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A Canadian trading company : an analysis of the potential benefits of transferring a Japanese-style export… Stringer, Anne Marie 1981

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A OF A  CANADIAN TRADING THE  POTENTIAL  C O M P A N Y : AN A N A L Y S I S  BENEFITS  OF  TRANSFERRING  JAPANESE-STYLE  EXPORT  P R O M O T I O N AND M A R K E T I N G  C O N C E P T TO T H E  CANADIAN ECONOMIC  ENVIRONMENT  by ANNE M A R I E B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS  of  STRINGER British  Columbia,  SUBMITTED IN  PARTIAL  FULFILMENT  REQUIREMENTS  FOR T H E  DEGREE  MASTER OF  1975  OF  OF  ARTS.  in THE  FACULTY  (Department  We a c c e p t to  THE  OF of  this  GRADUATE Political  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  August,  ( F ) Anne M a r i e  as  STUDIES Science)  conforming  standard  B R I T I S H COLUMBIA 1981  Stringer,  1981  THE  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  requirements  f o r an  of  British  it  freely  available  department or understood for  that  financial  for reference  and  study.  I  for extensive be  her  copying or shall  Political  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  DE-6  (2/79)  August 27.  1981.  copying of  g r a n t e d by  the  not  be  of  further this  Columbia  thesis  this  my  It is thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Science  make  head o f  representatives. publication  the  University shall  permission.  Department of  the  Library  h i s or  gain  degree at the  p u r p o s e s may by  f u l f i l m e n t of  I agree that  permission  scholarly  in partial  advanced  Columbia,  agree that for  thesis  written  -  i i  -  ABSTRACT  This  paper  is  an a t t e m p t  federal  government  of  area  industrial  export  of  the  Government  primarily their  in  aimed  efforts  to  concerned with  ment  in  industrial from  in  trading  company  example  of  the  trial  s e c t o r and  of  a  its in  such an  In  the  of  Commons  future fourth  which  The  at  to  house  was  to  final  "the  federal  ding  corporation."  in  Trading report,  the  1980, that  start  This  and  a  much  given  for  rising  a  about  in  going  and  the  had  mind,  Japan's  govern-  where  are  had  by  unemploy-  to  come  policy  potential  Government  very  national the  when  Japanese  closer  thriving  indus-  achievements. a  1980  Special to  of  development the  study  Committee  Challenge,  a year  c o n c l u s i o n by  Committee  further  The  Trading  after  the  Speech  regarding  the  of  Canada's  final  natural  worrying  Throne  Corporation."  sponsor  is  abroad  Speech  June  recommendation  government  It  i n d u s t r i a l markets  Throne  created  down  in  export  the  set  the  businesses  its  of  premises  the  in  and m e d i u m - s i z e d  structure  successful  the  new a g e n c y  is  markets.  of  indicate  to  a  initiative  proposed,  basic  create  behind  the  home  April  possibilities  Speech,  e n t e r p r i s e was  "National  its  foreign  wording  prior  aftermath  and  Throne  and o v e r s e a s  trading  of  to  According  small  sector  seem t o  study  the  increasing competition  future.  undertaken  at  proposal  1980,  supporting  employment  studies  House  April  industrial  the  look  trade.  penetrate  ment  the  Canada's  its  at  to  in  of  the  the question  came down June  of  d e l i b e r a t i o n s was  of  a major  Committee  Canadian stands  in  with 1981, that tra-  direct  contrast  to  evidence  and  seems  be  an  i t  on m a t e r i a l dence  to and  gathered  opinion  opinions during  presented  the  reached  obtained  in  Committee's  by  witnesses  by  the  addition public  before  Committee to  the  the  majority  briefs  hearings.  and  Committee, based the  evi-  -  iv  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Introduction  I.  II.  Trading  1  Houses  Japanese  - -  Economic  Past  and Present  Conditions  2  and Trade  Promotion  Mechanisms  8  Economic  Conditions  Industrial Trading  III.  Canadian  8  Strategy  12  Patterns  Economic  20  Conditions  and Trade  Promotion  Mechanisms  27  Economic  Conditions  Industrial Trading  IV.  Canadian  27  Strategy  30  Patterns  Governmental  40  Deliberations  and  Their  Outcomes  47  Sequence  of  The  Export  The  Special  Events Promotion  47 Review  Committee  Committee  on a N a t i o n a l  Corporation  51  Trading 54  a)  Witness  Evidence  54  b)  Alternatives  58  c)  Recommendations  67  -  V.  An  Evaluation  of  Alternatives  Similarities Advantages Is  a  and  and  National  Canadian  Conclusions  Appendixes  V  -  for  Canada  77  Differences  77  Disadvantages  80  Trading  Option?  Corporation  a  Viable 84  95  97  Notes  102  Bibliography  llO  - vi -  LIST  Table  1  Special  Committee  Corporation:  OF  TABLES  on a National  Alternatives  Trading  73  Table  2  Foreign  Trading  House  Structures  75  Table  3  Tsurumi  Trading  House  Models  76  - 1 -  Introduction  It  i s my i n t e n t i o n t o l o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f a p o t e n t i a l  t r a d i n g s t r u c t u r e by f i r s t in ple  general  dustrial the  by l o o k i n g a t the c o u n t r y ' s  economic background,  national  Since  t h e end  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e J a p a n e s e have d e v e l o p e d and r e f i n e d t h e is  t o d a y , a smooth o p e r a t i o n s e r v i n g  c o u n t r y and t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y  m a r k e t i n g and s a l e s I will  through  a w o r l d - w i d e network  proceed to c o n s i d e r years  Canadian  and t h e p r e v a i l i n g t r a d i n g c o n c e r n s . t h e a c t i o n t a k e n by t h e C a n a d i a n  1980-1981 t o a n a l y s e  and i t s  the question of a national  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the c o u n t r y ' s  Finally  I will  recommendations  trading of  of  branches.  t h e n move on t o l o o k a t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  strategy,  inof  t h e needs  conditions,  such as t h e e x i s t i n g economic s i t u a t i o n , t h e q u e s t i o n o f a p o s s i b l e industrial  concept  t r a d i n g house exam-  s t r a t e g y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  house c o n c e p t t o what i t the  t r a c i n g the h i s t o r y o f the t r a d i n g house  t e r m s a n d t h e n c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e J a p a n e s e  in detail  national  reflect  Canadian  From t h e r e  government trading  future trade prospects  during  the  overseas. the  t h a t h a v e e m e r g e d f r o m a y e a r o f C o m m i t t e e w o r k a n d on  o f s e t t i n g up a n a t i o n a l  will  corporation  on t h e e v i d e n c e , t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s , a n d  b a s i s o f t h e g a t h e r e d d a t a t r y t o r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n as  I  the  to the f e a s i b i l i t y  t r a d i n g c o r p o r a t i o n w i t h i n the Canadian  context.  - 2 -  I.  Trading The  general  Companies  trading  notion  different  structures.  new  with  and  new  the  national  labour  and  governments  official  companies  companies In chant  being England,  actually group  out  companies'  outlets this  rished  and  type  with  mote'  and  producers This  the  kind  was  home  for  of  idea. has  steps  replace  with  the  many  the  introduce  old  domestically; trade,  of  to  a generous  trans-oceanic  on  a  governmental  beginning  took  is  taken  changing  the  It  local  econo-  supply  necessary materials.  together  overseas their  with  charters France,  merchants in  a  his  trading  special  in  overseas. paying  who  belong  return  But they  with  for  Their  England,  of  merchants also  the  formed  East  to  that or  the  exports  needed,  In  these  the  India  area.  Each  Each  thus  of  charter,  not  were  they  protect  various  one  manufactures. could  mer-  companies  particular  granted  goods to  basically  rights.  merchants  for  were  Crown.  handicrafted  large  where  the  region  'bounties'  barriers,  from  designated  country's the  companies  and  particular  support  nor  tariff  outside  them  new  world  and  involved  the  of  expected,  governments  erecting from  trade  goverment  at  to  a  under  governments  providing  Holland,  only  markets  of  neither  dized  into  the  sixteenth  joined  received  organizations  enter  not  famous. early  as  of  regions  merchants  purpose  such as  a monopoly,  'regulated find  these  itself  history  the  access  the  in  European  only  most  countries,  could  not  is  various  the  easy  which  state-supported  in  markets,  for  the  'cartels'  European  and  Present  the  end o f  helped  available their  through  various  and  and  concept  shapes  century  industries  mies  up  Towards  seventeenth  Past  company  that  forms  --  have  heavily  wished the  to  was  company these to Withflousubsi'pro-  country's  competition.*  economic  system  flourished  right  through  the  were  eighteenth  - 3 -  century,  representing  government  policies.  enterprise  was  and  guiding  tion  of  line the  of  the  in  sum o f  direct  in  craft  manufacturers  the  French  when  the a  In  products and  held  in  of  the  protection  of  national greater  certain  so  and  specific  up  thus  'quality  privileges  he  to  the  in  a  a  from a  portion under  England.  quality,  number  given  shares,  require  further  a  in  received  would  1  por-  The  developed  to  and  control  and  large  holding  than as  kind  a  then  bought  far  financing  companies.  manufacture  went  private  a monopoly  guidance  numbers,  other  with  had  and  example,  trading  company  and  even  goods  for  it  and  governments  operations,  trade  century,  of  these  support  with  France,  the  England,  by  mercantilist  government  with  stockholders  loan,  produce type  between  In  a certain area  government  this  exemptions,  was  c a p i t a l i s m and  time,  a company,  seventeenth  that  the  community. debt  debt.  bert,  tax  of  cash as  more  buy  rule  and  even  to  the  time,  national  believed  close tie  charter  products  large  very  trading  would  o l d merchant  A  government  company,  very of  the  the  government  thus  the  that as  induce  gave of  Colhandi-  he foreigners  subsidies,  merchants  to  2 expand  the In  later  industrial kets'  to  return  wealth called  profitable centuries,  country  lines  having  its  the  home  receive  raw  materials.  trading  tariffs, and  unit, so  that  continuing  of  colonial  which  contained through  more  own  country  empires  could The  if  reviving  supply  its thus  members  to  a  did  create  from  were  system, it  as  'must'  in  the  a  foreign  guaranteed its  later  original  with  'sheltered  manufactured  necessary,  This as  seen  p o s s e s s i o n s as  i d e a was  empire's  prosperity.  'neo-mercantilism,'  were  overseas  protected, the  endeavour.  goods  each mar-  and  large,  in  self-  competition gold  and  stages,  was  mercantilism  of  -  the  sixteenth,  colonial the  trading  Levant  Co.,  corresponding trade  seventeenth,  in  recently  and  companies: the  Russia  companies  Britain  was  as  around  1951  in  4  -  eighteenth  the  East  Co.,  and  the  other  handled  by  India  the  Company,  United  European  export  thirty-five  centuries.  the  Africa  before  of  Co.,  and  old  Bay  Co., were  overseas  War  were  its  there  Most  World  exports  had  Hudson's  countries.  houses  percent  Britain  I,  and  still  as  handled  3 by  some  type  of  Towards own  special  relations this  of  c r i s i s , ' renewed  type  with  to  viate export  the  of  basic  companies standard  house.:  of  trading  try  to  company  model,  set  up  century  for  world the  countries,  the of  trade,  sogoshosha,  own  Japanese  purpose  especially in  their  the  trading  of  as in  the  created  modernizing  detailed the  wake  companies  their  their  below,  and  1970's  inspired  of  1973-74  in  the  a 'oil  connection  with  hit  four-  drives.  the  leaders  the  petroleum  rising  were  Both  in  on  goods,  its  efforts  Brazil  has  two  thirty  percent  and Both  their  and  the  concentrated  manufactured  on  countries'  backing  differences  Brazil  prices.  imbalance  financial  are  nineteenth  international  concentrated  being  the  Japanese  efforts.  solid  of  the  export  doubling  end  developing  Among  are  the  particular  number  by  trading  foreign  government  commodities,  owned  by  companies, the  and both  been  by  been  natural  move  created  government's  Banco  to  their  there  Brazilian for  natural  alle-  assisted  However,  The  heavy  the  trying  heavily  support.  without  by  increasing  set-ups. a  Korea,  on m a n u f a c t u r e s  trading  have  hard  have  accounts  countries'  whereas  both  countries  initiatives  full  two  Korea,  trading  Brazil,  and  resources,  industry. in  the  1970's,  do  Brazil  one  (Cobec),  has  -  on  the  Japanese  changed to  the  at  home  their LDCs  Japanese example with  Africa  branches  trading of  the  the  in  trade  from  and  Latin  America.  abroad,  houses.  emphasizing  latter  now  -  Since  emphasis  in  and  pattern.  5  U.S.A. The  1975 to  exports  Koreans  have  also  loyalty  strong  and  force  a  the  Europe  Korean  both  company a  the  in  handling  The  being  beginning  and  and  again  now  imports up  national the  have  companies  taken  behind  Koreans  the  have  offices  a  the  la  Japanese  competitive  country's  spirit,  export  drive. Also begun in  to  promote  order  apore  such Asian  to  has  the  expand  thus  set  the up  bloc  trading  companies  trading  organizations  a  national  behalf  of  small  of  about  its  There houses  back  not  business,  but  with  European  for  Europe, of  members  more  Community  its  in in  the  in the  borders in  Association  export  development Malaysia  is  with  Sing-  deal  of  with  twelve  developing the  region  order  promote  its  to  companies  plus  Pacific  a  today trade,  buying  with of  Export  the  the  export  with  agents  particular  Chamber of  in  exports  partnership  have  producers.  southern  Britain  connection London  the  in  of  the and  trading  smaller  type  Malaysia  Japanese has  operated  exports  on  producers.  being  Britain  trade,  and  private  their  promoting  years  medium-sized to  this  future  Zealand  percent  Economic the  New  hundred any  within  company  and  expand is  Thailand, and  of  to  its  national  business  Thailand  assist  even  twenty  eight is  to  trading  Turning hold  Intraco.  Singapore,  of  overseas  countries.  and  as  development  Eastern  sogoshosha,  countries  and  policy  country  Commerce Houses  in  houses  twenty-five  still percent  confirming  houses.  to  export  promote  joining  the  European  initiated  an  association  1972.  is  the  As  case  -  everywhere  else,  the  trading  export  total  export  Britain joint  to  a limited house  turn-over  to  into  the business  the private  companies  with  groupings.  However, lack  corporation  British  ative  i s still  Joint  basis, The  dawning  of  exactly  export  and medium-sized  enterprise  have  (export  Marketing  pulled  marketing  seems  to  have  with  problems,  h a s a number  of  export  keting  information,  financial  Commerce,  Department  of  Defence  number  promotion  had more  of  of  the  op-  smaller  but  the  British  venture,  initiated  success.  commercial,  by  The co-oper-  the P a c i f i c  larger  and tax  of  phenomenon,  the domination  programmes  State,  and the Department  of  firms,  on t h e e a s i e r  assistance,  Department  and  backers,  partnerships)  a new e c o n o m i c  namely  concentrating  U.S.A.  Another  on a f u l l y  small  arrangement/  i s faced  by a l i m i t e d  out.  Corpor-  market  due t o  by i t s p r i v a t e  to  a  particular.export  difficulties  a g e , and the opening-up  of  into  supported  Canada,  Department  help  facilities,  Ltd.  companies  and look  certain  in  Marketing  was t o  of  i n 1967,  and production  t h e same  trade  made  capital  on a f e e - f o r - s e r v i c e like  purpose  within  ran into  has been  Overseas  dominate percent  by s e t t i n g - u p ,  problems  u p i n 1 9 6 5 a n d now o p e r a t e s  the P a c i f i c  encountering  overseas,  appears  Ventures  U.S.A.,  of  American  being  Institute  started  export  the enterprise  sufficient  Its  houses  seventy-five  An a t t e m p t  the B r i t i s h  sector.  their  firms  t h e government  the  company  of  enterprise,  export  nearly  g e t t h e government  for British  Export  handling  of  group.  portunities  the  thirty-two,  this  medium-sized  although  -  within  supplement  companies  number,  picture,  private/government  ation,  6  Rim, and i s up-to-now  with  domestic  in place, incentives  Export-Import Agriculture,  the  of  small  trade.  offering through  Bank  plus  the  The mar-  i t s  (EXIM),  a long  row  the of  -  other,  smaller agencies.  large,  well-established, old  International was  a  strong  Sales  dominated  by  companies  with  U.S. tory The  of  their  expanding has  has  had  a  perhaps  the  only  tion  with  very  uses  these The  created  phenomenon,  multinationals  as  and  now  by it  was  institutions?  over  exports  over  some  one,  due  to  with  very  industry,  efficient,  the  years l i t t l e  strong  the  auto  exporting its  has  thus  examples  of  industry,  agricultural  special  nature,  the  heavy  but  the  driving  direct  access  The  a  the  in  if  the  small  in  export  that  order and  trade,  to  lend U.S.  keep  industry  multinationals,  even  with  their  such as  networks  easily  not  be  expanding  its  markets  the  U.S.A.  would  in  to  might  American  in  is  smaller  arms  of  need  over  probably  its  of more  overseas pri-  have  the  displaying  the  intelligence, a  corporate expansion.  trading  1980's. to  coopera-  largely  and  a  in  also  export  of  the  were be  has  industry latter  times  market  overseas  companies  the  still  products,  any  attention.  defence  in  his-  industries  many c a s e s ,  trading  manufacturing  itself  medium-sized  industry  behind  the  or  sector,  restrictions  growth-oriented  It  sector  force  the  the  government  sogoshosha,  that  seems  of  companies,  'culture-training' thus  hand  American  trading  to  last  input  the  Department  felt  the  been  the  and  of  helping  at  defence  characteristics  1971,  completely  act  decades,  of  in  to  Over  appearance  in  export  and  Agriculture.  enterprise.  the  Domestic  became  mostly  government  structure,  vate  time  Mostly  Nixon  unsuccessful  bureaucratic  dealings,  (in)famous  President  corresponding  more  its  Program,  this  produced  aerospace  who  corporations.  multinationals  the  -  exports.  of  as  and  of  large  history  country  such  the  However,  Company  example  7  become  requiring  house  However, involved  some  kind  of  - 8 -  structured  coordination  strengthening b i l l ,  its  sponsored  in  this  overseas  by  Heinz  and  forty-eight  Senate,  might  give  active  in  exporting  to  American  manufacturing  a  to  bank  ownership  less  restrictive  trust the  in  trading  enter  rules  to  promote  i t  export appears  institutional  in  the  co-sponsors, to  small  new  and  that  kind  of  in  to  order  needed  medium-sized  to  substantial provide  earlier  thinking  to  is  become  l e g i s l a t i o n would respect  change  i t  permitting  with  on  Stevenson-  incentive  consortia this  set  if  banks  the  Besides  this  nation  re-introduced  become  market.  corporations  for  and  companies export  the  other  encouragement  corporations  the  trading  l e g i s l a t i o n , and  need  any  Senator  the  chance  like  Perhaps  by  sector  just  exports.  passed  get  U.S.  area  obtain  anti-  acknowledges foreign  trade  8 expansion.  II.  Japanese  Economic  Conditions  and  Trade  Promotion  Mechanisms  Conditions  After and  Economic  World  War  economically.  II  great  Among  the  changes  were  commercial  imposed  changes  on  were  Japan  the  both  politically  d i s s o l u t i o n of  the  g old  Zaibatsus  the  economic  GHQ  advisors,  Japan's ate  sector  future  post-war  lion  and  breaking  somewhat  up  of  and  business  economic  life.  Japan  which  by  extensive  helped  to  the  rudderless.  government  period  dollars  the  drew was  up  trading  But  the  up  at  new,  further  American  finance  larger  to  aid,  urging  detailed  supported,  amounting  sixty  companies,  percent  of  the  plans in  leaving American for  the  to  around  of  its  immeditwo  imports  biland  10  renew  a  large  Japan  part  of  gradually  its  industrial  overcame  its  plants.  handicaps,  and  domestic  producers  became  -  more  efficient  and  able  time  expanding  the  country's  reached  a  point  gradually  where  achieved  to  during  fourteen  percent  per year  After than  a while,  exports,  Japan's  the  began  latter  (eleven  balance-of-payments  on  its  half  of  the in  to  began  its  the  imports,  with  tended  to  and  Its  the  it  economy  GNP  prices) per  same  Japan  accounts.  percent  show  at  mid-fifties  1950's  eleven  to  while  constant  again  compared  again  the  foreign  twenty-five  imports  percent  In  exceeeding  percent  around  imports,  trade.  balance  however,  sixteen  previous  exports  i n c r e a s i n g by  -  export  a better  rapidly  investments  replace  its  expanded  9  reaching  and  capital  year.  increase  percent,  faster  and  deficits,  in  in  1961  the  area  of  11 two  billion  country placed  dollars.  Also,  experienced on  the  beginning  of  a switch  importation exports  of  this in  of  was  its  a  foreign  minerals,  heavy  period  change,  trade,  metals,  industrial  of  with  and  where  more  emphasis  machinery,  products,  the  and  being  the  i n d i c a t i n g a move  away  12 from  predominantly In  again,  the  in  bringing an  the the  annual  fell  to  brought  first  half  the  of  of  the  in  the  average  of  nine  to  ten  into  growth  seventeenth  percent  began  foodstuffs.  government  were  a  close  and  the  However, growth  to  in  the  again  deficit,  annual of  latter  at  factor  an  in  The in  domestic  bringing  half  percent  a major  brought  increase the  again  increase again, (thirteen  r e s t r i c t i o n s were  temporarily.  spite  continued,  During  annually  investments  to  percent,  black.  thus  1960's  economy  export  the  and  balance-of-payments'  percent.  a halt,  of-payments  increased  textiles,  boom  about  economic  wake  cotton,  of  the  average  constant  behind  the  then  i n ,  GNP  fell  to  manufacturing boom  being  Japan's  balance-  1960's,  Japan's  rate  about  of  prices),  and  expansion.  -  There were demand  f o r export  per year Hong  several  reasons goods  and t h e f a c t  Kong,  expanding  Taiwan, market  10  -  for this  expansion,  i n the world  that  other  and South  and imported  as a whole  coming A s i a n  Korea  such as an i n c r e a s e d  were  Japanese  by about  thirteen  percent  industrial  centers,  such as  looking  for their  semi-manufactures  share  of  this  on which  to  build  13 their  own f u t u r e After  on a l l imports  This heavy  to  the country  Thus,  expansion  when J a p a n  Economic  both  joined  overseas  and  restrictions.  imposed into  and e a r l y  exports  (OECD)  opening-up  and out o f but  pressures  and c a p i t a l  nations  to duties,  with increased  investments. for  had to accept the  tariffs,  turned  became a p l u s  the  i n the Organization  i n 1964, i t  i t actually  strong  1960's,  and d o m e s t i c a l l y ,  respect  However,  this  capital  industrial  conditions with  difficulties,  of  countries'  and Development  trading  had a l s o  the 1950's  the other  prevailing  initial  a n d movements  up t o o t h e r  Cooperation  export  government  c a r r i e d on through  Japan's open  industry.  the w a r , the Japanese  restrictions country.  manufacturing  and  out that,  import  in spite  f o r the Japanese  of  economy  14 over  the long r u n . In  industry  the 1970's exports  accounts. led  to  Japan  forged  and experienced  However,  the adoption  o f a more  incentives given  Among  t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s were  trading  non-tariff  partners barriers,  large  due t o a number  fewer  its  ahead w i t h  to  lower  import  stance  a n d more  t h e Tokyo some o f  of  heavy  s u r p l u s e s on i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l  of extraneous  moderate  to exports  i t s development  i t s  c i r c u m s t a n c e s Japan was  in foreign  trade  areas  encouragement  given  to  Rount  o f GATT  'walls'  trade  talks  with  r e s t r i c t i o n s and foreign  with  imports.  and pressure  respect  exchange  to  tariff  controls.  from and  -  Further which  became  younger cases  Japan  strongly  workers.  even  By  older  workers  ger  firms  vanished  discipline  But  there  unwilling  was to  by  evident  in  of  a  the  levels  and  large  also  the  basic  problem  factory  workers  as  Japan  due a  week  and  a  finally,  annual  of  young  high  or  in  input  and  of  in  some younger  smaller  and  lar-  traditional  generation,  the  other  the  shortage  between  between  younger  labour  reached,  differentials  And, the  to  decreasing  had  differences  e s p e c i a l l y among five-day  with  Also  extent.  the  work  in  the  as  costs,  1960's  Europe.  diminished, to  -  r i s i n g wage  wage  those  suffered, ideas  hit  1974  exceeded,  and  'Western'  was  11  holiday school  with  such  creeping  graduates  so-called  work  in. being  'blue-collar' 15  jobs,  and  that  Besides scarcity public  of  which than  makes half  which  has  Public  land  of  labour for  regarding  mainly up  the  the  to  costs,  three one  third  of  the  population.  This  than  gradually  a more  modern,  North  of  away  environmental in  smaller factors  build  a  easily  rather  to  were  and  the  the  the  the  industry  accessible but  is  land  contains  protest  strict, which  existing  increasing  concentrated  citizen's from  shops.  Japanese  attitude  regard  on  countryside,  rising  turned  America,  to  and  creates  still  and  problems. flat  has  in  industries  of  sentiment  as  plants  rising cost  environmental  target  force,  other  heavier  the  to  larger  areas  less  in  both  become  mentation into  the  concern  concentrated  pertained  more  problem  movements.  historic  especially  chemical,  steel,  regicomes  and  16 petrochemical industries. Contributing to Japan's been  the  ation  in  petitive and y e n  question the  early  "position,  i n c r e a s i n g economic  of appreciation.of 1970's  thus  and  the  appreciations  in had  the  seriously summer  caused  the  of  Japanese damaged  and  trading  yen. Japan's  Two  problems  rounds  hitherto  1973,  for  example,  Japanese  yen  to  dollar  appreciate  by  of  has appreci-  strong  com-  depreciations about  thirty-five country's  spite  new  healthy  against  the  of  all  heights  in  investment  reputation  U.S.  for  the the  1980's,  climate.  being  in  The  the  forefront  to  the  furthest  to  to  accommodate  sees  itself  ners  keep  on  industrial during  The hard  tion, It  striving  and  future  really  hard  blow  to  the  economy  solid is  when  work,  keeping i t  comes  its  economic  corners  of  the  world.  trading  partners.  export  about  this  is  economic  a  question  that  enthusiasm,  At  and  its  to  electronics,  the  a  well-known  is  continuing  same t i m e  problem  is  it  that  its  in  require  a  is  Japan  trading  saturation will  to  up  whereas  export  promises  influence  The  moderation,  Japanese  still  part-  number  time  and  of  diplo-  negotiations.  Strategy Japanese  work  to  unequalled  has  a  and  for  complaining  areas,  Industrial  and  as  its  on  country  petrochemicals,  spread  Japan's  based  and  macy  dollar,  set-backs  automobiles,  trying  -  exports.^  In reach  percent  12  been  have  since  peaceful in  its  estimated  use  the  end  and  have  strength  that  and  during  of  World  reached  rapid  the  war  War a  II  level  growth. Japan  put of  How  lost  their  initiative  industrial  did  close  this to  produc-  happen?  half  its  in-  18 dustrial the  war  under  was  to  was  economic spired  by  and a  national  necessity.  occupation,  industrial  partly  there  thus  American  respect and  capacity  concerted  recovery the  through  Korean  marked  development. the  effort  war.  and  However,  was  de-industrialize a  wealth,  to  by  country. assist  were  economic  first  several  First  industrial Plans  the  an  there Then  the  drawn  period policy  was  country  up  to  after,  in the  after  the  war,  reversals  a move  followed  development,  recovery  a  to  demilitarize  period  achieving latter  re-create  with  where a  speedy  partly Japan  as  inan  - 13 -  industrial t i l i z e r , latter  power  power,  by s e l e c t i n g f o u r and s t e e l ,  included  based  i t s strongly  target  industries,  on t h e c o u n t r y ' s  motivated  labour  namely  coal,  fer-  perceived strengths.  force,  i t s potential  The  for  har-  19 nessing  hydro-electrical energy,  Based set  about  included to  to  to  logy  of  (MITI),  with  17,600  in a l l fields  and s t e e l .  areas,  with  right  Japan  thus  and chemical  foreign  became  government  Trade  behind,  and  putting  be t h e most  companies,  for  equipment,  empha-  advantaexample,  covering  machinery,  one o f  currency  The  1950 and 1 9 7 2 ,  transportation  development  management  International  to  1960's that  of  and  gain  such as e l e c t r i c a l  fibres,  t h e heavy  of  Japanese  between  control  technology.  by t h e government  agreements  technology,  to  and  a strategy  technology,  following  position.  endeavour,  strict  and modern  i t s Ministry  reserves.  i n the 1950's  on exports  industry  i n Japan's  of  capital,  emphasis  deemed  synthetic  these  use of  through  pharmaceuticals, iron  protectionism,  private  licensing  industry  coal  i t s structure with  raw m a t e r i a l s  and products  for a country  signed  a heavy  the course  on areas  geous  efficient  imports  setting  Japanese  elements:  and, f i n a l l y ,  Industry sis  main  the most  pay f o r  kept  pillars,  r e b u i l d and modernize  three  ensure  labour  on these  and i t s a v a i l a b l e  techno-  chemicals,  ship-building  the top producers  industries accounting  for  in  about  20 seventy  percent  idea  picking target  industries  for  i t was n o t new,  but rather  predicated on a nineteenth  of  sound, cept  of  sively, It  picking for  of  the country's  'national  instance  has been  GNP  champions',  i n the late  reconstruction of  a method  i n connection with  estimated  that  1960's.  roughly  which  Japanese a third  Unique the country  had been  shipping of  as  total  might  century used  the  con-  exten-  lines. gross  investment  -  in  the  1950's  employment tion  was  tures  on,  not  in  of  the  the  the  by  seventeen  by  boom  in  domestic  a demand  U.S.A.,  1960's  two  percent  f i r s t but  by  major  a  by  a  to  annually,  Manufacturing  produc-  Japanese  the  1960's  which  was  growing  demand  for  of  percent  market. prosper  were  down  creating large-scale  per year.  eleven  there  slowing  growth  percent  external  continued  sector, force.  half  about  However,  was  labour  eighteen  the  country  One  to  growing  Japan's  the  sector.  than  manufacturing  buying,  economic growth.  industrial less  in  -  i n c r e a s i n g Japanese  experienced a  increased  to  the  worldwide,  cially half  for  place  expanding  industry brought  took  14  two  per  During and  year, the  again  espe-  latter  experienced  drawbacks  within  of  the  manufacturing  and  the  other  the  post-war  was  manufac-  the  employment  the  diminishing  21 share  of  manufacturing  Towards Japanese of  a  exports  problems  The  yen  of  latter  items; sing  and  which  of the  costs on  a  the  objections  large  degree  money  protection  of  Japanese  procedures  it the  to  had  strategy  from  the  Japan's  taking-over the  in  the  markets; become  Japanese  for  provoked  hit  by  the  mix  of by  economic  Japanese  expanding a  number  success.  Japanese  of  their  goods  of exports,  standard  due  to  r i -  position of  the  Japanese  i n c r e a s i n g demand  for  scarce  gradually  home m a r k e t  harder against  businessmen's unfamiliarity with  which  era  in mass-produced,  relative the  was  product  concentrated  competitiveness  international which  part  home m a r k e t s ;  a change  finally,  business  of  however,  industrial  large  domestically;  world-wide  intensive  1960's,  in  countries' to  investment.  Japanese  resulted  other being  total the  a declining level  sources  and,  end  problems were r i s i n g  number  the  the  in  anti-Japanese  to  obtain;  imports local  demonstration  the  from  abroad;  attitudes in  re-  some  and  -  15  -  countries The less  reaction  developed  1960's. since  Most  the  countries  Japanese  by  both  huge  the  and  sorts  all  Japanese hit  was  goods, and  the  such  as  smaller  in  the  last  the  and  with  not  in  stage  of  low-priced of  markets  for In  there  take  the  be  which  the  reap  the  and and  hit  protests  area  automobiles, to  restrict  of  of  imports  consumer  packaging  i . e . ,  which  was  and  process  products,  areas  copied  applied  first  and  substitution,  USA  were  and  industries,  appliances  means  and  own  19501 s  increased  appliances,  over  the  could  the  manufacturing  metal  developed  import  were  countries  These were  to  that  consumer  consumer  refrigerators.  in  subtle,  the  both  their  items  went  Japan  so  from  up  barriers.  developing  assembly  overseas  build  electronics,  and  the  to  time  non-tariff  subtle, In  the  came  increased during  countries  trade  textiles,  and  sets,  its  competition  usually  drugs,  radio  in  imports.  anxious  more  and  exports  gradually  were  and  tariff  of  and  mass  excelled at  more  deficits  against  Japanese  countries  mass-produced, imposing  to  of  soap  television  were  and  tempting  profits  for  for them-  selves. But s o much to  to  overseas  expand  tinued  that  growth  hinder  nological obtained be  Japanese.industries in  they  export  progress abroad, by  simply  as  and  servicing not  and  could  opposed  to  licensing.  a  be  where  set-ups  and  they  had  borrowed  stand  in  could not  allow  foreign  there  achieved  earlier, The  point  anything  Further,  only the  let  thus  strategies.  which  simple  reached  could  internationally,  their  obtained  marketing  had  new  was  through  standard  situation  the  the  invested so  way  con-  of  tech-  technology  technology required  of  retaliation  question  new  heavily  the  which  could  Japanese  -  to  give  in  itself.  to  By  foreign  the  requests  early  1970's,  16  -  for  access,  most  import  on  a  permanent  restrictions  basis,  had  to  been  Japan  removed, 24  and  the  liberalization  Finally, and on  1960's,  Japan  favourable  but  by  1970  percent coal,  and  climbed the  of  to  the  been  question  able  to  its  began  to  change  aluminum,  98  percent  its  copper.  went 29.9  of  percent from  23.7  percent  crude  in  oil  large  1964  from  12.6  this  its  41.6  to  copper  in  the  in  percent, percent  to  on  15.6  for  79  well. the  the  1950's  world  these  Japan  OECD,  percent  9.5  percent  area.  as  During  demand  petroleum,  39.3  from  achieved  materials  steady  Within  to  been  materials.  raw  and  of  had  raw  also  percent  for  of  obtain  to  15.8  for  capital.transfers  due  percent  from  finally,  terms,  its 76  was  had  things  figures  percent  there  of  market  products,  imported  percent  of  100  its  its  share  of  1969,  for  iron  timber  from  15.4  percent  and,  for to  19.1  percent.  These  coal ore  are  rather  25 high  increases just  found  out  before,  that  and  as  exploration, further be  close  markets, gave and  to  to and  The  foreign  no  part  others  again  industry labour,  move  into  companies  of  of  it  raw  to  of  make  efficiently,  to  use  their  others  of  would  in  to  low-cost  as  be  'hard  plants  labour.  intention  was  to  easily  and  protect  to  1960's  overseas  technology,  exploration  they  early  materials  manufacturing  Japanese  unless  the  Japanese-owned  advanced  material  The  raw  became up  In  investing  materials,  which  showing  market.  began  setting raw  period.  qcquire  which  access  all  year  longer  began  source  domestic  complete  five  counter-move  large  the  a  could  Japanese  low-cost  Japanese to  the  a  a  Japanese  Japan.  it  for  also  material  abroad, their  and  some  move energy,  at  home  in  counter-move  active  felt  that  they  would  also  had  vertically  on be  to  overseas  This  by1 a  as  managed,  low-cost  come  become  raw  Japan  the unable  integrated  -  operations  and  raw  material  17  -  concessions  spread  over  a number  of  overseas  + . 26 countn es.  Japanese and  investments  less-developed  minerals, and  countries,  agriculture  twelve  percent  struction,  to  restructuring  towards  right  the  of  existing  third tive But  of in  in  The  USA  mid-sixties,  instances  or  even  lower. in  were  particularly  such  as  Taiwan,  major  textiles, things  a major  aims  forced  Japan  countries  to  to  concentrated  Korea,  and  in  Hong  into  between  mentioned,  began  a  evolution  which  went  the  mid-1950"s  been  change.  do  and  very  con-  U.S.  taken  firms  and and  chemicals.  began  procuring  in  lower-cost  exports by  to  the  American  Eastern  and  Southeastern really  consumer  USA  establishing  the  it  the  in  in  half own  Investments  Asian  off  areas,  its  market.  took  one  competi-  in  overseas,  on  about  particularly  likewise  and  gradual  protection  strong  to  Kong,  into  manufacturing,  divided  stability  Japanese  export  developed  going  electronics, cars,  export,  to  percent  an  had  steel,  practically cutting  as  since  facilities,  Japanese  between  percent  remainder  were  Japan  began  evenly  fields.  ever  and  production  This  low-wage  the  had  as  many  plants  Its  articles  in  the  1960's,  of  such  line,  with  the  exports,  electronics  twenty-six  Japan,  end  almost  thirty-nine  manufacturing,  Japanese  establishing  about  service-related  all  the  and/or  with  divided  fisheries,  1970's.  markets.  been  commerce,  and  respect  through  and  into  finance,  With  have  countries, the  years  27 from  1965-1972.  (over and  sixty  percent)  fabricated  large  extent,  Foreign in  metals. limited  manufacturing  such  areas  However, in  size  as  the  mainly  investments  textiles, overseas due  to  took  apparel,  place  mostly  electric  machinery,  subsidiaries remained,  the  interest  on  part  of  to the  a  -  Japanese Japan, the  firms  but  also  maximizing  due  to  'follow-the-leader  into  a market, Added  to  in  to  encounter  setting which  up  consumer the  main  all  the  another  of  rather  above  factor  the  importance  firms,  size  of  when  continuous various  to  Japanese  parent  the  overseas  one  move  for  exports,  into  the  19701 s  The  USA  began  of  on  products  ball-bearings,  cars.  production  suit.  in  number  such as  moved  follow  began  finally  and  company  'war.' a  in  markets  would  Japan  trade  and  companies  Japanese  origin  forms  pianos,  to  own  problems,  in  reluctantly  of  Japanese  mentioned in  their  whereby  electronics, motorcycles,  Japanese  from  small  competitors  restrictions  vital  -  exports  approach,  1  its  import  were  the  18  This  the  forced  American  29 home  ground. The  clearly  growth  for  percent.  gical  change  native  of  manpower  so  finally,  these  force  right of  the  rapidly  namely  changes  that the  a  after  these  in  a  existence  GNP,  the  in  large  labour  extent  attracted important  1955  it  accounted  a  on  high and  this  rate  able  the  production,  and  the  beginning  of the  productivity investment  industrial  rapidly  of  an  was in  manufacturing most  for  The  from so  much  abundance of  the  due  new  output growing  elements,  over technolo-  not  until  of  to  is  sector  purchase  due  flow  war  manpower.  was  labour  to  the  factor  lasting  composition  lie  since  in  ready,  domestic  growing  Japan  1969  figures  increasing  the  of  a  in  figures:  willing,  for  war,  fast  were  of to  patents and  of  amazing  depended  and  sector  following  percent  large  change  factors,  industries, ment,  the  inventiveness,  question  three  a  licences  on  from  Behind  and  technological of  manufacturing  twenty-two  forty  The  the  discernable  accounted  abroad  of  1970's  mainly  plants and  a  and  employ-  areas,  such as  to  and,  high  -  concentration  geographically of  nature  in  country's  in  existing  the  the  the  level  lowing  of  industrial  productivity in  the  in  -  Japan's  infrastructure,  figures:  19  establishment,  such  Japan  1955-1969  industries,  as  in  public  the  period  special  and  interlocking  strong  utilities.  post-war the  a  period  improvements  The  increase  shows  increase averaged  in  the  ten  in fol-  percent, 30  whereas  in  The  the  future  too  easy  to  new  ideas,  markets,  production  new  would  hard  that  the  of  scale  However,  industrial  are  competitive in  the  best very  policy  place  the  and in  context  over  to  because  the  is be  the  a  the  in  per  country's  jumps  new in  se.  It  where  petrochemical by  a  lack  dependent thus  new What  of  on  tends  industries, with  strong,  and  areas  industry  'mature'  for  twenty y e a r s .  rather  confronted  therefore  searching  handicapped  Japanese  existence  not  fantastic  l i e  in  percent.  facilities,  last  Japan  to  so-called  ensure  the  such as  country  is  constantly  up  for  fifteen  moment  production  industry  their is  the  keep  continually  and  (R&D)  to  around  are  new  prospects  forcing  advantage  them  Japanese  are  at  important,  concentrated  Japanese  development  for taken  overall,  investments  reached  manufacturers  technology,  strongly  manufacturing  needed  be  innovativeness,  become  and  i t  i t  procedures,  suggested  economies  their  cost-cutting  alone  manufacturing  Japanese  have  the  to  Japanese  that  been  foreign  period  figures  has  'native'  of  predict.  but  industry.  1965-1969  Japanese  threats  to  is  urgently  home-based  research  manufacturing  industry  31 a  bright  even  this  future. aspect  novativeness  is  However, of  the  there  Japanese  developing  in  the  are  signs  industrial country's  at  the  life major  is  present  moment  changing,  industrial  and  that that  sectors.  i n -  -  Trading  years  There  Japanese export  the  two  main  trading  the  vigorously The  aiding  larger  came  with  and  economic  how of  the  Trade  that  respect  nations were  Japanese  national  the goal  Europe  needed  to  business  Japanese in  interests  private  the  latter  trading  effort.  nineteenth  At  that  would  to  overcome  its  to  up w i t h  be  and It  time,  century,  1870's.  America.  handle  work?  promotional  with  the  thirty-  industrial  its  (JETRO),  the  the  Japan's  through  development and  in  system  namely  of  originated  industrial in  handlers  Japan  trading  here,  private  in  of  actual  government,  the  isolation  to  the  importance  companies  its  picture  Organization  supporting  of  does  actual  Japanese  trading  out  companies  outside,  the  and  industrial  trading  II,  External  decided  wardness'  War  ingredients  and  Japanese  country  overall  companies,  Japan  Japan  above  World  products,  agency,  a  on  since  are  after  -  Patterns  Based six  20  catch  was  the  interaction  set  up  special  Japan  as  'backthe  realized  that  with  world  the  branches  to  deal  32 with  exports  of  fabricated  basic  inputs  were  off,'  namely  capital,  a  political  industrial ness  to  rejoin  foreigners  who  centures.  This  Japan  and  required  led  and  on  economic  had  been  the  particular  of  excluded to  as  was  the  nation  take  trading.  outside  was  question on  to  the  devote mixed  the  fear  itself with of  Oriental  direct  problem  that  five  'to  take  managerial  But  the of  realized  development  exchange,  threatening  the  further  industrial  foreign  world  seen  country  lines.  Japan's  part  the  fear  It  international  33 own  for  technology,  commitment growth  goods.  of  skills, fully  the  foreign expansion  of  to  eager-  strangers, way  and  life  the for  investment along  its  in  -  The in  good  and  Japanese  stead  ever  'division  cess  of  therefore  of  going  since,  home a n d  applying  dividing  the  distinct  divisions:  step  employed  The  locating  the  achieving  sion  labour,  production,  perfection  the  tactics  in  retrieve'  unit  only  would  particular  left  the  and  tasks'  was  area. to  the  go  on  a  product,  this  banks  of  three  even  single  Based  it  into  to  a  pro-  process  business  produce  financing  the  And  the  taking  was  sales.  them  retrieve'  strategy  a manufacturing and  stood  technology,  of  financing,  have  'search  appropriate  of  its  manufacturer  and  that  of  'Division  ingredients  each manufacturing  thereby  two  'search  domestically.  necessary  further,  of  it  -  namely t h e t e c h n i q u e  tasks.'  overseas,  21  divi-  and  the  34 sales,  overseas The  a well  first  was  the  Mitsui  of  Mitsui.  Later  and  trading  cotton  trading added and  Prior  the  over the  to  where  strong  were,  coal, wheel  of  in  II  survived.  adapting  up  1950's,  by the  themselves  the was  were  added.  imports. trading  endeavour, array  of  the  such  exports  later  cotton  yarns  and  consolidation  eliminated  or  merged,  War  the  Occupying  companies  new  large  post-war  and  found  conditions,  in  Japan's only  companies  but  their  imports.  where  trading  Forces,  of  was  of  the  exports,  type  as  1876.  original  for  company),  in  House  Their  Another  Allied  the  of  period  trading to  were  arm  as  whole  After the  trading  established  products  of  a  was  agricultural  (specialized fields  there  sogoshosha  broken  and  companies.  company)  sogoshoshas  technology  certain  trading  a separate  silk,  companies  and  as  encompassing War  to  trading  other  weaker  1940's  scene,  of  up  senmonshosha  World  temporarily, the  were  the  instead  set  number  specialized  cloth,  economy,  a  (general  Co.,  spinning  company,  and  and  items  and  domestically,  sogoshosha  It  major  as  gradually,  way  back  through  on  - 22 -  consolidation  and  diversification.  obtaining  sufficient  companies  in  ten  the  capital  post-war  to  commercial  banks,  the  largest  became  the  foundation  reconstituted  and  internationally,  two  types  was  the  more  markets  restructuring  largest  Zaibatsus  of  and  to  the  of  the  adaption  product  giving  nationally  trading  and  the  are,  in  a  than  ever  for  a  in  grand  gave  both  the  the  a  linkage  total  between  and  Moreover,  medium  was  large  the  trading  The  six  5390  the  One  encompassing  other  of  between  domestically  scale, The  and  country.  endeavours.  in  then  shares  a whole.  before.  export  small  as  around  banks  market  in  larger  manufacturing  groups,  again  stocks  the  These  place  on  the  activities  banks.  took  which  strong  and  required,  their  country  problems  smaller  large  inter-  enterprises  as  the  units.  the  could  as  developed  the  held  serious  consisting of  their  1974  corporations  at  be  present  in  Japan  that  of  these  are  known  as  average  year  these  trading  percent  of  Japan's  in  city  companies  lines  structure  intermediate  There  of  Keiretsu-1ineage  companies  rapidly  gradually  trading  to  bank-centered  benefit  increased f l e x i b i l i t y  trading  thus  the  due  center  groupings,  and  the  old  wider  companies,  basic  new  competition  structural  revival  companies  for  Strong  the  of  as  tended  the  firms.  expand  era  of  service  to  Further,  O J  defined general  export  time, as  around  trading  trading  companies trade,  8,000  companies.  companies handle  with  the  export/import  a  nine  largest  (sogoshoshas).  total  nine  The  of  general  about  companies  Over  an  sixty-five  trading  companies  37 accounting total over  sales of  the  for  about  fifty  equivalent two  largest  to  percent. nearly  trading  one  These fourth  houses  nine of  combined  sogoshoshas  Japan's  GNP,  corresponds  account  and to  the the  for  turnGNP  of  -  Australia, Canada. can  with  The  boast  total  goods  of  networks  the  the  set  they  sales  trade  world's  up w i t h  23  of  all  amount  largest  such  -  nine  to  20,000  and most  complexity  amounting to  the  the  25,000  effective  that  to  GNP  items,  and  commerical  largest  of  among  they  intelligence  them  can  match  38 the  complexity The  set  of  Chinese  one  is  of  which  center  trading for  the  mutual  approach  to  actions,  and  the  as  the they,  where  trading imports,  inside  the  whole  Japan's  large  one  as  who  are  more  limited  a  above-mentioned  in  to  one  whole  system.  finds  in  supplier  outer  be  loose  trading  associ-  companies  trading grouped  exports The  specialized overseas  small,  of  its  layers.  It  together trading  well  found.  Be-  companies,  general as  their  the  a  are  the  are  a  corporations.  etc.  involved  of  Japanese  general  finds  one  the  and  etc.  companies  only  the  banking  where  firms  more  of  lines,  system  large  and  layer,  companies  shipping  the  reminds  Keiretsu-level,  trading  structure  operating  larger,  outer  the  investments,  and  the  the  Zaibatsu-level,  into  trade,  company,  of  i n many ways  arbitrator)  reaches  firms,  Further  smaller  (and  networks.  comes in  their  trans-  specialized particular  is  an  intricate  indeed.  The are  to  the  exports  manufacturing specialty  more  level,  from  general  insurance  overseas  of  or  military  system  starts  one  large  finds  (sogoshosha)  level  one  layer,  one  one  trading  protector  and  benefit.  imports,  system,  this  around  layer  If  final  companies,  company as  the  superpower's  Japanese  groupings  this  two  boxes.  removes  ation  hind  the  post-war  government When  of  Japanese  keys  to  trading  their  companies  success.  e s p e c i a l l y the  general  They  have  a  operate  trading  number on  of  very  companies,  strong small  deal  in  points  profit  which  margins,  thousands  of  - 24 -  commodities number  of  vices  at  any  given  products,  among  time.  they  themselves  But  also  and  not  handle  their  only  do  enormous  they  deal  in  of  goods  volumes  affiliates,  covering  all  a  large and  ser-  aspects  of  39 the  export  Another on  a  trade.  advantage  large  with  Finally, radical  changed  the  an  from  the  one  to  of  premise  employee  requires on  The a  will of  task do  that  goods.  up  merit.  been  This  could  feature  are  being  a  and  engaged are  where  in  hired  premise  that  shared  goals  and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , based  of  be  shared  based  on  trading  done  job. But  and  and  the  a  gives  profit  the  interests  greatest  company  Naturally,  what  economic  their  is  be m a d e ,  first  Japanese  to  obtainable  functions to  company.  task  trading  The  on  is  to  the  generally  part  on  decision-  a  the  of  the  companies shared highest  productivity.^  nearly the  an  management  trading  produce  has  of  strategic on  a  strength  encouraged  to  shared  indicate  the  ranks  to  gradually  contains  university  the  subjected  seniority  well-being,  l i f e ,  intimate  added  and for  their  and  directly  job  credits  personnel  already lower  to  and  banks.  has on  being  school a  of  company's  is  based  management  which  thanks  Japanese  structure  whereby  the  is  major  financing  commitment  l i s t to  it  short-term,  basis  of  low-cost  advantages.  total  quality  the  part  structural  a  background  obtainable  the  major  to  promotion  system  men o u t  and  executive  on  in  their  access  the  that  on  and  accepted  cultural  in  level  Young  is  Japanese  interest  middle  rely  of  responsibility,'  active  of  easy  two  trading  making.  thus  or  promotion  Japanese  one  long-term  productivity  'collective take  both  the  is  their  transformation  increased for  is  scale,  connections  been  This  unlimited.  Japanese  trading  plain  and  simple  company  its  added  If  there company  trading strength  -  is  its  coverage  acquisition of  of the f u l l  25  trading l i f e  through  initial  of  factors  and s t o r a g e ,  a b s o r p t i o n , on t o t h e f i n a l  importation.  These o p e r a t i o n s  s u c h as a w i d e - s p r e a d  from the  investments  a wide v a r i e t y of marketing techniques,  The a d v a n t a g e s  follows:  such volume t h a t i t g i v e s  needs,  territorial  them g r e a t e c o n o m i e s  world-wide basis with a large,  the a b i l i t y  o f t r a d i n g companies  an e x h a u s t i v e  at the  point  valuable  representatives with a detailed  notice,  summed up a s  and l o c a l  re-  transporta-  b a s e d on i m p o n d e r a b l e ,  markets  l e a s e and b a r t e r .  and  insurance  follow-up services  are also  network o f  financing,  knowledge o f overseas and e m p l o y i n g  original  production at the f a c t o r y ,  t i o n on l a n d and a t s e a , w a r e h o u s i n g risk  of a product,  p o t e n t i a l raw m a t e r i a l s , by o v e r s e a s  source development,  coverage,  -  t o a c t on  short  including  i n J a p a n c o u l d be  knowledge;  trading  in  of scale; operations  on a  i n t e r n a l m a r k e t t o back them u p ; a n d ,  finally,  41 t h e added a s s e t After government  o f e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e f i n a n c i n g on f a v o u r a b l e  t h e war s e v e r a l as w e l l  as  Japanese  private i n i t i a t i v e ,  namely t h e p r o m o t i o n and e x p a n s i o n of  International  central posed  T r a d e and  organization  the s e t t i n g - u p  trading organizations  w e r e c r e a t e d , on  b a s i c a l l y to serve  o f Japanese  Industry  terms.  (MITI) f e l t  to incorporate various  t h e same e n d ,  export trade.  The  Ministry  t h a t the c o u n t r y needed a  s c a t t e r e d a c t i v i t i e s and  o f s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Legislation  to t h i s  pro-  effect  was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e D i e t a n d e n a c t e d a t t h e t w e n t i e t h - e i g h t h o r d i n a r y sion Trade  i n 1958.  T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was o r i g i n a l l y named t h e J a p a n  Rehabilitation Organization  present  (JETRO),  b u t t h i s was  name t h e J a p a n E x t e r n a l T r a d e O r g a n i z a t i o n .  n o n - p r o f i t agency  under government  auspices  later  JETRO was  ses-  External  changed  to  founded as  f o r the promotion of  Japanese  its a  -  international Trade and  trade.  and Industry with  trade  It  centers  spread  mately  s i x hundred  giving  a total  over  an executive  directors,  a group  as  are the trading  and  now a l s o  research, fairs  and e x h i b i t i o n  overseas it has  separate  for  machinery  ment the  a r e promoted services,  as such,  fair  but i t  organization  does  include  information  i s dedicated  agriculture.  to exports  sphere,  companies.  Exports, ways  through  a c t i v i t i e s , and trade  The Organization  an i m p o r t  by a  executive  i n a hundred  has departments  research, and overseas  plus  abroad,  in i t s particular  public  relations;  and special  There  indicating  and that  the  i t  sections  i s no e x p o r t  department,  generally,  for  service departments;  and p u b l i c a t i o n departments,  and technology,  approxi-  i s headed  and s i x  trading  relations  and trading  of  employees It  Osaka,  MITI.  and f a c i l i t a t e d  public  arrangements.  information  trade  the Japanese  in  o f f i c e s and  has a s t a f f  (1978).  are as d i v e r s i f i e d  a c t i v i t i e s , overseas  has economic  It  by  International  eighty-one  two a u d i t o r s ,  appointed  of  an o f f i c e  and f i f t y  fifty  vice-president,  activities of  information  plus  countries.  hundred  has been  i n Tokyo,  i n Japan,  and s i x hundred  o f JETRO  imports,  offices  offices  twelve  which  functions  head  sixty-one  i n Japan  president,  The  with  local  o f about  -  i s responsible to the Ministry  (MITI)  twenty-seven  26  departthat  import  42 section  has been  The  information  businessmen. seminars, tends it  added  They  at a later services  are available  include over-the-counter  p e r i o d i c a l s a n d numerous  to overseas  publishes  date.  trade  an export  other  to both services,  library  publications.  inquiries at the rate directory;  Japanese  i t compiles  o f around  JETRO  and overseas services, further  200,000  information  at-  annually;  on a l l aspects  -  of  economics,  trade,  27  and industry  -  on a world-wide  basis  and maintains  a 43  list  of  s u b s c r i b i n g members  JETRO's  public  for i t s information  relations  activities  the  promotion  o f an understanding  the  promotion  of information  into  Japan;  the  the promotion  promotion  activities. functions  of  representatives,  investments;  sponsors  in  available  f o r seminars  has t o date  tions.  It  takes  participated part  i n both  range  attaches  general  and, finally,  economic of  cooperation  public  business  etc.  and keeps  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  s i x hundred trade  arranges lounge  and j o u r n a l i s t s .  trade  fairs,  It  relations  teachers,  and v i s i t i n g businessmen i n over  conditions;  and importers  businessmen and overseas  economists,  f o r commercial  from  overseas  an e x t e n s i v e  o f Japanese  journalists,  Japan's  aspects:  economic  Japanese  sessions  JETRO  of Japanese  o f overseas regarding  services.  different  exporters  briefing Tokyo  overseas  four  f o r both  further  for the benefit  have  programs  information  JETRO  distributing  fairs  special  and e x h i b i -  trade  fairs,  44 public  relations  exhibits,  must  be one o f  with  the activities  international III.  rapid  o f the Japanese  trading  efforts  trading  The JETRO i n the world  companies  enterprise and combined  i t seems  an  unmatched  force.  Economic  after  economic  Conditions  t h e end o f World  growth  in productivity.  percent  promotion  events.  and Trade  Promotion  Mechanisms  Conditions  Right  and  the greatest  Canadian  Economic  and special  per year  with  high  Between  War I I  employment  Canada  went  and a sustained  1945 a n d 1957 C a n a d a ' s  and the per c a p i t a  through  GNP f i g u r e  rise  GNP t h u s  was a t 1 . 6  a period  of  i n t h e GNP  grew  percent.  at 4.2 The  -  period  was  strains  marked,  with  economic  though,  respect  picture  slowed  down,  mained  fairly  to  by  the  so  did  stable,  -  p r i c e and wage  balance of  deteriorated.  and  28  the  payments.  Unemployment  rise  whereas  p r e s s u r e s and  in  the  GNP.  During  rose,  Prices  balance of  the  beginning  the  growth  and w a g e s ,  payments  1950's, in  Canada's  productivity  however,  accounts  re-  slowly  kept  45 losing  ground. During  proved. ments  stable.  six  on  In in  world.  a more  the  its  percent  GNP  the  commodity  hit  a  fell  price  into  suffered  running  with  the  among  1970's  the  the  the  and  share the  falling  for  playing  gained  ground,  prices  and wages  average  beginning  percent growth  and  the  in  its  and  with  a  remained  percent  goods  close of  Canada  4.6%). rate,  very  rising  all  in  rapidly  other  efforts  to  Canada's  gained  from  sector market  Canada  productivity  the  the  manufacturing to  relatively  to  industrial world  (4.2  pay-  annual  deterioration  1970's  Canada's  bracket  mark,  havoc  when  the  im-  balance of  countries  serious of  the  five  industrial  saw a  out,  economic outlook  manufactured  major  lost  percent  world's,  had an  mid-seventies,  two  latter  also  the  but  mid-four a  look,  generally  At  boom,  the  from  around  a market  fronts.  recession in  share  rate  the  on many  Canada  (5.9%)  and  productivity  promising  and  level  Canada's,  f e l l ,  1960's,  However,  position  ther  1960's,  Unemployment  took  growth  the  fur-  currently inflation 'reconstruct'  46 the  economy, Tied  in with  continuously world, three  b a s e d on  very  Canada's  low,  devalued  dwindling  i n c r e a s i n g d e f i c i t on  reaching a billion  a  critical  dollars  in  stage  one y e a r  share  its  in to  Canadian world  payments  1975 a  of  when  total  i t of  dollar. exports  has  accounts with i n c r e a s e d by around  five  been  the  a  outside  more  billion  than dollars.  -  It  has  been  billion  going  dollar  downhill  mark  non-tariff  barriers  products,  the  Further  ting  in  other  1978  this  billion  But change  these  in  the  investments so  that  countries,  amounted  twelve  has  to  only  country's  turned  capital  been  about on  its  a  inflows  in  no  to  in  keep  own on  dollars,  longer  to  are  out  end  giving  using  unwanted  has  Canada  showing  deficit  been  direct  a  can o f f s e t  a  In  account.  also  as  origina-  products.  trade  1970's  twelve  manufacturered  of  There  into  ten  technology  products  the  the  countries  import  accounts.  balance  abroad  other  heavily  a heavy  accounts  reach  their  manufactured  positive  from  too  to  Canada  for  billion  current  capital  from  that  than  relying  thirty  the  seems  competition  resulting  dollars  are  It  estimated  skilfully  meaning  Canada  -  since,  1980-81.  much more  latter  goods.  of  in  ever  29  a  foreign  negative  one,  existing  deficits  47 on  the  where  current large  external  interest  and  'get  of  in  out  such  Otherwise taxes,  trying  accounts is  tween  the  It  to  something country or  is  will  for  which  the  starts  a  deficits  again  makes  vicious creates  the  country's be  to  found  suffer  get  under  an  Canada  s t i l l  current the  manufacturing  to  circle, higher  accounts  government  sector.  out  of  increasing  is  Somehow,  its  'jam.'  burden  of  indirectly.  by  in  constantly relation  federal  to  have  problem  i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r why  the  have  to  in  pay  then  uncertainty,  get  to  promote  will  latter  charges  doubt,  are  falling  service  haste  directly  The  borrowing  balance.'  the  Thus is  other  great  somewhere,  accounts.  the  and  1980's.  growing, to  the  government  insecurity  U.S. and  The  deficits  inflation dollar, the  are  is  prevailing on  rising,  the the  while  balance  of  Canadian  and  the  economic  provinces  are  deteriorating  Canada payments dollar  relations  be-  continuously.  In  all  fairness,  however,  i t  improving  somewhat,  such as  last  or  the  year  so,  balance  has  creased  slightly  flation  is  a  damper  to  become  on  most is  encouraging trying  to  be  said  of  three  to  and  the  within  the the  future  investors,  of  the  It  are  increasing over the  fact  country's  with  does  developers,  not and  the trade  investment  that the l e v e l  percent  itself,  1980's.  conditions  business  thirteen  country  for  the  amount  and  in  been  percent,  S t i l l ,  twelve  certain  has  six  the  1970's.  that  which  happen  always  mark  of  ini n -  is  putting  everybody  waiting  seem a  very  exporters  who  future.  been  'National  rule,  production  away  creating  system  a  have  in  from  the  justification  been,  and  the  of  materials  and  exports industry of  the  to  thirty  effort  would  and has  try into  further  grown  and  all  percent  to  raw  has  1879,  years  international  that  of  Canada  over  an  mainstay  beginning.  Policy'  twenty-five  the  on  the  manufacturing  policies the  been  s i n c e the  dependent  'infant'  portation  have  have  heavily  in  to  Strategy  since the  rates  has  to  for  existence  Canada's ever  activity  plan  Staples  country  late  between  going  -  positive,  the  picture  Industrial  Canada's  in  30  employment  area  more  hovering  see what  are  in  -  to  the  up  nation's  supported bracket direct  protected,  East-West  behind  this  for  still  i s ,  tariffs  tariff  walls  and  strategy.  transTariff  products  manufacturing  inter-provincial  integration  a  foodstuffs.  industrial  Canada's  for  and  markets,  interdepen-  dence. As until 1951),  an  after and  employer World i t  was  of  labour,  War  II  (about  not  until  that  manufacturing twenty-six same y e a r  did  percent that  not to  Canada  surpass  agriculture  twenty-one  percent  'officially'  in  became  -  an  industrial  nation,  that  primary  production.  facturing  and  facturing  reached  four-fifths with  only  of  Canada's  first  industrial  Canada,  signs  of  accounted  lay  it  this  interest  immigration  rose  fell  and  especially  and  economically,  restrictions labour  the  of  costs, During  the  existing  problems  problems  of  usual  a  remedies  causes  of  Canada  the  this  the  in  following:  still  1960's.  Canadian  resources  were  LDCs  huge  constant Canada  the  foreign  trade  industrial in  was  not  thus  redundant  affairs  changes  increase  international  more  major  sphere,  nature  short-term are,  only  which  according  policy  of  to  'import  per-  experts, been  rose;  skilled  not  labour  international,  by by  became  decreased;  initiatives  also  import  on  low  effectiveness.^ generally  specific be  Science  socially,  and  based  the  problems. the  had front  industrial  could  economic  five  politically,  plagued  but  only  offensives,  Japanese  1961-1966 created  inflows  the  Canada's  jobs  domestic  On  in  new  industry  natural  there  the  increased.  all  economic  capital  the  that  to  foreign  costs  Canada,  period  for  expensive;  and  to  of  on  labour  manu-  Today,  within  the  factors  major  the  In  supply  of  income,  weakness  accounted  which  costs  manu-  same y e a r .  sold  percent  upon  The  national  structural  1966-1972  U.S.  of  is  foundation  structural,  state  the  the  applied  in  between  borders.  major,  as  1970's  that  twenty-five  period  front,  such  percent  according  and  U.S.  1971,  and  about  sharply;  off;  of  output  in  growth  percentage  nation's  appear  balanced  was,  i n e l a s t i c and  rates  a  a  change  Confederation.  more  very  the  the  built  and  As  potential  for  in  more  obtained  thirty-one  to  alterations since  the  a  in  behind  it  -  manufacturing  began  whereas  What  of  crossing  approach  manufacturing  cent.  level  one-fifth  The  in  a  i s ,  31  domestic  'cured' The  the  root  Council  substitution'  by  of  resulted  in  - 32 -  an a  ineffective growing  climate state  U.S. of  rate  surplus  times  the  economy  to  world  of  here  in in  causes  great  of  condition  in  the  1970's;  a  on  of  and  poor  business  climate,"  partly  partly  to  internal  1960's  created  an  the  real  Canada's  political  great  is is a  problems,  the  manufac-  become and  a  on  "an  that  very  time  Finally,  such  'unhealthy'  the arena  Canada,  especially vulnerable thus  its  and  economic  dependency to  hard  'trimming.! to  of  markets;  has  due  facts  sector  It  which  'pruning'  also  healthy  shrinking  economic  "a  general  recession.  country"  dependency  the  manufacturing  of  from  economic  trans-nationals,  economic host  and  that  period  dependency  by  that  obscuring  Canadian in  a dependent  stunted  1950's  Canada,  the  international  sector,  substitution;'  the  production"  its  example  'export  complacency  economy  due  of  around  of  turing  manufacturing  as  the  "pronounced  adapting Canada  dependency  in  to  a  suffers  status,  but  constitutional 50  wrangle,  the  The industry what the  debate finds  so-called trade  councils,  the  limited  effects on  walls  Sir  each  secondary  of  Council  industry.  two base  The  dilemma  of  its  option'  in  own. and  tug-of-war. which  Canadian  each with One  the  a  some-  alternative  other  the  is  so-called  one  of  the  government's  advisory  of  Canada  and  the  Council  out,  Economic  sovereignty approach  'National  degree  way  the  energy  alternatives,  historical  high  unsolved  by  Macdonald's  resulting  of  'technological  Canada's A.  out  sovereignty  championed  The  still  on  political  Science  John  and  the  centered  and  respectively.  based  structure  has  'technological  the  and  p o s s i b l e ways  social,  option,'  negative  ment,  about  namely  Canada,  question,  itself  regional,  'free  of  Quebec  to  Policy'  option' industrial with  its  of  foreign  ownership  as  seen  supporters  by  emphasizes  and of  developtariff a  severely  this  - 33 -  option, tion,  such  followed  possession foreign and  as t h e Science  of  by i n t e r n a t i o n a l original  ownership  a too heavy  barriers  Thus  Canada's  great  are most  duct  resource  does  development  development  past  stage  Johns  Handy  and Engehart  less  ownership  Canada.  which  which also  part  of  Examples  INCO w h i c h does  does  the  technology.  do a g r e a t  i n the U.K.,  which  innova-  c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  will  Manville  and  as f o r e i g n  outside  a n d Harman  be  see the  factor  Canadian-based  development  i n t h e USA,  i n t h e USA,  important  exports  of  would  The a d v o c a t e s  companies  the f i r s t  i n t h e USA,  and o t h e r s ,  pendant,  resource  exporting  i t s product  o f i t s development  bestos  as a necessary  to the development  development  ALCAN w h i c h  Canada  as t h e most  r e l i a n c e on n a t u r a l  damaging  product  of  competitiveness.  technology  i n Canada  most  their  Council  does  a l l i t s as-  i t s silver  carries  pro-  on a l l i t s  51 research idea  i s that,  dustry of  in connection  will  'core'  future  again  companies  enterprises'  of  trade  competitiveness,  on  Canada's  weak  is  viewed  stimulate This  secondary  differerently.  private  reduction  of  or  option'  The f r e e  international business tariffs  tariff  should  However, want  negotiations,  take  base  become  more  through  place  first  for  as l a c k  to  of  influence  the  reduced  that  cost-conscious and  group  emphasizes  harmful  the t a r i f f s  i n -  corporations.'  such  the solution  believing  a  the basis  i t also  size's  Council 's  Canadian  national  structure,  market  traders  t o become  venture,  i s concerned,  and t h e small  industry.  could  'world-scale  the historical  efficiency,  through  joint  These  'free  effects  The S c i e n c e  i t s own t e c h n o l o g i c a l  trading  f a r as t h e  eliminated  i n t h e USA.  to create  companies.  negative  platinum  on a government-supported  be a b l e  'world As  the  based  with  this  problem or will  competitive.  on a b i l a t e r a l  basis  with  - 34 -  the  USA,  and  later  on  a multilateral supported  This  point  of  view  is  sees  Canada's  main  problem  on  markets  (one  hundred  and  sized  Economic free  Council  trade  of  Canada's  by  basis with  the  the  that  that  of  Council as  people  "Canada  a free  rest  front  million  opinion  situation...(and)  Economic  industrial  fifty  the  trade  of  the  or  world.  Canada lack  proper-  It  prosper  is  which  of  more).  could  policy  the  not  is  in  the  a  only  totally  feasible  52 for  Canada The  called  but two  planning  a  not  not  and  a  be  set  very  an  public  powerful  industrial  and  flourish  reject  traders'  'the  national  strategy  the  and  on  a  However,  the  for  of  free  that  competitive  Canada 1  policy' those  trade  basis,  which  points  in  an  on  based  of  sovereignty' as  been  insists  within  two  technological advantage  have  which  continuing  'technological  concept  objectives."  policy  framework  freely.  acknowledge  weapon  its  intervention  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e , as  'free  of  operation-by-operation  strategy,  can  completely  the  of  guarantee  to  'the  degree  and  best  approaches  enterprise  might do  the  respectively  significant  vate  in  on  pri-  view  advocates  ultimate  goal,  sovereignty  might  fighting  a  on  the  be  inter-  53 national  'trade  Where flow on  of  part  when  i t  labour, the  does  North  that  industrial of  most  comes and  goods,  Canada  high  general  industrial are  products,  in  a  public life  an  era  inflation,  nations?  formulating  since Canadians American  leave  industrial  to  the  country's  that  front.'  At  cohesive in  Canada  bottom  industrial have  up  has  people a  good  scarcity,  imbalances of  the  to  now  with trade  and  tended  to  low  growth ladder  look  at  pretending  access  balance,  over-  Governmment,  glasses, easy  an  industrial  strategy.  'rose-coloured'  a well-educated and  resource  monetary  the  Canada  through  of  all  to is  all well.  - 35 -  But  according  the  case.  to  Generally  characterized resource Canada  experts  as a  exports,  should  and f o r e i g n  speaking,  businessmen  their  'developing'  opinion  country,  i s not  i s that  heavily  and as f a r as t e c h n o l o g i c a l  n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  this  Canada  on a p a r w i t h  should  dependent  capability  on  is  developed  actually be  natural  concerned,  countries  in  54 Europe,  and not a t a l l w i t h  Why neither  economies," Canada  is  exports,  of  Japan,"  business  i n many ways "a s o c i a l ,  a cohesive  which might  industrial  It  i s , because  political,  "the formal has been  country,  bureaucratic  created  policy,  i n many  'clout'  and there  and i n s t i t u t i o n a l  an e x t r a  i t  "has and  government-wide  or political  a fragmented  represents  of  nor  geographical,  which  a dilemma?  cohesion  nor the economic  business"  ment  with  of  U.S.A.  i n such  social  characteristic  coordination  and  caught  the informal  elites of  i s Canada  the  and thereby  machinery  European  as t h e  U.S.A.  i s , according  isolation  complication  business  of  government  for the future  also  to  develop-  for a cohesive  indus-  55 trial  export  subjected The  policy.  to a somewhat.erratic  Department  manufacturing tagne, of  of  a n d Tom K e n t ,  nationalism  Trade  a n d Commerce  traditional  was c r e a t e d  a move  of  by P i e r r e  over  promoted  Liberals  industrial  trading'  the  development. with  Trudeau,  two s e p a r a t e  Canadian  the  Lamonconcepts  the Department  advocates  and  i n one  been  1970's.  However,  industrial  united  has  Maurice  who s u p p o r t e d  was merged  were  and  for  Gordon,  Industry  supporters  i n Canada  the 1960's  by Walter  by.'technological-sovereignty' 'free  policy  i n 1963 t o work  a l l left-of-centre  the Department  advocated  industrial  treatment  and s t a t e - i n i t i a t e d  when  by  Industry  industry,  1968,  one  Politically,  in of  policies,  the  the.othersadvocated unwieldy  -  bureaucracy. as  a  lack  level,  of  no  'union.  a  coordination  lack  of  already  meaningful  industrial  initiative  in  'Cabinet  ning. such  created  cohesion within  existed  on  p o l i c y was  the  the  Department,  overall  very  likely  and  inter-departmental  to  come  out  of  this  1  The new  This  -  36  Planning  However, as  the  even  trade,  Trade  Commerce  and  System' this  Department  regarding  policy-making  and of  powerful  of  the  through  Finance  thus  left  to  the  the  Committee  on  Priorities  system and  established  line  was  ran  its  the  somewhat  system  branches,  into  each  Trudeau  existing  the  dealing  with  and  philsophy  Department its  Plan-  obstacles,  conservative  within  Cabinet's  own  of  Industry,  industrial  56 sector.  The  talism,  centralism,  orientation the  'Finance  and  'Cabinet  systematic  Planning  and  System'  continental ism,  non-intervention  Planning  system'  interference  in  in  with  the  has  founded  private its  b a s i c a l l y stood on  enterprise,  planning,  industrial  the  for  concepts and  i t  regionalism,  sector  as  an  area  incremenof  market-  has and  of  considered suggested  social  policy,  57 not  a  viable The  mental  economic  expression  vocabulary  Industry,  Trade  formulate  a  'industrial  around  and  what  he  strategy  for  Finance,  Energy,  1972,  Commerce.  comprehensive  outlined  Pepin  approach.  Mines  took  the  road  instruments  and  all  of  with and  when Pepin  industrial  considered  industry'  strategy'  to  be  the  Jean-Luc made  o f f i c i a l l y added Pepin  a major  strategy. major  contributions Resources,  was  In  Science  his  several and  the  attempt  components  from  'comprehensiveness'  was  in  June of  'a  to  Minister June  5 speech  including all  govern-  of  1972  to he  governmental  departments  Technology,  the  such  plus  possible  as  Transport. policy  58 possible areas  of  endeavour.  But  1972  was  the  peak  -  year  for  such  After global  and  adopted  approach  his  a  During  the the  Trade  and  System1  scattered  was  separate  road,  mic  approach  had  Three  the  to  major  problem  tivity,  which  demanded  an  distribution  to  be  to  avoid  foremost  the  strategy  based  for  with and  a  regulation  on  the  the  from  Department's in  of  in-  on  im-  sectors.  Industry, Planning  the  two  basic  concern with  department  belief  and  approach.  an  emphasis  between  tune  on  'Cabinet  industry's  be  'sectoral'  industrial  the  each  Pepin's  industry  industry  various  with  to  rejected  p l a c e more  compromise  private  order  on  Department  pressure  since.  Canadian  Canadian  the  the  to  in  for  purportedly  under  an  areas  had  namely  been  that  with  the  taking  a  its  macro-econo-  international  the  located which required  area  of  increased emphasis  within  this  protectionism, in  he  overall  all  arena.  cooperation,  effort  and  would  stressed  ment-business  even  Gillespie's turn,  based on  partly  trade  ever  representing  approach  be  way  Gillespie  partly  and  the  consultation  plans  government  in  which  for  downhill  strategies  reluctantly,  up w i t h It  an  -  'incrementalism,'  1974-1975  own  politics  of  basis  Commerce  philosophies.  of  separate  machinery period  been  Alistair  idea  involves  came  has  policy  dustry-by-industry proving  It  P e p i n i t was  vision  instead This  plans.  37  minds  of  a  sector,  on  and,  'fall-back'  Canadian  inflation,  the  industrial  finally, position  a  closer  area  of  governproduc-  productivity  strong  which  i n d u s t r i a l i s t s when  concerted  always the  and  seemed  going  got  59 tough. on  However,  sectoral  tant  policies  industries  underlined  as  the  in  far  as  Canadian  remained,  seven major  ideas  of  industry  centered areas.  on The  inter-departmental  the  was  concerned,  twenty  outcome  was  cooperation  to an  the  thirty  emphasis  more  initiative  within  the  imporwhich  federal  -  government,  more  macro-approach ment  met t h e After  cooperation  to  a l l avoided  was  preoccupied with  him  i n 1976,  work  began  with  industry,  System'  'industrial  trade  to  and Jean  and Jean  t o p r o c l a i m an even  approach  and t r a d e .  more  the problem,  development  nationally-flavoured  industrial  trade  ments.  What  to  a way t o  find  which  they  trade  posture In  with  Chretien  support  Round1  of  plus  This  the federal  industries  Jack  for  when  approach  approach,  approach.  be i n a p o s i t i o n  period  he  to  succeeded  international a  sectoral  ground-  t h e new  effort  Horner,  example  instituted  plus  inter-  attempted  and p r o v i n c i a l  actually  trying  i n the country,  to  'enhance'  the problem  of  connecting  development  was a l s o  taken  Committee  on Trade  and I n d u s t r i a l  MacEachen.  the Multilateral  consolidate  Depart-  to govern-  t o do was industries  Canada's  competitive  overseas.^  industrial  by A l l a n  selected  to  the 1976-1977  headed  academics,  the  plus  the existing  and h i s a s s i s t a n t s were  considered  Interdepartmental  to  labour,  Chretien,  Osbaldeston  uniting  industrial  management,  international  In e f f e c t ,  Jamieson,  active  Minister  a national  unite  general  Chretien,  strategy.'  promotion,  He a n d h i s D e p u t y  a n d a more  halfways.  Don J a m i e s o n  the words  policies.  several-tier  came  -  development  Planning  Gillespie  who  trade  with  industrial  'Cabinet  38  It  t h e two h i t h e r t o  up b y a new c o m m i t t e e , Development  was s e t up i n c o n n e c t i o n  Trade  Negotiations separated  commercial  (MTN)  with  i n order  areas within  The (ICTIP),  the to  policy  'Tokyo try  the federal  again govern-  61 ment,  mentioned In  1978,  government  above. however,  a new s t r u c t u a l  s e t up i t s B o a r d  of  Economic  change  took  Development  place,  when  Ministers  the  Liberal  i n order  to  -  coordinate  industrial  This  was  Board  bureaucratic giving tries  it  a  history,  i t .  1979,  the  they  more  of  of  for  State  trial  and  one o f  or  in  strong  to  Industry,  industry  and  a  Canadian  Canadian  new  to  the  foreign  where  "the  reality  wards  'political'  is  the  a  government  previous policy.  country  On  Speech  a in  set  recommendation  policy  a  with new  businesses  regarding  the  in  the a  to  1980,  both  secLib-  new  Minister indus-  revealed  a Committee  relating  election  of  approach  April,  up  medium-sized  trade  new  the  return  and  for  government's  presented  Gray,  and  to  the  State  Board.  after  Liberal  was  Herb  Lumley,  Throne  new  of  minis-  to  to  a  the  promotion  study  'a  new export and  mar-  overseas.  industrial  policy  has  enterprise,  Canadian  as  Canadian  individual  the  Ed  and  various  to  proposal  a  the  in  resource-allocation,  secretariat  the  The  with  Canada.  time  a Ministry  over  Trade,  first  of  Commerce,  small  goods  reactive  threats  and  the  within  creation  industrial  Corporation,'  to  the  continued to  policies  for  vis-a-vis  a  took  new m o v e s ,  regarding  sing  as  policy.  policy  essentially  serve  Trade  domestic  of  hand  however,  Trading  development  policy-making  was  International  f i r s t ,  -  assignment,  first  less  National  keting  the  combine  1980,  commercial  the  to  approach  government  Minister  with  Conservatives  toral/consultive eral  regional  Another  Development,  When in  endowned  potentially  under  Economic  and  39  jobs  that  economies  aptly  been  preoccupied with  and  many  very  industries,"  countries  in which  are  characterized  weakness  and  it  is  now m o v i n g  market  forces  Canada  cope  are  and w i t h  faced  with  as  "an  repula  world  progressively  manipulated  to-  for  63 strategic world?  national  One  small  purposes." first  step  Can might  be  the  successfully with  creation  of  the  Special  such  a  Committee  -  to  consider  'a  whereby  the  way port  its  their from  National  countries  export-producing Trading  one  within  trillion  in  trading  in  over  in  without  in  way  one  or  might  possibly  s u c c e s s f u l manner  finding  products,  was  to  billion  S t a t i s t i c s  an  competition  the  a  sup-  market  with  all  find  could  international  exception,  of  Canada  only  trade,  a  a  of  lack this  with  a  due  to  for  products  support  their  other.  too  in  an  average  trade  notice  of  Canada  the  the  has  dependency in  which  on  world's that  percent  of  its  GNP,  whereas  surplus from  of  a  Canada's $8  surplus  materials,  imbalance  of  of  and $18  Canada  $23  in  trade  the  export had  totalled  merchandise  on  economic  1980  thus  resource-based  the  declining  country's it  $1.5  basic  developing  billion,  billion  in  still  the  trade in  surpassed  trade  if  exports  one  only  fabricates, end  ten-year  product p e r i o d  .  experienced  overall  annual  billion  future  automotive  fact  percent.  and  country's  a  the  1979 its  a  present  of  so-called industrial  had  heavy  presence  that and  take  past,  spite  raw  an  to  trade,  following:  in  twenty  products,  decline  all  the  however,  1969  result  are  Canada's  world  necessary  show  percent  of  twenty-five  down,  being  between  to  1980,  the  latter  all  than  in  imports,  is  and  equal  more  contemplating  which  and  food  33  in  which  and  nearly  totality  world  considered  a  which,  it  U.S.A.,  areas,  1970  $74  the  1979,  total  the  grown  acceptable  businesses  industries  problems  of  growth  Corporation'  developed  starts  position  with  an  -  Patterns  When  share  in  export  technologically other  Trading  country  smaller  40  share  of  nations export  world  during  growth  exports, this  rate  of  the  period, 15.1  worst and  percent  that during  -  this  same  rate  of  23.1%.  Canada the a  period,  in  The  the  of  total  that  1970's  a  percent,  world  market  end  of  thus  to  77  rest  a  of  the  the  less  with  the  United  been  receiving  while  in  1977  percent  U.S.A.  with  the  1967, i t  only  and  for  only  to  at  country  also  billion,  The  billion.  In  of  trade  problem  quite  end  a  Canada's  the  receiving  automotive end  worth  means  of  on  all  billion  percent.  which  thirds  of  obtained  4.6  being  products.  $16.5  Kingdom,  Canada  for  two  of  growth  diminishing share  $6.5  that  percent  of  United  example,  about  latter  58.2  average  $650 b i l l i o n  added  $3.5  the  accounted  c a n be  out  countries'  constantly  manufactured  billion  takes  a  estimated  totalling  $8.6  world  was  States  corresponds  Canada's  is  developed  In  1977  problem  picture,  which  of  the  further  percent  U.S.,  to  in  one  the  dominate  the  the  go  As  -  in manufacturing.  decline of  exports  has  5.9  difference.  to  Together  world market  share  compared  41  exports  products  sent  comparison,  products  from  64 Canada. Part  of  Canada's  that  the  cial  features,  mately  private  half  and  ownership  in  exports  to  for  main  a  the  enterprise  different  of  companies  general  Canada's their  the  export  from export  through  fact  that  71.4  percent  within  five  dominant  a  fact  enterprises  of  and  paper,  plus  primary  This  of  metals.  thus  industrial  leaves  which  the  their  transportation  is  country  conducted  exports  65 pulp  this  attributable  of  sales  Canadian  sectors:  is  sector.  direct  in  so-called  business  affiliates,  Canadian-owned  trading  other,  manufacturing  part  foreign  are  own  the  has  the  only  own  conducted  by  parent  foreign half  companies  products.  spe-  Approxi-  between  high  about  larger  equipment,  its  nations.  directly to  fact  It  is  large  machinery,  of  the  account thus companies wood,  -  Further the  fact  trade an  entering  that  trade  across  the  increasing  has  only  making least est  trade  growing  usual  Pacific  Atlantic,  and  although  of  the  U.S.  market  haps  on  economic  growth,  slight  increase  a  country the  LDCs.  to  and  barter  foreign  into  the  trade  in  interested.  Canada  is  and  will  and  not  additional  Added mentioned  above  national  exporting  when  urgency  non-cash  it  to  just  to  export  involvement  as  form  countries  stay of  a  alive. economic  on  with on  In  be  warfare,  strong-  changes  away  in  from  its  the  countries  and  LDCs  par-  most  resource-rich just  part  products  and  prevailing necessary  position  the  from  its  are  trading  export-related general  for  1980's  of  all  countries,  trade  Eastern  Europe and  as  and and  bloc  the  appear  an  as par-  Third  the  take  world be:  the  World  a  trade  U.S.A.  is  is is  con-  hierarchy nearly  of uni-  growing  countries.  trade  inter-  into  i n c r e a s i n g tendency  countries,  as  to  to  problems on  a constantly  international far  trends  Canada  within  the  Eastern  Western  the  per-  in  foreign  a n d many  the  emphasis  domestic  of  its  of  some  thus  with  this  share  placing  exports,  exporters  make  its  countries  total  in  have  resources.  will  part  the  of  traditional  these  of  of  greater  industrial  number  part  bloc  for  specific  trends  part  spite  countries  trade  to  in  the  to  and  more  have  markets,  are  export  producers  will  that  developed  percent  obtain  East  need  also  These  transactions  developing  the  LDCs  own  it  to  World  less  8.4  diverting  natural  are  to  reality  surpassed  Canada's  trade, Third  the  1979  the  major  order  contemplates  nations.  government  a  there  in  Canada  therefore  Canada's  the  is  market  The  scene which  sideration  versal  to  In  which  ticularly  tners  among  international  approach  picture  the  rate  with  export  -  across  experienced  Canada  the  42  a  towards For  most  necessity  looked  concerned,  upon trade  - 43 -  is  becoming  including  more  Canada,  hesitantly  to  governments trade,  to  of  an  seem t o  be  holding  r e a l i t i e s of  have  the  generally  prior  and  shared  set-up  might  has  be  part  of  economic back  very  international  the  world's also  priorities  and  strategies.  forced  yet  matured,  into  such  a  in  but  many  venture,  far  or  push  at  spite  of  rather  the  to  foreign  very  particular least  ventures the  Canada a  Further,  their  joint  as  come  countries,  respond  becoming  might  few  comes  to  nations  in  it  Actual  As  there  when  trade  a  competition.  moves  nations.  are  and  trade  behind-the-scenes of  Only  somewhat  active  business  not  necessity.  international  become  the  forefront  successful  government  a  the  more  master-minding  country the  and  is  between  result  of  concerned  point,  private  into  where  such  Canada  enterprise  resis-  67 tance,  as  the  survival  Returning with  smaller  above of  facts  the  dered into  to  the  fittest  specific  middlemen  country's  export  trade,  trading  their  is  only  a  side  the  own  But  concentrated  rather  small  designated  Canadian-owned. percent  when  B.C.  as  'trading  was  the  percent  Fifty-one  might  are of  are  percent  special  which  a  in  of  in  based  to  around  Ontario  on  twenty  even  the percent  be  consi-  circumstances exporters,  trading  goods  sales  connection  larger  ninety-four  located have  the  semi-finished  roughly  game.  about  perhaps  volume  industrial  There  houses'  and  the  trading  handle  case with  greatest  of  surprising  Canada's  the  products  rule  not  only  which  takes  the  Canadian is  Canada  Canadian  networks.  Seventy-two in  one  primary of  in  i t  result  lines,  portion  multinational  businesses  in  a  again,  product  of  companies  export  successful,  becomes  question  that  consideration.  sixteen  the  and medium-sized  somewhat  ports  of  house  goods, be  leaving  traded  five  volume  of  out-  hundred  percent and  ex-  are  Quebec less  and than  - 44 -  forty-five The  million,  trading  with  about  panies  the  and  houses  only,  about The  markets  twenty  their  with  special  complexities tation,  and  Japanese  respect  to  metals,  the  import  Canada  EEC,  houses  Further  in and  trading  Eastern  there Europe,  the  concentrated  business  largest  Ltd.  by  three  share  many o f  and  with  meat  techniques; the  areas  rather  of  Latin  potash  and  fish.  same  character-  of  overseas insights  with  transportation, information  licences,  and,  America,  and  conditions;  available  specialists  half  eight  familiarity  detailed  tariffs,  houses  a  most  goods.  the  social  and  Also,  sulphur  products,  livestock,  are  in  (com-  British  interests.  i n manufactured  economic,  products,  the  employees.  s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge  regulations,  has  of  of  Japanese  exclusively  etc.;  rather  (Canada)  products,  trade  be  twenty  resource-based exports,  and m a r k e t i n g  forestry  goods.  by  to part  agricultural  political,  insurance,  minerals,  in  trading  international  speaking,  Ltd.  than  Two  Guthrie  counterparts:  requirements of  in  main  million).  wood  deal  Canadian  Generally  Caribbean,  primary  less  seems  the  Balfour  specialize  in  countries'  manufactured  $10  have  thus  doing  (Canada)  percent  shipping,  individual  of  twenty-four  private  as  excess  percent  Canada  companies  Mitsubishi  exclusively  minerals  istics  in  in  foreign-owned,  trading  dealing  into  sales  seventy  business  score of  are  interests  Only  a  with  successful  of  house  and  with  to  the  documenregarding  quotas.  experts  a much  available and  and  to  the  in  lesser handle  Pacific  degree, the  Rim  + . 68 countries.  A Industry, men  that  study  conducted  Trade small  and  in  1972  Commerce  by  found  and medium-sized  R.B.  Fournier  that  there  Canadian  for  was  companies  the  Department  agreement needed  among  help  to  of  businessimprove  -  their  export  performance.  middleman-trade. tive.  Second,  unnecessary pay  link  in  Trade  Commissioners  directly.  The  failing  through  to  the  distributing  to  on  develop  overseas  businessmen  recognize use  of  the  tend  to  involved market  there The  was  a  large  their  Trade  degree  of  to  to  the  foreign  in  far  hindered  often  not  and  would  competi-  trade. to  that  savings felt  was  there  and  was  that  active  trade.  p a r t i c u l a r ownership Canadian  there  that  more  export  Canada's  available  government,  Canada's  of  manufacturers  concluded cost  to  instead  Third,  the  an  prefer  directly  could give  industry's  ownership  them  Canadian  improve  too  businessmen  and.Commerce  attempt  p r o b l e m due  the  to  study  the  so  producers  orders  the  Fourth,  of  in  in  are  overseas  expertise  Department  middlemen  mailed  refer  had  considered a middleman  Many  handle  sourcing a s s i s t a n c e from Industry,  often  orders  middlemen.  prices  goods.  and  problems  export  inadequate  to  basic  manufacturers  customers  a middleman  -  five  Canadian  Canadian  commission to  paying  a  First,  But  45  the  assistance Finally,  structure.  manufacturing  was  a  serious  69 p r o b l e m when To created  subsidiaries did  overcome a  number  Commercial crown  the  some o f of  It  (CCC) took  to  assist  was  on  behalf  of  Services The  (DSS)  with  Corporation  the  established  governments  was  in  integrated  latter  and  1946  s u p p l i e s a wide  variety  the of  the  the  Government  the  the  previous  of  goods  and  Canadian  and  of  staff  products  has  Canadian war  as  Canadian  a Export  services  relief  Department  funds  The  after  international  into  supplying  of  autonomy.  exporters.  procurement  Canada  corporation  Canadian  the  responsible for  the  problems,  duties  agency  1963  marketing  the  an  In  any  over  Board,  other  have  above-mentioned  agencies  Corporation  corporation.  the  not  in  agencies. Supply  and  required. for  individual  -  contracts;  i t  it  'project  acts  as  turn-key  assembles a l l r e q u i r e d equipment  Export  successor to  charter  to  agency  a  banks  12-man  The  The  Agency  Parliament for of  loans,  for  large  of major,  i n 1971,  package  complete  deals;  and  systems and  through Board  of  from  agreement  financing of  the Department  private  Canada's i t s budget  Development  the Department  takes  changing  of  overseas.  the form  also  and Canadian  Trade civil  Export  It  Canadian-sourced exports.  as a  insur-  such as the  t h e EDC  Industry,  its  intended  programs.  as  char-  It  reports  and Commerce. servants  and  It five  business.^  Aid Office,"  aid projects  Guarantee  is  with  by s u p p l y i n g  programs,  between  of  i s d i r e c t e d by a p r e s i d e n t through  It  exports  i n c l u d i n g seven  International  "External  financial  (ECIC),  and 1977.  Canadian  Investment  Directors,  was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1 9 7 0 ,  Corporation  1974,  of  and other  protocol  (EDC)  Insurance  and the Foreign  Canadian  as t h e  Corporation  f o r development  for the joint  representatives  1960  for delivery  Credit  amended  a voluntary  Parliament  has  the Export  Insurance  sponsors tered  Development  guarantees,  Credit  manager'  subsequently  facilitator ance,  -  operations.  The a  46  of  Agency  (CIDA)  i n 1968 to  and a governing External  'tied'  the present board  Affairs.  An e s t i m a t e d  It  eighty  a i d , thereby  was s e t up i n  and r e p o r t s is  to  giving  name. to  responsible  ninety a boost  percent to  71 Canadian The of  export  industry. Department promotion  of  Industry,  programs,  the exchange  Trade  a n d Commerce  such as the Promotional  which  encourages  of  fairs  and m i s s i o n s ; t h e Program  information for  Export  through  Market  (ITC)  sponsors  Projects  number  Program  international  Development  a  (PEMD)  (PPP)  trade which  -  promotes with  overseas  PEMD-A or  Canadian  trade.  involved  adjustment;  PEMD-D,  exports  through  The l a t t e r  with  capital  t h e PEMD-C  a program  47  for  -  the sharing of program  projects;  has f i v e  buyers,  risks  connected  sub-sections,  t h e PEMD-B  for participation  incoming  financial  f o r market  i n trade  fairs  and, finally  namely  identification  outside  PEMD-E  the  Canada;  f o r export  con-  72 sortia the  assistance.  Department  of  sioner  Service  called  "referral  vices"  for  IV.  After  a  (TCS)  overseas  of  looked  future chapter  will  possible  future  shape  Sequence  of  the  at  t h e above  process  Export  trading  examine forward  of  such  a  External  sponsors  selected posts, foreign  Affairs,  a Trade  Commis-  handling  so-  opportunities  ser-  and Their  Outcomes  r e a l i t i e s of  conditions, corporation  the evidence, i n hearings  Japanese  and  the foundation structure  would  the alternatives  and r e p o r t s  Canadian upon  which  have  to  be  and the  relating  to  the  best  structure.  Events  December,  Canada's  of  also  of  businessmen.  Deliberations  national  brought  to  i n a number  Canadian  Governmental  recommendations  ment  the Department  a n d Commerce  i n d u s t r i a l , and commercial  this  In  Trade  with  s e r v i c e s " and " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  having  potential  built,  conjunction  Industry,  the benefit  Canadian  economic,  In  1978,  i n motion export  sat for a year  The  second major  to  try  trading  Promotion  It  the federal  Review  come  problems. Committee  and brought move  to  out  government up w i t h  the best  The f i r s t under  i t s final  set a three  major  year  possible move  was t h e c r e a t i o n on June  12,  solution  was t o  the chairmanship of report  develop-  Roger  on November 3 0 , 1980, of  a  establish Hatch.  1979.  Special  -  Committee held 22, 1.  of  the  House  hearings  for  a year  1981.  The  In  December,  detailed  and  into  the  the  support  Commons  and  -  on  the  national  of  Promotion  effectiviness  s e r v i c e s and  to  its  of  trading  fourth  events  Minister  Export  a  published  schedule of  1978,  established look  of  48  are  and  the  Committee  ways  report  and  on  June  Commerce  with  a mandate  government of  which  below:  Trade  existing  recommend  final  indicated  Industry,  Review  corporation  export  improving  to  promotion  these  in  the  future. 2.  On  November  30,  1979,  the  "Hatch  Committee"  published  its  final  report,  73 containing 3.  its  summary  This  report  sent  initiative  keting  by  Policy  Department question  of  the  and  recommendations.  EPRC a p p e a r s  taken  by  the  to  have  Liberal  been  established with  Industry,  Trade  of  Canada's  7,  1980,  future  Mr.  Commerce,  strategy  spark  Government.  G r o u p was  and  the  for  An  R.A. as  behind  the  International  Kilpatrick,  its  Head  marketing  pre-  of  to  its  Mar-  the  consider  the  products  abroad. 4.  On  April  an  interview  within tion •  A  sized 5.  On  six  to  the  the  months  Financial  he  planned  with the purpose w • 74 business.  April  Speech  14,  from  1980,  the  Minister  of  the  Throne,  Governor  General  precise  statement:  compete  abroad  in  of  order  State  Times to  of  for  Canada,  Canadian  32nd  Parliament  read  by  the  It  contained  improve to  Trade,  established a  promoting  Canada. "To  of  the  create  of  Right  at  stating  exports  Honourable the  trading  by  was  small  opened Edward  following  of  home,  Lumley,  directly  Canadian  Canada  ability  jobs  Edward  Canadian  that corpora-  and  by  medium-  a  Schreyer,  short,  but  industry  My G o v e r n m e n t  gave  to  will  -  establish On  a  April  to  national  17,  1980,  assist  task  the  force  trading  the  study  -  company."753  Cabinet  Government  to  49  the  approved  with  future  creation  of  six  task  forces  legislation.  a  national  which  Among  trading  were  these  was  company  a  in  Canada. On  April  Press  18,  1980,  Center  forces  in  of  the  by  Crown.  1980,  so  Minister  announcing  the  day  before.  the  Government  The  that  Prime  Ottawa,  approved  men a p p r o v e d  the  task  their  task  could  the  be  asked be  news  conference  creation  forces  and would were  a  publicly  The  forces  findings  held  would  of  taken  report  have  into  back  the  the  task  their  responsible to  to  at  a  by  chai  minister September  consideration  for  7fi legislation  during  On  1980,  June  House  12,  of  Commons  consultation unanimous of a  with  to  be  parliamentary  port  finally  agreed  t o . ^  On  9,  July  tion of The  met  seven clerk  became  no  the  Jesse  the Flis  session of  Routine  the  Leader,  Proceedings  House  composed o f  the  House  1980.  force than  on  four  of  a  (Liberal),  national 19,  rose  in  announced  that  after  be  a  This  the  Parkdale-High  and  election of  Park.  the to  The  was one a  other  the  the  House  act to  motion  Trading  Committee  Conservatives,  presided over  with  corporation,  National The  of  appointed  1980...."  on  a motion  Committee  trading  organization. two  Pinard,  move  Special  Committee  Liberals,  Committee  to  seven members,  December  Special  purpose  "Thata  Yvon and  c o l l e a g u e s he w i s h e d  later  members, of  of  fall  Liberal  his  task  1980,  for  the under  consent  Commons,  the  as re-  was  corporacomposed NDP  member  chairman members  wh  -  Mrs.  Meauchap-Niquet,  L;  Mr. The  Roy,  L;  and Mr.  Committee's  national  trading  besides  outlining  corporation.. "means  of  expand  (sic)  was  to  Mr.  Cardiff,  Thompson,  task  was  then  corporation the  their the  extent  to  find  such  NDP;  in  form  and was  medium-sized  Mr.  Lachance,  to  Canadian  and  future  export  asked  the  government  a  functions  Further,  corporation,  which  Canada's  Committee  diredt  a  Deans,  ways  improve  markets."  of  Mr.  PC.  could  and  export  financing  PC;  possible future  a s s i s t i n g small  of  -  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the  querry  methods  L;  50  performance, of  such  a  look  into  the  business  to  Committee  participation, the  the  possible future  costs  78 and On  benefits October  Review  27,  was  Board  whose  Report.  19,  The  the  report  rather  On  was  the  A  A-  which  1980,  had  had  had  was  of  the  no way  an  important  Special  part  final  Export  of  available  the the  to  It  the  report  by  Export  on  November  "Hatch  presented of  was,  the  its  respect  a  Second which  stated  that  position,  d e l i b e r a t i o n s which with  Board,  evidence  final  30,  Committee."  however,  Committee's  Canada  Promotion  Development  the  summary  date.  of  Trade  Committee  an a n a l y t i c a l  represented  alternatives • 79  chairman  recommended  c o l l e c t e d to  in  the  issued i t s  been  the  corporation.  Hatch,  chairman  report  Committtee  national  Roger  creation  the  under  1980,  appointed  December  and  such a  Committee,  1979,  On  of  had  to  the  taken  but place  question  discussion.  June  Report essence  22,  1981,  the  representing of  which  was  Special  the the  Committee  Committee's proposed  presented  its  c o n c l u s i o n s and  establishment  of  fourth  and  final  recommendations, the  Canadian  the  -  Trading  trade support  E x p o r t Promotion Review In December,  established of  the  1978,  of  services.^  the M i n i s t e r of  Export Promotion  i n the f i e l d .  f o c u s s e d package  Committee  examining Canadian export  proaches  -  Corporation, together with a s p e c i a l l y  government The  51  Industry,  Review Committee  T r a d e and Commerce (EPRC) w i t h t h e  s e r v i c e s and r e c o m m e n d i n g p o t e n t i a l  The  Committee,  c o n s i s t i n g of  purpose new a p -  sixteen private  p r i s e members a n d one a c a d e m i c , h e a d e d by R o g e r H a t c h o f  Canpotex  enter-  Limited,  s o l i c i t e d b r i e f s from a l l areas of  i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e , business associa-  tions,  and one hundred s e v e n t y  and p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s ,  ceived. ations,  b r i e f s were  M e e t i n g s were t h e n h e l d w i t h f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s and n a t i o n a l and f o u r  re-  associ-  r e g i o n a l sub-committees held meetings with p r o v i n c i a l 81  governments,  local  a s s o c i a t i o n s , and s e l e c t e d r e s p o n d e n t s .  The C o m m i t t e e ' s Report)  final  report,  p u b l i s h e d o n November 3 0 ,  1979,  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h an u n e q u i v o c a l t i o n of main of  Canada a s t h e home o f  "Hatch  Report"  Canadian export  within  Strengthening has a v e r y  a strong,  export-based industry.  s e r v i c e s and i m p r o v e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r industry.  dian firms to  p r o d u c e a number o f  future  Two o f  exports.  It  products  program to encourage  i n Canada f o r  to give the  the  home  Although  the  part  latter, Cana-  market,  i n d u s t r y the necessary founda-  a l s o recommends t h e o p e n i n g up o f  more d i r e c t f o r e i g n i n v e s t m e n t .  of  innovativeness  In c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e  recommends a " s e l e c t i v e , l o w - k e y "  p r o d u c t s w h i c h a r e now i m p o r t e d ,  Hatch  sharply defined set  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e i m p r o v e d c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s on  the Canadian manufacturing  for  (the  commitment t o t h e e n t h u s i a s t i c promo-  the Committee  tions  Canada A b r o a d  Canada  t h i s m i g h t seem t o c o n t r a d i c t  to its  -  main  thrust,  hitherto for be  the  'subservient'  export.  The  encouraged  Committee approach active  Committee  to  branch  Committee  and  shies  feels  foreign  from  -  that  this  plants  further  favoured  away  52  into  might  open  producers  strongly  emphasizes  that  innovation  the  highly  systematized  government-business  support  programs.  and  believes that  coordination  is  turning  'world'  export  still  for  new,  future  i t  way  of  by  exports,  the  essential  keep  the  Japanese  today's  to  should  Although  organized  in  products  world  Canada  a  more  alive  82 and w e l l  on  The 1979 of  are  both  the  the  international  specific based  the  on  a  improved  of  a joint  risk-taking various join be  given  bestowed This  basis; ture by  in  major  the  economic  was  in  to  help  exporters  financing  and  by  their  Trade  and  a  system of  effective  Report"  exports  with  on  part would  insurance the  evaluation  to  encourage that  them overcome their  the  respective  exports the  taxation export  on  a  services; creation and  these  in to  should  advantages  governments.  government's  year  PEMD-struc-  used  i n c e n t i v e s on support  major  them  one-to-five  already  on  innovation  increased assistance,  Commerce),  shopping'  for  interface; risk  in  This  incentives  companies  streamlining of  'one-stop  tax  trade-aid  field;  Industry,  a  to  f i n a n c i n g and  assist  of  finally,  "Hatch  p a r t i c u l a r l y recommended  incentives  r e s t r u c t u r i n g and  smaller firms; and,  It  countries'  include help  (Department  nings;  project  of  to  the  commitment  new  export  field  by  business community.  s m a l l e r and m e d i u m - s i z e d  effort.  on o t h e r  the  the  through  facility  capital  expressed  and  widened  in  front.  fundamental  expressed  exports;  the to  and  Canada  public-private  export  would  be  of  coordination  forms,  the  strong  side  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g an  recommendations  Government  government  trade  extensively export  service  ear-  structure  - 53 -  which  would  allow  smaller  services,  be r e g i o n a l l y business  what  really  tion  i n the "Hatch  port  Trade  setting better  up s u c h  future  including as  been  from and by  the a c t i v i t i e s of  support  have  selected  of  sectors  o f members  and regions agencies  concerned with  sector  executive . from  the Board  whom  would  for a concentrated  strategies  f o r these  performance,  from of  and s h o u l d funds  to  selected markets;  that  had  the  future  covering  corporations,  should  be c h a i r e d  the Minister  of  flow.  i n on s p e c i f i c  the determination  moni-  representatives  s e r v i c e s would  the zeroing  effort;  but with  The Board  report  future  which  sector,  such  further  of  on p o l i c i e s  and p r o v i n c i a l ) ,  f o r export  include  agencies,  and the f u t u r e  the private  trade.  of  and p r i o r i t i e s ,  recommended  Canada,  (federal  export  export  also  Ex-  sector  The Committee  based  an  participation  and implementation  The Committee  a majority  business  the ITC),  atten-  recommended i n need  government  Affairs.  within  form  an i n c r e a s e d p r i v a t e  strategies  the design  (mainly  agencies'  government  a n d Commerce  functions  into  t o by t h e B o a r d .  industrial  a private  input  to  was g r e a t l y  existing  and External  programs  the various  departments  market  sector  ITC,  community's  strongly  was p r i v a t e  the already  region.  was t h e p r o p o s a l  f i e l d with  would  information,  and b u s i n e s s  Canada  marketing  the larger  Trade  that  international  should  various  felt  Canadian  agreed  Board  as i t  concept  in their  The Committee  wanted  government of  (ETDB).  t h e Committee  private  toring  recommendations  i n the export  EDC,  office'  the Government's  Board  shopping'  a l l export-related  What  t h e CCC, CIDA,  wanted  'one-stop  to obtain  caught  a Board,  coordination  The  through one.'export  Report"  Development  involvement. in  firms  and f i n a n c i n g  But  based.  of  the a l l o c a t i o n of  Industry, The  markets, particular ITC  funds  - 54 -  among  the  benefit; assess study  selected priorities, a constant  Canada's and  set  monitoring  of  competitiveness  consideration of  new  by  the  Board,  competing  in  the  and  for  trading  export  achieving nations'  field;  innovative  means  and, of  the  maximum  programs  finally,  supporting  to  the the  coun-  83 try's  exports.  The  Special  Committee  a)  Witness  Evidence  The in  the  House ting and  Special  Throne in  the  three  tabled  gathered  its  by  witnesses, It support large,  April  Committee  the  between  was  had  right  private  sorts to  b u s i n e s s and  run As  but  rough-shod with  and  It  the  come  private  smaller  clear  keen  picture,  1980,  from  get  a  the  a  the  a  Committee  seven  its  December  Canadian  of  members,  hearings 19,  basically four  in  different  beginning  that  there  in  the  and more the  corporation, of  fruitful  benefit  bureaucratic, regional  private  produced  was  undertaking  minds  of  sectors,  business associations,  represented.  trading  1980,  Evidence  well  an  the represen-  1980.  too  for  proposed  July  not  sector  for  as  was  industry  b u s i n e s s and  practically all  on  Corporation  Private  were  better  within  over  from  images'  government not  began  House  national  'bad  created  It  experts.  business  of  Trading  industries,  firms  Corporation  consisted of  in  Report  academics and  all  National  same y e a r .  government-dominated up  a  Second  although  from  Everybody  might  that  on  Trading  parties.  became  conjured  export  in  individual  individual  National  parliamentary  the  government, and  of  a  Committee  Speech  June  on  a  no  most  general  such as  a  a concept  business  that  leaders.  cooperation strengthened  centralized  the  agency  going Canadian that  interests.  enterprise witnesses  before  the  -  Special Ltd.,  Committee,  was  fail  to  perform  company even, and  that  in  his  that  trading  new  there  when  industry  "you a  be  for  a  private  term of  felt  can't  need  the  he  which  that that  all  is a  sector,  the  had  to  all  as  he  export of  do.  and  and  the on  agency  people"  at  private  and  with  would  come  same  and  to  over  the  Smith's  latter  view  could  requiring  a  only  high  or  individual  It  might  sector.  He  be  'cutting  in up  degree  local specific  'shortj' There  the  of  as  was  could only  done  corners,'  to  any  time.  which  secure markets  would  corporations  respect  intelligence flow  need  i t  government-dominated  expertise  the  that  industry  commercial a  felt  trading  a  Also,  needed  International  undertaking.  competitiveness  to  'contacts'  Cable  see any  constraints  cost  and  such an  part  government-run  Roger  joint-venture,  to  not  from  existing on  Wire  company,  he c o u l d  strong  came  things  Mr.  out  inevitably  steady  in  i t  trading  and  initiatives be  Canada  benefit  drive  would  -  from  national  possibly  opinion,  representation, field,  a  Smith  efficiently,  company  private  to  might  discourage  argued  as  opposed  Roger  55  medium  also  come  from  and  long  through  some  sort  special  skills  and  84 expertise. public  scrutiny,  opinion,  not  But, felt an and  Generally  that  as the  important  be  with a  all  viable  there  are  Export role,  medium-sized  speaking, the  a national  constraints  trading  following  corporation, from  this  open  would,  to  in  his  proposition. problems  Trade  acting  for  small  Development as  companies,  a and  companies  Board  c l e a r i n g house the  larger  trying  proposed for  ones  by  Hatch  incoming  as  well,  to  export, could  Smith play  opportunities  a s s i s t i n g and  pro-  85 moting  export Another  trade for Canada. of the witnesses before  the  Committee  was  Mr.  A.D.  Burford,  a  private and  trading  federal  last  with who  house,'  five  to  Mr.  things  Burford  government  give  He f e l t  i n the. e a r l y  but that  years.  the various seemed  operator.  governments  'anti-trading the  house  56 -  to  days  had a l s o  both  the  (1960's)  had  agencies,  preference  that  changed  provincial  had  been  somewhat  run into  over.  problems  when  such as the CCC, CIDA,  the individual  rather  dealing  and t h e  manufacturers  EDC  and s u p p l i e r s  ftfi over  direct  enterprise Canada focal ITC,  witnesses,  point, EDC,  large  strong  instead  of  objections large  with  would  a coordinated would  effort  have  the e x i s t i n g ,  to  was needed  be done  scattered  to  approach  the Committee,  trading  corporation  trading  company  the private  sector,  and the whole  A national  institution  commercial i f  trading  terms.  It  i t was f o r c e d  transactions.  And,  be s a d d l e d w i t h  company  abroad could to  operation would  further  a national  overhead  could  into  n o t be a b l e  com-  be to  problems  operwith  in connection  trading  costs,  i t s  become  immediately  or barter  of  following  come  run into  true  out  detailed  the  inevitably  and would  import  finally, high  would  with  a  through  before  to a national  put  to create  a s s o c i a t i o n s coming  national  inevitably  private  as one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  importers,  overseas  a s d i d s o many o t h e r  (CEA),  on as a government  Canada's  felt,  Association  counter-productive.  on r e g u l a r  since  having  Export  petition  its  of  Canadian  number  He a l s o  map, something  CIDA.87  A  ate  that  CCC a n d  points.  looked  houses.  on t h e e x p o r t  The a  trading  with  corporation  money w h i c h  could  88 more  productively Within  be used  the private  strongest  opponents  from  of  Bank  of  Montreal's  to  strengthen  sector,  already  Canada's  banks  a government-organized International  Banking  existing seemed  trading  export  to  be some o f  effort.  Division,  programs.  Mr.  expressed  the Potter  the  - 57 -  opinion  of  stated  most  of  the  private  trading  sector  representatives,  when  he  that . . . i t i s our o p i n i o n t h a t a government-owned n a t i o n a l trading c o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d n o t be an e f f e c t i v e i n s t r u m e n t e i t h e r i n f u r t h e r i n g the g o a l s o f the e x p o r t community o r i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h e known w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e s y s t e m . 8 9  What  the  Bank,  and  'other'  was  the  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  and  the  finding  medial Mr.  action.  Potter,  financial cent  of  was  a  for  lack  'packages'  the  existing  wrong  of  to  owned  Bank's  these  enterprisers,  new a n d m o r e  What was  Canadian  nesses, ment  of  free  shortcomings  e f f i c i e n t ways with  Canada's  incentives  support firms  opinion  companies,  to  support  Canada  them  of  export  as  with,  present  system  the  sector,  and  a  small  had  concerned  exporting,  lack  exporters.  classified  that  were  within  export,  potential  are  was  mainly  to  As or  on  according of  to  per-  medium-sized the  re-  competitive  ninety-five  create  f i n a n c i a l l y and  based  right  provide  busi-  environ-  them  with  90 professional The problem;  Bank  to  involve  with  second,  and  as  in to  export  companies  a  suggested  a  three-stage  compilation of  a  complete  study  of  potential,  promoting  respect  acting  the  approach  contacts,  managers.'  therefore  f i r s t ,  facturers; steps  'export  interest, contract  suitable manger  through  overseas suitable  providing  for  private  inventory  markets;  guidance,  support  in  the  various  areas  of  export  of  the  the  latter  stage  and  and,  if  s m a l l e r and with  export  available  finally,  advice  organizations marketing.  to  assisting in  programs,  91 able  The  providing  specially identified marketing  and,  exporters.  negotiations, government  approach  manu-  taking  of  would  establishing assistance necessary, medium-sized  specialists'  avail-  -  The area  of  the of  Bank  further  production,  highest  where  favoured  deficiencies  had  the  of  creation  a  the  "the  innovative  strenghening  sector.  Canadian  been  free  implementation  private  banks,  Canada's  country  a centralized,  and  -  of  the  national  imaginative"  As  opposed  with  their  to ten  was  competitive  'world'  products  It  was  trading  the  and  percent  Thus  programs  only,  the  the  in  equity  Bank's  Bank  Report"  and  situation  prices.  corporation  the  "Hatch  exporters  the  problem  existing  identified.  many o f  export  competitive  enterprise...,"  of  basic  lacks  e f f i c i e n c y at  directly  p r i n c i p l e s of  mend  that  the  technological  Montreal  ...the  found  58  provision,  that  "subvert  to  recom-  encourage  growth  (the  of  Stevenson  were  of  where  instead  proposals  the  Bank  feeling  would  USA  the  would  continued  the  in  not  the Bill)  particu-  92 larly b)  interested  Report its  search for  b i l l ,  The  Export and  "encourage  trading  five  existing  on  a National  is  foreign,  export  still  was  banking  'the  Trading by  American  Company the  businesses,  banks  The  to  basic  that  drive  such a  in  trading  trading this  trading  based  in  1980. the  this  companies  companies initiative  companies  in  on  to  the  normally is  the  unison  Second  f i r s t  an  in  alter-  American  Senator bill  operations  structure  its  The  by  The  in  alternatives  mainly  sponsored  Septmeber  of  different  corporation.  (S.2718)  concept  behind  Japanese,  Bill  Corporation  somewhat  participate  in  these  for  Trading  alternative'  Senate  investments  main  e.g.,  but  framework  expected The  related,  suitable  passed  equity  oriented. by  into  Committee  companies."  making it  a  suggested  Stevenson  and  Special  presented  native  in  buying  Alternatives The  to  in  is  of  to  export  of be  success with  designed  involve  level will  is  one  banks  control, export-  obtained or  more  -  banks,  where  the  investments.  So  of  trade  of  scale  the  capital  and  investments.  equities  loans. and  begin  take  an  to  a  to  bank  ownership  vour  export-only  ment  due  to  cult  for  them  cial  the on  of  the  and  in  the  trading  go  elements  all-overshadowing will  have  in  question the  existing  in  foreign  the of  ability  as  any be  experience such  total  medium  would  to  more  expectations, markets. can  be  functions trade  banks  to  investing  risk  with  banks  allow  And  their in  not  are  trade  to  strong fully  i t  also  there  fa-  arrange-  making is  for  likely  procurement  picture.  whether  The  enterprise,  transferred as  course  services  than  There  time  long  of  Canadian  order  same  contacts,  commercial in  capital  and  a matter  import/export/barter and  the  growth.  Canadian  banks  at  the  future  necessary  Also  With  support  obvious.  in  obvious.  trade  case,  are  loans  foreign  for  conventional  as  providing  diversify of  provide  while  supposedly,  expertise  markets,  to  companies  a mixed  banking  able  scale,  by  already  would  the  be  whereby  to  number  are  and  provision  care  large  arrangement  will  invest  holding  over  an  be  producers,  taking a  financing,  would  domestic  over  a viable  companies.  outside  foreign  such  would,  trading  general  overseas  key  and  loans,  banks  risks  banks  have  Act  for  the  their  Canada's  Bank  with  to  easy  s u c h a company  companies  they  in  percent  banks'  to  in  are  security  banks  business  whether  trading  tribution  medium-sized  profits  ten  up  of  with  services  in  the  exports  especially in  amendment  question  companies  interest  the  limitations,  so  an  traders  obtained,  advantages  larger  -  functions  spreading  experience,  reinvest  restricted  be  the  and  the  financial  and  The  Most  offices,  and  can  bring  smaller  to  and  trading  to  supply  basic  outlays  in  necessary  term  the  facilities  economies  helping  banks  59  d i f f i a  commerand  dis-  will  be  emphasis covered  - 60 -  trading  on  The  overseas  markets.  second a l t e r n a t i v e  alternative,  based  on  the  corporation  cial  its  sized A  companies'  further  company  option  to  Committee for  use  the  of  in  Further  along  one  other  The possible  could  or  under  the  goods,  of  lines  agencies,  banking  legislation  of  contemplate schemes,  regarding the a  and  existing would  be  approaches  in  in  the  the  equity  to  set  industry. project  Canadian  or  to  up  of  ver-  would  EDC  be by  possible  in  be  to  investment  already  regarding  new The  incentives  investments  access  a  instance  involved  to  priority  house.  creation  a  with  programs  medium-  start  banks,  alternative,  encouragement  to  this  words,  encourage  spe-  scratch.'  industries,  functions  a  trading  manufacturing  other  whereby  and  multinationals  encourage  capital  of  small  from  The  American  form  creating  'starting  within  corporate  through  already  or  the  concept  handling  larger  Zaibatsu.  the  guarantees the  of  was  trading  corporation  sectors  government  area  for  include manufacturing  Keiretsu  government  government  as  and  an  structural  some  by  either  actually  manufactured  might  the  government  incentives  seas  here  mentioned  contemplated  and  for  organizations  groups  as  different  Committee  corporate  acquiring  that.is  encourage  a Japanese  same  banks,  two  operations  management sion  multinational  trading,  by  the  structure  for  Canada:  Participants  corporate  the  by  trading  or  the  trading  starts  exports  suggests  in  trading united  do  own  suggested  multinational  a multinational arm w i t h i n  3 0  tax  existence. financing  procurement  of  contracts. advantages  to  use  of  already  a foundation  such  an  existing  on w h i c h  to  approach  would  corporate build  an  be  numerous.  expertise expanded  and  It  would  connections  structure  with  a  be over-  greater  - 61 -  and  wider  might had  coverage  act  as  an  previously  capital The  and  whole  short  product  umbrella had  concept  limited  seemed  time  and  The  which  smaller  support, to  appeal  the  due  to  to  the  lessening of  attaching  themselves  there  also  limitations  built larger  many  lack  of  interest  on  the  part  such  an  alternative  for  a  the  existing  degree in  of  most  the  special  foreign  cases.  Combines  would  hesitant  be  overseas  experience  in  found.  such  Canadian  American  upon  such  there  to  join,  Third  an  corporations  competition  learned  to  live  kind  business  with  with the  they  World,  would  became  still U.S.  system, to  for  a  have  eyes. to  the  of  to  least  a  which  firms, to  all  legal  were  Finally,  have of  with  corporations  Canadian  U.S.  set-up  connection  control.  fear  being (high  such  larger  to  apparent  structure  would  and  pursue  country  in  fairly  However,  an  the  spite  be  the  drawbacks,  challenges not  look  corporations  have  degree,  like  as  the  a  most  The  of  not  in  some  country  such  most  government  lack  viable.  preclude  such  markets  to  who  medium-sized  Canada  in  sufficient  successful,  friendly  spread  if  due  and  raised  regulations,  the  in  reasons,  even  Japan,  companies,  result  proven  likely  in  organizations  scheme,  questions  future  probably  very  this  include,  where  and/or  already  very  lacked  not  Japanese  structure  and  a  small  prevailing  might be  as  corporations  However,  does  operation  into  case  export p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  existing for  different  could  if  risk  structure  rules  experience  the  of  Act.  of  something  which  existing  corporations  from  of  ownership)  the  trading  If  number  Investigation  under  of  ownership  Further  possible  to  the  abroad  their  Committee  use  is  trading  expand  the  as  and m e d i u m - s i z e d  for  could  companies are  set-up,  opportunities  required  experience  lines.  under  organizational  start-up  previous  of  Canada  would  but  to  have  this  might  just  be  - 62 -  "too  has,  close  for  The  third  at  alternative  t h e moment,  Association of  comfort.  One  would  according  (CEA),  possibilities be t o  about  exist  and market  pany  size  either  and,  finally,  would  tatives create  abroad, capital  subsidized  plus  forgiveable Government  could  i t s part,  sector,  tax  incentive  loans  f o r market  be an expanded  through  again, ability run to  to  as CIDA,  advantages build  to  existing  more  Also,  trading  private  existing  rapidly  with  a closer  for  guarantees  functions  network  to  business'  by way o f crown  more  cater to  com-  of  trade  as loan  rate  lines  incen-  including  the government  expertise,  from  of  a number  measures,  interest  com-  product  t h e number  rebates  tax  represencould  and  government-  terms,  plus  supported to  such  and from  government  by  traover-  directives  corporations.  enterprise  and w i t h  encouragement  entrepreneurs,  houses  products,  increased  o r expanded  Further  houses.  to  Further  'government  CCC, and o t h e r  using  on a l r e a d y  respond  agencies.  of  such  information  markets  these  funds.  tax  number  trading  encourage  as f i s c a l  Export  A  respect  contemplate  income  Canada  houses.  sector  increasing  development.  seas  The  be to  on favourable  and the c h a n n e l l i n g o f  such  such  incentives,  houses,  agencies  trading  private  could  concept.  by t h e C a n a d i a n  specialization with  ding  to  these  tax write-offs,  customer  loans  existing  Another would  for  investment  export  submitted  be t h e c h o i c e o f  house  increased  house  increased capitalization  The Government,  incentives,  greater  areas.  tives for the trading  hundred  f o r expanding  through  there  be t h e t r a d i n g  to a brief  five  encourage  functions  panies.  would  trading  based  on p r i v a t e  flexibility  government  would  relationship  houses  than  be,  traders' government-  be seen  between  would  as a  reward  government  and  -  business  being  the  of  form  better  beneficial  better  performance  on  the  relationship  a  better  chance of  come  especially, overseas be  the  trade  part  obtaining  house if  the  markets  would  trading  policies  trading  banks  and  naturally  terms be  a  on  be  part  i t  would  that  limited.  Eastern  government-to-government  government  government also  giving  the  private  as  be  banking  hard  to  over-  case  products  for  export  due  now, to  limitation  countries  basis  to  latter  the  further  and  to  in  and  lead  is  A  bloc  to  might  houses,  commodities,  very of  It  the  manufactured  as  of  from  a v a i l a b i l i t y of to  part  houses.  trading  favourable  houses  on  on  continues  on  the  reliance mainly  i n c r e a s e d demand conducted  of  between  drawbacks  trading  to  future  better  The  as w e l l  structured  a  sector.  -  63  LDCs  these  would  to  have  countries'  95 domestic  economic  The proposes the  CCC  Canada, be  to  from  to  alternative  extend  or  the  either  as  Canada.  Such  cising provide  any  potential provide of  powers  from  and  or  outside  agency  domestic  sufficient and  or  as  capital  a  Canada be  to  to  in  all  of  the  act  Trade  to  from  behalf  and  to  enter  the  The  agency  the  an  world  into  export  and in  exer-  would  either  contacts  export  allow  of  of  would  for  Commerce  negotiate  into  and  purpose  manufacturers,  expertise  manufacturers  on  Committe  functions  goods a v a i l a b l e  packages;  getting  and  The  Minister.  Canadian  The  goods  agent.  sell  Industry,  and m a r k e t i n g  medium-sized  to  one.  structure  importing  empowered  service  capable  and  and  vested  partial  government  government  Minister of  producers  the  l e g i s l a t i o n the  would  functions  as  is  exporting  services available  services  small  future  principal  an  suggested  encompass  d i r e c t i o n of t h e  trade  individual  to a  goods  the  through  CDC  obtain  under  ber  fourth  structures.  trade;  as with and  enlarged  num-  market.  It  - 64 -  would  further  part  of  agencies  and  trading  trading  has  the  the  alternative  the  through  a  given  Government new A c t  any  with  the  of  setting  create  a  new  the  significant attention  to up  to  has  its  This of  now,  on  trade-aid  up  a  latter  by  govern-  national  the  idea,  Committee,  lead  personnel capital  greatly and  would  short  immeasurable  such as  the  be  able  in  strong  to  the  types  of  by  direct  and  government  programs  to  the  has  not  been  banks  business. drawbacks,  enters with  by  market  when  the  private  the  private  subsidies  supported  trading  Canadian  government-connected  i n c r e a s e d use of  of  such  government  trade  competition financial  for  image'  the  in  opening  up'  encourage  'clout'  connection  suggested  Committee  export  merchandise  distribution  in  'gear  limitations  unfair  to  the  might  a  'the  enhanced  recruitment,  support  one  to  and  before  support  the  government  time;  c o u l d be  investing very  be  c o l l e c t i v e economic  could  non-competitive  services,  CCC  government  however, all  give  some w i t n e s s e s  in  areas  a  the  interest  with  and  would  relatively  Finally,  preferred  agency;  procurement  a  favourable  sphere.  support  It  commerce;  according  government  and  CCC.  within  a greater  ations,  markets  existing  to  Parliament,  company,  the  already  might  of  foreign  government-to-government  approach  trading  commercial  ment  an  entering  between  government-owned  which  in  coordination  As  in  handle  respects,  alternative,  sector  to  i n many  participation.  This  able  risk  Report.  undertaking  take  the  would,  particularly  to  the  been  international  houses  be  company  benefits  connection  an  not  Second The  into  diversify  programs.  corporation  however,  with  improve  and  ment-owned  its  to  smaller companies,  dealings,  in  be a b l e  to  firms; the  operthe  govern-  information,  detriment  of  correspond  -  private the up  enterprises.  tendency as  of  'white  other  i f ,  as  the  incentives  to  create  there  be  a  themselves mercial there  might  with  to  be  the  the  'threat'  organizations a  row  Committee  an  -  worst  among  of  on  to  rightly  part  of  of  political  detriment  the  private  obstruction  healthy  are  bureaucrats  interests  built-in  operation, to  than  concern  strictly  involved.  a government  end  In  no  trading  is  and  trophies.  there  traders  that  agency  'bureaucratized'  out,  appointed  and  technical  a  aggressive  bureaucratic of  to  government  points and  the  all  become  other  entrepreneurial  tendency  more  ones,  the  government  elephants'  words  will  But  65  com-  Finally,  organization 96  would  not  be  The  fifth  Trading  able  to  and  last  Corporation  organization  would  is be  import  proposal  the  for  created  support,  but  with  provisions  private  sector might  have  a  ment  purchase  example  share  of  such  trade  in  manufactured  trade  vehicle;  the  export  trade;  the  pete  on  pedite  time.  interest  the  an o u t f i t ,  world  export  as  goods  of  in  the  market;  trade,  such as  the  to  the  an  of  the  agency  financing,  National  and  the  1971  capital  but  and  would  set  be  up  to  universally  The  through  The  services  govern-  for func-  assist  export  accessible  domestic  and m a r k e t i n g  f i -  possibilities  Commerce.  documentation,  an  organization,  eligible  all  Such  investment.  with,  and  cases,  capital  initial  existing  with  of  a  alternative.  c o u l d be  Trade  easily  supply  of  sector  begin  already  contacts  provision and  share  previous  through  adequately.  l e g i s l a t i o n such as  private  Industry,  the  i n i t i a t i o n of  combined  for  an  roles  establishment  provides  Or, in  barter  through  smaller  through the Department  of  the  government  over  equity  tions  in  where  either  nancial  enlarged  and  private-public  for  an  CDC,  the  statute  for  the  handle  producers  skill  necessary  to to  transportation  comexservices,  - 66 -  insurance, cial the  and  marketing  competitors. sharing  trade,  in  where The  main  while,  of of  at  s u c h an  the  benefits  ment  p a r t i c i p a t i o n would  strength  Also,  the  ding  of  of  in-the  image  images  with  such a  various  on  set-up.  the  come  world  form  of  loans  an  other  of  Canada's cases,  commer-  would  be  government-to-government  and  with  and,  expanded  camps,  on  one the  risks might  a  new  a  assurance of  for  support  private  investments. range  a  of  would  factor  While  potential  outlook be  to  vested  which might  other,  the  smaller,  'shake and  the  dust  encourage  "strategy  for  the a  bring  undertaking. Board  bureaueratized  -the  cre-  bureaucrats  government  improving  tra-  Overall,.the  o f f  the  of  improve  private-owned  limited capabilities.  help  to  govern-  help  'dead-weight,'  the  customers  in  the  and  behind  p a r t i c i p a t i o n would  fresh  an  companies  hand,  departments  up w i t h  and  be  government  enterprise  enterprise  the  again  opportunity  skills  the  on  great  there  in  would  be a  government terms  grants,  a g e n c i e s and  Government  the  of  Canada's  and  the  trading  -  scene.  Whenever  competition  an  private  both  corporation  fair  mation  of,  government  to  the  its  Naturally, a  ensure  from  institution,  bureaucrats  lines  would  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and  entrepreneurial  recruited  house,  ation  their  arrangements,  prevailing  government  all  undertaking  planning  time,  responsibility for  Directors, the  of  same  the  the  in  arrangement  operations  reap  trading  the  as  the  required.  scale  and  points,  r i s k - t a k i n g and  benefits  appropriate scheme,  Two  i n t e l l i g e n c e along  of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n can  supports  special  and  trading  number  of an  also  enterprise  a l l o c a t i o n of  preferential  programs,  limitations it  treatment  lead  to  from  severe  drawbacks  easily  financial  d o m e s t i c a l l y and  easily  and  leads  support  government  to  such  to  un-  in  the  infor-  internationally. political  restrictions  -  being be  imposed on  dealt with,  be a p p l i e d , might  be  already will be  goods  at  the  restricted. side  that  existing  to  enterprise  a new  the  would  new  always  while that  both  trade  be  which  countries  and/or  the  away  power  private  certain  and  scarce and  Finally,  starting  up a j o i n t  legislation  longer  and  the from  resources  projects  a  on  control  trade  important  among  there might  trade  public-private  transition period  negotiations  can  imports  enterprise sector  and  can  business practices  bureaucratic worries  attention  deserving  project.  and what  take  in  necessarily involve  that  respect to  barter  agency w i l l  fact  from other  with  exported,  same t i m e  structures,  such a  process i n  c a n be  There w i l l  about  transferred  measures  up  what  be a n x i e t y  -  s u c h an o r g a n i z a t i o n  while  government  67  the  and  start-  various 97  parties c)  would  take  reference further open  delay  the  Special  Committee  set  to  into  i n which  look  Canada's  and  the  fourth  and  final  earlier ment,  both  in  private  Canada  sectors,  Report  the  Government,  in  The  final  thus  contender  in  and  seventeen  has  the  many  the  c r e a t i o n of  such a shared  key  in  June,  r e c e i v e d as  having  gone  that trade  trading  through  agency,  with  the  on June  Committee  laid  of out  Public at  Commons its  Canada  Canada areas,"  is  order  corporation of  22,  1981, i t ,  of  could  meetings,  witnesses from  in which  final  its  hundreds  and o v e r s e a s ,  House  to  1980,  a national  both  the  tabled  its  based on  recommendations  to  its Parlia-  large.  recommendations  reached as  determined  up  After  outlined alternatives,  Committee has  ways  exports.  and c l o s e d ,  public  It  and  Recommendations The  the  time  and "on  are  based on a  its the  and t h a t  future verge  of  Canadian  number  trade  of  conclusions  perspectives.  ceasing to private  be a  serious  enterprise  is  -  not  ready  or  eager  country  out  will  be  "urgently  with  its  sor  a  trade The be  large the  trading and  (alternative small  to  a major help  of  being  the  area.  the So  five  the  model'  is  second  other  seen  that  "the  trading  as  the  is be  re-shape  to  handle  the  most  in  the  up on with  the  the  two  in  world's  export markets. would  sector  and  enterprise  there  the  corporation,  one  projects.  when  that  to  success  single  shared  spon-  growth  business  now"  order  approach  divisions,  capital  effective  its  a  it  government  chance of  that  the  capability  corporation"  suggested  report)  get  resolved,  trading  and medium  set  to  has  federal  greatest  small  i t  Corporation,  the  Canada's  country  that  attempt  Committee  new o p p o r t u n i t i e s  Trading  and  serious  the  Canadian  endeavour:  in  any  strengthen  concludes  project  business  enterprise  of  in  Therefore,  could  further  capital  Canadian  of  -  lead  recommendation  advantage  areas  the  necessary  house  take  two  take  dilemma.  development  Committee in  its  ultimate  the  such  of  to  68  is  to  model  handle  The  'shared  both  a  public  98 purpose  to  As  be  far  pursued as  Trading  a  enterprise  least  equity  As  'private  in  particular  However,  it  It.is  be  and  foreseen  with  the a  a minimum that  private  Committee number  that  requirements Committee  e s t a b l i s h e d by  suggested  position,  banks  business  concerned the  basis with  investors'  is  is  Corporation  $300 m i l l i o n . .  percent  private  structure  Canadian shared  and  the  of  a  initial the  sees a large  private  few,  be  fulfilled.  recommends  new A c t equity  Government  investors  to  holding  of  that  Parliament  commitment assume down  a  of  50-60  investment  business  side might  on at  40-50  s e l e c t e d companies  international  a  percent. (ten),  firms.  later  be  ex-  99 panded  to The  include e q u i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n by t h e p u b l i c a t l a r g e . T r a d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n i s seen as having i t s mandate s e t out  in  clear  - 69 -  and  precise terms,  the  Company.  in  The  proportion  would seen not  give as  to  with Board  is  small  group  any  seen so  that  d i r e c t i o n of  Board,  with  some  of  Canadian both  an  of  respect  to  as  export  to  The  the  The  Chairman  designated  President  instance, is  itself. a  be  Minister  would  would  be  but  The  relatively  on management would  thus  directors,  Board  members,  kept  officer  of  of  shareholders  latter  appointment  be  the  first  The  the  President  by  the  hand.  twelve  can  executive  special  'flagship'  overseas,  and  an  focus  the  majority  including importing  corporation, characterizes  an as  for  service  being  on  of  attitude  trading  Canadian  and  the  s e l e c t e d by and  the  representa-  responsible  be a p p o i n t e d  a  trade.  products  its  with  world's  third-party the  "short-sighted"  an  by  for the  It  to  evidence  exports  which  is  The  have  a  a  Committee  (the  Liberal  be  able  imports,  Committee  potential  "counter-productive."  through  wide  c l e a r l y was  into  for  possibly  and  seen  Committee,  and would  trade  and  the  would  markets.  which  'umbrella'  potential,  portfolio  respect growth  and  according to  third-party  witnesses'  which  plus  in  corporation  trade  emcompass,  role  the  the  and  of  new  capability,  Canadian  complete  the  would  import  houses,  competitive a  functions,  the  trading  perform  rejected  chief  Corporation.  identity  connected range  to  influence  Corporation.  The  the  in  relationship with ten  and  be a p p o i n t e d  upper  through  consultation with  the  alternatively  its  the  the  about  active  would  Chairman  Di r e c t o r s . * ^  With  to  an  shareholders. of  influence special  as  position which,  Cabinet)  encompassing  future  management  Directors  (the  direct,  as  positions  ownership  exercising its  Board  Board  of  their  Government  through  tive  separate  with  thus  opposed  trading  majority) The  Committee  -  sees  Canada's  fabricated to  expand  Canadian  large  materials  In  regard  will  sary  for  as  a  be  able  capital  to  the  Corporation  s e l e c t e d growth  highest  the in  areas  a  it  end  strong  to  which  that  secure a l l  might  Committee,  which  future  as w e l l  Corporation  ingredients as  in  neces-  marketing,:  however,  construction  seek  from  the  the  the  i n c l u d i n g such areas  and  and  e x p l o i t . ^  foreseen  The  products  position  advantage  sales,  acknowledges  technique  i n s i d e as  kets  with  that  "only  the all if  as  a whole  it  is  to  setting  up  foreign-based  areas,  where  a  particularly  focus  the  This  somewhat  expansion,  priority  Corporation  present.  within  and  engineering  assistance which  ally  the  is  management.  the  at  it  project  give  t i a l ,  projects  a  in  might  outside  be of  1 0 2  For  giving  'real able  supply,  1980)  and  be  exports,  assistance in  Canada.  a  project  that  an  stone  in  should  gather,  and  required,  billion  exports,  capital  deal-making, outside  ($51.9  Corporation to  -  stepping  'countervailing' Trading  time  imports  70  on  first  limited  Corporation  feels  'thrust,'  range  of  should  and  that  to  products.  government  join  is  it  immediately  operations  with  Canada  however,  be a b l e  that  P a c i f i c Rim  markets  products,  "commercially viable" business  the  emerging  Committee  recommended  is  seen  in  and  Latin  America,  good  sales  poten-  underrepresented. as  taking  place  whereas  later,  through  reach  larger  number  a  speci-  It  is  the  forces  in  a concerted  future of  Committee's  maropinion  effort  can  103 (Canada) In  hope  to  addition  revive to  (its)  recommendations  trading  corporation  the  dations  regarding  number  a  industrial  Special of  competitiveness."  relating  Committee  existing  in  to its  government  the  creation  report  of  brought  agencies  and  a  new  out crown  recommen-  - 71 -  corporations, programs,  such as t h e CCC,  s u c h a s PEMD,  ment  of  take  the latter  Trade and  Industry,  or the  The  program,  in conjunction Department  expenses export  extending turing  with  expand  is  urged  either  private  to  The tax  up o f  to  Department  of  to  export  trade  of  To  Industry,  itself  to  improve  international  government  o n i t s own  suggested  loans  for  facilities is advised  concessions i n connection with  and p r o c e s s i n g p r o f i t s  Finance.  managers-for-  include  Finance  Depart-  "export  i s further  educational  export the  a competitive,  by t h e f e d e r a l It  of  of  way commit  s e t up an  interests.  setting  on p a r t  the Department  into  i t s PEMD-activities  courses.  i t s present  that  and s u b s t a n t i a l  Department  selected  and t h e Department  proposed  be o p e r a t e d  a n d some  for action  i n t e l l i g e n c e system  connected with  trade  is  in a rapid  same to  i t  CIDA,  suggestions  a n d Commerce  f i r s t ,  i t s market  facility. hire"  Trade  a n d Commerce  expand  plus  t h e EDC,  services  that  development  for to  practical  look  Canadian  in order  into  manufac-  to  improve  104 the  Canadian The  as  i t  proposed  suggestions the  former  latter  the  performance.  only  by e i t h e r  Minister  of  in order  Canadian  be b r o u g h t  financial  relating  Trading  of  the  institutions  for  to  limit  that  an amending  the Corporation's  eliminate  any p o t e n t i a l (CTC).  and f i n a n c i n g , of  foreign  offer  receivable.  The  with  loan  overlap  EDC  is  c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n  with  that  and t h a t  guarantees  is also  to  offered  a proposal  short-term It  nature,  powers  'competition'  partial  in connection with  or accounts Trade  t h e CCC i s o f  Corporation  level  a facility  orders  to  insurance  up t o  with  State  to  the Government  i n the area  be expanded  Canadian secured  that  procurement  new,  trade  recommendations  i s proposed  defence the  export  export  to loans  suggested to  the  to  integrate  - 72 -  PEMD's  and The  by  CIDA1s Report's  a majority  four, the to  Report  cials saw  i t  the  as  oppose  In  very  opposed  felt  i t  task  came  from  to of  by  Speech.  excellent on  of  set  the  committees  directly  by  the  Government,  in  members) entitled  the the t o .  Cabinet  and  appearance 1 0 7  of  of  by  Tory  by  expected,  the  Liberal  members were  in  the  The  two  as  diametrically  give  the  and  caucus  very  Jackson  in  Government that  of with  opposed  government  in  o f f i -  members  the  trading  thus  House  to  corporation,  reports would  but could  take  power  to  if  contemplate  connection with following  a  need  not  for  the be  part  they  the  special  April have  good  14,  done  public  recommendations followed of  involved  than  its  committees  that  away  'backbenchers'  w i e l d i n g more  interesting  these  fulfilling  government,  this  group  disagreed  Opposition  seems  out  besides  their  who  supported  Parliament. it  pointed  Liberal  by  lead  overlap.  be  representatives  Robert  up  He w a s  the  could  Conservative  latter  Professor  proposed  vested  House  the  existing  government-sponsored  research job,  part  two  period.  their a  the  as  members,  business  such  the  recommendations  urge  committees  avoid  were,  the  hearings  before  made  by  its  connection with  Throne  relations  that  heard  creation  parliamentary  a  was  year-long  comments  1980,  i t  their  the  a n d when  the  Committee's  and  to  recommendations  the  testimony in  so as  of  whereas  the  services,  the  up authority  (chairmen  actually  and  were  TABLE Special  Committee  on  a National  1  Trading  Corporation:  Alternatives  Functions:  1.  market  bank's international b r a n c h e s and e x i s t i n g government facilities  MNC's e x i s t i n g and government  facilities facilities  bank's international and d o m e s t i c branches  MNC's  facilities  contacts through t r a d i n g arm  MNC's  export  intelligence  promotion  procurement  marketing  export  and  sales  financing  Bank  through arm bank  Option  bank  and  2.  existing  Option  3.  bank  domestic  branches  and  facilities  MNC's  existing  facilities  MNC's  existing  connections  and  government  facilities  bank c o n n e c t i o n s and existing government facilities  existing facilities and government  documentation  through  transportation  existing  storage  new f a c i l i t i e s through bank t r a d i n g arm  import  and  service  trade  counter-trade government-to-government trade  bank  trading  arm  facilities  MNC's  existing  existing  private  facilities  facilities  MNC's  existing  facilities  MNC's  existing  facilities  MNC's  existing  facilities  and  Option facilities  facilities  expanded  facilities and  expanded  facilities  e x i s t i n g and expanded T.H. facilities existing ment and  insurance  existing  existing  able  export  House  government  existing  T.H.  trading  Trading  T.H.'s  T.H.  existing  government  Multinational  bank  and  facilities, terms  due  governfavour-  to  size  specialization  existing facilities p r i v a t e and government  existing existing  T.H.  facilities  facilities  e x i s t i n g and facilities  expanded  TABLE 4.  Government  intelligence  new a n d e x p a n d e d facilities  export  promotion  new g o v e r n m e n t  marketing  and  sales  (cont .)  Option  market  procurement  1  5.  government  facilities  Private/Public  new a n d e x p a n d e d facilities new  government  Option government  and p r i v a t e  National Trading CCC o r CDC a r m  Corporation,  new  public/private  facilities  National Trading CCC o r CDC a r m  Corporation,  new  public/private  facilities  government  government f a c i l i t i e s private investment  export  financing  new a n d e x p a n d e d facil ities  export  insurance  government  facilities  government  facilities  documentation  National Trading CCC o r CDC a r m  Corporation,  new  transportation  e x i s t i n g a n d new facilities  government  e x i s t i n g and perhaps facilities  storage  new g o v e r n m e n t  import  and s e r v i c e  trade  facilities  government  facilities  public/private  government facilities  government-to-government trade  government f a c i l i t i e s CCC o r CDC a r m  expanded  e x i s t i n g a n d new p u b l i c / p r i v a t e facilities  and a s s o c i a t e d  N.T.C.,  expanded  facilities  facilities  counter-trade  a n d some  government  facilities  TABLE Foreign Functions:  Japanese  market  intelligence  export  promotion  procurement  marketing  and sales  export  financing  export  insurance  documentation  Trading  2  House  Structures  Brazilian  Korean  JETRO  Intrabras overseas  a n d Cobec facilities  existing corporate group facilities  JETRO  PETROBRAS do B r a z i l  and Banco  existing  Sogoshosha  group  Intrabras domestic  and Cobec branches  Sogoshosha  Intrabras  City  Banco do B r a z i l p r i v a t e banks  Banks  Sogoshosha  Sogoshosha  government financed Intrabras  and Cobec  and  a n d bank  13 c o r p o r a t e facilities  grouping  13 c o r p o r a t e facilities  grouping  13 c o r p o r a t e facilities  grouping  existing group  and Cobec  corporate  facilities  corporation  facilities  corporate  group  facilities  transportation  Sogoshosha  existing  facilities  existing  facilities  storage  Sogoshosha  Intrabras  and Cobec  existing  facilities  Sogoshosha  Intrabras  a n d Cobec  import  and s e r v i c e trade  13 c o r p o r a t e  grouping  faci1ities counter-trade  Sogoshosha  Intrabras  and Cobec  13 c o r p o r a t e facilities  government-to-government trade  MITI and Sogoshosha  Intrabras  and Cobec  grouping  TABLE Tsurumi  Trading  3 House  Models  Major Import Model  Korean  Functions:  Commodity Trade Model  market  existing  existing  direct  intelligence  government  export  promotion  procurement  existing sources  export  existing  trading  and  sales  existing trading  export  financing  existing  existing  import  commoditycompanies  sources  and  existing  trading  industrial  industrial  firms  f i rms  existing import trading companies  m a r k e t i n g arms of industrial companies or groups  existing  sources  and  existing or  government  government  industrial  groupings  sources existing  by  groupings  existing  f i rms marketing  government  sources  sources  Sogoshosha Model  facilities  government  government  government  existing facilities and government  documentation  existing trading companies f a c i l i t i e s  existing trading companies f a c i l i t i e s  existing industrial companies f a c i l i t i e s  transportation  existing  facilities  existing  facilities  existing  facilities  storage  and  existing  facilities  existing  facilities  existing  facilities  import  trade  export  counter  insurance  service  trade  government-to-government trade  existing  sources  and  existing  sources  existing trading companies import facilities  and  - 77 -  V.  An  Evaluation  Similarities After policy,  and having  looked  two  compare  the  trading  corporation  marketing any  such  the  in  the  been  and  economic its  rather  faced  with  European  have  been  ing  population  day  is  faced  ready  with  viable  they  after The and  was  American  the an  the  employment  and w i l l i n g t o  rising  of  the  the  at  the  is  unemployment  in  at  if  and  options  arose.  question  to  realized  this  country  countries time  have  seemed the with  commercial Both  time  of step  have  faced  the  private  economic  political  influence.  Japan  its  for  Empire,  e s t a b l i s h e d American  problem.  context.  look  the  Both  today  to  facing  British  Japanese  to  national  the  seems  are  that  Canada  a  has  first,  sector.  the  time  the  when  Canada  questions  with  join  is  question  asks  cope w i t h  alliances  all-pervading  it  one  themselves  industrial  might.  corresponding  and  to  taken  economic  organization  respect  to  of  Canadian  with  economic  now  the  one  having  faced  in  Canada,  having  commercial  Japan  option  Government  the  the  for  found  was  and  areas  consider whether  When  countries  the  deliberations,  and  option  in  trade  hand-in-hand.  Japan  Community,  with  foreign  trade  two  in  activities  external  in which  growing  finally,  faced  the  existing  strong  a  viable  especially  and  and,  a  political  Empire  iority,  is  survival,  impenetrable. the  Canada  Committees'  actually  1890's,  almost  and  experiences  isolation.  hard  1980's,  the  working  between  1880's  for  Japanese  governmental  situations  breaking  that  is  arrangement  national of  its  companies  political In  plus  different  has  similarities  at  development,  situation,  Japan  Alternatives  Differences  industrial  Canadian  of  had  the  industrial  world.  its  industrial  provinces  French the supercountries a  grow-  Canada due  toto  the  -  falling-off of  its  of i t s  'old'  emphasis  militarily  and a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e main  Both c o u n t r i e s  i n m i l i t a r y equipment.  heavy  machine g o i n g .  Canada  arms i n d u s t r y ,  supplies  parts  but e v e r y t h i n g  in  heavy  J a p a n a t t h e t i m e was  r e l i a n c e i n a number o f W e s t e r n  c o u n t r i e s on m i l i t a r y p r o d u c t i o n t o k e e p l a r g e  U.S.  have l a c k e d t h e  o r i e n t e d , but i n the o l d , t r a d i t i o n a l sense which bears  resemblance of t o d a y ' s  part  t h a t have a t r a d i t i o n o f heavy employment  industries.  on i n v e s t m e n t  -  industries  population i n areas  the manufacturing  78  parts  no  industrial  of the  industrial  and c e r t a i n l i m i t e d e q u i p m e n t t o  here i s  c o n t r o l l e d by  the  foreign-based  multinationals. Today t i a n areas  both c o u n t r i e s of  have  large export consortia  international trade.  Japan's  that handle  t r a d i n g companies  handle exports  t o t h e U . S . A . and E u r o p e o f s u c h p r o d u c t s  cars,  a p p l i a n c e s , telecommunications equipment, plus  electric  as  thus  cer-  do  not  passenger a number  of 108  o t h e r consumer Equally, dozens  Canada  durables,  as  t h e s e a r e h a n d l e d by t h e c o n c e r n s  has a number o f l a r g e e x p o r t c o n s o r t i a , n u m b e r i n g  t h a t handle large  turn-key p r o j e c t s , m u l t i p l e product  and raw m a t e r i a l s , b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l . i n Japan  is  pursued  t h r o u g h JETRO.  What i s  What i s  t h e Department o f  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  there are obvious  w h i c h J a p a n and C a n a d a a r e o r g a n i z e d  as  the is  manner w i t h some h e l p  I n d u s t r y , T r a d e and Commerce, b u t g e n e r a l l y  nated i n t o a d e l i b e r a t e export e f f o r t along  the Japanese  the  'left-over'  ' l e f t - o v e r ' i n Canada  in a scattered, non-systematic  in  marketing  h a n d l e d by t h e t r a d i n g c o m p a n i e s , : h e a v i l y s u p p o r t e d by  Japanese government largely  directly.  not  from  coordi-  lines.  m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way  countries,  politically  and  in  socially,  as  well  as  between  economically.  the  federal  the  federal  and  international  which  Canada,  is  system  that  regions  not a  the  into  Canada  is  a  and  there  is  a  a complete  the  overseer  still  with  power-sharing  governments.  of  state  very  system  with  a l l  such as  strong  for  trade  to  be  Japan.  regional  business  Even  if  inter-provincial  many c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  regiment  unified  state,  provincial  unitary  country,  forcefully,  federal  ten  are  case i n  bilingual would,  -  legally  trade,  be  79  government  government  would  -  taken  Further,  cultures.  enterprises purposes  in  Any  the  would  be  various a  near  impossibility. Apart economic  from  problems  with  respect  of  high  a  avoided tivity tries tude an  in  to  the  of  and  There web try.  also  of  is  the  nature  in  water'  is  diversity,  a  more  rather case  both  in  into and  is  the  p r i c e and  the  manufacturing  decades  area is  the  on  indus-  is  a t t i -  the  in  parts  which  enmeshed  channels  more  Canada.  of  of  of  raw  wood  Canada.  Canada  regions  are  the  export  'hewers  large  system which  produc-  basically  'easier'  certain  wisely  reflecting  dominates  in  question  export  manufacturers  has  handle  lower  There  so-called  to  Japanese  'middlemen'  the  many  the  potential  business,  the  industries  educational  of  that  medium-sized  structure  which  quality.  export  still  There  are  comparatively  portion  products,  which  tariff  an  problem  There  r e l i a n c e over  finally  a  there  difficult  Japan.  manufacturers  small  legacy  in  greater  fabricated  convoluted  there  a  insert of  major  unproductive And  to  the  1880's.  Canadian  roughly  of  is  cultural  ownership,  resulting  many  the  and  drawers  than  and  and  Canada  foreign  level  individualistic  materials  make  non-competitive  part  is  of  1870's  unnecessary  There  that  Canada,  being  political  exports  degree  in  on  the  of too  in  a  the few  coun-  - 80  young  people  spends  too  be  in  the  main  a  technical  relationship  between  government  up  as  for  follows:  their  same  forces  when  and  the  situation,  they  behind  strong  r e l i a n c e on  the  the  output  Canada and  strong  look  look  their  Japanese the  their  and  for  weak  export  fastest  approach  enterprise  to  When  to  the  has  growing  roughly  support  Canadians  industries.  drive  the  could  industries  industries.  for  from  in  private  Japanese  comparatively  trades  institutions.  Japan  the  heavy  on  between  look  are  money  technologically oriented  difference  summed  they  productive,  l i t t l e  The general  into  -  One  thus  of  always  industries  in  been the  109 country, Before  the  Advantages  example  the  number  question system  raised  is  a  disadvantages  about  of  traits  transferable  involvement  of  the  expansion.  industry. already  export exports  beginning  option  for  such  system  might  a  leaving  This  is  the  a  take  actual  export It  be  gained  of  picture.  this  Canada,  the  by  hold  chapter  let for  an  the  active form  company  marketing  to  us  look  the  either  format,  at  country.  or  to  small  consortia  or  multinationals  a coordination,  most  certainly  Japanese  be  style,  One  to  private  business,  their  advantageous the  Canadian  JETRO-type  products  with  be  partnership a  medium-sized  between  would  future  through  Japanese  structure  a direct  relevant  would  the  trading  in  Canadian to  from  Canada.  partner  of  of  Canada  Japanese  advantageous  as  trading  primarily  existing  have  could  in  to  and  Government  This  business  organization. to  the  associated with  be  private  at  a c c e l e r a t i n g growth  viable  advantages  to  organization,  not  a constantly  Disadvantages  talking  appear  export with  a  and  and  When  the  Japanese  advantages  would  engineering  answering  whether the  thereby  to  own  Canadian  various  agencies  - 81 -  concerned agency cept  with  with  would  regional done  export  centers,  Canadian  in  Canada  of  sion-making  seem  sized  Edmonton,  with  on  they 'merit'  the ranks  functions suited  for helping  businesses.  First  and foremost  of exact,  smaller  firms  effective  t o make  overseas,  market  which  valuable  planning  would  Canadian  i s overseas  information  a judgement  in certain  be t o o c o s t l y  back  a t home  products  and c o n t r o l ,  exports  with  strong  efficient and d e c i There  structure and medium-  This  would  o r not they  would  certain  new i n n o v a t i v e  f o r the smaller,  policy  research and the  to exporters.  within  the  structure.  by small  whether  trading  particular  goals  trading  market  relevant  personnel  f o r a more  by t h e J a p a n e s e  t o be  capital.  in their  of sharing  bene-  i t s offices  include  the organizational  performed  have  t h e main  political  versed  con-  main  centers  has placed  These  allows  attitude  of  Canada's  companies'  results.  which  'company-spirit'  through  trading  are fully  feature  undoubtedly  commercial  JETRO  con-  and hope-  T h e same w o u l d  the country's  good  could  and Vancouver,  o f Japanese  so t h a t  based  that  worthwhile  throughout  one  shopping'  efficiency  Canada  by JETRO.  significant  Montreal,  Another  which  through  'one-stop  greater  i n a l l major  ideally  competitive  niques  seems  together  the  offices  done  located  t o Canada  and the  important  channelling allow  has been  of staff,  right  from  o f branch  the features  the promotion  also  structure  and not i n Ottawa,  be t r a n s f e r r e d  organization,  towards  for C a n a d a . ^  offices It  of Canada,  fields,  be  with  i n Toronto,  specialization  that  as i t  trade.  Several  are  gains  Working  departments,  forward  be t h e s e t t i n g - u p  to  might  step  the Japanese  overseas,  centers  i n Canada..  government  seem a g r e a t  greater  nected f i t ,  trade  by t h e v a r i o u s  would  fully  export  areas.  Thus,  marketing  individual  firm  to  tech-  - 82 -  undertake, which for  might  c o u l d work  Canadian  security  need  great  scale.  a  guarantees other  operation sults. proven  by  of  'security  the  more  rational  area  the  of  have  to  base  and  a  structure longer  reach  b a s e d on  by  l o c a l l y based  quality  control,  to  trading in  take  risk  companies,  Finally, agents  and  of  follow-up  also  and  the  include  job  out  by  and  savings  handling  The  can  and  the  factors  any and  programs;  risk-taking  working form  of  the  same  good  as  has  core-  been  through  consolida-  savings  come  product also  be  obtained  a continuing, price  through  types can  through  speciali-  generally  efficient  such as  on  some  servicing costs on  of  can,  with  costs  companies  insurance  trading  savings  flows  financial  exports  achieve  beginning  Large  handle  to  servicing.  exports,  shipping  the  provided  considerable cost  efficiency.  would  and  is  the  participation  credits,  system  and  in  government  Canada  large-scale product  equipment.  This  by  be  and m e d i u m - s i z e d  participate  blanket'  and  handling  and  Small  to  needed  transportation, of  copied would  financing,  structured  offer  be  built  constructed  transportation,  basis.  be  'security  a more  methods  to  system.  is  banks,  Japanese,  product  to  export  be  tribution having  have  this  productivity,  organization  a wider  blanket'  Government  production,  overland  Japanese  would  addition,  of  in  form  government,  tion  zation,  a government-supported  feature  the  Japan  will  In  by  achieving  by  the  In of  on  up  words,  together  time  important  This  in  overseas.  full  very  built  would  underwritten  exports.  Another  in  be  of  be  dis-  reduced  widely-based stability,  111 However, A  Canadian  and  the  national  continuity  disadvantages trading  of  supply.  would  company  in  based  Canadian on  the  eyes  exact  also  be  Japanese  numerous. model  would  - 83 -  probably  not  into  North  to  the  dominate  be  acceptable American  and  would  probably  mestic  marketing  ferred  to  The  of  half  their  would  into  any  importation  of  through  same  the  Canada  raw  handled  business,  and  structures by  this  and  are  import  could  as  goods  addition, could  and  in  in  export  companies  or  consortia  not  be  incorporated  into  a  trans-  conduct a  structure  is  trading, in  do-  be  Further,  Japan  involved  the  not  such  agency.  which  ability  export  mentioned,  itself,  exporting  consumer  that  separate feature  national  In  fit  potential  companies  Japan  not  independent  reactions.  trading1companies,  Canadian  would  structure's  trading  within  This  existing,  loudest  business  materials  The  the  Japanese  Japanese  approximately f i t  the  the  businessmen.  system.  regulate  produce  aspect  Canada.  Canadian  business  subsequently  sector  not  to  the  handled is  the  in  import  national  trading  company. Another  function  of  financing  of  large  could  be  transferred  and  not  overseas  Japanese  structure,  probably  among  third  investments  would  trading  to  the  one's  to  smaller  Canadian  which  appear  the  be  most  likely  corporation  to  of  for  be  not  be a  and  question  a  with  of  trait  a  growing  overseas either. and  and  complete  factor  Certain  trading  small  the  be  out  off-shore role  of  line  to  a in  the  a  form the  trade  with  and  the  overseas  government-  medium-sized  originating  within  investments,  company,  expressing  that,  Off-shore  function delegated  trait  a Japanese  would  life.  picture  Canadian  dealing  companies,  playing  trading  the a  culturally-bound company,  economic  Canadian  out  intentions  trading  industries  off-shore  into  would  Japanese  of  such as f i t  stated  Finally, loyalty'  not  parties  Government's  sponsored  numbers  functions  would  the  of  businesses. 'blind  samurai-based  -  culture,  could  companies in  their  found Is  a  in  in  North  National  'Cabinet  use  of  about  take.  The  a  have  it  Canadian  attempted  has  never  on,  the  and  was  showed,  expression  in  the  context.  to  taken  shape  and  Many  instill  on  multinational  this  quite  the  type  of  loyalty  proportions  JETRO.  what  supporting as t h e  'blitz.'  Japanese  a  'different  Japan  is  where  bringing.  It  resources,  seen loyal is  has  been  What  the  country  make  up  for  been  lacks  through  a  in  human  as  the  to  be  to  Canadian  work  thrust  'made  of  in  The  the  went Japan1  evidence  business  national  industry for  ought  hearings  in mind.  beautifully  the  concept  a  official  that  for  an  Japan,  commu-  trading export  but  clearly  tea.'  that,  size  up  that  within  bureaucratized,  that  company  the  nobody  export  Committee  had  the  preconceived  Japanese  clear  sector  that  certain  the  Special  by  indicate  newest  of  became  to  had  Canada's  gearing  of  seemed  itself  direction  might  forced  into  Speech  private  country  duty  brought  of of  cup  a country  has  that  idea  a  Company"  exception  system  as  Trading  evidence,:it  means  The  was  society,  future  National  Cabinet  the  Canadian  the  Option?  direction in  p r a c t i c a l l y without  was  Canadian  However,  gave  the  Viable  Thorne the  and  pointed  witnesses not  and  a  "A  1980  System1  words  houses  company  in  Corporation  the  what  trading  tic  but  Trading  Planning  notions  Canada  America  government  system  adopted  -  Japan.  federal  nity  be  employees,  The  to  not  84  has and  because  to  a monolithic, country of  scramble  country and  ingenuity  for  over  natural and  its  the  is  part  small every last  work.  of  size penny  everybody's and of  hundred  endowments  hard  wel1-organized  it  The  has  lack  of  foreign and been  Japanese  up-  fifty  domescurrency years.  forced trading  to  - 85 -  houses  have  to  reach  as  a  a  and  the and  on  between  regions,  Canada,  by  in  develop Canada have  Japan, its  to  States  of  widespread  to  and  chairman  friends  British  'organized'  support  the  his  committee's  the  future  is  in  both in  Export  the  to  assess.  the  of  one  but  temperament based  modern  full  on  character  the  contrasts,  business.  the  time  Meiji  opposite,  can  a weaker  and  this  to  island' its  1  will  promote that,  own  neighbour  a more  to  Policy,  plan  take  period  in which  'National  'isolated  Canada  of  and  considers a  course.  to  the  United  subservient  nation  economy. are  most  c l e a r l y as  federal 27,  this  there  is  (November,  government  1980  Development  far  down  businessmen want  Report"  What  of  the  an  as  of  as  October  But  re-shaping  again  same y e a r  span  rather  and  the  Trade  and and  government  spite  not  "Hatch  within  JETRO,  country  neighbours,  drive  recommendations.  hard  is  type  The  a  same  recommendations  export  time.  culminated of  But  in  s i t u a t i o n w h i c h made  Report"  in  the  dominion  'follow-the-Teader'  point  had  and  system  official,  between  being  Canada  added  seen as  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when  it's  a  be  a monolith,  Further,  a  "Hatch  particular  into  into  America,  an  thus  shaping  Japanese  its  and  into  of  services.  is  people,  years  can  with  hand,  has  of the  this  structures.  for  as  a more  it  turned  regard  The  other  and  exports.  arose  sector  To  f i t  requirements,  between  taken  Canada  towards  now  hand.  the  modern not  be  Canadian  with  they  c o i n c i d e n c e , came  has  without  hundred  all-encompassing system of  Canada,  began  through  where  fits  needs  its  up  point  glove  Japanese  grown  Board, will no  the  mean  doubt  1979)  and  appointment  to  the go  the  this  private  Roger  Board  being  that  at  received  of  for  road  Hatch one  the  country  with  Hatch  of in  at  its  -  helm  the Board  coast  to  soon  begin  to  -  'make  waves'  that  will  be f e l t  from  coast.  Just Special  will  86  after  h i s appointment,  Committee  and expressed  Mr.  Hatch  himself  was a w i t n e s s  i n no u n c e r t a i n  before  terms  the  on t h e  subject:  I am n o t a w a r e o f a n y g e n e r a l d e m a n d a m o n g t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y for a national trading corporation. The f a c t t h a t t h e S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e i s e x a m i n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f s e t t i n g up s u c h a c o r p o r a t i o n w o u l d i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s a gap w a i t i n g t o be f i l l e d , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t s e e m t o me t o b e t h e c a s e a t a l l . I b e l i e v e i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t n o t o n e s i n g l e b r i e f t h a t we r e c e i v e i n t h e E x p o r t P r o m o t i o n Review Committee s u g g e s t e d t h a t a N a t i o n a l t r a d i n g company 1 1 2 was n e e d e d According  to  the "Hatch  coordination Development of  of  Board  Industry,  with  export  Trade  exports,  such  Committee's" development  (ETDB)  i s seen  a n d Commerce as t h e EDC,  proposed  organizational  and support  activities,  as an i n t e r m e d i a r y and t h e v a r i o u s  CIDA,  structure  the Export  between  for Trade  the Minister  government  agencies  concerned  a n d a new r e c o m m e n d e d  facility  for  113 large  overseas The  December, tives  that in  Committee  1980, based  clear  Committee  Report,  projects.  that  members  the shared  came o u t w i t h  on h e a r i n g s of  this  alternative prefer.  a l s o would The f i f t h  i n a row o f  be w h a t  choice  i n the  of  and the p u b l i c  a joint  venture  to  a trade  the private  s e t up a t y p e instrument  of  that  trading would  five  By  alternatives, of  Committee's  i s an  option  service  service corporation.  be a c c e s s i b l e  alterna-  the majority  alternative,  the efforts  in  f o r Canada.  private-public  combine  provide  suggesting  organization  as the l a s t  report  enterprise,  would  would  trade  alternative  would  i t s preliminary  i n the Committee,  an e x p o r t  the private-public  seemed  the  Special  for the creation  placing it  capital  to a l l  sectors It  Canadian  - 87 -  firms,  small  producers strong plus  or  with  large. a  on  the  as  trade  in  to  the  market.  effort.  It  assist  might  and  the  the  area  together garding  pose  of  trade  the seem  form to  It  would  also  any  the  Committee  "Hatch  interim  ground,  report  these  to  details,  but of run  the  an  public along  sector  over  some  date.  time  compete  necessary  in  and  its  services market  future  export  direct  in  with  reaching,  recommendations  Report)  and  its  appears  common  as  backing. two  a majority perhaps,  and  the  eventually  be  blended  common even  seem t o  The  and  reare  large the  pur-  Canadian from  the  export private  by  government  in  intended  structures  also  reports, of  there  see  of  corporations  ground  if  seem w i d e  provided  alter-  on  furtherance  and  fifth  based  share  committees the  that,  could  parts  blanket'  the  its  reports  individuals  lines  and  functions,  Both  'security  board, and  the  gap.  financial  parallel  and  organization  initial  sector  increasing later  an  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  with  public-private  such  the  i t  two  relation  bridge  (Second  The  structure  up  to  requiring  Report"  approaches  as  setting  expertise,  insurance,  industry  two  as w e l l  to  sufficiently  firms  such  ventures  alternative'  purpose  able  Canadian  provide  Committee  approach.  be  a  Canadian  deal i n g s .  unified  in  allow  trade  up  and m a r k e t i n g  manufacturing  handle  contact  set  transportation,  a  with  sector,  at  common  into  to  of  to  to  would  capital  order  'shared-enterprise  differences enough  looks  Special  native, large  one  It  in  Canada's  further  efforts  exports.  financing,  government-to-.government When  initiate  necessary  risk-taking  documentation, to  for  provide  international  intelligence  would  potential  structure  share  It  both  private  a complete  with  sector  a  mixed  investments  'take-over'  stage  at  -  Although Report is  a  it  is  also  structure  existing, there  also  should  of  entering  enlarged export  that  seems be  an the  means  in  either  to  a  be  export  the  new m e t h o d s  and  shopping'  medium-sized  backing  f a c i l i t y ,  firms  with  in  the  for  an  effective  way  trade  c l o s e to  all  trade A  in  strong  future  in  set  the up  such  would  between  tasks  as  the  be  a  basis  hitherto  the  two  to  capable new  and  incentives  future the  documentation,  placed  innovation  a need  help  and  strategies,  requirement and  reports.  s h o u l d be  or  drive  functions,  tax  and  traders  further  trade  of  emphasis  markets  a.regional  export  exporters,  form  risk-taking field,  on  to  Committee  consideration of  the  successful foreign There  As  Canadian be  Special  coordinate  services.  should  to  can  unanimity  to  terms.  respect  of  firm  There  competitive  approaches.  government  but  export  than  needed  available  market.  'copying'  is  export  something  intelligence with  Report"  what  friendly,  support  -  "Hatch  that  organization  to  through  certain  the  government  f i n a n c i n g on  on m a r k e t  in  evident  scattered  It  stop  clearer  88  for  for  a  a  smaller  of  'one-  and  arrangement  of  114 transportation, But final that  then  report, the  taken  "  evidence  opposed opinion,  to  After  in  that  no way  of  s u r p r i s i n g to  services  the in  June,  representing  directly receive  directly  a  in  of  to  and  export and  and  became  clear  Second  Report  to  final with  fourth  it  position  hundreds  witnesses,  the  at  its  the  fourth  aimed  Committee's  1981,  hearings  variety  abroad.  Special  introduction  a year's  a wide  meddling  recommendations  of  Challenge  c l o s e to  part  follow-up  publication Trade  "While  on  and  had meant  government  rather  strong  the  Canada's  Committee  Committee  nine  came  l i t e r a l l y  public  insurance,  creating,  of  the  pages  of  practically all  trade,  final  of  be  it  report here  and  was,  in  my  containing now,  a  -  national direct  The  t i t l e  loading and  corporation  government-handled  scale. take  trading  new to  Canadian  goods  dock..."  there  is  to  the  as  outlined  no  various  around  $12  cludes  an  and  The lack  the  even  estimated  the  specific  purpose  Corporation  "should  transaction  recommendations  are  expressed  or  clarity  departments estimates  manufactured  $2  billion  and  profit,  the  Canada and  with  at  on  the  an  and  to  forcefully  instructions The  export  Committee,  potential  projects,  figures  large  supplier's  involved.  has  a  capacity  the  strongly  capital the  trade  Committee's  agencies  that  goods  in  instituting  have  the  resolve  of  export  complete  of  in  -  government-financed  Trading  Report,  billion  with  and  government  in  89  this  of  in-  representing 115  roughly  a  figures  are  triumph  of  of  the  of  to  the  Export  of the  be, fact  a  to  this lack  "Export  Roger  Development which  oversea  fact  in  a concept  during  and  has  to  had  on  represents  to  which  had  been  meetings.  so The  to  be  be made  found a  top  Committee's  been  an  in  the  final  for  the so  final  there  is  would  that  spite  27,  while  Committee  1980, to  set  'one-stop' heavily  up  a joint  exports,  there  omission  regional  supported  referred  to  contains  by  the  is  new  is  no  trade  various  mention  opinion  witnesses  references  was  private-public  i n my  export by  a  in  of  Another  report  paragraph  priority."  report One  crowning  president  Canadian  frequently  the  last  national  optimistic  appointed  attempt  report.  all  been  These  self-assurance, with  October  services  at  had  and  levels.  significant omissions.  Hatch  Board  present  toil  Special  Committee's  reference  of  rather  trading  the  year  the  that  Mr.  confidence  trade  two  Committee  members  with  Committee's  Board  of  increase over  however,  Trade  concept, the  the  out  connection with  sitting, agency  percent  given  Report: In  seem  fifteen  office before  Committee, to  the  setting  -  up  immediately  is  no  of  references If  report  one  in  Canada  domestic  put  the  relation  to  the  actual,  in  abstract,  wishful  planning  export  turn  out  to  be  tive  domestic  will  be  able  to  had  sell. at  industrial  Senate.  With  policy,  respect  to  in  traders,  there  partially Liberal  and  that  confirmed  government  had  fact  thinking for  if  the  i t  deliver rumours  the in  Canadian  1980's? overseas  is  not  of  exports  a  this  year  the  problem of  and  of  House  industrial  the  to  have  won  p o s s i b l y might  be  some  truth  set  was  announced  aside  $250  a  short  million  out to  while  over  a  an  might  by  a  company  that  at  a in  inflation, and  were  over  that  the  'free  rumours  later  that  five-year  a  the  the  the  not  construc-  subjects  Commons  'news'  Does  up  trading  three  of  said  i t  were  policy  up  that  namely the  connection  Setting  discussion,  trading  reality?  backed  goods  June  final  i n d u s t r i a l , and  1981,  reforms  there  Committee's  13,  the  on  but  a meaningful  and  Canadian  effort,  P.Q.,  Special  economic, in  policy  to  locations,  June  Cabinet  when  the  there and  key  network.  of  expand  were  Lake,  under  'interventionists' 1  policy  There  Meach  been  to  productive  industrial  meeting  particular  very  is  industrial  organization  a  various  existing  today,  an  in  contents  country  have  -  service  the  effective  future  any to  actually  cabinet  to  offices  tries  conditions between  overseas  90  was  the  period  for  116  the  modernization  about  The  textile  the  same  emphasis holds. as  the  on But  of  the  industry  number  improving protecting  textile  and  Canadian  in  represents  Ontario,  this an  textile  and  particular ineffective  clothing  industry  industry.  about this  100,000 probably  industry and in  in  'aging'  this  day  jobs  in  explains  these  two  industrial and  age  Quebec the  special  Liberal sector  amounts  and  to  strongsuch trying  -  to  prevent  customers million  progress are  and  through  import  clothing  out move,  is  of  wage  a  demands.  alive  in  not  very  a  good  way  where  a  efforts  is  to  economic  like  become  doubtedly  has  the  they  the  newer  have  willing these  to  join  countries  the  to  allow  goods.  policy'  is  going  for  more  There the  federal  trading  If to  viable has  in  in  of  the  the  the  is  a main  stay  economic  and  like  in  of  is  How  agricultural  of  1980's,  Canadian  spring  future.  the  of  might One  the  what does  not  Third  of  it  America rising  industry it  is  very World,  countries' today  un-  endeavour,  as  labour  able  expect  to  and is  own  the  not  and  sell newest  willing  'comparative  Canada's not  a  'industrial  sound  too  promising  industry.  1981  been  possibly was  it  if  and  textile  countries  their  of  North  a  products,  with  in  be  is  Canada  equipment,  well  words,  plentiful can  textiles  very  various  field  through  other  it  with  These  this  indicative  in  $500  market  productivity  time,  the  lower-priced,  industry.  in  in  units.  advantage'  move  which  might  Canadian  about  Asian  industry  relations  that of  'bloated'  same  'counter-trade'  sectors  government  policy  this  look  at  transportation to  this  a  tune  keep  falling  keeping  Continent's  amounts  and  countries  advantage'  and,  particular  telecommunications these  the  machinery  in  the  move,  viable,  huge  that  to  textile  its  said  domestic  business-like approach,  'comparative  this  to  up  is  the  the  and  the  It to  on  set  jobs,  due  agree  textiles  more  is  because  industry  strengthening  product  latter  not  a very  industry  created  Canadian  experts not  inefficiency.  prices  The  was  'dying'  sound  of  it  -  domestic  higher  protect  if  Most  Canada  this  quotas.  and  commendable somewhat  supporting  supporting  a year  restrictive  and  91  the  at  have strong  least some  two  moves  influence  government  on on  part  of  Canada's  (Liberal)  ^  -  interest its  in  annual  49  the  Canada  meeting  percent  of  CDC  CDC  But  the  has,  its  independence  its  own  since  protected  through  Trudeau.  But  Gray,  have  to  make  to  trade,  of  also the  been for  four  Report  lead  Trade,  Ed  Lapointe aired.  members  that  the  Special  held  on  Lumley, where  It  future would  of  a  to  was  which  probably  in  Canadian the  form  of  Trade part  of of  of  to  government  to  State  the  the  federal  government  Board  respect  directors,  (in  entitled.)  excess It  influence  has  the  arm o f  CDC  the  Cor-  1 1 7  1981, of  Small  EDC  Herb  policy with  future  22,  against  EDC  Finance,  the  was  State  and  fourth  a joint  for  news  International Charles  program  through  'wars  offering  the  Business,  insurance  government,  exporters of  for  existing  of  publication of  Minister  federal  Minister  Commerce,  to  make  Prime  and  is  use a  a c t i v i t i e s .  of  to  originally  the  besides wanting  the  right  guarding  government-elected  appointees  by  a  on  holds  was  Cabinet  June  the  place  on  want  keen  such as M i n i s t e r  on  announced  which  part  tabled  to  insure  on  the  Minister  that  affairs  to  1981,  very  maintained  related  Committee,  the  been  has  tool  the  trading  a new a d d i t i o n  would take  and  1971,  appointment  also might  30,  shareholder..  move  government  June  largest  of  pliable  with  single  Industry,  strong  connection government  Cabinet,  of  in  federal  directors  the  the  possible foreign  the  conference,  the  (CDC)  The  and  state  a more  through  second move,  by  in  government-suggested  board  for  the  inception  to  n a t i o n a l i s t i c purposes  The  This  only  speculated  thus  Minister  Corporation  not  is  members the  Corporation  government  letters  and  through  poration  the  its the  apparently  the  and  -  Manitoba.  decisions, a  other  MacEachen  but  stock  investment  Allan  Development  in Winnipeg,  from  92  the  was  EDC,!in  revolutions.'  'forfaiting,  1  a  service  - 93 -  apparently  widely  of  exporters.  smaller  one-fourth 'boost'  its  allows by  of  the  EDC  also  kind  of  lack  obtain  and  i t  was  export  as  of  the  insurance  the  insurance the  commercial  necessary  in  the  in  the  bankers, Special  a  to  future  EDC  to  moment,  provides has  on  would  a  this  exporters  s t i l l  home  was  who  can  insure  evidence.  with-  obtained  buyer's  s e r v i c e which  Committee  exporters  insurance  the  would  procedure  the  also  commercial  finances  necessary  At  F r o m now  related  EDC  cash  problems  case  Canadian  the  company  losses. for  to  The  flow now  Canada's  sales.  only  need  in  the  evidence,  revolution'  by  exporters  when  cash  'forfaiting'  issued  of  the  a year.  Committee  commercial  that  million  finalizing  they  announced  help  which  notes  the  to that  trade  $200  give  Speical  strictly  world  promissory  in  Europe  estimated  around  would  delays in  been all  by  in  information  loans  underlined  has  which  against credit  It  purchase  long  'war  Further term  to  'political'  the  countries  sales  stressed  insurance  by  percent  buyers  rather  fact  one  export  foreign  stand  used  country. short-  also  The  strongly  cost  of  the  1 JO  new  service will Finally,  government a  number  in  has  of  be  including  energy, as  basic  if  right  way  economic  has  had  a  areas  some to  kind go  recent for  of  about  policy heavy  headed of  it?  guiding  the  with  a  a  period  a  fact  but that  the  strong all  and  present  is  economy  areas  of  regulatory  There the  Canada  federal through  'interventionist'  increased  activity.  revival, is  of  premiums.  Canadian  in  nationalistic  economic  It  policy,  proposals,  for  economic  commercial-rate  economic  c o n t r o l l e d measures  most  Canada  of  regular  preference  is  in  the  a  Canada  intervention needs  through  area  centrally  Its  seems  the  shown  leaning.  it  paid  endeavour, tone,  central  is  no  present for  1  and  state  doubt  that  approach  years  has  been  - 94 -  held  back  i n i t s development  overwhelming  dependence  dening  branch-plant  market  with  field  with  health  really  needs  non-productive with  something  will  resource  policy, really on  actually  have  to  exports  over  be done  to  many  approach i s at  of  words,  the world's  above,  solve  very  accounts,  a high  employment actually  Canada's exports  interest inflation  i n t h e most  a political How m u c h  of  a  future  that  heavy  around  economic  Canada's  policy  or  energy  Also,  so w i l l  national could  the present,  i n many ways who f a c e  somewhat  that  natural  labour-intensive,  exporting  nations  nobody  dispute  r e l i a n c e on a more  industry  supporting  interventionist-guided  Canada  bur-  U.S.A.  in the  the problem?  decade  developing  but w i l l  these  the present  high  solve  is a centralized,  industrial  corporation be  considered  the  same  scattered  cabinet-  problems? moment  i n t h e way t h e c o u n t r y ' s  with  turn  the  i t s  outlets.  i s no d o u b t  the l a s t  materials  In other  as stated  It  but  into  interventionist  by a g o v e r n m e n t - d i r e c t e d ,  t h e answer?  policy  point?  activity  crowned  problems  is  areas  emphasis,  a par with  wrong  state  and n o n - f a b r i c a t e d  industrial  there  a strong  Canada's  economy  consequences, f o r the country's Further,  through  and through  n a t i o n a l i s t i c emphasis  but w i l l of  state  raw m a t e r i a l s  the Canadian  heavy  serious  the answer?  tying  of  industrial  a n d no c o m p e t i t i v e  i s a sudden,  renewal,  familiar  economy,  i t s very  a true  on t h e e x p o r t  no a l t e r n a t i v e s  However,  towards  clear  economy  rates, rate,  industrialized  and b u r e a u c r a t i c the action  everybody  that  is functioning,  large twice  to  deficits that  of  the U . S . A . , of  will  solve  and a c t i v i t y  weighted  on i t s f o r e i g n  regions to  something  i n Ottawa  down  i t  payments  but i s  problems  is real,  very  as  and growing  the country, these  i s  at  unthere this  a n d how m u c h  - 95 -  is  just  year the  s o much  been  p l a c e d on  country  probably gather  of  be  the  up w i t h  a  the  left  to  also  thought for  out  ment-directed,  to  be  in  the  and  future  Canadian  included  questions  a  policy  industrial  and  trading Report,  this  the  present  will  coming an  are  budget  not  and on  see, his  not  but  of  the  so  he  hoc  only  the  a  can  come  politicians,  framework  But by  to  well-  flexible  c o n s i d e r e d as  will  committee  both  recommended  i t  of  Finance,  ad  need  last  future  if  development. as  be  political  will  effective,  over  exhausted,  satisfy  corporation,  has  Minister  based  commercial  should  the  together  year,  that  and  and  public  the  The  emphasis  the  economy  in  guidelines  final  in  later  labour.  national  its  So much  MacEachen,  policy  economic  Canada's  Committee  Allan  ministers,  business  smoke?'  p o l i t i c i a n s and  pieces of coherent  and  constitutional  that  'economic'  but  'glitter  a  govern-  the  Special  viable  element  framework.  Conclusions Based ment  that  eration  Steps a)  the  in  problems  on  the  following  order  to  relating  should form  an  approach private dustries ties,  facts  be  to  take  Export to  of  a  gathered  successful  industrial  would  above have  solution  exports  by  to  small  i t  to  would  be  taken  Canada's  b e my into  external  and m e d i u m - s i z e d  judgeconsidtrade  businesses.  to: Trade  Development  trade,  board  Canada.  formulate  evidence  recommendations  reach  export  sector  and  a  Board  members, The  policy,  Board and  Board  to  which  coordinate  should  representing should  generally  be  in  have  the a  Canada's a majority  various position  supervise  and  regions to  frame  support  all  future of and  in-  priori-  -  export-related interface create Trade  activities  between  a  joint  small  services.  'operating  service  or  It  Board large,  would  agencies,  domestic  in  government  Development  panies,  market  96  the  country,  and  private  agency'  to  under  oversea  which  have  -  expanded  its  and  information  the  want  service,  most  important  supervision services  to  avail  umbrella  improved,  the  enterprise,  trading  might  under  as  all  for  the  of  existing  i n c l u d i n g an  Export  Canadian  themselves  the  financing,  of  such  export  overseas  insurance,  com-  and  and docu-  mentation. set  up  right  a  series  across  of  Canada,  fragmented  and  where  trading  market  both  'one-stop'  encompassing  spread  out  houses  i n t e l l i g e n c e and  assistance  with  trade  paper  from  all  export  over and  work  to  all  invidual on  offices  hitherto  countless  information  problems,  trade  companies  financing.  regional  agencies;  could  pertaining  basis  services,  and to  now  offices  collect  JETRO-pattern  small or large,  export  a  existing  different  the  on  valuable  obtain export  - 97 -  APPENDIX  I  It the  appears  Cabinet  and  that  the  change  r e s p o n s i b l e to  parties  being  tion  a  special  committee  was  brought  on  by  legitimacy  of  the  of  ment, to  the  Prime  Minister's  party, a  House  point  six  of  task  vience of  of  same  the  leader  order  of  the  House?; in  It  was  committee  of  preference  for  standing  vative Stanley  view  in  select  individual  Knowles,  questioned the  out  and  committee,  of the  by  procedural  task  lack  a  the  and  spokeman  expert  who  of  same d a y  Progressive Joe  Clark,  the  --  the  would  the they  on  the  rose of  on  the  subser-  possible  in  ability  of  Conservative  formation  the  secrecy  set-up; be  part  Opposition  certain  of  force  latter  the  involved  of  House  task  House w i t h  instruments,  assignment  be  crea-  the  tabled of  the  matters.  Leader  the  the  respect  Crown;  of  opposition  the  whole  forces  to  by  Parlia-  consultation;  the  different  of  the  same,  leader,  reference  the  Parliament the  of  approved  r e s p o n s i b l e to  On  the  with  to  in  the  of  subject  the  case,  by  lack  potential  committee  supported a  Opposition  the  of  force,  Crown,  forces.'  and  from  task  Commons,  members  terms  the  the  two  and  a  critique  'task  completely  of  of  a minister  debate  this  members  was  of  pointed  three  would,  to  reports  to  House  questioned  committees,  a  parliamentary  Commons  of  up  representatives  Opposition  Baker  finally,  further  the  so-called  lack  final  House  select  of  evidence the  dealing with  forces,  the  and,  the  nominate  swift  setting  a minister  conference  Baker  members'  to  Walter  in  evidence;  members  were  news  forces.  question in  encouraged  from  namely topics  Commons. all  the  providing  the  best  for  public the  pointed  at  New out  large.  the  a  sub-  Opposition  powers  of  a  protection The  Democratic that  they  task to  The  with  the  that  ConserParty,  members  did  -  not want t o  find  servants of  same f o r  that  the  98  -  t h e m s e l v e s c o - o p t e d by a m i n i s t e r o f  t h e Crown and made  t h e p u r p o s e s s t a t e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t .  s t u d i e s , under whatever  name,  be k e p t w i t h i n t h e  He  recommended  parliamentary  context. The G o v e r n m e n t ' s  answer a t  the  time, April  18,  1980,  t h e PCs t o p r e c e d e n c e s s e t by t h e m s e l v e s when i n o f f i c e , t h r e e t a s k f o r c e s w h i c h w e r e q u e s t i o n e d by t h e L i b e r a l time,  but w h i c h were r u l e d i n o r d e r  However, larly  by t h e  although  opposition at the  regular standing committees,  about  t h e s e t t i n g up o f  Parliament's  s e l e c t committees,  P r i m e M i n i s t e r was h e r e s u p p o r t e d by h i s House drew t h e m e m b e r s '  attention  to  twenty s t a n d i n g committees under S.O. a t h i r d of committees.  the  a b i l i t y to  and t a s k leader,  fact that  6 5 , and t h a t  an o p p o r t u n i t y  handle  forces.  in'the  a n d a s s u c h w o u l d be w i l l i n g t o  i n the  i n c l u d e the  both  The as  the  already.were past only  t h e L i b e r a l s were i n t e r e s t e d i n g i v i n g the  t o t a k e a more d i r e c t p a r t  parties,  s e l e c t com-  t h e members had shown an i n t e r e s t i n a c t i v e l y w o r k i n g However,  House.  Yvon P i n a r d ,  there  the  particu-  r e f e r e n c e i n v o l v i n g members f r o m a l l  he had d o u b t s  refer  appointing  then Speaker of  and he e x p r e s s e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o d i s c u s s  latter  by  the Prime M i n i s t e r promised c o n s u l t a t i o n would f o l l o w ,  r e g a r d i n g the terms o f  mittees,  was t o  about  through backbenchers  decision-making process,  topic of  s t r i k i n g of  select 119  committees  under the d i s c u s s i o n o f  a more g e n e r a l  parliamentary  reform.  -  APPENDIX In  March,  1980, p r i o r  Trading  his  Sogoshosha:  different the  to  sogoshosha.  economic  Canada  models  of  tying  idea one  models  heavy  region  Model  i n these  of  the country  imitating  i n other from  parts  for the regional products  Tsurumi's being 1970's.  import  to  into  3 would  i n t h e same The Korean  small  the  of  i n -  problems,  him to  and  believe of  the  trading  present  field, commodity  U.S.A.  The c o r e  and medium-sized and t e c h n i c a l This  would  t h e same  of of  this  companies know-how  in to  be a l i n k  as the sogoshosha at  com-  time  potenin  would i t  seek  disposed  regions.  today,  sogoshosha  Canada's  one o r a n o t h e r  products.  overseas,  be a c o p y  position  leading  Canada's  trading,  various  to  e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s  goods  export  three  i n t h e commodity  the country.  products  i n Canada's  Model  of  drawn  i s a Canadian  strength  their  in  countries.  as p o s s i b l e  sell  Tsurumi,  suggested  and t h e i m p l i e d  1 which  existing  on h e l p i n g  customers  early  from  o f many m a n u f a c t u r e d  over  Canada  benefit  R.  on a  based on h i s knowledge  and the LDCs,  2 i s a sogoshosha  imports  customers  these  Canada  Committee  Rebecca  Growth,  had been  especially i n i t s relationship with  switching  of  with  'sogoshosha,1  i n c l u d e Model  i s to concentrate  tial  the Special  Export-Based  on t h e U . S . A .  created  end products  Tsurumi's Canada's  could  on t h e c o u n t r y ' s  a s many  exports,  between  sogoshosha  built  of  of  Tsurumi  His attention  dependence  possibly  Tsurumi's pany  Engines  Yoshi  f o r a Canadian  the s i m i l a r i t i e s  that  the creation  Corporation,  models  Japanese  creasing  -  II  National book  99  at  of  the Korean  as Korea the time  set-up,  a s he s e e s  was i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s were  created  as  and  marketing  100  -  arms  of  about  turers.  This  thirteen would  gathering  market  searching  for  groupings  of  be d u p l i c a t e d  and  technical  -  already  in  Canada  information  specially selected  existing with on  personnel,  certain  the  and  domestic  groupings  Japanese  thus  manufac-  pattern  beginning  and  their  120 own w o r l d - w i d e Tsurumi absolute own  exports  for  cialized  and  an  tion  which  fairly  it  is  group how  goal  to  and  to  the to  gives  an  Canadian  into  export  products  and  a Canadian  being  mobilize  credit  trading  in  services.  one  its  to  producer  way  or  a  a  company,  a a  clear  to  (speit  is  common at  home organiza-  guaranteed  access  and,  train  a  finally, Canadian  understanding  dealing  In  service  coverage;  other,  based  companies)  and  create  insurance  other  set-up,  establishments  to  the  on  an  its  conditions.  trading  and  has  own  as  further  'senmonshosha'  public will  abroad;  trading  has  Canadian  (general  o f f i c i a l s who  international  and  medium-sized  sources  necessary,  needs  manufacturing  organization and  Canada  existing  a  sogoshosha-system  'piggy-backing'  Canada  already  suitable  small  that  not  'sogoshosha' to  customers.  personnel,  its  121 of  of  products,  develop  the  and  organizations.  create  dedicated  handle  rationale  country  unlimited  absolutely of  contacts  development  the  companies)  adequate  to  the  products,  for  of  manufactured  Canada  necessary national  of  firms  Canadian  order  sees  necessity,  countries' on  network  in  a wide  of variety  - 101 -  APPENDIX  III  Government together The  of  private is  as one u n i t  Supreme  ship  thirty,  of  Council  i t s more  world  markets  annual  growth  groups  of  offensives  and i t  forces  a n d come  Trade  Minister,  ministries  behind  Council.  has a  and the  the Council  and Industry  directives  between goals  (MITI),  and informal  Canada  approximately  discuss  various  meet  for  financing  later  member-  major  activities  and i t  advice  sets  through  forty  markets.  issues  Advisory  Industry,  to  industry  and  of  trade.  'Japan,  levels  of  'slicing  and plan  trade,  of  Trade  The l a t t e r  Further, combined  government-private  meets  here for  mutual and b u s i n e s s .  Council  in  consists  and r e g i o n a l  a n d Commerce  the  the  allowing  government  industry  of  contacts  important  t h e Supreme  Council.  up'  major  projects,  between  leaders  exports.  the intimate  on m a j o r  policies  Inc.'  and the s e t t i n g  Also,  Trade  concerning  123 pertaining  ship  and f o r t h e very  'mini-version'  of  government  f o r Japanese  i n the relationship  representatives  the Minister important  set price  cooperation  Minister's  the important  i n which  traders  and c o u n t r y to  of  are the u n o f f i c i a l  and c r e d i t s ,  h a s i t s own  forum  f o r the good  Japanese  here  and support  an expanded  which  functions  on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l  understanding  "the execution  i s the main  by product  exporters  preferential  of  with  set the course  important  the foundation  with  official  i s charged  top businessmen  form  Prime  force  Trade  join  i n t h e Supreme  by J a p a n ' s  driving  International  through  level  the key economic  The main  the government,"  lay  headed  representing  both  Among  to  Council,  i n Japan  contacts. The  and  enterprise  on t h e h i g h e s t  industries.  course  social  of  Trade  the Ministry  the  and p r i v a t e  twice  enterprise  the  of  interests a  year relations  -  102  -  FOOTNOTES 1.  R o b e r t B . E k e l u n d , J r . , a n d R o b e r t D. T o l l i s b n , " M e r c a n t i l i s t Origins of the Corporation," The B e l l Journal o f Economics, Autumn, 1980, p p . 715-716,and R.R. Palmer and Joel C o l t o n , A H i s t o r y o f t h e M o d e r n W o r l d , T h i r d E d i t i o n , New Y o r k , Alfred A. Knopf, 1967, pp. 103-104.  2.  Ibid.,  3.  I b i d . , p. 618. R.B. Fournier, Trading Houses/Export Middlemen, Market Development Group, Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, Ottawa, May, 1972, pp. 10-11.  4.  pp. 225-226,  with  240, and 163.  Yoshi  Tsurumi  Based 1980,  Growth, Montreal, pp. 63-67.  Rebecca  R.  Tsurumi,  The I n s t i t u t e  of  Export-  f o r R e s e a r c h on P u b l i c  Sogoshosha  Engines  Policy,  5.  I b i d . , pp. 67-71. C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, Canada ' s Trade C h a l l e n g e , Report o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on a N a t i o n a l Trading C o r p o r a t i o n , Ottawa, M i n i s t e r o f Supply and Services Canada, June, 1981, p. 8.  6.  Loc. c i t .  7.  Fournier,  8.  Y. & R.R. Tsurumi, o p . c i t . , p. 8 2 ; Fournier, op. c i t . , pp. 90-91; and C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e o n a National Trading C o r p o r a t i o n , Minutes o f Proceedings and Evidence, February 6 , 1981, I s s u e ' No. 3 3 , p. 33:17.  9.  Zaibatus,  op. c i t . , pp. 12,  meaning  large  15,  family  and  17.  combines.  10.  A l f r e d K. H o , J a p a n ' s T r a d e L i b e r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s , W h i t e N.Y., I n t e r n a t i o n a l A r t s and S c i e n c e s P r e s s , I n c . , 1973,""p. 5 .  11.  General Agreement on T a r i f f s and Trade (GATT), J a p a n ' s Economic E x p a n s i o n a n d F o r e i g n T r a d e 1955 t o 1 9 7 0 , Geneva, GATT, S t u d i e s i n International Trade, July, 1971, pp. 5 - 6 .  12.  M i n i s t r y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Trade of Japan, Tokyo, 1974, pp. 4 - 5 .  13.  GATT,  14.  N.Y. Yoshino, Japan's M u l t i n a t i o n a l E n t e r p r i s e s , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1976. p. 23.  op. c i t . , pp.  and I n d u s t r y ,  MITI,  Foreign  Plains,  Trade  6-7. Cambridge,  Mass.,  -  103  -  15.  MITI, op. c i t . , pp. 7-8. Terutomo Ozawa, M u l t i n a t i o n a li s m , Japanese S t y l e : The P o l i t i c a l Economy o f Outward Dependency. Princeton, N . J . , Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1979, p. 78.  16.  Yoshino,  17.  Ozawa,  18.  MITI,  19.  Yoshi T s u r u m i , The Japanese A r e Coming: of Firms and P o l i t i c s . Cambridge, M a s s . , Company, 1976, p. 11.  20.  Yoshino,  21.  GATT,  22.  Ozawa,  23.  Yoshino, o p . c i t . , p. 20.  24.  Ibid.,  pp.  25.  Ozawa,  op.  26.  Y.  27.  Yoshino, o p . c i t . , p.  28.  Yoshino,  29.  Y.  30.  GATT,  31.  Yoshino,  32.  JETRO, Tokyo,  33.  Yoshi T s u r u m i , w i t h R e b e c c a R. T s u r u m i , S o g o s h o s h a : Engines of E x p o r t - B a s e d G r o w t h , M o n t r e a l , The I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y , 1980, p. 16.  op. c i t . , p.  op. c i t . , p. op. c i t . , p.  22.  16. 1.  op. c i t . , pp.  10 a n d 1 2 .  op. c i t . , pp.  5-7.  op. c i t . , p.  193.  Tsurumi,  23-24. c i t . , p.  160.  op. c i t . , p. 6 0 . 25.and  op. c i t . , pp.  Tsurumi,  A Multinational Interaction Ballinger Publishing  :  Ozawa,  op. c i t . , p.  109.  67-68.  op. c i t . , p.  op. c i t . , pp. 9-11,  119. 12-13  op. c i t . , p. 9 0 .  The Role o f Trading Companies i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l JETRO M a r k e t i n g S e r i e s 2 , R e v . 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 .  Commerce,  -: 104 -  34.  Ibid.,  p.  17.  35.  Ibid.,  p. 2 0 .  36.  Ibid.,  pp.  37.  JETRO,  1980, op. c i t . , p.  38.  C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, N a t i o n a l T r a d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , Proceedings o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on a, F i r s t S e s s i o n o f t h e T h i r t y S e c o n d P a r l i a m e n t , 1 9 8 0 , I s s u e N o . 2 9 , pp". 2 9 : 1 0 - 2 9 : 1 1 .  39.  JETRO,  40.  Y.  41.  Ibid.,  42.  Japan  43.  Ibid.,  p.  44.  Ibid.,  pp.  45.  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, "Canada's Post-War Economic P e r f o r m a n c e , " The C a n a d i a n Economy: S e l e c t e d Readings, e d s . John J . Deutsch e t a l . , T o r o n t o , T h e M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 5 , R e v i s e d E d i t i o n , p. 24.  46.  Export Promotion Review Committee, Chairman: Roger Hatch,^Strengthen!"ng Canada A b r o a d , O t t a w a , Department o f I n d u s t r y , Trade and Commerce, N o v e m b e r 3 0 , 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 3 . S e e a l s o E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , Two Cheers f o r the E i g h t i e s , S i x t e e n Annual Review, Ottawa, Information Canada, 1979, p. 5.  47.  Export  48.  W . T . E a s t e r b r o o k a n d Hugh G . J . A i t k e n , C a n a d i a n E c o n o m i c History, T o r o n t o , T h e M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 7 5 , p . 5 2 1 . See a l s o The Royal Commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s ,  16-17.  1980, op. c i t . , p.  and R.R. pp.  Tsurumi,  6.  5.  op. c i t . , pp.  24-25.  11-14.  External  Trade  Organization  1979, JETRO,  Tokyo,  1979, pp. 2 and 4 .  9. 12-13.  Promotion  Review  Committee,  op. c i t . , p.  14.  "The N a t i o n a l T a r i f f P o l i c y , " T h e C a n a d i a n Economy: Selected Readings, eds. J o h n J . D e u t s c h e t a l . , T o r o n t o , The M a c m i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 5 , p. 4 7 2 .  -  105 -  49.  R i c h a r d D . F r e n c h , How O t t a w a D e c i d e s : Planning and I n d u s t r i a l Policy-Making 1968-1980. Toronto, James L o r i m e r a n d Company, P u b l i s h e r s , i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e Canadian I n s t i t u t e f o r Economic Policy, 1980, pp. 94-95.  50.  S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f Canada, Committee on I n d u s t r i a l Policies, Uncertain Prospects: Canadian Manufacturing Industry 1971-1977, Ottawa, M i n i s t e r o f Supply and S e r v i c e s , October, 1977, pp. 25-26.  51.  P i e r r e L. B o u r g e a u l t , I n n o v a t i o n and t h e S t r u c t u r e o f Canadian Industry, Science Council o f Canada, Information Canada, Ottawa, 1972, p. 126.  52.  Economic C o u n c i l o f Canada, Canada, 1975, p. 185.  53.  French,  54.  Bourgeault,  55.  French,  56.  R i c h a r d W. P h i d d a n d G . B r u c e D o e r n , T h e P o l i t i c s a n d M a n a g e m e n t o f Canadian Economic P o l i c y , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n o f Canada, 1978, p. 2 8 5 . See a l s o , F r e n c h , o p . c i t . , p . 110.  57.  Ibid.,  58.  Phidd and Doern, op. c i t . , p. 2 6 6 . Jean-Luc Pepin's speech to the C M A ' s a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g i n E d m o n t o n , J u n e , 1 9 7 2 , "On I n d u s t r i a l Strategy."  59.  Ibid.,  p.  60.  Ibid.,  p. 303.  61.  French,  62.  Ibid.,  pp.  126-127.  63.  Ibid.,  pp.  130-131.  64.  C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, C a n a d a ' s T r a d e C h a l l e n g e , Report o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on a N a t i o n a l T r a d i n g Corporation, Ottawa, M i n i s t e r o f Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, June 1981, pp. 4 - 5 .  op. c i t . , p.  p.  102 a n d p .  op. c i t . , pp.  op. c i t . , p.  Looking  Outward,  Ottawa,  Information  104.  36-37.  90 and p . 9 2 .  114.  287 and p . 2 9 0 .  op. c i t . , pp.  116-117.  -  106  -  See a l s o E x p o r t Promotion Review Committee, C h a i r m a n : Roger S t r e n g t h e n i n g Canada A b r o a d , O t t a w a , Department o f I n d u s t r y , and Commerce, November 3 0 , 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 3 . of  65.  Report  66.  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Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House 14 A p r i l , 1 9 8 0 , p . 6 .  o f Commons,  76.  Globe  1980, p.  77.  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House 12 J u n e , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 0 3 2 .  78.  Loc. c i t .  79.  C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, N a t i o n a l T r a d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on a , F i r s t S e s s i o n o f t h e T h i r t y Second P a r l i a m e n t , 1980, Issue No. 2 9 , p. 2 9 : 6 .  of  the Speical  the Special  Committee,  Committee,  op. c i t . , p.  Hatch, Trade  op.  c i t . , pp.  13.  5-7.  A Canadian  Study,  141-142. 123.  and M a i l ,  Review  April  Committee,  19,  of  op.  c i t . , p. House,"  8. Financial  Times,  Official  Report  of  Debates,  Official  Report  of  Debates,  2.  Commons,  -  107  -  80.  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C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, S p e c i a l C o m m i t t e e on a N a t i o n a l T r a d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M i n u t e s o f P r o c e e d i n g s and E v i d e n c e , September 9 , 1980, I s s u e No. 5 , p p . 5:31-5:32.  89.  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Trading Corporation, Minutes I s s u e No. 2 3 , p. 23:16.  90.  Ibid.,  pp.  91.  Ibid.,  pp.  92.  Ibid.,  p.  93.  C a n a d a , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, N a t i o n a l T r a d i n g Corporation, P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S p e c i a l Committee on a , F i r s t S e s s i o n o f t h e ThirtySecond P a r l i a m e n t , 1980, Issue No. 2 9 , pp. 29:31-29:33.  94.  Ibid.,  pp.  29:22-29:37.  95.  Ibid.,  pp.  29:37-29:39.  96.  Ibid.,  pp.  29:39-29:42.  97.  Ibid.,  pp.  29:42-29:43.  p.  p.  Roger 8.  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