, B.-les-Templiers (c d'or) Burae 887, Bure-les-Templiers X V I I I t h century, Bures (Calv.) Bures 1082, Burum 1262, (Orne) de B u r i s 1242, (Seine Maritime) Bures 1026-7; bu, "residence, house": Beux (Moselle) Bu 1161, Beue 1404, Bus 1429, Bu (Ect.L) Beutum c. 1186; budh, "cabin": Le Bo (Calv.) Bos, Boos 1225, au Bo 1328, Boos (Seine Maritime) Bothus X l t h century; buurt, " v i l l a g e " : Bourthes (PdC) Bortheem 811, Burtes 1069; s k a l i , "small house": E c a l l e s - A l i x (Seine Mar) Scalae, E s q u a l l e s X I H t h century, E c a l l e s (Seine Mar) Scalae X I H t h century; ham, " v i l l a g e " ; Le Ham (Calv) Le Han 1210, (Manche) Hams 1023-6, (Mayenne) Ham 832, Ham (Somme) Hammus 932, Ham-en-Artois (PdC) Hamma 887, H.-les-Moines (Ardennes) H.-sous-Varsberg (Moselle) Hamus 1181, H.-sur-Meuse (Adennes) , Han-devant-Pierrepont (Meuse) Han 1656, H.-sur-Nied (Moselle) Hans 12 39, Han (Met M) Arraye-et-Han, 174 Han 1354, Hans (Marne) Ham 1132, Hames-Boucres (PdC) Hames 1084, Hem (Nord) Hem 1359, H-Lenglet (Nord), H-Monacu (Somme); hof, "courtyard, farm": Hoff (Moselle) Hove 1128, Hoffen (B Rhin) E n g l i s h home, " d w e l l i n g " : Le Home (Calv.) X l X t h century c r e a t i o n ; hus, "house": Housse (Liege, Belgium) Huz 1131, Houssen (H Rhin) Husen 1278, Husseren-les-Chateaux (H Rhin) Hiisern 1245, H. - Wesserling (Haut Rhin) Heiisern 1550; l a u b j a , "lodging": Les  Laubies (Lozere), La Laupie (Drome) Laupia 1277; tun, "town": Thun-1'-Eveque(Nord) Tun 1074 T.-St-Amand (Nord) T V - S t - M a r t i n (Nord) Thun 1089; thorp, " v i l l a g e " : Torpes (Doubs) Torpa 1187, (Set L) Torpe 1315, Le Torpt (Eure) Tort 1404, Le Torp-Mesnil (Seine Maritime) Torp beg. X l l l t h century. E. m i l i t a r y terms: burg, " f o r t i f i c a t i o n , stronghold", t h i s term enjoyed great p o p u l a r i t y during the c a s t l e - b u i l d i n g f e u d a l p e r i o d . Here are some examples of the 38 specimens discovered i n France: Bourg (Ardennes) Bore c. 1172, Bourg-en-Bresse (Ain) de Burgo 1187, Bourg ( B e l f o r t ) , (H Mane) Burgo 887, (Met T), B.-sur-Gironde (Gir.) de Burgo 1169, B.-de-Bigorre (H. P y r . ) ; helm, "helmet": Le Hearme (Seine et O i s e ) ; wart, "lookout, f o r t " : La  Garde ( B Alpes) La Gareda c. 1200, Garda c. 1300 (Char-Mar), Is§re) Guarda X l t h century; wahta, "guard, watch": V a i t e (H Saone) de V a c t i s X l t h century; V a i t e s (Doubs) Les Voetes, Voettes d 1Ormont-Dessus 1310; w e r k i , " f o r t i f i c a t i o n s " : La Guerche (I et V) Wirchiae 1077,"La G.-de-Bretagne (I et V) Wirchia X l t h century, La G.-sur-1'Aubois (Cher) G u i r c i a 1036, La Guierche (Sarthe) Wirchia 1090, Warccj (Ardennes), (Meuse) Warck 707. F. sundry land forms: bruoch, "bog, swamp": Breuches (H Saone) Brouck (Mas) Brocchi 1178, Bruco 1236; d a l , " r a l l y " : 175 D a s l e ( D o u b s ) . D a l a c . 1150; h o r w i , " s w a m p " : H o r i o n ( L i e g e , B e l g i u m ) H u r i o n 862, L e H o r p s ( M a y e n n e ) H o r p 1186, L e s H o r b e s ( N o r d ) , L a H o u r b e ( A i s n e ) ; h o r n j a , " p o i n t o f l a n d " : L a H o r g n e ( A r d e n n e s ) L a H o r u g e 1319, M e n i l - l a - H o r n g e * ( M e u s e ) c o m i t a t u H o r n i n s e 965, L e s H o r g n e s ( O i s e ) ; r i u t i , " c l e a r e d l a n d " : R h o d e s ( M o s e l l e ) R o d e 1397, R o e u l x ( N o r d ) R u e t h 1143-63, R o e u x ( P d C ) R u e t h 1223, R o t t ( B a s R h i n ) , R o u h e ( D o u b s ) R o h a 1179, R u i t z ( P d C ) R u i t h 1135; w a r i d , " r i v e r i s l a n d " : W o e r t h ( B a s R h i n ) W e r d a 1219; w i s a , " m e a d o w , p r a i r i e " : W u i s s e ( M o s e l l e ) W i s s a 1092. I n a l l , 2 5.3 e x a m p l e s o f G e r m a n i c s i n g l e a p p e l l a t i v e s o r a d j e c t i v e s h a v e b e e n c o l l e c t e d f r o m a s e a r c h o f s u c h w o r k s a s t h e D i c t i o n n a i r e d e s n o m s d e l i e u x d e F r a n c e . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n m a p ( f i g 13 " G e r m a n i c s i n g l e n a m e s - a p p e l l a t i v e s a n d a d j e c t i v e s " ) s h o w s t h a t t o p o n y m s o f t h i s t y p e c a n b e f o u n d i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s a l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e i n F r a n c e . B u t i t i s d e f i n i t e l y i n t h e e x t r e m e n o r t h w e s t e r n a n d n o r t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r s o f t h e c o u n t r y , t h a t i s , i n A r t o i s - P i c a r d y a n d A l s a c e - L o r r a i n e t h a t t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r s o c c u r . I n d e e d i n t h e f i v e d e p a r t e m e n t s c o n c e r n e d f u l l y 91 s p e c i m e n s a r e c o n t a i n e d : N o r d h a s t h e m a x i m u m d e n s i t y w i t h 25 s p e c i m e n s (4.4 x 1000 k m 2 ) , P a s d e C a l a i s h a s 17 (2.5 x 1000 k m 2 ) , H a u t R h i n h a s 2 2 14 (4.0 x 1000 km ) , B a s R h i n h a s 16 (3.3 x 1000 km ) a n d M o s e l l e 2 h a s 19 (3.0 x 1000 km ) . I t x s n a t u r a l t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f t h e s e G e r m a n i c v o c a b l e s s h o u l d b e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n r e g i o n s w h i c h w e r e s t r o n g l y G e r m a n i s e d . A c u r s o r y o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f i g u r e s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s a r e l o c a t e d a b o v e t h e L o i r e w i t h n o t h i n g h i g h e r t h a n a 3 o c c u r r i n g b e l o w t h a t l i n e . « » # • • # * » * • 7 / 7 7 / / / ! 1111 f t ? i n i 177 A f i n a l class of toponyms consists of ethnic names, what 292 P e t r i c a l l s "Germanische Volkernamen", which r e c a l l the presence of i n d i v i d u a l German t r i b e s on the s o i l of G a l l i a Romana. In a great many instances these place-names are Gallo-Roman 293 creations designating nearly Barbarian settlements. These names may be broken down into two basic types: "pagi" names v i z . those r e f e r r i n g to regions, provinces or realms; and the names of "lieux habites" marking a l o c a l i t y inhabited by Germans. Quite a few such names would be quite ancient because they r e c a l l d i s t i n c t Germanic groups who colonised G a l l i a well before the great invasions of the Vth century. Certainly few save those r e f e r r i n g to Northmen or Flemings would be as recent as the Xth century. The 'pagi' names are a manifestation of the custom of a conquering race to replace the name used by the subject people 294 to one r e f l e c t i n g the change i n ownership. This i s generally the name of the new overlords. One need only think of B r i t a i n , the ancient C e l t i c name of that isla n d which l a t e r was super-ceded by England following the conquest. In G a l l i a , the old Latin or Gallo-Roman provinces came to be replaced by these p o l i t i c a l / r a c i a l names: Allemagne, from Latin "Alemannia", the name of modern France's eastern neighbour and a clear reference to the Alemanni: Bourgogne, Latin "Burgondia'', the realm of the Burgundians; France, "Francia", the realm of the Franks; and f i n a l l y the more recent name Normandie, "Normannia", realm of the Northmen. Another Germanic 'pag-us' name Gothia- did not survive beyond the X l l l t h century because of the r i v a l r y of the term 295 Languedoc. Unlike the place-names, these regional names correspond to the areas s e t t l e d by the great mass of a t r i b e . 178 The toponyms commemorate rather the establishment of "pockets" of in d i v i d u a l t r i b e s on G a l l i c t e r r i t o r y . Some r e s u l t from the settlement of Barbarians who were Roman a l l i e s , "foederati", i n the period preceding the attack .on Rome i n 455 A.D. for example, the Emperor Probus s e t t l e d groups of 50 to 60 Alemanni i n Gaul and elsewhere i n the Empire i n order to neutralise p o t e n t i a l or 296 re a l enemies. S t i l l others would have occupied parts of Gaul during the waves of incursions i n the IVth and Vth centuries. No matter what the circumstances of occupation may be, these place-names continue to r e c a l l areas where once i s o l a t e d bands of Germans l i v e d . Within France one encounters single element toponyms which relate to some eleven d i f f e r e n t Germanic ethnic names: Allemans, Burgundians, Franks, Germans, Goths, Marcomans, Normans, Saxons, Suavians,Taifalians and Vandals. The following specimens have been arranged under the headings of the three branches of the Germanic peoples: the East Germans, the West Germans and the North Germans. A. Germans the c o l l e c t i v e term for a l l the t r i b e s : Germaine (Aisne) Germania 1135, (Marne) Germanium 1086, Germaines (H Marne) Germana 1230, Les Germains (Cher). B. East Germans, Burgundians: Bourgogne (Marne) Burgondia 1120, Bburgoin (Isere) Burgundium 1183, Bourgoin X I H t h century; La Bourgonce (Vosges) capella....Burguntiae 1140, Bourgignons (Aube) Bulgundio bef. 854, Burgungnuns 1175, Bourguignon (Doubs), B.-les-Conflans (Hte Saone), B.-les-la-Charite (Hte Saone), B. -les-Morey (Hte Saone) , B. -'sous-Coucy (Aisne) , B. -sous-Montbavin (Aisne), Les Bourgoins (Yonne), Bourgougnane (Lot et Gar); Goths: Goudet (H. L o i r e ) . Godit 870, Godet 875, e c c l . Gothidi 877, Goudex (H. Garonne), Le Goudeix (Creuse), (Dordogne), Goudon 179 (H. Pyrenees) , (H. L o i r e ) , Goudou (Dord), (H. Gar), (Lot), Gouts (Landes), G.-Rossignol (Dordogne) Guz Xth century, Goz MOO, Goutz (Gers), Goux (Doubs), (Gers), (Jura), G.-les-Usiers (Doubs) Gueux (Marne) Gothi c. 850; T a i f a l i a n s , a sub group of the Goths: Chauffailles. (S et L) XlVth century,, curatus de C h o f a l l i bef. 1412, Tiffauges (Vendee) Tyfauges 1269, Tivauche (C d'or) 1046-8 v i l l a m qui Tivalgas vocabulum est, T o u f f a i l l e s (Tet G) Theufales IXth century; Vandals: ^Gandalou (T et G) Gandalor 1266-7, eccles i e de Gandalou 1305. C. West Germans, Allemans: Les Allemands (Drome), (H. Savoie). Allemagne (B. Alpes) Alemannia 1182, (Calv.) Alemannia 109 7, L'AlTemagne (Aube) Alemaine 1328, Aumagne (Char.-Mar.) Alamannia 1290, Allemanche-Launay-et-Soyer (Marne) Alemanche c. 1220, Alemenches (Orne) Alamannisca, Les Allemands (Doubs), (B. Alpes) , (Gers) , (Loire) , (Va'ucl,. ) , Les Allemans (Ariege) de Alamanniis 1325, Allemans c. 980, (Marne) Allemannus 813, (L et G); Franks: Francs-la-Frangjaise (Gironde) , Frencq (PdC) Frencq . 1042, Frenc 1112, French 1141, La Frangaise (T et G), Franseches (Creuse) Franciscas, Fransaches (Eure et Loire) Fransesches 1263, Franssaiches 1502, Franceseas (Lot;et Garonne), Francon (H. Garonne), Francou (T et G); Markomans, cl o s e l y associated with the Bavarians: Marmagne (Cher) Marmannia 1030, (C d'or) Marcomania 747, Marmellae 1384, Miermalgne (E et L) Meremaigne 1250; Suavians, sub-group of the Alemans: Ecoivres (PdC) Esquaviae 1079, Squavae X l l t h century; Ecoivres (PdC) Suavia 1150; Saxons: Sassogne (Nord), Sissonne (Aisne) Sessonia 1107, Suessonia 1141, Sisona 1210. D. North Germans, Northmen: Normandel (Orne), 180 A map ( f i g . 14 "Germanic ethnic toponyms") d e t a i l s the location of the 74 toponyms r e f e r r i n g to German colonies i n France. The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s t r i b u t i o n which st r i k e s the observer i s the nearly complete lack of such names in the Germanophone regions, e s p e c i a l l y i n the Alemans 1 stronghold of Alsace-Lorraine. This appears to support the view that these 297 toponyms mark islands of Germans in a sea of Gallo-Romans. Thus i t i s l o g i c a l that no references to t r i b e s which l a t e r s e t t l e d G a l l i a i n large numbers are to be found i n those t e r r i t o r i e s , i e : no references to the Alemanni occur i n Alsace, and only one reference to the Franks occurs i n northwestern France . (departement Nord, Pas de C a l a i s ) . Actually, the ethnic place-names cover nearly the entire area of France. The north, centre and south of the country contain the most examples. The numerically strongest representations belong to three t r i b e s : the Alemanni(18), the Goths(16) and the Burgundians(12) which together account for 62% of the t o t a l . Perhaps the r e p a r t i t i o n of the Aleman colonies through 15 departements located i n widely d i s t r i b u t e d parts of the country may be attributed to the imperial land grants such as those of Emperor Probus i n the 3rd century. The Burgundian and Gothic place-names, which seem to be concentrated i n the zones formerly p o l i t i c a l l y dominated by them (i.e.: i n Franche-Comte for the Burgundians, i n southwestern France for the Goths) are l i k e l y due to the limited and scattered colonisation of these peoples. Unlike the Alemans and Franks who were strong enough to e n t i r e l y Germanise portions of G a l l i a , these East Germans spread themselves too t h i n l y over t h e i r immense realms: "Au contraire les Burgondes et les Wisigots, qui dominaient des 182 t e r r i t o i r e s immenses, n'etaient pas assez nombreux pour les 298 germaniser..." As a closing remark, i t i s noteworthy that even minor Germanic peoples l i k e the Marcomans, Suavians and T a i f a l i a n s whose part i n the conquest and settlement of G a l l i a i s obscure at best are remembered i n the toponymy of France. 183 FOOTNOTES C. Germanic Simple Names 285 Here are some examples of isol a t e d anthroponyms appearing i n Germanic geography: A l f (W. Germany), A i l i n g (W. Germany), Frederika (Sweden), Ludvika (Sweden), Oding (W. Germany). Rostaing, p. 66. 2 8 7 Longnon, pp. 250-1, §§995-6. Levy, p. 25. 289 Lot, Invasions, p. 252. 290 . Common nouns used alone do occur quite often i n the toponymy of various German nations: Aa (W. Germany)= auwja, "wet meadow"; Berg (Norway, Sweden)= berg, "mountain"; Buhl (W. Germany)= b u h i l , " h i l l " ; Haus (Norway)= haus, "house"; Hof (W. Germany)= hof "farm"; Holm (Denmark, Norway, Sweden)= holm, " r i v e r i s l a n d " ; Horst (E. Germany, W. Germany, Netherlands)= hurst, "copse, thicket". i 291 Negre, p. 108. 2 9 2 Volkserbe, p. 901, map #38. 293 Lucien Musset regards t h i s explanation for the creation of these names as reasonable: "Mais les etablissements de peuples exotiques et inattendus ont plus de chance d 1 a v o i r a t t i r e l ' a t t e n t i o n des Gaulois que ceux de peuples f a m i l i e r s . . " p. 225. 294 v. Negre, p. 98. 295 Ibid., p. 99. 184 29 6 Grohler, Ursprung, p. 3. 29 7 "Lors des invasions, dans les regions occupies d'une maniere extensive, s i par exception les nouveaux venus restaient groupes en quelque point, i l s formaient comme un i l o t ethnique.." Negre, p. 99. 298 Ibid., p. 96. 185 D. Ge rmano-Romance Place-Names Composed of Three Elements U n t i l now toponyms of one or two elements have been examined, however, the f i n a l category concerns those place-names made up 1 . 2 of three elements: either a) anthroponym + s u f f i x + s u f f i x or b) anthroponym + s u f f i x + appellative. The anthroponym i s Germanic i n a l l cases but the other elements may be hybrid Gallo-Roman as -in-iacum, -lacurn-villa, -lacum-cortis or homogeneous Germanic as -ing-hem, -ing-hove, -ing-tun. Thus these names are testimonials to the fusion of two systems of toponymie formation: composition and derivation. The syntax i s always of the so-called "type germanique". One immediately remarks the apparent s i m i l a r i t y of form and meaning between these Gallo-Roman and Germanic combi-nations. According to an i n t r i g u i n g hypothesis of Maurits Gysseling, the.feminine p l u r a l -iacas formations of North G a l l i a gave r i s e to the l a c a - c u r t i s , i a c a - v i l l a combinations i n the V l t h century. This Romance toponymie innovation then spread to the Germanophone lands beginning i n the Pas de Calais region 299 where an analogous transformation of inga y ingahaim arose. So vigorous was the new mode of toponymie formation that i t not only caused the creation of new names but also changed some of the older -iacas, -ingas names to the compound forms: "Im bepaalde gewesten was de nieuwe namenmode zu krachtig dat ze ook de 5e eeuwse namen op -ingas umvormde tot -ingaheim..." 3^ Unfortunately the existence of -ing and -inghem place-names i n German-speaking t e r r i t o r i e s distant from France does raise doubts 186 about the v a l i d i t y of such a convenient theory. Whatever the t r u t h behind the c r e a t i o n may be,the analogy between these formations remains s t r i k i n g . The m a j o r i t y of the mixed Germano-Romance toponyms end i n -iniacum, i a c u m c u r t i s or - i a c u m v i l l a but th e r e are a l s o a few i s o l a t e d examples of a l t e r n a t e combinations, i.e.:-iacum-mons, - o n i s - v i T l a , -lacum-rivus - o n e - i c a . These compound endings stem from the High Middle Ages subsequent to the Germanic o c c u p a t i o n (cf . V e r h u l s t p. 37). The -iniacum ending i s the s u b j e c t of some disagreement. While G y s s e l i n g , Rostaing, Dauzat, and Negre regard i t as d i s t i n c t from -lacum, Longnon does n o t . ^ x In a p r e l i m i n a r y note to h i s l i s t of -iniacum names, V i n c e n t warns t h a t some of the examples may stem from anthroponyms t e r m i n a t i n g i n - i n : " C e r t a i n s p o u r r a i e n t a v o i r comme base un nom d'homme 302 . en - i n q u i nous s e r a i t mconnu..." P l a i n l y , the e t y m o l o g i s a t i o n of names e x h i b i t i n g t h i s ending i s not an easy tas k . For the purposes o f t h i s paper i t w i l l be t r e a t e d as a d i s t i n c t , composite ending. For each of the endings mentioned above, a s e r i e s of i l l u s t r a t i v e toponyms i s p r o v i d e d . They are arranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y a f t e r the Germanic p e r s o n a l names which form t h e i r b a s i s . A. -iniacum: Ado Xp. 14; probably from a d a l - " n o b l e " ) : Aigny (Marne) Adenaicus IXth century; Boso (P. 60; from bos-"mauvais"): Busigny (Nord) B u s i g n i e s 1121; Giso (p. 110; probably from g i s i l - " s t a g e " ) , G u i s e n i e r s (Eure) G y s i n i a c u s 1025; Hampo (not i n M o r l e t ) : Hampigny (Aube) Hampigni 1198; Harik (Haricus p. 128; from h a r i - "armee"): Hareigny (Aisne) de H a r c i g n i s 1120, Harcenaie 1135; Mundo (probably a h y p o c o r i s t i c form of iriunt - " p r o t e c t i o n " , p. 170): Mondigny (Ardennes); Rumo 187 (probably a hypocoristic form of rum - " g l o i r e " , p. 191): Remigny (Aisne) Ruminiacus 849, Romigny (Marne) Ruminiacum 879, Rumigny (Ardennes) de Rumigniaco 1216-17, (Somme); Sazzo (Sasso, p. 194; from sahs - "Saxons"): Sassegnies (Nord) Saseniis 1142; Saracho (p. 195; from sar- "armure"): Serquigny (Eure) Sarquignie 1206; Scatto (probably from scata - "ombre, obscurity", p. 196): Xertigny (Vosges) de Scatiniaco V l t h - X H t h cc., Xartigny 1409; Wado (p. 212; from wad - "gorge, engagement") Vagney (Vosges) de Wahiniaco Vainiaco Xlth - X H t h c c ; Wando (probably from wand -" d i r i g e r , tourner" p. 210): Wandignies-Hamage (Nord) Wandegiis 1141; Werdo (p. 220; from werd - "digne, honorable"): Verdigny (Cher) Verdiniacum. 1159; Wiso (p. 228; from wis - "sage savant"): Vesancy (Ain) Vizencie c. 1200. B. iacumcurtis: A l l i n (not l i s t e d but l i k e l y from a l i -"autre" p. 32): Hall i g n i c o u r t (H. Marne) A l i n i a c a c o r t i s 854-58; Austhari (Ostreharius p. 47 from austr - " b r i l l a n t " and har i -"armee"): Austricourt (C. d'or) de Ostricurte bef. 1137; Bereheri (Bereharius p. 52; from ber- "ours" and h a r i - "armee"): Behericourt (Oise) B e h i r e i c u r t i s 986; Hamo (p. 122; from haim -"maison"): Homecourt (Met M). Hameicourt 1260; Haric (Haricus p. 128; from h a r i - "epee" or "armee"): Achicourt (PdC) Hari-c o r t i s 1047, Huchicourt 1258; Landerich (Landericus p. 156; from land - "pays, te r r e " and r i c - "puissant"): Landrecourt (Meuse) Landrezecourt 1573; Rado (p. 182; from rad - "avis, jconseil"): Recourt (H. Mane) Reheicourt 1163; Sigimer (p. 198; from s i g - " v i c t o i r e " and mari - "celebre, i l l u s t r e " ) : Sommere- court (H. Marne) Semerecourt 1262; Trasmar-(not i n Morlet): Tramecourt (PdC) Tramecurium 1191; Wino (probably Wini p. 227; 188 from w i n i - "ami"): Wignicourt (Ardennes). C. - i a c u m v i l l a : Anno (p. 35; from an - " a i e u l " ) : A n n e v i l l e (H. Marne) A g n i v i l l a X l V t h century; Berno (p. 54; from bern - "ours"): B e r n e v i l l e (PdC); Gunderich (Gundericus p. 118; from gund - "combat, l u t t e " and r i c - " p u i s s a n t " ) : C o n t r e x e v i l l e (Vosges) G u n d r e c i v i l l a 1213; H a r i (p. 124; from h a r i - "armee"): H a r e v i l l e (Vosges) H a r e v i l l e 1289; H a r r e v i l l e - l e s - C h a n t e u r s (H. Marne) H a r e v i l l e c. 902, Harei v i l l a m 904; Run (from run -"mystere, s e c r e t " p. 101) R e g n e v l l l e (Meuse) R o n e i v i l l a X l l t h century, R i g n e i v i l l e 1200; Walduff (probably Waldulfus p. 214; from wald - "gouverner, commander" and wulf - " l o u p " ) : V a u d e v i l l e (Meuse); Werimer (not i n M o r l e t ) : Warmeville (Marne) W a r m e r i i v i l l a beg. X l t h century. Here are some unusual, miscellaneous combinations to be found: -one-isca y Artonges (Aisne) Hertangie 1038, from Harto (probably Herdo p. 124; from hard - "rude",dur, i n t r e p i d e " ) : -one-ing >^ Campugnan (Gironde) a l t e r a t i o n of Campunenxs 1360, from Campo (not l i s t e d i n M o r l e t ) ; -acumvillarey B i e f s v i l l e r s - l e s -Bapaume (Pas de C a l a i s ) from B i t o ( B i t a p. 57; from b i d -"attendre, e s p e r e r " ) ; -iacummons "y Hauss ignemont (Marne) Helceius mons 1032, from Halicho (not i n M o r l e t ) ; -incumrivus )> Bouffignereux (Aisne) W u l f i n i a c i r i v u s , B u l f i n i a c i r i v u s IXth century, from Wulfin (probably Wulfwinus p. 231; from wulf -"loup" and w i n i - "ami"); - o n i s v i l l a >^ Palogneux (Loire) Poloigneu 1225, from P a l l o (p. 51; from balo - "tourment, mechancete"); - i s c a v l l l a y Menesqueville (Eure) M a n e c a v i l l a 1272, from Manno (p. 167; from man - "homme"). 189 The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the -Iniacum, iacumcurtis, lacumvilla names (v. f i g . 15 "names in - i a c a c u r t i s , - i a c a v i l l a " ; f i g . 16 "names in -iniacum") shows a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y . In accord with Maurits Gysseling's theory that.the evolution of toponyms of the iacas type to the compound formations with - v i l l a and - c o r t i s took place largely i n Artois-Ponthieu, Champagne and Lorraine the heaviest concentrations of both types of names are found i n just these regions. For -iniacum the point of greatest density f a l l s on the departement Nord with 10 specimens or 1.7 x 2 1000 km whilst the - l a c u m , c o r t i s / v i l l a names are most numerous 2 in Haute Marne (7 specimens; 1.1 x 10 00 km ) and Aisne (7; 1.0 x 2 1000 km ). Moreover the majority of both name types are located north of the Seine, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of the -1acumcort1s/  v i l l a group. There are three p r i n c i p a l Germanic compounds: -ingheim, -irigtun and -inghove. Of the three the -ingheim place-names are the most numerous and have been the source of much scholarly i n t e r e s t and speculation. It i s generally thought that t h i s formation i s due to the Saxons who colonised the coastal area of the departements Pas de Calais and Nord, the " l i t u s saxonicus", 303 where such names abound. However, Vincent attributes t h e i r creation rather to Frankish a c t i v i t y (v. p. 146 §334) . Vincent, Gamillscheg and Gysseling hold that -ingheim toponyms are not as old as t h e i r -ingen cousins and represent a more recent i n f l u x of Germans into these areas. In his Ausgewahlte Aufsatze Gamillscheg expounds his hypothesis of l a t e r migrations "spatere Zuwranderung", of Teutons into G a l l i a after the great invasions of the Vth century. He maintains that the -ingheim names are f1% 1 5 C i t i e s be AcnyacviAh fi&cavill& i 190 o as H -ifO^ *^ a — 1 / / / / / / / / £0"%/ a. a twt arjtffo^Wafct 3<rtie of % 5 e Cxrtttjto-tt1fcS£ H 192 evidence of a l a t e r Saxon i n f l u x ; " J ' a i suppose que l a population a l a q u e l l e l e s noms en -inghem sont dus, S t a i t d ' o r i g i n e saxonne, penetree en France bien apres l a premiere occupation saxonne..." 3^ 4 He a l s o reminds the reader t h a t t h i s was the f a v o u r i t e toponymic formation of the Saxons i n England as 305 such names as Birmingham and Framiingham demonstrate. Another f a s c i n a t i n g hypothesis i s o f f e r e d by G y sseling who holds that ingheim arose i n the Pas de C a l a i s and from there spread through-out the Germanised regions of F l a n d e r s , Brabant and Holland, even 306 transforming some of the o l d e r ingen names. He .further suggests that.the. ingheim formations may have been taken to England from Pas de C a l a i s : "Is er u i t de Pas de C a l a i s met z i j n v e l e r l e i Engelse i n s l a g , ook u i t s t r a l i n g geweest naar Engeland? 3^ ) 7' / These d i f f e r e n t , sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y t h e o r i e s demonstrate the complex nature of the -ingheim etymology. At the l e a s t one can reasonably assume th a t i t i s indeed of Saxon o r i g i n and t h a t i t i s a newer formation than t h a t of the -ingen names. The ending -ingtun occurs l a r g e l y i n the Le Bessin r e g i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y centred around the c i t y of Boulogne, where i t i n d i -cates the presence of a former Saxon colony. I t was Longnon who made t h i s important f i n d through toponymic research: "La c o l o n i e saxonne l a plus c a r a c t e r i s t i q u e , et dont l ' h i s t o i r e ne f a i t pas mention, e s t c e l l e du Boulonnais dont l a decouverte est 308 une des plus frappantes de l a toponymie." The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s ending, i t s form, geographical extension, Saxon o r i g i n seem to support the c l a i m t h a t -ingheim d e r i v e s from a Saxon source. The f i n a l Germanic compound -inghove contains the Low 193 German or Flemish form of -hof "farm". A l l three endings share the formation: Germanic anthroponym + -ingheim/-tun/-hove and are l i m i t e d to the departements Pas de C a l a i s and Nord i n France. The most popular "graphies" f o r -ingheim, i n the northwest are, -inghem, -inghen, i n g h i e n , -eghem. Below are some examples of these compound endings: A. -ingheim: Audo (p. 45; from aud - " r i c h e s s e , p r o s p e r i t e " ) : Audinghem (PdC) Otidinghem Xth century; B a v i l o (p. 49; from an obscure r o o t ) : Balinghem (PdC) Bavelengehen 1084, Balingehem 1127; Baso (p. 49; from b a d u " c o m b a t " ) : Bazinghem (PdC) : Basingahem 877; B l a t h a r (p. 58; from blad - "epee"): Blaringhem (Nord) Bladringhem 1069; Boso (p. 60; from bos - "mauvais"): Boeseghem (Nord) Buosingahem, Busingahem 877; H a f i l o (not i n M o r l e t ) : Halinghen (PdC) Havelingneham 1134; Huning (Huninga p. 141; from hun - "ours"): Heuringhem (PdC) Huringhem 1171, Hueringhem 1274; Hundo (p. 141; from hund - "c h i e n " ) : Hondeghem (Nord) Hundrigehem c 1150; L i u b i l o (probably a h y p o c o r i s t i c form of Hub - "cher, aime"). Leulinghem (PdC) Loeulingehen 1157, Lulinghem 1179; Lindo (p. 162; from l i n d - "bouchier"): Linghen (PdC) Leingehem 1142, Leudingahem 1157; Manolf (Manulfus p. 167; from man - "homme" and wulf - "l o u p " ) : Maninghem (PdC) Menolvingahem 877, Maninghehem 1142; Maninghem-Wimi11e (PdC) Manengehem 1208; Racco (not i n M o r l e t ) : Racquinghem (PdC) Rakingere 1207; Rumo (doubtless from rum - " g l o i r e " ) : Ruminghem (PdC) Rumingahem 850; Waldhar (Waltharius p. 213; from wald -"gouverner, commander" and h a r i - "armee): Vaudringham (PdC) Vualdringahem 867; Wacco "Wacho p. 211; from wac/wacar - " v e i l l e r " ) : Wacquinghem(PdC) Wakingehem 1208. 194 B. irigtun: A l i o (p. 28; from al_ - "tout"): Alincthun (PdC) Alinthun 1173, Alinghetun 1199; Audo (p. 45; from aud -"richesse prosperite"): Audinctun (PdC) Odingatun 1016; Bago (p. 50; from bag - "dispute"): Baincthun (PdC) Bagingatun 811; Chuno (p. 153; from kurini - "famille, race"): Connincthun (PdC) Coninghetun 129 8; Godo (p. 114; from god - "bon"): Godincthun (PdC) Godingetuna 1208; Landar (Landarius p. 156; from land -"terre, pays" and h a r i - "epee"): Landrethun-le-Nord (PdC) Landringetun 1119, Laridrethun-lez-Ardres (PdC) Landringetun 1084; Wado (p. 212; from wad - "gage, engagement"): Waderithun (PdC) Wadingatun 1084. C. -Inghove: Bavo (p. 47): Bavinchove (Nord) Bavincove 1114; Manno (p. 167; from man - "homme"): Menchoffen (B Rhin) Maminchoven (=Mann) 779, Manicoffa 798; Pallo (Puolo p. 60; from bol - "ami", f r e r e " ) : Polincove (PdC) Pollingehove 1069; Fulchar (Fulcharius p. 95; from f u l c - "peuple" and har i - "epee"): Volkeringkhove (Nord) Folcringuehove 1164. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Germanic compound endings -ingheim, -ingtun, and -inghove i s extremely l i m i t e d . In fact the maps (fi g s . 17-19) show that a l l but one of the 105 specimens occur within the borders of the northern departements of Nord and Pas de C a l a i s . The figures for the break-down are as follows: of 83 -ingheim names found i n France 70 are i n Pas de Calais (10.6 x 1000 km2) and 13 i n Nord (2.3 x 1000 km 2), a l l the 17 -ingtun 2 names occur i n Pas de Calais y i e l d i n g a density of 2.6 x 1000 km , of the 4 -inghove names only one i s found outside the extreme north-west corner of France and that i s Menchoffen i n Bas Rhin which bears the High German -hof rather than -hove.'vThis narrow ffgO *3tftmes fat: ^ itt^im 1 » » » ». • » » » » ///////// 196 197 IN ON 198 d i s t r i b u t i o n tends to support the view that these creations are Saxon since historians recognise that t h i s zone was once set t l e d by colonists of that t r i b e . Why do such names not occur elsewhere i n France? The map of the Boulenois area ( f i g . 18 "Boulenois Saxon colony") shows how the -ingheim and -iriatun names J c l u s t e r around Boulogne and environs. Even the l i t t o r a l area of Basse-Normandie where some Saxon settlement took place there are no such names to be found although -helm and -tun names alone are encountered. Perhaps Gamillscheg 1s theory of a "Nachwanderung", a post-migration, of Saxons may account for these peculiar formations occurring only i n the northwest. 199 FOOTNOTES D. Germano-Romance Place-Names Composed of Three Elements 299 In Zeugnis der Ortsnamen (p. 142)', P e t r i points out that F. Draye rejects the notion that the -ingen, -helm, -ingheim names of north France are due to the influence of p a r a l l e l Romance names because such toponyms occur i n German lands far from France. 300 0-7 • • Verhulst, p. 37. 301 He does however include some toponyms i n -iniacum i n his treatment of the -acos ending, i . e . ,Herbigny (Ardennes) which he attributes to a Latin anthroponym i n - i n v i z . Albiniacus. (p. 78 §203) Dauzat and Rostaing say rather that t h i s toponym derives from the Germanic personal name Herbo. Dictionnaire  etymol, p. 348. 3 0 2 Vincent, p. 168 §398. 303 Le Bessin region which the Saxons s e t t l e d en masse was ca l l e d "Otlinga Saxonia", noble Saxony, and i t remained un-assimilated t i l l the IXth century, Lot, Invasions, p. 95. 304 Gamillscheg's theory has not been accepted by some scholars Wartburg feels that the ingheim names are not of such a recent date: "Die ganzen groBen Gruppen wie ingheim usw. die er ihnen zuschiebt, sind nicht so spat e r s t entstanden ("Frankische Siedlung" p. 299.) Jan Lindemans regards the names as being the r e s u l t of a G a l l i c Frankish i n f l u x i n 370 A.D., Gamillscheg, p. 46. 305 Gamillscheg, p. 47. 306 _, ., 0 „ Ibid., p. 30. 2 The Saxons may indeed have taken the -ingheim-ending from Le Bessin to England because they s e t t l e d i n northern France before they went to B r i t a i n . Ferdinand Lot explains: "Enfin, a une epoque indecise, les Saxons, avant de f a i r e l a conquete de l a Grande Bretagne, se sont e t a b l i s sur les points de l a Gaule". Ferdinand Lot, Invasions, p. 95. 308 Dauzat, Noms, p. 145. 201 I I I . Conclusions This study has attempted to o f f e r an overview of both the s t a t e of research and the p r i n c i p a l questions concerning the etymologies and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the Germanic elements i n the p l a c e -names of France. The c o n t r a s t i v e , comparative a n a l y s i s of the work done from the X l X t h century to the middle 1960's by l e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t s acquaints one w i t h the v a r i o u s , sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g , hypotheses and the d i r e c t i o n and scope of research on the Germanic c o n t r i b u t i o n to French toponymy. This survey a l s o c l e a r l y p o i n t s out the need f o r much more research i n order to r e s o l v e some of the problems p e c u l i a r to t h i s f i e l d : the polemic surrounding the meaning and f u n c t i o n of the - i n g s u f f i x , the disputed o r i g i n of the -ingheim compound, the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between -incos and -ingos names, the u n c e r t a i n cause of the Germanic-type syntax i n the h y b r i d Germano-Romance toponyms, the problem of confusion between -ham and -helm, and the d i f f i c u l t y of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g some Saxon from Norse names i n Normandy due to the s i m i l a r i t y of the d i a l e c t s e t c . , e t c . A l l these d i f f i c u l t i e s are revealed i n the d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s "etat present". The second part of the work deals d i r e c t l y w i t h four main p l a c e -name cat e g o r i e s which encompass a l l the Germanic elements. I t i s designed t o synthesise the work of the s p e c i a l i s t s on s p e c i a l place-name types, to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y present and d i s c u s s the c a t e g o r i e s and t h e i r examples, and to o f f e r my own perceptions based on both a d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t aspects of a p a r t i c u l a r question and the extent and s i g n i f i c a n c e of geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n which r e s u l t from the l a b o r i o u s 202 c o l l e c t i o n of hundreds of place-name specimens. The d i s t r i b u t i o n s which constitute the greater part of my contribution are expressed in two ways: in terms of the incidence of a toponymie genre i n an area of one thousand square kilometres per departement or on the nineteen d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n maps d e t a i l i n g the actual numbers occurring i n each departement with the zones of greatest concentrations highlighted. The generous l i s t s of toponyms have been compiled to best i l l u s t r a t e the categories. From an h i s t o r i c a l perspective I have endeavoured through toponymy to show the profound and l a s t i n g influence which the Germans' language and culture had on France. The various p a r t i a l l y or wholly Germanic place-names document the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l dominance of the Teutonic race over G a l l i a Romana from the Vth century t i l l the feudal period. For t h i s reason I included the feudal formations such as those i n -burg and the saints' names which s p e c i a l i s t s generally treat separately. It i s undeniable that the German idioms have contributed quite a number of words, e s p e c i a l l y appellatives and adjectives, to both French toponymy and French d i a l e c t s while the Teutonic onomasticon has contributed many personal names which often s t i l l enjoy popularity with the French people, i.e.,such names as Richard, Albert, Gerard, Louis etc. Moreover toponymie evidence i s a valuable indicator of the existence and a gauge of the strength of Germanic settlement i n ancient G a l l i a . A celebrated example i s the discovery of extensive Saxon colonisation i n the Boulenois area by means of an analysis of the -ingheim, -ingtun, -tun names. In t h i s case, toponymy was instrumental i n uncovering an important h i s t o r i c a l fact because place-names alone attested to the long-203 forgotten presence of Saxon colonists i n the area. The great value of place-names to h i s t o r i c a l research i s t h e i r " f o s s i l i s e d " nature; when everything else about a c i v i l i s a t i o n or people has passed away, i t s memory i s preserved i n toponymy. This idea finds b e a u t i f u l , p o e t i c a l expression i n these l i n e s composed by Wordsworth: Mark! how a l l things swerve From t h e i r known course, or vanish l i k e a dream Another language speaks from coast to coast; Only perchance some melancholy stream And some indignant h i l l s old names preserve, When laws, and creeds, and people are l o s t ! What remains to be done i n t h i s f i e l d ? A great deal of further research must be undertaken i f one wishes to gain a reasonably accurate idea of the complete Germanic contribution to French . toponymy. This study was r e s t r i c t e d to "lieux habites" but a huge, unexplored world awaits the toponymist i n microtoponymy, the realm of f i e l d names, and to a lesser extent regarding r i v e r and mountain names. Only when a l l these areas have been well studied, specimens co l l e c t e d and etymologised, and d i s t r i b u t i o n s established, w i l l the f u l l scope of the Germanic contribution be known. 204 IV. B i b l i o g r a p h y B o o k s Bach, A d o l f . Deutsche Namenkunde. 4Bde. H e i d e l b e r g : C a r l Winter. 1952-6. Dauzat, A l b e r t . La toponymie f r a n g a i s e . P a r i s : Payot, 1960. Dauzat, A l b e r t . Les Noms de l i e u x , o r i g i n e s e t e v o l u t i o n . , v i l l e s e t v i l l a g e s , pays, cours d'eau, montagnes, l i e u x - d i t s . P a r i s : Delagrave, 1926. 264p. Dauzat, C h a r l e s Rostaing. D i c t i o n n a i r e etymologique des noms de l i e u x de France. eds. A. P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1963. Gamillscheg, E r n s t . Romania Germanica. "Sprache und S i e d l u n g s -g e s c h i c h t e der Germanen auf dem Boden des a l t e n Romereiches". G r o h l e r , Hermann. Uber Ursprung und Bedeutung der f r a n z o s i s c h e n Ortsnamen. T e i l I I . H e i d e l b e r g ; C a r l Winters U n i v e r s i t a t s -buchhandlung, 19 33. L e b e l , P a u l . Les noms de personnes en France. P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1968. Longnon, Auguste. Les noms de l i e u de l a France. eds. Paul M a r i c h a l , Leon M i r o t . P a r i s : 1920-29. r p r t . New York: Burt F r a n k l i n , 1973. Lot, Ferdinand. Les Invasions germaniques. P a r i s : Payot, 1935. M o r l e t , Marie-Therese. Les noms de personnes sur l e ' t e r r i t o i r e • e e de 1 ancienne Gaule du VI au XII s i e c l e . "Les noms i s s u s du germanique c o n t i n e n t a l e t l e s c r e a t i o n s g a l l o - r o m a i n e s " . tome 1. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du C.N.R.S., 1968. Musset, L u c i e n . Les Invasions:. Les vagues germaniques. P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de Franbe, 1965. 205 Books (continued) Negre, Ernest. Les; noms: de: l i e u x en France. P a r i s : Armand ' C o l i n , 1963. Perrenot, Th. La Toponymie burgonde. P a r i s : Payot, 1942. P e t r i , Franz. Germanisches Volkserbe i n Wallonien und Nord-f r a n k r e i c h . 2Bde. Bonn: 19 37. Rostaing, Charles. Les noms: de l i e u x . P a r i s : Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s , 1961. Vincent, Auguste. Que s i g n i f l e n t nos noms de l i e u x ? B r u x e l l e s : O f f i c e de l a P u b l i c i t e , 1947. V i n c e n t , Auguste. Toponymie de l a France. B r u x e l l e s : L i b r a i r i e generale, 1937. A r t i c l e s Des G a u t r i e s , Jean Adigard. "L'Anthroponymie germanique-conti-nentale dans l'ancienne Gaule du Vie au V i l e s i e c l e " . Etudes Germaniques. P a r i s : January-March 1969. pp. 83-85. Gamillscheg, E r n s t . "La c o l o n i s a t i o n germanique dans l a Gaule du Nord". Ausgewahlte Aufsatze, T e l l I I . Tubingen, 196 2. G y s s e l i n g , Maurits. "Nederzettingsnamen i n de Nederlanden, Noordi F r a n k r i j k en Noord-West D u i t s l a n d " . Nederzettingsnamen  en Nederzettingsgeschiedenis i n de Nederlanden, Noord-F r a n k r i j k en Noord-West D u i t s l a n d . Amsterdam: Noord-Hollandsche^Uitgevers Mastschappij, Dec. 1968. Hubschmid, J . "Zur Ortsnamenkunde Belgiens und angrenzender roman-isch-germanischen Gebiete". Z e i t s c h r i f t f i i r romanische P h i l o l o g i e . LXXIX (1963) 343-356. A r t i c l e s (continued) Levy, Paul. "Survivances Germaniques". La Langue Allemande en  France. Lyon: I.A.C., 1950. 18-27. Lot, Ferdinand. "De l ' o r i g i n e et de l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n historique et l i n g u i s t i q u e des noms de lieux en - v i l l e et en -court". Romania 59(1933), pp. 199-246. P e t r i , Franz. "Die Frankische Landnahme und die Entwicklung der germanisch-romanischen Sprachgrenze i n der i n t e r d i s z i p l i n a r e n Diskussion". Bericht I 1926-1953 "Das Zeugnis der Ortsnamen" pp. 32-48. Bericht II 1953-1976 "Das Zeugnis der Orts- und Personennamen". Ertrage der Forschung. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1977. Verhulst, A.E. "Nederzettingsnamen u i t vroege middelleeuwen h i s t o r i s c h benaderd: -ingahaim, g a l i , konter". Nederzettings- namen en Nederzettingsgeschiedenis in de Nederlanden, Noord-Frankrijk en Noord-West-Dultsland. Amsterdam: Noord Hollandsche Uitgevers Maatschappij. Dec. 1968, pp. 36-51. Wartburg, Walther von. "Die frankische Siedlung i n Nordfrankreich im Spiegel der Ortsnamen". Z e i t s c h r i f t fur romanische P h i l o l o g i e . LIX. Halle a.d. Saale: Max Niemeyer Verlag, 1939. pp. 284-301. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094985/manifest

Comment

Related Items