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An investigation into the effectiveness of diagnostic-prescriptive instruction, using the early prevention… Alderdice, Johanna 1982

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIAGNOSTIC-PRESCRIPTIVE INSTRUCTION, USING THE EARLY PREVENTION OF SCHOOL FAILURE PROGRAM AS A MODEL by JOHANNA ALDERDICE B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND SPECIAL EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1982 © Johanna A l d e r d i c e , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of E f W a g o n a l P s s j A A n ^ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date fryyU ift , Ufft!L DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT The e f f e c t of s p e c i f i c p r e s c h o o l programs on the development of reading r e a d i n e s s , perceptual-motor, language and c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s has been s t u d i e d by a number of i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s reviewed i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on reading r e a d i n e s s , IQ and the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s . The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine the e f f e c t of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n on the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and reading r e a d i n e s s , using the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program as a model. The major components of t h i s program are sc r e e n i n g , d i a g n o s i s of the scr e e n i n g r e s u l t s , i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s based on the scr e e n i n g r e s u l t s , p r e s c r i p t i o n s to strengthen weak areas, and parent involvement. F i v e treatment l e v e l s were i n c l u d e d i n the present study: ( 1 ) d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and parent involvement; (2) d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ; (3) an a t t e n t i o n placebo to c o n t r o l f o r a p o s s i b l e Hawthorne e f f e c t ; (4) l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s given to the teachers of one group without the b e n e f i t of f u r t h e r suggestions or i n s t r u c t i o n ; (5) the c o n t r o l group. The p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d as "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n kinde r g a r t e n i n the Coquitlam school d i s t r i c t . The sample was drawn from 21 h a l f - d a y k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s s i t u a t e d i n 9 schools of the same d i s t r i c t . The f i n a l sample c o n s i s t e d of 140 "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . The i n v e s t i g a t o r assumed the r o l e of a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher and p r o v i d e d , the treatment f o r groups 1 and 2 once a week. The d u r a t i o n of the treatment was 4 months. Six months elapsed between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s . > An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was conducted on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, Preschool Language Scale and Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n with the p r e t e s t s as a c o v a r i a t e . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was conducted on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t on the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s measured by the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , nor was there a treatment e f f e c t on reading readiness as measured by the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t . However, r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n on the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s measured by the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale and the Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the l a t t e r t e s t showed t h a t , without i n t e r v e n t i o n , the d i s c r e p a n c y between mental age and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age tended to p e r p e t u a t e . T h e r e f o r e i t was recommended that school d i s t r i c t s implement an e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n program at the beginning of the k i n d e r g a r t e n year. L i m i t a t i o n s of the study were noted and suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e d the establishment of a more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y , as w e l l as the establishment of l o c a l norms. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ' i i LIST OF TABLES . v i LIST OF FIGURES . v i i i . LIST OF GRAPHS ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... . x DEDICATION ; x i CHAPTER 1. The Problem 1 Overview 1 D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 7 The Model 8 R a t i o n a l e 10 Rec o g n i t i o n Of I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s 11 The Importance Of Parent Involvement 12 Emphasis On The Development Of P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s .... 12 Statement Of The Problem 14 Treatments 16 The V a r i a b l e s 18 Statement Of The N u l l Hypotheses 18 Con c l u s i o n 19 CHAPTER 2. A Review Of The L i t e r a t u r e 20 The Importance Of P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s .22 Programs Emphasizing S p e c i f i c Reading Readiness S k i l l s ... - • 25 Programs Emphasizing P e r c e p t u a l And Language Development 29 Programs Emphasizing Language And C o g n i t i v e Development . 36 Programs Emphasizing D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e Teaching ... 47 Major C r i t i c i s m s Of The Research 56 Con c l u s i o n s 59 CHAPTER 3. Methodology 63 Po p u l a t i o n And Sample 63 D e s c r i p t i o n Of Instruments 66 Norms, V a l i d i t y And R e l i a b i l i t y 68 Screening Procedures 69 A n a l y s i s Of Screening R e s u l t s 73 A n a l y s i s Of Subject A (Figure 5) 78 A n a l y s i s Of Subject B (F i g u r e 6) 80 Program Planning 83 Treatments 1 And 2 •••• 83 Treatment 3 87 Treatment 4 88 Treatment 5 88 Summary Of Kindergarten Programs In The Sample 88 C o l l e c t i o n And Analyses Of Data 92 CHAPTER 4. R e s u l t s 97 Overview 97 D e s c r i p t i v e Data 97 Data A n a l y s i s 107 Post-Hoc Analyses 123 CHARTER 5. D i s c u s s i o n ... 1-38 R e s u l t s 141 V 8 L i m i t a t i o n s 148 Suggestions For Further Research 153 Recommendations Regarding E a r l y I n t e r v e n t i o n 155 REFERENCES 157 APPENDIX A - Developmental S k i l l s Check L i s t 161 APPENDIX B - Preschool Language Scale 164 APPENDIX C - Revised Motor A c t i v i t y S c a l e s 172 Appendices A, B, and C are not included. They are the property of the K.W. Curriculum Cooperative and are available only to di s t r i c t s with a signed adoption agreement. Please direct inquiries about these materials to K.W. Curriculum Cooperative, 114 North Second Street, Peotone, I l l i n o i s 60468, U.S.A. v i LIST OF TABLES 1. Treatment Components 17 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n Of "Moderate And High Risk" C h i l d r e n 64 3. Screening B a t t e r y : P r e t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For T o t a l Sample By C l a s s 98 4. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Pre And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By C l a s s 100 5. D i s t r i b u t i o n Of "At Risk" C h i l d r e n I d e n t i f i e d By (a) Combined Scores Of The Screening B a t t e r y (CSSB)* And (b) By The PPVT, PLS, And VMI Independently 102 6. Pres c h o o l Language S c a l e : Pre- And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By C l a s s .... 103 7. Beery Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Pre- And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By C l a s s 104 8. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Ri s k " C h i l d r e n By C l a s s " 106 9. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For T o t a l Sample By C l a s s 106 10. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Pre- And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group 108 11. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As A C o v a r i a t e 111 12. P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e : Pre- And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group 112 13. P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As A C o v a r i a t e . ... 114 14. Beery Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Pre And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group 115 15. Beery Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As The C o v a r i a t e 118 16. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means And Standard v i i D e v i a t i o n s For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group ... 119 17. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : A n a l y s i s Of Va r i a n c e For "At Ri s k " C h i l d r e n 120 18. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For T o t a l Sample By Group 121 19. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : A n a l y s i s Of Va r i a n c e For T o t a l Sample .. 123 20. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only .... 124 21. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As A C o v a r i a t e For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only 125 22. Preschool Language S c a l e : Pre- And P o s t t e s t Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only 127 23. Preschool Language' S c a l e : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As The C o v a r i a t e For C h i l d r e n "At Risk On T h i s Test Only 129 24. Beery Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Means And Standard D e v i a t i o n s For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only 129 25. Beery Developmental Test Of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : A n a l y s i s Of Covariance With The P r e t e s t As The C o v a r i a t e For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only 131 26. P r e t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between The Three Measures For The T o t a l Sample (N=323) 133 27. Pre- And P o s t t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between The Three Measures For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group (N=139) 135 28. C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre- And P o s t t e s t Of Each Of The Measures For "At Risk" C h i l d r e n By Treatment Group (N=139) 136 29. Summary Of -Results P r o b a b i l i t y . L e v e l s Of The Dependent V a r i a b l e s For Each Of The Analyses By F a c t o r s 142 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES 1. Screening Procedures 72 2. P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e : Rounded Means For C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age 73 3. Norms For The Motor A c t i v i t y S c a l e 76 4. C l a s s Screening Information Form 77 5. Learning P r o f i l e Of Subject A 80 6. Learning P r o f i l e Of Subject B 82 7. H i e r a r c h i c a l Design 94 8. Design For The Screening B a t t e r y 95 9. Design For The Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test 96 ix LIST OF GRAPHS 1. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s And P o s t t e s t s By Treatment L e v e l , Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups 109 2. Preschool Language S c a l e : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s And P o s t t e s t s By Treatment L e v e l Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups 112 3. Beery Developmental Test Of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s And P o s t t e s t s By Treatment L e v e l Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups 116 4. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Treatment Group Means For "At Risk" Groups 119 5. Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Group Means For The T o t a l Sample 122 6. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s And P o s t t e s t s f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On Th i s Test Only, Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups ." 124 7. Preschool Language S c a l e : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s And P o s t t e s t s For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only, Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups 127 8. Beery Developmental Test Of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t And P o s t t e s t Means For C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only, Adjusted For I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Between Treatment Groups 130 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to s i n c e r e l y thank: My t h e s i s chairman, Dr. J u l i a n n e Conry for her p a t i e n t guidance; Dr. Harold R a t z l a f f f o r h i s s t a t i s t i c a l a dvice and a d d i t i o n a l suggestions; Dr. S a l l y Rogow f o r her c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s t h e s i s . I a p p r e c i a t e the c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m r e c e i v e d from a l l members of my t h e s i s committee. Dr. Buff O l d r i d g e and D. Emily Goetz f o r t h e i r continued i n t e r e s t and encouragement. The D i s t r i c t Superintendent of the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t and the S u p e r v i s o r of C u r r i c u l u m and Assessment who gave me permission f o r t h i s study. The primary c o o r d i n a t o r , p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s , whose i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . The parents and c h i l d r e n f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s study. My team of examiners whose c h e e r f u l n e s s , enthusiasm and c o o p e r a t i o n was g r e a t l y needed. My FMT Operators who worked long hours to h e l p me meet d e a d l i n e s . Jan Kapelus, Computer Accounts Manager, for her kind a d v i c e . My f r i e n d s who supported me. P a r t i c u l a r l y L i z , who d e l i v e r e d the a t t e n t i o n placebo, " l e n t me a l i s t e n i n g ear", and who with her husband Roy f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e d me with "room and board" throughout t h i s p r o j e c t . My parents who p r o v i d e d f o r my b a s i c education and who f o s t e r e d my independence and d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Without your c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h i s t h e s i s would not have m a t e r i a l i z e d . Your i n t e r e s t , support and encouragement " l i g h t e n e d the l o a d " . DEDICATION TO THE MEMORY OF MY LATE HUSBAND HAL WHO LOVED ME, RECOGNIZED MY ABILITIES, AND ENCOURAGED ME. BY FULFILLING THESE BASIC HUMAN NEEDS HE HELPED ME REACH MY POTENTIAL. AND TO THE MEMORY OF ALICE BORDEN ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION DIRECTOR OF THE CHILD STUDY CENTRE WHO BELIEVED IN "ACHIEVEMENT OF SUCCESS THROUGH EFFORT" AS A GOAL FOR CHILDREN AND TEACHERS ALIKE. 1 CHAPTER 1 The Problem The problem of school f a i l u r e has been with us as long as schools have e x i s t e d . In the days of te a c h i n g to the mean performance of students i n the c l a s s , i t was a more or l e s s r ecognized f a c t that some c h i l d r e n were simply unable to keep up with the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program and had to repeat one or more grades d u r i n g t h e i r school y e a r s . Many of these c h i l d r e n dropped out of school when they reached the a p p r o p r i a t e l e g a l age. Overview Over the l a s t three decades, educators have become i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned over i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , as w e l l as over the cause of slow academic p r o g r e s s . I t i s commonly b e l i e v e d that r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s has had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the e d u c a t i o n a l system, and has l i k e l y r e s u l t e d i n a l a r g e r percentage of c h i l d r e n s u c c e s s f u l l y completing t h e i r s c h o o l i n g . However, t h i s movement l e d to a widespread use of l a b e l s ( c a t e g o r i e s ) such as developmentally delayed, slow l e a r n e r , l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , d y s l e x i c , c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d , and em o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d . C h i l d r e n who f e l l behind t h e i r peers i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l program were (and s t i l l are) c l a s s i f i e d under such l a b e l s . Used i n a p o s i t i v e way, these l a b e l s p rovide a u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system, e n a b l i n g educators to pl a n a p p r o p r i a t e programs. However, Mercer, A l g o z z i n e & T r i f i l e t t i (1979) reviewed r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e that the a p p l i c a t i o n of 2 l a b e l s may r e s u l t i n the lowering of teacher e x p e c t a t i o n s . These authors s t a t e d , "Labels may be harmful to a misdiagnosed c h i l d as w e l l as a c o r r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d c h i l d . I f teachers and parents c o u l d be prevented from developing negative e x p e c t a t i o n s based on l a b e l s and t h e i r i m p l i e d behaviors, the problem of l a b e l i n g would be g r e a t l y reduced" (p. 14). These negative e x p e c t a t i o n s may l e a d to a lowering of p u p i l performance, which u l t i m a t e l y may l e a d to f a i l u r e . Z e i t l i n (1976) r e p o r t s some s t a t i s t i c s which show that an a l a r m i n g l y l a r g e percentage of c h i l d r e n encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c h o o l . In 1966, i t was estimated that approximately 25 percent of c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g school show some sign s of developmental d e v i a t i o n ( s t a t i s t i c a l a b s t r a c t of the U.S., 1966)'. In the 1972-73 school year, the A s s o c i a t i o n of C h i l d r e n with Learning D i s a b i l i t i e s estimated that 15 percent of students can be expected to show some s o r t of m i l d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y r e q u i r i n g h e l p , while another 3 to 5 percent would have more severe problems. Another s t a t i s t i c i s that 40 percent of a l l c h i l d r e n have problems which can s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r l e a r n i n g or adjustment in the primary school y e a r s . (p. 4,5) Although some of these c h i l d r e n do r e q u i r e s p e c i a l e ducation, the m a j o r i t y of these c h i l d r e n do not have obvious handicaps. Yet, these non-handicapped c h i l d r e n o f t e n encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s when e n t e r i n g grade 1. A number of these c h i l d r e n do not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y complete the p r e s c r i b e d grade 1 program i n the ^ a l l o t t e d time. Some of these c h i l d r e n may take four years to complete the primary program. C o n s i d e r i n g the r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e percentage of non-handicapped c h i l d r e n who encounter d i f f i c u l t i e s i n l e a r n i n g to read, one wonders how the school system can a l l e v i a t e .this problem. 3 In B r i t i s h Columbia, the p r e v e n t i o n of these p a r t i c u l a r problems i s i n i t s i n f a n c y . "Some d i s t r i c t s have formulated p o l i c i e s on s c r e e n i n g and have e s t a b l i s h e d on-going programs. Other d i s t r i c t s have n e i t h e r p o l i c i e s nor programs f o r s c r e e n i n g c h i l d r e n . S t i l l other d i s t r i c t s are i n the process of p i l o t i n g s c r e e n i n g programs" ( B r i t i s h Columbia Needs Kindergarten Assessment: General Report, 1980, p. 174). The a c t u a l number of d i s t r i c t s i n v o l v e d i n s c r e e n i n g programs i s not r e p o r t e d , nor i s there any mention of concomitant i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. "...Although Kind e r g a r t e n teachers are aware of the importance of K i n d e r g a r t e n i n terms of f u t u r e academic achievement of the c h i l d r e n they think that d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n i n academic s k i l l s i n the K i n d e r g a r t e n i s not a p p r o p r i a t e " (p. 91). The survey i n d i c a t e d that more than f o u r - f i f t h s of the respondents b e l i e v e d that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n was the main purpose of s c r e e n i n g . More than h a l f of the teachers added the p l a n n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l programs f o r c h i l d r e n as a purpose, again i n d i c a t i n g that there i s l e s s emphasis on program p l a n n i n g . I t i s noteworthy that the p r e v e n t i o n of f u t u r e academic problems i s not l i s t e d as a purpose of s c r e e n i n g . T h i s l a c k of emphasis on p r e v e n t i o n i s f u r t h e r evidenced by the f a c t t h a t , at the time of the r e p o r t , o n l y 15% of the s c r e e n i n g took p l a c e e i t h e r p r i o r to k i n d e r g a r t e n entry or i n September. Another 15% took p l a c e d u r i n g January to February, and 20% took p l a c e d u r i n g June. Although i t i s r e p o r t e d that 45% of the s c r e e n i n g took p l a c e as an on-going process, t h i s procedure cannot be c o n s i d e r e d to be a systematic form of 4 s c r e e n i n g . C a t e g o r i e s most commonly i n c l u d e d i n a screening program are i n order of importance: (1) g e n e r a l h e a l t h , (2) language, (3) s o c i a l and emotional development, f o l l o w e d by (4) motor a b i l i t i e s and p h y s i c a l development, (5) l e a r n i n g r a t e , and (6) i n t e l l i g e n c e . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r endorses the i n c l u s i o n of the f i r s t four c a t e g o r i e s i n a s c r e e n i n g program. However, the assessment of v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s i s e q u a l l y important, because these s k i l l s are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to " l e a r n i n g to read". Without such assessment and concomitant i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs c h i l d r e n may, as Reger (1970) p o i n t e d out, be passed on u n t i l they cannot progress any f u r t h e r , and, i n most cases, have developed secondary emotional and s o c i a l problems. Reger (1970) a p t l y i l l u s t r a t e d the development of a negative s e l f - c o n c e p t as f o l l o w s : 5 Negative C i r c l e Concept B i r t h The C h i l d (with i n d i v i d u a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses) Continuous reinforcement of negative behavior and l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s . Home environment C o n f l i c t may occur depending on i n d i v i d u a l demands. More f r u s t r a t i o n Environment Becomes g e n e r a l l y impatient; u s u a l l y g i v i n g the opposite of what the c h i l d needs. School environment R e q u i r i n g s k i l l s that are not f u l l y developed in c h i l d . Develops: F r u s t r a t ions A n x i e t i e s Low Self-Concept The negative c i r c l e concept c o n s i s t s of a c h i l d born with a v a r i e t y of s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, u s u a l l y with a s t r e s s upon weakness i n the area that our s o c i e t y values--symbolic l e a r n i n g (These weaknesses are u s u a l l y s p e c i f i c , such as i n the perceptual-motor areas.) The parents who want the c h i l d to l e a r n counting s k i l l s , names of animals, c o l o u r s , and so f o r t h i n most cases can e a s i l y p l a c e t h i s c h i l d i n an a n x i e t y -producing s i t u a t i o n : e x p e c t i n g him to l e a r n the same way as h i s peers or s i b l i n g s . Parents . become impatient and the c h i l d r e c e i v e s the op p o s i t e of what he needs: not pa t i e n c e and understanding, but anxious pushing and r i d i c u l e . T h i s c y c l e becomes even more prominent when the c h i l d i s p l a c e d i n s c h o o l . For many c h i l d r e n , i t may occur f o r the f i r s t time t h e r e . F r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y breeds more f r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y . The environment becomes more impatient; the c h i l d becomes more complex; and the c y c l e comes i n t o f u l l swing; 6 producing an unhappy human being and f r u s t r a t e d f u t u r e parent and c i t i z e n . (p. 18, 19) Reger (1970) s t a t e d , " I t i s our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as educators to develop an e d u c a t i o n a l system t h a t , i n s t e a d of f o s t e r i n g a negative s e l f - c o n c e p t , would a i d i n a l l e v i a t i n g i t " (p. 18). A l t e r n a t i v e programs which emphasize p r e v e n t i o n , r a t h e r than remediation of l a t e r academic problems have been i n v e s t i g a t e d and are c a t e g o r i z e d i n Chapter 2 as programs emphasizing (1) s p e c i f i c reading readiness s k i l l s , (2) p e r c e p t u a l and language s k i l l s , (3) language and c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and (4) d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . The E a r l y P r evention of School F a i l u r e Program, which t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r has chosen as a model f o r her study f a l l s i n the l a t t e r c a tegory. P r i o r to the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s model, " D e f i n i t i o n of Terms" i s presented. 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 1. A t t e n t i o n placebo: a t t e n t i o n given to one treatment l e v e l to c o n t r o l f o r a p o s s i b l e Hawthorne e f f e c t and h i s t o r y . 2. D i a g n o s i s : assessment of the c h i l d ' s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses based on the r e s u l t s of the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y : the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e , Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n , Motor A c t i v i t y S c a l e , and Goodenough Draw-A-Man T e s t . 3. D i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n : i n s t r u c t i o n based on (a) the assessment of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n ' s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses and (b) i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s intended to help strengthen these weaknesses. 4. Follow-up: a c t i v i t i e s suggested by the i n v e s t i g a t o r which w i l l g ive c h i l d r e n e x t r a p r a c t i c e i n t h e i r weak areas. 5. High r i s k : those c h i l d r e n whose performance age f e l l two or more years below t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n two m o d a l i t i e s . 6. I n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s : an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l ( i n s t r u c t i o n a l ) program, based on the c h i l d ' s i d e n t i f i e d s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. 7. I n t e r v e n t i o n : a procedure designed to (1) i d e n t i f y developmental l a g s or p o t e n t i a l l e a r n i n g problems and to (2) a l l e v i a t e these problems through s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n . 8. Learning p r o f i l e : a v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of each c h i l d ' s s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s i n each of the f o l l o w i n g areas: language, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , f i n e motor development and gross motor development. The standard form, developed by the Program, was used. (Chapter 4, F i g u r e 5) 8 9. Moderate r i s k : those c h i l d r e n whose performance age f e l l one or more years below t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n one mod a l i t y , or one to two years i n two m o d a l i t i e s . 10. P r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s : s k i l l s g e n e r a l l y recognized by educators to be necessary f o r s u c c e s s f u l school l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y reading. They i n c l u d e r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e vocabulary and language a b i l i t y ; a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and memory; visu a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n . 11. Reading readiness s k i l l s : s k i l l s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to r e a d i n g , such as d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l e t t e r forms, l e t t e r sounds, and sound-symbol a s s o c i a t i o n . 12. Screening: a procedure using a b a t t e r y of b r i e f t e s t s to i d e n t i f y p o t e n t i a l s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s . 13. S k i l l areas: the c a t e g o r i e s of s k i l l s represented on the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s (language, a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , f i n e motor and gross motor). 14. Treatment: A pl a n of a c t i o n intended to have a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s of the s u b j e c t . The Model Since i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1971, the I l l i n o i s E a r l y Prevention Program has been m o d i f i e d and expanded, e v o l v i n g i n t o a n a t i o n a l l y v a l i d a t e d t r a i n i n g model: The E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program. In the U.S., f e d e r a l grants are a v a i l a b l e to school d i s t r i c t s which want to implement t h i s program (Adopter D i s t r i c t s ) . These grants cover the t r a i n i n g of d i s t r i c t p e rsonnel, •.which i n c l u d e s k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , school p s y c h o l o g i s t s , 9 c o u n s e l l o r s , speech and language t h e r a p i s t s , s p e c i a l educators, and p u b l i c h e a l t h nurses. O r i g i n a l l y , t h i s program i n s i s t e d on the establishment of " l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s " or " s p e c i a l needs"' k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s fo r the bottom 4% of the ki n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n . Now, establishment of such f a c i l i t i e s i s l e f t to the d i s c r e t i o n of the Adopter D i s t r i c t s . These c h i l d r e n are now c o n s i d e r e d to have a developmental l a g rather than a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . The major components of t h i s model a r e : s c r e e n i n g , p l a n n i n g of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s , and parent involvement. Screening u s u a l l y takes p l a c e before the c h i l d s t a r t s k i n d e r g a r t e n . (A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y i s given i n Chapter 3 ) . A team of resource p e r s o n n e l , such as school p s y c h o l o g i s t s , c o u n s e l l o r s , - speech and language t h e r a p i s t s , and p u b l i c h e a l t h nurses help the k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers with the i n i t i a l s c r e e n i n g . T h i s team of s p e c i a l i s t s d i s c u s s e s each c h i l d at the follow-up meeting, and makes recommendations f o r r e f e r r a l f o r s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s i s ( i . e . to speech and language t h e r a p i s t s , or f o r a thorough psycho-educational assessment by a school p s y c h o l o g i s t i n the case of high r i s k c h i l d r e n ) . Screening r e s u l t s are analyzed, g i v i n g an i n d i c a t i o n of st r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n each of the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : gross motor, f i n e motor, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n and language. Those c h i l d r e n whose performance age f a l l s one or more years below t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n one modality, or one to two years i n each of two m o d a l i t i e s are c l a s s i f i e d as "moderate r i s k " . c h i l d r e n . Those whose performance age f a l l s two or more 10 years below t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n two m o d a l i t i e s are c l a s s i f i e d as "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . Program plan n i n g i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher. Based on the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , c h i l d r e n with common weaknesses are p l a c e d i n modality groups and are given s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n to strengthen t h e i r weak modality, once a week, f o r a p e r i o d of twenty minutes. Each day of the week i s devoted to a s p e c i f i c m o dality: gross motor, f i n e motor, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , and language, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s "modality time" i s an adjunct to the r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n program. To plan s u i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s , the E a r l y P revention o'f School F a i l u r e Program has developed a number of m a t e r i a l s : a Developmental S k i l l s C h e c k l i s t i n each of the s k i l l areas (Appendix A) a i d s the teacher i n determining the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of development; Teacher's Guides o f f e r numerous suggestions f o r s t r e n g t h e n i n g each s p e c i f i c developmental s k i l l ; Resource Index and Management Guides r e f e r the teacher to program developed a c t i v i t i e s and guides, as w e l l as to commercial m a t e r i a l s . A t h i r d component of the model i s parent involvement, which i s encouraged with the a i d of the program developed Parents' K i t . T h i s K i t c o n t a i n s numerous suggestions f o r home a c t i v i t i e s to strengthen each of the s k i l l a r e a s . R a t i o n a l e T h i s model was chosen because of i t s d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e approach and hence r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .among c h i l d r e n , its.emphasis on parent involvement, as w e l l as i t s emphasis on the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e 11 s k i l l s . R e c o g n i t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s . T h i s term r e f e r s not only to d i f f e r e n c e s between c h i l d r e n , but a l s o to d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each c h i l d . I t has been p o s t u l a t e d that most c h i l d r e n do not develop a l l t h e i r s k i l l s at an equal r a t e . From sc r e e n i n g thousands of p r e s c h o o l e r s through the E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program, i t has been concluded that most c h i l d r e n have uneven l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ; that i s , most c h i l d r e n are more advanced in some s k i l l s than i n o t h e r s . Z e i t l i n (1976) concurs: "In c h i l d r e n younger than s i x , development i s uneven. It i s not unusual to see very v e r b a l k i n d e r g a r t n e r s who are immature i n t h e i r perceptual-motor f u n c t i o n i n g and v i c e v e r s a " (p. 42). The n o t i o n of uneven development i s f u r t h e r advanced by Morency (1968). From the r e s u l t s of her study, i n v e s t i g a t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n of a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l memory and p e r c e p t i o n with grade three achievement, she concludes, " . . . p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s develop s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the f i r s t three years of school i n a normal p o p u l a t i o n and these a b i l i t i e s progress i n d i v i d u a l l y along l i n e s of modality p r e f e r e n c e at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s i n the same i n d i v i d u a l " (p. 18). The need to plan f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s summarized by Z e i t l i n (1976): E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n programs are based on the assumption that no two c h i l d r e n are a l i k e , because they d i f f e r i n what they b r i n g to school i n both t h e i r e xperiences and t h e i r p a t t e r n s of growth. They a l s o d i f f e r i n t h e i r . s k i l l s , f e e l i n g s , and behaviors they develop i n .school. The goal of s c r e e n i n g i s not to s t e r e o t y p e c h i l d r e n through l a b e l i n g , eg. slow l e a r n e r 1 2 (or l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d ) , but r a t h e r to set a p p r o p r i a t e experiences so that they may have success i n the classroom as they move toward a c q u i s i t i o n of the b a s i c s k i l l s necessary to f u n c t i o n i n pur s o c i e t y . (p. 9) The Importance of Parent Involvement. S e t t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s and d e s i g n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e experiences should not be the s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the s c h o o l . Since the ki n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d spends most of h i s day at home, parents should be informed of the s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s , and encouraged to provide a p p r o p r i a t e experiences at home. T h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may le a d to gr e a t e r and more permanent r e s u l t s . In h i s review of e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n programs, Bronfenbrenner (1974) found that with the a d d i t i o n of parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n , r e s u l t s of these programs became more permanent. From a comparison of s t u d i e s with and without parent involvement, Bronfenbrenner concluded: The evidence i n d i c a t e s that the fa m i l y i s the most e f f e c t i v e and economical system f o r f o s t e r i n g and s u s t a i n i n g the development of the c h i l d . The evidence i n d i c a t e s f u r t h e r that the involvement of the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i s c r i t i c a l to the success of any i n t e r v e n t i o n program. Without such f a m i l y involvement, any. e f f e c t s of i n t e r v e n t i o n , at l e a s t i n the c o g n i t i v e sphere, appear to erode f a i r l y r a p i d l y once the program ends. In c o n t r a s t , the involvement of the parents as p a r t n e r s i n the e n t e r p r i s e p r o v i d e s an on-going system which can r e i n f o r c e the e f f e c t s of the program while i t i s i n o p e r a t i o n , and he l p to s u s t a i n them a f t e r the program ends. (p. 55) Emphasis on the Development of P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the m a j o r i t y of ki n d e r g a r t e n teachers emphasize the need f o r a " r i c h environment, conducive to l e a r n i n g " to f o s t e r the c h i l d ' s -general r e a d i n e s s . The 13 t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program attempts to b u i l d r e a diness s k i l l s ( v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , gross and f i n e motor s k i l l s , and language s k i l l s ) through t h e i r many and v a r i e d m a t e r i a l s and experiences. Apparently t h i s approach has not been s u f f i c i e n t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a l l c h i l d r e n . Many c h i l d r e n enter grade 1 without the necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s ; many c h i l d r e n s t i l l " f a i l " r e a d i n g . T h i s may be due to the f a c t that i n the i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g approach of the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n , many c h i l d r e n are missed. Teaching experience has l e d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r to conclude t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n w i l l choose those a c t i v i t i e s i n which they f e e l competent and secure, but w i l l a v o i d those which r e q u i r e s k i l l s i n which they lack competence and c o n f i d e n c e . Unless these s k i l l s are i d e n t i f i e d , and s p e c i f i c p r a c t i c e and encouragement i s provided, k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n are l i k e l y not to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s they need to improve. T h i s i s unfortunate indeed. S i l v e r s t o n and Deichmann (1975) p o i n t out that c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s are to be a c q u i r e d at each stage of development. They presume that " i f an a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g experience does not occur f o r a p a r t i c u l a r stage of development that l e a r n i n g area w i l l be d e f i c i e n t and w i l l a f f e c t subsequent l e a r n i n g i n the area" (p. 154). The ob j e c t of the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program i s e x a c t l y to provide a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g experiences f o r the kin d e r g a r t e n c h i l d ' s p a r t i c u l a r stage of development. 1 4 A p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g experiences are e s s e n t i a l , not only f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of c e r t a i n a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s , but a l s o f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l development in g e n e r a l . Piaget views the development of i n t e l l i g e n c e as the i n t e r a c t i o n of maturation and e x p e r i e n c e . "Experiences must be p r o v i d e d to allow the c h i l d to develop o p t i m a l l y a c c o r d i n g to the demands of h i s own s t r u c t u r e " (McNally, 1977, p. 92). S t a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , maturation can be a c c e l e r a t e d , both at home and at s c h o o l , as long as the experiences match the c h i l d ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l s t r u c t u r e . That i s , growth can be f o s t e r e d without undue p r e s s u r e . To allow a l l c h i l d r e n to grow o p t i m a l l y , s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s need to be planned f o r some c h i l d r e n : a c t i v i t i e s which meet the c h i l d ' s s p e c i f i c needs. While adhering to developmental ph i l o s o p h y , the' E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program p r o v i d e s such a c t i v i t i e s based on s c r e e n i n g and d i a g n o s i s . Statement of the Problem Success of the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program has been claimed on the b a s i s of gain scores between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale (Appendix B) and the Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . The program i s •said to be s u c c e s s f u l because the mean.gains were l a r g e r than one month i n mental age f o r each month i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. No c o n t r o l groups were i n c l u d e d . 1 5 The problem of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , u sing the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program as a model. Is t h i s program a s u i t a b l e model f o r implementation i n the school system? S p e c i f i c research q u e s t i o n s were: 1. Do "moderate and hig h " r i s k c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean p o s t t e s t scores on the above measures than "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n who do not r e c e i v e such i n s t r u c t i o n ? 2. Do "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n o b t a i n higher mean scores on a reading r e a d i n e s s t e s t at the end of the program, as compared with "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n who do not r e c e i v e such i n s t r u c t i o n ? I t was thought that the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program might have a g e n e r a l i z i n g e f f e c t on the kin d e r g a r t e n program as a whole. H o p e f u l l y , teachers i n v o l v e d i n t h i s program would become more s e n s i t i v e to the i n d i v i d u a l needs of a l l c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r c l a s s and provide them with i n s t r u c t i o n geared to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t i e s . T h i s premise l e d to the l a s t r e s e a r c h quest i o n : 3. Do groups which i n c l u d e d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e i r "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n o b t a i n higher mean scores on a reading r e a d i n e s s t e s t , as compared with groups which do not use d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ? In t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , treatments c o n s i s t e d of combinations of the v a r i o u s components of. the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program. I t was thought that a comparison among v a r i o u s 16 treatments might provide a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c e r t a i n components. S p e c i f i c a l l y : 4. Is d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with follow-up a c t i v i t i e s at home more e f f e c t i v e than that without follow-up a c t i v i t i e s at home? 5. Is i t s u f f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e teachers with l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ? Bradley (1975) found that there was no d i f f e r e n c e between the group which r e c e i v e d l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s and the group which, i n a d d i t i o n to l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , r e c e i v e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n by resource p e r s o n n e l . 6. Is a t t e n t i o n an important f a c t o r ? An a t t e n t i o n component i s inherent i n any d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program. In the l i t e r a t u r e a q u e s t i o n sometimes asked i s whether the success of a program i s due to the program per se, or to the e x t r a a t t e n t i o n which the c h i l d r e n i n the program r e c e i v e . Treatments Keeping the above q u e s t i o n s i n mind, f i v e treatments were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n as presented in Table 1. 1. Treatment 1 c o n s i s t e d of s c r e e n i n g , d i a g n o s i s , l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s given to the t e a c h e r s , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , as w e l l as suggested follow-up a c t i v i t i e s f o r the school and the home. 2. Components of Treatment 2 were s c r e e n i n g , d i a g n o s i s , l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n by the i n v e s t i g a t o r , as w e l l as suggested follow-up a c t i v i t i e s f o r the s c h o o l . 1 7 3. Three components were i n c l u d e d i n Treatment 3: sc r e e n i n g , d i a g n o s i s and an a t t e n t i o n placebo. 4. Students i n Treatment 4 r e c e i v e d s c r e e n i n g and the teachers r e c e i v e d the c h i l d r e n ' s l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s . No p r e s c r i p t i o n s or f u r t h e r suggestions were given. 5. Students i n Treatment 5 were screened. There were no a d d i t i o n s to the re g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n program. Table 1 Treatment Components Components Treatments 1 2 3 4 5 Screening X X X X X Di a g n o s i s X X X Learning P r o f i l e X X X Ind. Pre. and I n s t . x X Follow-up (s c h o o l ) X X Follow-up (home) X A t t e n t i o n placebo X The major d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the treatments a r e : 1 - D i a g n o s t i c -P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n and Parent Involvement. 2 - D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n 3 - A t t e n t i o n Placebo .4 - Lea r n i n g P r o f i l e s 5 - C o n t r o l Thus, the treatments v a r i e d as to degree of s t r u c t u r e : Treatment 1 and 2 were h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and c l o s e l y followed the m a t e r i a l s and procedures f o r s c r e e n i n g and program p l a n n i n g developed by the -Early P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program. 18 The only d i f f e r e n c e between Treatment 1 and Treatment 2 was the parent involvement component. S t r u c t u r e g r a d u a l l y decreased over the treatment l e v e l s , with l e s s program p l a n n i n g and l e s s involvement with the kinde r g a r t e n teacher. The V a r i a b l e s Thus, the independent v a r i a b l e i s the treatment p r o v i d e d f o r each treatment group. The dependent v a r i a b l e s are (a) the three t e s t s of the Screening B a t t e r y : the PPVT, the VMI, and the PLS, and (b) the LCRRT. Based on the aforementioned treatments and concomitant r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were formulated. Statement of the N u l l Hypotheses 1. There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mea-n p o s t t e s t scores of the f i v e treatment groups f o r "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n as measured by the a. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT) b. Pr e s c h o o l Language Scale (PSL) c. Beery (Developmental) Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n . (VMI) 2. There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean scores of the f i v e treatment groups f o r "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test (LCRRT). 1 9 3. There w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean scores of the f i v e groups f o r the t o t a l sample of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t . C o n c l u s i o n It i s recognized that i n f o r m a t i o n gained from s c r e e n i n g and d i a g n o s i s and subsequent d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n may l e a d to l a b e l i n g . Used i n a p o s i t i v e way, the i n f o r m a t i o n gained from sc r e e n i n g and d i a g n o s i s may r e s u l t i n s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l programs and may provide a f i r s t s tep to the a l l e v i a t i o n of reading f a i l u r e and subsequent emotional and s o c i a l problems. Z e i t l i n (1976) s t a t e d : For some, scre e n i n g i s p e r c e i v e d as opening of a door to more p o s i t i v e l e a r n i n g experiences; to o t h e r s , i t i s one more t h r e a t and infringement on the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s . Screening and other e a r l y assessment programs are a f i r s t s tep i n an e d u c a t i o n a l process that focuses on success i n s c h o o l . I t begins with e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these c h i l d r e n who, because of problems of development and/or experience, may be l e a s t a b l e to meet the t y p i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s of the s c h o o l . For these c h i l d r e n school i s o f t e n an unhappy, f a i l u r e - r i d d e n experience. Many of them can be i d e n t i f i e d at a young age and given h e l p to prevent f a i l u r e . They cry out f o r help, begging to be heard. I t i s f a r more humane to h e l p them succeed by i d e n t i f y i n g and c a p i t a l i z i n g on t h e i r s t r e n g t h s , and at the same time working to e l i m i n a t e t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s , than i t i s to j u s t l e t them f a i l , (p. 3) The p r e v e n t i o n of school f a i l u r e has been the concern of many r e s e a r c h e r s . In the next chapter, the importance of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and the e f f e c t s of a v a r i e t y of preschool programs and approaches on IQ, r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s and l a t e r achievement are reviewed. 20 CHAPTER 2 A Review of the L i t e r a t u r e In her review of the l i t e r a t u r e on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t versus i n c i d e n t a l p r e r e a d i n g programs, King (1978, p. 505) summarized the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of d i r e c t and i n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g as f o l l o w s : D i r e c t teaching ( s t r u c t u r e d ) (teacher-centered) O b j e c t i v e s p r o j e c t e d i n t o experiences Emphasis on i n t e l l e c t u a l development A n a l y s i s of knowledge and s k i l l s necessary Sequence of s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g experiences Formal s c h e d u l i n g with d e f i n i t e time a l l o c a t i o n S p e c i f i c s k i l l s a c t i v i t i e s O b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n I n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g ( t r a d i t i o n a l ) ( c h i l d - c e n t e r e d ) Purposes a r i s e out experiences of Emphasis on p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l c l i m a t e Assessment of p o t e n t i a l of c h i l d r e n and environment I n t e g r a t e d l e a r n i n g experiences based on needs and i n t e r e s t s Informal s c h e d u l i n g through l a r g e b l o cks of time S k i l l s embedded i n i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s S u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n I n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the s o - c a l l e d t r a d i t i o n a l nursery schools and ki n d e r g a r t e n s with t h e i r emphasis on o v e r a l l s o c i a l and emotional development of the c h i l d . P rereading s k i l l s are i n t e g r a t e d with other a c t i v i t i e s and are taught i n c i d e n t a l l y . Large playground equipment, l a r g e and small b l o c k s , pegboards, p u z z l e s and a v a r i e t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n games, as •well as a r t , music and games f o s t e r the development of these p r e r e a d i n g s k i l l s . On a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d 21 l e v e l s o c i a l s t u d i e s , s c i e n c e , f i e l d t r i p s , f i l m s and f i l m s t r i p s , v i s i t s by resource people, and cooking experiences o f f e r f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r broadening the e x p e r i e n t i a l background of the c h i l d r e n and d e v e l o p i n g language and c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , language experience c h a r t s may be used to teach l e f t - r i g h t o r i e n t a t i o n , as w e l l as a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , i n c i d e n t a l l y . In c o n t r a s t , d i r e c t t e a c h i n g adheres to a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d program, i n which "... s p e c i f i c s k i l l s are taught d i r e c t l y and s y s t e m a t i c a l l y " (King, 1978, p. 504). However, the d i r e c t t e a c h i n g programs d e s c r i b e d below, represent a wide v a r i e t y i n approach, i n t e n s i t y , and emphasis. Approach may vary from t e a c h i n g s p e c i f i c s k i l l s to the whole c l a s s , small groups, or to i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . I n t e n s i t y r e f e r s to the degree of s t r u c t u r e , v a r y i n g from a r e l a t i v e l y low degree of s t r u c t u r e to an extremely hi g h degree of s t r u c t u r e , such as i n the B e r e i t e r -Engelmann program. As to emphasis, programs reviewed in t h i s chapter may be c l a s s i f i e d as programs emphasizing s p e c i f i c r eading r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s , programs emphasizing p e r c e p t u a l and language development, programs emphasizing language and c o g n i t i v e development, and programs emphasizing d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g . The programs i n the f i r s t three c a t e g o r i e s were geared to whole c l a s s . or small group i n s t r u c t i o n . D i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e programs, on the other hand, were geared to i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , while emphasizing the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s . 22 The Importance of P r e r e q u i s i t e S k i l l s E m p i r i c a l evidence of the importance of p e r c e p t u a l motor, language, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l , and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s i s provided by Hallahan and Cruickshank (1973), Jansky and De H i r s h (1972) and Kavale (1981, 1982). Hallahan and Cruickshank reviewed a l a r g e number of s t u d i e s which found.a c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r c e p t u a l motor d i s a b i l i t i e s and l a t e r conceptual a b i l i t y and academic achievement, p a r t i c u l a r l y reading achievement. They s t a t e d , "Research evidence i n d i c a t e s that as a group, reading d i s a b l e d c h i l d r e n experience p e r c e p t u a l d i s t u r b a n c e s " (p. 174). However, they added that p e r c e p t u a l d i s a b i l i t i e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y cause reading d i s a b i l i t i e s . On t h i s p o i n t , the r e s u l t s of s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the e f f e c t s of a v a r i e t y of p e r c e p t u a l motor programs on academic achievement were i n c o n c l u s i v e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , " . . . i t i s important not to d i s c a r d p e r c e p t u a l -motor t r a i n i n g as a t e a c h i n g method i f we f i n d immediately a f t e r t r a i n i n g that no improvement i n c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s c o i n c i d e s with i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . The task of l e a r n i n g to read may be used as an example. T r a i n i n g i n p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s f o r a c h i l d who has never had them w i l l not a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e reading s k i l l s . Once the c h i l d i s p e r c e p t u a l l y ready, he may then "learn to read" ( S i l v e r s t o n and Deichmann, 1975, p. 213). In a f a c t o r i a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i r d i a g n o s t i c b a t t e r y , Jansky and De H i r s h found that o r a l language c o n t r i b u t e d to 14% of the v a r i a n c e to second grade read i n g achievement. " C o n t r i b u t i n g t e s t s were: P i c t u r e Naming, General O r a l Language L e v e l , .Categories, Sentence Memory, -Auditory D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and L e t t e r 23 Naming" (p. 72). They concluded, " The f i n d i n g t h a t , among the f a c t o r s , o r a l language was the most c o n s i s t e n t c o n t r i b u t o r to l a t e r performance c o r r o b o r a t e s long years of c l i n i c a l e x p erience: Spoken language a b i l i t y (both r e c e p t i v e and ex p r e s s i v e ) i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the core from which reading  s p r i n g s . . . . " (p. 77, emphasis added). Kavale (1981, 1982) found i n two separate meta-analyses that both a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s are important c o r r e l a t e s of reading achievement. In the f i r s t study f i v e a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s were i n v e s t i g a t e d : a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a u d i t o r y b l e n d i n g , a u d i t o r y comprehension, a u d i t o r y memory, and a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n . These s k i l l s were found to e x p l a i n approximately 25% of the v a r i a n c e i n four reading s k i l l s : g e neral reading achievement, word r e c o g n i t i o n , reading comprehension, and vocabulary. Four of these a u d i t o r y s k i l l s were found to e x p l a i n 17% of the v a r i a n c e of o r a l r e a d i n g . Kavale a l s o s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between each of the a u d i t o r y s k i l l s and s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y groups: normal, l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d and c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged. A u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a u d i t o r y b l e n d i n g and a u d i t o r y - v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n showed comparable, but small r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c r o s s the a b i l i t y groups. A u d i t o r y memory was found to e x p l a i n 25% of the va r i a n c e f o r c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged groups; a u d i t o r y b l e n d i n g accounted f o r 26% of the v a r i a n c e f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d groups; a u d i t o r y comprehension c o n t r i b u t e d to 28% of the v a r i a n c e f o r normal groups. 24 In g e n e r a l , smaller c o r r e l a t i o n s were found between the v a r i o u s v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s and reading a b i l i t y . V i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s were d i v i d e d i n t o : v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , v i s u a l memory, v i s u a l c l o s u r e , v i s u a l s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , v i s u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n , v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n , f i g u r e ground d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and v i s u a l - a u d i t o r y i n t e g r a t i o n . S e v e r a l of these s k i l l s e x p l a i n e d from 12% to 30% of the va r i a n c e of general reading achievement, word r e c o g n i t i o n , reading comprehension, vocabulary, reading readiness and s p e l l i n g . These reading s k i l l s c o r r e l a t e d most f r e q u e n t l y with v i s u a l memory, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and visual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n . V i s u a l memory had the hi g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s with vocabulary and s p e l l i n g , accounting f o r 24% and 30% of the v a r i a n c e , respect i v e l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h i s t h e s i s are the c o r r e l a t i o n s between reading readiness and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . Of these s k i l l s , v i s ual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n were found to c o n t r i b u t e to 15% and 23% of the v a r i a n c e of reading r e a d i n e s s . As was the case with the a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , s e v e r a l v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s were found -to be r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y groups. For i n s t a n c e , v i s u a l memory, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , v i s u a l c l o s u r e , v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n , and v i s u a l -motor i n t e g r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d with general reading achievement of normal groups. Of these s k i l l s , v i s u a l memory, v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and visual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d with general reading achievement of l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d groups, while only v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d with c u l t u r a l l y 25 disadvantaged groups. These v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s accounted fo r 14% to 20% of the v a r i a n c e . Programs Emphasizing S p e c i f i c Reading Readiness S k i l l s B l a k e l y and Shadle (1961), Schoephoerster (1966) and Vi n c e n t , B r i g h t and Bussy Dickason (1976). i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i r e c t t e a c h i n g of s p e c i f i c r e a d i n e s s s k i l l s versus i n c i d e n t a l t e a c h i n g of these s k i l l s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l s . B l a k e l y and Shadle (1961) compared a t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program (Experimental) with a program using the S c o t t , Foresman "We Read P i c t u r e s " r e a d i n e s s workbook ( C o n t r o l ) . Opening e x e r c i s e s i n the l a t t e r program c o n s i s t e d of r o l l c a l l , d i s c u s s i o n of the weather and news events, changing the cal e n d a r , and n o t i n g b i r t h d a y s . T h i s p e r i o d was fo l l o w e d by rhymes, songs, poems and f i n g e r p l a y s . The c l a s s was then d i v i d e d i n t o two groups f o r d i r e c t e d use of the readiness workbook, a l t e r n a t i n g with q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s . The program ended with s t o r y time. No f r e e play was i n c l u d e d . T h i s program ran from January to May, but there was no mention of the exact time a l l o t t m e n t per day. Except f o r the opening e x e r c i s e s , the experimental group engaged i n the usual a c t i v i t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n , c a p i t a l i z i n g on the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s (e.g. i n toy ca r s ) -and i n t e g r a t i n g these i n t e r e s t s with s t o r i e s , p i c t u r e s , music, and d r a m a t i z a t i o n , i n t o a u n i t of i n s t r u c t i o n . 26 A p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t design was" used, with a M a t u r i t y C h e c k l i s t , the Reading Readiness s e c t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness Test and an Informal Reading Readiness A p p r a i s a l C h e c k l i s t as p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t measures. In a d d i t i o n , the S c o t t , Foresman end-of-the-book t e s t was used as a p o s t t e s t o n l y . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the experimental boys scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the c o n t r o l s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t , the Reading Readiness A p p r a i s a l C h e c k l i s t and the S c o t t , Foresman end-of-the-book t e s t . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between experimental and c o n t r o l g i r l s on any of the measures. The authors concluded that "Inasmuch as the g i r l s p r o f i t e q u a l l y w e l l from e i t h e r approach, and c l e a r l y boys p r o f i t more g r e a t l y from the e x p e r i e n c e - a c t i v i t y approach, the l a t t e r i s to be recommended at k i n d e r g a r t e n l e v e l i n p r e f e r e n c e of the former" (p. 505). Schoephoerster (1966) based h i s program on the premise that "...a p r e r e a d i n g program should c o n s i s t of i n s t r u c t i o n a l jobs that are s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g how to read," (p. 352). Those i n s t r u c t i o n a l jobs c o n s i d e r e d to be most r e l a t e d to reading were "...(1) how to use spoken context as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the eventual use of p r i n t e d context as p a r t of a technique f o r word i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , (2) d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l e t t e r forms one from one another, (3) d i s t i n g u i s h i n g l e t t e r sounds one from one another, (4) a s s o c i a t i n g l e t t e r sounds and forms so that the r e c e p t i o n of a l e t t e r or a group of l e t t e r s w i l l prompt the r e c a l l of the c o r r e c t sound or sounds, (5) using spoken context and l e t t e r - s o u n d a s s o c i a t i o n s to c a l l to mind words that make sense -and begin with the sound that a given l e t t e r stands f o r , 27 and (6) using spoken context and the f i r s t l e t t e r i n a p r i n t e d word to p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f y a word" (p. 352). The teachers of t h i s experimental group f o l l o w e d the le s s o n s o u t l i n e d i n the manual, " G e t t i n g Ready to Read". The program a l s o i n c l u d e d a workbook, and c l a s s e s were d i v i d e d i n t o small groups f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The program was i n o p e r a t i o n from January to May but, as i n the pre v i o u s study, the d a i l y a l l o t t m e n t of time was not r e p o r t e d . The teachers i n the c o n t r o l group attempted to teach - these same s k i l l s i n c i d e n t a l l y through the use of an i n f o r m a l and u n s t r u c t u r e d program without the use of a workbook. For the purpose of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , the experimental and c o n t r o l groups were d i v i d e d i n t o three a b i l i t y groups (above average, average, and below average), based on the r e s u l t s of the Lorge-Thorndike, L e v e l 1, Form A, Primary B a t t e r y . Schoephoerster reported a d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the experimental group on reading r e a d i n e s s scores f o r a l l a b i l i t y l e v e l s , at the .20 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . At the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, there was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the below-average a b i l i t y group only. The authors concluded, " I t would appear that a formal r e a d i n e s s program complete with p u p i l workbooks i s of much grea t e r advantage to c h i l d r e n of below-average' a b i l i t y than i s an i n f o r m a l program without workbooks" (Schoephoerster, 1966, p. 357). One must note, however, that c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on the "Pre-Reading Inventory of S k i l l s B a s i c to Reading," a t e s t developed by the same authors who developed the Manual " G e t t i n g Ready to Read." In f a c t , t h i s t e s t c o n s i s t s of two p a r t s : 28 "Using Context and L e t t e r Sound A s s o c i a t i o n s , " and "Using Context and the F i r s t L e t t e r of a P r i n t e d Word." I t appears that the c h i l d r e n were taught to the t e s t ! S i m i l a r l y Vincent et a l . (1976) used a p r e s c r i b e d readiness program: the WIST Reading Readiness Program designed by the Western I n s t i t u t e f o r Science and Technology. T h i s program emphasizes " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n and Response S k i l l s , " which are, a c c o r d i n g to these authors, g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d to as "readiness s k i l l s " . The WIST program u t i l i z e d a manual, c a s e t t e tapes and h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d m a t e r i a l s . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s p r e s c r i b e d program, systematic reinforcement was used. The c h i l d earned p o i n t s on h i s Earn/Spend Card f o r s u c c e s s f u l completion of a task and f o r proper conduct. These p o i n t s c o u l d l a t e r be spent on f a v o u r i t e a c t i v i t i e s . T r a i n e d student t u t o r s served as primary i n s t r u c t o r s . Two hours per day were a l l o t t e d to t h i s program. In c o n t r a s t to the p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the l a t t e r study was a l o n g i t u d i n a l study. Students who were the f i r s t r e c i p i e n t s of the program (Wave 1), were fo l l o w e d through to the end of grade t h r e e . C r i t e r i o n measures were the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t , given upon e n t e r i n g grade 1, and the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t , given at the end of grades 2 and 3. These r e s e a r c h e r s found that the f i r s t and t h i r d wave of experimental groups (WIST Reading Readiness Program) scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than t h e i r c o n t r o l s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t . The authors claimed there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the second year experimental .group, because teachecs were confounded with treatments. 29 However, the f i r s t year group maintained a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e over t h e i r c o n t r o l s , as measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test at the end of grade t h r e e . One wonders whether these r e s u l t s were due to the program of i n s t r u c t i o n , or to the program i n behaviour m o d i f i c a t i o n . Rewarding young c h i l d r e n f o r completion of work and f o r proper conduct may f o s t e r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward school l e a r n i n g . I t may be these a t t i t u d e s which determined the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s of the WIST Reading Readiness Program. Programs Emphasizing P e r c e p t u a l and Language Development Gray and Klaus (1965), McConnell, Horton and Smith (1968), F a l i k (1969), Keim (1976), S t a n c h f i e l d (1972), and Wooden and Lisowski (1976) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of p e r c e p t u a l and language t r a i n i n g on t e s t s of i n t e l l i g e n c e , language development or r e a d i n e s s . Again s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e d comparison of t r a d i t i o n a l versus experimental programs, as w e l l as t r a d i t i o n a l programs versus t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s with the a d d i t i o n of a p e r c e p t u a l motor and language c u r r i c u l u m . Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the Gray and Klaus (1965) study was the i n c l u s i o n of an " a t t i t u d e toward achievement" v a r i a b l e . Gray and Klaus (1965) s t a t e d , "We were p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned with achievement • m o t i v a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e s to the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s expected i n s c h o o l , with p e r s i s t e n c e , with a b i l i t y to delay g r a t i f i c a t i o n , and with general i n t e r e s t i n the use of t y p i c a l school m a t e r i a l s such as books, crayons, p u z z l e s , and the l i k e " (p. 890). Because of a small teacher-student r a t i o (1:4), teachers and teacher a s s i s t a n t s were able to f o s t e r these a t t i t u d e s . Parents 30 were a l s o encouraged to f o s t e r these a t t i t u d e s through weekly c o n t a c t s with a s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d p r e s c h o o l teacher. The program purported to promote p e r c e p t u a l , c o g n i t i v e and language development. Operating f o r 10 weeks d u r i n g the summer, the program d i d not d i f f e r much from the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l program. "The d i f f e r e n c e l i e s r a t her i n the way i n which m a t e r i a l s are used, the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s attempt to focus on the experimental v a r i a b l e s . . . " (p. 892). Gray and Klaus r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n favour of t h e i r experimental groups on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , and 8/9 s u b t e s t s of the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y . They f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d s u p e r i o r performance on an e l a b o r a t e b a t t e r y of p r e s c h o o l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s and reading readiness t e s t s , but exact data were not p r o v i d e d . McConnell, Horton and Smith (1969) implemented a c u r r i c u l u m which i n c l u d e d opening e x e r c i s e s , a language program, a sensory-p e r c e p t u a l t r a i n i n g program, i n c l u d i n g v i s u a l and a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , and a music and s t o r y hour. These i n v e s t i g a t o r s hypothesized that methods and m a t e r i a l s , which they c l a i m to be e f f e c t i v e with c h i l d r e n with o r g a n i c language problems, would be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e for c h i l d r e n whose language delay i s caused by environmental f a c t o r s . They e x p l a i n e d , "As p a r t of the language i n s t r u c t i o n , an a i d to grammar and syntax was presented by means of the F i t z g e r a l d Key headings ("who", "what", "where", "how", "why", "what c o l o u r " , and "how many") which were borrowed from education of the deaf methodology. P r i n t e d forms are normally accompanied by p i c t o r i a l l y presented concepts" (p. 599). 31 In a d d i t o n , "both input and output of language have been the focus of i n s t r u c t i o n c a r r i e d out by use of d i r e c t f a c e - t o -face c o n v e r s a t i o n encounters with each c h i l d , r e q u i r i n g him to respond with a p p r o p r i a t e sentence s t r u c t u r e , verb form, and word endings" (p. 662). T h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study was comprised of two experimental groups (N=128) and two c o n t r o l groups (N=57) who were e n r o l l e d i n four daycare c e n t e r s . The experimental program was taught by f i v e t e a c h e r s , four of which h e l d a masters degree. The head teacher was a t r a i n e d teacher f o r the deaf, while the other three were speech p a t h o l o g i s t s . The f i f t h teacher was an elementary teacher. The c h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o age groups of s i x or seven each f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . The program was e c l e c t i c i n nature, drawing from a v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e s , such as the B e r e i t e r -Engelmann, F r o s t i g , Montessori programs as w e l l as the Peabody Language Development K i t . The program was i n o p e r a t i o n f o r h a l f a day, f i v e days per week, over a p e r i o d of 9 months. The authors r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains f o r the experimental group on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t at the .01 l e v e l of - s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s gain on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t was maintained through the second year of the program. The mean gain f o r the experimental group on the PPVT was 15.9 IQ p o i n t s , as compared to a mean gain of 6 IQ p o i n t s f o r the c o n t r o l groups. On the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n the experimental group "made s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t gains .on four of the f i v e s u b t e s t s , while the c o n t r o l group gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y on only one, progressed minimally-and not s i g n i f i c a n t l y on two, and 32 r e g r e s s e d on the remaining two" (p. 601). On the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y the experimental group gained 15 months in Language Age d u r i n g the 9 month i n s t r u c t i o n period,' while the c o n t r o l group gained only two months d u r i n g the same p e r i o d . No t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e p o r t e d . The authors a l s o omitted t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n when r e p o r t i n g on the r e s u l t s of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t , given upon grade 1 e n t r y . "The median t o t a l score f o r the c o n t r o l group was 13, which p l a c e d them i n the lowest 7 percent of c h i l d r e n e n t e r i n g f i r s t grade... The experimental group of 16 c h i l d r e n achieved a mean t o t a l score of 44, which i s almost at average r a n g e - - i t i s the highest score i n the Low Normal range" (p. 604, 605). In the S t a n c h f i e l d (1972) study l e s s o n plans were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to s i x major areas of p r e r e a d i n g s k i l l s : 1. L i s t e n i n g f o r comprehension and content 2. L i s t e n i n g f o r a u d i t o r y d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and development 3. V i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and development a. Observing and i n t e r p r e t i n g content b. V i s u a l imagery c. V i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 4. O r a l language s k i l l s 5. Motor-perceptual development 6. Sound-symbol correspondence C l a s s e s were d i v i d e d i n t o small groups f o r i n s t r u c t i o n , which took p l a c e d u r i n g the block of time normally scheduled f o r language a r t s . M a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d a Teacher's Manual, hand puppets, p i c t u r e c a r d s , phoneme boxes c o n t a i n i n g small o b j e c t s , 33 a l a r g e f l a n n e l board, pocket c h a r t and chalkboard, as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l f l a n n e l boards, pocket c h a r t s , and chalkboards, to ensure t o t a l p u p i l involvement. In the Teacher's Manual l e s s o n plans were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to the above s i x major areas of pr e r e a d i n g s k i l l s , and fol l o w e d the p a t t e r n of manuals accompanying b a s a l reading s e r i e s , i n c l u d i n g : "...(a) purpose, (b) p r e p a r a t i o n , (c) p r e s e n t a t i o n , (d) e v a l u a t i o n of purpose, (e) p u p i l p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s , and ( f ) a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s " (p. 23). C o n t r o l groups followed the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program. Seventeen c o n t r o l k i n d e r g a r t e n s and seventeen experimental k i n d e r g a r t e n s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s study f o r a f u l l term. S t a n c h f i e l d reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores f o r the experimental groups on the Murphy-Durrell Reading Readiness A n a l y s i s . Although the program used by Wooden and Lisowski (1976) ( a u d i t o r y development, v i s u a l program, v e r b a l development, t a c t i l e s k i l l s , gross-motor a c t i v i t i e s , a f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n groups) was s i m i l a r i n content to the S t a n c h f i e l d program, the manner of d e l i v e r y was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . Wooden and Li s o w s k i t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r t u t o r s to teach one s p e c i f i c s k i l l a r e a . Twelve c h i l d r e n , a t t e n d i n g a Day Care Center were, once a week, taken to a church basement which was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x developmental areas with a t u t o r a s s i g n e d to each area. The c h i l d r e n r o t a t e d from one area to another, spending ten minutes in most areas, and twenty minutes each i n gross-motor a c t i v i t i e s and a f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n groups. A t o t a l of approximately two 34 hours was spent at the church basement, with 80 minutes of a c t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the s p e c i f i c areas. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s admitted that t h i s type of arrangement i s l i k e l y to i n c u r a Hawthorne e f f e c t , and that the number of s u b j e c t s i n t h i s p i l o t study was very s m a l l . However, the : mean IQ of the c o n t r o l group i n c r e a s e d by 1 p o i n t (112-113) on the Slossen I n t e l l i g e n c e Test over the three-month p e r i o d , while the mean IQ of the experimental group i n c r e a s e d by 14 p o i n t s (112-126). T h i s gain was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l , and showed how v a l u a b l e small group i n s t r u c t i o n i n s p e c i f i c s k i l l s i s . While i n the above s t u d i e s h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d readiness programs added to the t r a d i t i o n a l programs were compared to p u r e l y t r a d i t i o n a l programs, F a l i k ' s (1969) "... plann i n g committee attempted to take the standard k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m , and f i t i t i n t o a developmental sequence which emphasized (1) gross motor development, (2) eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n , and (3) v i s u a l i z a t i o n p a t t e r n s - - f o r m p e r c e p t i o n , s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " (p. 12). The p e r c e p t u a l motor program was based on the work of Kephart, and i n c l u d e d chalkboard t r a i n i n g , sensory-motor t r a i n i n g (balance board, e t c . ) , t r a i n i n g of o c u l a r c o n t r o l , and t r a i n i n g of form p e r c e p t i o n (pegboards, p u z z l e s , e t c . ) . Although most of these a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d out as p a r t of the r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n a c t i v i t i e s , there was some m o d i f i c a t i o n of the kin d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m and time schedule. No s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s were g i v e n . 35 T h i s experimental group was compared with a c o n t r o l group which used the t r a d i t i o n a l program, with the a d d i t i o n of semi-s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s , "...designed to correspond i n s e t t i n g and g e n e r a l a c t i v i t y to the experience of the experimental group" (p. 13) . C r i t e r i o n measures in the F a l i k study were the Brenner G e s t a l t T e s t , a t e s t of b a s i c p e r c e p t u a l motor development ( S c h o r r ) , and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on any of these measures between the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group. In a d d i t i o n to these measures, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Achievement Test was given i n the middle of grade 2. Again, no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e was obtained. Thus, there were no immediate or l a s t i n g e f f e c t s . More narrow in approach was the experimental program d e s c r i b e d by Keim (1970). V i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l t r a i n i n g f o l l o w i n g the Winter Haven Program was added to the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m . Those c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as having v i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l problems by the Bender V i s u a l - M o t o r G e s t a l t Test were d i v i d e d e q u a l l y i n t o the experimental group and the c o n t r o l group. A second c o n t r o l group was randomly s e l e c t e d from those c h i l d r e n who d i d not appear to have v i s u a l - p e r c e p t u a l problems. These c o n t r o l groups f o l l o w e d the r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m . No d e t a i l s were p r o v i d e d as to the d u r a t i o n of the study, nor the d a i l y time a l l o t t m e n t . As i n the F a l i k study, Keim found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between h i s experimental group and c o n t r o l groups on the .Stanford-Binet, the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , and the 36 M e t r o p o l i t a n Readiness T e s t . teachers found the t r a i n i n g r i g i d , time consuming and u n s u i t a b l e f o r immature c h i l d r e n . Programs Emphasizing Language and C o g n i t i v e Development In c o n t r a s t to the above r e s e a r c h e r s who i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c r e a d i n e s s , p e r c e p t u a l and language s k i l l s , Karnes, Hodgins and Teska (1967), Karnes, Teska and Hodgins (1970), DiLorenzo and S a l t e r (1968), Engelmann (1970), O'Donnell and Raymond 1972) and M i l l e r and Dyer (1975) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t s of t r a i n i n g i n language and c o g n i t i v e development on i n t e l l i g e n c e , reading r e a d i n e s s , or reading achievement. In the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Karnes, Hodgins and Teska (1967), the experimental program was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high degree of s t r u c t u r e . "An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of the program was to present content to be le a r n e d in game format which employed m a n i p u l a t i v e , multis.ensory m a t e r i a l s , but was s t r u c t u r e d to r e q u i r e concurrent v e r b a l responses. A major goal...was to i n s u r e . . . t h e proper match between the c h i l d ' s present c o g n i t i v e development and a s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g task, and to pace and sequence such tasks to i n s u r e developmental l e a r n i n g " (p. 668). The d a i l y schedule allowed for three 20 minute s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g p e r i o d s , d u r i n g which time s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n c e , mathematics, and language a r t s and reading r e a d i n e s s were taught. "Language development r e c e i v e d major emphasis d u r i n g the day but e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g the three s t r u c t u r e d p e r i o d s . V e r b a l responses in c o n j u n c t i o n with the manipulation of concret e m a t e r i a l s were c o n s i d e r e d to be the most e f f e c t i v e means of e s t a b l i s h i n g new language responses" (pp. 669, 670). 37 The c h i l d r e n a l s o engaged i n j u i c e time, f i e l d t r i p s , music, and d i r e c t e d p l a y . Music and d i r e c t e d p l a y were used to r e i n f o r c e s k i l l s and concepts taught dur i n g the three s t r u c t u r e d p e r i o d s . Each experimental c l a s s of 15 students was d i v i d e d i n t o three groups, with one teacher per group. I t appeared that the two c o n t r o l groups of 15 c h i l d r e n each had one teacher. Both c o n t r o l groups f o l l o w e d the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program, which emphasized i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g . Both programs o f f e r e d morning and afternoon s e s s i o n s of 2 hours and 15 minutes each, over a p e r i o d of 7 months. These i n v e s t i g a t o r s found a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the experimental group on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . They a l s o found s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on 6/9 s u b t e s t s and the t o t a l score of the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y , the number readiness subtest of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness Test (MRRT), the t o t a l score of the MRRT, and the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n . In a f u r t h e r study Karnes, Teska ans Hodgins (1970) s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of four d i f f e r e n t programs"representing " l e v e l s of s t r u c t u r e along a continuum from t r a d i t i o n a l to h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d " (p. 58). The experimental program was most h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and f o l l o w e d the format d e s c r i b e d i n the above study. Less s t r u c t u r e d was the Montessori program, and l e a s t s t r u c t u r e d were the Community-Integrated and the t r a d i t i o n a l programs. The Community-Integrated program operated i n four middle or upper c l a s s neighbourhood c e n t e r s . The major purpose of i n t e g r a t i o n was to p r o v i d e an advantaged-peer language model. Groups of two to four disadvantaged c h i l d r e n were i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the v a r i o u s 38 s e s s i o n s at these c e n t e r s . Apart from the i n t e g r a t i o n aspect, they f o l l o w e d a t r a d i t i o n a l nursery school program. With the exception of the Montessori group, a l l groups attended morning and aft e r n o o n s e s s i o n s of 2 hours and 15 minutes each f o r a p e r i o d of 7-8 months. T e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o ranged from 1:5 f o r the experimental group and the t r a d i t i o n a l group, and 1:6 f o r the Community I n t e g r a t e d group to 1:8 f o r the Montessori group. As in t h e i r p revious study, these i n v e s t i g a t o r s found that the h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d program r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t gains on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . The experimental group gained s i g n i f i c a n t l y on four of the nine s u b t e s t s of the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y , while the t r a d i t i o n a l group made a s i g n i f i c a n t gain on one s u b t e s t . The performance of the Montessori and Community-Integrated programs remained s t a t i c . In f a c t , the Montessori group regressed s i g n i f i c a n t l y on one su b t e s t . On the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , both the Experimental group and the T r a d i t i o n a l group made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s , while the Montessori and Community-Integrated groups made n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s . The mean P e r c e p t u a l Quotient on the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r the experimental group. Of the s t r u c t u r e d programs, the Bereiter-Engelmann program i s probably the most s t r u c t u r e d . B e r e i t e r and Engelmann expounded t h e i r theory i n "Teaching Disadvantaged C h i l d r e n i n the P r e s c h o o l " (1966). These authors are p r i m a r i l y concerned with the d e p r i v e d c h i l d ' s language and c o g n i t i v e d e f i c i e n c i e s . They c l a i m that "the disadvantaged c h i l d masters a language that 39 i s adequate f o r m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f o r meeting h i s s o c i a l and m a t e r i a l needs, but he does not l e a r n how to use language f o r o b t a i n i n g and t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r monitoring h i s own behaviour, and f o r c a r r y i n g ' on v e r b a l reasoning. In sh o r t , he f a i l s to master the c o g n i t i v e uses of language, which are the uses that are of primary importance i n sc h o o l s " ( B e r e i t e r and Engelmann, 1966, p. 42). B e r e i t e r and Engelmann's main o b j e c t i v e i s to teach the c h i l d to understand and use a minimum i n s t r u c t i o n a l language. Minimum goals i n c l u d e : 1. The use of two statement forms: T h i s i s a and t h i s i s (with p l u r a l and not v a r i a t i o n s . ) 2. "Yes-no" q u e s t i o n s : "Is t h i s a b a l l ? " 3. "What" q u e s t i o n s : "What i s t h i s ? " 4. The use of some p r e p o s i t i o n s . 5. The use of " i f - t h e n " d e d u c t i o n s . 6. The a b i l i t y to use "not" i n deductions. 7. The a b i l i t y to use "or" i n simple deductions. In order f o r the disadvantaged c h i l d to make up f o r l o s t time, B e r e i t e r and Engelmann advocate teaching at a f a s t e r than usual r a t e . T h e r e f o r e a l l f r i l l s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n and usual enrichment a c t i v i t i e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e s c h o o l are to be a b o l i s h e d . C h i l d r e n are taught i n groups of four to seven i n three s u b j e c t areas, language, reading and a r i t h m e t i c , f o r twenty minutes each. The remainder of the morning i s spent i n j u i c e and t o i l e t time and in one hour of s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g w r i t i n g , drawing, reading r e a d i n e s s , a r i t h m e t i c problems, and a music p e r i o d c o r r e l a t e d with the 40 language program. The program i s h i g h l y d i d a c t i c and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by' d r i l l , r e p e t i t i o n and the use of reinforcement, both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . Teacher behaviour i s s p e l l e d out and examples of p o s i t i v e and negative reinforcement are p r o v i d e d . However, the authors c l a i m that there i s no undue pressure and c h i l d r e n do not s u f f e r from e x c e s s i v e s t r e s s . I f s t r e s s i s evidenced, which the authors p o i n t out can happen in any s i t u a t i o n , c h i l d r e n are taken a step back in the c u r r i c u l u m , they are given e x t r a i n s t r u c t i o n , or they are s h i f t e d to another t a s k . To t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of h i s program, Engelmann (1970) compared two experimental groups (15 disadvantaged f o u r - y e a r -o l d s and 18 m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n ) with two c o n t r o l groups (28 disadvantaged c h i l d r e n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l nursery s c h o o l , and an undetermined number of middle c l a s s Montessori school c h i l d r e n ) . R e s u l t s of h i s f i n d i n g s are d i s p l a y e d i n t a b l e s , g i v i n g group means on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t and the Wide Range Achievement Te s t , with gain scores between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s . These f i n d i n g s are summarized as f o l l o w s : 41 S.B. E~Tdis)* (1 yr Ss) E ( d i s ) (2 yr Ss C ( d i s ) ) p r e t e s t 87.66 97.25 94.50 a f t e r 1st year 113.33 112.25 a f t e r 2nd year 121.08 99.61 T o t a l gain 25.67 23.83 5.11 WRAT a f t e r 1st year a f t e r 2nd year Reading A r i t h S p e l l i n g Reading Ar i t h S p e l l i n g E ( d i s ) (2 yr Ss) -E (mcl)** (1 yr Ss) 2.68 1.51 E (mcl) (2 yr Ss) 2.03 1.37 C ( d i s ) C (mcl) * d i s = disadvantaged **mcl = middle c l a s s 1 .84 1 .54 2.60 3.41 1 .04 2.51 2.91 1.21 1 .57 2.06 Engelmann reported the gain on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t f o r the experimental disadvantaged group as s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . No other t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e p o r t e d . Furthermore, data on the achievement of the disadvantaged c o n t r o l group were not r e p o r t e d . Yet, i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the r e s u l t s Engelmann p o i n t e d out that "the performance d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and c o n t r o l disadvantaged c h i l d r e n i s most ec o n o m i c a l l y e x p l a i n e d as a f u n c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g " (p. 357, 358). It i s unfortunate that important d e t a i l s were omitted from t h i s r e p o r t . 42 No d e t a i l s were omitted from a comprehensive study by M i l l e r and Dyer (1975). T h i s l o n g i t u d i n a l study compared the immediate and long range e f f e c t s of four d i f f e r e n t programs: Bereiter-Engelmann, DARCEE, Montessori, and the t r a d i t i o n a l program, with a c o n t r o l group comprised of c h i l d r e n who were on the w a i t i n g l i s t f o r a Head S t a r t Program. The DARCEE program emphasizes language and concept development as w e l l as the development of a t t i t u d e s which are r e l a t e d to academic achievement. T h e r e f o r e , a strong parent involvement component has been i n c l u d e d i n the program. "The c u r r i c u l u m i s organized around three processes: (a) input, (b) a s s o c i a t i o n processes, and (c) output. The c u r r i c u l u m i s designed to h e l p c h i l d r e n p e r c e i v e , decode, and encode s t i m u l i through a l l sensory channels, to develop s k i l l s of a s s o c i a t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and sequencing, and to develop the s k i l l s necessary f o r e f f e c t i v e v e r b a l communication and e x p r e s s i o n of thought p a t t e r n s . Within these three process c a t e g o r i e s , each s k i l l i s o r g a n i z e d along two dimensions: (a) from a gross elementary l e v e l to a more s p e c i f i c and complex l e v e l , and (b) from concrete to a b s t r a c t " (pp. 24,25). The experimental c h i l d r e n (N=296) were a l l Head S t a r t c h i l d r e n who were randomly assi g n e d to the four experimental programs. In t h i s f o u r - y e a r - l o n g study, a comprehensive b a t t e r y of t e s t s was given which i n c l u d e d measures of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y , achievement m o t i v a t i o n , s o c i a l , and p e r c e p t u a l development. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the Bereiter-Engelmann program was most e f f e c t i v e i n improving performance on school content measures. A l l experimental groups scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher 43 on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , and the Bereiter-Engelmann c h i l d r e n had the h i g h e s t S t a n f o r d - B i n e t scores at the end of the year. However, these scores d e c l i n e d over the next few years f o r a l l groups (except f o r the boys i n the t r a d i t i o n a l group), and most d r a m a t i c a l l y f o r the Bereiter-Engelmann group. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note that both the Bereiter-Engelmann group and the t r a d i t i o n a l group gained most on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t from f a l l to s p r i n g . DiLorenzo and S a l t e r (1968) r e p o r t e d i n t e r i m f i n d i n g s of t h e i r four-year l o n g i t u d i n a l study which i n c l u d e d the k i n d e r g a r t e n p o p u l a t i o n i n s e v e r a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s (N = 1235). To the b a s i c t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program, s e v e r a l components were added: (a) i n d i v i d u a l work with reading r e a d i n e s s books, primers, and pre-primers, (b) the B e r e i t e r -Engelmann approach, (c) small group d i s c u s s i o n s to b u i l d language s k i l l s , and (d) a m o d i f i e d Montessori program. An a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was used, and comparisons were made by treatment, socioeconomic s t a t u s , d i s t r i c t , sex, and r a c e . In s p i t e of t h i s a p p a r e n t l y sound s t a t i s t i c a l procedure, the r e s u l t s were not c l e a r l y s t a t e d , nor was i t c l e a r which groups comprised the c o n t r o l groups. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t the most e f f e c t i v e programs were those with the most s p e c i f i c and s t r u c t u r e d c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s : the reading r e a d i n e s s and reading program and the Bereiter-Engelmann program. The l a t t e r "...produced the g r e a t e s t gain and the l a r g e s t d i f f e r e n t i a l between experimentals and c o n t r o l s on the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t " (p. 112). 44 Another, study i n v e s t i g a t i n g the m e r i t s of a workbook-type readiness program versus a more f l e x i b l e conceptual language approach was conducted by O'Donnell and Raymond (1972). The two d i f f e r e n t r e a d i n e s s programs were an adjunct to the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program and were taught f o r twenty minutes per day. A l l schools i n W a t e r v i l l e p a r t i c i p a t e d and the teachers and c h i l d r e n were randomly assi g n e d to the d i f f e r e n t treatments. The r e a d i n e s s program in the c o n t r o l group emphasized r e a d i n e s s workbooks and seatwork a c t i v i t i e s , while the r e a d i n e s s program i n the experimental group was p a t t e r n e d a f t e r the . theory of Robinson and Spodek (1965). These authors contend that the c h i l d gathers masses of i n f o r m a t i o n , but He i s o f t e n unable to make sense out of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , to r e l a t e one p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n to another, to c l a s s i f y l i k e p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n together or to d i s t i n g u i s h between u n l i k e items or r e l e v a n t c r i t e r i a . The c h i l d ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n of b a s i c concepts c o u l d provide the n i c h e s needed f o r s o r t i n g d i f f e r e n t .kinds of i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r l a b e l i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g meanings, f o r comparing items of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e i r r elevance to concepts or f o r needed changes in c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . D e t a i l s are e a s i l y f o r g o t t e n , but meanings tend to have permanence and s t a b i l i t y ; thus, conceptual l e a r n i n g c o n t r i b u t e s to l i f e l o n g understanding. (p. 10) In k i n d e r g a r t e n s . u s i n g t h i s . a p p r o a c h , concepts i n h i s t o r y , geography and economics are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o f i v e - y e a r - o l d language. The teacher s e l e c t s t o p i c s of study around which d i f f e r e n t concepts such-as interdependence, i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be e x p l o r e d . The teacher s e l e c t s l e a r n i n g experiences (e.g. f i e l d t r i p s , d i s c u s s i o n s , a r t a c t i v i t i e s and cooking e x p e r i e n c e s ) , a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s (e.g.. .films, f ; i l m s t r i p s , .records, p i c t u r e s , books) >and other m a t e r i a l s (e.g. props f o r the block c o r n e r ) , a l l of which are r e l a t e d to 45 the t o p i c of study. O'Donnell and Raymond found that the experimental groups scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness Test and the Sheldon v i s u a l s u b t e s t s . They a l s o scored higher on the Murphy-Durrell Reading Readiness A n a l y s i s , although t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l y s i g n i f i c a n t . In a d d i t i o n to higher r e a d i n e s s scores, the c o n c e p t u a l -language approach r e s u l t e d , as can be expected, i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher scores on i n d i v i d u a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d concept t e s t s . Moreover, the experimental groups were r e p o r t e d to be s u p e r i o r on tasks measuring A t t e n t i o n , Involvement, F o l l o w i n g D i r e c t i o n s , Assuming Leadership, Sharing, and Completing Tasks. However, these were i n f o r m a l measures, and no t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e were r e p o r t e d . The m a j o r i t y of the above r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s (11/14) i n d i c a t e d that e i t h e r s p e c i f i c a l l y designed i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs alone, or i n c o n j u n c t i o n with the e x i s t i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a , were more e f f e c t i v e i n p r e p a r i n g the c h i l d f o r subsequent academic l e a r n i n g than the t r a d i t i o n a l programs alone. That i s , these programs r e s u l t e d i n higher scores on measures of mental a b i l i t y and r e a d i n e s s , most commonly the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t , and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t . The e x c e p t i o n s to these f i n d i n g s were the B l a k e l y and Shadle study, which favoured the t r a d i t i o n a l program as opposed to the h i g h l y r e s t r i c t i v e workbook approach, and the F a l i k and Keim study, which found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups. 46 It may be noted that very few of the s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d so f a r were l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . To determine whether s p e c f i c p r e s c h o o l programs have a l a s t i n g e f f e c t , D a r l i n g t o n , Royce, Snipper, Murray, and Lazar (1980) c o l l e c t e d post-hoc data on eleven separate p r e s c h o o l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g the Gray, Karnes, and M i l l e r study. The follow-up data c o n s i s t e d of an i n t e l l i g e n c e measure, u s u a l l y the Wechsler I n t e l l i g e n c e Scale f o r C h i l d r e n (WISC), school records on achievement t e s t s , and i n f o r m a t i o n regarding s p e c i a l c l a s s placement or grade r e t e n t i o n . R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the i n i t i a l gain i n IQ, while i t d e c l i n e d , was s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t a f t e r four y e a r s . From school records two c a t e g o r i e s of c h i l d r e n were d i s t i n g u i s h e d : those who met school requirements ( c h i l d r e n who were not r e t a i n e d i n a grade, or p l a c e d i n s p e c i a l education c l a s s e s ) and c h i l d r e n who d i d not meet school requirements. For seven p r o j e c t s with a p p r o p r i a t e data, the median f a i l u r e r a t e was 45 percent f o r the c o n t r o l groups and 24 percent f o r the experimental groups. The d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . No data on achievement t e s t s were r e p o r t e d . In these programs c o v e r i n g s p e c i f i c readiness s k i l l s , p e r c e p t u a l motor development, language and c o g n i t i v e development, a l l c h i l d r e n were exposed to the same program of i n s t r u c t i o n i n s p e c i f i e d areas, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and needs. Time might be used more advantageously i f c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n developmental areas -led to the development of programs emphasizing d i a g n o s t i c -47 p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g . Programs Emphasizing D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e Teaching M e r i t s of the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e approach have been i n v e s t i g a t e d by Kenney (1969), Hayes and Dembo (1971), Spollen. and B a l l i f (1971), I l l i n o i s T i t l e III ESEA p r o j e c t (1974), Bradley (1975), H i l l e r i c h (1978), Stewart (1978), Rothenberg, Lehman and Hackman (1979), and Naron (1979). These i n v e s t i g a t o r s compared t h e i r treatment with the t r a d i t i o n a l program (no s p e c i f i c treatment), or they used gain scores between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e i r program. Kenney (1969) p o i n t e d out that the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e approach i s not n e c e s s a r i l y geared to the . . . g r o s s l y handicapped c h i l d such as the mentally d e f i c i e n t , the c e r e b r a l p a l s i e d , the deaf, and the b l i n d . Nor are we r e f e r r i n g to the c u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged c h i l d . We are speaking of the c h i l d that w i l l prove to be a ' s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y ' c a s u a l t y when he enters r e g u l a r s c h o o l . T h i s i s the c h i l d with average or b e t t e r i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l who w i l l not f i t i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m model of r e g u l a r s c h o o l . . . . The nursery s c h o o l and k i n d e r g a r t e n tea c h e r s of these c h i l d r e n come to know them, to r e a l i z e t h e i r needs are not being met, and to rec o g n i z e t h e i r chances of f a i l i n g s c h o o l , both s o c i a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y . They, are 'high r i s k ' c h i l d r e n . (p. 193) A s p e c i a l program to accommodate the needs of these c h i l d r e n was implemented at the D i a g n o s t i c P r e s c h o o l of the Miriam School i n St. L o u i s , M i s s o u r i . I n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s were based on the r e s u l t s of "a complete b a t t e r y of t e s t s " , c o n c e n t r a t i n g on speech and language development, motor development and p e r c e p t u a l development. The program was developmental i n o r i e n t a t i o n , and the major goal-was to h e l p the 48 c h i l d through a s e r i e s of developmentally sequenced t a s k s . Each c l a s s had a maximum enrollment of s i x c h i l d r e n who worked under the guidance of a teacher and a t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r a i d e . Although Kenney s t a t e d that progress was assessed by r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the complete b a t t e r y of t e s t s and that "the most important measure of continued growth are school achievement and emotional adjustment a f t e r l e a v i n g Miriam" (p. 197), no s t a t i s t i c a l data were p r o v i d e d . Hayes and Dembo (1971) hypothesized that i n d i v i d u a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s , based on subtest scores of the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y "(ITPA), would improve school r e a d i n e s s . The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test was used to a s s i g n students to the experimental and c o n t r o l groups (N = 16 each), i n a s t r a t i f i e d sample. Subjects were 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds, who attended a pr e s c h o o l f o r h a l f a day, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the. t r a d i t i o n a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of the s c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n , the experimental group r e c e i v e d two 30-minute p e r i o d s a day of s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d to the st r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r ITPA p r o f i l e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d that at the end of four months the experimental group showed s i g n i f i c a n t improvement i n i t s mean score on the C a l d w e l l -P r e s c h o o l Inventory. S p o l l e n and B a l l i f (1971) i n d i v i d u a l i z e d t h e i r program a c c o r d i n g to developmental t e s t s which i n c l u d e d items p a t t e r n e d a f t e r G e s e l l , H g , and Ames, the Winterhaven V i s u a l Test, and Kephart's gross motor a c t i v i t i e s . Based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s b a t t e r y "a monthly plan f o r each student -was developed by the 49 classroom teacher and p r o j e c t c o o r d i n a t o r . . . . D a i l y s u p e r v i s i o n by the c o o r d i n a t o r allowed m o d i f i c a t i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s monthly program". (p. 207). Exprimental c h i l d r e n ( T e a c h e r - p u p i l ratio=1.6) were i n s t r u c t e d , e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n small groups, u s i n g a wide v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s . C h i l d r e n i n the experimental group a l s o r e c e i v e d o rganized p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n , based on Kephart and Barsch, twice a week for about twenty minutes. The remainder of the h a l f a day s e s s i o n was spent in s e l f - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . The authors mentioned that the c o n t r o l groups d i d not take p a r t i n p h y s i c a l education i n s t r u c t i o n , but no f u r t h e r program d e s c r i p t i o n of the c o n t r o l groups was g i v e n . The t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o f o r the c o n t r o l groups was 1:25. C r i t e r i o n measures in S p o l l e n and B a l l i f ' s study were the developmental s c r e e n i n g t e s t , four s u b t e s t s of the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y , the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t . A two-by-two a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e was used, which r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the experimental and the c o n t r o l group with developmental l a g s . The developmentally normal c o n t r o l group maintained it's s u p e r i o r i t y i n general r e a d i n e s s . The I l l i n o i s E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n P r o j e c t (1974) a l s o employed a s e r i e s of s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r i e s a s s e s s i n g " l i n g u i s t i c , motor, s o c i a l , p e r c e p t u a l and i n t e g r a t i v e s k i l l s of c h i l d r e n before they enter k i n d e r g a r t e n . . . " (ED 115052, 1974, p. 16). Those c h i l d r e n with no l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (55%) were pl a c e d i n 50 r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n s ; those with some l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (41%) were a l s o p l a c e d i n r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n s , with teachers r e c e i v i n g c o n s u l t a n t s e r v i c e s ; those with severe or m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s (4%) were p l a c e d i n l e a r n i n g , d i s a b i l i t i e s k i n d e r g a r t e n s , with a maximum of 15 students and a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s teacher and a teacher a s s i s t a n t f o r each c l a s s . An a p p r o p r i a t e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d program was p r e s c r i b e d f o r each c h i l d in t h i s group, p r o v i d i n g remediation i n s i x general a r e a s : language, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , f i n e and gross motor development, as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l - s o c i a l development. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was given, the report on t h i s P r o j e c t i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , showing the mental age growth i n months f o r each month i n attendance: 1971-72 1.972-73 1973-74 Growth on the ITPA 3.12 1.95 2.70 Growth on the PPVT 2.39 2.48 2.78 Growth on the VMI 1.39 1.81 2.59 C h i l d r e n r e t u r n e d to r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n 37% 63% 68% In s p i t e of the lack of s t a t i s t i c a l data, the growth rate appears to be q u i t e good, p a r t i c u l a r l y when one c o n s i d e r s the f a c t that these c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d out with an average r e t a r d a t i o n r a t e of 23 months. The re p o r t concluded that " . . . s c h o o l f a i l u r e can be prevented when l e a r n i n g problems are i d e n t i f i e d .early and s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d to remediate l e a r n i n g 51 d e f i c i e n c i e s " (ED 115152, 1974, p. 18). Recommendations have been made reg a r d i n g "...the improvement i n the e v a l u a t i o n s of the p r o j e c t . G e n e r a l l y , they have r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the analyses due to the nonexperimental nature of the p r o j e c t , the need for improved measurement, the need f o r study of adequate samples of c o n t r o l students, and the need f o r e v a l u a t i n g the long-range e f f e c t s of the p r o j e c t " (ERIC E v a l u a t i o n Report, 1980-81, p.48). T h i s same report i n c l u d e d the r e s u l t s of a l o n g i t u d i n a l study i n v o l v i n g matched p a i r s of experimental and c o n t r o l s t udents. The experimental students r e c e i v e d the E a r l y P r evention of School F a i l u r e Program. F i v e matched s u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d from 10 d i f f e r e n t s chool d i s t r i c t s , but "... i n some cases l e s s than f i v e were u t i l i z e d " (p.37). R e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test and the Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n p o s t t e s t scores i n favour of the experimental group. The Preschool Language S c a l e was not i n c l u d e d as a dependent v a r i a b l e . At the end of the second year, the G a t e s - M a c G i n i t i e Reading Test was gi v e n , which r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h i s t e s t ' s raw s c o r e s , p e r c e n t i l e rank and grade e q u i v a l e n t s c o r e s . The s c r e e n i n g instrument used by Bradley (1975) was the Des P l a i n e s K i n d e r g a r t e n Screening T e s t . A l l groups' used the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m . Teachers of the c o n t r o l group d i d not r e c e i v e the r e s u l t s of the sc r e e n i n g t e s t , while the t e a c h e r s of both.experimental groups A and B r e c e i v e d t h i s 52 i n f o r m a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , experimental group B "received s e r v i c e s of a team of s p e c i a l i s t s : a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y teacher, p h y s i c a l education teacher, speech t h e r a p i s t , and media s p e c i a l i s t . The k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher or a member of t h i s team worked with each c h i l d twice a week for h a l f an hour in h i s weakest mo d a l i t y . The M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness Test was given i n A p r i l as the c r i t e r i o n measure. No s t a t i s t i c a l data were re p o r t e d , but t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r concluded t h a t , given i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e s , k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers gained i n s i g h t i n t o the c h i l d ' s needs and were able to plan s u i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s which f i t i n t o the r e g u l a r c u r r i c u l u m . "Although the s p e c i a l i s t s s t r e s s e d a p r o g r e s s i v e , upward, s e q u e n t i a l s k i l l development program d u r i n g the t h i r t y -minute p e r i o d s , , t h i s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y improve p u p i l performance. T h i s remediation was i s o l a t e d and d i d not flow n a t u r a l l y and m e a n i n g f u l l y , as d i d the p r o j e c t s done in the r e g u l a r classroom" (p. 306). H i l l e r i c h (1978) claimed that her t e s t , P r e d i c t i o n of D i a g n o s t i c Q u a l i t i e s (PDQ), was more of a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t than a s c r e e n i n g t e s t . The author s t a t e d that the items were c r i t e r i o n r e f e r e n c e d , and that each item had i t s own d i r e c t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i f a c h i l d d i d not perform w e l l i n that area. T h e r e f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s were based on the r e s u l t s of t h i s t e s t , which was purported to assess nine d i f f e r e n t aspects of r e c e p t i v e and e x p r e s s i v e language. T h i s study spanned two y e a r s . The Stroud Primary P r o f i l e , L e v e l 1 was given at the end of grade 1 d u r i n g the f i r s t year of the study to 890 students who had not r e c e i v e d the PDQ, and who 53 acted as c o n t r o l s . The same t e s t was admi n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the second year of the study to 556 experimental students who had r e c e i v e d the PDQ. These t e s t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the experimental group at the .01 l e v e l . An a p t i t u d e t e s t at the end of grade 1 showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups. "Hence, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that e a r l y d i a g n o s i s and e f f o r t s to i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n the ki n d e r g a r t e n had an impact on l a t e r reading achievement" ( H i l l e r i c h , 1978, p. 361). The remedial program of the experimental group (N=80) i n Stewart's (1978) study was based on r e s u l t s of the Santa C l a r a Inventory of Developmental S k i l l s which p u r p o r t s to i d e n t i f y s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses i n motor c o o r d i n a t i o n , visual-motor performance, v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l memory, a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , a u d i t o r y memory, language development, and conceptual development. The teacher was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the experimental program. A c u r r i c u l u m guide was provided as a resource and adapted to the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , with the c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r g i v i n g a d v i c e as needed. C h i l d r e n were d i v i d e d i n t o modality groups, a c c o r d i n g to common needs. The teacher, or the a i d e , with added a s s i s t a n c e of v o l u n t e e r help worked with these groups. In a d d i t i o n , twenty minutes of small group language i n s t r u c t i o n was given to those c h i l d r e n who were found to be d e f i c i e n t i n t h i s a r e a . The Peabody Language Development K i t was used f o r t h i s purpose under the d i r e c t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m c o o r d i n a t o r . 54 The c o n t r o l groups (N=40) r e c e i v e d the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m . At the end of the t h i r t y week treatment p e r i o d , both groups were r e t e s t e d on the Santa C l a r a Inventory of Developmental S k i l l s and were a l s o given the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading'Readiness T e s t . The experimental group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains on the v i s u a l memory, language development, conceptual s u b t e s t s and the t o t a l r e a d i n e s s score of the Santa C l a r a . On the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness Test (MRRT) the c o n t r o l group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher on the copying and matching s u b t e s t s , as w e l l as on the MRRT t o t a l s c o r e . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups on the remainder of the s u b t e s t s . Stewart s t a t e d that on t o t a l readiness-, as measured by the Santa C l a r a Inventory of Developmental S k i l l s and the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness Test combined, the experimental group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the c o n t r o l group. Rothenberg et a l . (1979) i n v e s t i g a t e d the e f f e c t of P r o j e c t MECCA (Make Every C h i l d Capable of Achieving) which uses a t a s k - a n a l y s i s approach, by which a l l kindergarten a c t i v i t i e s are broken down i n t o small and s e q u e n t i a l components. In the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , 14 c h i l d r e n i n the MECCA group were compared with a r e f e r r a l group (N=17). Both groups r e c e i v e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n based on the Jansky P r e d i c t i v e Screening Index, but the t a s k - a n a l y s i s approach was used by the MECCA group o n l y . R e s u l t s showed that the t a s k - a n a l y s i s group made s i g n i f i c a n t l y .greater gains on the Jansky, and a l s o r e c e i v e d 55 s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean scores on the Monroe Reading Aptitude T e s t . A second a n a l y s i s , comparing a t a s k - a n a l y s i s group (N=37) with a c o n t r o l group (N=33) r e s u l t e d i n the same f i n d i n g s . The author s t a t e d , "Furthermore, by the end of K i n d e r g a r t e n , two-t h i r d s of the MECCA group (25 out of 37 c h i l d r e n ) were no longer c o n s i d e r e d at r i s k on the Jansky as compared to only o n e - t h i r d of the c o n t r o l group (11 out of 33 c h i l d r e n ) " (p. 75). A p i l o t study (the EARLY p r o j e c t ) conducted by Naron (1979) i n c l u d e d 32 p r e s c h o o l e r s c o n s i d e r e d to be at high r i s k f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . These c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d the Chicago E a r l y Developmental Test, f o l l o w e d by a s e r i e s of d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s , s e l e c t e d to tap both the v i s u a l - m o t o r and language s k i l l s a r e a s . C h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h r i s k attended the Chicago E a r l y P r o j e c t (CEP) c e n t r e i n a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n . These c h i l d r e n were bussed to the CEP c e n t r e and attended f o r one hour each morning, four days per week, from March to June. The c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t e d of those c h i l d r e n who f o r some reason c o u l d not attend the c e n t r e . P u p i l - t e a c h e r r a t i o at the c e n t r e was 5:1. Based on the r e s u l t s of the d i a g n o s t i c t e s t s , c h i l d r e n were p l a c e d i n a visual-motor classroom or a language classroom at the c e n t r e . One c h i l d was found to need both types of programs. The p r o j e c t designed c u r r i c u l u m drew from a v a r i e t y of p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s . Each of the a c t i v i t i e s i n the c u r r i c u l u m r e q u i r e d 15-30 minutes of i n s t r u c t i o n , geared to a maximum of f i v e c h i l d r e n per group. Parents were encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e and r e c e i v e d suggestions f o r home a c t i v i t i e s . The program was 56 developmental and s e q u e n t i a l i n nature. Three c r i t e r i o n measures were used to t e s t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s program: the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n , the S i m i l a r i t i e s and Vocabulary Subtest of the Wechsler Pre s c h o o l and Primary Scale of I n t e l l i g e n c e (WPPSI). "Tests of s i g n i f i c a n c e on the p o s t t e s t scores i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the groups only on the Vocabulary T e s t . . . . When t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were conducted on the gain s c o r e s , the EARLY c h i l d r e n scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher gains than d i d t h e i r c o n t r o l s on the VMI...and on the S i m i l a r i t i e s t e s t . . . . " (p. 11). Three s t u d i e s reviewed i n t h i s s e c t i o n d i d not report s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . Of the remaining s i x s t u d i e s one study ( S p o l l e n & B a i l i f f , 1978) repor t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , while f i v e s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a l l , or some of t h e i r measures, i n favour -of t h e i r d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e programs. C r i t e r i o n measures most o f t e n used were gains between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of a d i a g n o s t i c t e s t . Other c r i t e r i o n measures were reading readiness t e s t s . Major C r i t i c i s m s of the Research General i n f e r e n c e s from the s t u d i e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s chapter are d i f f i c u l t to make, p a r t l y because of the r e l a t i v e l y frequent l a c k o f . d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h methodology. In a d d i t i o n to these l i m i t a t i o n s , q u e s t i o n a b l e r e s e a r c h methodology was used i n some s t u d i e s . 57 Many of the s t u d i e s d i d not give a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h methodology. While a number of r e s e a r c h e r s p r o v i d e d d e t a i l e d data, others o f f e r e d a haphazard d e s c r i p t i o n or omitted important d e t a i l s , l e a v i n g the reader with many unanswered q u e s t i o n s : Were the c h i l d r e n taught i n small groups or i n d i v i d u a l l y ? What d i d they do when they d i d not r e c e i v e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n ? What program d i d the c o n t r o l c h i l d r e n f o l l o w ? Was h i s t o r y c o n t r o l l e d ? Was the a t t e n t i o n v a r i a b l e c o n t r o l l e d ? What s t a t i s t i c a l procedure was followed? Were t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e conducted, and i f so, what was the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ? With the r e l a t i v e l y low r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of many of these instruments, one wonders about the e f f i c a c y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. Moreover, some readers may q u e s t i o n the use of gains on IQ as a r e l e v a n t measure. C e r t a i n l y , there were not enough l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s to show whether gains were s u s t a i n e d and whether there was any r e a l improvement i n achievement once in s c h o o l . Even more d i f f i c u l t to e valuate are the r e s u l t s of the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s . In the m a j o r i t y of these s t u d i e s b a t t e r i e s were p r o j e c t - or i n v e s t i g a t o r - d e s i g n e d , and i t i s d o u b t f u l whether norms, r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y had been e s t a b l i s h e d . Research methodology was a l s o found to be inadequate i n a number of s t u d i e s . Lack of c o n t r o l f o r h i s t o r y was the most obvious l i m i t a t i o n of the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d i e s . While from a number of s t u d i e s one may i n f e r c o n t r o l f o r h i s t o r y , few authors e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d that h i s t o r y was c o n t r o l l e d . 58 Even though h i s t o r y may not have been c o n t r o l l e d i n most s t u d i e s , the s i z e of the c o n t r o l group and the experimental group were equal, or very c l o s e to equal, i n most s t u d i e s . One exception (which was i n favour of the experimental groups) was Engelmann (1970), who r e p o r t e d N's of 15, 18, and 28 f o r h i s experimental-disadvantaged group, experimental-middle c l a s s group, and d i s a d v a n t a g e d - c o n t r o l group, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The • s i z e of h i s middle c l a s s c o n t r o l group was not r e p o r t e d . S i m i l a r l y , t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o s were h e l d constant over the c o n t r o l groups and the experimental groups i n most s t u d i e s . However, Engelmann repo r t e d a t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o of 1:5 f o r h i s experimental-disadvantaged group, but omitted t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the remainder of the groups. S p o l l e n and B a l l i f (1971) reported a t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o of 1:6 f o r the experimental group and 1:25 f o r the c o n t r o l group. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o between the experimental groups and the c o n t r o l groups was j u s t one example of lack of c o n t r o l for h i s t o r y . Another example was that i n most s t u d i e s , no apparent e f f o r t was made to p a r a l l e l the a c t i v i t i e s and procedures of the c o n t r o l group with the s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l program of the experimental group. In a d d i t i o n to the above l i m i t a t i o n s , most of the s t u d i e s were not g e n e r a l i z a b l e . Most i n t e r v e n t i o n programs were l i m i t e d to disadvantaged samples. Most i n t e r v e n t i o n programs r e l i e d h e a v i l y on small t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o s . E x t r a t e a c h e r s , graduate-students, and t r a i n e d v o l u n t e e r s were used to reduce the t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o and hence to i n c r e a s e the time a v a i l a b l e f o r d i r e c t i n t e r a c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n . 59 While ' a small t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o may have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the e f f i c a c y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , the same approach cannot be e a s i l y i n s t i t u t e d . Most school d i s t r i c t s do not have funds f o r e x t r a s t a f f . Most schools f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n the s e r v i c e s of v o l u n t e e r s . Even i f such v o l u n t e e r s were a v a i l a b l e , only a l i m i t e d number of teachers or resource personnel would have the time or the i n c l i n a t i o n to t r a i n these people. C o n c l u s i o n s Inferences are a l s o d i f f i c u l t to make because of the great d i v e r s i t y of program c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e s e a r c h methodology. Programs v a r i e d widely, not only i n i n t e n s i t y ( s t r u c t u r e ) , approach and emphasis, but a l s o i n time span, sample s i z e , t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o , and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The time span v a r i e d from three months to a f u l l school term. Comparison between treatments i s d i f f i c u l t to make when such v a r i a t i o n occurs. Moreover, there was much v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n the t o t a l time span. Treatments were given once or twice a week, or on a d a i l y b a s i s , f o r twenty minutes to one hour or l o n g e r . Sample s i z e v a r i e d from small samples (N = 14) to those which i n c l u d e d e n t i r e c l a s s e s , school d i s t r i c t s or a number of school d i s t r i c t s . However, sample s i z e was adequate in most s t u d i e s . T e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o a l s o v a r i e d widely from one study to another, with some s t u d i e s r e p o r t i n g a r a t i o of 1:5 or 1:6, and others r e p o r t i n g r a t i o s as high as 1:28. Such wide d i f f e r e n c e s in t e a c h e r - p u p i l r a t i o s again make comparisons among s t u d i e s 60 very d i f f i c u l t . Comparison among the d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t because of the wide range i n i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . I n t e l l i g e n c e was most commonly measured by the S t a n f o r d - B i n e t . Other measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e were the WISC, WPPSI and the Slos s e n I n t e l l i g e n c e T e s t . Readiness was most f r e q u e n t l y measured by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t , but a l s o by the Murphy-Durrell Reading Readiness A n a l y s i s , the Prereading Inventory of S k i l l s Basic to Reading, and the C a l d w e l l P r e s c h o o l Inventory. The C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test, the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , and the Stroud Primary P r o f i l e - - L e v e l 1 were among the achievement measures, while the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , the F r o s t i g Developmental Test of V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n , and the I l l i n o i s Test of P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c A b i l i t y were most f r e q u e n t l y used to measure language s k i l l s and v i s u a l percept i o n . Keeping the d i v e r s i t y of the re s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n mind, the l i t e r a t u r e suggests two p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s to h e l p c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e the necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s : the improvement of the k i n d e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l u m and the implementation of a d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . To meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n we need a c u r r i c u l u m which f o s t e r s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l development, as we l l as s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . S e v e r a l programs were suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e which were aimed at f o s t e r i n g (a) s p e c i f i c r e a diness s k i l l s , (b) p e r c e p t u a l and language s k i l l s , (c) language and c o g n i t i v e development. Under the l a t t e r category, the 61 conceptual-language program i n v e s t i g a t e d by O'Donnell and Raymond was found to be s u c c e s s f u l not only at f o s t e r i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l development, but a l s o at f o s t e r i n g c o g n i t i v e f l e x i b i l i t y and problem s o l v i n g i n i t i a t i v e , which i n t u r n , might f a c i l i t a t e f u t u r e l e a r n i n g . However, f o r some c h i l d r e n , a general broadening of the i n t e l l e c t i s not s u f f i c i e n t . Some c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h i l d r e n from an impoverished home environment, or c h i l d r e n with a developmental l a g , need t r a i n i n g i n s k i l l s p r e r e q u i s i t e to readi n g : s p e c i f i c readiness s k i l l s , p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , and language s k i l l s . Again, s e v e r a l approaches were suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e to develop these s k i l l a r e a s . Of these approaches, the (d) d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e approach seems to best meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . To improve kind e r g a r t e n c u r r i c u l a , we o b v i o u s l y need w e l l -t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s : teachers who are f a m i l i a r with a v a r i e t y , of programs and approaches and who are able to analyze t h e i r r e l a t i v e m e r i t s and flaws; teachers who w i l l keep up with c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h ; teachers who are able to i n t e g r a t e the best ideas i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l a . The Bereiter-Engelmann approach, f o r example, i n s p i t e of i t s r i g i d i t y o f f e r s worthwhile ideas which can be i n c o r p o r a t e d to meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . A w e l l - t r a i n e d kindergarten teacher can maintain a balance between both extremes: general i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n , as advocated by the t r a d i t i o n a l approach, and d i r e c t , s p e c i f i c s k i l l b u i l d i n g , as advocated by the s t r u c t u r e d approach. Planning f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s : d i f f e r e n c e s i n motor . . a b i l i t i e s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s , and d i f f e r e n c e s 62 i n language a b i l i t i e s , r e q u i r e s a great d e a l of time and e f f o r t . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r would l i k e to study the f e a s i b i l i t y of having the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher implement a d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program such as the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program. Perhaps the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teachers c o u l d spend one day per week working with i n d i v i d u a l , or small groups of c h i l d r e n on s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and give the k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers suggestions f o r follow-up a c t i v i t i e s 63 CHAPTER 3 Methodology T h i s chapter i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , sample and instruments, i n c l u d i n g norms, r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . Screening procedures, treatment programs as w e l l as the r e g u l a r kindergarten programs are summarized. The chapter ends with data c o l l e c t i o n procedures. P o p u l a t i o n and Sample The p o p u l a t i o n was d e f i n e d as "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n e n r o l l e d in k i n d e r g a r t e n i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t . The sample was drawn from k i n d e r g a r t e n s of the same d i s t r i c t , which i s l o c a t e d i n the Greater Vancouver M e t r o p o l i t a n Area and encompasses the c i t i e s of Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam and Port Moody. Permission f o r t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was granted by the D i s t r i c t Superintendent and the Supervisor of Curriculum and Assessment. For p r a c t i c a l reasons, schools were randomly s e l e c t e d from those schools which had at l e a s t two h a l f - d a y k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s . One sc h o o l l o c a t e d i n a higher s o c i o -economic area was excluded. The l a t t e r procedure was an attempt to reduce the p o s s i b i l i t y of o b t a i n i n g an e f f e c t due to s o c i o -economic l e v e l r a t her than to treatment. Treatments were randomly assigned to the schools s e l e c t e d , and permission was obtained from the p r i n c i p a l s and the parents. Three of the schools thus s e l e c t e d were l o c a t e d i n Coquitlam, four schools were l o c a t e d i n Port Coquitlam, and two schools were l o c a t e d i n Port Moody. A l l c h i l d r e n present on the day of scr e e n i n g c o n s t i t u t e d the t o t a l sample (N=330). Of these 64 c h i l d r e n 137 (42%) were i d e n t i f i e d as "moderate r i s k " c h i l d r e n , while 9 c h i l d r e n (3%) were i d e n t i f i e d as "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . During the course of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 6 c h i l d r e n were l o s t due to a t t r i t i o n , l e a v i n g a T o t a l Sample of 324 and a Subsample of 131 "moderate r i s k " c h i l d r e n and 9 "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . Because the number of "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n was too small f o r separate s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s , "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n were grouped together and are r e f e r r e d to as "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n (N=140). Table 2 presents the d i s t r i b u t i o n of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n the sample. 65 Table 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of "Moderate and High Risk" C h i l d r e n Treatment School Teacher C l a s s Student (r i s k ) Group Moderate High 1 . • 1 1 1 6 1 2 7 1 2 2 3 9 1 3 4 6 2 2. 1 1 1 8 1 0 2 7 0 2 2 3 5 1 3 4 3 1 4 5 6 0 3. 1 1 1 6 1 0 2 7 1 0 2 2 3 8 0 4 6 0 4. 1 1 1 7 0 2 2 6 0 2 3 3 7 1 0 4 4 8 1 5. 1 1 1 92 1 2 5 0 2 2 3 8 0 4 3 0 T o t a l 9 1 5 21 137(131) 3 9 1 One s u b j e c t was l o s t due to a t t r i t i o n . 2 Two s u b j e c t s were l o s t due to a t t r i t i o n . In t o t a l , 6 s u b j e c t s were l o s t . Three s u b j e c t s moved, two s u b j e c t s withdrew from the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and one su b j e c t went on v a c a t i o n . 3 The number i n parentheses denotes the number of "moderate r i s k " c h i l d r e n l e f t i n t h i s subsample. A t o t a l of 140 "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n were l e f t in the subsample and s u b j e c t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . 66 D e s c r i p t i o n of Instruments The Screening B a t t e r y i s purported to be an estimate of approximate m a t u r a t i o n a l l e v e l s i n a u d i t o r y p e r c e p t i o n , v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n , f i n e motor, gross motor and language s k i l l s . 1. The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT) i s used i n t h i s model to provide an estimate of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e c e p t i v e language a b i l i t y . The s u b j e c t i s asked to p o i n t to one of four p i c t u r e s , the one which matches the word pronounced by the examiner. Scores are converted i n t o a mental age s c o r e . In s p i t e of the f a c t that the PPVT i s o f t e n used to assess language development, examiners should r e a l i z e that t h i s t e s t measures a very l i m i t e d aspect of language: r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . Although the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program uses the PPVT and PLS ( d e s c r i b e d below) as measures of "language a b i l i t y " , i t i s recommended that an a p p r o p r i a t e measure of e x p r e s s i v e language a b i l i t y be i n c l u d e d i n a s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . 2. The Beery (Developmental) Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r  I n t e g r a t i o n (VMI) i s used to provide an approximation of v i s u a l -motor a b i l i t y . The c h i l d c o p i e s g e o m e t r i c a l designs. Scores are converted to a mental age s c o r e . 3. The Goodenouqh Draw-A-Man Test i s used i n t h i s model to assess v i s u a l - m o t o r s k i l l s . 4. The Preschool Language S c a l e (PLS) developed by the " E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program" (Appendix B) i s purported to sample f i v e i n t e g r a t e d conceptual and e x p e r i e n t i a l areas of language development: V i s u a l V o c a l I n t e g r a t i o n , Vocabulary, A u d i t o r y Response, I n t e g r a t i v e A u d i t o r y Memory and 67 D i s c r i m i n a t i v e V i s u a l - A u d i t o r y Memory. A k i t with o b j e c t s accompanies the t e s t , making i t an a p p e a l i n g experience f o r the c h i l d . R e s u l t s are recorded i n raw scores which are converted to mental age s c o r e s . 5. The Revised Motor A c t i v i t y S c ale (MAS) i s used f o r e v a l u a t i n g a c h i l d ' s body awareness, manual d e x t e r i t y and body c o n t r o l . (Appendix C) The s c a l e e v a l u a t e s such s k i l l s as b a l a n c i n g , rhythm, d i r e c t i o n a l i t y , body image, f i n e and gross movement, b i l a t e r a l a c t i v i t i e s and dominance. R e s u l t s are recorded on a p o i n t s c a l e . The t o t a l score i s r a t e d H ( h i g h ) , A + (above average), A (average), and R (needs to be r e f e r r e d f o r d i a g n o s t i c examination. In a d d i t i o n to the scre e n i n g b a t t e r y , the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test (LCRRT) was g i v e n . I t s four s u b t e s t s cover l e t t e r symbols, concepts and word symbols. These s k i l l s are purported to be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to beginning reading. The s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y was used to (1) i d e n t i f y "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n and (2) to plan i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i p t i o n s , which w i l l be e x p l a i n e d under Program Pl a n n i n g . As i n the E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program, 3 of the s c r e e n i n g instruments: The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , Preschool Language Scale and Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l -Motor I n t e g r a t i o n were used to measure the e f f e c t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. The Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test was given as an a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n measure. 68 Norms, v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test was s t a n d a r d i z e d on 4,012 White s u b j e c t s between the age of two and one-half and eighteen y e a r s . Dunn ( c i t e d i n Reynolds, 1979) r e p o r t s a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s from "...a low of 0.67 at the s i x - y e a r - o l d l e v e l to a high of 0.84 at the seventeen and eighteen year l e v e l s , with a median of 0.77" (p. 2.). Regarding the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n , Rice ( c i t e d i n Buros, 1978) s t a t e s , " C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the VMI scores and age i n groups having an age range of three through f o u r t e e n years are .88 f o r g i r l s and .89 f o r boys" (Buros, 1978, p. 1401). '"The t e s t - r e t e s t c o e f f i c i e n t s range from 0.80 to 0.90, depending on sex and lenght of i n t e r v a l " (p. 1401). Beery (1967) r e p o r t s a c o r r e l a t i o n of 0.89 between VMI scores and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r the two to f i f t e e n year age range. He f u r t h e r s t a t e s , "VMI c o r r e l a t i o n s are higher with mental age than with c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. C o r r e l a t i o n s with mental age and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age are higher i n f i r s t grade c h i l d r e n than i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n " (p. 1). The s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n sample f o r the Preschool Language Scale c o n s i s t e d of 4,268 students from school d i s t r i c t s i n C o n n e c t i c u t , I l l i n o i s , Indiana, New Mexico, M i s s o u r i , North C a r o l i n a , Ohio, South C a r o l i n a and Texas ( E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program: N a t i o n a l D i f f u s i o n Network Grant A p p l i c a t i o n , 1974). Rounded norms ( i n raw scores) have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age (54-81 months f o r each t h r e e -month i n t e r v a l . 69 Information regarding the r e l i a b i l i t y i s not c l e a r l y s t a t e d . Under the heading "General P o p u l a t i o n " i n the chapter "Test V a l i d a t i o n Study", i t i s re p o r t e d that eighty-seven students were given the PLS as a p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t . The p e r i o d between these t e s t s was between twenty-two and t h i r t y -four days, and ages ranged from four and one-half to f i v e and one - h a l f . Under " R e l i a b i l i t y " the manual r e p o r t s a c o r r e l a t i o n of .773 at the .001 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Most l i k e l y t h i s r e f e r s to the eighty-seven students under "General P o p u l a t i o n " . The terms p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t are a l s o m i s l e a d i n g . The Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test has r e p o r t e d s p l i t -h a l f r e l i a b i l i t i e s ranging between .87 and .96. P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s are re p o r t e d to range between .13 and .72 (median .54) when compared with teacher r a t i n g s , and between .14 and .79 (median .45) when compared with scores on the Lee Cl a r k Reading T e s t : F i r s t Reader. When comparing the Lee Clark Reading Readiness Test with the Lee C l a r k Reading T e s t : Primer, Hopkins and S i t k e i ( c i t e d i n Buros, 1972) obtained c o e f f i c i e n t s of .57 and .61. Screening Procedures As i n the E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e s c r e e n i n g was done using a team approach. S e v e r a l took p a r t i n the s c r e e n i n g . In p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s c r e e n i n g , the i n v e s t i g a t o r Program, examiners 70 1. Set up a time t a b l e f o r s c r e e n i n g . 2. Arranged a meeting with the p r i n c i p a l , and the kind e r g a r t e n teachers of the schools randomly s e l e c t e d to d i s c u s s : a. the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program . b. the purpose and gen e r a l procedures of sc r e e n i n g c. the time schedule d. a s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n f o r s c r e e n i n g . In a l l cases the kin d e r g a r t e n room was chosen as a s u i t a b l e room f o r t h i s purpose. The i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o v i s i t e d each k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s and showed the c h i l d r e n some of the types of a c t i v i t i e s they would do i n the s c r e e n i n g . 3. Held an o r i e n t a t i o n meeting with the team members which i n c l u d e d : a. I n t r o d u c t i o n of " E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program" i n c l u d i n g purpose and re p o r t e d r e s u l t s . b. E x p l a n a t i o n of gen e r a l s c r e e n i n g procedures, as o u t l i n e d under Screening Procedures, a Manual prepared by the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program. c. E x p l a n a t i o n of s p e c i f i c arrangements made with p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l s . d. Hand-out on gen e r a l procedures and s p e c i f i c arrangements, i n c l u d i n g a time schedule. e. Assignment of s p e c i f i c instruments to the v a r i o u s team members, matching instruments with examiner's s k i l l s , as much as p o s s i b l e . f. D i s t r i b u t i o n of t e s t k i t s and manuals. 71 g. Arrangement f o r i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . 4. The f o l l o w i n g c h e c k l i s t was designed by the i n v e s t i g a t o r as an a i d i n c o o r d i n a t i n g a l l f a c e t s of the s c r e e n i n g : a. Check consent forms ag a i n s t the c l a s s l i s t . b. Remove from the c l a s s l i s t the name of every c h i l d f o r whom no consent has been r e c e i v e d . c. Prepare p r o t o c o l s with demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . d. F i l l i n names and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age on C l a s s Screening Information Form. e. Place p r o t o c o l s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order i n a c o l o u r -coded envelope. f. Prepare name tags f o r each c h i l d . Place i n an envelope. g. Check s u p p l i e s f o r s t a t i o n s : 1 box of c o l o u r e d s t a r s f o r each s t a t i o n (red, blue, green, and y e l l o w ) ; 12 p e n c i l s ; 6 e r a s e r s ; 6 boxes f o r completed p r o t o c o l s . h. Colour code each s t a t i o n by t a p i n g a pie c e of c o n s t r u c t i o n paper of the a p p r o p r i a t e c o l o u r to the t a b l e . The team members g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n completing the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s c r e e n i n g . Screening took p l a c e during the l a s t week of November and the f i r s t week of December, 1981. Six s t a t i o n s were set up i n the r e s p e c t i v e k i n d e r g a r t e n rooms, one f o r each examiner. Each s t a t i o n was f u r n i s h e d with a low t a b l e , and two low c h a i r s , one f o r the c h i l d and one f o r the examiner. Each s t a t i o n was c o l o u r 72 coded as o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 1 . Fi g u r e 1 Screening Procedures S t a t i o n Colour Code Examiners PPVT red 1 VMI & DAM blue 2 PLS green 2 MAS yellow 1 T o t a l 6 Each examiner was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of her p a r t i c u l a r t e s t and for the completion of each p r o t o c o l . Each s t a t i o n was s u p p l i e d with a c l a s s set of p r o t o c o l s , with demographic i n f o r m a t i o n a l r e a d y completed and pl a c e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order. T h i s enabled the examiners to q u i c k l y l o c a t e the a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f i l e f o r the c h i l d to be t e s t e d . Each s t a t i o n was a l s o s u p p l i e d with a box of co l o u r e d s t a r s matching the c o l o u r code of the s t a t i o n , two p e n c i l s and an e r a s e r . C h i l d r e n r o t a t e d from s t a t i o n to s t a t i o n and engaged in the re g u l a r k i n d e r g a r t e n a c t i v i t i e s between t e s t i n g . Upon completion of each t e s t , the examiner placed a s t a r on the c h i l d ' s name tag, matching the c o l o u r e d l i n e . Once four s t a r s had been c o l l e c t e d , the teacher stamped the name tag with a "happy f a c e " . 73 NAME These l a t t e r procedures helped d e t e c t c h i l d r e n who had not completed the t e s t i n g and helped to d i r e c t them to the a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t i o n . Once t e s t i n g was completed, the examiners marked the t e s t s and helped r e c o r d the scores on the "Class Screening Information" Form. A meeting of the team members was h e l d at t h i s time and a d d i t i o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s were entered on t h i s form i n the space p r o v i d e d . A n a l y s i s of Screening R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s of a l l s c r e e n i n g t e s t s were analyzed, f o l l o w i n g the procedures of the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program. In t h i s a n a l y s i s , s e v e r a l scores and subtest scores of the Screening B a t t e r y were combined. These combinations r e s u l t e d i n mental age scores which were p l o t t e d on the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , i n d i c a t i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses in language, a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , f i n e motor and gross motor s k i l l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s a n a l y s i s i s not p u r e l y mathematical, and s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s are made, as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d below. In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n the reader w i l l be r e f e r r e d to F i g u r e s 2 to F i g u r e 2 and F i g u r e 3 d i s p l a y the norms f o r the PLS and the MAS. These two f i g u r e s w i l l be r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . F i g u r e 4 p r e s e n t s the. C l a s s Screening Information Form. F i g u r e 5 and F i g u r e 6 are the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s f o r s u b j e c t s A and B. 74 Fi g u r e 2 Presc h o o l Language S c a l e : Rounded Means f o r C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age (months) PLS 1 PLS 2 PLS 3 Raw Score PLS 4 PLS 5 PLS Sum 52-54 55-74 58-60 61-63 64-66 67-69 70-72 73-75 76-78 79-81 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 19 20 22 23 24 26 27 28 30 31 The norms t a b l e f o r the PLS i s used to (1) determine the score f o r each subtest and the t o t a l score (PLS Sum) which matches the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age of the s u b j e c t . For example, F i g u r e 4 shows that Subject A has a c h r o n o l o g i c a l age of 5-6 (66) months. Opposite 66 months (Figure 2) one f i n d s subtest scores of 6, 4, 3, 5, 6, and the PLS Sum of 24. P r i o r to sc r e e n i n g , these scores were entered on the C l a s s Screening Information Form i n the bottom h a l f of the space provided (the l i n e marked with " 2 " ) . These scores are the " p r e d i c t e d " scores of a c h i l d of average a b i l i t y . Upon completion of the sc r e e n i n g , the scores a c t u a l l y obtained by Subject A were entered i n the top h a l f of the space p r o v i d e d (the l i n e marked with " 1 " ) . At t h i s time the norms t a b l e i s used to (2) determine the mental age which matches the raw s c o r e s . In the assignment of mental age scores f o r raw scores three problems were encountered. 75 (a) . Subject A r e c e i v e d a score of 7 on subtest 1, which d i f f e r e d only 1 p o i n t from the p r e d i c t e d score f o r h i s c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. F i g u r e 2 shows that t h i s score of 7 spans an age range of 70 to 81 months, which means that t h i s subject c o u l d r e c e i v e any mental age from 70 to 81 months. S i m i l a r l y , the score of 5 on subtest 2 d i f f e r e d only 1 p o i n t from the p r e d i c t e d score f o r h i s CA. Matching the score of 5 i s a mental age score from 79 to 81 months.- A d i f f e r e n c e of 1 p o i n t c o u l d have meant a d i f f e r e n c e of 15 months i n mental age f o r t h i s s u b j e c t ( h i s CA was 5-6=66 months). For a su b j e c t whose CA was 61 months, the d i f f e r e n c e of 1 p o i n t would have meant a d i f f e r e n c e of 20 months i n mental age. (b) . Subject A r e c e i v e d scores of 1 and 3 on s u b t e s t s 3 and 4. These scores are lower than those p r o v i d e d by the t a b l e . Which mental age score should he r e c e i v e ? (c) . On subtest 5 he r e c e i v e d a raw score of 8, which d i f f e r e d 2 p o i n t s from the p r e d i c t e d score f o r CA. A score of 8 spans an age range of 73 to 78 months. Which mental age score should he r e c e i v e ? At a workshop of the E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program attended by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r , no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n was given r e g a r d i n g these problems. I t was recommended t h a t common sense be used i n the assignment of mental age scores to raw s c o r e s . In order to reduce some of the s u b j e c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s procedure, some r u l e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . 76 (a) . A d i f f e r e n c e of 1 p o i n t between the p r e d i c t e d score fo r CA and the obtained score would be ignored. In t h i s case the s u b j e c t would be given a mental age score equal to h i s CA. (b) . If the s u b j e c t scored o f f the lower end of the s c a l e , the lowest score (52" months) would be as s i g n e d . If he scored o f f the higher end of the s c a l e , the hi g h e s t score (81 + months) would be as s i g n e d . (c) . If the d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e d i c t e d score and the obt a i n e d score was 2 p o i n t s or more, the sub j e c t would r e c e i v e the midpoint of the age category c l o s e s t to h i s CA. In the case of s ubtest 5, the subject r e c e i v e d a mental age score of 74 months. F i g u r e 3 Norms f o r the Motor A c t i v i t y S c ale Chron. Age Means and Ratings H 1 A + 1 A 2 R 3 4.0 - 4.11 26.30 22.25 21.00 17.20 5.0 - 5.40 26.30 23.25 21.22 17.20 5.5 - 4.11 29.30 25.28 23.24 20.22 6.0 - 7.00 27.30 26.00 23.25 1 H and A + are c o n s i d e r e d to be above average. 2 A i s average. 3 R i s R e f e r r a l f o r f u r t h e r d i a g n o s t i c assessment. F i g u r e 3 shows the norms f o r the Motor A c t i v i t y S c ale (MAS), which are very general indeed. The l e f t column l i s t s the CA, while the four columns to the r i g h t show the mean ( t o t a l ) s c o r e s i n each c a t e g o r y : H ( h i g h ) , A + (above average), A (average) and R (needs to be r e f e r r e d f o r f u r t h e r d i a g n o s t i c assessment). 77 Subtest scores (MAS 1, MAS2 and MAS3) are c o n s i d e r e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of mental age scores i n the language, f i n e motor and gross motor ar e a s . The E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program a d v i s e s to make a' s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n about these l a t t e r s c o r e s . That i s , f o r in s t a n c e a low score on the MAS1 would lower the mean mental age score i n the language area. Again to reduce the s u b j e c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of subtest s c o r e s , some r u l e s were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r . These r u l e s were based on a frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores i n the present sample. An a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n was made that on the MAS 1 and the MAS3 a score of 8 was co n s i d e r e d to f a l l 6 months below c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. Scores of 7,6, and 5 were con s i d e r e d to f a l l 1 year below c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. Scores of 4,3,2 and 1 were c o n s i d e r e d to f a l l 2 years below c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. On the MAS3, a subtest which i n c l u d e d only 4 items, scores of 2 and 1 were c o n s i d e r e d to be below average. In a d d i t i o n , the Goodenough Draw-A-Man (DAM) which giv e s an "IQ" score, i s co n s i d e r e d i n the c a l c u l a t i o n of mental age scores i n the v i s u a l and f i n e motor areas. Again, i t i s recommended that a s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n be made. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r decided that a score below 80 would decrease the mental age score obtained i n the v i s u a l and f i n e motor areas. 78 F i g u r e 4 C l a s s Screening Information Form Name CA P P V T PLS V M D A M MAS Observ. 1 2 3 4 5 T 1*1 I 1 2 3 T R A 5-6 8-3 7 5 1 3 8 24 5-6 72 9 4 12 25 A + 6 4 3 5 6 2 24 B 4-1 1 4-0 4 1 4 5 7 i 21 4-6 60 7 1 7 1 5 R 6 3 3 4 6 2 22 F i g u r e 5 and Fi g u r e 6 are the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s used i n the a n a l y s i s of s u b j e c t s A and B. I t must be emphasized that these working c o p i e s of the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s were f o r the use of the i n v e s t i g a t o r o n l y ; teachers were given the p r o f i l e s without any i n d i c a t i o n of mental age s c o r e s . They (as w e l l as the parents) were t o l d that the s o l i d l i n e r epresented average performance, while the do t t e d l i n e s i n d i c a t e d above, or below average performance. A n a l y s i s of Subject A (F i g u r e 5). A f t e r s c r e e n i n g was completed the s u b j e c t s ' s CA (5-6) was entered on the s o l i d l i n e of the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e . Ages f a l l i n g 1 and 2 years above and below the CA were a l s o recorded. Scores were obtained from F i g u r e 4 and mental ages i n each of the s k i l l areas were c a l c u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. Language area. a. PPVT. The score was converted to months (8-3=99 months) and entered under Language. 79 b. PLS1 and PLS2. The raw scores d i f f e r e d only 1 p o i n t from the p r e d i c t e d scores f o r CA. Therefore the s u b j e c t ' s CA was entered (5-6=66 months). c. The average of PPVT, PLS1 and PLS2 was c a l c u l a t e d (77=6-5 months). d. MAS 1. The raw score (9/13) was entered. As t h i s score was c o n s i d e r e d to be average, i t d i d not change the mean score c a l c u l a t e d under c. The score of 6-5 was p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e . 2. A u d i t o r y area. a. PLS3 and PLS4. On both these s u b t e s t s the s u b j e c t scored o f f the s c a l e . T h e r e f o r e mental age scores of 52" (4-4") were entered and p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e . 3. V i s u a l a r e a . a. VMI. The score of 5-6 was converted to months (66) and e n t e r e d . b. PLS5. The raw score was 8. The mental age score to match t h i s score was found in the norms t a b l e , and entered (74 months). c. The average of VMI and PLS5 was c a l c u l a t e d (70=5-10) d. DAM. T h i s (IQ) score was entered (72). Because the DAM was below average, the score i n the v i s u a l area ( c a l c u l a t e d under c) was decreased by 2 months and estimated to be 5-8. T h i s score was p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e . 4. Fine motor area. a. VMI. T h i s score (5-6=66) was entered. 80 b. DAM. As i n 3d, t h i s score decreased the mental age score by 2 months. A score of 5-4 was p l o t t e d on the prof i l e . 5. Gross motor area. a. MAS3. The raw score (12/13) was entered and p l o t t e d at 6 months above CA. Fi g u r e 5 Learning P r o f i l e of Subject A Language: A u d i t o r y ; V i s u a l ; Fine Mot: Gross Mot: PPVT 99 PLS 3 52 VMI 66 VMI 66 MAS3 12/13 PLS, 66 PLS„ 52 PLS 5 74 MAS2 4/4 Rating A + PLS 2 66 Ave: 52 Ave: 70 DAM 72 Ave: 77 =4-4 =5-10 =6-5 DAM 7 2 MAS, 9/13 A n a l y s i s of Subject B (Fi g u r e 6). 1. Language area. •a. PPVT. The score of 4-0 was converted to months (48 months) and entered under Language. b. PLS1 and PLS2. Raw scores were 4 and 1. A mental age score of 52" was ass i g n e d to both these scores and entered. c. The average of PPVT, PLS1, and PLS2 was c a l c u l a t e d 81 (51"=4-3" months). d. MASK The raw score (7/13) was entered. T h i s score was c o n s i d e r e d to be 1 year below average. Furthermore, the average c a l c u l a t e d under c was 4-3". Hence, the mental age score i n the language area was estimated to be 3-11. The E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program recommends to estimate "downward" i n order not to miss any c h i l d r e n who need h e l p . 2. A u d i t o r y area a. PLS3 and PLS4. There was only 1 po i n t d i f f e r e n c e between the p r e d i c t e d scores f o r CA and the obtained s c o r e s . Therefore a mental age score e q u a l ' t o the CA was assigned (4-11=59) and p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e . 3. V i s u a l area. a. VMI. The score of 4-6 was converted to months (54) and entered. b. PLS5. The raw score of 7 d i f f e r e d only 1 po i n t from the expected s c o r e . T h e r e f o r e , the s u b j e c t ' s CA was assigned (4-11=59) c. The average of VMI and PLS5 was c a l c u l a t e d (57=4-9) d. DAM. The (IQ) score was 60. T h i s score was estimated to decrease the mental age score c a l c u l a t e d under c by 6 months. A score of 4-3 was p l o t t e d i n the v i s u a l a r ea. 4. F i n e motor a r e a . a. VMI. The score of 4-6=54 was entered. b. MAS2. The raw score of 1/4 was entered. c. DAM. The (IQ) score was 60. The score i n the f i n e 82 motor area was estimated to be 3-11 and was p l o t t e d on the p r o f i l e . 5. Gross motor area. a. MAS3. The raw score of 7/13 was entered. T h i s score was p l o t t e d at one year below CA. F i g u r e 6 Learning P r o f i l e of Subject B 6-1 5-1 4-1 3-1 2-1 Language: A u d i t o r y : V i s u a l : F i n e Mot: Gross Mot: PPVT 48 PLS 3 59 VMI 54 VMI 54 MAS 7/13 PLS, 52 PLS„ 59 PLS 5 59 MAS2 1/4 Rating R PLS 2 52 Ave: 59 Ave: 57 DAM 60 Ave: 51 ' =4-11 =4-9 =4-3 DAM 60 MAS, 7/13 From these examples of the analyses of s u b j e c t s A and B i t becomes q u i t e obvious that much s u b j e c t i v i t y i s i n v o l v e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . That i s , the average of mental age scores i s c a l c u l a t e d , but these scores may be decreased by low scores on the MAS sub t e s t s and the Goodenough Draw-A-Man T e s t . The combination of the VMI with the PLS5, the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test and the MAS2 may le a d to the i n d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n whose VMI score i s not 1 year below CA. (Subject B). 83 The use of PLS subtest scores a l s o may l e a d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n who have an average T o t a l PLS Score (Subject A). These and other problems with the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d i n Chapter 5 under L i m i t a t i o n s . Program Planning Upon completion of the p r o f i l e s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n . Teachers' c o p i e s of these p r o f i l e s were d i s c u s s e d with the t e a c h e r s of treatments 1, 2 and 4, who were given a complete c l a s s set of l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s . Treatments 1 and 2. Program p l a n n i n g f o r these treatments was begun, using the c u r r i c u l u m guides developed by the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program: 1. Resource Index and Management Guide in each of the s k i l l a r e a s : language, a u d i t o r y , v i s u a l , f i n e motor and gross motor s k i l l s . These guides are colour-coded and l i s t the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l area i n developmental sequence. Under each s k i l l numerous suggestions f o r a c t i v i t i e s are o f f e r e d , which are e x p l a i n e d i n more d e t a i l i n the guides l i s t e d below (2, 3, and 4). The Developmental S k i l l s C h e c k l i s t (Appendix C) summarizes the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s . 2. B u i l d i n g Readiness Through Pe r c e p t u a l S k i l l s . M a t e r i a l s f o r these a c t i v i t i e s are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n any k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s . .3. P o r t a b l e Resource-Kit ,Guide. T h i s guide r e f e r s the teacher to commercial m a t e r i a l s and suggests numerous 84 a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i r use. 4. Recipes f o r Homemade M a t e r i a l s . To p l a n the p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , the c h i l d r e n ' s present l e v e l of f u n c t i o n i n g was determined using the s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t s i n the a p p r o p r i a t e Resource Index and Management Guides. S u i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s were chosen from guides 2, 3 and 4. C h i l d r e n with s i m i l a r needs were grouped together i n modality groups, f o l l o w i n g the example of the E a r l y P r evention of School F a i l u r e Program. These groups were kept f l e x i b l e i n order to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l needs. The i n v e s t i g a t o r i n s t r u c t e d these c h i l d r e n once a week fo r p e r i o d s v a r y i n g from 15 to 40 minutes, depending on the c h i l d ' s needs. Some c h i l d r e n needed h e l p i n only one modality, while others needed h e l p i n three or more m o d a l i t i e s . The s i z e of the groups v a r i e d from 2 to 5. Common areas of concern were noted. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n the language area were mostly r e l a t e d to v e r b a l e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . When asked to t a l k about a p i c t u r e , many of these c h i l d r e n named a few items, i n d i c a t i n g that they were at the l a b e l i n g stage. Subsequently, they were given much p r a c t i c e i n f o r m u l a t i n g sentences, using o b j e c t s and very simple p i c t u r e s ( i n i t i a l l y c o n t a i n i n g one item o n l y ) . They were a l s o encouraged to ask each other q u e s t i o n s about these p i c t u r e s . Although vocabulary development was inherent in these a c t i v i t i e s , c h i l d r e n with l i m i t e d vocabulary needed much more vocabulary b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s than time p e r m i t t e d . 85 Of the a u d i t o r y s k i l l s , l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , a u d i t o r y a t t e n t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and memory were found to be commonly d e f i c i e n t . Much time was spent on l e a r n i n g to f o l l o w d i r e c t i o n s , r e c a l l i n g nursery rhymes or other simple v e r s e s , and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of environmental sounds. V i s u a l a t t e n t i o n , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and memory were a l s o found to be commonly d e f i c i e n t . I t seemed that many of these c h i l d r e n were not "tuned i n " to t h e i r environment. T h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s k i l l s were d e f i c i e n t and a lack of body awareness was most apparent. T h e r e f o r e , much time was spent on ' l o o k i n g in the m i r r o r ' , f e e l i n g , naming and d i s c u s s i n g body p a r t s , and assembling body p u z z l e s . Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o l o u r s , shapes and s i z e s as we l l as i n p i c t u r e s . C o n s i d e r a b l e time was a l s o spent in games r e i n f o r c i n g v i s u a l memory. As d e f i c i e n c i e s i n both the v i s u a l and f i n e motor s k i l l s were i d e n t i f i e d mainly by the VMI, the same c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d i n both the v i s u a l s k i l l s and the, f i n e motor s k i l l s group. Hence, these s k i l l s were p r a c t i c e d a l t e r n a t i v e l y . Of the f i n e motor s k i l l s , c u t t i n g and t r a c i n g were most d e f i c i e n t . These c h i l d r e n needed much encouragement to stay on the l i n e . I t became apparent that c h i l d r e n d e f i c i e n t i n these s k i l l s needed c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . S e v e r a l c h i l d r e n who had lear n e d to do these tasks very w e l l under the guidance of the i n v e s t i g a t o r were observed to perform below t h e i r l e v e l of c a p a b i l i t y i n the classroom. 86 Two items on the f i n e motor s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t concern t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r : 'drawing a man' and.'copying basic shapes'. As drawing a person i s an item o f t e n i n c l u d e d i n t e s t s of developmental a b i l i t y , i t does not seem a p p r o p r i a t e to s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n a c h i l d ' i n t h i s s k i l l . T h e r e f o r e , the a l t e r n a t i v e approach of emphasizing body awareness was used. Furthermore, emphasis on copying b a s i c shapes c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t e a c h i n g to the t e s t (VMI). Reinforcement of gross motor s k i l l s was l e f t to the kind e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s , due to c o n s t r a i n t s of time. Teachers of treatment 1 and 2 were given a complete set of l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s f o r t h e i r c l a s s . They were a l s o encouraged to f o l l o w up with a c t i v i t i e s suggested by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . These a c t i v i t i e s were l i s t e d on a form, colour-coded and put i n a matching c o l o u r e d box i n which the necessary m a t e r i a l s were p l a c e d . In s p i t e of t h i s l e v e l of p r e p a r a t i o n on the part of the i n v e s t i g a t o r , the teachers seldom used these suggested follow-up a c t i v i t i e s . Teachers i n d i c a t e d they had l i t t l e time to give these c h i l d r e n e x t r a h e l p i n small groups. Consequently, the l a t t e r approach was d i s c o n t i n u e d . During approximately the l a s t h a l f of the i n t e r v e n t i o n program, the teachers were given suggestions f o r types of a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e d those needed by the p a r t i c u l a r modality groups. These a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d i n v o l v e the whole c l a s s . Comments about t h i s type of approach were more f a v o u r a b l e . . Parents of treatment 1 were f a m i l i a r i z e d with the goals of the i n t e r v e n t i o n program i n a p a r e n t meeting. The t e s t s of the scr e e n i n g b a t t e r y were b r i e f l y - explained and examples of 87 p r o f i l e s were shown on the overhead p r o j e c t o r . The developmental c h e c k l i s t s were a l s o shown and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these s k i l l s with academic achievement, p a r t i c u l a r l y reading was e x p l a i n e d . The importance of parent p a r t i c i p a t i o n was emphasized to parents of treatment 1. E m p i r i c a l evidence of the e f f e c t of parent involvement i n e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n was c i t e d . The program-developed Parents K i t was shown and examples of types of a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n the home were g i v e n . A l i s t of general suggestions was d i s t r i b u t e d to parents of treatment 1. I n d i v i d u a l conferences were h e l d e a r l y i n the program to d i s c u s s the c h i l d ' s s c r e e n i n g r e s u l t s i n terms of average, above average, or below average f o r h i s / h e r age. At t h i s conference parents were given s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested a c t i v i t i e s from the Parents' K i t i n w r i t t e n form. At a l a t e r date, parents were informed of t h e i r c h i l d ' s progress e i t h e r by telephone, or a second conference was h e l d depending on the needs. Treatment 3. T h i s group r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n but the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n t h i s group were given i n d i v i d u a l and small group a t t e n t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d of reading s t o r i e s to them, and l i s t e n i n g to them, t a l k i n g with them and g i v i n g them a t t e n t i o n while they were busy with r o u t i n e k i n d e r g a r t e n a c t i v i t i e s . As much as p o s s i b l e , the time schedule and procedures d u p l i c a t e d the p a t t e r n of groups 1 and 2. The i n v e s t i g a t o r a l s o h e l d a parent meeting with t h i s group, e x p l a i n i n g the purpose of the " a t t e n t i o n " program, .and-showing examples of p r o f i l e s . She a l s o 88 d i s t r i b u t e d a l i s t of general suggestions to the pa r e n t s . Treatment 4. T h i s group r e c e i v e d no i n s t r u c t i o n or suggestions from the i n v e s t i g a t o r . The teachers were merely given i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s of t h e i r t o t a l c l a s s , i n d i c a t i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. Treatment 5. T h i s was the c o n t r o l group which took p a r t i n pre- and p o s t t e s t i n g o n l y . The v a r i o u s treatments were begun duri n g the l a s t week of January 1981 and were c a r r i e d through to the end of May 1981 when p o s t t e s t i n g began. Thus, while the a c t u a l treatments l a s t e d f o r four months, s i x months elapsed between p r e t e s t i n g and p o s t t e s t i n g . Summary of Kindergarten Programs i n the Sample In any i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t i s important to examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the " r e g u l a r " programs. How do they vary? How are they the same? In an e f f o r t to gain some ins.ight i n t o the l i k e n e s s e s and d i f f e r e n c e s among the kin d e r g a r t e n programs in t h i s p r o j e c t , the i n v e s t i g a t o r made a l i s t of s p e c i f i c areas to be observed and d i s c u s s e d . A l l ki n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s were in t e r v i e w e d and a l l but two teachers were observed. Teachers were observed e i t h e r during the morning s e s s i o n , or du r i n g the afternoon s e s s i o n . Although k i n d e r g a r t e n programs i n the p r o j e c t had -some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , they a l s o v a r i e d widely i n many a s p e c t s . The kin d e r g a r t e n s i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t have, h i s t o r i c a l l y , been very s t r u c t u r e d with emphasis on the formal t e a c h i n g of mathematics and reading readiness s k i l l s . A l l teache r s i n the p r o j e c t taught the l e t t e r s of the alphabet i n a 89 formal l e s s o n , one by one, by name and sound. The l e s s o n was followed by a seatwork e x e r c i s e which c o n s i s t e d of c o l o u r i n g and t r a c i n g the l e t t e r taught. The mathematics program i n c l u d e d counting and equations, and the c h i l d r e n were taught to p r i n t the numerals from 0 to 9. Every k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher began the s e s s i o n with approximately h a l f an hour of opening e x e r c i s e s , i n c l u d i n g g r e e t i n g , c o u n t i n g of boys and g i r l s present, the calendar and the weather. These a c t i v i t i e s were, in most cases f o l l o w e d by a formal phonics or mathematics l e s s o n . Two teachers i n the f o u r t h treatment group had, by the end of May, extended t h i s p e r i o d to one hour of d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s , which a l s o i n c l u d e d s i n g i n g and s i n g i n g games (using the Education Through Music Program), Math T h e i r Way, or a more d e t a i l e d phonics l e s s o n , which i n c l u d e d matching p i c t u r e s with l a b e l s , word meaning, and grammar. Even g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n e x i s t e d i n teachers' approaches to a c t i v i t y time. In B r i t i s h Columbia, the k i n d e r g a r t e n schedule g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e s approximately one hour of . s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s , d u r i n g which p e r i o d c h i l d r e n choose to work i n the sandbox, housekeeping corner, with l a r g e b l o c k s , tablegames, a r t media and s i m i l a r equipment and m a t e r i a l s . In c o n t r a s t , a c t i v i t y time i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n s t a k i n g part in t h i s study v a r i e d from s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s to s p e c i f i e d t e a c h e r - a s s i g n e d a c t i v i t i e s , u s i n g a s t a t i o n approach. Three teachers ( s i x c l a s s e s ) used s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s , s i x teachers (seven c l a s s e s ) used a s t a t i o n approach, while another s i x teachers ( e i g h t c l a s s e s ) combined the s t a t i o n approach with 90 s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . Four c l a s s e s (taught by three teachers) which i n c l u d e d Treatment 1 r e c e i v e d h a l f an hour of s t a t i o n time or s t a t i o n time p l u s s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . S t a t i o n s i n teachers A's and B's rooms i n c l u d e d the housekeeping corner, which at a p p r o p r i a t e times was transformed i n t o a f i r e h a l l , r e s t a u r a n t or post o f f i c e , p a i n t i n g , a s p e c i a l a r t a c t i v i t y and workjobs. These teachers had a l a r g e v a r i e t y of workjobs on hand, p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e i n l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , language s k i l l s , and p e r c e p t u a l -motor s k i l l s . Upon completion of the task, a c h e c k l i s t was stamped. Teacher C, using a combined approach a s s i g n e d p a r t of the c l a s s to s t a t i o n s , such as p a i n t i n g , drawing on the blackboard, and tablegames, while the remainder of the c h i l d r e n were allowed to choose an a c t i v i t y . A l l teachers r o t a t e d the c h i l d r e n d u r i n g the week, so that by the end of the week each c h i l d had taken p a r t i n a l l of the s t a t i o n s . The c l a s s e s which i n c l u d e d Treatment 2 a l s o r e c e i v e d e i t h e r a s t a t i o n approach or a combined approach f o r a p e r i o d of approximately 45 minutes. Teacher A's (two c l a s s e s ) s t a t i o n s i n c l u d e d the block corner, housekeeping c o r n e r , sandbox, and tablegames. The teacher a l s o worked with i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Teachers B, C, and D a l l o t t e d 10 minutes fo r i n d i v i d u a l , d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s , f o l l o wed by 40 minutes of s t a t i o n time. S t a t i o n s i n teachers B's and C's room i n c l u d e d the housekeeping c o r n e r , tablegames, p a i n t i n g , and a s p e c i a l a r t a c t i v i t y , while teacher D l i m i t e d the s t a t i o n s to p a i n t i n g , chalkboard, workjobs (numbers and l e t t e r s ) , working with the teacher, and f r e e c h o i c e . Again, c h i l d r e n r o t a t e d d u r i n g the 91 week from one s t a t i o n to another. In the school to which Treatment 3 was a s s i g n e d , teacher A (two c l a s s e s ) a l l o t t e d one hour for a c t i v i t y time, which i n c l u d e d 10 minutes of teacher-guided a c t i v i t i e s , and 40 minutes of s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . Teacher B a l l o t t e d 90 minutes f o r a c t i v i t y time, which i n c l u d e d s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s , as w e l l as small group work with the t e a c h e r . Two c l a s s e s , which i n c l u d e d Treatment 4 r e c e i v e d h a l f an hour of mainly t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s , while the other two c l a s s e s r e c e i v e d one hour of t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s combined with s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . Teacher A and B used a s t a t i o n approach, which c o n s i s t e d of workjobs p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e in pre-academic and academic re a d i n e s s s k i l l s . C h i l d r e n were l e f t with l i t t l e or no time f o r s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . Teachers C and D (one c l a s s each) used part of the one hour p e r i o d f o r mathematics with c o n c r e t e , as w e l l as p e n c i l and paper a c t i v i t i e s to be completed by the e n t i r e c l a s s . Upon completion of these tasks, c h i l d r e n were then allowed to proceed to s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . However, at the time of o b s e r v a t i o n , most c h i l d r e n took h a l f an hour or longer to complete the math assignments. Treatment 5 ( c o n t r o l ) was a s s i g n e d to four c l a s s e s , which mostly resembled the t r a d i t i o n a l B.C. k i n d e r g a r t e n . They r e c e i v e d approximately one hour of s e l f - c h o s e n a c t i v i t i e s . While the c h i l d r e n were engaged i n the housekeeping corner, block corner sandbox, or b u s i e d themselves with tablegames, p a i n t i n g , or other m a t e r i a l s , teacher A (2 c l a s s e s ) worked with i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , while teacher B (2 c l a s s e s ) worked with 92 small groups of c h i l d r e n on s p e c i f i c concepts, as w e l l as with i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . C o l l e c t i o n and Analyses of Data At the end of the i n t e r v e n t i o n program, pre- and post -treatment data were coded and r e s u l t s of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Preschool Language Scale (PLS), and the Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n (VMI) p r e t e s t s , p o s t t e s t s , and the Lee Cl a r k Reading Readiness Test (LCRRT) were t r a n s f e r r e d to computer coding sheets. The c h r o n o l o g i c a l age (CA) was a l s o recorded. These data were then t r a n s f e r r e d to computer cards f o r s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . The means, standard d e v i a t i o n s and c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were processed by UBC SPSS ( S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ) , while the analyses of the v a r i a n c e and cov a r i a n c e were processed by UBC ANOVAR. The ANOVA technique of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s was chosen by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r to determine the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of the f i v e treatment l e v e l s . As the reader may r e c a l l , s t r u c t u r e g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h e d over the treatment l e v e l s , with treatment 1 having the h i g h e s t degree of s t r u c t u r e and treatment 5 having the l e a s t s t r u c t u r e . The major components which d i s t i n g u i s h e d one treatment from another were: 93 1. D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n and Parent Involvement. 2. D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n . 3. A t t e n t i o n Placebo. 4. Learning P r o f i l e s . 5. C o n t r o l (None of the above). The ANOVA and ANCOVA technique enables the i n v e s t i g a t o r to determine (1) an o v e r a l l treatment e f f e c t by means of a F t e s t , and (2) i n the event a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s i n d i c a t e d , range t e s t s such as the Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range Te s t s or S t u d e n t i z e d Ranges f o r Newman-Keul's t e s t can be conducted to determine between which treatments a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s . T h i s knowledge c o u l d then l e a d the i n v e s t i g a t o r to draw some t e n t a t i v e i n f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g what aspect of the treatment c o u l d have made a c o n t r i b u t i o n toward the end r e s u l t . Assumptions of the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e were reasonably w e l l met. I t was assumed that o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e s were drawn from a normally d i s t r i b u t e d p o p u l a t i o n . Schools were randomly s e l e c t e d and treatments randomly assigned to the schools s e l e c t e d . I t cannot be f i r m l y s t a t e d that the v a r i a n c e s of p o p u l a t i o n s were e q u a l . However, Spatz and Johnston (1976) s t a t e that "... the F t e s t i s reasonably 'robust'; u n l e s s v a r i a n c e s depart g r e a t l y from each other, the c o n c l u s i o n reached with the F t e s t w i l l not be a f f e c t e d " (p. 213). 94 A h i e r a r c h i c a l design was chosen f o r p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In the school system, treatments cannot be ass i g n e d randomly to c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the same classroom. Children, i n each classroom must r e c e i v e the same treatment and t h e r e f o r e c l a s s e s were nested under treatment. Furthermore, i t seemed best to nest schools and teachers under the treatments. Teachers i n the same school c o u l d compare notes, and treatments c o u l d become confounded, with each teacher i n f l u e n c i n g her c o l l e a g u e . The f o l l o w i n g diagram i l l u s t r a t e s the h i e r a r c h i c a l design used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F i g u r e 7 H i e r a r c h i c a l Design F a c t o r s T r e a t . A i A3 School B, B* Bi> B « Teacher c. C, S C, C C C l a s s D i Dx 3 D r D 5 D 6 D 7 D f D9 D (0 D H D a D 14 D D IS % D n % D 20 Thus, the h i e r a r c h i c a l design c o n s i s t e d of four f a c t o r s : treatment, s c h o o l , teacher and c l a s s , with 5, 9, 15, and 21 l e v e l s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 95 The n u l l and a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses f o r the means were: H 0: (A = 0 f o r a l l i H 0: & — 0 f o r a l l J H, : 0 f o r some i H, : 8 0 f o r some J V y = 0 f o r a l l k H 0: 6 = 0 f o r a l l 1 H, : V 4 0 f o r some k H, : 6 0 f o r some 1 The dependent v a r i a b l e s f o r these hypotheses, the PPVT, PLS and VMI were used i n a p r e t e s t - p o s t t e s t d esign, which i s presented i n F i g u r e 8. Fi g u r e 8 Design f o r the Screening Ba t t e r y R o, x, Ox R o, °Z R o, X 3 Ox R o, Oa R o, Ox The ANCOVA technique was used with the p r e t e s t s as a c o v a r i a t e to allow f o r adjustment of i n i t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s among the f i v e treatment groups. The F t e s t was conducted on the sample of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n as a group. I f t h i s t e s t r e s u l t e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , i t was followed by p a i r w i s e comparisons between treatment groups. For hypotheses 2 and 3, the n u l l and a l t e r n a t i v e hypotheses were: 96 = 0 f o r a l l i 6 - 0 f o r a l l J H, : 0 f o r some i H, : & 0 f o r some J Ho = y = 0 f o r a l l k "a- 5 = 0 f o r a l l 1 H, : y * 0 f o r some k H i : 6 •r 0 f o r some 1 The dependent v a r i a b l e f o r these hypotheses, the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test, was used i n a p o s t t e s t d e s i g n , which i s presented i n F i g u r e 9. F i g u r e 9 Design f o r the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test R o, R \ o, R X 3 o, R •o, R o, The ANOVA technique was used because there was no s u i t a b l e measure to covary with the LCRRT. The F t e s t was conducted on the sample of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n as a group, as we l l as on the T o t a l Sample. 97 CHAPTER 4 R e s u l t s Overview D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are d i s p l a y e d in t a b l e s summarizing p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, the Pres c h o o l Language S c a l e , the Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n , and the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test by c l a s s . Graphs are i n c l u d e d to accentuate the growth p a t t e r n and achievement of the v a r i o u s treatment groups. F i n a l l y , the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and co v a r i a n c e t a b l e s summarize the i n f e r e n t i a l s t a t i s t i c s . A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n of the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s by c l a s s , each hypothesis w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n , with r e f e r e n c e to concomitant t a b l e s and graphs. T h i s chapter ends with posthoc analyses of c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , which may s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . D e s c r i p t i v e Data A summary of the p r e t e s t r e s u l t s f o r the t o t a l sample i s d i s p l a y e d i n Table 3, while p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s f o r the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4, Table 6 and Table 7. The c h r o n o l o g i c a l age has been i n c l u d e d i n these and subsequent t a b l e s i n order to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons between mental age and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. However, these comparisons between the mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l and mental age in the d i s c u s s i o n of these t a b l e s are to be co n s i d e r e d merely i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s , as no t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e between these two v a r i a b l e s have been 98 conducted. The i n t e n t of these comparisons i s to draw the reader's a t t e n t i o n to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d in Chapter 5 under " L i m i t a t i o n s " . Table 3 prese n t s a summary of the p r e t e s t scores f o r the t o t a l sample by c l a s s . An examination of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age in t h i s t a b l e r e v e a l s that with a range of 4.28 months, the mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l age v a r i e d l i t t l e from c l a s s to c l a s s . The mean mental age scores on both the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Pres c h o o l Language Scale (PLS) v a r i e d g r e a t l y with a range of 24.53 months and 13.23 months, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The range on the PLS c o u l d have been g r e a t e r . The maximum o b t a i n a b l e score was 81 months and many c h i l d r e n reached t h i s c e i l i n g . The range on the Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n (VMI) was 8.53 months. These ranges gi v e one some idea of the d i f f e r e n c e s among c l a s s e s . 99 Table 3 Screening B a t t e r y : P r e t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r T o t a l Sample by C l a s s Treatment Group C n CA M PPVT PLS VMI M SD M SD M SD 1 . 1 15 63. ,93 76. ,53 15. ,88 63. 87 8 .13 58. ,20 7. 98 2 1 4 64. ,29 72. ,85 19. ,87 67. ,77 10 .37 64. ,62 1 1 . 41 3 17 65. ,58 76. ,65 9. ,53 72. ,18 8 .93 60. ,65 6. 1 7 4 23 65. ,04 75. ,70 12. ,77 73. ,35 10 .66 64. ,74 10. 28 2. 1 17 63. ,82 69. ,24 18. ,86 70. ,59 10 .17 61 . ,88 6. 59 2 16 65. ,38 73'. ,94 15. ,72 70. ,19 10 .85 65. .81 1 1 . 1 7 3 1 7 66. , 1 1 76. ,53 17. ,63 74. ,71 9 .45 66. ,06 1 1 . 54 4 1 7 64. ,53 72. ,77 10. .85 75. , 1 2 8 .10 61 . .18 4. 41 5 1 4 65. ,67 72. , 1 4 14, .82 67. ,57 10 .66 66. .29 6. 45 3. 1 16 65. .81 74. ,31 13, .15 69. ,50 10 .86 65. .19 10. 06 2 18 66. ,22 70. . 1 7 18, .73 70. ,00 12 .45 60. .56 8. 84 3 18 63. ,56 73. .56 1 1 , .66 67. , 1 1 1 1 .09 60, .33 6. 53 4 1 2 63. .75 61 . 27 18, .60 64. ,58 1 1 .35 62, .58 9. 67 4. 1 1 1 65. .18 72. .55 10, .84 65. .27 8 .53 61 , .91 5. 80 2 1 5 64. . 1 3 81 . 33 1 4 , .98 69. ,00 2 .53 66, .73 10. 1 0 3 19 64. .67 73, .90 8, .21 72. . 1 1 9 .22 62, .00 7. 82 4 1 5 65, .75 69, .87 10, .67 69, .40 . 1 1 . 1 6 62, .40 6. 40 5. 1 1 6 64, .71 69, .94 1 1 , .19 68, .06 1 2 . 14 60, .50 5. 90 2 10 64, .09 73, . 1 1 17, .72 72, .70 1 1 .06 63, .20 4. 94 3 1 4 62, .18 65, .57 10, .62 68, .21 7 .52 63, .50 6. 43 4 1 0 66, .46 85, .80 24, .76 77, .10 7 .58 63, .10 5. 02 Note. CA = C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age, C = C l a s s Some i n s i g h t i n t o the v a r i a b i l i t y w i t h i n c l a s s e s can be gained from the standard d e v i a t i o n s . The PPVT had the g r e a t e s t v a r i a b i l i t y , with an o v e r a l l standard d e v i a t i o n of 14.62. The mean standard d e v i a t i o n s on the PLS and the VMI were 10.44 and 7.79, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Comparisons between the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age means on the one hand and the mental age means on the other hand, r e v e a l s that on both the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test and the Preschool Language Scale most of the means are above the c h r o n o l o g i c a l 100 age, while on the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n most of the mean scores are approximately a t , or s l i g h t l y below c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. I t may be that the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test and the Pres c h o o l Language S c a l e are not accurate i n d i c a t o r s of developmental a b i l i t i e s . The Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n appears to be the most accurate measure of developmental a b i l i t i e s . P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n f o r each of the measures are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 4, Table 6 and Table 7. Table 4 summarizes the p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT) f o r "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n by c l a s s . In s p i t e of the s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n in c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, the p r e t e s t mental age means v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y among i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s , with a range of 24.67 months, while p o s t t e s t means had a range of 17.9 months. D i f f e r e n c e s between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s a l s o v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , from a decrease of 1.57 months to an i n c r e a s e of 18 months. T h i s v a r i a t i o n i n l o s s e s and gains suggests that the growth p a t t e r n i n r e c e p t i v e vocabulary i s i r r e g u l a r , or that the PPVT i s not a r e l i a b l e measure. T h i s v a r i a t i o n i n l o s s e s and gains c o u l d a l s o be due to a combination of these two f a c t o r s . Comparison of p r e t e s t mental age means with c h r o n o l o g i c a l age means r e v e a l s that e i g h t c l a s s e s had means which d i f f e r e d approximately 2 months from the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, while nine c l a s s e s had means of 4 to 11 months above c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and four c l a s s e s had means of 4 to 12 months below c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. 101 Table 4 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Pre and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At R i s k " C h i l d r e n by C l a s s CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Treatment Group C n M M < SD M SD 1 . 1 7 64. 29 69. 86 1 3 .10 68. 29 13. 10 2 8 64. 25 68. 00 19 .25 71 . 25 19. 36 3 1 0 67. 20 71 . 60 7 .41 85. 90 1 1 . 39 4 8 65. 1 3 65. 63 1 5 .27 77. 1 3 12. 68 2. 1 7 64. 1 4 63. 71 19 .53 81 . 00 19. 62 2 7 65. 29 67. 14 7 .71 82. 1 4 7. 84 3 6 66. 83 61 . 50 1 7 .70 73. 50 16. 50 4 4 65. 76 67. 50 12 .48 71 . 50 10. 66 5 6 65. 50 61 . 50 7 .42 83. 00 15. 85 3. 1 5 64. 00 75. 40 1 6 .68 75. 40 15. 95 2 7 66. 86 54. 00 1 6 .22 68. 00 15. 46 3 7 64. 71 74. 86 1 3 . 1 1 74. 71 15. 86 4 6 63. 83 63. 75 21 .17 70. 00 15. 40 4. 1 7 66. 43 52. 00 1 3 .24 80. 14 14. 61 2 6 62.. 1 7 72. 71 27 .92 80. 67 15. 08 3 6 64. 83 66. 50 8 .80 77. 83 13. 70 4 9 67. 00 70. 17 1 0 .54 78. 44 8. 62 5. 1 8 64. 00 65. 56 1 0 .93 79. 38 13. 55 2 4 64. 60 62. 50 1 4 .52 68. 50 10. 34 3 8 61 . 75 62. 75 10 .52 75. 1 3 20. 39 4 3 66. 33 76. 67 1 3 .43 75. 67 19. 40 Note. CA = C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age, C = C l a s s Keeping i n mind that the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d as such, because one or more mental age scores were at l e a s t one year below t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, one would expect Table 4 to show at l e a s t one year d i s c r e p a n c y between c h r o n o l o g i c a l age and mental age. However, Table 4, as w e l l as Table 6 and Table 7.do not show t h i s one year discrepancy,, which can be e x p l a i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1 02 F i r s t l y , a l l c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " were r e t e s t e d on a l l of these measures, even though they may have r e c e i v e d a low score on only one of these measures. Thus low scores obtained by c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on one p a r t i c u l a r measure, are masked by higher scores r e c e i v e d on the same measure by the remainder of the sample. Table 5 shows the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by treatment, and the a c t u a l number of c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on each of the measures by treatment. The number i n parentheses represents the percentage of the t o t a l number i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by each measure. Table 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of "At Risk" C h i l d r e n I d e n t i f i e d by (a) Combined Scores of the Screening B a t t e r y (CSSB)* and (b) by the PPVT, PLS, and VMI Independently Treatment CSSB PPVT PLS VMI Group n n(%) n(%) n(%) 1 . 33 3( 9) 8(24) 15(45) 2. 30 7(23) 8(27) 9(30) 3. 25 7(28) 12(48) 10(40) 4. 28 3(11) 8(28) 8(28) 5. 24 4(17) 5(21 ) 4(17) T o t a l 1 40 24(17) 41(29) 46(33) * The Screening B a t t e r y c o n s i s t e d of the Motor A c t i v i t y S c ale and the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test, i n a d d i t i o n to the PPVT, PLS and VMI . Secondly, mental -age scores, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the Preschool Language S c a l e , d i d not f a l l the expected one year below the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age because a c h i l d c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on any of the subtests of t h i s measure, while s t i l l o b t a i n i n g an average .score on the t o t a l P reschool Language S c a l e . Furthermore, the combination of the Beery Developmental 1 03 Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n with c e r t a i n subtest scores tended to i d e n t i f y more c h i l d r e n as "at r i s k " than the VMI per se. The use of subtest scores on the Preschool Language Scale and the combination of v a r i o u s scores w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d in Chapter 5 under L i m i t a t i o n s . Table 6 presents p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the Preschool Language Scale by c l a s s . I t may be noted that the range between p r e t e s t means was 12.33 months, which i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to a few extreme s c o r e s . In g e n e r a l , p r e t e s t means v a r i e d l i t t l e among i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s . I n s p e c t i o n of the p o s t t e s t means r e v e a l s that these means v a r i e d from 72.50 to 81.00 months. T h i s range of 8.50 months co u l d have been g r e a t e r , had there not been a c e i l i n g e f f e c t . The maximum o b t a i n a b l e score on t h i s measure i s 81.00 and many c h i l d r e n reached t h i s c e i l i n g . As a matter of f a c t , a l l s i x of the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n C l a s s 5 of Treatment L e v e l 2 obtained a p o s t t e s t score of 81.00! 104 Table 6 Preschool Language S c a l e : Pre- and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by C l a s s CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Treatment Group C n M M SD M SD 1 7 64. 29 59. 29 5. 44 79 .43 2 .82 2 8 64. 25 64. 00 10. 18 78 .00 8 .49 3 10 67. 20 71 . 00 9. 87 80 .90 0 .32 4 8 65. 13 64. 1 3 12. 44 79 .63 2 .67 1 7 64. 1 4 64. 29 12. 1 3 77 . 1 4 5 .01 2 7 65. 29 60. 86 9. 72 79 .00 4 .87 3 6 66. 83 65. 83 1 1 . 32 76 .67 7 .71 4 4 65. 76 64. 7 5 8. 61 79 .50 3 .00 5 6 65. 50 61 . 1 7 8. 61 81 .00 0 .00 1 5 64. 00 63. 40 12. 20 80 .20 1 .79 2 7 66. 86 63. 43 12. 93 75 .57 9 .27 3 7 64. 71 60. 43 10. 78 74 .29 7 .43 4 6 63. 83 58. 67 7. 20 72 .50 1 1 .68 1 7 66. 43 62. 71 6. 73 75 .43 9 .81 2 6 62. 17 60. 83 7. 1 1 74 .00 6 .66 3 6 64. 83 62. 67 8. 31 76 .00 9 .92 4 9 67. 00 64. 56 12. 03 74 .22 8 .04 1 8 64. 00 61 . 63 12. 55 78 .50 4 .90 2 5 64. 60 64. 60 10. 53 78 .20 5 .72 3 8 61 . 75 64. 50 6. 21 76 .88 7 .68 4 3 66. 33 69. 33 1 1 . 06 78 .33 2 .31 Note. CA = C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age, C = C l a s s Table 7 summarizes the r e s u l t s of the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n by c l a s s . I t may be noted t h a t , i n general., p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t means v a r i e d l i t t l e among i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s . The range f o r the p r e t e s t means was 6.67 months, while the range f o r the p o s t t e s t means was 10.50 months. 1 05 Table 7 Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Pre- and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by C l a s s CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Treatment : • Group C n M M SD M SD 1 . 1 7 64. 29 55. 00 7. 83 67. 00 1 1 . 52 2 8 64. 25 57. 00 5. 66 69. 63 14. 38 3 10 67. 20 58. 60 5. 91 66. 70 6. 06 4 8 65. 1 3 56. 1 3 8. 56 67. 25 9. 45 2. 1 7 64. 1 4 57. 1 4 5. 05 63. 14 3. 19 2 7 65. 29 57. 71 6. 26 70. 29 6. 85 3 6 66. 83 57. 33 6. 41 68. 33 1 1 . 33 4 4 65. 76 55. 75 6. 40 63. 00 4. 24 5 6 65. 50 62. 67 6. 62 72. 67 12. 50 3. 1 5 64. 00 55. 00 2. 74 62. 40 3. 13 2 7 66. 86 54. 29 8. 50 61 . 57 7. 02 3 7 64. 71 56. 43 6. 55 61 . 86 6. 87 4 6 63. 83 59. 67 8. 31 61 . 83 5. 31 4. 1 7 66. 43 60. 1 4 6. 04 63. 29 7. 1 4 2 6 62. 17 62. 33 7. 74 62. 17 3. 37 3 6 64. 83 57. 00 5. 73 64. 17 9. 91 4 9 67. 00 61 . 67 6. 78 67. 56 8. 41 •5. 1 8 64. 00 57. 75 4. 68 63. 00 5. 45 2 5 64. 60 62. 20 5. 98 69. 40 8. 39 3 8 61 . 75 61 . 00 5. 24 64. 50 8. 23 4 3 66. 33 59. 67 6. 03 64. 00 1 . 73 Note. CA = C h r o n o l o g i c a l Age, C = C l a s s R e s u l t s of the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test f o r the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n and the t o t a l sample by c l a s s are presented in Table 8 and Table 9. Both Table 8 and Table 9 show l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n among c l a s s e s . The range among c l a s s means f o r "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s 10.07, while the range among c l a s s means f o r the t o t a l sample i s 7.46. The s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n among c l a s s means i s p a r t l y due to a c e i l i n g e f f e c t . A . l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n scored i n the high 106 range (52-64). Three c h i l d r e n scored i n the low average range (33-39), while no one scored i n the low range (0-19). T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e that t h i s t e s t was too easy f o r the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s sample. Table 8 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Ri s k " C h i l d r e n by C l a s s " Treatment Group C n M SD V. 1 7 55. 43 6 .08 2 8 52. 75 8 .19 3 10 56. 90 3 .78 4 8 51 . 43 10 .92 2. 1 7 54. 1 4 3 .29 2 7 54. 71 3 .55 3 6 54. 1 7 3 .76 4 4 58. 25 1 .50 5 6 5.8. 50 1 .87 • 3. 1 5 52. 60 4 .93 2 7 51 . 86 6 .12 3 7 53. 29 6 .40 4 6 53. 67 6 .47 4. 1 7 48. 43 1 0 .36 2 6 57. 1 7 3 .25 3 6 55. 00 4 .29 4 9 54. 1 1 6 .94 5. 1 8 55. 25 7 .80 2 5 53. 00 10 .37 3 8 51 . 38 5 .78 4 3 49. 67 6 . 1 1 1 07 Table 9 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r T o t a l Sample by C l a s s Treatment Group C n M SD 1 . 1 1 4 55. 58 4 .93 2 14 56. 50 7 .67 3 19 57. 79 4 .21 4 22 55. 61 7 .43 2. 1 1 5 56. 73 3 .60 2 1 4 57. 64 4 .01 3 16 57. 31 4 .14 4 1 7 57. 82 2 .92 5 1 2 58. 00 2 .66 3. 1 1 1 55. 27 4 .86 2 1 5 54. 47 5 .68 3 15 '54. 33 5 .51 4 10 52. 70 5 .83 4. 1 1 6 52. 75 9 .03 2 1 5 59. 1 3 3 . 1 4 3 1 6 57. 06 4 .86 4 16 55. 38 5 .77 5. 1 1 5 56. 67 5 .89 2 10 55. 30 7 .66 3 1 5 51 . 67 1 .44 4 1 2 54. 00 5 .54 Data A n a l y s i s Previous t a b l e s presented d e s c r i p t i v e data by c l a s s w i t h i n treatments. Tables summarizing treatment group means are i n c l u d e d i n the data a n a l y s i s , which together with graphs, w i l l f a c i l i t a t e comparisons of these group means with the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e and c o v a r i a n c e t a b l e s . In t h i s s e c t i o n , each hypothesis w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , i n t u r n , with r e f e r e n c e to r e l e v a n t t a b l e s and graphs. Under hypothesis 1, the r e s u l t s of each of the dependent measures, the 108 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , the Preschool Language Scale and the Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n w i l l be examined. The Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test i s r e l e v a n t to hypotheses 2 and 3. Hypothesis 1 s t a t e d that there w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean p o s t t e s t scores of the f i v e treatment groups f o r "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n as measured by the a. Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test b. P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e c. Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n The r e s u l t s of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT) fo r the v a r i o u s treatment groups are shown i n Table 10 and Graph 1, while the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e i s shown i n Table 11. 109 Table 10 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Pre- and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Ri s k " C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group Treatment Group n CA M P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 33 65. ,22 68. ,91 13. ,60 76. ,49 75. ,25 1 5 .33 2. 30 65. ,43 64. ,13 13. ,32 78. ,90 80. ,50 14 .67 3. 25 65. ,36 72. ,39 19. .36 79. .21 73. .74 14 .99 4. 28 64. ,96 63. .64 14, .83 71 , .84 75, .90 1 2 .16 5. 23 63. .67 64, .04 1 1 , .98 75, .52 77, .18 - 15 .93 T o t a l 139 64, .93 66, .83 14, .44 76, .39 76, .56 14 .66 Table 10 i n c l u d e s p r e t e s t means, p o s t t e s t means, as w e l l as the averaged p r e t e s t means and the ad j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means f o r the dependent v a r i a b l e . The l a t t e r values have been obtained from the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e , i n which p o s t t e s t scores have been mathematically a d j u s t e d to remove the e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n c e s among the p r e t e s t s c o r e s . Graph 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of t h i s mathematical adjustment. The ad j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means have been p l o t t e d a g a i n s t the averaged p r e t e s t mean. Thus Graph 1 compares the gain between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s f o r each of the experimental groups over a s i x month p e r i o d . 110 Graph 1 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s by Treatment L e v e l , Adjusted f o r I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Note. Gains i n months f o r treatment groups: 2 = 13.67 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 5 = 10.35 ( c o n t r o l ) 4 = 9.07 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) 1 = 8.42 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 3 = 6.91 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) Six Months elapsed between p r e t e s t i n g and p o s t t e s t i n g . I t was expected that on each of the measures, both groups 1 and 2 would make gr e a t e r gains between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s than group 3, 4, and 5. I t was a l s o a n t i c i p a t e d that the gains would g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h over the treatment l e v e l s , thus r e f l e c t i n g the .degree of s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n each treatment . l e v e l . 111 Gains on the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test d i d not f o l l o w t h i s expected t r e n d . Of the treatment l e v e l s which i n c l u d e d d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n only group 2 made the g r e a t e s t g a i n s , followed, i n order by group 5 ( c o n t r o l ) , group 4 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) , group 1 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n and parent-involvement) and group 3 ( a t t e n t i o n p l a c e b o ) . Gains i n months were 13.67, 10.35, 9.07, 8.42 and 6.91 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Although experimental group 2 appears to have advanced more than the remainder of the groups, the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (Table 11) shows no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t f o r the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t . T h e r e f o r e , with respect to t h i s measure, hypothesis 1 has been accepted. Table 11 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as a C o v a r i a t e Source DF SS MS F 1 . Cov 1 8284. 16 8284 . 16 56.49* 2. A 4 739.38 184.85 0.51 3. B(A) 4 1440.79 360.20 2.44 4. C(AB) 6 885.54 147.60 1 .08 5. D(ABC) 6 820.61 136.77 0.91 6. E r r o r 1 17 17503.75 149.60 7. T o t a l 1 38 29674.23 Note. A - Treatment B = School C = Teacher D = C l a s s *p < .001 112 The means of the p r e t e s t s by treatment groups f o r the Preschool Language Scale (PLS) are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 12, together with the averaged mean and the a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means obtained from the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . Again, the t o t a l mean and the a d j u s t e d means have been p l o t t e d (Graph 2) to i l l u s t r a t e the d i f f e r e n c e i n gains between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s f o r each of the treatment l e v e l s . Table 12 Preschool Language S c a l e : Pre- and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Treatment Group n M M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 33 65. 22 65. 1 5 1 0 .40 79. 58 79. 08 4. .47 2. 30 65. 43 63. 23 9 .84 78. 57 78. 63 4. .89 3. 25 64. 96 61 . 44 1 0 .52 75. 40 75. 99 8. .46 4. 28 65. 36 62. 89 8 .77 74. 86 75. 02 8. .23 5. 24 63. 67 64. 17 9 .77 77. 88 77. 67 5. .65 T o t a l 140 64.93 63.46 9.83 77.26 77.26 6.62 113 Graph 2 P reschool Language S c a l e : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s by Treatment L e v e l Adjusted f o r I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups Mental Age Means P r e t e s t Note. Gains in months f o r treatment groups: 1 = 15.62 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 2 = 15.17 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 5 = 14.21 ( c o n t r o l ) 3 = 12.53 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) 4 = 11.56 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) Six Months elapsed between p r e t e s t i n g and p o s t t e s t i n g . On the P r e s c h o o l Language S c a l e , a l l experimental groups advanced much beyond the expected gain of one month in mental age f o r each ' month in c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. (See Table 12 and Graph 2). Treatment groups 1 and 2, which r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n 1 1 4 with and without parent involvement, made the g r e a t e s t g a i n s , f o l l o w e d , i n t u r n , by group 5 ( c o n t r o l ) , group 3 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) and group 4 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) . Gains i n months were 15.62, 15.17, 14.21, 12.53 and 11.56 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s p a t t e r n of gains f o l l o w s , i n p a r t , the expected t r e n d : groups 1 and 2 made gr e a t e r gains than groups 3 and 4. However, i t i s s u r p r i s i n g that group 5 advanced more than group 3 and 4. The a n a l y s i s of cov a r i a n c e (Table 13) shows a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Hypothesis 1, with respect to the Presc h o o l Language Scale has been r e j e c t e d . Some of t'he "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d higher mean p o s t t e s t scores as a r e s u l t of some treatments. 1 1 5 Table 13 Preschool Language S c a l e : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as a C o v a r i a t e Source DF SS MS F 1 . Cov 1 1 169.02 1169.02 29.01** 2. A 4 345.09 86.27 12.56* 3. B(A) 4 27.47 6.87 0.23 4. C(AB) 6 175.45 29.24 1 .35 5. D(ABC) 6 129.62 21 .60 0.60 6. E r r o r 1 18 4248.29 36.00 7. T o t a l 1 39 6094.94 Note. A = Treatment B = School C = Teacher D = C l a s s *p < .05 **p < .001 Duncan's M u l t i p l e Range Test and St u d e n t i z e d Ranges f o r Newman-Keul's Test (alpha=.05) i n d i c a t e that experimental groups 1,2 and 5 r e c e i v e d higher means than experimental groups 3 and 4. Table 14 presents the means of the Beery Developmental Test of V i sual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n . Treatment groups means as w e l l as the averaged p r e t e s t mean and the a d j u s t e d means obtained from the a n a l y s i s of co v a r i a n c e have been i n c l u d e d . These means have been p l o t t e d i n Graph 3, again i l l u s t r a t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s i n gains between the p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s f o r the v a r i o u s treatment l e v e l s . 1 1 6 Table 14 Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Pre and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group Treatment Group CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t n M M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 33 65.22 56.85 6.88 67.61 68.69 1 0.07 2. 30 65.43 58.23 6.14 67.73 67.79 8.81 3. 25 64.96 56.32 6.99 61 .88 63.36 5.63 4. 28 65.36 60.43 6.55 64.61 63.03 7.57 5. 24 63.67 60.00 5.25 64.96 63.70 6.93 T o t a l 140 64.93 58.31 6.53 65.36 65.56 8.29 1 1 7 Graph 3 Beery Developmental Test of Vis u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s by Treatment L e v e l Adjusted f o r I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups Mental Age Means P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Note. Gains i n months f o r treatment groups: 1 = 10.38 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 2 = 9.48 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 5 = 5.39 ( c o n t r o l ) 3 = 5.05 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) 4 = 4.72 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) Six Months e l a p s e d between p r e t e s t i n g and p o s t t e s t i n g . Both Table 14 and Graph 3 show t h a t , f o r each month of gain i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, treatment groups 1 and 2 gained more than one month i n mental age while treatment groups 5, 3 and 4 gained l e s s than one month i n mental age. Gains i n months were, from the g r e a t e s t to the s m a l l e s t 10.38, 9.48, 5.39, 5.05 and 4.72. Again, t h i s p a t t e r n i s , i n p a r t , a c c o r d i n g to e x p e c t a t i o n s : i t was expected that 118 experimental groups 1 and 2 would advance more than experimental groups 5, 3 and 4, although not s p e c i f i c a l l y i n that o r d e r . In s p i t e of the apparent d i f f e r e n c e s i n gains between groups 1 and 2 on the one hand, and groups 5,3 and 4 on the other hand, the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (Table 15) shows no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t . T h e r e f o r e , hypothesis 1, with re s p e c t to the VMI, has been accepted. The "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n d i d not r e c e i v e higher mean p o s t t e s t scores than the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n who d i d not r e c e i v e such i n s t r u c t i o n . Although the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e was not reached, i t may be noted that a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .11 was reached. Table 15 Beery Developmental Test of Vi s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as the C o v a r i a t e Source DF SS MS F 1 . Cov 1 2765.97 2765.97 61.28* 2. A 4 841.59 210.40 3.90 3. B(A) 4 215.59 53.90 2.20 4. C(AB) 6 147.02 24.50 0.69 5. D(ABC) 6 211.91 35.32 0.78 6. E r r o r 1 18 5374.46 45.55 7. T o t a l 1 39 9556.54 Note. A = Treatment B = School C = Teacher D = C l a s s *p < .001 1 19 It was a l s o hypothesized that as a r e s u l t of the v a r i o u s treatments, there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test scores of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n (Hypothesis 2 ) . An a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e was conducted on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t . ; R e s u l t s of the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test are shown in Table 16 and Table 17 and i n Graph 4. The v a r i o u s treatment group means of the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n are presented i n Table 16. These means have been p l o t t e d i n Graph 4 to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons among the experimental groups. From both Table 16 and Graph 4 i t can be seen that these groups v a r i e d l i t t l e , which may be due to a c e i l i n g e f f e c t of the t e s t . Table 16 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group Treatment Group n M SD 1 . 32 54. 34 7. .27 2. 30 55. 70 3. .46 3. 25 52. 84 5, .74 4. 28 53. 54 7. .33 5. 24 52. 79 7, .40 T o t a l 1 39 53. 94 6, .43 120 Graph 4 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Treatment Group Means f o r "At Risk" Groups Scores Raw 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 0 t 2 3 4 5 Groups The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e f o r the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test f o r the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s presented i n Table 17. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t , and hence, hypothesis 2 i s accepted. "At r i s k " c h i l d r e n d i d not r e c e i v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean scores on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test as a r e s u l t of the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e Although the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e shows a s i g n i f i c a n t teacher e f f e c t , range t e s t s show one homogeneous group at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . program. 121 Table 17 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n Source DF SS MS F 1 . A 4 164.62 41.15 1.13 2. B(A) 4 145.74 36.44 0.49 3. C(AB) 6 450.61 75.10 8.67* 4. D(ABC) 6 51 .95 8.66 0.21 5. E r r o r 118 4885.49 41 .40 6. T o t a l 1 39 5698.41 * p < .01 It was a n t i c i p a t e d that the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program would have a g e n e r a l i z i n g , and thus a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the ki n d e r g a r t e n programs to which t h i s approach was added. T h i s l e d to the f o r m u l a t i o n of the t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s , which s t a t e d , "As a r e s u l t of the v a r i o u s treatments, there w i l l be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test scores of the t o t a l sample. R e s u l t s of the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test f o r the t o t a l sample are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 18 and Table 19 and i n Graph 5. Group means which p a r a l l e l the v a r i o u s treatment groups are shown Table 18 and Graph 5. Both Table 19 and Graph 5 show t h a t , again, group means v a r i e d l i t t l e . However, groups 1 and 2 appear to have obtained higher mean scores than groups 3, 4 and 5. 122 Table 18 Lee Clark Reading Readiness T e s t : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r T o t a l Sample by Group Treatment Group n M SD 1 . 69 56.42 6.28 2. 74 57.49 3.47 3. 51 54.26 5.40 4. 63 56.03 6.42 5. 52 54.35 6.24 T o t a l 309 55.89 5.71 ' Graph 5 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : Group Means f o r the T o t a l Sample Raw Scores 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 0 t 1 2 3 4 5 Groups The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (Table 19) shows no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t . T h e r e f o r e , hypothesis 3 i s accepted. The d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program had no e f f e c t on reading r e a d i n e s s scores of the t o t a l sample of k i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n . 123 The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e does show a s i g n i f i c a n t teacher e f f e c t . However, range t e s t s d e t e c t only one homogeneous group at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Table 19 Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness T e s t : A n a l y s i s of Variance f o r T o t a l Sample Source DF SS MS F 1. A 4 469.57 117.39 2.84 2. B(A) 4 165.45 41 .26 0.62 3. C(AB) 6 401.54 66.92 5.04* 4. D(ABC) 6 79.66 1 3.28 0.43 5. E r r o r 288 8910.04 30.94 6. T o t a l 308 10026.26 * p < .05 Post-Hoc Analyses Under " D e s c r i p t i v e Data", the reader's a t t e n t i o n was drawn to the f a c t t h a t mean mental age scores obtained on the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y by "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n d i d not f a l l one year below the c h r o n o l o g i c a l age, because on each measure lower scores r e c e i v e d by some c h i l d r e n were masked by higher scores r e c e i v e d by the other c h i l d r e n on the same measure. Would the r e s u l t s have been d i f f e r e n t had p u p i l s been r e t e s t e d only on those measures which i d e n t i f i e d them as "at r i s k " ? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , post-hoc. analyses were conducted, r e s u l t s of which are presented i n Tables, 20 to 25 and Graphs 6 to 8. 1 24 Table 20 d i s p l a y s the treatment group means of the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test, i n c l u d i n g the averaged p r e t e s t mean and the a d j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means, obtained from the a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e . Graph 6 i l l u s t r a t e s the e f f e c t of t h i s mathematical adjustment and the gains f o r each of the experimental groups. Gains ranged from 12.48 months to 22.72 months, thus g r e a t l y exceeding the expected gain of one month in mental age f o r each month in c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. No s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n emerged due to treatment. Treatment group 3 made the g r e a t e s t gain f o l l o w e d , i n order, by treatment groups 5, 2, 4 and 1. The a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (Table 21) showed no treatment e f f e c t . Table 20 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n "At R i s k " on This Test Only Treatment Group n CA M P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 3 64. .67 38. ,33 12. ,86 53. ,33 56. ,65 1 1 , .59 2. 7 66. .86 45. .71 9. ,20 62. .00 61 . , 12 10, .83 3. 7 64. ,71 38. .57 10. ,01 62. .00 66. ,89 13, . 1 1 4. 3 71 . ,00 53. .00 7. .81 61 . .33 60. ,32 1 1 , .15 5. 4 63. ,00 49, .00 7. .12 65. .75 63. .00 5, .75 T o t a l 24 66. .05 44, .17 10, .17 60, .88 62. .46 10, .80 125 Graph 6 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s f o r C h i l d r e n "At R i s k " on T h i s Test Only, Adjusted for I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups Mental Age Means P o s t t e s t Note. Gains i n months f o r treatment groups: 3 = 22.72 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) 5 = 18.83 ( c o n t r o l ) 2 = 16.95 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 4 = 16.15 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) 1 = 12.48 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 1 26 Table 21 Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as a C o v a r i a t e f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" on T h i s Test Only Source • .• DF SS MS F 1. Cov. 1 678.78 678.78 2.28 2. A 4 254.95 63.74 0.91 3. B(A) 4 280.55 70. 14 0.80 4. C(AB) 6 263.85 87.95 1 .69 5. D(ABC) 6 104.28 52. 14 0.43 6. E r r o r 9 1099.55 122.17 7. T o t a l 23 2681.96 R e s u l t s of the Preschool Language Scale a r e . p r e s e n t e d i n Table 22 and Table 23 and i n Graph 7. Table 22, again, i n c l u d e s the t o t a l p r e t e s t mean and the ad j u s t e d p o s t t e s t means, which have been p l o t t e d i n Graph 7, thus i l l u s t r a t i n g the gains between p r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t s f o r the v a r i o u s experimental groups. As was the case with the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , gains, ranging from 14.15 months to 27.94 months, g r e a t l y exceed the expected norm. Gains in t h i s post-hoc a n a l y s i s a l s o exceeded those i n the o r i g i n a l a n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t i n g that the g r e a t e s t gains were made by those c h i l d r e n who i n i t i a l l y r e c e i v e d the lowest s c o r e s . T h i s c o u l d be due to r e g r e s s i o n to the mean, maturation, treatment, or i t c o u l d be due to a combination of some or a l l of these v a r i a b l e s . Treatment group 5 made the g r e a t e s t g a i n , followed by groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. T h i s p a t t e r n i s s i m i l a r to the o r i g i n a l r e s u l t s , with the exception of group 5, which moved from the t h i r d p o s i t i o n to the f i r s t p o s i t i o n i n the post-hoc a n a l y s i s . 127 The a n a l y s i s of co v a r i a n c e (Table 23) shows no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t . A s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .11 was reached. Table 22 Preschool Language S c a l e : Pre- and P o s t t e s t Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" on T h i s Test Only Treatment CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Group n M M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 8 64. 88 53. 25 2, .05 75. 75 75. 20 8. ,19 2. 8 66. 75 53. 62 5, .31 74. 50 73. 43 7. .26 3. 1 2 65. 00 52. 50 1 . .75 72. 42 72. 91 9. .30 4. 8 65. 38 52. 75 1 . .75 66. 25 66. 90 8. .80 5. 5 63. 60 52. 00 0, .00 79. 60 80. 79 4, .04 T o t a l 41 65.12 52.85 2.66 73.70 73.24 8.74 128 Graph 7 Preschool Language S c a l e : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t s and P o s t t e s t s f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" on T h i s Test Only, Adjusted f o r I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Among Treatment Groups Mental P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Note. Gains f o r treatment groups: 5 = 27.94 ( c o n t r o l ) 1 = 22.35 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 2 = 20.58 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 3 = 20.06 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) 4 = 14.05 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) 1 29 Table 23 Preschool Language S c a l e : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as The C o v a r i a t e f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk on T h i s Test Only Source DF SS MS F 1. Cov. 1 250.01 250.01 3.70 2. A 4 637.22 159.30 5.11 3. B(A) 3 93.53 31.18 0.66 4. C(AB) 6 282.32 47.05 0.80 5. D(XBC) 5 293.28 58.66 0.73 6. E r r o r 21 1679.20 79.96 7. T o t a l 40 3235.56 Table 24 and Table 25 and Graph 8 present the r e s u l t s of the Beery Developmental Test of Vis u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n , f o r t h i s post-hoc sample. Table 24 i n c l u d e s , again, the p r e t e s t averaged mean and the p o s t t e s t a d j u s t e d means, which have been p l o t t e d i n Graph 8. Both Table 24 and Graph 8 show that treatment group 2 and 1 gained 13.22 and 12.22 months r e s p e c t i v e l y , f o l l o wed by groups 3,4 and 5, which gained 8.57, 6.22 and 4.79 months r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p a t t e r n of gains i s as expected, and i s s i m i l a r to the p a t t e r n of the o r i g i n a l sample. Groups 1 and 2 made gr e a t e r gains than groups 3,4 and 5. The a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (Table 25) shows a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t , at the .05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . 130 Table 24 Beery Developmental Test of Visu a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" on T h i s Test Only Treatment CA P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Group n M M SD M Adj .M SD 1 . 15 66. 1 3 51 . 20 4. .60 63. 93 64. 72 7. .29 2. .9 67. 00 54. 78 5, .09 66. 44 65. 62 8. .75 3. 10 65. 50 50. 90 5, . 1 1 60. 10 61 . 07 • 5, .63 4. 8 66. 88 53. 38 4, .60 59. 25 58. 7 2 5, .95 5. 4 65. 75 54. 50 1 , .20 58. 50 57. 29 5, .45 T o t a l 46 66.25 52.50 4.76 61.64 62.41 7.30 131 Graph 8 Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n : Mean Mental Age Gains Between P r e t e s t and P o s t t e s t Means f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" on T h i s Test Only, Adjusted f o r I n i t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s Between Treatment Groups Mental Age Scores P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t Note. Gains i n months f o r treatment groups: 2 = 13.1.2 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) 1 = 12.22 ( d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n with parent involvement) 3 = 8.57 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) 4 = 6.22 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) 5 = 4.79 ( c o n t r o l ) 1 32 Table 25 Beery Developmental Test of Vi s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n : A n a l y s i s of Covariance with the P r e t e s t as the C o v a r i a t e f o r C h i l d r e n "At Risk" On T h i s Test Only Source DF SS MS F 1. Cov. 1 462.44 462.44 4.19* 2. A 4 403.77 100.94 9.03* 3. B(A) 4 41 .72 11.18 0.91 4. C(AB) 6 73.34 12.22 0.58 5. D(ABC) 5 105.09 21 .02 0.40 6. E r r o r 25 1 310.79 52.43. 7. T o t a l 45 2397.15 *p < .05 Duncan's m u l t i p l e Range Test and S t u d e n t i z e d Ranges f o r the Newman-Keul's Test (alpha=.05) show that there are two homogeneous groups: groups 2, 1 and 3 and groups 3, 4 and 5. Thus group 2 and 1 r e c e i v e d higher p o s t t e s t means than groups 4 and 5 which i n d i c a t e s that the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program r e c e i v e d by group 1 and 2 was e f f e c t i v e . F u r t h e r post-hoc analyses sought to determine what c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t between the v a r i o u s measures at the time of p r e t e s t i n g on the one hand, and at the time of p o s t t e s t i n g on the other hand. Such c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s c o u l d p r o v i d e some c l u e s about i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s . Are these l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s uneven, as i s o f t e n s t a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ? Are the c o r r e l a t i o n s higher at the end of the program than at the beginning of the program, i n d i c a t i n g an "evening out" of p r o f i l e s ? Are the p r o f i l e s of "moderate" and "high" r i s k c h i l d r e n more uneven than the p r o f i l e s of the balance of the sample? And f i n a l l y , i s there a c o r r e l a t i o n between the 133 p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of each of these measures? P r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale (PLS), and the Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n (VMI) f o r the t o t a l sample are presented i n Table 26. The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s are based on 323 o b s e r v a t i o n s , . and are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . In the t o t a l sample, language s k i l l s and visual-motor s k i l l s are c o r r e l a t e d . Although these c o r r e l a t i o n s are s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , they are low and e x p l a i n only a small p o r t i o n of the v a r i a n c e . However, the f a c t that these c o r r e l a t i o n s are s i g n i f i c a n t may motivate f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . In f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , a d d i t i o n a l measures of v i s u a l , a u d i t o r y , f i n e motor and gross motor s k i l l s need to be i n c l u d e d . 134 Table 26 P r e t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between the Three Measures f o r the T o t a l Sample (N=323) PPVT PLS VMI PPVT 1 .00 * 0.42 * 0.24 PLS 1 .00 * 0.38 VMI 1 .00 * P < .01 P r e t e s t and p o s t t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the aforementioned measures f o r "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n are summarized i n Table 27. In t h i s "at r i s k " group three out of- f i v e p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the PPVT and the PLS are s i g n i f i c a n t , while there are no s i g n i f i c a n t p r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s e i t h e r between the PPVT and the VMI, or between the PLS and the VMI. T h i s suggests that i n the "at r i s k " subsample language s k i l l s and vi s u a l - m o t o r s k i l l s are not c o r r e l a t e d . There i s a l s o some evidence that e x p r e s s i v e language (as measured by the PLS), and r e c e p t i v e language (as measured by the PPVT), may not be c o r r e l a t e d . I t ;appea.r-s that "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n have uneven p r o f i l e s . Again., f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h needs to i n v e s t i g a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between each 1 35 of the m o d a l i t i e s . P o s t t e s t data show four out of f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the PPVT and the PLS. There i s a l s o one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the PPVT and the VMI, while there are three s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between the PLS and the VMI. The f a c t that there are more and higher c o r r e l a t i o n s at the time of p o s t t e s t i n g seems to i n d i c a t e that p r o f i l e s do even out. T h i s "evening out" i s most evident i n experimental group 1, the group whose parents were i n v o l v e d i n the treatment. While at the time of p r e t e s t i n g f o r that group there was only one s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between the PPVT and the PLS, at the time of p o s t t e s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t and higher, c o r r e l a t i o n s were reached among a l l three measures. Table 27 Pre- and P o s t t e s t C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between the Three Measures f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group (N=139) Treatment PPVT with PLS PPVT with VMI PLS with VMI Group Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post 1 . .30* .59* .22 .33* .10 .53** 2. .47** .51* .21 -.06 -.04 .08 3. .09 .39* .27 .19 . 1 4 .38* 4. .30' .44* .00 .23 .08 .48* 5. .40* .04 .02 .09 . 1 0 -.32 * p < .05 ** p < .01 C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the p r e t e s t s and the p o s t t e s t s of each of the measures are d i s p l a y e d i n Table 28. With the e x c e p t i o n of one c o e f f i c i e n t , a l l of the c o e f f i c i e n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t . T h i s seems to i n d i c a t e t h a t , in g e n e r a l , those 1 36 who scored low on the p r e t e s t a l s o scored low on the p o s t t e s t , and those who scored high on the p r e t e s t a l s o scored high on the p o s t t e s t . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g when one c o n s i d e r s that there was no treatment e f f e c t on the PPVT or the VMI. Table 28 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Pre- and P o s t t e s t of Each of the Measures f o r "At Risk" C h i l d r e n by Treatment Group (N=139) Treatment Group PPVT PLS VMI 1 . .64** .39* .59* 2. .71** .46** .55** 3. .59** .65** .67** 4. .36* .42* .45* 5. .39* .21 ^ 7 7 * * * p < .05 ** p < .01 One might have expected some d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s experimental groups on the PLS, as t h i s t e s t d i d show a treatment e f f e c t , which r e s u l t e d i n higher mean scores f o r experimental groups 1, 2 and 5. Of these groups only group 5 obtained n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s . One might have expected the same to have happened' i n group 1 and 2. 1 37 A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f a c t that group 1 and 2 d i d not o b t a i n n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s may have been some s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n treatment groups and t e a c h i n g approaches, combined with the short d u r a t i o n of the treatment program. Although mean p o s t t e s t scores f o r groups 1 and 2 were the same as those obtained by group 5, group 1 and 2 had a l a r g e r number of c h i l d r e n who scored low on the p r e t e s t , and were thus i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " . With i n s t r u c t i o n geared more to the t o t a l group, time may have been too short f o r enough c h i l d r e n i n group 1 and 2 to make the kind of gain necessary to r e p l a c e low p r e t e s t scores with high p o s t t e s t s c o r e s . Group 5, on the other hand had fewer c h i l d r e n who scored low on the PLS p r e t e s t . Furthermore, t h e i r teachers were more committed to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . Perhaps a teacher committed to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs on a d a i l y b a s i s , i s more e f f e c t i v e than a resource person or a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n j u s t once a week. Fur t h e r research i s needed to determine the e f f e c t of s i g n i f i c a n t treatment r e s u l t s on the c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of the same measure. 1 38 CHAPTER 5 D i s c u s s i o n S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e that 20 to 40 percent of a l l school c h i l d r e n may have developmental d e l a y s , l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , or, more g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d , "...problems which can s e r i o u s l y i n t e r f e r e with t h e i r l e a r n i n g and adjustment i n the primary school y e a r s " ( Z e i t l e n , 1976, p.5). Both Reger (1970) and Z e i t l i n p o i n t out that these problems can be i d e n t i f i e d as e a r l y as k i n d e r g a r t e n . In a survey by Reger, n i n e t y - f i v e , percent of the c h i l d r e n who l a t e r developed l e a r n i n g d i f i c u l t i e s , had been i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r s . Z e i t l i n s t a t e s , "These problems which can be i d e n t i f i e d as e a r l y as k i n d e r g a r t e n , show up i n c h i l d r e n as emotional d i s o r d e r s , i n t e l l e c t u a l d e f e c t s , l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s , and vi s u a l - m o t o r and sensory d e f e c t s " (p.5). Would ki n d e r g a r t e n then, l o g i c a l l y , not be the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e and time to begin combatting the problem of school f a i l u r e ? Although some school d i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have i n s t i t u t e d s c r e e n i n g programs, the Kinde r g a r t e n Needs Assessment: General Report, 1980, i n d i c a t e s that these programs assess mainly general h e a l t h , language, s o c i a l and emotional development, p h y s i c a l development and motor a b i l i t i e s . No re f e r e n c e i s made to the assessment of a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . There a l s o appears to be l i t t l e emphasis on the implementation of a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t r u c t i o n a l programs. Furthermore, the r e p o r t i n d i c a t e s that most of the scr e e n i n g takes p l a c e d u r i n g , or at the end of the kinde r g a r t e n year. Much of the sc r e e n i n g i s re p o r t e d to be an on-going 1 39 process, which i n d i c a t e s that t h i s kind of s c r e e n i n g i s not c a r r i e d out s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s i n t h e i r . s e a r c h f o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the a l l e v i a t i o n of school f a i l u r e have s t u d i e d the e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s p r e s c h o o l programs and approaches on i n t e l l i g e n c e , school r e a d i n e s s and l a t e r achievement. Programs i n c l u d e d those which emphasized s p e c i f i c reading readiness s k i l l s , as w e l l as those which emphasized p e r c e p t u a l , language, and c o g n i t i v e development. Within these programs i n s t r u c t i o n was geared to the whole c l a s s or small groups of c h i l d r e n . The m a j o r i t y of the programs reviewed (11/14) showed a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on mental a b i l i t y and reading r e a d i n e s s . C h i l d r e n i n these programs r e c e i v e d higher mean scores on measures of mental a b i l i t y and reading r e a d i n e s s than t h e i r c o n t r o l s who d i d not r e c e i v e such programs. As to the e f f e c t of these programs on l a t e r achievement and i n t e l l i g e n c e , two l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d that gains i n i n t e l l i g e n c e were maintained through the second year, and gains i n achievement were maintained through the' t h i r d year. The t h i r d study r e p o r t e d a d e c l i n e in i n t e l l i g e n c e over the next few y e a r s . A post-hoc l o n g i t u d i n a l study of eleven experimental p r e s c h o o l programs i n d i c a t e d that a f t e r four years, gains i n IQ were maintained. Compared to c o n t r o l groups, fewer of these c h i l d r e n had been assig n e d to remedial c l a s s e s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n numbers of c h i l d r e n a s s i g n e d to remedial c l a s s e s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 1 40 However, in these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , a l l c h i l d r e n were given the same program, r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs. Recognizing i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s among c h i l d r e n as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each c h i l d , r e s e a r c h e r s began to i n v e s t i g a t e programs which emphasized d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e t e a c h i n g . C h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d only i n those s k i l l s which needed s t r e n g t h e n i n g . Of the s i x s t u d i e s which r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c a l data, three s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n favour of the experimental groups on a l l of the measures, while two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t on some of t h e i r measures. In these d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e programs, the gain scores between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of d i a g n o s t i c measures were most o f t e n used as the c r i t e r i o n . Other c r i t e r i o n measures were reading readiness t e s t s . Because of i t s emphasis on d i f f e r e n c e s among p u p i l s , as w e l l as d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n each p u p i l , the d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e approach seems to best meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s . In a d d i t i o n , such a program emphasizes the importance of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s : a u d i t o r y and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s , language f a c i l i t y , as w e l l as perceptual-motor development. Because these s k i l l s are important f o r subsequent l e a r n i n g , experimental programs continue to emphasize these s k i l l s , not only i n the s c h o o l , but more r e c e n t l y a l s o i n the home. I t i s r ecognized that parents can p l a y an important part i n the development of these s k i l l s . A c h i l d ' s home environment can be e n r i c h e d through experiences, games and other a c t i v i t i e s , thus f o s t e r ing ,gr,owth ^ and.,.development. Bronfenbrenner (197,4) s t a t e s , 141 "The evidence i n d i c a t e s ...that the involvement of the c h i l d ' s f a m i l y as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i s c r i t i c a l to the success of any i n t e r v e n t i o n program" (p.55). The development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s , the parent's r o l e in t h i s process, as w e l l as r e c o g n i t i o n of d i f f e r e n c e s among and w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l p u p i l s i n a d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e approach, are components of the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program. The purpose of t h i s study was to study the e f f e c t of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n on the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and reading r e a d i n e s s , using the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program as a model. The screening instruments were d u p l i c a t e d and suggested procedures i n the a n a l y s i s of the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y were f o l l o w e d . P r e s c r i p t i o n s for i n s t r u c t i o n were based on a c t i v i t i e s and m a t e r i a l s suggested in the c u r r i c u l u m guides developed by t h i s program. R e s u l t s . Two separate analyses were conducted to determine the e f f e c t of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n on the development of p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s as measured by the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , P r e s c h o o l Language Scale and Beery Developmental Test of V i s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d a l l c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by one or more of these measures, in combination with the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test and the Motor A c t i v i t y S c a l e . The second a n a l y s i s (post-hoc) i n c l u d e d those c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by the p a r t i c u l a r measure under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . That i s , i n the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s of the PPVT, only those c h i l d r e n were 142 in c l u d e d who were i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on the PPVT. In the a n a l y s i s of the PLS only those c h i l d r e n were i n c l u d e d who were i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by the PLS. The same a p p l i e d to the VMI. These r e s u l t s and the r e s u l t s of the LCRRT are presented in Table 29. Table 29 Summary of R e s u l t s P r o b a b i l i t y L e v e l s of the Dependent V a r i a b l e s f o r Each of the Analyses by F a c t o r s p-Values F a c t o r s PPVT PLS VMI LCRRT I II I II I II I IT Treatment (A) .73 .54 .02* .11 . 1 1 .03* .45' .17 School (B) .15 .60 .90 .61 .19 .51 .75 .67 Teacher (c) .46 .39 .36 .61 .67 .74 .01** .04* C l a s s (D) .48 .67 .73 .60 .59 .84 .97 .86 Note. (I) The f i r s t a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d a l l c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " by the screening b a t t e r y . (II) The post-hoc a n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n who scored "at r i s k " on the dependent v a r i a b l e under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (IT) The a n a l y s i s f o r the t o t a l k i n d e r g a r t e n sample. Treatments: 1 = D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n with Parent Involvement 2 = D i a g n o s t i c - P r e s c r i p t i v e I n s t r u c t i o n 3 = A t t e n t i o n Placebo 4 = Learning P r o f i l e s 5 = C o n t r o l The r e s u l t s of these analyses c o n f i r m , i n p a r t , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e ' i n s t r u c t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l l y . s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t s were found on the PLS and VMI, but not on the PPVT and the LCRRT. These r e s u l t s 143 p a r a l l e l the mixed r e s u l t s o b tained by Stewart (1978) and Naron (1979). Stewart r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s f o r the experimental group on the v i s u a l memory, language development and conceptual s u b t e s t s of the Santa C l a r a Inventory of Developmental S k i l l s . However, the c o n t r o l group scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the experimental group on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading Readiness T e s t . The d u r a t i o n of Naron's study was four months. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r gains f o r the experimental group on the VMI and s i m i l a r i t i e s s ubtest of the WPPSI, but not on the Vocabulary subtest of the WPPSI. The f i r s t n u l l h y p o thesis of the present study s t a t e d that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the means of the f i v e treatment groups fo r "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n of the (a) PPVT, (b) PLS and (c) VMI. The n u l l h ypothesis was confirmed f o r the PPVT. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the mean p o s t t e s t scores of the f i v e treatment groups. T h i s lack of a treatment e f f e c t c o u l d be due, i n p a r t , to the l i m i t e d time spent i n vocabulary development per se. Under Program Planning i n Chapter 4, i t was e x p l a i n e d that vocabulary development was inherent i n the language a c t i v i t i e s the c h i l d r e n were engaged i n . However, the r e c e p t i v e vocabulary of some of these c h i l d r e n was very l i m i t e d . I t i s l i k e l y that time was too short f o r the treatment to .have an a p p r e c i a b l e e f f e c t on the growth i n r e c e p t i v e v o c a b u l a r y . 144 A second f a c t o r c o u l d be the low a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y of the PPVT f o r t h i s age group. Although the s c h o o l e f f e c t was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of .15 was reached. I t i s noteworthy that among the f i v e treatment groups two schools d i d not make any gains between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of t h i s measure. The k i n d e r g a r t e n teachers i n these schools were very t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d . Teachers using a t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d approach b e l i e v e that t h i s approach has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the progress of t h e i r students. However, t h i s study i n d i c a t e s that t h i s approach may have n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s on the PPVT. A t e a c h e r - d i r e c t e d approach al l o w s f o r l i t t l e spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n among c h i l d r e n ; i t a l l o w s f o r l i t t l e e x p l o r a t i o n and experiences which are thought to s t i m u l a t e vocabulary development. In c o n t r a s t , i t appears that the schools whose teachers had a very c h i l d - c e n t e r e d approach had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the p o s t t e s t r e s u l t s of the PPVT. Spontaneous i n t e r a c t i o n among i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n , v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n were encouraged. These experiences may have s t i m u l a t e d the vocabulary development of these c h i l d r e n . On the PLS a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the .02 l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y was obtained on the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , r e j e c t i n g n u l l h y p o thesis 1 f o r t h i s measure. Range t e s t s i n d i c a t e that treatments 1 and 2, which i n c l u d e d d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , along with treatment 5 ( c o n t r o l ) were more e f f e c t i v e than treatment 3 ( a t t e n t i o n placebo) and treatment-4 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) . 1 45 On the post-hoc a n a l y s i s a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of .11 was reached. The ranks of the v a r i o u s treatment groups were as f o l l o w s : 1 > 2 > 5 > 3 > 4 ( f i r s t a n a l y s i s ) 5 > 1 > 2 > 3 > 4 (post-hoc a n a l y s i s ) It appears that although d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the development of these measured p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s , treatment 5 ( c o n t r o l ) was e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e . The a n a l y s i s d i d not show a s i g n i f i c a n t teacher e f f e c t , but i t may be spec u l a t e d that d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l a s s s i z e , the number of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d per group and d i f f e r e n c e s i n teaching approaches c o u l d have accounted f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the c o n t r o l group. The t o t a l enrollment f o r the c o n t r o l group was smaller than the enrollments f o r each of the remaining treatments. In the c o n t r o l group 24 c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " , as compared to 33 and 30 c h i l d r e n i n the two d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e groups. S i m i l a r l y , i n the post-hoc a n a l y s i s , 5 c h i l d r e n were i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " i n the c o n t r o l group, as opposed to 8 c h i l d r e n i n each of the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e groups. In a d d i t i o n , the c o n t r o l group had one i d e n t i f i e d "high r i s k " c h i l d , while the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e groups had 2 and 3 "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A d i f f e r e n c e i n teaching approaches may a l s o have accounted f o r the f a c t that the c o n t r o l group was found to be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e as the d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e groups. The i n v e s t i g a t o r observed that both teachers of the c o n t r o l groups tended to spend more time working with, i n d i v i d u a l or small groups of c h i l d r e n on t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r 146 needs. Furthermore, i n s p e c t i o n of the raw scores i n d i c a t e d that treatment group 1 was most c o n s i s t e n t l y a f f e c t e d by the c e i l i n g e f f e c t of t h i s measure (PLS). In f a c t , a l l but the "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n group 1 reached t h i s c e i l i n g . In the f i r s t a n a l y s i s of the Beery Developmental Test of Vi s u a l - M o t o r I n t e g r a t i o n no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t was found, thus c o n f i r m i n g h y p o t h e s i s 1. However, a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l of 0.11 was reached. The post-hoc a n a l y s i s showed a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t at the .03 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n was e f f e c t i v e f o r the c h i l d r e n i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on t h i s measure. The ranks of the v a r i o u s treatment groups were as f o l l o w s : 1 > 2 > 5 > 3 > 4 ( f i r s t a n a l y s i s ) 2 > 1 > 3 > 4 > 5 (post-hoc a n a l y s i s ) Range t e s t s f o r the post-hoc a n a l y s i s showed that the mean of the p o s t t e s t s c o r e s of treatment groups 1 and 2 ( d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n ) and was higher than the mean of the p o s t t e s t scores of treatment groups 4 ( l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s ) and 5 ( c o n t r o l ) . The f i r s t a n a l y s i s showed that d u r i n g the time span of 6 months, which i n c l u d e d 4 months of d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , the two groups which r e c e i v e d t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n gained 9.48 and 10.38 months, which i s a gain of more than one month i n developmental age f o r each month i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. In c o n t r a s t , the groups which d i d not r e c e i v e such i n s t r u c t i o n gained from 4.72 to 5.39 months, which ,i-s l e s s than one month i n 147 developmental age f o r each month i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n gains was even g r e a t e r i n the post-hoc a n a l y s i s . Both groups r e c e i v i n g d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n gained at l e a s t two months i n developmental age f o r each month i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l age. The two groups which d i d not r e c e i v e such i n s t r u c t i o n gained one month or l e s s f o r each month i n CA. The a t t e n t i o n group gained 1.43 months f o r each month i n CA. I t appears that the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d approach of the c o n t r o l group had no e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s of the VMI. I t was reported to the i n v e s t i g a t o r that a p i l o t study conducted i n the school d i s t r i c t i n d i c a t e d that there was a general weakness i n v i s u a l -motor i n t e g r a t i o n i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . Perhaps, not enough emphasis i s p l a c e d i n vis u a l - m o t o r development i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t (and perhaps i n other d i s t r i c t s as w e l l ) . The second hypothesis d e a l t with the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test and s t a t e d that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the means of the f i v e treatment groups on t h i s measure f o r "moderate and h i g h - r i s k " c h i l d r e n . The a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e showed no s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t , and hence, hypothesis 2 was confirmed. It was a n t i c i p a t e d that the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e c u r r i c u l a , as w e l l as d i r e c t c o n t a c t with the i n v e s t i g a t o r might improve the ki n d e r g a r t e n program of treatment groups 1 and 2. However, the n u l l h ypothesis that there would be no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the means of the f i v e treatment groups f o r the t o t a l sample on the Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test was confirmed. 1 48 The c e i l i n g e f f e c t on t h i s t e s t c o u l d , i n p a r t , have accounted f o r the r e s u l t s f o r hypotheses 2 and 3. The Lee C l a r k Reading Readiness Test appeared to be too easy, with the m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n s c o r i n g i n the high range. The a n a l y s i s of both the sample of "moderate and high r i s k " c h i l d r e n and the t o t a l sample showed a s i g n i f i c a n t teacher e f f e c t . Both group 4 (lower means) and group 2 (higher means) were a f f e c t e d , which seems to i n d i c a t e that the d i a g n o s t i c -p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n d i r e c t l y had a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the r e s u l t s . These r e s u l t s c o n t r a d i c t the f i n d i n g s of Bradley (1975) who concluded that given i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s , teachers ad j u s t e d t h e i r programs to the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . Bradley found no d i f f e r e n c e between experimental group A which r e c e i v e d p r o f i l e s and group B which r e c e i v e d i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n by resource personnel i n a d d i t i o n to the p r o f i l e s . The present study a l s o c o n s t r a d i c t s the n o t i o n that an a t t e n t i o n f a c t o r might c o n t r i b u t e to the success of an i n t e r v e n t i o n program. In t h i s study the r e s u l t s of the a t t e n t i o n placebo group d i d not reach a l e v e l of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . L i m i t a t i o n s . The p a r t i a l success of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n program must be examined i n the l i g h t of s e r i o u s psychometric l i m i t a t i o n s of the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . 149 In c o n t r a s t to the Beery Developmental Test of Visual-Motor I n t e g r a t i o n , which has a t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.80 to 0.90, the Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test has a r e p o r t e d a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y of 0.69 at the s i x year o l d l e v e l . The low a l t e r n a t e form r e l i a b i l i t y was evidenced i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , with a number of vast i n c r e a s e s as w e l l as decreases between p r e t e s t s and p o s t t e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . R e l i a b i l i t y data on the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale are u n c l e a r . Subtests are s h o r t , v a r y i n g from 7 to 10 items, which l i k e l y i n d i c a t e s low r e l i a b i l i t y . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n r e s u l t e d in mean gains ranging from 11.65 to 27.94 months. Furthermore, many c h i l d r e n reached the c e i l i n g of 81 months. Both, the c e i l i n g e f f e c t and these e x c e s s i v e gains over a s i x month p e r i o d c a s t doubt on the v a l i d i t y of the P r e s c h o o l Language Scale as a measure of developmental a b i l i t y . Norms of the Preschool Language S c a l e have been e s t a b l i s h e d in raw scores f o r c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r each three month i n t e r v a l , and were found to be inadequate. In Chapter 4 i t was p o i n t e d out that a d i f f e r e n c e of 1 p o i n t on a subtest c o u l d make a d i f f e r e n c e of at l e a s t three months i n mental age. An a d d i t i o n a l problem i s the spread of any one subtest score over a vast number of c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n t e r v a l s . Inadequate norms le a d to low r e l i a b i l i t y and hence low v a l i d i t y of the s u b t e s t s . The two examples of analyses conducted on the r e s u l t s of the s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y (Chapter 4) showed much s u b j e c t i v i t y i s i n v o l v e d in the c a l c u l a t i o n or r a t h e r e s t i m a t i o n of mental age scores i n some of the areas of the p r o f i l e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y , the combination of the subtest scores of the Motor A c t i v i t y Scale 150 ( i n i t s e l f p o o r l y normed) and the Goodenough Draw-A-Man with the VMI leads to the e s t i m a t i o n of mental age scores i n the f i n e motor area and v i s u a l areas. Furthermore, i n the above procedure, the VMI i s used as a t e s t of f i n e motor a b i l i t y and v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . To co n s i d e r the VMI to be a t e s t of e i t h e r v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n or f i n e motor a b i l i t y i s a gross m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what t h i s t e s t i s intended to measure: vis u a l - m o t o r i n t e g r a t i o n . The same a p p p l i e s to the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test which i s a t e s t of gene r a l mental a b i l i t y . In t h i s b a t t e r y i t i s used as a measure of both f i n e motor and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . The House-Tree-Person T e s t , an a l t e r n a t i v e to the Goodenough, i s a l s o used as a t e s t of f i n e motor and v i s u a l p e r c e p t u a l s k i l l s . T h i s l a t t e r t e s t i s a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t . S i m i l a r l y , The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary T e s t , and the f i r s t s ubtest of the Pres c h o o l Language S c a l e , i n which the sub j e c t names p i c t u r e s , are c o n s i d e r e d to be t e s t s of r e c e p t i v e language, r a t h e r than t e s t s of r e c e p t i v e vocabulary. The second subtest of the Preschool Language S c a l e , which r e q u i r e s the subj e c t to gi v e one-word answers to q u e s t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a t e s t of e x p r e s s i v e language. G i v i n g one-word answers to qu e s t i o n s i s h a r d l y an i n d i c a t i o n of v e r b a l e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . Consequently, these t e s t s d i d not i d e n t i f y some of the c h i l d r e n with delayed language development. These c h i l d r e n were l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d by speech and language t h e r a p i s t s . Poor norms, low r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , and m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the purpose of a p a r t i c u l a r t e s t r e s u l t s not only i n haphazard e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a 151 program, but a l s o i n m i s - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n . In t h i s sample, 42% and 3% of the t o t a l sample was i d e n t i f i e d as "moderate and high r i s k " r e s p e c t i v e l y , which i s c l o s e to the average of 41% and 4% i d e n t i f i e d by the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program. However, i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o p i n i o n , these f i g u r e s (41% and 42%) c o n s t i t u t e an o v e r e s t i m a t i o n of "moderate r i s k " c h i l d r e n . I t i s p o s s i b l e that the use of PLS subtest scores and the combination of VMI scores with the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test and s e v e r a l PLS subtest scores l e d to the i n c l u s i o n of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s . In the present sample, a number of c h i l d r e n who had average scores on the PPVT, PLS ( T o t a l ) , and VMI were i d e n t i f i e d as "at r i s k " on the l e a r n i n g p r o f i l e s . Proper i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i s of extreme importance. The i n c l u s i o n of f a l s e p o s i t i v e s i n an i n t e r v e n t i o n program leads to an unnecessary waste of time, e f f o r t and money, and perhaps to m i s l a b e l i n g , while the e x c l u s i o n of f a l s e n e g a t i v e s d e f e a t s the whole purpose of e a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n : the p r e v e n t i o n of more s e r i o u s problems l a t e r on. In a d d i t i o n to the above l i m i t a t i o n s , the present study was l i m i t e d i n time and scope. Although the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program served as a model, t h i s model was not r e p l i c a t e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regards to d u r a t i o n , teacher t r a i n i n g , involvement of resource personnel and a d d i t i o n a l psycho-educational assessment. F i r s t l y , the model screens the c h i l d r e n p r i o r to k i n d e r g a r t e n entrance, and operates i t s i n t e r v e n t i o n program over the e n t i r e academic year. In the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 52 t h i s was not p o s s i b l e , and the a c t u a l i n t e r v e n t i o n l a s t e d only four months. In s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the VMI and PLS r e s u l t e d in a s i g n i c a n t treatment e f f e c t , a longer p e r i o d of i n t e r v e n t i o n would perhaps have d i f f e r e n t i a t e d more between the v a r i o u s groups. For i n s t a n c e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d that the groups whose parents were i n v o l v e d would advance more than the group whose parents were not i n v o l v e d . However, there was very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between treatment groups 1 and 2. Secondly, the i n v e s t i g a t o r had no c o n t r o l over the amount of time the parents spent with t h e i r c h i l d r e n on s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested a c t i v i t i e s . From c o n t a c t s with the parents i t became obvious that some parents spent some time with t h e i r c h i l d r e n every day, while others worked with t h e i r c h i l d r e n on these suggested a c t i v i t i e s o c c a s i o n a l l y . T h i r d l y , the i n v e s t i g a t o r had no c o n t r o l over the amount of time spent by the teachers on follow-up a c t i v i t i e s . In the E a r l y P revention of School F a i l u r e Program teachers are t r a i n e d i n i t s philosophy and the implementation of the program. T h i s was impossible to accomplish in the present study. T h e r e f o r e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r implemented the program i n the r o l e of a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e teacher. Follow-up suggestions were given to the teachers of experimental groups 1 and 2, but t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r found that i n g e n e r a l , the teachers appeared to be too busy with t h e i r own programs and d i d not have time to work with the "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n i n d i v i d u a l l y or i n small groups. F o u r t h l y , the E a r l y P r e v e n t i o n of School F a i l u r e Program i n v o l v e s d i s t r i c t resource personnel i n s c r e e n i n g . T h i s , a g a i n , -was. impossible to r e p l i c a t e . The few "high r i s k " c h i l d r e n may 153 have b e n e f i t e d from an a d d i t i o n a l psycho-educational assessment and c o n s u l t a t i o n . Suggestions f o r Further Research Because of the aforementioned psychometric l i m i t a t i o n s , a sc r e e n i n g b a t t e r y of measures which w i l l g ive mental age scores i n each of the m o d a l i t i e s independently, should be designed. T h i s b a t t e r y should i n c l u d e a pre- and post- treatment language sample, or another s u i t a b l e measure of v e r b a l e x p r e s s i v e a b i l i t y . The VMI c o u l d be r e t a i n e d because of i t s r e l a t i v e l y high r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y , as w e l l as the importance of the assessment of visual-motor i n t e g r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the b a t t e r y should i n c l u d e t e s t s of v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , f i n e motor and gross motor a b i l i t y . The Peabody P i c t u r e Vocabulary Test - Revised may prove to be a ' more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d instrument, but i n v e s t i g a t o r s should keep abreast of r e p o r t s on i t s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . A survey of the present s c r e e n i n g instruments c o u l d help i d e n t i f y those most s u i t a b l e f o r the purpose. Continued c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be given to the refinement of s c r e e n i n g instruments i n order to achieve g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . T h i s would u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n more accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as more -accurate e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t of the i n t e r v e n t i o n program. In view of the . l i m i t a t i o n s of the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h i s study should be r e p l i c a t e d , ' u s i n g more r e l i a b l e and v a l i d instruments: s c r e e n i n g instruments as w e l l as s u i t a b l e readiness t e s t s . K i n d e r g a r t e n c h i l d r e n should be screened, p r e f e r a b l y 1 54 immediately p r i o r to k i n d e r g a r t e n entrance, and the i n t e r v e n t i o n program should begin i n e a r l y September, and be c a r r i e d through most of the academic year. R e p l i c a t i o n should take p l a c e a c r o s s d i s t r i c t s and socio-economic l e v e l s . I t was found that the k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n the Coquitlam School D i s t r i c t i n general are very s t r u c t u r e d as compared to the more t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n s i n the p r o v i n c e . What would the e f f e c t of t h i s program be on the t r a d i t i o n a l kindergarten? D i s t r i c t resource personnel should be i n v o l v e d i n the s c r e e n i n g and f o l l o w up with a complete psycho-educational b a t t e r y , or with a thorough assessment in a p a r t i c u l a r area of weakness, as i n d i c a t e d . K i n d e r g a r t e n teachers should be exposed to the philosophy and the goals of the program, take p a r t i n the s c r e e n i n g , and be t r a i n e d i n i t s implementation. Because of the masking of s c o r e s , "at r i s k " c h i l d r e n should be p o s t t e s t e d only on those measures which i d e n t i f i e d them as "at r i s k " . Such a procedure would, i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o p i n i o n , c o n s t i t u t e a f a i r e r e v a l u a t i o n of the program. There should be a way to b e t t e r d i s t i n g u i s h between the groups whose parents are i n v o l v e d as opposed to groups whose parents are not i n v o l v e d . Perhaps a survey of the amount of time spent with t h e i r c h i l d r e n on s p e c i f i c a l l y suggested a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d determine whether to i n c l u d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the parent, involvement group or not. L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s i n t o the e f f e c t of t h i s program on reading achievement and general academic achievement at the end of grade 1, 2, and 3 s h o u l d . a l s o be conducted. Added to t h i s 155 c o u l d be an assessment of s o c i a l and emotional development. Such a study c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t of (1) no i n t e r v e n t i o n versus i n t e r v e n t i o n , and (2) the e f f e c t of i n t e r v e n t i o n without fo l l o w - t h r o u g h , versus (3) i n t e r v e n t i o n with f o l l o w - t h r o u g h . I n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s between treatment and teacher, between, treatment and school and between treatment and c l a s s should a l s o be s t u d i e d . Recommendations Regarding E a r l y I n t e r v e n t i o n In s p i t e of the short d u r a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n program, the present study i n d i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of the d i a g n o s t i c - p r e s c r i p t i v e program on the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s , measured by the PLS and the VMI. P a r t i c u l a r l y the VMI showed that without i n t e r v e n t i o n , d e l a y s in t h i s sample seemed to p e rpetuate. Indeed, for some groups the gap between mental age and c h r o n o l o g i c a l age i n c r e a s e d . T herefore, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r recommends that school d i s t r i c t s i n s t i t u t e an i n t e r v e n t i o n program, based on an assessment of s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses, f o l l o w e d by i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or small group program planning to s u i t the needs of i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n . I t i s f u r t h e r 'recommended that such a program be implemented e a r l y i n the s c h o o l year. Regardless of the cutbacks in education, the government, school d i s t r i c t s , or both should take the l e a d i n r e s e a r c h i n g e a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n . P a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t r i c t s which employ personnel t r a i n e d i n measurement and s t a t i s t i c s should become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g norms, v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y data, as w e l l as i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o treatment e f f e c t s . C o o r d i n a t i o n of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s among school 156 d i s t r i c t s and u n i v e r s i t i e s would a l s o be advantageous. Furthermore, i n t e r v e n t i o n programs do not n e c e s s a r i l y have to be based on i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from a s c r e e n i n g b a t t e r y . Teacher o b s e r v a t i o n has a l s o been found to be a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of f u t u r e academic problems. Mercer, Agozzine and T r i f i l e t t i (1979) summarized a number of s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e d that teacher r a t i n g s "...tended to be most e f f e c t i v e i n i d e n t i f y i n g those c h i l d r e n i n need of i n t e r v e n t i o n and those not l i k e l y to need s p e c i a l programming" (p.21). T h i s procedure would i n v o l v e p r e s e r v i c e and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n o b s e r v a t i o n techniques and concomitant program p l a n n i n g . An i n t e r v e n t i o n program can be implemented i n v a r i o u s ways, depending on the teacher's p h i l o s o p h y , program, and s k i l l s . E a r l y i n t e r v e n t i o n can be used as an adjunct to a s t r u c t u r e d k i n d e r g a r t e n program, as w e l l as a t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program. T h i s i n v e s t i g a t o r recommends acceptance of the philosophy of the E a r l y Prevention of School F a i l u r e Program, r a t h e r than acceptance of t h i s program i n i t s e n t i r i t y . Perhaps we can help c h i l d r e n succeed i f we i n s t i t u t e s p e c i f i c programs to h e l p them develop the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s , and at the same time provide them with the broad range of experiences which i s c o n s i d e r e d to c o n s t i t u t e a good t r a d i t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n program. Many qu e s t i o n s remain unanswered. However, a concerted e f f o r t by educators and those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r education may h e l p us f i n d these answers. I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of educators to make p r o v i s i o n s f o r the a l l e v i a t i o n of school f a i l u r e . E a r l y ..intervention .may be the f i r s t s t e p . i n t h i s p r o c e s s . 1 57 REFERENCES Beery, K.E. 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E f f e c t s of the WIST reading readiness program on f i r s t grade readiness and l a t e r academic achievement. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Research ,1976, 69, 250-253. Wooden, H. E., L i s o w s k i , S., & E a r l y , F. V o l u n t e e r s , head s t a r t c h i l d r e n and development. Academic Therapy, 1976, J J_(4), 449-454. Z e i t l i n , S. Kindergarten s c r e e n i n g . E a r l y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l high r i s k l e a r n e r s . S p r i n g f i e l d : C h a r l e s C. Thomas, 1 976. Appendices A, B, and C are not included. They are the property of the K.W. Curriculum Cooperative and are available only to dis t r i c t s with a signed adoption agreement. Please direct inquiries about these materials to K.W. Curriculum Cooperative, 114 North Second Street, Peotone, I l l i n o i s 60468, U.S.A. 

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