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The art of dialogue in The sacred fount by Henry James and Martereau by Nathalie Sarraute Burns, Nancy Jane 1982

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THE ART OF DIALOGUE IN THE SACRED FOUNT BY HENRY JAMES AND MARTEREAU BY NATHALIE SARRAUTE by NANCY JANE BURNS B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Programme of Comparative L i t e r a t u r e We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 Nancy Jane Burns, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department o r by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l 26, 1982 DE-6 (2/79) i i ABSTRACT: C o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u i s l a r g e l y an a f f a i r o f p l a t i t u d i n o u s and b a n a l s t a t e m e n t s masking t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c c o n t e n t o f t h e s u b c o n v e r s a t i o n . C o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f d i a l o g u e , The S a c r e d Fount p r e s e n t s t h e p o l i s h e d t a l k t h a t e v o l v e s as t h e c h a r a c t e r s a t t e m p t t o u n r a v e l an enigma. Though t h e aims of b o t h a u t h o r s a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s , S a r r a u t e and James s h a r e a common f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e c o n s t i t u t e s a means of d i s s i m u l a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n communication. D i a l o g u e i s c o n s e q u e n t l y a p r o b l e m a t i c element o f b o t h n o v e l s , r e g i s t e r i n g t h e drama o f t h e unspoken t h r o u g h commonplace r e m a r k s , e c h o e s , and pauses w h i c h s u g g e s t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d i s c r e t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y . I n s e e k i n g t o renew t h e d i a l o g u e f o r m i n t h e n o v e l , b o t h a u t h o r s d e p i c t d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h speech f u n c t i o n s as a means of manipu-l a t i o n . The n a t u r e o f r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e i n t h e two n o v e l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d u s i n g J a k o b s o n ' s s i x - p a r t model of co m m u n i c a t i o n , e x a m i n i n g i n d e t a i l t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e e l e m e n t s o f J a m e s i a n and S a r r a u t i a n c o n v e r s a t i o n . The s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s o f each a u t h o r w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c c o n -s t r a i n t s o f i n d i r e c t and d u p l i c i t o u s c ommunication. I n j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o t h e " t r o m p e - 1 ' o e i l , 1 1 o r i l l u s o r y , r e a l i t y p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e , a p a t t e r n o f r e p e t i t i v e s o c i a l exchanges becomes a p p a r e n t as c h a r a c t e r s make c o n t a c t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . W h i l e James i s most i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e way i n w h i c h c o v e r t s t r a t e g i e s a r e e x p r e s s e d i n speech t h r o u g h im-p l i c a t i o n and a l l u s i o n , S a r r a u t e examines t h e e f f e c t o f speech upon t h e l i s t e n e r : i n b o t h c a s e s , i n d i r e c t l anguage i s p e r c e i v e d as a c c o m p l i s h i n g i i i c e r t a i n a c t s and p r o d u c i n g u n p r e d i c t a b l e e f f e c t s . The i n t e r p l a y between h i d d e n s t r a t e g i e s i n James o r t r o p i s t i c a c t i v i t y i n S a r r a u t e and d i a l o g u e becomes more e v i d e n t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e , w h i c h d e v e l o p s t h e s u g g e s t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h e r e p o r t e d s p e e c h . The p o l y p h o n y o f t h e d i a l o g u e form i s dominated i n t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e by an o b s e s s i v e o b s e r v e r , who, i n t h e c a s e o f The S a c r e d F o u n t , i s p a t e n t l y u n r e l i a b l e , o r a t b e s t , u n d u l y s e n s i t i v e , as i n M a r t e r e a u . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s forms of n a r r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , f r o m s p o r a d i c i n q u i t i n t e r p o l a t i o n s t o s u s t a i n e d commentary, s u g g e s t s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f each n o v e l i s t i n i n n o v a t i n g t h e d i a l o g u e form. The p o s t - V i c t o r i a n e x p e r i m e n t a l n o v e l of Henry James i s c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e nouveau roman, t h e l a t t e r i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e autonomous p l a y o f language i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , w h i c h d o c u m e n t s — i f n o t " l ' a v e n t u r e d'une e c r i t u r e " — t h e a d v e n t u r e o f t h e c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . P l a c e d i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l d i a l o g u e f o r m , S a r r a u t e ' s work i s seen t o exem-p l i f y t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s i m p u l s i o n s g e n e r a t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d i a l o g u e . Each a u t h o r sheds l i g h t on t h e a r t i s t i c p r o j e c t o f t h e o t h e r : i n c i p i e n t , s u b c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s a r e b r o u g h t t o l i g h t i n t h e J a m e s i a n t e x t , w h i l e r e p o r t e d speech i s r e v e a l e d as h a v i n g a major s i g n i f i c a n c e i n S a r r a u t e ' s f i c t i o n . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS: Abstract i i Frontispiece v Introduction 1 PART ONE: REPORTED DISCOURSE Metalingual Function: 1. The Investigative Code '. 9 2. Questioning the Code 14 3. The Cliche 23 Phatic Function 34 Re f e r e n t i a l Function 44 Conative Function 54 Expressive Function 65 Poetic Function 81 PRINCIPLES OF CONVERSATION 90 PART TWO: NARRATIVE DISCOURSE How to Do Things With Dialogue 106 The Representational Function 109 The C o n t r o l l i n g Function 117 The Interpretative Function 138 1. Expanding Commentary 140 2. Assessive Commentary 144 3. Code Commentary 149 CONCLUSION 163 BIBLIOGRAPHY 174 V . . . t h e v a l u e I w i s h e d most t o r e n d e r and t h e e f f e c t I w i s h e d most t o p r o d u c e were p r e c i s e l y t h o s e o f o u r n o t k n o w i n g , o f s o c i e t y ' s n o t k n o w i n g , b u t o n l y g u e s s i n g and s u s p e c t i n g and t r y i n g t o i g n o r e , what "goes on" i r r e c o n -c i l e a b l y , s u b v e r s i v e l y , b e n e a t h t h e v a s t smug s u r f a c e . Henry James, The A r t o f t h e N o v e l , (pp. 77-78) Ce q u i m ' i n t e r e s s e , c ' e s t de d e c o u v r i r des t r o p i s m e s dans ce q u i a p p a r a i t comme i n s i g -n i f i a n t , i n i n t e r e s s a n t , dans une c o n v e r s a t i o n b a n a l e , dans des mots a n o d i n s , dans des s i t u a -t i o n s ou 1'on peut c r o i r e q u ' i l ne se p a s s e r i e n . C'est quand i l ne se p a s s e r i e n que c e l a m ' i n t e r e s s e de v o i r ce q u i se p a s s e en r e a l i t e . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , i n t e r v i e w w i t h B e s s e r , ( p . 287) INTRODUCTION: I n t r a c i n g t h e l i t e r a r y g e n e a l o g y of t h e n o u v e l l e r o m a n c i e r e N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , one i s l i k e l y t o i n v o k e t h e names of such d i v e r s e w r i t e r s as P r o u s t , J o y c e , D o s t o e v s k y and K a f k a — n o v e l i s t s whom S a r r a u t e acknowledges as f o r m i n g p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n l e a d i n g t o h e r u n i q u e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e n o v e l . To e s t a b l i s h a c o n n e c t i o n between S a r r a u t e and t h e A m e r i c a n e x p a t -r i a t e Henry James i s t o r e c o g n i s e e l e m e n t s o f t h e nouveau roman i n t h e work o f James, and a s p e c t s o f t h e n o v e l o f manners i n S a r r a u t e . B o t h a u t h o r s e v i n c e a p r o f o u n d d i s t r u s t o f t h e p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e s o f s o c i a l l i f e , e x p l o r -i n g a mode o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t i s as much e q u i v o c a t i o n as e x p r e s s i o n . The d i s c r e p a n c y between what can be a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s and t h e a u t h e n t i c s u b s t a n c e t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y evades e x p r e s s i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a r e c u r r e n t element i n t h e work o f b o t h James and S a r r a u t e . W h i l e t h i s d i s -j u n c t i o n between c o n v e r s a t i o n and " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " f i g u r e s as a t h e m a t i c element i n t h e n o v e l s of b o t h w r i t e r s , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h i s theme i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e t h r o u g h t h e d i a l o g u e form. The a r t i s t i c o b j e c t i v e s o f b o t h a u t h o r s , w h i l e v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n many r e s p e c t s , c o n v e r g e i n t h e i r i n n o v a t i v e use o f d i a l o g u e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l n o v e l s The S a c r e d Fount and M a r t e r e a u . W r i t t e n i n 1901, The S a c r e d Fount forms p a r t o f a c h a i n o f f i c t i o n s " c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a t h o m i n g a s u r r o u n d i n g w o r l d o r r e d u c i n g a s e r i e s o f ' f a c t s ' , 2 a c e r t a i n amount o f d a t a , t o a r e a s o n a b l e o r d e r . " 1 A n o v e l t h a t examines t h e a n a l y t i c a l a d v e n t u r e o f an u n r e l i a b l e f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r , The S a c r e d Fount o f f e r s p a r a l l e l s w i t h t h e nouveaux romans o f A l a i n R o b b e - G r i l l e t as w e l l as N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . The n a r r o w l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d w o r l d o f t h e n o v e l , l i m i t e d i n t i m e and s e t t i n g t o one weekend i n a c o u n t r y h ouse, as w e l l as t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e d e t a i l w i t h h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e s u g g e s t s t h e d i s t i n c t i v e o u t l i n e s o f t h e F r e n c h New N o v e l . The S a c r e d Fount has o f t e n been compared w i t h S a r r a u t e ' s a n t i - n o v e l P o r t r a i t d'un i n c o n n u , w h i c h , l i k e t h e James n o v e l , f e a t u r e s a n a r r a t o r who s u s p e c t s a v a m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a f a t h e r and daughter.2 To f u r t h e r t h e p a r a l l e l , t h e n o v e l a l s o c o n t a i n s an ambiguous p o r t r a i t t h a t i s i n t e r p r e t e d by t h e n a r r a t o r . However, t h e n a r r a t o r , ( u n l i k e t h e one o f The S a c r e d F ount) w i t n e s s e s few o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s between t h e c h a r a c t e r s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e and o b j e c t i v e s i g n s o f t h e r e a l i t y he h y p o t h e s i s e s a r e few. One o f t h e most f a s c i n a t i n g a s p e c t s o f The S a c r e d Fount i s t h e t e n s i o n between o b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l , g i v e n t o t h e n a r r a t o r by t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s o r s u g g e s t e d by n e u t r a l d e s c r i p t i o n , and t h e h e i g h t e n e d s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a n a l y s i s : As James p u t s i t , "As I g i v e but t h e p h a n t a s m a g o r i c I have, f o r c l e a r n e s s , t o make i t e v i d e n -t i a l . . . . " 3 S a r r a u t e ' s n e x t n o v e l , M a r t e r e a u , s t a g e s t h e drama o f a h y p e r s e n s i t i v e young man, l i v i n g w i t h h i s aunt and u n c l e and o b s e r v i n g t h e consequences o f a b u s i n e s s d e a l w i t h an a c q u a i n t a n c e named M a r t e r e a u . I n documenting t h e micro-dramas t h a t o c c u r between t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o s i f t out t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f what he sees and h e a r s . A l t h o u g h t h e n a r -r a t o r becomes i n v o l v e d i n t h e enigma o f M a r t e r e a u ' s c h a r a c t e r — w h e t h e r he i s h o n e s t o r a s w i n d l e r — t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theme c e n t r e s r a t h e r on t h e 3 n a t u r e of t h e h i d d e n c o n t e n t of s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . D i a l o g u e i n a S a r r a u t i a n c o n t e x t i s r e l e n t l e s s l y p l a t i t u d i n o u s and b a n a l , w h i l e t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " embodies t h e a u t h o r ' s v i s i o n o f t h e v i o -l e n t e motions t h a t words s e r v e t o c o n c e a l . S e r v i n g t o j u x t a p o s e a c a l m " t r o m p e - 1 ' o e i l " s u r f a c e r e a l i t y t o t h e t r o p i s t i c a c t i v i t y t h a t t r a n s p i r e s s i l e n t l y , t h e d i a l o g u e i s an e s s e n t i a l component o f S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l i s t i c a r t . W h i l e t h e t r i v i a l i t y o f commonplace c o n v e r s a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y camou-f l a g e s t r o p i s m s , d i a l o g u e i s n o t i n c l u d e d m e r e l y t o u n d e r l i n e an i r o n i c c o n t r a s t between what i s s a i d and what i s meant. I n s t e a d , t h e d i a l o g u e b r i n g s f o r t h t h e s e t r o p i s m s . As S a r r a u t e comments, I t i s n o t , t h e r e f o r e , a q u e s t i o n o f l i s t i n g o r of r e v e a l i n g b a n a l i -t i e s as s u c h , as I o n e s c o has done f o r example, but r a t h e r t o show j u s t how t h e s e b a n a l s t a t e m e n t s s h i e l d and a t t h e same t i m e r e v e a l t r o p i s m s . ^ R e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e , though r e c u r r i n g s p o r a d i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , has n e v e r t h l e s s a major and r e v e l a t o r y s i g n i f i c a n c e i n S a r r a u t e ' s f i c t i o n . The c h a l l e n g e of t h e d i a l o g u e f o r m had a l r e a d y been t a k e n up by James i n t h e n o v e l The Awkward Age, c o n s i s t i n g a l m o s t e n t i r e l y of d r a m a t i c s c e n e s . J a m e s i a n d i a l o g u e , r a t h e r t h a n d i s c u s s i n g t h e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , c o m p r i s e s an event i n i t s own r i g h t , as t h e s p e a k e r s t r a d e i n q u e s t i o n s , r e p e t i t i o n s , and i n s i n u a t i o n s . C o n v e r s a t i o n a t Newmarch i s e l e v a t e d t o a v e r i t a b l e a r t , as t h e d e n s e l y r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n o f d i a l o g u e i n t h e n o v e l i l l u s t r a t e s . Even as S a r r a u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e f o r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s , James's g a r r u l o u s weekend g u e s t s m a n i f e s t a need t o form a l l i a n c e s , c o l l a b o r a t e and compare w i t s w i t h a v a r i e t y of i n t e r l o c u t o r s . Communication and t h e f a i l u r e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , f o r m t h e c e n t r a l i s s u e s o f each n o v e l , as t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l q u e s t s o f t h e two n a r r a t o r s a r e based 4 on t h e s i g n s o f v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l d i s c o u r s e . C o n t r a r y t o S a u s s u r e ' s d e f i n i t i o n , l a n g u a g e c e a s e s t o be c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y as an i n s t r u m e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , but r a t h e r as c o n s t i t u t i n g a game w i t h e l a b o r a t e r u l e s . Each n a r r a t o r t r a n s c r i b e s c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e u t t e r a n c e s r e p r e s e n t complex d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s whose aim i s t o communicate i n such a way as t o a v o i d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r what i s i m p l i e d . The p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o f d i a l o g u e i n each n o v e l w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s s t u d y , i n w h i c h J a k o b s o n ' s f u n c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s of speech w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e of d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e found i n The S a c r e d Fount and Mar- t e r e a u . The advantage of J a k o b s o n ' s method o f d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s i s t h a t i t i s o l a t e s each f e a t u r e of t h e speech a c t i n t u r n , g o i n g beyond t h e m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n such as t h e s p e a k e r , l i s t e n e r and message and s u g -g e s t i n g t h e means by w h i c h communication i s e s t a b l i s h e d ( t h e c o n t a c t ) , t h e w o r l d t o w h i c h i t r e f e r s ( t h e c o n t e x t ) , and t h e language by w h i c h i t i s conveyed ( t h e code).5 To each f e a t u r e of t h e schema, J a k o b s o n a t t r i b u t e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n as f o l l o w s : c o n t e x t / r e f e r e n t i a l s e n d e r / e m o t i v e m e s s a g e / p o e t i c r e c e i v e r / c o n a t i v e c o n t a c t / p h a t i c c o d e / m e t a l i n g u a l The f o r m o f t h e u t t e r a n c e i s t h u s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r e - e m i n e n t f u n c t i o n o f t h e d i s c o u r s e . There a r e , however, l o g i c a l f l a w s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . J a k o b s o n d e f i n e s t h e r e f e r e n t i a l , e m o t i v e and m e t a l i n g u a l 5 f u n c t i o n s i n terms of s u b j e c t m a t t e r , whereas t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n i s d e f i n e d c o n t e x t u a l l y by t h e s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n t i o n , and t h e c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n by the l o g i c a l c r i t e r i o n t h a t i m p e r a t i v e s l a c k t r u t h v a l u e . ^ The model r e m a i n s n o n e t h e l e s s an e f f e c t i v e means of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e f a c t o r s t h a t f o r m t h e v e r -b a l s t r u c t u r e o f a message, and t h u s t h e s p e c i f i c forms o f d i a l o g u e c r e a t e d by Henry James and N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . A c l o s e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e el e m e n t s o f speech i n each n o v e l w i l l be f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e speech e v e n t i n c o n t e x t : t h a t i s t o s a y , lang u a g e as i t i s d e t e r m i n e d by such e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s as t h e s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n t i o n s , g o a l s and p l a n s . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o s p e e c h , many p o i n t s o f convergence between t h e two a u t h o r s w i l l become e v i d e n t . W h i l e e v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i o n i s p r o j e c t e d o r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e , b o t h n a r r a t o r s a r e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e way i n w h i c h meaning c o n t i n u a l l y exceeds e x p r e s s i o n . The u n v o i c e d c o n t e n t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d by b o t h n a r r a t o r s i n t h e fo r m o f commentary, i n w h i c h t h e gaps t r a c e d i n speech a r e supplemented and i n t e r p r e t e d . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e p o r t e d speech and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s p e c u l a t i v e commentary engenders h i g h l y ambiguous t e x t s t h a t v a c i l l a t e between o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The a u t h o r i t y o f t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s undermined i n b o t h n o v e l s by t h e p o l y p h o n y o f t h e d i a l o g u e and o b j e c t i v e s c e n i c d e s c r i p t i o n , f o r t h e d i a l o g u e i n t r o d u c e s a number of v i e w p o i n t s t h a t t e n d t o s u b v e r t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s dominance i n t h e t e x t . W h i l e b o t h a u t h o r s a r e p r e o c c u p i e d by t h e d i a l o g u e t e c h n i q u e as a mode o f r e p r e s e n t i n g q u o t i d i a n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a o f i n t e r e s t o f each a u t h o r r e s i d e s i n a d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t o f t h e communication s i t u a t i o n . Whereas James i s f a s c i n a t e d by t h e t e x t u r e o f v e r b a l i n t e r c o u r s e 6 as a h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e v e h i c l e of t h e s p e a k e r ' s p s y c h o l o g y , S a r r a u t e l o c a t e s t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e a d d r e s s e e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o such u t t e r -a n c e s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two n o v e l i s t s i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f t h e drama o f s t a t e m e n t and r e s p o n s e t h u s r e v e a l s an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p ; f o r , w h i l e The S a c r e d Fount p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d t r a n s c r i p t i o n of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , s u p p r e s s i n g t o a g r e a t e x t e n t t h e supposed r e a c t i o n s o f each c h a r a c t e r t o t h e u t t e r a n c e , S a r r a u t e , on t h e c o n t r a r y , p r o d u c e s c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e meaning i s c o n c e a l e d , p r e f e r r i n g t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s t o each speech. Speech a c t s a r e f o r e g r o u n d e d i n t h e two n o v e l s by t h e absence o f o t h e r more s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s so t h a t t h e d i a l o g i c event u n i t i n g s p e a k i n g and h e a r i n g o c c u p i e s t h e p i v o t a l r o l e i n b o t h n o v e l s . A n e c e s s a r y complement t o t h e d i a l o g u e i n t h e n o v e l s , t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i o n o r i e n t s and o f t e n t h r e a t e n s t o submerge t h e a l t e r n a t e v i e w p o i n t s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e . T h i s d i a l e c t i c between r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e and commentary i s an e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of t h e ambiguous n a r r a t i v e s by James and S a r r a u t e . 7 FOOTNOTES: 1 Leon E d e l , e d . , The S a c r e d Fount. (New Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s Inc.,1979) p . x x i i . 2 See P e r o s a , B o u r a o u i , Rimmon, and Temple f o r t h e p a r a l l e l s between The  Sa c r e d Fount and P o r t r a i t d'un Inconnu. 3 Henry James, c i t e d by Leon E d e l i n t h e p r e f a c e t o The S a c r e d F o u n t , p. x x x i . ^ N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , c i t e d by B e t t i n a Knapp, O f f - S t a g e V o i c e s . ( T r o y , N.Y: W h i t s o n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1975) p. 164. ^ Roman J a k o b s o n , E s s a i s de l i n g u i s t i q u e g e n e r a l e . ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1973) p. 220. Mary L o u i s e P r a t t , Toward a Speech A c t Theory o f L i t e r a r y D i s c o u r s e . ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) p. 31. % PART 1:Reported D i s c o u r s e A l l l i f e t h e r e f o r e comes back t o t h e q u e s t i o n of our s p e e c h , t h e medium t h r o u g h w h i c h we communicate w i t h each o t h e r . These r e l a t i o n s a r e made p o s s i b l e , a r e r e g i s t e r e d , a r e v e r i l y c o n s t i t u t e d , by our s p e e c h , and a r e s u c c e s s f u l ( t o r e p e a t my word) i n p r o p o r t i o n as o u r speech i s w o r t h y o f i t s g r e a t human and s o c i a l f u n c -t i o n ; i s d e v e l o p e d , d e l i c a t e , f l e x i b l e , r i c h — an adequate a c c o m p l i s h e d f a c t . The more i t s u g g e s t s and e x p r e s s e s t h e more we l i v e by i t — t h e more i t promotes and enhances l i f e . Henry James, The Q u e s t i o n o f  Our Speech. 1905 9 THE METALINGUAL FUNCTION: The I n v e s t i g a t i v e Code W i t h i n t h e d e t e c t i v e s t o r y s t r u c t u r e o f each n o v e l , an i n v e s t i g a t i v e code i s o u t l i n e d e x p l i c i t l y by t h e n a r r a t o r s and t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e m y s t e r y . T h i s code p o s i t s a s e t o f r u l e s and p o s s i b l e methods of i n q u i r y , and i t u l t i m a t e l y s p e c i f i e s t h e l i m i t s o f what may be p r o p e r l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g t h e r u l e s s e t up by t h e group. The code r e p -r e s e n t s "une r e g i e du j e u non n o r m a t i v e , mais p r o d u c t r i c e , " ! as i t u n d e r -l i e s and shapes t h e fo r m o f each i n v e s t i g a t i o n , d e t e r m i n i n g t h e k i n d o f r e f e r e n t i a l m a t e r i a l r e p o r t e d and t h e n a t u r e o f d i a l o g u e as a means of u n c o v e r i n g t h e o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y . A p r a c t i s e t h a t might o t h e r w i s e be c o n s i d e r e d q u i t e o f f e n s i v e , t h a t i s , " t o nose about f o r a r e l a t i o n t h a t a l a d y has h e r r e a s o n s f o r k e e p i n g s e c r e t " ^ , i s t r a n s f o r m e d by t h e p r o v i s i o n a l e t h i c s o f t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l d e t e c t i v e i n t o a b u s i n e s s t h a t i s "not o n l y q u i t e i n o f f e n s i v e " b u t "pos-i t i v e l y h o n o u r a b l e " (p. 61) w i t h i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i v e code o f The Sa c r e d  F o u n t. The r u l e s o f t h e game a r e f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d by Obert as he t e l l s t h e n a r r a t o r : " R e s t i n g on t h e k i n d o f s i g n s t h a t t h e game t a k e s a c c o u n t o f when f a i r l y p l a y e d — r e s t i n g on p s y c h o l o g i c a l s i g n s a l o n e , i t ' s a h i g h a p p l i c a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . What's i g n o b l e i s t h e d e t e c t i v e and th e k e y - h o l e . " (p. 66) Thus d e f i n e d , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s c o n f i n e d t o " p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , " t h a t i s t o s a y , n o n - m a t e r i a l c l u e s evoked by i l l u s t r a t i v e a n a l o g y r a t h e r t h a n f a c t . The e t h i c a l code p r o p o s e d by Obert has i m p o r t a n t consequences 10 f o r t h e way i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r c a r r i e s out t h e i n q u i r y , f o r , h a v i n g d e c i d e d t h a t " s u c c e s s i n such an i n q u i r y may perhaps be more e m b a r r a s s i n g t h a n f a i l u r e " (p. 6 5 ) , t h e n a r r a t o r t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e d e l i c a c y o f t h e m a t t e r and w i l l c o n d u c t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y . The i n v e s t i g a t i v e code i n The S a c r e d Fount t h u s p r i v i l e g e s t h e a r t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n as a means of u n c o v e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e , w h i l e r e q u i r i n g a t the same t i m e much c i r c u m s p e c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e o b s e r v e r s . C onver-s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l becomes s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n f l i c t i n g t e n s i o n s o f t h e d e s i r e t o u n r a v e l t h e s e c r e t and t h e d e s i r e t o c o v e r i t up: t o say i t a l l w h i l e s a y i n g n o t h i n g . The s t y l i s t i c consequences o f t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e many. Euphemism, a l l u s i o n , a n a l o g y , h y p e r b o l e — a l l r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n t h e n o v e l work t o s u g g e s t r a t h e r t h a n t o r e v e a l t h e i n d e l i c a t e t r u t h . I n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l , t h e code d e t e r m i n e s e x a c t l y what k i n d o f e v i d e n c e i s p e r m i s s i b l e i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f M a r t e r e a u . Here p s y c h o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e i s s c a r c e l y a d m i s s i b l e : e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e i s e v e r y t h i n g . The commentary o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s c o n f i r m e d i n t h e d i s c o u r s e when t h e u n c l e e x p r e s s l y d e f i n e s t h e code t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e s t h e c h a r a c t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n : " M o i , v o i s - t u , mon p e t i t , j e ne s u i s pas de l a r a c e des r e v e u r s . Tu l e s a i s , ce q u i compte pour mo i , ce s o n t l e s f a i t s . J e me f i c h e du r e s t e . Ca ne m ' a t t e n d r i t p a s , m o i , l e s p o i n t s d'honneur, l e s a i r s penches. Ce q u i compte, c ' e s t q u ' i l s g a r d e n t 1'argent e t l a m a i s o n . " 3 I n d e c l a r i n g h i s a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o b l e m , t h e u n c l e s p e c i f i c a l l y d i f f e r e n -t i a t e s h i s own e m p i r i c a l method f r o m t h e s p e c u l a t i v e a p p r o a c h o f t h e n a r -r a t o r . I n t h e b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e u n i v e r s e of t h e u n c l e , m a t e r i a l e v i d e n c e p r e v a i l s a g a i n s t the f a n c i f u l r e p o r t s o f t h e nephew. When t h e n a r r a t o r 11 r e p o r t s t h e s u c c e s s o f h i s d e c o r a t i n g b u s i n e s s , t h e u n c l e s t r i k e s back: "Combien en a v e z - v o u s vendu, de v o s f a u t e u i l s , de vos canapes? Combien? Q u e l l e v e n t e ? M o i , t u s a i s , l e s o n - d i t , l e s c o m p l i -ments, 5a ne v e u t r i e n d i r e pour moi. J'aime l e s r e a l i t e s s o l i d e s . L e s f a i t s . " (p. 176) I n o r d e r t o communicate w i t h t h e u n c l e , t h e n a r r a t o r i s o b l i g e d t o r e t u r n h i s own c o i n , t o t r a f f i c i n i n d i s p u t a b l e f a c t s . The n a r r a t o r o f M a r t e r e a u d i f f e r s f r o m h i s J a m e s i a n c o u n t e r p a r t i n t h a t he w o u l d n o t a g r e e w i t h Obert t h a t "what's i g n o b l e i s the d e t e c t i v e and t h e k e y - h o l e , " f o r he c e r t a i n l y s p i e s on o c c a s i o n ; however, t h e l e v e l o f a c t i v i t y he o b s e r v e s i s e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . As t h e n a r r a t o r w a i t s f o r M a r t e r e a u t o r e t u r n t o h i s a p a r t m e n t , h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f u l t e r i o r m o t i v e s c a u s e s him t o t r a n s f o r m t h e a c t o f w a i t i n g i n t o h i g h e s p i o n n a g e . The d e s c r i p t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a c t i o n s i n t h e p a s s a g e , r a r e i n M a r t e r e a u , i n v e s t s t h e c l i p p e d s y n t a x o f t h e scene w i t h t h e t e n s i o n o f a spy t h r i l l e r . The n a r r a t o r r e p o r t s , Pas une seconde a p e r d r e . . . j e grimpe l ' e s c a l i e r q u a t r e a q u a t r e , j e n ' a t t e n d s pas l ' a s c e n s e u r , j ' a r r i v e r a i p l u s v i t e a p i e d . . . t r o i s e t a g e s , l a p o r t e a gauche: j e sonne. P e r s o n n e . Pas l e moindre b r u i t d e r r i e r e l a p o r t e fermee. S i l e n c e t o u t a u t o u r . J e m ' a s s o i s s u r une marche. J ' e p i e . . . j ' a p p u i e mon v i s a g e c o n t r e l e s b a r r e a u x de l a cage de l ' e s -c a l i e r , j ' e s s a i e de v o i r . . . . J e me r a s s o i . J ' e c o u t e . (pp. 149-50) Here t h e n a r r a t o r c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e f a c t s , d e s c r i b i n g such d e t a i l s as h i s movements and t h e s e t t i n g , b u t i t i s o n l y i n t h e absence o f o t h e r p e o p l e t h a t such f a c t s become a v a i l a b l e t o him. W i t h t h e e n t r y o f M a r t e r e a u , once a g a i n t h e atmosphere becomes c l o u d e d w i t h t h e emergence of t r o p i s m s , and " t h e f a c t s " r e c e d e . Two o p p o s i n g i n v e s t i g a t i v e codes a r e p r e s e n t i n M a r t e r e a u : e a c h d e t e r m i n e s 12 t h e o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y and t h e p o s s i b l e means of e x p r e s s i o n . The n a r -r a t o r compares language t o t h e s y s t e m of m a t h e m a t i c s , i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e two methods, "...comme, pour c e r t a i n s p r o b l e m e s , deux p r o c e d e s : l ' u n p a r l ' a l g e b r e , l ' a u t r e p a r 1 ' a r i t h m e t i q u e . " (p. 206) A r i t h m e t i c i s t h e method f a v o u r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r , f o r i t c o m p r i s e s " t o u t e s ces donnees c o n c r e t e s , s e n s a t i o n s , i m p r e s s i o n s v a g u e s , r e m i n i s c e n c e s , p r e s s e n t i m e n t s , f l u i d e s e t c o u r a n t s , " w h i l e by o p p o s i t i o n , a l g e b r a i s l i n e a r and t h o r o u g h l y l o g i c a l : D'un f a i t a l ' a u t r e , l a pensee se t e n d , n e t t e , d r o i t e , l e p l u s c o u r t chemin. J o i g n a n t l ' u n a l ' a u t r e des p o i n t s e x a c t e -ment s i t u e s , e l l e t r a c e un d e s s i n q u i a t o u t e l a p r e c i s i o n d'une f i g u r e g e o m e t r i q u e . I I s u f f i t de l e r e g a r d e r : l a de-f i n i t i o n s'impose. Aucun doute n ' e s t p o s s i b l e . (p. 207) To communicate s u c c e s s f u l l y between t h e s e p a r a l l e l w o r l d s of ex-p r e s s i o n , between a l g e b r a and a r i t h m e t i c , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a v e r s e t h e a r e a of d i f f e r e n c e between them, e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e mode of thought of t h e o t h e r . The n a r r a t o r s u r r e n d e r s h i s p e r s o n a l v i s i o n of t h e e v e n t s t o t h e u n c l e when he t e m p o r a r i l y abandons t h e code of t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " and t r o p i s m t o examine t h e p r o b l e m i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e " p e t i t f a i t v r a i . " I r o n i c a l l y , t h e p o s i t i o n s of t h e two c h a r a c t e r s r e v e r s e when the u n c l e r e s -ponds t o h i s nephew's s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d and r i g o r o u s l y f a c t u a l a ccount by e c h o i n g t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e f r a i n : "Les choses ne s o n t pas s i s i m p l e s . . . . " (p. 209). That t h e u n c l e condescends t o use h i s nephew's language appears q u i t e r e m a r k a b l e , b u t t h e u n c l e r e v e a l s s e c o n d a r y m o t i v e s i n e m p l o y i n g t h i s code as he d e c l a r e s , "...nous comprenons t o u t c a , t o u t e s l e u r s s u b t i l i t e s , l e u r ' p s y c h o l o g i e ' . . . c a p o r t e d ' a u t r e s noms m a i n t e n a n t , v o i l a t o u t . . . M o i a u s s i , j ' a i q u e l q u e f l a i r , j e me s u i s f r o t t e dans ma v i e a pas mal de gens..." (p. 209) 13 He opens d e f e n s i v e l y , r e m a r k i n g t h a t he does i n d e e d u n d e r s t a n d t h e language he i s about t o use and f u r t h e r comments t h a t he i s q u i t e adept a t m a n i p u l a t i n g i t . The f a c t t h a t t h e u n c l e so u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e n t e r s t h e n e b u l o u s a r e a o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i s e x p l i c a b l e w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e e n t i r e s c e n e , f o r he i s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e g i f t p r o f -f e r e d by h i s nephew when he assumes t h e u n c l e ' s v i e w p o i n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e u n c l e p e r c e i v e s c o n v e r s a t i o n as a b a t t l e f o r dominance, and i f t h e enemy s h o u l d s u r r e n d e r and j o i n f o r c e s w i t h h im, t h e s i t u a t i o n becomes p a t e n t l y u n b a l a n c e d . Hence, he i s o b l i g e d t o s w i t c h s i d e s i f he i s t o r e t a i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r , o r r a t h e r , opponent. 14 THE METALINGUAL FUNCTION: Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e Code Much o f t h e v e r b a l a c t i v i t y i n The Sa c r e d Fount i n v o l v e s r e f l e c t i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e words u s e d , whether by o v e r t l y q u e s t i o n i n g t h e mean-i n g o f an e x p r e s s i o n o r by r e p e a t i n g t h e words of o t h e r s . D i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h t h e means o f e x p r e s s i o n i s put i n t o q u e s t i o n f o r e g r o u n d s t h e meta-l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n , w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e y a r e u s i n g t h e same code. The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n becomes a p p a r e n t i n b o t h n o v e l s when t h e c h a r a c t e r s f o c u s on t h e l i n g u i s t i c code, by r e q u e s t s f o r d e f i n i t i o n , o r r e p e t i t i o n s , i n anattempt t o r e s o l v e t h e c o n f l i c t i n g r e a l i t i e s m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c codes. The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n o f language p r e d o m i n a t e s when e i t h e r t h e s p e a k e r o r t h e l i s t e n e r i s u n s u r e o f t h e code and r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l i n -f o r m a t i o n about t h e l a n g u a g e , much as d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f lan g u a g e a c -q u i s i t i o n . The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n i s o f t e n an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e q u e s t , as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t c o n f r o n t s a s t r a n g e w o r l d i n w h i c h a new code i s o f t e n i n e f f e c t . The p r o g r e s s o f A l i c e i n t h e m a r v e l o u s w o r l d o f Through  t h e L o o k i n g - G l a s s p r o v i d e s a good example o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h such a f o c u s i s n e c e s s a r y . When she e n c o u n t e r s Humpty Dumpty, t h e m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n o p e r a t e s w i t h comic e f f e c t : " I don't know what you mean by ' g l o r y ' , " A l i c e s a i d . Humpty Dumpty s m i l e d c o n t e m p t u o u s l y . "Of c o u r s e you d o n ' t — t i l l I t e l l you. I meant ' t h e r e ' s a n i c e knock-down argument f o r y o u ! ' " "But ' g l o r y ' d o e s n ' t mean 'a n i c e knock-down argument'," A l i c e o b j e c t e d . "When I use a word," Humpty Dumpty s a i d i n r a t h e r a s c o r n f u l t o n e , " i t means j u s t what I choose i t t o m e a n — n e i t h e r more n o r l e s s . " ^ 15 T h i s passage d e a l s w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h s p e a k e r s i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m t h e code, t h u s a l t e r i n g t h e s e m a n t i c v a l u e o f words i n t h e la n g u a g e . The s i t u a t i o n d e s c r i b e d above forms a humourous a n a l o g u e t o m e t a l i n g u a l a c t i v i t i e s i n The Sac r e d Fount. D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e w o r l d s o f b o t h n o v e l s a r e p e o p l e d by a d u l t s , a l l o f whom p o s s e s s n a t i v e competence i n t h e la n g u a g e s u s e d , t h e m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n i s p r o m i n e n t , f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Henry James and N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e l i v e i n t h e " e r e du soupcon." F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s o c i a l c i r c l e s o f each n o v e l u n i t e p e o p l e o f s i m i l a r economic and s o c i a l s t r a t a . The s o c i e t y a t Newmarch i s an homo-geneous s o c i e t y c o m p r i s e d o f t h e upper c l a s s : t h e n a r r a t o r e u p h o n i o u s l y c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h e group as " c h i l d r e n o f l e i s u r e and p l e a s u r e and p r i v i -l e g e . " (p. 61) However, due t o t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f lang u a g e and t h e d e l i c a t e n a t u r e o f t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d , t h i s common s o c i a l b a ckground does n o t always e n s u r e a s h a r e d l a n g u a g e , s i n c e t h e e x p r e s s i o n s of each c h a r a c t e r o f t e n p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s t o t h e l i s t e n e r . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n b o t h n o v e l s o f t e n c o n s i s t o f r e p e a t i n g and q u e s t i o n i n g t h e meanings o f words. C h a r a c t e r s i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , f o r example, c o n s t a n t l y c h a l l e n g e t h e l e x i c o n o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t -n e r s , r e f l e c t i n g on t h e words t h a t have been p a s s e d t o them b e f o r e c h o o s i n g e i t h e r t o a c c e p t o r r e j e c t them. S i m i l a r l y i n M a r t e r e a u , r e p e t i t i o n w i t h i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f t h e n o v e l o f t e n s i g n a l s t h e m e t a l i n g u a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , a l t h o u g h t o a more l i m i t e d e x t e n t . The c h a r a c t e r s assembled a t Newmarch a r e a l l t o o aware o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y i n h a b i t l a n g u a g e . They c o n s t a n t l y c h a l l e n g e and a s s e s s t h e e x p r e s s i o n s used by o t h e r s i n an att e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e code, w h i c h , a l t h o u g h based on a common l a n g u a g e , i s n o t w h o l l y c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . T h i s 16 c o n v e r s a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c comes t o t h e f o r e f r o n t i n t h e o p e n i n g c o n -v e r s a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r d i s c u s s e s w i t h Long t h e n a t u r e o f Mrs. B r i s s ' t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r f a i l s t o r e p r o d u c e h i s remarks i n d i r e c t s p e e c h , a l t h o u g h he s t a t e s t h e g i s t o f h i s words i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way:"What I had m a i n l y remembered was t h a t she had been r a t h e r u g l y . A t p r e s e n t she was r a t h e r handsome." (p. 5) Long c h a l l e n g e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t e r m i n o l o g y i n a way t h a t has w i d e -r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e v e n t s o f t h e n o v e l , as he r e m a r k s , "I'm bound t o say I don't q u i t e c a l l i t b e a u t y . " (p. 6) The terms o f t h e p u z z l e c o n f r o n t i n g t h e n a r r a t o r — " H o w c o u l d a woman who had been p l a i n so l o n g become p r e t t y so l a t e ? " — a r e t h u s r e v i s e d by G i l b e r t Long's c a s u a l d i s a g r e e m e n t , w h i c h m o d i f i e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s e a r c h c o n s i d e r a b l y . W h i l e a c c e p t i n g Long's d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e n a r r a t o r j u s t i f i e s h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s change i n appearance by making t h e f o l l o w i n g g l o s s o f h i s v o c a b u l a r y : " T h e o n l y t h i n g i s t h a t i f a woman do e s n ' t grow o l d e r she may be s a i d t o grow younger; and i f she grows younger she may be supposed t o grow p r e t t i e r . " (p. 6) The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n has t h e e f f e c t o f l a y i n g b a r e t h e code, and c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e s p u r i o u s l o g i c t h a t g o v e r n s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t h ought becomes r e a d i l y a p p a r -en t . The c h a r a c t e r s f r e q u e n t l y examine the language a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l by q u e s t i o n i n g d o u b t f u l e x p r e s s i o n s : " . . . i f you mean by ' i m p r e s s i n g upon' h e r s p e a k i n g t o h e r . . . " (p. 171) "...do you mean by my g r i e v a n c e — " ' ( p . 244) "By t h e f i r e I mean..." (p. 277) "That depends a l i t t l e — d o e s n ' t i t ? — o n what you mean by ' m a t t e r ' ! " (p. 286) 17 T h i s f a s t i d i o u s n e s s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e m a n t i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f language i n c r e a s e s as t h e n o v e l draws t o a c o n c l u s i o n , and a l l t h e g u e s t s have been i n i t i a t e d i n t o t h e s u b t l e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s demanded by t h e n a r r a t o r s t a n d a r d o f w i t . J a m e s i a n c h a r a c t e r s heap an e x c e s s o f innuendo upon t h e most e v e r y d a y e x p r e s s i o n s u n t i l t h e burden t h r e a t e n s t o o b s c u r e t h e most e v i d e n t r e f e r e n c e s . However, t h e s e r e q u e s t s f o r e x p l a n a t i o n become l e s s i n n o c e n t i n q u i r i e s about p o i n t s o f u n c e r t a i n t y t h a n a p l o y t o i n d u c e t h e s p e a k e r t o assume f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s u t t e r a n c e . The e p i s t e m o -l o g i c a l drama i n The S a c r e d Fount i s t h u s p l a y e d out on an e m p h a t i c a l l y l i n g u i s t i c l e v e l , as t h e c h a r a c t e r s must n o t o n l y e x p l a i n what t h e y know, but a l s o what t h e y mean by t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s . Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e meaning of words a l s o forms a s t r a t e g i c d e v i c e f o r d e f l e c t i n g q u e s t i o n i n g on more dangerous grounds. Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n evades t h e q u e s t i o n posed by t h e n a r r a t o r i n t h e f i n a l scene o f t h e n o v e l r e g a r d i n g Mrs. S e r v e r ' s a t t e n -t i o n t o Mr. B r i s s — " A n d y e t i f she j i s e x t r a v a g a n t — w h a t do you do w i t h i t ? " -by f o c u s i n g on t h e meaning o f t h e a t t r i b u t e " e x t r a v a g a n t " : " . . . i t depends, s t i l l f u r t h e r , on what you mean by ' e x t r a -v agant '." " I mean wha t e v e r you y o u r s e l f meant." " W e l l , I m y s e l f mean no l o n g e r , you know, what I d i d mean." (p. 315) D e f u s i n g t h e r a t h e r h y p e r b o l i c a d j e c t i v e of t h e n a r r a t o r , Mrs. B r i s s s u c c e e d s i n d e n y i n g a l t o g e t h e r any i n v o l v e m e n t o r i n t e r e s t i n t h e q u e s t i o n o f Mrs. S e r v e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . The game o f p l a y i n g i n t h e i n t e r s t i c e s o f l a n g u a g e — t r a d i n g i n ob-s c u r i t i e s and i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n — n o l o n g e r amuses Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n , who d i s p l a y s h e r s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a r t s by c o n t i n u a l l y r e j e c t i n g h i s e x p r e s s i o n s : "What do you c a l l w i t h such s o l e m n i t y , " she i n q u i r e d , 18 "our p u r p o s e ? " (p. 260) On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , r a i s i n g h e r eyebrows a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e f e r e n c e t o h e r " c r e d u l i t y , " Mrs. B r i s s p i c k s up t h e p o i n t , r e p e a t i n g "My c r e d u l i t y ? " , so t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s o b l i g e d t o r e v i s e h i s t e r m i n o l o g y : " C a l l i t t h e n , i f you don't l i k e t h e word, y o u r sympathy." (p. 287) The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e v e r b a l war e n a c t e d i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l by t h e t h r u s t and p a r o f demands f o r e x p l a n a t i o n and e v a s i v e r e p l i e s . A s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e d i a l o g u e i n The S a c r e d Fount c o n -s i s t s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s e c h o i n g words o f d u b i o u s meaning. Such s i m p l e r e p e t i t i o n l e n d s t h e d i a l o g u e a s t a t i c , even t a u t o l o g i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , as no new i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d by t h e u t t e r a n c e . However, t h e i n f o r -m a t i v e v a l u e of t h e echo i s g r e a t e r t h a n i t f i r s t a p p e a r s , f o r t h e a c t of removing t h e e x p r e s s i o n from t h e c o n t e x t of one s p e a k e r and i n s e r t i n g i t i n t o a n o t h e r e f f e c t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e a l t e r a t i o n i n meaning. B a k h t i n makes t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n about r e p e t i t i o n : One s p e a k e r v e r y o f t e n r e p e a t s l i t e r a l l y an a s s e r t i o n made by a n o t h e r s p e a k e r , i n v e s t i n g i t w i t h a new i n t e n t i o n and e n u n c i a t i n g i t i n h i s own way: w i t h an e x p r e s s i o n o f doubt, i n d i g n a t i o n , i r o n y , mockery, d e r i s i o n , o r t h e l i k e . 5 As an e x p r e s s i o n i s r e p e a t e d , i t becomes " d o u b l e - v o i c e d , " d r a w i n g on t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s p r e s e n c e of two s p e a k e r s . The v o c a b u l a r y of t h e n a r r a t o r i s f r e q u e n t l y t a k e n up by h i s c o n -v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r s , who o f t e n seem t o quote h i s words w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f c l a r i f y i n g t h e meaning a t t r i b u t e d t o them. Long c o u n t e r s t h e n a r r a t o r a s s e r t i o n t h a t "Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s q u i t e f a b u l o u s , " as he b l a n k l y r e p e a t s , " ' F a b u l o u s ' ? " He n o t o n l y q u e s t i o n s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f such a term t o Mrs. B r i s s , he a l s o i m p l i c i t l y d e n i e s h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e f o r e g o i n g 19 d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r . P r e v i o u s l y t h e n a r r a t o r had s e t t h e b a i t f o r h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r , q u e r y i n g , "Do you mean t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g i n him [ B r i s s } t h a t s t r i k e s y o u ? " (p. 2 4 ) , b u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such a l e a d -i n g q u e s t i o n a r e m a n i f e s t t o Long, who r e j e c t s t h e terms o f t h e i n q u i r y : " ' S t r i k e s ' me—-in t h a t boy? N o t h i n g i n him, t h a t I know o f , e v e r s t r u c k me i n my l i f e . He's n o t an o b j e c t o f t h e s m a l l e s t i n t e r e s t t o me!" (p. 24) The n a r r a t o r ' s c h o i c e o f t h e v e r b " t o s t r i k e " i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r i t p e r -t a i n s e x c l u s i v e l y t o h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r ' s i m p r e s s i o n w i t h o u t s u g g e s t i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e e f f e c t . When Mrs. S e r v e r employs t h e same word as an a d v e r b , t h e n a r r a t o r r e q u e s t s a more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e term: "How can t h a t be when he's so s t r i k i n g l y i n l o v e w i t h h i s w i f e ? " I gave h e r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e most a p p a r e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . " S t r i k i n g l y , you c a l l i t ? " (p. 148) I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e , t h e n a r r a t o r q u e s t i o n s t h e word " t e l l s " used t o denote a n o n - v e r b a l i n d i c a t i o n o f s o m e t h i n g ; however, even as he q u e s t i o n s O b e r t , he r e c a l l s t h a t he has used t h e same te r m i n t h e same way e a r l i e r : " I c h a l l e n g e d i t , b u t I u n c o m f o r t a b l y r e f l e c t e d t h a t i t was j u s t what I had m y s e l f t o l d Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n . " (p.66) As t h e c o n v e r -s a t i o n a l s t a k e s mount h i g h e r , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f r e p e t i t i o n a l s o i n c r e a s e s , s i n c e t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f key words forms a means o f i m p l y i n g d i s s e n t . T h i s p a t t e r n o f u t t e r a n c e and echo i l l u s t r a t e s t h e v e r b a l t a c t i c s o f the p a r -t i c i p a n t s i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s game, who l e a r n t o f e n d o f f q u e s t i o n s and a s s e r t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e s i m p l e , n o n - c o m m i t t a l d e v i c e o f r e p e t i t i o n . Such u n d e r s t a t e d r e q u e s t s f o r d e f i n i t i o n h i g h l i g h t t h e d e n s i t y o f language i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , i n v e s t i n g t h e l e x i c o n w i t h a h i g h degree o f s u g g e s t i o n . 20 I n M a r t e r e a u t h e f a b r i c o f speech p r e s e n t s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s , who seldom pause t o examine t h e terms of what i s s a i d . However, a c o n s t a n t element o f a l l S a r r a u t e ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l dramas i s t h e use of i r o n y i n t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . W i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t of c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h i s i r o n y assumes t h e form of p a r o d y , as c h a r a c t e r s r e -p e a t t h e speech o f o t h e r s , d u p l i c a t i n g t h e code i n w h i c h t h e u t t e r a n c e i s a r t i c u l a t e d . The m e t a l i n g u a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o m m unication s i t u a t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s i n s u c h u t t e r a n c e s , f o r t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e x t o f t h e o r i g i -n a l words i s i n d i r e c t l y d e r i d e d . As t h e c h a r a c t e r s t a k e up t h e words o f o t h e r s i n M a r t e r e a u t h e p a r o d i c f u n c t i o n o f r e p o r t e d speech comes t o t h e f o r e . Such d o u b l e - v o i c e d speech a c t s a r e emphasised t y p o g r a p h i c a l l y i n t h e t e x t by t h e s u r r o u n d i n g q u o t a t i o n marks, w h i c h n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f an embedded speech a c t , but a l s o h i g h l i g h t such o r a l f e a t u r e s of speech as emphasis and i n t o n a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r comments on t h e p a r o d i c i n t e n t o f such r e p o r -t e d speech i n t h e o p e n i n g d i a l o g u e , as he comments on t h e n o n - v e r b a l c o n -t e x t of t h e speech a c t : . . . e l l e f r e t i l l e i m p e r c e p t i b l e m e n t e t d i t s u r un t o n i r o n i q u e , en p l a c a n t e n t r e g u i l l e m e t s "gens i m p o r t a n t s " , "grands m a n i -t o u s " : Nous e t i o n s o b l i g e s de r e c e v o i r des t a s de "gens im-p o r t a n t s " . Nous e t i o n s r e c u s chez des t a s de "grands mani-t o u s " . (p. 7) Here t h e s a t i r i c a l i n t e n t i o n o f t h e aunt i s embodied by t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f q u o t a t i o n marks due t o t h e t o n a l emphasis i n h e r s p e e c h , as she evokes a s e t o f p r i m a r y s p e a k e r s f o r whom t h e words "grands m a n i t o u s " c a r r y some w e i g h t : h e r t o ne e x p l i c i t l y evokes and r i d i c u l e s t h e s t a n d a r d s of " l a d o x a " — t h e c u l t u r a l s t a n d a r d o f c o r r e c t n e s s — w h i l e a t t h e same ti m e a l l u d i n g t o h e r own e l e v a t e d s o c i a l s t a t u s . 21 A g a i n as t h e aunt r e f e r s t o "une c e r t a i n e ' e l i t e ' " t h e p r e s e n c e of a d o u b l e - d i r e c t e d d i s c o u r s e becomes a p p a r e n t . B a k h t i n s t a t e s t h a t i n t h i s d o u b l e o r i e n t a t i o n D i s c o u r s e m a i n t a i n s a d o u b l e f o c u s , aimed a t the r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t o f s p e e c h , as i n o r d i n a r y d i s c o u r s e , and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t a second c o n t e x t of d i s c o u r s e , a second speech a c t by a n o t h e r a d d r e s s e r . 6 The words i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' s speech g i v e r i s e t o a d i s t i n c t i v e l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon whereby t h e u n i - d i r e c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e u t t e r -ance assumes a new i n t e n t i o n and becomes d o u b l e - v o i c e d . I n M a r t e r e a u t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e o f t e n o v e r t l y i r o n i c , c h a l l e n g i n g t h e v a l u e s o f t h e c u l -t u r a l code by i n t r o d u c i n g e x p r e s s i o n s " e n t r e g u i l l e m e t s " i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s c o r e t h e d i v e r g e n c e between t h e i r o r i g i n a l usage and t h a t s u g g e s t e d by t h e new c o n t e x t . As we have a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s s p eech o f t e n conveys a n t a g o n i s t i c i n t e n t i o n s . Leo S p i t z e r makes t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n : When we r e p r o d u c e i n our speech a p o r t i o n of what our c o n v e r -s a t i o n p a r t n e r s a i d , a change of tone i n e v i t a b l y o c c u r s i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n t h a n t h a t t h e a d d r e s s e r s have been s h i f t e d a r o und: t h e words o f t h e ' o t h e r ' i n our mouths al w a y s sound l i k e s o m e t h i n g f o r e i g n , v e r y o f t e n w i t h a m o c k i n g , e x a g g e r a t e d , o r d e r i s i v e i n t o n a t i o n . . J The n a r r a t o r r e p o r t s t h e humourous e f f e c t t h a t i s o f t e n o b t a i n e d by q u o t -i n g someone e l s e ' s w ords, as he d e s c r i b e s t h e denouement of t h e scene i n w h i c h t h e f a m i l y goes t o v i e w t h e c o u n t r y house. The aunt and nephew n e r v o u s l y a n t i c i p a t e t h e u n c l e ' s r e s p o n s e t o what has t r a n s p i r e d d u r i n g t h e a f t e r n o o n , when t h e i r a n x i e t y i s d i s p e l l e d by a g u s t o f l a u g h t e r : 22 "Eh b i e n , q u ' e s t - c e que vous en d i t e s ? Ca ne vous d i t r i e n ? . . . l e s . . . l e s . . . I I e t o u f f e de r i r e . . . l e s g r a t t o i r s . . . v o u s avez remar-que quand i l a d i t , d'un a i r i m p o r t a n t : 'Devant l e s p o r t e s i l y a i l a r t i c u l e d i f f i c i l e m e n t . . . u n f o u r i r e de c o l l e g i e n s nous p r e n d — " (p. 103) The code ad o p t e d by t h e agent a t t e m p t i n g t o p o i n t out t h e f a v o u r a b l e f e a t u r e s o f t h e house i s h e l d up t o t h e l i g h t i n t h i s s c e n e , p r o v i d i n g a s o u r c e o f humour f o r t h e f a m i l y . The aunt and nephew j o i n the game of r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e r a t h e r a b s u r d a s s e r t i o n s o f t h e agent as t h e y r e c a l l s i m i l a r r e m a r k s . " ' C ' e s t - a - d i r e que Madame a v a i t ca dans l ' i d e e . . . a l o r s e l l e en a v a i t f a i t m e t t r e q u e l q u e s - u n s . . . E l l e a v a i t ca dans 1 ' i d e e . . . c ' e s t m a g n i f i q u e ! . . . . e l l e a v a i t des v i s i o n s ..." (p. 103) As t h e words o f t h e o r i g i n a l u t t e r a n c e a r e r e p e a t e d , each c h a r a c t e r p r o d u c e s a commentary t o emphasise t h e comic p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e a g e n t ' s s p e e c h . The o r i e n t a t i o n toward a n o t h e r speech a c t s e r v e s t o r e i n -f o r c e t h e l i n g u i s t i c s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a l l o u t -s i d e r s . M i m i c k i n g t h e a g e n t ' s s t o c k p h r a s e s a i d s i n i n v o k i n g t h e l a t e n t s t o r e of common f a m i l i a l e x p e r i e n c e s , as the i n c o m p l e t e u t t e r a n c e s "en Camargue...la n u i t que nous avons passee dans ce v i l l a g e . . t o i a s s i s s u r une c h a i s e . . . " (p. 103) a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t t h e embedded speech a c t . As we have a l r e a d y n o t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i v e code i n M a r t e r e a u , t h e a d o p t i o n o f a n o t h e r s p e a k e r ' s words, such as t h e u n c l e ' s a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n " l e s choses ne s o n t pas s i s i m p l e s " o r the n a r r a t o r ' s use o f " l e s f a i t s : i l n'y a que ca q u i compte", r e f l e c t s t h e m e t a l i n g u a l c o n v e n t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l . However, such d o u b l e - v o i c e d speech a c t s a l s o o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l w i t h p a r o d i c i n t e n t , as one c h a r a c t e r d i s p l a y s a n o t h e r ' s words i n o r d e r t o mock them. R e p e t i t i o n t h u s 23 s e r v e s t o oppose one form o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e w o r l d t o t h e one h e l d by t h e s p e a k e r , so t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n r e m a i n s a l o c u s o f s e c u r i t y , where t h e g e n e r a l i t y o f r e a d i l y r e c o g n i s e d and a c c e p t e d a t t i t u d e s i s r e i n f o r c e d . § The C l i c h e : "Avec l e temps, avec l ' a g e t o u t s ' a r r a n g e . " (p. 83) "One o f t h e m — y o u know t h e s a y i n g — g i v e s t h e l i p s , t h e o t h e r g i v e s t h e cheek." (p. 80) "De 1'argent gagne p a r m o i , "a l a sueur de mon f r o n t , " p e n sez-donc! P l u s r i e n a demander a p e r s o n n e . . . . L ' i n -dependence. .. " (p. 21) " W e l l , t h e way, s i m p l y , t h a t t h e shoe f i t s . " (p. 65) D e s p i t e t h e v a r y i n g c o n t e x t s , l a n g u a g e s , and messages of t h e s e q u o t a t i o n s , t h e above s t a t e m e n t s r e s e m b l e each o t h e r i n one s i g n i f i c a n t r e s p e c t : each u t t e r a n c e e x p l o i t s t h e l i n g u i s t i c code, d r a w i n g on q u a s i -p r o v e r b i a l t r u t h s t o c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f what i s s a i d . The common-p l a c e emphasises t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e code and t h u s seems t o i n d i c a t e a p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between t h e c h a r a c t e r s . However, w h i l e t h e p r o v e r b i a l n a t u r e o f such u t t e r a n c e s u n d e r l i n e s and v e r i f i e s t h e common l i n g u i s t i c code n e c e s s a r y f o r communication and s i g n a l s s h a r e d c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , t h e a c t u a l e x p r e s s i v i t y o f such s t a t e m e n t s i s m i n i m a l . I n d e e d , s i l e n c e i s o f t e n more i n f o r m a t i v e i n b o t h n o v e l s t h a n t h e commonplace u t t e r a n c e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w h i c h " o f t e n l i f t no more t h a n a c o r n e r o f t h e v e i l w h i c h h i d e s t h e i r t h o u g h t s . " 8 The n a t u r e o f t h e "lieu-commun" i s t h u s p a r a d o x i c a l : i t a p p ears t o 24 s a t i s f y t h a t " b e s o i n c o n t i n u e l e t p r e s q u e maniaque de c o n t a c t " t h a t m o t i v a t e s t h e s p e a k e r s i n each n o v e l ; however, as J e a n B l o c h - M i c h e l p o i n t s o u t , t h e "lieu-commun" i s "un l i e u ou nous nous r e t r o u v o n s en commun, chacun r e s t a n t e t r a n g e r a 1 ' a u t r e e t sans qu'on nous demande davantage."9 Language becomes "un moyen de s ' i s o l e r p l u t o t que d'un moyen de se r e n -c o n t r e r , p l u t o t un rempart qu'un pont."10 I n M a r t e r e a u t h e l e t h a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f words demand e x c e p t i o n a l c a r e on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p e a k e r s , who s u r r e n d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e use o f t h e "lieu-commun" and t h e c l i c h e , "des d o u i l l e s v i d e s , des bombes desamorcees" (p. 2 2 2 ) , w h i c h seem t o a s s u r e peace on t h e dangerous t e r r a i n o f c o n v e r s a -t i o n . M a r t e r e a u i s t h e c h a r a c t e r who m a n i p u l a t e s hackneyed i d e a s and o v e r -worked e x p r e s s i o n s t h e most s u c c e s s f u l l y , l u l l i n g t h e n a r r a t o r i n t o a s t a t e o f complacency and c o n f i d e n c e . M a r t e r e a u l e a d s him t h r o u g h t h e f a m i l y photo album, c r e a t i n g a s e r i e s o f homely images of f a m i l y l i f e . I n t h i s way he t r a n s f o r m s t h e deathbed scene of h i s f a t h e r i n t o a number o f homespun a n e c d o t e s about a g i n g : " I I e s t mort de s a b e l l e m ort, i l s ' e s t e t e i n t de v i e i l l e s s e a q u a t r e - v i n g t - n e u f ans e n t o u r e de ses p e t i t s - e n f a n t s e t a r r i e r e - p e t i t s - e n f a n t s . A q u a t r e - v i n g t a n s , i l me d i s a i t : 'Mais ce n ' e s t pas p o s s i b l e , j e v i e i l l i s , ma p a r o l e , j e d e v i e n s dur d ' o r e i l l e . " (p. 86) The n a r r a t o r comments on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c l i c h e t o b l u n t r e a l i t y , t o t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o a s t o r e h o u s e o f i n n o c u o u s images, s t a t i n g , "Nous r i o n s doucement. Tout e s t pour l e mieux. L a mort a p p r i v o i s e e v i e n t comme une b e t e f a m i l i e r e se f a i r e donner de bonnes t a p e s a m i c a l e s , manger dans n o t r e m ain." (p. 86) Even as t h e t o p i c t u r n s t o more p a i n f u l m a t t e r s , language 25 c l a s s i f i e s them i n t o c o m p r e h e n s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s — . . . i l y a eu des coups d u r s , des d e u i l s , des m a l a d i e s , des r e v e r s de f o r t u n e , de bons v r a i s m a l h eurs q u i peuvent s'e-t a l e r au grand j o u r , que t o u t l e monde c o m p r e n d — (p. 87) and m o m e n t a r i l y , t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n movement o f t r o p i s m s i s h a l t e d . Mar-t e r e a u commands t h i s i n a u t h e n t i c l e v e l o f language t o a d v a n t a g e , c a u s i n g t h e n a r r a t o r t o b e l i e v e i n the p o s s i b i l i t y o f "des ma l h e u r s comme de grands b l o c s e p a i s e t l o u r d s , aux c o n t o u r s n e t s , au d e s s i n p u r " (p. 8 7 ) , of a lang u a g e w h i c h i s f r e e from t h e b l u r r i n g e f f e c t o f t r o p i s m s . A c c o r -d i n g l y , t h e "lieu-commun" f r e e z e s t h e v i b r a t o r y m o t i o n s o f t h e "mouvements a p e i n e p e r c e p t i b l e s " t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y s u r f a c e i n an o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . A u s t i n ' s remarks on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s t a t i v e u t t e r a n c e a r e r e l e -v a n t h e r e as he comments t h a t W i t h t h e c o n s t a t i v e u t t e r a n c e . . . w e use an o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d n o t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h f a c t s . . . w e aim a t t h e i d e a l o f what wou l d be r i g h t t o say i n a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r any p u r p o s e , t o any audience.11 These o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e a f i t t i n g f u n c t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e pu r p o s e o f the c l i c h e i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , where t h e s t a t i c c l i c h e v a r n i s h e s o v e r t h e p r i m a l w o r k i n g o f t h e t r o p i s m . I n t h e o p e n i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n o f Mar-t e r e a u , speech i s l e s s a means o f communication t h a n a means of d i s g u i s e , f o r as t h e aunt speaks she c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r s t o s t e r e o t y p e d images t h a t she dons as a mask. She r e f e r s t o h e r s e l f as "un o i s e a u de l u x e , " w h i l e t h e n a r r a t o r u n f u r l s such s u g g e s t i o n s i n t o images o f Tanagra s t a t u e t t e s , " l a dame aux C a m e l i a s , " and Lady H a m i l t o n , (p. 13) The aunt appears t o o f f e r an i n e x h a u s t i b l e f u n d o f such c l i c h e e x p r e s s i o n s as "Je v o u l a i s f a i r e q u e l q u e chose p a r moi-meme, t r a v a i l l e r , v i v r e ma v i e , comme on d i s a i t " and 26 "Un beau j o u r j ' a i p r i s mes c l i q u e s e t mes c l a q u e s , e n f i n , c ' e s t une f a c o n de p a r l e r . . . " (p. 15) t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r r e g a r d s s u c h f a c i l e e x p r e s -s i o n s as p a t e n t l y i n a u t h e n t i c . The predominance of t h e c u l t u r a l code i n the a u n t ' s speech a l e r t s the n a r r a t o r t o t h e r e a l i t y t h a t r e m a i n s u n s a i d and perhaps u n s p e a k a b l e . As J e a n B l o c h - M i c h e l i n d i c a t e s , Le 'lieu-commun' e s t ce q u i nous v i e n t d ' a i l l e u r s , des a u t r e s , ce que nous n'avons pas pense nous-memes, ce q u i s e r t p r e c i s e -ment s o i t a r e m p l a c e r , s o i t a masquer t o u t e pensee p e r s o n n e l l e . 1 2 The use o f c l i c h e makes t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n p r o b l e m a t i c , f o r , " s i l a communication e s t l a p e n e t r a t i o n r e c i p r o q u e de deux c o n s c i e n c e s , l a p a r l e r i e i n t e r d i t c e t t e penetration"-'--^; however, communication of a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r may s t i l l t a k e p l a c e . The c h a r a c t e r s i n M a r t e r e a u o f f e r such p l a t i t u d e s as "La v i e e s t ce qu'on l a f a i t " (p. 4 7 ) , "On p a s s e son temps a se gac h e r l a v i e betement quand l e bonheur e s t l a sous l a main" (p. 4 7 ) , "Bon sang ne peut m e n t i r " (p. 5 6 ) — s t o c k u t t e r a n c e s t h a t c a t e g o r i s e and c o n t a i n t h e r e a l i t y t h a t o c c u r s p r e - v e r b a l l y . The v a c u i t y o f t h e remarks u t t e r e d by S a r r a u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r s c a u s e s t h e r e a d e r t o t u r n t o n o n - v e r b a l s i g n s i n o r d e r t o u n c o v e r t h e t u r b u l e n t e m o t i o n a l u n d e r c u r r e n t s v e i l e d by t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . The c l i c h e , more t h a n any o t h e r s t y l i s t i c f e a t u r e o f S a r r a u t e ' s work, s e r v e s t o c o n t r a s t t h e v i t a l i t y and f l u x o f t h e t r o p i s m f o r ; as R i f f a t e r r e c l a i m s , Le c l i c h e , pour j o u e r l e r o l e a c t i f d'un c o n t r a s t e c r e a t e u r d ' e x p r e s s i v i t e , n'a n u l b e s o i n d ' e t r e r e n o u v e l e , p u i s q u e c ' e s t l a p e r c e p t i o n de s a b a n a l i t e mime q u i l u i permet de j o u e r ce r o l e . ^ Such a c o n t r a s t between o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n and t h e p l a t i t u d e i s most 27 n o t a b l e i n t h e scene i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r i m a g i n e s t h e i n n e r r e p e r c u s -s i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e when M a r t e r e a u r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e u n c l e i s t a k i n g advantage o f him. M a r t e r e a u ' s a n x i e t y c e n t r e s on t h e w e l l - w o r n image o f "un homme de p a i l l e " — a commonplace w h i c h c o n t i n u a l l y t r i g g e r s t h e f l o w o f imagery i n t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " C e t t e r o u g e u r , c e t t e c h a l e u r , ce so n t l e s s i g n e s a v a n t - c o u r e u r s , 1 ' e c l a i r q u i p r e c e d e l e grondement du t o n n e r r e , p r e s q u e a u s s i t o t , dans un f r a c a s a s s o u r d i s s a n t , l a f o u d r e s ' a b a t : un homme de p a i l l e : c ' e s t c e l a . I I r e s t e c l o u e s u r p l a c e , p e t r i f i e , c a l c i n e : un homme  de p a i l l e . Tout e s t c l a i r : ce n ' e s t p l u s l a p e i n e de c h e r c h e r . . . i l s o n t su degager c e l a de t o u s l e s melanges, de t o u t e s l e s com-b i n a i s o n s l e s p l u s v a r i e e s , un c o r p s s i m p l e q u i se combine a d ' a u t r e s c o r p s s i m p l e s de c e n t f a e o n s d i f f e r e n t e s e t forme c e n t c o r p s composes, mais i l s ont su l ' i s o l e r e t i l s l u i o n t donne un nom, i l s o n t e t u d i e t o u t e s ses p r o p r i e t e s . . . u n homme de p a i l l e — c ' e s t c e l a . E t j e s u i s c e l a , m o i , moi! Son homme de p a i l l e . Un n o u v e l e c l a i r , l e t o n n e r r e , l a f o u d r e tombe, i l b r u l e : son homme de p a i l l e . . . (p. 1 9 1 - 1 9 2 ; u n d e r l i n i n g mine) J u s t as t h e s u b - c o n v e r s a t i o n t h r e a t e n s t o d e s t r o y a t e v e r y moment t h e form and seeming s t a b i l i t y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , c o n v e r s e l y , t h e c l i c h e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s may a l s o e n t e r t h e i n n e r monologue t o p r o v o k e t h e i n s t i n c t u a l r e a c t i o n s o f t h e t r o p i s m . As M a r t e r e a u f i n d s a name f o r h i s s i t u a t i o n i n t h e image o f "un homme de p a i l l e , " r a t h e r t h a n e x o r -c i s i n g h i s f e a r s , t h e c l i c h e seems t o i n t r o d u c e t he e x t e r n a l v a l u e s o f s o c i e t y i n t o t h e monologue, f o r t h e e p i t h e t i s a d e r o g a t o r y term w h i c h seems t o a p p l y t o h i m s e l f . Here t h e i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y , i n s t i n c t u a l and c o n v e n t i o n a l , a r e m a n i f e s t e d by t h e c o n t r a s t between the c l i c h e and t r o p i s t i c i m a g e r y — a n i n t e r p l a y i n w h i c h " t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d s t a t e m e n t i s n e c e s s a r y as a s p r i n g -b o a r d f o r t h e h i d d e n t r u t h s . " - ^ I n t h e absence o f communication b r o u g h t about by t h e use o f p l a t i -28 t u d e s w i t h i n t h e d i s c o u r s e , and, as w i t h o t h e r w r i t e r s , "dans l e chaos des f o r m e s , dans l e d e s e r t des mots" S a r r a u t e has r e a c h e d toward "un o b j e t absolument p r i v e d ' H i s t o i r e . l a f r a x c h e u r d'un e t a t neuf du I a n -gage."!^ C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e a r t i s t i c t e c h n i q u e o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e c o u n t e r p o i n t s t h e p o e t i c d i s c o u r s e o f renewed images and metaphors w i t h t h e b a n k r u p t c y o f t h e c l i c h e and t h e commonplace as t h e y a r e r e v e a l e d w i t h i n t h ought and c o n v e r s a t i o n . Whereas t h e commonplace r e c u r s i n M a r t e r e a u t o u n d e r l i n e t h e b a n a l i t y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l language and p l a t i t u d i n o u s s e n t i m e n t s , i n The S a c r e d Fount t h e c l i c h e p e r f o r m s a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n . C h a r a c t e r s i n Henry James's n o v e l s g e n e r a l l y employ t r i t e commonplaces t o e x p r e s s what a r e o f t e n t h e most u n c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e o r i e s . . I n such i n s t a n c e s t h e p r o v e r b s u p p o r t s and n o r m a l i s e s a p e r s o n a l u t t e r a n c e by i n v e s t i n g i t w i t h t h e w e i g h t o f a g e n e r a l t r u t h . The c l i c h e forms a nexus between t h e l i n g u i s t i c code f r o m w h i c h i t i s drawn and t h e c u l t u r a l code w h i c h s u p p l i e s i t s v a l u e and meaning. P r o v e r b i a l s t a t e m e n t s l a y b a r e t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e u t t e r -a nce, as t h e y a r e w r i t t e n nans ce mode o b l i g a t i f p a r l e q u e l l e d i s c o u r s enonce une v o l o n t e g e n e r a l , l a l o i d'un s o c i e t e , e t r e n d i n e l u c t a b l e ou i n e f f a c a b l e l a p r o p o s i t i o n q u ' i l p r e n d en c h a r g e . ^ S o c i a l laws b u t t r e s s t h e many p r o v e r b s t h a t a r e u t t e r e d i n The S a c r e d  F o u n t , g i v i n g such u t t e r a n c e s g r e a t e r p l a u s i b i l i t y ; however, a t t h e same t i m e , such s a y i n g s a r e undermined by t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e y a r e spoken and by t h e p o l e m i c a l p u r p o s e s o f t h e s p e a k e r . Whereas i n Mar-t e r e a u t h e p r o v e r b i a l s t a t e m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s e s b o t h t h e s p e a k e r and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n as t r i t e , s u c h s t a t e m e n t s a r e r e v i v i f i e d i n 29 The S a c r e d Fount by t h e i r u n c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n i n h i g h l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and w i t t y c o n v e r s a t i o n . S a y i n g s o f t h e most c o n c r e t e v a r i e t y a r e e x t e n d e d t o evoke h i g h l y a b s t r a c t i d e a s , f u r t h e r i n g t h e J a m e s i a n t e c h n i q u e o f " c o n v e r t i n g m e n t a l a c t s i n t o e n t i t i e s . " ^ Obert r e s p o n d s t o t h e vague q u e s t i o n o f t h e n a r -r a t o r — " W h a t makes you t h i n k t h a t what you speak o f was what I had i n my head?" (p. 6 5 ) — w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t , " W e l l , t h e way, s i m p l y , t h a t t h e shoe f i t s . " A l l u d i n g t o t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n between h i m s e l f and Mrs. B r i s s , t h e n a r r a t o r r e minds h e r : " I gave yo u , you see...what's c a l l e d ' r o p e ' . " (p. 242) Mrs. B r i s s c o m p l e t e s t h i s s u g g e s t i o n w i t h t h e r e l a t e d s a y i n g : " I don't suppose you mean," she e x c l a i m e d , " f o r me to. hang m y s e l f ! F o r t h a t , I a s s u r e y o u , i s n o t a t a l l what I'm p r e p a r e d f o r . " I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e e m o t i o n a l l y - b l u n t e d tone o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u , t h e s p i r i t e d b a n t e r o f The S a c r e d Fount i s s p r i n k l e d w i t h c l i c h e and p r o v e r b s t h a t a s s i s t i n c o n c r e t i s i n g t h e r a t h e r a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e n o v e l . The m y s t i c t h e o r y o f a s a c r e d f o u n t i s d e s c r i b e d , f o r example, i n p r a c t i c a l terms by Mrs. B r i s s who, i n " t h i n k i n g o f how t o name such mys-t e r i e s , " f o r m u l a t e s h e r t h e o r y i n terms o f an a n c i e n t d i c t u m : "One of t h e m — y o u know th e s a y i n g — g i v e s t h e l i p s , t h e o t h e r g i v e s t h e cheek." (p.80) The s a y i n g d a t e s back t o A r i s t o p h a n e s ' The F r o g s — " T h e r e i s a l w a y s one who k i s s e s and one who o n l y a l l o w s t h e k i s s " ^ — a n d becomes p a r a d i g m a t i c o f t h e way i n w h i c h e v e n t s a r e t o be i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e n o v e l . I t p r o -v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y a i r o f a g e - o l d a u t h o r i t y t o e n a b l e Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n t o make h e r p o i n t w i t h t h e a c u t e l y c r i t i c a l n a r r a t o r . T h i s adage i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e i t g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e p l o t and theme o f t h e n o v e l , c o m p r e s s i n g them i n t o a commonsensical s a y i n g . The 30 m e l d i n g o f t h e f a r f e t c h e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r w i t h s u c h a commonplace e x p r e s s i o n p r o d u c e s t h e v e r b a l t e n s i o n r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a l l l a t e J a m e s i a n f i c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d by Y e a z e l l t o "a f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h c o n c e a l e d meanings l u r k i n g i n w e l l - w o r n p h r a s e s , w i t h d r a m a t i c p l o t s w h i c h s u d d e n l y emerge from c l i c h e metaphors."20 A g a i n , t h e adage evokes a gnomic code common t o a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f s o c i e t y , f o r m i n g a p l a c e o f m e e t i n g between t h e many i d i o s y n c r a t i c t h e o r i e s v o i c e d i n The S a c r e d Fount. By s t r e s s i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a common l i n g u i s t i c code, t h e s a y i n g a l s o s e r v e s t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n of d r a w i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o g e t h e r o v e r t h e common enjoyment o f s h a r e d i d i o m s . Even as Obert a t t e m p t s t o draw away from c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r o v e r t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y , he c l e a r s t h e t e r r a i n f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n h i s use of a common e x p r e s s i o n . L i k e P i l a t e , Obert c l a i m s t o have "washed h i s hands" o f t h e m a t t e r . The scene o f O b e r t ' s d e f e c t i o n f r o m t h e n a r r a t o r ' s camp a n t i c i p a t e s Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s d e c i s i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s c e n e , as Obert t r i e s t o d i s e n g a g e h i m s e l f from t h e q u e s t : " I t h o u g h t you s a i d j u s t now we d i d — r e c o g n i s i n g , as you o u g h t , t h a t you were keen about a chase of w h i c h I washed my hands." " N o — I wasn't keen. You've j u s t m e ntioned t h a t you remember my g i v i n g up. I washed my hands t o o . " I t seemed t o l e a v e him w i t h t h e m o r a l of t h i s . "Then, i f our hands a r e c l e a n , what a r e we t a l k i n g a b o u t ? " I t u r n e d , on i t , a l i t t l e more t o him, and l o o k e d a t him so l o n g t h a t he had a t l a s t t o l o o k a t me;with w h i c h , a f t e r h o l d i n g h i s eyes a n o t h e r moment, I made my p o i n t : "Our hands a r e n o t c l e a n . " "Ah, speak f o r y o u r own!"—and as he moved back I m i g h t r e a l l y have thought him uneasy. (p. 212) The r e p e t i t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e d i a l o g u e i n d i c a t e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a t t e m p t 31 t o communicate on t h e same t e r m s , a l t h o u g h he ends by c o n v e r t i n g O b e r t ' s o r i g i n a l e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s own p u r p o s e s , as he r e p u d i a t e s O b e r t ' s p r e s u p -p o s i t i o n t h a t i f t h e y have washed, t h e i r hands a r e c l e a n . S i n c e t h e n a r r a t o r has a p p r o p r i a t e d h i s e x p r e s s i o n , F o r d i s o b l i g e d t o s p e l l out h i s meaning i n i n d i s p u t a b l e t e r m s , s a y i n g , " I a s s u r e you I deny a l l r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y . I see t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as q u i t e b e a u t i f u l l y y o u r s . " Such c l i c h e s , by d e f i n i t i o n t r i t e and i n e x p r e s s i v e , e x p l o i t t h e seman-t i c p o t e n t i a l o f l a n g u a g e , as th e y a r e r e c e i v e d and r e p e a t e d by t h e l i s t e n e r i n a J a m e s i a n d i a l o g u e : the r e p e t i t i o n o f m i n i m a l l y e x p r e s s i v e s a y i n g s endows them w i t h a d e n s i t y o f meanings t h a t t h e y would n o t o t h e r w i s e p o s s e s s . As t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f The S a c r e d Fount f o c u s on c o d i f i e d e x p r e s s i o n s , t h e y o f t e n s u b v e r t t h e r u l e s o f use by r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e l i t e r a l meaning o f t h e words. S o c i e t y a t Newmarch o f t e n d e l i g h t s i n d i s p l a y i n g t h e worn and d u s t y o b j e c t s o f t h e s t o r e h o u s e o f l a n g u a g e , o n l y t o d u s t them o f f and r e v e a l t h e o r i g i n a l p o l i s h . The c l i c h e i s a homely o b j e c t among t h e l i n -g u i s t i c t r e a s u r e s o f w e a l t h and w i t ; however, i t r e c a l l s o r i g i n s and draws h i g h - f l o w n c o n v e r s a t i o n down t o t h e e m i n e n t l y p r a c t i c a l l e v e l o f commonsense. S a r r a u t e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , r e p r o d u c e s t h e s t o c k u t t e r a n c e s o f ev e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n i n o r d e r t o r e v e a l t h e f a i l u r e o f a u t h e n t i c c o m m unication i n h e r n o v e l s . U t t e r a n c e s t h a t emphasise t h e code a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e i l l u s t r a t e t h e s h o r t - c i r c u i t o f meaning t h a t o c c u r s when t h e s p e a k e r f a i l s t o co n n e c t h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p r e c i s i o n o f l a n g u a g e , t h u s succumbing t o c o n v e n t i o n , and t h e l i s t e n e r r e m a i n s c o n -s e q u e n t l y i g n o r a n t o f t h e r e a l c o n t e n t o f t h e message. The o m i s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l i m p r e s s i o n s f r o m t h e d i a l o g u e i n t h e n o v e l h e i g h t e n s t h e meta-32 l i n g u a l a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e , w i t h t h e consequence t h a t t h e r e a d e r and c h a r a c t e r a l i k e must l o c a t e communication on a n o n - v e r b a l p l a n e . § NOTES: 1 F. G a i l l a r d , q u o t e d by J e a n - M i c h e l Adam and J e a n - P i e r r e G o l d e n s t e i n , L i n g u i s t i q u e e t d i s c o u r s l i t t e r a i r e , ( P a r i s : L a r o u s s e , 1976), p. 274 2 Henry. James, The S a c r e d F o u n t , (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s I n c . , 1979)p. 65. A l l q u o t a t i o n s a r e fr o m t h i s e d i t i o n and w i l l be p l a c e d i n p a r e n t h e s i s i n t h e t e x t . 3 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , M a r t e r e a u , ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1953), p. 175. A l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be p l a c e d i n t h e t e x t . 4 L e w i s C a r r o l l , Through t h e L o o k i n g G l a s s , ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1872 and 1948), p.116. 5 M i k h a i l B a k h t i n , Problems o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s . t r a n s . R.W. R o t s e l . (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1 9 73), p.186. 6 I b i d . , p. 176. 7 Leo S p i t z e r , q uoted by B a k h t i n , i b i d . , p. 186. 8 H.K. G i r l i n g , "The F u n c t i o n o f S l a n g i n t h e D r a m a t i c P o e t r y o f The Golden B o w l , " Henry James's M a j o r N o v e l s , ed. L y a l l H. Powers. ( E a s t L a n s i n g : M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973) p.365. 9 J e a n B l o c h - M i c h e l , Le P r e s e n t de l ' i n d i c a t i f , ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1963) p. 59. 10 I b i d . 11 J . L . A u s t i n , q u o t e d by Wolfgan g I s e r , The A c t o f R e a d i n g , ( B a l t i m o r e and London: Johns H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978), p. 144. 12 B l o c h - M i c h e l , p. 59. 13 I b i d . 14 M i c h a e l R i f f a t e r r e , "Le C l i c h e dans l a p r o s e l i t t e r a i r e , " E s s a i s de s t y l i s t i q u e s t r u c t u r a l e . ( P a r i s : F l a m m a r i o n , 1971), p.181. 33 15 Wolfgang I s e r , "The D i a l o g u e of t h e U n s p e a k a b l e , " The I m p l i e d Reader, ( B a l t i m o r e and London: Johns H o p k i n s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974) p. 245. 16 R o l a n d B a r t h e s , SVZ, ( P a r i s : S e u i l , 1970), p. 65. 17 I b i d . , p. 106. 18 Seymour Chatman, The L a t e r S t y l e o f Henry James, ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1972) , p.23. 19 A r i s t o p h a n e s , The F r o g s , quoted by S h l o m i t e Rimmon, The Concept o f A m b i g u i t y — T h e Example of James ( C h i c a g o and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1977), p. 206. 20 Ruth Y e a z e l l , Language and Knowledge i n t h e L a t e N o v e l s o f Henry James, ( C h i c a g o and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1976), p. 31. 34 THE PHATIC FUNCTION: L a c o n v e r s a t i o n p a r e x c e l l e n c e The p h a t i c f u n c t i o n r e i n f o r c e s t h e element o f c o n t a c t , whether p h y s i c a l o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , i n t h e communication schema. Messages c e n t r e d on s u c h t o p i c s as q u e s t i o n s o f h e a l t h o r t h e w eather o f t e n c o n t a i n l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r s e r v e t o "meubler l e d i s c o u r s .en a f f i r m a n t une p r e s e n c e e t en e t a b l i s s a n t un contact."''" The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t o f a d i a l o g u e by D o r o t h y P a r k e r s u c c i n c t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s a s p e c t o f c o n v e r -s a t i o n : " W e l l ! " t h e young man s a i d . " W e l l ! " she s a i d . " W e l l , h e r e we a r e , " he s a i d . "Here we a r e , " she s a i d , " A r e n ' t we?" " I s h o u l d say we were," he s a i d . "Eeyop! Here we a r e . " " W e l l ! " she s a i d . " W e l l ! " he s a i d , " W e l l . " 2 C o n v e r s a t i o n i n s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s s e r v e s no l o n g e r as an exchange~6f i n f o r m a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r c o n t i n u a l l y e s t a b l i s h e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f exchange. S t r i p p e d o f a l l i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , t h e above c o n v e r s a t i o n c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t s t h e uneasy a t t e m p t s of t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s t o m a i n t a i n c o n t a c t i n t h e f a c e o f one o f t h e most b a s i c c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s : c o n v e r s a t i o n abhors s i l e n c e . I n h e r f i c t i o n , S a r r a u t e p o s i t s t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n as t h e m o t i v a t -i n g p r i n c i p l e of t h e c h a r a c t e r s ' a c t i o n s and c o n v e r s a t i o n a l e xchanges, whether i m p e l l i n g movement toward each o t h e r , o r c o n v e r s e l y , c a u s i n g a c o u n t e r - m o t i o n . S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s d e p i c t t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s o f h e r c h a r -a c t e r s as t h e y r e s p o n d t o t h e e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d r i v e s t o seek s o l i t u d e o r human c o n t a c t . 35 Whereas S a r r a u t e e x p l i c i t l y acknowledges h e r f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h t h i s element as i t i s fo u n d i n t h e f i c t i o n o f D o s t o e v s k y and K a f k a , 3 James d r a m a t i s e s t h e s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r s i n The S a c r e d Fount i n such a way t h a t t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n becomes a r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e e l e -ment o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s f u n c t i o n i n t r o d u c e s t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c u t t e r a n c e , m o t i v a t i n g t h e " s o c i a l t w i t t e r i n g " i n James and t h e " p a r l e r i e " o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f S a r r a u t e . A l t h o u g h a l m o s t any c o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u would s e r v e t o i l l u s -t r a t e t h e way i n w h i c h S a r r a u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r s s t r i v e f o r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s t h r o u g h c o n v e r s a t i o n , the c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t a c t i c s o f M a r t e r e a u p r o v i d e t h e b e s t example of t h i s f u n c t i o n . The c h a r a c t e r i n whom S a r r a u t e ' s t h e o r y o f " l e s c o n v e r s a t i o n s l e s p l u s b a n a l e s , l e s g e s t e s l e s p l u s q u o t i d i e n s ' " ^ i s b e s t i n c a r n a t e d , M a r t e r e a u t e n d s t o c o n v e r s e , most d i s a r m i n g l y , o f n e x t t o n o t h i n g a t a l l : "Les d e r n i e r s beaux j o u r s , c ' e s t l e s o l e i l d'automne d e j a , i l f a i t un peu f r a i s v e r s l e s o i r , mais en ce moment i l f a i t bon, q u e l bon v e n t vous amene? Comment va? I I y a longtemps qu'on ne vous a pas vu...vous v o y e z , nous nous a p p r e -t o n s a demenager, a r e n t r e r a P a r i s , j e p r o f i t e des d e r n i e r s beaux j o u r s . . . " (p. 239) T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o many o f t h e p r e c e d i n g " d i a l o g u e s " i n the n o v e l i n t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s words a r e s u p p r e s s e d , as he r e p o r t s t h e b a n a l s t a t e m e n t s o f M a r t e r e a u . However, t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l c l i m a t e between t h e p r o t a g o n i s t and t h e n a r r a t o r has undergone a r a d i c a l change s i n c e t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e n o v e l , due t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r r e g a r d i n g h i s o l d f r i e n d . As a r e s u l t M a r t e r e a u ' s words have l o s t t h e r e a s s u r i n g , i n n o c u o u s e f f e c t t h e y f o r m e r l y p o s s e s s e d , as t h e n a r r a t o r becomes aware of the n a t u r e o f M a r t e r e a u ' s speech: " I I me p a r l e 36 ..quelques mots...ce qu'on peut d i r e en p a r e i l c a s , pas de q u o i f o u e t t e r un c h a t , q u e l q u e s f.ormules de p o l i t e s s e sans i m p o r t a n c e . . . " (p. 239). The i n n o c u o u s n a t u r e o f h i s words becomes s u s p e c t n o n e t h e l e s s , and t h e n a r r a -t o r h e a r s an a l t e r n a t e v o i c e b e h i n d M a r t e r e a u ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l s p e e c h . The p h a t i c f u n c t i o n , couched as i t i s i n terms o f e x t r e m e l y m i n i m a l ex-p r e s s i o n , h e l p s t o a l e r t t h e n a r r a t o r t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e u n s a i d . The s t a t e m e n t s "Eh a l o r s . . . v o u s ne d i t e s r i e n . . . q u o i de n e u f ? . . . q u ' e s t - c e que vous f a b r i q u e z de b eau?" c a t a l y s e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s -n e s s , as he p a s s e s f r o m t h e r e f l e c t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e m e r e l y "des f o r m u l e s b a n a l e s , des mots a n o d i n s , " t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n i n an e p i p h a n i c moment t h a t " i l n'y a pas de mots a n o d i n s e n t r e PeuxJ , i l n'y a p l u s de mots a n o d i n s , l e s mots s o n t des soupapes de s u r e t e m i n u s c u l e s p a r ou des gaz l o u r d s , des emanations m a l s a l n e s s'echappent, m ' e n t o u r e n t . . . " (p. 240). Thus t h e v e r y q u a l i t y t h a t had i r r e s i s t i b l y drawn t h e n a r r a t o r t o Mar-t e r e a u — t h a t i s , t h e r e a s s u r i n g n u l l i t y o f h i s e x p r e s s i o n s — n o w r e v e a l s i t s e l f as a f a c a d e d i s g u i s i n g l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c m o t i v e s . I n a sense t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f " l a communion p h a t i q u e " t o t h e n a r r a t o r : t h e need t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h a n o t h e r p e r s o n may be assuaged " p a r l a h a i n e , p a r l e m e p r i s , p a r l a s o u f f r a n e e i n f l i g e e ou par q u e l q u e a c t i o n d ' e c l a t " ^ as w e l l as by a f f e c t i o n . T h i s f i n a l r e v e l a t i o n , e n a c t e d i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r of M a r t e r e a u , has n o t r e v e a l e d t o t h e n a r r a -t o r any a s p e c t s of t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n of w h i c h he was h i t h e r t o unaware; however,whereas M a r t e r e a u had been p r e v i o u s l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e u n s a v o r y m o t i v e s t h a t he p e r c e i v e d i n o t h e r s , now t h e n a r r a t o r r e a l i s e s t h a t such "mouvements a p e i n e p e r c e p t i b l e s " f o r m p a r t of a l l c o n v e r s a t i o n a l ex-changes. M a r t e r e a u t o o i s i m p l i c a t e d i n a d u p l i c i t o u s s o c i a l w o r l d i n 37 w h i c h t h e most i n n o c u o u s u t t e r a n c e s s u g g e s t a second l e v e l o f r e a l i t y . A second a s p e c t o f t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n forms an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the drama o f human r e l a t i o n s i n M a r t e r e a u . The n a r r a t o r d i s c o v e r s e a r l y i n th e n o v e l t h a t t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n i s o f t e n a double-edged weapon i n con-v e r s a t i o n , f o r as a c h a r a c t e r draws n e a r t o a n o t h e r t h i s e m o t i o n a l l i a i s o n i s a l m o s t a l w a y s made a t t h e expense o f a t h i r d p e r s o n . I n d e e d , t h e p h a t i c communion between two p e o p l e i n t h e n o v e l i s g e n e r a l l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e need t o f o r m an a l l i a n c e a g a i n s t a t h i r d p e r s o n , who t h e n becomes an o u t s i d e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e t i d y c o n f i n e s o f a microcosm "a deux." I n t h e f o l l o w i n g scene t h e aunt j o i n s f o r c e s w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r i n o r d e r t o e x p r e s s h e r c r i t i c a l f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g h e r d a u g h t e r . The n a r r a t o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e n o n - v e r b a l u n d e r c u r r e n t s o f t h e monologue, e x p r e s s i n g t h e im p o r t o f h e r words i n p h y s i c a l t e r m s : E l l e se s e r r e c o n t r e m o i , se f r o t t e c o n t r e m o i , me c a r e s s e , me f l a t t e . . . n o u s sommes du meme c o t e , e n t r e gens de b i e n , e n e r -g i q u e s e t r a f f i n e s , nous nous comprenons a demi-mot, nous p a r l o n s l a meme l a n g u e , sus a l'ennemi commun...(p. 5 4 ) . As t h e n a r r a t o r l e n d s an a p p a r e n t l y s y m p a t h e t i c e a r t o t h e a u n t , he makes t h e s e r i o u s e r r o r o f a g r e e i n g w i t h h e r a n a l y s i s o f h e r d a u g h t e r ' s p r o b l e m s , and a l t h o u g h he a t t e m p t s t o e x t r i c a t e h i m s e l f f r o m t h i s d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n , he f i n a l l y r e a l i s e s t h a t he has o v e r s t e p p e d t h e m a r g i n o f s a f e t y . H i s aunt t e r m i n a t e s t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n , and i n t h e n e x t s c e n e , t h e n a r r a t o r p e r c e i v e s t h a t h i s c o u s i n and aunt a r e r e u n i t e d , and he s u s p e c t s t h a t t h e a l l i a n c e has been formed a t h i s expense: C'est m o i , b i e n s u r , c e t t e f o i s , l a p r o i e t o u t e d e s i g n e e que l a mere pour a p a i s e r sa p r o p r e rancune ou ses remords a o f f e r t en p a t u r e a son e n f a n t . (p. 64) 38 T h i s phenomenon t a k e s p l a c e m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s r e p e a t e d l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . The a s p e c t o f human r e l a t i o n s t h a t S a r r a u t e has so c l e a r l y c h a r t e d i n h e r c r i t i c a l e s s a y s a l s o forms a major element o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n The S a c r e d F o u n t. The p h a t i c f u n c t i o n p r e d e t e r m i n e s t h e l a r g e r s t r u c -t u r a l u n i t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , m o t i v a t i n g t h e amount o f c o n t a c t between c h a r a c t e r s and the consequent l e n g t h and i n t e n s i t y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . The predominance o f t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n , a l t h o u g h r a r e l y d i s c e r n i b l e on the b a s i s o f what i s s a i d , m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n t h e v e r y f o r m o f c o n v e r -s a t i o n w h i c h embodies i n t h e most c o n c r e t e f a s h i o n "ce b e s o i n c o n t i n u e l d ' e t a b l i r un c o n t a c t . " As S a r r a u t e n o t e s , Q u oi de p l u s p r o p r e , en e f f e t , que ces i n t e r r o g a t i o n s p a s s i o n n e e s e t ces r e p o n s e s , que ces a p p r o c h e s , c e s r e c u l s f e i n t e s , ces f u i t e s e t ces p o u r s u i t e s , ces c h o c s , c e s c a r e s s e s , c e s m o r s u r e s , c e s e t r e i n t e s . . . ^ common i n e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e h i d d e n v i b r a t i o n s t h a t c a u se man t o seek c o m p a n i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r s ? I n t h e t r a g i - c o m i c d i v a g a t i o n s o f May S e r v e r , Henry James has c r e a t e d a d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n w h i c h e p i t o m i s e s t h i s s t r u g g l e t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s . May S e r v e r , though a s o u r c e o f g o s s i p and amusement a t Newmarch f o r t h e way i n w h i c h she a l m o s t c o m p u l s i v e l y pounces on one man a f t e r t h e o t h e r , d i f f e r s l i t t l e i n f a c t f r o m t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s o f t h e n o v e l , who g i v e e v i d e n c e o f a s i m i l a r r e s t l e s s n e s s as t h e y a t t e m p t t o p i e c e t o g e t h e r t h e p u z z l e o f t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y w i t h o u t e x p o s i n g t h e i r own weak s p o t s . The n a r r a t o r d e p i c t s t h e movements o f May S e r v e r much i n t h e same way t h a t N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e d e s c r i b e s t h e a c t i o n s o f many of Dastcevsky's 39 c h a r a c t e r s w i t h t h e i r "memes bonds f u r t i f s , l e s mimes p a s s e s s a v a n t e s , l e s memes f a u s s e s r u p t u r e s . . . . The n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e movements of Mrs. S e r v e r as f o l l o w s : She dodged, d o u b l e d , managed, b r o k e o f f , c l u t c h i n g o c c a s i o n s , y e t d o u b t l e s s l y r i s k i n g dumbnesses, v a g u e n e s s e s and o t h e r b e -t r a y a l s , d e p e n d i n g on a t t i t u d e s , m o t i o n s , e x p r e s s i o n s , a m a t e r i a l p e r s o n a l i t y , i n f i n e , i n w h i c h a p l a i n woman would have found n o t h i n g b u t f a i l u r e . . . . (p. 99) The n a r r a t o r i n t e r p r e t s t h e s e outward movements as e v i d e n c e of an a l t e r n a t i n g d e s i r e t o " c u l t i v a t e c o n t a c t s " and " t o b r i n g t h e c o n t a c t t o an end b e f o r e e x p o s u r e " (p.99), d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n o f Mrs. S e r v e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . The i m a g i n a t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s f i r e d by the g o t h i c a s p e c t s o f Mrs. S e r v e r ' s p r e d i c a m e n t — h e t o y s a l l i t e r a t i v e l y w i t h t h e i d e a o f "something i n f i n i t e l y t o u c h i n g and t r a g i c i n h e r l o n e l i n e s s — p o s s i b l y i n h e r t e r r o r (p. 96)—and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e e r r a t i c a c t i v i t i e s o f May S e r v e r appear u n i q u e among t h e mundane encoun-t e r s o f t h e v i s i t o r s a t Newmarch. However, i n f a c t , t h e e n d l e s s c l a n d e s t i n e m e e t i n g s o f Mrs. S e r v e r a r e m i r r o r e d by t h e many c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e among t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s w i t h Mrs. S e r v e r as t h e o b j e c t o f d i s c u s s i o n . I r o n i c a l l y , t he n a r r a t o r r e f l e c t s i n h i s own a c t i o n s t h e p r e c a u t i o n s t h a t he a s c r i b e s t o Mrs. S e r v e r , as he d e s c r i b e s h e r " p u r s u i n g i n v a i n , t h r o u g h o ur c a r e l e s s company, h e r s e a r c h f o r t h e r i g h t shade o f a p p a r e n t s e c u r i t y , she f e l t h e r s e l f none t h e l e s s a l l t h e w h i l e t h e r e s t l e s s v i c t i m o f f e a r and f a i l u r e . " (p. 96) The n a r r a t o r u n d e r t a k e s h i s f r e n z i e d p u r s u i t o f t r u t h t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l , p a u s i n g o n l y w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e company as he e n j o y s t h e music i n t h e e v e n i n g . Here he c o n s i d e r s " t h e pause i n t h e c a r e e r " o f May, r e -40 f l e e t i n g t h a t " t h e r e was f o r t h e t i m e no gentleman on whom she need pounce, no l a p s e a g a i n s t w h i c h she need g u a r d , no p r e s u m p t i o n she need c r e a t e , n o r any s u s p i c i o n she need d e s t r o y " (p. 168). P r e s u m a b l y , t h i s pause o f f e r s t h e same advantages t o t h e n a r r a t o r , who has been i n v o l v e d i n s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s as he speaks on b e h a l f of Mrs. S e r v e r , c r e a t i n g p r e s u m p t i o n s and d e s t r o y i n g s u s p i c i o n s i n a l i k e manner. A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r i s c o n s c i o u s of t h e p r i m a l need t h a t i n d u c e s Mrs. S e r v e r to seek out t h e company o f v a r i o u s men, he i s b l i s s f u l l y unaware of h i s own need t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h anyone who w i l l o f f e r an e a r t o h i s a b s t r u s e r e a s o n i n g s . That t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n i s o c c u l t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s own b e h a v i o u r i s s c a r c e l y s u r p r i s i n g , f o r he t e n d s t o v a r n i s h o v e r h i s own e m o t i o n s w i t h a p r o t e c t i v e c o a t i n g o f h i g h l y a b s t r a c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l l a n g u a g e . However, as t h e o t h e r members of Newmarch s o c i e t y grow i n c r e a s -i n g l y t i r e d o f h i s i n c e s s a n t q u e s t i o n s and c h a t t e r , t h i s a s p e c t of t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e comes i n t o v i e w . " C e t t e forme c o n v e n t i o n e l l e d ' e n o n c i a t i o n r e v e n a n t s u r elle-meme, se s a t i s f a i s a n t de son a c c o m p l i s s e -ment, ne comportant n i o b j e t , n i b u t , n i m e s s a g e , t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n r e v e a l s i t s e l f as t h e h i d d e n component t h a t m o t i v a t e s much o f t h e c o n -v e r s a t i o n a t Newmarch. W h i l e t h e n a r r a t o r c o n t i n u a l l y f o c u s e s h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r ' s a t t e n t i o n upon t h e o b j e c t o f t h e i r i n q u i r y , one i n c r e a s i n g l y s u s p e c t s t h a t t h e n a r -r a t o r i s s u s t a i n e d — i n d e e d , becomes b l o a t e d — on t h e c o n t a c t t h a t he e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n and F o r d O b e r t . Viewed i n t h i s l i g h t , t h e drama o f The S a c r e d Fount l i e s i n t h e renewed a t t e m p t s of t h e n a r r a t o r t o keep h i s a u d i e n c e ' s i n t e r e s t i n h i s t h e o r y , and t h u s i n h i m s e l f , w i t h o u t e x p o s i n g h i s emergent f e e l i n g f o r Mrs. S e r v e r . H i s r e p e a t e d i n t e r r o g a t i o n s 41 and i n t e r r u p t i o n s s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e o f k e e p i n g h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r s on t e n t e r -hooks. F r e d e r i c B e r t h e t i n d i c a t e s t h e r e a s o n f o r w h i c h t h e h i d d e n purpose o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , namely t h e need t o make c o n t a c t , must r e m a i n c o v e r t : S i l e p h a t i q u e e s t l ' o b j e t i n t e r n e de l a c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a l o r s c e t t e o b j e t i n t e r n e ne d o i t pas se f a i r e l ' o b j e t d'une c o n v e r -s a t i o n : t o u t e r e f l e x i v i t e e s t a l o r s a g r e s s i v e j u s q u ' a u m a l a i s e , p r e c i s e m e n t pour ce q u ' e l l e met en j e u de l a c o h e s i o n s o c i a l e . ^ R e f e r e n c e t o t h e h i d d e n p u r p o s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i s t h u s a major s o c i a l t a b o o , f o r i t a d m i t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e t o p i c o f c o n v e r s a t i o n m e r e l y s e r v e s as a p r e t e x t t o engage i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Such a comment as " t u p a r i e s pour ne r i e n d i r e " endangers t h e c o n t a c t t h a t has been e s t a b l i s h e d by d i r e c t l y c a l l i n g t h e p h a t i c f u n c t i o n i n t o q u e s t i o n . Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n a d o p t s p r e c i s e l y t h i s t a c t i c as she c o u n t e r s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t h e o r y d u r i n g t h e i r e n c o u n t e r a t t h e end o f t h e weekend, b e g i n -n i n g by d e c l a r i n g what h e r e x p r e s s i o n had t r i e d t o s u g g e s t e a r l i e r : " W h a t on e a r t h do you mean by y o u r n o n s e n s e ? " (p. 293) and l a t e r by s t a t i n g t h a t h i s i n f l u e n c e has made h e r " t o o b i g a t a l k e r of n o n s e n s e . " Even t h i s d i r -e c t a p p r o a c h , w h i l e d i s c r e d i t i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s p e e c h , does not d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e t h e c o v e r t p u r p o s e o f h i s numerous i n t e r v i e w s w i t h h e r . Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n p u t s t h e p o i n t a n o t h e r way: "You see t o o much." "Oh, I know I d o — e v e r so much to o much. And much as I s e e , I e x p r e s s o n l y h a l f o f i t — s o you may j u d g e ! " I l a u g h e d . "But what w i l l you have? I see what I s e e , and t h i s m o r n i n g , f o r a good b i t , you d i d me t h e honour t o do t h e same. I r e t u r n e d , a l s o , t h e c o m p l i m e n t , d i d n ' t I ? by s e e i n g s o m e t h i n g o f what you saw. We put i t , t h e whole t h i n g , t o g e t h e r , and we shook t h e b o t t l e h a r d . I'm t o t a k e f r o m y o u , a f t e r t h i s , " I wound up, " t h a t what i t c o n -t a i n s i s a p e r f e c t l y c o l o u r l e s s f l u i d ? " I paused f o r a r e p l y , but i t was n o t t o come so h a p p i l y as f r o m O b e r t . "You t a l k t o o much!" s a i d Mrs. B r i s s . I met i t w i t h amazement. "Why, whom have I t o l d ? " (p. 262) Not s u r p r i s i n g l y a f t e r t h e g a r r u l o u s r e s p o n s e o f t h e n a r r a t o r , Mrs. B r i s s p e r s e v e r e s i n d r i v i n g h e r p o i n t home by s t a t i n g b l u n t l y t h a t he t a l k s t o o much; however, even h e r e , t h e n a r r a t o r p e r s i s t s i n m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i m p o r t o f h e r a c c u s a t i o n , p r e s u p p o s i n g t h a t " t a l k i n g t o o much" i n v o l v e s i n c l u d i n g o t h e r s i n t h e s e c r e t , r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y t a l k i n g t o e x c e s s . Mrs. B r i s s s l i c e s away a t t h e t h e o r i e s on w h i c h t h e y have c o l l a b o r a t e d , and by b l o w -i n g down t h e n a r r a t o r ' s house o f c a r d s , she e l i m i n a t e s t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between them, e v e n t u a l l y r e n d e r i n g t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a t t e m p t s t o communicate u t t e r l y f u t i l e . By c o n t r a s t w i t h G i l b e r t Long o f whom i t has been s a i d , "He t a l k s t o t a l k , b u t he's r e a l l y amusing" ( p . 5 9 ) , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n v e r -s a t i o n a l powers a r e l e s s a p p r e c i a t e d , as h i s s i n g l e - m i n d e d p u r s u i t o f one t o p i c makes even such v e r b a l g y m n a s t i c s as he i n d u l g e s i n t i r e s o m e . As Lady John so s u c c i n c t l y i n f o r m s h im, "You c a n ' t be a p r o v i d e n c e and n o t be a b o r e . " (p. 176) D o u b t l e s s , t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theme o f b o t h M a r t e r e a u and The Sa c r e d  Fount p r o v i d e s a p i v o t a l p o i n t f o r many o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l ; however, a deeper r e a d i n g o f t h e a c t i o n r e v e a l s t h e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e o f t a l k — t o renew c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . T h i s f e a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , e x p l i c i t l y acknowledged by S a r r a u t e , c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t s u b - t e x t o f The S a c r e d F o u n t , o f f s e t t i n g t h e n a r r a t o r ' s o s t e n s i b l y academic m o t i v a t i o n s f o r i m m e r s i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f o t h e r p e o p l e . 43 THE PHATIC FUNCTION: NOTES 1 J e a n - M i c h e l Adam w i t h J e a n - P i e r r e G o l d e n s t e i n , L i n g u i s t i q u e e t d i s c o u r s l i t t e r a i r e , ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e L a r o u s s e , 1976) p. 266. 2 D o r o t h y P a r k e r , c i t e d by Roman J a k o b s o n , E s s a i s de l i n g u i s t i q u e g e n e r a l e , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de M i n u i t , 1973) p. 217. 3 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e du soupcon, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) pp. 42-46. 4 I b i d . , p. 9. 5 I b i d . , p. 44. 6 I b i d . , p. 50. . 7 I b i d . , p. 40. 8 M i k h a i l B a k h t i n , Problems o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s , R.W. R o t s e l ( t r a n s . ) (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1973) p. 86. 9 F r e d e r i c B e r t h e t , "Elements de c o n v e r s a t i o n " Communications 30, (1979) p. 129. 44 THE REFERENTIAL FUNCTION: " I m p r e s s i o n s t o o f i n e f o r words" The r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n of d i s c o u r s e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e c o n t e x t f a c t o r i n t h e c o m m unication schema, i n v o l v i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n and w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e u t t e r a n c e i s spoken. I n d i c a t i n g d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of e x t r a -l i n g u i s t i c e n t i t i e s such as o b j e c t s , s t a t e s of a f f a i r s , and f a c t s , t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s t h e e x t e r n a l e l e m e n t s f o r t h e speech a c t . I n c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h i s s i t u a t i o n a l framework may be i n d i c a t e d by a p o i n t i n g f i n g e r o r a g e s t u r e , o r i t may be d e s i g n a t e d i n An o s t e n s i v e manner by t h e d i s c o u r s e i t s e l f t h r o u g h t h e o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e o f t h o s e i n d i c a t o r s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e d e m o n s t r a t i v e s , t h e a d v e r b s o f t i m e and p l a c e , and t h e t e n s e s o f t h e verb.-'-The c o n t e x t d e f i n e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n each n o v e l c l o s e l y i n v o l v e s t h e development of t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theme, f o r i n the numerous d i s c u s s i o n s i n The S a c r e d Fount and M a r t e r e a u , a w o r l d g r a d u a l l y e m e r g e s — a w o r l d b u i l t up by t h e d i s c u r s i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . Thus t h e s i t u a t i o n o f any u t t e r a n c e i s not so much t h e w o r l d p e r -c e i v e d o r i m a g i n e d by t h e s p e a k e r s as s o m e t h i n g o r someone w h i c h forms t h e o b j e c t o f t h e d i s c o u r s e and has no e x i s t e n c e o u t s i d e i t . 2 By an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f r e f e r e n t i a l d e t a i l s i n b o t h t e x t s , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c e n -t r a l gaps i n t h e two n o v e l s g r a d u a l l y u n f o l d s i n t h e d i a l o g u e , as v a r y -i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of M a r t e r e a u ' s c h a r a c t e r and t h e name of t h e m y s t i c ' E g e r i a ' a r e p r o p o s e d . These c o n t e x t s a r e e v i d e n t l y o f a n a t u r e more t h e o r e t i c a l t h a n p h y s i c a l , and p l a y a more s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n t h e a c t i o n of each n o v e l t h a n t h e s p a t i o - t e m p o r a l c o - o r d i n a t e s of t h e c o n t e x t . 45 The i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y t h a t i s t h e h a l l m a r k o f a l l James's l a t e r works i s e s p e c i a l l y i n e v i d e n c e i n t h e o f t e n a l m o s t i m p e n e t r a b l e c o n v e r -s a t i o n s of The S a c r e d F o u n t . One g r a m m a t i c a l f e a t u r e t h a t g r e a t l y c o n t r i -b u t e s t o t h i s e f f e c t i s James's s u s t a i n e d use o f d e i x i s , " w o r d s w h i c h have no c o n t e n t a t a l l , o n l y a d e i c t i c o r p o i n t i n g f u n c t i o n , r e f e r r i n g backwards (or f o r w a r d ) t o o t h e r w o r d s . A s Chatman o b s e r v e s i n h i s s t y l i s t i c ana-l y s i s o f l a t e r J a m e s i a n f i c t i o n , D e i c t i c nouns as w e l l as pronouns a r e v e r y p r e v a l e n t : a l m o s t empty words l i k e ' t h i n g ' ( a n y t h i n g , s o m e t h i n g , n o t h i n g ) abound, as w e l l as ' i t e m ' , ' m a t t e r ' , 'a g r e a t d e a l ' , ' f o r m e r ' , and ' l a t t e r ' , 'one', ' a n o t h e r ' , 'the o t h e r ' and so on.^ The s e m a n t i c vagueness of su c h terms i s h e i g h t e n e d i n James's pseudo-d e t e c t i v e s t o r y , as many c h a r a c t e r s use pronouns f o r w h i c h t h e a n t e c e d e n t i s e i t h e r o b s c u r e o r a b s e n t . A h y p e r b o l i c example o f t h e p r o b l e m of d e c o d i n g d e i x i s o c c u r s amid t h e l i n g u i s t i c chaos o f A l i c e ' s A d v e n t u r e s i n  Wonderland, where such q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n a n t i c i p a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t abound i n The S a c r e d Fount: "...and even S t i g a n d , t h e p a t r i o t i c a r c h b i s h o p of C a n t e r b u r y , found i t a d v i s a b l e - - " "Found w h a t ? " s a i d t h e Duck. "Found j L t , " t h e Mouse r e p l i e d r a t h e r c r o s s l y : " o f c o u r s e you know what ' i t ' means." " I know what'it'means w e l l enough, when I f i n d a t h i n g , " s a i d t h e Duck: " i t ' s g e n e r a l l y a f r o g o r a worm. The q u e s t i o n i s , what d i d t h e a r c h b i s h o p f i n d ? " 5 On a m e a s u r a b l y h i g h e r i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a n e , t h e c h a r a c t e r s a t Newmarch tend t o ask v a r i a n t s o f t h e same s o r t o f q u e s t i o n : "Do you a s k me t h a t i n o r d e r t h a t I s h a n ' t speak t o h e r of t h i s ? " 46 I showed m y s e l f a t a l o s s . "Of ' t h i s ' - - ? " (p. 118) - " W e l l , t h a t ' s j u s t i t ! " "But j u s t w h a t ? " (p. 118) - "She d i d and s a i d n o t h i n g s p e c i a l , n o t h i n g s t r i k i n g o r e x t r a o r d i n a r y ; b u t t h a t d i d n ' t m a t t e r — i t n e v e r does rone saw how she jLs. She's n o t h i n g b u t t h a t . " " N o t h i n g b u t what? "She's a l l i n i t , " he i n s i s t e d . "Or i t ' s a l l i n h e r . I t comes t o t h e same t h i n g . " (p. 68) R e f e r e n t i a l vagueness i s due t o t h e t e n d e n c y o f James's c h a r a c t e r s t o use p e r s o n a l and d e i c t i c pronouns when t h e r e i s no c l e a r a n t e c e d e n t . Sometimes t h i s p r o p e n s i t y f o r vagueness i n d i c a t e s a " l a z y s o c i e t y v e r b a l i s m , w h i l e a t o t h e r s , o b s c u r i t y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e e v i d e n t d e s i r e f o r c o n c e a l m e n t . Con-v e r s a t i o n s o f t e n seem t o p r o c e e d r e m a r k a b l y s m o o t h l y a t Newmarch i n s p i t e of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f o i b l e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e a d e r may be m y s t i f i e d a t t i m e s by c o n v e r s a t i o n s w h i c h seem t o c o n s i s t of one non s e q u i t u r a f t e r t h e o t h e r . The n a r r a t o r t r i e s t o g e t Obert t o c l a r i f y h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t Mrs. S e r v e r has "changed b a c k " w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t : "Back t o what she was when you p a i n t e d h e r ? " He had t o t h i n k an i n s t a n t f o r t h i s . " N o — n o t q u i t e t o t h a t . " "To what t h e n ? " He t r i e d i n a manner t o o b l i g e me. "To s omething e l s e . " (p. 213) I f t h i s l a c k of c l a r i t y a p p e a rs t o mask q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y any i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e s p e a k e r i n t e n d e d t o i m p a r t , n o n e t h e l e s s t h e n a r r a t o r c o n c l u d e s t h a t O b e r t ' s s t a t e m e n t " f i t s " h i s own a s s u m p t i o n s . The f l o w o f t a l k i s sometimes a b r u p t l y i n t e r r u p t e d when one c h a r a c t e r becomes aware o f t h e f a i l u r e t o communicate, as when F o r d Obert e x c l a i m s : "How on e a r t h can I t e l l what y o u ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t ? " Obert shows t h a t he has u n d e r e s t i m a t e d h i s a d v e r s a r y , s i n c e t h e n a r r a t o r m e r e l y i g n o r e s t h e i m p u t a t i o n and p r o c e e d s i n a new d i r e c t i o n : " D i d you happen t o count them?" "Count whom?" "Why, t h e l a d i e s as t h e y f i l e d up. Was t h e number t h e r e ? " (pp. 205-6) I n h i s u s u a l f a s h i o n t h e n a r r a t o r e x p e c t s o t h e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d what he i s a l l u d i n g t o w i t h m i n i m a l i n d i c a t i o n s f r o m him, y e t t h i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c speech t r a i t i s n o t f o r t u i t o u s , as i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r o f t e n d a n g l e s e l l i p t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s i n h i s l i s t e n e r ' s f a c e t o c h a l l e n g e him t o r i s e t o t h e b a i t and c o m p l e t e h i s u t t e r a n c e . T h i s s t r a t e g y comes t o t h e f o r e f r o n t on a number o f o c c a s i o n s , i n -c l u d i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n , when t h e n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o put O b e r t ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o the t e s t : Once more I j u s t w a i t e d . "But suppose I s h o u l d f i n d Mrs. S e r v e r — ? " " P r o w l i n g t h e r e on t h e chance o f you? W e l l — I t h o u g h t she was what you wanted." "Then," I r e t u r n e d , "you c o u l d t e l l what I was t a l k i n g a b o u t ! " (p. 206) The n a r r a t o r d r i v e s h i s p o i n t f u r t h e r when he e n c o u n t e r s F o r d Obert i n t h e smoking room a few m i n u t e s a f t e r w a r d and he e x c l a i m s f o r t h e second t i m e , "Then you c o u l d t e l l what I was t a l k i n g a b o u t ! " And I added, t o c o m p l e t e my r e f e r e n c e , " S i n c e you t hought Mrs. S e r v e r was t h e p e r s o n , whom when I s t o p p e d y o u , I was s o r r y t o l e a r n f r o m you I had m i s s e d . " (p. 208) T h i s r a r e o c c a s i o n on w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r pauses t o " c o m p l e t e h i s r e f e r e n c e " o c c u r s when t h e n a r r a t o r i s c l e a r l y m i s l e a d i n g one of h i s l i s t e n e r s , and t h u s h i s d e s i r e t o be u n e q u i v o c a l stems from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o p a g a t i n g t h e l i e . 4 8 I n an a t t e m p t t o f o r c e Mrs. S e r v e r t o commit h e r s e l f t o a d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t about t h e p e r s o n whom she e x p e c t s t o f i n d w i t h Lady J o h n , t h e n a r r a t o r c o n s c i o u s l y e x p l o i t s t h e vagueness o f t h e p e r s o n a l pronoun. Be-l i e v i n g t h a t he has c o r r e c t l y u n d e r s t o o d May's u n e x p r e s s e d t h o u g h t s , he s t a t e s r a t h e r i r r e l e v a n t l y : " I p a r t e d w i t h h i m , some way from h e r e , some t i m e ago. I had found him i n one o f t h e gardens w i t h Lady John: a f t e r w h i c h we came away f r o m h e r t o g e t h e r . We s t r o l l e d a l i t t l e and t a l k e d , b u t I knew what he r e a l l y wanted. He wanted t o f i n d y o u , and I t o l d h i m he would p r o b a b l y do so a t t e a on t h e t e r r a c e . I t was v i s i b l y w i t h t h a t i d e a — t o r e t u r n t o t h e h o u s e — t h a t he l e f t me." (p. 142) A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r has l a u n c h e d i n t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n b e l i e v i n g t h a t he i s c o n t i n u i n g h e r own s t r e a m o f t h o u g h t , he r e a l i s e s upon s e e i n g h e r r e a c t i o n t h a t she i s a c t u a l l y q u i t e p u z z l e d by t h i s vague r e f e r e n c e and s e i z e s upon t h i s chance as an " o b j e c t i v e t e s t " f o r h i s t h e o r y . F u l l y aware now of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s v e r b a l s l i p , t h e n a r -r a t o r h o l d s May i n su s p e n s e , p r o f f e r r i n g o n l y , "Don't you know how she's p e r p e t u a l l y p o u n c i n g on him?" by way o f a t t e n u a t i n g h e r c o n f u s i o n . The d u b i o u s e t h i c s o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t , r e p r e s e n t e d now by such h u n t i n g a n a l o g i e s as " h i s p r e y , " "on t h e s c e n t , " "on t h e t r a c k " and so on, i s c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e image o f t o r t u r e used t o convey May's suspense: "She had an u n c e r t a i n t y , i n o t h e r words, as t o whom I meant, and t h a t i t k e p t h e r f o r some seconds on t h e r a c k was a t r i f l e compared t o my chance." (p. 143) However, c o n t r a r y t o h i s e x p e c t a t i o n , Mrs. S e r v e r does n o t b r e a k down and r e f u s e s t o a t t r i b u t e t h e p e r s o n a l pronoun t o anyone, as she t i t t e r s , "Do you m e a n — a — d o you mean?... There a r e so many ge n t l e m e n ! " May emerges the v i c t o r o f t h i s b r i e f , y e t h i g h l y p e r i l o u s , exchange and th e n a r r a t o r f i n a l l y c a p i t u l a t e s by a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t he had meant "poor 49 B r i s s . " That Mrs. S e r v e r a p p ears t o r e p u d i a t e any c o n n e c t i o n between B r i s s and h e r s e l f i s c o n s t r u e d by t h e n a r r a t o r as a c l e v e r a t t e m p t t o throw him o f f t h e t r a c k . Among t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s , r e f e r e n t i a l vagueness c o n s t i t u t e s n o t o n l y one o f h i s most d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l i s t i c t r a i t s , b u t a l s o a f o r e m o s t means of i n d u c i n g h i s l i s t e n e r t o u t t e r what he r e f u s e s t o v o i c e h i m s e l f . The m o t i v e f o r t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c i r c u m l o c u t i o n s , vague r e f e r -e n c e s , and o b l i q u e n e s s may be l o c a t e d i n what he f e e l s i s h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e phenomenon he i s o b s e r v i n g , and as h i s t r a i l becomes more and more d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w due t o h i s f e i n t e s and d o u b l i n g s -back and l i e s , t h e r e a d e r may a t t r i b u t e t h e s e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l moves t o h i s r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t "an i n d i v i d u a l would be compromised i f he d i d n ' t now t a k e c a r e . " I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s " s u s t a i n e d a t t e m p t t o a v e r t t h a t d i s a s t e r , " as t h e n a r r a t o r r a t h e r h e r o i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s h i s a c t i v i t y (p. 4 8 ) , i t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o p e r c e i v e h i s p e r v e r s e enjoyment i n o b f u s c a t i n g o t h e r s . Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e way i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r s t r u c t u r e s t h e c o n t e x t r e f l e c t s h i s own b e l i e f s , needs, and d e s i r e s , r e v e a l i n g h e r e a t e n d e n c y t o i n t e l l e c t u a l h u b r i s w h i c h c a u s e s him t o d e l i g h t i n b e w i l d e r i n g o t h e r s , a l b e i t i n r a t h e r e l e m e n t a r y ways. The c o n t i n u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f The S a c r e d  Fount s u g g e s t t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a t Newmarch, f o r a common r e f e r e n t i s o f t e n p r e s u p p o s e d between i n t e r l o c u t o r s when i n f a c t , each i n d i v i d u a l i s p u r s u i n g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l i n e s o f t h o u g h t . The c o n c a t -e n a t i o n o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e absence o f a common c o n t e x t has r a t h e r p e s s i m i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f communicating a t Newmarch. 50 Whereas t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n w i t h i t s c o n c o m i t a n t v a g u e n e s s e s and o b l i q u i t i e s i n The S a c r e d Fount r e n d e r s a r i c h l y s u g g e s t i v e n o v e l i s t i c w o r l d , c o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u has p r e c i s e l y t h e o p p o s i t e e f f e c t . Language becomes a means of r e d u c i n g t h e h i g h l y complex r e a l i t y o f t h e w o r l d i n t o p r e d i c t a b l e , w a t e r - t i g h t c a t e g o r i e s . S a r r a u t e emphasises t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n a t u r e o f l a n g u a g e as code, so t h a t h e r c h a r a c t e r s u t t e r , i f p o s s i b l e , even more hackneyed i d e a s t h a n t h o s e found i n n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n . A c o n t e x t i s t h u s c o n s t r u c t e d i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s t h a t has l i t t l e t o do w i t h r e a l i t y b u t e v e r y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f commonplace l a n g u a g e . S a r r a u t e d e s c r i b e s t h i s p r i s o n - h o u s e o f language i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: L a ou l e l a n g a g e e t e n d son p o u v o i r , se d r e s s e n t l e s n o t i o n s a p p r i s e s , l e s d e n o m i n a t i o n s , l e s d e f i n i t i o n s , l e s c a t e g o r i e s de p s y c h o l o g i e , de l a s o c i o l o g i e , de l a m o r a l e . I I a s s e c h e , d u r c i t , s e p a r e ce q u i n ' e s t que f l u i d i t e , mouvance, ce q u i s'epand a l ' i n f i n i e t s u r q u o i i l ne c e s s e de gagner.7 The t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u s u b s t a n t i a t e S a r r a u t e ' s p r e o c c u -p a t i o n w i t h t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f e s s e n t i a l , dynamic movements i n t o common-p l a c e s t a t e m e n t s . U n l i k e t h e o f t e n w i t t y r h e t o r i c f ound i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , c o n v e r s a t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u l i e s a t t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e s p e c t r u m , i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t i o n t o r e n d e r " l a p h r a s e l a p l u s b a n a l e du d i a l o g u e l e p l u s commun q u i s o i t " ^ — s u p e r l a t i v e s w h i c h a r e i n e v e r y way j u s t i f i e d by t h e a chievement o f M a r t e r e a u . The r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h i s n o v e l i s t h u s committed t o t h e t a s k o f r e p r o d u c i n g c a n o n i c a l s t a t e m e n t s about t h e w o r l d . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e r e f o r e more i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h e b r e a c h t h a n i n t h e o b s e r v a n c e , f o r i t i s t h e n t h a t c o n v e r s a t i o n i s seen t o p r o v o k e t r o p i s t i c movements i n t h e l i s t e n e r i n a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , c a u s a l manner. 51 When i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t , t h e nephew o b s e r v e s a man c u t t i n g h i s son's meat f o r h i m — a r e a s s u r i n g scene w h i c h evokes t h e image o f two men s t r i d -i n g t h r o u g h f i e l d s t o g e t h e r . I n t h e n e x t scene t h e n a r r a t o r r e - s i t u a t e s h i m s e l f and h i s u n c l e , "nous", i n p l a c e of "eux." The o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h i s scene i s d o u b t f u l , as t h e n a r r a t o r g e n e r a l i s e s the o c c a s i o n by t h e t e r m " p a r f o i s " and t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e s c e n a r i o d u p l i c a t e s t h e e a r l i e r i m a g i n a r y s c e n e ; however, t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i o n and r e s p o n s e s i s h i g h l y s p e c i f i c , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l k e r n e l of t h e scene i s based on e x p e r i e n c e . The nephew announces t h e t o p i c s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t a r e d i s c u s s e d as t h e y w a l k — . . . s o c i e t e s anonymes, c o n s e i l s d ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b e n e f i c e s e t p e r t e s ; i n f l a t i o n , d e f l a t i o n , s t a g n a t i o n eh b o u r s e ; r i s q u e s de g u e r r e ; v a l e u r s r e f u g e ; b a i s s e des c o u r s au Maroc; h a u s s e des t e r r a i n s en A r g e n t i n e ; p a s s e p o r t s ; p a q u e b o t s ; r e n v o i du c h a u f f e u r — ( p . 35) and a l t h o u g h t h e c l e a r s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t t h i s i s a monologue r a t h e r t h a n a c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e nephew f e e l s s a f e w i t h i n t h e s e c o n f i n e s . The nephew d e s t r o y s t h e l i n k s t h a t a t t a c h them t e m p o r a r i l y t o each o t h e r , as he d a r e s t o change t h e s u b j e c t , d r a w i n g h i s u n c l e ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l a n d s c a p e : " E c o u t e z 5a...ces c l o c h e t t e s . . . c e t t e s o u r c e . . . R e g a r d e z l a - b a s l e l i g n e des b o i s . . . l e c h a l e t . . . " ( p . 35) " L ' i m p r e g n a t i o n p r o u -s t i e n n e " t h a t m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n much o f S a r r a u t e ' s work i s e s p e c i a l l y e v i d e n t h e r e , when S a r r a u t e t r a n s p o r t s t h e s e n s i b i l i t y o f P r o u s t ' s p r o t a g o n i s t i n t o t h i s e m p h a t i c a l l y m a s c u l i n e c o n t e x t . E v o c a t i o n s of t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , v e r y s i m i l a r t o P r o u s t ' s " c l o c h e r s de M a r t i n v i l l e " and " l a s o u r c e de l a V i v o n n e " a t Combray, become r e p l e t e w i t h d a n g e r o u s l y e f f e t e o v e r t o n e s i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . 52 The u n c l e r e a c t s i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y and v i o l e n t l y t o t h e s e few wo r d s , b a t t l i n g i n h i s t y p i c a l manner by b r e a k i n g t h e c o n t a c t and w i t h d r a w i n g f r o m the c o n v e r s a t i o n . I f speech i s " t h e n a t u r a l c o r r e l a t e o f man's g r e g a r i o u s n a t u r e . . . a n o t h e r man's s i l e n c e i s n o t a r e a s s u r i n g f a c t o r , b u t , on t h e c o n t r a r y , s omething a l a r m i n g and da n g e r o u s " ^ and t h e u n c l e r e s o r t s t o t h i s weapon t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e taboo n a t u r e o f t h e t o p i c t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r has p r o p o s e d — " L e s e n t i m e n t de l a n a t u r e , h e i n ? L a p e t i t e f l e u r b l e u e ? L a p u r e -t e ? " (p. 3 6 ) — t h e f a c t t h a t he uses t h e i m p e r a t i v e f o r m o f t h e v e r b s ( e c o u -t e z , r e g a r d e z ) i s n o t a c c i d e n t a l , f o r i t i m p l i e s t h a t he has t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make such a s u g g e s t i o n t o h i s u n c l e . Abandoning t h e n t h i s t o p i c w i t h i t s u n h e a l t h y c o n n o t a t i o n s o f " l e s p e t i t s e n e r v e s , l e s d e g o u t e s , l e s ' e s t h e t e s ' " (p. 3 6 ) , the nephew resumes the c o n t e x t t h a t i s f a m i l a r t o h i s u n c l e i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l mode t h a t he p r e f e r s , as once a g a i n t h e nephew i n v i t e s h i s u n c l e t o p o n t i f i c a t e on " l ' u n i v e r s s o l i d e e t d u r " (p. 3 6 ) . T h e m a t i c a l l y , t h e r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n p l a y s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the n o v e l w i t h r e g a r d t o " l ' i n c o n n u , " M a r t e r e a u , whom t h e o t h e r s a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . Georges R a i l l a r d i d e n t i f i e s t h i s theme as t h e M o t i f o r g a n i s a t e u r de chaque l i v r e , c e t t e r e c h e r c h e a g r e s s i v e de l a n o m i n a t i o n (ou l e centrement a n x i e u x d'un ' j e ' p r e n d l e masque de l a v i s e e d'un ' i l ' , d'une c o n j u g a i s o n e q u i t a b l e de " p a r t e n a i r e s " ) a f f i c h e son a v e n t u r e r e v e e , e t sa d e c e p t i o n . ^ The q u e s t i o n o f M a r t e r e a u f i n a l l y r e s o l v e s i t s e l f n e a r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e n o v e l t o t h e f o r m u l a o f whether he i s "honnete" o r "un f i l o u " ; t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e n o v e l a t t e m p t t o name M a r t e r e a u and " l e l a n g a g e convenu pose a u s s i t o t l a p l a q u e de ci m e n t de ses d e f i n i t i o n s . " H THE REFERENTIAL FUNCTION: NOTES 1 Paul Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory, (Fort Worth, Texas: Texas C h r i s t i a n University Press, 1976), p. 34. 2 Jean-Michel Adam and Jean-Pierre Goldenstein, Linguistique et discours l i t t e r a i r e , (Paris: L i b r a i r i e Larousse, 1976), p. 262. 3 Seymour Chatman, The Later Style of Henry James,. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1972), p. 54. 4 Ibid. 5 Lewis C a r r o l l , A l i c e ' s Adventures i n Wonderland, (Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1865 and 1952) , p. 44. 6 Chatman, p. 54. 7 Nathalie Sarraute, "Ce que j e cherche a f a i r e , " Nouveau roman: h i e r aujourd'hui, ed. Jean Ricardou and Francoise Van Rossum-Guyon, (Paris:Union generale d'editions, 1972) p. 37. 8 Ibid. p. 36. 9 Bronislaw Malinowski, quoted by Richard Howell and Harold Vetter, Language i n Behaviour, (New York: Human Sciences press, 1976), p. 60. 10 Georges R a i l l a r d , "Nathalie Sarraute et l a violence du texte," L i t t e r a t u r e 2. (1971), p. 90. 11 Sarraute, p. 37. 54 THE CONATIVE FUNCTION: The O t h e r - d i r e c t e d D i s c o u r s e The c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n emphasises t h e r o l e o f t h e r e c e i v e r i n t h e speech a c t . L i k e t h e pronoun " I " , w h i c h can be i d e n t i f i e d o n l y by t h e speech a c t w h i c h c o n t a i n s i t , t h e "you" i n t h e d i s c o u r s e r e f e r s t o t h e a l l o c u t o r , o r i n d i v i d u a l t o whom t h e d i s c o u r s e c o n t a i n i n g t h e pronoun "you" i s d i r e c t e d . I n Problemes de l i n g u i s t i q u e g e n e r a l e , B e n v e n i s t e d e f i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f p r o -nouns i n t h e above manner, e m p h a s i s i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f t h e " I " and t h e "you" as t h e e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f d i s c o u r s e . S a r r a u t e d r a m a t i s e s t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e v e r s a l i n h e r e n t i n t h e use of t h e "vo u s , " w h i c h can n o t o n l y be r e d i r e c t e d toward t h e s p e a k e r , b u t may r e f e r t o v a r y i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s l i n g u i s t i c f a c t i s an i m p o r t a n t v e r b a l f e a t u r e o f M a r t e r e a u , w h i c h r e c a s t s t h e n e u t r a l n a t u r e o f t h e pronoun, l i k e t he word i t s e l f , i n t o " l ' a r m e q u o t i d i e n n e , i n s i d i e u s e e t t r e s e f f i c a c e , d ' i n n o m b r a b l e s p e t i t s c r i m e s . The n a r r a t o r comments on t h i s phenomenon b e f o r e i t i s p r e s e n t e d s c e n i c a l l y i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t , d e s c r i b i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h e pronoun "vous" as i t i s aimed a t t h e nephew, h i s aunt and c o u s i n . D i v i n i n g t h e t h o u g h t s o f h i s u n c l e , he i n t e r p r e t s them i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: "Vous n'en f a i t e s j a m a i s d ' a u t r e s " . . . " ' V o u s ' pouvez vous f a i r e de ces i d e e s " . . . " ' V o u s ' avez une f a c o n de r e g a r d e r l e s gens"... "Vous"..."Vous"..."Vous"...et nous nous r a t a t i n o n s , nous nous b l o t i s s o n s l ' u n c o n t r e l ' a u t r e , nous nous tenons s e r r e s , p r e s s e s l e s uns c o n t r e l e s a u t r e s comme des moineaux e f f r a y e s . (p. 25) N o t i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f the u n c l e — " I I l e s r e g a r d e f i x e m e n t de son a i r h o s t i l e , i l a son v i s a g e a f f a i s s e , r e n f r o g n e " ( p . 2 6 ) — t h e nephew i n t e r p r e t s 55 t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e u n c l e ' s supposed t h o u g h t s i n an i n t e r i o r monologue, or " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " I n i t i a l l y , t h e nephew v i e w s t h e women fr o m t h e p e r -s p e c t i v e o f h i s u n c l e , r a n k i n g h i m s e l f b e s i d e h im and f a c i n g t h e women, who appear l i k e "deux p o u p e e s : l a f i l l e d e j a une r e p r o d u c t i o n de l a mere" (p. 2 6 ) . The n a r r a t o r o r t h e two women as he of such h o s t i l i t y . He M a i s e l l e s ne s e n t e n t r i e n , ou p e u t - e t r e ne p e u v e n t - e l l e s p l u s q u i t t e r c e t t e forme ou un charme j e t e p a r l u i l e s t i e n t e n f e r m e e s , ou b i e n , p r i s e s de v e r t i g e e t se sa c h a n t condamnees t e n d e n t - e l l e s d'elles-memes, pour p r e c i p i t e r l e u r s o r t , l a t e t e sous l e c o u -p e r e t , ou, t r o p s u r e s d' e l l e s e t se s e n t a n t s o u t e n u e s p a r t o u s , e n c o u r a g e e s , v e u l e n t - e l l e s l e d e f i e r , ou e n c o r e , t o u t s i m p l e m e n t , se l a i s s e n t - e l l e s a l l e r a c e t t e espece de g a i e t e d e b i l e , d ' e x c i -t a t i o n m o l l e a l a q u e l l e e l l e s s'abandonnent p a r f o i s m a l g r e e l l e s , g r i s e e s de f a c i l i t e , de s e c u r i t e p a r e s s e u s e , de f r i v o l i t e . . . . (p.28) Abandoning h i m s e l f t o m y r i a d s p e c u l a t i o n s , t h e n a r r a t o r , much l i k e h i s P r o u s t i a n p r e c u r s o r , f i x e s h i s t h o u g h t s i n a s e r i e s o f d i s j u n c t i v e a l t e r -n a t i v e s marked by t h e r e p e t i t i o u s "ou, ou b i e n , ou e n c o r e " t h a t p u n c t u a t e t h e p a s s a g e . Whereas t h e n a r r a t o r i s a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o h i s u n c l e ' s t h o u g h t s q u i t e r e a d i l y , t h o s e o f h i s aunt and c o u s i n a r e an unknown quan-t i t y t o him, and seem p o t e n t i a l l y more menacing. Faced by t h e dilemma o f j o i n i n g t h e r a n k s o f h i s u n c l e o r t h e women, t h e n a r r a t o r e l e c t s t h e l a t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e , r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d i r e c t i v e s g i v e n by t h e women i n c o n v e r s a t i o n : "Vous avez v u , r e g a r d e z , a l a t a b l e q u i e s t d e r r i e r e v o u s . . . l a bonne femme avec l e grand chapeau...vous pouvez l ' a p e r c e -v o i r dans l a g l a c e . . . L a , t o u r n e z - v o u s doucement, l a , p r e s de l a f e n e t r e . . . l a femme b l o n d e . . . e l l e ne vous v o i t p a s . " (p. 29) The emphasis on t h e a l l o c u t o r i s m a n i f e s t e d by t h e r e p e a t e d use of t h e second p e r s o n , s e r v i n g t o s i n g l e out t h e nephew and draw him i n t o t h e i r v a c i l l a t e s between a l i g n i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e u n c l e t r i e s t o fathom t h e i r c a r e f r e e a t t i t u d e i n t h e f a c e r e f l e c t s , t r i v i a l w o r l d . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e nephew i s c l e a r l y a l i g n e d w i t h " e l l e s " a g a i n s t t h e u n c l e : Le p a c t e e s t c o n c l u . . . j ' a i a c c e p t e 1 ' a v i l i s s a n t e p r o m i s c u i t e , 1 ' i g n o m i n i e u s e f r a t e r n i t e . . . i l nous o b s e r v e , n o t r e s o r t e s t l i e m a i n t e n a n t , p a r e i l s t o u s l e s t r o i s , e l l e s e t m o i , l o g e s a l a meme e n s e i g n e , rampant dans l ' a b j e c t i o n . . . ( p . 2 9 ) . The r e p o r t e d d i a l o g u e i n t h i s scene i s m i n i m a l , e r u p t i n g o u t o f t h e f l o w of t h e s u b - c o n v e r s a t i o n i n a venomous j e t as t h e u n c l e f i n a l l y d e c l a r e s , b r e a k i n g t h e s i l e n c e : " ' V o u s ' ' avez une f a c o n de d e v i s a g e r l e s gens..." (p. 3 1 ) . The words denote a s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n cn t h e p a r t o f t h e u n c l e ; a l t h o u g h c r i t i c a l , t h e s t a t e m e n t a ppears h a r m l e s s enough. Y e t , s e n s i -t i s e d t o t h e i m p o r t o f t h e pronoun by t h e p r e c e d i n g e x p a n d i n g commentary on t h e meaning o f "v o u s , " t h e r e a d e r r e c o g n i s e s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e words. 'Vous'... son arme l a p l u s s u r e . Son coup l e p l u s a d r o i t , venu de t r e s l o i n , longuement p r e p a r e , t o u j o u r s b i e n a s s e n e , a d m i r a b l e -ment p r e c i s e t f o r t . (p. 2 5 ) . The pronoun " v o u s " s t a n d s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e " j e " a c c o r d i n g t o a c o r -r e l a t i o n o f s u b j e c t i v i t y : t h e "vous" i s a c c u s a t o r y p r e c i s e l y because i t r e p r e s e n t s t h a t w h i c h i s "non-moi." However, w h i l e o p p o s i n g t h e " j e " as as n o n - s u b j e c t i v e p e r s o n , t h e "vous" forms an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e " j e " on an e x i s t e n t i a l a x i s . ^ Because o f t h e i s o l a t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r s d e p i c t e d i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , t h e c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n a c q u i r e s a s i n g u l a r i m p o r t a n c e , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e v e r b a l e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e handshake, t h e hug, o r n e g a t i v e l y , t h e a t t a c k . A l l r e s p o n s e s , however, acknowledge t h e e x i s t e n c e and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs 57 of t h e l i s t e n e r , r e i n f o r c i n g h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . O f t e n t h e con-a t i v e f u n c t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s i n t h e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s cenes o f t h e n o v e l , form-i n g a welcome a n t i d o t e t o q u a r r e l l i n g t a c t i c s w h i c h i n c l u d e w i t h d r a w a l o f c o n t a c t and s i l e n c e . The r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d - p e r s o n p ronoun, w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t s u g g e s t i o n o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l i s t e n e r , c o n c r e t e l y i l l u s -t r a t e s a r e n e w a l o f i n t e r e s t and f r i e n d s h i p . A f t e r t h e m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e between t h e aunt and u n c l e i n c h a p t e r I I I b e f o r e t h e y a r r i v e t o v i e w t h e house, a t t e m p t s a r e made t o re-cement r e l a t i o n s i n t h e u n f a m i l i a r atmosphere o f a p o s s i b l e dream house. ...nous g r o s s i s s o n s , nous bourgeonnons de b e s o i n s r e p r i m e s , de d e s i r s i n a s s o u v i s , de c a p r i c e s , de r e v e s . . . L ' e n d r o i t i d e a l i c i . . . "pour t o i . . . j u s t e ce que t u v o u l a i a ..Regarde c a , s i ca ne f e r a i t pas un a t e l i e r m a g n i f i q u e . . . i l y a meme une e n t r e e s e p a r e e . . . " (p. 99) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , t h e a p p e a l i s made t o t h e nephew r a t h e r t h a n t o each o t h e r ; r a t h e r t h a n d i s p l a y i n g f o r g i v e n e s s u n r e s e r v e d l y , t h e y use t h e i r nephew as an i n t e r m e d i a r y f o r t h i s o v e r f l o w o f a m i a b i l i t y . However, i n the S a r r a u t i a n w o r l d o f M a r t e r e a u such p r o m i s e s o f i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i o n a r e h i g h l y s u s p e c t , v a r n i s h i n g o v e r more u n s a v o r y m o t i v e s . F o r t h e n a r -r a o t r , t h i s i n v i t a t i o n t o communion w i t h t h e f a m i l y p r e s e n t s d a n g e r s , s i n c e i t i n v o l v e s immersing h i s own i d e n t i t y i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e group. As t h e n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o d i s e n g a g e h i m s e l f e m o t i o n a l l y f r o m t h e s e words, he sense s t h e u n v o i c e d r e s i s t a n c e o f h i s aunt and u n c l e : ...pas de l a c h e d e f e c t i o n , d'abandon d e l o y a l , c ' e s t t r o p t a r d , nous sommes ensemble, u n i s dans l a meme a v e n t u r e , l i v r e s au meme s o r t , i l me t i r e n t , m ' e n s e r r e n t , i l s me f o n t m a l . . . (p. 100) T h i s l a t e n t s u b - t e x t i s masqued by t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w w h i c h c o n -58 t i n u e t o convey c o n c e r n and a f f e c t i o n f o r t h e n a r r a t o r : "Ca p a r exemple, c ' e s t nouveau....Mais c ' e s t t o i q u i y v i e n d r a s l e p l u s j ' e s p e r e , pour t a s a n t e . . . C 1 e s t pour t o i t o u t 5a s u r -t o u t . Tu as p l u s b e s o i n de campagne que nous..." (p. 100) R e c u r r i n g a f t e r t h e i n t e r c e d i n g commentary, t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s c o n t r a s t t h e t o n e of t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n , " r e v e a l i n g an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e o t h e r -d i r e c t e d word i n t h e w o r l d o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . I n t e r e s t i n t h e l i s t e n e r o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n t e n d s t o i n d i c a t e more t h a n a r u d i m e n t a r y a t t e n t i o n o r c o n c e r n f o r a n o t h e r p e r s o n : i t may be p a r t of "ce b e s o i n p r e s q u e mani-aque de c o n t a c t " t h a t m o t i v a t e s a l m o s t a l l of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l . As t h e c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s i n t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e a c t , f o c u s i n g on t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e l i s t e n e r , S a r r a u t e ' s a n a l o g y l i k e n i n g c o n -v e r s a t i o n t o a b a t t l e f i e l d a p p e ars most a p p r o p r i a t e : Ces drames i n t e r i e u r s f a i t s d ' a t t a q u e s , de t r i o m p h e s , de r e c u l s , de d e f a i t e s , de c a r e s s e s , de m o r s u r e s , de v i o l s , de m e u r t r e s , d'abandons genereux ou d'humbles s o u m i s s i o n s , ont t o u s c e c i de commun, q u ' i l s ne peuvent se p a s s e r de p a r t e n a i r e . 3 The c o n v e r s a t i o n a l p a r t n e r i s f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e d a s , L a menace, l e danger r e e l e t a u s s i l a p r o i e q u i d e v e l o p p e l e u r v i v a -c i t e e t l e u r s o u p l e s s e ; 1'element m y s t e r i e u x dont l e s r e a c t i o n s im-p r e v i s i b l e s , en l e s f a i s a n t r e p a r t i r a t o u t i n s t a n t e t se d e v e l o p p e r v e r s une f i n i n c o n n u e , a c c e n t u a n t l e u r c a r a c t e r e d r a m a t i q u e . ^ J u s t as t h i s element forms an e s s e n t i a l c o n s t i t u e n t o f S a r r a u t e ' s "new n o v e l , " inasmuch as i t s e r v e s t o c a t a l y s e t h e movement o f t r o p i s m s and t h e f l o w of the " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n , " t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the dynamics o f d i a l o g u e a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e n o v e l s of Henry James. The d r a m a t i c c h a r a c t e r o f t h e d i a l o g u e i n James's f i c t i o n i s due p r e c i s e l y t o t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 59 o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n f r o m c o n f e d e r a t e s and a c c o m p l i c e s i n t o o pponents. As t h e n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount i s l a r g e l y unaware of such phenomena as t r o p i s m s however, t h e r e a d e r must be a l e r t t o t h e c h a n g i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t o n e s i n s c r i b e d i n t h e d i a l o g u e . L i k e some o f P r o u s t ' s c h a r a c t e r s , t h e n a r r a t o r o f The Sa c r e d Fount has a d e c i d e d p r o p e n s i t y t o m o n o p o l i s e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n ; however, he d i f f e r s f r o m P r o u s t ' s m o n o l o g u i s t s i n one i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t . W h i l e P r o u s t ' s M. de C h a r l u s and t h e duke o f S i d o n i a " a v a i e n t p r i s l a d e t e r m i n a t i o n , non de se t a i r e , mais de p a r l e r chacun sans s ' o c c u p e r de ce que d i r a i t l ' a u t r e , " - ' t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f Henry James s u f f e r t h e o p p o s i t e e x c e s s . I f P r o u s t ' s c h a r a c t e r s "ne p a r l e n t que pour eux-memes," James's c h a r a c t e r s a r e e x t r a -o r d i n a r i l y aware of t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i r words on t h e l i s t e n e r . T h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e l i s t e n e r ' s r e s p o n s e p r o d u c e s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g degree of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p e a k e r , who r e s o r t s t o v a r i o u s l i n g u i s t i c t a c t i c s and s t r a t a g e m s i n an e f f o r t t o p r o v o k e o r o t h e r w i s e i n f l u e n c e t h e h e a r e r . The most e v i d e n t g r a m m a t i c a l forms o f such an o r i e n t a t i o n toward t h e r e c e i v e r a r e t h e a p o s t r o p h e , t h e i m p e r a t i v e , and t h e v o c a t i v e . The im p e r -a t i v e i n t h e t e x t r e p r e s e n t s a mode o f a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a means o f c o n -v e y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a l c o n t e n t ; as B e n v e n i s t e s t a t e s , t h e i m p e r a t i v e "se c a r a c t e r i s e comme p r a g m a t i q u e e t v i s e a a g i r s u r l ' a u d i t e u r , a l u i i n t i m e r un comportement."6 C o n v e r s e l y , t h e i m p e r a t i v e , w h i l e c l e a r l y d i r e c t e d a t t h e l i s t e n e r , i m p l i e s an e m o t i o n a l movement on t h e p a r t o f t h e s p e a k e r , who i s a t t e m p t i n g t o command, p e r s u a d e , o r p r o v o k e a r e s u l t : i t s usage i m p l i e s "un d i a l o g u e ( r e e l ou f i c t i f ) au c o u r s d u q u e l l e l o c u t e u r c h e r c h e a a g i r s u r quel q u ' u n ou quelque chose. 60 As t h e s p e a k e r i n i t i a t e s t h e u t t e r a n c e , assuming a r o l e i n t h e d i s c o u r s e , he s u g g e s t s a f o r m of b e h a v i o u r f o r t h e l i s t e n e r , who i s g i v e n two a l t e r -n a t i v e s : t o obey o r d i s o b e y . ^ T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i m p e r a t i v e makes i t p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e i n t h e t a n g l e d f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s o f l a t e r J a m e s i a n f i c t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t e n r e s i d e s p r e c i s e l y i n t h e impos-s i b i l i t y , b o t h f o r c h a r a c t e r and r e a d e r , t o r e s o l v e t h e uneasy a m b i g u i t i e s of t h e s i t u a t i o n . The i m p e r a t i v e m o b i l i s e s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , c r y s t a l l i s i n g t h e numerous unspoken d i c h o t o m i e s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e and s p u r r i n g a d e c i s i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r . T h i s d e c i s i o n i n t h e drama o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e l a t e r n o v e l s i s more a p t l y p r e s e n t e d as a c h o i c e o f v i s i o n — o f c h o o s i n g t o e n t e r i n t o t h e a b y s s e s o f t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n r e g i o n s o f m o r a l i t y and s o c i a l l i f e , o r t o r e m a i n on t h e s u r f a c e s o f c o n v e n t i o n . The i m p e r a t i v e t h u s p l a y s a p i v o t a l r o l e i n many of t h e l a t e r f i c t i o n s , d i f f e r i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y f r o m t h e q u i z z i c a l s y n t a x o f i n t e r r o g a t i o n and r e p e -t i t i o n so p redominant i n J a m e s i a n d i a l o g u e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e v a r y i n g s y n t a x and mode o f t h e i m p e r a t i v e , i t i s o f t e n f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m o t h e r u t t e r a n c e s by i t s p lacement i n a t e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e d i a l o g u e . The G o l d e n Bowl p r o v i d e s a good example of t h i s , as Maggie's words " F i n d out t h e r e s t ! " , and t h e r e p e t i t i o n " F i n d out f o r y o u r s e l f ! " ^ b r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n between Maggie and t h e P r i n c e , and t h e c h a p t e r , t o a d r a m a t i c c l o s e . S i m i l a r l y , i n The Wings o f t h e Dove,the drama r e a c h e s a minor c l i -max when Susan S t r i n g h a m r e v e a l s h e r p e r c e p t i o n s t o Densher, e n c o u r a g i n g him t o g r a s p t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s she s e e s : Oh how he knew he hung back! But a t l a s t he s a i d : " Y o u ' r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t she does b e l i e v e i t ? " " C e r t a i n ? " She a p p e a l e d t o t h e i r whole s i t u a t i o n . " J u d g e ! " 1 0 Such a b r u p t i m p e r a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s a l s o f e a t u r e i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , as one 61 c h a r a c t e r d i r e c t s a n o t h e r t o d i s c o v e r t h e e v i d e n c e h i m s e l f . The most t y p i c a l example o f James's use o f t h e i m p e r a t i v e o c c u r s when th e n a r r a t o r c o n c l u d e s a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h "poor B r i s s , " who f o l l o w s t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a t a few paces b e h i n d , w i t h t h e i m p a t i e n t d i r e c t i v e , " ' W e l l , f o r a l l t h o s e t h i n g s , and i n s p i t e o f what you c a l l y o u r f e a r , t r y h e r ! ' W i t h w h i c h now a t l a s t I q u i t t e d him." (p. 126) I n a l l o f t h e f o r e g o i n g i n s t a n c e s , t h e i m p e r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s as an e x c l a m a t o r y c h a l l e n g e f r o m one c h a r a c t e r t o an-o t h e r ; however, w i t h the u s e o f such a b s t r a c t c o g n i t i v e v e r b s as "Judge!" and " F i n d out f o r y o u r s e l f ! " , James r e a c h e s beyond t h e e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l un-c e r t a i n t i e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s t o embrace t h o s e o f t h e r e a d e r and t o p r o voke h i s p e r s o n a l assessment o f t h e e v e n t s t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e . T h i s h e i g h t e n e d use of t h e i m p e r a t i v e a i d s i n i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e a c t i o n of t h e s t o r y , w h i c h c o n s i s t s q u i t e s i m p l y i n t h e w i d e n i n g v i s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , as i t c h a l -l e n g e s t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e r e a d e r . James demands t h a t h i s r e a d e r a l s o r e -spond t o such p l e a s by r e a c h i n g "a l e v e l o f awareness t h a t w i l l a l l o w f o r h i s most s u b t l e e f f e c t s . * The i m p e r a t i v e a l s o c o n c r e t e l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s between t h e c h a r a c t e r s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e degree o f i n t i m a c y between them and m a n i f e s t i n g the r e l a t i v e s o c i a l power o f each. As t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n The  S a c r e d Fount become i n c r e a s i n g l y annoyed w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i n c e s s a n t q u e s t i o n s and o b s c u r e a l l u s i o n s , t h e y r e s o r t t o i s s u i n g d i r e c t i v e s t o him, r e v e r s i n g t h e n a t u r e o f r e l a t i o n s t h a t have p r e v a i l e d thoughout t h e n o v e l . F o r d O b e r t , h i t h e r t o r e c e p t i v e t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s of t h e n a r r a t o r , f i n a l l y p u t s him o f f w i t h t h e r e p e a t e d i n j u n c t i o n s , "Go and see f o r y o u r s e l f ! " " I t h i n k you a s k t o o much o f me," he a t l a s t b r o u g h t o u t . "Take c a r e o f y o u r l a d i e s , my d e a r man, y o u r s e l f ! Go," he r e p e a t e d , and s e e . " (p. 206) 62 I n a subsequent c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r , Obert makes e x p l i c i t h i s u n d e r l y i n g d e s i r e t o deny h i s c o m p l i c i t y w i t h t h e o b s e s s e d n a r r a t o r -d e t e c t i v e . To t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t i n d e e d t h e i r hands " a r e n o t c l e a n , " O v e r t r e t o r t s , "Ah, speak f o r y o u r own!" and goes on t o e l u c i d a t e , " I a s s u r e you I d e c l i n e a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I see t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as q u i t e b e a u t i f u l l y y o u r s . " (p. 212) The c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n o c c u p i e s an i n c r e a s i n g l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s as a consequence o f t h e f r e q u e n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n s be-tween t h e c h a r a c t e r s , c o n f r o n t a t i o n s now o f a more d i r e c t n a t u r e t h a n p r e -v i o u s l y ; f o r n o t o n l y a r e t h e c h a r a c t e r s more f a m i l i a r w i t h each o t h e r , b u t t h e s t a k e s a r e h i g h e r and t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l r i s k s i n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t . I n t h e t e r m i n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , t h e g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y o f the c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s a l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r w i t h Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n . E a r l i e r i n t h e n o v e l , t h e i r i n t e r c h a n g e s t e n d t o be i m p e r s o n a l as t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o f o r m laws and p a r a b l e s t o d e s c r i b e t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s ; t h e f i n a l d i a l o g u e , however, documents t h e awareness on t h e p a r t o f b o t h o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e s i t u a t i o n s t h e y o b s e r v e . The n a r r a t o r t r i e s t o p e r s u a d e Mrs. B r i s s t o show him where she has abandoned t h e i r t h e o r y w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g r a t h e r t o n g u e - i n - c h e e k p l e a s : " T e l l me," I p l e a d e d , "and t e a c h me." E q u a l l y w i t h h e r v o i c e h e r f a c e echoed me a g a i n . "Teach y o u ? " "To abandon my f a l s e gods. Lead me back t o peace by t h e s t e p s you've t r o d . " (p. 277) A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r p a r o d i e s t h e r e l i g i o u s o v e r t o n e s o f t h e words, h i s speech b e t r a y s a s u b s t a n t i v e change i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s : t h e n a r -63 r a t o r s u r r e n d e r s h i s s u p e r i o r , r a t h e r p e d a n t i c a t t i t u d e m o m e n t a r i l y , as h i s w i s h t o l e a r n from Mrs. B r i s s c o n f e r s upon h e r a measure o f power. I n an e f f o r t t o e x t r i c a t e h e r s e l f f r o m h i s renewed c l u t c h e s , Mrs. B r i s s r e s o l v e s on t h e most d i r e c t t a c t i c , i n f o r m i n g t h e n a r r a t o r t h a t she b e l i e v e s he i s c r a z y . When even t h i s a s s e r t i o n f a i l s t o make th e n a r r a t o r s u r r e n d e r h i s o b s e s s i o n , Mrs. B r i s s must f i n d a c l e a r e r means of e x p r e s s i o n t o convey h e r r e n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e - q u e s t : t h i s means i s t h e use o f t h e i m p e r a t i v e , as a g r a m m a t i c a l form w h i c h t e n d s t o e f f a c e t h e s p e a k e r w h i l e d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t oward t h e l i s t e n e r . Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n r e s p o n d s to t h e r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s of t h e n a r r a t o r t o a c c o u n t f o r h e r d e f e c t i o n by r e f u s i n g t o acknowledge t h e p a r t she has p l a y e d v i s - a - v i s t h e n a r r a t o r . The n a r r a t o r e x p l a i n s , " I do speak of y o u r change. There must have been a g i v e n moment when t h e need o f i t — o r when, i n o t h e r words, t h e t r u t h of my p e r s o n a l s t a t e — d a w n e d upon you. That moment i s t h e key t o y o u r whole p o s i t i o n — t h e moment f o r us t o f i x . " " F i x i t , " s a i d poor Mrs. B r i s s , "when you l i k e ! " (p. 281) Of c o u r s e , t h i s r e t o r t i s n o t t h e f i n a l word on t h e t o p i c as Mrs. B r i s s so o b v i o u s l y p l a n n e d : t h e n a r r a t o r n e a t l y r e v e r s e s h e r e x c l a m a t i o n i n o r d e r t o r e - i n s t a t e h e r i n t h e d i a l o g u e , p r o t e s t i n g , " I had much r a t h e r . . . f i x i t when you ' l i k e . " ...Then as t h i s p l e a seemed s t i l l n o t t o move h e r , I once more com-p r e s s e d my palms. "You won't h e l p me?" The n a r r a t o r p r o f i t s by the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e v e r s a l i n h e r e n t i n t h e cona-t i v e f u n c t i o n , f o r i f Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s r e t o r t s e r v e s t o e c l i p s e h e r r o l e i n t h e i n q u i r y , the n a r r a t o r compensates f o r t h i s r e g r e s s i v e movement by p u r s u i n g h e r w i t h a s e r i e s o f " y o u " - o r i e n t e d s t a t e m e n t s . As i n M a r t e r e a u , t h e o t h e r - d i r e c t e d d i s c o u r s e can s e r v e t h e s p e a k e r as "son arme l a p l u s s u r e . " 64 THE CONATIVE FUNCTION: NOTES 1 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e du soupcon, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) ,p. 122 2 E m i l e B e n v e n i s t e , Problemes de l i n g u i s t i q u e g e n e r a l e , ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1966), p.228. 3 S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e , p. 118. 4 I b i d . , p. 119. 5 J . Van de G h i n s t e , R a p p o r t s humains e t communication dans A l a Recherche du temps p e r d u , ( P a r i s : A.G. N i z e t , 1975), p.149. 6 B e n v e n i s t e , p. 274. 7 J . P i n c h o n and R.L. Wagner, quoted by J-M. Adam, L i n g u i s t i q u e e t d i s -c o u r s l i t t e r a i r e , ( P a r i s : L a r o u s s e , 1976), p. 264. 8 I b i d . , p. 265. 9 Henry James, The G o l d e n Bowl, ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 438. 10 Henry James, The Wings o f t h e Dove, (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n and Co. L t d . , 1978) , p. 344. 11 Wayne C. B o o t h , The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n , ( C h i c a g o and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1961), p. 302. 65 THE EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Must We Say What We Mean? I t c o u l d n o t b u t be e x c i t i n g t o t a l k , as we t a l k e d , on t h e b a s i s o f t h o s e s u p p r e s s e d p r o c e s s e s and una-vowed r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h made t h e meaning of our meet-i n g so d i f f e r e n t f r o m i t s form. (p. 272) I n t h e communities d e s c r i b e d by Henry James and N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , t h e r u l e s o f e x p r e s s i o n a r e s c a r c e l y l e s s s t r i n g e n t t h a n t h o s e a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e Red Queen of L e w i s C a r r o l l — " O p e n y o u r mouth a l i t t l e w i d e r when you speak and a l w a y s say 'Your M a j e s t y ' , " — f o r , a l t h o u g h such a code rema i n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s o f t h e f o r m e r a u t h o r s , i t g u i d e s n o n e t h e l e s s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f e x p r e s s i o n i n a l l t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n c o n d u c t e d a t Newmarch and P a r i s . P e r t a i n i n g t o t h e d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s a t t i t u d e toward what he i s s a y i n g , t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n may c o n s i s t o f such i n d i -c a t o r s as i n t e r j e c t i o n s , e x c l a m a t i o n s , and i n t o n a t i o n t o g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n of t h e s p e a k e r ' s e m o t i o n . I n v i e w of t h e i n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l e x c i t e m e n t e x p e r i e n c e d by b o t h n a r r a t o r s , t h e d i a l o g u e i n f a c t r e v e a l s v e r y l i t t l e o f a u t h e n t i c , p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t . Emotions f o r m t h e p o w e r f u l u n d e r c u r r e n t w h i c h s e t s i n m o t i o n t h e e d d i e s and f l o w o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , y e t t h e y a r e r a r e l y m a n i f e s t e d on t h e s u r f a c e . Because d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion i s g e n e r a l l y c o n c e a l e d f o r t h e sake o f p r o p r i e t y , each t e x t f o r m u l a t e s a language of i n n u e n d o , a l l u s i o n , and i m p l i c a t i o n t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n . Both M a r t e r e a u and The S a c r e d Fount p r e s e n t n a r r a t o r s who, i n t h e i r q u e s t s f o r knowledge of the s o c i a l l i f e t h e y o b s e r v e , undergo an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n 66 i n d i r e c t l a n g u a g e . I n o r d e r t o examine t h e e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t i e s of i m p l i -c a t i o n i n b o t h n o v e l s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o b e g i n w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the k i n d o f emo t i o n and a t t i t u d e s t h a t do f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e d i a l o g u e . I n M a r t e r e a u t h e u n c l e i s t h e c h a r a c t e r who g i v e s way most o p e n l y t o h i s e m o t i o n s , c o n f r o n t i n g " l e s e c o r c h e s v i f s " ( w h i c h d e n o t e s t h o s e who r e c e i v e h i s a t t a c k s b a d l y ) w i t h a b a r r a g e o f h o s t i l e s a r c a s m , "ce p e t i t s i f f l e m e n t de c a l c a i r e que c o r r o d e l ' a c i d e . " (p. 145) The n a r r a t o r p r e s e n t s an example o f t h e u n c l e ' s anger when t h e l a t t e r p r e d i c t a b l y r e a c t s t o h i s d a u g h t e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n a t h a v i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d out h e r f a t h e r ' s c ommission. The s i m p l e q u e s t i o n v o i c e d by t h e u n c l e — " e t l e r e c u ? " — does n o t t a k e i n t h e n a r r a t o r , who i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e s t r a t e g y i t s u g g e s t s , as t h e u n c l e s e e ks an excuse t o r e l e a s e h i s anger. Even t h i s e m o t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , w h i l e v o i c e d and d i r e c t e d a t t h e o b j e c t s o f h i s a n g e r , f i n d s i s s u e t h r o u g h i n d i r e c t i o n , a l b e i t o f th e most e l e m e n t a r y v a r i e t y . The i r o n y o f t h e u n c l e i s i m m e d i a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d by h i s a d d r e s s e e s , s i n c e i t c o n -s i s t s o f r e a d i l y r e c o n s t r u c t a b l e a n t i t h e s e s : "Ah! c ' e s t m o i , c ' e s t moi b i e n s u r . . . j ' a i eu t o r t . . . j ' a i t o u j o u r s t o r t . . . c ' e s t ma f a u t e , t o u t e s l e s b e t i s e s que vous f a i t e s . . . J e ne vous c o n s i d e r e pas a s s e z comme des demeures pour vous p r e v e n i r qu'on ne v e r s e pas comme c a deux m i l l i o n s h u i t c e n t m i l l e f r a n c s de l a main a un monsieur...Non, mais c ' e s t i n o u i . . . " (p. 147) T h i s s c e n e , by c o n t r a s t t o t h e more menacing c o n t e s t s o f s i l e n c e i n t h e n o v e l , c l e a r l y s e t s f o r t h t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n a t e x t i n w h i c h non-e x p r e s s i o n i s t h e norm. The s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e u n c l e b e l o n g t o the g r a m m a t i c a l c l a s s o f a s s e r t i v e , o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , speech a c t s — u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h , by c o n t r a s t t o i m p e r a t i v e s and q u e s t i o n s , a r e co n c e r n e d w i t h " g e t t i n g t h e a d d r e s s e e 67 t o b e l i e v e o r know or. t h i n k s o m e t h i n g r a t h e r t h a n t o do s o m e t h i n g . 1 How-e v e r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s i s n o t t o c o n v i n c e t h e nephew and d a u g h t e r o f t h e t r u t h v a l u e o f t h e a s s e r t i o n s ; i n s t e a d t h e u n c l e " i s n o t o n l y r e p o r t i n g b u t d i s p l a y i n g a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , i n v i t i n g h i s a d d r e s s e e s t o j o i n h i m i n c o n t e m p l a t i n g i t , e v a l u a t i n g i t , and r e s p o n d i n g t o i t . " 2 The d i s t i n c t i o n between s t a t e m e n t s and 'exclamations i s germane t o t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n , inasmuch as i t i l l u m i n a t e s t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f what may be e x p r e s s e d i n a S a r r a u t i a n c o n t e x t . Exclama-t o r y a s s e r t i o n s a r e by d e f i n i t i o n a s s e r t i o n s " t h a t d i s p l a y s t a t e s o f a f f a i r s p r e s e n t i n g them f o r t e l l a b i l i t y . . I n o r d e r t o be a p p r o p r i a t e t o an e x c l a -matory s t a t e m e n t , t h i s . s t a t e o f a f f a i r s must be e i t h e r p r o b l e m a t i c o r unusua as i s the u n c l e ' s a n t i t h e t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n o f anger. The n o t i o n o f t h e " d i s -p l a y - t e x t " e s t a b l i s h e s a d i f f e r e n c e "not between two t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n but between two us e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' " ^ : h e r e , t h e u n c l e ' s v e r b a l e x h i b i t i o n o f h i s f e e l i n g i n v i t e s i n q u i r y i n t o t h e purpose o f t h i s d i s p l a y . The n a r r a t o r s u g g e s t s an answer t o t h i s p r o b l e m i n h i s a n a l o g y o f " l e s v a s e s communicants": an image d e p i c t i n g t h e system o f e m o t i o n a l com-p e n s a t i o n between t h e c h a r a c t e r s . When t h e l e v e l o f one v e s s e l d e s c e n d s , t h e o t h e r i m m e d i a t e l y r i s e s , (p. 124) I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n o r d i n a t e d i s -p l a y o f s a t i s f a c t i o n shown by t h e d a u g h t e r and nephew, t h e u n c l e has no o p t i o n b u t t o demonstate t h e o p p o s i t e a t t i t u d e . Such " d i s p l a y - t e x t s " i n w h i c h emotions and a t t i t u d e s a r e f r e e l y m a n i f e s t e d do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e v i r u l e n t f e e l i n g s t h a t f i n d e x p r e s s i o n o n l y t h r o u g h i n d i r e c t i o n . The l i n g u i s t i c c o n c e p t o f t h e " d i s p l a y - t e x t , " as a p p l i e d t o t h i s s c e n e , s p e c i -f i e s t h e c o n d i t i o n s and n a t u r e o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n i n r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e , 68 d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t f r o m o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s by i t s p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . I n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f M a r t e r e a u , t h e " d i s p l a y - t e x t " c o r r e s p o n d s t o what S a r r a u t e terms " t r o m p e - l ' o e i l , " f o r r e a l i t y i s s t a g e d a t t h e l e v e l o f i m p e r c e p t i b l e i n n e r movements. The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i s a n t i t h e t i c a l t o t h e r e a l i t y t h a t S a r r a u t e s e e ks t o d e p i c t i n h e r n o v e l s , as o v e r t i n -d i c a t o r s of f e e l i n g t e n d t o mask th e f i n e r movements of a u t h e n t i c e motion. S i n c e t h e n a t u r e of e m o t i o n a s S a r r a u t e would d e p i c t i t i s i n e x p r e s s i b l e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e way i n w h i c h l a n g u a g e t r a n s l a t e s p r i m a l e motions i n t o commonplaces, b e t r a y i n g t h e merest t r a c e o f t h e i r o r i g i n s . The s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n M a r t e r e a u and The S a c r e d Fount,by c o n -t r a s t t o t h e e m o t i o n d i s p l a y e d by each n a r r a t o r , seem p a r t i c u l a r l y b l u n t e d e m o t i o n a l l y . The extreme emot i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e two n a r r a -t o r s n o t o n l y c o n t r a s t t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s u t t e r e d , but t h e y a l s o i n c i t e t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s t o concealment t a c t i c s , r e n d e r i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n an exchange of t r i v i a l commonplaces. I f t h e o v e r t e x p r e s s i o n o f emotion i s p r o s c r i b e d , i n d i r e c t means of e x p r e s s i o n i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y g r e a t e r , and i t i s a measure o f t h e l a c k o f candour d i s p l a y e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o such a p r o f u s i o n o f r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s i n each n o v e l . The o p e n i n g scene o f M a r t e r e a u d r a m a t i s e s t h e r o l e of i n d i r e c t l a n g u a g e i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e of d i a l o g u e i n t h e n o v e l . T h i s scene c o n t a i n s i n f a c t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of commentary t h a n t h e norm i n t h e n o v e l , as i t s e r v e s t h e d u a l f u n c t i o n of d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n and i n t r o d u c t o r y e x p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n i t i a t e t h e r e a d e r i n t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t i v e commentary i s an e s s e n t i a l Component o f t h e s c e n e , s i t u a t i n g t h e d i a l o g u e w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e o f l a n g u a g e , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n -dent f u n c t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e w i l l b r i n g i n t o f o c u s t h e s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d i r e c t l anguage i n M a r t e r e a u . The aunt r e c o u n t s t o h e r nephew t h e r o m a n t i c c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f m a r r i a g e t o h i s u n c l e , e m b e l l i s h i n g the d e t a i l s o f " l e bon temps" f o r t h e n a r r a t o r ' s b e n e f i t . The d i a l o g u e , w h i c h i s p r e s e n t e d as a monologue i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r m e r e l y a f f i r m s t h a t t h e co m m u n i c a t i v e c h a n n e l i s open by nods and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , p r o g r e s s e s s m o o t h l y w h i l e the aunt u t t e r s a s e r i e s o f p l a t i t u d e s : " O u i , j e me s u i s r e v e i l l e e un beau m a t i n — c ' e s t l e m a t i n , au r e v e i l , qu'on v o i t ces c h o s e s - l a c l a i r e m e n t — j e me s u i s a s s i s s u r mon l i t e t j e me s u i s d i t : Ma pa u v r e f i l l e , m a i s q u ' e s t - c e que t u f a i s l a ? M a i s q u ' e s t - c e que t u es en t r a i n de f a i r e de t a v i e ? Un o i s e a u dans une cage d o r e e , v o i l a ce qu'on a f a i t de t o i . Un o b j e t de l u x e . " (p. 15) The nephew i s f l a t t e r e d by t h e c o n f i d e n c e s h i s aunt i s making t o him, a l t h o u g h he i s c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h i s a m i c a b l e b a l a n c e i s i n f a c t p r e c a r i o u s . The a p p a r e n t s t a b i l i t y o f t h e exchange i s undermined l i t t l e by l i t t l e as t h e aunt e x u l t s , "Mais ce qu'on a pu y t r a v a i l l e r ! . . . A h ! s i vous s a -v i e z q u e l l e flamme chez ces gens-la...Quand on a v a i t t r i m e t o u t son s a o u l , on s o r t a i t . . . " (p. 19) The n a r r a t o r r e a c t s t o t h i s p i c t u r e i n v o l u n t a r i l y , so t h a t t h e aunt c o n t i n u e s i n t h e same v e i n , e n l a r g i n g on t h e g l o r i o u s v i r t u e s o f work as o n l y a p e r s o n of l e i s u r e can: " O u i . . . E t vous s a v e z que j e g a g n a i s ma v i e . Je m ' e t a i s m i s e a f a b r i q u e r des b i j o u x dans l e s t y l e negre...Au debut j ' a i eu du m a l , mais peu a peu, j ' a i eu des t a s de commandes. P r e s q u e t r o p . I I m ' a r r i v a i t p a r f o i s de v e i l l e r t o u t e l a n u i t . . . c a r l e j o u r j e p e i g n a i s . . . M a i s q u e l l e j o i e quand j ' a i t o u c h e ces p r e m i e r s s o u s ! De 1'argent gagne p a r m o i , "a l a sueur de mon f r o n t , " pensez-donc! L ' i n d e p e n d a n c e . . . " (pp. ,20-21) A l t h o u g h n o t h i n g i n t h i s speech b e t r a y s t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e aunt w i t h 70 r e g a r d t o h e r l i s t e n e r , t h e n a r r a t o r e a s i l y r e c o n s t r u c t s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e i m p e r s o n a l s t a t e m e n t s , r e a l i s i n g t h a t each u t t e r a n c e i s aimed i n -d i r e c t l y a t h i s own l i f e . Each s t a t e m e n t has an a n t i t h e t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d -ence t o h i s l i f e : he does n o t e a r n h i s l i v i n g , he i s o b l i g e d t o r e s t a g r e a t d e a l , and he i s dependent on h i s aunt and u n c l e . T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n i s p a r a d i g m a t i c o f a l l t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l ex-changes i n t h e n o v e l , i n w h i c h i n n o c u o u s s t a t e m e n t s v e i l p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s on t h e l i s t e n e r , who r e s p o n d s a c c o r d i n g l y . The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i s muted, p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a r e s u p p r e s s e d , and t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r i s c h a n n e l e d i n t o a c o v e r t means of e x p r e s s i o n . The c o n t e x t and t h e ad-d r e s s e e o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n emerge as t h e most i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e h i d d e n meaning of t h e message, f o r t h e r e a r e no i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n t h e message i t s e l f t h a t w o u l d s u g g e s t a s e c o n d a r y l e v e l o f e x p r e s -s i o n , o r " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " The v e r b a l messages i n M a r t e r e a u a r e i n t e r -n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , w i t h no s u g g e s t i o n s o f i r r e l e v a n c e o r i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t would i n d i c a t e a s e c o n d a r y message; hence t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e message i s spoken becomes most s i g n i f i c a n t . The c o n v e r s a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e u n c l e d e l i v e r s a p a n e g y r i c on work t o M a r t e r e a u , t h e a u n t , and nephew i n d i c a t e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e speech a c t s i n t h e n o v e l convey s e c o n d a r y i n t e n t i o n s . The u n c l e r e c a l l s t h e h a r d work o f h i s y o u t h , t h e n b r i n g i n g t h e t o p i c back t o the p r e s e n t , he sums up: "...eh b i e n , en f i n de compte, c ' e s t l a s e u l e chose q u i a i t compte pour moi dans 1 ' e x i s t e n c e , c e t i n t e r e t p our ce que j e f a i s a i s , c e t t e c u r i o s i t e . . . I I n'y a que ga, moi un m e t i e r qu'on c h o i s i t pour gagner de l ' a r g e n t , ga me d e p a s s e , j e n ' a u r a i s j a m a i s pu, j ' a u r a i s p r e -f e r e c r e v e r de f a i m . . . i l y a des gens — e t des gens i n s t r u i t s , n o t e z b i e n , des gens i n t e l l i g e n t s — q u i ne t i e n n e n t pas en p l a c e . . . i l s changent de m e t i e r comme de c h e m i s e . . " (p. 110) A l t h o u g h t h i s speech does n o t c o n t a i n any m a n i f e s t c r i t i c i s m o f h i s l i s t e n e r , a l l t h a t he says d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t s M a r t e r e a u ' s way o f l i f e , so t h a t each word r e f l e c t s an i m p l i c i t l y a n t a g o n i s t i c speech a c t . T h i s c o n -v e r s a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e n o v e l i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e s u b s t a n c e t h a t Se d i s s i m u l e d e r r i e r e l e monologue i n t e r i e u r : un f o i s o n n e -ment i n n o m b r a b l e de sensations,d'images, de s e n t i m e n t s , de s o u v e n i r s , d ' i m p u l s i o n s , de p e t i t s a c t e s l a r v e s qu'aucun l a n g a g e i n t e r i e u r n'exprime. T h i s p r e v e r b a l element s u r f a c e s and e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f o b l i q u e l y i n d i a l o g u e w h i c h c o n t a i n s a h i d d e n p o l e m i c . I n t h i s f o r m o f d i s c o u r s e , t h e o t h e r speech a c t o f t h e u t t e r a n c e r e m a i n s o u t s i d e of t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f what i s spoken, y e t i t shapes t h e whole s t r u c t u r e of t h e o t h e r ' s speech. I n h i s work on D o s t o e v s k y , B a k h t i n d e f i n e s t h i s t y p e o f u t t e r a n c e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms: Here one u t t e r a n c e f o c u s e d on i t s r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t c l a s h e s w i t h a n o t h e r u t t e r a n c e on t h e grounds of t h e r e f e r e n t i t s e l f . That o t h e r u t t e r a n c e i s n o t r e p r o d u c e d ; i t i s u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n i t s i m p o r t ; b u t t h e whole s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a u t h o r ' s speech would be c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t , i f i t were not f o r t h i s r e a c t i o n t o a n o t h e r ' s u n e x p r e s s e d speech a c t . 6 The n a t u r e of t h i s l i n g u i s t i c phenomenon u n d e r s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t s o f S a r r a u t e ' s " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " t e c h n i q u e . The t r o p i s t i c movements of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a r e engendered by t h i s element of the h i d d e n p o l e m i c , f o r , even as t h e c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w p o i n t r e m a i n s u n e x p r e s s e d , t h e d o u b l e -v o i c e d u t t e r a n c e senses i t s p r e s e n c e and r e a c t s t o t h e o p p o s i t i o n . Con-s e q u e n t l y , t h e s p e ech a c t s i n t h e n o v e l , w h i l e a p p e a r i n g t o f o c u s on "some r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t w h i c h i t d e n o t e s , d e p i c t s , e x p r e s s e s " ^ a c t u a l l y c l a s h e s w i t h a n o t h e r speech a c t on the grounds of t h e r e f e r e n t i t s e l f . Thus, t h e u n c l e o b l i q u e l y s t r i k e s a t M a r t e r e a u , whom he knows t o have h e l d many k i n d s of work, by s p e a k i n g on t h e o s t e n s i b l y h a r m l e s s t o p i c of 72 a d v i c e t o t h e young. U n t i l t h e u n c l e a r t i c u l a t e s h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of p e o p l e who change c a r e e r s , i t seems t h a t he and M a r t e r e a u a r e j o i n e d t o g e t h e r v e r -sus " l e s j e u n e s g e n e r a t i o n s , " who do n o t a p p r e c i a t e what r e a l work i s . I n a i m i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y a t " t o u s ces g e n s - l a q u i ne peuvent t e n i r en p l a c e , " however, t h e u n c l e i s a b l e t o l e v e l a c o n c e a l e d a t t a c k a t h i s l i s t e n e r . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e v e r y terms of t h e c l i c h e he employs evoke and r e c o n s t i t u t e M a r t e r e a u ' s name, s i n c e t h e e x p r e s s i o n " t a p e r s u r l e meme c l o u " s u g g e s t s t h e c l o s e p h o n o l o g i c a l c o u s i n t o M a r t e r e a u , 'marteau'.^ The i n t e r n a l l y p o l e m i c a l speech a c t i s a b r i l l i a n t t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e , e s s e n t i a l t o a l l o f S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , f o r i t r e p r o d u c e s t h e e l e m e n t s of d e b a t e , w i t h o u t r e v e a l i n g t h e s o u r c e of a n t a g o n i s m . Hidden p o l e m i c p r o -duces speech a c t s t h a t seem t o sense a d i s s o n a n t p e r s p e c t i v e c l o s e by a d d r e s s e d t o t h e same r e f e r e n t , and t h u s r e f l e c t s t h i s d i s s o n a n c e i n i t s own i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . Because t h e t r u e r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t of h i d d e n p o l e m i c i s o b s c u r e d , c o n v e r s a t i o n i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s p o s s e s s e s t h e a r t of e v o k i n g v i o l e n t o p p o s i t i o n w i t h o u t o p e n l y r e v e a l i n g t h e c o v e r t i n t e n t i o n . The e x p r e s s i v e p r o b l e m e n c o u n t e r e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n M a r t e r e a u — " d i r e e t ne pas d i r e " — c o r r e s p o n d s t o a s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n The S a c r e d  F o u n t ; however, t h e n a t u r e o f what may be u t t e r e d o r s u p p r e s s e d i s a l t o -g e t h e r d i f f e r e n t . W h i l e emotions f o r m t h e p r o b l e m a t i c m a t e r i a l i n S a r -r a u t e ' s n o v e l , i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , t h e i n e x p r e s s i b l e i s o f a more c e r e b r a l n a t u r e . The d i s t i n c t i o n made by one c r i t i c i s r e l e v a n t h e r e , f o r , as M i m i c a C r a n a k i n o t e s , S a r r a u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e "machines a r e f l e x e s beau-coup p l u s q u ' e t r e s a r e f l e x i o n s . W h i l e t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n t e n d s t o s t r e s s o n l y t h e i n s t i n c t i v e a s p e c t of t h e b e h a v i o u r of S a r r a u t e ' s c h a r a c t e r s , t h e 73 d i s t i n c t i o n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s v a l i d as an assessment o f S a r r a u t e ' s m o d i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r . I n g e n e r a l terms N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e s p o n s e s t h a t p r e c e d e t h o u g h t , w h i l e James documents t h e drama o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e q u e s t i o n c o n f r o n t i n g the n a r r a t o r i n The S a c r e d Fount i s t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n t e l l e c t u a l . As he a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e t h e r i d d l e o f t h e " m y s t i c E g e r i a " who i s g i v i n g Long h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e , he must t r y t o keep t h e r e s t o f t h e g u e s t s p r e s e n t i g n o r a n t o f d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f t h e p r o b l e m — a n d c o n v e r s e l y , c e r t a i n g u e s t s a l s o w i t h h o l d e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e n a r r a t o r . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l i s t h u s p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e t o s u p p r e s s a t t i t u d e s and i n f o r m a t i o n on p o i n t s t h a t i m p l i c a t e t h e s p e a k e r . S i n c e t h e n a r r a t o r c o n s i d e r s h i s knowledge of a l l the p a r t s o f t h e p r o b l e m t h e most c o m p l e t e , he i s t h e c h a r a c t e r who i s most m o t i v a t e d t o r e m a i n s i l e n t about c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e m y s t e r y : f o r example, he does n o t want Mrs. B r i s s t o d i s c o v e r h e r r o l e i n t h e t h e o r y , and he must l i k e w i s e keep Mr. B r i s s d a r k on t h e same p o i n t ; he must p r o t e c t May S e r v e r f r o m b o t h Mrs. B r i s s and F o r d O b e r t ; and Lady J o h n , w i t h h e r v u l g a r s u p p o s i t i o n s , must a l s o be k e p t i n su s p e n s e . A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l e n c o u n t e r s o f t h e n a r r a t o r w i t h L o n g , Mrs. B r i s s and O b e r t , i n w h i c h he i n i t i a t e s them i n t o t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y , t h e n a r r a t o r p l a y s t h e game o f t e s t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e o t h e r c h a r -a c t e r s , i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r what th e y know w i t h o u t r e v e a l i n g h i s own l e v e l o f awareness. The n a r r a t o r ' s f l a i r a t i n d u c i n g o t h e r s t o t e l l w h i l e he r e m a i n s s i l e n t i n f e c t s t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , s p r e a d i n g a c o n t a g i o n o f c i r -c u m s p e c t i o n and d i s c r e t i o n t h r o u g h t h e c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l . The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g o f o c c a s i o n a l e j a c u l a t i o n s and e x c l a m a t o r y i n t e r j e c t i o n s , i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e c o n a t i v e f u n c t i o n , as 74 t h e p redominant f o r m o f e x p r e s s i o n becomes t h e q u e s t i o n r a t h e r t h a n an e x p r e s s i o n o f a t t i t u d e o r p e r s o n a l c o n v i c t i o n . The h e r m e n e u t i c a l s i g n i f i -cance o f t h e q u e s t i o n - a n d - a n s w e r method comes t o t h e f o r e f r o n t i n The  S a c r e d F o u n t , as t h e m a i e u t i c p r o d u c t i v i t y of t h e d i a l o g u e , u s i n g t h e word as m i d w i f e 1 0 , emerges as t h e p redominant f e a t u r e o f t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l d e t e c t i v e s t o r y . I n t h e measure t h a t w i t h h o l d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n becomes a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f c o m m unication i n t h e n o v e l , t h e predominance of t h e q u e s t i o n i n c r e a s e s . The q u e s t i o n f u n c t i o n s not o n l y as a means of e l i c i t -i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , but a l s o as a means o f s h i f t i n g t h e c o mmunicative f o c u s from t h e s p e a k e r t o t h e l i s t e n e r . Thus, t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n may be v i e w e d o b l i q u e l y t h r o u g h t h e i n d i r e c t speech a c t s of t h e s p e a k e r . I n The Awkward Age, James's e x p e r i m e n t a l d i a l o g u e n o v e l , t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r Nanda Brookenham n o t e s a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l f e a t u r e o f t h e i r s e l e c t c i r c l e t h a t a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o Newmarch: "Of c o u r s e what's so a w f u l l y u n u t t e r a b l e i s j u s t what we most n o t i c e . " 1 1 The " u n u t t e r a b l e " s i m i l a r l y o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i n The S a c r e d Fount f o r r e a s o n s o f p r o p r i e t y — n a m i n g a d u l t e r y , b e t r a y a l , o r d e c e p t i o n would c o m p r i s e a major f a u x pas i n James's n o v e l s . However, th e c e n t r a l e v i d e n c e o f v a m p i r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s j u s t what p u t s p r e s s u r e on t h e s u r f a c e s of p o l i t e t a l k i n t h e n o v e l , s t r e t c h i n g and d e f o r m i n g t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n t o encourage maximum e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f s e c r e c y . Such a f o r m o f communication r e q u i r e s t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s of i n n u e n d o , a l l u s i o n , and e l l i p s i s , as w e l l as n o n - v e r b a l a i d s o f i n t o n a t i o n , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and g e s t u r e t o s u g g e s t t h a t more i s communicated t h a n what i s a c t u a l l y s a i d . The n a r r a t o r employs a l l t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o d i s c u s s t h e d e l i c a t e t o p i c o f v a m p i r i c c o u p l e s w i t h one o f t h e members of such a p a i r , t h e u n s u s p e c t i n g Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n . A l t h o u g h Mrs. B r i s s has 75 h e l p e d t o f o r m u l a t e t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y w i t h r e g a r d t o G i l b e r t Long, she i s n o t aware o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s u s p i c i o n s o f h e r r o l e v i s - a - v i s h e r husband. The n a r r a t o r , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the p r o b l e m of " j u s t what's so a w f u l l y u n u t t e r a b l e , " succumbs t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o p l a y w i t h Mrs. B r i s s ' s i g n o r a n c e as f a r as p o s s i b l e . The n a r r a t o r t r i e s t o i n d u c e Mrs. B r i s s t o name th e phenomenon th e y a r e o b s e r v i n g : "You asked me j u s t now," I p u r s u e d , "what t h e s i g n s of such a s e c r e t would n a t u r a l l y be. W e l l , b e t h i n k y o u r s e l f a moment of what t h e s e c r e t i t s e l f must n a t u r a l l y be." ... " A w f u l l y c h a r m i n g — m u s t n ' t i t ? — t o a c t upon a p e r s o n , t h r o u g h an a f f e c t i o n , so d e e p l y . " " Y e s — i t can c e r t a i n l y be no v u l g a r f l i r t a t i o n . " (p.35) S i n c e i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s c u s s more f r a n k l y t h a n t h i s t h e s e x u a l n a t u r e of t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y , t h e c h a r a c t e r s p r o c e e d by i n d i r e c t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g by n e g a t i o n what i t cannot be, and c r e a t i n g metaphors t o s u g g e s t t h e n a t u r e o f what i t i s . The n a r r a t o r a l l u d e s t o t h e phenomenon i n a number o f ways, comparing i t f i r s t t o a s a c r e d f o u n t (p. 2 9 ) , w h i c h he t h e n l i k e n s t o " t h e greedy man's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e t u r k e y as an 'awkward' d i n n e r d i s h . I t may be sometimes t o o much f o r a s i n g l e s h a r e , but i t ' s n o t enough t o go r o u n d " (p. 2 9 ) . He draws Mrs. B r i s s ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f Lady John's p a r t i n b e s t o w i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e on Long by t h e f o l l o w i n g metaphor: "How can she p o s s i b l y be a woman who g i v e s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g what-e v e r ; who s c r a p e s and s a v e s and h o a r d s ; who keeps e v e r y crumb f o r h e r s e l f ? The whole show's t h e r e — t o m i n i s t e r t o Lady John's v a n i t y and a d v e r t i s e t h e b u s i n e s s — b e h i n d h e r smart shop-window. You can see i t , as much as you l i k e ' , and even amuse y o u r s e l f w i t h p r i c i n g i t . But she n e v e r p a r t s w i t h an a r t i c l e . " (p. 35) 76 T h i s metaphor a l l o w s Mrs. B r i s s t o make a c o g n i t i v e l e a p between t h e u n u t t e r a b l e s e x u a l s i g n i f i e d and t h e m e r c a n t i l e s i g n i f i e r ; such metaphors a i d t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e d a g o g i c a l p u r p o s e by wedding two d i s p a r a t e o b j e c t s w i t h o u t a c t u a l l y naming t h e o f f e n s i v e r e a l i t y i m p l i e d . Such a n a l o g i e s a r e an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , as i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e way i n w h i c h c h a r a c t e r s o f t e n t a k e up each o t h e r ' s metaphors f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , but a s t i l l more r i s k y means o f a l l u s i o n i s found i n t h e c o m p a r i s o n s t h e n a r r a t o r makes between t h e l a w s o f t h e t h e o r y and t h e c o u p l e s p r e s e n t . I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f a c t t h e " m y s t i c E g e r i a " o f Long must be i n p r e s e n c e , t h e n a r r a t o r forms an a n a l o g y between Long and h i s m y s t e r y b e n e f a c t r e s s and Mr. and Mrs. B r i s s . He s t a t e s , " I t ' s my b e l i e f t h a t he no more goes away w i t h o u t h e r t h a n you go away w i t h o u t poor B r i s s " (p. 4 0 ) . W h i l e t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between t h e two c o u p l e s i s o b v i o u s t o t h e r e a d e r , Mrs. B r i s s f a i l s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n n e c t i o n . T h i s p u z z l e s e t s i n m o t i o n a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s and answers i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r amuses h i m s e l f a t t r e a d i n g as c l o s e t o t h e t r u t h as p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t a c t u a l -l y d i s c l o s i n g h i s t h o u g h t s . D r a m a t i c i r o n y l e n d s t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n humour, as t h e n a r r a t o r s t a t e s as o p e n l y as he d a r e s t h e v a m p i r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s between h i s l i s t e n e r and Mr. B r i s s : "You have t h e a d v a n t a g e , f o r y o u r b e a u t y , o f b e i n g a d m i r a b l y m a r r i e d . You bloom i n y o u r husband's p r e s e n c e . I don't say he need a l w a y s be a t y o u r elbow; I s i m p l y say t h a t y o u ' r e most c o m p l e t e l y y o u r -s e l f when he's n o t f a r o f f . I f t h e r e were n o t h i n g e l s e t h e r e would be t h e h e l p g i v e n you by y o u r q u i e t c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s l a w f u l p a s s i o n . " (p. 41) The n a r r a t o r ' s s t a t e m e n t s a r e double-edged and i r o n i c . He s t a t e s h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s i n a l m o s t l i t e r a l t e r m s , f o r such a m e t a p h o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t as "You bloom i n y o u r husband's p r e s e n c e " o b t a i n s , i n t h e h i g h l y f i g u r a t i v e c o n t e x t o f t h e s a c r e d f o u n t a n a l o g y , t h e f o r c e of d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n . Though 77 t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e l u c i d a t i o n appears u n c o m f o r t a b l y c l o s e t o t h e t r u t h , he ment i o n s o n l y t h e b e n e f i c i a l s i d e o f t h e c o n t r a c t ; l a t e r he w i l l i n s i n u a t e t h a t Mrs. S e r v e r i s drawn t o "poor B r i s s " out o f sympathy f o r a f e l l o w v i c -t i m : A new p o s s i b i l i t y , a s she spoke, came t o me w i t h a w h i r r o f w i n g s , and I h a l f - e x p r e s s e d i t . "She may have a sympathy." My i n t e r l o c u t r e s s gazed a t space. "You mean she may be s o r r y f o r him? On what gr o u n d ? " I had gone t o o f a r i n d e e d ; b u t I got o f f as I c o u l d . "You n e g l e c t h im s o ! " (pp. 76-77) The " h a l f - e x p r e s s e d , " t h r o u g h t h e use of e l l i p s i s and inn u e n d o , though n o t s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e problems o f t h e e x p l i c i t u t t e r a n c e , s e r v e s t h e e s s e n t i a l p u r p o s e o f a l l o w i n g t h a t w h i c h i s u n u t t e r a b l e t o be s u g g e s t e d . The n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e speech a c t — " I h a l f - e x p r e s s e d i t " — e m p h a -s i s e s t he common deno m i n a t o r o f a l l i m p l i c a t i o n , w h i c h c o n s i s t s , a c c o r d i n g t o D u c r o t , o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : L a s i g n i f i c a t i o n i m p l i c i t e a p p a r a i t — e t q u e l q u e f o i s meme se d o n n e — comme s u r a j o u t e e p a r r a p p o r t a une a u t r e s i g n i f i c a t i o n , que nous a p p e l l e r o n s ' l i t t e r a l e ' . Pour d e f i n i r un peu mieux ce c a r a c t e r e de r a j o u t ou de s u r p l u s , on f e r a remarquer d'abord que l a s i g n i f i -c a t i o n i m p l i c i t e l a i s s e t o u j o u r s s u b s i s t e r a c o t e d ' e l l e l a s i g n i f i c a t i o n l i t t e r a l e . 1 2 The n a r r a t o r o f t e n m a n i p u l a t e s l i t e r a l s t a t e m e n t s i n such a way t h a t t h e r e a d e r i m m e d i a t e l y r e s u r r e c t s t h e i m p l i c i t meaning, w h i l e t h e o t h e r c h a r -a c t e r s m e r e l y s u s p e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f a d d i t i o n a l meaning. A f t e r h a v i n g e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h e example of t h e B r i s s e n d e n s t o prove t o Mrs. B r i s s t h a t t h e y a r e s e e k i n g t h e d e p l e t e d member o f t h e c o u p l e , t h e n a r r a t o r s t a t e s , " I t ' s a case o f s h i n i n g as B r i s s e n d e n s h i n e s . " He f u r t h e r c o m p l e t e s t h i s e l l i p t i c a l s t a t e m e n t : 78 I wondered i f I might go f u r t h e r — t h e n r i s k e d i t . "By s a c r i f i c e . " I p e r c e i v e d a t once t h a t I needn't f e a r : h e r c o n s c i e n c e was t o o g o o d — s h e was o n l y amused. " S a c r i f i c e , f o r mercy's s a k e , o f w h a t ? " " W e l l - f o r mercy's s a k e — o f h i s t i m e . " " H i s t i m e ? " She s t a r e d . "Hasn't he a l l t h e t i m e he w a n t s ? " "My dear l a d y , " I s m i l e d , "he h a s n ' t a l l t h e t i m e you want!" (p. 43) t h e n a r r a t o r acknowledges t h e r i s k i n h e r e n t i n s u g g e s t i n g t h e d a r k e r s i d e o f t h e a n a l o g y t o Mrs. B r i s s , b u t t h e i l l i c i t p l e a s u r e o f e x p l o r i n g t h e l i n g u i s t i c t a b o o s a t Newmarch draws him on as he adds t h e m i s s i n g key t o Mrs. B r i s s ' s i n f o r m a t i o n : "By s a c r i f i c e . " Mrs. B r i s s ' s i n t e r j e c t i o n — " f o r mercy's s a k e " — i s i r o n i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e p e t i -t i o n t o s u g g e s t "poor B r i s s ' s " m o t i v a t i o n . W i t h h i s f i n a l s t a t e m e n t , t h e n a r r a t o r e x p r e s s e s t h e d o u b l e - e n t e n d r e , "...he h a s n ' t a l l t h e t i m e you want," c o m p l e t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a l gaps i n Mrs. B r i s s ' s knowledge o f h e r s i t u a t i o n . That she c o n t i n u e s t o r e m a i n u n c o n s c i o u s of t h e s o u r c e of t h e n a r r a t o r ' s innuendos can o n l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o h e r "good c o n s c i e n c e , " o r l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o decode t h e message, f o r t h e n a r r a t o r has approached t h e l i m i t s o f i m p l i c a t i o n t h r o u g h h i s e l l i p t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . The use o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e o f i m p l i c a t u r e n e c e s s a r i l y s u g g e s t s t h e e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c component o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h e s p e a k e r ' s a t t i t u d e and e m o t i o n s . The n a r r a t o r b e t r a y s a c e r t a i n p r u r i e n t p l e a s u r e i n m e n t i o n i n g t h e u n m e n t i o n a b l e , t h u s r i s k i n g t h e d i s c l o s u r e o f p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . E x p r e s s e d most c l e a r l y by i n t e r j e c t i o n s , e x c l a m a t i o n s , and o t h e r such markers o f e m o t i o n , t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n o p e r a t e s n e v e r t h e l e s s i n a more i n d i r e c t way t h r o u g h t h e use o f i m p l i c a t i o n o r t h e " s o u s - e n t e n d u . " The m u t i n g o f t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n a r i s e s f r o m t h e phenomenon n o t e d by 0. D u c r o t : 79 I I y a des themes e n t i e r s q u i s o n t f r a p p e s d ' i n t e r d i t e t p r o -t e g e s p a r une s o r t e de l o i du s i l e n c e ( i l y a des formes d'ac-t i v i t y , des s e n t i m e n t s , des evenements, dont on ne p a r l e p a s ) . B i e n p l u s , i l y a pour chaque l o c u t e u r , dans chaque s i t u a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e , d i f f e r e n t s t y p e s d ' i n f o r m a t i o n s q u ' i l n'a pas l e d r o i t de donner, non q u ' e l l e s s o i e n t en elles-memes o b j e t d'une p r o h i b i t i o n , mais p a r c e que l ' a c t e de l e s donner c o n s t i t u e r a i t une a t t i t u d e c o n s i d e r e e comme r e p r e h e n s i b l e . " 1 3 The s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y c o m p r i s e s t h e theme t h a t , a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f t h e n o v e l w i t h v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s , i s governed by t h e l a w o f s i l e n c e . However, t h e r e f u s a l o f speech i s no l e s s r e v e l a t o r y t h a n s p e a k i n g , and c o n s e q u e n t l y , c o n v e r s a t i o n i s f u l l o f i n c o m p l e t e o r a l l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s . The n a r r a t o r draws t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e phenomenon, as he comments on t h e way i n w h i c h t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i s r e c a s t i n t o t h e "happy d u p l i c i t y " o f v e i l e d meanings by Mrs. B r i s s : She e x p l a i n e d now, she e x p l a i n e d t o o much, she abounded, t a l k i n g h e r s e l f s t o u t l y i n t o any a s s u r a n c e t h a t f a i l e d h e r . I had mean-w h i l e w i t h e v e r y word she u t t e r e d a s h a r p e r sense o f t h e p r e s s u r e , b e h i n d them a l l , o f a new c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t was f u l l o f e v e r y -t h i n g she d i d n ' t s a y , and what she s a i d was no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w hatever o f what was most i n h e r mind. (p. 245) I f t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i d e a l l y d e n o t e s t h e p r o c e s s o f communicating t h e s p e a k e r ' s e m o t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , . T h e S a c r e d Fount p r e s e n t s c o n v e r s a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p u r p o s e i s t o speak w i t h o u t t a k i n g f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e u t t e r a n c e , t h r o u g h i m p l i c a t i o n o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , o r t o s t a t e t h e r e v e r s e o f what i s r e a l l y a t i s s u e i n a l i e . T h i s n o v e l r e v e a l s t h e s o p h i s t i c a -t i o n o f l a n g u a g e , as man, P l u t a r c h ' s s p e a k i n g a n i m a l , i s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o t h e a n i m a l w i t h t h e a b i l i t y t o l i e . The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n M a r t e r e a u , on t h e o t h e r hand, emerges as a means o f d i s p l a y i n c o n v e r s a t i o n : i t emphasises a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s and i n -v i t e s t h e a d d r e s s e e t o examine i t s form. The e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n i n a 80 S a r r a u t i a n t e x t i s t h u s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o a u t h e n t i c e x p r e s s i o n . I t s v a l u e r e s i d e s i n i t s f u n c t i o n as a k i n d of " t r o m p e - 1 ' o e i l , " w h i c h i s t o t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " what " p a r t i c u l a r i t e s p h y s i q u e s , t i c s , t r a i t s de c a -r a c t e r e de c e r t a i n s p e r s o n n a g e s , a n e c d o t e s , usages m o n d a i n s ' ^ e t c . a r e t o t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e : t h e e x p r e s s i v e f u n c t i o n g i v e s u t t e r a n c e t o t h o s e e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l l i f e w h i c h do n o t f i n d f r a n k e x p r e s s i o n i n e v e r y d a y c o n v e r s a t i o n . § NOTES: 1 Mary L o u i s e P r a t t , Toward A Speech A c t Theory o f L i t e r a r y D i s c o u r s e , ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) p. 133. 2 I b i d . , p. 136. 3 I b i d . 4 I b i d . , p. 139. 5 S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e , p. 115. 6 M i k h a i l B a k h t i n , Problems o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s , t r a n s . R.W. R o t s e l , (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1 973), p. 187. 7 I b i d . , p. 188. 8 Ruth Temple, N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , (New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968) p. 28. 9 I b i d . , p. 29. 10 Hans Georg Gadamer, T r u t h and Method, (New Y o r k : Seabury P r e s s , 1975)p. 330. 11 Henry James, The Awkward Age, ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books,1966) p. 389. 12 0. D u c r o t , D i r e e t ne pas d i r e , ( P a r i s : Hermann, 1972) p. 11. 13 I b i d . , p. 6. 14 S a r r a u t e , p. 71. 81 THE POETIC FUNCTION: I n what way can t h e o r d i n a r y l a n g u a g e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n be c o n s i d e r e d p o e t i c ? The p r e v a l e n t v i e w o f e v e r y d a y language h o l d s t h a t i t i s a com-m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h " t r a n s m i t s m e r e l y i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . 1 , 1 As we have s e e n , t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l u t t e r a n c e i s c l e a r l y n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o t h i s r e f e r e n t i a l f u n c t i o n ; however, whether- p o e t i c language i s a f e a -t u r e o f n a t u r a l i s t i c d i a l o g u e , such as i n t h e n o v e l s M a r t e r e a u and The  S a c r e d F o u n t , i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t m e r i t s e x a m i n a t i o n . The b i n a r y s p l i t o f l a n g u a g e i n t o p o e t i c and n o n - p o e t i c c a t e g o r i e s c o n t i n u e s t o p r e v a i l i n l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m t o d a y . The F o r m a l i s t s d e f i n e d p o e t i c language i n terms o f i t s " l i t e r a r i n e s s , " w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d by i n t r i n s i c t e x t u a l p r o p e r t i e s and a e s t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e s . O r d i n a r y language i s t h u s v i e w e d as a k i n d o f a e s t h e t i c "degree z e r o " onto w h i c h p o e t i c l a n g u a g e m a t e r i a l i s imposed f o r e f f e c t . J a k o b s o n ' s s i x - p a r t model o f communication c o u n t e r s t h i s d ichotomous v i e w o f p o e t i c / n o n - p o e t i c l a n g u a g e and t r a n s f o r m s t h i s o p p o s i t i o n i n t o t h e two p o l e s of a continuum: J a k o b s o n s u b s t i t u t e s the b i n a r y d i f f e r e n c e o f k i n d by a d i f f e r e n c e o f d e g r e e . T h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e has i m p o r t a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n l i t e r a r y t h e o r y i n t h a t i t d i m i n i s h e s t h e d i s t a n c e between o r d i n a r y and p o e t i c l a n g u a g e , t h u s s u g g e s t i n g p a r a l l e l s between t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e and t h e speech a c t . L i t e r a t u r e , o r p o e t i c d i s c o u r s e , i s d e f i n e d s i m p l y as d i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n i s dominant, due t o a s h i f t i n emphasis t o t h e message. The p o e t i c f u n c t i o n p r e d o m i n a t e s i n any u t t e r a n c e i n w h i c h t h e f o r m 82 o f t h e message i s emphasised due t o t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h e message i t s e l f . P o e t i c d e v i c e s such as r e p e t i t i o n , p a r a l l e l i s m , a l l i t e r a t i o n , and f i g u r a l t r o p e s a r e found i n b o t h l i t e r a r y and n o n - l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e a l i k e , as t h e y r e p r e s e n t " s i m i l a r ways o f d i s p l a y i n g and c o n t e m p l a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h d i f f e r i n t h e i r manner o f c o m p o s i t i o n and t r a n s m i s s i o n . " 3 Thus, t h e n o t i o n o f " l i t e r a r i n e s s " may be a t t r i b u t e d t o c o n v e r s a t i o n a l u t t e r a n c e s w h i c h d i s p l a y t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e message. To t h e f o r m a l i s t q u e s t i o n "Does t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n dominate t h e v e r -b a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f t h i s message?" Labov, a s o c i o l i n g u i s t , s u g g e s t s t h e p r a g m a t i c q u e s t i o n s , "What i s t h e s p e a k e r t r y i n g t o do i n f o r m i n g t h i s d i s c o u r s e ? " and "What does t h e h e a r e r do when he r e c e i v e s i t ? " ^ The p o e t i c f u n c t i o n may be dominant i n o r a l n a r r a t i v e f o r v a r i o u s c o n t e x t u a l r e a s o n s r e q u i r i n g a h e i g h t e n i n g o f t h e medium o f n a r r a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n an o r n a m e n t a l f e a t u r e of l i t e r a t u r e , t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n i s a s t r u c t u r a l r e s p o n s e t o e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c needs. T h i s c o n t e x t - d e p e n d e n t v i e w o f t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n i n language t a k e s i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r o l e o f t h e message as p r o d u c t — a nexus o f r e l a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e f i v e o t h e r f u n d a m e n t a l f e a t u r e s a r e a c t u a l i s e d . P o e t i c d i s c o u r s e d i f f e r s f r o m r e f e r e n t i a l d i s c o u r s e i n t h a t t h e s i g n i t s e l f becomes more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h a t w h i c h i s d e s i g n a t e d . The Prague C i r c l e o f 1929 n o t e s t h i s t e n s i o n between t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l and p o e t i c a s p e c t s o f language i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t : Dans son r o l e s o c i a l , i l f a u t d i s t i n g u e r l e l a n g a g e s u i v a n t l e r a p p o r t e x i s t a n t e n t r e l u i e t l a r e a l i t e e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i q u e . I I a s o i t une f o n c t i o n de c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c ' e s t - a - d i r e q u ' i l e s t d i r i g e v e r s l e s i g n i f i e , s o i t une f o n c t i o n p o e t i q u e , c ' e s t - a -d i r e q u ' i l e s t d i r i g e v e r s l e s i g n e lui-meme.^ 83 Whereas t h e communicative f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e , o r d i a l o g u e , i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n o f language i n c o n v e r s a t i o n has been g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e d , as i t has been t o o l o n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e e x c l u s i v e p r o p -e r t y o f l i t e r a r y d i s c o u r s e . As we s h a l l s e e , t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n o f The Sa c r e d  Fount i s by no means a m i n i m a l component o f speech i n t h e n o v e l , as i s ap p a r e n t i n t h e h i g h l y c o l o u r e d speech o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n i s n o t a b l y a b s e n t from speech i n M a r t e r e a u f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h b e a r on t h e a r t i s t i c p r o j e c t o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e . The p o e t i c d i s c o u r s e i n S a r r a u t e ' s work d e s c r i b e s t h e f l u c t u a t i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h p r e c e d e s v e r b a l i s a t i o n . The d i a l o g u e o f The S a c r e d Fount abounds i n f i g u r a t i v e and p o e t i c l a n g u a g e , s i n c e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t r e s o r t t o a n a l o g i e s t o e x p r e s s t h a t w h i c h i s e i t h e r u n o b s e r v a b l e and c o n j e c t u r a l o r s i m p l y u n m e n t i o n a b l e . The n a r r a t o r f o r m u l a t e s h i s n o t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Mr. and Mrs. B r i s s i n t h e form o f t h e s a c r e d f o u n t metaphor t o i l l u s t r a t e t he way i n w h i c h he supposes Mrs. B r i s s r e t a i n s h e r y o u t h f u l -n e s s . The metaphor i n i t i a t e s Obert i n t o t h e m y s t e r y , and p r o v i d e s a " g r e a t l i g h t " (p. 63) f o r h i s f u r t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n s . Obert acknowledges h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s m e t a p h o r i c a l v i s i o n as he e x p a t i a t e s on h i s own f i g u r e o f s p e e c h , d e c l a r i n g t h a t t h e t h e o r y r e p r e s e n t s "a t o r c h i n t h e d a r k n e s s " (p. 6 4 ) . The p a i n t e r r e m a r k s , "You've g i v e n me an a n a l o g y , and I d e c l a r e I f i n d i t d a z z l i n g . I don't see t h e end of what may be done w i t h i t " (p. 6 4 ) . O b e r t ' s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t i s i n d i c a t e d by h i s use o f metaphor; f i g u r a t i v e speech p r o v i d e s a means o f c r e a t i n g a w o r l d i n w h i c h the e v e n t s t h e y f a b r i c a t e 84 a r e p o s s i b l e . To speak m e t a p h o r i c a l l y i n The S a c r e d Fount i s t o c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r i n c o n s t r u c t i n g an e l e g a n t " p a l a c e of t h o u g h t . " Metaphor c o n -s t i t u t e s t h e s u b s t a n c e and measure of w i t i n t h e s o c i e t y o f Newmarch; i t a l s o p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l r e f l e c t i o n and growth i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The development o f O b e r t ' s image o f t h e t o r c h , w h i c h , " f l a r i n g and smoking has g u i d e d [him^ t h r o u g h a m a g n i f i c e n t c h i a r o s c u r o of c o l o u r and shadow, out i n t o t h e l i g h t o f day" (p. 2 2 2 ) , i n s p i r e s t h e r e s p e c t o f t h e n a r r a t o r , who n o t e s , " I was r e a l l y d a z z l e d by h i s image, f o r i t r e p r e s e n t e d h i s p e r s o n a l work" (p. 222). S p e a k i n g f i g u r a t i v e l y conveys t h e l i n g u i s t i c , h e n c e i n t e l -l e c t u a l , competence o f t h e s p e a k e r . The d i s p l a y o f c o l o u r f u l and o r i g i n a l t r o p e s s e r v e s t o r e f l e c t t h e s t a t u r e of t h e s p e a k e r v i s - a - v i s h i s i n t e r -l o c u t o r , as t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f o l l o w i n g comment i n d i c a t e s : I wound up, as I s a y , but o n l y f o r l o n g enough t o have, w i t h t h e v i b r a t i o n , t h e e x a l t a t i o n o f my e l o q u e n c e , my s m a l l t r i u m p h as a g a i n s t h e r g r e a t one. (p. 312) More t h a n any o t h e r f e a t u r e of t h e speech s i t u a t i o n , e p i d e i c t i c s t y l e forms an i n d e x o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s a b i l i t y and t h e s u c c e s s of h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n -a l s t r a t e g i e s . When th e n a r r a t o r s t a t e s t h a t Mrs. B r i s s "remained s i l e n t , as i f r e a l l y i n t h e p r e s e n c e of t h e r i s i n g m a g n i f i c e n c e of my metaphor" (p. 3 1 2 ) , he a t t r i b u t e s t o t h e metaphor a c a p a c i t y t o awe, and t h u s s i l e n c e t h e a d d r e s s e e , much as a f i n e work of a r t might do. I n t h e speech s i t u a t i o n a t Newmarch, where t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d makes c a n d i d d i s c o u r s e i m p r u d e n t , t h e use of f i g u r a t i v e e x p r e s -s i o n p l a y s a r o l e i n t h e a m b i g u i t y and o b f u s c a t i o n f a v o u r e d by t h e s p e a k e r s . The n a r r a t o r concedes t h a t " t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of my t r o p e s and f i g u r e s i s n ' t ' e v e r ' p e r f e c t l y s i m p l e " (p. 284). The e f f e c t o f t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n 85 i s t o t h i c k e n and h y p o s t a t i s e t h e u t t e r a n c e so t h a t l i k e t h e r e a d e r , t h e a d d r e s s e e i n t h e t e x t must e v a l u a t e and i n t e r p r e t t h e f o r m and meaning of t h e message. Henry James w r i t e s t h a t he was " p o s i t i v e l y s t r u c k by t h e q u a n t i t y of meaning and t h e number o f i n t e n t i o n s , t h e e x t e n t o f ground f o r i n t e r e s t . . . i n each o f my i l l u m i n a t i n g o c c a s i o n s . . . . " He employs the a n a l o g y used by F o r d Obert t o d e s c r i b e The n o c t u r n a l passage where th e conduct of so much f i n e meaning, so many f l a r e s of t h e e x h i b i t o r y t o r c h t h r o u g h t h e l a b y r i n t h o f mere immediate a p p e a r a n c e s , mere f a m i l i a r a l l u s i o n s , i s s u c c e s s -f u l l y and s a f e l y e f f e c t e d . . . . ^ The p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e o f J a m e s i a n speech d e r i v e s much from t h e " f l a r e s of the e x h i b i t o r y t o r c h " f u r n i s h e d by metaphor and a l l u s i o n : t h e b r i l l i a n c e o f p o e t i c language a r r e s t s t h e a t t e n t i o n of b o t h l i s t e n e r and r e a d e r upon t h e s e d u c t i v e f o r m , r a t h e r t h a n the c o n t e n t and meaning o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . J a m e s i a n d i a l o g u e , and t h a t i n The S a c r e d Fount p a r t i c u l a r l y , m a n i f e s t s a h i g h degree o f s e m i o t i c d e n s i t y . I n a d d i t i o n t o e m p l o y i n g u n u s u a l a n a l o g i e s , m e t a p h o r s and h i g h l y s y m m e t r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s , t h e g u e s t s a t Newmarch a l s o comment upon and e v a l u a t e t h e t a l k of o t h e r s . The a d d r e s s e e o f t e n a r r e s t s t h e f l o w o f c o n v e r s a t i o n t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o h i s / h e r i n t e r l o c u t o r ' s r e m a r k s , making such comments a s , "Thank you f o r " a f t e r a l l ' ! " (p. 77) ' " I f I am' i s l o v e l y ! " (p. 278) "Thanks," I s m i l e d , " f o r the way you say i t . " (p. 283) I n each of t h e above i n s t a n c e s , t h e s p e a k e r emphasises t h e use o f an ex-p r e s s i o n i n o r d e r t o f o c u s on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e message a t t h e expense of i t s meaning. As each s p e a k e r r e f l e c t s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h e e x p r e s s i o n , he 86 t e n d s t o c o n c r e t i s e t h e remarks of c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t o a t e x t . I n i s o l a t i n g t h e words o f an u t t e r a n c e , t h e s p e a k e r acknowledges t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e message. C h a r a c t e r s s i g n a l t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n , o r " u p t a k e " o f i m p l i -c a t i o n by p o i n t i n g out and e v a l u a t i n g c e r t a i n w ords, o r t h e v a l u e o f a remark, as f o r example, Mrs. B r i s s comments h e r e : "Your e x p r e s s i o n s a r e not o f t h e h a p p i e s t " (p. 2 7 5 ) . The n a r r a t o r t a k e s up t h e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d terms of Mrs. B r i s s ' s d e n i a l — " O f c o u r s e I deny i t " (p. 2 7 1 ) — i n a f l u r r y of a n a d i p l o s i s and s u b o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s : "Your 'of c o u r s e ' would be what I would a g a i n c o n t e s t , what I would denounce and b rand as t h e word too m u c h — t h e word t h a t s p o i l s , were i t n o t t h a t i t seems b e s t , t h a t i t i n any c a s e seems n e c e s s a r y , t o l e t a l l q u e s t i o n of y o u r c o n s i s t e n c y go." (p. 271) But t h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e l e x i c o n r e p r e s e n t s m e r e l y one element of t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n , and t h i s i n t e r e s t o f t h e a d d r e s s e e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e message i s p e r h a p s l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h c r e a t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e metaphors and a n a l o g i e s . What t h i s f e a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n does s u g g e s t i s t h a t i f t h e g a r d e n p a r t y c o n s i s t s o f a number o f v e r b a l a r t i s t s and s e l f - c o n s c i o u s beaux p a r l e u r s , t h e i r t r a n s i t o r y p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e acknowledged by an a t t e n t i v e a u d i e n c e . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s i n t e r e s t i n t h e communication s i t u a t i o n r e s i d e s p r e c i s e l y i n t h e l a t t e r e l e m e n t s of c o n v e r s a t i o n : t h e deep c o n t e n t of i n t e n t i o n s and i m p u l s e s c l o a k e d i n t h e h a r m l e s s and g r a t u i t o u s f o r m of words. The b a n a l appearance of t h e u t t e r a n c e , and i t s r e p u t a t i o n of " g r a -t u i t e , l e g e r t e , d ' i n c o n s e q u e n c e " ^ , p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y q u a l i t i e s f o r exchanges t h a t mask v i o l e n t and a g g r e s s i v e i n t e n t i o n s w i t h speech l a d e n 87 w i t h s u s t a i n e d t r i v i a l i t y and s m a l l t a l k . W h i l e t h e spoken l a n g u a g e i n S a r r a u t e ' s r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e i s e m i n e n t l y t r a n s p a r e n t and r e f e r e n t i a l , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n becomes p r e d o m i n a n t a t t h e j u n c t u r e between s u b c o n s c i o u s and c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t . S a r r a u t e d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o c e s s o f v e r b a l i s a t i o n i t s e l f i n t h e f o r m o f h e s i t a n t and a s s o c i a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h o u g h t . The movement o f t h e word f r o m t h e b l u r r e d , p r e -v e r b a l a p p r e h e n s i o n of t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s mind t a k e s t h e f o r m o f p h o n e t i c g r o p i n g f r o m one synonym, one homonym t o t h e o t h e r . A l t h o u g h the n o t i o n o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p r e - v e r b a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s s u b j e c t t o d i s p u t e , S a r r a u t e p o s i t s t h i s r e a l i t y as a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f t h e c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t y i n h e r work. The s i l e n t v e r b a l d i s c o u r s e o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s o f t e n h i g h l y p o e t i c , e m p l o y i n g a s s o n a n c e , a l l i t e r a t i o n and onomatopoeia " t o s u g g e s t t h e movement t h r o u g h t h e s u b c o n s c i o u s o f i n s t i n c t s and r e f l e x e s too ephemeral and amorphous t o be d e s c r i b e d by p u r e l y r e f e r e n t i a l means. The d i s o r d e r e d s u b c o n s c i o u s o f t h e n e p h e w - n a r r a t o r o f t h e n o v e l i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g v e r b a l g y m n a s t i c s as he seeks t o examine h i s a n x i e t y : I I me semble quand j e t r e s s a i l l e que c ' e s t moi l e c o u p a b l e ; moi l a b r e b i s g a l e u s e , l a b e t e puante q u i f e r a i t — s i j ' o s a i s me p l a i n d r e a e u x — s e d e t o u r n e r avec degout t o u s l e s b r a v e s gens: i l s r e f u s e r a i e n t d'examiner mes b l e s s u r e s , t o u t e s c e s p r e t e n d u e s m o r s o r e s , c e s a t t e i n t e s , c e s coups bas que p e r s o n n e d ' a u t r e ne r e q o i t , ne p e r c o i t , dont personne n'a j a m a i s songe a a p p r e n d r e a q u i que ce s o i t a se p r e s e r v e r ; moi q u i peche en eau t r o u b l e , q u i t r o u b l e l e s eaux calmes p a r mon image r e f l e t e e , mon s o u f f l e ; q u i v o i s dans l ' a i r l a t r a j e c t o i r e i n v i s i b l e de D i e u s a i t q u e l s c a i l l o u x que p e r s o n n e ne m'a l a n c e s , e t q u i r a p p o r t e ce que p e r -sonne n ' a t t e n d ; moi q u i sans c e s s e e v e i l l e ce q u i v e u t d o r m i r , e x c i t e , s u s c i t e , g u e t t e , q u i t e , a p p e l l e ; moi l ' i m p u r . (pp. 72-73) S a r r a u t e t h u s examines t h e c o n t o u r s of t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t l i e s b elow t h e s u r f a c e o f s p e e c h . A l t h o u g h t h e s e i m p u l s e s o f t e n f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n c o n -88 v e r s a t i o n , t h e y r e s e m b l e t h e m i n i m a l appearance o f t h e i c e b e r g , w h i c h , though f r e q u e n t l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t on t h e s u r f a c e , i s j o i n e d t o a s u b - s u r f a c e b u l k o f g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n s . Thus, t h e s t y l i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n o f S a r r a u t e ' s work i s p e r c e p t i b l e o n l y i n the d i s c o u r s e o f t h e n a r r a t i v e commentary, i n w h i c h t h e t r a n s i t i o n s between p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s a r e evoked. The s e m i o t i c d e n s i t y r e s u l t i n g from p o e t i c d i s c o u r s e t e n d s t o h i g h -l i g h t t h o s e a r e a s o f t h e n o v e l w h i c h a r e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n terms o f t h e a e s t h e t i c p u r p o s e s of t h e a u t h o r : f o r James, a l l u s i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n , and f o r S a r r a u t e , i n c h o a t e s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . D i s c o u r s e w h i c h r e -f l e c t s t h e message o f t h e speech a c t , whether c o n v e r s a t i o n a l o r l i t e r a r y , i n d i c a t e s a r e a s of s t y l i s t i c r e n e w a l and e x p l o r a t i o n . I n b o t h n o v e l s , t h e p o e t i c f u n c t i o n c i r c u m s c r i b e s and a r t i c u l a t e s t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e h e r m e n e u t i c e x p l o r a t i o n s of t h e n a r r a t o r s : i n M a r t e r e a u , sound p a t t e r n s and a s s o c i a t i v e p h o n e t i c s p o r t r a y t h e movements o f t h e mind, whereas i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , t h e use o f metaphor as b o t h a p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t of d i s c o v e r y forms an i n d e x o f each c h a r a c t e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 89 THE POETIC FUNCTION: NOTES 1 Edward S t a n k i e w i c z , q uoted by Mary L o u i s e P r a t t i n Toward a Speech A c t Theory o f L i t e r a r y D i s c o u r s e , ( B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977) p. 29. 2 P r a t t , p. 26. 3 I b i d . , p. 73 . 4 I b i d . , p. 73 . 5 Prague C i r c l e Theses ( 1 9 2 9 ) , quoted by J e a n - M i c h e l Adam, L i n g u i s t i q u e e t d i s c o u r s l i t t e r a i r e , ( P a r i s : L i b r a i r i e L a r o u s s e , 1 9 7 6 ) pp. 278-79. 6 Henry James, The A r t o f t h e Novel,(New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1934 and 1962) p. 116. 7 I b i d . , p. 117. 8 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e du soupcon, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) p. 122. 9 Edwin Grobe, " S y m b o l i c Sound P a t t e r n s i n N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e ' s M a r t e r e a u " , F r e n c h Review no. 40. (1966) pp. 84-91. 90 PRINCIPLES OF CONVERSATION: D i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s The d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s of t h e communication s i t u a t i o n , d i v i d e d as i n t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n t o t h e s i x f a c t o r s p r o p o s e d by J a k o b s o n , combine w i t h i n c o n v e r s a t i o n t o form t h e s e r i e s o f manoeuvres t h a t c o n s t i t u t e t h e e v e n t s o f each n o v e l . C o n v e r s a t i o n , and i t s s i g n i f i c a n t c o u n t e r p a r t , s i -l e n c e , no l o n g e r evoke e v e n t s e x t e r n a l t o t h e m s e l v e s . As Todorov p o i n t s out w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o The Awkward Age, " C o n v e r s a t i o n s f o r m t h e s t o r y b u t do n o t r e c o u n t i t . " 1 F u r t h e r m o r e , as each a u t h o r d e p l o y s t h e d i a l o g u e form i n a d i s t i n c t i v e manner, c o n v e r s a t i o n forms t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r a l impasse t o w h i c h a l l t h e e p i s o d e s i n each n o v e l l e a d . More t h a n mere c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h e speech a c t s o f each n o v e l c o n s t i t u t e d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s , inasmuch as t h e y r e p r e s e n t "une sequence d ' a c t e s de l a n g a g e q u i v i s e a c o n s t r u i r e un c e r t a i n t y p e de s i t u a t i o n d i s c u r s i v e . " 2 Language, beyond t h e r u d i m e n t a r y f u n c t i o n s o f e x p r e s s i o n and r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n , t h u s p e r f o r m s t h e f u n c t i o n o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , w h i c h s e r v e s t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a d d r e s s e e . I n h i s a n a l y s i s of t h e f u n c t i o n s of l a n g u a g e i n t h e t h e a t r e , Roman I n g a r d e n s t r e s s e s t h a t The f u n c t i o n o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p e r s o n a d d r e s s e d and t h e o t h e r p e o p l e t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e t o t a l a c t i o n o f t h e work i s t h e main achievement of t h e speeches of r e p r e s e n t e d p e r s o n s . 3 S t r a t e g y t h e o r y o u t l i n e s t h e means a v a i l a b l e and c o n d i t i o n s p r e s e n t when one p a r t y s u s t a i n s an a t t e m p t t o p r e v a i l o v e r a n o t h e r . An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a l manoeuvres o f each n o v e l i n terms o f s t r a t e g y t h e o r y 91 r e v e a l s t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n v e r g e n c e o f S a r r a u t e and James i n t h e i r use o f d i a l o g u e . The term " s t r a t e g y " i s a p p l i c a b l e t o a s e r i e s o f a c t s i n w h i c h t h e f o u r f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d : 1. a s i t u a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y , stemming from e i t h e r t h e u n f o r s e e a b l e b e h a v i o u r o f a p a r t n e r , o r p a r t i a l i g n o r a n c e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ; 2. a g o a l , whether c o n s c i o u s l y i n t e n d e d o r n o t ; 3. r u l e s o f t h e game, d e f i n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e p l a y s and a l l o w i n g e v a l u -a t i o n o f t h e s u c c e s s i v e s i t u a t i o n s ; 4. a s e r i e s o f p l a n n e d c h o i c e s , whether c o n s c i o u s o r n o t . ^ The p e r t i n e n c e o f s t r a t e g y t h e o r y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n o v e l s a t hand becomes more e v i d e n t i n t h e l i g h t of t h e l i n g u i s t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t t o i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s . As one t h e o r i s t n o t e s , C'est au n i v e a u i l l o c u t o i r e que l a n o t i o n de s t r a t e g i e nous p a r a i t _ t r o u v e r un champ d ' a p p l i c a t i o n p a r t i c u l i e r e m e n t i n t e r e s s a n t : une s u c c e s s i o n d ' a c t e s de l a n g a g e , r e g i s p a r des r e g i e s c o n v e n t i o n -n e l l e s , v i s a n t a e t a b l i r e n t r e l e s p a r t e n a i r e s c e r t a i n e s r e l a t i o n s ' j u r i d i q u e s ' c o r r e s p o n d p a r f a i t e m e n t aux c o n d i t i o n s enumerees p l u s h a u t . 5 The s i t u a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n h e r e n t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n r e n d e r s t h e p l a n s and g o a l s o f the s p e a k e r s e x t r e m e l y p r o b l e m a t i c , as b o t h t h e n a r r a t o r s o f James and S a r r a u t e acknowledge i n t h e i r t e s t i m o n i e s o f d e f e a t . The d e v e l -opment o f d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s , i l l u s t r a t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e v e r b a l i n t e r c h a n g e s i n b o t h t e x t s , shapes t h e i r r e s o l v a b l e s t r u c t u r e w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y e v o l v e s from t h e v a r i o u s p l a y s i n t h i s game. The a n a l o g y employed by b o t h a u t h o r s w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s t h e f e a -t u r e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s i n the n o v e l s i s t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f t a l k 92 w i t h a game o f c a r d s . The t e n s i o n d e r i v i n g from t h e i g n o r a n c e o f one's p a r t n e r ' s hand, t h e complex r u l e s o f p l a y , t h e c a r e f u l l y d e f i n e d g o a l , and t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d e v e l o p i n g a p l a n o f combat make t h e a n a l o g y t o c o n v e r -s a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y apt i n b o t h n o v e l s . I n M a r t e r e a u , t h e n a r r a t o r l i n k s t h e u n c l e ' s v e r b a l prowess w i t h t h e f l o u r i s h of a good p l a y i n a game of c a r d s : I I s ' a d r e s s e a m o i , m o n t r a n t , s e l o n t o u t e s l e s bonnes r e g i e s du j e u , q u ' e l l e e s t i n d i g n e : " T u l u i as demande un r e c u ? " L e s c a r t e s q u ' i l v i e n t de r e c e v o i r s o n t s i bonnes, sa chance e s t s i grande que j e s e r a i s presque t e n t e de me r e j o u i r pour l u i . . . . J ' a d m i r e l a s u r e t e de ses coups. (p. 144) I n The S a c r e d F o u n t , numerous a l l u s i o n s a r e made t o " p l a y i n g t h e game," w h i l e more s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e s t o c a r d s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n s , " w i t h d r a w i n g w i t h one o f h e r sweeps," " I c o u l d n ' t c e r t a i n l y i n t h a t c a s e h u r r y a f t e r h e r w i t h o u t s p i l l i n g my c a r d s , " "she knew t h e s t r e n g t h o f Long's hand," ( a l l p. 256) and f i n a l l y , " I f o r an i n s t a n t a l m o s t m i s c a l c u -l a t e d h e r d i r e c t i o n and b e l i e v e d she was r e a l l y t h r o w i n g up h e r c a r d s " ( p . 3 0 2 ) . The image o f t h e c a r d game, i n w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d as opponents r a t h e r t h a n c o l l a b o r a t o r s , j u s t l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e n a t u r e of c o n v e r s a t i o n i n b o t h n o v e l s . A complex, r u l e - g o v e r n e d f o r m o f b e h a v i o u r , s p e a k i n g a language i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y t h e i n t r a l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s of f o r m i n g s e n t e n c e s , as i n t h e l o c u t i o n a r y a c t , but a l s o t h e e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c r u l e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c o n t e x t o f the message. I l l - d e f i n e d and u n s t a b l e , t h e l a t t e r s e t of r u l e s a r e most p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h e n a r r a t o r s . The n a r r a t o r o f M a r t e r e a u i s most s e n s i t i v e t o t h i s a s p e c t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . He s t a t e s i n t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f t h e n o v e l , " J ' o b s e r v e s c r u p u l e u s e m e n t l e s r e g i e s du j e u " ( p . 7 ) . 93 F o r t h e n a r r a t o r , t h i s e n t a i l s a c a r e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d appearance o f i n v u l -n e r a b i l i t y , f o r as he l a t e r i n f o r m s t h e r e a d e r , t h e game i s o f t e n b r u t a l , p o s s i b l y b l o o d y , and must be p l a y e d t o i t s i n e v i t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n . The n a r -r a t o r r e c a l l s h i s u n c l e ' s anger i n an i n s t a n c e when h i s opponent unexpec-t e d l y y i e l d s t o him:"Le j e u a v a i t mal t o u r n e , l e p a r t e n a i r e a v a i t abandonne l a p a r t i e au moment l e p l u s e x c i t a n t " (p. 4 3 ) . W h i l e t h e r u l e s o f conduct a r e p r o v i s i o n a l and i n c o n s t a n t , c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l a w s deduced by t h e n a r r a t o r appear i n v a r i a b l e . F o r example, t h e law of " l e s v a s e s communicants" o b s e r v e d by t h e n a r r a t o r s t a t e s t h a t an e x c e s s o f emo t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e d by one p a r t y i n e v i a t a b l y p r o d u c e s t h e o p p o s i t e s t a t e i n t h e o t h e r p a r t y : "Quand dans l ' u n l e n i v e a u d e s c e n d , a u s s i t o t dans l ' a u t r e on l e v o i t q u i monte" (p. 124). T h i s e m p i r i c a l t r u t h i s o b s e r v a b l e i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , f o r as one c h a r a c t e r r e f u s e s t o speak, t h e o t h e r becomes p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more v o l u b l e . The ground r u l e s i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , d e f i n i n g t h e p e r m i s s i b l e l i m i t s o f d e c e p t i o n and c i r c u m s p e c t i o n i n f u n c t i o n o f t h e s p e a k e r s , a r e f o r m u l a t e d v e r b a l l y by t h e c h a r a c t e r s as t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r ' s p l a y f u l comment, " I know..but n o t h i n g c o u l d i n d u c e me t o t e l l " (p. 5 7 ) , h e r a l d s a s e r i e s o f i n t e r p l a y s w i t h t h e o t h e r c h a r -a c t e r s i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o i n c u l c a t e s t r i c t g u i d e l i n e s r e -g a r d i n g t h e use o f i n f o r m a t i o n : t h e g u e s t s must m a i n t a i n t o t a l s e c r e c y w i t h t h e o t h e r s w h i l e r e v e a l i n g a l l t o t h e n a r r a t o r . Lady John r i d i c u l e s t h i s u n s t a t e d l a w , and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s methods, s c o f f i n g , " A s k i n g me e v e r y -t h i n g and t e l l i n g me n o t h i n g , you n e v e r t h e l e s s l o o k t o me t o s a t i s f y y o u ? " (p. 179) N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s i s t h e c o n t r o l l i n g r u l e o f t h e game as i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d and s u s t a i n e d a t Newmarch. 94 I f c o n v e r s a t i o n i s l a r g e l y r e g a r d e d by b o t h S a r r a u t e and James as c o n s t i t u t i n g a f o r m o f game, th e g o a l o f e ach i n t e r c h a n g e i s a c o n s t a n t , y e t u n d e r s t a t e d , element o f t h e w h ole. I n terms of t h e d e t e c t i v e s t o r y p l o t , t h e o s t e n s i b l e g o a l o f e ach n a r r a t o r i s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s between c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r s i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , and t o a s c e r t a i n whether t h e eponymous h e r o o f M a r t e r e a u i s h o n e s t o r a s w i n d l e r . However, w h i l e t h e s e i n q u i r i e s appear r e l a t i v e l y a c a d e m ic, t h e manner i n w h i c h b o t h s e l f - a p o i n t e d d e t e c t i v e s p u r s u e t h e t r u t h t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f h e a t e d exchanges makes t h e i r detachment q u e s t i o n a b l e . That u l t e r i o r m o t i v e s may s u b s i s t i n t h e most o b j e c t i v e o f i n q u i r i e s i s a commonplace t r u i s m o f a p o s t - F r e u d i a n age: i t i s a x i o m a t i c i n S a r r a u t e ' s work, as i s shown i n t h e b i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n o f deep and s u r f a c e r e a l i t y , w h i l e i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s h i g h l y l o g i c a l l a n -guage t o h i s e v i d e n t e m o t i o n a l u p h e a v a l s u g g e s t s t h i s r e a l i t y . The c o n v e r s a t i o n a l g o a l s p e r c e i v e d by t h e n a r r a t o r o f M a r t e r e a u do n o t f u l l y c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e u s u a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e r m , f o r t h e r e q u i s i t e v o l i t i o n and i n t e n t i o n a l i t y o r i g i n a t e a t a p r e - c o n s c i o u s l e v e l . However, on t h i s p l a n e , and i t i s t h e o n l y a u t h e n t i c l e v e l o f human r e -l a t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l , g o a l s and s t r a t e g i e s , a l b e i t s u b c o n s c i o u s , a r e t h e r e a l i t i e s o f w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r i s most s h a r p l y aware. The s p e a k e r ' s g o a l may be o b s e r v e d i n t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e speech a c t termed t h e p e r l o -c u t i o n a r y a c t , h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e consequences of t h e u t t e r a n c e . Whereas i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l , d e p e n d i n g on custom and p r o c e d u r e s f o r f u l f i l l m e n t , p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t s a r e c o n t i n g e n t and u n p r e d i c t a b l e , d e p e n d i n g upon n a t u r a l , r a t h e r t h a n c o n v e n t i o n a l l a w s . A b a s i c c o n s t i t u e n t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t h e element o f i n d e t e r m i n a c y i s 95 nowhere g r e a t e r t h a n i n t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t , and f o r S a r r a u t e , t h e un-p r e d i c t a b l e i n s t i n c t u a l movements w h i c h p r e c e d e t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t a r e a s o u r c e o f abundant i n t e r e s t . The h i d d e n g o a l s o f t h e s p e a k e r , though n e v e r a r t i c u l a t e d i n S a r r a u t e ' s work, m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e l i s t e n e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , where t h e u n v o i c e d t h r u s t o f t h e u t t e r a n c e i s o f t e n f i g u r e d f o r t h i n t h e fo r m o f an image o r a t r o p i s t i c r e s p o n s e . . I n M a r t e r e a u , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s p e a k e r ' s p u r p o s e — i f a s u b c o n s c i o u s end may be t h u s t e r m e d — r e v e a l s i t s e l f t o t h e n a r r a t o r i n t h e c o u r s e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g terms: E l l e ne c h e r c h e pas a me g r a t i f i e r , ou a p e i n e . Son but p r i n c i -p a l — c a r i l y en a t o u j o u r s p l u s i e u r s , on s ' e t o n n e r a i t de v o i r , s i l ' o n c o n s e n t a i t a r e g a r d e r de p l u s p r e s , comme i l s se p r e s s e n t , b i e n p l u s nombreux qu'on ne p o u r r a i t l ' i m a g i n e r , devant l e s mots en apparence l e s p l u s i n s i g n i f i a n t s — s o n b u t , c o n s c i e n t ou non, d o i t e t r e a i l l e u r s . . ( p . 18) The n a r r a t o r acknowledges t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g o a l o f a d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g y may n ot alw a y s be c o n s c i o u s n o r w e l l - d e f i n e d ; as t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n p r o c e e d s , however, t h e sp e a k e r i n e v i t a b l y s i n g l e s o ut the s e n s i t i v e a r e a s i n h i s / h e r l i s t e n e r . . . . c e t t e f o i s , j e d o i s l e r e c o n n a i t r e , e l l e a mise j u s t e : comme a c e t astromone a u q u e l ses s e u l s c a l c u l s o nt p e r m i s de d e c o u v r i r l ' e x i s t e n c e e t l'emplacement des p l a n e t e s i n v i s i b l e s , l e s i n d i c e s qu'elle a v a i t r e l e v e s s u r moi a mon i n s u . . . l u i o nt p e r m i s de j o u e r a coup s u r . (p. 20) Because t h e r e a r e no n o r m a t i v e r u l e s t h a t would g u a r a n t e e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i n t e n d e d p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t — a n d t h e e f f e c t i s a l w a y s dependent upon t h e a d d r e s s e e ' s r e s p o n s e — t h e games d e p i c t e d a r e a t once h i g h l y u n p r e d i c t a b l e and i n e x o r a b l y r e p e t i t i v e . Whereas S a r r a u t e d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a k e s o f t h e game i n terms o f 96 p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l g o a l s i n M a r t e r e a u , p o r t r a y i n g t h e i n n e r e f f e c t o f speech upon t h e l i s t e n e r , James emphasises t h e sender o f t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t , whose g o a l may be t o p e r s u a d e , t o annoy, t o r e b u k e , t o i n d u c e d i s c u s s i o n , o r even " t o have t h e l a s t word." James's n a r r a -t o r f r e q u e n t l y comments on h i s own u l t e r i o r m o t i v e s , and as he becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e n a t u r e o f h i s own i m p u l s e s , t h e m o t i v e s o f the o t h e r s become i n c r e a s i n g l y s u s p e c t . Soon a f t e r he has u n w i t t i n g l y embued F o r d O b e r t and Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n w i t h h i s own e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e s a c r e d f o u n t t h e o r y , t h e n a r r a t o r , r e a l i s e s t h a t h i s i n d i s c r e t i o n may harm t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d , as he c l a i m s as f o l l o w s : I hadn't i n t h e l e a s t had i t i n mind t o "compromise" an i n d i v -i d u a l ; b u t an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be compromised i f I d i d n o t now t a k e c a r e . (p. 47) The n a r r a t o r ' s m i m e t i c s t y l i s t i c s i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e v e r s a l o f t h o u g h t , r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c h i a s t i c s e n t e n c e s t r u c t u r e , w h i c h prompts t h e n a r r a -t o r ' s more c a u t i o u s b e h a v i o u r . The n a r r a t o r ' s game p l a n — " a s u s t a i n e d a t t e m p t t o a v o i d d i s a s t e r " (p. 4 8 ) — g i v e s r i s e t o t h e e l l i p s i s , i n s i n u a t i o n s , even t h e l i e s , he employs t o s t a v e o f f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ' s r e a l i s a t i o n o f what he " s e e s . " T h i s master p l a n g u i d e s a l l o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s subsequent a c t i o n s and s p e e c h , a l t h o u g h he a d a p t s t h e s u c c e s s i v e c h o i c e s he must make a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c knowledge and s i t u a t i o n o f each c h a r a c t e r . The n a r r a t o r ' s g e n i u s , and t h a t o f t h e n o v e l , r e s i d e s i n t h e combina-t i o n o f a d i z z y i n g number of game p l a n s employed by t h e s i x main c h a r a c t e r s , each adap t e d t o t h e i g n o r a n c e o r awareness o f t h e c h a r a c t e r e n c o u n t e r e d . The n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o p r o t e c t Mrs. S e r v e r f r o m Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s b e l i e f t h a t she i s t h e " m y s t i c E g e r i a " ; he b l o c k s O b e r t ' s s e a r c h f o r t h e man who, as he b e l i e v e s , i s b e i n g d e p l e t e d by Mrs. S e r v e r ; and he a t t e m p t s t o c o n s o l e 97 b o t h v i c t i m s , May S e r v e r and "poor B r i s s , " a l t h o u g h spoken acknowledgement of t h e i r s a c r i f i c e i s out o f t h e q u e s t i o n . The p e r m u t a t i o n s of t h i s g l o b a l p l a n a r e numerous, as each new m e e t i n g i n t r o d u c e s a d i f f e r e n t f a c e t of t h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e of each c h a r a c t e r , h i s s p e c i f i c knowledge, and p e r s o n a l b l i n d s p o t . Because speech does n o t a l w a y s p e r m i t c a n d i d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m a t t e r i n q u e s t i o n , and such f r a n k n e s s i s a l s o s u b j e c t t o m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e n a r r a t o r must c a r r y out h i s p l a n w i t h o u t a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what h i s i n t e r l o c u t o r b e l i e v e s t o be t r u e , and w i t h such c i r c u m s p e c t i o n t h a t he may s u b s e q u e n t l y deny t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s he makes. The v i c i s s i t u d e s o f each c h a p t e r compound t h e c o n f u s i o n , as t h e i n i t i a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l undergoes f r e q u e n t a l t e r n a t i o n s t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n of d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s , new v i e w p o i n t s , and f i n a l l y , v a r y i n g t h e o r i e s t o accomodate t h e c o n f l i c t i n g d a t a . The n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a d v e n t u r e i s u l t i m a t e l y subsumed by t h e i n t r i c a t e p a t t e r n formed by t h e s u c c e s s i v e c h o i c e s , p l a n s , and c o u n t e r p l o t s e f f e c t e d by each c h a r a c t e r . The n o t i o n o f t h e p l a n i n t h e d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g y i s no l e s s a p p l i c a b l e to M a r t e r e a u , a l t h o u g h t h e p l a n i s d i s c e r n i b l e o n l y a t t h e m i c r o - l e v e l o f each t r a n s a c t i o n , s i n c e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g enigma o f t h e n o v e l c o n c e r n i n g M a r t e r e a u ' s c h a r a c t e r m e r e l y forms t h e c o n t e x t of t h e d i s c u r s i v e s i t u a t i o n . As p l a n s a r e g e n e r a l l y c o n c e i v e d and even e n a c t e d w i t h o u t t h e f u l l c o n s c i o u s -n e s s o f t h e s p e a k e r , t h e y a r e o f t e n p e r c e i v e d on a s i m i l a r n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g example. S e n s i n g t h e h i d d e n g o a l i n t h e o s t e n -s i b l y random remarks of h i s u n c l e , t h e n a r r a t o r i s a b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e p l a n u n d e r l y i n g h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , commenting, "Je p r e s s e n s chaque mot q u ' i l v a d i r e , j ' a i e n v i e de l e d e v a n c e r t a n t j e sens ou nous a l l o n s , mais j e 98 c o n s e r v e e n c o r e un peu d ' e s p o i r " (p. 108-9). A l t h o u g h aware o f h i s u n c l e h i d d e n agenda, t h e n a r r a t o r does n o t a t t e m p t t o s t e e r t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t w h i l e t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n M a r t e r e a u d e p l o y an a r r a y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t a c t i c s t o implement t h e game p l a n w h i l e on t h e o f f e n s i v e , t h e same c h a r a c t e r s g e n e r a l l y p r o v e p a s s i v e and i n e f f e c t u a l i n t h e f a c e o f t h e i r i n t e r l o c u t o r . Thus t h e d i a l o g u e i n a S a r r a u t i a n con-t e x t p r o c e e d s v i r t u a l l y m o n o l o g i c a l l y , s i n c e t h e p l a n d e t e r m i n e d by one o f t h e p a r t n e r s t e n d s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o u r s e o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . The dyad i n t e r a c t i o n t y p i c a l o f J a m e s i a n d i a l o g u e , r e p l e t e w i t h i n t e r r u p t i o n s , r e q u e s t s f o r d e f i n i t i o n s , echoes and d e n i a l s , becomes th e u n i v o c a l " p a r l e -r i e " d e s c r i b e d by t h e n a r r a t o r i n M a r t e r e a u : i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n , t h e r o l e s d i s t r i b u t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y m a i n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t , t h e a g g r e s s o r c o m p l e t i n g h i s p l a n w h i l e t h e v i c t i m s u b m i t s t o t h e a t t a c k . I n any c a s e , t h e f a b r i c o f t h e p l a n , w i t h i t s l i n g u i s t i c i n -t r i c a c i e s , i n t e r e s t s t h e n a r r a t o r l e s s t h a n does t h e u n v o i c e d c o n t e n t o f t h e exchange, so t h a t i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f s c e n e s , t h e second v o i c e i s o c c u l t e d . On t h e r a r e o c c a s i o n t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i n i t i a t e s a c o n v e r s a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t i n g h i s own p l a n , t h e s i t u a t i o n becomes i m p r e g n a t e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f a i l u r e . Even as t h e n a r r a t o r d e c l a r e s , " c e t t e f o i s , j e c r o i s b i e n que t o u t e s l e s chances s o n t de mon c o t e , l e s r i s q u e s d'echec a peu p r e s n u l s " (p. 2 0 6 ) , he b e t r a y s an awareness o f t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n as p r e s e n t e d i n M a r t e r e a u : t h a t any c o n v e r s a t i o n i n v o l v e s an element o f i n d e t e r m i n a c y , r e n d e r i n g t h e consequences u n c e r t a i n . The i n -e x o r a b l e q u a l i t y o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n the n o v e l d e r i v e s f r o m t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f a t a l i s t i c s e n s i b i l i t y w h i c h a t t r i b u t e s t h e c o u r s e o f s o c i a l exchange t o 99 t h e o p e r a t i o n o f " l a l o i du p l u s f o r t . " S i n c e t h e a c t i o n o f b o t h n o v e l s i s c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f o r m o f l a n g u a g e , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e v a r i o u s s u b t e r f u g e s o f d i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s , t h e c o n f l i c t i n g r e a l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e d i v e r g e n t speech a c t s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e b r o u g h t t o t h e s u r f a c e i n a f i n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n . The v e h i c l e of t h e drama i n M a r t e r e a u and The S a c r e d F o u n t , i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s form t h e b a s i s o f d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e denouements o f t h e two n o v e l s . I n a movement of s e l f - c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , each n o v e l p o r t r a y s t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n s of s u c c e s s f u l , o r " f e l i c i t o u s , " i l l o c u t i o n s , as t h e c h a r a c t e r s a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y t h e e x t r a - l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . I f , as S a r r a u t e c l a i m s , L e s p a r o l e s p o s s e d e n t l e s q u a l i t e s n e c e s s a i r e s pour c a p t e r , p r o -t e g e r , e t p o r t e r au-dehors ces mouvements s o u t e r r a i n s a l a f o i s i m p a t i e n t s e t c r a i n t i f s , 6 t h e u t t e r a n c e s i n p a r a l l e l s cenes of t h e two n o v e l s m e r i t c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n . The scene i n w h i c h t h e u n c l e demands an e x p l a n a t i o n f r o m h i s w i f e and nephew o f M a r t e r e a u ' s i n d i g n a n t r e a c t i o n t o h i s r e q u e s t f o r a r e c e i p t p r e -s e n t s t h e c o n f l i c t i n t h e anomalous form o f a t r a d i t i o n a l p l a y , i n w h i c h t h e r e p o r t e d words a r e d i s t i n c t l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e d i e g e t i c c o n t e x t . Thus, i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s , w h i c h emphasise t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l purpose o f t h e u t t e r a n c e , a r e h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h i s c l i m a c t i c scene. I n t h e denoue-ment o f The S a c r e d F o u n t , i l l o c u t i o n s a r e a c c o r d e d s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t as t h e n a r r a t o r q u e s t i o n s Mrs. B r i s s i n o r d e r t o d i s c o v e r whether she has " t a l k e d . " The d r a m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f each scene h i n g e s on t h e same i l l o c u t i o n -a r y a c t s : a c c u s a t i o n , d e n i a l , and f i n a l l y , a p l e d g e of honour. The 100 u n c l e demands t o know who has i n f o r m e d M a r t e r e a u about h i s s u s p i c i o n s , w h i l e t h e n a r r a t o r o f The Sa c r e d Fount t r i e s t o d i s c o v e r whether Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n has d i s c u s s e d t h e t h e o r y w i t h Long. I n b o t h c a s e s , t h e s p e a k e r s a c c u s e t h e i r i n t e r l o c u t o r s o f an i n f r a c t i o n o f t h e r u l e s o f t h e game: t h a t i s , t a l k -i n g t o someone o u t s i d e t h e v e r b a l compact. I n b o t h n o v e l s , t h e a c c u s a t i o n i s made i n d i r e c t l y i n t h e f o r m o f an i n t e r r o g a t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i m m e d i a t e l y c o n s t r u e t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f t h e u t t e r a n c e as i t i s i n t e n d e d . I n The S a c r e d Fount t h e n a r r a t o r a s k s , "What am I n o t , i n f i n e , t o t h i n k o f y o u r i n t e l l i g e n c e , i f , d e c i d i n g f o r a r e s o r t t o headquar-t e r s , you've p u t t h e q u e s t i o n t o Long h i m s e l f ? " (p. 2 6 3 ) . Because t h e n a r r a t o r i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t she has done s o , he " r i s k s s u c h d i r e c t n e s s o n l y by making i t e x t r a v a g a n t " (p. 2 6 4 ) , o v e r l a y i n g t h e q u e s t i o n w i t h i r o n y so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o l i e . Mrs. B r i s s d e n i e s t h e a c c u s a t i o n i n a number of ways, d e c l a r i n g , " I ' v e not spoken t o a c r e a t u r e " (p. 2 6 5 ) , "Not a c r e a t u r e has spoken t o me" (p. 2 6 7 ) , and f i n a l l y , " I ' v e n o t communicated the l e a s t m i t e " . ( p . 2 6 7 ) . The d e l i b e r -a t e l y l i g h t t o n e o f t h e a c c u s a t i o n and d e n i a l i n The S a c r e d Fount c o n t r a s t s t h e same speech a c t s i n M a r t e r e a u , where t h e d i a l o g u e i s e m o t i o n a l , even m e l o d r a m a t i c . The u n c l e demands t o know who has spoken t o M a r t e r e a u , s t a t i n g " Je veux s a v o i r q u i t r a h i t i c i . . . Q u i v a r a c o n t e r au-dehors ce qu'on d i t dans l a m a i s o n , ce q u i se p a s s e i c i , chez m o i ? " (p. 2 1 8 ) . The nephew g i v e s h i s word o f honour, p l e d g i n g h i s f i d e l i t y t o t h e compact, and t h e p r o b l e m o f M a r t e r e a u ' s s u s p i c i o n i s f i n a l l y u n r a v e l l e d by t h e a u n t ' s ex-p l a n a t i o n . I n The S a c r e d F o u n t , Mrs. B r i s s a s s e r t s t h a t she a c c u s e s no one, y e t t h e t h r e e n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h i s e f f e c t i n d u c e t h e n a r r a t o r t o p l e a d i n n o c e n c e , g i v i n g h i s word o f honour t o b u t t r e s s the a s s e r t i o n . The denoue-101 ment o f t h e n o v e l i s c a r r i e d out by i l l o c u t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e t o denote the n a t u r e o f t h e speech a c t s w h i c h have d e f i n e d t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e mys-t e r y : "Poor M a y — ' c l a i m i n g 1 ? When I i n s i s t e d i t w a s n ' t ! " "You d i d n ' t i n s i s t i t wasn't anybody!" (p. 268) " I ' v e had t o p r o t e c t o t h e r s and, a t the c o s t o f a d e c e n t a p p e a r -a n c e , t o p r e t e n d t o be m y s e l f h a l f an i d i o t . • I've had even, f o r t h e same p u r p o s e — i f you must have i t — t o d e p a r t f r o m t h e t r u t h . " (p. 302) D i s c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s and v e r b a l s u b t e r f u g e c o n s t i t u t e t h e v e r y s u b j e c t of t h e i n q u i r y , s i n c e t h e m a t e r i a l a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e f a c u l t i e s o f two o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i s m a n i f e s t e d by t h e i r " t a l k " ; and f u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t h e o r y — f o r m u l a t e d i n v a r i o u s i m p u t a t i o n s , a s s e r t i o n s and i n t e r r o g a -t i o n s — c a n n o t u l t i m a t e l y be s e p a r a t e d from t h e o b j e c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . As t h e two i n t e r l o c u t o r s change t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s , t h e movement i s n o t o n l y c o g n i t i v e , f o r as t h e c o n f l i c t u n f o l d s t h r o u g h t h e i l l o c u t i o n s , each s p e a k e r a t t e m p t s t o a t t a i n a p o s i t i o n of power t h r o u g h v e r b a l domin-ance. C o n v e r s a t i o n i n James e n a c t s t h e c o l l i s i o n o f v a l u e s , d e s i r e s , and m o t i v e s t h a t t a k e s p l a c e s w i t h t h e v e r b a l e n c o u n t e r . I f a t b e s t c o n v e r -s a t i o n i s a means o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n — a p l a c e t o "compare and exchange wea-pons and manoeuvres" (p. 2 9 5 ) — i t g e n e r a l l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o m p e t i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e w i t , t h e power, and t h e v e r b a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e i n q u e s t i o n . F o r S a r r a u t e , t h e d i a l o g u e c o n s t i t u t e s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e means o f s e t -t i n g i n t o m o t i o n t h e a c t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s t h a t a r e i n p e r p e t u a l a c t i v i t y b e n e a t h t h e s o c i a l s u r f a c e . The d i a l o g u e examined above, however, r e p r e -102 s e n t s a s t y l i s t i c d e p a r t u r e f o r S a r r a u t e , who i s l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of l a n g u a g e — w h a t t h e s p e a k e r i s d o i n g w i t h w o r d s — t h a n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e words upon t h e a d d r e s s e e . I n t h e scene i n q u e s t i o n , t h e a c t i o n of t h e p l o t i s p e r f o r m e d t h r o u g h t h e u t t e r a n c e o f t h e s p e a k e r s , w h i l e t h e e s s e n t i a l s u b - p l o t common t o a l l S a r r a u t e ' s w o r k — t h e " s o u s -c o n v e r s a t i o n " — i s o m i t t e d . The n a r r a t o r comments upon t h e anomalous n a r -r a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e , s t a t i n g , M a i s j e ne peux pas me m a i n t e n i r longtemps h o r s de mon element: La l u m i e r e m'aveugle, l ' a i r me f a i t m a l , l e grand mouvement m ' e t o u r d i t . A u s s i t o t r e v e n u d e r r i e r e l e s c o u l i s s e s , s e u l dans ma chambre, j ' a s p i r e a r e d e s c e n d r e v e r s l e s m o l l e s v a s e s pu-t r i d e s q u i f r e m i s s e n t au f o n d des eaux s t a g n a n t e s . (p. 219) I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , however, t h a t i f t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e of t h e u t t e r a n c e i s what most i n t e r e s t s S a r r a u t e , t h i s element o f t h e speech a c t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s i n s e p a r a b l e from t h e v e r b a l event t h a t p r o d u c e s i t . T r o p i s m s — t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n component of t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t — d e r i v e t h e i r e x i s t e n c e f r o m words, o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y f r o m t h e d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n f ound i n d i a l o g u e . Words a r e i n f a c t t h e a l p h a and t h e omega o f t h e t r o p i s m : ...deposees en l u i e l l e s e n f l e n t , e l l e s e x p l o s e n t , e l l e s p r o v o q u e n t a u t o u r d ' e l l e s des ondes e t des remous q u i , a l e u r t o u r , montent, a f f l e u r e n t e t se d e p l o i e n t au-dehors en p a r o l e s . ^ The r o l e o f d i a l o g u e i n S a r r a u t e ' s work has o f t e n been u n d e r s t o o d s o l e l y as a means o f c o n t r a s t i n g b a n a l u t t e r a n c e s w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t r o -p i s t i c imagery. The d i v e r g e n c e between t h e s e l e v e l s , however, i s n o t m e r e l y an i r o n i c o r comic d e v i c e , but r a t h e r a dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p of cause and e f f e c t : S a r r a u t e s t a t e s t h a t d i a l o g u e s "have been p l a c e d i n my work, on t h e c o n t r a r y , t o b r i n g f o r t h t h e s e t r o p i s m s . " ^ Thus, d e s p i t e t h e 103 r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of d i a l o g u e i n S a r r a u t e ' s second n o v e l , M a r t e r e a u , t h e d i a l o g u e r e m a i n s an e s s e n t i a l u n d e r p i n n i n g o f t h e t r o p i s t i c a c t i o n of t h e n o v e l , s h i e l d i n g and a t t h e same t i m e , r e v e a l i n g t r o p i s m s . As theme and f o r m o f t h e two n o v e l s , t a l k c r e a t e s a sense o f immediacy by r emoving t h e a u t h o r i a l v o i c e j so t h a t t h e r e a d e r i s p l a c e d a t t h e l o c u s of i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r s and i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e drama of "some s i n i s t e r u n d e r w o r l d , h e a v i n g i n i t s p a i n , i t s power and i t s h a t e . " The o p a c i t y , m y s t e r y , and i n d e t e r m i n a c y i n t r i n s i c i n spoken l a n g u a g e a r e e x p l o i t e d as a f o r m o f " t r o m p e - 1 ' o e i l " by b o t h a u t h o r s , so t h a t t h e d i s -c u r s i v e s t r a t e g i e s o f w h i c h t h e r e a d e r becomes aware t h r o u g h the d i a l o g u e of t h e n o v e l t e n d t o o b s c u r e t h e more a u t h e n t i c s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e subcon-s c i o u s mind. The r o l e of t h e n a r r a t o r i n b o t h e l u c i d a t i n g and o b s c u r i n g t h e meaning o f b o t h v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l i n t e r c o u r s e i s a s a l i e n t a s p e c t o f b o t h works and r e q u i r e s a t t e n t i o n , s i n c e t h e meaning o f each n o v e l i s p r o d uced t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r p l a y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r and n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . 104 PRINCIPLES OF CONVERSATION: NOTES 1 T z v e t a n Todorov, "The V e r b a l Age," t r a n s , by P a t r i c i a M a r t i n G i b b y , C r i t i c a l I n q u i r y 4, no. 2 ( W i n t e r 1977) p. 368. 2 J e a n C a r o n , " S t r a t e g i e s d i s c u r s i v e s dans l e s t e s t s p r o j e c t i f s , " S t r a -t e g i e s d i s c u r s i v e s (Lyon: P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de L y o n , 1977) p. 181. 3 Roman I n g a r d e n , The L i t e r a r y Work o f A r t , t r a n s , by George G. G r a b o w i c z , ( E v a n s t o n : N o r t h w e s t e r n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973) p. 382. 4 C a r o n , t r a n s , mine, p. 181. 5 Caron,p. 182. 6 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , L ' e r e du soupcon, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) p. 121. 7 I b i d . , p. 123. 8 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , i n t e r v i e w w i t h B e t t i n a Knapp, O f f - S t a g e V o i c e s , ( T r o y , N.Y.: W h i t s o n P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1975) p. 164. 9 Henry James, The A r t o f t h e N o v e l , (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1934) p. 76. I OS PART TWO: N a r r a t i v e D i s c o u r s e Quelque chose d ' i n s o l i t e , de v i o l e n t , se c a c h a i t sous ces apparences f a m i l i e r e s . . . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e My scheme c a l l e d f o r t h e s u g g e s t i v e n e a r n e s s ( t o a l l our a p p a r e n t l y o r d e r e d l i f e ) o f some s i n i s t e r u n d e r w o r l d , h e a v i n g i n i t s p a i n , i t s power and' i t s h a t e ; a p r e s e n t a t i o n n o t of sharp p a r t i c u l a r s , b u t o f l o o s e a p p e a r a n c e s , vague m o t i o n s and sounds and symptoms, j u s t p e r c e p -t i b l e p r e s e n c e s and g e n e r a l l o o m i n g p o s s i b i l i -t i e s . Henry James 106 THE NARRATIVE DISCOURSE: How t o Do T h i n g s w i t h D i a l o g u e . The r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e , o r d i a l o g u e f o r m , endows t h e speech e v e n t s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n each n o v e l w i t h a semblance o f r e a l i s m . S u s t a i n e d s c e n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n has the e f f e c t o f e f f a c i n g t h e n a r r a t o r , so t h a t t h e p o i n t o f v i e w appears o b j e c t i v e . However, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e speech o f many c h a r a c t e r s , t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e p r e s e n t s t h e c e n t r a l p e r s p e c -t i v e t o w h i c h a l l t h e u t t e r a n c e s a r e s u b m i t t e d . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e s e two n o v e l s , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s i m i l a r i t y o f b o t h t e x t s on t h e b a s i s o f f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s i m m e d i a t e l y e v i d e n t : each n o v e l i s m e d i a t e d by a n a r r a t o r who a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e e v e n t s r e c o u n t e d . The n a t u r e o f t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f each n a r r a t o r - p r o t a g o n i s t i n t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e y i e l d s . t w o r a d i c a l l y d i v e r g e n t e f f e c t s however. I n The S a c r e d Fount t h e c o n c r e t e , m a t e r i a l q u a l i t y o f t h e spoken word has t h e e f f e c t of r e l e g a t i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e t o b a c k - s t a g e ; w h i l e t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e i s c o n j e c t u r a l and a n a l y t i c , t h e d i a l o g u e c o n s t i t u t e s an e v e n t . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a p p a r e n t d e n s i t y o f t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e , r e p o r t e d speech conveys an e f f e c t o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y and c l a r i t y . T y p o g r a p h i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s r e i n f o r c e t h e p r o m i s e o f d i s c l o s u r e o f f e r e d by d i a l o g u e ; t h e t e x t appears t o open up w i t h t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f d i a l o g u e t o n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . R e p o r t e d speech a l s o a c q u i r e s t h e o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s of an e v e n t , w h i l e n a r r a t i v e ; d i s c o u r s e o f t e n o c c u p i e s an i n d e f i n i t e p o s i t i o n i n t i m e and space. These f e a t u r e s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l d i a l o g u e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e a d e r ' s r e -c e p t i v i t y t o r e p o r t e d s p e e c h ; as James comments, 107 One had n o t e d t h i s r e a d e r £the Anglo-Saxon] as p e r v e r s e and i n c o n s e q u e n t i n r e s p e c t t o t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f " d i a l o g u e " — o b s e r v e d t h e " p u b l i c f o r f i c t i o n " consume i t , i n c e r t a i n c o n n e x i o n s , on t h e s c a l e and w i t h t h e smack of l i p s t h a t mark t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f bread-and-jam by-a c h i l d r e n ' s s c h o o l - f e a s t , consume i t even a t t h e t h e a t r e , so f a r as o u r t h e a t r e e v e r v o u c h s a f e s i t , and y e t as f l a g r a n t l y r e j e c t i t when s e r v e d , so t o speak, au n a t u r e l l I n o r d e r t o produce d i a l o g u e " o r g a n i c and d r a m a t i c , s p e a k i n g f o r i t s e l f , r e p r e s e n t i n g and embodying s u b s t a n c e and f o r m , " ^ James c r e a t e s a spoken medium o f r e m a r k a b l e economy and c o m p r e s s i o n . I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h i s c o n s t r u c t i v e , autonomous d i a l o g u e , t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r . t h e s p e e c h , r e p r e s e n t i n g c o l l a t e r a l a c t i o n s and e x p r e s s i o n s , c o n t r o l l i n g i t s i n s e r t i o n i n t h e t e x t , and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e meaning i t c o n v e y s . The n a r r a t i v e v o i c e t h u s forms a " u s u r p i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " 3 o r d e r i n g and d o m i n a t i n g t h e speech e v e n t s . I n M a r t e r e a u t h e p r o p o r t i o n of spoken and even u n v o i c e d d i c o u r s e t o t h e n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l i s low. F u r t h e r m o r e , S a r r a u t e a v o i d s t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c e f f e c t o f r e a l i s t i c d i a l o g u e upon t h e r e a d e r by embedding i t d i r e c t l y . i n t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t . The o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e u t t e r a n c e i n S a r -r a u t e 's work i s o f t e n u n c e r t a i n , s i n c e t h e b o r d e r s between v o i c e d and un-v o i c e d speech a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y b l u r r e d . As the a c t of n a r r a t i o n i s c o n -temporaneous w i t h t h e a c t i o n , t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s t a n c e i s r e d u c e d t o z e r o . A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r p r e s e n t s a u n i f y i n g v o i c e f o r t h e d i s c r e t e u t t e r a n c e s , he does n o t have t h e s o v e r e i g n independence o f t h e J a m e s i a n n a r r a t o r f r o m t h e t e m p o r a l , s p a t i a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w o r l d o f h i s f i c t i o n . The d i s -t i n c t i v e t y p o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t o f S a r r a u t e ' s work, i n , a d d i t i o n t o t h e u n i q u e way i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r f u l f i l l s h i s v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s , g i v e r i s e t o t h e i n i m i t a b l e a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f M a r t e r e a u . 108 Among the various typologies suggested by studies of nar r a t i v e technique, the functional approach of Lubomir Dolezel, at once s u f f i c e n t l y refined and remarkably simple, i s the mode of analysis best suited to our interests i n t h i s study. In h i s work e n t i t l e d Narrative Modes i n Czech L i t e r a t u r e , Dolezel examines the narrative r o l e i n terms of two kinds of functions: the primary functions of representation and c o n t r o l , and the secondary functions of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and action. The-secondary functions ,of the narrator correspond to the primary functions of the character, and v i c e versa, as i s shown i n the following diagram: NARRATOR CHARACTER 1) Primary functions , 1. representation 2. c o n t r o l l i n g 2) Secondary functions •3. i n t e r p r e t a t i v e 4. action 1. action 2. i n t e r p r e t a t i v e 3. c o n t r o l l i n g 4. representation As the narrator takes part i n the action of the story, or conversely, as a character undertakes the r o l e of representing the action, the opposition between mimesis and diegesis i s neut r a l i s e d . A thorough analysis of these verbal forms and functions i s needed to understand the aesthetic e f f e c t s of Martereau and The Sacred Fount, and to evaluate the success of each p a r t i c u l a r narrative mode with regard to the a r t i s t i c project of each author. 109 THE REPRESENTATIONAL FUNCTION: R e c o r d i n g t h e unspoken The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e n a r -r a t i v e t a s k t h a t G e n e t t e terms t h e " f o n c t i o n proprement n a r r a t i v e , " from w h i c h , he n o t e s , "aucun n a r r a t e u r ne peut se d e t o u r n e r sans p e r d r e en meme temps s a q u a l i t e de n a r r a t e u r . 1 " ^ The n a r r a t o r t h u s assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r m a t e r i a l w h i c h cannot be r e l a y e d f i g u r a l l y t h r o u g h t h e medium o f d i a l o g u t h i s i n c l u d e s s u c h m a t e r i a l as d e s c r i p t i o n . a n d t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f b o t h v o i c e d and u n v o i c e d s t a t e m e n t s . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e v o i c e d m a t e r i a l i s assumed by t h e c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e , whereas t h e n a r r a t o r u n d e r -t a k e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v e r b a l i s e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s n o t v o i c e d b u t r a t h e r f o r m u l a t e d by t h e s p e a k e r . Each n o v e l c o n t a i n s v a r y i n g amounts o f s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e t h a t i s " r e p o r t e d " by each n a r r a t o r . Such s i l e n t d i s c u r s i v e forms as t h e i n t e r i o r monologue o r s t r e a m - o f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t e c h n i q u e s have l o n g been s t a p l e s o f the. f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r ' s a r t . What i s more u n u s u a l i n t h e t e x t s o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e and Henry James, however, i s t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e by t h e n a r r a t o r - c h a r a c t e r t o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , whose t h o u g h t s can o n l y be s p e c u l a t e d upon o r i m a g i n e d by t h e n a r r a t o r . W h i l e t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " i s t h e predominant form u n d e r l y i n g t h e d i a l o g u e i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , i t s r a r e o c c u r e n c e w i t h i n t h e more c o n v e n t i o n a l modes o f c o m munication i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n o v e l c r e a t e s a s t r i k i n g e f f e c t i n The S a c r e d F o u n t . The J a m e s i a n n a r r a t o r , i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s e x a l t e d n o t i o n o f h i s own i n t e l l e c t u a l powers, o c c a s i o n a l l y d i s r u p t s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e 110 r o l e o f r e p o r t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n by r e p o r t i n g s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e . The f i r s t example o f t h i s v a r i a n t o f " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " o c c u r s w i t h i n a d i a l o g i c c o n t e x t i n a f o r m c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o r d i n a r y spoken l a n g u a g e . The n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o p r o v e t o Mrs. B r i s s t h a t Lady John cannot be d e e p l y i m p l i c a t e d w i t h G i l b e r t Long, o r a t l e a s t n o t i n a way t h a t w o u l d r e n d e r h i m more i n t e l l i g e n t . He p a r o d i e s Lady John's s e l f - s a t i s f i e d o p i n i o n o f h e r s o c i a l b r i l l i a n c e , "'Of c o u r s e Mr. Long's c l e v e r , because he's i n l o v e w i t h me and s i t s a t my f e e t , and don't you see how c l e v e r I am? Don't you h e a r what good t h i n g s I s a y — w a i t a l i t t l e , I'm g o i n g t o say a n o t h e r i n about t h r e e m i n u t e s ; and how, i f y o u ' l l o n l y g i v e h i m t i m e t o o , he comes out w i t h them a f t e r me? They don't perhaps sound so good, b u t you see where he has got them. I'm so b r i l l i a n t , i n f i n e , t h a t t h e men who admire me have o n l y t o i m i t a t e me, w h i c h you o b s e r v e , t h e y s t r i k i n g l y do.'" (p. 36) The e s s e n t i a l l y p a r o d i c i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s u t t e r a n c e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t f r o m r e p o r t e d s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e i n t h e S a r r a u t i a n s e n s e , f o r t h e n a t u r e .of t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " p r o h i b i t s i t s e x p r e s s i o n i n c o n v e r s a t i o n as i t o c c u r s h e r e . A n o t h e r s a l i e n t f e a t u r e o f r e p o r t e d s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e as i t i s found i n James's n o v e l i s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n " t h r o w i n g open t h e w o r l d o f s i l e n t t h o u g h t " ^ o f t h e c h a r a c t e r t o whom t h e d i s c o u r s e i s a s c r i b e d , • t h i s v e r b a l f e a t u r e r e f l e c t s more c l e a r l y t h a n any o t h e r u t t e r a n c e t h e mind o f t h e n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f . The n a r r a t o r ' s h o s t i l i t y t oward Lady John c r y s t a l l i s e s i n t h e tone o f s c a t h i n g s a r c a s m found i n t h e c a r i c a t u r e . I n f a c t , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r i d i c u l e i s d i r e c t e d a t t h e v e r y p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t made e v i d e n t i n h i m s e l f as t h e weekend p r o g r e s s e s : t h a t i s , a t e n d e n c y t o o v e r v a l u e one's i n t e l l e c t u a l powers. I f Lady John a p p e a r s complacent as t h e bes t o w e r o f Long's i n t e l -l i g e n c e , t h e n a r r a t o r l a t e r c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f i n an a n a l o g o u s s i t u a t i o n I l l w i t h r e g a r d t o Mrs. B r i s s , who acknowledges t h e p a r a l l e l s between t h e two r e l a t i o n s h i p s : "You've made me s u b l i m e . You found me dense. You've a f f e c t e d me q u i t e as Mrs. S e r v e r has a f f e c t e d Mr. Long..." (p. 8 1 ) . The n a r r a t o r c o n f i r m s t h e s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h i s a n a l o g y by h i s e x c l a m a t i o n , " I do f e e l r e m a r k a b l y l i k e t h a t p a i r o f l i p s . I f e e l d r a i n e d — I f e e l d r y ! " (p. 8 1 ) . H i s r e s p o n s e t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t he has made Mrs. B r i s s s u b l i m e d i f f e r s l i t t l e i n f a c t f r o m t h e a t t i t u d e t h a t he c r i t i c a l l y a s c r i b e s t o Lady John .. i n h i s p a r o d i c monologue. The d e v i c e o f r e p o r t i n g s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e p r o v e s an e f f e c t i v e means o f t h r o w i n g t h e s e a r c h l i g h t upon t h e unguarded mind o f t h e n a r r a t o r . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e c a s e o f parody m e r e l y i n t e n s i f i e s and e x a g g e r a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r h o l d s w i t h r e g a r d t o a l l c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e i n t h e n o v e l , f o r Such speech ( c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e ] has i t s own immediate r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t , y e t i t does n o t occupy a p o s i t i o n on t h e same p l a n e w i t h t h e d i r e c t speech o f t h e a u t h o r ; i n s t e a d , i t s t a n d s a t a c e r t a i n remove f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s s p e e c h , as i f i n p e r s p e c t i v e . I t i s meant n o t o n l y t o be u n d e r s t o o d i n terms o f i t s own r e f e r e n t i a l o b j e c t , b u t , by v i r t u e o f i t s c h a r a c t e r - d e f i n i n g c a p a c i t y , o r i t s t y p i c a l i t y , o r i t s c o l o r f u l n e s s , i t a l s o a p p e a r s as t h e o b j e c t o f a n o t h e r ( t h e a u t h o r ' s ) i n t e n t i o n . ^ An extreme l i m i t o f c o n v e n t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e , t h e parod y embeds i n th e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e an i n t e n t i o n w h i c h i s d i r e c t l y opposed t o t h e o r i g i n a l one. C o n s e q u e n t l y , The second v o i c e , h a v i n g l o d g e d i n t h e o t h e r speech c l a s h e s a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l y w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l , h o s t v o i c e and f o r c e s i t t o s e r v e d i r e c t l y o p p o s i t e aims. Speech becomes a b a t t l e f i e l d f o r o p p o s i n g i n t e n t i o n s . ? The n a r r a t o r d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e second u t t e r a n c e f r o m h i s own s y n t a c t i c a l l y as w e l l as i n terms o f v e r b a l c o n t e n t . He succe e d s i n s e t t i n g Lady John's 112 c h a t t y s t y l e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s own c o n v e r s a t i o n a l t o n e , a l t h o u g h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e parody a p p l i e s e q u a l l y w e l l t o h i s own h u b r i s t i c p r e t e n s i o n s . The f o r e g o i n g r e p o r t o f s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e b e l o n g s r a t h e r t o t h e c h a r a c -t e r d i s c o u r s e t h a n t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f n a r r a t i v e , i n w h i c h th e n a r r a t o r u n d e r t a k e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f v e r b a l and s c e n i c e v e n t s . I n b o t h f o r m s , t h e n a r r a t o r r e v e a l s t h e i n n e r w o r k i n g o f t h e mind o f a c h a r -a c t e r , though i n t h e i n s t a n c e ' o f c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e t h i s f o r m o f r e p o r t i n g t a k e s on a p a r o d i c , r h e t o r i c a l p u r p o s e , w h i l e , when l o d g e d i n a n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t , i t a t t a i n s t h e s t a t u s o f a J a m e s i a n " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " The i n t e r i o r monologue r e p o r t e d by t h e n a r r a t o r o c c u r s when he meets Mrs. S e r v e r i n t h e wood as e v e n i n g a p p r o a c h e s . A f t e r i n v i t i n g h e r t o s i t down, the n a r r a t o r exchanges a few words w i t h Mrs. S e r v e r , who a s k s him " i n d e e d as i f w i t h an e f f o r t and from a d i s t a n c e , 'What i s i t t h a t has hap-pened t o y o u ? ' " The n a r r a t o r d e f t l y r e v e r s e s t h e q u e s t i o n , as i f t o u n d e r -s c o r e t h e f a c t t h a t she i s t h e one who has been a l t e r e d . I n t h e e n s u i n g s i l e n c e , t h e n a r r a t o r d i s c e r n s i n Mrs. S e r v e r "a supremely u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o say n o t h i n g . I t s a i d e v e r y t h i n g . . . " (p. 135) The n a r r a t i v e pace o f t h e "scenic p r e s e n t a t i o n s l o w s , and t h e scene becomes a p r i v i l e g e d moment i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r r e c i v e s a s u r g e o f f i n e r p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o t h e s a c r e d f o u n t enigma. Musing t h a t " i t was p r o d i g i o u s what, i n t h e way o f s u p p r e s s e d com-m u n i c a t i o n , p a s s e d i n t h e s e w o n d e r f u l m i n u t e s between u s " ( p . 1 3 8 ) , t h e n a r r a t o r c o n s t r u e s Mrs. S e r v e r ' s c o n f e s s i o n out o f t h i s t e l l i n g s i l e n c e : "Yes, my dear man, I do u n d e r s t a n d y o u — q u i t e p e r f e c t l y now, and (by I know n o t what m i r a c l e ) I've r e a l l y done so t o some e x t e n t from t h e f i r s t . " (p. 141) I n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n s " t h a t p l a y such a major r o l e 113 i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , t h i s "mute a d d r e s s " i s n o n - a n t a g o n i s t i c and u n d i f -f e r e n t i a t e d s y n t a c t i c a l l y from o r d i n a r y speech. However, t h e c o n t e n t o f t h i s a t t r i b u t e d i n t e r i o r monologue d e p a r t s r a d i c a l l y f r o m t h e n a t u r e of n o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , f o r i t acknowledges a f u n d o f deep e m o t i o n -a l f e e l i n g t h a t g e n e r a l l y r e m a i n s unspoken. The n a r r a t o r ' s remarks about Mr. B r i s s e n d e n a r e germane a t t h i s p o i n t t o h i s own use o f q u o t e d i n n e r monologue, f o r t o "draw him on Mrs. S e r v e r was i n t r u t h t o draw him i n d i r -e c t l y on h i m s e l f . " (p. 112) The q u o t e d monologue r e p r e s e n t s a w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t dream on t h e p a r t of t h e n a r r a t o r r a t h e r t h a n p r o f o u n d i n s i g h t i n t o Mrs. S e r v e r ' s t h o u g h t , as t h e d ichotomy between t h e t h o u g h t s he a t t r i b u t e s t o h e r and h e r own t r a i n of t h o u g h t i r o n i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e s as t h e y resume c o n v e r - ; s a t i o n . Mrs. S e r v e r ' s u t t e r f a i l u r e t o c omplete t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e l l i p -t i c a l s t a t e m e n t t h a t f o l l o w s t h e monologue d i s c o n f i r m s t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e passage t o h e r i n n e r f e e l i n g s . While, t h e r e have been e a r l i e r i n s t a n c e s o f s p e a k i n g g e s t u r e s and t e l l i n g g l a n c e s , t h i s p assage r e v e a l s t h e d i s c o n t i n u i t y between e x t e r n a l , v i s i b l e s i g n s and i n n e r meaning. The scene d r a m a t i s e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s extreme r e a d i n e s s t o r e a d volumes i n t o t h e merest f a c i a l i n d i c a t i o n . As t h e n a r r a t o r n o t e s , " a l l t h a t had p a s s e d between us had p a s s e d i n . s i l e n c e , b u t i t was a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r f o r what might pass i n sound" (pp. 144-45), f o r he a t t e m p t s t o r e n d e r t h e de-c l i n e o f Mrs. S e r v e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s — " t h e e x p i r i n g s t r u g g l e o f h e r n a t i v e l u c i d i t y " (p. 1 4 5 ) — i n s t r o n g l y a f f e c t i v e l a n g u a g e . The s u r r o u n d i n g imagery o f t h i s p assage i s h i g h l y v i v i d , d e s c r i b i n g Mrs. S e r v e r ' s m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h such v i s u a l a n a l o g i e s as s h i p w r e c k and d i s a s t e r . James's imagery d i f f e r s f r o m t h e a n i m a l imagery f a v o u r e d by S a r r a u t e b o t h i n t e n o r 114 and v e h i c l e : the. t e n o r of J a m e s i a n imagery r e f e r s t o m e n t a l s t a t e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r e - c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s evoked by t r o p i s m s , w h i l e J a m e s i a n metaphors a r e g e n e r a l l y n o n - b i o l o g L c a l . James h e i g h t e n s t h e drama of Mrs. S e r v e r ' s c o n -d i t i o n by d e s c r i b i n g h e r a t t i t u d e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: She moved, g r o p i n g and p a n t i n g , i n t h e g a t h e r i n g dusk o f h e r f a t e , b u t t h e r e were s t i l l c a l c u l a t i o n s she c o u l d d i m l y make. One of t h e s e w a s . t h a t she must d r a g no one e l s e i n . (p. 146) L i k e t h e c o n t r o l l i n g a n i m a l metaphor o f James's, s h o r t s t o r y "The B e a s t i n t h e J u n g l e , " i n w h i c h t h e b e a s t forms t h e v e h i c l e f o r M a r c h e r ' s suspended f a t e , t h i s image i l l u s t r a t e s Mrs. S e r v e r ' s p l i g h t i n c o n c r e t e and dynamic p h y s i c a l terms. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a l l u d e s t o t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n movements w h i c h t a k e p l a c e i n t h e unexamined, shadowy r e g i o n s of Mrs. S e r v e r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , com-p l e m e n t i n g t h e s i l e n t d i s c o u r s e t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r a t t r i b u t e s t o h e r . The o m n i s c i e n t s t a n c e o f t h i s o b s e r v e r , whose l i m i t e d p o i n t o f v i e w and h e i g h t e n e d s u b j e c t i v i t y t e n d t o make an u n r e l i a b l e w i t n e s s , l e n d s i r o n y t o h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n of Mrs. S e r v e r ' s s i l e n t c o l l o q u y , u n d e r m i n i n g h i s n a r r a t i v e c r e d i b i l i t y s t i l l f u r t h e r . S i l e n t d i s c o u r s e i n M a r t e r e a u s e r v e s a p r i n c i p a l p u r p o s e w i t h i n t h e n a r r a t i v e o b j e c t i v e s o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , f u r n i s h i n g t h e means of r e p -r e s e n t i n g "ces t r e s s u b t i l s f r e m i s s e m e n t s " t h a t a r e c o n c e a l e d by o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n h e r f i n e a n a l y s i s o f n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s i n t h e work o f S a r r a u t e , Ann C o t h r a n d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e t e x t u a l i n d i c a t o r s of v o i c e d t r a n -s c r i p t i o n from s i l e n t t r a n s c r i p t i o n , n o t i n g t h a t " d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e two t y p e s cannot r e l y on i n t e r n a l e v i d e n c e . S i n c e b o t h t y p e s of t r a n -s c r i p t i o n r e c o r d v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s , a m b i g u i t y i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y p o s s i b l e . " ' ' 115 S a r r a u t e ' s work r e v e a l s an i n c r e a s i n g l y p r o b l e m a t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f v o i c e d • and s i l e n t m a t e r i a l , as t h e o r a l n a t u r e o f h e r n o v e l s becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y Q g r e a t e r . The n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n c e i n t h e e a r l y n o v e l s r e d u c e s t h e a m b i g u i t y o f v o i c e and p o i n t o f v i e w , o r " o p t i q u e , " as the v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s a r e sub-sumed by t h e a u t h o r i t y o f the. n a r r a t o r . As Newman p u t s i t , . . . l e c h o i x d'un n a r r a t e u r - p e r s o n n a g e e n t r a v e l e developpement du j e u de 1 ' o p t i q u e . M a l g r e t o u t e 1 ' i n g e n i o s i t e de l a p r e s e n t a t i o n , 1 ' i n t e r i o r i t e t r o p i s m i q u e des personnages e s t r e v e l e e p a r une c o n s c i e n c e p e n s a n t e , c e l l e du n a r r a t e u r , c e l l e des a u t r e s r e s t a n t f o r c e m e n t l i e e a ses s u p p o s i t i o n s . ' ^  As t h e n a r r a t o r p r o j e c t s h i m s e l f i n t o t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , however, he r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s dominance o v e r t h e t e x t . The scene i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r i m a g i n e s t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e u n c l e ' s v i s i t t o M a r t e r e a u engenders f o u r c o n t r a s t i n g s c e n a r i o s , v i e w e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s . .Though t h e f o u r scenes r e m i a n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . o f t h e n a r r a t o r , as Boo t h p o i n t s o u t , "any s u s t a i n e d i n s i d e v i e w , o f w h a t e v e r d e p t h , tempor-a r i l y t u r n s t h e c h a r a c t e r whose mind i s shown i n t o a n a r r a t o r . " 1 0 The f o u r r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e scene between M o n s i e u r and Madame M a r t e r e a u l i b e r a t e s t h e p o i n t o f v i e w t o t h e g r e a t e s t e x t e n t p o s s i b l e i n t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r -r a t i v e . The f o u r scenes a r e homologous, each b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e d e p a r t u r e o f th e u n c l e and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h M a r t e r e a u ' s words as he goes o u t . Though t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e t e n d s t o become i n c r e a s i n g l y submerged i n t h e ima g i n e d s c e n e s , t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c o n t e x t p r e s e n t s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s i t u a t i o n i n s t r i k -i n g l y c e r e b r a l t e r m s : " J ' a i b e s o i n de r e f l e c h i r , . d e r e g a r d e r d'un peu p l u s p r e s . . . d e r u m i n e r e n c o r e un peu..." (p. 177) The p u n c t u a t i o n demarcates 116 t h e f l o w o f t h o u g h t i n t o t h e o n e i r i c s cenes t h a t f o l l o w by t h e use of s u s p e n s i o n p o i n t s , i n d i c a t i n g a change i n t h e n a r r a t i v e mode. The n a r r a t o r p r o j e c t s h i m s e l f i n t o M a r t e r e a u ' s s i t u a t i o n and s p e c u -l a t e s upon t h e r e s p o n s e o f Mme M a r t e r a u , whose t h o u g h t s a r e r e v e a l e d as a f u n c t i o n o f what M a r t e r e a u s u s p e c t s i s on h e r mind: Ah, i l n'en f a i t j a m a i s d ' a u t r e s , e l l e d e v r a i t e t r e h a b i t u e e , mais' a p r e s e n t , e l l e n'en peut p l u s , e l l e v i e i l l i t , e l l e e s t f a t i g u e e , c a ne f i n i r a done j a m a i s c e t t e v i e de c h i e n , i l y a des moments, t e n e z , ou l ' o n v o u d r a i t . . . m a i s que v o u l e z - v o u s , i l f a u t c o n t i n u e r . . . (p. 200) Even as Mme M a r t e r e a u ' s v o i c e a s s e r t s i t s e l f , M a r t e r e a u ' s p o i n t of v i e w r e t u r n s t o a s s e s s h i s w i f e ' s a t t i t u d e i r o n i c a l l y : E l l e l ' i n c i t e r a i t au c r i m e quand e l l e p r end ce t o n , c e t a i r , e l l e l e p o u s s e r a i t a j e ne s a i s q u e l s , e x c e s : Une b r u t e : e l l e a r a i s o n : un b o u r r e a u . . . I I l u i s a i s i l e p o i g n e t : a s s e z de comedies, p a r l o n s un peu, ma b e l l e , t o u t s e u l s , l a , e n t r e n o u s , e ' e t a i t , n ' a s - t u pas t r o u v e , i l l u i p r e n d l e menton, une bonne s o i r e e b i e n r e u s s i e , p a s , ma c h a t t e . . . (p. 201) W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f such b r i e f r e m i n d e r s of t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r e s e n c e as " j e ne s a i s q u e l s e x c e s , " i t i s t r u e t h a t " l e r e c i t i m a g i n a i r e commence a f a i r e s e n t i r l e j e u des o p t i q u e s . " H M a r t e r e a u i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e may e n a b l e t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s . F o r f u l l e r development o f t h i s e f f e c t t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e must y i e l d t o a d i r e c t a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t r o p i s m s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of v i e w p o i n t s , as i n S a r r a u t e ' s subsequent w o r k s , f o r "dans c e t u n i v e r s ou t o u t a c t e semble e t r e un a c t e de p a r o l e , p e r s o n n e ne p a r l e , pour que c e l u i q u i ' v o i t ' d e v i e n n e c e l u i q u i r e s s e n t . " 1 2 . 117 'THE CONTROLLING FUNCTION:' • I n t h e n o v e l t h e nexus between c o n v e r s a t i o n , o r c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e , and n a r r a t i o n i s formed by t h e c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r , t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e by means o f such d e v i c e s as i n t r o d u c t o r y p h r a s e s , t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f i n t o n a t i o n , t h e t o n e ' o f . t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s speeches e t c . As D o l e z e l p o i n t s o u t , " t h e r e p -r e s e n t a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s a l w a y s c o u p l e d w i t h t h e c o n t r o l -l i n g f u n c t i o n : t h e n a r r a t o r dominates t h e n a r r a t i v e t e x t s t r u c t u r e . " 1 3 T h i s f u n c t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t G e n e t t e terms " l a f o n c -t i o n . de r e g i e , " i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r d e l i m i t s t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n of t h e n a r r a t i v e t e x t . However, whereas t h e c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n i s an e s s e n t i a l n a r r a t i v e component i n D o l e z e l ' s t y p o l o g y , G e n e t t e d e f i n e s i t as an e x p l i c i t m e t a - n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n . 1 4 The m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e d r a m a t i c n o v e l r e p r e s e n t s a c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f b o t h Henry James and N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , second o n l y t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e d i a l o g u e i t s e l f . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o renew t r a d i t i o n a l d i a l o g u e t e c h n i q u e s , James sought t h e i d e a l o f " t h a t r e a l l y c o n s t r u c t i v e d i a l o g u e , d i a l o g u e o r g a n i c and d r a -m a t i c , s p e a k i n g f o r i t s e l f , r e p r e s e n t i n g and embodying s u b s t a n c e and form,"^ whereas N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e e n v i s i o n e d "une t e c h n i q u e q u i p a r v i e n d r a i t a p l o n g e r l e l e c t e u r dans l e f l o t de ces drames s o u t e r r a i n s . " 1 6 L i k e James, S a r r a u t e emphasises t h e e x p r e s s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e d i a l o g u e w h i c h , Tout v i b r a n t e t g o n f l e p a r c e s mouvements q u i l e p f o p u l s e n t e t l e 118 s o u s - t e n d e n t , s e r a i t , q u e l l e que s o i t s a b a n a l i t e a p p a r e n t e , a u s s i r e v e l a t e u r que l e d i a l o g u e de t h e a t r e . ^ The p r o b l e m o f c r e a t i n g d i a l o g u e t h a t a d e q u a t e l y embodies such i d e a l s i s e x a c e r b a t e d by t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f p l a c i n g t h i s c h a r a c t e r d i s c o u r s e i n an a p p r o p r i a t e n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t . B o t h a u t h o r s l e v e l c r i t i c i s m a t t r a d i t i o n a l modes o f t a g g i n g u t t e r a n c e s i n t h e n o v e l — t h o s e i n v i d i o u s and r e p e t i t i o u s " d i t J e anne, r e p o n d i t P a u l , q u i parsement h a b i t u e l l e m e n t l e d i a l o g u e . " - * - ^ James i r o n i c a l l y comments t h a t t h e a d o p t i o n of t h e t y p o g r a p h i c a l c o n v e n t i o n s of d r a m a t i c d i a l o g u e , a s . f o u n d i n t h e p l a y , would n o t b e - t o l e r a t e d by h i s r e a d e r s h i p : ...but dishonour, would a w a i t me i f , p r o p o s i n g t o t r e a t t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c e s of my s u b j e c t i n t h e most c o m p l e t e l y i n s t i t u t e d c o l l o q u i a l f o r m , I s h o u l d evoke t h e f i g u r e and a f f i r m t h e p r e s e n c e of p a r t i c i p a n t s by t h e r e p e a t e d and' p r e f i x e d name r a t h e r t h a n by t h e r e c u r r e n t and a f f i x e d ' s a i d he' and ' s a i d s h e ' . 1 ^ The i n q u i t f o r m u l a e adopted by Henry James and N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e b r i d g e t h e f i g u r a l and a u t h o r i a l d i s c o u r s e : " I l s s o n t l e l i e n l e g e r mais s o l i d e q u i r a t t a c h e e t soumet l e s t y l e e t l e t o n des p ersonnages au s t y l e e t au t o n de l ' a u t e u r . " 1 ^ The a u c t o r i a l c o n t e x t o f d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e d i s c l o s e s two a s p e c t s of t h e c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r , showing him i n a c a p a -c i t y o f b o t h r e c e i v e r and t r a n s m i t t e r o f t h e message. R e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d i s c o u r s e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , t h e n a r r a t o r d i r e c t s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e v i r -t u a l r e a d e r . Whereas th e r e p o r t e d speech i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t s an o b j e c t i v e document o f i t s r e c e p t i o n , as t h e l i s t e n e r i n t u r n r e s p o n d s t o t h e u t t e r a n c e , t h e f r a m i n g and t a g g i n g d e v i c e s of t h e n a r r a t o r a l s o shed, l i g h t on h i s r e s -ponse t o a n o t h e r speech a c t . The work o f t h e R u s s i a n t h e o r i s t s V o l o s i n o v and B a k h t i n i n t h e a r e a o f d i a l o g i c speech p r o v i d e s a p r o d u c t i v e p o i n t o f 119 d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e s t u d y o f speech and n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t i n t h e n o v e l . V o l o s i n o v e x p r e s s e s t h e c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n s as he a s k s , How, i n f a c t , i s a n o t h e r s p e a k e r ' s speech r e c e i v e d ? What i s t h e mode o f e x i s t e n c e o f a n o t h e r ' s u t t e r a n c e i n t h e a c t u a l , i n n e r s p e e c h - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e r e c i p i e n t ? How i s i t mani-p u l a t e d t h e r e , and what p r o c e s s o f o r i e n t a t i o n w i l l , t h e sub-sequent speech of t h e r e c i p i e n t h i m s e l f have undergone i n r e g a r d t o i t ? ^ 0 V o l o s i n o v ' s a n a l y s i s o f speech c l e a r l y f a v o u r s an i d e o l o g i c a l a p p roach t o l a n g u a g e , as he s t a t e s : "Language r e f l e c t s , n o t s u b j e c t i v e , p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a c i l l a t i o n s , b u t s t a b l e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s p e a k e r s . " A l t h o u g h t h e s o c i a l . b a s i s o f language i s al w a y s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r o f e x p r e s s i o n , n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e n o v e l s o f S a r r a u t e and James p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l p e r i p e t e i a o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . T h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e i n n e r s t a t e s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o r " p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a c i l l a t i o n s , " i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o n c e r n o f b o t h a u t h o r s . t o i n n o v a t e t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n -t e x t o f speech. The n a r r a t i v e framework i n The S a c r e d Fount r e c o r d s t h e r e a c t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e among t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n g r e a t d e t a i l , f o r m i n g an i n f o r -m a t i v e s u b - t e x t t h a t conveys t h e tone and tempo o f t h e d i a l o g u e . The n a r r a t o r p r e s i d e s o v e r t h e p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s o f t h e s p e a k e r s , o f t e n e n v i s a g i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n as a form o f i n d o o r s p o r t . The t a c t i c s o f each c h a r a c t e r a r e c a r e f u l l y d e s c r i b e d , as i n t h e f i n a l scene i n t h e n o v e l r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e d i s a g r e e m e n t o f t h e n a r r a t o r and Mrs. B r i s s . Here c o n v e r s a t i o n becomes a f a s t - p a c e d v e r b a l d u e l , as a s h o r t s u r v e y o f the modus, o r n a r r a t i v e t a g , i l l u s t r a t e s : Oh,' how i t s h a r p e n e d my l o o k ! • "...," Mrs. B r i s s l a u g h e d . 120 I k e p t i t up. Mrs. B r i s s was n o t b e h i n d . T h i s was b r i s k e r s t i l l , b u t I h e l d my way. I t seemed f o r a l i t t l e , between humour and s a d n e s s , t o s t r i k e h e r . I c o u l d o n l y echo i t . I t h e n p r o c e e d e d , I t p u l l e d h e r up a t r i f l e . My eyes had been m e e t i n g h e r s w i t h o u t , as i t were, h e r s q u i t e m e e t i n g mine. But a t t h i s t h e r e had t o be i n t e r c o u r s e . I t p u l l e d me up a t r i f l e . She, h e s i -t a t e d ; t h e n , as i f a t my t o n e , gave a l a u g h . "..." I r e a l l y c o u l d n ' t but admire h e r . "..." I c a s t about. •"..." But she had i t r e a d y . "..." T h i s exchange p r o c e e d s b r i s k l y , i n s t i c h o m y t h i c a l t e r n a t i o n between t h e two s p e a k e r s . The n a r r a t i v e formed by t h e s u c c e s s i o n of t h e s e f r a m i n g d e v i c e s a l e r t s t h e r e a d e r t o t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a s p e c t of t h e speech a c t . The n a r r a t o r a t t e n d s t o what t h e s p e a k e r i s " d o i n g " i n making a g i v e n u t t e r a n c e : t h e s p e a k e r , b e s i d e s s a y i n g something ( t h e l o c u t i o n a r y a c t ) , does so m e t h i n g i n s a y i n g ( t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t ) , and y i e l d s e f f e c t s by s a y i n g ( t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t ) . The f i r s t two k i n d s of speech a c t — t h e u t t e r a n c e a c t and t h e i l l o -c u t i o n a r y a c t — a r e r u l e - g o v e r n e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r e governed by c o n s t i -t u t i v e r u l e s — r u l e s t h a t d e f i n e t h e v e r y a c t s t h e y g o v e r n . F o l l o w i n g t h e s e r u l e s g u a r a n t e e s s u c c e s s f u l p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e a c t . As J . L . A u s t i n d e f i n e s them, I l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s a r e c o n v e n t i o n a l a c t s : p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s a r e n o t c o n v e n t i o n a l . A c t s o f b o t h k i n d s can be p e r f o r m e d — o r , more a c c u r a t e l y , a c t s c a l l e d by t h e same name ( f o r example, a c t s . e q u i -v a l e n t t o t h e i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t o f w a r n i n g o r t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t o f c o n v i n c i n g ) — c a n be b r o u g h t o f f n o n - v e r b a l l y ; b u t even t h e n to d e s e r v e t h e name of an i l l o c u t i o n a r y a c t , f o r example, a w a r n i n g , i t must be a c o n v e n t i o n a l n o n - v e r b a l a c t : but p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s a r e n o t c o n v e n t i o n a l , though c o n v e n t i o n a l a c t s may be made use of i n o r d e r t o b r i n g o f f t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t . 2 2 The n a t u r e o f t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t i s c o n t e x t - d e p e n d e n t , as i t s meaning exceeds p r e s u p p o s e d s y n t a c t i c and s e m a n t i c c o n v e n t i o n s . F o r example, t h e s t a t e m e n t , " I w i l l be back- a t f i v e o ' c l o c k , " e a s i l y e x p l i c a b l e i n terms o f 121 s y n t a x and p r i m a r y meaning, may g e n e r a t e a number o f d i f f e r e n t p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t s d e p e n d i n g on t h e context.' I t may be u t t e r e d as a p r o m i s e , a t h r e a t , o r "a w a r n i n g , d e p e n d i n g on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Thus, i n t h e n o v e l , a s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t i s c o n s t r u c t e d w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y f o r c e o f a l l t h e u t t e r a n c e s . T h i s a s p e c t of' speech c o n s t i t u t e s t h e most u n s t a b l e element of c o n v e r s a t i o n , as i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t w h i c h i s n o t c o n t a i n e d e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e u t t e r a n c e i t s e l f . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t i n t e n d e d by t h e speaker: does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o i n c i d e w i t h t h a t apprehended by t h e l i s -t e n e r . A u s t i n d i s c e r n s two k i n d s ' o f e f f e c t s o f the p e r l o c u t i o n a r y a c t : i t "may e i t h e r be t h e achievement o f a p e r l o c u t i o n a r y o b j e c t ( t o c o n v i n c e , t o p e r s u a d e ) o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a p e r l o c u t i o n a r y s e q u e l . . . . What i s t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y o b j e c t o f one i l l o c u t i b n may be t h e s e q u e l o f a n o t h e r . " ^ 3 The s u r p l u s o f meaning i n o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n i s t h u s b r o u g h t t o t h e f o r e as t h e e f f e c t o f t h e speech a c t i m p r i n t s i t s e l f i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . The n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount examines and r e c o r d s a number o f e f f e c t s due t o t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y o r r h e t o r i c a l a s p e c t o f l a n g u a g e . As each c h a r a c t e r s p e a k s , he/she o f t e n i n t e n d s a s p e c i f i c p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t by t h e s t a t e m e n t , such as t o p e r s u a d e , t o c o n v i n c e , t o c o n f u s e , o r even t o t h r e a t e n t h e a l l o c u t o r . I n t h e f o r e g o i n g n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t of t h e f i n a l s c e n e , t h e n a r r a t o r r e c o r d s t h e l i s t e n e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , f o r m u l a t i n g them i n s u c h vague terms as " i t p u l l e d me up a t r i f l e , " " i t seemed t o s t r i k e h e r , ' and "she h e s i t a t e d . " L i k e much e x p r e s s i o n i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , t h e p e r -l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t o f speech i s o f t e n c o v e r t , f o r t h e key t o t h e game o f l anguage i n t h e n o v e l i s d e n i a b i l i t y . T h i s a s p e c t o f speech w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l as we examine t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e commentary o f t h e n o v e l , f o r t h e p e r l o c u t i o n a r y e f f e c t o f speech i s b u t one o f t h e many ele m e n t s found i n t h e n a r r a t i v e m a t r i x d e s c r i b i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n . 122 The c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e frame o f speech i s t o d e s i g n a t e t h e s p e a k e r and d e s c r i b e t h e way i n w h i c h t h e u t t e r a n c e i s p r o d u c e d . B o t h James and S a r r a u t e t e n d t o a v o i d t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m of t h e t a g , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t o v e r b " t o s a y " , e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i d e a i n one of t h r e e ways: a l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e v e r b " t o s a y , " an image, o r a s c e n i c i n -d i c a t i o n . 24 The most d i r e c t means o f f r a m i n g t h e d i a l o g u e i n v o l v e s t h e l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one t e r m o f t h e v e r b " t o s a y " f o r a n o t h e r l e s s c o n v e n t i o n a l term. Henry James f a v o u r s t h e " r a c y two-word v e r b " 2 ^ i n o r d e r t o a v o i d t h e f o r m u l a i c monotony o f "he s a i d , she s a i d . " A b r i e f sample o f t h e r i c h v a r i e t y f a v o u r e d by James i n The S a c r e d Fount i s as f o l l o w s : "drew him on," " b r o k e i n , " "went on," "came back t o , " " t o o k him s t r a i g h t up," " t u r n e d i t o v e r , " "hung f i r e , " "put t o h e r , " "wound up," "met t h e q u e s t i o n , " " f i x e d i t , " " t h r ew o u t , " r i s k e d i t , " " p i e c e d i t o u t , " "got t h e m a t t e r s t r a i g h t , " and so on. The e f f e c t o f s u b s t i t u t i n g such e x p r e s s i o n s f o r t h e more d i r e c t terms d e n o t i n g speech i s t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t d i a l o g u e i s s e m a n t i c a l l y r i c h and s t y l i s t i c a l l y v a r i e d . I t may be m i s l e a d i n g t o t o r e f e r t o t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f one t e r m f o r a n o t h e r , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e d e n o t a t i o n s o f t h e v e r b s may be e q u i v a l e n t , t h e c o n n o t a t i v e v a l u e s o f t h e words v a r y c o n -s i d e r a b l y . The e f f e c t o f t h e compound v e r b s p r e f e r r e d by James i s b o t h g r a p h i c and c o l l o q u i a l , and t h e vague r e f e r e n c e o f t h e e g r e g i o u s " i t " c o n t a i n e d i n many o f t h e terms i n v e s t s t h e t o p i c s w i t h an i n d e f i n i t e , y e t o s t e n s i b l y c o n c r e t e , q u a l i t y . A c c o r d i n g l y , words become t h i n g s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , s u s c e p t i b l e t o b e i n g " p i c k e d up, t u r n e d o v e r , thrown o u t " — - i n s h o r t , a d a p t e d t o any use t h e l i s t e n e r c a r e s t o g i v e them. Such s e m a n t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e v e r b " t o s a y " appear t o be • 123 m o t i v a t e d by t h e d e s i r e f o r s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n - , r a t h e r t h a n a c o n c e r n f o r i n d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n . The common v e r b s d e n o t i n g v a r i o u s v e r b a l a c t s a r e a l s o l i b e r a l l y s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . L i k e t h e modus employed by S a r r a u t e , many of t h e i n d i r e c t speech markers a r e s y n t a c t i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e r e p o r t e d speech. Newman makes t h e f o l l o w i n g assessment o f t h i s s t y l i s t i c t r a i t : . • D'ou l a c o n c l u s i o n p a r a d o x a l e que chez e l l e ces d e t a i l s s o n t a l a f o i s p l u s autonomes e t p l u s e t r o i t e m e n t l i e s aux d i s c o u r s , l i e s p a r un r a p p o r t q u i n'a r i e n de c o n v e n t i o n n e l , e t a n t m o t i v e dans e t p a r l ' o e u v r e meme; l i e s p a r une n e c e s s i t e q u i e s t c e l l e de l a p e r c e p t i o n d e s ^ d i s c o u r s p a r l e s personnages memes e t de l e u r a f f e c t i v i t e . . . . The use o f u n u s u a l words and images t o s u g g e s t t h e speech a c t s h i g h l i g h t s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s and emotions o f t h e n a r r a t o r , even as i t draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s c a r c e l y p e r c e p t i b l e movements o f t h e d i a l o g u e . The sub-drama t h a t shapes t h e s o c i a l , t a l k i n b o t h n o v e l s m o t i v a t e s t h e use o f a h i g h l y d e s -c r i p t i v e and m e t a p h o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t and n e c e s s i t a t e s r e n o v a t i n g t h e l i t e r a r y modes o f d e s i g n a t i n g t h e s p e a k e r . L e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e n o v e l s o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e p l a c e t h e v e r b " t o s a y " and i t s s e m a n t i c e q u i v a l e n t s . I n M a r t e r e a u , where a p p e n d i c e s d e s i g n a t i n g speech a r e u s e d , t h e s e v e r b s t e n d t o c h a r a c -t e r i s e and d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e s p e a k e r s . "Bougonner" s u g g e s t s t h e u n c l e , " r o u c o u l e r " t h e a u n t , and " z e z a y e r , " t h e d a u g h t e r . I n S a r r a u t e ' s l a t e r n o v e l s , the n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r s . • I n h e r subsequent work, t h e c h a r a c t e r -i s i n g f u n c t i o n o f t h e modus d i m i n i s h e s as t h e t a g assumes a g r e a t e r r o l e i n S a r r a u t e ' s n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , e x p r e s s i n g t h e a f f e c t i v i t y o f t h e i n t e r -124 l o c u t o r s i n more v i o l e n t and s h o c k i n g forms. There i s indeed.no e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e c o l l o q u i a l i n q u i t f o r m u l a e found i n t h e J a m e s i a n n o v e l i n S a r r a u t e ' s work. The l e x i c a l s u b s t i t u t i o n s i n -d i c a t i n g speech t e n d .to evoke an image of t h e speech a c t , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g examples: . . . i l t r o u v a i t t o u t de s u i t e l ' i n s t r u m e n t conto'ndant, i l m'en a s s e n a i t un bon coup:"..." (p. 178) • . . . i l f r a p p a i t de nouveau, "..." (p. 178) ...nous a l l o n s , j e l e s e n s , t o u c h e r l e p o i n t d'ou se d e g a g e a i t l ' e t r a n g e odeur... "...." (p. 61) J ' a i e t e a u s s i l o i n que j e p o u v a i s : l e membre gangrene e s t p r e s q u e s e c t i o n n e ; j e n'ose f a i r e p l u s . (p. 62) . . . e l l e r a s s e m b l e t o u t e s ses f o r c e s pour un supreme e f f o r t : "..." Le l i e n e s t t r a n c h e , l ' a b l a t i o n d o u l e u r e u s e e s t achevee. Le membre malade n ' e s t p l u s qu'une masse f l a s q u e de t i s s u s s a n g u i n o l e n t s q u i g i s e n t d e t a c h e s du c o r p s . (p. 62) These i m a g i s t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n s f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l v e r b s d e n o t i n g speech evoke i n d e p e n d e n t s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l c o - o r d i n a t e s , j u x t a p o s i n g an i m a g i n a t i v e c o n t e x t t o t h e a c t u a l u t t e r a n c e . • I n d i c a t i n g more d e s c r i p t i v e l y t h e e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s o f t h e l o c u t o r and a l l o c u t o r , t h e image a c c e n t u a t e s t h e unspoken drama t h a t accompanies t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e employs images e x t e n s i v e l y t o r e p l a c e c o n v e n t i o n a l i n q u i t f o r m u l a e w i t h a n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t t h a t a c t u a l l y e n a c t s t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n f o r c e s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . Thus, i n a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h M a r t e r e a u , t h e n a r r a t o r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e e m o t i o n a l accompaniments o f h i s words m e t a p h o r i c a l l y : J e m'elance "..." j e s a u t e au-dessus du v i d e "..." j ' a i p r i s mon e l a n gauchement, mais i l e s t t r o p t a r d , j ' a i s a u t e , a t t e r r i t a n t b i e n que mal de l ' a u t r e c o t e , j e m'accroche pour e s c a l a d e r 1 ' a u t r e b o r d , j e me cramponne "..." j e rampe, j e me h i s s e a l a f o r c e des b r a s , l e v i d e e s t sous mes p i e d s ".." j ' a i l e v e r t i g e . . 125 j ' a i e n v i e de t o u t l a c h e r , de m e . l a i s s e r tomber dans l e v i d e "... J e f a i s au p r i x d'un immense e f f o r t un supreme r e t a b l i s s e m e n t e t j e me h i s s e e n - l i e u s u r c e t t e f o i s , a s s e z l o i n du b o r d . Je s u i s i n s t a l l e en l i e u s u r . (pp. 117-118) The n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t s k e t c h e s t h e r i s k s and p e r i l s o f c o m m unication as t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e n a r r a t o r . The e m o t i v e f u n c t i o n , s u p p r e s s e d i n t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e , m a n i f e s t s i t s p r e s e n c e i n t h i s d i a l o g u e t h r o u g h t h e r e s o n a n c e s o f t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e . Such v i v i d e x t e n d e d metaphors as i n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a s s a g e a r e p r e s e n t i n t h e J a m e s i a n t e x t t o r e p r e s e n t t h e s i l e n t s t r a t e g i e s o f s o c i a l i n t e r -c o u r s e . Lady John speaks t o t h e n a r r a t o r , who r e c o r d s h i s r e s p o n s e as f o l l o w s : T h i s t o s s o f t h e b a l l was one t h a t , I saw q u i c k l y enough, even a t a s t e f o r s p o r t w o u l d n ' t j u s t i f y my a n s w e r i n g , and my l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t l a y moreover e l s e w h e r e . (pp. 179-180) As c o n v e r s a t i o n i s a r r e s t e d by t h e s i g h t o f G i l b e r t Long and Mrs. B r i s s s i t t i n g t o g e t h e r , t h e n a r r a t o r c o n t i n u e s t o document h i s s p e c u l a t i o n s on Lady John's r i v a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t h r o u g h a h i g h l y -imaged n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t . He e x t e n d s t h e s p o r t m o t i f t h a t he had n o t e d e a r l i e r t o r e f e r t o t h e u n e x p r e s s e d musings o f each c h a r a c t e r , s t a t i n g t h a t V a s t , t r u l y was t h e w o r l d o f o b s e r v a t i o n , t h a t we c o u l d b o t h g l e a n i n i t so a c t i v e l y w i t h o u t c r o s s i n g each o t h e r ' s s t e p s . There we s t o o d c l o s e t o g e t h e r , y e t — s a v e f o r t h e a c c i d e n t o f a f i n a l d a s h , as I s h a l l n o t e — w e r e a t o p p o s i t e ends o f t h e f i e l d , (p. 185) T h i s metaphor c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f i n a l dash t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s v i s i o n may be t a k e n as r e p r e s e n t i n g , 126 I t o f f e r s u s , t o be e x a c t , as j o s t l i n g each o t h e r j u s t s e n s i b l y - — though I o n l y might f e e l t h e b r u i s e — i n our b u s i n e s s o f p i c k i n g up s t r a w s . Our v i e w o f the improved a c q u a i n t a n c e was o n l y a s t r a w , b u t as I s t o o p e d t o i t I f e l t my head bump w i t h my n e i g h b o u r ' s . . . . I f e l t i n f a c t t h a t , s i n c e we had even p u l l e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r a t th e s t r a w , I c a r r i e d o f f , i n t u r n i n g away, t h e l a r g e r p i e c e , (p. 188) Th i s c o n c e i t t r a n s f o r m s t h e u n a r t i c u l a t e d t h o u g h t s o f t h e two o b s e r v e r s i n t o a c o n t e s t o f s k i l l s i m i l a r t o many of t h e d i a l o g u e s i n t h e n o v e l , t h u s d i r -e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e b a t t l e o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i n The Sac r e d  F o u n t. The t h i r d s e t o f n a r r a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s s u r r o u n d i n g t he d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e c o m p r i s e s markers t h a t denote a s p e c t s o f p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e . These d e s c r i p -t i v e and n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s a r e more o r l e s s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e communi-c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , s e r v i n g t o m o d i f y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e v e r b a l a c t . Newman c a t e g o r i s e s t h e s e t o f s c e n i c m arkers i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: P r e s e n c e p h y s i q u e 1. A c t i o n s 2. G e s t u e l 3. E x p r e s s i o n d i v e r s mouvements g e s t e s r e g a r d v i s a g e s o u r i r e / r i r e •The schema d e p i c t s a s p e c t r u m o f s c e n i c i n d i c a t o r s i n w h i c h ...11 y a une p r o g r e s s i o n e v i d e n t e de gauche a d r o i t e , a l l a n t de l ' a c t i o n c i r c o n s t a n c i e l l e (sans a u t r e r a p p o r t avec l e s p a r o l e s que c e l u i d ' e t r e dans un mime enchainement) a t r a v e r s l e g e s t u e l (ou l ' a c t i o n s' a s s o c i e aux p a r o l e s ) j u s q u ' a 1 ' e x p r e s s i o n (ou l a c o n t i -g u i t e p h y s i q u e , d e l i m i t e e p a r l e v i s a g e , e s t e t r o i t e ) . A l ' i n t e -r i e u r de 1'ensemble e x p r e s s i o n l a p r o g r e s s i o n c o n t i n u e , a b o u t i s s a n t dans l e r i r e , a c t e v o c a l . 1 1 ~. A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e use o f such c o n t e x t u a l i n d i c a t o r s w i l l i l l u m i n a t e t h e r o l e o f such f a c t o r s as k i n e s i c s , o r body movements and f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s , 127 and p r o x e m i c s , o r s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s , as ways o f communication i n t h e n a r r a -t i v e . A c t i o n s a r e r a r e l y n o t e d i n a S a r r a u t l a n c o n t e x t . Such movements as " e l l e e n l e v e son manteau d'un a i r d e c i d e " (p. 93) and "ma c o u s i n e — c ' e s t un g e s t e q u ' e l l e f a i t s o u v e n t , p a r t i m i d i t e sans d o u t e , pour se donner une c o n t e n a n c e — p a s s e s a main s u r son f r o n t " (p. 141), s e r v e t o complement t h e c o n c e a l i n g f u n c t i o n of words: few a c t i o n s a r e r e v e l a t o r y of t h e i n n e r move-ments o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s . W h i l e w a t c h i n g the r e a s s u r i n g d e x t e r i t y o f Mar-t e r e a u 's f i n g e r s as he a t t a c h e s hooks and b a i t t o h i s l i n e , t h e n a r r a t o r c o n f l a t e s a d d i t i o n a l memories o f M a r t e r e a u ' s g e s t u r e s t h a t have seemed s u s p i c i o u s on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s ; however, h e - r e a s s u r e s h i m s e l f by r e p e a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s "pas de q u o i f o u e t t e r un c h a t . " W i t h t h e d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n M a r t e r e a u , s u s p i c i o n d e s t r o y s t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f h i s a c t i o n s as w e l l as h i s words. Henry James i n h a b i t s t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d p r i o r t o " l ' e r e du soupcon." Such a c t i o n s as l i g h t i n g a c i g a r e t t e , s i t t i n g down, t r a c i n g a g e s t u r e s e r v e t o i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n " l o o m i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s " i n man's i n n e r c o n d i t i o n . The predominance o f a b s o l u t e s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r as cod-i f i e d i n r u l e s o f e t i q u e t t e emerges as a s a l i e n t f e a t u r e of James's n a r -r a t i v e c o n t e x t . K i n e s i c m a rkers p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e means o f e v a l u a t i n g b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t of V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d . The scene i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r e n c o u n t e r s May S e r v e r i n the wood i s earmarked as a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t o c c a s i o n . I t i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m o t h e r s c e n e s o f t h e n o v e l i n terms o f d i c t i o n , atmosphere and n a r r a -t i v e pace. O c c u r r i n g a t t h e m i d p o i n t o f t h e t e x t , t h e scene forms a coda i n w h i c h p a s t e v e n t s a r e g a t h e r e d up i n t o s t i l l n e s s and t h e f r e n e t i c a c t i v i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r a b a t e s . S c e n i c i n d i c a t o r s , when n o t an i n d e p e n -128 dent means o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , c o u n t e r p o s e t h e v e r b a l e l e m e n t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n The n a r r a t i v e c o n t e x t f o r m u l a t e s and d e f i n e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s v i e w o f a s e m i o t i c s o f b e h a v i o u r : I s a t s t r a i g h t down on t h e n e a r e s t o f our benches, f o r t h i s s t r u c k me as t h e b e s t way t o e x p r e s s t h e c o n c e p t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e s i g h t o f Mrs. S e r v e r f i l l e d me. I t showed h e r t h a t i f I watched h e r I a l s o w a i t e d f o r h e r , and t h a t I was t h e r e f o r e n o t a f f e c t e d i n any manner she r e a l l y need d e p r e c a t e . (pp. 130-131) As Mrs. S e r v e r w a l k s toward him, he i n v i t e s h e r t o s i t down, t h e n accompa-n i e s h i s words w i t h an i l l u s t r a t i v e movement: I had f i n a l l y got up, as a s i g n o f welcome, b u t I had d i r e c t l y a f t e r w a r d s resumed my p o s i t i o n , and i t was an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the terms on w h i c h we met t h a t we n e i t h e r o f us seemed t o mind h e r b e i n g meanwhile on h e r f e e t . (p. 132) T h i s " i l l u s t r a t i o n " may w e l l be mute f o r t h e modern r e a d e r ; however, t o any r e a d e r f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e J a m e s i a n canon, t h e g e s t u r e speaks volumes. I n The P o r t r a i t o f a Lady ( 1 8 8 1 ) , James shapes t h e d r a m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n scene w i t h t h e e v e r y d a y m a t e r i a l s o f c o n v e n t i o n and s o c i a l h a b i t . What s t r u c k I s a b e l f i r s t was t h a t he was s i t t i n g w h i l e Madame M e r l e , s t o o d ; t h e r e was an anomaly i n t h i s ' t h a t a r r e s t e d h e r . (...) T h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s , t h e i r a b s o r b e d m u t u a l gaze, s t r u c k h e r as some-t h i n g d e t e c t e d . 2 8 A l t h o u g h I s a b e l r e m a i n s i g n o r a n t o f t h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t a b l e a u , she n e v e r t h e l e s s r e t a i n s t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t i s h i g h l y c h a r g e d w i t h meaning, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e i s a de p t h i n h e r husband's r e l a t i o n s h i p " w i t h Madame M e r l e t h a t she had h i t h e r t o l i t t l e s u s p e c t e d . I n a l a t e r n o v e l , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f The B o s t o n i a n s ( 1 8 8 6 ) i s a v i c t i m o f t h e same drawing-room c o n v e n t i o n , as a woman h o l d s h im away f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e p a r t y by h e r r e f u s a l t o be t h e f i r s t t o s t a n d up: 129 I t was i n h i s s i m p l e code a g r o s s r u d e n e s s t o w i t h d r a w f r o m c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a l a d y a t a p a r t y b e f o r e a n o t h e r gentleman s h o u l d have come t o t a k e one's p l a c e : i t was t o i n f l i c t on t h e l a d y a k i n d o f o u t r a g e . ^ . T h i s s h o r t scene f o c u s e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two w o r l d s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s A m e r i c a n South and B o s t o n , d r a m a t i s e s an i m p o r t a n t d e c i s i o n on .the p a r t o f t h e h e r o , and marks t h e b r e a k o f h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e l a d y i n q u e s t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e scenes i n t h e above n o v e l s , t h e n a r r a t o r i n The  S a c r e d Fount does n o t p e r f o r m a p a s s i v e r o l e as decoder o r v i c t i m - p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h i s s o c i a l code; i n s t e a d , he o r c h e s t r a t e s t h e movements o f s i t t i n g o r s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f c r e a t i n g c o mmunicative s i g n s . The n a r r a t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n s seem t o r e v e a l " t h e p r o m i s e o f a m o r a l l y l e g i b l e u n i v e r s e t o t h o s e w i l l i n g t o r e a d and i n t e r p r e t i t s s i g n s . S e e n i n t h i s l i g h t , t h e s c e n i c m a r k e r s o f p o s i t i o n and movement a r e r a r e l y f o r t u i t o u s i n The S a c r e d  F o u n t : t h e n a r r a t o r v i e w s a l l such f e a t u r e s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s as a form o f " s u p p r e s s e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n " (p. 138) w h i c h dumbly a s s e r t s t h a t w h i c h l a n g u a g e i s i n a d e q u a t e t o convey. A l t h o u g h k i n e s i c and p r o x e m i c i n d i c a t i o n s o f t e n r e v e a l l e s s o r more t h a n what t h e n a r r a t o r p o s t u l a t e s , they n o n e t h e -l e s s r e p r e s e n t an i n d e x .to modes o f f e e l i n g and b e h a v i o u r t h a t cannot be o t h e r w i s e communicated. F o r N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n t i n u u m o f p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e , from t h e most a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n s t o the c l o s e s t companion o f s p e e c h , a r e c o n t a m i n a t e d by t h e i r i n t e n t i o n t o d i s s i m u l a t e , whereas a c t i o n s and move-ment a r e f o r t h e most p a r t v a l i d s i g n s o f human b e h a v i o u r i n The S a c r e d  F o u n t . As one n e a r s t h o s e a s p e c t s w h i c h a r e most c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e speech 130 a c t , however, an element o f s u s p i c i o n e n t e r s i n . To, b e g i n w i t h t h e most u n r e l a t e d a s p e c t o f e x p r e s s i o n t o s p e e c h , t h e " r e g a r d , " as e x p r e s s e d by eye-movement, r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t i n b o t h n o v e l s . Eye-movement i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t e x t r a - v e r b a l f e a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , as i t t e n d s t o emphasise t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s p e a k e r s by s u g g e s t i n g whether t h e l i s t e n e r i s " w i t h " t h e s p e a k e r . The p r i m a r y f u n c -t i o n o f eye-movement i s t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t between t h e i n t e r l o c u t o r s and t o m a i n t a i n t h e c h a n n e l of c o m munication. I n t h e f i n a l scene of The  S a c r e d F o u n t , f o r example, t h e n a r r a t o r n o t e s t h a t whereas he i s m e e t i n g Mrs. B r i s s ' s e y e s , she f a i l s t o meet h i s , u n t i l she makes t h e p o i n t " t h a t r e q u i r e s i n t e r c o u r s e " — t h a t h e r husband i s t h e s o u r c e of h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . I n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t r u t h o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t she meet t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e y e s . The c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between e y e - h o l d i n g and making a p o i n t , and e y e - a v e r s i o n and d i s s i m u l a t i o n i s drawn on numerous o c c a s i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l . I n d e e d , on c e r t a i n o c c a s i o n s , t h e l o o k a l o n e s u f f i c e s f o r communication. The n a r r a t o r e n l i s t s t h e c o mmunicative powers o f t h e m e a n i n g f u l g l a n c e i n o r d e r t o s e p a r a t e Mrs. B r i s s f r o m May S e r v e r : t o s e p a r a t e t h e two l a d i e s 1 gave t h e more i n i t i a t e d a l o o k i n w h i c h I i n v i t e d h e r t o r e a d volumes. T h i s l o o k , o r r a t h e r t h e l o o k she r e t u r n e d , comes back t o me as t h e f i r s t n o t e o f a t o l e r a b l y t i g h t , t e n s e l i t t l e drama...(p. 48) The n a r r a t o r t h e n r e l a t e s what Mrs. B r i s s has u n d e r s t o o d by h i s l o o k : " t h a t she had b e t t e r l e a v e me t o get a t t h e t r u t h — o w i n g me some o b l i g a t i o n , a s she d i d , f o r so much o f i t as I had a l r e a d y communicated" (p. 48). T h i s " t a c i t p l e d g e " i s cemented by t h e c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h t h e i r m u t u a l g l a n c e , o r so a t l e a s t t h e n a r r a t o r b e l i e v e s . L a t e r i n t h e day, t h e n a r r a t o r a c c u s e s 131 F o r d Obert o f n o t so much as l o o k i n g a t him a w h i l e b e f o r e , and Obert r e t o r t s t h a t i t was h a r d l y t h e t i m e t o w i n k , as he was accompanied by a c h a rming woman, (p. 211) He t h e n remarks t o t h e n a r r a t o r : . " Y o u r w i n k s — c o m e — a r e p o r t e n t o u s ! " (p. 2 1 1 ) , as he mocks t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e l a b o r a t e d e v i c e s f o r s i l e n t c ommunication. The merest i n d i c a t i o n o f a c o mmunicative f a i l u r e a t t h i s p o i n t f o r e -shadows th e upcoming exchange w i t h Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n . The l a t t e r e x p l a i n s t o t h e n a r r a t o r i n v e r b a l terms what she has t r i e d t o communicate non-v e r b a l l y e a r l i e r , when th e n a r r a t o r n o t e s t h a t she i s s i t t i n g w i t h G i l b e r t Long. Mrs. B r i s s remarks t h a t she had t r i e d t o t e l e g r a p h t h e f o l l o w i n g message t o him:"What on e a r t h do you mean by y o u r nonsense? I t d o e s n ' t h o l d w a t e r ! " (p. 2 9 3 ) , meaning t h a t Long re m a i n s t h e d u l l i n d i v i d u a l he has a l w a y s been. Though th e n a r r a t o r has n o t r e c e i v e d and d e c i p h e r e d t h i s message, he has c o n s t r u e d h e r t e l l i n g g l a n c e as "an a s s u r a n c e t h a t , what-e v e r t r a i n she s h o u l d t a k e i n t h e m o r n i n g , she would a r r a n g e i t t h a t i t • s h o u l d n ' t be, as i t had t h e day b e f o r e , t h e same as mine" (p. 190).Though t h e n a r r a t o r seems t o be a d r o i t a t p i c k i n g up t h e s i g n a l s o f h i s f e l l o w g u e s t s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of h i s a c c u r a c y i n d e c o d i n g them. The n a r r a t o r i n v e s t s t h e d i a l o g u e w i t h t h e n o n - v e r b a l m a t e r i a l of c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t he c o n s i d e r s i m p o r t a n t , t h u s p r o v i d i n g t h e r e a d e r w i t h o b j e c t i v e c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r i n t e g r a t e s b o t h t h e n o n - v e r b a l components o f l a n g u a g e and t h e v e r b a l message, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t he has an advantage o v e r t h e p e r s o n who r e s p o n d s t o o n l y one p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . 3 1 The n a r r a t o r ' s a p p r o a c h t o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n a t t e s t s t o a p r a g m a t i c v i e w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , w h i c h may be s t a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : 132 ... i f i t i s a c c e p t e d t h a t a l l b e h a v i o u r i n an i n t e r a c t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n has message v a l u e , i . e . i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n , i t f o l l o w s t h a t no m a t t e r how one may t r y , one cannot n o t communicate. A c t i v i t y o r i n a c t i v i t y , words o r s i l e n c e — a l l have message v a l u e : t h e y i n f l u e n c e o t h e r s . . . 3 ^ The c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , i m p r e g n a t e d w i t h h e s i t a t i o n s , s i l e n c e s and a v o i d a n c e , i s c h a r g e d w i t h m e a n i n g f u l s i g n s and i n d i c e s f o r t h e n a r r a t o r , who a t t e m p t s t o i n v e s t them w i t h some fo r m o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Once t r a n s -c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t , t h e s e s c e n i c i n d i c a t o r s c o m p r i s e a f o r m o f s e t d i r e c -t i o n s f o r t h e r e a d e r , who i s t h e n a b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e u n d e r l y i n g c o n -d i t i o n s o f t h e a c t i o n w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . S c e n i c i n d i c a t o r s t e n d t o d e s t a b i l i s e t h e c o n t e n t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n by , a d d i n g a p h y s i c a l , e x t r a - v e r b a l component t o speech w h i c h e i t h e r c o n f i r m s o r r e f u t e s t h e v e r a c i t y o f t h e u t t e r a n c e . The f i n a l scene o f t h e n o v e l adumbrates w i t h h i d d e n s u g g e s t i o n , s i n c e what i s meant i s o f t e n . n o t s a i d , w h i l e what i s s a i d i s r a r e l y what i s meant. F a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s and i n v o l u n t a r y eye movements g i v e c o n c r e t e r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f t h e r e a c t i o n s t o each c h a r a c t e r i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r ' s q u e s t i o n — " Y o u d i d n ' t suppose I had asked h e r ? " (p. 2 6 8 ) — c a u s e s him t o r e f l e c t , "The p o i n t was p o s i t i v e l y t h a t she d i d n ' t ; y e t i t made us l o o k a t each o t h e r a l m o s t as h a r d as i f she d i d " (p. 2 6 8 ) . The m ounting d i s t r u s t and s u s p i c i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by each c h a r a c t e r toward t h e o t h e r i s t r a c e d i n t h e t e x t t h r o u g h eye movements: "She l o o k e d down a l i t t l e , as i f a g a i n a t a t r a p , " "Then she h e l d up h e r head," and f i n a l l y , " S h e l o o k e d about a t t h e t o p o f t h e room" ( a l l p. 269) E y e - a v e r t i n g t h u s becomes an i n d e x o f d i s c o m f o r t and a v o i d a n c e , w h i l e e y e - h o l d i n g o f t e n c o n s t i t u t e s an o v e r t method of, m a i n t a i n i n g t h e o t h e r ' s a t t e n t i o n and s i g n a l l i n g good f a i t h . C o n s c i o u s o f t h e v a l u e of such e x t r a - v e r b a l i n d i c a t o r s , t h e n a r r a t o r mani-133 p u l a t e s h i s l i s t e n e r s by f i x i n g t h e i r e y e s , as i n t h i s scene w i t h O b e r t : I t u r n e d on i t , a l i t t l e more t o him, and l o o k e d a t him so l o n g t h a t he had a t l a s t t o l o o k a t me; w i t h w h i c h , a f t e r h o l d i n g h i s eyes a n o t h e r moment, I made my p o i n t . (p. 212) Whereas i n James's t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i a l o g u e , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f eye-movement p r i m a r i l y s e r v e s t o p r o v i d e an e x t r a - v e r b a l i n d i c a t i o n o f the s p e a k e r - l i s t e n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , and s e c o n d a r i l y t o d e s i g n a t e t h e s p e a k e r , i n M a r t e r e a u , s u c h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f " l e r e g a r d " o c c u r i n o r d e r t o d i f f e r e n -t i a t e t h e v o i c e d s t a t e m e n t s from u n v o i c e d . I n Anthony Newman's compre^-h e n s i v e s t u d y o f S a r r a u t i a n d i s c o u r s e , he n o t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , b e t w e e n t h e e y e - h o l d i n g and speech. B r i e f l y , t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p may be n o t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g homology: se t a i r e : p a r l e r : : n e pas r e g a r d e r : r e g a r d e r . ^ 3 The f o l l o w i n g examples i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t : E l l e b a i s s e l e s yeux, mais l e s r e l e v e a u s s i t o t courageusement: E l l e p l i s s e l e s p a u p i e r e s e t f i x e un p o i n t au l o i n d'un a i r ^ • n o s t a l g i q u e , e l l e s o u p i r e . . . "..." (p. 13) E l l e me r e g a r d e gravement, i l me semble q u ' e l l e se ramasse s u r e l l e -meme, se d e c i d e : "..." (p. 13) I I b a i s s e s e s l u n e t t e s pour mieux me v o i r : "..." (p.163) I n t h e absence o f an e x p l i c i t modus, t h e g l a n c e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e i n q u i t .formula i n a n a t u r a l , though n o t e n t i r e l y s y s t e m a t i c way. Eye-movement i n S a r r a u t i a n c o n v e r s a t i o n t h u s s e r v e s p r i m a r i l y as a s u b s t i t u t i v e n o t a t i o n f o r a v e r b a l a c t . The v i g o u r and drama of t h e n a r r a t i v e modus i n b o t h n o v e l s f u r n i s h e s an i r o n i c c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e p o l i t e , r a t h e r i n s i p i d c o n v e r s a t i o n . The u n i q u e p e r c e p t i o n s o f b o t h n a r r a t o r s , p r o s c r i b e d by o r d i n a r y t a l k , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g n a r r a t i v e t a g s , f o r m i n g a d i s c r e t e i m a g i n a r y 134 c o n t e x t t o t h e more r e a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . The f i c t i o n a l w o r l d s of t h e two n o v e l s a r e permeated w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l v i s i o n of t h e n a r r a t o r s , as i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e commentary made i n t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e . What i s l e s s e v i d e n t i s t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e n a r r a t o r upon t h e d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e . The c o n v e n t i o n r e g a r d i n g d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e makes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r speech a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m a t t e r . The s p e a k e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e u t t e r -a nce, whether he b e l i e v e s what he says o r n o t . I n t h e u t t e r a n c e 'Jimmy C a r t e r i s a good p r e s i d e n t , " t h e e v a l u a t i v e "good" i s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d e s p i t e such v a r i a b l e s as i n t o n a t i o n and p a r a u n g u a l s i g n a l s " w h i c h may e x p r e s s doubt o r sarcasm. T h i s p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a p p l i e s t o d i r e c t l y r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e as w e l l . As P a r t e e (1973) and B a n f i e l d (1973) have shown, i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n , " H a r r y s a i d : ' C a r t e r i s a good p r e s i -dent ' , t h e r e a r e two s p e a k e r s , t h e r e p o r t i n g ' I ' and ' H a r r y ' . The r e p o r t e d s e n t e n c e i s H a r r y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , w h i l e t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a u s e i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s p e a k e r ' I ' . 3 ^ I n M a r t e r e a u , t h e d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e i n t h e n o v e l r e m a i n s f r e e of t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e . S a r r a u t e d i s t i n g u i s h e s , i n t h i s e a r l y n o v e l , one c h a r -a c t e r f r o m t h e o t h e r by i m b u i n g each s p e a k e r w i t h d i s t i n c t i v e t r a i t s o f s p e e c h . M o r e o v e r , t h e n a r r a t i o n i s consonant w i t h t h e s t o r y - t i m e , g i v i n g t h e i l l u s i o n o f an o n g o i n g v e r b a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h o u g h t and e v a n e s c e n t i n n e r movement. The n a r r a t i v e c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n i s e f f a c e d i n o r d e r t o s h i f t t h e emphasis t o t h e e v e n t s of t h e s t o r y . Few r e f e r e n c e s t o n a r r a t i v e o r d e r o c c u r , and even t h e s e r e p r e s e n t o r a l , r a t h e r t h a n w r i t -t e n t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The n a r r a t o r n o t e s t h e r e c u r r e n c e o f a t o p i c a t t h e 135 b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i f t h s e c t i o n — " ( j e l ' a i d e j a d i t , nous f o n c t i o n n o n s comme des v a s e s communicants)" (p. 1 4 3 )— h o w e v e r , whether t h i s e d i t o r i a l n o t e i s . d i r e c t e d a t t h e i m p l i e d r e a d e r o r h i m s e l f ( p r e s e n t o r f u t u r e ) i s not c l e a r . D e a l i n g w i t h t h e f i c t i o n a l f i r s t - p e r s o n f o r m , D o r r i t Cohn n o t e s t h e u n i q u e p r o b l e m o f n a r r a t i v e i n w h i c h h i s t o i r e v a n i s h e s i n t o p u r e d i s c o u r s e , " w h e r e — a s S t a r o b i n s k i s a y s — t h e 'event i s none o t h e r t h a n t h e u n r o l l i n g o f t h e monologue i t s e l f , i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e r e p o r t e d ' f a c t s ' , w h i c h become i m m a t e r i a l . ' " At t h i s p o i n t , The d i s c o u r s e o f a m o n o l o g i s t no l o n g e r ' c o n f o r m s t o B e n v e n i s t e ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f d i s c o u r s e as 'every u t t e r a n c e assuming a s p e a k e r and a h e a r e r , ' u n l e s s we e x t e n d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t o i n c l u d e a h e a r e r who i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e s peaker.36 M a r t e r e a u , l o c a t e d i n a " d u r a t i v e p r e s e n t , • p a s s i n g t h r o u g h h o p e l e s s c o n -d i t i o n a l a n d ' n e g a t i v e f u t u r e " 3 7 r e p r e s e n t s t h e s p e a k e r ' s p r e d i c a m e n t i n t h e f i g u r e of a v i c i o u s c i r c l e : ...sans a u t r e a d v e r s a i r e que lui-meme; ne g r i f f a n t , ne mordant, n ' e t r e i g n a n t que lui-meme, t o u r n a n t s u r lui-meme, c h i e n s t u p i d e q u i se mord l a queue, d e r v i c h e g r o t e s q u e . (p. 22) Though The S a c r e d Fount i s a r e t r o s p e c t i v e f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e i n w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r examines a p a s t s t e e p e d i n d e l u s i o n , , t h e same k i n d o f c i r c u l a r i t y p r e v a i l s as i n M a r t e r e a u , f o r t h e r e a l a d d r e s s e e of t h e n a r r a t i v e a p p e a r s t o be the n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f . T h e - t a l e i s m o t i v a t e d by h i s d e s i r e t o examine t h e e v e n t s o f a weekend w h i c h shed new l i g h t on d i s a g r e e a b l e a s p e c t s o f . h i s p e r s o n a l i t y ; t h e t e x t r e p r e s e n t s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s need t o c o n t r a d i c t Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s l a s t w o r d — " t h e word t h a t put me a l t o g e t h e r ' n owhere" (p. 3 1 9 ) — i n an e f f o r t t o r e c o n s t r u c t h i s p a s t and p r e s e n t . 136 The p r o b l e m o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s mnemonic c r e d i b i l i t y a r i s e s e a r l y i n t h e n o v e l , f o r t h e changes t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r p e r c e i v e s i n h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e s a r e b a s e d on a t i m e gap o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y two y e a r s . I n h i s s t u d y of James w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f an i m p r e s s i o n i s t a e s t h e t i c , S t o w e l l draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f two t e m p o r a l gaps i n t h e n o v e l : t h e p e r i o d between h i s f i r s t and second m e e t i n g w i t h t h e o t h e r g u e s t s , and the'gap between t h e a n e c d o t e and t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g . G i v e n t h e i n d e t e r m i n a c y o f t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e r o l e o f memory, e i t h e r ' as an a c c u r a t e m i r r o r o f e v e n t s o r a d i s t o r t i n g l e n s , i n t h e n a r r a t i v e . Be t h a t as i t may, t h e n a r r a t o r i n v o k e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n of p e r f e c t memory, as f o r t h e most p a r t , he q u o t e s whole c o n v e r s a t i o n s v e r b a t i m w i t h l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a c c u r a c y o f h i s r e p o r t . As we have n o t e d , t h e p r o b l e m of p o i n t o f v i e w i n d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e i s n e g l i b l e , because t h e a t t r i b u t e d s p e a k e r must assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e q uoted m a t e r i a l . However, t h e n a r r a t o r undermines t h i s c o n v e n t i o n by commenting on h i s d i r e c t i v e r o l e i n t h e n a r r a t i v e : These r e m a r k s — o f w h i c h I * g i v e r a t h e r t h e sense t h a n t h e f o r m , f o r t h e y were a l i t t l e s c a t t e r e d and t r o u b l e d , and I h e l p e d them ou t and p i e c e d them t o g e t h e r — t h e s e remarks had f o r me I f i n d u n e x p e c t e d s u g g e s t i o n s . . . (p. 49) On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n , t h e n a r r a t o r f a i l s t o quote a c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h L o n g , s t a t i n g t h a t he c o u l d "do l i t t l e j u s t i c e t o t h e p l e a s a n t s u p p r e s s e d t u m u l t o f i m p r e s s i o n and r e f l e c t i o n t h a t , on my p a r t , our t e n m i n u t e s t o g e t h e r p r o d u c e d " (p. 163). I n f a c t , t h e n a r r a t o r p r o v i d e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t would s u p p o r t o r oppose t h e v i e w t h a t he has become i n t e l l i g e n t . L a t e r the n a r r a t o r draws t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o a d e t a i l t h a t he has f o r g o t t e n : w h e t h e r Mrs. S e r v e r was f i r s t d e s i g n a t e d by 137 Lady John o r h i m s e l f , (p. 183) He f o r e g r o u n d s h i s f a l l i b i l i t y as a n a r r a -t o r , n o t i n g , There i s -perhaps an o d d i t y — w h i c h I must s e t down t o my emo t i o n o f t h e m o m e n t — i n my n o t now b e i n g a b l e t o sa y . . . r e m i n i s c e n c e o f t h a t shock i s n o t one o f t h o s e I have found m y s e l f s t o r i n g up. (p. 185) These memory gaps d e t r a c t from t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e l i a b i l i t y as a r e p o r t e r ; n o t o n l y does he have a l i m i t e d v i e w p o i n t due t o h i s p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s , b u t i t a l s o becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s s u s -p e c t . Though t h e d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e form o f The Sa c r e d Fount appears t o o f f e r a v a r i e t y o f v i e w p o i n t s and v o i c e s , i n f a c t , t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n t r o l l i n g f u n c t i o n exposes t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e d i a l o g u e i s r i d d l e d by t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r . A s t y l i s t i c s t u d y o f language i n The S a c r e d Fount r e v e a l s t h e n a r -r a t o r ' s p r o p e n s i t y f o r such t r o p e s as c h i a s m u s , a naphora, e p i s t r o p h e , a n t i t h e s i s and a n a d i p l o s i s , b o t h i n h i s speech and commentary; however, t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s t e n d t o use many o f t h e same d e v i c e s . Though i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n a v e r i t a b l e c o n t a g i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s among t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l , such h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d and a r t i f i c i a l d e v i c e s a r e l e s s e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m one s p e a k e r t o a n o t h e r . Thus, t h e n a r r a t i v e p r e s e n c e e n t e r s i n t o t h e o b j e c t i v e , f i g u r a l p o l e o f the n o v e l , i n f e c t i n g t h e v o c a b u l a r y , s y n t a x , and p e r h a p s even t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e . 138 THE INTERPRETATIVE FUNCTION: The c o n v e r s a t i o n a l n o v e l p r e s e n t s s o c i a l l i f e as i t i s r e f r a c t e d by t h e m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f a v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r s e n g a g i n g i n d i s c u s s i o n . The v e r y n a t u r e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n d i c t a t e s t h e s i t u a t i o n o f u n c e r t a i n t y . t h a t p r e v a i l s , s i n c e any u t t e r a n c e may g e n e r a t e u n f o r e s e e n r e p l i e s . I n c o n v e r -s a t i o n , t h e r e i s no h i e r a r c h y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s : each v o i c e t e n d s e i t h e r t o c o n f i r m o r r e p u d i a t e t h e v i e w p r e s e n t e d by t h e p r e c e d i n g s p e a k e r . However, t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l f r e e - p l a y i n each n o v e l i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e p r e s e n c e of a n a r r a t o r who comments upon and e v a l u a t e s t h e s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e c h a r a c t e r s . Such n a r r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y p r o b l e m a t i c w i t h i n t h e p o e t i c s o f James and S a r r a u t e , f o r w h i l e t h e a e s t h e t i c i m p e r a t i v e t o remove t h e a u t h o r f r o m t h e . l i t e r a r y work m o t i v a t e s b o t h a u t h o r s , the. a u t h o r i a l v o i c e r e - e n t e r s t h e n o v e l i n t h e f o r m of t h e n a r r a t o r . As we have n o t e d , t h i s s u r r o g a t e - a u t h o r i s c a r e f u l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d i n M a r t e r e a u as a h i g h l y s t r u n g and even r a t h e r p a r a n o i d young man, w h i l e t h e n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount i s e x c e s s i v e l y c u r i o u s about o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a f f a i r s and f a n c i f u l . Though t h e s e i d i o s y n c r a s i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e u n r e l i a b i l i t y o f each n a r r a t o r , n e v e r -t h e l e s s , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s have t h e a u t h o r i t y a c c o r d e d t o t h e u n i f y i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e n o v e l . T h i s n a r r a t i v e s t r a t e g y has i m p o r t a n t r e p e r c u s s i o n s on t h e d i a l o g u e form o f each n o v e l , inasmuch as commentary p r o v i d e s a means o f u n i f y i n g and o r i e n t i n g t h e d i s p a r a t e e l e m e n t s of many speech a c t s and m u l t i p l e v i e w p o i n t s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , even 139 as t h e commentary i n M a r t e r e a u a l l u d e s t o t h e w h o l l y s u b j e c t i v e and f r a g -mentary n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y , t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e p r e v a i l s o v e r t h e v i e w s s u g g e s t e d by t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s o f the n o v e l s , whose v i e w p o i n t s appear commonplace and i n a d e q u a t e t o t h e t e n o r o f r e a l i t y shown i n each n o v e l . The anonymous n a r r a t o r s o f The Sa c r e d Fount and M a r t e r e a u r e v e a l t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y r e p o r t t h r o u g h v a r i o u s forms o f n a r r a t i v e commentary. The f u n c t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - d o m i n ates t h e t e x t as t h e n a r r a t o r e x p r e s s e s " s p e c i f i c a t t i t u d e s , comments, and e v a l u a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a r r a t e d events."38 As D o l e z e l p o i n t s - o u t , " t h r o u g h t h e e f -f e c t o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f u n c t i o n , t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s -c o u r s e changes d r a m a t i c a l l y . " 3 9 xhe i n t e r p r e t a t i v e f u n c t i o n may be b r o k e n down i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t i v e forms of n a r r a t i v e commentary; f r o m t h e l e a s t o b t r u s i v e t o t h e most e v i d e n t n a r r a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , t h e y a r e e x p a n d i n g , a s s e s s i v e , and code commentary.40 E x p a n d i n g commentary t a k e s t h e f o r m o f "an a n a l y t i c a l e x p a n s i o n o f a n o t h e r e l e m e n t " and c o n s t i t u t e s an e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t n a r r a t i v e f e a t u r e o f S a r r a u t e ' s work. A s s e s s i v e commentary r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l i s i n g f u n c t i o n , inasmuch as i t p r o v i d e s a s y n t h e t i c assessment o f v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The t h i r d f o r m o f commentary d e a l s w i t h the n a r r a t i v e code, f o r m i n g a t e c h n i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f w r i t i n g . W h i l e t h e s e c r i t i c a l terms were f o r m u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c problems and t e c h n i q u e s found i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , t h e y s e r v e t h e u s e f u l p u r p o s e o f e x t e n d i n g t h e a u t h o r ' s v e r y d i s t i n c t i v e c r i t i c a l v o c a b u l a r y t o o t h e r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n . And w h i l e t h e r e a r e few i n s t a n c e s o f t h e l i t e r a r y t r o p i s m beyond -the work o f S a r r a u t e , • expanding commentary r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f t h i s . f e a t u r e as i t i s 140 found i n a v a r i e t y o f n a r r a t i v e s . Thus, t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , a r i s i n g out o f a s t u d y o f S a r r a u t e ' s n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , p r o v e e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a J a m e s i a n t e x t . ' E x p a n d i n g Commentary Ex p a n d i n g commentary m o d i f i e s m a t e r i a l found i n t h e s p a t i a l and tem-p o r a l b o u n d a r i e s o f the s t o r y , as i t i s i n t e r p o l a t e d t h r o u g h e i t h e r t h e t r a n s f o r m i n g medium o f c o m p a r i s o n o r s u b s t i t u t i o n , through, t h e t r o p e s o f s i m i l e o r metaphor. Tropisms a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m o t h e r forms of expand-i n g commentary by c o n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n by n a r r a t i v e f u n c t i o n : t r o p i s m s i n v o l v e " t h e use o f a l i m i t e d number o f i n s t i n c t u a l r e a c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n terms of a n i m a l o r p l a n t , a t t r a c t i o n o r r e p u l s i o n i m a g e s . " 4 1 The m o t i v a t i o n and s u b s t a n c e of a l l S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , t h e t r o p i s m i s a l s o a f e a t u r e , w i t h c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s i n c o n t e n t , i n The S a c r e d F o u n t. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g passage t h e J a m e s i a n n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a t e o f the two v i c t i m s of v a m p i r i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , "poor B r i s s and May S e r v e r i i n terms o f a t r o p i s m : I caught no l o o k f r o m e i t h e r t h a t spoke t o me of s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d them; and I caught none, i n p a r t i c u l a r , from one o f them t o t h e o t h e r , t h a t I c o u l d r e a d as a symptom o f t h e i r h a v i n g compared n o t e s . The f e l l o w - f e e l i n g of each f o r t h e l o s t . l i g h t o f t h e o t h e r remained f o r me but a t i e s u p p o s i t i o u s — t h e f u l l - b l o w n f l o w e r of my t h e o r y . I t w ould show h e r e as a n o t h e r f l o w e r , e q u a l l y mature, f o r me t o have made out a s i m i l a r dim community between G i l b e r t Long and Mrs. B r i s -e n d e n — t o be a b l e t o f i g u r e them as g r o p i n g s i d e by s i d e , p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y , t owards a f e l l o w s h i p o f l i g h t ' o v e r t a k e n ; but i f I f a i l e d o f t h i s , f o r i d e a l symmetry, t h a t seemed t o r e s t on t h e g e n e r a l t r u t h t h a t j o y b r i n g s p e o p l e l e s s t o g e t h e r t h a n sorrow. (pp. 169-70) 141 I n d e e d , t h e v e r y absence of v i s i b l e s i g n s d e n o t i n g t h e " l o n e l y f i g h t w i t h d i s i n t e g r a t i o n " (p. 167) of t h e two v i c t i m s o n l y g i v e s t h e n a r r a t o r g r e a t e r cause t o " r e n d e r a f r e s h j u s t i c e t o t h e m a r v e l o f t h e i r c i v i l i s e d s t a t e " (p. 167). L i k e S a r r a u t e , James n o t e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e d e c o r o u s forms o f s o c i a l l i f e — c o m p o s e d of f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , g e s t u r e and e t i q u e t t e — and t h e a u t h e n t i c c o n t e n t o f e x p e r i e n c e . However, w h i l e S a r r a u t e f o c u s e s on t h e s u b s t a n c e o f "des mouvements i n d e f i n i s s a b l e s , q u i g l i s s e n t t r e s r a -pidement aux l i m i t e s de n o t r e c o n s c i e n c e " — t h e s e c r e t s o u r c e o f man's e x i s t e n c e — : J a m e s i s more i n t e r e s t e d t o document t h e forms t h e s e i m p u l s e s t a k e i n t a l k and b e h a v i o u r . When t h e p e r c e p t i b l e s i g n s o f a l i a i s o n a r e r e d u c e d , as i n t h e passage c i t e d above, t o e v i d e n c e o f mere c o n t i g u i t y , t h e n a r r a t o r i s o b l i g e d t o seek c l u e s by s p e c u l a t i o n . C o n c e d i n g t h a t " i f one hadn't known i t one m ight have seen n o t h i n g , " t h e n a r r a t o r h y p o t h e s i s e s t h a t Mr. B r i s s e n d e n and Mrs. S e r v e r a r e d e r i v i n g some fo r m o f s u p p o r t f r o m " t h e i r dim community" (p'. 169). The b o t a n i c a l a n a l o g y i s s u s t a i n e d i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f G i l b e r t Long and Mrs. B r i s s " g r o p i n g s i d e by s i d e , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , towards a f e l l o w s h i p of l i g h t o v e r t a k e n " — a metaphor g l e a n e d from t h e n a t u r a l phenomenon o f p h o t o -t r o p i s m . B o t h images s u g g e s t t h e r e a l i t y p o r t r a y e d by S a r r a u t e , i n w h i c h t h e weak band t o g e t h e r a g a i n s t t h e s t r o n g , and t h e l a t t e r eschew a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h t h e weak. More i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e c o n v e r g e n c e of v i s i o n between James and S a r r a u t e a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t h i s i n s t a n c e i n a s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r manner. Though p o s s e s s e d of v a s t l y d i v e r g e n t i d e a s i n many a r e a s , b o t h n a r r a t o r s , n o n e t h e l e s s , c a p t u r e t h e mundane r e a l i t y o f t h e e v e n t s o b s e r v e d i n c o l o u r f u l , o f t e n m e l o d r a m a t i c images and v i g n e t t e s w h i c h expand a d e t a i l o f t h e m a t e r i a l s i t u a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n t h e s u b t e r r a n e a n movements g e n e r a t e d by c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r 142 human b e i n g s evoked by S a r r a u t e i n t h e form o f t h e t r o p i s m , James d e s c r i b e s such unseen a c t i v i t i e s as t h e y o c c u r i n h i s c h a r a c t e r ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h i m a g i n a t i v e v i s i o n . Once e n t e r e d i n t o , t h e w o r l d o f i m a g i n a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a t a n g i b l e f o r c e f o r t h e n a r r a t o r , and i t s v a r i o u s forms o f entrapment a r e e x p r e s s e d i n p h y s i c a l terms. The n a r r a t o r o f t e n e m b r o i d e r s upon t h e e x p e r -i e n c e o f i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h e fo r m o f e x p a n d i n g c o m m e n t a r y — a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s u b j e c t i v e a d v e n t u r e i n t o c o n c r e t e terms. The n a r r a t o r r e f e r s t o h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s u n d r y images: ' . ' . T h i s c o n n e c t i o n hooked i t s e l f , l i k e a sudden p i c t u r e and w i t h a c l i c k t h a t f a i r l y r esounded t h r o u g h our empty rooms, i n t o t h e a r r a y o f t h e o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n s , ' t o t h e immense e n r i c h m e n t , as i t was e a s y . t o f e e l , o f t h e o c c a s i o n , and t o t h e immense c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e v e r y i d e a t h a t , i n t h e c o u r s e o f the- e v e n i n g , I had come n e a r t o d i s m i s s i n g f r o m my mind as t o o f a n t a s t i c even f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e company i t s h o u l d e n j o y t h e r e . " (pp. 254-55) I n i n f i n i t e l y l e s s t i m e t h a n I have needed t o t e l l i t , I had achieved' my f l i g h t i n t o l u m i n o u s e t h e r and,' a l i g h t i n g g r a c e -f u l l y on my f e e t , r e p o r t e d m y s e l f a t my p o s t . (p. 255) I t had f o r my i m a g i n a t i o n a v a l u e , f o r my t h e o r y a p r i c e , and i t i n f a c t c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p r e s s i o n under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f w h i c h t h i s t h e o r y , j u s t i m p a t i e n t l y shaken o f f , p e r c h e d a g a i n on my s h o u l d e r s . (p. 202) The w o r l d o f r u m i n a t i o n s and thought w h i c h i n t e r e s t s James i n The Sa c r e d  Fount i s seen i n M a r t e r e a u as an i l l u s o r y w o r l d whose a p p a r e n t autonomy i s i n f a c t r u l e d by s u b c o n s c i o u s emotions and i m p u l s e s . Whereas t h e n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount s e n s e s " t h e mere b r u s h o f Lady John's clum-s i e r c u r i o s i t y " (p. 174) and " t h e s h a r p e s t j o s t l e t o h i s t h o u g h t " (p. 295) caused by Mrs. B r i s s , t h e n a r r a t o r o f M a r t e r e a u employs such p h y s i c a l imagery t o plumb t h e unavowed f e e l i n g s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o what i s e x p r e s s e d 143 i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . I n c o n t r a s t t o . t h e b r i e f s u b - c o n t e x t accompanying t h e d i a l o g u e i n James, t h e e x p a n d i n g commentary i n M a r t e r e a u i s o f t e n e x t e n s i v e , o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n -s t r u c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t s p a t i a l o r t e m p o r a l c o - o r d i n a t e s i n p a r a l l e l t o t h e main e v e n t . A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f S a r r a u t e ' s l a t e r work i s t h e c o - e x i s t e n c e o f m u l t i p l e images, so t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f what r e a l l y happened and what i s i m a g i n e d becomes b l u r r e d , and u l t i m a t e l y u n i m p o r t a n t . I n M a r t e r e a u , however, e x t e n s i v e e x p a n d i n g commentary t e n d s t o be r e l e g a t e d t o a f t e r - t h e - f a c t r e m i -n i s c e n c e , as t h e nephew r e c o n s t r u c t s a c o n v e r s a t i o n , a t t e n d i n g t o t h e sub-c u r r e n t s w h i c h were b a r e l y p e r c e p t i b l e a t t h e t i m e . A c o m p a r i s o n o f two d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e scene i n w h i c h t h e nephew v i s i t s M a r t e r e a u and h i s w i f e s e r v e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s e n c o u n t e r i s r e n d e r e d s c e n i c a l l y : t h e n a r r a t o r s u p p l i e s s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s w i t h t h e g e s t u r e s , p o s i t i o n s , and move-ments o f each c h a r a c t e r . Such s e t d i r e c t i o n s , r a r e i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , may be j u s t i f i e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t " l e u r s e u l e a p p a r i t i o n en c h a i r e t en os s u f f i t pour t o u t b a l a y e r . . . " (p. 166). When M a r t e r e a u d e l i v e r s t h e v e r b a l blow t h a t c a u s e s t h e n a r r a t o r t o r e s u r - • r e c t t h e scene i n memory l a t e r , t h e e x p a n d i n g commentary i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e a c t i o n : "Je me r e c r o q u e v i l l e un peu, j e r e c u l e . . . " ( p . 1 7 2 ) . The a c t u a l u t t e r a n c e i s r e n d e r e d by t h e k i n e s i c image, " i l se t o u r n e e n f i n v e r s m o i . " R e c o l l e c t i n g t h e scene a f t e r w a r d s , t h e n a r r a t o r endows t h e u t t e r a n c e w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g i m a g i n a t i v e c o n t e x t : . . . i l me r e p o u s s e , i l m'envoie r o u l e r dans un c o i n , i l l e v e son p i e d : "Oh, v o u s , mon p e t i t , vous sav e z comment on l ' a p p e l l e , v o t r e m a l a d i e ? " . . . t o u t r e c r o q u e v i l l e , l e s yeux l e v e s , j ' a t t e n d s ...un p i e d immense de g e a n t , une enorme s e m e l l e c l o u t e e . , . M a i s i l ne m ' e c r a s e r a pas. J u s t e un coup pas f o r t , un s a i n t n'y 144 r e s i s t e r a i t p a s , mais i l se r e t i e n t . I I me l a i s s e p a r t i r , i l me pousse d e h o r s . . . " (p. 234) The use of e x p a n d i n g commentary t h u s p r o v i d e s a n o n - a n a l y t i c a l means o f v i e w i n g p a s t e v e n t s , so t h a t S a r r a u t e c i r c u m v e n t s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e w h o l l y i n t e l l e c t u a l v a n t a g e p o i n t o f one i n t h e p r e s e n t v i e w i n g t h e p a s t . W i t h t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r , and t h e r e b y t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m o t i v a t i n g t h e n a r r a t i v e m a t e r i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , S a r r a u t e l a t e r a c h i e v e s a more c o m p l e t e f u s i o n between t h e expanded t r o p i s m and t h e e v e n t t h a t t r i g g e r s i t . I t i s c l e a r t h a t e x p a n d i n g commentary p l a y s a d i f f e r e n t r o l e i n each t e x t : t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l commentary e n a b l e s James t o h e i g h t e n t h e comic o r d r a m a t i c v a l u e o f t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e i n w h i c h t h e e s s e n t i a l drama i s p l a y e d o u t , w h i l e i n M a r t e r e a u , t h e t r o p i s m c o n t i n u a l l y s u b v e r t s t h i s p l a n e of r e a l i t y . These d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e use and f u n c t i o n of e x p a n d i n g commentary i n t h e two n o v e l s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r t h e y d e l i n e a t e t h e gap between t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e d e v i c e s and t h e i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e New N o v e l . § A s s e s s i v e commentary S i n c e i t i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y a d i r e c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b u t a l s o a p r o c e s s of a b s t r a c t i o n w h i c h g e n e r a l i s e s a s e r i e s o f n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s , a s s e s s i v e commentary s t r e s s e s t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l framework o f t h e n a r r a t i v e c o n t i n u u m and t h e n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e . ^ 2 The g e n e r a l i s i n g c h a r a c t e r of a s s e s s i v e commentary d i s t a n c e s t h e n a r r a t o r 145 from t h e f i c t i v e w o r l d ; t h r o u g h h i s a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s , he s e p a r a t e s h i m s e l f f r o m the w o r l d o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s , s e t t i n g h i m s e l f above them and t h e s t o r y he t e l l s . The s u b j e c t i v e p e r s o n a l s t a n c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s t r a n s f o r m e d t h r o u g h t h i s f u n c t i o n , as the n a r r a t o r assumes a r h e t o r i c a l r o l e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s t o r y . The S a c r e d Fount opens w i t h a s s e s s i v e commentary, i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s about t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e weekend a t Newmarch: I t was an o c c a s i o n , I f e l t — t h e p r o s p e c t of a l a r g e p a r t y — t o l o o k out a t t h e s t a t i o n f o r o t h e r s , p o s s i b l e f r i e n d s and even p o s s i b l e enemies, who m ight be g o i n g . Such p r e m o n i t i o n s , i t was t r u e , b r e d f e a r s when t h e y f a i l e d t o b r e e d hopes, though i t was t o be added t h a t t h e r e were sometimes, i n t h e c a s e , r a t h e r happy a m b i g u i t i e s . (p. 1) T h i s passage s e t s f o r t h t h e dichotomous p o l a r i t i e s — f r i e n d s , enemies, hopes, f e a r s — t h a t i n h a b i t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n and f u r t h e r i m p l i e s t h a t among such a p p a r e n t l y i r r e s o l v a b l e a n t i t h e s e s , t h e r e may be "happy ambi-g u i t i e s , " t h u s a l e r t i n g t h e r e a d e r t o t h e f a l l i b i l i t y o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d u a l i s t i c v i s i o n . He expands on h i s o r i g i n a l i d e a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g gnomic s t a t e m e n t : One was g l o w e r e d a t , i n t h e compartment, by p e o p l e who on t h e morrow, a f t e r b r e a k f a s t , were t o p r o v e c h a r m i n g ; one was spoken t o f i r s t by p e o p l e whose s o c i a b i l i t y was s u b s e q u e n t l y t o show as b l e a k . . . . ( p . 1 ) P a r e n t h e t i c a l l y , t h e n a r r a t o r f a i l s t o heed h i s own g e n e r a l i s a t i o n , s i n c e he c o n s t r u e s Long's s o c i a b i l i t y as an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l improvement; and a l t h o u g h t h i s s o c i a b i l i t y i s " s u b s e q u e n t l y t o show as b l e a k , " t h e n a r r a t o r does n o t r e v i s e h i s i n i t i a l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f G i l b e r t Long. A s s e s s i v e commentary of t h i s n a t u r e p r o v i d e s an i r o n i c c o u n t e r p o i n t t o t h e e v e n t s o f t h e n o v e l , s i n c e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r o c l i v i t y 146 f o r symmetry and b a l a n c e engenders t h e many laws and p a r a b l e s f o u n d i n t h e n o v e l . The l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d by t h e n a r r a t o r c r e a t e t i d y o p p o s i t i o n s and a n a l o g i e s t h a t have l i t t l e t o do w i t h t h e e v e n t s a t hand. The p r o p o r t i o n o f a s s e s s i v e commentary t o t h e two o t h e r forms o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t h e n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e o f The S a c r e d Fount i s h i g h . The n a r r a t o r ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h f o r m i n g apothegms and e x t r a c t i n g t h e g e n e r a l laws of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s m o t i v a t e s t h i s mode o f d i s c o u r s e and r e s t r i c t s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o the n a r r a t i v e v o i c e . Whereas a s s e s s i v e commentary g e n e r a l l y i n t e r r u p t s t h e w o r l d of t h e s t o r y , e x t e n d i n g i t s e l f t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e r e a d e r , h e r e , t h e commentary r e f l e c t s b ack upon t h e mind o f t h e n a r r a t o r , f u r t h e r d e s c r i b i n g h i s m e n t a l f o i b l e s . I n M a r t e r e a u t h e a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e a s s e s s i v e commentary i n t h e n o v e l t e n d s t o p r o d u c e an a n a l y t i c a l n a r r a t i v e d i s t a n c e , n o t d i s s i m i l a r t o P r o u s t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c method o f s t e p p i n g back t o e v a l u a t e p a s t e v e n t s . The n a r r a t o r s of t h e e a r l y n o v e l s o f S a r r a u t e a r e p rone .to a n a l y s i s , a t e n d e n c y n o t u n l i k e t h e one t h a t S a r r a u t e n o t e s i n h e r p r e c u r s o r : t h a t i s , " i l c h e r c h e a degager de ses o b s e r v a t i o n s des p r i n c i p e s generaux.'"^ 3 A l t h o u g h t h e commentary i n M a r t e r e a u i s g e n e r a l l y contemporaneous w i t h t h e a c t i o n , u n l i k e t h e p r i v i l e g e d b i f o c a l v i s i o n o f P r o u s t ' s n a r r a t o r , t h e e f f e c t o f a s s e s s i v e commentary i s t o c r e a t e a gap between t h e n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e and t h e s t o r y . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g example t h e s u g g e s t i o n of immediacy evoked by t h e m i m e t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e scene i n t h e f o r m o f d i a l o g u e i s i n t e r r u p t e d by t h e subsequent a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a r r a t o r . The scene p r e s e n t s t h e aunt and nephew as t h e y d i s c u s s t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s o f h e r d a u g h t e r (pp. 51-64). The n a r r a t o r t h e n p r o c e e d s t o sum up t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n : 147 Tout l e monde p l u s ou moins p a r t a g e avec nous ce b e s o i n q u i de temps en t e m p s — e t meme a s s e z s o u v e n t — n o u s prend de nous t e n d r e a i n s i l e s uns aux a u t r e s un os a r o n g e r pour tromper n o t r e f a i m , un h o c h e t a m o r d i l l e r pour c a l m e r n o t r e sourde i r r i t a t i o n , n o t r e demangeaison. (p. 64) The n a r r a t o r e x t e n d s t h e r e a c t i o n s o f t h e two p e o p l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r c o n v e r -s a t i o n t o " t o u t l e monde," and s t r e t c h e s t h e p a r t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n examined t o "de temps en t e m p s — e t meme a s s e z s o u v e n t , " t h u s e x t r a c t i n g g e n e r a l p r i n -c i p l e s f r o m an i n s i g n i f i c a n t and t r i v i a l c o n v e r s a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r goes on t o evoke t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s o c i a l gurus o f the p r e s e n t d a y — " l e s mo-r a l i s t e s , l e s s a t i r i s t e s , l e s p s y c h o l o g u e s " (p. 6 4 ) — i n o r d e r t o r e i n f o r c e t h e c u l t u r a l code from w h i c h t h i s l aw o r i g i n a t e s . S a r r a u t e u n d e r s c o r e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f t h i s n o t i o n i n o r d e r t o draw a f a m i l i a r i d e a onto new g r o u nd, as t h e n a r r a t o r compares "ces passe-temps c o u r a n t s e t somme t o u t e a s s e z a n o d i n s " (p. 65) t o t h e i m p e r c e p t i b l e movements t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e s u b j e c t o f the n o v e l : t h e s e common games a r e as " d ' a i m a b l e s j e u x de s o c i e t e aux j e u x s a n g l a n t s du c i r q u e " (p. 6 5 ) . The a u t h o r — f o r t h e n a r -r a t i v e v o i c e b l e n d s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l y a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h t h a t o f the a u t h o r — announces e x p l i c i t l y the n a t u r e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t forms the b a s i s of h e r work. Such a s s e s s i v e commentary a r t i c u l a t e s t h e u n i q u e l i t e r a r y c o n c e r n s o f N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , p r o v i d i n g p o l e m i c a l v i e w s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e c o l l e c t e d i n h e r e s s a y s , L ' E r e du soupcon. T h i s n a r r a t i v e s t r a t e g y , w h i l e p e r h a p s i n e v i t a b l e a t t h i s p o i n t i n the e v o l u t i o n o f h e r c r a f t , i s m o d i f i e d i n t h e l a t e r n o v e l s , so t h a t commentary and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a u t h o r i a l v o i c e a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the d i s c u r s i v e s t r u c t u r e o f h e r work. The a s s e s s i v e commentary o f M a r t e r e a u o f t e n u n d e r l i n e s t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e phenomena S a r r a u t e evokes by s t r e s s i n g f a m i l i a r e l e m e n t s o f e x p e r i -e nce, as i n t h i s p assage: 148 Souvent a i n s i , quand l e s o r t nous comble, quand l a r e a l i t e que nous avons t o u j o u r s evoquee, a p p e l e e , e s t l a a n o t r e p o r t e e , nous ne l a r e c o n n a i s s o n s pas d'abord. (p. 78) The g e n e r a l a s s e r t i o n s o f t h i s p assage o v e r r i d e t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f p e r s o n and p l a c e i n t h e n o v e l i s t i c w o r l d o f M a r t e r e a u t o a f f i r m w i d e l y a p p l i c a b l e t r u t h s . Such a s s e s s i v e commentary i n v i t e s t h e r e a d e r t o a c q u i e s c e w i t h t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o v e r b i a l r e a l i t y b e f o r e i n i t i a t i n g h i m i n t o t h e un-f a m i l i a r t r o p i s t i c w o r l d o f S a r r a u t e . The i n c l u s i o n o f t h e r e a d e r w i t h i n t h e n o v e l t h r o u g h t h e pronoun "nous" i s an i m p o r t a n t s t r a t e g i c a l f e a t u r e of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as i t i s d e p l o y e d by S a r r a u t e i n h e r e a r l y work. However, t h e a n a l y t i c a l t h o u g h t r e p r e s e n t e d i n a s s e s s i v e commentary undermines t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f S a r r a u t e ' s l i t e r a r y p r o j e c t , w h i c h i s t o e x p l o r e t h e p r e - c o n s c i e n t r e g i o n s o f h e r c h a r a c t e r s . S a r r a u t e d r a m a t i s e s t h e c h o i c e between two modes of p e r c e p t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t h o u g h t : ...nous a v i o n s s e n t i , emanant d ' e l l e s , un e f f l u v e d o u c e a t r e , une f a d e o d e u r . . . e t , comme l e medecin q u i f l a i r e une p l a i e ou a p e r c o i t une p a l e r o u g e u r f a i t a u s s i t o t son d i a g n o s t i c . , . m a i s non, ce n ' e s t pas v r a i , nous n'avons eu l e temps de r i e n p e n s e r , nous n'avons r i e n d i a g n o s t i q u e , ce q u i s ' e s t l e v e s o u d a i n en n o u s , sans que nous s a c h i o n s b i e n p o u r q u o i , e s t comparable p l u -t o t a l a f u r e u r g l o u t o n n e du t i g r e q u i se n t p a l p i t e r - s o u s l a p a t t e , t o u t e m o l l e e t d e j a r e s i g n e e , s a p r o i e . . . (p. 59) To t h e a n a l y t i c a l , o r " d i a g n o s t i c , " mode of r a t i o n a l t h o u g h t , t h e n a r r a t o r opposes the u n m e d i a t e d , i n s t i n c t u a l r e a l m o f f e e l i n g , w h i c h i s b e s t e x p r e s s i n v i s u a l o r t a c t i l e imagery. T h i s form o f a s s e s s i v e commentary t h u s s e r v e s t h e p e d a g o g i c a l p r o c e s s o f f o r m i n g t h e i d e a l r e a d e r o f t h e S a r r a u t i a n n o v e l — a r e a d e r who i s a b l e t o descend b e l o w t h e p l a n e o f g e n e r a l i t y and p r o v e r b i a l t r u t h s t o e x p l o r e t h e i d i o s y n c r a t i c m i c r o - r e a l i t y o f human e x p e r i e n c e . However, a s s e s s i v e 149 commentary s t r i k e s an i n e v i t a b l y d i d a c t i c n o t e w i t h i n t h e n o v e l i s t i c framework of M a r t e r e a u , and t h e d i s t a n c i n g e f f e c t o f t h e d e v i c e c o n t r a s t s t h e unmediated v i s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f f e r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r . Where a s s e s s i v e commentary appears i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e i s used t o i r o n i c e f f e c t , e v o k i n g an a u t h o r i t a t i v e tone even as i t s t a t e s laws t h a t seem a t b e s t s p u r i o u s , i f n o t a c t u a l l y f a n t a s -t i c . I n b o t h t e x t s , t h e p r o c e s s of a b s t r a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m of a s s e s s i v e commentary s e r v e s t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f each n a r -r a t o r ' s p a r t i a l p e r c e p t i o n , t y p i f y i n g h i s i d i o s y n c r a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e on r e a l i t y . § Code Commentary I n a t t e m p t i n g t o t r a n s c r i b e t h e words o f v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s i n d i a -l o g u e and d e s c r i b e t h e c o n c o m i t a n t s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f s p e e c h , t h e n a r r a t o r s o f James and S a r r a u t e e v i n c e a c e r t a i n u n e a s i n e s s d e r i v i n g f r o m t h e d i f f i -c u l t y o f t r a n s l a t i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o t h e medium o f w r i t i n g . Each n a r r a t o r e x p l i c a t e s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s , means and problems of t h i s e n c o d i n g i n a f o r m o f commentary t h a t r e f l e c t s upon t h e n a t u r e o f w r i t i n g . The . d i e g e t i c a l c o - o r d i n a t e s a r e s t r o n g l y i n t e r r u p t e d by t h i s n a r r a t i v e i n s t a n c e , as "code commentary a c c e n t u a t e s t h e n a r r a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e t e x t and c l a r i -f i e s t h e n a r r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s . "44 As t h e n a r r a t o r i n t e r v e n e s w i t h r e f l e c -t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f h i s w r i t i n g , t h e i m p l i e d r e a d e r i s drawn i n t o com-m u n i c a t i o n w i t h t h e i m p l i e d a u t h o r o f t h e work, and i s i n d i r e c t l y i n f o r m e d about an a p p r o p r i a t e form o f a e s t h e t i c r e s p o n s e t o t h e t e x t . I n commenting 150 upon t h e p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f e n c o d i n g , each n a r r a t o r d e l i n e a t e s t h e i d e a l r e a d e r c a p a b l e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c demands o f t h e n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e . I n M a r t e r e a u t h e d i v a g a t i o n s of t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " p e r f o r m t h e i n v i s i b l e dramas t h a t a r e s i l e n t l y e n a c t e d as c h a r a c t e r s e n c o u n t e r each o t h e r i n c o n v e r s a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d on an i n s t i n c t u a l , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e l l e c t u a l p l a n e , t h e n a r r a t o r i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e medium o f words as he a t t e m p t s t o convey t h e n a t u r e o f t r o p i s t i c r e a l i t y t o t h e r e a d e r . The n a r r a t o r i n f r e q u e n t l y suspends t h e f l o w o f " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n , " r e n d e r e d i n s t y l e i n d i r e c t l i b r e , i n o r d e r t o i n d i c a t e t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h i s n a r r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e as a means o f a u t h e n -t i c e x p r e s s i o n . L o c a t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g s e c t i o n of t h e n o v e l , t h e f o l l o w i n g p assage o f code commentary s e r v e s t o o r i e n t t h e r e a d e r t o t h e d i s c u r s i v e r e a l i t y o f M a r t e r e a u : Tout c e l a , e t b i e n p l u s e n c o r e , e x p r i m e non avec des mots, b i e n sur,comme j e s u i s o b l i g e de l e f a i r e m a i n t e n a n t , f a u t e d ' a u t r e s moyens, pas avec de v r a i s mots p a r e i l s a ceux qu'on a r t i c u l e d i s -t i n c t e m e n t a v o i x h a u t e ou en pensee, mais evoque p l u t o t p a r des s o r t e s de s i g n e s t r e s r a p i d e s c o n t e n a n t t o u t c e l a , l e r e s u m a n t — (p. 3 0 ) . . S a r r a u t e opposes "ces s o r t e s de s i g n e s t r e s r a p i d e s , " t r a n s l a t e d i n h e r w r i t i n g i n t o t r o p i s t i c imagery and metaphor, t o v e r b a l r e a l i t y , whether i n t h e f o r m of c o n v e r s a t i o n o r t h o u g h t . Thus, t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h i s m between i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s i s r e p l a c e d h e r e by t h e gap between an i n e x p r e s s i b l e p l a n e o f r e a l i t y and t h a t w h i c h may be e x p r e s s e d v e r b a l l y . The code commentary o f t h i s n a r r a t o r m i r r o r s t h e f r u s t r a t i o n of a w r i t e r who i s a t t u n e d t o t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s of l a n g u a g e as a means o f e x p r e s s i o n . The d i s t a n c e between t h e n a r r a t o r - c h a r a c t e r and t h e a u t h o r i s v i r -t u a l l y d i s s o l v e d i n the i n s t a n c e o f code commentary, f o r t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s 151 o f t h e w r i t e r c o n f r o n t i n g h i s t e x t , w h i c h we a r e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r e a d i n g , a r e so s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e n a r r a t o r as t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . S a r r a u t e , l i k e h e r n a r r a t o r , e x p r e s s e s t h e v i e w t h a t h e r t a s k as a w r i t e r i s t o t r a n s -l a t e a p r e - e x i s t e n t r e a l i t y i n t o words. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e m a i n t a i n s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d i s j u n c t i o n between the w o r l d and l a n g u a g e , i n w h i c h the l a t t e r s e r v e s t o r e p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n t i a l r e a l i t y . The " s t r a n g e i n n o c e n c e " t h a t Heath n o t e s i n h e r t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s d e r i v e s from h e r somewhat u n f a s h i o n a b l e n o t i o n o f t h e n o v e l as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l , m i m e t i c medium.^5 The commentary i n M a r t e r e a u t h u s r e f l e c t s S a r r a u t e ' s c o n c e r n w i t h a r e a l i t y composed of s h i f t i n g and i m p a l p a b l e s i g n s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r must " r e t r o u v e r p a r b r i b e s e t t r a d u i r e gauchement par des mots" (p. 3 0 ) . T h i s f u n d a m e n t a l s u s p i c i o n o f l a n g u a g e , p e r c e i v e d as e x t e r n a l and e s s e n t i a l l y a l i e n t o e x p e r i e n c e , i m p e l l s t h e a u t h o r t o s e a r c h f o r i n n o v a t i v e modes o f e x p r e s s i o n , i n w h i c h a h i t h e r t o unknown f i e l d o f a c t i v i t y can be r e p r e s e n t e d . The p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f w o r d s — " d e s minces c a p s u l e s p r o t e c t r i c e s q u i e n r o b e n t des germes n o c i f s " (p. 114)—compounds t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e n a r r a t i v e p r o j e c t , w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o r e p r o d u c e t h e a c t i v i t y o f e v a n e s c e n t and s c a r c e l y p e r c e p t i b l e m a t e r i a l . The f u n d a m e n t a l l y u n t r a n s l a t a b l e n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y as i t i s p e r c e i v e d by S a r r a u t e engenders s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e n a r r a t o r , as he t r i e s t o c o n s t r u c t a n a r r a t i v e w h i c h a d e q u a t e l y embodies h i s p e r c e p t i o n s . The p roblems i n h e r e n t i n e n c o d i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t i s n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o o r d i -n a r y modes o f p e r c e p t i o n , and t h u s t r a d i t i o n a l means of e x p r e s s i o n , a r e made m a n i f e s t i n t h e f o r m o f e x p l i c i t commentary w h i c h d e a l s w i t h t h e p r a c -t i s e o f w r i t i n g . Henry James's n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount d i s c u s s e s the d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e n a r r a t i v e e l e m e n t s — w h e t h e r t o i n c l u d e a l l t h e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e 152 and how t o a r r a n g e t h e e v e n t s i n t i m e — r a t h e r t h a n w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s m a t e r i a l i n t h e medium o f words. The f o c u s o f t h e code commentary i n The S a c r e d Fount stems f r o m t h e d i s j u n c t i o n between t h e s t o r y t i m e and w r i t i n g t i m e , o r between t h e two s e l v e s o f t h e n a r r a t o r — t h e " E r -z a h l e n d e I c h " and t h e " E r z a h l t e I c h " — a s opposed t o t h e d i c h o t o m y between e x p e r i e n c e and v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n found i n M a r t e r e a u . The n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount r e c o g n i s e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was a v a i l a b l e t o him a t t h e t i m e due t o h i s p a r t i a l v i s i o n o f t h e e v e n t s and what i s now a c c e s s i b l e t o more o b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . The code commentary o f t h e n o v e l a r t i c u l a t e s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s n a s c e n t c o n s c i o u s -n ess of c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s i n h i s s t o r y o f w h i c h he was h i t h e r t o unaware. The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s e x p r e s s t h e w r i t e r ' s knowledge o f h i s f o r m e r l a c k o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s : I d i d n ' t o f c o u r s e a n a l y s e t h i s sense a t t h e t i m e ; t h a t was s t i l l t o come. (p. 85) T h i s odd f e e l i n g was something t h a t I may as w e l l say I s h a l l n o t even now a t t e m p t t o ac c o u n t f o r . (p. 95) Why I s h o u l d have minded t h i s , s h o u l d have been a n x i o u s a t h e r a n x i e t y and s c a r e d a t h e r s c a r e , was a q u e s t i o n t r o u b l i n g me too l i t t l e on t h e s p o t f o r me t o s u f f e r i t t o t r o u b l e me, as a p a i n t e r o f my s t a t e , i n t h i s p l a c e . " (p. 94) The code commentary i n The Sa c r e d Fount c l a r i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t h e n a r r a t o r t o h i s f o r m e r s e l f , w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g t h e r e s t r i c t e d v i e w p o i n t t h a t o b t a i n e d a t t h e t i m e . Though t h e n o v e l i s i m p r e g n a t e d w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p r e s e n t o p i n i o n s o f p a s t e v e n t s , t h e r o l e o f t h e code com-mentary i s t o s p e c i f y when t h i s b i f o c a l v i s i o n p r o d u c e s a p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r c o u l d n o t have h e l d p r e v i o u s l y . One o f t h e most i n t r i g u i n g e l e m e n t s i n The S a c r e d Fount i s t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e way i n w h i c h t h e e v e n t s r e l a t e d a f f e c t t h e subsequent e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e n a r r a t o r , and w h i l e t h e code 153 commentary s u g g e s t s t h a t he i s n o t now as b e n i g h t e d as he had p r e v i o u s l y a p p e a r e d , i t does n o t f u l l y d e s c r i b e t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f h i s awareness. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e n a r r a t o r does acknowledge h i s awareness o f t h e p e r -s o n a l d e f i c i e n c y t h a t shaped and r e s t r i c t e d h i s f o r m e r v i s i o n : Or r a t h e r , t o be more e x a c t , I a l r e a d y saw h e r as n e c e s s a r i l y s t u p i d because I saw h e r as n e c e s s a r i l y v a i n . What I see now o f c o u r s e i s t h a t I was on my own s i d e a l m o s t s t u p i d l y h a r d w i t h h e r — a s I may a l s o a t t h a t h o u r have been s u b j e c t t o h e r o t h e r v i c e . (p. 177) The n a r r a t o r ' s a l l u s i v e use o f the words "he r o t h e r v i c e " f o r " c o n c e i t " o r " v a n i t y " and h i s r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h i s f a i l i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r moment i n t h e p a s t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i v e r g e n c e between t h e two s e l v e s o f t h e n a r r a t o r i s p erhaps l e s s pronounced t h a n he would a d m i t . A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount does no t d i s c u s s t h e p r o c e s s o f e n c o d i n g t h e a c t i o n s , g e s -t u r e s , and speech of t h e c h a r a c t e r s he d e s c r i b e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e n o v e l e n c a p u s u l a t e s d i r e c t i o n s f o r i t s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h r o u g h a scene d e p i c t -i n g t h e c r i t i c a l p r o c e s s . The a e s t h e t i c problems stemming from d i r e c t c o m m u nication between t h e n a r r a t o r and t h e r e a d e r , as i n commentary, a r e c i r c u m v e n t e d by James's d r a m a t i s a t i o n o f t h e h e r m e n e u t i c a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e s t o r y i t s e l f . M a r t e r e a u a l s o p r e s e n t s i n m i s e en abyme th e p r o d u c t i o n o f i t s own t e x t i n t h e form o f a p l a y , g e n e r a t i n g a dynamic, n o n - d i d a c t i c d i a l o g u e between t h e a u t h o r and r e a d e r . I n each c a s e t h e a u t h o r d e s i g n s a d r a m a t i c forum i n w h i c h t o s t a g e t h e a c t i v i t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Code commentary i s t h u s r e p l a c e d by a d r a m a t i c c o r r e l a t i v e , w h i c h s e r v e s as an a l t e r n a t i v e means o f e l u c i d a t i n g t h e complementary a c t i v i t i e s of c r e a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n . James i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r o c e s s , as t h e c h a r a c t e r s of 154 The S a c r e d Fount examine t h e ambiguous f e a t u r e s o f t h e p a i n t i n g o f a man w i t h a mask. The n a r r a t o r and Mrs. S e r v e r o v e r h e a r G i l b e r t Long as he d i s -c u s s e s t h e m e r i t s o f t h e p a i n t i n g w i t h t h e a r t i s t F o r d O b e r t . The scene p r e s e n t s s i g n i f i c a n t e l e m e n t s o f p l o t , s i n c e i t i l l u s t r a t e s Long's i n t e l l e c -t u a l improvement t o t h e n a r r a t o r , a l t h o u g h h e r e a g a i n , t h e r e a d e r i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o p e r c e i v e t h e q u a l i t y o f h i s speech d i r e c t l y , s i n c e v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s c o n s p i r e t o make Long h o l d h i s tongue when r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e a c c o u n t o f h i s t h o u g h t s . The p a i n t i n g i s h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h e m a t i c a l l y , s i n c e i t seems t o p o r t r a y t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t h e o r y o f exchange i n human r e l a t i o n -s h i p s : t h e n a r r a t o r d e s c r i b e s t h e p i c t u r e as t h a t o f a man, who, h a v i n g e x h a u s t e d h i s own r e s o u r c e s , i s about t o put on, o r t a k e o f f , t h e f a c e o f L i f e . As i s t h e c a s e f o r a l l o t h e r scenes o f t h e n o v e l , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r -s p e c t i v e i s supplemented by t h e t a l k o f t h e o t h e r g u e s t s , w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e t o t h e s t a t u s o f one c h a r a c t e r among many. T h i s s c e n e , i n w h i c h t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e n o v e l a r e r e q u e s t e d t o f o r m u l a t e an o p i n i o n on t h e meaning o f t h e p a i n t i n g , r e s e m b l e s a s i m i l a r d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l Moby D i c k i n t h e c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "The Doubloon." As t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e n o v e l p e r c e i v e a " c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n c e " i n t h e symbols i n s c r i b e d on t h e c o i n , C a p t a i n Ahab's remark sums up t h e meaning o f t h e scene: "There's a n o t h e r r e n d e r i n g now; b u t s t i l l one t e x t . A l l s o r t s o f men i n one k i n d o f w o r l d , you see."^6 The a u t h o r t h u s draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r p r e t a t i v e a c t i v i t y : a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h "under-s t a n d i n g i s c i r c u l a r and n o t l i n e a r , s i n c e u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s n e c e s s a r i l y s i t u a t e d , and as t h e s i t u a t i o n changes, so does t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " ^ 7 J u s t as t h e d o u b l o o n c h a p t e r r e v e a l s g r e a t e r depths o f each c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h h i s p e r s o n a l mode o f v i s i o n , a t t h e same t i m e i l l u m i n a t i n g t h e 155 n a t u r e o f t h e h e r m e n e u t i c a c t i v i t y , t h e scene d e s c r i b i n g t h e g u e s t s ' s e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e p o r t r a i t i n The S a c r e d Fount s u r p a s s e s t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f p l o t and theme t o examine t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e consumer and t h e work o f a r t . I n p l a c i n g h i s c h a r a c t e r s b e f o r e an ambiguous work o f a r t , James examines t h e dynamic r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e c r i t i c and t h e a r t i f a c t i n a scene t h a t r e c a l l s t h e a u t h o r ' s d r a m a t i s a t i o n o f t h e p l i g h t o f contemporary l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m i n "The F i g u r e i n t h e C a r p e t " f i v e y e a r s e a r l i e r . L i k e The Sacred  F o u n t , t h e t a l e embodies t h e p e r s o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r who seeks t h e h i d d e n meaning o f a phenomenon: h e r e , t h e p a t t e r n i n t h e works of a c e r t a i n a u t h o r . T h i s a r t i s t / c r i t i c f a b l e f o c u s e s on t h e f a l s e a e s t h e t i c a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e c r i t i c , as he a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e the p u z z l e o f V e r e k e r ' s work by r e v e a l i n g i t s m y s t e r i o u s meaning. I n an i n s i g h t f u l e s s a y on "The F i g u r e i n t h e C a r p e t , " W o l f g a n g I s e r d i s c u s s e s t h e way i n w h i c h t h e t a l e g e n e r a t e s a c r i t i q u e o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e norms of t h e day, a r t i c u l a t e d by t h e a r t i s t i n an a p p e a l f o r r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c i s m . I s e r comments, . . . V e r e k e r denounces b o t h t h e a r c h e o l o g i c a l ( ' d i g g i n g f o r meaning') approach and t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t meaning i s a t h i n g w h i c h — a s i s made e x p l i c i t i n t h e t e x t — e m b o d i e s a t r e a s u r e t h a t can be e x c a v a t e d t h r o u g h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 48 A l t h o u g h t h e n a r r a t o r - c r i t i c f a i l s t o g r a s p t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r ' s s u g g e s t i o n s , p e r s i s t i n g i n a d e s p e r a t e hunt f o r a n o n - e x i s t e n t s e c r e t , t h e in a d e q u a c y o f such a c r i t i c a l a p p r oach becomes m a n i f e s t t o t h e r e a d e r . L i k e many o f James's a r t i s t f a b l e s The S a c r e d Fount r e f l e c t s t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s , as t h e n a r r a t o r ' s i m a g i n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t grows i n t o t h e n o v e l we have b e f o r e u s . I f t h e p e r i l s o f t h e c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e n a r -r a t o r ' s e x p e r i e n c e , t h e p i t f a l l s o f c r i t i c i s m a r e d r a m a t i s e d i n t h e c h a r a c -t e r s 's enactment o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r o c e s s as t h e y examine t h e e n i g m a t i c 156 p o r t r a i t . A p p e a l i n g t o Long t o r e p e a t t h e s u b s t a n c e o f h i s remarks t o O bert on t h e p a i n t i n g , t h e n a r r a t o r r e m a r k s , "Do, my dear man, l e t us have i t a g a i n . I t ' s t h e p i c t u r e , of a l l p i c t u r e s , t h a t most needs an i n t e r p r e t e r . Don't we want," I asked o f Mrs. S e r v e r , " t o know what i t means?" (p. 55) The n a r r a t o r t h u s s e t s t h e p a r a m e t e r s of d i s c u s s i o n as a q u e s t f o r the meaning of t h e p a i n t i n g , and t h e d i s c u s s i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i n d i c a t e s t h e way i n w h i c h meaning i s r e c u p e r a t e d by t h e v i e w e r . The p o r t r a i t i s d e s c r i b e d t o t h e r e a d e r by t h e n a r r a t o r so t h a t , l i k e a l l t h e s i g n s i n t h e n o v e l , t h e p a i n t i n g i s d i s t o r t e d by h i s p a r t i a l p e r -c e p t i o n s and judgement. The n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o r t r a i t y i e l d s two i m p r e s s i o n s , of w h i c h t h e f i r s t one a p p e ars t h e most o b j e c t i v e , and t h e second r e f l e c t s t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e n a r r a t o r ; t h u s , t h e o b j e c t " t h a t s t r i k e s t h e s p e c t a t o r a t f i r s t as some o b s c u r e , some ambiguous work o f a r t " i s t h e l e a s t c o l o u r e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s p e r s o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The second v i e w , i n w h i c h t h e o b j e c t a p p ears t o be "A r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a human f a c e , m o d e l l e d and c o l o u r e d . . . i n some s u b s t a n c e n o t human" i s c o n f i r m e d by t h e name t h a t Mrs. S e r v e r g i v e s t o t h e p a i n t i n g — " t h e mask of D e a t h . " T h i s t i t l e forms an o r g a n i s i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t d e f i n e s t h e amorphous o u t l i n e s of t h e e n i g m a t i c o b j e c t and l i m i t s t h e " f r e e - p l a y " of t h e s t r u c t u r e . I r o n i c a l l y , Mrs. S e r v e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p o r t r a i t p a r a l l e l s t h e a p o c r y p h a l e v e n t s o f t h e n o v e l as p e r c e i v e d by the n a r r a t o r , i n w h i c h t h e v a m p i r i c r e l a t i o n s o f some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s rob t h e i r p a r t n e r s o f t h e i r v i t a l i t y . Not c o n t e n t t o a n a l y s e t h e f o r m o f t h e p o r t r a i t , t h e v i e w e r s e x p l o i t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l v a l u e of t h e v i s u a l medium, e q u a t i n g the man and t h e mask w i t h c e r t a i n g u e s t s a t Newmarch. The " b l o o m i n g and b e a u t i f u l " f a c e of t h e mask, as t h e n a r r a t o r sees i t , i s l i k e n e d t o Mrs. S e r v e r , w h i l e t h e 157 w h i t e v i s a g e o f t h e man r e c a l l s "poor B r i s s " — a s u g g e s t i v e y o k i n g o f t h e two c h a r a c t e r s s i n g l e d out by Mrs. B r i s s a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e n o v e l as hav-i n g c a r r i e d on a f l i r t a t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p r e g n a n t scene o f t h e n o v e l announces t h e dichotomous c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e weekend, when t h e n a r r a t o r and Mrs. B r i s s p o s i t i r r e s o l -v a b l y c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s based on t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e same s i g n s , s i n c e Mrs. S e r v e r ' s v i e w o f t h e p o r t r a i t d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposes t h a t o f t h e n a r r a t o r . Where Mrs. S e r v e r sees a mask o f Dea t h , c h a r a c t e r i s e d by "an aw-f u l g r i m a c e , " t h e n a r r a t o r sees a mask o f L i f e , " b l o o m i n g and b e a u t i f u l " (p. 5 6 ) . The same s i g n s o f t h e p o r t r a i t t h u s engender d i v e r g e n t l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , j u s t a s , i n t h e n o v e l as a w h o l e , t h e p r o c e s s o f s e m i o s i s y i e l d s two s e p a r a t e and s y m m e t r i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . As S h l o m i t h Rimmon i n d i c a t e s , i n t h i s scene t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e n o v e l " e n a c t our p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s The S a c r e d Fount: two opposed p o s s i b i l i t i e s and no c h o i c e . " ^ 9 The n o v e l w h i c h has been so o f t e n l i n k e d t o The S a c r e d F o u n t , S a r r a u t e ' s P o r t r a i t d'un i n c o n n u c o n t a i n s a s i m i l a r s e l f - d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o v e l , as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t examines a work o f a r t t h a t d e p i c t s an unknown man. T h i s p o r t r a i t , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r p a i n t i n g s o f t h e g a l l e r y , does n o t t r i u m p h o v e r " l ' e f f o r t , l e doute e t l e tourment"50 o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n , b u t r a t h e r r e p r o -duces " l e s c o n t o u r s f r a g m e n t a i r e s e t i n c e r t a i n s " o f t h e c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s . J u s t as S a r r a u t e r e - e x a m i n e s t r a d i t i o n a l l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n s i n t h e l i g h t o f h e r own a e s t h e t i c c r e d o , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f P o r t r a i t compares t h e a r t o f F r a n z H a l s and Rembrandt t o t h e anonymous p a i n t e r o f "1'Homme au P o u r p o i n t " : C e l a manque de t r o u b l e ...d'un certain...comment d i r a i s - j e . . . d e t remblement...on y se n t t r o p d ' a s s u r a n c e . . . d e c e r t i t u d e s a t i s f a i t e ...de..de s u f f i s a n c e . . . J e p r e f e r e , j e c r o i s aux o e u v r e s l e s p l u s 158 a c h e v e e s , c e l l e s ou n'a pu e t r e m a i t r i s e . . . o u l ' o n s e n t a f f l e u r e r e n c o r e l e tatonnement a n x i e u x . . . l e d o u t e . . . l e tourment (pp. 191-192) The u n c e r t a i n t y m a n i f e s t e d by t h e n a r r a t o r ' s h e s i t a n t s p e e ch p a t t e r n d u p l i -c a t e s t h e a r t i s t i c v a l u e s he expounds, l e a d i n g h i s l i s t e n e r t o r e g a r d h i s c r i t i c a l p r e c e p t s as a mere r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s n e u r o s i s : she comments, "Ca ne donne j a m a i s r i e n de bon, c e . . c e c o n t a c t . . . t r o p p e r s o n n e l . . . l a r e c h e r c h e de ces s o r t e s d' e m o t i o n s . . . 1 1 (p. 194). I f , however, l i k e t h e Man w i t h a Mask, t h e " p o r t r a i t d'un I n c o n n u " p r o v i d e s a l o c u s o f r e v e l a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r and theme, th e n a r r a t o r ' s d e s c r i p -t i o n o f t h i s p a i n t i n g p r e s e n t s a s e l f - r e f l e x i v e d i s c o u r s e , as e l e m e n t s o f t h e p o r t r a i t m i r r o r t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l . The p a i n t i n g a c c e n t u a t e s t h e o t h e r a s p e c t o f r e a l i t y a c c e s s i b l e o n l y t o t h e m a r g i n a l man, o r t h e n e u r o t i c , and w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r a t t e m p t s t o g r a s p by h i s own h a b i t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r employs an image t o convey t h i s t e c h n i q u e : I I y a un t r u e a a t t r a p e r pour l e s a i s i r quand on n'a pas l a chance de l e v o i r spontanement, d'une maniere h a b i t u e l l e . Une s o r t e de t o u r d ' a d r e s s e a e x e c u t e r , a s s e z s e m b l a b l e a ces e x e r -c i c e s a u x q u e l s i n v i t e n t c e r t a i n s d e s s i n s - d e v i n e t t e s , ou c e s images composees de l o s a n g e s n o i r s e t b l a n c s , h a b i l e m e n t combines, q u i f o r ment deux d e s s i n s g e o m e t r i q u e s s u p e r p o s e s ; l e j e u c o n s i s t e a f a i r e une s o r t e de gymnastique v i s u e l l e : on r e p o u s s e t r e s l e g e r e -ment l ' u n e des deux images, on l a d e p l a c e un peu, on l a f a i t r e c u l e r e t l ' o n ramene 1 ' a u t r e en a v a n t . On peut p a r v e n i r , en s ' e x e r c a n t un pe u , a une c e r t a i n e d e x t e r i t e , a o p e r e r t r e s v i t e l e deplacement d'une image a l ' a u t r e , a v o i r a v o l o n t e t a n t o t l ' u n , t a n t o t l ' a u t r e d e s s i n . 51 The n a r r a t o r f o c u s e s on t h e f o r m a l e l e m e n t s o f c e r t a i n " d e s s i n s - d e v i n e t t e s , " w h i c h , l i k e E s c h e r ' s i l l u s i o n s , " d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r mode of o p e r a t i o n n o t o n l y by t h e c o n s t a n t s w i t c h e s w h i c h t h e y impose on t h e o b s e r v e r but sometimes a l s o by i n c o r p o r a t i n g m i n i a t u r e images o f t h e m s e l v e s . " - ^ ^ n e 159 n a r r a t o r ' s a n a l o g y o f c e r t a i n " t r o m p e - 1 ' o e i l " d e v i c e s w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n i s l a t e r embodied i n t h e v e r y c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e n o v e l : i n M a r t e r e a u t h e n o v e l c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n of two o p p o s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . The v i s u a l a n a l o g y i n P o r t r a i t d'un i n c o n n u c r y s t a l l i s e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e o f a m b i g u i t y , w h i c h p o s i t s two d i s j u n c t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s c o - e x i s t i n g i n t h e same p l a n e , i n much t h e same manner as t h e Man w i t h a Mask i n The S a c r e d  Fount p r e s e n t s t h e enigma of t h e a r t work. An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e n a t u r e of a m b i g u i t y i s c r u c i a l t o t h e r e a d i n g of M a r t e r e a u , an open work, o r a " q u e s t i o n - p r o d u c i n g mechanism, an ambiguous m u l t i l e v e l message t h a t exposes t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t e r n a l t o i t s own s y s t e m and t h e c u l t u r a l codes i t assumes."-' 3 However, t h e l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e p l a y o f two a l t e r n a t i v e images, as s u g g e s t e d by t h e a n a l o g y t o t h e o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n , no l o n g e r forms an adequate c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t e x t u a l s t r a t e g i e s o f S a r r a u t e ' s second n o v e l . C o n s t r u c t e d on t h e d r a m a t i c p r i n c i p l e of " s c e n e " and " d i a l o g u e " , M a r t e r e a u i n v e r t s t r a d i t i o n a l uses o f t h e s e e l e m e n t s , c o n -v e r t i n g scene i n t o a s c a r c e - d e f i n e d l o c u s of i n t e r a c t i o n , and d i a l o g u e i n t o " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n . " W i t h t h e f i r s t page of t h e n o v e l , t h e r e a d e r i s aware of t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a new code, i n w h i c h t h e d i a l o g u e i n d i c a t e s t o p i c s t h a t a r e n o t e x p r e s s e d , and t h e scene r e p r e s e n t s an a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s i m i l a r ex-changes r a t h e r t h a n a d i s t i n c t s e t t i n g . The n a r r a t o r c l a r i f i e s t h e s e drama-t i c i n n o v a t i o n s , and t h u s t h e p r o c e s s of e n c o d i n g t h e New N o v e l , w i t h t h e c o n t r a s t i n g j u x t a p o s t i o n of a t r a d i t i o n a l s c e n a r i o r e p l e t e w i t h s t a g e d i -r e c t i o n s and d i a l o g u e . The n a r r a t o r i n t r o d u c e s t h e d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , commenting, " C ' e s t v r a i -ment comme au t h e a t r e . Nous sommes des a c t e u r s en t r a i n de j o u e r . A u t o u r de nous, dans l ' o b s c u r i t e , un p u b l i c s i l e n c i e u x nous r e g a r d e e t v e u t s a v o i r 160 ce q u i v a a r r i v e r " (p. 216). The s e t t i n g i s a " s a l o n b o u r g e o i s , " i n w h i c h t h e u n c l e p e r u s e s t h e paper and t h e aunt and nephew p l a y c a r d s . S c e n i c i n -d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t i n g eye movement, f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , and g e s t u r e a r e sub-s t i t u t e d f o r t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t r o p i s t i c movements, and t h e d i a l o g u e l a c k s t h e h e s i t a n t q u a l i t y o f o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e n o v e l . The e x p r e s s i v i t y o f language a l t e r n a t e s h e r e , however, w i t h s i l e n c e s t h a t a r e i n s c r i b e d i n t h e t e x t l i k e t h e s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s of a P i n t e r p l a y ; t h e s e s i l e n c e s i n t e r e s t -i n g l y r e l a t e b o t h what can be put i n t o words and what i s d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n -c e a l e d . Here t h e e x p r e s s i v e v a l u e of s i l e n c e i s e x p l o i t e d most r i c h l y , as t h e nephew r e f u s e s t o "go b e h i n d " t h e t e x t t o comment on t h e s p e c i f i c s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f each r e f u s a l o f words. Each u n i t o f s i l e n c e t e n d s t o e x a c e r b a t e t h e drama o f t h e p r e c e d i n g words and t o h e i g h t e n t h e p o t e n t i a l energy of t h e s p e a k e r s , who f o r t h e t i m e r e m a i n s i l e n t . The n a r r a t o r r e p r o d u c e s t h e speech and a c t i o n o f t h e scene i n t h e s u c -c i n c t manner o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d r a m a t i c s c r i p t , i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s e t t i n g , t i m e and c h a r a c t e r s as f o l l o w s : L a s c e n e : un s a l o n b o u r g e o i s . Le s o i r , a p r e s l e d i n e r . A gauche p r e s de l a cheminee, a s s i s dans un grand f a u t e u i l , en t r a i n de l i r e son j o u r n a l — l e m a r i (mon o n c l e ) (p. 216). When t h e n a r r a t o r ' s w o r l d , f u l l o f "nos f l a g e o l e m e n t s h a b i t u e l s , i n n o m a b l e s , a p e i n e d e c e l a b l e s , nos p a l e s m i r o i t e m e n t s , " i s r u p t u r e d by t h e s t a r t l i n g g l i m p s e of h i s aunt accompanied by M a r t e r e a u , he i s f o r c e d t o c o n f r o n t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d u l t e r y . The v i s i o n o f "quelque chose de f o r t , de n e t , de b i e n v i s i b l e . . . q u e l q u e chose que chacun a s s i t o t r e c o n n a i t e t nomme: un a d u l -t e r e " (p. 216) i s a l m o s t i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e n a r r a t o r , who i n h a b i t s a t r o p i s -t i c w o r l d i n w h i c h t r e a s o n , s e c r e t l i a i s o n s and a g g r e s s i v e a c t s o c c u r i n t h e s u b s t r a t u m o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . The n o t i o n o f . a n a d u l t e r o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p 16 1 between h i s aunt and M a r t e r e a u imbues t h e s u c c e e d i n g e v e n t s w i t h an a i r o f i r r e a l i t y f o r t h e n a r r a t o r . T h i s " v r a i e a c t i o n " causes h im t o r e e v a l u a t e t h e scenes i n w h i c h M a r t e r e a u has p l a y e d a p a r t , e i t h e r as a p a r t i c i p a n t o r an o b j e c t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n , and t o examine t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s on t h e p l a n e o f v i s i b l e r e a l i t y . As i s f i t t i n g i n t h e d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t o f t h e n o v e l , t h i s scene d e p i c t s "une tempete dans un v e r r e d'eau," as t h e u n c l e ' s d e n u n c i a t i o n s and a c c u s a -t i o n s appear t o be w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n and a common-sense e x p l a n a t i o n f o r M a r t e r e a u ' s b e h a v i o u r i s fo u n d . The n a r r a t o r d i s l o c a t e s t h i s scene from t h e S a r r a u t i a n d r a m a t i c c o n t e x t by u s i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s i g n s o f t h e a t r i -c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n : t h a t i s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e t t i n g and c h a r a c t e r , t h e d r a m a t i c t y p o g r a p h i c a l f o r m a t as a s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e n o v e l i s t i c i n q u i t f o r m u l a e , and f i n a l l y , t h e f o r m u l a , " l e r i d e a u tombe" t o d e n o t e c o n c l u s i o n . The melodrama g e n e r a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r t h e s u b t e x t o f t h e n o v e l s u r f a c e s i n t h i s scene as t h e u n c l e r e p o r t s a c o n v e r s a t i o n he has j u s t had w i t h M a r t e r e a u i n w h i c h t h e l a t t e r m e n t i o n s t h a t he was w e l l aware o f t h e u n c l e ' s s u s p i c i o n s . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e u n c l e has made t h e s e s u s p i c i o n s q u i t e c l e a r t o M a r t e r e a u by h i s own i n s i n u a t i n g r e m a r k s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s demands t o know " q u i v a r a c o n t e r au-dehors ce qu'on d i t dans l a m a i s o n " (p. 2 1 8 ) . These words t a k e on new meaning i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s a p p r e h e n s i o n s o f a c l a n d e s t i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s aunt and M a r t e r e a u , and t h e " t r a -h i s o n " i n q u e s t i o n t a k e s on a n o t h e r form. The aunt b r i n g s t h e s i t u a t i o n t o o r d e r when, d i s p l a y i n g g r e a t s a n g - f r o i d i n t h e f a c e o f t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s , she s u g g e s t s a r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n f o r M a r t e r e a u ' s awareness. I n r e p r o d u c i n g t h e v i s u a l s i g n s o f t h e s c e n e , t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t ges-t u r e , f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n and body movement, t h e n a r r a t o r examines t h e externa? accompaniments o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n an att e m p t a t o b j e c t i v i t y . When f a c e d w i t l 162 t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a " r e a l a c t i o n " — a d u l t e r y — t h e n a r r a t o r i s f o r c e d t o a scend t o t h i s p l a n e i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s o t h e r r e l a t e d e v e n t s . I n t o n a t i o n , g e s t u r e , e x p r e s s i o n and w o r d s — a l l p r o v e t o be forms of c a m o u flage t h a t have l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n t o t h e i n n e r movements c o n c e a l e d by t h e f a c a d e . T h i s j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t r a d i t i o n a l s c e n i c p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s customary d r a m a t i c t e c h n i q u e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l shock he s u s -t a i n s i n h i s i n t u i t i o n o f t h i s c l a n d e s t i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p . A d u l t e r y , a s t a p l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y n o v e l , a p p ears s t r i k i n g l y u n s u i t e d t o the m a t e r i a l of a S a r r a u t i a n drama, and i t r e c e i v e s p a r o d i c t r e a t m e n t i n t h i s l a r g e r - t h a n - l i f e s c e n a r i o . As w e l l as p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t of v i e w f o r t h e n a r r a t o r , t h e scene s e r v e s t o a c c e n t u a t e by c o n t r a s t t h e f e a t u r e s of t h e f o r m o f d r a m a t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n f ound i n t h e n o v e l . Through t h e d e f a m i l i a r i s a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , S a r r a u t e e n c a p s u l a t e s t h e f o r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e "unmarked," o r t r a d i t i o n a l , c a s e of a d r a m a t i c t e x t , s i g n a l l i n g t h e d e f e a t o f such methods i n " t h e age o f s u s p i c i o n . " Set i n a S a r r a u t i a n c o n t e x t , t h e s c e n a r i o g e n e r a t e s an awareness of t h e d i s t i n c t i v e s i g n s o f a t e x t d e a l i n g w i t h m i c r o -s c o p i c , s u b l i m i n a l a c t i v i t y . F o r b o t h S a r r a u t e and James, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f f o r m u l a t i n g r e f l e c t i o n s on t h e code i n s c e n i c f o r m r a t h e r t h a n by commentary r e m a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t element i n t h e i r a e s t h e t i c a p p r o a c h : t h e J a m e s i a n c r i t -i c a l c a v e a t seems t o i n f o r m b o t h t e x t s , u r g i n g each a u t h o r t o " d r a m a t i s e , d r a m a t i s e ! " 163 CONCLUSION: I n a l o n g p r o g r e s s i v e c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e f o r m a l a s p e c t s of each a u t h o r ' s f i c t i o n , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f making d i s t i n c t i o n s and c l a r i f y i n g d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s may have t h e u n f o r t u n a t e e f f e c t o f s t r e s s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two a u t h o r s . I f t h e r e i s d i v e r g e n c e i n s t y l e , method and t o n e , however, t h i s d i s p a r i t y s e r v e s t o make th e d e p t h of k i n s h i p m a n i f e s t i n common themes and images a l l t h e more s t r i k i n g . The p a r a l l e l s between M a r t e r e a u and The S a c r e d  Fount s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i v e r g e n c e between the d i v e r s e methods o f S a r r a u t e and James i n d i c a t e s r a t h e r two approaches t o a s i m i l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t o r of b o t h n o v e l s i s e x t r e m e l y s e n s i t i v e and i m a g i n a t i v e , d e r i v i n g much i n t e r e s t f r o m t h e dramas e n a c t e d about him. B o t h n a r r a t o r s adopt t h e s t a n c e of an o b s e r v e r , f o r m u l a t i n g t h e o r i e s and w a t c h i n g f o r s i t u a t i o n s t h a t appear t o c o n f i r m them. The n a r r a t o r o f The  S a c r e d Fount a t t e s t s t o "a r a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l j o y , t h e o d d e s t s e c r e t e x u l -t a t i o n , i n f e e l i n g h e r b e g i n i n s t a n t l y t o p l a y t h e p a r t I had a t t r i b u t e d t o h e r i n t h e i r r e d u c i b l e drama" (p. 102) and t h e n a r r a t o r o f M a r t e r e a u echoes t h i s s e n t i m e n t : Ce que j ' e p r o u v e en ce moment r e s s e m b l e a l a s a t i s f a c t i o n , a 1 ' e x c i t a t i o n du s a v a n t q u i v o i t son h y p o t h e s e h a t i v e c o n -f i r m e e p a r 1 ' e x p e r i e n c e . (p. 60) The s p e c u l a t i v e t h e o r i e s o f each n a r r a t o r a r e o f t e n s u b s t a n t i a t e d by ob-s e r v a t i o n s t h a t a r e s u g g e s t i v e o n l y i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t h e o r y , as James's n a r r a t o r s t a t e s : " . . . i f one hadn't known i t one might have seen n o t h i n g , but 164 I was n o t l e s s aware t h a t one c o u l d n ' t know a n y t h i n g w i t h o u t s e e i n g a l l " (p. 169). I t i s no doubt s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o t h n a r r a t o r s a r e anonymous and i s o l a t e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p i n g s of each s o c i e t y : S a r r a u t e ' s n a r r a t o r i s an orphan and James's n a r r a t o r a r r i v e s a t Newmarch unaccompanied. The theme o f v a m p i r i c d e p l e t i o n , a t t h e h e a r t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , embodies t h e n a r r a t o r ' s v i e w o f human r e l a t i o n s i n M a r t e r e a u , as when he r e g a r d s h i m s e l f as " l e p a r a s i t e , l a m o l l e e x c r o i s -sance f i x e e s u r l ' a u t r e , p u i s a n t dans l ' a u t r e l e sue n o u r r i c i e r " (p. 5 6 ) . I n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e he compares a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a t t a c k t o a v a m p i r i c a c t : "Le c o e u r b a t t a n t , h a l e t a n t s , i l s a u r a i e n t c o l l e l e u r bouche l a ou l e sang a f f l u e , ou l e p o u l s b a t , i l s a u r a i e n t s u c e , mordu" (p. 196). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode of d e s c r i p t i o n o f each a u t h o r i s d i s c e r n i b l e i f one compares t h e use o f t h e image i n each t e x t . The image i n The S a c r e d  Fount r e m a i n s an u n d e r s t a t e d a n a l o g y t h a t i s most o f t e n e x p r e s s e d metonym-i c a l l y by s u c h terms as " d r y , " " b l o a t e d , " " d r a i n e d , " and " f u l l , " f o r t h e t e r m used a t Newmarch f o r e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t h e more l o f t y a n a l o g y o f t h e " s a c r e d f o u n t . " Where a v i c i o u s phenomenon i s a l l u d e d t o i n The S a c r e d Fount i n somewhat i d e a l i s t i c t e r m s , i n M a r t e r e a u , s h o c k i n g and v i o l e n t imagery i s used t o comment on o s t e n s i b l y i n n o c u o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r o f The S a c r e d Fount i s e x t r e m e l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t i e s o f t h e e v i d e n c e he examines: he c o n s t a n t l y compares t h e o t h e r g u e s t s t o p a i n t i n g s — B r i s s i s a V e l a s q u e z , Mrs. S e r v e r a Greuze p a s t e l — a n d t h e s i g n s o f v i s u a l harmony and symmetry a r e f a v o u r e d above o t h e r e v i d e n c e because t h e y " f i t " a e s t h e t i c a l l y . As he b u i l d s a " p e r f e c t p a l a c e o f t h o u g h t " on t h e f o u n d a t i o n s of such s i g n s , he reminds h i m s e l f o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between a r t and l i f e : " T h i n g s i n t h e r e a l had a way of n o t 165 b a l a n c i n g ; i t was a l l an a f f a i r , t h i s f i n e symmetry, of a r t i f i c i a l p r o p o r -t i o n . " (p. 182-83) I f t h e E n g l i s h n a r r a t o r has a p r o c l i v i t y f o r h i g h l y composed t a b l e a u x , h i s F r e n c h c o u n t e r p a r t m a n i f e s t s s u s p i c i o n when c o n f r o n t e d by " a r t i f i c i a l p r o p o r t i o n " i n r e a l l i f e , as when M a r t e r e a u and h i s w i f e s t a n d t o g e t h e r a t t h e door "comme f o n t l e s amoureux s u r l e s c a r t e s p o s t a l e s en c o u l e u r s , l u i l a t e t e i n c l i n e e v e r s e l l e , e l l e l e v i s a g e l e v e v e r s l u i . . . " (p. 159). S a r r a u t e ' s v i s i o n o f t h e d e c e p t i v e n a t u r e o f e x t e r n a l s i g n s c o u l d a c t as a c o r r e c t i v e t o t h e J a m e s i a n n a r r a t o r who c o n t i n u e s t o b e l i e v e i n t h e c o r r e s -pondence between s i g n s and " e v i d e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s . " The i n t e l l e c t u a l j o y s found i n o b s e r v a t i o n s a t i s f y t h e n a r r a t o r s i n i -t i a l l y , b u t as t h e v a r i o u s forms o f e v i d e n c e mount up b o t h n a r r a t o r s engage i n c r e a t i v e a c t s i n o r d e r t o make sense o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s . James's n a r r a -t o r roams f r e e l y i n t h e r e a l m s o f i m a g i n a t i o n , e m b e l l i s h i n g t h e e v i d e n c e w i t h h i s own c o n j e c t u r e s : I had c r e a t e d n o t h i n g b u t a c l u e o r two t h e l a r g e r comprehension I s t i l l needed, y e t I p o s i t i v e l y f o und m y s e l f o v e r t a k e n by a m i l d a r t i s t i c glow. (p. 104) I n M a r t e r e a u , t h e n a r r a t o r assumes t h e r o l e o f t h e n o v e l i s t when he i m a g i n e s f o u r d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f a scene based on t h e same d i a l o g u e and a c t i o n s , p r o j e c t i n g h i m s e l f i n t o t h e v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s o f M a r t e r e a u and h i s w i f e . Each a r t i s t - f i g u r e u l t i m a t e l y f a i l s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s v i e w s t o t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s ( t h e u n c l e i s c o n v i n c e d o f M a r t e r e a u ' s good f a i t h and Mrs. B r i s s d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r i s mad), and each n o v e l c o n c l u d e s w i t h an un-b r i d g a b l e gap between t h e n a r r a t o r and h i s s o c i e t y . 166 G i v e n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l l y uncommunicable n a t u r e o f each n a r r a t o r ' s i m a g i n -a t i v e v i s i o n , t h e use o f d i a l o g u e i n t h e n o v e l becomes h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . F o r S a r r a u t e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f r e v e r s a l i n h e r e n t i n d i a l o g u e make th e medium o f c o n v e r s a t i o n an a p p r o p r i a t e means o f e x p l o r i n g a new k i n d of f i c -t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r , who, u n l i k e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m o n o l i t h i c f i g u r e of t h e n o v e l , forms a c o l l e c t i o n o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y and u n s t a b l e a t t r i b u t e s . S a r r a u t i a n d i a l o g u e p o r t r a y s t h e way i n w h i c h h e r c h a r a c t e r s d e f i n e and r e d e f i n e them-s e l v e s i n c o n v e r s a t i o n as t h e y respond t o s p e c i f i c s t i m u l i i n t r o d u c e d by t h e words o f o t h e r s . Our a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e shows how d i s c r e t e e l e m e n t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n p r o v o k e t h e c o n t i n u a l s u b l i m i n a l movements w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e S a r r a u t e ' s e s s e n t i a l s u b j e c t . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e v e a l s t h e spoken word i n S a r r a u t e ' s work as t h e s i n e qua non of t r o p i s t i c movement. I n The S a c r e d F o u n t , composed as a s e r i e s of w i t t y and p o l e m i c a l c o n -v e r s a t i o n s , a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f s p e e ch c l a r i f i e s t h e o p e r a t i o n of what James termed t h e n o v e l ' s own " l i t t l e law o f c o m p o s i t i o n " (p. x x x ) . B a l a n c e d between t h e o b j e c t i v e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e and t h e n a r -r a t o r ' s commentary, The S a c r e d Fount e n a b l e s t h e r e a d e r t o p e r c e i v e t h e e v e n t s t h r o u g h t h e d i s t o r t e d l e n s of t h e n a r r a t o r w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e a f f o r d i n g a g l i m p s e o f what a more o b j e c t i v e v i e w e r may have seen. The r e p e r t o i r e o f J a m e s i a n c o n v e r s a t i o n , as examined t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t i t u e n t f u n c t i o n s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , forms a r i c h t a p e s t r y o f h i n t s , s u g g e s t i o n , i n n u e n d o , r e p e t i t i o n , sudden s u s p e n s i o n s , t e n t a t i v e a s s u m p t i o n s , and v e r b a l d u e l s . The n a r r a t o r r e p r o d u c e s r h e t o r i c a l f l o u r i s h e s w h i c h , i n d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e means o f e x p r e s s i o n , seem a t t h e same t i m e t o s u g g e s t t h e shadowed c o n t e n t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n . The h i d d e n s t r u g g l e s and l i a i s o n s 167 t h a t f o r m t h e drama o f S a r r a u t i a n f i c t i o n a r e v e r b a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p o l i s h e d r h e t o r i c o f c o l l u s i o n and o p p o s i t i o n i n The S a c r e d F o u n t. B o t h Henry James and N a t h a l i e employ c o n v e r s a t i o n , and i t s unspoken c o u n t e r p a r t , t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n , " i n o r d e r t o s i t u a t e t h e r e a d e r i n t h e immediate w o r l d o f t h e t e x t . I n J a m e s i a n f i c t i o n , t h e r e a d e r i s f o r c e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e q u e s t i o n i n g p r o c e s s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i f he i s t o emerge from b e w i l d e r m e n t t o some s o r t o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . The r e c u r r e n c e o f b l a n k s and s e m a n t i c dead-ends (s u c h as t h e echo d e v i c e ) i n t h e r e p o r t e d d i s c o u r s e s t i m u l a t e s t h e r e a d e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n t o p r o j e c t t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t has been w i t h h e l d . The commentary i n The S a c r e d Fount l i m i t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e gap t r a c e d i n speech t o t h o s e w h i c h a r e apprehended by t h e n a r r a t o r , whose judgment becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y d u b i o u s . I n s e e k i n g t o i n v o l v e t h e r e a d e r d i r e c t l y i n t h e v i o l e n t a c t i v i t y o f t r o p i s m s , S a r r a u t e documents t h e f i n e v i b r a t i o n s o f t h e s e i n n e r movements, w h i c h a r e d e s c r i b e d i n terms of a r c h e t y p a l , m y t h i c and b i o l o g i c a l imagery i n o r d e r t o make them as u n i v e r s a l as p o s s i b l e . S a r r a u t e r e p r o a c h e s t h e b e h a v i o u r i s t n o v e l w i t h i t s t e n d e n c y t o r e g a r d a c t i o n s as t h e o n l y means o f r e v e a l i n g c h a r a c t e r ; . . . i l s p o u s s e n t l e u r s p ersonnages a a c c o m p l i r des a c t i o n s i n s o l i t e s e t m o nstrueuses que l e l e c t e u r a l o r s , c o n f o r t a b l e m e n t i n s t a l l e dans sa bonne c o n s c i e n c e e t ne r e t r o u v a n t dans ces a c t e s c r i m i n e l s r i e n de ce q u ' i l a a p p r i s a v o i r dans s es p r o p r e s c o n d u i t e s , c o n s i d e r e avec une c u r i o s i t e o r g u e i l l e u s e e t h o r r i f i e e , p u i s e c a r t e p a i s i b l e -ment pour r e t o u r n e r a s e s moutons.... 54 By s t a g i n g t h e a c t i o n a t a p r e c o n s c i o u s l e v e l o f r e a l i t y , S a r r a u t e r e a c h e s t h e r e a d e r w i t h t h e immediacy o f images t h a t f o r m p a r t o f t h e s t o c k o f human e x p e r i e n c e . 168 The g a p - f i l l i n g o p e r a t i o n p e r f o r m e d by t h e r e a d e r o f most J a m e s i a n f i c t i o n i s p e r f o r m e d by t h e n a r r a t o r i n M a r t e r e a u . The n a r r a t o r c o m p l e t e s t h e u n v o i c e d s u g g e s t i o n s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n e i t h e r by r e p o r t i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f what i s meant i n t h e f o r m o f t h e " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n " o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e impact of t h e message i n t h e f o r m o f a t r o p i s m . L i k e t h e n a r r a t o r i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , t h e n a r r a t o r of M a r t e r e a u may be u n r e l i a b l e due t o h i s own r a t h e r m o r b i d s e n s i t i v i t y . The d i a l o g u e form i s n o t o n l y a n a t u r a l i s t i c d e v i c e f o r p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , b u t a s t r u c t u r a l p r i n c i p l e o f each n o v e l . The q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r , o r a c t i o n - r e a c t i o n , sequence o f t h e d i a l o g u e c o m p r i s e s a s t r u c t u r e t h a t r e s i s t s r e s o l u t i o n , s i n c e t h e norm o f d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e n o v e l b r i n g s about a form o f momentum. I n M a r t e r e a u t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f c e r t a i n s cenes r e v i e w e d by t h e n a r r a t o r p r o d u c e s a p a r a -t a c t i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t t e n d s t o r e s i s t c o n c l u s i o n . The denouement o f t h e n o v e l o c c u r s when t h e u n c l e r e c e i v e s M a r t e r e a u ' s l e t t e r and r e v e r s e s h i s p o s i t i o n once more so t h a t he i s ranged i n t h e o p p o s i t e camp w i t h M a r t e r e a u . H a v i n g c o n c l u d e d t h a t perhaps M a r t e r e a u i s t r u l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e o t h e r s — " ses a c t e s , s es g e s t e s , ses p a r o l e s — d e s t r a i t s n e t s e t p u r s q u i l e d e s s i n e n t p a r f a i t e m e n t , l ' e x p r i m e n t " (p. 2 3 7 ) — t h e nephew r e v i s i t s M a r t e r e a u and h i s s u s p i c i o n s a r e a r o u s e d once a g a i n . The v i c i o u s c y c l e m o t i f , i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e image o f a dog t u r n i n g i n a c i r c l e as he b i t e s h i s own t a i l (p. 2 2 ) , i s r e p e a t e d a t t h e end o f t h e n o v e l : I I n'y a v a i t r i e n : r i e n que b u l l e s d ' a i r , b i l l e v e s e e s , m i r a g e s , fumee, r e f l e t s , ombres, ma p r o p r e ombre a p r e s l a q u e l l e j e c o u r a i s , t o u r n a n t en r o n d . (p. 237) The n o v e l c o n c l u d e s w i t h M a r t e r e a u ' s own words, i n n o c u o u s and b a n a l as 169 a l w a y s , b u t w h i c h a r e now i r r e v o c a b l y i m p r i n t e d w i t h t h e s c a r c e l y p e r c e p -t i b l e a c t i v i t y o f t r o p i s m s . The n a r r a t i v e commentary c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s p e n s i o n p o i n t s , and M a r t e r e a u ' s speech ends t h e n o v e l w i t h a p e r i o d : t h e f u l l - s t o p s u g g e s t e d by t h e p u n c t u a t i o n i s , l i k e t h e d i a l o g u e o f t h e n o v e l i t s e l f , i l l u s o r y , f o r t h e r e a d e r knows t h a t t h e a c t i o n o f t h e n o v e l c o n t i n u e s i n an e n d l e s s s e r i e s o f " s o u s - c o n v e r s a t i o n , " t r o p i s m , and r e v i s i o n . F o r as James p o i n t s o u t , R e a l l y , u n i v e r s a l l y , r e l a t i o n s s t o p nowhere, and t h e e x q u i s i t e p r o b l e m o f t h e a r t i s t i s e t e r n a l l y t o draw, by a geometry o f h i s own, t h e c i r c l e i n w h i c h t h e y s h a l l h a p p i l y appear t o do so. 55 That M a r t e r e a u c o n t i n u e s beyond t h e denouement i n d i c a t e s t h e i n e r t i a p r o d uced by t h e c e a s e l e s s m i c r o a c t i o n s w h i c h , u n l i k e t h e e v e n t s o f t h e p l o t , l i t e r a l l y s t o p nowhere. By c o n t r a s t , t h e d i a l e c t i c a l p l o t of The S a c r e d Fount appears t o c o n -c l u d e r a t h e r d e c i s i v e l y w i t h Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s " n e g a t i o n s a r r a y e d and h e r i n s o l e n c e r e c a p t u r e d " (p. 318) and t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t h e o r y i n a s t a t e o f c o l -l a p s e . I n a c t u a l f a c t , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e l a b o r a t e p a l a c e o f t h o u g h t does n o t c o l l a p s e i n t o a "mere heap of d i s f i g u r e d f r a g m e n t s " (p. 311) as he as supposed: " I t ' s i n p o i n t o f f a c t so b e a u t i f u l l y f i t t e d t h a t i t comes a p a r t p i e c e by p i e c e — . . . t h e y ' r e n o t even i n t h i s s t a t e — s e e ! " I wound u p — " a p i l e o f r u i n s ! " (pp. 311-12) Because Mrs. B r i s s e n d e n ' s a s s e v e r a t i o n s a r e m e r e l y n e g a t i v e and f a i l t o t r a n s f i g u r e t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e t h e o r y , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n j e c t u r e s end i n a s t a t e o f c o l l a p s e r a t h e r t h a n u t t e r r u i n . C o n c l u d i n g t h e t a l e , t h e 170 r e a d e r i s l e f t j u g g l i n g two o p p o s i n g v i e w p o i n t s and two e q u a l l y i n t r i c a t e h ouses o f c a r d s . The element o f u n c e r t a i n t y i n h e r e n t i n c o n v e r s a t i o n i n b o t h n o v e l s a p p r o p r i a t e l y p r o d u c e s t h e ambiguous n o t e on w h i c h The Sa c r e d  Fount and M a r t e r e a u c o n c l u d e . I n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e p r o c e s s t h e n o v e l s o f James and S a r r a u t e p r o v e t o be m u t u a l l y r e v e a l i n g : t h e nouveau roman h i g h l i g h t s t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c u n d e r c u r r e n t s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n i n The S a c r e d F o u n t , and t h e n o v e l o f manners s u g g e s t s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e spoken word i n t h e b a n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n o f M a r t e r e a u . I n t h e l i g h t o f S a r r a u t e ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e e v a n e s c e n t , i m p e r -c e p t i b l e e l e m e n t s o f human i n t e r c o u r s e , t h e f o l l o w i n g comments made by James r e v e a l h i m as an i m p o r t a n t p r e d e c e s s o r o f t h e S a r r a u t i a n t r a d i t i o n : F o r nobody t o whom l i f e a t l a r g e i s e a s i l y i n t e r e s t i n g do t h e f i n e r , t h e s h y e r , t h e more a n x i o u s s m a l l v i b r a t i o n s , f i n e and shy and a n x i o u s w i t h t h e p a s s i o n t h a t p r e c e d e s knowledge, s u c -ceed i n b e i n g n e g l i b l e . - ^ I n c r e a t i n g a f o r m o f d i a l o g u e t h a t m a n i f e s t s a t e v e r y p o i n t t h e s t r a i n and p r e s s u r e o f t h e s m a l l v i b r a t i o n s o f what i s u n s a i d , James complements S a r r a u t e ' s v i s i o n and r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l t h a t p r e c e d e s e x p r e s s i o n . Q u o t i n g Henry Green, S a r r a u t e comments t h a t the c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y o f t h e n o v e l i s b e i n g d i s p l a c e d due t o t h e e v e r - g r e a t e r r o l e o f d i a l o g u e . "Le s i g n e de b o u l e v e r s e m e n t s p r o f o n d s q u i p o u r r a i e n t r e m e t t r e en q u e s t i o n t o u t e l a s t r u c t u r e t r a d i t i o n n e l l e du roman,"^^ t h i s i n c r e a s e d use o f d i a l o g u e r e q u i r e s c o n c o m i t a n t i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e a r t o f n a r r a t i o n so t h a t the c o n t e x t o f speech e l i c i t s and d i s c l o s e s t h o s e " s u p p r e s s e d p r o c e s s e s and unavowed r e f e r e n c e s " (p. 272) w h i c h make t h e meaning o f communication so d i f f e r e n t f r o m i t s form. 171 THE NARRATIVE DISCOURSE: NOTES 1 Henry James, The A r t o f t h e N o v e l , (New Y o r k : C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r ' s Sons, 1934 and 1962) p. 106. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . , p. 90. 4 G e r a r d G e n e t t e , F i g u r e s I I I , ( P a r i s : E d i t i o n s du S e u i l , 1972) p: 261. 5 P e r c y Lubbock, The C r a f t o f F i c t i o n , (London: J o n a t h o n Cape L t d . , 1921) p. 161. 6 M i k h a i l B a k h t i n , P roblems o f D o s t o e v s k y ' s P o e t i c s , t r a n s . R.W. R o t s e l , (Ann A r b o r : A r d i s , 1973) P. 177. 7 Ann C o t h r a n , " R e p o r t i n g and Commentary i n S a r r a u t e ' s n o v e l s , " L ' E s p r i t C r e a t e u r . v o l . 17.(1977) p. 257. 8 F o r d e t a i l e d s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , see Anthony Newman, Une P o e s i e des d i s c o u r s , ( G e n e v e : L i b r a i r i e D r o z , 1976) pp. 22-3. 9 I b i d . , p. 174. 10 Wayne C. B o o t h , The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n , ( C h i c a g o and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1961) p. 164. 11 Newman, p. 175. 12 I b i d . , p. 154. 13 Lubomir D o l e z e l , N a r r a t i v e Modes i n Czech L i t e r a t u r e , ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1973) p. 6. 14 G e n e t t e , pp. 261-63. 15 James, p. 106. 16 N a t h a l i e S a r r a u t e , L ' E r e du soupcon, ( P a r i s : G a l l i m a r d , 1956) pp. 140-41. 17 I b i d . , p. 117. 18 James, p. 107. 19 S a r r a u t e , p. 131. 20 V.N. V o l o s i n o v , M a r x i s m and t h e P h i l o s o p h y o f Language, t r a n s . L a d i s l a v M a t e j k a and I:R: T i t u n i k , (New Y o r k and London: Seminar P r e s s , 1973) p. 150. 21 I b i d . , p. 152. 172 THE NARRATIVE DISCOURSE: NOTES 22 J . L . A u s t i n , How t o Do T h i n g s w i t h Words, (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962) pp. 121-22. 23 I b i d . , p. 118. 24 Newman, p. 25. 25 Seymour Chatman, The L a t e r S t y l e o f Henry James, ( O x f o r d : B l a c k w e l l , 1972) p. 107. 26 Newman, p. 43. 27 I b i d . , p. 35. 28 Henry James, The P o r t a i t o f a Lady, ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1881 and 1963) p. 408. 29 Henry James, The B o s t o n i a n s , ( M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1886 and 1966) p. 225. 30 P e t e r B r o o k s , The M e l o d r a m a t i c I m a g i n a t i o n , (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976) p. 44. 31 R i c h a r d W. H o w e l l and H a r o l d J . V e t t e r , Language i n B e h a v i o u r , (New Y o r k : Human S c i e n c e s P r e s s , 1976) p.60. 32 P a u l W a t z l a w i c k , J a n e t H e l m i c k B e v i n and Don P. J a c k s o n , P r a g m a t i c s o f Human Communication, (New Y o r k : W.W. N o r t o n Co. I n c . , 1967) p. 48. 33 Newman, p. 35. 34 J a n e t Holmgren McKay, "Some Problems i n t h e A n a l y s i s o f P.O.V. i n R e p o r t e d D i s c o u r s e , " Centrum, v o l . 6 no. 1 ( S p r i n g 1978) p. 7. 35 D o r r i t Cohn, T r a n s p a r e n t M i n d s , (New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1978) p. 189. 36 I b i d . 37 I b i d . , P. 193. 38 D o l e z e l , p. 7. 39 I b i d . 40 C o t h r a n , p p . 262-63. 41 I b i d . 42 I b i d . , p. 265 173 THE NARRATIVE DISCOURSE: NOTES 43 Sarraute, p. 137. 44 Cothran, p. 266. 45 Stephen Heath, "Nathalie Sarraute and the Prac t i s e of Writing," Novel. v o l . 3, no. 2 (Winter, 1970) p. 114. 46 Herman M e l v i l l e , Moby Dick, (Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 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