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The Quebec Winter Carnival of 1894 : the transformation of the city and the festival in the nineteenth… Abbott, Frank Albert 1982

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THE QUEBEC WINTER CARNIVAL OF 1894: THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE .CITY AND THE FESTIVAL IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY by FRANK ALBERT ABBOTT B.A., S a i n t Mary's U n i v e r s i t y , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n HISTORY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1982 © Frank A l b e r t A b b o t t , 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f History  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 " D a t e August 30, 1982 - i i -ABSTRACT The ambiguous nature and the importance of ancient t r a d i t i o n s adapting to modernization are very evident i n the celebration of the winter carnivals held i n Montreal between 1883 and 1889 and e s p e c i a l l y i n Quebec City i n 1894. In looking at the motovations of t h e i r organizers, i t i s possible to see a primarily economic goal: the a t t r a c t i o n of large numbers of American t o u r i s t s to help the l o c a l economy in the slow winter season by o f f e r i n g to them " c u l t u r a l " spectacles of French and English Canada. According to the newspapers of the period, these new carnivals had no connec-t i o n at a l l with the older c y c l i c a l and r e l i g i o u s celebration of Carnival-Lent-Easter which were well-known and celebrated with enthusiasm i n New France from the seventeenth century onwards. In f a c t the opposite was true. These events were seen as occasions for the amateur a t h l e t i c clubs of the French and e s p e c i a l l y the English-speaking middle class of Quebec to put on spectacles of t h e i r winter sports l i k e c u r l i n g , snowshoeing and hockey. Along with t h i s went the expectation of decorous behaviour within the l i m i t s of V i c t o r i a n morality and an end to the t r a d i t i o n a l public drunkenness and boisterous behaviour t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with such occasions. - i i i -The centrepiece of t h i s event was the evening torch-l i g h t parade i n and around the large ice palace, a t r a d i t i o n which the English speaking organizers of the f i v e Montreal carnivals of the 1880's had borrowed from winter f e s t i v a l s of the Imperial Russian court. Paradoxically, t h i s has survived to become one of most famous symbols of the present Carnaval  de Quebec. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of middle class French Canadians and even the t a c i t support of the Catholic Church, one of the most persistent foes of the older c a r n i v a l celebrations, both contributed immeasurably to the success of the new f e s t i v a l . i This can be explained by three related phenomena: 1) A change i n s o c i a l mores i n general between the beginning and the end of the nineteenth century gave the Church a large voice over the l i v e s of French Canadians. 2) A greater process of regulation of the society, and e s p e c i a l l y the c i t y , was r e f l e c t e d i n and even responsible for the disappearance of several old community f e s t i v a l s of the past l i k e the c a r n i v a l . It i s not yet possible to say conclusively whether the authorities suppressed these old f e s t i v a l s or whether the public simply abandoned them, though i t appears to be a combination of both. 3) The economic transformation of the c i t y of Quebec from a commercial centre to an i n d u s t r i a l c i t y , with the consequent s o c i a l changes. - i v -Thus the study of the c a r n i v a l raises c u l t u r a l and a s o c i a l questions. By studying the history of the changes i n the observance of the c a r n i v a l and i n who observed i t s c e l e -bration, i t i s possible to understand a l i t t l e more about the mentality of the urban population of the time and to begin to understand t h e i r responses to the other changes taking place in the society around them. - v -SOMMAIRE La nature ambigue et 1 1 importance du processus d'adaptation des anciennes t r a d i t i o n s devant l a modernisation sont bien eVidentes dans les "carnavals d'hiver" tenus a Montreal entre 1883 et 1889 et surtout a Quebec en 1894. En etudiant les motivations des organisateurs, i l est possible de v o i r le but q u ' i l s v i s a i e n t : s o i t d ' a t t i r e r beaucoup de touristes americains, d'aider a l'economie locale durant l a saison hivernale en leur offrant des spectacles 'culturels' du Canada anglais et du Canada francais. Au dire des journaux de l'epoque, ce carnaval n'avait r i e n a v o i r avec l'ancien cycle de "Carnaval-Care^me-Ptiques " bien connu et tres c<§lebre dans l a Nouvelie-France depuis le 17e s i e c l e . Au contraire, les "sporting clubs" de l a classe moyenne francophone et surtout anglophone de Quebec voyaient dans cette celebration 1'occasion de f a i r e des spectacles de leurs sports d'hiver comme l a raquette, le c u r l i n g , le hockey. A i n s i pouvait-on s'amuser dans les limites de l a moralite victorienne: e'en e t a i t f i n i de l ' i v r e s s e publique et de l a conduite tumultueuse t r a d i t i o n e l l e . Le chef d'oeuvre de cet evenement e t a i t le d e f i l e nocturne autour du grand p a l a i s de glace, une t r a d i t i o n empruntge § l a Russie par les anglophones de Montreal pour leurs carnavals des annees 1880. Paradoxalement, i l est devenu - v i -l'un des symboles l e s p l u s connu de l ' a c t u e l Carnaval de Quebec. La p a r t i c i p a t i o n des C a n a d i e n s - f r a n c a i s de l a c l a s s e moyenne, e t me~me l ' a p p u i r e s e r v e de l ' E g l i s e C a t h o l i q u e , l'un des ennemis de l ' a n c i e n c a r n a v a l , c o n t r i b u a i e n t beaucoup au succSs de c e t t e n o u v e l l e fete. C e l a s'explique par t r o i s phenomenes: 1) Un changement dans l e s moeurs s o c i a l e s en generale e n t r e l e debut e t l a f i n du XIXe s i e c l e donnait a l ' E g l i s e une i n f l u e n c e r e s t r i c t i v e sur l a v i e des C a n a d i e n s - f r a n c a i s . 2) Une p l u s grande re g l e m e n t a t i o n de l a s o c i e t e e n t i e r e q u i se r e f l e t a i t dans l a d i s p a r i t i o n de quelques fe"tes p o p u l a i r e s du passe comme l e c a r n a v a l . I I n'est pas d€ja p o s s i b l e de d i r e s i l e s a u t o r i t e s supprimaient „: ces fe~tes ou s i l e p u b l i c l e s abandonnait. 3) La t r a n s f o r m a t i o n economique de l a v i l l e . A i n s i l e s q u e s t i o n s q u i se posent sont d'ordre c u l t u r e l l e s e t s o c i a l e s . E t u d i e r l ' h i s t o i r e des changements dans l e c a r n a v a l c ' e s t e t u d i e r un peu l a m e h t a l i t e de l a p o p u l a t i o n urbaine de 1"epoque e t comprendre l e u r s reponses aux a u t r e s grands changements dans l e u r s o c i e t e . - v i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. . . . . . . i i SOMMAIRE . . . ' . . . . v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . x CHAPTER I NOTHING "INCONSISTENT WITH DUTY AND SELF-RESPECT" . . . . . 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . 1 I I . M a r k e t i n g t h e P a s t . . . . 7 I I I . C i v i l i z i n g t h e C a r n i v a l . . . 13 CHAPTER I I THE CARNIVAL CITY AND THE REAL CITY. . 27 I . B e h i n d the C a r n i v a l Veneer . . 2 7 I I . The Economic T r a n s i t i o n . . . 4 3 CHAPTER I I I THE CARNIVAL OF 1894 . . . . 56 I . "The A n c i e n t C a p i t a l Under a New A s p e c t . . . . . 5 6 I I . O r g a n i z i n g the C a r n i v a l . . . 61 I I I . The Event . . . . . . 70 IV. The A f t e r m a t h . . . . . 80 CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION . . . . . . 8 5 NOTES - CHAPTER I ..: . . . . . . . 8 8 NOTES - CHAPTER I I . . . . . . . . 9 6 NOTES - CHAPTER I I I . . . . . . . 1 0 3 NOTES - CHAPTER IV . . . . . . . 1 0 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 APPENDIX OF PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS AND TABLES . . . 116 - v i i i -LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS Page 1. C o l l a g e , t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894 . . . 1 1 7 2. I c e S t a t u e s , t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894 . . 3. I c e P a l a c e , t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1894 . 4. Archway a t t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1896 . ^-2^ 5. I c e P a l a c e , the M o n t r e a l W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1889. LIST OF MAPS Quebec C i t y 1894 . . . . . . . 127 - i x -LIST OF TABLES Ta b l e Page 1 The Quebec Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . . 128 2 L ' A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de S t . Roch de Quebec, o c c u p a t i o n s o f members, membership on c a r n i v a l committees . . . . . 130„ 3 Names and o c c u p a t i o n s o f the members of major c a r n i v a l committees . . . . 131 The Quebec Chamber o f Commerce 1893-1894 and c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h Quebec C a r n i v a l Committees . . . . . 134 The Quebec B u s i n e s s Community, 1894 . . 135 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A number o f pe o p l e were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making t h i s work p o s s i b l e . W i t h o u t P r o f e s s o r P e t e r Moogk's v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and d i r e c t i o n a t c r i t i c a l t i m e s , t h e work would n ot have p r o g r e s s e d as i t d i d . A h e a r t f e l t a p p r e c i a t i o n must a l s o be extended t o the I n t e r l i b r a r y Loans department o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r a l l t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . The s t a f f o f t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e de l'Assemblee N a t i o n a l du Quebec was generous on a number o f o c c a s i o n s w i t h t h e i r t ime and c o - o p e r a t i o n . Thanks must a l s o go t o P r o f e s s o r M i c h a e l I g n a t i e f f f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e t h e s i s i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and t o Claude Gagnon f o r h i s h e l p on an e a r l i e r d r a f t w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d t o the 1981 me e t i n g o f t h e Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n H a l i f a x . The management o f "Le Cous Cous" have been v e r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e demands t h i s has made on-my w o r k i n g t i m e . F i n a l l y , w i t h o u t t h e c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t and encourage-ment o f R i c h a r d D e n n i s , and h i s sound judgment, t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d n o t have been w r i t t e n a t a l l . - x i -T h i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o My Mother and F a t h e r - 1 -CHAPTER I NOTHING "INCONSISTENT WITH DUTY AND SELF-RESPECT" I. Introduction On the night of February 2, 1894, twenty-five hundred torch-bearing snowshoers and militiamen wearing "tuques", blanket coats and the ceinture flechee of old Quebec, p a r t i c i -pated i n one of the grandest spectacles seen in Quebec Ci t y . The occasion was the storming of the ice palace at the Quebec Winter Carnival which had begun at the beginning of that week and which was to l a s t a few days longer. The night's show was d e f i n i t e l y considered to have been the high point of the celebration. From a balcony of the neighbouring Quebec Le g i s l a t i v e Assembly building, Lord Aberdeen, the Governor-General of Canada,and his party watched the t o r c h l i t proces-sion as i t approached the massive walls of the ice palace and observed the ensuing firework display, as each side f i l l e d the a i r with multi-coloured fireworks for three-quarters of an hour. Thousands of spectators were t h r i l l e d by the impressive sight of the attack upon and the c a p i t u l a t i o n of the ice fortress and the l a t e r t o r c h l i g h t procession through the streets of the c i t y . The organizers of the revived celebra-t i o n of the c a r n i v a l i n Quebec City could well congratulate themselves."'' - 2 -The s u c c e s s o f t h i s c a r n i v a l would l e a d to a r e p e a t per formance i n 1896, f o l l o w e d by s m a l l e r a f f a i r s f o r a few y e a r s l o n g e r u n t i l , a f t e r f i f t y y e a r s o f n e g l e c t , t h e r e would be a permanent r e v i v a l o f " l e c a r n a v a l de Quebec" i n i t s p r e s e n t form i n the mid 1950 ' s . In 1894, c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g the w i f e o f the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l L o r d Aberdeen were impressed by the o r d e r o f the v a s t th rongs and the l a c k o f any 2 s e r i o u s t r o u b l e t o mar the f e s t i v i t i e s . Aberdeen h i m s e l f made these o b s e r v a t i o n s i n a speech a t the c l o s e of the c a r n i -v a l when he c o n g r a t u l a t e d the c i t y : I ven tu re to say t h a t among the many c o n s p i -c u o u s l y happy f e a t u r e s of the o c c a s i o n , one o f the most n o t a b l e , one which w i l l be remembered w i t h permanent s a t i s f a c t i o n , i s the admi rab le o r d e r which has been m a i n t a i n e d on the p a r t o f the l a r g e crowds which have been w i t n e s s i n g the s p e c t a c l e o f the week. ' ( C h e e r s ) ' There has been abundant h i l a r i t y and c h e e r f u l n e s s but a g e n e r a l maintenance o f s e l f - c o n t r o l and a p p r o p r i a t e c o n d u c t , and thus Quebec has s e t an example which may w e l l be f o l l o w e d , showing how peop le can be merry and c h e e r f u l w i thou t i n d u l g i n g i n t h a t which would be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h duty and s e l f - r e s p e c t . '.(Renewed C h e e r s ) ' 3 The f a c t t h a t the p r e s s d i d not r e p o r t d i s t u r b a n c e s o r e p i s o d e s o f drunkenness a t a t ime o f year when the Church and S t a t e had t r a d i t i o n a l l y had good r e a s o n t o expect b o t h , i s s t r i k i n g . L o r d Aberdeen may have been e x p r e s s i n g , i m p l i -c i t l y , a V i c t o r i a n i d e a l about p u b l i c l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , but i n Quebec C i t y i n 1894, r e a l i t y and i d e a l seem to have merged. T h i s was a v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f c a r n i v a l than the t r a d i t i o n a l p r e - L e n t e n debauch o f pre -modern E u r o p e , i f f o r no o t h e r r e a s o n than the f a c t t h a t i t en joyed o f f i c i a l a p p r o v a l . G o v e r n -- 3 -merit a p p r o v a l was due i n p a r t t o t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ' s l e a d i n g r o l e i n t h e i m p o r t a n t e v e n t s o f the c a r n i v a l , w i t h the huge s u p p o r t i n g c a s t o f o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s and t o u r i s t s a c t i n g as s p e c t a t o r s . F o r example, h i s a r r i v a l was one o f the major e v e n t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c a r n i v a l . A p a r t from a number o f hockey games, snowshoe c o m p e t i t i o n s and c u r l i n g matches by teams o f w e a l t h y c i t i z e n s , o t h e r c a r n i v a l e v e n t s i n c l u d e d a costume b a l l , t h e Grand B a l l i n honour o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l h e l d i n the P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g and a t t e n d e d by t h e s o c i a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y p r o m i n e n t , and the s t o r m i n g o f t h e i c e p a l a c e . E v ents t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f lower c l a s s p e o p l e were "The A l l e g o r i c a l D r i v e " i n which some of the t r a d e s o f t h e c i t y i n c l u d i n g t h e f i r e m e n , t h e f e r r y men and the d r i v e r s o f t h e o l d c i t y water c a r t s e n t e r e d s y m b o l i c v e h i c l e s , but t h e g e n e r a l tone was upper c l a s s . I c e s c u l p t u r e s o f f i g u r e s from F r e n c h Canadian h i s t o r y , by t h e famous c a r v e r J o b i n which adorned v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the Upper Town, were one o f t h e few e x p l i c i t l y F r e n c h Canadian e l e m e n t s . Many members o f t h e Quebec g a r r i s o n a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s p o r t s e v e n t s , t h e s o c i e t y b a l l s , t h e p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e s and p r o v i d e d much o f t h e music f o r t h e s e a f f a i r s . The o r g a n i z e r s a l s o a d v e r t i s e d t h e c a r n i v a l i n Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as a t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n and so l a r g e numbers o f v i s i t o r s a r r i v e d d a i l y by r a i l t o f i l l t h e h o t e l s , e s p e c i a l l y the newly completed Chateau F r o n t e n a c . ^ - 4 -In 1894, t h i s c a r n i v a l was i m p o r t a n t t o the c i t i z e n s . , o f Quebec C i t y , though a modern r e a d e r might j u s t i f i a b l y q u e s t i o n i t s h i s t o r i c a l i m p o r t a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e n o t h i n g out o f the o r d i n a r y a p p a r e n t l y t o o k p l a c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s a s t u d y o f t h i s a p p a r e n t l y f r i v o l o u s event w i l l r e v e a l a g r e a t number of t h i n g s about t h e Quebec C i t y o f 1894 and w i l l add t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l h i s t o r y . Three b a s i c q u e s t i o n s a r i s e a t once. The f i r s t c o n c e r n s the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s c a r n i v a l t o t h e o l d e r c e l e -b r a t i o n s , o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c i t y , and why t h e o l d e r c a r n i v a l was no l o n g e r b e i n g c e l e b r a t e d i n i t s t r a d i t i o n a l F r e n c h form. The second c o n c e r n s who was i n v o l v e d i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h i s new c a r n i v a l and f o r what purposes the c e l e b r a t i o n was r e v i v e d . I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t o note how t h i s r e f l e c t e d t h e s o c i a l and economic r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c i t y i n the l a s t decade o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c a r n i v a l ' s s e t t i n g i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the c a r n i v a l i t s e l f . I n t h a t s e n s e , the c a r n i v a l becomes a " t e x t " superimposed upon a s o c i a l " c o n t e x t " , a way o f r e a d i n g th e 5 s o c i e t y i t s e l f . By c o n t r a s t , t o the a s s e r t i o n t h a t , f o r example a s t r i k e b r i n g s out most c l e a r l y s o c i a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n a community by e m p h a s i z i n g the c l e a v a g e between d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , t h i s s t u d y ' s approach i s t h a t the c e l e b r a -t i o n Of t h e s t a t u s quo, r e v e a l s how s o c i a l consensus i s g e n e r a t e d , or m a i n t a i n e d and s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s seem t o .„. -5 -d i s a p p e a r . The st u d y o f s t r i k e s i s a r e w a r d i n g way t o observe t h e temporary b r e a k i n g down o f t h i s c onsensus, but a t any g i v e n time t h i s breakdown a f f e c t s o n l y a s m a l l number o f peo p l e and f o r a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . I t i s t h e o t h e r mechanisms i n a community t h a t have a f a r more permanent a f f e c t upon the f o r m i n g and acceptance o f s o c i a l v a l u e s . T h i s l e a d s i n e v i t a b l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f " s o c i a l c o n t r o l " , t h a t i s the c o n t r o l o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f o b j e c t i o n a b l e b e h a v i o u r by t h e more concerned o r a r t i c u l a t e members o f "the r u l i n g c l a s s " . These a t t e m p t s a t s o c i a l c o n t r o l range a l l t h e way from t h e temperance movement t o the s o c i e t y f o r the p r e v e n t i o n o f c r u e l t y t o a n i m a l s . There i s a c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t y i n b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n a s t u d y o f a l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y l i k e t h e c a r n i v a l t h e c o n c e p t s o f work, l e i s u r e and c l a s s . On t h e one hand, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a l l t h r e e appears a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r , i f a t t i m e s a l i t t l e o v e r s i m p l i f i e d ; o r a t l e a s t o v e r s t a t e d : t h a t t h e i d e a s and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f the r u l i n g c l a s s , because o f t h e economic and s o c i a l hegemony o f t h a t c l a s s , become t h e i d e a s and v a l u e s o f a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s i n t h e community, making most p e o p l e p a s s i v e o b s e r v e r s and e n s u r i n g t h e i r adherence t o t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s quo. As a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t , t h i s may o r may not be t r u e , but i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r case o f t h e c a r n i v a l , as i t has been c e l e b r a t e d , the s i t u a t i o n i s more ambiguous. On the one hand, i t can be seen as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l by the r u l i n g c l a s s , a s h o r t p e r i o d when the r u l e s o f t h e community are suspended and when r i t u a l i n v e r s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r r e i n f o r c e s t h e - 6 -7 everyday world. Or, i t can be seen as the temporary l e v e l l e r of c l a s s b a r r i e r s or even an instrument to undermine them. Of course t h a t depends l e s s on the c a r n i v a l than on the community. When a community c e l e b r a t e s c a r n i v a l i t i s i n a very r e a l sense r e a f f i r m i n g i t s v a l u e s . Thus the c e l e b r a t i o n o f a community event, a 'f§te l i k e the c a r n i v a l , i s not a d e l i b e r a t e departure from the d a i l y rhythm of " o r d i n a r y " l i f e . Instead, i t can be seen as r e i n f o r c i n g i t : "un temps f o r t " , a s a v o i r comme un evenement s p e c i a l dont on prend conscience e t par l e q u e l l e s p a r t i c i -- 8 pants se sentent concernes en t a n t que c o l l e c t i v i t e . . . " While a. c u l t u r e might be l a r g e l y composed of the s o - c a l l e d " o r d i n a r y " , even i n d i v i d u a l aspects of l i f e , the temps f o r t s make up the l a r g e r c o l l e c t i v i t y ' s d e f i n i t i o n of i t s e l f , where the c u l t u r e "se manifeste e t se r e c o n n a i t a ses propres yeux" and where each member sees h i m s e l f as p a r t of a coherent 9 whole. The way t h a t the c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l changed i n Quebec, then, would i n d i c a t e some of the changes i n the c u l t u r e as a whole. The o l d e r c a r n i v a l s were based on a coherent r u r a l community, but with the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the n i n e t e e n t h century, a process of c u l t u r a l t r a n s -formation began. The people m i g r a t i n g from the Quebec c o u n t r y s i d e to work i n the f a c t o r i e s of Quebec C i t y and Montreal were l i k e immigrants t o the i n d u s t r i a l work s i t u a t i o n which c o n f r o n t e d them. In Herbert Gutman's words, t h e i r - 7 -response can be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g "shaped by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e i r c u l t u r e o f o r i g i n and the p a r t i c u l a r s o c i e t y i n t o w h i c h t h e y e n t e r ( e d ) " . J u s t as W.I. Thomas, i n a s i m i l a r c o n t e x t , o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n i n Gutman 1s s t u d y was "the d e s t r u c t i o n o f memories" f a c t o r y d i s c i p l i n e can be seen t o have had the same e f f e c t c u l t u r a l l y : t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f o l d customs and t h e i r r e p l a c e -ment w i t h new ones more s u i t e d t o the new e nvironment. T h i s i s t h e w o r k i n g out o f a p r o c e s s , t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and t e n s i o n between p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , 12 a l s o been c a l l e d " m o d e r n i z a t i o n " . Quebec C i t y a t t h e end o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s an e x c e l l e n t p l a c e t o s t u d y t h e w o r k i n g out o f t h i s p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . - I t s c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1894 and 1896 i m i t a t e d and even s u r p a s s e d , i f l o c a l o p i n i o n i s t o be b e l i e v e d , the b r i l l i a n t l y - s u c c e s s f u l r e v i v a l s o f mardi gras c e l e b r a t i o n s i n M o n t r e a l from 1883 t o 1889. At t h e same t i m e , i n p l a c e s such as T r i n i d a d and New O r l e a n s whose c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s s t i l l s u r v i v e , s i m i l a r r e v i v a l s were o c c u r r i n g a f t e r p e r i o d s o f n e g l e c t , w h i l e i n Europe f o l k l o r i s t s were 13 r e c o r d i n g t h e d e c l i n e o f f o l k c u l t u r e . I I . M a r k e t i n g t h e P a s t The p a s s i n g o f some o f t h e o l d ways i n Quebec as w e l l d i d not go u n n o t i c e d o r unlamented o n l y by t h e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e most a f f e c t e d . W h i l e th e o l d c a r n i v a l , i t w i l l be seen, had - 8 -few, i f any, a r t i c u l a t e d e f e n d e r s among the e d u c a t e d , t h e r e were o t h e r a p p e a l i n g customs whose p a s s i n g was r e g r e t t e d , as s e v e r i n g a n e c e s s a r y l i n k w i t h t h e p a s t . The l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r o v i d e d , e s p e c i a l l y i n M o n t r e a l and Quebec C i t y , w h a t might s i m p l y be c a l l e d a r e c e p t i v e " p s y c h o l o g i c a l c l i m a t e " f o r i n t e r e s t i n p a s t customs. I t e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f p a r t l y i n t h e lament f o r t h e l o s s o f t h e "bon v i e u x temps" o f t h e bygone r u r a l community on the p a r t o f urban w r i t e r s : Dans l e bon v i e u x temps, c e t t e fe^te e t a i t / 7 c e l € b r e e dans presque t o u t e s l e s maisons c a n a d i e n n e s . C ' e t a i t un j o u r de grande l i e s s e . Le t r a v a i l e t a i t suspendu e t l e p l a i s i r e t a i t p a r t o u t a l ' o r d r e du j o u r . . . L a s o i r e e e t l a n u i t e n t i e r e e t a i e n t c o n s a c r e e s a l a danse. Tout l e monde s a u t a i t , l e s v i e u x comme l e s : j e u n e s , au son du v i o l o n e t de l a c l a r i n e t t e . . . Au d i r e des p l u s v i e u x c i t o y e n s de M o n t r e a l , l a c e l e b r a t i o n de c e t t e f e t e (25 novembre) r e m o n t a i t au temps de l e u r s a n c e t r e s . ^ T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f e s t i v a l , " l a S a i n t e C a t h e r i n e " , had been a t r a d i t i o n a l m a r r i a g e and c o u r t s h i p h o l i d a y . H.P. LeMay, w r i t i n g i n t h e same p e r i o d , a l s o e u l o g i z e d the "good o l d days", lamented t h e i r p a s s i n g , but l o o k e d t o t h e r e v i v a l o f o l d customs t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e bonds o f t h e modern community growing up around him. The d e c l i n e i n numbers o f p u b l i c h o l i d a y s and f e s t i v a l s a t t h e t i m e , a p r o c e s s begun i n e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y New France,was a cause o f c o n c e r n f o r him because he l i n k e d t h a t t o t h e d e c l i n e i n community s p i r i t and c o h e s i v e n e s s o f e a r l i e r t i m e s . F o r him, p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s were l i k e f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s , l i n k i n g the body of t h e community 15 t o g e t h e r i n t h e same way t h a t a f a m i l y i s l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . - 9 -He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was, above a l l , i n i t s c h o i c e o f amusements t h a t a p e o p l e most g e n u i n e l y r e v e a l e d i t s c h a r a c t e r , and i f t h o s e c e l e b r a t i o n s changed, i t was because the p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s had changed. He was i m p r e c i s e about the r e a s o n s f o r t h e changes i n the community, and he c e r t a i n l y never a l l u d e d t o t h e massive s o c i a l and economic changes o c c u r r i n g i n t h e s o c i e t y o f Quebec a t the t i m e , i n s t e a d a t t r i b u t i n g t h i s t o : ...un b r i n de flegme dans l ' a i r que nous r e s p i r o n s , dans l a n a t u r e s evere q u i s'etend . .. sous nos yeux, dans l e f r o i d q u i nous e n g o u r d i t e t dans l a f r e q u e n t a t i o n des A n g l a i s q u i nous e n t o u r e . . . He r e j o i c e d t h a t t h e p e r i o d was w i t n e s s i n g a r e v i v a l o f t h e o l d customs, even i f t h e y t o o k new forms, as was the case w i t h the summer f e a s t o f S a i n t John th e B a p t i s t , f o r m e r l y a f e s t i v a l o f summer c e l e b r a t e d w i t h huge b o n f i r e s and r e j o i c -i n g . I n 1834 t h i s had become a c e l e b r a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i s m so t h a t l e S a i n t - J e a n - B a p t i s t e was now f o r him, "L 1 e x p r e s s i o n heureuseC f o r t e a d m i r a b l e des s e n t i m e n t s d 1amour e t de f o i , de p a t r i o t i s m e e t de r e l i g i o n du C a n a d a - f r a n c a i s " , as i t i s 17 t o d a y , w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s element i n e c l i p s e . One o f t h e i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g s about th e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p a s t and about l e i s u r e was t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g Quebeckers were i n v o l v e d . T h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e y were s p e a k i n g t o each o t h e r about t h e s e i s s u e s , f o r t h e tone o f commentary i n t h e F r e n c h and E n g l i s h -s p e a k i n g p r e s s i n d i c a t e d one group was not a f f e c t e d by t h e - 10 -o t h e r . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t b o t h were d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t the community needed t o b e n e f i t from l e i s u r e . F o r the F r e n c h C a n a d i a n s , l e i s u r e and p u b l i c f e s t i v a l s were means t o s t r e n g t h e n community and s o c i a l bonds,and t h e r e b y t o ensure the c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l o f t h e community. For E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g commentators, moments o f r e c r e a t i o n made one work h a r d e r and b e t t e r . G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l L o r d Landsdowne 1s speech a t the M o n t r e a l W i n t e r C a r n i v a l i n 1884 i s an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s Anglo-Saxon approach which formed the dominant element i n a l l t h e c a r n i v a l s : N e i t h e r t h e n a t i o n nor the i n d i v i d u a l can e x i s t w i t h o u t r e c r e a t i o n . Amid the s t r a i n and p r e s s u r e o f l i f e whether our h a b i t u a l v o c a t i o n c a l l s us t o the f i e l d , o r t o the c i t y , t o the desk o r t o the b a r , t o t h e L e g i s l a t u r e o r t o .:. t h e s t u d y , the r e c r e a t i o n w h i c h s h a l l g i v e s t r e n g t h t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l f i b r e — w h i c h s h a l l b ury the monotony o f our d a i l y e x i s t e n c e — w h i c h s h a l l g i v e r e f r e s h m e n t t o t h e j a d e d , body and t h e overwrought mind — w h i c h s h a l l r e n d e r our y o u t h manly and a c t i v e and our m a t u r i t y v i g o r o u s and r o b u s t i s an n e c e s s a r y t o us as t h e a i r we b r e a t h e . ' (Applause)18 P a r t o f t h i s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Landsdowne's B r i t i s h background and t o t h e changes i n t h e n a t u r e and p e r c e p -t i o n o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n B r i t a i n o v e r the c o u r s e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t would be perhaps m i s l e a d i n g t o t r e a t 19 t h e s e views as e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Canadian o p i n i o n . There were o t h e r , and perhaps more i n f l u e n t i a l , c u r r e n t s o f thought t h a t were o p e r a t i n g a t t h e time and t h e y a l s o seem t o have i n f l u e n c e d E n g l i s h C anadians, e s p e c i a l l y t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i n o r i t y i n Quebec and M o n t r e a l . These - 11 -l o o k e d t o Quebec's p a s t and a l s o a t r u r a l Quebec, s e e k i n g an A r c a d i a n a l t e r n a t i v e t o urban i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y . These p e o p l e i d e a l i z e d t h e r u r a l p e asant l i f e o f Quebec and b e l i e v e d t h a t i t had been t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o the c i t i e s ; t h e y i g n o r e d the p o v e r t y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s l i k e M o n t r e a l and Quebec, as w e l l as much o f t h e m i s e r y o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e . What became a s t a p l e o f many l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a v e l g u i d e s and p o p u l a r h i s t o r i e s was a r u r a l , C a t h o l i c , o l d F r e n c h Quebec t o w hich urban P r o t e s t a n t m i d d l e c l a s s Americans and E n g l i s h Canadians f e l t c o m p e l l i n g l y drawn on t h e i r summer v a c a t i o n s and which t h e y a l s o a ttempted t o i n t e r p r e t t o t h e i r f r i e n d s and c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . A good example o f t h i s p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e was W i l l i a m P a r k e r Greenough's Canadian F o l k - L i f e and F o l k -Lore which p u r p o r t e d t o d e s c r i b e , "from a l o n g t ime o f r e s i d e n c e and o b s e r v a t i o n " , "My f r i e n d s , t h e h a b i t a n t s o f Canada, t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s , amusements, songs, language and 20 n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " . Among F r e n c h Canadians as w e l l , th e a g r a r i a n b i a s o f C a t h o l i c n a t i o n a l i s m produced an ~ e q u a l l y r o m a n t i c view o f r u r a l l i f e . T h i s found one e x p r e s -s i o n i n H e n r i Bourassa's r e j e c t i o n o f the g o l d e n c a l f o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m . ^ What i s i m p o r t a n t here i s not o n l y the presence o r l e v e l o f a c c u r a c y o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e , f o r even, as l a t e as t h e 1970's t h e c a s u a l American v i s i t o r would assume an i n s t a n t 22 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Quebec and i t s customs, but t h i s l i t e r a t u r e formed the N o r t h American m i d d l e c l a s s a u d i e n c e ' s views o f - 12 -Quebec. J u s t as i m p o r t a n t was t h e m a r k e t i n g o f t h i s f o l k l o r e by a d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . Thus a community f e s t i v a l of t h e p a s t , l i k e the c a r n i v a l , was t u r n e d i n t o a huge p u b l i c s p e c t a c l e whose s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e was measured by t h e presence of numbers o f o u t s i d e r s such as Americans. The r a i l r o a d s made i t p o s s i b l e t o h o l d such f e s t i v a l s , even i n w i n t e r , f o r p e o p l e 23 l i v i n g more t h a n t h i r t y m i l e s away. By t h e 1880's, i t i s apparent t h a t t o u r i s t a p p e a l was a s t a n d a r d f o r s u c c e s s . T h i s marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a d e l i b e r a t e and e f f e c t i v e " m a r k e t i n g " o f t h e most a t t r a c t i v e elements o f F r e n c h Canada's p a s t — t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . What happens t o p o p u l a r c u l t u r e when elements are s e l e c t e d and reshaped t o a t t r a c t t o u r i s t s ? T h i s d i s t o r t i o n , i t c o u l d be argued, w i l l have an e f f e c t on t h e way i n w h i c h t h e community, whose c u l t u r e i s b e i n g e x p l o i t e d , sees i t s e l f . The b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t a i l o r i n g , o r d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g i n g t h e customs and p r a c t i c e s o f a community's c u l t u r e r e s u l t e d , even a t t h e t i m e , i n some s e c t i o n s o f t h e community, th e b u s i n e s s men, u s i n g i t as a market f o r t h e i r own g a i n . Thus i t was no l o n g e r a q u e s t i o n o f c e l e b r a t i n g a n c i e n t community r i t e s whose r o o t s went back i n t o i t s c o l l e c t i v e h e r i t a g e w h i c h may have i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r s but whose pr e s e n c e was p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e e v e n t . Now'it was a q u e s t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g a r e a s o n t o a t t r a c t o u t s i d e r s i n l a r g e enough numbers so t h a t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e non-commercial elements o f t h e l o c a l - 13 -community became u n n e c e s s a r y . I n f i g u r a t i v e t erms, t h i s d e v e l o p i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y c o u l d be seen as t u r n i n g s o c i a l cement i n t o s o c i a l s o l v e n t by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e community's need f o r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t s p a s t i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y s e l l i n g i t on t h e open market. W i n t e r was c u s t o m a r i l y t h e season f o r s o c i a l i z i n g and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n F r e n c h Canada; what t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f the 1880's and 1890's was t r y i n g t o do was t o draw o u t s i d e r s i n t o t h i s c y c l e . I n the same way the P a r i s i a n s would t u r n t h e i r sewer system and some o f t h e i r f a c t o r i e s t o t h e same good account a t t h e same t i m e , p r o v i d i n g a t o u r i s t - v . . 25 " e x p e r i e n c e " . The c a r n i v a l s / a s r e v i v a l s o f t h e community customs o f t h e p a s t a p p e a l e d t o the F r e n c h Canadian community f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l b e n e f i t s , and t o the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g p a r t o f t h e b u s i n e s s community f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s from the pre s e n c e o f thousands o f s t r a n g e r s . F o r a time t h e c u l t u r a l and t h e comm e r c i a l c o u l d c o - e x i s t , and a f u s i o n o f A n c i e n t and Modern was t e m p o r a r i l y o b t a i n e d . I l l . C i v i l i z i n g t h e C a r n i v a l Of c o u r s e not a l l t h e s t r a n d s o f t h i s p o p u l a r c u l t u r e were r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e v i v e d c a r n i v a l s , and the concept o f a r e v i v e d c e l e b r a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t c a r n i v a l had o n l y been dormant, n ot abandoned. There i s ample e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l i n i t s o l d e r form had been c e n s u r e d by l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s and even t h a t a t t e m p t s a t s u p r e s s i o n were - 14 -a t l a s t s u c c e s s f u l . I n F e b r u a r y , 1866, on t h e day b e f o r e m ardi g r a s , t h e Quebec Mercury a l l u d e d t o t h e l e g a l p e n a l t i e s f o r i t s c e l e b r a t i o n : Steps a r e b e i n g t a k e n t o arm and r e i n f o r c e the p o l i c e t o p r e v e n t parades o f masked and . armed p e o p l e such as have o f l a t e y e a r s , made a p r a c t i c e o f e n t e r i n g houses and i n t i m i d a t i n g t h e i r i n m a t e s . The law on t h i s p o i n t i s s e v e r e and p r o p e r l y so and i t w i l l we b e l i e v e h e r e a f t e r be more s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d t h a n f o r m e r l y . 2 ^ T h i s by-law had o n l y been passed the p r e v i o u s December 22nd by t h e C i t y C o u n c i l o f Quebec C i t y and p r o v i d e d f o r a f i n e o f up t o f o r t y d o l l a r s o r imprisonment a t hard l a b o u r f o r up t o two months f o r anyone, who, on each o f f e n s e , might " d i s t u r b , w i t h o u t l a w f u l c a u s e , th e p e a c e a b l e i n h a b i t a n t s r e s i d i n g i n any s t r e e t ; o r s h a l l be masked o r d i s g u i s e d by ; day o r by n i g h t i n any s t r e e t ; o r . . . s h a l l knock a t any d o o r , window o r s h u t t e r . . . o r s h a l l cause o r make any t u m u l t , n o i s e , -d i s o r d e r or d i s t u r b a n c e , or s h a l l form t h a t p a r t o f any tumultuous assemblage i n any p l a c e w hatsoever, i n any house, 27 b u i l d i n g o r p l a c e , e n c l o s e d o r u n e n c l o s e d . . . " A p p a r e n t l y t h e law and t h e j u d i c i a r y were e f f e c t i v e i n d i s c o u r a g i n g what the Mercury c a l l e d "the i m p r o p r i e t y o f t h e s e modern t u r n o u t s " ; i n t h e Recorder's C o u r t on t h e day a f t e r mardi g r a s and f o r s e v e r a l days t h e r e a f t e r o n l y one case o f c a r n i v a l ... b e h a v i o u r came b e f o r e i t : MARDIGRAS - Only one M a r d i g r a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ... came up, v i z : Samuel R o c h f o r d , a young boy h a v i n g h i s f a c e b l a c k e n e d i n D e f osses S t r e e t . He was f i n e d $2 and c o s t s o r f o u r days. He was l o c k e d up. 28 - 15 -I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e m a g i s t r a t e s frowned on t h i s k i n d o f t r a d i t i o n , but i t i s not c l e a r why. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i t was p a r t o f an a s s a u l t on p o p u l a r t r a d i t i o n s i n t h e name o f m i d d l e c l a s s m o r a l i t y o r e l s e , seen i n t h e c o n t e x t o f o t h e r c i t y r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e .time, as p a r t o f a d e s i r e t o r e g u l a t e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e b e h a v i o u r i n o r d e r t o make the c i t y i t s e l f r u n more e f f i c i e n t l y . At t h e same time as t h i s by-law "For t h e Good Order and Peace o f the C i t y o f Quebec" was passed and used a g a i n s t m a r d i gras r e v e l l e r s , the C o u n c i l a l s o passed by-laws r e g u l a t i n g , but not b a n n i n g , "House o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , houses o f i l l - f a m e , d i s o r d e r l y houses and 29 t a v e r n s " . From o t h e r s o u r c e s , however, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i f e f f e c t i v e o p p o s i t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c a r n i v a l b e h a v i o u r was a phenomenon o f t h e m i d - V i c t o r i a n p e r i o d , t h e c e l e b r a t i o n and c l e r i c a l d i s a p p r o v a l b o t h had deep r o o t s i n Quebec. The c a r n i v a l season i n New France had been a time o f g r e a t c e l e b r a t i o n and r e j o i c i n g though i t i s u n c e r t a i n when i t was f i r s t c e l e b r a t e d i n t h e c o l o n y . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y Quebec f o l k l o r i s t E.Z. M a s s i c o t t e , who o b t a i n e d h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from th e J o u r n a l des J e s u i t e s , i t u s u a l l y began e i g h t days b e f o r e Ash Wednesday and ended a t m i d n i g h t Tuesday, mardi g r a s . The f i r s t mention o f i t s c e l e b r a t i o n i s i n 16 4 7 when t h e J o u r n a l mentions t h a t t h e r e was "un b a l e t . ...... l e mercredy g r a s " . ^ ^ I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e were e a r l i e r c e l e b r a t i o n s i n New F r ance and t h e - 16 -custom was so i n g r a i n e d t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r e d s u p e r f l u o u s t o mention i t . I n New F r a n c e , as e l s e w h e r e , t h e upper c l a s s e s and t h e i r s o c i a l i n f e r i o r s b o t h c e l e b r a t e d c a r n i v a l and t h a t t h e s i n g l e d i s s e n t i n g v o i c e was -that o f t h e Church, w h i c h t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s remained c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n . R o b e r t - L i o n e l S e g u i n t e l l s t h e s t o r y o f t h e I n t e n d a n t B i g o t ' s mardi gras c e l e b r a t i o n i n l 7 4 9 w h i c h l a s t e d a l l n i g h t and ended a t seven t h i r t y on Ash Wednesday morning. B i g o t ' s attempt t o have t h e Ash Wednesday s e r v i c e advanced from e l e v e n i n t h e morning t o seven i n t h e morning so t h a t h i s g u e s t s c o u l d f i n i s h t h e i r p a r t y , r e c e i v e t h e i r ashes and the n go home t o s l e e p r e c e i v e d a r a t h e r f r o s t y r e c e p t i o n from t h e 31 p r i e s t i n q u e s t i o n . A few y e a r s l a t e r t he e n g i n e e r Franquet wrote from t h e g o v e r n o r ' s palace, i n M o n t r e a l t h a t on t h e day o f mardi g r a s , _<753, "on y r e c u t l e s masque's q u i a p p o r t e r e n t 32 des momons". An e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h t r a v e l l e r a l s o found t h e pe o p l e o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e c e l e b r a t i n g a t t h i s time o f y e a r : They (the c o u n t r y f o l k ) a r e fond o f d a n c i n g and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s a t p a r t i c u l a r seasons and f e s t i v a l s , on w h i c h o c c a s i o n s t h e y e a t , d r i n k , and dance i n c o n s t a n t s u c c e s s i o n . When t h e i r l o n g f a s t i n Lent i s c o n c l u d e d , t h e y have t h e i r ' j o u r s g r a s ' , o r days o f f e a s t i n g . Then i t i s t h a t e v e r y p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r farm i s p r e s e n t e d f o r the g r a t i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e i r a p p e t i t e s ... 3 3 D r i n k p l a y e d no s m a l l p a r t i n the g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e a p p e t i t e s and even l a t e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h . c e n t u r y M a s s i c o t t e n o t e d t h a t among t h e customs a t S t . - S c h o l a s t i q u e - 17 -was t h a t b e f o r e mardi g r a s , t h e l a r g e b u c k e t o f water i n the main room o f the house was r e p l a c e d w i t h a l a r g e b u c k e t o f 34 b e e r . LeMay a l s o remembered t h a t a t h a b i t a n t p a r t i e s d u r i n g c a r n i v a l t ime when ' i l f a i t f r o i d e t l ' o n prend une v e r r e de g i n pour se r e c h a u f f e r ; s ' i l ne f a i s a i t pas f r o i d , on en 35 p r e n d r a i t quand-meme..." I n t h e Beauce r e g i o n s o u t h o f Quebec C i t y , t h e t h r e e days b e f o r e Ash Wednesday were the most a c t i v e o f a l l and t h e s e c e l e b r a t i o n s are o f i n t e r e s t . They o c c u r r e d near Quebec C i t y and i n v o l v e d t h e k i n d o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t the c i t y frowned upon In 1866. On Tuesday morning d i s g u i s e s and masks were u s u a l l y completed and i n t h e e a r l y a f t e r n o o n men en t r a v e s t i , as w e l l as some women, assembled w i t h s t i c k s t o keep away the dogs and began t o make t h e rounds o f houses i n s e a r c h o f food and d r i n k . N i g g a r d l y h o s t s were p u n i s h e d by t h e community. A c c o r d i n g t o one e t h n o g r a p h i c s o u r c e , " l e p e u p l e e t a i t i m p i t o y a b l e pour l e s ' b a i s e - l a -p i a s t r e 1 . I I l e s h o u s p i l l a i t e t souvent l e s m e t t a i t au ban de l a s o c i e t e . P a r f o i s on r e n v e r s a i t t a b l e s e t f a u t e u i l s en 3 6 c h a n t a n t des c o u p l e t s i r o n i q u e s . . . " The whole p o i n t o f the e x e r c i s e was t o remain masked and t o p r o v i d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r the masquers and t h e p e o p l e w a t c h i n g them. However, t h e s e community get t o g e t h e r s were not o n l y f r i v o l o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t s but a l s o o c c a s i o n s t o e x p r e s s t h e c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . T h i s was done t h r o u g h s u p p o r t i n g community s t a n d a r d s f o r s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r (marriage and g e n e r o s i t y ) o r a p p l y i n g p u n i t i v e 37 s a n c t i o n s ( s t i n g i n e s s ) . - I n t h i s r e g a r d , a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y - 18 -a s p e c t o f t h i s custom was t h e p o p u l a r d i s a p p r o v a l o f female p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some o f t h e s e mummeries. She who f l o u t e d custom r a n t h e r i s k o f b e i n g known as ' h a r d i e ' i f not down-r i g h t 'coureuse' and bore such e p i t h e t s f o r t h e r e s t o f the 38 y e a r . T h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s i n Europe and New F r ance thu s r e s t e d upon a f u n c t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n t h a t was r e l a t e d t o t h e c o l l e c t i v e s o c i a l needs o f t h e community, a community w h i c h was p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g r i c u l t u r a l . C l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l y e a r , w h i c h was s e a s o n a l , t h e c y c l i c a l r e l i g i o u s c a l e n d a r complemented t h a t p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s e a s o n a l 39 rhythm. For i n s t a n c e , c a r n i v a l time i s c e l e b r a t e d near the end o f w i n t e r , j u s t as E a s t e r i s c e l e b r a t e d near th e b e g i n n i n g o f S p r i n g , t h e f i r e s o f S t . - J e a n a t t h e summer s o l s t i c e , A l l S a i n t s ' Day i n autumn, and t h e t w e l v e days o f C h r i s t m a s , New Year and Epiphany ( l e s R o i s ) i n t h e w i n t e r . The p e r i o d o f Carnava 1 -Care^me was the p e r i o d o f f e a s t i n g and r e v e l r y a t the end o f w i n t e r when i t was p e r m i t t e d t o e a t meat and c e l e b r a t e u n t i l Ash Wednesday. On t h a t day, f o r t y days b e f o r e E a s t e r , a p e r i o d o f t o t a l a b s t i n e n c e from meat and o t h e r p l e a s u r e s began, and, as had been the C a t h o l i c custom f o r c e n t u r i e s , "pendant l a q u e l l e r e g n e n t p l u s i e u r s i n t e r d i c t i o n s , a l i m e n t a i r e s 40 s u r t o u t , mais a u s s i s e x u e l l e s V i ! Halfway t h r o u g h L e n t t h e r e was a s h o r t s u s p e n s i o n o f t h e r i g o r s o f f a s t i n g and a b s t i n e n c e known as t h e Mi-Carerne w h i c h i n F r e n c h Canada was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l a r g e f e a s t s a t home and i n t h e Beauce, i t was t h e t ime t o i - 19 -b e g i n maple s u g a r i n g . E a s t e r w i t h i t s o u t b u r s t o f j o y , i t s end t o s e l f - d e n i a l , and t h e r e t u r n o f s p r i n g marked the end o f th e w i n t e r c y c l e . I n Europe, C a r n i v a l i t s e l f was o f t e n p e r s o n i f i e d , sometimes as a man o f s t r a w , sometimes n o t , and a b u r l e s q u e b a t t l e between him and Lent was p l a y e d o u t i n whi c h he would 41 be a l l e g o r i c a l l y v a n q u i s h e d and Lent would t r i u m p h . There have been s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s advanced f o r the t e n a c i t y and p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e f e s t i v a l . A modern w r i t e r on t h e T r i n i d a d c a r n i v a l has no t e d t h a t the o n l y e f f e c t i v e means t h a t the Church had i n taming i t was t o g i v e " r e l i g i o u s s a n c t i o n t o a pagan r i t e t o o p r o f o u n d l y r o o t e d i n t h e sustenance o f l i f e t o 4 2 be e f f e c t i v e l y s u p p r e s s e d " . The key t o t h e s e deep r o o t s i n p r e - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y may have l a i n i n i t s b l e n d i n g o f t h e f o r c e s t h a t s u s t a i n e d l i f e i n a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f e r t i l i t y o f peopl e and s o i l , t h e community, t h e c y c l e o f n a t u r e and t h e d e i t y , a l l e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h r e v e l r y . The European e x p r e s s i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n F r a n c e , o f t e n t o o k t h e form o f " s t r e e t p r o c e s s i o n s , c o s t u m i n g and masking, music making, e n e r g e t i c d a n c i n g , s i n g i n g o f s a t i r i c o r l a u d a t o r y songs, j e s t i n g , mummery, f e a s t i n g , and g e n e r a l r e v e l r y , as w e l l as " t o r c h c a r r y i n g , b o n f i r e l i g h t i n g ( o r i g i n a l l y aimed a t p u r i f y -i n g t h e f i e l d s and f r i g h t e n i n g o f f demons, t h e r e b y e n s u r i n g a good c r o p ) , and t h e p i t c h e d b a t t l e s between c o n t e s t i n g bands, s y m b o l i c o f the s t r u g g l e between L i f e and Death, Summer and W i n t e r , New Year and O l d Ye a r , o r t h e more m y s t i c combat - 20 -43 between th e f o r c e s o f good and e v i l " . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n more l i t e r a l o r l e s s " p o e t i c " t i m e s , l i k e Quebec i n t h e 1860's, such symbolism had l i t t l e meaning f o r urban p o l i t i c i a n s , and i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the d i s o r d e r l y elements t h a t gave c a r n i v a l i t s l i f e would r e p e l o r o f f e n d t h e more o r d e r e d and m o r a l i s t i c minds o f t h e community. In s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e c l e r g y not o n l y i n Quebec but a l s o i n France c e r t a i n l y f e a r e d o r d i s a p p r o v e d o f the c e l e b r a t i o n s and moved w i t h t h e c e n t r a l government t o c o n t r o l o r s u p p r e s s them. For r e m a r k a b l y s i m i l a r r e a s o n s , e i t h e r i n the name o f r e a s o n o r o f m o r a l i t y t h e F r e n c h p r e - R e v o l u t i o n a r y and R e v o l u t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t i e s moved t o a b o l i s h t h i s "systeme de s u r v i e " o f which th e c a r n i v a l was a p a r t . The F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n w h i c h , as Benjamin G a s t i n e a u so d e l i c a t e l y put i t , " v o u l a i t l a v e r i t e s u r l e v i s a g e de l'homme a u s s i b i e n que 44 dans son-coeur", a b o l i s h e d t h e c e l e b r a t i o n , and even i t s b r i e f r e v i v a l under Napoleon c o u l d not g i v e i t c r e d i b i l i t y i n t h e e a r l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . W i t h the new p e r c e p t i o n t h a t t h e c a r n i v a l was not o n l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e from a m o r a l p o i n t o f v i e w but a l s o as b e i n g beneath th e d i g n i t y o f r e a s o n a b l e men, i t l o s t some o f i t s o l d f o r c e and c r e d i b i l i t y . However, i t d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r and t h e appearance o f Benjamin G a s t i n e a u ' s C a r n a v a l a n c i e n e t moderne i n 1866 i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t was o f some importance and r e p r e s e n t e d something t h r e a t e n i n g : Les e x t r a v a g a n c e s e t l e s f o l i e s du c a r a n a v a l a t t e s t e n t un s p l e e n , un v i d e , un ablme incommensurable dans l e coeur humain. Comme t o u t e s l e s debauches, l e c a r n a v a l v i e n t de - 21 -p r i v a t i o n , de m a l a i s e . L ' h i s t o i r e en main, nous avons l a preuve que l e s p e u p l e s l e s p l u s corrumpues e t l e s p l u s a s s e r v i s se sont donnees c o r p s e t "ame aux mascarades q u i l e u r o nt r a v i l e u r d i g n i t e e t l e u r independance.45 The n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w i t n e s s e d t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f r e p r e s s i o n t h a t had begun i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h . As an i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e c a r n i v a l was s u p p r e s s e d o r abandoned by t h e a r t i c u l a t e s e c t o r s o f t h e urban community, though f o r a l o n g time i t c o n t i n u e d t o s u r v i v e i n r u r a l a r e a s . However, a n o t h e r p r o c e s s was o c c u r r i n g a t t h e same t i m e . I n some a r e a s , t h e lower c l a s s e s f o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r c o n t r o l o v er t h e c a r n i v a l ; i n o t h e r s , t h e c a r n i v a l became t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a v e h i c l e f o r t h e upper c l a s s e s . The e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e c a r n i -v a l on the i s l a n d o f T r i n i d a d and t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n t r o d u c -t i o n o f a c a r n i v a l f e s t i v a l t o New O r l e a n s i n t h e mid .... . _ n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y b e s t i l l u s t r a t e t h e two p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The former s t a r t e d as an upper c l a s s a f f a i r but became and remained a p o p u l a r f e s t i v a l d e s p i t e a t t e m p t s a t r e p r e s s i o n ; t h e l a t t e r became a v e h i c l e f o r upper c l a s s amusement d e s p i t e lower c l a s s a t t e m p t s a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These two o p p o s i t e e x p e r i -ences are h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h the M o n t r e a l and Quebec c a r n i v a l s o f t h e 1880's and 1890's were s i t u a t e d , a n d o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s open t o them. B e f o r e 1783, the i s l a n d o f T r i n i d a d had been under S p a n i s h r u l e f o r t h r e e hundred y e a r s and t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e o f C a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n u n t i l a number o f F r e n c h s p e a k i n g p l a n t e r s began t o a r r i v e w i t h t h e i r A f r i c a n s l a v e s . The - 22 -i s l a n d became B r i t i s h i n 1797 and u n t i l 1834 when the s l a v e s were e m a n i c i p a t e d , t h e c a r n i v a l became a v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e w h i t e upper c l a s s e s who e x c l u d e d t h e s l a v e s , t h e I n d i a n s and t h e " f r e e p e r s o n s o f c o l o u r " from 46 p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A f t e r e m a n c i p a t i o n , as e x - p o l i c e C h i e f L.M. F r a s e r n o t e d i n h i s r e p o r t t o t h e governor i n 1881, " t h i n g s were m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d , t h e a n c i e n t l i n e s o f d e m a r c a t i o n between c l a s s e s were o b l i t e r a t e d and as a n a t u r a l consequence th e c a r n i v a l d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o a n o i s y and 47 d i s o r d e r l y amusement f o r t h e lower c l a s s e s " . He. c o n t r a s t e d t h a t w i t h e a r l i e r h a p p i e r days b e f o r e t h e s l a v e s were f r e e d 48 and t h e c a r n i v a l was t h e p r o p e r t y o f t h e upper c l a s s e s . The l o c a l p r e s s a l s o e x p r e s s e d i t s e l f i n a n t i p a t h e t i c terms and t h r o u g h o u t the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y found o c c a s i o n t o bemoan i t s c e l e b r a t i o n . I n 1838, c a r n i v a l was termed "wretched b u f f o o n e r y ( t e n d i n g ) t o b r u t a l i z e the f a c u l t y o f the 49 lower o r d e r o f our p o p u l a t i o n " , w h i l e i n 1846 i t was c a l l e d "an o r g y i n d u l g e d i n by t h e d i s s o l u t e o f the town"; e l e v e n y e a r s l a t e r i t was an "annual a b o m i n a t i o n " , i n 186 3, "a l i c e n s e d e x h i b i t i o n o f w i l d e x c e s s e s " ; i n 1874, "a d i a b o l i c a l f e s t i v a l " ; and i n 1884, "a f r u i t f u l s o u r c e o f d e m o r a l i z a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole c o u n t r y " . A s u r p r i s i n g change appeared i n 1896 when, w i t h t h e f i r s t note o f a p p r o v a l i n o ver f i f t y y e a r s , c a r n i v a l was "most s u c c e s s f u l , and one o f the p l e a s a n t e s t f e a t u r e s was t h e number from th e upper c l a s s e s who j o i n e d i n the c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e custom". The honeymoon was s h o r t - l i v e d , - 23 -however, f o r t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , c a r n i v a l was once a g a i n " a l l i m m o r a l i t y and no r e f i n e m e n t " w i t h t h e w i s h . e x p r e s s e d f o r i t s e a r l y demise. P r e s s o p p o s i t i o n d i d not cease u n t i l the 50 1930's. Some o f t h i s i n v e c t i v e was d o u b t l e s s w e l l j u s t i f i e d and t h e r e were s e r i o u s p roblems, but as one c h r o n i c l e r p o i n t s o u t , t h e d e s i r e s , f o r a ' c l e a n ' c a r n i v a l were absurd,^"*" e s p e c i a l l y when, as was t h e case between 1858-1884, c a r n i v a l was i n t h e hands o f "uncouth elements o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e "uncouth e l e m e n t s " seem t o have remained i m p e r v i o u s t o p r e s s c r i t i c i s m and s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r way o f c e l e b r a t i n g s i n c e t h e y r e s i s t e d f i v e a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e p o l i c e and t h e m i l i t a r y t o s u p p r e s s i t i n a f o r t y -y e a r p e r i o d . These a t t e m p t s o c c u r r e d i n 1833, 1846, 1858 and 1859, and i n 1871-1872. Another attempt i n 1881 caused a r i o t 52 i n P o r t - o f - S p a i n . By t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e were a number o f problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the._urban c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l t h a t c o u l d not e n t i r e l y be blamed on t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f the upper c l a s s e s . The case o f the c a r n i v a l i n New O r l e a n s was an example o f , a t t i m e s , r a t h e r d e s t r u c t i v e d i s o r d e r . I n t r o d u c e d l o n g a f t e r t h e c i t y ' s f o u n d a t i o n i n 1718, i t was a t f i r s t l a r g e l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e upper c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e C r e o l e s who c e l e b r a t e d i t w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . One o f t h e main e v e n t s i n t h a t c i t y ' s c e l e b r a t i o n was, and would always be, t h e p r o c e s s i o n o f masked and costumed c h a r a c t e r s t h r o u g h - 24 -t h e s t r e e t s o f the c i t y . T h i s was sometimes a custom t h a t t h e c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s were uneasy about e s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p o l i t i c a l u n r e s t . Both th e S p a n i s h and l a t e r t h e American 53 a u t h o r i t i e s would ban i t o u t r i g h t . The v e r y f i r s t r e c o r d e d s t r e e t p r o c e s s i o n however r e c e i v e d f a v o u r a b l e a t t e n t i o n from t h e l o c a l p r e s s , as t h e Ash Wednesday, 1838 e d i t i o n o f t h e D a i l y P i c a y u n e a t t e s t e d : ...A l a r g e number o f young gentlemen, p r i n c i p a l l y C r e o l e s o f t h e f i r s t r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , went t o no l i t t l e expense w i t h t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s . I n t h e p r o c e s s i o n were s e v e r a l c a r r i a g e s s u p e r b l y o r n a -mented - bands o f m u s i c , h o r s e s r i c h l y c a p a r i s i o n e d - p e r s o n a t i o n s o f k n i g h t s , c a v a l i e r s , h e r o e s , demigods, c h a n t i c l e e r s , p u n c h i n e l l o s , &c, &c, a l l mounted. Many o f them were d r e s s e d i n female a t t i r e , and a c t e d t h e l a d y w i t h no s m a l l degree o f grace.54 W i t h i n t e n y e a r s , however, as t h e p o p u l a r i t y and e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f t h e a f f a i r i n c r e a s e d , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n p assed out o f t h e e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e C r e o l e upper c l a s s , p u b l i c o p i n i o n as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e l o c a l p r e s s began t o be a l i t t l e more c r i t i c a l . One o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e e a r l y c a r n i v a l s had been the custom o f t h r o w i n g c o n f e t t i o r bonbons back and f o r t h between p a r a d e r s and s p e c t a t o r s , but t h i s soon de g e n e r a t e d i n t o t h e t h r o w i n g o f sand, f l o u r and even q u i c k -55 l i m e w h i c h damaged c l o t h i n g and eyes so t h a t by 1854, the Bee was l e s s e n t h u s i a s t i c about mardi g r a s : The d e t a i l i s v e r y s h o r t . Boys w i t h bags o f f l o u r paraded t h e s t r e e t s , and p a i n t e d J e z a b e l s e x h i b i t e d t h e m s e l v e s i n p u b l i c c a r r i a g e s , and t h a t i s about a l l . We a r e not s o r r y t h a t t h i s m i s e r a b l e a n n u a l e x h i b i t i o n i s r a p i d l y becoming e x t i n c t . I t o r i g i n a t e d i n a b a r b a r o u s age, and i s worthy o f o n l y such. - 25 -One o f t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h e 1850's t h a t many contempo-r a r i e s n o t e d was the d e c l i n e i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e F r e n c h p o p u l a t i o n and a g r e a t e r emphasis on American p a r t i c i -p a t i o n and customs. I n 1855, the D a i l y D e l t a lamented t h a t "the march o f Anglo-Saxon i n n o v a t i o n has made sad havoc w i t h 57 t h e time-honored customs o f our a n c i e n t p o p u l a t i o n " . The f o l l o w i n g y e a r t h e Bee n o t e d t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e f e s t i v a l 5 8 " b e f o r e t h e march o f new p e o p l e , customs and r e l i g i o n " so t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r saw t h e o l d c e l e b r a t i o n t a k e on an e n t i r e l y new f a c e and t o t a l l y s e v e r i t s e l f from t h e p r e - L e n t e n customs o f C a t h o l i c Europe. I n 1857, s i x young Americans who had been members o f a c a r n i v a l group i n M o b i l e , Alabama, chose a minor Greek god o f f e s t i v e m i r t h , Comus, as t h e p a t r o n o f an e n t i r e l y new form o f c a r n i v a l and r e t u r n e d i t s c e l e b r a -t i o n t o the monied c l a s s e s . I n such a form i t c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e l o c a l p r e s s and the a r t i c u l a t e p u b l i c . The new c a r n i v a l o f "The M i s t i c k Crewe o f the C o u r t o f Comus" was a v e r y e x c l u s i v e a f f a i r w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n even i n t h e a c t u a l s t r e e t parades c o n f i n e d t o s o c i a l l y prominent f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s , as were t h e p r i v a t e h i g h s o c i e t y b a l l s and p a r t i e s , a l l o f wh i c h had r i g i d l y - c o n t r o l l e d e n t r a n c e p o l i c i e s by i n v i t a t i o n o n l y . The g e n e r a l p u b l i c was f r e e o n l y t o e n j o y the s t r e e t parade o f t h e costumed w e a l t h y r e v e l l e r s as . s p e c t a t o r s . As i n t h e c l a s s - and caste-bound s o c i e t y o f T r i n i d a d e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y , where H i l l n o t e d t h a t the c e l e b r a t i o n o f c a r n i v a l had e i t h e r " t o d i e from n e g l e c t o r - 26 -change i t s c h a r a c t e r c o m p l e t e l y " because i t had been "the 59 t r a d i t i o n a l l e v e l l e r o f s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s " , t h e c a r n i v a l changed i t s c h a r a c t e r . Perhaps the " r i c h " hoped t h a t , as a s o c i a l l e v e l l e r , the c a r n i v a l would d i e , but what seems t o . have happened was a r e a s s e r t i o n o f upper c l a s s c o n t r o l and a f u r t h e r emphasis on s o c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . I t i s t h i s k i n d o f c a r n i v a l t h a t most resembled the ones h e l d i n M o n t r e a l from 1883 t o 1889 and e s p e c i a l l y i n Quebec C i t y i n 1894 and 1896. The M o n t r e a l S t a r n o t e d d u r i n g t h e c a r n i v a l o f F e b r u a r y 1884 a c l o s e resemblance between the New O r l e a n s mardi g r a s and i t s c e l e b r a t i o n s s t a t i n g t h a t "the approach o f L e n t has l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e i r b e i n g h e l d " . ^ I n Quebec C i t y , t h e " m o d e r n i z a t i o n " o f t h e o l d m a r d i  g r a s f e s t i v a l r e f l e c t e d t h e changes undergone i n t h e f o r t u n e s o f the c i t y and o f i t s p e o p l e over t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I t was t h o s e changes t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l c i t y o f the 1890's. CHAPTER I I THE CARNIVAL CITY AND THE REAL CITY I . B e h i n d t h e C a r n i v a l Veneer Quebec C i t y i s an i m p r e s s i v e s i g h t when viewed from a c r o s s the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . I n t h e c a r n i v a l y e a r o f 1894 v i s i t o r s t o t h e c i t y who had t r a v e l l e d t h e r e by t h e r a i l r o a d s t e r m i n a t i n g on t h e s o u t h e r n bank o f t h e r i v e r would have seen the i m p r e s s i v e p r o c e s s i o n o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g t h e c l i f f s w h i c h s y m b o l i z e d t h e many a s p e c t s o f t h e c i t y ' s c h a r a c t e r and h i s t o r y . The i m p o s i n g C i t a d e l dominated snow-covered Cape Diamond on t h e s o u t h . Below i t s ramparts t h e wide wooden promenade of t h e D u f f e r i n T e r r a c e s t r e t c h e d a l o n g t h e c l i f f -t o p t o t h e c a s t l e - l i k e Chateau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l . J u s t beyond the dome o f t h e nearby p o s t o f f i c e s t o o d t h e massed grey b u i l d i n g s o f t h e Quebec Seminary and L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y topped by a s l e n d e r s p i r e . W i t h t h e houses and shops o f t h e Lower Town huddled t o g e t h e r under t h e c l i f f s t h e c i t y p r e s e n t e d an appearance more s u i t e d t o t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a n t o the i n d u s t r i a l age o f the 1890's. Thousands o f o u t s i d e v i s i t o r s t o t h e c a r n i v a l who t r a v e r s e d t h e narrow, snowy s t r e e t s w i t h i n t h e w a l l s o f t h e o l d c i t y by day, or e s p e c i a l l y a t . n i g h t i n a l i g h t s n o w f a l l , c o u l d e a s i l y have imagined t h a t t h e y had r e t u r n e d t o the days o f New F r a n c e . D e s p i t e t h e changes - 28 -wrought by t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , such an i l l u s i o n i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e f o r t h e t o u r i s t who.would have few chances f o r c o n t a c t w i t h the m a j o r i t y o f t h e c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . But b e h i n d the g o t h i c snow c a s t l e s , a r c h e s and s t a t u e s , and even b e h i n d t h e stone ones o f the c a r n i v a l c i t y was t h e r e a l c i t y o f Quebec, as i t s i n h a b i t a n t s e x p e r i e n c e d . i t : the second i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e i n Quebec a f t e r M o n t r e a l . I t was f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e Canadian i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . I f one c o u l d be m i s l e d by t h e a p p e a l i n g p h y s i c a l appearance o f t h e c i t y i n t o t h i n k i n g that, i t had somehow escaped i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and c l a s s c o n f l i c t , t h a t arrangement o f b u i l d i n g s a l o n g th e c l i f f s c o u l d a l s o be seen, on c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n , c l e a r l y t o r e v e a l t h e c i t y ' s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The Upper Town had always c o n t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t .. o f f i c e s o f Church and S t a t e e v e r s i n c e the c i t y had been founded i n 1608. Perched s y m b o l i c a l l y on t h e h e i g h t s o r j u s t b e h i n d them were the p r o v i n c i a l P a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g w i t h t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e Quebec government, the C i t a d e l and t h e m i l i t a r y e s t a b l i s h m e n t , t h e C a t h o l i c a r c h e p i s c o p a l p a l a c e , t h e B a s i l i c a , Seminary and U n i v e r s i t y , t h e A n g l i c a n C a t h e d r a l , and t h e new C i t y H a l l . The r e c e n t l y completed (1893) ChSteau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l , t h e CPR's p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n o f i t s c l o s e i n t e r e s t i n the c i t y , completed th e statement o f t h e c i t y ' s dominant i n s t i t u t i o n s . The f o u r c i t y wards i n t o which th e Upper Town was - 29 -d i v i d e d - du P a l a i s , S t . L o u i s , S t . Jean and Montcalm — a l s o c o n t a i n e d t h e homes and b u s i n e s s e s o f the c i t y ' s w e a l t h y and p r o f e s s i o n a l c i t i z e n s . I t i s t r u e t h a t a few s m a l l f a c t o r y owners and some lumber company r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s d i d l i v e c l o s e t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s i n t h e Lower Town , but i n g e n e r a l , i t i s c o r r e c t t o say t h a t t h e c i t y ' s p h y s i c a l d i v i s i o n i n t o Upper and Lower Towns was also,; a c l a s s d i v i s i o n , as Roger L e m e l i n n o t ed as l a t e as t h e 1940's. C a r n i v a l v i s i t o r s might have had o c c a s i o n t o n o t i c e t h a t , o r t o v i s i t t h e Lower Town, t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . Some c a r n i v a l e v e n t s l i k e t h e parade took p l a c e i n t h e o t h e r f o u r o f t h e c i t y ' s wards, i n t o w h i c h the s t r a g g l i n g Lower Town was d i v i d e d . Champlain and S t . P i e r r e wards were under the c l i f f s i n t h e narrow s t r e t c h o f l a n d a l o n g t h e S a i n t Lawrence w h i l e Jacques C a r t i e r and S t . Roch were l o c a t e d on the f l a t l a n d n o r t h o f t h e c i t y a t the mouth o f the S t . C h a r l e s R i v e r . The i n d u s t r i a l suburb o f S t . Sauveur w h i c h a l s o c o n t a i n e d many o f t h e c i t y ' s w o r k i n g p e o p l e l a y i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e n o r t h w e s t o f S t . Roch and Jacques C a r t i e r , o u t s i d e the c i t y boundary. (See map). The c i t y ' s major i n d u s t r i e s and w o r k i n g p o p u l a t i o n were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s e wards. S t . Roch, i n p a r t i c u l a r , c o n t a i n e d t h e b u s i n e s s p r e m i s e s o f many p r o m i -nent F r e n c h Canadians and r e c e i v e d many c a r n i v a l . v i s i t o r s . What t h e t o u r i s t s saw o f t h i s o t h e r Quebec i s i n t e r e s t -i n g . A l l F r e n c h Canadians were seen as charming l a u g h i n g p e o p l e , u s u a l l y w i t h s p a r k l i n g d a r k e y e s . The u s u a l l y .. _ .... - 30 -/ ; observant correspondent f o r the New York Sun, J u l i a n Ralph, wrote: The happiness of the people i s r e a l l y wonderful. They a l l laugh and they seem to laugh always. They meet a s t r a n g e r ' s gaze w i t h a s m i l e , and i n the j o l l i e s t democratic way w i l l exchange jokes w i t h anyone who t r i e s them.^ These and other t o u r i s t impressions r e v e a l how r e a d i l y they accepted the c a r n i v a l promoters' view of Quebec as a unique c i t y w i t h many advantages. V i s i t o r s l e f t the c i t y impressed by i t s antique charm, i t s f r i e n d l y people and i t s French atmosphere. The same con c e p t i o n of Quebec - accurate yet l i m i t e d - i s s t i l l the s t o c k - i n - t r a d e of the modern t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y . In t h i s p e r i o d and i n common wit h other t o u r i s t s p e c t a c l e s , t h e r e was the o f f i c i a l show put on f o r o u t s i d e r s and a l s o the area hidden from the v i s i t o r s - the back stage - where the work of p r e s e n t i n g the i l l u s i o n was done. Understanding t h a t t h e a t r i c a l d u a l i t y i s important i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the complete c i t y from the c a r n i v a l c i t y , which was a s e l e c t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n , with exaggeration, of aspects of c i t y and i t s c u l t u r e , thought to be most a p p e a l i n g to t o u r i s t s . The economic r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e f o r the c i t y ' s working people were, however, not e n t i r e l y hidden from the gaze of t o u r i s t s who might have ventured i n t o the area below the 2 c l i f f s . Ralph a l s o observed the e f f o r t s of "the b i g fur-., swaddled s l e i g h d r i v e r s , who make t h e i r l i t t l e ponies dash l i k e made through the s t r e e t s " i n drumming up b u s i n e s s : - 31 -Mr. E.D.T. Chambers, one o f t h e l e a d i n g s p i r i t s .... of t h e c a r n i v a l rebuked a c o u p l e o f c a r t e r s ^ . — y e s t e r d a y f o r making such a n u i s a n c e o f them-s e l v e s , but t h e y were not abashed. " I t ' s a v e r y s h o r t season, s i r , s a i d one," and you must ^ excuse us f o r l o o k i n g out sharp f o r o u r s e l v e s . I f n o t h i n g e l s e , t h a t shows t h a t w o r k i n g p e o p l e , as w e l l as the l o c a l merchants, were q u i c k t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e economic b e n e f i t s o f t o u r i s m . S t i l l , t he p r e v a i l i n g i m p r e s -s i o n o f t o u r i s t s and even o f l o c a l E n g l i s h language w r i t e r s was t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n was r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o f f . That view was a l s o s h a r e d by t h e few F r e n c h Canadian w r i t e r s whose o p i n i o n s were p u b l i s h e d . H.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . , w r i t i n g about th e i m p o r t a n t l o c a l shoe i n d u s t r y , d e c l a r e d i n 1908: The shoe worker e a r n s from $4 t o $20 a week a c c o r d i n g t o c a p a c i t y . Many o f t h e s k i l l e d o p e r a t i v e s are women. When two o r t h r e e members o f a f a m i l y a r e employed the combined wages e n a b l e them t o l i v e i n t h e g r e a t e s t ease and c o m f o r t and t o make a good appearance on Sundays and h o l i d a y s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e heads o f f a m i l i e s own t h e i r own snug l i t t l e houses i n some o f t h e many s t r e e t s i n S t . R o c h 1 s o r S a i n t Sauveur.^ Other o b s e r v e r s a t the t i m e , however, c o n c l u d e d t h a t p o v e r t y and f i n a n c i a l - i n s e c u r i t y were much more common f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e t h a n F a i r c h i l d i n d i c a t e d . Seen from a n o t h e r , l e s s sanguine p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e need t o have two o r t h r e e p ersons w o r k i n g as wage-earners r e v e a l s t h e inadequacy o f i n d i v i d u a l incomes. A r t h u r S a i n t - P i e r r e , a contemporary o f F a i r c h i l d , found t h a t f o r many workers revenue was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o meet even t h e i r b a s i c needs, e s p e c i a l l y " l e s commis, l e s preposes aux e c r i t u r e s , l e s employes de bureau - moins l e s - 32 -stenograph.es - l e s f o n c t i o n n a i r e s e t l a grande e t n o b l e phalange de nos e d u c a t e u r s que tourmente l e probleme du budget 5 a e q u i l i b r e r " . I n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o F a i r c h i l d , he s t a t e d i n 1915: E t de t o u t nos c a l c u l s paraT/t b i e n se degager '. l a c o n c l u s i o n que, non seulement en!1915, mais  d'une f a c o n permanente, l a g@ne e t l a h a n t i s e de l a mis£re accompagnent l a m a j o r i t e de n o t r e c l a s s e o u v r i e r e l e l o n g de l a v i e . ^ A r e c e n t s t u d y o f t h e shoe i n d u s t r y , one o f t h e main-s t a y s o f t h e economy o f t h e Lower Town, a l s o comes t o d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a n t h o s e o f F a i r c h i l d . The s a l a r y range i s s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t w i t h $7 t o $13 a week c a l c u l a t e d as t h e average f o r t h e y e a r 1902. S a l a r y was not the s o l e c o n s i d e r a -t i o n f o r measuring income, however. The monteur ( o p e r a t i v e ) i n t h e shoe f a c t o r y was p a i d on a p i e c e - w o r k b a s i s , and was o f t e n l a i d o f f d u r i n g slow p e r i o d s . Thus a t h e o r e t i c a l average a n n u a l s a l a r y o f $468 ($9x52) which would have b a r e l y c o v e r e d the n e c e s s i t i e s remained beyond the r e a c h o f many, and Jacques M a t h i e u wrote t h a t " l e monteur moyen, en 1902, a r r i v e d i f f i c i l e m e n t a b o u c l e r son budget, e t que sa c o n d i t i o n m a t e r i e l l e e s t c a r a c t e " r i s e e p a r l a p r i v a t i o n " . B e h i n d the r e c i t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s l i k e t h a t l a y the p a i n f u l compromises made on a d a i l y b a s i s by h o u s e h o l d money managers t r y i n g t o make one d o l l a r do t h e work o f two. Even the r e l a t i v e l y w e l l -o f f p r i n t e r ' s f a m i l y t h a t the Abbe S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e s t u d i e d i n 1903 c o u l d o n l y a t t a i n and m a i n t a i n t h e c o m f o r t he d e s c r i b e d because two u n m a r r i e d , grown-up sons had s t e a d y j o b s and - 33 -g c o n t r i b u t e d . t o t h e f a m i l y income. Nine y e a r s e a r l i e r d u r i n g the c a r n i v a l the t h r e a t o f unemployment was a l s o q u i t e r e a l . I t was not a s e a s o n a l p roblem, however. The p o r t , o f c o u r s e , c l o s e d i n w i n t e r , as d i d many o f i t s r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . B u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and many o f t h e c i t y ' s p u b l i c works were suspended u n t i l l a t e s p r i n g ( A p r i l - M a y ) . T h i s s e a s o n a l s l o w -down a f f e c t e d t h e deckhands, th e s t e v e d o r e s , the employees o f t h e n a v i g a t i o n companies, th e c a r p e n t e r s , masons and b r i c k -l a y e r s i n t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s and t h e d a y - l a b o u r e r s o f t h e v a r i o u s m u n i c i p a l p u b l i c works. L a y o f f s i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r y were not s t r i c t l y s e a s o n a l and had more t o do w i t h b u s i n e s s c o n d i t i o n s . ^ The w i n t e r o f 1893-94 appears t o have been a t y p i c a l one f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e i n t h e c i t y , w i t h some o c c u p a t i o n a l groups s u f f e r i n g more unemployment th a n o t h e r s . L ' E l e c t e u r r e p o r t e d an upswing i n t h e f o r t u n e s o f t h e boot and shoe i n d u s t r y w i t h a t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f p r o d u c t s o r d e r e d t h a t f a l l and w i n t e r . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s good news, i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was more unemployment tha n u s u a l w i t h t h e c l o s i n g o f t h e p o r t f o r t h e s e a s o n . ^ The y e a r b e f o r e , on J a n u a r y 23, 1893, about t h r e e hundred o f t h e c i t y ' s unemployed had g a t h e r e d i n t h e square o f t h e Champlain Market t o d i s c u s s a s o l u t i o n t o t h e economic problems o f t h e c i t y . I t was t h e n d e c i d e d t o send a w o r k e r s ' d e l e g a t i o n t o Ottawa t o compel th e F e d e r a l Government t o i n v e s t money and i n t e r e s t i n t h e c i t y ' s economy on p u b l i c works l i k e - 34 -the C i t a d e l and t h e p o r t . C e r t a i n l y w o r k i n g p e o p l e and t h e i r f r i e n d s were w e l l aware o f t h e need f o r a c t i o n t o r e l i e v e t h e u n u s u a l d i s t r e s s , though i t appears t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government d i d not respond t o t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . As a prominent l o c a l l a b o u r l e a d e r p o i n t e d out a t t h e t i m e , o r d i n a r y p e o p l e were reduced t o e x c e p t i o n a l l e v e l s o f d e p r i v a t i o n . " H i e r e n c o r e , au prone de S a i n t Sauveur, l e r e v e r e n d pere G r e n i e r a d i t que dans c e t t e p a r o i s s e l a m i s e r e e s t p l u s grande que j a m a i s , des f a m i l i e s s o n t completement depourvues de t o u t e t n ' a t t e n d e n t p l u s l e u r s u b s i s t a n c e que de l a c h a r i t e " p u b l i q u e " . By t h e time o f t h e c a r n i v a l , c o n d i t i o n s had not a l t e r e d . Though the w i n t e r o f 1893-1894 was n o t as h a r s h as t h a t o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , i t was s t i l l d i f f i c u l t f o r many p e o p l e . The t i m b e r t r a d e , once a m a i n s t a y of t h e c i t y , was c o n t i n u i n g i t s g r a d u a l d e c l i n e , c o n s t r u c t i o n had s l owed, and hours and wages had been 12 reduced i n s e v e r a l f a c t o r i e s . Even o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e ....... c a r n i v a l were concerned t h a t t h e c u r r e n t economic c l i m a t e o f f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s would a f f e c t a t t e n d a n c e by American ... 13 v i s i t o r s . There were a few p a l l i a t i v e s t o r e l i e v e some o f t h e w o r s t symptoms o f t h i s economic i n s e c u r i t y , though not i t s c a u s e s . I n J a n u a r y e s p e c i a l l y , l a r g e numbers o f men were t r a d i t i o n a l l y engaged t o c u t i c e f o r r e f r i g e r a t i o n from th e f r o z e n S t . Lawrence. C a r t e r s and snow h a u l e r s a l s o b e n e f i t t e d from w i n t e r work as r o a d c l e a n e r s . The abundant s n o w f a l l o f 1894 was k i n d t o t h e s e p e o p l e . Some c a r p e n t e r s a l s o t o o k advantage o f t h e s l a c k w i n t e r season t o make s t o r a g e b a r r e l s f o r f i s h and found t h e m s e l v e s w i t h n i n e weeks o f e x t r a revenue P a u l Larocque a l s o n o t e d t h a t a c t i v i t y i n t h e p o r t a c t u a l l y recommenced i n F e b r u a r y when " m a c h i n i s t e s , mouleurs de f e r , e t m e c a n i c i e n s s ' a f f a i r e n t s u r l e s q u a i s a l a r e p a r i t i o n des v a i s s e a u x pour p r e p a r e r l ' o u v e r t u r e de l a s a i s o n de n a v i g a t i o n 14 redonnant au p o r t un semblant de v i e . " As 1'Eygnement o p t i m i s t i c a l l y n o t e d , t h e c a r n i v a l p r o v i d e d s i m i l a r r e l i e f work: Heureusement nous avons l e c a r n a v a l q u i f o u r n i t a c t u e l l e m e n t quelque ouvrage a p l u s i e u r s c e n t a i n e s d ' o u v r i e r s . x ^ The v a l u e o f t h i s c a r n i v a l as a make-work p r o j e c t i n w i n t e r and as a p a l l i a t i v e t o the c h r o n i c economic problems o f many pe o p l e i n t h e c i t y cannot be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . As i n M o n t r e a l d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s decade, hundreds o f workers r e c e i v e d temporary employment i n c u t t i n g b l o c k s o f i c e f o r the c a r n i v a l b u i l d i n g s , removing snow and i n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e i c e p a l a c e s i n t h e weeks b e f o r e t h e f e s t i v i t i e s . T h i s e x t r a source o f income made t h e d i f f e r e n c e between s u r v i v a l and d e p r i v a t i o n f o r many w o r k i n g f a m i l i e s . " ^ P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c a r n i v a l as a n y t h i n g but l a b o u r e r s o r s p e c t a t o r s however, seems t o have been u n l i k e l y f o r most w o r k i n g p e o p l e i n t h e c i t y . The r e a s o n a g a i n was c o s t . In M o n t r e a l ' s 1885 c a r n i v a l , one o f t h e f a n c y costumes t o be worn a t t h e grand b a l l i n the Windsor H o t e l c o s t $250, an e x t r a o r d i n a r y amount f o r t h e t i m e , perhaps t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a w o r k i n g person's y e a r l y income. By c o m p a r i s o n , the f i v e d o l l a r a d m i s s i o n p r i c e t o t h e Grand B a l l i n the L e g i s l a -t i v e B u i l d i n g f o r Quebec C i t y ' s 1894 c a r n i v a l seems modest. I t was e q u a l t o t h e weekly wages o f a good s e c t i o n o f the c i t y ' s w o r k i n g p e o p l e - and t h e r e remained o t h e r n e c e s s a r y expenses, 18 such as t h a t f o r s u i t a b l e a t t i r e . I t i s c l e a r ' t h a t , j u d g i n g from t h e Grand B a l l , t h e c a r n i v a l s were not i n t e n d e d t o be p o p u l a r f e s t i v a l s w i t h i n t h e community s i n c e t h e c o s t o f f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n would n e c e s s a r i l y have e x c l u d e d most o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c i t y . T h i s e x p l a i n s not o n l y why the presence o f l a r g e numbers o f t o u r i s t s w i t h money t o spend on amusements was so i m p o r t a n t t o the f e s t i v a l ' s s u c c e s s , but a l s o why c i t i z e n and t o u r i s t would have had l i t t l e o c c a s i o n t o m i n g l e as s o c i a l equals.. I t would, however, be m i s l e a d i n g t o imagine t h e w e a l t h y t o u r i s t s r e v e l l i n g and c a r o u s i n g i n t h e g i l d e d h a l l s o f the Chateau F r o n t e n a c w h i l e t h e w o r kers f r o z e around p i t i f u l f i r e s i n t h e Lower Town. I t would be more a c c u r a t e t o say t h a t t h e r e were two c u l t u r e s t h a t r a r e l y met, t h a t o f the w o r k i n g p e o p l e o f t h e c i t y , and t h a t o f t h e w e a l t h y p e o p l e , b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g . Each had i t s own i n s t i t u -t i o n s . I t c o s t c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e f o r w o r k i n g p e o p l e t o dance and s i n g and even t o d r i n k w i t h each o t h e r , and t h e r e were c e r t a i n l y enough p l a c e s t o do so, though contemporary l i m i t s were v e r y w e l l p r e s c r i b e d . - 37 -I n c o n t r a s t t o the e a r l y p a r t o f t h e c e n t u r y when the c u r e s and b i s h o p s o f t e n c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e i m p i e t y and . s c a n d a l o u s b e h a v i o u r o f h a b i t a n t p a r t i e s , and the e x c e s s e s o f p a t r o n a l f e a s t s , by the 1890's, i t appears t h a t o r d i n a r y and a p p a r e n t l y h a rmless a c t i v i t i e s l i k e d a n c i n g had come under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n and c o n t r o l o f t h e Church. At t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e c e n t u r y , Mgr. P l e s s i s c o u l d o n l y say, somewhat w i s t f u l l y , t h a t d a n c i n g and v e i l l e e s were h a r m f u l t o p r o p e r morals and t h a t " i l n'y a de bonnes p a r o i s s e s 19 ... que c e l l e s d'ou l e s danses son t absolument e x c l u e s " . By t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y , h i s s u c c e s s o r s and t h e p r i e s t s s e r v i n g under them were d e c i d i n g f o r F r e n c h Canadian C a t h o l i c s w h i c h dances were s i n f u l and w h i c h ones c o u l d be r e l u c t a n t l y t o l e r a t e d . At m a r d i g r a s , t h e c l e r g y f o r b a d e modern dances l i k e t h e w a l t z and t h e p o l k a w h i c h i n v o l v e d c l o s e l y d a n c i n g c o u p l e s , a l l o w i n g i n s t e a d o n l y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l group dances 20 l i k e t h e q u a d r i l l e , t h e l a n c e r s o r the c o t i l l o n . T h e s e , . i n fact/made up t h e dance programmes o f the c a r n i v a l o f 1894. In a d d i t i o n t o d a n c i n g , the Church e x p r e s s e d o f f i c i a l o p i n i o n s i n i t s v a r i o u s e p i s c o p a l mandements on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f l e i s u r e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y : t h e a t r e s , c i r c u s e s , c l u b s , 21 n o v e l s , dime museums, f e u i l l e t o n s , and s c a n d a l s h e e t s . There were a l s o p e r i o d i c c a l l s f o r a s t r i c t e r observance o f Sunday and t h e u s u a l condemnation of g a m b l i n g , p i c n i c s , 22 e x c u r s i o n s and m o r a l l y dangerous books on t h e Lord's, Day. 23 Even snowshoeing had come under c l e r i c a l a t t a c k . I n l i g h t - 38 -o f t h i s , i t may not have been n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e Church t o have a s p e c i f i c p o l i c y towards t h e c a r n i v a l , b u t once i n a w h i l e , members o f t h e c l e r g y d i d e x p r e s s o p i n i o n s . I n October 1845, the J e s u i t s u p e r i o r i n M o n t r e a l , F e l i x M a r t i n , d e s c r i b e d c a r n a v a l t ime t o an o t h e r member o f h i s o r d e r as "l'epoque malheureuse des p l a i s i r s du c a r n a v a l , e t quoique l ' o n ne se l i v r e pas i c i aux t r i s t e s exces que l ' i r r e l i g i o n e t l e l i b e r t i n a g e e f f r e n e i n s p i r e : _ a i l l e u r s , l a v e r t u . t r o u v e encore dans l e s danses e t l e s r e u n i o n s de l a je u n e s s e de grands 24 d a n g e r s . . . " I n 1956, A r c h b i s h o p M a u r i c e Roy o f Quebec C i t y seems t o have been t h i n k i n g a l o n g s i m i l a r l i n e s when he warned t h a t , d u r i n g t h e C a r n i v a l , t h e c i t y must not "hide i t s C h r i s t i a n f a c e b e h i n d the v e i l o f paganism o r degenerate i n t o 25 o r g a n i z e d debauchery 1,": As f o r d r i n k i n g , by 1910, t h e C i t y o f Quebec had a l i c e n c e d d r i n k i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r e v e r y 367 i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e h i g h e s t r a t i o o f t w e l v e p r i n c i p a l Canadian c e n t r e s . Because o f t h a t , even i n 1894, a l c o h o l i s m was seen as a major problem. The c u r e o f S a i n t Roch s a i d t h a t a l c o h o l 2 6 use was on t h e i n c r e a s e i n 1893, w h i l e a l e t t e r from a group o f "concerned c i t i z e n s " demanded t h a t t h e c i t y watch over the h o t e l s w h i c h opened s e c r e t l y on Sundays because "... l e u r c l i e n t e l e e s t nombreuse e t i l s'en s u i t ( s i c ) des s p e c t a c l e s . - " 2 7 v r a i m e n t desolants!!. W h i l e t h e a n t i - a l c o h o l l e a g u e , w h i c h began i n 1907 on t r a d i t i o n s t h a t went back t o t h e 1850's, a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f t o w o r k i n g c l a s s drunkenness, i t s own e x e c u t i v e committee was made up o f r e s p e c t a b l e b u s i n e s s and u n i o n l e a d e r s . As w i t h s i m i l a r m i d d l e c l a s s movements t o r e f o r m t h e h a b i t s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h where c o n c e r n f o r the w e l f a r e o f t h e p e o p l e o v e r l a p p e d w i t h i n t o l e r a n c e f o r the d i f f e r e n t mores o f t h e lower c l a s s e s . The r h e t o r i c o f m i d d l e c l a s s r e f o r m was some-ti m e s marked w i t h h y p o c r i s y . I n p a r t t h i s was because the worker was more v i s i b l e t h a n t h e m i d d l e c l a s s s o c i a l d r i n k e r and he was thus.-often seen as the f i t t a r g e t f o r r e f o r m and s e e m i n g l y more i n need o f l e s s o n s on t h r i f t and m o r a l i t y t h a n 29 d r i n k e r s on o t h e r l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y . Of c o u r s e , one o f t h e major r e a s o n s f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e temperance campaigns was t h a t many workers t h e m s e l v e s a c t i v e l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and s u p p o r t e d them. There i s no r e a s o n t o assume t h a t d r i n k i n g t o e x c e s s was such an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f w o r k i n g c l a s s c u l t u r e t h a t t o t r y t o r e s t r i c t i t c o u l d be seen as a m i d d l e c l a s s a s s a u l t on t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n o f w o r k i n g c l a s s l i f e . I n Quebec C i t y and e l s e w h e r e , i t s h o u l d be remembered, not everyone was drawn t o t h e same p l e a s u r e s . Though the days were l o n g gone when a c i t y alderman c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t e v e r y s e v e n t e e n t h house i n t h e c i t y was a b r o t h e l , i t i s more than l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e were a few, s i n c e b y - l a w s , l i k e Quebec C i t y ' s , appear t o have succeeded more i n k e e p i n g them o u t o f 31 s i g h t t h a n i n p u t t i n g them out o f b u s i n e s s . The l o c a l p r e s s does not mention any such a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894, nor d i d t h e M o n t r e a l papers d u r i n g i t s c a r n i v a l s , but - 40 -t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e o f a t l e a s t one, c a t e r i n g t o a w e a l t h y 32 c l i e n t e l e i n M o n t r e a l i n 1885. There were l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s p r i m a r i l y f o r f a m i l i e s and o t h e r s w h i c h a p p e a l e d more t o young s i n g l e p e o p l e . The p r i n t e r ' s f a m i l y t h a t t h e Abbe" S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e s t u d i e d i n 190 3, f o r example, to o k a few day t r i p s d u r i n g t h e y e a r , one t o t h e s h r i n e o f Ste.-Anne-de-Beaupre near th e c i t y , and two o t h e r s t o v i s i t t h e i r f r i e n d s i n t h e c o u n t r y . On t h e o t h e r hand the c i t y a l s o had a l a r g e number o f u n a t t a c h e d young p e o p l e who i n 1901 made up about two 33 t h i r d s o f t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n . Over h a l f o f t h i s group were women, many o f whom worked i n t h e c i t y ' s f a c t o r i e s . Though s h a r i n g t h e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f t h e o l d e r and m a r r i e d s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s l a r g e and t r a n s i e n t p o p u l a t i o n a l s o had i t s own d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . We are f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e m a t r i a r c h a l f i g u r e o f Mme. P l o u f f e , c r e a t e d by Roger L e m e l i n , and w i t h t h e s t r u g g l i n g p o v e r t y o f Rose Anna L a c a s s e , d e s c r i b e d by G a b r i e l l e Roy, two e n d u r i n g a r c h e t y p e s o f Quebec l i t e r a t u r e . But even R i t a 34 Toulouse had a c o u n t e r p a r t two g e n e r a t i o n s e a r l i e r . I n t h e c e n s o r i o u s atmosphere o f t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y Quebec, the d e s i r e o f s i n g l e young women t o be a t t r a c t i v e d i d not go w i t h o u t comment. L o r t i e , t h e p r i e s t , n o t e d w i t h some a s p e r i t y t h a t t h e young f a c t o r y women "aiment l e s t o i l e t t e s b r i l l a n t e s e t depensent souvent l a p l u s grande p a r t i e de l e u r s a l a i r e a 1' a c h a t de ve"tements dont l e p r i x e s t peu en r a p p o r t avec 35 l e u r bourse e t l e u r c o n d i t i o n " . - 41 -There were few f a c i l i t i e s f o r o u t d o o r s p o r t s . A p a r k was opened i n S t . Roch i n 1893, t h e o n l y one i n a w o r k i n g c l a s s q u a r t i e r o f t h e c i t y . A c t i v i t y t h e r e was s e v e r e l y 36 c i r c u m s c r i b e d . C i t y by-law 415 p r o h i b i t e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e s , songs, o r s h o u t i n g t h a t might d i s t u r b t h e p u b l i c peace i n p a r k s o r open spa c e s . These spaces were meant m a i n l y f o r promenading. There i s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a 37 w o r k i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t i n s p o r t s , but most p e o p l e s t i l l had t o work l o n g hours s i x days a week and t a v e r n s s t i l l were, f o r males, a p l a c e o f r e l a x a t i o n and s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . The l a c k o f adequate p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e s t r i c t e d m o b i l i t y , k e e p i n g p e o p l e i n o r near neighbourhoods. As f o r many o u t - o f -town e x c u r s i o n s , t h e d e c i d i n g f a c t o r , a p a r t from t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , would have been enough time o f f work. W i t h th e u n c e r t a i n t y o f employment, few p e o p l e seem t o have t a k e n v o l u n t a r y v a c t i o n s . I f t r a v e l o c c u r r e d on Sundays, the u s u a l day o f f , C a t h o l i c s were aware t h a t t h e Church d i s a p p r o v e d o f s e c u l a r e x p e d i t i o n s on t h e L o r d ' s Day, o r even p r o f a n e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , a s t a n d 3 8 t h a t had much i n common w i t h t h e P r o t e s t a n t s o f T o r o n t o . Thus the w i n t e r c a r n i v a l p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e young t o m i n g l e as s p e c t a t o r s f o r t h e e v e n t s t h a t took p l a c e o u t s i d e , e s p e c i a l l y on the. h a l f day t h a t work was ..." suspended. For t h o s e few who c o u l d a f f o r d t o p a r t i c i p a t e , i t was one o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r m i n g l i n g among young p e o p l e , when the mantle o f d i s a p p r o v a l o f c l e r i c a l o r p a t e r n a l chaperones was l i f t e d e v e r so s l i g h t l y . N e v e r t h e -- 42 -less, the Church did declare the period immediately following the c a r n i v a l to be one of extra devotion to r e l i g i o u s duties, 39 for the young of a l l classes, not only working people. There are many questions s t i l l to be asked and answered about the young and single members of the working class population. However, for the purposes of t h i s study, one can advance a few tentative conclusions based on the evidence we have. It seems; .unlikely that a l l these young people o r i g i n a l l y came from.the c i t y . This meant that many of them were first-generation urban dwellers who had emigrated from the country-side and maintained many lin k s with families there. For the young with no families of th e i r own close by, these li n k s were doubtless important, and d i f f i c u l t to maintain for the economic reasons outlined„above. Secondly, since they were separated from t h e i r families and parish communities, the fam i l i a r figure of the parish p r i e s t , took on more importance as a force of s o c i a l c ontrol, to be sure, but also of s o c i a l cement. Later writers have been c r i t i c a l of the way that the p r i e s t s f i l l e d t h i s vacuum, but for trans-planted r u r a l people used to a small integrated t r a d i t i o n a l community, the p r i e s t was more l i k e l y to have been seen as a benign person who mediated between them and the new urban, i n d u s t r i a l and often English context into which they had ventured. In t h i s new urban and i n d u s t r i a l t e r r i t o r y i t i s not, surprising that French Canadians clung to what fam i l i a r landmarks there were. Their urbanized o f f s p r i n g i n e v i t a b l y - 43 -d e v e l o p e d t h e i r own l o y a l t i e s and t h e i r own d i f f e r e n t and o f t e n 40 more m i l i t a n t r e s p o n s e s as p a r t o f t h i s p r o c e s s . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f z e a l o u s l y removing o r r e d u c i n g t h e s e c u l a r o p p o s i t i o n t o i t s i n f l u e n c e so t h a t the s p i r i t u a l p a t h c o u l d more c l e a r l y be seen, t h e Church seems t o have h e l p e d t o undermine some of t h e v e r y f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h e communities and the a u t h o r i t y i t hoped t o p r e s e r v e f o r i t s e l f . In W i l l i a m Ryan's words, the Church took t h e s i d e o f t h e emerging c a p i t a l i s t s , h o p i n g t o c r e a t e "a s o b e r , h a r d w o r k i n g and p e a c e f u l l a b o u r f o r c e " , f o r whom i t c o u l d become the . e s s e n t i a l m e d i a t o r . I t u l t i m a t e l y s u r r e n d e r e d much o f i t s a u t h o r i t y t o t h e s e c a p i t a l i s t s . I I . The Economic T r a n s i t i o n The l a s t f i f t y y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y were the key p e r i o d o f economic, s o c i a l and even c u l t u r a l u n c e r -t a i n t y f o r Quebec C i t y . The l o s s o f some of the o l d c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s l i k e t h e c a r n i v a l o c c u r r e d i n t h i s p e r i o d as t h e c i t y moved from a m e r c a n t i l e economy i n t o an i n d u s t r i a l one. That f i f t y y e a r p e r i o d saw a complete change i n t h e economy o f t h e c i t y accompanied by a modest growth i n p o p u l a -t i o n . The p e r i o d can a l s o be seen as one o f r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e f o r t h e c i t y . The r i v a l c i t y o f M o n t r e a l r o s e t o r e g i o n a l as w e l l as n a t i o n a l dominance. M o n t r e a l ' s commercial r i s e l e d . t o a t r a n s f e r o f economic power from Quebec. - 44 -I n 1851 Quebec C i t y was t h e g r e a t p o r t o f t h e lumber e x p o r t t r a d e , s u r p a s s i n g M o n t r e a l i n the number o f s h i p s and t h e volume o f t r a f f i c . M o n t r e a l , as t h e c e n t r e f o r t h e i m p o r t of f i n i s h e d B r i t i s h goods and West I n d i a n p r o d u c t s , s u r p a s s e d 41 Quebec i n t h e v a l u e o f t h a t t r a f f i c . Then, l a t e i n t h e ...... 1850's, c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s by M o n t r e a l merchants f o r t h e improvement o f n a v i g a t i o n a l o n g t h e S a i n t Lawrence even began t o undermine Quebec's c o n t r o l o f t h e lumber t r a d e i t s e l f . When t h e t i m b e r r e s o u r c e s o f t h e Ottawa and G a t i n e a u began t o 42 be d e v e l o p e d , i t was M o n t r e a l w h i c h b e n e f i t e d , not Quebec. Quebec's p r o s p e r i t y was t i e d t o "the age o f wood, win d , and w a t e r " . L i k e t h e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r o n - r i b b e d , wooden-hulled composite s h i p , and t h e n t h e f u l l y i r o n - h u l l e d s teamship a f t e r 1860, began the s t e a d y e r o s i o n . o f t h e wooden s h i p b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y . From 1871 t o 1880, Quebec C i t y y a r d s t u r n e d out about t w e n t y - f i v e s h i p s p e r y e a r i n t w e l v e y a r d s d i r e c t l y e m p l o y i n g about 800 w o r k e r s . In t h e f o l l o w i n g decade, t h e a n n u a l average of s h i p s b u i l t 43 f e l l t o two. The term " s h i p s " i s , however, a somewhat m i s l e a d i n g way t o i n d i c a t e t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f t h a t d e c l i n e -t h e s i z e o f t h e v e s s e l s dropped j u s t as d r a s t i c a l l y as t h e i r 44 numbers. That d e c l i n e a f f e c t e d t h e s h i p y a r d w o r k e r s , the 45 owners, and many r e l a t e d b u s i n e s s e s and t r a d e s . At t h e same ti m e as s h i p b u i l d e r s were e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e f i r s t s t a g e s o f t h e i r d e c l i n e , new i n d u s t r i e s were b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e c i t y . These would s h i f t the economy away - 45 -from t h e e x p o r t o f raw m a t e r i a l s l i k e t i m b e r towards an economy based on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f i n i s h e d goods, e s p e c i a l l y shoes and l e a t h e r p r o d u c t s i n s m a l l and medium-sized f a c t o r i e s . That t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was not an easy one f o r many and d i d r e s u l t i n h a r d s h i p . I t began w i t h t h e op e n i n g o f t h e f i r s t mechanized shoe f a c t o r y i n t h e c i t y i n J u l y 1864. Three young F r e n c h Canadians had r e t u r n e d from l i v i n g i n New England and brought back w i t h them t h e new American t e c h n o l o g y . S m a l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s and workers i n t h e c i t y ' s l e a t h e r c r a f t s put up i n i t i a l r e s i s t a n c e but were d e f e a t e d by t h e cheaper, f a s t e r machines. Seven y e a r s l a t e r , t h e r e were seven l a r g e mechanized f a c t o r i e s i n t h e c i t y . S i x o f them were F r e n c h Canadian e n t e r p r i s e s w i t h a t o t a l w o r k f o r c e o f over two thousand , 4 6 p e o p l e . M o n t r e a l was t h e c e n t r e f o r l e a t h e r p r o d u c t i o n f o r Canada b u t , Quebec C i t y , because o f i t s s m a l l e r s i z e , came t o 47 depend much more h e a v i l y on t h i s t r a d e . By t h e 1890's, the l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y had l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s f o r many o f t h e ..... c i t y ' s modern s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y t r u e f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s a r e a s o f S t . Roch and Jacques C a r t i e r , where l e a t h e r p r o d u c t i o n was p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e n t r a t e d . I n 1893-;94, t h i r t e e n o u t o f e i g h t e e n boot and shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n a s m a l l a r e a o f S t . Roch and Jacques C a r t i e r wards, w i t h t e n o f t h e t w e l v e 48 t a n n e r s and c u r r i e r s l o c a t e d nearby. By 1901, a c c o r d i n g t o one r e l i a b l e , e s t i m a t e , t h e c i t y would have twenty-seven - 46 -t a n n e r i e s and t h i r t y - f i v e shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s , w i t h a combined 4 9 w o r k f o r c e o f about 4200, a t h i r d o f them women. The c l o t h i n g i n d u s t r y w h i c h was second i n importance t o t h e l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y had a w o r k f o r c e o f about 1300 i n 1891."^ The r e s t o f t h e c i t y ' s i n d u s t r i a l economy c e n t e r e d around t h e p r o d u c -t i o n o f l i g h t consumer goods l i k e f u r s , b e e r , t o b a c c o and f o o d 51 and b e v e r a g e s , though on a s m a l l s c a l e . The s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c i t y t h a t accompanied th e change from a m e r c a n t i l e t o an i n d u s t r i a l economy was e q u a l l y comprehensive. Both w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e . b u s i n e s s c l a s s were a f f e c t e d . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d most n o t a b l y i n the change i n t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f the c i t y . The B r i t i s h and I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n moved away and t h e F r e n c h Canadian p o p u l a t i o n grew. By t h e 1890's t h e r e was a s m a l l E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n and a d e c l i n i n g E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g b u s i n e s s 52 community. On t h e o t h e r hand, the w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n was o v e r w h e l m i n g l y F r e n c h C a n a d i a n , as were l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t elements o f the l o c a l b u s i n e s s community. F r e n c h Canadians i n t h i s l a t t e r group appear t o have been s p r e a d r a t h e r l i b e r a l l y t h r o u g h t h e c i t y ' s medium and s m a l l b u s i n e s s e s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e 1850's when t h e A n g l o - S c o t t i s h t i m b e r merchants and b r o k e r s dominated t h e c i t y ' s economy t h r o u g h t h e i r c o n t r o l o f the t i m b e r t r a d e , t h e more d i v e r s i f i e d i n d u s t r i a l s e c t o r o f t h e 1890's p e r m i t t e d F r e n c h Canadians t o t a k e over a l a r g e share o f economic a c t i v i t y . - 47 -By then,;, the o l d commercial E n g l i s h names were i n t h e m a j o r i t y o n l y among t h e t i m b e r merchants and b r o k e r s , on t h e boards o f t h e paper m a n u f a c t u r e r s and on t h e two s t r e e t 53 r a i l w a y companies. I n most o f t h e o t h e r key l o c a l i n d u s t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e b o o t , shoe and l e a t h e r t r a d e , companies w i t h F r e n c h names were more numerous. T h i s was a l s o t r u e o f much of t h e c i t y ' s s e r v i c e and r e t a i l b u s i n e s s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e food i n d u s t r y , but s i n c e t h a t i n v o l v e d d e a l i n g w i t h a b i l i n g u a l c l i e n t e l e , t h i s was perhaps t o be e x p e c t e d . Not u n e x p e c t e d l y , among t h e l a w y e r s and d o c t o r s , F r e n c h names a l s o p redominated, g i v i n g F r e n c h Canadians e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o v er such a r e a s , 54 f o r example, as c i v i c p o l i t i c s . The d e c l i n e o f t h e E n g l i s h b u s i n e s s community appears t o be the main r e a s o n f o r t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f i t s F r e n c h Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t . I t was l e s s a m a t t e r o f i n d i v i d u a l b u s i n e s s e s b e i n g r u i n e d , but r a t h e r an a t t r i t i o n o f t h e power o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g group. Though c o m p r i s i n g o n l y a t w e l f t h o f t h e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n by the 1890's t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g community, e s p e c i a l l y t h e businessmen appears t o have been d i s p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y g r e a t . T h e i r r o l e i n the economic and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s o f t h e c i t y has s c a r c e l y been i n v e s t i g a t e d as y e t , but some b u s i n e s s f i g u r e s appear t o have been a d a p t a b l e t o t h e changed .... 55 economic c o n d i t i o n s . The c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1894 a r e an e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y . t o see how b o t h e t h n i c elements o f t h e l o c a l c o m mercial o l i g a r c h y worked t o g e t h e r . F r e n c h Canadian and - 48 -E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g businessmen s h a r e d i n r u n n i n g the economic, p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s o f the c i t y , and as d e f e n d e r s o f t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e c i t y , t h e y worked q u i t e w e l l t o g e t h e r . I n t h e Chamber o f Commerce, b o t h e t h n i c groups were r e p r e s e n t e d i n e q u a l numbers, and t h i s e q u a l i t y extended t o b o t h t h e e x e c u t i v e body and t o t h e 56 g o v e r n i n g c o u n c i l . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p a l s o extended t o b o d i e s such as t h e C i t y C o u n c i l , where t h e r e were a few E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g aldermen and c o u n c i l l o r s on t h e m a i n l y F r e n c h Canadian body, and t o t h e Quebec Harbour Commission, where the e t h n i c numbers were more e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d . The s m a l l number o f E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s on t h e C i t y C o u n c i l i s p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n e d , o f c o u r s e , by t h e s m a l l numbers o f E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g v o t e r s and the f a c t t h a t t h e i r F r e n c h Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s were p a r t o f t h e v e r y much l a r g e r F r e n c h Canadian community, and would t h e r e f o r e be more w e l l known. T h i s w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the two, e t h n i c groups o f t h e b u s i n e s s community i s a l s o r e v e a l e d i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t r o l o f t h e c a r n i v a l i t s e l f , but t h a t i s a g a i n a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s i t u a -t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r community. H a l f o f t h e o r g a n i z e r s were E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g . T h i s s i t u a t i o n d e s e r v e s comment because i n t h e p a s t , community c e l e b r a t i o n s l i k e t h e c a r n i v a l , u s u a l l y a r o s e out o f t h e needs o r t r a d i t i o n s o f the F r e n c h Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . The case o f Quebec C i t y i n 1894, and f o r many y e a r s b e f o r e t h a t , i s o b v i o u s l y more c o m p l i c a t e d . I t does not seem t o be a q u e s t i o n o f one e t h n i c group d o m i n a t i n g the - 49 -o t h e r , but o f t h e same s o c i a l / o c c u p a t i o n a l elements o f each e t h n i c group f i n d i n g common cause. Businessmen and w o r k i n g p e o p l e c r o s s e d e t h n i c l i n e s i n t i m e s of s t r e s s and c e l e b r a t i o n t o promote o r defend t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . T h i s was borne out on a n o t h e r l e v e l . A r e c e n t s t u d y by Jacques M a t h i e u i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e Union des monteurs i n t h e l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y m a i n t a i n e d a c e r t a i n i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e " n a t i o n a l " - i n t e r e s t s o f t h e time as r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e Societe'-St v J e a n - B a p t i s t e . I n 1902, t h e l e a t h e r w o r k e r s 1 u n i o n was r e l u c t a n t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n one o f t h e S o c i e t y ' s p a r a d e s . As w e l l , t h e y r e f u s e d t o s u p p l y money f o r a c o l o n i s a t i o n scheme a t Lac des C o m m i s s a i r e s , so t h a t , c o n c l u d e d M a t h i e u , "dans c e t t e p e r s p e c t i v e , 1'Union des Monteurs se preoccupe peu de l ' a v e n i r n a t i o n a l " . H i s u n w i l l i n g c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t "1?image s y n d i c a l e , e t par consequent 1 1 image q u ' i l s v e u l e n t p r o j e t e r a l ' e x t e r i e u r e t dont i l s s o n t f i e r s , e s t p l u s i m p o r t a n t que l e u r image 57 n a t i o n a l e " . I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h i s was a l s o t r u e i n 1894. I n s t u d y i n g t h e Quebec b u s i n e s s community, " l a _ ...... b o u r g e o i s i e q u e b e c o i s e " o f t h e . l a s t h a l f o f the ..nineteenth c e n t u r y , P aul-Andre L i n t e a u ' s s t u d y a l s o found common i n t e r e s t s p r e v a i l i n g o v er e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s . Of i t s t h r e e b a s i c l e v e l s - l a grande, l a moyenne, and l a p e t i t e - e a c h l e v e l was d i s t i n g u i s h e d , i n h i s a n a l y s i s , by the degree o f economic c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d , not income, nor f o r t u n e o r e t h n i c i t y a l o n e . c These were i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s but not d e t e r m i n a n t s . The l e v e l and e x t e n t o f t h a t c o n t r o l depended on whether the - 50 -economic a c t i v i t y was c a r r i e d out on a l o c a l l e v e l , as i n t h e case o f t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e , on a neighbourhood l e v e l , as i n t h e case o f t h e p e t i t e b o u r g e o i s i e , o r on a pan-Canadian l e v e l as i n t h e case o f t h e grande b o u r g e o i s i e o f M o n t r e a l . I n more p r e c i s e t e r m s , L i n t e a u d e f i n e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o f t h e p r o v i n c e 1 s grande b o u r g e o i s i e as d i r e c t i n g f ' d i r i g e a n t " ) . l e s i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n a n c i e r e s - banques, compagnies d'assurance e t socie'tes de f i d u c i e - l e s p l u s i m p o r t a n t s ; l e s p r i n c i p a l e s i n d u s t r i e s ; l e s e n t r e p r i s e s de chemin de f e r e t de n a v i g a t i o n d'envergure c o n t i n e n t a l e ou i n t e r n a t i o n a l e ; l e grand commerce; l e s p r o j e t s f o n c i e r e s q u i c o n c e r n e n t d'immenses r e g i o n s . C o n c e n t r a t e d i n M o n t r e a l , Canada's f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l , t h i s m a i n l y A n g l o - S c o t t i s h group a l s o i n c l u d e d a few F r e n c h Canadians a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Bank o f M o n t r e a l and t h e Canadian 59 P a c i f i c R a i l r o a d . The Quebec C i t y b o u r g e o i s i e d i d not a t t a i n t h i s l e v e l o f economic power, i t s l e a d i n g members belonged t o t h e m i d d l e group, t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e , whose i n t e r e s t s and l e v e l o f economic c o n t r o l were r e g i o n a l . As Jean Hamelin o b s e r v e d when comparing M o n t r e a l and Quebec's b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s , " M o n t r e a l ouvre s u r un marche c o n t i n e n t a l , Quebec s u r un marche r e g i o n a l " . A r c h b i s h o p B o u r g e t ' s r e p l i c a o f S t . P e t e r ' s i n Rome, b e i n g b u i l t i n M o n t r e a l a t t h e time i s i l l u s t r a t i v e t h a t t h e o u t l i n e s , i f not a m b i t i o n s o f moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e were s i m i l a r t o the grande b o u r g e o i s i e , though on a somewhat reduced s c a l e . L i n t e a u ' s model a p p l i e s w e l l t o t h e l a r g e r e n t r e p r e n e u r s o f Quebec C i t y , a group w h i c h : - 51 -... . o r i e n t e ses. a c t i v i t e v e r s l e s i n s t i t u t i o n s f i n a n c i e r e s d'envergure r e g i o n a l e , l a p e t i t e e t moyenne e n t r e p r i s e commerciale ou i n d u s t r i e l l e , l a p r o m o t i o n u r b a i n e , e t l a c o n s t r u c t i o n des chemins de f e r d i t s de c o l o n i s a t i o n . . . ^ I n t h e a r e a o f p o l i t i c s , i f the grande b o u r g e o i s i e ' s s c a l e was n a t i o n a l , t h e moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e ' s p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n were l o c a l " p l u s s p e c i f i q u e m e n t au n i v e a u m u n i c i p a l ou l e s d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t e n t l e u r s int§r§ts economiques i m m e d i a t s " . ^ x The i m p o r t a n c e , power and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h i s 6 2 l o c a l o l i g a r c h y d e s e r v e s more a t t e n t i o n . I n Quebec C i t y , t h i s moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e w h i c h was A n g l o - S c o t t i s h , I r i s h and F r e n c h Canadian, p l a y e d a key r o l e , even t h e d e c i s i v e one, i n the c i t y ' s development. They extended t h e l o c a l hegemony o f 6 3 Quebec c i t y by t h e development o f t h r e e r a i l r o a d p r o j e c t s . These brought t h e a r e a between Quebec and T r o i s - R i v i S r e s , the Beauce, some o f t h e E a s t e r n Townships, and t h e Saguenay-Lac S t . - J e a n a r e a i n t o Quebec C i t y ' s economic o r b i t . I n the c i t y i t s e l f , the moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e was i n v o l v e d i n commercial 64 c i v i c p r o m o t i o n t h r o u g h t h e Chamber o f Commerce. The w i n t e r c a r n i v a l , b e g i n n i n g i n 1894 and r e v i v e d i n 1954 was one i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . Because o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f the c i t y - and c o n s e q u e n t l y o f t h e e l i t e i t s e l f - i t was easy f o r such a group t o a c h i e v e consensus and m o b i l i z e i t s e l f f o r a c t i o n i n c a r r y i n g o u t i t s o b j e c t i v e s . I n i t s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the r e s t o f t h e c i t y as w e l l , t h i s e t h n i c a l l y mixed e l i t e g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y e d a rema r k a b l e degree o f c o h e s i v e n e s s . L .. D u r i n g s t r i k e s and t h e c a r n i v a l , t h e f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l t i e s - 52 -that bound i t s members together as a class could be seen i n action. For example, having seen the Chamber oppose a b i l l (later withdrawn) making the owner of a factory responsible for accidents to workers suffered on his premises, c i t y workers were l i k e l y i n a r e s e n t f u l mood early i n 1893. Indeed, at an indignant meeting of the Quebec and Levis Conseil central des metiers et du t r a v a i l on February 7, 1893, the labour movement showed that i t was h o s t i l e to the a c t i v i t i e s of the Chamber: Cette Chambre n'a pas le temps a consacrer n i '. l ' h a b i l i t e de t r a v a i l l e r au progres et a* l a .. prosperite commerciale de cette v i l l e , mais e l l e a le temps de s'opposer aux legitimes aspirations d'une classe qui est le p i l i e r de l a province de Quebec. Nous ne sommes n i s o c i a l i s t e s , n i anarchistes, nous blamons me*me tous ceux qui cherchent a pousser l a classe ouvriere dans cette voie nefaste, et nous censurons 1'action de l a Chambre de Commerce dans les questions ouvrieres parce qu'elle est de nature a induire les ouvriers a s'insurger contre 1'autorite.^5 The recent past had also furnished,examples that brought t h i s class r i v a l r y into even sharper focus. When Narcisse Rosa, a l o c a l shipbuilder t e s t i f i e d before the Federal Royal Commission on the Relations of Labour and Capital in Quebec City i n February 1888, his remarks were tinged with bitterness about the d i f f i c u l t i e s of l i v i n g as a businessman in a c i t y that had a powerful working class organization l i k e the Quebec Ship Labourers' Benevolent Society. His castiga-tion of the ..".despotism" of that organization^, which was both a charitable body and acted l i k e a union,, might be better understood when i t i s remembered that he had provoked a three-- 53 -day s t r i k e i n June o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r by em p l o y i n g non-6 6 u n i o n l a b o u r t o u n l o a d a s h i p i n t h e p o r t . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e were w o r k i n g p e o p l e who r e c a l l e d l i f e b e f o r e the 6 7 i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y i n 1862. Some were p r e s e n t a t th e s t r i k e o f J u l y 11-23, 1866 when t h e S o c i e t y attempted t o have i t s u n i f o r m r a t e s o f pay f o r v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f work a c c e p t e d a g a i n s t employer r e s i s t a n c e . A three-week o l d a l l i a n c e o f s h i p m a s t e r s , s t e v e d o r e s and t i m b e r merchants broke down on J u l y 23, 1866 when t h e s h i p masters c a p i t u l a t e d t o the u n i o n . The n e x t day, "a v e r i t a b l e r o l l - c a l l o f the o l d S t . P e t e r S t r e e t o l i g a r c h y " met t o e x p r e s s i t s annoyance a t th e d e f e c t i o n of t h e i r e r s t w h i l e a l l i e s , and a l s o t o g i v e i n t o t h e u n i o n , a l b e i t g r u d g i n g l y . Many o f t h e s e merchants -S h a r p i e s , W i l s o n , Ross, Dean, B i c k e l l , and J e f f e r y - were s t i l l a c t i v e i n b u s i n e s s and s o c i a l c i r c l e s i n the 1890's, and 6 8 some o f them were prominent i n t h e c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Another w i t n e s s b e f o r e t h e R o y a l Commission h e a r i n g s was t h e Quebec C i t y j o u r n a l i s t , J u l i u s P. T a r d i v e l , p r o p r i e t o r o f t h e u l t r a m o n t a n e newspaper La V e r i t e and a v i g o r o u s opponent 69 of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l K n i g h t s o f Labour. When the Union des  'Typographies de Quebec, an a f f i l i a t e o f t h e K n i g h t s , went on s t r i k e a g a i n s t t h e newspapers i n t h e C i t y i n J a n u a r y 1888 f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e work day t o n i n e hours from t e n , and f o r a minimum s a l a r y o f $8 per week, a common f r o n t o f the employers succeeded i n r e s i s t i n g t he s t r i k e . The workers were f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o work w i t h no g a i n s a f t e r a p a r t i c u l a r l y v i r u l e n t - 54 -a n t i - K n i g h t s newspaper campaign, l e a d by T a r d i v e l . A few days l a t e r , t h e u n i o n i t s e l f was undermined when a new one was s e t up whose r u l e s were t o be s u b m i t t e d t o the r e l i g i o u s a u t h o r i -70 t i e s . C l e r i c a l c o n s e n t would a l s o be needed f o r any changes. W i t h T a r d i v e l " s i n v o l v e m e n t , th e l a b o u r i s s u e s became c l o u d e d and c o n f u s e d by t h e abhorrence o f C a t h o l i c N a t i o n a l i s t s l i k e him f o r "masonic" s e c u l a r w o r k e r s ' a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t i e s t o E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g N o r t h A m e r i c a . An even more c o n c r e t e example o f t h e h i g h degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n among the c i t y ' s employers to o k p l a c e i n J u n e - J u l y , 1891. Three hundred f i f t y w orkers i n t h e L a s t e r s ' P r o t e c t i v e Union s t r u c k t h e l o c a l l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y f o r h i g h e r wages, but a u n i t e d f r o n t o f t h e companies a g a i n succeeded i n w a i t i n g out t h e s t r i k e d u r i n g a month o f slow b u s i n e s s . A t t h e end o f t h a t p e r i o d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e M o rning C h r o n i c l e o f J u l y 3, 1891, i n c r e a s e d m e c h a n i z a t i o n worked i n t h e employers' f a v o u r , "douze machines d e s t i n e e s a a c c e l e r e r l e montage des c h a u s s u r e s s o n t d e j a i n s t a l l e e s a Quebec. On en a t t e n d h u i t a u t r e s . Une machine peut monter de 400 a 700 p a i r e s de s o u l i e r s par j o u r " . I n defence o f - t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e economic i n t e r e s t s , b o t h th e w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e b u s i n e s s c l a s s were o f t e n u n i t e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r . But t h a t does not e x p l a i n t h e way t h a t c o n s c i o u s -ness o f one's c l a s s was m a i n t a i n e d between c r i s e s . R e a l s t r u c t u r e s o f s o l i d a r i t y e x i s t e d i n Quebec C i t y f o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e l i v e s o f t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s community, n o t a b l y t h e i r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , t h a t brought 'them t o g e t h e r r e g u l a r l y - 55 -as a.class. The 1894 ca r n i v a l and i t s successors was a cele-bration of the values and i n s t i t u t i o n s of these people, just as the older carnivals were more broadly-based celebrations of p r e - i n d u s t r i a l society. In order to understand the difference between the two, i t i s now necessary to discuss the structure and values sustaining the modern ca r n i v a l of 1894. - 56 -CHAPTER I I I THE CARNIVAL OF 1894 I . "The A n c i e n t C a p i t a l Under a New A s p e c t " When the e s t i m a t e d f i f t y t o s e v e n t y thousand s p e c t a t o r s t u r n e d o u t t o see the s t o r m i n g o f the..ice p a l a c e on t h a t c o l d n i g h t o f F e b r u a r y 2, 1894, t h e y were w i t n e s s i n g the s u c c e s s f u l f a n d d r a m a t i c . c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e l o c a l b u s i n e s s community's c e l e b r a t i o n o f i t s s u c c e s s . Whatever c u l t u r a l a s p i r a t i o n s t h i s e v e nt may l a t e r have had, and whatever l i n k s w i t h the p a s t i t may have hoped t o i n v o k e , i i t was e s s e n t i a l l y t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s t a g e d by t h e l o c a l c ommercial o l i g a r c h y . I n t h e few months between O c t o b e r , 1893 and F e b r u a r y , 1894, t h e e l a b o r a t e f e s t i v a l had been pr o p o s e d , o r g a n i z e d , f i n a n c e d , a d v e r t i s e d a l l o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a , and c a r r i e d o u t w i t h a s u c c e s s beyond t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f even i t s most o p t i m i s t i c a d v o c a t e s . The s u p p o r t and e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e b u s i n e s s community i n p a r t i c u l a r , and t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f ... many l o c a l merchants i n a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e c a r n i v a l were c o n s i d e r e d k e y . . f a c t o r s i n i t s s u c c e s s a t t h e t i m e . On the o t h e r hand, the v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n o f most o t h e r s e c t o r s o f the community en s u r e d t h a t t h e form and c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l would p r i m a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s and p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e s e same businessmen. The p u b l i s h e r o f t h e Quebec T e l e g r a p h , Frank C a r r e l . , f i r s t s u g g e s ted th e i d e a o f a w i n t e r c a r n i v a l f o r t h e c i t y i n O c t o b e r , 1893 and d i d so i n an e d i t o r i a l a p p e a l i n g d i r e c t l y t o the l o c a l businessmen f o r s u p p o r t : Thousands o f s t r a n g e r s would be a t t r a c t e d t o our o l d c i t y by so a g r e e a b l e a break i n t h e dead season and so f a v o u r a b l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see the A n c i e n t C a p i t a l under a new a s p e c t , and our h o t e l s and l o c a l t r a d e would reap t h e b e n e f i t . I n f a c t , a s t i r would be c r e a t e d i n e v e r y department of our l o c a l l i f e j u s t when, i t would be most welcome, and a l a r g e amount o f money would be p u t i n c i r c u l a t i o n , when most wanted.1 The k i n d o f c a r n i v a l he had i n mind was s i m i l a r t o the ones h e l d i n M o n t r e a l a decade e a r l i e r . These c o n s i s t e d o f -s p e c t a c l e s , s p o r t i n g e v e n t s and e n t e r t a i n m e n t e m p h a s i z i n g the j o y f u l a s p e c t o f t h e Canadian w i n t e r : Of c o u r s e , t h e s t a p l e s would have t o be t h e customary d r i v i n g , s k a t i n g , snow-shoeing, c u r l i n g , hockey p l a y i n g , t o b o g a n n i n g , masquerade b a l l s on the i c e , t o r c h l i g h t p r o c e s s i o n s , and t h e o t h e r s e a s o n a b l e s p o r t s , but such n o v e l t i e s , ..for i n s t a n c e , as a parade o f our m i l i t a r y on snow shoes, w h i c h , we b e l i e v e , c o u l d be a r r a n g e d f o r w i t h o u t any g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , might be a l s o i n t r o d u c e d t o g r e a t advantage. The a t t a c k and defence o f a r e g u l a r i c e - c a s t l e o r f o r t would a l s o be a v a l u a b l e s p e c t a c u l a r a d j u n c t t o t h e programme. To ensure t h a t a l l s o c i a l c l a s s e s would f e e l t h a t t h e y were i n v o l v e d , C a r r e l a l s o proposed t h a t i t would be "not o n l y a w i s e , b u t a g r a c e f u l t h i n g t o have t h i s f o r t e r e c t e d somewhere i n S t . Roch's", th e F r e n c h s p e a k i n g and w o r k i n g 3 c l a s s a r e a o f t h e c i t y . He a l s o a l l u d e d t o t h e m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t t o t h e l a b o u r i n g p o p u l a t i o n , w h e n he s u g g ested t h a t the - 58 -c a r n i v a l would a l l e v i a t e the w i n t e r p l i g h t "of a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of our working c l a s s e s " i n a f a r b e t t e r and more 4 r a t i o n a l way than by c h a r i t y . For whatever reasons t h a t most appealed to them - and C a r r e l appears to have been a good salesman by u s i n g them a l l - the l o c a l business community responded f a v o u r a b l y to h i s p r o p o s a l . A few days l a t e r the Telegraph was r e p o r t i n g t h a t prominent merchants were not o n l y i n favour of the c a r n i v a l , but a l s o promised t h e i r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . ^ J.B. L e t e l l i e r , a S t . Roch merchant, was quoted as s a y i n g "there would be a b e t t e r c i r c u l a t i o n of money and a l l t r a d e s would more or l e s s d e r i v e a b e n e f i t . February was a good month, as i t was g the d u l l e s t of the year". No r e f e r e n c e was made to mardi gras or any t r a d i t i o n a l f e s t i v a l s of the month. E x p e c t i n g some apathy i n the French Canadian community, the paper c a l l e d on the French-language p r e s s to arouse "that unison and wise l i b e r a l i t y i n the matter, which are so e s s e n t i a l t o success" by g e t t i n g the French Canadian "storekeepers, manufacturers, h o t e l and businessmen of S t . Roch's" i n v o l v e d i n having the i c e p alace l o c a t e d t h e r e . " I t depends upon them and upon the g e n e r o s i t y .and e n t e r p r i s e of our merchants and business, men g e n e r a l l y t o say whether e f f e c t s h a l l be given t o the „7 p r o p o s i t i o n . A few days l a t e r , the Telegraph sent a r e p o r t e r t o St.. Roch' s and he found more support there f o r the i d e a than had been expected. J.B. L a l i b e r t e , owner of the l a r g e s t f u r - 59 -s t o r e i n S t . Roch's who s o l d , w i t h G.R. Renfrew, t h e o t h e r l a r g e Quebec f u r r i e r , about s e v e n t y - f i v e thousand d o l l a r s ' w o r t h o f f u r s t o t o u r i s t s d u r i n g t h e c a r n i v a l , was e n t h u s i a s t i c from t h e s t a r t . He s a i d , "thousands o f Americans have t o l d me i f we have a w i n t e r c a r n i v a l i n Quebec, t h e y would v i s i t our c i t y a g a i n , t o see i t i n a d i f f e r e n t season t o summer... W i t h cheap e x c u r s i o n s , we would have a l l t h e s t r a n g e r s we c o u l d 8 accommodate..." As p r e s i d e n t o f t h e S t . Roch A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , J.B. L a l i b e r t e would become h e a v i l y i n v o l v e d i n the c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and be a member o f the e x e c u t i v e committee, but t h i s f u r r i e r n o t e d c o r r e c t l y t h a t t h e merchants of S t . Roch would s u p p o r t t h e c a r n i v a l "as i t w i l l d e e p l y 9 c o n c e r n t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s " . W i t h i n t e n days o f t h e o r i g i n a l a r t i c l e , e i g h t e e n merchants o r f i r m s t h a t l a t e r dominated the c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n p r e s e n t e d a p e t i t i o n t o Mayor J.C. Fremont, c a l l i n g f o r a p u b l i c m e e t i n g on t h e s u b j e c t . E l e v e n o f t h e p e t i t i o n e r s were F r e n c h - s p e a k i n g and seven were E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g . "^ A l o n g w i t h t h e p e t i t i o n came a ready-made p l a n f o r a s i x - d a y c a r n i v a l program t h a t i n c l u d e d a l l t h e e v e n t s C a r r e l had o r i g i n a l l y proposed."'""'' As t h e T e l e g r a p h n o t e d a few days l a t e r , when i t announced t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g t o be h e l d , the f o r m u l a f o r a s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l was t o " p l a c e t h e f i n a n c i a l arrangements i n t h e hands o f sound e n t e r p r i s i n g b u s i n e s s men and g i v e our a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s as much as p o s s i b l e c a r t e 12 b l a n c h e t o get up and c a r r y out a s u i t a b l e programme". - 60 -P a r t o f t h i s c o n c e r n f o r a s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l came from t h e s o r r y e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c i t y ' s f i r s t c a r n i v a l i n 1883. I m i t a t i n g M o n t r e a l , Quebec C i t y had h e l d a t h r e e day a f f a i r w h ich was g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a t o t a l f a i l u r e , p a r t l y from the l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e shabby d e c o r a t i o n s , and p a r t l y from th e f a i l u r e t o a t t r a c t more th a n f i f t y Americans t o 13 town. Perhaps i t was a l s o not as c ommercial as t h o s e o f t h e 1890's. ' As one o f t h e M o n t r e a l papers c a u s t i c a l l y n o t e d t h e n , " t h e r e appears t o be a s i n g u l a r f a t a l i t y a t t e n d i n g 14 e v e r y t h i n g c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e A n c i e n t c a p i t a l " . A few days a f t e r t h e 1883 c a r n i v a l t h e c i t y ' s own e n g i n e e r , C h a r l e s B a i l l a i r g e f i r e d o f f an i m p a s s i o n e d memorandum t o the c i t y c o u n c i l d e p l o r i n g t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e event and p r o m i s i n g t h a t under h i s d i r e c t i o n a s p e c t a c l e worthy o f t h e C a p i t a l would be p r e s e n t e d . A t t h a t t i m e , B a i l l a i r g e wrote p r o p h e t i c a l l y : A p p e l e z en temps o p p o r t u n vos c o m i t e s , l e m a i r e en t e t e - voyez a ce que t o u t e s l e s s e c t i o n s de l a v i l l e e t t o u t e s l e s c l a s s e s de l a s o c i e t e s o i e n t r e p r e s e n t e e s au c o n c o u r s ; non pas e n c o r e , comme c e t t e f o i s , i g n o r e r .. completement une des c l a s s e s l e s p l u s i n f l u e n t e s , l a c l a s s e m e r c a n t i l e . . . A t t h e p u b l i c m e e t i n g on November 2, 1893, E r i c D o r i o n , a c i v i l s e r v i c e c l e r k and l a t e r member of t h e c a r n i v a l e x e c u -t i v e and s u b s c r i p t i o n committees as w e l l as the s e c r e t a r y o f the Quebec Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , e s t i m a t e d t h a t "$7,;0.00 t o $10,000 j u d i c i o u s l y expended would produce as good i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l committee made up o f a c a r n i v a l here as any i n M o n t r e a l " . 16 That mee t i n g r e s u l t e d - 61 -Fr e n c h and E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g businessmen. T h i s body q u i c k l y d i v i d e d i n t o smaller,.committees w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t a s k s such as a d v e r t i s i n g t h e event a l l over N o r t h A m e r i c a , r a i s i n g money by p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n , a r r a n g i n g t h e s p o r t i n g e v e n t s , and the s p e c i a l r a i l w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f v i s i t o r s t o t h e c i t y , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c a r n i v a l s t r u c t u r e s . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e soon-to-be-famous Chateau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l was n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n and would be opened, amid scenes o f s p l e n d o r r i v a l l i n g t h o s e o f t h e c a r n i v a l , t h a t December. On a l l f r o n t s , t h e c i t y was b e i n g o r g a n i z e d f o r ' i t s s u c c e s s f u l debut i n promoted t o u r i s m . I I . O r g a n i z i n g t h e C a r n i v a l I n l o o k i n g a t the r a p i d and e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c a r n i v a l i n t h e l a t e f a l l o f 1893, one i s i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k by t h e harmonious way t h e members o f t h e b u s i n e s s community o f t h e c i t y , who predominated on t h e committees, c o u l d work t o g e t h e r . I n t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t h i s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t the f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l c h a n n e l s o f communication t h e y p o s s e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e i r l e i s u r e and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s a c t e d . as i m p o r t a n t a d j u n c t s t o t h e i r b u s i n e s s l i n k s . I t appears t h a t the snowshoe o r a t h l e t i c c l u b s o f t e n b r o u g h t some o f th e s e p e o p l e t o g e t h e r who o t h e r w i s e would have been u n l i k e l y t o have m e t ; i n t h e i r o r d i n a r y b u s i n e s s d e a l i n g s . I n t h a t sense, t h e c a r n i v a l c o u l d be s a i d t o have been a s o c i a l event f o r t h e b u s i n e s s community as a whole. - 62 -As n o t e d b e f o r e a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t c a r n i v a l committees l i k e F i n a n c e , C o n s t r u c t i o n , R a i l w a y , A d v e r t i s i n g and C o n s t r u c -t i o n were c h a i r e d and manned by members o f t h e b u s i n e s s community, and some c o n t a i n e d a t l e a s t one member o f t h e Chamber o f Commerce, an o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n o f b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . S i m i l a r l y , members o f t h e c i t y ' s m u s i c a l o r s p o r t i n g communities p a r t i c i p a t e d on b o d i e s l i k e t h e Snow-shoe o r M u s i c a l committees where t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r knowledge was a p p l i c a b l e . S i n c e t h e number-of committees and committee members was s m a l l t o b e g i n w i t h , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e some o f t h e l i n k s w h i c h bound them t o g e t h e r as a group. To do t h i s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k a t t h e k i n d s o f p e o p l e making up t h e s e committees and t o t r a c e t h e i r membership i n t h e v a r i o u s a t h l e t i c , c u l t u r a l , o r b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e c i t y . In so d o i n g , a number o v e r l a p p i n g a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t a r e r e v e a l e d . These c o n n e c t i o n s show t h a t t h e c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s were by, o f , and f o r t h e s m a l l and medium-sized businessmen o f t h e ~ c i t y whether F r e n c h o r E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g . T h i s s u g g e s t s a community o f i n t e r e s t t h a t f r e q u e n t l y superseded th e d i v i s i o n o f e t h n i c i t y . For example, i n l o o k i n g a t t h e g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n s of "sportsmen" on t h e c a r n i v a l committees, which i s t o say t h e members.of t h e Quebec Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de S t . - Roch-de*-Quebec, the v a s t m a j o r i t y were i n b u s i n e s s . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f the E n g l i s h - 63 -s p e a k e r s , who made up not a l l , b ut t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r t i c i -p a n t s i n l o c a l , o r g a n i z e d a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s . Out o f t h e t h i r t e e n members o f t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e Q.A.A.A., o n l y two were F r e n c h Canadians, but a l l were e i t h e r merchants, businessmen o r " i n v e s t o r s " ( r e n t i e r i n t h e D i r e c t o r y ) . They ranged from w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r s , lumber merchants, a t i n s m i t h , bank c l e r k , and commission merchants, t o an a c c o u n t a n t . Others appear t o have had f a m i l y t i e s , t o l o c a l merchants s i n c e t h e y had t h e same surname and address i n t h e c i t y 17 d i r e c t o r y . An o c c u p a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e members o f the n i n e major c a r n i v a l committees shows them t o be, f i r s t and f o r e m o s t , businessmen, w i t h a c l e r k o r i n v e s t o r o r two, but t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e a t a l l o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by l a b o u r e r s , o r o p e r a t i v e s i n the i m p o r t a n t l o c a l l e a t h e r i n d u s t r y o r even 18 o f o f f i c e r s from any o f t h e l a b o u r u n i o n s . Because i t was t h e most modern element i n the c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e A d v e r t i s i n g Committee,should be l o o k e d a t b r i e f l y . I t s dut y was t o p u b l i c i z e t h e event a l l o v e r Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , and by i s s u i n g news t o t h e p r e s s , though., a n o t h e r committee made up o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the l o c a l p r e s s a l s o performed t h e same f u n c t i o n . The a d v e r t i s i n g committee's members were a v a r i e d group o f p e o p l e . The p r e s i d e n t , G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . , was a w e a l t h y r e n t i e r from Cap Rouge, o u t s i d e t h e c i t y . He had a l i t e r a r y bent and produced an account o f t h e 1894 c a r n i v a l based on newspaper r e p o r t s . From t h e . e v i d e n c e o f h i s few papers i n t h e Quebec A r c h i v e s he - 64 -was a l s o i n v o l v e d i n t h e b i - c u l t u r a l l i t e r a r y and s o c i a l c i r c l e s o f t h e c i t y , and appears a l s o t o have c o r r e s p o n d e d q u i t e r e g u l a r l y w i t h w e a l t h y American and Canadian businessmen 19 such as C o r n e l i u s Van Home o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . Frank C a r r e l , t h e p r i n t e r , p r o p r i e t o r and e d i t o r o f t h e Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h and t h e man who f i r s t proposed t h e c a r n i v a l was a l s o a member o f t h i s committee, as were s e v e r a l p e o p l e c o n n e c t e d t o t h e r a i l w a y and t r a v e l i n d u s t r y l i k e t h e l o c a l CPR passenger and f r e i g h t agent, o r R.M. S t o c k i n g the U.S. V i c e - C o n s u l and g e n e r a l t i c k e t agent f o r t h e r a i l w a y and steamship l i n e s . The s e c r e t a r y and manager o f two i m p o r t -ant l o c a l r a i l r o a d s , t h e Quebec and Lake S t . John and t h e Gre a t N o r t h e r n , as w e l l as t h e manager o f t h e Chateau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l a l s o brought t h e i r t a l e n t s t o the committee. E r i c D o r i o n , s e c r e t a r y o f t h e Quebec A.A.A. a l s o s e r v e d on the committee as d i d the l o c a l manager o f t h e government steamers and t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e F r e n c h language d a i l y news-paper, L'Evenement. The f i r s t t h i n g t h a t t h e Committee d i d was t o i s s u e twenty-one thousand c o p i e s o f a t h i r t y - s i x page book c o n t a i n -i n g t he 1894 c a r n i v a l program and p r o m o t i n g w i n t e r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e c i t y . I t was p a i d f o r by a d v e r t i s i n g from l o c a l merchants and, s h o r t l y a f t e r i t was p r i n t e d , l o c a l c i t i z e n s p r o v i d e d t h e names o f e i g h t thousand s u i t a b l e r e c i p i e n t s o u t s i d e Quebec. The r e s t were s e n t t o " h o t e l s , c l u b s , t i c k e t o f f i c e s , r a i l r o a d s , newspapers and magazines i n a l l p a r t s o f - 65 -20 t h e c o u n t r y " . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g campaign had been demonstrated by the M o n t r e a l e r s . M o n t r e a l ' s 1883 c a r n i v a l w h i c h had been p u b l i c i z e d i n American newspapers from t h e A t l a n t i c t o the P a c i f i c , and t h e M o n t r e a l S t a r c a l c u l a t e d from a s u r v e y o f t h e r a i l r o a d s t a t i o n s t h a t t h e number o f 21 o u t - o f - t o w n v i s i t o r s f o r t h e c a r n i v a l i n 1885 was 53,000. One e n t e r p r i s i n g t i c k e t agent even went t o Boston and s e t up a window d i s p l a y f o r t h e 1883 c a r n i v a l i n M o n t r e a l t o arouse the i n t e r e s t o f t h e American p u b l i c . He was so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t p o l i c e m e n had t o c l e a r t h e s t r e e t i n f r o n t o f t h e d i s p l a y . The American p r e s e n c e became one o f t h e more s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e c a r n i v a l s and was a s s i d u o u s l y sought. Quebec C i t y d i d n o t , as had M o n t r e a l i n 1883 and 1884, i n v i t e the American p r e s i d e n t , t h e g o v e r n o r s o f t h e New England S t a t e s and t h e C h i e f s - o f - S t a f f o f t h e U.S. Army and Navy (who d e c l i n e d t h e i n v i t a t i o n s i n any c a s e ) , but no e f f o r t seems t o have been 23 s p a r e d t o a t t r a c t as many o t h e r Americans as p o s s i b l e . And when prominent Americans l i k e t h e A s t o r s o f New York a r r i v e d i n t h e i r own p r i v a t e r a i l w a y c a r , t o s t a y f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e c a r n i v a l , t h e i r p r e s e nce was p u b l i c i z e d . The A d v e r t i s i n g Committee a l s o p r e p a r e d and m a i l e d r e a d y - t o - p r i n t a r t i c l e s t o newspapers i n "every town and c i t y t h r o u g h o u t Canada and t h e E a s t e r n and M i d d l e s t a t e s " each week h o p i n g - j u s t i f i a b l y - f o r f r e e a d v e r t i s i n g f o r t h e 25 c a r n i v a l . I n d i v i d u a l committee members a l s o produced t h e i r own pamphlets and c i r c u l a r s . From the o u t s e t , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e - 66 -scope o f t h e a d v e r t i s i n g campaign a l o n e , t h e c a r n i v a l was t o be a major b u s i n e s s endeavour. The F i n a n c e Committee was an o t h e r body t h a t r e v e a l e d t h e f i n a n c i a l commitment and e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e businessmen f o r t h e c a r n i v a l . A t t h e v e r y o u t s e t , when f e a r s were e x p r e s s e d about t h e c a r n i v a l committees g o i n g i n t o d e b t , a F i n a n c e Committee was g i v e n t h e power t o o v e r s e e a l l e x p e n d i t u r e s and t o s e t l i m i t s on what each committee c o u l d spend. The money f o r r u n n i n g t h e c a r n i v a l , w h i c h t h e committee a d m i n i s t e r e d came from a p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n w h i c h r a i s e d t e n thousand d o l l a r s , and c o u p l e d w i t h o t h e r monies, c a r n i v a l r e c e i p t s t o t a l l e d $13,200 . A f t e r a l l expenses had been met, t h e .. 27 committee came up w i t h a seven hundred d o l l a r s u r p l u s . D o n a t i o n s f o r t h e c a r n i v a l came from companies and • i n d i v i d u a l s . The C i t y a l o n e donated one thousand d o l l a r s , by f a r t h e l a r g e s t amount, though l e s s t h a n a week b e f o r e t h e op e n i n g o f t h e c a r n i v a l i t had not y e t done so and t h e r e was some nervousness because a p a r t o f t h e program was i n j e o p a r d y 2 8 w i t h o u t i t . The n e x t l a r g e s t d o n a t i o n s - f i v e hundred d o l l a r s each - came from J.B. L a l i b e r t e t h e f u r r i e r , and t h e Chciteau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l . W.C. Van Home and T.G. Shaughnessy o f t h e CPR each donated $250, w h i l e seventeen i n d i v i d u a l s , ; banks and companies donated sums r a n g i n g between one t o two hundred d o l l a r s . The committee o v e r s e e i n g t h e sp e n d i n g o f t h i s money was composed o f some v e r y h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d Quebec c i t i z e n s . - 67 -The p r e s i d e n t , R. T u r n e r , was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r y and g e n e r a l m e r c h a n d i s i n g f i r m o f Whitehead and T u r n e r , and was a l s o one o f t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Quebec A m a t e u r . A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n . Other committee members i n c l u d e d V i c t o r Chctteauvert a c h i n a and g l a s s merchant who was a l s o t h e MPP f o r Quebec C e n t r e , t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Chamber o f Commerce, on t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e Quebec S k a t i n g C l u b , and a member of the Harbour Commission. Another member o f t h e committee was t h e s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r o f ..the C a i s s e d'Economie de Notre Dame, w h i l e a t h i r d was a v i c e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Chamber o f Commerce and a prominent lumber merchant. A c i t y alderman, a hardware company owner, and a p a r t n e r i n a h e a t i n g company 29 were the o t h e r members of t h e committee. The seven o t h e r major committees were made up from the same s o r t o f p e o p l e . One p o l i c e m a n , t h r e e o r f o u r " c l e r k s " and one stone c u t t e r were the e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e b u s i n e s s community, who had a v o t i n g m a j o r i t y and who d i r e c t l y d e c i d e d t h e form and c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l . (See Table III, Appendix) . What A l a n M e t c a l f e has c a l l e d the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g M o n t r e a l e l i t e ' s " s o c i a l s p o r t s " were the ones c e l e b r a t e d a t t h e M o n t r e a l w i n t e r c a r n i v a l s i n t h e 1880's and a t Quebec i n 1894. The snowshoe c l u b s and t h e c l u b s devoted t o two o r f o u r - h o r s e tandem s l e i g h r i d i n g were t h e w i n t e r c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e y a c h t , g o l f and hunt c l u b s and were, wrote M e t c a l f e , " s p o r t s t h a t were c e n t r a l t o t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e upper - 68 -segments o f M o n t r e a l s o c i e t y " . ^ A t some l e v e l s , s p o r t was secondary t o the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n t h e s e c l u b s f u l f i l l e d . I n t h e s e s p o r t s , t h e "amateur i d e a l " o f gentlemen and t h e c u l t i -v a t i o n o f d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s as opposed t o c o m p e t i t i o n were h e l d up as models f o r s o c i e t y . The p r o p o s a l f o r M o n t r e a l ' s f i r s t c a r n i v a l ' ' . i n 1883 came from j u s t such an "amateur" 31 a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o a p p l y M e t c a l f e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o Quebec C i t y and i t s c a r n i v a l as w e l l as t o the amateur a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e b i n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s community t h e r e . The c a r n i v a l a l s o r e v e a l s a p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n among the c i t y ' s e l i t e t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t i e s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g between them i n b u s i n e s s ^ l i f e , on the Chamber o f Commerce, th e C i t y C o u n c i l , and on t h e boards o f t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c companies l i k e t h e r a i l w a y s , the n a v i g a t i o n companies and t h e r e l a t i v e l y new power companies, i n d i c a t i n g a c l o s e l y -i n t e g r a t e d b i n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s community. A p a r t from t h e s e b u s i n e s s - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , t h e common ground f o r many appears t o have been t h e amateur a t h l e t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . From i t s l i s t o f o f f i c e r s , t h e Quebec Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n (QAAA) appears t o have brought t o g e t h e r some o f t h e upper l e v e l s o f Quebec S o c i e t y . Former P r e m i e r , the Hon. H.G. J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e was i t s h o n o r a r y p r e s i d e n t , w h i l e i t s h o n o r a r y v i c e p r e s i d e n t s were the mayor o f t h e c i t y , J.C. Fremont, the.Hon. T.C. C a s g r a i n , a law y e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a t the t i m e , and two - 69 -prominent l o c a l w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r s . These were h o n o r i f i c p o s i t i o n s b u t t h e w o r k i n g e x e c u t i v e o f f i v e o f f i c e r s and t h e e i g h t member "Committee" c o n t a i n e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group o f businessmen. A l l but t h r e e o f t h e s e men were i n v o l v e d on a t l e a s t one c a r n i v a l committee, m a i n l y t h e e x e c u t i v e o r f i n a n c e committees w h i l e the more j u n i o r members s e r v e d on t h e s p o r t i n g committees. The A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e ' t i q u e de S a i n t - R o c h de Qu§bec appears t o have been a s m a l l e r o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i t s o f f i c e r s p l a y i n g j u n i o r r o l e s i n t h e c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t s p r e s i d e n t , t h e f u r r i e r L a l i b e r t ^ , was a n o t a b l e f o r c e . As f a r as i t s o f f i c e r s were c o n c e r n e d , t h e QAAA appears t o have been an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g body and the S t . Roch A s s o c i a t i o n a F r e n c h s p e a k i n g one. The presence o f a few members o f b o t h e t h n i c groups on each body, however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e t h n i c d i v i s i o n s were somewhat f l u i d . Members o f b o t h b o d i e s a l s o engaged i n t h e same .kinds o f b u s i n e s s and b o t h c l u b s had members on a t h i r d body t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d many members t o the c a r n i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : t h e Quebec C i t y Chamber o f Commerce. The Chamber has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d as a moving f o r c e i n t h e economic l i f e o f t h e c i t y by r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e c i t y ' s b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s . I t s s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e c i t y ' s s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l development has been o f t e n i g n o r e d , though t h e r e were some s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y ' s w o r k i n g c l a s s who c o u l d have t e s t i f i e d t o i t s r u t h l e s s i n f l u e n c e when i t came t o 32 m a t t e r s a f f e c t i n g t h e w o r k e r s ' i n t e r e s t s . I n t h e 1890's, o t h e r members o f t h e Chamber c o u l d be found i n a v a r i e t y o f the - 70 -c i t y ' s c u l t u r a l and c i v i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e L i t e r a r y and H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , the S t . George S o c i e t y and even t h e 33 S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o A n i m a l s . What t h i s s u g g e s t s i s t h a t t h e many i n t e r n a l l i n k s o f t h e l o c a l o l i g a r c h y extended a c r o s s a l l s e c t o r s o f t h e c i t y ' s l i f e , be t h e y c u l -t u r a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l , o r s o c i a l . The c a r n i v a l was t h e f e s t i v e embodiment o f t h a t group o f p e o p l e : t h e hommes ..... . d ' a f f a i r e s . I I I . The Event The s i x - d a y c a r n i v a l opened a t n i n e i n t h e morning on J a n u a r y 29, 1894 i n a r a t h e r low key f a s h i o n w i t h a c u r l i n g match, but o f f i c i a l ceremonies r e a l l y began t h a t a f t e r n o o n . To see what was b e i n g o f f e r e d t o t h e l o c a l and v i s i t i n g p u b l i c , one s h o u l d l o o k a t t h e c a r n i v a l e v e n t s i n some d e t a i l . Each day's e v e n t s were a b l e n d o f s p o r t s , s p e c t a c l e s , a n d c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l e v e n t s . Each e v e n t c o n t a i n e d e lements o f amusement w h i l e r e i n f o r c i n g s o c i a l v a l u e s . The d i d a c t i c and s o c i a l i z i n g a s p e c t s o f t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894 make a r e a d a b l e " t e x t " o f t h e s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f i t s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . That element o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h a l l t h e o l d e r c a r n i v a l s must be kept, i n mind. I n common w i t h t h o s e o l d e r c a r n i v a l s and p r e - i n d u s t r i a l community g a t h e r i n g s , t h e new c a r n i v a l a l l o w e d members o f b o t h sexes t o mi n g l e w i t h each o t h e r r a t h e r more f r e e l y t h a n a t many o t h e r t i m e s o f t h e y e a r , but as P e t e r B a i l e y so a p t l y p o i n t s o u t , - 71 -t h e s k a t i n g r i n k and o t h e r amusements i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c a r n i v a l s a l s o p e r m i t t e d m i d d l e c l a s s v i g i l a n c e over t h e mores o f i t s young, r e p r o d u c i n g t h e "mutual v i g i l a n c e w h i c h a c t e d as a s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e s m a l l town m i l i e u " , but which 34 was more d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n i n an urban s e t t i n g . The f i r s t day o f t h e c a r n i v a l was t a k e n up w i t h i n a u g u r a t i n g the c e l e b r a t i o n . The f i r s t was t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e i c e p a l a c e i n the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n . At 2:30, and b e f o r e a l a r g e crowd o f s p e c t a t o r s Mayor Fremont and a number o f t h e c i t y ' s l e a d i n g c i t i z e n s o f f i c i a l l y opened th e g o t h i c s t r u c t u r e made from i c e b l o c k s from t h e r i v e r . S i t t i n g on t h e E s p l a n a d e , atop t h e o l d c i t y w a l l , a c r o s s from t h e L e g i s l a t u r e , the p a l a c e measured one hundred twenty f e e t l o n g by f i f t y f e e t wide. I t s c e n t r a l tower was s i x t y - t h r e e f e e t i n h e i g h t and f l e w t h e r e d e n s i g n w h i l e t h e s m a l l e r s i d e towers and t u r r e t s f l e w t h e f l a g s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , France and B r i t a i n . A t n i g h t i t was l i t up from the i n s i d e w i t h w h i t e and c o l o u r e d e l e c t r i c l i g h t s . Though perhaps i t was n o t q u i t e as l a r g e as some o f t h e i c e s t r u c t u r e s a t t h e M o n t r e a l c a r n i v a l s , t h i s p a l a c e ' s s i t u a t i o n a t o p the c i t y f o r t i f i c a t i o n s and i t s d e s i g n provoked g e n e r a l a d m i r a t i o n and many e c s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s s u r v i v e . I t was d e s i g n e d by M.D. Raymond, a l o c a l a r c h i t e c t and b u i l t by t h e f i r m o f 35 Cummings and Sharp. The n e x t event was s u f f u s e d w i t h c u l t u r a l symbolism and r e p r e s e n t e d one d i s t i n c t i v e l y F r e n c h Canadian element i n the c a r n i v a l . A f t e r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e p a l a c e , t h e crowds moved the s h o r t d i s t a n c e from t h e c i t y w a l l t o t h e square i n f r o n t o f t h e C a t h o l i c B a s i l i c a , a d i s t a n c e o f about f i v e o r s i x b l o c k s . Here, t h r e e i c e s t a t u e s by t h e famous s c u l p t o r , L o u i s J o b i n d e p i c t i n g Champlain, L a v a l , and Breboeuf were u n v e i l e d . The c h o i c e o f t h e s e t h r e e h i s t o r i c f i g u r e s was r e v e a l i n g . Champlain had founded t h e c i t y i n 16 08, L a v a l was i t s f i r s t b i s h o p and Breboeuf was one o f t h e f i r s t C a t h o l i c m a r t y r s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h i s t r i n i t y e x p r e s s e d l o c a l p r i d e and t h e v a l u e s o f F r e n c h Canada's C a t h o l i c n a t i o n a l i s m . T h i s was a l s o t h e one event i n w h i c h t h e Church was p r e s e n t . The s t u d e n t s o f L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y and the seminary w h i c h f a c e onto t h a t square p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s q u a s i - r e l i g i o u s ceremony by s i n g i n g t h e "Cantate de Mgr. L a v a l " as t h e d r a p e r i e s were removed from t h e s t a t u e s . R e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s were t h u s b l e n d e d and t h i s r e f l e c t e d t h e b l u r r e d d i s t i n c t i o n o f t h e t i m e , L' Evetiement s t a t e d t h a t " l e deVoilement des s t a t u e s peut 36 •etre a p p e l e une d e m o n s t r a t i o n e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t p o l i t i q u e ! ! . Other e v e n t s o f t h e day d i d not e x p r e s s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s so b l u n t l y . A b o w l i n g tournament was h e l d a t t h e rooms of t h e S t . Roch A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n ; a "Tea" a t the s k a t i n g r i n k , and f i r e w o r k s i n L e V i s , a c r o s s t h e r i v e r from t h e c i t y , as w e l l as an i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e C i t a d e l and t h e D u f f e r i n T e r r a c e and t h e o p e n i n g o f a toboggan s l i d e completed the day. An u n e x p e c t e d l y heavy snowstorm d e l a y e d t h e e v e n t s of t h e n e x t day so t h a t the "Tandem D r i v e " , a parade o f t h e s l e i g h s o f prominent c i t i z e n s , was postponed u n t i l t h e end o f th e c a r n i v a l . The a r r i v a l o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and h i s p a r t y was a l s o d e l a y e d f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s , and by t h e n , t h e c i t y was knee-deep i n snow. Thousands l i n e d the s t r e e t s as members o f t h e v a r i o u s snowshoe c l u b s who had u n h i t c h e d t h e h o r s e s on t h e s l e i g h c o n t a i n i n g L o r d and Lady Aberdeen and t h e i r two c h i l d r e n p u l l e d i t up t h e h i l l from t h e CPR S t a t i o n . They passed under a number o f t r i u m p h a l " l i v i n g " a r c h e s , ~ which were s t r u c t u r e s manned by enough snowshoers so as t o resemble a human archway, t o t h e Chateau F r o n t e n a c where t h e y 37 were s t a y i n g . The r e s t o f t h e day was devoted t o e v e n t s on i c e i n c l u d i n g a s k a t i n g l a c r o s s e match as w e l l as a b i c y c l e r a c e and a s k a t i n g c h a mpionship. That e v e n i n g , a "Fancy Dress Masquerade B a l l " was h e l d a t t h e s k a t i n g r i n k a t t e n d e d by l a r g e crowds o f p e o p l e . There was n o . s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h e costumes w h i c h Lady Aberdeen n o t e d , " l o o k e d a i r y f o r s k a t i n g p u r p o s e s , but the e f f e c t of. k n i g h t s and s u l t a n s and Mikados and s a i l o r s and peasant g i r l s o f a l l n a t i o n s and v a r i o u s s y m b o l i c a l and a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s s k a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e dances w i t h t h e utmost grace and ease was a s i g h t t o .. . v.. 3 8 remember". However, t h e f u n was l i m i t e d f o r t h o s e who c o u l d a f f o r d t o a c q u i r e a costume and pay the p r i c e o f a d m i s s i o n . S k a t i n g , b o w l i n g , s l i d i n g , t o b o g g a n i n g and c u r l i n g t ook up t h e d a y l i g h t hours on Wednesday J a n u a r y 31. That n i g h t , the " e x c e p t i o n a l l y b r i l l i a n t " Grand B a l l a t t h e P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s i n honour o f L o r d and Lady Aberdeen brought - 74 -t o g e t h e r t h e s o c i a l l y l e a d i n g members o f t h e community and t h e i r f r i e n d s . Amid t h e t w i n k l e o f diamonds and e m e r a l d s , 39 b a l l gowns, b l a c k f o r m a l d r e s s and m i l i t a r y u n i f o r m s , L o r d and Lady Aberdeen, P r e m i e r T a i l l o n o f Quebec, a number o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s , j u d g e s , m i l i t a r y men and l e a d i n g businessmen d i n e d and danced u n t i l dawn i n b o t h Chambers o f 40 t h e L e g i s l a t u r e t o the music of m i l i t a r y bands. I t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the major s o c i a l event o f t h e season. E a r l y Thursday morning, a t 9:00 a.m., the m i l i t a r y had i t s o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t a g e a s p e c t a c l e on t h e P l a i n s o f Abraham. The s o l d i e r s o f t h e C i t a d e l h e l d a m i l i t a r y r e v i e w i n w i n t e r d r e s s and snowshoes and t h e n engaged i n a mock s i e g e o f t h e f o r t r e s s . Two hours l a t e r , an event t h a t i s s t i l l an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e modern c a r n i v a l took p l a c e when the canoe r a c e a c r o s s t h e S t . Lawrence from L e v i s was h e l d . The number o f o n l o o k e r s was l a r g e because th e day had been d e c l a r e d a c i v i c h o l i d a y . Many o r most s t o r e s and b u s i n e s s e s c l o s e d e a r l y o r d i d not open a t a l l , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e i r employees 41 c o u l d a l s o e n j o y some o f t h e c a r n i v a l . T h i s r e f l e c t e d t h e h i g h degree o f s u p p o r t f o r t h e c a r n i v a l i n t h e b u s i n e s s community. . I n t h e a f t e r n o o n , t h e c a r n i v a l parade wound i t s way t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e Upper and Lower Town and t h r o u g h S t . Roch, p a s s i n g under t h e v a r i o u s t r i u m p h a l a r c h e s and p a s t the i c e c a r v i n g s e r e c t e d by p r i v a t e c i t i z e n s . The e vent was d e s c r i b e d as "grande, nombreuse, superbe de c h i c e t ... _ - 75 -d ' o r i g i n a l i t e e t s i n g u l i e r e m e n t b i e n a p p r o p r i e e au c a r n a v a l . P l u s i e u r s c e n t a i n e s de p e r s o n n e s , un grand nombre de chevaux e t une c e n t a i n e de c h a r s a l l e g o r i q u e s de t o u t e s d i m e n s i o n s , de t o u t e s c o u l e u r s e t r e p r e s e n t a n t t o u t e s l e s i n d u s t r i e s 42 c a n a d i e n n e s " . Some o f t h e wagons i n c l u d e d t h o s e o f t h e amateur a t h l e t i c and snowshoe c l u b s , h i s t o r i c a l s l e i g h s w i t h scenes "of t h e l a s t c e n t u r y " , a c a r from L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , one o f t h e Huron I n d i a n s o f L o r e t t e , a c a r o f t h e T y p o g r a p h i c a l U n i o n , c a r s from a few l o c a l b u s i n e s s e s and a number o f "comic" c a r s . To make the s i m i l a r i t y w i t h modern c i v i c p arades i n Canada com p l e t e , th e f i r e department as w e l l as v a r i o u s m i l i t a r y u n i t s complete w i t h t h e i r bands p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o c e s s i o n . Though l a c k i n g t h e modern i n n o v a t i o n o f beauty queens r e p r e s e n t i n g b l u s h i n g maidenhood, w h i c h would l a t e r be a s t a p l e o f t h e Quebec c a r n i v a l i n the p e r s o n s o f t h e " p r i n c e s s e s " , t h e r e were s l e i g h s f o r t h e v a r i o u s d i g n i -t a r i e s l i k e t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l and t h e mayor and t h e 43 c a r n i v a l p r e s i d e n t . That n i g h t a c o n c e r t a t t h e D r i l l H a l l on Grande Alle"e a t t r a c t e d f i v e thousand p e o p l e . The e n t e r t a i n m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f snowshoe c l u b songs, songs by "gentlemen amateurs, and an a d d r e s s t o t h e c a r n i v a l v i s i t o r s by t h e c a r n i v a l p r e s i d e n t , J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e . J u l e s V e z i n a who was a l r e a d y a c q u i r i n g some fame as a composer c o n d u c t e d some f o u r hundred r "• m u s i c i a n s and c h o r i s t e r s i n v a r i o u s c l u b songs, and i n s i n g i n g " A i r s c a n a d i e n s " and " A i r s n a t i o n a u x " . Between - 76 -the f i r s t and second p a r t s o f t h e c o n c e r t , d e s c r i b e d by F a i r c h i l d as " r e a l l y the f i n e s t c o n c e r t t h a t has e v e r been h e l d i n t h i s c i t y " , t h e f i n a l tug-of-war c o n t e s t was h e l d . L'Evenement was more c r i t i c a l , though no l e s s a p p r e c i a t i v e . The c o n c e r t was d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g a " c a r a c t e r e e s s e n t i e l l e -ment p o p u l a i r e e t de n a t u r e a p l a i r e a l a f o u l e , plutSt 44 q.u'aux d e l i c a t s " . The n e x t day c o n t i n u e d t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e e a r l i e s t p a r t o f the c a r n i v a l w i t h s p o r t s e v e n t s d u r i n g t h e day and s o c i a l i z i n g and i l l u m i n a t e d s p e c t a c l e s i n t h e e v e n i n g . S k a t i n g and hockey began t h a t day, a f a n c y d r e s s b a l l f o r c h i l d r e n was h e l d on t h e i c e o f t h e s k a t i n g r i n k i n t h e l a t e a f t e r n o o n , but t h e n i g h t was devoted t o what may have been g r a n d e s t s p e c t a c l e o f a l l . T h i s "grand s p e c t a c u l a r drama", i n t h e words o f one o f t h e main o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e c a r n i v a l , was t h e mock b a t t l e around the c a r n i v a l i c e p a l a c e . T h i s was t h e e n d u r i n g and d r a m a t i c symbol o f t h e whole c a r n i v a l , and one whi c h c a p t u r e d t h e i m a g i n a t i o n o f a l l c o n c e rned. T w e n t y - f i v e hundred snowshoers from l o c a l c l u b s w i t h members o f t h e E i g h t h R o y a l R i f l e s and the R o y a l Canadian A r t i l l e r y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e b a t t l e . The a t t a c k e r s proceeded from t h e o r n a t e F r e n c h R e n a i s s a n c e D r i l l H a l l down the Grande A l l e e w e a r i n g b l a n k e t c o a t s , "tuques , and b r a i d e d b e l t s each b e a r i n g a t o r c h . As th e y approached the p a l a c e , w h i c h was l i t up w i t h r e d and green e l e c t r i c l i g h t s , a f i r e -works d i s p l a y l a s t i n g n e a r l y t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f an hour and - 77 -c o s t i n g f o u r thousand d o l l a r s , n e a r l y h a l f t h e c a r n i v a l ' s budget, ensued. The f i f t y t o s i x t y thousand p e o p l e p r e s e n t . then watched as t h e . t o r c h b e a r e r s manned the c i t y w a l l s on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e p a l a c e and marched and countermarched t h r o u g h i t b e f o r e p a r a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e c i t y . The number o f s p e c t a t o r s a t t h i s e v ent a l o n e was e q u a l t o the 45 e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y , i f t h e e s t i m a t e s were c o r r e c t . That number s u g g e s t s something about the p o p u l a r a p p e a l o f the s p e c t a c l e . As u s e f u l as t h e n a r r a t i v e o f e v e r y event i s t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c a r n i v a l , i t can be s a i d t h a t i t b a s i c a l l y had r e a l l y o n l y f o u r main components. The program was made up o f s p o r t , s p e c t a c l e , s o c i a l i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s and c u l t u r a l e v e n t s . The s p o r t i n g e v e n t s were th e o s t e n s i b l e r e a s o n f o r h o l d i n g t h e c a r n i v a l and many members o f t h e l o c a l snowshoe and amateur a t h l e t i c c l u b s r e g a r d e d t h i s as t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n t e r e s t was i n t e n s e , f o r example, i n the hockey game between M o n t r e a l and Quebec C i t y . B u t , i t might be f a i r t o say t h a t t h o s e who got t h e most out o f ... . v . . t h e s e e v e n t s were th e a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h o s e l i k e them who had t h e money and l e i s u r e t o become i n v o l v e d i n what were s t i l l gentlemen's r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Many o f the s p e c t a c l e s , w h i l e h a v i n g a mass a u d i e n c e , s t i l l e x p r e s s e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a s m a l l p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s was e s p e c i a l l y .true o f the "Tandem D r i v e " which o c c u r r e d on t h e l a s t day o f t h e c a r n i v a l . I t was a parade o f t h e w e l l -- 78 -to-do c i t i z e n s d r i v i n g t h e i r s l e i g h s t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e c i t y , a v i s i b l e d i s p l a y o f w e a l t h and s o c i a l r a n k . The m i l i t a r y r e v i e w and t h e Grand B a l l were o t h e r o c c a s i o n s f o r the l o c a l e l i t e t o d i s p l a y i t s e l f . None o f them c a l l e d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by anyone a p a r t from t h e a c t u a l " p e r f o r m e r s " , though c e r t a i n l y a l a r g e a u d i e n c e was r e q u i r e d . Humbler s e c t i o n s o f t h e community may o r may not have had t h e i r own c e l e b r a t i o n s but t h e y had no p a r t i n t h e c a r n i v a l ' s o f f i c i a l program. There remained a d i s t i n c t i o n between v a l u e s o f the e l i t e and p o p u l a r c u l t u r e . The a c t u a l " c u l t u r a l " c o n t e n t o f t h e c a r n i v a l was a l s o h a r d t o d e f i n e . C e r t a i n l y t h e ceremony of t h e i c e s t a t u e s i n f r o n t o f t h e b a s i l i c a r e p r e s e n t e d a k i n d o f c l e r i c a l n a t i o n a l i s m c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f Quebec h i s t o r y . The o t h e r o f f i c i a l c a r n i v a l i c e c a r v i n g s , l i k e t h a t of F r o n t e n a c atop a l a r g e dome o f i c e o r t h a t o f Jacques C a r t i e r on t o p o f a " l i v i n g " archway a t the c o r n e r o f S t . Joseph and Crown S t r e e t s i n S t . Roch, added t o t h e F r e n c h 46 Canadian c o n t e n t . But F r e n c h Canadian c u l t u r e i n t h i s most F r e n c h Canadian o f p l a c e s was by no means predominant. The i c e s t a t u e near t h e C i t a d e l o f t h e u n f o r t u n a t e American G e n e r a l Montgomery who d i e d w h i l e h i s t r o o p s were r e t r e a t i n g from t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l s i e g e o f t h e c i t y i n 1776, was no doubt i n t e n d e d f o r t h e many American v i s i t o r s who l o o k e d upon him as a R e v o l u t i o n a r y h e r o . The same must be s a i d f o r the American f l a g s on many of t h e c a r n i v a l b u i l d i n g s and a r c h e s which hung o r f l e w b e s i d e t h e B r i t i s h and F r e n c h ones. An archway i n t h e shape o f t h e E i f f e l tower added a n o t h e r odd c u l t u r a l element, a b l e n d o f m o d e r n i t y and F r e n c h c u l t u r e . The c a r n i v a l r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a m i x t u r e o f c u l t u r e s and t h i s e x p l a i n s i t s a m b i g u i t y . The presence o f so many American t o u r i s t s , and t h e aim o f a t t r a c t i n g them i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e w i t h the a t t e n d a n t f l a g s and s t a t u e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e d e s i r e t o p r e s e n t t h e c i t y t o them as an O l d World C i t y i n N o r t h A m e r i c a may have made t h a t c o n f u s i o n i n e v i t a b l e . I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t some o f t h e emphasis on the l o c a l and F r e n c h Canadian c o n t e n t o f the c a r n i v a l was because th o s e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g r e s i d e n t s who wished t o p r o c l a i m t h e c i t y ' s u niqueness were among the most a r d e n t promoters o f i t s 47 F r e n c h Canadian c h a r a c t e r . I n t o t a l however, the c a r n i v a l was a r a t h e r e c l e c t i c and even h a p h a z a r d - b l e n d o f F r e n c h Canadian, B r i t i s h , E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n and American elements t h a t were perhaps chosen as "crowd p l e a s e r s " . The i c e p a l a c e , t h e c e n t r a l s p e c t a c l e o f t h e c a r n i v a l , i s a good example of commercial e c l e c t i c i s m t h a t became a t r a d i t i o n i n i t s own r i g h t . .In i t s own t i m e , the " e x p e r t s " did..not t a k e i t a l l t h a t s e r i o u s l y b u t a c e n t u r y l a t e r , and h a l l o w e d by r e p e a t e d use i t became " H e r i t a g e " . The p a l a c e had no c u l t u r a l r o o t s i n Quebec but i t became, and s t i l l i s an i m p o r t a n t element of t h e event i n the minds o f many who know l i t t l e e l s e about th e . c a r n i v a l . The M o n t r e a l papers o f t h e 1880's, i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e i c e p a l a c e s , ...traced t h e i r o r i g i n s - 80 -48 t o a w i n t e r f e s t i v a l a t the I m p e r i a l R u s s i a n C o u r t i n 1732. T h i s c u l t u r a l e c l e c t i c i s m o f t h e c a r n i v a l s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g f o r an age t h a t , i n Canada, b u i l t G o t h i c churches and p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s , CPR h o t e l s t h a t l o o k e d l i k e R e n a i s s a n c e c h a t e a u x , banks r e m i n i s c e n t o f c l a s s i c a l templejS t h e Grande A l l e e Armoury, t h e m e d i e v a l g a t e s i n Quebec C i t y and even p l a n n e d , as d i d L o r d D u f f e r i n , t o e r e c t a new Ch a t e a u — S t . - L o u i s a t Quebec t h a t l o o k e d l i k e a c r o s s between the U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a t Tor o n t o and the E a s t B l o c k o f t h e 49 P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s i n Ottawa. I t appears t o e x p r e s s a v a g u e l y - f e l t d e s i r e t o r e t a i n , i n the words o f a w r i t e r a t t h e M o n t r e a l C a r n i v a l o f 1884, "much t h a t i s worthy o f r e p r o -50 d u c t i o n from the s t o r e s o f l e g e n d and remote h i s t o r y " . I t i s a l s o some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e community saw t h e p a s t as a n o s t a l g i c s t o r e h o u s e o f consumable " e x p e r i e n c e s " , b o t h f o r i t s e l f and f o r o u t s i d e r s . I V . The A f t e r m a t h W i t h t h e end o f t h e c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s , a l l v o i c e s were r a i s e d i n p r a i s e o f i t s s u c c e s s . That s u c c e s s was c a l c u l a t e d i n e v e r y way: f i n a n c i a l l y , i n numbers o f p e o p l e a t t r a c t e d , and, l e s s t a n g i b l y , i n t h e enhancement o f t h e c i t y ' s r e p u t a t i o n , and i n t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f t h e community's own i n t e r n a l s o c i a l bonds. The D a i l y T e l e g r a p h e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e some 25,000 v i s i t o r s , o r about 15,000 on any one day i n t h e c i t y , spent - 81 -about $450,000 over t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e v e n t . W i t h 16,000 a r r i v i n g by t r a i n from t h e p r e v i o u s S a t u r d a y t o Thursday, an e s t i m a t e d 6,000 more on Thursday and F r i d a y a l o n e , t h i s l e f t about 3,000 pe o p l e who were assumed t o have come from t h e 51 s u r r o u n d i n g d i s t r i c t s . The F r e n c h language p r e s s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e event a s u c c e s s , though i t s s t a n d a r d s o f measurement were a l i t t l e b r o a d e r . The good p u b l i c i t y f o r the c i t y w h i c h t h e c a r n i v a l had g e n e r a t e d , i t was s a i d by L'Evenement, would r e s u l t i n c o u n t l e s s , f u t u r e m a t e r i a l b e n e f i t s : En venant i c i par amusement, des gens q u i ont .. des c a p i t a u x a f l a n e r dans l e s banques, t r o u v e r o n t probablement 1 * o c c a s i o n d ' e x p l o i t e r c e r t a i n e s r e s s o u r c e s de n o t r e d i s t r i c t , e t i n a u g e r o n t p e u t - e t r e des e n t r e p r i s e s a l e u r b e n e f i c e e t a n o t r e avantage. I n an e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t way, the joyous c e l e b r a t i o n s o f c a r n i v a l week were seen t o have had a b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on the community as a whole. T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and even a p r e -o c c u p a t i o n , o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e F r e n c h language p r e s s t h a n i n i t s E n g l i s h language c o u n t e r p a r t . N. L e v a s s e u r , w r i t i n g i n L'Evenement, somewhat o p t i m i s t i c a l l y saw t h e c a r n i v a l as t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a new p e r i o d o f p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l harmony f o r Quebec. S i m i l a r l y , h i s contemporary Pamphile LeMay saw t h e e f f e c t o f p u b l i c r e j o i c i n g i n g e n e r a l as s t r e n g t h e n i n g the t i e s between members of s o c i e t y j u s t as f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s brought t h a t b a s i c u n i t o f s o c i e t y t o g e t h e r p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . L e v a s s e u r c o n c l u d e d : - 82 -...esperons que ce ne s e r a pas l a d e r n i e r e , e t que l e c a r n a v a l de 1894 a u r a s e r v i de p e r i o d e t r a n s i t o i r e , a u r a e t e comme une s o r t e de p o i n t j e t e de 1 ' e s p r i t de d e s u n i o n e t d ' a p a t h i e du passe a l a f r a t e r n i t e e t a 1 ' e s p r i t p u b l i c de l ' a v e n i r . 5 3 I n the warm a f t e r g l o w o f t h e c a r n i v a l , the i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s o f t h e c i t y seemed u n i m p o r t a n t . For a b r i e f time s o c i a l r a n k s and o t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s appeared t o e v a p o r a t e . To L e v a s s e u r , t h e c a r n i v a l b e l o n g ed "non d'un f a u b o u r g , mais de t o u t e une v i l l e , a u q u e l t o u s , pauvres e t r i c h e s , o nt — 5 4 c o n t r i b u e avec un e n t r a i n q u i r e j o u i s s a i t l e c o e u r . ' But those d i s t i n c t i o n s o f neighbourhood o r w e a l t h d i d not d i s a p p e a r . As a r e t r e a t from the t e n s i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e , o f c o u r s e , t h e s i x day f e s t i v a l c o u l d not r e a l l y be e x p e c t e d t o r e c o n c i l e , l e t a l o n e e r a s e , t h e s o c i a l and economic c o m p l e x i -t i e s o f t h e modern c i t y o f Quebec. What seemed t o be a tempo-r a r y escape from s o c i a l r e a l i t y i n f a c t , r e i n f o r c e d i t by c e l e b r a t i n g t h e most b a s i c o f d i s t i n c t i o n s between th e r i c h . and t h e poor o f t h e c i t y . The hope t h a t t h i s c a r n i v a l had a c t e d as a s o c i a l l e v e l l e r c o u l d have o n l y been e x p r e s s e d by t h o s e who had not e x p e r i e n c e d t h e w i d t h o f t h e g u l f s e p a r a t i n g the e l i t e and the humble. I n 1896, t h e c i t y h e l d a n o t h e r even more s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l , f o r w h i c h t h e p l a n n i n g was more e l a b o r a t e , t h e d e c o r a t i o n s more sumptuous, th e a t t e n d a n c e g r e a t e r , and t h e c o m m e r c i a l a m b i t i o n s even g r a n d e r . ^ T.G. Shaughnessy o f t h e Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, s u g g e s t e d h o l d i n g a c a r n i v a l e v e r y y e a r and " e x t e n d i n g i t over two weeks i n s t e a d o f m e r e l y one r - 83 -because, as he s a i d , w e a l t h y Americans d i d not c a r e t o d i s t u r b t h e m s e l v e s and come on here f o r m e r e l y two or t h r e e days' f u n , but would r e a d i l y do so i n l a r g e numbers i f t h e y 56 were sure o f f i n d i n g e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r a f o r t n i g h t " . I t was a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e be a p a r a l l e l summer c a r n i v a l " d u r i n g t h e h i g h t i d e o f American t o u r i s t t r a v e l n e x t summer w i t h an a t t a c k and defence o f t h e C i t a d e l on a grand s c a l e by 57 the m i l i t a r y as t h e p r i n c i p a l event on the programme!!. The 1896 e vent appears t o have been the h i g h water mark o f t h e p r e - t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c a r n i v a l s i n Quebec C i t y . A f t e r t h a t , as J.T. Coulombe wrote i n 1927, " i l y e ut quelques c a r n a v a l s , o r g a n i s e s t a n t b i e n que mal, q u i c o nnurent p l u s ou 5 8 moins de s u c c e s " . P a r t o f t h e problem may have been the r e l i a n c e on a p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n campaign as a means o f f u n d -i n g t h e event w h i c h the T e l e g r a p h n o t e d i n 1896 would not l i k e l y be " w i l l i n g l y f a c e d a g a i n , even by the most a r d e n t 59 a d v o c a t e s o f c a r n i v a l s p o r t s " . The s u g g e s t i o n t h a t _ t h e c i t y l e v y a s m a l l t a x i n o r d e r t o r a i s e revenue t o h o l d i t does not appear t o have been a c c e p t e d . M o n t r e a l a l s o h e l d o t h e r c a r n i v a l s , b u t by t h e second decade o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h e y appear t o have been much s m a l l e r i n s c a l e t h a n t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s . I n M o n t r e a l ' s case as w e l l , even i n the p e r i o d o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l c a r n i v a l s o f t h e 1880's, t h e r e was some q u e s t i o n t h a t the c i t y was becoming more known f o r i t s w i n t e r amusements th a n f o r i t s b u s i n e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The S t a r began t o wonder about th e emphasis on s p o r t , n o t i n g t h a t , - 84 -a t l e a s t among gentlemen, " i t s v a l u e l i e s i n i t s b e i n g a r e c r e a t i o n from t h e s e r i o u s and arduous d u t i e s o f l i f e , not 6 0 i n b e i n g one o f l i f e ' s main i n t e r e s t s " . The r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s p o r t i n g and commercial aims as w e l l as t h e main e v e n t s o f t h e c a r n i v a l s were o f a n a t u r e w h i c h a l l o w e d them t o be d u p l i c a t e d wherever t h e r e was i c e and snow so t h a t t h e major c i t i e s c o u l d no l o n g e r monopolize them. T h i s made t h e l o n g r a i l t r i p t o Quebec un n e c e s s a r y . By t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e r e were a c c o u n t s o f s i m i l a r w i n t e r f e s t i v a l s from A l b a n y t o A l b e r t a , f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e 6 1 model was a d a p t a b l e t o a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s . Thus f i n a n -c i a l s u p p o r t d i m i n i s h e d as t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e event waned, the a p p e a l o f Quebec's c a r n i v a l f a d e d . I t was o n l y i n F e b r u a r y 1956, when Quebec C i t y a g a i n r e v i v e d the c a r n i v a l on t h e s c a l e o f t h o s e f i r s t ones i n t h e 1890's, t h a t t h e c e l e b r a t i o n s a g a i n p r o v e d t o be v e r y s u c c e s s f u l . O r g a n i z e d by l o c a l businessmen, t h e new c a r n i v a l had a program s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f 1894 - t h e i c e p a l a c e , t h e presence and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , t h e p a r ade, th e i c e s c u l p t u r e s , and t h e hundreds o f t o u r i s t s . The Quebec c a r n i v a l o f t o d a y , i s s t i l l a c ommercial and s e c u l a r event t h a t i s not a break from the p a s t but i s a r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f e s t i v a l s . I t has, however, c o n s i d e r a b l y m o d i f i e d L o r d Aberdeen's d e f i n i t i o n o f c a r n i v a l b e h a v i o u r as d o i n g n o t h i n g " i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h d u t y and s e l f -r e s p e c t " , and has become known as one o f t h e more famous 6 2 o c c a s i o n s f o r p u b l i c drunkenness on the c o n t i n e n t . - 85 -CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n Quebec was more th a n j u s t a p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f b r e a k i n g down o l d communities and r e c o n s t i t u t i n g them around f a c t o r i e s . I t a l s o i n v o l v e d t h e " d e s t r u c t i o n o f memories" by agents o u t s i d e and i n s i d e the community and t h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t w i t h new c u l t u r a l forms and r i t u a l s , as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the c a r n i v a l i n d i c a t e s . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e changes i n t h e s o c i e t y and t h e c u l t u r e o f F r e n c h Canada over t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a complex one. The r e s u l t o f t h e p r o c e s s cannot s i m p l y be c a l l e d an a l i e n a t e d s o c i e t y r e p l a c i n g "the w o r l d we have l o s t " . That m y s t i f i e s t h e whole p r o c e s s . The n a t u r e o f t h e change, the development o f a more complex urban i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y was u n d o u b t e d l y a mixed b l e s s i n g f o r the o r d i n a r y p e o p l e o f t h e t i m e . One o f t h e immediate r e s u l t s was a l i e n a t i o n from t h e p o p u l a r c u l t u r e w h i c h had s u s t a i n e d t h e F r e n c h Canadian r u r a l and urban communities s i n c e t h e e a r l i e s t days. But t h e p r o -c e s s o f a l i e n a t i o n was p r e s e n t i n t h e c u l t u r e b e f o r e t h e i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , as t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e o l d e r c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s a t t e s t e d . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , though t h e r e was no a r t i c u l a t e d efence o f t h e o l d customs, such as t h e p r e - L e n t e n c a r n i v a l , i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e c e n t u r y , when i t might have been most needed, the n e x t g e n e r a t i o n would l o o k back l o n g i n g l y - 86 -a t t h e s e customs o f " l e bon v i e u x temps" as a means o f b r i n g i n g t h e community back t o g e t h e r . The new c a r n i v a l s , w i t h o u t any m e a n i n g f u l c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y c u l t u r e i n Quebec, i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e a d o p t i o n o f h a b i t a n t b e l t s and tuques by w e a l t h y E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s , c o u l d n ot be e x p e c t e d t o f u l f i l l t h a t r o l e . T h e i r l i m i t e d c ommercial aims and t h e i r s e l e c t i v e n a t u r e and h i g h c o s t o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n were more i m p o r t a n t i n d i s p l a y i n g and c e l e b r a t i n g t h e o f f i c i a l v a l u e s o f i t s b i - n a t i o n a l e l i t e , and i n e x c l u d i n g most o f t h e non-commercial elements o f the c i t y . I n t h a t sense t h e y a re more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e s o c i a l h i s t o r i a n because t h e y demonstrated t h e power s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community, but t h e y have a l s o endured, w i t h i n t e r r u p t i o n , t o become community t r a d i t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h " p o p u l a r " a p p e a l . The atmosphere o f t h e s e c a r n i v a l s was a l s o a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e V i c t o r i a n attempt t o " b e g u i l e the weary hours o f s o b r i e t y " w i t h decorous l e i s u r e , as P r o f e s s o r B a i l e y so h a p p i l y put i t i n h i s s t u d y o f V i c t o r i a n England."*" The d o c i l e crowds a t the c a r n i v a l s were t h e same peopl e who were a c c e p t i n g , w i l l i n g l y o r n o t , t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Church and o f the b u s i n e s s community i n many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s . The r e a s o n s f o r t h a t s u b m i s s i o n were not o n l y t o be found i n t h e w o r k p l a c e , o r i n t h e c u l t u r e , but i n the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two. I t would be u n f a i r t o l e a v e the m a t t e r h e r e . C a r n i v a l was a f l e e t i n g a f f a i r t h a t was v a n q u i s h e d e v e r y y e a r by L e n t , - 87 -j u s t as i t was overcome by c a p i t a l i s m : Deux c h a n t e u r s , p e r s o n i f i a n t l ' u n , l e CarSme ... e t 1 ' a u t r e , l e M a r d i - g r a s , v a n t e n t t o u r a t o u r l e s b i e n f a i t s du regime q u ' i l s r e p r e s e n e n t , p u i s au d e r n i e r c o u p l e t , l e M a r d i - g r a s s ' e c r o u l e , v a i n c u , t a n d i s que l e Careme t r i o m p h e . 2 But L e n t does not l a s t f o r e v e r e i t h e r . \ - 88 -NOTES CHAPTER I """CM. F a i r c h i l d , J r . , A S h o r t Account o f Ye Quebec  Wi n t e r C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1894, Quebec 1894, pp. 71-72. 2 John T. S a y w e l l , ed., The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Lady  Aberdeen, 1893-1898, Toronto 1960, The Champlain S o c i e t y , p. 69, "...The rema r k a b l e good o r d e r amongst b o t h snow-shoers and amongst the enormous crowd was v e r y n o t i c e a b l e a g a i n t o n i g h t , i n s p i t e o f t h e c o l d and t h e l o n g w a i t i n g o u t o f d o o r s . " 3 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 77-78. 4 I b i d . , p. 117. 5 For a f u l l e r e x p l a n a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s " s e m i o t i q u e " approach, see Marianne M e s n i l ' s T r o i s e s s a i s s u r  l a fe^te; du f o l k l o r e a* l'e"thno-se*miotique, B r u x e l l e s 1974, E d i t i o n s de l'Universit§ de B r u x e l l e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e f i r s t e s s a y , "Le l i e u e t l e temps de l a f e t e c a r n a v a l e s q u e " . ^For a f u l l e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s , see P. Bezucha's "The M o r a l i z a t i o n o f S o c i e t y " i n Jacques Beauroy e t a l . , The  Wolf and t h e Lamb; P o p u l a r C u l t u r e i n France from t h e O l d Regime t o t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y , S t a n f o r d F r e n c h and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s , S a r a t o g a 1977, pp. 175-187. T h i s s t u d y o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y Societe" P r o t r e c t r i c e des animaux f o c u s e s on m i d d l e c l a s s d i s t a s t e o f p o p u l a r b l o o d s p o r t s , and i t s r e l a t i v e l y l a t e i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o F r e n c h s e n s i b i l i t i e s . 7 See N a t a l i e Zemon D a v i s on t h e temporary l o o s e n i n g o f s o c i a l bonds i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n them f u r t h e r i n "The Reasons o f M i s r u l e : Youth Groups and C a r n i v a l s i n S i x t e e n t h C e n t u r y F r a n c e " i n P a s t and P r e s e n t , 1971, pp. 41-75. M i c h a e l R. Marrus " o b s e r v a t i o n s a l s o a p p l y h e r e : " i n a c l a s s i c s t u d y o f f e s t i v i t y , Roger C a i l l o i s once s t r e s s e d t h e c r u c i a l f u n c t i o n o f r e l e a s e from t h e r u l e s o f d a i l y l i f e , t he o r g i a s t i c r e v e r s a l o f everyday c o n t r o l s . My own r e a d i n g o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f fe"tes i n F r e n c h r u r a l s o c i e t y i s q u i t e the o p p o s i t e : whale i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e r e was p l e n t y o f d r i n k i n g - 89 -and b l o w i n g o f f steam d u r i n g t h e f e t e s , t h e r e was a l s o an even g r e a t e r degree o f r e g u l a t e d b e h a v i o u r t h a n i n t h e c o u r s e o f l a v i e q u o t i d i e n n e . V i l l a g e r s marched about, danced, p r a y e d , drank and f e a s t e d a c c o r d i n g t o a regimen whose r i g o r i m p r e s s e d many o b s e r v e r s " . M i c h a e l R. M a r r u s , " F o l k l o r e as an E t h n o g r a p h i c Source: A'Mise au P o i n t " i n The Wolf and t h e  Lamb, pp. 109-125. 8 *\ Raymond, M o n t p e t i t , Le Temps des F e t e s au Quebec, M o n t r e a l 1978, E d i t i o n s de 1'Homme, p. 12. 9 I b i d . , "Un a n a l y s e de l a symbolique e t du r i t u e l d'une f e t e permet de d e c e l e r l a marque du p o u v o i r q u i . 1 ' o r g a n i s e ; l a f e t e c o n t i e n t t o u j o u r s une p r o j e c t i o n i d e a l i s e e de 1'image qu'un groupe s o c i a l cherche a donner de lui-meme, de l a c o n c e p t i o n q u ' i l se f a i t du p o u v o i r q i 1 i l e x e r c e e t de l ' o r d r e q u ' i l m a i n t i e n t . C'est a i n s i qu'une messe de m i n u i t de N o e l e t un r e v e i l l o n en N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e ne s o n t pas e t r a n g e r s 5. l a s t r u c t u r e p o l i t i q u e e t r e l i g i e u s e du p a y s , n i a son mode de p r o d u c t i o n a g r i c o l e . ...Quand e l l e se p r o d u i t , p a s s e , p r e s e n t , e t a v e n i r sont en e l l e a r t i c u l e s qu'a 1 ' o r d i n a i r e , ce q u i f a i t de l a f e t e un moment q u i se s a i t e t se v e u t e x c e p t i o n n e l . . . " " ^ H e r b e r t Gutman, "Work, C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y i n I n d u s t r i a l i z i n g America 1815-1919" i n American H i s t o r i c a l  Review (78 ) , 1973, p. 543. i : L I b i d . , pp. 554-556 . 12 Dean M a c C a n n e l l , The T o u r i s t , A New Theory o f t h e  L e i s u r e C l a s s , New York, 1976, an e x c e l l e n t s t u d y o f the e f f e c t s o f " m o d e r n i z a t i o n " on t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e N o r t h American m i d d l e c l a s s t o u r i s t , b u t w i t h t h e l a c k o f an adequate c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f "moderniza-t i o n " . 13 A r n o l d van Gennep, Manuel de f o l k l o r e f r a n c a i s  c o n t e m p o r a i n : "Les ceremonies p e r i o d i q u e s , c y c l i q u e s e t s a i s o n n i e r e s " , P a r i s 194 7, tome 1:3. 14 M a d e l e i n e D o y o n - F e r l a n d , Coutumes p o p u l a i r e s du  Canada F r a n c a i s , A r c h i v e s de f o l k l o r e , Quebec 1972, q u o t i n g Hector B e r t n e l o t , "Le bon v i e u x temps", p. 134-135. 15 H.P. LeMay, Fe*tes e t c o r v e e s , L e v i s , 1898, pp. 24-25, x ^ I b i d . , p. 25. - 90 -17 I b i d . , p. 29. 18 Montreal S t a r , February 5, 1884, p. 5. 19 For an e x c e l l e n t study of the q u e s t i o n of l e i s u r e i n n i n e t e e n t h century B r i t a i n , see Peter B a i l e y ' s L e i s u r e and  C l a s s i n V i c t o r i a n England, London, Toronto, B u f f a l o 1978. B a i l e y c a l l s the f i e l d of l e i s u r e "one of the major f r o n t i e r s of s o c i a l change i n the n i n e t e e n t h century, and l i k e most f r o n t i e r s i t was d i s p u t e d t e r r i t o r y " (p. 5). The crux of the problem f o r both the V i c t o r i a n s and f o r t h e i r Canadian counter-p a r t s seems, i n the p e r i o d of B a i l e y ' s study 1830-1895 to c e n t r e around "...the i d e a of r e c r e a t i o n as a s a f e t y v a l v e whose c a t h a r t i c e f f e c t j u s t i f i e d the suspension of normal s o c i a l d i s c i p l i n e s was unacceptable to men p r i m a r i l y concerned to m a i ntain s o c i a l c o n t r o l and c o n f o r m i t y . P l a y was not to be allowed any form of s p e c i a l l i c e n c e ; r a t h e r i t had to be f i r m l y and u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the r e s t of l i f e and s e c u r e l y anchored i n orthodox m o r a l i t y . " (p. 94) T h i s p e r i o d then became "the h o u s e - t r a i n i n g of the E n g l i s h p r o l e t a r i a t " , (p. 174). 20 W i l l i a m Parker Greenough, Canadian F o l k - L i f e and  F o l k - L o r e , New York 1897. 21 See Joseph L e v i t t , Henri Bourassa and the Golden  C a l f , The S o c i a l Program of the N a t i o n a l i s t s of Quebec (1900- 1914), Ottawa 1972. 22 Kenneth MacLeish, "Quebec: French C i t y i n an Anglo-Saxon World" N a t i o n a l Geographic, v o l . 139, (3), march 1971, pp. 416-422. 23 An i n t e r e s t i n g example of t h i s t r a v e l l i t e r a t u r e by the p u b l i s h e r of the Quebec D a i l y Telegraph and a l e a d i n g proponent of the Quebec C a r n i v a l i n 1894 was Frank C a r r e l ' s Guide to the C i t y of Quebec, Quebec 1896, D a i l y Telegraph which i n c l u d e d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t the v i s i t o r to the c i t y might want to know: h i s t o r y , h o t e l s , monuments, r e s o r t s , e t c . , and which was bound together w i t h an A l l - r o u n d Route and Panoramic  Guide of the S a i n t Lawrence (Montreal 1899, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Railway P u b l i s h i n g Co.) which covered beaches, towns, h o t e l s , r e s o r t s and t r a i n schedules from H a l i f a x to B u f f a l o and from the Adirondacks to the Saguenay R i v e r . 24 Montreal S t a r , F r i d a y Feb. .2., 1883. - 91 -"-'MacCannell, op. c i t . , Chapter 3, "The P a r i s Case: O r i g i n s o f A l i e n a t e d L e i s u r e " , pp. 57-76, t h e p o i n t b e i n g t h e d i s t o r t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h e mediated e x p e r i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e mediated t o u r i s t e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h can never p e n e t r a t e t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f a s i t u a t i o n b u t must be c o n t e n t w i t h the "on s t a g e " v i e w , n o t t h e " b a c k s t a g e " , even a t t h e G o b e l i n s or i n t h e sewers. There i s a " w a l l " o f m e d i a t i o n between <. ... the w o rkers here and t h e i r o b s e r v e r s . ''"Quebec Merc u r y , Feb. 12, 1866, p. 2. 27 C i t y C o u n c i l o f Quebec, P r o c e s - v e r b a u x du c o n s e i l , de F e v r i e r 1865 3 AoGt 1866, M u n i c i p a l A r c h i v e s o f Quebec C i t y , By-law 192 "For t h e Good Order and Peace o f the C i t y o f Quebec", passed December 22, 1865 w i t h b i l i n g u a l t e x t s , p. 273, and p r i n t e d December 11, 1865 i n Le Canadien and i n The D a i l y  News. 2 8 Quebec Merc u r y , Thursday Feb.. 15, 1866., p. 2. 29 Quebec C i t y C o u n c i l , P r o c e s - - v e r b a u x . . . , pp. 273-323, Reglement 196 "Concernant l e s maisons de p r o s t i t u t i o n e t a u t r e s maisons de d e s o r d r e " (23 f e v r i e r , 1866), Reglement 197 "Concernant l e s M a T t r e s , l e s Commis, l e s a p p r e n t i s , l e s domestiques e t l e s o u v r i e r s " (23 f e v r i e r 1866) and a l s o by t h e same c o u n c i l Reglement 206 "Concernant l e s maisons de p r o s t i t u t i o n , l e s maisons de d e s o r d r e e t a u t r e s reputees.comme t e l l e s " (10 Aout 1866). 30 E.Z. M a s s i c o t t e , " J o u r s g r a s , mardi g r a s , m e r c r e d i des c e n d r e s : Moeurs e t coutumes d ' a u t r e f o i s " , i n B u l l e t i n des  r e c h e r c h e s h i s t o r i q u e s , x x v i i , 3, mars 1921, p. 89. 31 R o b e r t - L i o n e l S e g u i n , Les D i v e r t i s s e m e n t s en  N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e , Ottawa, 1968, p. 36. I n F e b r u a r y o f 1663 an earthquake shook Quebec C i t y and c o n t i n u e d i n t e r i t t e n t l y u n t i l August, c a u s i n g M§re M a r i e d e l ' I n c a r n a t i o n t o draw i n e v i t a b l e m o r a l l e s s o n s from i t . I n a l e t t e r t o her son on August 20, 166 3, she w r o t e : "So unexpected a c a l a m i t y , when the young p e o p l e were p r e p a r i n g t o spend t h e c a r n i v a l season i n e x c e s s e s , was a c l a p o f thunder on everyone's head. I t was r a t h e r a c l a p o f God's mercy upon t h e whole c o u n t r y , as was seen by i t s r e s u l t s . . . " i n J o y c e M a r s h a l l , t r a n s . , ed., Word From  New F r a n c e - The S e l e c t e d L e t t e r s o f M a r i e de 1 ' I n c a r n a t i o n , Toronto 1967, p. 289. See a l s o I b i d . p. 297 "...The days o f c a r n i v a l were changed i n t o days o f p e n i t e n c e and sadness; - 92 -p u b l i c p r a y e r s , p r o c e s s i o n s , and p i l g r i m a g e s were c o n t i n u a l , f a s t s on bre a d and water v e r y f r e q u e n t , and g e n e r a l c o n f e s s i o n s more s i n c e r e t h a n t h e y would have been i n t h e e x t r e m i t y o f s i c k n e s s . " """"Ibid., "Momon" o r "mummery", t o use t h e o l d E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t i s d e f i n e d i n Segu i n t o mean: " l e de"fi d'un coup de dez, qu'on f a i t quand on e s t de*guis_ en masque. I I e s t d e f f e n d u de p a r l e r quand on p o r t e un mommon" S e g u i n , p. 36. Thus a "mommerie" i n 1701 was "Mascarade, b o u f o n n e r i e , deguisement de gens masquez pour a l l e r d a n s e r , j o u e r ou se r e j o u i r . " I b i d . - the same use o f the term i s found i n Newfoundland - see below Note 37. 33 I b i d . 34 M a s s i c o t t e , op. c i t . p. 93. 35 LeMay, op. c i t . p. 14. 3 6 Mad e l e i n e Doyon F e r l a n d , op. c i t . , pp. 97-99. 37 I b i d . , p. 99, f o r a modern s t u d y o f a contemporary example o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s as i n f l u e n c i n g and even determin-i n g work h a b i t s i n t h e community f o r t h e ye a r a l o n g t h e s e same l i n e s , see G e r a l d M. S i d e r ' s " C h r i s t m a s Mumming and t h e New Year i n O u t p o r t Newfoundland" i n P a s t and P r e s e n t , 71, May 1976, pp. 102-125. 38 F e r l a n d , op. c i t . , p. 98. Van Gennep, op. c i t . , p. 869 and a l s o : "On remarquera d ' a i l l e u r s que l e s f S t e s du s o l s t i c e d'ete ne s o n t pas i d e n t i q u e s a c e l l e s du s o l s t i c e d ' h i v e r . Comme l e s f e t e s de Carnaval-Careme e t du p r i n t e m p s , l e s p r e m i e r e s sont c o l l e c t i v e s , i n t e r e s s e n t t o u s l e s h a b i t a n t s de l a l o c a l i t e , ou du moins l e u r s r e p r e s e n t a n t s , l a Jeunesse des deux *• sexes e t , p a r a f f a i b l i s s e m e n t , l a s o c i e t e r e s t r e i n t e  des e n f a n t s ; en p r i n c i p e t o u s p a r t i c i p e n t 5 l a j o i e , e t aux c§r§monies p o p u l a i r e s . Au l i e u que l e s f ^ t e s e t ceremonies de l a N o e l , du J o u r de l'An e t des R o i s sont e s s e n t i e l l e m e n t f a m i l i a l e s e t domestiques, a i n s i q u e l e u r s v i g i l e s ou v e i l l e s . . . Dans l e s f e t e s p a t r o n a l e s , e l l e s a u s s i p e r i o d i q u e s , l e s deux ele"mets se combinent, c a r e l l e s s o n t , en p r i n c i p e , a u t a n t qu'un bapteme e t un mariage ou des f u n e r a i l l e s , une o c c a s i o n de r e n f o r c e r a nouveau l e s l i e n s f a m i l i a u x ou l o c a u x , e t , d' a u t r e p a r t , l e s a i n t p a t r o n e s t une p r o p r i e t e c o l l e c t i v e . " (Manuel...838-39). - 93 -" I b i d . , p. 869. 41 Examples i n Quebec are a l s o a v a i l a b l e as f o r example i n St.-Romauld de L e v i s and Hawksbury where: "Deux c h a n t e u r s p e r s o n n i f i a n t l ' u n , l e Careme e t 1 ' a u t r e , l e M a r d i - g r a s , v a n t e n t t o u r a" t o u r l e s b i e n f a i t s du regime q u ' i l s r e p r e s e n t -e n t , p u i s au d e r n i e r c o u p l e t , l e M a r d i - g r a s s ' e c r o u l e , v a i n c u , t a n d i s que l e Careme t r i o m p h e " . M a s s i c o t t e , op. c i t . , p. 93. 42 E r r o l H i l l , The T r i n i d a d C a r n i v a l , Mandate f o r a  N a t i o n a l T h e a t r e , A u s t i n , Texas and London, 1972, U n i v e r s i t y o f Texas P r e s s , p. 4, and a l s o R. Muchembled, C u l t u r e  P o p u l a i r e e t C u l t u r e des E l i t e s dans l a France Moderne, P a r i s , 1978, Flammarion, who saw t h i s p o p u l a r c u l t u r e out o f whi c h the c a r n i v a l s and o t h e r c e l e b r a t i o n s grew as not o n l y " v i v a n t e , a c t i v e e t dynamique" but a l s o and even more c r u c i a l l y as "une systeme de s u r v i e " . p. 11. 43 I b i d . , see a l s o Claude G a i g n e b e t ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P e t e r B r e u g h e l ' s p a i n t i n g (1559) 'Combat de C a r n a v a l e t de Careme" i n h i s a r t i c l e "Le Combat de C a r n a v a l e t de Careme de P. B r e u g h e l " i n Annales E.S.C., m a r s - a v r i l 1972, pp. 313-34 5, where he c l a i m s t h e whole c y c l e o f C a r n i v a l , Lent and E a s t e r i s d e p i c t e d i n each a r e a o f what i s o s t e n s i b l y a p a i n t i n g o f what l o o k s l i k e a scene o f c o n f u s i o n i n a s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F l e m i s h v i l l a g e . H i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s happening b e a r s many resemblances t o M a d e l e i n e Doyon-F e r l a n d ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f c a r n a v a l o r mardi gras i n t h e Beauce. For example, t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e "Jour de l ' O u r s " i n v o l v e s man d i s g u i s e d as a b e a r , o r perhaps as a savage, b r e a k i n g i n t o t he community dance, r i t u a l l y d e f i l e s a maiden and i s r i t u a l l y k i l l e d , a custom t h a t o c c u r s i n b o t h a r e a s . Another i s t h e "Danse du B a r b i e r " where a b a r b e r l a t h e r s up a customer and s t a b s him. The customer q u i c k l y r e v i v e s and t h e dance goes on. As w e l l , t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e customs o f t r a n s v e s t i s m , masks and d i s g u i s e s , and t h e importance o f e f f i g i e s and t h e i r r i t u a l punishment. Today's "Bonhomme C a r n a v a l " o f t h e Quebec C i t y c a r n i v a l i s o n l y t h e l a t e s t i n a l o n g s e r t i e s o f the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f the f e s t i v a l . L a t e r on i n F r a n c e , c a r n i v a l would t a k e on t h e p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s t h a t Quebec, e x c e p t f o r t h e s t r a w man (homme de p a i l l e ) as a f i g u r e o f f u n a t e l e c t i o n t i m e , would never see. I n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y as p o l i t i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e l e g a c y o f the R e v o l u t i o n became f o r one p a r t y o r an o t h e r d i f f i c u l t a t one time o r a n o t h e r , r e p u b l i c a n s and m o n a r c h i s t s a l i k e would seek t o e x p r e s s t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s t h r o u g h t h e masked b e h a v i o u r and symbolism o f c a r n i v a l i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f anonymous p r o t e s t . F o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s see Robe r t Bezucha's "Mask o f R e v o l u t i o n : P o p u l a r C u l t u r e i n t h e Second R e p u b l i c " i n Roger P r i c e , e d., R e v o l u t i o n and R e a c t i o n : 1848 - 94 -and t h e Second F r e n c h R e p u b l i c , pp. 236-253. F or a f u l l e r h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t f o r the s i x t e e n t h t o the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s , see Yves - M a r i e B e r c e , F§te e t R e V o l t e , des m e n t a l i t e s p o p u l a i r e s du XVIe au X V I I I e s i e ' c l e , P a r i s , H a c h e t t e 1976. 44 Benjamin G a s t i n e a u , Le C a r n a v a l a n c i e n e t moderne, P a r i s 1862. The book appeared as p a r t o f a s e r i e s e n t i t l e d " H i s t o i r e de l a f o l i e humaine", p. 24. See a l s o P e r r y Young's The M y s t i c k Crewe, New O r l e a n s 1931, pp. 5-6 f o r a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f C a r n i v a l i n France and on t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e .. customs i n Greece, t h e i r debauchery and d e c l i n e , and the d e c l i n e o f i t s c e l e b r a t i o n a f t e r 1870 i n F r a n c e . 45 G a s t i n e a u , op. c i t . , pp. 104-105. 46 H i l l , op. c i t . , pp. 10-12 47 I b i d . , p. 16 48 I b i d . F r a s e r s a i d " In former days and down t o the p e r i o d o f t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f t h e s l a v e s , t h e c a r n i v a l was kept up w i t h much s p i r i t by t h e upper c l a s s e s . . . t h e l e a d i n g Members o f S o c i e t y used on t h e days o f C a r n i v a l t o d r i v e t h r o u g h t h e s t r e e t s o f P o r t o f S p a i n masked, and i n t h e ev e n i n g s go from house t o house w h i c h were a l l thrown open f o r t h e o c c a s i o n . " p. 10. 49 I b i d . , p. 17 . 50 I b i d . 51 I b i d . 52 I b i d . , p. 20 Young, M y s t i c k Crewe..., pp. 41-42. I n 1868, d u r i n g t h e p o l i t i c a l t e n s i o n s i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e U.S. C i v i l War, g e n e r a l masking i n t h e s t r e e t s o f t h e c i t y was ended f o r e v e r and t h e unmasked crowds now watched t h e masked parades o f the Crews o f Comus, by v i r t u e o f t h e P o l i c e C h i e f ' s S p e c i a l Orders No. 60, F e b r u a r y 24, 1868. Young, p. 87. 54 I b i d . , p. 42. 5 5 I b i d . , p. 49. - 95 -I b i d . , p. 56, and a l s o Leonard V. Ruber's M a r d i  Gras: A P i c t o r i a l H i s t o r y o f C a r n i v a l i n New O r l e a n s , G r e t n a L o u i s i a n a 1977, P e l i c a n Pub. Co., p. 8. 57 Young, op. c i t . pp. 56-57. " ^ I b i d . , p. 57 . 59 H i l l , op. c i t . , p. 10. 6 0 M o n t r e a l S t a r , Thursday Feb. 6, 1884, p. 3. - 96 -NOTES CHAPTER I I XG.M. F a i r c h i l d , J r . A S h o r t Account o f ye Quebec  W i n t e r C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1894, Quebec 1894, p. CIX. 2 S t a n l e y T n g g s and J . R u s s e l l Harper. A C o l l e c t i o n  o f Notman Photographs - 1851-1915. P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d , i t c o n t a i n s a number o f p i c t u r e s o f v e r y g a u n t - l o o k i n g p e o p l e o f the Lower Town,- M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , M o n t r e a l , 1967. 3 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , p. CIV q u o t i n g t h e New York Sun, d a t e l i n e Quebec C i t y , F e b r u a r y 1, 1894. 4 G.M. F a i r c h i l d , J r . G l e a n i n g s from Quebec, Quebec 1908, p. 130, see a l s o George G a l e , Quebec T w i x t O l d and New, Quebec 1915, o r P i e r r e S a v a r d 1 s r e i s s u e o f S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e 1 s C o m p o s i t e u r - t y p o g r a p h i q u e de Quebec, P a r i s 1903. 5 P a u l Laroque.- La C o n d i t i o n socio-economique des  t r a v a i l l e u r s de l a V i l l e de Quebec 1896-1914, MA T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Quebec 1970, p~! 163, Q u o t i n g A r t h u r St .-P i e r r e , La Q u e s t i o n o u v r i e r e au Canada, M o n t r e a l , 1920. I b i d . , p. 24 i n Laroque, emphasis mine. 7 Jacques M a t h i e u , La c o n d i t i o n o u v r i g r e dans  l ' i n d u s t r i e de c u i r a* Quebec de 1900 a~ 1930 d'apre~s l e s  p r o c g s - v e r b a u x d'un s y n d i c a t , u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, p. 19. g L o r t i e , op. c i t . , pp. 111-112. 9 Laroque, op. c i t . , p. 131. X ^ L ' E l e c t e u r , 23 J a n v i e r , 1893. I b i d . - 97 -12 Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 7 November, 1893, p. 2 and L 1Evenement, 18 J a n v i e r , 1894. 13 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , p. (on f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s . . . ) 14 Laroque, op. c i t . , p. 136. 15 L'Evenement, 18 J a n v i e r , 1894, p. 2. 16 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 8 J a n u a r y , 1884. For an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f men r e q u i r e d f o r such work. F i f t y t o s i x t y l a b o u r e r s and masons began work on M o n t r e a l ' s i c e p a l a c e t h a t y e a r j u s t a f t e r C h r i s t m a s and worked r i g h t up t o t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e c a r n i v a l i n J a n u a r y . I n M o n t r e a l f o r the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s c a r n i v a l , t h e S t a r o f 5 J a n u a r y r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r such work f a r exceeded the number o f pe o p l e r e q u i r e d and t h a t "Thousands o f M o n t r e a l Workmen (were) i n A c t u a l Want". 17 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 24 J a n u a r y , 1885, p. 6. The costume was O t h e l l o . 18 Laroque f o r wages, op. c i t . , pp. 159-75 and Gregory K e a l y , Canada I n v e s i t g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , T o r o n t o , U. o f T. P r e s s , 1973, pp. 308-313 f o r f u r t h e r examples o f wage r a t e s . 19 J e a n - P i e r r e W a l l o t , " R e l i g i o n and F r e n c h Canadian Mores i n t h e E a r l y N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y " , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, L I I / 1 (March 1971) p. 82. 20 S t a n i s l a s L o r t i e , C o m p o s i t e u r - t y p o g r a p h i q u e de  Q u e b e c dans l e systeme des engagements v o l o n t a i r e s permanents  d'apres l e s renseignements r e c e u i l l i s s u r l e s l i e u x en 1903-i n Paysans e t O v r i e r s de Qu§bec d ' a u t r e f o i s , (Qu§bec 1968) p. 67. Lady Aberdeen n o t e d as w e l l t h a t " p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r o f d a n c i n g i s g e t t i n g t o o s t r o n g f o r t h e c l e r g y and the Church i s b e g i n n i n g t o f o r g e t t o e n f o r c e i t s p e n a l t i e s . " Canadian D i a r y , p. 17. 21 Mandements, l e t t r e s p a s t o r a l e s , c i r c u l a i r e s e t  a u t r e s documents p u b l i e s dans l e Dioce'se de M o n t r e a l d e p u i s  son e r e c t i o n , v o l . I V , ( M o n t r e a l 1893), pp. 130-133, and pp. 526-531. 22 I b i d . , pp. 740-746. - 98 -23 I n 1885, Mgr. Fabre i s s u e d a mandement condemning the p u b l i c s l i d e s and snowshoeing f a c i l i t i e s where women were a l l o w e d t o wear the costume o f t h e snowshoe c l u b s , w h i c h he r e g a r d e d as a form o f male a t t i r e . C i t i n g Deuteronomy, the p r e l a t e made i t c l e a r t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s were r e l i c s o f a savage p a s t , and as A r c h b i s h o p o f M o n t r e a l , he would n ot t o l e r a t e such a c t i v i t y i n h i s d i o c e s e . In P a u l C a r p e n t i e r , La Raquette a n e i g e , T r o i s R i v i e r e s 1976, B o r e a l e x p r e s s , p. 102-103. 24 Lorenze Cadieux S . J . , ed. L e t t r e s des N o u v e l l e s  M i s s i o n s du Canada 1843-1852, (Montrea1. 1973), 18 e L e t t r e , p. 308. 25 Joe W i l d g u s t , "Cashing i n on C a r n i v a l " , Weekend  Magazine, 14 Feb. 1978 p. 16. 2 6 Larocque, op. c i t . p. 186. 27 ' i b i d . 2 8 I b i d . , p. 188. 29 * I b i d . 30 \For t h e h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e o f l a b o u r u n i o n s l i k e t h e K n i g h t s o f Labour t o a l c o h o l and t h o s e who s e r v e d i t see P i e r r e de L o t t i n e v i l l e , "Joe Beef o f M o n t r e a l " i n Labour/Le  T r a v a i l l e u r 8-9 (1981-82) pp. 33-34. 31 See t h e Quebec Morning C h r o n i c l e , 2 December 186 5, " D i s o r d e r l y Houses",- t h e number o f houses was q u i c k l y found out t o be an e x a g g e r a t i o n but not b e f o r e t h e news had made t h e M o n t r e a l papers,- a l s o J o u r n a l de Quebec 25 novembre 186 5, " C o u n s e i l de V i l l e " and I b i d . , 9 f e v r i e r 1866. The by-laws i n q u e s t i o n a r e from t h e C o n s e i l de V i l l e de Quebec, P r o c e s -v e r b a u x . . . , pp. 273-323, Reglement 196 "Concernant l e s maisons de p r o s t i t u t i o n e t a u t r e s maisons de d e s o r d r e " (23 f e v r i e r 1866), and Reglement 206 "Concernant l e s maisons de p r o s t i t u t i o n , l e s maisons de d e s o r d r e e t a u t r e s r e p u t e e s comme t e l l e s " (10 aou*t 1866) whi c h amended t h e e a r l i e r by-law. 3 2 L ' U n i o n m e d i c a l e du Canada, XIV (1885), p. -96. - 99 -33 L o r t i e , op. c i t . p. 64. He found t h a t out o f a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 68,834 i n 1901, t h e r e were 19,756 men and 24,348 women c l a s s i f i e d as u n m a r r i e d . T h i s made a t o t a l o f 4 4,104 s i n g l e p e r s o n s , o r about two t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a -t i o n . 34 See Roger L e m e l i n , La F a m i l l e P l o u f f e and G a b r i e l l e Roy, Bonheur d'Occasion two o f t h e most p o w e r f u l Quebec n o v e l s t o - d e p i c t the p e r i o d o f t h e 1930's, th e former i n t h e Lower' Town o f Quebec and t h e l a t t e r i n the poor, w o r k i n g c l a s s s e c t i o n o f M o n t r e a l , S t . - H e n r i . 35 L o r t i e , pp. c i t . , p. 100. 3 6 Laroque, op. c i t . , p. 171. 37 See A l a n M e t c a l f e , "The E v o l u t i o n o f O r g a n i z e d P h y s i c a l R e c r e a t i o n i n M o n t r e a l , 1840-1895" i n S o c i a l H i s t o r y XI (21) May 1978 pp. 38 Gene M. Home, " S l i d e r s and B a c k s l i d e r s - T o r o n t o ' s Sunday Tobogganing C o n t r o v e r s y o f 1912" i n Urban H i s t o r y  Review X (2), October 1981, pp. 25-34. 39 «. "Pour demander pardon a D i e u des o f f e n s e s q u i se commettent en ce temps de p l a i s i r s e t de t e s t e s " , L ' E l e c t e u r , 6 f e v r i e r , 1894. 40 See Jacques R o u i l l a r d , Les T r a v a i l l e u r s de Coton  au Quebec 1900-1915,Presses de l ' U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec, M o n t r e a l 1974. 41 Jean Hamelin, Yves R o b i e . H i s t o i r e economigue de  Quebec, p. 17. 42 I b i d . , pp. 264-265. 43 J o b i n , H i s t o i r e de Quebec, p. 147; Hamelin and Roby, op. c i t . pp. 275-76. 44 N a r c i s s e Rosa. La c o n s t r u c t i o n des n a v i r e s a Quebec  e t ses environs-: Greves e t n a u f r a g e s , Que'bec 1897, Leger B r o u s s e a u , pp. 26-27. 45 J o b i n , op. c i t . , p. 14 9. - 100 -46 For a r a t h e r n a i v e l y u n c r i t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s , see J o b i n , op. c i t . , pp. 155-157. 47 I b i d . , by 1939 w e l l o ver h a l f the shoe m a n u f a c t u r e r s i n Canada were c o n c e n t r a t e d i n Quebec ( t w i c e as many as i n O n t a r i o , t h e n e x t l a r g e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) and were a m a i n s t a y of F r e n c h Canadian e n t e r p r i s e / m o s t i n Quebec were F r e n c h Canadian owned, 114 out o f 136. 4 8 I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e V i s , Quebec, Demers e t F r e r e 1893, pp. 105 and 121. 49 Laroque, op. c i t . , p. 10. There were 512 workers i n the t a n n e r i e s and 3858 i n t h e shoe f a c t o r i e s . 50 TV, -A I b i d . ~ ^ I b i d . , p. 20 and see a l s o t h e I n d i c a t e u r , p.106 and pp. 115-121. 52 The I r i s h , f o r example had dropped i n numbers from 10,000 i n 1861 t o 4381 i n 1901 and t h e i r d e c l i n e a l s o l e a d t o the d e c l i n e o f t h e Quebec S h i p L a b o u r e r s ' B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y . For t h a t see Hamelin, pp. 312-313 and a l s o J . I . Cooper, "The Quebec S h i p L a b o u r e r s ' B e n e v o l e n t S o c i e t y " i n CHR 30 (4) December 1949, p. 342. 53 I n d i c a t e u r , p. 97, and . pp . 105-117^,See-Table. 5. Appendix. 54 I n d i c a t e u r , p. 25. 55 See e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s r e g a r d John Keyes "La d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n de l ' a c t i v i t e economique de Timothy H i b b a r d Dunn, commercant de b o i s a* Quebec 1850-1898" i n RHAF 35 (3) Decembre 1981, pp. 323-336, and f o r t h e c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s o f some members o f t h e E n g l i s h community. See G i n e t t e B e r n a t c h e z , "La S o c i e t e l i t t e r a i r e e t h i s t o r i q u e de Quebec 1824-1890, RHAF 35 (2) Septembre 1981, pp. 179-192. ^ I n d i c a t e u r , p. 78, The p r e s i d e n t was a F r e n c h Canadian, t h e v i c e p r e s i d e n t was E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g , e t c . 57 Jacques M a t h i e u , "La c o n d i t i o n o u v r i e r e dans l ' i n d u s t r i e de c u i r a Quebec de 1900 a 1930, d'apres l e s p r o c e s - v e r b a u x d'un s y n d i c a t " , u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. T h e s i s , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , 1970, pp. 33-38. Emphasis mine. - 101 -58 — Paul-Andre L i n t e a u . "Quelques r e f l e x i o n s autour de l a b o u r g e o i s i e queb^coise 1850-1914" i n RHAF 30 (1) J u i n 1976, pp. 55-66, t h i s c i t a t i o n , p. 58. 59 y I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p . 60 . ^ x I b i d . , p. 62. 6 2 c f . O u e l l e t ' s Chambre de Commerce de Quebec which has some u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n and John Keyes, op. c i t . on members of the Dunn f a m i l y . 6 3 L i n t e a u , p. 62, these r a i l w a y s were The Quebec North Shore R a i l r o a d , " l e chemin de f e r L e v i s a Kennebec (plus t a r d Quebec C e n t r a l ) . . . e n f i n l e chemin de f e r Quebec e t Lac-St.-. Jean" "Dans ce d e r n i e r cas, Normand Seguin a b i e n montre comment l e chemin de f e r a ete un instrument majeur de p e n e t r a t i o n du c a p i t a l de Quebec au Lac-St.-Jean. Les marchands de b o i s , l e s commercants en gros, l e s s o c i e t e s de pre*t hypothecaire r e p r e s e n t autant de f a c e t t e s des a c t i v i t e s de l a moyenne b o u r g e o i s i e de l a c a p i t a l e . C e l l e - c i se dote d 1 instruments q u i l u i sont propres comme l a Banque N a t i o n a l e ou l a Banque de Quebec. Les Beaudet, Shehyn, C h i n i c , Thibaudeau, i l l u s t r e n t parmi d'autres, l a d i v e r s i t e des a c t i v i t y ' s de ce groupe . " 64 c f . Marc Belanger " l e s Chambres de Commerce - groupes de p r e s s i o n ou c o o p e r a t i v e s de developpement" Recherches  sociographiques 9 (1968) 1 and 2, pp. 85-103, e s p e c i a l l y p. 86. 6 5 L ' E l e c t e u r , 8 f e V r i e r , 1893, p. 4. ^ F o r h i s testimony, see Kealy, Canada I n v e s t i g a t e s  I n d u s t r i a l i s m , pp. 286-288, and on the s t r i k e , see Jean Hamelin, Paul Laroque, Jacques R o u i l l a r d , Repertoire des Greves  dans l a Province de Quebec au XIX S i e c l e , Montreal, 1970, pp. 95-96. 6 7 Kealy.Canada I n v e s t i g a t e s I n d u s t r i a l i s m , pp. 288-289 and f o r a graphic d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the working c o n d i t i o n s , see Cooper, op. c i t . on the Quebec Ship Labourers' B e n e f i t S o c i e t y , pp. 337-338. - 102 -68 Cooper, op. c i t . , p. 340. 6 9 K e a l y , op. c i t . , p. 290-91. 70 <-Hamelin e t a l . , R e p e r t o i r e des Greves, pp. 97-98. 7 1 I b i d . , pp. 109-110. - 103 -NOTES CHAPTER I I I "'"Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 19 O c t o b e r , 1893. 2 I b i d . 3 I b i d . I n the end t h e c a s t l e was p l a c e d e l s e w h e r e i n t h e Upper Town. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , 21 O c t o b e r , 1893. 6 I b i d . 7 I b i d . 8 Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 23 O c t o b e r , 1893. 9 I b i d . 1 0 I b i d . , 31 Oc t o b e r , 1893. I b i d . 12 I b i d . , 2 November, 1893. 13 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 2 F e b r u a r y , 1883. 14 M o n t r e a l S t a r , S a t u r d a y , 27 J a n u a r y , 1883 - J o l y , who headed 1894 Quebec C a r n i v a l , was quoted as b e i n g concerned w i t h t h e " d i f f i c u l t y o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g c i v i c i n Quebec as compared t o M o n t r e a l " . 15 — »» ^ C h a r l e s B a i l l a r g e , " L ' I n g e n i e u r de l a C i t e au C o n s e i l de V i l l e " , memo 5753 Quebec, I e r f e v r i e r 1883-A r c h i v e s de l a V i l l e de Quebec, H 6 t e l - d e - V i l l e . The o n l y - 104 -p a r t o f h i s a d v i c e i g n o r e d was t h a t he was not p l a c e d i n o v e r a l l c h a r g e . He was j u s t a member o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n committee. 16 Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , 3 November, 1893. 17 See T a b l e I - QAAA.and Table 2, S t . Roch/ A.A. Appendix 18 See T a b l e -III- C a r n i v a l Committees. 19 G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . A S h o r t Account o f Ye Quebec  W i n t e r C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1894, Quebec 1894. H i s papers i n the Quebec A r c h i v e s c o n t a i n l e t t e r s from Van Home and one from Van Home's widow. There a r e a l s o a c c o u n t s i n h i s d i a r y about d i n n e r s i n town w i t h t h e L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y , whose members were b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h . 20 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . p. 13. 21 M o n t r e a l S t a r , 29 J a n u a r y , 1883. 22 I b i d . , 6 J a n u a r y , 1883, p. 1. 23 I b i d . , 19 J a n u a r y , 1883, c o n t a i n i n g a l e t t e r from t h e p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s P r e s i d e n t d e c l i n i n g , and M o n t r e a l S t a r , 8 J a n u a r y , 1884. 24 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 77-78. F a i r c h i l d o f t e n p o i n t e d o u t how imp r e s s e d " h i g h s o c i e t y matrons from C h i c a g o " and o t h e r s were w i t h Quebec and t h e c a r n i v a l . 25 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , p. 14. ^ I b i d . , p. 12 . 27 I b i d . , pp. 135-40 - f o r a l i s t o f s u b s c r i b e r s t o the C a r n i v a l Fund. o o L'Evenement, 24 J a n v i e r , 1894. 2 9 s e e T a b l e I I I . - 105 -30 Alan Metcalfe, "The Evolution of Organized Physical Recreation i n Montreal, 1840-1895", in Social History, XI/21 (May 1978) p. 149, and see also Peter Bailey's Leisure and  Class i n V i c t o r i a n England, London 1978, pp: 124-146 "Rational Recreation and the New Athleticism". 31 The Montreal Daily Star, L i t e r a r y Supplement to the  Carnival Number of 1885, p. 1, "Origin of the Carnival".-• "It was at the annual banquet of the Montreal Snowshoe Club on Thursday, February 9, 1882 that Mr. R.D. McGibbon suggested the propriety of holding a Carnival of Winter Sports i n Montreal every year, with the object of showing our neighbours to the South the g l o r i e s of our Canadian Winter. The proposition was hailed with enthusiasm by the snowshoers, and j o y f u l l y echoed and reechoed by the tobogganers, the skaters, the c u r l e r s , and the press." 32 See above Chapter 2. 33 Indicateur, p. 78 for Chambre de Commerce, and S.P.C.A. p. 97jsee Table 5, Appendix. 34 Peter Bailey. Leisure and Class in V i c t o r i a n England, London, 1978, p. 77. 35 -« L'Evenement, 30 Janvier, 1894. 36 L'Evenement, 29 Janvier, 1894. 37 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 115-116. Quoting J . Ralph of the New York Sun. Lady Aberdeen, who displayed a c e r t a i n s e n s i t i v i t y to these things, observed that the hotels chief function and orientation was to the American t o u r i s t trade "which i s wise considering that i t i s the American public whom i t i s intended to catch so as to make t h i s enterprise a success." Diary, pp. 63-64. 38 Lady Aberdeen, Diary, p. 64. 39 J y l b i d . 40 — L'Evenement, 2 f e v r i e r , 1894. Even before the b a l l L'Evenement observed the d e l i b e r a t e l y exclusive nature of the price of admission which was "tellement eleve' qu'un p e t i t nombre seulement pourront y a s s i s t e r . " L'Evenement, 2 9 Janvier, 1894. - 106 -I b i d . 4 2 T , , , I b i d . 43 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 55-60. 44 -I b i d . , p. 56 and L'Evenement, 29 J a n v i e r , 1894. 45 F a i r c h i l d , op. c i t . , pp. 71-72. 46 Quebec D a i l y T e l e g r a p h , C a r n i v a l S p e c i a l Number 1894, Quebec, 1894. 47 One t h i n k s o f C a r r e l , F a i r c h i l d , George Gale and a h o s t o f o t h e r p o p u l a r i z e r s who made the c i t y known t o an E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g a u d i e n c e . 48 M o n t r e a l W i t n e s s , C a r n i v a l Number, 1885, p. 2, "Our Ice C a s t l e s P a s t and P r e s e n t " , and I b i d . , C a r n i v a l Number o f 1887. 49 Marc L a f r a n c e , "Le P r o j e c t D u f f e r i n : La C o n s e r v a t i o n d'un monument h i s t o r i q u e a Quebec au XIXe s i e c l e " i n Le Pare  de l ' A r t i l l e r i e e t l e s F o r t i f i c a t i o n s de Quebec (Ottawa 1977) Pa r e s Canada, pp. 80-81. I t was o n l y t h e f e d e r a l government's i n a b i l i t y t o come up w i t h t h e n e c e s s a r y $100,000 t h a t p r e v e n t e d t h e p l a n from b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t . ^ M o n t r e a l S t a r , 5 F e b r u a r y , 1884. 51 T e l e g r a p h , 3 F e b r u a r y , 1894 and a l s o L'Evenement, 5 f e v r i e r , 1894, wh i c h c a l c u l a t e d t h e f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s t o be o n l y t e n t i m e s t h e o r i g i n a l i n v e s t m e n t o f $10,000. 52 ^ L'Evenement, 5 f e v r i e r , 1894. 53 I b i d . , s e e - a l s o L o r d Aberdeen's t e l e g r a m t o J o l y a f t e r the c a r n i v a l : "When I have t h e honor o f s u b m i t t i n g t o the Queen some account o f t h e s u c c e s s and e c l a t which have d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h i s , the f i r s t c a r n i v a l i n Quebec, I doubt not t h a t Her M a j e s t y w i l l be g r a c i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d and g r a t i f i e d by the i n t e l l i g e n c e , a l l t h e more because t h e s u c c e s s has been so l a r g e l y due t o t h e a c t i v i t y o f Her M a j e s t y ' s F r e n c h Canadian s u b j e c t s , whose l o y a l t y i s un d o u b t e d l y a source o f p r i d e and s a t i s f a c t i o n t o Her M a j e s t y , as i t a s s u r e d l y i s a l s o - 107 -t o t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e as a whole." M o n t r e a l S t a r , F e b r u a r y 8, 1894. ^ 4L'Eve'nement, 5 f e v r i e r , 1894. T e l e g r a p h , F e b r u a r y 4, 1896. E i g h t y t o one hundred thousand p e o p l e were e s t i m a t e d t o have w i t n e s s e d t h e a t t a c k on the i c e p a l a c e t h a t y e a r . 5 6 I b i d . I b i d . 58 From a copy o f an u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t by J.T. Coulombe (1927) p. 6, i n t h e Quebec M u n i c i p a l A r c h i v e s / A r c h i v e s de l a V i l l e de Quebec a t t h e C i t y H a l l . The department where t h e account o r i g i n a t e d was not i n d i c a t e d . 59 T e l e g r a p h , F e b r u a r y 4, 1896. i 6 o M o n t r e a l S t a r , 13 F e b r u a r y 1889, "The Young Men o f M o n t r e a l " . 61 See Vancouver Sun, 8 F e b r u a r y , 1982 p. B6. "Drunken r e v e l l e r s ' s t u n t s t u r n c a r n i v a l i n t o c i r c u s ' ' / f o r a r e c e n t example o f a Canadian P r e s s s t o r y c a l l i n g t h e c a r n i v a l an "annual c e l e b r a t i o n o f i c e and a l c o h o l " , - o r I b i d . , F e b r u a r y 10, 1982, " C a r n i v a l ' s w i c k e d brew warms r e v e l l e r s " , p. A16. Quebec C i t y ' s i s n o t t h e o n l y c a r n i v a l t o s u f f e r u n f a v o u r a b l e c o v e r a g e , however. There have been deaths i n New O r l e a n s (Vancouver Sun, 4 March, 1981-, "Mardi gras deaths spur s a f e t y c h a r g e s " , p. A9) and R i o (Vancouver P r o v i n c e , F e b r u a r y 24, 1982, p. 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M a t h i e u , J a c q u e s . "La C o n d i t i o n ouvrie*re dans l ' i n d u s t r i e de c u i r a Quebec de 1900 a: 1930 d'apres l e s p r o c e s -verbaux d'un s y n d i c a t " , u n p u b l i s h e d MA T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t e L a v a l , Quebec 1970. M e s n i l , Marianne. T r o i s e s s a i s s u r l a f@te, du f o l k l o r e a  1 ' e t h n o - s e m i o t i q u e , B r u x e l l e s 1974, E d i t i o n s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e de B r u x e l l e s . Mont p e t i t , Raymond. Le Temps des Fe~tes au Quebec. M o n t r e a l 1978, E d i t i o n s de 1"Homme. Muchembled, R. C u l t u r e p o p u l a i r e e t c u l t u r e des e l i t e s dans  l a France moderne (XV e - X V I I I e s i e c l e s ) , P a r i s 1978 Flammarion. O u e l l e t , Fernand. H i s t o i r e de l a Chambre de Commerce de  Quebec. Quebec, 1958. R o u i l l a r d , J a c q u e s . Les T r a v a i l l e u r s du c o t o n au Quebec 1900-1915, M o n t r e a l 1974, P r e s s e s de 1 ' U n i v e r s i t e du Quebec. Ryan W i l l i a n , S .J. The Church and Economic Growth i n Quebec  1896-1914, Quebec 1966, L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S e g u i n , R o b e r t - L i o n e l . Les D i v e r t i s s e m e n t s en N o u v e l i e - F r a n c e Musee N a t i o n a l du Canada, B u l l e t i n 227, Ottawa 1968, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . La V i e L i b e r t i n e en N o u v e l l e - F r a n c e au X VII e s i e c l e , 2 v o l s . , Ottawa 1972, Lemeac. Thompson, E.P. The Making o f t h e E n g l i s h Working C l a s s . London 1976, s i x t h e d i t i o n , Penguin Books. T r i g g s , S t a n l e y , and R u s s e l l H arper. P o r t r a i t o f a P e r i o d : A C o l l e c t i o n o f Notman Photographs 1851-1915, M o n t r e a l 1967, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Van Gennep, A r n o l d . Manuel de f o l k l o r e f r a n c a i s c o n t e m p o r a i n :  l e s ceremonies p e r i o d i q u e s , c y c l i q u e s e t s a i s o n n i g r e s , Tome 1:3, P a r i s 1947, P i c a r d . Young, P e r r y . The M y s t i c k Crewe, C h r o n i c l e s o f Comus and  H i s K i n , New O r l e a n s 1931, C a r n i v a l P r e s s . - 116 -APPENDIX OF PHOTOGRAPHS, MAPS, AND, TABLES.-- 117 -1. C o l l a g e , the Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894 A c o l l a g e o f v a r i o u s n o s t a l g i c and contemporary views o f t h e c i t y f o r t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894 by L i v e r n o i s . Note t h e f l a g s on the archways, t h e " l i v i n g a r c h " on the lower r i g h t , t h e i c e p a l a c e , and t h e s t a t u e o f F r o n t e n a c atop t h e i c e cone i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e p i c t u r e . J u s t under t h e i c i c l e s o f t h e eaves t o t h e r i g h t o f t h e p i c t u r e o f t h e Chateau F r o n t e n a c above -c.... the i c e cone i s t h e C h i e n d'or i m m o r t a l i z e d i n a n o v e l w r i t t e n i n the p e r i o d , about New F r a n c e . At t h e to p o f t h e c o l l a g e , t h e Quebec-Levis f e r r y c r o s s e s t h e i c y r i v e r . • Photograph by .Charles.. L i v e r n o i s , c o u r t e s y o f t h e P u b l i c A r c h i v e s . o f Canada. PA - 28844 - 119 -2. I c e S t a t u e s , t h e Quebec C a r n i v a l o f 1894 J o b i n ' s l a r g e i c e s t a t u e s o f Champlain, L a v a l and Breboeuf, w i t h t h e Seminary and t h e tower o f t h e B a s i l i c a i n t h e background. Photograph.by C h a r l e s L i v e r n o i s , c o u r t e s y o f the P u b l i c A r c h i v e s o f Canada. PA - 24069 - 121 -3. I c e P a l a c e , t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1894 The i c e p a l a c e , on t h e Esplanade w i t h t h e r o o f s o f the c i t y i n the background. The P u b l i c A r c h i v e s d a t e s t h e p i c t u r e as " c . 1896" b u t t h e s t r u c t u r e b e a r s a c l o s e r resemblance t o t h e p a l a c e a t t h e 1894 c e l e b r a t i o n s . Note th e F r e n c h , B r i t i s h And American f l a g s on t h e Towers as w e l l as t h e Red E n s i g n . Photograph L i v e r n o i s , t h e P u b l i c Canada. PA - 23630 by C h a r l e s c o u r t e s y o f A r c h i v e s o f - 123 -4. Archway a t t h e Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l o f 1896 The e l a b o r a t e archway a t t h e c o r n e r o f Crown and S t . Joseph S t r e e t s i n S t . Roch. The s p i r e o f t h e p a r i s h c h u r c h o f S t . Roch appears j u s t t o t h e l e f t o f t h e tower. T h i s s t r u c t u r e was more e l a b o r a t e t h a n t h e archways f o r t h e c a r n i v a l o f 1894. P l a n s i n the M u n i c i p a l a r c h i v e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d by the c i t y e n g i n e e r , C h a r l e s B a i l l a i r g e . P hotograph L i v e r n o i s , t h e P u b l i c Canada. PA - 23636 by C h a r l e s c o u r t e s y o f A r c h i v e s o f - 125 -5. Ice P a l a c e , the Montreal Winter C a r n i v a l of 1889 The i c e palace of the Montreal Winter C a r n i v a l of 1889. Covering much of Dominion Square i n downtown Montreal, i t was the l a r g e s t and most e l a b o r a t e of a l l the c a r n i v a l p a l a c e s , and was c o n s t r u c t e d of thousands of b l o c k s of i c e from the S t . Lawrence R i v e r . T h i s n i g h t - t i m e p i c t u r e of i t s dramatic i n t e r i o r i l l u m i n a t i o n g i v e s a s m a l l i d e a of i t s s t r i k -i n g appearance, even without the presence of the t o r c h l i t p r o c e s s i o n and f i r e w o r k s t h a t accompanied i t s "surrender" d u r i n g the c a r n i v a l c e l e b r a t i o n s . Photograph L i v e r n o i s , the P u b l i c Canada. C - 70917 by Charles c o u r t e s y of A r c h i v e s of - C l i f f s City Boundary Ward Boundaries Parade Route Legislature Ice Palace Citadel Chateau Frontenac St. Lawrence River QUEBEC, CITY 1894 - 128 -Tabl e 1 The Quebec Amateur A t h l e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n Name-of Member O c c u p a t i o n '""'Carnival Committee Honorary P r e s i d e n t : Ho. H.G. J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e Former Pr e m i e r E x e c u t i v e Comm. C a r n i v a l P r e s i d e n t Honorary V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s The Mayor o f Quebec Hon. T.C. C a s g r a i n R i c h a r d Turner John T. Ross Lawyer Lawyer, Quebec A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r Chamber of Commerce Whol e s a l e Grocer R a i l w a y Comm. S u b s c r i p t i o n F i n a n c e Comm. P r e s i d e n t : W a l t e r J . Ray Lumber Company Manager F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t : A r t h u r P i c a r d Plumbing Company P a r t n e r F i n a n c e Comm. Second V i c e - P r e s i d e n t : H.B. S c o t t S e c r e t a r y : E r i c D o r i o n Government C l e r k E x e c u t i v e Comm. S u b s c r i p t i o n T r e a s u r e r : H.A. T o f i e l d R.J. D a v i d son W.A.C. B a l d w i n W. P r i c e Capt. C.J. Dunn Bank C l e r k I n v e s t o r Snowshoe Comm. Commission Merchant Snowshoe Comm. S l i d i n g and F a m i l y t i e s w i t h Lumber Merchant C l e r k , S e c r e t a r y -T r e a s u r e r o f Quebec G a r r i s o n C l u b . Tobogganning Hockey, S k a t i n g - 129 -Table 1 C o n t i n u e d . . . Name o f Member O c c u p a t i o n C a r n i v a l Committee F.S. S t o c k i n g A. Turner F. McKnaughton James P i d d i n g t o n F a m i l y t i e s t o R.M. S t o c k i n g , U.S. V i c e C o n s u l , and G e n e r a l T i c k e t Agent A c c o u n t a n t S l i d i n g and Tobogganning S l i d i n g and Tobogganning Compiled from t h e I n d i c a t e u r de Q u e b e c e t L e v i s f o r 1893-1894, Quebec 1893, Demers, and from G.M. F a i r c h i l d , A S h o r t Account o f ye Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1894, Quebec 1894, The T e l e g r a p h . - 130 -T a b l e 2 L ' A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de St.—Roch-de-Quebec, o c c u p a t i o n s o f members, membership on c a r n i v a l committees P r e s i d e n t : J.B. L a l i b e r t e - F u r r i e r , E x e c u t i v e Committee, R a i l w a y Committee V i c e - P r e s i d e n t : G. R o c h e t t e -, ..Tandenu-Drive^Committee S e c r e t a r y : J.E. B o i l y - B o w l i n g andRackets. Committee T r e a s u r e r : - • • i - - .—' - . • N. L a v o i e - Manager, Banque du Peuple ( S t . - R o c h ) , S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee, Snowshoe Committee J . G a u t h i e r - - S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee E.T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r and Lumber D e a l e r ; F a c t o r y Corner St.-Roch and Queen S t r e e t s ; Chamber o f Commerce, Snowshoe Committee C h a r l e s Roy - L e a t h e r Merchant, Boot and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , Quebec, Chamber of Commerce, Snowshoe Committee, S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee J.H. Gignac - Timber Merchant and S a w m i l l Owner, Alderman f o r S t . Roch Ward. J.E. M a r t i n e a u - Hardware Merchant, C h a n c e l l o r o f t h e C a t h o l i c M u t u a l B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n o f S t . Roch, S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee Source: I n d i c a t u e r de Quebec e t L e v i s pour 1893-1894, Quebec 1893, Demers. " - 131 -Ta b l e 3 Names and O c c u p a t i o n s o f the.members o f major C a r n i v a l Committees (From G.M. F a i r c h i l d J r . , A S h o r t Account o f ye Quebec W i n t e r  C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1894, Quebec 1894, The T e l e g r a p h , and I n - d i c a t e u r de Qu§bec, QuSbec 1894, Demers) 1) E x e c u t i v e Committee: H.G. J o l y de L o t b i n i e ' r e - a v o c a t , former P r e m i e r o f Quebec L.P. P e l l e t i e r - R e g i s t r a r o f Quebec R i c h a r d Turner - o f Whitehead and T u r n e r , W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r s J.U. Gregory - Manager o f Government Steamers; Agent, Department o f Marine J.B. L a l i b e r t e - H a t t e r and Fur Merchant, P r e s i d e n t A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t i q u e de S t .-Roch John H. H o l t - o f G.R. Renfrew and Co., H a t t e r s and F u r r i e r s , ; " F u r r i e r s t o t h e Queen" John C. More - Manager, Merchants' Bank o f Canada E r i c D o r i o n - C i v i l S e r v i c e C l e r k , S e c r e t a r y Q.A.A.A. A.E. S w i f t -2) P r e s s Committee: Thomas Chapais - Member o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , P r o p r i e t o r and E d i t o r C o u r i e r du Canada J u l e s P. T a r d i v e l - P r o p r i e t o r and E d i t o r , La V e r i t e E.D.T. Chambers - E d i t o r , M o rning C h r o n i c l e , C o u n c i l l o r f o r S t . L o u i s Ward T.W.S. Dunn - C o u r t House C l e r k N. L e v a s s e u r - M a j o r , N i n t h B a t a l l i o n C i t y Gas I n s p e c t o r and S e c r e t a r y , Quebec Board o f Trade P.C.Roy - d i r e c t e u r , Le M o n i t e u r ( L e v i s ) 3) F i n a n c e Committee: R i c h a r d Turner — . o f Whitehead and T u r n e r , Wholesale G r o c e r s , see a l s o E x e c u t i v e Committee, and Chamber o f Commerce H e r b e r t M. P r i c e - o f H.M. P r i c e and Co., Lumber Merchants and V i c e P r e s i d e n t , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce B e r n a r d Leonard - Alderman f o r S t . L o u i s Ward, P a i n t e r , G l a z i e r and W a l l p a p e r Importer A. P i c a r d - - a number o f A. P i c a r d s i n t h e I n d i c a t e u r W. Shaw - o f t h e C h i n i c Hardware Co. V i c t o r C h a t e a u v e r t - o f J . Renaud and Co., ( C h i n a , G l a s s and E a r t h e n w a r e ) , MPP f o r Quebec.Centre, P r e s i d e n t Quebec Chamber o f Commerce - 132 -Table 3 C o n t i n u e d 4) Snowshoe Committee: C a p t a i n George Van F e l s e n - C l e r k R.J. D a v i d son -W. B a l d w i n - Commission Merchant M a r t i n F o l e y J r . - Merchant T a i l o r and Alderman f o r S t . P i e r r e Ward J . O ' N e i l l -Octave L a n g l o i s - Manager, M i l l i n e r y Imports Company J . L o r t i e - - ' E. T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r and Lumber D e a l e r , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce N. L a v o i e - Manager, Banque du Peuple (St .-Roch) and T r e a s u r e r A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t h q u e de S t . Roch de Quebec C h a r l e s Roy - L e a t h e r Merchant, Boot and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce 5) C o n s t r u c t i o n Committee: F. X. B e r l i n g u e t - " A r b i t r e O f f i c i e l " , A r c h i t e c t H. S t a v e l y - A r c h i t e c t J.F. Peachey - A r c h i t e c t G. E. Tanguay - A r c h i t e c t , Draughtsman, Quebec Chamber o f Commerce J.M. Lemoine - I n s p e c t o r o f I n l a n d Revenue J . G a u t h i e r - o f J . and 0. G a u t h i e r , P a i n t e r s , D e c o r a t o r s , G l a z i e r s E. J a c o t - Watchmaker and J e w e l l e r E.F. Tache - Deputy Commissioner o f Crown Lands J.H. Gignac - o f 0. Gignac e t F i l s , Timber Merchants and S a w m i l l Owners, C o u n c i l l o r f o r S t . Roch Ward-L.A. B e l a n g e r -Thomas Raymond - A r c h i t e c t C. B a i l l a i r g e - C i t y E n g i n e e r 6) R a i l w a y Committee: R.R. D o b e l l - o f D o b e l l , B e c k e t t and Co., Lumber M e r c h a n t s , Quebec Chamber o f Commerce Hon. P. Garneau - Wholesale Drygoods I m p o r t e r s Hon. T.C. C a s g r a i n - Lawyer, A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l f o r the P r o v i n c e o f Quebec, P r o f e s s o r , L a v a l U n i v e r s i t y , Q.A.A.A. J.B. L a l i b e r t e - F u r r i e r , E x e c u t i v e Committee o f C a r n i v a l P r e s i d e n t , A s s o c i a t i o n A t h l e t i q u e de St.-Roch-de-Quebec C. Duquet -- 133 -A d v e r t i s i n g Committee: Frank Carrel,'. - E d i t o r , P r i n t e r , P r o p r i e t o r Quebec D a i l y _„'.' _ T e l e g r a p h George Duncan - CPR Passenger and F r e i g h t Agent, Quebec C i t y R.M. S t o c k i n g - G e n e r a l T i c k e t Agent f o r t h e R a i l r o a d and Steamship L i n e s , U.S. V i c e - C o n s u l . James G. S c o t t - S e c r e t a r y and Manager o f t h e Quebec and Lake S t . John R a i l w a y ; G e n e r a l Manager and S e c r e t a r y , G r e a t N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y H. Dunning - Manager, Chateau F r o n t e n a c H o t e l J.U. Gregory - Manager o f Government Steamers and Agent f o r t h e Department o f Marine (see E x e c u t i v e Committee) E r i c D o r i o n - see E x e c u t i v e Committee) L.Z. Joncas - M.P. Gaspe, d i r e c t e u r , L'Evenement J . S p a n j a a d t -- 134 -T a b l e 4 The Quebec Chamber of Commerce 1893-1894, and c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h Quebec C a r n i v a l Committees V. Cha*teauvert, P r e s i d e n t - MPP Quebec C e n t r e , o f J.B. Renaud and Company ( C h i n a , G l a s s and Earthenware) C a r n i v a l F i n a n c e and S u b s c r i p t i o n Committees H.M. P r i c e - F i r s t V i c e P r e s i d e n t - Lumber Merchant, F i n a n c e Committee E.B. Garneau - Second V i c e P r e s i d e n t - Wholesale Drygoods Importer S.S. Bennet - o f Bennet and Co., Commission C o a l Merchants Thomas B r o d i e - o f W. and R. B r o d i e , F l o u r , G r a i n and P r o v i s i o n Merchants R. Turner - Wholesale Grocer and G e n e r a l Merchant, F i n a n c e Committee and Member QAAA R.R. D o b e l l - o f D o b e l l , B e c k e t t and Co., Lumber Merc h a n t s , Harbour Commission, R a i l w a y Committee C h a r l e s E. Roy - L e a t h e r Merchant, Boot and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r , S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee, B o w l i n g and R a c k e t t s Committee, and A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de St.-Roch E.T. N e s b i t t - B u i l d e r and Lumber D e a l e r , Snowshoe Committee, B o w l i n g and Rackets Committee, L o d g i n g Committee, and A s s o c i a t i o n a t h l e t i q u e de St.-Roch Geo. Tanguay - G e n e r a l P r o v i s i o n Merchant, S u b s c r i p t i o n Committee Thee. B e l a n d - Dry Goods Merchant Wm. Rae - o f A l l a n , Rae and Co., Agents and Owners o f t h e A l l a n L i n e o f S t e a m s h i p s , Quebec Harbour Commission A. L e t e l l i e r - W h o l e s a l e G r o c e r C A . L a n g l o i s - W h o l e s a l e Grocer:, G e n e r a l Merchant N.F. Garneau - M i l l i n e r S. P e t e r s - Saw M i l l Owner N. L e v a s s e u r - S e c r e t a r y T o t a l - 16 members, p l u s s e c r e t a r y O c c u p a t i o n s o f F r e n c h s p e a k e r s : T o t a l : O c c u p a t i o n s o f E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s : T o t a l : 4 r e t a i l merchants 1 l e a t h e r merchant, m a n u f a c t u r e r 1 g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n e r 2 w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r s 8 3 lumber merchants 1 lumber m a n u f a c t u r e r 1 c o a l merchant 1 p r o v i s i o n e r 1 w h o l e s a l e g r o c e r 1 s t e a m s h i p agent 8 Source: I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e v i s pour 1893-94, Q u e b e c 1893, Demers, and C M . F a i r c h i l d J r . , A S h o r t Account o f ye Quebec W i n t e r C a r n i v a l Holden i n 1893, Quebec 1893, The T e l e g r a p h . - 135 -T a b l e 5 The Quebec B u s i n e s s Community, 1894 E t h n i c Breakdown o f Major I n d u s t r i e s i n Quebec C i t y i n 1894 A c c o r d i n g t o Company Name. (Source: I n d i c a t e u r de Quebec e t L e V i s pour 1893-94, Quebec 1893 Demers) K i n d o f B u s i n e s s T o t a l '•. F r e n c h . E n g l i s h Unknown Boot and Shoe M a n u f a c t u r e r s 18 12 5 . 1 B u i l d e r s and C o n t r a c t o r s 13 8 5 -L e a t h e r Merchants 11)over- 9 2 -Tanners and C u r r i e r s 1 2 J x a p 12 Lumber, Timber Merchants and B r o k e r s 33 11 22 -Paper M a n u f a c t u r e r s 3 1 2 -P r i n t e r s . 1 6 10 6 Saw M i l l Owners 8 5 3 S h i p B u i l d e r s ( a l l i n L e v i s ) 3 2 1 -P h y s i c i a n s and Surgeons 53 38 15 Avocats ( c a l l e d 1835-1893) 124 91 33 N o t a i r e s (1838-1892) 61 52 9 

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