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Biological availability of minerals from organic and inorganic sources for the chick Aw-yong, Lai Mon 1980

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BIOLOGICAL  AVAILABILITY  OF MINERALS FROM ORGANIC  AND INORGANIC SOURCES FOR THE CHICK?/  by  v ^ / L a i ' M o n Aw-Yong B.Sc. (Hons.), M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1972 M ,Sc., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (6)  L a i Mon Aw-Yong J u l y 22, 1980  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at make  that  thesis  it  may It  is  British  .  '9&*  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements  Columbia,  I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  of  of  for extensive  permission.  University  fulfilment of  available  be g r a n t e d  financial  .2075 Wesbrook P l a c e . V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  freely  permission  purposes  for  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives.  Department  The  thesis  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ii  ABSTRACT  Availability  o f s i x m i n e r a l s (Ca, P, Mg, Mn,  Zn, and Cu) i n  commercial wheat, t r i t i c a l e , c o r n and b a r l e y samples was w i t h three-week o l d growing  chicks.  estimated  E f f e c t s o f soybean meal  and  wheat f e d a t d i f f e r e n t d i e t a r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n on a v a i l a b i l i t y these m i n e r a l s were s t u d i e d .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s from s p e c i f i c  i n o r g a n i c s o u r c e s were a l s o e v a l u a t e d . determined  of  by a b a l a n c e p r o c e d u r e  Availability  value  was  c o r r e c t e d f o r endogenous  minerals.  Results i n d i c a t e d that the a v a i l a b i l i t y of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c , and copper was 53.5,  48.4,  samples.  49.6  71.0,  and 78.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the wheat and  Copper a v a i l a b i l i t y was  67.4, triticale  the h i g h e s t i n c o r n ( 8 7 . 2 % ) , f o l l o w e d by  c a l c i u m ( 7 0 . 0 % ) , phosphorus ( 6 0 . 9 % ) , manganese ( 6 0 . 0 % ) , z i n c and magnesium ( 5 1 . 0 % ) . Cu i n b a r l e y was  68.9,  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Ca, P, Mg, 68.8,  54.9,  S i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n (P < 0.05)  54.9,  49.1  were observed  and  and 77.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Availability  i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o r i g i n  o f m i n e r a l s i s a f f e c t e d by  the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n g r e d i e n t s i n the t e s t d i e t . (P < . 0.05)  Zn  e x i s t s among t h e c e r e a l g r a i n s t e s t e d .  Results indicate that mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e samples o b t a i n e d .  Mn,  (57.5%)  in availability  Significant differences  f o r a l l the m i n e r a l s t e s t e d  when soybean meal and wheat were s u p p l i e d i n t h e t e s t m i x t u r e a t five  levels. C a l c i u m and phosphorus from c a l c i u m phosphate were h i g h l y  a v a i l a b l e t o growing  chicks.  However, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  decreased  iii  r a p i d l y when t h e m i n e r a l l e v e l was i n excess o f t h e d i e t a r y requirement.  S i x l e v e l s o f magnesium (150, 300, 450, 600, 750, and  900 ppm) from magnesium c a r b o n a t e were e v a l u a t e d .  R e s u l t s showed  t h a t magnesium was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o growing c h i c k s . ranged from 82.3 t o 61.9%.  Excess amounts o f magnesium i n t h e d i e t  tended t o reduce t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e .  V a r i o u s l e v e l s (25, 50, 75,  100 and 125 ppm) o f manganese from manganese s u l f a t e Manganese appeared t o be p o o r l y Zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y  The v a l u e s  were t e s t e d .  a v a i l a b l e f o r the l e v e l s  tested.  from z i n c o x i d e was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e c h i c k .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s / r a n g e d from 84.4 t o 93% f o r a l l t h e d i e t s containing  25 t o 125 ppm o f z i n c .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper from  copper s u l f a t e was moderate t o h i g h (72.1-80.2%) f o r t h e low d i e t a r y copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n s (2-32 ppm).  However, t h e copper  v a l u e s (61.8-63.6%) tended t o d e c r e a s e (50-250 ppm).  availability  at higher dietary  concentration  XV  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT  .  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  v  1  1  i  v  i  i  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  x  x  l  INTRODUCTION  1  LITERATURE REVIEW  4  I.  II. III.  Methods and Techniques f o r E s t i m a t i n g M i n e r a l Availability 1.  Chemical B a l a n c e Method a. Apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y b. True d i g e s t i b i l i t y c. C a r c a s s a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e d. R a d i o i s o t o p e t e c h n i q u e s  4 4 5 5 6  2.  B i o l o g i c a l Assay Techniques a. Bone a s h method b. Toe a s h method c. Body weight method d. Other m i s c e l l a n e o u s methods  8 9 10 H 11  3.  In Vitro  Assay P r o c e d u r e  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s i n Feed I n g r e d i e n t s from V e g e t a b l e .Sources Availability Livestock 1. 2. 3. 4.  IV.  4  H I  2  o f M i n e r a l s i n I n o r g a n i c Sources f o r  Calcium Phosphate Magnesium Manganese, Z i n c and Copper  15 1  6  1 7  19 20  Factors A f f e c t i n g Mineral A v a i l a b i l i t y  21  1. 2. 3.  22 23 24  Phytic Acid Fiber Oxalic Acid  V  Page 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  Ethylene-Diamine-Tetraaccate P r o t e i n and Amino A c i d s Lactose. . . , Vitamins Antibiotics Species D i f f e r e n c e Mineral Interaction Feed P r o c e s s i n g Endocrine Influence Miscellaneous Factors  MATERIALS AND T r i a l 1: T r i a l 2: T r i a l 3: T r i a l 4: T r i a l 5: T r i a l 6; T r i a l 7: T r i a l 8: T r i a l 9: T r i a l s 10 RESULTS AND  ,  (EDTS)  25 26 27 28 29 29 30 3 2 3 3  33  METHODS  3 5  M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from Wheat and T r i t i c a l e M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from Corn M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from B a r l e y A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals i n Diets Containing D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f Soybean Meal A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals i n Diets Containing D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f Wheat A v a i l a b i l i t y o f C a l c i u m and Phosphorus from C a l c i u m Phosphate ( D i b a s i c ) A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Magnesium from Magnesium Carbonate A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Manganese from Manganese S u l f a t e . . . . . A v a i l a b i t i t y o f Z i n c from Z i n c Oxide and 11: A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Copper from Copper Sulfate ,  3 6 4 2 4 2  47 4 7  52 54 56 56 5 8  DISCUSSION  T r i a l 1: (a) C a l c i u m (b) Phosphorus (c) Magnesium (d) Manganese..., (e) Z i n c , ( f ) Copper Trial 2 (a) C a l c i u m (b) Phosphorus.., (c) Magnesium (d) Manganese (e)'.': Z i n c ( f ) Copper. T r i a l 3: (a) C a l c i u m , . . . , (b) Phosphorus (c) Magnesium, (d) Manganese, (e) Z i n c ( f ) Copper  62 6 2 6 4  65 67 68 69 69 7 0 7 2 7 3 7 4  •  5  7  7 6 7 7 7 7  ,  ^ ^ ^ . 80 , 81 81 7  7  8  ,  Page G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n o f T r i a l s 1, 2 and 3  8 2  T r i a l 4. (a) C a l c i u m . (b) Phosphorus (c) Magnesium, (d) Manganese. (e) Z i n c ( f ) Copper T r i a l 5; (a) C a l c i u m (b) Phosphorus (c) Magnesium. (d) Manganese. (ej. Z i n c  87 89 89 90 90  ( f ) Copper Trial 6 (a) C a l c i u m (b) Phosphorus Trial 7 , Trial 8 Trial 9 T r i a l s 10 and 11.. ,  , ,  , ,  9  1  9  1  9 2  ,  ,  9 2  ••••  9 9  ,  ,  -  9  ^ ^ ^  9 6  Q7  , ,  ,  9  8  9  8  101 1 0 2  1° , . .. ,  4  1 0 7  107  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION  113  REFERENCE  l i 6  APPENDIX TABLES.  •  1 4 2  vii  LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1  PAGE C o m p o s i t i o n o f S y n t h e t i c D i e t used Throughout t h e Experimental T r i a l s  2  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f t h e E l e v e n Wheat and One T r i t i c a l e Samples ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  3  49  P r o x i m a t e A n a l y s i s o f D i e t s ""in T r i a l 5 (dry m a t t e r b a s i s )  11  48  M i n e r a l Content o f D i e t s i n ' T r i a l 4 (dry m a t t e r b a s i s )  10  46  Proximate A n a l y s i s o f Diets i n T r i a l • 4 (dry m a t t e r b a s i s )  9  45  The M i n e r a l Content o f Three B a r l e y Samples from D i f f e r e n t Sources ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  8  44  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f Three B a r l e y Samples from D i f f e r e n t Sources ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  7  43  M i n e r a l Content o f Ten Corn Samples ( d r y m a t t e r basis)  6  41  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f t h e Ten Corn Samples ( d r y matter basis)  5  40  M i n e r a l Content o f E l e v e n Wheat and a T r i t i c a l e Sample ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  4  38  50  M i n e r a l Content o f D i e t s i n T r i a l 5. (dry m a t t e r b a s i s )  51  viii  TABLE  PAGE  12  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 6  53  13  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 7  55  14  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 8  57  15  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 9  59  16  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 10  60  17  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 11  61  18  P e r c e n t A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s i n Wheat and T r i t i c a l e Samples  63  19  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s from Ten Corn Samples  20  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s i n Three B a r l e y  71  Samples  C o l l e c t e d from D i f f e r e n t P l a c e s 21  78  Summary o f M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y ftom Wheat, C o m  and  Barley 22  83  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals i n Diets Containing  Different  L e v e l s o f Soybean Meal 23  88  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals i n Diets Containing L e v e l s o f Wheat  24  Different •  94  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f C a l c i u m and Phosphorus from C a l c i u m Phosphate i n t h e Growing C h i c k s  25  * A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Magnesium from Magnesium Carbonate i n t h e Growing C h i c k s  26  99  •'  .....103  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Manganese from Manganese S u l f a t e i n the Growing C h i c k s  27  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Z i n c from Z i n c Oxide i n t h e Growing  106  ix  TABLE 28  PAGE A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Copper from Low D i e t a r y L e v e l s o f Copper' S u l f a t e i n t h e Growing C h i c k s  29  110  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Copper from High' D i e t a r y L e v e l s o f Copper S u l f a t e i n t h e Growing C h i c k s  I l l  X  LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES APPENDIX 1  PAGE Analysis o f Variance  f o r M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from  Wheat and T r i t i c a l e 2  Analysis o f Variance  142 f o r M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from  Corn 3  Analysis o f Variance  143 f o r M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from  Barley 4  Analysis o f Variance  144 for Mineral.Availability i n  D i e t s C o n t a i n i n g D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f Soybean M e a l - . 5  Analysis o f Variance  for Mineral A v a i l a b i l i t y i n  D i e t s C o n t a i n i n g D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f Wheat 6  Analysis o f Variance  Analysis o f Variance  Analysis o f Variance  147  f o r the A v a i l a b i l i t y o f  Magnesium from Magnesium Carbonate 8  146  f o r the A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Calcium.  and Phosphorus from C a l c i u m Phosphate 7  145  148  f o r t h e A v a i l a b i l i t y from  Manganese S u l f a t e , Z i n c Oxide and Copper S u l f a t e . . . 149  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The h i s research  a u t h o r wishes t o express h i s s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. D. B. Bragg, P r o f e s s o r and Head o f t h e  P o u l t r y S c i e n c e Department, f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e g u i d a n c e ,  constant  encouragement and c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i s i c m throughout t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f the m a n u s c r i p t . S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended t o the members o f my t h e s i s committee:  P r o f e s s o r B. E. March, Department o f P o u l t r y  Dr. F i t z s i m m o n s , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Department o f P o u l t r y  Science;  Science;  and Dr. R. M. Beames, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , Department o f Animal S c i e n c e f o r t h e i r a d v i c e and encouragement d u r i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n and writing of this The  thesis.  t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by Mr. R. Soong, Mr. M.  Hudson and o t h e r l a b o r a t o r y and farm p e r s o n n e l was g r e a t l y The  appreciated.  f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t by N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , Canada  f o r t h i s s t u d y i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. I t i s the author's wish t o dedicate w i f e , Boh-Sing and h i s p a r e n t s , Mr. and Mrs.  this thesis to his Y. Aw-Yong.  1  INTRODUCTION  The  concept o f n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f e e d s t u f f has  v e r y i m p o r t a n t f o r the modern l i v e s t o c k and  feed i n d u s t r i e s .  a c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e t o f o r m u l a t e f e e d f o r l i v e s t o c k based on c o n t e n t o f v a r i o u s n u t r i e n t s i n the f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s .  The  become  It is the  n u t r i t i v e value  o f a f e e d s t u f f i s d e t e r m i n e d . by -the c o n t e n t . o f the a v a i l a b l e - n u t r i e n t s i n r  -  the f e e d .  I n the s t u d y o f n u t r i e n t m e t a b o l i s m , i t i s g e n e r a l l y  recognized  t h a t the t o t a l c o n t e n t o f a n u t r i e n t i n a p a r t i c u l a r f e e d -  s t u f f used i n a complete d i e t has  l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e unless  i t is  q u a l i f i e d by a f a c t o r i n d i c a t i n g the b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f n u t r i e n t s to animals.  For an example, amino a c i d o r m i n e r a l  i n t h e . f e e d s t u f f does not  i n d i c a t e the degree i n which the  i s u t i l i z e d when consumed by an a n i m a l . absorbed and u t i l i z e d .  No  the  content  nutrient  element i s c o m p l e t e l y  At the b e s t , p a r t o f the element i s l o s t i n  normal d i g e s t i v e and m e t a b o l i c p r o c e s s e s .  Recent r e s e a r c h  has  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t o t a l c o n t e n t o f n u t r i e n t s and q u a n t i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . P u b l i c a t i o n s by the N u t r i t i o n ; C o M i i t f e e e o f t h e .National  '  Research C o u n c i l on Nutrient'.Requirements- f o r L i v e s t o c k have been determined w i t h the d i e t f o r m u l a t e d by t o t a l n u t r i e n t c o n t e n t on assumption t h a t the n u t r i e n t i n f e e d s t u f f i s h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e . p r e c i s e recommendations have not been p o s s i b l e due  t o the  of n u t r i e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y  ingredients.  information  f o r most f e e d  the More  shortage  P r e c i s e a v a i l a b i l i t y measurements f o r f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s become  2  i n c r e a s i n g l y u r g e n t f o r e c o n o m i c a l d i e t a r y f o r m u l a t i o n due t o s o a r i n g feed costs at present therefore necessary  and i n S - t h e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e .  It i s  t o e v a l u a t e how much o f t h e t o t a l n u t r i e n t  i s a c t u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o animals  relative  content  t o meeting r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  maintenance., and p r o d u c t i v e f u n c t i o n (growth and r e p r o d u c t i o n ) . C e r e a l g r a i n s (wheat, c o r n and b a r l e y ) a r e t h e most common feed grains u t i l i z e d i n the l i v e s t o c k i n d u s t r y . used m a i n l y as energy and p r o t e i n sources  These c e r e a l s a r e  f o r animal  production.  However, t h e m i n e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e c e r e a l s has always been overlooked are p r e s e n t  during feed formulation. i n low c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .  Many m i n e r a l s i n c e r e a l g r a i n s Thus, t h e r e has been ' l i t t l e " ' i n t e r e s t •  i n s t u d i e s on m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e f e e d s t u f f s .  Although  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have r e p o r t e d low a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus i n vegetables  t o monogastric animals, c o n f l i c t i n g  reported i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  f i n d i n g s have been  The d i s c r e p a n c y may be due t o t h e  v a r i o u s methods u s e d f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y e s t i m a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s as w e l l as v a r i a b i l i t y among samples. on m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y were determined on r e l a t i v e  Most s t u d i e s bioavailability  assuming 100% m i n e r a l a v a i l a b l e i n an i n o r g a n i c s a l t i n s t e a d o f t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y measurements.  The b r e a k t h r o u g h o f t h e t r u e  availability  e s t i m a t i o n method by Nwokolo et at. (1976) has s t i m u l a t e d enthusiasm for studying other f e e d s t u f f s .  I n a d d i t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g - f e e d costs,.....-•  have, a l s o e n c o u r a g e d m i n e r a l n u t r i t i o n :;  general f e e d s t u f f s .  a n d - a v a i l a b i l i t y ^studies in-  3  The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s s t u d y were t o e v a l u a t e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of minerals  ( c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and  copper) from c e r e a l grain's (wheat, c o r n , b a r l e y and t r i t i c a l e ) and inorganic mineral  salts.  Comparison was a l s o made on v a r i a t i o n - i n  a v a i l a b i l i t y i t * d i f f e r e n t shipments o f g r a i n s from commercial sources. mixture  The e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f f e e d s t u f f i n t h e t e s t on a v a i l a b i l i t y was a l s o s t u d i e d . I t has been assumed i n most cases t h a t i n o r g a n i c  are t o t a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a n i m a l when c o n d u c t i n g availability  study o f the f e e d s t u f f s .  minerals  the r e l a t i v e  Very l i m i t e d information i s  a v a i l a b l e t o demonstrate t h e t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l sources t o animals. focused  Therefore,  t h e f i n a l phase o f t h i s study  on t h e t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s  and t h e e f f e c t o f i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l on a v a i l a b i l i t y  from v a r i o u s m i n e r a l  was  from i n o r g a n i c s o u r c e s  l e v e l s (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn and Cu) salts.  4  LITERATURE REVIEW  I.  Methods  and Techniques  for Estimating  Mineral  Availability  Methods commonly employed t o study t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f m i n e r a l f o r v a r i o u s s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s , may be d i v i d e d into three categories: Assay P r o c e d u r e s ;  (1)  Chemical (a)  and  Balance  Apparent  (1) Chemical B a l a n c e Method; (3) In-vitro  Assay  (2) B i o l o g i c a l  Procedures.  Method digestibility  According  to Mitchell  (1964), apparent  digestibility.is  one o f t h e most common methods used i n d e t e r m i n i n g  availability.  T h i s method i s s i m p l e , r e q u i r e s o n l y a knowledge o f t h e i n t a k e and t o t a l f e c a l e x c r e t i o n o f t h e t e s t m i n e r a l s .  However, t h i s i s  an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a n e t h o d because i t does not' t a k e m e t a b o l i c  fecal.:-V; *  :  and endogenous u r i n a r y l o s s e s i n t o account. t h e r e i s a tendency t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e  As a consequence,  u t i l i z a t i o n of test minerals.  Ammerman et at.' (1957)^employed t h e ' p r o c e d u r e t o - s t u d y . '  " •  the b i o - a v a i l a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c phosphate sources.: f o r sheep.  Rock and Campling (1962) p o i n t e d o u t t h a t most i n f o r m a t i o n  on u t i l i z a t i o n i n r u m i n a n t s i s c a l c u l a t e d on t h i s b a s i s . u t i l i z a t i o n i s a l s o commonly e s t i m a t e d by t h i s method. t h a t "the- b a l a n c e  Calcium I t i s obvious  t e c h n i q u e u s i n g only- apparent 3 i g e s t i b i r i f y " r e s U l t s ;  :  ;  are n o t i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s t o l i v e s t o c k . M o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e method i s needed t o o b t a i n t h e t r u e d i g e s t i b i l i t y or a v a i l a b i l i t y o f mineral f o r animals.  5  (b)  True  digestibility The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l e s t i m a t e d by t r u e d i g e s t i b i l i t y  account  f o r t h e m e t a b o l i c f e c a l and:endogenous m i n e r a l .loss which'  i s n o t o f f e e d o r i g i n p r e s e n t i n t h e f e c a l and u r i n a r y e x c r e t i o n . . A l t h o u g h t h e e s t i m a t e o f a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r m i n e r a l by t h i s method i s f a r more a c c u r a t e , t h e procedure  employed t o e s t i m a t e t h e  endogenous l o s s o f f e c a l and u r i n a r y m i n e r a l i s u s u a l l y t e d i o u s and l a b o r o u s .  Nwokolo et al. (1976), r e c e n t l y developed  a method t o  e s t i m a t e endogenous m i n e r a l e x c r e t i o n i n .the*.chick. .";Th'e '-procedure i n v o l v e s t h e u s e o f p u r i f i e d m i n e r a l f r e e d i e t s which a r e f o r m u l a t e d so as t o e x c l u d e m i n e r a l s b e i n g t e s t e d . e x c r e t i o n i s determined  with chicks f e d the p u r i f i e d d i e t .  advantage o f t h i s procedure for  The endogenous m i n e r a l  t h e whole experiment,  The  i s t h e s h o r t p e r i o d o f time r e q u i r e d so t h a t t h e d e l i c a t e m i n e r a l e q u i l i b r i u m  o f t h e animals i s n o t d i s t u r b e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y .  As a r e s u l t , a more  r e a l i s t i c estimate o f mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y i s obtained.  (c)  Carcass  analysis  technique  F i n c k e and Sherman (1935) were t h e f i r s t t o determine c a l c i u m r e t e n t i o n o f t h e animal by c a r c a s s a n a l y s i s .  The t e c h n i q u e  i n v o l v e s t h e use o f l i t t e r mates, some o f which a r e s l a u g h t e r e d a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e experiment mineral.  t o determine  the content o f the t e s t  The o t h e r members o f t h e l i t t e r a r e f e d a c o n t r o l l e d  d i e t i n which t h e t e s t i n g r e d i e n t i s t h e o n l y source o f t h e m i n e r a l under s t u d y .  Amount o f f e e d i n t a k e i s r e c o r d e d d u r i n g  6  the experimental-.period' so t h a t t h e t o t a l m i n e r a l i n t a k e can calculated.  The t e s t animals a r e s l a u g h t e r e d when t h e  i s terminated. determined.  be  experiment  The animals a r e ashed and m i n e r a l c o n t e n t i s  The a v a i l a b i l i t y can be e s t i m a t e d from t h e m i n e r a l  r e t a i n e d e x p r e s s e d as a f r a c t i o n o f m i n e r a l i n t a k e . a n a l y s i s method a p p a r e n t l y g i v e s r e a s o n a b l e e s t i m a t e s  The  carcass  on.availability.  Armstrong and Thomas (1952). observed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y r e s u l t s  o b t a i n e d by o t h e r methods  compared t o t h e c a r c a s s a n a l y s i s method.  The  l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e method  i s thatf i t i s l a b o r i o u s p a r t i c u l a r l y when dealing-'with • l a r g e •• a n i m a l s . Homogenous c a r c a s s samples must be t a k e n f o r t h e a n a l y s i s .  (d)  Radioisotope  technique  R a d i o i s o t o p e s have been employed t o e s t i m a t e m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r a number o f y e a r s .  Two  t e c h n i q u e s have commonly  been used, i s o t o p e d i l u t i o n t e c h n i q u e and comparative technique w i t h r a d i o i s o t o p e .  Isotope d i l u t i o n technique i n v o l v e s a  s i n g l e i n j e c t i o n i n t r a v e n o u s l y (Hansard et at., i n t r a m u s c u l a r l y (Evans e t al.,  balance  1952;  1954),  197.9), o r m u l t i p l e doses o f r a d i o i s o t o p e  o f t h e t e s t element ( V i s e k et al.,  1953).  I f t h e r e i s no  endogenous e x c r e t i o n o f m i n e r a l , t h e s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s o f the i s o t o p e s i n the f e c e s and plasma s h o u l d be i d e n t i c a l a t e q u i l i b r i u m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e d i l u t i o n o f the t o t a l element i n t h e f e c e s by endogenous e x c r e t i o n can be measured by d i f f e r e n c e i n the plasma and f e c a l s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s .  7  The animals.  comparative  balance technique i n v o l v e s p a i r s o f  One a n i m a l , i s dosed o r a l l y w h i l e t h e o t h e r i s i n j e c t e d  i n t r a v e n o u s l y w i t h a r a d i o i s o t o p e o f t h e t e s t element.  It i s  assumed t h a t t h e element from d i e t a r y sources becomes c o m p l e t e l y l a b e l l e d by t h e o r a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d r a d i o i s o t o p e element.  Endogenous  e x c r e t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d from an i n t r a v e n o u s l y i n j e c t e d a n i m a l . procedure  was m o d i f i e d by Aubert et at. (1963) who proposed t h e  use o f two d i f f e r e n t i s o t o p e s w i t h t h e same a n i m a l . the use o f p a i r e d a n i m a l s . balance procedure  This eliminates  The main assumption i n t h e comparative  i s based on t h e d i e t a r y source becoming f u l l y  l a b e l l e d by t h e oral!.dose o f r a d i o i s o t o p e .  T h i s assumption was  q u e s t i o n e d by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s ( T i l l m a n and Brethone, 1961).  . This  1958; F i e l d ,  The above assumption i s e l i m i n a t e d when t h e d i e t a r y  source  i s p r e - l a b e l l e d as c a r r i e d o u t by Ammerman et at. (1963), i n which the u n i f o r m i t y o f l a b e l l i n g was c o n f i r m e d . Guenter and S e l l determine  (1974) have proposed a method t o  the " t r u e " a v a i l a b i l i t y o f mineral with a radioisotope.  The procedure  i n v o l v e s combining  t h e comparative  b a l a n c e and  isotope d i l u t i o n technique f o r segregating the mineral i n i n g e s t a o r f e c e s a c c o r d i n g t o d i e t a r y o r endogenous o r i g i n . Most r e c e n t l y , Evans and Johnson (1977) have e s t a b l i s h e d the use o f t h e e x t r i n s i c l a b e l t e c h n i q u e t o determine a v a i l a b i l i t y i n food.  zinc  These workers were a b l e t o demonstrate t h a t  endogenous z i n c and exogenous ^ Z n e n t e r a common p o o l p r i o r t o b e i n g  8  absorbed  from t h e i n t e s t i n e .  Since e x t r i n s i c  Zn e n t e r s a common  p o o l w i t h i n t r i n s i c z i n c , whole body a b s o r p t i o n o f e x t r i n s i c  ^Zn  was used t o o b t a i n an a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t e o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c i n food.  The f o r m u l a employed f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n i s p e r c e n t  ^Zn  absorbed  =  (2)  cpm  :  m  cpm i n c a r c a s s , b l o o d , u r i n e j ~ • .' • " ~ X carcass, blood, g a s t r o m t e s t m e t r a c t x feces c  B i o l o g i c a l Assay (a) Bone ash  100  Techniques  method  The b a l a n c e s t u d i e s i n g e n e r a l are more t e d i o u s and laborious.  I t has l e d many workers t o c o n s i d e r methods which g i v e  at l e a s t a comparative  measure o f t h e degree .of u t i l i z a t i o n  minerals i n d i e t a r y sources.  The most s i m p l e way  of  to evaluate  b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l i s t o compare growth r a t e and bone ash c o n t e n t o f c h i c k s f e d t e s t m a t e r i a l t o t h o s e f e d t h e standard i n o r g a n i c source.  Baruah et al.  (1967) showed t h e r e l a t i v e response  (1960) and H i j i k u r o et  o f c h i c k s on the t e s t m a t e r i a l by  an i n d e x t a k i n g t h e r e s o n s e o f t h e c h i c k s on t h e s t a n d a r d as G i l l i s et al.  al.  (1954)' were t h e f i r s t t o attempt  100.  the d e t e r -  m i n a t i o n q u a n t i t a t i v e l y o f phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y by measuring bone ash c o n t e n t o f t e s t a n i m a l s . a s t a n d a r d response  The assay i n v o l v e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  curve u s i n g a s e m i - p u r i f i e d b a s a l d i e t and graded  l e v e l s o f an i n o r g a n i c phosphate source i n which a v a i l a b i l i t y assumed o r known t o be 100% a t low d i e t a r y l e v e l .  was  The t e s t i n g r e d i e n t  9  was  s u b s t i t u t e d f o r a s m a l l • f r a c t i o n o f the b a s a l d i e t .  l i n e c u r v e was  obtained  A straight  by p l o t t i n g the p e r c e n t a g e o f bone ash  s o l v e n t e x t r a c t e d l e f t c h i c k t i b i a a g a i n s t the l o g a r i t h m o f percentage d i e t a r y m i n e r a l . the r a t i o ,  B i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y was  of  the  defined  e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t a g e o f the amount o f the  as  inorganic  s a l t t o the amount o f t e s t i n g r e d i e n t which produced the same bone ash when.each was  added t o the b a s a l d i e t .  P e r c e n t a g e bone ash  i s the most commonly used t e s t f o r e s t i m a t i n g m i n e r a l i n feed.  availability  N e l s o n (1967) n o t e d t h a t bone ash c o n t e n t i s one  most s e n s i t i v e , p r a c t i c a l c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the o f d i e t a r y phosphorus. (Nelson and Walker, 1964;  I t i s more a c c u r a t e D i l w o r t h and Day,  a f f e c t e d by o t h e r d i e t a r y v a r i a b l e s . r e t e n t i o n has  of  the  availability  t h a n body weight 1964), and  C a l c i u m and  is little  phosphate  f r e q u e n t l y been a s s e s s e d by measuring the  incremental  r e t e n t i o n i n a s e l e c t e d bone caused by a known amount o f d i e t a r y element (Ammerman et at.,  1960).  This technique,  be used w i t h young growing a n i m a l s .  however, can  Lengemann (1959) and  only  Patrick  45 and Bacon (1957) have used the  Ca c o n t e n t o f r a t t i b i a or femurs  t o a s s e s s u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i e t a r y s o u r c e s l a b e l l e d by an o r a l dose of radioisotope. (b)  Toe  ash  method  Y o s h i d a and H o s h i i (1977)' have deyeloped a t o e - a s h method t o estimate 'pfro'spfiexus •• ayaMabi£ity .,fp.rl.'th.e; growing- c h i c k . • ;  ;  I t was  observed t h a t t h e r e was  a l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between  d i e t a r y phosphorus and t o e ash c o n t e n t w i t h i n the range o f added  10  phosphorus from 0 t o 0.3%.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus can  t h e r e f o r e be determined by a s l o p e r a t i o assay o f t h e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n l i n e s between added phosphorus and t o e ash c o n t e n t . A t e n day f e e d i n g p e r i o d i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s assay.  The  a u t h o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t o e ash c o n t e n t method was more s u p e r i o r than t i b i a ash c o n t e n t method i n measuring  availability.  The  r e s u l t o b t a i n e d bv t o e ash c o n t e n t was i n agreement w i t h t h e c a r c a s s a n a l y s i s method ( H o s h i i and Y o s h i d a , 1978b):, (a)  Body weight  method  Long et al. (1956) used body weight as a c r i t e r i o n t o a s s e s s phosphorus supplement f o r c a t t l e by adding i t t o a low phosphorus d i e t .  O ' D e l l et al. (1972) used body weight  estimating mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y to chick.  i n "' "••  The t e c h n i q u e i n v o l v e s  e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a n d a r d c u r v e s by supplementing b a s a l d i e t s w i t h graded l e v e l s o f t h e t e s t element o f an i n o r g a n i c form which i s assumed t o be 100% a v a i l a b l e .  A l i n e a r response can be o b t a i n e d  by p l o t t i n g weight o r weight g a i n v e r s u s t h e l o g a r i t h m o f t h e supplement a t lower l e v e l s o f s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n .  The t e s t i n g r e d i e n t s  are s u b s e q u e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r c a r b o h y d r a t e i n t h e b a s a l d i e t a t low l e v e l . mated  The q u a n t i t y o f b i o l o g i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e m i n e r a l i s e s t i -  from t h e s t a n d a r d curve and d i v i d e d by t h e c o n t e n t o f t e s t  m i n e r a l i n the: i n g r e d i e n t .  T h i s method was, however, c r i t i c i z e d  by N e l s o n (1967), t o be i n a c c u r a t e i n measuring and y i e l d i n g m i s l e a d i n g c o n c l u s i o n s .  a v a i l a b l e phosphorus  11  (d)  Other miscellaneous  methods  Other b i o l o g i c a l a s s a y t e c h n i q u e s a r e b e i n g employed i n estimating mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y .  W i l d e r e t al. (1933) s t u d i e d t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s forms o f i o d i n e ( d r i e d k e l p ,  iodized  l i n s e e d meal and p o t a s s i u m i o d i d e ) to. t h e l a y i n g hen by o b s e r v i n g t h e i r e f f e c t s upon t h e i o d i n e c o n t e n t o f t h e egg. M i t t l e r and Banhan "(1954) used t h e enlargement o f t h e t h y r o i d g l a n d as a criterion  t o study the n u t r i t i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f several  iodide  compounds t o a l b i n o r a t . V e r y e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s have been made on t h e b l o o d as a measure o f m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y o f i r o n and magnesium. Thompson and Raven (1959) measured t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f i r o n from a number o f herbage s p e c i e s by means o f r e l a t i v e r a t e s o f haemoglobin r e g e n e r a t i o n i n r a t s r e n d e r e d anaemic by p r i o r f e e d i n g on an i r o n d e f i c i e n t d i e t .  The haemoglobin r e p l e t i o n method was  a l s o employed by P l a and F r i t z  (1971) s t u d y i n g a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  s u p p l e m e n t a l i r o n from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s t o c h i c k s and r a t s .  The  r e s u l t s have been s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h e method was proposed t o be adopted by A.O.A.C.  (3)  In -Vitro  Assay  Procedure  Anderson et al. (1956) have d e v i s e d a r a p i d in vitro  method  of e v a l u a t i n g phosphorus suuplements f o r ruminants by measuring t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n o f c e l l u l o s e i n an a r t i f i c a l rumen when t h e supplement  12  was the s o l e s o u r c e o f phosphate f o r the m i c r o o r g a n i s m .  Value's o b t a i n e d  were i n r e a s o n a b l e agreement w i t h t h o s e found by a n i m a l experiment.  II.  Availability  of Mineral  in Feed Ingredients  -from Vegetable  Bourses  R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been developed on the b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s from d i f f e r e n t p l a n t sources f o r l i v e s t o c k , e s p e c i a l l y f o r non-ruminant.  Most o f the work on m i n e r a l  s t u d i e s has been devoted t o c a l c i u m and phosphorus,  particularly  p h y t a t e phosphate.• A s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l  phosphate  o f p l a n t o r i g i n i s p r e s e n t i n t h i s form. Armstrong and Thomas (1952) r e p o r t e d t h a t c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f l u c e r n e , r e d c l o v e r and w i l d w h i t e c l o v e r were 84.89, 83.11 respectively.for rats.  i  n  and 79.95%,  the f o l l o w i n g y e a r the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m  i n t h r e e herbs o f g r a s s l a n d ( b u r n e t , c h i c o r y and narrow l e a v e d p l a n t a i n ) were e s t i m a t e d t o be 80.38, 87.73 and 95.28%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( A r m s t r o n g et al.,  1953).  Another r e p o r t by Armstrong et al.  (1957) showed t h a t the  calcium a v a i l a b i l i t y of three erasses, timothy, perennial rye grasses and c o c k s f o o t were 78.99, 76.53 and 69.02%. r e s p e c t i v e l y . a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m i n amaranthus,  The  s e s b a n i a g r a n d i f l o r a and  moringa  o l e i f e r a were e s t i m a t e d by Devadatta and Appana (1954), t o be 74-78, 85 and 69%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . phosphorus  As e a r l y as 1939. Common r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e  i n p l a n t s passed t h r o u g h the hen u n h y d r o l y z e d .  (1953) l a t e r observed t h a t phosphorus  G i l l i s et  al.  from i s o l a t e d c a l c i u m p h y t a t e was  13  l e s s t h a n 50% as b i o l o g i c a l l y a v a i l a b l e as t h a t from d i c a l c i u m or d e f l o u r i n a t e d phosphate and p h y t a t e phosphate.  10% phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y was  Ashton et al.  20% o f the p h y t a t e phosphorus was  (1960) showed t h a t  approximately  60.7%  from  approximately  r e t a i n e d by four-week o l d c h i c k s  w h i l e six-week o l d c h i c k s r e t a i n e d 36 t o 49% o f p h y t a t e However, Temperton and C a s s i d y  reported  phosphorus.  (1964) observed t h a t c h i c k s u t i l i z e d  non-phytate phosphorus.  Salman and M c G i n n i s  (1968),  u s i n g l a y i n g hens, r e p o r t e d t h a t phosphorus u t i l i z a t i o n i n r a t i o n s c o n t a i n s , ing  0.3%  p l a n t phosphorus was  i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from i t s  u t i l i z a t i o n i n r a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g e i t h e r - 0.6% p l a n t phosphorus p l u s 0.3% Nwokolo et al.  p l a n t phosphorus o r  i n o r g a n i c phosphorus. (1976) observed t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y  phosphorus from soybean m e a l , rapeseed m e a l , c o t t o n s e e d meal t o four-week o l d c h i c k s was Availability  0.3%  o f t h e m i n e r a l was  89.3,  74.8,  estimated  76.9  and  of  and palm k e r n e l  70.8%,: r e s p e c t i v e l y .  by t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f the  m i n e r a l r e t a i n e d i n the c h i c k u s i n g a c o r r e c t i o n f o r endogenous f e c a l mineral excreted. content  technique  b a r l e y has  Most r e c e n t l y H o s h i i and Y o s h i d a (1978a)„ u s i n g toe r e p o r t e d t h a t phosphorus i n wheat, wheat bran  a v a i l a b i l i t y h i g h e r t h a n 60%..  i n phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y was The  ash  and  A significant strain difference  observed between two  s t r a i n s o f wheat.  a u t h o r s also observed t h a t the phosphorus i n f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s o f  a n i m a l o r i g i n (e.g. f i s h meals and meat and bone meals) was available while a v a i l a b i l i t y  highly  o f phosphorus i n p l a n t s o u r c e s (e.g. p l a n t  o i l cake, y e l l o w c o r n and m i l o ) was v e r y  low.  14  Woodman and Evans (1948) showed t h a t 30 t o 40% o f t h e phosphorus i n b a r l e y - w h e a t b r a n w i t h no added i n o r g a n i c source was absorbed by p i g s r a i s e d from 50 t o 90 kg o f w e i g h t .  Besecker et al. (1967) o b t a i n e d  an  apparent phosphorus d i g e s t i b i l i t y v a l u e i n b a r l e y o f 17.7% when i t was f e d t o 45 kg p i g s i n a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g a 0.3% t o t a l phosphorus. et al. (1973) r e p o r t e d and  apparent phosphorus d i g e s t i b i l i t y v a l u e s  Tonroy o f 4.5  63.7% f o r sorghum g r a i n and d i c a l c i u m phosphate, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  B a y l e y and Thomson (1969) s t a t e d t h a t 27 kg p i g s were a b l e t o absorb 19% o f t h e phosphorus c o n t a i n e d  i n a corn-soybean meal d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 0.9% ;  Ca and 0.35% t o t a l phosphorus when f e d i n meal form, whereas 3% phosphate a b s o r b a b i l i t y v a l u e was r e p o r t e d by B a y l e y et al. (1975) f o r a corn-soybean meal d i e t t o 25 kg p i g s .  Most r e c e n t l y , M i r a c l e et al. (1977) observed  t h a t t h e phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y 16, 51 and 18%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  i n corn,.wheat and soybean f o r p i g s i s  P i e r c e et al. (1977) a l s o showed t h a t t h e  apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f phosphorus i n wheat was no b e t t e r than i n corn and t h a t t h e p h y t a t e from c a l c i u m p h y t a t e was e s s e n t i a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e f o r growing p i g s The  (11-45 k g ) . l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e tremendous d i f f e r e n c e s  r e g a r d i n g phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s .  The d i f f e r e n c e s  may be due t o t h e s o u r c e o f m a t e r i a l s t e s t e d , methods used, and age d i f f e r e n c e s .  The N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l  species  (NRC, 1969) suggested  t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 t o 50% o f phosphorus i n p l a n t m a t e r i a l s may be u t i l i z e d by non-ruminants. Peer (1972) i n a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium i n f o r a g e s  ranges from 10 t o 25% w i t h a  15  mean o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y  20%.  Availability  ranges from 30 t o 40% f o r  from g r a i n s and  concentrations  ruminants.  Very l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n on magnesium, z i n c , manganese and copper a v a i l a b i l i t y has been p u b l i s h e d f o r p o u l t r y . (1974), u s i n g i n t r a m u s c u l a r i n j e c t i o n  Guenter and  Sell  o f r a d i o a c t i v e Mg-28, r e p o r t e d t h a t  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium f o r wheat, c o r n , b a r l e y , o a t , r i c e soybean meal was-48. l'i 47.5,  54.2,  f o r the mature male c h i c k e n .  82.9,  42.2  and 60.4%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ,  R e c e n t l y Nwokolo et al.  (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium i n soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n s e e d k e r n e l meal was  77.4,  61.1,  O'Dell et at.  74.6  and  and palm  and 56.4%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  (1972) u s i n g growth response o f c h i c k s observed  t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c i n sesame meal, soybean meal and f i s h meal 57, 67 and 75%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . flour  was  et al. sources  Z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y o f raw c o r n endosperm  r e p o r t e d t o be 51% f o r r a t s (Evans iarid;:Johnson, 1977) .  Nwokolo  (1976) e v a l u a t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e v e r a l m i n e r a l s i n p l a n t p r o t e i n and r e p o r t e d t h a t z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y  cottonseed  and palm k e r n e l meals were 66.5,  respectively.  i n soybean, r a p e s e e d , 44.0,  The manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y was  45.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  Availability  of Minerals  in Inorganic  Minerals of plant o r i g i n  38.0  76:1,  copper a v a i l a b i l i t y was  44.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r four-week o l d b r o i l e r  III.  was  and  56.7,  51.0,  13.5%, 76.3  62.2,  and 42.3  chicks.  Sources  for  Livestock  are not adequate t o meet the  mineral requirement f o r l i v e s t o c k production.  Therefore,  practical  and  16  f e e d f o r m u l a t i o n u t i l i z e s i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l supplements t o o b t a i n the optimum d i e t a r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n .  Hence the b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n o r g a n i c  m i n e r a l s have been o f i n t e r e s t t o many r e s e a r c h  (1)  workers.  Calcium R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been developed  on  comparative  b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m from d i f f e r e n t f e e d sources animals.  for  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s e a r c h on the comparative  o f c a l c i u m source r e p o r t e d f o r p o u l t r y than f o r o t h e r s p e c i e s .  value According  t o the r e s u l t s o f some s t u d i e s on v a r i o u s c a l c i u m sources i n c l u d i n g calcium carbonate,  calcium s u l f a t e , oyster s h e l l , limestone, various  c a l c i u m phosphates, c a l c i u m g l u c o n a t e and f i s h meal (Bethke et al., Deobald et al., HurwitZ;  1936;  Waldroup et al.,  1964;  Sandorf and M u l l a r ,  1929;  1965;  and Rand, 1965), t h e r e a r e no d i f f e r e n c e s i n b i o l o g i c a l  availa-  b i l i t y among d i f f e r e n t c a l c i u m sources u s i n g bone ash and weight g a i n i n c h i c k s as the c r i t e r i a o f response.  In c o n t r a s t t o these r e p o r t s ,  however, a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y between v a r i o u s c a l c i u m c a r r i e r s f o r young c h i c k s . Motzok et al.  (1965) observed  t h a t the c a l c i u m i n s o f t phosphate  70% as a v a i l a b l e as t h a t i n c a l c i u m carbonate phosphate (100%). was  was  (100%) and d i c a l c i u m  In t h e s e s t u d i e s , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c a l c i u m  found t o be s e n s i t i v e t o the Ca:P  ratio.  (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t the c a l c i u m i n gypsum was l i m e s t o n e when f e e d i n t a k e was  equilized.  Hurwitz  and Rand  90% as a v a i l a b l e as  Calcium a v a i l a b i l i t y  of  s e v e r a l f e e d grade c a l c i u m phosphates has ; been measured u s i n g bone ash as the c r i t e r i o n o f response.  D i l w o r t h et al.  (1964) observed  t h a t the  17  relative, calcium a v a i l a b i l i t y compared t o c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e .  i n the sources ranged from 68 t o 95% B l a i r et al.  (1965) r e p o r t e d  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m carbonate phosphate s a l t s .  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y was  66%  ( S t i l l m a k and Sunde, 1971).  significant  and v a r i o u s  c a l c i u m i n d o l o m i t i c l i m e s t o n e was  68% as a v a i l a b l e as t h a t i n pure c a l c i u m carbonate  as  from 64 t o  i n which average A r e c e n t study by  and Weber (1976) on c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f i v e ground  Reid  limestone.samples  w i t h l a y i n g hens showed t h a t the ground l i m e s t o n e samples v a r i e d from 82.4  t o 98.4%  egg s h e l l  c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y when apparent c a l c i u m r e t e n t i o n and  t h i c k n e s s were employed as the t e s t c r i t e r i a .  In o t h e r  r e p o r t s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y were observed  when h y d r a t e d  and anhydrous d i c a l c i u m phosphate were compared (Rucker et al., Buckner et al.  (1929) showed t h a t c a l c i u m carbonate  t o a number o f c a l c i u m s a l t s  1968).  was  f o r egg p r o d u c t i o n as judged by eggs  weight.  B a l l o u n and M a r i o n (1962) demonstrated the d i f f e r e n c e s i n  relative  e f f i c i e n c y o f c a l c i u m l a c t a t e and c a l c i u m carbonate  p r o d u c t i o n o f egg s h e l l . t o demonstrate s i g n i f i c a n t  shell  i n the  However, most l a b o r a t o r i e s have been u n a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y  number o f c a l c i u m sources u s i n g egg p r o d u c t i o n , egg s h e l l ash v a l u e s as c r i t e r i a (Hurwitz and Rand, 1965;  (2)  superior  of a  q u a l i t y and bone  Heywang and Lowe, 1962).  Phosphate A l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s have been conducted t o determine the  relative  biological  v a l u e o f the v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c phosphate sources f o r  18  t h e - c h i c k . . • G i l 3 i s e t 'eel- •(1954), w e r e ' t h e - f i r s t to.---quantitate t h e availability  i n v a r i o u s phosphate compounds f o r t h e c h i c k .  Assuming b e t a -  t r i c a l c i u m phosphate t o be 100% a v a i l a b l e , , t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e s f o r monocalcium phosphate, d i c a l c i u m phosphate, d e f l u o r i n a t e d phosphate and!.low f l u o r i n a t e d phosphate were 113, 98, 98 and 87%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d v a l u e i n low f l u o r i d e r o c k bioavailability obtained  by N e l s o n and Walker (1964), but with- a lower  (68%).  Peeler  (1972) made t h e comparison o f  o f v a r i o u s phosphorus s o u r c e s n o t i n g t h a t ;the. r e s u l t s  from d i f f e r e n t l a b o r a t o r i e s ( G i l l i s et al., 1954; Nelson.'and  P e e l e r , 1961; N e l s o n and Walker,\ 1964; D i l w o r t h and Day, 1964), were apparently  i n good agreement.  Numerous s t u d i e s have/demonstrated t h a t  the l e v e l o f c a l c i u m i n t h e d i e t has a c o n s i d e r a b l e response o f c h i c k s t o c e r t a i n phosphate  i n f l u e n c e on t h e  sources.  A s e r i e s o f s t u d i e s on t h e c o m p a r a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n o r g a n i c phosphate f o r l a y i n g hen was r e p o r t e d by S i n g s e n et al. (1969a).  On  the b a s i s o f a l l performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o b s e r v e d , t h e s o f t phosphate a v a i l a b i l i t y has a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e t h a n low f l u o r i n e rock phosphate and e s s e n t i a l l y equal a v a i l a b i l i t y t o d e f l u o r i n a t e d and d i c a l c i u m phosphate.  A f u r t h e r experiment by S i n g s e n et al. (1969b)  i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f low f l u o r i n e r o c k phosphate was 25% f o r t h e l a y i n g hen. In s t u d i e s w i t h i n o r g a n i c s o u r c e s ,  W i l c o x and A s s o c i a t e s  (1954,  1955) found wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e -avaii-abi-rit.^ of ^y^ymgv. turkeys', to u t i l i z e v a r i o u s phosphates.  Availability  v a l u e s ranged from low t o v e r y  based on growth r a t e and bone ash o b s e r v a t i o n s .  high,  19  G i l l i s et al. (1962) and S c o t t et al. (1962) r e p o r t e d . t h a t f o r the t u r k e y p o u l t t h e p r i m a r y  c a l c i u m phosphate s a l t i s most b i o l o g i c a l l y  a v a i l a b l e f o l l o w e d by t h e secondary s a l t w i t h t h e t e r t i a r y s a l t o r t r i c a l c i u m phosphate h a v i n g t h e l e a s t b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e three.  Therefore  i t i s noted that hydrated  d i c a l c i u m phosphate (CaHPO^'H^O)  i s an e x c e l l e n t source o f phosphate, whereas t h e anhydrous form o f d i c a l c i u m phosphate (CaHPO^) i s v e r y p o o r l y u t i l i z e d by t u r k e y ( G i l l i s et al., 1962;  S c o t t et al., 1962; Rucker et al., 1968).  S u l l i v a n (1966) r e p o r t e d  t h a t r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d i c a l c i u m phosphate, d e f l u o r i n a t e d phosphate and low f l u o r i n a t e d r o c k phosphate f o r t h e t u r k e y was 98.4V. 82.6  and 91.2%, r e s p e c t i v e l y i n which monocalcium phosphate was assumed  t o be 100% a v a i l a b i l i t y .  (3)  Magnesium Ammerman and A s s o c i a t e s  (1972)compared t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  s e v e r a l magnesium s a l t s f o r sheep and r e p o r t e d t h a t b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s f o r MgCO^, MgO and MgSO^ were 43.77, 50.87 and 57.63%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  When r e a g e n t grade magnesium o x i d e was a s s i g n e d  a value: o f 100, t h e r e l a t i v e v a l u e o f MgSO^ was 113% and reagent grade MgCO^ was 86%. Cook (1973) used b a l a n c e  studies t o evaluate  various  i n o r g a n i c magnesium s a l t s and r e p o r t e d t h a t magnesium c a r b o n a t e was the most a v a i l a b l e form. form.  Magnesium c h l o r i d e was as a v a i l a b l e as c a r b o n a t e  The o x i d e , phosphate, s u l f a t e and s i l i c a t e s a l t s were s l i g h t l y  lower compared t o magnesium  carbonate.  20  L i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n o r g a n i c magnesium s o u r c e t o p o u l t r y .  Guenter and S e l l  (1974) u s i n g  r a d i o i s o t o p e t e c h n i q u e showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium from M g S O ^ H 0 was 57.4%.  (4)  Manganese  3  Zine and Copper  L i t t l e work has been conducted on t h e b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  :  i n o r g a n i c s o u r c e s o f manganese, z i n c and copper.  •  Most o f the d a t a  r e p o r t e d were q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n q u a n t i t a t i v e .  S c h a i b l e and  Bandemer (1942) r e p o r t e d t h a t manganese o x i d e , manganese c a r b o n a t e , manganese s u l f a t e , manganese c h l o r i d e ( w i t h w i d e l y v a r y i n g  solubility)  are e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e as s o u r c e s o f manganese i n p o u l t r y r a t i o n s and presumable, t h e r e f o r e , a r e e q u a l l y w e l l absorbed. (1967) observed t h a t r a d i o a c t i v i t y as  54  However, Henning et at.  MnCl^ was i n c o r p o r a t e d , i n t o t h e 54  body o f c h i c k s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t  than t h a t s u p p l i e d as  MnSO^ o r  54 MnO^.  Recent r e s e a r c h  indicated that differences i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f manganese from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s e x i s t (Watson et at., 1970).  Using  b i o l o g i c a l a s s a y , Watson et al. (1971) showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y was  d i f f e r e n t between t h e c a r b o n a t e and o x i d e forms o f manganese.  However/ no q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a were reported.. Edwards (1959) observed t h a t z i n c i n t h e forms o f z i n e s u l f a t e , w i l l e m i t e , z i n c carbonate, z i n c metal, z i n c oxide zinc oxide  (A.R. grade) i s r e l a t i v e l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e young growing  c h i c k e n whereas, z i n c i n s p h a l e r i t e (mostly franklinite  ( t e c h n i c a l grade) and  z i n c s u l f i d e ) and i n  ( o x i d e s o f Zn, Fe and Mn) i s l a r e g l y u n a v a i l a b l e .  Kratzer  21  and Vohra (1966) a l s o showed t h a t z i n c i s l e s s a v a i l a b l e from z i n c o r t h o p h o s p h a t e , z i n c t r i p o l y p h o s p h a t e , z i n c hexametaphosphate,  zinc  pyrophosphate and z i n c p h y t a t e t h a n from o x i d e . Anemic r a t s were shown t o be u n a b l e t o use the copper o f copper s u l f i d e or copper p o r p h y r i n , whereas the o x i d e , h y d r o x i d e and pyrophosphate were r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d  ( S c h u l t z e et al.,  1936).  Pigs also  absorb t h e copper o f c u p r i c s u l f i d e much l e s s e f f i c i e n t l y than t h a t o f c u p r i c s u l f a t e (Bowland et al.,  IV.  Factors  Affecting  Mineral  1961).  Availability  Several f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y of mineral elements.  One o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i s t h e p h y t i c a c i d  ( i n o s i t o l h e x a p h o s p h o r i c a c i d ) which c h e l a t e s m i n e r a l elements r e d u c i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y t o t h e a n i m a l s ( N e l s o n et al., N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975).  These workers suggest t h a t p h y t a t e p r o b a b l y c h e l a t e s  p a r t o f a l l the c a t i o n r e q u i r e d by a n i m a l s . shown t o form s t a b l e complexes in vitro ( O b e r l e a s , 1973).  1968; Davies and  P h y t a t e has a l s o been  w i t h Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Fe and Ca  Some o t h e r r e c o g n i z e d f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g m i n e r a l  a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e crude f i b r e , o x a l a t e , e t h y l e n e d i a m i n e t e t r a a c e t a t e  (EDTA),  p r o t e i n and amino a c i d s , v i t a m i n s , a n t i b i o t i c s and i n t e r a c t i o n between m i n e r a l elements.  22  (1)  Phytic  Aoid An e a r l i e r  r e p o r t by Bruce and C a l l o w (1934) suggested t h a t  p h y t i c a c i d would r e n d e r c a l c i u m u n a v a i l a b l e f o r a b s o r p t i o n by t h e formation o f i n s o l u b l e calcium phytate.  They a l s o showed t h a t phosphorus  from c e r e a l s o u r c e s was l e s s e f f e c t i v e t h a n i n o r g a n i c p h y t a t e phosphorus i n h e a l i n g r i c k e t s and suggested t h a t phosphorus as p h y t a t e was p o o r l y absorbed from t h e i n t e s t i n a l  tract.  The poor u t i l i z a t i o n o f p h y t a t e phosphorus by v a r i o u s p o u l t r y s p e c i e s has been r e p o r t e d by many r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g. Lower et al., 1939; G i l l i s et at., 1957) and i n a r e v i e w o f N e l s o n (1967).  In contrast t o  t h i s , t h e a d d i t i o n o f p h y t a t e as b r a n (Roberts and Y u d k i n , 1961) o r as a m i x t u r e .of p e n t a c a l c i u m p h y t a t e and sodium p h y t a t e ( H o f f - J o r g e n s e n , 1946)  was r e p o r t e d t o i n c r e a s e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus, on c e r e a l -  based d i e t s .  I t i s apparent t h a t observed v a l u e s f o r t h e a b i l i t y o f  c h i c k e n s t o u t i l i z e p h y t a t e phosphorus may be d i f f e r e n t due t o c r i t e r i a and m a t e r i a l used i n t h e assay.  Methods t o improve phosphorus  have been i n d i c a t e d by s e v e r a l workers Summer et at., 1967).  availability  (Anderson, 1915; S i n g s e n , 1948;  P h y t i c a c i d a l s o reduces a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i r o n  (McCance et at., 1943; Davies and N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975), .magnesium (Roberts and Y u d k i n , 1961; L i k u s k i and F o r b e s , 1965), z i n c ( O ' D e l l and Savage, I960; Oberleas et at., 1960, D a v i e s and N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975; Davies and R e i d , 1979), manganese and copper  (Davies and N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975).  Byrd and  Matrone (1965) and Oberleas et al. (1966) have suggested t h a t t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e i n z i n c a b s o r p t i o n by p h y t i c a c i d was due t o z i n c  combining  23  w i t h p h y t a t e and c a l c i u m t o form an i n s o l u b l e Zn-Ca-phytate  complex.  T h i s was c o n f i r m e d by O b e r l e a s (1973), Davies and N i g h t i n g a l e and Davies and R e i d (1979).  (1975)  Nwokolo and Bragg (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t  p h y t i c a c i d c o n t e n t o f soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n seed and palm k e r n e l meals s i g n i f i c a n t l y  a f f e c t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus, c a l c i u m , z i n c  and magnesium b u t n o t manganese and copper.  I t i s evident that phytic  a c i d i s a f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y of minerals.  (2)  Fiber Armstrong et oil. (1953), i n t h e s t u d y on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  c a l c i u m i n t h r e e herbs o f g r a s s l a n d , r e p o r t e d an i n v e r s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y and crude f i b e r c o n t e n t .  Smith  (1961)  demonstrated t h a t n e t a b s o r p t i o n o f c a l c i u m and magnesium d e c r e a s e d i n m i l k f e d c a l v e s i n g e s t i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f f i b e r as wood shavings.' R e i n h o l d (1975) r e p o r t e d t h a t crude f i b e r caused t h e decreased a v a i l a b i l i t y o f zinc f o r i n t e s t i n a l  absorption.  Nwokolo and Bragg (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t  crude f i b e r c o n t e n t o f soybean, r a p e s e e d , cottonseed- ~ and palm k e r n e l meals s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e p r e s s e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and copper i n growing c h i c k s .  R e i n h o l d et al.  (1975, 1976) a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t f i b e r was a d e t e r m i n a n t o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m , z i n c and i r o n i n b r e a d s t u f f f o r man.  Eastwood  suggested t h a t v e g e t a b l e f i b r e c o n s i s t s o f a heterogeneous  (1973) complex o f  p o l y s a c c h a r i d e s and l i g n i n c a p a b l e o f s e q u e s t e r i n g water, c a t i o n o r a n i o n depending on t h e c h e m i s t r y o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t  macromolecules.  O b e r l e a s and H a r d l a n d (1977) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f i b e r may a f f e c t m i n e r a l  24  a v a i l a b i l i t y by any o r a l l o f t h e f o l l o w i n g mechanisms:  a c t i n g as a  c a t i o n exchanger, d i l u t i n g t h e i n t e s t i n a l c o n t e n t s , a l t e r i n g  transit  time o r changing t h e o x i d a t i o n - r e d u c t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l tract.  M c C o n n e l l et al. (1974) suggested t h a t t h e -COOH groups o f f i b e r  polysaccharides  a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e apparent c a t i o n exchange c a p a c i t y .  However, -OH,-PO(OH)2 and -SO^ a r e a l s o a b l e t o r e v e r s a b l y exchange organic r a d i c a l s f o r c a t i o n s i n the surrounding and H a r d l a n d , 1977).  Oxalic  (Oberleas  I t appears t h a t f i b e r i s i m p l i c a t e d as a c a u s a t i v e  agent i n r e d u c t i o n o f m i n e r a l  (3)  environment  bioavailability.  Acid H i g h c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o x a l i c a c i d i n food can i m p a i r t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s by f o r m i n g ( M i t c h e l l , 1939; 1942).  a p o o r l y absorbable mineral  oxalate  S k o r k o w s k a - Z i e l e n i e w s k a et al. (1974) showed  t h a t d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g o x a l i c a c i d reduced c a l c i u m , magnesium and i r o n absorption.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were observed f o r c a l c i u m  (1973) and phosphorus (Compere, 1966). (1962) d e m o n s t r a t e d . t h a t - p i g s - a p p a r e n t l y  However, Brune and Bredehorn utilized  o x a l a t e as e f f e c t i v e l y as o t h e r c a l c i u m s o u r c e s . r e p o r t e d t h a t most c o n c e n t r a t e s oxalates.  Fasett  ( M u r i l l o et al.  and v e g e t a b l e  calcium P a t e l et al. (1967)  l e a v e s had p r a c t i c a l l y no  (1966) who c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d  the l i t e r a t u r e  p e r t a i n i n g t o p o s s i b l e o x a l a t e i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h c a l c i u m metabolism c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e danger a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n g e s t i n g oxalate containing plants.  25  (4)  Ethylene-Diamine-Tetraacoate The  r o l e o f m i n e r a l i o n c h e l a t i o n has been d i s c u s s e d by S c o t t  et al. (1969). important  (EDTA)  They p o i n t out t h a t o r g a n i c c h e l a t e s may be t h e most  f a c t o r governing  t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f m i n e r a l elements, e.g.  a s c o r b i c a c i d and amino a c i d s .  There a r e some c h e l a t e s which can  d e c r e a s e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f one o r more m i n e r a l elements and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y improve t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r m i n e r a l s .  K r a t z e r et al. (1959)  observed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c f o r c h i c k s on a p u r i f i e d  diet  c o n t a i n i n g soybean p r o t e i n was g r e a t l y enhanced by t h e a d d i t i o n o f EDTA. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d on c h i c k s f e d p u r i f i e d d i e t s and EDTA by o t h e r workers (Davis et al.., 1962; L i k u s k i n and Forbes, 1964).  K r a t z e r and S t a r c h e r  (1963) i n d i c a t e d t h a t EDTA not o n l y improved  the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c a l r e a d y p r e s e n t  i n t h e d i e t but a l s o made  added z i n c more e f f e c t i v e f o r use by p o u l t s . r e p o r t e d i n r a t s (Oberleas  1964; O'Dell et al.  et al., 1966).  S i m i l a r e v i d e n c e was  EDTA improved  utilizaton  o f manganese and copper i n c h i c k e n s r e c e i v i n g a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g i s o l a t e d soybean p r o t e i n ( S c o t t et al., 1969).  EDTA decreased i r o n  a v a i l a b i l i t y t o r a t s ( L a r s e n et al., 1960) and c h i c k s ( F r i t z et al., 1971). A study was r e p o r t e d by Suso and Edwards (1960) c o n c e r n i n g  the influence  o f v a r i o u s c h e l a t i n g agents on a b s o r p t i o n o f ^ C o , "^Fe, *^Mn and ^ Z n i n the chicken.  R e s u l t s showed a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n ^ Z n a b s o r p t i o n 54  but a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l s o f EDTA.  Dietary  Mn a b s o r p t i o n w i t h i n c r e a s i n g  o f EDTA d e c r e a s e d a b s o r p t i o n o f *^Fe and ^ C o  ( F r i t z et al., 1971) f o r c h i c k s ;  These r e s u l t s demonstrated t h a t  EDTA bound i r o n and manganese v e r y t i g h t l y making "these elements less available for u t i l i z a t i o n .  The f r e e a c i d form o f EDTA was more  26  d e t r i m e n t a l t h a n was c a l c i u m d i s o d i u m EDTA o r d i s o d i u m EDTA.  Addition  at c r i t i c a l l e v e l s o f any form o f EDTA t o t h e d i e t reduced t h e hemoglobin l e v e l s i n t h e c h i c k s i n d i c a t i n g t h e EDTA i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h iron utilizaton.  Also the incidence o f perosis increased i n d i c a t i n g  t h a t EDTA i n t e r f e r e d w i t h manganese u t i l i z a t i o n .  (5)  Protein  and Amino  Acids  V a r i o u s p r o t e i n s o u r c e s have been r e p o r t e d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s  i n the d i e t s .  These i n c l u d e  peas.(Kienholz  et al., 1959; K i e n h o l z et al., 1962) i s o l a t e d soybean p r o t e i n  (O'Dell  and Savage, 1960), sesame meal (Lease et al., 1960), s a f f l o w e r ,  cottonseed,  soybean meals (Lease and W i l l i a m s , 1976a,b), f r e e amino a c i d and c a s e i n d i e t s ( L i k u s k i and F o r e s ,  1964).  I s o l a t e d soybean p r o t e i n reduced t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f molybdenum ( R e i d et al., 1956), z i n c ( O ' D e l l and Savage, 1960)  and manganese and copper (Davis et al., 1962).  Copper can form  i n s o l u b l e complexes w i t h p r o t e i n which a r e u n a v a i l a b l e f o r a b s o r p t i o n (Underwood, 1977). minerals  The same mechanism would l i k e l y a p p l y t o o t h e r  l i s t e d above. Wasserman et al. (1956) r e p o r t e d t h a t s e v e r a l amino a c i d s  promoted c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n effective.  andvtHat l y s i n e and a r g i n i n e were t h e most  Amino a c i d s , e s p e c i a l l y c y s t e i n e and h i s t i d i n e , a r e a l s o  e f f e c t i v e metal b i n d i n g agents.  Van Campen and Gross (1969) r e p o r t e d  59 that h i s t i d i n e increased duodenum.  . . Fe uptake from i s o l a t e d segments o f r a t  Van Campen ' (1973) a l s o observed enhancement o f i r o n  a b s o r p t i o n from 'a I-|gat-.ed j.g'egine'nt-idfa^s^»tes.tine?-by- h i s t i d i n e . ,  27  c y s t i n e and  lysine.  Cysteine  and h i s t i d i n e were shown t o have a  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on t h e z i n c d e f i c i e n c y syndrome ( N i e l s e n et al., 1966b). Z i n c d e f i c i e n t c h i c k s f e d i s o l a t e d soybean p r o t e i n and ment o f 1,0  and  2.0%  a  1966a; supple-  h i s t i d i n e showed a l l e v i a t i o n o f l e g d i s o r d e r s  ( N i e l s e n , 1966a). A supplement o f 0.5% o f z i n c d e f i c i e n c y ( N i e l s e n et al.,  cysteine a l l e v i a t e d a l l signs  1966a). I t was  noted that supplementation  o f c y s t e i n e improved the body weight g a i n , f e a t h e r i n g and t i b i a z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n , p o s s i b l y due  t o improved z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y i n the  diet.  However, s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f h i s t i d i n e d i d not g i v e the same response. Coleman et al. hydrochloride abnormality  (1969) showed t h a t a s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f 2.0%  arginine  i n a z i n c d e f i c i e n t d i e t o f c h i c k s aggravated b o t h the  and f e a t h e r d e f e c t s and tended t o depress growth.  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c y s t e i n e , h i s t i d i n e and a r g i n i n e are p o s s i b l e o f z i n c i n some a s p e c t s o f the c h i c k metabolism.  leg  I t seems, antagonists  M i s k i and K r a t z e r  (1977)  observed t h a t p r o t e i n d e f i c i e n c y lowers the e f f i c i e n c y o f i r o n u t i l i z a t i o n w h i l e g l y c i n e and t r y p t o p h a n s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n enhance i r o n a b s o r p t i o n .  (6)  Lactose L a c t o s e has been r e p o r t e d t o promote c a l c i u m  many workers (Wasserman et al.,  1956;  Langemann et al.,  absorption 1959).  by  Wasserman  and Comar (1959) s t a t e d t h a t some o t h e r c a r b o h y d r a t e s h a v i n g an a c t i o n s i m i l a r to that of l a c t o s e , stayed  f o r some time i n the  i n t e s t i n a l lumen ( c e l l o b i o s e , s o r b o s e , r i b o s e and x y l o s e ) , but c a r b o h y d r a t e s t h a t were r a p i d l y absorbed had  that  l i t t l e or no e f f e c t .  Bile  28  a c i d s were r e p o r t e d t o i n c r e a s e c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n by i m p r o v i n g s o l u b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m i n l i p i d s o l v e n t s (Webling  (7)  the  and H o l d s w o r t h , 1966).  Vitamins V i t a m i n D has been r e p o r t e d by a number o f i n v e s t i g a t o r s t o  i n f l u e n c e the absorption o f various c a t i o n s .  Sobel and Burger (1955)  reported that Vitamin D increased the l e v e l s of lead i n blood  while  Greenberg (1945) showed an i n c r e a s e i n s t r o n t i u m a b s o r p t i o n due t o v i t a m i n D administration.  ; M e i n t z e r and Steenbock (1955) r e p o r t e d t h a t d i e t s  low i n v i t a m i n D f e d t o r a t s d e p r e s s e d magnesium a b s o r p t i o n . and M i g i c o v s k y  (1961a,b) o b s e r v e d t h a t v i t a m i n D i n c r e a s e d  Workers  absorption  o f c a l c i u m , s t r o n t i u m , b e r y l l i u m , magnesium, b a r i u m , z i n c and cadmium. C o b a l t and cesium were a l s o observed t o be i n t h e l i s t but not sodium, p o t a s s i u m , copper, i r o n and z i n c (Wasserman, 1962).  V i t a m i n D has  a l s o been demonstrated t o enhance a b s o r p t i o n o f i r o n and c o b a l t (Musahara and M i g i c o v s k y ,  1963) and z i n c ( K i e n h o l z et at.,  1964).  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i t a m i n D and c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n has been s t u d i e d most e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e l a s t two decades.  Present  evidence  suggests t h a t i n t e s t i n a l c a l c i u m b i n d i n g p r o t e i n (CaBP) i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f 1 , 2 5 - d i h y d r o x y c h o l e c a l c i f e r o l ( v i t a m i n D d e r i v a t i v e ) i n t h e c e l l s o f t h i s organ ( E d e l s t e i n et at., 1975).  The  s y n t h e s i s i s m e d i a t e d by a s p e c i f i c mRNA r e s u l t i n g from events f o l l o w i n g the b i n d i n g o f 1 , 2 5 - d i h y d r o x y c h o l e c a l c i f e r o l t o a chromatin (Emtage et at., 1974).  receptor  The v i t a m i n D, t h e r e f o r e , enhances t h e p r o d u c t i o n  o f CaBP i n t h e i n t e s t i n e such t h a t t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f c a l c i u m i s i n c r e a s e d .  29  Large amounts o f v i t a m i n C ( a s c o r b i c a c i d ) w i l l depress t h e i n t e s t i n a l absorption with metallothionein  o f copper a p p a r e n t l y (Evans et al.,  by f o r m a t i o n  1973"').  o f mercaptides  High d i e t a r y ascorbic  acid  has been demonstrated i n i n c r e a s i n g the s e v e r i t y o f copper d e f i c i e n c y in chicks  (8)  ( H i l l and S t a r c h e r ,  1965) and r a b b i t s (Hunt and C a r l t o n ,  1965).  Antibiotics A n t i b i o t i c s have been r e p o r t e d  in swinerations  (Kirchgessner  et al.,  t o improve t h e m i n e r a l  1961; K i r c h g e s s n e r ,  availability  1965).  In  b a l a n c e experiments u s i n g p i g s and p o u l t r y , the d a i l y r e t e n t i o n o f c o b a l t and z i n c was more than doubled and copper r e t e n t i o n t r i p l e d as the d i e t was supplemented w i t h a n t i b i o t i c s .  Increments o f manganese  and i r o n r e t e n t i o n i n a n i m a l s r e c e i v i n g a n t i b i o t i c s have a l s o been In a d d i t i o n , K i r c h g e s s n e r  et al.  reported.  (1961) u s i n g b a l a n c e methods, observed  t h a t r e t e n t i o n o f phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, copper, i r o n , c o b a l t and s i l i c o n was i n c r e a s e d by a n t i o b i o t i c s i n t h e young but not i n mature  (9)  Species  Difference  S p e c i e s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f t r a c e m i n e r a l s were also recognized.  Hay f i b e r i s not a good s o u r c e o f i r o n f o r c h i c k d i e t s  even though such hay c o n t a i n s  100 t o 200 ppm  o f i r o n (NRC, 1969).  Most  o f the n u t r i e n t s t h a t a r e p r e s e n t would not become a v a i l a b l e t o nonruminant a n i m a l s because t h e y do not d i g e s t such m a t e r i a l s e f f e c t i v e l y . In a n i m a l s t u d i e s , l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e was observed i n t h e response o f c h i c k s and r a t s when a s c o r b i c a c i d was added t o t h e t e s t d i e t w i t h  pigs.  30  known a d d i t i o n o f i r o n ( F r i t z et al.,  1970;  F r i t z and P l a , 1972).  However, a s c o r b i c a c i d i n c r e a s e s the i r o n a b s o r p t i o n i n man F r i t z , 1972). Elwood^ (1965>^^^  ( P l a and  ferrous  :  s a l t s were equ'ally'v a v a i l a b l e t o the- r a t s but -not "-man".  (10)  Mineral  Interaction  E a r l y o b s e r v a t i o n s on m i n e r a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n d i c a t e s t h a t low c a l c i u m r a t i o n s d i s t u r b phosphorus" b a l a n c e . r e v e a l e d fundamental i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s  "Later i n v e s t i g a t o r s •  between c a l c i u m and manganese,  z i n c and c a l c i u m , phosphorus and magnesium, cadmium and z i n c ( H i l l et 1963;  Forbes,  1963), i r o n and manganese (Thomson,>et al. * 1971).  al.,  The/influence  o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree i s r e l a t e d t o c o m p e t i t i o n f o r b i n d i n g s i t e s i n o r on mucosal c e l l s and f o r c a r r i e r molecules. H i g h c a l c i u m and h i g h i n o r g a n i c phosphorus d e f i c i e n c y i n r a t s ( C a b e l l and E a r l e , 1965).  aggravate.zinc  Conversely,  i n t a k e s can a l l e v i a t e the e f f e c t s o f z i n c d e f i c i e n c y .  low  calcium  Less copper  was  absorbed by mice from a h i g h c a l c i u m than from a low c a l c i u m d i e t due an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e s t i n a l pH  (Tompsett, 1940)  to  and d i e t s h i g h i n c a l c i u m  enhance copper t o x i c i t y i n p i g s , persumably due t o a l o w e r i n g o f z i n c availability  ( S u t t l e and M i l l s , 1966).  Nugara and Edwards (1962) noted  t h a t h i g h d i e t a r y phosphorus reduced magnesium r e t e n t i o n a t the a b s o r p t i o n site i n chicks. pigs i n balance  I t was  a l s o shown by O ' D e l l et al.  (1960) u s i n g  s t u d i e s t h a t a h i g h d i e t a r y phosphorus l e v e l  guinea  decreased  31  magnesium a b s o r p t i o n .  Forbes (1963) observed t h a t c a l c i u m and  phosphorus d e p r e s s e d magnesium a b s o r p t i o n and h i g h c a l c i u m l e v e l s d r a s t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d * phosphorus a b s o r p t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f magnesium l e v e l s i n t h e diet.  The b i o l o g i c a l antagonism between copper and z i n c was demonstrated  by Smith and Larson supplementation  (1946).  Van Reen (1953) observed t h a t copner  a l l e v i a t e d the e f f e c t s o f zinc t o x i c i t y while the reverse  r e a c t i o n was r e p o r t e d by R i t c h i e et al. (1963). that copper-induced depression  Van Campen (1969) showed  i n ^ Z n a b s o r p t i o n was m e d i a t e d a t t h e  i n t e s t i n a l l e v e l , p o s s i b l y due t o d i r e c t c o m p e t i t i o n between z i n c and copper f o r a common c a r r i e r .  K i r c h g e s s n e r and Grassmann (1969) r e p o r t e d  t h a t h i g h l e v e l s o f copper s u l f a t e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n  i n p i g rations  produced h i g h e r r e t e n t i o n o f i r o n , z i n c , manganese and c o b a l t . H i g h d i e t a r y l e v e l s o f cadmium depress copper uptake and even a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n cadmium i n t a k e can a d v e r s e l y copper m e t a b o l i s m when copper i n t a k e s a r e m a r g i n a l  affect  (Underwood, 1977).  Molybdenum and s u l f a t e can e i t h e r i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e t h e copper s t a t u s o f an a n i m a l , depending on t h e i r i n t a k e r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f copper (Underwood, 1977).  H u i s i n g h et al. (1973) proposed t h a t copper can  i n t e r a c t w i t h molybdenum t o form a b i o l o g i c a l u n a v a i l a b l e Cu-Mo-complex (cupric molybdate).  S u t t l e (1975) proposed t h e t h r e e way Cu-Mo-S  i n t e r a c t i o n t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f d i e t a r y copper t o animal. L a s s i t e r et'al.  (1969) r e p o r t e d t h a t i n c r e a s e d d i e t a r y c a l c i u m  enhanced manganese a b s o r p t i o n i n r a t s .  Conversely,  i n c r e a s e d manganese  32  i n t h e d i e t enhanced c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n  ( A l c o c k and M a c l n t y r e ,  1960).  Manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a f f e c t e d by h i g h d i e t a r y l e v e l s o f c a l c i u m and i s b e l i e v e d t o be due t o a r e d u c t i o n i n s o l u b l e manganese t h r o u g h a b s o r p t i o n by s o l i d m i n e r a l  ( S c h a i b l e and Bandemer, 1942).  Thomason  et al. (1971) observed t h a t manganese competes w i t h i r o n and c o b a l t f o r common b i n d i n g s i t e s when t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s e m i n e r a l s from t h e lumen t o mucosal c e l l s then t o o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e body.  T h i s showed t h a t t h e  a d d i t i o n o f i r o n c o m p e t i t i v e l y i n h i b i t e d manganese a b s o r p t i o n i n i r o n deficient rats.  Conversely,  h i g h manganese i n t a k e s reduced i r o n  absorption.  (11)  Feed  Prooessing P r o c e s s i n g may a f f e c t b o t h t h e t o t a l q u a n t i t y o f t h e m i n e r a l  element and i t s b i o - a v a i l a b i l i t y .  G r i n d i n g i s l i k e l y t o make any f e e d  i n g r e d i e n t more d i g e s t i b l e and t h e r e b y of e s s e n t i a l n u t r i e n t s .  increase the n u t r i t i o n a l  value  When whole g r a i n s a r e compared w i t h ground  g r a i n s , t h e t o t a l d i g e s t i b l e n u t r i e n t content:".is h i g h e r i n t h e ground material  ( T i t u s and F r i t z , 1971), b u t t h e e f f e c t on s p e c i f i c  i s n o t known.  G r i n d i n g may a l s o add elements t o t h e f e e d .  et al. (1970) showed t h a t g r i n d i n g c i t r u s p u l p i n a W i l e y  minerals Ammerman  mill  s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f i r o n , copper, manganese and  sodium. P r o c e s s i n g may a f f e c t b i o - a v a i l a b i l i t y as w e l l as t h e t o t a l  quantity o f iron.  Theuer et al. (1971) r e p o r t e d t h a t i r o n added t o  l i q u i d i n f a n t formulas  i n t h e form o f p o o r l y u t i l i z e d s a l t s became  33  much more a v a i l a b l e a f t e r r o u t i n e p r o c e s s i n g .  Singsen  (1948)  demonstrated t h a t a u t o c l a v i n g wheat b r a n made more o f i t s phosphorus a v a i l a b l e t o t h e growing c h i c k e n f o r bone development.  Marked i n c r e a s e  i n t h e i n o r g a n i c phosphorus c o n t e n t by a u t o c l a v i n g was observed w i t h i s o l a t e d soybean meal ( O ' D e l l , 1962), sesame meal (Lease,  1966).  Summers et al. (1967) showed t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e p h y t i n phosphorus o f wheat b r a n can be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h i c k f o r growth by steam p e l l e t i n g .  However, p e l l e t i n g and c r u m b l i n g t h e  p e l l e t s do n o t a f f e c t t h e t r a c e m i n e r a l s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f e e d . Crumbled p e l l e t s had about t h e same m i n e r a l c o n t e n t and i r o n b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y as d i d t h e mash from which they were made ( F r i t z , 1973).  (12)  Endocrine  Influence  Hormones were r e p o r t e d t o a f f e c t m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y and M a c l n t y r e , 1960). and a d r e n a l e c t o m i z e d  (Hanna  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a l d o s t e r o n e t o both normal r a t s r e s u l t e d i n decreases  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e d i e t a r y magnesium.  i n t h e apparent  These r e s u l t s were c o n f i r m e d by  Care and Rose (1963) i n t h e i n t a c t sheep u s i n g  deoxy-corticosterone  acetate instead o f aldosterone.  (13)  Miscellaneous  Factors  There a r e m i s c e l l a n e o u s Kienholz  factors linked t o mineral  (1962) r e p o r t e d a f a c t o r (not p h y t a t e )  w i t h a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c f o r c h i c k growth.  availability.  i n peas which i n t e r f e r e d  A u t o c l a v i n g t h e peas  34  appeared t o improve t h e s i t u a t i o n .  I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t .a'-heat •  l a b i l e protein l i k e l y i n t e r f e r e d with zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y .  I t has a l s o  been r e p o r t e d by D a v i s et al. (1962) t h a t a component which x a n b i n d z i n c , manganese and copper i n i s o l a t e d soybean p r o t e i n causes c h i c k s t o d e v e l o p t h e r e s p e c t i v e d e f i c i e n c y symptom because o f u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of t h i s mineral.  However, a d d i t i o n o f EDTA can improve t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  i . e . reduce t h e r e q u i r e m e n t o f m i n e r a l s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n .  35  MATERIALS AND METHODS E l e v e n wheat, t e n c o r n and one soybean meal samples were c o l l e c t e d from August, 1977.  a  l o c a l commercial f e e d company between J a n u a r y  In a d d i t i o n , t h r e e b a r l e y samples were o b t a i n e d from  three d i f f e r e n t sources, a l o c a l feed (B.C.) and A l a s k a . Saskatcehwan.  and  company, a C h i l l i w a c k  A t r i t i c a l e sample was  o b t a i n e d from  producer  Regina,  Wheat, c o r n and soybean samples were c o l l e c t e d randomly  from d i f f e r e n t shipments o f g r a i n s t o t h e P o u l t r y N u t r i t i o n U n i t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l l f e e d g r a i n s a r r i v e d i n ground  form except t h e b a r l e y and t r i t i c a l e samples. re-ground w i t h a W i l e y M i l l equipped  A l l f e e d g r a i n s were  w i t h a one mm  screen *  i n the P o u l t r y S c i e n c e L a b o r a t o r y b e f o r e b e i n g u t i l i z e d i n t h e experiment. Proximate  a n a l y s i s was  c a r r i e d out f o r a l l f e e d samples f o r  d r y m a t t e r , crude p r o t e i n (N x 6.25), e t h e r e x t r a c t and ash c o n t e n t w i t h s t a n d a r d i z e d methods d e s c r i b e d i n A.O.A.C. (1965).  The  d e t e r g e n t f i b e r ) c o n t e n t o f the f e e d i n g r e d i e n t was  a n a l y s e d by the method  developed determined  by Waldern (1971).  crude f i b e r  The m i n e r a l content o f t h e g r a i n s  by a d r y a s h i n g method f o l l o w e d by atomic a b s o r p t i o n  (Heckman, 1967)  (acid  was procedure  except phosphorus where d e t e r m i n a t i o n s were by s p e c t r o -  photometer ( M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and Food, U.K.,  1973).  A l l a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s were expressed on a d r y m a t t e r b a s i s . M i n e r a l ( c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and  copper)  36  a v a i l a b i l i t y s t u d i e s were conducted on i n g r e d i e n t s u s i n g t h r e e week o l d growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  In a d d i t i o n , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n o r g a n i c  m i n e r a l c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganesej'zinc and c o p p e r , from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s were s t u d i e d i n t h e s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t a l t r i a l s . The b r o i l e r c h i c k s u t i l i z e d i n t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l t r i a l s were p u r c h a s e d at one-day o f age from a h a t c h e r y i n t h e . F r a s e r V a l l e y a r e a o f B.C. The c h i c k s were r a i s e d i n s t a i n l e s s s t e e l t h e r m o s t a t i c c o n t r o l b r o o d e r cages t o t h r e e weeks o f age b e f o r e commencing t h e e x p e r i m e n t s .  Broiler  c h i c k s were f e d a 20% crude p r o t e i n commercial s t a r t e d d i e t from day o f age t o t h r e e weeks.  Feed and water were s u p p l i e d ad  libitum.  A c o m p l e t e l y randomized b l o c k design"wasemployed.^in"-all '• availability trials.  C h i c k s were weighed a t t h r e e weeks o f age and  d i s t r i b u t e d t o s t a i n l e s s s t e e l metabolism cages.  The same s t a r t e r d i e t  was o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e a c c l i m a t i z a t i o n p e r i o d and water was f e d f r e e o f choice.  T e s t d i e t s were o f f e r e d a t about 25 days o f age.  p r o c e d u r e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  The d e t a i l e d  T e s t d i e t consumption was r e c o r d e d  f o r each cage and f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n was c a r r i e d out a t t h e end o f each testing period. Data o b t a i n e d were s u b j e c t e d t o a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  (Snedecor,  1956) and a " s t a t i s t i c a l " comparison "of;'mearis was b y t h e m u l t i p l e , range ;  t e s t '(Tukey, 1963)':  T r i a l 1:  Mineral-  Availability  from-Wheat•iand-,.T-ritioale  The t r i a l was conducted t o e s t i m a t e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and:.copper from e l e v e n wheat  37  samples and one t r i t i c a l e sample. t h r e e week o l d b i r d s were employed.  Two hundred and e i g h t y u n i f o r m s i z e A l l b i r d s were weighed and  t r a n s f e r r e d randomly t o t h e s t a i n l e s s s t e e l metabolism cages w i t h f o u r b i r d s p e r cage.  The t e s t b i r d s remained on s t a r t e r d i e t u n t i l  t w e n t y - f o u r days o f age t o a c c l i m a t i z e t o t h e new environment.. •• On t h e t w e n t y - f o u r t h  day, a l l b i r d s w e r e : s u p p l i e d w i t h  a s t a r t e r diet containing  0.3% f e r r i c o x i d e marker f o r f o u r h o u r s ,  then f a s t e d f o r s i x t e e n h o u r s .  Following  t h e f a s t p e r i o d b i r d s were f e d  a s y n t h e t i c d i e t (Table 1) f o r f o u r h o u r s .  B i r d s were then f a s t e d f o r  a n o t h e r hour b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g t o t h e marker d i e t . Feces d e r i v e d the f e c e s o b t a i n e d  from t h e s y n t h e t i c d i e t were c o l l e c t e d ( i . e .  from t h e end o f f i r s t  r e a p p e a r i n g o f t h e marked e x c r e t a ) .  b a t c h o f marked e x c r e t a and t h e  On t h e t w e n t y - f i f t h day, t h e same  p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d except t h e wheat and t r i t i c a l e samples the s y n t h e t i c d i e t .  replaced  There were f o u r r e p l i c a t e s f o r each t e s t e d  ingredient.  Feed i n c l u d i n g s y n t h e t i c , t e s t d i e t s and water were o f f e r e d ad t-lbitvm  during t e s t i n g period.  s i x t e e n hours f a s t i n g p e r i o d .  L i m i t e d water was g i v e n d u r i n g t h e  Feed consumption o f b o t h s y n t h e t i c d i e t  and t e s t d i e t s were r e c o r d e d a t t h e end o f each p e r i o d . f r e e f e c e s were c o l l e c t e d from each i n d i v i d u a l cage.  T o t a l marker-  The f e c e s from each  cage was oven d r i e d a f t e r c o l l e c t i o n a t 85°C f o r 48 h o u r s .  The d r y  f e c e s were weighed and ground i n t o t h e f i n e powder form w i t h t h e microgrinder  ( K u r z z e r t b e t r i e b ) . and col-lee-tea' f o r ; l a t e r m i n e r a l  analysis.  TABLE 1:  C o m p o s i t i o n o f S y n t h e t i c D i e t used throughout t h e E x p e r i m e n t a l T r i a l s  Ingredient  Percent  Starch  40.6  Sucrose  40.6  Alpha-cellulose  13.8  Corn o i l  5.0 100.0  39  The m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f wheat, t r i t i c a l e . s a m p l e s and f e c e s from b o t h s y n t h e t i c and d i e t s were determined by an atomic a b s o r p t i o n s p e c t r o p h o t o m e t e r f o l l o w i n g a low temperature d r y a s h i n g a t 450°C i n t h e m u f f l e f u r n a c e f o r 36 h o u r s .  The phosphorus  can t h e r e f o r e be determined from t h e ash sample.  as w e l l as o t h e r m i n e r a l s The a n a l y t i c a l  method was d e s c r i b e d i n "The A n a l y s i s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l M a t e r i a l s " o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and Food, U.K., 1973).  (Ministry  C a l c i u m , magnesium,  manganese, z i n c and copper were determined by a J a r r e l Ash atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  Lathanium o x i d e (0.5% v/w) was r e q u i r e d  i n t h e t e s t s o l u t i o n t o reduce t h e i n t e r f e r e n c e from phosphorus when c a l c i u m and magensium was a n a l y z e d .  Phosphorus  was determined by a  U n i c a n SP1800 U l t r a v i o l e t Spectrophotometer f o l l o w i n g c o l o r  development  w i t h ammonium molybdate. The p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s of. wheat and t r i t i c a l e samples i s shown i n T a b l e 2.  Content o f m i n e r a l s i n samples determined and e x p r e s s e d  on a d r y m a t t e r b a s i s a r e shown i n T a b l e 3. The f o r m u l a used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s a f t e r a n a l y s i s o f i n g r e d i e n t s and e x c r e t a was developed by Nwokolo et al. (1976) as f o l l o w s :  Percent m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y =  where  TMI - (TFME - EFME) x 100 TMI  TMI  T o t a l m i n e r a l i n t a k e from f e e d i n g r e d i e n t  TFME  Total f e c a l mineral excreted  EFME  Endogenous f e c a l m i n e r a l e x c r e t e d  TABLE 2:  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f t h e E l e v e n Wheat and One T r i t i c a l e Samples ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Dry matter  Crude protein  Ether extract %  Crude 1 fiber  Ash  Wheat #1  87.9  13. 1  2..1  4.,2  2.,1  Wheat #2  92.2  14. 3  2..4  4..6  2..0  Wheat #3  86.4  15. 1  2..3  4.,0  . 2..0  Wheat #4  89.7  15..6  1..9  4..0  1..9  Wheat #5  90.0  15. 3  2..1  3..4  2..1  Wheat #6  90.0  15..7  2,.1  2..3  1..5  Wheat #7  88.1  14.,7  2,.1  2..9  1..5  Wheat #8  89.7  16..7  2 .1  2..8  1..6  Wheat #9  90.0  16..2  2..0  2,.6  1.,7  Wheat #10  89.6  16..7  2..1  2..7  1,.9  Wheat #11  88.9  17..7  1 .6  3,.7  1,.6  Triticale  92.7  12..7  1..6  3,.7  1..6  Average  89.6  15..3  2..0  3 .4  1..8  Sample  A c i d detergent  fiber  41  TABLE 3:  M i n e r a l Content o f E l e v e n Wheat and a T r i t i c a l e Samples ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Ca  P  Sample  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  ppm  Wheat #1  500  4300  1500  44  38  23  Wheat #2  500  3900  1500  52  40  20  Wheat #3  600  4000  1500  58  52  19  Wheat #4  1000'  4000  1500  29  37  11  Wheat #5  600  3200  1500  48  33  11  Wheat #6  500  3300  1300  41  31  15  Wheat #7  800  3700  1300  29  45  18  Wheat #8  500  4400  1400  44  41  16  Wheat #9  600  4200  1500  45  35  19  Wheat #10  900  4400  1400  46  38  19  Wheat #11  600  4200  1500  39  38  16  Triticale  600  3900  1500  43  26  22  3967+400  1450+80  43±8  38±7  17± ^  Average  64.1+168  1  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample mean  :  42  The a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a was s u b j e c t e d t o a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l comparison o f mean was t h e m u l t i p l e range t e s t (Tukey,  Trial  2:  1953).  'Mineral  Availability  from  Corn  Corn samples were a n a l y s e d f o r d r y m a t t e r , crude p r o t e i n , e t h e r e x t r a c t , crude f i b e r  and ash as shown i n T a b l e 4.  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n s  o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and copper i n t h e samples a r e shown i n T a b l e 5.  The p r o c e d u r e employed was t h e  same as t h e p r o c e d u r e o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l  Trial  3:  Mineral  Availability  from  1.  Barley  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e b a r l e y i s shown i n T a b l e 6. o f m i n e r a l s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7.  The~xontent  The purpose o f t h e t r i a l was not  o n l y t o s t u d y t h e c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, z i n c and copper a v a i l a b i l i t y  i n b a r l e y but a l s o t h e e f f e c t s o f l o c a t i o n  and source o f t h e g r a i n on m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The C h i l l i w a c k  and A l a s k a b a r l e y were o b t a i n e d i n whole g r a i n form w h i l e t h e b a r l e y samples purchased from a l o c a l  f e e d company was i n ground form.  a l l b a r l e y samples were ground t h r o u g h a 1-mm  However,  s i e v e by a W i l e y  m i l l b e f o r e t h e experiment. The e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e was t h e same as o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l  1.  TABLE 4:  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f t h e Ten Corn Samples ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Dry . matter . Sample . .  ....  Crude protein:  :  :  Ether extract — %•• — ——  Crude fiber  :  :  1  Ash  :  Corn #1  90.2  10..9  4..2  4.2  1.9  Corn  #2  86.8  10.,3  4..2  3.8  1.6  Corn  #3  86.8  11..1  3..8  4.3  1.9  Corn  #4  90.0  10..9  4..2  2.9  1.4  Corn #5  90.4  10..0  4..2  2.7  1.4  Corn  #6  88.1  11..5  4..2  2.5  1.3  Corn  #7  88.0  11..5  4..3  2.4  1.2  Corn #8  89.9  11.,2  4..2  4.0  1.6  Corn  #9  89.6  10..3  3..6  2.0  1.2  Corn  #10.  88.1  9..0  4..0  88.8  10..7  4,.1  Average  Acid detergent f i b e r  •  2.2  3.1  1.4  1.5  TABLE 5:  M i n e r a l Content o f Ten Corn Samples ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Ca  P  Mg  Sample  Mn  Zn  Cu  ppm  Corn #1  600  3400  1300  35  40  20  Corn #2  500  3000  1100  35  35  21  Corn #3  500  2700  1000  26  23  18  Corn #4  400  3000  1200  13  31  16  Corn #5  700  2900  1300  14  20  16  Corn #6  200  2800  1200  8  29  18  Corn #7  200  2700  1200  9  21  21  Corn #8  500  3100  1200  11  19  16  Corn #9  200  3300  1100  11  22  16  Corn #10  500  3300  1100  11  21  16  3 0-2 0± 25 2  1170+95  17+11  26±'7  18±:  Average  430±1>78  1  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample ohean  TABLE 6:  Chemical A n a l y s i s o f Three B a r l e y Samples from D i f f e r e n t Sources ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Dry matter  Crude protein  Ether extract %  Crude fiber  Ash  B a r l e y #1 (Commercial)  87.4  12.0  2.2  6.5  3.2  B a r l e y #2 (Chilliwack)  87.0  12.5  2.0  7.6  2.3  B a r l e y #3 (Alaska)  93.3  15.8  2.4  7.3  1.5  Average  89.2  13.4  2.2  7.1  Sample  A c i d detergent f i b e r  .  2.2  TABLE 7:  The M i n e r a l Content o f Three B a r l e y Samples from D i f f e r e n t Sources ( d r y m a t t e r b a s i s )  Ca  P  Mg  Sample  Mn  Zn  Cu  ppm  B a r l e y #1 (Commercial)  900  4600  : .1500  35  38  19  B a r l e y #2 (Chilliwack)  500  3400  1300  26  27  19  B a r l e y #3 (Alaska)  700  2800  1400  26  38  22  3600±917  14O0±1OO  29±-5  34+6  20+-2  Average  700±200  1  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample mean  47  Trial  4:  Availability 'of 'Mineral in Diet °f Soybean Meal . •  Containing  Biffevent  Levels  The o b j e c t i v e was t o s t u d y t h e e f f e c t on m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y on- t h e l e v e l s o f soybean meal ( i . e . p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) i n the f e e d .  Soybean meal was purchased  from a l o c a l f e e d company.  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e soybean meal and d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s were a n a l y s e d and p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 8. meal was  shown i n T a b l e 9.  d i e t used i n t h i s t r i a l was  The m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f the soybean  The n i t r o g e n and m i n e r a l - f r e e s y n t h e t i c t h e same as was used i n T r i a l 1.  Five  l e v e l s o f soybean were mixed w i t h the a p p r o p r i a t e amount o f s y n t h e t i c d i e t i n a Hobart m i x e r  (Model D-300).  The e x p e r i m e n t a l arrangement was  a c o m p l e t e l y randomized d e s i g n .  There were f o u r r e p l i c a t e s f o r each d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t , each r e p l i c a t e i n c l u d e d f o u r b i r d s ( t h r e e weeks o f age). the same as o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l  T r i a l 5:  wheat was experiment  Availability  The procedure was  basically  1.  of Mineral  in Diet  Containing  Different  Levels  of Wheat  The e x p e r i m e n t a l arrangement was  t h e same as T r i a l 4 except  employed as a t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l .  The o b j e c t i v e o f the  was  t o s t u d y the i n f l u e n c e o f m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s o f wheat.  The p r o x i m a t e a n a l y s i s o f wheat i s shown i n Table  The m i n e r a l c o n t e n t s o f d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s are shown i n Table  11.  E x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and p r o c e d u r e were o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l s 1 and  4.  10.  TABLE 8:  P r o x i m a t e A n a l y s i s o f D i e t s i n T r i a l --4 ( d r y matter b a s i s ) -  Protein  Ether extract  Treatment  2  Ash  %  1. Soybean meal 2. S.D. SBM  Crudel fiber-  (SBM)  52.0  1..94  6.,73  6.27  (S.D.) + 75%  39.0  1..46  5..05  4.70  3. S.D.  + 50%  SBM  26.0  0..97  3,.37  3.14  4. S.D.  + 25%  SBM  13.0  0,.49  1..68  1.57  5. S.D.  + 12.5%  6.5  0,.24  0,.84  0.78  SBM  Acid detergent f i b e r i.  ' S y n t h e t i c d i e t as  indicated  i n Table 1  TABLE 9:  Ca  M i n e r a l Content o f D i e t s i n T r i a l 4 (dry; m a t t e r b a s i s ) '  Mg  P  Treatment  Mn  Zn  Cu  ppm  1. SBM (100%)  3280  6500'  3030  41  52  16  2. S.D. +75% SBM  2460  5000  2270  31  39  12  3. S.D.+50% SBM  1640  3100  1520  21  26  6  4. S.D.+25% SBM  820  1600  760  10  13  3  5. S.D.+12.5 SBM  410  800  380  5  7  2  1  2  Soybean meal S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  TABLE 10:  P r o x i m a t e A n a l y s i s of D i e t s i n T r i a l . , 5 ( d r y • matter basis) . '-. •  Treatment  Protein :  Ether extract  Crude fiber  Ash  %  1. Wheat (100%)  17.,7  1..60  3.,70  1.,60  2" 2. S.D:. . + 75% wheat  13.,3  1..20  2.,78  1..20  3. S.D. + 50% wheat  8..9  0..80  1.,85  0..80  4. S.D. + 25% wheat  4..4  0..40  0..93  0..40  5. S.D. + 12.5% wheat  2..2  0,.20  0,.46  0..20  Acid detergent f i b e r ' S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  TABLE 11: M i n e r a l Content o f D i e t s " i n ; T r i a l . 5 ( d r y m a t f e r • b a s i s ) ..."'. . r  Ca  P  Mg  Treatment  Mn ppm  1. Wheat (100%)  Zn  Cu  :  580  3900  1530  39  38  16  •2. S.D. +75% wheat  435  2925  1148  29  29  12  3. S.D.+50% wheat  290  1950  765  20  19  6  4. S.D.+25% wheat  145  975  383  10  10  3  73  488  192  5  5  2  1  5. S.D.+12.5% wheat  Synthetic  d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  52 Trial  6:  Availability  of Calcium  and Phosphorus  from Calcium  Phosphate  (Dibasic)  The c a l c i u m and phosphorus i n c a l c i u m phosphate has been r e g a r d e d as h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o l i v e s t o c k .  C a l c i u m and phosphorus  c o n t e n t o f most common f e e d s t u f f o f p l a n t o r i g i n do not a d e q u a t e l y support the normal  f u n c t i o n s o f a n i m a l s , i n c l u d i n g maintenance,  growth  and r e p r o d u c t i o n .  C a l c i u m and phosphorus from i n o r g a n i c sources are  u s u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o p r e d o m i n a n t l y p l a n t t y p e d i e t s t o meet the b i o l o g i c a l requirements.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  of calcium i n various  c a l c i u m s o u r c e s f o r c h i c k s have been r e p o r t e d by many workers et al.,  1929; Waldroup et al.,  1964;  (Bethke  S p a n d r o r f and Leong, 1965).  The  c r i t e r i a used were u s u a l l y growth and t i b i a a s h a n d t h e most a v a i l a b l e source was used as an i n d e x f o r o t h e r m i n e r a l s o u r c e s .  No  t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a o f c a l c i u m phosphate have been r e p o r t e d by u s i n g the b i o l o g i c a l assay method developed by Nwokolo et al.  (1976)  or a s i m i l a r p r o c e d u r e . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s t r i a l was t o s t u d y t h e  availability  of c a l c i u m phosphate t o three-week o l d b r o i l e r c h i c k s as w e l l as the e f f e c t o f l e v e l s o f c a l c i u m and phosphorus i n t h e t e s t d i e t on of t h e s e m i n e r a l s t o the c h i c k s .  Nine l e v e l s o f c a l c i u m and phosphorus  were s t u d i e d i n t h i s t r i a l .  C a l c i u m phosphate was  the s y n t h e t i c d i e t which was  essentially mineral-free.  t r e a t m e n t s a r e shown i n T a b l e 12. was  shown i n T a b l e 1 o f T r i a l  procedure was  1.  incorporated into The n i n e d i e t a r y  The c o m p o s i t i o n o f the s y n t h e t i c d i e t The e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n and  as o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l 1.  Data c o l l e c t e d was  subjected to  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and a s t a t i s t i c a l , comparison o f means was by the m u l t i p l e r a n g e ' t e s t (Tukey,  availability  1953).  TABLE 12:  P (%)*  Ca ( % ) *  Treatment 2  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments i n T r i a l 6  1. S.D. 2. S.D.  +  0. 0125  +  0.,0097  +  0. 025  +  0.,0194  3. S.D.  +  0. 050  +  0.,0388  4. S.D.  +  0. 100  +  0.,0766  5. S.D.  +  0. 200  +  0.,1553  6. S.D.  +  0. 400  +  0..3105  7. S.D.  +  0. 800  +  0..6210  8. S.D.  +  1. 200  +  0,.9315  9. S.D.  +  1. 600  +  1,.2420  ''"Calcium phosphate source ( d i b a s i c ) 2 i n d i c a t e d i n Table 1 S y n t h e t i c d i e t as  54  Trial  7:  Availability  of Magnesium  from Magnesium  Carbonate  Magnesium has been r e c o g n i z e d as an important  essential  d i e t a r y m i n e r a l f o r many y e a r s and under a number o f f e e d i n g s i t u a t i o n s supplemental  magnesium i s r e q u i r e d f o r optimum performance.  work i n magnesium a v a i l a b i l i t y was c a r r i e d out w i t h ruminant  Most animals  because o f t h e h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f d e f i c i e n c y found i n t h i s s p e c i e s . Data r e p o r t e d i n d i c a t e s t h e r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y r a t h e r than t r u e availability. monogastric  C e r e a l g r a i n s a r e t h e major feed i n g r e d i e n t s f o r  animals.  meet m o n o g a s t r i c  C e r e a l s g e n e r a l l y s u p p l y adequate magnesium t o  animal needs.  T h e r e f o r e , no i n o r g a n i c magnesium i s  u s u a l l y supplemented t o t h e b a l a n c e d  diet.  L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on i n o r g a n i c magnesium a v a i l a b i l i t y has been r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r p o u l t r y . designed  The p r e s e n t t r i a l  was  t o e s t i m a t e t h e t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium from magnesium  carbonate u s i n g growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  Diets .containing s i x " l e y e l s of  magnesium were f o r m u l a t e d as shown i n T a b l e 13. excess o f t h e magnesium requirement Requirements:of.Eoultry  L e v e l s range from below t o an  a c c o r d i n g t o NRC-- N u t r i e n t  (1977).  The p r o c e d u r e used f o r t h e experiment i s t h e same as o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l 1.  Data o b t a i n e d were s u b j e c t e d t o a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e  and t h e d i f f e r e n t means were t e s t e d f o r m u l t i p l e range a n a l y s i s (Tukey, 1953).  TABLE 13:  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments  Treatment  in Trial  Mg l e v e l  1. S..D.2  +  ; 150  2. S..D.  +  300  3. S..D.  +  450  4. S.,D.  +  600  5. s. ;D.  +  750  6. s, .D.  +  900  Magnesium c a r b o n a t e s o u r c e •  ' S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  7  (ppm)  56  Trial  8:  Availability  of Manganese from Manganese  Manganese c o n t e n t o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l g e n e r a l l y low.  Sulfate  feed i n g r e d i e n t s i s  I n o r g a n i c manganese from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s i s always  i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i e t t o p r e v e n t manganese d e f i c i e n c y .  Very l i m i t e d  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e c o n c e r n i n g t h e b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f manganese i n v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c sources.  An e a r l y s t u d y by S c h a i b l e and Bandemer  (1942) r e p o r t e d t h a t manganese i n t h e forms o f o x i d e , s u l f a t e and c h l o r i d e i s e q u a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o p o u l t r y .  carbonate, However, l a t e r  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y from v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c sources (Henning et al., 1967; Watson et al., 1970; 1971). instead of quantitatively. been r e p o r t e d  Most o f t h e work was done q u a l i t a t i v e l y Therefore,  no t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e has  f o r b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y from i n o r g a n i c  The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e v a l u a t e  sources.  the b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y  of manganese i n manganese s u l f a t e as w e l l as t h e e f f e c t o f d i e t a r y l e v e l s o f t h e manganese supplement on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f manganese f o r growing chicks.  The d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s o f t h i s t r i a l a r e shown i n T a b l e 14.  p r o c e d u r e used f o r t h e t r i a l was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l 1.  T r i a l 9:  Availability  of Zinc from Zino  Oxide  L i t t l e information i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e the i n o r g a n i c z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y t o a n i m a l s .  regarding  Edwards (1959) r e p o r t e d  t h a t z i n c i n t h e form o f z i n c s u l f a t e , w i l l e n i t e , z i n c c a r b o n a t e and zinc oxide  (A.R. grade) i s r e l a t i v e l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e young growing  The  TABLE 14:  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments  Treatment  in Trial 8  Mn l e v e l  1. S..D.  +  .'25  2. S.,D.  +  50  3. S..D.  +  75  4. S..D.  +  100  5. S.,D.  +  125  2  Manganese s u l f a t e s o u r c e ' S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  (ppm)  58  c h i c k s , whereas z i n c i n s p h a l e r i t e ( m o s t l y z i n c s u l f i d e ) and i n franklinite  ( o x i d e o f z i n c , i r o n , manganese) i s l a r g e l y u n a v a i l a b l e .  There are no t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e .  The  p r e s e n t experiment  from  was conducted tp*-study t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c  z i n c o x i d e and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f l e v e l s o f z i n c o x i d e ' o n " a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Zn t o :  growing  chicks.  i n T a b l e 15.  F i v e d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t l e v e l s were u t i l i z e d as shown  The e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e was t h e same as o u t l i n e d i n  T r i a l 1.  Trials'  10 and 11:  Availability  of Copper from Copper  Sulfate  S i m i l a r t o most o t h e r t r a c e m i n e r a l s , t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper from v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c sources i s n o t a v a i l a b l e .  value  An e a r l y  study by S c h u l t z e et al. (1936) i n d i c a t e d t h a t copper o f copper  sulfide  or copper p r o p h y r i n was n o t u t i l i z e d by r a t s whereas copper i n o x i d e , h y d r o x i d e and pyrophosphate  forms 'twas- r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d .  The  o b j e c t i v e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o e s t i m a t e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper  i n copper s u l f a t e t o t h e growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s and t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f copper  l e v e l s i n t h e d i e t on copper a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The  d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s i n T r i a l s 10 and 11 a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 16 and 17.  T r i a l 10 was arranged t o s t u d y t h e lower l e v e l s o f d i e t a r y  whereas, T r i a l treatments.  11 was c a r r i e d out i n t h e h i g h e r range o f d i e t a r y E i g h t y b i r d s were employed i n t h e s e t r i a l s .  The  e x p e r i m e n t a l p r o c e d u r e was t h e same as o u t l i n e d i n T r i a l 1.  copper,  TABLE 15:  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments  Treatment 2  in Trial  Zn l e v e l  +  25  S. D.  +  50  3.  S.,D.  +  75  4.  s. ,D.  +  100  5.  s, .D.  +  125  1.  S.,D.  2.  Z i n c o x i d e source 2  S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  9  (ppm)  TABLE 16:  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments  Treatment  1. S.D.  in Trial  Cu^level  +  2  2. S.D.  +  4  3. S.D.  +  8  4. S.D.  +  16  5. S.D.  +  32  2  Copper s u l f a t e s o u r c e ' S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  10  (ppm)  TABLE 17:  O u t l i n e o f D i e t a r y Treatments  1 Cu l e v e l  Treatment 2  in Trial  +  50  2. S.;D.  +  100  3. S.,D.  +  150  4. S..D.  +  200  5. S.;D.  +  250  1. S.,D.  Copper s u l f a t e source S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1  11  (ppm)  62  RESULTS AND Trial  DISCUSSION  1 The m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f the wheat samples i s shown i n T a b l e  Wheat i s h i g h i n phosphorus (average but low i n c a l c i u m (641 ppm), copper (17 ppm).  3,967 ppm)  and magnesium (1,4'50  manganese (43 ppm),  z i n c (38' ppm)  3. ppm),  and  These were c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n s i n m i n e r a l  content  w i t h i n the samples t e s t e d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o c a l c i u m , manganese, z i n c and copper.  The v a r i a t i o n s may  be due t o d i f f e r e n t s o i l  type,  g e n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e o f wheat samples and i n f l u e n c e o f season and s t a t e o f m a t u r i t y (Underwood, 1977).  M i n e r a l c o n t e n t i n wheat does not  satisfy  requirement  the minimum n u t r i t i o n a l  of l i v e s t o c k .  The  low  m i n e r a l c o n t e n t and l a c k o f a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a c o n t r i b u t e t o n e g l e c t i n u t i l i z i n g t h e s e m i n e r a l s t o advantage i n a f o r m u l a t i o n .  The  high  c o s t o f f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s , i n c l u d i n g i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l s a l t s , i n the f u t u r e w i l l c e r t a i n l y demonstrate the need t o r e - e v a l u a t e the m i n e r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n o f wheat and o t h e r c e r e a l g r a i n s . The p e r c e n t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m i n e r a l s i n wheat samples i s shown i n T a b l e 18.  The  average r e s u l t s o f a l l the m i n e r a l s t e s t e d  i n d i c a t e t h a t copper has the h i g h e s t a v a i l a b i l i t y grains.  I t was  f o l l o w e d by c a l c i u m ( 7 1 % ) , phosphorus ( 6 7 . 4 % ) , magnesium  ( 5 3 . 5 % ) , z i n c (49.6%) and manganese (48.4%). was  observed  studied.  (78.6%) i n t h e s e  Significant variation  among the g r a i n samples t e s t e d i n r e s p e c t t o a l l m i n e r a l s  TABLE 18:  Percent A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s  from-Wheat and T r i t i c a l e  Availability Samples  Ca  P  Mg  Wheat #1  . 70.,4  b  Wheat #2  65. ,4  a  Wheat #3  65. ,5  a  Wheat #4  65. ,5  a  Wheat #5  82. ,9  d  Wheat #6  70.,5  b  Wheat #7  67., 8  Wheat #8  64.,7  Wheat #9  66., 2  b c  Wheat #10  77. 2 ^ab 68.  66., 3  b G  Wheat #11  66. o  a b  65. ,4  Triticale  87. 5  d  66., 9  Average  ab  a  C  71:,Q±7.5  69,,3  (%) Mn  Zn  Cu  C  52, , 3  b c  56.,3  C  56., 3  a  48., 8  a b  59,. 3  62. ,2  b  46., 6  a b  42, .8  b  d  56., 1  C  51, .4  C  d  70.,5  d  52, ,2  C  d  67.,8  d  41, .4  b  65. , l  44.,2  a  43. .3  b  48., 9  a b  41, ,8  b  51. ,7 bcd 46.  81. , o  62. ,3  g  60.,6  57., l  f  63. , o  76., o •  Samples  77.,8 79., o 61. , o  a b  b  48., o  b c  67.5±7.0  56,. o  45. ,2 ab 48.  39,, o  58., 1  54., 2  a  4  b c  64,. 3  C  53.5±8.6  34.,9  6  50,, 6  c d  36.,6  d e  44., o  d e  88., 2  M  b  76,, 7  e f  66., 7  b C  84., 5  g h  64., 3  a b  b C  b  46., o  b c d  91, .9  g  C d e  3  a b  a  G d  48.4±9-.l  :  49.6±8\4  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n a column a r e . s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P < 0.05). S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample mean  1  a  44., 5 42. , o  92, .9  74., 6 70., 8 90., o  1  d e  f g  c d  a  h i  78.5±11.3  64  (a)  Calcium R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t / d i f f e r e n c e among samples o f wheat and t h e m u l t i p l e range comparison (Tukey t e s t ) showed no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among wheat sample numbers 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10 and 11. to  However, d i f f e r e n c e s were observed when compared  sample, numbers 1, 5, 6, 9 and t r i t i c a l e .  Wheat #5 i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r than any o t h e r wheat sample w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t i t d i d not d i f f e r from t r i t i c a l e . In t h e r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e , no a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a f o r m i n e r a l s i n wheat were r e p o r t e d .  T h i s was p r o b a b l y because t h e low  c a l c i u m c o n t e n t i n wheat d i d n o t s t i m u l a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t h e r e was no s i m p l e and r a p i d p r o c e d u r e  t o study the m i n e r a l  availability  b e f o r e 1976. The i n e x p e n s i v e c a l c i u m source from l i m e s t o n e has a l s o discouraged calcium a v a i l a b i l i t y study. i n t h i s experiment  However, t h e r e s u l t s  showed t h a t t h e average c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  wheat was 71.0%, which was.'.in agreement w i t h d i e t a r y c a l c i u m r e t e n t i o n s t u d i e s o f complete d i e t s employing  r a d i o a c t i v e isotopes  by D r i g g e r s and Comar (1949), and more r e c e n t l y by Bragg et al. (1971).  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% o f  t h e d i e t a r y c a l c i u m was r e t a i n e d by l a y i n g hens.  Nwokolo et al.  (1976), u s i n g three-week o l d b r o i l e r c h i c k s r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s (72.6%) f o r soybean, rapeseed, palm!.kernel meal.  cottonseed.., and  R e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y were a l s o i n agreement  w i t h t h e d a t a p u b l i s h e d by Armstrong and Thomas (1952), Armstrong  65  et al.  (1953), and  Armstrong (1957), u s i n g v a r i o u s herbs o f  g r a s s l a n d as w e l l as D e v a d a t t a and Appana (1954), i n s t u d i e s o f various vegetables.  I t appears t h a t c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y t o  a n i m a l s i s s i m i l a r from v a r i o u s p l a n t s o u r c e s .  (b)  Phosphorus The phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y v a r i e d from sample t o sample as shown i n T a b l e 18.  The-values ranged from :56.'3 t o 7 9 % - f o r e l e v e n  wheat and one t r i t i c a l e samples-. The average phosphorus o f e l e v e n samples o f wheat and t r i t i c a l e was 67.4%.  availability  Significant -  d i f f e r e n c e s were observed i n phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y among t h e s e g r a i n samples.  Phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y from wheat sample numbers  5, 6 and 7 were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t from one another but  h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r sample.  1, 2, 9 and 10 and t r i t i c a l e - were s i g n i f i c a n t l y number 3.  Wheat numbers  h i g h e r than wheat  There was no d i f f e r e n c e among wheat numbers 2, 4, 8,  10, 11 and t r i t i c a l e . wheat number 11.  Wheat number 2 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  9,  h i g h e r than  H o s h i i and Hoshida (1978a) r e p o r t e d t h a t v a r i a t i o n  e x i s t e d f o r phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y i n wheat.  They demonstrated  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between two s t r a i n s o f wheat ( G l e n l e a and P i t i c 62). The wheat samples o b t a i n e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t experiment a r r i v e d from t h e commercial wheat p o o l .  T h e r e f o r e wheat samples  may have o r i g i n a t e d a t a number o f l o c a t i o n s w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t date o f shipments.  V a r i e t y d i f f e r e n c e s are a l s o p o s s i b l e .  66  I t has been g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d o r i g i n i s p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e due ( T a y l o r , 1965).  t h a t phosphorus o f p l a n t  t o the i n f l u e n c e o f p h y t a t e s  However, t h e r e i s wide disagreement among.- •  i n v e s t i g a t o r s on t h e a b i l i t y o f c h i c k s t o u t i l i z e p h y t a t e phosphorus.  Ashton et al.  (1960) observed t h a t four-week o l d c h i c k s  r e t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20% o f p h y t a t e phosphorus w h i l e o l d c h i c k s r e t a i n e d 36% t o 49% o f t h i s phosphorus.  six-week  N e l s o n et  al.  (1968) showed t h a t p h y t a t e phosphorus o f commercial soybean meal completely  unavailable.  Temperton and C a s s i d y  (1964) r e p o r t e d  was  that  c h i c k s u t i l i z e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 60% o f the non-phytate phosphate. Salman and M c G i n n i s (1968) showed t h a t u t i l i z a t i o n o f phosphorus from p l a n t o r i g i n i n l a y i n g hens was Nwokolo et al.  (1976) r e p o r t e d  quite high.  Recently,  t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus  from p r o t e i n supplements, soybean; r a p e s e e d ; c o t t o n s e e d a n d palm k e r n e l meal, t o four-week o l d b r o i l e r c h i c k s were 89.3, 76.9  and  70.8%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Most r e c e n t l y H o s h i i and  74.8, Yoshida  (1978a)showed t h a t the phosphorus i n wheat and wheat b r a n were over 60% a v a i l a b l e .  However, the n u t r i t i o n a l committee f o r NRC  suggested t h a t the a v a i l a b l e phosphorus from p l a n t o r i g i n  (1969) was  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20-50% f o r c h i c k s or swine. R e s u l t s i n t h e t h i s s t u d y showed t h a t the o f phosphorus i n wheat was  67.4%.  availability  T h i s agreed w e l l w i t h the  r e p o r t e d by H o s h i i and Y o s h i d a (1978b),, u s i n g t o e ash and phosphorus c o n t e n t as c r i t e r i a i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n . work i n p i g s f o r phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y  The  results  carcass existing  shows/ -rower. •yaiues'''an'most  67  cases f o x f e e d o f p l a n t o r i g i n (Besecker et al., 1967; B a y l e y and Thomson, 1969; Tonroy et al., 1973).  Most o f t h e s e s t u d i e s  u t i l i z e d apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y as t h e c r i t e r i o n The apparent  a v a i l a b i l i t y values underestimate  o f measurement.  the true  availability  because endogenous phosphorus e x c r e t i o n has n o t been c o n s i d e r e d .  (a) ' Magnesium S i g n i f i c a n t ' v a r i a t i o n was observed f o r t h e magnesium availability  i n a l l t h e wheat samples.  Percent  availability  ranged from 44.2 t o 70.5% and t h e mean o f samples i n c l u d i n g was 53.5%.  Wheat numbers 6 and 7 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  any o t h e r wheat sample. significantly  triticale  h i g h e r than  Wheat numbers 2, 5 andi t r i t i c a l e were  h i g h e r t h a n wheat numbers 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and 11. The  former and t h e l a t e r groups d i d n o t d i f f e r from each o t h e r . average v a l u e i n t h i s  The  s t u d y was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h e v a l u e  (48.1%) r e p o r t e d by Guenter and S e l l  (1974), u s i n g i n t r a m u s c u l a r  28 injection of radioactive  Mg.  ranged between 44.2 t o 58.1%.  However, most o f t h e v a l u e s i n wheat R e c e n t l y , Nwokolo et al. (1976)  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium i n soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n s e e d and palm k e r n e l meals was 77.4, 61.1, 74.6 and 56.4%, respectively. study.  These v a l u e s were h i g h e r than wheat i n t h e p r e s e n t  I n r u m i n a n t s , Peer (1972) i n d i c a t e d t h a t magnesium  availability  i n f o r a g e ranged from 10 t o 25% w i t h a mean o f  a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20%. G r a i n s and p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s ranged 30 t o 40%.  from  68  On t h e b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d i t appears t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium i s lower i n wheat than was observed i n plant p r o t e i n concentrates. supplementation  In g e n e r a l , no magnesium  i s r e q u i r e d i n p o u l t r y d i e t s because t h e f e e d  i n g r e d i e n t s , .supply an. adequate amount o f a v a i l a b l e magnesium.  (d).  -  Manganese R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t among t h e wheat and t r i t i c a l e samples t e s t e d .  differences  A v a i l a b i l i t y of  manganese ranged from 34.9 (wheat 11) t o 64.3% (wheat 1) w i t h t h e mean o f 48.4% f o r e l e v e n samples and t r i t i c a l e .  Wheat number 1  d i d not d i f f e r from wheat number 3, but was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than o t h e r wheat samples.  Wheat numbers 2, 3 and t r i t i c a l e were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n wheat numbers 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11, w h i l e wheat numbers 2, 5, 6 and t r i t i c a l e were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y different. ability  L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d on manganese  avail-  f o r wheat i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . The r e l a t i v e l y poor c o n t e n t as w e l l as poor a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f manganese i n wheat can cause t h e manganese d e f i c i e n c y problem i n c h i c k s w i t h o u t d i e t a r y manganese s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n .  An i n o r g a n i c  manganese s a l t i s u s u a l l y employed as t h e supplement f o r poultry diets.  Nwokolo (1977) showed t h a t manganese i n palm k e r n e l  meal was p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e (45.1%) whereas f a i r l y h i g h a v a i l a b i l i t y was observed i n soybean (76.1%) and c o t t o n s e e d v a l u e f o r r a p e s e e d meal  (56.7%).  > (76.3%) and a lower  69  (e)  Zinc The average z i n c c o n t e n t o f wheat samples and t r i t i c a l e was 37 ppm.  S l i g h t v a r i a t i o n i n z i n c c o n t e n t was observed except i n  wheat number 3 which showed t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e , 52 ppm.  Results  (Table 18) showed t h a t z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wheat and t r i t i c a l e ranged from 36.6% (wheat number 3) t o 65.1% (wheat number 7) w i t h a mean o f 49.6%.  Z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y o f wheat was h i g h e r i n wheat  number 7 and 11 and l o w e s t i n wheat number 2. 4, 5, 6 and 10 were  .not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Wheat numbers 3,  d i f f e r e n t , whereas t r i t i c a l e  was h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r wheat sample except wheat numbers 7 and 11.  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n among t h e wheat  samples.  The average v a l u e o f wheat was lower than soybean meal  (66.5%) and rapeseed meal (57.6%) but h i g h e r t h a n c o t t o n s e e d  meal  (38.0%) and palm k e r n e l m e a l . ( 1 3 . 9 % ) , r e p o r t e d by Nwokolo et al. (1976).  O ' D e l l et al. (1972) r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  z i n c i n sesame m e a l , soybean meal and f i s h meal were 57.0, 67.0 and  75.0%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r c h i c k s .  reported that zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y for rats.  Evans and "Johnson ((1977) a l s o  i n raw c o r n endosperm was 51.0%  The z i h c - x e q u i r e m e h t f o r : t h e . growing . b r o i l e r .  c h i c k i s 40 ppm availability  (NRC, 1977).  ;  The low c o n t e n t and low z i n c  i n wheat suggests t h a t z i n c s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n i s needed  i f wheat i s used predominantly, as t h e energy source o f t h e d i e t .  if)  Copper The r e s u l t s showed t h a t copper i n wheat and t r i t i c a l e samples were h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e .  The copper a v a i l a b i l i t y  f o r wheat  70  samples ranged from 60.6 w i t h a mean o f 78.5%. mineral tested.  (wheat number 11) t o 92.6% (wheat number 1)  T h i s v a l u e was h i g h e r than t h a t o f any o t h e r  Wheat numbers 1, 2, 7 and t r i t i c a l e showed t h e  h i g h e s t a v a i l a b l e copper f o r c h i c k s . samples were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y significantly  These wheat and  triticale  d i f f e r e n t from each o t h e r , but were  h i g h e r t h a n wheat numbers 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10 and  Wheat number 11 was  significantly  Nwokolo et al.  11.  lower than oher samples t e s t e d .  (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t the copper  availability  values, from' soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n s e e d and palm k e r n e l meals were 51, 62.2, 42.3  and 44.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These p r o t e i n supplements had •  lower copper a v a i l a b i l i t y ' than wheat i n t h i s , study.. .The may  difference  be due t o t h e h i g h e r p r o t e i n c o n t e n t o f t h e p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s  s i n c e copper can form an i n s o l u b l e complex w i t h p r o t e i n and the a b s o r p t i o n o f copper  Trial  reduce  (Underwood, 1977).  2 The c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f c o r n samples u t i l i z e d i n t h i s  i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 4.  The average crude p r o t e i n , e t h e r e x t r a c t ,  crude f i b e r and ash were 10.J, .4,1, 3.1 and 1.5% (D.M.), r e s p e c t i v e l y . m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f c o r n samples was  shown i n T a b l e 5.  c o r n was h i g h i n phosphorus (3020 ppm) low i n c a l c i u m (430 ppm), copper  (18 ppm).  study  manganese  S i m i l a r t o wheat,  and magnesium (1170 ppm) (17 ppm),  The  z i n c (26 ppm)  but and  A l l v a l u e s were r e p o r t e d on d r y m a t t e r b a s i s .  The r e s u l t s o f m i n e r a l (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, f o r c o r n samples t o three-week o l d b r o i l e r  Zn and Cu)  availability  c h i c k s were shown i n T a b l e  19.  TABLE 19:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals  from t e n Corn.Samples  Availability Sample  Ca  P  Corn #1  71. , 7  Mg  72. , 2  d e  e  (%) Mn  56., 6  d  Zn  Cu  70. , 1  6  65. , 5  d  86.6  77., 3  f  72. , 5  e  92.7  e  46., 3  b  86.1  b c  b c  Corn #2  65. , 2  b  52. 9  a b  55.  yCd  Corn #3  59. , 9  a  49. o  a  52.  jbcd  63. , l  yCd  55. , 8 ^de 64. ^cd 61.  77.. I ab 44.  91.7  d e  94.5  e  62, ^  d  87.7  c d  56., 2  41. , 2  a  86.0  b c  a b  Corn #4  70. , 9  c d  65. 9  d  55.  Corn #5  75. , 8  f  59. 1  C  51.  Corn #6  68. 5 de 69.  Corn #8  76. 6 bcd 68. bcd 68.  Corn #9  75. 6  Corn #10  67.  59. 3 bc 54.  Corn #7  Average  £  3  58. 3  e f  ^bc  2  b c  47. 3 ^ab 47. ab 48.  50. , 4  b  53. , 4  C  82.9  56., 3  C  65. , o  d  81.5  44. l  44., 6  a  47., 5  b  82.5  4  2  bcd  6  50.  C  70<0i$:-3  b c  d e  Q  Q  g  d  60;'9i7-;7  a b  3  a  b c  60^9.5  51 :6+4H3 :  57..6+12.7  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s a&ithin • a'--;"eoljiffii "are' sighi'£icantly. different '(.Pfi .0705J ;  S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample mean  a  a b  87v2±4?.5  72  Corn has been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n p o u l t r y f e e d i n g and the m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a w i l l be v a l u a b l e t o f o r m u l a t e l e a s t c o s t d i e t s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y r e s u l t s showed t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n (B < e x i s t e d i n c o r n samples f o r a l l t h e m i n e r a l s . t e s t e d . may  be a c o m b i n a t i o n  environmental  This v a r i a t i o n  o f i n f l u e n c e s such as v a r i e t y , s o i l - t y p e  factors..  0.05)  and  A l t h o u g h c o r n has l o n g been used f o r animal  l i t t l e i s known o f i t s m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The  feed,  following discussion  w i l l d e a l w i t h the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l m i n e r a l s t o the  growing  broiler. (a)  Calcium The c a l c i u m c o n t e n t o f t h e t e n c o r n samples v a r i e d from 200 t o 700 ppm, w i t h an average o f 400 ppm-.  T h i s was The  slightly  calcium  higher  than v a l u e s c u r r e n t l y r e p o r t e d (NRC,  1977).  availability  i n t e n c o r n samples ranged from 59.9  t o 76.6%" w i t h the mean o f 70.0%.  V a r i a t i o n s between samples were h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < 0.05). Corn numbers 5 and 6 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y samples except c o r n number 9.  Corn number 3 had a" s i g r i i f i c a r i t l y l"ower 1  a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e than o t h e r samples. 10 d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y was  observed  h i g h e r than o t h e r c o r n  Corn numbers 2 , 7 , 8  from each o t h e r .  i n c o r n numbers 1, 4, 7 and 8.  of calcium i n corn i s moderately f o r wheat i n T r i a l  situation  The a v a i l a b i l i t y  value  h i g h and s i m i l a r t o v a l u e s o b t a i n e d  1.  Published information i s lacking availability  A similar  and  i n corn.  wTth''"'reg.ard-to^calcium  P h y t i c a c i d has been r e p o r t e d t o a f f e c t  73  m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y i n c l u d i n g c a l c i u m (Bruce and. C a l l o w , phosphorus ( G i l l i s et al., and Y u d k i n , 1961;  1934),  1957; N e l s o n , 1967), magnesium (Robert  L u k u s k i and F o r b e s , 1956), and z i n c ( O ' D e l l and  S a l v a g e , 1960; Ha-vies and N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975), manganese and (Daviessand N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975). and wheat was may  0.6  and 0.7%,  copper  The p h y t i c c o n t e n t r e p o r t e d f o r c o r n  r e s p e c t i v e l y (Nelson et al.,  1968).  This  e x p l a i n , p a r t l y , the s i m i l a r i t y o f c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r t h e s e  two g r a i n s .  (b)  Phosphorus R e s u l t s showed t h a t phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y i n c o r n ranged from 49 t o 72.2% w i t h a mean o f 60.9%. 7 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Corn numbers 1, 6 and  h i g h e r than c o r n numbers 2, 3, 5, 8, 9 and  10, whereas 5, 8, 9 and 10 were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y each o t h e r as w e l l as c o r n number 2, 8, and 10.  different  from  The N a t i o n a l  Research C o u n c i l (1969) suggested t h a t phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y p l a n t o r i g i n was  from  about 20-50% due t o t h e h i g h p h y t a t e c o n t e n t o f  the g r a i n s ' s o u r c e .  A l t h o u g h the t o t a l phosphate i n c o r n and wheat  i s 66 and 67% o f p h y t a t e phosphorus, r e s p e c t i v e l y (Nelson et  al.,  1968), r e s u l t s f o r a v a i l a b l e phosphorus i n c o r n i s somewhat lower than t h e v a l u e observed f o r wheat i n T r i a l 1. wheat may  The h i g h e r v a l u e i n  be e x p l a i n e d by t h e h i g h e r phytase a c t i v i t y o f wheat  (McCance and Widdowson, 1944)  which can c a t a l y z e the p h y t a t e  phosphate d i g e s t i o n i n t h e gut. There.has always been a c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g t h e . a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphate f r o m . i n g r e d i e n t s , o f p l a n t o r i g i n f o r swine.and p o u l t r y .  The  74  low phosphate  availability  from p l a n t sources has been r e p o r t e d  t o be 30-40% i n b a r l e y - w h e a t d i e t s (Woodman and Evans, 17.7%  1948),  i n b a r l e y (Besecker et al., 1967), 19% i n c o r n - s o y d i e t s  ( B a y l e y and Thomson, 1969), 4.5% i n sorghum (Tonroy, 1973), 16, 51. and 18% i n c o r n , wheat and soybean meal, r e s p e c t i v e l y . f o r p i g s ( M i r a c l e et al., 1977).  I n most c a s e s , s t u d i e s were conducted u s i n g  apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y as a d e t e r m i n a t i o n c r i t e r i o n . e x c r e t i o n was c o r r e c t e d from t h e f e c e s .  No endogenous  T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e  v a l u e o f a v a i l a b i l i t y was g e n e r a l l y l o w e r .  I t i s w e l l known t h a t  many o t h e r f a c t o r s may a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n r e n d e r i n g t h e phosphorus a v a i l a b l e i n g r a i n s as r e p o r t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w . i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e phosphorus c u r r e n t l y underestimated.  The h i g h e r phosphorus  However,  from p l a n t s i s a v a i l a b i l i t y from •  p l a n t s f o r p o u l t r y -has-been s u p p o r t e d by Salman and M c G i n n i s (1968), and Nwokolo et al. (1976).  The l a t t e r a u t h o r s used t h e endogenous  c o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e phosphorus  available determination.  of p r e s e n t s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h e h i g h e r phosphorus  The r e s u l t availability  from c o r n f o r t h e growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  (c)  Magnesium The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium i n c o r n samples ranged 44.1  from  ( c o r n number 10) t o 56.6% ( c o r n number 1 ) , w i t h a mean o f 51.0%.  Magnesium a v a i l a b i l i t y was c o m p a r a t i v e l y lower t h a n t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f o t h e r m i n e r a l s " t e s t e d ;on.an, ayerage 'b'as rs'-.' ~ 'Corn^'numbeF.T Was :  signifi-  c a n t l y - h i g h e r t h a n "corn numbers. "6,- 7~- .8, 9'.'and 10'but" s i m r l a r "to c o r n r  :  75  numbers 2, 3, 4, and 5. differ significantly  Corn numbers 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 d i d not  from each o t h e r .  Corn number 10 was  significantly  lower t h a n c o r n numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, b u t not  significantly  d i f f e r e n t from c o r n numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10.  i n d i c a t e s t h e v a r i a t i o n among samples t a k e n from commercial of d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s .  This supplies  The average v a l u e o f magnesium  a v a i l a b i l i t y i n t h i s s t u d y was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than t h e v a l u e (47.5%) p u b l i s h e d by Guenter and S e l l  (1974), u s i n g i n t r a m u s c u l a r i n j e c t i o n  28 of r a d i o a c t i v e  Mg i n r o a s t e r s . A l s o , a s i m i l a r y a l u e (53.5%) was  o b t a i n e d f o r wheat ( T r i a l 1 ) . However,these v a l u e s were lower t h a n •that-for. soybean- (77.4.%)., r a p e s e e d  (61.1%)cottonseed  (74.6%). 1.  and palm k e r n e l " ( 5 6 , 4 % ) oneals- r e p o r t e d by Nwokolo.-.e'tal. (1976). It",Appears.that, p l a n t p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s supply-magnesium i n a more a v a i l a b l e , form.than (d)  do t h e g r a i n s  Manganese R e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o r n ranged  from 44.6% ( c o r n number 10) t o 77.3% ( c o r n number 2) w i t h an  average o f 60% f o r growing b r o i l e r significantly  chicks.  Corn number 2 was  h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r c o r n samples; c o n v e r s e l y , c o r n  number 10 gave t h e l o w e s t v a l u e . s i m i l a r but were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Corn numbers 3, 5 and 6 were  h i g h e r t h a n c o r n numbers 8 and 10.  Corn numbers 4, 6, 7 and 9 d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y other.  d i f f e r from each  S i m i l a r t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s , t h e r e was a wide v a r i a t i o n  among t h e c o r n samples r e g a r d i n g manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y . -Since t h e t r a c e  76  mineral content  i n c o r n was  q u i t e low, the v a r i a t i o n may  be  a t t r i b u t e d t o s o i l m i n e r a l and f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n on the Although  i n o r g a n i c magnanese s a l t s a r e . c u r r e n t l y £sed i n  p r e v e n t i n g t h e manganese d e f i c i e n c y , l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n relative salts.  field.  is • available  t o manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y fxom e i t h e r p l a n t s or i n o r g a n i c The  o n l y s t u d i e s on p l a n t s were r e p o r t e d by Nwokolo et  al.  (1976) on p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t e s . These authors r e p o r t e d t h a t the manganes a v a i l a b i l i t y o f soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n seed and palm k e r n e l meals were 76.1,  56.7,  76.3  and 75.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y t o growing  broiler  chicks.  Zinc The to 77.1%  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c ranged from.41.2% ( c o r n number 7)  ( c o r n number 4 ) , w i t h a mean o f 57.5%.  2 were h i g h e r than any o t h e r c o r n samples. were s i g n i f i c a n t l y Corn number 7 was numbers 3, 5 and  Corn numbers 4  Corn numbers 1 and  h i g h e r t h a n c o r n numbers 3, 5, 7, 8 and lowest compared t o o t h e r c o r n samples. 10 were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and 6  10. Corn  d i f f e r e n t t o each o t h e r .  The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e the v a r i a b i l i t y o f c o r n a v a i l a b i l i t y  in  d i f f e r e n t samples. Evans and Johnson (1979) showed t h a t z i n c availability  i n raw c o r n endosperm f l o u r was  O'Dell et al.  51% i n r a t  experiments.  (1972), u s i n g growth response o f c h i c k s as c r i t e r i a ,  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c i n sesame, soybean and meals were 57, 67 and 75%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . rapeseed, cottonseed Nwokolo et al.  (1976).  fish  Z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y i n soybean,  and palm k e r n e l meals was * a l s o r e p o r t e d  by  77  (f)  Copper Copper a v a i l a b i l i t y was h i g h e s t among a l l t h e m i n e r a l s tested i n corn.  The copper a v a i l a b i l i t y ranged from 81.5% ( c o r n  number 9) t o 94.5% ( c o r n number 5) w i t h an average o f 87.2%. Corn numbers 2, 4 and 5 were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r than c o r n numbers  1, 3, 7, 8, 9 and 10 w h i l e c o r n numbers 1, 3, 7, 8 and 10 were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  d i f f e r e n t from each•other.  had t h e lowest copper a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e . t h a t copper i s h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e i n c o r n . varied significantly  among samples.  Corn number'9  (81.5%)  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e However, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  The c o n t e n t o f copper i n  c o r n o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s was h i g h e r than c u r r e n t l y r e p o r t e d (NRC, 1960).  The t o t a l amount o f copper i n g r a i n i s s m a l l and t h e  d i f f e r e n c e o f copper c o n t e n t may be- a t t r i b u t e d t o v a r i a t i o n , o f s o i l or f e r t i l i z e r a p p l i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d .  Trial 3 The m i n e r a l c o n t e n t o f t h r e e b a r l e y samples i s shown i n T a b l e 7. The average c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, manganese-, z i n c and copper were respectively.  600., 360Q , 1400 , 29, 34 and 20 ppm, S i m i l a r t o wheat and c o r n , b a r l e y samples c o n t a i n e d a  h i g h l e v e l o f phosphorus and magnesium but were low i n c a l c i u m and trace minerals. than expected.  The t r a c e m i n e r a l c o n t e n t i n b a r l e y samples was h i g h e r The average m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f commercial b a r l e y  ( b a r l e y number 1 ) , C h i l l i w a c k b a r l e y ( b a r l e y number 2) and A l a s k a b a r l e y ( b a r l e y number 3 ) . f o r c a l c i u m , phosphorus, magnesium, z i n c and copper were 68.9, 68.8, 54.9, 54.9, 49.1 and 77.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y (Table 2 0 ) .  TABLE 20:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s i n Three B a r l e y Samples C o l l e c t e d from D i f f e r e n t P l a c e s  Availability Samples  P  Ca  (%) Mn  Mgr  Zn  Cu  B a r l e y #1 (Commercial)  74.4  b  66.4  a  54. l  a  65.8°  39.3  a  73.9  a  B a r l e y #2 (Chilliwack)  51.9  a  73. 2  b  53. l  a  42.8  37.5  a  77.2  at  B a r l e y #3 (Alaska)  80.5°  66. 9  a  57. 5  70.6  b  81.4  Average  a  56. 2  a  b  b  68.9±15.1 68 .8+3.8 54. . 9±-2.3 54.9±1T.6 49 .1+18. 6 77.5+3.'8 2  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n a column: a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , d i f f e r e n t (P- < 0.05) S t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f sample mean  79  Calcium R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s among samples from the'-three d i f f e r e n t sources i n c a l c i u m The  c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y was-highest from'Alaska b a r l e y  (80.5%), lower f o r commercial b a r l e y (74.4%) and C h i l l i w a c k b a r l e y (51.9%). was 2).  also significantly The  i n the  commercial b a r l e y ( b a r l e y number 1)  h i g h e r t h a n C h i l l i w a c k b a r l e y ( b a r l e y number  average c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y  t o wheat (71.0%) and c o r n The  The  lowest  availability.  f o r b a r l e y (68.9%) was  similar  (70.0%) i n T r i a l s . 1 and. 2, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  r e s u l t s suggest t h a t the s o u r c e o f g r a i n s c o n t r i b u t e s t o the  v a r i a b i l i t y i n mineral  availability.  Phosphorus The i n b a r l e y was  r e s u l t s showed t h a t the phosphorus moderately high  b r o i l e r chicks.  availability  (68.8%) f o r three-week o l d growing  B a r l e y number 2 (73.2%) was  significantly  higher  t h a n b a r l e y number 1 (66.4%) and number 3 (66.9%) whereas t h e r e was  no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the l a t e r two b a r l e y samples.  S i m i l a r phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s were observed i n wheat ( T r i a l 1) and c o r n  ( T r i a l 2).  L i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n has been r e p o r t e d f o r  phosphorus . ' a v a i l a b i l i t y i n b a r l e y f o r chicks." "Hayes et'al.  (1979),  s u r v i v a l r a t e , growth r a t e , e f f i c i e n c y o f f e e d u t i l i z a t i o n , b r e a k i n g s t r e n g t h and ash content  o f the t i b i a as response c r i t e r i a ,  t h a t phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b a r l e y was  50%.  Besecker et  reported al.  (1967) r e p o r t e d t h a t the apparent d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f phosphorus i n  using  80  b a r l e y was  17.7%  t o the growing p i g .  s i n c e endogenous e x c r e t i o n was phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y  Co)  The v a l u e was  rather  not t a k e n i n t o account.  low  Therefore  f o r b a r l e y appears t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  Magnesium There was  no • s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n magnesium  a v a i l a b i l i t y among the t h r e e b a r l e y samples from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b a r l e y numbers 1, 2 and 3 were 54.1,  57.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . w i t h the mean o f 54.9%.  53.1  T h i s v a l u e was  agreement w i t h the r e s u l t (54.2%) r e p o r t e d by Guenter and  and in  Sell  28 (1974) u s i n g m u s c u l a r i n j e c t i o n o f r a d i o i s o t o p e Mg a v a i l a b i l i t y was i n T r i a l s 1 and (d)  .  The  a l s o s i m i l a r t o wheat (53.5%) and c o r n  magnesium  (51.0%)  2, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  Manganese The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was  significant variation  among b a r l e y samples r e g a r d i n g manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y . number 1 gave h i g h e s t manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y  (65.8%),  b a r l e y number 3 (56.2%) and b a r l e y number 2 (42.8%). manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y  f o r t h r e e b a r l e y samples was  Barley followed  by  The  average  54.9%.  No  d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g manganese availability  i n barley.  The manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y  h i g h e r than in'wheat (48.8%) and T r i a l s 1 and  2, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  lower than i n corn  Nwokolo et al.  i n barley  (60.0%) r e p o r t e d  (1976) r e p o r t e d  the manganese a v a i l a b i l i t i e s  i n soybean, rapeseed, c o t t o n s e e d  palm k e r n e l meals were 76.1,  56.7,  f o r growing c h i c k s .  76.3  was  that and  and 45.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y  in  81  (e)  Zinc Z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower i n b a r l e y number 1 (39.3%) and b a r l e y number 2 (37.5%) compared t o b a r l e y number 3 (70.6).  The z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y o f A l a s k a ( i . e . b a r l e y number  3) was about t w o - f o l d h i g h e r than t h e o t h e r two b a r l e y samples from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s .  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t b a r l e y from  d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s can be expected t o d i f f e r i n z i n c values.  availability  However, t h e average z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r these t h r e e  b a r l e y samples was 49.1% which was s i m i l a r t o t h e v a l u e o f wheat (49.6%) and s l i g h t l y lower than c o r n (57.5%) r e p o r t e d i n e a r l i e r trials.  (f)  Copper The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper was the h i g h e s t compared t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s . o f t h e s e b a r l e y samples was 77.5%.  The average a v a i l a b i l i t y  A l t h o u g h t h e range between t h e  low and h i g h v a l u e samples was n o t g r e a t , i t was shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between b a r l e y number 1 (73.9%) and b a r l e y number 3 ( 8 1 . 4 % ) .  B a r l e y number 2 (77.2%) d i d n o t d i f f e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from o t h e r samples.  The c o n t e n t o f copper appears  to be low compared t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s t e s t e d . copper i n p o u l t r y ^ e x p l a i n t h e l a c k o f f e e d i n g w i t h o u t i n o r g a n i c copper  The low r e q u i r e m e n t s , o f  copper.deficiency i n general  supplementation.  82  General  Discussion  of Trials  1, 2 and  3  Wheat, c o r n and b a r l e y are the most common f e e d s t u f f i n N o r t h America and Europe.  However, the m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y s t u d i e s  f o r t h e s e c e r e a l s have been v e r y l i m i t e d .  L i m i t e d r e s e a r c h may  be  due  to t h e low c o s t o f t h e i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l s on the market and l a c k o f r a p i d techniques to evaluate the t r u e a v a i l a b i l i t y . a v a i l a b i l i t y was  Most p r e v i o u s work on  c o n c e n t r a t e d on phosphate o r p h y t a t e phosphorus because  o f t h e h i g h c o s t o f phosphorus.  The  i n c r e a s e d • c o s t o f a l l feed  i n g r e d i e n t s , both a t p r e s e n t and i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e , may i n c r e a s e i n t e r e s t i n more p r e c i s e knowledge r e l a t e d . t o  availability.of  n u t r i e n t s , i n the "feedstuffs.. In g e n e r a l , the m i n e r a l s (Ca, P, Mg, Mn,  Zn and Cu) t e s t e d  ranged from moderate t o h i g h i n a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r wheat, c o r n b a r l e y i n t h e growing b r o i l e r  chick.  Copper appeared t o be the most  a v a i l a b l e i n these c e r e a l s f o r c h i c k s .  The phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y  t h e s e c e r e a l s was most i n t e r e s t i n g because h i g h e r was  and  observed than t h o s e - r e p o r t e d i n t h e  in  available-phosphorus  literature.  The average r e s u l t s o f wheat, c o r n and b a r l e y m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y are summarized i n T a b l e 21.  I t i s apparent  a v a i l a b i l i t y from t h e s e c e r e a l s a r e s i m i l a r .  Wheat was  f o l l o w e d by c o r n (70.0%) and b a r l e y ( 6 8 . 9 % ) .  that calcium  the h i g h e s t  (71.0%)  The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e  s t u d i e s were i n agreement w i t h d i e t a r y r e t e n t i o n s t u d i e s u s i n g r a d i o a c t i v e i s o t o p e s by D r i g g e r and Comar (1949) and Bragg et al.  (1971).  These i n v e s t i g a t o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 70% o f the d i e t a r y c a l c i u m was  r e t a i n e d by t h e l a y i n g b i r d .  More r e c e n t l y , Nwokolo et  al:  83  TABLE 21:  Summary o f M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from Wheat, Corn and B a r l e y  Availability Sample  (%)  Ca  P  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  Wheat  71.0  67.4  53.5  48.4  49.6  78.5  Corn  70.0  60.9  51.0  60.0  57.5  87.2  Barley  68.9  68.8  54.9-  54.9  49.1  77.5  84  (1976), u s i n g b r o i l e r c h i c k s , showed t h a t the average c a l c i u m availability  f o r vegetable  p r o t e i n concentrate  (soybean, rapeseed, c o t t o n -  seed and palm k e r n e l means) was  72.6%.  These r e s u l t s  the r e p o r t s by Armstrong et al.  (1953) i n t h r e e g r a s s e s  and Appana (1954) i n v a r i o u s v e g e t a b l e Phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y  are comparable t o Devadatta  sources.  f o r t h e s e c e r e a l s was  Corn appeared t o have lower a v a i l a b i l i t y wheat (67.4%) and b a r l e y (68.8%).  and  I t has  from animal s o u r c e s i s h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e .  65.7%  on average.  (60.0%) i n comparison t o l o n g been r e p o r t e d t h a t phosphorus G i l l i s et al.  (1954) r e p o r t e d  t h a t a v a i l a b l e phosphorus f o r bone meal, bone c h a r , bone ash  and  d i c a l c i u m phosphate was  Similar results  87, 84, 89 and  100%,  respectively.  were r e p o r t e d by N e l s o n and Walker (1964) and D i l w o r t h and Day Conversely,  phosphorus o f p l a n t o r i g i n i s c o n s i d e r e d  due t o the i n f l u e n c e o f p h y t a t e the f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s . N e l s o n et al.  ( T a y l o r , 1965;  (1964).  poorly available  N e l s o n et al.,  1968)  However, c o n f l i c t i n g r e p o r t s e x i s t e d i n t h i s  completely  unavailable.  Ashton et al.  t h a t four-week o l d c h i c k s r e t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y  (1960) showed  20% o f p h y t a t e  w h i l e six-week o l d c h i c k s r e t a i n e d 36 t o 49% o f the phosphorus.  phosphorus Hayes  (1979) r e p o r t e d t h a t a v a i l a b i l i t y o f phosphorus i n c o r n , h a r d wheat,  s o f t wheat and b a r l e y was Temperton and C a s s i d y was  regard.  (1968) r e p o r t e d t h a t p h y t a t e phosphorus o f commercial  soybean meal was  et al.  in  estimated  at 12, 43, 58 and 50%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  (1964) demonstrated t h a t the phosphorus u t i l i z a t i o n  60% o f p h y t a t e phosphate. Salmon and M c G i n n i s (1968) a l s o showed  a h i g h . " a v a i l a b i l i t y - o f phosphorus i n v e g e t a b l e  sources'.  Most .  85  r e c e n t l y , Nwokolo et al. (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t phosphorus  availability  from soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n seed and palm k e r n e l meals was 89.3, 76.9,  74.8 and 70.8%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  p r e s e n t r e s u l t s a l s o showed t h a t t h e phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y was  quite high.  Therefore,  The  i n cereals  i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e phosphorus  a v a i l a b i l i t y from p l a n t o r i g i n was n o t as low as p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d and t h a t phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y  from p l a n t s has been g r e a t l y u n d e r e s t i m a t e d .  A v a i l a b i l i t i e s ' - o f magnesium: in wheat, corn and b a r l e y were 53.5, ;  51.0  and 54.9%, r e s p e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e mean o f 53.1%.  The r e s u l t s o f  wheat and c o r n were h i g h e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s o f 48.1 and 47.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y r e p o r t e d by Guenter and S e l l value f o r barley  (1974).  These a u t h o r s a l s o r e p o r t e d t h e  (54.9%) s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e s e n t experiment.  However,  the p r e s e n t r e s u l t s were a l s o lower .than t h e r e p o r t by Nwokolo et al. (1976) on t h e v e g e t a b l e p r o t e i n s o u r c e .  Although the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  magnesium i s o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50%, i t s d e f i c i e n c y i s n o t a common problem in practical diets for poultry.  T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h c o n t e n t o f magnesium i n t h e f e e d i n g r e d i e n t s f o r p o u l t r y . L i t t l e i s known on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f manganese i n c e r e a l s . The p r e s e n t s t u d i e s showed t h a t manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y was h i g h e r i n corn  (60.0%) f o l l o w e d by b a r l e y  (54.5%) and wheat (48.4%) w i t h t h e  average o f 54.5% f o r t h e c e r e a l s . was  The c o n t e n t o f manganese i n t h e c e r e a l s  g e n e r a l l y low, t h e r e f o r e manganese d e f i c i e n c y i s a problem i n t h e  conventional  d i e t and r e q u i r e s s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h i n o r g a n i c manganese.  Nwokolo et al. (1976) showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f manganese i n the  86  soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n s e e d and palm k e r n e l meals were 76.1, 76.3 and 45.7%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r t h e growing b r o i l e r The average z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y  56.7,  chicks.  (52.1%) f o r t h r e e c e r e a l s  was  s i m i l a r t o magnesium (53.1%) and manganese (54.5%).  Z i n c i n c o r n appeared  t o be more a v a i l a b l e t h a n t h a t o f wheat and b a r l e y .  Very l i m i t e d  a v a i l a b i l i t y d a t a was o b s e r v e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e f o r p l a n t s . - Evan and Johnson (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y f l o u r was 51%.  O ' D e l l et at,  i n raw c o r n endosperm  (1972) observed t h a t z i n c  availability  i n sesame, soybean and f i s h meal was 57, 67 and 75%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Nwokolo et al.  (1976) showed t h a t soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n s e e d and  palm k e r n e l meals had a z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y o"f 66.5, 44.0, 38.0 and respectively.  13.9%,  The h i g h crude f i b r e and p h y t a t e c o n t e n t i n c o t t o n s e e d and  palm k e r n e l meals was suggested t o be the f a c t o r r e n d e r i n g t h e low a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c i n t h e s e meals  (Nwokolo and Bragg, 1977).  O'Dell  and Savage (1960) i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o n o g a s t r i c a n i m a l s r e q u i r e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f d i e t a r y z i n c on d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g p l a n t p r o t e i n s t h a n on d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g a n i m a l p r o t e i n because o f t h e p h y t a t e c o n t e n t i n p l a n t p r o t e i n s . P h y t a t e has been known t o b i n d t h e z i n c i n a complex form which i s not r e a d i l y released f o r absorption i n animals. The copper a v a i l a b i l i t y appeared t o be the h i g h e s t i n c e r e a l g r a i n s compared t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s t e s t e d w i t h an average o f 81.0%.  Little  i s known about the c h e m i c a l form i n which copper e x i s t s i n f o o d . Copper a b s o r p t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n may be markedly a f f e c t e d by s e v e r a l o t h e r m i n e r a l elements and d i e t a r y components (Underwood,  1977).  P h y t a t e appeared t o reduce a b s o r p t i o n and r e t e n t i o n o f copper (Davis  87  etal.,  1962; Da^/iies and N i g h t i n g a l e , 1975).  Nwokolo et al. (1976)  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e copper a v a i l a b i l i t y . o f p l a n t p r o t e i n supplements, soybean, r a p e s e e d , c o t t o n seed and palm k e r n e l meals was - f a i r l y low. Cereals contained  l i t t l e p h y t a t e compared t o p l a n t p r o t e i n supplements.  The f i b r e c o n t e n t o f t h e p l a n t p r o t e i n source r e p o r t e d by Nwokolo and Bragg (1977) was h i g h e r t h a n t h e c e r e a l s t e s t e d i n t h e s e s t u d i e s .  The  h i g h f i b r e c o n t e n t i s a l s o known t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e t h e copper a v a i l a b i l i t y . ( N w o k o l o and Bragg, 1977).  T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e  c e r e a l s w i t h lower p h y t a t e and crude f i b r e c o n t e n t r e s u l t e d i n h i g h e r copper a v a i l a b i l i t y .  Other d i e t a r y f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o t e i n s and  c e r e a l s may a l s o i n f l u e n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n a b s o r p t i o n  and u t i l i z a t i o n  o f copper.  Trial  4 The o v e r a l l m i n e r a l  a v a i l a b i l i t y : . i n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f soybean  i n t h e d i e t i s shown i n T a b l e 22. value:of mineral  :  The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e  a v a i l a b i l i t y improved as t h e soybean l e v e l d e c r e a s e d .  I t was apparent t h a t a d i l u t i o n e f f e c t was i n f l u e n c i n g t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y . The i n c r e a s e d  retention with decreasing  soybean, meal c o n c e n t r a t i o n  may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e improvement o f d i g e s t i b i l i t y and l e s s competition  f o r the binding s i t e s f o r mineral  t r a n s p o r t . ...  ".  TABLE 22:• A v a i l a b i l i t y o f M i n e r a l s i n D i e t s - C o n t a i n i n g D i f f e r e n t - L e v e l s of'Soybean Meal  A v a i l a b i l i t y (%)' Treatment  Ca  1. Soybean meal  P  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  54. , 2  a  73. , 8  a  47. , 9  a b  43. , l  a  57. , 3  a  47. , 5  a  57. , 7  a  75. , 9  a  46. , 8  a  44. , 2  a  60. , 8  a  57. , 7  b  3 . S.D. + 50% SBM  67. , 5  b  83. , 9  b  50. , o  a b  55. , 6  b  "66. , 8  b  63. , 6  C  4.  b c  56. , o  b  73. . 4 °  65. , 3  C  55. , 4  b  81, , o  67. , 8  C  2.  S.D.  2  (SBM)  + '75% SBM  S.D. + 25.0%  SBM  76. , 1  C  85. , 8  b  52, , 2  5 . S.D. + 12.5%  SBM  77. , 8  C  88. , 4  b  56. . 0 °  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  d  w i t h i n a column a r e . s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (P < J p . 0 5 ) .  i n T a b l e 1.  89  (a)  Calcium The  c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f treatment  T2, T3, T4, and T5) was  54.2,  57.7,  65.5,  7611  1, 2, 3 , 4 ,  and'5, ( T l ,  and 77.8%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T l and T2 d i d "hot. d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each-other and n e i t h e r d i d T4 and T5. T3, however, was  significantly  than T4 and T5.  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y may  be due  h i g h e r than T l and T2 but  lower  cause o f improvement i n c a l c i u m e i t h e r t o the decrease i n m i n e r a l  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the m i x t u r e  or the p r o t e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the  diet.  (b)  Phosphorus The phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r T l , T2, T3, T4 and was"-  73.8,  75.0,  83.9,  85.8  and 88.0%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . T l and  d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than T3, T4 and T5. significantly T5 > T4 >  from each o t h e r but were  The  l a t t e r t h r e e treatments  T5 T2  significantly d i d not  d i f f e r from each o t h e r but a v a i l a b i l i t y o r d e r  was  T3. The r e s u l t s showed t h a t phosphorus i n soybean meal  h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o growing c h i c k s .  Although  was  phosphate o f p l a n t  o r i g i n i s c o n s i d e r e d p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e due t o the i n f l u e n c e o f phytate  ( T a y l o r , 1965), c o n f l i c t i n g  literature  as d i s c u s s e d  r e p o r t s have appeared i n the  earlier.  Phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y a l s o i n c r e a s e d w i t h the d e c r e a s e o f phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the t r e a t m e n t . (TiJ  d i e t showed 73.8%  The whole soybean meal  a v a i l a b l e phosphorus whereas the low soybean  c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i e t ( T 5 ) had 88.4%  a v a i l a b l e phosphorus.  90  (a)  Magnesium A l t h o u g h magnesium (Mg) a v a i l a b i l i t y impxpyed"with d e c r e a s i n g Mg ;  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e d i e t , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t  improvement  u n t i l t h e l e v e l o f soybean meal dropped t o 12.5% o f t h e m i x t u r e . The Mg a v a i l a b i l i t y w i t h 12.5% soybean meal d i e t . T5 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y T3 ( 5 0 . 0 % ) .  h i g h e r t h a n t h e T l ( 4 7 . 9 % ) , T2 (46.8%) and  No s i g n i f i c a n t  (52.2%) and T5  (56.0%),  d i f f e r e n c e was observed between  T4  (56.0%).  The p r e s e n t s t u d y a l s o showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mg appeared t o be low i n soybean meal.  The improvement o f Mg  a v a i l a b i l i t y d i d not increase d r a s t i c a l l y  even though t h e Mg  c o n c e n t r a t i o n was reduced q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  from T l t o T5.  The  r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d was l o w e r t h a n t h a t r e p o r t e d by Nwokolo et al. (1976)  and Guenter and S e l l  (1974), t o be 77.4 and 60.4%,  respectively.  (d)  Manganese R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e manganese (Mn) a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r T l , T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 43.1, 44.2, 55.6, 56 and 55.4%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Mn a v a i l a b i l i t y i n T l and T2 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y and T5, w h i l e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t former ..-pT.'---the l a t t e r t r e a t m e n t groups.  lower t h a n T3, T4  d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n the No f u r t h e r improvement o f  Mn a v a i l a b i l i t y l o w e r t h a n t h e 50% soybean t r e a t m e n t was o b s e r v e d . I t appeared t h a t manganese i n soybean meal was q u i t e p o o r l y utilized.  G a l l u p and N o r r i s  (1935a,b) and W i l g u s and P a t t o n  (1939)  91  a l s o n o t e d the p o o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f m i n e r a l d i e t s .  Inorganic  Mn  i s u s u a l l y supplemented i n c o n v e n t i o n a l d i e t s f o r p o u l t r y t o p r e v e n t Mn d e f i c i e n c y . •, I t can be u n d e r s t o o d w i t h the low and poor a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mn  content  from p l a n t s .  Zinc The 57.3%.  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c (Zn) i n treatment  1 (Tl)  was  a v a i l a b l e v a l u e i n c r e a s e d w i t h the d e c r e a s e o f z i n c  c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n these d i e t s . T5 were 60.8,  66.8,  differ significantly  73.4  significantly  and 81%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  from T2.  and T2 but s i g n i f i c a n t l y  Zn a v a i l a b i l i t y o f T2, T3, T4  T3 was  h i g h e r t h a n T4.  Zn a v a i l a b i l i t y o f soybean was  Nwokolo et al. 66.5%  T l d i d not  significantly  lower t h a n T4 and T5.  higher than T l  T5 was  also  (1976) r e p o r t e d t h a t  which i s s i m i l a r t o  T3.  Homeostasis' o f body Zn r e g u l a t e s the degree o f Zn a b s o r p t i o n endogenous e x c r e t i o n (Underwood, 1977).  The  and  low Zn  and  concentration  i n the d i e t seemed t o enhance the Zn a b s o r p t i o n , t h u s i n c r e a s i n g availability.  Copper The  r e s u l t s showed t h a t copper (Cu) a v a i l a b i l i t y improved w i t h  d e c r e a s i n g Cu c o n c e n t r a t i o n - i n the d i e t " from, -soybean^ _The meal d i e t  ( T l ) gave 47.5%  whereas 12.5% T2  (57.7%) was  .100%  soybean  a v a i l a b l e Cu t o the growing c h i c k s  soybean meal d i e t (T5) o f f e r e d 67.8% significantly  a v a i l a b l e Cu.  h i g h e r t h a n T l (47.5%) but  significantly  92  lower than T3 treatment  ( 6 3 . 6 % ) , T4  (65.3%) and T5  (67.8%).  The  latter  groups were not d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l l y from one  Nwokolo et al.  (1976) r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r Cu a v a i l a b i l i t y  another.  value  (51%) o f soybean meal f o r the growing c h i c k s .  Trial  5 The r e s u l t s o f the m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y are p r e s e n t e d  23.  i n Table  There i s a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y as the  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f wheat decreased. dilution  I t appeared t h a t t h e r e was  e f f e c t i n f l u e n c i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y .  The  a .  i n c r e a s e d : Z l ' . .*  retention with decreasing of grain concentration ( i . e . mineral c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) may  be e x p l a i n e d by the improvement o f d i g e s t i b i l i t y  and l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the b i n d i n g s i t e s  o f the p r o t e i n l i g a n d s  f o r m i n e r a l transport:r>  (.a)  Calcium C a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f T5  (90%) and T l (66%) were the  h i g h e s t and l o w e s t , r e s p e c t i v e l y t o a l l the d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s . T3  (75.4%) was  significantly significant  significantly lower than T4  h i g h e r than T l and T2 (85.9%) and T5.  (70.1%) but  There was  no  d i f f e r e n c e between T l . a n d T2 or between T4 arid  Many f a c t o r s have been r e c o g n i z e d t o a f f e c t the  T-5.. intestinal  a b s o r p t i o n o f c a l c i u m such as v i t a m i n D, c a l c i u m and phosphorus  93  ratio.  I t i s reasonable  t o b e l i e v e t h a t a t lower c a l c i u m concen-  t r a t i o n s i n t h e d i e t t h e r e i s improved e f f i c i e n c y o f c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n and r e t e n t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by Bragg et at.  (1971).  It  has been shown t h a t c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n r e l i e s on the v i t a m i n D dependent c a l c i u m b i n d i n g p r o t e i n (CaBP) i n the mucosa o f c h i c k s (Wasserman and T a y l o r , 1968).  intestinal  T h i s p r o t e i n was  i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s l o c a t i o n o f c a l c i u m a c r o s s intestinal  the  epithelium. H u r w i t z and Bar  (1969) have shown t h a t i n l a y i n g f o w l s ,  the CaBP i s independent o f the l e v e l o f c a l c i u m f e d , but i n c h i c k s d i e t a r y l e v e l s below 0.7%  i n c r e a s e d CaBP.  W a l l i n g and Rothman  (1970) a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t d i e t a r y c a l c i u m r e s t r i c t i o n i n c r e a s e d a f f i n i t y f o r c a l c i u m i n the c a r r i e r .  caused  I n the p r e s e n t . s t u d i e s  the c a l c i u m l e v e l s f o r a l l the d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s were w e l l below the r e q u i r e m e n t level'..: T h i s may the a b s o r p t i o n p r o c e s s .  suggest t h a t CaBP. i s - a c t i v e l y " i n y o l y e d i n  The h i g h e r c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r the  lower c a l c i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n d i e t may  be due t o h i g h e r CaBP p r o d u c t i o n  to enhance the c a l c i u m a b s o r p t i o n .  Phosphorus The phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y (Table 23) i n T l was whereas T5 was  92.5%.  Tl  ( 7 5 . 9 % ) , T3  ( 6 5 . 4 % ) , T2  65.4%  S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were observed among ( 8 1 . 3 % ) , T4  (91.4%) and T5  (92.5%) w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f T4 and T5 which d i d not d i f f e r from each o t h e r . I t i s apparent t h a t phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y c o u l d be v e r y h i g h at low phosphorus c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the d i e t s .  TABLE 23:  A v a i l a b i l i t y of Minerals  i n . D i e t s C o n t a i n i n g D i f f e r e n t - L e v e l s o f Wheat  Availability Treatment 1. Whole wheat  66. 0  2. S.D.  70.l  2  P  Ca  + 75% wheat  (%) Mn  Mg  Zn  Cu  65. 4  a  48.4  a  34.9  a  62. 3  a  60.6  a  a  75. 9  b  52.2  a  38.6  a  66.7  a b  63.5  a  b  72.6  b c  75. 2  b  a  3. S.D.  + 50% wheat  75.4  b  81. 3  C  65.6  b  51.6  4. S.D.  + 25% wheat  85. 9  C  91. 4  d  71.4  b  57.0  b C  75.7°  78.0  b  5. S.D.  + 12.5% wheat  90.1°  92. 5  d  88.5°  60. 2  C  77.7  90.6  C  C  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s w i t h i n a column a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (Tukey t e s t P < 0.05). Synthetic  d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1.  95  Magnesium The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b l e magnesium i n the d i e t s i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e d e c r e a s e o f d i e t a r y magnesium concentration.  The magnesium a v a i l a b i l i t y o f T l , T2, T3, T4 and  T5 (Table 23) were 48.4, 52.2, 65.6, 71.4 and 88.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between T l and T2 and between T3 and T4.  However, t h e l l a t t e r two t r e a t m e n t s  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e former two. than a l l other  were  T5 was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  higher  treatments.  Although  a number o f f a c t o r s have.been known t o a f f e c t t h e  magnesium a b s o r p t i o n , no s i n g l e f a c t o r appears t o p l a y a dominant 28 r o l e i n t h e magnesium a b s o r p t i o n .  Several studies using  t h a t a b s o r p t i o n o f magnesium i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l o a d  Mg suggest presented  t o t h e i n t e s t i n a l mucosa (Aikawa, 1959; Graham et at., 1960). Graham et:al.  (1960) demonstrated t h a t on an o r d i n a r y d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 20  m Eq o f magnesium, 44% o f t h e i n g e s t e d r a d i o a c t i v i t y was absorbed p e r day; on low magnesium d i e t s (47 m Eq p e r d a y ) , a b s o r p t i o n was d e c r e a s e d t o 24%.  T h i s seems t o agree w i t h t h e p r e s e n t  study,  i . e . t h e a b s o r p t i o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e d e c r e a s e o f d i e t a r y concent r a t i o n o f magnesium i n wheat. Manganese R e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e r e was. manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y among t r e a t m e n t s  significantlyidifferent (Table 2 3 ) . T3 (51.6%)  was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n T l (34.9%) and T2 (38.6%) but  96  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than T5  (60.2%).  T4  (57.0%) and  T5 d i d  not  d i f f e r from each o t h e r but were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than T l and The  precise  g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l l o c i which are  w i t h the a b s o r p t i o n o f manganese-are s t i l l unknown.  concerned The  evidence  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the amount o f element absorbed i s ^ p r o p o r t i o n a l t h a t p r e s e n t e d f o r a b s o r p t i o n (Underwood, 1977).  The  diet  a l t h o u g h the  a v a i l a b i l i t y i s low compared w i t h o t h e r m i n e r a l s  to  present  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t low manganese c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the produced the h i g h e r e f f i c i e n c y o f a b s o r p t i o n ,  T2.  highest  tested.  Zinc S i m i l a r t o o t h e r m i n e r a l s , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c i n the d i e t i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o the z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the d i e t (Table 23). 62.3%  R e s u l t s o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n d i c a t e d  o f z i n c i n the a l l wheat ( T l ) was  w h i l e 77.7%  z i n c was  a v a i l a b l e c i h the  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was ( 6 6 . 7 % ) , T2 and T3  available for 12.5%  retention  a l l wheat d i e t .  observed between T l (62.3%) and  (72.6%) o r T4  z i n c a v a i l a b i l i t y i n T3 was  (75.0%) and  T5  (77.7%).  No T2  However,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n T4 and  which were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than T l and I t has  that  T5  T2.  been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t h o m e o s t a t i c c o n t r o l o f body  z i n c i n accordance w i t h needs i s a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h r e g u l a t i o n o f a b s o r p t i o n ( M i l l e r , 1969; excretion  by the way  W i l k i n et- al.,  of feces.  1972)  zinc  as w e l l as endogenous  Less z i n c w i l l be absorbed i n t o  o f animals f e d an adequate d i e t a r y l e v e l o f z i n c ( M i l l e r et  al.,  the  97  1966). may  The h o m e o s t a t i c c o n t r o l o f z i n c a b s o r p t i o n and e x c r e t i o n  e x p l a i n the increase o f zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y i n the decreasing  amount o f z i n c c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e d i e t s . (f)  Copper The copper c o n t e n t o f t h e wheat t e s t e d was copper a v a i l a b i l i t y o f whole wheat was 60.6%.  16 ppm.  The  Copper  a v a i l a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d as the amount o f copper i n t h e d i e t s d e c r e a s e d ( T a b l e 23).  T l (60.6%) and T2 (63.5%) d i d not d i f f e r  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from each o t h e r ; neither-,.did T.3.. (75.2%) and T4 "(78V0%) . The l a t t e r was, however, s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n .the former group.  T5 (90.6%) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n any o t h e r  treatments. The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t c h i c k s seem t o be a b l e t o absorb a c c o r d i n g t o t h e copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e d i e t s .  Although  l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t copper a b s o r p t i o n from the i n t e s t i n e i s r e g u l a t e d i n accordance w i t h b o d i l y n e e d a t d i e t a r y copper l e v e l s .  l e a s t a t the low  Schwartz and K i r c h g e s s n e r (1974) demonstrated  t h a t b o t h copper uptake by t h e i n t e s t i n a l w a l l and i t s t r a n s f e r t o the s e r o s a l s o l u t i o n were e l e v a t e d i n copper d e f i c i e n c y .  Under  t h e c o n d i t i o n o f d e c r e a s i n g copper c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e d i e t , s i m i l a r mechanism may  a l s o o c c u r t o improve t h e a b s o r p t i o n and  t r a n s f e r r i n g o f copper.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e  d i l u t e d copper d i e t s have improved markedly.  98  Trial  6 The r e s u l t s o f c a l c i u m (Ca) and phosphorus (P) a v a i l a b i l i t y from  v a r y i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f c a l c i u m phosphate ( d i b a s i c ) a r e shown i n T a b l e 24.  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i e t a r y l e v e l o f c a l c i u m and phosphorus  can s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e m i n e r a l s . (a)  Calcium Calcium mentation  i s h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e a t a low l e v e l o f Ca s u p p l e -  as shown i n t r e a t m e n t s  1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 when t h e Ca  was supplemented up t o 0.4% o f t h e d i e t .  I t s a v a i l a b i l i t y reduced  s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o 63.5% a t 0.8% o f t h e d i e t .  A f u r t h e r decrease  o f Ca a v a i l a b i l i t y was observed  8 (51.2%) and 9 (35.2%).  i n treatment  There were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among a l l l e v e l s o f Ca supplementation  except T l and T2 and T2 and T4.  Treatments 8 and  9 c o n t a i n e d 1.2% and 1.6% Ca, r e s p e c t i v e l y and had t h e lowest ayailable valus.  The r e d u c t i o n o f a v a i l a b i l i t y a t t h e h i g h e r  l e v e l s o f supplementation  was due t o t h e e x c e s s .  Studies i n r a t s  a l s o showed a v e r y h i g h Ca a b s o r p t i o n when animals were on a low Ca i n t a k e l e y e l and t h e a b s o r p t i o n r a t e dropped as t h e i n t a k e o f c a l c i u m i n c r e a s e d (Hansard et al., 1954). i n agreement w i t h t h e p r e s e n t Although  These r e s u l t s , a r e  experiment.  c o n s i d e r a b l e amounts o f r e s e a r c h have been done  onthe b i o a v a i l a b i l i t y o f v a r i o u s c a l c i u m i n o r g a n i c • s o u r c e s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f s e v e r s l r e s e a r c h e r s f a i l e d t o r e v e a l any d i f f e r e n c e i n b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y between d i f f e r e n t  calcium  TABLE 24:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f C a l c i u m and Phosphorus from C a l c i u m Phosphate i n ' t h e Growing C h i c k s  p  Ca %  Treatment  Availability  (%)*  Ca  P  1. S.D.  +  0..0125  +  0..0097  99.l  a  99. 0  a  2. S.D.  +  0..025  +  0..0194  98.9  a  98. 5  a  3. S.D.  +  0..050  +  0,.0388  95. l  4. S.D.  +  0,.100  +  0..0776  94.3  5. S.D..  +  0..200  +  0,.1553  86.1°  91.0  6. S.D.  +  0.,400  +  0..3105  82.5  83.4°  7. S.D.  +  0..800  +  0..6210  63.8  e  70.0  d  8. S.D.  +  1.,200  +  0..9315  51.2  f  60.0  e  9. S.D.  +  1..600  +  1..2420  35. 2  47.1  £  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s d i f f e r e n t , (Tukey •test P '< 0.05.), 1 'Synthetic  d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  b  b  d  g  w i t h i n a column a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n T a b l e 1.  98.3  a  97.9  a  b  100  sources u s i n g bone ash and weight g a i n as a c r i t e r i a o f response in chicks.  The  sources  s t u d i e d i n these v a r i o u s comparisons,  included calcium carbonate,  calcium s u l f a t e , oyster s h e l l ,  v a r i o u s c a l c i u m phosphate, gypsum, c a l c i u m g l u c o n a t e and meal (Bethke et al., 1965;  1929; Waldroup et al.,  Spandorf and Leong, 1965).  1964;  limestone,  fish  Sandrof and M u l l a ,  In c o n t r a s t t o these r e p o r t s ,  however, a number o f r e s e a r c h e r s have r e p o r t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n b i o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y between v a r i o u s c a l c i u m c a r r i e r s f o r young c h i c k s .  Motzok et al.  i n s o f t phosphate was  (1965), observed  t h a t the c a l c i u m  70% as a v a i l a b l e as t h a t i n c a l c i u m  assuming t h a t c a l c i u m carbonate  was  100%  available.  carbonate  Hurwitz-  and  Rand (1965) r e p o r t e d t h a t the c a l c i u m i n gypsum was  90%,  a v a i l a b l e as l i m e s t o n e when f e e d i n t a k e was  D i l w o r t h et  equal.  (1964), showed t h a t the r e l a t i v e c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y  as al.  i n various  f e e d grade c a l c i u m phosphate ranged from 68 t o 95% as compared to c a l c i u m c a r b o n a t e .  R e i d and Weber (1976) observed  the  percent  c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y o f ground l i m e s t o n e samples v a r i e d from to 109.4% i n comparison w i t h c a l c i u m carbonate.  Most o f  these  s t u d i e s were based on body weight and bone ash content and carbonate  was  o b t a i n e d was  assumed t o be 100% a v a i l a b l e .  73.3  calcium  T h e r e f o r e , the r e s u l t  the r e l a t i v e a v a i l a b i l i t y r a t h e r than " t r u e "  availability. The  c u r r e n t s t u d i e s demonstrated the t r u e  availability  o f c a l c i u m f r o n c a l c i u m phosphate a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s when c a l c i u m phosphate was  the s o l e source o f Ca i n the d i e t .  101  (b)  Phosphorus A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f a v a i l a b i l i t y was  obtained f o r  phosphorus compared t o c a l c i u m a v a i l a b i l i t y as shown i n T a b l e  24.  Phosphorus i n d i c a l c i u m phosphate was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  growing  b r o i l e r c h i c k s when t h e s u p p l y was not i n e x c e s s .  There was  a  d r a s t i c drop o f phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s when t h e d i e t a r y c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f phosphorus was a v a i l a b l e phosphorus was T3  (98.3%) and T4  i n excess o f 0.3%.  observed  (97.9%).  i n treatment  Very h i g h  ( T l ) 99%, T2  No s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e was  among t h e s e low phosphorus d i e t a r y t r e a t m e n t s .  (98.5%),  found  In the d i e t  c o n t a i n i n g 0.155% (T5) and 0.32%'(T6) phosphorus, t h e phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y decreased  t o 91.0%  and 83.4%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  These  v a l u e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than t h e low phosphorus d i e t s ( T l , T2, T3 and T4) and s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than T4 T8  (60.0% and T9  (47.1%).  T5 was  (70.0%),  also s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher  than  t h a t . o f T6. A l a r g e number o f s t u d i e s have been conducted determine  to  the r e l a t i v e b i o l o g i c a l value o f the various i n o r g a n i c  phosphate sources f o r c h i c k s .  Assuming b e t a - t r i c a l c i u m phosphate  t o be 100% a v a i l a b l e , G i l l i s and a s s o c i a t e s (1954) r e p o r t e d t h a t the r e l a t i v e v a l u e f o r monocalcium phosphate, d i c a l c i u m phosphate, d e f l u o r i n a t e d phosphate were 113, 98, 98, and 87%,  respectively.  S i m i l a r r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d by N e l s o n and Walker (1964) and D i l w o r t h and Day  (1964), however, l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was  reported  102  c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l s o f phosphorus bioavailability.  The p r e s e n t t r i a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e phosphorus  from c a l c i u m phosphate chicks.  regarding  was h i g h l y . a v a i l a b l e t o t h e growing  The excess phosphorus  broiler  offered i n the diet i s excreted i n  the f e c e s o f t h e b i r d s .  Trial  7 The r e s u l t s o f magnesium (Mg) a v a i l a b i l i t y from magnesium  c a r b o n a t e (4MgC0 -Mg(0H) -5H.2C) 3  T a b l e 25.  3  t o t h e growing c h i c k s a r e shown i n  Results indicated that s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  v a l u e s were observed a t v a r i o u s d i e t a r y l e v e l s . recommended by NRC (1*977) i s 500 ppm.  availability  The Mg requirement  High Mg a v a i l a b i l i t y was observed  i n t r e a t m e n t s 1 ( T l ) , 2 (T2) and 3;(T3).  The degree o f a v a i l a b i l i t y  decreased g r a d u a l l y w i t h h i g h e r Mg c o n c e n t r a t i o n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between T l (82.3%) and T2 (81.4%).. a t 150 ppm and 300 ppm Mg d i e t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .  However, Mg a v a i l a b i l i t y o f T3 (79.4%) was  s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower t h a n T l and T4 (73.4%) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than T5 (67.1%) and T6 ( 6 1 . 9 % ) .  The h i g h l e v e l Mg d i e t , i . e . T5 (750 ppm)  and T6 (900 ppm) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s ,  although  Cook (1973) r e p o r t e d t h a t magnesium carbonate was t h e most a v a i l a b l e form among magnesium s a l t s . 82.4%  The p r e s e n t experiment i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y  o f Mg was a v a i l a b l e from magnesium carbonate o f f e r e d a t t h e  lowest l e v e l  (150 ppm).  T h i s was determined under t h e c o n d i t i o n o f  maximum a b s o r p t i o n , i . e . no i n t e r f e r e n c e from o t h e r d i e t a r y minerals i n the i n t e s t i n e .  TABLE 25:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Magnesium from Magnesium Carbonate i n t h e Crowrng-'Chicks  Mg Treatment 1.  S.D.  level (Ppm)  A v a i l a b i l i t y (%) Mg  +  150  82.,3  e  2. S.D.  +  300  81.,4  6  3. S.D.  +  450  79.,4  d  4.  S.D.  +  600  73.,6  C  5. S.D.  +  750  67., l  6.  +  900  61,,9  S.D.  2  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between t r e a t m e n t s (P < 0.05). S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 1.  b  a  1  104  L i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n has- been ^reported, c o n c e r n i n g  inorganic  magnesium s a l t : u t i i r z a t i p n by p o u l t r y , " Guenter and S e l l . .(1974), using a r a d i o i s o t o p technique, from MgSO^•7H2O was 57.4%.  showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mg  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was observed between  two l e v e l s o f Mg ( i . e . 200 ppm and 400 ppm) s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e diet.  The p r e s e n t s t u d y was conducted on t h e n i t r o g e n and m i n e r a l - f r e e  basis.  The h i g h l e v e l s o f d i e t a r y Mg caused a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n  availability.  T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e excess d i e t a r y Mg which  cannot be absorbed e f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e gut o r by. d i e t a r y l e v e l s h i g h e r  than  r e q u i r e d f o r m e t a b o l i s m and t h e r e f o r e b e i n g -excreted T n "th'e^feces. 28 Several studies using  Mg suggest t h a t t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f  magnesium i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e l o a d p r e s e n t e d t o : t h e i n t e s t i n a l mucosa (Aikawa, 1959; Graham et al., 1960).  Graham et al. (1960) demonstrated  t h a t a d i e t c o n t a i n i n g 20 m Eq o f Mg absorbed 44% o f t h e i n g e s t e d r a d i o a c t i v i t y p e r day. absorbed.  On a low magnesium d i e t ( 1 . 9 m Eq/day) 76% was  On a h i g h e r magnesium d i e t (47 m Eq/day) a b s o r p t i o n  d e c r e a s e d t o 24%.  was  The t r e n d o f Mg a b s o r p t i o n w i t h q u a n t i t y i s i n  agreement w i t h t h e p r e s e n t s t u d i e s where excess amounts o f Mg were supplied. Trial 8 Limited information i s a v a i l a b l e i n the l i t e r a t u r e the manganese a v a i l a b i l i t y from i n o r g a n i c s o u r c e s . published  concerning  quantitative.  regarding  Most o f t h e d a t a  i n o r g a n i c Mn were q u a l i t a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n  The p r e s e n t s t u d y p r o v i d e s  i n f o r m a t i o n on Mn  availability  105  o f manganese s u l f a t e (MnSO^'H^O) f o r t h e growing b r o i l e r  chicks.  R e s u l t s (Table 26) i n d i c a t e d t h a t Mn as manganese s u l f a t e was p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e growing b r o i l e r .  The l e v e l s o f t r e a t m e n t v a r i e d  from 25 ppm t o 125 ppm which i n c l u d e s l e v e l s above and below t h e NRC (1977) Mn r e q u i r e m e n t f o r growing b r o i l e r s  (75 ppm). The v a l u e s f o r  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mn from manganese s u l f a t e i n t r e a t m e n t 1 t o t r e a t m e n t 5 ranged from 44.5 t o 47.3%. a l l the treatments.  There was no s i g n i f i c a n t : d i f f e r e n c e .among  R e s u l t s suggest  p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e f o r growing c h i c k s . manganese s u l f a t e are'needed  t h a t Mn from manganese s u l f a t e i s Therefore, larger quantities o f  t o meet t h e d i e t a r y r e q u i r e m e n t .  S c h a i b l e and Bandemer (1942) r e p o r t e d t h a t manganese o x i d e , manganese c a r b o n a t e , manganese s u l f a t e , manganese c h l o r i d e were e q u a l l y v a l u a b l e as s o u r c e s o f Mn i n p o u l t r y , however, d i f f e r e n c e s do e x i s t . Watson.et al. (1970) and Henning et al. (1967), u s i n g r a d i o a c t i v e "^Mn demonstrated  t h a t ^^MnCl^ was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e body o f c h i c k s 54  to a g r e a t e r extent than  t h a t s u p p l i e d as  MnSO^ o r  54 MnO.  Watson  et al. (1971), u s i n g b i o l o g i c a l a s s a y a l s o showed t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Mn was d i f f e r e n t between c a r b o n a t e and t h e o x i d e form. S i n c e Mn i s an i m p o r t a n t t r a c e m i n e r a l i n b r o i l e r f e e d , t h e poor a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o n t e n t o f Mn i n p l a n t sources does n o t meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f c h i c k e n s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g optimum growth and p r e v e n t i n g deficiencies.  I n o r g a n i c supplement  i s r e q u i r e d t o meet t h e s e needs.  The poor a v a i l a b i l i t y from manganese s u l f a t e i n t h i s t r i a l  indicates  t h a t l a r g e r q u a n t i t i e s o f manganese s u l f a t e a r e needed.for optimum requirement.  TABLE 26:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Manganese from.Manganese in.:'th>e;Growi%iCSieks" .  Mn Treatment 2  level (ppm)  Sulfate  Availability Mn  +  25  44.6  a  S.D.  +  50  44.5  a  3.  S.D.  +  75  47.3  a  4.  S.D.  +  100  46.4  a  5.  S.D.  +  125  46.I  a  1.  S.D.  2.  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s between t r e a t m e n t s (P < 0.05). S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n T a b l e 1.  {%)  different  107  Trial  9 The v a l u e s f o r z i n c (Zn) a v a i l a b i l i t y a r e shown i n T a b l e 27.  R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t z i n c from z i n c o x i d e was w e l l u t i l i z e d by growing broiler the  chicks.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Zn ranged from 84.4 t o 93% f o r a l l  t r e a t m e n t s c o n t a i n i n g 25 ppm t o 125 ppm o f z i n c .  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y and T5 ( 8 4 . 9 % ) .  Zn a v a i l a b i l i t y  d i f f e r e n t among T2 ( 9 0 . 6 % ) , T3 ( 8 5 . 7 % ) , T4 (84.4%)  However, T l (93%) which c o n t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t Zn  c o n c e n t r a t i o n (25 ppm) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  h i g h e r t h a n T4 and T5 which  had t h e h i g h e r Zn c o n c e n t r a t i o n (100 ppm and 125 ppm,  respectively).  I t appears t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Zn from z i n c o x i d e seems t o l e v e l o f f a t 100 t o 125 ppm.  Evans et al. (1979), u s i n g r a d i o a c t i v e  dilution  t e c h n i q u e s w i t h r a t s showed t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f Zn a b s o r p t i o n decreased w i t h t h e d a i l y . Z n o b t a i n e d . the  present study.  T h i s seems t o be i n agreement w i t h  A c o n t r o v e r s i a l o p i n i o n has been e x p r e s s e d on t h e  mechanism o f body Zn h o m e o s t a s i s .  S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s suggested t h a t  Zn homeostasis was r e g u l a t e d a t t h e s i t e o f Zn a b s o r p t i o n (Schwarz and K i r c h a e s s n e r , 1974; W i l k i n et al., 1972).  However, work by o t h e r  i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Evans et al., 1979"; M i l l e r et al., 1966) demonstrated t h a t homeostasis i n r a t s i s m a i n t a i n e d by z i n c s e c r e t i o n from t h e i n t e s t i n e r a t h e r t h a n by r e g u l a t i o n o f Zn a b s o r p t i o n .  Trials  10 and 11 The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper (Cu) from copper s u l f a t e i s p r e s e n t e d  i n T a b l e 28. of 2 t o 30 ppm  These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t Cu i n copper s u l f a t e a t l e v e l s was- w e l l absorbed by growing b r o i l e r  chicks.  I t appeared  TABLE 27:  Treatment  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Z i n c from Z i n c O x i d e .in t h e -.Growing- Chi cks  Zn l e v e l (ppm)  A v a i l a b i l i t y .(%) Zn  s ..D.  +  25  93. , o  2. S.,D.  +  50  90. , 6  3.  S.,D.  +  75  85.  4 . S..D.  +  100  84. , 4  5.  +  125  84, . 9  1.  2  S,.D.  ,ab  Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s between t r e a t m e n t s (P < 0.05). S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  b  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n T a b l e 1.  ^ab a  a  different  109  t h a t Cu was level.  more a v a i l a b l e a t the lowest  T l (80.2%) was  (72.1%).  l e v e l (2 ppm)  s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n T4  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  T5 as w e l l as between T l , T2  than at the  (72.2%) and  T5  observed among T2, T3, T4  (74,8%) and  higher  and  T3.  D e f i n i t i v e d a t a on the minimum Cu requirement o f c h i c k s f o r growth and egg p r o d u c t i o n have not been e s t a b l i s h e d . 4-5  ppm  Cu can be c o n s i d e r e d  Diets containing  adequate so l o n g as t h e s e d i e t s do  c o n t a i n e x c e s s i v e amounts o f elements t h a t are a n t a g o n i s t s as i r o n , z i n c , cadmium and molybdenum (Underwood, 1977). absorbed from the stomach and a l l p o r t i o n s o f the s m a l l p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e upper s m a l l i n t e s t i n e (Owen, 1964;  Van Camper and M i t c h e l l , 1965).  i s p o o r l y absorbed (Comar, 1950). by the amounts and c h e m i c a l  The  not  of Cu  such  Cu i s intestine,  1964  In most s p e c i e s , d i e t a r y copper extent o f absorption i s i n f l u e n c e d  form o f the Cu i n g e s t e d , by the d i e t a r y  l e v e l o f s e v e r a l o t h e r m e t a l i o n s and o r g a n i c substances and by  the  age o f the animal (Underwood, 1977). The was  present  s t u d y showed t h a t a v a i l a b l e Cu from copper s u l f a t e  about 72 t o 75% when l e v e l s o f Cu f e d were from 4-32  ppm.  As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Cu a v a i l a b i l i t y i s a f f e c t e d by many f a c t o r s .  The  i n f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r , however, d i d not e x i s t i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study i n which a copper p u r i f i e d • d i e t was  employed.  remained q u i t e s i m i l a r a l t h o u g h  The  G u - a v a i l a b i l i t y from Cu s u l f a t e  the a b s o l u t e q u a n t i t y o f  absorption  for t h i s ion increased. R e s u l t s o f h i g h e r d i e t a r y copper l e v e l s were t e s t e d i n T r i a l 11.  Results of t h i s t r i a l  (Table 29) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was  no  TABLE 28:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Copper from L o w - D i e t a r y . L e v e l s o f Copp Sulfate"- in" ..th'e -,Grlp wi-ng ""Ghicks T  ,  :  Cu l e v e l (pp )  Treatment  Availability Cu  m  1. S..D.  +  2  80.,2  2. S.,D.  +  4  74., 9  3. S.,D.  +  8  74.  4. S..D.  +  16  72.,2  5. S.,D.  +  32  72., l  2  "Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s between t r e a t m e n t s (P < 0.05). S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n T a b l e 1.  4  (%)  b  a b  ab a  a  different  TABLE 29:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f Copper from H i g h D i e t a r y Level's o f Copp S u l f a t e -in. the'Growing C h i c k s "  Cu l e v e l (ppm)  A v a i l a b i l i t y (%)* Cu  1. S.D.  50  62.6  a  2. S.D.  100  62.6  a  3. S.D.  150  63.6  a  4. S.D.  200  62.7  a  5. S.D.  250  61.8  a  Treatment 2  '''Means w i t h d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s c r i p t s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t r e a t m e n t s (P < 0.05). 2 S y n t h e t i c d i e t as i n d i c a t e d  i n T a b l e 1.  different  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f Cu when t h e d i e t a r y i n c r e a s e d from 50-250 ppm. 61.8-63.6%.  level  The a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s ranged from  113  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s i x m i n e r a l s (Ca, P, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Cu) i n commercial wheat, t r i t i c a l e , c o r n and b a r l e y samples was w i t h three-week o l d growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  determined  E f f e c t s o f the l e v e l o f  d i e t a r y soybean and o f d i e t a r y wheat on m i n e r a l a v a i l a b i l i t y from these two f e e d s t u f f s was a l s o e v a l u a t e d .  Furthermore,  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f these  m i n e r a l s from v a r i o u s i n o r g a n i c s a l t s s s u c h as c a l c i u m phosphorus  (diabasic),  magnesium c a r b o n a t e , manganese s u l f a t e , z i n c o x i d e and copper s u l f a t e was a l s o determined.  The c e r e a l s under t e s t i n c l u d e d e l e v e n samples o f  wheat, one sample o f t r i t i c a l e , t e n samples o f c o r n and t h r e e samples o f b a r l e y from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . from l o c a l  chemical  The i n o r g a n i c m i n e r a l s were  purchased  suppliers.  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f phosphorus and magnesium f r o n a l l t h e c e r e a l g r a i n s was h i g h whereas t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f c a l c i u m , manganese, z i n c and copper was g e n e r a l l y low. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper ( 7 8 . 5 % ) , c a l c i u m ( 7 1 . 0 % ) , and phosphorus (67.4%) from wheat and t r i t i c a l e samples ranged from moderate t o h i g h f o r t h e b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  However,  magnesium ( 5 3 . 5 % ) , z i n c (49.6%) and manganese (48.4%) were low i n availability. the  S i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n (P < 0.01) was observed  , samples t e s t e d .  among  Corn samples showed t h e h i g h e s t a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r  copper ( 8 7 . 2 % ) , f o l l o w e d by c a l c i u m ( 7 0 . 0 % ) ,  phosphorus(60.9%),  manganese ( 6 0 . 0 % ) , z i n c (57.5%) and magnesium ( 5 1 . 0 % ) .  Similar to the  wheat samples, t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n among t h e c o r n samples for a l l the minerals tested.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m , phosphorus,  114  magnesium, manganese, z i n c and copper i n b a r l e y was 68.9, 54.9, 54.9, 49.1 and 77.5%, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  68.8,  Copper appeared t o be t h e  most a v a i l a b l e ^ f o r c h i c k s whereas t h e z i n c was t h e l e a s t a v a i l a b l e .  The  study o f b a r l e y a l s o i n d i c a t e s that mineral a v a i l a b i l i t y i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o r i g i n o f t h e samples. Growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s appear t o have d i f f e r e n t c a p a c i t i e s t o d i g e s t and absorb n u t r i e n t s .  A v a i l a b i l i t y values of minerals  were  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t when v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f the feed i n g r e d i e n t were tested.  F i v e l e v e l s (100, 75, 50, 25, and 12.5%) o f soybean meal and  wheat were t e s t e d i n s e p a r a t e m i x t u r e s . a v a i l a b i l i t y of minerals  The r e s u l t s show t h a t  i n c r e a s e s w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f :the  f e e d i n g r e d i e n t a l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between m i n e r a l and f e e d - s t u f f l e v e l s i s not l i n e a r .  I t i s apparent t h a t c h i c k s  have g r e a t e r a b i l i t y t o d i g e s t and absorb m i n e r a l s feed s t u f f l e v e l s .  from the lower  The i n c r e a s e i n r e t e n t i o n w i t h a decrease o f  soybean o r wheat c o n c e n t r a t i o n t o t h e improvement  availability  ( i . e . m i n e r a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n ) may be due  o f d i g e s t i b i l i t y and l e s s c o m p e t i t i o n  f o r the b i n d i n g  s i t e s o f p r o t e i n l i g a n d s f o r m i n e r a l t r a n s p o r t s i n the gut. Availability  o f c a l c i u m and phosphorus from c a l c i u m  phosphate  i n d i c a t e d t h a t each element was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o growing c h i c k s . V a l u e s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y d e c r e a s e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c a l c i u m and phosphorus concentration.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c a l c i u m ranged from 99.1% t o  35.2%, r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r 0.0125% and 1.6% c a l c i u m i n the d i e t .  The  phosphorus a v a i l a b i l i t y ranged from 99.0 t o 47.1% f o r 0.009% and 1.242% phosphorus, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The r e d u c t i o n i n a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e  with  115  the i n c r e a s e  o f calcium  and phosphorus i n t h e d i e t was due, i n p a r t ,  to t h e excess m i n e r a l i n t a k e r a t h e r than t o ^ d i g e s t i b i l i t y per se.  Availability  and r e t e n t i o n  o f magnesium from magnesium c a r b o n a t e i n d i c a t e d  t h a t magnesium was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e t o growing b r o i l e r s .  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f magnesium ranged from 82.3 t o 61.9% f o r 150 t o 900 ppm d i e t a r y magnesium, r e s p e c t i v e l y . w i t h low c o n c e n t r a t i o n  The magnesium a b s o r p t i o n  was  better  than w i t h excess magnesium i n t h e d i e t s .  Manganese from manganese s u l f a t e was p o o r l y a v a i l a b l e f o r growing The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f manganese ranged from 44.5 t o 47.3%.  chicks.  Various  l e v e l s o f manganese s u l f a t e d i d n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  value.  T h e r e f o r e , a l a r g e r q u a n t i t y o f manganese s u l f a t e i s needed as a supplement t o meet t h e n u t r i e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s .  Zinc a v a i l a b i l i t y  z i n c o x i d e was h i g h l y a v a i l a b l e f o r growing b o i l e r c h i c k s .  from  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f z i n c ranged from 84.4 t o 93% f o r a l l t h e d i e t s containing  25 t o 125 ppm o f z i n c .  Copper from copper s u l f a t e was  m o d e r a t e l y a v a i l a b l e t o growing b r o i l e r c h i c k s .  The  availability  v a l u e s ranged from 80.2 t o 72.1% f o r t h e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n o f 2 ppm t o 32 ppm o f copper, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The h i g h e r l e v e l o f copper supplemen-  t a t i o n ( i . e . 50 t o 250 ppm) r e s u l t e d i n copper a v a i l a b i l i t y v a l u e s r a n g i n g from 61.8 t o 63.6%. at higher d i e t a r y l e v e l s .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f copper tended t o ~ d e c r e a s e  116  REFERENCES  Aikawa, J . K.  1959. G a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l a b s o r p t i o n o f Mg  28  i n rabbits.  P r o c . Soc. Exp. B i o l . 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Treatment  11  Replicates Error  **Significant  2 Ca  P  Mg  : Mn  Zn  Cu  0.7594**  0.7161**  1.3077**  1.6990**  1.3865**  1.6416**  3  0.0152  0.0242  0.0186  0.0063  0.0397  0.0061  33  0.0131  0.0242  0.0296  0.0326  0.0181  0.0148  (P < 0.01)  APPENDIX 2:  Source o f variance  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from Corn  Mean Square d.f.  Ca  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  Treatment  0.4055**  0.9894**  0.3572**  1.4896**  2.8001**  0.2288*  Replicates  0.0435  0.0086  0.0878  0.0212  0.0209  0.0293  0.0090  0.0237  0.0273  0.0266  0.0177  0.0102  Error  **Significant  27  (P < 0.01)  APPENDIX 3:  A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r M i n e r a l A v a i l a b i l i t y from B a r l e y  Mean Square  Source o f variance  d.f.  Ca  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  Treatment  3.5267**  0.2031**  NS 0.0949  2.5077**  6.5378**  0.1978*  Replicates  0.0208  0.0213  0.0194  0.0888*  0.0050  0.0176  Error  0.0077  0.0163  0.0406  0.0183  0.0228  0.0172  ^Not  Significant  *Significant  (P < 0.05)  **Significant  (P < 0.01)  APPENDIX 4: . Analysis.- .of. V a r i a n c e -for. .Mineral"' A v a i l a b i l i t y 'in- -Diets.. C o n t a i n i n g . D i f f e r e n t ' L e v e l s o f Soybean Meal  Source o f variance  Mean Square d.f.  Ca  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  Treatment  1.7008**  0.5037**  0.2644**  0.8861**  1.3312**  1.1582**  Replicates  0.0052  0.0168  0.0292  0.0161  0.0142  0.0084  0.0230  0.0231  0.0242  0.0455  0.0115  0.0274  Error  **Significant  12  (P < 0.01)  APPENDIX 5:  Analysis  o f Variance f o r M i n e r a l ' A v a i l a b i l i t y i n - D i e t s Containing D i f f e r e n t Levels  _ Sourve o f  o f Wheat  Mean Square 2  variance  d.f.  Treatment  4  1.3538**  1.6117**  3.8814**  2.7110**  0.5872**  1.9568*  Replicates  3  0.0206  0.0159  0.0120  0.0328  0.0095  0.0068  12  0.0122  0.0161  0.0298  0.0401  0.0257  0.0296  Error  **Significant  (P < 0.01)  Ca  P  Mg  Mn  Zn  Cu  APPENDIX 6:.  Analysis of Variance f o r t h e - A v a i l a b i l i t y of C a l c i u m and Phosphorus from C a l c i u m Phosphate (Dibasic) Mean Square _  Source o f variance  d.f.  Treatment  8  8.1496**  5.1131**  Replicates  3  0.0036  0.0072  24  0.0055  0.0029  r  Error  **Significant  (P < 0.01)  Ca  APPENDIX 7:  Ana-lysis.-of V a r i a n c e f o r t h e A v a i l a b i l i t y Magnesium from Magnesium Carbonate  Source o f variance  d.f.  Mean Square Mg  Treatment  5  0.9629**  Replicates  3  0.0077  15  0.0090  Error  * * S i g n i f i c a n t (P < 0.01)  APPENDIX 8:  A v a i l a b i l i t y o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e f o r t h e Manganese S u l f a t e , Z i n c Oxide and Copper S u l f a t e Mean Square  Source o f variance  d.f.  Replicates 12  Error  Not  NS  Zn from zinc oxide (Trial 9)  Cu from copper sulfate ( T r i a l 10)  Cu from copper sulfate ( T r i a l 11) NS  0.1654^  0.1436*  0.0066  0.0103  0.0170  0.0164  0.0054  0.0369  0.0297  0.0290  0.0203  0.0327  Treatment  N S  Mn from manganese sulfate ( T r i a l 8)  significant  *Significant **Significant  (P < 0.01) (P < 0.05)  4^  

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