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Identification and seasonality studies of the Synuraceae (Chrysophyta) of selected lakes of the Lower… Donaldson, Deborah Anne 1981

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IDENTIFICATION AND SEASONALITY STUDIES OF THE SYNURACEAE (CHRYSOPHYTA) OF SELECTED LAKES OF THE LOWER FRASER VALLEY, BRITISH COLUMBIA. by DEBORAH ANNE DONALDSON B.A., The University of Washington, 1973 B.Sc , The University of Washington, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Botany We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1981 © Deborah Anne Donaldson, 1981 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Bo tarry The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V ancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 18 March 1981 i i ABSTRACT A comparative, year long (15 month) study of three lakes (Whonock, Munday, Como) i n the Lower Fraser Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia was undertaken to gain information on the physicochemical and seasonal l i m i t s of scale-bearing Synuraceae (Chrysophyta). In addition, sporadic c o l l e c t i o n s were made i n d i f f e r e n t lakes i n th i s region to augment the information provided from the three main lakes. The synuracean taxa are reviewed with worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n l i s t s , and environmental and seasonal information are discussed. Thirty-one taxa of Chrysophyceae were i d e n t i f i e d , of which 20 are i n the Synuraceae. Eight taxa within t h i s family are new records for B r i t i s h Columbia, v i z . : Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae Wujek et Van der Veer Mallomonas papillosa Harris et Bradley Mallomonas doignonii var. tenuicostis Asmund et Cronberg Mallomonas transsylvanica P e t e r f i et Momeu Mallomonopsis ouradion (Harris et Bradley) Harris Paraphysomonas vestita (Stokes) de Saedeleer Synura splendida Korshikov Synura glabra Korshikov I t was found that the Synuraceae are not r e s t r i c t e d to cold waters, as often assumed. Some taxa are present throughout the year. They do seem to favour a c i d i c and sometimes dystrophic environments, and i t i s suggested that factors such as pH or water chemistry should be investigated as probable c o n t r o l l i n g factors for synuracean populations. Of the 11 non-synuracean Chrysophyceae noted', s i x are new records f o r the Province: Bicoeca kepneri, Chrysococcystis elegans, Dinobryon crenulatum, Epipyxis lauterbornii, Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta, and Eusphaerella turfosa. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT : 1 1 LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i I. INTRODUCTION 1 II . MATERIALS AND METHODS 3 A. Sample c o l l e c t i o n 3 B. Physicochemical methods 3 C. Microscopic methods 4 D. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 5 I I I . DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLING AREAS 7 A. Main s i t e s 7 B. A d d i t i o n a l s i t e s 13 IV. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THREE MAIN SITES 18 RESULTS 18 A. WHONOCK LAKE 18 1. Physicochemical Results 18 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results 19 B. MUNDAY LAKE 26 1. Physicochemical Results 26 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results 27 C. COMO LAKE 33 1. Physicochemical Results • 33 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results 34 DISCUSSION 40 V. SURVEY OF THE SYNURACEAE 51 A. CHRYSOSPHAERELLA LAUTERBORN EMEND. KORSHIKOV 52 B. MALLOMONAS PERTY 57 C. MALLOMONOPSIS MATVIENKO 72 D. PARAPHYSOMONAS DE SAEDELEER 74 i v E. SPINIFEROMONAS TAKAHASHI 76 F. SYNURA EHRENBERG 78 VI. SUMMARY 87 VII. LITERATURE CITED 89 FIGURES 96 APPENDICES 106 I. Algae of the main lakes studied 106 A. Whonock Lake 106 B. Munday Lake 121 C. Como Lake 135 I I . Algae of a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s 149 V LIST OF TABLES Table P a § e I. Main study lakes i n the Lower Fraser Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia 10 v i LIST OF TEXT-FIGURES Text-Figure Page 1. Location of Whonock, Munday and Como Lakes 12 2. Location of a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s i n the Lower Fraser Valley 17 3. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Whonock Lake, May 1978 to August 1979 25 4. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Munday Lake, May 1978 to August 1979 32 5. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Como Lake, May 1978 to August 1979 39 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Plate 1 1,2. 3,4. 5,6. 7,8. Page . 97 Chrysosphaerella brevispina Chrysosphaerella multispina Mallomonas crassiquama Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae Plate 2 99 9. Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae 10,11. Mallomonas papillosa 12,13. Mallomonas caudata 14,15. Mallomonas hamata .. 16,17. Mallomonas heterospina Plate 3 101 18-20. 21-23. .•. 24,25. 26. Plate 4 27. 28. 29,30. 31. 32. 33. 34-36. Plate 5 37. 38,39. 40. 41,42. 43. Mallomonas transsylvanica Mallomonas doignonii var. tenuicostis Mallomonas akrokomos Mallomonopsis ouradion 103 Mallomonopsis ouradion Paraphysomonas vestita Spiniferomonas bilacunosa Synura petersenii Synura glabra Synura uvella Synura echinulata 105 Synura echinulata Synura spinosa~.\ Synura.splehdida Uroglena volvox Dinobryon cylindricum v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my gratitude and thanks to Dr. Janet R. Stein for a l l her invaluable help and advice, e s p e c i a l l y i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . F i n a n c i a l support was also provided through N.R.C. grant No. A-1035. I would l i k e to thank a l l those who read the thesis and offered invaluable suggestions; e s p e c i a l l y Drs. G. E. Rouse and R. E. De Wreede. Thanks are also due to those who helped me with p a r t i c u l a r problems along the way: Dr. K. Cole, Mr. L. Veto, Dr. B i l l N e i l l , Dru S u l l i v a n ( a l l from U.B.C.) and Dr. Jorgen K r i s t i a n s e n (from the University of Copenhagen). Those who braved often wet and/or cold days i n the f i e l d with me deserve thanks for a l l t h e i r help: Don MacDonald, Pat Harrison, Bev Hymes, Carol Ann Borden, H£lene Contant and L i z Drance. I would e s p e c i a l l y l i k e to thank two people who helped with the ideas and e f f o r t of creating t h i s t h e s i s , much more than they w i l l ever know: Dr. Gerald Straley and Dr. Wendy Nelson. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to express a l l my thanks and gratitude to my parents, James and Maylie Donaldson, and to my supportive and loving husband, John Wehr. Without the encouragement and support given by these three, t h i s thesis would never have been written. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Algae of the clas s Chrysophyceae are usually overlooked by taxonomists, although often present i n large numbers i n the phytoplankton (Kristiansen 1971; Sheath et al. 1975; Takahashi 1978). This i s because they are very small organisms, t h e i r f r a g i l e c e l l s do not preserve well with f i x a t i v e s , and electron microscopy i s required for accurate i d e n t i f i c a t i o n (Harris 1966; Asmund and Takahashi 1969; Cronberg 1975; P e t e r f i and Momeu 1976a; Takahashi 1978; K r i s t i a n s e n 1979a). The Synuraceae, one of f i v e f a m i l i e s i n the suborder Ochromonadineae within the clas s Chrysophyceae (Bourrelly 1968), consists of approximately 85 species i n 9 genera (Takahashi 1978), or as many as 120 species i n 8 genera (Bourrelly 1968). The family i s characterized by the possession of external s i l i c e o u s scales, which i s the basis f o r c l a s s i f i -c a tion of the species. Knowledge of worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n of accurately described Synuraceae i s based on the c o l l e c t i o n s of a few chrysophycean taxonomists sampling pr i m a r i l y i n the northern hemisphere (Takahashi 1978). Due to the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n the recognition and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of members of the Synuraceae, the standard North American f l o r a s (Prescott 1962; Smith 1950) have neglected t h i s family. Like most l o c a l f l o r a s , the studies of freshwater algae i n the province of B r i t i s h Columbia lack electron microscope i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s family (Stein, pers. comm.). Published accounts of these taxa are pri m a r i l y based on l i g h t microscopic observations (Wailes 1930, 1931; Stein 1975; Stein and Borden 1979). In f a c t , there were no records of electron microscope i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s on the west coast of North America u n t i l the findings f or Washington by Munch (1972) and Sandgren (1978) as well as reports from B r i t i s h Columbia and Alberta by Kr i s t i a n s e n (1975b), 2 and from B r i t i s h Columbia by Green (1979, 1980). Within B r i t i s h Columbia, the Lower Fraser Valley has been the area of the most intensive freshwater a l g a l f l o r i s t i c study (Stein 1975). For t h i s reason, and due to i t s close proximity to Vancouver, the Lower Fraser Valley was chosen as the area i n which to begin thorough studies of the Synuraceae. In conjunction, a seasonality study concentrating on three lakes was under-taken. The b i o l o g i c a l data together with physicochemical data are a s t a r t for noting the occurrence and understanding the environmental requirements of these organisms i n t h i s region. 3 I I . MATERIALS AND METHODS A. Sample c o l l e c t i o n At each lake, surface plankton samples were taken from the shore with a #25 mesh Wisconsin net, generally from a dock that extended over the water. The net was not towed lower than ca. 0.5 m. Two surface sediment samples were c o l l e c t e d using a 7 mm (I.D) p l a s t i c tube. Samples were c o l l e c t e d i n duplicate and one was preserved with Lugol's iodine. Live samples were returned to the laboratory i n a portable i c e chest containing water i n buckets used to duplicate the temperature of the lake water on c o l l e c t i o n day. Complete c o l l e c t i o n s were made every other week from June 1978 through August 1979 except during September-November 1978, and April-May 1979 when c o l l e c t i o n s were made every week, and i n January 1979 when no samples were taken as the lakes were frozen. B. Physicochemical methods F i e l d : The temperature of the water was measured with a mercury thermometer, and the pH determined using a Markson (model 85) portable pH meter, accurate to ± 0.05 pH u n i t s . Measurements of water transparency, using a Secchi d i s c , could not be made from the docks owing to the shallow-ness of the lakes. For comparison among the three lakes, measurements were taken from a boat i n deeper water during August 1979 using a 20 cm Secchi d i s c . A I L polypropylene b o t t l e was f i l l e d with lake water, and returned to the laboratory i n the portable i c e chest for nutrient a n a l y s i s . Laboratory: Nutrients were analyzed by the Hach k i t method i n the laboratory using a Bausch and Lomb Spectrophotometer 21. The nutrient samples were allowed to come to room temperature before analysis, and most 4 analyses were done on the day of c o l l e c t i o n . A comparison was done early i n t h i s study between analyses done at room temperature on the day of c o l l e c t i o n , and the same sample which was frozen before analysis. The frozen samples were thawed to either 10° or to room temperature and then analysed. This indicated that S i concentrations were reduced on freezing. Subsequently, a l l samples were analysed without freezing, on the day of c o l l e c t i o n . C. Microscopic methods Preliminary examination of l i v e samples was within 24 h of the c o l l e c t i o n day, using a L e i t z phase contrast microscope. In some instances, dried preparations were made for more de t a i l e d observations of the scales and b r i s t l e s . Although these could be seen and measured, t h e i r f i n e structure d e t a i l s could not be discerned. Individual organisms were then i s o l a t e d for examination with the electron microscope (EM). O r i g i n a l l y , several techniques were t r i e d for preparing samples f or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (Hibberd 1977; Sheath et al. 1975; Takahashi 1978). One of the most successful was to concentrate the dead organisms by ce n t r i f u g a t i o n , wash with d i s t i l l e d water and centrifuge again. This was repeated several times. A f t e r a drop of the concentrate was placed on a polished SEM stub and a i r dried (Hibberd 1977), large zooplankters were removed with forceps as observed with a d i s s e c t i n g microscope. Another successful method was to i s o l a t e the organisms as observed with the compound l i g h t microscope and the micropipette technique (Hoshaw and Rosowski 1973). These specimens were then a i r dried onto a polished SEM stub. A useful v a r i a t i o n of t h i s method includes drying the sample onto a microscope s l i d e , rewetting only the organism wanted, and t r a n s f e r r i n g i t to a SEM stub using. 5 a micropipette. Samples preserved with Lugol's iodine s o l u t i o n had to be washed thoroughly with d i s t i l l e d water before a i r drying onto the stub, otherwise iodine c r y s t a l s formed. A m i c r o f i l t e r technique for SEM preparation was t r i e d but provided no better r e s u l t s than the preceding methods (L. J. Veto, pers. comm.). This technique employs a m i c r o f i l t e r holder for washing the sample and was t r i e d on samples containing some suspended matter. An HC1 wash was used for cleaning the scales, but p i t t e d the f i l t e r so badly that i t was unsatisfactory as a background on which to f i n d the scales. A f t e r preparation, a l l a i r dried samples on the SEM stubs were coated with gold at a 45° angle i n a vacuum evaporator. The microscope used was a Cambridge Stereoscan Mark IIA. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM), organisms were i s o l a t e d using the micropipette method and a i r dried onto a collodion-coated g r i d (Takahashi 1978). The grids were then coated with carbon and examined using a Carl Zeiss EM-10 High Resolution TEM. D. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Due to the f l u c t u a t i n g state of chrysophycean taxonomy and the lack of a s i n g l e unifying reference, i t was necessary to use many texts and a r t i c l e s f o r s p e c i f i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The general texts consulted f o r the Synuraceae were: Bou r r e l l y (1957, 1968), Huber-Pestalozzi (1941), K r i s t i a n s e n (1975a) and Takahashi (1978). In addition to these, problems involving species of c e r t a i n genera were resolved by consulting the following: f or Chrysophaerella, Asmund (1973); for Mallomonas, Wujek and Van der Veer (1976), P e t e r f i and Momeu (1976a), Asmund and Cronberg (1979); for Mallomonopsis, Harris (1966); 6 for Spiniferomonas, Takahashi (1973); and for Synura, K r i s t i a n s e n (1975c). A l l but the Synuraceae were i d e n t i f i e d using: Bourrelly (1957, 1968), H i l l i a r d and Asmund (1963), Huber-Pestalozzi (1941), Mignot (1974) and Willen (1963) . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the associated non-chrysophycean algae generally followed that of Stein (1975), Prescott (1962), and Smith (1950); the Pyrrophyta and Cryptophyta were i d e n t i f i e d using Huber-Pestalozzi (1950). The abundance of a l l taxa was sub j e c t i v e l y estimated using a system outlined by Leadbeater (1972) for a v a r i e t y of f l a g e l l a t e nannoplankton. Estimates were grouped into three frequency ranks as follows: "a species was considered rare (R) i f on average i t appeared only once on a g r i d , occasional (0) i f on average i t appeared between 1 and 9 times, or frequent (F) i f i t appeared 10 or more times." This system was modified s l i g h t l y so that R=l, 0=2 and F=3; thus each taxon i d e n t i f i e d was given a frequency value of 1, 2 or 3. 7 I I I . DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLING AREAS A. Main s i t e s The locations (shown i n Text - F i g . IA) and general physical parameters of the three main s i t e s are compared i n Table I. The Lower Fraser Valley (Text - Figs. IA, 2) i s defined as the southwestern corner of B r i t i s h Columbia, from Vancouver i n the west to Hope i n the east, and from the Coast Mountains i n the north to the Cascade Mountains i n the south (Stein 1975). Whonock Lake i s within the Maple Ridge D i s t r i c t M u nicipality (Text -F i g . 1C), with Blue Mountain P r o v i n c i a l Forest to the north, and Iron Mountain to the east. Of the area immediately surrounding this nearly c i r c u l a r lake, one-fourth has been developed as a public park, with extensive use i n the summer months, and the other three-quarters remains as natural coniferous f o r e s t . The inflow i s at the north end of the lake. The outflow (Whonock Creek) flows from a marshy area at the east end of the lake into the Fraser River, ca. 4 km to the south. The lake bottom i s generally muddy except at the swimming area where sand has been placed to provide a beach. The water colour, which a f f e c t s penetration of l i g h t , i s a dark brown owing to the presence of humic acids. The surrounding vegetation i s within the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Krajina 1969). The aquatic plants, which occur only i n the shallow f r i n g e s , include Nuphar polysepalum Engle., Nymphaea odorata A i t . , and Brasenia schreberi Gmel. Munday Lake i s the main focus of Munday Lake Memorial Park, SE of Port Moody (Text - F i g . IB), and has been described by Wailes (1930). I t i s situated i n a dense wooded area of t y p i c a l Coastal Western Hemlock Zone (Krajina 1969). Public access i s not as r e s t r i c t e d as around Whonock Lake, 8 and there are wide paths e n c i r c l i n g the lake and running extensively through-out the park. The park i t s e l f i s situated i n a suburbanized area. The lake i s roughly e l l i p t i c a l i n shape and well protected by the surrounding woods. An accurate depth reading i s d i f f i c u l t as the bottom i s composed of deep layers of f i n e sediment and accumulated Sphagnum as noted by Wailes (1930). I t i s a bog-lake surrounded by a slowly encroaching edge of Sphagnum which forms a thick substrate for other vegetation. The water appears a very dark brown colour due to the presence of humic acids. Due to i t s boggy nature, the vegetation immediately surrounding the lake i s pr i m a r i l y of ericaceous plants, i n c l u d i n g : Ledum groenlandicum Oeder., Vaccinium spp. and Gaultheria shallon Pursh. A notable bog plant present i s Drosera sp. The aquatic plants include Potamogeton natans L. and Brasenia schreberi, both of which cover the lower south h a l f of the lake. A small patch of Nuphar polysepalum i s also present. Heavy public usage of th i s park has an impact on s p e c i f i c plants as w e l l as animals. For instance, c h i l d r e n frequently c u l l e d the tadpole population as we l l as members of the c o l o n i a l c i l i a t e Ophrydium. Como Lake (south of Port Moody), i n contrast to the other two lakes which are surrounded by thick woods, i s i n the centre of the open, grassy Como Lake Park, situated i n a highly urbanized area (Text - F i g . IB). The shoreline i s e l l i p t i c a l with gradual sloping banks. There are several small inflows around the periphery of the lake and one main outflow to the south of the lake. The shallow depth i s indicated by the propensity of Brasenia schreberi which extends almost a l l the way across the lake. In contrast to the f i n e sediment i n Munday Lake, Como has a thick muddy bottom. Again, humic acids are present. Transparency readings, although only 0.7 m i n August 1979, were generally j u s t over 1 m. The vegetation surrounding the lake i s 9 r e s t r i c t e d to i s o l a t e d patches of trees such as Salix sp., Alnus sp., and Populus sp., a l l set i n a grassland part that i s mowed r e g u l a r l y . The aquatic plants include Nymphaea odorata, and Typha l a t i f o l i a L. at the north end of the lake. Just as at Munday Lake, the public has quite an impact on th i s lake. I t i s used f o r f i s h i n g , swimming, canoeing, and s p e c i f i c c o l l e c -tions of animal and plant l i f e by c h i l d r e n . 10 Table I - Main study lakes i n the Lower Fraser Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia. Whonock Munday Como Distance East of Vancouver (km) 60 20 20 Latitude (N) Longitude (W) A l t i t u d e (m) 49°13' 122°27' 188 49°16' 122°49' 170 49°16* 122°52' 150 Depth (m) Average Maximum 4.3 9.5 2.2 3.8 1.7 3.1 Bottom muddy (sandy beach) f i n e sediment; muddy accumulated Sphagnum Secchi (m)' 2.5 2.2 0.7 SAugust 1979 11 Text - Figure 1. Location - of Whonock, Munday, and Como Lakes. A. Lakes situated i n southeastern corner of B r i t i s h Columbia. B. Munday and Como Lakes located near Port Moody. C. Location of Whonock Lake. 12 ® BRITISH COLUMBIA BLUE MOUNTAIN PROVINCIAL FOREST DEWDNEY TRUNK ROAD ® 1km <COMO LAKE PARK J M U N D A Y T A K E PARK /MUNDAY / LAKE WHONOCK L A K E II2 A V E . W H O N O C K L A K E PARK 13 B. A d d i t i o n a l s i t e s To augment the seasonality studies of the three main lakes, c o l l e c t i o n s were made at various s i t e s throughout the Lower Fraser Valley. The frequency of c o l l e c t i o n s made at one p a r t i c u l a r s i t e , and the t o t a l number of d i f f e r e n t s i t e s depended e n t i r e l y on what time would permit. These a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s are b r i e f l y described and are ordered from west to east (Text - F i g . 2). Results and temperature and pH information are l i s t e d i n Appendix I I . Beaver Lake i s situated i n Stanley Park, j u s t to the north of downtown Vancouver. Rooted vegetation extends across the en t i r e lake, i n d i c a t i n g i t s shallowness. The water i s brown due to the presence of humic acids. A large resident duck population and the presence of the public l i k e l y have some impact on t h i s lake. C o l l e c t i o n s were made at Beaver Lake on the following dates: 23 August, 5 November 1978, and 18 March 1979. Trout Lake i s located i n John Hendry Park i n east Vancouver. The lake has rooted vegetation around the fringes only, a gra v e l l y bottom, and turbid green water. C o l l e c t i o n s made on 17 Sept 1978 revealed no Synuraceae. Subsequent samples y i e l d no representatives (Contant, pers. - comm.O . Deer Lake i s situated i n the c i t y of Burnaby, to the southwest of the much larger Burnaby Lake. Species of the w a t e r l i l i e s Nymphaea and Nuphar are present i n small groups throughout the lake. The maximum depth i s 6 m, and the mean depth i s 3.6 m (Northcote and Chapman 1978). A large resident duck and Canadian goose population may have affected the water q u a l i t y at the swimming area where the plankton samples were taken. The water i s brown with humic acids and the bottom of the lake i s very muddy. Two c o l l e c t i o n s were made at Deer Lake on 15 June 1978 and 22 A p r i l 1979. 14 Burnaby Lake l i e s to the south of the Lougheed Highway (B. C. Highway 7). I t i s a bog-lake s i m i l a r to Munday Lake, but much larger (ca. 3 km along i t s east-west a x i s ) . A majority of the lake i s covered by w a t e r l i l i e s , again i n d i c a t i n g the shallowness of the lake,and the water i s a brown colour. Samples were taken from an area which has a large duck population on 15 June 1978 and 22 A p r i l 1979. Within Munday Lake Memorial Park (near Port Moody) i s Lost Lake, which i s very small and to the east of Munday Lake at the eastern edge of the Park. It was sampled on 11 June 1979, but no Synuraceae were present. A small slough area (known l o c a l l y as Katsie Slough), within the golf course on the Lougheed Highway between the P i t t River bridge and the town of Haney, was sampled on 29 October 1978. The plankton tow, made where the stream widens before going into the culvert and under the highway, showed some chrysophytes present but no Synuraceae. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Research Forest, situated north-northeast of Haney, ca. 50 km east of Vancouver, contains a number of lakes, several of which were sampled because of easy access from the road. Samples from a l l were taken on 8 June 1978 and 14 June 1979. These included Blaney Lake, P l a c i d Lake, Gwendoline Lake, and Jacob's Lake. Blaney Lake i s a bog-lake divided into two sections due to the presence of a large beaver dam. Co l l e c t i o n s were made i n the section of the lake below the dam near the outflow. P l a c i d Lake i s s i m i l a r to Munday Lake i n that i t i s ringed by sphagnum-peat deposits, i s small i n s i z e , and the water i s dark brown colour. Gwendoline Lake (along with P l a c i d Lake) i s one of the northernmost lakes w i t h i n the U.B.C. Research Forest. There i s no rooted vegetation and the water i s r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r , i n d i c a t i n g a lack of humic acids. Jacob's Lake, 15 referred to as Marlon Lake i n the International B i o l o g i c a l Program study on ecosystem dynamics (Efford 1967), was also sampled. I t i s a small bog-lake with a bottom of s o f t mud and mean depth of 2.4 m (Efford 1967). Rooted vegetation of the l i t t o r a l region includes Nuphar polysepalum, Potamogeton natans, P. epihydrus Raf., Menyanth.es trifoliata L., Isoetes occidentalis Hendus (Gruendling 1971). Rolley Lake i s situated near the southern t i p of Stave Lake i n Rolley Lake P r o v i n c i a l Park (near Maple Ridge). A sandy beach f o r swimming has been created as at Whonock Lake, but d i f f e r s i n that the bottom of Rolley Lake drops o f f steeply. A c o l l e c t i o n was made at t h i s lake on 15 A p r i l 1979. Stave Lake i s an expansion of the Stave River, ca. 75 km east of Vancouver, and i s much larger than any of the other lakes sampled. Unlike the other lakes, there i s no evidence of humic acids or rooted vegetation. Further, the damming of the Stave River and the steep mountainous banks in d i c a t e that t h i s lake i s much deeper than the other lakes. A sample was taken on 15 A p r i l 1979. 16 Text - Figure 2. Location; of a d d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i o n s i t e s i n the Lower Fraser Valley. 17 18 IV. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE THREE MAIN SITES RESULTS A. WHONOCK LAKE 1. Physicochemical Results The seasonal temperature range at Whonock Lake was the most extreme of the three s i t e s . Throughout the c o l l e c t i o n period, i t ranged from a minimum of 1.0°C during December 1978 and February 1979 to a maximum of 26.4°C on 9 August 1978 (Text - F i g . 3). Ice appeared on the lake i n early November 1978, but i t did not completely freeze over u n t i l the end of that month. The ic e remained u n t i l the end of February 1979 and was ca. 25 cm thick through most of January and February. The pH was con s i s t e n t l y a c i d i c , always below pH 7 and ranged from a minimum of 4.05 (4 March 1979) to a maximum of 6.75 (11 August 1979; Text - F i g . 3). The seasonal v a r i a t i o n of s i l i c a i n the lake throughout the year i n d i -cates that there was a d e f i n i t e r i s e i n s i l i c a during the autumn months of September, October, and November 1978. A second, though not as dramatic, r i s e i s evident i n the warmer months of May to August 1979. O v e r a l l , phosphate was seasonally e r r a t i c , but the greatest l e v e l s occurred during autumn and early winter. Levels were sharply reduced i n the beginning of February, as was the case for s i l i c a . The scattered information a v a i l a b l e f o r n i t r a t e shows a r i s e i n i t s abundance i n winter and spring, when both Si0„ and PO. were at t h e i r lowest l e v e l s (at or near detection 2 4 l i m i t s ) . This may suggest some inverse r e l a t i o n between a v a i l a b i l i t y or u t i l i z a t i o n of n i t r a t e and the two'iother n u t r i e n t s . 19 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results a. General a l g a l p e r i o d i c i t y A complete l i s t on the taxa observed throughout the sampling period i s i n the Appendix IA. The patterns of the most common species throughout the year show that i n Whonock Lake there are few months i n which non-chrysophycean algae were the most frequent. In July 1978, the d i n o f l a g e l l a t e Ceratium hirundinella and the bluegreen Anabaena sp. were the common species. Anabaena cylindrica was common i n September along with the synuracean Chrysosphaerella multispina. For part of October, various diatoms were frequent, including Synedra sp., Achnanthes minutissima, Cymbella sp. and Gomphonema sp. In February, algae were r e l a t i v e l y infrequent probably due to the cold tempera-tures and i c e cover, but the diatom Tabellaria sp. was most common. Tabellar-ia fenestrata and Mougeotia sp. (Chlorophyceae) were the most frequent non-chrysophycean algae during the month of A p r i l . In the warm water temperatures ( e s p e c i a l l y June 1979), Peridinium gatunense (Dinophyceae) was the most common alga. b. Chrysophyceae Throughout the sampling period, Whonock Lake had a t o t a l of 10 taxa of the Synuraceae and other Chrysophyceae (Text - F i g . 3). The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s best reviewed by species. i . Synuraceae Chrysosphaerella brevispina appeared i n A p r i l 1979 and remained u n t i l the beginning of June. During t h i s period, the temperature was 8.0-22.5°C and the pH was 4.55-5.70. I t was not detected i n l a t e May of 1978, but may have been present e a r l i e r i n the spring. The temperatures were approximately i n the same range as those of 1979, but the pH was s l i g h t l y higher at 6.25-6.45. 20 Chrysosphaerella multispina was present throughout the summer and early f a l l of 1978, with a s i m i l a r pattern up to August 1979 when the sampling was discontinued. During t h i s period, the temperature range was 2.0-26.4°C, and the pH was 5.35-6.75. Mallomonas akrokomos appeared mainly during the cold winter months of February and March 1979 at a water temperature between 1 and 5°C. I t was also present i n June 1978 when the temperature was 24.0°C and the pH was 6.3. There was i c e on the lake but i t thawed around the edge by the end of February and disappeared completely by mid-March. No c o l l e c t i o n s were made from l a t e December 1978 through January 1979, and i t was l i k e l y present under the i c e during this period since i t was very frequent when f i r s t encountered i n mid-February. The pH range of the water when th i s species was c o l l e c t e d was 4.05-5.20, and 6.30. Mallomonas caudata was present throughout the year with the exception of December 1978, January 1979 (no c o l l e c t i o n s were made) and February 1979. I t was found to be most common i n spring (March to May) 1979 when n i t r a t e l e v e l s were highest, the temperature was 5-19°C, and pH 4.55-5.70. However, i t existed more or less throughout the year, with a temperature range of 2.0-26.4°C and pH 4.05-6.75. Mallomonas crassiquama was noted only twice, during the months of A p r i l and May 1979. The temperature was 8.0 and 16.0°C and the pH was 5.20 and 5.70, r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t s presence i n A p r i l (when s i l i c a l e v e l s were low) indicates that the small pulse of s i l i c a (0.5 mg L at the end of A p r i l was not s o l e l y responsible for i t s appearance. Either the small phosphate pulse i n A p r i l or the general r i s e of n i t r a t e (March-April) may have influenced t h i s population. 21 Mallomonas hamata was encountered only twice during the sampling period, once i n March and once i n May. I t was very rare as only one specimen was seen with the SEM and i t was observed only once with the l i g h t microscope. It i s s u r p r i s i n g that neither M. crassiquama nor M. hamata occurred i n the other samples either the week before or the week a f t e r . The temperatures were 10.8° and 16.0°C and the pH 5.05 and 5.70. As with M. crassiquama, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say what factors may a f f e c t t h i s population, with only two possible nutrient data points. This presence followed a small s i l i c a pulse i n May with phosphate not high (0.26 mg L , and n i t r a t e s t a r t i n g to decline from a r e l a t i v e l y high point (0.104 i g L V In March, only n i t r a t e was high (0.137 mg L Y Synura echinulata appeared s p o r a d i c a l l y throughout July-October 1978 and March-April 1979. The temperature range was 8.0-26.4°C and the ph 5.00-6.65. The nutrient l e v e l s appear to have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to i t s appear-ance, as i t was found when s i l i c a , phosphate and n i t r a t e - l e v e l s were both high and low. S. spinosa was noted i n August, September 1978, June and July 1979. The temperature range was 17.5-26.4°C and the pH range 5.35-6.40. S. uvella was noted throughout the year except December 1978 to mid-March 1979 with moderate peaks i n abundance scattered over a number of periods. The temperature range was 2.0-26.4°C and the pH was 4.55-6.75. As i t was present most of the time through various nutrient f l u c t u a t i o n s , i t can be said that even low nutrient l e v e l s must be adequate for the maintenance of th i s population. Spiniferomonas bilacunosa was noted on three i s o l a t e d dates only, 29 June 1978, 4 March and 28 June 1979. The water temperature on these dates d i f f e r e d widely (4.0 and 24.0°C), as did the pH (4.05, 6.15, 6.30). This 22 species was never seen with the l i g h t microscope and due to i t s small s i z e , could have been overlooked i n the samples during other months of the year. With only three c o l l e c t i o n dates, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make generalizations about the influence of nutrients on this species. However, the n i t r a t e l e v e l s appear to be r e l a t i v e l y high when i t i s present (0.127, 0.091 and 0.099 mg L - 1 ) . i i . Non-Synuraceae Dinobryon bavaricum was present throughout the year with the notable exception of the warm months (May through August 1978). The temperature extremes were 1.0-26.0°C and the pH 4.75-6.55. I t was most frequent throughout October 1978. The phosphate l e v e l s during t h i s month rose and maintained a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l (3.905-5.1 mg L V Dinobryon cylindricum was present during much of the c o l l e c t i o n period with the exception of May through September 1978. By contrast, t h i s species was moderately abundant during the following (1979) May-August. The temperature range was 1.0-26.0°C, and the pH range was 4.05-6.75 which was the range for the lake over t h i s c o l l e c t i n g period. The longest period of common occurrence for th i s species was December 1978-April 1979. Cysts were noted i n great numbers i n the middle of th i s i n t e r v a l on two dates (4, 12 March 1979; F i g . 43). Dinobryon divergens was observed only four times: 1, 29 June, 10 October 1978, 12 March 1979. I t was the only Dinobryon species encountered during June 1978. The temperature range of the water when D. divergens was present was 5.0-24.0°C, and the pH range was 4.75-6.30. One cyst was observed on 12 March 1979. 23 Epipyxis tabellariae was encountered only on 1 A p r i l 1979 on Tabellaria. On t h i s sampling date, the temperature was 11.4°C and the pH was 4.55. E. utriculus var. acuta was observed on 12 March and 29 A p r i l 1979 on Mougeotia and Tabellaria. The temperatures on these two sampling dates were 5.0° and 19.0°C. The pH was 4.75 and 5.05. Uroglena volvox was found only during the autumn months (September, October) 1978. During t h i s period, the water temperature was between 10.2° and 16.5°C. The pH ranged between 5.95 and 6.15. The production of cysts by th i s species i s recorded i n the plankton from 10 October through 29 October 1978. These cysts were well formed, smooth, sphaerical and possessed well developed c o l l a r s (Figs. 41, 42). They were also found commonly i n the surface sediments. During October when i t was very frequent and producing cysts, both the s i l i c a and phosphate l e v e l s were r e l a t i v e l y high (0.90 and 3.905-5.1 mg L \ r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 24 Text - Figure 3. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Whonock Lake, May 1978 to August 1979. Species frequency indicated by: 3 = frequent; 2 = occasional; 1 = rare. 25 W H O N O C K L A K E 30-i TEMPERATURE ( C ° ) p H SYNURACEAE 7a bravispina la multispina  Mallomonas akrokomos Mallomonas caudata Mallomonas crassiquama  Mallomonas hamata Synura er.hinulata Synura spinnsa Synura ux&lla Spiniferomonas bilacunnsa OTHER CHRYSOPHYCEAE Dinobryon bavarir.um Dinobryon cylindrinum Dinobryon diverqens Epipyxis tahellariae Epipyxis utriculus var. asilla. Uroglena volvox 8 - 1 b 4 3 Bar iji | J I A I 1 s 1 I 1 W 1 I 1 N 1 It^ J F I W I 1 'A1 1 I to U u IAI 1 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i nnn^KEcRpjnHBnHHBUWWWIin i lBBBWWKlWB 1 1 • • • R • • • • • 1 1 1 1 1 7 M J J J r 4 D 1 M A M J A S i 0 2 ( m g I"1) PO. 3-( m g 1-1) N 0 3 <mg I"1) 0.2-1 0.1 H M 'j' IJ I A I I S M 1 'O1 1 I 1 N MD) F I W I 1 'A1 1 I M IJ IJ IAI 26 B. MUNDAY LAKE t 1. Physicochemical Results The bog nature of t h i s lake l i k e l y influences physicochemical conditions. The water temperature minimum was 1.0°C on 19 February 1979 and the maximum was 26.2°C on 9 August 1978 (Text - F i g . 4). Ice formed on the lake i n mid-December 1978 and thawed during the beginning of March 1979. This i c e cover was ca. 20-25 cm thick for a l l but about 4 weeks of that period. The water was a c i d i c during most of the year owing to the presence of the Sphagnum i n and around the lake. The pH minimum was 2.85 on 8 A p r i l 1979 and the maximum was 6.65 on 11 August 1979. These • pH extremes constituted the greatest range of the three lakes i n the study, and t h i s was c e r t a i n l y the most a c i d i c of the three having the majority of a l l values below pH 6, some of which were below pH 4. Generally, nutrient l e v e l s i n Munday Lake were the lar g e s t of the three lakes studied. The pattern of the changes i n dissolved s i l i c a i s s i m i l a r to that i n Whonock Lake. There was a marked peak from September through Novem-ber, which f e l l abruptly i n December, and lasted through A p r i l . There was a second, but much smaller peak i n May and June. During the peaks, the concen-t r a t i o n of dissolved s i l i c a (ca. 2.5 mg L was twice the amount i n Whonock Lake (ca. 1.2 mg L . Once again, phosphate was extremely e r r a t i c season-a l l y , and major pulses were mostly r e s t r i c t e d to autumn and early winter. The b r i e f peak observed during August 1978 was repeated i n 1979, and most of spring and summer phosphate was quite low. N i t r a t e was at i t s lowest during October, but t h i s "low" (0.22 mg L "*") was s t i l l double the amount of n i t r a t e present i n the other lakes during t h e i r lowest periods. There were two general peaks i n the n i t r a t e pattern l e v e l , one during November and one during March. 27 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results a. General a l g a l p e r i o d i c i t y In Munday Lake, there were many blooms of various a l g a l groups through-out the year (see Appendix IB). This i s unlike the s i t u a t i o n i n Whonock Lake, where members of the Chrysophyceae were very frequent i n most months. In May 1978, Eunotia sp. (Bacillariophyceae) and Spirogyra sp. (Chlorophyceae) were very common. During the months of June, July and part of August, Peridinium sp. (Dinophyceae) predominated. I t was s t i l l common during the middle of September, but Cryptomonas ovata (Cryptophyceae) was the most prevalent species, and Staurastrum spp. (Chlorophyceae) were common during the middle of the month. Cryptomonas ovata was again common throughout October as was Synura uvella. During t h i s month, there were also b r i e f blooms of the diatom Melosira sp. and desmid Staurastrum spp. In November and December few species were present with diatoms the most common and during February, the diatoms Tabellaria sp. and Eunotia sp. predominated. In March and A p r i l , the chrysophyte Dinobryon cylindricum was prevalent with another chrysophyte, Eusphaerella turfosa, abundant as well i n A p r i l through May 1979. This month also had a bloom of Peridinium sp. and Staurastrum sp., both of which were common i n June, but not i n such large numbers. In J u l y Staurastrum sp. reached a peak, as did the bluegreen Merismopedia sp. By the one c o l l e c t i o n date i n August 1979, a l l the a l g a l species appeared to be either rare (1) or .common (2), but none of them were very frequent (3). b. Chrysophyceae Of the three lakes studied, Munday Lake had the fewest chrysophyte species present. In a t o t a l of ten taxa observed, only f i v e appeared with 28 any frequency ( i . e . , more than three times). Of these ten species, three were Synuraceae (Text - F i g . 4). i . Synuraceae Chrysosphaerella multispina was present only once throughout the sampling period on 18 May 1978, but not during the spring of 1979. The water tempera-ture on t h i s date was 20.0°C. Mallomonas caudata was present at l e a s t once i n most months of the year with the exceptions of December 1978, January-March, and August 1979. However there were few c o l l e c t i o n s i n December and August,, and none i n January. The water temperature on the dates when M. caudata was c o l l e c t e d ranged from 3.0-25.2°C and the pH from 3.35-6.35. I t was never "very frequent" as i t was a number of times i n both Whonock and Como Lakes. Although present throughout the year, i t was a sporadic species, with i t s appearance not corresponding with f l u c t u a t i o n s of any nutrient or physical f a c t o r . Synura uvella was present at l e a s t once a month during May-November 1978. In 1979, however, i t was noted only i n March, May and July. I t was quite frequent i n l a t e September, and early October 1978, which corresponds with a r i s e i n the s i l i c a and phosphate l e v e l s . The temperature and pH ranges were broad, being 4.2-26.2°C, ..and 3.3-6.45, r e s p e c t i v e l y . i i . Non-Synuraceae Chrysococcocystis elegans was noted on one sampling date only, 12 March 1979. The temperature was 4.2°C and the pH was low (3.30). Dinobryon bavaricum was observed three times throughout the c o l l e c t i n g period. I t was common i n October 1978 and June-July of 1979, and rare i n A p r i l 1979. During the f i r s t of these periods, phosphate and s i l i c a were 29 abundant, although t h i s was not true during i t s second and t h i r d occurrences. During October, the water temperature was 10.2-15.8°C and the pH r e s t r i c t e d (5.70-5.95). In A p r i l , the pH f e l l to 3.35 and 2.85, and the temperature was 9.5° and 11.2°C. The temperature range during the June-July period was higher but uniform (24.5-25.0°C) and the pH was r e s t r i c t e d (5.85-6.03). Dinobryon crenulatum was present on two sampling dates, 28 May and 11 June 1979. The water temperature on these dates was 18.0° and 22.0°C re s p e c t i v e l y , with the pH f o r both c o l l e c t i o n s 4.95. A pulse i n the s i l i c a values was noted at the end of A p r i l and was f a l l i n g during the period when i t was present. The n i t r a t e l e v e l s were r e l a t i v e l y high (0.969 and 0.859 mg L ^ r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Dinobryon cylindricum was present throughout most of the year, and was most common during the spring (March, A p r i l ) . In t h i s period, both s i l i c a and phosphate were low, but n i t r a t e was r e l a t i v e l y high (ca. 1.2-1.6 mg L . The temperature ranged from 2.0° to 26.2°C and a pH of 2.85-6.65. Both these physicochemical extremes were the recorded extremes for the lake. Dinobryon divergens was present on three sampling dates only: 1, 15 June and 14 October 1978. The temperature range for these dates was 15.8-24.4°C and the pH 5.35-5.70. The nutrient information a v a i l a b l e for 14 October 1978 shows s i l i c a (2.46 mg L 1 ) and phosphate (8.24 mg L 1 ) were high and n i t r a t e was low (0.239 mg L "*") . In contrast, on 15 June 1978, s i l i c a and phosphate were low (0.17, 2.37 mg L \ r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta was encountered on one date only, 12 March 1979. For t h i s sample, the temperature of the water was 4.2°C and the pH was 3.30. Only the n i t r a t e l e v e l s were high at t h i s time (1.461 mg L "*"). 30 Eusphaerella turfosa was noted i n June 1978, and A p r i l , May and July 1979. The water temperature range was 9.0-25.0°C, and the pH range was 3.90-6.03. This species was most common during A p r i l and May 1979, when a small pulse i n s i l i c a occurred. N i t r a t e l e v e l s , although d e c l i n i n g , were s t i l l r e l a t i v e l y high (1.21-1.46 mg L and phosphate l e v e l s were low (0.10-0.53 mg L - 1 ) . 31 Text - Figure 4. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Munday Lake, Map 1978 to August 1979. Species frequency indicated by: 3 = frequent; 2 = occasional; 1 = rare. 3 2 MUNDAY L A K E T E M P E R A T U R E ( C ° ) PH SYNURACEAE m Svnu sosphaerella muitixpina omnna/t '-^ ynura OTHER CHRYSOPHYCEAE Chrynnnor.r.nr.yxlix ologamt Dinobryon bavarir.um Dinobryon crenulatum Dinobryon c.yitnciric.um Dinobryon Hivorgon.t tQipyxiB utrir.iilus var. acuta usphaereTTa tmlosa Si0 2 ( m g I" 1) P0 4 J" ( m g 1-1) M 'J' IJ I A I 1 S 1 I 1 W 1 I i ft ' IDJ t I W I 1 'A1  I W I J I J IAI 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 i 1 2 1 ?, 1 1 1 2. 2 1 1 1 2 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 ? 3 3 3 J) 3 3 2 1 2 1 ? ? 1 i 1 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 M J I I S 0 l pj l M A M » A NO 3-( m g 6 1 I 1 W 1 I 1 1 IDJ t= I M I 1 W 1 I M I J I J IAI 33 C. COMO LAKE 1. Physicochemical Results In Como Lake, the temperature minimum (2.8°C) was present somewhat e a r l i e r (26 November 1978) than e i t h e r Whonock or Munday Lake, and the maximum was 27 C (which was close to that of both Whonock and Munday Lakes) on 23 July 1979 and on 11 August 1979. Ice covered the lake from the end of November to the end of February. The temperature p r o f i l e i s s i m i l a r to those of Whonock and Munday Lakes. The pH minimum was 5.25 on 7 May 1979 and the maximum was 6.90 on 23 July 1979, which i s a r e s t r i c t e d range when compared with the other two lakes. The pattern of the dissolved s i l i c a was s i m i l a r to that found i n Whonock Lake. There i s a peak i n the months of September, October and November, a low period from December through A p r i l . The S i l e v e l s slowly climbed i n May and June and then rose s l i g h t l y i n July and August. As with the other two lakes, phosphate varied e r r a t i c a l l y , with a few peaks during autumn and early winter and a notable lack during a l l of spring-summer. The absolute l e v e l s were nearly as great (6-8 mg L "*") as that i n Munday Lake. The n i t r a t e l e v e l pattern i n Como Lake roughly followed that of Munday Lake, although the concentration was approximately h a l f . There was a peak from November through mid-April with smaller pulses at the end of A p r i l and mid-May, and then a general decline through August. These n i t r a t e values were midway between those of Munday Lake which were the highest and Whonock Lake which were the lowest. 34 2. B i o l o g i c a l Results a. General a l g a l p e r i o d i c i t y The genus Dinobryon dominated the phytoplankton during much of the time. During the periods when i t was not abundant, however, representatives from several d i f f e r e n t groups were prevalent, i n _ p a r t i c u l a r , members of the Cyanophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, and Dinophyceae. During May 1978, D. divergens was the most predominant species (see Appendix IC). The month of July was characterized by the increase of d i n o f l a g e l l a t e s Ceratium hirundinella and Peridinium gatunense. The l a t t e r continued as a very frequent species through July, and was accompanied by a bloom of the bluegreen Coelosphaeridium conferta, which continued to be common through October, along with D... cylindricum and Mallomonas caudata. These two chrysophytes remained prevalent through November and December. During February, Tabellaria flocculosa and Oedogonium sp. (Chlorophyceae) were abundant. In March, T. flocculosa and T. fenestrata predominated with D. cylindricum, which was abundant during one c o l l e c t i n g date i n A p r i l . However, i t was p r i m a r i l y D. divergens that was very frequent during A p r i l and May. In June, t h i s chrysophyte was joined by D. bavaricum (also abundant i n June 1978) and by C. hirundinella and P. gatunense. In July, the plankton was again dominated by P. gatunense, j u s t as i n July 1978. Trachelomonas sp. (Euglenophyceae) was the predominant alga on the one c o l l e c t i o n date of August 1979. b. Chrysophyceae At t h i s t h i r d regular c o l l e c t i n g s i t e , a t o t a l of 13 Chrysophyceae were encountered throughout the year. Of these, seven were Synuraceae and s i x were not (Text - F i g . 5). 35 i . Synuraceae Chrysosphaerella brevispina was present i n the lake only during A p r i l 1979, when the s i l i c a (0.01-0.145 mg L _ 1 ) and phosphate (0.10-0.31 mg L _ 1 ) l e v e l s were low and the n i t r a t e l e v e l s were d e c l i n i n g (from 0.523 to 0.336 mg L ^ ) . The water temperature was 10.0-21.0°C, and the pH was 5.75-6.25. Mallomonas caudata was present throughout the year except March, July and August 1979 (no c o l l e c t i o n i n January). A d e f i n i t e peak i n frequency can be seen during the months of October, November and December 1978 (Text -Fi g . 5). This corresponds with consistently high l e v e l s of s i l i c a and generally higher, although f l u c t u a t i n g , l e v e l s of the other two nutrients measured. When M. caudata was present the water temperature was between 3.5° and 26.8°C, and the pH values ranged from 5.25-6.85. M. transsylvanica was observed during October, the l a t t e r h a l f of November 1978, and then three times i n A p r i l 1979. The water temperature at these times was 2.8-21.0°C, and the pH was 5.70-6.25. The nutrient l e v e l s were neither c o n s i s t e n t l y high nor low when t h i s species appeared. Synura echinulata was present i n low numbers, spo r a d i c a l l y throughout the year, with a temperature range of 2.8-26.2°C and pH was 5.85-6.82. S. petersenii was encountered once only i n November 1978. The temperature was 6.0°C and the pH was 5.85, and a l l the nutrients were at r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l s . S. spinosa was observed several times i n July, August, l a t e September-October, December, A p r i l . The nutrient l e v e l s fluctuated during t h i s period with the temperature 4.0-26.2°C and the pH 5.80-6.70. S. uvella was noted p r i m a r i l y from the end of September through December and March-April with sporadic appearances i n other months. The temperature range was 2.8-36 26.0°C and the pH range was 5.60-6.85. During the autumn period, s i l i c a and phosphate were high with n i t r a t e increasing l a t e i n November. During the spring period, s i l i c a and phosphate were low and n i t r a t e was high at f i r s t and then began to decline, i i . Non-Synuraceae Bicoeca kepneri was present during the autumn and spring months epiphytic on Coelosphaeridium conferta and on Dinobryon divergens, respective-l y . The temperature of the water when i t was measured ranged from 8.2-26.0°C. and the pH 5.75-6.82. The nutrient l e v e l s varied, suggesting l i t t l e influence. Dinobryon bavaricum was observed i n May, June and October 1978, as well as May-July of 1979. During these months, the water temperature was between 13.7 and 27.0°C, and the pH was between 5.25 and 6.90. During the period of May-July, s i l i c a l e v e l s were increasing, phosphate was low, and n i t r a t e v a r i a b l e . Dinobryon cylindricum was noted throughout the en t i r e c o l l e c t i n g period except the f i r s t months of May and June. The water temperature ranged between 2.8 and 27.0°C when th i s species was present, and the pH was 5.35-6.90. I t appears to have been most frequent during the autumn and spring months of October through December and March through A p r i l . Its drop i n abundance (May-August) does not coincide with the abrupt changes i n s i l i c a and phosphate, so perhaps t h i s species may be i n h i b i t e d by low n i t r a t e l e v e l s or warmer summer temperatures. Dinobryon divergens was present May through July 1978 and from the end of March through July 1979. During the 1979 period, s i l i c a (0.01-0.4 mg L "*") and phosphate (ca. 0.1-0.2 mg L "*") l e v e l s were low, and n i t r a t e , which 37 previously had been high (ca. 0.8 mg L i ) , was d e c l i n i n g . The water tempera-ture was between 10.0 and 27.0°C, and the pH between 5.25 and 6.90. A few cysts were noted on 1 and 8 A p r i l 1979, when s i l i c a l e v e l s were low (0.01 mg L but were probably not l i m i t i n g . Epipyxis lauterbornii was observed only twice during the c o l l e c t i o n period. I t was found the f i r s t two weeks of A p r i l only and both weeks i t was on the l o r i c a e of D. divergens. The temperature of the water on these sampling dates was 10.0 and 12.2°C, and the pH was 6.05. S i l i c a (0.01 mg L "*") and phosphate (0.1-0.21 mg L "'") l e v e l s were low and n i t r a t e was d e c l i n i n g on these dates. Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta was present i n May 1978 and for three weeks i n A p r i l 1979. I t was always observed on D. divergens, but not present on a l l dates where D. divergens was found. The water temperature when th i s epiphyte was present was 10".0-20.0°C but the pH range was r e s t r i c t e d (6.05-6.25). S i l i c a (0.01 mg L "*") and phosphate (0.16-0.31 mg L ^) l e v e l s were low and n i t r a t e f luctuated. 38 Text - Figure 5. Physicochemical data and Chrysophyceae for Como Lake, May 1978 to August 1979. Species frequency indicated by: 3 = frequent; 2 = occasional; 1 = rare. 39 C O M O LAKE 30 • T E M P E R A T U R E <C°) 20 —\ < 10 0 p H SYNURACEAE Chrvsosohaemlla brevispina Mallomonas camlala Mallomonas transsvlvania §vnura echinulata  ynura petersenn Synura spinosa  Svnura uvella OTHER CHRYSOPHYCEAE Bicoeca keener!  Dinobryon bavaricum Dinobryon cylindricum  Dinobryon diveraens~ Epipyxis lauterbornii Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta S i 0 2 (mg I"1) P O 4 3 " (mg I-1) N O g -ling I"1) 8 7 — 6 -5 4 Ml 'J' I J I A I 1 S 1 I 1 'O1 1 I 1 N 1 Ip) F I 'M1 I 1 'A1 1 I W I J- | J TAI 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 ? 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M J J I k c 0 N DJ F M A M J J A IMI 'j' IJ I A I 1 s 1 I 1 'o' 1 M N 1 bj F 1 W 1 1 'A' 1 I M IJ r J tvf 40 DISCUSSION To compare and contrast the presence of various chyrsophyte species within the three lakes studied, i t i s advisable to look f i r s t at the physico-chemical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these lakes. Whonock i s the largest of the three as well as the deepest. Both Munday and Como are rather small and shallow. A l l three have darkly coloured water due to the presence of humic acids, although the water of Munday Lake i s a much darker red-brown colour due to the peaty nature of the environment. The range of water temperatures throughout the year for these three lakes was very s i m i l a r , a l l of them ranging approximately from 1T26°C, with minor v a r i a t i o n s . A l l the lakes were covered with i c e for about the same period during the winter months. Munday Lake was by far the most a c i d i c due to the abundance of Sphagnum (pH range 2.85-6.65). In comparison, the pH values for Whonock and Como Lakes were more r e s t r i c t e d and neither less than pH 4 (Whonock 4.05-6.75; Como 5.25-6.50). Munday also had the highest nutrient l e v e l s for s i l i c a , phosphate and n i t r a t e , and Whonock had the lowest values for a l l three n u t r i e n t s . In Munday Lake, the n i t r a t e values during peak periods were nearly ten times those i n Whonock Lake. The s i m i l a r i t i e s and diff e r e n c e s i n the physicochemical v a r i a t i o n s between these three lakes n e c e s s a r i l y influence the species observed. Whonock Lake had more Synuraceae than the other two lakes and these were the dominant taxa. There were ten Synuraceae present out of a t o t a l of 16 Chrysophyceae noted. The synuracean taxa were abundant i n ten out of the 15 months studied. Munday Lake, on the other hand, had only three Synuraceae of the ten Chrysophyceae encountered. The Synuraceae were very common only i n one 41 month of the 15 studied. Como Lake was i n between these two with seven Synuracean taxa of the 13 Chrysophyceae noted and the Synuraceae very common for three of the 15 months. However, species of Dinobryon were prevalent i n over ha l f the months of the study. Of these lakes, Munday was dominated by the greatest d i v e r s i t y of algae throughout the years. Three Dinobryon species were present at some time throughout the c o l l e c t -ing period i n a l l the lakes. D. bavaricum appeared to be a spring, summer, and autumn species. I t was most prevalent i n Whonock Lake where i t s pattern of presence was: a peak i n October, A p r i l and July. I t seems to be what Sandgren (1978) c l a s s i f i e s as a " s p e c i a l i s t " species; that i s , among other things, one which i s characterized by a rapid increase and decrease i n population growth. No cysts of D. bavaricum were observed i n any of the samples c o l l e c t e d , and no correspondence between nutrients (including s i l i c a ) and population growth i n any of the lakes was discerned. Dinobryon cylindricum i s d e f i n i t e l y a spring/autumn species, and again, was present i n a l l three lakes. In Whonock, there was an October peak i n population growth and one from February through early A p r i l . In Munday there was only a spring r i s e i n the population (March through A p r i l ) , whereas i n Como Lake the autumn/spring population growth pattern was f i r m l y established with an October through December r i s e and a March through the beginning of A p r i l peak. Munch (1972) found the same autumn/spring pattern with t h i s species i n H a l l Lake, Washington. She found that i t was always e a r l i e r i n the year than D. divergens with which i t seasonally overlapped. This f i e l d observation corresponded with her laboratory study which indicated that 42 D. cylindricum has a higher nutrient requirement, a higher need for i r o n or some other trace metal, and tolerated l e s s l i g h t than D. divergens, i n d i c a t i n g why D. cylindricum would be present e a r l i e r i n the season. Munch (1972) postulates that i n the beginning of spring, when nutrients are high, and the day length and l i g h t i n t e n s i t y are increasing, conditions seem to be i d e a l for D. cylindricum. She also suggests that D. divergens cannot compete with t h i s population as i t requires more l i g h t , but i s able to grow with lower nutrient l e v e l s , thus allowing i t s population growth l a t e r i n the spring. This pattern i s c l e a r l y evident i n Como Lake where both D. cylindricum and D. divergens were present i n a serie s of sampling periods. The D. cylindricum population began increasing i n mid-February, reaching a peak i n mid-March and began to decline the beginning of A p r i l . Then, D. divergens began i t s growth i n early A p r i l and started d e c l i n i n g by mid-May. I t can be seen that n i t r a t e i n Como Lake i s i n decline during t h i s period when the f i r s t species i s replaced by the second (Text - F i g . 5). Dinobryon divergens also occurred i n Whonock and Munday Lakes, but infrequently, and not as numerous. Unlike H a l l Lake (Washington) (Munch 1972), where i t grew very r a p i d l y , l a s t i n g l e s s than a month, i t s growth was more gradual here. Sheath et al. (1975) support the suggestion that l i g h t i s responsible for i n i t i a l yearly population increase, and that nutrients are not causal since nutrient l e v e l s i n the subarctic lake they studied were always high i n the summer. However, another factor found by Munch (1972) i n laboratory study infl u e n c i n g D. divergens growth was potassium l e v e l s (>7 mg L "*") could be i n h i b i t o r y . This has not been related to any f i e l d studies. No doubt there are other factors i n f l u e n c i n g the population growth and decline, but i t does seem, however, that l i g h t i s at le a s t i n part responsible for much of the 43 stimulus t r i g g e r i n g yearly population increases. Cyst production was observed p e r i o d i c a l l y i n D. cylindricum and dates i n which numerous cysts were found were a l l i n March 1979. In the three lakes, the s i l i c a l e v e l s at the time of cyst production were very low (see Text -Figs. 3-5). Sandgren (1978) investigated the s t i m u l i leading to the produc-t i o n of cysts- (statospores) and how these r e l a t e to population dynamics. He states that cyst production soon a f t e r the population begins to expand indicates an i n t r i n s i c c o n t r o l mechanism rather than an e x t r i n s i c or environ-mental stress response mechanism. This l a t t e r e x t r i n s i c control i s indicated by a delay of cyst production u n t i l the species population i s i n decline. The i n t r i n s i c or species c o n t r o l l e d response i s then thought to be i n d i c a t i v e of the sexual o r i g i n s and therefore zygotic nature of the cyst which i s a r e s u l t of two compatible mating types being present. Thus, according to Sandgren's hypothesis, the cysts of D. cylindricum formed i n these three lakes are zygotic cysts. In contrast, only a few cysts of D. divergens were observed i n Como Lake i n early A p r i l 1979, and one cyst i n Whonock Lake on 12 March 1979. They were never as profuse as those of D. cylindricum. Dinobryon was the only non-synuracean genus present i n a l l three lakes. Other genera were found only i n one of the main lakes studied. Uroglena volvox was present i n Whonock Lake for several weeks only during September and October 1978. Findenegg (1943) c l a s s i f i e s t h i s species as a cold steno-therm, which requires high l i g h t i n t e n s i t y , as he.always observed i t i n early spring. Although i t was present i n Whonock Lake during the autumn, t h i s can q u a l i f y f or Findenegg's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , as the l i g h t i n t e n s i t y i s approximate-l y the same i n the spring and autumn. Thus l i g h t , coupled with other, at present unknown, c o n t r o l l i n g factors may influence the population growth, but 44 i t can not be the only stimulus. Sandgren also found U. volvox i n the spring ( A p r i l , May) i n Egg and Sportsmans Lakes (Washington), where the population r a p i d l y increased and decreased i n a very short period of time, and a high frequency of encystment was observed which was suggested to be a r e s u l t of sexuality (Sandgren 1978). Because of t h i s rapid growth and l i f e h i s t o r y , Sandgren c l a s s i f i e d i t as a " s p e c i a l i s t " rather than a " g e n e r a l i s t " species. The rapid increase and decrease i n population growth found by Sandgren agrees with the pattern established i n Whonock Lake, where i t also formed cysts, but with no evidence of sexuality. Eusphaerella turfosa was present i n Munday Lake mainly during the spring ( A p r i l , May) and i s a new record for B r i t i s h Columbia. The pattern of rapid population growth and then rapid decline over a short period of time put t h i s i n Sandgren's " s p e c i a l i s t " species category. Of the Synuraceae present i n the three lakes, only Mallomonas caudata and Synura uvella were c o l l e c t e d i n a l l at some point during the year. M. caudata was present more c o n s i s t e n t l y i n Whonock Lake from March through May, but i n Como Lake, i t s increase i n population took place from October . through December. Asmund (1955), who observed t h i s species i n four Danish ponds during most months of the year, found that i t occurred i n a temperature range of 0.5-22.0°C with maximum c e l l numbers produced from 15-21°C. Some of the temperature information from the present study agrees with Asmund's findi n g s , but the population peaks i n Whonock during the months of November, March and A p r i l and those i n Como from November and December did not f a l l w ithin t h i s "optimum" temperature range. This suggests that t h i s range should be extended. Because population peaks occur i n d i f f e r e n t seasons and d i f f e r e n t temperature and pH regimes, i t i s l i k e l y that some other factor than tempera-45 ture, such as n u t r i e n t s , etc., or a combination of factors i s responsible for c o n t r o l l i n g population growth. Although n i t r a t e was somewhat higher i n two of three lakes, no d i s t i n c t nutrient peaks could be c l e a r l y r e l a t e d with the M. caudata population patterns i n t h i s study. Synura uvella was present i n Munday Lake p r i m a r i l y during the autumn, whereas i n Whonock and Como i t occurred during most months of the year, with a few exceptions during summer or winter. I t s presence does not seem to correspond with the r i s e or f a l l of any of the nutrients measured. I t was present i n Como Lake even when the dissolved s i l i c a was at i t s lowest.(and had been low for several months), so the l e v e l s of t h i s nutrient do not seem to have become l i m i t i n g . I t has been observed i n Denmark i n waters with temperatures from 0-25°C (Kristiansen 1975c), and i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t was noted i n a range of 2.0-26.4°C. Thus, temperature probably does not r e s t r i c t i t s presence. The pH, however, may prove to be more l i m i t i n g . Both Krist i a n s e n (1978) and Bourrelly (1957) note that i t does not thri v e i n very a c i d i c conditions. In the three main lakes of t h i s study, however, i t was found within a pH range of 3.3-6.85. An i n t e r e s t i n g pattern occurs i n Munday Lake which showed the widest range of pH values. Although i t i s present when the pH drops very low (below 4.0), i t i s only sporadic, and i s only consistent-l y present during periods of pH values above 5.0. The pH values of Como and Whonock Lakes r a r e l y f e l l below 5.0. Other Synuraceae were seen only once. Some of these, along with t h e i r physicochemical information, are reported i n the previous section, but are not discussed here since they appeared so infrequently as to make any generaliza-tions guesswork. Those species discussed appear a l p h a b e t i c a l l y rather than i n any taxonomic order. 46 Chrysosphaerella brevispina was present i n Whonock Lake i n A p r i l and May and i n Como Lake during A p r i l . I t usually occurs during the spring which may suggest a l i g h t i n t e n s i t y or increasing day length stimulus to growth. Look-ing at the nutrient data for these two lakes alone suggests that i t i s abundant when n i t r a t e i s greatest. The pH range varied from 4.55-6.25 i n these lakes when i t was observed, which agrees with the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Takahashi (1978) as acidophilous. Chrysosphaerella multispina was present i n Whonock Lake from May through September, but was observed only once i n Munday Lake during May. A seasonal-i t y period extending from A p r i l through September agrees with that of other workers (Puytorac et al. 1972; Wujek and Hamilton 1972; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b, 1975d). Temperature does not seem to be the major factor c o n t r o l l i n g seasonality as i t tolerates a rather extreme range of 6-30°C (Takahashi 1978). The widest temperature range i n t h i s study was i n Whonock Lake: 2.0-26.4°C. The pH range was 5.35-6.75, which agrees with Takahashi's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as an acidophilous species. However, as a l l three of the main lakes i n t h i s study had a pH of under 7.0 throughout the year, t h i s l i k e l y i s not the only stimulus to seasonality. During t h i s period, a l l the nutrients seem to be i n decline, but they may not be low enough to be l i m i t i n g . The only way to determine t h i s would be through laboratory experiments. One v a r i a b l e which might influence t h i s seasonality i s day length or l i g h t i n t e n s i t y . Perhaps a combination of a b i l i t i e s to u t i l i z e low nutrients, high l i g h t l e v e l s and warm water temperatures a f f e c t the seasonality of t h i s species. Mallomonas akrokomos was encountered mainly from February through March i n Whonock Lake. Duritig most of t h i s period, the lake was covered with i c e . The water temperatures were below 5°C and the pH range was 4.05-6.30. The 47 pattern of occurrence presented here i s not v e r i f i e d by the findings of others. P e t e r f i (1967) reports f i n d i n g i t i n early spring and winter months. Harris (1958) reports f i n d i n g i t every month of the year except September although i t was rare during July and August. Munch (1972) found i t throughout the year but ohserved that i t s peaks i n population growth occurred i n spring or early summer. Asmund (1956) found i t January to July, but i t was most abundant January through February under the i c e . • I t i s reported i n water temperatures of up to 26°C, but i t i s generally agreed that i t thrives i n cold water and often under i c e . However, as i t occurs throughout the year (shown by other workers) and as i t s . i n c r e a s e s i n population growth cannot be always correlated with low temperatures, t h i s may not be the stimulus con-t r o l l i n g the seasonality of population growth. Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f i e s t h i s species as acidophilous as i t occurred i n a range of 4.5-7.25, which agrees with that of Whonock Lake (4.05-6.30). From Munch's (1972) f i e l d observations, M. akrokomos occurred during periods of low nutrients which, she hypothesized, must make i t e f f i c i e n t i n nutrient u t i l i z a t i o n . I t may be that when nutrients are l i m i t i n g for various other species, they are not for M. akrokomos. In Whonock Lake, both s i l i c a and phosphate were at t h e i r lowest l e v e l s during the period of population increase, but n i t r a t e was at i t s highest l e v e l . From the present study, i t must be argued that t h i s species (at l e a s t the Whonock population) may be extremely e f f i c i e n t under low l i g h t (as the i c e cover was usually covered by snow) as w e l l as low temperature. Low l i g h t i n t e n s i t y may be a stimulus for population growth, but t h i s i s u n l i k e l y to be the only f a c t o r , as i t has been found by others ( c i t e d previous-ly) to increase i n spring or summer when l i g h t l e v e l s are increasing. The 48 i n t e r a c t i o n of the factors c o n t r o l l i n g the population growth of M. akxokomos are obviously very complex and i t w i l l be necessary to examine them through culture experiments to unravel t h i s problem. Synura echinulata was encountered i n Whonock and Como Lakes only s p o r a d i c a l l y . I t i s c l a s s i f i e d as a eurythermal species and i n d i f f e r e n t to pH (Takahashi 1978). The information from my c o l l e c t i o n s agrees with t h i s assessment. The sporadic appearances doe not coincide with consistently high or low nutrient values. I t i s common i n acid brown water lakes (Kristiansen 1975c) and both Whonock and Como Lakes comply with t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n . Since S. petersenii was noted only once i n Como Lake (14 November 1978), l i t t l e can be said about i t s ecology. S i m i l a r l y , S. spinosa was observed i n Whonock and Como Lakes only s p o r a d i c a l l y . Both these lakes are brown water lakes which i s " t y p i c a l " (Kristiansen 1975c). As Spiniferomonas bilacunosa was encountered i n the plankton only three times, l i t t l e can be said about i t s seasonality. It i s very l i k e l y that i t could have been overlooked i n the plankton samples due to i t s small s i z e and lack of colour. I t i s u n l i k e l y that i t was overlooked with the electron microscope, but i f i t was very rare, i t may not have been i n the subsamples studied. The only way to be sure of seeing t h i s species, i t i f i s i n fact present, i s to take several subsamples from each c o l l e c t i o n date and look at a l l of them with EM. It i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize about the various taxa based on the study of only three lakes. The findings of other chrysophyte taxonomists around the world help to c l a r i f y the seasonality, temperature, and pH findings, but c l e a r l y , more information i s needed. Both f i e l d studies and cul t u r e work w i l l be required to i s o l a t e the c o n t r o l l i n g mechanisms of population growth. 49 As far as the comparative lake study i s concerned, the overview of three lakes i s a good s t a r t i n g point from which more in-depth studies can be done. A more coordinated f i e l d and laboratory study must be done to augment the information from the study. The next step should be an intensive seasonal study on Beaver Lake (see Appendix I I ) , as the Synuraceae found i n the three sampling times proved to be. very i n t e r e s t i n g . Although the Hach K i t method of nutrient analysis was quite adequate for an i n i t i a l survey l i k e t h i s (Boyd 1977), i t i s suggested that more intensive analyses be c a r r i e d out, + + 2+ 2+ -measuring such nutrients as K , Na , Mg , Ca , CI , and SO^, which have already been suggested as a f f e c t i n g population growth of various Synuraceae (Munch 1972; Takahashi 1978). It i s commonly considered that the Chrysophyceae are prevalent i n cold water and thus during the colder months of the year (Lund 1949; Bradley 1966; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975c). A seasonal study such as the present one i s important i n determining whether or not t h i s i s true. The r e s u l t s for these three lakes indi c a t e no clear-cut pattern. I t i s evident that some Synuraceae t o l e r a t e quite a wide range of temperatures, and are present during the warmer months, such as July and August (e.g., Chrysosphaerella multispina, Mallomonas caudata, Synura uvella). I t must be noted here, that not much emphasis can be placed on the presence of a species during s p e c i f i c months since t h i s i s not comparable on a worldwide bas i s . Monthly data are included to augment that present i n the l i t e r a t u r e , with the understanding that the i n t e r a c t i o n of water temperature and daylight are important v a r i a b l e s . So although Chryso-phyceae i n general, and Synuraceae i n p a r t i c u l a r , are present i n the autumn and spring months ( i n the northern hemisphere) and more importantly i n colder temperatures, most species are not r e s t r i c t e d to these conditions (there are 50 exceptions, e.g., Mallomonas akrokomos i n t h i s study). I also agree with Lund (1949), Munch (1972), and Takahashi (1978) that there may be other important f a c t o r s . Takahashi suggests pH i s important i n determining Synuraceae presence. Obviously, i n the a c i d i c lakes studied, a l l species encountered are either pH i n d i f f e r e n t or species with an a c i d i c range. Most species c l a s s i f i e d by Takahashi (31 of 36) had acidophilous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This would suggest that i n the acid waters of coastal B. C. lakes, t h i s group may be one of the more important constituents of the phytoplankton. However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the most a c i d i c sampling s i t e (Munday Lake) had the lowest number of Synuraceae and Chrysophyceae. Lund (1949) and Munch (1972) suggest that the chemical components of the water may be more important i n determining presence of Chrysophyceae but as l i t t l e experimental work has been done on t h i s , no conclusion can be made. Any further studies should combine f i e l d and culture work. 51 V. SURVEY OF THE SYNURACEAE In t h i s section, each taxon i s discussed separately with the d i s t i n g u i s h -ing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described. Information, when known, i s given on the temperature, pH and seasonality of each species. These records are from the plankton samples only. This l i s t includes a l l the a v a i l a b l e EM c i t a t i o n s and those LM observations i n which enough d e t a i l i s given for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . C i t a t i o n s are accepted also even i f not seen i f they have been v e r i f i e d by another chrysophyte s p e c i a l i s t . Habitat information, the l o c a l i t i e s i n which these organisms were observed within the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , as well as the worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n are reported. Some data are not complete due to the obscurity of some reports. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of each taxon i s necessa r i l y incomplete due to the lack of studies on these algae. As mentioned, chrysophyte taxonomy, s t i l l i n i t s embryonic stages, i s changing every year. This n e c e s s a r i l y makes i t impossible to follow one text as f a r as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the organisms i s concerned. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n to the generic l e v e l follows Bourrelly (1968). In th i s he recognizes the following genera: Chrysophaerella, Mallomonas, Mallomonopsis, Paraphysomonas, and Synura. The genus Spiniferomonas was not described u n t i l 1973. For c l a s s i f i -c a tion to the l e v e l of species or v a r i e t y , the genera Synura, Mallomonas and Paraphysomonas followed K r i s t i a n s e n (1975a), except when more recent descrip-tions were a v a i l a b l e as noted. The genus Chrysosphaerella followed Asmund (1973), Mallomonopsis followed.Harris (1966) and Spiniferomonas followed Takahashi (1973). In th i s section, the Mallomonas species are arranged according to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system set up by Harris and Bradley (1960). 52 A. CHRYSOSPHAERELLA LAUTERBORN (1896) EMEND. KORSHIKOV (1941) Figs. 1-4 This s p h e r i c a l colony i s composed of oval c e l l s covered with many e l l i p -t i c a l scales, and spines which are attached to the c e l l by bobbin-like bases. Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korshikov (1941) Fi g s . 1-2 Syn: C. conradii Bourrelly 1957 (Asmund 1973; see also B o u r r e l l y 1963) C. longispina Lauterborn 1896 sensu Conrad 1941; sensu Skuja 1948 (Asmund 1973; see also K r i s t i a n s e n 1979a) C. rodhei Skuja 1948 (Harris and Bradley 1958; see also P e t e r f i 1967; Takahashi 1978) This species i s very d i s t i n c t i v e i n the electron microscope due to i t s scales and spines. The oval scales ( F i g . 1), which have an i n t r i c a t e pattern as a border, vary i n s i z e from 1.5-4.13 x 1.0-3.3 um (Takahashi 1978). The spines, however, are a l l approximately the same length unlike those of C. multispina Bradley. They are s t r a i g h t with a b i f u r c a t e t i p and a bobbin-l i k e base ( F i g . 2). Each c e l l i n the colony i s ca. 9-12 um i n diameter and of an ovoid shape. A complete d e s c r i p t i o n i s given by Harris and Bradley (1958) and Takahashi (1978). No cysts were formed by the organisms c o l l e c t e d for the present study, and accounts of t h i s phenomenon are not numerous. Cyst formation was observed i n A p r i l 1956 by Harris and Bradley (1958). I t i s generally agreed that C. brevispina i s present p r i m a r i l y i n the spring or at l e a s t during the colder months of December-April (Harris and Bradley 1958; H i l l i a r d 1966, 1968b; P e t e r f i 1967; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d; Takahashi 1978), and i s occasionally found i n the autumn months ( P e t e r f i 1967). I t was found i n Whonock Lake April-June and i n Como Lake a l l of A p r i l (see Text - Figs. 3, 5). In various studies, i t has been encountered at tempera-tures ranging between 2 and 24°C, but seems to be more common below 15°C (Takahashi 1978; Wujek and Hamilton 1972). I t i s considered a stenothermic ( P e t e r f i 1967) or a steno-polythermic species (Takahashi 1978) . A stenothermic 53 organism i s one r e s t r i c t e d to a narrow temperature range, and a steno-polythermal species i s r e s t r i c t e d to a high temperature (see Ruttner 1953).*.;••• The temperature range at Whonock Lake, and at Como Lake were 8.0-22.5°C. The pH' range i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s between 5.3 (Green 1979) and 8.4 (Wujek and Hamilton 1972). The present study extends t h i s into more a c i d i c waters from 4.55 (Whonock Lake). This agrees with Takahashi who considers i t acidophilous (at or below pH 7; Nygaard 1956). C. brevispina has been found i n a v a r i e t y of habitats. In B. C , i t has been found i n Whonock and Como Lakes which are s l i g h t l y a c i d i c , small shallow lakes. I t has also been found i n large, deep lakes (Asmund 1977), small ponds and pools, some of which were i n woods, others i n the open, or even small pools which dry up i n summer (Asmund 1973). I t has been found i n a c i d i c ponds not associated with Sphagnum (Harris and Bradley 1958), and ponds surrounded by Sphagnum (Kristiansen 1975d) . I t has been encountered i n an old peat bog (Kristiansen 1975d) and i n a s l i g h t l y yellow, polluted lake (Asmund 1973). The only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that these habitats share i n common i s the fac t that they are a l l r e l a t i v e l y a c i d i c . Asmund (1973) states that "the samples from South America are from large, deep lakes with clear transparent water, those from Europe are from pools, ponds and small lakes with more or l e s s dark water." D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1979) Albe r t a (Kristiansen 1975b) United States: Alaska (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961; H i l l i a r d and Asmund 1963) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972) North Carolina (Whitford and Schumacher 1969, as C. rodhei; see Asmund 1973) South America (Thomasson 1963) England (Harris and Bradley 1958) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Sweden (Asmund 1977) 54 Denmark (Asmund 1973; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d) France (Bourrelly 1957, as C. conradii; see Asmund 1973) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1967) Russia (Balonov 1972) Bangladesh (Takahashi and Hayakawa 1979) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley (1964) Figs. 3, 4 Syn: C. longispina Lauterborn 1896 sensu Bourrelly 1957; sensu K r i s t i a n s e n 1964 (Kristiansen 1969; see also K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b, 1979a; Asmund 1973; Takahashi 1978; Wujek and Hamilton 1972) This species i s distinguished from the others i n the genus due to i t s possession of three types of spines: long (35-40 um); medium (20-25 um); short (3-10 um) (Bradley 1964) ( F i g . 3). The scales display a r e t i c u l a t e pattern much broader than that of C. brevispina (Fig. 4). In other respects i t i s very s i m i l a r to C. brevispina, as i t i s a c o l o n i a l organisms with ovoid c e l l s . There e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e a great deal of confusion about whether C. longispina i s a legitimate species, or whether i t i s a synonym of C. multispina as suggested (see K r i s t i a n s e n 1969, 1975b, 1979a; Asmund 1973; Wujek and Hamilton 1972). The problem arose due to an incomplete o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n by Lauterborn, subsequently emended by Korshikov. With the development of the EM, recent descriptions of chrysophycean taxa r e l y on u l t r a s t r u c t u r e d e t a i l s of scales and spines. This, n e c e s s a r i l y , makes l i g h t microscope descriptions incomplete and almost obsolete, and descriptions of older taxa based on l i g h t microscopy must be re-examined using EM. However, no type material of C. longispina was designated and the c o l l e c t i o n locations have disappeared due to urbanization (Kristiansen 1979a). Kris t i a n s e n summarizes t h i s impossible s i t u a t i o n by noting that i t w i l l never be resolved, and that although the name C. longispina remains i n the older l i t e r a t u r e , upon 55 examination with EM, i t w i l l always be C. multispina which w i l l be encountered i n nature. There i s not much information i n the l i t e r a t u r e on the seasonality of C. multispina. I t i s a common planktonic species during April-September based on sporadic c o l l e c t i o n s (Puytorac et al. 1972; Wujek and Hamilton 1972; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b, 1975d). In the present study, i t was c o l l e c t e d i n Whonock Lake from May through September and once i n November 1978, and then again from June through August 1979. In Munday Lake i t was present during May 1978, and i n Stave Lake i n A p r i l 1979. The temperature and pH ranges are also incomplete. Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f i e s i t as steno-oligothermal ( r e s t r i c t e d to a low temperature range; Ruttner 1953) but he c o l l e c t e d i n waters as warm as 30.0°C. Its minimum temperature presently i s 2.0° (Whonock Lake). The other temperature values for the present c o l l e c t i o n s are within t h i s 2.0-30.0°C range. The pH range i s between 5.0 and 8.4 (Wujek and Hamilton 1972; Takahashi 1978), with the c o l l e c t i o n s i n t h i s study (5.35-6.75), agreeing with Takahashi's d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s species as being acidophilous (Takahashi 1978), with the sparse records i n d i c a t i n g i t i s usually found at pH between 5.0-7.0 (Kristiansen 1969, 1979a; Takahashi 1978). C. multispina has been found i n habitats such as sphagnous pools and dystrophic oxbows (Asmund 1973), an o l i g o t r o p h i c lake with yellow-brown water (Kristiansen 1969) and acid waters (Kristiansen 1964). In B. C , Whonock and Munday Lakes are both a c i d i c with humates i n the water and Munday i s surround-ed by Sphagnum. Stave Lake, however, i s a c l e a r , transparent and a c i d i c lake. From t h i s information, i t seems that t h i s species i s acidophilous, may also have a s l i g h t requirement for yellow-brown water. More habitat information i s necessary for t h i s species. 56 D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b; Green 1980) Quebec (Puytorac et al. 1972) United States: Alaska (Asmund 1973) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972, as C. longispina; see K r i s t i a n s e n 1969) Iceland (Bradley 1964) Finland (Kristiansen 1964, as C. longispina; see K r i s t i a n s e n 1969) Sweden (Kristiansen 1969) Denmark (Kristiansen 1975d) France (Bourrelly 1957, as C. longispina; see K r i s t i a n s e n 1969) Russia (Balonov 1972) Japan (Takahashi 1978) 57 B. MALLOMONAS PERTY (1851) Figs. 5-25 This i s a u n i c e l l u l a r genus which i s free-swimming ( i t possesses one flagellum, the second being reduced or absent), and i s covered with s i l i c e o u s scales and b r i s t l e s . 1. Series I - Tripartae Harris et Bradley (1960) a.) Acaroides Group Harris et Bradley (1960) Mallomonas crassiquama (Asmund) Fott 1962 Figs. 5, 6 Syn: M. acaroides var. crassiquama Asmund (1959) (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961; see also Bradley 1964; Thomasson 1970; Wujek and Hamilton 1973) M. crassiquama i s an ovoid u n i c e l l u l a r organism with unique helmet b r i s t l e s ( F ig. 5), and i n t r i c a t e l y ornamented scales with a prominent V-rib (Fig. 6). The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n can be rather confusing as several taxa e x i s t which have s i m i l a r scales and b r i s t l e s , a s i t u a t i o n which i s complicated by the fa c t that M. crassiquama i s quite a v a r i a b l e species. Fptt (1962) raised the taxon from the v a r i e t y l e v e l (M. acaroides Perty emend. Pascher, Krieger et Conrad var. crassiquama Asmund), because of the differe n c e between the two species based on the degree of ornamentation of the sh i e l d section of the scale. When i t was f i r s t described by Asmund (1959) i t d i f f e r e d from M. acaroides var. striatula Asmund only by the "ornamentation on the scales and the extent to which the body was covered with b r i s t l e s " (p. 34). Asmund also stated that "there i s not always a clear-cut demarcation between var. striatula and var. crassiquama." The extent to which these vary and overlap each other i s s i m i l a r to a problem encountered with c e r t a i n Synura species. K r i s t i a n s e n (1979a) claims that M. crassiquama "varies very much from l o c a l i t y to l o c a l i t y . " There seems to be some overlap of M. crassiquama with M. acaroides-like forms. A solu t i o n to th i s confusion i s not immediate and 58 w i l l require extensive study, p r i m a r i l y culture work, to untangle these species and t h e i r v a r i e t i e s . The scales observed i n the present study are t y p i c a l M. crassiquama with no M. acaroides-like forms. This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was v e r i f i e d by Dr. Jorgen K r i s t i a n s e n . No cysts are known for t h i s species. According to Asmund (1959), and Fott (1962), M. crassiquama i s very adaptable and can be found throughout the year. I t was encountered i n t h i s study only twice i n Whonock Lake ( A p r i l , May 1979), and noted only with the EM and not seen with the l i g h t microscope. I t i s possible that i t was present during other months, but at very low concentrations. I t was not found at any other c o l l e c t i n g s i t e s , even though K r i s t i a n s e n (1975b) found i t i n several lakes i n the U.B.C. Research Forest (September 1974), including one of the a d d i t i o n a l s i t e s of t h i s study: y P l a c i d Lake. The temperature range varies greatly, 1-26°C (Takahashi 1978), and i s thus c l a s s i f i e d by Takahashi as eurythermal ( t o l e r a t i n g a very wide tempera-ture range; Ruttner 1953). Asmund (1959) and Fott (1962) note that t h i s species i s most common at 10-15°C. The water temperature of the c o l l e c t i o n s made i n t h i s study were 8.0 and 16.0°C. The pH range for t h i s species i s 5.5-9.0 (Takahashi 1978) and i s c l a s s i f i e d by Takahashi as " i n d i f f e r e n t to water pH." The pH values f or the samples i n t h i s study were more a c i d i c : 5.20 and 5.70. Green (1979) also found i t i n more a c i d i c (5.3) waters. The l o c a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia where th i s species has been found are: Whonock Lake ( t h i s study); Creston Valley, Summit Lake, Lower Arrow Lake, Loon Lake, and P l a c i d Lake (Kristiansen 1975b); Hobiton Lake, K i c h l a Lake, Tsusiat Lake (Green 1979); and Otter Lake (Green 1980). M. crassiquama has been found i n a eutrophic bog ( P e t e r f i and Momeu 1977), small ponds shaded by dense woods (Kristiansen 1975d), under i c e i n a lake with 59 s l i g h t l y yellowish water (Asmund 1977) and i n a small dystrophic lake (Thomasson 1970). Whonock Lake i s an a c i d i c lake with brown water. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b; Green 1979, 1980) United States: Alaska (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961, as M. acaroides var. crassi-quama; see Fott 1962) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1973, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962) Oregon (Thomasson 1970, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962) Iceland (Bradley 1964, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962) Finland (Asmund 1959, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962) Sweden (Thomasson 1970, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962; Asmund 1977) Denmark (Asmund 1959, as M. acaroides var. crassiquama; see Fott 1962; Kris t i a n s e n 1975d) Czechoslovakia (Fott 1962) Roumania ( P e t e r f i and Momeu 1977) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1975a) Japan (Takahashi 1978) b.) S t r i a t a Group Harris et Bradley (1960) Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae Wujek et Van der Veer (1976) Figs. 7-9 M. cratis Harris et Bradley i s an ovoid u n i c e l l 17-30 x 12-20 ym with i n t r i c a t e l y ribbed scales and f i n e l y serrated b r i s t l e s (Figs. 7-9). This v a r i e t y d i f f e r s from the v a r i e t y cratis i n having a scale dome of va r i a b l e s i z e with p a r a l l e l r i b s (Figs. 7, 8), instead of the U-shaped r i b s of the type species. No cysts have been reported. The seasonality, temperature and pH information are necessar i l y scant as th i s v a r i e t y has not been reported from many l o c a l i t i e s . I t was c o l l e c t e d by Wujek and Van der Veer during March 1975 i n the Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976). In the present study, i t was co l l e c t e d i n Beaver Lake on 18 March 1979 and i n Burnaby Lake 22 A p r i l 1979. One more record of th i s species does e x i s t from Washington state (Munch 1972). Munch c o l l e c t e d i t at the end of October 1969 and l a t e r i s o l a t e d and 60 cultured i t . Due to the confusion about species within the S t r i a t a Group of Mallomonas, Munch described the species w e l l , but could not i d e n t i f y i t to her complete s a t i s f a c t i o n . The conclusion reached (and confirmed by Asmund) i s that of the species within the S t r i a t a Group, i t was clos e s t to M. cratis. Judging from the EM micrographs and the thorough d e s c r i p t i o n provided, I would i d e n t i f y i t as M. cratis var. asmundiae. Water temperature information i s not given by Wujek and Van der Veer (1976). For Munch's c o l l e c t i o n , the water temperature was approximately 11°C, judging from her diagrams. The temperature of the present c o l l e c t i o n from Beaver Lake was 9.0 C and Burnaby Lake was 16.0 C. Thus, the range, u n t i l extended further, i s 9.0-16.0°C. pH information i s recorded only for the samples i n the present study as 5.10 i n Beaver Lake and 6.25 i n Burnaby Lake. Due to the lack of information, generalizations cannot be made. The habitat of M. cratis var. cratis was a brackish pool near the sea (Harris and Bradley 1960). M. cratis var. asmundiae was also f i r s t described from a brackish s i t e which was a former harbour at the mouth of a r i v e r which i s now rendered inland (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976). Thus the reports from the western coast of N. America are the f i r s t completely freshwater c o l l e c t i o n s to be reported. Obviously, t h i s species must to l e r a t e a wide range of s a l i n i t i e s . D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) United States: Washington (Munch 1972) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) c.) P a p i l l o s a Group Harris et Bradley (1960) Mallomonas papillosa Harris et Bradley (1960) Figs. 10,11 There ex i s t s some controversy as to whether or not t h i s chrysophyte has one or two f l a g e l l a , and therefore i s a Mallomonas or Mallomonopsis, i f i n 61 f a c t these two genera can be considered separate (Belcher 1969; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d). In culture, Belcher (1969) observed some c e l l s with one flagellum and others with two f l a g e l l a . U n t i l the phenomenon i s better understood, t h i s organism should remain as Mallomonas papillosa Harris et Bradley (1960). Wujek and Van der Veer (1976) point out that i t i s a very small species (12-18 ym; Harris 1967), that can only be recognized with electron microscopy, but not l i g h t microscopy. I t i s a c y l i n d r i c a l to ovoid u n i c e l l (Fig. 1Q) with d i s t i n c t i v e scales which are covered with small p a p i l l a e ( F i g . 11), and denticulate b r i s t l e s . Cysts were not encountered during this study, but have been described by others (Harris 1967; Belcher 1969). With many di s j u n c t , s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n s reported (Kristiansen 1975d, 1978; Nygaard 1977b) i t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize about the seasonality. I t has been c o l l e c t e d i n February-March (Takahashi 1978); A p r i l (Kristiansen 1975d; Nygaard 1977b); May (Kristiansen 1978); July-August (Asmund and Takahashi 1969) . The only seasonal report i s that of Asmund and H i l l i a r d (1961) which reports i t from November through A p r i l . In t h i s study, i t was encountered i n a sin g l e c o l l e c t i o n i n Beaver Lake on 18 March 1979. Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f i e s i t as stenothermal and acidobiontic (pH below 7, with optimum at 5.5; Nygaard 1956) since i t has been c o l l e c t e d i n waters from 8 to 24°C and pH 4.5-8.4 (Takahashi 1978; Wujek and Hamilton 1972). The Beaver Lake c o l l e c t i o n was 9.0°C with the pH 5.10. This species to l e r a t e s a v a r i e t y of e c o l o g i c a l conditions. I t has been found i n habitats such as a sand p i t surrounded by peat and having very clear water (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976); an o l i g o t r o p h i c lake with yellow-brown water with p r e c i p i t a t e d i r o n (Kristiansen 1969); and,an old peat bog ( K r i s t i a n -sen 1975d). Beaver Lake i s a shallow pond with yellow-brown water, extensive rooted vegetation and a great i n f l u x of nutrients due to the large resident duck population. 62 D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) Quebec (Puytirac et al. 1972) United States: Alaska (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972) Iceland (Bradley 1964) England (Harris and Bradley 1960) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Sweden (Kristiansen 1969) Denmark (Asmund and Takahashi 1969; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d; Nygaard 1977b) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) Roumania ( P e t e r f i and Momeu 1976b) Japan (Takahashi 1978) A u s t r a l i a (Takahashi 1978) 2. Series II - Planae Harris et Bradley (1960) Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger (1932) Fi g s . 12, 13 Syn: M. fastigata Zacharias (see Takahashi 1978; Thomasson 1970) M. fastigata var. kriegeri B o u r r e l l y (see Bourrelly 1957) Mallomonas caudata i s a d i s t i n c t i v e species due to i t s large s i z e -ca. 100 um (Wujek and K r i s t i a n s e n 1978), and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c simple scales and serrated b r i s t l e s (Figs. 12, 13), both of which are obvious with the l i g h t microscope. Cysts have been reported and described by Asmund (1955), and although c a r e f u l l y observed, only one cyst was noted on 12 March 1979 i n Whonock Lake plankton. There i s a disagreement on the differences between M. fastigata and M. caudata and, i f they are the same, then which name takes p r i o r i t y . I agree with Asmund and H i l l i a r d (1961) that as the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n of M. fasti-gata i s very incomplete, the name of M. caudata has p r i o r i t y . The p r i n c i p a l d i f f e r e n c e between these two species i s that M. caudata has oval scales and M. fastigata c i r c u l a r ones. I also agree with Asmund and H i l l i a r d (1961) that there i s too much overlap between the two species with both having oval and c i r c u l a r scales to consider t h i s a d i f f e r e n c e . 63 M. caudata i s a common species i n various parts of the world ( K r i s t i a n - , sen 1969) and i s present i n most months of the year i n some reports (Asmund 1955). This agrees with the present c o l l e c t i o n s . M. caudata was present i n Whonock Lake a l l months except December-February; also i n Munday Lake a l l months except December-March and i n August 1979; and i n Como Lake a l l except January, July and August (no January c o l l e c t i o n ) . Asmund (1955) reports the temperature range to be 0.5-22.0°C, with maximum c e l l numbers produced at temperatures between 15-21°C. A l l other c o l l e c t i o n information i s within t h i s general range (Wujek and Hamilton 1972; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d). In the B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e c t i o n s , i t was found i n the range of 2.0-26.8°C, i n d i c a t i n g i t i s c e r t a i n l y eurythermal, as c l a s s i f i e d by Takahashi (1978). Although some of the B r i t i s h Columbia information agrees with Asmund's 15-21°C temperature optimum for growth production (ranked as 3 = very common i n t h i s study), the data f o r Whonock Lake - November, March, A p r i l - and for Como Lake - November to December - do not support h i s general-i z a t i o n . I t may be that some factor other than temperature, or i n conjunction with i t , i s c o n t r o l l i n g maximum c e l l numbers. The pH range i s wide, with Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f y i n g i t as " i n d i f f e r -ent". The present study (3.35-6.85), together with Kristiansen's records (7.48-8.25; 1975d) agree with t h i s . Thus the B. C. data indi c a t e that M. caudata was present i n s l i g h t l y a c i d i c waters; the Denmark c o l l e c t i o n s of K r i s t i a n s e n (1975d) show that t h i s i s not necessarily so. In the present study, M. caudata occurred i n several d i f f e r e n t lakes (Whonock, Munday, Como, Beaver, Deer, and Burnaby Lakes) usually i n spring (April-June) or summer (August) (see Appendices for d e t a i l s ) . 64 M. caudata seems to be found i n a v a r i e t y of habitats ranging from eutrophic peat p i t s (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) to small o l i g o t r o p h i c lakes (Thomasson 1970). I t does seem to favour dystrophic water from the l i t e r a t u r e reports (Asmund 1955; K r i s t i a n s e n 1961; Thomasson 1970; Wujek and Van der Veer 1976; Asmund 1977), which agrees with the B. C. information as a l l the lakes except Stave Lake are coloured yellow-brown. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1980) United States: Alaska (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972) North Carolina (Whitford and Schumacher 1969) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Sweden (Thomasson 1970, as M. fastigata; Asmund 1977) Denmark (Asmund 1955; K r i s t i a n s e n 1961; Nygaard 1977a) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) France (Bourrelly 1957, as M. fastigata var. kriegeri; see Asmund and . H i l l i a r d 1961) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1975b) Japan (Takahashi 1978, as M. fastigata) Mallomonas hamata Asmund (1959) Figs. 14, 15 This very d i s t i n c t i v e species bears r e l a t i v e l y p l a i n scales (Fig. 14), and two types of b r i s t l e s - hooked and needle-like (Figs. 14, 15). I t i s a u n i c e l l u l a r organism with a very long, narrow e l l i p s o i d shape 20-35 x 8-12 um (Asmund 1959). I t i s an unusual species, and was present i n only one EM preparation c o l l e c t e d 7 May 1979 i n Whonock Lake, and once observed with the l i g h t microscope i n March 1979. Other reports i n d i c a t e the seasonality i s prolonged. Asmund (1959) reports Harris found M. hamata from January to J u l y . Nygaard (1977b) reported i t s occurrence from November to June i n 1950, 1951, March and September to December 1960, and January and J u l y 1961. Green (1979) c o l l e c t e d i t i n August. Cysts were described by Asmund (1959) from material c o l l e c t e d i n July by Dr. K. Harris near Reading, England. However, no cysts were found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia samples. 65 Nygaard (1977b) describes i t as eurythermic, with a temperature range of 0.4-17.6°C. The water temperature of the Whonock samples was 10.8 and 16.0°C. The pH range given by Nygaard (1977b) i s 5.3-5.9, although Asmund (1959) c o l l e c t e d i t at 6.9. The pH of the Whonock Lake samples was 5.05 and 5.70. Green (1979) c o l l e c t e d i t at s l i g h t l y higher pH values of 6.6 to 7.3. Kri s t i a n s e n (1979b) notes that M. hamata's "occurrence i s apparently r e s t r i c t e d to o l i g o t r o p h i c l o c a l i t i e s " (p. 234) which agrees with Whonock. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (pr esent study; Green 1979, 1980) Quebec (Puytorac et al. 1972) England (Asmund 1959; Rees 1979) Wales (Kristiansen 1979b) Sweden (Asmund 1977) Denmark (Asmund 1959; Nygaard 1977b) Mallomonas heterospina Lund (1942) F i g s . 16, 17 This species i s very d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from i t s close r e l a t i v e s : M. multiunca Asmund, M. pugio Bradley, and M. harrisae Takahashi, which are described and compared by Bradley (1964) and Takahashi (1978). The scales are a l l s i m i l a r , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d only on whether or not the dome i s ribbed (M. harrisae, M. pugio, M. multiunca) or smooth (M. heterospina), and whether the b r i s t l e s are s t r a i g h t (M. harrisae, M. pugio) or s t r a i g h t and hooked (M. heterospina, M. multiunca). M. heterospina can be determined by scale ornamentation alone as the dome and r i b markings are very s p e c i f i c ( F i g . 16). The presence of two types of b r i s t l e s (hooked, needle-like) i s another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which helps d i s t i n g u i s h t h i s species from i t s r e l a t i v e s . This complex of close l o o k - a l i k e species makes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by use of EM a l l the more e s s e n t i a l . Use of the l i g h t microscope does not allow these species to be distinguished from one another. Few scales were found i n Burnaby Lake 66 samples, and only one needle-shaped b r i s t l e v a r i e t y was present (Fig. 17). Cysts of M. heterospina, vaguely described by Asmund (1956), were not encount-ered i n any B. C. samples. M. heterospina seems to be present most often i n the winter and spring months, often under i c e (Bradley 1964; Asmund 1956; P e t e r f i 1967). I t appears to be most frequent from January through A p r i l even though i t has been encountered i n December (Takahashi 1978), July (Asmund 1956), and August (Green 1979). In Denmark, Asmund (1956) never found i t from August to December, but i n Michigan, Wujek et al. (1975) found i t i n the " f a l l " . The one sample from Burnaby Lake was c o l l e c t e d i n A p r i l . I t tolerates a tempera-ture range from 20°C (Asmund 1956) or s l i g h t l y above (Takahashi 1978), to temperatures below 10°C, where i t i s most abundant (Asmund 1956). The water temperature of Burnary Lake for the present sample was 16.0°C. Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f i e s i t as a sternotherml species. The general pH i s 5.5 (Kristiansen 1978) to 8.5 (Asmund 1959), although Green (1979) found i t at 5.3. The pH of Burnaby Lake was 6.25. Asmund (1956) states that M. hetero-spina favours s l i g h t l y a c i d i c waters, and Takahashi (1978) c l a s s i f i e s i t as acidophilous. Only Asmund and Takahashi (Asmund 1956; Asmund and Takahashi 1969) claim that t h i s species favours dark-coloured or shaded water. Burnaby Lake with i t s abundance of w a t e r l i l i e s f o r shade and dark-coloured peaty water substantiates t h i s claim. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1979) United States: Alaska (Asmund and Takahashi 1969) Iceland (Bradley 1964) England (Lund 1942; Harris and Bradley 1958) Scotland (Harris and Bradley 1958) 67 Sweden (Asmund 1977) Denmark (Asmund 1956; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d, 1978) France (Bourrelly 1957) Czechoslovakia (Fott and Ludvik 1963) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1967; P e t e r f i and Momeu 1977) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1975b) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Mallomonas transsylvanica P e t e r f i et Momeu (1976a) Figs. 18-20 Syn: M. glabra Asmund (1977) M. reginae var. glabra B o u r r e l l y sensu Asmund (1977) The problems associated with i d e n t i f y i n g the correct s p e c i f i c epithet of th i s organism are numerous. I t was described i n 1976 by P e t e r f i and Momeu (1976a) -and named M. transsylvanica. In 1977, the same organism was described by Asmund as M. glabra, being raised to a species from M. reginae var. glabra Bourrelly. P e t e r f i and Momeu c a r e f u l l y stated that although M. reginae var. glabra might be compared with M. transsylvanica, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two could not be determined. They had only a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n and l i g h t microscope figures of two scales (no EM work) of the former. J . Kr i s t i a n s e n (pers. comm.) considers M. glabra and M. transsylvanica synonymous, with the l a t t e r name taking precedence. M. reginae var. glabra must be examined with electron microscopy before the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i t and M. transsylvanica can be determined. P e t e r f i and Momeu (1976a) describe t h i s c e l l as being "oblong to c y l i n d r i c a l , r a r e l y e l l i p s o i d to ovoid, 20-40 um i n length and 10-18 um i n breadth" (p. 47). A d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature i s a t u f t of b r i s t l e s at the anterior end of the c e l l which are much shorter than the re s t of the serrated b r i s t l e s ( F ig. 20). The c o l l a r scales (Fig. 19) are triangular shape rather than rectangular, as the body scales ( F i g . 18). No cysts of t h i s species were found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia samples. Bourrelly (1957) describes the cyst for M. reginae var. glabra, but neither P e t e r f i and Momeu, nor Asmund have 68 described the cyst f or M. transsylvanica. Due to the few records of t h i s species, l i t t l e can be said about season-a l i t y , temperature, pH or worldwide d i s t r i b u t i o n of this organism. Both Asmund (1977) and P e t e r f i and Momeu (1976a) found M. transsylvanica i n A p r i l . In Como Lake, B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s species was present i n October, l a t e November, and i n A p r i l . The water temperature of these Como Lake samples was 2.8-21.0 C and the pH was 5.70-6.25. P e t e r f i and Momeu have found t h i s species i n bogs and swamps with Sphagnum and a pH of 5.5. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) Sweden (Asmund 1977) Roumania ( P e t e r f i and Momeu 1976a) 3. Series IV - Torquatae Harris et Bradley (1960) Mallomonas doignonii var. tenuicostis Asmund et Cronberg (1979) Figs. 21, 23 This v a r i e t y of M. doignonii Bourrelly described by Asmund and Cronberg (1979) d i f f e r s from the nominate v a r i e t y i n having "more numerous and more d e l i c a t e , wavy edged r i b s across the shields of the scales" (Figs. 21, 22). The rear spines also project i n various d i r e c t i o n s . No information about cyst formation has been given. There i s a lack of information on habitat, seasonality, temperature and pH of t h i s v a r i e t y due to i t s recent d e s c r i p t i o n . Asmund and Cronberg found i t i n Denmark between February and May 1948-1957, with i t "most frequent i n early spring s h o r t l y a f t e r the breakup of i c e . " The c o l l e c t i o n made i n Beaver Lake, B. C., on 18 March 1979 i s consistent with t h i s information, however, the sporadic sampling of t h i s lake does not give information on i t s presence from February through May. No temperature range was reported by Asmund and 69 Cronberg (1979), but the pH of one of t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s was 6.0. For the Beaver Lake sample the temperature was 9.0°C and the pH was 5.10. Beaver Lake i s a bog-lake and Lake Kobberdam (Denmark) i s a eutrophic woodland pond. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) Denmark (Asmund and Cronberg 1979) 4. Isolated Species Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner i n Pascher (1913) Figs. 24, 25 This species has an unusual spindle-shaped c e l l ( F i g . 24), with a l l i t s b r i s t l e s at the a p i c a l end, and even with the l i g h t microscope i t i s recognizable. H a r r i s (1970) i n her discussion on imperfect forms of Mallomonas species suggests that various stages of development (or imperfect forms) of one species may have been described as several species. Thus, she suggests that M. pauciseta Nauman, M. quadricornis Wermel, M. akrokomos var. parvula Conrad, and M. paucispina Conrad may be imperfect forms (or stages of development) of M. akrokomos. The cysts have been recorded by several investigators (Conrad 1933; Asmund 1956) and have been reported winter to spring (Harris 1958). I t seems to be a very common species i n c e r t a i n parts of the world (Harris 1958; Takahashi 1978). However, Harris (1958) notes that, " i n s p i t e of i t s commonness i t i s sporadic and one can r a r e l y count on f i n d i n g i t on any given time or place." I t seems to be most abundant i n early spring and winter months ( P e t e r f i 1967). H a r r i s (1958) has found i t i n every month of the year except September, but notes that i t i s rare i n July and August. This agrees xtfith Asmund (1956) who found i t i n January to July, but was most abundant January-February under the i c e . In B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was found i n 70 Whonock Lake during February (under the i c e ) , and March. As only one c o l l e c -t i o n was made during December, and no c o l l e c t i o n s were made during January, i t may have been present e a r l i e r . It i s generally agreed that M. akrokomos i s a species which thrives i n cold water, e s p e c i a l l y under i c e (Harris 1958; Asmund 1956; Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961). Although i t has been reported at 26°C (Takahashi 1978), i t s maximum occurrence i s below 3°C (Asmund 1956; Takahashi 1978). In the present study i t was found only i n waters at 5°C or below. M. akrokomos i s c l a s s i f i e d as a c i d o p h i l i c (Takahashi 1978), with the pH 4.50-7.25. K r i s t i a n s e n (1975b) found i t at pH 8.0, but i t seems that the maximum numbers occur i n s l i g h t l y a c i d i c conditions of 6.0-6.5 (Takahashi 1978). In Whonock Lake, B. C , the pH was 4.05-5.20, and 6.30. Munch (1972) found M. akrokomos one of several species present i n H a l l Lake during periods of very low nutrient values, and she considered i t one of the most e f f i c i e n t species i n nutrient u t i l i z a t i o n . The nutrient data for Whonock Lake (Fig. 3) indicate that t h i s could be so for s i l i c a and phosphate, but n i t r a t e was at a r e l a t i v e l y high l e v e l for t h i s lake. As well as being an a c i d o p h i l i c and oligothermal species, i t seems to t o l e r a t e eutrophic (even sewage contaminated water) and mesotrophic conditions (Asmund 1956; P e t e r f i and Momeu 1977). D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1980) Alberta (Kristiansen 1975b) United States: Alaska (Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961; H i l l i a r d 1966) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972) Washington (Munch 1972) Iceland (Bradley 1964) England (Harris 1958) Scotland (Bradley 1966) 71 Sweden (Asmund 1977) Denmark (Asmund 1956, 1959; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d, 1978; Nygaard 1977a) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) Belgium (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941) France (Bourrelly 1957) Germany (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941) Au s t r i a (Huber-Pestalozzi 1941) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1967; P e t e r f i and Momeu 1977) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1975b) Japan (Takahashi 1978). 72 C. MALLOMONOPSIS MATVIENKO (1941) Figs. 26, 27 The genus Mallomonopsis i s distinguished from Mallomonas by the possession of two f l a g e l l a instead of one. There i s some controversy over the v a l i d i t y of the genus Mallomonopsis (see Belcher 1969), however, u n t i l i t i s resolved, specimens are placed i n t h i s genus. Mallomonopsis ouradion (Harris et Bradley) Harris (1966) Figs. 26, 27 Syn: Mallomonas ouradion Harris et Bradley (1958) (see Harris 1966) This taxon i s distinguished from a close l o o k - a l i k e : M. paxillata Bradley by the lack of a dome on the scales of M. ouradion (Figs. 26, 27), and the presence of 1-5 b r i s t l e s per scale (M. paxillata has 1 b r i s t l e per s c a l e ) . The cysts have been described by Kalina (1969), but no cyst-forming organisms were found i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o l l e c t i o n s . There are few records of M. ouradion with l i t t l e information about the seasonality, temperature, or pH preferences a v a i l a b l e . Harris and Bradley (1958) found i t during May to October and Kalina (1969) found i t i n June. In B r i t i s h Columbia, i t was c o l l e c t e d i n Beaver Lake i n November. No tempera-tures have been recorded, and only one pH, from Kalina's (1969) c o l l e c t i o n s , of 5.5 has been reported. This sample was taken from a small bog, which accounts f o r the a c i d i c pH. M. ouradion has been found i n a swampy pool (Takahashi 1978); a small bog (Kalina 1969); peaty bogs usually with Sphagnum (Harris and Bradley 1958); and Beaver Lake which i s not swampy, but does have yellow-brown, a c i d i c water. From this information, i t seems l i k e l y that t h i s species i s an acidophilous one with a tolerance of dystrophic waters. 73 D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) England (Harris and Bradley 1958; Harris 1966) Czechoslovakia (Kalina 1969) Japan (Takahashi 1978) 74 D. PARAPHYSOMONAS DE SAEDELEER (1929) F i g . 28 This i s a col o u r l e s s , u n i c e l l u l a r genus bearing two f l a g e l l a (one long, one short) and i s covered with disc-shaped scales with a c e n t r a l spine. Paraphysomonas vestita (Stokes) de Saedeleer (1929) F i g . 28 Paraphysomonas vestita i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the Northern Hemisphere (Kristiansen 1979b). I t i s a common u n i c e l l u l a r species, but r a r e l y recorded (Kristiansen 1975d) mainly because i t i s small (8-17 um) and col o u r l e s s , thus inconspicuous and e a s i l y overlooked (Kristiansen 1975d, 1979b; Thomsen 1975). The scales which are 0.7-2.6 um can be seen only with the electron microscope, but are so d i s t i n c t i v e that they are e a s i l y distinguished from other genera and Paraphysomonas species ( F i g . 28). P. vestita was o r i g i n a l l y thought to be a freshwater organism, but has been found i n a brackish-water lagoon i n Denmark (Thomsen 1975), and has been encountered i n marine samples (Leadbeater 1972). The cysts of t h i s species were not i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but they have been found by Takahashi (1978) i n Japan. Due to a lack of information, the seasonality data are incomplete. I t has been recorded i n the months from March through August (Wujek and Hamilton 1973; Wujek and Van der Veer 1976; Kr i s t i a n s e n 1975d). The c o l l e c t i o n i n Burnaby Lake was made i n A p r i l 1979. This species has been c l a s s i f i e d as eurythermal by Takahashi (1978), as i t tolerates temperatures within the range of 5.0-32.0°C. The water temperature of the sample from Burnaby Lake was i n the middle of this range at 16.0°C. P. vestita i s c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i f f e r e n t to pH, e x i s t i n g i n a range of 5.4-9.5 (Takahashi 1978), and the pH of Burnaby Lake was 6.25. The habitat range for t h i s species i s extreme as i t spans the en t i r e s a l i n i t y gradient from freshwater lakes (Manton and Leedale 1961; present study), to marine waters (Leadbeater 1972). 75 D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) United States: Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1973) England (Manton and Leedale 1961) Wales (Kristiansen 1979b) Finland (Kristiansen 1964) Norway (Leadbeater 1972) Denmark (Thomsen 1975; K r i s t i a n s e n 1964, 1978) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) France (Bourrelly 1957) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1974) Bangladesh (Takahashi and Hayakawa 1979) Japan (Takahashi 1978) A u s t r a l i a (Takahashi 1978) 76 E. SPINIFEROMONAS TAKAHASHI '(1973) Figs.. 29, 30" The genus Spiniferomonas i s a u n i c e l l u l a r organism (thus d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g i t from the c o l o n i a l Chrysosphaerella with which i t i s sometimes confused) possessing two f l a g e l l a , the second of which i s short, and i s covered with scales and spines. Spiniferomonas bilacunosa Takahashi (1973) F i g s . 29, 30 Syn: Chrysosphaerella parva Asmund (1973) (see K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d) Spiniferomonas bilacunosa i s distinguished from a l l other species i n t h i s genus except S. crucigera by having scales with two lacunae as well as with one ( F i g . 30). I t i s separated from S. crucigera by not possessing erected rods on the scales. The spines are t r i a n g u l a r i n cross-section (Fig. 29). I t i s a very small species, 4-5 um i n diam., and e a s i l y overlooked i n the l i g h t microscope. I t was noted only using the electron microscope. Takahashi (1978) states that the cysts of t h i s species are unknown. Asmund (1973) reported f i n d i n g i t i n every month of the year, but i t was most frequent i n March and A p r i l . Green (1979) reports i t i n lakes on Vancouver Island, B. C., i n August. In Whonock Lake, i t was encountered on 29 June 1978 and 4 March 1979 only. Due to i t s small s i z e , i t i s most l i k e l y that i t was overlooked i n the samples during other months of the year. The temperature range i s given by Asmund (1973) as 2.0-18.0°C. Green (1979) records temperatures between 15.2-18.8°C. The water temperatures f o r Whonock Lake when S. bilacunosa was c o l l e c t e d are 4.0° and 24.0°C. The pH values on these c o l l e c t i o n dates were: 4.05 and 6.3, which i s s l i g h t l y lower than the pH range given by Asmund (1973) as 6.5-7.5. Green (1979) also reports lower pH data ranging 5.3-7.1. 77 This species has been found p r i m a r i l y i n dark waters l i k e Whonock Lake (Asmund 1973; Green 1979) or lakes with yellowish water (Asmund 1977). I t has been encountered by Takahashi (1978) i n ponds and an ol i g o t r o p h i c lake. I t was found i n small temporary pools i n woodlands and grasslands (Asmund 1973) and i n a shallow pond surrounded with Sphagnum (Kristiansen 1975d). D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1979) Denmark (Asmund 1973, as Chrysosphaerella parva; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d, 1978) Sweden (Asmund 1977) Japan (Takahashi 1973, 1978) 78 F. SYNURA EHRENBERG (1835) Figs. 31-40 This genus i s c o l o n i a l , with each c e l l possessing two f l a g e l l a which are almost equal i n length. I t i s covered with scales which possess small spines. 1. Section P e t e r s e n i i Petersen et Hansen ex Balonov et Kuzmin (1974) Synura petersenii Korschikov (1929) F i g . 31 Syn: Synura caroliniana Whitford (1942) Within the genus Synura, the taxa are distinguished from each other based on the ornamentation, s i z e and shape of scales covering each c e l l i n the colony. Of a l l Synura species, S. petersenii i s often most d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h from S. glabra as there i s a c e r t a i n degree of overlap between the scale types (Kristiansen 1975c; c f . Figs. 31, 32). The scales of S. petersenii ( F i g . 31) are narrower, heavily s i l i c i f i e d , the r i b s extend to the edge of the scale and the c e n t r a l cavity and spine are strongly developed. K r i s t i a n s e n (1975c) suggests that S. glabra remain a v a r i e t y of a more expanded and v a r i a b l e morphological S. petersenii. However, more work i s needed to define whether these are two separate species, and a d e f i n i t i o n of what constitutes a species and a v a r i e t y of Synura must be decided before t h i s question can be resolved (Kristiansen 1979a). In t h i s study, they are consid-ered separate species. S. petersenii i s common and widespread (e.g., K r i s t i a n s e n 1969, 1979b; Bradley 1964). P e t e r f i (1967) observed i t during a l l months from the temperature extremes of January when i t was found under i c e , to July when i t was found i n water temperatures of over 30°C, and c l a s s i f i e d i t as eurythermal. K r i s t i a n s e n (1975b) and Takahashi (1978) f i n d i t to be most abundant i n the cooler months between October and A p r i l when the water temperature i s below 79 15°C. In t h i s study, i t was observed 6.0-16.0°C i n the cooler months of November, March and A p r i l . The pH range has been given as 3-9 (Kristiansen 1975b, who notes that i t i s more commonly found i n the 4-8 range). In the present B r i t i s h Columbia samples, i t was found at 5.10-6.50. The lakes i n t h i s study i n which S. petersenii was present were: Como Lake (14 November 1978); Beaver Lake (3 November 1978; 18 March 1979); Burnaby Lake (22 A p r i l 1979); Stave Lake (15 A p r i l 1979). This species i s not r e s t r i c t e d to one type of habitat, but seems to to l e r a t e a l l types of environmental conditions except polluted ponds ( P e t e r f i 1967; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975c). D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b) Quebec (Puytorac et al. 1972) United States: Alaska (Asmund 1968) Massachusetts (Klaveness and G u i l l a r d 1975) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1972) Washington (Munch 1972) Iceland (Bradley 1964) England (Hibberd 1973) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Wales (Kristiansen 1979b) Sweden (Bourrelly 1957) Denmark (Petersen and Hansen 1956; Asmund 1956, 1959; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b, 1978) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) Belgium (Compere 1974) France (Bourrelly 1957) Czechoslovakia (Fott and Ludvik 1957) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965, 1967) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1974) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Korea (Takahashi 1978) Synura glabra Korshikov (1929) F i g . 32 Syn: S. petersenii var. glabra (Korsh.) Huber-Pestalozzi (1941) As noted previously, S. glabra i s often confused with S. petersenii (cf. Figs. 31, 32). However, the scales of S. glabra are broader, le s s s i l i c i f i e d , weak i n ornamentation, the r i b s do not extend to the scale rim, and the ce n t r a l 80 cavity and spine are poorly developed (Fig. 32). No cysts of S. glabra were observed during t h i s study. S. glabra seems to occur throughout the year, but is..not common May to August (Kristiansen 1975c). Thus i t i s believed to favour the colder months October-April (Takahashi 1978). This species was present i n only one c o l l e c t i o n (3 November 1978) from Beaver Lake. No generalizations can be made about i t s seasonality due to the sporadic and infrequent nature of the c o l l e c t i o n s by others. S. glabra occurs i n a wide range of water temperatures (0-25°C), but i s most common i n temperatures below 10°C (Kristiansen 1975c) . I t i s c l a s s i f i e d by Takahashi (1978) as i n d i f f e r e n t to pH, e x i s t i n g i n a range of ca. 6.0-8.0. Kri s t i a n s e n (1975c) c l a s s i f i e s i t as favouring a l k a l i n e waters. No temperature or pH information i s a v a i l a b l e for the Beaver Lake c o l l e c t i o n . This species has been found i n a small, eutrophic, s l i g h t l y a l k a l i n e pond, or a g r i c u l t u r a l land (Asmund 1959); i n f i s h - l a k e s and a small swamp ( P e t e r f i 1965); i n ponds and a paddy f i e l d (Takahashi 1978) and i n a small seaport (now rendered inland) at the mouth of a r i v e r (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976). In addi t i o n to these habitats, i t has been found i n Beaver Lake, a shallow lake with rooted vegetation extending across i t , yellow^brown water, and a high nutrient i n f l u x due to the large resident duck population. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) Denmark (Petersen and Hansen 1956; Asmund 1959; Kr i s t i a n s e n 1975c) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) France (Bourrelly 1968) Czechoslovakia (Fott and Ludvik 1957, as S. petersenii var. glabra) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965, as S. petersenii var. glabra) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1974, as S. petersenii var. glabra ) Japan (Takahashi 1978, as S. petersenii var. glabra) 81 2. Section Synura Balonov et Kuzmin (1974) Synura uvella F. Stein emend. Korshikov. F i g . 33 S. uvella has very d i s t i n c t i v e scales which are nearly c i r c u l a r i n o u t l i n e with a truncated d i s t a l end bearing a stout 3-5 toothed spine (Fig. 33). One of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features i s the r i b s under the upturned edge, which are often not v i s i b l e with SEM unless the energy (KV) i s high (as i n F i g . 33). Also, the hexagonal pattern covering the front d i s t a l h a l f of the scale i s not v i s i b l e due to the presence of a t h i n membrane covering t h i s section. Cysts for S. uvella were not found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia samples, but have been described by B o u r r e l l y (1957). This species i s found throughout the year and i n higher numbers during the spring and autumn (Kristiansen 1975c). In t h i s study, i t was observed during every month of the year i n which c o l l e c t i o n s were made. The temperature range has been given by K r i s t i a n s e n (1975c) as 0-25°C but he noted that i t was more common below 15°C. In B r i t i s h Columbia i t was present i n a range of 2.0-26.4°C. Although K r i s t i a n s e n (1978) notes that i t i s rather unusual to f i n d S. uvella i n very acid environments, i t occurred quite frequently i n B. C. i n waters with pH values ranging 3.3-6.85. Bourrelly (1957) also observed i t favours a l k a l i n e conditions over acid habitats. Although i t i s considered a rare species i n Japan and England (Takahashi 1978) , i t i s quite a common species i n other parts of the world ( P e t e r f i 1965). I t appears to be quite common i n the Lower Fraser Valley, appearing i n Whonock Lake, Munday Lake, Como Lake, Beaver Lake, Burnaby Lake, Rolley Lake, Stave Lake. 82 D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) United States: Michigan (Wujek et al. 1975) North Carolina (Whitford and Schumacher 1969) England (Lund 1942) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Wales (Kristiansen 1979b) Sweden (Bourrelly 1957) Denmark (Petersen and Hansen 1956; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975d, 1978) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) France (Bourrelly 1957) Germany (Pankow 1963) Czechoslovakiz (Fott and Ludvik 1957) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965, 1967) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1974) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Synura echinulata Korshikov (1929) Fi g s . 34-37 The scales of S. echinulata are e a s i l y distinguished when veiwed under TEM owing to the l i n e a r markings on the front h a l f of the scale (Figs. 36, 37). I n t e r e s t i n g l y , though, these markings can not be seen with the SEM ( F i g . 34). Features which d i s t i n g u i s h i t from S. uvella are: the l i n e a r markings, the pointed spine, the shape of the scales and t h e i r small s i z e , 2.6-3.8 x 2.0-2.7 um (Takahashi 1978). The s t a l k scales ( F i g . 36) which are long and t h i n have a shorter spine than the a p i c a l scales ( F i g . 37), which are of a more ovoid shape ( F i g . 35). No cysts of S. echinulata were encountered i n the present study. I t can be found throughout the year (Kristiansen 1975c) and i n t h i s study i t was found at various locations July-October and March-June. Kr i s t i a n s e n (1975b) c o l l e c t e d i t i n Creston Valley, B. C , i n September. The temperature range i s given as 0-25°C (Kristiansen 1975c), and i t i s c l a s s i f i e d as eury-thermal by Takahashi (1978) . The range for the samples c o l l e c t e d i n the Lower Fraser Valley i s 2.8-26.2°C. I t i s c l a s s i f i e d as i n d i f f e r e n t to pH by Taka-hashi (1978) and the range given by K r i s t i a n s e n (1975c) i s 4.0-9.0. A l l the 83 water samples which contained t h i s species i n B. C. are more r e s t r i c t e d (5.00-6.82). S. echinulata i s common i n acid brown water lakes but i s not r e s t r i c t e d to t h i s habitat (Kristiansen 1975c). I t has been found i n clear water (Kristiansen 1978; Stave Lake B. C ) , and i n waters with a l k a l i n e pH values. The l o c a l i t i e s i n which i t was observed were: Whonock Lake, Como Lake, Beaver Lake, Burnaby Lake and Stave Lake. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; K r i s t i a n s e n 1975b) Quebec (Puytorac et al. 1972) United States: Alaska (Asmund 1968; H i l l i a r d 1966; Asmund and H i l l i a r d 1961) Michigan (Wujek and Hamilton 1973) North Carolina (Whitford and Schumacher 1969) Iceland (Bradley 1964) England (Harris and Bradley 1958) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Wales (Kristiansen 1969) Finland (Kristiansen 1964) Sweden (Kristiansen 1969) Denmark (Petersen and Hansen 1956; Asmund 1956, 1959; Kri s t i a n s e n 1975c, 1975d, 1978) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) Belgium (Compere 1974) France (Bourrelly 1957) Czechoslovakia (Fott and Ludvik 1957) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965) Chad (Compere 1975) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1974) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Synura spinosa Korshikov (1929) F i g s . 38, 39 This species i s so morphologically diverse that several v a r i e t i e s have been described. P e t e r f i (1967) proposes that two v a r i e t i e s : S. spinosa var. nygaardyi and S. spinosa var. curtispina not be recognized but be included i n the nominate v a r i e t y . Another opinion on t h i s v a r i a t i o n r a i s e s var. curtis-pina to the species l e v e l , thus S. curtispina (Asmund 1968). Despite the confusion about the delimitations of species and t h e i r v a r i e t i e s , the 84 specimens encountered i n B r i t i s h Columbia were t y p i c a l S. spinosa scales which exhibited l i t t l e morphological v a r i a t i o n (Figs. 38, 39). The e l l i p s o i d a p i c a l scales measure 2.6-5.2 x 1.2-4.5 um, have d i s t i n c t i v e hexagonal pattern on the ap i c a l s ection and have a curved spine which ends i n two or three teeth ( F i g . 38). The spine measures les s than 3.5 um. The basal scales are of a simple teardrop shape without the spine ( F i g . 39). The cysts of th i s species were not observed i n t h i s study. S. spinosa occurs throughout the year, but seems most common i n the cool seasons of spring and autumn (Kristiansen 1975c; Takahashi 1978). I t was present i n B r i t i s h Columbia during A p r i l , and June-December i n various samples. The o v e r a l l temperature range i s 2.0-27.0°C (Takahashi 1978; P e t e r f i 1965). In samples from B. C , the water temperatures were 4.0-26.4°C. The pH range given by Takahashi (1978) i s 5.0-8.5, and the values f o r the B. C. c o l l e c t i o n s are i n the middle of t h i s range (5.35-6.70). This species i s common i n fo r e s t lakes and ponds with brown water ( K r i s -tiansen 1975c). I t has been found i n ol i g o t r o p h i c ponds (Asmund 1968; Kri s t i a n s e n 1969), and a eutrophic lake (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976). Whonock, Como, Beaver and Burnaby lakes are a l l dystrophic lakes. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study; Green 1979) Quebec (Puytorac et al. 1972) United States: Alaska (Asmund 1968) North Carolina (Whitford and Schumacher 1969) Iceland (Bradley 1964) Scotland (Bradley 1966) Sweden (Kristiansen 1969; Asmund 1977) Denmark (Petersen and Hansen 1956; Asmund 1956, 1959; Kr i s t i a n s e n 1975d) Netherlands (Wujek and Van der Veer 1976) Belgium (Compere 1974) France (Bourrelly 1957) Czechoslovakia (Fott and Ludvik 1957) 85 Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965, 1967) Russia (Balonov and Kuzmin 1974) Japan (Takahashi 1978) Synura splendlda Korshikov (1929) F i g . 40 This i s a very rare species (Kristiansen 1963) and i s r e l a t i v e l y unusual when compared with other chrysophytes because of the large s i z e of i t s scales (6.2-7.0 x 6.2-6.8 ym; K r i s t i a n s e n 1963) (Fig. 40). Surface scale d e t a i l s cannot be recognized with the l i g h t microscope, but because of t h e i r s i z e they can be determined by LM ( P e t e r f i 1965). The c e l l s are also large (50-60 x 10 ym) and the e n t i r e colony measures 100-200 ym. I t s large s i z e d i s t i n g u i s h -es i t from a l l other Synura, except perhaps S. lohammarii Skuja (1956), which has not been studied by EM (Kristiansen 1963). In f a c t , P e t e r f i (1967) considers S. lohammarii a synonym of S. splendida. The cysts of S. splendida were described by Bo u r r e l l y (1957), but they have not been encountered since (Kristiansen 1963; P e t e r f i 1965, 1967). This species has a d e f i n i t e seasonality which i s r e s t r i c t e d to the spring months of March, A p r i l , and May (Korshikov 1941; Bourrelly 1957; K r i s t i a n s e n 1963; P e t e r f i 1965, 1967). In Burnaby Lake, i t was encountered i n the 22 A p r i l 1979 sample. The water temperature on t h i s date was 16.0°C and the pH was 6.25. The temperature range given by K r i s t i a n s e n (1963) was remarkably narrow: 7.5-12.0°C. P e t e r f i (1965) found i t at 25.0°C, and the B. C. c o l l e c t i o n was noted at 16.0°C, which indicates that the temperature r e s t r i c -t i o n may not be as narrow as previously thought. The pH values given by K r i s t i a n s e n (1963) range from 7.3-7.5, whereas Bourrelly (1957) found i t at a s l i g h t l y more a c i d i c pH of 6.0-6.5. Korshikov (1941) agrees that i t i s found i n s l i g h t l y acidic-boggy waters. 86 Kri s t i a n s e n (1963) found i t i n s l i g h t l y brownish, a l k a l i n e water r i c h humus, and Bo u r r e l l y (1957) encountered i t i n acidic-boggy ponds. Burnaby Lake has brownish, boggy-acidic water. D i s t r i b u t i o n : Canada: B r i t i s h Columbia (present study) Denmark (Kristiansen 1963) France (Bourrelly 1957) Roumania ( P e t e r f i 1965, 1967) Russia (Korshikov 1941; Balonov and Kuzmin 1974) 87 VI. SUMMARY U n t i l the report by K r i s t i a n s e n (1975b), the Synuraceae i n B r i t i s h Columbia were a neglected and often m i s i d e n t i f i e d group (Kristiansen 1975b; Stein pers. comm.). This i s not s u r p r i s i n g , as many of them are small, c o l o u r l e s s , and/or f r a g i l e and thus are extremely d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y using l i g h t microscopy. I t i s now e s s e n t i a l that electron microscopy be used to accurately i d e n t i f y synuracean taxa, thus making the task le s s accessible i n general a l g a l surveys. This gap l e f t i n the knowledge of a l g a l groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia, due to the d i f f i c u l t y with t h i s group, requires s p e c i a l attention. Green (1979, 1980) added to the records of the family (Vancouver Island; c e n t r a l B. C ) , but besides Kristiansen's report (1975b) l i t t l e i s known from the Lower Fraser Valley, where much taxonomic work has been done (Stein 1975; Stein and Borden 1979). Of the twenty Synuraceae encountered during t h i s study, eight are new reports for B r i t i s h Columbia, thus expanding the a l g a l records f o r the province: Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae*, Mallomonas papillosa, Mallomonas doignonii var. tenuicostis*, Mallomonas transsylvanica*, Mallomonopsis ouradion*, Paraphysomonas vestita, Synura splendida*, and Synura glabra. Of the eleven non-synuracean Chrysophyceae noted, s i x are new records for B. C.: Bicoea kepneri, Chrysococcystis elegans, Dinobryon crenulatum, Epipyxis lauterbornii, Epipyxis utricular var. acuta, Eusphaerella turfosa. Genera which were new records for the province were Paraphysomonas, Chrysococcystis, and Eusphaerella. *These taxa have been reported from very few l o c a l i t i e s , on a worldwide basis. 88 The seasonal study of Whonock, Munday, and Como lakes shows that although i t i s commonly assumed that the Chrysophyceae (and thus the Synura-ceae) are a cold-water favouring group, t h i s i s not the complete p i c t u r e . They are not r e s t r i c t e d to cold water and many are abundant within a wide temperature range. The Synuraceae, on the whole, do seem to favour acid and often dystrophic environments. I t seems that other factors such as pH, day length, or water chemistry w i l l prove to be important l i m i t i n g factors as with most other algae. This suggests that more intensive f i e l d studies, combined with culture work, must be undertaken. 89 VII. LITERATURE CITED Asmund, B. 1955. Electron microscope observations on Mallomonas caudata and some remarks on i t s occurrence i n four Danish ponds. Bot. Tidsskr. 52: 163-168. . 1956. Electron microscope observations on Mallomonas species and remarks on t h e i r occurrence i n some Danish ponds I I . Bot. Tidss k r . 53: 75-85. . 1959. Electron microscope observations on Mallomonas species and remarks on t h e i r occurrence i n some Danish ponds and lakes I I I . Dan. Bot. Ark. 18: 7-50. . 1968. Studies on Chrysophyceae from some ponds and lakes i n Alaska VI. Occurrence of Synura species. Hydrobiologia 31: 497-515. . 1973. Survey of the genus Chrysosphaerella (Chrysophyceae) as studied i n the electron microscope with d e s c r i p t i o n of a new species. Bot. Tidsskr. 68: 132-139. . 1977. Two new species of Mallomonas (Chrysophyceae) i n Swedish lakes. Bot. Tidsskr. 71: 253-258. Asmund, B. and G. Cronberg. 1979. Two new taxa of Mallomonas (Chrysophyceae). Bot. Not. 132: 409-418. Asmund, B. and D. K. 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Close-up of spines and scales. SEM (X 5304) Figure 5. Mallomonas crassiquama (Asmund) Fott. Underside of scales shown and f a i n t hook at t i p of b r i s t l e s can be seen. SEM (X 3648) Figure 6. M. crassiquama. Scales. SEM (X8970) Figure 7. Mallomonas cratis var. asmundiae Wujek ef Van der Veer. Scales and end of b r i s t l e s . SEM (X 9600) Figure 8. M. cratis var. asmundiae. Scales and end of b r i s t l e s . SEM (X8106) 97 98 PLATE 2 Figure 9. M. cratis var. asmundiae. B r i s t l e s . SEM (X 4864) Figure 10. Mallomonas papillosa H a r r i s et Bradley. E n t i r e c e l l with scales. SEM (X 4864) Figure 11. M. papillosa. Close-up of scales, p a p i l l a e cover dome of scale as well as s h i e l d . SEM (X 18,360) Figure 12. Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger. Serrated b r i s t l e s with bent end where they attach to scales. SEM (X 4180) Figure 13. M. caudata. Scales, minute pores of the scales can be seen. SEM (X 4752) Figure 14. Mallomonas hamata Asmund. C e l l with both scales and b r i s t l e s . SEM (X 1824) Figure 15. M. hamata. Underside of scales and hooked b r i s t l e s . SEM (X 8040) Figure 16. Mallomonas heterospina Lurid. Scales, underside and upper side. SEM (X 15,750) Figure 17. M. heterospina. Scales and b r i s t l e . SEM (X 7910) 99 100 PLATE 3 Figure 18. Mallomonas transsylvanica P e t e r f i et Momeu. Scales and part of b r i s t l e s . SEM (X 8640) Figure 19. M. transsylvanica. C o l l a r scale and body scales. .SEM (X 5220) Figure 20. M. transsylvanica. Scales and b r i s t l e t i p . SEM (X 4440) Figure 21. Mallomonas doignonii var. tenuicostis Asmund et Cronberg. E n t i r e c e l l . SEM (X 4290) Figure 22. M. doignonii var. tenuicostis. A p i c a l end of c e l l . SEM (X 7920) Figure 23. M. doignonii var. tenuicostis. Scales. SEM (X 15,750) Figure 24. Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner i n Pascher. E n t i r e c e l l . Stalk scales become very elongated. SEM (X 4446) Figure 25. M. akrokomos. A p i c a l scales and b r i s t l e s . SEM (X 8640) Figure 26. Mallomonopsis ouradion (Harris et Bradley) H a r r i s . Scales. SEM (X 4608) 101 102 PLATE 4 Figure 27. M. ouradion. Scale. TEM (X 12,500) Figure 28. Paraphysomonas vestita (Stokes) De Saedleer. Scale and spine. SEM (X 9570) Figure 29. Spiniferomonas M'lacunosa Takahashi. Triangular spine. SEM (X 4144) Figure 30. S. bilacunosa. Scales and spines. Scales are of the bilacunae and monolacuna type. SEM (X 9504) Figure 31. Synura petersenii Korsh. Scales. SEM (X 8814) Figure 32. Synura glabra Korsh. Scales. TEM (X 9800) Figure 33. Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. Scales. SEM (X 4536) Figure 34. Synura echinulata Korsh. Body scales with pointed spines and upper ha l f of scale not showing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l i n e s due to SEM. (X 12,800) Figure 35. S. echinulata. E n t i r e c e l l with s t a l k scales of a pronounced oblong shape. TEM (X 2500) Figure 36. S. echinulata. Stalk scale l i n e s on upper ha l f of scale e a s i l y v i s i b l e . TEM (X 9800) 1 0 3 104 PLATE 5 Figure 37. S. echinulata. Body scales with l i n e s on upper h a l f of scale v i s i b l e . TEM (X 12,500) Figure 38. Synura spinosa.Korsh. Body scales. TEM (X 7700) Figure 39. S. spinosa. Stalk scale. TEM (X 15,900) Figure 40. Synura splendida Korsh. Scale with elongated spine. SEM (X 4218) Figure 41. Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg. Cyst with pore v i s i b l e and c o l l a r surrounding i t . SEM (X 10,640) Figure 42. U. volvox. Cyst showing height of c o l l a r . SEM (X 4992) Figure 43. Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. Cyst with hooked c o l l a r surrounding pore. SEM (X 5220) 105 APPENDIX I. Algae of the main lakes studied A. Whonock Lake 18 Hay 1973 T=17°C pH= -Si -P -N -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Eudorina sp. Ehrenberg 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Stavrastrum spp. Meyen ex Ralfs l-Tetraspora sp. Link 1-Triploceras verticillatum B a i l . 1-Volvox sp. Linnaeus 1- Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 3-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1- Chrysochromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault • rare; 2 = occasional; 3 = frequent) 1 June 1978 T=21°C pH=6.25 Si -. P ' -N -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Cosmariura sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1- Desmidium aptogonum Br£b. 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum spp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey XANTH0PI1YTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 1-Ducellieria chodatii (Ducell.) T e l l . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE l-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvelia Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- .flsterionei.la sp. Hassall 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA/ CYANOPHYCEAE;;T 1-Anabaena sp". [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 15 June 1978 T=17.6°C pH=6.A5 Si 0.11 m g L - 1 P 1.26 mg L - l N 0.112 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 2-Spirogyra spp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Staurastrum spp. Meyen ex Ralfs 2- Triploceras sp. Bailey CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- PinnuIaria sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault O ON Whonock Lake (continued) 29 June 1978 T=24.0°C pH=6.3 . Si 0.07 mg L P 1.68 mg L - l N 0.127 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfa 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Staurastrum spp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE l~Ducellieria chodatii (Ducell.) T e i l . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1- Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Spiniferomonas bilacunosa Takahashi 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE l-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg l-pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 1- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann 14 July 1978 T=23.0°C pH=6.35 , Si 0.11 mg L P 2.30 mg L - l N 0.176 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-CJosteriura spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs X-Selanastrum sp. Reinsch. 2-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey 1- Xantbidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Neidium sp. P f l t z e r 1- Pinnuiaria sp. Ehrenberg 2- r a i e l J a r i a fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann 28 July 1978 T=23.8°C pH=6.65 . Si 0.45 mg L P 1.86 mg L - l N 0.060 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs X-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Microsterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE l - F r u s t u i i a sp. Rabenhorst 1-Neidium sp. P f l t z e r 1-PinnuJaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA 2 DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Whonock Lake (continued) 9 August 1978 T=26.4°C pH=6.40 . S i 0.04 mg L P 1.20 mg L - l N 0.112 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Funotia sp. Ehrenberg X-Frustulla sp. Rabenhorst 1-Afelosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Neidium sp. Pfit z e r 1- Pinularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 23 August 1978 T=19.2°C pH=6.70 . Si 0.59 mg L P 1.985 mg L - l N 0.057 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Cosmarium costatura Nordst. 2-Cosmarium Intermedium Ralfs 2- Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Netrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- PinnuIaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE X-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 5 September 1978 T-16.8°C pH-5.95 , Si 0.70 mg L P 1.80 mg L - 1 N 0.120 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Aficrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Afougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- £unotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena cylindrica Lemm. 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Whonock Lake (continued) 12 September 1978 T=17.5°C pH= -Si 0.055 mg L P 0.16 mg L - 1 N 0.032 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Bambusina borreri (Ralfs) Cleve 2- Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Cosmarium costatum Nordst. 1-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Oocystis e l l i p t i c a W. West 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Triploceras verticillatum B a i l . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Wallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena cylindrica Lemm. 17 September 1978 T=16.5°C pH=5.95 . Si 0.115 mg L P 0.21 mg L " 1 N 0.025 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Oedogonium sp. Link i n Nees 1- Oocystis sp. A. Braun 2- Pediastruin sp. Meyen 1-Scenedesmus sp. Meyen 1-Spiroyyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. 1-Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Weidiura sp. P f l t z e r 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg l-Tafcellaria sp, Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3-hnabaena cylindrica Lemm. 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont r - l 25 September 1978 T°16.5°C pH=6.35 Si 0.085 mg L P 0.21 mg L _ 1 N 0.029 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-CIosterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Coelastrum sp. Naegeli 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Tripioceras sp. Bailey 1-Zygnema sp. CA. Agardh 1- Ulothrix sp. Kuetzing CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1- Dinohryon bavaricum Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3-Anabaena cylindrica Lemm. 1-Gleocapsa sp. Kuetzing 1-Oscillatoria limosa C. Agardh O Whonock Lake (continued) 1 October 1978 T=15.0°C pH=6.55 . Si 0.915 mg L P 2.365 mg L - l N 0.039 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Nephrocytium agardhianum Naegeli 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Spirogyra sp. Link in CG. Nees 1- Staurastriim sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 2- Triploceras sp. Bailey 1- Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE i-Achnantkes minutissima Kuetz. 1-CyclotelJa sp. Kuetz. 3- CymbelJa sp. CA. Agardh 3-Gomphonema sp. Ehrenberg 3-Synecfra sp. Ehrenberg 1-Navicula sp. Bory 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUCLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg 1 October 1978 (continued) PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 10 October 1978 T=14.8°C pH=5.95 . Si 0.90 mg L P 5.1 mg L - l N 0.021 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Staurastrujn sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dionbryon bavaricum Imhof. 1- Dinoiryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Dinoiryon divergens Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. 3- Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Whonock Lake ( c o n t i n u e d ) 14 October 1978 T= 14.5°C pH=6.15 . S i 0.90 mg L P 3.905 mg L - 1 N 0.017 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Asterococcus sp. S c h e r f f e l 2-Characium sp. A. Braun 1- Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 2- Closterium spp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s 1-Coelastrum sp. N a e g e l l 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s 2- Desmidium sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 2-Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex R a l f s 1-Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex R a l f s 1- Klebsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox e t B l a c k w e l l 2- Micrasterias sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1-Mougreotia sp. C A . Agardh 1-Wetrium sp. ( N a e g e l i ) I t z i g s o n et Rothe 1-Oedogonium sp. L i n k i n Nees 1-Oocystis s p . A. Braun 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1-Penium sp. B r S b i s s o n ex R a l f s 1- P J e u r o t a e n i u m sp. N a e g e l i 2- Spirogyra sp. L i n k i n C G . Nees 2-Spirotaenia sp, B r g b i s s o n ex R a l f s 2-Spondylosium sp. B r S b i s s o n ex R a l f s 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex R a l f s 2 - T r i p J o c e r a s sp. B a i l e y CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r 1-Synura echinulata K o r s h . 1- Synura uvella S t e i n emend. Korsh. 2- Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg 14 October 1978 (c o n t i n u e d ) PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1- ChrysocTiromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Cymbella sp. C A . Agardh 1 - F r u s t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 1-Neidium sp. P f l t z e r 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Stauroneis sp. Ehrenberg 1- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [ B o r y ] Bornet e t F l a h a u l t 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 22 October 1978 T°14.0°C ph=6.15 . S i 0.93 mg L P 4.055 mg L _ l N 0.032 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE Characium sp. A. Braun C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s Desmidium sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex R a l f s Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex R a l f s Klebsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox e t B l a c k w e l l Micrasterias sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s Mougeotia sp. C A . Agardh JVetrium sp. ( N a e g e l i ) I t z i g s o n et Rothe Oocystis sp. A. Braun Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex R a l f s Triploceras sp. B a i l e y CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-DinoJbryon bavaricum Imhof. 3-Dino2>ryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r 1-Synura u v e l l a S t e i n emend. K o r s h . 3- Urogrlena v o l v o * Ehrenberg BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- S t a u r o n e i s sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- C e r a t i u n i s p . Schrank CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE Anabaena sp. [ B o r y ] B o r n e t e t F l a h a u l t Whonock Lake ( c o n t i n u e d ) 29 October 1978 T=10.2°C pH-6.15 S i 0.93 mg L P 0.64 mg L _ 1 N 0.029 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Characium sp. A. Braun 2- C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s l-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s l - K l e b s o r m i d i u m sp. S i l v a , Mattox e t B l a c k w e l l 1-Micrasterias sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1-Afouyeotia s p . C A . Agardh 1-Netrium sp. ( N a e g e l i ) I t z i g s o n e t Rothe 1-Oedogronium sp. L i n k i n Nees 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex R a l f s 1- Triploceras sp. B a i l e y CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon i a v a r i c u m Imhof. 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r 1- Synura uvella S t e i n emend. Korsh. 2- Uroglena volvox Ehrenberg BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-A/iaibaena sp. [ B o r y ] B o r n e t e t F l a h a u l t 5 November 1978 T=8.2°C PH=5.85 . S i 1.055 mg L P 1.09 mg L - 1 N 0.036 mg L " 1 CHL0R0PHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s 1-Desmidium sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1-Klebsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox et B l a c k w e l l 1- Afougeotia sp. C A . Agardh 2- Oedogonlum sp. L i n k i n Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2-Dinoi>ryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- F r u s t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) K u e t z . 12 November 1978 T=4.5°C PH=5.4 S i 1.13 mg L P 2.70 mg L _ 1 N 0.039 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Characium sp. A. Braun 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s l-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s 1-Desmidium sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1 -Dictyosphaerium sp. N a e g e l i l-£uastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex R a l f s 1-Micrasterias sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1-Atougeotia sp. C A . Agardh 1 - S p i r o g y r a sp. L i n k i n C G . Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex R a l f s 1 - T r i p l o c e r a s sp. B a i l e y 1-Zygnema sp. C A . Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1- D i n o i r y o n cylindricum Imhof. 3-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1 - P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg H-1 1—1 re Whonock Lake ( c o n t i n u e d ) 19 November 1978 T=2.0°C pH=5.65 . S i 1.19 mg L P 2.02 mg L _ 1 N 0.039 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bambusina borreri ( R a l f s ) C l e v e 1- Bulbochaete sp. C A . Agardh 2- Characium sp. A. Braun 2 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s 1-Coelastrum sp. N a e g e l i 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s 2- Desmidium sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 1- Micrasterias sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 2- Mougeotia sp. C A . Agardh 1- Wetrium sp. ( N a e g e l i ) I t z i g s o n e t Rothe 2- S p i r o g y r a sp. L i n k i n C G . Nees 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex R a l f s 1- Triploceras sp. B a i l e y CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Mallomonas caudata I v a n , emend. K r i e g e r BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- F r u s t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [ B o r y ] Bornet e t F l a h a u l t 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 26 November 1978 T=2.0°C pH=6.35 . S i 1.24 mg L P 3.25 mg L - 1 N 0.032 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulbochaete sp. C A . Agardh 1- Characium sp. A. Braun 2- C l o s t e r i u m sp. N i t z s c h ex R a l f s l-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex R a l f s 1-Desmidium cylindricum C A . Agardh e x R a l f s 1- M i c r a s t e r i a s sp. C A . Agardh ex R a l f s 2- Mougeotia sp. C A . Agardh 1-JVetrium sp. ( N a e g e l i ) I t z i g s o n e t Rothe 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1-Pleurotaenium sp. N a e g e l i CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-C h r y s o p h y a e r e l l a multispina B r a d l e y 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. K r i e g e r 1-Synura u v e l l a S t e i n emend. K o r s h . PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysochromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - F r a g i l a r i a sp. Lyngbye 1- Meloslra sp. C A . Agardh 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE ^ 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 26 November 1978 ( c o n t i n u e d ) CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptoroonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [ B o r y ] Bornet e t F l a h a u l t 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont t—1 h-1 u; Whonock Lake (continued) 10 December 1978 T=1.0°C pH=6.15 , Si 0.03 mg L P 0.10 mg L - 1 N 0.067 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Characium sp. A. Braun 1-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Kiehsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox et Blackwell 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Diatoma sp. Bory 2- F r a g i l a r i a sp. Lyngbye CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 13 February 1979 T=1.0°C pH=5.20 . Si 0.03 mg L P 0.26 mg L" 1 N 0.083 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg 19 February 1979 T=1.0°C pH=4.95 Si -P " -1 N 0.037 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1- Scenedesmus sp. Meyen CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Gomphonema sp. Ehrenberg 1-Welosira sp. CA. Agardh 3- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysochromilina sp. Lackey CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont Whonock Lake (continued) A March 1979 T=4.0°C pH=>4.05 . Si 0.025 mg L P 0.10 mg L - 1 N 0.099 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. X-Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger X-Spiniferomonas bilacunosa Takahashi BACILLARIOPHYCEAE X-Asterionella sp. Hassall X-Cymbella sp. CA. Agardh X-Nitzschia sp. Hassall 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. X-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1- Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 2- Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 12 March 1979 T=5.0°C pH=4.75 . Si 0.01 mg L P 0.26 mg L" 1 N 0.105 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE l-£>inol>ryon bavaricum Imhof. 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. l-Dinoiryon divergens Imhof. 1- Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta X-Mallomonas akrokomos Ruttner 3-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- TaJbellaria sp. Ehrenberg 25 March 1979 (Sc h i l l e r ) H i l l i a r d Krieger T-10.8 C pH=5.05 Si 0.01 mg P 0.365 mg N 0.137 mg L L - l L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp, 2-Mougeotia sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs C A. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3-Wallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger X-Mallomonas hamata Asmund 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 2-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg Whonock Lake (continued) 1 A p r i l 1979 T-11.4°C pH=4.55 S i 0.01 mg L P 0.10 mg L" 1 N 0.116 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 3-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Oedogonium sp. Link in Nees 1-Spiroyyra sp. Link in C C Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Epipyxis tabellariae (Lemm.) G.M. Smith 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 3-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 8 A p r i l 1979 Nitzsch ex Ralfs Corda ex Ralfs CA. Agardh pH=5.20 . Si 0.01 mg L P 1.09 mg L - l N 0.099 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. 1- Cosmarium sp. 2- Moujeotia sp. 1-Ulothrix sp. Kuetzing 1-Zygnema sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 2- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Mallomonas crassiguama (Asmund) Fott 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg 15 A p r i l 1979 T=8.5°C pH=5.00 . S i 0.03 mg L P 0.31 mg L _ 1 N 0.110 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 1- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE l-£uylena sp. Ehrenberg Whonock Lake (continued) 22 A p r i l 1979 T=14.0°C PH=5.20 . S i 0.01 mg L P 0.21 mg L - l N 0.107 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1- Pediastrum sp. Meyen 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey XANTH0PHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 1-Ducellieria chodatii (Ducell.) T e l l . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 1- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Kreiger 2-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 29 A p r i l 1979 T=19.0°C pH=5.05 Si 0.56 mg L P 0.58 mg L - l N 0.104 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- wetrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 1-Pleurotaenium sp. Naegeli 1- Triploceras sp. Bailey CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta ( S c h i l l e r ) 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Perldinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex.Gomont 7 May 1979 T=16.0°C pH=5.70 Si 0.42 mg L P 0.26 mg L - l N 0.053 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Netrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 1-Pieurotaenium sp. Naegeli 1- Oedogonium sp. Link i n Nees 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey XANTHOPHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 1- Ducellieria chodatii (Ducell.) T e l t . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 3- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Mallomonas crassiguama (Asmund) Fott 1- Mallomonas hamata Asmund 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault Whonock Lake (continued) 16 May 1979 T=16.0°C pH=5.45 . Si 0.22 mg L P 0.93 mg L - l N 0.032 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 1-Ducellieria chodatii (Ducell.) T e i l . CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 28 May 1979 11 June 1979 Nitzsch ex Ralfs CA. Agardh ex Ralfs Ehrenberg ex Ralfs sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs T=17.0°C pH=4.85 , Si 0.11 mg L P 0.21 mg L - l N 0.025 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. 1-Desmidium sp. 1-Hyalotheca sp. 1-Micrasterias 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Pleurotaenium sp. Naegeli 1-Scenedesmus sp. Meyen 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Triploceras sp. Bailey 1-Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Bunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinlum gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anahaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont T=22.5°C pH=5.35 Si 0.19 mg L P 0.16 mg L ~ l N 0.029 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella brevispina Korsh. 1- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 2- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2-Dinoi>ryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- T a i e l l a r i a fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Ceratium sp. Schrank • 3-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg oc Whonock Lake (continued) 28 June 1979 T=24.0°C pH=6.15 , Si 0.22 ng L P 0.26 mg L" 1 N 0.091 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Oedogoni um sp. Link in Nees \-Spiroggia sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. X-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Spiniformonas bilacunosa Takahashi 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst l-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1- Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 8 July 1979 T=24.0°C pH-7.1 , Si 0.265 mg L P 0.535 mg L - l N 0.032mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Wetrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 1-Oedogonium sp. Link in Nees 1- Pleurotaenium sp. Naegeli 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 3- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Rnomoeoneis sp. P f i t z e r 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Neidium sp. Pf i t z e r 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLEN0PHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE , 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg 8 July 1979 (continued) PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1- Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 2- Oscillatoria Vaucher ex Gomont Whonock Lake (continued) 23 July 1979 T=26.0°C pH=6.55 1 S i 0.34 mg L P 0.32 mg L _ 1 N 0.029 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Buliocbaete sp. CA. Agardh 2- Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias radiata Hass. 3- Afougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link in CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum biseriata l^-Triploceras sp. Bailey CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia rhomboides (Ehrenberg) DeToni 1-Neidium sp. P f i t z e r 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Surirella sp. Turpin 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 11 August 1979 T=26.0°C pH=6.75 . Si 0.34 mg L .P 0.48 mg L _ 1 N 0.036 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium spp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias radiata Hass. 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Oedogonium sp. Link i n Nees 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. 1- Triploceras sp. Bailey CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Cbrysospnaerella multispina Bradley 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia rhomboides (Ehrenberg) DeToni 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont B. Munday Lake 18 May 197S T=20.0°C pH -SI -P -N -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Klebsormidiura sp. S i l v a , Mattox et Blackwell 2-Mougeotia sp. C A . Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 3- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg l-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard 1 June 1978 T=24.4°C pH=5.35 Si -P -N -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Desmidium sp. C.A. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- AJougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE ' 1-rinobryon cylindricum Imhof. l-Dinabryon divergens Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE l-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 15 June 1978 T=17.2°C pH-5.65 . S i 0.17 mg L P 2.365 mg L" 1 N 0.260 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1- Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA ["J DINOPHYCEAE M 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg Munday Lake (continued) 29 June 1978 T=17.4°C pH=5.75 . Si 0.175 mg L P 1.26 mg L _ 1 N 0.135 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Gleocystis sp. Naegeli 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Oocystis pusilla Hansg. 1- Scenedesmus sp. Meyen 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Neidium sp. P f l t z e r 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia glauca (Ehrbg.) Naeg. 14 July 1978 T=24.8°C pH=5.70 1 S i 0.05 mg L P 1.92 mg L" 1 N 0.139 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Klebsormidium sp. Sil v a , Mattox et Blackwell 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratlum sp. Schrank 3- Perldinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann 28 July 1978 T=25.2°C pH=6.35 1 S i 0.36 mg L P 1.32 mg L - l N 0.144 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Desmidium sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Funotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tai>ellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. N> 1- TaJbellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Munday Lake (continued) 9 August 1978 T=26.2°C pH=6.45 . Si 0.07 mg L P 2.83 mg L - l N 0.125 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Planktosphaeria sp. G.M. Smith 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 23 August 1978 T»19.0°C pH-6.35 . Si 1.29 mg L P 2.365 mg L - l N 0.071 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Kor9h. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- £unotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard 5 September 1978 T=17.5°C pH=5.40 . S i 1.65 mg L~ P 4.60 mg L " l N 0.127 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA .CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Peridinium gratunense CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anaiaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault •1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Mundny Lake (continued) 12 September 1978 T-18.0°C pH -Si 0.06 mg L P 0.21 mg L _ 1 N 0.144 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Nephrocytium agardbianum Naegeli 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 3- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Chroococcus turgidus (Kuetz.) Naegeli 17 September 1978 T=17.0°C PH-5.1 , Si 0.07 mg L P 0.16 mg L - 1 N 0.158 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1-Selanastrum sp. Reinsch. 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 3-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE "i-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et"Flahault 25 September 1978 T=16.5°C pH=5.70 . Si 0.10 mg L P 0.10 mg L _ 1 N 0.181 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Ulothrix subconstricta G. West XANTHOPHYTA . RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont Munday Lake (continued) 1 October 1978 T=15.8°C pH=5.80 Si 1.97 mg L P 3.18 mg L _ 1 N 0.275 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulbochaete sp. CA. Agardh 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Nephrocytium sp. Naegeli 1-Spirogyra SP- Link i n CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1-Cbrysocbromulina sp. Lackey CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 3- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 10 October 1978 T=14.2°C pH=5.9 . Si 2.34 mg L P 8.95 mg L _ 1 • N 0.250 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 3- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 3- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 14 October 1978 T=15.8°C PH=5.70 1 S i 2.46 mg L P 8.24 mg L" 1 N 0.239 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 3- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 3-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 3- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg RHODOPHYTA FLORIDEOPHYCEAE 1-Batrachospermum sp. Roth Munday Lake (continued) 22 October 1978 T=12.0°C pH=5.95 , S i 2.46 mg L P 7.15 mg L _ 1 N 0.230 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 1-Cymnodinium sp. Stein 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 3- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg RHODOPHYTA FLORIDEOPHYCEAE 1-Batrachospermum sp. Roth 29 October 1978 5 November 1978 T=10.2°C pH=5.85 . Si 2.42 mg L P 2.43 mg L" 1 N 0.222 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1-Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye 3- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-Taiellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg T=7.8°C pH=5.75 . Si 2.62 mg L P 3.755 mg L - l N 0.813 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs l-//yalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Wouyeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1- Wetrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg Munday Lake (continued) 12 November 1978 T=5.5°C pH=4.45 . S i 2.46 mg L P 10.5 mg L - l . N 1.32 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann 19 November 1978 26 November 1978 T=3.0°C pH=4.05 . S i 2.46 mg L~ P 4.08 mg L - l N 2.22 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulbochaete sp. CA. Agardh 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. T=2.0°C pH=4.25 . S i 2.54 mg L P 6.95 mg L - l N 1.97 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE l-Bulbochaete sp. CA. Agardh 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye 1- Fr u s t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-TaJbellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz Munday Lake (continued) 10 December 1978 T=4.0°C pH=4.85 _. Si 0.03 mg L P 0.31 mg L - 1 N 1.91 mg L - l CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg . CHRYSOPHYTA BACILLARIOPHYCEAE Diatoma sp. Bory Melosira sp. CA. Agardh Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 13 February 1979 T=1.0°C pH=4.75 . Si 0.05 mg L P 0.48 mg L _ l N 1.42 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link In CG. Nees 1- Staruastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1-Cnrysociiromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 3- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Fragilaria sp. Lyngbye 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 3- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 19 February 1979 T=2.0°C pH=3.50 Si 0.01 mg L P 0.26 mg L - l N 0.950 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- T a i e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg i — • ho OO Munday Lake (continued) 4 March 1979 T=4.0°C pH=3.25 Si 0.01 mg L P 0.26 mg L _ 1 N 1.678 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 12 March 1979 25 March 1979 T=4.2°C pH=3.30 , Si 0.01-mg L P 0.343 mg L - 1 N 1.461 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Chrysococcocystis elegans Doflein 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta ( S c h i l l . ) 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg T=10.0°C PH=3.55 Si 0.02 mg L P 0.37 mg L _ 1 N 1.66 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 2- /fougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Ulothrix sp. Kuetz. H i l l i a r d CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg ,_, 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. M 2-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. 1 0 PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2-Chroococcus sp. Naegeli Munday Lake (continued) 1 A p r i l 1979 T=-11.2°C pH=3.35 _. Si 0.01 mg L P 0.10 mg L _ 1 N 1.46 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link in CG. Nees 1-Staurastruro sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1-tflotnrix sp. Kuetz. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1- Chrysochromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg Nitzsch ex Ralfs CA. Agardh Link i n CG. Nees 8 A p r i l 1979 T=9.5°C pH=2.85 S i " -1 P 0.10 mg L N 1.30 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp, 1- Mougeotia sp. 2- Spirogyra sp. 1-Ulothrix sp. Kuetzing CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1- Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 15 A p r i l 1979 T=9.0°C ph=3.90 Si 0.01 mg L P 0.53 mg L " l N 1.30 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Ulothrix sp. Kuetz. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA ; DINOPHYCEAE 1- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- Cryptoroonas ovata Ehrenberg Krieger c Munday Lake (continued) 22 A p r i l 1979 T=1A.0°C PH=3.90 . S i 0.01 mg L P 0.21 mg L - 1 N 1.23 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs l-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1-Klebsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox et Blackwell 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Wougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1- Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3-Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 29 A p r i l 1979 T=18.0°C pH=4.35 . S i 1.09 mg L P 0.365 mg L - 1 N 1.21. mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulbochaete sp. CA. Agardh 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Afougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Netrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 1-Spirogyra sp. Link In CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3-Euspbaerella turfosa Skuja BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 7 May 1979 T=15.0°C pH=4.40 . Si 1.09 mg L P 0.26 mg L" 1 N 1.12 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulbocnaete sp. CA. Agardh 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Eusphaere22a turfosa Skuja 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Kriegi BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Munday Lake (continued) 16 May 1979 T=17.0°C pH-4.25 , Si 0.90 mg L P 0.31 ng L 1 N 1.171 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Euastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs l-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 3- Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 28 May 1979 T=18.0°C pH=4.95 S i 0.71 mg L P 0.16 mg L - l N 0.969 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Kirchneriella obesa (W. West) Schmidle 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Oedogonium sp. Link i n Nees 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1- Scenedesmus sp. Meyen 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon crenulatum 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Anomoenoeis sp. Ptitzer 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 2-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 2- Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard 11 June 1979 T=22.0°C pH=4.95 . Si 0.53 mg L P 0.10 mg L - l N 0.859 mg L ~ l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- CJosterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Kirchneriella obesa (W. West) Schmidle 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon crenulatum 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 2-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh £J 1-Neidium tumescens (Grun.) CI. ^ 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1- Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Munday Lake (continued) 28 June 1979 T=24.5°C pH=5.20 . S i 0.32 mg L P 0.64 mg L - l N 0.970 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinoi>ryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Nallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Anomoeoneis sp. P f i t z e r 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1-Neidium sp. P f i t z e r 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1- Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank . 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Merismopedia sp. Meyen in Wiegmann 8 July 1979 T=25.0°C pH=6.03 . Si 0.26 mg L P 0.53 mg L - l N 0.630 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Ciosterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Kirchneriella oiesa (W. West) Schmidle 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1- Spirogryra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 3- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Eusphaerella turfosa Skuja 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Melosira sp. CA. Agardh Neidium sp. P f i t z e r 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard 8 July 1979 (continued) CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 3-Merismopedia sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Munday Lake (continued) 23 July 1979 T=26.0°C pH=6.40 1 S i 0.22 mg L P 0.31 mg L _ 1 N 0.451 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE Gonyostomum semen (Ehrbg.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Frus t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 2- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1- TaJbellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 11 AuRust 1979 T=26.0°C pH=«6.65 . Si 0.26 mg L" P 0.21 mg L - l N 0.296 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralf 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1- Spirogryra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYCEAE RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1- Gonyostomum semen (Ehrgb.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- DinoJbryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Anomoeoneis sp. Ptitzer 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg l-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg C. Como Lake 18 May 1978 T=20.0°C pH -Si -P -N -CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1- Epipyxis utriculus var. acuta (Sch i l l e r ) 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Asterionella sp. Hassall 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Ceratium sp. Schrank 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 1 June 1978 T=23.0°C pH=6.85 Si -- P -5 N " CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Klebsormidium sp. S i l v a , Mattox et Blackwell 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh H i l l i a r d 3-Spirogyra sp. Link in CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 2-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Asterionella sp. Hassall 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 15 June 1978 T=17.0°C pH=6.65 , Si 0.08 mg L~ P 1.38 mg L - l N 0.083 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 2- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Asterionella sp. Hassall 1-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1- Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 2- T a i e l l a r i a fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 1-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher Co Como Lake (continued) 29 June 1978 T=21.6°C pH«=6.5 _, S i 0.07 rag L P 2.30 mg L - l N 0.257 mg L ~ l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Micrasterias sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Spirogryra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 14 July 1978 T°26.2°C pH=6.70 . Si 0.18 mg L P 1.92 mg L - l N 0.122 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Asterionella sp. Hassall 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 28 July 1978 T=25.8°C pH=6.45 , S i 0.365 mg L P 1.09 mg L " l N 0.057 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1-Scenedesmus sp. Meyen CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Bicoeca kepneri Groliere et NjinS 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura ecninulata Korsh. 1- Synura spinosa Korsh. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2- Euglena acus Ehrbg. 1-Trachelomonas sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA £ DINOPHYCEAE ON 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3- Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West Como Lake (continued) 9 August 1978 T=26.8°C pH=6.3 , Si 0.29 mg L P 3.53 mg L - l N 0.131 mg L _ l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 3-Gonyostomum semen (Ehrbg.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- Bicoeca kepneri Groliere et Njine 1 2- Dino2>ryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-AJallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura echinulata Korsh. 1- Synura spinosa Korsh. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2- Euylena sp. Ehrenberg 1-Trachelomonas sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 23 August 1978 T=18.8°C pH=5.95 , Si 0.80 mg L P 1.92 mg L _ 1 N 0.053 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Gonyostomum semen (Ehrbg.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- DinoJbryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Asterionella sp. Hassall 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3- Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 5 September 1978 T=16.8°C pH=5.75 . S i 1.16 mg L P 3.39 mg L - l N 0.107 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg 1-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Ceratium sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. WestJ"^ Como Lake (continued) 12 September 1978 T=18.0°C pH -Si 0.68 mg L P 0.16 mg L _ 1 N 0.155 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s ap. Ehrenberg 1 - P e d i a s t r u m sp. Meyen 1- Staurastrura sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium g a t u n e n s e Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. e t G.S. West 17 September 1978 T=16.5°C pH=5.85 , Si 0.53 mg L P 0.10 mg L - l N 0.i50 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Coelastrum sp. Naegeli 1 - S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinoiryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - A n a b a e n a sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 3- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 25 September 1978 T=18.0°C pH=6.35 . Si 0.90 mg L P 0.21 mg L - l N 0.166 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 C o e l a s t r u m sp. Naegeli 1 - P e d i a s t r u m sp. Meyen 1-Soenedesmus sp. Meyen 1- S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- S t a u r a s t r u m sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1- Vacuolaria v i r e s c e n s Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et. NjinS 2-Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 1-Afallomonas c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger ^ 1-Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 00 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- flnaJbaena v a r i a b i l i s Kuetz. 3- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 1 - M e r i s m o p e d i a sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann Como Lake (continued) 1 October 1978 T=16.2°C pH=6.15 . Si 1.80 mg L~ P 2.43 mg L - 1 N 0.146 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Bulhochaete sp. CA. Agardh 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- £uastrum sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 1- Vacuolaria v i r e s c e n s Cienkowski CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Asterionella sp. Hassall 1- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 2- Tafcellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1 - E u g l e n a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s o v a t a Ehrenberg 1 October 1978 (continued) CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- Anaiaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 3- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West t 10 October 1978 T»13.4°C pH=5.80 r S i 1.675 mg L P 4.60 mg L" 1 N 0.101 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1 - M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et NjinS 1 - D i n o b r y o n b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 3- DinoJbryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i et Momeu 1-Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 1-Synura u v e l l a Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West Como Lake (continued) 14 October 1978 T=*16.0°C pH=6.50 _ Si 1.725 mg L P 5.98 mg L - l N 0.085 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et NjinS 2- Dinoiryon cylindricum Imhof. 2 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2- E u g l e n a sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 3- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 22 October 1978 29 October 1978 T=13.4°C pH=6.15 1 S i 1.65 mg L P 4.52 mg L - l N 0.053 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1 - O o c y s t i s sp. A. Braun CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- B i c o e c a kepneri Groliere et Njind 3- Dinoibryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 2- M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura spinosa Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE l - A s t e r l o n e l l a sp. Hassall EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Eugrlena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1 - C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1- Cryptomonas o v a t a Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West T=10.0°C pH=5.95 . S i 1.61 mg L P 1.68 mg L - l N 0.047 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1 - S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et Njing 2- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof.-2 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1 - P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA £ EUGLENOPHYCEAE O 1- Eugiena sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West Como Lake (continued) 5 November 1978 T=8.2°C pH=6.2 Si 1.52 mg L P 1.145 mg L - 1 N 0.174 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1 - M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE l - B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et Njinfi 3-Dinoiryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1- T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 12 November 1978 19 November 1978 T=6.0°C pH=5.85 . Si 1.65 mg L P 3.605 mg L - l N 0.524 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees • CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-DinoJbryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 2- Mallomonas c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 2-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1- Synura p e t e r s e n i i Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2 - D i a t o m a sp. Bory 1 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg T=3.0°C pH=5.70 SI 1.63 mg L P 3.61 mg L - l N 0.951 mg L - l . CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - B u l b o c h a e t e sp. CA. Agardh 1- Ciosterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1 - P e d i a s t r u m sp. Meyen 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1 - S p o n d y l o s i u m Brgbisson ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i et Momeu 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall i—• 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1 - M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 1-Weidium sp. P f i t z e r 1- S u r i r e l l a sp. Turpin 2- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. Como Lake (continued) 26 November 1978 T=2.8°C pH=6.15 S i 1.75 mg L P 4.29 mg L" 1 N 0.681 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Characium sp. A. Braun 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i et Momeu 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- /lsterionella sp. Hassall 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 10 December 1978 pH=6.45 _1 Si 0.03 mg L P 0.10 mg L - l N 0.771 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 - O o c y s t i s sp. A. Braun CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3 - D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1- C h r y s o c h r o m u l i n a sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall l-Afelosira sp. CA. Agardh 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- T r a c h e l o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- C r y p t o m o n a s o v a t a Ehrenberg 13 February 1979 T=3.5°C PH=5.35 S i 0.01 mg iT 1 P 0.59 mg L " l N 0.493 mg L " l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 2- M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1- Zygnema sp. CA. Agardh XANTHOPHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 2- T r i b o n e m a sp. Derbes et Sol i e r CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinoiryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Afallomonas c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2- Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1 - F r a g i l a r i a c r o t o n e n s i s Kitton 1 - M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 3- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 3 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. 4> Como Lake (continued) 19 February 1979 T=5.0°C pH=5.40 S 1 " -1 P 0.16 mg L -N 0.811 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 1- Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 3- Oedogonium sp. Link in Nees 2-Vlothrix sp. Kuetzing CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Achnanthes minutissima Kuetz. 2-Gomphonema sp. Ehrenberg 2- Synedra sp. Ehrenberg 3- Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 2-£uglena sp. Ehrenberg 4 March 1979 T»6.0°C pH=5.65 , S i 0.20 mg L P 0.10 mg L - 1 N 0.859 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 3- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 3-Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euylena sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 2- Cryptomonas ovata Ehrenberg 12 March 1979 T=7.2°C pH=5.70 , Si 0.01 mg L P 0.21 mg L _ 1 N 0.855 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1- Mallomonas caudata Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Asterionella sp. Hassall 3- Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euylena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2-Oscillatoria sp. Vaucher ex Gomont Como Lake (continued) 25 March 1979 T=12.0°C pH=5.60 , Si 0.02 mg L P 0.31 mg L" 1 N 0.689 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2 - M o u g e o t i a sp. 1 - S p i r o g y r a sp. CA. Agardh Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3 - D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 1- Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 2- Synura u v e l l a Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Neidiura sp. P f i t z e r 1- P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 2- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 2 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2 - P e r i d i n i u m sp, Ehrenberg 1 April :1979 T=12.2°C pH=6.05 1 S i 0.01 mg L P 0.10 mg L" 1 N 0.523 mg L - 1 : CHLOROPHYTA ' CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh l-Ulothrix sp. Kuetz. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - B i c o e c a kepneri Groliere et Njinfi 1- C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 3- Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 2- Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1-Epipyxis l a u t e r b o r n i i Lemm. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger " 1 - M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i et Momeu 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1- Synura spinosa Korsh. 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2- Tabellaria f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 2 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 8 A p r i l 1979 T=10.0°C ph=6.05 . Si 0.01 mg L P 0.21 mg L - l N 0.499 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- Mouyeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2- Spirogyra sp. Link In CG. Nees 1 - U l o t h r i x Bp. Kuetzing 1-Jfanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs - CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et Njine 1- C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 2- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3- Dinofcryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1 - E p i p y x i s u t r i c u l u s var. a c u t a ( S c h i l l e r ) H i l l i a r d 1-Spipyxis l a u t e r b o r n i i Lemm. 1- M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 2- Synura u v e l l a Stein emend. Korsh. PRYMNESI0PHYCEAE £ 1- C h r y s o c h r o m u l i n a sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2-Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s o v a t a Ehrenberg Como Lake (continued) 15 A p r i l 1979 T=10.0°C pH=5.75 . Si 0.01 mg L P 0.31 mg L _ 1 N 0.422 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE l - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1 - H y a l o t h e c a sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Kougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1 - S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1 - U l o t h r i x sp. Kuetzing CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et NjinS 1- C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 2- Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3- Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1-Epipyxis u t r i c u l u s var. acuta ( S c h i l l e r ) 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - S y n u r a u v e l l a Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2- T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2 - P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg 22 A p r i l 1979 T=16.0°C pH=6.25 , ; Si 0.01 mg L" P 0.16 mg L N 0.477 rag L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1- C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- H y a l o t h e c a d i s s i l i e n s (Sm.) Brgb. 1-Afougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1 - U l o t h r l x s u b t i l i s s i m a Rabh. 1-Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- B i c o e c a k e p n e r i Groliere et NJine1 2- C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 2- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1-Epipyxis utriculus var. a c u t a ( S c h i l l e r ) H i l l i a r d 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1- M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i et Momeu 2- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank 2- P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg 29 A p r i l 1979 T=21.0°C pH=6.05 , Si 0.145 mg L P 0.26 mg L _ 1 N 0.336 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1- tfyalotbeca d i s s i l i e n s (Sm.) Br€b. 2- M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1- S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees 2- U l o t h r i x s u b t i l i s s i m a Rabh. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 1-Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - M a l l o m o n a s t r a n s s y l v a n i c a P e t e r f i e t Momeu 1- Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 2- S y n u r a u v e l l a Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg Como Lake (continued) 7 May 1979 T=15.0°C pH=5.25 . Si 0.18 mg L P 0.20 mg L _ 1 N 0.269 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 - M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1- D i n o b r y o n b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 3 - D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Fuglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2 - P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2 - C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 16 May 1979 T=19.0°C pH=5.75 Si 0.13 mg L P 0.26. mg L - l N 0.203 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp, CA. Agardh 1 - P l a n k t o s p h a e r i a sp. CM. Smith 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE l-Bicoeca k e p n e r i Groliere et Njine' 1- Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 2- Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 2-Mallomonas c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank 2-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1 - C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West 28 May 1979 T=18.0°C pH=5.75 . Si 0.155 mg L P 0.16 mg L - l N 0.070 mg L - l CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1- P e d i a s t r u m sp. Meyen 2- P l a n k t o s p h a e r i a sp. CM. Smith 1- Scenedesmus arcuatus Lemm. 2- S t a u r a s t r u m spp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1 - X a n t h i d i u m sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 1- D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 2- Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 2 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 2-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1- C h r y s o c h r o m u l i n a sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE °^ 2 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 2 - E u n o t i a sp. Ehrenberg 1- F r u s t u l i a sp. Rabenhorst 2- N e i d i u m sp. P f i t z e r 1- P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 2- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- Ceratium sp. Schrank 2- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2 - C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West Como Lake (continued) 11 June 1979 T=23.0°C pH=6.25 S i 0.145 mg L _ 1 P 0.16 mg L" 1, N 0.029 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - A r t h r o d e s m u s sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 1-Cosmarium sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1 - S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Dinobryon b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 1 - D i n o b r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3-Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1- M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall l - P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank 2- P e r i d i n i u m g a t u n e n s e Nygaard CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s o v a t a Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Coelospnaerium confertum W. et G.S. West 28 June 1979 T=26.0°C pH=6.82 t S i 0.32 mg L P 0.21 mg L - 1 N 0.108 mg L - 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1 - S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE l-Bicoeca k e p n e r i Groliere et NjinS 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 3-Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1- Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- T a b e l l a r i a fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Fuglena sp. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- Ceratium sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium g a t u n e n s e Nygaard 8 July 1979 T»24.0°C pH=6.85 . Si 0.40 mg L P 0.21 mg L - 1 N 0.029 mg L _ 1 CHLOROPHYTA. CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg 2- Pediastrum tetras (Ehrenberg) Ralfs 1 - P l a n k t o s p h a e r i a sp. CM. Smith 1- S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 2- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 1- Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- P e r i d i n i u m g a t u n e n s e Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. Wes CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - C o e l o s p h a e r i u m c o n f e r t u m W. et G.S. West Como Lake (continued) 23 July 1979 t=-27.0°C pH=6.90 , Si 0.49 mg L. P 0.26 mg L " \ N 0.021 mg L CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Gonyostomum semen (Ehrgb.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon bavaricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Tabellaria fenestrata (Lyngb.) Kuetz. EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 3-Eugrlena sp. Ehrenberg 2- Trachelomonas sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Peridinium gatunense Nygaard CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1 August 1979 T=27.0°C pH<=6.3 . S i 0.55 mg L P 0.10 mg L - 1 N 0.017 mg L" 1 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Oocystis sp. A. Braun 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs XANTHOPHYTA RAPHIDOPHYCEAE 2- Gonyostomum semen (Ehrbg.) Dies. CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1-Frustulia sp. Rabenhorst l-Pinnularia sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg 2- Trachelomonas sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 1-Coelosphaerium confertum W. et G.S. West APPENDIX II. Algae of additional sites (1 - rare; 1. Beaver Lake 23 August 1978 T=15.8°C pH=5.75 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Pediastrum sp. Meyen X - S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 3 November 1978 T= -pH= -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE X - C o s m a r i u m sp. Corda ex Ralfs 2- Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1- S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 2- Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1 - B i c o e c a sp. J- Clark 1- C h r y s o s p h a e r e l l a b r e v i s p i n a Korsh. 2- Dinobryon b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 2- D i n o h r y o n c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n o p s i s o u r a d i o n (Harris et Bradley) Harris 3- Synura echinulata Korsh. 3-Synura g l a b r a Korsh. 3-Synura p e t e r s e n i i Korsh. 3-Synura spinosa Korsh. 3-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. • occasional; 3 » frequent) 3 November 1978 (continued) BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Melosira sp. CA. Agardh 2- P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE X - P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE l-Anabaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 18 March 1979 T=9.0°C pH=5.10 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE Chlamydomonas sp. Ehrenberg •Pediastrum sp. Meyen S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE Mallomonas c r a t i s var. a s m u n d i a e Wujek et Van der Veer Mallomonas d o i g n o n i i var. tenuicostis Asmund et Cronberg Mallomonas p a p i l l o s a Harris et Bradley Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. Synura petersenii Korsh. Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE Tabellaria sp. Ehrenberg 18 March 1979 (continued) CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg 2. Trout Lake 17 September 1978 T=15.5°C pH=6.45 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C h l a m y d o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- C o e l a s t r u m sp. Naegeli 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1-Oedogonium sp. Link in Nees 3- Pediastrum sp. Meyen 1 - S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 1-Selanastrum sp. Reinsch 1-Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- Tetraedon sp. Kuetz. CHRYSOPHYTA BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2- Asterionella sp. Hassall 1-Cymbella sp. CA. Agardh 3- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 1 - P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1- Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- A n a b a e n a sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 3. Deer Lake 15 June 1978 T=17.6°C pH=7.15 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3-Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 2 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a I w a n . emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 1 - E u n o t i a sp. Ehrenberg 1- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 2-Surirella sp. Turpin 1- T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 3- Ceratium h i r u n d i n e l l a (O.F.M.) Bergh. 2- P e r i d i n i u m sp. Ehrenberg 22 A p r i l 1979 T=17.0°C pH=7.25 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- C l o s t e r i u m sp. 3- Spirogyra spp. XANTHOPHYTA XANTHOPHYCEAE 2- Vaucheria De Candolle Nitzsch ex Ralfs Link i n CG. Nees 22 A p r i l 1979 (continued) CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon c y l i n d r i c u m Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 1- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 2- T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1- A n a b a e n a sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 2- O s c i l l a t o r i a sp. Vaucher ex Gomont O 4. Burnaby Lake 15 June 1978 T=17.4°C pH=6.90 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- Closterium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 2-Spirogyra sp. Link in CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2-Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 2 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - M e l o s i r a sp. C.A. Agardh 1 - P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 1- S u r i r e l l a sp. Turpin 2- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank 3- Peridinium sp. Ehrenberg 5. Lost Lake 22 A p r i l 1979 T=16.0°C pH=6.25 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1-Eudorina sp. Ehrenberg 1- Hyalotheca sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 2- M o u g e o t i a sp. C.A. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 3- Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c r a t i s var. asmundiae Wujek et Van der Veer 1 - M a l l o m o n a s h e t e r o s p i n a Lund 1- P a r a p h y s o m o n a s vestita (Stokes) De Saedeleer 2- Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 2-Synura petersenii Korsh. 2-Synura s p i n o s a Korsh. 2-Synura splendida Korsh. 2-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - A s t e r i o n e l l a sp. Hassall 1- S u r i r e l l a sp. Turpin 2- T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1- Euglena sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- O s c i l l a t o r l a sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 11 June 1979 23.0°C •4.75 T pH CHRYSOPHYTA BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1- Eunotia'sp. Ehrenberg 2- M e l o s i r a sp. CA. Agardh 1 - P i n n u l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg 3- T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 6. Katsie Slough 7. Blaney Lake 8. Placid Lake 29 October 1978 T=9.0°C pH=6.25 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 3 - S p i r o g y r a sp. Link i n CG. Nees CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2 - F r a g i l a r i a sp. Lyngbye 2 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg EUGLENOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYCEAE 1-Euglena sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1- C e r a t i u m sp. Schrank CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2- O s c i l l a t o r i a sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 8 June 1978 T=20.5°C pH=6.70 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon divergens Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - O c h r o m o n a s sp. Wyssotzki BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 14 June 1979 T= -pH= -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- X a n t h i d i u m sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n b a v a r i c u m Imhof. 2 - D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - M e r i s m o p e d i a sp. Meyen i n Wiegmann 8 June 1978 T=20.0°C pH=6.75 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - C o s m a r i u m sp. Corda ex Ralfs 1-Spirogyra sp. Link i n CG. Nees 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg 14 June 1979 T= -pH= -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - M i c r a s t e r i a s sp. CA. Agardh ex Ralfs 1 - M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1- X a n t h i d i u m sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 2-Eunotia sp. Ehrenberg 1 - T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - O s c i l l a t o r i a sp. Vaucher ex Gomont 9. Gwendoline Lake 10. Jacob's (Marion) Lake 8 June 1978 T=19.S°C pH=6.85 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1 - M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1- T r i p l o c e r a s sp. Bailey CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. PYRMNESIOPHYCEAE 1 - C h r y s o c h r c m u l i n a sp. Lackey CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1- A n a b a e n a sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 14 June 1979 T» -pH= -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 2- M o u g e o t i a sp. CA. Agardh 1-iVetrium sp. (Naegeli) Itzigson et Rothe 1 - S c e n e d e s m u s sp. Meyen 1- Staurastrum sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2-Anaiaena sp. [Bory] Bornet et Flahault 8 June 1978 T=20.0°C pH=6.90 ; CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1-Closter.ium sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 1 - C o s m a r i u m sp. Corda ex Ralfs l-Mougeotia sp. CA. Agardh 1 - S t a u r a s t r u m sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1 - T r i p l o c e r a s sp. Bailey 1- Xanthidium sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon b a v a r i c u m Imhof. CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 1 - M e r i s m o p e d i a glauca (Ehrbg.) Naeg. 14 June 1979 T= -pH= -CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- C l o s t e r i u m sp. Nitzsch ex Ralfs 2- Desmidium sp. C.A. Agardh ex Ralfs 1 - S t a u r a s t r u m sp. Meyen ex Ralfs 1- X a n t h i d i u m sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 11. Rolley Lake 15 A p r i l 1979 T=7.0°C pH=4.85 CHLOROPHYTA CHLOROPHYCEAE 1- H y a l o t h e c a sp. Ehrenberg ex Ralfs 2- M o u g e o t i a sp. C.A. Agardh CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 2- Dinobryon cylindricum Imhof. 1 - D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1 - S y n u r a uvella Stein emend. Korsh. PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysochromulina sp. Lackey BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 3- Funotia sp. Ehrenberg 3 - T a b e l l a r i a sp. Ehrenberg PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 1-Gymnodinium sp. Stein CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1 - C r y p t o m o n a s sp. Ehrenberg Ui 12. Stave Lake 15 A p r i l 1979 (continued) PYRRHOPHYTA DINOPHYCEAE 2-Peridinium pusillium (Penard) Lemm. CRYPTOPHYTA CRYPTOPHYCEAE 1-Cryptomonas sp. Ehrenberg CYANOPHYTA CYANOPHYCEAE 2 - O s c i l l a t o r i a c u r v i c e p s C. Agardh 1 - S t a u r a s t r u m sp. Meyen ex Ralfs CHRYSOPHYTA CHRYSOPHYCEAE 1-Chrysosphaerella multispina Bradley 3 - D i n o b r y o n d i v e r g e n s Imhof. 1 - M a l l o m o n a s c a u d a t a Iwan. emend. Krieger 1-Synura e c h i n u l a t a Korsh. 1-Synura p e t e r s e n i i Korsh. 1-Synura uvella Stein emend. Korsh. BACILLARIOPHYCEAE 1 - A c t i n e l l a p u n c t a t a Lewis 1 - A s t e r i o n e l l a f o r m o s a Hassall 1-Cymbella h e t e r o p l e u r a (Ehrbg.) Kuetz. 1-CymJbella minuta Hilse ex Rabh. 1-funotia n a e g l i i Migula 1-Frustulia r h o m b o i d e s (Ehrbg.) De Toni 1-Frustulia r h o m b o i d e s var. c a p i t a t a (A. Mayer) Patrick l - P i n n u l a r i a m a i o r (Kuetz.) Rahb. 1-StenopteroJbia i n t e r m e d i a (Lewis) Fricke 1- Surire.Ila rohusta Ehrenberg 3 - T a b e l l a r i a f e n e s t r a t a (Lyngb.) Kuetz. 2- T a b e l l a r i a f l o c c u l o s a (Roth) Kuetz. 

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