Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Recreation planning for coastal B. C. parks: an ecological (biophysical) inventory and analysis approach Woollacott, Gregory Christopher 1982

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1982_A6_7 W67.pdf [ 17.36MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0094961.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0094961-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0094961-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0094961-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0094961-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0094961-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0094961-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0094961-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0094961.ris

Full Text

RECREATION PLANNING FOR COASTAL B.C. PARKS: AN ECOLOGICAL (BIOPHYSICAL) INVENTORY AND ANALYSIS APPROACH by GREGORY CHRISTOPHER WOOLLACOTT B.S.F., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BR I T I S H COLUMBIA AUGUST 1982 © G r e g o r y C h r i s t o p h e r W o o l l a c o t t , 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department Of Graduate Studies The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date August 15, 1982. DE-6 (3/81) - i i -ABSTRACT Theory of e c o l o g i c a l (biophysical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s presented. The theory of integrated e c o l o g i c a l land c l a s -s i f i c a t i o n , mapping and analysis i s applied to r e c r e a t i o n a l land planning. An approach to r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y analysis appropriate for reconnaissance l e v e l inventories and analyses of recreation c a p a b i l i t i e s i s presented. Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C. served as a case study for applying the recreation s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y analysis approach developed. Landforms, i d e n t i f i e d using the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System (Ministry of Environment, 1978), served as the basis upon which selected e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t parameters were inventoried and analyzed. The parameters used i n t h i s analysis included topography, depth to bedrock, f r o s t action, flood hazard, vegetation, climate and various s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n c l u d i n g moisture regime, texture, stoniness, rockiness, permeability and erosion hazard. The a c t i v i t i e s considered i n t h i s analysis included camping (intensive), h i k i n g (summer), picnicking/day use, cross-country s k i i n g , downhill s k i i n g , mountain climbing/mountaineering, toboggan-ning, snowmobiling and snowshoeing. The r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y of the park was summarized i n tables and maps. I t was found that t h i s s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y analysis approach provided an e f f e c t i v e means for e s t a b l i s h i n g an area's r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y . It i s recommended that the findings of t h i s analysis be used to a s s i s t i n any future recreation planning and management within the park. - i i i -TABLE OF CONTENTS T I T L E PAGE . . . ABSTRACT . . TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . L I S T OF TABLES . . . . L I S T OF FIGURES . . . . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . 2.0 THEORY OF ECOLOGICAL (BIOPHYSICAL) LAND CL A S S I F I C A T I O N . . . . . . . 2 2.1 C o n c e p t s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . 2 2.2 C o n c e p t o f E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . 5 2.3 L a n d f o r m and R e l a t e d E c o l o g i c a l P a r a m e t e r s . 7 2.4 S t r e n g t h s and W e aknesses o f E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n • • • 13 2.5 M e t h o d o l o g y f o r E c o l o g i c a l I n v e n t o r y and A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . 15 2.6 Summary . . . . . . . - 2 0 3.0 AREA C L A S S I F I C A T I O N FOR SELECTED RECREATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S - CLAGUE MOUNTAIN PARK . . - 2 1 3.1 C a s e S t u d y . . . . . . • 22 3.1.1 L o c a t i o n and S i z e . . . - 2 3 3.1.2 H i s t o r y and L a n d Use . . . - 2 8 3.2 L a n d f o r m , P a r e n t M a t e r i a l and B e d r o c k G e o l o g y . . . . . . . . 32 3.3 T o p o g r a p h y . . . . . . • 38 3.4 S o i l s . . . . . . . . 4Q 3.4.1 S o i l M o i s t u r e Regime and D r a i n a g e . 44 3.4.2 E r o s i o n H a z a r d . . . . - 5 2 3.4.3 F l o o d H a z a r d . . . . • 54 Page i i i i i i v i v i i i x 1 - i v -Page 3.4.4 T e x t u r e and P e r m e a b i l i t y . . . 55 3.4.5 S t o n i n e s s . . . . . . 57 3.4.6 R o c k i n e s s . . . . . . 58 3.4.7 D e p t h t o B e d r o c k o r I m p e r v i o u s L a y e r . 59 3.4.8 F r o s t A c t i o n . . . . . 60 3.5 V e g e t a t i o n . . . . . . . 6 2 3.5.1 V e g e t a t i o n P a r a m e t e r s U s e d t o A s s e s s R e c r e a t i o n C a p a b i l i t y . . . 6 3 3.5.2 R e c r e a t i o n S u i t a b i l i t y R a t i n g U s i n g B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones . . . . 6 7 3.6 C l i m a t e . . . . . . . . 69 3.6.1 C l i m a t e o f C l a g u e M o u n t a i n P a r k . . 72 3.7 U n i q u e S i t e F e a t u r e s . . . . . 7 6 3.8 S i t e L i m i t a t i o n s f o r S e l e c t e d R e c r e a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . . . . . . . 77 3.9 E c o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h t o R e c r e a t i o n S u i t a b i l i t y A n a l y s i s . . . . . 102 3.10 S u r v e y and M a p p i n g M e t h o d o l o g y . . . 109 4.0 LANDFORM UNIT DESCRIPTIONS AND S U I T A B I L I T Y RATINGS FOR SELECTED RECREATIONAL A C T I V I T I E S . 110 5.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . 1 2 4 BIBLIOGRAPHY 132 APPENDIX I - RESOURCE ANALYSIS BRANCH, MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT DATA COLLECTION FORM TABLES OF: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COASTAL WESTERN HEMLOCK, MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK, AND ALPINE BIOGEOCLIMATIC.ZONES OF BR I T I S H COLUMBIA SUMMARIES OF THE CHARACTERISTIC SPECIES OF EACH OF THESE THREE ZONES APPENDIX I I 1. 2. 140 - v -Page 3. S U I T A B I L I T Y RATINGS OF THE PLANT ASSOCIATIONS OF EACH OF THESE THREE ZONES FOR RECREATION . . . . 1 4 9 APPENDIX I I I - SUMMARY OF CR I T E R I A FOR THE CLIMATIC S U I T A B I L I T Y FOR RECREATION C L A S S I F I C A -TION 16 3 APPENDIX I V - DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF CLAGUE MOUNTAIN TRAIL . . . . . . . 1 6 7 APPENDIX V - CLAGUE MOUNTAIN PARK REGULATIONS . . 169 APPENDIX V I - CHARACTERISTIC PLANT SPECIES OF CLAGUE MOUNTAIN PARK, KITIMAT, B.C. . . . 175 APPENDIX V I I - PHOTOGRAPHS SHOWING DELINEATED LAND-FORM UNITS . . . . . . 1 8 8 APPENDIX V I I I - T E R R A I N C L A S S I F I C A T I O N GUIDE . . . 200 APPENDIX IX - DEFINITIONS AND POTENTIAL FROST ACTION RATINGS FOR MAJOR THIRD L E V E L DIVISIONS OF THE UNIFIED SOIL C L A S S I F I C A T I O N SYSTEM . . . . . . . 2 0 2 - v i -LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Guide for Assessing S o i l Erosion Hazard . . 53 2 Frost Action C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by S o i l Texture Classes . . . . . . . 6 1 3 Recreation A c t i v i t y - R e l a t e d Climatic Factors . . . . . . . . 7 0 4 Climatic Data for Kitimat, B.C.: Including Temperature, P r e c i p i t a t i o n , Sunshine and Wind . . . . . . . . . 75 5 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use) . . . . . 79 6 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical).Limitations for Cross-Country Skiing . . . . . . 82 7 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Downhill Skiing . . . . . . . 84 8 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations f o r Mountain Climbing: Mountaineering . . - 8 6 9 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Picnicking/Day Use . . . . . . 88 10 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Snowmobiling . . . . . . . 9 1 11 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Snowshoeing . . . . . . . - 9 4 12 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Tobagganning . . . . . . • 96 13 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for T r a i l s (Summer Use) . . . . . . 9 9 14 E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Landform Units . . . . . . 1 1 1 15 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings of Landform Units for Selected Recreational A c t i v i t i e s . . 113 - v i i -LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Map of B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . . 24 2 Oblique Photograph of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C. . . . . . . . 2 ^ 3 Map of Kitimat-Terrace Valley, Showing Location of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat. . 26 4 Map of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, Showing E x i s t i n g T r a i l Network and Major Park Areas . 5 Terrain Units of Clague Mountain Park . . 35 6 Graphic I l l u s t r a t i o n of P r o f i l e Delineated by A-A' Line Transect of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C. . . . . . 36 7 Slope C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Clague Mountain Park . 4 1 8 Aspect C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Clague Mountain Park . 4 2 9 Physiographic Subdivisions of B r i t i s h Columbia. 4 7 10 Watershed Areas of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C. . . . . . . . 50 11 S o i l Moisture Regime C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Clague Mountain Park . . . . . . 5 1 12 Flood Hazard Rating of Clague Mountain Park . 56 13 Biogeoclimatic Zonal C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Clague Mountain Park . . . . . . . 6 8 14 Slope Factor Map . . . . . . 1 0 5 15 Aspect Factor Map . . . . . . 1 0 5 16 S o i l Moisture Regime Factor Map . . . 1 0 6 17 Generation of E c o l o g i c a l Data for Landform Units . . . . . . . . 1 0 7 18 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Campgrounds . H5 19 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Hiking T r a i l s (Summer Use) . . . . . . . . - v i i i -Figure Page 20 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Downhill Skiing . . . . . . . . 117 21 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Cross-Country Skiing . . . . . . . . 118 22 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Snowmobiling . 119 23 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Snowshoeing . 120 24 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Tobogganning . 121 25 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Mountain Climbing: Mountaineering . . . . . 122 26 Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Picnicking/ Day Use . . . . . . . . 123 - i x -ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Dr. W. Rees of the School of Community and Regional Planning, and Dr. P.J. Dooling of the Faculty of Forestry are thanked for t h e i r time and e f f o r t s i n the review of t h i s t h e s i s . My wife, Joan Thelma Chess, provided invaluable support and advise during the wr i t i n g of this' t h e s i s . Jon, my youngest brother, i s thanked for his assistance i n the c o l l e c t i o n of f i e l d data. The C i t y of Kitimat i s thanked for t h e i r f i n a n c i a l support and d i r e c t i o n . L a s t l y , I want to thank B.. Weisman and the School of Community and Regional Planning for the opportunity to develop more f u l l y my s k i l l s and knowledge of resource planning and development. - 1 -1 . 0 INTRODUCTION E f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e natural resources planning and management requires a sound generally accepted approach to resources inventory and anal y s i s . The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to discuss the theories and concepts of e c o l o g i c a l (biophysical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and to show how i t can serve as a p a r t i a l basis for undertaking outdoor recreation s u i t a b i l i t y .analysis. The major premise of t h i s t h e s i s i s that, the i n t e r a c t i v e p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l factors of the environment can be used as indicators of the land's a b i l i t y to sustain s p e c i f i c uses. Such environmental a t t r i b u t e s can govern the form, i n t e n s i t y , duration and general s u s t a i n a b i l i t y of resource uses i n given landscapes. This approach i s not a l l encompassing for i t does not account for the contributions of s o c i a l , h i s t o r i c a l , archeological, p o l i t i c a l and economic fa c t o r s . In t h i s thesis a small municipal park situated i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia was assessed as to i t s s u i t -a b i l i t y f o r each of nine selected outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . This analysis of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C., was undertaken using established, a c t i v i t y - s p e c i f i c sets of e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t environmental parameters. The a c t i v i t i e s included were camping (intensive), hiking (summer), picnicking/day use, cross-country s k i i n g , downhill s k i i n g , mountain climbing/mountaineering, tobogganning, snow-mobiling and snowshoeing. - 2 -The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e : 1. to i l l u s t r a t e the t h e o r y and p o t e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f i n t e g r a t e d l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , mapping and a n a l y s i s to more e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e base, 2. t o p r e s e n t s e t s o f e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t parameters f o r s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l a i d i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the l i m i t a t i o n o f g i v e n landscapes f o r each o f these a c t i v i t i e s , 3 . t o develop an approach t o r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r r e c o n n a i s s a n c e l e v e l i n v e n t o r i e s and a n a l y s e s o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the Coast Mountain r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 4 . to ap p l y the r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y approach developed t o Clague Mountain Park, K i t i m a t , B.C., 5. and, to d e r i v e recommendations t h a t w i l l a i d i n the f u t u r e p l a n n i n g , development and management o f Clague Mountain Park. 2.0 THEORY OF ECOLOGICAL (BIOPHYSICAL) LAND CLASSIFICATION 2.1 Concepts o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Assume t h a t an ar e a i s t o be i n v e n t o r i e d , c l a s s i f i e d and i n t e r p r e t e d f o r i t s s u i t a b i l i t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n development, what i s the "best" or most "optimum" c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme t o use? As might be suspected, t h e r e i s no "best" approach t o la n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . V a r i o u s systems of la n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are c o n t r i v a n c e s developed t o s u i t s p e c i f i c needs, hence they - 3 -are not truths than can be discovered. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s the ordering or arranging of objects into groups or sets based on s i m i l a r i t i e s or r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s o c i a l , economic, adminis-t r a t i v e and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and t h e i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s foster the development and a p p l i -cation of a host of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. Such schemes are based on land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , present use, use c a p a b i l i t i e s , recommended use, need for e f f e c t u a t i o n of programs and other c r i t e r i a that aid i n meeting s o c i e t y s 1 needs and a s p i r a t i o n s . If supply inventory and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems are to be useful they should meet the following requirements: 1. "The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must be as objective as possible to adequately define the land classes i n terms of inherent bioph y s i c a l p o t e n t i a l for resource production." ( D r i s c o l l , 1978). 2. The landscape features upon which the classes are based should be permanent. "It i s understood that some elements of the system; for example vegetation and s o i l , change as a r e s u l t of resource management p r a c t i s e s . However, .some diagnostic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (land surface configuration and climate) remain r e l a t i v e l y permanent and the class orders of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can be i n f e r r e d by induction or deduction." ( D r i s c o l l , 1978). 3. The system must be f l e x i b l e , general and of use over defined geographic areas i f i t i s to be f u n c t i o n a l i n p r e d i c t i n g a range of information over a large number of environmental s i t u a t i o n s . - 4 -4. From a p r a c t i c a l standpoint i t should be formed on concepts and l o g i c that are understood by non-technical people, permit i n c l u s i o n into an o v e r a l l empirical computer-oriented information system, and be designed and documented for ease of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and mapping of f i e l d s i t e s . 5. Selected classes should f a c i l i t a t e inductive, as well as deductive assessments to be developed i n the context of the feature of i n t e r e s t or the p a r t i c u l a r purpose of the study. D i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of generalizations c a l l for d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (Bailey et a l , 1978). 6. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system should f a c i l i t a t e the c o l l e c -t i o n of remotely sensed data at various scales of i n t e n s i t y and at d i f f e r e n t times of the year (sequential photographic and remotely sensed imagery). As indicated previously, one of the major applications of land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems has been i n the d e r i v a t i o n of land c a p a b i l i t y or capacity estimates, be i t for r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits or other of mans1 a c t i v i t i e s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n provides a framework for an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y inventory of the resources which con t r o l land c a p a b i l i t y (capacity). "Land c a p a b i l i t y " i n t h i s context r e f e r s to the p h y s i c a l carrying capacity of an area as defined by the inherent a b i l i t y of the landscape to sustain a given use (Block, 1976). Land units w i l l be assessed i n terms of t h e i r c a p a c i t i e s to support a range of selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s thesis land unit s u i t a b i l i t y - 5 -i s the inherent capacity of a land unit to support a given use but does not include the land unit's a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t such use, a c c e s s i b i l i t y to i t nor any s o c i a l or economic considera-tions . 2.2 Concept of E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n What does e c o l o g i c a l (biophysical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n mean? This term i s used to denote an integrated approach to land survey, i n which land i s inventoried, c l a s s i f i e d and mapped as d i s t i n c t ecosystems (Welch, 1977; Rowe, 1978; Wiken, 1978) . "Land" includes both b i o t i c (physical-chemical) components of the environment and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s as they influence human a c t i v i t i e s . To e s t a b l i s h a sense of order and consistency i n land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the Canada Committee on Ec o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (CCELC) proposed that t h i s integrated approach be known as "eco l o g i c a l (bio-physical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " (ELC). The primary objective of CCELC i s , "to encourage the continued development and to promote the a p p l i c a t i o n of a uniform e c o l o g i c a l (biophysical) approach to land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n for resource planning, manage-ment and environmental impact assessment purposes" (Wiken, 1978) . In e f f e c t the CCELC has taken on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to co-ordinate the development of the Canadian Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System. E c o l o g i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n attempts to express the in t e r a c t i v e character of the lands' components and human - 6 -a c t i v i t i e s . A better understanding of these i n t e r a c t i v e properties f a c i l i t a t e s improved management of the natural and anthropogenic resource base. A more de t a i l e d discussion of ELC i s given i n 2.3. E s t a b l i s h i n g the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a given ecosystem can be d i f f i c u l t , as ecosystem behavior i s not l i n e a r . ELC attempts to s i m p l i f y these r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f e r e n t areas of land i n a s p a t i a l h i e r a r c h i c a l fashion. Over the past four decades numerous ELC studies have been undertaken i n Canada, with subsequent studies improving the methods and findings of previous ones. In a vast and unsettled country l i k e Canada, the ELC approach has proven invaluable for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g e c o l o g i c a l l y -s i g n i f i c a n t segments of the land surface. For areas which warrant more d e t a i l e d study the ELC's h i e r a r c h i c a l framework allows a more re f i n e d evaluation. Lacate (1969) proposed an ELC system which recognized several l e v e l s of generalization. This system has become the "model" for approaches i n Canada. The four l e v e l s which comprise Lacate's system are: Land Region: an extensive area of contiguous landscapes with a complex of physiographic patterns distinguished by regional climate as expressed by vegetational complexes. Boundary del i n e a t i o n i s on the basis of the macro b i o t a - s o i l i n d i c a t o r s of l a t i t u d i n a l and l o n g i t u -d i n a l c l i m a t i c change. Land D i s t r i c t : i s a component of Land Region, being - 7 -characterized by a d i s t i n c t i v e pattern of r e l i e f , geological structure, geomorphic evolution and associated regional vegetation. Boundary del i n e a t i o n i s on the basis of macro changes i n r e l i e f and/or bedrock geology. Land System: i s a component of a Land D i s t r i c t , being characterized by a recurring pattern of landforms, s o i l s and vegetation. Mapping units at the Land System l e v e l are i d e n t i f i a b l e on airphotos p r i m a r i l y as patterns of landforms and vegetation. Boundary delinea-t i o n i s on the basis of meso changes i n s u r f i c i a l geology and landform. Land Type: i s a component of Land System, being characterized as a topographic combination of s o i l texture, drainage and a succession of vegetation. The Land Type i s the fundamental land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n unit; often being used as a basis for r a t i n g the b i o l o g i c a l carrying capacity of a given area or for other resource management purposes for which more s p e c i f i c and highly d e t a i l e d c a p a b i l i t y ratings might be required. Boundaries are delineated on the basis of changes i n slope and i n v a r i a t i o n s i n s o i l materials and depth. (Lacate, 196 9; Oswald and Senyk, 1977; Rowe, 1978.) 2.3 Landform and Related E c o l o g i c a l Parameters Having introduced an o v e r a l l framework and the major premises of ELC, the parameters that are deemed " e c o l o g i c a l l y -- 8 -s i g n i f i c a n t " i n ELC w i l l be discussed. Before proceeding i t should be noted that although there i s a common approach to ELC, the s e l e c t i o n of parameters i s dependent on l o c a l needs and available methods of c o l l e c t i o n (Welch, 1977; Rowe, 1978). In p r a c t i s e ELC surveys r e l y on perceived boundaries which define areas d i s p l a y i n g c e r t a i n uniform or interconnected t r a i t s . Parameters selected to describe these t r a i t s serve as benchmark in d i c a t o r s or generators of function and process i n the landscape. Selection of parameters w i l l be dependent on li m i t a t i o n s i n time, monies, manpower and other resources, recognition of l o c a l needs and project objectives. Landforms are one of the more commonly used and i n t e r -preted landscape features (Gimbarzevsky, 1978b). Landforms are defined as: a) natural t e r r a i n units (including geologic elements and transported or r e s i d u a l s o i l s ) that, where developed under s i m i l a r conditions of climate, weathering, erosion and mass wasting, w i l l e x h i b i t a predictable range of physi c a l and v i s u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Therefore, s o i l s developed from s i m i l a r parent materials (under s i m i l a r conditions) are r e l a t e d and have s i m i l a r engineering properties." (Way, 1978). b) "The various shapes of the land surface r e s u l t i n g from a v a r i e t y of actions such as deposition or sedimentation (eskers, l a c u s t r i n e basins), erosion ( g u l l i e s , canyons) and earth crust movements (mountains)." (Agric. Can., 1976). - 9 -c) "... . areas of land or topographic features that are defined i n terms of t h e i r shapes and slope patterns, the materials that produce the r e l i e f , and, wherever possible, i n terms of t h e i r mode of o r i g i n . Landforms are areas of land, or topographic features, that pro-vide the framework to which patterns and changes i n vegetation and s o i l s can be geographically r e l a t e d . " (Lacate, 1969). Recognition and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of landforms and associated s u r f i c i a l geology serves to e s t a b l i s h a geographic framework to which s o i l , vegetation, climate and land use information can be re l a t e d and subsequently extrapolated over adjacent landscapes. In B r i t i s h Columbia the Resource Analysis Branch's Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System i s a prime example of how landform recognition and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can serve as a framework to which other e c o l o g i c a l parameters can be rela t e d (Min. of the Envir., 1978) (*refer to Appendix V I I I ) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system used to assess the landform features, s o i l s and parent materials i n t h i s thesis i s that proposed by the RAB (Min. of the Envir., 1978). Further, i n t h i s thesis a l l references made to eithe r "land u n i t s " or "land systems" imply the areas of the landscape as defined by Lacate's (1969) "Land System" l e v e l of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In p r a c t i s e i t has been shown that a e r i a l photo i n t e r -pretation techniques f a c i l i t a t e systematic mapping of the physi c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the landscape (Gimbarzevsky, 1978b). - 10 -The combined use of e x i s t i n g reports and maps, ground checks and airphoto interpretations enables one to c l a s s i f y and accurately delineate landforms based on observed or deduced physical and b i o l o g i c a l landscape a t t r i b u t e s . The inherent a t t r i b u t e s of landform govern the s u s t a i n a b i l i t y for selected resource uses. As a p r e r e q u i s i t e to sound land planning and management i t i s imperative that a comprehensive and quantita-t i v e knowledge of the e c o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s of the landscape be attained (Jurdant et a l , 1974). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of natural vegetation have been found to be c l o s e l y linked with landform. The i n t e g r a t i o n of vegetation into e c o l o g i c a l land inventory has proven inadequate due to the lack of a generally accepted d e s c r i p t i v e method for vegetation, the absence of a framework for c l a s s i f y i n g Canadian vegetation types, the rapid reaction of vegetation to disturbance and the presence of variable vegetation cover on s i m i l a r landforms. There i s a need for parameters that are independent of successional or man-induced changes (Gimbar-zevsky, 1978b; Rowe, 1978). Vegetation i s usually inventoried and c l a s s i f i e d on the basis of vegetation structure, such as s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , height, percent cover and crown closure, species composition by stratum and species abundance (numbers and percent coverage). Although vegetation i s not as suitable as landform, as a framework for ELC, i t has proven useful for inventorying and i n t e r p r e t i n g for w i l d l i f e , recreation, timber and other resources and resource uses. Vegetation i s - 11 -an i n d i c a t o r of s o i l condition, hence, f a c i l i t a t e s the i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n and mapping of s o i l texture, permeability, s a l i n i t y , f e r t i l i t y , moisture and drainage classes, depth to seasonal watertable and s o i l taxonomic classes (Lacate, 196 9; Gimbar-zevsky, 1978b; Way, 1978). In B r i t i s h Columbia, vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has been heavily influenced by Krajina's (1969) concept of Biogeoclima-t i c Zonation. Krajina's approach expresses the combined influence of climate and physiography on the dominant vegeta-t i o n , with each Biogeoclimatic Zone being named a f t e r the dominant c l i m a t i c climax tree species on mesic s i t e s within each Zone. Although i t i s one of the most e c o l o g i c a l l y advanced vegetation c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems i n use today, i t suffers from some poorly defined boundaries a r i s i n g from insuf-f i c i e n t data (U.B.C. Forest Club, 1971). In t h i s thesis the vegetation-related parameters were based on the inherent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone), the Mountain Hemlock Zone (Forest and Parkland Subzones) and the Alpine Zone. Realizing the drawbacks of int e g r a t i n g vegetation into ELC, i t nevertheless plays an important role i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a sense of the e c o l o g i -c a l unity of an area. Climate represents the average weather conditions of an area.and, hence, l i m i t s the e x i s t i n g or planned a c t i v i t i e s i n an area. Climate i s r e f l e c t e d i n an area's b i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y , which, i n turn, determines the s u i t a b i l i t y of an - 12 -area for a v a r i e t y of uses, i . e . , v a l l e y bottoms, with t h e i r normally higher l e v e l s of b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y , would probably be more suitable for a wider range and greater i n t e n s i t y of use than high elevation alpine areas, character-ized by short growing seasons and extremes i n temperatures, wind and i n s o l a t i o n . Climate i s often deduced from patterns of vegetation, landform and drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an area (Oswald and Senyk, 1977; Rowe, 1978). In rugged mountainous areas of B r i t i s h Columbia the varied macro-relief has pronounced modifying influences on regional climates (Oswald and Senyk, 1977). On a larger scale, landforms can have pronounced influences on t h e i r surrounding micro-climates. Slopes and aspects w i l l determine the amounts of solar r a d i a t i o n , wind and p r e c i p i t a t i o n land-forms w i l l receive (Gimbarzevsky et a l , 1978). A i r temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , wind, r e l a t i v e humidity and solar r a d i a t i o n are the c l i m a t i c categories often used to inventory and describe landform u n i t s . Bennett (1977) proposed a c l i m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme for recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Appendix I I I ) . Climate represents only one parameter of the ELC framework, hence should be considered i n conjunction with vegetation, landform, water bodies, animal communities and man. - 13 -2.4 Strengths and Weaknesses of E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Up to t h i s point, discussion has centered on the concept of ELC and i t s associated e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t parameters. Why bother with t h i s approach? The following actual or pre-sumed strengths and weaknesses w i l l indicate r e s p e c t i v e l y why some i n d i v i d u a l s and agencies favour or avoid using the ELC approach. (It should be noted that the stated strengths and weaknesses are generalized and that each project should be evaluated on i t s own merits.) The ELC approach has proven useful because: 1. The h i e r a r c h i c a l framework of the ELC method, i t s a b i l i t y to portray the landscape at widely divergent scales and i t s form of presentation based on the concept of ecolo-g i c a l unity makes the ELC approach u n p a r a l l e l l e d i n processing landscape data for planning purposes (Luff and Ojamaa, 1978; Rowe, 1978). ELC has the provision to integrate subsequent, more intensive investigations into previously completed reconnaissance surveys (Gimbarzevsky, 1978b). 2. It provides for an h o l i s t i c overview of the natural environment eand often r e s u l t s i n the de r i v a t i o n of v e r s a t i l e surveys (Gimbarzevsky, 1978b; Rowe, 1978; Wiken, 1978). 3. I t emphasizes the documentation of the more stable land c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , thus maintaining and enhancing the data bases' u t i l i t y i n the long run. - 14 -4. I t represents one of the most e f f e c t i v e uses of remote sensing technology. 5. It allows, i n theory, for the evaluation and possible improvement upon current or expected land use practices by recognizing and accounting f o r : the thresholds and l i m i t s o f land ecosystems, the range of management strategies a v a i l a b l e , the environmental impact of proposals by i n d i c a t i n g the degree of c o m p a t i b i l i t y with the land systems, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of new technologies, the low r i s k a l t e r n a t i v e s that are possible, the opportunities for renovation and sequential land occupation, and, the cost advantages that may be r e a l i z e d over i n t e r p r e t i v e surveys or comparable number of single d i s c i p l i n a r y studies, i . e . , less d e t a i l e d single d i s c i p l i n a r y programs often have higher unit costs due to redundancies i n the areas of transportation, f i e l d work, s t a f f support, cartographic map production and computer data manipulation. The ELC approach has proven l i m i t e d because: 1. I t lacks an agreed upon taxonomic system. 2. The costs associated with ELC surveys can be quite formidable. ELC survey costs are r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the complexity and size of the area under study, required amount of d e t a i l and form of data presenta-t i o n (Oswald, 1976; Gimbarzevsky, 1978b). - 15 -3. The time required to undertake ELC surveys may pose a problem as there i s often a need for a quick response accompanied by sound decision making, e.g. exploration and development i n areas r i c h i n natural resources. Oswald (1976) stated that the b i o p h y s i c a l mapping of the Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s and considerably smaller areas would require a minimum two year period. 4. Application of the ELC system can be l i m i t e d by a i r c r a f t scheduling, weather conditions, incidence of f o r e s t f i r e s , t r a v e l distance among base camps, ground access and other aspects of data c o l l e c t i o n , manipulation and presentation. 2.5 Methodology for E c o l o g i c a l Inventory and Analysis The success of ELC studies i s dependent on the use of a generally recognized and applied methodological framework. The framework i s based on the a b i l i t y of investigators to inventory, c l a s s i f y and map e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t patterns, thus y i e l d i n g v a r i o u s l y scaled d i v i s i o n s of the landscape (Gimbarzevsky, 1978b; Rowe, 1978). Derivation of representa-t i v e and understandable taxonomic systems w i l l be dependent on the range of d i s c i p l i n e s and i n t e r e s t groups involved i n e c o l o g i c a l land surveys. I f delineated land units are to be meaningful investigators must maintain the dynamic sense of landscape processes and the meaning of s p a t i a l patterns. Landscape processes can be interpreted by d i r e c t observation - 16 -or through inference. In areas as vast and unsettled as Canada, a great deal of t e r r a i n analysis information has been gathered using inference (Fulton et a l , 1974). Inference can be used to determine whether an area has sand, s i l t or clay s u r f i c i a l parent material through an analysis of the drainage patterns of the area. Inference has been proven e f f e c t i v e i n assessing s o i l moisture and f e r t i l i t y , erosion hazard, flood hazard, climate, vegetation condition, slopes, p o t e n t i a l land uses and w i l d l i f e populations. Use of airphotos and airphoto i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , coupled with supportive ground checks, has shown to be invaluable i n ELC studies. Airphotos aid i n the preliminary f i e l d reconnaissance work and mapping of e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t u n i t s , as well as the f i n a l compila-t i o n and presentation of findings (Lacate, 1969; Rowe, 1978). Upon reviewing the works of Gimbarzevsky (1978a and 1978b); Gimbarzevsky et a l (1978); Lacate (1969); Oswald (1976) and Way (1978) i t was found that one o v e r a l l methodolo-g i c a l framework could be used to summarize the ELC approaches proposed by these authors. The data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis procedures which follow formed the basis of the approach used i n the case study portion of t h i s t h e s i s . The following points i l l u s t r a t e the procedures which comprise the aforementioned o v e r a l l ELC framework: 1. Resource Data A c q u i s i t i o n a) Preliminary work: Gather and review a l l pertinent information on the area - 17 -to be surveyed, paying close attention to information r e l a t e d to bedrock geology, geomorphology, s o i l s , climate, vegetation, land use, hydrology and w i l d l i f e communities, ) Systematic airphoto a n a l y s i s : Extensive use should be made of remotely sensed'date i n the form of oblique photographs, large and small scale airphotographs, photo mosaics and s a t e l l i t e imagery, The q u a l i t y , date, scale, and type of a e r i a l photography w i l l have s i g n i f i c a n t influences on the v i s i b i l i t y of patterns formed by the key e c o l o g i c a l parameters, The use' of a e r i a l photographs f a c i l i t a t e s the observa-t i o n of landscape patterns that cannot be perceived from ground surveys, Pr i o r to going into the f i e l d , i t i s advised that pre-liminary photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the parameters previously mentioned, be undertaken; t h i s w i l l a i d i n f i e l d l o c a t i o n and planning the f i e l d work, P r e - f i e l d photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n represents a f i r s t approximation of a systematic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the land surface and de l i n e a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t segments of the landscape, P r e - f i e l d photo i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and mapping of patterns of the landscape requires that f i n i t e boundaries must often be drawn for conditions that do not a c t u a l l y have f i n i t e boundaries, thus r e s u l t i n g i n a c e r t a i n amount - 18 -of mapping error at a l l scales of mapping. Boundary establishment w i l l r e l y on observed and i n f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the landscape. c) F i e l d v e r i f i c a t i o n : A l l ELC studies should include some form of f i e l d v e r i -f i c a t i o n or "ground tr u t h i n g " . Ground truthing i s required to add support to the f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and v a l i d i t y of the survey data. As t h i s i s usually the most c o s t l y phase of ELC studies, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that adequate planning and preparation take place p r i o r to going-' into the f i e l d . Attention should focus on the c o l l e c t i o n of information relevant to the aspects of land, vegetation, w i l d l i f e , hydrology, climate and land use. Information may be kept i n the form of f i e l d notes, photographs, tape recordings, and f i e l d samples of f l o r a , fauna and s o i l . Rapid f i e l d inventories are made possible through the use of standardized forms. An example of one such form i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix I. d) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Following a thorough review of a l l pertinent information, p r e - f i e l d photo interpretations and f i e l d information, the study area i s systematically c l a s s i f i e d and mapped on the basis o f landform units and selected e c o l o g i c a l parameters, keeping i n mind the i n t e n s i t y and purpose of the mapping survey and insuring that the f i n a l c l a s s i -- 19 -f i c a t i o n scheme i s r e a d i l y understandable and useable by resource managers and land use planners. I t should be remembered that data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis proce-dures should be designed with the antic i p a t e d land use(s) i n mind. At t h i s time, r e v i s i o n s and corrections are made to the preliminary photo interpretations for the area, with boundaries being modified i n l i g h t of ground truthing information. 2 . Resource Data Presentation This phase involves the preparation of base maps, t r a n s f e r r i n g of resource d e t a i l s from interpreted a e r i a l photographs to the base for compilation of resource maps and area determination and tabulation by resource classes for i n c l u s i o n i n summary tables. Transference of resource d e t a i l s from interpreted airphotos can be accomplished using a r e f l e c t i n g projector or sketch-master for low r e l i e f areas. For areas with extremes and/or complexity of r e l i e f , e.g. the mountainous coas t a l zone of B r i t i s h Columbia, st e r e o p l o t t i n g systems, such as the Radial K a i l Line P l o t t e r , the Stereotop or the Bausch and Lomb Zoom Transfer Scope, can be used. 3. Interpretation of Resource Data Up to t h i s point attention has been focused on data c o l l e c t i o n , representation and summation. This phase represents the ap p l i c a t i o n of derived findings r e l a t i n g - 20 -to the e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the area under study. Resource maps and summary tables are used to present information i n condensed, understandable formats. To aid management planning and decision making, the kind, l o c a t i o n and areal extent of primary e c o l o g i c a l resources are often expressed through the use of conven-t i o n a l symbols which indicate the basic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the delineated map uni t s , i . e . , e c o l o g i c a l l y -s i g n i f i c a n t segments of the landscape. These e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e i r associated p o s i t i v e or negative e f f e c t s on the s u i t a b i l i t y of the map un i t for a p a r t i c u l a r purpose, may be interpreted from the resource maps and expressed i n terms of c a p a b i l i t y classes for b i o l o g i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y or s u i t a b i l i t y for selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s or for other uses of i n t e r e s t . To aid i n planning, land units which have s i m i l a r use-l i m i t a t i o n s or s u i t a b i l i t y ratings for the same a n t i c i -pated land use(s), are often grouped together into what have been c a l l e d e c o l o g i c a l planning units (Luff and Ojamaa, 1978). 2.6 Summary Ec o l o g i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n aids i n resource planning and management through the recognition of the systematic r e l a -tionships i n the landscape and the impacts of human a c t i v i t i e s . - 21 -Its h i e r a r c h i c a l framework f a c i l i t a t e s the inventory, c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n , mapping and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t features of the landscape. I t has proven well suited as a means of conducting integrated surveys of inaccessible areas of Canada, which often lack any previous or systematic resource information. In urban and regional planning, Luff and Ojamaa (1978) stated that the apparent lack of consideration of e c o l o g i c a l data i n these areas was due to the lack of a p p l i c -able e c o l o g i c a l information and to the l i m i t e d understanding of the b i o l o g i c a l and ph y s i c a l sciences by planners. If planners and other resource managers are to meet the needs and aspirations of the public and s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t groups a sound and generally accepted approach i s needed. 3.0 AREA CLASSIFICATION FOR SELECTED RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES -CLAGUE MOUNTAIN PARK Attention w i l l now focus on the a p p l i c a t i o n of ELC for r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s . The e c o l o g i c a l parameters used to e s t a b l i s h the r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y within the case study area were landform and parent material, topography, s o i l moisture regime and drainage, erosion hazard, flood hazard, climate and vegetation. Other parameters that are of import-ance, but were not used, include s o i l texture and permeability, stoniness, rockiness, depth to bedrock or impervious layer, f r o s t action and unique s i t e features. Sections 3.4.4 to 3.4.8 and 3.7 of t h i s chapter w i l l present each of these para-- 2 2 -meters and i l l u s t r a t e how they might be used for r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s . 3.1 Case Study Clague Mountain Park, a small municipal park situated i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia i s the area of i n t e r e s t . This study concentrates on the supply p o t e n t i a l of r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities within the park, with only minimal, i n d i r e c t references being made to the present and p o t e n t i a l future r e c r e a t i o n a l demands on the park. Assessment of the supply of rec r e a t i o n a l opportunities i s l i m i t e d to the nine previously mentioned r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . This park was chosen because, i t lacked any form of natural resource inventory that would be of use i n future planning and development of the park, i t i s contained within the Municipality of Kitimat and with the increased economic growth currently being experienced i n the area i t (the park) i s forecasted to sustain ever increasing l e v e l s of r e c r e a t i o n a l use, hence, warrants attention, and, i t contains a d i v e r s i t y of landscape types, hence lends i t s e l f well to the a p p l i c a t i o n of ELC and s i t e s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s . Although no attempt was made to assess the water bodies and stream courses within the park, the aquatic component of - 23 -the park plays a v i t a l r o l e i n the park's e c o l o g i c a l processes, establishment of i t s physical carrying capacity and aesthetic appeal. The prime objective of t h i s study i s to develop o v e r a l l s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of the park for each of the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . These ratings are established on the basis of the s i t e requirements of the a c t i v i t i e s . One a p p l i c a -t i o n of t h i s land s u i t a b i l i t y analysis would be the development of land use p o l i c i e s and general s i t e plans for the park. 3.1.1 Location and Size Clague Mountain Park forms a part of the Municipality of Kitimat, a small community of approximately 13,000 people situated 645 a i r Kilometers (400 a i r miles) northwest of Vancouver, B.C. (Figure 1). The park i s found within l a t i t u d e 54°04' to 54°07' north by longitude 128°41' to 128°47' west. The 1921 hectare (4747 acre) park i s situated four kilometers (2.5 miles) northwest of Kitimat (Figures 2 and 3). Access into the east side of the park i s by way of a system of i n t e r -connecting o l d and a c t i v e l y used logging roads (Figure 4). At present, access into the Bowbyes Lake area of the park, from the north, i s l i m i t e d , but i s forecasted to improve as Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. continues to develop i t s T.F.L. 40 timber holdings i n the v i c i n i t y of the L i t t l e Wedeene River. Movement within the park i s concentrated along a network of rough hiking t r a i l s which or i g i n a t e at the parking l o t on the - 24 -F i g . l . Map of B r i t i s h Columbia - 26 -Fig.3. Map of Kitimat-Terrace Valley showing l o c a t i o n of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat> B.C. F i g . 4 . Map o f C l a g u e M o u n t a i n P a r k , K i t i m a t , s h o w i n g e x i s t i n g t r a i l n e t work and m a j o r p a r k a r e a s . N o m i n a l s c a l e : 1:50,800 - 23 -east side of the park. From the parking l o t the t r a i l s make th e i r way into the subalpine and alpine areas. Access into the park from the east side has been greatly improved with the development of a mining access road. For a comprehensive de s c r i p t i o n of the main t r a i l into Clague Mountain Park, re f e r to the discussion by B l i x (1977) i n Appendix IV. As yet, no system of t r a i l s has been established i n the Bowbyes Lake area of the park (Figure 4). 3.1.2 History and Land Use Clague Mountain Park was i n i t i a l l y leased from the Province of B.C. by the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat i n August of 1963, pursuant to Lease No. 7318 (Lease Indenture). Annual r e n t a l on the lease i s $185.50, subject to review every f i v e years. The lease was l a s t reviewed on August 1, 1978. At the time of establishment, i t was declared that the park be preserved and used as a wilderness reserve, providing r e c r e a t i o n a l enjoyment for hikers, s k i e r s , campers and other outdoor enthusiasts (Kitimat D i s t r i c t Municipality, 1965). In January of 1965 the Planning Department of the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat drafted regula-tions to c o n t r o l park use with respect to timber cu t t i n g , cabin b u i l d i n g , disposal of refuse, f i r e prevention, p r o h i b i t i o n of hunting and other a c t i v i t i e s which may occur within the park (Appendix V). On July 14, 1969 the Director of Lands, of the then Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources, V i c t o r i a , B.C., - 29 -granted an access road permit to Mr. N. Robak for the purpose of mining exploration within the park. A second party to show int e r e s t i n the mineral deposits within the park was Bowbyes Mines Ltd. of Prince George, B.C. Both of these operators are no longer active within the confines of the park. The mining a c t i v i t i e s and associated access road helped to open the park to r e c r e a t i o n a l t r a f f i c , both pedestrian and vehicular. Unfortunately, i n the process of l o c a t i n g and constructing the access road, environmental damage was done to the s o i l s , vegetation, w i l d l i f e habitats and aquatic environments. The access road, which i n r e a l i t y i s a rough cat road, follows the contours of the land, seeking out the easiest routes, which often run adjacent to or through streams, through s e n s i t i v e subalpine meadow environments and up steep slopes composed of materials prone to erosion (Figure 4). As t h i s road forms the major access route into the park, from the east, i t i s essen-t i a l that i t be upgraded and realigned to f a c i l i t a t e continued, probably increased l e v e l s of recreation t r a f f i c . Over the years, the Bowbyes Lakes area bf the park has received much attention as a possible s i t e for winter-based r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . On August 26, 1971, Western Resort Planning Service (Burnaby, B.C.) submitted a report to the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat s t a t i n g that, the Clague Mountain-Bowbyes Lake s i t e met a l l of the major requirements for the establishment of a good s k i f a c i l i t y " , further i t was stated that, "The s k i t e r r a i n i n the proposed area (Clague Mountain-- 30 -Bowbye Lake) can more than meet the requirements of any skier whether beginner, intermediate or expert." (Western Resort Planning Service, 1971). Subsequent to the Western Resort Planning Service report, Bruneski (1972) undertook a study of the recreation s k i i n g p o t e n t i a l of numerous s i t e s i n the Kitimat-Terrace V a l l e y . Bruneski (1972) found that the Clague Mountain-Bowbyes Lake area i s too open, i . e . , the scattered vegetation provides l i t t l e i n the way of shelter from wind and d i r e c t sunlight, e s p e c i a l l y above the 915 meter (3000 foot) elevation, an avalanche danger e x i s t s , most of the skiable t e r r a i n i s situated on east facing exposures, access into the area would be d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y , and that, gene-r a l l y , the area i s not suitable for conventional s k i develop-ment but has excellent p o t e n t i a l for h e l i c o p t e r s k i i n g and s k i touring by advanced and expert s k i e r s . Since these two reports presented opposing assessments of the s u i t a b i l i t y of t h i s area f o r downhill s k i development, i t i s imperative that before any winter and/or summer-based recreation development i s undertaken i n t h i s area, a comprehensive inventory, c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and analysis of the natural resource base be under-taken. In September of 1971 a j o i n t e f f o r t on the part of the Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd. and Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. resulted i n a f e a s i b i l i t y study being undertaken on two proposed routes into the Clague Mountain-Bowbyes Lake area (Philpot and Vrooman, 1971). The purpose of t h i s study was to - 31 -e s t a b l i s h the optimum route into the Bowbyes Lake recreation area. The major finding of t h i s study was that a proposed route, which would enter the park from the north and run p a r a l -l e l to Bowbyes Creek u n t i l i t intercepted a section of l e v e l ground west of Bowbyes Lake, would be the most f e a s i b l e and provide the only reasonable access into the proposed s k i development area. The other route, which would run from the Service Centre to Bowbyes Lake across the east face of Clague Mountain, was determined to be inappropriate due to problems with excessively steep and broken topography, numerous rock outcrops, two major canyons, hazards associated with f a l l i n g rock and snow avalanches and the associated high construction and maintenance costs. The recreation a c t i v i t i e s presently taking place i n the park include, hiking (summer), p i c n i c k i n g and day use (including photography and nature study), l i m i t e d t r a i l bike and off-road vehicle r i d i n g along the "cat t r a i l " , p r i m i t i v e wilderness camping (summer and winter), rock climbing, cross-country s k i i n g , snowshoeing and snowmobiling. With the a n t i -cipated future increases i n the population of Kitimat and nearby communities, brought on by i n d u s t r i a l expansion, establishment of new firms and other regional growth f a c t o r s , w i l l come increased demands for goods, services, accommodation and r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities. As the forest base of Kitimat-Terrace Valley continues to dwindle, as a r e s u l t of the a c t i v i t i e s of the l o c a l f o rest companies, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y and cost of f u e l for automobiles begin to influence the behavior of both the l o c a l and t o u r i s t populations, i . e . , with increased f u e l costs there may be a corresponding decrease i n the distance t r a v e l l e d by the i n d i v i -duals to partake i n r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , greater pressures w i l l be put on r e c r e a t i o n a l areas adjacent to Kitimat. The close proximity of Clague Mountain Park to Kitimat and the d i v e r s i t y and i n t e n s i t y of outdoor r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities that are p o t e n t i a l l y suited to t h i s area warrants the need fo r sound'planning and development i f t h i s area i s to provide r e c r e a t i o n a l enjoyment to i t s users i n the years to come. 3.2 Landform, Parent Material and Bedrock Geology Landform i s the major framework used for c l a s s i f y i n g landscapes into e c o l o g i c a l l y - s i g n i f i c a n t , homogeneous land u n i t s . Similar landforms w i l l often e x h i b i t s i m i l a r textures of s u r f i c i a l parent materials, vegetational complexes and grow-ing conditions and as a consequence, s i m i l a r landforms within a c l i m a t i c region w i l l often have s i m i l a r productive and physical carrying c a p a c i t i e s . The park displays a wide range of landforms and associated parent materials, including f l u v i a l ( a l l u v i a l ) , g l a c i o f l u v i a l , <-organic, c o l l u v i a l , morainal and exposed bedrock landforms. Five main genetic (landform) categories, i . e . , c o l l u v i a l , f l u -v i a l (includes g l a c i o - f l u v i a l ) , morainal, organic and bedrock, and twenty-three subcategories (landform units) were i d e n t i f i e d - 33 -using the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System approach (Min. of the Envir., 1978). At lower elevations (30 to 670 meters above sea level) on the east side of the park can be found a large, continuous area of moderately well to well graded accumulations of g l a c i o -f l u v i a l sands, gravels and boulders. F l u v i a l deposits occur adjacent to and southwest of Bowbyes Lake. The f l u v i a l land-form deposits were derived from transported materials brought down by mountain streams to areas with low slope gradient southwest of Bowbyes Lake and adjacent to e x i s t i n g and o l d stream courses within the park. Areas of c o l l u v i a l deposition can be found throughout the park, with the greatest concentra-t i o n being i n the form of active and i n a c t i v e talus slopes i n the subalpine and alpine areas. C o l l u v i a l deposits i n these areas are t y p i c a l l y non-sorted to poorly sorted with p a r t i c l e sizes ranging from f i n e clays to massive boulders and blocks of rock. Morainal landforms, i n the form of l e v e l to steep blankets of rubbly moraine, and t i l l (ground moraine), deposited by v a l l e y g l a c i e r s , comprise 50% of the t o t a l park area. Generally speaking, the morainal deposits consist of well-compacted materials that are usually n o n - s t r a t i f i e d and contain a mixture of p a r t i c l e s i z e s . In areas of low slope gradient or closed basins, abundance of moisture, prolonged snow cover and vegetation growth characterized by greater rates of accumulation than decay, one i s l i k e l y to f i n d organic deposits. Areas of the park which contain organic deposits - 34 -include the marsh lands adjacent to Bowbyes Lake, the open meadow areas southwest of Bowbyes Lake, the l e v e l to h i l l y sub-alpine areas which comprise the Main Meadow area and i t s immediate surroundings and an area situated i n the northeast corner of the park, within the Subalpine Mountain Hemlock and Alpine Zones (Figure 5). An extensive area of bedrock, that ranges from being completely bare to being covered with a th i n mantle of unconsolidated material, forms the west and south boundary of the park. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the major landform categories and parent material found within the park, the following discussion w i l l deal with a l i n e transect that was "walked" i n the f i e l d and l a t e r p l o t t e d i n the o f f i c e . Figure 5 indicates the loc a -t i o n of t h i s transect and Figure 6 provides a graphic represen-t a t i o n of i t s side p r o f i l e . Generally, as one goes from east to west i n the park, s t a r t i n g at the parking l o t and heading due west towards the summit of Clague Mountain, one- would encounter the following landforms: 1. a f a i r l y l e v e l p i t t e d g l a c i a l outwash deposit to a steep g l a c i o - f l u v i a l landform, i . e . , using the Terrain C l a s s i -f i c a t i o n System terminology (Appendix VIII) t h i s area i s l a b e l l e d F Gbs - V, (30 to 600 meters a . s . l . ) , 2. a l e v e l to subdued morainal landform, i . e . , M^ m - H., dotted with k e t t l e s , small ponds and accumulations of organic s o i l s (600 to 690 meters a . s . l . ) , - 35 -Fig.5. Terrain Units of Clague Mountain Park. A-A1 l i n e transect i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 6 . - 36 -EAST WEST 1400 .1300 1200-1100 •• TOO 900 f. SOO I . 700 •g 600 o 5 500 3. 4 0 0 T 300 f 200 ... 10Q. Summit of Clague Mtn. (134-6 m.) Active Talu3 Slopes Mendel's Burnt-Down C a b i n JsU^r^ Miner*3 Cabin-Parent Material & Terrain Units 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000.3500 4000 4-500 5000 5500 5800 Horizontal Distance (meters) -8-G l a c i o - f l u v i a l F Gbs - V 3 £ cd | Si' O (t) u o cd C u a OE c rt bl Exposed Bedrock Biogeoclimatic Coastal western Hemlock Mountain Hemlock Zone ^Alpine Zone Zone (Wet Subzone) Zone ^•(Forest & parkland Subzone3) Fig.6. Graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n of p r o f i l e delineated by A-A1 l i n e transect of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B.C. - 37 -3. a steep, extensively eroded and heavily treed morainal landform, i . e . , MIbs - V (690 to 820 meters a . s . l . ) , p 4. three organic landform types, i . e . , Oh - S, 0 1 - S and Rh Ob/Ov - S, that are, t y p i c a l l y , l e v e l , subdued or Rm hummocky over f i n e textured colluvium or f l u v i a l mate-r i a l and serve to mask the underlying bedrock (820 to 1050 meters a . s . l . ) , 5. a narrow zone (150 to 200 meters wide) of active c o l l u -v i a l slopes (talus and r o c k f a l l areas), i . e . C a - A (920 to 975 meters a . s . l . ) , 6. and, f i n a l l y , an area of extensive exposed bedrock and bedrock covered by a t h i n mantle of unconsolidated •material, i . e . , t h i s area i s l a b e l l e d as Rh - C(N) and ranges from approximately 1050 to 1346 meters a . s . l . This area i s a t y p i c a l "krummholz" landscape, being inhabited by scattered clumps of low l y i n g alpine heathers, lupines and grasses, as well as dwarf yellow cedar, amabilis f i r and common juniper. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c bedrock of Clague Mountain Park and surrounding region consists of igneous i n t r u s i v e g r a n i t i c ( c h i e f l y granodiorite and quartz d i o r i t e ) rock with minor gneiss and s c h i s t (Ryder, 1978). The bedrock type i s r e l a t i v e l y r e s i s t e n t to weathering, r e s u l t i n g i n slopes that are generally steep and t e r r a i n that i s quite rugged. Physical weathering disintegrates t h i s rock type into extremely coarse rubble on c o l l u v i a l slope (talus) and large boulders i n t i l l deposits. - 38 -Chemical weathering of the o l i v i n e , pyroxene, augite, horn-blende, b i o t i t e and c a l c i c feldspar minerals of g r a n i t i c bed-rock y i e l d s granular, g r i t t y residues composed of mixtures of quartz, potash and sodic feldspar c r y s t a l s . These residues form a major portion of the sandy, g r i t t y t i l l s and sandy out-wash deposits that are often found i n areas of igneous i n t r u s i v e g r a n i t i c bedrock. 3.3 Topography The s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and r e l i e f of landforms are used to describe what i s commonly c a l l e d "topography". H i l l s , k n o l l s , plateaus, f l a t s , depressions, troughs, scarps and r o l l i n g t e r r a i n are some of theterms used to describe the c o l l e c t i v e e f f e c t of the p h y s i c a l features of the landscape. The Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System developed for B.C. makes use of "surface expressions" to denote topographic r e l i e f , where the surface expression of genetic materials (parent materials) i s t h e i r form (assembly of slopes) and pattern of forms (Min. of the Envir., 1978). Slope measures the extent to which a surface varies from the h o r i z o n t a l and i s usually expressed i n percent or degrees. Measurements of slope can be made i n the f i e l d with the aid of instruments such as the TAbney or Suunto, while i n the o f f i c e , slope estimates can be made using e x i s t i n g topographic maps. Slope greatly a f f e c t s a l l forms of recreation. With increased slope there i s an increased p o t e n t i a l for both surface erosion - 39 -and mass s o i l movement (Swanston and Dyrness, 1973; Hawes, 1974). With increased slope there i s usually a corresponding increase i n s i t e preparation, f a c i l i t y construction and subse-quent maintenance costs. Generally, i n terms of surface erosion, slopes less than f i v e percent have few l i m i t a t i o n s whereas slopes greater than 30 percent have severe l i m i t a t i o n s . In the context of mass s o i l movement, slopes less than 30 percent have a few l i m i t a t i o n s whereas slopes greater than 30 percent have a greater degree of l i m i t a t i o n (Hawes, 1974). Void (1975) found that steep slopes posed major l i m i t a t i o n s for both t r a i l s and camp grounds. Slopes greater than 60 per-cent (30 degrees) w i l l prove to be severely l i m i t i n g for almost a l l r e c r e a t i o n a l uses and developments. Conversely, mountaineering (rock climbing), downhill s k i i n g , wilderness hiking and viewing of scenic areas require steeply sloping t e r r a i n i f the r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuit i s to be both personally g r a t i f y i n g and t e c h n i c a l l y f e a s i b l e (Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Min. of the Envir., 1976). Aspect r e f e r s to the o r i e n t a t i o n of a body or surface and i t i s usually described as being l e v e l , north, northeast, east, southeast, south, southwest, west or northwest facing basedon compass measurements. The range of aspects can have profound influences on what types and l e v e l s of a c t i v i t i e s w i l l occur i n an area. Campgrounds and p i c n i c areas require the d r i e r , warmer weather and maximum sun exposure afforded by south facing and l e v e l exposures, but should avoid areas of - 40 -long snow duration, higher moisture retention and cooler temperatures, t y p i c a l of north facing exposures. Conversely, for winter sports such as downhill s k i i n g , north facing exposures are favoured, except for areas with extreme cold conditions, whereas, southwest facing slopes, with c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c a l l y high rates of snow d e t e r i o r a t i o n should be avoided. Using e x i s t i n g topographic maps and f i e l d experience, Clague Mountain Park was c l a s s i f i e d into 13 slope classes and eight aspect classes, as shown i n Figures 7 and 8, re s p e c t i v e l y . Selection of slope c l a s s ranges was governed by the s i t e requirements of the nine selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 3.4 S o i l s S o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a i d i n the s e l e c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s . The s u i t a b i l i t y of s o i l for r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s can be established using the following s o i l s -r e l a t e d properties: moisture, drainage, texture, permeability, stoniness, rockiness, depth to bedrock or impervious layer, f r o s t action, erosion p o t e n t i a l , flood p o t e n t i a l and s o i l taxo-nomic grouping (Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Stevens, 196 6; James, 1973; Hawes, 1974; Void, 1975; Eekman, 1976; Jube n v i l l e , 1976; Min. of the Envir., 1976). These properties can be determined using p h y s i c a l measurement, chemical analysis and through d i r e c t observation and inference. As an example, erosion p o t e n t i a l can be i n f e r r e d from slope, landform, s o i l texture, parent materials, s o i l porosity, meterological factors - 4 1 -Fig. 7 . Slope Classification of Clague Mountain Park. Key: (note intervals are variable) I 0-5* v m 41-50% I I 6-10% EC 51-60% m 11-15% X 61-70% IV 16-25% XI 71-80% V 26-30% XH 81-100% VI 31-35% XIII 101%+ VII 36-40% - 4 2 -- 4 3 -and plant and l i t t e r cover. Flood p o t e n t i a l can be determined using e x i s t i n g drainage patterns, meterological information, landform c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the condition of vegetation adjacent to water courses. No d e t a i l e d s o i l s inventory and mapping has been done for Clague Mountain Park. Due to constraints a r i s i n g from the lack of e x i s t i n g information, time and monies, as well as the li m i t e d expertise of the author i n the area of s o i l s i d e n t i f i -c ation, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and analysis, no attempt was made to undertake an extensive study of the s o i l landscapes found within the park. Knowledge of s o i l s and s o i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s one of the most important elements to consider i n the s e l e c t i o n of p o t e n t i a l areas for new s i t e development and i n the management of e x i s t i n g s i t e s . It i s recommended that p r i o r to the estab-lishment of new f a c i l i t i e s or upgrading of e x i s t i n g structures, t r a i l s and roads within the park, that a comprehensive study of the park's s o i l s be undertaken. For the purpose of t h i s study, only three s o i l s - r e l a t e d parameters were used to aid i n the establishment of the r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y of the de-lineated landform u n i t s , these being, erosion hazard p o t e n t i a l , flood hazard p o t e n t i a l and s o i l moisture regime. Although not a steadfast r u l e , i n general, d i f f e r e n t landforms and associated parent materials are characterized by d i f f e r e n t s o i l s types that have developed as a r e s u l t of unique combinations of pedogenic processes operating within and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of each landform. In Appendix II the charac-- 44 -t e r i s t i c S o i l Orders, Great Groups and parent materials of the Coastal Western Hemlock, Mountain Hemlock and Alpine Biogeo-c l i m a t i c Zones are indicated. The aforementioned zones are a l l found within Clague Mountain Park (Figures 6 and 13). 3.4.1 S o i l Moisture Regime and Drainage S o i l moisture or hygrotope classes r e f e r to the moisture regimes of s o i l during snow-free periods and not following snow-melt, prolonged rainy or dry periods. The moisture regime of the s o i l i s a combination of the l o c a l climate and i n t e r n a l and external drainage. Within a c l i m a t i c region s o i l drainage i s c o n t r o l l e d by the texture of surface material and depth to the underlying bedrock. External drainage i s a function of topo-graphy, texture and vegetation. Two other deterministic factors are slope and aspect, because they control the drying power of the a i r (Gimbarzevsky, 1964). S o i l drainage i s probably the most important s o i l property a f f e c t i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of a s o i l for recreation use (Void, 1975). S o i l s that are wet for a majority of the year pose severe l i m i t a t i o n s f o r campsites, r e c r e a t i o n a l roads and t r a i l s , p i c n i c grounds and other intensive use areas. Dry s o i l s can prove l i m i t i n g due to an i n a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h and maintain suitable vegetative cover, dust problems and d i f f i c u l -t i e s associated with vehicular movement i n these s o i l s (Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Eekman, 1976). S o i l moisture regimes can be i n f e r r e d from s o i l drainage properties, - 4 5 -topographic r e l i e f , parent material and seepage and/or ponding on the s o i l surface. The categories used to describe the s o i l moisture regimes are as follows: a) Very dry to dry - (very x e r i c to xeric) k n o l l s and peaks of rocky outcrops or • l i t h i c (ranker-like) s o i l s of convex r e l i e f on ridge c r e s t s . S o i l s are shallow and well drained. b) Moderately dry - (moderately xeric) well drained s o i l s on convex r e l i e f of upper slopes or stony g l a c i a l t i l l s of convex or s t r a i g h t r e l i e f . Seepage absent during snow-free periods. c) Me sic - medium textured (loamy) s o i l s of s t r a i g h t to shallow convex r e l i e f . S o i l s have good drainage and seepage i s absent or r a r e l y present. If present, seepage i s deep i n the p r o f i l e and occurs only during the snow-free periods. d) Hygric - moderate to imperfectly drained s o i l s of str a i g h t to concave r e l i e f . Gleying i s evident i n the s o i l p r o f i l e and seepage water i s usually present. The maximum water l e v e l i n s o i l may be at or near the s o i l surface for part of the snow-free period. e) Hydric - s o i l s with imperfect to very poor drainage. S o i l s are saturated or inundated for most of the year. Concave or s t r a i g h t r e l i e f usually on lower slopes, spring-water swamps, stream edges and moors. (Brooke et a l , 1970). - 46 -S o i l drainage i s the rate of removal of water from s o i l s in r e l a t i o n to additions. It i s affected by a number of fa c t o r s , including texture, structure, slope gradient, length of slope, water holding capacity, s o i l permeability and evapotranspiration. Rapidly to moderately well drained s o i l s have few l i m i t a t i o n s for r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and associated f a c i l i t i e s , while poorly drained and very poorly drained s o i l s have s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater l i m i t a t i o n s (Hawes, 1974; Min. of the Envir., 1976). Imperfectly drained s o i l s present a greater l i m i t a t i o n for intensive r e c r e a t i o n a l use than for extensive use, e.g. family campgrounds versus wilderness hiking t r a i l s . Gross drainage pattern i s an important i d e n t i f i e r of landforms and provides valuable i n s i g h t into the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for various r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (Way, 1978). Analysis of the general physiography and drainage patterns of r i v e r s , creeks and g u l l i e s w i l l provide i n s i g h t into the underlying bedrock, type of surface and sub-surface materials, textures and landforms c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an area. The follow-ing s o i l drainage classes are useful for c l a s s i f y i n g the i n t e r n a l and external drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s o i l s : very r a p i d l y drained, r a p i d l y drained, well drained, moderately well drained, imperfectly drained, poorly drained and very poorly drained (Agric. Can., 1978). Clague Mountain Park i s located within the Kitimat Ranges of the Coast Mountains of B r i t i s h Columbia (Figure 9). The Kitimat Ranges are comprised of g r a n i t i c mountains which - 47 -, „ Too.. »Source8 H o l l a n d ( 1 9 7 6 ) F i g . 9 . Physiographic subdivisions of B r i t i s h Columbia. Coast Mountains W$$8M Kitimat Ranges (within C o a s t Mountains) - 4 8 -extend from the Nass River i n the North to Burke Channel and the B e l l a Coola River i n the south (Holland, 1 9 7 6 ) . Mountains within these ranges are characterized by heavily eroded g r a n i t i c rock of the Coast Intrusives, with the rather bold, massive mountains of monolithic granite being common features of these ranges. Mountain peaks within the Kitimat Ranges are between 1 9 8 0 and 2 3 0 0 meters ( 6 5 0 0 and 7 5 0 0 feet) i n height, being, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , round-topped and dome-like i n appearance. G l a c i a t i o n of t h i s area has resulted i n rounded ridges and summits of a l l but a few of the highest mountains, as well as wide spread deposits of g l a c i o - f l u v i a l m a t e r i a l . i n the v a l l e y bottoms and on higher elevation benches. One rather unique feature of the western margin of the Kitimat Ranges i s that cirque erosion often reached s e a - l e v e l . The Kitimat Ranges are characterized by a spectacular system of f i o r d s which developed as a r e s u l t of intensive g l a c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia's mountainous c o a s t l i n e . These ranges have s i g n i f i -cantly fewer g l a c i e r s than those to the north and south, with no extensive i c e f i e l d s remaining. Within the park, permanent snowpacks e x i s t i n the form of rather l i m i t e d accumulations of snow which can be found i n sheltered g u l l i e s and on north facing slopes. The major drainages which d i s s e c t the Kitimat Ranges are aligned and flow i n an east to west d i r e c t i o n . Runoff from the park flows into the Kitimat River system by way of the - 49 -L i t t l e Wedeene River to the north (of the park) as well as streams which flow to the east and south of the park. Bowbyes Lake i s the major catchment within the park with lesser ponds and higher elevation tarns being evident. On the basis of photo i n t e r p r e t i v e work done by the author, Clague Mountain Park was divided into three rather d i s t i n c t watershed areas (Figure 1 0 ) . Runoff from watershed areas "A" and "B" flows into the L i t t l e Wedeene River by way of Bowbyes Creek, and, subsequently, into the Kitimat River. Watershed area "C" drains into the Kitimat River by way of an, as yet, unnamed stream which flows eastward, p a r a l l e l i n g the main t r a i l into Clague Mountain Park. The usual heavy snowfalls and high l e v e l s of p r e c i p i t a -t i o n occurring throughout the year i n t h i s area, r e s u l t s i n active year-round stream flows. During the spring melt, ephemeral streams become bubbling freshets which overflow t h e i r banks, flooding streamside areas and l e v e l marshlands found within the park. The rapid runoff and high flow volumes r e s u l t i n extensive reworking of both the g l a c i o - f l u v i a l and g l a c i a l t i l l deposits found within the park, leading to deep g u l l y formation and the transport of large volumes of material. Based on ground reconnaissance and airphoto i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n Clague Mountain Park was c l a s s i f i e d into f i v e s o i l mois-ture regime categories (Figure 1 1 ) . F i g . 1 0 . W a t e r s h e d a r e a s o f C l a g u e M o u n t a i n P a r k , K i t i m a t , B . C - 51 -Fig. 11. Soil Moisture Begins Classification of Clague Mountain Park. Key: Soil Moisture Regime npTwal limitation for Use* VDyD - M/D: very dry to dry to moderately dry None tn Slight M/D : moderately dry None to Slight M : mesic Moderate HI : hygric Severe 32 : hydric Severe * Recreational uses. - 52 -3.4.2 Erosion Hazard Erosion i s the wearing away of s o i l or rock through the actions of running water, wind, i c e , gravity and other geologi-c a l processes. The c r i t e r i a used to e s t a b l i s h the erosion p o t e n t i a l of an area are slope and landform (length of slope and topographic r e l i e f ) , parent material, s o i l texture, s o i l p o rosity, meterological factors (form, amount and duration of p r e c i p i t a t i o n ) , and s o i l compaction properties (as influenced by s o i l texture and moisture content) (Swanston and Dyrness, 1973) . With increased slope there i s an increase i n erosion p o t e n t i a l . Parent materials high i n quartz, e.g. granite, quartz d i o r i t e , granodiorite and high quartz sandstones, develop into s o i l s which have high erosion p o t e n t i a l . S o i l s derived from basalt, andesite or gabbro have low erosion p o t e n t i a l . A major deterrent to surface erosion i s the presence of an adequate plant and l i t t e r cover. I t i s of prime importance that s i t e planning and development allows for the continued establishment and growth of both natural and man-induced vegetational communities (Densmore and Dahlstrand, 1965; Stevens, 1966; Rothwell, 1971; Swanston and Dyrness, 1973). Erosion patterns, density of occurrence and steepness of gradient w i l l indicate the cohesiveness of s o i l s and the texture of s u r f i c i a l deposits. Gully analysis has shown to be useful for i d e n t i f y i n g landforms, slope p r o f i l e s , s o i l t e x t u r a l classes and s o i l drainage c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In general, U-shaped g u l l i e s form on s i l t s , sands and sandy cla y s , V-shaped g u l l i e s are i n d i c a t i v e of granular materials (course, clean sands and gravels), and wide, soft-bottomed or broad-shaped g u l l i e s develop i n semi-plastic or p l a s t i c materials high i n clays. Table 1 would prove useful for e s t a b l i s h i n g the over-a l l s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for a range of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Table 1. Guide for Assessing S o i l Erosion Hazard S u r f i c i a l Material Lacustrine Organic Morainal (fine textured) Morainal (medium textured) C o l l u v i a l (cryotur-bated) C o l l u v i a l 2 F l u v i a l 0-5% 5-9% 9-30% 30-60% 60%+ moderate high moderate high high high low low moderate " moderate low Source: Void (1976) i n "Biophysical S o i l Resources and Land Evaluation of the Northeast Coal Study Area (B.C.): 1976-77: Vol. I. Erosion by r i v e r s and streams on floodplains i s not evaluated here. Table 1 was used to e s t a b l i s h the erosion hazard ratings of the delineated landform units within Clague Mountain Park. The ratings are given i n Table 14: Ec o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Landform Units, of Section 4.0. 3.4.3 Flood Hazard Flooding can r e s u l t from high l e v e l s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , rapid snowmelt, f a i l u r e of man-made r e t a i n i n g structures, removal of extensive areas of fo r e s t cover through natural causes and/or the a c t i v i t i e s of man. Flood hazard ratings of areas pertain to the normal "season of use", e.g. from l a t e November to the end of A p r i l for downhill s k i i n g i n the south-western part of B.C. Establishment of flood hazard ratings i s complicated by the current move towards " a l l seasons" recrea-t i o n a l developments. The degree of flooding can be described as being none, rare, occasional or frequent ( G r i f f i n , 1977). Areas subject to no or rare flooding have a none-slight to moderate l i m i t a t i o n for most r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and associated f a c i l i t i e s . Rare flooding implies the occurrence of inundation sometime over a period of several years. Areas susceptible to seasonal flooding (regular occurrence) or subject to occasional or frequent flooding are ranked as having moderate to severe l i m i t a t i o n s depending on the a c t i v i t y and i t s s p e c i f i c s i t e requirements. Sites with moderate flo o d i n g l i m i t a t i o n s are unsuitable for permanent development such as campgrounds with buildings, - 55 -tables, roads, camp pads and other f a c i l i t i e s susceptible to flood damage (Hawes, 1974). The use of wells apd on-site sewage disposal systems would be l i m i t e d i n areas susceptible to occasional or frequent flooding. Areas subject to frequent flooding (3 to 4 times) during season of use or flooding occurring i n response to l i m i t e d rainstorms would be unsuitable for intensive use and suitable for extensive use only during the d r i e r periods of the year (Min. of the Envir., 1976). Based on ground reconnaissance and airphoto i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n Clague Mountain Park was delineated into areas of none to s l i g h t , moderate and severe flood p o t e n t i a l (Figure 12). 3.4.4 Texture and Permeability S o i l texture r e f e r s to the r e l a t i v e proportions of s o i l separates, i . e . , sands (2.00 to .05 mm i n diameter), s i l t s (.05 to .002 mm i n diameter) and clays (less than .002 mm i n diameter). Texture i s re l a t e d to such s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as drainage, permeability, cohesion, e r o d i b i l i t y , compactabi-l i t y and nutrient a v a i l a b i l i t y . These s o i l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s influence vegetative p r o d u c t i v i t y and a f f e c t the amount and type of recreation use that may occur i n a given area. S o i l s high i n clay become s t i c k y when moist and require long drying times a f t e r wetting. S o i l s that are composed of loose sands can prove to be undesirable as they are often unstable when dry. The l a s t point i l l u s t r a t e s the concepts of permeability, which i s a measure of the a b i l i t y of s o i l to transmit water and a i r , and cohesion, which i s the a b i l i t y of s o i l to s t i c k together. - 56 -Fig. 12 . Flood Hazard Rating of Clague Mountain Park. * Key: Flood Hazard Rating General Limitations for Use Nil (very low) NS - none to slight Nil to Slight (moderate) M - moderate Moderate to Severe (high) S - severe W : water bodies ^ P F T P a a f l O P * ] uses. - 57 -Permeability measures the rate at which gases or l i q u i d s pass through or penetrate the s o i l . I t i s dependent on texture, cohesion, compaction, existence of impervious layers, s o i l structure, moisture condition of s o i l p r o f i l e s and horizon porosity. S o i l s which are high i n clay have low permeability but high cohesiveness, making them subject to puddling and compaction when wet, thus causing drainage r e s t r i c t i o n s . S o i l s high i n sand are highly permeable but quite unstable when dry. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n s o i l nutrients and/or moisture l e v e l s often r e s t r i c t the use of these s o i l s . Sandy s o i l s tend to be highly erodable and dusty when dry. Sandy loam and loam textured s o i l s are permeable with good cohesive properties which r e s u l t i n few t e x t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . These s o i l s e x h i b i t only s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n s for most intensive and extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 3.4.5 Stoniness Stoniness r e f e r s to the proportion of stones i n or on the s o i l ' s surface, expressed as the percentage of land surface or s o i l p r o f i l e occupied by stones or rock fragments coarser than 15 cm (6 in) i n diameter (Agric. Can., 1978). Cobbles, f l a g s , boulders and a l l other types of stones i n excess of t h i s maximum size l i m i t are c a l l e d "course fragments". Montgomery and Edminster (1966) considered a l l stones or rock fragments in excess of 25.4 cm (10 in) i n diameter as being course f r a g -ments. The range of stoniness classes i s from non-stony ("no - 58 -modification" under the U.S.D.A. system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) to excessively stony ("stony-rubble land" under the U.S.D.A. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system), or from less than .01 to 50.00% and greater of the t o t a l surface or s o i l p r o f i l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , being occupied by stones greater than 15 cm (6 in) i n diameter (U.S.D.A., 1951; Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Agric. Can., 1978) . Increasing r e s t r i c t i o n s on the type and i n t e n s i t y of re c r e a t i o n a l use w i l l occur as the size and/or density of s o i l fragments increase. As the content of stones increases a corresponding increase i n the costs associated with s i t e preparation and the i n s t a l l a t i o n and maintenance of f a c i l i t i e s w i l l r e s u l t . S o i l s that are exceedingly or excessively stony are considered to have severe l i m i t a t i o n s for use (Agric. Can., 1978) . A moderately coarse fragment l i m i t a t i o n (50 to 75% by volume) would se r i o u s l y l i m i t intensive development and pose only minimal problems for extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , e.g. hiking and wilderness camping. Where the coarse fragment represents over 75% of the t o t a l s o i l surface or p r o f i l e , v i r t u a l l y a l l intensive r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s would be prohibited (Min. of the Envir., 1976). 3.4.6 Rockiness Rockiness r e f e r s to that portion of the land's surface which consists of exposed bedrock, rock outcrops or patches of th i n s o i l over bedrock. Rockiness classes range from non-- 59 -rocky ("no m i d i f i c a t i o n " under the U.S.D.A. system of c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n ) to excessively rocky ("rock outcrop" under the U.S.D.A. system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . The exposed bedrock defined by these classes range from less than 2 to 90% and greater of the surface area, r e s p e c t i v e l y (U.S.D.A., 1951; Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Agric. Can., 1978). Bedrock poses severe l i m i t a t i o n s for most r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g s i t e preparation and f a c i l i t y development and maintenance. Septic tank f a c i l i t i e s , water and e l e c t r i c a l services, foundation construction, road b u i l d i n g and many other s i t e development a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be prohibited i n areas of excessive bedrock. The combined influence of exposed bedrock on steep slopes eliminates most intensive and extensive r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 3.4.7 Depth to Bedrock or Impervious Layer Shallow s o i l s over bedrock or impervious layers w i l l have varying degrees of l i m i t a t i o n depending on the extent and type of required s i t e development. Concern f o r depth to bed-rock or impervious layer i s v i t a l when planning for buildings, septic tank f i l t e r f i e l d s , road locations, camping and p i c n i c areas, paths and hikin g t r a i l s and intensive play areas (Min. of the Envir., 1976). S o i l s less than 1 meter (3 feet) deep w i l l pose severe l i m i t a t i o n s for buildings and s o i l s less than .6 meters (2 feet) deep w i l l have severe l i m i t a t i o n s for play areas (intensive use) (Montgomery and Edminster, 1966). Allowance should be made fo r the a f f e c t s of other factors such - 60 -as f r o s t heave, piping, s o i l texture classes, bearing capaci-t i e s , slope and i n t e r n a l and external drainage and moisture regime. Poor s o i l drainage can p r o h i b i t construction of on-s i t e sewage disposal f a c i l i t i e s . Shallow s o i l s w i l l l i m i t the rooting depth of plants and hinder the establishment and maintenance of vegetation cover due to a decreased s o i l moisture holding capacity and higher l e v e l s of s o i l erosion. 3.4.8 Frost Action The heaving of s o i l subgrades due to the formation of ice lenses and the subsequent loss of s t a b i l i t y on thawing i s known as f r o s t action (U.S. Dept. of the I n t e r i o r , 1974). The severity of f r o s t action w i l l depend on the type of s o i l , a v a i l a b i l i t y of a source of water and time rate of f l u c t u a t i o n of temperature about the freezing point. Fine-textured loams and s i l t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y susceptible to f r o s t action due to t h e i r inherent c a p i l l a r i t y and perviousness. S o i l p a r t i c l e s that are brought to the surface by f r o s t action are susceptible to erosion by wind, water and/or gravity. In an attempt to c l a s s i f y f r o s t action, the Resource Analysis Branch ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.) established a f r o s t action r a t i n g system based on modifications to e x i s t i n g U.S.D.A. S o i l Conservation Service (U.S.D.A., 1971) guidelines (Table 2: Void, 1977). Under t h i s system s o i l i s ranked as being of low, moderate or high f r o s t action on the basis of s o i l texture. Texture w i l l have a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on the extent to - 61 -which f r o s t action w i l l occur i n s o i l s . The proposed system i s shown in Table 2: Table 2: Frost Action C l a s s i f i c a t i o n by S o i l Texture Classes"'" Frost Action Class Low Moderate High GM, GC 4, SC, CH ML, MH, OL, OH, & SM (medium CL & SM (fine sands) sands) 1 Source: Void (1977). 2 D e f i n i t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l f r o s t action ratings for major t h i r d l e v e l d i v i s i o n s of the U n i f i e d S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System are contained i n Appendix IX. 3 These s o i l s are rated as high i n the Alpine Zone or Subalpine Krummholz Subzone, or when imperfectly to poorly drained. 4 These s o i l s are rated as moderate i n the Alpine Zone or Sub-alpine Krummholz Subzone. In alpine and subalpine zones three types of f r o s t action have been recognized (Ryder, 1976). Frost shattering i s the process whereby bedrock or rock fragments are s p l i t and broken due to the expansion pressures of freezing pore water and water i n f r a c t u r e s . The i n t e n s i t y of f r o s t shattering i s dependent on the amount of a v a i l a b l e moisture, nature of rock material, the number of f r o s t (freeze-thaw) cycles and the f r e e z i n g r a t e . B l o c k f i e l d s , mountain top d e t r i t u s ( t i l l mantle), block slopes, U n i f i e d S o i l Classes GW, GP GP-GM, SW-SM, , GW-GM, SW, SP, & SP-SM - 62 -block streams, rock g l a c i e r s and talus slopes develop when f r o s t shattered debris creeps, flows and/or f a l l s down slope. Frost heaving i s the upward displacement of objects ( s o i l p a r t i c l e s and rock fragments) r e s u l t i n g from pressures gene-rated by freezing water. Frost heaving usually occurs when there i s an abundance of moisture i n the s o i l substrate, a gradual f a l l of temperature leading to a slow descent of the freezing point, and s o i l or s u r f i c i a l material of s i l t or s i l t loam texture. The t h i r d type of f r o s t action i s known as f r o s t s o r t i n g . The "patterned" ground c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f r o s t s o r t i n g , consist of c i r c l e s , polygons, and nets on hori z o n t a l or gently sloping ground and steps and s t r i p s on moderately sloping surfaces. 3 . 5 Vegetation In areas of r e c r e a t i o n a l use, be i t intensive or extensive, the vegetation component should be included i n s i t e planning and development. The a b i l i t y of a s i t e to support d i f f e r e n t types and i n t e n s i t i e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l use i s governed by the capacity of s o i l s to e s t a b l i s h and maintain vegetative cover. As an example, the low l y i n g , slow growing plants of high elevation alpine meadows are quite susceptible to damage r e s u l t i n g from trampling and campsite establishment. Conversely, the protection and enhancement of vegetative ground cover f a c i l i t a t e s the prevention and con t r o l of erosion, which could lead to s o i l and general s i t e degradation (Densmore and Dahl-strand, 1965; Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Stevens, 1966). Plant communities perform v i t a l r o l e s i n biogeochemical (Nutrient) and water c y c l i n g (Lautenbach et a l , 1974). Trees and other ground cover contribute to the v i s u a l enjoyment and scenic i n t e g r i t y of natural resources, provide shelter from d i r e c t sunlight, high winds, d r i f t i n g snow and other c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s , help to attenuate noise by absorbing and r e f l e c t i n g sound, provide a sense of privacy by screening out the views, sounds and smells of other users, perform a v i t a l r o l e as habitat for w i l d l i f e populations (permanent and seasonal) and help to prevent or diminish the e f f e c t s of rock s l i d e s , snow avalanches and other n a t u r a l l y occurring or man-induced phenomena. The s u i t a b i l i t y of vegetation for r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s can be established on the basis of s e n s i t i v i t y , r e s i l e n c y , density, height and vegetation type (including hazard and nuisance categories) (Murray et aJL, 1971; Burden and Randerson, 1972; Hawes, 1974; Eekman, 1976; Min. of the Envir., 1976; Alberta Rec. & Parks, 1979). 3.5.1 Vegetation Parameters Used to Assess Recreation C a p a b i l i t y S e n s i t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y of vegetation to withstand various i n t e n s i t i e s and types of r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. Recognizing that the degree of s e n s i t i v i t y varies from species to species, what i s of greater concern i s the a b i l i t y of each vegetation type to recover from or r e - e s t a b l i s h a f t e r destructive use. The process of recovery or re-establishment i s described i n terms of community succession. As an example, i n alpine and subalpine environments the rate of succession i s low, p a r t i c u -l a r l y where s o i l s are shallow or unstable. The short growing season, harsh climate, l i m i t e d time ava i l a b l e for plants to complete t h e i r l i f e cycles and the f r a g i l e nature of vegetation communities, make c e r t a i n areas of the subalpine and alpine environments highly vulnerable to i r r e v e r s i b l e destruction by man (Lautenbach et a l , 1974; Eekman, 1976). Physical damage to vegetation cover w i l l often lead to the establishment of r e s i s t e n t and often less spectacular weedy species at the expense of more susceptible ( f r a g i l e ) flowering plant species (Corns, 1976; Eekman, 1976). Vegetation that i s frozen, b r i t t l e and not protected by snow or adjacent vegetation w i l l s uffer i r r e v e r s i b l e damage i f i t i s crushed by man, whether on foot or through the use of a l l - t e r r a i n v e h i c l e s . Vegetation density i s the percent cover or number per given area of i n d i v i d u a l vegetation types, i . e . , species or vegetation s t r a t a . Vegetation density w i l l have a very d i r e c t bearing on the i n t e n s i t y and type of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y that can occur i n an area as well as the costs of s i t e preparation. I n s u f f i c i e n t vegetation can pose a problem where vegetation i s required for screening users from one another or where users require shelter from d i r e c t sunlight, high winds or other c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s . Vegetation height generally r e f e r s to the vegetation s t r a t a , be i t understory shrub vegetation or the overstory canopy. Of concern to r e c r e a t i o n i s t s i s the height of vegeta-t i o n overhang or clearance under the vegetation. Both the o v e r a l l height and height to overhang are of importance as they influence the type and i n t e n s i t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits. Vegetation with low overhang w i l l pose varying degrees of l i m i t a t i o n depending on the s p e c i f i c minimum clearance require-ments of given a c t i v i t i e s . As with vegetation density, the height of vegetation w i l l influence the degree to which snow accumulates, which, i n turn, w i l l d i c t a t e the type, i n t e n s i t y and duration of winter-based r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Areas characterized by a large v a r i e t y of plant species are often better suited for aesthetic appreciation and nature studies (Hawes, 1974). In recreation s i t e planning and development i t i s e s s e n t i a l that hazard and nuisance vegetation species are accounted f o r . Species such as d e v i l ' s club, poison i v y , s t i n g i n g n e t t l e , salmonberry, gooseberry and rose can be both a hazard and a nuisance. Mosses and other t u r f y vegetation w i l l pose moderate to severe l i m i t a t i o n s for mountain climbing,"as exposed, dry bedrock i s e s s e n t i a l for safe climbing. In areas planned for intensive use camping and p i c n i c k i n g , an abundance of nuisance and/or hazardous vegetation w i l l increase the costs of s i t e preparation and maintenance, and may prove to be a source of ongoing aggrava-t i o n following s i t e development. The s i t e requirements of - 66 -r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the period of a c t i v i t y (spring, summer, f a l l and/or winter) should be considered when assessing an area for nuisance and/or hazardous vegetation. Based on studies done by Jarvinen and Schmid (1971), Masyk (1973), and Wanek (1971) i t was found that snowmobiling i s or can; a) be a major cause of damage to shrubs, saplings and other vegetation adjacent to designated snowmobile t r a i l s , as well as i n areas of uncontrolled use, b) r e s u l t i n decreased s o i l temperatures as a r e s u l t of snow compaction and subsequent deep freezing, which i n turn can se r i o u s l y a f f e c t the s u r v i v a l of s o i l microbes and subnivean plant and animal communities, c) be blamed for incidences of w i l d l i f e harassment, l i t t e r -ing, and a i r and noise p o l l u t i o n , which i n turn can s i g n i f i c a n t l y decrease the opportunities for others to enjoy a given area, d) r e s u l t i n a l t e r a t i o n s to alpine meadow habitats so that c e r t a i n animal and plant species normally found i n these areas may be destroyed or forced to migrate to other areas, e) and, r e s u l t i n extensive s i t e degradation a r i s i n g from intensive use of steep slopes, use of areas with southern exposures and use of t r a i l s too ear l y or too lat e i n the season, when snow cover i s inadequate. - 67 -3.5.2 Recreation S u i t a b i l i t y Rating Using Biogeoclimatic Zones Eekman (1976) presented an approach which used Biogeo-c l i m a t i c Zones (Krajina, 1969) to e s t a b l i s h recreation s u i t a -b i l i t y r a t i n g s . Under t h i s approach plant associations are assigned recreation s u i t a b i l i t y ratings on the basis of some-what subjective assessments of vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y , r e s i l e n c y (recovery and re-establishment of damage pl a n t s ) , density, height and type and the s i t e factors of hygrotype, drainage, snow duration, ground water depth, seepage character-- i s t i c s , slope, permeable s o i l depth, thickness of humus layer and stoniness of s o i l p r o f i l e . The three Biogeoclimatic Zones used to assess recrea-t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y within Clague Mountain Park were the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH with Wet Subzone), the Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH with Parkland and Forest Subzones) and the Alpine Zone (AT). Figure 13 shows the s p a t i a l extent of these zones within the park. Appendix II contains descrip-tions of each of the aforementioned zones, followed by summaries of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of each of the plant associations of each zone and generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of these associations for the set of selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Not a l l of the plant associations for each zone are found within the park. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c plant associations of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) include Tsugo-Strutheopteretum spicant, Lysichito-Vaccinietum - 68 -Fig. 13 . BiogeoelijiHtic Zonal ~1 aqqi*M ™* of Clague Mountain Park. Key: (after Krajina (1969)) AT - Alpine Zone MH(P) - Mountain Hsnlock Zone, Forest Subzone MH(P) - Mountain Hemlock Zone, Parkland Subzone OEM - r>vitt^ ai Western Hemlock Zone, Wet Subzone - 69 -alaskaense, Thyjo-Oplopanicetum horridus, and Populo-Loniceretum involucratae; of the Mountain Hemlock Zone (Forest Subzone) include a l l those indicated i n Appendix I I ; of the Mountain Hemlock Zone (Parkland Subzone) include a l l those indicated i n Appendix II except the Vaccinio-Tsugetum  mertensianae plant association; and of the Alpine Zone include a l l those indicated i n Appendix I I . Refer to Appendix VI for photographs showing some of the common vascular plants and shrubs found within Clague Mountain Park. 3.6 Climate Climate plays a key r o l e i n the s e l e c t i o n of recreation areas and the types and i n t e n s i t i e s of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y pursued i n these areas. Climatic parameters such as tempera-ture, wind, duration of sunshine and p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i l l a id i n determining the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings for an area as well as having a d i r e c t influence on the capacity of an area to a t t r a c t and sustain r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (Bennett, 1977) . The s p e c i f i c c l i m a t i c or meterological factors that are considered important for e s t a b l i s h i n g the carrying capacity and s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g of an area for various r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are l i s t e d i n Table 3: Given that c l i m a t i c factors w i l l a f f e c t people d i f f e r -ently, which ones can be used to inventory, c l a s s i f y and rank areas as to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y for r e c r e a t i o n a l use? Bennett (1977) selected temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , sunshine (solar Table 3. Recreation A c t i v i t y - R e l a t e d Climatic Factors 1. P r e c i p i t a t i o n — amount (mean annual, mean monthly and mode), form, duration (mean number of p r e c i p i t a t i o n days), pattern ( d i s t r i b u t i o n ) , snow depth, snow q u a l i t y and snow season. 2. Temperature - mean annual and monthly, d a i l y highs and lows, monthly record of extreme or record of d a i l y highs and lows, mean length of f r o s t f r e e period, average s t a r t and f i n i s h dates and degree hours that are f r o s t -free . ,3. Wind - mean wind v e l o c i t y and d i r e c t i o n by day and month, record of extreme highs by month, wind and storm v a r i a b i l i t y , i n t e n s i t y and duration, calc u l a t e d wind c h i l l f a ctors, and s p e c i f i c hazards associated with exposure to high winds (storms). 4. Solar Radiation - mean and t o t a l number of sunshine hours by month and annually, duration of sunshine i s of major importance for e s t a b l i s h i n g summer and winter recreation c a p a b i l i t y . 5. Other Climatic Factors and Associated Phenomena - rate and amount of evaporation, r e l a t i v e humidity, ice formation, thickness and duration, occurrence of fog, h a i l , and seasonal or unexpected storms, water and s o i l tempera-ture regimes, snow avalanches and s o i l slumping or mass wasting, atmospheric pressure and density and the occurrence of f r o s t . Source: Jurdant et a l (1974); Verberg (1974); Jubenville (1976); Edmonton Region. Plan. Comm. (1977); Bennett (1977) and Alberta Rec. & Park (1979). radiation) and wind to e s t a b l i s h r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s . These four factors were chosen because they represent the c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data curren t l y a v a i l a b l e i n B.C., i . e . , they have been qu a n t i f i e d , they have a d i r e c t influence on a range of r e c r e a t i o n a l pursuits and t h e i r r o l e s i n climate-recreation i n t e r a c t i o n s are f a i r l y well understood. - 71 -When c l a s s i f y i n g areas as to t h e i r . c l i m a t i c s u i t a b i l i t y for recreation, i t i s important to consider the range of re c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and weather conditions which w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r p u r s u i t , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of c l i m a t i c data, the seasonal v a r i a t i o n of c l i m a t i c conditions and the range of values of c l i m a t i c parameters encountered over the e n t i r e area under study, e.g. province of B.C. Under Bennett's (1977) approach, each of the four c l i m a t i c factors are defined and separated into s u i t a b i l i t y c lasses, with Class I being the most suitable and Class V being the lea s t suitable for the pursuit of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (refer to Appendix I I I ) . Following a review of the s i t e requirements for each of the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the d e f i n i t i o n s of c l i m a t i c factor s u i t a b i l i t y classes, the s u i t a b i l i t y classes were al l o c a t e d into one of three generalized s u i t a b i l i t y categories, i . e . , none-slight, moderate or severe. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s procedure, r e f e r to the following excerpt from Table 5: (p. 72): Eco l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use): Once the s u i t a b i l i t y classes of each of the four c l i m a t i c factors have been assigned to one of the three generalized s u i t a b i l i t y classes these generalized classes are then used to c l a s s i f y areas for r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y based on the degree of l i m i t a t i o n each c l i m a t i c factor, has on the a c t i v i t y ( s ) being evaluated. - 72 -Excerpt from Table 5: Degree of L i m i t a t i o n Item A f f e c t i n g Use 2 Climate Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshine None-Sl i g h t Class 1 Class 1 Class 1 Class 1 Moderate Class 2h or 2k Class 2 or 3 Class 2 or 3 Class 2 or 3 Severe Class 3h, 3k, 4k, 5k Class 4 or 5 Class 4 or 5 Class 4 or 5 Refer to Section 3.8 for d e f i n i t i o n s of none-slight, moderate and severe l i m i t a t i o n c l a sses. Source: Bennett (1977). Camping (intensive) i s c l a s s i f i e d as a land-passive summer/transition a c t i v i t y . Refer to Appendix III for a summary of the c l i m a t i c c r i t e r i a used to derive s u i t a b i l i t y ratings and for d e f i n i t i o n s of each of the c l i m a t i c factors of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n , wind and sunshine. 3.6.1 Climate of Clague Mountain Park No s p e c i f i c c l i m a t i c data are a v a i l a b l e f o r Clague Mountain Park. However, i t i s possible to gain i n s i g h t into i t s climate by r e f e r r i n g to the park's Biogeoclimatic Zones, data c o l l e c t e d by Environment Canada for Kitimat (Envir. Can., 1975a, 1975b and 1976), and Bennett (1976), on the subalpine and alpine zones of B r i t i s h Columbia. The park's climate i s marine mesothermal or mild micro-thermal humid to rainy, with s l i g h t to moderate snow cover, i n the lower elevation Coastal Western Hemlock Zone; microthermal - 73 -subcontinental (subalpine) humid, with heavy snow cover, i n the mid-elevation (305 to 762 meter) Mountain Hemlock Zone; and alpine tundra i n the higher elevation (greater than 900 meter) Alpine Zone (Appendix I I ) . The park has wet autumns and dry summers, with 30 to 40% and 10 to 15%, r e s p e c t i v e l y , of the t o t a l annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurring during these periods. In the subalpine and alpine environments the p r e c i p i t a -t i o n generally increases with increasing elevation, with maximum amounts occurring at the base of clouds (Bennett, 1976). Subalpine and alpine areas usually have colder annual minimum temperatures, lower maximum temperatures and d i u r n a l ranges which are less than adjacent lower elevation areas due to stronger winds and the lower density of the atmosphere. A i r temperatures at high elevations tend to decrease with elevation at an average rate of 5 to 6°C per 1000 meter r i s e i n elevation. The combined influence of lower temperatures and increased p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e s u l t i n increased snow accumulations. Winds are usually stronger and more per s i s t e n t at higher elevations. Wind plays a major role i n the c l e a r i n g and transporting of snow, and, when combined with the influence of l o c a l topography, i t determines the d i s t r i b u t i o n of snow. At higher elevations the atmosphere i s , generally, thinner, cleaner and d r i e r r e s u l t i n g i n a decreased amount of r a d i a t i o n s c a t t e r i n g , increased l e v e l s of incoming u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n , extreme nocturnal cooling at the surface and harmful a f f e c t s on vegeta-- 74 -t i v e cover, e s p e c i a l l y those species located within one meter of the surface, i . e . , surface species are subject to extreme diu r n a l temperature v a r i a t i o n s . The climate of the lower elevations of the park (sea l e v e l to approximately 300 meters) can be i n f e r r e d from metero-l o g i c a l data c o l l e c t e d at Atmospheric Environment Service (A.E.S.) climate stations located along the Kitimat-Terrace. V a l l e y . The c l i m a t i c data c o l l e c t e d at the Kitimat Townsite A.E.S. s t a t i o n was deemed appropriate due to i t s close p r o x i -mity to the park, i t s extended period of data c o l l e c t i o n and the d i v e r s i t y of c l i m a t i c information c o l l e c t e d and r e a d i l y ava i l a b l e r e l a t i v e to the other A.E.S. stations i n the v a l l e y . Table 4 summarizes the c l i m a t i c parameters of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n (rain and snow), sunshine and wind s p e c i f i c to the Kitimat Townsite A.E.S. s t a t i o n . The foregoing c l i m a t i c data i s representative of the lower elevations of the park, with notable differences between t h i s data and the actual c l i m a t i c conditions found within the park a r i s i n g due to v a r i a t i o n s i n slope, aspect, elevation, nature of the dominant a i r masses and cloud conditions. As climate w i l l play a major r o l e i n determining the s u i t a b i l i t y of the park for the set of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i t i s important that i t be adequately inventoried, assessed and incorporated into the o v e r a l l s i t e planning and development process. Table 4 i Climatic Data f or Kitimat, and Wind. B.C.i Including Temperature, Precipitation, Sunshine, Tpmnnrntvire Data^ "" Jan. Feb. . Mar lime rerj Apr. ou May Jun. July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year period mfr/^ i-t* * H 1 — . —.—, . Mean dally temp. (°C) -It.2 0.0 2.3 5.8 10.3 14.0 16.2 15.9 12.6 • 6.8 1.6 -1.9 6.6 1941 - 70 Mean dally max. temp. (0C) -1.7 2.9 6.3 10.6 15.9 19-1 21.1 20.4 16.8 9-7 3-8 .2 10.4 1941 - 70 Mean dally min. temp. (°C) -6.7 -2.9 -1.6 1.1 l».6 8.9 11.3 ll.4 8.3 4.0 -.7 -4.0 2.8 1941 - 70 Mean monthly temp, for -2.2 -1.7 .6 6.0 7-8 11.7 13.3 14.4 12.2 6.7 3.3 1.1 6.1 1976 ( 1 year) 1976 ro 6.7 1941 -Mean monthly temp. (°C) -4.4 0.0 2.2 6.1 10.6 13-9 .16.1 16.1 12.8 1.7 -1.7 6.7 70 Temp, extremes for 1976i 1 Highsi 7-8 MZ' 8.9 M -2.8 M 25.0 27.8 27.2 24. 4 16.7 12.2 7-8 36.1 1976 ( 1 year) Lows, -20.0 -11.1 -15-6 -1.1 .6 3-9 5-0 1.7 -1.7 -3-9 -6.7 -25.0 1976 { 1 year) Precipitation Data*' Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. July Aug. a»p. Oct. Nov. Dec. Tear period Mean rainfall (cm) 15-7 16.8 It.5 12.8 7.5 5.8 5-3 8.1 19-5 3^.5 24.3 19.2 184.0 1941 - 70 Mean snowfall (cm) 178.8 100.6 45.0 12.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.4 58.9 133.6 537.0 1941 - 70 Mean total preclp. (cm)'' 33.6 26.8 19.0 14.1 7.5 5-8 5.3 8.1 : 19.5 35-3 30.2 32.3 237.7 1941 - 70 No. of days with measurable 10 12 13 14 12 10 12 15 1. 15 22 17 13 165 1941 - 70 rainfall No. of days with measurable 13 8 7 2 0 0 0 • 0 j 0 1 6 11 48 1941 - 70 snowfall No. of days with measurable 20 17 16 14 12 10 12 15 15 22 20 22 195 1941 - 70 Sunshine Data Jan. Feb. Bar. Apr. May June July sunshine M 69 81 130 115 154 77 sunshine 47 66 124 157 211 201 217 Aug.! 1 Sep. Oct. Nov. Deo. Year period M 50 23 M 1976 62 37 29 1447 1941 - 70 1 No. hours of bright for 1976 No. hours of bright for 1941-70 period Wind Data5 Jan. Feb. N14.6 Mar. Apr. May Jun 126 173 July Aug. 109 123 Sep. Oct. Nov. [6*T~ D e c i Year Perlodi Predominant wind directions & N22.4 associated ave. wind speed (km/hr) 311.1 S12.4 311.9 312,7 312.7 311.6 jsll.l liun/nr; Hotei the maximum observed hourly wind speed during the 1967-72 period was 56 km/hr (35 mph) from the north. 311.4 S12.6(32J0 N17.5 315.1(43^} 7T Sources, Environment Canada ( 1 9 7 5 a . 1975b. and 1 9 7 6 ) . Abbreviation "M" represents missing data. Total precipitation is the sum of the rainfall plus the water equivalent of the snowfall, which Is normally obtained by dividing the snowfall amount by 1 0 , i.e., 10 cm of snow (uncompacted) is approximately equivalent to 1 cm of water. Source, Environment Canada ( I 9 7 6 ) . Source, Environment Canada ( 1 9 7 5 c ) . Indicates that for 33% of Oct. the wind was from the north at 1 3 . 2 km/hr and for 3 3 * of Oct. the wind was from the south at 1 2 . 6 km/hr. Indicates that for 273S of the year the wind was from the north at 1 3 . 5 km/hr and for 435J of the year the wind was from the south at 1 2 . 1 km/hr. 1967 - 72 - 76 -3.7 Unique S i t e Features Unique s i t e features r e f e r to those e c o l o g i c a l para-meters which aid i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of a s i t e for r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s but have e i t h e r not been previously dealt with or have received only a broad, cursory treatment. These features are meant to elaborate on and/or introduce concepts d i f f e r e n t from those discussed i n conjunction with landform and parent material, topographic r e l i e f , s o i l moisture regime and drainage, texture, permeability, stoniness, r o c k i -ness, depth to bedrock or impervious layer, f r o s t action, erosion hazard, flood hazard, vegetation and climate. Mountain climbing i s one a c t i v i t y that can i l l u s t r a t e what i s meant by "unique s i t e features" and how they aid i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the s u i t a b i l i t y of a s i t e for t h i s a c t i v i t y . Areas that have none-slight l i m i t a t i o n s (good s u i t a b i l i t y ) for mountaineering are characterized by rock structures which are firm and stable, being igneous (granite or grabbo) or meta-morphic (gneiss or schist) preferrably, concave s i t e s with low (velocity) winds, and rock types that possess an abundance of cracks and fractures, and are t y p i c a l l y rough textured. At the other extreme, areas that have severe l i m i t a t i o n s (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) for mountaineering are characterized by crumbly, unstable rock types such as sedimentary rock (sandstone or limestone), unstable g l a c i a l d e t r i t u s and recent volcanic materials, convex s i t e s with evidence of high winds, areas with active surface seepage and/or runoff (water), areas that - 77 -are known or suspected of being of high avalanche and/or r o c k f a l l hazard, and areas with smooth, well-weathered rock types devoid of "hand-holds" and/or covered with a t h i n mantle of t u r f y vegetation. 3.8 Site Limitations for Selected Recreational A c t i v i t i e s The e c o l o g i c a l parameters previously discussed were used to describe the s i t e l i m i t a t i o n s for the selected recrea-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The s u i t a b i l i t y of a s i t e for these a c t i v i t i e s w i l l also be dependent on the nature of the a c t i v i t y , season of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , size of user groups and other factors of supply and demand. Various authors provide insights into the l i m i t a t i o n s posed by the s i t e parameters on the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s (Archer, 1963; Montgomery and Edminster, 1966; Brooke et a l , 1969; Murray et a l , 1971; Denney, 1972; Culbert, 1974; Hawes, 1974; Verburg, 1974; Fogg, 1975; Void, 1975; Eekman, 1976; J u b e n v i l l e , 1976; Min. of the Envir., 1976; Bennett, 1977; Alberta Rec. & Parks, 1979). Tables have been drawn up which summarize each a c t i v i t y ' s e c o l o g i c a l s i t e l i m i t a t i o n s . The parameters selected are those factors of the environment which were l i k e l y to influence the type and i n t e n s i t y of recreation use. E c o l o g i c a l parameters used to evaluate an area for a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y are ranked as being of none-slight, moderate to severe l i m i t a t i o n for the intended recreation use. S u i t a b i l i t y classes are defined as follows: - 78 -None to S l i g h t L i m i t a t i o n - a r a t i n g of none to s l i g h t (good s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that i f there are l i m i t a t i o n s (as indicated by deviations about the s i t e requirements) they w i l l be generally easy to overcome without s p e c i a l planning or management procedures. Moderate Limitation - a r a t i n g of moderate (moderate s u i t a b i l i t y ) i n dicates that the l i m i t a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d can generally be overcome with good planning, design and/or management at a moderate cost. Severe Limitation — a r a t i n g of severe (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) indicates that even with good planning and management the l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to overcome. /Areas with severe l i m i t a t i o n s are generally unsuitable or require s p e c i a l and often c o s t l y procedures to make them suitable for a s p e c i f i e d recreation use. . The choice of a c t i v i t i e s was made on the basis of what major r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were a c t u a l l y occurring or would most l i k e l y occur within and adjacent to Clague Mountain Park. Determination of an area's s u i t a b i l i t y for one or more of the aforementioned r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s was made on the basis of the previously discussed e c o l o g i c a l parameters and t h e i r associated degrees of l i m i t a t i o n for each of these a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t of an extensive review of the l i t e r a t u r e , Tables 5 to 13 were derived. 5 : E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use) 1. Table Items A f f e c t i n g Use Degree of L i m i t a t i o n S o i l Moisture & „ . 2. Drainage Surface S o i l 2. Texture Permeability Stonxness Rockiness None-Slight Well to moderately well drained s o i l s with no ponding. Depth to watertable should be s u f f i c i e n t so as not to adversely a f f e c t use and/or construction. Very dry (xeric) to moderately dry (subxer-ic ) moisture regime. Moderately coarse to medium t e x t -ured s o i l s ; sandy loams to loams; s o i l s not subject to blowing. ( s l , f s l , v f s l , l and I s ) . F e r t i l e s o i l s containing a high % of medium-coarse textured s o i l mat-e r i a l and high i n organic matter as well. High to moderate (.5cm/hr to .5 - 5.cm/hr) .01% of surface occupied by rock fragments 15cm (6in) i n diameter. Non-stony. .01% of surface occupied by exposed bedrock. Non-rocky. Moderate Moderately well drained s o i l and somewhat poorly drained s o i l s with no ponding. Mesic moisture regime. Coarse textured s o i l s ; loamy sands (Is) not subject to blow-ing; medium to moderately f i n e textured s o i l s ; s i l t loams ( s l l ) to s i l t y c l a y loams ( s i c l ) . ( c l , s c i , s i c l , a i l , I s , and s) Moderate (;5 to 5.cm/hr) .0 1 - 3.% of surface occupied by rock fragments 15cm (6in) i n diameter. S l i g h t l y to moderately stony. .01 - 3;% of surface occupied by exposed bedrock. S l i g h t l y to moderately rocky. Severe Well drained, moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained, with infrequent ponding of short duration; poorly and very poorly drained s o i l s . Ilygric to h y d r l c moisture regime. Fine textured s o i l s ; c l a y s with poor permeability; loose sands (s) with low cohesion, s o i l s subject to blowing or with unstable surface, (organic, c , s i c , s c , and loose s) Poor (0 to .5cm/hr) 3. - 50.% of surface occupied by rock fragments 15cm (61n) i n diameter. Very to e x c e s s i v e l y stony. 3. - 50 bedrock , % of surface occupied by exposed , Very to ex c e s s i v e l y rocky. T a b l e 5 = Eco.loglcaUBiophyslcal) Li m i t a t i o n s for Camp Areas (Intensive Use), (continued) .1. Degree of L i m i t a t i o n Items A f f e c t i n g Use None-Slight Moderate Severe Slope 2. 2. Aspect Erosion Hazard Frost A c t i o n 3 * 2. Flooding Vegetation S e n s i t i v i t y Density Height 0 - 9.% (0 - 5.1°) l e v e l to gently sloping. 0 - 2.% may have drainage problems. S, SE, SW or l e v e l aspects are d r i e r , warmer i n c o o l weather and a f f o r d maximum sun expos-ure. Low (stable) Low (moderate i n alpine or sub-alpine'krummhdlz zone) No to rare occurence; being of n i l to s l i g h t f l o o d hazard. 10. - 15.% (5.7 - 8.5") gentle to moderately sloping. W for afternoon and evening sun and cool mornings. E for morning sun and shade from evening sun, usually have cool evenings. Moderate (metastable) Moderate (high i n a l p i n e or sub-alpi n e krummholz zoneB or when imperfectly to poorly drained) No to rare occur fence; being of n i l .to s l i g h t f l o o d hazard, with f l o o d ing o c c u r r i n g very i n f r e q u e n t l y during season of use. 16.%+ (9.1°+) moderately to very steeply s l o p i n g . N, NE or: NW aspects characterized by long snow duration, high moisture r e t e n t i o n and cooler temperatures. High (unstable) High Occasional to frequent occurence; being • of moderate to severe f l o o d hazard during season of use. ^ n s l t i v i t v veaetation type Medium a e n s i t i v i t y vegetation. type High s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type with problems to movement. Mixed stands ed ease of movement, impeding movement, with f a i r l y open crown cover,with understory for privacy while providing s h e l t e r . Trees averaging over 6 m. (20 f t ) Trees and shrubs 4.6 - 6 m (15 20 f t ) Trees and shrubs les s than 4.6 m (15 f t ) Table 5 • Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use). (continued) Items Affecting Use^' Degree of Limitation Plant Association by Zone 1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) 2. Mountain Hemlock Zone (Mil) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) None-Slight Tsugetum-heterphyallae Piceo-Symphoricaroetum albus Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae Moderate Pseudotsugo-Gaulthereturn shallon Tsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Populo-Loniceretum involueratae Piceo-Oplopanicetum horridus Pseudotsugo-Cladonieturn p a c i f i c a e Severe Thujo-Polystichetum muniturn Tsugo-Abietetum amabilis Tsugo-Struthiotetetum s p i i a n t Lysichito-Vaccinietum alaskaense Copo-Lysichetum Kamtschatcense Thujo-Oplopanicetum horridus Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum merten Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensi Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Climate Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshine Land-Passive Summer/Transition A c t i v i t y Class 1 Class 2h or 2k " Class 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 or 3 sianae Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae Saxifragetum t o l m i e i Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s • Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Oplopanaco-Thujetum p l i c a t a e Lysichito-Chamaecypareturn nootkatensis Eriophoro-Sphagnetum Gymnomitrieto-Polytrichetum n o r v e g i c i Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Sibbaldietum procumbentis Caricetum s p e c t a b i l i s Luetkeetum pectinatae Anaphaleto-Lupinetum a r c t i c l Mimuleto-Epilobietum l a t i f o l i i Valerianetum s i t c h e n s i s Junipereto-Penstemonetum menziesii Silenetum a c a u l i s Phy1lodoceto-Casslopeturn mertens1anae Abieto-Chamaecypareturn nootkatensis Bog Peat - Sphagnum A s s o c i a t i o n C l a s s 3h, 3k, 4k, or 5k c i a s s 4 or 5 4 or 5 4 or 5 1. The categories used to describe the "Items A f f e c t i n g Use" were translated i n t o equivalent bases using the terminology and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s schemes set out i n the Canada S o i l Information System (Agric. Can.,1978) 2. Sources Alberta Rec. and Parks(1979), Archer(1963), Brooke et al(1969) , Penney(1972), Eekman(1976), Fogg(1975), Hawes(1974), Jubenville(1976), Min. of the Envir.(1976), Montgomery & Edminster(1966), Murray et al(1971) , Raine(1979), or Verberg (1974) . 3. Source: Vold(1977). Based on parent material type, slope c l a s s e s , and s o i l surface texture. 4. Source: Murray e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) 5. Refer to Appendix II for d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of each of the Biogeoclimatic Zones and t h e i r plant a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of plant associations f o r the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s were derived by the author using an i n t e r p r e t i v e approach s i m i l a r to that proposed by Eeknan(1976). The vegetation parameters used to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of plant associations include vegetation s e n s i t i v i t y , r e s i l e n c y , density, height, and type (including nuisance and hazard c a t e g o r i e s ) . 6. Source: Bennett(1977). Refer to Appendix I l l f o r "Summary C r i t e r i a for the Climate S u i t a b i l i t y for Recreation C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . Table 6 : E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Cross-Country Skiing Items A f f e c t i n g Use Degree of L i m i t a t i o n . 2. S o i l Moisture S Drainage''' Surface S o i l 2. Texture Permeability 2. Slope Aspect Flooding (of f a c i l i t i e s ) 2. Vegetation^ Density Height 5. None-Slight Moderate •Refer to Table of E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Downhill S k i i n g . Severe - 2 9°) 0 - 5.% (0 E, NE, N, WW for deepest snow; except for the extreme conditions of high elevations or for northern l a t i t u d e s . Preference i s given to "warmer" slopes on SE, S, or W aspects. No to rare occurence; being of n i l to s l i g h t flood hazard. No f l o o d -ing during the year. Low to medium understory density, adequate to insure ease of move-ment yet provide a degree of shelter from wind and d i r e c t sun-l i g h t on exposed s i t e s . Alterna-ti o n between closed f o r e s t areas and open ground i s des i r a b l e . In forested areas trees over 6.1 m (20 ft) are preferred; t h i s w i l l vary with species and branch-ing habit. 6. - 10.% (3.4 - 5.7°) W, SE or S aspects are acceptable on less steep runs, somewhat sheltered from the sun's rays dur-ing the winter months. No to rare occurence; being of . s l i g h t to moderate flood hazard, with flooding occurring i n f r e q -uently ( 1 or 2 times) during the year. 11.%+ (6.3 +) SW aspects receives moderate r a t i n g i f topography and/or vegetation s h e l t e r s runs. Aspect i s characterized by prolong ed exposure to the sun's rays. Occasional to frequent occurence; being of moderate to severe flood hazard with flooding occurring more than 2 to 4 times during the year. Very dense understory, g r e a t l y impeding movement; dense overstory that blacks out a majority of the s u n l i g h t . At times dense patches of vegetation a i d to deter snowmobilers from using cross-country and other winter-sports t r a i l s . Trees l e s s than 6.1 m (20 f t ) generally; may be more or l e s s depending upon species, branching habit, and r e s u l t a n t i n f l u e n c e on freedom of movement. Ecological (Diophysical) Limitations for Cross-Oountry Skiing, (continued) Items Affecting Use1" ^H^l.of J ^ ! ? ! ^ ! L Table 6 Plant Association by Zone''' 1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWII) 2. Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) None-Slight Moderate Severe Approximated by Ratings of Plant Associations for Trails (Summer Use) Snow depth, freezing and other winter-related factors may result in rating certain associations more favourably than others In terms of cross-country skiing; generally; however, the ratings given should adequately reflect the degree of limitation posed by each association on this specific recreational activity. 2. Climate Temperature R Precipitation Wind Sunshiny Snow Depth Class Class Class Class 2h, 3 1 1 Land-Active Winter Activity 1, 2k, or 3k Class 3h Class 2 or Class 2 or Class 2 or Temperature 10. 61 - 122 cm (2 - 4 ft) -2 to 30 - 61 cm (1 - 2 ft) -11 to Class 4h or 4k Class 1 or 5 (extremes In snowfall) Class 4 or 5 Class 4 or 5 Less than 30 cm (1 ft) and greater than 122 cm (4 ft) of snow. 0 Greater than -2 c and Less than -26 C categories used to describe the "Items Affecting Use" Y^^^r^lAaric^Can^ ' l f v l f ""^ t e r m l n ° l 0 g y *it ication schemes set out in the Canada Soil Information System (Agric. Car.., ^  <»> • f n n i. n n t. n , se: 'refer to Table of Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use), footnote 2. 1. The classi 2. Source 3. Source: Vold(1977) 4. Source: Alberta Rec. S Parks(1979), Jubenville(1976) and Murray et al(1971). 5. source: Murray S<L_al<1971, ^ d e g c r l p t i o n g o f e a c h o f t h e Biogeoclimatic Zones and their plant associations as well Nations for the selected recreational activities. 6. Refer to Appendix as generalized suitability ratings of plant associati ^ i a " " " ^ ^ ^ b i l i t y for Recreation Classification. 7. Source: Bennett (1977) . Refer to Appendix IHfor "Summary of Criteria for the Climatic Suitability a s 8 u m e d for the 8. Cross-country skiing requires a moderate amount of precipitation in the form of snow. An N value or Coast Range of B.C. based on a review of data from existing A.E.S. weather Rations. suitably packed 9. Refers to snow that is loose (non-compacted). Excessively deep snow w i l l impede movement unless i t suitably p prior to using. Source: Alberta Rec. S Parks(1979), Green(1980), and Pientok(1980). 10. Source: Alberta Rec. & Parks (1979) Table 7 : E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Downhill Skiing Items A f f e c t i n g Use 1. Degree of Limitat i o n S o i l Moisture (, Drainage*'" Surface S o i l . . . 2. Permeability 2. Slope 2. Aspect 2 . Erosion Hazard"''* 3 Frost Action ** 2 Flooding (of f a c i l i t i e s ) Vegetation"* * S e n s i t i v i t y Density None-Slight Well to moderately well drained s o i l s with no ponding. Very dry (very xeric) to mesic moisture regime. Moderately coarse to medium textured s o i l s ; sand loams to loams ( s i , f s l , v f s l , and 1). Gravelly to non-gravelly s o i l s . S o i l cover should be thick, or extensive d i s t r i b u t i o n , and stable i n r e l a t i o n to rock out-crops, eg. t i l l veneer over bedrock. High to moderate (5.cm/hr to . 5 - 5.cm/hr). Severe Moderate Moderately well drained s o i l and Well drained, moderately well drained somewhat poorly drained s o i l s with and somewhat poorly drained, with i n -no ponding. Mesic moisture regime, frequent ponding of short duration, poorly and very poorly drained s o i l s , eg. meadows. Hygric to hy d r i c moist-ure regime. Fine textured s o i l s ; c l a y s , loose sands, and s o i l s subject to blowing ( s i , c, c, and s ) . Organic s i l t s , s i l t c l a y s and c l a y s ; peat and other h i g h l y organic s o i l s . Medium to fine textured s o i l s ; s i l t loams to sand c l a y s , loamy sands ( s l l , s i c l , s c i , c l , sc, and I s ) . 0 40.* (0 21.8°, Moderate (.5 - 5.cm/hr) .3 - 38.7") Poor (0 - -5cm/hr) N, NE, or tlW except for the extreme cold conditions of high a l t i t u d e s or for northern l a t i -tudes. E aspect i s good because slopes do not face the sun during the c r i t i c a l afternoon period. Low * Based on parent material and slope c l a s s e s . 41 - 80.» (22 W i s useable i f intervening topo graphy or vegetation to the west aids i n shading the runs. S and SE aspects are acceptable on l e s s steep t e r r a i n at higher e l e v a t i o n s (the concentration of s o l a r energy on south facing slopes can aause rapi d d e t e r i o r a t i o n of e x i s t i n g snow. High 81.*+ (39.0°) SW aspects should be avoided at a l l times. Moderate Low ** Based on s o i l surface texture. No to rare occurence; being of n i l to s l i g h t flood hazard. No f l o o d -ing during the year. Low s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type able to withstand heavy useage and i s characterized by a fa s t rate of succession. Low to medium density, s u f f i c -ient to cut winds and allow for snow accumulation. Moderate No to rare occurence; being of s l i g h t to moderate flood hazard, with flooding occurring i n f r e -quently (1 or 2 times) during the year. High Occasional to frequent occurence; being of moderate to Severe f l o o d hazard with flooding occurring more than 2 to 4 times during the year. Medium s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type High s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type with with moderate rate of succession, slow rate of succession, b*ing suscept-susceptible to degradation. i b l e to i r r e v e r s i b l e damage. Open areas that increase exposure to winds and d i r e c t s u n l i g h t , eg. mountain tops. 00 Height S u f f i c i e n t to provide adequate shelter from wind and d i r e c t sunlight. No to short vegetation that o f f e r s no or only minimal p r o t e c t i o n from the e f f e c t s of wind and d i r e c t sunlight and does not permit snow accumulation. Table 7 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Downhill Skiing, (continued) Items Affecting Use1" Degree of Limitation None-Slight Moderate Plant Association 4 by Zone 1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) 2. Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum shal l o n Tsugeturn-heterophallae Tsugo-Gaultheretum s h a l l o n Tsugo-Abietetum amabilis Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensian Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Caricetum s p e c t a b i l i s Luetkeetum pectinatae Mimuleto-Epllobietum l a t i f o l i i Valerianetum s i t c h e n s i s Climate^' Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshine Snow Depth7. 6. Land-Active Winter A c t i v i t y Class 1, 2k, or 3k Class 2h or Class 4 or 5 Class 3 Class 1 Class Class 1 Class 3h Over 254 cm (100 in) 152 2 or 3 2 or 3 254 cm (60 - 100 in) Severe Thuja-Polystichetum munitum Tsugo-Struthiopteretum spicant Lysichito-Vaccinletum alaskaense Copto-Lysichetum kamtschatcense Thujo-Oplopanicetum horridus Populo-Lonlceretum lnvolucratae Piceo-Oplopanicetum horridus Piceb-Symphoiicaroeturo albus Pseudotsugo-Cladonietum p a c i f i c a e ae Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae Saxifragetum t o l m i e i Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Oplopanaco-Thujetum p l i c a t a e Lyslchito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis Erlophoro-Sphagnetum Gymnomltrieto-Polytrichetum n o r v e g i c i Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Sibbaldietum procumbentis Anaphaleto-Lupinetum a r c t i c i Juniperato-Penstemonetum menziesii Silenetum a c a u l i s Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae Abieto-Chamaecypareturn nootkatensis Bog Peat - Sphagnum Ass o c i a t i o n Class 4h or 4k Class 1 or 2 Class 4 or 5 C l a s s 4 or 5 Less than 152 cm (60 in) The categories used to describe the "Items A f f e c t i n g Use" were translated i n t o equivalent bases using the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes set out i n the Canada S o i l Information System (Agric. Can.,1978). terminology and 2. Source: * r e f e r to Table of E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use), footnote 2, 3. Source: Void(1977) 4. Refer to Appendix II for d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of each of the Biogeoclimatic Zones and t h e i r p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of plant associations for the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 5. Source: Bennett(1977). Refer to Appendix IIIfor"Summary of C r i t e r i a for the C l i m a t i c S u i t a b i l i t y f o r Recreation C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . 6. P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the form of snow i s v i t a l for downhill s k i i n g . The p r e c i p i t a t i o n conversion used i s 1.0 i n . r a i n = 10.0 snow (Min. of Agric.,1976). A review of the c l i m a t o l o g i c a l data from the established A.E.S. s t a t i o n s i n B.C. Indicated that the number of days per season with measurable p r e c i p i t a t i o n (N value) averaged about N=55. for the Coast Range, as defined by Holland(1976). 7. Refers to loose snow depth (non-compacted). Source: Alberta Rec. 8 Parks(1979) and Fogg(1975). i n . Table 8 Items Affecting Use Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Mountain Climbing.Mountaineering 1. Degree of Limitation Soil Moisture 8. Drainage2' Slope 2 Aspect Unique Site Features Hone-Slight Very rapidly to rapidly drained soils; with not ponding nor seep-age during period of use. Very dry (very xeric) to dry (xeric) moisture regime. 51 - 100% (27-45°) S,sr. or SW for drier, warmer climbing. Mountaineers require warmth and ample Bunlight to insure safe climbs on dry sites. Pock structures must be firm and stable, being igneous (granite or grabbo) or metamorphic (gneiss or schist) prefer-rabiy) concave sites with low winds are best. Rock types characterized by cracks, fractures and rough texture are preferred. Moderate Well to moderately drained soils; with no ponding and seepage being very rare. Moderately dry (subxer to mesic moisture regime. 101 - 175% (45-60°) E Eor warm mornings, cooler- even-ings, or W for cool mornings and warmer evenings. Severe Imperfectly to very poorly drained soils; with Infrequent ponding and ic) very occasional seepage. Ilygrlc to hydric moisture regime. 176%+ (60°+) or 0 - 50% (0 - 27°) Mr IIW, or NE exposures are not preferred due to the higher moisture and colder temperatures found in these aspects. Crumbly, unstable rock types such as sedimentary rock (sandstone or limestone), unstable glacial detritus, and recent volcanic materials are hazardous for climbing. Windy, convex areas; areas with active surface seepage and/or runoff; areas known or suspected of being of high avalanche and/or rockfall hazard as well as smooth well-weathered rock types devoid of "hand-hold" pose severe limitation for mountaineering. "Avalan-ches are the number one killer of coastal (B.C.) climbers." (Culbert,1974). co Vegetation Type lifeforms (heathers and krummholz amabilis fir). Table 8 : Ecologica l (Biophysical) Limitations for Mountain Climbing t Mountaineering. Items Af fect ing U s e 1 ' Degree of Limitat ion (continued) None-Slight Moderate Severe Plant Assoc ia t ion by Zone 3 -1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) P s e u d o t s u g o - G a u l t h e r e t u m s h a l l o n P s e u d o t s u g o - C l a d o n i e t u m p a c i f i c a e 2. Mounta in Hemlock Zone (MH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) C l i m a t e 4. Tempera ture P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind S u n s h i n e Tsugetum h e t e r o p h a l l a e T h u j o - P o l y s t i c h e t u m munitum T s u g o - G a u l t h e r e t u m s h a l l o n T s u g o - A b i e t e t u m a m a b i l i s T s u g o - S t r u t h e o p t e r e t u m s p i c a n t L y s i c h i t o - V a c c i n i e t u m a l a s k a e n s e C o p t o - L y s i c h e t u m k a m t s c h a t a n s e T h u j o - O p l o p a n i c e t u m h a o r r i d u s P o p u l o - L o n i c e r e t u m i n v o l u c r a t a e P i c e o - O p l o p a n i c e t u m h o r r i d u s P i c e o - S y m p h o r i c a r o e t u m a l b u s V a c c i n i o - T s u g e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e L e p t a r r h e n s - C a l t h e t u m l e p t o s e p a l a e P h y l l o d o c o - C a s s i o p e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e C a r i c e t u m n i g r i c a n t i s Nano-Tsugetum m e r t e n s i a n a e C l a d o t h a m n o - T s u g e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e V a c c i n i e t u m d e l o c i o s i A b i e t o - T s u g e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e S a x i f r a g e t u m t o l m i e i S t r e p t o p o - A b i e t u m a m a b i l i s O p l o p a n a c o - T h u j e t u m p l i c a t a e L y s i c h i t o - C h a m a e c y p a r e t u m n o o t k a t e n s i s E r i o p h o r o -Sphagnetum J u n i p e r e t o - P e n s t e m o n e t u m m e n z i e s i i C a r i c e t u m s p e c t a b i l i s G y m n o m i t r i e t o - P o l y r i c h e t u m n o r v e g i c i Ab ie to -Chamaecypare tum n o o t k a t e n s i s Luetkeetum p e c t i n a t a e C a i c e t u m n i g r i c a n t i s Bog Peat - Sphagnum A s s o c i a t i o n V a l e r i a n e t u m s i t c h e n s i s S i b b a l d i e t u m p r o c u m b e n t i s i S i l e n e t u m a c a u l i s A n a p h a l e t o - L u p i n e t u m a r c t i c i P h y l l o d o c o - C a s s i o p e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e M i m u l e t o - E p i l o b i e t u m l a t i f o l i i Land A c t i v e S u m m e r / T r a n s i t i o n A c t i v i t y ( P r e d o m i n a t e l y ) o r 2k C l a s s 3h o r 3k C l a s s 4h o r 4k C l a s s 2 o r 3 C l a s s 4 o r 5 " 2 o r 3 " 4 o r 5 2 o r 3 4 o r 5 oo —i Class 2h , Class 1 1, 1. 2. 3. 4 . " ^ " c a t e g o r i e s used t o d e s c r i b e the "Items A f f e c t i n g Use" were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e q u i v a l e n t b a s e s u s i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and c-1 aerification schemes s e t o u t i n t h e Canada S o i l I n f o r m a t i o n System ( A g r i c . C a n . , 1 9 7 8 ) . . , . „ . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . Table 9 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Picnicking/Day Use 1. Items Affecting Use 2 . Degree of Limitation S o i l Moisture & Drainage" Surface S o i l 4 . Texture Permeability 4. Stonxness 4. Rockiness Slope Aspect Erosion Hazard^' Frost Action^' 4. Flooding (of f a c i l i t i e s ) Unique Site Features'' None-Slight Well to moderately well drained s o i l s with no ponding. Depth to watertable should be s u f f i c i e n t so as not to adversely affect use and/or construction. Dry (xeric) to mesic moisture regime. Moderately coarse to medium tex-tured soils, 1 sandy loams to loams; s o i l s not subject to blow-ing ( s i , f s l , v f s l , 1 and Is) Moderate Moderately well drained s o i l s and somewhat poorly drained s o i l s with no ponding. Mesic moisture regime. Severe High to moderate (5.cm/hr+ to .5 - 5.cm/hr) Less than .01% of surface occup-ied by rock fragments greater than 15 cm (6 in) in diameter. Non-stony. Less than .01% of the surface occupied by exposed bedrock. Non-rocky. 0 - 9.% (0 - 5.1°) **0 - 2.% (0 - 1.1°) may have problems with ponding and/or s o i l mositure. 3. - 5.% (1.7 -2.9 ) i s the preferred slope range. S, SW or SE are the preferred aspects. Low (stable). Low. No to -rare occurence; being of n i l to s l i g h t flood hazard. No flooding during season of use. Coarse textured s o i l s ; loamy sands (Is) not subject to blowing; med-ium to moderately fine textured s o i l s ; s i l t loams ( s i l ) to s i l t y clay loams ( s i c l ) ; ( c l , s c i , s i c l . Is and s ) . Moderate (.5 - 5.cm/hr) .01 - 3.% of the surface occupied by rock fragments greater than 15 cm (6 In) in. diameter. S l i g h t l y to moderately stony. .01 - 3.% of the surface occupied by exposed bedrock. S l i g h t l y to moderately rocky. 15.% (5.7 Well drained, moderately well drained and somewhat poorly drained with i n f r e -quent ponding of short duration; poorly and very poorly drained s o i l s . Hygric to hydric moisture regime. Fine textured s o i l s ; clays (c) with poor permeability; loose sands (s) with low cohesion; s o i l subject to blowing or with unstable surface; (organic, c, s i c , sc and loose s ) . Poor (0 . 5cm/hr) 8.5°) ;0. E or W. Moderate (metastable). Moderate. No to rare occurence; being of s l i g h t to moderate flood hazard with flooding occurring i n f r e q -ently ( i or 2 times) during season of use. Variety of topography preferred to enhance aesthetic quality of area. Historic, c u l t u r a l , and/or natural features add to the overa l l exper-ience, eg. open areas and secluded — -woodlands, unique f l o r a and fauna, panoramic views, r e l i c s of bygone days and proximity to water resources (lakes, streams, r i v e r and/or ocean). 3. - 50.% of the surface occupied by rock fragments greater than 15 cm (6 in) in diameter. Very to excessively stony. 3. - 50.% of the surface occupied by exposed bedrock. Very to excessively rocky. 16.%+ (9.1°+) N, NW, or NE Bhould be avoided due to cooler temneratures and continual shading. High (unstable). High. Occasional to frequent occurence; being of moderate to severe flood hazard with flooding occurring more than 2 to 4 times during season of use. Monotonous landscapes with view to distant areas obscured by trees or other obstructions. Limited numbers and variety of natural f l o r a and fauna in an area. Close proximity to developments and/or resource extrac-t i o n a c t i v i t i e s as well as natural or man-caused hazards which may seriously reduce the l e v e l of enjoyment experie-nced in an area. -Lack of or inaccessib-i l i t y to water resources i s of major concern. Table 9 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Picnicking/Day Use '. (continued) Items Affecting Use2" _J55£fe_of LimitaUcn None-Slight Moderate Severe Vegetation7' Type & Sensitivity Mixed or pure stands of coniferous or deciduous tree species, to provide shade during the hot periods of the day as well as add to the scenic — quality of the site. Understory vegetation somewhat resistent to this Intensive recreational activity are preferred. Plant Associations g by Zone 1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) Tsutetum-heterophallae Populo-Loniceretum involucratae Piceo-Syniphoricai'oetum albus Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum shallon pBeudotsugo-Cladonietum pacificae 2. Mountain Hemlock Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae Zone (MH) Alpine Zone (AT) Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensiana Nano-Tsuqeturit mertensianae Vaccinietum deliciosi riaddthaftino-taugetum "mertensianae Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Anaphaleto-Uiplnetum arctic! Dense stands of coniferous and/or deciduous trees should be avoided. Vegetation with thorns, stinging hairs, and other noxious characteristics act to deter picnickers and day user alike, eg. Devil's club, stinging nettle, poison ivy and salmonberry bushes. Vegetqation sensitive to even light levels of use Bhould be avoided, eg. flowering herbs of alpine meadow areas. Thujo-Polystichetum muniturn Tsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Tsugo-Abletetum amabilis Tsugo-Struthiopteretum spicant Lysichlto-Vaccinietum alaskaense Copto-Lyslchetum kamtschatcense Thujo-oplopanicetum horrldus Piceo-Oplopanicetum horrldus e Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae Saxlfragetum tolmiei Carlcetum nigricantis Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Oplopanaco-Thujetum plicatae Lysichlto-Chamaecyparetum nootkatenais Erlophoto-Sphagnetum Gymnomitrieto-Polytrichetum norvegici Carlcetum nigricantis Sibbaldietum procumbentis Carlcetum spectabilis Luetkeetum pectinatae Mimuleto-Epilobletum l a t i f o l i i Valerlanetum eitchensis Junlpereto-Penstemonetum menziesii Silenetum acaulis Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum-mertensianae Abieto-Chamaecyparetum nootkatenslB Bog Peat-Sphagnum Association Table 9 : Ec o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Picnicking/Day Use 1 -, (continued) Items A f f e c t i n g Use 2 , Degree of Limitation None-Slight Moderate " Severe Climate'' Land-Passive Summer/Transition A c t i v i t y Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshine Class 1 or 2h Class 1 1 1 Class 3h or 2k Class 2 or 3 2 or 3 2 C lass 4h, 3k, or 4k C lass 4 or 5 4 or 5 3, 4 or 5 1. Many e c o l o g i a l (biophysical) f ac tors which e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for Campgrounds can be used to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y of an area for P icnick ing/Day Use a c t i v i t i e s due to the great s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r general design and maintenance requirements (Verberg,1974). 2. The categor ies used to descr ibe the "Items A f f e c t i n g Use" were t rans la ted in to equiva lent bases using the terminology and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes set out i n the Canada S o i l Information System ( A g r i c . . C a n . ; 1 9 7 8 ) . 3. Source: Brooke et al(1969) and Montgomery & Edminster(1966). 4. Source: Montgomery S Edminster(1966). 5. Source: A lber ta Rec. & Parks(1979), Montgomery & Edminster(1966), Murray et al(1971) , and Vold(1977). 6. Source: Void(1977). 7. Source: A lber ta R e c , Parks and Wi ld l i fe (1976) , A lber ta Rec.& Parks(1979), Murray e t a l (1971) , and Verberg(1974). 8. Refer to Appendix II for d e t a i l e d descr ip t ions of each of the Biogeocl imat ic Zones and t h e i r p lant assoc ia t ions as wel l as genera l ized s u i t a b i l i t y ra t ings of plant assoc ia t ions for the se lected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 9. Source: Bennett(1977) . Refer to Appendix III for "Summary of C r i t e r i a for the C l i m a t i c S u i t a b i l i t y for Recreat ion C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . Table 10 : E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Limitations for Snowmobiling Degree of L i m i t a t i o n Items A f f e c t i n g Use Slope Aspect Unique S i t e Features 2* None-Slight 0 - 8 % (0 - 4.6°) may vary depending on snow conditions. Moderate 9 - 15% (5.1 - 8.5°) with a maximum sustained gradient of 15% (8.5°). N, NW, NE or l e v e l f o r snow aceum- W, E, or SE. u l a t l o n and shade " e f f e c t " . In more northerly l a t i t u d e s and/or at higher elevations warmer south f a c i n g aspects may be preferred. Varied aspect provides f o r a more enjoyable experience. F l a t , Btable s u r f i c i a l deposits. Level to r o l l i n g topography. No na t u r a l and/or man-caused obstac- . : les.'. Absence of f l o r a and fauna susceptible to snowmobile damage and/or disturbance. Severe 16%+ (9.1 +) For short p i t c h e s gradient of climb ranges from 20 to 25% (11.3 - 14.0 ). SW or S due to prolonged exposure to the d i r e c t rays of the sun, r e s u l t i n g i n snowmelt and/or ground exposure. Alpine meadows, avalanche hazard areas, c l i f f s and other steep t e r r a i n , thermal pools, road crossings, areas of w i l d l i f e concentration, (Including subnivean f l o r a and fauna), lake and stream c r o s s i n g s , wetland areaBj f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s , fences guy wires, and a l l other n a t u r a l and/or man-caused hazardous areas. vegetation 2 S e n s i t i v i t y Density Height Height '(Tree) Grasses and other species r e s i s t -ent. to compaction and re s u l t a n t reduced growing season and deep f r e e z i n g e f f e c t s ! species with deep root systems that a i d i n t h e i r • s u r v i v a l ; species with f a s t rates of succession and high r e s i l e n c y to adverse useage. Low density to open areas that allow for ease of movement over and/or . through vegetation cover, eg. lodge-pole pine and aspen cover (mature). Cleared of vegetation overhang to a|cieared of vegetation to height of greater than 10 ~ - - - - - - -f t ( i m).18 - 10 f t overhang. (2.4 - 3. m) Over 20 f t (6.1 m); w i l l vary -depending on species, density, snowpack depth, and other s i t e f a c t o r s . Shrubs, s a p l i n g s , and other vegetation adjacent to t r a i l s and subject to mechan-i c a l damage; reduced growing season and deep f r e e z i n g e f f e c t s due to snow compac-t i o n are e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l i n high alp i n e areas; species with low rates of successionj shallow root systems and f r a g i l e vegetative s t r u c t u r e s may be t o t a l l y eliminated. Dense under- and/or overstory vegetation types that makes access v i r t u a l l y impos-s i b l e , eg. a l d e r , willow, and salmon-berry bushes adjacent to streams. Less than 8 f t (2.4 m) clearance between vegetation overhang and top of snow. Less than 10 f t (3-m) (rough estimate) Table 10 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Sncwrrjbiling. (continued) Items Affecting Use 1' Degree of Limitation None-Slight Moderate Plant Assoc ia t ion : by Zone 7* 1. Coasta l Western Tsugetum heterophallae Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum sha l lon Hemlock Zone Populo-Lonicerefeum involucratae Thuja-Ploystichetum munitum (CW1I) Piceo-Symphoricaroetum albus Tsugo-struthiopteretum spicant 2. Mountain Hemlock Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Zone (MH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) Anaphaleto-LupinetUm a r c t i c ! Mimuleto-Epilobietum l a t i f o l i i Severe Tsugo-Gaultheretum sha l lon Tsugo-Abietetum amabil is Lys ich i to -Vacc in ie tum alaskaense Copto-Lysichetum kamtschatcense Thujo-Oplopanicetum horr ldus Piceo-Oplopanicetum horr ldus Pseudotsugo-Cladonietum p a c i f i c a e Vacclnio-Tsugetum mertensianae Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalac Phullodoco-Ca8slopeturn mertensianae Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i Saxifragetum to lmie i Carlcetum n i g r i c a n t i s Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Streptopo-Abietetum amabil is Oplopanaco-Thyjetum p l i ca tae Lysichito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis Eriophoro-Sphagnetum Gymnomitr ieto-Polytr ichetun norvegic l Carlcetum n i g r i c a n t i s Sibbaldletum procumbentis Carlcetum s p e c t a b i l i s Luetkeetum pectinatae Valerianetum s i t c h e n s i s Junipereto-Penstemonetum menziesi i Silenetum acau l is Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae Abie to-Chamaecypare turn nootka tens i s Bog Peat - Sphagnum Assoc ia t ion Table 10 i Ecological(Biophysical) Limitations f o r Snowmobiling. (continued) Items Affecting Use1" Degree o f Limitation N o n e - S l i g h t Moderate S e v e r e Climate Temperature g Precipitation Wind Sunshinjn Snow Depth ^ Temperature L a n d - A c t i v e W i n t e r S p o r t C l a s s 2h , k, 2k o r 3k C l a s s 4 or 5 C l a s s 1 1 G r e a t e r than -2 t o - 1 6 ° C C l a s s 3h C l a s s 3 C l a s s 4 f t (1.2 m) 2 o r 3 " 2 o r 3 - 4 f t <66 17 t o -30 C - 1.2 m) C l a s s 4h o r 4k C l a s s 1 o r 2 C l a s s 4 o r 5 4 o r 5 L e s s than 2 f £ ( .6 m) L e s s t h a n -30 C o r g r e a t e r than 2 ° C . The c a t e g o r i e s used t o d e s c r i b e the "I tems A f f e c t i n g •Use'' were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e q u i v a l e n t b a s e s u s i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes s e t o u t i n the Canada S o i l I n f o r m a t i o n System ( A g r i c . C a n . j l 9 7 8 ) . S o u r c e : A l b e r t a R e c . & P a r k s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , A l b e r t a R e c , P a r k s , and W i l d l i f e ( 1 9 7 6 ) j F o g g ( l 9 7 5 ) , J i i b e n v i l l e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , M a r k e l ( 1 9 8 0 ) , and Murray et a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S o u r c e : A l b e r t a R e c . S P a r k s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , F o g g ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and M a s y k ( l 9 7 3 ) . S o u r c e : J u b e n v i l l e ( 1 9 7 6 ) and Murray e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S o u r c e : F o g g ( 1 9 7 5 ) . Murray e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) . R e f e r t o Append ix II f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each o f the B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones and t h e i r p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as g e n e r a l i z e d s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Source: Bennett(1977). Re fe r t o Appendix m f o r "Summary o f C r i t e r i a f o r t h e C l i m a t i c S u i t a b i l i t y f o r R e c r e a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ? Snowmobi l ing r e q u i r e s ample amounts o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the form o f snow. An N v a l u e o f 55 o f B .C. b a s e d on a r e v i e w o f d a t a f rom e x i s t i n g A . E . S . -•.-i.j—-was assumed f o r the C o a s t Range weather s t a t i o n s . 10. S o u r c e : A l b e r . t a R e c . & Parks(1979) and Marke l (1980) 11. S o u r c e : A l b e r t a R e c . S P a r k s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T a b l e 11 : Eco Items A f f e c t i n g l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) L i m i t a t i o n s f o r Snowshoeing 1. Use Degree o f L i m i t a t i o n S o i l M o i s t u r e s D r a i n a g e 2 ' S u r f a c e S o i l 2. 2-T e x t u r e P e r m e a b i l i t y 2 S l o p e 2. Aspec t E r o s i o n H a z a r d 3 * 2. F l o o d i n g (of f a c i l i t i e s ) V e g e t a t i o n D e n s i t y H e i g h t N o n e - S l i g h t Moderate • R e f e r to t a b l e o f E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) L i m i t a t i o n s f o r D o w n h i l l S k i i n g . S e v e r e 0 - 10* (0 - 5 . 7 ° ) 11 - 15* (6.3 S h o r t p i t c h e s o f 20 -14 .0 ) a r e a c c e p t i b l e . 8 . 5 ° ) 1 6 » + ( 9 . 1 ° + ) 25* (11.3 -A v a r i e t y o f s l o p e o r i e n t a t i o n s i s p r e f e r r e d * N f a c i n g s l o p e s i n a r e a s w i t h low s n o w f a l l ) S f a c i n g s l o p e s i n a reas where warmth of snowshoer i s i m p o r t a n t , e g . n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s a n d / o r h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s . Low. Moderate . * Based on p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and s l o p e c l a s s e s . Ho to r a r e occurence; b e i n g o f s l i g h t t o moderate f l o o d h a z a r d , w i t h f l o o d i n g o c c u r r i n g i n f r e q -e n t l y (1 o r 2 t imes) d u r i n g the y e a r . Ho to r a r e occurence; b e i n g b f n i l to s l i g h t f l o o d h a z a r d . No f l o o d i n g d u r i n g the y e a r . H i g h . O c c a s i o n a l to f r e q u e n t • occurence; b e i n g o f moderate t o s e v e r e f l o o d h a z a r d w i th f l o o d i n g o c c u r r i n g more than 2 t o 4 t imes d u r i n g the y e a r . Low v e g e t a t i o n d e n s i t y ; open a reas w i th adequate s h e l t e r from winds and d i r e c t r a y s of the s u n . V e g e t a t i o n h e i g h t over 20 f t (6.1 m) o v e r s t o r y ; low underbrush absent w i th v e g e t a t i o n overhang h i g h enough, i . e . , 8 - 10 f t ( 2.4 - 3.0 m ) above normal snow l e v e l s , to a l l o w f o r ease o f movement. C o n t i n u o u s medium to h i g h d e n s i t y a r e a s , which may e f f e c t i v e l y i n h i b i t movement o f the snowshoer ; p o s s i b l y , c u t t i n g out much o f the needed warming e f f e c t s o f t h e s u n . Abundance o f low underbrush a n d / o r s h o r t o v e r s t o r y v e g e t a t i o n so as t o s e r i o u s l y impede movement, e g . w i l l o w , f o r e s t p l a n t a t i o n s and s a l a l . VD Table 11 Items Af fec t ing Use Ecolog ica l (Biophysical) Limitations for Snowshoeing. 1. (continued) Degree of L imitat ion P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n by Zone 1. C o a s t a l Wes te rn Hemlock Zone (CWH) 2. Mounta in Hemlock Zone (MH) 3. A l p i n e Zone (AT) • ^ 5 . C l i m a t e Tempera tu re g P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind S u n s h i n y Snow Depth y Tempera tu re None-Slight Moderate Severe * * Approx imated by R a t i n g s o f P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r T r a i l s ( g e n e r a l - s u m m e r / t r a n s i t i o n / w i n t e r ) . V e g e t a t i o n f a c t o r s , such as s p e c i e s h e i g h t , d e n s i t y and v i g o r , and t h e " m a s k i n g " o f o b s t a c l e s , such as woody d e b r i s , r o c k s , • s h r u b s and seepage s i t e s , w i t h snow may r e s u l t i n r a t i n g c e r t a i n a s s o c i a t i o n s more f a v o u r a b l y t h a n o t h e r s , i n . t e r m s o f s u i t a b i l i t y f o r snowshoe ing ; g e n e r a l l y , however, the r a t i n g s g i v e n s h o u l d a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t the d e g r e e o f l i m i t a t i o n po sed by e a c h o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s on t h i s s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y . L a n d - A c t i v e W in te r A c t i v i t y C l a s s 2h, k, 2k, o r 3k C l a s s 4 o r 5 C l a s s 1 C l a s s 1 G r e a t e r t han 4 f t (1.2 m) -2 t o - 2 1 ° C C l a s s 3h C l a s s 3 C l a s s C l a s s 2 - 4 2 o r 2 o r f t (, 1.2 m) -22 t o -40 C C l a s s 4h o r 4k C l a s s 1 o r 2 C l a s s 4 o r 5 C l a s s 4 o r 5 L e s s t han 2 f t ( G r e a t e r t h a n -2 C .6 m) o r L e s s t h a n -40°C -—- . > . , , , . -1. The c a t e g o r i e s u sed t o d e s c r i b e the " I tems A f f e c t i n g Use " were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e q u i v a l e n t ba ses u s i n g t h e t e r m i n o l o g y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes s e t ou t i n t h e Canada S o i l I n f o r m a t i o n System ( A g r i c ; C a n . , 1 9 7 8 ) . 2. S o u r c e : * r e f e r t o T a b l e o f E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) L i m i t a t i o n s f o r Camp A r e a s ( I n t e n s i v e U s e ) , f o o t n o t e 2. 3. S o u r c e : V o i d ( 1 9 77 ) . 4. R e f e r t o Append i x I I f o r d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f each o f the B i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zones and t h e i r p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s as w e l l as g e n e r a l i z e d s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s o f p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r t h e s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 5. S o u r c e : B e n n e t t ( 1 9 7 7 ) . R e f e r t o Append ix I IT for "Summary o f C r i t e r i a f o r the C l i m a t i c S u i t a b i l i t y f o r R e c r e a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . 6. As w i t h s n o w m o b i l i n g , snowshoeing r e q u i r e s ample amounts o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the fo rm o f snow. An N v a l u e o f 55. was assumed f o r the C o a s t Range o f B.C. based on a r e v i e w o f the c l i m a t o l o g i c a l d a t a f rom e x i s t i n g A . E . S . w e a t h e r s t a t i o n s . 7. S o u r c e : A l b e r t a Rec. and P a r k s ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Table 12 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Toboggannihg Items Affecting Use Degree of Limitation S o i l Moisture & 2 Drainage Surface S o i l 2. Texture 2 Permeability S l o p e 2 -Aspect Erosion Hazard 3 -* 2 Flooding (of f a c i l i t i e s ) Vegetation Type None-Slight Moderate •Refer to Table of Ecological(Biophysical) Limitations for Downhill Skiing. Severe 10 - 40% (5.7 - 21.8°) Tot/Beginner/Intermediate NW, H, NE or SE aspects. At more northerly latitudes and/or at higher elevations where cooling may pose a problem, south facing slopes are preferred. Low. (22.3 - 26 .6°) 41 - 50% Expert S, W, or E aspects. W aspects have cooler mornings, while E aspects have cooler ^evenings. S aspects are acceptable given adequate sun-l i g h t and depending oh slope of h i l l . Moderate; * Based on parent material and slope classes; No to rare occurence; being of n i l to s l i g h t flood hazard. No Flooding during the year. No to rare occurence; being of s l i g h t to moderate flood hazard with flooding occurring i n f r e -quently (1 or 2 times) during the year. Open grassland type with few low lying shrubs and a border of coniferous tree for shade and protection from winds and d i r e c t rays of the sun, yet allowing for snow accumulation. 51%+ (27.0°+) or 0 - 9% (0 - 5.1") SW aspect. Susceptible to prolonged exposure to sun during c r u c i a l part of the day) with decreasing slope, the severity of the l i m i t a t i o n posed by the SW orientation becomes less, with the rating becoming more favour-able. High. Occasional to frequent occurence; being of moderate to severe flood hazard with flooding occurring more than 2 to 4 times during the year. Closed forest typo and/or an area of dense undergrowth, with both types seriously hindering an areas usefulness for toboganning.Avoid areas with natural and/or man-caused hazards, eg. c l i f f s , avalanche areas, roadways or logging operations. KD Table 12 : Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Tobogganning. (continued) ..j ., i - Degree of Limitation Items Affecting Use - ^  None-Slight Moderate Pseudotsugo-Gaultetetum shallon Thujo-Polystichetum muniturn Tsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Tsugo-Abietuetum amabilis Tsugo-Struthiopteretum spicant i 2. Mountain Hemlock Abieo-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinio-Tstigetum mertensianae Zone (MH) Plant Association 4 . by Zone 1. Coastal Western Tsugetum heterophallae Hemlock Zone (CWH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) Mimuleto-Epilobietiim l a t i f o l i i Severe Lysichito-Vaccinietum alaskaense Copto-Lysichetum kamtschatcense Thujo-Oplopanicetum horridus Poplo-Loniceratum involucratae Piceo-Oplopanicetum horridus Piceo-Symphoricaroetum albus Pseudotsugo-Cladonietum p a c i f i c a e Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinetum d e l i c i o s i Saxifragetum tolmiei Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Oplopanaco-Thujetum plicatae Lysichito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis Eriophoro-Sphagnetum Gymnomitrieto-Polytrichetum norvegici Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Sibbaldietum procumbentis Caricetum s p e c t a b i l i s Luetkeetum pectinatae Anaphaleto-Lupinetum a r c t i c i Valerianetum sitchensis Junipereto-Penstemonetum menziesii Silenetum acaulis Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae Abieto-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis Bog Peat - Sphagnum Association Table 12 : Eco log ica l (B iophys ica l ) L imi ta t ions for Tobogganning. (continued) Items A f f e c t i n g U s e 1 - Degree of L imi ta t ion None-Sl ight Moderate Severe Climate 5. Land-Active Winter A c t i v i t y Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshing Snow Depth ^ Temperature Class 3h, ?.h, k and 2k Class4 or 5 Class 1 Class 1 Greater than 2 f t (.6 m) 0 to -12 C Class Class Class Class 1 - 2 -13 to 3k 3 Class 4h or 4k 2 or 3 2 or 3 C lass 1 or 2 C lass 4 or 5 Class 4 or 5 f t (,3 - .6 m) -24 C Less than 1 f £ ( .3m) Q Less than -25 C or greater than 0 C 1. The categor ies used to describe the "Items A f f e c t i n g Use" were t rans la ted in to equivalent bases using the terminology and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes set out in the Canada S o i l Information System (Agr ic . Can. ,1978) . 2. Source: * r e f e r to Table of E c o l o g i c a l (Biophysical) L imi ta t ions for Camp Areas ( Intensive Use) , footnote 2. 4. Refer to Appendix II for de ta i led descr ip t ions of each of the Biogeocl imat ic Zones and t h e i r p lant assoc ia t ions as wel l as genera l ized s u i t a b i l i t y rat ings of p lant assoc ia t ions for the se lected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 5. Source: Bennett(1977). Refer to Appendix III for "Summary of C r i t e r i a for the C l i m a t i c S u i t a b i l i t y for Recreation C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " . 6. Snow depth re fe rs to loose (non-compacted) snowfa l l . Source: A lber ta Rec. and Parks(1979) and Fogg(1975). 7. Source: A lber ta Rec. and Parks(1979). 3. Source: Void(197 7). Table 13 : Ecologica l (B iophysica l ) L imitat ions for T r a i l s (Summer Use) Items Af fec t ing Use Degree of L imi tat ion S o i l Moisture & • 2. Drainage Surface S o i l 2. Texture 2. Permeabil i ty 2. Slope Aspect Erosion Hazard" 3 Frost Act ion Flooding Unique S i t e Features^' None-Slight Well to moderately wel l drained s o i l s . Very dry (very xeric) to mesic moisture regime. Moderately coarse to medium textured s o i l s ; sandy loams to loams, ( s i , f s l , v f s l , and 1). Gravel ly and non-gravel ly s o i l s . Moderate Severe Well to moderately wel l drained Poorly to very poorly drained s o i l s s o i l s subject to seepage or ponding subject to ponding. Hygric to hydr ic and somewhat imperfect ly drained moisture regime, s o i l s . Mesic to hygric moisture regime. Medium to f ine textured s o i l s ; Fine textured s o i l s : c l a y s ; loose Bands s i l t loams to sand c l a y s ; loamy and s o i l s subject to blowing, ( s i c , c , sands, ( s i l , s i c l , s c i , c l , s c , and s ) . A l l s o i l s that are very grave l ly and Is ) . composed of very thin and f l a t coarse rock fragments and/or very cobbly. Organic s i l t s , s i l t - c l a y s and c l a y s ; peat and other highly organic s o i l s . High to moderate (5.cm/hr to .5 - 5.cm/hr). 0 - 3 0 . % (0 - 1 6 . 7 ° ) l e v e l to steeply s lop ing . S, SW, SE, E, W, and l e v e l . Var iety of slope or ientat ions i s des i red . Low (stable) Low (rated as moderate in a lpine zone or subalpine krum-mholz zone) Ho to rare occurence during season of use; being of n i l to s l i g h t f lood hazard. T r a i l should allow for var iety of experiences: panoramic views, benches, r idges and v a l l e y s , open spaces, forested areas, high point away from development, exposure to unique communities, and run along water bodies. Poor (0 ous. Moderate (.5 - 5.cm/hr) . 30. - 70.% (16.7 - 3 5 . 0 ° ) steep to very steeply s lop ing . N, NW, and NE aspects can r e s u l t in c o o l e r , l ess favourable condit ions espec ia l l y in winter . Moderate (metastable) Moderate (rated as high in a lp ine High zone or subalpine krummholz zone or when imperfect ly to poorly drained) . 5cm/hr). 71.%+ ( 3 5 . 4 ° + ) extremely s loping causing movement to be slow and extremely hazard* No aspect poses severe l i m i t a t i o n s for paths and t r a i l s (summer use) . High (unstable) I r regu lar , moderate to heavy frequent f looding during season of use; being of severe f lood hazard. Regular l i g h t f looding may be expected during season of use; being of moderate f lood hazard. It i s important that the e c o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y of the area i s maintained by avoiding unstable, hazard-ous areas such as creek bottoms subject to sudden i : -^»and damaging f l o o d s , steep s lopes , rock b l u f f s , and hazardous resource use or ext ract ion areas, and e c o l o g i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e areas such as- meadows, rare or unique f l o r a & fauna, and shore l ines around high mountain lakes , swatnp* and boggy land , and e c o l o g i c a l reserves. Selected areas must be able to withstand ant ic ipated use l e v e l s . Table 13: Ecological (Biophysical) Limitations for Trails (Summer Use), (continued) . . .,„ 1. Deqree of Limitation Items Affecting Use _ 2. Vegetation S e n s i t i v i t y Density Height None-Slight Moderate Medium s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type with moderate rate of suc-cession. Medium density, eg. coniferous i forest with vaccinium understory. Low s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type with fast rate of succession. Low to medium density not posing problems to movement, eg. moss, and small scattered shrub under-growth in old growth s i t k a spruce forest. Low underbrush absent or such that Low underbrush and shrub vegeta-movement i s not impeded. tion impeded movement. Severe High s e n s i t i v i t y vegetation type with slow rate of succession. Medium to high density; s i g n i f i c a n t l y impeding movement, eg. salmonberry bushes along stream bank. Vegetation d r a s t i c a l l y hinders movement and s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduces the amount of d i r e c t sunlight. Plant Association by Zone 1. Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) 2. Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH) 3. Alpine Zone (AT) Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Tsugetum-heterophallae Populo-Loniceretum involucratae Piceo-Oplopanicetum horridus Pseudotsugo-Clasonietum pacificae Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Anaphaleto-Lupinetum a r c t i c i Bog Peat - Sphagnum Association Tsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Tsugo-Abietetum amabilis Thuja-Polystichetum munitum Tsugo-Struthiopteretum spicant Lysichito-Vaccinietum alaskaense Copto-Lysichetum KamtschatcenBe Phyllodo'cab-Cassiopetum mertensianae Leptarrhenp-Calthetum leptosepalae Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Vaccinl-etum ,'delicio8i Opiopanaco-Thujetum pl i c a t a e Saxifragetum tolmiel Lysichito-Chamaecyparietum nootkatensis Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Eriophoro-Sphagnetum Caricetum s p e c t a b i l i s Gymnomitrieto-Polytrichetum norvegici Luetkeetum pectinatae Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Valerianetum sitchensis Sibbaldietum procumbentis Junipereto-Penstemonetum menziesii Mimuleto-Epilobietum l a t i f o l i i Silenetum acaulis Phyllodoceto-Cassiopetum mertensianae Abieto-Chamaecypareturn hootkatensiB Table 13 : E c o l o g i c a l ( B i o p h y s i c a l ) L i m i t a t i o n s f o r T r a i l s (Summer Use), (continued) Items A f f e c t i n g U s e 1 , Degree of L i m i t a t i o n N o ne-Slight Moderate Severe C l i m a t e 6. Land A c t i v e Summer A c t i v i t y Temperature P r e c i p i t a t i o n Wind Sunshine 7. C l a s s 2k, 1 or 2h C l a s s 1 ti Class 3k or 3h Class 2 or 3 " 2 or 3 c iass 4k or 4h Class 4 or 5 4 or 5 4 or 5 less than 0 C or greater than 28°C (extremes) o Temperature (°C) 11 - 20°C (Ave. preferred 18 - 20°C) 0 - 10 C or 21 - 27°C 1. The categories used to describe the "Items Affect ing Use" were translated into equivalent bases using the terminology and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes set out in the Canada S o i l Information'System (Agric. Can.,1978). 2. So u r c e i * r e f e r to Table of Ecological(Biophysical) Limitations for Camp Areas (Intensive Use), footnote 2. 3. Source: Void(1977) 4. Source: Alberta Rec. and Parks(1979), Dehney(1972), Fogg(1975), JUbenvii le(1976), Murray e t a l ( 1 9 7 1 ) , and Verberg(1974). 5. Refer to Appendix II for detai led descript ions of each of the Biogebolimatic Zones and the i r plant associat ions an well as generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of plant associat ions for the selected recreat ional a c t i v i t i e s . 6. Sources Bennett(1977). Refer to Appendix III for "Summary of C r i t e r i a for the Cl imat ic S u i t a b i l i t y for Recreation C l a s s l f i c a t i o n 7. Source: Alberta Rec. and Parks(1979) - 102 -3.9 E c o l o g i c a l Approach to Recreation S u i t a b i l i t y Analysis Having previously i d e n t i f i e d the c r i t e r i a often used to inventory, c l a s s i f y and assess d i s t i n c t e c o l o g i c a l landform units and the s i t e l i m i t a t i o n s of the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h i s section presents an approach which f a c i l i t a t e s assessment of an area's s u i t a b i l i t y for the selected recrea-t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The approach can be used to i d e n t i f y parcels of land that are homogeneous, i . e . , d i s t i n c t landform units, as well as rate these parcels as to t h e i r i n t r i n s i c s u i t a b i l i t y for each of the nine selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The approach selected i s based on the "rules of combina-t i o n " approach to land s u i t a b i l i t y analysis and the generation of land s u i t a b i l i t y maps as discussed by Hopkins (1977). The reasons for s e l e c t i n g t h i s approach are that, i t can handle the interdependency which e x i s t s among fac t o r s , i . e . , e c o l o g i c a l parameters used to e s t a b l i s h r e c r e a t i o n a l s u i t a b i l i t y , i t provides for e x p l i c i t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of regions ( d i s t i n c t landform u n i t s ) , and, i t also provides for e x p l i c i t determination of rati n g s , i . e . , establishment of s u i t a b i l i t y ratings for each landform unit on the basis of s i t e requirements of the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , as described i n the context of a set of s i g n i f i c a n t e c o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a . The rules of combination approach assigns s u i t a b i l i t i e s to - 103 -sets of combinations of types, i . e . , e c o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a , rather than to single combinations. Rules are expressed i n terms of verbal l o g i c rather than i n terms of numbers and arithmetic, as i s the case for other approaches to land s u i t a b i l i t y analysis (Hopkins, 1977). The f i r s t step i n the analysis i s to e s t a b l i s h a set of relevant e c o l o g i c a l parameters for each of the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . These parameters serve to describe the natural environment and f a c i l i t a t e the determination of the s u i t a b i l i t y of s p e c i f i c areas for one or more of the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In order to provide a stable, r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e base upon which to inventory, c l a s s i f y and assess the parameters, the area under study i s broken down into d i s t i n c t landform units using the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System approach to land-form analysis (Min. of the Envir., 1978). This constitutes the second step of the anal y s i s . Ground checks and the use of airphoto i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i l l improve the accuracy and speed with which t h i s procedure i s undertaken. The product of t h i s procedure i s a base map showing the s p a t i a l patterns and d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the d i s t i n c t landform u n i t s . The t h i r d step i n the analysis, i s the de r i v a t i o n of resource factor maps using the environmental parameters r e l e -vant to the r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s under consideration. Factor maps should be at a common scale and format. The scale, format and d e t a i l of the derived maps w i l l be dependent on the - 104 -objectives of the study, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of e x i s t i n g informa-t i o n and other factors which w i l l influence the i n t e n s i t y , scope and d e t a i l of the land s u i t a b i l i t y analysis procedures. Factor maps should be on stable transparent material, e.g. mylar, permitting ease of viewing and the establishment of the s u i t a b i l i t y of delineated landform units for one or more re c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Figures 14 to 16' are schematic i l l u s t r a t i o n s of slope, aspect and s o i l moisture regime factor maps. The fourth step e n t a i l s overlaying each factor map, one at a time, onto the base map, then summarizing, i n tabular and map formats, the inherent e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each landform unit previously i d e n t i f i e d on the base map. Figure 17 i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s procedure. Once a l l landform units have been assessed as to t h e i r inherent e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , they are rated f o r t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y to sustain the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . In Section 3.8 the tables l i s t i n g the e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s for each of the nine selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s are used to e s t a b l i s h the o v e r a l l s u i t a b i l i t y of a landform unit for each a c t i v i t y . Environmental parameters which pose severe l i m i t a t i o n s (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) for one or more s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , generally override the ratings given to a l l other parameters of the same landform u n i t . For land-form units where the l i m i t a t i o n s posed by a s p e c i f i c environ-mental parameter i s borderline between two degrees of l i m i t a -- 105 -Fig.14. Slope Factor Map Zone A : 0 to 20% slope Zone B : 21 to 40% slope Zone C : 41%+ slope SE NW Fig.15. Aspect Factor Map Zone NW : Northwest o r i e n t a t i o n Zone SE : Southeast o r i e n t a t i o n Zone S : South o r i e n t a t i o n - 106 -MD H l VD/D MD F i g . 1 6 . S o i l M o i s t u r e Regime F a c t o r Zone MD : M o d e r a t e l y d r y Zone VD/D : V e r y d r y t o d r y Zone H : H y g r i c - 107 -Overlay Factor Maps onto Base Map Slope Factor Map Base Map with Delineated Landform Units 1. Summarize r e s u l t s of overlay procedure and include other d e s c r i p t i v e categories. Repeat this procedure for each landform unit, f o r each factor map. Tabulate overlay r e s u l t s as follows Landform Unit Descrip. Parent Material Group 1. Area (ha) 2. Area (% of total) 3. Range of Elevation (m) • S o i l Moisture Regime 4. table continued Aspect (major) Flood Hazard 5. Erosion Hazard 6. Biogeoclimatic Zone (Subzone i n c l . ) 7. Slope • Range (%) Derived using the Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System approach developed by the Ministry of the Environment (1978). Areas (ha) can be estimated using the "dot g r i d " approach or with a planimeter. Percent of t o t a l area i s equal to (area of landform unit f t o t a l area of study area)X 100. Abbreviations to be used f o r S o i l Moisture Regimes include, VD/D - very dry to dry, MD - moderately dry, M - mesic, HI - hygric and H2 - hydric. Bracketed classes represent minor components of the landform units' s o i l moisture regimes. Abbreviations to be used f o r Flood Hazard ratings include, NS - none to s l i g h t , M - moderate and S - severe. Abbreviations to be used f o r Erosion Hazard ratings include, L - low, M - moderate and H - high. Ratings are derived on the basis of parent materials and slope classes, predominately. Abbreviations to be used for Biogeoclimatic Zone (Subzones), as defined by Krajina (1969), include, CWH(W) - Coastal Western Hemlock (Wet Subzone), MH(F) - Mountain Hemlock Zone (Forest Subzone), MH(P) - Mountain Hemlock Zone (Parkland Subzcne) and AT - Alpine Zone. Use of compound classes implies that two or more zones represent s i g n i f i c a n t portions of the landform unit being described. Fig.17. Generation of Ecological Data for Landform Units - 108 -t i o n (none-slight to moderate or moderate to severe) a review of the l i m i t a t i o n s posed by a l l environmental parameters w i l l be necessary p r i o r to e s t a b l i s h i n g a generalized composite s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g of each landform unit, for each r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The environmental parameters used to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y of landform units for the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , are not equally i n f l u e n t i a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a landform unit's s u i t a b i l i t y . When considered i n aggregate, they (the parameters) provide an i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r a l l s u i t a b i l i t y of landform units for s p e c i f i c r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Using t h i s approach to land s u i t a b i l i t y analysis a summary table i s formulated to show the generalized s u i t a b i -l i t y ratings of landform units and t h e i r associated l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . A second outcome of t h i s approach i s a set of maps, one for each r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , showing which l e v e l of s u i t a b i l i t y characterizes each landform unit or grouping of landform u n i t s . No attempt i s made to account for the i n t e r -c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the various r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. The s u i t a b i l i t y of each landform unit, for each r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , i s derived from assessments of the c a p a b i l i t y of the environmental features of the landform unit to sustain a p a r t i c u l a r use, as well as on the requirements and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each r e c r e a t i o n a l use. - 109 -3.10 Survey and Mapping Methodology For the purpose of t h i s study, the e c o l o g i c a l information, required to e s t a b l i s h the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of the park for each of the nine selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , was invento-r i e d , c l a s s i f i e d and interpreted on the basis of the integrated approach to e c o l o g i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (ELC) as discussed i n Section 2.4. The Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System approach to landform c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and analysis (Min. of the Envir., 1978) was used to subdivide the park into d i s c r e t e t e r r a i n u n i t s , i . e . , landform u n i t s , thereby providing a base upon which relevant e c o l o g i c a l parameters could be interpreted and from whence could be derived generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings of each unit for each of the nine selected a c t i v i t i e s (Figure 5). The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Biogeoclimatic Zones found within the park (Appendix II) provided clues as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of each of the three zones for the set of a c t i v i t i e s . Through the combined use of airphoto i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , ground reconnais-sance data and relevant reports and publ i c a t i o n s , the afore-mentioned e c o l o g i c a l parameters were i d e n t i f i e d , mapped and tabulated for the e n t i r e study area (refer to Figures 7, 8, 11, 12 and 13) . Once the park had been c l a s s i f i e d and mapped using the selected e c o l o g i c a l parameters, the delineated landform units were assessed, i n terms of each of the selected parameters, using a map overlay approach, with the findings of t h i s assess-- 110 -merit being summarized i n a tabular format. The f i n a l step i n t h i s approach to r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s u i t a b i l i t y analysis e n t a i l e d assessing each landform unit as to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y , i . e . , poor, moderate or good s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g based on the degree of l i m i t a t i o n , for each of the nine r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s using the a c t i v i t y - s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s discussed i n Section 3.8. The r e s u l t s of the generalized s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s , i n the form of both tables and maps, could then be used, at some time i n the future, to aid i n the establishment of land use and general s i t e development plans for the park. 4.0 LANDFORM UNIT DESCRIPTIONS AND SUITABILITY RATINGS FOR SELECTED RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES Twenty-three d i f f e r e n t landform units were delineated within Clague Mountain Park. The general categories i d e n t i -f i e d were comprised of landform units o r i g i n a t i n g from c o l l u -v i a l , f l u v i a l ( a l l u v i a l ) , morainal, organic, and bedrock parent materials. Table 14 summarizes the e c o l o g i c a l charac-t e r i s t i c s of each landform unit and includes information pertaining to the area (hectarage) and range of elevations over which each landform unit extends. Table 15 provides a summary of the generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings for each landform unit for the set of selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Figures 18 to 26 i l l u s t r a t e the generalized s u i t a b i l i t y ratings that are indicated i n Table 15. In the construction of the aforementioned Table 14 = Ecological (Biophysical) Characteristics of Landform Units. Landform Unit 1 • Description Parent Material. Group Area 2. Ilec. (Ac.) Area 3. (* of Total) Range of Kiev. (Meters) Soil Moisture Regime 4. Slope Rang (*) CAa - A Colluvial 29.1(71.8) 1.5 8B4-1067 VD/D - M/D 41 - 00* 31.9(70.8) 1.7 853-1067 VD/D - M/D 41 - B0 c'Tb - n 30.5(75.3) 1.6 823-1097 VD/D - M/D 41 - 80 •• 43.9(108.6) 2.3 762-1280 VD/D - M/D 70 - 101+ FAa - E Fluvial 17.7(43.8) .9 640-792 VD/D - M/D 31 - 35 FTb - V » 43.9(108.6) 2.3 488-732 VD/D-M/D-M 31 - 40 FGhs - V •• 22.7(56.1) 1.2 0-671 M/D 16 - 70 " 49.6(122.6) 2.6 396-518 M - "2 11 - 40 MTb - V Morainal 63.1(155.9) 3.3 671-945 M -(VD/D-M/D) 16 - 50 MIbh 17.7(43.8) .9 366-823 M - <"2) 16 - 60 MTbs - V '• 438.0(1084.3) 22.8 396-1097 (VD/D-M/D)-M 26 - 80 MTm - II •• 338.8(837.3) 11.7 366-762 (M)-lt -H2 0-30 R 34.7(85.8) 1.8 762-945 (VD/D-M/D)-M 11 - 80 Ob/Ov - S Rm Organic 83.6(206.7) 4.4 640-1037 VD/D-M/D-M 11 - 50 Oh - S Rh •• 147.5(364.4) 7.7 579-960 (VD/D-M/D)-M-"r" 2 0-60 ,oFi » 22.7(56.1) 1.2 366-457 H2 0-15 Aspect (Major) N,NE,E NE,E ,SE N.NE.E N,NE,E,SE N,NE,E,SE, N,NW,Level NF.,E,SE,S, Level N,NF.,E,SE,S Level N.NE.E, Level All aspects N,W,E,Level NE,SE,E, Level NW,N,NE,SE, E,Level NW,N,E,SE, Level Level Flood Hazard 5 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS Majority S, with NS or M NS Majority NS, with M or S •IS Majority NS, with M or S NS with Small Area S NS NS with Small Areas of M or S Erosion Hazard 6, Biogeoclimatic donation 7. MII(F£P)-AT MJI(FSP)-AT MII(FSP)-AT AT-MH(P). MIKP) MH(FSP) CWM(W) CWII(W)-MIMF) CWH(W)-MH(F) MII(F) MII(FKP) with minor CWII(W) CWIKW)-MII(F) MH(FKP) MH(P)-AT MH(FKP) CWH(W) Table 14 : Ecological (Biophysical) Characteristics of Landform Units (continued) L.nndform Unit 1 . Parent Material Area 2. Group HGC.(Ac.) Area 3. Range of Elev (* of Total) (Meters) Soil Moisture Regime 4. Slope Range <*> Aspect (Major) Flood Hazard 5, Erosion Hazard 6. Blogeoclimatic Zonation 7. F O 1 - S o sl F O m - S Organ ic 15.6(38.5) 8.5(21.0) 7.8(19.3) .8 .4 .4 023-684 366-396 914-945 '*2 H2 "r"2 6-10 0-5 0-5 N.NW.E,Level Level N.NE.E,Level s s s M M H MII(P) CWII(W) MII(F) 0Bv - N Rh Ph - C(N) Rr - C(N) 48.6(120.1) 2.5 084-1097 VD/D-M/D-IM) 31 - 40 E.SE NS 11 Mil (P)-AT Bedrock 198.5(490.5) 121.9(301.3) 10.3 6.3 975-1346 823-1128 VD/D-M/D VD/D-M/D 0-50 0-40 All aspects NW,N.NE.E, Level NS NS L L AT Mil (F)-AT 1 W Water 28.6(70.7) 1.5 396-1128 N/A N/A Level N/A N/A CWH(W)-MlUFSP)-AT 1—1 I—1 to 1 Total = 1921.0(4747.0) 100* 1. Derived using the Terrain Classification System developed by the Min. of Environment (1978). 2 Area (hectarage) was estimated using the "dot grid" approach. 3 Area of landform as * of total park area » (number hec. of landform unit/total area of park)X100 . 4. Abbreviations used for Soil Moisture Regimes represent : VD/D -very dry to dry, M/D - moderately dry Bracketed classes are minor components of the landform units' soil moisture regimes. «.„n„„ t 2 3 H of thesis 5. Abbreviations used for Flood Hazard rating represent, NS - none tonight m^oderate and^ S - Revere. Section^  ^ M 5lc II. hygric K «2 - hydrlc. Coastal Western Hemlock (Wet Subzone), Abbreviations used for Erosion Hazard ratings represent! I. - low, the basis of parent materials and slope classes. „_,„„ Abbreviations used for Blogeoclimatic Zone (subzones), as defined by Krajina(1969), represent, CM! 00 compound classes MH(F) - Mountain Hemlock Zone (Forest Subzone), MII(P) - Mountian Hemlock Zone (Parkland Subzone and AT - Alpine Zone. Use of compound classes implies that two or more zones represent significant portions of the landform units being described. Table 15 : Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings of Landform Units for Selected Recreatio T a l Activ L t l e s1 * Land t o r m Unit ' I Label 2. Landform Init Description 3. Campgrounds liking T r a i l s (Summer) Downhill Skiing Cross-Country Skiing Snow-mobiling Snow-shoeing robogan-nlng fountain Climbing: Mountaineering Picnicking/ Day Use C l CAa - A Severe: Moderate: Moderate Severe: Severe: Moderate Severe: Sj-iaht-Moderate: Severe: slope slope aspect erosion vegetation type s o i l moisture slope aspect Veg. type -Severe: slope erosion veg.type slope slope veg. type -Severe: slope veg.type slope veg. type aspect veg. type aspect erosion veg. type C2 Severe: slope aspect erosion veg. type Moderate: s o i l moist, slope aspect veg.type Moderate -Severe: slope erosion veg.type Severe: slope Severe: slope veg.type Moderate -Severe= slope veg.type Severe: slope veg.type aspect veg.type Several slope aspect erosion veg.type C 3 C Ib - A Severe: Moderate: Moderate Severe: slope Severe: slope veg.type Moderate -Severe: Severe: slope veg.type Slight-Moderate: aspect veg.type Severe: slope aspect erosion veg.type Cnuny &t slope aspect erosion veg.type s o i l moist, slope aspect veg.type —Severei slope erosion veq.type slope veg.type C4 C A S - A Severe: slope aspect erosion veg.type Moderate -Sevgtej slope aspect veg.type Severe: slope erosion Severe t slope erosion Severe: slope erosion veg.type Severe* a lope Severe: slope veg.type Severe: aspect erosion j a f i j L g J K e j slope aspect erosion Severe: F l F Aa -,.E - Severe: slope aspect veg.type Slight -Moderate: aspect erosion veg.type Sl i g h t -Moderate erosion veg.type Severe! slope Severe: slope veg.type Severet slope -Severe: veg.type Severe: slope aspect veg.type slope aspect Severe t F2 F*b - V Severe:. slope aspect Moderate -Severe; slope aspect erosion veg.type Sl i g h t -'woderate erosion veg.type Severet slope veg.type Severe: slope veg.type Severe: slope Severe: veg.type Severe: slope aspect Moderate-Severe: slope aspect Severe: F3 FGbs - V Severe: slope Moderate . -Severe: slope erosion veg t type Moderate -Severe: slope erosion veq.type Severei slope Severe: slope Severei slope ft ode r ate -Severe: slope veg.type s o i l moist, aspect veg.type slope F4 FG f Moderate Moderate Moderate Severe: Moderate Moderate Moderate Severe: s o i l moisture Severe: s o i l moist, flooding ..Moderate -Severe: s o l i moist, s lope flooding -Severe: s o i l moist, flooding veg,type -Severe: s o i l moisture flooding veg.type slope flooding veg.type slope veg.type —Severe: slope slope veg.type Severe: F5 FA r - E .Moderate -Severe: s o i l moist, flooding Moderate •-Severe t s o i l moist, flooding veg.type Severe: floodinc veg.type .Moderate! flooding veg.type S l i g h t -Moderate veg.type S l i g h t -Moderate veg- type veg.type s o i l moist, slope veg.type -Severe: s o i l moist, flooding Severe: H l HJb - V B Severe: Uslope aspect Moderate: aspect erosion veg.type Sl i q h t -Moderatt erosion veg.typ« Severe: ; slope Severe: slope Moderate -Severe slope veg.type Moderate -Severe: slope veg.type Revere * slope aspect veq.type Severe -slope aspect Severe t M2 MT b h Moderate -Severe: s o i l moist slope aspect vea.tvpe Moderate: s o i l moist, slope _ Moderat -Severe s o i l moist, s lope > Severe: slope Severe: slope veg.type Moderate -Severe i slope veg.type Revere: veg.type s o i l moist, slope veg.type s o i l moist, slope aspect veg.type - 114 -e l I l l ; | 6-E I Si i t i! e .t r -« •I % O P i "Ifi. > I P -. a s a s i «'>(— •Dl Of-" 0*> QUO 6) - c fi. ft)1 0 >. ule> — *» 6)1 & K • >;o c t*-•3 VI O — 6)! I A I B K > ' 3 E l ! if is >l O P' D — C v!> c • •DlUtO P >lo p O—< t true > ult v\ fi. >|C u ft: * J > c- e- 61I >l C P (OtE » ul ft> — *J c c • > C 0 o»— u t-• D I D r S)f M M 61 *JI a> o c fi> »e;u E o >• w: cl — *• •Di 6"— C tn £|MlO t- 61' ] i te 6> > 6>H- fi. • >—< C P CIO — 6' -< P « - J C c fi. a>—• fi •! i * — fi->— C tr. >— C w p> 6> ofo— 5] IOJB • » > -.0 6)1 E U i Oi ** 6)10— O tote e > i f f -1 . u; VO-O»M 6> 6 CO _ 611 O tt — U 10) D 0 » " 6>U ul 6> a»— c a • .0 e ft»— U 60t« 6' 6)1 >. kit 6) 6> * J 6>l>lfi • «p> 6»l 0 O-£ ' l i t > MO 6>lfi ui c, 6) Ifi • •Di O P I Eli" > p 6> C IT. > el--! >• U 6)1 & * J 6)1 > fi • •Dl 6)1 D D1 2?lt > C >i ft, — ol fi. r > C C t i l — u Wl tO) IE 6) >i bltl|t>^ Oliof— - 10 P i l l 6>I6' £ta> •-us 6" - ' I *JlO»l C; - ! elwj O 6)1 o!>i^n ei.-•DI C M C o £ | I in: CJ; W* K cit-! c ; t i l l e r •DICJl C C i Ej • I E f i 6': >i— R •Bl 6)1 C C 6)f— etc I C C : 0 c Irir j Ui 6" C -« *J JJ OtC fi. niulc >• wlft-— *•* Oitrciu t XI l i t > 6> fi. UJ f, )^ 4J! Ul 4J *C til >i« c •! e»j— e O' •SIJiw oi >— — C\ >— -)IWjC 0 til CJjC p>—i 6i|C o >|tr 6> t tajt' U)& <*: eitfi. • > o P 6»~- r tf>ig > 6)1 • ft)— 0.' >IP 6)1 C U l t t i c ©It. •Dl C d i e - 6) • >io a D> 6l»— C t1 tnliD C > B ui >-uiftlt— 6) >l • •Dl Ot C" iff \s I t**l fi- I t^l £ I U | ( L . - X l u cn tit — • m tl _ — raio r >ttr (U| ft; toj> 6) C' 6)i>» OKO-Ci i I Ci ft)I -I— t C MitllO fi C >, WluiE >« — J J , ult'. ^ C c •! CMX— • "CD*. •=I6>—J P u ft': 0110 O C 6) > XJ IJ C > t»i C ic • > I C C D ft)H- u ft-tOJff. 6' > dJi P)| 0 fi. CI > >— • •ni fcUH e-OtolC t EUR > c tr. - , - - — e) R 61 — o! I2| IE*: -»rDi p -"i|-Dlo r ulu *) 6)1 fi. • >\0 B* >1c trjlc •81E - tn t-: c fi. B — >« - o P-P» 61 i = a.' — x ui u -u! -C * J ! U t; «T U l f — *i <u i—i o •! t> ' ' ** ~ " " >r« c ci *o CA O— Ol » ou > E| C PI •Dit>-— £ 61 •DI0JJC P»| . ... _ w ; oiy; u ft) - O = Cw 61 e — TH uf *D -*J ft"— C -) >t— C PI 0)1 C— t) 10/ R u. >\ >ip. CD OJ to! > .61.*) 6)1 & • - - C P J~J CJt 6> *» 3111 j-(0> •' tr > C P 6>f— CJ LOJC > ult, fl fi. • >IC P u c <f - — U P JR-J Ub. P W) ft ft,— W P * £ C £ = r:PCCe>— » • *• •D S * " - E R B - ' S > i C D C S £ * *> e: —1 i- •• c > *D o-*v. * r >»• p 4"D 6)*0-H>»t>***» — C« 61 — « * * ft' -n^-It c 9 —> C»£^ p u c e fi«** m *» t) c E »H U R ^ > c i c *c r-r ere - *> *=C6> u. — —• e —£ o » R ^ r e c 3 p rn r, . j* ^ t. >^ > ** c, c J J t> e; tt r — r c -c c o— _ t r fct *D p o c c E e ti tr • N M r ^ - - c f *> ft; - t c u c wtJ>-s uX'tr*' S MC-< C*1 l-t p-CCO — "tft-'U f — I L ,— — C K E c e= >^  K IT 'DWtJEt 'CI © U t> f p CCftr. *i P£TPfti**tt— K H C o £ r «-t* c >i t>— f 1 — r ft,-***, C C T t — CcEffilp'DCt'C X ) O —— C M T K ^ te—>** raot6£(C u— — r-\-H >.> u > r. f P r < w t o u i i - * ' C r. 6 C t r - r C ' c> C — ** p cm ft— .DP*"-"*; t : = — c c c i c c t p rt P E p -p *» —i "2 fc — toc — e cc > r— E u c p t p ** p c E « «' u. w c c £ ' i- r e. c t; CJU c c c <i> k- P > — < E fr-1-: - 115 -Fig.18. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Campgrounds - 116 -F i g . 1 9 . G e n e r a l i z e d S u i t a b i l i t y Map f o r H i k i n g T r a i l s (Summer Use) - 117 -Fig.20. G e n e r a l i z e d S u i t a b i l i t y Map f o r Downhill S k i i n g - 118 -Fig.21. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Cross-Country Skiing - 119 -Fig.22. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Snowmobiling - 120 -Fig.23. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Snowshoeing - 121 -Fig.24. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Tobogganning - 122 -Fig.25. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Mountain ClimbingMountaineering - 123 -Fig.26. Generalized S u i t a b i l i t y Map for Picnicking/Day Use - 124 -maps, landform units of i d e n t i c a l s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g , for a given r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , were aggregated i n an attempt to provide a p r a c t i c a l f i n a l product that r e a d i l y conveys the findings of the s u i t a b i l i t y analysis and f a c i l i t a t e s ease of future a p p l i c a t i o n , e.g. land use and s i t e development planning. Refer to Appendix VII for photographs which are representative of each of the delineated landform u n i t s . Unfortunately, A I photographs i l l u s t r a t i n g the F a - E ( f l u v i a l ) , M bh (morainal), I B M v (morainal) and 0 v - N (organic) landform units are not R Rh avai l a b l e for i n c l u s i o n i n Appendix VII. Water bodies, i n the form of lakes and small ponds, were also i d e n t i f i e d but not rated as to t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y and/or c a p a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t and sustain r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 5.0 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of the preceeding recreation s u i t a b i l i t y analysis i t was found that: 1. Camping (intensive) i s best suited to f i v e landform units, i . e . , F4, F5, M2, M5 and 02, which are located southwest of Bowbyes Lake and i n the subalpine areas adjacent to the Main Meadow area. 2. Hiking (summer) i s suited to most areas of the park being severely l i m i t e d i n areas of subalpine meadow (Main Meadow area), as well as the lower elevation marshlands adjacent to Bowbyes Lake. 3. Downhill s k i i n g i s c l a s s i f i e d as having a poor to - 125 -moderate s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g for most landform u n i t s , with severe l i m i t a t i o n s (poor s u i t a b i l i t y ) for t h i s a c t i v i t y e x i s t i n g i n areas with excessively steep slopes, e.g. C l , areas that are l e v e l and subject to flooding and have high water tables, i . e . , f l u v i a l landform adjacent to Bowbyes Lake, and i n high elevation subalpine meadows. 4. Cross-country s k i i n g i s best suited to landform units that are l e v e l to r o l l i n g and characterized by open to somewhat scattered vegetation types that pose minimal l i m i t a t i o n s to movement on the ground, such units being adjacent to Bowbyes Lake, the Main Meadow area and, i f snow conditions are r i g h t , the high elevation bedrock landform u n i t s . 5. Snowmobiling i s best suited to the mid-elevation l e v e l to gently sloping morainal landforms and the f l u v i a l landforms south and southwest of Bowbyes Lake. A l l other landform units are moderately to severely l i m i t i n g for snowmobiling due predominantly to the existence of steep slopes or s p e c i f i c vegetation types. Due to the li m i t e d space suitable for r e c r e a t i o n a l development within the park, i t i s imperative that snowmobiling be adequately integrated into the o v e r a l l land use planning and development of the park, so as to minimize user c o n f l i c t s and the impacts of snowmobiling upon the plant and animal communities contained within the park. - 126 -6. Snowshoeing i s best suited to areas of low slope gradient and areas characterized by vegetation which does not hinder movement. Such areas include the landform units situated adjacent to Bowbyes Lake, those within the sub-alpine meadow areas and those found i n the higher eleva-t i o n bedrock areas of the park. I f the l a t t e r area proves to be too exposed and/or lacks s u f f i c i e n t snow cover, snowshoeing should be r e s t r i c t e d to lower elevation areas of moderate to good s u i t a b i l i t y , i . e . , of moderate to s l i g h t l i m i t a t i o n for snowshoeing. 7. Tobogganning i s best suited to the lower elevation g l a c i o -• f l u v i a l landform unit on the east side of the park, the area of hummocky morainal deposition found south of Bowbyes Lake, and the l e v e l to gently sloping g l a c i o -f l u v i a l fan situated southwest of Bowbyes Lake. Although the s u i t a b i l i t y analysis indicated that the high eleva-t i o n bedrock areas, i . e . , Rr-C(N) and Rh-C(N), were of moderate to poor s u i t a b i l i t y f o r tobogganning, access into these areas and problems with excessive exposure to winds and d i r e c t sunlight warrants that greater consideration be given to lower elevation landform units e x h i b i t i n g more favourable s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Areas of steep t e r r a i n , dense vegetation and/or subject to flooding or high water tables pose severe l i m i t a t i o n s for t h i s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Toboggan runs should be planned and developed i n conjunction with other winter-- 127 -based r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 8. Mountain climbing (mountaineering) i s best suited to the most westerly fringe of the park, i n areas of exposed bedrock and steep c l i f f s t y p i c a l of the c o l l u v i a l land-form units found within the park. 9. Picni c k i n g and day use a c t i v i t i e s are best suited to the l e v e l to gently sloping morainal (M4) and f l u v i a l (F5) landform units found immediately west and south of Bowbyes Lake, as well as the 02 organic landform unit adjacent to the Main Meadow area. P r i o r to developing these areas for p i c n i c k i n g and day use a c t i v i t i e s i t i s stressed that more indepth studies by undertaken p e r t a i n -ing to the s o i l s , climate, hydrology, and w i l d l i f e commu-n i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of these areas. I t should be noted that the generalized s u i t a b i l i t y map drawn up for pi c n i c k i n g and day use a c t i v i t i e s corresponds very c l o s e l y to that established for campgrounds, hence these two a c t i v i t i e s should be considered together i n any future park planning and development. The following recommendations are based on ground recon-naissance of the park and the findings of the recreation s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s : 1. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the increased demand for r e c r e a t i o n a l opportunities i n the Kitimat-Terrace area, the e x i s t i n g access road to the park and the t r a i l network within the park be upgraded. Upon - 128 -examination of the e x i s t i n g t r a i l system i t was found that: areas of extensive blowdown seriou s l y hindered movement along the t r a i l , the "forest of snags" f i r s t encountered as one enters the park from the east, poses a serious threat to the safety of park users, and there i s a need to relocate c e r t a i n segments of the t r a i l i n an e f f o r t to avoid areas of high water table, e.g. peat bogs, s p e c i f i c vegetation types, and excessively steep slopes subject to erosion. I f t r a i l r e l o c a t i o n i s deemed inappropriate, time and monies should be spent to b u i l d structures suitable to minimize the impact of man upon the plant and animal communities found within the park. In addition, i t was found that no system of t r a i l signs existed within the park. T r a i l signs located at t r a i l heads and along t r a i l routes are invaluable for providing the user public with information pertaining to s p e c i f i c t r a i l features, points of i n t e r e s t , access, length, l o c a t i o n of route, degree of d i f f i c u l t y and time to traverse. It i s recommended that the "forest of snags" be e i t h e r f e l l e d and bucked, i . e . , cut into short sections, com-p l e t e l y or, at the very l e a s t , s e l e c t i v e l y cut down and bucked over a s i x t y metre wide swath on e i t h e r side of the t r a i l , f o r the length of t r a i l running within t h i s "forest of snags". I t i s recommended that c o n f l i c t s between mechanized and - 129 -non-mechanized t r a i l a c t i v i t i e s should be dealt with by formally designating separate t r a i l s and areas for snow-mobiles, t r a i l bikes, A.T.V.'s, hiking, cross-country s k i i n g , snowshoeing, and other a c t i v i t i e s which may lead to user c o n f l i c t s . Management techniques must be imple-mented to resolve c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g between or amongst non-compatible r e c r e a t i o n a l uses. It i s recommended that user groups, l o c a l resource extraction and manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s , municipal and regional governments, and a l l other interested c i t i z e n s be involved i n the o v e r a l l planning, development, manage-ment and maintenance of t h i s rather b e a u t i f u l , yet sadly neglected park that i s situated at the "doorstep" of Kitimat. It i s recommended that i n the planning and execution of for e s t extraction a c t i v i t i e s by Eurocan Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. north of the Bowbyes Lake area, every attempt be made to insure that the natural i n t e g r i t y and general sense of "wilderness" be maintained i n t h i s , as yet, untouched portion of the park. It i s recommended that the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat become more involved i n the o v e r a l l management and planning of Clague Mountain Park, by way of enforce-ment of the established regulations governing park use, upgrading and maintenance of access roads and the e x i s t i n g t r a i l network, and allotment of time and monies - 130 -t o f a c i l i t a t e a d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y and a n a l y s i s o f t h e e c o l o g i c a l ( b i o p h y s i c a l ) a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e p a r k , as w e l l a s t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t and a n t i c i p a t e d r e c r e a t i o n demand on t h e p a r k . 7. I t i s recommended t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s a n d g e n e r a l s u i t a b i -l i t y r a t i n g s o f t h i s r e c r e a t i o n s u i t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s be u s e d t o a s s i s t i n any f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t w i t h i n t h e p a r k . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y w o u l d be o f u s e i n t h e p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e s o f p a r k p l a n n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . I f more d e t a i l e d , s i t e - s p e c i f i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , i t i s recommended t h a t more i n d e p t h s t u d i e s be i n i t i a t e d . The a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s n o t new. The a m a l g a m a t i o n o f a c t i v i t y - s p e c i f i c e c o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a i n t o c o n d e n s e d t a b l e s r e p r e s e n t s summaries n o t f r e q u e n t l y f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s a p p r o a c h r e p r e s e n t s one o f s e v e r a l a p p r o a c h e s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e a s y s t e m a t i c a s s e s s m e n t ' o f l a n d u n i t s ' c a p a b i l i t i e s t o s u p p o r t s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . O t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e C a n a d a L a n d I n v e n t o r y a n d t h e B.C. R e s o u r c e / A n a l y s i s B r a n c h a p p r o a c h e s t o r e c r e a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y a s s e s s m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h s h o u l d be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l " o n - s i t e " a s s e s s m e n t s made by e x p e r i e n c e d f i e l d p e r s o n n e l . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h e a p p r o a c h p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a i d i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l p r o b l e m a r e a s , i . e . , e c o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l a n d / o r e c o n o m i c , e a r l y i n t h e - 131 -planning stages. As the planned costs associated with f a c i l i t y -development increase there w i l l be an ever increasing need to use better, more sophisticated i n t e r p r e t a t i v e " t o o l s " , t h i s approach being one of them. In conclusion the author believes the approach to r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e - s u i t a b i l i t y analysis presented i n t h i s thesis i s suited for undertaking reconnaissance l e v e l inventories and analyses of the r e c r e a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of areas i n the Coast Mountain region of B.C. -132 -BIBLIOGRAPHY Agriculture Canada 1976. Glossary of terms i n s o i l science. (Revised 1976). Dept. of A g r i c , Res. Br., Ottawa, Ont., Publ. No. 1459, 44p. . 1978. The Canada S o i l Information System (CanSIS) : Manual for describing s o i l s i n the f i e l d . (Revised E d i t i o n ) . J . Dumanki (Ed.). Land Resource Res. Inst., Central Exp. Farm, Ottawa, Ont., 92p. Alberta Recreation, Parks & W i l d l i f e . 1976. Ski area planning. Rec. Devel. Div., Prov. of A l t a . , I l l p. Alberta Recreation and Parks. 1979. Site c a p a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a for recreation a c t i v i t i e s . Prelim. Draft (for discussion purposes only), Prov. Parks Div., Edition., A l t a . , 12 p. Archer, A.C. 1963. Some synecological problems i n the alpine  zone of G a r i b a l d i Park. Faculty of Grad. Studies, Dept. of Bio. and Bot., Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., M.Sc. Thesis, 12 9 p. Bailey, R.G. et a l . 1978. Nature of land and resource c l a s s i - f i c a t i o n - A review. J . of Forest. 76(10: 650-655. Bennett, R.C. 1976. Notes on alpine climate. In: Workshop on Subalpine and Alpine Environments, A p r i l 28-30, 1976, V i c t . , B.C., Min. of the Envir., ELUC Se c r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., pp. 14-20. . 1977. Climatic s u i t a b i l i t y for recreation i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Min. of the Envir., ELUC Sec r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal.'Br., V i c t . , B.C., 65 p. B l i x , E. 1977. T r a i l s to timberline: In West Central B r i t i s h  Columbia. Northern Times Press, Terrace, B.C., 197 p. Block, J . 1976. Outdoor recreation inventory. From: Proceed,  of Nat. Res. Invent.: Methodology, A v a i l a b i l i t y and  Interpretation. Sponsor, by the Centre for Cont i n . E d u c , Univ. of B.C. and the Assoc. of B.C. Profess. Foresters, Van., B.C., pp. 151-159. Brooke, R.C. et a l . 1969. The Subalpine Mountain Hemlock Zone. Subalpine vegetation i n southwestern B.C., i t s c l i m a t i c  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o i l s , ecosystems and environmental  r e l a t i o n s h i p s . V o l . 2, No. 2. In: Ecology of Western North America, Vol. 2, Nos. 1 and 2, 1969 and 1970, Dept. of Bot., Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., pp. 147-349. - 133 -Bruneski, D.W. 1972. Report on r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i i n g p o t e n t i a l  i n the Kitimat V a l l e y . Report to the Regional D i s t . of Kitimat-Stikine, Terrace, B.C., 22 p. Burden, R.F. and P.F. Randerson. 1972. Quantitative studies  of the e f f e c t s of human trampling on vegetation as an  ai d to the management of semi-natural areas. J . of Appl. Ecol., 9: 439-458. Corns, I.G.W. 1976. Interpretation of alpine areas for  recreation; Part I - Vegetation. In: Proceed, of Workshop on Alpine and Subalpine Environments held i n V i c t . , B.C. on A p r i l 28-30, 1976. Publ. by Min. of the Envir., ELUC S e c r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., pp. 118-121. Culbert, D. 1974. Alpine guide to southwestern B r i t i s h  Columbia. Alpine Guide, West Van., B.C., Publ. by D. Culbert, B.C. Mountaineering Club, Van., B.C., 441 p. Denney, C.H. 1972. Recreation planning guidelines. Dept. of Rec. and Park Admin., Extension Div., Univ. of Missouri, 86 p. Densmore, J . and N.P.. Dahlstrand. 1965. Erosion c o n t r o l on  recreation land. J. of S o i l and Water Conser. 20(6) : 261-262. D r i s c o l l , R.S. 1978. Panel IV - Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems:  Moderator's comments. In: Integrated inventories of Renewable Natural Resources: Proceedings of the Workshop, Jan. 8-12, 1978, Tucson, A r i z . , Rocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Sta., For. Serv., U.S.D.A., Gen. Tech. Rep. No. RM-55. pp. 155-156. D r i s c o l l , R.S. et a l . 1978. Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n through remote sensing - Techniques and t o o l s . J . of Forest. 76 (10) : 656-661. Edmonton Regional Planning Commission. 1977. Shorelands p o l i c y - Po s i t i o n paper No. 7. Regional Planning and Res. Div., Edmon., A l t a . , 113 p. Eekman, G.C.D. 1976. Plant associations within the Subalpine  Mountain Hemlock Zone as indi c a t o r s of r e c r e a t i o n a l  land use c a p a b i l i t y . M.A. Thesis, Faculty of Grad. Studies, School of Community and Regional Planning, Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., 92 p. Environment Canada. 1975a. Canadian normals (1941-70) -Temperature: Vol. 1-SI. Atmos. Envir. Serv., Ottawa, Ont., 186 p. - 134 -. 1975b. C a n a d i a n n o r m a l s (1941-70) - P r e c i p i t a t i o n : V o l . 2 - S I . Atmos. E n v i r . S e r v . , O t t a w a , O n t . , 330 p . . 1 9 7 5 c . C a n a d i a n n o r m a l s (1955-72) - Wind: V o l . 3. Atmos. E n v i r . S e r v . , O t t a w a , O n t . , 139 p . . 1976 . C l i m a t e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T a b l e s o f t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e c i p i t a t i o n a nd s u n s h i n e ) - R e p o r t f o r 1976. Atmos. E n v i r . S e r v . , O t t a w a , O n t . , 82 p . F o g g , G.E. 1975. P a r k p l a n n i n g g u i d e l i n e s . N a t i o n a l R e c . . and P a r k A s s o c . , Penn., S o e c i a l P u b l . S e r i e s No. 15001, 151 p . F u l t o n , R . J . e t a l . 1974. T e r r a i n m a p p i n g o f n o r t h e r n e n v i r o n -ments . I n : P r o c e e d i n g s o f T e c h . Workshop: To D e v e l o p an I n t e g r a t e d A p p r o a c h t o Base D a t a I n v e n t o r i e s f o r Ca n a d a ' s N o r t h l a n d s . E n v i r . Can., L a n d s D i r e c t . , E n v i r . Mgmt. S e r v . , O t t a w a , O n t . , p p . 14-60. G i m b a r z e v s k y , P. 1964. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l a n d f o r m s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f f o r e s t l a n d . I n : P u l p and P a p e r Mag. o f Can., J u l y 1964, V o l . 65, No. 7, pp. 302-317. . 1966 . L a n d i n v e n t o r y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P h o t o g r . E n g r . , 32: 967-976. . 1972. T e r r a i n a n a l y s i s f r o m s m a l l - s c a l e a e r i a l p h o t o g r a p h s . I n : F i r s t C a n . Symposium on Remote S e n s i n g , O t t a w a , O n t . , F e b . 1972, V o l . 1, p p . 367-377. . 1978a. I n t e g r a t e d s u r v e y o f b i o p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s i n N a t i o n a l P a r k s . The Can. N a t . P a r k s : T o d a y and Tomorrow C o n f e r . I I : T e n Y e a r s L a t e r , H e l d i n B a n f f , a l t a . , 21 p . . 1978b. L a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a s a b a s e l i n e f o r i n t e g r a t e d r e n e w a b l e r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s . I n : I n t e g r a t e d I n v e n t o r i e s o f Renewable N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s : P r o c e e d , o f t h e Workshop, J a n . 8-12, 1978, T u c s o n , A r i z . , R ocky Mtn. F o r . and Range E x p . S t a . , U.S.D.A., F o r . S e r v . , Gen. T e c h . Rep. No. RM-55, pp. 169-177. G i m b a r z e v s k y , P. e t a l . 1978. B i o p h y s i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f Pukaskwa N a t i o n a l P a r k . E n v i r . Can., F o r e s t Mgmt. I n s t . , O t t a w a , O n t . , I n f o . Rep. No. FMR-X-106, 129 p . G r e e n , C.W. 1980. P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n Re: C r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i i n g . C.W. G r e e n i s on t h e S t a f f o f C a r l e t o n C y c l e and O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n L t d . , B u r n a b y , B.C. - 135 -Hawes, R.A. 1974. A landscape approach to land c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n and evaluation for regional land use planning -Southern Okanagan Val l e y , B.C. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Grad. Studies, Dept. of S o i l S c i . , Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., 195 p. Holland, S.S. 1976. Landforms of B r i t i s h Columbia: A physio-graphic o u t l i n e . B.C. Dept. of Mines and Petroleum Resources, V i c t . , B.C., B u l l . No. 48, 138 p. Hopkins, L.D. 1977. Methods for generating land s u i t a b i l i t y  maps: A comparative evaluation. In: A.I.P. Journal, Oct. 1977, pp. 386-400. James, G.A. 1973. Physical s i t e management. In: Outdoor Recreation Research: Applying the Results. North Central For. Exp. Sta., U.S.D.A., For Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-9 (1974), pp. 67-82. Jarvinen, J.A. and W.D. Schmid. 1971. Snowmobile use and winter mortality of small mammals. In: Proceed, of the 1971 Snowmobile and Off-the-Road Vehicle Research Symposium, June 1971, M. Chubb (Ed.) East Lansing, Mich., Dept. of the I n t e r i o r , Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Tech. Rep. No. 8, 196 p. Jube n v i l l e , A. 1976. Outdoor recreation planning. W.B. Saunders Co., P h i l . , Penn., pp. 164-176. Jurdant, M. et a l . 1974. E c o l o g i c a l land survey. In: Proceed, of Tech. Workshop: To Develop an Integrated Approach to Base Data Inventories for Canada's Northlands. Envir. Can., Lands D i r e c t . , Envir. Mgmt. Serv., Ottawa, Ont., pp. 61-80. Kitimat D i s t r i c t M u n i c i p a l i t y . 1965. Clague Mountain Municipal  Park Regulations. Kitimat Planning Dept., Kitimat, B.C., Rep. No. 6501, Jan. 1965, 6 p. Kolankiewicz, L. 1980. Personal communication Re: Mountaineer-ing i n Coastal B.C. L. Kolankiewicz i s a graduate student of the School of Community and Regional Planning, Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C. Krajina, V.J. 1969. Ecology of for e s t trees i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Vol. 2, No. 1. In: Ecology of Western North America, V o l . 2, Nos. 1 and 2, 1969 and 1970, Dept. of Bot., Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., p. 1-146. -136 -Lacate, D.S. 196 9. Guidelines for biophysical land c l a s s i f i -cation ; For c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of forest lands and .associated wildlands. D.S. Lacate (Chairman, Subcommittee on Bio-physical Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . Dept. of F i s h e r i e s and Forest., Can. Forest. Serv., Ottawa, Ont., Publ. No. 1264, 61 p. Lautenbach, W.E. et a l . 1974. Environmental resources analy-s i s f o r P i t k i n County: A t o o l for planning. A Coopera-t i v e Planning E f f o r t by P i t k i n County and the Colorado State Univ., P.J. Brown and A.A. Dryer (Advisors). College of Forest, and Nat. Resources, Colo. State Univ., Fort C o l l i n s , Colo., 631 p. Luff, D.O. and P.M. Ojamaa. 1978. The value of e c o l o g i c a l (biophysical) land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n land use planning: An Alberta Case Study. In: Proceed, of 2nd Meeting, Can. Comm. on E c o l o g i c a l TBiophysical) Land C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n : A p r i l 4-7, 1978, V i c t o r i a , B.C., E c o l . Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Series No. 7, Envir. Can., Lands D i r e c t . , pp. 303-317. Markel, D. 1980. Personal communication Re: Snowmobiles i n  general. D. Markel i s the Manager of B.N.E. Supplies and Equip., Port Coquitlum, B.C. Masyk, W.J. 1973. The snowmobile: A r e c r e a t i o n a l technology  i n Banff National Park: Environmental impact and  decision making. Studies i n Land Use History and Land-scape Change. National Park Series No. 5, Univ. of Western Ont., London,. Ont., 143 p. Ministry of A g r i c u l t u r e . 1976. Climate of B.C.: Tables of temperature, p r e c i p i t a t i o n and sunshine. Publ. by the Prov. of B.C., V i c t . , B.C., 82 p. M i n i s t r y of the Environment. 1976. Recreation c a p a b i l i t y inventory: A d e s c r i p t i o n for reconnaissance inventory  of Part I: Outdoor recreation features and Part I I :  Physical carrying capacity for outdoor recreation. ELUC Secretariat, Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., 62 p. . 1978. Terrain c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system. (3rd p r i n t i n g ) , ELUC Se c r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., 56 p. Montgomery, P.H. and F.C. Edminster. 1966. Use of s o i l surveys  i n planning for r e c r e a t i o n . In: S o i l Surveys and Land Use Planning, L.J. B a r t e l l i et a l (Eds.). Publ. by S o i l S c i . Soc. of Amer. and Amer. Soc. of Agronomy, Md. Wis., pp. 104-112. - 137 -Murray, T. et a l . 1978. Honey H i l l ; A systems analysis for  planning the multiple use of con t r o l l e d water areas. Vol. 1 of 2. Inst, f o r Water Resources, Dept. of the Army Corps of Engs., IWR Rep. No. 71-9, 403 p. Oswald, E.T. 1976. Biophysical analysis of the Yukon T e r r i t o r y . In; Proceed, of 1st Meeting, Can. Comm. on Eco l o g i c a l (Biophysical) Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , May 25-28, 1976, Petawawa, Ont., pp. 239-243. Pientok, K.H. 1980. Personal communication Re: Cross-country  s k i i n g . K.H. Pientok i s an employee of The Great Escape (Cross-Country Ski Store), 1790 West Georgia St., Van., B.C. Philpot, F. and A.E. Vrooman. 1971. F e a s i b i l i t y study of access to proposed Clague Mountain Ski Development Site - Bowbyes Lake. J o i n t report done.by Eurocan Pulp & Paper Co. Ltd., and the Aluminum Co. of Can. Ltd. (ALCAN) for the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Kitimat, Kitimat, B.C., 9 p. Raine, A. 1979. From lecture given on s k i area development  for Forestry 4 92: Recreation Resource Planning and  Development. Dr. P.J. Dooling, Assoc. Prof., Park and Recreation Resources, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of B.C. Van., B.C. Rothwell, R.L. 1971. Watershed management guidelines for  logging and road construction. Can. Forest. Serv., Dept. of Fis h , and Forest., Forest Res. Lab., Edition., A l t a . , Info. Rep. No. A-X-42, 78 p. Rowe, J.S. 1978. Revised working paper on methodology and philosophy of e c o l o g i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Canada. In: Proceed, of the 2nd Meeting, Can. Comm. on Eco l o g i c a l TBiophysical) Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : A p r i l 4-7, 1978, V i c t . , B.C., Envir. Can., Lands Di r e c t . , B.C. Eco l . Land Class. Series No. 7, pp. 23-30. Ryder, J.M. 1976. Geomorphic processes and landforms of alpine and subalpine environments. In: Proceed. of Workshop on Alpine and Subalpine Environments held i n V i c t . , B.C. A p r i l 28-30, 1976. Publ. by the Min. of the Envir., ELUC Se c r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., pp. 21-32. . 1978. Geology, landforms and s u r f i c i a l materials. In; The S o i l Landscapes of B.C., K.W.G. Valentine et a l . (Eds.). Publ. by the Min. of the Envir., ELUC Sec r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., pp. 11-34. - 138 -Stevens, M.E. 1966. S o i l Surveys as applied to recreation  s i t e planning. J . of Forest., 64: 314-316. Swanston, D.N. and C T . Dyrness. 1973. S t a b i l i t y of steep  land. J . of Forest., May 1973, pp. 264-269. U.S. Dept. of Ag r i c u l t u r e . 1951. S o i l survey manual. S o i l Survey S t a f f . Wash., D.C., U.S.D.A. Handbook No. 18, 503 p. . 1971. Guide to i n t e r p r e t i n g engineering uses of s o i l s . S o i l Conserv. Serv., Super, of Documents, Wash., D.C., 87 p. U.S. Dept. of the I n t e r i o r . 1974. Earth Manual: A guide to  the use of s o i l s as foundations and as construction  materials for hydraulic structures. 2nd e d i t i o n . Bureau of Land Reclaim., Wash., D.C, 810 p. University of B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Club. 1971. Forestry  handbook for B r i t i s h Columbia (3rd E d i t i o n ) . Publ. by the Forest Club, Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., 815 p. Verburg, K. 1974. The carrying capacity of selected outdoor  r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . Unpublished report to Parks Canada, Dept. of Indian and Northern A f f a i r s . Compiled under the d i r e c t i o n of W.E. Rees, School of Community and Regional Planning, Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., 214 p. Void, T. 1975. A resource and v i s i t o r inventory of Yoho  Valley, Yoho Park, B.C. M.S.F. Thesis, Faculty of Grad. Studies, Faculty of Forestry, Univ. of B.C., Van., B.C., 176 p. . 1976. Reconnaissance biophysical s o i l inventories of B r i t i s h Columbia: A case study of the. Northeast Coal  Area. In: Integrated Inventories of Renewable Natural Resources: Proceed, of the Workshop held Jan. 8-12, 1978, Tucson, A r i z . Rocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Sta., U.S.D.A., For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. No. RM-55, pp. 403-411. . 1977. Biophysical s o i l resources and land evaluation of the Northeast Coal STudy Area 1976-1977. V o l . I. A Technical Supplement to the N.E. Coal Study Preliminary Envir. Rep. on Proposed Transportation Links and Town-s i t e s . Min. of the Envir., ELUC Sec r e t a r i a t , Res. Anal. Br., V i c t . , B.C., 68 p. - 139 -Wanek, W.J. 1971. Snowmobiling impact on vegetation, tempera-ture and s o i l microbes. In: Proceed, of the 1971 Snow-mobile and Off-the-Road Vehicle Res. Symposium held June 1971, M. Chubb (Ed.), East Lansing, Mich., Dept. of the Inter., Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, Tech. Rep. No. 8, 196 p. Way, D.S. 1973. Terrain a n a l y s i s : A guide to s i t e s e l e c t i o n using a e r i a l photographic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( F i r s t Edition), Community Devel. Series. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross Inc. Stroudsburg, Penn., 392 p. 1978. Terrain a n a l y s i s : A guide to s i t e s e l e c t i o n uisng a e r i a l photographic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (2nd E d i t i o n ) . Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross Inc., Stroudsburg, Penn., 438 p. Welch, D.M. 1977 (Ed.) Working group on land and water in t e g r a t i o n . In: Proceed, of the F i r s t Meeting, Feb. 17-18, 1977. Freshwater Inst., Winnipeg, Man., 70 p. Western Resort Planning Service. 1971. Ski f a c i l i t y evaluation: Clague Mountain. Report done for the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat, Kitimat, B.C., 22 p. Wiken, E.B. 1978. The ro l e of national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l co- ordination i n e c o l o g i c a l land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . In: Integrated Inventories of Renewable Natural Resources: Proceed, of the Workshop held Jan. 8-12, 1978, Tucson, A r i z . Rocky Mtn. For. and Range Exp. Sta., U.S.D.A., For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. No. RM-55, pp. 183-191. - 140 -APPENDIX I Resource Analysis Branch, Min. of the Environment, Data C o l l e c t i o n Form - 141 -SITE DESCRIPTION FORM N 3 2089 - 7 9 T e n t a t i v e V e g . Name r.r;t. to Se cooied; refer to definitions manual for all terms used PAGE P a r a m e t e r s w h i c h must f i l l e d i n a r e c i r c l e d ; an a t t e m p t s h o u l d be made co f i l l i n a l l o t h e r p a r a m e t e r s . (u) P r o j e c t i d e n t i f i c a t o n ( 3 ? ) D a t e ( Y / M / D ) L o n g i t u d e ° '_ NTS Shee t 2 . P l o t number (Ii?) L a t i t u d e 8 , P h o t o number and C o - o r d . f l i c h t 1 i n e "sT) A s p e c t (iOJ) SI ope ® E l e v a t i o n . 2 . T e r r a i n c ! a s s 1r icat ion 1 3 . P h y s i o g r a p h i c R e g i o n ; e x t u r e G e n e t i c M a t e r i a l S u p e r . Mod . S u r f a c e E x p . M o d . P r o c . s 1 T c r-iat U n i t 1 4 . Z o n e / S u b z o n e 1 5 . L a n d s c a p e Type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m V e g e t a t i o n Type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m 1 7 . S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n pnase y e a r f a m i l y t e x . 18.) P l o t r e p r e s e n t i n g 1 9 J S i t e p o s i t i o n m a c r o ' ( 2 0 J S i t e p o s i t i o n meso S i t e s u r f a c e shape (22j) - M i c r o t o p o g r a p h y apex f a c e u p p e r s l o p e m i d d l e s l o p e l o w e r s l o p e v a l l e y f l o o r p l a i n S l o p e l e n g t h c r e s t uppe r s l o p e m i d d l e s l o p e l o w e r s l o p e t o e d e p r e s s i o n l e v e l c o n c a v e c o n v e x s t r a i g h t 2 4 . U p - S l o p e l e n g t h smooth s i i g h t l y mounded m o d e r a t e l y mounded s t r o n g l y mounded s e v e r l y mounded e x t r e m e l y mounded u l t r a mounded ( 2 5 J S i t e p o s i t i o n d i a g r a m ( r e f e r t o d a t a fo rm no . pho to r o l l n o . photo n o . s e a ! e (26") E x p o s u r e t y p e 2 7 . E c o l o g i c a l M o i s t u r e Regime 2 8 . N u t r i e n t Regime 2 9 . S o i l M o i s t u r e S u b c l a s s wi nd i n s o l a t i o n f r o s t c o l d a i r d r a i n a g e s a l t s p r a y a t m o s p h e r i c t o x i c i t y not a p p l i c a b l e o t h e r 3 0 . S o i l Tempera tu re C l a s s a . v e r y x e r i c a . o l i g o t r o p h i c a . x e r i c b . x e r i c b. s u b m e s o t r o p h i c b . a r i d a c . s u b x e r i c c . m e s o t r o p h i c • c . s u D a r i d b d . s u b m e s i c a . p e r m e s o t r o p h i c d . s e m i a r i d c e . m e s i c e . e u t r o p h i c e . subhum i d d f . s u b h y g r i c f . h y p e r e u t r o p h i c f . humid e 9- h y g r i c a . pe rhumid h . s u b n y d r i c h . s u b a q u i c hyd r i c . i q u i c J - p e r a q u i c c o l d c o o l m i l d - 142 -3 1 J S o i l d r a i n a g e v e r y r a p i d l y r a p i d l y we l 1 mod. w e l l i m p e r f e c t l y p o o r l y v e r y p o o r l y P e r v i o u s n e s s a . r a p i d l y b. m o d e r a t e l y c . s l o w l y 3 5 . b c d e f g Depth to (cm) ( c i r c l e - i f a b s e n t ) a . w a t e r t a b l e (33.) F r e e Wate r a . p r e s e n t b . a b s e n t F l o o d h a z a r d a . f r e q u e n t and i r r e g u l a r b . f r e q u e n t c . may be e x p e c t e d d . r a r e e . no h a z a r d 3 6 . B e d r o c k t ype ( l i s t e d i n o r d e r of dominance) b. r o o t i n g ( e f f e c t i v e ) r o o t r e s t r i c t i n g l a y e r _ f r o z e n l a y e r b e d r o c k 3 7 . 3 8 . B e d r o c k s t r u c t u r e C o a r s e f ragment l i t h o l o g y a . t y p e ( i n o r d e r o f dominance) c a r b o n a t e s a l i n i t y _ f . 9-S u c c e s s i o n a l S t a t u s P r e s e n t S t a g e : P S , Y 3 , MS. O S , Y C , YEC Y C C , MC, MCC, MEC, DC, I'J E x p e c t e d c l i m a x b. m i xed c . none C a u s e o f S t a n d E s t a b l i s h m e n t R a t e o f s u c c e s s i o n a . s l o w b. m o d e r a t e c . f a s t V e g . P l o t D i m . ( m e t r e s ) (42y Humus Form C l a s s . S u r f a c e S u b s t r a t e SUBSTRATE % COVER O r g a n i c M a t t e r D e c a y i ng Wood B e d r o c k C o b b l e s and S t o n e s M i n e r a l S o i l W a t e r T o t a l 1005 4 4 . P r o f i l e S t a t u s a . modal b. v a r i a n t c . t a x a d j u n c t d . u n d e c i d e d 4 7 . So i1 name 4 5 . P r o f i l e D e v i a t i o n 4 6 . S o i 1 Mapp ing U n i t so lum t h i c k n e s s c o l o u r t e x t u r e d r a i n a g e o t h e r none 48 . A s s o c i a t e d s o i 1 s e r i e s rami 1 y a s s o c i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n c a t e n a comp lex l a n d sys tem l a n d t ype o t h e r 4 9 . P r o f i l e No . \S0) P r o j e c t C o o r d i n a t o r ( 51J Agency N o t e s on S i t e D e s c r i p t i o n (bz) Type o f S o i l Samole A . Samp led 1. C h e m i c a l a . f u l l b . " p a r t i a l B . No Sample 5 3 J V e g . Samp] ing T e c h . P h y s i c a l a . f u l l b . p a r t i a l - 143 -MENSURATION/WILDLIFE DESCRIPTION FORM SURVEYOR • i in i S I4|l5| ,. 0. 11 1 12 | 1)1 14|IS| IB PROJECT jpt-OT 1 lAl ! I 271129 I 3013 I|3 PflQJEC PLOT >• 33|54|S5|3«|3T|38|39 40| «l |42|43|44|45,4«i 4T|-8I 49 | 501 11 | 52 1 |B| i l 3S|34|3SJ3«|57|3B,3» *0 PLOT SIZE 4H«!|4j|4«|»fl|««;*rt«9l«»lso sus - PLOT s in; MAIN PLOT SIZE ....... SUB - PLOT SHE j c c : l a t — — J ti. 1». i i * ' ' 1 e E S - PATH. REMARKS Si TREE HO. TOTAL HEIGHT Mtirttl 7)28(21 s E 'E s 30131 tC.n.—.WMl | Jll33|34|33 3 REM AUK 3 «! THEE TOTAL HEIOMT 0. 8.H. : s s 4 : i ! i : i i i ! 3 | I i i S7 it I s 1 3>! »0 4 42 4S • dl 1 o Z9|2S i , 2T|IH|29 3 01 31 3Z 133(34)39 3* 39 1 1 i i ; 1 f i ' 1 1 1 T -- 1 i • i i r 1 f ' _ J ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 ! 1 < 1 1 * I i ; 1 1 i 1 i 1 l I T — 1 i ; 1 i T i 1 1 1 ! 1 — i j * 1 l • 1 1 i -I I • i I i i , 1 j 1 ) * 1 i r i i i i i * 1 l ; I i ' t 1 1 1 i I I ; ! 1 1 1 I I T 1 rnee CL*SI 1 , ; 1 1 i i ! i i | ! _!j 'j^Jl— 1 i ; 1 1 ? | i i * .j ,~ ....... I l ; I i ! i _ 1 I | 1 i I B»T« CODE 1 , ; i i ! i j i i * i 1 ; i i I i 1 1 | * ( i i T . . 1 , . . — - 1 I • i i * i i t i 1 l • i i i I j f 1 1 | 1 ! i— 1 1 t IC/C! 1 , 1 • i i r 1 j I , i I T 1 I 1 • i | ; 1 i 1 i i i I * • l 1 i j i ' I i i : 1 1 i 1 3 TREE NO. TOTAL HEIGHT S P E C . • D . B . H . c / c TOTA AGE AGE CALCULATIONS HEIGHT CALCULATIONS COUNT. AGE B . H . COR. S U P . TOP E OT. TOTAL S . D . SLOPE H .O . HT. COR. f i i T f i i • . i i i f i i T f i i i f I 1 * f i \ T l | f i i • 1 , , 1 1 ? i i T i 1 , 1 i i i 1 1 f I T i i f , • • 1 . , f 1 i • i . , t , , i 51 t 32 j - 144 -UNGULATE PELLET GROUP COUNTS UNGULATE SPECIES QUADRAT S i g h t i n g s T r a c k s S c a t s j W i l d l i f e R a t i n g Season o f use D o m e s t i c Range C o n d i t i o n : 1. E x c e l l e n t 2 . Good 3 . F a i r <i. Poo r M i s c e l l a n e o u s Comments on W i l d l i f e and D o m e s t i c Range C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : G e n e r a l M i s c e l l a n e o u s Comments: - 145 -VEGETATION DESCRIPTION FORM | |~ •PROJECT i . D . PLOT MO. PAGE OF SURVEYOR FLORISTIC L I S T STRATUM NOTES s p e c i f y e n t r i e s h e r e re U QJ > •~ CU S 3J o -O r— - 2 A3 Trees Total Trees Tall U1 Shrubs O XI 33 C Herbs > t/1 O) o o s : a All Strata H e i g h t o f t op o f s t r a t a ( m ) Number c f dead snags T o t a l p e r c e n t a g e c o v e r o f e a c n l a y e r SPECIES L IST Comments on V e g e t a t i o n C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - 146 -FLORISTIC L IST Veteran 1.1 i ! A3 Trees Total Trees 4 A To tal Shrubs I > 11 All Strata NOTES Veteran A3 Trees Total Trees To tal Shrubs All Strata 1 1 | | | i 1 1 HORIZON DES1G. DEPTH THICKNESS CH HORIZON BOUNDARY COARSE FRAGMENT DESCRIPTION STRUCTURE MST. D 1 M 2 II 3 CONSIST. SOIL TEMP. °C X by v o l G r a v e l <7.5cm C o b b l e s 7 .5 -25c ra S t o n e s >25cm FIELD TEXTURE PRIMARY SECONDARY >> i 1 I wet ro Dist. Form 1 I wet Dist. Form GRADE CLASS KIND KIND MOD. GRADE CLASS KIND KIND MOD. 1 I wet MIN MAX Dist. Form % type j <-QJ C +-> t 1 I wet 1 I wet i 1 l l 1 1 l i 1 1 1 1 HORIZON D E S I G . COLOUR 1 COLOUR 2 MOTTLES ROOTS 1 ROOTS 2 I'll NOTES aspect | aspect | A B . F C M S I . F M C CO. F D P COLOUR BOUND. D I S T . S C 0 A b . S i 2 e O r i D i s t A b . S i z e O r i D i s t reaction method aspect | aspect | aspect reaction method aspect | aspect | aspect V F P A V F Me C V II 0 R IN EX MTX V F P A V F Me C V II 0 R IN EX MTX reaction method I I 1 • 1 Ui o o m co o 33 "0 H O o 30 2 PORES I IORIZON| D E S I O . S i z i l y p e H 1 » 1 I I _) h I I IURIZON D E S I G . ORGANIC MATERIAL M a t e r id I Compos i t i o n K i n d l K h id Uecou Woody M a t e r i a l EFFERVESC. D e g . SECONDARY CARBONATE DESCRIPTION Reag,. Shape S|io C o n s i s t . CONCRETIONS CEMENT. Shape C o l o u r LAB :SAMPI. MO. H a r d S y r u . lldeX ' o s t S c a l i G e n u r . i l Cunmcnts on S o i l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s SCHEMATIC SOIL PROFILE 0 0 10 -0 -!- io - 0 - 149 -APPENDIX II Tables of : 1. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Coastal Western Hemlock, Mountain Hemlock and Alpine Biogeoclimatic Zones of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. Summaries of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of each of these three zones. 3. S u i t a b i l i t y ratings of the plant associations of each of these three zones for recreation. T a b l e l a : C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C o a s t a l Western Hemlock (CWH) n i o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone M a c r c c l i m a t e : - m a i n l y C f b and t h e m i l d e s t D m i l d e s t m i c r o t h e r m a l ) humid A n n u a l s n o w f a l l A n n u a l t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n P r e c i p i t a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n as snow S e a s o n a l o c c u r a n c e i n % o f t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n Mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e number o f months: above 50°F (10 C) below 32 F (0 C) Number o f f r o s t - f r e e days lib (Koppen) - an e q u a b l e (marine) m e s o t h e r m a l ( o r t h e t o r a i n y c l i m a t e w i t h s l i g h t t o mode r a t e snow c o v e r . 5 - 295 i n (12.7 - 750 cm) 65 - 262 i n (165 - 665 cm) .9 - 38.% S o u t h : w e t - w i n t e r ' ( 3 0 - 4 5 % ) dry-summer (7 - 15%) N o r t h : wet-autumn (30 - 40%) dry-summer (11 - 15%) 41 4 -0 -A l t i t u d e : ( B r i t i s h C o l umbia) N o r t h S o u t h S o i l s : P r e v a i l i n g p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s : Z o n a l s o i l s ( mesic s i t e s ) : Dry Subzone (CWH ) ! a. Wet Subzone (CWH b) ! S o i l O r d e r s , G r e a t C r o u p s and P a r e n t M a t e r i a l s 2. V e g e t a t i o n : Dominant t r e e s Z o n a l community ft s o i l : Dry Subzone Wet Subzone Common p l a n t s p e c i e s o f e a c h p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n f o r each subzone3. (5 - 9"C) 6 3 (-4) 120 - 250 (-275) d a y s - 300 m) A.S.L. - 900 m) on windward s i d e (450 - 1050 m) on l e e w a r d s i d e 0 - 1000 f t (0 0 - 3000 f t (0 1500 - 3500 f t mor f o r m a t i o n , p o d z o l i z a t i o n , g l e i z a t i o n , k a o l i n i z a t i o n , h i g h moor f o r m a t i o n , s o l o d i z a t i o n and v e r y weak l a t e r i z a t l o n . O r t h l c O i r t s t e i n o r H u m o - F e r r i c o r F e r r o - I I u m i c P o d z o l s . O r t h i e tlumic P o d z o l s P o d z o l l c - H u m o - F e r r i c P o d z o l : c o l l u v i u m , m a r i n e - F e r r o - H u m i c P o d z o l : sandy f l u v i a l , m o r a i n a l , & f l u v i a l G l e y s o l i c - Humlc G l e y s o l : m a t i n e s f l u v i a l R e g o s o l l c - r t e g o s o l : m a r i n e ft f l u v i a l O r g a n i c - M e s i s o l : o r g a n i c - F o l l s o l : o r g a n i c W estern hemlock, W e s t e r n r e d c e d a r w i t h D o u g l a s f i r i n Dry Subzone (CWH ) o r A m a b i l i s f i r i n Wet Subzone (CWH. ) . a b Western 1'emlock A s s o c . on O r t s t e i n P o d z o l s . A m a b i l i s F i r - W e s t e r n Hemlock A s s o c . on Humic P o d z o l s . • r e f e r t o f o l l o w i n g "Summary o f t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f the C o a s t a l W e s t e r n liemlock Zone P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s " . O 1. S o u r c e : K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . 2. S o u r c e : C o t i e e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , G i m b a r z e v s k y ( 1 9 7 2 ) > V a l e n t i n e ( 1 9 7 6 ) and V a l e n t i n e e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) • 3. S o u r c e : The U.B.C. F o r e s t C l u b (1971), K r a j i n a U 9 5 9 ) and K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . T a b l e l b : C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the M o u n t a i n Hemlock (Mil) B l o g e o c l i m a t i c Zone 1. M a c r o c l i m a t e : - m a i n l y D f c (Koppen) heavy snow c o v e r . A n n u a l s n o w f a l l A n n u a l t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n P r e c i p i t a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n a snow S e a s o n a l o c c u r a n c e i n % o f t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a m i c r o t h e r m a l s u b c o n t i n e n t a l ( s u b a l p i n e ) humid c l i m a t e w i t h 110 -.800 i n (279 87 - 170 i n (221 -20. - 70.* - 2032 cm) 432 cm) Mean a n n u a l t e m p e r a t u r e Number o f months: n ( l g C) (0°C) South: N o r t h ! 38 - ' w e t - w i n t e r (30 - 40*) d r y - s p r i n g o r summer (10 wet-autumn (30 -35%) dry-summer (10 - 15%) 15%) (3 - 7"C) above 50 F below 32 F 3 (-4) 6 A l t i t u d e : Number o f f r o s t - f r e e days ( B r i t i s h C olumbia) N o r t h S o u t h 40 - 120 days 1000 - 2500 f t (305 -3000 - 5000 f t (900 -3600 - 6000 f t (1100 762 m) (A.S.L.) 1500 m) on windward s i d e - 1800 m) on l e e w a r d s i d e S o i l s : P r e v a i l i n g p e d o g e n i c p r o c e s s e s : mor f o r m a t i o n , g l e z i a t i o n , p o d z o l I z a t i o n , h i g h mor f o r m a t i o n and k a o l i n i z a t i o n . Z o n a l s o i l s ( mesic s i t e s ) S o i l O r d e r s , G r e a t Groups f, P a r e n t M a t e r i a l s 2 V e g e t a t i o n : Dominant t r e e s Z o n a l community s o i l : Humic P o d z o l s ( r e m a i n u n f r o z e n d u r i n g w i n t e r months) P o d z o l i c - F e r r o - H u m i c P o d z o l : c o l l u v i u m , f l u v i a l , & m o r a i n a l R e g o s o l i c - B e g o s o l : c o l l u v i u m O r q a n i c - M e s i s o l : o r g a n i c - F i b r i s o l : o r g a n i c ( n o r t h e a s t e r n S c o a s t a l B.C.) - H u m l s o l : o r g a n i c ( c o a s t a l B.C.) - F o l i s o l : o r g a n i c ( c o a s t B.C. m o u n t a i n s ) M o u n t a i n hemlock, y e l l o w c e d a r and A m a b i l i s f i r I I-" I-* I F o r e s t Subzone (Mil ) : A m a b i l i s F i r - M o u n t a i n Hemlock A s s o c . on Humic P o d z o l s . a P a r k l a n d Subzone M o u n t a i n H e m l o c k - M o u n t a i n B i l b e r r y A s s o c . on Humic P o d z o l s . Common p l a n t specie** o f each p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n f o r each subzone ^ • r e f e r t o f o l l o w i n g "Summary o f t h e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s o f the M o u n t a i n Hemlock P a r k l a n d and F o r e s t Subzone P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s " 1. S o u r c e : K r a j i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . 2. S o u r c e : C o t i e e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) , G i m b a r z e v s k y ( 1 9 7 2 ) , V a l e n t i n e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , and V a l e n t i n e e t a l ( 1 9 7 8 ) . ,,„,„, 3. S o u r c e : B r o o k e ~ e t ~al (1969) , Eekman<1976), The U.B.C. F o r e s t C l u b ( 1 9 7 1 ) , K r a j i n a ( 1 9 5 9 ) , and K r a ] i n a ( 1 9 6 9 ) . Table Jc : C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Alpine Zone (AT) Macrocliraate: ET (Koppen) - c l a s s i f i e d as alpine tundra with annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n being quite v a r i a b l e , but often characterized by heavy snow cover. Annual snowfall Annual t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n P r e c i p i t a t i o n proportion as snow Seasonal occurrance ( r e l a t i v e ra ting) Mean annual temperature Number of months: above below number of f r o s t - f r e e days o o 50 F (10 C) 32°F (0°C) A l t i t u d e : ( B r i t i s h Columbia) Southwest Southeast Northwest Northeast 209 28 -72 -West: East i 25 -- 770 in (531 110 in (70 -74% wet-winter, wet-summer, - 1955 cm) 280 cm) 29°F (-4 dry summer dry-autumn or spring -1.5°C) to N i l . 7 - 8 (9) less than 25 days/year, however f r o s t may occur any day e s p e c i a l l y in elevations over 10,000 f t (3,000 m). Greater than 5000 f t (1500 m) on windward side. Greater than 6000 f t (1800 m) on leeward side. Greater than 7500 f t (2250 m) . Greater than 3000 f t (900 m). Greater than 5500 f t (1650 m). Table l c Chara c t e r i s t i c s of the Alpine Zone (AT) ' (continued) S o i l s : P revailing pedogenic processes: Skeletal d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , g l e i z i a t i o n , and podzolization. Zonal s o i l s (mesic s i t e s ) : Coastal areas Interior areas 2 S o i l Orders, Great Groups, & Parent Materials Vegetation: Dominant trees Zonal community and s o i l Common plant species of each Plant association of the Alpine Zone 3. Alpine Dystric Brunisols to Mini Podzols. Alpine Brunisols. Regosloic - Regosol: colluvium & bedrock. - Humic Regosol: colluvium & bedrock. Podzolic - Ferro-Humic Podzol: colluvium & f l u v i a l . - Humo-Ferric Podzol (in krummholz zone e s p e c i a l l y ) : :colluvium & f l u v i a l . Turkic Crysol: colluvium. S t a t i c Crysol: " Organic Cr y s o l : " F o l i s o l : organic & colluvium. Humic-Gleysol: organic. :Crysolic Organic Gleysolic Most subalpine tree species occur i n scrub patches (krummholz) near lower l i m i t s of alpine areas throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. Trees tend not to grow well in t h i s Zone, being scattered, straggling, prostrate, and krummholz in form. Heathers (Cassiope & Phyllodoce species) and Empetrum nigrum on Alpine Rendzinas, Podozols and Ranker s o i l s . •refer to following "Summary of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Species of the Alpine Zone (AT) Plant Associations". Co 1. Source: Krajina(1969). 2. Source: Cotie et al(1978) , Gimbarzevsky(1972) , Valentine(1976) , and Valentine et a l (1978) • 3. Source: The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971), Krajina(1959) , S Krajina(1969) . Table 2a : Summary of the Association C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Species of the Coastal Western ESG ' Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c Species Hemlock Zone (CWH) Plant Associations Common Name Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum shallon Tsugetum heterophyllae Thujo-Polystichetum munitum Tsugo-Gaulthereturn shallon Tsugo-Abietetum amabilis Tsugo-Struthioptereturn spicant 2,3 2,3 4,5,6 & (oc) 2,3 Gautheria shallon (a) Pseudotsuga menziesii (d) Tsuga peterophylla (d) Thuja p l i c a t a (oc) Mahonia nervosa (a) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Pseudotsuga menziesii (d) Thuja p l i c a t a (oc) Plagiothecium undulatum (a) Eurhynchium oreganum (of) Mahonia nervosa (a) 2,3 Polystichum munitum Thuja p l i c a t a (d) Pseudotsuga menziesii (of) Tsuga heterophylla (of) Gaultheria shallon (a) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Thuja p l i c a t a (of) Pseudotsuga menziesii (oc) Vaccinium alaskaense (of) Rhytidiopsis robusta (of) Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (oc) Pleurozium schreberi (a) Abies amabilis (d) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Gaultheria shallon (oc) Vaccinium alaskaense (of) Rhytidiopsis robusta ( Cl i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a (of) Plagiothecium undulatum (of) 3,4,5,7,8,9 & Struthiopteretum spicant (a) 2,6 (oc) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Abies amabilis (oc) Streptopus amplexifolius (a) Vaccinum alaskaense Rhytidiopsis robusta 3,4 & 6,7 (oc) S a l a l Douglas f i r Western hemlock Western red cedar (occasional) Oregon grape W. hemlock D. f i r W. red cedar (occasional) Step moss Moss species. No common name. Oregon grape Sword fern W. red cedar D. f i r W. hemlock S a l a l W. hemlock W. red cedar D. f i r Alaska blueberry ("blueberry") Moss species. No common name. Yellow cedar Moss species. No common name. Amabilis f i r or P a c i f i c s i l v e r W. hemlock S a l a l Alaska blueberry Moss species. No common name. Queen's cup Step moss Deer fern W. hemlock Amabilis f i r Twisted s t a l k Alaska blueberry Moss species. No common name. Table 2a : Summary of the Characteristic Species of the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (CWH) Plant Associations Association ESG2' characteristic Soecies Camion Name (continued) C pLysichito-Vaccinietum alaskaense Copto-Lysichetum kamtschatcense Thujo-Oplopaniceturn horridus Populo-Loniceretum involucratae Piceo-Oplopaniceturn horridus Piceo-Symphoricaroetum 0 albus 4, 5, 8., 10 5,10,11 8 (oc) 4,5,8,10,12 5,13,14 4,5,13 & 6,8 (oc) 4,13 & 6 (oc) Vaccinium alaskaense (a) Lysichiton kamtschatcense (a) Thuja p l i c a t a (d) . ' Tsuga heterophylla (d) L. kamtschatcense (a) Coptis a s p l e n i f o l i a (a) Thuja p l i c a t a (d) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Pinus contorta (oc) Coptis t r i f o l i a t a (a) Vaccinium alaskaense (of) Ribes bracteosun (of) Pinus monticola (of) Oplopanx horridus (a) Thuja p l i c a t a (d) Tsuga heterophylla (d) Vaccinium alaskaense Loniceretum involucrata (a) L. utahensis (a) Populus trichocarpa (d) Alnus rubra Oplopanx horridus Picea sitchensis (of,d) Populus trichocarpa (d) Acer macrophyllum (of,d) Alnus rubra (oc) Ribes bracteosun (oc) Polystichum andersonii (a) Symphoricaros albus (a) ( = S. r i v u l a r i s ) Populus trichocarpa (d) Picea sitchensis (of) Acer macrophyllum (of) Alnus rubra (oc) Acer circinatum (oc) Alaska blueberry Skunk cabbage W. red cedar W. hemlock Skunk cabbage Spleenwort-leaved goldthread W. red cedar W. hemlock Lodgepole pine Three-leaved goldthread Alaska blueberry Stink current Western white pine Devil's club W. red cedar W. hemlock Alaska blueberry Black twinberry Red twinberry Black cottonwoood Red alder Devil's club Sitka spruce Black cottonwood Bigleaf maple Red alder Stink current Anderson's h o l l y - f e r n Snowberry Black cottonwood Sitka spruce Bigleaf maple Red alder Vine maple Cn 1. Source: The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971). ™ oic 2. Ecol o g i c a l Species Groups, Coastal Western Hemlock Zone - *refer to The U.B.C. Forest Club (1971), pp.216-21 /. 3. Abbreviations following the species names : a = abundant, d = dominant, oc = occasional and or - often. Table 2b Summary of the Association Cha r a c t e r i s t i c Species of the Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH) Plant Associations, Forest Subzone (MH_ Cladothamno-Tsugeturn mertensianae (C-Tm) Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae (A-Tm) Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis (S-Ao) Oplopanaco-Thujetum pli c a t a e (O-Tp) ESGZ C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Species-'- Common Names Ly s i chito-Chamaecy pa return nootkatensis (L-Cn) Eriophoro-Sphagetum (E-S) 1,2,3,4,5,6 Tsuga mertensiana (c,d) Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (c,d) Abies amabilis Cladothamnus pyrolaeflorus (c,d,s Vacc-inium membranaceum (c,d) V. alaskaense (c,d) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Phyllodoce empetriformis (c) Tsuga mertensiana (c,d) Abies amabilis Vaccinium alaskaense (c,d) V. membranaceum (c) Menziesia ferruginea (c) Abies amabilis Tsuga mertensiana (c,d) Vaccinium alaskaense (c,d) Streptopus roseus (c) Rubus pedatus (c,d) 4,6,7,9,10,11, Tsuga heterophylla (c,d) Abies amabilis (c,d) Oplopanax horridus (c,d,s) Vaccinium alaskaense (c,d) Athyrium filex-femina (c,d,s) Gymnocarpium dryopteris (c,d) Streptopus roseus (c) T i a r e l l a u n i f o l i a t a (c) Abies amabilis (c,d) 13 & 4,8,9 (oc) Tsuga heterophylla(c,d) Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (c,d) Tsuga mertensiana (c) Vaccinium alaskaense (c,d) Lysichitum americanum (c,d,s) Rubus pedatus (c) C l i n t o n i a u n i f l o r a (c) Carex a q u a t i l i s (d) Eriophorum augustifolium (d,s) Drepanocladus aduncus(d) Sphagnum Spp. (d) 4,5,6,7,1 5,6,7,8,9,5 10 (oc) 12 5,6,7,10,11, N/A Mountain hemlock Yellow cedar Amabilis f i r or P a c i f i c s i l v e r f i r ) Copper bush Mountain huckleberry Alaska blueberry (huckleberry) False azalea Red heather Mountain hemlock Amabilis f i r Alaska blueberry Mountain huckleberry False azalea Amabilis f i r Mountain hemlock Alaska blueberry Twisted stalk T r a i l i n g rubus Western hemlock Amabilis f i r Devil's club Alaska blueberry Lady fern Oak fern Twisted stalk Foam flower Amabilis f i r W. hemlock Yellow cedar Mountain hemlock Alaska blueberry Skunk cabbage T r a i l i n g rubus Queen's cup Water sedge Cotton grass or narrow-leaf cotton sedge Moss species. No common name. Peat Mosses. 1. Source: Brooke et al(1969). 2. Source: The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971). Ecological Species Groups, Mountain Hemlock Zone by Forest Subzone (MH ). Not a l l of the associations have corresponding ESGs due to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the Forestry Handbook published by the Forest Club(1971). 3. Abbreviations following the species names represent - c = common, d = dominant and s = s e l e c t i v e species. Table 2b : Summary of the Cha r a c t e r i s t i c Association ESG 2. Vaccinio-Tsugetum mertensianae (V-Tm) Leptarrheno-Calthetum leptosepalae (L-Cl) Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae (P-Cm) Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae (N-Tm) N/A 4-N/A N/A N/A Vaccinetum d e l i c i o s i (Vd) N/A Saxifragetum tolmiei (St) N/A Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s (Cn) N/A Species of the Mountain Hemlock Zone Cha r a c t e r i s t i c S p e c i e s 3 -(MH) Plant Associations, Parkland Subzone (MH, ) b Common Name Tsuga mertensiana (c,d) Abies amabilis (c,d) Vaccinium membranaceum (c,d) Rhododendron albiflorum (d,s) Vaccinium deliciosum (c,d) Leptarrhena p y r o l i f o l i a (c,d,s) Caltha leptosepala (c,d,s) Erigeron peregrinus (c,d,s) Parnassia fimbriata (c,d,s) Equisetum palustre (d,s) Phyllodoce empetriformis (c,d) Cassiope mertensiana (c,d) Luetkea pectinata (c) Vaccinium deliciosum (c,d) Tsuga mertensiana (c,d) Phyllodoce empetriformis (c,d) Cassiope mertensiana (c,d) Luetkea pectinata (c,d) Vaccinum deliciosum (c) Vaccinim deliciosum (c,d) Phyllodoce empetriformis (c,d) Cassiope mertensiana (c,d) Luetkea pectinata (c) Saxifraga tolmiei (a,d,s) Marsupella brevissima (a,d) Polytrichum norvegicum (a,d,s) Carex nigricans (a,d) Mountain hemlock Amabilis f i r Mountain huckleberry White rhododendron Blueleaf huckleberry Leptarrhena White marsh marigold Mountain daisy Fringed grass of Parnassus Hor s e t a i l Red heather White moss heather Meadow spirea or partridge foot Blueleaf huckleberry Mountain hemlock Red heather White moss heather Meadow spirea or partridge foot Blueleaf huckleberry Blueleaf huckleberry Red heather White moss heather Meadow spirea or partridge foot Tolmie saxifrage Common name unknown. Hair cap moss Black alpine sedge 1. Source: Brooke et al(1969) . 2. Source: The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971). Ecological Species Groups, Mountain Hemlock Zone by Forest and Parkland Subzones. Not a l l plant associations l i s t e d have ESGs due to l i m i t a t i o n s of the Forestry Handbook published by The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971). 3. Abbreviations following the species names represent - c = common, d = dominant, and s = s e l e c t i v e species. Table 2c : Summary of the Cha r a c t e r i s t i c Species of Group Association the Alpine Zone (AT) Plant Associations 2 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c Species Common Name Snov. Patch 77 . 4. Chomophytic Alpine Meadow Rupicolous Gymnomitrieto-Polytrichetum norvegici Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Sibbaldietum procumbentis Caricetum s p e c t a b i l i s Luetkeetum pectinatae Anaphaleto-Lupinetum a r c t i c i Mimuleto-Epilobietum l a t i f o l i i Alpine Heather Valerianetum sitchensis Junipereto-Perstemonetum menzie Silenetum acaulis Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum merten-sianae Polytrichum norvegicum (B,IV,3) Gymnomitrium varians (B,V,3-4) Pohlia drummondii (V,I,5) Carex nigricans (H,V,3) Polytrchum norvegicum (B,IV,3) Sibbaldia procumbens (H,V,3) Antennareia alpina (H,1V,2) Polytrichum p i l i f e r u m (B,V,2) Carex s p e c t a b i l i s (H,V,3) Lupinus a r c t i c u s (IJ,V,2) Agoseris aurantiaca (H,I,3-4) Luetkea pectinata (H,V,2) Hieracium g r a c i l e (H,V,2-3) Lupinus a r c t i c u s (H,V,4) Anaphalis margaritacea (H,III,5) Carex s p e c t a b i l i s (H,V,2) Mimulus l e w i s i i (H,III,5) Epilobium l a t i f o l i u m (H,V,3) Leptarrhena amplexifolia (H,III,5) Mimulus t i l i n g i i (H,I,5) Saxifrago arguta (H,II,5) ( = S. odontoloma) Marchantia polymorpha (B,111,5) Scapania undulata (B,IV,5) Philonotis fontana (B,V,5) Valeriana sitchensis (II,V, 3) Lupinus arcticus (H,V,2) Carex s p e c t a b i l i s (H,V,2) s i i Juniperus communis (S,V,3-4) Perstemon menziesii (S,V,4-5) ( = P. Davidsonii var. menziesii) Festuca brachyphylla (H,III,3-4) Phyllodoce g l a n d u l i f l o r a (S,IV,2) Silene acaulis (H,-,-) Saxifraga bronchialis (H,-,-) S. ferruginea (H,-,-) Phyllodoce empetriformis (S,V,3) P. glanduliformis (S,II,3) Hair cap moss Moss Species Moss Species Black alpine sedge Hair cap moss Creeping s i b b a l d i a Alpine pussytoes ; Common name unknown. Showy sedge A r c t i c lupine Orange f a l s e dandelion Meadow spirea or partridge foot Slender hawkweed A r c t i c lupine Common pearly everlasting Showy sedge Lewis's monkeyflower Bread-leaved willow herb Common name unknown. Large mountain monkeyflower Stream saxifrage I I H Common name unknown. Sitka v a l e r i a n A r c t i c lupine Showy sedge Common juniper Davidson's perstemon I I I I Alpine fescue Cream mountain heather Moss campion P r i c k l y saxifrage Alaska saxifrage Red mountain heather Cream mountain heather Ui 00 Table 2c : Summary of the Characteristic Species of the Alpine Zone (AT) Plant Associations 1 - (continued) Group Association Characteristic Species Common Name Krummholz' Abieto-Chamaecypareturn nootkatensis Bog Peat 10. Cassiope mertensiana (S,V,3) Whitemoss heather Abies lasiocarpa (T,V,5) Alpine f i r Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (T,TI,5) Yellow cedar Juniperus communis (S,V,3-4) Common juniper Rhytidiopsis robusta (B,V,5) Common name unknown. Sphagnum capillaceum (B,-,-)' -S. plumulosum (B,-,r) S. compactum (B,-,-) Common name unknown. 1. Source: Archer(1963). Based on Associations within the Alnine (AT) Biogeoclimatic Zone (Krajina,1969). 2. Abbreviations following the species names - (plant community, presence, f i d e l i t y ) i) Plant communities - B = bryophyt.es, H = herbs, S = shrubs, and T = trees. i i ) Presence - measure of occurance of species throuahout a number of p l o t s . 1 = 1 - 20%, II = 21 - 40%, III = 41 -60 %, IV = 61 - 80%, and V = 81 - 100% i i i ) F i d e l i t y - indication of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species or combination of species in defined f l o r a l communities. 1 - Accidentals: strange species, or intruders or r e l i c t s of a preceding community. 2 = Companions: i n d i f f e r e n t species found in many communities without pronounced a f f i n i t i e s . 3 = P r e f e r e n t i a l species present i n several communities more or less abundantly but predominately or with better v i t a l i t y in one ce r t a i n community. 4 = Selective species: found frequently in more than one community, but also, though r a r e l y , in other communities. 5 = Exclusive species: confined completely or alni.ost completely to one community. 3. Snow Patch Group - well adapted plant communities that exist in l o c a l i t i e s which are under the influence of prolonged snow pack. 4. Chomophytic Group - plant communities which form pioneer groups co l o n i z i n g the fragmented rocks of the boulder and f e l l - f i e l d s (talus slopes). 5. Alpine Meadow Group - hydrophytic plant communities (forbs and sedges) which grow on s i t e s with abundant seepage water, characterized by a high base status. 6. Rupicolus Group - plant communities c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of rock walls, rock pavements and rock ridges; being established in the cracks of rocks or on accumulations of fine debris i n pockets and depressions. 7. No i n d i c a t i o n of presence or f i d e l i t y factors due to i n s u f f i c i e n t data. 8. Alpine Heather Group - plant communities dominated by Cassiope mertensiana, Phyllodoce empetreformis and P. g l a n d u l i f l o r a in areas t y p i f i e d by progressive podzolization and accumulation of organic matter. 9. Krummoholz Group - plant communities c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of steep t e r r a i n and rock outcrops where snow i s melted by the end of June or the beginning of July. 10. Bog Peat Group - bog peat plant communities c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of small depressions which are saturated by melting snow water. Table 3a : S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings ' of Plant Associations for Recreation: Coastal Western HemlockZone (CWH) Plant Associations Camping T r a i l s 3 ' Snowmobiling Toboganning Downhill Skiing P i c n i c k i n g / Day Use Mountain Climbing: . Mountaineering Pseudotsugo-Gaultheretum shallon m ns m m m m m Tsugetum-heterophallae ns ns ns ns m ns s Thujo-Polystichetum munitum s s m m s s s TsugoAbietetuin amabilis s m s m m s s Tsugo-Gaulthareturn -shallon m m s m m s s Tsugo-Struthiopteretum spicant s s m m s s s Lysichito-Vaccinietum alaskaense s s s s s s s Copto-Lysichetum kamtschatcense s s s s s s s Thujo-Oplopaniceturn horridus s s s s s s s Populo-Loniceretum involueratae m ns ns s s ns s Piceo-Oplopaniceturn horridus m s s s s s s Piceo-Symphoricaroetum albus ns ns ns s s ns s Pseudotsugo-Cladonieturn p a c i f i c a e m ns s s s m m 1. Abbreviations used: ns = none'to s l i g h t , m = moderate and s = severe l i m i t a t i o n s f or s p e c i f i e d r e c r e a t i o n a l use. S u i t a b i l i t y ratings were derived by the author using an in t e r p r e t i v e approach s i m i l a r to that proposed by Eekman(1976). Interpretation of the plant associations in r e l a t i o n to the s i t e requirements and standards for the selected r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i s the basis upon which the s u i t a b i l i t y ratings were derived. 2. Source: The U.B.C. Forest Club(1971), pp.200 - 287 i n c l u s i v e . 3. T r a i l s include summer use hiking t r a i l s and winter use cross-country s k i and snowshoe t r a i l s . Table 3b : S u i t a b i l i t y Ratings 1" of Plant Associations for Recreation: Mountain Hemlock Zone (MH)' Plant Associations Vaccinio-Tsugetum • mertensianae Leptarrheno-Caltheturn leptosepalae Phyllodoco-Cassiopetum mertensianae Nano-Tsugetum mertensianae Vaccinietum d e l i c i o s i Saxifragetum tolmie i Caricetum n i g r i c a n t i s Cladothamno-Tsugetum mertensianae Abieto-Tsugetum mertensianae Streptopo-Abietetum amabilis Oplopanaco-Thujetum p l i c a t a e Lysichito-Chamaecyparetum nootkatensis Eriophoro-Sphagnetum Camping 1. m s s T r a i l s 2. & 3. m m s Snowmobiling Toboganning Downhill Skiing P i c n i c k i n g / Day U s e 2. m s s Mountain Climbing: Mo un t a i n e e r i n g MH. MH 4. -4 i 1. Abbreviations used: ns - none to s l i g h t , m = moderate, and s = s - - \ ^ ^ i o n s ^ o r ^ l ^ ^ l r i ^ M M M S ) . ^ ^ ^ l ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " o - s l t f S u S m e n t s a n r ^ a n d a r d s h f o r P t h ^ selected r e c r e a t i o n a l I'. T r a i l s include^ummer use hiking t r a i l s and winter use cross-country s k i and snow hoe t r a i l s 4. Abbreviations used: MH = Mountain Hemlock,Forest Subzone and MHfa = Mountain Hemlock,Parkland Subzone. T a b l e 3 c : S u i t a b i l i t y R a t i n g s ' o f P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s f o r R e c r e a t i o n : A l p i n e Z o n e ( A T ) P l a n t A s s o c i a t i o n s C a m p i n g T r a i l s 3 ' S n o w m o b i l i n g T o b o g a n n i n g D o w n h i l l S k i i n g P i c n i c k i n g / D a y U s e M o u n t a i n C l i m b i n g : M o u n t a i n e e r i n g G y m n o m i t r i e t o - P o l y t r i -c h e t u m n o r v e g i c i s s s s s s s C a r i c e t u m n i g r i c a n t i s s s s s s s s S i b b a l d i e t u m p r o c u m b e n t i s s s s s s s s C a r i c e t u m s p e c t a b i l i s s m s s m s m L u e t k e e t u m p e c t i n a t a e s m s s m s m A r i a p h a l e t o - L u p i n e t u m a r c t i c i s n s m s s m s M i m u l e t o - E p i l o b i e t u m l a t i f o l i i s s m m m s s V a l e r i a n e t u m s i t c h e n s i s s m s s m s m J u n i p e r e t o - P e n s t e m o n e t u m m e n z i e s i i s m s s 3 n s S i l e n e t u m a c a u l i s s m s s S s m P h y l l o d o c o - C a s s i o p e t u m m e r t e n s i a n a e s m s s S s m A b i e t o - C h a m a e c y p a r e t u r n n o o t k a t e n s i s s m s s s s n s B o g P e a t - S p h a g n u m A s s o c s n s s s s s n s 1. A b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d : nr. = n o n e t o s l i g h t , m = m o d e r a t e , a n d s = s e v e r e l i m i t a t i o n s f o r s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . S u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s w e r e d e r i v e d b y t h e a u t h o r u s i n g a n i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o p o s e d b y E e k m a n ( 1 9 7 6 ) . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t a s s o c i a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i t e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e s e l e c t e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , i s t h e b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t h e s u i t a b i l i t y r a t i n g s w e r e d e r i v e d . 2 . A s s o c i a t i o n s u s e d f o r t h e A l p i n e - Z o n e ( A T ) a r e t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d b y A r c h e r ( 1 9 6 3 ) i n t h e G a r i b a l d i P a r k a r e a o f s o u t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 3 . T r a i l s i n c l u d e s u m m e r u s e h i k i n g t r a i l s a n d w i n t e r u s e c r o s s - c o u n t r y s k i a n d s n o w s h o e t r a i l s . - 163 -APPENDIX III Summary of C r i t e r i a for the Climatic S u i t a b i l i t y for Recreation C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (*after Bennett (1977)) - 164 -Appendix III SUMMARY OF CRITERIA FOR THE CLIMATIC SUITABILITY FOR RECREATION CLASSIFICATION Ranking most s u i t a b l e to l e a s t s u i t a b l e Seasons S - summer June - August T - t r a n s i t i o n A p r i l , May, September, October W - winter December - February Limiting Factors h - too warm k - too cold p - p r e c i p i t a t i o n TEMPERATURE - by a c t i v i t y l e v e l T(max) = maximum temperature T(mean) = mean temperature a) Land Active summer/transition winter cla s s T(max) cl a s s T(mean) 4h >28°C 4h >0°C 3h 24-28 3h 0 to -4 2h 20-24 2h -4 to -8 1 16-20 1 -8 to -12 2k 12-16 2k -12 to -16 3k 8-12 3k -16 to -2.0 4k <8 4k <-20 - 165 -b) Land Passive summer/transition winter c l a s s T(max) class T(mean) 3h >28°C 2h >0°C 2h 24-28 1 0 to -4 1 20-24 2k -4 to -8 2k 16-20 3k -8 to -12 3k 12-16 4k -12 to -16 4k 8-12 5k <-16 5k <8 c) Aquatic Passive summer/transition c l a s s T(max) 2h >28°C 1 24-28 2k 20-24 3k 16-20 4k 12-16 5k <12 2. PRECIPITATION N = number of days per season with measurable p r e c i p i t a t i o n P = t o t a l seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n R = p r e c i p i t a t i o n index • R = N + 4 w h e n P i s in mil l i m e t r e s R = N + ^ P - E . when P i s i n inches Summer T r a n s i t i o n Winter clas s R R R 1 <40 <40 <40 2 40-50 40-60 40-65 =3 50-60 60-80 65-90 4 60-70 80-100 90-115 5 >70 >100 >115 - 166 -WIND V = wind index S = mean wind speed i n dominant d i r e c t i o n %C = frequency of calms i n per cent V = KS - %C K = 1 i f S i s in miles per hour K = 2.24 i f S i s in metres per second cla s s V SUNSHINE 1 <5 2 5-10 3 10-15 4 15-20 5 >20 %S = mean hours of bright sunshine expressed as a percentage of maximum possible sunshine duration. c l a s s x %S 1 >50% 2 40-50 3 30-40 4 20-30 5 <20 Source : Bennett (19 77) - 167 -APPENDIX IV Detailed d e s c r i p t i o n of Clague Mountain T r a i l (*after B l i x (1977)) Clague Mountain Trail [KT2] GENERAL AREA: Kilimal-ferrace, near Kitimat MAPS REQUIRED: 103I/2W Kilimat (1:50,000) 1031/26 Kilimat (1:50.000) 1031 Terrace (1:250.000) TRAIL DESCRIPTION: About 4VJ miles from the start ol the trail at elevation 100 II. to Clague Mountain, elevation 4400 It. A weil defined trail all Ihe way, but extremely muddy in sections. The first mile or so is a logging road and the next Vi mile is a cat road that goes through a slashed area. This was originally cleared for a skihill, but never used. The slashing is very steep with a gain in elevation of about 1000 fl. in a Vi mile. The trail then nations out for a short distance and traverses a marshy area. After skirling around a small lake, it immediately climbs steeply a couple ol hundred feet to another marshy, gently sloping area. Al Ihe lop ol this slope, Ihe trail enters a distinct valley. The elevation at this point is approximately 2000 ft. and the dist-ance from the starting point about 2 miles. The most used summer route continues more or less westerly, and climbs steeply up beside a creek (true right bank). Al Ihe lop ol this slope, the trail emerges into an open gently sloping valley, at elevation 2700 It., which Is about timberline near tho coast. From there alter crossing the creek, the trail gradually climbs up onto a ridge to Ihe right (north) and lollows Ihis to the summit A higher summit (4500 It.) is reached by lollowihg Ihe ridge as it continues northwesterly lor about a mile. A more pleasant and lar easier winter route can be lound by bearing left (soulhwesl) up the valley instead of taking Ihe sleep summer roule straight ahead. This roule lollows the valley up, gradually climbing and bearing right (norlh). Where Ihis roule eventually climbs out ol Ihe valley, the timber Is quite open and poses no problem lor skiers. Alter emerging from the valley, bear left and follow a subsidiary spur In a westerly direction up onto the main, southeasterly ridge ol Claque Mount-ain and follow it lo the summit. Allow 4-5 hours Irom the start ol the trail to the summit, and 2-3 hours down. DIRECTIONS: Alter crossing the Kilimat River bridge on Hwy 25 (Haisla 8lvd), continue straight on 10 Enterprise Ave. then turn righl (north) and drive along Enterprise which shortly turns left (west) and crosses Ihe CN tracks. Just beyond, at Ihe intersection with the logging road, turn right again and continue along the logging road in a northerly direction for just under a mile. Where Ihe logging road makes a distinct right turn, turn left onto a side road. This side road is fine lor about a mile which Is where the cat road starts off straight ahead up the slashed area. COMMENTS: This trail gives very convenient access to alpine country lor anyone living in or visiting Kilimal. It is a steep, muddy and somewhat un-attractive route for the first couple of miles, but beyond that there are good views and pleasant alpine terrain. Once above timberline, there is easy access to a considerable area ol good hiking and ski touring country. As lar as skiing is concerned, the problem Is getting up and down the steep portion at the start. Except under extremely good snow conditions, most people will find it easiest lo carry their skis both up and down this section. II is recommended that Ihis trail be used only when Ihe wind is Irom the norlh; otherwise the fumes from the smelter and pulpmill detract signilicanlly Irom one's enjoyment. Young children and even older ones without previous hiking experi-ence generally do not find Ihis trail enjoyable due to sleep muddy parts. CLAQUE MOUNTAIN TRAIL \KT2\ APPENDIX V Clague Mountain Park Regulations C L A G U E M T . M U N I C I P A L P A R K - R E G U L A T I O N S EtCKCRC'JNQ T u t C L A G U E M O U N T A I N A R C * W A S L E A S E O F R O M T H E C R O W N IN 1963 O N A 21 T E A R . . E A S E A T A N A N N U A L R E N T Or ^ I85.50». (Set A T T A C H E O S K E T C H . ) P JRPOSE T ^ E P U R P O S E Or T « I S R E P O R T I S TO S U G G E S T C E R T A I N R E G U L A T I O N S T O C O N T R O L T r . £ U S E Of T H E P A R K IN R E S P E C T TO V A R I O U S A C T I V I T I E S S U C H A S T I M B E R C U T T I N G , C A B I N B U I L D I N G , D I S P O S A L O f R E C U S E T I R E P R E V E N T I O N , P R O H I B I T I O N O f H U N T I N G , E T C . R E : O W E ' O A T I O N S T H A T T H E D R A F T R E G U L A T I O N S A T T A C H E D T O A N D F O R M I N G A P A R T O F T H I S R E P O R T B E C O N S I D E R E D F O R A D O P T I O N . • T H C R E N T I S S U B J E C T T O R C V I C W A F T E R A P C R I O O O F F l V E T E A R S . P L A ' I M I N S D E P A R T M E N T , R C ? O R T N o . 65OI, J A I . J A R T , 1965. THE CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF KITIMAT BY-LAW A BYLAW to establish regulations for Clague Mountain Park. WHEREAS It i s intended that the land known as Clague Mountain Park as leased . from the Crown under the terras of the "Park and Recreation Land Lease Bylaw Mo. 1, 1963, be established as a municipal park. AND WHEREAS i t ie intended that Clague Mountain Park be preserved and used as a wilderness reserve. AND WHEREAS i t i s Intended that Clague Mountain Park remain a recreational area to be enjoyed by hikers, skiers and campers. AND WHEREAS i t i s considered that regulations should be established to ensure the continued enjoyment of Clague Mountain Park for recreational purposes. I NOW THEREFORE the Council of the Corporation cf the D i s t r i c t cf Kitinat, i n open meeting assembled, amends the Kitimat Municipal Code by enacting I— the following: I-1. This Bylaw way be ci t e d as the "Clague Mountain Park Regulations Bylaw No.l, I965". • 2. Part XT i s amended by adding the following Division 2 Division 2 - Municipal Parks Subdivision 1 - Clague Mountain Park Interpretation 3. 11,210 Within th i s subdivision "Park" means the area described within the Park and Recreation Land Lease Bylau No. 1; 1963. Designation U. 11,211 The area as described in the lease executed between the Municipality and the Crown and as described withir the Park and Recreation Land Lease Bylaw No.l, l^tS3 i s herepy designated as a Municipal Park. 11,£12 The following uses only s h a l l be permitted within the Park: (a) S k l l n j (b) Hiking (c) Recreation camping other than camping in trailer:*, (d) A c t i v i t i e s normally associated with wilderneBS recreatis.'. with the exception of hunting, (e) Temporary conces-sion:: cr-eraied i n ccnju.'.ctlon with the permitted uses (a), (b), (c) or (d). Permitted Structures 11,213 *'° structure i s peraitted within the Park other than structures which arc- u;ed or intended to be used i n conjunction with the uses permitted under Section 11,212. r e m i t s Required for Structures and for Timber Cutting 11,21^ Ho persor. s h a l l construct or occupy any structure for which a perr.it i s required without obtaining a permit, and no person sha l l occupy, use, or continue to occupy or use any structure which was constructed prior to the coming into force of these regulations without obtaining a permit. 11,215 Park use permits ore required for the erection or use of the following structures: a) Any cabin, outhouse or shed. b) Any structure used in conjunction with a concession, (c) Any structure erected i n conjunction with the operation cf a ski tow. ( i i ) Mo person s h a l l cut any green timber for personal use without obtai:iir..3 o timber cutting permit and paying stumpage charges as ditc-.-c-.lr.ed by the Crovn. Condition cf Issuance of Permits 11,216 ( i ) A-"-y permit for a concession s h a l l be temporary only and i n r.o cace s t a l l i t be va l i d for more than twelve months from the dote of issue, but may be renewed. ( i i ) Mo pernor, sha l l lease, ront or charge a t o l l within the park unlj.:s :uch person has obtained a Park Use Permit i n ulilch such lease, rent or t o l l i s authorized. ( i l l ) M J lark use permit issued for a concession sha l l be trans-ferable. (iv) The Authority Having Jurisdiction may Impose conditions upon the issuance of any permit to control the location of any use or "tructure for which a permit i s Issued, to control the area fr c n which trees cay be cut by permit holders, and to ensure tha*. adequate standards of cafety and health are observed. BY-LAW NO. Application for Permits 10. 11,217 An application f o r a permit s h a l l be i n writing, and sh a l l include: (a) Tile name and address of the applicant. (b) A f u l l description of the proposed use. (c) Tlie date upon which the proposed use i s to commence. (d) The date upon which the proposed use i s to terminate. (e) The approximate location of the proposed use within the park and details of any structures which are proposed to be b u i l t . (f) Where the proposed use i s a concession f u l l d e t a i l s of proposed prices and admission fees, t o l l s or charges. (g) Any other information which the Authority Having J u r i s d i c t i o may require. Grounds for Refusal 11. H,2l8 The Authority Having Jurisdiction may refuse to grant a permit for the following reasons: If the location of the proposed structure or use w i l l : (a) Interfere with the use of existing or proposed roads, ski slopes or t r a i l s . (b) Be l i k e l y to cause pollution of any lake or stream. (c) Be i n any way detrimental to the f u l l enjoyment of any part of the park by the public. Cancellation of Permits 12. xl 219 Authority Having Ju r i s d i c t i o n may cancel any permit If the person to whom the permit was Issued has: (a) Failed to use the permit for the prupoce. for which i t was issued within 6 months of the date of Issue. (b) Failed to comply with the conditions of the permit. (c) Failed to comply with the regulations of this d i v i s i o n 3X-U.'J 'AC. k. DY-LAW HO. ris p c s a l of Ir.priver.c-r.ts 13. 11,220 ( l ) Where a perr.lt has expired or been cancelled any cabins or other i-r.prcver.ent3 which have been constructed under the permit s h a l l , within CO days of the date of expiration or cancellation of the perr-it, be removed from the pork or disposed of to the sa t i s -facxlcr. cf the Authority Having Jurisdiction. ( i i ) Where u pc-mlt holder has f a i l e d to remove or dispose of improve-r-ier.tJ to the satisfaction of the Authority Having Jurisdiction, witr.1.1 iZi day3 of the dote of termination of his permit, the lij.rv/«=s:rt; shal l be forfeited and s h a l l become municipal property, and the Authority Having Jurisdiction may order that they be disposed of i n any way that he thinks i s suitable. Appeal to Cea-11 i t . 11,221 Any applicant c f holder of a Park U B B Permit may appeal to Council ar.y decision ty the Authority Having Jurisdiction pertaining to the refusal of a permit, the cancellation of a permit, the imposing of conditions upon the issuance of a permit, or the designation of areas where tree cutting i s prohibited. 11,230 Ihe following annual fees s h a l l be paid to the Authority Having Jurisdiction: (a) Ar.y concession .' $100.00 (b) Any cabin together with one outhouse used In conjunction with i t . . . ^  (c) Ar.y other structure for which a permit i s required. $ 10.00 $ 10.00 Tree Protection 17 H 238 ^° Person s h a l l take any timber from the park. ( i i ) No person s h a l l cut any green timber except for firevood or for constructing a structure for which timber cutting per.iit has been obtained as authorized under Sec. 11215 ( i t ) ( i l l ) Notwithstanding Subsection (11) of this section, no person s h a l l cut trees from any part of the park which c&y be designated by the Authority Having Ju r i s d i c t i o n as an area where the cutting of trees would interfere with the enjoy-ment of the park by the public. IB. Fire Regulations 11,21(0 ( i ) Except i n an approved cabin stove or in a portable carr.p stove no person s h a l l start a f i r e anywhere in the Park for any purpose without obtaining a permit from t h e Fire Department (11) No person, having started a f i r e for ccokir.g or any otl.er purpoGe, s h a l l leave i t without completely extinguishing i t . ( i l l ) No person 6 h a l l discard any lighted cignr, cigarette, natch or any other burning substance anyvhere within th2 park. (Iv) A l l indoor stoves must be provided with 6park catchers and a l l heating equipment s h a l l be subject t o the approval of the Fire Department. Disposal of -tg'.nje ar.d Garbage - 11,235 ( i ) I'o person s h a l l throw, place, discharge, or otherwise deposit ar.y substance, matter, or thing i n or near any watercourse or body of water, i n the park, where such action might reasonably be expected to result In the pollution of water in the park. (11) A l l sewage, refuse, garbage, waste paper, cans, bottles, or any other d e b r i 3 or discarded p-iiterlal s h a l l be buried or destroyed. ( i l l ) A l l outhouses must be located at least 25 f t . from any habitable building and have a p i t 3 feet, i n depth or more. When abandoned the pit stuili be f i l l e d with earth to ori g i n a l ground level and wren In use i t shall chemically treated or covered with s o i l d a i l y . Roads and Parking 19- 11,2U2 No person s h a l l park any vehicle 011 any existing or proposed road within the park i n such a way as to obstruct the free passage of vehicles in either direction on any such road Firearms and Explosives 20. 11,241, Ho person other than an employee of the Provincial Fish and Game Department on duty, or a Police Officer on duty s h a l l at any time have In possession within the park any firearm, gun, a i r gun, a i r r i f l e , a i r p i s t o l , spring gun or explosive. BY-LAV SO. 6. Caae Protection 21. 11 2k6 •'0 P'- r 3 0 n s h a l l molest, pursue, hunt, shoot, trap, wound, ' capture, destroy, or In any manner Interfere with or attempt to Interfere with any animal or bird within the Perl-.. ( l i ) V.o person s h a l l have any dead bird or animal i n his possession within the Park. 22, This Bylaw s h a l l take effect and come Into force and be binding on a l l persons as from the date of adoption. PCIiZ A11TJ PASSED by the Municipal Council t h i s day of 1965. RSCOttSIC^PZD Aim f i n a l l y adopted by the Municipal Council of the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat this day cf 1965. Reeve Clerk CBBTIFLEri a true f.r.d correct copy of Bylaw Ho. - passed -by the Municipal Council of the Corporation «f the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat on the day of 1965-Clerk of the Corporation of the D i s t r i c t of Kitimat. C L A G U E M O U N J A I N L E - t V S t -- 175 -APPENDIX VI C h a r a c t e r i s t i c plant species of Clague Mountain Park, Kitimat, B r i t i s h Columbia Note: The Biogeoclimatic Zone and Terrain Unit i n which each of the photographs was taken are indicated. - 176 -Sorbus s i t c h e n s i s - S i t k a Mountain Ash L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) Q F bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 177 -V a c c i n i u m o v a l i f o l i u m - T a l l B l u e H u c k l e b e r r y o r O v a l L e a f W h o r t l e b e r r y L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) Q F bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 178 -V a c c i n i u m p a r v i f o l i u m - Red H u c k l e b e r r y L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) Q F bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 179 -Cornus c a n a d e n s i s - Bunchberry o r P i g e o n B e r r y L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) Q F bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 180 -Oplopanx h o r r i d u s - D e v i l ' s Club L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) Q F bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 181 -S e n e c i o t r i a n g u l a r i s - G i a n t Ragwort L o c a t i o n : Mountain Hemlock Zone ( F o r e s t Subzone) M^ "bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 182 -Veratum e s c h o c h o l t z i i (V. v i r i d e ) - I n d i a n H e l l e b o r e L o c a t i o n : Mountain Hemlock Zone ( F o r e s t Subzone) M I M bs - V t e r r a i n u n i t - 183 -S p i r e a d o u g l a s i i - Hardhack o r S t e e p l e Bush o r Douglas S p i r e a L o c a t i o n : C o a s t a l Western Hemlock Zone (Wet Subzone) F r - E t e r r a i n u n i t ( j u s t west o f Bowbyes Lake) - 184 -C a s t i l l e j a a u g u s t i f o l i a - I n d i a n P a i n t b r u s h o r P a i n t e d Cup L o c a t i o n : Mountain Hemlock Zone ( P a r k l a n d Subzone) F 0 1 - S t e r r a i n u n i t ( a d j a c e n t to Main Meadow a r e a o f park) - 185 -Mimulus L e w i s i i - Red Monkey F l o w e r o r Lewis Monkey F l o w e r L o c a t i o n : Mountain Hemlock Zone ( P a r k l a n d Subzon F 0 1 - S t e r r a i n u n i t ( a d j a c e n t t o Main Meadow a r e a o f park) - 186 -- 187 -Saxifraga tolmiei - Alpine Saxifrage Location : Alpine Zone Rh - C(N) t e r r a i n unit (near top of Clague Mountain) - 188 -APPENDIX VII . Photographs Showing Delineated Terrain Units - 189 -- 190 -- 191 -- 192 -- 1 9 3 -- 194 -- 195 -- 196 -- 197 -- 198 -- 199 -- 200 -APPENDIX VIII Terrain C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Guide - 201 -TERRAIN CLASSIFICATION Texture: ^ - ^ S I Z E 1 I | I 1 (_) ROUNDNESS^ ™ 256 64 2 .062 .0039 u. CJ R0UN0ED bBOULDERY jk COBBLY jp PEBBLY 1 CL. m ROUND OR ANGULAR. I SANDY | SILTY j CLAYEY ! s i j | c ROUNDED g GRAVELLY I MMO, 1 , j f FINES o o ANGULAR a BLOCKY j r RUBBLY j ORGANIC: e - f i b r i c m-mesic h-humic Genetic Material Anthropogeni c--A Col luvial C Eolian E Fluvia l F Ice I Lacustri ne L Morainal M Organic 0 Bedrock R Saprolite S Volcanic- - V Marine W Superscri pt Modifier C las t ic Glacial — G Organi c Bog 8 Fen F Swamp S Process Active A Inactive —I Surface Expression Apron a 81anket — b Fan f Hurtmocky h Subdued m Level 1 Ridged r Steep s Terraced 1 Veneer v e .g . gF t-V Rs-A Modifying Process Avalanched A Bevelled 8 Cryoturbated C Deflated D Eroded E Fai l inr F Kettled H Karst modi f ied K Nivated- — — N Piping — P Sol i f lucted S Gul l ied— V Washed—- W - 202 -APPENDIX IX for D e f i n i t i o n s and P o t e n t i a l Frost Action Ratings Major Third Level Divisions of the U n i f i e d S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System - 203 -D e f i n i t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l f r o s t action ratings for major t h i r d l e v e l d i v i s i o n s of the Unified S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n System : S o i l D i v i s i o n & D e f i n i t i o n P o t e n t i a l Frost Action GW - well graded gravels or gravel-sand - none to very s l i g h t mixtures, l i t t l e or no fines GP - poorly graded gravels or gravel- - none to very s l i g h t sand mixtures, l i t t l e or no fines ' GM - s i l t y gravels, g r a v e l - s a n d - s i l t - s l i g h t to medium mixtures GC - clayey gravels, g r a v e l - s a n d - s i l t - s l i g h t to medium mixtures SW - well graded sands or gravelly sands, - none to very s l i g h t l i t t l e or no fines SP - poorly graded sands or gravelly sands - none to very s l i g h t l i t t l e or no fines SM - s i l t y sands, s a n d - s i l t mixtures - s l i g h t to high SC - clayey sands, sand-clay mixtures - s l i g h t to high ML - inorganic s i l t s and very f i n e sands, - medium to very high rock f l o u r , s i l t or clayey f i n e sand or clayey s i l t s with s l i g h t p l a s t i c i t y CL - inorganic clays or low to medium - medium to high p l a s t i c i t y , g r a v e l l y clays, sandy clays f s i l t y clays and lean clays OL - organic s i l t s and organic s i l t - c l a y s of - medium to high low p l a s t i c i t y MH - inorganic s i l t s , micaceous or diatom- - medium to very high aceous f i n e sandy or s i l t y s o i l s e l a s t i c s i l t s CH - inorganic clays of high p l a s t i c i t y , f a t - medium clays OH - organic clays of medium to high p l a s t i c — medium i t y , organic s i l t s PL - peat or other highly organic s o i l s - s l i g h t Source: Way (1973) 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0094961/manifest

Comment

Related Items