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The Quebec Winter Carnival of 1894 : the transformation of the city and the festival in the nineteenth… Abbott, Frank Albert 1982

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THE QUEBEC WINTER CARNIVAL OF 1 8 9 4 : THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE .CITY AND THE F E S T I V A L I N THE NINETEENTH CENTURY  by FRANK ALBERT ABBOTT B.A., S a i n t M a r y ' s U n i v e r s i t y , 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in HISTORY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t 1982  ©  F r a n k A l b e r t A b b o t t , 1982  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree that permission  f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s  f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department o f  History  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 " D a t e  August 30, 1982  - i i -  ABSTRACT The  ambiguous nature and  t r a d i t i o n s adapting  and  1889  ancient  t o modernization are very e v i d e n t  c e l e b r a t i o n of the winter 1883  the importance of  i n the  c a r n i v a l s h e l d i n Montreal between  and e s p e c i a l l y i n Quebec C i t y i n  1894.  In l o o k i n g a t the motovations o f t h e i r o r g a n i z e r s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to see a p r i m a r i l y economic g o a l : the a t t r a c t i o n of l a r g e numbers of American t o u r i s t s to help the l o c a l economy i n the slow winter  season by o f f e r i n g to them  s p e c t a c l e s of French and E n g l i s h Canada. newspapers o f the p e r i o d , these new  "cultural"  According  to  the  c a r n i v a l s had no connec-  t i o n at a l l w i t h the o l d e r c y c l i c a l and r e l i g i o u s c e l e b r a t i o n of C a r n i v a l - L e n t - E a s t e r with enthusiasm i n New  which were well-known and  celebrated  France from the seventeenth  century  onwards. In f a c t the o p p o s i t e as o c c a s i o n s  was  true.  These events were seen  f o r the amateur a t h l e t i c c l u b s of the  and e s p e c i a l l y the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g to put on s p e c t a c l e s of t h e i r winter snowshoeing and  hockey.  French  middle c l a s s of Quebec sports l i k e  curling,  Along w i t h t h i s went the  expectation  o f decorous behaviour w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f V i c t o r i a n m o r a l i t y and  an end  to the t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c drunkenness  and  b o i s t e r o u s behaviour t r a d i t i o n a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h occasions.  such  - iii  -  The c e n t r e p i e c e of t h i s event was l i g h t parade  the evening t o r c h -  i n and around the l a r g e i c e p a l a c e , a t r a d i t i o n  which the E n g l i s h speaking o r g a n i z e r s of the f i v e Montreal c a r n i v a l s o f the 1880's had borrowed from w i n t e r f e s t i v a l s of the I m p e r i a l Russian c o u r t .  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h i s has  survived  to become one of most famous symbols of the p r e s e n t C a r n a v a l de Quebec. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of middle c l a s s French  Canadians  and even the t a c i t support o f the C a t h o l i c Church, one o f the most p e r s i s t e n t foes of the o l d e r c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , both c o n t r i b u t e d immeasurably t o the success of the new  festival. i  T h i s can be e x p l a i n e d by t h r e e r e l a t e d phenomena: 1)  A change i n s o c i a l mores i n g e n e r a l between the b e g i n n i n g and the end o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y gave the Church a l a r g e v o i c e over the l i v e s of French Canadians.  2)  A g r e a t e r p r o c e s s of r e g u l a t i o n of the s o c i e t y , e s p e c i a l l y the c i t y , was  and  r e f l e c t e d i n and even  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the disappearance o f s e v e r a l o l d community f e s t i v a l s of the past l i k e the c a r n i v a l . I t i s not y e t p o s s i b l e t o say c o n c l u s i v e l y whether the a u t h o r i t i e s suppressed these o l d f e s t i v a l s or whether the p u b l i c simply abandoned them, though  i t appears  to be a combination of both. 3)  The economic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c i t y of Quebec from a commercial consequent  c e n t r e t o an i n d u s t r i a l c i t y , w i t h the  social  changes.  - iv Thus the study o f the c a r n i v a l r a i s e s c u l t u r a l and a s o c i a l questions.  By s t u d y i n g the h i s t o r y o f the changes i n  the observance o f the c a r n i v a l and i n who observed i t s c e l e b r a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o understand a l i t t l e more about the m e n t a l i t y o f the urban p o p u l a t i o n o f the time and t o begin to understand t h e i r responses t o the other changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the s o c i e t y around them.  - v -  SOMMAIRE La nature d'adaptation  ambigue e t 1 importance du 1  processus  des anciennes t r a d i t i o n s devant l a  modernisation  sont b i e n eVidentes  dans l e s "carnavals d ' h i v e r " tenus a  Montreal  e t 1889  entre 1883  e t s u r t o u t a Quebec en  En e t u d i a n t l e s m o t i v a t i o n s  des o r g a n i s a t e u r s , i l e s t  p o s s i b l e de v o i r l e but q u ' i l s v i s a i e n t : s o i t beaucoup de t o u r i s t e s a m e r i c a i n s , durant  1894.  d'attirer  d ' a i d e r a l'economie  l a s a i s o n h i v e r n a l e en l e u r o f f r a n t des  spectacles  ' c u l t u r e l s ' du Canada a n g l a i s e t du Canada f r a n c a i s . d i r e des  locale  Au  journaux de l'epoque, ce c a r n a v a l n ' a v a i t r i e n a  v o i r avec l ' a n c i e n c y c l e de  "Carnaval-Care^me-Ptiques " b i e n connu  et t r e s c<§lebre dans l a Nouvelie-France  depuis  l e 17e  siecle.  Au c o n t r a i r e , l e s " s p o r t i n g c l u b s " de l a c l a s s e moyenne francophone e t s u r t o u t anglophone de Quebec v o y a i e n t dans c e t t e c e l e b r a t i o n 1'occasion  de f a i r e des  l e u r s s p o r t s d ' h i v e r comme l a r a q u e t t e , A i n s i pouvait-on v i c t o r i e n n e : e'en conduite  s p e c t a c l e s de  l e c u r l i n g , l e hockey.  s'amuser dans l e s l i m i t e s de l a m o r a l i t e e t a i t f i n i de  tumultueuse  l ' i v r e s s e publique  e t de l a  traditionelle.  Le chef d'oeuvre de c e t evenement e t a i t l e d e f i l e nocturne autour du grand p a l a i s de g l a c e , une empruntge § l a Russie par  tradition  l e s anglophones de Montreal  l e u r s c a r n a v a l s des annees 1880.  pour  Paradoxalement, i l e s t devenu  - vi l ' u n des s y m b o l e s l e s p l u s c o n n u de l ' a c t u e l C a r n a v a l  de  Quebec. La p a r t i c i p a t i o n  des C a n a d i e n s - f r a n c a i s  moyenne, e t me~me l ' a p p u i r e s e r v e de l ' E g l i s e des  de l a c l a s s e  Catholique, l'un  ennemis de l ' a n c i e n c a r n a v a l , c o n t r i b u a i e n t beaucoup  s u c c S s de c e t t e n o u v e l l e  fete.  Cela s'explique  par  au  trois  phenomenes: 1)  Un changement entre  dans l e s moeurs  s o c i a l e s en  l e d e b u t e t l a f i n du XIXe  l'Eglise  siecle  une i n f l u e n c e r e s t r i c t i v e  generale  donnait  a  s u r l a v i e des  Canadiens-francais. 2)  Une p l u s qui  grande r e g l e m e n t a t i o n  se r e f l e t a i t  de l a s o c i e t e e n t i e r e  dans l a d i s p a r i t i o n  de q u e l q u e s fe"tes  p o p u l a i r e s du p a s s e comme l e c a r n a v a l . d€ja ces 3)  p o s s i b l e de d i r e  Ainsi  s i l e s a u t o r i t e s supprimaient  economique  „:  l e s questions  et sociales.  de l a v i l l e .  q u i se p o s e n t  sont  Etudier l'histoire  d'ordre  des  changements  dans l e c a r n a v a l c ' e s t e t u d i e r un p e u l a m e h t a l i t e population urbaine aux a u t r e s  pas  fe~tes ou s i l e p u b l i c l e s a b a n d o n n a i t .  La t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  culturelles  I I n'est  de 1"epoque e t comprendre  g r a n d s changements  de l a  l e u r s reponses  dans l e u r s o c i e t e .  - v i i-  TABLE OF  CONTENTS Page  ABSTRACT.  .  .  .  .  .  .  '.  .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .  .  SOMMAIRE  CHAPTER I  CHAPTER I I  .  NOTHING  .  .  .  .  i  . .  .  . .  i v x  "INCONSISTENT WITH DUTY  AND SELF-RESPECT"  .  .  I.  Introduction  .  II.  Marketing the Past  III.  C i v i l i z i n g the Carnival  .  .  .  .  . .  .  . .  .  .  1  .  1  .  7  .  13  THE CARNIVAL C I T Y AND THE REAL C I T Y .  .  27  I.  Behind  .  .  27  II.  The E c o n o m i c T r a n s i t i o n  .  .  43  t h e C a r n i v a l Veneer  CHAPTER I I I THE CARNIVAL OF 1894 I.  .  .  .  .  .  56  "The A n c i e n t C a p i t a l Under a New A s p e c t  CHAPTER I V  .  .  .  II.  Organizing the Carnival  III.  The E v e n t  IV.  The A f t e r m a t h  CONCLUSION  .  . .  .  .  .  . .  .  .  .  . 5 6 .  61  .  .  70  .  .  80  .  .  .  .  .  . 8 5  NOTES - CHAPTER I ..:  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 8 8  NOTES - CHAPTER I I .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 9 6  NOTES - CHAPTER I I I  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 0 3  NOTES - CHAPTER I V  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 0 8  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 1 0 9  .  .  .  .  APPENDIX OF PHOTOGRAPHS,  MAPS AND TABLES  116  - viii  -  L I S T OF PHOTOGRAPHS  Page t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894  .  .  .1 1 7  .  .  1.  Collage,  2.  Ice Statues,  3.  Ice Palace,  4.  A r c h w a y a t t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1896  5.  Ice Palace,  t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894  t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1894  . . ^- ^ 2  t h e M o n t r e a l W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1889.  L I S T OF MAPS Quebec C i t y  1894  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 127  - ix -  L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  Page  1  The Quebec A m a t e u r A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n  2  L'Association  .  .  128  a t h l e t i q u e de S t . R o c h de  Quebec, o c c u p a t i o n s o f members, m e m b e r s h i p on c a r n i v a l c o m m i t t e e s 3  .  .  .  .  .  130„  Names a n d o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e members o f major c a r n i v a l committees  .  .  .  .  131  The Quebec Chamber o f Commerce 1893-1894 and c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h Quebec Committees  .  .  Carnival .  .  The Quebec B u s i n e s s Community, 1894  134  . .  .  135  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A number o f p e o p l e work p o s s i b l e .  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making  W i t h o u t P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Moogk's v a l u a b l e  a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n a t c r i t i c a l have p r o g r e s s e d  this  t i m e s , t h e work would n o t  as i t d i d .  A h e a r t f e l t a p p r e c i a t i o n must a l s o be e x t e n d e d t o t h e I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans department o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a l l t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e .  The s t a f f o f t h e  B i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' A s s e m b l e e N a t i o n a l d u Quebec was g e n e r o u s o n a number o f o c c a s i o n s w i t h t h e i r t i m e a n d c o - o p e r a t i o n . T h a n k s must a l s o go t o P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l I g n a t i e f f f o r suggesting the subject of the thesis i n the f i r s t to  p l a c e , and  C l a u d e Gagnon f o r h i s h e l p o n a n e a r l i e r d r a f t w h i c h was  presented  t o t h e 1981 m e e t i n g o f t h e C a n a d i a n  Association i n Halifax.  The management o f "Le Cous C o u s "  have b e e n v e r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g my w o r k i n g  Historical  o f t h e demands t h i s h a s made on-  time.  F i n a l l y , without ment o f R i c h a r d D e n n i s ,  the continued  support  and encourage-  and h i s sound judgment, t h i s  c o u l d n o t have b e e n w r i t t e n a t a l l .  thesis  - xi -  This i s dedicated My  M o t h e r and  to  Father  - 1 -  CHAPTER I NOTHING "INCONSISTENT WITH DUTY AND I.  SELF-RESPECT"  Introduction On the n i g h t of February 2, 1894,  twenty-five  t o r c h - b e a r i n g snowshoers and m i l i t i a m e n wearing blanket coats and pated  i n one  City.  The  hundred  "tuques",  the c e i n t u r e f l e c h e e of o l d Quebec, p a r t i c i -  of the grandest  o c c a s i o n was  spectacles  the storming  seen i n Quebec  of the i c e palace at the  Quebec Winter C a r n i v a l which had begun at the beginning  of  t h a t week and which was  night's  show was  to l a s t a few days longer.  d e f i n i t e l y considered  the c e l e b r a t i o n .  The  to have been the high p o i n t of  From a balcony  of the neighbouring  Quebec  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly b u i l d i n g , Lord Aberdeen, the GovernorGeneral  of Canada,and h i s p a r t y watched the t o r c h l i t  proces-  s i o n as i t approached the massive w a l l s of the i c e palace observed the ensuing  and  f i r e w o r k d i s p l a y , as each s i d e f i l l e d  the  a i r with m u l t i - c o l o u r e d f i r e w o r k s f o r t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of an hour.  Thousands of s p e c t a t o r s were t h r i l l e d by the  s i g h t of the a t t a c k upon and  impressive  the c a p i t u l a t i o n of the i c e  f o r t r e s s and the l a t e r t o r c h l i g h t p r o c e s s i o n through the s t r e e t s of the c i t y .  The  o r g a n i z e r s of the r e v i v e d c e l e b r a -  t i o n of the c a r n i v a l i n Quebec C i t y c o u l d w e l l themselves."''  congratulate  - 2 The s u c c e s s o f performance years  in  c a r n i v a l would l e a d t o  1896, f o l l o w e d by s m a l l e r  longer u n t i l ,  be a permanent present  this  after  revival  fifty  of  "le  years of  wife of  the  repeat  for  neglect,  a  In  few  there  c a r n a v a l de Quebec" i n  f o r m i n t h e mid 1 9 5 0 ' s .  i n c l u d i n g the  affairs  a  would  its  1894, c o n t e m p o r a r i e s ,  G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l L o r d A b e r d e e n were  i m p r e s s e d by the o r d e r o f  the  v a s t t h r o n g s and t h e  lack of  any  2 serious trouble  t o mar t h e  festivities.  made t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n a s p e e c h a t  Aberdeen h i m s e l f the  c l o s e of  the  carni-  v a l when he c o n g r a t u l a t e d t h e c i t y : I v e n t u r e t o s a y t h a t among t h e many c o n s p i c u o u s l y happy f e a t u r e s o f t h e o c c a s i o n , one o f t h e most n o t a b l e , one w h i c h w i l l be remembered w i t h permanent s a t i s f a c t i o n , i s t h e a d m i r a b l e o r d e r w h i c h has b e e n m a i n t a i n e d on t h e p a r t o f t h e l a r g e crowds w h i c h have b e e n w i t n e s s i n g t h e s p e c t a c l e o f t h e week. ' ( C h e e r s ) ' T h e r e has b e e n a b u n d a n t h i l a r i t y and c h e e r f u l n e s s b u t a g e n e r a l m a i n t e n a n c e o f s e l f - c o n t r o l and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d u c t , and t h u s Quebec has s e t an example w h i c h may w e l l be f o l l o w e d , s h o w i n g how p e o p l e c a n be m e r r y and c h e e r f u l w i t h o u t i n d u l g i n g i n t h a t w h i c h w o u l d be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d u t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t . '.(Renewed C h e e r s ) ' 3  The f a c t or episodes of and S t a t e is  p r e s s d i d not r e p o r t  drunkenness at  had t r a d i t i o n a l l y  striking.  citly,  t h a t the  a time of  disturbances  y e a r when t h e  Church  had good r e a s o n t o e x p e c t  both,  L o r d A b e r d e e n may have b e e n e x p r e s s i n g ,  a Victorian  i n Quebec C i t y  in  ideal  1894, r e a l i t y  T h i s was a v e r y d i f f e r e n t p r e - L e n t e n debauch of reason than the  about p u b l i c  fact  leisure  and i d e a l  kind of  that  it  activities,  seem t o  for  enjoyed o f f i c i a l  but  have m e r g e d .  c a r n i v a l than the  pre-modern Europe, i f  impli-  traditional  no o t h e r  approval. Govern-  -  merit a p p r o v a l  was  due  l e a d i n g r o l e i n the  3  -  i n p a r t to the  important  Governor-General's  events of the  carnival, with  huge s u p p o r t i n g  c a s t o f o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s and  as  F o r e x a m p l e , h i s a r r i v a l was  spectators.  events at the beginning  of the c a r n i v a l .  o f h o c k e y games, snowshoe c o m p e t i t i o n s teams o f w e a l t h y c i t i z e n s , o t h e r costume b a l l , h e l d i n the and  the Grand B a l l  Parliament  palace.  the  acting  of the  major  A p a r t f r o m a number  and  c u r l i n g matches  c a r n i v a l events included  B u i l d i n g and the  attended storming  by a  Governor-General by  the  of the  socially ice  Events t h a t r e q u i r e d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of lower c l a s s  p e o p l e w e r e "The trades  one  i n honour of the  p o l i t i c a l l y p r o m i n e n t , and  tourists  the  A l l e g o r i c a l Drive"  of the c i t y  i n c l u d i n g the  i n w h i c h some o f  firemen,  the  f e r r y men  d r i v e r s of the o l d c i t y water c a r t s entered  v e h i c l e s , but  the  general  t o n e was  J o b i n which adorned v a r i o u s p a r t s of the of the  few  explicitly  Ice  the  provided  the  c a r n i v a l i n Canada and  as a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n and a r r i v e d d a i l y by  rail  to f i l l  completed Chateau Frontenac.^  the  The  and  organizers  the United  so l a r g e numbers o f  one  Many  the p u b l i c spectacles  much o f t h e m u s i c f o r t h e s e a f f a i r s .  a l s o a d v e r t i s e d the  carver  Upper Town, were  French Canadian elements.  society balls,  sculptures  famous  members o f t h e Quebec g a r r i s o n a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n sports events,  and  symbolic  upper c l a s s .  o f f i g u r e s f r o m F r e n c h C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y , by  the  States  visitors  the h o t e l s , e s p e c i a l l y the  newly  - 4 In  1894,  Quebec C i t y , its  -  this carnival  was  important to  citizens.,of  t h o u g h a modern r e a d e r m i g h t j u s t i f i a b l y  h i s t o r i c a l importance, e s p e c i a l l y  o r d i n a r y apparently took p l a c e . apparently frivolous  event w i l l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  i t s c u l t u r a l and  of  1894  the  of  people of  was  no  The  s e c o n d c o n c e r n s who  and  will  social  Three b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a r i s e relationship  s i n c e n o t h i n g out  r e v e a l a g r e a t number  Quebec C i t y  c o n c e r n s the  of  city,  add  at once.  and  this  of  to  the  to  why  The  first  the  older  the  older  celecarnival  longer being celebrated i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l French  c e l e b r a t i o n of  t h i s new  c e l e b r a t i o n was participation  and  i n v o l v e d i n the  carnival  revived.  nineteenth century.  the An  and  It will  t o n o t e how  economic r e a l i t i e s of  setting  was  be  i n the  itself.  the  necessary to  at  s u p e r i m p o s e d upon a s o c i a l  the  look social  l a s t decade of  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  In t h a t sense, the  and  f o r what p u r p o s e s  the  i s t h e r e f o r e necessary i n order to  carnival  form.  organization  this reflected  city  the  history.  this carnival  the  question  N e v e r t h e l e s s a study of  t h i n g s about the  b r a t i o n s , of  the  the  carnival's  understand  carnival  " c o n t e x t " , a way  and  the  becomes a  of  reading  "text" the  5  society i t s e l f .  By  c o n t r a s t , to  example a s t r i k e b r i n g s out  the  assertion that,  most c l e a r l y  social  for  interrelation-  s h i p s i n a c o m m u n i t y by  emphasizing the  different  s t u d y ' s approach i s t h a t the  celebra-  r e v e a l s how  is  t i o n Of  classes, this  the  s t a t u s quo,  g e n e r a t e d , or  m a i n t a i n e d and  c l e a v a g e between  s o c i a l consensus  social divisions  seem t o  .„.  -  5  disappear.  -  The s t u d y o f s t r i k e s  i s a rewarding  way t o  o b s e r v e t h e t e m p o r a r y b r e a k i n g down o f t h i s c o n s e n s u s , b u t a t any g i v e n t i m e people  t h i s b r e a k d o w n a f f e c t s o n l y a s m a l l number o f  and f o r a v e r y s h o r t t i m e .  I t i s the other  mechanisms  i n a c o m m u n i t y t h a t have a f a r more p e r m a n e n t a f f e c t upon t h e forming  and a c c e p t a n c e o f s o c i a l  values.  This leads i n e v i t a b l y t o the question of " s o c i a l c o n t r o l " , that i s the c o n t r o l or modification of objectionable behaviour  b y t h e more c o n c e r n e d o r a r t i c u l a t e members o f " t h e  ruling class".  These a t t e m p t s  a t s o c i a l c o n t r o l range a l l  t h e way f r o m t h e t e m p e r a n c e movement t o t h e s o c i e t y f o r t h e prevention of c r u e l t y to animals. difficulty activity class.  i n bringing together  There i s a c e r t a i n  i n a study of a l e i s u r e  l i k e the c a r n i v a l the concepts  o f work, l e i s u r e and  On t h e one h a n d , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a l l t h r e e  appears abundantly  c l e a r , i f a t times  a l i t t l e oversimplified;  o r a t l e a s t o v e r s t a t e d : t h a t t h e i d e a s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s , because o f t h e economic and s o c i a l  hegemony  o f t h a t c l a s s , become t h e i d e a s a n d v a l u e s o f a l l o t h e r i n t h e community, making most p e o p l e  passive observers  e n s u r i n g t h e i r adherence t o t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s quo. general statement,  classes and  As a  t h i s may o r may n o t be t r u e , b u t i n t h e  p a r t i c u l a r case o f t h e c a r n i v a l , as i t has been c e l e b r a t e d , the  situation  i s more a m b i g u o u s .  seen as an i n s t r u m e n t  On t h e one h a n d , i t c a n be  o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l by t h e r u l i n g  class,  a s h o r t p e r i o d when t h e r u l e s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y a r e s u s p e n d e d and  when r i t u a l  i n v e r s i o n of the s o c i a l order r e i n f o r c e s the  everyday world.  7  6 -  O r , i t c a n be s e e n a s t h e t e m p o r a r y  of  c l a s s b a r r i e r s o r e v e n an i n s t r u m e n t  Of  course that  community.  When a community c e l e b r a t e s its  Thus t h e c e l e b r a t i o n  rhythm o f " o r d i n a r y "  reinforcing  carnival i ti s i n a  values.  o f a community e v e n t , a  the c a r n i v a l , i s not a deliberate  daily  them.  depends l e s s on t h e c a r n i v a l t h a n on t h e  very r e a l sense r e a f f i r m i n g  like  t o undermine  leveller  life.  departure  Instead,  i t : "un temps f o r t " ,  a savoir  'f§te  from t h e  i t c a n be s e e n a s comme un evenement  s p e c i a l d o n t on p r e n d c o n s c i e n c e e t p a r l e q u e l  les partici-  pants  se s e n t e n t c o n c e r n e s en t a n t  W h i l e a. c u l t u r e "ordinary",  culture  que c o l l e c t i v i t e . . . "  m i g h t be l a r g e l y composed o f t h e s o - c a l l e d  even i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f l i f e ,  make up t h e l a r g e r the  8  collectivity's  t h e temps f o r t s  d e f i n i t i o n of i t s e l f ,  "se m a n i f e s t e e t se r e c o n n a i t  y e u x " a n d where e a c h member s e e s h i m s e l f  where  a ses propres as p a r t  of a coherent  9 whole.  The way t h a t  the celebration  Quebec, t h e n , w o u l d i n d i c a t e culture  o f c a r n i v a l changed i n  some o f t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e  as a whole. The  older  c a r n i v a l s were b a s e d on a c o h e r e n t  community, b u t w i t h t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n part  of the nineteenth century,  f o r m a t i o n began.  rural  i n the l a t t e r  a process of c u l t u r a l  The p e o p l e m i g r a t i n g  trans-  f r o m t h e Quebec  c o u n t r y s i d e t o work i n t h e f a c t o r i e s o f Quebec C i t y and M o n t r e a l were l i k e  i m m i g r a n t s t o t h e i n d u s t r i a l work s i t u a t i o n  w h i c h c o n f r o n t e d them.  I n H e r b e r t Gutman's words, t h e i r  -  r e s p o n s e can  be  described  7  -  as b e i n g  " s h a p e d by  b e t w e e n t h e i r c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n and into which they enter(ed)". similar context, i n Gutman s study 1  was  Thomas, i n a  f u n c t i o n of  Americanization  be  s e e n t o h a v e had  the  same e f f e c t  t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f o l d c u s t o m s and  ment w i t h new  o n e s more s u i t e d t o t h e new  i s the working out  society  "the d e s t r u c t i o n o f memories"  f a c t o r y d i s c i p l i n e can culturally:  the p a r t i c u l a r  J u s t as W.I.  observed t h a t the  the i n t e r a c t i o n  of a process,  the  their  replace-  environment.  This  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and  t e n s i o n b e t w e e n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and  industrial  society,  12 a l s o been c a l l e d  "modernization".  Quebec C i t y a t t h e end an e x c e l l e n t p l a c e  to study  of the n i n e t e e n t h  the working out  century  of t h i s  process  o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . - I t s c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1894 i m i t a t e d and  even s u r p a s s e d , i f l o c a l o p i n i o n  i s to  and  in places  f r o m 1883  s u c h as T r i n i d a d and  celebrations s t i l l after periods  New  t o 1889.  At the  Marketing The  d i d not  time,  O r l e a n s whose c a r n i v a l  s u r v i v e , s i m i l a r r e v i v a l s were o c c u r r i n g  of n e g l e c t , while  the  passing  go u n n o t i c e d  most a f f e c t e d .  gras  same  i n Europe f o l k l o r i s t s 13 r e c o r d i n g the d e c l i n e of f o l k c u l t u r e . II.  1896  be  b e l i e v e d , the b r i l l i a n t l y - s u c c e s s f u l r e v i v a l s of mardi celebrations i n Montreal  is  were  Past o f some o f t h e o l d ways i n Quebec as o r u n l a m e n t e d o n l y by  the o r d i n a r y  While the o l d c a r n i v a l , i t w i l l  be  seen,  well people had  - 8 few,  i f any,  a r t i c u l a t e defenders  among t h e e d u c a t e d ,  were o t h e r a p p e a l i n g c u s t o m s whose p a s s i n g was severing a necessary  l i n k w i t h the past.  century provided, e s p e c i a l l y m i g h t s i m p l y be  i n Montreal  The and  there  r e g r e t t e d , as late  nineteenth  Quebec  City,what  called a receptive "psychological climate"  f o r i n t e r e s t i n past customs.  I t expressed  the  "bon  lament f o r the l o s s of the  itself partly  v i e u x temps" o f t h e  r u r a l c o m m u n i t y on t h e p a r t o f u r b a n  in  bygone  writers:  Dans l e bon v i e u x t e m p s , c e t t e fe^te e t a i t / c e l € b r e e dans p r e s q u e t o u t e s l e s maisons canadiennes. C ' e t a i t un j o u r de g r a n d e l i e s s e . Le t r a v a i l e t a i t s u s p e n d u e t l e p l a i s i r e t a i t p a r t o u t a l ' o r d r e du j o u r . . . L a s o i r e e e t l a n u i t e n t i e r e e t a i e n t consacrees a l a danse. T o u t l e monde s a u t a i t , l e s v i e u x comme l e s j e u n e s , au son du v i o l o n e t de l a c l a r i n e t t e . . . Au d i r e des p l u s v i e u x c i t o y e n s de M o n t r e a l , l a c e l e b r a t i o n de c e t t e f e t e (25 novembre) r e m o n t a i t au temps de l e u r s a n c e t r e s . ^ This p a r t i c u l a r  festival,  been a t r a d i t i o n a l m a r r i a g e  and  " l a Sainte Catherine",  courtship holiday.  w r i t i n g i n t h e same p e r i o d , a l s o e u l o g i z e d t h e days", lamented t h e i r p a s s i n g , but o l d customs t o s t r e n g t h e n g r o w i n g up  around him.  h o l i d a y s and  b e c a u s e he  had LeMay,  of  t h e b o n d s o f t h e modern c o m m u n i t y  The  d e c l i n e i n numbers o f p u b l i c begun i n  France,was a cause of concern  for  him  l i n k e d t h a t t o t h e d e c l i n e i n community s p i r i t  cohesiveness were l i k e  :  "good o l d  looked to the r e v i v a l  f e s t i v a l s at the time, a process  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y New  H.P.  7  of e a r l i e r times.  F o r him,  public  and  festivals  f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s , l i n k i n g t h e body o f t h e  community 15  together  i n t h e same way  that a family i s linked  together.  -  He  9  -  a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was,  above a l l ,  amusements t h a t a p e o p l e most g e n u i n e l y character,  and  i n i t s choice revealed i t s  i f t h o s e c e l e b r a t i o n s c h a n g e d , i t was  t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s had  changed.  He was  because  imprecise  t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , and n e v e r a l l u d e d t o t h e m a s s i v e s o c i a l and  of  about  he c e r t a i n l y  economic changes  o c c u r r i n g i n the  s o c i e t y o f Quebec a t t h e t i m e ,  attributing this  to:  instead  ...un b r i n de f l e g m e d a n s l ' a i r que nous r e s p i r o n s , dans l a n a t u r e s e v e r e q u i s ' e t e n d . .. s o u s nos y e u x , d a n s l e f r o i d q u i n o u s e n g o u r d i t e t d a n s l a f r e q u e n t a t i o n des A n g l a i s q u i nous e n t o u r e . . . He  r e j o i c e d t h a t t h e p e r i o d was  witnessing  o f t h e o l d c u s t o m s , e v e n i f t h e y t o o k new case w i t h the  a  revival  f o r m s , as was  summer f e a s t o f S a i n t J o h n t h e B a p t i s t ,  the formerly  a f e s t i v a l o f summer c e l e b r a t e d w i t h huge b o n f i r e s and ing.  I n 1834  t h i s had  become a c e l e b r a t i o n o f  so t h a t l e S a i n t - J e a n - B a p t i s t e h e u r e u s e C f o r t e a d m i r a b l e des  was  now  f o r him,  rejoic-  nationalism "L  expression  1  s e n t i m e n t s d a m o u r e t de f o i , 1  de p a t r i o t i s m e e t de r e l i g i o n du C a n a d a - f r a n c a i s " ,  as  i t is  17 today, w i t h the r e l i g i o u s element i n e c l i p s e . One of the past and  of the and  i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about the  a b o u t l e i s u r e was  the  f a c t that both French  E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g Q u e b e c k e r s were i n v o l v e d .  t o say  t h a t t h e y were s p e a k i n g t o e a c h o t h e r  i s s u e s , f o r the speaking press  discussion  This  g r o u p was  not  not  about these  t o n e o f commentary i n t h e F r e n c h and i n d i c a t e d one  is  English-  a f f e c t e d by  the  - 10 other.  -  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o t h were d e a l i n g w i t h t h e  t h a t t h e community needed t o b e n e f i t from l e i s u r e . F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , l e i s u r e and p u b l i c  idea  For the  f e s t i v a l s were means t o  s t r e n g t h e n c o m m u n i t y and s o c i a l b o n d s , a n d  thereby to ensure  the c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l o f t h e community.  For E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  commentators,  moments o f r e c r e a t i o n made one w o r k h a r d e r and  b e t t e r . Governor-General Lord Landsdowne s speech a t the 1  M o n t r e a l W i n t e r C a r n i v a l i n 1884 of t h i s Anglo-Saxon i n a l l the  i s an e x c e l l e n t  illustration  approach which formed the dominant  element  carnivals:  N e i t h e r the n a t i o n nor the i n d i v i d u a l can exist without recreation. Amid t h e s t r a i n and p r e s s u r e of l i f e whether our h a b i t u a l v o c a t i o n c a l l s us t o t h e f i e l d , o r t o t h e c i t y , t o t h e d e s k o r t o t h e b a r , t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o r t o .:. the study, the r e c r e a t i o n which s h a l l give strength t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l f i b r e — which s h a l l b u r y t h e monotony o f o u r d a i l y e x i s t e n c e — which s h a l l give refreshment to the jaded b o d y and t h e o v e r w r o u g h t m i n d — w h i c h s h a l l r e n d e r o u r y o u t h m a n l y and a c t i v e and o u r m a t u r i t y v i g o r o u s and r o b u s t i s an n e c e s s a r y t o us a s t h e a i r we P a r t o f t h i s may B r i t i s h background  breathe.' (Applause)18  be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o L a n d s d o w n e ' s  and t o t h e c h a n g e s  t i o n of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s nineteenth century.  ,  i n t h e n a t u r e and  percep-  i n B r i t a i n over the course of the  I t w o u l d be p e r h a p s m i s l e a d i n g t o t r e a t 19  t h e s e v i e w s as e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f C a n a d i a n T h e r e w e r e o t h e r , and p e r h a p s more  opinion.  influential,  c u r r e n t s o f t h o u g h t t h a t w e r e o p e r a t i n g a t t h e t i m e and  they  a l s o seem t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i n o r i t y i n Quebec and M o n t r e a l .  These  the  - 11 l o o k e d t o Quebec's p a s t a n d a l s o a t r u r a l Q u e b e c , s e e k i n g an A r c a d i a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o urban i n d u s t r i a l people i d e a l i z e d the r u r a l peasant l i f e  society.  o f Quebec a n d b e l i e v e d  t h a t i t had been t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o t h e c i t i e s ; the  These  they  ignored  p o v e r t y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s l i k e M o n t r e a l and Quebec,  a s w e l l a s much o f t h e m i s e r y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e .  What became  a s t a p l e o f many l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l g u i d e s a n d p o p u l a r h i s t o r i e s was a r u r a l , C a t h o l i c , o l d F r e n c h Quebec to  which urban P r o t e s t a n t m i d d l e c l a s s Americans and E n g l i s h  C a n a d i a n s f e l t c o m p e l l i n g l y drawn o n t h e i r summer v a c a t i o n s and w h i c h t h e y a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r p r e t t o t h e i r and c o n t e m p o r a r i e s .  friends  A good e x a m p l e o f t h i s p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e  was W i l l i a m P a r k e r G r e e n o u g h ' s C a n a d i a n F o l k - L i f e a n d F o l k Lore which p u r p o r t e d t o d e s c r i b e , r e s i d e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n " ,  "from a l o n g time o f  "My f r i e n d s , t h e h a b i t a n t s o f  C a n a d a , t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s , amusements, s o n g s , l a n g u a g e a n d 20 national characteristics". the  Among F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a s w e l l ,  a g r a r i a n b i a s o f C a t h o l i c n a t i o n a l i s m produced  e q u a l l y romantic view o f r u r a l  life.  an ~  T h i s f o u n d one e x p r e s -  sion i n Henri Bourassa's r e j e c t i o n of the golden c a l f of industrialism.^ What i s i m p o r t a n t h e r e i s n o t o n l y t h e p r e s e n c e o r l e v e l of accuracy of t h i s  literature,  f o r even, a s l a t e a s t h e  1970's t h e c a s u a l A m e r i c a n v i s i t o r w o u l d assume an i n s t a n t 22 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Quebec a n d i t s c u s t o m s ,  but t h i s  literature  formed t h e N o r t h American m i d d l e c l a s s a u d i e n c e ' s views o f  - 12 Quebec.  J u s t as i m p o r t a n t was  the marketing  by a d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . of  of t h i s  Thus a c o m m u n i t y  t h e p a s t , l i k e t h e c a r n i v a l , was  folklore festival  t u r n e d i n t o a huge p u b l i c  s p e c t a c l e whose s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e was  m e a s u r e d by t h e The  presence  of  numbers o f o u t s i d e r s s u c h as A m e r i c a n s .  r a i l r o a d s made  it  p o s s i b l e t o h o l d such f e s t i v a l s , even i n w i n t e r , f o r people 23  l i v i n g more t h a n t h i r t y m i l e s away. By t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s , i t i s a p p a r e n t  that t o u r i s t appeal  a standard f o r success.  T h i s marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f  d e l i b e r a t e and e f f e c t i v e  "marketing"  elements  o f F r e n c h Canada's p a s t —  o f t h e most  was  a  attractive  the beginning of  a  tourist industry. What h a p p e n s t o p o p u l a r c u l t u r e when e l e m e n t s s e l e c t e d and it  reshaped  c o u l d be a r g u e d ,  to attract tourists?  will  This  are  distortion,  have an e f f e c t on t h e way  i n which  t h e c o m m u n i t y , whose c u l t u r e i s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d , s e e s  itself.  The  changing  broader  implications of t a i l o r i n g , or d r a s t i c a l l y  t h e c u s t o m s and p r a c t i c e s o f a c o m m u n i t y ' s c u l t u r e  resulted,  e v e n a t t h e t i m e , i n some s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , t h e b u s i n e s s men, i t was  no  u s i n g i t as a m a r k e t f o r t h e i r own  gain.  Thus  l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n o f c e l e b r a t i n g a n c i e n t community  r i t e s whose r o o t s w e n t b a c k i n t o i t s c o l l e c t i v e h e r i t a g e w h i c h may  h a v e i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r s b u t whose p r e s e n c e  p e r i p h e r a l to the event.  N o w ' i t was  a question of  was  developing  a r e a s o n t o a t t r a c t o u t s i d e r s i n l a r g e e n o u g h numbers so t h a t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the non-commercial elements  of the  local  - 13 c o m m u n i t y became u n n e c e s s a r y . developing  tourist  I n f i g u r a t i v e terms,  industry could  be s e e n a s t u r n i n g  cement i n t o s o c i a l s o l v e n t by a p p e a l i n g need f o r c o n n e c t i o n  with  this social  t o t h e community's  i t s past i n order  to justify  selling  i t on t h e open m a r k e t . W i n t e r was c u s t o m a r i l y leisure activities the  t h e s e a s o n f o r s o c i a l i z i n g and  i n F r e n c h C a n a d a ; what t h e g e n e r a t i o n  1880's a n d 1890's was t r y i n g t o do was t o d r a w  into this cycle. their  outsiders  I n t h e same way t h e P a r i s i a n s w o u l d  s e w e r s y s t e m a n d some o f t h e i r  g o o d a c c o u n t a t t h e same t i m e ,  of  turn  f a c t o r i e s t o t h e same  providing a tourist  - v..  25 "experience".  The c a r n i v a l s a s r e v i v a l s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y /  customs o f t h e p a s t a p p e a l e d t o t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n community f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s , and t o t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g  part  o f t h e b u s i n e s s community f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s from t h e presence o f thousands o f s t r a n g e r s . and  the commercial could  and  M o d e r n was t e m p o r a r i l y  Ill.  For a time the c u l t u r a l  c o - e x i s t , and a f u s i o n o f  Ancient  obtained.  C i v i l i z i n g the Carnival Of  course not a l l the strands  were r e p r e s e n t e d  of t h i s popular  culture  i n t h e r e v i v e d c a r n i v a l s , and t h e c o n c e p t  of a r e v i v e d c e l e b r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t c a r n i v a l had o n l y dormant, n o t abandoned.  T h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t  the c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l i n i t s o l d e r by  been  form had been c e n s u r e d  l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s and even t h a t a t t e m p t s a t s u p r e s s i o n  were  - 14 at l a s t s u c c e s s f u l .  -  In February,  1866,  on t h e day  m a r d i g r a s , t h e Quebec M e r c u r y a l l u d e d t o t h e for  before  legal penalties  i t s celebration: S t e p s a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o arm and r e i n f o r c e t h e p o l i c e t o p r e v e n t p a r a d e s o f masked and . armed p e o p l e s u c h as h a v e o f l a t e y e a r s , made a p r a c t i c e o f e n t e r i n g h o u s e s and i n t i m i d a t i n g t h e i r inmates. The l a w on t h i s p o i n t i s s e v e r e and p r o p e r l y so and i t w i l l we b e l i e v e h e r e a f t e r be more s t r i c t l y enforced than f o r m e r l y . ^ 2  T h i s b y - l a w had 22nd by  t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f Quebec C i t y and  f i n e o f up for  up t o two  months f o r a n y o n e , who,  r e s i d i n g i n any  December  provided  to f o r t y d o l l a r s or imprisonment at hard  "disturb, without  day  o n l y been p a s s e d the p r e v i o u s  for a labour  on e a c h o f f e n s e ,  might  l a w f u l cause, the peaceable i n h a b i t a n t s  s t r e e t ; o r s h a l l be masked o r d i s g u i s e d by ;  o r by n i g h t i n any  s t r e e t ; or  . . . s h a l l k n o c k a t any  window o r s h u t t e r . . . o r s h a l l c a u s e o r make any d i s o r d e r or d i s t u r b a n c e ,  or s h a l l  t u m u l t u o u s a s s e m b l a g e i n any  door,  tumult,  form t h a t p a r t of  noise,-  any  p l a c e w h a t s o e v e r , i n any  house,  27 b u i l d i n g or p l a c e , enclosed the  l a w and  the  j u d i c i a r y were e f f e c t i v e  the Mercury c a l l e d outs"; and  or unenclosed..."  "the  i n discouraging  i m p r o p r i e t y of these  i n t h e R e c o r d e r ' s C o u r t on t h e day  f o r s e v e r a l d a y s t h e r e a f t e r o n l y one  Apparently  modern t u r n  a f t e r mardi  gras  case of c a r n i v a l  b e h a v i o u r came b e f o r e i t : MARDIGRAS - O n l y one M a r d i g r a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ... came up, v i z : S a m u e l R o c h f o r d , a y o u n g boy having h i s face blackened i n Defosses S t r e e t . He was f i n e d $2 and c o s t s o r f o u r d a y s . He was l o c k e d u p . 8 2  what  ...  - 15 It  i s evident  k i n d of t r a d i t i o n , but t h a t i t was  -  t h a t the magistrates i t i s not  f r o w n e d on  c l e a r why.  p a r t o f an a s s a u l t on p o p u l a r  this  I t i s possible traditions  in  the  name o f m i d d l e c l a s s m o r a l i t y o r e l s e , s e e n i n t h e c o n t e x t other  c i t y r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e .time,  r e g u l a t e p u b l i c and city  itself  by-law "For was  p r i v a t e behaviour i n order  r u n more e f f i c i e n t l y . the  p a s s e d and  as p a r t o f a d e s i r e  Good O r d e r and  At the  t o make  C i t y of  this  Quebec"  used a g a i n s t mardi gras r e v e l l e r s , the  a l s o passed by-laws r e g u l a t i n g , but  not  to the  same t i m e as  Peace o f the  of  Council  b a n n i n g , "House o f  p r o s t i t u t i o n , houses o f i l l - f a m e , d i s o r d e r l y houses  and  29 taverns". From o t h e r  sources,  however, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i f  e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c a r n i v a l b e h a v i o u r was phenomenon o f t h e m i d - V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , t h e c e l e b r a t i o n c l e r i c a l d i s a p p r o v a l b o t h had c a r n i v a l s e a s o n i n New c e l e b r a t i o n and first  F r a n c e had  i n Quebec.  been a t i m e o f  twentieth-century  i n the colony.  According  Quebec f o l k l o r i s t E.Z.  his information  to the  The  great  m i d n i g h t Tuesday, mardi g r a s .  Ash The  who  Jesuites, i t  Wednesday and  ended  at  f i r s t mention of i t s  c e l e b r a t i o n i s i n 16 4 7 when t h e J o u r n a l m e n t i o n s t h a t "un  was  early  Massicotte,  f r o m t h e J o u r n a l des  u s u a l l y began e i g h t days b e f o r e  was  and  r e j o i c i n g t h o u g h i t i s u n c e r t a i n when i t  celebrated  obtained  deep r o o t s  a  b a l e t . ...... l e m e r c r e d y g r a s " . ^ ^  I t i s quite  t h a t t h e r e w e r e e a r l i e r c e l e b r a t i o n s i n New  there possible  F r a n c e and  the  - 16 c u s t o m was s o i n g r a i n e d t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r e d mention i t .  superfluous t o  I n New F r a n c e , a s e l s e w h e r e , t h e u p p e r  and  their  social  i n f e r i o r s both celebrated c a r n i v a l  the  s i n g l e d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e was  classes and t h a t  -that o f t h e C h u r c h , w h i c h  throughout t h e years remained c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n . Robert-Lionel  Seguin t e l l s  the story of the Intendant  Bigot's  mardi gras c e l e b r a t i o n i n l 7 4 9 w h i c h l a s t e d a l l n i g h t and e n d e d a t s e v e n t h i r t y o n A s h Wednesday m o r n i n g .  Bigot's  a t t e m p t t o h a v e t h e A s h Wednesday s e r v i c e a d v a n c e d f r o m i n t h e morning t o seven i n t h e morning so t h a t h i s could  f i n i s h their party, receive their  home t o s l e e p r e c e i v e d a r a t h e r f r o s t y  eleven  guests  a s h e s a n d t h e n go r e c e p t i o n from t h e  31 priest  i n question.  A few y e a r s l a t e r t h e e n g i n e e r  wrote from t h e governor's palace, day  o f mardi gras,  i n Montreal  _<753, "on y r e c u t  Franquet  t h a t on t h e  l e s masque's q u i a p p o r t e r e n t  32 des  momons".  An e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h  century  a l s o found t h e people o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e  English  traveller  celebrating at this  time o f year: They ( t h e c o u n t r y f o l k ) a r e f o n d o f d a n c i n g and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s a t p a r t i c u l a r s e a s o n s and f e s t i v a l s , o n w h i c h o c c a s i o n s t h e y e a t , d r i n k , and dance i n c o n s t a n t succession. When t h e i r l o n g f a s t i n L e n t i s c o n c l u d e d , t h e y have t h e i r ' j o u r s g r a s ' , o r days o f feasting. Then i t i s t h a t e v e r y p r o d u c t i o n of t h e i r farm i s presented f o r t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r appetites ... 3 3  Drink  played  no s m a l l p a r t i n t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f  these a p p e t i t e s and even l a t e Massicotte  i n the  nineteenth.century  n o t e d t h a t among t h e c u s t o m s a t S t . - S c h o l a s t i q u e  - 17 was t h a t b e f o r e  mardi gras,  the large bucket o f water i n the  m a i n room o f t h e h o u s e was r e p l a c e d  with  a large bucket of  34 beer.  LeMay a l s o remembered t h a t a t h a b i t a n t  c a r n i v a l t i m e when ' i l  fait  g i n pour se r e c h a u f f e r ;  s'il 35  p r e n d r a i t quand-meme..." Quebec C i t y , t h e t h r e e  parties  f r o i d e t l ' o n p r e n d une v e r r e  de  ne f a i s a i t p a s f r o i d , o n e n I n t h e Beauce r e g i o n  days b e f o r e  south of  A s h Wednesday w e r e t h e most  a c t i v e o f a l l and t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s a r e o f i n t e r e s t . occurred  during  They  n e a r Quebec C i t y a n d i n v o l v e d t h e k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r  that the c i t y  f r o w n e d upon I n 1 8 6 6 .  On T u e s d a y m o r n i n g  d i s g u i s e s a n d masks were u s u a l l y c o m p l e t e d a n d i n t h e e a r l y afternoon with  men e n t r a v e s t i , a s w e l l a s some women, a s s e m b l e d  s t i c k s t o k e e p away t h e d o g s a n d b e g a n t o make t h e r o u n d s  of houses i n s e a r c h  o f food  p u n i s h e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y . source, " l e peuple e t a i t piastre . 1  de  and d r i n k . According  impitoyable  Niggardly  t o one e t h n o g r a p h i c pour l e s ' b a i s e - l a -  I I l e s h o u s p i l l a i t e t souvent l e s m e t t a i t  l a societe.  ironiques..."  The w h o l e p o i n t o f t h e  e x e r c i s e was t o r e m a i n masked a n d t o p r o v i d e  entertainment  f o r t h e m a s q u e r s a n d t h e p e o p l e w a t c h i n g them. community g e t t o g e t h e r s also occasions  were n o t o n l y  sanctions  However, t h e s e  f r i v o l o u s entertainments  t o express the c o l l e c t i v e  was done t h r o u g h s u p p o r t i n g behaviour  au ban  P a r f o i s on r e n v e r s a i t t a b l e s e t f a u t e u i l s en 36  chantant des c o u p l e t s  but  h o s t s were  identity.  This  community s t a n d a r d s f o r s o c i a l  (marriage and g e n e r o s i t y ) o r a p p l y i n g p u n i t i v e 37 (stinginess).In t h i s regard, a discriminatory  - 18 a s p e c t o f t h i s c u s t o m was  -  the popular  d i s a p p r o v a l of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some o f t h e s e mummeries. custom ran the r i s k of being right  ' c o u r e u s e ' and  known as  She  who  'hardie'  female  flouted  i f not  down-  bore such e p i t h e t s f o r the r e s t of  the  38 year. Thepersistence New  of c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s i n Europe  F r a n c e t h u s r e s t e d upon a f u n c t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n  r e l a t e d t o the c o l l e c t i v e c o m m u n i t y w h i c h was to the  s o c i a l needs o f the  r e l i g i o u s calendar  seasonal,  was  community, a  predominantly a g r i c u l t u r a l .  a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r , w h i c h was  that  and  Closely  the  tied  cyclical  complemented t h a t p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s e a s o n a l  39 rhythm. end  For  i n s t a n c e , c a r n i v a l time i s c e l e b r a t e d near  of winter,  j u s t as E a s t e r  of S p r i n g , the  f i r e s of St.-Jean at the  All  S a i n t s ' Day  New  Y e a r and  i n autumn, and  Epiphany  C a r n a v a 1 -Care^me was end  of winter  u n t i l Ash  the twelve  (les Rois)  when i t was On  t h a t day,  beginning  solstice,  days of  i n the w i n t e r .  permitted  a p e r i o d of t o t a l abstinence as had  summer  t h e p e r i o d o f f e a s t i n g and  Wednesday.  began, and,  i s c e l e b r a t e d near the  the  Christmas, The  period  r e v e l r y at  of  the  t o e a t meat and  celebrate  f o r t y days before  Easter,  f r o m meat and  other  pleasures  been the C a t h o l i c custom f o r c e n t u r i e s ,  "pendant l a q u e l l e r e g n e n t p l u s i e u r s i n t e r d i c t i o n s ,  alimentaires  40  s u r t o u t , mais a u s s i s e x u e l l e s V i was  !  Halfway through Lent  a s h o r t s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e r i g o r s o f f a s t i n g and  there  abstinence  known as t h e Mi-Carerne w h i c h i n F r e n c h Canada was  characterized  by  the time  l a r g e f e a s t s a t home and  i n t h e B e a u c e , i t was i  to  -  begin end  maple s u g a r i n g .  19 -  Easter with i t s outburst  of joy, i t s  t o s e l f - d e n i a l , and t h e r e t u r n o f s p r i n g marked t h e end o f  the winter  cycle.  I n E u r o p e , C a r n i v a l i t s e l f was o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d , s o m e t i m e s a s a man o f s t r a w ,  sometimes n o t ,  b a t t l e b e t w e e n h i m a n d L e n t was p l a y e d  and a  burlesque  o u t i n w h i c h he w o u l d 41  be  a l l e g o r i c a l l y v a n q u i s h e d and L e n t would t r i u m p h .  have b e e n s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s popularity of the f e s t i v a l .  There  advanced f o r t h e t e n a c i t y and  A modern w r i t e r o n t h e T r i n i d a d  c a r n i v a l h a s n o t e d t h a t t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e means t h a t t h e C h u r c h h a d i n t a m i n g i t was t o g i v e pagan r i t e  too profoundly  rooted  "religious sanction to a  i n the sustenance o f l i f e t o  42  be  e f f e c t i v e l y suppressed".  The k e y t o t h e s e d e e p  i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y may h a v e l a i n forces that sustained the  fertility  nature  i n i t s blending  t h e community, t h e c y c l e o f  and t h e d e i t y , a l l e x p r e s s e d through r e v e l r y .  dancing,  c o s t u m i n g and masking, music making,  singing of satiric  or laudatory  j e s t i n g , mummery, f e a s t i n g , a n d g e n e r a l "torch carrying, bonfire lighting  songs,  r e v e l r y , as w e l l as  ( o r i g i n a l l y aimed a t p u r i f y -  i n g t h e f i e l d s a n d f r i g h t e n i n g o f f demons, t h e r e b y  ensuring  good c r o p ) , a n d t h e p i t c h e d b a t t l e s b e t w e e n c o n t e s t i n g symbolic  The  e s p e c i a l l y i n France, o f t e n took t h e form  "street processions,  energetic  ofthe  i n a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f  o f p e o p l e and s o i l ,  European e x p r e s s i o n of  life  roots  bands,  o f t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n L i f e a n d D e a t h , Summer a n d  W i n t e r , New Y e a r a n d O l d Y e a r , o r t h e more m y s t i c  a  combat  - 20 between the  -  f o r c e s o f good and  t h a t i n more l i t e r a l  or l e s s  43  I t i s not  "poetic" times,  t h e 1 8 6 0 ' s , s u c h s y m b o l i s m had p o l i t i c i a n s , and  evil".  little  surprising  l i k e Quebec i n  meaning f o r urban  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the d i s o r d e r l y elements  t h a t gave c a r n i v a l i t s l i f e w o u l d r e p e l o r o f f e n d t h e more ordered  and In  but  m o r a l i s t i c minds o f the seventeenth  or suppress  de  feared or disapproved  of  the  moved w i t h t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t t o c o n t r o l  them.  For remarkably  t h e name o f r e a s o n and  c e n t u r y , t h e c l e r g y n o t o n l y i n Quebec  a l s o i n France c e r t a i n l y  c e l e b r a t i o n s and  community.  s i m i l a r reasons,  or of m o r a l i t y the French  either  pre-Revolutionary  R e v o l u t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t i e s moved t o a b o l i s h t h i s s u r v i e " o f w h i c h t h e c a r n i v a l was  a part.  R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h , as B e n j a m i n G a s t i n e a u "voulait l a verite  s u r l e v i s a g e de  in  The  "systeme French  so d e l i c a t e l y p u t i t ,  l'homme a u s s i b i e n  que  44 dans son-coeur",  a b o l i s h e d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n , and  b r i e f r e v i v a l under Napoleon c o u l d not the e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h century. t h e c a r n i v a l was  even i t s  give i t c r e d i b i l i t y  W i t h t h e new  perception  that  not o n l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e from a moral p o i n t of  v i e w b u t a l s o as b e i n g b e n e a t h t h e d i g n i t y o f r e a s o n a b l e it did  l o s t some o f i t s o l d f o r c e and not disappear  Carnaval  in  and  credibility.  the appearance of Benjamin  a n c i e n e t moderne i n 1866  men,  However, i t Gastineau's  i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was  some i m p o r t a n c e and r e p r e s e n t e d s o m e t h i n g t h r e a t e n i n g : L e s e x t r a v a g a n c e s e t l e s f o l i e s du c a r a n a v a l a t t e s t e n t un s p l e e n , un v i d e , un ablme i n c o m m e n s u r a b l e d a n s l e c o e u r h u m a i n . Comme t o u t e s l e s d e b a u c h e s , l e c a r n a v a l v i e n t de  of  - 21  -  p r i v a t i o n , de m a l a i s e . L ' h i s t o i r e en m a i n , n o u s a v o n s l a p r e u v e que l e s p e u p l e s l e s p l u s c o r r u m p u e s e t l e s p l u s a s s e r v i s se s o n t d o n n e e s c o r p s e t "ame aux m a s c a r a d e s q u i l e u r o n t r a v i l e u r d i g n i t e e t l e u r independance.45 The  n i n e t e e n t h century witnessed the c o n t i n u a t i o n of  t h e p r o c e s s o f r e p r e s s i o n t h a t had b e g u n i n t h e As an i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e c a r n i v a l was by t h e a r t i c u l a t e  suppressed  s e c t o r s o f the urban  seventeenth. o r abandoned  community, though f o r  a long time i t continued t o s u r v i v e i n r u r a l areas. a n o t h e r p r o c e s s was  o c c u r r i n g a t t h e same t i m e .  However,  I n some a r e a s ,  the lower c l a s s e s fought to m a i n t a i n t h e i r c o n t r o l over carnival; vehicle  the  i n o t h e r s , t h e c a r n i v a l became t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o  f o r the upper c l a s s e s .  The  v a l on t h e i s l a n d o f T r i n i d a d and  experiences of the  the r e l a t i v e l y  carni-  late introduc-  t i o n o f a c a r n i v a l f e s t i v a l t o New  O r l e a n s i n the mid  nineteenth century best i l l u s t r a t e  t h e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  former  ....  s t a r t e d as an u p p e r c l a s s a f f a i r b u t became and  a popular f e s t i v a l d e s p i t e attempts became a v e h i c l e c l a s s attempts  a  ._ The  remained  at r e p r e s s i o n ; the  latter  f o r u p p e r c l a s s amusement d e s p i t e l o w e r  at p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  T h e s e two  opposite experi-  ences are h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c o n t e x t i n which M o n t r e a l and Quebec c a r n i v a l s o f t h e 1 8 8 0 ' s and  the  1890's were  s i t u a t e d , a n d o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o p e n t o them. B e f o r e 1783, Spanish r u l e  t h e i s l a n d o f T r i n i d a d had b e e n u n d e r  f o r t h r e e h u n d r e d y e a r s and t h e r e i s no  o f C a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n u n t i l a number o f F r e n c h  evidence  speaking  p l a n t e r s began t o a r r i v e w i t h t h e i r A f r i c a n s l a v e s .  The  -  i s l a n d became B r i t i s h were e m a n i c i p a t e d ,  22  i n 1797  -  and  until  1834  when t h e  t h e c a r n i v a l became a v e r y  institution  f o r the white  s l a v e s , the  Indians  and  u p p e r c l a s s e s who  the  slaves  important  excluded  the  "free persons of c o l o u r "  from  46 participation. L.M.  A f t e r emancipation,  as e x - p o l i c e  Chief  F r a s e r noted i n h i s r e p o r t to the governor i n  1881,  " t h i n g s were m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d , t h e a n c i e n t  lines  d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n c l a s s e s w e r e o b l i t e r a t e d and  of  as a n a t u r a l  c o n s e q u e n c e t h e c a r n i v a l d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o a n o i s y and 47 d i s o r d e r l y amusement f o r t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s " . He. c o n t r a s t e d t h a t w i t h e a r l i e r h a p p i e r days b e f o r e t h e s l a v e s were f r e e d 48 and  t h e c a r n i v a l was The  t e r m s and  the p r o p e r t y  l o c a l press  "wretched buffoonery order  later  I n 1838,  (tending)  i n by  i t was  an  i n 1884,  century  found o c c a s i o n  c a r n i v a l was  , while  i n 1846  "annual abomination",  "a f r u i t f u l  in antipathetic  i n 1874,  source  f a c u l t y of i t was  i n 186 3,  "a d i a b o l i c a l  of demoralization  when, w i t h t h e  note of approval  i n over f i f t y  "most s u c c e s s f u l , and  f e a t u r e s was  t h e number f r o m t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s who  the c e l e b r a t i o n of the custom".  one  The  of the  called  "a l i c e n s e d festival";  throughout  A s u r p r i s i n g change appeared i n  c a r n i v a l was  the  eleven  the whole c o u n t r y " . first  to  termed  the d i s s o l u t e of the town";  e x h i b i t i o n of w i l d excesses"; and  itself  to b r u t a l i z e the 49  of our p o p u l a t i o n "  "an o r g y i n d u l g e d years  a l s o expressed  throughout the n i n e t e e n t h  bemoan i t s c e l e b r a t i o n .  lower  o f the upper c l a s s e s .  1896 years,  pleasantest  honeymoon was  joined i n short-lived,  - 23 however, f o r t h r e e y e a r s immorality  and  no  l a t e r , c a r n i v a l was  refinement"  i t s e a r l y demise.  Press  once a g a i n " a l l  w i t h the wish  . expressed  o p p o s i t i o n d i d not cease u n t i l  for the  50 1930's. Some o f t h i s and  i n v e c t i v e was  t h e r e were s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s , b u t  out, the d e s i r e s , f o r a e s p e c i a l l y when, as was was  i n t h e hands o f  Nevertheless, impervious way  these  to press  period.  1859,  and  justified  chronicler points  ' c l e a n ' c a r n i v a l were  absurd,^"*"  t h e c a s e between 1858-1884, c a r n i v a l population".  " u n c o u t h e l e m e n t s " seem t o h a v e r e m a i n e d c r i t i c i s m and  of c e l e b r a t i n g since they  year  as one  well  "uncouth elements of the  p a r t o f t h e p o l i c e and  in  doubtless  strongly attached  resisted  their  f i v e a t t e m p t s on  the  the m i l i t a r y to suppress i t i n a  These a t t e m p t s o c c u r r e d  i n 1871-1872. 52  to  i n 1833,  1846,  A n o t h e r a t t e m p t i n 1881  forty-  1858  and  caused a  riot  Port-of-Spain. By  the middle of the n i n e t e e n t h  century  t h e r e were a  number o f p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the._urban c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l t h a t c o u l d n o t e n t i r e l y be b l a m e d on t h e of the upper c l a s s e s . was  The  c a s e o f t h e c a r n i v a l i n New  Orleans  an e x a m p l e o f , a t t i m e s , r a t h e r d e s t r u c t i v e d i s o r d e r .  Introduced at f i r s t  long a f t e r the c i t y ' s  foundation  i n 1718,  i t  was  l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o the upper c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y  t h e C r e o l e s who  celebrated i t with enthusiasm.  m a i n e v e n t s i n t h a t c i t y ' s c e l e b r a t i o n was, be,  perceptions  t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f masked and  and  One  of  would  costumed c h a r a c t e r s  the always  through  - 24 the s t r e e t s of the c i t y . civic  -  T h i s was  sometimes a custom t h a t  a u t h o r i t i e s were uneasy about e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g  of p o l i t i c a l unrest.  Both the Spanish  and  l a t e r the  the  periods American  53 a u t h o r i t i e s w o u l d ban street procession the  i t outright.  The  very  however r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l e  l o c a l p r e s s , as t h e A s h  Wednesday, 1838  first  recorded  a t t e n t i o n from  e d i t i o n of  the  D a i l y Picayune a t t e s t e d : ...A l a r g e number o f y o u n g g e n t l e m e n , p r i n c i p a l l y C r e o l e s o f t h e f i r s t r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , went t o no l i t t l e expense w i t h t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s . In the p r o c e s s i o n were s e v e r a l c a r r i a g e s s u p e r b l y o r n a mented - bands o f m u s i c , h o r s e s r i c h l y c a p a r i s i o n e d - personations of k n i g h t s , c a v a l i e r s , heroes, d e m i g o d s , c h a n t i c l e e r s , p u n c h i n e l l o s , &c, &c, a l l m o u n t e d . Many o f them w e r e d r e s s e d i n f e m a l e a t t i r e , and a c t e d t h e l a d y w i t h no s m a l l d e g r e e of grace.54 Within ten years, elaborateness  h o w e v e r , as t h e p o p u l a r i t y  of the a f f a i r  i n c r e a s e d , and  participation  passed out of the e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l of the C r e o l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n as e x p r e s s e d little  more c r i t i c a l .  c a r n i v a l s had b a c k and  One  i n the of the  l o c a l press  upper  class,  b e g a n t o be  a  f e a t u r e s of the e a r l y  been the custom o f t h r o w i n g  f o r t h between p a r a d e r s  and  and  c o n f e t t i or  s p e c t a t o r s , but  bonbons  this  degenerated i n t o the throwing  soon  o f s a n d , f l o u r and e v e n q u i c k 55 l i m e w h i c h damaged c l o t h i n g and e y e s so t h a t by 1854, t h e  Bee  was  l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c about mardi  gras:  The d e t a i l i s v e r y s h o r t . Boys w i t h bags o f f l o u r p a r a d e d t h e s t r e e t s , and p a i n t e d Jezabels e x h i b i t e d themselves i n p u b l i c c a r r i a g e s , and t h a t i s a b o u t a l l . We a r e n o t sorry that t h i s miserable annual e x h i b i t i o n i s r a p i d l y becoming e x t i n c t . It originated i n a b a r b a r o u s a g e , and i s w o r t h y o f o n l y s u c h .  - 25 -  One o f t h e f e a t u r e s  o f t h e 1 8 5 0 ' s t h a t many c o n t e m p o -  r a r i e s n o t e d was t h e d e c l i n e French population pation "the  i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  and a g r e a t e r  and customs.  I n 1855,  emphasis on American the Daily Delta  march o f Anglo-Saxon i n n o v a t i o n  partici-  lamented  that  h a s made s a d h a v o c  with  57 the  time-honored customs o f o u r a n c i e n t  population".  f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e Bee n o t e d t h e d e c l i n e  The  of the f e s t i v a l 58  " b e f o r e t h e m a r c h o f new p e o p l e , c u s t o m s a n d r e l i g i o n " t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r saw t h e o l d c e l e b r a t i o n e n t i r e l y new f a c e and t o t a l l y customs o f C a t h o l i c had  Europe.  sever i t s e l f  so  t a k e on an  from t h e pre-Lenten  I n 1 8 5 7 , s i x y o u n g A m e r i c a n s who  b e e n members o f a c a r n i v a l g r o u p i n M o b i l e , A l a b a m a ,  c h o s e a m i n o r G r e e k god o f f e s t i v e m i r t h ,  Comus, a s t h e p a t r o n  o f an e n t i r e l y new f o r m o f c a r n i v a l a n d r e t u r n e d i t s c e l e b r a t i o n t o t h e monied c l a s s e s .  I n such a form i t c o n t i n u e d  with  the  a p p r o v a l o f t h e l o c a l p r e s s and t h e a r t i c u l a t e p u b l i c .  The  new c a r n i v a l o f "The M i s t i c k Crewe o f t h e C o u r t o f Comus"  was a v e r y e x c l u s i v e actual and  a f f a i r with  s t r e e t parades confined  p a r t i c i p a t i o n even i n t h e  t o s o c i a l l y prominent  families  i n d i v i d u a l s , a s w e r e t h e p r i v a t e h i g h s o c i e t y b a l l s and  p a r t i e s , a l l o f w h i c h had r i g i d l y - c o n t r o l l e d e n t r a n c e p o l i c i e s by the  i n v i t a t i o n only.  The g e n e r a l p u b l i c was f r e e o n l y  t o enjoy  s t r e e t parade o f t h e costumed w e a l t h y r e v e l l e r s as .  spectators. Trinidad  As i n t h e c l a s s - and c a s t e - b o u n d s o c i e t y o f  earlier  celebration  i n t h e c e n t u r y , where H i l l n o t e d t h a t t h e  o f c a r n i v a l had e i t h e r  " t o d i e from n e g l e c t  or  - 26 change i t s c h a r a c t e r  -  completely"  b e c a u s e i t had  been  "the  59 traditional  l e v e l l e r of s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s "  changed i t s c h a r a c t e r . s o c i a l l e v e l l e r , the h a v e h a p p e n e d was  Perhaps the  , the c a r n i v a l  " r i c h " h o p e d t h a t , as  c a r n i v a l would d i e , but  w h a t seems t o .  a r e a s s e r t i o n o f u p p e r c l a s s c o n t r o l and  f u r t h e r e m p h a s i s on  social  i n M o n t r e a l f r o m 1883  Quebec C i t y i n 1894  and  1896.  c a r n i v a l o f F e b r u a r y 1884  New  O r l e a n s m a r d i g r a s and  held".^  little  of the was  c i t y and  especially in  Montreal Star noted  during  a c l o s e resemblance between  or nothing  t o do w i t h t h e i r  "modernization"  the "the  being  of the o l d mardi  changes undergone i n the  of i t s people over the nineteenth  those changes t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the  1890's.  and  the  i t s celebrations stating that  I n Quebec C i t y , t h e  gras f e s t i v a l r e f l e c t e d the  t o 1889 The  the  a p p r o a c h o f L e n t has  a  distinctions.  I t i s t h i s k i n d o f c a r n i v a l t h a t most r e s e m b l e d ones h e l d  a  fortunes  century.  i n d u s t r i a l c i t y of  It the  CHAPTER I I THE I.  Behind  CARNIVAL CITY AND  THE  REAL CITY  the C a r n i v a l Veneer  Quebec C i t y i s an i m p r e s s i v e s i g h t when v i e w e d a c r o s s the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . visitors  t o t h e c i t y who  had  t e r m i n a t i n g on t h e s o u t h e r n  from  In the c a r n i v a l year of  t r a v e l l e d t h e r e by t h e  railroads  bank o f t h e r i v e r w o u l d h a v e s e e n  the impressive p r o c e s s i o n of b u i l d i n g s along the c l i f f s symbolized history.  t h e many a s p e c t s o f t h e c i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r The  imposing  Diamond on t h e s o u t h .  and  B e l o w i t s r a m p a r t s t h e w i d e wooden  top to the c a s t l e - l i k e  s t r e t c h e d along the  Chateau Frontenac  t h e dome o f t h e n e a r b y p o s t o f f i c e  With  Hotel.  grey  Laval University  t h e h o u s e s and  t o g e t h e r under the c l i f f s  cliff-  J u s t beyond  s t o o d t h e massed  b u i l d i n g s o f t h e Quebec S e m i n a r y and  Town h u d d l e d  which  C i t a d e l d o m i n a t e d s n o w - c o v e r e d Cape  promenade o f t h e D u f f e r i n T e r r a c e  by a s l e n d e r s p i r e .  shops o f the  topped Lower  the c i t y presented  a p p e a r a n c e more s u i t e d t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a n t o i n d u s t r i a l age to  of the 1890's.  t h e c a r n i v a l who  Thousands o f o u t s i d e  an the  visitors  t r a v e r s e d t h e n a r r o w , snowy s t r e e t s w i t h i n  t h e w a l l s o f t h e o l d c i t y by d a y , light  1894  or e s p e c i a l l y a t . n i g h t i n a  s n o w f a l l , c o u l d e a s i l y have i m a g i n e d  r e t u r n e d t o t h e d a y s o f New  France.  t h a t they  Despite the  had  changes  - 28 w r o u g h t by possible contact  the  f o r the with But  and  twentieth  the  -  century,  s u c h an  t o u r i s t w h o . w o u l d h a v e few majority  behind the  even b e h i n d the  of the  gothic  city's  integrated  industrial revolution.  i n t o the I f one  p h y s i c a l appearance of the  for  inhabitants.  city  statues, the  experienced.it:  the  i n Quebec a f t e r M o n t r e a l .  r e a l i t i e s of the  could  be  misled  Canadian  by  the  appealing  i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t , i t had  somehow e s c a p e d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and arrangement of b u i l d i n g s along the on  chances  still  c a r n i v a l c i t y was  i t s inhabitants  second important i n d u s t r i a l centre fully  is  snow c a s t l e s , a r c h e s and  stone ones of the  r e a l c i t y o f Q u e b e c , as  I t was  illusion  class conflict,  cliffs  could  c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n , c l e a r l y to r e v e a l the  that  a l s o be  city's  seen,  social  structure. The  Upper Town had  o f f i c e s o f C h u r c h and f o u n d e d i n 1608.  always contained  State  ever s i n c e the  P e r c h e d s y m b o l i c a l l y on  b e h i n d them w e r e t h e  Quebec g o v e r n m e n t , t h e  establishment,  the  City Hall. Hotel, the  the  city,  c i t y had the  been  heights  C i t a d e l and  Catholic archepiscopal  U n i v e r s i t y , the The  h i g h e s t ...  or  p r o v i n c i a l Parliament b u i l d i n g with  o f f i c e s of the  S e m i n a r y and  the  Anglican  r e c e n t l y completed  CPR's p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n completed the  palace,  Cathedral,  the  the m i l i t a r y the and  Basilica, the  new  (1893) C h S t e a u F r o n t e n a c of  i t s close  statement of the  city's  interest in dominant  institutions. The  just  f o u r c i t y wards i n t o which the  U p p e r Town  was  - 29 divided  - du P a l a i s , S t . L o u i s , S t . Jean and Montcalm — a l s o  c o n t a i n e d t h e homes a n d b u s i n e s s e s o f t h e c i t y ' s w e a l t h y a n d professional citizens.  I t i s t r u e t h a t a few s m a l l  factory  o w n e r s a n d some l u m b e r company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d l i v e  close  t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s i n t h e Lower Town , b u t i n g e n e r a l , it  i s c o r r e c t t o say that the c i t y ' s p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n  into  U p p e r a n d Lower Towns was a l s o , ; a c l a s s d i v i s i o n , a s R o g e r L e m e l i n n o t e d as l a t e as t h e 1940's. C a r n i v a l v i s i t o r s m i g h t have had o c c a s i o n t o n o t i c e that, or to v i s i t class.  t h e Lower Town, t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g  Some c a r n i v a l e v e n t s l i k e t h e p a r a d e t o o k p l a c e i n t h e  other four o f t h e c i t y ' s wards, Lower Town was d i v i d e d . under t h e c l i f f s  i n t o which the s t r a g g l i n g  C h a m p l a i n and S t . P i e r r e wards were  i n t h e narrow s t r e t c h o f land a l o n g t h e S a i n t  Lawrence  w h i l e J a c q u e s C a r t i e r a n d S t . Roch w e r e l o c a t e d o n  the f l a t  l a n d n o r t h o f t h e c i t y a t t h e mouth o f t h e S t . C h a r l e s  River.  The i n d u s t r i a l s u b u r b o f S t . S a u v e u r w h i c h  also  c o n t a i n e d many o f t h e c i t y ' s w o r k i n g p e o p l e l a y i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n o r t h w e s t o f S t . Roch and J a c q u e s C a r t i e r , o u t s i d e t h e c i t y boundary.  (See m a p ) .  The c i t y ' s m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s a n d  w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s e wards.  S t . Roch,  i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n t a i n e d t h e b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s o f many p r o m i n e n t F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s a n d r e c e i v e d many What t h e t o u r i s t s ing.  carnival.visitors.  saw o f t h i s o t h e r Quebec i s i n t e r e s t -  A l l F r e n c h Canadians were seen as c h a r m i n g  people, u s u a l l y w i t h s p a r k l i n g dark eyes.  laughing  The u s u a l l y  .. _  ....  - 30  -  /; observant correspondent  f o r t h e New  York  Sun,  Julian  Ralph,  wrote: The h a p p i n e s s o f t h e p e o p l e i s r e a l l y w o n d e r f u l . They a l l l a u g h and t h e y seem t o l a u g h a l w a y s . They meet a s t r a n g e r ' s gaze w i t h a s m i l e , and i n t h e j o l l i e s t d e m o c r a t i c way w i l l e x c h a n g e j o k e s w i t h anyone who t r i e s them.^ T h e s e and  other t o u r i s t  i m p r e s s i o n s r e v e a l how  they accepted the c a r n i v a l promoters' unique  city  impressed  w i t h many a d v a n t a g e s .  by  limited  The  - is still  tourist  industry.  tourist  spectacles,  outsiders  o f Quebec as  Visitors  left  i t s a n t i q u e charm, i t s f r i e n d l y  French atmosphere. yet  view  and  was of  and i t s  period  t h e r e was  and  i n common w i t h o t h e r  the o f f i c i a l from  show p u t on f o r  the v i s i t o r s  that  theatrical  the complete  city  duality  and  i t s culture,  thought  - the  illusion  was  i s important i n  from the c a r n i v a l  city,  a selective presentation, with exaggeration, of city  city  t h e s t o c k - i n - t r a d e o f t h e modern  a l s o the area hidden  distinguishing  a  same c o n c e p t i o n o f Quebec - a c c u r a t e  In t h i s  Understanding  the  people  b a c k s t a g e - where t h e work o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e done.  readily  which  aspects  t o be most a p p e a l i n g t o  tourists. The  economic r e a l i t i e s  of l i f e  p e o p l e were, however, n o t e n t i r e l y tourists  who  might  have v e n t u r e d  f o r the c i t y ' s  hidden  into  from  working  t h e gaze o f  the a r e a below  the  2 cliffs. swaddled like  Ralph a l s o observed s l e i g h d r i v e r s , who  made t h r o u g h  the  the e f f o r t s make t h e i r  streets"  of  " t h e b i g fur-.,  little  ponies  dash  i n drumming up b u s i n e s s :  - 31 -  ^ .  —  Mr. E.D.T. C h a m b e r s , one o f t h e l e a d i n g s p i r i t s .... of the c a r n i v a l rebuked a couple of c a r t e r s y e s t e r d a y f o r making such a n u i s a n c e o f thems e l v e s , b u t t h e y were n o t abashed. " I t ' sa very s h o r t s e a s o n , s i r , s a i d o n e , " and y o u must ^ e x c u s e us f o r l o o k i n g o u t s h a r p f o r o u r s e l v e s . I f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h a t shows t h a t w o r k i n g p e o p l e , as  w e l l as t h e l o c a l m e r c h a n t s , were q u i c k t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e economic b e n e f i t s o f t o u r i s m .  Still,  the p r e v a i l i n g impres-  s i o n o f t o u r i s t s and e v e n o f l o c a l E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e was  t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n was  v i e w was  writers  relatively well off.  That  a l s o s h a r e d by t h e few F r e n c h C a n a d i a n w r i t e r s whose  o p i n i o n s were p u b l i s h e d .  H.M.  Fairchild Jr., writing  about  t h e i m p o r t a n t l o c a l shoe i n d u s t r y , d e c l a r e d i n 1908: The shoe w o r k e r e a r n s f r o m $4 t o $20 a week according to capacity. Many o f t h e s k i l l e d o p e r a t i v e s a r e women. When two o r t h r e e members o f a f a m i l y a r e e m p l o y e d t h e c o m b i n e d wages e n a b l e them t o l i v e i n t h e g r e a t e s t e a s e and c o m f o r t and t o make a good a p p e a r a n c e on S u n d a y s and h o l i d a y s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e h e a d s o f f a m i l i e s own t h e i r own s n u g l i t t l e h o u s e s i n some o f t h e many s t r e e t s i n S t . R o c h s or S a i n t Sauveur.^ 1  Other o b s e r v e r s a t t h e t i m e , however,  concluded that  p o v e r t y and f i n a n c i a l - i n s e c u r i t y w e r e much more common f o r working people than F a i r c h i l d  indicated.  Seen f r o m a n o t h e r ,  l e s s s a n g u i n e p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e n e e d t o have two o r t h r e e p e r s o n s w o r k i n g as w a g e - e a r n e r s r e v e a l s t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f i n d i v i d u a l incomes. Fairchild,  Arthur S a i n t - P i e r r e , a contemporary of  f o u n d t h a t f o r many w o r k e r s r e v e n u e was  t o meet e v e n t h e i r b a s i c n e e d s , e s p e c i a l l y p r e p o s e s aux e c r i t u r e s ,  l e s employes  insufficient  " l e s commis, l e s  de b u r e a u - m o i n s l e s  - 32  -  stenograph.es - l e s f o n c t i o n n a i r e s e t l a g r a n d e e t p h a l a n g e de  nos  e d u c a t e u r s que  noble  t o u r m e n t e l e p r o b l e m e du  budget  5 a equilibrer". in  I n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o F a i r c h i l d , he  stated  1915: E t de t o u t nos c a l c u l s paraT/t b i e n se d e g a g e r '. l a c o n c l u s i o n q u e , non s e u l e m e n t e n ! 1 9 1 5 , m a i s d'une f a c o n p e r m a n e n t e , l a g@ne e t l a h a n t i s e de l a mis£re a c c o m p a g n e n t l a m a j o r i t e de n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i e r e l e l o n g de l a v i e . ^ A recent  study  of the  shoe i n d u s t r y , one  of the  s t a y s o f t h e economy o f t h e Lower Town, a l s o comes t o c o n c l u s i o n s than those  of F a i r c h i l d .  s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h $7 t o $13 average f o r the year  1902.  S a l a r y was  p a i d on  s a l a r y range i s  not  The  the  sole  monteur  the  considera-  (operative)  a p i e c e - w o r k b a s i s , and  often l a i d o f f during slow p e r i o d s . a n n u a l s a l a r y o f $468  different  a week c a l c u l a t e d as  t i o n f o r m e a s u r i n g income, however. i n t h e shoe f a c t o r y was  The  was  Thus a t h e o r e t i c a l  ($9x52) w h i c h w o u l d have b a r e l y  the n e c e s s i t i e s remained beyond the r e a c h Jacques Mathieu wrote t h a t d i f f i c i l e m e n t a boucler  r e c i t a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s  o f many,  " l e m o n t e u r moyen, en  s o n b u d g e t , e t que  m a t e r i e l l e est caracte"risee par  main-  average covered  and  1902,  arrive  sa c o n d i t i o n  la privation".  Behind  the  l i k e t h a t l a y the p a i n f u l compromises  made on a d a i l y b a s i s by h o u s e h o l d money m a n a g e r s t r y i n g  to  make one  well-  d o l l a r do  t h e w o r k o f two.  Even the r e l a t i v e l y  o f f p r i n t e r ' s f a m i l y t h a t t h e Abbe S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e i n 1903  c o u l d o n l y a t t a i n and  b e c a u s e two  maintain  studied  t h e c o m f o r t he  u n m a r r i e d , grown-up s o n s had  steady  jobs  described and  - 33  g  c o n t r i b u t e d . t o the  f a m i l y income.  Nine years  t h e c a r n i v a l t h e t h r e a t o f unemployment was I t was  not  a seasonal  p r o b l e m , however.  earlier  during  also quite  real.  p o r t , of  course,  The  c l o s e d i n w i n t e r , as d i d many o f i t s r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . B u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and suspended u n t i l  many o f t h e c i t y ' s p u b l i c w o r k s w e r e  late spring  (April-May).  down a f f e c t e d t h e d e c k h a n d s , t h e  This seasonal  stevedores,  the employees  t h e n a v i g a t i o n c o m p a n i e s , t h e c a r p e n t e r s , masons and l a y e r s i n the b u i l d i n g trades  and  v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c works. i n d u s t r y were n o t business  the day-labourers L a y o f f s i n the  seasonal  and  had  of  brickof  the  manufacturing  more t o do  with  conditions.^ The  one  strictly  slow-  w i n t e r o f 1893-94 a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n a  typical  f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e i n t h e c i t y , w i t h some o c c u p a t i o n a l  g r o u p s s u f f e r i n g more u n e m p l o y m e n t t h a n o t h e r s . reported  an u p s w i n g i n t h e  f o r t u n e s o f t h e b o o t and  industry with a twenty-five percent products  ordered  good news, i t was  that f a l l  and  year  winter.  In c o n t r a s t to  r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was  b e f o r e , on J a n u a r y 2 3 ,  h u n d r e d o f t h e c i t y ' s u n e m p l o y e d had  I t was  1893,  gathered  then decided  this  more u n e m p l o y m e n t season.^  about i n the  of the Champlain Market to d i s c u s s a s o l u t i o n to the problems of the c i t y .  shoe  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f  than usual w i t h the c l o s i n g of the p o r t f o r the The  L'Electeur  three square economic  t o send a w o r k e r s '  d e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa t o compel t h e F e d e r a l Government t o  invest  money and  like  i n t e r e s t i n t h e c i t y ' s economy on p u b l i c w o r k s  - 34 t h e C i t a d e l and  the p o r t .  -  C e r t a i n l y w o r k i n g p e o p l e and  their  f r i e n d s w e r e w e l l aware o f t h e n e e d f o r a c t i o n t o r e l i e v e t h e unusual d i s t r e s s , though i t appears t h a t the F e d e r a l d i d not labour  respond to t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . leader pointed  out  reduced to e x c e p t i o n a l au p r o n e de  at the time,  l e v e l s of d e p r i v a t i o n .  l a m i s e r e e s t p l u s g r a n d e que  leur subsistance  que  de  year,  of  1893-1894 was  i t was  still  not  not  c i t y , was  s l o w e d , and  des  n'attendent By  the  Though  The  continuing  h o u r s and  que  jamais,  altered.  f o r many p e o p l e .  t r a d e , once a m a i n s t a y of the d e c l i n e , c o n s t r u c t i o n had  tout et  a dit  as h a r s h as t h a t o f t h e  difficult  local  encore,  l a charite" publique".  t i m e o f t h e c a r n i v a l , c o n d i t i o n s had winter  "Hier  pere Grenier  f a m i l i e s s o n t c o m p l e t e m e n t d e p o u r v u e s de plus  a prominent  o r d i n a r y p e o p l e were  S a i n t Sauveur, l e reverend  dans c e t t e p a r o i s s e  As  Government  the  previous timber i t s gradual  wages had  been  12 reduced i n s e v e r a l f a c t o r i e s .  Even o r g a n i z e r s  of the  .......  c a r n i v a l were c o n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c u r r e n t economic c l i m a t e f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s w o u l d a f f e c t a t t e n d a n c e by ... 13 visitors. T h e r e w e r e a few  of  American  p a l l i a t i v e s t o r e l i e v e some o f  the  w o r s t symptoms o f t h i s e c o n o m i c i n s e c u r i t y , t h o u g h n o t i t s causes.  I n J a n u a r y e s p e c i a l l y , l a r g e numbers o f men  t r a d i t i o n a l l y engaged t o c u t f r o z e n S t . Lawrence.  C a r t e r s and  f r o m w i n t e r w o r k as r o a d 1894  was  ice for refrigeration  cleaners.  kind to these people.  snow h a u l e r s The  were from  the  also benefitted  abundant s n o w f a l l  Some c a r p e n t e r s  also  took  of  a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s l a c k w i n t e r s e a s o n t o make s t o r a g e b a r r e l s for  f i s h and found  themselves  Paul Larocque a l s o noted recommenced i n F e b r u a r y et  mecaniciens  w i t h n i n e weeks o f e x t r a r e v e n u e  that activity  i n the port  actually  when " m a c h i n i s t e s , m o u l e u r s de f e r ,  s ' a f f a i r e n t s u r l e s q u a i s a l a r e p a r i t i o n des  v a i s s e a u x pour p r e p a r e r  l ' o u v e r t u r e de l a s a i s o n de n a v i g a t i o n 14  r e d o n n a n t a u p o r t un s e m b l a n t de v i e . " o p t i m i s t i c a l l y noted,  A s 1'Eygnement  the c a r n i v a l provided similar  relief  work: Heureusement nous avons l e c a r n a v a l q u i f o u r n i t actuellement quelque ouvrage a plusieurs centaines d'ouvriers. ^ x  The  v a l u e o f t h i s c a r n i v a l a s a make-work p r o j e c t i n  w i n t e r and as a p a l l i a t i v e many p e o p l e Montreal  i n the c i t y  t o t h e c h r o n i c economic problems o f  c a n n o t be o v e r e s t i m a t e d .  As i n  d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s decade, hundreds o f workers  r e c e i v e d t e m p o r a r y employment i n c u t t i n g b l o c k s o f i c e f o r t h e c a r n i v a l b u i l d i n g s , r e m o v i n g snow a n d i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e ice  palaces  source  i n t h e weeks b e f o r e t h e f e s t i v i t i e s .  This extra  o f i n c o m e made t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n s u r v i v a l a n d  d e p r i v a t i o n f o r many w o r k i n g  families."^  Participation i n  the c a r n i v a l as a n y t h i n g b u t l a b o u r e r s o r s p e c t a t o r s however, seems t o have b e e n u n l i k e l y city.  The r e a s o n In  to  f o r most w o r k i n g  people  i n the  a g a i n was c o s t .  Montreal's  1885 c a r n i v a l , one o f t h e f a n c y  be w o r n a t t h e g r a n d  ball  i n t h e Windsor H o t e l c o s t  costumes $250,  an e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount f o r t h e t i m e , p e r h a p s t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  of a working  person's  y e a r l y income.  f i v e d o l l a r admission  p r i c e t o the Grand B a l l  t i v e B u i l d i n g f o r Quebec C i t y ' s 1894 was  By c o m p a r i s o n , i n the  the Legisla-  c a r n i v a l seems m o d e s t . I t  e q u a l t o t h e w e e k l y wages o f a good s e c t i o n o f t h e  working  people  - and  there remained other necessary  city's  expenses,  18 s u c h as t h a t f o r s u i t a b l e a t t i r e .  It i s clear'that,  judging  from t h e Grand B a l l , t h e c a r n i v a l s were n o t i n t e n d e d t o popular  f e s t i v a l s w i t h i n t h e community s i n c e t h e c o s t o f  p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e e x c l u d e d most o f people  of the c i t y .  T h i s e x p l a i n s n o t o n l y why  the  o f l a r g e numbers o f t o u r i s t s w i t h money t o s p e n d on was  so i m p o r t a n t  c i t i z e n and as s o c i a l  t o the f e s t i v a l ' s  t o u r i s t w o u l d h a v e had  Chateau Frontenac  i n t h e Lower Town.  people  both French  why mingle  and  c u l t u r e s t h a t r a r e l y met,  of the c i t y ,  and  wealthy  E a c h had  little  that of  i t s own  f o r working  l i m i t s were v e r y w e l l p r e s c r i b e d .  say the  people, institu-  people  e v e n t o d r i n k w i t h e a c h o t h e r , and  were c e r t a i n l y e n o u g h p l a c e s t o do  the  pitiful  t h a t of the wealthy  E n g l i s h speaking.  s i n g and  the  I t w o u l d be more a c c u r a t e t o  I t cost comparatively  d a n c e and  amusements  c a r o u s i n g i n the g i l d e d h a l l s of  w h i l e the workers f r o z e around  t h a t t h e r e w e r e two  tions.  presence  occasion to  w o u l d , h o w e v e r , be m i s l e a d i n g t o i m a g i n e  t o u r i s t s r e v e l l i n g and  working  the  success, but a l s o little  full  equals..  It  fires  be  to  there  so, though contemporary  - 37  -  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y when cures  and  bishops  o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e i m p i e t y and .  scandalous behaviour  o f h a b i t a n t p a r t i e s , and  p a t r o n a l f e a s t s , by t h e apparently the  l i k e dancing  c o n t r o l of the  At the beginning  harmful  the excesses  1890's, i t appears t h a t o r d i n a r y  harmless a c t i v i t i e s  s u p e r v i s i o n and  o n l y say,  the  had  t o p r o p e r m o r a l s and  and  come u n d e r  Church.  o f t h e c e n t u r y , Mgr.  somewhat w i s t f u l l y ,  of  that dancing that " i l  n'y  Plessis  and  could  veillees  a de b o n n e s  were  paroisses 19  ...  que  c e l l e s d'ou  By t h e end  l e s danses sont absolument  of the century,  h i s successors  and  exclues". the  priests  s e r v i n g u n d e r them w e r e d e c i d i n g f o r F r e n c h C a n a d i a n C a t h o l i c s w h i c h d a n c e s w e r e s i n f u l and tolerated.  At mardi gras, the c l e r g y forbade  l i k e the waltz couples,  w h i c h o n e s c o u l d be  and  modern d a n c e s  the p o l k a which i n v o l v e d c l o s e l y  dancing  a l l o w i n g i n s t e a d o n l y the t r a d i t i o n a l group dances 20  l i k e the q u a d r i l l e , the f a c t / m a d e up  l a n c e r s or the c o t i l l o n .  the Church expressed  i n i t s v a r i o u s e p i s c o p a l mandements on o t h e r i n the n i n e t e e n t h  century:  There were a l s o p e r i o d i c c a l l s  1894.  official aspects  opinions of  theatres, circuses, clubs, 21  n o v e l s , dime museums, f e u i l l e t o n s , and  Sunday and  These,.in  t h e d a n c e programmes o f t h e c a r n i v a l o f  In a d d i t i o n t o dancing,  leisure  reluctantly  scandal  sheets.  f o r a s t r i c t e r observance  the u s u a l condemnation of gambling,  of  picnics, 22  excursions  and  m o r a l l y d a n g e r o u s b o o k s on t h e L o r d ' s , Day. 23 E v e n s n o w s h o e i n g had come u n d e r c l e r i c a l a t t a c k . In l i g h t  - 38 of t h i s ,  i t may n o t h a v e b e e n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e C h u r c h t o h a v e  a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e c a r n i v a l , b u t once members o f t h e c l e r g y d i d e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s .  i n a while,  I n October 1845,  the J e s u i t superior i n M o n t r e a l , F e l i x M a r t i n ,  described  c a r n a v a l t i m e t o a n o t h e r member o f h i s o r d e r a s " l ' e p o q u e malheureuse  d e s p l a i s i r s d u c a r n a v a l , e t q u o i q u e l ' o n ne s e  l i v r e pas i c i  a u x t r i s t e s e x c e s que l ' i r r e l i g i o n e t l e  libertinage effrene inspire:_ailleurs,  l a vertu.trouve  encore  d a n s l e s d a n s e s e t l e s r e u n i o n s de l a j e u n e s s e de g r a n d s 24 dangers..."  I n 1 9 5 6 , A r c h b i s h o p M a u r i c e Roy o f Quebec  City  seems t o h a v e b e e n t h i n k i n g a l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s when he warned  t h a t , d u r i n g t h e C a r n i v a l , t h e c i t y must n o t " h i d e i t s  C h r i s t i a n face behind t h e v e i l o f paganism o r degenerate 25 o r g a n i z e d debauchery ,": 1  into  As f o r d r i n k i n g , b y 1 9 1 0 , t h e C i t y  o f Quebec h a d a l i c e n c e d d r i n k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r e v e r y 367 inhabitants, the highest r a t i o of twelve p r i n c i p a l centres.  Because  o f t h a t , e v e n i n 1 8 9 4 , a l c o h o l i s m was s e e n  as a m a j o r p r o b l e m .  The c u r e o f S a i n t Roch s a i d t h a t 26  use was o n t h e i n c r e a s e i n 1 8 9 3 , of  Canadian  while a l e t t e r  alcohol  from a group  " c o n c e r n e d c i t i z e n s " demanded t h a t t h e c i t y w a t c h o v e r t h e  h o t e l s w h i c h opened  s e c r e t l y on Sundays because  c l i e n t e l e e s t nombreuse e t i l  s'en s u i t  "... l e u r  ( s i c ) des s p e c t a c l e s  . - " 2 7 vraiment desolants!!.  While the a n t i - a l c o h o l league, which  b e g a n i n 1907 o n t r a d i t i o n s t h a t went b a c k t o t h e 1 8 5 0 ' s , addressed i t s e l f  t o w o r k i n g c l a s s d r u n k e n n e s s , i t s own  e x e c u t i v e c o m m i t t e e was made up o f r e s p e c t a b l e b u s i n e s s a n d  union  leaders.  reform to  As w i t h s i m i l a r m i d d l e c l a s s movements t o  the h a b i t s of the working c l a s s ,  i t i s often d i f f i c u l t  d i s t i n g u i s h where c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e  overlapped  people  w i t h i n t o l e r a n c e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n t mores o f  lower  classes.  times  marked w i t h h y p o c r i s y .  The  r h e t o r i c of middle c l a s s reform I n p a r t t h i s was  w o r k e r was  more v i s i b l e  and  t h u s . - o f t e n s e e n as t h e  he was  of the  the  was  some-  because  than the middle c l a s s s o c i a l  the  drinker  f i t target f o r reform  s e e m i n g l y more i n n e e d o f l e s s o n s on t h r i f t and  and  m o r a l i t y than  29 d r i n k e r s on o t h e r  l e v e l s of s o c i e t y .  major reasons f o r the  success  Of  of  the  of the temperance campaigns  was  t h a t many w o r k e r s t h e m s e l v e s a c t i v e l y and participated  i n and  supported  them.  assume t h a t d r i n k i n g t o e x c e s s was  course,  enthusiastically  T h e r e i s no  reason  to  s u c h an i n t e g r a l p a r t  working c l a s s c u l t u r e that to t r y to r e s t r i c t s e e n as a m i d d l e c l a s s a s s a u l t on t h e v e r y working c l a s s  one  i t could  foundation  be of  life.  I n Quebec C i t y and n o t e v e r y o n e was  elsewhere, i t should  drawn t o t h e  same p l e a s u r e s .  be  remembered,  Though  the  d a y s w e r e l o n g gone when a c i t y a l d e r m a n c o u l d s p e c u l a t e every  of  seventeenth  h o u s e i n t h e c i t y was  that  a b r o t h e l , i t i s more  t h a n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e w e r e a few, s i n c e b y - l a w s , l i k e Quebec City's,  a p p e a r t o h a v e s u c c e e d e d more i n k e e p i n g 31  s i g h t t h a n i n p u t t i n g them o u t press  d o e s n o t m e n t i o n any  o f 1894,  nor  of business.  such a c t i v i t i e s  d i d the Montreal  them o u t  The  of  local  d u r i n g the  carnival  papers d u r i n g i t s c a r n i v a l s , but  - 40 there  -  i s e v i d e n c e o f a t l e a s t one,  c a t e r i n g to a wealthy  32 clientele  i n Montreal  primarily  f o r f a m i l i e s and  s i n g l e people.  The  i n 1885.  near the c i t y , country.  On  of unattached  one  and  o t h e r s w h i c h a p p e a l e d more t o y o u n g  f o r e x a m p l e , t o o k a few  to the  two  shrine of  others  their  i n 1901 33  a l a r g e number  made up  about  Mme.  are  enduring  Roger L e m e l i n ,  o f Rose Anna L a c a s s e , archetypes  T o u l o u s e had censorious  and  d e s c r i b e d by  o f Quebec l i t e r a t u r e .  a counterpart  two  generations  comment.  distinctive  w i t h the s t r u g g l i n g G a b r i e l l e Roy, But  even  two  Rita 34  earlier.  atmosphere of t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y  d e s i r e o f s i n g l e y o u n g women t o be without  i t s own  this  f a m i l i a r w i t h the m a t r i a r c h a l f i g u r e of  P l o u f f e , c r e a t e d by  poverty  married  indications that  t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n a l s o had We  group  factories.  o f t h e o l d e r and  s e c t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , there are  features.  two  Over h a l f o f t h i s  w e r e women, many o f whom w o r k e d i n t h e c i t y ' s Though s h a r i n g t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s  trips  f r i e n d s i n the  t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e c i t y a l s o had y o u n g p e o p l e who  day  Ste.-Anne-de-Beaupre  to v i s i t  t h i r d s of the c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n .  l a r g e and  activities  p r i n t e r ' s f a m i l y t h a t t h e Abbe" S t a n i s l a s  L o r t i e s t u d i e d i n 190 3, d u r i n g the year,  There were l e i s u r e  In  Quebec,  the  the  a t t r a c t i v e d i d not  go  L o r t i e , t h e p r i e s t , n o t e d w i t h some a s p e r i t y  t h a t t h e y o u n g f a c t o r y women " a i m e n t l e s t o i l e t t e s  brillantes  e t d e p e n s e n t s o u v e n t l a p l u s g r a n d e p a r t i e de  salaire  a 1' a c h a t de ve"tements d o n t l e p r i x e s t peu 35 l e u r bourse et l e u r c o n d i t i o n " .  leur  en r a p p o r t  avec  - 41 T h e r e w e r e few was  -  facilities  o p e n e d i n S t . Roch i n 1893,  c l a s s q u a r t i e r of the  city.  f o r outdoor s p o r t s .  t h e o n l y one  A c t i v i t y there  A  park  i n a working was  severely  36 circumscribed.  C i t y b y - l a w 415  songs, or shouting  T h e s e s p a c e s w e r e meant m a i n l y  b u t most p e o p l e s t i l l  t o w o r k l o n g h o u r s s i x d a y s a week and males, a place  o f r e l a x a t i o n and  taverns  still  keeping people i n or near neighbourhoods. town e x c u r s i o n s ,  the  deciding  f a c t o r , apart  would have been enough t i m e o f f work. e m p l o y m e n t , few  t r a v e l occurred  the  L o r d ' s Day,  t h a t had  on  Sundays, the  t h e y o u n g t o m i n g l e as  was  With the  usual  Protestants  c a r n i v a l provided spectators  one  off, Catholics expeditions  of  could  of the r e l a t i v e l y  few  opportunities  stand 38  for  took ..."  afford to p a r t i c i p a t e , i t for intermingling  among y o u n g p e o p l e , when t h e m a n t l e o f d i s a p p r o v a l lifted  a  Toronto.  t h a t w o r k was  who  of  vactions.  an o p p o r t u n i t y  t h o s e few  o r p a t e r n a l c h a p e r o n e s was  out-of-  uncertainty  f o r the events t h a t  o u t s i d e , e s p e c i a l l y on the. h a l f day For  day  The  from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  or even p r o f a n e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ,  much i n common w i t h t h e  suspended.  f o r many  Church disapproved of s e c u l a r  Thus t h e w i n t e r  place  were,  mobility,  p e o p l e seem t o h a v e t a k e n v o l u n t a r y  were aware t h a t t h e on  As  a had  social intercourse.  l a c k of adequate p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d  If  for  T h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f 37  working c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n sports,  for  exercises,  t h a t might d i s t u r b the p u b l i c peace i n  p a r k s o r open s p a c e s . promenading.  prohibited physical  e v e r so  slightly.  of  clerical Neverthe-  - 42 -  l e s s , the Church d i d d e c l a r e the p e r i o d immediately  following  the c a r n i v a l t o be one o f e x t r a d e v o t i o n t o r e l i g i o u s  duties, 39  f o r the young o f a l l c l a s s e s , not o n l y working There are many q u e s t i o n s s t i l l  people.  t o be asked and  answered about the young and s i n g l e members of the working class population.  However, f o r the purposes o f t h i s  study,  one can advance a few t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s based on the evidence we have.  I t seems; . u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l these young  people o r i g i n a l l y came from.the c i t y .  T h i s meant t h a t many  of them were f i r s t - g e n e r a t i o n urban d w e l l e r s who had emigrated from the c o u n t r y - s i d e and maintained many l i n k s with f a m i l i e s there.  For the young with no f a m i l i e s of t h e i r own c l o s e by,  these l i n k s were d o u b t l e s s important, and d i f f i c u l t t o maintain f o r the economic reasons outlined„above.  Secondly,  s i n c e they were separated from t h e i r f a m i l i e s and p a r i s h communities,  the f a m i l i a r f i g u r e o f the p a r i s h p r i e s t , took on  more importance  as a f o r c e o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , t o be sure, but  a l s o o f s o c i a l cement.  L a t e r w r i t e r s have been c r i t i c a l o f  the way t h a t the p r i e s t s f i l l e d t h i s vacuum, but f o r t r a n s p l a n t e d r u r a l people used t o a s m a l l i n t e g r a t e d  traditional  community, the p r i e s t was more l i k e l y t o have been seen as a benign person who mediated  between them and the new urban,  i n d u s t r i a l and o f t e n E n g l i s h c o n t e x t i n t o which they had ventured.  In t h i s new urban and i n d u s t r i a l t e r r i t o r y i t i s  not, s u r p r i s i n g t h a t French Canadians landmarks t h e r e were.  c l u n g t o what f a m i l i a r  T h e i r urbanized o f f s p r i n g  inevitably  -  developed  t h e i r own  43  -  l o y a l t i e s and  t h e i r own  d i f f e r e n t and o f t e n 40  more m i l i t a n t r e s p o n s e s  as p a r t o f t h i s  process.  P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n the process of z e a l o u s l y removing  or  r e d u c i n g t h e s e c u l a r o p p o s i t i o n t o i t s i n f l u e n c e so t h a t t h e s p i r i t u a l p a t h c o u l d more c l e a r l y be to  seems  h a v e h e l p e d t o u n d e r m i n e some o f t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f  communities In  seen, the Church  and  the a u t h o r i t y i t hoped t o p r e s e r v e f o r  W i l l i a m Ryan's w o r d s , t h e Church  emerging c a p i t a l i s t s ,  h o p i n g t o c r e a t e "a s o b e r , h a r d  and p e a c e f u l l a b o u r f o r c e " , e s s e n t i a l mediator. a u t h o r i t y to these II.  The  Economic The  took the side of  I t ultimately  the working  s u r r e n d e r e d much o f i t s  capitalists. Transition  l a s t f i f t y y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were  f o r Quebec C i t y .  traditions  itself.  f o r whom i t c o u l d become t h e .  t h e k e y p e r i o d o f e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l and e v e n c u l t u r a l tainty  The  uncer-  l o s s o f some o f t h e o l d c u l t u r a l  l i k e t h e c a r n i v a l o c c u r r e d i n t h i s p e r i o d as  c i t y moved f r o m a m e r c a n t i l e economy i n t o an i n d u s t r i a l T h a t f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d saw  a complete  for  The  p e r i o d c a n a l s o be s e e n as one  the c i t y .  The  one.  i n popula-  of r e l a t i v e  decline  r i v a l c i t y of Montreal rose to r e g i o n a l  w e l l as n a t i o n a l dominance. to  the  change i n t h e  economy o f t h e c i t y a c c o m p a n i e d by a m o d e s t g r o w t h tion.  the  Montreal's commercial  a t r a n s f e r o f e c o n o m i c power f r o m  Quebec.  rise  as  led .  - 44 In  1851  Quebec C i t y was  the great p o r t of the  export trade, surpassing Montreal t h e volume o f t r a f f i c . of  lumber  i n t h e number o f s h i p s  M o n t r e a l , as t h e c e n t r e f o r t h e  f i n i s h e d B r i t i s h g o o d s and West I n d i a n p r o d u c t s ,  and import  surpassed  41 Quebec i n t h e v a l u e o f t h a t t r a f f i c .  Then, l a t e  i n the  ......  1 8 5 0 ' s , c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s by M o n t r e a l m e r c h a n t s f o r t h e improvement o f n a v i g a t i o n a l o n g t h e S a i n t Lawrence even began to  u n d e r m i n e Quebec's c o n t r o l o f t h e l u m b e r t r a d e  When t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e O t t a w a and be d e v e l o p e d ,  i t was  Montreal which  Q u e b e c ' s p r o s p e r i t y was and w a t e r " .  G a t i n e a u began t o 42  b e n e f i t e d , not  t i e d t o " t h e age  iron-hulled  steamship  composite  after  1860,  began the  then  wind, of  the  steady  From 1871  to  Quebec C i t y y a r d s t u r n e d o u t a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e s h i p s  per year In  o f wood,  s h i p , and  e r o s i o n . o f t h e wooden s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y . 1880,  Quebec.  L i k e the Maritime provinces the i n t r o d u c t i o n  the i r o n - r i b b e d , wooden-hulled fully  itself.  i n twelve yards d i r e c t l y employing  a b o u t 800  the f o l l o w i n g decade, the annual average of s h i p s  workers. built  43 f e l l t o two. m i s l e a d i n g way  The t e r m " s h i p s " i s , h o w e v e r , a somewhat to i n d i c a t e the f u l l extent of t h a t d e c l i n e -  t h e s i z e o f t h e v e s s e l s d r o p p e d j u s t as d r a s t i c a l l y as  their  44 numbers.  That d e c l i n e a f f e c t e d the s h i p y a r d workers, 45  o w n e r s , and many r e l a t e d b u s i n e s s e s and  the  trades.  A t t h e same t i m e as s h i p b u i l d e r s w e r e e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f t h e i r d e c l i n e , new introduced i n t o the c i t y .  i n d u s t r i e s were b e i n g  T h e s e w o u l d s h i f t t h e economy away  - 45 f r o m t h e e x p o r t o f r a w m a t e r i a l s l i k e t i m b e r t o w a r d s an economy b a s e d o n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f i n i s h e d g o o d s ,  especially  s h o e s a n d l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s i n s m a l l and m e d i u m - s i z e d  factories.  T h a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was n o t an e a s y one f o r many a n d did result  i n hardship.  f i r s t mechanized  I t began w i t h t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e  shoe f a c t o r y i n t h e c i t y  i n J u l y 1864.  young F r e n c h Canadians had r e t u r n e d from l i v i n g  i n New E n g l a n d  and b r o u g h t b a c k w i t h them t h e new A m e r i c a n t e c h n o l o g y . m a n u f a c t u r e r s and w o r k e r s i n t h e c i t y ' s initial  Seven y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e were seven l a r g e  factories i n the c i t y .  Small  l e a t h e r c r a f t s p u t up  r e s i s t a n c e b u t were d e f e a t e d by t h e c h e a p e r ,  machines.  Three  faster mechanized  S i x o f them w e r e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n  e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h a t o t a l w o r k f o r c e o f o v e r two t h o u s a n d , 4 6 people. M o n t r e a l was t h e c e n t r e f o r l e a t h e r p r o d u c t i o n f o r C a n a d a b u t , Quebec C i t y , b e c a u s e o f i t s s m a l l e r s i z e , came t o 47 depend  much more h e a v i l y o n t h i s t r a d e .  l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y had l a i d  By t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s , t h e  t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r many o f t h e .....  c i t y ' s modern s o c i a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  This  was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s a r e a s o f S t . R o c h and J a c q u e s C a r t i e r , where l e a t h e r p r o d u c t i o n was p r e d o m i n a n t l y concentrated.  I n 1893-;94, t h i r t e e n o u t o f e i g h t e e n b o o t a n d  shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s m a l l a r e a o f S t . Roch and J a c q u e s C a r t i e r wards, w i t h t e n o f t h e t w e l v e 48 t a n n e r s and c u r r i e r s one  l o c a t e d nearby.  By 1 9 0 1 , a c c o r d i n g t o  r e l i a b l e , e s t i m a t e , t h e c i t y would have t w e n t y - s e v e n  - 46  -  t a n n e r i e s and t h i r t y - f i v e shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s , w i t h a c o m b i n e d 49 w o r k f o r c e o f about  4 2 0 0 , a t h i r d o f them women.  i n d u s t r y w h i c h was  second  i n importance  i n d u s t r y had a w o r k f o r c e o f a b o u t of  the c i t y ' s  tion  industrial  1300  The  clothing  leather  i n 1891."^  economy c e n t e r e d a r o u n d  o f l i g h t c o n s u m e r goods l i k e f u r s ,  and b e v e r a g e s ,  to the  The  The the  rest produc-  b e e r , t o b a c c o and 51  food  t h o u g h on a s m a l l s c a l e .  social  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the c i t y that  t h e c h a n g e f r o m a m e r c a n t i l e t o an i n d u s t r i a l e q u a l l y comprehensive. c l a s s were a f f e c t e d .  economy  B o t h w o r k i n g c l a s s and T h i s was  accompanied was  the.business  r e f l e c t e d most n o t a b l y i n t h e  change i n t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c i t y .  The  British  and  I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n moved away and t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n p o p u l a t i o n grew.  By t h e 1 8 9 0 ' s t h e r e was  a small English speaking working  c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n and a d e c l i n i n g E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g b u s i n e s s 52 community. was  the o t h e r hand, the w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n  overwhelmingly French Canadian,  elements this  On  as w e r e l a r g e and  o f the l o c a l b u s i n e s s community.  l a t t e r group  appear  important  French Canadians  t o have b e e n s p r e a d r a t h e r l i b e r a l l y  t h r o u g h t h e c i t y ' s medium and  small businesses.  In contrast  t o t h e 1850's when t h e A n g l o - S c o t t i s h t i m b e r m e r c h a n t s b r o k e r s dominated  the c i t y ' s  economy t h r o u g h t h e i r  t h e t i m b e r t r a d e , t h e more d i v e r s i f i e d t h e 1890's p e r m i t t e d F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s share o f economic  in  activity.  industrial  and  control sector  t o take over a  of  large  of  - 47 By majority  then,;, the o l d c o m m e r c i a l E n g l i s h names w e r e i n t h e  only  among t h e t i m b e r m e r c h a n t s a n d b r o k e r s ,  on t h e  b o a r d s o f t h e p a p e r m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d o n t h e two s t r e e t 53 railway  companies.  I n most o f t h e o t h e r k e y l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s ,  e s p e c i a l l y t h e b o o t , shoe a n d l e a t h e r t r a d e , F r e n c h names w e r e more n u m e r o u s . of t h e c i t y ' s  clientele,  that  involved  especially i n the  dealing with  t h i s was p e r h a p s t o be e x p e c t e d .  among t h e l a w y e r s a n d d o c t o r s ,  a bilingual  Not u n e x p e c t e d l y ,  F r e n c h names a l s o  predominated,  g i v i n g French Canadians e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over such 54 f o r example, as c i v i c p o l i t i c s .  with  T h i s was a l s o t r u e o f much  s e r v i c e and r e t a i l b u s i n e s s ,  food i n d u s t r y , but since  companies  areas,  The d e c l i n e o f t h e E n g l i s h  b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y a p p e a r s t o be t h e m a i n r e a s o n f o r t h e relative  strength  o f i t s French Canadian counterpart.  I t was  less a matter of i n d i v i d u a l businesses being ruined, but rather  an a t t r i t i o n o f t h e power o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g  Though c o m p r i s i n g o n l y the  a twelfth of the c i t y ' s population  1890's t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E n g l i s h  Their  by  s p e a k i n g community,  e s p e c i a l l y t h e b u s i n e s s m e n a p p e a r s t o have been ately great.  group.  disproportion-  r o l e i n t h e economic and c u l t u r a l  affairs  o f t h e c i t y h a s s c a r c e l y b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d a s y e t , b u t some b u s i n e s s f i g u r e s appear t o have been a d a p t a b l e t o t h e changed .... 55 economic c o n d i t i o n s . The  carnival celebrations  opportunity.to  s e e how b o t h e t h n i c  o f 1894 a r e an e x c e l l e n t elements o f the l o c a l  commercial o l i g a r c h y worked t o g e t h e r .  F r e n c h C a n a d i a n and  - 48 E n g l i s h speaking political,  -  businessmen shared i n running  s o c i a l and  defenders of t h e i r  the  economic,  c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s o f t h e c i t y , and  i n t e r e s t s and  worked q u i t e w e l l t o g e t h e r . e t h n i c groups were r e p r e s e n t e d  t h e i r place  as  i n the c i t y ,  they  I n t h e Chamber o f Commerce, b o t h i n equal  e q u a l i t y extended to both the executive  n u m b e r s , and b o d y and  to  this the  56 governing  council.  This r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o extended  to  b o d i e s s u c h as t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , where t h e r e w e r e a few speaking  a l d e r m e n and  C a n a d i a n b o d y , and  c o u n c i l l o r s on  the mainly  French  t o t h e Quebec H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n , where  t h e e t h n i c numbers w e r e more e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . number o f E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s on explained,  of course,  voters  the  and  English  by  the  The  small  the C i t y C o u n c i l i s p a r t i a l l y s m a l l numbers o f  f a c t t h a t t h e i r French Canadian  English-speaking counterparts  w e r e p a r t o f t h e v e r y much l a r g e r F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c o m m u n i t y , and  w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more w e l l known.  This working  s h i p b e t w e e n t h e two, e t h n i c g r o u p s o f t h e b u s i n e s s is also revealed  i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  carnival itself,  but  t i o n of the  l a r g e r community.  English-speaking. i n the p a s t , arose out  that i s again  This  relation-  community  c o n t r o l of  the  a r e f l e c t i o n of the  Half of the o r g a n i z e r s  situawere  s i t u a t i o n d e s e r v e s comment b e c a u s e  community c e l e b r a t i o n s l i k e the c a r n i v a l ,  o f the needs o r t r a d i t i o n s o f the F r e n c h  Canadian  population.  The  and  f o r many  years before  t h a t , i s o b v i o u s l y more c o m p l i c a t e d .  I t does  not  seem t o be  c a s e o f Quebec C i t y i n 1894,  usually  a question  o f one  e t h n i c group dominating  the  - 49 of the  -  other,  but  ethnic  g r o u p f i n d i n g common c a u s e .  people crossed  same s o c i a l / o c c u p a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s o f  ethnic  B u s i n e s s m e n and  another l e v e l . t h a t the  A recent  U n i o n des  s t u d y by  1902,  r e p r e s e n t e d by  the  i n one  the  leather workers  of the  Society's  1  T h i s was  leather  the  i s that  de  As w e l l , t h e y r e f u s e d des  "1?image s y n d i c a l e , e t  1  to  Commissaires, 1'Union  l'avenir national".  c o n s e q u e n t 1 image q u ' i l s v e u l e n t dont i l s sont f i e r s , e s t p l u s  In  r e l u c t a n t to p a r t i c i p a t e  "dans c e t t e p e r s p e c t i v e ,  M o n t e u r s se p r e o c c u p e peu  unwilling conclusion  maintained  Societe'-St v J e a n - B a p t i s t e . u n i o n was  on  indicates  industry  s u p p l y money f o r a c o l o n i s a t i o n scheme a t L a c  des  borne out  " n a t i o n a l " - i n t e r e s t s of  parades.  so t h a t , c o n c l u d e d M a t h i e u ,  celebration  Jacques Mathieu  monteurs i n the  a c e r t a i n i n d i f f e r e n c e to the t i m e as  working  l i n e s i n t i m e s o f s t r e s s and  t o promote or defend t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  each  His par  projeter a l'exterieur et  i m p o r t a n t que  leur  image  57 nationale".  I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h i s was  In studying bourgeoisie century,  the  also true  Paul-Andre Linteau's  not  Of  i t s three  basic  l a petite -each level  i n h i s a n a l y s i s , by  control exercised,  ..nineteenth  s t u d y a l s o f o u n d common i n t e r e s t s  differences.  - l a g r a n d e , l a moyenne, and distinguished,  1894.  Quebec b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y , " l a _ ......  quebecoise" of t h e . l a s t h a l f of the  p r e v a i l i n g over ethnic  in  income, nor  the  degree of  fortune  levels  was  economic  or e t h n i c i t y alone.  c  These were i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s l e v e l and  but  not  determinants.  e x t e n t o f t h a t c o n t r o l d e p e n d e d on w h e t h e r  the  The  - 50 e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y was  -  c a r r i e d o u t on a l o c a l l e v e l , as i n t h e  c a s e o f t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e , on  a neighbourhood l e v e l ,  i n t h e c a s e o f t h e p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , o r on l e v e l as  a pan-Canadian  i n the case o f the grande b o u r g e o i s i e  of  Montreal.  I n more p r e c i s e t e r m s , L i n t e a u d e f i n e s t h e t i v e of the p r o v i n c e s 1  grande b o u r g e o i s i e  as  as  representa-  directing  f'dirigeant") . l e s i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n a n c i e r e s - banques, compagnies d ' a s s u r a n c e e t s o c i e ' t e s de f i d u c i e - l e s p l u s importants; les p r i n c i p a l e s industries; les e n t r e p r i s e s de c h e m i n de f e r e t de n a v i g a t i o n d ' e n v e r g u r e c o n t i n e n t a l e ou i n t e r n a t i o n a l e ; l e g r a n d commerce; l e s p r o j e t s f o n c i e r e s q u i c o n c e r n e n t d'immenses r e g i o n s . Concentrated t h i s mainly  i n Montreal,  Canada's f i n a n c i a l  capital,  A n g l o - S c o t t i s h g r o u p a l s o i n c l u d e d a few  C a n a d i a n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l  and  French  the  Canadian  59 Pacific  Railroad.  attain this  The  Quebec C i t y b o u r g e o i s i e  did  not  l e v e l o f e c o n o m i c p o w e r , i t s l e a d i n g members  b e l o n g e d t o t h e m i d d l e g r o u p , t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e , whose i n t e r e s t s and  l e v e l o f economic c o n t r o l were r e g i o n a l .  J e a n H a m e l i n o b s e r v e d when c o m p a r i n g M o n t r e a l business  interests,  "Montreal  is  illustrative  Archbishop  i n Rome, b e i n g b u i l t  t h a t the o u t l i n e s , i f not  a somewhat r e d u c e d s c a l e .  w e l l t o the  larger entrepreneurs  Bourget's  i n Montreal  moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h e t h o u g h on  Quebec's  o u v r e s u r un marche c o n t i n e n t a l ,  Quebec s u r un marche r e g i o n a l " . of St. Peter's  and  As  at the  ambitions  grande  replica time  of  bourgeoisie,  L i n t e a u ' s model a p p l i e s  o f Quebec C i t y , a g r o u p w h i c h :  - 51 ... . o r i e n t e ses. a c t i v i t e v e r s l e s i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n a n c i e r e s d'envergure r e g i o n a l e , l a p e t i t e e t moyenne e n t r e p r i s e c o m m e r c i a l e o u i n d u s t r i e l l e , l a promotion u r b a i n e , e t l a c o n s t r u c t i o n des c h e m i n s de f e r d i t s de c o l o n i s a t i o n . . . ^ In the area o f p o l i t i c s ,  i f t h e grande b o u r g e o i s i e ' s  s c a l e was n a t i o n a l , t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e ' s a m b i t i o n were l o c a l ou  " p l u s s p e c i f i q u e m e n t au n i v e a u m u n i c i p a l  l e s d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t e n t l e u r s int§r§ts  immediats".^  The i m p o r t a n c e ,  x  political  economiques  power a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s 62  l o c a l o l i g a r c h y deserves  more a t t e n t i o n .  I n Quebec C i t y ,  t h i s moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e w h i c h was A n g l o - S c o t t i s h , I r i s h and French  Canadian,  p l a y e d a key r o l e , even t h e d e c i s i v e one, i n  the c i t y ' s development.  They e x t e n d e d  t h e l o c a l hegemony o f 63  Quebec c i t y by t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h r e e r a i l r o a d These brought  projects.  t h e a r e a b e t w e e n Quebec a n d T r o i s - R i v i S r e s , t h e  B e a u c e , some o f t h e E a s t e r n T o w n s h i p s , and t h e S a g u e n a y - L a c S t . - J e a n a r e a i n t o Quebec C i t y ' s e c o n o m i c o r b i t . itself,  In the c i t y  t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e was i n v o l v e d i n c o m m e r c i a l 64  c i v i c promotion  through  t h e Chamber o f Commerce.  The w i n t e r  c a r n i v a l , b e g i n n i n g i n 1894 a n d r e v i v e d i n 1954 was one instrument  f o r t h a t purpose.  Because o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f  the c i t y  - and c o n s e q u e n t l y  of the e l i t e  f o r such  a group t o a c h i e v e c o n s e n s u s and m o b i l i z e i t s e l f f o r  action i n carrying out i t s objectives.  itself  - i t was  In i t s relations  the r e s t o f t h e c i t y as w e l l , t h i s e t h n i c a l l y mixed g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d a remarkable  easy  with  elite  degree o f cohesiveness.  L ..  D u r i n g s t r i k e s and t h e c a r n i v a l , t h e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t i e s  - 52  -  t h a t bound i t s members together action.  as a c l a s s c o u l d be  seen i n  For example, having seen the Chamber oppose a  ( l a t e r withdrawn) making the owner of a f a c t o r y for accidents  responsible  to workers s u f f e r e d on h i s premises, c i t y  workers were l i k e l y i n a r e s e n t f u l mood e a r l y i n 1893. at an i n d i g n a n t  meeting of the Quebec and  Levis  labour movement showed t h a t i t was  Indeed,  Conseil  c e n t r a l des m e t i e r s et du t r a v a i l on February 7, 1893,  of the  bill  h o s t i l e to the  the  activities  Chamber: Cette Chambre n'a pas l e temps a consacrer n i '. l ' h a b i l i t e de t r a v a i l l e r au progres e t a* l a .. p r o s p e r i t e commerciale de c e t t e v i l l e , mais e l l e a l e temps de s'opposer aux l e g i t i m e s a s p i r a t i o n s d'une c l a s s e q u i e s t l e p i l i e r de l a p r o v i n c e de Quebec. Nous ne sommes n i s o c i a l i s t e s , n i a n a r c h i s t e s , nous blamons me*me tous ceux q u i cherchent a pousser l a c l a s s e o u v r i e r e dans c e t t e v o i e n e f a s t e , et nous censurons 1'action de l a Chambre de Commerce dans l e s questions o u v r i e r e s parce q u ' e l l e e s t de nature a i n d u i r e l e s o u v r i e r s a s ' i n s u r g e r contre 1'autorite.^5 The  r e c e n t past had  brought t h i s c l a s s r i v a l r y Narcisse  a l s o furnished,examples t h a t i n t o even sharper f o c u s .  Rosa, a l o c a l s h i p b u i l d e r t e s t i f i e d before  When the  F e d e r a l Royal Commission on the R e l a t i o n s of Labour and i n Quebec C i t y i n February 1888,  Capital  h i s remarks were t i n g e d with  b i t t e r n e s s about the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g as a businessman i n a c i t y t h a t had  a powerful working c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n  the Quebec Ship Labourers' Benevolent S o c i e t y .  His c a s t i g a -  t i o n of the ..".despotism" of t h a t organization^, which was a c h a r i t a b l e body and  acted  l i k e a union,, might be  understood when i t i s remembered t h a t he had  like  both  better  provoked a  three-  - 53 day  strike  i n June o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r by employing non66  union labour t o unload a ship i n the p o r t .  On t h e o t h e r  h a n d , t h e r e w e r e w o r k i n g p e o p l e who r e c a l l e d  life  before the  67 i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y i n 1862.  Some w e r e p r e s e n t a t  t h e s t r i k e o f J u l y 1 1 - 2 3 , 1866 when t h e S o c i e t y a t t e m p t e d t o have i t s u n i f o r m r a t e s o f p a y f o r v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f w o r k accepted  a g a i n s t employer r e s i s t a n c e .  a l l i a n c e of shipmasters, stevedores  A three-week o l d  and t i m b e r merchants  down o n J u l y 2 3 , 1866 when t h e s h i p m a s t e r s union. St.  P e t e r S t r e e t o l i g a r c h y " met t o e x p r e s s  the union, a l b e i t grudgingly.  and a l s o t o g i v e i n  and J e f f e r y  a c t i v e i n b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l c i r c l e s  some o f them w e r e p r o m i n e n t Another was  i t s annoyance a t  Many o f t h e s e m e r c h a n t s -  S h a r p i e s , W i l s o n , R o s s , Dean, B i c k e l l , still  capitulated to the  The n e x t d a y , "a v e r i t a b l e r o l l - c a l l o f t h e o l d  the d e f e c t i o n of t h e i r e r s t w h i l e a l l i e s , to  broke  i n t h e 1890's, and 68  i n the carnival organization.  w i t n e s s b e f o r e t h e Royal Commission  t h e Quebec C i t y  j o u r n a l i s t , J u l i u s P. T a r d i v e l ,  of  the ultramontane  of  t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l K n i g h t s o f Labour.  'Typographies  - were  hearings proprietor  newspaper L a V e r i t e and a v i g o r o u s 69  de Q u e b e c, a n a f f i l i a t e  opponent  When t h e U n i o n d e s  o f t h e K n i g h t s , went o n  s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e newspapers i n t h e C i t y  i n January  1888 f o r  a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e work day t o n i n e hours  from t e n , and f o r a  minimum s a l a r y o f $8 p e r week, a common f r o n t o f t h e e m p l o y e r s succeeded  i n r e s i s t i n g the s t r i k e .  The w o r k e r s  were f o r c e d t o  r e t u r n t o w o r k w i t h no g a i n s a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y  virulent  - 54 anti-Knights l a t e r , the  -  n e w s p a p e r c a m p a i g n , l e a d by  u n i o n i t s e l f was  up whose r u l e s w e r e t o be  Tardivel.  u n d e r m i n e d when a new  submitted to the  A few one  days  was  set  religious authori70  ties.  C l e r i c a l c o n s e n t w o u l d a l s o be  With T a r d i v e l " s involvement, the the  n e e d e d f o r any  labour  changes.  i s s u e s became c l o u d e d  and  c o n f u s e d by  abhorrence of C a t h o l i c N a t i o n a l i s t s l i k e  him  f o r "masonic" s e c u l a r workers' a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t i e s  to  English speaking North America. An  e v e n more c o n c r e t e  cooperation 1891.  among t h e  c i t y ' s employers took place  Three hundred f i f t y workers i n the  Union s t r u c k the a united the  example of the h i g h degree  period, according increased  companies again  to the Morning C h r o n i c l e  i n s t a l l e e s a Quebec.  m a c h i n e p e u t m o n t e r de  400  each o t h e r .  But  On  a 700  In defence o f - t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e w o r k i n g c l a s s and  Protective  en  wages,  A t t h e end  p a i r e s de  n e s s o f o n e ' s c l a s s was  s o u l i e r s par  that  m a i n t a i n e d between c r i s e s .  their  l i v e s of the  leisure activities,  the against  consciousReal other  l o c a l b u s i n e s s community,  t h a t b r o u g h t 'them t o g e t h e r  Une  jour".  economic i n t e r e s t s , b o t h  s t r u c t u r e s o f s o l i d a r i t y e x i s t e d i n Quebec C i t y f o r aspects of the  chaussures  huit autres.  e x p l a i n t h e way  that  favour,  l e montage des attend  out  1891,  t h e b u s i n e s s c l a s s were o f t e n u n i t e d t h a t does not  but  of  o f J u l y 3,  m e c h a n i z a t i o n worked i n the employers' a accelerer  June-July,  succeeded i n w a i t i n g  a month o f s l o w b u s i n e s s .  "douze m a c h i n e s d e s t i n e e s sont deja  Lasters'  l o c a l leather industry for higher  f r o n t of the  strike during  in  of  notably regularly  - 55 as a . c l a s s .  The 1894 c a r n i v a l and i t s s u c c e s s o r s was a c e l e -  b r a t i o n o f the v a l u e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f these people, j u s t as the o l d e r c a r n i v a l s were more broadly-based c e l e b r a t i o n s o f pre-industrial society.  In order t o understand the d i f f e r e n c e  between the two, i t i s now necessary t o d i s c u s s  the s t r u c t u r e  and v a l u e s s u s t a i n i n g the modern c a r n i v a l o f 1894.  - 56 -  CHAPTER I I I THE CARNIVAL OF I.  1894  "The A n c i e n t C a p i t a l Under a New When t h e e s t i m a t e d f i f t y  Aspect"  t o seventy thousand  spectators  t u r n e d o u t t o s e e t h e s t o r m i n g o f t h e . . i c e p a l a c e on t h a t c o l d night of February f  2, 1894, t h e y were w i t n e s s i n g t h e s u c c e s s f u l  and dramatic .conclusion of the l o c a l business celebration of i t ssuccess. e v e n t may may  community's  Whatever c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n s  this  l a t e r h a v e h a d , and w h a t e v e r l i n k s w i t h t h e p a s t i t  h a v e h o p e d t o i n v o k e , i i t was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e c e l e b r a t i o n  s t a g e d by t h e l o c a l c o m m e r c i a l  oligarchy.  I n t h e few months b e t w e e n O c t o b e r ,  1893 and  1894, t h e e l a b o r a t e f e s t i v a l had been p r o p o s e d , financed, a d v e r t i s e d a l l over North America,  February,  organized,  and c a r r i e d o u t  w i t h a s u c c e s s b e y o n d t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f e v e n i t s most o p t i m i s t i c advocates.  The s u p p o r t and e n t h u s i a s m  of the  b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r , and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f ... many l o c a l m e r c h a n t s i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e c a r n i v a l  were  considered key..factors i n i t s success a t the time.  On t h e  o t h e r h a n d , t h e v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n o f most o t h e r s e c t o r s o f t h e community e n s u r e d  t h a t t h e f o r m and c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l  w o u l d p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s and p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e s e same  businessmen.  The first  p u b l i s h e r o f t h e Quebec T e l e g r a p h , F r a n k C a r r e l . ,  suggested the  O c t o b e r , 1893 t o the  and  idea of a winter  c a r n i v a l f o r the c i t y  d i d so i n an e d i t o r i a l  l o c a l businessmen f o r  appealing  in  directly  support:  T h o u s a n d s o f s t r a n g e r s w o u l d be a t t r a c t e d t o o u r o l d c i t y by so a g r e e a b l e a b r e a k i n t h e d e a d s e a s o n and so f a v o u r a b l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see t h e A n c i e n t C a p i t a l u n d e r a new aspect, and o u r h o t e l s and l o c a l t r a d e w o u l d r e a p t h e benefit. I n f a c t , a s t i r w o u l d be c r e a t e d i n e v e r y d e p a r t m e n t o f o u r l o c a l l i f e j u s t when, i t w o u l d be m o s t w e l c o m e , and a l a r g e amount o f money w o u l d be p u t i n c i r c u l a t i o n , when most w a n t e d . 1 The  k i n d o f c a r n i v a l he  ones h e l d i n M o n t r e a l  i n m i n d was  a decade e a r l i e r .  s p e c t a c l e s , s p o r t i n g e v e n t s and j o y f u l aspect of the  had  Canadian  s i m i l a r to  the  These c o n s i s t e d o f -  entertainment  emphasizing  the  winter:  Of c o u r s e , t h e s t a p l e s w o u l d h a v e t o be t h e customary d r i v i n g , s k a t i n g , snow-shoeing, c u r l i n g , hockey p l a y i n g , t o b o g a n n i n g , masquerade b a l l s on t h e i c e , t o r c h l i g h t p r o c e s s i o n s , and t h e o t h e r s e a s o n a b l e s p o r t s , b u t s u c h n o v e l t i e s , ..for i n s t a n c e , as a p a r a d e o f o u r m i l i t a r y on snow s h o e s , w h i c h , we b e l i e v e , c o u l d be a r r a n g e d f o r w i t h o u t any g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , m i g h t be a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t o g r e a t advantage. The a t t a c k and d e f e n c e o f a r e g u l a r i c e - c a s t l e o r f o r t w o u l d a l s o be a v a l u a b l e s p e c t a c u l a r a d j u n c t t o t h e programme. To  ensure t h a t a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s would f e e l t h a t  were i n v o l v e d , C a r r e l a l s o p r o p o s e d t h a t i t w o u l d be only a wise,  but  a g r a c e f u l t h i n g t o have t h i s f o r t  somewhere i n S t . R o c h ' s " , t h e F r e n c h s p e a k i n g 3 c l a s s area  of the c i t y .  benefit to thelabouring  He  and  a l s o a l l u d e d to the  p o p u l a t i o n , w h e n he  they  "not erected  working material  suggested that  the  - 58 c a r n i v a l would  alleviate  -  the w i n t e r p l i g h t  number o f o u r w o r k i n g c l a s s e s  "of a  " i n a far better  considerable  and more  4 r a t i o n a l way  t h a n by  charity.  For whatever Carrel all  r e a s o n s t h a t most a p p e a l e d t o them - and  appears to have  - the l o c a l  proposal.  been  a good  s a l e s m a n by u s i n g  b u s i n e s s community r e s p o n d e d  A few d a y s  prominent merchants  later  but a l s o promised t h e i r a S t . Roch m e r c h a n t ,  financial  was  favourably  t h e T e l e g r a p h was  were n o t o n l y  reporting  i n favour of the assistance.^  q u o t e d as s a y i n g  them to h i s that  carnival,  J.B.  Letellier,  "there would  be  a  b e t t e r c i r c u l a t i o n o f money and a l l t r a d e s w o u l d more o r less derive a benefit. F e b r u a r y was a good month, as i t was  g the d u l l e s t  of the year".  g r a s o r any t r a d i t i o n a l some a p a t h y  No  r e f e r e n c e was  festivals  o f t h e month.  liberality  i n the matter, which  by g e t t i n g  the French Canadian  and b u s i n e s s m e n  ice palace located  there.  t o say whether  " t h a t u n i s o n and  a r e so e s s e n t i a l  called wise  to success"  "storekeepers, manufacturers,  o f S t . Roch's"  g e n e r o s i t y .and e n t e r p r i s e generally  Expecting  i n t h e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n community, t h e p a p e r  on t h e F r e n c h - l a n g u a g e p r e s s t o a r o u s e  hotel  made t o m a r d i  involved  i n having the  " I t d e p e n d s upon them and upon t h e o f our merchants effect  s h a l l be  and b u s i n e s s , men  given to the  „7 proposition. A few d a y s St.. Roch' s and he had been  expected.  later,  the Telegraph sent a r e p o r t e r  f o u n d more s u p p o r t t h e r e J.B.  Laliberte,  f o r the idea  to than  owner o f t h e l a r g e s t f u r  - 59 s t o r e i n S t . R o c h ' s who s o l d , w i t h G.R. R e n f r e w , t h e o t h e r l a r g e Quebec f u r r i e r , a b o u t s e v e n t y - f i v e worth of f u r s t o t o u r i s t s during from t h e s t a r t .  dollars'  t h e c a r n i v a l , was e n t h u s i a s t i c  He s a i d , " t h o u s a n d s o f A m e r i c a n s h a v e  me i f we h a v e a w i n t e r our  thousand  c i t y again,  c a r n i v a l i n Quebec, t h e y w o u l d  told visit  t o s e e i t i n a d i f f e r e n t s e a s o n t o summer...  W i t h cheap e x c u r s i o n s ,  we w o u l d h a v e a l l t h e s t r a n g e r s  we  could  8  accommodate..."  As p r e s i d e n t  o f t h e S t . Roch A t h l e t i c  A s s o c i a t i o n , J . B . L a l i b e r t e w o u l d become h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n the c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n committee, but t h i s  a n d be a member o f t h e e x e c u t i v e  f u r r i e r noted c o r r e c t l y t h a t t h e merchants  o f S t . R o c h w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e c a r n i v a l "as i t w i l l 9  deeply  c o n c e r n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s " . Within  t e n days o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e ,  eighteen  merchants o r f i r m s t h a t l a t e r dominated the c a r n i v a l  organiza-  t i o n p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n t o Mayor J.C. Fremont, c a l l i n g f o r a p u b l i c m e e t i n g on t h e s u b j e c t .  Eleven of the p e t i t i o n e r s  w e r e F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g a n d s e v e n w e r e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g . "^ A l o n g w i t h t h e p e t i t i o n came a ready-made p l a n c a r n i v a l program t h a t i n c l u d e d o r i g i n a l l y proposed."'""''  fora  six-day  a l l t h e e v e n t s C a r r e l had  As t h e T e l e g r a p h n o t e d a f e w d a y s  l a t e r , when i t a n n o u n c e d t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g t o be h e l d , t h e f o r m u l a f o r a s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l was t o " p l a c e  the f i n a n c i a l  arrangements i n t h e hands o f sound e n t e r p r i s i n g b u s i n e s s and  give our a t h l e t i c  a s s o c i a t i o n s a s much a s p o s s i b l e  b l a n c h e t o g e t up a n d c a r r y o u t a s u i t a b l e programme".  men  carte 12  - 60  -  P a r t o f t h i s c o n c e r n f o r a s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l came f r o m s o r r y experience of the Imitating Montreal, w h i c h was the  city's  Quebec C i t y had  generally considered  lack of o r g a n i z a t i o n  from the  failure  first  and  carnival in  the  1883.  held a three  a total  the  day  affair  f a i l u r e , p a r t l y from  s h a b b y d e c o r a t i o n s , and  t o a t t r a c t more t h a n f i f t y A m e r i c a n s  partly  to  13 town. the  P e r h a p s i t was  1 8 9 0 ' s . ' As  then, "there everything a f t e r the  a singular fatality  connected w i t h the Ancient c a r n i v a l the  f i r e d o f f an  council deploring  the  engineer,  e v e n t and  worthy of the  days  Charles city  promising  that  C a p i t a l would  p r e s e An tp ep de .l e z A ten t htemps a t t i moep,p o rB ta ui nl l av oi sr g ec o wm ri ot te es , p rl oe p h e t i c a l l y : m a i r e en t e t e - v o y e z a ce que t o u t e s l e s s e c t i o n s de l a v i l l e e t t o u t e s l e s c l a s s e s de l a s o c i e t e s o i e n t r e p r e s e n t e e s au c o n c o u r s ; non pas e n c o r e , comme c e t t e f o i s , i g n o r e r .. c o m p l e t e m e n t une des c l a s s e s l e s p l u s influentes, l a classe mercantile... At  a civil  t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g on  s e r v i c e c l e r k and  t i v e and  November 2,  1893,  "$7,0.00 t o ;  s u b s c r i p t i o n c o m m i t t e e s as w e l l as  the  formation  in  Dorion,  secretary  Montreal".  16  of  that  $10,000 j u d i c i o u s l y e x p e n d e d w o u l d p r o d u c e as  a c a r n i v a l h e r e as any the  Eric  l a t e r member o f t h e c a r n i v a l e x e c u -  t h e Quebec A m a t e u r A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , e s t i m a t e d  in  noted  A few  i m p a s s i o n e d memorandum t o t h e  f a i l u r e of the  of  attending 14  capital".  c i t y ' s own  under h i s d i r e c t i o n a s p e c t a c l e be  as c o m m e r c i a l as t h o s e  of the Montreal papers c a u s t i c a l l y  a p p e a r s t o be  1883  Baillairge  one  a l s o not  good  That meeting r e s u l t e d  o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m m i t t e e made up  of  - 61 F r e n c h and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g businessmen.  T h i s body  quickly  d i v i d e d i n t o smaller,.committees w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s such as a d v e r t i s i n g t h e e v e n t a l l o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a , r a i s i n g money by p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n , a r r a n g i n g t h e s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , a n d the s p e c i a l r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f v i s i t o r s and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c a r n i v a l  to the c i t y ,  structures.  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s o o n - t o - b e - f a m o u s  Chateau  F r o n t e n a c H o t e l was n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n a n d w o u l d  be o p e n e d ,  amid scenes o f s p l e n d o r r i v a l l i n g t h o s e o f t h e c a r n i v a l , December. its  II.  that  On a l l f r o n t s , t h e c i t y was b e i n g o r g a n i z e d f o r '  s u c c e s s f u l debut  i n promoted t o u r i s m .  Organizing the Carnival I n l o o k i n g a t t h e r a p i d and e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f  the c a r n i v a l i n the l a t e f a l l  o f 1 8 9 3 , one i s i m m e d i a t e l y  s t r u c k b y t h e h a r m o n i o u s way t h e members o f t h e b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y o f t h e c i t y , who p r e d o m i n a t e d c o u l d work t o g e t h e r .  on t h e c o m m i t t e e s ,  In trying to explain t h i s ,  i ti s clear  t h a t t h e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c h a n n e l s o f communication possessed through t h e i r  l e i s u r e and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s  as i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t s t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s l i n k s . t h a t t h e snowshoe o r a t h l e t i c  some o f  have been  t o have m e t ; i n t h e i r o r d i n a r y b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g s .  acted .  I t appears  c l u b s o f t e n brought  t h e s e p e o p l e t o g e t h e r who o t h e r w i s e w o u l d  they  unlikely  In that  s e n s e , t h e c a r n i v a l c o u l d be s a i d t o h a v e b e e n a s o c i a l f o r t h e b u s i n e s s community as a whole.  event  -  As  noted before  62  a l l the  l i k e Finance, Construction, t i o n w e r e c h a i r e d and c o m m u n i t y , and  -  important c a r n i v a l committees  R a i l w a y , A d v e r t i s i n g and  manned by members o f t h e  some c o n t a i n e d  a t l e a s t one  Chamber o f Commerce, an o r g a n i z a t i o n business i n t e r e s t s .  was  member o f  the  S i m i l a r l y , members o f t h e  of  city's  musical  bodies l i k e the  Snow-  c o m m i t t e e s where t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r k n o w l e d g e  applicable. Since  was  business  f o r the promotion  o r s p o r t i n g c o m m u n i t i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d on shoe o r M u s i c a l  Construc-  the  n u m b e r - o f c o m m i t t e e s and  small to begin with,  i t i s possible to trace  l i n k s w h i c h bound them t o g e t h e r necessary to look c o m m i t t e e s and  c o m m i t t e e members  at the kinds  as  a group.  To  some o f do  this  o f p e o p l e m a k i n g up  t o t r a c e t h e i r membership i n the  a number o v e r l a p p i n g  T h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s show t h a t t h e o f , and  f o r the  s m a l l and  various city.  areas of i n t e r e s t are  In  revealed.  c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s were  medium-sized businessmen of the  c i t y whether French or E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g . community o f i n t e r e s t t h a t  i t is  these  a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l , or business a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the so d o i n g ,  the  frequently  This  suggests  superseded the  by, ~  a  division  of e t h n i c i t y . For  example, i n l o o k i n g at the  given  occupations  " s p o r t s m e n " on  the  c a r n i v a l c o m m i t t e e s , w h i c h i s t o say  members.of t h e  Quebec A m a t e u r A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o r  A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de were i n b u s i n e s s .  This  S t . - Roch-de*-Quebec, t h e v a s t  i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e of the  of the  the majority  English  - 63 s p e a k e r s , who made up n o t a l l ,  but the majority of p a r t i c i -  pants i n l o c a l , organized a t h l e t i c  activities.  Out o f t h e  t h i r t e e n members o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e Q.A.A.A., o n l y two were F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , b u t a l l were e i t h e r businessmen o r " i n v e s t o r s "  merchants,  (rentier i n the Directory).  They  ranged from w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r s , lumber merchants, a t i n s m i t h , bank c l e r k , a n d c o m m i s s i o n m e r c h a n t s , t o a n a c c o u n t a n t . O t h e r s appear t o have had f a m i l y t i e s ,  to local  merchants  s i n c e t h e y h a d t h e same surname a n d a d d r e s s i n t h e c i t y 17 directory.  An o c c u p a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e members o f t h e  n i n e m a j o r c a r n i v a l c o m m i t t e e s shows them t o b e , f i r s t a n d foremost, businessmen, w i t h a c l e r k o r i n v e s t o r o r two, but t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e a t a l l  o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by l a b o u r e r s ,  or o p e r a t i v e s i n the important l o c a l of o f f i c e r s  l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y o r even 18  from any o f t h e l a b o u r u n i o n s .  Because  i t was t h e m o s t modern e l e m e n t i n t h e c a r n i v a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e A d v e r t i s i n g C o m m i t t e e , s h o u l d be l o o k e d a t briefly.  I t s d u t y was t o p u b l i c i z e t h e e v e n t a l l o v e r C a n a d a  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d b y i s s u i n g news t o t h e p r e s s , though., a n o t h e r c o m m i t t e e made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e l o c a l p r e s s a l s o p e r f o r m e d t h e same f u n c t i o n .  The a d v e r t i s i n g  c o m m i t t e e ' s members w e r e a v a r i e d g r o u p o f p e o p l e . p r e s i d e n t , G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . , was a w e a l t h y r e n t i e r Rouge, o u t s i d e t h e c i t y .  The f r o m Cap  He h a d a l i t e r a r y b e n t a n d p r o d u c e d  an a c c o u n t o f t h e 1894 c a r n i v a l b a s e d o n n e w s p a p e r r e p o r t s . From t h e . e v i d e n c e o f h i s f e w p a p e r s i n t h e Quebec A r c h i v e s he  - 64 -  was a l s o i n v o l v e d  i n the b i - c u l t u r a l  c i r c l e s of the c i t y ,  l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l  and a p p e a r s a l s o t o have c o r r e s p o n d e d  q u i t e r e g u l a r l y w i t h w e a l t h y American and Canadian  businessmen 19  such as C o r n e l i u s  Van H o m e o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y .  Frank C a r r e l , t h e p r i n t e r , p r o p r i e t o r and e d i t o r o f t h e Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h a n d t h e man who f i r s t  proposed the  c a r n i v a l was a l s o a member o f t h i s c o m m i t t e e , a s w e r e  several  p e o p l e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e r a i l w a y and t r a v e l i n d u s t r y l i k e t h e l o c a l CPR p a s s e n g e r a n d f r e i g h t a g e n t , o r R.M. S t o c k i n g t h e U.S. V i c e - C o n s u l a n d g e n e r a l and s t e a m s h i p l i n e s . ant  t i c k e t agent f o r t h e r a i l w a y  The s e c r e t a r y a n d manager o f two i m p o r t -  l o c a l r a i l r o a d s , t h e Quebec a n d L a k e S t . J o h n a n d t h e  G r e a t N o r t h e r n , a s w e l l a s t h e manager o f t h e C h a t e a u Frontenac Hotel  a l s o brought t h e i r t a l e n t s t o the committee.  E r i c D o r i o n , s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Quebec A.A.A. a l s o s e r v e d on the committee  a s d i d t h e l o c a l manager o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t  steamers and t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e F r e n c h language d a i l y  news-  p a p e r , L'Evenement. The twenty-one ing in  first  t h i n g t h a t t h e Committee  thousand copies  o f a t h i r t y - s i x page book  t h e 1894 c a r n i v a l p r o g r a m the c i t y .  merchants provided outside  I t was p a i d  d i d was t o i s s u e  and p r o m o t i n g w i n t e r  f o r by a d v e r t i s i n g from  a n d , s h o r t l y a f t e r i t was p r i n t e d , l o c a l  contain-  activities local citizens  t h e names o f e i g h t t h o u s a n d s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t s Quebec.  The r e s t w e r e s e n t t o " h o t e l s , c l u b s ,  o f f i c e s , r a i l r o a d s , newspapers  and magazines  ticket  i n a l l parts of  - 65 20  the  country".  The  had  b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d by  c a r n i v a l w h i c h had the  -  effectiveness the  of the  advertising  Montrealers.  Montreal's  campaign 1883  been p u b l i c i z e d i n A m e r i c a n newspapers  A t l a n t i c to the  Pacific,  from a survey of the  and  the  Montreal Star  r a i l r o a d stations that  the  from  calculated  number  of 21  out-of-town v i s i t o r s One  c a r n i v a l i n 1885  was  53,000.  e n t e r p r i s i n g t i c k e t a g e n t e v e n went t o B o s t o n and  a window d i s p l a y the  f o r the  f o r the  i n t e r e s t of the  t h a t p o l i c e m e n had The feature  1883  c a r n i v a l i n Montreal to  American p u b l i c . to c l e a r the  He  C i t y did not,  c a r n i v a l s and as had  was  the  the  Chiefs-of-Staff  of the  the  i n v i t a t i o n s i n any  and  governors of the U.S.  case),  so  successful  o f t h e more  assiduously  M o n t r e a l i n 1883  American p r e s i d e n t ,  was  Army and but  no  New  display. striking  sought.  1884,  up  arouse  s t r e e t i n f r o n t of the  A m e r i c a n p r e s e n c e became one  of the  set  Quebec  invite  the  England States  Navy  (who  declined  e f f o r t seems t o have b e e n 23  s p a r e d t o a t t r a c t as many o t h e r A m e r i c a n s as p o s s i b l e . when p r o m i n e n t A m e r i c a n s l i k e t h e  Astors  i n t h e i r own  to stay  the  private  railway  car,  c a r n i v a l , t h e i r p r e s e n c e was The  Advertising  ready-to-print  o f New  York  f o r the  duration  week h o p i n g - j u s t i f i a b l y  of  publicized.  C o m m i t t e e a l s o p r e p a r e d and  the  And  arrived  mailed  a r t i c l e s t o n e w s p a p e r s i n " e v e r y town and  t h r o u g h o u t Canada and  and  E a s t e r n and  Middle states"  - for free advertising for  city  each the  25 carnival. own  I n d i v i d u a l c o m m i t t e e members a l s o p r o d u c e d t h e i r  p a m p h l e t s and  circulars.  From t h e  outset,  considering  the  - 66 -  scope o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g  campaign  a l o n e , t h e c a r n i v a l was t o  be a m a j o r b u s i n e s s e n d e a v o u r . The F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e the  was a n o t h e r body t h a t  revealed  f i n a n c i a l commitment a n d e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e b u s i n e s s m e n  for the carnival.  A t t h e v e r y o u t s e t , when f e a r s  were e x p r e s s e d  about t h e c a r n i v a l committees g o i n g i n t o debt, a F i n a n c e Committee to  was g i v e n t h e power t o o v e r s e e a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s a n d  s e t l i m i t s on w h a t e a c h c o m m i t t e e c o u l d s p e n d .  f o r r u n n i n g t h e c a r n i v a l , which t h e committee came f r o m a p u b l i c  subscription  which raised  administered t e n thousand  d o l l a r s , and c o u p l e d w i t h o t h e r monies, c a r n i v a l totalled  $13,200 .  After  The money  receipts  a l l e x p e n s e s h a d been m e t , t h e .. 27  c o m m i t t e e came up w i t h a s e v e n h u n d r e d d o l l a r  surplus.  D o n a t i o n s f o r t h e c a r n i v a l came f r o m c o m p a n i e s a n d • individuals.  The C i t y a l o n e d o n a t e d one t h o u s a n d d o l l a r s , b y  far the largest  amount, t h o u g h l e s s t h a n a week b e f o r e t h e  opening of the c a r n i v a l  i t h a d n o t y e t done s o a n d t h e r e was  some n e r v o u s n e s s b e c a u s e a p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m was i n j e o p a r d y 28 without i t .  The n e x t l a r g e s t  donations - f i v e  hundred  d o l l a r s e a c h - came f r o m J . B . L a l i b e r t e t h e f u r r i e r , Chciteau  Frontenac Hotel.  W.C.  Van H o m e a n d T.G.  and t h e  Shaughnessy  o f t h e CPR e a c h d o n a t e d $250, w h i l e s e v e n t e e n i n d i v i d u a l s , ; banks and companies hundred  d o n a t e d sums r a n g i n g b e t w e e n  one t o two  dollars. The c o m m i t t e e o v e r s e e i n g t h e s p e n d i n g o f t h i s money  was composed o f some v e r y h i g h l y  r e s p e c t e d Quebec c i t i z e n s .  -  The  p r e s i d e n t , R.  Turner,  67  was  -  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  grocery  and  general merchandising  Turner,  and  was  Amateur.Athletic  a l s o one  Association.  f o r Quebec C e n t r e ,  f i r m of Whitehead  and  of the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s of the  V i c t o r C h c t t e a u v e r t a c h i n a and MPP  wholesale  O t h e r c o m m i t t e e members i n c l u d e d g l a s s m e r c h a n t who  was  also  the  t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Chamber o f Commerce,  on t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e Quebec S k a t i n g C l u b , and the Harbour Commission.  a member o f  A n o t h e r member o f t h e c o m m i t t e e  t h e s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r o f ..the C a i s s e d ' E c o n o m i e de Dame, w h i l e a t h i r d was Commerce and  Quebec  was  Notre  a v i c e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Chamber o f  a prominent lumber merchant.  h a r d w a r e company o w n e r , and  A c i t y alderman, a  a p a r t n e r i n a h e a t i n g company 29  w e r e t h e o t h e r members o f t h e The  s e v e n o t h e r m a j o r c o m m i t t e e s w e r e made up  same s o r t o f p e o p l e . and  one  committee.  stone  One  policeman,  three or four  c u t t e r were t h e e x c e p t i o n s  of the business d i r e c t l y decided  c o m m u n i t y , who the  f o r m and  had  from  "clerks"  to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  a v o t i n g m a j o r i t y and  content  the  of the c a r n i v a l .  who (See  T a b l e III, A p p e n d i x ) . What A l a n M e t c a l f e has Montreal  elite's  the Montreal 1894.  The  c a l l e d the  English-speaking  " s o c i a l s p o r t s " were t h e ones c e l e b r a t e d a t  w i n t e r c a r n i v a l s i n t h e 1880's and  snowshoe c l u b s and  t h e c l u b s d e v o t e d t o two  f o u r - h o r s e tandem s l e i g h r i d i n g were t h e w i n t e r of the yacht,  g o l f and  a t Quebec i n or  counterparts  h u n t c l u b s and w e r e , w r o t e M e t c a l f e ,  " s p o r t s t h a t were c e n t r a l t o t h e s o c i a l  life  of the  upper  -  68  -  segments o f M o n t r e a l s o c i e t y " . ^  A t some l e v e l s , s p o r t  secondary t o the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n these clubs  fulfilled.  t h e s e s p o r t s , t h e " a m a t e u r i d e a l " o f g e n t l e m e n and t h e vation of desirable  s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s as opposed t o  were h e l d up a s m o d e l s f o r s o c i e t y . first  was  The p r o p o s a l  In culti-  competition f o r Montreal's  c a r n i v a l ' ' . i n 1883 came f r o m j u s t s u c h an " a m a t e u r " 31  athletic  association. It  Quebec  i s possible  t o apply Metcalfe's  interpretation to  C i t y and i t s c a r n i v a l a s w e l l a s t o t h e a m a t e u r  associations  athletic  o f t h e b i n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s community t h e r e .  carnival also reveals  a pattern  the  i s consistent  city's elite  that  The  o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among with  the t i e s  already  e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n them i n b u s i n e s s ^ l i f e , o n t h e Chamber o f Commerce, t h e C i t y C o u n c i l ,  and on t h e b o a r d s o f t h e  p u b l i c companies l i k e t h e r a i l w a y s , the n a v i g a t i o n and  various  companies  t h e r e l a t i v e l y new power c o m p a n i e s , i n d i c a t i n g a c l o s e l y -  integrated b i n a t i o n a l business  community.  Apart from these b u s i n e s s - r e l a t e d  a c t i v i t i e s , the  common g r o u n d f o r many a p p e a r s t o have b e e n t h e a m a t e u r athletic  associations.  From i t s l i s t  Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n  o f o f f i c e r s , t h e Quebec  (QAAA) a p p e a r s t o h a v e b r o u g h t  t o g e t h e r some o f t h e u p p e r l e v e l s o f Quebec P r e m i e r , t h e Hon. H.G. president,  while  of the c i t y , and  Society.  Former  J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e was i t s h o n o r a r y  i t s honorary v i c e presidents  J . C . F r e m o n t , t h e . H o n . T.C.  were t h e mayor  Casgrain,  a lawyer  t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a t t h e t i m e , and two  -  69 -  prominent l o c a l wholesale grocers.  These w e r e h o n o r i f i c  p o s i t i o n s but the working executive  o f f i v e o f f i c e r s and t h e  e i g h t member " C o m m i t t e e " c o n t a i n e d businessmen.  A l l but three  a representative  o f t h e s e men w e r e i n v o l v e d o n a t  l e a s t one c a r n i v a l c o m m i t t e e , m a i n l y t h e e x e c u t i v e committees w h i l e committees.  t h e more j u n i o r members s e r v e d  or finance  on t h e s p o r t i n g  The A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e ' t i q u e de S a i n t - R o c h de Qu§bec  a p p e a r s t o have been a s m a l l e r  organization with  i t s officers  playing junior roles i n the c a r n i v a l organization, i t s president, As  group o f  t h e f u r r i e r L a l i b e r t ^ , was a n o t a b l e  although force.  f a r a s i t s o f f i c e r s w e r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e QAAA a p p e a r s t o  h a v e b e e n an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a French speaking one. ethnic  body and t h e S t . Roch A s s o c i a t i o n  The p r e s e n c e o f a f e w members o f b o t h  g r o u p s on e a c h body, however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e t h n i c  d i v i s i o n s w e r e somewhat f l u i d .  Members o f b o t h b o d i e s  also  e n g a g e d i n t h e same .kinds o f b u s i n e s s a n d b o t h c l u b s h a d members on a t h i r d b o d y t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d many members t o t h e c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : t h e Quebec C i t y Chamber o f Commerce. The  Chamber h a s l o n g b e e n r e c o g n i z e d  i n t h e economic l i f e business i n t e r e s t s .  as a moving  o f t h e c i t y by r e p r e s e n t i n g I t sstrong  the c i t y ' s  i n f l u e n c e on t h e c i t y ' s  s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development has been o f t e n there  force  ignored,  w e r e some s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y ' s w o r k i n g c l a s s who  though could  have t e s t i f i e d t o i t s r u t h l e s s i n f l u e n c e when i t came t o 32  matters a f f e c t i n g the workers' i n t e r e s t s . other  I n t h e 1890's,  members o f t h e Chamber c o u l d be f o u n d i n a v a r i e t y o f t h e  - 70 -  c i t y ' s c u l t u r a l and c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  such as t h e L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , t h e S t . George S o c i e t y and even t h e 33  Society f o r the Prevention  of Cruelty t o Animals.  s u g g e s t s i s t h a t t h e many i n t e r n a l extended across  links of the l o c a l  a l l sectors of the c i t y ' s  t u r a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l ,  What  or social.  life,  this  oligarchy  be t h e y  cul-  The c a r n i v a l was t h e  f e s t i v e embodiment o f t h a t g r o u p o f p e o p l e : t h e hommes ..... . d'affaires. III.  The E v e n t The  six-day  c a r n i v a l opened a t n i n e  i n t h e m o r n i n g on  J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1894 i n a r a t h e r l o w k e y f a s h i o n w i t h a c u r l i n g match, b u t o f f i c i a l To one  c e r e m o n i e s r e a l l y began t h a t  s e e what was b e i n g should  o f f e r e d t o t h e l o c a l and v i s i t i n g p u b l i c ,  l o o k a t t h e c a r n i v a l e v e n t s i n some d e t a i l .  day's e v e n t s were a b l e n d and  s o c i a l events.  while  Each  cultural  e l e m e n t s o f amusement  values.  d i d a c t i c and s o c i a l i z i n g a s p e c t s  o f 1894 make a r e a d a b l e values  of sports, spectacles,and  Each e v e n t contained  reinforcing social The  afternoon.  of the c a r n i v a l  " t e x t " o f t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l  of i t s active participants.  That element o f c o n t i n u i t y  w i t h a l l t h e o l d e r c a r n i v a l s must be kept, i n m i n d .  I n common  w i t h t h o s e o l d e r c a r n i v a l s and p r e - i n d u s t r i a l community gatherings,  t h e new c a r n i v a l a l l o w e d  mingle with each other times of the year,  members o f b o t h s e x e s t o  r a t h e r more f r e e l y t h a n a t many  b u t as P e t e r  other  B a i l e y so a p t l y p o i n t s o u t ,  - 71 t h e s k a t i n g r i n k and  -  o t h e r amusements i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o  c a r n i v a l s a l s o permitted middle of i t s young, r e p r o d u c i n g the as a s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e  the  c l a s s v i g i l a n c e o v e r t h e mores  "mutual v i g i l a n c e which  acted  i n t h e s m a l l town m i l i e u " , b u t  which  34 was  more d i f f i c u l t The  first  t o m a i n t a i n i n an u r b a n day  o f t h e c a r n i v a l was  i n a u g u r a t i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n . the i c e palace  The  setting. t a k e n up  f i r s t was  i n the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n .  the opening  A t 2:30,  a l a r g e c r o w d o f s p e c t a t o r s M a y o r F r e m o n t and the c i t y ' s  leading citizens o f f i c i a l l y  fifty  f e e t wide.  i n h e i g h t and t o w e r s and and  w h i t e and  gothic  Sitting  hundred twenty f e e t l o n g  I t s c e n t r a l t o w e r was  sixty-three  coloured e l e c t r i c  l i t up  lights.  c a r n i v a l s , t h i s palace's  from the i n s i d e  Though p e r h a p s i t was  and  the city  i t s design provoked general admiration  Raymond, a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t and 35  The  France  with  s i t u a t i o n atop the  many e c s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s s u r v i v e .  Cummings and  feet  f l e w the f l a g s of the United S t a t e s ,  A t n i g h t i t was  f o r t i f i c a t i o n s and  M.D.  on  the  n o t q u i t e a s l a r g e as some o f t h e i c e s t r u c t u r e s a t Montreal  before  flew the red ensign w h i l e the smaller side  turrets  Britain.  of  a number o f  atop the o l d c i t y w a l l , a c r o s s from  L e g i s l a t u r e , t h e p a l a c e m e a s u r e d one by  and  opened the  s t r u c t u r e made f r o m i c e b l o c k s f r o m t h e r i v e r . the Esplanade,  with  I t was  designed  b u i l t by t h e f i r m  and  by of  Sharp. next event  r e p r e s e n t e d one  was  suffused with c u l t u r a l  d i s t i n c t i v e l y French  symbolism  Canadian element i n  the  carnival.  A f t e r the opening o f the p a l a c e , the crowds  moved t h e s h o r t d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e c i t y w a l l t o t h e s q u a r e i n f r o n t of the C a t h o l i c B a s i l i c a , six  blocks.  a d i s t a n c e o f about f i v e  H e r e , t h r e e i c e s t a t u e s by t h e famous  sculptor,  L o u i s J o b i n d e p i c t i n g C h a m p l a i n , L a v a l , and B r e b o e u f unveiled. revealing. its  first  The  choice of these three h i s t o r i c  Champlain  had f o u n d e d t h e c i t y  b i s h o p and B r e b o e u f was  martyrs i n North America.  or  were  figures  was  i n 16 08, L a v a l  one o f t h e f i r s t  was  Catholic  This t r i n i t y expressed l o c a l  pride  and t h e v a l u e s o f F r e n c h C a n a d a ' s C a t h o l i c n a t i o n a l i s m .  This  was  The  a l s o t h e one e v e n t i n w h i c h t h e C h u r c h was  present.  s t u d e n t s o f L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and t h e s e m i n a r y w h i c h f a c e o n t o t h a t square p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n t h i s q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n y by  s i n g i n g t h e " C a n t a t e de Mgr. removed from t h e s t a t u e s .  L a v a l " as t h e d r a p e r i e s w e r e  R e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s w e r e t h u s  b l e n d e d and t h i s r e f l e c t e d t h e b l u r r e d d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h e t i m e , L' Evetiement s t a t e d t h a t  " l e d e V o i l e m e n t des s t a t u e s  peut 36  •etre a p p e l e une d e m o n s t r a t i o n e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t  politique!!.  O t h e r e v e n t s o f t h e day d i d n o t e x p r e s s v a l u e s so b l u n t l y . of  A b o w l i n g t o u r n a m e n t was  cultural  h e l d a t t h e rooms  t h e S t . R o c h A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n ; a "Tea" a t t h e  r i n k , and f i r e w o r k s i n L e V i s , a c r o s s the r i v e r  from the  as w e l l as an i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e C i t a d e l and t h e T e r r a c e and t h e o p e n i n g o f a t o b o g g a n  skating city,  Dufferin  s l i d e completed the  day.  An u n e x p e c t e d l y h e a v y s n o w s t o r m d e l a y e d t h e e v e n t s of  t h e n e x t d a y so t h a t t h e "Tandem D r i v e " , a p a r a d e o f t h e  s l e i g h s o f p r o m i n e n t c i t i z e n s , was p o s t p o n e d u n t i l t h e end o f the c a r n i v a l . p a r t y was c i t y was  The a r r i v a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and h i s  a l s o d e l a y e d f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s , and by t h e n , t h e knee-deep  i n snow.  Thousands  l i n e d the s t r e e t s  members o f t h e v a r i o u s snowshoe c l u b s who  had u n h i t c h e d t h e  h o r s e s o n t h e s l e i g h c o n t a i n i n g L o r d and L a d y A b e r d e e n t h e i r two c h i l d r e n p u l l e d i t up t h e h i l l They p a s s e d u n d e r a number o f t r i u m p h a l w h i c h w e r e s t r u c t u r e s manned b y enough  as  f r o m t h e CPR "living"  and Station.  arches, ~  s n o w s h o e r s so a s t o  r e s e m b l e a human a r c h w a y , t o t h e C h a t e a u F r o n t e n a c where t h e y 37 were s t a y i n g .  The r e s t o f t h e d a y was  devoted t o events  on i c e i n c l u d i n g a s k a t i n g l a c r o s s e m a t c h a s w e l l a s a b i c y c l e r a c e and a s k a t i n g c h a m p i o n s h i p . Masquerade  B a l l " was  That e v e n i n g , a "Fancy D r e s s  held at the skating r i n k attended  l a r g e crowds o f p e o p l e .  T h e r e was  by  no.special significance to  t h e costumes w h i c h Lady Aberdeen n o t e d , " l o o k e d a i r y f o r s k a t i n g p u r p o s e s , b u t t h e e f f e c t o f . k n i g h t s and s u l t a n s M i k a d o s and s a i l o r s and p e a s a n t g i r l s o f a l l v a r i o u s s y m b o l i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l  nations  and  and  figures skating through the  d a n c e s w i t h t h e u t m o s t g r a c e and e a s e was  a s i g h t t o .. . v..  38 remember".  H o w e v e r , t h e f u n was  a f f o r d t o a c q u i r e a costume  l i m i t e d f o r t h o s e who  could  and p a y t h e p r i c e o f a d m i s s i o n .  S k a t i n g , b o w l i n g , s l i d i n g , t o b o g g a n i n g and t o o k up t h e d a y l i g h t h o u r s on Wednesday J a n u a r y 3 1 . n i g h t , the " e x c e p t i o n a l l y b r i l l i a n t "  curling That  Grand B a l l a t t h e  P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s i n h o n o u r o f L o r d and L a d y A b e r d e e n b r o u g h t  - 74 together the s o c i a l l y their  friends.  -  l e a d i n g members o f t h e c o m m u n i t y  Amid t h e t w i n k l e o f d i a m o n d s and  and  emeralds,  39 b a l l gowns, and  b l a c k f o r m a l d r e s s and  Lady Aberdeen, P r e m i e r  provincial politicians, b u s i n e s s m e n d i n e d and  m i l i t a r y uniforms,  T a i l l o n o f Q u e b e c , a number o f  judges,  m i l i t a r y men  and  leading  d a n c e d u n t i l dawn i n b o t h Chambers o f 40  the L e g i s l a t u r e t o the music of m i l i t a r y bands. considered  t o be  the major s o c i a l event of the  E a r l y T h u r s d a y m o r n i n g , a t 9:00 had  i t s opportunity to stage  Abraham.  The  of the  a.m.,  It  fortress.  and  the  military  a s p e c t a c l e on t h e P l a i n s o f  s n o w s h o e s and  Two  was  season.  s o l d i e r s of the C i t a d e l h e l d a m i l i t a r y  i n winter dress  Lord  hours l a t e r ,  review  t h e n e n g a g e d i n a mock s i e g e an e v e n t t h a t i s s t i l l  i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e modern c a r n i v a l t o o k p l a c e when t h e r a c e a c r o s s t h e S t . L a w r e n c e f r o m L e v i s was of onlookers civic  was  holiday.  l a r g e b e c a u s e t h e day Many o r most s t o r e s and  e a r l y o r d i d not open a t a l l , could a l s o enjoy  community.  The  businesses  a  closed employees  This r e f l e c t e d  f o r the c a r n i v a l i n the  canoe  number  been d e c l a r e d  i n order that t h e i r 41  some o f t h e c a r n i v a l .  h i g h degree of support  had  held.  an  the  business  .  I n t h e a f t e r n o o n , t h e c a r n i v a l p a r a d e wound i t s way through  t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e Upper and  Lower Town and  through  S t . Roch, p a s s i n g under the v a r i o u s t r i u m p h a l arches the  i c e c a r v i n g s e r e c t e d by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s .  d e s c r i b e d as  The  and  event  " g r a n d e , n o m b r e u s e , s u p e r b e de c h i c e t ...  past was _  -  75  -  d ' o r i g i n a l i t e et singulierement Plusieurs centaines e t une de  centaine  de  toutes couleurs  bien appropriee  de p e r s o n n e s , un chars  carnaval.  g r a n d nombre de  a l l e g o r i q u e s de  et representant  au  toutes  toutes  chevaux  dimensions,  les industries  42 canadiennes".  Some o f t h e wagons i n c l u d e d t h o s e  amateur a t h l e t i c  and  scenes "of t h e  snowshoe c l u b s , h i s t o r i c a l  l a s t century",  of the Huron I n d i a n s  "comic" c a r s .  l o c a l businesses  To make t h e  the  sleighs with  a c a r f r o m L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , one  of L o r e t t e , a car of the  U n i o n , c a r s f r o m a few  of  and  Typographical  a number o f  s i m i l a r i t y w i t h modern  p a r a d e s i n Canada c o m p l e t e , t h e  civic  f i r e d e p a r t m e n t as w e l l  as  v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y u n i t s complete w i t h t h e i r bands p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o c e s s i o n .  Though l a c k i n g t h e modern i n n o v a t i o n  of  beauty queens r e p r e s e n t i n g b l u s h i n g maidenhood, w h i c h would l a t e r be the  a s t a p l e o f t h e Quebec c a r n i v a l i n t h e p e r s o n s  " p r i n c e s s e s " , t h e r e were s l e i g h s f o r t h e v a r i o u s  t a r i e s l i k e t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and 43 carnival president. That n i g h t a c o n c e r t  t h e mayor and  at the D r i l l  Alle"e a t t r a c t e d f i v e t h o u s a n d p e o p l e .  The  c o n s i s t e d o f snowshoe c l u b s o n g s , s o n g s by and  H a l l on  Lotbiniere.  digni-  the  Grande  entertainment "gentlemen amateurs,  an a d d r e s s t o t h e c a r n i v a l v i s i t o r s by t h e  p r e s i d e n t , J o l y de  of  Jules Vezina  who  carnival was  already  a c q u i r i n g some fame as a c o m p o s e r c o n d u c t e d some f o u r hundred and  r "•  musicians  and  choristers i n various club  i n s i n g i n g "Airs canadiens"  and  "Airs nationaux".  songs,  Between  -  the  first  Fairchild  76  -  a n d s e c o n d p a r t s o f t h e c o n c e r t , d e s c r i b e d by as " r e a l l y t h e f i n e s t c o n c e r t  held i n t h i s c i t y " ,  been  t h e f i n a l t u g - o f - w a r c o n t e s t was h e l d .  L'Evenement was more c r i t i c a l , The  t h a t has e v e r  c o n c e r t was d e s c r i b e d  t h o u g h no l e s s a p p r e c i a t i v e .  as having  ment p o p u l a i r e e t de n a t u r e  a "caractere  essentielle-  a p l a i r e a l a f o u l e , plutSt  44  q.u'aux d e l i c a t s " . The  n e x t day c o n t i n u e d  the pattern of the e a r l i e s t  p a r t o f t h e c a r n i v a l w i t h s p o r t s e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e day and s o c i a l i z i n g and i l l u m i n a t e d s p e c t a c l e s i n t h e e v e n i n g . and  hockey began t h a t d a y , a f a n c y  dress b a l l  was h e l d on t h e i c e o f t h e s k a t i n g r i n k but  Skating  forchildren  i n the late  afternoon,  t h e n i g h t was d e v o t e d t o w h a t may h a v e b e e n g r a n d e s t  spectacle of a l l .  This  "grand s p e c t a c u l a r drama", i n t h e  w o r d s o f one o f t h e m a i n o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e c a r n i v a l , was t h e mock b a t t l e a r o u n d t h e c a r n i v a l i c e p a l a c e . enduring  and d r a m a t i c  which captured  s y m b o l o f t h e w h o l e c a r n i v a l , a n d one  the imagination  Twenty-five  T h i s was t h e  of a l l concerned.  hundred snowshoers from l o c a l c l u b s  members o f t h e E i g h t h R o y a l  R i f l e s and t h e R o y a l  A r t i l l e r y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the b a t t l e . proceeded from t h e ornate  Canadian  The a t t a c k e r s  French Renaissance D r i l l  t h e Grande A l l e e w e a r i n g b l a n k e t c o a t s , b e l t s each bearing a t o r c h .  As t h e y  with  Hall  down  "tuques , a n d b r a i d e d  approached the p a l a c e ,  w h i c h was l i t up w i t h r e d a n d g r e e n e l e c t r i c  lights, a  fire-  w o r k s d i s p l a y l a s t i n g n e a r l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f an h o u r and  -  c o s t i n g four thousand budget,  ensued.  The  77  -  d o l l a r s , n e a r l y h a l f the c a r n i v a l ' s fifty  t o s i x t y thousand  people present .  t h e n w a t c h e d a s t h e . t o r c h b e a r e r s manned t h e c i t y w a l l s e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e p a l a c e and m a r c h e d and  countermarched  t h r o u g h i t before parading through the s t r e e t s of the The  number o f s p e c t a t o r s  on  a t t h i s e v e n t a l o n e was  city.  equal to the 45  entire population  of the c i t y ,  T h a t number s u g g e s t s s o m e t h i n g  i f t h e e s t i m a t e s were c o r r e c t . about  the popular appeal of  the  spectacle. As u s e f u l as t h e n a r r a t i v e o f e v e r y e v e n t i s t o appreciate r e a l l y only  the c a r n i v a l ,  i t c a n be  f o u r main components.  said that i t basically The  p r o g r a m was  sport, spectacle, s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s The  had  made up  and c u l t u r a l  of  events.  s p o r t i n g e v e n t s were t h e o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r  h o l d i n g t h e c a r n i v a l and many members o f t h e l o c a l  snowshoe  and a m a t e u r a t h l e t i c c l u b s r e g a r d e d t h i s as t h e m a i n r e a s o n for their participation. i n the hockey i t might  I n t e r e s t was  i n t e n s e , f o r example,  game b e t w e e n M o n t r e a l and Quebec C i t y .  be f a i r  t o s a y t h a t t h o s e who  g o t t h e most o u t o f  t h e s e e v e n t s w e r e t h e a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h o s e them who  had t h e money and  were s t i l l  gentlemen's  like  recreational activities. h a v i n g a mass a u d i e n c e ,  expressed the i n t e r e s t s of a small part of the  T h i s was  ... . v . .  l e i s u r e t o become i n v o l v e d i n what  Many o f t h e s p e c t a c l e s , w h i l e still  But,  population.  e s p e c i a l l y .true o f t h e "Tandem D r i v e " w h i c h o c c u r r e d  on t h e l a s t day o f t h e c a r n i v a l .  I t was  a parade  of the  well-  - 78 to-do c i t i z e n s d r i v i n g t h e i r  s l e i g h s through  t h e c i t y , a v i s i b l e d i s p l a y o f w e a l t h and m i l i t a r y r e v i e w and the l o c a l e l i t e  the s t r e e t s  s o c i a l rank.  to display i t s e l f .  though c e r t a i n l y a l a r g e audience s e c t i o n s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y may c e l e b r a t i o n s b u t t h e y had  elite  The  t h e Grand B a l l were o t h e r o c c a s i o n s f o r None o f them c a l l e d  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a n y o n e a p a r t f r o m t h e a c t u a l  program.  of  was  o r may  for  "performers",  required.  Humbler  n o t h a v e had  their  no p a r t i n t h e c a r n i v a l ' s  own  official  There remained a d i s t i n c t i o n between v a l u e s o f  and p o p u l a r The  culture.  actual  hard to d e f i n e .  the  " c u l t u r a l " c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l was  also  C e r t a i n l y t h e ceremony o f t h e i c e s t a t u e s  i n f r o n t of the b a s i l i c a represented a k i n d of  clerical  n a t i o n a l i s m c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f Quebec history.  The  of Frontenac  other o f f i c i a l  a t o p a l a r g e dome o f i c e o r t h a t o f  C a r t i e r on t o p o f a " l i v i n g " Joseph  and  carnival ice carvings, like  that  Jacques  archway a t the c o r n e r of S t .  Crown S t r e e t s i n S t . R o c h , a d d e d t o t h e  French  46 Canadian content.  But F r e n c h Canadian c u l t u r e i n t h i s  F r e n c h C a n a d i a n o f p l a c e s was i c e s t a t u e near  by no means p r e d o m i n a n t .  the C i t a d e l of the unfortunate  G e n e r a l M o n t g o m e r y who  i n 1776,  i n t e n d e d f o r t h e many A m e r i c a n v i s i t o r s who as a R e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o .  The  same must be  The  American  d i e d w h i l e h i s t r o o p s were  from the u n s u c c e s s f u l s i e g e o f the c i t y  most  retreating was  no  l o o k e d upon  doubt him  s a i d f o r the  A m e r i c a n f l a g s on many o f t h e c a r n i v a l b u i l d i n g s and  arches  which  hung o r f l e w b e s i d e t h e B r i t i s h and  archway i n t h e shape o f t h e E i f f e l c u l t u r a l element, The and  French ones.  An  tower added a n o t h e r  odd  a blend of modernity  and  French  culture.  c a r n i v a l r e a l l y represented a mixture of  t h i s explains i t s ambiguity.  American t o u r i s t s ,  and  The  presence  o f so many  t h e a i m o f a t t r a c t i n g them i n t h e  p l a c e w i t h t h e a t t e n d a n t f l a g s and  may  City in  h a v e made t h a t c o n f u s i o n i n e v i t a b l e .  must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t some o f t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e and  F r e n c h C a n a d i a n c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l was  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s who uniqueness  first  s t a t u e s , along w i t h the  d e s i r e t o p r e s e n t t h e c i t y t o them a s an O l d W o r l d North America  cultures  wished  It  local  because  to p r o c l a i m the  those  city's  w e r e among t h e m o s t a r d e n t p r o m o t e r s o f i t s 47  French Canadian c h a r a c t e r . was  I n t o t a l however, the  a r a t h e r e c l e c t i c and e v e n h a p h a z a r d - b l e n d  Canadian,  British,  English-Canadian  t h a t w e r e p e r h a p s c h o s e n as The  and A m e r i c a n  French elements  "crowd p l e a s e r s " .  i c e p a l a c e , the c e n t r a l s p e c t a c l e of the  i s a good e x a m p l e o f c o m m e r c i a l tradition  of  i n i t s own  right.  carnival  carnival,  e c l e c t i c i s m t h a t became a  .In i t s own  time, the  "experts"  did..not t a k e i t a l l t h a t s e r i o u s l y b u t a c e n t u r y l a t e r , h a l l o w e d by r e p e a t e d use  i t became " H e r i t a g e " .  no c u l t u r a l r o o t s i n Quebec b u t important element of the event little  e l s e about the . c a r n i v a l .  i t became, and  The still  palace  Montreal papers  1 8 8 0 ' s , i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i c e p a l a c e s , ...traced t h e i r  had  i s an  i n t h e m i n d s o f many who The  and  of  know the  origins  - 80 t o a w i n t e r f e s t i v a l a t t h e I m p e r i a l R u s s i a n Court i n 1732.  48  T h i s c u l t u r a l e c l e c t i c i s m o f t h e c a r n i v a l s h o u l d n o t be s u r p r i s i n g f o r an age t h a t , i n C a n a d a , b u i l t  Gothic  and p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s , CPR h o t e l s t h a t l o o k e d Renaissance  chateaux,  churches  like  banks r e m i n i s c e n t o f c l a s s i c a l  templejS  t h e G r a n d e A l l e e A r m o u r y , t h e m e d i e v a l g a t e s i n Quebec  City  and e v e n p l a n n e d , a s d i d L o r d D u f f e r i n , t o e r e c t a new  Chateau—  S t . - L o u i s a t Quebec t h a t l o o k e d l i k e a c r o s s b e t w e e n t h e U n i v e r s i t y College a t Toronto  and t h e E a s t B l o c k o f t h e 49  P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s i n Ottawa. vaguely-felt desire to retain,  I t appears  t o express a  i n t h e words o f a w r i t e r a t  t h e M o n t r e a l C a r n i v a l o f 1 8 8 4 , "much t h a t i s w o r t h y  of repro50  d u c t i o n from t h e s t o r e s o f l e g e n d and remote h i s t o r y " .  It  i s a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y saw t h e p a s t a s a nostalgic itself IV.  storehouse o f consumable " e x p e r i e n c e s " , both f o r  and f o r o u t s i d e r s .  The A f t e r m a t h W i t h t h e end o f t h e c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , a l l v o i c e s  were r a i s e d i n p r a i s e o f i t s s u c c e s s . c a l c u l a t e d i n e v e r y way: f i n a n c i a l l y ,  T h a t s u c c e s s was i n numbers o f p e o p l e  a t t r a c t e d , a n d , l e s s t a n g i b l y , i n t h e enhancement o f t h e c i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n , and i n t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e community's own i n t e r n a l s o c i a l The  bonds.  D a i l y T e l e g r a p h e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e some 25,000  v i s i t o r s , o r a b o u t 15,000 o n a n y one d a y i n t h e c i t y ,  spent  - 81  -  a b o u t $450,000 o v e r t h e c o u r s e a r r i v i n g by t r a i n estimated  of the event.  from the p r e v i o u s Saturday  6,000 more on T h u r s d a y and  a b o u t 3,000 p e o p l e  who  With  16,000  to Thursday,  Friday alone, t h i s  w e r e assumed t o h a v e come f r o m  an  left  the  51 surrounding d i s t r i c t s . considered the event  The  French  language press  also  a success, though i t s standards  measurement w e r e a l i t t l e  broader.  c i t y w h i c h t h e c a r n i v a l had L'Evenement, w o u l d r e s u l t  The  generated,  of  good p u b l i c i t y i t was  said  f o r the  by  i n countless, future material  benefits: En v e n a n t i c i p a r amusement, d e s g e n s q u i o n t .. des c a p i t a u x a f l a n e r d a n s l e s b a n q u e s , t r o u v e r o n t probablement 1*occasion d ' e x p l o i t e r c e r t a i n e s r e s s o u r c e s de n o t r e d i s t r i c t , e t i n a u g e r o n t p e u t - e t r e des e n t r e p r i s e s a l e u r b e n e f i c e e t a notre avantage. I n an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t way,  the  o f c a r n i v a l week w e r e s e e n t o h a v e had t h e c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e .  joyous c e l e b r a t i o n s  a beneficial effect  T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and  even a p r e -  o c c u p a t i o n , o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e F r e n c h press than  language  i n i t s E n g l i s h language c o u n t e r p a r t .  N.  w r i t i n g i n L ' E v e n e m e n t , somewhat o p t i m i s t i c a l l y  saw  c a r n i v a l a s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new s o c i a l harmony f o r Quebec. P a m p h i l e LeMay saw  on  Levasseur, the  period of p o l i t i c a l  and  S i m i l a r l y , h i s contemporary  the e f f e c t of p u b l i c r e j o i c i n g  i n general  as s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e t i e s b e t w e e n members o f s o c i e t y j u s t  as  f a m i l y gatherings brought that b a s i c u n i t of s o c i e t y together p h y s i c a l l y and  spiritually.  Levasseur  concluded:  - 82  -  . . . e s p e r o n s que c e ne s e r a p a s l a d e r n i e r e , e t que l e c a r n a v a l de 1894 a u r a s e r v i de p e r i o d e t r a n s i t o i r e , a u r a e t e comme une s o r t e de p o i n t j e t e de 1 ' e s p r i t de d e s u n i o n e t d ' a p a t h i e du p a s s e a l a f r a t e r n i t e e t a 1 ' e s p r i t p u b l i c de l ' a v e n i r . 5 3 I n t h e warm a f t e r g l o w o f t h e c a r n i v a l , t e n s i o n s o f t h e c i t y seemed u n i m p o r t a n t .  appeared  To L e v a s s e u r , t h e c a r n i v a l  "non  de t o u t e une  ville,  auquel t o u s , pauvres  d'un  disappear.  of neighbourhood  faubourg, mais  l e coeur.'  ont 54  But  or wealth d i d not  As a r e t r e a t f r o m t h e t e n s i o n s o f d a i l y  c o u r s e , t h e s i x day  time  to evaporate.  et riches,  — c o n t r i b u e a v e c un e n t r a i n q u i r e j o u i s s a i t those d i s t i n c t i o n s  internal  For a b r i e f  s o c i a l r a n k s and o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s belonged  the  life,  of  f e s t i v a l c o u l d n o t r e a l l y be e x p e c t e d  to  r e c o n c i l e , l e t a l o n e e r a s e , t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e modern c i t y o f Quebec. r a r y escape  What seemed t o be a t e m p o -  from s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n f a c t , r e i n f o r c e d  c e l e b r a t i n g t h e most b a s i c o f d i s t i n c t i o n s and t h e p o o r o f t h e c i t y .  The  i t by  between the r i c h .  hope t h a t t h i s c a r n i v a l  had  a c t e d as a s o c i a l l e v e l l e r c o u l d h a v e o n l y b e e n e x p r e s s e d t h o s e who  had n o t e x p e r i e n c e d t h e w i d t h o f t h e g u l f s e p a r a t i n g  the e l i t e  and t h e h u m b l e .  In carnival,  r  by  1896,  t h e c i t y h e l d a n o t h e r e v e n more  f o r w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g was  successful  more e l a b o r a t e , t h e  d e c o r a t i o n s more s u m p t u o u s , t h e a t t e n d a n c e  g r e a t e r , and  commercial  Shaughnessy o f the  a m b i t i o n s even g r a n d e r . ^  T.G.  Canadian  P a c i f i c Railway,  suggested h o l d i n g a c a r n i v a l  y e a r and  " e x t e n d i n g i t o v e r two weeks i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y  the  every one  - 83 b e c a u s e , as he  -  s a i d , wealthy Americans d i d not  d i s t u r b t h e m s e l v e s and  come on  care  h e r e f o r m e r e l y two  d a y s ' f u n , b u t w o u l d r e a d i l y do  to or  three  so i n l a r g e numbers i f t h e y 56  were s u r e was  of f i n d i n g entertainment  a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e be  for a fortnight". a parallel  It  summer c a r n i v a l  " d u r i n g t h e h i g h t i d e o f A m e r i c a n t o u r i s t t r a v e l n e x t summer w i t h an  a t t a c k and  defence of the  C i t a d e l on  t h e m i l i t a r y as t h e p r i n c i p a l e v e n t on The  1896  the  A f t e r t h a t , as J.T.  century  Coulombe w r o t e i n 1927,  "il  carnavals, organises 58  t a n t b i e n que  m o i n s de  P a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m may  succes".  "willingly  faced  again, 59  levy a small tax i n order  does not other  e v e n by The  have been  the  not  that_the  to r a i s e revenue t o h o l d i t Montreal  second decade of the  also  held  twentieth  i n scale  than  I n M o n t r e a l ' s c a s e as w e l l , e v e n i n  p e r i o d of the  s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l s of the  some q u e s t i o n  t h a t t h e c i t y was  winter  fund-  t h e most a r d e n t  t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n much s m a l l e r  t h e i r predecessors.  ou  the  would  suggestion  appear t o have been a c c e p t e d .  c a r n i v a l s , b u t by  century  quelques  a p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n c a m p a i g n as a means o f  advocates of c a r n i v a l s p o r t s " . city  y eut  City.  qui connurent plus  i n g t h e e v e n t w h i c h t h e T e l e g r a p h n o t e d i n 1896 l i k e l y be  water  c a r n i v a l s i n Quebec  mal,  by  programme!!.  e v e n t a p p e a r s t o have b e e n t h e h i g h  mark o f t h e p r e - t w e n t i e t h  r e l i a n c e on  a grand s c a l e 57  1880's, t h e r e  the was  b e c o m i n g more known f o r i t s  amusements t h a n f o r i t s b u s i n e s s  opportunities.  S t a r b e g a n t o wonder a b o u t t h e e m p h a s i s on  sport, noting  The that,  - 84  -  a t l e a s t among g e n t l e m e n , " i t s v a l u e r e c r e a t i o n f r o m t h e s e r i o u s and  lies  i n i t s being  a  arduous d u t i e s of l i f e ,  not  60 i n b e i n g one The  o f l i f e ' s main relatively  interests".  l i m i t e d s p o r t i n g and  as w e l l a s t h e m a i n e v e n t s  c o m m e r c i a l aims  o f t h e c a r n i v a l s were o f a  nature  w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o be d u p l i c a t e d w h e r e v e r t h e r e was snow so t h a t t h e m a j o r c i t i e s c o u l d no T h i s made t h e l o n g r a i l end  from Albany  and  l o n g e r m o n o p o l i z e them.  t r i p t o Quebec u n n e c e s s a r y .  o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e r e were a c c o u n t s  festivals  ice  of s i m i l a r  By  the  winter  to Alberta, further indicating that  the  6 1  m o d e l was cial  adaptable  support  to a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s .  Thus  d i m i n i s h e d as t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e e v e n t  t h e a p p e a l o f Quebec's c a r n i v a l I t was  only i n February  finan-  waned,  faded. 1956,  when Quebec C i t y  again  r e v i v e d t h e c a r n i v a l on t h e s c a l e o f t h o s e  f i r s t ones i n the  1890's, t h a t the c e l e b r a t i o n s a g a i n proved  t o be  successful. had  Organized  by  l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n , t h e new  a p r o g r a m s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f 1894  presence  and  very  - the i c e p a l a c e ,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Governor-General,  t h e i c e s c u l p t u r e s , and  the hundreds of t o u r i s t s .  c a r n i v a l of t o d a y , i s s t i l l  a c o m m e r c i a l and  t h a t i s not a break from the p a s t but late nineteenth century  festivals.  as d o i n g n o t h i n g  r e s p e c t " , and occasions  has  The  Quebec  of  the  however, carnival  " i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d u t y and  become known as one  parade,  event  i s a resurgence  I t has,  the  the  secular  c o n s i d e r a b l y m o d i f i e d Lord Aberdeen's d e f i n i t i o n of behaviour  carnival  self-  o f t h e more famous 62 f o r p u b l i c d r u n k e n n e s s on t h e c o n t i n e n t .  - 85 -  CHAPTER I V CONCLUSION The  industrial revolution  i n Quebec was more t h a n j u s t  a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f b r e a k i n g down o l d c o m m u n i t i e s a n d r e c o n s t i t u t i n g them a r o u n d f a c t o r i e s . "destruction  o f memories"  I t also  involved the  b y a g e n t s o u t s i d e and i n s i d e t h e  c o m m u n i t y a n d t h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h new c u l t u r a l f o r m s a n d rituals,  as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c a r n i v a l i n d i c a t e s .  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e changes  The  i n t h e s o c i e t y and t h e c u l t u r e  o f F r e n c h C a n a d a o v e r t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a c o m p l e x o n e . The r e s u l t o f t h e p r o c e s s c a n n o t s i m p l y be c a l l e d an a l i e n a t e d society replacing the of  whole p r o c e s s .  " t h e w o r l d we h a v e l o s t " .  That  mystifies  The n a t u r e o f t h e c h a n g e , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  a more c o m p l e x u r b a n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y was u n d o u b t e d l y a  mixed b l e s s i n g  f o r the ordinary people of the time.  One o f t h e i m m e d i a t e r e s u l t s was a l i e n a t i o n f r o m t h e p o p u l a r c u l t u r e w h i c h had s u s t a i n e d t h e F r e n c h Canadian r u r a l and u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s s i n c e  the e a r l i e s t days.  But the pro-  c e s s o f a l i e n a t i o n was p r e s e n t i n t h e c u l t u r e b e f o r e t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e o l d e r celebrations  attested.  Paradoxically,  carnival  t h o u g h t h e r e was no  a r t i c u l a t e d e f e n c e o f t h e o l d customs, s u c h as t h e p r e - L e n t e n c a r n i v a l , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y , when i t m i g h t h a v e b e e n most n e e d e d , t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n w o u l d l o o k b a c k  longingly  -  86  -  a t t h e s e c u s t o m s o f " l e b o n v i e u x t e m p s " a s a means o f b r i n g i n g t h e community back t o g e t h e r . The  new c a r n i v a l s , w i t h o u t any m e a n i n g f u l  connection  w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i n Q u e b e c , i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e a d o p t i o n o f h a b i t a n t b e l t s and tuques Canadians,  c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d  l i m i t e d commercial  aims and t h e i r  by w e a l t h y  to f u l f i l l  English  that role.  Their  s e l e c t i v e n a t u r e and h i g h  c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were more i m p o r t a n t i n d i s p l a y i n g a n d c e l e b r a t i n g t h e o f f i c i a l v a l u e s o f i t s b i - n a t i o n a l e l i t e , and i n e x c l u d i n g most o f t h e n o n - c o m m e r c i a l e l e m e n t s I n t h a t sense  of the c i t y .  t h e y a r e more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s o c i a l  because they demonstrated  historian  t h e power s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y ,  b u t t h e y have a l s o e n d u r e d ,  with interruption,to  become  community t r a d i t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h " p o p u l a r " a p p e a l . The  a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e s e c a r n i v a l s was a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n  of t h e V i c t o r i a n attempt s o b r i e t y " w i t h decorous  t o " b e g u i l e t h e weary hours o f l e i s u r e , as P r o f e s s o r B a i l e y so h a p p i l y  p u t i t i n h i s s t u d y o f V i c t o r i a n England."*"  The d o c i l e  crowds  a t t h e c a r n i v a l s w e r e t h e same p e o p l e who w e r e a c c e p t i n g , w i l l i n g l y o r n o t , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Church b u s i n e s s c o m m u n i t y i n many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  and o f t h e  lives.  f o r t h a t s u b m i s s i o n w e r e n o t o n l y t o be f o u n d  The  reasons  i n the workplace,  o r i n t h e c u l t u r e , b u t i n t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two. I t w o u l d be u n f a i r t o l e a v e t h e m a t t e r h e r e . was a f l e e t i n g a f f a i r  t h a t was v a n q u i s h e d  Carnival  e v e r y y e a r by L e n t ,  - 87  -  j u s t a s i t was o v e r c o m e by c a p i t a l i s m : Deux c h a n t e u r s , p e r s o n i f i a n t l ' u n , l e CarSme ... e t 1'autre, l e Mardi-gras, vantent tour a tour l e s b i e n f a i t s du regime q u ' i l s r e p r e s e n e n t , p u i s au d e r n i e r c o u p l e t , l e Mardi-gras s'ecroule, v a i n c u , t a n d i s que l e Careme t r i o m p h e . 2  But  \  L e n t does n o t l a s t f o r e v e r  either.  - 88 -  NOTES CHAPTER I  """CM. F a i r c h i l d , J r . , A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f Ye Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 4 , p p . 71-72. 2 J o h n T. S a y w e l l , e d . , The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f L a d y A b e r d e e n , 1 8 9 3 - 1 8 9 8 , T o r o n t o 1 9 6 0 , The C h a m p l a i n S o c i e t y , p. 6 9 , "...The r e m a r k a b l e good o r d e r amongst b o t h s n o w - s h o e r s and amongst t h e enormous c r o w d was v e r y n o t i c e a b l e a g a i n t o n i g h t , i n s p i t e o f t h e c o l d and t h e long w a i t i n g o u t o f doors." 3 F a i r c h i l d , o p . c i t . , p p . 77-78. 4  I b i d . , p. 1 1 7 .  5 For a f u l l e r e x p l a n a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s " s e m i o t i q u e " a p p r o a c h , see Marianne M e s n i l ' s T r o i s e s s a i s s u r l a f e ^ t e ; d u f o l k l o r e a* l'e"thno-se*miotique, B r u x e l l e s 1 9 7 4 , E d i t i o n s de l'Universit§ de B r u x e l l e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t e s s a y , "Le l i e u e t l e temps de l a f e t e c a r n a v a l e s q u e " . ^ F o r a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s , s e e P. B e z u c h a ' s "The M o r a l i z a t i o n o f S o c i e t y " i n J a c q u e s B e a u r o y e t a l . , The W o l f a n d t h e Lamb; P o p u l a r C u l t u r e i n F r a n c e f r o m t h e O l d Regime t o t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , S t a n f o r d F r e n c h a n d I t a l i a n S t u d i e s , S a r a t o g a 1977, pp. 175-187. T h i s s t u d y o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Societe" P r o t r e c t r i c e des animaux f o c u s e s on m i d d l e c l a s s d i s t a s t e o f p o p u l a r b l o o d s p o r t s , a n d i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o French s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 7 See N a t a l i e Zemon D a v i s o n t h e t e m p o r a r y l o o s e n i n g o f s o c i a l b o n d s i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n them f u r t h e r i n "The Reasons o f M i s r u l e : Y o u t h Groups and C a r n i v a l s i n S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y F r a n c e " i n P a s t and P r e s e n t , 1971, pp. 41-75. M i c h a e l R. M a r r u s " o b s e r v a t i o n s a l s o a p p l y h e r e : " i n a c l a s s i c s t u d y o f f e s t i v i t y , Roger C a i l l o i s once s t r e s s e d t h e c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n o f r e l e a s e from t h e r u l e s o f d a i l y l i f e , the o r g i a s t i c r e v e r s a l of everyday c o n t r o l s . My own r e a d i n g o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f fe"tes i n F r e n c h r u r a l s o c i e t y i s q u i t e t h e o p p o s i t e : w h a l e i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e was p l e n t y o f d r i n k i n g  - 89  -  and b l o w i n g o f f s t e a m d u r i n g t h e f e t e s , t h e r e was a l s o an even g r e a t e r degree of r e g u l a t e d behaviour than i n the course of l a v i e q u o t i d i e n n e . V i l l a g e r s marched a b o u t , danced, p r a y e d , d r a n k and f e a s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a r e g i m e n whose r i g o r i m p r e s s e d many o b s e r v e r s " . M i c h a e l R. M a r r u s , " F o l k l o r e as an E t h n o g r a p h i c S o u r c e : A ' M i s e au P o i n t " i n The W o l f and t h e Lamb, pp. 1 0 9 - 1 2 5 . 8 Montreal  Raymond, M o n t p e t i t , Le Temps des 1978,  E d i t i o n s de  1'Homme, p.  *\ F e t e s au  Q u e b e c,  12.  9 I b i d . , "Un a n a l y s e de l a s y m b o l i q u e e t du r i t u e l d'une f e t e p e r m e t de d e c e l e r l a marque du p o u v o i r q u i . 1 ' o r g a n i s e ; l a f e t e c o n t i e n t t o u j o u r s une p r o j e c t i o n i d e a l i s e e de 1'image qu'un g r o u p e s o c i a l c h e r c h e a d o n n e r de l u i - m e m e , de l a c o n c e p t i o n q u ' i l se f a i t du p o u v o i r q i i l e x e r c e e t de l ' o r d r e q u ' i l m a i n t i e n t . C ' e s t a i n s i qu'une messe de m i n u i t de N o e l e t un r e v e i l l o n en N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e ne s o n t pas e t r a n g e r s 5. l a s t r u c t u r e p o l i t i q u e e t r e l i g i e u s e du p a y s , n i a son mode de p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c o l e . ...Quand e l l e se p r o d u i t , p a s s e , p r e s e n t , e t a v e n i r s o n t en e l l e a r t i c u l e s qu'a 1 ' o r d i n a i r e , ce q u i f a i t de l a f e t e un moment q u i se s a i t e t se v e u t e x c e p t i o n n e l . . . " 1  " ^ H e r b e r t Gutman, "Work, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g A m e r i c a 1815-1919" i n A m e r i c a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w ( 7 8 ) , 1973, p. 543. i : L  I b i d . , pp.  554-556 .  12 Dean M a c C a n n e l l , The T o u r i s t , A New T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e C l a s s , New Y o r k , 1976, an e x c e l l e n t s t u d y o f t h e e f f e c t s o f " m o d e r n i z a t i o n " on t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m i d d l e c l a s s t o u r i s t , b u t w i t h t h e l a c k o f an a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f " m o d e r n i z a tion". 13 A r n o l d v a n Gennep, M a n u e l de f o l k l o r e f r a n c a i s c o n t e m p o r a i n : "Les c e r e m o n i e s p e r i o d i q u e s , c y c l i q u e s e t s a i s o n n i e r e s " , P a r i s 194 7, tome 1:3. 14 M a d e l e i n e D o y o n - F e r l a n d , Coutumes p o p u l a i r e s du Canada F r a n c a i s , A r c h i v e s de f o l k l o r e , Quebec 1972, q u o t i n g H e c t o r B e r t n e l o t , "Le bon v i e u x t e m p s " , p. 1 3 4 - 1 3 5 . 15 H.P. x  LeMay, Fe*tes e t c o r v e e s , L e v i s , 1898,  ^ I b i d . , p.  25.  pp.  24-25,  - 90 17  Ibid.,  p.  -  29.  18 Montreal Star,  February  5,  1884,  p.  5.  19 F o r an e x c e l l e n t s t u d y o f t h e q u e s t i o n o f l e i s u r e i n n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y B r i t a i n , see P e t e r B a i l e y ' s L e i s u r e and C l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n E n g l a n d , London, T o r o n t o , B u f f a l o 1978. B a i l e y c a l l s t h e f i e l d o f l e i s u r e "one o f t h e m a j o r f r o n t i e r s o f s o c i a l change i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and l i k e most f r o n t i e r s i t was d i s p u t e d t e r r i t o r y " (p. 5 ) . The c r u x o f t h e p r o b l e m f o r b o t h t h e V i c t o r i a n s and f o r t h e i r C a n a d i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s seems, i n t h e p e r i o d o f B a i l e y ' s s t u d y 1830-1895 t o c e n t r e a r o u n d " . . . t h e i d e a o f r e c r e a t i o n as a s a f e t y v a l v e whose c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t j u s t i f i e d t h e s u s p e n s i o n o f n o r m a l s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s was u n a c c e p t a b l e t o men p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d t o m a i n t a i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l and c o n f o r m i t y . P l a y was n o t t o be a l l o w e d any f o r m o f s p e c i a l l i c e n c e ; r a t h e r i t had t o be f i r m l y and u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h t h e r e s t o f l i f e and s e c u r e l y a n c h o r e d i n o r t h o d o x m o r a l i t y . " (p. 94) This period t h e n became " t h e h o u s e - t r a i n i n g o f t h e E n g l i s h p r o l e t a r i a t " , (p. 1 7 4 ) . 20 Folk-Lore,  W i l l i a m P a r k e r Greenough, Canadian F o l k - L i f e New Y o r k 1897.  and  21 See J o s e p h L e v i t t , H e n r i B o u r a s s a and C a l f , The S o c i a l P r o g r a m o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s o f 1 9 1 4 ) , Ottawa 1972.  the Golden Quebec (1900-  22 K e n n e t h M a c L e i s h , "Quebec: F r e n c h C i t y i n an A n g l o Saxon W o r l d " N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c , v o l . 139, ( 3 ) , march 1971, pp. 416-422. 23 An i n t e r e s t i n g example o f t h i s t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e by t h e p u b l i s h e r o f t h e Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h and a l e a d i n g p r o p o n e n t o f t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l i n 1894 was F r a n k C a r r e l ' s G u i d e t o t h e C i t y o f Quebec, Quebec 1896, D a i l y T e l e g r a p h which i n c l u d e d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t the v i s i t o r to the c i t y might want t o know: h i s t o r y , h o t e l s , monuments, r e s o r t s , e t c . , and w h i c h was bound t o g e t h e r w i t h an A l l - r o u n d Route and P a n o r a m i c G u i d e o f t h e S a i n t Lawrence ( M o n t r e a l 1899, International R a i l w a y P u b l i s h i n g Co.) w h i c h c o v e r e d b e a c h e s , towns, h o t e l s , r e s o r t s and t r a i n s c h e d u l e s f r o m H a l i f a x t o B u f f a l o and f r o m t h e A d i r o n d a c k s t o t h e Saguenay R i v e r . 24  Montreal Star,  Friday  Feb.  .2., 1883.  - 91 " - ' M a c C a n n e l l , o p . c i t . , C h a p t e r 3, "The P a r i s C a s e : O r i g i n s o f A l i e n a t e d L e i s u r e " , pp. 57-76, t h e p o i n t b e i n g t h e d i s t o r t i o n s inherent i n the mediated experience, e s p e c i a l l y i n the mediated t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e , which can never p e n e t r a t e t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f a s i t u a t i o n b u t must be c o n t e n t w i t h t h e "on s t a g e " v i e w , n o t t h e " b a c k s t a g e " , e v e n a t t h e G o b e l i n s o r i n the sewers. T h e r e i s a " w a l l " o f m e d i a t i o n b e t w e e n <. ... t h e w o r k e r s h e r e and t h e i r o b s e r v e r s . ''"Quebec M e r c u r y , F e b . 12, 1866, p.  2.  27 C i t y C o u n c i l o f Q u e b e c , P r o c e s - v e r b a u x du c o n s e i l , de F e v r i e r 1865 3 A o G t 1866, M u n i c i p a l A r c h i v e s o f Quebec C i t y , B y - l a w 192 " F o r t h e Good O r d e r and P e a c e o f t h e C i t y o f Q u e b e c " , p a s s e d December 22, 1865 w i t h b i l i n g u a l t e x t s , p. 2 7 3 , and p r i n t e d December 1 1 , 1865 i n Le C a n a d i e n and i n The D a i l y News. 28 Quebec M e r c u r y ,  T h u r s d a y Feb.. 15, 1866., p.  2.  29 Quebec C i t y C o u n c i l , P r o c e s - - v e r b a u x . . . , p p . 2 7 3 3 2 3 , R e g l e m e n t 196 " C o n c e r n a n t l e s m a i s o n s de p r o s t i t u t i o n e t a u t r e s m a i s o n s de d e s o r d r e " (23 f e v r i e r , 1 8 6 6 ) , R e g l e m e n t 197 " C o n c e r n a n t l e s M a T t r e s , l e s Commis, l e s a p p r e n t i s , l e s d o m e s t i q u e s e t l e s o u v r i e r s " (23 f e v r i e r 1866) a n d a l s o by t h e same c o u n c i l R e g l e m e n t 206 " C o n c e r n a n t l e s m a i s o n s de p r o s t i t u t i o n , l e s m a i s o n s de d e s o r d r e e t a u t r e s r e p u t e e s . c o m m e t e l l e s " (10 A o u t 1 8 6 6 ) . 30 E.Z. M a s s i c o t t e , " J o u r s g r a s , m a r d i g r a s , m e r c r e d i des c e n d r e s : Moeurs e t coutumes d ' a u t r e f o i s " , i n B u l l e t i n des r e c h e r c h e s h i s t o r i q u e s , x x v i i , 3, mars 1 9 2 1 , p. 89. 31 R o b e r t - L i o n e l S e g u i n , L e s D i v e r t i s s e m e n t s en N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e , O t t a w a , 1968, p. 36. I n F e b r u a r y o f 1663 an e a r t h q u a k e s h o o k Quebec C i t y and c o n t i n u e d i n t e r i t t e n t l y u n t i l A u g u s t , c a u s i n g M§re M a r i e d e l ' I n c a r n a t i o n t o d r a w i n e v i t a b l e moral lessons from i t . I n a l e t t e r t o h e r s o n on A u g u s t 20, 166 3, she w r o t e : "So u n e x p e c t e d a c a l a m i t y , when t h e y o u n g p e o p l e w e r e p r e p a r i n g t o s p e n d t h e c a r n i v a l s e a s o n i n e x c e s s e s , was a c l a p o f t h u n d e r on e v e r y o n e ' s h e a d . I t was r a t h e r a c l a p o f God's m e r c y u p o n t h e w h o l e c o u n t r y , a s was s e e n by i t s r e s u l t s . . . " i n J o y c e M a r s h a l l , t r a n s . , e d . , Word From New F r a n c e - The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f M a r i e de 1 ' I n c a r n a t i o n , T o r o n t o 1967, p. 289. See a l s o I b i d . p. 297 "...The d a y s o f c a r n i v a l w e r e c h a n g e d i n t o d a y s o f p e n i t e n c e and s a d n e s s ;  - 92 p u b l i c p r a y e r s , p r o c e s s i o n s , a n d p i l g r i m a g e s were c o n t i n u a l , f a s t s on bread and water v e r y f r e q u e n t , and g e n e r a l c o n f e s s i o n s more s i n c e r e t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n t h e e x t r e m i t y o f sickness." " " " " I b i d . , "Momon" o r "mummery", t o u s e t h e o l d E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t i s d e f i n e d i n S e g u i n t o mean: " l e d e " f i d'un c o u p de d e z , qu'on f a i t q u a n d o n e s t de*guis_ e n masque. I I e s t d e f f e n d u de p a r l e r q u a n d o n p o r t e un mommon" S e g u i n , p . 3 6 . Thus a "mommerie" i n 1 7 0 1 was " M a s c a r a d e , b o u f o n n e r i e , d e g u i s e m e n t de g e n s masquez p o u r a l l e r d a n s e r , j o u e r o u s e rejouir." I b i d . - t h e same u s e o f t h e t e r m i s f o u n d i n Newfoundland - see below Note 37. 33 Ibid. 34 M a s s i c o t t e , op. c i t . p. 93. 35 LeMay, o p . c i t . p . 1 4 . 36 Madeleine  Doyon F e r l a n d , o p . c i t . ,  p p . 97-99.  37 I b i d . , p . 9 9 , f o r a modern s t u d y o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y example o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s a s i n f l u e n c i n g and even determini n g w o r k h a b i t s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y f o r t h e y e a r a l o n g t h e s e same l i n e s , s e e G e r a l d M. S i d e r ' s " C h r i s t m a s Mumming a n d t h e New Y e a r i n O u t p o r t N e w f o u n d l a n d " i n P a s t a n d P r e s e n t , 7 1 , May 1976, p p . 1 0 2 - 1 2 5 . 38 F e r l a n d , op. c i t . ,  p. 98.  Van Gennep, o p . c i t . , p . 869 a n d a l s o : "On r e m a r q u e r a d ' a i l l e u r s que l e s f S t e s d u s o l s t i c e d ' e t e ne s o n t p a s i d e n t i q u e s a c e l l e s d u s o l s t i c e d ' h i v e r . Comme l e s f e t e s de C a r n a v a l - C a r e m e e t d u p r i n t e m p s , l e s p r e m i e r e s s o n t c o l l e c t i v e s , i n t e r e s s e n t t o u s l e s h a b i t a n t s de l a l o c a l i t e , ou du moins l e u r s r e p r e s e n t a n t s , l a Jeunesse des d e u x *• s e x e s e t , p a r a f f a i b l i s s e m e n t , l a s o c i e t e r e s t r e i n t e des e n f a n t s ; e n p r i n c i p e t o u s p a r t i c i p e n t 5 l a j o i e , e t a u x c§r§monies p o p u l a i r e s . A u l i e u que l e s f ^ t e s e t c e r e m o n i e s de l a N o e l , d u J o u r de l ' A n e t d e s R o i s s o n t e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t f a m i l i a l e s e t domestiques, a i n s i q u e l e u r s v i g i l e s ou veilles... Dans l e s f e t e s p a t r o n a l e s , e l l e s a u s s i p e r i o d i q u e s , l e s d e u x ele"mets s e c o m b i n e n t , c a r e l l e s s o n t , e n p r i n c i p e , a u t a n t qu'un bapteme e t un m a r i a g e o u d e s f u n e r a i l l e s , une o c c a s i o n de r e n f o r c e r a n o u v e a u l e s l i e n s f a m i l i a u x o u l o c a u x , e t , d ' a u t r e p a r t , l e s a i n t p a t r o n e s t une p r o p r i e t e c o l l e c t i v e . " (Manuel...838-39).  - 93 -  " I b i d . , p. 869. 41 E x a m p l e s i n Quebec a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e a s f o r e x a m p l e i n S t . - R o m a u l d de L e v i s a n d H a w k s b u r y w h e r e : "Deux c h a n t e u r s p e r s o n n i f i a n t l ' u n , l e Careme e t 1 ' a u t r e , l e M a r d i - g r a s , v a n t e n t t o u r a" t o u r l e s b i e n f a i t s d u r e g i m e q u ' i l s r e p r e s e n t ent, p u i s au d e r n i e r c o u p l e t , l e Mardi-gras s ' e c r o u l e , v a i n c u , t a n d i s que l e Careme t r i o m p h e " . M a s s i c o t t e , o p . c i t . , p . 9 3 . 42  Errol H i l l , The T r i n i d a d C a r n i v a l , M a n d a t e f o r a N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e , A u s t i n , Texas and London, 1972, U n i v e r s i t y o f T e x a s P r e s s , p . 4, a n d a l s o R. M u c h e m b l e d , C u l t u r e P o p u l a i r e e t C u l t u r e des E l i t e s dans l a F r a n c e Moderne, P a r i s , 1978, F l a m m a r i o n , who saw t h i s p o p u l a r c u l t u r e o u t o f w h i c h t h e c a r n i v a l s a n d o t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n s grew a s n o t o n l y " v i v a n t e , a c t i v e e t d y n a m i q u e " b u t a l s o a n d e v e n more c r u c i a l l y a s "une s y s t e m e de s u r v i e " . p . 1 1 . 43 I b i d . , see a l s o Claude Gaignebet's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P e t e r B r e u g h e l ' s p a i n t i n g (1559) 'Combat de C a r n a v a l e t de Careme" i n h i s a r t i c l e "Le Combat de C a r n a v a l e t de Careme de P. B r e u g h e l " i n A n n a l e s E.S.C., m a r s - a v r i l 1 9 7 2 , p p . 3 1 3 34 5, where he c l a i m s t h e w h o l e c y c l e o f C a r n i v a l , L e n t a n d E a s t e r i s d e p i c t e d i n e a c h a r e a o f what i s o s t e n s i b l y a p a i n t i n g o f what l o o k s l i k e a scene o f c o n f u s i o n i n a sixteenth-century Flemish v i l l a g e . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s h a p p e n i n g b e a r s many r e s e m b l a n c e s t o M a d e l e i n e D o y o n F e r l a n d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f c a r n a v a l o r mardi gras i n t h e Beauce. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e " J o u r de l ' O u r s " i n v o l v e s man d i s g u i s e d a s a b e a r , o r p e r h a p s a s a s a v a g e , b r e a k i n g i n t o t h e community dance, r i t u a l l y d e f i l e s a maiden and i s r i t u a l l y k i l l e d , a custom t h a t occurs i n both a r e a s . Another i s t h e "Danse d u B a r b i e r " where a b a r b e r l a t h e r s up a c u s t o m e r and s t a b s h i m . The c u s t o m e r q u i c k l y r e v i v e s a n d t h e d a n c e goes o n . As w e l l , t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e c u s t o m s o f t r a n s v e s t i s m , masks a n d d i s g u i s e s , a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e f f i g i e s a n d t h e i r r i t u a l p u n i s h m e n t . T o d a y ' s "Bonhomme C a r n a v a l " o f t h e Quebec C i t y c a r n i v a l i s o n l y t h e l a t e s t i n a long s e r t i e s o f the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of the f e s t i v a l . Later on i n F r a n c e , c a r n i v a l w o u l d t a k e o n t h e p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s t h a t Quebec, e x c e p t f o r t h e s t r a w man (homme de p a i l l e ) a s a f i g u r e o f f u n a t e l e c t i o n time, would never see. In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e l e g a c y o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n became f o r one p a r t y o r a n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t a t one t i m e o r a n o t h e r , r e p u b l i c a n s a n d m o n a r c h i s t s a l i k e w o u l d s e e k t o e x p r e s s t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s t h r o u g h t h e masked behaviour and symbolism o f c a r n i v a l i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f anonymous p r o t e s t . F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s e e R o b e r t B e z u c h a ' s "Mask o f R e v o l u t i o n : P o p u l a r C u l t u r e i n t h e S e c o n d R e p u b l i c " i n R o g e r P r i c e , e d . , R e v o l u t i o n a n d R e a c t i o n : 1848  - 94 and t h e S e c o n d F r e n c h R e p u b l i c , p p . 2 3 6 - 2 5 3 . F o r a f u l l e r h i s t o r i c a l treatment of the subject f o r the s i x t e e n t h t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , s e e Y v e s - M a r i e B e r c e , F§te e t R e V o l t e , des m e n t a l i t e s p o p u l a i r e s du X V I e a u X V I I I e s i e ' c l e , P a r i s , H a c h e t t e 1976. 44  B e n j a m i n G a s t i n e a u , Le C a r n a v a l a n c i e n e t moderne, P a r i s 1 8 6 2 . The b o o k a p p e a r e d a s p a r t o f a s e r i e s e n t i t l e d " H i s t o i r e de l a f o l i e h u m a i n e " , p. 2 4 . See a l s o P e r r y Young's The M y s t i c k C r e w e , New O r l e a n s 1 9 3 1 , p p . 5-6 f o r a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f C a r n i v a l i n F r a n c e a n d o n t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e .. customs i n Greece, t h e i r debauchery and d e c l i n e , and t h e d e c l i n e o f i t s c e l e b r a t i o n a f t e r 1870 i n F r a n c e . 45 46 47  Gastineau, Hill,  op. c i t . , pp. 104-105.  o p . c i t . , p p . 10-12  I b i d . , p . 16  48 Ibid. F r a s e r s a i d " I n f o r m e r d a y s a n d down t o t h e p e r i o d o f t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e s l a v e s , t h e c a r n i v a l was k e p t up w i t h much s p i r i t by t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s . . . t h e l e a d i n g Members o f S o c i e t y u s e d o n t h e d a y s o f C a r n i v a l t o d r i v e t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f P o r t o f S p a i n masked, and i n t h e e v e n i n g s go f r o m h o u s e t o h o u s e w h i c h w e r e a l l t h r o w n o p e n f o r t h e o c c a s i o n . " p. 10. 49 50 51 52  I b i d . , p . 17 . Ibid. Ibid. I b i d . , p . 20  Young, M y s t i c k Crewe..., pp. 41-42. I n 1868, d u r i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e U.S. C i v i l War, g e n e r a l m a s k i n g i n t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e c i t y was e n d e d f o r e v e r and t h e unmasked c r o w d s now w a t c h e d t h e masked p a r a d e s o f t h e C r e w s o f Comus, b y v i r t u e o f t h e P o l i c e C h i e f ' s S p e c i a l O r d e r s No. 6 0 , F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1 8 6 8 . Y o u n g , p. 8 7 . 54 5 5  I b i d . , p. 42.  I b i d . , p. 49.  - 95  -  I b i d . , p. 56, and a l s o L e o n a r d V. R u b e r ' s M a r d i G r a s : A P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y o f C a r n i v a l i n New O r l e a n s , G r e t n a L o u i s i a n a 1977, P e l i c a n Pub. Co., p. 8. 57 Y o u n g , op. c i t . pp.  56-57.  " ^ I b i d . , p. 57 . 59 H i l l , op. c i t . , p. 10. 60 M o n t r e a l S t a r , Thursday  Feb.  6,  1884,  p.  3.  - 96 -  NOTES CHAPTER  II  G.M. F a i r c h i l d , J r . A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f y e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 4 , p . C I X . X  2 S t a n l e y T n g g s and J . R u s s e l l H a r p e r . A Collection o f Notman P h o t o g r a p h s - 1 8 5 1 - 1 9 1 5 . P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d , i t c o n t a i n s a number o f p i c t u r e s o f v e r y g a u n t - l o o k i n g p e o p l e o f t h e Lower Town,- M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M o n t r e a l , 1 9 6 7 . 3 F a i r c h i l d , o p . c i t . , p . C I V q u o t i n g t h e New Y o r k S u n , d a t e l i n e Quebec C i t y , F e b r u a r y 1, 1894. 4 G.M. F a i r c h i l d , J r . G l e a n i n g s f r o m Q u e b e c , Quebec 1908, p. 130, s e e a l s o G e o r g e G a l e , Quebec T w i x t O l d a n d New, Quebec 1 9 1 5 , o r P i e r r e S a v a r d s r e i s s u e o f S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e s C o m p o s i t e u r - t y p o g r a p h i q u e de Q u e b e c , P a r i s 1 9 0 3 . 1  1  5 P a u l Laroque.- La C o n d i t i o n socio-economique des t r a v a i l l e u r s de l a V i l l e de Quebec 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 4 , MA T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec 1 9 7 0 , p~! 1 6 3 , Q u o t i n g A r t h u r S t .P i e r r e , L a Q u e s t i o n o u v r i e r e au Canada, M o n t r e a l , 1920. I b i d . , p . 24 i n L a r o q u e , e m p h a s i s  mine.  7 Jacques M a t h i e u , La c o n d i t i o n o u v r i g r e dans l ' i n d u s t r i e de c u i r a* Quebec de 1900 a~ 1930 d'apre~s l e s p r o c g s - v e r b a u x d'un s y n d i c a t , u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 0 , p . 19. g  L o r t i e , op. c i t . ,  pp. 111-112.  9 Laroque, op. c i t . , X  p. 1 3 1 .  ^ L ' E l e c t e u r , 23 J a n v i e r , 1 8 9 3 . Ibid.  - 97 12  Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 7 November, 1893, p . 2 L E v e n e m e n t , 18 J a n v i e r , 1894. 1  and  13 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , p.  (on f i n a n c i a l  crisis...)  14 L a r o q u e , op. c i t . , p.  136.  15 L ' E v e n e m e n t , 18 J a n v i e r , 1894,  p.  2.  16 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 8 J a n u a r y , 1884. F o r an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f men r e q u i r e d f o r s u c h w o r k . F i f t y t o s i x t y l a b o u r e r s and masons b e g a n w o r k on M o n t r e a l ' s i c e p a l a c e t h a t y e a r j u s t a f t e r C h r i s t m a s and w o r k e d r i g h t up t o t h e o p e n i n g of the c a r n i v a l i n January. In Montreal f o r the f o l l o w i n g years c a r n i v a l , the Star of 5 January reported that the a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s u c h w o r k f a r e x c e e d e d t h e number o f p e o p l e r e q u i r e d and t h a t " T h o u s a n d s o f M o n t r e a l Workmen (were) i n A c t u a l Want". 17  was  M o n t r e a l S t a r , 24 J a n u a r y , 1885, p. 6. Othello.  The  costume  18 L a r o q u e f o r w a g e s , o p . c i t . , pp. 159-75 and G r e g o r y K e a l y , C a n a d a I n v e s i t g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , T o r o n t o , U. o f T. P r e s s , 1973, p p . 308-313 f o r f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s o f wage r a t e s . 19 J e a n - P i e r r e W a l l o t , " R e l i g i o n and F r e n c h C a n a d i a n Mores i n t h e E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y " , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w , L I I / 1 (March 1971) p. 82. 20 S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e , C o m p o s i t e u r - t y p o g r a p h i q u e de dans l e systeme des engagements v o l o n t a i r e s permanents d ' a p r e s l e s r e n s e i g n e m e n t s r e c e u i l l i s s u r l e s l i e u x en 1 9 0 3 i n P a y s a n s e t O v r i e r s de Qu§bec d ' a u t r e f o i s , (Qu§bec 1968) p. 67. L a d y A b e r d e e n n o t e d as w e l l t h a t " p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f d a n c i n g i s g e t t i n g t o o s t r o n g f o r t h e c l e r g y and the Church i s b e g i n n i n g t o f o r g e t t o e n f o r c e i t s p e n a l t i e s . " C a n a d i a n D i a r y , p. 17. Quebec  21 Mandements, l e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s , c i r c u l a i r e s e t a u t r e s d o c u m e n t s p u b l i e s d a n s l e Dioce'se de M o n t r e a l d e p u i s son e r e c t i o n , v o l . I V , ( M o n t r e a l 1 8 9 3 ) , p p . 1 3 0 - 1 3 3 , a n d pp. 5 2 6 - 5 3 1 . 22  I b i d . , pp.  740-746.  - 98 23  I n 1 8 8 5 , M g r . F a b r e i s s u e d a mandement c o n d e m n i n g t h e p u b l i c s l i d e s a n d s n o w s h o e i n g f a c i l i t i e s where women w e r e a l l o w e d t o w e a r t h e c o s t u m e o f t h e snowshoe c l u b s , w h i c h he r e g a r d e d a s a f o r m o f m a l e a t t i r e . C i t i n g Deuteronomy, t h e p r e l a t e made i t c l e a r t h a t s u c h a c t i v i t i e s w e r e r e l i c s o f a s a v a g e p a s t , a n d a s A r c h b i s h o p o f M o n t r e a l , he w o u l d n o t t o l e r a t e such a c t i v i t y i n h i s d i o c e s e . I n P a u l C a r p e n t i e r , La Raquette a n e i g e , T r o i s R i v i e r e s 1976, B o r e a l e x p r e s s , p. 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 . 24 Lorenze Cadieux S.J., ed. L e t t r e s des N o u v e l l e s M i s s i o n s d u Canada 1 8 4 3 - 1 8 5 2 , ( M o n t r e a 1 . 1 9 7 3 ) , 18 e L e t t r e , p. 3 0 8 . 25 J o e W i l d g u s t , " C a s h i n g i n on C a r n i v a l " , Weekend 14 F e b . 1978 p . 1 6 .  Magazine, 26  Larocque, op. c i t .  p. 186.  27 'ibid. 2 8  I b i d . , p. 188.  29 *Ibid. 30 \For t h e h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e o f l a b o u r u n i o n s l i k e t h e K n i g h t s o f L a b o u r t o a l c o h o l a n d t h o s e who s e r v e d i t s e e P i e r r e de L o t t i n e v i l l e , " J o e B e e f o f M o n t r e a l " i n L a b o u r / L e T r a v a i l l e u r 8-9 (1981-82) p p . 33-34. 31 See t h e Quebec M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e , 2 December 186 5, " D i s o r d e r l y Houses",- t h e number o f h o u s e s was q u i c k l y f o u n d o u t t o be a n e x a g g e r a t i o n b u t n o t b e f o r e t h e news h a d made t h e M o n t r e a l papers,- a l s o J o u r n a l de Quebec 25 novembre 186 5, " C o u n s e i l de V i l l e " a n d I b i d . , 9 f e v r i e r 1 8 6 6 . The b y - l a w s i n q u e s t i o n a r e f r o m t h e C o n s e i l de V i l l e de Q u e b e c , P r o c e s v e r b a u x . . . , p p . 2 7 3 - 3 2 3 , R e g l e m e n t 196 " C o n c e r n a n t l e s m a i s o n s de p r o s t i t u t i o n e t a u t r e s m a i s o n s de d e s o r d r e " (23 f e v r i e r 1 8 6 6 ) , and R e g l e m e n t 206 " C o n c e r n a n t l e s m a i s o n s de p r o s t i t u t i o n , l e s m a i s o n s de d e s o r d r e e t a u t r e s r e p u t e e s comme t e l l e s " (10 aou*t 1866) w h i c h amended t h e e a r l i e r b y - l a w . 3 2  L ' U n i o n m e d i c a l e d u C a n a d a , X I V ( 1 8 8 5 ) , p . -96.  33  Lortie, t o t a l population and 24,348 women o f 4 4,104 s i n g l e tion .  99  -  op. c i t . p. 64. He f o u n d t h a t o u t o f a o f 68,834 i n 1901, t h e r e were 19,756 men c l a s s i f i e d as u n m a r r i e d . T h i s made a t o t a l p e r s o n s , o r a b o u t two t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a -  34  See R o g e r L e m e l i n , L a F a m i l l e P l o u f f e and G a b r i e l l e Roy, B o n h e u r d ' O c c a s i o n two o f t h e most p o w e r f u l Quebec n o v e l s t o - d e p i c t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e 1930's, t h e f o r m e r i n t h e Lower' Town o f Quebec and t h e l a t t e r i n t h e poor, w o r k i n g c l a s s section of Montreal, St.-Henri. 35  L o r t i e , pp. c i t . , p.  100.  36  L a r o q u e , o p . c i t . , p.  171.  37  See A l a n M e t c a l f e , "The E v o l u t i o n o f O r g a n i z e d P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l , 1840-1895" i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y XI (21) May 1978 pp. 38  Gene M. Home, " S l i d e r s and B a c k s l i d e r s - T o r o n t o ' s Sunday T o b o g g a n i n g C o n t r o v e r s y o f 1912" i n U r b a n H i s t o r y R e v i e w X ( 2 ) , O c t o b e r 1981, p p . 25-34. 39  «.  " P o u r demander p a r d o n a D i e u des o f f e n s e s q u i se c o m m e t t e n t en c e temps de p l a i s i r s e t de t e s t e s " , L ' E l e c t e u r , 6 fevrier, 1894. 40  See J a c q u e s R o u i l l a r d , L e s T r a v a i l l e u r s de C o t o n au Quebec 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 1 5 , P r e s s e s de l ' U n i v e r s i t e du Q u e b e c , M o n t r e a l 1974.  41  Quebec, p.  Jean Hamelin, Yves R o b i e . 17.  H i s t o i r e economigue  de  42  I b i d . , pp.  264-265.  43  J o b i n , H i s t o i r e de Q u e b e c , p. 147; op.  c i t . pp.  H a m e l i n and  Roby,  275-76.  44  N a r c i s s e Rosa. L a c o n s t r u c t i o n d e s n a v i r e s a Quebec et ses environs-: G r e v e s e t n a u f r a g e s , Que'bec 1897, L e g e r B r o u s s e a u , p p . 26-27. 45  J o b i n , o p . c i t . , p.  14 9.  - 100 46 process,  For a r a t h e r n a i v e l y u n c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s s e e J o b i n , o p . c i t . , p p . 155-157.  47 I b i d . , by 1939 w e l l o v e r h a l f t h e shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n Canada w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n Quebec ( t w i c e a s many a s i n O n t a r i o , t h e n e x t l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) and were a m a i n s t a y of French Canadian enterprise/most i n Quebec w e r e F r e n c h C a n a d i a n owned, 114 o u t o f 1 3 6 .  Frere  48 I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e V i s , Q u e b e c , Demers e t 1 8 9 3 , p p . 105 a n d 1 2 1 . 49  the  L a r o q u e , o p . c i t . , p . 10. T h e r e w e r e 512 w o r k e r s i n t a n n e r i e s a n d 3858 i n t h e shoe f a c t o r i e s . 50 ITV, b i-A d.  and  ~ ^ I b i d . , p . 20 a n d s e e a l s o t h e I n d i c a t e u r , p . 1 0 6 pp. 115-121. 52  The I r i s h , f o r e x a m p l e h a d d r o p p e d i n numbers f r o m 10,000 i n 1861 t o 4381 i n 1901 a n d t h e i r d e c l i n e a l s o l e a d t o t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e Quebec S h i p L a b o u r e r s ' B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y . F o r t h a t s e e H a m e l i n , p p . 312-313 a n d a l s o J . I . C o o p e r , "The Quebec S h i p L a b o u r e r s ' B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y " i n CHR 30 (4) December 1 9 4 9 , p . 3 4 2 . 53 I n d i c a t e u r , p . 9 7 , a n d . pp . 105-117^,See-Table. 5. A p p e n d i x . 54 I n d i c a t e u r , p. 25. 55 See e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s r e g a r d J o h n K e y e s " L a d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n de l ' a c t i v i t e e c o n o m i q u e de T i m o t h y H i b b a r d Dunn, c o m m e r c a n t de b o i s a* Quebec 1 8 5 0 - 1 8 9 8 " i n RHAF 35 (3) Decembre 1 9 8 1 , p p . 323-336, a n d f o r t h e c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o f some members o f t h e E n g l i s h c o m m u n i t y . See G i n e t t e B e r n a t c h e z , " L a S o c i e t e l i t t e r a i r e e t h i s t o r i q u e de Quebec 1 8 2 4 - 1 8 9 0 , RHAF 35 (2) S e p t e m b r e 1 9 8 1 , p p . 1 7 9 - 1 9 2 . ^ I n d i c a t e u r , p . 7 8 , The p r e s i d e n t was a F r e n c h C a n a d i a n , t h e v i c e p r e s i d e n t was E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g , e t c . 57 J a c q u e s M a t h i e u , "La c o n d i t i o n o u v r i e r e dans l ' i n d u s t r i e de c u i r a Quebec de 1900 a 1 9 3 0 , d ' a p r e s l e s p r o c e s - v e r b a u x d'un s y n d i c a t " , u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, pp. 33-38. Emphasis mine.  -  101  -  58  — Paul-Andre L i n t e a u . "Quelques r e f l e x i o n s a u t o u r de l a b o u r g e o i s i e q u e b ^ c o i s e 1850-1914" i n RHAF 30 (1) J u i n 1976, pp. 55-66, t h i s c i t a t i o n , p . 58. 59 y  Ibid.  ^ I b i d . , p . 60 . ^ Ibid., x  p.  62.  62 c f . O u e l l e t ' s Chambre de Commerce de Quebec w h i c h has some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and J o h n K e y e s , op. c i t . on members o f t h e Dunn f a m i l y . 63 L i n t e a u , p . 62, t h e s e r a i l w a y s were The Quebec N o r t h S h o r e R a i l r o a d , " l e c h e m i n de f e r L e v i s a Kennebec ( p l u s t a r d Quebec C e n t r a l ) . . . e n f i n l e c h e m i n de f e r Quebec e t L a c - S t . - . J e a n " "Dans c e d e r n i e r c a s , Normand S e g u i n a b i e n m o n t r e comment l e c h e m i n de f e r a e t e un i n s t r u m e n t m a j e u r de p e n e t r a t i o n du c a p i t a l de Quebec au L a c - S t . - J e a n . Les marchands de b o i s , l e s commercants en g r o s , l e s s o c i e t e s de pre*t h y p o t h e c a i r e r e p r e s e n t a u t a n t de f a c e t t e s des a c t i v i t e s de l a moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e de l a c a p i t a l e . C e l l e - c i se d o t e d i n s t r u m e n t s q u i l u i s o n t p r o p r e s comme l a Banque N a t i o n a l e ou l a Banque de Quebec. L e s B e a u d e t , Shehyn, C h i n i c , Thibaudeau, i l l u s t r e n t parmi d ' a u t r e s , l a d i v e r s i t e des a c t i v i t y ' s de ce g r o u p e . " 1  64 c f . Marc B e l a n g e r " l e s Chambres de Commerce - g r o u p e s de p r e s s i o n ou c o o p e r a t i v e s de d e v e l o p p e m e n t " R e c h e r c h e s s o c i o g r a p h i q u e s 9 (1968) 1 and 2, pp. 85-103, e s p e c i a l l y p. 86. 6 5  L'Electeur,  8 f e V r i e r , 1893,  p.  4.  ^ F o r h i s t e s t i m o n y , see K e a l y , Canada I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , pp. 286-288, and on t h e s t r i k e , see J e a n H a m e l i n , P a u l L a r o q u e , J a c q u e s R o u i l l a r d , R e p e r t o i r e des G r e v e s dans l a P r o v i n c e de Quebec au XIX S i e c l e , M o n t r e a l , 1970, pp. 95-96. 67 K e a l y . C a n a d a I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , pp. 288289 and f o r a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f some o f t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , see C o o p e r , op. c i t . on t h e Quebec S h i p L a b o u r e r s ' B e n e f i t S o c i e t y , pp. 337-338.  - 102 68 6 9  K e a l y , op. c i t . ,  70 7 1  Cooper, op. c i t . ,  p . 340. p. 290-91.  <Hamelin e t a l . , R e p e r t o i r e  I b i d . , pp.  109-110.  des G r e v e s , pp.  97-98.  - 103 -  NOTES CHAPTER I I I  "'"Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 2  19 O c t o b e r ,  1893.  Ibid.  3 I be ird .Town. I n t h e e n d t h e c a s t l e was p l a c e d i n t h e Upp 4  Ibid.  5  Ibid.,  6  Ibid.  7  Ibid.  21 O c t o b e r ,  elsewhere  1893.  8 Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 9  23 O c t o b e r ,  1893.  Ibid.  1 0  Ibid.,  31 O c t o b e r ,  1893.  Ibid. 12 Ibid.,  2 November, 1 8 9 3 .  13 Montreal Star, 2 February,  1883.  14 M o n t r e a l S t a r , S a t u r d a y , 27 J a n u a r y , 1883 - J o l y , who h e a d e d 1894 Quebec C a r n i v a l , was q u o t e d a s b e i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e " d i f f i c u l t y o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g c i v i c i n Quebec a s compared t o M o n t r e a l " . 15 — »» ^ C h a r l e s B a i l l a r g e , " L ' I n g e n i e u r de l a C i t e a u C o n s e i l de V i l l e " , memo 5753 Quebec, I e r f e v r i e r 1 8 8 3 A r c h i v e s de l a V i l l e de Q u e b e c , H 6 t e l - d e - V i l l e . The o n l y  - 104 p a r t o f h i s a d v i c e i g n o r e d was t h a t he was n o t p l a c e d i n o v e r a l l charge. He was j u s t a member o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n committee. 16  Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 3 November, 1 8 9 3 . 17 See T a b l e I - QAAA.and T a b l e 2, S t . Roch/ A.A.  Appendix  18 See T a b l e -III-  Carnival  Committees.  19 G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f Ye Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 4 . H i s p a p e r s i n t h e Quebec A r c h i v e s c o n t a i n l e t t e r s f r o m V a n H o m e a n d one f r o m V a n H o m e ' s widow. T h e r e a r e a l s o a c c o u n t s i n h i s d i a r y a b o u t d i n n e r s i n t o w n w i t h t h e L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , whose members w e r e b o t h F r e n c h a n d E n g l i s h . 20 Fairchild,  op. c i t . p. 13.  21 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 29 J a n u a r y , 1 8 8 3 . 22 Ibid.,  6 J a n u a r y , 1 8 8 3 , p . 1.  23 I b i d . , 19 J a n u a r y , 1 8 8 3 , c o n t a i n i n g a l e t t e r f r o m the p r i v a t e secretary of the United States President d e c l i n i n g , and M o n t r e a l S t a r , 8 J a n u a r y , 1 8 8 4 . 24 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 77-78. F a i r c h i l d o f t e n p o i n t e d o u t how i m p r e s s e d " h i g h s o c i e t y m a t r o n s f r o m C h i c a g o " and o t h e r s w e r e w i t h Quebec a n d t h e c a r n i v a l . 25 Fairchild,  o p . c i t . , p . 14.  ^ I b i d . , p . 12 . 27 Ibid., C a r n i v a l Fund.  p p . 135-40 - f o r a l i s t  oo  L ' E v e n e m e n t , 24 J a n v i e r , 1 8 9 4 . 2 9  see  Table I I I .  of subscribers t othe  - 105 30  Alan M e t c a l f e , "The E v o l u t i o n of Organized P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n i n Montreal, 1840-1895", i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y , XI/21 (May 1978) p. 149, and see a l s o Peter B a i l e y ' s L e i s u r e and C l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n England, London 1978, pp: 124-146 " R a t i o n a l R e c r e a t i o n and the New A t h l e t i c i s m " . 31 The Montreal D a i l y S t a r , L i t e r a r y Supplement to the C a r n i v a l Number of 1885, p. 1, " O r i g i n of the Carnival".-• " I t was at the annual banquet of the Montreal Snowshoe Club on Thursday, February 9, 1882 t h a t Mr. R.D. McGibbon suggested the p r o p r i e t y of h o l d i n g a C a r n i v a l of Winter Sports i n Montreal every year, w i t h the o b j e c t of showing our neighbours to the South the g l o r i e s of our Canadian Winter. The p r o p o s i t i o n was h a i l e d w i t h enthusiasm by the snowshoers, and j o y f u l l y echoed and reechoed by the tobogganers, the s k a t e r s , the c u r l e r s , and the p r e s s . " 32 See  above Chapter  2.  33 I n d i c a t e u r , p. 78 f o r Chambre de Commerce, and S.P.C.A. p. 97jsee Table 5, Appendix. 34  Peter B a i l e y . London, 1978, p. 77. 35 36  L e i s u r e and  C l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n England,  -«  L'Evenement, 30 J a n v i e r ,  1894.  L'Evenement, 29 J a n v i e r ,  1894.  37 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 115-116. Quoting J . Ralph of the New York Sun. Lady Aberdeen, who d i s p l a y e d a c e r t a i n s e n s i t i v i t y to these t h i n g s , observed t h a t the hotels c h i e f f u n c t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n was t o the American t o u r i s t trade "which i s wise c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t i t i s the American p u b l i c whom i t i s intended to c a t c h so as to make t h i s e n t e r p r i s e a success." D i a r y , pp. 63-64. 38  Lady Aberdeen,  Diary,  p.  64.  39 J y  lbid.  40  — L'Evenement, 2 f e v r i e r , 1894. Even before the b a l l L'Evenement observed the d e l i b e r a t e l y e x c l u s i v e nature of the p r i c e of admission which was "tellement eleve' qu'un p e t i t nombre seulement pourront y a s s i s t e r . " L'Evenement, 2 9 J a n v i e r , 1894.  - 106 -  Ibid. 42 ,,, Ibid. T  43 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 55-60. 44  I b i d . , p. 56 a n d L ' E v e n e m e n t ,  29 J a n v i e r ,  1894.  45 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp.  71-72.  46 Quebec,  Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , C a r n i v a l S p e c i a l Number 1894, 1894. 47  One t h i n k s o f C a r r e l , F a i r c h i l d , G e o r g e G a l e and a h o s t o f o t h e r p o p u l a r i z e r s who made t h e c i t y known t o an English-speaking audience. 48 M o n t r e a l W i t n e s s , C a r n i v a l Number, 1 8 8 5 , p . 2, "Our I c e C a s t l e s P a s t a n d P r e s e n t " , a n d I b i d . , C a r n i v a l Number o f 1887. 49 M a r c L a f r a n c e , "Le P r o j e c t D u f f e r i n : L a C o n s e r v a t i o n d'un monument h i s t o r i q u e a Quebec a u X I X e s i e c l e " i n Le P a r e de l ' A r t i l l e r i e e t l e s F o r t i f i c a t i o n s de Quebec (Ottawa 1977) P a r e s C a n a d a , p p . 8 0 - 8 1 . I t was o n l y t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s i n a b i l i t y t o come up w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y $100,000 t h a t p r e v e n t e d t h e p l a n from b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t . ^ M o n t r e a l Star, 5 February,  1884.  51 T e l e g r a p h , 3 F e b r u a r y , 1894 and a l s o L ' E v e n e m e n t , 5 f e v r i e r , 1894, w h i c h c a l c u l a t e d t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s t o be o n l y t e n t i m e s t h e o r i g i n a l i n v e s t m e n t o f $10,000. 52 ^ L ' E v e n e m e n t , 5 f e v r i e r , 1894. 53 I b i d . , s e e - a l s o Lord Aberdeen's telegram t o J o l y a f t e r t h e c a r n i v a l : "When I h a v e t h e h o n o r o f s u b m i t t i n g t o t h e Queen some a c c o u n t o f t h e s u c c e s s a n d e c l a t w h i c h h a v e d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i s , t h e f i r s t c a r n i v a l i n Quebec, I d o u b t n o t t h a t Her M a j e s t y w i l l be g r a c i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d a n d g r a t i f i e d by t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e , a l l t h e more b e c a u s e t h e s u c c e s s h a s b e e n s o l a r g e l y due t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f Her M a j e s t y ' s F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s u b j e c t s , whose l o y a l t y i s u n d o u b t e d l y a s o u r c e o f p r i d e a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n t o Her M a j e s t y , a s i t a s s u r e d l y i s a l s o  - 107 t o t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e as a whole." 8, 1 8 9 4 .  Montreal Star,  February  ^ L'Eve'nement, 5 f e v r i e r , 1 8 9 4 . 4  T e l e g r a p h , F e b r u a r y 4, 1 8 9 6 . E i g h t y t o one h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d p e o p l e were e s t i m a t e d t o have w i t n e s s e d t h e a t t a c k on t h e i c e p a l a c e t h a t y e a r . 5 6  Ibid. Ibid.  58 From a c o p y o f an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t b y J . T . Coulombe (1927) p . 6, i n t h e Quebec M u n i c i p a l A r c h i v e s / A r c h i v e s de l a V i l l e de Quebec a t t h e C i t y H a l l . The d e p a r t m e n t where t h e a c c o u n t o r i g i n a t e d was n o t i n d i c a t e d . 59 T e l e g r a p h , F e b r u a r y 4, 1 8 9 6 . 6  o  i  M o n t r e a l S t a r , 13 F e b r u a r y 1 8 8 9 , "The Young Men o f  Montreal". 61 See V a n c o u v e r S u n , 8 F e b r u a r y , 1982 p . B6. "Drunken r e v e l l e r s ' stunts turn c a r n i v a l into circus''/for a recent e x a m p l e o f a C a n a d i a n P r e s s s t o r y c a l l i n g t h e c a r n i v a l an "annual c e l e b r a t i o n o f i c e and a l c o h o l " , - o r I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 10, 1 9 8 2 , " C a r n i v a l ' s w i c k e d b r e w warms r e v e l l e r s " , p . A 1 6 . Quebec C i t y ' s i s n o t t h e o n l y c a r n i v a l t o s u f f e r u n f a v o u r a b l e c o v e r a g e , h o w e v e r . T h e r e have b e e n d e a t h s i n New O r l e a n s ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , 4 M a r c h , 1981-, " M a r d i g r a s d e a t h s s p u r s a f e t y c h a r g e s " , p. A9) a n d R i o ( V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 2 4 , 1982, p. B 3 , " R e v e l l e r s whoop i t u p " ) , a n d some f o r m s o f extreme b e h a v i o u r l i k e p u b l i c n u d i t y and s t r e e t c r i m e , ( V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , 22 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 8 2 , " T o p l e s s r e v e l l e r s shock R i o " ) .  - 108 -  NOTES CHAPTER  B a i l e y , op. c i t . ,  IV  p . 64.  M a s i c o t t e , op. c i t . ,  p . 93.  -  10 9 -  BIBLIOGRAPHY I.  Primary  Sources  A.  Non-newspaper  sources  A b e r d e e n , C o u n t e s s o f . J o h n T. S a y w e l l , e d . The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f Lady A b e r d e e n 1893-1898, T o r o n t o , The C h a m p l a i n S o c i e t y , 1960. 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Canada I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e R e l a t i o n s o f L a b o u r and C a p i t a l 1889 ( a b r i d g e d ) T o r o n t o 1973, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press. Larocque, P a u l . "La C o n d i t i o n s o c i o - e ' c o n o m i q u e d e s t r a v a i l l e u r s de l a v i l l e de Quebec ( 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 4 ) " u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , 1970. L e v i t t , Joseph. H e n r i B o u r a s s a and t h e G o l d e n C a l f ; S o c i a l P r o g r a m o f t h e N a t i o n a l i s t s o f Quebec 1 9 1 4 ) , O t t a w a 1972.  The (1900-  L i n t e a u , P a u l - A n d r e , Rene D u r o c h e r , J e a n - C l a u d e R o b e r t . Hist o i r e du Q u e b e c c o n t e m p o r a i n , de l a C o n f e d e r a t i o n a l a c r i s e ( 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 2 9 ) , M o n t r e a l 1979, Bor§al E x p r e s s .  - 115  -  M a c C a n n e l l , Dean. 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P o r t r a i t of a Period: A C o l l e c t i o n o f Notman P h o t o g r a p h s 1 8 5 1 - 1 9 1 5 , M o n t r e a l 1967, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s .  Gennep, A r n o l d . M a n u e l de f o l k l o r e f r a n c a i s c o n t e m p o r a i n : l e s ceremonies p e r i o d i q u e s , c y c l i q u e s et s a i s o n n i g r e s , Tome 1:3, P a r i s 1947, P i c a r d .  Young, P e r r y . The M y s t i c k Crewe, C h r o n i c l e s o f Comus H i s K i n , New O r l e a n s 1931, C a r n i v a l P r e s s .  and  - 116 -  APPENDIX OF PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, AND, TABLES.-  - 117 -  1.  C o l l a g e , t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894  A c o l l a g e o f v a r i o u s n o s t a l g i c and c o n t e m p o r a r y v i e w s of the c i t y  f o r t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894 by L i v e r n o i s .  Note t h e f l a g s on t h e a r c h w a y s , t h e " l i v i n g the  a r c h " on  l o w e r r i g h t , t h e i c e p a l a c e , and t h e s t a t u e o f  F r o n t e n a c a t o p t h e i c e cone i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e picture.  J u s t under t h e i c i c l e s  o f t h e eaves t o t h e  r i g h t o f t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e C h a t e a u F r o n t e n a c above the  i c e cone i s t h e  Chien d'or  immortalized  n o v e l w r i t t e n i n t h e p e r i o d , a b o u t New F r a n c e .  -c....  in a At the  top of the c o l l a g e , the Quebec-Levis f e r r y crosses the icy  river.  • P h o t o g r a p h b y .Charles.. Livernois, courtesy of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s . o f Canada. PA - 28844  - 119 -  2.  I c e S t a t u e s , t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894  Jobin's  l a r g e i c e s t a t u e s o f C h a m p l a i n , L a v a l and  Breboeuf, w i t h t h e S e m i n a r y a n d t h e t o w e r o f t h e Basilica  i n the background.  Photograph.by Charles Livernois, courtesy of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. PA - 24069  - 121  3. The city  -  I c e P a l a c e , t h e Quebec W i n t e r  C a r n i v a l of  1894  i c e p a l a c e , on t h e E s p l a n a d e w i t h t h e r o o f s o f i n the background.  p i c t u r e as  " c . 1896"  P u b l i c Archives dates  but the s t r u c t u r e  resemblance to the palace Note the F r e n c h ,  The  a t t h e 1894  B r i t i s h And  T o w e r s a s w e l l as t h e Red  the  bears  a  closer  celebrations.  A m e r i c a n f l a g s on  the  the  Ensign.  P h o t o g r a p h by C h a r l e s L i v e r n o i s , courtesy of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. PA - 23630  - 123 -  4.  A r c h w a y a t t h e Quebec W i n t e r  C a r n i v a l o f 1896  The e l a b o r a t e a r c h w a y a t t h e c o r n e r o f Crown a n d S t . J o s e p h S t r e e t s i n S t . Roch.  The s p i r e o f t h e p a r i s h  church  o f S t . Roch a p p e a r s j u s t t o t h e l e f t o f t h e  tower.  T h i s s t r u c t u r e was more e l a b o r a t e t h a n t h e  a r c h w a y s f o r t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894.  Plans i n the  M u n i c i p a l a r c h i v e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d the c i t y engineer,  Charles  Baillairge.  P h o t o g r a p h by C h a r l e s Livernois, courtesy of the P u b l i c Archives of Canada. PA - 23636  by  -  5.  Ice P a l a c e ,  The  i c e palace  1889.  all  the Montreal  the  interior ing  i t was  carnival  the  largest  palaces, of  procession  "surrender"  1889  Winter C a r n i v a l of  most e l a b o r a t e  was  constructed  p i c t u r e of  St.  the  fireworks  of  of  Lawrence  i t s dramatic  gives a small idea of  and  d u r i n g the  and  i c e from the  This night-time illumination  and  appearance, even w i t h o u t  torchlit  Winter C a r n i v a l of  much o f D o m i n i o n S q u a r e i n downtown  thousands of b l o c k s River.  -  of the Montreal  Covering  Montreal,  125  its strik-  presence of  the  t h a t accompanied i t s  carnival celebrations.  P h o t o g r a p h by C h a r l e s L i v e r n o i s , courtesy of the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada. C - 70917  - Cliffs City Boundary Ward Boundaries Parade Route Legislature Ice Palace Citadel Chateau Frontenac  St. Lawrence River  QUEBEC, CITY  1894  - 128 Table 1 The Quebec A m a t e u r A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n  Name-of Member  Occupation  Honorary P r e s i d e n t : Ho. H.G. J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e F o r m e r P r e m i e r Honorary V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s The M a y o r o f Quebec  '""'Carnival Committee  E x e c u t i v e Comm. Carnival President  Lawyer Railway  Comm.  Hon. T.C. C a s g r a i n  L a w y e r , Quebec Attorney General  Richard  Subscription Wholesale Grocer Chamber o f Commerce F i n a n c e Comm.  Turner  J o h n T. R o s s President: W a l t e r J . Ray F i r s t Vice President: Arthur Picard  Wholesale  Grocer  Lumber Company Manager P l u m b i n g Company Partner  Finance  Comm.  Secretary: E r i c Dorion  Government C l e r k  E x e c u t i v e Comm. Subscription  Treasurer: H.A. T o f i e l d  Bank C l e r k  R.J.  Investor  Second V i c e - P r e s i d e n t : H.B. S c o t t  Davidson  W.A.C.  Baldwin  Snowshoe Comm.  C o m m i s s i o n M e r c h a n t Snowshoe Comm. S l i d i n g and Tobogganning  W. P r i c e  Family t i e s with Lumber M e r c h a n t  C a p t . C . J . Dunn  Clerk, SecretaryTreasurer of Quebec G a r r i s o n Club.  Hockey,  Skating  - 129 Table 1 Continued...  Name o f Member F.S. S t o c k i n g  A.  Occupation  C a r n i v a l Committee  Family t i e s to S l i d i n g and R.M. S t o c k i n g , Tobogganning U.S. V i c e C o n s u l , and G e n e r a l T i c k e t Agent  Turner  F. M c K n a u g h t o n James P i d d i n g t o n  S l i d i n g and Tobogganning Accountant  C o m p i l e d f r o m t h e I n d i c a t e u r de Q u e b e c e t L e v i s f o r 1 8 9 3 - 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 3 , Demers, a n d f r o m G.M. F a i r c h i l d , A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f y e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 4 , The Telegraph.  - 130 Table 2 L ' A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de S t . — R o c h - d e - Q u e b e c , o c c u p a t i o n s o f members, m e m b e r s h i p on c a r n i v a l c o m m i t t e e s  President: J.B. L a l i b e r t e Committee  - F u r r i e r , E x e c u t i v e Committee, R a i l w a y  Vice-President: G. R o c h e t t e -, ..Tandenu-Drive^Committee Secretary: J.E. B o i l y  -  B o w l i n g andRackets. Committee  Treasurer: • • i - - .—' . • N. L a v o i e - M a n a g e r , Banque du P e u p l e ( S t . - R o c h ) , S u b s c r i p t i o n C o m m i t t e e , Snowshoe C o m m i t t e e J. Gauthier -  -  Subscription  Committee  E.T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r a n d Lumber D e a l e r ; F a c t o r y C o r n e r S t . - R o c h and Queen S t r e e t s ; Chamber o f Commerce, Snowshoe Committee C h a r l e s Roy - L e a t h e r M e r c h a n t , B o o t and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , Quebec, Chamber o f Commerce, Snowshoe C o m m i t t e e , S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee J.H. G i g n a c - T i m b e r M e r c h a n t and S a w m i l l Owner, A l d e r m a n f o r S t . R o c h Ward. J.E. M a r t i n e a u - Hardware M e r c h a n t , C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e C a t h o l i c M u t u a l Benevolent A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t . Roch, S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee  Source:  I n d i c a t u e r de Quebec e t L e v i s p o u r Quebec 1 8 9 3 , Demers.  1893-1894, "  - 131 Table 3 Names a n d O c c u p a t i o n s o f the.members o f m a j o r C a r n i v a l C o m m i t t e e s (From G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . , A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f y e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1 8 9 4 , Quebec 1 8 9 4 , The T e l e g r a p h , a n d I n d i c a t e u r de Qu§bec, QuSbec 1 8 9 4 , Demers)  1)  E x e c u t i v e Committee: H.G. J o l y de L o t b i n i e ' r e - a v o c a t , f o r m e r P r e m i e r o f Quebec L.P. P e l l e t i e r - R e g i s t r a r o f Quebec R i c h a r d T u r n e r - o f Whitehead and T u r n e r , W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r s J.U. G r e g o r y - Manager o f G o v e r n m e n t S t e a m e r s ; A g e n t , Department o f Marine J.B. L a l i b e r t e - H a t t e r and F u r M e r c h a n t , P r e s i d e n t A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t i q u e de S t .-Roch J o h n H. H o l t - o f G.R. R e n f r e w a n d Co., H a t t e r s a n d F u r r i e r s , ; " F u r r i e r s t o t h e Queen" J o h n C. More - M a n a g e r , M e r c h a n t s ' Bank o f C a n a d a E r i c D o r i o n - C i v i l S e r v i c e C l e r k , S e c r e t a r y Q.A.A.A. A.E. S w i f t -  2)  P r e s s Committee: Thomas C h a p a i s - Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , P r o p r i e t o r and E d i t o r C o u r i e r du Canada J u l e s P. T a r d i v e l - P r o p r i e t o r and E d i t o r , L a V e r i t e E.D.T. Chambers - E d i t o r , M o r n i n g C h r o n i c l e , C o u n c i l l o r f o r S t . L o u i s Ward T.W.S. Dunn - C o u r t House C l e r k N. L e v a s s e u r - M a j o r , N i n t h B a t a l l i o n C i t y Gas I n s p e c t o r and S e c r e t a r y , Quebec B o a r d o f T r a d e P . C . R o y - d i r e c t e u r , Le M o n i t e u r ( L e v i s )  3)  Finance Committee: R i c h a r d T u r n e r — . o f Whitehead and T u r n e r , W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r s , s e e a l s o E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , a n d Chamber o f Commerce H e r b e r t M. P r i c e - o f H.M. P r i c e a n d Co., Lumber M e r c h a n t s and V i c e P r e s i d e n t , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce B e r n a r d L e o n a r d - A l d e r m a n f o r S t . L o u i s Ward, P a i n t e r , G l a z i e r and W a l l p a p e r I m p o r t e r A. P i c a r d - a number o f A. P i c a r d s i n t h e I n d i c a t e u r W. Shaw - o f t h e C h i n i c H a r d w a r e Co. V i c t o r C h a t e a u v e r t - o f J . Renaud a n d Co., ( C h i n a , G l a s s and E a r t h e n w a r e ) , MPP f o r Q u e b e c . C e n t r e , P r e s i d e n t Quebec Chamber o f Commerce  - 132 -  Table  3  Continued  4)  Snowshoe C o m m i t t e e : C a p t a i n G e o r g e Van F e l s e n - C l e r k R.J. Davidson W. B a l d w i n - C o m m i s s i o n M e r c h a n t M a r t i n F o l e y J r . - M e r c h a n t T a i l o r and A l d e r m a n f o r S t . P i e r r e Ward J. O'Neill O c t a v e L a n g l o i s - M a n a g e r , M i l l i n e r y I m p o r t s Company J. Lortie - ' E. T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r a n d Lumber D e a l e r , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce N. L a v o i e - M a n a g e r , Banque du P e u p l e ( S t .-Roch) and T r e a s u r e r A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t h q u e de S t . R o c h de Quebec C h a r l e s Roy - L e a t h e r M e r c h a n t , B o o t and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce  5)  C o n s t r u c t i o n Committee: F. X. B e r l i n g u e t - " A r b i t r e O f f i c i e l " , A r c h i t e c t H. S t a v e l y - A r c h i t e c t J.F. Peachey - A r c h i t e c t G. E. Tanguay - A r c h i t e c t , D r a u g h t s m a n , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce J.M. L e m o i n e - I n s p e c t o r o f I n l a n d Revenue J . G a u t h i e r - o f J . and 0. G a u t h i e r , P a i n t e r s , D e c o r a t o r s , Glaziers E. J a c o t - Watchmaker a n d J e w e l l e r E.F. T a c h e - D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r o f Crown L a n d s J . H . G i g n a c - o f 0. G i g n a c e t F i l s , T i m b e r M e r c h a n t s and S a w m i l l Owners, C o u n c i l l o r f o r S t . R o c h WardL.A. B e l a n g e r Thomas Raymond - A r c h i t e c t C. B a i l l a i r g e - C i t y E n g i n e e r  6)  Railway R.R.  Committee: D o b e l l - o f D o b e l l , B e c k e t t and Co., Lumber M e r c h a n t s , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce Hon. P. G a r n e a u - W h o l e s a l e D r y g o o d s I m p o r t e r s Hon. T.C. C a s g r a i n - L a w y e r , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, P r o f e s s o r , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Q.A.A.A. J.B. L a l i b e r t e - F u r r i e r , E x e c u t i v e Committee o f C a r n i v a l P r e s i d e n t , A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t i q u e de S t . - R o c h - d e Quebec C. D u q u e t -  - 133 -  A d v e r t i s i n g Committee: F r a n k Carrel,'. - E d i t o r , P r i n t e r , P r o p r i e t o r Quebec D a i l y _„'.' _ Telegraph G e o r g e Duncan - CPR P a s s e n g e r and F r e i g h t A g e n t , Quebec City R.M. S t o c k i n g - G e n e r a l T i c k e t A g e n t f o r t h e R a i l r o a d and S t e a m s h i p L i n e s , U.S. V i c e - C o n s u l . James G. S c o t t - S e c r e t a r y and Manager o f t h e Quebec and L a k e S t . J o h n R a i l w a y ; G e n e r a l Manager and S e c r e t a r y , Great Northern Railway H. D u n n i n g - M a n a g e r , C h a t e a u F r o n t e n a c H o t e l J.U. G r e g o r y - Manager o f Government S t e a m e r s and A g e n t f o r t h e Department o f M a r i n e (see E x e c u t i v e Committee) E r i c D o r i o n - see E x e c u t i v e Committee) L.Z. J o n c a s - M.P. G a s p e , d i r e c t e u r , L'Evenement J. Spanjaadt -  - 134  -  Table  4  The Quebec Chamber o f Commerce 1 8 9 3 - 1 8 9 4 , and c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h Quebec C a r n i v a l C o m m i t t e e s V.  C h a * t e a u v e r t , P r e s i d e n t - MPP Quebec C e n t r e , o f J . B . Renaud and Company ( C h i n a , G l a s s and E a r t h e n w a r e ) C a r n i v a l F i n a n c e and S u b s c r i p t i o n C o m m i t t e e s H.M. P r i c e - F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t - Lumber M e r c h a n t , F i n a n c e Committee E.B. G a r n e a u - S e c o n d V i c e P r e s i d e n t - W h o l e s a l e D r y g o o d s I m p o r t e r S.S. B e n n e t - o f B e n n e t and Co., C o m m i s s i o n C o a l M e r c h a n t s Thomas B r o d i e - o f W. and R. B r o d i e , F l o u r , G r a i n and P r o v i s i o n Merchants R. T u r n e r - W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r and G e n e r a l M e r c h a n t , F i n a n c e C o m m i t t e e and Member QAAA R.R. D o b e l l - o f D o b e l l , B e c k e t t and Co., Lumber M e r c h a n t s , H a r b o u r Commission, R a i l w a y Committee C h a r l e s E. Roy - L e a t h e r M e r c h a n t , B o o t and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , S u b s c r i p t i o n C o m m i t t e e , B o w l i n g and R a c k e t t s C o m m i t t e e , and A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de S t . - R o c h E.T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r and Lumber D e a l e r , Snowshoe C o m m i t t e e , B o w l i n g and R a c k e t s C o m m i t t e e , L o d g i n g C o m m i t t e e , and A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de S t . - R o c h Geo. T a n g u a y - G e n e r a l P r o v i s i o n M e r c h a n t , S u b s c r i p t i o n C o m m i t t e e T h e e . B e l a n d - D r y Goods M e r c h a n t Wm. Rae - o f A l l a n , Rae and Co., A g e n t s and Owners o f t h e A l l a n L i n e o f S t e a m s h i p s , Quebec H a r b o u r C o m m i s s i o n A. L e t e l l i e r - W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r C A . L a n g l o i s - W h o l e s a l e Grocer:, G e n e r a l M e r c h a n t N.F. G a r n e a u - M i l l i n e r S. P e t e r s - Saw M i l l Owner N. L e v a s s e u r - S e c r e t a r y T o t a l - 16 members, p l u s s e c r e t a r y 4 Occupations of French speakers: 1 1 2 Total: Occupations  of English  speakers:  Total:  r e t a i l merchants l e a t h e r merchant, manufacturer general provisioner wholesale grocers  8  3 1 1 1 1 1  lumber merchants lumber manufacturer c o a l merchant provisioner wholesale grocer steamship agent  8  S o u r c e : I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e v i s p o u r 1 8 9 3 - 9 4 , Q u e b e c 1893, Demers, and C M . F a i r c h i l d J r . , A S h o r t A c c o u n t o f ye Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l H o l d e n i n 1893, Quebec 1893, The T e l e g r a p h .  - 135 Table 5 The Quebec B u s i n e s s Community, 1894 E t h n i c B r e a k d o w n o f M a j o r I n d u s t r i e s i n Quebec C i t y i n 1894 A c c o r d i n g t o Company Name. ( S o u r c e : I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e V i s p o u r 1893-94, Quebec 1893 Demers)  Kind of Business  Total  '•. F r e n c h . E n g l i s h  B o o t a n d Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r s  18  12  B u i l d e r s and C o n t r a c t o r s  13  8  Leather Merchants  11)over-  9  Tanners and C u r r i e r s  12J  x a p  5  Unknown .  5  1 -  2  -  12  Lumber, T i m b e r M e r c h a n t s and  Brokers  33  11  22  -  3  1  2  -  10  6  8  5  3  3  2  53  38  15  124  91  33  61  52  9  Paper Manufacturers Printers Saw M i l l  .  1  Owners  6  Ship B u i l d e r s (all i n Levis) P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons Avocats  ( c a l l e d 1835-1893)  Notaires  (1838-1892)  1  -  

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