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The Trikâya : a study of the Buddhology of the early Vijñânavâda school of Indian Buddhism Hanson, Mervin Viggo 1980

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THE TRIKAYA: A STUDY OF THE BUDDHOLOGY OF THE EARLY VIJNANAVADA SCHOOL OF INDIAN BUDDHISM  by  MERVIN VIGGO HANSON M.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, 1970  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY.  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f R e l i g i o u s  Studies  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1980  (5)Mervin Viggo Hanson, 1980  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r  an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n  o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written  permission.  Department o f  R E L I G I O U S  S T U D I E S  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  August 1980  ABSTRACT  T h i s i s a study o f t h e t r i k a y a  (the s o - c a l l e d " t h r e e b o d i e s o f t h e  Buddha") d o c t r i n e whereby t h e e a r l y I n d i a n V i j n a n a v a d a B u d d h i s t s harmonized v a r i o u s b e l i e f s about t h e Buddha. The most important t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y s t u d i e s a r e reviewed, but a r e found t o c o n t a i n no r e l i a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e e a r l y d o c t r i n e .  Therefore, I  have undertaken t h i s study t o c l a r i f y and i n t e r p r e t t h e t r i k a y a . t e x t u a l source i s Asanga's Mahayanasamgraha,  which c o n t a i n s t h e e a r l i e s t  s y s t e m a t i c o u t l i n e o f t h e Vijfia.nava.da system. f i r s t been t r a n s l a t e d  The main  The B u d d h o l o g i c a l passages  have  (from T i b e t a n and Chinese) i n l i g h t o f t h e commentaries  by Vasubandhu and Asvabhava.  They have then been compared and arranged t o  expose t h e g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f Asanga's t r i k a y a . Why d i d Asanga i n t r o d u c e t h e t r i k a y a when o t h e r i n t e g r a t i v e  Buddhologies  ( e s p e c i a l l y t h e rupakaya/dharmakaya o f t h e p r a j n a p a r a m i t a ) were a l r e a d y a t hand?  A comparison  of h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . o f the t r i k a y a with the prajnaparamita  treatment o f s i m i l a r concerns r e v e a l s t h a t t h e former i n t e g r a t e s one i d e a t h a t the l a t t e r does n o t — t h a t o f t h e B u d d h a f i e l d .  The n e c e s s i t y t o i n c l u d e  this  nascent d o c t r i n e appears t o have been t h e main reason f o r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the t r i k a y a . In t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h e t r i k a y a has been a n a l y z e d f u r t h e r t o o b t a i n an a b s t r a c t S t r u c t u r a l i s t model e x h i b i t i n g Asanga's Buddhology i n terms a c c e p t able t o the non-believer. concept o f Buddhahood  I t i s a u s e f u l framework w i t h i n which t o study t h e  i t s e l f , and i t s r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r V i j n a n a v a d a dogma.  i s a l s o a convenient way t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o f modern "".investigations. T h i s model, d e r i v e d by an e x t e n s i o n o f Asanga's own s e a r c h f o r t h e  It  i m p l i c i t p a t t e r n behind  d i v e r s e s c r i p t u r a l statements about Buddhahood, i s  s i m i l a r t o those used by t h e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Claude L e v i - S t r a u s s .  Therefore,  v a r i o u s hypotheses were suggested by h i s w r i t i n g s . The model i s a two-dimensional diagram which r e p r e s e n t s between Buddha ( S v a b h a v i k a k a y a — a t the t o p ) and Man bottom).  They a r e , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y ,  uninhabited  e x i s t e n t i a l categories.  the  encounter  (Prthagjana—at  poles of a d i a l e c t i c a l tension The  the and  i n h a b i t e d r e g i o n in-.the middle o f the  diagram i s composed o f a continuum o f t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s along the h o r i z o n t a l axis.  Each c o n t a i n s t h r e e elements: Buddha, A s p i r a n t and Environment.  a c t u a l encounters between Buddha and A s p i r a n t occur  i n these  The  s i t u a t i o n s . "They  i n c l u d e t h a t o f the Neophyte i n the w o r l d , f o r whom t h e Buddha i s merely a message; t h e Sravaka who who  i s approached by a Nirmanakaya ( " h i s t o r i c a l Buddha")  teaches him by p a i n , and the B o d h i s a t t v a who  (the g o d - l i k e f i gure i n a B u d d h a f i e l d ) the course  who  approaches the  Sambhogakaya  matures him through p l e a s u r e .  o f these t h r e e , the a s p i r a n t undergoes " r e o r i e n t a t i o n , " i . e . ,  moves up the v e r t i c a l a x i s t o become a Buddha who, another a s p i r a n t .  The  placed within t h i s  diagram.  remainder  i n t u r n , reaches out  "of the B u d d h o l o g i c a l  examined.  to  i d e a s from the t e x t  F i n a l l y , t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s model t o o t h e r B u d d h o l o g i c a l is  In  are  questions  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  PAGE  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS  ix  LIST OF FIGURES  x  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xi  INTRODUCTION •'!•  1 k  NOTES  CHAPTER I.  REVIEW OF SCHOLARSHIP  5  1.  W. W. R o c k h i l l , The L i f e o f t h e Buddha  2.  H. Kern, "Sur 1 ' i n v o c a t i o n d'une i n s c r i p t i o n bouddhique"  3.  (1907)-  . . . .  (.1906)  6  L. de La V a l l e e P o u s s i n , "The Three Bodies o f a Buddha"  (.1906)  8  k.  D. T. S u z u k i , O u t l i n e s o f Mahayana Buddhism (1907)  5.  M. P. Masson-Oursel, "Les t r o i s corps du bouddha"  •  •  (1913) 6.  10  13  L. de L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , "Note s u r l e s corps du Bouddha"  J.  5  (.1913)  19  A. Coomaraswamy, Buddha and t h e Gospel o f Buddhism  (1916)  2k  8.  C. Akanuma, " T r i p l e Body o f t h e Buddha"  9.  L. de L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n , V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a s i d d h i  (1928-29)  (.1922) . . . .  . . . . .  25  28  V  CHAPTER  PAGE 10.  D. T. S u z u k i , S t u d i e s i n t h e L a n k a v a t a r a  S u t r a (1932)  11.  Hobogirin  12.  A. K. C h a t t e r j e e , The Yogacara Idealism-(.19.62)  13.  A. Matsunaga, The B u d d h i s t  .  3^+ . . .  36  Philosophy o f A s s i m i l a t i o n  (1969)  38  1^.  G. P a r r i n d e r , A v a t a r and I n c a r n a t i o n (1970)  . . . .  15.  G. Nagao, "On t h e Theory o f Buddha-Body" (.1973)  ^1  . . .  ^3  SUMMARY OF SCHOLARSHIP  k6  CONCLUSION  60  1.  MAITREYA  62  2.  ASANGA  63  3.  VASUBANDHU  6k  NOTES II.  32  67  THE TRIKAYA DOCTRINE IN THE MAHAYANASAMGRAHA  70  A.  SOURCES  71  B.  WHAT I S THE VIJNANAVADA?  73  C.  VIJNANAVADA OF THE MAHAYANASAMGRAHA  80  D.  A STUDY OF VIJNANAVADA BUDDHOLOGY IN THE MAHAYANASAMGRAHA 1.  85  11:33: THE TWENTY-ONE GUNAS OF THE BUDDHA  .  .  87  a.  The N o e t i c A b i l i t i e s  92  b.  The E f f e c t i v e A b i l i t i e s  92  i.  The Domain o f t h e Buddha  . . . .  93  ii.  The Buddha-body  95  iii.  The Buddha-mind  96  vi  CHAPTER  PAGE 2.  98  THE DHARMAKAYA a.  98  O b t a i n i n g t h e Dharmakaya i. ii.  Reorientation of the Alayavijnana  —  . . . .  100  . . . .  101  By N o n - c o n c e p t u a l and Subsequent Awareness  —  By t h e F i v e - F o l d P r a c t i c e .  —  By Amassing t h e A c c u m u l a t i o n o f  —  .  .  105  Equipment on A l l Bhumis  .  .  .  107  By t h e Vajropamasamadhi  .  .  .  107  The Dharmakaya as R e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e Skandhas  b.  The Dharmakaya —  i.  What I s I t ?  108 . . . .  113  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Claksanas) o f Ilk  t h e Dharmakaya ii. iii.  X:7:  The Buddhadharmas  X:9-27:  . . . .  125  Gunas A s s o c i a t e d w i t h  t h e Dharmakaya c.  128  The Dharmakaya as Seen by t h e Bodhisattva  d. 3.  98  O b t a i n i n g t h e Dharmakaya: The E p i s t e m i c E x p l a n a t i o n  iii.  .  The Dharmakaya —  . 130 A Summary  133  THE TRIKAYA a.  A U n i f i e d T r i k a y a o r Three Kayas? .  b.  Which Three Kayas?  llll .  .  iki lk3  vii  CHAPTER  PAGE c.  The Mrmanakaya: Buddha i n t h e World . i.  d.  The Mrmanakaya: A Summary  The Sambhogakaya —  .  . . .  156  Buddha i n  the Buddhafield i. ii. iii.  159  The Sambhogakaya —  General  .  .  .  The B u d d h a f i e l d Bodhisattvas —  Residents of  the B u d d h a f i e l d  168  —  Pleasure  171  —  Reorientation  172  —  Sovereignty  172  —  Awareness (j nana o r 175  —  P l e a s u r e and t h e Other  .  .  .  .  —  P l e a s u r e and t h e B o d h i s a t t v a ' s  177  Maturation The Three Kayas: I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i .  178 .  .  180  Mrmanakaya and Sambhogakaya Compared  ii.  159 l6k  n i r v i k a l p a j nana  e.  ihQ  185  The T r i k a y a and C l a s s i c a l Problems  .  187  —  One Buddha, o r Many Buddhas? .  .  188  —  I s t h e Buddha M o r t a l , o r Immortal?  —  192  Does t h e Buddha Remain i n N i r v a n a , o r Not?  196  viii  CHAPTER  PAGE — f.  III.  Conclusion  198  Why T h r e e K a y a s ?  198  NOTES  200  CONCLUSION  216  A.  C R I T E R I A FOR A MODEL  220  B.  ELEMENTS OF THE MODEL  221  C.  STRUCTURALISM  22*1  D.  DEVELOPING THE MODEL  227  1.  THE PRTHAGJANA  231  2.  THE NEOPHYTE  232  3.  THE SRAVAKA-NIRMANAKAYA ENCOUNTER  k.  REORIENTATION  5.  THE SAMBHOGAKAYA-BODHISATTVA  6.  THE SVABHAVIKAKAYA  235  7.  THE F U L L MODEL  236  8.  THE MODEL A P P L I E D  2h0  a.  Reorientation  .  .  .  .  23k ENCOUNTER .  .  23h  2^1  S v a b h a v i k a k a y a , Dharmakaya, and Support f o r t h e Rupakayas  E.  .  and S o t e r i o l o g i c a l  Progress b.  232  2^3  F I N A L COMMENTS  2^7  NOTES A P P E N D I X A: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SECONDARY  252 SOURCES  APPENDIX B: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED PRIMARY SOURCES  25^ . . .  262  ix  ABBREVIATIONS  BEFEO  B u l l e t i n de l ' E c o l e F r a n g a i s e d'Extreme-Orient.  Dk  Dharmakaya  JAOS  Journal  LC  Lokesh Chandra, T i b e t a n  o f t h e American O r i e n t a l Sanskrit  Society Dictionary  D e l h i : I n t e r n a t i o n a l Academy f o r I n d i a n Mvy  (New  Culture,  M a h a v y u t p a t t i and Index t o M a h a v y u t p a t t i . C o l l e g i a t e S e r i e s , no. 3, 3rd p r i n t i n g (Kichudo: Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y , Dept. o f L i t e r a t u r e , 1965)  Nk  Nirmanakaya  Sbk  Sambhogakaya  Svk  Svabhavikakaya  i960)  X  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE  PAGE  1  223  2  229  3  231  h  238  5  2kh  6  2U8  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish t o thank t h o s e who have h e l p e d  prepare t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n ,  e s p e c i a l l y L. H u r v i t z , my a d v i s o r , who has r e a d i t s c r u p u l o u s l y at t h e l a s t minute.  H i s d e t a i l e d suggestions  have g r e a t l y eased t h e f i n a l w r i t i n g .  Many f a c u l t y and graduate students  have c o n t r i b u t e d i d e a s and comments.  S p e c i a l thanks a r e due t o P r o f e s s o r G. Nagao ( P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s , Kyoto U n i v e r s i t y ) and A l a n Sponberg ( P r i n c e t o n ) .  P r o f e s s o r Nagao's encouragement  and  a d v i c e has h e l p e d  Dr.  Sponberg has p a t i e n t l y shared h i s knowledge o f t e x t u a l s o u r c e s ,  valuable  me t o f i n d , and keep t o , a p r o d u c t i v e  l i n e o f enquiry. and g i v e n  criticism.  P r o f e s s o r s N i c h o l l s , C l i f f o r d , K a s s i s and Mosca have s t r u g g l e d m i g h t i l y to administer little  t h e d o c t o r a l program and m y s e l f .  As a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  a p p r e c i a t i o n short o f t h e eschaton, may t h e y a l l be granted  s p e c i a l corner o f f i c e reserved Mrs.  that  f o r those who a r r i v e w i t h t h e i r f i l e s  Ruby Toren has d i s p l a y e d remarkable p a t i e n c e  through t h i s d i f f i c u l t  can expect  typing job.  I n Order.  and c o - o p e r a t i o n  The q u a l i t y o f h e r work speaks f o r i t s e l f .  I would a l s o l i k e t o thank those whose e x t r a o r d i n a r y a s s i s t a n c e has made my s t u d i e s a t UBC p o s s i b l e .  F i r s t mention must go t o Dr. S. I i d a , whose many  kindnesses i n the f i r s t years, inexperienced  i n c l u d i n g h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o vouch f o r an  l e c t u r e r , opened t h e program to: me.  A l l o f us i n t h e Buddhist  program owe Dr. I i d a an acknowledgement f o r h i s p e r s o n a l  sponsorship o f  Professor'Nagao's 1976,visit. I f Dr. K. C i s s e l l had not spent a tremendous amount o f h e r own time t e a c h i n g me t o r e a d Buddhist C h i n e s e , t h e Chinese t e x t s would s t i l l be c l o s e d . Thank you,  Kathy.  xii  E s p e c i a l l y warm thanks are due J . R i c h a r d s o n and N. K. C l i f f o r d who, a d d i t i o n t o o f f e r i n g innumerable aid, in  g e s t u r e s o f p e r s o n a l f r i e n d s h i p and  have been i n s p i r a t i o n s t o t h e s c h o l a r l y l i f e .  in  official  From P r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d s o n  p a r t i c u l a r , I l e a r n e d t h a t the study o f another's f a i t h i s p r i m a r i l y  an  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d act o f r e s p e c t . The  importance  o f the t r i k a y a was  brought t o my  a t t e n t i o n by the  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e T i b e t a n s p r u l - s k u , whose t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i s informed l e g i t i m i z e d through t h i s d o c t r i n e .  T h e i r Western c a r e e r s show t h a t i t i s a  p o w e r f u l mold f o r human a s p i r a t i o n s . who  gave me many days o f h i s t i m e .  P a r t i c u l a r thanks go t o Tarthang T u l k u , I must a l s o acknowledge w i t h g r e a t r e s p e c t  the examples o f the Venerable Dezhung T u l k u and K a l u Rinpoche. paragons  Both are  o f the concepts s t u d i e d h e r e .  The u s u a l inadequate thanks go t o my w i f e , J u d i t h . a s s i s t a n c e throughout graduate  and  Her capable •  the study has a g a i n proven the t r u i s m t h a t wives  s t u d e n t s must r e a d two  c a n o n i c a l languages, be e x p e r i e n c e d  e d i t o r s , p u b l i s h e d authors and secure c i v i l  servants.  She  of  copy-  i s ; and we made i t .  1  INTRODUCTION  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a study o f t h e t r i k a y a  (the s o - c a l l e d " t h r e e b o d i e s  o f t h e Buddha") d o c t r i n e — o n e o f t h e main schemes through which Mahayana B u d d h i s t s have understood t h e concept  "buddha."  Buddhahood^" i s t h e most important n o t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e Buddhist and p r a c t i c e s o f t h e past two m i l l e n n i a . goal o f , the r e l i g i o u s l i f e .  I t i s b o t h t h e impetus  beliefs  f o r , and t h e  The Buddhist t r a d i t i o n o f f e r s a s a v i n g message t o  those enmeshed i n a p a i n - f i l l e d w o r l d .  T h i s message o r i g i n a t e d from a Buddha,  who c l a i m s t o be a r t i c u l a t i n g the method by which he p e r s o n a l l y found r e l e a s e from p a i n , and works t o convert the a s p i r a n t , who has a c c e p t e d t h e message, i n t o a Buddha. of others.  T h i s new Buddha then r e f o r m u l a t e s a message f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n  While these are two d i f f e r e n t  i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o f a r as t h e y possess  d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e y share t h e same Buddhahood i n s o f a r as the e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g i s concerned. The e a r l y I n d i a n community s p l i t numerous b e l i e f s about Buddhahood. it  i n t o s e v e r a l s c h o o l s which developed  While t h e h i s t o r y o f t h i s p e r i o d i s murky,  i s s a f e t o say t h a t many l e a d i n g masters  o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y A.D. were  a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a broad spectrum o f b e l i e f s i n every a r e a o f dogma and were attempting t o f o r m u l a t e c a t h o l i c accommodated. Yogacara  systems w i t h i n which t h e s e c o u l d be  The broadest o f t h e r e s u l t i n g s c h o o l s was t h e V i j n a n a v a d a (or  ) whose development c o n t i n u e d i n b o t h T i b e t and t h e F a r E a s t .  The founders o f t h e V i j n a n a v a d a d i v i d e d Buddhist t h e o r y i n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f concerns and developed a comprehensive p o r a t i n g a wide range o f o p i n i o n s , around  each.  several  t h e o r y , capable o f i n c o r -  The c a t e g o r y which i n c l u d e d  the v a r i o u s e a r l y i d e a s about Buddhahood was o r g a n i z e d around t h e hew., t r i k a y a theory.  In a d d i t i o n t o harmonizing the e a r l y i d e a s , t h e t r i k a y a has s i n c e  2  proven c a p a b l e o f s t i m u l a t i n g t h e development o f new B u d d h o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s :. i n o t h e r c u l t u r e s , and i n h a r m o n i z i n g them w i t h t h e I n d i a n ones. D e s p i t e i t s importance, no s a t i s f a c t o r y e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e t r i k a y a i s available.  —  Modern i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have f a i l e d i n a t l e a s t one o f t h r e e ways:  Many s c h o l a r s , working o n l y from t h e t r i k a y a passages o f t h e V i j n a n a v a d i n t r e a t i s e s , have produced i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which c o n t r a d i c t o t h e r key a s p e c t s o f t h e system.  —  Many have produced narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the d o c t r i n e i n one  classical  t e x t , which are i n a p p l i c a b l e t o l a t e r developments grounded i n t h e c l a s s i c a l t r i k a y a and e x p l a i n e d by r e f e r e n c e t o —  The few s c h o l a r s who  have worked  it.  3  from t h e l a t e r t r a d i t i o n s  (e.g., H. V.  Guenther) have o f t e n produced i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which appear t o be anachron i s t i c when a p p l i e d t o t h e e a r l i e r  texts.  In t h i s study I attempt t o develop an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which w i l l be c a b l e t o t h e e n t i r e range o f I n d o - T i b e t a n Buddhology.  appli-  The study i n c l u d e s a  survey o f p r e v i o u s s c h o l a r s h i p , an i n t e n s i v e examination o f t h e t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e as i t appears i n Asanga's Mahayanasamgraha, the d e r i v a t i o n o f a s t r u c t u r a l model t h r o u g h which t o i n t e r p r e t t h e d o c t r i n e , and a b r i e f commentary o f the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h i s model t o o t h e r t e x t s . o f p r i m a r y sources f o r an expanded  In a d d i t i o n , a b i b l i o g r a p h y  study i s included ' i n Appendix B. -  While the  arrangement and a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a from t h e Mahayan as amgr aha c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b u l k o f t h e s t u d y , i t s f o c u s i s the new  structural  model.  •While f o r m u l a t i n g t h i s model , i t became obvious t h a t - t h e ' a n a l y s i s o f the :  f a c t o r s which l e d B u d d h i s t s t o r e p l a c e a two-kaya-by  a t r i k a y a t h e o r y , and t o •  3  defend the l a t t e r even w h i l e a d o p t i n g f u r t h e r m u l t i - k a y a t h e o r i e s , the broader  q u e s t i o n o f how  r i s e t o v a r i o u s two, One  o f the next  illuminates  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a s p i r a n t and o t h e r g i v e s  t h r e e and f o u r - t e r m d e s c r i p t i o n s o f r e l i g i o u s  stages i n an extended e n q u i r y would be t o b e g i n a  study o f t r i n i t a r i a n i s m on the b a s i s o f t h e s e  insights.  experience. comparative  k NOTES  ^ Western emphasis on t h e h i s t o r i c a l i n d i v i d u a l has "buddha" t o a proper  term which would simply be by  In o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e  some p o l y v a l e n c e ,  read  this  "buddha" i n the t e x t s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l  "Buddhahood" i n t h i s  a state of being  symbolic  noun, a p e r s o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n which i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y  as "a Buddha" or "the Buddha."  rendered  degraded t h e  study.  be  P l e a s e note t h a t "Buddhahood" i s not  i n which an i n d i v i d u a l Buddha may  exist.  2 The  l a c k o f agreement on a name f o r t h i s  t r a d i t i o n s descending from the e a r l y masters simply the "Mahayana").  s c h o o l i s due  (who  t o the many  u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e i r message  L a t e r adherents t o t h i s t r a d i t i o n i n I n d i a , T i b e t ,  China and Japan understood the t e a c h i n g i n s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t ways, d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n s about i t , and some saw  c a l l e d i t by d i f f e r e n t names.  t h e e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d a as s e v e r a l t r a d i t i o n s and  name t o each. (those who  applied a different  speak about v i j n a n a ) , V i j n a p t i m a t r a or C i t t a m a t r a  ("Ideation-only"  Yogacara ( " P r a c t i t i o n e r s o f Yoga") or F a - h s i a n g  marks"—a Far-Eastern In the present  ("Dharma-  term). study t h e e a r l y t r e a t i s e s a s c r i b e d t o Maitreya-Asanga-  Vasubandhu are regarded  as one  l o o s e "Vijnanavada"  system.  chosen over "Yogacara" because i t s t r e s s e s the s y s t e m a t i c  An  In a d d i t i o n ,  Most o f the names are v e r s i o n s o f t h r e e l a b e l s : V i j n a n a v a d a  or "Mind-only"),  meditative  accepted  T h i s term  was  r a t h e r than the  aspect. example i s the T i b e t a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f "'.sprul-sku" in- which a c e r t a i n  monastic r o l e i s c o n t i n u o u s l y  f i l l e d by the same i n d i v i d u a l v i a the  r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s or her s u c c e s s i v e r e i n c a r n a t i o n s . d e r i v e d from the t r i k a y a (";spr.ui-sku" ''Mrmanakaya," one  This i n s t i t u t i o n i s  i s simply the T i b e t a n t r a n s l a t i o n  o f the t h r e e kayas o f the t r i k a y a ) and  o n l y through the parent  doctrine.  official  can be  understood  I f that i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n the usual  ( i . e . , the Mrmanakaya i s an i n c a r n a t i o n o f a r e a l transcendent  of  way  Buddha), many  d e t a i l s o f the '. s p r u l r s k u ' s s t a t u s and* f u n c t i o n s remain-incomprehensible.  CHAPTER I REVIEW OF SCHOLARSHIP  5 The  l a c k o f any adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r i k a y a i s not due  n e g l e c t o f the t o p i c .  As e a r l y as 1939  l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c , ^ and New  Lamotte had  such a review  o f the e a r l i e r work.  and attempt t o d e f i n e  approaches which have been most (and l e a s t ) s u c c e s s f u l . s c h o l a r s h i p i s unnecessary. twentieth-century  studies.  nineteenth century  (Burnouf,  "immense"  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s have been p u b l i s h e d s i n c e .  r e s e a r c h must b e g i n w i t h a c a r e f u l review  t h i s s e c t i o n I s h a l l present  spoken o f the  to  The. f o l l o w i n g review  In  those  A complete survey  of  d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e major  No mention has been made o f n o t i c e s from the E d k i n s , B e a l , S c h l a g i n t w e i t and Kern a l l touched  on i t ) , or o f p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e s i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l l a t e r p o p u l a t i z a t i o n s of the Mahayana.  In a d d i t i o n t o the primary  scholarly investigations, a  I n d i a n , Japanese and B r i t i s h works have been i n c l u d e d because they the p o p u l a r modern u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the d o c t r i n e i n those  few  represent  countries.  The  e n t r i e s are i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . As  s e v e r a l o f these  s t u d i e s are s p r i n k l e d w i t h non-standard, i n c o n s i s t e n t  r e s t o r a t i o n s o f S a n s k r i t terms and o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , specific  1.  W.  I have not marked  errors within quotations.  W.  Rockhill.  The  L i f e o f the Buddha.  London: Kegan P a u l & Co.,  1907  ( a c t u a l t r a n s l a t i o n s done i n 188^).  T h i s p a s t i c h e o f T i b e t a n t e x t s i n c l u d e s the a b b r e v i a t e d s u t r a on ^ t r i k a y a c a l l e d the  'phags-pa sku-gsum shes-bya-ba theg-pa chen-po'i  R o c k h i l l ' s t r a n s l a t i o n reads  the mdo.  as f o l l o w s :  Once I heard the f o l l o w i n g d i s c o u r s e ( s a i d Ananda), w h i l e the B l e s s e d One was s t o p p i n g at R a j a g r i h a , on the V u l t u r e ' s Peak, t o g e t h e r w i t h an innumerable number o f b o d h i s a t t v a s , devas, and nagas who were doing him homage. Then from out t h i s company, the B o d h i s a t t v a K s h i t i g a r b h a ( S a ' i - s n y i n g - p o ) , who was ( a l s o ) t h e r e , arose from h i s seat and spoke as f o l l o w s  2  6 to the B l e s s e d One: 'Has the B l e s s e d One a body?' The B l e s s e d One s a i d , ' K s h i t i g a r b h a , the B l e s s e d One, the Tathagata, has t h r e e b o d i e s : the body o f the law (Dharmakaya), the body o f p e r f e c t enjoyment (Sambhogakaya), the a p p a r i t i o n a l body (Nirmanakaya). Noble s i r ( K u l a p u t r a ) , o f t h e t h r e e b o d i e s of the T a t h a g a t a , the Dharmakaya i s a p e r f e c t l y pure n a t u r e (svabhava), the Sambhoghakaya i s a p e r f e c t l y pure samadhi; a p e r f e c t l y pure l i f e i s the Nirmanakaya o f a l l Buddhas. Noble s i r , the Dharmakaya o f the Tathagata i s the p r e r o g a t i v e o f b e i n g without svabhava l i k e space; the Sambhogakaya i s the p r e r o g a t i v e o f b e i n g v i s i b l e l i k e a c l o u d ; the Nirmanakaya b e i n g the o b j e c t o f a l l Buddhas, i s the p r e r o g a t i v e o f permeating a l l t h i n g s as does a r a i n . ' . . . The B o d h i s a t t v a K s h i t i g a r b h a s a i d t o the B l e s s e d One, 'Make v i s i b l e these d e f i n i t i o n s o f the t r u e b o d i e s o f the B l e s s e d One.' Then the B l e s s e d One s a i d t o the B o d h i s a t t v a K s h i t i g a r b h a : 'Noble s i r , the t h r e e b o d i e s o f the Tathagata w i l l be d i s c e r n e d t h u s : the Dharmakaya i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n the whole a i r o f the Tathagata; the Sambhogakaya i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n the whole a i r o f a b o d h i s a t t v a ; t h e Nirmanakaya i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n t h e a i r o f d i f f e r e n t pious'men. Noble s i r , the Dharmakaya i s the nature i n h e r e n t t o a l l buddhas; the Sambhogakaya i s the samadhi i n h e r e n t t o a l l buddhas; the Nirmanakaya i s the o b j e c t o f a l l buddhas. Noble s i r , p u r i t y i n the abode o f the s o u l , the s c i e n c e l i k e a m i r r o r (adarsadjnana), i s the Dharmakaya; p u r i t y i n the abode o f the s i n f u l mind i s t h e s c i e n c e o f e q u a l i t y (samatajnana); p u r i t y i n the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the mind, the s c i e n c e o f t h o r o u g h l y a n a l y s i n g , i s the Sambhogakaya; p u r i t y i n the abode o f the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the f i v e doors, the s c i e n c e o f the achievement o f what must be done, i s the Nirmanakaya'  (pp. 200-202).  While R o c k h i l l made no attempt t o e x p l a i n t h i s l i t t l e passage, l a t e r r e f e r e n c e s show t h a t i t p r o v i d e d a s u c c i n c t statement o f the d o c t r i n e which enabled of  2.  everyone t o d i s c u s s the same t h i n g , no  s m a l l matter i n the e a r l y days  widespread c o n f u s i o n about Mahayana t e x t s and d o c t r i n e s .  H. Kern.  "Sur.1'invocation  d'une i n s c r i p t i o n bouddhique de Battambang."  T r a n s l a t e d by La V a l l e e P o u s s i n  T (1906): i+5-66. ' . :  This  begins:  from an a r t i c l e i n Dutch, 1899-  Museon,  7 namo s t u paramarthaya vyomakalpaya yo dadhau dharma-sambhogi-nirmana-kayam ( l ) t r a i l o k y a m u k t a y e : Nous t r a d u i s o n s : "Hommage a l a supreme v e r i t e , semblable a. l ' e s p a c e v i d e , q u i pour d e l i v r e r l e t r i p l e monde, a p r i s un Dharmakaya, un Sambhogakaya, un Nirmanakaya.' (p. k9).  Kern b e g i n s by a s k i n g how  " l a supreme v e r i t e "  (paramartha) beyond t h e  r e a l m o f t h o u g h t , can c l o t h e i t s e l f i n a t r i p l e body f o r t h e s a l v a t i o n o f t h e world.  He proposes (somewhat d o u b t f u l l y ) t h a t t h e t h r e e are c o n v e n t i o n a l  ( s a m v r t i ) b o d i e s as i s t h e w o r l d which t h e y save.  Hence t h e u l t i m a t e  does  not r e a l l y become or assume form. What r e a l l y i n t e r e s t s Kern i s t h e p l a c e o f t h i s d o c t r i n e i n I n d i a n thought.  Is i t merely a Buddhist v e r s i o n o f t h e Hindu t r i m u r t i ?  He notes  t h a t t h e t r i m u r t i r e f e r s t© b o t h : p a s t - p r e s e n t - f u t u r e , and t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e supreme being--through t h e t h r e e • gunas.  F o r t h e t r i k a y a t o be  r e l a t e d t o t h e s e , i t would have t o e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r meaning.  To determine  whether or not such a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s , he d e f i n e s t h e terms dharma, sambhoga and nirmana.  H i s d e f i n i t i o n s , and consequent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e  t r i k a y a t h e o r y w i t h t h e Samkhya, a r e simply t o o i l l - i n f o r m e d t o be  seriously  considered.  However, h i s major c o n c l u s i o n s t i l l  s t a n d s , a l t h o u g h we  might  q u e s t i o n why  he chose t h e h o r i z o n t a l t r i m u r t i r a t h e r t h a n a v e r t i c a l  triad  such as  Brahma-Visnu-Krsna:  De ce q u i precede, i l s u i t qu'entre l a T r i m u r t i et l e T r i k a y a i l y a seulement c e c i de commun q u ' i l s d i s p o s e n t en t r i a d e s l a s e r i e des phenomenes.  F i n a l l y , Kern a s k s ,  Pour q u e l l e r a i s o n l e s Mahayanistes o n t - i l s i n t r o d u i t dans l e u r systeme i d e a l i s t e , et y o n t - i l s adapte, t a l i t e r  8  q u a l i t e r , une d o c t r i n e a fondements m a t e r i a l i s t e s et r e a l i s t e s comme l ' e s t evidemment l a d o c t r i n e des t r o i s corps? Nous ne l e savons pas. On peut c o n j e c t u r e r que c e r t a i n e condescendance a l ' e g a r d d ' a d v e r s a i r e s p o r t e s a l'accommodement, avec l e s q u e l s on se s e n t a i t apparente sous beaucoup de r a p p o r t s et qu'on se s e r a i t v o l o n t i e r s a s s o c i e s c o n t r e un p u i s s a n t et commun ennemi, a eu pour consequence l a c o n c i l i a t i o n de deux systemes p r i m i t i v e m e n t d i v e r g e n t s : mais l e s donnees n e c e s s a i r e s nous manquent pour v e r i f i e r c e t t e hypothese (p. 57)-  Although  there i s l i t t l e  v a l i d f . i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h i s a r t i c l e , Kern's :  approach', i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . . ^e^does^hot"" s i m p l y q u o t e - d e f i n i t i o n s from a s a s t r a , but bases h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n on the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :  —  As Buddhism developed  be e x p l a i n e d i n i t s I n d i a n — to —  v i s - a - v i s o t h e r I n d i a n systems, a d o c t r i n e s h o u l d context.  C e r t a i n l o g i c a l problems are obvious r e s o l v e them w i l l  shed l i g h t on the  t o the European s c h o l a r .  An  attempt  theory.  F i n a l l y , the r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f the t h e o r y must be  considered.  Kern's a r t i c l e i s the l a s t o f the "remarks" by the o l d e r s c h o l a r s . informed  debate was  young men:  3.  i n i t i a t e d i n the same year by two  L o u i s de La V a l l e e P o u s s i n and D.  L. de La V a l l e e P o u s s i n . a Buddha ( T r i k a y a ) . "  M.  JRAS  aggressive  Suzuki.  " S t u d i e s i n Buddhist  Dogma: The  Three Bodies  of  (1906): 9U3-9TT.  La V a l l e e P o u s s i n connects  paying l i t t l e  T.  d i s s i m i l a r and  A more  the t r i k a y a w i t h the "Mahayana s c h o o l , "  a t t e n t i o n t o p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between a c t u a l s c h o o l s i n  I n d i a , China, Japan and T i b e t *  He d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e phases:  —  an e a r l y s p e c u l a t i v e d o c t r i n e o f Buddhahood drawn from Sunyavadin  —  a broadening  sources.  o f t h i s e a r l y d o c t r i n e t o cover the e n t i r e f i e l d o f dogmatics  9 (the Yogacara d o c t r i n e — a l t h o u g h La V a l l e e P o u s s i n understands Yogacara as the system o f Asvaghosa),./ —  a concluding t a n t r i c  He  phase.  i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n the f i r s t two  phases.  He knew, and wished t o  know, n o t h i n g whatsoever about the t a n t r a s ;  The T a n t r i c authors . . . are more obscure and a b s t r u s e the more v u l g a r and obscene are the f a c t s t h a t t h e y have made the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t o f t h e i r insane or f r a n t i c l u c u b r a t i o n s . .  U s i n g the above d i v i s i o n s , La V a l l e e P o u s s i n kayas i n t u r n . p l e t e and his  few  Unfortunately, h i s understanding o f h i s comments are a c c e p t a b l e .  examines each o f the o f Mahayana t h e o r y was  I t w i l l be  I. The d o c t r i n e o f the T r i k a y a as Buddhology, a f t e r i t s comp l e t i o n , but y e t f r e e from the " o n t o l o g i c a l " and cosmogonic speculations.  (B)  (C)  The v e r y nature o f a Buddha i s the Bodhi ( E n l i g h t e n m e n t ) , o f P r a j n a p a r a m i t a ( P e r f e c t Wisdom), or knowledge o f the Law (Dharm'a), i . e . , o f the a b s o l u t e T r u t h . By a c q u i r i n g t h i s knowledge, n i r v a n a i s r e a l i z e d i n p o t e n t i a or i n actu. The Dharmakaya, Body o f the Law, o f a Buddha i s the Buddha i n n i r v a n a or i n n i r v a n a - l i k e r a p t u r e (samadhikaya = dharmakaya). A Buddha, as l o n g as he i s not y e t merged i n t o n i r v a n a , possesses and e n j o y s , f o r h i s own sake and f o r o t h e r s ' w e l f a r e , the f r u i t o f h i s c h a r i t a b l e b e h a v i o r as a Bodhisattva. The second body i s the Body o f Enjoyment or B e a t i f i c Body (sambhogakaya). Human beings known as Buddhas are m a g i c a l c o n t r i v a n c e s (nirmanakaya) c r e a t e d at 'random by r e a l Buddhas, i . e . , by Buddhas possessed o f b e a t i f i c b o d i e s , s o v e r e i g n s o f c e l e s t i a l worlds , Tusita-heavens or ' P a r a d i s e s ' ( S u k h a v a t i s ) .  II. The system. (A)  d o c t r i n e o f T r i k a y a as an o n t o l o g i c and  incom-  s u f f i c i e n t t o quote  summary:  (A)  three  cosmologic  By Body o f Law one has t o understand the v o i d and permanent r e a l i t y t h a t u n d e r l i e s every phenomenon (dharma),  or t h e s t o r e o f the dharmas,' o r more e x a c t l y t h e uncharacterized I n t e l l e c t (vijnana). Body o f Enjoyment i s the Dharmakaya e v o l v e d as B e i n g , B l i s s , C h a r i t y , Radiance, o r t h e I n t e l l e c t as f a r as i t i s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d as Buddha o r B o d h i s a t t v a . M a g i c a l o r r a t h e r T r a n s f o r m a t i o n Body i s t h e same I n t e l l e c t when d e f i l e d , when i n d i v i d u a l i z e d as 'common p e o p l e ' ( p r t h a g j a n a ) , i n f e r n a l b e i n g , e t c . (pp. 9^5-9^+6). 1  (B)  (C)  While t h i s p i o n e e r i n g study h e l p e d t o open t h e s u b j e c t t o Western scholarship, i t contains l i t t l e of  acceptable information.  h i s c a r e e r L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n was a c q u a i n t e d w i t h o n l y a few Buddhist  and l a c k e d the overview  confused and,  argument  texts,  o f Mahayana Buddhism n e c e s s a r y t o make h i s t o r i c a l and  d o c t r i n a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n the "Mahayana s c h o o l . " is  I n t h i s e a r l y phase  H i s t h r e e - s t a g e model  s h o u l d the r e a d e r supply more a c c u r a t e d i s t i n c t i o n s , t h e  disintegrates.  Above a l l , t h e author i s not d e a l i n g w i t h the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e b u t w i t h a d o c t r i n e o f t h r e e separate kayas, each s t u d i e d i n an h i s t o r i c a l - d e v e l o p m e n t a l manner.  k.  D. T. S u z u k i .  The  O u t l i n e s o f Mahayana Buddhism.  London: Luzac, 1907-  s o l e s i m i l a r i t y between the approaches o f L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n and  Suzuki i s t h e f a c t t h a t both d e s c r i b e a Mahayana s c h o o l i r r e s p e c t i v e o f time and c u l t u r e .  L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n was t h e European s c h o l a r f o r whom Buddhism was  an e x t e n s i o n ( v i a S a n s k r i t ) o f c l a s s i c a l He  s t u d i e s — a complex t e x t u a l p u z z l e .  seems not t o have e n t e r t a i n e d the s l i g h t e s t  suspicion that a continuing  Mahayana t r a d i t i o n might be e x t a n t , o r t h a t adherents  t o i t c o u l d throw l i g h t  3 on t h e i r own s c r i p t u r e s . Suzuki's a p o l o g e t i c i s a b r e a t h o f l i f e  amidst t h i s a r i d arrogance.  Mahayana i s not a p h i l o l o g i c a l game but a d e v e l o p i n g  faith:  His  I t i s naught "but an i d l e t a l k t o q u e s t i o n the h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e o f an organism, which i s now f u l l o f v i t a l i t y and a c t i v e i n a l l i t s f u n c t i o n s , and t o t r e a t i t l i k e an a r c h e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t , dug out from the depths o f the e a r t h , or l i k e a p i e c e of b r i c - a - b r a c , d i s c o v e r e d i n the r u i n s o f an a n c i e n t r o y a l p a l a c e . Mahayanism i s not an o b j e c t o f h i s t o r i c a l c u r i o s i t y . I t s v i t a l i t y and a c t i v i t y concern us i n our d a i l y l i f e . It i s a g r e a t s p i r i t u a l organism; i t s moral and r e l i g i o u s f o r c e s are s t i l l e x e r c i s i n g an enormous power over m i l l i o n s o f s o u l s ; and i t s f u r t h e r development i s sure t o be a v e r y v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the w o r l d - p r o g r e s s o f the r e l i g i o u s c o n s c i o u s ness. What does i t matter, t h e n , whether or not Mahayanism i s t h e genuine t e a c h i n g o f the Buddha? (p. 15)-  T h i s a t t i t u d e u n d e r l i e s the e n t i r e book. t r a d i t i o n , as i t reached him,  Suzuki a c c e p t s the Japanese  as "Mahayana."  He  shows c o m p a r a t i v e l y  little  interest  i n i t s h i s t o r y , p r e f e r r i n g t o p r e s e n t a d o c t r i n e p a l a t a b l e t o West  tastes.  The  f a c t t h a t t h i s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be a m o d i f i e d form o f t h e  d o c t r i n e he h i m s e l f has r e c e i v e d b o t h e r s him not at a l l .  After a l l ,  been c o n t i n u o u s l y a d a p t i n g f o r more than two m i l l e n n i a — w h y  i t has  stop now?  In  b r i e f , Suzuki i s a m i s s i o n a r y . From h i s Western c o n t a c t s (e.g., P a u l C a r u s ) , Suzuki seems t o have concluded t h a t the modern c o n s c i o u s n e s s  i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y Hegelian  d e v o u t l y C h r i s t i a n , and has p r e s e n t e d Buddhism i n terms drawn from Two  and both.  c h a p t e r s o f the O u t l i n e s are e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t : c h a p t e r IX,  Dharmakaya," and chapter X,  "The  Doctrine of Trikaya."  "The  Suzuki views the  Dharmakaya as t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f h i s M a h a y a n a - H e g e l i a n - C h r i s t i a n i t y  (with  some Vedanta thrown i n f o r u n i v e r s a l i t y ) :  The Dharmakaya may be compared i n one sense t o the God of C h r i s t i a n i t y and i n another sense t o the Brahman or Paratman o f Vedantism. I t i s d i f f e r e n t , however, from the former i n t h a t i t does not stand t r a n s c e n d e n t a l l y above the u n i v e r s e , which, a c c o r d i n g t o the C h r i s t i a n view, was c r e a t e d by God, but which i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Mahayanism, a. m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the Dharmakaya h i m s e l f . I t i s a l s o d i f f e r e n t from Brahman i n t h a t i t i s mot a b s o l u t e l y i m p e r s o n a l , nor i s i t  a mere b e i n g . The Dharmakaya, on the c o n t r a r y , i s capable o f w i l l i n g and r e f l e c t i n g , o r , t o use Buddhist p h r a s e o l o g y , i t i s Karuna ( l o v e ) and Bodhi ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) , and not the mere s t a t e " o f b e i n g . T h i s p a n t h e i s t i c and at the same time e n t h e i s t i c Dharmakaya i s working i n every s e n t i e n t b e i n g , f o r s e n t i e n t b e i n g s are n o t h i n g but a s e l f - m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e Dharmakaya. I n d i v i d u a l s are not i s o l a t e d e x i s t e n c e s , as imagined by most people. I f i s o l a t e d , t h e y are n o t h i n g , t h e y are so many soap-bubbles which v a n i s h one a f t e r another i n the v a c u i t y o f space. A l l p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t e n c e s a c q u i r e t h e i r meaning o n l y when t h e y are thought o f i n t h e i r oneness i n the Dharmakaya. The v e i l o f Maya, i . e . , s u b j e c t i v e i g n o r a n c e , may t e m p o r a l l y throw an o b s t a c l e t o our p e r c e i v i n g the u n i v e r s a l l i g h t o f Dharmakaya, i n which we are a l l one. But when our Bodhi o r i n t e l l e c t , which i s by the way a r e f l e c t i o n o f the Dharmakaya i n the human mind, i s so f u l l y e n l i g h t e n e d , we no more b u i l d the a r t i f i c i a l b a r r i e r o f egoism b e f o r e our s p i r i t u a l eye; the d i s t i n c t i o n between the meurn and t e m i s o b l i t e r a t e d , no d u a l i s m throws the nets o f entanglement over us; I r e c o g n i s e m y s e l f i n you and you r e c o g n i s e y o u r s e l f i n me; t a t tvam a s i . . . T h i s s t a t e o f enlightenment may be c a l l e d the s p i r i t u a l expansion o f the ego, o r , n e g a t i v e l y , the i d e a l a n n i h i l a t i o n o f t h e ego. A n e v e r - d y i n g stream" o f sympathy and l o v e which i s the l i f e o f r e l i g i o n w i l l now spontaneously f l o w out o f the f o u n t a i n h e a d o f Dharmakaya (pp. k6-kl,).  Suzuki sees the " D o c t r i n e o f T r i k a y a " as a somewhat d i f f e r e n t which he does not r e a l l y understand. does not seem to.'.utilize i t s i d e a s .  doctrine,  He quotes from the Suvarnaprabhasa Suzuki has no d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the  kaya model, i n t o which he q u i c k l y s l i p s .  but two-  The Dharmakaya i s God o r B e i n g ,  which i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the phenomenal e a r t h l y Nirmanakaya.  Suzuki  realizes,  w i t h some embarrassment, t h a t t h i s does not r e a l l y t o u c h the t h r e e k a y a d o c t r i n e , and t r i e s t o e x p l a i n away the Sambhogakaya as an  interloper:  But the c o n c e p t i o n o f Sambhoghakaya i s a l t o g e t h e r too m y s t e r i o u s t o be fathomed by a l i m i t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . . the most p l a u s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t suggests i t s e l f t o modern s c e p t i c a l minds i s t h a t the Sambhogakaya must be a mere c r e a t i o n o f an i n t e l l i g e n t , f i n i t e mind, which i s i n t e n t l y bent on r e a c h i n g the h i g h e s t r e a l i t y , b u t , not b e i n g a b l e ,  on account o f i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , ' t o grasp t h e o b j e c t i n i t s a b s o l u t e n e s s , t h e f i n i t e mind f a b r i c a t e s a l l i t s i d e a l s a f t e r i t s own f a s h i o n i n t o a s p i r i t u a l - m a t e r i a l b e i n g , which i s l o g i c a l l y a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , but r e l i g i o u s l y an o b j e c t d e s e r v i n g v e n e r a t i o n and worship. And t h i s b e i n g i s no more than t h e Body o f B l i s s . I t l i e s h a l f way between t h e pure b e i n g o f Dharmakaya and t h e e a r t h l y form o f Nirmanakaya," the Body o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t does not b e l o n g t o e i t h e r , but p a r t a k e s something o f b o t h . I t i s i n a sense s p i r i t u a l l i k e t h e Dharmakaya, and y e t i t cannot go beyond m a t e r i a l l i m i t a t i o n s , f o r i t has a form, d e f i n i t e and determinate. When t h e human s o u l i s t h i r s t y a f t e r a pure b e i n g o r an a b s o l u t e which cannot be comprehended i n a p a l p a b l e form, i t c r e a t e s a h y b r i d , an i m i t a t i o n , o r a r e f l e c t i o n , and t r i e s t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t , j u s t as a l i t t l e g i r l has h e r i n n a t e and not yet f u l l y developed m a t e r n i t y s a t i s f i e d by t e n d e r l y embracing and n u r s i n g t h e d o l l , an inanimate i m i t a t i o n o f a r e a l l i v i n g baby. And t h e Mahayanists seem t o have made most o f t h i s c h i l d i s h humanness. They produced as many s u t r a s as t h e i r s p i r i t u a l y e a r n i n g s demanded, q u i t e r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , and made t h e Body o f B l i s s o f t h e T a t h a g a t a t h e author  of a l l t h e s e works... . (pp. 267-268). Modern Mahayanists i n f u l l accordance w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e D o c t r i n e o f T r i k a y a do.not p l a c e much importance on t h e o b j e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e Body o f B l i s s (Sambhogakaya). They c o n s i d e r them a t b e s t t h e f i c t i t i o u s p r o d u c t s o f an i m a g i n a t i v e mind . . . modern B u d d h i s t s l o o k w i t h d i s d a i n on t h e s e e g o t i s t i c m a t e r i a l i s t i c c o n c e p t i o n s  of r e l i g i o u s l i f e  In  (pp. 268-269).  b r i e f , Suzuki s h i f t s t o a two-kaya t h e o r y i n t e r p r e t e d o n t o l o g i c a l l y ,  f i n a l attempt  A  t o d e a l w i t h t h e t r i k a y a by h o m o l o g i z i n g i t t o t h e C h r i s t i a n  t r i n i t y founders on t h e f a c t t h a t he understands t h e Holy S p i r i t no b e t t e r -than t h e Sambhogakaya...  5-  M.. P. Masson-Oursel. series  . "Les t r o i s corps du bouddha."  Journal Asiatique  2, 1 (1913): 58I-618.  M. Masson-Oursel  had t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s a t h i s d i s p o s a l : two i n -  s c r i p t i o n s , Stael-Holstein's Tibetan version o f the Trikayastava, R o c k h i l l t e x t , L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s 1906 a r t i c l e , Suzuki's O u t l i n e s , t h e t e x t o f t h e  Aphisamayalankara (which he had an u n i d e n t i f i e d m a n u s c r i p t .  r e a d w i t h S. L e v i ) , and  a related portion  He proposes a t e n t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e  m a t e r i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y o f the d a t a o f f e r e d by La V a l l e e P o u s s i n and The  a r t i c l e i s i n three  Suzuki.  parts:  —  an examination o f each kaya.  —  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l r o o t s o f the  —  e x t r a c t s from the Abhisamayalankara and  He b e g i n s by  of  d e f i n i n g kaya as  doctrine.  the u n i d e n t i f i e d m a n u s c r i p t .  "organism" or "system" r a t h e r than "body,"  p o i n t i n g out t h a t i n Buddhist t h e o r y ,  the o n l y s t a b i l i t y i s t o be  r e l a t i o n s h i p s which o c c u r between phenomena: "Kaya designe une  found i n the  l o i de ce  genre,  par o p p o s i t i o n a l a f i x i t e r i g i d e d'une substance ou d'une p e r s o n n a l i t e . " The t i o n : the  author m a i n t a i n s t h a t  "dharma" i n "Dharmakaya" has  sense o f a moral r u l e or law  i t i s the  i s the f i r s t  first  religious principle.  the  As the p r o t o t y p e o f  As the  supreme a b s t r a c t i o n i t  metaphysical p r i n c i p l e .  While La V a l l e e P o u s s i n has Masson-Oursel c a s t i g a t e s him the  significa-  (as i n the P a l i dhammakaya), and  sense o f e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y , r e a l i t y , t r u e n a t u r e . morality  a dual  c r i t i c i z e d Suzuki f o r a c c e p t i n g  f o r i g n o r i n g the l a t t e r .  the  former,  F u r t h e r , he p o i n t s  out  i n c o n s i s t e n c y between La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s r e j e c t i o n o f the Dharmakaya as  o n t o l o g i c a l substrate  and the o n t o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d e x p l a n a t i o n  in his  1906  article. Masson-Oursel goes on t o i d e n t i f y the t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a w i t h alayavijnana  and  the  t a c k l e s the problem which t o La V a l l e e P o u s s i n had  a "cosmic" dimension:  II  peut sans doute sembler etrange que  l e Dharmakaya  presented  15  d'un Bouddha ( c a r tous l e s Bouddhas p o s s i b l e s possedent, theoretiquement, l e s t r o i s kaya) s o i t proclame l a m a t r i c e des a u t r e s Bienheureux; mais c ' e s t simplement .urie f a c o n d ' i n d i q u e r que l e Dharmakaya a p p a r t i e n t en commun a tous l e s T a t h a g a t a s , c ' e s t - a - d i r e d ' a f f i r m e r l ' u n i t e du bouddhisme, l ' i d e n t i t e de s a p h i l o s o p h i e e t de s a morale a t r a v e r s l ' i n f i n i e m u l t i p l i c i t e des Bouddhas concevables  (pp. 58^-585).  He a l s o mentions t h e m y t h i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the Dharmakaya w i t h f i g u r e s as V a i r o c a n a .  He concludes t h a t , "en r a i s o n de ses a t t r i b u t s a l a  f o i s metaphysiques et moraux, e s t proprement l a c o n c e p t i o n Mahayaniste l'absolu."  such  de  As such, i t i s somehow "above" t h e o t h e r t w o — they a r e a s p e c t s  of i t . The author t r a n s l a t e s "Sambhogakaya" l i t e r a l l y as "body o f b e a t i t u d e , " of "body o f sympathy," b u t admits t h a t t h i s h e l p s v e r y l i t t l e .  He begins  w i t h L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t , "un Bouddha, t a n t q u ' i l n ' e s t pas encore plonge d a n s - l e N i r v a n a , j o u i t , pour son propre avantage l'avantage d ' a u t r u i , du f r u i t But, o b j e c t s Masson-Oursel,  de s a c o n d u i t e c h a r i t a b l e comme B o d h i s a t t v a . "  i f t h e Sambhogakaya i s a stage p r i o r t o f u l l  Buddhahood, how can i t be a body o f t h e Buddha? e x p l a n a t i o n was t h a t  e t pour  L a V a l l e e Poussin's  second  " l e Dharmakaya evolue a l ' e t a t d ' e t r e , de b e a t i t u d e , de  c h a r i t e , d ' e c l a t lumineux ou 1 ' i n t e l l e c t a l i s e comme Bouddha ou B o d h i s a t t v a . "  ( v i j n a n a ) en t a n t q u ' i l e s t i n d i v i d u -  To t h i s Masson-Oursel a s k s , "Nous  a i m e r i o n s a s a v o i r q u e l e s t l e r a p p o r t e n t r e l a j o u i s s a n c e qu'a l e Dharmakaya lui-meme, e t son e x t e r i o r i s a t i o n en d'autres e t r e s . " honest  Presumably t h i s i s an  q u e s t i o n and not a r h e t o r i c a l r e f u t a t i o n l i k e t h e l a s t .  has been a key q u e s t i o n f o r t h e B u d d h i s t s Masson-Oursel's mediate kaya,  Certainly i t  themselves.  own u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h a t t h e Sambhogakaya i s an i n t e r -  s h a r i n g t h e n a t u r e s o f b o t h Dharmakaya and Nirmanakaya.  It i s  16 manifested  f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a s , whose n a t u r e  character of the manifestation. samadhikaya, t h e vipakakaya But  To t h i s i d e a he t i e s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e  o r punya-sambhara, and o f t h e marks o f t h e Buddha.  a l l o f t h i s does not e x p l a i n how o r why t h e t o t a l l y  Dharmakaya m a n i f e s t s  explains the  itself.  Masson-Oursel notes  transcendent  La V a l l e e Poussin's  dual  explanation:  —  t h a t t h e Buddha's s t o r e o f m e r i t a u t o m a t i c a l l y g i v e s r i s e t o a Sambhogakaya  for the s a l v a t i o n o f a l l beings. —  t h a t t h e Sambhogakaya r e p r e s e n t s a compassionate response on t h e p a r t o f  the Buddha.  But, Masson-Oursel a s k s , i f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s m e c h a n i c a l o r automatic, why i s t h e concept dictory.  o f compassion necessary?  These two a r e , he f e e l s ,  contra-  We may remark here t h a t Masson-Oursel seems t o be unacquainted  with  the B o d h i s a t t v a vow and i s p r o b a b l y t r a p p e d by Western c o n n o t a t i o n s o f "compassion." To answer t h e q u e s t i o n o f how a Buddha may possess author  a Sambhogakaya, t h e  r e f e r s t o a passage o f t h e Suvarnaprabhasa quoted by S u z u k i : t h e s i m i l e  o f moon, water and v i s u a l p a t c h , a l l t h r e e o f which a r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n s t i t u t e an image,  The moon r e p r e s e n t s t h e Dharmakaya, t h e water t h e B o d h i s a t t v a , t h e  v i s u a l p a t c h t h e Sambhogakaya which u n i t e s them. obscure argument from Spinoza.  T h i s t a p e r s o f f i n t o an  F i n a l l y , he says:  La p r i n c i p a l e d i f f i c u l t e que nous eprouvons a nous f a i r e une i d e e du Sambhogakaya r e s i d e dans son c a r a c t e r e a l a f o i s o b j e c t i f , comme m a n i f e s t a t i o n , e t s u b j e c t i f , comme b e a t i t u d e . Mais t o u t e metaphysique a e t e f o r c e e , bon g r e , mal g r e , de r e c o n n a i t r e a l ' a b s o l u ces deux c a r a c t e r e s ; l e Dharmakaya n ' e t a i t - i l pas d e j a e t r e e t bodhi? Nous ne nous f l a t t o n s pas, d i a i l l e u r s de d i s s i p e r l e s i n c e r t i t u d e s q u i f l o t t e n t  17 autour du concept de Sambhogakaya: l e rendre pleinement i n t e l l i g i b l e s e r a i t se meprendre sur sa s i g n i f i c a t i o n authent i q u e , p u i s q u ' i l f a u d r a i t e t r e B o d h i s a t t v a pour p e n e t r e r v e r i t a b l e m e n t son sens, de meme que l e Dharmakaya n'est c o m p r e h e n s i b l e — a supposer qu'on a i t encore l e d r o i t .•c~ d'employer ce mot—qu'aux s e u l s Bouddhas (p. 590)-  Although  t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , Masson-Oursel  brought out two  important  points:  —  t h e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Sambhogakaya and  —  the i n t e r m e d i a t e , r e l a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f the Sambhogakaya.  Both o f these must be r e t a i n e d i n any The  author  has  Bodhisattva.  future discussion.  i s much more c e r t a i n about the Nirmanakaya:  Dans l e Dharmakaya l.Vessence du Bouddha e t a i t t e l l e m e n t i n t e r i e u r e a elle-meme, qu'.'elle se r e n f e r m a i t en une i n d i v i s i b l e u n i t e , s u p e r i e u r e a t o u t e c o n s c i e n c e ; dans l e Sambhogakaya c e t t e essence se rend a c c e s s i b l e , sans t o u t e f o i s se d i v i s e r , aux e t r e s devenus l e s p l u s proches d'elle-meme; dans l e Nirmanakaya e l l e s'.'exteriorise en apparences imparfaites, individuelles, multiples. . . . Nirmanakaya designe avant t o u t l e s Bouddhas sous l a forme ou i l s ont apparu ou a p p a r a i t r o n t sur c e t t e t e r r e . Au l i e u de r e s t e r i n d i f f e r e n t s . dans l ' e t e r n i t e , i l s envoient en ce monde de misere des r e f l e t s ( p r a t i b i m b a ) d'eux-memes. . .  (p.  591).  T h i s seems r e a s o n a b l e .  However, he  continues:  Le nom de Nirmanakaya s ' a p p l i q u e en o u t r e , en un sens p l u s l a r g e , a t o u t e s apparences s e n s i b l e s , aux phenomenes du monde du d e s i r (kamaloka). A u s s i ce kaya e s t - i l p r e s e n t p a r t o u t ( s a r v a t r a g a ) ; i l e s t l e c r e a t e u r ( n i r m a t a r ) de cet u n i v e r s , t h e a t r e de n o t r e v i e (p. 591)•  The  author  accounts  f o r t h e s e two  i d e a s (Nirmanakaya as Sakyamuni  and  Nirmanakaya as samsara) by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y r e f e r t o o p p o s i t e views o f the  18 same r e a l i t y , t h a t the Nirmanakaya i s an ambiguous concept, "La meme idee retrouve  i c i sous une  saveur a u s e i n  forme p l u s  du Nirmanakaya."  imagee, dans c e t t e i d e n t i t e du c r e a t e u r Should t h i s s u g g e s t i o n r e a l l y h o l d up,  se et  i t would  p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s h i s t o r i c a l stages s e p a r a t i n g B u d d h o l o g i c a l from the  du  the  cosmological.  A f t e r h i s review o f each kaya, the  author surveys the h i s t o r i c a l  p h i l o s o p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d o c t r i n e .  He  and  says f r a n k l y ,  I I e s t r e g r e t t a b l e que 1 ' i n s u f f i s a n c e des documents dont nous disposons nous a i t c o n t r a i n t de r e s t i t u e r c e t t e a b s t r u s e t h e o r i e des t r o i s corps au moyen de t e x t e s des provenances et des epoques l e s p l u s d i s p a r a t e s . Le sens de l a d o c t r i n e ne s e r a vraiment connu que l o r s q u e nous pourrons determiner dans q u e l l e s c i r c o n s t a n c e s e l l e est nee, dans q u e l l e mesure e l l e a v a r i e (p. 592).  A f t e r a b r i e f h i s t o r i c a l sketch,:of the L o k p t t a r a  i d e a , Masson-Oursel  summarizes:  A i n s i , l e probleme des t r o i s corps n a q u i t d'un e f f o r t s p e c u l a t i f pour c o n c i l i e r l e s t r a i t s c o n t r a d i c t o i r e s de l a p e r s o n n a l i t e du Bouddha: l a v a l e u r absolue de son e n s e i g n e ment et l e s c o n t i n g e n c e s de sa v i e humaine. La s o l u t i o n c o n s i s t e a poser dans l ' e t e r n e l un Dharmakaya a b s o l u , et a p r o j e t e r dans l e temps, dans l ' e s p a c e , dans l e monde, une ombre de ce d i e u , l e Nirmanakaya. . . . l a d o c t r i n e prend une forme metaphysique b i e n p l u s a b s t r a i t e chez Asanga. . . . E l l e r e v e t a u s s i l a forme d'un c u l t e p o p u l a i r e ; des exvoto sont consacres au Sambhogakaya ou au Nirmanakaya comme chez nous au Sacre-Coeur. Le dogme nouveau s'etend au T i b e t , a l a Chine, a l a M o n g o l i e , au Japon, i l s'y perpetue j u s q u ' a nos j o u r s . Au cours du moyen age, l e t a n t r i s m e m u l t i p l i a s e l o n sa f a n t a i s i e l e s corps du Bouddha, qui f u r e n t q u a t r e , c i n q , ou p l u s nombreux encore (p. 59^)-  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , does not  r e a l l y e x p l a i n the t r i k a y a system, o n l y a  kaya i d e a , p l u s an added p o p u l a r c u l t . - Masson-Oursel a l s o speaks of. the  twoinfluence  o f 'Tpopula;*"' Hinduism: "Le t r i k a y a - f a i t , " en quelque . s o r t e pendant a. . l a t r i m u r t i , "  19 but does not go so f a r as t o suggest t h a t the t r i a d i c p a t t e r n was  simply a  c u l t u r a l g i v e n which c o u l d account f o r the t r i k a y a i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f .any  logic  i n t e r n a l t o the d o c t r i n e . Two to  S a n s k r i t t e x t s and t r a n s l a t i o n s d e a l i n g . w i t h the'-kayas:. are" appended  this article.  The f i r s t  i s an e x t r a c t from t h e Abhisamay&lankara.  second i s an u n t i t l e d Vijffanavadin manuscript.  The  From t h e s e he reaches the  following conclusions:  Pour c o n c l u r e , en ce q u i concerne l a t h e o r i e des c o r p s , l a c o n t r i b u t i o n p r i n c i p a l e que l e s t e x t e s c i t e s a p p o r t e n t a n o t r e enquete, c ' e s t que l e Svabhavikakaya et l e Dharmakaya sont des systemes d'ideaux (dharma, dharmata), c o n d i t i o n s a b s t r a i t e s de l a connaissance supreme, sans d u a l i t e , sans m u l t i p l i c i t y , sans developpement; que l e Sambhogakaya e s t un systeme de s i g n e s ( l a k s a n a , anulaksana) par l e s q u e l s un Bouddha se m a n i f e s t e aux B o d h i s a t t v a s | e n f i n que l e N a i r manikakaya est.un systeme d ' a c t i o n s (karmani) par l e q u e l un Bouddha se r e v e l e d'une fagon phenomenale aux Cravakas, e t c . . . . Quant a f i x e r l e sens p r e c i s de l a m u l t i t u d e de concepts auxquels i l e s t f a i t a l l u s i o n dans ces t e x t e s , c ' e s t pour 1 ' i n s t a n t une e n t r e p r i s e peu a b o r d a b l e , c a r nous n'avons guere pour l a p l u p a r t d'entre eux d'autre p o i n t de comparai-  son  6.  que l e Mahayana-SutraUamkara  L. de La V a l l e e P o u s s i n .  d'Asanga,  . . (pp. 6 l 7 - 6 l 8 ) . ,  "Note sur l e s Corps du Bouddha."  Museon,- 32  (1913): 257-29 0., La Vallee." .Poussin. rejoins:' the ' d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a f l o u r i s h . :  Pour se f a i r e une i d e e exacte des Corps du Bouddha, c ' e s t - a - d i r e d'un c h a p i t r e important de l a "bouddhologie," • i l f a u t embrasser t o u t e l ' h i s t o i r e du Bouddhisme, depuis l e s o r i g i n e s jusqu'aux mythologies et aux t h e o s o p h i e s s i penetrees de Civaisme q u ' e l l e s m e r i t e n t a p e i n e l e nom de bouddhiques. I I f a u t a u s s i p a s s e r en revue d i v e r s e s philosophies. . . . Et c ' e s t l a n o t r e ambition (p. 257)-  Although t h e notes which f o l l o w f a l l  s h o r t o f t h i s grand i n t e n t i o n , t h e y  r e v e a l the author's growing awareness o f the c o m p l e x i t y o f Buddhist  doctrine.  20  He m a i n t a i n s  h i s e a r l i e r p e r s p e c t i v e hut s u b d i v i d e s h i s t h r e e  i n t e r p r e t s them i n a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d manner. Buddhism," which r e c o g n i z e d  He f i r s t  a - v i s i b l e form (rupakaya),  ment o f t h e d o c t r i n e (Dharmakaya).  stages and  discusses  "Archaic  and t h e l i v i n g embodi-  He does not e x p l a i n h i s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e  n o t i o n t h a t t h e "kaya" i n Dharmakaya i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e was t h e l a t e r representative o f the charismatic  Buddha.  He then t u r n s t o " S c h o l a s t i c i s m , " i n which t h e Buddhists  r e t a i n e d t h e word  "Dharmakaya" but s h i f t e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f "dharma" t o an Abhidharmic Hence, Dharmakaya came t o mean:  . . . l e Bouddha lui-meme, c ' e s t l a c o l l e c t i o n , l ' a g g r e gat et l a s e r i e des elements p s y c h i q u e s e t m a t e r i e l s q u i c o n s t i t u e n t l ' i n d i v i d u qu'on a p p e l l e un Bouddha, son ame et son c o r p s , dans n o t r e langage o c c i d e n t a l . — Mais dharmakaya s'entendra au propre des "elements" q u i f o n t que c e t i n d i v i d u e s t un Bouddha. Le Bouddha, en t a n t q u ' i l e s t v i s i b l e , l e rupakaya, "corps v i s i b l e , " c o l l e c t i o n des dharmas v i s i b l e s ou m a t e r i e l s , n'est qu'une p o r t i o n du Bouddha. Ces dharmas v i s i b l e s , p l u s l e s dharmas i n v i s i b l e s , s e n s a t i o n s , pensees, e t c . , sont t o u t l e Bouddha (p. 2 5 8 ) .  However, he r e a l i z e s t h a t f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n s must be made:  3.  Mais i l f a u t d i s t i n g u e r t r o i s  ecoles.  A. L ' e c o l e d'Abhidharma ou du P e t i t V e h i c u l e . . . . C e t t e e c o l e c r o i t a l a r e a l i t e s u b s t a n t i e l l e des dharmas, e t sa c r i t i q u e s ' a r r e t e a l a n e g a t i o n de l ' i n d i v i d u (pudgalanairatmya). B. -C. L ' e c o l e Madhyamika ou n i h i l i s t (premier s i e c l e de n o t r e e r e ? ) e t l ' e c o l e V i j n a n a v a d i n ou i d e a l i s t e (un peu p o s t e r i e u r e ? ) n i e n t . 1 ' e x i s t e n c e en s o i des dharmas: c'est l a  sense.  21 these du dharmanairatmya, q u i c a r a c t e r i s e l e s p h i l o s o p h i e s du Grand V e h i c u l e . Ces deux e c o l e s t i e n n e n t que tous l e s corps et t o u t e s l e s pensees sont " v i d e s " (gunya). La r e e l l e nature ( t a t h a t a ) des choses comme des i n d i v i d u s , des Bouddhas comme de tous l e s e t r e s , c ' e s t l a " v a c u i t e " (guriyafa); et 1'express i o n dharmakaya peut e t r e comprise dans l e sens de " r e e l l e n a t u r e , " "corps e s s e n t i e l " (svabhavika kaya) (pp. 258-259).  The author now s h i f t s t o t h e t r i k a y a . each o f the two Madhyamika p e r s p e c t i v e s .  He examines each i n t h e l i g h t o f From the c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e  they appear m y t h o l o g i c a l :  . . . l e s Bouddhas sont de grands personnages d i v i n s , entoures de grands s a i n t s q u i sont de f u t u r s Bouddhas; t o u s l e s e t r e s d o i v e n t , pour p a r v e n i r au N i r v a n a , p a s s e r d'abord par l ' e t a t de Bouddha. On d i s t i n g u e r a done t r o i s corps du Bouddha. 1. Le Dharmakaya, d o n t - l a d e f i n i t i o n se superpose a peu pres a c e l l e de 1'Abhidharma. C'est 1'ensemble des connaissances et des q u a l i t e s morales du Bouddha, a u s s i b i e n c e l l e s q u i se r a p p o r t e n t au monde que c e l l e s q u i sont p r o d u c t r i c e s du N i r v a n a : d'une p a r t , l a compassion, l e pouv o i r de d e t r u i r e l e s p a s s i o n s de ceux q u i v o i e n t l e Bouddha; d'autre p a r t , l e s m e d i t a t i o n s a b s t r u s e s q u i a b o u t i s s e n t a 1 ' i n c o n s c i e n c e : t e l l e p a r exemple l a m e d i t a t i o n du neant. 2. Le Sambhogakaya, corps g l o r i e u x , l e Bouddha en t a n t que v i s i b l e , " l e corps orne des t r e n t e - d e u x marques": c ' e s t l e rupakaya, l a "forme v i s i b l e " de l a v i e i l l e t r a d i t i o n . — Mais ce c o r p s , comme nous a l l o n s l e d i r e , e s t i n v i s i b l e aux simples m o r t e l s . Ceux-ci n'en a p e r g o i v e n t que des doubles magiques, p l u s ou moins ressemblants a 1 ' o r i g i n a l . 3. Le Nirmanakaya, "corps cree par magie," sur l e q u e l nous i n s i s t e r o n s davantage. .Cakyamuni, dans leBouddhisme du P e t i t V e h i c u l e , e s t un homme. . . . Cet homme o b t i n t l a q u a l i t e de Bouddha, r e v e l a l e chemin, et e n t r a dans l e N i r v a n a , desormais i n v i s i b l e aux dieux et aux hommes: c a r i l e s t d e l i v r e de 1 ' e x i s t e n c e . La s e c t e des V e t u l y a k a s que l a t r a d i t i o n p l a c e avant Agoka, e t que j e c r o i s t r e s ancienne, congut une i d e e p l u s haute de Qakyamuni et du Bouddha. . . . gakyamuni e s t devenu Bouddha i l y a t r e s longtemps; i l regne dans l e c i e l des dieux T u s i t a s d'ou on c r u t faussement q u ' i l e t a i t  descendu pour s ' i n c a r n e r et c o n q u e r i r i c i l a q u a l i t e de Bouddha; l e Qakyamuni que l e s hommes ont T U n'est qu'un fantome cree p a r l e v r a i Cakyamuni, un "corps magique" ou un "corps c r e e " (nirmanakaya). Ce docetisme a b o u t i t , dans l e Grand V e h i c u l e . . . a l a c o n c e p t i o n de Bouddhas presque e t e r n e l s , i n t e r v e n a n t i c i - b a s par des a p p a r i t i o n s magiques q u i prechent et donnent aux hommes l e s p e c t a c l e e d i f i a n t e t i n s t r u c t i f de t o u t e l a geste d'un Bouddha, de t o u t e l a genese de l a q u a l i t e de Bouddha. Les Bouddhas sont de grands dieux mythologiques, t r o n a n t dans quelque p a r a d i s ou de grands s a i n t s l e s e n t o u r e n t . A l a s e u l e a p p a r i t i o n ' magique dont p a r l a i e n t l e s premiers d o c e t e s , du moins a en c r o i r e nos s o u r c e s , beaucoup •d.'autres sont a j o u t e e s : pendant l a longue p e r i o d e de son regne, et dans 1'univers q u i e s t son "champ," un Bouddha e s t l ' u n i v e r s e l l e p r o v i d e n c e : p a r son c o r p s magique, d i v i s e a l ' i n f i n i , il " m u r i t " l e s e t r e s pour l e s a l u t (pp. 277-278).  From t h e u l t i m a t e p e r s p e c t i v e :  Nous a r r i v e r o n s au N i r v a n a en p r o f i t a n t de l ' e n s e i g n e ment que donnent l e s corps magiques (nirmanakaya, en contemp l a n t l e corps g l o r i e u x . l o r s q u e nous serons devenus des s a i n t s ( b b d h i s a t t v a s ) ; en devenant nous-memes des Bouddhas, c ' e s t - a - d i r e des dharmakayas, c o l l e c t i o n s de dharmas t r e s purs q u i c o n s t i t u e n t des e t r e s d e j a i l l u m i n e s (buddha) et t r e s proches du N i r v a n a . — E t i l n'y a pas d'autre moyen d ' a r r i v e r au N i r v a n a . Cependant, au p o i n t de vue metaphysique, l a p o s i t i o n des N i h i l i s t e s n'est pas exactement c e l l e d e s ' I d e a l i s t e s . Pour l e s N i h i l i s t e s , l e s deux premiers c o r p s (dharma° . et sambhogakaya) forment un s e u l e t r e , l e Bouddha, e t r e r e e l au p o i n t de vue de 1'experience, mais " v i d e " au p o i n t de vue metaphysique: c a r l e s dharmas q u i l e composent n ' e x i s t e n t pas en s o i . Pour l e s I d e a l i s t e s , l e dharmakaya e s t l e Bouddha t e l q u ' i l s ' a p p a r a i t a lui-meme, t e l q u ' i l a c o n s c i e n c e de s o i : connaissances p r o d u c t r i c e s de N i r v a n a et pensees mondaines, tournees v e r s l e s a l u t du monde: l e s p r e m i e r e s , l o r s q u ' e l l e s sont t r e s p u r e s , se confondent avec ce que nous avons appele " l a pensee sans p l u s " (p. 273); ce sont des connaissances d'ou 1 ' o p p o s i t i o n de " c o n n a i s s a b l e " et "connaissance" e s t exclue e t , p a r consequent, des connaissances q u i sont des non-connaissances; l e s secondes sont "imaginees" dans l a mesure, t r e s r e d u i t e , ou e l l e s comportent c e t t e o p p o s i t i o n : car l a c h a r i t e du s a i n t e s t v i d e de l ' i d e e de "donneur," de  23 don e t de "receveur"; — l e corps g l o r i e u x est l e Bouddha t e l q u ' i l a p p a r a i t aux s a i n t s ( b o d h i s a t t v a s ) , qui c r o i e n t encore a 1 ' e x i s t e n c e de l a m a t i e r e ( r u p a ) ; — l e corps magique est l e Bouddha t e l q u ' i l a p p a r a i t aux e t r e s i n f e r i e u r s (gravakadi ) q u i ne peuvent encore v o i r que des formes t r e s p a r t i c u l a r i s m s . Les deux d e r n i e r s corps a p p a r a i s s e n t aux s a i n t s e t aux e t r e s i n f e r i e u r s par l ' e f f i c a c e de l a pensee mondaine qui est une p a r t i e du dharmakaya, par l ' e f f i c a c e a u s s i du m e r i t e a c q u i s par l e s s a i n t s e t l e s e t r e s i n f e r i e u r s eux-memes. On peut, e n f i n , c o n s i d e r e r comme l e v r a i corps (kaya) du Bouddha, ce que l e Bouddha e s t au p o i n t de vue de l a v e r i t e absolue. L a nature v r a i e (dharmata) d'un Bouddha s e r a appelee son dharmakaya, en termes p l u s c l a i r s , son s v a b h a v i kakaya ou dharmatakaya, son corps v r a i . — Nous sommes r e n seignes sur l a n a t u r e v r a i e des dharmas qui c o n s t i t u e n t l e Bouddha: ces dharmas ne sont pas p r o d u i t s "en s o i " ; i l s ne sont pas p r o d u i t s , au p o i n t de vue de l a v e r i t e absolue; i l s sont " v i d e s " ; i l s ont pour n a t u r e l a " v a c u i t e " (gunyata). On peut en d i r e autant de tous l e s dharmas, e t de l a f o u l e des e t r e s que c o n s t i t u e n t l e s dharmas: t o u s l e s e t r e s ont done l e meme v r a i corps (svabhavikakaya = dharmatakaya = dharmakaya) que l e s Bouddhas. T o u t e f o i s , dans l e s Bouddhas predominent l e s dharmas p r o d u c t e u r s ^ d e N i r v a n a ( l o k o t t a r a ) , a 1 ' e x c l u s i o n des dharmas mondains. Les Bouddhas ont done, a peu p r e s , p u r i f i e l e u r v r a i corps: i l s sont v i d e s , ou a peu p r e s , au "point. '.;de .-.vue.' meme de l a v e r i t e d'apparence (pp. 279-281)..  F i n a l l y , the author notes v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y the  tathagatagarbha,  which he c o n s i d e r s t o be p a r t o f the "immanentise"Buddhology o f the Mantrayana, and  speculates  on p a r a l l e l s between Mahayana Buddhism and Vedanta.  wishes t o see the t r i k a y a w i t h i n the g e n e r a l context  He c l e a r l y  o f the development o f  I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s thought but does not have t h e n e c e s s a r y e x p e r t i s e t o do more than draw a t t e n t i o n t o a few s i m i l a r i t i e s . T h i s a r t i c l e has been quoted i n d e t a i l because, d e s p i t e shortcomings i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i t o f f e r s the f i r s t  summary o f the major f e a t u r e s which  l a t e r s c h o l a r s came t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r prime  data.  2h  7.  A.  Coomaraswamy.  Putnam's Sons,  Buddha and  the Gospel o f Buddhism.  New  York: G.  P.  1916.  T h i s hook i s important because i t e s t a b l i s h e s the p o s i t i o n found i n most l a t e r p o p u l a r I n d i a n works. o n t o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , but  Like Suzuki,  Coomaraswamy sees the t r i k a y a as  an  draws p a r a l l e l s t o Vedanta r a t h e r t h a n C h r i s t i a n i t y .  The Mahayana i s thus d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s m y s t i c a l Buddha t h e o l o g y . . . . The Mahayana Buddha t h e o l o g y , as remarked by Rhys D a v i d s , " i s the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the A g n o s t i c Atheism," which i s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Gautama's system o f p h i l o s o p h y . But t h i s o p p o s i t i o n i s simply the i n e v i t a b l e c o n t r a s t o f r e l i g i o n and philosophy, r e l a t i v e and a b s o l u t e t r u t h , and those who are i n t e r e s t e d i n the s c i e n c e o f t h e o l o g y , or are touched by a r t , w i l l not be l i k e l y t o agree i n denouncing the Buddha gods as the i n v e n t i o n s "of a s i c k l y s c h o l a s t i c i s m , h o l l o w a b s t r a c t i o n s without l i f e or r e a l i t y " : i n t h i s c o n t i n g e n t w o r l d we l i v e every day by r e l a t i v e t r u t h s , and f o r a l l t h o s e who do not w i s h t o a v o i d the w o r l d o f Becoming at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment t h e s e r e l a t i v e t r u t h s are f a r from l a c k i n g : ' i n l i f e or r e a l i t y . The Mahayana as a t h e i s t i c f a i t h i s so o n l y t o the same extent as the Vedanta, t h a t i s t o say i t has an e s o t e r i c aspect which speaks i n n e g a t i v e terms o f a Suchness and a V o i d which cannot be known, w h i l e on the other i t has an e x o t e r i c and more e l a b o r a t e p a r t in.which the A b s o l u t e i s seen through the g l a s s o f time and space, c o n t r a c t e d and i d e n t i f i e d i n t o v a r i e t y . T h i s development appears i n the d o c t r i n e o f the T r i k a y a , the Three Bodies o f the Buddha. These t h r e e are ( l ) the Dharma-" kaya, or Essence-body; (2) i t s heavenly m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n the Sambhogakaya, or Body o f B l i s s ; and (3) the emanation, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , or p r o j e c t i o n t h e r e o f , c a l l e d Nirmanakaya, apparent as the v i s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l Buddha on e a r t h . T h i s i s a system which h a r d l y d i f f e r s from what i s i m p l i e d i n the C h r i s t i a n doctrine of Incarnation. . . . Thus the Dharmakaya may be compared t o the F a t h e r ; the Sambhogakaya t o the f i g u r e o f C h r i s t i n g l o r y ; the Nirmanakaya t o the v i s i b l e Jesus who announces i n human speech t h a t 'I and my F a t h e r are One.' Or again w i t h the Vedanta: the Dharmakaya i s the Brahman, t i m e l e s s and u n c o n d i t i o n e d ; the Sambhogakaya i s r e a l i z e d i n the forms o f I s v a r a ; the Nirmanakaya i n every avatar. The essence o f a l l t h i n g s , the one r e a l i t y o f which t h e i r f l e e t i n g shapes remind us, i s the Dharmakaya. The Dharmakaya i s not a p e r s o n a l b e i n g who r e v e a l s h i m s e l f t o us i n a s i n g l e i n c a r n a t i o n , but i t i s the a l l - p e r v a d i n g and t r a c e l e s s ground o f the s o u l , which does not i n f a c t s u f f e r any  25 m o d i f i c a t i o n ' b u t appears t o us t o assume a v a r i e t y o f forms: we r e a d t h a t though t h e Buddha ( a t e r m w h i c h we must here u n d e r s t a n d as i m p e r s o n a l ) does not d e p a r t from h i s seat i n the tower ( s t a t e o f Dharmakaya), y e t he may assume a l l and every form, whether o f a brahma, a god, o r a monk, o r a p h y s i c i a n , o r a tradesman, o r an a r t i s t ; he may r e v e a l h i m s e l f i n e v e r y form o f a r t and i n d u s t r y , i n c i t i e s o r i n v i l l a g e s : from t h e h i g h e s t heaven t o t h e l o w e s t h e l l , t h e r e i s t h e Dharmakaya, i n w h i c h a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s a r e one. The Dharmakaya i s t h e p e r s o n a l ground o f Buddhahood from w h i c h t h e p e r s o n a l w i l l , thought and l o v e o f innumerable Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s e v e r p r o c e e d i n response t o t h e needs o f t h o s e i n whom;, t h e p e r f e c t n a t u r e i s not y e t r e a l i z e d . I n some o f t h e l a t e r phases o f t h e Mahayana, however, the Dharmakaya i s p e r s o n i f i e d as Adi-Buddha (sometimes V a i r o c a n a ) who i s t h e n t o be r e g a r d e d as t h e Supreme B e i n g , above a l l o t h e r Buddhas, and whose s a k t i i s P r j n a p a r a m i t a . Dharmakaya i s commonly t r a n s l a t e d 'Body o f t h e Law,' but i t must n o t b e ' . i n t e r p r e t e d m e r e l y as e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e sum o f t h e s c r i p t u r e s (pp. 237-239). I t i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e s e remarks, w h i c h a r e grounded i n a t h o r o u g h r e d u c t i o n o f Buddhism t o V e d a n t a , a r e an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o o l f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g a V i j n a n a v a d i n t h e o r y t o t h e modern Westerner.  They a r e u s e f u l  as a c l e a r and e l e g a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n • o f • an • u n s a t i s f a c t o r y answer w h i c h , i s met., many t i m e s i n l a t e r w r i t i n g s , f r e q u e n t l y i n an o b s c u r e d form.-  8.  Akanuma, C h i z e n .  " T r i p l e Body o f t h e Buddha."  E a s t e r n B u d d h i s t , 2 (1922):  1-29Akanuma, l i k e S u z u k i , was a b e l i e v e r , b u t one w i t h g r e a t e r knowledge and l e s s w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t f a c i l e comparisons.  He r e f e r s t o a wide range o f  Indian Buddhist t e x t s . Akanuma b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e Dharmakaya was t h e f i r s t a s p e c t o f t h e t r i k a y a to  appear.  He sees t h e Dharmakaya d o c t r i n e as t h e r e s u l t o f t h r e e f a c t o r s :  The s t r o n g f a i t h o r i e n t a t i o n o f Buddhism.  There i s no doubt t h a t t h e r a p i d growth o f Buddhism i n I n d i a was c h i e f l y due t o t h e greatness o f t h e Buddha's own p e r s o n a l i t y which demanded f a i t h and l o v e i n h i s d i s c i p l e s . They were u n c o n s c i o u s l y drawn towards t h e i r l e a d e r and took i n a l l h i s words w i t h a b s o l u t e f a i t h . . . . T h i s a t t i t u d e . . . n a t u r a l l y r e f l e c t e d i t s e l f i n t h e i r conception o f the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e Master, r e a d i l y p r e p a r i n g the way f o r h i s d e i f i c a t i o n by t h e l a t e r B u d d h i s t s (pp. 1 - 3 ) .  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Buddha and dharma.  By "Dharma," o r "Dhamma" ( i n P a l i ) , i s meant f i r s t o f a l l t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e Buddha. . . . And as t h e d o c t r i n e taught by t h e Buddha i s t h e t r u t h , u n i v e r s a l and a b s o l u t e , which was r e v e a l e d i n h i s inmost c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h e term n a t u r a l l y came t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Law; and then t h e Law and t h e D o c t r i n e were c o n c e i v e d t o have u n i t e d themselves i n t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e Buddha. The Buddha t h e r e f o r e was not a body which was o n l y apparent t o our p h y s i c a l eye, but a s p i r i t o r a moral person i n whom t h e Dharma o r Law was i n c a r n a t e d . . . t h e D o c t r i n e i s what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e Body o f t h e Buddha, and he who sees t h e D o c t r i n e and t h e T r u t h as r e v e a l e d i n i t i s he who sees t h e Buddha. Buddhahood c o n s i s t s i n h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y and not i n h i s p h y s i c a l b e i n g , however m a j e s t i c i t may be. To i n t e r v i e w him, t h e r e f o r e , means t o understand t h e T r u t h through t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e Buddha. When t h i s i d e a was f u r t h e r developed by the l a t e r B u d d h i s t s as one o f t h e i r m e t a p h y s i c a l problems t h e Buddha-Body came L: t o be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e Law o r T r u t h o r T a t h a t a (suchness) . . . (pp. k; 6-7; 8-9).  The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e dharma.  I f a l l t h e Buddhas and Bhikkhus and i n f a c t any Buddhist f o l l o w e r s were enabled t o a t t a i n i l l u m i n a t i o n by means o f t h e one v e h i c l e (ekayana) o f t h e Dharma, i t was q u i t e n a t u r a l f o r Buddhists t o assume t h e t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x i s t e n c e o f one T r u t h , which was d e s i g n a t e d by them as Dharmata o r T a t h a t a meaning the essence o r suchness o f t h i n g s . T h i s i t was t h a t would e x i s t f o r ever r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e appearance o r disappearance o f t h e T a t h a g a t a , and t h e Dharmakaya which had been understood as meaning one who e x p e r i e n c e d o r was i n p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e Dharma o r T r u t h , came t o mean one i n whom t h e T r u t h i t s e l f was embodied o r one whose body was t h e Dharma i t s e l f . ' The i d e a o f t h e Buddha as t h e Dharmakaya thus came t o be e n t e r t a i n e d by h i s d i s c i p l e s as time went on a f t e r h i s entrance i n t o P a r i n i r v a n a (p. 9 ) .  27  These t h r e e s t r a n d s converged  around  a d e v o t i o n a l i s t i c core t o form the mature  Dharmakaya.  As y e a r s r o l l e d on, the d i s c i p l e s grew more and more c o n v i n c e d o f the e t e r n a l i t y and s u p e r n a t u r a l p e r s o n a l i t y o f the Buddha. While he was w a l k i n g among them on e a r t h , the l o v e and r e v e r e n c e t h e y f e l t f o r him was r e a d i l y s a t i s f i e d , hut w i t h h i s p a s s i n g t h e i r emotional l i f e would not he p a c i f i e d w i t h empty i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m (p. 1 0 ) .  Akanuma t r a c e s the r i s e o f multi-body t h e o r i e s from t h i s Dharmakaya.  s i n g l e numinous  He sees the J a t a k a s t o r i e s , the t r a d i t i o n o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o  marks, and the l o k o t t a r a t e n d e n c i e s , as elements which were l a t e r s y s t e m a t i z e d as the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e .  He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n f i r s t  appeared  i n those Mahayana s u t r a s ( e s p e c i a l l y the P r a j n a p a r a m i t a ) which r e v e a l e d a p l u r a l i t y o f Buddhas and c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e " N a g a r j i a n " two-kaya system o f the Ta Chih Tu  Lun.  Akanuma:..realizes  t h a t the l o g i c a l gap between the two  systems cannot be b r i d g e d by the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the two developed i n t o the t h r e e .  and the t h r e e - k a y a just  naturally  Furthermore, he r e j e c t s the p i o u s s o l u t i o n o f sup-  p o s i n g t h a t Nagarjuna h i m s e l f f o r m u l a t e d t h e t r i k a y a .  In d o i n g so" he i s drawn  i n t o another important problem —  do so?  Why  d i d n ' t Nagarjuna  He must'have  been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the f i g u r e o f Amitabha i n the Pure Land s u t r a s .  Why  he not r e a l i z e t h a t Amitabha would not f i t w i t h i n a two-kaya system,  a realiza-  t i o n which would f o r c e him t o some type o f t r i k a y a ?  did  Akanuma concludes t h a t  Nagarjuna must never have grasped t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . b e c a u s e - i t i s a - h i s t o r i c a l f a c t t h a t the t r i k a y a , f i r s t  a p p e a r i n g i n such t r a n s i t i o n a l s u t r a s as the  M a h a p a r i n i r v a n a and Samdhinirmocana, p o s t d a t e s Nagarjuna. t h a t t h e f u l l t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e was graha.  He  paraphrases:  first  Akanuma m a i n t a i n s  s t a t e d by Asanga i n t h e Mahayanasam-  28 The Body o f S e l f - n a t u r e (svabhavakakaya) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e Dharmakaya, and t h e Body o f Enjoyment (sambhogakaya) c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e Vipakakaya (Recompense Body) t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e Body o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n (nirmanakaya), have f i n a l l y come t o e s t a b l i s h t h e dogma; o f t h e T r i p l e Body o f t h e Tathagata. The b a s i s and reason o f t h e T r i p l e Body i s t h e Dharmakaya, through which t h e o t h e r two Bodies a r e capable of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e t h r e e s e p a r a t e b o d i e s a r e i n f a c t t h e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f one essence i n which we c o n c e i v e Tathagatahood. The o b j e c t o f worship or f a i t h has thus now been t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e h i s t o r i c a l and n a t u r a l Buddha t o t h e Vipakakaya Buddha o r Recompense Body o f Tathagatahood.  In  conclusion:  . . . t h e dogma o f t h e T r i p l e Body f i r s t s t a r t e d from the w o r s h i p f u l a t t i t u d e o f t h e e a r l i e r Buddhists towards t h e i r Master, which r e s u l t e d i n t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e Law Body (Dharmakaya), and how t h i s l a t t e r c o n c e p t i o n , once f i n d i n g an a r t i c u l a t e e x p r e s s i o n b o t h i n t h e S u t r a s and t h e s a s t r a s , s t e a d i l y grew up so as t o make Nagarjuna formulate h i s t h e o r y o f t h e Two Bodies (dvikaya) o f t h e T a t h a g a t a , and f i n a l l y how t h i s Nagarjuna d o c t r i n e developed i n t o Asang'a's • T r i n i t y where t h e t h i r d Body, t h e Vipakakaya o r the Body o f Recompense, came t o f i n d i t s l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e . The T r i n i t y , thus complete as dogma, has now put t h e V i p a kakaya Buddha i n t h e p l a c e o f t h e n a t u r a l Buddha as t h e Buddhist o b j e c t o f f a i t h , making i t s content ever deeper and ever more enhancing. This r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the theory o f the Buddha-body marks one o f t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e s between t h e Mahayana and Hinayana (pp. 28-29).  9.  L. de L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n . P a r i s : P a u l Geuthner,  V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a s i d d h i : l a s i d d h i de  Hiuan-tsang.  1928-29.  T h i s i s an annotated t r a n s l a t i o n o f Hsuan-tsang's  seventh-century  compendium o f V i j n a n a v a d i n thought, t h e Ch'.'.eng Wei S h i h Lun.  The p e n u l t i m a t e  s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e t r i k a y a , and t h e appendix c o n t a i n s L a V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s mature study o f t h e t o p i c .  Having t r a n s l a t e d b o t h t h i s t e x t and t h e Abhidhar-  makosa and s t u d i e d much o f t h e r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , he has r e p l a c e d t h e v i t r i o l of  h i s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s with concrete references.  While  no n e a r e r t o h i s •  29 grand p l a n o f 1913,  he has a more r e a l i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the  problem.  1. Ces notes sur l e s corps du Bouddha sont presque exclusivement d'ordre dogmatique. De t o u t e e v i d e n c e , l a s p e c u l a t i o n et l e s i n v e n t i o n s de l ' e c o l e ont l e u r s causes l o i n t a i n e s ou proches dans l e s r e l i g i o n , c u l t e , m y t h o l o g i e , i c o n o g r a p h i e . En p l u s i e u r s r e n c o n t r e s , l a c h r o n o l o g i e ne t r o u v e d'appui que dans l e s monuments f i g u r e s . La d e s c r i p t i o n des t h e o r i e s a b s t r a i t e s n'est qu'une p a r t i e , non n e g l i g e a b l e , d ' h i s t o i r e de l a bouddhologie. Ces notes ne sont pas meme un s a s t r a . N ' e c r i t pas un s a s t r a q u i veut. De graves l a c u n e s : l e Sraddhotpada deliberement exclu.. ( v o i r p. *j6k, 788); l e s grands S u t r a s , t e l s l e L o t u s , l e L a n k a v a t a r a , a p e i n e examines; l e s v a r i antes des S a s t r a s f o r t imparfaitement resumees, et 1'echeveau des s e c t e s c h i n o i s e s insoupconne ( v o i r D e m i e v i l l e , Sur 1 ' a u t h e n t i c i t y . . . ) ; sans p a r l e r de l a t h e o r i e des corps a p p l i q u e . au pantheon. Notre propos e t a i t d ' e t u d i e r l e s antecedents des d o c t r i n e s de l a S i d d h i , c a r r i e r e du B o d h i s a t t v a , T a t h a t a et l e r e s t e . I I e s t a t t e i n t s i nous avons montre qu'Asahga e s t au bout d'une l i g n e s p e c u l a t i v e t o u t e bouddhique. 2. F a u t - i l a j o u t e r que c e t t e l i g n e e s t , a u s s i b i e n , i n d i e n n e ? — S i Gaudapada emprunte des e x p r e s s i o n s bouddhiques, b i e n p l u s , s'empare des t e x t e s p r i s dans l e s C o r b e i l l e s , Mahamati s ' i n q u i e t e s i l e Bouddha du Lankavatara ne v e d a n t i s e pas. On p o u r r a i t d i r e que l e L o k o t t a r a v a d a k r i s h n a i s e . La d o c t r i n e des t r o i s corps nous a p p a r a i t comme e x c l u sivement f a i t e de materiaux bouddhiques: mais e l l e a ete e l a b o r e e dans un pays ou l ' o n a d o r a i t des A v a t a r s , ou l ' o n e t a i t anxieux de L'Absolu. Le cocher d'Arjuna e s t un nirmanakaya: l e corps sublime q u ' i l montre a A r j u n a , corps v i s i b l e aux s e u l s Y o g i n s , ' e s t l e sambhogakaya q u i • e s t v i s i b l e aux s e u l s B o d h i s a t t v a s ; et 1 ' i n e f f a b l e Brahman correspond au svabhavikakaya ou, mieux encore, a l a t a t h a t a . La comparaison des deux systemes s'impose. 3. Je s e r a i p l u s r e s e r v e en ce q u i c o n c e r n e . l e s i n f l u ences i r a n i e n n e s , o c c i d e n t a l e s , j u d e o - c h r e t i e n n e s q u ' a u r a i e n t  subies l e Bouddhisme (pp. 8 l l - 8 l 2 ) .  La V a l l e e P o u s s i n b e g i n s w i t h an e x c e l l e n t b i b l i o g r a p h y (which has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the p r e s e n t study) and then surveys the v a r i o u s kaya t h e o r i e s t o be found i n Buddhist t e x t s .  T h i s survey may  be summarized as f o l l o w s :  30  a.  P a l i Canon t h e o r i e s  The  Nikayas d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e kayas:  —  caturmahabhumikakaya: t h e c o r r u p t i b l e body composed o f the f o u r elements.  —  manomayakaya: the body i n which t h e Buddha v i s i t s the Brahma w o r l d or i n  which he appears as Mara i n the Mara —  b.  dharmakaya: the body o f t e a c h i n g .  realm. Only m e t a p h o r i c a l l y a "body."  Sarvastivadin theories  The Abhidharmakosa mentions t h r e e kayas:  —  Dharmakaya: the c o l l e c t i o n o f anasrava  but  samskrta dharmas which form a  Buddha. —  Vipakakaya o r Rupakaya: t h e body, born  i n Lumbini' p o s s e s s i n g the t h i r t y - t w o  laksanas. —  c.  Nirmanakaya: the a p p a r i t i o n a l body c r e a t e d by the Buddha.  Lokottaravadin  theory  The L o k o t t a r a v a d i n s h e l d the Buddha t o be composed o f dharmas unconnected w i t h the t h r e e dhatus (e.g., o f t a t h a t a and t a t h a t a j n a n a ) w h i l e a p p e a r i n g i n the w o r l d by an a r t i f i c i a l body.  d.  The  B o d h i s a t t v a and Buddha o f the Ta Chih Tu  Although  La V a l l e e P o u s s i n was  t h i s t e x t he has  unable  Lun  t o e x t r a c t a coherent  summarized the v a r i o u s i d e a s i t c o n t a i n s .  Lamotte's t r a n s l a t i o n  i+  and a s y s t e m a t i c study  model i s b a s i c t o t h i s t e x t .  5  As we  system from now  have  i t i s c l e a r t h a t a two-kaya  However, i t a l s o c o n t a i n s , i n a v e r y d i s o r g a n i z e d  31  s t a t e , most o f the elements which f e d i n t o the t r i k a y a  e.  Theories  theory.  o f Asanga-Dharmapala  These i n c l u d e the mature t h r e e  and  f o u r - k a y a t h e o r i e s o f such t e x t s  the Y o g a s a s t r a , the Ahhisamayalankara and the Mahayanasamgraha. P o u s s i n t h i n k s t h a t a l l o f t h e s e t e a c h the  f.  Variant  as  La V a l l e e  same d o c t r i n e i n d i f f e r e n t ways.  theories  A number o f t e x t s i n t r o d u c e  v a r i a t i o n s on Asanga's s t a n d a r d  system.  These  i n c l u d e Vasubandhu's Saddharmapundarikasastra, the Suvarnaprabhasa, the Lankavatara and  the Avatamsaka.  He  surveys,  v e r y b r i e f l y the kayas mentioned  i n each t e x t .  g.  The  E t e r n a l Buddha  T h i s survey o f v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s about the r a i s e s p o i n t s r e l e v a n t t o our to h i s other  study, but  duration  o f a Buddha's  existence  La V a l l e e P o u s s i n f a i l s t o r e l a t e i t  comments.  In b r i e f , La V a l l e e P o u s s i n r e t a i n s the h i s t o r i c a l - d e v e l o p m e n t a l of h i s e a r l i e s t w r i t i n g s .  He  continues  t o view the t h e o r y  o f the  V i j n a n a v a d a masters as " t h e " t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e and t o c o n s i d e r ments as new  i d e a s or d e v i a t i o n s  or r e p u d i a t e  h i s notes o f 1 9 1 3 , so we  his basic interpretations.  from the b a s i c d o c t r i n e . may  early  later  develop-  'He does not  assume t h a t t h e s e s t i l l  approach  review  represent  32 10.  D. T. S u z u k i .  Studies i n the Lankavatara S u t r a .  London: Routledge &  Kegan Paul L t d . , 1932, pp. 308-338.  T h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f the t r i k a y a i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t 1906  Outlines.  from t h a t i n Suzuki's  Not o n l y has he l e a r n e d more about the d o c t r i n e , "but he  r e a l i z e d t h a t a developmental study i s a b e t t e r p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r Western r e a d e r s than a simple C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n .  He quotes e x t e n s i v e l y from t h r e e  s o u r c e s : the L a n k a v a t a r a s u t r a , the Suvarnaprabhasasutra and t h e Mahayanasraddhotpada. actual trikaya.  In the f i r s t  he f i n d s many elements o f the d o c t r i n e but  no  In the second he f i n d s the f u l l t r i k a y a , and i n the t h i r d  f i n d s the mature t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e o f the Sino-Japanese Most o f t h i s passage  tradition.  i s devoted t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the s e p a r a t e e l e -  ments found i n the L a n k a v a t a r a .  These  a r e : a Dharmakaya and a Dharmata-Buddha  which were t o become t h e Dharmakaya o f the t r i k a y a , a Nirmana-Buddha which to the  he  was  become the Nirmanakaya, and Nisyanda-Buddhas and Vipaka-Buddhas which were f o r e r u n n e r s o f the Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya. Suzuki t a k e s v e r y s e r i o u s l y the q u e s t i o n o f why  a r o s e , a l t h o u g h h i s answers are n a i v e . i d e a " t h a t g r e a t men  are immortal  each o f t h e s e concepts  The Dharmakaya d e r i v e s from an " i n n a t e  (p. 31^).  A major reason f o r the Sambhoga-  kaya i s man's  . . . deep human l o n g i n g f o r a body o f t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . We are not s a t i s f i e d w i t h our c o r p o r e a l e x i s t e n c e , we are a l l the time oppressed by the f e e l i n g o f imprisonment, our s p i r i t soars away from t h i s w o r l d o f p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s , we l o n g f o r e v e r f o r a manomayakaya ( w i l l - b o d y ) . T h i s p h y s i c a l body does not f u l l y express the meaning o f t h e s p i r i t , i t deranges, i t tyrannises. In f a c t a l l the r e l i g i o u s s t r u g g l e s and a s p i r a t i o n s we e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s l i f e are c e n t e r e d on the c o n t r o l o f t h i s body.-.(p. 331).  Suzuki's p r i m a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n here i s h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e mechanism  33 whereby t h e Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya (or e q u i v a l e n t Lankavatara terms) appear  i n the w o r l d .  on the B o d h i s a t t v a vow  He understands (p. 233).  t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n must remain f o c u s s e d  He a l s o r e a l i z e s t h a t t h i s vow  s e t s i n motion  a s e r i e s o f c a u s a l l y - r e l a t e d events w i t h i n the w o r l d , r a t h e r than an  irruption  o f s a c r e d r e a l i t y i n t o the w o r l d .  The n a t u r e o f a Vipaka-Buddha i s t h a t o f a NishyandaBuddha when t h i s i s understood i n the sense o f a r e s u l t f l o w i n g from an antecedent cause, t h a t i s , as one o f t h e f i v e e f f e c t s ( p a n c a p h a l a ) , .and not i n t h e sense o f something secondary w h i c h i i s s u e s out o f a more p r i m a r y substance; . . . (p. 330). Suzuki does not e x p l o r e a l l the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s p o i n t ; he does the major one.  The a s p i r a n t cannot be a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t  but i s h i m s e l f n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n the appearance world.  That i s , the Nirmana-Buddha i s a r e l a t i o n a l  mention  o f the Buddha's a i d  o f t h e Buddha i n the  concept.  Thus, the e x i s t e n c e o f the Nirmana-Buddha can be understood i n two ways: one from the s t a n d p o i n t o f the Buddha h i m s e l f , whose l o v i n g h e a r t cannot h e l p r e s o r t i n g t o every p o s s i b l e means o f s a l v a t i o n , and the o t h e r from the s t a n d p o i n t o f s i n f u l m o r t a l s who d e s i r e every p o s s i b l e h e l p from a power h i g h e r than themselves. T h i s m u t u a l i t y has f i l l e d the w o r l d w i t h N i r m i t a - n a i r m a n i k a Buddhas * Wherever we t u r n we come a c r o s s one o f t h e s e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , and i f we are earnest and s i n c e r e and l o n g i n g from the depths o f the h e a r t , we can see even the r e a l Buddha h i m s e l f i n and through them (p. 333). A s i d e from t h i s v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t , t h i s work i s s t i l l b a d l y flawed by appeals t o human n a t u r e , r a t h e r than t o V i j n a n a v a d i n theory.-  F o r example,  The r e l a t i o n o f the t h r e e Buddhas t o one another may be understood i n the analogy o f an i n d i v i d u a l person; That t h e r e i s something u l t i m a t e making up t h e reason o f t h i s i n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e i s t o be g r a n t e d , because the v e r y c o n c e p t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e without p o s t u l a t i n g something b e h i n d i t . . . . T h i s corresponds t o the concept i o n o f the Dharmata, or when p e r s o n i f i e d , t o the Pharma'taBuddha.  3^  Now t h i s i n d i v i d u a l person stands i n every p o s s i b l e manner o f r e l a t i o n s h i p t o h i s f e l l o w - b e i n g s , human o r o t h e r wise. . . . In t h e case o f a l i v i n g person t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y , temporal and c o n s t a n t , reaches i t s l i m i t s . The person hims e l f has not a p p a r e n t l y changed b u t he assumes o r seems t o assume d i f f e r e n t forms t o h i s neighbours, May not t h i s aspect o f h i s b e i n g be c a l l e d h i s Nirmana value? In s p i t e o f a l l t h e s e e x t e r n a l and r e l a t i o n a l m u t a t i o n s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l has not at a l l changed t o h i s own c o n s c i o u s n e s s . That he i s h i m s e l f he at a l l times knows and he enjoys h i s p e r sonality. T h i s corresponds t o t h e Vipaka-Buddha, o r Sambhogakaya. Every c o n s c i o u s b e i n g may thus f i g u r a t i v e l y or r a t h e r m e t a p h y s i c a l l y be s a i d t o be t h e owner o f t h e T r i p l e Body. In t h e case o f the Buddha, t h e d o c t r i n e i s f i l l e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e and i t has p l a y e d a most important r o l e i n t h e development o f Mahayana Buddhism. One t h i n g we have t o n o t i c e here i s the r e p l a c i n g o f t h e B u d d h a - t r i n i t y by t h a t o f t h e Body (kaya). That Buddhist p h i l o s o p h e r s have come t o t a l k o f t h e T r i k a y a i n s t e a d o f Buddhatraya. I t i s not a matter o f mere change o f t e r m i n o l o g y , i t i n v o l v e s a deeper meaning. The r e a s o n i s t h a t Kaya has a more synthes i s i n g v a l u e , w h i l e Buddha suggests more o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The t h r e e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f Buddhahood make one t h i n k o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t , separate i n d i v i d u a l s , but t h e T r i k a y a means one p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h t h r e e a s p e c t s . In t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f the T r i p l e Body we t r a c e a s y s t e m a t i s i n g thought (pp.- 3 3 3 - 3 3 M .  T h i s analogy i s not o n l y vague, b u t , as we w i t h Asanga's f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e t r i k a y a  11.  s h a l l see l a t e r , i t i s i n c o m p a t i b l e  doctrine.  Hobogirin: D i c t i o n n a i r e encyclopedique  du bouddhisme, s.v. " B u s s h i n , " n.d.,  f a s c . 2: lT"+-l85.  This a r t i c l e i s a wide-ranging  examination o f a l l Buddhakaya  Busshin) t h e o r i e s i n c l u d i n g t h e t r i k a y a .  (Japanese:.  Most o f t h e a r t i c l e i s a survey o f  Buddhist t e x t s which mention the v a r i o u s Buddhakayas.  A b r i e f statement  of  t h e p l a c e o f each t e x t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Buddhism i s f o l l o w e d by a summary o f r e l e v a n t passages.  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e b i b l i o -  graphy o f t h e p r e s e n t  study.  35 In a d d i t i o n , i n the "Apergu G e n e r a l , " t h e a u t h o r ^ proposes o f t h e development o f v a r i o u s Buddhakayas.  a simple t h e o r y  He suggests t h a t the d i v e r s e conno-  t a t i o n s o f "Buddhakaya" developed from an ambiguity i n the term kaya.  I t meant  both:  —  an o r g a n i z e d body or organism,  —  a m a t e r i a l o r c o n c r e t e mass.  The  i n t h e sense o f n i k a y a .  e a r l y Buddhist community, needing an o b j e c t o f worship,  substituted  the t e a c h i n g (= Dharmakaya) f o r the d e p a r t e d Buddha. Others developed more complex Buddhologies, the Buddha was  e n t i r e l y transcendent.  The Mahasamghikas h e l d t h a t  Others s a i d t h a t the p u r e l y human Buddha  d i s a p p e a r e d at the p a r i n i r v a n a , but t h a t the "buddha elements" p e r s i s t e d . d i v i s i o n i n t o a form-body and dharma-body harmonized  This  w i t h the t w o - t r u t h i d e a  and and c o n t i n u e d i n the e a r l y Mahayana s c h o o l s , based on t h e M a h a p a r i n i r v a n a s u t r a and the P r a j n a p a r a m i t a s u t r a s .  The Avatamsaka, on t h e o t h e r hand,  m u l t i p l i e d bodies u n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . The V i j n a n a v a d i n master Asanga f o r m u l a t e d the d e f i n i t i v e t r i k a y a on the b a s i s o f i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n such s u t r a s as the L a n k a v a t a r a . s i x t h c e n t u r y , Paramartha the d o c t r i n e .  T h i s was  on  In the  a r r i v e d l i n China and announced t h a t I n d i a had  included i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the  and i n the c h a p t e r added t o the Suvarnaprabhasasutra. -other groups b u i l t  doctrine mid-  fixed  Sraddhotpadasastra  The T ' i e n - T ' a i and  this.  The author concludes w i t h a warning t h a t i n s u f f i c i e n t  documentation  is  a v a i l a b l e f o r a p r o p e r h i s t o r y o f the t r i k a y a t o be w r i t t e n . This a r t i c l e sources.  i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l essay on the p r i m a r y t e x t u a l  As such i t i s a p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e work f o r t h i s study, but c o n t a i n s  few i d e a s which c o u l d be a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r i k a y a .  12.  A. K.  Chatterjee.  University,  The Yogacara I d e a l i s m .  V a r a n a s i : Benaras Hindu  1962.  T h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the V i j n a n a v a d a I n d i a n s c h o l a r s h i p on the s u b j e c t . u n i f y i n g Buddhological  seems t o r e p r e s e n t contemporary  C h a t t e r j e e sees t h e Tathagata  as the  concept:  The Tathagata o c c u p i e s t h e same-place i n Buddhism as I s v a r a does i n A d v a i t a Vedanta. He i s the God o f r e l i g i o n , an o b j e c t o f worship and v e n e r a t i o n . He has a l s o i n f i n i t e compassion f o r the s u f f e r i n g mankind but f o r Whose grace t h e i r redemption would not be p o s s i b l e (p. 223).  C h a t t e r j e e d i s c u s s e s the n e c e s s i t y and the l o g i c a l t e n a b i l i t y o f t h i s concept, and then expounds h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t h r e e kayas o f t h e Tathagata.  He  draws a l l s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s from the  Mahayahasutralankara  The concept o f the Tathagata i s c o n s t i t u t e d by d i f f e r e n t metaphysical p r i n c i p l e s . T h i s f a c t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the t h e o r y o f the t h r e e kayas o f the Buddha. I t i s one o f the most important d o c t r i n e s i n t h e whole o f Mahayana r e l i g i o n and i t i s n o t h i n g p e c u l i a r t o the Yogacara who a c c e p t e d the traditional doctrine. There are t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the God-head, t e c h n i c a l l y known as the t h r e e kayas o f the T a t h a g a t a . They a r e : 1. The Svabhavika kaya. 2. The Sambhoga kaya and 3. The Nairmanika kaya. 1. The Svabhavikakaya o f the Buddha i s the p r i n c i p l e o r pure W i l l (visuddha T a t h a t a ) which i s t h e . u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y . As such He i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the A b s o l u t e . It i s also called dharma-kaya, b e i n g the dharmata (essence) o f t h i n g s . I t s e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r ( l a k s a n a ) i s a s r a y a p a r a v r t t i , i . e . , the withdrawing or r e t r a c t i n g o f t h e Kl&ya. When under the i n f l u ence o f A v i d y a , the i l l u s i o n o f o b j e c t i v i t y , t h e A l a y a i s compelled i n t o a forward movement. I t goes on c r e a t i n g forms o f o b j e c t i v i t y which i n t h e i r t u r n f u r t h e r r e p l e n i s h i t . On the s u b l a t i o n o f t h i s d i s t u r b i n g i l l u s i o n a r e t r a c t i n g movement o f t h i s A l a y a i s s t a r t e d . I t no l o n g e r p o s i t s an o t h e r but r e s t s i n i t s e l f . T h i s i s the s t a t e o f V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s as pure A c t . I t i s the dharmakaya o f the Buddha and i s His n a t u r a l a s p e c t . -  37  Being e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h the A b s o l u t e , the q u e s t i o n o f the number o f Buddhas has no meaning. . . . The dharmakaya o f a l l the Buddhas i s i d e n t i c a l , as a l l are i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e A b s o l u t e . I t i s a l s o beyond thought as t h i s i d e n t i t y cannot be grasped, w i t h mere c o n c e p t s . 2. The second aspect o f the Buddha i s H i s Sambhogika kaya — His body o f B l i s s . I t i s t h i s body w i t h which the Buddha enjoys H i s c r e a t i o n (dharmasambhoga). Strictly s p e a k i n g , t h i s i s the concept o f God par e x c e l l e n c e . A l l the g l o r i f i e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the Buddha found i n the s c r i p t u r e s , e.g., r a y s emanating from the innumerable pores o f H i s s k i n and p e n e t r a t i n g t o the remotest c o r n e r s o f t h e u n i v e r s e , p e r t a i n t o t h i s kaya. The Buddha d w e l l s i n the A k a n i s t h a Heaven, surrounded by a host o f B o d h i s a t t v a s and o t h e r minor personages. Sambhoga kaya i s the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the supreme God, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l l powers and e x c e l lences. I t i s comparable t o the concept o f God i n the Brahmanical systems which f i n d s the b e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the e l e v e n t h c h a p t e r o f the Bhagavad G i t a . 3. The Nairmanika Kaya i s t h e a p p a r i t i o n a l body o f the Buddha. Hence one i s e x p l i c i t l y warned t h a t the human form which the L o r d might t e m p o r a r i l y assume s h o u l d by no means be mistaken f o r H i s r e a l body. T h i s assumption i s s o l e l y f o r the purpose o f l e n d i n g succour t o mankind. The forms assumed can be i n f i n i t e i n number. . . . Whereas the body o f B l i s s c h a r a c t e r i s e s such q u a l i t i e s e x i s t i n g f o r the sake of others. . . . In s h o r t , the human Buddha who i s o r d i n a r i l y seen i n the v a r i o u s worlds and e x e m p l i f i e d i n d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s i s the nirmanakaya o f the Buddha. I t i s o f t h i s kaya t h a t any h i s t o r i c i t y can be a s c r i b e d . That body which i s v i s i b l e t o some heavenly b e i n g s i s H i s Sambhogakaya which o b v i o u s l y has no h i s t o r i c i t y . But b o t h the Kayas are h i s f r e e assumptions. The u t t e r i n d i v i s i b i l i t y . . . o f any form i s H i s Dharmakaya. T h i s i s H i s r e a l essence. The Sambhogakaya i s the supreme God w h i l e the Nirmana kaya i s the Sakyamuni who a c t u a l l y took b i r t h amongst us (pp. 230-232).  C h a t t e r j e e o f f e r s l i t t l e more than d i d Coomaraswamy i n 19l6.  The  inter-  v e n i n g developmental s t u d i e s have been i g n o r e d and the d o c t r i n e t r e a t e d as r e v e a l e d dogma.  H i s t o r i c a l a s s e r t i o n s , i . e . , t h a t the t r i k a y a was  Buddhist d o c t r i n e , not a V i j n a n a v a d i n development,  a general  are not j u s t i f i e d .  All  i n f o r m a t i o n i s drawn from a s i n g l e e a r l y t e x t which i s not one seen as c e n t r a l  38 by o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s .  The g r e a t e x e g e t i c a l t r e a t i s e s i n which such t e x t s  were d i s c u s s e d and c l a r i f i e d are i g n o r e d i n f a v o r o f t h e b l i n d assumption t h a t the  V i j n a n a v a d a i s a l l but i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h e Vedanta.  The r e s u l t i n g e x p l a n a -  t i o n i s simple and p r e d i c t a b l e but u s e l e s s as a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r  13.  Matsunaga,  Alicia.  The Buddhist P h i l o s o p h y o f A s s i m i l a t i o n .  Monumenta l i p p o n i c a Monograph,  studies.  Tokyo:  1969.  T h i s book i s t y p i c a l o f modern p o p u l a r works on Buddhism i n E n g l i s h .published from Japan.  I t promises to-be p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t " t© our  e n q u i r y as i t t a k e s a developmental approach, showing how became i n t e g r a t i v e c e n t e r s around which new  certain  doctrines  i d e a s c o a l e s c e d as t h e s e - d o c t r i n e s  developed and as Buddhism s p r e a d t o C h i n a and Japan. The book does not l i v e up t o i t s " i n i t i a l promise. -  the  h i s t o r y o f t h e Buddhology  are c l e a r  While t h e passages on  ( a l t h o u g h adding n o t h i n g t o t h e  H o b o g i r i n a c c o u n t ) , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which the authors d e r i v e from i t i s , at  least to this writer, u n i n t e l l i g i b l e .  to  some ambiguous, u n d e f i n e d European term.  Each e x p l a n a t i o n i n v o l v e s an a p p e a l  ambiguous w i t h i n t h e modern Japanese academic  While t h e s e terms may  not be  community, t h e Western r e a d e r o f  a work w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h expects a shared t e r m i n o l o g y . trikaya section  '.,  F o r example,  the  opens:  H i s t o r i c a l l y , i n Buddhism t h e r e have always been at l e a s t t h r e e p o i n t s o f view i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e 'Buddha'; f i r s t , as a human b e i n g , second as a s p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e , and l a s t l y , as something i n between t h e two former views. The a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e o f Gotama (Skt. Gautama) Buddha has never had a tremendous s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e Buddhist f a i t h , as' he has been p r i m a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be an a r c h e t y p e , and s e c o n d l y a h i s t o r i c a l personage (p. 78).  " S p i r i t u a l p r i n c i p l e " — s u r e l y the l e a s t m e a n i n g f u l term p o s s i b l e — i s not  39 explained. require  The  an e n t i r e chapter o f development b e f o r e i t would be  rejected). Jung, but ancient  statement c o n c e r n i n g the h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e  What i s meant by h i s use  "archetype"?  o f i t cannot be  That term was  our  -  vidual. is  the  But  d i v i d i n g the  which many o t h e r s c h o l a r s  C.  G.  j u s t t h a t Gautama^ "Buddha  p r i m a r i l y an a r c h e t y p e , not  more b a s i c a l l y , i n s e p a r a t i n g  author:' not  by  ( C a r o l i n e Rhys-Davids n o t -  I f i t d i d , s u r e l y t h i s i n d i v i d u a l was  author- maintains, was  popularized  Even the n o t i o n t h a t the t r a d i t i o n had  a concept o f a " h i s t o r i c a l " Buddha i s q u e s t i o n a b l e  who,  a c c e p t e d (or even  s t r e t c h e d t o cover the manner i n which  B u d d h i s t s r e g a r d e d the Buddha.  withstanding).  o f Gautama would  a r c h e t y p e and  e s s e n t i a l from the  agree i s t o t a l l y a g a i n s t  a historical  indi-  historical individual,  e x i s t e n t i a l , the one the  spirit  o f the  move  trikaya  doctrine? The  remainder o f the  e x p e r i e n c e and  exposition  i s i n two  p a r t s : the t r i k a y a as r e l i g i o u s  the t r i k a y a as p h i l o s o p h i c a l d o c t r i n e .  t h e s e , or even the  grounds f o r making the  seem t o i n v o l v e t h e o r y a l t h o u g h the more Madhyamika and  the  The  d i s t i n c t i o n between  d i s t i n c t i o n , i s not  "philosophical" discussion  stated. seems t o  involve  " r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e " s e c t i o n seems t o i n v o l v e more  Vijnanavada. The  Both  p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c u s s i o n opens as  follows:  P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y , the Dharma-kaya i s e q u i v a l e n t t o sunyata, the u n i v e r s a l t r u t h d e c l a r i n g t h a t a l l s u b j e c t - o b j e c t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n based upon d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge i s i n v a l i d . In more p o s i t i v e terms t h i s can be equated w i t h the essence o f Enlightenment ( n i r v a n a ) which merely c o n s i s t s o f an unders t a n d i n g o f P r a t f t y a samutpada ( r e l a t i v i t y ) or the a b i l i t y t o view t h a t - w h a t - i s - a s - i t - i s ( t a t h a t t ) . We can t h e r e f o r e say t h a t the Dharma-kaya. i s a l s o the system o f cosmic u n i t y or o r d e r t h a t e x i s t s everywhere but i s unable t o be grasped by reasoning. S i n c e the Dharma-kaya f u n c t i o n s as a u n i v e r s a l t r u t h , i t cannot remain a mere p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e , but c o n s t a n t l y  1+0  appears i n r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . Such an appearance o r z a t i o n o f t h i s t r u t h i s the Sambhoga-kaya.,  reali-  ... In essence, the Sambhoga-k.aya i s a l s o the e x p e r i ence o f 'enjoyment' o f the t r u t h o f stonyata, o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f A b s o l u t e T r u t h . . . t h e Sambhoga-kaya i s not a s t a t i c s t a t e . From t h i s r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e comes the n a t u r a l d e s i r e t o e n l i g h t e n o t h e r s and hence t h e Nirmana-kaya o r system o f t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the essence o f Enlightenment (sunyata) i s s u e s forth'.to a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s . T h i s l a s t f u n c t i o n or aspect o f Enlightenment i s s i m i l a r t o the concept o f sunyata a r t h a or f e a t u r e o f r e c o g n i z i n g the phenomenal w o r l d as based upon d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge and u s i n g upaya t o l e a d s e n t i e n t b e i n g s from d i s c r i m i n a t i v e knowledge t o Enlightenment (pp. 8 l 82).  Comment i s h a r d l y n e c e s s a r y .  Every major problem i s brushed  aside.  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the Dharmakaya t o sunyata i s one o f " e q u i v a l e n c e . "  The  The  Sambhogakaya i s the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the A b s o l u t e T r u t h , and the Nirmanakaya i s due t o a " n a t u r a l d e s i r e . " all  I can see o n l y the s l i g h t e s t  o f t h i s and the c l a s s i c a l V i j n a n a v a d a  c o n n e c t i o n between  theory.  As r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , the t r i k a y a i s d e s c r i b e d by a confused of Vijnanavada  ideas:  I t was the Yogacara" w i t h t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s - ' ness ( v i j n a n a ) as the b a s i s o f Enlightenment t h a t gave a s y s t e m a t i c form t o the d o c t r i n e o f t h e T r i k a y a , and i t was t h i s form t h a t permeated a l l l a t e r Mahayana. The e a r l i e s t stage o f t h e Yog&c&fa c o n c e p t i o n can be found i n .the Lankavatara Sutra. . . . In t h e f i n a l form o f t h e T r i k a y a t h e o r y t h e Dharma-kaya became t h e aspect o f Buddhahood as A b s o l u t e T r u t h or r e a l i t y , w h i l e the Sambhoga-kaya and Nirmana-kaya were upaya or manif e s t a t i o n s o f the Dharma-kaya t a i n t e d by degrees o f i l l u s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the phenomenal w o r l d , hence h a v i n g form. We can compare b o t h the Sambhoga-kaya and Nirmana-kaya t o m i r r o r s r e f l e c t i n g the p u r i t y o f l i g h t from the U n c o n d i t i o n e d Dharma-kaya. The former i s a l i g h t and g l o r i o u s r e f l e c t i o n , but i t i s s t i l l a m i r r o r a t t e m p t i n g t o c a p t u r e the r a y s o f the i n f i n i t e and i n d e s c r i b a b l e at an i d e a l l e v e l o f r e l i g i o u s r e a l i z a t i o n , i t i s f a r removed from i t s source. The l a t t e r tends t o be a dark r e f l e c t i o n , .since i t i s c l o u d e d by i t s appearance i n the phenomenal w o r l d t h a t  scattering  Ill  can o n l y f a i n t l y glimpse the dim r e f l e c t i o n i t c a r r i e s o f the Absolute Truth. From the sphere o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , the Yogacara were a b l e t o t e a c h t h a t the Sambhoga-kaya and Nirmana-kaya r e p r e s e n t e d mind-made emanations from the Dharma-kaya o r one e t e r n a l Buddha. Both t h e s e l a t t e r forms a p p e a r i n g i n t h e i l l u s i v e w o r l d were u n r e a l , j u s t as a l l phenomenal e x i s t e n c e i s u n r e a l . . . . From such a b a s i s o f r e l i g i o u s understandi n g i t i s easy t o comprehend t h e source o f Mahayana m y s t i c i s m . The Yogacara emphasis.upon.the r e l i g i o u s .experience o f E n l i g h t enment symbolized as the T r i k a y a as w e l l as the importance o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s as the b a s i s f o r the movement towards Enlightenment n a t u r a l l y p l a c e d a h i g h e r v a l u e upon m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e than e m p i r i c a l knowledge (pp. 83-85).  Wot  o n l y does a l l o f t h i s a v o i d the r e a l q u e s t i o n s but i t l e a v e s a  s u s p i c i o n t h a t the authors may navadin t h e o r y .  Was  not be w e l l a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l  Vijna-  t h e r e ever a s c h o o l which d i d not r e g a r d c o n s c i o u s n e s s  Q as the b a s i s o f enlightenment?  S u r e l y Suzuki  i s correct i n saying that  V i j n a n a v a d a i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by i t s t h e o r y o f the mechanics o f the e n l i g h t e n ment p r o c e s s  ( i . e . , the  asraya-paravrtti).  However, the most s e r i o u s doubts i c a l models.  Such phrases  a r i s e from the constant use o f o n t o l o g -  as " t a i n t e d by degrees  of i l l u s i o n i n r e l a t i o n to  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the phenomenal w o r l d " seem i n c o n s i s t e n t t r i s v a b h a v a b a s i s o f the system. examining 1^.  with'the  T h i s q u e s t i o n w i l l be taken up l a t e r when  Asanga's Mahayanasamgraha.  Geoffrey Parrinder. and Comparative and Faber,  A v a t a r and I n c a r n a t i o n : The Wilde L e c t u r e s i n N a t u r a l  R e l i g i o n i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f Oxford.  London: Faber  1970.  The p r e v i o u s a r t i c l e s have been the work o f s c h o l a r s o f Buddhism or Buddhist a p o l o g i s t s . produce  I t might be argued t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y t a s k was  not t o  an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n but t o p r e s e n t the l i t e r a t u r e and c o n s t r u c t a h i s t o r y  o f i t s development*  The  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e data might he c o n s i d e r e d a  t a s k f o r the g e n e r a l i s t such as the student o f comparative  religion,  history  o f r e l i g i o n , and so on. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few g e n e r a l i s t s have d e a l t w i t h the t o p i c . work by P a r r i n d e r i s the most p r o m i s i n g treatment. s e c t i o n devoted t o Buddhism by n o t i n g the apparent  The  present  As he b e g i n s the s i x t y - p a g e anomaly o f a Nirmanakaya  r e s e m b l i n g an a v a t a r or i n c a r n a t i o n i n t h i s - n o n - t h e i s t i c r e l i g i o n , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect him t o speak d i r e c t l y t o our concern —  t o d e r i v e a frame  o f r e f e r e n c e broad enough t o accommodate b o t h Western t h e i s t i c ideas. No  and  Buddhist  T h i s would be t h e key t o i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e t r i k a y a . such d e r i v a t i o n i s f o r t h c o m i n g .  The b u l k o f the r e l e v a n t c h a p t e r s i s  simply a s y n o p s i s o f the Buddha myth from v a r i o u s s u t r a s .  P a r r i n d e r seems  unaware o f the s a s t r a s and b a d l y informed about the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e — n o t one o f the s t u d i e s i n t h i s p r e s e n t survey o f s c h o l a r s h i p appears raphy.  in his bibliog-  With the e x c e p t i o n o f Lamotte's H i s t o i r e du bouddhisme i n d i e n , h i s  secondary  sources are the l e a s t r e l i a b l e o f a l l the p o p u l a r i z e r s .  he has a c c e p t e d a s t a r t l i n g assortment  o f misunderstandings  From them  as s i m p l e d a t a :  . . . t h e Buddha was. a c t u a l l y a l l the Buddhas o f the p a s t . . . . The c o r p o r e a l l i f e o f a Buddha was i l l u s o r y anyway . . . a l l the Buddhas have the same essence . . . t h e y can appear i n v a r i o u s forms t o many b e i n g s . These are acts of grace. . . . So the i d e a o f Buddhahood was d e v e l oped i n t o a u n i v e r s a l pantheism, or r a t h e r pan-Buddhism . . . (p. 178).  These sources a l s o s u p p l i e d him w i t h a v e r y d i s t o r t e d v e r s i o n o f the t r i k a y a , o r r a t h e r w i t h t h e view t h a t the t r i k a y a was d i d not take the t r i k a y a s e r i o u s l y at a l l :  not important.  "The b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n was  Parrinder between  the p h y s i c a l body and Dharma-body, i t i s t h e s e two t h a t are u s u a l l y compared  ^3 and  contrasted" From these  (p.  177).  i d e a s he draws a few  g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e most  h e i n g t h a t the Buddha t h e o r i e s are merely a "weak" (p. 2^0) d o c t r i n e and  can he d i s m i s s e d  and 19,  scholar.  The  form o f the  avatar  on the p a r t  of  along with i t .  A l l o f t h i s i n i t i a l l y appears as a p u z z l i n g n e g l i g e n c e such a r e s p e c t e d  p i c t u r e becomes c l e a r e r when, i n c h a p t e r s  P a r r i n d e r throws a s i d e h i s s c h o l a r l y g u i s e and r e v e a l s the  t h e o l o g i a n who,  books have been i n c l u d e d t o demonstrate how been done has p e n e t r a t e d  the p o p u l a r  level.  little  their  o f the r e s e a r c h which  reviewed.  15.  T r a n s l a t e d by  Wagao, G a d j i n .  "On  has  As most o t h e r w r i t e r s are f a r  more n a i v e than t h e s e , no o t h e r p o p u l a r works w i l l be  the Theory o f Buddha-Body."  Hirano  E a s t e r n Buddhist, 6 (May, 1973): 25-53.  P r o f e s s o r Nagao approaches the t r i k a y a w i t h great knowledge o f the t e x t s , and In s e c t i o n one, section  polemical  exalts Christianity i n a ringing a l t a r . c a l l .  Although n e i t h e r Matsunaga nor P a r r i n d e r h e l p s us d i r e c t l y ,  The  17  on the b a s i s o f the e a r l i e r c o n c l u s i o n s , f i n d s a l l a l i e n  r e l i g i o n s wanting and  Umeyo.  important  sympathy, profound  a cautious a t t i t u d e .  he d i s c u s s e s the v a r i o u s i d e a s which f e d i n t o the t r i k a y a .  concludes:  I t was i n the p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e Yogacara s c h o o l (or t h e V i j n a n a - v a d a s c h o o l ) r e p r e s e n t e d by Asafiga and Vasubandhu t h a t the two-body t h e o r y developed u n t i l i t was consummated i n t o a three-body t h e o r y . The i d e a s and f a i t h s t h a t became ... the m a t e r i a l s f o r the three-body t h e o r y must have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n v a r i o u s forms b e f o r e t h a t time. There was a l r e a d y a tendency toward the u n i v e r s a l i z a t i o n o f the concept o f Buddha. I t was thought t h a t Gautama Buddha was not the o n l y Buddha; t h a t t h e r e had been many Buddhas i n the p a s t , and t h e r e would be many Buddhas i n the f u t u r e ; and  hk  t h a t a c t u a l l y t h e r e e x i s t e d innumerable Buddhas i n the innumerable Buddha-lands i n the t e n d i r e c t i o n s . Thus, names o f Buddhas, such as V a i r o c a n a , Aksobhya, Amitabha, Amitayus, B h a i s a j y a - g u r u , and c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s had a l r e a d y been conceived. I t was the Y o g a c a r a - v i j n a n a s c h o o l t h a t o r g a n i z e d the three-body ( t r i - k a y a ) t h e o r y by s y n t h e s i z i n g t h e s e c o n c e p t i o n s o f the Buddha (p. 3 0 ) .  S e c t i o n two d e a l s w i t h the Yogacara t r i k a y a .  Nagao pays  particular  a t t e n t i o n t o t h e Sambhogakaya and asks why  t h e Sambhogakaya, s h a r i n g i n t h e  n a t u r e s o f b o t h Dharmakaya and Nirmanakaya,  d i d not r e p l a c e b o t h o f them:  The sambhoghika-kaya, through t h i s double c h a r a c t e r , l i e s between the svabha*vika-kaya and nairmanika-kaya, s e r v i n g as a l i n k between t h e two. No, the sambhogika-kaya r a t h e r o c c u p i e s the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the t r i p l e - b o d y doct r i n e ; e s p e c i a l l y , the s o t e r i o l o g y i n Buddhism i s developed r e v o l v i n g around the a x i s o f t h i s double c h a r a c t e r o f the sambhogika-kaya. In t h i s sense, t h e sambhogika-kaya can be c a l l e d the Buddha par e x c e l l e n c e . However, i f i t i s so, i t might be p o s s i b l e t o say t h a t the one Buddha-body o f sambho-. g i k a ^ k a y a i s s u f f i c i e n t , and n e i t h e r the svabhavika-kaya nor the nairmanika-kaya i s n e c e s s a r y . I n f a c t , such a p o s i t i o n i s p o s s i b l e , and i t might have been supported e s p e c i a l l y from the s t a n d p o i n t o f r e l i g i o u s m o n o t h e i s t i c demand. But t h e s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Mahayanic d o c t r i n e o f Buddhabody, l i e s i n the p e r s i s t e n t maintenance o f the t r i a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n o f the t h r e e Buddha-bodies. For i n that respect t h e r e i s something f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r the one-body or the two-body t h e o r y . . . . The t h e o r e t i c p e r f e c t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e o f Buddha-body l i e s ' i n the t r i a n g u l a r concept o f the t h r e e Buddha-bodies; the two-body t h e o r y would be i n s u f f i c i e n t , and the four-body and o t h e r many-body t h e o r i e s would be p l e t h o r i c i n p r i n c i p l e (pp. 3 7 , 3 8 - 3 9 ) .  Nagao b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s t r i a d i c  scheme i s the key t o V i j n a n a v a d i n  Buddhology:  A l l the a t t r i b u t e s and v i r t u e s o f the Buddha were a l s o c l a r i f i e d i n the system o f the trikaya,. As i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e them here one by one, I s h a l l o n l y g i v e a few examples: the Buddha's wisdom was r e g a r d e d as an a t t r i b u t e e s p e c i a l l y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e svabhavika-kaya; h i s w i l l (asaya, vow) was e s p e c i a l l y t r e a t e d i n the sambhogika-kaya; and h i s a c t s (buddha karman) e s p e c i a l l y i n the n a i f m a n i k a -  kaya. But at the same t i m e , s i n c e the t h r e e Buddha-bodies are not independent o f each o t h e r but are i n the r e l a t i o n o f a b a s i s and a t h i n g based on i t , t h e s e v i r t u e s are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t r a n s f e r a b l e t o each o t h e r . S i m i l a r l y , the e l u c i d a t i o n o f such q u e s t i o n s as whether t h e r e i s o n l y one Buddha or o t h e r Buddhas numerous i n number, or f o r what reason the Buddha i s s a i d t o be e v e r l a s t i n g and always a b i d i n g , and so f o r t h , has been attempted through the s y s tem o f the t r i k a y a . I w i l l not go i n t o t h e s e problems h e r e , but I would say t h a t , i n s h o r t , t h e s e problems w i l l not l i k e l y be answered t h o r o u g h l y without the t r i k a y a t h e o r y (p. 3 8 ) .  In s e c t i o n t h r e e , Nagao develops h i s methodology through a c r i t i q u e o f Coomaraswamy and C h a t t e r j e e ' s attempts Hindu concepts.  He  t o r e l a t e the t r i k a y a t o C h r i s t i a n  and  concludes:  The t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e developed as a system w i t h a background o f t h e s e Mahayana c o n c e p t s , which i n t h e i r t u r n became ever more s o l i d i f i e d by h a v i n g r e c o u r s e t o the t r i k a y a doctrine. T h e r e f o r e , we must say t h a t the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e i s f a i r l y d i f f e r e n t from the T r i n i t y o f C h r i s t i a n i t y o r the t r i m u r t i o f Hinduism (p. h2).  F i n a l l y Nagao p o i n t s out t h a t w h i l e the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e may Buddha's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t does not e x p l a i n how  explain a  a-Buddha comfesf into', e x i s t e n c  I t i s t r u e t h a t by t h i s t r i k a y a t h e o r y the n a t u r e o f the Buddha and a l l h i s v i r t u e s has been d e l i n e a t e d . But as f o r how Gautama, a human b e i n g , was a b l e t o become a Buddha p o s s e s s i n g v i r t u e s e q u a l t o those o f a d i v i n e b e i n g , almost n o t h i n g has been s a i d i n t h e s e t h e o r i e s . How can a l e a p from t h e r e l a t i v e w o r l d t o the a b s o l u t e w o r l d be made? S i n c e Gautama was an e x c e p t i o n a l p e r s o n , as h i s d i s c i p l e s thought, i t might have been p o s s i b l e f o r him t o become a Buddha by d i n t o f h i s innumerable v i r t u o u s deeds accumulated i n t h e past. But i f o n l y t h a t , Gautama would have o n l y been a d i v i n e e x i s t e n c e from the b e g i n n i n g , and not a human b e i n g . Moreover, t h a t would be a unique case f o r Gautama a l o n e , and would not e x p l a i n a n y t h i n g about the e x i s t e n c e o f a l l the Buddhas i n the t e n d i r e c t i o n s . In Mahayana Buddhism, i t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y t o l d t h a t a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s are expected t o a t t a i n Buddhahood, but t h e n , i t must be asked: In what way i s i t p o s s i b l e f o r a common l i v i n g b e i n g t o become a Buddha?  1+6  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s a t t a i n i n g Buddhahood i s a problem t h a t seems t o have been answered from two sides. One i s the i d e a t h a t i s m a i n l y advocated by the tathagata-garbha (tathagata-matrix) theory. The other i s the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a s r a y a - p a r a v r t t i (the r e v o l v i n g o f the b a s i s ) . . . (p. kk).  The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s c o n s t i t u t e s the b u l k o f the  article.  While t h i s s h o r t a r t i c l e o n l y touches upon each i s s u e , i t e s t a b l i s h e s a r e a s o n a b l e model f o r a study.  Nagao's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t the t r i k a y a i s an  i n t e g r a t i v e scheme w i t h i n the V i j n a n a v a d a , and hence should be reference  t o the  ative religion.  ideas  i t i n c o r p o r a t e s , w i l l prevent much premature compar-  His separation  o f the t r i k a y a from q u e s t i o n s questions The has  from o b s c u r i n g  the  of questions  H. V.  s t r u c t u r e and  function  historical  f u n c t i o n a l ones. on Chinese t e x t s c o n t a i n e d  i n t o the b i b l i o g r a p h y  SUMMARY OF  The  about the  about i t s o r i g i n s h o u l d p r e v e n t the  b i b l i o g r a p h i c information  been i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n t e r p r e t e d by  o f the p r e s e n t  in his  study.  SCHOLARSHIP  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r i k a y a by the r e m a i n i n g important "scholar,  Guenther, w i l l be  examined l a t e r i n l i g h t  o f the  f o l l o w i n g summary.  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by t h e s e d i v e r s s c h o l a r s over n e a r l y a c e n t u r y still  footnotes  v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o compare, I w i l l now  obtain a basis f o r planning  future  La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s 1906 Buddhological  and  summarize the p r e v i o u s  are  articles  to  research.  a r t i c l e , w i t h i t s d i v i s i o n o f the t r i k a y a i n t o a  an o n t o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e , began t o r e v e a l the  the concept and marked the  As  end o f r e d u c t i o n i s t i c t r e a t m e n t s .  complexity of L a t e r workers  g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d i t as a symbolic or open-ended scheme f o r o r g a n i z i n g  a  1*7  v a r i e t y o f i d e a s r a t h e r than as a t i g h t l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d dogma. By 1913  he had  extended h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t r i k a y a c o u l d not be understood  t o the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t the  i n i s o l a t i o n from the h i s t o r y o f I n d i a n  Buddhism ( t a n t r i c developments, exempted) and made some p r o g r e s s toward s e e i n g it  i n that perspective.  To do t h i s he r e v i v e d Kern's use o f the  distinction  between c o n v e n t i o n a l and a b s o l u t e t r u t h t o r e s o l v e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y n o t i o n s w i t h i n the d o c t r i n e .  While t h i s i d e a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , i t i s  s a f e t o say t h a t La V a l l e e Poussin's.. 1913-..understanding o f the between Madhyamika and V i j n a n a v a d a taken  was  so incomplete  that-it  distinction  s h o u l d not  be-  seriously. La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s  f i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the V i j n a p t i m a t r a t a s i d d h i  (1928) c o n t a i n s l i t t l e  interpretation.  t e x t u a l sources  a v o i d i n g the t a n t r i c ) and a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f s c h o l a r s h i p .  (still  I t i s an expanded s e l e c t i o n o f I n d i a n  Both are s t i l l u s e f u l . In the 1913  a r t i c l e Masson-Oursel c o n s o l i d a t e s the p r e v i o u s  conclusions  and  examines a c l a s s i c a l V i j n a n a v a d i n t e x t , from which he i s a b l e t o  two  advances.  F i r s t , he s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y what La V a l l e e . P o u s s i n has  nized i m p l i c i t l y — t h a t  The p r e f i x  recog-  the term kaya i n the t r i k a y a i s o n l y m e t a p h o r i c a l l y a  "body" but a c t u a l l y d e s i g n a t e s hood.  formulate  a s e t o f o r g a n i c a l l y - r e l a t e d f a c t s about Buddha-  (e.g., Dharma-) i d e n t i f i e s the p a r t i c u l a r c l u s t e r o f f a c t s .  Second, he c l a r i f i e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sambhogakaya, although f a i l s t o e x p l a i n i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the o t h e r two  kayas.  It i s clear that  Masson-Oursel c o u l d have r e s o l v e d h i s dilemma r e g a r d i n g the Sambhogakaya as compassionate response, Vijnanavada  had he possessed  s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l knowledge o f the  t o r e a l i z e the r o l e o f the B o d h i s a t t v a  vow.  he  1+8  While Suzuki's i n t e n t i o n may and the S t u d i e s presentation)  not have a l t e r e d between the O u t l i n e s  (1906)  (1930), h i s knowledge i n c r e a s e d and h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (or  changed almost beyond r e c o g n i t i o n .  few u s e f u l i d e a s , the ease w i t h which S u z u k i ,  While the O u t l i n e s  contains  as a b e l i e v e r , m o d i f i e s  the  concept o f kaya supports La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s and Masson-Oursel's i d e a t h a t i t i s not  a f i x e d "body."  discouraged  others  The  works o f t h e s e t h r e e w r i t e r s appear t o have  from w a s t i n g e f f o r t on a s e a r c h  pure" t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e .  Most c o n c e n t r a t e d  f o r the " r e a l " o r  on the i d e a s t h a t i t  "original  systematizes  i n any p a r t i c u l a r t e x t or system. Suzuki's major c o n t r i b u t i o n i n the S t u d i e s Nirmana-Buddha o f the Lankavatara (and by t h a t emerged from the t r i - B u d d h a  i s the i n s i s t e n c e t h a t  the  i m p l i c a t i o n , a l l t h r e e o f the kayas  system o f t h a t t e x t ) i s a r e l a t i o n a l  concept.  While I doubt t h a t the i d e a should be pushed as f a r as Suzuki does, i t w i l l  be  a key t o the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Mahayanasamgraha. Akanuma has  (1922) and Nagao (.1973) have adopted s i m i l a r approaches.  the advantage o f the i n t e r v e n i n g h a l f - c e n t u r y , h i s a r t i c l e may  as the c u l m i n a t i o n  o f Akanuma's work.  As Nagao  be  T h e i r approach i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  p r i m a r y l o y a l t y t o the Buddhist sources r a t h e r than t o the Western or analogs. primary The  a  Indian  T h i s l o y a l t y l e a d s to" more a p p l i c a b l e c a t e g o r i e s and more r e l e v a n t 1  questions. b a s i c message o f Nagao's a r t i c l e appears i n the p o r t i o n s  A l t h o u g h i t may  other  Matsunaga.  quoted.  be u n f a i r t o c a l l t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s " c o n c l u s i o n s , "  t h e y are the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d p r e l i m i n a r y r e s u l t s i n t h i s s e t o f The  regarded  s t u d i e s may  be  Coomaraswamy and  articles.  set a s i d e j u s t as were those o f P a r r i n d e r C h a t t e r j e e b o t h i g n o r e any  historical  or v a r i a t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e which t h e y simply  r e g a r d as a t h e i s m .  not used t h e i r knowledge o f the I n d i a n m i l i e u .  T h e i r sources are  and  development They have restricted,  h9 t h e i r methods u n c r i t i c a l and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e d u c t i o n i s t i c . little  s u t r a and the H o b o g i r i n a r t i c l e have been important  suggests an  Rockhill's  sources but n e i t h e r  interpretation.  The b u l k o f t h e s e s t u d i e s a c t u a l l y c o n s t i t u t e s d a t a f o r a h i s t o r y o f the V i j n a n a v a d a , i . e . , i n f o r m a t i o n about  t e x t s and c o n t e n t s , comments on  h i s t o r y , and i n s i g h t s i n t o the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e system. data i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l account of  them i s more d i f f i c u l t .  d e r i v e d from t h e s e The  first  their  Incorporation of these  i s a straightforward process.  Interpretation  A few g e n e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i v e p r i n c i p l e s can be  studies.  i s t h a t the word "kaya" i s . not a simple o b j e c t but an open  concept which has a t t r a c t e d a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  I would  suggest  t h a t t h i s n o t i o n can be m a i n t a i n e d by r e g a r d i n g kaya as a symbolic r a t h e r than a d e n o t a t i v e concept. The  g e n e r a l Buddhakaya, i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been found t o c o n t a i n s e v e r a l  general categories of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . p r a c t i c e , i . e . , i t i s something  I t i s o b v i o u s l y the r e s u l t o f r e l i g i o u s  o b t a i n e d by f o l l o w i n g the p r e s c r i p t i v e message,  .I.e., the Buddha i s , i n some sense, a r e o r i e n t e d a s p i r a n t . b i l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s accounted and the a b s t r a c t mechanical asrayaparavrtti theory.  q u e s t i o n o f how  The l o g i c a l  f o r by the t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a t h e o r y , i t occurs i s answered by the  T h i s aspect o f Buddhahood does not appear t o r a i s e  any problems whose answer i s not touched upon i n the  articles.  However, the Buddha i s a l s o what La V a l l e e P o u s s i n c a l l s an or  possi-  "ontological  c o s m o l o g i c a l " concept which, as a form o f t h e "dharma" o r u n i v e r s a l norm,  t r a n s c e n d s the p e r s o n a l and a c c i d e n t a l . o b j e c t o f r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n , t h i s may understood The  When seen a n t h r o p o m o r p h i c a l l y as an be t h e aspect which Masson-Oursel  as the cosmogonic Buddha.  c l e a r e s t agreement i s on the h i s t o r i c a l development o f the t r i k a y a .  An o r i g i n a l d o c t r i n e c e n t e r e d on Sakyamuni q u i c k l y developed form as t h e need was  f e l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h between Sakyamuni t h e t e a c h e r  o t h e r ways o f v i e w i n g him model was  i n t o a two-kaya  ( e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the p a r i n i r v a n a ) .  The  and  two-kaya  t h e e s s e n t i a l p a t t e r n u n d e r l y i n g many o f t h e multi-Buddha or m u l t i -  kaya t h e o r i e s o f the e a r l y s e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y those based on the  prajnaparami-  tasutras. The t r i k a y a was Asanga-Vasubandhu.  an i n n o v a t i o n o f the e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d i n masters M a i t r e y a I t became the b a s i s f o r l a t e r m u l t i - k a y a t a n t r i c  ments i n I n d i a n and f o r v a r i o u s Sino-Japanese e l a b o r a t i o n s .  The  h i s t o r y o f the appearance o f the t r i k a y a i n the w r i t i n g s o f the masters i s more obscure  detailed Vijnanavadin  and the h i s t o r y o f the l a t e r Indo-Tibetan  Japanese developments has Kern's desideratum,  develop-  and  a t t r a c t e d even l e s s a t t e n t i o n . t h a t the t r i k a y a s h o u l d be understood  t h e g e n e r a l development o f I n d i a n r e l i g i o u s thought,  is still  i n r e l a t i o n to impractical.  S c h o l a r s became more d i f f i d e n t as they became b e t t e r a c q u a i n t e d w i t h problem.  The  g r e a t modern surveys o f I n d i a n i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y  have simply drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the magnitude o f the remaining reliable  sources.  the  ( i . e . , Renou  and F i l l i o z a t ' s L'Inde c l a s s i q u e and Dasgupta's H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n  of  Sino-  Philosophy)  t a s k and p a u c i t y  At p r e s e n t no s c h o l a r o f Buddhism can be expected  produce a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y o f the r e l e v a n t a r e a o f I n d i a n thought  to  and then f i t  the t r i k a y a i n t o i t . While i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y i s s t i l l term desideratum,  a long-  the f a c t t h a t our authors have produced s i g n i f i c a n t  based o n l y on the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e suggests  results that  such a h i s t o r y i s not i n d i s p e n s a b l e . F o r our purposes, opments o c c u r r e d .  the more important  Suggested reasons  q u e s t i o n i s why  f o r the s h i f t  each o f t h e s e d e v e l -  from one t o two-kaya models  51 i n c l u d e : need t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e human from t h e a b s t r a c t Buddha; need f o r a c u l t focus a f t e r the p a r i n i r v a n a ; need t o a p p l y the Madhyamika t w o - t r u t h model to  the Buddhology, e t c . The  At l e a s t  some o f t h e s e sound  d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n i s why  the two  reasonable.  kayas (which  c o u l d a c t u a l l y accom-  modate v a r y i n g number's o f kayas under a two-term-model) were t u r n e d i n t o a trikaya.  S i n c e o n l y a few o f our authors have noted the f o r c e o f t h i s  and none has produced a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer, t h i s i s one for  o f the b a s i c  question questions  f u r t h e r study. An  answer t o the above q u e s t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e the context f o r c o n s i d e r i n g  the c e n t r a l one: What i s the t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e ?  While a l l w r i t e r s agree t h a t  the t h r e e kayas p r o v i d e a framework by which a p p a r e n t l y d i v e r s e a s p e c t s  of  Buddhahood may  how  be a f f i r m e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , t h e r e i s l i t t l e  t h e d i v i s i o n s s h o u l d be understood.  agreement on  Kern's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e y r e p r e s e n t  u l t i m a t e and c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t s i s expanded by Masson-Oursel and  the  the  o t h e r s t o encompass an i d e a o f t h r e e t r u t h s , i . e . , t h a t t h e t h r e e are t h e same Buddha seen from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . However, t h i s n o t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y inadequate s i b i l i t y on t h e a s p i r a n t and Suzuki's  as i t throws a l l t h e  i g n o r e s t h e mechanics o f h i s B o d h i s a t t v a  responvow.  r e l a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n seems more s a t i s f a c t o r y .  Once the fundamental nature o f the t h r e e d i v i s i o n s i s s e t t l e d , the. f i n a l two  q u e s t i o n s can be r a i s e d : What i s each kaya, and what are t h e  among t h e t h r e e ?  S i n c e each i s an open-ended symbolic  concept,  relationships the "What" can  be answered o n l y by a t a b u l a t i o n o f the aspects a t t r i b u t e d t o each. c e r t a i n number o f t h e s e are found  i n the a r t i c l e s reviewed,  While a  a g l a n c e at a  major t r i k a y a t e x t (e.g., c h a p t e r X o f the Mahayanasamgraha) r e v e a l s many more. The  study o f t h e s e s h o u l d be s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . The  q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the t h r e e s h o u l d be  answered  52 . l a s t , as i t -will "be l a r g e l y determined by the answers t o the p r e v i o u s We  need o n l y note the tremendous v a r i e t y o f i d e a s i n the a r t i c l e s .  questions.  Those  who  saw the b a s i c p a t t e r n as a t w o - r e a l i t y model had t r e a t t r o u b l e . f i n d i n g any room f o r the Sambhogakaya, l e t alone d e c i d i n g how Nagao, however, s e r i o u s l y wonders why is  i t was  any kaya o t h e r  r e l a t e d t o the  than  others.  the Sambhogakaya  necessary! Many o f the b a s i c but e l u s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Buddhahood, such as  t a t h a t a and t a t h a t a j n a n a , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Buddhaland, and  the  a c t i o n s o f the Nirmanakaya, a l s o seem t o be bound up w i t h the q u e s t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and have been d e a l t w i t h as Although  understanding o f any  such.  none o f the p r e c e d i n g works c o n t a i n s a b r o a d , s o l i d framework  w i t h i n which any r e a s o n a b l e c o n s i d e r one  v e r s i o n o f the t r i k a y a may  f i n a l s c h o l a r who  be understood,  appears t o o f f e r j u s t t h a t .  o f the d o c t r i n e i s the most p r o m i s i n g ,  H. V.  and most  we  must  Guenther's  idiosyncratic,  examined so f a r .  Although  he has p u b l i s h e d o n l y short a r t i c l e s on the t r i k a y a ,  d o c t r i n e i s c e n t r a l t o h i s v i s i o n o f Buddhism and numerous p u b l i c a t i o n s .  Naropa, 1963  this  i s mentioned i n most o f h i s  P a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l passages can be found  Ornament of L i b e r a t i o n , 1959  (chapters 20 and 21); The  i n The  L i f e and Teaching  Jewel of  (pp. ^7-50, l l H - l l + 5 ) ; T i b e t a n Buddhism Without M y s t i f i c a t i o n ,  (pp. 57-59); and K i n d l y Bent t o Ease Us,  "The  T r i k a y a Idea i n I t s T i b e t a n I n t e r p r e t a t i o n " ( i n Roy  opments i n Buddhist  1966  1975 (chapter 13). The most e x t e n s i v e  development o f h i s i d e a s on the t r i k a y a i s p r o b a b l y The  of  Experience  of  Being:  C. Amore, ed.,  Devel-  Thought, 1979).  Guenther's approach t o the t r i k a y a i s unique i n t h a t he works from the l a t e r T i b e t a n t e x t s which o t h e r s have set a s i d e as " t a n t r i c " and t h e r e f o r e non-Vijnanavadin.  Guenther sees these t e x t s as c o n t a i n i n g the c u l m i n a t i o n o f  53  the V i j n a n a v a d a d o c t r i n e begun f i f t e e n hundred Asahga and Vasubandhu. his  y e a r s ago i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f  H i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t r i k a y a i s i n s e p a r a b l e from  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s mature t a n t r i c V i j n a n a v a d a .  summarized i n many o f h i s books. View o f L i f e  ( B e r k e l e y : Shambhala,  A t y p i c a l passage  This understanding i s  o c c u r s i n The T a n t r i c  1972):  T a n t r i s m b e g i n s w i t h t h e c o n c r e t e human s i t u a t i o n o f man's l i v e d e x i s t e n c e , and i t t r i e s t o c l a r i f y t h e v a l u e s t h a t a r e a l r e a d y i m p l i c i t i n i t . . . . i t attempts t o study t h e f i n i t e e x i s t e n c e o f man as l i v e d from w i t h i n . . . . t h e w o r l d o f man i s h i s h o r i z o n o f meaning without which t h e r e can n e i t h e r be a w o r l d n o r an understanding, o f i t so t h a t man can l i v e . This h o r i z o n o f meaning i s not something f i x e d once and f o r e v e r , but i t expands as man grows and growth i s t h e a c t u a l i t y o f man's l i v e d e x i s t e n c e . Meanings do not c o n s t i t u t e another w o r l d , but p r o v i d e another dimension t o t h e one w o r l d which i s t h e l o c u s o f our a c t i o n s . . . . There i s thus no escape from B e i n g , and what T a n t r a i s t e l l i n g us i s t h a t we have t o f a c e up t o B e i n g ; t o f i n d meaning i n l i f e i s t o become Buddha — ' e n l i g h t e n e d , ' but what t h i s meaning i s cannot be s a i d without f a l s i f y i n g i t . . . . t h e problem i s not man's essence or n a t u r e , but what man can make o f h i s l i f e i n t h i s w o r l d so as t o r e a l i z e t h e supreme v a l u e s t h a t l i f e a f f o r d s . . . . In t h e p u r s u i t o f Being t h e r e i s a joyousness and d i r e c t n e s s which appears elsewhere t o be found o n l y i n Zen, t h a t i s , t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f Sino-Japanese Buddhism. . . . T a n t r i s m can be s a i d t o be t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f I n d o - T i b e t a n Buddhism (pp. 2 - 5 ) .  In  s h o r t , Buddhism p o i n t s t o a m e a n i n g f u l p r e s e n t by a t h e o r y which  c o n c e n t r a t e s on c o n c r e t e e x i s t e n c e r a t h e r than on a b s t r a c t essence. value-charged l i f e  This  i s r e f e r r e d t o as "Buddha" and d e s c r i b e d by means o f t h e  trikaya. Guenther makes much o f t h e f a c t t h a t "kaya" was understood t o be ambiguous by t h e T i b e t a n s who t r a n s l a t e d i t ( a c c o r d i n g t o c o n t e x t ) by e i t h e r " l u s " ( t h e o r d i n a r y body) o r "sku" (the kaya o f t h e Buddha).  While he i s content t o  t r a n s l a t e l u s as "body" he m a i n t a i n s t h a t sku i s a dynamic, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l concept f o r which "body" i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e .  He w r i t e s :  5h  T h i s s i n g l e r e a l i t y has s i g n i f i c a n t r a m i f i c a t i o n s w i t h i n the l i f e o f man. I t i s t h e s e r a m i f i c a t i o n s t h a t are r e f e r r e d t o by the t e c h n i c a l term t r i k a y a (sku gsum), commonly, though q u i t e l u d i c r o u s l y , t r a n s l a t e d as the 'Three Bodies o f the Buddha,' due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e a r l y t r a n s l a t o r s and t h e i r l a t e r c o p y i s t f a i l e d t o understand or t o note the p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f the word buddha ( s a n g s - r g y a s ) . . . . The word buddha i s a p a s t p a r t i c i p l e o f the verb budh "to wake up," and i t s e x c l u s i v e l y a d j e c t i v a l use d e s c r i b e s the e x p e r i e n c e a person has had, but not the person. T h i s alone s h o u l d s u f f i c e t o show t h a t i t i s meaningless t o speak o f " b o d i e s . " An e x p e r i e n c e tends t o get expressed, but i t i s n e i t h e r f a c t nor bare i d e a s t h a t get expressed but " v a l u e s " : how i t f e e l s t o be; and the meaning o f f u l l n e s s o f b e i n g i s apprehended as embodied (p. 5 5 ) .  And  again:  The human b e i n g has h i s house and f a m i l y , and a l s o h i s homeland t o which he becomes a t t a c h e d . His v e r y l i f e depends on the i n t e r a c t i o n between h i s e x i s t e n c e c o n d i t i o n i n g t h i s v i t a l f i e l d and the f i e l d c o n d i t i o n i n g h i s e x i s t e n c e . T h i s e x p l a i n s why t h e w o r l d he i n h a b i t s i s c a l l e d a Nirmanakaya j u s t as he. h i m s e l f i s a Nirmanakaya (p. 5 5 ) .  T h i s f u l l n e s s o f b e i n g p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n two ways which may e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and  be  considered  ontological:  F u l l n e s s o f Being and the f e e l i n g o f happiness which i s at t h e same time t h e awareness o f t h i s f u l l n e s s , are not two c o n t r a s t i n g e n t i t i e s , but the two a s p e c t s o f a s i n g l e r e a l i t y . Awareness c a r r i e s w i t h i t the c e r t a i n t y t h a t awareness is_ and Being is_ i n so f a r as t h e r e i s awareness o f i t . The one i s the o t h e r and the d i s t i n c t i o n i s a matter o f emphasis r a t h e r than o f d i f f e r e n c e , . . .  The t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e i s so complex because i t may  be d e s c r i b e d from b o t h  standpoints:  kLong-chen rab-'byams-pa i n t e r p r e t s the t e c h n i c a l term sku, which I have rendered as " e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e p a t t e r n , " i n two d i f f e r e n t ways which are n e v e r t h e l e s s i n t i m a t e l y r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r . The one may be c a l l e d " e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l " and the o t h e r " o n t o l o g i c a l . " The " e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l v a l u e -  55  pattern" i s " i n t r i n s i c It i s  awareness w i t h i t s o b j e c t - appearance."  "That which appears b e f o r e our senses ( i n i t s immediacy) without b e i n g i n need o f b e i n g a s s e r t e d o r d e n i e d , and t h a t which can be a n a l y z e d i n t o ( i ) the senses (as c o n t r o l l i n g powers), ( i i ) t h e p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s , and ( i i i ) the (complex o f t h e ) o b j e c t i v e s i t u a t i o n and the owner o f t h e objective situation." To term t h i s complex a " v a l u e - p a t t e r n " i s j u s t i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t v a l u e does not r e s i d e i n one aspect a l o n e , but i n the t o t a l i t y o f what c o n s t i t u t e s the p a t t e r n . The " o n t o l o g i c a l v a l u e - p a t t e r n " as a "form o f c r e a t i v i t y " i s r e p r e s e n t e d as two p a t t e r n s , the one h o l d i n g t o what i t i s on the u n e r r i n g p a t h , the o t h e r j u s t b e i n g the b e i n g - t h e r e as pure e x i s t e n c e . Of the former, kLong-chen rab 'byams-pa says: "As i t h o l d s t o what i t i s i n i t s t r i a d o f f a c t i c i t y , a c t u a l i t y , and c o g n i t i v e r e s p o n s i v e n e s s and l e a d s t o f u l l n e s s of b e i n g as g o a l , i t is'.known (by such terms) as 'great p l a y f u l f a s c i n a t i o n p a t t e r n , ' 'crown-jewel p a t t e r n , ' ' l i f e s t y l e supporting p a t t e r n . ' " The pure e x i s t e n c e p a t t e r n i s s a i d t o be "The t r i a d o f the ground, p a t h , and g o a l . The ground i s the presence o f a b s o l u t e o r i g i n a l awareness; the path i s the i n v a r i a b l e n e s s o f an outward appearance i n r a d i a n c y and as an ( a e s t h e t i c ) f i e l d p a t t e r n . The g o a l i s the a b s o l u t e n e s s o f the three e x i s t e n t i a l patterns i n e f f o r t l e s s presence." The e x i s t e n t i a l v a l u e - p a t t e r n s which are b o t h i n t r i n s i c and e x t r i n s i c , are by no means t o be c o n s i d e r e d as s t a t i c e n t i t i e s t o which man has t o submit. Rather are t h e y man's v e r y l i f e , p u l s a t i n g w i t h wondrous e x p e r i e n c e s . The manif e s t a t i o n o f t h e s e v a l u e - p a t t e r n s h o l d s a f a s c i n a t i o n which i s f e l t as pure p l a y f u l n e s s , . . . (pp. k2-h3).  A simplified  summary o f Guenther's t r i k a y a i s found i n T i b e t a n Buddhism  Without M y s t i f i c a t i o n  ( L e i d e n : E. J . B r i l l ,  1966):  . . . c e r t a i n norms are r e v e a l e d , which are always a c t i v e and dynamic. They have become known by t h e i r I n d i a n names, Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, and Nirmanakaya, but never have been understood p r o p e r l y , w i t h i n the framework o f t r a d i t i o n a l Western semantics, because, o f the e s s e n t i a l i s t premises o f Western p h i l o s o p h i e s . Essence i s t h a t which marks a t h i n g o f f  and s e p a r a t e s i t from o t h e r e n t i t i e s o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . From such a p o i n t o f view a l l o f man's a c t i o n s s p r i n g from t h a t which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o he h i s i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e . I t s f a l l a c y . i s t h a t i t makes us o v e r l o o k man's r e l a t i o n a l b e i n g ; the a c t u a l person always l i v e s in_ a w o r l d w i t h o t h e r s . And, i n human l i f e , essence t e l l s man t h a t he i s a l r e a d y what he can be, so t h e r e i s no need t o s e t out on a path o f s p i r i t u a l development. Seen as e x i s t e n t i a l norms t h e s e t h r e e p a t t e r n s r e v e a l their significance. Dharmakaya i n d i c a t e s the i n t e n t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the n o e t i c i n man. I t i s the m e r i t o f Buddhism t h a t i t has always r e c o g n i z e d t h i s f e a t u r e o f awareness: I cannot know without knowing something, j u s t as I cannot do without d o i n g something. But i n o r d i n a r y knowledge whatever I know i s overshadowed by b e l i e f s , p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s , l i k e s and d i s l i k e s . However, the more I succeed i n removing m y s e l f from s e l f - c e n t r e d concerns and s i t u a t i o n s and f r e e m y s e l f from a l l b i a s , the more I am enabled t o apprehend t h i n g s as t h e y a r e . T h i s happens i n d i s c i p l i n e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l e n q u i r y through which one g r a d u a l l y approaches not h i n g n e s s and i n d e t e r m i n a c y , from the vantage p o i n t o f which one can a c h i e v e a view o f r e a l i t y without i n t e r n a l warping. T h i s c o g n i t i v e i n d e t e r m i n a c y which u n d e r l i e s the whole n o e t i c e n t e r p r i s e o f man i s r i c h e r i n c o n t e n t s and broader i n i t s h o r i z o n s than any o t h e r awareness because i t i s an u n r e s t r i c t e d p e r s p e c t i v e from which n o t h i n g i s screened or excluded. I f a n y t h i n g can be p r e d i c a t e d about i t , i t i s pure potency which, when a c t u a l i z e d , enables us t o see o u r s e l v e s and t h i n g s as we and t h e y r e a l l y a r e . In o r d e r t o g a i n t h i s c a p a c i t y we have t o develop our i n t e l l i g e n c e , our c r i t i c a l acumen, which i s the main theme o f t h e Paramitayana and without which Mantrayana i s i m p o s s i b l e . But a l l the i n f o r mation we r e c e i v e through such s u s t a i n e d a n a l y s i s i s not merely f o r the sake o f pure awareness o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n , but i n o r d e r t h a t we may a c t . Every i n s i g h t i s b a r r e n i f i t does not f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a c t i o n , and every a c t i o n i s f u t i l e i f i t i s not supported by sound i n s i g h t . Only when we succeed i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o u r s e l v e s , our p r o j e c t s and our w o r l d from a p o i n t o f view which i s no p o i n t o f view, w i l l a sound d i r e c t i o n o f human a c t i o n be p o s s i b l e , because i t i s no l o n g e r s u b o r d i n a t e d t o p e t t y , s e l f - c e n t r e d concerns. This a c t i v e mode o f b e i n g i s r e a l i z e d through the two o p e r a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o r norms, the Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya, both o f which have t h e i r r a i s o n d ' e t r e i n the c o g n i t i v e - s p i r i t u a l mode. S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , o n l y the Nirmanakaya.is p e r c e p t i b l e , , a l t h o u g h i t would be wrong t o assume t h a t i t i s o f a p h y s i c a l nature. . . . Nirmanakaya s i g n i f i e s b e i n g i n the w o r l d , not so much as a b e i n g among t h i n g s and a r t i f a c t s , but as an a c t i v e being i n r e l a t i o n to a vast f i e l d of surrounding e n t i t i e s  57  which a r e e q u a l l y v i b r a t i n g w i t h l i f e , a l l o f them o r d e r e d i n a w o r l d s t r u c t u r e . As an a c t i v e mode o f b e i n g Nirmanakaya i s the implementation o f man's whole b e i n g , t h e o r d e r i n g o f h i s world i n the l i g h t o f h i s ultimate p o s s i b i l i t i e s . . . . Real b e i n g w i t h o t h e r s must s p r i n g up on t h e spur o f t h e moment and arouse us t o our p o s s i b i l i t i e s . That which does so i s the Sambhogakaya. Grounded i n u n r e s t r i c t e d and u n b i a s e d c o g n i t i o n i t can e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s and s t i r them t o a u t h e n t i c a c t i o n (pp. 5 7 - 5 9 ) .  From t h i s , Guenther develops w r i t e r s ' multi-kaya theories. study I w i l l  a complex i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t a n t r i c  However, as t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a stage beyond t h i s  simply p o i n t out t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o d e a l  w i t h e x t e n s i o n s o f t h e b a s i c d o c t r i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t w i l l be a s e r i o u s contender  i n a broader  study.  Here we w i l l d i s c u s s o n l y t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  outlined i n the preceding quotations. An e v a l u a t i o n o f t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e s two q u e s t i o n s :  —  t h a t o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f h i s view o f t a n t r i c  Buddhism  —  that o f the v a l i d i t y o f h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t r i k a y a .  The l a t t e r q u e s t i o n can be answered o n l y a f t e r a p o s i t i v e answer t o t h e former. I s h a l l assume such an answer.  In p a r t i c u l a r , I s h a l l assume:  —  Guenther's acquaintance w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f r e l e v a n t Buddhist  —  h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h European p h i l o s o p h y  —  t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f a hermeneutic thought-patterns  Furthermore,  which expresses Buddhist  sources  i d e a s i n terms and  drawn from contemporary p h i l o s o p h y and p s y c h o l o g y .  I must i n s i s t t h a t t h i s d i s c u s s i o n does not t u r n upon t h e  p e r i p h e r a l i s s u e (which B h a r a t i , i n h i s " T i b e t a n Buddhism i n America," J o u r n a l k, critics  Tibet  no. 3 , p. 8 , c a l l s one o f t h e " r e d f l a g s he keeps h o i s t i n g f o r h i s  and d e t r a c t o r s " ) o f whether Guenther's replacement  of "standard"  58 m i s t r a n s l a t i o n s by more a c c u r a t e E n g l i s h terms i s j u s t i f i e d . I w i l l d i s c u s s o n l y t h e second q u e s t i o n , i . e . : I s Guenther's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r and  g e n e r a l t o be  a p p l i e d t o any major Indo-  T i b e t a n v e r s i o n o f the t r i k a y a , and to. any major d o c t r i n e based on i t ? can be d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - q u e s t i o n s :  This  t h a t o f the g e n e r a l i t y , and t h a t o f the  clarity. The  concern o f g e n e r a l i t y i s the more important.  I t i s u s u a l l y phrased  somewhat as f o l l o w s : Even g r a n t i n g t h a t T i b e t a n t a n t r i c Buddhism (e.g., t h a t o f Klong-chen-pa, l ^ t h c e n t u r y A.D.) Vijnanavada,  i s the l o g i c a l c u l m i n a t i o n o f the  can an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n d e r i v e d from i t be a p p l i e d t o much e a r l i e r  statements o f the I n d i a n masters  (e.g., Vasubandhu, Uth c e n t u r y A.D.)?  suggest t h a t the answer depends p r i m a r i l y upon the  w r i t i n g s by r e f e r e n c e t o l a t e r a u t h o r i t i e s .  If  earlier  For example, a C h r i s t i a n w i l l  i n t e r p r e t Genesis i n l i g h t o f t h e Adam o f the New such as Aquinas or L u t h e r , who  I  interpreter's intent.  he i s p r i m a r i l y an a p o l o g i s t , i t i s mandatory t h a t he i n t e r p r e t the  theologians  Indian  Testament, u n d e r s t o o d through  w i l l themselves be  understood--via  the w r i t i n g s o f modern t h e o l o g i a n s or p o p u l a r i z e r s . S i n c e Guenther o b v i o u s l y i s such an a p o l o g i s t , and study  i s not  s i n c e the  an a p o l o g e t i c work, t h i s approach i s s u s p e c t .  I f we  present regard h i s  work as a more d i s i n t e r e s t e d study c o n t a i n i n g f a c t u a l a s s e r t i o n s , a l o g i c a l problem a p p e a r s .  I f something should be  found i n the e a r l i e r l i t e r a t u r e  which h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n would not: a p p l y , the l a t t e r would not be general.  However, t h i s can be  been examined. without while  T h i s i s simply  a t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may  t i o n by an o u t s i d e r can  sufficiently  determined o n l y a f t e r a l l major i n s t a n c e s have  Hence h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n cannot, on p r i n c i p l e , be  further investigation.  to  judged  an i n s t a n c e o f the t r u i s m t h a t ,  y i e l d a p r i o r i knowledge, an i n v e s t i g a -  deal only i n a p o s t e r i o r i  facts.  59 T h i s simple p o i n t  i s f r e q u e n t l y obscured by Guenther's ex  a f f i r m a t i o n s t h a t h i s i s the  c o r r e c t u n d e r s t a n d i n g " o f Buddhism."  obvious t h a t h i s work i s more a p o l o g e t i c than d i s i n t e r e s t e d , we back and fit  the  r e a l i z e t h a t the  One  obvious focus  Of c o u r s e , a c o m p l e t e l y new  One  The  for this  and  administer  o f Guenther's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . previous simply  a r t i c l e s p r e v e n t s us  u s i n g t h e i r data.  The  which the  Unfortunately, from s h o r t e n i n g  formulations  the  the p r o c e s s s t i l l  As we  the t r i k a y a t e x t s . the gap  For  by  ourselves. clarity,  frequently  i n t e r p r e t s i n an  concrete  phenomena t o  involve  an  However, as Guenther  between the  a b s t r a c t and  example, h i s e x p l a n a t i o n  i n T i l o p a ' s attunement i n s t r u c t i o n s (Naropa pp.  Guenther  further  have seen, Guenther  A g a i n , a thorough answer should  a c t u a l , the answer i s p r o b a b l y no.  U^-kQ,  the  o f the t r i k a y a  lUl-155) r e a d s , ". . .  i s n i n e f o l d : attunement t o the t h r e e  or norms, w h i l e d y i n g ,  research.  of v a l i d i t y , that of  o f the t r i k a y a which he  o f t e n seems unable t o b r i d g e  ...  be  d i s s i m i l a r i t y among the  Do t h e s e i l l u m i n a t e the v e r y  scheme i s a p p l i e d ?  CattunementH  other piece of  I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o examine each t e x t  examination o f b o t h h i s work and himself  t e x t would  t o each a t e s t o f the t h e o r e t i c a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y  c a l l s f o r a more s u b j e c t i v e judgement.  e q u a l l y a b s t r a c t manner.  can  masters.  study o f each V i j n a n a v a d i n  second c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h i n the q u e s t i o n  quotes v e r y a b s t r a c t  stand  f u r t h e r study would seem t o  a c t u a l procedure would be t h a t o f any  would d e v i s e  must  i t is  c u l t u r e s can be made o n l y a f t e r t h a t  be\the d o c t r i n e i n the w r i t i n g s o f the e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d i n  ludicrous.  As  judgement o f whether or not h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  d o c t r i n e i n o t h e r t e x t s and  d o c t r i n e i s examined.  cathedra  s l e e p i n g , and becoming awake" (p.  existential  patterns  h8).  explains:  The aim o f the v a r i o u s p r a c t i c e s o u t l i n e d i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n t o Naropa i s t o a r r i v e at s t a b l e s t r u c t u r e s o f  60  authentic being. S t a b i l i t y i s a c h i e v e d by shedding whatever t h e r e i s o f c o n - s t r u c t i o n s , by d i s m a n t l i n g t h e maze o f dead and deadening c o n c e p t s , and by p e n e t r a t i n g t o a s p a c i o u s n e s s that i s pulsating with l i f e . The f i r s t s t e p i s t o e x p e r i e n c e one's b e i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d as a god o r goddess i n a mansion which has t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a magic s p e l l . I t i s t h e magic t h a t i s important, not t h e s p e l l i t s e l f o r i t s content (p. lh9) •  The problem i s o b v i o u s . r i t u a l are t r i v i a l  Guenther f e e l s t h a t t h e a c t u a l d e t a i l s o f t h e  compared t o t h e meaning.  It i s difficult  to r e a l i z e that  he i s d i s c u s s i n g c e r t a i n v e r y s p e c i f i c , complex m e d i t a t i o n r i t u a l s . d e n i g r a t i o n o f t h e r i t u a l i s not t h e T i b e t a n view. f o l l o w t h e l i t u r g i c a l axiom p r a t i q u e d'abord.  This  The T i b e t a n masters u s u a l l y  They s t r e s s t h a t t h e r i t u a l  performance ("the s p e l l and i t s c o n t e n t " ) i s t h e s i t u a t i o n from which t h e magic o r meaning w i l l  emerge.  I t i s a t t h e s p e c i f i c l e v e l t h a t important o f meaning determined  d i f f e r e n c e s (e.g., d i f f e r e n c e s  by which B o d h i s a t t v a s a r e i n v o l v e d ) a r e p r e s e n t .  not f i n d Guenther's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o be h e l p f u l f o r such  I do  questions.  In s h o r t , a l t h o u g h Guenther! s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f - t h e ' t r i k a y a  is-ivalid^and'  u s e f u l f o r g e n e r a l • d i s c u s s i o n s of-many"^aspects o f T i b e t a n .Buddhism, i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y cover t h e t h e o r y i n a l l Buddhist  s e c t s and i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y  s p e c i f i c t o c l a r i f y d e t a i l s o f p r a c t i c e ' and .theory.  Therefore, although h i s  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h e b e s t a v a i l a b l e , f u r t h e r research, i s j u s t i f i e d , on t h e o l d e r t e x t s , t o r e a c h a more u s e f u l  especially  understanding.  CONCLUSION  We now possess Buddhist concept  a fair  i d e a o f t h e development o f the. s u r v i v i n g  Indian  l i t e r a t u r e , and can r e c o n s t r u c t t h e o u t l i n e s o f t h e development o f t h e o f Buddhahood.  I t i s obvious  t h a t v a r i o u s c l u s t e r s o f i d e a s about  Buddhahood became each o f the kayas. and c l a r i f i e d .  Many o f t h e s e i d e a s have been examined  However, i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t the t r i k a y a i s more than the  sum t o t a l o f t h r e e s t r a n d s — i t  i s a unique  scheme d e f i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  among the t h r e e terms. What i s s t i l l  l a c k i n g i s a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a t t e r n s i n t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p , s p e c i f i c a l l y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g expressed as a h e u r i s t i c model c a p a b l e o f i n t e r p r e t i n g v a r i o u s v e r s i o n s o f the d o c t r i n e .  Guenther o f f e r s a  developed model but i t s g e n e r a l i t y and c l a r i t y are b o t h i n doubt.  Nagao has  made a modest b e g i n n i n g but has not developed i t . T h e r e f o r e , I suggest t h a t the need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s s e l f - e v i d e n t . A l s o e v i d e n t i s the f a c t t h a t t h i s cannot be a simple c o n t i n u a t i o n o f any p r e v i o u s study but must i n v o l v e a f r e s h s t a r t and a wider scope.  As none o f  t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s has a c t u a l l y a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l the d o c t r i n e i n one a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t , I suggest t h a t the f i r s t  step s h o u l d be a d e t a i l e d  study  9 of  such a t e x t .  T h i s study s h o u l d be informed by the f i n d i n g s o f e a r l i e r  s c h o l a r s but s h o u l d not be bound by them. The  choice of a text i s c r i t i c a l .  I t cannot be j u s t any a v a i l a b l e t e x t  which d e a l s w i t h the t r i k a y a but s h o u l d be one which i s seen as by as many branches  o f the t r a d i t i o n as p o s s i b l e .  T h i s l i m i t s the c h o i c e t o  the e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d i n w r i t i n g s i n which t h a t t r a d i t i o n was summary o f t h e s e w r i t i n g s  authoritative  first  defined.  A  follows.  As the t r a d i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d a have been summarized many t i m e s , a n d  as l i t t l e agreement e x i s t s on t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e , t h i s  w i l l merely be a survey o f t h e major t e x t s .  More d e t a i l s on those which are  most u s e f u l f o r a t r i k a y a study w i l l be found i n Appendix B, " B i b l i o g r a p h y o f S e l e c t e d Primary  Sources."  The V i j n a n a v a d a  arose as a s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h o s e Mahayana  s u t r a s which appeared i n I n d i a d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  c e n t u r i e s o f our e r a .  we  s p e c i f i c V i j n a n a v a d i n master,  do not know which s u t r a s were adopted by any  a s m a l l group i s c l e a r l y c e n t r a l t o the t r a d i t i o n . paramita  Although  I t i n c l u d e s : the p r a j n a -  (most l i k e l y the A s t a s a h a s r i k a - p r a j n a p a r a m i t a ) , t h e L a n k a v a t a r a ,  the  Dasabhumika, some o f the Ratnakuta group ( e s p e c i a l l y the S r i m a l a d e v i ) , and above a l l , the Samdhinirmocana. All  t r a d i t i o n s c r e d i t t h r e e f i g u r e s — M a i t r e y a , Asanga and V a s u b a n d h u —  w i t h the b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n o f new  doctrine.  T h e i r major s a s t r a s are d i s c u s s e d  below.  1.  MAITREYA  M a i t r e y a i s e i t h e r an e a r t h l y t e a c h e r o r the B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a i n the T u s i t a heaven.  The  He  i s g e n e r a l l y regarded  Yogacarabhumi, which i s one  the s a s t r a s .  Although  seem t o be an important p r i o r t o the f u l l  as the author  o f t h e f o l l o w i n g works:  o f the l o n g e s t , e a r l i e s t  i t c o n t a i n s d o c t r i n e s about Buddhahood, i t does not source f o r the t r i k a y a .  I t may  s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f the V i j n a n a v a d a .  have been t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Western  r e p r e s e n t a stage Only a few  which would be n e a r l y incomprehensible Asvabhava and S t h i r a m a t i .  chapters  languages.  The Mahayanasutralamkara, an e l e g a n t v e r s e summary o f the  Asanga has  without  Vijnanavada,  the commentaries by Vasubandhu,  i n c o r p o r a t e d p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f the  r e l e v a n t passages on the Buddha i n t o h i s own  Mahayanasamgraha.  t h i s t e x t i s one o f t h e few V i j n a n a v a d i n works s t i l l account  and l o o s e s t o f  The  fact that  extant i n S a n s k r i t  f o r i t s p o p u l a r i t y w i t h modern I n d i a n s c h o l a r s .  may  63 The Madhyantavibhaga i s a g a i n a work which would he without t h e commentaries by Vasubandhu and S t h i r a m a t i .  incomprehensible T h i s t e x t , whose t i t l e  might be t r a n s l a t e d as " D i s c r i m i n a t i o n between the middle d e f i n e s the orthodox  and  extremes,"  ("middle") V i j K a n a v a d i n m e t a p h y s i c a l s t a n c e .  o f f e r a Buddhology per se and o n l y a few  I t does not  chapters are a v a i l a b l e i n Western  languages.  The Dharmadharmatavibhaga. i s a f u r t h e r treatment s t a n c e , c e n t e r e d on the t r i s v a b h a v a . bandhu.  I t has r e c e i v e d l i t t l e  The Abhisamayalankara,  o f the  metaphysical  I t a l s o c a r r i e s a commentary by Vasu-  study i n modern times o u t s i d e Japan.  a p r a j n a p a r a m i t a t e x t w i t h commentaries by Vasu-  bandhu's p u p i l A r y a v i m u k t i s e n a  and l a t e r w r i t e r s , c o n t a i n s a s h o r t passage on  the t r i k a y a but i s not a c e n t r a l B u d d h o l o g i c a l t e x t .  I t i s b a s i c a l l y a system-  a t i z a t i o n o f the Mahayana from a Madhyamika s t a n d p o i n t which has been p l a c e d w i t h i n the V i j n a n a v a d a .  I t p r o v i d e s a v i v i d demonstration  t h a t the  Vijnanavada  masters were a t t e m p t i n g t o i n c l u d e r a t h e r than r e p l a c e the o t h e r s c h o o l s .  The U t t a r a t a n t r a (or Ratnagotravibhaga)  i n c l u d e s an important  the t r i k a y a , but i s b e s t known as the source o f the t a t h a g a t a g a r b h a  passage on theory.  Asanga has w r i t t e n a commentary t o i t .  2.  ASANGA  T r a d i t i o n h o l d s t h a t e i t h e r Asanga was M a i t r e y a , o r he was  the p u p i l o f a t e a c h e r named  taken t o the T u s i t a heaven where the B o d h i s a t t v a M a i t r e y a  d i c t a t e d t o him the Yogacarabhumi and o t h e r t e x t s .  In a d d i t i o n t o the  commentaries on the M a i t r e y a t r e a t i s e s , he i s c r e d i t e d w i t h :  6k  The Abidharmasamuccaya, a V i j n a n a v a d i n abhidharma which, l i k e v a d i n p r a j n a p a r a m i t a o f the Abhisamayalankara, i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the V i j n a n a v a d a .  shows how  the V i j n a n a -  v  t h e e a r l i e r i d e a s were  I t c o n t a i n s no d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n s o f the  trikaya.  The Mahayanasamgraha, a s y s t e m a t i c work which, i n c l u d i n g the  commentaries  on i t by Vasubandhu and Asvabhava, e s t a b l i s h e s the broad o u t l i n e s o f t h e V i j n a n a v a d i n system.  Asanga arranged a l l the i n d i v i d u a l elements ( i . e . ,  abhidharma, the v i j n a p t i m a t r a , the t r i s v a b h a v a , t h e p r a j n a p a r a m i t a , and t r i k a y a ) i n a new  perspective.  i t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l  to  r i c h and  the  As t h i s t e x t i s the focus o f the p r e s e n t  study  later.  3.  The  the  VASUBANDHU  enigmatic t r a d i t i o n a l f i g u r e Vasubandhu i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  have w r i t t e n the b r i l l i a n t Abhidharmakosa b e f o r e b e i n g c o n v e r t e d t o Mahayana  by h i s b r o t h e r Asanga.  In a d d i t i o n t o the commentaries a l r e a d y noted, Vasu-  bandhu i s c r e d i t e d w i t h s e v e r a l important p r i m a r y t e x t s .  The Karmasiddhiprakarana, dharmakosa i s developed  These i n c l u d e :  i n which the abhidharma r e a s o n i n g o f t h e A b h i -  i n a Vijnanavadin d i r e c t i o n .  L i t t l e of i t i s d i r e c t l y  a p p l i c a b l e t o the t r i k a y a q u e s t i o n .  The V i m s i k a and T r i m s i k a are c r y p t i c v e r s e s u m m a r i e s — t h e f i r s t arguments f o r t h e mind-only t h e s i s , the second system.  The  importance  o f the e n t i r e V i j n a n a v a d i n  o f the T r i m s i k a d e r i v e s from i t s use by t h e  p i l g r i m s c h o l a r Hsuan-tsang as the backbone f o r h i s Ch'eng Wei grand  of the  Chinese  Shih.Lun,  summary o f the V i j n a n a v a d i n i d e a s c u r r e n t i n seventh-century  his  India.  In  t h i s work the o p i n i o n s o f v a r i o u s I n d i a n masters are p l a c e d as commentaries t o appropriate verses regarded  o f the Trims'ika.  the Ch'eng Wei  S h i h Lun  As l a t e r Chinese and Japanese masters  as the a u t h o r i t a t i v e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e V i j n a -  navadin system, the T r i m s i k a came t o be regarded Vijnanavadin  as the b a s i s o f t h e  Indian  traditions.  These are merely the c e n t r a l s a s t r a s .  Each o f the t h r e e masters i s  c r e d i t e d w i t h a d d i t i o n a l minor works, and t h e i r d i s c i p l e s produced a f l o o d w r i t i n g s d u r i n g the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s . c o n f i n e d t o any  one  sect—most  many o f t h e i r i d e a s .  subsequent Mahayana Buddhist  not  t h i n k e r s adopted  Some attempted t o form a Vijnanavadin-Madhyamika.  l a t e r p o p u l a r i z e r s , such as S a n t i d e v a , simply  Moreover, t h e i r i n f l u e n c e was  o b v i o u s l y saw  of  t h e i r b a s i c ideas  Many as  "Mahayana Buddhism."  In China, the Ch'eng Wei Fa-hsiang  s c h o o l which has  Vijnanavada,  S h i h Lun became the t e x t u a l b a s i s f o r the  continued  t o develop i n b o t h China.and Japan.  as w e l l as the v a r i o u s Vijnanavada-Madhyamika systems, was  b a s i s f o r indigenous  T i b e t a n developments.  and Japan developed d i r e c t l y from t h e  the  T a n t r i c thought o f I n d i a , T i b e t  Vijnanavada.  A f t e r r e a c h i n g t h i s point, ( i . e . , having become a c q u a i n t e d  The  r e a d the p r e c e d i n g  w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e ) , I had the o p p o r t u n i t y ,  studies in July  and 1976,  t o d i s c u s s the c h o i c e o f a t e x t u a l focus w i t h P r o f e s s o r Nagao. In response t o a query about s c r i p t u r a l a u t h o r i t y f o r the t r i k a y a doct r i n e , he was  s a i d t h a t a s e a r c h f o r such a u t h o r i t y i n the e a r l y Mahayana s u t r a s  u n l i k e l y t o be  fruitful.  I n s t e a d , he  carabhumi might y i e l d the e a r l i e s t the chapter  suggested t h a t the voluminous Yoga-  details.  He  d i d mention one  sutra passage—  added t o the Chinese S u v a r n a p r a b h a s a s u t r a — b u t o n l y as a l a t e r  c u l m i n a t i o n o f the d o c t r i n e r a t h e r than an e a r l y a u t h o r i t y f o r i t .  66  He suggested f o c u s s i n g f i r s t on the Mahayanasamgraha and Mahayanasutral a i i k a r a and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , on the Abhi samayalankara. the Ratnagotravibhaga tathagatagarhha  He a l s o f e l t  that  s h o u l d not he a p r i m a r y t e x t , hut agreed t h a t i t s  t h e o r y c o u l d not he i g n o r e d .  The major Chinese sources which he recommended were Hsiian-tsang's Ch'eng Wei S h i h Lun and Hui-yuan's Ta - Slneng I Chang (T. 1851), a s i x t h - c e n t u r y survey o f Buddha-body t h e o r i e s . A f t e r a d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s 1973 t h a t he s t i l l  (above), P r o f e s s o r Nagao s t a t e d  agreed w i t h the methods and sources but f e l t t h a t he had not  s u f f i c i e n t l y emphasized At  article  the Mahayanasamgraha.  t h i s p o i n t t h e b e s t approach t o t h e t r i k a y a d o c t r i n e appeared t o be  through an i n t e n s i v e study o f the Mahayanasamgraha.  The c h o i c e o f t h i s  text  was d i c t a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s t h e most s y s t e m a t i c o f t h e e a r l y t e x t s .  It  c o n t a i n s more d e t a i l e d arguments t h a n do t h e o t h e r s , and i t l o c a t e s them w i t h i n the context o f Asanga's complete  system.  Each o f t h e o t h e r e a r l y  sastras  e x p l a i n s some p a r t i c u l a r i d e a : t h e Abhidharmasamuccaya o u t l i n e s t h e dharma t h e o r y ; the Madhyant avibhaga- • d e f i n e s the l o g i c a l v i e w p o i n t o f t h e s c h o o l and d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from t h a t o f t h e Madhyamika; and t h e Ratnagotravibhanga develops t h e t a t h a g a t a g a r h h a .  Only t h e Mahayanasamgraha and t h e Mahayanasutra-  l a n k a r a i n t e g r a t e t h e s e i n t o an i n c l u s i v e s y s t e m . T h e importance o f such -  d o c t r i n a l c o n t e x t cannot be o v e r s t r e s s e d .  A study o f any s p e c i f i c n o t i o n must  be guided by an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the wider net o f t h e o r y i n which i t f u n c t i o n s . The Mahayanasutralartkara was e l i m i n a t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n a f t e r a c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f b o t h i t and the Mahayanasamgraha r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e B u d d h o l o g i c a l v e r s e s o f the former were i n c o r p o r a t e d and e x p l a i n e d i n t h e l a t t e r .  Therefore,  the next s e c t i o n o f t h i s study i s an examination o f the B u d d h o l o g i c a l passages of  t h e Mahayanasamgraha.  67 NOTES  ^ E t i e n n e Lamotte, tomes 1-2.  La Somme du grand v e h i c u l e  L o u v a i n : I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , 1973,  d'Asanga (Mahayanasamgraha), tome 2 ,  "+9-  p.  2 R o c k h i l l ' s t e x t was theg-pa chen-po'i mdo The c e n t r a l p o r t i o n  some v e r s i o n  o f the 'phags-pa sku gsum  (Suzuki r e p r i n t e d i t i o n No.  reads as  9^9:  v. 37»  P-  shes-bya-ba 108-2-2).  follows:  / r i g s - k y i - b u de-bzhin-gshegs-pa'i sku gsum n i r a n g - b z h i n rnam-par-dag-pa n i c h o s - k y i sku'o/  / t i n g - n g e - ' d z i n rnam-par-  dag-pa n i l o n g - s p y o d - r d z o g s - p a i sku'o / /spyod-pa  rnam-par-  1  dag-pa n i sangs-rgyas thams-cad-kyi  sprul-pa'i  sku'o/  r i g s - k y i - b u de-bzhin-gshegs-pa'i c h o s - k y i sku n i  nam-  mkha' l t a r r a n g - b z h i n med-pa'i don-no/ / l o n g s - s p y o d - r d z o g s p a ' i sku n i s b r i n l t a r ni  'byung-ba'i  sangs-rgyas. thams-cad-kyi  don-no/ s p r u l - p a ' i  sku  ''phrin-las t e / char-ba l t a - b u  s t e thams-cad b d a s - p a ' i don-no/ /bcom-ldan-'das l a byangchub-sems-dpa' s a ' i snying-pos  ' d i skad ces g s o l - t o /  /bcom-  l d a n - 'das-kyi sku gsum-gyi bshad-pa j i - l t a r b l t a r - b a r bcom-ldan-'das-kyis  bgyi/  byang-chub-sems-dpa' s a ' i s n y i n g - p o - l a  bka'-stsal-pa/ r i g s - k y i - b u de-bzhin-gshegs-pa'i sku gsum n i ' d i l t a r b l t a - b a r bya'o/ / c h o s - k y i sku n i de-bzhin-gshegs-pa'i  ngo-  gang l a b l t a - b a r j bya'o/ / l o n g s - s p y o d - r d z o g s - p a ' i sku n i byang-chub-sems-dpa'i ngo-gang l a b l t a - b a r bya'o/  sprul-pa'i  sku n i mos-pas spyod-pa'i so-so s k y e - b o ' i ngo-gang l a b l t a bar bya'o r i g s - k y i - b u c h o s - k y i sku n i sangs rgyas thams-cad dang r a n g - b z h i n mthun-par gnas-so/ ni so/  / l o n g s - s p y o d - r d z o g s - p a ' i sku  sangs-rgyas thams-cad dang t i n g - n g e - ' d z i n mthun-par / s p r u l - p a ' i sku n i sangs-rgyas thams-cad dang  mthun-par  gnas-  'phrin-las  gnas-so/  r i g s - k y i - b u kun-gzhi gnas-su dag-pa n i me-long l t a - b u ' i ye-shes t e c h o s - k y i sku'o/ nyon-mongs-pa'i y i d gnas-su dag-pa n i mnyam-par-nyid-kyi ye-shes-so/ / y i d - k y i rnam-par  shes-pa  68 gnas-su  dag-pa n i s o - s o r kun-tu r t o g - p a ' i ye-shes  spyod-rdzogs-pa'i  sku'o/  s g o - l n g a ' i rnam-par shes-pa  dag-pa n i bya-ba g r u b - p a ' i ye-shes  3  te/ longs-  te sprul-pa'i  gnas-su  sku'o/  T h i s p o i n t i s e v i d e n t i n La V a l l e e P o u s s i n ' s review o f S u z u k i ' s O u t l i n e s  i n the J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l s A s i a t i c  S o c i e t y o f Great B r i t a i n and I r e l a n d ,  While he i s w i l l i n g t o extend a l l due  885-89I+.  c o u r t e s y t o Suzuki t h e  1908,  scholar,  he i s o u t r a g e d at S u z u k i t h e t h e o l o g i a n ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n s o f t h e d o c t r i n e s o f h i s own  faith.  penchant  Of c o u r s e , a good p a r t o f h i s pique i s caused by  f o r " n o u r i s h i n g h i m s e l f w i t h t h e vapours  a l e m b i c s , " and making "absurd comparisons" Buddhist  "mysticism of s o p h i s t i c  o f t h e German p h i l o s o p h i c  between C h r i s t i a n i t y and  the  nihilism"!  ^ E t i e n n e Lamotte, Le T r a i t e de l a grande v e r t u de sagesse I n s t i t u t O r i e n t a l i s t e , tomes 1-k,  Suzuki's  (Louvain:  19^9-76).  ^ K. Venkata Ramanan, Nagarjuna's  P h i l o s o p h y : As P r e s e n t e d i n t h e Maha-  Pra.inaparamita-Sastra (Tokyo, Vermont: C h a r l e s E. T u t t l e Company I n c . , 1966).  ^ The  article  i s unsigned.  However, La V a l l e e P o u s s i n , i n a b i b l i o g r a p h -  i c a l note i n Melanges e h i r i o i s et bouddhiques,  1 (1932),  p.  399,  identifies  P a u l D e m i e v i l l e as t h e a u t h o r .  7 F o r d e t a i l s see Appendix A — B i b l i o g r a p h y o f P r i m a r y T e x t s . t h e Mahayanasutralankara tion.  i s a c u r i o u s c h o i c e f o r the s o l e source o f i n f o r m a -  I t i s an e a r l y M a i t r e y a n t e x t which i s h a r d l y comprehensible  commentary.  Asanga i n c o r p o r a t e d i t s B u d d h o l o g i c a l statements  o f h i s Mahayanasamgraha, where t h e y appear trikaya. appears  I t was  Note t h a t  as o n l y one  without  into chapter X  strand feeding into h i s  Asanga's t r i k a y a r a t h e r than t h e more p r i m i t i v e v e r s i o n s which  t o have been a c c e p t e d by t h e V i j n a n a v a d i n t r a d i t i o n s .  s u t r a l a n k a r a i s one  o f t h e few e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d i n t e x t s s t i l l  S a n s k r i t , i t i s t e m p t i n g t o wonder i f t h e author has chosen  As t h e Mahayanaextant i n  i t f o r any more  s e r i o u s reason t h a n an i n a b i l i t y t o r e a d t h e more r e l e v a n t t e x t s which are a v a i l a b l e o n l y i n Chinese or T i b e t a n .  8  See S u z u k i , S t u d i e s i n t h e L a n k a v a t a r a S u t r a , p.  l8h.  69 Note t h a t Ruegg, i n h i s Tathagatagarhha  y  led  (pp. 6-7)  says t h a t he  was  by s i m i l a r r e a s o n i n g t o base h i s study o f the•Tathagatagarhha "concept  a d e t a i l e d ' a n a l y s i s of" the There i s l i t t l e opment o f the V i j n a n a v a d a .  Ratnagotravibhaga. r e l i a b l e h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on the e a r l y d e v e l Most accounts are based on a few Chinese  T i b e t a n summaries o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l e g e n d s . summaries are c o n t a i n e d i n Paramartha's Vasubandhu, Bu-ston's Taranatha's  on  and  The most important o f these  s i x t h - c e n t u r y Chinese b i o g r a p h y o f  f o u r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y T i b e t a n h i s t o r y o f Buddhism, and  s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h i s t o r y o f Buddhism i n I n d i a .  The t r a d i t i o n s summarized i n t h e s e works d i s a g r e e on t h e b a s i c i c a l q u e s t i o n s , e.g.:  Was  Vasubandhus were t h e r e ?  M a i t r e y a a man  or a g r e a t B o d h i s a t t v a ?  What i s the b a s i c chronology?  How  histormany  These q u e s t i o n s have  been t h e f o c u s o f heated d i s c u s s i o n s by such s c h o l a r s as Takakusu, O b e r m i l l e r , Lamotte, Johnston, F r a u w a l l n e r , Schmithausen,  Wayman, and Anacker.  of  t h e s e c o n t r o v e r s i e s and b i b l i o g r a p h i e s may  be found i n :  —  Ruegg, Tathagatagarhha, pp. 39-55-  —  Walpola Rahula's Buddhism, v o l .  Summaries  a r t i c l e "Asanga" i n M a l a l a s e k e r a ' s E n c y c l o p a e d i a o f  2:1, pp. 133-1^6.  —  Jacques May's "La p h i l o s o p h i e bouddhique  —  Anacker's  idealiste."  "Vasubandhu: T h r e e ' A s p e c t s , " pp.  1-33,-' T h i s c o n t a i n s a n - e x c e l l e n t  summary and d i s c u s s i o n o f the t r a d i t i o n s and r e c e n t s t u d i e s c o n c e r n i n g the life  o f Vasubandhu". 1  She  1  J a n i c e D. W i l l i s a r r i v e d at a s i m i l a r view i n h e r ' " C h a p t e r 'on R e a l i t y . "  says, "Asanga authored both the Yogacarabhumi and the Mahayanasamgraha  (among o t h e r works).  Of t h e s e two,  a whole o f h i s Mahayana views"  the l a t t e r i s the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e as  (p. 3).  CHAPTER I I THE TRIKAYA DOCTRINE IN THE MAHAYANASAMGRAHA  71  A.  The Mahayanasamgraha  i s t h e most a c c e s s i b l e  a v a i l a b l e i n b o t h the T a i s h o addition, a multitextual  SOURCES  o f the e a r l y t e x t s .  (Chinese) and P e k i n g  It i s  (Tibetan) c o l l e c t i o n s .  In  comparative e d i t i o n o f f o u r Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n s  (T. 159^- by Hsuan-tsang, T. 1596 by Dharmagupta, T. 1593 by Paramartha, and T. 1592 by Buddhasanta) has been p u b l i s h e d taisho  Shodaijoron.  b y , S a s a k i Gessho  Tokyo: Nakayama Shobo, 1959).  The e d i t e d T i b e t a n  t e x t •„ and', a F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c  together with t r a n s l a t i o n s of selected portions Vasubandhu and Asvabhava, has been p u b l i s h e d du grand "vehicule Chinoise  d'Asanga  by E t i e n n e Lamotte as La Somme  et commentaire.  T I b e t a i n e et  Louvain: I n s t i t u t  1973.  The p r e s e n t study i s based upon two v e r s i o n s  —  text,  o f the commentaries by  (Mahayanasamgraha), tome 1: v e r s i o n s  (Hiuan-Tsang); tome 2: t r a d u c t i o n  Orientaliste,  (Kan'yaku Shihon-  Hsuan-tsang's Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n , c a . 6h8 A.D.  o f the  (Taisho  Mahayanasamgraha:  159^; v o l . 31,  pp. 132-152), r e f e r r e d t o as "H" and c i t e d by T a i s h o page, r e g i s t e r and line.  —  The n i n t h - c e n t u r y T i b e t a n Ye-shes sde (Otani folio  numbering.  t r a n s l a t i o n by J i n a m i t r a ,  Silendrabodhi  and  55^9; v o l . 112), r e f e r r e d t o as "T" and c i t e d by P e k i n g  72  While I hare attempted t o i n t e r p r e t t h e Buddhology o f t h e Mahayanasamgraha i n terms o f i t s own  i n t e r n a l l o g i c w i t h minimal r e l i a n c e on t h e o p i n i o n s o f  l a t e r commentators, t h i s has f r e q u e n t l y proved i m p o s s i b l e . have c o n s u l t e d Vasubandhu's  —  Bhasya, which i s a v a i l a b l e i n two  Hsuan-tsang's Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n  (Taisho  1597;  vol.  31,  r e f e r r e d t o as "Bh" and c i t e d by T a i s h o page, r e g i s t e r and  —  In such cases I versions:  pp.  3 2 1 - 3 8 0 ) ,  line.  The e l e v e n t h - c e n t u r y T i b e t a n t r a n s l a t i o n by A t i s a and T s h u l - k h r i m s (Otani  5551; v o l . 1 1 2 , pp. 2 7 2 - 3 0 7 ) , r e f e r r e d t o as "bh" and c i t e d by P e k i n g  folio  number and l i n e .  As t h e Bhasya's g l o s s e s a r e , by t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h a t genre o f commentary, terse  ( o f t e n no: more than c l a r i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e grammar o f t h e l o s t  S a n s k r i t ) , I have f r e q u e n t l y been f o r c e d t o c o n s u l t Asvabhava's which i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n two  —  Hsuan-tsang's t r a n s l a t i o n  Upanibandhana,  versions:  (Taisho. 1598; v o l . . 3 1 , pp. 3 8 5 - ^ 9 ) , r e f e r r e d t o  as " U " and c i t e d by Taisho- page, r e g i s t e r and l i n e .  —- The T i b e t a n t r a n s l a t i o n by J i n a m i t r a , S i l e n d r a b o d h i and Ye-shes sde  5552; v o l . 1 1 3 , pp.  1 - ^ 3 ) ,  (Otani  r e f e r r e d t o as "u" and c i t e d by Peking f o l i o number  and l i n e .  While Asvabhava undoubtedly p o s t d a t e d Asanga, I have f e l t  justified in  c o n s u l t i n g him because h i s comments seem t o be grounded i n t h e l o g i c o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e x t r a t h e r than i n t h e orthodoxy o f some l a t e r s c h o o l . since h i s i s the f i r s t is l i t t l e  alternative.  unambiguous  At any r a t e ,  l e v e l . o f commentary on many p a s s a g e s , t h e r e  Lamotte a l s o r e l i e d h e a v i l y on the Upanibandhana.  73  In  t h i s study, r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Mahayanasamgraha i t s e l f a r e c i t e d  a c c o r d i n g t o Lamotte's d i v i s i o n s , w h i l e T a i s h o r e f e r e n c e s a r e r e s e r v e d f o r drawing  a t t e n t i o n t o some f e a t u r e o f Hsuan-tsang's Chinese t e x t .  the Chinese s h o u l d note t h a t , w h i l e Lamotte.. d i v i d e d t h e t e x t  Readers o f  i n t o a prastavaria'  (foreword) f o l l o w e d by t e n " c h a p t e r s , " Hsuan-tsang numbered each  section  c o n s e c u t i v e l y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e p r a s t a v a n a . " Hence,, -Lambtte-'s c h a p t e r one w i l l be Hsuan-tsang's s e c t i o n two, and so on.  B.  WHAT IS THE VIJHAHAVADA ?  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e system o f which t h e t r i k a y a i s t h e culmination i s i t s inclusiveness.  G. Tucci^" wrote:  . . . we cannot f a i l t o n o t i c e a g e n e r a l and fundament a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c common t o a l l . I mean t h e attempt f o r the c o n c i l i a t i o n o f the v a r i o u s tendencies e x i s t e n t i n Buddhism. . . . . . . i t was c e r t a i n l y d i f f i c u l t t o combine i n a l o g i c a l way a l l p r a c t i c a l , d o g m a t i c a l , m y s t i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l t e n e t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e two s c h o o l s . T h i s was attempted by M a i t r e y a C n a t h a l i n t h e S u t r a l a n k a r a and c h i e f l y i n t h e Abhisamayalankara, where t h e Hinayana as w e l l as t h e Mahayana-c a r y a a r e combined i n the abhisamaya. . . .  The Mahayanasamgraha i s a l s o an i n c l u s i v e work, i n c o r p o r a t i n g n e a r l y every f a m i l i a r abhidharma concept, s n i p p e t s o f p r a j n a p a r a m i t a , and t h e major t h e o r i e s u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f Mahayana s u t r a s •  Asanga's i n n o v a t i o n  c o n s i s t s o f t h e way i n which t h e s e a r e arranged t o form a harmonious T h i s system  system.  can be d e s c r i b e d as..'a/hierarchy o f n e s t e d concerns and t h e o r i e s  each c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n , and o r i e n t e d by, i t s s u p e r i o r . r e l a t i v e importance  An understanding'.of t h e  and r o l e o f each l e v e l o f t h e h i e r a r c h y w i l l prevent  either  7^  under- or o v e r - e v a l u a t i o n the  of.- any  sub-theory (such as the t r i k a y a ' ) , and thus i s  fundamental p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r more d e t a i l e d A f t e r a c a r e f u l reading  research.  o f the Mahayanasamgraha and  associated  literature,  I have concluded t h a t the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e o f i t s system i s as f o l l o w s : primary concern i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l — s p i r i t u a l career.  Within  t h i s , the  the e n t i r e t e x t i s a guidebook f o r a secondary concern i s - . e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l  Asanga wishes t o e l u c i d a t e the mechanism which w i l l a l l o w the a s p i r a n t p r o g r e s s toward the u l t i m a t e  g o a l o f enlightenment  t o the t r i k a y a considerations Any  As t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  why  approach the  that l e d to i t .  accept t h i s d e s i g n a t i o n  f o r the  simple f a c t t h a t  the V i j n a n a v a d a t o be  i d e a s have been i n c l u d e d .  an  the  idealism.  d o c t r i n e o f the Mahayanasamgraha,  must e x p l a i n e x a c t l y what type o f an i d e a l i s m i t i s , and why idealist  various  and; d i r e c t l y opposed t o the u s u a l view, I s h a l l summarize  o f contemporary s c h o l a r s c o n s i d e r  Should we  Finally,  i s b o t h c r u c i a l t o my  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t o p i c must b e g i n w i t h the  majority  to  (or " o m n i s c i e n c e " ) .  at a t e r t i a r y l e v e l o f concern, Asanga i s attempting t o i n t e g r a t e the t h e o r i e s i n t o a metaphysics.  The  Should we  r e j e c t i t , we  certain  :  we'  non-  must demonstrate  so many competent s c h o l a r s have been mistaken. For the purposes o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , B. K. M a t i l a l ' s i s t h e b e s t  c e r t a i n l y one  o f the broadest d e f i n i t i o n s o f i d e a l i s m : ".  common-sense view t h a t m a t e r i a l / e x t e r n a l  objects  mind, i . e . , i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e i r b e i n g At  first  samgraha.  glance,  . .a  d e n i a l of  e x i s t independently of  d o c t r i n e o f the Mahayana-  For example, Asanga '<(-i"21-)v says :  In s h o r t , the a l a y a v i j n a n a  i s a resulting-vijnana experienced whose n a t u r e  the  the  perceived."  t h i s seems t o d e s c r i b e the  E i . e . , r e s u l t i n g from p r e v i o u s  and  75 i s a l l t h e seeds [ o f f u t u r e experienceH. (samgrhita; and  Obviously,  ) ^ a  a l l stations of rebirth.  the alayavijnana  o f "mind") c o n t a i n s not  bsdus;  relate to ordinary  bodies i n the three  (which i s f r e q u e n t l y t r a n s l a t e d as some s o r t However, t h i s one i d e a does  More d e t a i l s a r e r e q u i r e d , e.g.: How does t h i s  experience?  religious aspirations?  worlds  3  the e n t i r e perceived world.  comprise a metaphysic.  I t embraces  What guidance does i t g i v e i n f u l f i l l i n g  What does i t r e a l l y mean?  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have reached w i d e l y v a r y i n g  I t i s c l e a r that the various  conclusions..  P. T. Raju, -in I d e a l i s t Thought i n I n d i a , sees t h e V i j n a n a v a d a as a minor v a r i a t i o n o f t h e A d v a i t a Vedanta.  Therefore,  t h e i d e a l i s m l a b e l f r e e s him from  the n e c e s s i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s e problems a t a l l . all  footnotes  The V i j n a n a v a d a t e x t s a r e  t o t h e h i s t o r y o f Vedantac -though**-;-  Jacques May i n "La P h i l o s o p h i e bouddhique i d e a l i s t e " takes t h e i d e a l i s t i c nature o f t h e d o c t r i n e as an a p r i o r i  fact.  Western d i s c u s s i o n o f i d e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y .  I t i s simply  part o f the general  As he e x p l i c i t l y d i s r e g a r d s any  i d e a s which he i s unable t o i n t e g r a t e w i t h i n h i s i d e a l i s t i c  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , no  problems ( o r f r e s h i n s i g h t s ) can a r i s e . B. K. M a t i l a l i n h i s " C r i t i q u e o f Buddhist I d e a l i s m "  has taken t h e t e x t u a l  evidence ( c h i e f l y from s u r v i v i n g S a n s k r i t t e x t s ) much more s e r i o u s l y . ' '  He has  seen t h a t as an i d e a l i s m t h e d o c t r i n e i s a f a i l u r e , and i s f o r c e d t o note t h e religious  The  ( i . e . , s o t e r i o l o g i c a l ) i d e a s n e c e s s a r y t o make sense o f i t .  best  known modern i n t e r p r e t e r i s p r o b a b l y A. K. C h a t t e r j e e who, i n  Yogacara I d e a l i s m ,  has a l s o worked from t h e s u r v i v i n g S a n s k r i t t e x t s .  gards t h e fundamental p r o j e c t s o f H e g e l i a n  philosophers  He r e -  and t h e V i j n a n a v a d a  76 t h i n k e r s as v e r y s i m i l a r .  The major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t Hegel r e t a i n e d b o t h  s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , w h i l e t h e V i j n a n a v a d a masters have r e j e c t e d t h e o b j e c t t o establish  a  pure A b s o l u t e .  He sees t h i s n o t i o n as t h e l o g i c a l  o f t h e c r i t i c a l and s u b j e c t i v i s t i c t r e n d s p r e s e n t philosophy.  culmination  throughout a l l Buddhis.ts  S o t e r i o l o g i c a l ideas a r e unconnected w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l p h i l o s o p h -  i c a l concepts.  These premises a r e r e f i n e d and r e s t a t e d but not changed i n h i s  Readings on Yogacara Buddhism. While r e v i e w i n g  Yogacara I d e a l i s m A l e x Wayman s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e s  j e e ' s p r e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e fundamental Yogacara p o s i t i o n i s t h a t ness i s t h e s o l e r e a l i t y .  Chatter-  conscious-  He suggests t h a t , i n f o r e i n g 't:h.e d o c t r i n e i n t o such a  mold, C h a t t e r j e e has produced an: inadequate and m i s l e a d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . While Wayman does not develop h i s own view, i t i s c l e a r t h a t he would p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on t h e demands o f s o t e r i o l o g i c a l p r a c t i c e s m e d i t a t i o n ) , on t h e Abhidharma p o r t i o n , and on t h e t f i s v a b h a v a . Wayman i n s i s t s t h a t those passages which d e s c r i b e t h e g e n e s i s world  (especially  Above a l l ,  o f the perceived  from mind must be r e a d i n t h e l i g h t o f s i m i l a r Samkhya d o c t r i n e s which he  sees as t h e i r  prototype.  A l a t e r essay by C h a t t e r j e e , c o n t a i n e d  i n F a c e t s o f Buddhist  Thought, i s  more c l o s e l y reasoned and meets some o f Wayman's c r i t i c i s m , b u t does not show any  fundamental change i n s t a n c e . Although o t h e r s have w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t , these  most r e s p e c t e d .  s c h o l a r s a r e among t h e  T h e i r work shows t h a t i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e V i j n a n a v a d a as an  i d e a l i s m r a i s e s problems which a r e almost i m p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e without portions o f the t e x t s .  ignoring  A f r e s h .approach i s i n d i c a t e d .  A second major reason  for questioning the a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e i r  notions  i s t h a t they have drawn t h e i r i d e a s from a v e r y narrow s e l e c t i o n o f t h e e a r l y  77  V i j n a n a v a d a works, c h i e f l y t h e few s u r v i v i n g i n S a n s k r i t . example, i n C h a t t e r j e e ' s comment t h a t " . . . e x c l u s i v e l y t o the Yogacara, comprehensible,  canonical l i t e r a t u r e ,  i s not p l e n t i f u l . " ^  i f i n c r e d i b l e , when we  This i s clear, for  T h i s statement  pertaining  becomes  r e a l i z e t h a t he"'is i g n o r i n g t h e immense  corpus o f T i b e t a n and Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n s and b a s i n g h i s r e s e a r c h on t h e Mahayanasutralankara  w i t h some r e f e r e n c e t o the Madhyantavibhaga and Vasu-  bandhu' s V i m s a t i k a and T r i m s i k a . I f the author's primary concern are two  i s not i d e a l i s t i c , w';at.,.may;...it'-~be? '' There  p o s s i b i l i t i e s : s o t e r i o l o g i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l .  I f the former,  the  t e x t w i l l p r e s e n t a d o c t r i n e which w i l l p r i m a r i l y advance the a s p i r a n t ' s s p i r i t u a l progress.  Although we  should expect most o f the d o c t r i n e t o be  l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , i f some aspect does not seem t o f i t ,  our q u e s t i o n would  be, "Does i t , or does i t ' n o t , f u r t h e r the a s p i r a n t ' s p r o g r e s s ? " and n o t , " i s it  l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the r e s t o f the t e x t ? " I f the t e x t i s b a s i c a l l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l , i t .may  or m e t a p h y s i c a l .  I f the former, we  s h o u l d expect  o f the v a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s open t o man.  be e i t h e r e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l - .  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  There would be no n e c e s s i t y f o r an  e x p l a n a t i o n o f the l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s . metaphysical an account  s h o u l d we  expect  causes  Only i f i t i s p r i m a r i l y  a l l o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o be s u b o r d i n a t e d t o  o f the l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f such  experience.  Some comments by H. V. Guenther w i l l h e l p us t o see p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s to idealism.  In "Mentalism  and Beyond i n Buddhist  P h i l o s o p h y " and  i n Buddhist  P h i l o s o p h y i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , he i m p l i c i t l y r e j e c t s any p o s s i b i l i t y s e p a r a t i n g s o t e r i o l o g y from p h i l o s o p h y —  of  b o t h are a s p e c t s o f t r u e p h i l o s o p h y .  What, t h e n , do we have t o understand by 'philosophy'? C e r t a i n l y , i t can never be an achievement; i t remains a movement, a c o n t i n u a l s t r i v i n g f o r t r u t h by p r e - e m i n e n t l y  78 i n t e l l e c t u a l means. In t h i s quest f o r t r u t h p h i l o s o p h y b r i n g s about a change i n o u r s e l v e s by opening our eyes t o wider h o r i z o n s . Such a v i s i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the d e s i r e t o c u l t i v a t e and r e f i n e the p e r s o n a l i t y . Moreover, p h i l o s o p h y as an encompassing v i s i o n wants t o know a l l t h a t i s knowable; u n l i m i t e d c o g n i t i o n i s i t s b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Any l i m i t a t i o n imposed on i t w i l l i n e v i t a b l y k i l l i t . But the most d e c i s i v e p o i n t i s t h a t i n t h i s s t r i v i n g f o r t r u t h , t r u t h i t s e l f i s the p r i m a l source o f our t h i n k i n g . Yet i t becomes p e r v e r t e d e a s i l y by p o s i t i n g as a b s o l u t e something which i s v a l i d from c e r t a i n p o i n t s o f view and i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s and at a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o f t h i n k i n g . It also becomes f a l s e by c o n s i d e r i n g the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge o f something w i t h i n B e i n g as the knowledge o f B e i n g as such and as a whole. P h i l o s o p h y as a quest f o r t r u t h born out o f t r u t h i s t h e r e f o r e c o n s t a n t l y s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t i t s two f o e s : a b s o l u t i z a t i o n and c o n c r e t i z a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e theme o f Buddhist p h i l o s o p h y i n p a r t i c u l a r . I t b e g i n s w i t h a v i s i o n o f what t h e r e i s , and t h e n p r o g r e s s i v e l y e n l a r g e s this vision. I t s r e j e c t i o n o f the non-Buddhist systems, a l l o f which i n some way succumb.to a n t i - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n d e n c i e s , as w e l l as i t s t r e n c h a n t c r i t i q u e o f i t s own d i g r e s s i o n s i n t o t h i s dangerous t e r r i t o r y , are due t o , and r e f l e c t , the endeavour t o keep the p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p i r i t alive.'''  T h i s n o t i o n t h a t the V i j n a n a v a d a m a i n t a i n s the  congruence o f  philosophy  and  s o t e r i o l o g y i s a t t r a c t i v e t o an i n t e r p r e t e r o f the Mahayansamgraha.  two  are not  separated  introducing original..  i n the t e x t  such a s e p a r a t i o n , The  the r e s u l t i s l i k e l y t o be  understood without  f a i t h f u l to  problem t h a t a r i s e s ^ i s t h a t Western i n t e r p r e t e r s , l i k e  are apt-t'o r e s p e c t the t r u t h by  and,' i f i t s message can be  ;  such a p h i l o s o p h y  much more than i n t e l l e c t u a l means. techniques.. ( V : 2 . 1 0 ) .  How  the Guenther,  o n l y i n s o f a r as i t embodies a search  " p r e - e m i n e n t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l means." It authorizes  can t h e s e p o s s i b l y " f a l l  However, t h e t e x t meditational t h i n any  The  and  for  contains even m a n t r i c  Western concept 1  of  philosophy? Guenther's answer i s t h a t  such a  and  m e t a p h y s i c a l components.  The  can  c e r t a i n l y i n v o l v e the v a r i o u s  'philosophy'  includes both  former, c o m p r i s i n g t h e  epistemological  'mind-only'  doctrine,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l techniques f o r understanding  79 t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l mechanism.  But t h i s can never be a m e t a p h y s i c a l  d o c t r i n e o f any k i n d , l e t alone an i d e a l i s m . The m e t a p h y s i c a l d o c t r i n e s are not t h e 'mind-only' bhava and the t r i k a y a , which Guenther  ones, but the t r i s v a -  d e s c r i b e s i n Buddhist Philosophy'.  However, such a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between epistemology and does not o c c u r i n the e a r l y V i j n a n a v a d a t e x t s .  Guenther  metaphysics  attributes  this  absence.to a c o n f u s i o n on the p a r t o f the e a r l y t h i n k e r s :  I t i s a l s o obvious t h a t t h e I n d i a n Buddhist i d e a l i s t s whose thought i s r e f l e c t e d by the bKa'-brgyud-pas, were above a l l concerned w i t h e p i s t e m o l o g y , t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e p s y c h i c event o f the moment w i t h i t s o b j e c t i v e d u p l i c a t e . Only s e c o n d a r i l y were t h e y m e t a p h y s i c a l l y i n t e r e s t e d , as when t h e y reduced the whole o f r e a l i t y t o the one p a r t i c u l a r e x i s t e n t o f sems (mind). I t seems t h a t the bKa -brgyud-pas, j u s t as t h e i r I n d i a n p r o t o t y p e s , due t o t h e i r p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l problems, misunderstood the l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f the m e t a p h y s i c a l premise. They saw sems 'mind' as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t on which o t h e r a s s e r t i o n s were t o be based, i n a word, as the b a s i c premise, summed up i n the words: "The whole o f r e a l i t y i s mental." 1  However, epistemology i s one f a c t o f p h i l o s o p h y , metap h y s i c s another. What d i s t i n g u i s h e s a m e t a p h y s i c i a n from o t h e r p h i l o s o p h e r s i s not the premise he s t a r t s from but the p r i n c i p l e o f ^ i n t e r p r e t a t i o n he b r i n g s t o b e a r . He c e r t a i n l y does not c l a i m t o r e v e a l t r u t h s about a w o r l d which l i e s beyond the r e a l m o f the senses. H i s concern i s w i t h how t o take what happens here and now or how t o get the t h i n g s o f t h i s w o r l d i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . . . .9  L a t e r , w h i l e summarizing  the'Dk d o c t r i n e , I s h a l l show t h a t t h i s comment  i s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e t o the Mahayanasamgraha, and argue t h a t ..the t a s k o f i n t e r p r e t i n g i t s d o c t r i n e i n v o l v e s d e r i v i n g a metaphysics which w i l l w i t h the s t a t e d epistemology.  harmonize  80  C.  Our  VIJNANAVADA OF THE MAHAYANASAMGRAHA  study must b e g i n .with Asanga's foreword -(prastavana) w i t h i t s c o n c i s e  a p o l o g e t i c f o r "the Mahayana" ( i . e . , t h e V i j n a n a v a d a ) . c o n s t i t u t e a c l e a r statement  o f t h e p r i m a r y concern o f t h e t e x t , i t i s almost  i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r c e i n t o an i d e a l i s t i c mold. an i d e a l i s t i c  While t h i s appears t o  I f t h e body o f t h e t e x t c o n t a i n s  system, t h i s foreword i s an embarrassing  appendage.  I f , however,  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e c o n t e n t s a r e not an i d e a l i s m i s a l l o w e d , t h e n foreword becomes a key t o t h e author's  this  intent.  Asanga s t a t e s t h a t t h e Mahayana message c o n s i s t s o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e t e n c h a p t e r s o f t h e Mahayanasamgraha arranged i n t h e o r d e r n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a s p i r a n t ' s s p i r i t u a l development. enlightenment  (mahabodhi).  They c h a r t a c r e d i b l e , l o g i c a l p a t h t o g r e a t  That i s , h i s primary i n t e n t i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l ,  and w i t h i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n he has arranged and i n t e g r a t e d t h e t e a c h i n g s i n t o a coherent  system.  H i s aim i s fundamentally  s o t e r i o l o g i c a l and s e c o n d a r i l y  philosophical. T h i s viewpoint w i l l a f f e c t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f every element o f t h e system.  I f t h e Mahayanasamgraha were r e g a r d e d as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e x t , t h e  u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e would have t o be p h i l o s o p h i c a l .  As t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l major  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e t e x t , one would have t o be e l e v a t e d t o a primary p o s i t i o n .  As we have seen, t h e u s u a l c a n d i d a t e has been t h e c l u s t e r  of i d e a l i s t i c notions.  However, t h i s means t h a t those o t h e r i d e a s - t h a t w i l l  not f i t must be e x p l a i n e d away o r s e t a s i d e . I f however, t h e u n i f y i n g v i e w p o i n t i s s o t e r i o l o g i c a l , t h e r e i s no need t o a s s e r t t h e primacy  o f any one o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h e o r i e s so l o n g as t h e i r  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be shown.  F r e e d from t h e n e c e s s i t y t o e l e v a t e t h e  81 content  o f one  o f the  chapters  t o the s t a t u s o f " t h e " core o f the  can examine the secondary l e v e l o f concern w i t h  system,  fewer p r e c o n c e p t i o n s .  we  Asanga  l a y s out the s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s secondary l e v e l i n h i s foreword. [The  a c t u a l content  I.  The  o f each chapter  a l a y a v i j n a n a i s c a l l e d the  (jneyasraya; shes-bya'i II.  The  o f the Mahayanasamgraha:" i s : D  support ^fj  gnas;  o f the knowable  %0  )•  t r i s v a b h a v a : i . e . , the p a r a t a n t r a s v a b h a v a ,  the  p a r i k a l p i t a s v a b h a v a , and the p a r i n i spanrias vabhava, are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e knowable shes-bya'i III.  mtshan-nyid; - ^ J  Ideation-only  ^  $  IV.  The  ^S-  )•  (vi.jnaptimatrata) i s the e n t r y i n t o  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the knowable s n e s  (jneyalaksana;  ~ k y ' i mtshan-nyid-la' jug-pa; a  the  (jneyalaksanapravesa; ^  Jifj  ^ Q  s i x paramitas are the cause and the r e s u l t  ). of t h i s  entry. V.  The  t e n bodhisattvabhumis are the v a r i o u s ways i n which  the cause and r e s u l t o f t h i s e n t r y are VI.  The  Bodhisattva  cultivated.  d i s c i p l i n e i s the h i g h e r  morality  (adhisila) involved i n t h i s . VII.  The  samadhis ... are the h i g h e r mentation  (adhicitta)  involved i n t h i s . VIII.  Non-discriminating  awareness ( n i r v i k a l p a j n a n a ) i s the  h i g h e r awareness ( a d h i p r a j n a ) i n v o l v e d i n t h i s . IX.  N o n - s t a y i n g n i r v a n a i s the  severance-result  (phalaprahana) o f t h i s . X.  The  trikaya  ... i s the a w a r e n e s s - r e s u l t  (phalajnana)  of t h i s .  82 The act  key n o t i o n i s o b v i o u s l y "the knowable" and the b a s i c  i s the " e n t r y " (pravesa;  'jug-pa; ^  soteriological  ) t o the knowable.  The term "the knowable" i s not a focus o f i n t e r e s t by i t s e l f . (Bh 322b29-cl; bhll+5al) g l o s s e s i t as " t h a t which may  be  Vasubandhu  Cor "should  be"]  known,''"'"" and  i d e n t i f i e s ^ i t w i t h ,the s o i l e d and p u r i f i e d dharmas, or w i t h  t r i svabhava.  Furthermore, he says (Bh322c7-8; b h l ^ a ^ O t h a t the e n t r y can  1  the be  equated w i t h v i j n a p t i m a t r a t a i n the sense t h a t t h i s s p e c i f i e d the manner or'., means o f e n t r y . Asanga i s not p o s i t i n g some new Had  transcendent  e n t i t y c a l l e d "the knowable."  he wished t o do t h i s , he a l r e a d y had a q u a s i - o n t o l o g i c a l t a t h a t a at hand.  I can o n l y conclude t h a t t h i s term throws the e n t i r e t h e o r y i n t o an epistemol o g i c a l form. has  That i s , w i t h i n t h i s p r i m a r y s o t e r i o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , Asanga  chosen t o o r d e r the i n d i v i d u a l i d e a s i n an e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e  i n d i c a t e d by "the knowable."  He  i s l e s s concerned.with d e s c r i b i n g how  world l o o k s from a l i b e r a t e d viewpoint  the  than w i t h e x p l a i n i n g the mechanism  whereby the a s p i r a n t can a c q u i r e such a  viewpoint.  Only at a t e r t i a r y l e v e l o f emphasis does Asanga i n t r o d u c e the  individual  t h e o r i e s , such as t h a t o f the a l a y a v i j f l a n a or v i j napt imat r a t a, which might be termed i d e a l i s t were they p r e s e n t e d not.  on the primary l e v e l .  They are on the same l e v e l as, and  t r i s v a b h a v a , paramitas, n i r v a n a and t r i k a y a .  However, they  are  elaborately interconnected with,  the  bhumis, samvara, samadhi, n i r v i k a l p a j nana, a p r a t i s t h i t a -  The  t r a p f o r the unwary i n t e r p r e t e r i s the f a c t t h a t  o f t h e s e , i n the hands o f a determined r e d u c t i o n i s t , c o u l d be made t o a l l the o t h e r s and thus become "the e s s e n t i a l " d o c t r i n e . t i v i t y t o Asanga's s t a t e d aim can we  contain  Only by some s e n s i -  a p p r e c i a t e the importance o f each,  hence be i n a p o s i t i o n t o i n v e s t i g a t e h i s use o f any  one  any  theory.  and  83 The  view o f chapters  I - I I can be summarized as f o l l o w s : Asanga, l i k e a  Western phenomenologist, wishes t o b e g i n h i s p r o j e c t w i t h t h e raw f a c t s o f experience. experiences  To him, r e a l i t y i s composed o f a b e g i n n i n g l e s s  s e r i e s o f these  which, because t h e y make themselves known d i r e c t l y t o t h e mind,  are c a s t i n m e n t a l i s t i c terms.  The ground f o r t h e e n t i r e e x p e r i e n t i a l p r o c e s s  i s c a l l e d t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a and each experience  i s termed v i j n a p t i .  Questions  about t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s m e n t a l i s t i c language t o o r d i n a r y uses o f t h e s e are d i f f i c u l t  and complex.  some supermind. of the events,  terms  I w i l l o n l y p o i n t out t h a t t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a i s n o t  I t belongs t o a l e v e l o f d i s c o u r s e i n which i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s such as t h e n o t i o n t h a t they p e r t a i n t o a "mind" ( i n any common  sense) have been s e t a s i d e . The  v i j n a p t i a r e not simply raw s e n s e - d a t a b u t , because o f t h e o r g a n i z i n g  e f f e c t o f past  experiences,  present  themselves as f u l l - b l o w n p e r c e p t i o n s .  These i n c l u d e t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f o n e s e l f as a p e r c e i v e r w i t h body and mind; t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f a sensory  apparatus;  t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f an o b j e c t o f p e r c e p t i o n ,  and t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f r l i n t e r p r e t a t i v e schema ( 1 1 : 2 ) .  As t h e s e have no indepen-  dent r e a l i t y but a r e merely moments i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a ,  they  are s a i d t o be dependent on t h e a l a y a v i j nana. The ceptions.  common man. .may adopt one o f two p o s s i b l e a t t i t u d e s toward these He u s u a l l y h y p o s t a t i z e s them i n t o c o n c r e t e  t h i n g s , thus  strengthening  t h e n o t i o n t h a t he i s a person surrounded by an environment o f o b j e c t s . terms such o b j e c t s " t o t a l l y i m a g i n a r y "  (II:3).  per-  Asanga  On t h e other; hand, under t h e  i n f l u e n c e o f Mahayana t e a c h i n g s , he may b e g i n t o see t h r o u g h t h e apparent s u b s t a n t i a l i t y o f these p e r c e p t i o n s . i d e a s t h a t he and h i s surroundings o  brought t o p e r f e c t i o n " ( I I : M .  12  As he does s o , he becomes f r e e from t h e  a r e immutable o b j e c t s .  His perceptions are  8k In e i t h e r case t h e p e r c e i v e r , o b j e c t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a r e m u t u a l l y  13 dependent and c o - v a r i a b l e . change.  None o f them remains c o n s t a n t w h i l e t h e o t h e r s  There i s no room i n t h i s t h e o r y f o r a s i n g l e o b s e r v e r who sees t h i n g s  d i f f e r e n t l y o r who sees, d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s ; t h e r e i s no n o t i o n o f a r e a l which appears  d i f f e r e n t t o common man and Buddha.  world  There i s no need t o h o l d  any o f t h e s e terms c o n s t a n t , s i n c e c o n t i n u i t y i s p r o v i d e d by t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a : the p e r c e p t u a l a c t i v i t y from which t h e common man and h i s w o r l d , and t h e  - Ik Buddha and h i s w o r l d , may-emerge..  The way i n which t h e s e i d e a s a p p l y t o t h e  i n d i v i d u a l on t h e r e l i g i o u s path i s worked out i n d e t a i l throughout  the text.  F i n a l l y , we s h o u l d note an i n t e r e s t i n g e x t e n s i o n o f t h e Abhidharmic dharma t o generate terms which a p p l y t o t h e Buddha.  term  Asanga e a s i l y f i n d s terms  f o r t h e o r d i n a r y p e r c e i v e r , t h e o b j e c t o f h i s p e r c e p t i o n and t h e s e i z i n g p e r c e p t i o n s he employs, b u t a problem a r i s e s when speaking o f t h e Buddha, t h e environment which he p e r c e i v e s and t h e way i n which he p e r c e i v e s i t . s o l u t i o n i s t o adopt  a t e r m i n o l o g y based  on t h e word dharma.  Asanga's  Whereas t h e  common man sees h i m s e l f as a s p e c i a l s o r t o f o b j e c t surrounded  by o t h e r o b j e c t s  at which he g r a s p s , t h e Buddha sees h i m s e l f as a group o f dharmas (Dharmakaya), surrounded  by dharmas over which he e x e r c i s e s s o v e r e i g n t y .  The f i e l d w i t h i n  which t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n occurs i s c a l l e d t h e "dharma-realm" (dharmadhatu).""" ^ The  i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , scheme t h a t h a s . l e d him'to t h i s v i s i o n i s c a l l e d t h e "  "Mahayana dharma,"  :  As i t has been g i v e n t o him by o t h e r s who have p r e v i o u s l y  a t t a i n e d such a v i s i o n , i t i s c a l l e d an " o u t f l o w " o f t h e dharmadhatu.  85 D.  A STUDY OF VIJNANAVADA BUDDHQLOGY IN THE  MAHAYANASAMGRAHA  As we have seen, Asanga has c i t e d a great number o f t r a d i t i o n a l about  Buddhahood from the a u t h o r i t a t i v e s u t r a s and s a s t r a s .  He does not  t o have s e l e c t e d t h e s e f o r c o m p a t i b i l i t y s i n c e even the most notions  "facts" appear  contradictory  (e.g., t h e r e i s one Buddha/there are many Buddhas) are reproduced.  the h i s t o r y and development o f many o f t h e s e have been s t u d i e d e l s e w h e r e , ^  As I  have examined an i n d i v i d u a l n o t i o n i n d e t a i l o n l y when such i n f o r m a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y t o understand t h e use o f i t i n t h i s  text.  The p r e s e n t study w i l l be p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h those d o c t r i n e s by which Asanga attempts  t o r e s o l v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between the i n d i v i d u a l i d e a s .  The g e n e r a l procedure.was as f o l l o w s : were l o c a t e d .  A l l statements  Where t h e y o c c u r r e d i n c l u s t e r s , the.degree  between contiguous elements  was  about  Buddhahood  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  a s s e s s e d and a d e c i s i o n made on whether  c o u l d stand alone or whether the c l u s t e r should be r e t a i n e d i n t a c t . each statement  was  i s o l a t e d as f a r as l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e .  judgement proved e a s i e r than expected. o f the Buddha at 11:33  each  That i s ,  In most c a s e s , t h i s ,  For example, as t h e twenty-one gunas  are o b v i o u s l y l i f t e d en b l o c from the Samdhinifmocana-  s u t r a and are s e p a r a t e d from t h e o t h e r Buddhology and i n t e r p r e t e d i n a d i f f e r e n t manner by Asanga, t h e y s h o u l d be kept t o g e t h e r . a p p l i e s t o the " a s s o c i a t e d " gunas a t X:9-2T.  The. same r e a s o n i n g  On t h e o t h e r hand, many s t a t e -  ments are c l e a r l y d i s c r e t e o r are embedded i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o t h e r t o p i c . In e i t h e r c a s e , t h e y may  be removed from c o n t e x t and regrouped t o  illustrate  f e a t u r e s o f the b a s i c framework, e.g., t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r a l l statements r e f e r r i n g t o the Dharmakaya. The  ease with, which t h i s r e g r o u p i n g i s p o s s i b l e r e f l e c t s the e a r l y  state  86  of  this text.  Although  the c h a p t e r s  d o c t r i n e w i t h i n the chapters m e a n i n g f u l o r d e r , and may  are i n a l o g i c a l o r d e r , many b l o c k s  ( e s p e c i a l l y i n chapter X) are i n no  be rearranged.'  These.passages f e l l  c a t e g o r i e s , each o f which r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t  1.  The  list  o f gunas at 11:33  The  obviously  into three  treatment:  stands by i t s e l f .  As  i t i s not r e a l l y i n t e g r a t e d  w i t h the r e s t o f the t e x t , i t r e c e i v e d o n l y a c u r s o r y  2.  of  examination.  passages d e a l i n g w i t h the Dharmakaya showed t h a t Asanga had used t h i s  term as a synonym f o r Buddhahood i n g e n e r a l .  These passages c o n t a i n most o f  the t r a d i t i o n a l i d e a s w i t h which he d e a l s , but c o n t r i b u t e d i r e c t l y t o h i s s y s t e m a t i c p r o j e c t o n l y by answering t h e q u e s t i o n o f how T h e r e f o r e , I have s t r u c t u r e d the examination  3.  o f t h e s e around t h a t  question.  Those passages (mainly from chapter X) which show Asanga's attempts t o  s y s t e m a t i z e the B u d d h o l o g i c a l primary  focus o f t h i s  Before beginning,  i d e a s by the t r i k a y a scheme.  a p o s s i b l e source  o f c o n f u s i o n must be noted. on the term "body."  t r a n s l a t e d a v a r i e t y o f T i b e t a n and Chinese terms by regarded  I found t h a t he has used '"le  f o r any  Lamotte  aspect  o f a Buddha (e.g., 'Nirmanakaya, These were  undoubtedly kaya i n t h e S a n s k r i t .  T: l u s and Hi'jpj?  The has and  Examining the t e x t s ,  c o r p s " f o r the f o l l o w i n g terms:  Sambhogakaya, Dharmakaya, Svabhavikakaya).  2.  the  " l e c o r p s " ("body"),  them a l l as e q u i v a l e n t t o the S a n s k r i t "kaya."  T: sku, H:  These are  study.  Buddhology o f the Mahayanasamgraha hinges  1.  Buddhahood i s o b t a i n e d .  f o r the p h y s i c a l b o d i e s o f o r d i n a r y b e i n g s ,  87 of  Sravakas and o f Pratyekabuddhas  (e.g.,  '1:1+8; 1:50; 11:2.2;  11:11, etc. ). 3.  T: lus_ and H: C t l  f o r "category or " c l a s s "  (l:ll,  I:2l).  Thus, by t a k i n g b o t h T i b e t a n and Chinese t r a n s l a t i o n s i n t o account, i t i s always p o s s i b l e t o determine which o f t h e t h r e e senses o f "body" i s i n t e n d e d .  1.  11:33  11:33 THE TWENTY-ONE GUNAS OF THE BUDDHA  c o n t a i n s a s h o r t , and a p p a r e n t l y s e p a r a t e , Buddhology based on t h e  following l i s t  of qualities  (gunas) o f a Buddha.  This l i s t  i s drawn from a  ' ' ~ 17 prominent passage o f t h e Samdhinirmocanasutra. The Buddha:  0.  Has a v e r y pure  intelligence  s h i n - t u rnam-par dag-pa'i b i o mnga'-ba  &  1.  :  i  M>  Acts i n non-duality kun-tu spyod-pa'i g n y i s mi-mnga'-ba  * 2.  —  n  E n t e r s t h e c h a r a c t e r l s t i c l e s s dharma mtshan-nyid med-pa'i c h o s - l a mchog-tu g z h o l - b a r mdzad-pa  88  3.  R e s i d e s i n t h e Buddha-residence s a n g s - r g y a s - k y i gnas-pas- gnas-pa  4i k.  f&  it  O b t a i n s an e q u a l i t y w i t h a l l  Buddhas  sangs-rgyas thams-cad dang mnyam-pa-nyid b r n y e s - p a  l i . f l  5.  -  M  ih  if- %  ML  Having no o b s t a c l e s , reaches an u n d e r s t a n d i n g S g r i b - p a mi-mnga'-bas r t o g s - p a r t h u g s - s u chud-pa  6.  Has a dharma which cannot be o v e r t u r n e d p h y i r m i - z l o g - p a ' i chos dang-ldan-pa  7.  I s not d i m i n i s h e d by h i s sphere o f a c t i o n s p y o d - y u l - g y i s mi-'phrogs-pa  8.  Has a system which i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e rnam-par bzhag-pa bsam-gyis  9.  mi-khyab-pa  Has reached the e q u a l i t y o f t h e t h r e e times dus-gsum mnyam-pa-nyid-du t h u g s - s u chud-pa  89 10.  Has a body t h a t extends over a l l  areas o f t h e u n i v e r s e  ' j i g - r t e n - g y i khams thams-cad-du khyab-pa'i sku dang-ldan-pa  11.  Has a v e r i d i c a l awareness o f t h i n g s chos-thams-cad-la the-tshorn med-pa'i ye-shes mnga'-ba  %>  12.  _  n  ; i *j ^  ii.  Has a mind c o n t a i n i n g a l l p r a c t i c e s •spyod-pa thams-cad dang-ldan-pa'i b i o mnga'-ba its  13.  —  w  it  tt  K  Has-an e r f o r l e s s _ k h o w l e d g e o f t h i n g s chos mkhyen-pa-la nem-nur med-pa  *• Vi lh.  it *t fe Jk  Has a body CH: "as p e r c e i v e d by o r d i n a r y b e i n g s " ] which i s not  imaginary  rnam-par ma-brtags-pa'i sku mnga'-ba  15.  Has.an awareness which i s t h e g o a l o f t h e vows o f a l l  Bodhisattvas  ye-shes byang-chub sems-dpa' thams-cad-kyis yang-dag-par mnos-pa [ s i c ]  - I. 16.  § .  %  n  *  «  Has t r u l y reached t h e p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e non-dual Buddha-residence s a n g s - r g y a s - k y i gnas-pa g n y i s - s u med-pa dam-pa'i p h a - r o l - t u p h y i n - p a  4!  & -  ^  ;T4JUf'.  90 17.  Has  arrived, at the c u l m i n a t i o n o f the Tathagata's  undefiled  l i b e r a t i n g awareness de-bzhin gshegs-pa  ma-'dres-pa'i  rnam-par t h a r - p a r mdzad-pa'i  y e - s h e s - k y i mthar phyin-pa  18.  Has  reached the e q u a l Buddhaland which has n e i t h e r c e n t e r nor  o u t l y i n g areas mtha'-dang dbus med-pa'i s a n g s - r g y a s - k y i sa mnyam-pa n y i d - d u t h u g s - s u chud-pa  19.  Has reached the dharmadhatu chos-kyi dbyings-kyis klas-pa  ft  20.  Has  TY>  %~  reached the l i m i t o f open  space  nam-mkha'i khams-kyi mtha' gtugs-pa  21.  Completely reaches t h e f i n a l phyi-ma'i mtha'i mur  limits  thug-pa  Asanga's r e a s o n f o r g r a f t i n g t h i s passage t e n u o u s l y onto the-..end o f the  »•  t r i svabhava  v  l8  chapter',, r a t h e r than: i n t e g r a t i n g i t w i t h i n the t r i k a y a , i s obscure.  However, as he has kept i t s e p a r a t e and i n t e r p r e t e d i t d i f f e r e n t l y , almost t o the p o i n t o f d e v e l o p i n g an a l t e r n a t e Buddhology, I have m a i n t a i n e d h i s d i v i s i o n  91 and p l a c e d a s h o r t study o f i t i n the f o l l o w i n g  section.  The most obvious c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the above l i s t evokes a mythopoeic cosmic  dimensions  i s i t s imagery.  image o f a v i r t u a l l y o m n i s c i e n t and omnipotent  i n h a b i t i n g a Buddha-residence,  s t a t e o f p e r f e c t knowledge.  The remainder  Buddha o f  w i t h i n a Buddhaland, i n a  o f 11:33  interpretation"*"^ t o which Asanga s u b j e c t e d t h i s l i s t and Asvabhava's expansion o f t h i s  It  shows us the  existential  as w e l l as Vasubandhu's  interpretation.  I must r e p e a t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t under i n v e s t i g a t i o n here i s not the t r a d i t i o n a l image.but the manner i n which Asanga has i n t e r p r e t e d i t .  Unfortu-  n a t e l y , h i s o n l y e x p l i c i t p r i n c i p l e i s expremely  puzzling.  "The  phrase,  ( b u d d h i ) ' i s c l a r i f i e d by t h e  'The Buddha has a v e r y pure i n t e l l i g e n c e  other phrases." is  He s a y s ,  A l l v e r s i o n s add, "Thus, the X i s p r o p e r l y e x p l a i n e d . " 'f'jr  v a r i o u s l y , dharmata ( T i b e t a n and H),  santa) dr  (Dharmagupta and Buddha-  (Paramartha), o r " l a n a t u r e du Buddha" (Lamotte).  The  o b v i o u s l y wishes t o subsume a l l o t h e r gunas under the u n d e f i n e d concept "pure b u d d h i . "  N e i t h e r Vasubandhu nor Asvabhava o f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l  and the i d e a i s not a major f o c u s elsewhere o n l y suggest t h a t i t may  "X"  author of  commentary,  i n the Mahayanasamgraha.  I can  r e f e r t o the d o c t r i n e which D. S. Ruegg has  called  20 "la to  l u m i n o s i t e n a t u r e l l e de l a pensee,"  but i t s importance here i s i m p o s s i b l e  determine. Asanga's comments r e v e a l a c o n s i s t e n t and comprehensible  interpretation.  He sees each g u n a — e v e n those o s t e n s i b l y d e s c r i b i n g t h e Buddha's r e s i d e n c e , e t c . — a s a r e f e r e n c e t o some q u a l i t y o f t h e Buddha's p e r s o n a l i t y .  These  may  be g e n e r a l l y d i v i d e d i n t o those gunas which he r e g a r d s as r e f e r e n c e s t o the Buddha's n o e t i c a b i l i t i e s , and those which he r e g a r d s as r e f e r e n c e s t o the Buddha's e f f e c t i v e  abilities.  92 a.  The  Noetic  Abilities  S t r a n g e l y enough, Asanga i n t e r p r e t s the two us o f the way  gunas which o s t e n s i b l y i n f o r m  i n which the Buddha " a c t s " or "moves" as r e f e r e n c e s t o h i s n o e t i c  r a t h e r than h i s e f f e c t i v e a b i l i t i e s : 1.  "CThe Buddha] a c t s i n n o n - d u a l i t y " i s g l o s s e d as "the q u a l i t y o f  a b s o l u t e l y unimpeded entrance to o b t a i n i n g an a c c u r a t e  t o the knowable."  " E n t e r i n g the knowable" r e f e r s  comprehension o f the o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f p e r c e i v e d  r e a l i t y , a comprehension which w i l l i t s e l f ensure a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n .  •-  comprehension i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t r i s v a b h a v a d o c t r i n e ( I I : 9 ) supports  t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by d e f i n i n g " n o n - d u a l i t y " as "not  encountering  o b s t a c l e s and  sometimes not  encountering  This  - •'' 21  Asvabhava sometimes  them," thus s t e e r i n g the  reader away from the obvious c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the " n o n - d u a l i t y " c o u l d r e f e r t o a non-dichotomizing  conceptual  process,  a n o t i o n not i n a c c o r d w i t h  the  trisvabhava. 2.  "He  e n t e r s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l e s s dharma" i s i n t e r p r e t e d as "he  has  gone t o the supremely pure t a t h a t a which i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n o n - d u a l i t y b e i n g and non-being."  of  Asvabhava r e f e r s t h i s concept t o the t r i s v a b h a v a doc-  t r i n e which i n the Mahayanasamgraha i s invoked  t o e x p l a i n a l l such a s s e r t i o n s .  22 Thus, "Buddha a c t i o n " i s i n t e r p r e t e d as an unhampered n o e t i c a c t together with  " e n t r y , " r e f e r s t o g a i n i n g a proper  i . e . , an understanding  by the b.  The activity.  understanding  of  which,  reality,  trisvabhava. The  Effective  Abilities  remainder o f the gunas are r e f e r e n c e s t o the Buddha's a l t r u i s t i c These may  be s u b d i v i d e d - i n t o those which o s t e n s i b l y describe- the  93  domain or p l a c e i n h a b i t e d by the Buddha, 'and those which d e s c r i b e t h e Buddha himself.  i.  5.  The Domain o f the Buddha  "Having no o b s t a c l e s , he reaches an u n d e r s t a n d i n g . "  s a y s , "He  has reached the non-impeded p l a c e  (lUlb26).")  (.The  Chinese  Asanga e x p l a i n s t h i s  as the q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g c u l t i v a t e d the a n t i d o t e t o a l l o b s t a c l e s . Asvabhava adds t h a t t h i s  " c u l t i v a t i o n " i s the p r a c t i c e o f t h e n o b l e p a t h .  T h i s p o i n t i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o 1. and 2., but s t r e s s e s the  state  a c h i e v e d r a t h e r than the a c t i o n o f a c h i e v i n g i t . 3-  "He  r e s i d e s i n the Buddha-residence  (vihara)" i s interpreted  as  showing "the q u a l i t y o f r e s i d i n g i n .unceasing, spontaneous B u d d h a - a c t i v i t y . " By v a r i o u s examples o f " r e s i d e n c e " (Devavihara , the f o u r Brahmaviharas, dhyanas, sunyata, a n i m a t t a , e t c ) , Asvabhava (UUl0c27-29).explains to  be  any fundamental  the  "residence"  stance or p r i n c i p l e i n which an i n d i v i d u a l i s grounded  and from which he a c t s .  Asvabhava i d e n t i f i e s the Buddhavihara  w i t h the  s p o n t a n e i t y w i t h which a Buddha takes any a p p r o p r i a t e stance t o a i d s e n t i e n t b e i n g s , not by some p a r t i c u l a r Buddha-stance. Here a l s o , a statement a reference to a c t i v i t y .  a s c r i b i n g a determinate  s t a t e i s i n t e r p r e t e d as  Asanga i s not o n l y i n t e r p r e t i n g a s p a t i a l myth i n  a c t i v e terms but i s a l s o a f f i r m i n g t h a t the manner o f the Buddha's a c t s  cannot  be e x h a u s t i v e l y s p e c i f i e d , but o n l y l a b e l l e d "unceasing spontaneous Buddha actions." T h i s phrase r e v e a l s the t h r e e parameters in specific  circumstances.  g o v e r n i n g the Buddha's a c t i o n  "Unceasing" w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n number 21 below.  9k  " S p o n t a n e i t y " r e v e a l s t h e Buddha's freedom t o respond t o t h e needs o f o t h e r s . The t h i r d , " B u d d h a - a c t i v i t y , " i s determined by the p a t t e r n o f a c t i o n s set up d u r i n g the graded p r a c t i c e o f the paramitas which l e d t o Buddhahood.  This  p a t t e r n i s the s u b j e c t o f the next guna. 16.  "He  has t r u l y reached the p e r f e c t i o n  Buddha-residence."  (paramita) o f the  non-dual  Asanga says t h a t t h i s i s "the q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g a t t a i n e d  t h e paramitas i n the e q u a l Dharmakaya."  To Asvabhava t h i s means t h a t a l l the  paramitas have been developed t o t h e h i g h e s t degree and are " e q u a l " or d u a l " i n s o f a r as t h e y cannot be q u a n t i f i e d still  on the bhumis).  pattern of action.  "non-  (as t h e y c o u l d w h i l e t h e Buddha  A g a i n , the Buddha-residence  was  i s more than a determinate  I t i s the terminus o f the development by which t h e  B o d h i s a t t v a became a Buddha, and as such d e f i n e s the manner i n which t h e Buddha w i l l a c t . 22 18.  "He  has reached  outlying areas."  the e q u a l Buddhaland which has n e i t h e r c e n t e r nor  Asariga says t h a t t h i s r e v e a l s the q u a l i t y o f n o n - l i m i t a t i o n  o f the sphere o f the t h r e e Buddha-kayas. o n l y two  Asvabhava adds a s e r i e s o f comments,  o f which are o f i n t e r e s t h e r e : "the Dharmakaya, e t c . l i v i n g i n t h i s  u n i v e r s e because  t h e r e i s no p l a c e e l s e " and "the Dharmakaya, e t c . p e n e t r a t e s  everywhere i n o r d e r t o p r o c u r e t h e w e l f a r e o f s e n t i e n t b e i n g s While the Buddha-residence  was  ..."  the f a c t o f the Buddha's a l t r u i s t i c  the Buddhaland i s the p l a c e o f the a c t i o n .  action,  Asvabhava concludes t h a t t h i s p l a c e  cannot be o t h e r than the u n i v e r s e f i l l e d w i t h the b e i n g s f o r whose sake the a c t i o n i s performed. 19.  "He  has reached the dharmadhatu" shows the q u a l i t y o f h a v i n g  devoted  h i m s e l f t o the w e l f a r e and happiness o f a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s u n t i l the end o f samsara.  Asvabhava says t h a t the dharmadhatu can g i v e r i s e t o o u t f l o w s  such  95  as s u t r a s and t e a c h i n g s .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e Buddha who  reaches t h e dharmadhatu  devotes h i m s e l f t o t h e w e l f a r e and happiness o f a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s . s p a t i a l language  Here t h e  i s i n t e r p r e t e d as r e v e a l i n g t h e a l t r u i s m o f t h e Buddha's  actions. 20.  "He has reached the l i m i t s o f open space" r e v e a l s t h e q u a l i t y o f  indestructibility  (or""inexhaustibility").  .Asvabhava adds t h a t  i s a metaphor for-'the Dharmakaya which, without  "open space"  i t s e l f a l t e r i n g of imposing  l i m i t s , w o r k s . f o r t h e w e l f a r e and happiness o f s e n t i e n t b e i n g s . 21.  "He c o m p l e t e l y reaches t h e f i n a l l i m i t s . "  There i s no comment by  Asanga and Asvabhava makes t h i s a p a r t o f number 20., but a l s o suggests t h a t the " f i n a l l i m i t s " r e f e r t o a p e r p e t u a l n o n - i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h e B u d d h a - a c t i v i t y , s i n c e t h e r e w i l l never be an end t o b e i n g s t o be t r a i n e d .  Thus, t h e s p a t i a l  l i m i t s are i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e l i m i t l e s s n e s s o f t h e a c t i o n . 7.  "He i s not d i m i n i s h e d by h i s sphere o f a c t i o n CH: " H i s a c t i o n s are  unimpeded"]."  Asanga e x p l a i n s t h i s as "the q u a l i t y o f not b e i n g d i m i n i s h e d by  w o r l d l y t h i n g s a l t h o u g h born i n the w o r l d . "  ii.  The  Buddha-body  Only two gunas d e a l e x p l i c i t l y w i t h t h e body o f t h e Buddha: 10.  "His body extends over a l l areas o f t h e u n i v e r s e " means t o Asanga  t h a t he m a n i f e s t s a Sambhoghakaya and Nirmanakaya i n a l l areas o f t h e u n i v e r s e . Asvabhava adds t h a t t h i s i s f o r t h e w e l f a r e and happiness o f a l l b e i n g s t o be disciplined. ih.  "His body CH: "as p e r c e i v e d by o r d i n a r y b e i n g s " ] i s not i m a g i n a r y . "  Asanga says t h a t "he m a n i f e s t s h i m s e l f a c c o r d i n g t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s Cof t h o s e whom he t e a c h e s ] . "  Asvabhava adds t h a t a l t h o u g h he may m a n i f e s t h i m s e l f w i t h  96 a g o l d c o l o r , e t c . , h i s body i s not Note t h a t the term " i s not  imaginary.  imaginary"^  means t h a t the o b j e c t  perceived  has not been generated by c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a c t i v i t y o f the s u b j e c t , as i s t h e case w i t h o r d i n a r y p e r c e p t i o n o f another's body. k.  "He  o b t a i n s an e q u a l i t y w i t h a l l Buddhas."  i s no d i v e r g e n c e  Asanga e x p l a i n s t h a t  between Buddhas as f a r as t h e s u p p o r t ,  t h e i r Dharmakaya are concerned.  i n t e n t i o n and a c t i o n o f  Asvabhava adds t h a t the support  i s the  v i suddhaj nana; i n t e n t i o n s are the i n t e n t i o n t o work f o r the w e l f a r e and a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r t o the r e s u l t i n g a c t i o n s which a l l accomplish Nirmanakaya and  which he 11.  of  others,  through  Sambhoghakaya.  iii.  The  The  Buddha-mind  remainder o f the gunas d e a l w i t h the Buddha's a w a r e n e s s — t h e way sees, knows and "He  there  has  in  understands.  a v e r i d i c a l awareness'  of t h i n g s . "  Asanga c a l l s t h i s  "the  q u a l i t y o f c u t t i n g o f f doubts," and Asvabhava e x p l a i n s t h a t , l a c k i n g doubt h i m s e l f , he 15.  i s a b l e t o cut o f f the doubts o f  others.  "His awareness i s the g o a l o f t h e vows o f a l l B o d h i s a t t v a s . "  e x p l a i n s t h a t "by  i n c a l c u l a b l e numbers o f b o d i e s 25  takes the t r a i n i n g  CH:  " o f supports"!] he  Asanga under-  ^ of sentient beings."  "bodies" belong to the Bodhisattvas s a t t v a s t r a n s m i t t h i s t e a c h i n g and  Asvabhava e x p l a i n s t h a t  whom t h e Buddha t r a i n s .  The  the  other  so o b t a i n the awareness which i s the  Bodhiobject  o f the vows o f a l l B o d h i s a t t v a s . 13.  "His knowledge o f the dharma i s f r e e from e r r o r . "  he knows the  f u t u r e a r i s i n g o f dharma.  the Buddha, u n l i k e the  Sravaka,  According  Asanga says t h a t  t o Vasubandhu and  Asvabhava,  i s a b l e t o p e r c e i v e t h e s u b t l e s t seeds o f  97  f u t u r e Buddhahood i n some a p p a r e n t l y i n c o r r i g i h l e i n d i v i d u a l , and so t o encourage him. 9.  "He has reached t h e e q u a l i t y o f t h e t h r e e t i m e s . "  he " i n s t r u c t s " ( o r " p r e d i c t s , " v y a k a r a n a ) .  Asanga adds t h a t  Asvabhava adds t h a t t h i s means t h e  Buddha can know and e x p l a i n t h i n g s i n t h e past o r f u t u r e as i f t h e y were current  events.  8.  " H i s system i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e . "  s y s t e m a t i z i n g t h e dharma."  To Asanga t h i s i s "the q u a l i t y o f  Asvabhava adds t h a t t h e system cannot be compre-  hended by f o o l s o r w o r l d l i n g s i n g e n e r a l . 6.  " H i s dharma cannot be o v e r t u r n e d . "  To Asanga t h i s means "he i s not  overcome by any t i r t h i k a s . " 17.  "He has a r r i v e d a t t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e Tathagata's u n d e f i l e d  l i b e r a t i n g awareness." undefiled  Asanga i n t e r p r e t s t h i s as t h e q u a l i t y o f m a n i f e s t i n g  (H: " v a r i o u s " ) Buddhalands i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f b e i n g s .  Asvabhava i n t e r p r e t s " l i b e r a t i n g awareness" as "awareness o f a s p i r a t i o n (vimoksa)."  That i s , Asvabhava i n t e r p r e t s t h i s guna as t h e Buddha's a b i l i t y ,  t o be aware o f t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f each s e n t i e n t b e i n g . 12.  " H i s mind c o n t a i n s a l l p r a c t i c e s . "  Asanga says t h a t t h i s i s "the  q u a l i t y o f c a u s i n g Cthose whom he t e a c h e s ] t o e n t e r a l l s o r t s o f p r a c t i c e s . "  The Buddha who emerges from 1 1 : 3 3 i s c e r t a i n l y not i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h the f i g u r e found l a t e r i n c h a p t e r X.  However, apart from h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f  the t e n t h guna, Asanga has simply not r e c o n c i l e d them.  While t h i s c u r i o u s  o m i s s i o n should make us v e r y wary o f s i m p l y r e a d i n g 1 1 : 3 3 and c h a p t e r X t o g e t h e r , one common element i s o b v i o u s .  Both a r e permeated by t h e i d e a o f  b e i n g - i n - c o n t r o l , an i d e a which t h e Mahayana l a b e l s "mastery" ( v a s i t a , see note  h2 below).  That  i s , e x p e r i e n c e s do not s i m p l y impinge upon t h e Buddha;  he takes  an a c t i v e r o l e i n p r o p e r l y u n d e r s t a n d i n g  h i s world.  From t h i s  under-  s t a n d i n g he i s a b l e t o a c t , spontaneously and c r e a t i v e l y , i n o r d e r t o t r a n s m i t t h i s understanding  to others.  2.  THE DHARMAKAYA  The second major Buddhology i s found i n passages d e s c r i b i n g t h e Dharmakaya. I t d e p i c t s Buddhahood as a s i n g l e e n t i t y and p r o v i d e s questions,  "How  i s i t obtained?"  the o p p o r t u n i t y  and "What i s i t ? " The former e l i c i t s  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a s p i r a n t t o h i s g o a l . provides the occasion f o r developing  a.  a metaphysical  f o r the a  The l a t t e r  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Buddha.  O b t a i n i n g t h e Dharmakaya  While the e n t i r e Mahayanasamgraha i s one l o n g p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g the Dharmakaya, a few passages g i v e a s y n o p s i s  of the process.  d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e groups a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t y l e o f e x p l a n a t i o n  — the —  These may be i n each:  a highly abstract epistemological explanation i n v o l v i n g re-orientation.of alayavijnana a v e r y concrete  e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l one, s t r e s s i n g m e d i t a t i o n  and i l l u s t r a t i n g  the p e r c e p t u a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e Dk —  an a c t i v e answer which i n v o l v e s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e Dk. i n t h e world.  i.  I;l+6-U8  R e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e A l a y a v i j nana  The author has r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f how the s e e d - f i l l e d the cause o f emotional  alayavijnana,  involvement i n the w o r l d , can a l s o be t h e seed o f ways  99 o f t h i n k i n g which c o u n t e r a c t such involvement. w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g thought  i s the i m p r e s s i o n formed i n the a l a y a v i j n a n a by  h e a r i n g t h e dharma ( s r u t a v a s a n a ) •  The  a g r e a t e r one as the s u b j e c t i s thought i s meditated all  initial  small impression gives r i s e t o  out, and t o a s t i l l  g r e a t e r one  as i t  upon, u n t i l i t c o m p l e t e l y t a k e s over the a l a y a v i j nana and  seeds o f e m o t i v i t y .  o f the  He answers t h a t the seed o f  The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r o c e s s shows the  dispels  beginnings  Dk:  1:48.  " T h i s s m a l l , medium or g r e a t seed implanted by h e a r i n g i s a l s o the seed o f the Dharmakaya. not the a l a y a v i j n a n a .  I t c o u n t e r a c t s the a l a y a v i j n a n a — i t i s  Although  i t i s w o r l d l y , as i t i s an  outflow  o f the t r a n s w o r l d l y and v e r y pure dharmadhatu, i t i s the seed o f w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g thought.  Even b e f o r e w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g  thought  a r i s e s , i t [ t h e seed implanted by hearing"! c o u n t e r a c t s the snare the k l e s a s , Cthe p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e b i r t h : inD a r e a l m o f and a l l bad a c t i o n s . "it  of  suffering,  I t h e l p s one t o meet Buddhas and B o d h i s a t t v a s .  i s i n v o l v e d w i t h ^ the Dharmakaya o f t h e neophyte  Bodhi-  27 sattvas Sravakas it  and i t i s a l s o i n v o l v e d w i t h the Vimuktikayas and Pratyekabuddhas.  Although  i s i n v o l v e d w i t h the Dharmakaya and "As  of the  i t i s not the a l a y a v i j n a n a , Vimuktikaya.  i t develops through t h e stages o f s m a l l , medium and  large,  t h e v i p a k a v i j n a n a w i l l become d e v o i d o f seeds and a l l i t s a s p e c t s w i l l be cut o f f . " Here the Dk  i s p r e s e n t e d as a r e o r i e n t e d a l a y a v i j f i a n a .  ( v i j n a n a ) o f o r d i n a r y man i n the f u t u r e .  e s t a b l i s h i n him the tendency  The t o t a l set o f such t e n d e n c i e s  The  perceptions  t o have s i m i l a r ones  ( a l a y a - v i j n a n a ) i s the b a s i c  100 substratum o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y .  According  t o t h i s passage, t h e dharma which a  man hears a c t s i n an analogous way but e s t a b l i s h e s a new substratum, t h e bodyof-dharma (Dharmakaya) which e v e n t u a l l y r e p l a c e s t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a as t h e foundation  of his existence.  T h i s i s confirmed  by X : 7 . 1 :  "by r e o r i e n t i n g t h e  alayavi.]nana, t h e Dharmakaya i s o b t a i n e d . " T h i s dharma, which comes from those who have a l r e a d y reached e n l i g h t e n ment, i s c l e a r l y t h e Mahayana t e a c h i n g , as t h e neophyte (adikarmika)  Bodhisat-  t v a s have t h e Dk but t h e §ravakas and Pratyekabuddhas have a Vimuktikaya instead. Asvabhava (U 395bl-9) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e Vimuktikaya i s f r e e ..only from t h e klesavarana,  whereas t h e -Dk i s f r e e from both k l e s a v a r a n a  However, he t h e n attempts t o e x p l a i n how a B o d h i s a t t v a o f h i s c a r e e r , be s a i d t o be f r e e from b o t h . p r i n c e who has been imprisoned  and  jneyavarana.  can, at t h e v e r y  onset  He l i k e n s t h i s B o d h i s a t t v a t o a  immediately a f t e r r e c e i v i n g a b h i s e k a .  When he  i s f i n a l l y f r e e d from prison',, he w i l l immediately r e g a i n h i s p r e r o g a t i v e s . seems t o suggest t h a t a p o t e n t i a l Dk i s o b t a i n e d on t h e B o d h i s a t t v a ing  a t t h e moment o f s e t t i n g out  c a r e e r ,vbut i s - a c t u a l i z e d o n l y l a t e r .  This notion of acquir-  a p o t e n t i a l Dk seems t o o v e r l a p w i t h t h a t o f b e i n g born i n t h e Tathagata's  . 28 gotra. +  ii.  X:k  This  O b t a i n i n g t h e Dharmakaya: The E p i s t e m i c  "How i s t h e Dharmakaya i n i t i a l l y o b t a i n e d  Explanation  CT: 'by c o n t a c t ' 1 ? "  Both Vasubandhu and Asvabhava agree t h a t t h e term " o b t a i n e d " i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e Dk i s not something "produced" because t h e body i s p e r p e t u a l .  101 By Non-Conceptual and Subsequent Awareness*"^  The  first  X:4.1  answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e Dk i s i n i t i a l l y  " . . . by non-conceptual  obtained i s :  awareness ( n i r v i k a l p a j nana) and subsequent  awareness ( p r s t h a l a b d h a j n a n a ) which take as t h e i r o b j e c t t h e common Mahayana dharmas."  Vasubandhu does not comment, w h i l e Asvabhava (U  ^37b28) says o n l y , " t h e  meaning i s easy t o understand," p r o b a b l y because t h e s e terms have a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d i n e a r l i e r passages which w i l l now be examined. Chapter  I I has d e s c r i b e d t h e way i n which t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r b e g i n s t o  understand t h e view o f r e a l i t y s e t out i n t h e f i r s t the B o d h i s a t t v a p a t h .  c h a p t e r s and hence e n t e r s  111:12 d e s c r i b e s t h e p r o g r e s s on t h e p a t h :  By a calm and i n s i g h t f u l w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g awareness which t a k e s as i t s o b j e c t t h e common dharmas, and by subsequent  multiple-  v i j n a p t i awareness, he has a t t e n u a t e d a l l t h e image-producing seeds b e l o n g i n g t o t h e a l a y a v i j f i a n a and s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e seed of  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Dharmakaya.  A f t e r r e o r i e n t i n g t h e base, by  p e r f e c t i n g a l l t h e Buddhadharmas he a c q u i r e s o m n i s c i e n t awareness.  . . . The  subsequent  awareness, which'sees e v e r y t h i n g " a r i s i n g  the a l a y a v i j n a n a and merely mental  appearances  i l l u s i o n , a r i s e s by i t s v e r y n a t u r e f r e e from  from  t o be l i k e an misapprehensions.  Thus, j u s t as a magician i s f r e e from misapprehensions  about t h e  r e a l i t y o f t h i n g s he has c r e a t e d , so t h e B o d h i s a t t v a , a l t h o u g h speaking o f cause and e f f e c t , i s always f r e e from about  them.  misapprehensions  102  T h i s i s r e p e a t e d at I I I : l 4 :  In t h e t e n B o d h i s a t t v a bhj'imis . . . . because Cthe B o d h i s a t t v a ] p r a c t i c e s , f o r many m i l l i o n s o f k a l p a s , t h e calm and i n s i g h t f u l w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g awareness which t a k e s as i t s o b j e c t the common dharmas h i s bases.  and t h e subsequent awareness, he r e o r i e n t s  In o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e Buddha-  kaya, he has p r a c t i c e d i n t h i s way.  F i n a l l y , i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a bhumis at V:2.10:  Why i s t h e t e n t h bhumi c a l l e d t h e dharma-cloud? awareness o f a l l  Because i t s  dharmas which t a k e s as i t s o b j e c t t h e common  Cdharmas1 c o n t a i n s t h e e n t i r e Cgroup o f ] means t o l i b e r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g dharartrs and samadhi C j u s t as a c l o u d c o n t a i n s w a t e r ] , because i t o b l i t e r a t e s major impediments as a c l o u d the sky, and because i t f i l l s  t h e Dharmakaya.  The commentaries t o a l l t h r e e passages a r e s i m i l a r . f e r e n c e s i n terminology,, .they a l l  obliterates  D e s p i t e minor  dif-  d e a l w i t h t h e same two t y p e s o f "awareness"  ( j n a n a ) , a term never used f o r o r d i n a r y common-sense "awareness-of-something" ( v i j n a n a ) but r e s e r v e d f o r awareness e x e r c i s e d by t h e Buddha and B o d h i s a t t v a . The two t y p e s o f j nana a r e "calm and i n s i g h t f u l w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g  aware-  ness which t a k e s as i t s o b j e c t t h e common dharmas" and "subsequent awareness." As Asvabhava (U hl6o5-6)  i d e n t i f i e s t h e f i r s t w i t h t h e n i r v i k a l p a j n a n a , .these  are t h e same i d e a s as i n t h e o r i g i n a l passage a t X:h. In t h e phrase "calm and i n s i g h t f u l w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g awareness which takes as i t s o b j e c t t h e common dharmas," Asvabhava (U  ^l6c6)  g l o s s e s t h e terms  103 "calm" and " i n s i g h t f u l " r e s p e c t i v e l y as " i n a s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n " (samahita) and " f r e e from misapprehensions."  That i s , t h e y a r e t o he under-  s t o o d i n t h e i r u s u a l sense as m e d i t a t i o n a l terms where "calm" (samatha) r e f e r s t o t h e u n t r o u b l e d s t a t e o f mind gained through one-pointed m e d i t a t i o n , and " i n s i g h t " (vipasyana) r e f e r s t o t h e a c c u r a t e view gained by a mind i n t h i s state. ^ T h i s awareness i s a l s o " w o r l d - t r a n s c e n d i n g " ( l o k o t t a r a ) , g l o s s e d by Asvabhava (U U l 6 c 5 ) as " l e a d i n g t o enlightenment" (anasrava) and " f r e e from concepts" (nirvikalpa).  That i s , i t a i d s t h e ^ B o d h i s a t t v a i n h i s p r o g r e s s a l o n g -  the path but s h o u l d not be misunderstood as an awareness " o f " a t r a n s c e n d e n t r e a l i t y , o r a c l a s s o f mental o p e r a t i o n s y i e l d i n g knowledge about such a r e a l i t y . F i n a l l y , t h i s awareness takes as i t s o b j e c t t h e "common (samsrsta) dharmas'.' T h i s i s t h e most p u z z l i n g aspect o f t h e term. ness have an o b j e c t ?  Asvabhava (U 4l6c2) e x p l a i n s that, "common  dharmas" means t h a t t h e awareness bears upon ( i s t i c s "common" passage  (  How.can a non-conceptual aware-  $$jfL  (f^jL  £yj&.  )  ) the manifest character-  ) t o a l l things, i . e . ,tathata.  While a v e r y s i m i l a r  (VIII:5) c o n t a i n s no mention o f t a t h a t a , t h a t term occurs i n t h e  g l o s s e s t o b o t h 111:12 and V I I I : 5 .  As t h e use o f t a t h a t a i n t h i s  literature  has not been p r o p e r l y s t u d i e d , and as i t seldom appears i n t h i s t e x t , t h e few passages which mention  i t have been s e t a s i d e .  In o t h e r words, t h i s i s aware-  ness o f t h e r e a l i t y common t o a l l p e r c e p t i o n , a r e a l i t y n o r m a l l y  misapprehended  and c o n c r e t i z e d i n t o v a r i o u s r . i s o l a t e d c o n c e p t s . While t h e "subsequent" o f "subsequent  awareness"  ( p r s t h a l a b d h a ) can merely  mean "coming a f t e r , " here i t r e f e r s t o t h e s t a t e subsequent  t o m e d i t a t i o n when  the calm and i n s i g h t f u l mental a t t i t u d e i s c a r r i e d over i n t o p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e ordinary world.  As 111:12 says, i t  10k .  . . sees e v e r y t h i n g a r i s i n g from the a l a y a v i j n a n a  a l l merely mental appearances t o be l i k e an i l l u s i o n , by i t s v e r y nature  and  arising  f r e e from m i s a p r e h e n s i o n s .  In terms o f the t r i s v a b h a v a view o f t h i s t e x t , by subsequent awareness one  sees the  v i j n a p t i , which are p a r a t a n t r a , but  t h e i r nature  i s " l i k e an i l l u s i o n . "  i . e . , are not p a r i k a l p i t a .  31  appreciates the f a c t  T h e r e f o r e , t h e y are not 32  "Misapprehension"  e x p l a i n e d i n the Abhidharmakosa.V:9: "Taking  misapprehended,  i s a widely-used  term  the impermanent as permanent, ,,the  s u f f e r i n g - f i l l e d as s a t i s f y i n g , the impure as p u r e , and t h a t which has atman as-having prehensions  an atman."  that  Here, Asvabhava (U U l 6 c l 9 - 2 0 )  no  i d e n t i f i e s misap-  as erroneous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f p a r a t a n t r a , i . e . , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  whose acceptance g i v e s r i s e t o p a r i k a l p i t a and whose r e j e c t i o n g i v e s r i s e parinispanna. In 111:12, t h e n o n - c o n c e p t u a l and  .  subsequent awareness are s a i d t o :  . . a t t e n t u a t e a l l the image»producing seeds  t o the a l a y a v i j n a n a , and  to  strengthen  belonging  the seeds o f  contact  w i t h the Dharmakaya.  The  p r a c t i c e of non-conceptualization  r e i f y experience. Dharmakaya"  33 a s  weakens the i n v e t e r a t e t e n d e n c i e s  to  Asvabhava (U l + l 6 c l l - 1 2 ) g l o s s e s "seeds o f c o n t a c t w i t h "the i n f l u e n c e o f h a v i n g h e a r d much Mahayana [ t e a c h i n g ! , "  thus i d e n t i f y i n g i t as a development o f the i n f l u e n c e which o r i g i n a l l y set p r a c t i t i o n e r on the p a t h . ^  T h i s may  a l s o e x p l a i n the phrase "by  the T i b e t a n v e r s i o n o f the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n at The  the  end o f t h i s p r o c e s s  contact" i n  X:^+.  i s d e s c r i b e d r e s p e c t i v e l y as  (at 111:12), " t r i p l e Buddhakaya" (111:1"+) and  the  "filling  3 6  "omniscience""  the Dharmakaya"  105  (V:2.10).  As the passages are "very s i m i l a r , i t . i s - r e a s o n a b l e ' t o see t h e s e  synonymous terms.  The  f a c t t h a t one  speaks o f "Buddhakaya" w h i l e the  speaks o f a l l t h r e e kayas suggests t h a t the Dk hut  can s t a n d f o r a l l t h r e e .  ness"—not  as  other  i s not merely one o f t h e t h r e e  They are a l s o synonymous w i t h "omniscient  aware-  a n : . i n f i n i t e e x t e n s i o n o f . t h e o r d i n a r y epistemie process but., ' as  Asvabhava (uHl6cl.5.-l6) glos.ses, "a s t a i n l e s s and unimpeded  jnana."  By the F i v e - f o l d P r a c t i c e  . The  second answer t o the q u e s t i o n o f how  the Dharmakaya i s f i r s t  acquired  is:  X:h.2  "By the f i v e - f o l d  Vasubandhu does not comment. from V:h  practice."  Asvabhava (U  !+37b28-c5) quotes t h e e x p l a n a t i o n  and a l s o says t h a t the f i v e aspects are no b i r t h , no d e s t r u c t i o n ,  p r i m o r d i a l calm, e s s e n t i a l peace, and no s e l f - n a t u r e . are a p p a r e n t l y The bhumis.  explanations  alternatives.  e x p l a n a t i o n at Y:h The  These two  i s embedded i n a d i s c u s s i o n o f the t e n B o d h i s a t t v a  r e l e v a n t p o r t i o n i s as f o l l o w s :  How  s h o u l d we  understand  B o d h i s a t t v a who,  the p r a c t i c e o f t h e s e bhumis?  The  on bhumi a f t e r bhumi, p r a c t i s e s samatha and  v i p a s y a n a does so by a f i v e - f o l d p r a c t i c e . of i t are: 1.  common p r a c t i c e  2.  characteristicless  3.  spontaneous p r a c t i c e  k.  intensive practice  practice  The  five  aspects  106 5.  insatiable  practice  By t h i s f i v e - f o l d p r a c t i c e the B o d h i s a t t v a a c h i e v e s  five  types o f r e s u l t : 1. "In each i n s t a n t a l l the supports 2.  3.  o f a f f l i c t i o n are  He  i s f r e e d from v a r i o u s n o t i o n s and o b t a i n s the p l e a s u r e s  of  the garden o f the dharma.  Accurate  awareness o f the incommensurable m u l t i p l i c i t y  appearances o f the dharma and the t r u l y endless t i o n s ofD h.  The  of  [manifesta-  i t s aspects.  signs^which^,accompany purity^, and.'are not j u s t  are m a n i f e s t e d 5.  destroyed.  in-him'.-  In o r d e r t h a t , h e may  imagined, ..  fulfill  ( p a r i p u r i ) and p e r f e c t  ( p a r i n i s p a t t i ) t h e Dharmakaya, he s e i z e s upon the most perfect  cause.  Asvabhava (U U2l+c28-^25a29) shows t h a t t h e s e are a l l m e d i t a t i v e and t h a t each element o f the second l i s t p r a c t i c e i n the  techniques  i s the r e s p e c t i v e r e s u l t o f each  first.  Asvabhava and Vasubandhu (Bh359b21-2"+) s u b s t a n t i a l l y agree t h a t "the most p e r f e c t cause"  i s the " i n s a t i a b l e p r a c t i c e , " i . e . , the t o t a l i t y o f h i s p r a c -  t i c e s up t o t h a t t i m e , and t h a t " f u l f i l l m e n t " r e f e r s t o the Dk  on the t e n t h  bhumi, w h i l e " p e r f e c t i o n " r e f e r s t o r e s i d e n c e i n the Buddhaland. T h i s passage strengthens gained e a r l i e r but not j u s t the Sbk,  the p r e v i o u s evidence t h a t the Dk  f u l f i l l e d at the h i g h e s t s t a g e . can l i v e i n (  ) a Buddhaland.  i s something  I t a l s o shows t h a t the  Dk,  107 By Amassing the Accumulation o f Equipment on A l l Bhumis  The t h i r d way  X:k:3  i n which the Dharmakaya i s o b t a i n e d i s :  By amassing the accumulation o f equipment  (sambharasamcaya)  on a l l bhumis.  There i s no commentary h e r e , but at  111:15 and 18 (U l+17b26-28 and U iil8bl6-20)  Asvabhava d e f i n e s i t as the s t a b i l i z e d p r a c t i c e o f the s i x paramitas from h a v i n g p r a c t i c e d them throughout innumerable p a s t ages.  resulting  This i s i n accord  37 w i t h the normal use o f the term.  By the Vajropamasamadhi X:4.H  By the Vajropamasamadhi which breaks the avaranas.  Immediately  difficult-to-break  a f t e r t h i s samadhi t h e y are s e p a r a t e d  from a l l the avaranas. 1  " ' •• m —  "Vajropamasamadhi" d e s i g n a t e s the f i n a l s t a t e o f m e d i t a t i o n i n which the  38 l a s t d i f f i c u l t i e s are overcome and f u l l enlightenment a c h i e v e d . o b s t a c l e s t o enlightenment  (avaranas) are " s u b t l e and d i f f i c u l t  These  t o break."  Asvabhava (U *+37c7-8) g l o s s e s t h i s as "unemotional n o n - a w a r e n e s s . " ^ d e f i n e s these as the l a s t and most d i f f i c u l t but not by the A r h a t .  final  Ting*  40  '  o b s t a c l e s severed by the Buddha  Hence the Buddha a c h i e v e s o m n i s c i e n c e .  That i s , the avaranas are commonly d i v i d e d i n t o k l e s a v a r a n a s ( o b s t a c l e s c o n s i s t i n g o f b l i n d emotional r e a c t i o n ) and jneyavaranas o f unawareness).  (obstacles  consisting  The former are more e a s i l y overcome than are the l a t t e r . •  • • —  1  *  —  " s u b t l e d i f f i c u l t - t o - b r e a k avaranas" are the l a s t and most d i f f i c u l t jneyavaranas.  o f the  The  108  X:"+."+  T h i s i s the way  i n which r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the-support i s -  obtained.  T h i s c l o s i n g l i n e v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e s o b t a i n i n g the Dharmakaya w i t h r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e support. skandhas i s i m p l i c i t  iii.  The  i n T and  That t h i s " s u p p o r t " e x p l i c i t i i n H's  passage has  p e r c e p t u a l stance o f the a s p i r a n t who may  l e g i t i m a t e l y request  individual. upon two  five  translation.  Dharmakaya as R e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e Skandhas  While the p r e c e d i n g  we  i s each o f the  d e s c r i b e d the a l t e r a t i o n i n the b a s i c moves from common man  t o Dharmakaya,  a more d e t a i l e d account o f t h e changes i n t h i s  Such an account i s found at X:5.  The  explanation  key terms: " r e o r i e n t a t i o n " ( p a r a v r t t i ) ^ and  at X:5  rests  "sovereignty"  (vibhutva).^ To say t h a t some aspect  o f the a s p i r a n t has been r e o r i e n t e d means t h a t  i t has not been a b o l i s h e d but has been put t o a new  use w i t h i n t h e  new  personality. Asvabhava (U U37cl8-22) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e Sravaka, e t c . , attempts t o a b o l i s h h i s m i s e r y by d e s t r o y i n g the suicide.  The  leper w i l l  Bodhisattva  skandhas j u s t as a f o o l i s h l e p e r commits  attempts t o r e o r i e n t each skandha j u s t as a wise  seek a cure which w i l l t r a n s f o r m h i s d i s e a s e d body i n t o a h e a l t h y  one. A c t i o n s which have been r e o r i e n t e d are termed " s o v e r e i g n t i e s . " non-reoriented  e x i s t e n c e i s composed o f skandhas which are f o r c e d i n t o a  determinate form by t h e e f f e c t s o f past trapped  Ordinary  i n t o e x i s t e n c e i n a c e r t a i n type  a c t i o n (karma).  The  individual is  o f w o r l d by what appear t o be  powerful  109  external forces. The  Buddha i s not t r a p p e d hut i s h i m s e l f i n c o n t r o l — he e x e r c i s e s  "sovereignty."  While o r d i n a r y man p e r c e i v e s a s i t u a t i o n f o r c e d upon him, t h e  Buddha c r e a t e s o r m a n i f e s t s  a s i t u a t i o n i n response t o t h e needs o f o t h e r s .  Hsuan-tsang c e r t a i n l y understood  " s o v e r e i g n t y " i n t h i s sense, as" he r e p e a t e d l y  t r a n s l a t e s Asvabhava's commentary by: "He o b t a i n s t h e s o v e r e i g n power o f manifesting . . . "  X:_l  By how many s o v e r e i g n t i e s does t h e Dharmakaya o b t a i n sovereignty?  X:5.1  The answer i s , i n s h o r t , by f i v e o f them.  By a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e rupaskandha i t o b t a i n s sover=e i g n t y over t h e B u d d h a f i e l d , t h e body, t h e l a k s a n a s , t h e minor marks, t h e i n f i n i t y o f phonemes, and t h e i n v i s i b l e c r a n i a l mark.  A p o s s i b l e misunderstanding  o f X:5 can be avoided b y b e a r i n g i n mind t h a t  the skandhas a r e not f i v e groups o f f a c t o r s c o m p r i s i n g are t h e f a c t o r s c o m p r i s i n g epistemic  They  a moment o f r e l a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e — i n c l u d i n g t h e  s u b j e c t , t h e e p i s t e m i c o b j e c t , t h e schemata o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and  the f i n a l p e r c e p t i o n s . becoming B u d d h a f i e l d s  T h e r e f o r e , when t h e t e x t speaks o f t h e rupaskandha e t c . , i t i s not p o r t r a y i n g t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e i n d i -  v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l form i n t o a cosmic Buddha. ordinary world The  an i n d i v i d u a l .  I t i s simply  ( i n c l u d e d i n t h e rupaskandha) i s t r a n s f o r m e d  saying that the i n t o a Buddhaland.  statement a t X:5.1 says t h a t t h e Buddhaland r e p l a c e s t h e former  p h y s i c a l world.  Asvabhava says they may be g o l d o r s i l v e r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  d e s i r e s o f s e n t i e n t beings.. The  Buddha a l s o o b t a i n s t h e a b i l i t y t o m a n i f e s t  a body w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o  110  Asvabhava, corresponds t o the c a p a c i t i e s o f b e i n g s t o be t a u g h t , i . e . , the Nirmanakaya.and Sambhogakaya. that  While t h i s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r , l e t us  note  "Dharmakaya" i s here used as a g e n e r a l term f o r Buddhahood,' while., the-  rupakaya  i s the s p e c i f i c way  i n which i t appears.  The l a k s a n a s and minor marks are the 32 major and the 80 minor marks o f a ^3 g r e a t man.  The  i n f i n i t y o f phonemes r e f e r s t o t h e Buddha's a b i l i t y t o speak  t o any s e n t i e n t b e i n g i n any The  invisible  situation.  ( t o gods and men)  c r a n i a l mark i s t h e usntsa, or - f l e s h y  kk protuberance on t h e - crown o f t h e headT' - The author's reason f o r m e n t i o n i n g i t here i s obscure. X:5.2  By a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the vedanaskaridha i t o b t a i n s s o v e r e i g n t y over the i r r e p r o a c h a b l e , immeasurable, v a s t happy residences. The vedanaskaridha i s the second l o g i c a l moment i n p e r c e p t i o n .  o b j e c t and f a c u l t y are j u x t a p o s e d , the immediate r e s u l t  When sense  i f vedana—"sensation"—  t h e f e e l i n g o f p l e a s u r e , p a i n or i n d i f f e r e n c e which i s i n h e r e n t i n any p e r c e p t i o n , and over which one has no c o n t r o l . o f involvement The t e x t  normal  These s e n s a t i o n s are the b a s i s  i n samsara. i s s a y i n g t h a t , f o r the Dk,  c a l l e d "residence."  r e o r i e n t e d vedana i s a s o v e r e i g n t y  Asvabhava e x p l a i n s t h a t " i r r e p r o a c h a b l e " means t h a t t h e r e  are no k l e s a s , "immense" t h a t t h e y are r e p l e t e w i t h gunas, and " v a s t " t h a t t h e y surpass a l l the p l e a s u r e s o f the t r i p l e  world.  I t i s not c l e a r i f t h i s i s one r e s i d e n c e or s e v e r a l , o r i f s u k h a v i h a r a i s synonymous w i t h brahmavihara toned r e a c t i o n s  ( o f X:10).  However, i t i s c l e a r t h a t  feeling-  ( k l e s a s ) based on past encounters w i t h a c e r t a i n c l a s s o f  Ill  o b j e c t have "been r e p l a c e d by " b l i s s "  ( s u k h a ) — a t r a n s c e n d e n t p l e a s u r e grounded  i n the a t t i t u d e o f the Buddha r a t h e r than the appearance o f the o b j e c t .  X:5-3  By r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the samjnaskandha i t o b t a i n s s o v e r e i g n t y over e x p l a i n i n g groups"of names, o f statements,  and  o f phonemes.  The  samjnaskandha i s the aspect o f the p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s i n which the  p e r c e p t i o n , h a v i n g a c q u i r e d the f e e l i n g - t o n e o f vedana, i s i d e n t i f i e d as a c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by the a f f i x a t i o n o f a v e r b a l l a b e l . thought  In B u d d h i s t  such l a b e l s are d i s c u s s e d under the t h e o r y o f "names, statements  phonemes."^  and  When r e o r i e n t e d the samjnaskandha becomes the a b i l i t y t o master  this verbalization.  As t h e r e are v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s , and Vasubandu and Asvabhava  d i s a g r e e on the exact import o f t h i s passage, i t i s p r o b a b l y unwise t o push i n t e r p r e t a t i o n much f u r t h e r .  X:5.^  By a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the samskafaskandha i t o b t a i n s s o v e r e i g n t y over c r e a t i o n  (nifmana), t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , • c o n -  v e n i n g the g r e a t a s s e m b l i e s , and c o l l e c t i n g white  The  dharmas.  samskaraskandha i s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s which  have been b u i l t up through p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s and former  lives.  They are  the f o r c e s d r i v i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n t o c e r t a i n types o f a c t i o n which l e a d t o c e r t a i n types o f p e r c e p t i o n .  Asvabhava  (u  him  *+38a8) says t h a t here the author  i s r e a l l y speaking about c e t a n a , " m o t i v a t i o n , " ^  6  the a l l - i n c l u s i v e  samskara.  In the Dk t h i s has been r e o r i e n t e d t o y i e l d t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f c r e a t i n g appearances and.of t r a n s f o r m i n g t h i n g s •' as - d e s i r e d , o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r great assemblies o f those who  wish t o l e a r n , and of b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r white  dharmas.  112  A g a i n , the b a s i c i d e a i s a s w i t c h (cetana), to being  X:5.5  from b e i n g  able to create appropriate  driven into situations  ones.  By a r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the v i j n a n a s k a n d h a i t o b t a i n s  sover-  e i g n t y over the m i r r o r - l i k e j nana, the self-same j nana, the contemplative  1  j n a n a , and the a c t i o n - a c c o m p l i s h i n g  In abhidharmic thought the v i j S a n a s k a n d h a i s the  fifth  skandha, the  f l e d g e d f e e l i n g - t o n e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f an o b j e c t a r i s i n g from the process.  In the V i j n a n a v a d a , v i j f l a n a r e t a i n s t h i s sense but  t o an o v e r a r c h i n g While t h i s was c o u l d be  framework w i t h i n which the o t h e r  not  o f a process  including a l l ,  Second, the k l i s t a m a n a s  atmadrsti  (the i d e a o f the  divides.  T h i r d , a r i s i n g from the k l i s t a m a n a s ,  place.  who  i t s detailed  posited  four  as the l o c u s  serves  of  s e l f as a d i s c r e t e e n t i t y ) , which d i s c r i m i n a t e s  s y n t h e s i z i n g - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g consciousness F i n a l l y , the  elevated  F i r s t , the a l a y a v i j n a n a which s t o r e s the b i j a s and  as the ground f o r the o t h e r s .  data.  i s also  i n s o f a r as each skandha  development became a major concern o f the V i j n a n a v a d i n s , s t r a t a of vijnana.  full-  preceding  skandhas f i n d t h e i r  e n t i r e l y absent i n e a r l i e r s c h o o l s  d e s c r i b e d o n l y as an aspect  j n a n a.  and  the manovijnana, the c e n t r a l  where concepts are formed from sense  sense data from each o f the f i v e sense f a c u l t i e s are _  c a l l e d a v i j n a n a and the f i v e t o g e t h e r  are c a l l e d p r a v r t t i v i j n a n a — " a c t i v e  vijnana." As  each o f t h e s e f o u r c l a s s e s o f v i j K a n a i s r e o r i e n t e d , an  "accurate  awareness" ( j n a n a ) " r e s u l t s . . The  sense i n which t h i s jnana i s an " a c c u r a t e "  the t r i s v a b h a v a t h e o r y r e a l t h i n g , nor  o f chapter  II.  The  awareness i s e x p l a i n e d  jnana i s not  an awareness o f  i s i t some amorphous m y s t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .  by  the  Both common man  and  113 Buddha f i n d themselves engaged i n a p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n common man r e i f i e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n s and mistakes The  Buddha sees through  (.paratantra).  them f o r o b j e c t s  t h i s r e i f i c a t i o n and so understands  be j u s t t h a t ( p a r i n i s p a n n a ) .  The  (parikalpita).  the perceptions t o  The former type o f p e r c e p t i o n i s v i - j n a n a ,  "awareness o f c e r t a i n t h i n g s , " w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i s jnana, " a c c u r a t e awareness." The  r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a g i v e s t h e " M i r r o r - l i k e jnana" which  p r o v i d e s an a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n unhindered The  by s p a t i a l o r temporal  r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e k l i s t a m a n a s y i e l d s t h e self-same  barriers.  jnana which i s aware  o f t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n c e between o n e s e l f and o t h e r s and so i s a b l e t o m a n i f e s t images o f t h e Buddha as r e q u i r e d . The  r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e manovijnana y i e l d s t h e  "Contemplation-jnana"  which i s t h e r e a s o n i n g aspect o f t h e Buddha. F i n a l l y , t h e f i v e sensory v i j n a n a s a r e r e o r i e n t e d t o o b t a i n t h e " A c t i o n accomplishing  j n a n a " which comprises  the e n t i r e D k — p e r c e p t i o n  b.  t h e v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s o f a Buddha.  and a c t i v i t y — i s  The Dharmakaya —  Thus,  i n c l u d e d i n X:_5.  What I s I t ?  In t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s we have seen t h a t , ,inthe Mahayanasamgraha, t h e Dharmakaya, h a v i n g b o t h e f f e c t i v e and n o e t i c a s p e c t s , i s a synonym f o r Buddhahood.  These s e c t i o n s have shown t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f common man and Dk by  l i m i t i n g t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n t o those  s e t s o f concepts  a p p l i c a b l e t o b o t h , and  by s t r e s s i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e m e d i t a t i v e ones, which e f f e c t t h e t r a n s i t i o n from one t o t h e o t h e r . However, t h e Dk i s not simply t h e terminus new r e a l i t y . it?"  o f t h e p r a x i s but i s a l s o a  We may legitimately.; ask-, "What i s i t ? " as w e l l as - "What was  As t h e r e - i s ho m e t a l a n g u a g e i n which a " t r u e " d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e  Ilk  Dharmakaya may  he  framed (see  X:3-5=  " i n c o n c e i v a b i l i t y "*),.. Asanga i s l i m i t e d t o  .the Abhidharmic concepts which-were t h e s t a n d a r d t o o l s o f He  Buddhist-reasoning.  a t t a c k s from a v a r i e t y o f angles w i t h v a r i o u s q u e s t i o n s ,  d i f f e r e n t type  of^answer;  each y i e l d i n g  -  I n t e r p r e t i n g these r e d u c t i o n i s t i c answers p r e s e n t s  a formidable  challenge.  F i r s t , the Abhidharmic language, which i s i t s e l f m y s t e r i o u s t o u s , must t r a n s l a t e d i n t o contemporary concepts. the f a c t t h a t Asanga has samgraha i s not  The  Chapter X o f the Mahayana-  a s y s t e m a t i c t r e a t i s e on Buddhahood, but  t h i s d o c t r i n e i s merely n a s c e n t .  be  more s e r i o u s problem a r i s e s from  done o n l y p a r t o f the t a s k .  t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s toward such a work.  i s more l i k e  Even w i t h the commentator's  a collec-  opinions,  I m p l i c a t i o n s are not worked'-out, minor  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s remain u n r e s o l v e d ,  a  simple  S i n c e Asanga's approaches f o l l o w no d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n , they w i l l  simply  t h e o r y o f t h e Dk been s e p a r a t e d  be taken as they  i.  The  X:3.1  a  l o o s e ends abound, and nowhere has  from the c o n f u s i n g mass o f  details.  occur.  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( l a k s a n a s ) o f t h e Dharmakaya  Dharmakaya has  five  characteristics:  R e o r i e n t a t i o n : because it:'_is r e o r i e n t e d toward the t i o n of a l l obstacles belonging o f the p a r a t a n t r a svabhava and  t o the samklesa  aspect  C i t i s r e o r i e n t e d ] toward  o b t a i n i n g l i b e r a t i o n from a l l the o b s t a c l e s t o over t h e dharmas; and .because_it presence o f the pure a s p e c t - o f  destruc-  sovereignty  i s r e o r i e n t e d toward the  paratantra.  T h i s passage i s v e r y c o n c i s e because " r e o r i e n t a t i o n " has  a l r e a d y been  115 d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l at IX:1-2, where the n o t i o n t h a t the w o r l d  i s renounced,  upon r e a c h i n g enlightenment i s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the V i j n a n a v a d a . passage ( I X : . l ) reads:. nirvana.  emotions'  key.  non-abiding  I t s l a k s a n a i s the r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e double support, i . e . ,  r e j e c t i n g the does not  " R e n u n c i a t i o n • i s the Bodhisattva's-  The  samklesas w h i l e not r e j e c t i n g samsara."  imply  an escape from the w o r l d , but  That i s , " r e n u n c i a t i o n "  o n l y from those d i s t u r b i n g  (samklesa) which are c o n t i n u a l l y d r i v i n g man  i n t o improper, m i s e r y -  inducing perceptions  and r e a c t i o n s .  This in-the-world-but-not-of-it state,  c a l l e d "non-abiding"  ( a p r a t i s t h i t a ) n i r v a n a , i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " r e o r i e n -  tation. " Here, at X:3.1, Asanga p l a c e s t h i s i d e a w i t h i n the s t r u c t u r e o f the Mahayanasamgraha by r e l a t i n g i t t o the t r i s v a b h a v a d o c t r i n e .  The  "double  support"  whose r e o r i e n t a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s r e n u n c i a t i o n i s simply the p ar at ant r a- s vab ha va, the  "given-ness"  of a perceptual  situation.  ambiguity o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , which may world  be  The  experienced  or as an o c c a s i o n f o r e n l i g h t e n e d a c t i o n .  t i e s i s e x p l a i n e d i n chapter i n samsara when t h e emotional  III.  An  term "double" p o i n t s t o  The  e i t h e r as a determinate first  o f these  possibili-  i n d i v i d u a l becomes more deeply  enmeshed  reactions attached t o h i s b e l i e f i n h i s  own  u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y f o r c e him t o a s c r i b e a f a l s e u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y t o the ( p a r a t a n t r a ) p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n , thus t r a n s f o r m i n g imaginary  (parikalpita) perception.  it.  On the o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s a l s o the  r a t h e r then r e i f y i n g i t , simply  T h i s i s the p e r c e p t u a l p r o c e s s  given  i t into a t o t a l l y  p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o r r e c t l y a p p r e c i a t i n g ( p a r i n i s p a n n a ) the t r u e nature p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n and,  the  o f the e n l i g h t e n e d  o f the  a c t i n g p r o p e r l y upon  individual.  Therefore,-.Asanga i s s a y i n g t h a t when the s u t r a s a p p l y the term t i o n " t o a Buddha they do not mean t h a t he has become c u t - o f f from  "renuncia-  experience.  116 They mean t h a t h i s r e a c t i o n i n a p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s an a c c u r a t e a p p r e c i a t i o n r a t h e r than a r e i f i c a t i o n . Furthermore,  a t IX:2.5-6, Asanga d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e Hinayana  from t h e Mahayana r e o r i e n t a t i o n , and l i s t s t h e "advantages" latter.  reorientation  (anusamsa) o f t h e  T h i s p r o v i d e s y e t another c a p s u l e d e f i n i t i o n o f Buddhahood.  reads: " . . .  IX:2.6  The. B o d h i s a t t v a s understand dharmanairatmya, and, c o n s i d e r i n g  samsara t o he p e a c e f u l , t h e y sever a l l t h e d i s t u r b i n g emotions abandon Cthe worldD. . ."  The advantages  but do not  o f t h i s a r e : "Being grounded i n  t h e i r own r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e base, they o b t a i n s o v e r e i g n t y over a l l samsaric things.  By m a n i f e s t i n g . a p p r o p r i a t e s e n t i e n t b o d i e s t o t h e d i f f e r e n t  classes  o f . M i v i n g b e i n g s , ..they use t h e i r p r o s e l y t i z i n g s k i l l s t o a i d t h e c o n v e r t e d beings t o o b t a i n t h e h i g h e s t b i r t h s and t o s e t out on t h e t h r e e s p i r i t u a l careers (yanas)." .That i s , a r e o r i e n t e d , a c c u r a t e a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e t r u e nature o f t h e p e r c e i v e d w o r l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y e n t a i l s a compassionate  involvement w i t h h e l p i n g  others i n i t . T h i s b r i n g s us t o t h e second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Dk,- i t s t r u e n a t u r e .  X:3.2  Having white dharmas as i t s r e a l n a t u r e  (svabhava),  because  t h e t e n m a s t e r i e s ( v a s i t a ) a r e o b t a i n e d through t h e f u l f i l l ment o f t h e s i x p a r a m i t a s .  To t h e d i r e c t  q u e s t i o n , "What r e a l l y i s t h e nature o f t h e Dk?" Asanga  r e p l i e s t h a t i t i s not a s t u f f  ( v a s t u ) o f any k i n d — i t  simply an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e omnipotence, but a s p e c i f i c  i s ability.  s e t o f a b i l i t i e s which  have been developed by l o n g p r a c t i c e on t h e B o d h i s a t t v a s t a g e s . ities  a r e i n d i c a t e d by t h e term "white dharmas,"  Nor i s i t  These  abil-  which.are here synonymous  w i t h the  "masteries."' ^ 4  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine a s t r o n g e r p o s s i b l e a f f i r m a t i o n o f the c o n t i n u i t y between t h e i n d i v i d u a l who Dk which i s the e v e n t u a l r e s u l t . developed  has  set out on the Mahayana path and  The t r u e n a t u r e o f the l a t t e r  a b i l i t i e s which have been c u l t i v a t e d by t h e  Each o f the t e n m a s t e r i e s (U i+36bli+-l8) are i n square  i s described.  i s simply  former.  Asvabhava's e x p l a n a t i o n s  brackets.  (1) By f u l f i l l i n g the danaparamita the B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s the a y u r v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o abandon l i f e o f one's own  free  w i l l l , the c i t t a v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o undergo t r a n s m i g r a t i o n without b e i n g s o i l e d ! and the p a r i s k a r a (sambhara) v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o accumulate f o o d , d r i n k , e t c . , as one  wishes!.  (2) By f u l f i l l i n g the s i l a p a r a m i t a t h e B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s the k a r m a v a s i t a  [ a b i l i t y t o do o n l y good a c t s ! and  the  u p a p a t t i v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o be born i n whichever d e s t i n y one  wishes!.  (3) By f u l f i l l i n g  the k s a n t i p a r a m i t a the B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s  t h e a d h i m u k t i v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o change a l a n d t o g o l d , e t c . , simply by forming as a s p i r a t i o n t o do  (k) By f u l f i l l i n g  so!.  the v i r y a p a r a m i t a the B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s  the p r a n i d h a n a v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o r e a l i z e one's  (5) By f u l f i l l i n g  the dhyanaparamita the B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s  the r d d h i v a s i t a [ a b i l i t y t o accomplish miraculous  vowsl.  a l l types  of  deeds! t h a t . goes a l o n g w i t h the f i v e a b h i j n a .  the the  (6) By f u l f i l l i n g t h e p r a j n a p a r a m i t a t h e B o d h i s a t t v a o b t a i n s the  j n a n a v a i l i t a C r o u g h l y — a b i l i t y t r u l y t o understand  t e a c h i n g ] , and t h e dharmavasita [ a b i l i t y t o p r e a c h as one wishes].  In  each case t h e f o r c e s which d r i v e an o r d i n a r y man through samsara  been mastered and can now be used by t h e Dk f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f o t h e r s .  have There-  f o r e , t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e Dharmakaya i s mastery. A c l o s e l y r e l a t e d passage Tathagata's Dharmakaya because over a l l t h e dharmas." term Dharmakaya.  appears a t X : l . l :  "The Svabhavikakaya  i s the  i t i s t h e support f o r s o v e r e i g n t y ( v i b h u t v a )  Asvabhava (U l 4 3 6 a l - 5 ) suggests two e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e  E i t h e r , " i t i s c a l l e d Dharmakaya because t h e nature o f t h e  dharma (dharmata) i s t o be a body," o r , " i t i s c a l l e d Dharmakaya because the  support f o r a l l dharmas."  The p h r a s e , ". . . because  i t i s t h e support f o r  s o v e r e i g n t y over a l l dharmas," i s g l o s s e d as ". . . because for  i t is  i t i s t h e support  o b t a i n i n g s o v e r e i g n t y over a l l dharmas." That i s , kaya i m p l i e s b o t h a coherent o r g a n i c u n i t , and a support o r  o c c a s i o n f o r something,  X:3.3  j u s t as a human body supports human a c t i v i t i e s .  N o n - d u a l i t y (advaya): (a) Of Being and Non-Being, because the  Con t h e one hand] none "of"  dharmas e x i s t s , Chut on t h e o t h e r hand] t h e i r  istic,  sunyata, r e a l l y does e x i s t .  (b) Of samskrta and asamskrta because not  character-  Con-the one. h a n d ! i t i s  caused by karma o r k l e s a s , Chut on t h e o t h e r hand] i t  does possess t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f b e i n g a b l e t o appear as conditioned.  119 (c) Of p l u r a l i t y and u n i t y , because Con the one support  o f a l l the Buddhas i s not d i f f e r e n t i a b l e ,  the o t h e r ] innumerable streams o f e x i s t e n c e are  T h i s passage p r e s e n t s two u n f a m i l i a r concepts, The  d i f f i c u l t i e s : t h a t caused  and t h e fundamental one  t h r e e s e t s are u n e x p l a i n e d  s t a n d i n g o f them.  The  first,  o f the V a i b h a s i k a s .  by the t h r e e s e t s o f  existence/non-existence  o f the dharmas, harks schools, especially  These were f i r s t d i v i d e d  i n t o those which were b e l i e v e d t o r e p r e s e n t e x i s t e n t t h i n g s  The  enlightened.  simply because Asanga presupposes an under-  They began w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s .  those which were i l l u s o r y  [while.on  o f g r a s p i n g t h e sense o f advaya.  back t o the d i c h o t o m i z i n g a n a l y s e s o f the e a r l y Buddhist  true existence.  hand! the  ("being"),  and  ("non-being"), the outcome o f the i n t e r p l a y o f the  e x i s t e n t s were f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o samskrta, which  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the i n t e r a c t i o n which engenders the i l l u s o r y , and the  asamskrta  which do n o t , and which thus become the key t o the e v e n t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f the illusory.  T h i s r e d u c t i o n o f the e x i s t e n t c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a c e r t a i n set o f  fundamental t h i n g s (dharmas) were p o s i t e d . the i l l u s o r y n o n - e x i s t e n t s t h i s p r o c e s s was  g a i n credence  also analyzed.  found the tendency t o d i v i d e e x p e r i e n c e s  " o t h e r s , " a tendency v i r t u a l l y passage  was  In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s by which Near the b a s i s o f  i n t o "mine" and  synonymous w i t h the " u n i t y / p l u r a l i t y " o f  our  (Ui+37aT-8).  T h i s passage emphasizes t h e inadequacy o f the o l d a n a l y s i s i n the f a c e o f Mahayana i d e a s .  F i r s t , the d i s t i n c t i o n between the c o n c r e t e l y e x i s t e n t and  i l l u s o r y f a i l s when one  takes the Mahayana p o s i t i o n  (developed  the  at g r e a t l e n g t h  i n the p r a j n a p a r a m i t a  l i t e r a t u r e ) t h a t none o f the dharmas are c o n c r e t e  ities.  simply mean t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i s s h i f t e d t o the non-being  T h i s does not  category.  These dharmas do have one  t r u l y existent aspect—the  real-  fact that  they  120  are  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by sunyata,- w h i c h y o n  a purely predicative l e v e l , implies a  complete absence o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " ^ the  While t h i s has s h i f t e d t h e sense o f  term " e x i s t i n g " from " b e i n g a c o n c r e t e t h i n g " t o " b e i n g an a b s o l u t e l y t r u e  f a c t , " t h e l a t t e r i s merely a wider d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e same t y p e , not a new l i n e o f thought. the  We must remember t h a t even t h e V a i b h a s i k a s d i d not r e g a r d  dharmas as r e a l i n t h e common Western  sense o f b e i n g s e l f - e x i s t e n t  S e c o n d l y , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between'samskrta  and asamskrta f a i l s .  entities. In Abhi-  dharma thought samskrta ("put t o g e t h e r " ) r e f e r s t o t h e f a c t o r s composing moment i n t h e r e l a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e o f an o r d i n a r y b e i n g . t o g e t h e r i n t h i s moment by p a s t a c t i o n l i s h e d by p a s t e x p e r i e n c e ( k l e s a ) . the  a  They a r e brought  (karma) and automatic r e a c t i o n s e s t a b -  The a c t i v i t i e s o f t h i s assemblage  c o n d i t i o n s f o r f u t u r e combination.  s e t up  The asamskrta, on t h e o t h e r hand,  a r i s e from a c e r t a i n few a c t i o n s such as m e d i t a t i o n , but do not engender f u t u r e combinations o f dharmas. and l e a d s t o n i r v a n a . such an a n a l y s i s .  Hence, t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n breaks down samsara,  The Mahayana concept o f Dharmakaya does not submit t o  I t i s not brought about by karma o r k l e s a but by t h e v a r i -  ous p r a c t i c e s a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d .  While t h i s might be s a i d o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  asamskrta, t h e Dk cannot s i m p l y be asamskrta s i n c e i t l e a d s not s i m p l y t o n i r v a n a but t o f u t u r e appearances  i n samsara.  F i n a l l y , the u n i t y / p l u r a l i t y category also f a i l s .  This point i s very  important'.to Asanga s i n c e i t becomes v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n o f how many Buddhas a r e i n e x i s t e n c e .  H i s d e n i a l o f u n i t y i s e a s i l y understood.  I n s o f a r as many i n d i v i d u a l s o b t a i n Dharmakayas upon r e a c h i n g enlightenment, t h e r e a r e many Dharmakayas.  H i s f u r t h e r c o n t e n t i o n , t h a t t h e concept o f  m u l t i p l e Dharmakayas i s a l s o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , i s more complex. the  Dk cannot be e n t i r e l y p l u r a l because  He says t h a t  "the support o f a l l Buddhas i s not  121  d i f f e r e n t i a b l e (T: 'not m u l t i p l e ' ) . "  To t h i s Asanga has appended two s t a n z a s  w h i c h have been commented upon by Asvabhava. The second s t a n z a (X:3.3b) g i v e s a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s f o r w h i c h t h e i d e a of  e i t h e r one Buddha o r many i s u n a c c e p t a b l e .  I t s p l a c e here suggests t h a t  Asanga d i d n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between "Buddha" and "Dharmakaya."  Asvabhava's  commentary t o t h e f i r s t s t a n z a ( l A 3 7 a 6 - 1 3 ) says t h a t t h e concept o f p l u r a l i t y does n o t a p p l y t o t h e Dharmakaya because t h i s concept i s based on a d i v i s i o n of t h e w o r l d i n t o " I " and " o t h e r s , " a d i v i s i o n n o t made by a Dharmakaya. c u r i o u s r e a s o n i n g b r i n g s us t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e problem.  This  .By a p p e a l i n g t o t h e  p u b l i c , o b s e r v a b l e f a c t t h a t , many i n d i v i d u a l s have r e a c h e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t , Asanga has proven t h a t t h e Dk cannot be u n i t a r y .  That i s , t h e o r d i n a r y man has  made a common sense and ( t o t h e b e l i e v e r ) v e r i f i a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n .  Now, t o  support h i s d e n i a l o f t h e e n t i r e t r u t h o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from t h a t o b s e r v a t i o n , Asanga a p p e a l s t o a p u r e l y i n t e r n a l , p r i v a t e f a c t about t h e Dk's perceptions. the  Suddenly he i s no l o n g e r s p e a k i n g about how t h e Dk appears t o  o b s e r v e r , b u t about how t h e o b s e r v e r appears t o t h e Dk'.  Our t a s k i n under-  s t a n d i n g t h i s s e c t i o n now becomes one o f f i n d i n g a h e r m e n e u t i c a l framework w h i c h w i l l r e s o l v e t h e apparent c o n f u s i o n . At of  t h i s p o i n t i t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e g e n e r a l B u d d h i s t use  t h e t e r m advaya from t h e V e d a n t i c a d v a i t a w h i c h i s a l s o o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d by  "non-dual."  The B u d d h i s t t e r m never stands f o r an u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  u n d e r l y i n g appearances, w h i l e t h e V e d a n t i c one may.  reality  As T. R. V. M u r t i s a y s :  Advaya i s knowledge f r e e from t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e extremes of ' I s ' and 'Is n o t , ' B e i n g and Becoming, e t c . I t i s knowledge f r e e d o f c o n c e p t u a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . A d v a i t a i s knowledge o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n l e s s e n t i t y . . . . 'Advaya' i s a p u r e l y e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l approach, t h e a d v a i t a i s o n t o l o g i c a l . 5 1  122 In the p r e s e n t understanding  i n s t a n c e , t h i s should warn a g a i n s t an o v e r l y  o f the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f advaya l a k s a n a as a "non-dual  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the Dharmakaya." existent thing. previous  Asanga i s not a s c r i b i n g a q u a l i t y t o  Such a q u a l i t y would be  passage (X:3.2).  a svabhava and would b e l o n g  Asanga i s not making any  division into " i "  and  an  i n the  a s s e r t i o n s about  o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f e i t h e r Dk or p e r c e i v e r o f i t . Once we  the  "go b e h i n d " t h e  " o t h e r , " our q u e s t i o n about "Whose p e r c e p t i o n ? " must  dropped, as i t i s an o n t o l o g i c a l l y based one which simply t h i s system.  literal  cannot occur  I f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c "non-dual" d e s c r i b e s the p r o c e s s  be  within  of percep-  t i o n r a t h e r than e i t h e r s u b j e c t or o b j e c t , the problem becomes, "What does i t r e v e a l about t h i s p r o c e s s ? " d u a l " d e f i n e s the viewpoint which one  simultaneously  r e a c h i n g Buddhahood, and between Buddhas. the t r i s v a b h a v a )  I can see no a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o n c l u d i n g t h a t or stance  o f the p e r c e i v e r .  That i s , a stance  p e r c e i v e s , on a c o n v e n t i o n a l l e v e l , the on an u l t i m a t e l e v e l , the l a c k o f  differentiation  i s the s u b j e c t o f the e n t i r e Madhyantavibhaga.  d e f i n i t i o n would a l s o apply t o the e a r l i e r p o i n t s  (a) and  from  Bodhisattvas  T h i s b i f o c a l view i s developed e a r l i e r i n t h i s t e x t and  "non-  (ill, This  (b) o f the  above-  quoted passage.  X:3.4  P e r p e t u i t y , because i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the o f the t r u e n a t u r e ,  purification  i t i s the outcome o f a former vow,  and  i t s a c t i v i t y i s never completed.  I t would seem n a t u r a l t o extend the r e a s o n i n g  o f the p r e c e d i n g  s e c t i o n on  n o n - d u a l i t y t o the t r a n s i t o r y / e t e r n a l dichotomy which, f o r s c h o o l s l i k e V a i b h a s i k a s , was  v i r t u a l l y synonymous w i t h the  the  samskrta/asamskrta c a t e g o r i e s .  Asanga's c l e a r statement t o the c o n t r a r y warns us t h a t the s u b j e c t i s much more  123 complex.  He i s not merely e s t a b l i s h i n g a method f o r a v o i d i n g any  but i s making a s s e r t i o n s about  specific  extremes,  cases.  He t a k e s t h e same b i f o c a l view as i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , s e e i n g the Dharmakaya i n b o t h an u l t i m a t e and a r e l a t i v e sense. characteristic  " p e r p e t u i t y " a p p l i c a b l e t o b o t h views.  a w o r l d l y s t a n d p o i n t the Dk completed,  But he now  f i n d s the  The argument t h a t  from  i s perpetual,'because i t s a c t i v i t y i s never,  i s e a s i l y understood.  Note t h a t t h i s u n c e a s i n g a c t i v i t y i s not  e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , but an o b s e r v a b l e f a c t about the Dk.  an  Note a l s o t h a t  a g a i n t h e Dk_ i t s e l f i s c a p a b l e o f a c t i o n w i t h no r e f e r e n c e t o a Sambhogakaya o r a Nirmanakaya. The  former-vow argument i s much the same.  The B o d h i s a t t v a on the way  to  a c q u i r i n g t h i s Dharmakaya has vowed t o c o n t i n u e a c t i n g i n the w o r l d so l o n g as s e n t i e n t b e i n g s r e q u i r e h i s a i d ; and, s i n c e many have s t i l l the Dharmakaya c o n t i n u e s t o a c t . common w o r l d : f i r s t , through a vow the a c t i v i t i e s o f o t h e r s .  not reached n i r v a n a ,  A g a i n , i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n i s grounded i n the taken by the B o d h i s a t t v a ; second,  through  The l o g i c o f t h i s w i l l be worked out i n d e t a i l  by  use o f the t r i k a y a at X:37-39. F i n a l l y , the Dk  i s a l s o p e r p e t u a l i n the u l t i m a t e sense because  i t is  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a pure t r u e n a t u r e ( t a t h a t a ) , which Asvabhava (u437b7-8) says i s p e r p e t u a l and  immutable.  T h i s r a i s e s a major problem o f V i j n a n a v a d a s c h o l a r s h i p . statements—such  Asanga makes  as "the Dharmakaya i s e t e r n a l " — w h i c h appear t o a t t a c h the :  same p r e d i c a t e t o an o b j e c t from b o t h the u l t i m a t e and the c o n v e n t i o n a l viewp o i n t s , and by t h e s e t o e x p l a i n t h e way  i n which t h e two  interact.  F o r example,  the f a c t t h a t the Dk i s e t e r n a l l y p r e s e n t i s the b a s i s f o r i t s c o n s t a n t work f o r the w e l f a r e o f a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s .  To be a b l e t o do t h i s , Asanga p o s i t s  12k  a "true nature"  ( t a t h a t a ) which, as the u l t i m a t e o b j e c t , h e a r s the  T h i s reduces many problems t o one—"What i s t a t h a t a ? "  predicate.  If i t is a truly exis-  t e n t r e a l s t u f f , then t h i s d o c t r i n e d i f f e r s r a d i c a l l y from t h a t i n the r e s t o f t h i s system (or indeed, c a l l i t perpetual  o f any Buddhist system).  any more t h a n e x i s t e n t ?  the V i j n a n a v a d a s a s t r a s ,  X:3.5  Inconceivable  i t does not  I f n o t , how  can one  While t h i s q u e s t i o n  possibly  i s examined i n  seem t o concern the author o f t h i s t e x t .  ( a c i n t y a ) , because i t s t r u e , pure n a t u r e  must be known by i n t r o s p e c t i o n , because t h e r e e q u i v a l e n t , and because i t i s not  i s no  worldly  an o b j e c t f o r s p e c u l a t i v e  reasoners.  Asvabhava e x p l a i n s t h a t the p h r a s e , " . . .  because t h e r e i s no  worldly  e q u i v a l e n t , and because i t i s not the o b j e c t f o r s p e c u l a t i v e r e a s o n e r s , " a b b r e v i a t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the e n t i r e process sion, i n c l u d i n g reasoning,  of reaching  r e f l e c t i o n , meditation,  That i s , the u l t i m a t e n a t u r e . o f  a firm logical  s p e c u l a t i o n and  i s an  conclu-  examples.  the Dharmakaya i s i n c o n c e i v a b l e because i t 53  cannot be  a s c e r t a i n e d by normal  However, t h e r e must be  reasoning.  some sense i n which the t r u e n a t u r e o f the Dk  is  knowable, o t h e r w i s e the e n t i r e concept o f a Dk would be merely a l o g i c a l a r t i f a c t — p a r i k a l p i t a r a t h e r than p a r i n i s p a n n a . " i t s t r u e , pure n a t u r e must be known by t a r i e s leave  introspection."  " i n t r o s p e c t i o n " ^ ^ undefined,  Mahayana debates on p e r c e p t i o n .  T h i s sense i s d e f i n e d A l t h o u g h our  by, commen-  t h i s term i s common throughout  the  I t r e f e r s t o the V i j n a n a v a d a b e l i e f t h a t  p r i m a r y sense-data are a source o f a b s o l u t e l y v a l i d knowledge ( i . e . , knowledge o f the  " t r u e , pure n a t u r e , "  c i a t e d or misapprehended.  nirmalatathata)  which may  be  e i t h e r c o r r e c t l y appre-  Other Buddhist s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  Prasangika,  125  rejected this d o c t r i n e . ^ nature  T h e r e f o r e , Asanga i s m a i n t a i n i n g  o f t h e Dk can be a p p r e c i a t e d o n l y by d i r e c t  t h a n by r e a s o n i n g  that the r e a l  experience  of i t rather  about i t .  ii.  X:7  The Buddhadharmas  Asvabhava (U,U38c25) e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n , "How many Buddhadharmas are i n v o l v e d i n t h e Dharmakaya?" i s a request nature  (svabhava) o f t h e Dk.  The ensuing  list  f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e t r u e o f s i x Buddhadharmas which  comprise t h e svabhava i s r e l a t e d t o t h e laksanas laksana."  Each r e o r i e n t e d aspect  of the Bodhisattva  which b e l o n g s t o t h e svabhava o f t h e Dk. via X:3.2,  via X : 3 . 1 , "reorientation r e s u l t s i n an a t t r i b u t e  There a l s o may be some r e l a t i o n s h i p  "having-white-dharmas-as-svabhava-laksana," but Asvabhava g l o s s e s  them i n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t ways.. The  X:7.1  first  Buddhadharma i s :  Purification  ( v i s u d d h i ) because by r e o r i e n t i n g t h e a l a y a -  v i jnana, t h e Dharmakaya" "Is  Asvabhava  (u.U38c26-l+39a3)  f r e e from t h e t e n d e n c i e s the Dk i s fundamentally  obtained.  e x p l a i n s t h a t t h e Dharmakaya i s "pure" as i t i s  t o b l i n d emotional  r e a c t i o n s (samklesabij a).  d e f i n e d as t h a t which i s f r e e from k l e s a s .  Thus,  As t h e s e  are f a c t o r s which d r i v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t o i n c r e a s i n g l y unhappy s i t u a t i o n s , t h i s p o i n t may be p o s i t i v e l y e x p r e s s e d  by s a y i n g t h a t t h e Dk i s t h a t which can  c o n t r o l o r dominate ( v a s i t a ) i t s s i t u a t i o n , an i d e a a l r e a d y seen at X : 3 . 2 and developed below at X : 7 « ^ . We have a l r e a d y encountered t h e i d e a o f r e o r i e n t i n g t h e a l a y a v i j n a n a a t X:5.5.  However, t h e r e t h e r e o r i e n t e d a l a y a v i j n a n a was t h e M i r r o r - l i k e  126 awareness.  Here, i t i s the Dk  itself.  T h i s apparent  d i f f e r e n t ways o f r e g a r d i n g the a l a y a v i j n a n a . perceptual process.  X:7.2  Result  At X:5  c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s due i t was  to  the b a s i s o f the  Here, i t i s t h e c o n t a i n e r f o r impure t e n d e n c i e s .  (vipaka) because by r e o r i e n t i n g the r u p e n d r i y a , the  vipakavijnana i s obtained.  V i p a k a may  simply mean t h a t one t h i n g i s the outcome or r e s u l t o f  another.  In the AbhidharmakoIa i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t something ( e s p e c i a l l y an i n d r i y a ) p e r t a i n s t o a l i v i n g b e i n g and a r i s e s from e a r l i e r causes but good or bad.  i s not  itself  F o r example, the j i v i t e n d r i y a , the simple f a c t o f b e i n g  i s v i p a k a because the i n d i v i d u a l i s a l i v e through  alive,  h i s p a s t . a c t i o n , y e t has  the  o p t i o n .,of •' moving toward e i t h e r samsara or n i r v a n a . The p r e s e n t passage r e t a i n s t h i s g e n e r a l meaning.  When the m a t e r i a l sense  organs ( r u p e n d r i y a ) o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a are r e o r i e n t e d , he o b t a i n s a new of  awareness ( j n a n a ) .  By l a b e l l i n g t h i s awareness " v i p a k a , " Asanga s t r e s s e s -  t h e i d e a t h a t t h e Buddha's awareness r e v e a l s no new which the B o d h i s a t t v a i s suddenly  and independent r e a l i t y t o  opened upon r e a c h i n g enlightenment,  the outcome o f the B o d h i s a t t v a ' s p r e v i o u s s t a t e .  Residence  (vihara)  but i s  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s the  nature o f the Dharmakaya t o be grounded i n the sensory l i f e  X:7.3  type  o f the  very  Bodhisattva.  because by r e o r i e n t i n g t h e r e s i d e n c e s ,  such as the a c t i v e - l i f e - o f - d e s i r e r e s i d e n c e , e t c . , the immeasurable j n a n a - r e s i d e n c e  i s obtained.  By s t r e s s i n g the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , r a t h e r than the e l i m i n a t i o n , o f a cific  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the w o r l d  Dharmakaya i s r e j e c t e d .  ( v i h a r a ) , the i d e a o f an u t t e r l y  The l i f e  spe-  transcendent  dominated by w o r l d l y d e s i r e i s r e p l a c e d by  one  dominated by Obviously,  immeasurable'jfiana. v i h a r a , l i k e the previous  Buddha's awareness.  The  two  model here i s one  Buddhadharmas, d e a l s w i t h  o f b r o a d e n i n g , from a l i f e  r e a c t i n g t o a c e r t a i n narrow range o f p l e a s u r a b l e take  i n and  J.:J.k  of  s t i m u l i , t o an a b i l i t y  a p p r e c i a t e the immeasurable r i c h n e s s o f  • Sovereignty",  the  to  reality.  '..^-because, by r e o r i e n t i n g the v a r i o u s  lucrative  a c t i o n s , t:he; s o v e r e i g n t y o f the j n a n a , which i s a b h i j n a unhindered throughout a l l the r e g i o n s o f the w o r l d , i s obtained.  The  " l u c r a t i v e a c t i o n s " are w o r l d l y o c c u p a t i o n s  commerce.  The  such as a g r i c u l t u r e and  "jnana which i s a b h i j n a u n h i n d e r e d throughout a l l the r e g i o n s  t h e w o r l d " i s not  a member o f the t r a d i t i o n a l l i s t  of a b h i j n a s . ^  of  Asvabhava  (U439al0-12) seems t o h o l d t h a t i t r e f e r s t o the e n t i r e l i s t , t o the g e n e r a l idea of  abhijna.  T h i s passage c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t the kaya does not  d i s p l a c e the  shift  from common man  t o Dharma-  c o g n i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l from h i s c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n .  seems t o mean t h a t h i s " l u c r a t i v e " a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the w o r l d  i s replaced  It  by  unhindered a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t .  X:7>5  Discursus  (vyavahara)v°  vecause, by " r e o r i e n t i n g the- d i s c u r s u s  o f e v e r y t h i n g seen, h e a r d , f e l t ,  and known, the  sovereignty  c o n s i s t i n g of-.the awareness which s a t i s f i e s the. mind o f a l l centient beings i s  Asvabhava speaking  obtained.  (uU39al2-15) seems t o understand by t h i s t h a t o r d i n a r y ways o f  about e x p e r i e n c e  become, f o r the Dharmakaya, a way  o f speaking  which  128 is  i n e v i t a b l y able t o s a t i s f y  (Lamotte: "charm") a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s .  I f this  i s Asanga's meaning, t h e r e i s no i d e a o f t h e Dk i n h a b i t i n g some i n e f f a b l e absolute.  X:7.6  Ordinary  speech simply  changes t o p l e a s i n g  speech.  Expulsion  (samudgh£ta), because, hy. r e o r i e n t i n g toward an  expulsion  o f s u f f e r i n g and f a u l t s , a d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e  s u f f e r i n g and f a u l t s o f a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s i s o b t a i n e d .  Following  Asvabhava (U*l39al5-l8), because t h e Dharmakaya has e x p e l l e d i t s  own s u f f e r i n g and f a u l t s , i t can then d e s t r o y others. awareness  t h e s u f f e r i n g and f a u l t s o f  T h i s i s p o s s i b l e because t h e r e o r i e n t a t i o n y i e l d s t h e marvelous that  destroys  iii.  t h e s u f f e r i n g s and f a u l t s o f o t h e r s .  X:9-27  Gunas A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Dharmakaya  F i n a l l y , t h e Dharmakaya i s d e s c r i b e d Unlike the inherent  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (laksanas)  the gunas a r e merely " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " ) t h e Dk.  by a'set  of qualities  (gunas).  o r fundamental n a t u r e  (samprayukta; T: dang-ldan-par; H:  T h i s term u s u a l l y i n d i c a t e s : e x i s t e n t i a l c o n j u n c t i o n  r a i s i n g the question  (dharma),  of essential basis.  without  Here, Asvabhava (U^39bl2) r e g a r d s i t  as an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e s e gunas a r e not e x c l u s i v e t o t h e Dk but a l s o occur w i t h t h e Sravakas, and so on. does not come i n t o q u e s t i o n ,  Perhaps because t h e e s s e n t i a l b a s i s f o r them  t h i s passage a f f o r d s l i t t l e  fresh insight into  the, author's p r i n c i p l e s . These gurtas a r e , i n f a c t , merely an o l d and w i d e l y a c c e p t e d s e t o f concomi t a n t s t o Buddhahood... . The . f a c t t h a t ' t h i s , t r a d i t i o n a l "list... i s . there a p p l i e d t o the Dk i s y e t another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t , f o r Asanga, "Buddhahood" equals "Dharmakaya."  129 This p a r t i c u l a r l i s t  and  explanatory  Mahayanasutralaxtkara, XXI:43-59. provided  k a r i k a s are drawn d i r e c t l y from the  As t h e y are w e l l known and  as Lamotte  has  e x c e l l e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o o t h e r t e x t s i n which t h e y are d i s c u s s e d  defined, "^" I have simply reproduced the b a s i c l i s t 6  r a t h e r than t r a n s l a t e d a few  o f the more obscure  and  below, and have p a r a p h r a s e d  ideas.  X:10  The  f o u r immeasurables  X:ll  The  e i g h t freedoms-from (vimoksa), the e i g h t f o l d n o n - d i s t u r b i n g  perception  (apramana).  (abhibhvayatana); and the t e n a l l - b a s e s (krt snayat ana).  X:12  The  a b i l i t y t o prevent emotional r e a c t i o n s i n o t h e r s  (arana).  X:13  The  awareness which i s an outcome o f the B o d h i s a t t v a  vow  (pranidhijnana).  X:lk  The  f o u r aspects  o f e x p e r t i s e i n the study and p r o c l a m a t i o n  of  62 the dharma  (pratisamvid).  X:15  The  s i x s u p e r i o r knowledges ( a b h i j n a ) .  X:l6  The  t h i r t y - t w o major and  Asanga l a y s v e r y l i t t l e Dk's  e i g h t y minor marks o f a s u p e r i o r  s t r e s s on t h e s e .  When he l a t e r d i s t r i b u t e s the  a t t r i b u t e s among the t h r e e kayas, he does not  Nirmanakaya or Sambhogakaya e x h i b i t s them.  r e a l l y say whether the  They remain simply  "associated  w i t h " Buddhahood.  X:17  The  fourfold universal purity  X:l8  The  t e n powers ( b a l a ) .  man.  (sarvakaraparisuddhi).  X:19  The f o u r grounds f o r s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e  X:20  The t h r e e f o l d absence o f anything-to-conceal three a p p l i c a t i o n s o f mindfulness  (vais"aradya).